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Full text of "Archaeologia Cambrensis : a record of the antiquities of Wales and its Marches and the journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Association"

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§lnihafflaflia Camtrfnsis, 



JOURNAL 



Cambrian Irrljtfalagiral l0sariatinn. 



VOL. 11. FIFTH 8EBIES. 



LONDON: 

PICKETUNG AND Co., 66, HATMAUKET, S.W. 

1885. 



CONTENTS. 



PAAI 

The Celtic Element in the Dialectic Words 
of the Counties of Northampton and 
Leicester . . ' . .J. Qaifies, M.A, . 1 

Notes on the Older Churches in the Four 

Welsh Dioceses (continued). The late Sirfi. B. Gljnne, Bart. 33 

Oswestry, Ancient and Modern, and its 

Local Families (continued) . . H. F. J. Yaughan 49 

On the Ancient Tenures and Services of 

the Land of the Bishop of St. David's . R W. B. . . 65 

An Old Picture of the Dolmen at Pentre 

Evan ..... Ed. Laws . . 72 

The Crystal Pebble at Bhiwaedog . W. Q. Smith . 73 

The Celtic Element in the Dialectic Words 
of the Counties of Northampton and 
Leicester (continued) . . .J. Davies, M.A. . 81 

Oswestry, Ancient and Modem, and its 

Local Families (concluded) . . H. F. J. Yaughan 97 

Notes on the Older Churches in the Four 

Welsh Dioceses (continued). The late Sir S. B. Glj^nne, Bart. 120 

Llandderfel Parish Register. — The Lloyds 

of Paid and other Families . . Owen Richards . 132 

The Porius Stone . . . . D. R. T. . .143 

Further Notes on Ancient Inscribed and 

Sculptured Stones . . . I. 0. Westwood 146 

Extracts from a MS. of Ancient Date, 
giving some Customs and Usages in 
North Wales . . . . ... 150 

On a Bronze Dagger found at Bwlch-y- 

Ddeu Faen, Breconshire . R. W. B. . .156 



IV CONTENTS. 



PAOX 



The Celtic Element in the Dialectic Words 
of the Counties of Northampton and 

Leicester (concluded) . . .J. Davies, M.A. 161 

Llanawchlljn .... W. Hnghes . 183 

Sepulchral Recumbent Effigy in Llan- 

uwchlljn Church . . . M. H. B. . . 192 

The Roman Station of Caergai . . D. R. T. . . 196 

Meliden Church .... Arthur Baker . 206 

Notes on the Older Churches in the Four 

Welsh Dioceses (continued). The late Sir3« R* Qlynne, Barfc. 208 

St. Asaph Cathedral : a Pre-Reformation 

Paten . . . . D. R. T. . . 220 

Llanbadrig, Anglesey, Incised Cross . D. R. T. . 224 

The Buckstone, near Monmouth . . 225 

Merionethshire Document . . . . 227 

On the Early History of the Land of 

Gwent . . . . R. W. B. . . 241 

Some Account of the History and Descent 
of the Lordship Marcher or County of 

WentUwch . . . C. O. S. Morgan 257 

History and Description of Newport Castle C. 0. S. Morgan 270 

St. Woollos' Church, Newport, Monmoath- 

shire . . . . . C. 0. S. Morgan 279 

Caerleon, Monmouthshire . . F. R. Woollett . 292 

Caerleon on TJsk . The late Rev. Prebendary J. Da vies 297 

Montgomeryshire Document. — II . . . . 304 

Report of Annual Meeting at Newport, Mon. . . .821 

Local Museum .... . . 359 

Subscribers to Local Fund and Statement of Accounts . 363 

Index ..... . . 365 

Illustrations . . . .... 368 



Obituary 
Correspondence . 
Miscellaneous Notices 
Reviews 
LiTERART Notices 



74, 157, 229 

. 230, 312 

76, 157, 233 

79, 158, 236, 315 

. 313 



\ 



(HjTmhrmn ^rr|^aj0l00kal ^ssacmti0«- 



1886. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



PATRONS. 

H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES 

His Grrace the Dnke of Westminster, K.Q. 

The Most Noble the Marquis of Rate 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Powis {President, 1856) 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Cawdor 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. Asaph 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Llandaff 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bangor 

The Right Rev. the LordBishop of St. David's (President, 1875, 1878) 

The Bight Hon. Lord Windsor 

The Right Hon. Lord Bagot 

The Right Hon. Lord Djnevor 

The Right Hon. Lord Kenyon 

The Right Hon. Lord Sudoley 

The Right Hon. Lord Tredegar 

The Right Hon. Lord Clermont 

The Right Hon. Lord Penrhyn 

The Right Hon. Lord Aberdare 

The Right Hon. Lord Harlech 

PRESIDENT. 
The Riqrt Hon. Lord Tredeoar. 

PRESIDENT-ELECT. 
John Talbot Dilwtn Llewelyn, Esq., M.A. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

C. Octavius S. Morgan, Esq., P.R.S., P.S.A. {President, 1857) 
C. R. M. Talbot, Esq., M.P., M.A., F.R.S., Lord Lientenant of 
Glamorganshire 



2 LIST OF MEMBER*S. 

Sir H. Husppy Vivian, Bart., M.P. {President, 1861 and 1862) 
The Right Hon. A. J. \V Beresford-Hope, Esq., M.P., M.A., F.S.A. 
G. T. Clark, Esq., F.S.A. 
The Ven. Henry P. Ffonlkes, M.A., Archdencon of Montgomery 

B. A. Freeman, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D. {President, 1876), Regius Pro- 

fessor of History, Oxford 
Matthew Holbeche Bloxam, Esq., F.S.A. 
Professor West wood, M.A., F.L.S. 
H. R. Hughes, Esq., Lord Lieutenant of Flintshire 
Very Rev. the Dean of St. David's 
J. W. Nicoll Came, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A. 
Robert Oliver Jones, Esq. 
William F. Skene, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 
John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Very Rev. the Dean of Llandaff 

C. E. G. Philipps, Esq. (Fresidmt, 1880 and 1883) 
The Hon. F. Hanbnry-Tracy 

The Hon. and Rev. Canon G. T. Orlando Bridgeman, M.A, 

Rev. E. L. Barnwell, M.A., F.S.A. Scot. 

R. H. Wood, Esq , F.S.A., F.R.6.S. 

Very Rev. the Dean of Bangor 

C. C. Babington, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

His Hon. Judge Wynne Floulkes, M.A. ' 

J. E. Lee, Esq., F.S.A. 

F. Lloyd-Philipps, Esq., M.A. 



COMMITTEE. 

The President, with all those who have held that office ; the Vice- 
Presidents ; the Treasurer ; the General and Local Secretaries ; 
and the Editorial Sub-Committee, with the following : 

Rev. Canon Thomas, M.A., F.S.A., Chairman 

Rev. Hugh Prichard, M.A. 

Arthur Gore, Esq. 

William Trevor Parkins, Esq., M.A. 

Ernest Hartland, Esq., M.A. 

H. W. Lloyd, Esq., M.A. 

J. Y. W. Lloyd, Esq., M.A. 

Morris C. Jones, Esq., F.S.A. 

Rev. M. H. Lee, M.A. 

Professor Rhys, M.A. 

J. Romilly Allen, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 

J. R. Cobb, Esq. 

Rev. D. Silvan Evans, B.D. 

Ven. Archdeacon Kdmonds, M.A. 

George E. Robinson, Esq. 

Egerton G. B. Phillimore, Esq. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



EDITORS. 



Rev. R. Trevor Owen, M.A., Llangedwyn, Oswestry 

Ruv. Canon Thomas, M.A., F.S.A., Meifod Yicarage, Welshpool 



EDITORIAL SUB.C0MM1TTEB. 

C. C. Babington, Esq., M.A., P.R S., F.S.A., etc. 
Rev. D. Silvan Evans, B.D. 
Professor Rhys, M.A. 



DRAUGHTSMAN. 
Worthington G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S., F.S.A. 

TREASURER. 
R. W. Banks, Esq., Ridgeboarne, Kington, Herefordshire 

TRUSTEES. 

Very Rev. the Dean of St. David's 

C. Octavins S. Morgan, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

G. T. Clark, Esq., F.S.A. 

GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Rev. R. Trevor Owen, M.A., Llangedwyn, Oswestry 
£. Laws, Esq., Brighton Place, Tenby 



CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES. 

France — 

Briitanij — M. de Keranflech Kemezue, Ch&tean de Quelenec, Mar 

de Bretagne, Cotes dn Nord, France 
Scotland — John Anderson, Esq., Mnseam of Antiquities, Edinburgh 
Ireland — Rev. James Graves, M.A., Innisnag, Stoneyford, Kilkenny 
Cornwall — 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Le Vicomte Hersart de la Yillemarqae, Chateau de Keransquer, 

Quimper, Finist^re 
M. Pol de Courci, St. Pol de L^on, Finistere 
M. Alexandre de Bertrand, Paris 
Mous. F. M. Luzely Ploaret, Cotes du Nord, France 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



MEMBERS.^ 

ENGLISH AND FOREIGN. 

H.R.H. The Prince op Wales, Marlborough House 

Bagot, Rt. Hon. Lord, Blithfield House, Staffordshire 

Clermont, Lord, Ravcnsdale Park, No wry, Ireland 

Allen, Thomas, Esq., M.A., 42, Connaughfc Square 

Allen, J. Romilly, Esq., F.S.A. Scot, 11, Bentinck Street, Caven- J 

dish Sqnare 
Allen, Mrs. Romilly 

Allen, Rev. W. Osbom, M.A., Shirbum Vicarage, Tetsworth 
Babington, Chas. Cardale, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.L.S., 

F.G.S., Prof. Bot Cambridge 
Baker, Arthur, Esq., 14, Warwick Gardens, Kensington 
Barnwell, Rev. E. L., M.A., F.S.A. Scot, Melksham House, Wilts. 
Beamont, W., Esq., Orford Hall, Warrington 
Beresford-Hope, The Right Hon. A. J. B., M.A., F.S.A., M.P., 

Bedgebury Park, Cranbrooke, Kent 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (Messrs. Longman and Co., Pater- 
noster Row) 
Birmingham Free Library (J. D. Mullens, Esq.) 
Blake, General, Southfields, Sutton Common, Surrey. 
Bloxam, M. Holbeche, Esq., F.S.A., Rugby 

Blundell, Joseph Hight, Esq., Marlowe's Cottage, Hemel Hempstead 
Boston Public Library, Boston, U.S.A. (Messrs. Triibner and Co., 

67 and 59, Ludgate Hill, E.C.) 
Bridgeman, Hon. and Rev. Canon G. T. Orlando, M.A., The Hall, 

Wigan 
Brooks, W. Cunliffe, M.A., F.S.A., Barlow Hall, Manchester 
Browne, Rev. H. LI., M.A., Monk's Sherborne, Basingstoke 
Chetham Library (F. H. Tinkler, Esq.), Manchester 
Cobb, W. W., Esq., M.A., Hilton House, Atherstone 
Cooke, His Honour, Judge, Q C, M.A., F.S.A., 42, Wimpole Street 
Davies, Rev. J., M.A., F.R.A.S., 16, Belsizc Square, South Hamp- 

stead, N.W. 
De Keranflech Kernezne, Chateau de Quelenec, Mur de Bretagne, 

Cotes du Nord, France 
Dublin, The King's Inns' Library 

Dunkin, Miss, The Caxtons, Highfield Rise, Dartford, Kent 
Edwards, R. D., Esq., Nat. Prov. Bank of England, Durham 
Evans, John, Esq., F.R.S., F.8.A., Nashmills, Hemel Hempstead 
Fisher, E., Esq., Abbotsbury, Newton Abbot, Devon 
Foljambe, C. G. S , Esq., M.P., Cockglode, Ollerton, Newark 



* Members admitted Bincc the Annual Meeting, 1885, have an asterisk 
prefixed to their names. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. i) 

Fooks, W. C, Esq., Q.C., The Bowman's Lodge, Dartford Heath, 

Kent 
Freeman, E. A., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., Regias Professor of History, 

Oxford, Somerleaze, Wells, Somerset 
Gammack, Biev. James, M.A., 44, Bon Accord Street, Aberdeen 
Gore, Arthur, Esq., Melksham 

Griffiths, P. Arthur, Esq., Oshkosh, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 
Hartland, Ernest, Esq., M.A., Oaklands, Cheltenham 
Harvard Coll. Libi'ary, Cambridge, Mass. (Messrs. Triibner & Co , 

57 & 69, Ludgate Hill, E.G.) 
Hughes, Thomas M'Kenny, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., F.G.S., Wood- 

wardian Professor of Geology, Trinity College, Cambridge 
James, BVancis, Esq., 190, Cromwell Road, S.W. 
Jones, Lieut.-Col. H. Owen, B.E., C.B., 23, Parliament Street, 

London, S.W. 
Lee, J. E., Esq., F.S.A., Villa Syraeusa, Torquay 
Lewis, Rev. S. S., M.A., F.S.A., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 
Lewis, WiUiam F., Esq., 1323, Walnut Street, Philadelphia, U.S. 
Liverpool Free Public Library (Librarian, Peter Cowell, Esq.) 
Lloyd, Alfred, Esq., The Dome, Upper Bognor, Sussex 
Lloyd, Howel William, Esq., M.A., 19, Hogarth Road, S. Kensington 
Nicholl, Frederick I., Esq., 120, Harley Street, London, W. 
Nixon, Edward, Esq., Saville House, Methley, Wakefield 
Owen, Edward, Esq., St. Martin's Road, Stockwell 
Parker, Rev. F. P., M.A., Col ton Rectory, Rugeley 
Phi lli more, E. G. B., Esq., Old House, 31, Hammersmith Road, 

Middlesex 
Pictou, Sir James Allanson, P.S. A., Sandy kno we, Wavertree, Liverpool 
Pierce, Mrs. Hugh, Sherboume House, Leamington 
Price, J. B., Esq., F.S.A., Albion Road, Stoke Newington, London, N. 
Price, Capt. Spencer, 2, Dorset Square, London, N.W. 
Prichard, Rev. E. W., M.A., Erdington, Birmingham 
Rhys, John, Esq., M.A., Professor of Celtic, Jesus College, Oxford 
Roberts, C. H. Crompton, Esq., 16, Belgrave Square, S.W. 
Sayoe, Rev. A. H., MA, Dep. Prof, of Comparative Philology, 

Queen's Coll., Oxford 
Simion, Leonard, Berlin (care of Asher and Co., 13, Bedford Street, 

Covent (jarden, W.C.) 
Skene, W. F., Esq., F.S.A. Scot., LL.D., F.S.A., 20, Inverleith Row, 

Edinburgh 
Smith, Worthington G., Esq., F.L.S., 81, High Street North, 

Dunstable 
Spode, Josiah, Esq., Hawkesyard Park, Rugeley, Staffordshire 
Sydney Free Public Library (Messrs. Triibner and Co., 57 and 69, 

Ludgate Hill, E.G.) 
•Taylor, William, Esq., Westbourne, Bolton, Lancashire 
Thomas, Elev. LI., M.A., Jesus Coll., Oxon. 

Toronto, the Librarian of the College (care of Messrs. Triibner & Co.) 
Yaughan, H. F. J., Esq., 30, Edwardes Square, Kensington, W. 



6 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Walford, Ambrose, Esq., 6, Charles Street, Berkeley Sqiare, W. 
Westwood, I. O., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., Professor of Zoology, Walton 

Manor, Oxford 
Williams, C. H., Esq., 15, Frederick Place, Clifton 



NORTH WALES. 

ANGLESEY. 

Reade, Lady, Garreg Llwyd, The Valley, R.S.O., Anglesey 
Meyrick, Sir Georjj^e, Bart., Bodorgan, Llangefni, R.S.O., An«;lesey 
Dew, Griffith Davies, Esq., Carreg Bran, Llanfair, P. G., R.S.O. 
Griffith, J. Lloyd, Esq., M.A., Fron-deg, Holyhead 
Griffith, Rev. G. W., Rectory, Gaerwen, R.S.O. 
Haslam, W. G., Esq., Menai Bridp^e, Bangor 

Mason, Rev. R. Williams, M. A., Llantrisant, Llanerchymedd, R.S O. 
Prichard, Rev. Hugh, M.A., Dinam, Gaerwen, R.S.O., Anglesey 
Prichard, Thomas, Esq., Llwydiarth Esgob, Llanerchymedd, R.S.O., 

Anglesey 
Vemey, Captain, R.N., M.P., Rhianva, Beanmaris 
Williams, Griffith, Esq., Trefeilir, Llangefni, R.S.O. 
Willianus, Rev. John, Llanallgo Rectory, Pentraetfa, Menai Bridge, 

(Anglesea) R.S.O. 
Williams, Robert ap Hngh, Esq., Plas Llwyn On, Llanfair, R.S.O. 

Rev. R. Williams Mason, M.A., Llanerchymedd ) Local 
J. Lloyd Griffith, Esq., M.A., Fron-deg, Holyhead / Sees, 

CARNARVONSHIRE. 

Penrhyn, The Right Hon. the Lord, Penrhyn Castle, Bangor, Lord 

Lifutenant of Carnarvonshire 
Bangor, The Lord Bishop of, Palace, Bangor 
Bangor, The Very Rev. the Dean of, Deanery, Bangor 
Jones-Parry, T. Love D., Esq., M.A., F.S.A., M.P., Madryn Park, 

Pwllheli 
Jones- Parry, Mrs., Aberdnnant, Tremadoc, R.S.O., Carnarvonshire 
Lloyd-Jones, Miss, Penrallt, Penmaen Mawr, R.S.O., Carnarvonshire 
Luck, Richard, Esq., Plas, Llanfairfechan, Bangor 
Owen, E. H., Esq., Ty-coch, Carnarvon 
Owen, Rev. E. Tndor, M.A., Llandndno 
Prichard, Mrs., Tan y Coed, Bangor 

Sackville-West, Col. the Hon. W. E., M.A., Lime Grove, Bangor 
Tnmer, Sir Llewelyn, Parcian, Carnarvon 
Whitaker, Miss, Bryn Celyn, Pwllheli, R.S.O. 
Williams, John A. A., Esq., Glan Benno, Carnarvon 

T. Love D. Jones-Parry, Esq., M.A., P.S.A., M.P., Madryn ) r i 
Park, Pwllheli l^.^^"^ 

R. Luck, Esq., Plas, Llanfair- Fechan, Bangor ) ^^'^^' 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 7 

DENBIGHSHIRE. 

•Williams-Wynn, Sir Watkin, Bart., Wynnstay, Rhuabon 

Cunliffe, Lady, Acton Park, Wrexham 

Bamford-Hesketh, B., E8q., Gwrych Castle, Abergele, B.S.O. 

Barnes, Lieut. -Col., Brookside, Chirk, Bhoabon 

Blezard, B., Esq., Pool Park, Ruthin 

Briscoe, J. O., Esq., Glyn Ceiriog, Llangollen 

Davies, Rev. D., Llansilin Vicarage, Oswestry 

Earwaker, J. P., Esq., F.S.A., Pensarn, Abergele, R.S.O., Denbigh- 
shire 

Evans, Rev. D. W., M.A., St. George Rectory, Abergele, R.S.O. 

Hughes, J. Allington, Esq., Gresford, Wrexham 

James, Rev. Thomas, Llanarmon, M.M., Oswestry 

Jones, Rev. D., M.A, Llansantffraid Vicarage, Glyn Ceiriog, 
Llangollen 

Jones, Rev. Owen, Pentre Voelas, Conway 

Lewis, John, Esq., Beechley House, Wrexham 

Lloyd, E. V. O., Esq., Berth, Ruthin 

Mainwaring, C. S., Esq., Galltfaenan, Trefnant, R.S.O. 

Owen, Rev. Elias, M.A., Efenechtyd Rectory, Ruthin 

Owen, Kev. R. Trevor, M.A., Llangedwyn, Oswestry 

Palmer, A. N., Esq., Ar y Bryn Terrace, Wrexham 

Parkins, W. Trevor, Esq., M.A., Glasfryn, Gresford, Wrexham 

Vaughan-Jones, Rev. W., 7, Stanley Street, Wrexham 

Williams, Edward, Esq., M.D., Holt Street House, Wrexham 

Williams, Rev. Lewis, Prion, Denbigh 

Williams, Rev. D., Llandymog Rectory, Denbigh. 

Rev. D. W. Evans, M.A., St. George rctory, Abergele ) Local 
Rev. E. Owen, M.A., Efenechtyd, Ruthin ) Sees. 

FLINTSHIRE. 

Hughes, Hugh R., Esq., Kinmel Park, St. Asaph, Lord Lieutenant 

of Flintshire 
St. Asaph, The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, The Palace, St Asaph 
Kenyon, Right Hon. Lord, Tedsmore Hall, West Felton (Salop), 

R.S.O. 
Browne, Rev. T. B. LI., M.A., Bodfari, Rhyl 

Davies-Cooke, P. B., Esq., Gwysaney, Mold, and Owston, Doncaster 
Godsal, Philip William, Esq., Iscoed Park, Whitchurch, Salop 
Kyrke, R. V., Esq., Penywem, Mold 

Lee, Rev. M. H., M.A., Hanmer Vicarage, Whitchurch, Salop 
Lloyd, Rev. T. H., Nerquis Vicarage, Mold 
Nicholas, Rev. W. LI., M.A., The Rectory, Flint 
Owen, T. Morgan, Esq., M.A., H.M.LS., Rhyl 
Pennant, Philip Pearson, Esq., MA., Nautllys, St. Asaph 
St. Beuuo's College Library, St. Asaph 

Williams, Ignatius, Esq., The Grove, Bodfari, Trefuant, R.S.O. 
Denbighshire 



8 LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Rev. M. H. Lee, M.A., Hanmer Vicarage ) Local 
T. Morgan Owen, Esq., M.A., Bhjl j Sees, 

MERIONETHSHIRE. 

Bala, C. M. College Librarian 

Daviee, Rev. J. E., M.A., The Vicarage, Llwyngwril, R.S.O., Merio- 
neth 

Da vies, Rev. J. Gwynoro, Llanuwchllyn, Bala 

Dunlop, A. Milne, Esq., Brynmawr, Tanybwlcb, R.S.O., Merioneth 

•GriflSth, Miss Lncy, Glyn Dolgelly 

Holland, Samuel, Esq., Gaerdeon, Dolgelley 

Howell, David, Esq., Aberdovey, R.S.O. 

Jones, Evan Parry, Esq., St. David's, Four Crosses, R.S.O., Merioneth 

Jones, Rev. Michael, Independent College, Bala 

Lloyd, Mrs., Gwemvale, Crickhowel 

Morgan, Rev. D., Penrhyn Deudraeth, R.S.O., Merioneth 

Oakley, William E., Esq., Plas Tanybwlcb, R.S.O., Merioneth 

Pampiin, William, Esq., Llandderfel, Cor wen 

Pope, Samuel, Esq., Q.C., 20, Holland Park, W., and Hafod y Bryn, 
Llanbedr, Harlech 

Price, R. J. Lloyd, Esq., Rhiwlas, Bala 

Reveley, H. J., Esq., Brynygwin, Dolgelley 

Richards, O., Eeq., Fronheulog, Corwen 

Tamberlain, James Lloyd, Esq., B.A., Aberdovey 

Vaughan John, Esq., Nannau, Dolgelley 

Williams, T. H., Esq., Llwyn, Dolgelley 

Wood, R. H., Esq., F.S.A., P.R.G.S., Penrhos House, Rugby, and 
Pantglas, TmwRfynydd 

Wynne, W. R. M., Esq., Peniarth, Towyn, R.S.O. (Merionethshire) 

Evan Parry Jones, Esq., St. David's, Four Crosses ") Local 
Owen Richards, Esq., Fronheulog, Corwen ) Sees, 

MONTOOMERTSHIRE. 

Powis, the Right Hon. the Earl of, Powis Castle, Welshpool, Lord 

Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire 
Sudeley, the Right Hon. Lord, Gregynog, Newtown 
Hanbury-Tracy, Hon. F., Pen-bryn, Montgomery 
Bennett, Nicholas, Esq., Glanyravon, Trefeglwys, Newtown 
Dugdale, John, Esq., Llwyn, Llanfyllin, and 9, Hyde Park Gardens 
Evans, Rev. D. Silvan, B.D., Llanwrin, Machynlleth, R.S.O. , 

Montgomeryshire 
Howell, Abraham, Esq., Rhiewport, Berriew 

Jones, Rev. D., M.A., Llanfechain Rectory, R.S.O., Montgomeryshire 
Jones, R. E., Esq., Cefn Bryntalch, Abermnle, R.S.O., Montgomery- 
shire 
Jones, Morris Charles, Esq., F.S.A., Gungrog, Welshpool 
Jones, Rev. R. E., Llanllwchaiarn Vicamge, Newtown 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 9 

Leslie, Henry, Esq., Bryntanat, Llansantfiraid, B.S.O., Montgomery- 

shire 
Lewis, Rev. D. P., M.A., Llandrinio, Llanymynech, R.S.O., Salop 
Lewis, Rev. J. S., M.A., Gnilsfield Vicarage, Welshpool 
Lloyd, J. Y. W., Esq., K.S.G., Beaconsfield Clab, S.W. ; Clochfaen, 

Llanidloes ; and 5, Royal Terrace, Weymonfch 
Mytton, Captain, Garth, Welshpool 

Pughe, W. A., Esq., The Hall, Llanfyllin, R S.O., Montgomery 
Rendal, Stnarfc, Esq., M.A., M.P., Plas Dinam, Newtown, and 16, 

Palace Gardens, Kensington, W. 
Temple, Rev. R., M.A., Llwynygroes, Llanymynech, R.S.O., Salop 
Thomas, Rev. Canon, M.A., F.S.A., Vicarage, Meifod, Welshpool 
Williams, Rev. Canon, M.A., Rectory, Llanfyllin, R.S.O., Mont- 

gomei'yshire 
Williams, R., Esq., F.R.Hist.S., Celynog, Newtown 



Rev. D. P. Lewis, M.A., Llandrinio ) Local 
Rev. Canon Williams, M.A., Llanfyllin ) Sees. 



SOUTH WALES. 

BRECKNOCKSHIRE. 

Sevan, Miss, Hay Castle, Hay, R.S.O. 

Cobb, J. R., Esq., Brecon 

Crawshay, Mrs., Dany Park, Crickhowel 

Joseph, J., Esq., F.S.A., Brecon 

Thomas, Morton, Esq., Coity, Brecon 

Thomas, William, Esq., Medical Hall, Builth 

Williams, Rev. Prebendary Garnons, M.A., Abercamlais, Brecon 

Williams, Rev. Herbert, M.A., Vicarage, Brecon 



Rev. Preb. Garnons Williams, M.A., Abercamlais, Brecon ) Local 
J. R. Cobb, Esq., Brecon j Sees. 

GARDIOANSHIRX. 

Davey, Rev. W. H., M.A., Prebendary of St. David's Cathedral, 

Vice- Principal of St. David's College, Lampeter 
Davies-Evans, Colonel Herbert, Highmead, Llanybydder, R.S.O. 
Jones, William, Esq., Glandenys, Lampeter 
Lampeter College, The Librarian of 
Rogers, J. E., Esq., Abermenrig, Talsarn, R.S.O. 
Rowland, Rev. Lewis T., B.D., Llanddewi Brefi, Tregaron 

Rev. Preb. Davey, M.A., St. David's College, Lampeter ") Local 
Rev. L. T. Rowland, B.D., Llanddewi Brefi, Tregaron ) Sees. 



10 LIST OP MEMBERS. 



CARMABTHENSHIRE. 

St. David's, the Lord Bishop of, Abergwili Palace, Carmarthen 

Dynevor, The Right Hon. Lord, Dynevor Castle, Llandeilo Fawr j 

Carmarthen Literary Institution (care of J. Hnglies, Esq., Spillman 

Street, Carmarthen) i 

Chidlow, Rev. Charles, M.A., Cynwyl Caio, Llandeilo Fawr 
Da vies, Rev. D. H., Cenarth, Llandyssil 
Da vies, J. M., Esq., Ffrwdvale, Llandeilo Fawr 
Evans, J. Bagnall, Esq., Nant yr Eglwys, Whitland 
Evans, Alcwyn, Esq., Carmarthen 

Ooring-Thomas, Rees, Esq., M.A., Plas Llanon, Llanelly 
Hancock, Morris T., Esq., 4, Qnay Street, Carmarthen 
Horton, Henry, Esq., Tstrad, near Carmarthen 
Johnes, Mrs., Dolancothy, Llandeilo Fawr 
Jones, John, Esq., Blaen Nds, Llandovery 
Jones, Herbert, Esq., Lammas Street, Carmarthen 
Williams, Rev. Benjamin, Abergwenol, Llandovery 
Williams, Rev. Canon, B.D., The Vicarage, Llanelly 
Williams, Rev. David, M.A., Merthyr Rectory, Carmarthen 

Rev. Charles Chidlow, M.A., Cynwyl Caio ) Local 

Rev. Benjamin Williams, Abergwenol, Llandovery ) Sees. 

aLAMORQANSHIBE. 

Talbot, C. R. M., Esq., M.P., F.R.S., Margam Park, Taibach, Lord 

Lieutenant of Glamorganshire 
Bute, the Most Noble the Marquis of, Cardiff Castle 
Llandaff, the Lord Bishop of, Bishop's Court, Llandaff 
Windsor, the Right Hon. Lord, St. Fagan's Castle, Cardiff 
Aberdare, the Right Hon. Lord, Dyffirn, Aberdare 
Llandaff, the Very Rev. the Dean of, Cathedral Close, Llandaff 
Bath, Charles, Esq., F.S.A., Ffynone, Swansea 
Cardiff Free Library 
Cardiff University College Library 
Carne, J. W. Stradling, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A., St. Donat's Castle, 

Bridgend 
Clark, G. T., Esq., F.S.A., Talygarn, Llantrisant 
Davies, Dr., Bryn Golwg, Aberdare 
Davies, D., Esq., Ton-Ystrad, Pont y Pridd 
Drane, R., Esq., Cardiff 

Evans, D. Tudor, Esq., Bank Buildings, Cardiff 
Evans, Henry Jones, Esq., Brecon Old Bank, Cardiff 
Fothergill, Miss, Hensoi Castle, Cowbridge 
Griffith, R. W., Esq., Llandaff 
Griffiths, John, Esq., Forth House, Forth, Cardiff 
Gwyn, Howel, Esq., M.A., Dyffryn, Neath 
Harris, James, Esq., Watte ru Matt Otlitv, Cardiff 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 11 

Hybart, F, W., Esq., Conway Road, Canton, Cardiff 

James, Charles Rassel, Esq., Merthyr 

James, Gwilym, Esq., Merthyr 

James, John, Esq., Merthyr 

Jonas, Alfred Charles, Esq., 12, Cambrian Place, Swansea 

Jones, John, Esq., Glannant House, Merthyr 

Jones, Robert Oliver, Esq., Fonmon Castle, Cardiff 

Jones, Evan, Esq., Ty-mawr, Aberdare 

Knight, Rev. C. R., M.A., Tythcgston Court, Bridgend 

Lewis, Henry William, Esq., Treherbert, Pont y Pridd 

Llewelyn, John Talbot Dilwyn, Esq., M.A., Penllergare, Swansea 

Morgan, Capt., R.N., St. Helen's, Swansea 

Nicholl, John Cole, Esq., M.A., Merthyr Mawr, Bridgend 

Nicholl, G. W., Esq., The Ham, Cowbridgo 

Picton-Tarbervill, Colonel, K.A., Ewenny Priory, Bridgend 

Powel, Thomas, Esq., M.A., University College, Cardiff 

Price, Mrs. Mary, Glan Twrch, Swansea Vale 

Price, Peter, Esq., 8, Crockherbtown, Cardiff 

Reynolds, Llywarch O., Esq., 1, Mill Street, Merthyr Tydfil 

Robinson, George E., Esq., Cardiff 

Swansea, Royal Institution of South Wales 

Swansea Free Library 

Thomas, Mrs., Tsgubor Wen, Aberdare 

Traheme, G. Montgomery, Esq., Coedriglan, Cardiff 

Vivian, Sir Hussey H., Bart., M.P., Park Wern, Swansea 

Williams, David, Esq., George Street, Merthyr 

Wilkins, Charles, Esq., Springfield, Merthyr 



J. T. D. Llewelyn, Esq., Penllergare, Swansea ) Local 
C. Wilkins, Esq., Springfield, Merthyr ) Sees, 

PEMBBOKESHIBE. 

Cawdor, the Right Hon. the Earl of, Stackpool Court, Pembroke, 

Lord Lieutenant of Carmarthenshire 
St. David's, Very Rev. the Dean of, The Close, St. David's 
Bowen, Rev. David, Hamilton House, Pembroke 
Edmondes, Ven. Archdeacon, Warren Vicarage, Pembroke 
James, John, Esq., St. Martin's Crescent, Haverfordwest 
Laws, Edward, Esq., Brighton Place, Tenby 
Lloyd-Philipps, F., Esq., M.A., Penty Park, Clarbeston, R.S.O. 
Mortimer, Rev. G. T., M.A., The Court, Fishguard 
Mousley, Thomas T., Esq., Stackpool, Pembroke 
Philipps, C. E. G., Esq., Picton Castle, Haverfordwest 
Protheroe, Miss Schawe, Brynteg, Good wick, Fishguard 
Tombs, Rev. J., B.A., Burton Rectory, Haverfordwest 



Rev. J. Tombs, B.A., Burton Rectory, Haverfordwest, Ltjcal Stc, 



12 LIST OF MEMBERS. 



RADNORSHIRE. 



Philipps, G. H., Esq., Abbey Cwm-Hir, Penjbont 
SladcD, Mrs., Bbjdolog, Rhayader 
Williams, Stephen William, Esq., Rhayader 

Williams- Vanghan, John, Esq., The Skroen, Erwood, R.S.O., Brecon- 
shire 



Stephen W. Williams, Esq., Rhayader, Local Sec. 



MONMOUTHSHIRE. 

Tredegar, the Right Hon. Lord, Tredegar Park, Newport 

Canning, Thomas, Esq., Newport 

Griffiths, Rev. Charles, M.A., Blaenafon Vicarage, Pontypool 

Morgan, C. O. 8., Esq., F.K.S., F.S.A., The Friars, Newport 

Roberts, T. D., Esq., M.I.C.E., Penrallt, Newport 

Rolls, J. Allen, Esq., The Hendre, Monmouth 

Roberts, T. D., Esq., Penrallt, Newport, Local Sec, 

THE MARCHES. 

Westminster, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., Lord-Lieut, of Cheshire, 

Eatoti Hall, Chester 
Harlech, Ri^ht Hon. Lord, Brogyntyn, Oswestry 
Banks, R. W., Esq., Ridgebourne, Kington, Herefordshire 
Banks, W. H., Esq., Ridgebourne, Kington, Herefordshire 
Bulkeley-Owen, Rev. T. M., Tedsmore Hall, West Felton, R.S.O. 
Davies, James, Esq., Widemarsh Street, Hereford 
Drinkwater, Rev. C. H., M.A., St. George's Vicarage, Shrewsbury 
Evans, The Rev. Canon W. Howell, M.A., Vicarage, Oswestry 
Ffoulkes, Ven. H. P., Archdeacon of Montgomery, Whittington 

Rectory, Oswestry 
Glinn, Mrs., Tho Eigne, Hereford 
Hamer, J. P., Esq., Glanyrafon, Oswestry 
Jones, Edward, Esq., Clietwynd End, Newport, Salop 
Jones, John, Esq., Bellan House, Oswestry 

Leighton, Stanley, Esq., M.P., M.A., F.S. A., Sweeney Hall, Oswestry 
Leighton, Rev. W. Allport, M.A., F.L.3., Lnciefelde, Shrewsbury 
More, R. Jasper, Esq., M.P., M.A., Linloy Hall, Bishop's Castle, 

Salop, R.S.O. 
Penson, R. Kyrke, Esq., F.S. A., Dinham House, Ludlow 
Romilly, Mrs., Huntington Park, Kington, Herefordshire 
Southern, F. R., Esq., Ludlow 

Wilkinson, Captain, R.E., Ordnance Survey Office, Chester 
Williams, E. W. Colt, Esq., B.A., H.M.LS., The Gatehouse, Hereford 
Williamson, Edward, Esq., Daisy Bank, Congleton 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 13 

Woodall, Ed., Esq., Wingthorpe, Oswestry 

Wynne Foalkes, His Honour Judge, Old Northgaie House, Chester 



James Davies, Esq., Hereford, Local Secretary for Herefordshire 
B. Williamson, Esq., Daisy Bank, Congleton, Local Sec. for Cheshire 
R. Kyrke Penson, Esq., F.S.A., Lndlow, Local Sec. for Shropshire 



CORRESPONDING SOCIETIES. 

The Society of Antiquaries, Barlington House, London 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Prince's Street, Edinhurgh 

The Royal Irish Academy, Duhlin 

Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archfeological Society (the 

Rev. J. Graves, Innisnag, Stoneyford, Ireland) 
The British ArchsBological Association, 32, Sackville Street, W. 
The Archseological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Oxford 

Mansion, Oxford Street, W. 
Society of Northern Antiquaries, Copenhagen 
Sussex ArchsBological Society (care of J. E. Price, Esq., 60, Alhion 

Road, Stoke Newington) 
Royal Institution of Cornwall, Truro 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society (care of Rev. S. S. Lewis, Corpus 

Christi College, Cambridge) 



All Members residing in South Wales and Monmouthshire are to 
forward their subscriptions to Edward Laws, Esq., Brighton Place, 
Tenby. All other Members to the Rev. R. Trevor Owen, Llan- 
gedwyn, Oswestry, 

As it is not impossible that omissions or errors may exist in the 
above list, corrections will be thankfully received by the General 
Secretaries. 

The Annnal Subscription is One Guinea^ payable in advance on 
the first day of the year. 

Members wishing to retire must give six months* notice previous to 
the firat day of the folloT\ing year, at the same time paying up all 
arrears. 



LAWS 



OF THE 



Cambrian ^rr^a^ologkal %BBachtifsn. 



ESTABLISHED 1846, 

In m'der to examine, preserve, and illustrate the ancient monuments and 

remains of the history^ language, manners^ customs, 

and arts of Wales and the Marches. 



CONSTITUTION. 

1. The ABsociation shall oonsist of Sabtoribing', Corresponding', and Hono- 

rary Members, of whom the Honorary Members must not be British 
subjects. 

ADMISSION. 

2. New members may be enrolled by the Chairman of the Committee, or by 

either of the General Secretaries ; but their election is not complete 
until it shall have been confirmed by a General Meeting of the Associa- 
tion. 

O0V£BNM£NT. 

3. The Government of the Association is vested in a Committee consisting 

of a President, Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, a Chairman of Committee, 
the General and Local Secretaries, and not less than twelve, nor more 
than fifteen, ordinary subscribing members, three of whom shall retire 
annually according to seniority. 

ELfiCTION. 

4. The Vice-Presidents shall be chosen for life, or as long as they remain 

members of the Association. The President and all other officers shall 
be chosen for one year, but shall be re-eligible. The officers and new 
members of Committee shall be elected at the Annual General Meet- 
ing. The Committee shall recommend candidates ; but it shall be 
open to any subscribing member to propose other candidates, and to 
demand a poll. All officers and members of the Committee shall be 
chosen from the subscribing members. 

THE CHAIB. 

6. At all meetings of the Committee the chair shall be taken by the Presi- 
dent, or, in his absence, by the Chairman of the Committee. 

CHAIEMAN OF THE COMMITTEE. 

6. The Chairman of the Committee shall sui)erintend the business of the 
Association during the intervals between the Annual Meetings ; and 
he shall have power, with the concurrence of one of the General Secre- 
taries, to authorise proceedings not specially provided for by the laws. 
A report of his proceedings shall be laid before the Committee for their 
approval at the Annual General Meeting. 



LAWS. 1 5 



EDITORIAL SUB-COMMITTEE. 

7. There shall be an Editorial Sub-Committee, consistizisf of at least three 

members, who shall snperintezid the publications of the Association, and 
shall report their proceedings annually to the Ck)mmittee. 

SUBBOBIPTION. 

8. All Subscribing' Members shall pay one guinea in advance, on the 1st of 

January in each year, to the Treasurer or his banker, or to either of 
the Creneral Secretaries. 

WrrHDBAWAL. 

9. Members wishing to withdraw from the Association must give six 

months' notice to one of the General Secretaries, and must pay all 
arrears of subscriptions. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

10. All Subscribers and Honorary Members shall be entitled to receive all 
the publications of the Association issued after their election (except 
any special publication issued under its auspices), together witii a 
ticket giving free admission to the Annual Meeting. 

8ECBETABIES. 

11. The Secretaries shall forward, once a month, all subscriptions received 
by them to the Treasurer. 

TBEASUREB. 

12. The accounts of the Treasurer shall be made up annually, to December 
31st; and as soon afterwards as may be convenient, they shall be 
audited by two subscribing members of the Association, to be appointed 
at the Annual General Meeting. A balance-sheet of the said accounts, 
certified by the Auditors, shall be printed and issued to the members. 

BILLS. 

13. The funds of the Association shall be deposited in a bank in the name 
of the Treasurer of the Association for the time being ; and all bills 
due from the Association shall be countersigned by one of the General 
Secretaries, or by the Chairman of the Committee, before they are paid 
by the Treasurer. 

COMMITTEE-MEETING. 

14. The Committee shall meet at least once a year for the purpose of nomi- 
nating officers, framing rules for the government of the Association, 
and transacting any other business that may be brought before it. 

OENEBAL MEETING. 

15. A General Meeting shall be held annually for the transaction of the 
business of the Association, of which due notice shall be given to the 
members by one of the General Secretaries. 

SPECIAL MEETING. 

16. The Chairman of the Committee, with the concurrence of one of the 
General Secretaries, shall have power to call a Special Meeting, of 
which at *least three weeks' notice shall be given to each member by 
one of the General Secretaries. 

QUORUM. 

17. At all meetings of the Committee five shall form a quorum. 



1 6 LAWS. 



CHAIBMAN. 



18. At the Annnal Meeting the President, or, in his absence, one of the 
Vice-Presidents, or the Chairman of the Committee, shall take the 
chair ; or, in their absence, the Committee may appoint a chairman. 

CASTING VOTE. 

19. At all meetings of the Association or its Committee, the Chairman shall 
have an independent as well as a casting vote. 

BEPORT. 

20. The Treasurer and other officers shall report their proceedings to the 
Greneral Committee for approval, and the General Committee shall 
report to the Annual General Meeting of Subscribing Members. 

TICKETS. 

21. At the Annual Meeting, tickets admitting to excursions, exhibitions, 
and evening meetings, shall be issued to Subscribing and Honorary 
Members gratuitously, and to Corresponding Members at such rates as 
may be fixed by the officers. 

ANNUAL MBSTINO. 

22. The Bui)erintendence of the arrangements for the Annual Meeting shall 
be under the direction of one of the G^eral Secretaries in conjunction 
with one of the Local Secretaries of the Association for Uie district, 
and a Local Committee to be approved of by such General Secretary. 

LOCAL EXPENSES. 

23. All funds subscribed towards the local exi)en6es of an Annual Meeting 
shall be paid to the Joint account of the General Secretary acting for 
that Meeting and a Local Secretary ; and the Association shall not be 
liable for any expense incurred without the sanction of such Greneral 
Secretary. 

AUDIT OF LOCAL EXPENSES. 

24. The accounts of each Annual Meeting shall be audited by the Chairman 
of the Local Committee, and the balance of receipts and expenses on 
each occasion be received, or paid, by the Treasurer of the Association, 
such audited accounts being sent to him as soon after the Meeting as 
possible. 

ALTERATIONS IN THE RULE& 

25. Any Subscribing Member may propose alterations in the Rules of the 
Association ; but such alteration must be notified to one of the General 
Secretaries at least one month before the Annual Meeting, and he shall 
lay it before the Committee; and if approved by the Committee, it 
shall be submitted for confirmation at the next Meeting. 

(Signed) C. C. Babington, 
August 17th, 1876. Chairman fl/thr Committee. 



%u}iua\attm €nmhnmh. 



FIFTH SERIES,— VOL. II, NO, F. 



JANUARY 1885. 



THE CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTIC 
WORDS OF THE COUNTIES OF NORTH- 
AMPTON AND LEICESTER. 

In a late communication to the ArchcBologia Camhrensis 
I have pointed out that the author of the Conquest of 
England has abandoned in this work his former posi- 
tion with regard to the race that inhabited England 
at the time of the Saxon invasion. His first statement 
was that this race had been wholly dispossessed and 
destroyed by their Teutonic invaders. The slaughter 
had been so complete that the race had disappeared ; 
or if some still lingered as slaves round the home- 
steads of their conquerors, their number must have 
been very small. Even the existence of this scanty 
remnant was doubtful. Practically the population of 
England was exclusively of Low German or Scandina- 
vian origin ; it had no Celtic element large enough to 
have any appreciable influence in the formation of the 
English people. 

This dogmatic assertion was afterwards modified. 
It was admitted that in a part of England said to be 
occupied by the Wealhcyn, or Welsh race, there was a 
blending of British and Saxon blood ; but then, from 
the eastern coast to an indistinct line drawn from the 
Yorkshire moorlands to the Cotswolds and Selwood, 
there lay a people of '* wholly English blood". In this 
vehement assertion a challenge is implied to prove the 

5th 8SB., VOL. II. 1 



2 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

contrary. The statement is supposed to be absolutely 
certain, and it is made with a rather defiant air. I 
accept the challenge, and am content to refer the ques- 
tion to the judgment of Englishmen after they have 
considered the evidence which I shall lay before them. 
I engage to prove that a large Celtic element exists in 
the part which is assumed to be purely Teutonic ; as 
Ig^rge, in fact, as in the part where it is now admitted 
there was a blending of races. 

As it is impossible, within reasonable limits, to ex- 
amine the dialectic words of every county in England, 
I must make choice of some part that may be fairly 
taken as a representative of the whole. After some 
hesitation I have selected the counties of Northampton 
and Leicester as the best representatives of the country 
lying between the eastern counties and the line within 
which a mingled race is allowed to exist. Any other 
part would answer my purpose equally well if an ade- 
quate glossary of its dialectic words has been published. 
I select these two counties because, — (1), they are 
remote from the line within which a mingled population 
is now admitted ; (2), there can have been little con- 
nection, if any, between this part of the country and 
Wales or Ireland since the time of the Saxon conquest ; 
and (3), there are no parts difficult of access, where a 
conquered race might have found shelter from their 
foes, as in North Lancashire or Cumberland. In this 
part, if there was not a complete destruction of the 
Celtic race, there must have been an early mixture of 
races, as there is no probability of the Celtic population 
being able to maintain itself, even for a comparatively 
short time, as a separate people. 

The part that I have chosen is not the most favour- 
able for my purpose. For Northamptonshire there is 
a fair glossary of dialectic words by Miss Baker, pub- 
lished in 1854; and for Leicestershire, a glossary of 
such words was formed by the late Dr. Evans of Mar- 
ket Bosworth, and published in 1848. An edition of 
the latter was issued by the English Dialectic Society 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 3 

in 1881. This was edited, with additions, by Dr. Sebas- 
tian Evans ; but it is not rich in purely dialectic words. 
Unless such words have been driven out by the uni- 
form teaching of our School Boards, it is probable that 
if the inquiry can be carried on by some one who has 
been familiar with the dialect from his youth, many 
more such words would be brought forward to the 
advantage of my argument. If in these circumstances 
I shall be able to prove that there was a blending of 
races here, I may reasonably demand that the proof 
shall suffice for other parts of England. 

The eastern counties are separately considered in 
their dialectic element in order to show that along the 
east coast, from the Thames valley to Northumberland, 
the Celtic race that occupied the land before the Saxon 
conquest was allied to the Gaels. This Gaelic race had 
spread over the whole country, though sparsely in 
some parts, before the coming of the Cymric race ; but 
along the whole eastern line, from the county of Kent 
to Scotland, it maintained in this part a predominant 
position.* 

' My authorities for the dialectic words of the two chosen coanties 
are: — 

1. A Glossary of Northamptonshire Words, by A. E. Baker. 
1854. (H.) 

2. Leicestershire Words and Phrases, by A. B. Evans, D.D. 
1847. (L.) 

3. An enlarged edition of No. 2, by Dr. Sebastian Evans. E. D. S. 
1881. (L.) 

4. The Glossary of Midland Words, Leicestershire being the cen- 
tre, contained in Marshall's *' Bnral Economy of the Midland Dis- 
trict." E. D. S. 1873. (L., M.) 

5. Archaic and Provincial Words, by Halliwell-Philh'ps. (H.) 

6. Old Country and Farming Words, by J. Britten. E. D. S. 
1880. (B.) 

For the eastern counties : — 

1. Provincial Words current in LincoInshire,by J.E.Brogden. 1866. 

2. A Glossary of Words used in Holdemess. E. D. S. 1877. 

3. A Glossary of North Country Words, by J. T. Brockett. 1846. 

4. A Glossary of Words used in the Neighbourhood of Whitby. 
B. D. S. 1876. 

5. The Vocabulary of East Anglia, by the Rev. R. Forby. 1830. 

6. Suffolk Words and Phrases, by E. Moore. 1823. 

7. A Border Glossary. Alnwick, circa 1820. 

1» 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



THE COUNTIES OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 
ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Agog^ aiudoiis, eager (N.) W. gogij to shake or quake 

" Literally on the jog or start, from gog, synonymous 
v/ith jog or shog, a gogmire or quagmire." (Wedge wood, 
8. V.) To the W. gogi may be added the Gaelic gog, to 
shake the head, to nod ; Manx, goghyr, hope, expecta- 
tion ; and Arm. gogSa, railler, critiquer ; a fluttering 
motion, being used to denote both expectation and a 
jibing attack. Professor Skeat says that agog is of 
Scandinavian origin, from O. N. gcegiaz, " to be all agog, 
to bend eagerly forward and peep." Haldersen explains 
it as latenter prospectare ; Egilsson asfurtiin prospec- 
tare, curiosis oculis inspicere. The latter connects it 
with gcsgr, obliquitas. Its primary meaning seems to 
be, to peep slyly. 

AkkeTj^ to shake or tremble (NT.). S. W. achretkj trembling; creth^ quak- 
ing, shiyering ; Ir. Gael, crith, id. 

^/(7«r, quick-witted, keen, sharp (N.); W. a/, great, high, very ; as al-bati, 

O. N. algiordry algidrr^ perf ectus, very high ; egr, for eger ; Ir. Gael. 

consummatus ; i.e., fully done or ghr, gear^ sharp ; Lat. acer 

achieved 

Aaker, a newt or lizard. Lacertapa- Gael. a«c, a snake, an adder ; cischu 

lustris. (N.) " A sky a water-newt" (water-dog), an eel ; Ir. easgay id. 

(N.). Hall. 

A slosh, aside. " Stand aslosh, wool Ir. Gael, a, in, on, as a hhoSy on this 

ye ?" (L.) side ; slaos, side, flank, side of a 

hiU 

Aunty, frisky; spoken of horses; W. Aaim/ti«, animated, brisk ; /^trn/, 

usually and properly written alacrity, briskness 

haunty or hanty, Halliwell has the 

latter form. From anticky (Evans) 

Austy to dare (L.); oss (Lane); W. on, to dare, to attempt 

Lat. audeo 
Averoy uncouth in person, dress, and W. hafry a slattern ; hafreriy a slat- 
manners. A slatternly, overgrown temly woman, a trollop 

girl would be called a great avem 

thing (N.) 



^ I am obliged to bring forward words that have appeared in former 
lists because many Celtic words are common to Northamptonshire and 
other districts, and are required here to make my argument as complete 
for the counties now under consideration as for Lancashire and elsewhere. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

Azzledj chapped. ** My hands are so 
azzUd" (L.). Of. hcazh or azUe^ 
to dry slightly (L.) 



Biidge, to cut and tie up beans in 
shocks (L.); only to cut them ; 
Bag^ " to bag peas is to cut them 
with a hook or bill" (N.) S. 

Badger^ a corn-dealer (N., L.) 



CELTIC. 

Probably the word means inflamed, 
and has a relation to Ir. Gael. a«, 
to kindle a fire, to set on fire ; 
Manx, a«, fire ; ascaid^ boil, pus- 
tule ; Sans, ush, to bum 

W. Arm. Ixxch, hook ; Ir. Gael, bctc^ 
id. ; bachall, clipping, shearing ; 
Manx, bacalf a crook 

Formed as soger from soldier. Allied 
to Fr. bladier^ from a Celtic word 
represented by W. blatod (blad), 
meal ; hlodiwr^ mealman ; Arm. 
bUud (one syll.), flour, meal 

I think this word is of native origin, — (1), because of 
its general use formerly among our peasant class ; (2), 
from the pronunciation ; d, followed by a vowel, being 
often pronounced as j, from a Celtic usage. Thus 
" dead' is often pronounced jedy and " guardian", gar- 
jeen. 



Bam^ fudge (N.) 

Bamboozle^ to bUk, to deceive (N.), 
to deceive by flattery (?) 



Barnish,^ bamesSy to fill out, grow 
fat and well-liking (L., N.). S, 



Arm. bamein, to deceive, to bewitch ; 

Erim,, to strike ; Com. boniy a 
low ; Ir. Gael, beuniy bUm, stroke, 
taunt ; Manx, beiniy cut, reproach ; 
Ir. Gael, bosbhuail (lit. to clap 
hands), to applaud, extol ; pron. 
bSsail^ bh being silent 
Ir. Gael, barr^ borr, something large 
or swelling ; knop, head, great- 
ness; boir, to swell, increase; 
Jr., bam, judge, nobleman ; prim., 
a great man ; Arm. barra for bar- 
na, to fill up; Com. bar; Ir. barr, 
fat 



In the Celtic languages -as or -es (here ess and ish) is 
a verbal formative. (Zeuss^, 535.) 



Bash, A pig is said to bash when 
it dwindles and declines in flesh 
(N.); Fr. abaisser^ to lower 

Baif a club, a blow (L., N.) 
Battin, a narrow deal board, 7^ in& 

by 2 J ins. ; when wider it is called 

h plank (N., L.) 



W. basu^ to make shallow, to lower; 

basy low ; non profundus, depres- 

sus (Dav.); Com. basse, to fall, 

lower, abate 
Ir. Gael, baty bata, stick, staff ; v. to 

beat ; Manx, bad; Arm. baz, id.; 

Ir. Gael. ba%tin=bat%ny a little 

stick 



^ *^ To shoot and spread and bamish into man.** 

Dryden, A Northh, Man. 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Baiter J to lean or incline, — applied Manx, baiter^ a dope (applied to 



to walls (N., L.); Prov. 8w. hatt 
nuy to lay ont, expound, to swell 
out 
Batting J a bundle of straw (N.) 



hedges), from baij a slant ; W. baij 
fault, crime ; prim, crookedness ; 
Jr. Gael, haic, a twist, turn, crook 
W. batingen, a sheaf of com ; pro- 
bably connected with Jr. Gael. 
bann for band, band, chain ; Sans. 
bandh, to bind 
Bekayj the lower jaw of a pig (N.); Ir. bee, beak, bill ; GaeL betc^beet, 
Fr. beCy beak id. : hence our dialectic form, be- 

hay ; Arm. bee, beak, snout 
Bellock, to cry or roar (N.) ; O. N. ^oc is a Celtic verbal formative.^ 
baula ; Prov. Sw. belja, to low as Ir. Gael. bU, W. W/, mouth ; Ir. 
kine, to bellow beolach, talkative 

Biddy, a word used to call chickens W. bidan, a poor little thinff 

(N.) 
Biggen, the under-cap of an infant Ir. bigeun, bigin, cap, cowl, coif, hair- 
(N.); Ft, beguin, id, lace; from Ir. beag, little; in 

Manx, biggin (little one) means a 
pet lamb 

Biggen is so common as a dialectic word that I think 
it must have come, as the Fr. beguin, directly from its 
Celtic source. 



Binge, to soak.' A heavy rain is a 
good bingeing shower. Generally 
applied to the soaking of tubs, 
etc., to prevent leakage (N. and 
L.). Cf. bange, light, small rain. 
(Essex) bangy, rainy, misty, id. 



0. Ir. banna, a drop (Ir. Gl., 114) 
Ir. bain, Gael, bainne, a drop 
baingidh, milky ; bainne, milk 
Manx, bine, a drop of liquid ; bi- 
nagh, to fall in drops ; Ir. GaeL 
buinne, a stream ; buinneacJi, a flux; 
Arm. banne, bannecJi, a drop, a 
quantity of liquid 

Ir. Gael, blob, blobach, thick-lipped ; 
Manx, bleb, a pustule, a bliister. 
Cf . W. llob, a blockhead ; prim, a 
lump 



Blab, blob, the under-lip (N.) 
Bleb or blob, a little bubble (N.) 
Blobs, a name given to several large 

flowers. Water-lilies are water- 

blobs (N,), 8. 

From the same root (blow) as bladder. (Skeat.) 

Bod, to take the husks off walnuts Arm. p6d, pot, any concavity that 
(N.) S. contains something ; W. pot, a pot ; 

poten, a paunch, a pudding ; Ir. 
Gael, bodach, a measure equal to 
a pint ; pota, a pot, a vessel ; 



^ Cf . Eng. dial, bommock, to beat, with Com. bom, a blow. In Gaelic 
the form is often ich or aich, as cotaich, to provide a coat, from cota, a 
coat ; grianaich, to bask in the sun, from grian, the sun ; in Irish, igh or 
aigh, as cruadhaigh, to harden, from cruadh, hard. (Zeuss^, 487, 534.) 

' Cf. Sans, vindu, bindu; Ved. a drop of water or other liquid. The 
Gaelic bainne represents an older binda. The d coming before a vowel 
has taken, by a Celtic usage, the sound ofj. 



OP NOBTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



AMGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Manx,^^, pot ; pot-veg^ a kettle; 
Sans. pdtUf a veasel, a boat 

"The nearest word (to pod) is the Dan. hude, a 
cushion ; Prov. Sw. bude^ id." (Skeat.) The radical 
meaning of pot or hot is roundness. Cf. W. hot, any 
round body ; and Sans, vat (for an older bat), to encom- 
pass ; vata (bata), a small shelly ball, globiile, a round 
lump ; Arm. bod, a tuft. 



Bog J to move. " Gome, bog off* (N.) ; 
Fr. bougevy to stir, budge, flit 
(Got.\ A Celtic word. A nasal- 
ised form is bunk (L.) 
Bogie, a spectre (N. and L.) 
BugaboOyhughesLT, hobgoblin (N.) 



Ir. Gael, bog, to move, to stir; Manx, 
boggey, to cause to float, to push 
off ; Sans. bu(n)g, to abandon 



W. bwg, a hobgoblin; biDgan,& bug- 
bear ; Ir. Gael, bugha, fear ; W. 
bw, dread, terror, a bugbear 

Com. bom, a blow, with the Celtic 
verbal formative -oc; Ir. Gael. 
beuniy to strike, to cut 

The root is the W. ton, Ir, Gael, 
to a healthy bonny a stock, the round body of a 

tree ; bunachy stout, sturdy ; bon- 
antay strong, stout ; Gael. bunanUiy 
stout, well-set; Manx, bun, the 
stem or body of a tree ; bunneyy a 
sheaf of com ; bunneCy funda- 
mental 

Fr. bonne, fair, from bon, good. But where does bonne 
mean fair ? 



Bommock, to move awkwardly and 

strike clumsily (N.); properly, to 

strike 
Bormyy good, jollv, pretty, etc., espe- 

ciaUy applicable 

plumpness (L.)^ 



BoodUy the corn-marigold. Chrysan- 
themum segetum (N.) 



Boshy to abash, confound (L.) 
Bossucky large, fat, coarse (N.); Fr. 
bosse, hunch, hump, boss 



Ir. Gael, buidhe, botdhe, yellow, yel- 
lowish red ; buidheag, any yellow 
flower. The Gael, name for the 
marigold is hilebuidhey yellow 
brim. Boodle is probably a cor- 
ruption of boidhe=iodey and luighy 
herb 

See Bash 

W. bo8y a swelling or rising up, a 
boss ; bostiOy to boast ; pnm. to 
swell ; Arm. bos, bosen, the plague, 
from its boils; Manx , bosSy a has* 
sock. The termination is Celtic. 
Cf. Ir. borVy pride, prim, swelling; 
borrachy insolent 



^ Ash has *^ bonny y pretty, gay, plump" ; Webster, " plump, well-formed". 
Among miners bonny means a round lump of ore. Cf . Fr. bugne, bouniey 
bouton, tumeur. (Boq.) In Shropshire, according to Miss Jackson, boimy 
means ** comely, stout ; what the French understand by embonpoint.^' 



8 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Bother, to perplex, to be trouble- Ir. hodhavy Gael, botkar, deaf ; It. 
BOmely teasing and noisy (N.) ; bothair^ to deafen, to ston with 
bothering^ a great scolding (N.) noise; Gael, hodhradh^ deafening, 

stunning ; W. hyddarfiom. hothar^ 
Arm. bouzoTj deaf ; W. byddaru, 
to deafen, to stun 

Prof. Skeat refers, after Gamett, to Ir. buaidhim, I 
vex, disturb. This is probably connected with bodhar^ 
and all with Sans, hadhira^ deaf. 

Bots, a name for all under-grubs W. bot^ any round thing ; boiimn^ a 
(N.) boss ; both J bothell^^ a round vesiel. 

Bottle of hay, a bundle (N.) nave of a wheel, a boss; Arm. bod, 

Bottom, a ball of thread (N.) See a tuft, a bunch ; Ir. Gael, bot, 
Bod cluster, bunch ; both, a booth, tent ; 

bord, a bottle : Gael, botus, a bot 

Bouge, an insect which sometimes Formed, as bots, from a root denot- 
infects sheep, " but which I have ing roundness ; W. bog, swelling 
been unable to identify" (L.) ; or rising up ; Ir. Gael, bocaim, I 
Fr. bouge, a swelling, boss, belly swell : bocoid, a boss ; Gael, bdc, 

pimple, pustule; W. biocai, a mag- 
got ; probably the Leicester bouge 

Bouk, buck, to wash coarse linen Ir. Gael, buac, liquor prepared for 
clothes by placing them in a tub washing or bleaching ; to bleach ; 
and covering them with a cloth. buacdr, cow-dung Qm, cow, gaorr. 
On this is spread a quantity of dung) ; Ir. buaAMire; a bleacher 
ashes, over which water is poured 
(N.) 

Though hyka in Sweden, and hyge in Denmark, mean 
to wash, it is certain that bleaching or washing by this 
process was a Celtic usage, and that the word buck is 
Celtic. (See Arch. Camb., Jan. 1884, p. 11, and Prof. 
Skeat, s. v.) 

Bowl, a hoop for trundling (L.); Sw. W. bwl (bool), a rotundity, a round 
bula. Germ, beule, boil, boss thing ; bwlan, a round straw ves- 

sel ; Arm. boul, bowl, globe; Sans. 
bala, strength, stoutness, bulki* 
ness 

BrcLg, to boast^ (N,, L.) W. brag, a sprouting out, malt; bra- 

gio, to swell out, to boast ; Arm. 
braga, to walk in a fierce way, put 
on fine clothes ; Ir. bragaim, 1 
boast 

^ Hence the Leicestershire words bottle^tit, the long-tailed titmouse, and 
bottle-jug, a bird (I suspect the hedge-sparrow) ; Ir. Gael. giuig=:g%ug, a 
drooping, crouching attitude. Bottle-jug i&=round- bodied creeper ; Fr. 
sejucher, to roost. 

^ This can hardly be called a dialectic word ; but Miss Baker and Mr. 
Evans so regard it. 



OF NOBTHAMPTON AND L£lIC£STEB. 9 

ANGLO-CELTIC. - CELTIC. 

BrangU, to wrangle or qnarrel (L.); Ir. brangy to snarl, carp, cavil ; Gael. 
O. N. brang, tnrba, tumultus ; brianglaid, wrangling, disagree- 
branUoy tnmoltaari ment ; W. hragal^ to vociferate ; 

Ir. hraighean^ qnarrel, debate 

^rate/^ any kind of spring-sown com W. Com. hrag^ Ir. Ghiel. &raioA, 
(N.) Manx, hraih, malt 

Pliny says that the Gauls had a fine sort of grain 
of which they made beer, and this kind of com they 
called brace, — "genus farris quod illi vocant brace". 
Probably the W. brag, Ir. braich, meant primarily a 
fine kind of barley used for malting ; and nence came 
to denote malt, and figuratively to boast, from the 
swelling of the grain. 

Brock, a badger (N., L.); A.-S. broc. Ir. Gael, broc, grey, a badger; Manx, 

A Celtic word (Skeat) broc, id.; W., Arm. brocJi, id. 

Brouse, the small branches of a tree, Ir. hrus, small branches of trees ; 

not fit for timber (N^ ; Fr. broust, Gael, bruis, fragments, splinters ; 

sprig, young branch (Cotg.);6roM0, Ir. Gael, broma, a fagot ; W. 

brash brwys, thick - branching ; Arm. 

brous'koad, petit-boia; A»ac2=wood 

Brun, bran (N.) ** Pure Sazon.'^ Ir., W. bran ; Gael, bran, brain, bran 

(Baker) 

I insert this word, though dialectic only in form, 
because it shows a Celtic and Sanskritic usage in chang- 
ing short a to u. 

Buck, to wash clothes (N.) See Bouk 

jBiM^^, thick, clumsy (N.), commonly W. pwt, short, squabby; pwten, a 
pudgy short, squabby female ; allied to 

W. bot, any round thing ; Arm. 
borUek, a round pannier, a dosser ; 
Ir. bodach, a clown, pint-measure, 
codfish ; the pfimary idea being 
roundness 
Buffer, a fool (K., L.) Gael. baobh=babha, a foolish wo- 

man ; Ir. baobhalta, simple, fool- 
ish (baoblud, a fool) ; Arm. abaff, 
foolish, stupid 
Bug, big, proud, conceited (L.) W. bog, a swelling or rising up ; ^- 

gel, the navel ; Arm. botu:h, tuft, 
bunch ; Ir. Gael, boc, to swell ; 
bocTid, to swell, grow turgid ; full, 
complete ; Manx, boggys, boast- 
ing, pride ; Arm. bugad, ostenta- 
tion, vanterie 
Bug, to take offence. '* He was quite W. bugad, a terrifying ; bwgwth, to 
bugged (N.) Boog, to take fright frighten, to scare ; bwg, a hobgob- 
or offence (L.^). Halliwell has "to lin; bygwl (pron. bugool), threat- 
take frti^, to taxe fright or offence." ening ; bygylu, to threaten, inti- 
See Bogie midate 

Bug, in Maybug, the small cockcha- W. bwcax, a maggot 

fer, ScarabcBus solstitiaris (N.) * 



10 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

BuUy the semicircular handle of a W. bwl (600Q, a rotundity, round 

hatchet, pot-lid, etc. (L.) See body, bole ; bwlariy a round vefisel 
Bowl 

BullieSf does, fruit of the bullace See Bute. W. bwlasy winter sloes, 

(N.). Cf. " bullies, round pebbles. bullace ; Arm. boukUy bourffeon. 

South." Hall. bouton qui pousse auz arbres; 

bolosj prune sauvage ; Ir. btdoSy a 
prune ; Gael, hulaister, a buUaoe, 
a sloe 

Bumble-footy a thick, clumsy foot W. pwmply a knob, a boss ; pwmp, a 

(N.); bumpy y knobby (N.) ; bum- round mass, a lump ; Arm. from, a 

m£lj bummlej ball of the hand or rising ; Sans, ^nm, to collect or 

foot (L.); ^^ bumble, a small round heap together 
stone (West), a confused heap 
(N.)."Hall. '' Pummel-footed filnh' 
footed". Hall. 

BuTij the stubble of beans left by Ir. Gael, bun, a stem, stalk, base, 
the scythe after mowing (N.); bottom; Manx, h^n, id.; W,bon, 
Bone or Bun, to draw a straight stem, stock, base ; bonadj base- 
line from one point to another by ment 
means of three sticks, for the 
purpose of surveying (N.). The 
meaning is to take a base 

Btmk, be off, apage (L.) See Bog 

jBtfnny, a. juvenile name for a rabbit From bun, meaning here, tail; prim. 

(N.) bottom or base : W. bonyn, stem, 

stock, base 

Bunt or punt, to kick or strike with Arm. bounta, bunta, pousser, repous- 

the feet (N.), to push; Du. bonsen, ser, heurter, choquer ; W.pwnio, 

to knock hard to beat, to thump 

Burgoo. ** As thick as ^r^oo."^ ''An The word is still used in Ireland, 

Irish dish, I am informed ; but though nearly obsolete. Probably 

why the rustics in this midland a compound of Ir. burr, knob, 

district should go so far for a com- lump, and coth, food; in comp. 

parison I cannot conjecture" (N.) goth 

The word came by inheritance. It is the name of a 
thick oatmeal pudding. See Ash, s. v. 

Bur-head^ the name of a plant called Ir. Gael, burr, knob, lump. Found 

cleavers, Galium Aparine (N.), a also in bur-dock (Gael, dogha, the 

hybrid word burdock) 

Burk, to warm by fondling, to try The word denotes properly to warm 
to lull a child to sleep. ^^Burk the child, to set it to sleep by 
the child off to sleep." A brood warming its feet at a fire, as nurses 
hen burks her chickens under her are wont to do. Ir. barg, hot, ex- 
wings (N.) tremely warm, which becomes 

burk from the u sound in Sanskrit 

^ The Bev. F. Crawford, Sector of Derryloran, Ireland, wrote to me 
some years ago, in answer to an inquiry on this subject, *^ The word bur* 
goo is used to denote a kind of food prepared from oatmeal and water or 
milk, and more commonly known as stirabout. In Ireland it is made very 
thick." 



OP NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 1 1 

ANGLO-CELTIC. - CELTIC. 

and partly in Irish ; g represent- 
ing a prior c or k. The 0. Gael. 
barg has the same meaninff. The 
W. b&r, afiSiction, fnry, ia, I think, 
from the same root. Gf . Sans. 
tapas, heat, pain, suffering, and 
rushS (prim, light), heat, anger 

This is an interesting word, showing that the lan- 
guage of the nursery was often Celtic. It is connected 
with Sans. bhrdj\ to shine, to gleam, and bhrajj\ to fry, 
to scorch ; the ideas of light and heat being often inter- 
changed. 

^vfT, the sweet-bread or pancreas Ir. Gael, hurr, horr^ a knob, hunch, 
of a calf, a ronnd piece of wood Inmp ; ftorro, a swelling 
or iron on the nnt of a screw, the 
calyx of the burdock (N.); Prov. 
Sw. horr vd «a, to stretch out one- 
self 
Buskins^ upper stockings without Ir. huUcin^ thigh-armour ; huisgin^ 
feet, like gaiters (N.) ; Du. hrootj haunch, buttock ; Gkiel. huiMcean 
a buskin (Skeat) • {lmscen\ thigh, haunch, thigh- 

armour (Armstrong). The root 
is hoB^ a lump ; A^inz, hossan^ a 
bulb or boss 
BusB^ a kiss (N.); Fr. hatser ; Prov. Ir. Gael. 6u«, the mouth, lip,^ a kiss ; 
Sw. puM^ kiss ; pussa^ to kiss busog, a kiss ; W. bits, the human 

lip ; gtoefus, id. 
Buttricej a tool used for paring a Ir. butun^ butan, a smith's paring 
horse's hoof before shoeing (N.\ knife (O'Don.); W. irychj a cut ; 
*^But, a shoemaker's knife" (N.). <r^cAtf,to cut; W.6w8g,& tool for 
Hall raising the bark in grafting 

CabiUy noise, loud talking, confusion Ir. Gael. cab. the mouth ; cabai$, 
of tongues (N.) talking, babbling ; Manx, ccU), the 

jaw 
Cac, dung, excrement (N.), 8. ; Du. Ir. Gael., Manx, caCy dung, ordure ; 
kak, id.; Lat. caeare W. cachy Com. caCy Arm. kakachj 

dung ; Sans, kalka, dirt, faeces 

The Dutch kak must be a borrowed word. 

Cadj a blinker (L.) W. cc^ady cover, lid 

CadiUef an under-serrant (N.) W. caethy Com. catc2^ca^i, servant, 

bondman ; Arm. kaezy^id.; Sans. 

cheUiy servant, slave (?) 

• 

^ Hence, probably, biusocky a Leicestershire name for a young ass ; Ir. 
Gael, busachy snouty, having a large mouth. 

' The Arm. kaez represents an older kaed^^kadiy probably from a root 
eady implying misery. Of. Sans, kady to grieve, to suffer. If ccieth and 
Com. catd are from Lat. captivusy the woid caddee has come down from a 
Celtic race. 



12 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANQLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Caddy f the caddiB-worm, or grab of Ir. caideog, an earthworm 

the May.fly (N.) 

Cadlocky charlock or wild mustard, W.cec^tr, mustard ;Z/^« for ZZycA, herb, 

Sinapis arvensis (N., L.); some- plant; BajiB.katu, — (1), pungent; 

times charlock (2), mustard 

The char in charlock is from Ir. Gael, ciar, black, 
from the colour of the seeds. 

Cbj^,^ to quarrel (N.); Fr. covt/Zer, W. cablu, to calumniate, abuse; 

to reason crossly (Cotg.), to Arm. hahlc^ insulter, outrager, in- 

wrangle; Lat. cam/^ri, to satirise, jurer. The root is Ir. GaeL cdb^ 

jest. Prof. Skeat says, ** origin mouth ; Manx, ca6, jaw 
obscure" 

In Lancashire, to jaw a man means to abuse and re- 
vile him ; Prov. Sw. gaffla^ to talk insolently or foolishly; 
Ir. GaeL gahy mouth. 

Caggt "an old cagg^\ any old, Ir. ca6o^, Gael. ca6a^, an old, tooth- 
wrinkled female (N.) ; Prov. Sw. less female, a tattling woman. 
hagg^ a passionate man The vowel-flanked h has dropped 

out in the Northampton form 
Calkin, the hinder part of a horse's Ir. Gael, calg, sting, prickle, sharp 
foot turned up to prevent slipping point ; calgin, a single prickle ; 
in frosty weather (N.) Manx, caulg, the ears of barley ; 

0. W. colginn for colcinny arista 
(Cod, Juv.) ; W., Com. col, Arm. 
kolo, koloen, beard of com, sharp 
point 
Callice, sand of a large grit (N.). S. 0. W. caill. Arm. kail, kell, a stone 

Callice seems to show that the old plural of caill= 
calli, was callls, now ceilliau. Of. Sans, gdti, ace. pi. 
gatis. 

Cambrel (L.), cammerel (N.), a curved Ir. Gael., W. cam, crooked, curved ; 
stick used by butchers to suspend W. pren, in comp. bren, wood 
a slaughtered animal 

Blount has the form camhreii {Ghssographia, a.d. 
1661). He derives it from " the ancient British". 

Cank, punishment (N.), S.; prim, a W,cang,cangc, bough, branch ; Sana 
stick or switeh B'akha^=^kdkh&, id. 

Switch is used in Lancashire for a slight branch of a 
tree, and also as a verb, to beat, to punish by beating. 
Cf. Sans, dandj to punish ; danda, stick, staff. 

' I think this word is of native origin because the root is Celtic, and is 
used in the Craven country as caff^ with the same meaning. The Fr. cavil- 
ler means to use quibbles, to scoff. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



13 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

Cardc^ talk, gossip ; to talk, prattle 
(L.) ; Fr. cancan^ plain te, bruit 
(Eoq.) 

Cant^ caimy, to coax^ to wheedle (N., 
L.); Lat. ccmtare 



Car^ a bottle or keg of one or two 

gallons (L.) 
Cbs/, warped, twisted (N., L.) 



Caty a stand made of three pieces of 
wood or iron to hold toast (N., 
L.); Germ. kanUy border, brim, 
ledge 
Caul, kelly the thin membrane that 
sometimes covers the face of an 
infant at its birth (N.) 
i Cave, to form fissures in the earth, 
< to fall in (N.); Lat. cavus 
( Cksmng, A female with a bare neck 

is said to look cawing (N.) 
Chats, small bits of dead wood, etc. 

(N., L.) 
Chizzel, wheat-bran (L.) 

Chock, chuck, a throw with a jerk ; 
▼. to throw or cast up (N.); cookf 
to cast, to chuck (N.)^ 

Chorion, calfs tripe, a delicacy (L.) 

Chuck, a great piece of wood (N.) 
Chunk, lump, stock of a tree (N., 

L.) 
Chuckle-headed, thick-headed, dull 

(N.). The prim, idea seems to be 

roundness. See Cock 
Chuff, pleased, delighted. *'The 

children are quite chuff to come** 

(h.) 

Chum, an aquatic plant, but of what 
kind unknown (N.) 



CELTIC. 

W. cynghan (pron. cungan), talk, dis- 
course ; cynganhu, to talk, from 
cyd=^um and canu, to sing,descant 

Ir. Gael, caint, speech, language ; 
cainteach, loquacious ; W. canu, 
to sing, descant; Arm. kaiui, Com. 
kane, id. 

From the Celtic car, prim, winding, 
circling ; hence car, cart, dray, etc. 

Ir. Gael, cas, to curve, to twist ; 
casta, twisted (Ir, GL, p. 120) ; 
Manx, cast, twisted 

W. coder, Arm. kador, seat, chair ; 
Com. coder, a frame for a fisher- 
man*s line; Lr. Gael, cathair, chair, 
bench 

It. G&el,ceal=cela, a cover; Ir.calla, 
O. Gael. caU, veil, hood ; W. caul, 
a calfs maw 

W. cau for cav, empty, hollow, a 
vacuum ; Arm. kao, kaVy a hollow 



W. catj piece, fragment 

W. sisel, bran of wheat ; 

rA«^(fton,canica, wheat- 
W. cwg {coog for cook\ a 

chioare cwg, a game of 

kouga, to raise {Arch, 

1882, p. 12) 
W. cor, dwarf, little one; ton, skin (?) 



idem quod 
-bran (Dav.) 

projection; 
ball; Arm. 
Camb., Jan. 



W. coew, a lump ; cocos, cockles ; 
Arm. kok, holly-berry ; Ir. Gael. 
cochul, skull, nead, cowl, pod ; 
Sans, kucho, female breast ; kos*a 
=^koka, bucket, shell, pod 

W. hoffi, to delight in, to love ; hoff^ 

dear, fond ; Sans, chup, to move, 

to stir (?) 
Ir. cuirin-en, the water-lily, from cui- 

rxn, a small pot (the form of the 

flower) 

Britten says that churn is a name in North Lanca- 
shire for the Narcissus pseudo-narcissus, and in Oxford- 



1 The boys in Northamptonshire play at a game called cook-a-hall, 
which is the same as the W. chware-cwg (c^?^ar€=game, play). Prof. 
Skeat refers chuck to Fr. clioquer, to give a shock. This, however, does 
not mean to throw up, but to jostle. 



14 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

shire for the capsule of NupharLutea^ the yellow water- 
lily. {Eng. Plant-Names, E. D. S., p. 104.) This is, 
no doubt, the Northamptonshire churn. 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Clabhy, worm-eaten, applied to car- W. elaf^ sick, cormpt ; claffj scnnry ; 

rots (N.) Arm. klanv, Com. clqf, sick ; Ir. 

Gael, clamhj scurvy 
Clnyy hoof of a cow or sheep (L.); Ir. Gael, crag, paw, foot ; Manx, 

** corruption of claw" (Evans) craug, paw of a beast 

A later / often takes the place of an older r ; and gr, 
when lost, is often replaced by i. Cf. A.-S. clcBgy Eng. 
clay, Germ. klei. 

ClU, to cleave (unite) tightly (N.) S. ; W. clwt^ piece, clout ; clytioy to piece, 

A.-S. cltLt, clout. A Celtic word to pat<;h ; Com. clutj Ir. Qael. 

(Skeat, «. V.) dud, Manx, clooid, aclout 

Clock, the head of the dandelion W. clxoch (clooch), a round body ; 

(N.) ; " so named because children clogoren, a bubble ; Ir. Gael, clock, 

blow off the seeds to determine the pupil of the eye ; clog, bell, 

the hour"^ (B.) head ; Manx, ck^, bell 

Clough, a large, shallow, earthen pan 
(N.), S. ; a stock of a tree (Cumb.) 

Clout, a blow on the head (N.) Com. clout,W.clewtan, a blow; Arm. 

kaoud for klaoxid, an attack 
Clutter, to huddle together, to heap W. cluder, heap, pile ; cludeirio, to 

in a disorderly manner (L., N.) heap together 

Cob, to strike; a blow (N., L.) W. c<A, a blow ; cobio, to beat, tun- 

dere (Dav.) ; Hind, kob, beating, 
pounding 
Cobnut, A larffe nut (N.^ W. cob, tuft, head ; Arm. kah, head; 

Cobbles, small, round pieces of coal Ir. Gael. caob=coba, a lump ; co- 

or stone (N.) pan, boss, cup; Sans, kubja, hump- 

backed 
Cock, cogger, a striped snail-shell W. cocu;, a round lump ;coco<, cockles; 

(N.) cogwm, a round body, a shell ; 

Conger, a snail-shell, a cucumber Arm. kohes, cockles {Rev. Celt,, iv, 

(N.) 159^ ; Ir. Gael, cochul, shell, pot, 

Cock, the top of a rick (N.) S. husK ; Sans. »'ankha=kankha, a 

Cock-head, the common knop-weed shell 

(N.); Sw. koka, a clod of earth 
Cock-eyed, having a cast in one eye Ir. Gael, caog, to wink ; caogach, 

(N.) squint-eyed 

Cocker, to fondle or indulge children W. cocru, to fondle, indulge 

TN.), p. 96 ; Fr. coqueliner, to 

dandle, cocker, pamper (Cotg.) 
Cod, a pod (L.) W. cod, coden,^ pouch, bag, pod, 

^ The truth is exactly the contrary. The time is supposed to be indi- 
cated by the calyx of this plant because the real meaning of its name had 
been lost in course of time. 

^ Prof. Skeat thinks the W. cod may be borrowed, and refers to O. N. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



15 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

CM, coddUf to cover, to wrap up 
(N.), S.; the primary meaning 



Codger f a roagh, nncivilised old man 
(N.) 

CoggU, easily shaken or overturned 
(N.) 

Oole, a conical heap (N.), B.; Prov. 
Sw. hoU, upper part of the head^ 



CELTIC. 

bladder-husk ; Arm. k^y bag, 
pouch ; W. codiy to rise, swell up ; 
cwdduj to rise round, encompass ; 
cuddio^ Arm. kuza, to cover, to 
hide; Ir. acddy surrounding; Com. 
cudhe, to hide ; Sans, hat^ to cover, 

surround ; kuty to curve ; hUiy hoUiy 

a curve, house, tree, etc. 
O. W. cotty old ; cothy an old man ; 

Arm. kdzy old ; W. egr for eger^ Ir. 

Gael, gevy sharp, sour 
W. gogi for cogxy to shake, waver, 

tremble. Cf . Sans, kuchy to bend, 

curve 
W. M, a sharp hillock; Com. c6ly a 

pointed hill ; Ir. Gael, colly head; 

colanriy body, trunk 



Beans are mowed with a scythe, and after being 
turned over are put in coles in the fields, like hay. 
{Agric.Suro. jB., p. 119.) 



Collar, the fork of a tree where the 
branches spring out from the 
trunk. In bird's nesting a boy 
says, "1*11 Bwaum up the butt, 
and I shall soon be in the collar" 
(N.) 

CoUf/j a term of endearment for a 
cow (L.), a name for a cottager's 
cow. *' Goo and fetch the collies 
whoam" (N.) 

Colly-votiUm, When anything goes 
wrong, it is said, " It is all along 
o' Colly Weston'' (N.). In Lanca- 
shire it is CoUy-ioesty and means 
going on the wrong road, speeding 
at a loss. (See Arch, Camb.y Oct. 
1882, p. 255) 

Cb/<,a third migration of bees; they 
are then said to have colud (N.); 
Prov. Sw. kullGy to cut off hair, to 
dip wool 

Conger y a cucumber, a snail-shell (N.) 



W. cvolly separation ; cylluy to part, 
separate; cwlasy a compartment in 
a building 



Ir. Gael, colony a yoQug cow 



W. colly loss, and gwes (in comp. 
\oes)y motion ; gwesody departure, 
straying ; gtoesty gtoestUy to go about 



W. cyllu (hilly), to part, separate ; 
cwlly a separation ; Sans. krit= 
harty to cut, cut off, divide 

See Cock and Coger. The Sans. 
s'ankha^^cankha has retained the n 



koddly a pillow ; kotkriy scrotum ; and to Sw. kudde, a cushion. If the 
root-meaninff here is that of surrounding or enclosing, then the Sans. 
roots kai and kut show that these are borrowed words. 

^ Rietz, in his excellent Svensk Dialekt Lexicon, connects this word with 
Ir. (and Gaelic) coll, head. The Swedish word is certainly borrowed. Gf . 
Sans. kdUiy breast, haunch, wild boar, from htly to make a mass or heap. 



16 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Conygree, a name for a rabbit-warren Ir. coinin, a rabbit (lit. a little dog); 
(N. ), S.; UBually cony^aw coinicer, a rabbit-warren; cear, 

placing, putting; W. cwning-gear, 
rabbit-warren 

Coneykeare in Carlow, Conicar in Galway, Canigar 
in Limerick, and other places in Ireland, are so named 
from their rabbit-warrens. (See Joyce^s Irish Place- 
Names, i, 430. The Danish kanin, coney, is borrowed.) 

(Jookf to throw. ** See how that cat See Chock^ Chuck 

is cooking (tossing) that mouse 

about (N.) 
Coomb^ the hollow at the junction W. cwm, 0. W. curniby Arm. komb, 

of the main branches of the trunk hollow, valley 

of a tree (N.) ; A.-S. comb, a valley; 

a pure Celtic word 
Coop, to throw (N.). S. Perhaps from W. cobio, to strike. If 

• the word means to throw over, 
see Coup 
Cot, a fleece of wool matted toge- W. cotwm, dag wool ; Ir. catkin, shag, 

ther, refuse wool (N.), H.; Germ. coarse hair, blossom of osier 

kotze^ a shaggy coverlet 
Cotter, to plague, vex, annoy (L.) O. W. cothwy, Isadat {Rev, Celt., iv, 

339) ; W. coddi, to vex, afflict ; 
Com. cothys, grief 
Cottering, cotting. A person who sits The primary sense of cot has been 

close to the fire is said to be cot- accurately preserved in these 

ting it. If children creep close to words : W. cot, hut; cod, bag; Ir. 

their mother she will say " Don^t coit==cott', boat ; Sans, kota, hut, 

stand cottering round me so" (N.). fort, curvature ; r. kut, to curve, 

" Inclosing or securing", says Miss wind, be crooked; Sans, kuta, hut. 
Baker, '* appears to be the primi- fort, water-pot, etc. 
tive meaning of the word cot" 

From the idea of winding or circling comes that of 
surrounding or straitening ; nence W. codi, to straiten, 
to vex ; and the Celtic cota, coat, as that which sur- 
rounds or incloses the body. See Corf, Coddle, 

Coulch, to fall or slip without anv W. cwl, dropping, flagging ; ciclytij 
impetus, as the edge of a bank a dropper ; Arm. kouech for kou- 
(N.) elch, a fall, movement of a body 

that falls 
Coup, to tilt or tip (N.) W. cwympo, to throw down, to fall 

Cozie, snug, warm, comfortable (N.) Com. cospI^ soft, quiet; Ir. acs {coots), 

quiet, rest ; cysol, quiet ; cysur, 
comfort ; • Manx, cosfal, solace* 
comfort ; cosealaghy comfortable 

Jamieson {Scot. Diet.) has cosie, which he says is radi- 
cally the same as cosh, snug, quiet. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 1 7 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Cradle^ a framed, wooden fenoe for Ir. Gael, craidhal, creathally a cradle; 

a young tree (N.) cra/A, to shake, to rock ; Ir. crQd, 

a cradle (Richards) 

Crag, crog^ a large (jnantity (N.). W. crti^ for cro^, Com. cn*c, Ir. Gael. 

'* What a crog of things !*' (N.) cruach^ heap, pile 

Crain^ pile- wort, Ranunculus ficarta The Irish name of the plant is Grain 

(N.), B., (N.), S. aigem 

Cranky brisk, lively (N.); Du. hrank, Arm. kren, vigorous, impetuous; W. 

sick, iU (Skeat) crai for crainj fresh, vivid 

Cratch^ a hayrick (L.), M. Ir. Gael, cruach, heap, pile. See 

Crag 

CrateSy panniers used to carry tur- Ir. creathach, a hurdle; Ir. Gael, ch- 

nips (N.). They are made of a<A=cra^i, a hurdle; W.cZt^£?, id.; 

plaited rods Sans, krit, to twist, to spin 

Craw, the bosom (N.), S.; a shirt (?). W. crato, a covering ; W. Com. crys; 

Cf. craw-buckUSf shirt -buckles Arm. kres, a shirt 

(Beds.), H. Craw may mean 

bosom. Cf . W. cropa / fc. Gael. 

(^8)groban ; Manx, (8)cr6bane^ crop 

of a bird ; Du. Arop, id. 

Creach, the thin laminas of the lime- Ir. Gael, creach, rock ; W. crag^ a 

stone (N.), S.; loose rock (N.) hard coating, rock 

Creemy^ trembling, nervous (N.), S. W. cryn^ a shiver, trembling ; crynu; 

Arm. Arena, to tremble ; Manx, 
craynaghj trembling 

Greeny, small, diminutive (N.^, S.; Ir. Gael, crion^crina, withered, 

crinkUn, a small, early apple (N.), small ; W. crin^ id. ; erinell^ what 

S. is dried 

Crib, to obtain surreptitiously (N.) W. cribo, to comb, card ; used figu- 
ratively 

Crickj a sudden twist in the neck W. crych, a curling, wrinkling; cry- 

(N.) chyn, a curl 

Cricket, a small stool, footstool W. crug Tpron. crig), mound, tump; 

crugaiad, of a roundifih form 

CrtzzlCy to freeze (N.), S.; to crisp, Arm. kriz, wrinkle, fold; kriza, to 

grow hard or rough by heat or wrinkle ; W. crych, cricked, a 

cold (N.), L. ;^ Dan. kruge, to curl wrinkle ; crych, wrinkled, wavy ; 

crisp, a crisp coating or covering 

Crocks, earthenware (N.), L. ; A.-S. W. crochan, pot ; crtoc, pail ; Ir. cro- 

crocca; Du. AruiA;, Germ, krug, ^an,Gael.cro^, jar, pitcher; Manx, 

pot. " Probably originally Celtic" crocA»n,earthen pot; Sans, karaka, 

(Skeat) water-pot 

Croctts-men. At a yearly division of Ir. croic=>^croci, and in the nomina- 

land at Wirkworth a feast is pro- tive case crocis, a venison feast (?). 

vided by the hay warden. He and A round of beef now is the main 

the master of the feast are called dish, but formerly venison may 

Crocus-men, (Bridgets Hist, of have been offered 

IThamp,, i, 219; Brand, ii, 12, 13) 

(N.),8. 
Crow, the pig*s fat fried with the W. era, a round ; croen, skin, cover- 
liver (N.) ing 

^ In glass-making a plate is said to crizzle when it becomes rough, and 
loses its transparency ; its sur&ce is wrinkled. 

5th SSB., vol. XI. 2 



18 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

CniddUj to cnrdle, congeal (L.); 0. In crulA^^u^^, pressed milk,oiird; 
eruda, curds (L.) gor-anUh, lac pressom {Gotd,^ 76); 

Gael, gruih^ curds; Sans, knid^ to 
become thick 
Orudgey to crowd (N.) W. crxig^ heap, pile ; crugo^ to heap 

up 
Orummy^ plump, fleshy (N.); Germ. W. cnmnctch^ spherical, convex, a 
hrumm, crooked, bent rotundity ; erumi, round ; Arm. 

krauniy courb^ 
Crumpety a kind of light, round cake Com. crampoethen^ a pancake ; W. 
(N.) crempogerij a fritter ; Arm. kram- 

poeZy fine cake; W. crempog^ pan- 
cake, fritter 
Crunch, to crush with a noise, as a Manx, crancal^ to make a noise ; 
dog with a bone (L.). Prof. Skeat eranchy to grind with the teeth ; 
refers to Du. schrarueriy to eat Gael, cracany crackling ; Ir. erac, 
heartily to make a noise 

Cucky to throw (L.) See Cook 

Cuddy^ the hedge-creeper (N.) W. cuddaUy wood-pigeon ; ctMiOy to 

hide; Arm. kuza for kuda^ to hide, 
conceal 
Cuffy to remark upon, talk of (N.). Ir. Gael. cu&Aa«, a word; cahais, tat- 

**The appearance of Miss H. was tling; ca6, mouth ; Sans, kup, to 

cuffed over at the ball.** (N.) Sw. speak 

kufway to strike, oyerwhelm ; kuffa, 

verberibus inscdtare (Hire) 
Cullsy inferior cattle separated from W. cwlly separation ; eyllu^ to sepa- 

the rest (N.) rate 

Cushat, the stock-doYe, columba Is not cusceote Celtic? Cf. Com. 

oenas (N.) ; A.-S. cusceoUy the ctc«, wood, and W. ewt-iar (short 

ringdove bird), coot, water-rail. Cf. W. 

cwtyfiy a plover 
Cutchely to house or inclose comfort- Ir. Gael, cochody cope, cowl, pod, 

ably. **I think I have eutcheVd shell Tprim. meaning, incloeure); 

him nicely'*, said of a pig (L.) Sans. kus'=Jcuky to surround, in- 

close 
CutBy lots ; to draw cti/s, oast lots W. cwtwsy a lot ; Manx, kuht^ id. 

(N.) 
Dady daddy y a child's name for a Ir. G«el. daid==^^dadiy father; W. tody 

father (N.); Prov. Sw. dady father dady Com., Arm. tody id. ; Sans. 

tatay Hind. tat. father 
Z>a^2«, the hand (N.); Z>ad6, to hold Ir. Gael. doid=dadiy the hand. 

a child by the hand in teaching it O'Clery has doe (for dadi)y lamh 

to walk (N.) (hand) 

jDo^, to be bruised or decayed (N.); W. dai/y a singe, a blast ; deifioy to 

daffledy applied to fruit that is nip, to blast ; deifioly blasting 

bruised or decayed (N.) 
Daff a eharp, sudden pain' (N.), S. Ir. e/o^o, dagger; Arm. dagy id.; dagi, 

^ Probably compounded of W. crwm, round, and the old root retained 
in Sans, pachy to cook. 

' The primary meaning is a sharp point. Cf. dag-pricky a spade that 
ends in a point (East); dag^ a pick (Devon); the projecting stump, point, 
of a branch (Dorset). 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 1 9 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

to strike, to stab ; Ir. Gael, dealg 
=dalgtj thorn, pin, prickle 
Daglocks^ Uigloek»^ locks of wool W. tag^ a clogged state ; tc^g-lyM^ the 
matted together (N.) bind- weed ; Ir. €^ael. taghy to join 

closely, cement 
Dapsy a likeness. *^ The very daps Ir. Gael, dealbhy O. Ir. deUh:s>dalhiy 
of him*^ (N.), 8. form, image ; W. delw^^delh or 

delvy form, image, likeness 

Dalhi would become in the case-form dalbisy dalpiSy 
and by contraction daps. 

Dandy^ the hand (N.) See Doddle^ a nasalised form 

Dauber, a bnilder of walls with mnd Ir. Gael, ddb, water, mnd; v. to danb, 

mixed with straw (N.); daubing^ to plaster ; W. dtob, mortar, ce- 

wet and dirty (L.); O. Fr. dauber, ment ; diobiwr^ danber, plasterer; 

to plaster^ (Skeat) dwfr, water. Fntm de-albare, to 

whitewash (Skeat) 
Dawsey, sticlnr, as bread not suflfici- W. toes, dongh, paste ; toesaidd, like 

ently baked (N.), donghy . dongh, donghy 

Deck, to desert or break an engage- Arm. techi, to flee, desert, avoid, 

ment on some frivolons pretence. evade (fnir, s'eloigner, esqniver^; 

" I'll deck the joV^ (N.), S.; A.-S., W. iechu, to sknlk, prim, to evaae 

decan, to cover (?); Sans, tik, to go, move oneself 

Dipsy a slang word for money (N.); W. tip, particle, piece 

properly pieces of money 
Devilin, the swift, Hxrtmdo apus (L.) Ir. duibheall=dibhal, qnick, swift ; 

Ir. Gael, deifir, hajBte, speed ; W. 
diflin, unwearied, nnresting 
Dicky-bird, a child's name for any W. dicen, a hen, female of birds ; 

mudl bird (N.) perhaps nsed because the female 

IS generally the smaller bird 
Dids, breasts, properly nipples or W. did, diden, nipple, tetii; ^t^i,teat, 

paps (N.), S.; A.-S. tit, a teat also pap ; Manx, did, diddee, id. 

Dilly dally, to delay, loiter, linger Ir. data, Ir. Gael. daiUL^dali, delay, 

(N. and L.); O. N. cfioe/to, morari procrastination, respite; Manx, 

(Skeat); Eng. dwell daill, credit, trust, i.e,, a delay in 

payment 
Dock, the plant so called. Rumex ob- Gael, dogha, the burdock ; Ir. meacan' 

iusifolius (N.); A.-S. doeee (bor- <2o^^, the great conunon burdock; 

rowed). Gf . Gr. Ssvicot, a kind of meaean, tap-rooted plant' 

carrot 
Dock, to lower price or wages (L.) . W. tocio, to cttj^^l^rtail, dock 

Dollop, a lump or large piece (N. and W. talp, lump, large >4>ieoe, mass 

L.) 
Doney, the hedge-sparrow ^N.), some- From its colour; Ir. Gael, donn, W. 

times called dwmoek; A.-B. dun dwn, dun, dusky; connected with 

du, black 

' In Cotgrave and Roquefort, dauber means to beat, to cuff. 
> I BuspMt that the Celtic ^^Aa and Gr. Bavmt are connected with Sans. 
dogha, milking (Ved.), from the juiciness of their roots. 

• 2» 



20 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



ANOLOCELTIC. CELTIC. 

Dowdy ^ dark and dull in colour (N.) W. du^ black; dueler, blackness; du- 

aiddj blackish 

Dowle, the downy particles of a Ir. dul, a lock of hair or wool 

feather (N.) 

Dozey, nnsoond, as wood beginning Allied to dawsey^ q. v.; from W. toet, 

~ dongh; toesaidd, doughy, i.e., soft 



Ir. drah, spot, stain; drabach, dirty; 
Ir. Gael, drabog, a dirty, sluttish 
female; drabh, refuse 



to decay (N.). From doze, to slum 
ber, grow dull (Baker) 

Drab, a female dirty in person and 
slovenly in dress (N.) ; drabbled, 
dirtied- by walking in mud (N.); 
A.-S. drabbe, dregs, lees ; a bor- 
rowed word. See Skeat s. v. drab 

Dredgery, carefully, cautiously. " If W.rfryrf,carefulness, economy; dryd- 
you move her arm ever so dredgery, ol, careful, economical. We might 
it gives her pain" (L.) also have drydgar, careful 

Drudge, a female servant compelled Ir. drugaire, Gael, drugair, a slave, 



a drudge; Ir. Gael, dragh, trouble; 
Sans, dragh, to exert oneself, to 
be tired 
W. ttomp, a round mass or lump ; 
twmpan, a fat female ; twmpan, 
a bulky one ; Ir. iuimpe, a hump; 
in Gael, a turnip ; Ir. damba, a 
lump (O'Don.); Manx, torn, bump, 
swelling 

Prov. Sw. tamp, what is large and gross : a borrowed 
word, as the Lat. tum-ulu-s and Suns. tumra,h\g, strong, 
show. 



to do all sorts of laborious and 
dirty work slavisldy (N.) 

Dubby, blunt (N.) 

Dumpy, a thick, short person or 

thing (N.) 
Dumple, a dumpling (N.) 



Dubbing, a mixture of oil and tallow 

Duck' stone, a name given to a stone 

on which, in a game, other stones 

are placed (L.) 
Duds, rags, or clothes generally (N.) 
Dudman, a scarecrow (N.); Du. tod, 

a rag 
Eane, to bring forth, applied to an 

ewe (N,), S. ; A.-S. eanian, to bring 

forth a lamb 



See Dauber 

W. dwg for dwc, bearing, carrying 

Gael, dud, a rag ; dudach, ragged ; 
Ir. dad, piece, a trifle 

W. oen, a lamb; oena, to bring forth 
a lamb ; Arm. oan, Com. oin, Ir. 
Gael, uan, a lamb ; Manx, eayn, id. ; 
eayney, to bring forth a lamb 

Prof. Skeat says the only clear trace of eanian is in 
the expression, gre-ean6-eoii;a = the ewes great with 
young (Gen. xxxiii, 13). " There can be little doubt", 
he adds, " that ge-edne is here a contracted form of ge- 
edcne or ge-eaceiie .. .SLud edcen signifies pregnant. Hence 
the verb ge-eacnian^ to be pregnant (Luke i, 24), which 
would be contracted to ge-ednian (s. v. yean)" But the 
A.-S. eanian is evidently connected with the Manx 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 21 

eayney, W. oenay from eayn^ oen, a lamb. The ideas of 
pregnancy and birth are quite distinct. The W. o-en 
is compounded of o, Sans, avi, Lat. oviSy and en, a suifix 
of diminution. 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

£amestj money given to bind a bar- W. emeSf a pledge ; em, earnest 
gain or ratify a hiring (N.) money; Ir. Gael. eamas, tie, band; 

eamadh, payment ; Ir. arra for 
amaj a pledge; Sans. rtna=ar/ia, 
debt, obligation 
Eccles. ^* Building eccles in the air." I think this mnst be the O. W. ec- 
A singular phrase, equivalent to Itoys, church, from Lat. eccUsia^ 
building castles in the air (N.) though it is in the singular num- 

ber. Perhaps the Anglicised form, 
ecclfs-es would be rejected as diffi- 
cult to pronounce 
Eccle, eecle-hicholy the woodpecker W. Au;, asnap; Atcib, to snap; Atce//, 
(N.), S. Hickol is also used in a long-handled bill 
Herefordshire, and Jieccle in Glou- • 
cestershire 
Edgy, keen, eager, forward (L.) ; An interesting form of the Aryan 
sometimes (erroneously) hedgy ; root aA;, to be sharp, which is found 
A.-S. ecg^ edge; Dan. eg^ id. in W. eg-r, eager ; di-auc, slow; 

W. awch=^Qk, edge 
Eel-pout, the barbot, the name of a A hybrid form. W. pu3t, any short 
fish caught in the river Nen (N.), thing ; Sans, putt^ to be small ; 

^- p6tay the young of an animal 

Ester, the inside of the chimney (L.) ; Ir. Gael, as, to kindle a fire, to light 
generally astre or a«<tr=hearth up; txr, land, earth (Arch, Camb., 

Jan. 1884, p. 21) ; Manx, as, fire, 
and teer, land 
Evvem, untidy as regards appear- See Avem 

ance (N.), 8. 
Fad, whim, fancy, caprice (N.), L. Arm. fazi, mistake, error, wildness, 

disorder (^garement, erreur, aber- 
ration d'esprit); /ozia, errer, s'^ga- 
rer ; W. ffado, a trifle (see Arch. 
Camb,, Jan. 1884, p. 21). The 
Arm. z represents an older d 
Fadge,/odge, a loosely or half- filled W,ffasg, bundle, faggot ; Arm./<?«- 
pack-sheet or sack (N.). In the l^d, a sheaf ; Lat. fascis. The 
Korth fudge means a bundle root seems to be jT.fasg,W,gwa8g u, 

to press, press together, bind 

FadgCy to make a person believe a y^,ffug, feint, deception, guile; ffug- 

lie, to cram (L.); usually fudge, to; Cotu, f agio, io feign, delude; 

A.-S., fdcn, deceit ; Lat. fucus, a Arm. fouge, vanity, fanfaronade, 

dye, deceit, disguise rodomontade 

Fag, fog, long coarse grass (N.). Fog W. fficg, dry grass ; Manx, fog, af ter- 

18 the more usual form math 

Fagged out, a term applied to a gar- W. ffaig=fagi, extremity, turn, em- 
ment worn at the edge. "My barrassment; Arm./<?cA,overcorae. 
gown *s fagged ouV* (N.) " Fag, wearied out ; espocially used of 
the fringe at the end of a piece ot disputants 
cloth" (Ash) 



22 CELTIC £L£MEI^T IN THE DIALECTS 

The W. ffaig, Arm. fech, apparently meant, brought 
to an end, the end or extremity itself, and therefore 
worn out, defeated. The prim, meaning was probably 
circling or winding, and hence W. ffaig means a turn. 
C'f. Sans, vdk, to curve, wind ; vakra, winding, tortuous. 
The coui-se of ideas is then winding, turning, returning, 
ending ; and hence the ideas of embarrassment and 
being worn out. From the idea of circling we have Fr. 
fagot, a bundle of sticks fastened (encircled) by a cord. 

ANQLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Fantigue^ irritability, ili-hamonr Ir. GaeL /arm, weak ; iaoig, a fit of 

(N.); fatUeage^ fit of paasion, pet paaaion 

(L.) 

FantoddSf a slight indisposition, W. gwauzssvan, weak ; teilMy quali- 

bodily or mentol (L.), £. D. S.; ties, faculties ; taeth^dati^ essence 

fantoddy^ indisposition (L.) (P.) ; properly being, nature ; Sans. 

taiwa^ nature, being, reality 

Fantome, loose, fiabby, as the fiesh Ir. Gael. /annfor/an/, weak, feeble, 

of a sick child. Light, unproduc- infirm ; fantais, weakness, lan- 

tive com is said to be fantame, guishing ; W. gwan^ Arm. gwdn^ 

Vegetation is so called when it weak, feeble, poor; W. gtoantark^^ 

droops from heat and drought. vantan, fickle, variable ; Sans. 

Cattle that dwindle on change of vandc^ vandam^ maimed, crippled, 

pasture are/an<om« (N.) impotent" ' 

Feece^ convalescent, cheerful, active W. ffy9g^ quick, active ; Ir. Gael. 

(L.) ; A.-S. fu8^ ready, prompt, fui8^=fi8Uy active ; fiumichz^fiaaehy 

quick earnest 

Felly a holiday. A workman will 0. Ir. fil^ festival, holiday {Ir, Giy 

say he cannot catch a fell^ this 70); Ir. G«el. fiil, id. ; W. gwyl^ 

week when he cannot complete id.; Lat. vigilia 

his work within that time (N.), 

B. s. V. Catch (a fem 

Fell, to sew the insiae of a seam Ir. Gael, fill^ Manx, fiUey^ to turn, 

(X.); gen. to fold down and sew fold, plait; W. gujilij full of turns 

slightly or starts 

Fe2zle, a litter of pijgs (N.), to litter Ir. Gael. fe%9=^em)y a pig, swine ; 

as a sow ^L.}; prim, a verb with the Celtic verbal suffix -at 

Fiddling y trifling, loitering (N.) Generally piddling . See Piddle 

Fig, to fudge, to flatter (N.) W. ffug, pron. ffig. See Fadge 

File, a name for a shrewd, unscru- 'W.ffel=filaj cunning, subtle, wily; 

pulouB old man (N.) Ir. JUeoir, a crafty person 

Fimmak, to trifle, to loiter; spoken lT,feimk=fima, negligent, neglect- 

of servants who go idly about ful ; with the usual Celtic verbal 



^ This word shows that Christianity was established in Northampton- 
shire before the Saxon invasion, and therefore before St. Augustin began 
his mission here. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



23 



ANOLO-CELTIC. 

their work, not in good earnest 
(N.); 0. N./«m, pador, vereonn- 
dia; feimar^ pudet, pudere; Prov. 
8w. femma <^\ to canae nhame to 
oneself 
Fhi^ the rest-harrow, Anonis arven- 
m(N.) 



Flanmen^ flannel (L.) 

F%ack, a blow (N.) 

FUuhet^^ a circular or oval basket 
made of peeled osiers (N.), L. ; 
/facte (Holdemess) JUuUn (York- 
shire); G.Fr.^SaM^, flask, bottle; 
0. H. Qt. fiasco, 0. N./^A», id. 

FletcheBy green pods of peas (N.); 
O. N./tciba, Testis linea trita 

Flew, shallow, expansive. ''Tour 
bonnet sits very fiew'^', t.«., the 
poke is Yerj open and wide- 
spreading (N.) ; 0. N. fi4r, wide, 
open 

Flimpy a variation of limp, flaccid 
(L.) 

Flmhet, a long, narrow slip of land, 
whether arable or pasture (N.) 

Fl^, Knj poor, insipid liqnor (N.) 
Hi Bnttany flip is the name of a 
compound formed of brandy, ci- 
der, and sugar. So called, proba- 
bly, from its soft taste 

Flommaclang, loosely dressed in pal- 
try finery (N.); fiommacks for 
Jwmmack-eB, an ill-dressed, slat- 
ternly female ; one, for instance, 
with a broad-bordered cap fiilling 
loosely about her face (N.) 



CELTIC. 

fomutftive we have fimak, to be 
careless or negligent 



W.ffion=^finu, (1), crimson; (2), the 
foxglove. Applied to the rest- 
harrow from its rose -coloured 
blossoms 

An archaism. W. gwlanen^vlannen, 
id. 

Ir. Gael./a^, a blow 

W. fituged, a vessel made of straw 

or wickerwork, a basket; Ir. Ghiiel. 

fleaig=fia8kiy rod, wand ; prop. 

osier, a wreath niade of twisted 

rods ; fiasgan, a flask; Arm.,/2acA, 

a wand 
W. hl\9g, pods, husks; plisgyn, husk, 

shell; Com. blisg. Arm. plusk, id.; 

Ir. QBei.plao9gf pod, husk' 
W.fflauj spreading out ; ffi^eu, fluor, 

fluxus (Dav.) ; ffluw, a diverging, 

running out 



W. llipa, flaccid ; Uimp, smooth, 
sleek. Of. Fluellin from Llewelyn, 
flummery from llymru 

Celtic from its form; probably con- 
nected with W. ffrin^ ffringy the 
brow or edge of a cliff 

W. llipay flaccid, limp 



Flommack is certainly Celtic, from 
its verbal suflSx ; probably con- 
nected with Ir. Gael, blatnas, os- 
tentation. Cf., however, Arm. 
fiammiky petit-maitre, pretentieux 



> As many other words that belong to an early stage of civilisation, 
Jiask or Aasket is Celtic. The termination -et in nouns belongs to this 
class of languages, as in basket, bonnet, etc. ; and only by the Irish or Gaelic 
can the wotd^uket be explained. 

* Blisg does not seem very nearly related to fletch; but I do not know 
any German or Scandinavian word, of the same meaning, that is nearer 
in form. B in Celtic, as in Sanskrit, easily becomes /or v, and g repre- 
sents an older k. Thus we come to the form^i^it, which by a not uncom- 
mon change hecomeB fletch. HuUe and skida are respectively the German 
and Swedish names for our English pod. 



24 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

Fluffy KTLj downy partioles (N.), L. 
Flummery y fulsome flattery (N.) 
FlurrigigSf nseleas finery (N.) 

Fodgtj to make one believe a lie 

(L.) 
Fog^ coarse grass (L.) 

Footy^ small, insignificant (L.) 



Frem^ lusty, abundant, thriving. A 
person liberal in a bargain is a 
frem customer (N.) ; ^Wm, frem, 
lush, abundant (L.) ; frumy fine, 
handsome (N.), S. ; thick, rank, 
overgrown (West), H.; A.-8.y?'e- 
om, firm, strong 

Friddle^ to waste time in trifles (N.) 



Frow (pron. as snow), to pine, 

dwindle (N.) 
Frumpy to invent. " They^umpf up 

a fine story (N.) 



Frump^ a sour, disagreeable female 

(N.) 
Fryste^ new, smart (N.); Germ. 

fr\9ch^ fresh, new 
Fudgty lying nonsense (L.) 

Fullockj a violent rush ; to rush, 

knock, kick (L.) 
Fussock, a large, coarse woman (N.) ; 

formed, as W. hoglynog^ bossed, 

from boglwm, a boss 

Gab, a mouth, loquacity, idle talk 
(N.), L.; O. N. gabba, decipere, 
deludere (Hald.) ; to mock (Skeat) ; 
Prov. Sw. gabby derision, insult 



6Vi2;Z«r poles, slender rods placed out 
side the roofs of thatched build- 
ings to protect the thatch (N.). 
Gable here is not a fork, but a 
holdfast 

Gad. Cattle arc said to have got 



CELTIC. 

W. pluff feathers, plumage ; Lat. 
pluma 

W. llymrUy flummery ; used figura- 
tively 

W. fflur, a bright hue ; Arm. Jhur, 
lustre, brightness ; W. gwisg. Arm. 
gwisk, dress, clothing 

See Fadge 

See Fag 

Gwi.fudaidh, mean, vile, contempt- 
ible, trifling ; W. ffwtog, a short 
tail(?) 

W. ffrwm (froomjy luxuriant, rank, 
large ; Arm. frommy repletion, 
swelling (gonflement); /romma, to 
swell out 



W. ffritiafiy to trifle, waste time ; 
ffrityriy a little, flighty fellow ;ffrid, 
a sudden start ; Manx,/ry/, a fri- 
volous person ; Jrytiag, rag, shred 

W. ffraUf flowing, streaming 

Arm. /ramma tor frampa (?), to form 
or put together ; frammy assem- 
blage des grosses pieces de bois 
pour la construction des maisons 

W. fromy fuming, testy, touchy ; 
ffromyUy a testy person 

W.ffrosty pomp, ostentation; Manx, 
froashy pride 

See Fadge 

W. ffiill, haste, speed ; ffullio, to 
hasten 

W. bosty a swelling or rising up ; 
Arm. bo8j bosen, the plague, from 
its boils; Com, bostyfos, boasting; 
prim, swelling 

Ir. gaby mouth; gabaire, prater, tat- 
tler; Gael, goby beak, mouth; <fa- 
baivy gobaivy a prating, talkmg 
fellow ; Manx, goby caby mouth. 
Allied to Sans, gabha, a cleft, slit, 
opening 

Ir. Gael, gabhy to take, to hold ; W. 
gafaely a hold, grasp, fastening ; 
cafa^Jy to hold, enclose 



Ir. gadhy arrow, dart; Ir. Gael, gath^ 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTEK. 



25 



ANOLO>CELTIC. 

the gad when they run madlv 
about from being stung by a gad- 
fly (N. and L.) A.-S. gdd, point 
of a weapon, sting ; 0. N. gaddr^ 
claTUB (Hald.) 



CELTIC. 

a spear, javelin, sting ; Gael, gad, 
twig, withy ; Sans, gadu,^ spear, 
javelin 



The anlaut in Sans, gadu shows that gad and gaddr 
are borrowed words. 

Gofer, the master of a house, fore- Com. coth, goth, W. coth. Arm. coz, 

man of workmen (N. and L.). old, old man; Ir. Oael. /ear, man 
Usually it means an old man, a 
grand&ther ; golfer in WiltA 

A.-S. ge-fceder, god- father (Mahn), a corruption of gram- 
Jer, grandfather (Skeat). 

Gag^ to tighten so as to prevent W. ceg, mouth, throat ; cegio, to 
motion, as an over-tight gown (N.) choke (Skeat) 

{Galls, vacant places in a crop (L.), W. gal, a cleared spot; open, cleared 
i M. 
. iGally (pron. gauly), having the 

hair rubbed off ; applied ako to 

land having patches where the 

crop has not grown (L.) ; 0. N. 

galli, vitium, nisvus (mole on 

the skin) 

The change from long a to au is a Celtic usage (O'Don- 
ovan's /r. Gram., p. 10). 

Gamble, a butcher's staff (N.) Ir. Gael., W. cam, crooked, winding; 

Gambril, gambrel, a crooked or bent W. pren (in comp. bren), wood 
stick used by butchers (N. and 

Game-leg, a crooked leg 

In Ash's Dictionary the forms are cambrel and cambren. 



Garry-ho, loose, Improper language 
(N.); O. N. gari, violentia, sievi- 
ties : ho, clamor opiliouum ; only 
oar Eng. ho ! hoa ! 

GauU, the oubbling motion produced 
in a liquid by its rapid conversion 
into vapour, ebullicion (N.), S.; 
Germ. uxMen, A.-S. ^oeallany O. 
N. vellOf to' well or boil up 

Gauly, a blockhead (L.) 



W. gair=gari, Arm. ger, word, say- 
ing ; W. hoew, sprightly, volatile; 
Sans, gir, voice, word, speech 

Ir. Gael, gail, smoke, vapour, steam; 
gaileadh, evaporating ; goil, boil- 
ing, ebullition, vapour ; goilleadh, 
boiling ; Manx, gall (gait f), va- 
pour 

See Galls 



* I refer to Sanskrit here, as in other placen, to show that the Irish or 
Welsh word is not borrowed. 



26 C£LTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANOLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Gaunt y emaciated (L.); Norm, gand Ir. Gael, gafm, gandy scarce, scanty, 
^=^afUy a thin, pointed stick, a tall little : gantar^ scarcity ; Manx, 
and thin man (Skeat) goan, scarce, short 

GautUy^ luxuriant ; applied to trees Lr. Oael. gann==gantj strong, stout, 

tall and over-spreading (N.) thick 

Craury, exuberant, quidc-growing. W.^or, high, large, exoessiye; gene- 
Corn too exuberant in the blade rally used as a prefix, as in ^or- 
is said to be gaury (N.); 0. X. ticA, supremacy; Arm. ^oiir, super- 
goTTf plenius lative; gorrij dessus, la partie su- 

perieure ; gorrea, Clever 
Gaum, any vessel for lading out Ir. GaeL gann, a jug ; W. gwm, a 
liquid (L.), a small tub (M.) ; var. laige bowl ; Sana, ga^a, a drink- 
of gallon (L.) ing vessel 

Crcnofwy, a simpleton (L.) Ir. G&el. geoins=sgom, a fool, simple- 

ton 
Geason, sparing, scarce f N.) ; O. N. Ir. gainn, Gael, gaifean, a scanty 
gisirm, rarus, hiulcus (Hald.). It crop; Ir. Gael. gai9e, flaw,blemish; 
means open, gaping ; Prov. Sw. Gael. ^atjeociA, blasting, withering 
gima, to open from drought 
Gig, a winnowing fan (N.) Ir. gi^-rand (rafui=snimble}, a whirl- 

Giggling, goggling^ unsteady, easily igig; giog-ach (gig-ach), unsettled, 
shaken (N!) ; Fr. gigtie, a dance, moving to and fro ; giogairej an 
a jig; O. N^ 9^f^t tremere uneasy person; W. gogi, to shake; 

gogvoy, full of motion ; gogr, a 
sieve 
Gimlet-eye^ an eye with a squint The root is, I think, the Ir. Gael. 
(N.); 0. Fr. gimbeletf a gimlet giomh, a lock of hair, a curl, and ' 

the gimlet is so named from the 
twist or curl at its base ; Ir. gim- 
leid, a gimlet (borrowed ?) 
Gimmy, yery neat, spruce, nice in W. gwymp, neat, spruce, handsome 
person (N;). Gimp in Brockett's 
Gloss of N. Cknmtry Words. Prov. 
Sw. gimmelig, fair, beautiful, ap- 
plied to light Bietz refers to O. 
N. gim-steinnj jewel, and gimlir, 
splendour* 
Gimsoning, ingenious trifling, gim- See Gimmy, Arm. souna, to cut, to 

cracking (N.) form 

Gird, a twitch, a pang (N.) ; A.-S. W. gyrth, dash, hit, stroke ; gyrtkio^ 
geard, gyrd ; 0. H. G. gerte, rod, to hit, push, run against; arietare, 
wand pulsare (Dav.) ; gyr, drive, onset, 

thrust; Ir. Gael, gearr, to cut, 
hew, taunt; Manx, giarey, to cut, 
wound 
(rtotuif, hot gleams between showers W. glawdd (glaud), lustre, glow, 
(N.); Dan. f/ldde, a live coal ; Du. splendour 
gloed, glowmg heat, flame 

^ The 0. N. gim-steinn is, I think, from Lat. gemma (gem), and the prov. 
Sw. gimmelig is gem-like. The Eng. gimmy is for gimpy, and the W. 
gwymp, Ir.fiamh, hue, colour, are connected with Sans, vimha^ mirror, re- 
flected form, picture ; v'tmhxta, reflected, pictured, painted. The primary 
idea is bright, shining. 



OP NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 27 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Glover^ to flatter (L.) W. glaff amooth, glistening ; glqfr^ 

Glauver, flattery (N.); A.-B. gluvere, flattery ; glafru, to flatter 

a flatterer 

Gleeting, a place where the land ia To gleet is to make moist ; Arm. 

made moist by water that cannot fSz, dew (prim, liquid) ; W. gwUth^ 

e8cai>e (N.) ; gleitmg springs, id. ; Com. gulhy, to wash. The 

'* springs that have no free outlet, root is Sans, gal, to oose, distil ; 

render the earth hollow and fnzzy'* galita, liquified. Ct,W. gtolaw 

(Morton), N.; A.-S. glid. Low Sax. rain ; gwlyh, liquid, moist 

glett, slippery 

GUeve, a pole with serrated prongs, W. glaif^ a bill-hook ; falz (Dav.) 

used for catching eels (N.) ; Fr. 

glaive, a sword 

Crob, a small, mucilaginous lump W. gob, heap, mass; ebb, tuft 

(N.); Fr. gob. ''L'ayalla tout de 

gob *', at one gulp he swallowed it 

(Cotg.); gobeau, piece, morsel 

Goddk, to deceive (N.), S. W. godwyllo^ to deceive slightly (S.) 

6ro^, a bog (N.) W. gogi, to shake, quiver ; Ir. Gael. 

Goggy, bc^gy, swamoy (N.) gogach, wavering 

Gfoggling, unstead;^ (N.) 

Gogimrey a quagmire (N.) Cf. gw, 

gaig, to swing (Warw.), E. D. S., 

IV, 126 
Goggle-shells, large snail-shells (N.) Lr. Gael, cochal, husk, shell ; W. co- 
Goggles, id. (N.) cos, cockles ; cocw, round lump. 
Gog in goose-gog, gooseberry (L.) See Cock 

GomerUy a fool (L.) Ir. camar, a soft, foolish fellow; ca- 

maran, an idiot 

Gooefjers, an exclamation of wonder W. gygtor, a grim-looking person i 

and surprise (N.), S. Cf . Goocffer, gwgu, gygu, to lower (y^E. «) 

a term for the Devil (Dev.) 

** The gougeres (demons) shall devour them, flesh and fell (skin). 
Ere tiiey shall make us weep." 

Lear^ v, 2. 

Chnmd, the vulgar pronunciation of Ir. gunn for gund, gunnadh, a gown; 

sown (N.). Only an archaism. Gael. ^t^W.^ion, gown ;W.^i0nto, 

The word gound means what is to stitch, to sew; gynel, a close 

sewn ; an Mvance from the pri- gown ; Manx, goon, ^own ; Sans. 

mitive skin gora, sack ; guna, stnng, thread ; 

gundana, a covering 



Chwry, stupid, sullen (N.) ; O.N. Ir. ^ora<;A, foolish, stui)id; Gael. ^ur- 

gari, violentia, ssBvitas rack, a great, clownish fellow 

Gauiy, wet and boggy (N.), 8. W. gtost, moist, wet 



Gcwl, to open, enlarge, as when a W. €igavor, opening, breach ; agori^ to 
button-hole is worn out of shape ^P^^* break, expand, enlarge. Cf. 
(N.) W. achreth, trembling, ^=creth, id. 

Agoriy by a common process, would become agdlij and 
by a customary change gowL 



28 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

Grab, to seize, catch firm hold of 

(N.), L.; Sw. grabba, to seize. 

Must be borrowed by Grimm^s 

law 
Graves^ the sediment of chandlers' 

tallow (N.) 

Grewed^ adhered to the pot in boil- 
ing. **The milk tastes as if it 
were grewed\ a word of similar 
import with bwnd to (N.). It 
means simply burnt. Cf . groion, 
milk burnt in boiling (Line.) 

Griskiuy the short bones taken out 
of a flitch of bacon (N.). ** Gris- 
kiUy the back bones of a hog broiled 
on the coals, from the Ir. grisgin*^ 
(Ash*s Diet.) ; O. N. gris, a pig 

Groudlyy grumbling, discontented 
(L.) 

Grouse^ gravel (L.) 

GroxU^ mortar mixed with small 
stones, used for filling up inter- 
stices of walls 

GrudgeonSf a sort of bran (L.) 



Gubby, knotty, full of small protu- 
berances (N.) 

Gudg'w^ short and thick, as applied 
to the person' (N.) 

Gulsh^ ribaldry, tally talk (N.) 

Gurry, an inward rumbling of the 
bowels (L.). Cf. gyrry to purge 
(Lane.) 

Gyvesy sinews of the legs (N.). " Pos- 
sibly a metaphorical use of the 
word gives (sic), a fetter" (B.). It 
is the primitive meaning 



Ilaggy, rough and stiff. A haggy 
road. Haggy work for the horses 
(L.) Du. hakken, to chop, hew, 
cleave 

Halt, a command to a horse to go 
from the driver (N.). It means 
to go to the left hand 



CELTIC. 

Ir. Gael, grab, to stop, hindec; prim. 

to seize; gream, grip, hold; Sans. 

grah, grabh (Ved.),* to take, seize 

hold 
It is in the form of flakes. W. era/ 

laminsB; cra/en, a flake; Ir. Gael. 

sgreaby scab, crust 
Ir. Gael, greidh (dh silent), to bam ; 

gris, fire, heat; W. greiOy to scorch, 

to singe ; graid, heat 



Ir. grisgin, Gael. grisgeaUy roasted or 
broiled meat; gris, fire, heat 



W. grwythy a murmur ; grwytholy 

murmuring 
W. grOy coarse gravel, pebbles; Com. 

grow, gravel ; Arm. grozel, groan, 

gravel, coarse sand; W. grtU, grit, 

coarse sand 
W. rhiickion, husks, gurgions (P.); 

rhuch, film, husk (with prosthetic 

on ^ 

See Gob 

Ir. Gael, guga, a fat fellow ; gug, an 

©gg; gvgf^n, a bud 
W. golch, lye, urine; golchion, slops, 

dish-water 
W. gyr, drive, hurry, onset ; gyru, 

to drive 

W. gaw=gav, sinew, tendon ; giau, 
nerves; gefyn, a fetter; Corn. g6%- 
uen, nervu8(Z. 1102); Mod. Corn. 
geyen, a sinew ; Ir. Gael, geibhi- 
onn, fetters, bondage ; O. Ir. ge- 
miiiy compes {Gold,, 75). The root 
is Sans, gabh (W.gafael), to grasp, 
to hold 

W. hagr, ugly, rough, unseemly 



W. chwith, left, left-handed 



1 Whenever there is an accordance of Sanskrit and Celtic, the latter is 
invariably related to the older forms of Sanskrit. 

* Hence the Fr. goujon, Eng. gudgeon, the fish so called. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



29 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

^arry. a jeering exclamation. When 
a navigator (labourer) is over- 
laden, and cannot wheel his bar- 
row along, his fellow-workmen 
cry harry! harry! (N.). Fr. harau, 
hariy cri, clameur ponr implorer du 
secours; O. H. 6. haren^ to give a 
lond ontcry 

Haram, slovenly, untidy (N«) 



Hassock^ tuft of coarse grass grow- 
ing on wet lands (N., L.) 

ffaume^ to lounge about (L.). Of. 
haicming, forming inelegant atti- 
tudes (Line); curvetting (Leeds) 

JTaunty, playful without being vici- 
ous, applied to cattle (N.); 0. Sw. 
ant, andt, quickness, haste 

Hawk, a iKMud on which a plasterer 
or mason keeps his mortar (N.) 

Hazzle^ azzUj to dry slightly (L.); 
hazle^ to dry at top (Forby) 

Hike, to move suddenly or hastily 

(N.) ; to gore (L.) ; 0. N. hika, 

cedere, recedere 
Hingy^ said of beer that is at work 

or fermenting (N.); Du. hinken, to 

halt, go lame 

Hoek^ a shock of hair (L.); A.-S. 

sceacgOy brushy hair, branches of 

trees, rough, diaggy 
Hog, a year old sheep (L ) ; Norm. 

Fr. hogetz, young wether sheep 

(Kelham). Not a French word 

Hommockgy large feet and legs (N.); 

Du. homp, hump, heap The form 

in -oe is Celtic. Cf . houss, large, 

coarse feet (E.) 
Hoop, In the game of hide and seek 

the hidinff child cries hoop as a 

signal to begin the search (N.) 
Hoppety a smaU oval basket for the 

food of labourers (L.); Du. hoep, 

a hoop 
Horse- blob, the marsh-marigold (N.) 



CELTIC. 

W. haro, an interjection expressing 
contempt or a slight; Arm. harao, 
cri tumultueux pour se moquer 
de quelqu^un. Probably a later 
form of the Irish sar, contempt, 
disdain. Cf . Sans, hare, alas I 



W. garw, rough, coarse ; garwen, a 
rough female ; Ir. Gael, garbh, 
rough; Manx, garroo, rough, rug- 
ged 

W. hesg=ha8gi, rushes, sedge ; hesor 
for hesgor, a hassock (in churches) ; 
Ir. Gtiel. seasg, sedge 

W. camu, to curve, wind, bend, 
make a stride; Ir. Gael., W. cam, 
curved, winding 

W. haiDfUus, animated, brisk; hawnt, 
alacrity, eagerness 

W. hawg^^hawc, a box, scuttle, hod 

Ir. Gael, eur, to kindle a fire ; Manx, 
08, fire; Ir. adhair, fire; Sans, uah, 
to bum ; ushna, hot 

W. hicio, to snap, catch suddenly, to 
make a sudden jerk 

W. heini, briskness ; brisk, lively. 

Heini is probably for heinig, Ir. 

Gael, ing, a stir, a move, force ; 

Sans, ing, to move to and fro 
W. sioch, bushy hair 



Ir. Gael, og, young, a youth ; oige, 
a young woman; oigeach,ei young 
colt ; Manx, oigan, a. youth ; W. 
hogen, a young woman 

W. gomach, a shank or leg ; Ir. co8, 
foot, leg ; W. coes, leg 

W. hiffp, effort, try ; htop ! make an 
effort, try 

W. hob, a wooden vessel holding a 
peck in Glamorganshire; hob, hob- 
aid, modius (Dav.) 

I am inclined to think that hwse^ is 



* Cf. horse, a reed put into a barrel to draw off the liquor; W. corw7j, a 
reed. 



30 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 



HoBty the sheath of com (L.)* M. 

Housings (prop, housing)^ high lea- 
ther, horse-collars; formerly used 
as a cover (L.) 

Hottgin, a coverinff attached to a 
horse's collar (N.), 8. 



Hox, to fret, to harass. " She does 
hox me uncommon** (N.) 



CELTIC. 

here a mutation of the W. cars, 
marsh, hog ; Com. core, Arm. ibors, 
bog, bog-plant 
W. hwsan^ a covering; Arm. kos, 
enveloppe de certiuns legnmes; 
Sans, kos'a, covering, case, sheath 

A variation of hotmng (covering), 
nnless from W. hucn, thin cover, 
film ; hOg^ tnnic, cloaik ; hugyn^ a 
little cloak or covering 

W. hogi, to whet, to irritate ; Arm. 
hega, to irritate, provoke 



Hox shows that the verbal form in Northamptonshire 
was hooas. Cf. Lane, lammas, to run. 



W. hwff^ a lump ; hwfaii, a rising 
over ; hwfanu, to rise over; hu/en, 
cream, top of milk ; hujioy to man- 
tle, overtop 

SeeiJti6 

W. ufffty slight, scorn ; wfftio^ to cry 
shame, to upbraid 

Ir. Gkiel. guifu=gunij points, darts ; 
guinimj I wound, stmg, stab; gun- 
to, wounded ; guinne<iehy sharp- 
pointed. The last word points to 
a primitive gund or gunt, Cf . Sans. 
han for ghany to strike, wound 

Some forms of Sans, han are from ghariy and some 
from ghat. The prim, form was then ghant; hence 
ghund^ and by the Welsh verbal formative, tt=Eng. i, 
ghundy and hundy. 



Huhy nave of a wheel (N.) 
Hubby, lumpy, knotty (N.); Du. 

hompy hump; Prov. Sw. hop, heap, 

quantity 
Hufff to puff up, to swell (N.) 

ffuffy to scold, to tell any one of his 
faults in low, abusive language 

(N.) 
Hundy, to injure with the horns 
(N., S.); O. N. ^ufiii, battle 



Hurburr^ the burdock (L.) 



Hurehiii, hedgehog (N.); Lat. erUw- 
ceus, id. 

HurdSf tow (L.); gen. hardt, ex- 
plained by Halliwell as '* coarse 
flax, the refuse of flax or hemp*^ 

Inkling, a slight desire (N.); inkle, 
to long for, desire (Cleveland) 

Jabber, confused, idle talk (X.) 



W. hor in hor-en, a fat woman; 

hwrwg, a lump ; bdr, bunch, tuft; 

Ir. GaeL barr, head, bunch, knob, 

something large aud round 
Ir. uirchin (urchin), a pig ; Arm. 

heureuchin, a hedgehog 
W. earth, refuse, off -scouring, tow, 

oakum 

W. ainc, desire, craving ; aviditas, 
desiderium (Dav.), with the Celtic 
suffix -al 

See Gab 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 31 

AKOLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Jagg^ a large bundle of briars used W. gawch, heap, pile. Sawch is »» 

aa a **cl<3ding harrow" (L.) 9ag^ which becomes shag and j&g^ 

Jog^ a small cartload (N.); fS^n.jag shortened intoj'a^ 

Jannoek^ a buttress or support for a Gael, daitm^ a rampart (McAlpine), 

wall (N.) with -oc, the Celtic suffix of small- 

ness ; dij and sometimes da=^; 

GaeL diubhal^ pronounced juval ; 

or Ir. Gael, daingnsach^ a bulwark 
Jerhng^ fidgeting, romping (N.) W. terCj a jerk, a jolt; tereUf to jerk. 

Of. Manx, cheh, hot, for teah 

The same as gird, to strike, from A.-S. gyrdy a rod 
(Skeat). 

Jigling, jogling^ unsteady, easily See Gigling 

shaken TN.) 

Job, to thrust quickly a sharp- Ir. Gael, gob, a bird^s bill or beak ; 

pointed instrument into anything W. giop, id.; co6to, to strike 



(N.); to peck (N.) 
ill 



Jobbetf a sinall lotA (L.) W. gob, a heap, a pile. The termi- 

nation 'ei (in Welsh -aid) is a Cel- 
tic form 
Jonmeky Hberal, kind, hospitable. Ir. Gael, geanaeh^ pleasant, in a plea- 
** I went to see him, and he was sant humour, land 
quite yoftnicA;" TN.) 
Jorum, joram, a orimming dose of W. gorm, a plenum ; gor, great, ex- 

liquor (L.) treme, high 

Jowl^ to push, knock with force (N.) Manx, jo/^, thorn, prong ; coll, goll, 
Qt.joll^ the beak of a bird (Norf .); sharp point, stingr ; Ir. Gael, colg, 
to peck (Lane.) sting, prickle ; W., Com. col, a 

sharp point, sting, awn 

Jubt, the lower course of the great W. gob, lump, heap ; Ir. Gkiel. eaob, 

oolite (N.) ; ProY. 8w. kuhb^ a short a lump=^a5a or coba ; Manx, ceab, 

piece cut from the stock of a tree a lump ; Sans, kap-ala, head, skull 

Kabe$, chUblainB (N.);avar. of k\be» W. qibwa, commonly y gibi (cUn), a 

kibe, kibed heels (Rich.), cibwst, 
chilblains, from ctd, vessel, shell, 
husk (a round form), and gwst, a 
watery humour 
KaiUy, healey^ a term for red, stony O. W. caill, a stone; Arm. hell, testi- 
land(N.); ike(i2,8andorrocK(N.);^ de, prim, a stone (r. col, hard) ; 
Of. hail, to throw stones (Suff.); haU, halch, stone, testicle 
Fr. caUlou, flintostone, pebole 
Keehloeh, wild mustard (L.), H.; W. eecys, plants with hollow stems; 
heehi, hex, the dry stock of the in some places hemlock ; cegid, 
hemlock or other umbelliferous hemlock ; llye for llych, plant, 
plants; the plants themselves (N. herb 



and L.) ; Fr. oigue, hemlock, kex 
(Cotg.) 
Keel, ruddle for sheep (L., N.) Ir. Gkiel. cil, ruddle, red ochre 



' ** Whether they are pieces or shreds of the limestone, of the ragg, or 
of our ordinary sandstone, they have all the name of keale,*' (Morton.) 



32 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS, ETC. 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

Kell^ membrane covering the omen- 
tum of a slaughtered animal (N., 
L.). Sometimes caul 

Kelter, order, condition, good case 
(N.) 

Keys, the seed-vessels of the ash 
(N, L.) 

Kid, a bundle or fagot of dry thorns 
(N.) 

Kidnunckj kiddentmck. *^ If in a cap 
or bonnet the ribbon is oddly or 
irregularly placed, one part pro- 
jecting before another, it is said 
to stand up in hidnuncks'^ (N.) 

Kids, pods of beans and peas 

Kill, kihi (N.), S. 

Kimble^ to humble. *• He was very 

much kimhled** (N.) 
Kimple, to flinch from, to hesitate. 

'*Come, don't kimpU^ at your 

work" (N.^ 
Kimmel, kinwle, a washing tub (L.) 



Knacky to be more fortunate than 
another. If one boy has a piece 
of plum-cake, and another has 
none, he says, '* I knack you" (N.). 
Cf. Lancashire phrase, *'That 
beats me (surpasses me}'' 

Knoggings, small refuse stones used 
in masonry for the inside of a 
wall (N.) ; Germ, knocken, knot, 
bunch, a borrowed word (see 
Skeat, 8. V. knoll) 



CELTIC. 

Ir. Gael, ceal {cela), a covering ; W. 

celuy to cover, to hide ; caul, a 

calf s maw 
Ir. Gael, cail^c^tl, condition, state ; 

'dar as a suffix (in Welsh der) 

answers to Eng. -ness in goodnesH 
W. cae inclosure 

W. cedys, bundles of wood, fagots ; 

Sans, chiti, layer or pile of wood 
W. cyd, denoting union ; cnwc (knook), 

lump, knob 



W. cydyn, a little bag or pouch ; 

civdy cod, bag, pod, etc. 
W. cylyn, a kiln; cil, a recess 

Probably from W. camu, to curve, 
bend, wind. Cf . ceimwch (lobster), 
from cam; Eng. kim-kam, crook- 
edly 

W. cwman, a tub {cymanell, a little 

tub); Ir. cuman, a dish; Gael. cu- 

man, a milk-pail 
Ir. Gael, cnag for cnac, to beat, 

strike ; s., a knob, a knock ; W. 

cnocio, to beat, to rap (see Skeat, 

s. V. knock) 



W. cnwc, bunch, hump, lump ; Ir. 
Gael, cnag, a knob ; Arm. cnearh, 
hillock 



^ The word cam was primarily camb (camp), as the Sans, kamba (shell, 
ring) shows ; and camb or camp, with the Celtic verbal suffix -a/, would 
become camped, varied into kimple. 



(To be continued.) 



33 



NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES IN THE 

FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 

BT THE LATE 

SiK STEPHEN RICHARD GLYNNE, Babt. 
{Continued from Vol I,p, 272.) 



LLANDDERFEL (ST. DERFEL GADARN). 

June 22, 1865. 

A VERY nice church, superior both in proportions and 
in architectural character to the generality of Welsh 
churches. It is wholly of fair Perpendicular work, and 
perfectly uniform ; consists of a lofty, single body with- 
out architectural distinction of chancel, north and south 
porches, and over the west end a small open bell-cot. 
Tie interior is wide and lofty, and the original roof, 
unhappily, concealed by a ceiling. On each side are 
three similar three-light windows. The east window 
is of four lights, wide, and with rather flat arch. The 
windows have, externally, hoods on corbel-heads. There 
is a west doorway with arch and jamb-mouldings. The 
porches have doorways somewhat similar ; the northern, 
a Tudor age door. Between the nave and chancel is a 
Perpendicular wood screen, each compartment having 
foliated arches with enriched spfandrels. In the lower 

Sart are small circular openings arranged thus : o ^ o 
ome ancient bench-ends remain ; but the church is, 
for the most part, pewed. The reredos is composed of 
some ancient wood carving. At the west end is a fine 
ancient gallery with pierced paneling, and two vine- 
cornices well preserved ; all of Perpendicular work. 
The font is a plain, circular one with two projecting 
pieces of foliage near the upper surface. On the south 
of the altar is a kind of wooden sideboard or credence, 

of debased work, with this inscription | ^^ \ and some- 

5th KB., VOL. II. 3 



34 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

what varied ornaments. Near the west end is a rude 
wood figure of an animal like a stag, much mutilated, 
with a hollow in its back, in which it is said an image 
was inserted. In the east window is some stained glass 
with figures of a monkey and frog. The gdlery, now 
at the west end, seems to have once been the rood-lofb, 
and to have stood on the screen. 

LLANGAR (aLL SAINTS). 

22 June 1866. 

This church is now disused and neglected, being 
superseded by a new one at Cynwyd. It is a long, 
low, single building, having the usual Pointed bell-cot 
with an open arch over the west end, and a south 
porch ; the east window Perpendicular, of three lights 
with transom ; most of the other windows debased, 
square-headed, and small. The doorways are plain with 
obtuse heads. The font is a plain, deep, circular bowl.^ 
There is no west window. The situation is retired and 
beautiful, on sloping ground, near to the river Dee. 

LLANFOR (ST. MARY).* 

Jane 1867. 

A dreary church, much out of condition, consisting of 
a wide, awkward nave with undistinguished chancel ; 
a clumsy, debased chapel, built in 1550, on the north 
side of the east end ; a south porch ; and a western 
steeple of odd and unsightly character. The windows 
have mostly been modernised ; but some have Pointed 
arches. That at the east end is poor Perpendicular, of 
three lights, with transom exactly resembling that at 
Llanycil. The interior is gloomy and dismal, but was 
finely dressed with evergreens and texts for Whitsun- 
tide. There is a hideous west gallery, and some old 

^ Not nnlike in form to the onrions wooden font at Efenechtyd 
(5tli Series, vol. i, p. 171). 

' Rebuilt by Mr. B. Ferrer in 1874-5. Comprises ohancel, with 
north vestry, which is divided from the nave by the restored screen, 
and west tower. 



IN THE FOUK WELSH DIOCESES. 35 

pews, and some open benches. The boundary of the 
chancel is marked by a wood screen of plain character, 
with arched compartments ; and in the lower part 
appear some rude perforations, as also at Llandrillo. 
The north chapel is mean and debased, and clumsily 
tacked on. The floor is chiefly of slate. The font has 
a plain octagonal bowl. The porch is large, and has a 
Pointed door. A priest s door is closed. The roof is 
of rudp timbers covered with slate. The tower is a won- 
derful composition, very low, massive, and devoid of 
architectural feature, the east and west sides rising into 
stepped gables, with pack-saddle roof. It rises very 
little above the roof of the nave. 

LLANGOWER (sT. GEORGE).^ 

Sept. 8, 1866. 

A mean church in a romantic churchyard of uneven 
ground, near to Bala Lake. It is of the usual simple 
plan, without distinction of chancel, and has a small 
belfry, and a south porch with some timber framework. 
There is no architectural feature that has any decided 
ancient character, and the windows are modern and 
wretched. The walls may, perhaps, be old. The font 
is ancient, a cylindrical cup on a plinth. 

In the churchyard is a large yew on a mound of 
stones. 

LLANUWCHLLYN (ST. DEINIOL).* 

Jane ISth, 1867. 

This church has two parallel aisles. The walls are 
ancient ; but there is an entire deficiency of architectu- 
ral features, the windows being wretched modem ones, 
and the original arcade replaced by cast iron pillars 
supporting a flat cornice ; but the responds remain, 
which seem to be the original stone half-pillars. The 

^ Kenovated in 1871. In the chnrchyard, beneath the yew-tree, 
lies a decayed horse-bier (Elor Feirch), which was in common use 
hereabonts at the beginning of the present century. There is another 
preserved in the disused church of Llangelynin, near Towyn. 

s Rebuilt in 1S73. 

3> 



36 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

south aisle does not reach quite to the west end ; and 
there is a north porch, on which side is the public way. 
The walls are low ; and there is a little bell-gable at 
the west end, of modern work, for one belL The font 
has an octagonal bowl of plain character, on a short 
stem. The chancel occupies the east end of the northern 
aisle. The roofs are partially ceiled. The altar is in- 
decorously encroached upon. There are no closed pews, 
save one new one for Glanllyn, belonging to Sir Wat- 
kin. The others are plain modern benches with backs, 
on which are inscribed the names of people and places. 
The one feature which makes this church notable is a 
remarkably fine effigy of a knight lying in a recess in 
the north wall, with an imperfect inscription with let- 
ters oddly formed. The knight has his hands joined in 
prayer, a camail of chain-mail, and the armour sem6 
with roses. It is inscribed, 

''Hie jacet Johannes ap G ap Madoc ap lorwerth, 

Coins anime pr'etnr Dens. Amen. 

"Anno d'ni mccolxx." 

New pewed, 1820. 

LLANYCIL (ST. BEUNO).^ 

Sept. 7th, 1866. 

This church is in form like the last, but wider, with 
a small Welsh belfry. The windows all modern, except 
the eastern one, which is of three lights, and late Per- 
pendicular. Over the space forming the chancel, the 
roof is boarded. The font is modem. The church is 
pewed, but neat. The east window resembles that at 
Llanfor. 

1 Ghnroh restored in 1880. 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 37 



DEANERY OF POOL AND CAEEEINION. 



6ARTHBEIBI0 (ST. TYDBCHO). 

July 2l8t, 1809. 

A narrow church much resembling Llangadfem and 
Manafon, and, like them, considerably renovated. The 
walls seem to have been raised, and a new, high-pitched 
roof put on them, leaving a ridge-crest.^ The east win- 
dow is precisely the same as in the two churches named 
above. The windows in the south are square-headed, 
of one, two, and three lights, and seem all new. On 
the north there seem to have been no windows origin- 
ally. There is a new Pointed bell-cot* over the west 
end, with open arch. The font has a plain octagonal 
bowl. The situation is commanding, on a lofty, abrupt 
eminence. 

OUILSFIELD (all SAINTS). 

Sept. 16th, 1858. 

A large church, having nave with north and south 
aisles reaching along part of the chancel, a south porch 
and west tower. Externally, the work is late Perpen- 
dicular ; but there are indications, though doubtful, of 
earlier work within. The roofs are slated, and sloping 
in the aisles. The nave has a clerestory. All the win- 
dows, save the eastern one, including those of the clere- 
story, are square-headed, mostly of three lights, and 
foliated. The east window is late Perpendicular, of 
five lights, with transom, and the tracery appears to 
have been altered and mutilated. The nave is very 
wide, and there is no division between it and the chan- 
cel, which occupies the eastern bay ; and there are por- 
tions of the lower part of the rood-screen remaining. 
Also there are several old pews with wood-carving of 
the seventeenth century, and some screen-work that 

^ This was done in 1862, when the walls were partly rebuilt. 
' The new bell sounds O ; the old one sounded C ; that at Llan- 
erfy], A ; and the one at Llangadfan, B flat. 



38 K0TB8 ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

once enclosed a chapel at the east end of the south 
aiflle. But the area of the church is strangely encum- 
bered with the most irregular pews of all shapes, sizes, 
and height, — quite a curiosity in their way ; also gal- 
leries have been inserted, for which purpose the roofs 
of each aisle seem to have been raised, and large dor- 
mer windows inserted, which, though incongruous, look 
less ill externally than might be expected. The arcade 



OQ the north consists of four large Pointed arches with 
plain mouldings, tliere being a large brick and a wall- 
pier between the third and fourth arches, marking the 
chancel. The porch occupies one bay on the south, and 
is of rather irregular make. The capitals are moulded. 
The roofs are curious ; that of the nave is open, with 
quatrefoiled, paneled compartments in the beams, and 
ornamented spandrela. In the chancel the roof is flat- 
ter, and paneled, with bosses and moulded ribs. The 
bnicketb supporting the beams encroach on the clere- 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 39 

story windows. In the aisles also the timbers encroach 
on the arches. The font has a plain octagonal bowl, 
with lar^e heads on the alternate faces, on a square 
base. The porch is very large, and has had an upper 
story added ; also there is a building on its west side, 
added in 1739, to contain a hearse. The outer door- 
way of the porch is large and bold, on shafts, with im- 
posts ; and near the door, within, is a stoup. The 
tower has thick walls, and is open to the nave only by 
a small door, not in the centre. The tower is plain 
Perpendicular, with battlement and buttresses, and 
crowned by a slight, low, wooden spire. The belfry- 
windows are of two lights ; the other openings only 
slits, save an arched single window on the west. There 
19 some good old ironwork on the south door ; an organ 
in the west gallery. The interior much needs cleaning, 
and has at present the most absurd appearance.^ 

The churchyard is beautifully shaded with yew and 
other trees. In it is this inscription : 

" Under this yew tree, 
Buried would he be, 
For his father and he 
Planted this yew tree. 

'* Richard Jones, 1707." 

All the yew-trees were planted in the reign of William 
and Mary. 

HIRNANT (ST. ILLGO). 

July 20th, 1869. 

A small, narrow church arranged as usual ; not re- 
built, but thoroughly uninteresting, and devoid of 
character. There are no windows on the north ; the 
existing windows, south and east, are all modern and 

^ Onilsfield Chai*ch was restored in 1879, in an admirable manner, 
by Mr. G. E. Street, R.A. Internally, the pews and galleries were 
removed, a beautiful screen erected between the chancel and nave, 
and the whole furnished with handsome carved oak seats, and the 
floors of the chancel and the aisles laid with encaustic tiles ; the 
east window renovated, and a new one inserted at the east end of 
the south aisle ; and the removal of the brickwork between the third 
and fourth arches brought to light the steps to the old rood-loft. 
Externally, the quaint but picturesque line of dormers that lighted 
the south gallery have been removed. 



40 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

poor. The original roof is partially ceiled, but some of 
the old timbers are seen. The church is pewed, dirty, 
and dreary ; and a portion at the west end, parted off, 
is used for rubbish. 

LLANDRINIO (ST. TRINIO). 

A small church in a very large churchyard, consist- 
ing of a nave and chancel only, with traces of an aisle, 
now destroyed, to the north of the former. Over the 



west end is a small belfry. Within the south porch is 
a Norman doorway with impost mouldings and no 
ahaftfi. The chancel has no visible separation from the 
nave. The east window is Decorated, of three lights. 
On the north of the chancel is a very small obtuse lan- 
cet ; another window, on the south, is Perpendicular, 
and square-headed. There is a square recess on the 
north aide of the altar. Near the west end of the nave 
is part of a circular, column in the wall, which seems to 
have s\ipported an arch opening to an aisle. The font 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 41 

is Norman, of circular form, moulded with semicircular 
arches. The church is regularly but exclusively pewed 
in a moderD fashion. 

There are some fine yew-trees in the churchyard, and 
beautiful views of the Breidden Hills. 

LLANDYSILIO (ST. TYSILIO). 

This church is not very remarkable for beauty, and 
consists of a nave and chancel ; only the latter rather 
unusually long ; a south porch ; a low modem tower 
at the west end, having a pointed roof. The western 
portion of the nave has its roof of higher pitch than 
the remainder, and that of the chancel is still lower. 
On the south side of the nave is a large square-headed 
window of four lights, each cinquefoiled ; and some 
other windows are modem or mutilated. There is no 
chancel-arch. In the chancel is, on each side, a plain, 
sniall lancet ; on the south, one two-light Decorated 
window ; on the north, one Perpendicular one. The 
east window is modern in form, a triple lancet, filled 
with mediocre stained glass. On the south is a priest s 
door. The south porch is chiefly of wood, and appears 
to be of the sixteenth century. The pulpit and desk 
are placed in the chancel. The whole pewed in a regu- 
lar but exclusive fashion. The font appears to be Nor- 
man, octagonal in form, with a kind of scalloped orna- 
ment on each face, at the base, a moulded band.^ 

LLANERFYL (ST. ERFYL). 

Sept. 3, 1850. 

The church has a nave and undistinguished chancel, 
a south porch, and a wooden belfry over the west end. 
The windows are Third Pointed, at least those near the 

^ This church was taken down in 1867, and a new one, of the 
Decorated period, consecrated on Angnst 8, 1868. The plan con- 
sists of nave with north aisle, chancel with organ- chamber, and 
▼estry on the north side, a south porch, and at the west end of the 
north aisle a circular tower with an open arcaded belfry, surmounted 
by a stone steeple. 



42 NOTES. ON THE OLDER CHUBCHES 

east end, which are square-headed, of two lights, tre- 
foiled ; the eastern one, of three lights, has a depressed 
arch. The others have been modernised. On the south 
a large kind of dormer window has been added in the 
roof ; perhaps in the seventeenth century. At the east 
end of the church, near the south angle, is a rather ele- 
gant double niche of Third Pointed character. Each 
arch is cinquefoiled, and the whole surmounted by an 
embattled cornice with small pinnacles. The niche is 
very long. The central piece is detached. To the north 
of it is a square recess in the walL The font is an octa- 
gon with moulded rim, and with Tudor flowers below 
the bowl ; the stem also paneled. The porch is plain, 
the interior doorway having an obtuse arch.* 
In the churchyard is a fine yew-tree. 



LLANFAIR CAER EINION (ST. MARY). 

Sept. 23rd, 1858. 

A large church for Wales, but in bad repair, and in 
many respects much out of condition. • It consists of a 
nave and chancel undivided, a south porch, and western 
steeple. The latter is rather of a nondescript kind ; 
the lower part of stone, the upper of wood, of the 
pigeon-cot fashion, containing three bells and a clock. 
The porch is Elizabethan, and of timber. Within it is 
a really good Early English doorway, very uncommon 
in Wales, having two orders of good deep mouldings, 
and clustered shafts, having capitals of foliage with 
square abaci. The aisle does not extend quite to the 
west end, but entirely to the east end. The eastern 

Eart probably formed a private chapel. The division 
etween the nave and aisle is now formed by rude, up- 
right timbers, without anything like an arcade. Some 
windows are square-headed, of two lights, trefoUed, 

^ This churcli was taken down in 1870, and a new one bnilt in 
its stead, comprising chancel with north vestrj, nave divided off by 
a screen, south porch, and west bell-gable. Opened for divine ser- 
vice, Sept. 6, 1870. Architect, Mr. Edward Haycock. Cost, £1,600. 



IK THE FODR WELSH DIOCESES. 43 

but most are of the worst modem description. There 
are some faint truces of the rood-loft screen. There is 
some carved wainscoting, especially in a seat intended 



^'-^- 



for the churchwardens ; also a carved beam across the 
aisle. In the sill of a south window is the effigy said 
to be of a Prince Einion, with chain-armour and joined 



44 NOT£S ON THE OLDER CHUKGHES 

hands, but not cross-legged. There are two brass 
mural plates about 1712. There is a gallery at the 
west with the date 1 725. The font has an octagonal 
bowl, mutilated, on two steps, without a stem. The 
interior presents an extraordinary appearance of sloven- 
liness ; tne pews are a strange group, without order or 
symmetry ; and some parts are without pavement, open 
to the bare earth. ^ 

LLANPECHAIN (sT. QARMON). 

4 May 1865. 

A small church in a very large churchyard, consist- 
ing of a chancel and nave only, with a wooden belfry 
over the west end, and a south porch of wood frame- 
work, having good large boards with vine-leaf. The 
walls lean outwards, and there is no architectural dis- 
tinction of chancel. The church is rather mean both 
within and without. The east end is decidedly early 
Norman, and has three small windows, one above two, 
the former having a square head. All much splayed, 
and very narrow. There is also a square-headed, nar- 
row window on the north side of the chancel. On the 
south of* the chancel is a rude doorway of the same 
character, havmg a hood-moulding. There is a small 
piscina in the south wall, and in the east an irregular 
opening. The south window of the chancel is Perpen- 
dicular, of two lights. The other windows have been 
modernised. The roof of the nave has foliated span- 
drels, and some of the old beams may be seen ; but it 
is partially ceiled. The chancel is wholly so. There 
is a stoup near the south door. The altar is Jacobean, 

^ The church was taken down and rebuilt in 1868, with the ex- 
ception of the tower ; which, however, has also been taken down, 
and is now being rebuilt in character with the rest of the new 
chnrch, which nearly follows the groand-plan of the older one. The 
Early English doorway has been rebuilt stone for stone ; and the 
eflSgy, which bears an inscription on the belt, " Hie jacet Davit ap 
Gruff (Yych)an", an ancestor of the Bryn Glas family (see Mont- 
gameryshire CoUections^ xvii, p. 176), has been placed on the chancel 
floor, south side. 



IN THE FOUR W£LSH DIOCESES.' 45 

and has four legs, with Ionic capitals in very fair style, 
raised on an elevated platform. The pulpit is curious, 
bearing the date 1636, with this inscription, '*CcUhe- 
dram nahet in celts qui corda docet Fede My Flock. 
Ascendit oratio ut descendat gratia.^' Also several ini- 
tials ; and on the sounding board, " He that heareth 
you heareth Me, and he that despiseth you despiseth 
Me." There are some rude, old, open benches. On one 
pew the date 1649. There is a curious old coflFer, made 
of the solid trunk of a tree. The font has an octagonal 
bowl adorned with circles containing quatrefoils and 
roses, on a short, paneled stem, on two high steps. 

A school, according to Welsh custom, has been im- 
properly added at the west end. Two bells. ^ 



LLANGADVAN (ST. CADVAN). 

July 20th, 1869. 

This church is of the same shape as Garthbeibio, and 
has also been recently completely renovated, or almost 
rebuilt.* The east window resembles exactly that at 
Manafon ; the other windows, all now of two trefoiled 
lights, with hoods and corbel-heads, rather too large. 
A Pointed arch has been added, dividing the chancel. 
The seats open ; and a vestry added on the north ; also 
a belfry at the west end, which is not very successful ; 
but the church is neat, and in decorous state, though 
the destruction of the ancient features must be regret- 
ted. The sacrarium is somewhat ambitiously groined 
in wood. 

^ In 1859 a partial renovation was carried ont nnder the direction 
of Mr. B. Kyrke Penson, and in 1884 a thorough restoration nnder 
the care of Mr. Douglas of Chester. The old oak roof has been 
bronglit to light, and renewed, the chancel divided off from the 
nave by an effective screen, the whole seated with open carved oak 
benches, and the floors paved respectively with encaustic tiles and 
wooden blocks, the chancel windows filled with stained glass ; and 
the waUsy cleared of plaster, show the pointed joints. 

* Be-opened April 28rd, 1868. 



46 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 



LLANSANTFRAID (sT. BRIDGET). 

Sept. 16th, 1858. 

A plain church, consisting originally of a wide nave 
and chancel undivided, a south porch, and a wooden 
belfry with shingled spire over the west end. To this 
an ugly transept was added, on the north side, in 1 72 7- 
28. The church has been partially modernised, and 
has several bad windows ; but the east window may 
be Decorated, of three lights, without foils ; and north 
and south of the church are original windows of a 
single light, and trefoiled head. On the south of the 
chancel appears, in the wall, one half of a trefoiled 
double piscina with two orifices, deep and quatrefoiled, 
but cut by the erection of a new wall, which has square 
debased windows of four lights. This was the work of 
John Edwards, a.d. 1619,' which name and date are 
seen on one window. There are also dormer windows 
of wood, inserted in 1652, and carved pews with the 
dates 1624 and 1630. Of the same date is also, pro- 
bably, the porch of wood and plaster. The font is a 
circular cup, quite plain, probably early. The altar is 
small. There is a little modern stained glass, and a 
small organ.2 

LLANWDDYN (ST. WDDYN).' 

20 July 1869. 

This church, of the usual oblong form, without aisles 
or distinction of chancel, is more in its original state 
than its distant neighbours of Garthbeibio and Llan- 
gadfan. The roof has open timbers, constructed much 

^ Inscribed on a soatli window : 

*' Lnce meo snmptu fraitar domus ista, sed Ille 
Qai est Dominus Domini det mihi lace frai. 

"John Ewardea Anno Domini 1619." 

' The &bric was renovated in 1866, and a new organ erected in 
1884. 

' The chnroh having been an appropriation of the Knights Hos- 
pitallers of Halston, was dedicated by them to St. John the Baptist. 



IN THE POUR WELSH DIOCESES. 4/ 

as at Manafon. There are no windows on the north. 
The east window almost exactly resembles that at 
Garthbeibio. The remarkable feature here is the exist- 
ence of a large amount of ancient mural painting on 
the north wall, unluckily so much faded as to make it 
difficult to trace the subjects. There are two courses 
of painting, an upper and lower. One portion of the 
lower course seems to represent Our Lord and the 
twelve apostles. The west gallery has some good Per- 
pendicular wood carving with vine-leaves and grapes. 
The font is ancient, with octagonal bowl. There is the 
usual small arched bell-cot over the west end. 

In the churchyard lie buried Lewis Evans, est 116, 
and his wife, CBt 96. 



MEIFOD (ST. MARY). 

4 May 1855. 

A large church for Wales, and situated within a 
churchyard of immense size, but only partially used. 
The plan is a body with undistinguished chancel, with 
north and south aisles ; the former a modem addition 
to the original plan,^ the latter not reaching quite to 
the west ; a western tower. A vestry occupies tne west 
end of the north aisle, and is walled off. The east win- 
dow of the south aisle is Decorated, of three lights, 
reticulated ; and there is on the south aisle another 
Decorated one of two lights, not very good. The east 
window is Perpendicular, of three lights ; those of the 
north aisle moaem and meagre imitations. The modern 
arcade, north of the nave, is also most meagre, with 
four arches, and piers without capitals. There are two 
large and wide Pointed arches on the south side, divid- 
ing the eastern part of the body from the aisle ; rather 
flat in form, and with an octagonal column having a 
capital. To the west of these occurs a flat arched 
doorway in the wall, then a low arch without imposts. 

^ The north aisle, from heing a lean-to in 1837, was enlarged, 
under the care of Mr. Ferrey, in 1871. 



48 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES, ETC. 

The tower opens to the nave by a plain Pointed arch 
on large half-circular columns having moulded capitals. 
It has a stone vaulted roof, and is without buttresses ; 
has a battlement, square turret, a south-west Perpen- 
dicular belfry window of two lights, and west window 
square-headed. The lower part of the tower spreads 
outward, in Welsh fashion. There is a deep west gal- 
lery in which may be seen vine-leaf cornices. The font 
has an octagonal bowl, but so battered and mutilated 
that it is not possible to distinguish its character. 
Some initials upon it would, perhaps, mark it of the 
post-Reformation period. The south aisle is very wide. 
The interior neat and tidy, but pewed ; and the im- 
provements, suet as they are, carried into eflTect too 
soon to be good. There is a slab with a fine cross hav- 
ing the knotty and network-sculpture of the twelfth 
century, and above it. a representation of the cruci- 
fixion.'^ 

^ The cbnrch was well restored in 1871, the pews and gallery 
removed, and open seats introdnced, the wooden piers supporting 
the north arcade supplanted by stone columns, and a Norman 
arcade, corresponding to that in the south wall, near the tower, 
brought to light. The semicircular columns of the tower are formed 
out of the used up piers of the previous Norman arcade. 

(To he continued,) 



49 



OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, AND 

ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 

{Continued from Vol. i, p. 299.) 

In close proximity to the estate of which we have heen 
speaking (divided from it, indeed, only hy the park 
wall and the road to Cym y Bwch), nestling amongst 
evergreens, is situated a very curious and interesting 
house, though diminutive in size. It would he easy 
to pass by the Hayes without its attracting much 
attention, though it is surrounded with fine timber, 
and has in a field to the rear one of the largest, if not 
the largest, cedar in Shropshire. The house is cruci- 
form, and contains upon the ground-floor a vestibule, 
entrance-hall (from which the staircase rises), a dining- 
room with a bay window, and another small room. On 
the first floor are two bedrooms and the drawing-room, 
which is over the dining-room, and coincides with it in 
size. All the rooms are panelled with oak, and the 
staircase is of the same material. The fireplaces have 
been originally firedogs placed under a simple Tudor 
arch, but are unfortunately modernised. Over the one, 
in the drawing-room is some carving of an elaborate 
character but later date than the rest. 

The property now belongs to J. Jennings, Esq., hav- 
ing been left to him by a relative who purchased it 
from Scott- Waring, the representative of the Waring 
family, to whom it had belonged for some centuries. 
The present proprietor kindly gave the writer the fol- 
lowing particulars. The mantelpiece in the drawing- 
room bears the date 1656 ; and a board in the old 
staircase, taken down after the place was bought by 
Mr. Jennings' family, but before he himself owned it, 
bore the date 1618, and he tells the writer he is all. 
but certain bore initials indicating that a Waring was 
then the owner. 

5th «kr. vol. II. 4 



50 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

A descendant of Major Scott- Waring writes: "With 
regard to * The Hayes', I do not think my grandfather 
ever resided there. To be near Ince, his property in 
Cheshire, he rented TralSbrd HalL I always understood 
from my mother that the residence on the Ince pro- 
perty had been burnt down and never rebuilt." 

Ormerod says, in his History of Cheshire : " In 1724 
the lands of Ince, which had formerly belonged to the 
Dean and Chapter of Chester, were purchased from 
Charles Cholmondeley, Esq., of Vale Royal, by Sir 
George Wynne of Leeswood, Bart. Margaret, sole heir 
of Sir George, married Bichard Waring of the Inner 
Temple, and he dying s.p., bequeathed it to John Scott, 
Esq., the descendant of his aunt. The entire estate of 
Major John Scott- Waring in Ince contained 1,600 acres. 
He sold it to Robert reel and Edmund Yates for 
£80,000, but Yates bought up Peel's share for £50,000." 

For the descent of this family see pp. 51, 52. 

It may be noticed that Richard Waring of Wood- 
cote, etc., married Margery, daughter of John Hosier, 
and Elizabeth,, daughter of Richard Phillips, or, as an 
old MS. formerly in the library of Lord Berwick says. 
Cicely, with whom he had lands in Yockleton. This 
Richard Phillips was the son and heir of William Phil- 
lips of Meole, by Cicely, daughter of Thomas Clough of 
Minsterley, and himself married one of the Onslows, by 
whom he had four daughters, coheirs. 

Notwithstanding their English name, the family of 
Hosier were Welsh by descent. John Hosier of Wood- 
cote, the husband of Elizabeth (or Cicely) Phillips, was 
the son of Thomas by Alice, daughter of Thomas Trent- 
ham, the son of Edward, who first bore the cognomen 
of Hosier after settling in Shrewsbury, the son of Dei- 
cws ab Howel ab leuan, fourth son of Ednyved Gam, 

Previously mentioned, and so descended from Tudor 
revor. They amassed a large estate in the neighbour- 
hood of Shrewsbury, and at one time owned Berwick 
Park, which they sold to the Powis family. 

The family of Waring was much connected with law. 



51 




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OSWESTRY, AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES.. 53 

and Bichard Hill Waring was Recorder of Oswestry. 
He was also a great bptanist, and adorned his grounds 
at The Hayes with a great variety of scarce shruhs and 
plants. The Scotts, on the other hand, were for the 
most part military men, several of them being connected 
with India, while others of the family were known for 
their piety and munificence in restoring churches. 

Passing southward, along the rising ground, we come 
to High Lea, a modem house, but containing many 
objects of interest. We have already spoken of the 
alabaster slabs from Plas yn y Pentre. There is also 
here a casket of fifteenth century work, containing 
numerous secret drawers and other means for conceal- 
ing or securing papers and things of value. It is com- 
posed of wood nearly 2 inches thick, ornamented on the 
outside by brass-work. In the thickness of the wood 
are placed two screws by which it might be fastened 
down to any larger and less movable piece of furniture. 
The heads of these screws are within the casket, so 
that it would be impossible to get at them without 
opening the lid. It came from Selattyn, but its pre- 
vious history is unknown. Here also are some Kynas- 
ton portraits ; two in oval ii*ames, representing a lady 
and gentleman of the seventeenth century; and a 
third, a larger one, of a lady and child, anterior in date 
to the other two. 

The Kynastons were one of the chief families in Os- 
westry, and resided in a large house near the church, 
since made into two residences, one of which is now 
the Vicarage. They are legitimate descendants of the 
Princes of Powys, and became divided into many 
branches or families, as the subjoined pedigree shows 
(see pp. 54, 55). Those of whom we speak as seated at 
Oswestry were a junior branch of the Hardwick family, 
and were forefathers, in the female line, of some still 
living in or near the town, such as the families of 
Rogers and Kyffin-Salter. 

. It will be noticed that Judith, the senior co-heir of 
John Kynaston of Morton, married Sir Orlando Bridge- 



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56 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

man, the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, to which office 
he was appointed in 1667. Little has been said of 
this family previously to this date, but it must not 
thence be inferred that it was a new one, an inference 
too commonly made when a family rises into greater 
eminence than it had previously occupied. 

Sir Orlando Bridgeman was the son of John Bridge- 
man, Bishop of Chester, and was educated at Queen's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated in January 
1623. Having entered at the Inner Temple, he became 
deeply learned in the Common Law, and rose to the 
position of Chief Justice of the Common Pleaa. An 
insolent and turbulent party in the House of Commons, 
desirous of setting at nought the constitution, having 
caused the civil war of the seventeenth century, made 
the position of this eminent man one of considerable 
difficulty. He was chosen Member for Wigan in the 
Long Parliament, and took the king's side, from which 
he never wavered. 

Dr. John Bridgeman, Bishop of Chester, the father 
of the Lord Keeper, was of a Gloucestershire family, 
and married a daughter of Dr. Keylar, Archdeacon of 
Barnstaple ; but some confusion seems to exist beyond 
this point, one authority stating that the Bishop's father 
was Edward, High SheriflF of Devonshire in 1578, 
while Ormerod says that his father's name was Thomas. 
There is probably a confusion amongst the several 
membei's of the large family of his grandfather, William 
Bridgeman of Great Dean, co. Gloucester, who married 
firstly, Anne, daughter and coheir of John Woodward 
of Great Dean, by whom he had six sons, of whom 
Thomas was the eldest ; and secondly, Mary, daughter 
of Richard Brayn, of Little Dean, by whom he had 
seven more sons, of whom Edmond, or Edward, the 
eldest, died $. p. William Bridgeman was the son of 
John Bridgeman of Great Dean, co. Gloucester, by his 
first wife Alice, daughter of William Thesdore, his 
second wife being Joane, daughter to William Clarke 
of Great Dean, by whom he was father of Mary, wife 
of John Steventon. 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 57 

Priiice says that Dr. Bridgeman was bom in the city 
of Exeter, not far from the palace gates there, and was 
sent to Magdalen College, Uambridge, made rector of 
Wigan by James I, and consecrated Bishop of Chester 
9th May 1619. He died 1649, and was buried at 
Chester. Anthony Wood, on the other hand, says that 
the Bishop died in 1657-58 at his son's house at Morton, 
near Oswestry, and was buried at Kinnersley Church, 
near Morton, with this inscription : — " Hie jacet sepul- 
tus Johannes Bridgman Episcopus Cestriensis." The 
son here mentioned is, of course, Sir Orlando Bridge- 
man, who acquired Morton Hall and the estate there 
with his wife Judith Kynaston, as above. 

After the death of his first wife, the Lord Keeper 
married Dorothy, daughter of Dr. Saunders, Provost of 
Oriel College, Oxford, and left issue by both matches. 
He died at his villa at Teddington, 25tn June 1674. 

While speaking of the name of Bridgeman, we may 
mention tnat there was another John Bridgeman, 
Councillor of the Marches, apparently of quite a 
different descent, being son of Edward Bri^eman, 
1592, by Elizabeth, daughter and heir of William 
Charleton, son of William, son of William, son of 
William, son of John, son of Thomas of Suffolk, and to 
him very similar arms are attributed, viz., az. (or .sa.) 
ten bezants on a chief argent, a lion passant guardant 
ermines. Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Bridgeman, 
married Vincent, second son of Sir Richard Hussey and 
Mary Corbet his wife. 

The Bridgeman family were seated at Castle Brom- 
wich, near Birmingham, a fine old mansion, which they 
purchased from the Devereux family, and which is still 
in their possession. The match with Judith Kynaston 
was the first which connected them with Shropshire, 
though their influence there, and representation of the 
blood of its chief families, was subsequently greatly 
increased, so that at the present day they rank among 
the first. 

It will be remembered, that in moving southward 



58 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

along the rising ground to the west of the church we 
come again upon the place where the battle raged in 
Saxon times. The old yew-tree now in the garden of 
High Lea marks the spot where was deposited one of 
the relics of St. Oswald carried off by the eagle. That 
this is not simply a local tradition is shown in Pen- 
nant's History of Whiteford^ who, speaking of the 
streams in that parish, says: ''The largest independent 
rivulet is that which gushes from Ffynnon Oswald, or 
the Well of Oswald, in the township of Morton Ychlan. 
It takes its name from the Saxon monarch, martyr, and 
saint, Oswald, King of the Northumbrians, who was 
defeated and slain on October 5th, 642, near Oswestry, 
by the pagan Penda, Bang of the Mercians, who hung 
his limbs on stakes dispersed over the field, as trophies 
of his victory. Some qf the tradition reached our 
parish, for there is near to the Well a certain field called 
*Aelod Oswald^ or Oswald's Limb, as if one of them 
had found its way to this place. This stream divides 
the parish of Whiteford, for a certain way, from that 
of Holywell" 

Continuing southward we come to Broom Hall, for- 
merly the seat of Mr. Tozer Aubrey, now of Mr. Edward 
Williams. It is in no way remarkable, being situated 
on a wedge of land between two roads, one of which 
touches the outbuildings, while upon the other side is 
a lawn sloping down towards the drive to Llanvorda. 
This estate and that of Llwynymaen, which adjoins it, 
were one until the death of Richard Lloyd of Llanvorda 
and Llwynymaen, 8 Sept. 1508, who separated them, 
leaving that of Llanvorda to his elder son, John, and 
that of Llwynymaen to his second son, Edward. 

For the origin of the family of Lloyd of Llanvorda 
we must ascend to the sixth century, when Nudd the 
, Generous, son of Seisyllt ab Cedig ab Dyfnwal H6n ab 
Maxen Wledig, pastured his numerous flocks under the 
care of Llawvrodedd Varchog. From which we are no 
more to infer that the founder of the house was a 
simple herdsman under the sainted Prince than that 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 59 

Her present Majesty's Master of the Horse is a simple 
groom ; or that because St. Nudd was owner of 21,000 
milch cows, therefore he was a large provision mer- 
chant. Flocks and herds in those days represented 
wealth ; and the fact that this form of capital so con- 
stantly appears in our earliest histories points strongly 
to the fact that the original Britons were a peace 
loving nation, cultivating and improving their lands. 

Hedd Molwynog, the son of Greddv ab Tygynnydd 
ab LlawT ab Llawvrodedd Yarchog, a nobleman of Is- 
dulas, CO. Denbigh, and head of one of the Noble 
Tribes, bore, sable, a hart passant argent, attired or. He 
lived at Henllys, in the parish of Llanvair Talhaiam, 
and perhaps by a usage derived from the saintly lord 
of his forefathers, dispensed his alms to the poor in the 
Maes y Bendithion. Such peaceful occupation as look- 
ing after his lord's herds did not fall to the lot of Hedd 
Molwynog. His flocks were troops of brave Britons ; 
his lord was Davydd ab Owain Gwynedd, Prince of 
Wales, with whom he ravaged the country of the Eng- 
lish up to the walls of Coventry. Times had changed, 
and henceforth the descendants of Hedd Molwynog 
must defend their country and goods against maraud- 
ing invaders. We give his descendants, so far as illus- 
trates our history, taken principally from Harl. MS. 
1982 (see pp. 60, 61). 

It will be observed in this pedigree that Meuric 
Lloyd chanjged his arms from those borne by his ances- 
tors, — a very common practice with Welsh families 
settled in England. The reason of his migration is said 
to have been that in his own country, at Tir Meurig 
Uwyd, certain English lords had established them- 
selves, and so oppressed the ancient possessors of the 
land that they could not obtain right or justice. In- 
censed by such ill treatment, and burning with indig- 
nation, Meuric Lloyd, at the head of his brave tenantry, 
entered the place where the English judges were sit- 
ting, slew one of them as he sat upon the bench, and 
takmg prisoners many of the other officers of the court. 



60 



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62 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

hanged them upon oak trees in Uwch Dulas, as a wam- 
mg to the English to be more just in future. 

Such a course of conduct, however, brought upon 
him the vengeance of his enemies. His lands were 
seized, and himself pursued with such ardour that he 
was obliged to fly for protection to the sanctuary of 
Halston. Here, after a time, he managed to procure 
the protection of John Fitzalan, lord of Oswestry, and 
afterwards Earl of Arundel, who was desirous of his 
assistance as captain over a body of Welsh troops des- 
tined for the Continent. Having, with his compatriots, 
greatly succoured and assisted the Emperor of Ger- 
many, he was distinguished by that potentate by the 
grant of a new coat of arms founded upon those of the 
imperial line, namely, argent^ an eagle with two necks 
displayed sable. This coat is visible upon a handsome 
old timber mansion near the Cross in Oswestry, which 
was probably the residence of the junior branch of the 
house settled in that town. 

The Lloyds of Llanvorda sufiered deeply in the civil 
wars of the seventeenth century. In 1643 Colonel 
Lloyd headed a strong force at Oswestry on the part of 
the Bang. He died on the 13th of February 1662, and 
was buried in the Llanvorda vault in the chapel on the 
north of the chancel in Oswestry Church, having the 
following inscription : 

** Temporibus diris pietas legiqne Deoqne 
Immota hao terra jam translata jaoet." 

His lady, Frances, daughter of Sir Edward Trevor of 
Brynkinalt, Knt., died on the 15th of December 1661, 
and was buried in the same vault, with this inscription : 

" Who bore her sex with peril of her life, 
A loyal subject and a loving wife. 
Her Gk>d and King restored, her heart ran o'er ; 
More than brimful with joy, could hold no more." 

There are still extant letters of their son Edward, 
who pitiably deplores the difficulties in which he found 
himself, oppressed by debt, and forced to sell his estates 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 63 

at a sum which he considered not equal to their value. 
He calls Sir William Williams^ to whom he was obliged 
finally to sell them^ the ** Leviathan of our lands". The 
purchase took place about 1680, and so ended the con- 
nection of the Lloyds with Llanvorda. It will be 
noticed that they were connected with many families 
in the neighbourhood of Shrewsbury. 

The foUowing, taken from Harl. MS. 1977^ shows 
that the Trevors also were connected with Oswestry : 

Davydd ab Ednyfed Gkun. See before 
=F€Nreiihwyfar» d. to Adda Gtoch of Tren 

Edward=T=A]igharad, d. of Robert Paleston, 06. 1452 

Robert Bichard John Trevor of Edward Sosse 

«. j>. =pAenes, d. to Meredydd Biynkinalt, =pthe Lady Tiptofte, 
Lloyd of Lloydymaine o&. 1493, co. Wo 

8 Henry VII 

V Otwenrp. I. 



CO. Worcester 



Bobert, Esqnire of the Edward Trevor, Constable of Oswestry, ob. 1534 
Body to Edward VI, ^^1, Jane, d. and ooh. of Bichard Westbory. At., 
f . p,l, J a chev. inter three trefoils slipped or 
I =T=2,'Gwennyver, d. to Tudor Lloyd of Yale 

I i I 

Sir Edward John of Oswee- | | I 

ofSelattyn try, oft. 1541 Alls Blanche JohnofSelattyn 

V Bichard 

Thomaa 
Morts. 

The Llanvorda estate passed, as above related, by 
purchase to the family of Williams, in which it still 
continues ; but the old mansion was destroyed by fire, 
and a substantial modem house erected in its place, 
prettily situated upon hi^h ground, backed by woods, 
and overlooking the valley of the Morda, a stream 
which runs below. The estate of Llwynymaen adjoins 
Llanvorda, and is connected with Penylan. 

The rise of the family of Williams to their position 
among the first landed proprietors of the Principality 
was rapid but continuous ; and though they obtained 
the Llanvorda estate by purchase, far the greater bulk 
of their property has come through alliances with the 
heirs of ancient British lines ; consequently they repre- 



64 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

sent not only the wealth but also the blood of many of 
those illustrious houses ; and are themselves of ancient 
lineage, deducing their descent from Cadrod Hardd 
(who was also father of Cilmin Droed ddu), lord of Tal- 
ybolion in the tenth century. 

Sir William Williams, SpeaJker of the Honse of Commons, oh. 11 July 

1700 ; created a Baronet in 1688 
=f=Margaret« d. and heir of Walkin Eyffin of Glascoed^ boried at Llansillin, 

10 Jan. 1705, aged 110 



T 



Sir William Williams, M.P., of Llanvorda, by purchase, oh. Oct. 1740 
=j=l, Jane, d. and h. of Edward Thelwall of Plas y Ward, co. Denbigh, by 
Sydney, d. and h of William, son of Sir John Wynn of Qwydir. 
See above. Marriage settlements dated 1686 
=2, Catherine, d. of Matton Davies of Gwysanney, f . p. 



Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, bom Robert Richard Williams of Penbedw, 
1692 : killed by a faU oat WiUiams M.P. for Flint, oh. 1759 

hunting, 26 Sept. 1749 of Erbistock, =f=3, Annabella, d.^d h. of 

=1, Anne, d. and con. of Edward ». p. 
Yaughan of Llwydiarth, «. p., ob. 1748 



Chas. Lloyd of Trenewydd 



=f^2, Frances, d. and h. of George | | 

I Shackerley of Gwersyllt Annabella, ooh. Jane, ooh. 

I =R. Philip Puleston c=Bobert Lloyd of 

Sir Watkin WUUams.Wynn, of PickhiU SwanhiU 

oh, July 1789 V V 

=1, Lady Henrietta Somerset, fifth d. of Charles, foorth Duke of Beaufort, 

f . p. 

=i=2, Charlotte, d. of George Grenville, and sister of the Marquis of Bucking- 
I ham 

Sir Watkin WilUams- Wynn, bom 26 Oct. 1772 

=Lady Henrietta Antonia Clive, eldest d. of Edward Earl of Powis 

(To he continued,) 



65 



ON THE ANCIENT TENURES AND SERVICES 
OF THE LANDS OF THE BISHOPS 

OF ST. DAVID'S. 

An endeavour' will be made in the following pages to 
give an account of the ancient tenures and customs 
which once prevailed, as incident to the lands held of 
the Bishops of St. David's, so far as the scanty materials 
available for the purpose will allow. The subject is an 
interesting one, and deserves to be rescued from the 
oblivion into which it has fallen. 

Conquest, and the consecration of a Norman as 
Bishop, in the person of Bishop Bernard, introduced 
the English language, manners, and customs into the 
Pembrokeshire portion of the diocese, and with suc- 
ceeding Bishops, tenures, which gradually superseded 
whatever was Welsh ; but elsewhere — especially in the 
greater part of Cardiganshire and in Carmarthenshire — 
the laws and customs of the Principality of Wales con- 
tinued to prevail as late as the reign of Henry VIII. 

The destruction of books and MSS. in the library of 
St. David's Cathedral during the great civil war, and 
carelessness and neglect at a later period, have greatly 
reduced the means of information as to the early history 
of the see. Extracts from an old Roll of the more 
interesting presentments of the Jury at a Court held 
in 1326, during the episcopate of Bishop David 
Martyn, by the Chancellor of the diocese, have been 
fortunately preserved. From these extracts, and the 
report of the Commissioners in the Valor Ecdesicisticiis 
of Henry VIII, we gain the following information as 
to the tenures prevalent in the diocese, and the 
services and customs which were attached to them. 
We will commence with a translation of the extracts 
referred to : — 

Oth ssk., yol. II. 6 



66 ANCIENT TENURES AND SERVICES 

" The Jurors^ also say that it is the duty of the 
burgesses of St. David's to guard the fugitives to the 
church for one night at their risk ; also in war time to 
follow the Lord Bishop with the shrine of the blessed 
David and with the relics, wherever it may be, so that 
they can return home on that night ; also in war time 
to guard their own town and its circuit, as one of the 
services of the burgesses of St. David's. 

" And the said tenants of the vill of Porthlysky shall 
give as le)rrwit, if a virgin, 2^., and if unchaste, 20d., 
and their duty is to guard the prisoners in the Lord's 

faol, and conduct tibem to Lawhaden and Castle 
[aurice, and to follow them with the horn to the 
gallows. 

"The Jurors also say that the easements of the 
stone and wooden buUdings there are worth yearly 35., 
according to the true value, and the hagard* there is 
worth, to let, 6d., as part of the profits of Castle 
Poyntz and Newgall (Nova vUla) ; also that the ease- 
ments of the houses of the same manor are worth 
yearly 2s. ; and if there be a wreck, it is their duty to 
follow with the horn and guard the goods there with 
others of the country ; and all hold (their lands) by 
ancient tenures by the services of the vill Damar, which 
are similar to the sei'vices of Castle Maurice ; it is their 
duty also to follow the constable to the sea shore, and 
to guard the goods coming there from a wreck of the 
sea ; and they say that the constable shall have of the 
goods of any one condemned, 5s. 



^ The title of the Boll from which the extracts were made 
" Extenta terramm et reditnnm Domini Episcopi Menevensis &cta 
per Magistrnm David Fraunceys Cancellarium Menevensem tem- 
pore venerabilis patris Domini David Marty n D. O. Episcopi loci. 
A.D. 1326." (James MS., Bodl. Library, viii, p. 839.) The extracts, 
printed in the Appendix to Fen ton's Pembrokeshire, have been ex- 
amined with the original, and omissions and corrections have been 
supplied and made. 

2 A " hagard" may, perhaps, have been a building of wattle-work. 
Spelman, in his Glossary, has " haga, domns", and says it was bnilt 
of interlaced branches, as was the custom in Ireland. 



OP LANDS OP THE BISHOPS OP ST. DAVID's. 6 7 

*' Also they say that Adam, armiger, gives to the 
lord for his protection 2d. at Easter and Michaelmas ; 
also Avelyn gives to the lord for the same 3d, at the 
same terms ; Annot Foreyn, 2d. ; David Walter, 3d. ; 
and he removes this year to Wolfcastle ; also Belinda 
Loyd gives for having the protection of the town 6d. 
yearly ; also Simon Nikelyn gives for the same Ad. ; 
also Alice of Ked welly in New Moat (Nova Mota).^ 

" Also they say that a certain Bishop of St. David's, 
by name David,* formerly gave, as they have heard 
from their elders and others worthy of credit, seven 
carucates of land with his daughter, and the land is 
called Drym, and had been formerly land of the fee, 
or lordship, of the Lord Bishop in the vill of Lawhaden ; 
and in war-time they ought to guard the country ; and 
if the Bishop, in war time, should pass through his 
bishopric, they ought to follow him with the relics of 
the blessed David, as far as the town of Carmarthen. 

" And all the aforesaid shall further give for each 
acre Id. ; and the. heir of any one after a death, what- 
ever be his age, may enter on his inheritance as if of 
full age, without any wardship ; and in war they shall 
do their service as the said freemen, and shall give on 
the collection' of sheep in every third year, on the 
Ealend of May, of every house one ; ana if there be 
any robbers, or pillagers, in the land of the Lord 
Bishop, all of Welsh tenure are bound to find at their 
own cnarges the officers who guard the country victuals 
and drink, when needed ; and to conduct the prisoners 
from the Court to the Castle, and from the Uastle to 
the Court, and if they be condemned at the lord's suit, 
with horn raised in the Welsh Court to hang them. 
If prosecuted at another's suit, they shall do the same 
in the district of Lawhaden ; and for leyrwit, if the 
woman be married out of the parish, 2s. ; and if she 
be married within it, they shall give nothing. And 

^ One of the Bishop's manors in Pembrokeshire. 
' Probably David Fitzgerald, consecrated in 1147, died in 1176. 
' A cnsiom prevalent in Sonth Wales, often styled *' Calanmai*** 

6« 



68 ANCIENT TENURES AND SERVICES 

all the aforesaid shall give heriot and leyrwit, and do all 
services as the tillers of the soil {coloni) of Lantesey.^ 

*^ And all the free tenants in Cardiganshire ought to 
pay toll of things and animals bought and sold in the 
country of Llandewy Brevy ; and the catchpoll of the 
town shall, on the steward's coining, find firing, salt, 
and candles, at his own expense, and shall take the 
charge of nrisoners in the town of Llandewi Brevi ; 
and they shall give for leyrwit, whether in the case of 
marriage, fornication, or adultery, 2^. in the vill of 
Atpar. 

'' And all matters of difficulty and doubtful trials 
ought to be determined in the High Court of Lawhaden, 
and there they are bound to come ; and the steward of 
the Lord Bishop, on his first entry, shall have the 
collection of sheep ; and the constable shall receive as 
bis fee, on each livery of seisin, 5s. ^ and of the goods 
of any one convicted, 5^., and the bedell, as accustomed, 
shall have 5d. of tiie flour of every damaged cask 
{vase cUtaminato) as it may be found ; and if the cask 
be full, he shall have nothing. In the same manner of 
flesh, cheese, grain, and in grain in the straw (hlado) 
the inner' stalks (garhas) of the sheaves of eveir kind 
of grain ; and, if anyone dies intestate, the lora shall 
have all his movable goods, and if a person so dying 
intestate be tenant of any freeman, and the lord first 
take possession of the goods, the lord's bailiff may have 
the goods so taken without claim ; and if he comes 
later, he shall lose them, and they shall be confirmed 
to the superior lord in Meydrim."' 

A lapse of two centuries effected many changes in 
the original tenures and the services incident to them. 
Many of the old customs were replaced by new ones, 
and the variety of tenures was increased. 

The report of the Commissioners, 27 Henry VIII, in 
the Ecclesiastical Valor ^ furnishes an account of the 

^ Lampbey. 

* " Interiores" probably was in the original ** inferiores". 

' In Carmarthenshire. 



OK LANDS OF TBE BISHOPS OF ST. DAVID's. 69 

possessions of the see, and of the tenures and services 
which then existed. The temporal possessions of the 
Bishop comprised the Castle and Manor of Lawhaden, 
as an entire Barony, the town of St. David^s, the lord- 
ships of Pewidiawk, D3rffryn Towy and Dyffryn Teifi, 
the Manor of Lamphey, several mesne manors in the 
counties of Pembroke, Carmarthen, and Cardigan, and 
the Palace — then in ruins — by the side of the Cathedral 
Church. 

Throughout his territory the Bishop enjoyed jura 
regalia^ and exercised all the privileges of a lord of 
the Welsh Marches ; he had his prison for all felonies 
and transgi^essions, and for clerks convicted or attainted ; 
and in his castle of Lawhaden, the head of his Barony, 
his Treasury and Chancery, with his seal for all ori^nal 
writs and their execution by his Chancellor througaout 
his territory ; a monthly Sessions held before his chief 
steward at Lawhaden, a hundred court, and several 
other courts. Some of the tenants within his Barony 
held their lands of the Bishop by knight service, ana 
as their lord he was entitled to tne feudal incidents of 
wardship, marriage, and relief; other tenants held by 
charter, others in gavel kind, a tenure which prevailed 
very largely in Kent, and still exists there. In gavel 
kind tenure all the sons of a deceased tenant shared in 
the inheritance alike ; a tenant, on attaining the a^e of 
fifteen, could seU and convey his land acquired by 
descent, without his lord's licence, and without pay- 
ment of a fine ; his land did not escheat in case of his 
attainder for felony, and was forfeited only for treason 
and by outlawry for felony ; he had the further privi- 
lege of devising his land by will, prior to the enabling 
statute of Henry VIII. The gavel kind tenants of 
St. David's were liable to a relief only at the rate of 
1 05. for every carucate of land, and so in proportion for 
any greater or less quantity, whether the heir was 
under age or of full age. Other tenants held their 
lands by the more unusual tenure known as Borough 
^English, the inheritance in such tenure descending. 



70 ANCIENT TENURES AND SERVICES 

according to custom, to the youngest son, and were 
liable to pay to the lord one years double rent, as a 
relief. Other tenants held by the tenure of the Welsh 
hundred of St. David's, and were called Tudwaldi* ; 
their duty was to serve, according to the custom, with 
their ploughs, or carts, in the necessary works of the 
lordship in buildings, repairs, and the like ; on the 
death of anyone a neriot of 5s. was due to the lord. 
Other tenants held their lands by the rod, and paid a 
fine for their seisin on admission to their lands ; also 
a heriot, relief, and mortuary, as each happened to fall 
due, and did the accustomed services of the manor in 
which their land was situate. 

The remaining tenants held by mere Welsh tenure, 
according to the laws of Howel Dda, which the Com- 
missioners condemned in strong terms as the most 
imperfect of laws, unwritten, without order, and con- 
ducive to strife ; a tenure which the statutes or regula- 
tions made at Bhuddlan in 12 Edward I had so far 
modified as to confine the descent of the inheritance to 
all the sons equally, exclusive of illegitimate sons,^ and, 
in default of male heirs, extend the descent to legiti- 
mate women, heirs of the last successor, whose shares 
were to be assigned to them in the King's Court, 
although it was contrary to the laws before used in 
Wales. A Court of Great Sessions was held every 
third year for the Welsh tenants before the Justices 
appointed by the Bishop. The fees of the Courts so 
held in the lordships of Llandewi Brevi, Abergwilley, 
Dyfiryn Towy and Dyffryn Teivi, were valued at £24. 
The Bishop's tenants were liable, in addition, every 

1 The Rev. Canon Thomas saggests, as the possible derivation of 
this term, '* Tad", a tribe, with the land which they occupied, and 
*' Ghwaelod", one of the four ancient *' cylchs" or divisions of the 
parish. 

^ Qiraldas enumerates three things as the ruin of the Welsh of 
his day, — the division of the inheritance between natural and legi- 
timate sons, hence frequent fratricides ; the practice of sending their 
sons to be brought up by others ; and their refusal to be governed 
by one prince. 



OP LANDS OP THE BISHOPS OP ST. DAVID's. 71 

third year, to a collection, called Cymortha ; from every 
EngUsh carucate a sheep of the value of 12d., or that 
sum in money ; and of every tenant or inhabitant of 
Welsh land a cow, or ten sheep, or 2$. in money. The 
value of the collection amounted to £74, payable as 
a composition for the collection on Michaelmas Day. 
The Bishop was also entitled, on the death of any 
tenant, or his alienation of his land, to the tenant's 
beasts if he remamed within the Bishop's territory, 
or, if elsewhere, 5^. 

The tenements {mansioties) of Welsh tenants were 
divisible on a descent into shares, called Gwelie, or 
beds,^ and from each bed a family descended con- 
tinuously in the bed of its ancestor ; an apportionment 
of the rate, or assessment for the collection and the 
taUiage of the Sessions, payable in money, for the enjoy- 
ment of their liberties, laws and customs, was made on 
each bed, and so the Commissioners report that a bad 
law, no freedom, and a perverse custom do a public 
wrong. 

The evils arising from the division of an inheritance 
among all the sons were removed by the • Statute 27 
Henry VIII, c. 26 ; which declared that all manors, 
lands, and hereditaments within the Principality of 
Wales should be inheritable after the English tenure, 
without division or partition, and after the laws of 
England, and not after any Welsh tenure, nor after 
the form of any Welsh laws or customs. 

K. W. B. 

^ " Wele" or " gwele** are frequently mentioned in the North 
Wales Extents in the Record of Caernarvon. Mnch interesting in- 
formation on this subject may be obtained in Bowlands' Antiquitatea 
Parochiales (1710), published in the First Series of the ArchcBologia 
Camhrensis, He appropriately renders *' wele" as '* stocks", and 
traces, in some cases, the descent from a stock. As early as Ed- | 

ward III there were seyeral '^ wele" from the same stock in a town- j 

ship, of which two or more persons named, and others their coheirs, I 

cUumed the possession. 



72 



AN OLD PICTURE OF THE DOLMEN 
AT PENTRE EVAN. 

In 1796 Fenton printed "A History of Pembrokeshire 
by George Owen, Esq., of Henllys", in the second volume 
of the Cambrian Register^ from MSS, in his possession. 
Can any member of the Cambrian Archseological Asso- 
ciation say what has become of that document ? 

In the Harleian Collection in the British Museum 
there is a manuscript history of Pe^nbrokeshire by 
George Owen, in the characteristic Elizabethan hand- 
writing, on paper with the "Tankard'* water-mark; 
but this, in several important particulars, differs from 
Fenton's edition. Chapter 7 in the British Museum 
MS. is wanting in Fenton's, while chapter 8 becomes 
1 9 in the latter. Perhaps the most interesting feature 
in the Harleian MS. is a very careful description of the 
great Pentre Evan Dolmen as it appeared at the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth century, to which is appended 
a sort of plan-drawing. 

Thinking that our members might like to compare 
this with what they saw during our Fish^ard Meeting 
in 1883, 1 made a copy of the same. A drawing of the 
Dolmen as it now is wUl be found in our Journal, Series 
V, vol. i, p. 137. 

Ed. Laws. 

"A sheweth the great stone mounted on highe upon othere 
stones, being 3 foote thick, 9 foote broode, and 18 foote longe. 

"B and C, two stones that holdeth uppe the greater and 
thicker end of the great stone towards the southe. 

'' D showeth the stone that holdeth the thinner end of the 
stone towards the north. 

'^ E, a stone underneathe the thicker end of the great st(»i€, 
A, placed between B and C, but shorter, and toucheth not the 
great stona 

" F and 6, two stones sett circular wise, adjoining unto C. 

" H and I, two other stones sett on the other side, in like sort 
next the stone B. 



n 



THE CRYSTAL PEBBLE AT RHIWAEBOG. 73 

"All which seaven stones, via., B, C, E, F, G, H, and I, doe 
stand ciicularwise, like in forme to the new moone, under the 
south ende of the greate stone A. 

" K and L^ two stones sett on end, upright, under the western 
side of the greate stone A, but toucheth not the same ; but K 
somewhat removed outwarde by the fall of the great part, 0, 
which broke from the greate stone A. 

" M and N, two stones placed on ende, upright, under the 
easter side of the greate stone A, to con&ont K and L on the 
other side ; but N is now fallen down, and lyeth flatte upon the 
grounde. 

" O, a piece of the greate stone A, broken of, and fallen from 
the wester side of the same sithence the erectinge thereof, as 
may apeare, and beinge of seaven foote long, and five foote 
broode, and half a yarde thicke. 

" Gromlech signAeth ' cavema petrarum'. (Esai 7, v. 19.) 
" Finis. 18 May 1603." 



THE CKYSTAL PEBBLE AT KHIWAEDOG. 

The illustration on p. 313, 5th Series, voL i, is not a 
very correct representation of the stone at Rhiwaedog. 
During the visit of the Cambrian Archaeological Associ- 
ation to the old mansion last August I had an opportu- 
nity of examining and carefully measuring the object. 
The following few lines, therefore, on the form, size, 
and possible material of the pebble may be of interest. 

As regards form, the stone is not a perfect sphere as 
illustrated. It is distinctly ovate. The narrower dia- 
meter, too, is considerably less one way than the other 
when measured on two planes at right angles with each 
other. In size, the largest diameter of the Ehiwaedog 
stone is one-tenth of an inch less than the engraving ; 
the narrowest diameter, three-tenths less than shown, 
— a considerable item in so small an object. 

The stone is described as a " precious heirloom" of 
" pure rock-crystal". This may be so ; but it is possibly 
a mere block of rolled, transparent quartz. It may have 



74 OBITUARY. 

been a local crystal originally, or a lump of " vein- 
quartz", which is frequently more dear than ordinary 
quartz-rock. Such stones are found at Aberystwith 
and other places. I have one exactly half the diameter 
of the Ehiwaedog example. The Welsh specimen has 
the appearance of a naturally rolled pebble polished by 
a lapioary. It has not to me the appearance of an arti- 
ficially produced spheroid of rock-crystal. 

Not the slightest evidence is given in the paper that 
the pebble ever belonged to Owen Gwynedd, who died 
in 1169. Does the tradition extend back further than 
the Misses lies, who died in 1832 and 1825? The 
globular ball in the British Museum, once termed "Dr, 
Dee's Touchstone", with which the Rhiwaedog stone 
may be compared, is artificially shaped, and, as it now 
appears, never belonged to Dr. Dee. 

WORTHINGTON G. SmITH. 



®&ttttars. 

Mr. Ghables Allen. 

Among the recent losses sustained by the Association few will be 
more regretted than that of Mr, Charles Allen. It will be felt espe- 
cially hj all classes of his friends and neighTwurs at Tenby, for the 
promotion of whose welfare and enjoyment he had cheerfully ex- 
erted himself for nearly thirty years. Those who attended the 
Pembroke Meeting of the Association in 1880 will not have forgot- 
ten his kind and cordial hospitality. 

It is not known how long his family has been settled in Pern* 
brokeshire. The first of his name who appears on the roll of sheriffs 
is William Allen of Gelliswick, who was Sheriff of Pembrokeshire 
in 1696, and from whom Charles Allen of Tenby, who filled the 
office in 1876, was sixth in lineal descent. He was the fifth of the 
sis sons of the Rev. D. Bird Allen, who died Rector of Burton in 
Roose, December 81st, 1831. The eldest son, Joshua Jullian, who 
succeeded to scattered properties in Roose and Dewisland, died at 
Bath, in his eighty -sixth year, on January 2nd, 1885. The second 
son, William, died Rector of St. Bride's and Bosherston, both in 
Pembrokeshire, April 9th, 1872. The third son, James, formerly 



OBITUARY. 75 

Vicar of CastiemaiiiDy became Dean of St. David's in 1878. The 
fourth son. Bird, to whose memory a monnment was erected by 
public subscription in the south aisle of the chancel of Tenby 
Church, died in command of H.M.S. Soudan, October 25th, 1841, 
at Fernando Po, on his return, with Captains W. Allen and Trotter, 
from a disastrous ascent of the river Niger. The sixth and youngest 
son, John, is Archdeacon of Salop. 

The fifth son, Charles, the subject of this notice, entered the Ben- 
gal Civil Service in 1827, and retired from it early in 1857, a few 
weeks before the mutiny broke out, being at the time a member of 
the Legislative Council of India. He settled immediately afterwards 
at Tenby, where he built the goodly residence in the Norton, in 
which he died, November 5th, 1884. By his first wife, Mary, who 
was his second cousin, and the youngest sister of Thomas Allen, 
Barrister-at-Law, and formerly the Treasurer of our Association, he 
left six sons, five of whom hold Government appointments in China, 
India, or Burmah, while the fourth is Vicar of Shirbum, Oxford- 
shire. 

Mb. Askew Roberts. 

Mr. Aakew Roberts, the 'Editor of Bye-Oones^ died on Wednesday, 
Deo. 10th, at his residence, Croeswylan, Oswestry, at the age of 
fifty-eight. Mr. Roberts, who owed his Christian name to descent 
from the fiunily of Anne Askew, the martyr, was bom at Oswestry, 
and there the whole of his life, with the exception of two or three 
years in early manhood, was passed. In 1848 he was one of the con- 
tributors to Oswald* 8 Wellj a local magazine, for which Mr. Shirley 
Brooks wrote a serial story ; but the magazine was succeeded in 
1849 by the Oswestry AdverineVy and to the conduct of that paper 
Mr. Roberts devoted all his energies for the next twenty years. After 
selling the copyright and retiring from business, Mr. Roberts kept 
up his connection with the Advertizer^ by occasional contributions, 
until 1871, when he began the publication of an antiquarian column 
called Bye-'OoneSy which was republished in quarterly parts, and 
continned by him with unflagging vigour up to the week of his 
death. 

Bye-Ckmesy we believe, was the first column of the kind published 
by the weekly press, at any rate in this part of the kingdom, and it 
soon became so successful that many well known antiquaries and 
philolog^ts were numbered among the contributors. One of the 
most constant of these was the late Mr. W. W. £. Wynne of Pen- 
iarth, with whose assistance, in 1878, Mr. Roberts brought out a 
fresh edition of the History of the Qwydir Family. But it was in 
collecting materials for the history of bis native town that he took 
the greatest delight. In 1881 he published a volume of Contribu' 
turns to Oswestry Historyy collected from the Transactions of the 
Shropshire ArchflBological Society, to which he was a frequent con- 
tributor ; and the last paper from his pen, revised by him in Novem- 
ber, when he was weakened by prolonged illness, was an interesting 



76 MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 

aoconnt of the gateways of the town, which will appear in the Pkrt 
of those Transactions published next Febmarj. It was, however, as 
the writer of the Gossiping Guide to Wales, of which over 50,000 copies 
have been sold, that Mr. Roberts was most widely known ; and in 
passiDg one of the many editions through the press he had the ad- 
vantage of assistance from the late Mr. Wynne and the late Rev. 
R. Williams, by both of whom the book was carefully revised. 
Mr. Roberts also wrote an account of the Wynnstay family, under 
the title of Wynnstay and the Wynns, and was a contributor to the 
Papers of the Powysland Club and other antiquarian publications. 
He was one of the first members of the Shropshire Archseological 
Society, and was elected upon the Council ; and he also belonged to 
our own Association, where he found many valued friends. They 
now lament the loss of a writer who did much to illustrate the his- 
tory of the Border and to popularise antiquarian pursuits, and a 
bright and genial comrade who was always ready to help, and who 
found much of the pleasure of his life in giving pleasure to others. 



Miscellaneous itotices. 

Edward II's Retbeat into GLAMOBaANSHiBS. — The accompanying 
letter was written, to judge from the signature, by Mr. Isaac Red- 
wood of Gae Wem, near Neath, a former member of our Asso- 
ciation , and appeared in Notes and Q^Aeries for December 27th, 
1856. A brief extract from Mr. H. Hay Knight's paper is given 
in our Journal, Series II, vol. i, p. 818, noting the king's presence 
at Caerphilly, on Oct. 29th and 80th, 1826, and his capture in trying 
to regain the Castle on Sunday the 16th of November following ; 
but as the letter is so much more full, and has not, we believe, 
appeared before in the Journal, we are glad to present it to the 
notice of our members. — Edd. 

' In the first volume of The Lives of the Lord OhaneeUors and 
Keepers of the Great Seal of England, by Lord Campbell, there are 
errors of some importance, which should be rectified in the new 
edition now preparmg for publication. These errors are contained 
in the following extracts from, the work,^ and relate to some of the 
last events in the life of Edward II. 

' '' On the 20th of October 1826, the King having gone away 
with Hugh le Despencer to Ireland and left the realm without any 
government, the prelates, earls, barons, and knights assembled at 
Bristol and chose Edward, the Eling's son, Custos of the kingdom 
whilst his father continued absent. On the same day the Prince 
assumed the government and issued the neoessary legal proceedings 
under his privy seal, ' because he had no other for the purpose'. 

' *' When the King returned fronh Ireland he found himself already 

' Pp. 204 and 205 of the second edition. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 77 

dethroned. Tbe Qneen was now in the enjoyment of supreme 
power. She kept her husband in close confinement, hypocritically 
pretending to lament his misfortunes. She pretended to associate 
the Prince, her son, with herself in the government; and she con- 
triyed to get the Great Seal into her possession, which considerably 
facilitated her proceedings, for less respect was paid by the multi- 
tude to the privy seal which she had hiUierto used. 

' " The Bishop of Hereford was sent to the King at Kendworih^ 
with a deceitful message, to request that he would give such direc- 
tions respecting the Great Seal as were necessary for the conserva- 
tion of the peace, and the due administration of justice. The King, 
without friend or adviser, said he would send the Seal to his Qoeen 
and BOD, not only for these purposes, but likewise for matters 
of grace. He then handed the Great Seal to Sir William le Blount^ 
who on the SOih of November delivered it to the Queen and the 
Prince ; but the Queen had the uncontrolled dominion oyer it. She 
wetended to hand it over to Ayremyne, the Master of the Bolls, as 
k^eeper, and she employed it to summon a parliament at West- 
minster, in her husband's name, for the purpose of deposing him. 
According to the tenour of the writs under the Great Seal, the 
parliament was to be held before the King, if he should be present ; 
and, if not, before Isabel, the Queen Uonsort, and Edward, the 
King's son." 

* The errors referred to are contained in the preceding extracts, 
and a brief notice of the military writs issued by Edward after the 
hostile lauding of Isabella will prove that he did not go to Ireland, 
but that his flight was into Glamorganshire in South Wales. 

* Isabella landed near Harwich on September 25, 1326, and on 
October 10th, military writs were tested by Edward at Gloucester, 
calling out with the utmost expedition levies from the Marches and 
Borders of Wales. (Rot. Pat. 20 Edw. II, M. 12.) On October 
12th, the King was at Westbury, near Newnham. (See Patent 
Rolls, M. 12, of that date.) On the 14th and 15th he was at 
Tintem, where he appointed Thomas de Bradeston to the custody 
of Berkeley Castle. On October 16th, the King was at Striguil 
Castle, where he remained a few days. On Monday the 20th he 
empowered Hugh le Despenser, Edmond Hacluit, and Bogo de 
S[noyville, to seize the castles of Ghrosmont, Skenferth, and Whit- 
castle, whilst John Bennet was directed to seize the castle of Mon- 
mouth. On Monday, October 27th, the King was at Cardiff, still 
taking measures to cover his retreat. At Cardiff the King 
appointed Howell ap Yorwerth ap Griffith and Howell ap David to 
raise the whole population of Maghay (Magor) and Wentlwg. 
Writs, of the same date, were addressed to Evan ap Meuric and 
Evan ap Morgan for Nethesland and Elilvey, and various other 
individuals received similar appointments for the different districts 
of Glamorganshire. Commissions were also issued for Usk and 
Abergavenny and the adjoining territories of Monmouthshire. 
(Rot. Pat. 20 Edward II, M. 7.) 



78 MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 

' On October 28th, another writ is tested by the King at Cardiff, 
ordering the levy of 400 foot soldiers of the land of Olamorgan. 
From Cardiff the King removed to Caerphilly, whence on October 
29th and 30th he iss'aed commissions giving extensive powers for 
raising forces in Pembrokeshire, Glamorganshire, and Monmouth- 
shire. On Nov. 4th he arrived at Margam, granted or confirzned 
the manor of Kenton to the abbot, and issned a writ directing* the 
guarding of the coast and sea-ports against his enemies and rebels. 
The following day, November 5th, we King was at Neath, and 
tested at that place a writ for raising all the forces of Oower, both 
horse and foot. (Rot. Pat 20 Edward II, B. 7.) On Nov. 10th« 
the King issned at Neath a safe-conduct for the Abbot of Neath, 
Bees ap Griffith, Edward de Bohnn, Oliver of Bonrdeanx, and 
John de Harsik, as envoys to Isabella. This document is given in 
the Patent Bolls in the Tower. (Fo&dera, p. 647, vol. ii, part 1, 
edit. 1818.) The seizure of the unfortunate Eling took place on 
Sunday, November 16th, and he was yielded up to the char^^ of 
Henry of Lancaster. Edward was then removed to Monmonth, 
and there, on Nov. 20th, delivered up the Great Seal to Sir Wm. le 
Blount, who gave it up to the Queen at Martlet/^ in Worcestershire^ 
on Nov. 26th, 1326. On the 30th of that month, Edward II was at 
Ledbury, and not at Kenilworth. 

' In tracing the retreat of Edward after the landing of Isabella, 
the Public Becords are unanswerable evidence, and I would briefly 
contrast the facts of the case with Lord Campbell's statements. 
Edward's flight was into Glamorganshire, not to Ireland ; Edward 
gave up the Great Seal at Monmouth, not at Kenilworth ; and Sir 
Wm. le Blount delivered it up to the Queen and her son on the 
26th, 7iot on November 30^A. 

' For the information contained in the preceding remarks I am 
indebted to a valuable paper read to the Neath Institution in 1849, 
by the Bev. H. H. Knight, B.D., Bector of Newton Nottage, 
Glamorganshire, '* On the Betreat of Edward II into Glamorgan- 
shire, A.D. 1326." 

' I offer no apology for the length of my communication, as it 
could not properly be curtailed. Historic errors should be promptly 
corrected; the erroneous statement of one historian is copied by 
his successor, and errors are thus permanently ingrafted on the 
historic records of a country. History should realise Plato's de- 
scription of the Supreme Being, " truth is his body, and light his 
shadow." ' B. 

Caeboai, Merionethshire. — Some portions of a Boman altar-tomb 
have been accidentally brought to light here whilst ploughing the 
field to the east of the farmhouse. The stone is red sandstone, 
which has been broken into three pieces, and the sculptured upper 
portion has been almost entirely destroyed ; but the inscriptioiiy 
which is very clearly cut, and perfect, reads : 

IVLIVS . QAVERONIS . F 
FE . MIL . CHO . T . NER 



REVIEW. 79 

la the next Part of the Journal we hope to g^ve an engraving and 
a fnll account of the stone, which has been removed, for its bettor 
preservation, to Wynnstay, Rhnabon. 



i&ebUto. 



OVBBTOK ("CAULLID IH AUNCIENT TtMB ObTOH MaDOC") IH DaTS 

Qos% Bt. By GsoBOB John Howson, A.M.y "Parsonne of ye 
Pabochk." Imprinted at Oswestry by Woodall and Co., at i^e 
Caxton Printing Offices, mdccglxxxiii. 

Wb cordially recommend this quaintly entitled parochial mono- 
graph, and thank Mr. Howson for his Httle book. It is not many 
country villages that can boast so interesting a history as Overton ; 
it is still fewer that have had the good fortune to have their stoiy 
told so pleasantly. When we think of the abundant material which 
Flintshire, with its English, Welsh, and border antiquities, com* 
prises within its limits, and contrast its fortune with that of Mont- 
gomeryshire, we are tempted to ask why it should not have its 
Englefield Club to do for it what the Powysland does for its neigh- 
bour ? Indeed, we should be glad to see each of the North WaJes 
counties follow the good example set before them. Who will be 
their vates sacri f 

Eight brief chapters describe its ancient history — district and 
house names, municipal and parliamentary history — for it had once 
at least a mayor, and is a contributory borough — the church, the 
charities, the traditions and customs, and the old families, with two 
appendices, giving respectively the annual charters, and a short 
notice . of the socio-political club, the Cycle. After pointing out 
that it derived its cogpiomen from Madoc, the elder son of Meredydd 
ap Bleddyn ap Cynvyn, Prince of Powis, Mr. Howson thus sum- 
marises its earlier history : — ^ At the time of the Conquest, 1066, 
it is said Overton was in the possession of a Saxon chieftain, but 
was granted by the Conqueror to Robert Fitzhugb, one of his 
followers. Edward I, in the fourteenth year of his reign (1286), 
gave the lordship to his Queen Eleanor, who granted it to Bobert 
prevecGBur, with the pri'^ege of a weekly market and fair. In 
the 20th year of Edward's reign (1292) he made it a free borough 
by charter. The same Monarch, in the following year (1298), 
commanded Reginald de Grey, Chief Justice of Chester, to go 
personally to Overton, and to assign to the burgesses and sach 
other as might be induced to become inhabitants, competent lands 
within the demesne of Overton Castle and Wood, to build them 
burgages, and in the 28th year of his reira (1300) Edward granted 
to the burgesses an exemption from toll tor seven years, and other 
immunities. Edward II (1807) gave the borough and lordship to 
his Queen Isabel, and in the fourteenth year of Edward III (1341) 



80 REVIEW. 

they were granted, together with the lands in Maeior, to Eabale le 
Strange, Baron of Knockyn, with a confirmation of the preceding 
charter, which was also confirmed and enlarged, with additional 
priyileges, in the 20th year of Richard II (1397). The lord- 
ship was later granted hy Henry IV (1400) to Sir John Stanley, 
Knight, and it continaed in his family till the 4lBt year of Elizabeth 
(1599), when William, Earl of Derby, devised it to Sir William 
Brereton of Malpas ; then it passed into the hands of the Hanmer 
and Owemhaylod families, and daring the last qaarter of a oentnry 
the latter portion has since come into the possession of the present 
owner of Brynghys" (Edrannd Peel, Esq.) 

Of the castle, which Leland says was ** thronen downe by the 
violence of the Dee river chaunging his Botom", not so mnch 
can he said now as when he qnaintly wrote, that " one part of the 
Diclies and Hille of ye Castle yet remaineth. The residence ia in 
the Botom of Dee." Where in the kingdom is ^ snch a cuiioaa 
combination of civil and ecclesiastical circumstances" to he fbnnd as 
this ? — " On a jntting point of land below Knolton Hall, where the 
Shellbitx^ joins the river, the following remarkable conjunction 
occnrs, or did occnr till 1849. One may stand in England and 
Wales ; in the provinces of Oanterbnry and York ; in the dioceeea 
of Lichfield, Chester, and St. Asaph ; in the Deaneries of Wrexham, 
Malpas, and Ellesmere ; in the circuits of Oxford, North Wales, 
and Chester ; in the connties of Shropshire, Flintshire^ and Den- 
bighshire ; in the hundreds of Oswestry, Maelor, and Bromfield ; 
in the parishes of Ellesmere, Overton, and Erbistock, and in the 
townships of Dudleston, Knolton, and Erbistock." 

The place-names in this district are very ourions— -a strange 
admixture of English, Webh, and Saxon ; and we do not wonder at 
some hesitation and weakness here. The church is very fully and 
well described, and there ia a useful account of the charities. The 
old soldier, who was master of the Free School, had a delightful- 
way of drilling arithmetic into his pupils. '* He dictates each step 
to a whole class, who repeat it after him in a chanting tone. 
Thus, *' about an inch from the top, and an inch from the left-hand 
side, set down seven." And then he continues, *' about half an inch 
to the right set down six." But if the pupils were asked to pu6 
down seventy-six on their slates, they would be perfectly unable to 
do so. But this, alas, was in the good old times, before Inspeotioa 
and Codes and Over-pressure. We have only space just to notice 
further the customs of " Souling" on the day after All Saints' Day, 
with the rhymes sung on the occasion ; and the continued use of the 
Curfew bell. When, however, Mr. Howson says that ** there is 
another bell rung at 8 a.m. every Sunday morning to let people 
know that the service will be held as usual", is it not rather an m- 
snfficient explanation? We have the same custom in our own* 
parish, and it has always struck us that it is a memorial of 9» 
early celebration of the Eucharist, or, at all events, an earlier 
Matins Uian our present Morning Prayer. 



^n\mtala$in ^t^amlrrtnsts. 



FIFTR SERIES.— VOL. II, NO. VI. 



APRIL 1885. 



THE CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTIC 
WORDS OF THE COUNTIES OF NORTH- 
AMPTON AND LEICESTER 

(Continued from p, 32.) 

AKOLO-CBLTIC. CELTIC. 

Lace, to beat (K.) W. Uachio, to beat ; Hack, blade, 

Jjowk, to beat, to thiash (N.) stroke; Com. Uice, lah, to slap, to 

cudgel 
Lag, to loiter, to flag (N.); Sana. W. llag. Com. lac, loose, sluggish ; 
£^Att, weak, mean ;Prov.8w./aA;ik, W. llacau, to become loose, to 
loose, limp droop ; Com. lacca, to faint ; Arm. 

lug, slow, lazy ; Ir. Gsel. ^, 

liLuix, Ihag, slack, loose 

Lair, com which is beaten down in Ir. Gael. Utr, the ground ; Manx, 

one direction is said to be laired laare, ground, floor ; W. lUxwr, 

(N.) Com. Ur, floor, ground, earth 

Lash^ juicy, rank (N.), 8.; huh^ id. Ir. GaeL lua, water ; O. Ir. lus, gl. 

(N.), 8. ibhc, drink, Uquid ( O, Ir. (7Z.,101) ; 

Ir. Gael, luis, drink ; lusach, 

drinker 

£a<%, thin, slender, as a lath of W.Z^A, rod, wand; Arm. 2a2,perohe, 

wood (N.) ; Du. lat^ Gkmn. latte, long baton, gaule; Ir.2ai^Aar,fork, 

lath prong ; Sans. kUd, branch^ 

hawn, laund, an open roace in a W. llan, enclosure ; llawnt, smooth, 

chase or forest (N.) ; Fr. lande, a rising hill, lawn ; Ir. G«el. lann 

wide, untilled plain; G^rm. land for land, enclosure, house, church; 

Com. laum, clear, open; W. Uaned, 
of a level and open surj^e ; Arm. 
lanou, waste, level ground 

The diphthongal sound which the vowel has taken 
in latvn is a Celtic usage. **Ay when long, sounds like 

' The 8ans. lots means also a slender, graceful woman. 

5tU 8BB., TOL. II. 6 



82 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

a in the English words call, fall." (0'Don.,/r. Cfram., 
p. 8.) 

ANQLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Learn, to drop or leap from the hull, Ir. Gael, leimj a leap, a spring ; 
as a ripe filbert or nut (N.), L. Manx, Iheim, id.; W. llam, Com. 

lam, a leap, a bonnd ; in Com. a 
slip, sliding 
Learn, a drain or water-conrse in Ir. GaeL lo, lua, water; leann, liquid,* 

the fenny districts (N.), S. lean, leana, a swampy meadow 

Leech, the cnticle or hark of mntton W. llych, a coyering; llech, a coTert; 
or beef which remains on the llech, a flat surface, a fiat stone; 
back or loins of an animal after llech/a, lurking-plaoe, covert ; Ir. 
it is skinned^ (N.) leac, a flat stone, a flake; to flay ; 

Arm. le€u:h, liach, a stone ; Sans. 

lekhana, the bark of a plant 

Leuf, the palm of the hand (N.), '*a W. llaw, the hand, for Uav; Corn. 

very old word" (Baker) ; O. N. luef, luf; Arm. lav, loo; Ir. Gael. 

lumma, magna et adunca manus lamh ; Manx, laue, id. Probably 

connected with Sans, labh, to take 
hold of ; Gr. Aom3-iU«. See Fick' 
i, 192 
Lick, to beat (N.) See Lack 

Lowk, id. (L.) 

Limb, a virago, a termagant (N.) W. llym, sharp, keen, severe; lliminj 

of a sharp or keen quality; Arm. 
lemm (for lembf), sharp, keen, 
cutting 
Limp, flimG^ of texture, as un- O. W. llimp, soft, smooth ; W. llipa, 
starched Imen, or that has lost its llibin, soft, flaccid; lleipr, flaccid; 
stiffness (N.) ; O. N. limpiaz, de- Ir. Gael, liomh, to smooth ; Ir. 
ficere; limpa, limpness, weakness limbron, smooth ; Sans, lamb^ to 
(Skeat). Not in Halderson^s or &11, lie ; lan^, hanging 
Egillson^s Dictionary 
Listen, to meditate. '^ What are you Ir. liseadh, thinking, imagining ; 
listening on?*' (N.) lisim, I think of, imagine; Sans. 

las, to do anything scientifically 
or skilfully (?) 
Lob, to hang down, to droop (N.); Ir. Gael, lub, to bend, bow down, 

loomng, roving idly about (N.) incline, curve 

Loo ! loo I loo! a reiterated exda- W. elu, to go, to move; elioch, go ye I 
mation used to excite dogs to flght, Arm. e/o, a kind of poplar with 
or to urge greyhounds to the pur- very mobile leaves 
suit of a hare (N.); commonly 
Eloo ! the hunter's cry 
Looby, an awkward, clownish fellow W. llob, a duU fellow, blockhead 
(N.) 



^ It is a common direction of a butcher to his boy, when skinning a 
beast, ** Take care you don't epoil the leech^ The primary meaning 
seems to be that of covering. '* En Haut Leon", says PeUetier, "on donne 
ce nom (leach) ^ certaines grandes pierres plates, un pen elev^es de terre, 
sous laquelles on peut etre a convert." Cf. Sans, lip (for lik f), to cover, 
spread over. 



OP NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER, 



83 



ANOLO-CELTIC. 

Lush, fltrong drink (L.); lush^^ rather 
tipsy, £r^ (N.) 



MaekUd, spotted (N.); Lat. maculoj 
Fr. macule 



Machyy neat, spmoe, smart. *' He *s 
qoite a macky little man (N.); Dn. 
mak, tame, gentle 

Mcig, a penny (N.) ; meg, id. (Leeds) ; 
Fr. mahany ooivre, medaille de 
cuivre (Boq.) 



Mag, to prate, to chatter (N.); mag- 
ging, dispnting (N.), S. ; Fr. mo- 
quer, to deride 



CELTIC. 

Ir. GaeL lw§ Juti, drink, liquid ; 
O. L-. lus, gL ibhe, drink (0. Ir. 
GL, 101); Ir. GaeLfe, /ua, water; 
laUh, liqnidf milk, ale, strong 
drink 

W. mtKl, magi, a spot, mmmla (Dav.) ; 
apparently in both senses, spot or 
mesh, for magi means a portion 
of land, as we say a spot of earth; 
It. ma»l€if a spot, for macla (?) 
(Foley) 

Ir. GaeL mac, clear, bright ; Grael. 
macahh^ a fair youth, an accom- 
plished person ; Sans, makha, 
cheerful, lively (Ved.) 

GaeL meachmnn=mach-in, a half- 
penny, gratuity to a servant, 
abatement of rent ; Ir. meachain, 
an abatement ; meacan^mac-in, 
hire, wages, reward ; prim, mo- 
ney (?) ; Jr. Grael. umha, for um- 
hag (?), copper. Of. Sans, am &aX%i, 
id. 

Ir. GraeL mag, to scoff, deride, jeer ; 
Ir. magar, a word ; mocha, scold, 
termagant ; Sans, man'h, to speak 



Mammock, to cut anything waste- 
fully into small pieces (N.) 



Mammcred, perplexed, confused (N.), Ir. Grael. maoim==mami, fear, alarm, 
S. surprise ; maom, fear, terror ; 

Manx, moandagh, dull, faltering; 
Sans, manda, id. 
W. man, small, petty, fine; Ir. Gael. 
nun, small; Manx, minnig, a pinch, 
a crumb ; with the Celtic verbal 
suffix, -oc or -och 

i/aufid^, to mutter, to grumble (N.); W.manl, jaw, mouth; mantai for 
mani, to stammer, to stutter maniair, a mumbler; Ir. mant, the 
(Lane.) gom; muntaire, a lisper; mantach, 

lisping, mumbling; GaeL mand, a 
lisp, a stammer ; mantair, stam- 
merer ; Manx, moandagh, to lisp, 
to stammer 
Maungin, the same meaning as maun- W. mumgial, to mutter, to murmur 

der; O. N. mdgla, murmurare 
Methegltn, honey beer, made after W. meddyglyn, hydromel, a medi- 
the pure honey is extracted from cinal drink, from meddyg, physi- 
the bist crushing of the comb (N.), cian; Lat. medicus, and llyn, prim. 
L. Uquid 

Midgerum, fat, fat of the intestines Ir. Gael, meadhon, middle, centre ; 
(L.);^ mM^erunt (Lane). Halli- ramA-ar, &it, gross, thick 
well has midgerim. Of. W. rhim, 
rhimp, rim, edge, limit 

^ In the North the form is mugerom, from W. moch ; Lr. Gael, muc, a 
pig, and ramh-ar, fat. Midgemm may be only a variation of mugerom. 

6« 



84 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



Miff, offonce, a slight fit of ill hu- 
monr or peevi&ness (N.), L. ; 
Prov. Germ, muff^ Bulky ; muffen^ 
to be sulky (Mahn) 

( Mimicking, sickly, weakly (N.) 

"1, aeli< 



Ir. Gael, midbhan (miv), ill humour, 
a megrim 

See Mammock 



< Mimkin, smaU, aelicate (N.) 
( MirmockMkg, affecting mnch deli- 
cacy, aping fine manners (N.) 
Moil, to labbnr, to toil wearisomely Jr. Gael, miwl ; Manx, meyl, a ser- 
(N.) vant ; Arm. mael, servant d^armes; 

W. ma«/, work. Cf . Ir. GaeL modh^ 
mogh, siaye, labourer, which, with 
-a/, become modhal^ moghal^ to 
act as a slave ; a vowel-flanked d 
or g being often silent in Celtic, 
g being represented by i 

From 0. Fr. moiller, to wet, to moisten : the original 
meaning was to soften. (Skeat.) 

Mommered, puzzled, perplexed, be- See Mammered 
wildered. " He was so mommered 
he couldnt speak" (N.), fright- 
ened (?) 

Mop, a fair at which servants are 
hired (K.), L. ; commonly a broom^ 



Mopus, money. " Have you got any 
mopuses f (N.) In Lincolnshire 
maiDpu$e9 



Gael, mob, anything rough, as tuft, 
mop, mob, disorder ; mobag, a 
rough-haired girl; mobaitm, to 
handle roughly ; W. mapwl, a mop; 
Ir. moipal, id. ; Gael, moibeal, a 
broom 

From mag (q, v.), a penny, which 
with the case-form becomes ma- 
gas, whence, by a regular Celtic 
variation, mqpas, and afterwards 
maupas and mopus 

For the change from a primitive c (k) to p, see Kuhn's 
Zeits, viii, 35 ; for that of a into au or o, see Zenss^, 
17, and O'Dono van's 7r. Gfram.^ 8. The ancient Britons 
had coined money in gold, silver, brass, and tin. Of 
this last form we have a reminiscence in the slang 
phrase, ".How are you off for tin f See Evans, Coins 
of the Ancient Britons, p. 123. 

Mort^ a great quantity or number W. mawr, mor; Ir. Gael, mdr, great, 
(N.), L. ; O. K. margr, multus large, W. ; W. mawredd, great* 

ness ; Ir. moradh, augmentation ; 

Sans, mahas, greatness, abundance 

Moses. To say moses is to make a W. maws=mOs, pleasure, delight, 

matrimonial offer (N.) pleasant, sweet ; mawsif to be 

sweet, give pleasure 

> As meaning a broom, probably from O. Fr. mappe, napkin (Skeat). 



OF NOBTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 85 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Mbgyf shaggT, ooyered with hair Ir. Gael, mosach, rough, bristly 

(N.),L. 
Mogy, tainted, miuty, beginning to W. mws^ stinVing, rank; Ann. moues^ 

decay (L.) hnmide, an pea moaill6 

Mudgins^ the &t aboat the intestines Ir. Gael, muc^ W. mocA, a pig ; cen^ 
of a pig (L.) cin (in comp. gin], a skm^ a snr- 

face ; Ir. Gael. («)^aRfi, a mem- 
brane 

The d in mvdgins seems only to strengthen the g, as 
we have judge from Fr. jtige ; but if it be organic, of. 
Ir. meath, Sans, meda^ fat. In this case, however, it is 
difficult to account for the change of vowel. The final 
s denotes probably a case-form, -ginis. 

Mug, the face. Ugly-mug is a com- Ir. muig (mugi), a snrly face ; Grael* 

mon nick-name (L.) (s)muig, a snont, (in derision) face ; 

Sans, mukha, face 
Mug^ a cap for liqaor (N.) ; Sw. Ir. mugan^ a mag ; mucog^ a cup, a 

fnvpgj a mng (Skeat). N'ot in hip (berry) : Lr. mogal, mogul, a 

Widegren or DShnert globe, a hnsk 

Muggy, damp with warmth, hazy W. mu?ci, fog; mtog, smoke; mwygl, 

(N.); O. N. mugga, caligo plnvia snltry, tepid ; Ir. much, smoke 

▼. nivalis 
Muggy, the white-throat, Motacilla W. much, gloom ; muchiad, darken- 

igylvia (N.) ing, blackening ; mwg, Arm. md- 

ged, smoke 

Its general colour is a rusty gray with blackish wings. 

Mull, to mb,'to grind, as paint (L.); W. malu, Arm. mala, to braise, to 

O. N. mylia, to braise grind 

Jfti2/bdk,dirt,rabbish, refase, sweep- W. mwlwch, mwlog (moolog), refase, 
ings (N.) ; Da. mollem, molm, sweepings, filth ; mwl, chaff, re- 
moaldering staff fase; Ir. Gael, moll, dust, refase ; 

mollach, roagh, ragged; muilleach 
^=mullec, a paddle 
Mundle, a wooden instrament nsed Primarily a mining term; W. mum- 
for washing potatoes, etc. (L.) dill, a ladle, a stirrer; from mvm, 

ore, and dilu, to work 
Mungel, to mnrmar (L.); O. N. mdg- W. mwngial, to mnrmar 

la, to mnrmar 
Mungy, saltry, hot See Muggy 

Muntin, the stone mallion of a win- W. mam=mani, stone, and tyn, 
dow (N.) stretched (?) 

Prof. Skeat connects mullion with munnion, still used 
in Dorset, and the latter with Fr. moignorij a stump, 
the blunt end of a thing j but this wUl not explain the 
word muntin. The change of short a to u is common 
in Sanskrit and Celtic. 



86 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Muppedy crowded, inconyenienoed See Mop 

for want of room (N.) 

Musk. To send pigs ix> musk is to W^ Com. mes, acorns, food; Ir. 

send them to pick up stray com GaeL measg=masgif an acorn ; 

after harvest (N.) Prim, it meant tneaSf tree-fniit, especiaUy acorns; 

to send them to the wood to pick Arm. mesa, garder les bestianz an 

up acorns ; A.-S. maMte, food, pfitnrage ; rather, to feed them 

acorns 

Nahy the head (N.); noh, id. (N.); W.. Ir., cnap, knob, boss, a romid 

nobby, a Inmp of anything (N.^ ; tning ; Ir. cnaipirif a lump of any- 

Du. knop, O. N. knappr, knoD, thing 

globnlns 

Nackling, striking one hard sab- Ir. ctio^, Gael, cnoc, to knock, crash; 

stance against another (N.); A.-S. W. cnoc, a blow; cnocellu, to tap, 

cnuciariy to knock. '* Borrowed to peck 

from Celtic." (Skeat) 

Nan, what did yoa say ? (N.), S. W. nan, what now ? Gael, namn, an 

interrogatiye partide^ 

Naunt, to bridle up (L.^ W. naujm, to raise or hold up ; uni- 

Naunlle, to hold yourself erect (N.) avoni, to straighten 

Natty, spruce, smart, neat (N.) W. nith, clean, pure ; Arm. iiea/«= 

Nitle, neat, handsome (L.) ; Prov. nati, neat, comely (net, propre) ; 

Sw. nytli, pleasant, savoury, use- Lat. niiidus 

f ul, from rgota, to be of use ; Fr. 

net 

Neddy, K simpleton (N.); sometimes Ir. Gael, naoidhe, babe, infant (?) 

noddy, Fr. naudin, a simpleton ^ 

Newk, comer, angle (N.) ; O. N. Ir. Gael. n%uc=nuki, a comer 

hnocki, a hook 

Nick ! Nick ! the cry of a boy when W. nycha / Lo ! behold I 

obliged to leave a game^ (N.) 

NicklM, beaten down, as com by a W. cnic, a rap, a blow ; cnicell, a 

violent wind (N.) striker. See Nackling 

Nimm, nim, to fidget. "Doont ye W. nwyf=nem, vivacity, animal 

nim Boo" ; used of one playing the spirits ; nicyfo, to grow lively or 

Devil's tattoo, tapping his foot, or wanton ; Arm. ninva, chagriner, 

swinging one leg over the other sHnquieter, i.e., to be restless or 

(L.) uneasy 

Noggin, a short, thick lump (N.); a W. cnwc, lump, knob, boss ; enycyn, 

small drinking horn (N.); a small pron. cnucyn, a knob ; Ir. Gael. 

drinking ve Bsel (L.); Germ. A;noc A;- noigean, noigin=7iogin, a mug, a 

en, knot, bunch small cup : hence nugget, which 

has a Celtic suffix 

Nor, than (N.) 0. W. nor, than ; Arm. na for nar 

Nub, a knob (N.) W. cnwb, knob [cnybyn, pron. cnu- 

Nubbin,^ the stump or stock of a tree bin, a single knob] ; Ir. GaeL cnap, 

1 See Arch. Camb., April 1881, p. 96. 

2 A more common form is nix, but nick is nearer the W. nycha. The 
player calls upon his adversary to take notice that he is obliged to leave 
the game for a time. For nix, see Arch. Camb., Jan. 1883, p. 11. Miss 
Baker thinks that St. Nicholas is appealed to, as he is the patron saint of 
boys. 

3 The form, nubb-'m^ is Celtic. It means a single lump. Cf. W. hesg. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



87 



AVGLO-CKLTIC. CBLTia 

after it has been cat down (Li); knob, bcee; cnapanj a miall knob, 

Oerm. knogf, knob, bntton, head ; hfllock; W. cnapamj a round mass 

Dan. ibiop, small ball, bon ; 8w. or knob 

knuhbf a short block 
NuddU, to nestle, to fondle (N.); W. nyth. Com. noth. Arm. nyfA, Lr. 

Lat fOdtu, nest meadj a nest ; W. nifthv, to fonn a 

nest, to nestle [njfikal, pron. mi- 
fAo/, to nestle]; fians. irida, nest, 
lair^ 

Nuniing, curtailed in dimenslonB, so Ir. namam, a dwarf (?); Lat. ncanu 
as to have an appearance of scanti- 



ness and meanness (N.); Pror. 
8w. mUtOf a little maid 
of,' a fool, a blockhead (L.), a 
clownish mstic (SaL); also a«/in 
med. Eng.; A.-S. ti^, fairy, elf 
(Skeat) 



Offlmg^ a feeble, ah 

Dn. hobbeUr^ to toss on the water, 

to stutter (Skeat) 
Omy, mellow, applied to land (N.) 



Otc^ly* hole, Inrking-place 

Pack^ heap, quantity, number. A 
genuine Celtic word. The Dan. 
packe^ Qerm, paek^ are borrowed 



Pad^ a fox's foot, sporting term 

S.), V. to travel on foot (N.); 
t. pes (jpeds), foot 
Padsj pedij open panniers (N.) 



W. df, Ir. GaeL cmh (o/)^ raw, rude; 
am, amh (pron. dv), fool, simple- 
ton; Manx, aw (av), raw; otooiie, 
a silly fellow 
gait (N.); W. hobelu, to hobble, to move as a 



bird, sabsultare (Dav.); AoM, a 

bird 
Lr. GaeL omA, amA, raw, unsodden; 

prim, moist, soft; W. of, raw; of- 

aidd for omaidd, crumbling; q^- 

auxi, mouldering 
W. achel, hole, hiding-place 

Ir. GaeL pac, paca, pack, a mob ; 

Arm. pak, assemblage of things ; 

pakti, to pack, also to seuee; Buis. 

pas', to bind; paksh, to seize, take 

a part ; paksha, side, troop, num. 

her of adherents 
Ir. paiu, W. ped, foot ; Sans, pad, 

foot 

Ir. pcUa, a vessel; padhal, pail, ewer; 
Sans, patra, vessel, jar ; piUa, 
cup, vessel 



sedge ; hesgen, a single rush ; caws, cheese ; cosyn, a single cheese ; plaiU, 
children ; plentyn, a child. 

1 The Sanskrit nlda is probably for nisUi=mi sta, for stha, to dwell. The 
W. nyih represents, then, an older msta, which became nl/a; and the 
vowel-flanked t becoming aspirated, nytha, nyth. The retention of the 
primitive < is an argument for the Aryan, not Roman, origin of the W. 
nyth; but the y must have changed to the u sound before the Saxon in- 
vasion. 

* The changeling supposed to be left by fairies was puny and sickly ; 
but in Lancashire and Shropshire the oaf was a large, heavy, coarse man, 
a *' clownish rustic" in the languaffe of Miss Jackson. He was certainly 
stupid, but clownishness was Us diief feature. In The Slang Dictionary 
(1874) an oaf is said to be '^ a lumbering, awkward fellow". This describes 
the Lancashire, and I presume the Leicestershire, oaf, 

' I find that this word is used in Nottinffhamshire, a neighbouring 
county. It belongs, therefore, only presumably to Northamptonshire. 






88 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

PaddUy a plongh-spnd to clean the Jr. Gael, spadalj a pIoogh-Btaff ; 9padf 

plough (K.); Lat. spatula a iap; W. yspawd, a blade; y^po- 

dol^ spattle 

Paidf beat. "IVe paid him well" W.pwyo^^^, to beat, to bang 

(N.) 

Pannelf a pad with a ridge before W.jMinfieZya thick matting of straw, 

and behmd to carry calves (K); cushion of a pack-saddle; panj 

Fr. parmeaUf a pannel; O. Fr. pan- down, fur; Arm. pannel, a cushion 
net 

PattikeySf the seed-vessels of the W. pitw, small ; cae, inclosnre 
ash (N.) 

Peai^,|96aA»n^, weak, languid, nip- W. pig Cpie)^ a sharp point ; Arm. 

ped, sharp-featured (N.) pik^ ia.; Lr. Ghiel. peaxi^ bjhj sharp- 

Piked, pointed, as a piked stick pointed thing, a long tail 
fiN".); Fr. oic, a peak 

Pear\ said to be a var. of peart; but W. perc, trim, neat, compact ; Arm. 

peark has more reference to pergen^ propre, net, pur, poli; W. 

form, and peart to speech, though per, sweet, pleasant 
not exclusively. To perk oneself 
up is to adorn (H.) 

Peart^ lively, bricuc, impudent (L.) W. |?er<, smart, saucy, pert; herihj 

fair, neat; Arm. put for purt^ 
sharp, biting 

Peck, to throw, to vomit (L.) W. pido, to cast, to throw 

Peggens, children's teeth (N.) W. pegwn,pmy spindle ; pegor, peg, 

pivot ; W. pig, Com. peg, sharp 
point, prick 
(Pelt, the skin of a slaughtered Ir. Gael. peiUl (for peUaf), skin, 
< animal, esp. a sheep's skin (N.) hide ; Lat. pellis^ 
( Pilch, a flannel wrapper ; formerly 

a mantle made of skins (N.) 
Pendle-stone, a name given by quar- W./^n,head, top, summit; Ue, place; 
rymen to the upper course in a penile^ the top-place, summit 
stone-pit (K.) 
Pevy, to pelt. " He pevy^d him well" W. paffio, to bang, to buffet 
(N.) 

The W. paffio seems to be connected with the curious 
Northamptonshire word peps, to throw at, or rather to 
beat down, to cause to fall. A market-woman said, " I 
was obliged to get the plums before they were ripe, the 
boys pepid 'em down so." A Greek scholar will be 
reminded of Gr. irhrrwi which Fick corrects with Sans. 
pat, to fall, descend. Cf. Sans, pitsat for piptsaU a de- 
siderative form, but meaning ** habitually falling down". 

Phillip, the sparrow, Fringilla do- Arm. flip, passereau 

mestica (N.) 
Pick, to throw, to cast (N.), L. See W. picio, to throw, to fling 

Peck 



-••■ 



' The Latin pellie shows that the Prov. Sw. pels, skin, must be borrowed. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



89 



1 

l: 



CELTIC. 

W. pig (for pie^, a sharp point ; Ir. 
Gad. peaCf id.; W. picell, dart, 
jayelin ; Ann. piAxi, piqner, percer ; 
pigelj hone, hoyan 

W. piiw, small, minnte ; Arm. pitoul^ 
delicate 

W. picyn, It: ptgin, Manx, piggyn^ a 
wooden yessel with a handle, from 
ptc, a sharp point 

W . ]ntw, small ; lU, in comp. [«, place 

See Pick 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

Pick, a sharp point, a prong (N.) 
Pichen, to sharpen (N.); pecir, short 

stnbble (N.); Fr. pie, a peak; 

O. N. pikka, A.-8. pycan, pun- 

gere 
PiddU, to trifle with one's food, eat 

daintily without appetite (L.), to 

do any light work (Glonc.) 
Pigginj a small cylindrical vessel 

formed of staves, one longer than 

the rest serving as a hanme (K.) 
Pightle^ pitle, a small indosore at 

the back of a cottage (N.) 

[Pikey a piece of land mnning to 
a point (K.) 

[Pikell, a two-pronged fork (N.) 

Pf/«,totakeoff the awns of thrashed W. pilio, to strip, to make bare; 

barley (L., M., N.); piles, the awns A^m. pUa, broyer, frapper 

of harley (N.) ; Fr. peUsr, to peel 

off; Prov. Sw. pela, to peel off 

(borrowed) 
PHI, skin, bark; v. to peel (N.), L. 

Pingle, a clnmp of trees or nnder- W. pumg, mass, cluster (pyngell, 

wood not large enough for a gpin- little cluster) ; Sans, punga, p&ga,^ 

nty (N.) ; pungled, shrivelled (N.) heap, mass, quantity 

Pink, mnk, the chaJBfiuch, IVingilla W. pine, gay, fine ; pincyn, what is 

Calebs (N.), L. ray or smart, a finch 

Pifmoek, to take out the feathers of A Celtic verbal form (see Bommock); 



W. pil, paring, rind 



a bird to prevent flight (N.) 



W. pin, a pen, a stile ; Ir. Gael. 
pinne, a peg; Manx, pinn, a stake, 
a pin of wood 
Gh&et. pium, a pirn, a reed to wind 
yam on ; piridh, top, whirligig ; 
Com. pgr, round; Ir. Gael, piorra, 
a squall; prim, a whirling wind' 



'Ptrl, a term applied to a top when 
it revolves very rapidly. "It 
pirU weU" (N.) 
^Purl, to bring the cotton from 
the back to the front of the 
knitting pin (N.) 
Pit, a pond (L.) ; A.-S. /wf<, pit, well ; Ir. Gael, pit, a hollow, a dyke ; Manx, 
Lat. piUeus, a well (Skeat) p%ti, pudendum muliebre, a pit. 

Is the first meaning a hollow or 
water ? Gf. Sans. pUa, soaked; j/f, 
to drink; puha, water 

If the A.-S. pytt is related to Lat. puteus, it must be a 
borrowed word. 



1 The Sans, punga, in connection with W, pumg, is sufficient to show 
that the theory of a total loss of a primitive p in Welsh or Irish is quite 
untenable. 

' Jamieson has '^pirl, to twist, to twine*', -al is a Celtic verbal form- 
ative. Shakespeare has the word. " From his lips did fly thin, winding 
breath which purled up to the sky". (Lucr., 1407.) 



90 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Placket, the open part or slit in a W.plygeddyAiolding;plygfiLh9adot 
gown or petticoat, before or be- iold(plygedd=^luged,vs=l&ngM); 
hind (N.) ; the part that folds Arm. plega, plier, conrber, ployer; 
down plegadur, pliage; lai. plica 

Plowding, wading and splashing Ir. Gael, plod, a pool ; plodach, pud- 
throngh thick and thin (N.) die, mire; plodanachd, paddli^ in 

water ; Manx, plod^ pool ; pMey, 
to float 
Poach, to impress pasture-land by Arm. puha, &ire impression, en pe- 
the feet of cattle (N.); Fr. pocher, sant snr un corps mou ; Jx. Gael 
to push or dig out with the fin- poc, a blow 
gers 
Pod, to go. "P(x2 into the parlour" See Pad 

(L.) 
Poke, to push, to thrust (N.) ; Germ. Ir. poc, a blow ; GaeL puc, to push, 
pochen, to beat to jostle ; Com. poe, a push, a 

shoTe; Arm. peuka, to butt, push, 

press 

Poke, a bag (N.);* A.-S. pocca, 0. N. Ir. poc, Gael, poca, a bag. The root 

poici, a bag. Cf . Poochin, a wicker is the Ir. boc, poc, to swell : hence 

eel-trap (Sal.) Ir. poicin, a round-bellied man ; 

pucoid, a pustule ; pucadh, swell- 
ing or puffing up; Sans, pa, wind; 
pc^ra, hx, oorpident 
Poll, a hard, driving blow (N.), L. ; Ir. Gael, palltag, palltog, a blow ; 
Sw. bulla, to strike; IjdX, pultare, Manx, poaU, poll, a blow, especi- 
to beat ally on the head ; polteyr, a 

thumper 
^Poomer, anything very large (N.) W.^nrm {poom),pifffnp, a round maas 
iPommel, the ends which project or lump ; pwrnpl, a knob, a boss ; 
at the back of a cart (N.); 0. Sans, pun, to collect or heap toge- 
Fr. pomel, a boss ther 

( Pooihy, close and hot, applied to W. poeth, hot, burning; Arm. poaza, 
< the weather (N.), S. to burn, to cook 

( Pothery, hot, close, muggy (N.) 

Pooty, a snail-shell (N.), S. W. pwt, any short thing ; pwtefiy a 

squabby female ; prim, small, or 
short and round 

Pother, to puff as a person after vio- W. poth, pothan, what bulges out, a 
lent exercise. *' A jist did pother boss ; pothellu, to puff up 
some" (N.), S. 

Pouchy, sullen, sulky (N.) W. puch, a sigh; puchiol, sighing. If 

from pout, this is Celtic ; W. pwdu 
{pwtu), to be sullen, to pout; pw- 
tio, to thrust out the lip (Skeat) 

Poult, a blow on the head (N.) See Polt 

Prig, to steal (N.), L. Ir. Gael, preachy to seize, lay hold 

Prog, to prick, to poke into holes ; W. proc, a thrust, a drive; procio, to 

s. a short, pointed stick (N.) thrust, to stab 

Proke, to stir the fire (N.) 
Proggle, a goad (N.) 

* Prof. Skeat admits that poke, in each sense, is of Celtic origin. 



OF XOBTHAMFTOX AND LEICESTER. 91 

AXGLO-CKLTIC. CELTIC. 

Prog, food, pioriaion (S.): Mid. E. IEaiix, progham^ brad steeped in 
prokkenj to beg. Tbe noon from bnttennilk. m stuffing ; ftro^Aon, 
the Terb (Skeat) pottage ; Ir. GaeL brockam^ pot- 

tage ; GaeL prioghakn ^=progiH^ 
choice food; W./>ry,forj?ryf7.food; 
Com. brwkaj for lirmghoy pottage ; 
Ir. brackiamy wheat 
Proudj projecting, extending, sw<4- Perhaps connected vith W. ptedm 
len. ** That lock 'a a deal prowler for jtrtdru^ to stretdi or extend 
on one aide than the other^ (L.) oat: Sana, pritk, to extend ; pra- 

tarty to extend, atretdi oot 

Pro£ Skeat says (s. v. proud) that the root is unknown. 
May not the root-idea be extension or projecting, as in 
the Leic. word ? Cf. Ir. pruidin, an upstart poet. 
Pughe has prod, a gentle spread, and pryd, time. 

Puddle^ thick, dirty, stagnant water Ir. Qwd. plodan^A small pool ; plod^ 
(N.) A pool, standing water ; jUodack, 

pnddle, mire (Skeat); Manx,/)^ 
pool 
Puddle^ to poke, to pnsh (H.) ; puni, W. pictioM posh, thmst, poke ; Arm. 
to pnsh with force (K.) bunta, to thmst, push, repel; pou- 

to, to pnsh 

iPuddoekj a species of kite (N.) W. ptct, anj short thing ; pwten^ a 
Pnddffy pndgy, short, thick-set sqaabbv female; /nrf 0^7, short and 
(L.) ; ProY. Sw. puUtj a little thick; Sans.j[ni//, to be small 

thing 

Pug, to crowd (N.). " The two £s- W. pwg, what pnshes or swells out 
milies My% pugging together'* (?) Cf. Sans, puga, punga, heap, 

moltitude ; W. pwngu, to mass, 

cluster 
Pug9y the chaff of small seeds (N.) €rael. puicean, Ir. puicin (pucin), 
Puggent, the hnsks of barley (N.) covering, veil ; Ir. Gael, pocan, a 

little bag or pouch 
Puggy, damp from perspiration (N.) Ir. Gael, bog, soft, moist ; bogachj 

soft, wet, a marsh 
Pummel, to beat with the fist (N.) W. pwmp, a thump ; pufmpio, to 

thump, to bang; pwmpl, knob, 

boss 
Pun, to pound, to beat ^N.); Prov. W. pvcnio, to beat, to thump; Arm. 
Sw. punnOj to beat witii the hand bunta, to butt, strike against 

Pun, a slow, inactive person (N.) Arm. pouner, heavy, dull ; W. picn, 

a load 
Punt, to push with force (K.) See Bunt 

Purr-apple, cone of the Scotch fir W. pur, the fir-tree 

(N.) 

Quail, to curdle, coagulate (N.); Fr. W. ceulo, to curdle 

cailler, to curdle 

Queegle, to swing backwards, crouch- W. chunongl, a sudden turn; chwylo, 

ing down on the heels (L.) to turn, revolve 



92 CELTIC ELEMENT IK THE DIALECTS 

ANQLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Quibbling^ an attempt to deoeive, a W. chtvip, a quick flirt or torn ; 

subtle evadon (N.) gunbl, an abrupt turn, an eccentric 

course, a quirk; gwib, a quick, 
sudden motion; Ir. euibhet^ trwid^ 
deceit 
Quiddk. to suck as a child sucks its W. chwid, a quick turn ; chvndo, to 

thumt) (N.), L. move quickly; chwidro, id. 

QuiUf to beat (N.) Ir. cuilse, a beating ; probably from 

cuilCf a reed ; as we say, to cane a 
man 
Quirking, (|uick turning {'N,); quirk, W. chwired, a sudden start or turn ; 

to question, draw one out; Qerm. craft, cunning ; ehtoym^ quick, 

zwerch^ awry nimble; Gael, cuireid, a turn, wile, 

trick 
Quob, to throb, to palpitate (L.); W. cAu^op, ablow.a stroke; cAfAipio, 

prim, to beat ; Low Germ, quab- to strike smartly 

belfij to waddle 
Race, the heart, liver, and lights of W. rhe*=r(ui, row, rank, line; Arm. 

a calf (N.). It is applied to them reiz, id.; Sans, rae'i, heap, group, 

in their totality as a row or mass. series 

ProY. Sw. rcu (pron. rO»e), rank, 

file, line. The proper Sw. word 

is rod^ 
Rag, a whetstone for a scythe, from A corrupt form of crag, W. crag, Ir. 

being made of the stone called Gael, craig, stone, rock 

Weldon rag (N.) 
Ramp, a technical term for the slope W. rhamp, a running or reaching 

between a higher and a lower wall out ; rham, a reaching out ; rhamu, 

(N.) to rise up or over, to soar ; rhem" 

Ramping, coarse and large ; used pio, to run to an extreme ; Arm. 

most to wild, luxuriant vegetable rampa, glisser en ecartant les 

growth (N.) ; O. Fr. ramper, to deux jambes ; GaeL ramakr, a 

climb romp, a coarse, vulgar feUow 

Randan, a name given to ground W. rhim, part, division, and dain 

com after the second sifting (N.) (dani), fine, delicate (?) 
Raum, to reach with an effort after Sc^ Ramp 

a thing, to stretch after (L.) 

The diphthongal sound is a regular Celtic mutation of 
d. Cf. caivm^ to curvet (Leeds) ; W. camu. 

Rathe*, rathing, the movable rails Gael, rath, W. rhatod, raft, float 
round a wagon (N.) 

In Craven it is the frame added to a wagon for the 
purpose of carrying hay or straw. 

Raunpiked, said of an old oak that W. r?uium==^aun, Arm. reun, long, 
has the stumps of boughs stand- coarse hair ; W. pig (pik), sharp 

ing out of its top (L.), M. point, top 

■ 

Not for raven-piked^ as Mr. Marshall supposes, for that 



OF KORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



93 



gives no sense. The small shoots that grow in such a 
position are not unlike hairs. 



▲HOLO-CELTIC. 

RaveSj the same as Rathei (N.) 



CELTIC. 

May be only an accidental variation ; 
bat cf. It. GaeL ramh, branch, 
bongh 
Bei^ the growth of weeda in a pond Ir. rod^ aea-weed ; GaeL rdd^ weed 
or river (L.) cast on shore 

Probably rati or rati at first, then by a well known law 
reti and ret. 



RiddUy a large^ coarse sieve (L.); 
Germ, rddely a riddle, a little wheel 



RoUochj to romp about mdely (N.); 

O. Fr. roUr^ to roll 
Rammaek, to play and romp abont 

boisteronaly (N.) 
Romps, mde, boisterons play (N.) 

Rottj hnrry. bnstle (L.) 
Bosty, impatient, hasty (L.) 



Rounee, to bounce, to move nneasily 

(L.) 
Rout, foss, bustle, stir (N.) 



Rub, an indirect reproof (N.) 



Rum, odd, queer (N.); common 



RunL runty, a dwarfish person (N.); 
a breed of short-legged oxen : 
hence a short, stout, stunted per- 
son (L.); Du. rund, bullock, ox 



W. rhidyll. Arm. ridel, a sieve ; W. 

rhidio, to drain ; rhid, a drain ; 

Com. ridar, Ir. Gael, rideal, a 

riddle; San. rit, moving, flowing 
W. rholio, to roll ; Ir. rolaim, I roll; 

with a common Celtic suffix 
See Ramp 



Arm. ruit, rude, violent, brusk; rti*- 
tu, restive ; W. rhvs, a rushing ; 
rhytedd (y=Eng. u), a rush, a vio- 
lent course 

W. rhont, a frisk ; rhowHo, to frisk 

W. rhawter, a tumultuous rout ; 
rhawtio, to hun^ on ; rhaumt, 
vigour, spirit, activity 

W. rhwb, a rub, a chafe ; Ir. Gael. 
rubh, rubha, a wound; rubadh, 
friction ; rubair, a rubber 

In Scotland it means excellent ( Ja* 
mieson); as a slang word, <* any- 
thing large, good, or strong" 
(Slang Diet, by Bee, 1823) ; for- 
merly '* gallant, fine, rich" (Bailey, 
1776); rum culU=^ch fool; mm 
bung, a full purse ; mm bleating- 
cheat, a very fat wether. TMs 
last is the primitive meaning. Ir. 
Gael, ramk-ar, fat ;^ raimhe=rami, 
fatness ; with the Celtic pronun- 
ciation of short a 

Manx, runt4ig, a round lump of a 
thing ; Ir. Gael, ron, strong, fat, 
gross 



^ In slang language /a< means rich. The idea of eccentricity seems to 
have arisen from the independence of a rich state. A rich man may in- 
dulge in whims. 



94 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



ANGLOCELTIC. 

Sady heavy, as bread that is not pro- 
perly leavened (N.), L. 

Scigs, segs^ rushes, reeds (N.), L.; 
A.-S. secg, sedge, reed 

SiUe, " The proprietors of the un- 
derwood are empowered, by the 
ancient laws of the forest, to fence 
in each part or sale as soon as it 
is cut." (Britten, p. 117) 

A.-S. scely time, occasion. A borrowed word(?). It does 
not refer to space. 



CELTIC. 

W. sad, firm, solid ; Manx, sad, id.; 
Ir. sodan, a dumpy (O'Don.) 

Ir. Gael. 8€a8g^=sesga, sedge or bur- 
reed ; W. hesg, rushes ; hesgen, a 
single rush 

Ir. Gael, seal, a while, space of time, 
distance, course ; Sans, set, sal, to 
go, to move 



Sammy, a term of endearment, a 
favourite. " He *s quite sammy^^ 
(N.). In Shropshire it means a 
fool. Com that is soft, and will 
not grind freely, is said to be 
sammy 

Sap, a silly fellow, weak in intellect 
(N.) 

Saumey, a silly, half-witted person 
(N.) 

Scald, to boil slightly (N.); scald, to 
scorch (Norf.); 0. Fr. esccUder, to 
warm; Lat. excaldare, to wash in 
warm water (Skeat) 

Scale, to disperse, to scatter (N.); 
A.-S. scylan, to distinguish, sepa- 
rate, divide 



Scamp, a worthless, unprincipled 
fellow (N.); Ital. scampare, to es^ 
cape, shift away (Skeat) 



Scame, a mantel-piece (N.) 



Scotch, to dock or curtail (N.), L. 



Ir. Gael, samh, samhach, pleasant, 
quiet. Sometimes used unfavour- 
ably, as samachan, a soft, quiet 
person ; samacJi, quiet, soft 



Ir. Gael. 8aobh=sapa, silly, foolish 

W. san, a maze ; sanol, amazed, stu- 
pefied; sytmu, to wonder 

Ir. Gael. sccU, to bum, to soorcfa ; 
gal, heat ; Ir. sgoll (for sgold), 
Manx, scocUdey, to bum, to scald; 
Arm. skaot (for skalt), brulure 
causae par I'eau; skaota, bruler 

Ir. Gael, scaoil, sgaoil, to spread, 
disperse, scatter ; scaol, flight ; 
"M&nXyskeayl, to spread, to scat- 
.ter ; W. chtoalu, to spread, dis- 
perse 

Arm. skoemp, skoem, a knave, a 
swindler (Rev. Celt., iv, 166) ; Ir. 
scambhan,* a roguish trick, a vil- 
lainous deed; scamh, a wry mouth; 
Gael. scamJian, a villainous per- 
son, a term of great reproach ; 
Manx, scammylt, a reproach 

Probably connected with Ir. Gael. 
sgonn (pron. scone), a block of 
wood 

Ir. Gael, sgoth, sgatk, to cut, to lop; 
Gael, sgoch, to cut ; W. cytio, to 
cut, cut off ; cwta, short ; Sans. 
skhad, to cut, lop 



^ Seasg means also dry, barren. The root is the Sans, s'ush, to dry, dry 
up ; and from it is formed s'ushka, dry, barren. Seasg is = saski. It is a 
genuine Celtic word. 

^ The root is cam^ crooked, awry, perverse. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



95 



akol€m:eltic. 
Sarah J to acistch (N.) ; McrabbU^ to 

scratch, as dogs at a labbit-hole 

(L.) 
Scribtng-iron^ a tool for branding or 

marking trees (N.); Lat. «erite, to 

scratch, engrave, write ; O. N. 

skrqpa^ Da. tehrapeuj to scrape 

Scrim, erim (HaU), a small bit of 
any edible (N.); A.-S. tmrnfnan, 
to dry, wither 

iScroof, a weak, sickly child. ''A poor 
little Mcraof' (N.) 



CELTIC. 

Ir. Gael. $griob, $cnob^ a scratch, far- 
row;* to scratch, engrave; Manx, 
Bcreeb^ a scratch, a graze; W. era- 
fu (for crahu\ to scratch ; craf, 
daws, talons; cnbo, to comb; Arm. 
krafa, to scratch, engrave 

Ir. GfLeh erimog, a bit, a morsel ; 

Manx, crammafiy a fragment, a 

piece 
Ir. GhteL sgruit, any lean creature; 

sgmiy scrut, a mean, contemptible 

person; W. crwtytiy a little, dumpy 

fellow 

Prov. Sw. skruten, feeble from age, frail. The W. root 
crwt, seems to show that the Sw. skruten is borrowed, 
as many Swedish provincial words are. 

Scuffs Kufty nape of the neck (N.) W. gvoddf^ the neck ; Arm. gouzoukj 

neck, throat 

Seufff a pet name for a squirrel (N.) Ir. Gad. easogj a squirrel; probably 

for eascog, connected with easgna- 
tm, I clunb, ascend ; easgnaidhy 
nimble. ^ is a frequent prefix in 
Celtic. Cf. W. efrydr=e+hryd 

Scuitucky a little bit, of the lowest Ix, Quel. cut<ich ; Manx, $kuttaghj 
value (N.) short ; W. cwta, short ; cytio^ to 

cut, curtail ; Sans, kut^ to cleave, 
divide 
W. seim, fat, grease; Arm. toa, toav 
s=:^9oam; in the ninth century, 
8uif==sem^ fat, lard; Com. seim, 
train-oil 

iSSscXaef, a term of reproach for a child Ir. GaeL noc^ seac, dry, dried up; 

«iooair6, a little, contemptible crea- 
ture; seacta, secta^ dried up 
Ir. »egh, ox, buffalo (Gormack, p. 41 ), 



Seam, the best lard (L.); G«rm. aeim, 
thick, glutinous slime 



(N.); Lat. iicau 
Segg, a castrated buU (L.) 
Sen^ a kiud of peat turf (N.) 
Shammkng, counterfeiting (N.) 



or sioc, W. 9ych, dry; Ir. seasg, dry 
Probably connected with Ir. Gael. 

9ea»g, (1), dry; (2), sedge 
W. 9wm Uhom)^ a void, deceit, seem- 
ing to oe when there is nothing ; 
siomx^ to balk, deceive; Gael. tHoma- 
guad (deceit-word), evasion, pre- 
tence 
SJundg, a spree, a row (N.). It is the Ir. Gael, sine^ sinrie (for 9inde\ what 
name of a rough game played is round, a teat, a ball or knot of 
with curved sticks and a knob or wood; Manx, shirmey (for shintey), 
knur of wood. This knur and the id. 
game itself are called shindy 

^ The primitive meaning of the Lat. scribo. The first writing was with 
a style or graver. 



96 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS, ETC. 

ANQLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

iSAtrA;, to twist aboQt in your clothes, W. tereUj to jerk, to twist; terc^ a 
as when the skin is irritable (N.) jerk 

la some parts of Ireland, t before a vowel ''is pronounced 
sibilantly''. (O'Don., p. 39.) 

Shom7ncuik8(ioT8homma4:k^f&tilip' Gkiel. sgofinach^ lumpish, coarse, 
shod, untidy slattern (N.); Gkrm. shapeless, rude 
schaumig, frothy 

The termination -s, for -e^, is Celtic. Cf. W. dyn, man ; 
dyneSj woman. 

Shoddy, the waste in worsted mills W. BothacJu dregs, refuse 
(L.) 

What is shed or separated in spinning wool; A.-S. scea- 
dan. (Skeat.) Shoddy is made by *' tearing into fibres 
refuse woollen goods". (Webster.) 

Shoo I used to drive poultry or scare W. «ito (pron. aAoo), similarly used 
birds (N.) 

O. Fr. choUy id., an old Armoric word still used. {Rev. 
Celt, iv, 148.) 

Shorry, a large stick on which hedg- Com. thorerij branch, stake ; W. ys- 
ers carry &got8 (N.) gwr=^kour^ ysgyren^^kwen, id.; 

Arm. skourr, id. 
Shrudf shruddy, grave, stem (N.) W. ysgrad^^^^crad^ rigid, stiff 

Sometimes appears in slang as shirty. 

Shuff, a quick gust of wind (N.) W. chwaff,^ a quick gust 

Sidder^ light, loose, friable ; applied W. nir^ what jags or shreds (P.); n- 
to soil that breaks up readily (L.) tr<u:hu^ to jag, to shred ; sUtraehf 

lacinifld (Dav.) 

^ The Welsh chu) represents an older no. Gf . Sans, ivid, to sweat ; W. 
chtcygu. 

(To he continued,) 



97 



OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, AND 

ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 

{Continued from jp. 64.) 

The drive from Llanvorda passes through a small but 
pretty park, across the road leading to Llwynyraaen, 
then through a long strip of park-like meadow, and so 
comes out on to the Oswestry road, near Broom Hall, 
and having opposite to it the entrance gate of Penylan. 
It may be placed upon record as^a memorial of the 
mildness of the season in 1883-4, that the writer found 
some pink ragged-robin still in flower, growing on the 
low wall near the entrance to the park at Llanvorda, 
on Feb. 4th, 1884, which had evidently been blossoming 
through the winter. 

The Llwynymaen estate was divided, and half of it 
purchased by John Gibbons, Mayor of Oswestry in 
1789, with the object of getting the minerals under- 
neath it. He opened a colliery there, which was 
carried on for some time. We find that Penylan is 
constantly connected as a residence with the Llwyny- 
maen estate. In the pedigree of Lloyd of Llanvorda 
will be found a sketdi of the latter part of the old 
family of Muckleston, which was associated with 
Oswestry, and afterwards Shrewsbury, and the inter- 
marriage with which probably connected the family of 
Jones of Chilton with the former town. John Muckle- 
ston, who married Anne Lloyd, is styled of Penylan, 
and his son Edward and grandson John became 
Recorders of Oswestry. This points to the fact that 
they were of the legsJ faculty, like the family above 
mentioned. 

Penylan is now the residence of the Longuevilles, 
-who occupy a high position in the neighbourhood as 
solicitors and bankers. The present representative of 
the family, who has gained the respect and love of his 

5tB 8BB., VOL. II. 7 



98 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

fellow townsmen and others by his kind and philan- 
thropic actions, is the son of Thomas Longueville Jones, 
solicitor, son of Captain Jones, killed in a duel at 
Whitchurcli in 1799 ("Bye-gones", Oswestry Adver- 
tiser^), and, as there stated, great-grandson of Sir Thomas 
Longueville, which name he took in 1825, in accordance 
with the will of Richard Willding of Llanrhaiadr Hall, 
who had married a granddaughter of Sir Thomas. 
Thomas Longueville Jones had a half-brother, C. T. 
Jones, a banker. 

Sir T. C. Banks, in his Baronia Anglia Concentrata, 
says in a foot-note, p. 369, when speaking of Margaret 
Conway, daughter and co-heir of Henry Conway, and 
wife of Sir Thomas Longueville, Bart, "In 1824 Mr. 
Longueville Jones was lineal descendant and repre- 
sentative of this lady." In Sir Bernard Burke s 
General Armoury occurs the following : " Longvile 
(Wolverton, co. Bucks, Fem. ent. Ulster's office 1626. 
Katherine, daughter of Sir Edward Longvile, Knight, 
and wife of Sir Roger Jones, Vice-president of Con- 
naught), gu.f a fess dancette between 3 cross crosslets 
fi tehee or." These are the arms now borne by the 
family seated at Penylan. We give the pedigree of 
the above Margaret Conway from Banks. 

Thomas Percy, seventh Earl of Northumberland, beheaded 22 Aug. 1572 

X 

Elizabeth, eldest coh. Lacy, coheir Two other Mary, Prioress 

sBichard Woodroffe =r=Sir Edward Stan- drs. at Bmssells 

of Wolley, 00. York ley, K.B., of Tong 

V Castle, CO. Salop 



Venetia, coh. Petronella, coh., Frances, coh. 

fir Eenelm Digby died onmarried —John Fortescue of Selden, 
V CO- Backs. 

Four sons John Digby of Gk>tharst, co. Backs. 

«. jp. y Margaret, d. of Sir Edward Longaeville, Bart. 

Margaretta Maria, coh. Carlotta Theophila, coh. 

=f=Sir John Conway of Bodrhyddyn, Bart. = Richard, son of Sir Roger Mos 
I V tyn of Talacre, Bart, 

a Issue extinct 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 99 



"I 
Henry or John, oh. viv. pat, 

=Honora Rayenscroft 
I 



a < 



Honora« con. Margaret, oon. 
^Sir John Olynne, Bart. =Sir Thomas LongneviUe^ Bart.« grandson of 
V i sir Edward 

Maria Conway Harry or Harriot 

Margaretta. 

There remains little more in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Oswestry to which our attention is called. 
We have rather taken the genealogical history of the 
neighbourhood, because that of the indu^ries of the . 
town and many of its buildings has already been well 
written by others ; but this account would be incom- 
plete without some notice of the descendants of Einion 
Evell, natural son of Madoc ap Meredydd, Prince of 
Powys, who are so much connected with the neighbour- 
hood. (See pedigree, pp. 100-2.) 

It may be noticed how all these branches of the 
family were related through the Kynastons, who form 
a kind of central House round which the others might 
be grouped, though there were also other relationships 
which will be better perceived by giving the intermedi- 
ate portion of the above line. (See pp. 103-4.) 

Did space and time permit it would be easy to show 
that these several old families had been previously 
united, and were doubtlessly held by a bond of asso- 
ciation and family pride, but the hand of fate had been 
against them. The Court of the Marches was broken 
up, taking employment from many. The Kyffins were 
greatly reduced, like their relatives of Llanvorda, by 
the civil wars. The Vaughans had a considerable 
estate, which, however, passed to the heir male. The 
family of Adams were allied with so many recusant 
families who had been reduced by fines, that there 
was but little left, and their own estate at Cleeton had 
been disposed of previously, so that, notwithstanding 
these alliances, John Jones of Broseley was not a rich 

7* 



! I 



I 8." 

25|l i 






pig n 



B. 



U 



Iji • 
s'.s -s. 

?ii i 

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IH I 

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S"*l I 

=>»« •s 

|1! I 

^"1 * 

i-a-S erf 
la's Si 



100 

S 



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si las s-J 

s-a. ail a« 

II ajs 

IS Id 5 

1J lis 



Is 



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If-. 



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101 



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"lit °ll-=^'»lll 

31! I* ||-||?1s 



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.-IS „■ 5 ^si-i; 

ill s ? -ills 

,|S3 I s rag's" 



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ii . 

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fill 



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So 

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103 




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ll 11 II ll 11 If I? Il 






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1 tiS 



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f^fg" sis 



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III 

ill 

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■S. 

§1 



OSWESTRY, xVND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 105 

roan. His son George went into Staffordshire^ with 
which county he was connected through his mother's 
relatives, and, by his own perseverance and the aid of 
friends, considerably improved the family prospects. 
At his death it was discovered, much to the chagrin of 
his son and heir, that though his father had left him 
the bulk of his wealth, together with the Ruckley 
Grange estate absolutely, he had, however, only left 
him a life interest in certain other large estates, which 
he had entailed. After having viewed himself as un- 
limited heir of the whole, this disposition of the pro- 
perty was very annoying to the only son, who, there is 
reason to believe, had he known his father's intention, 
would have placed him in possession of information 
which would have greatly altered the present disposi- 
tion of his estates. George Jones received from his 
forefathers documents relating to the family, from which 
this account has been compiled after a careful investi- 
gation and comparison with parish registers, and a 
number of deeds, marriage settlements, etc., are now in 
possession of the writer. 

Having traced out these branches of the descendants 
of £inion Evell of Llwynymaen, we return to some 
others of no less interest and importance. 

Morris Ky£Sn ab leaan Oethin. See above 

sFMargaret, d. and ch. of Davydd ab William ab Owion Lloyd of Hendwr, 
I to Owain Brogyntyn 

Howel ob. 1481 

Margaret, d. of Howel ab leuan ab lorwerth of Glascoed, ab Einion Gethin 
ab Oniffadd Oethin ab leuan ab Davydd ab Gwyn ab Davydd Sant ab 
lenan ab Howel Goch ab Davydd ab Einion ab Gadwgan ab Khiwallon ab 

Bleddyn^ Prince of Powys 



Id of 



Meredydd of Glaaooed MabUsThomas Lreland ab David ab Bobert 
s—Thomasine, d. of Bichard Ireland 

I Ireland 



Bichard KyiBn Elizabeth Bichard Eyffin of Abertanat leuan Lloyd of 

ofGhiBcoed = Humphrey ^OwladiB,d.olGraffuddab Park Promia 
— Margaret, d. Kynaston I Meredydd Vychan« to V 

of William Elyetan Lloyd of Aston 

I Mytton ab Sir Adam I 

I Mytton, Knt. Davydd Kyffin 

\a b 



106 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

a b 

=j=Katherme, d. of RichArd ab Rhys ab Davydd 
Richard Kjffin I Lloyd. Or, a lion rampt. to. 

»=Katherine, d. of leuan | 

ab Owain ab leuan i I I I I 
Teg of Dolegould Richard Kyffin, son and Roger Six 
heir of Stanford Lewis danghiera 



I i I 

Nicholas John of Felton, (David) added 

=Margaret, 1590 

d. of ]£)bert =T=Katherine, d. and heir of John Felton 

Lloyd of J 



Abraham 



Walton 



I)avydd Oeoffrev Richard Kyffin Griffith or Geo&ey Kyffin 

=:the sister of Edward of Felton, 1592 of Glascoed (added) or 

Owain ab William aElianor, d. of Cae Coch 

Graffudd ab Davydd Lloyd ab =f=IJowTy, d. to Owen 

Meredydd Yychan Geoffrey ab John 

(added) ab Thomas 

V V 



Yychan, i,e., Owen 
Yaaghan, of Llwydi- 
arth 



Watkin Yanghan of Glascoed, Sheriff, 1663 
==Dorothy, d. of Owain Holland of Berw 

\ 

Margaret, coh., had Glascoed Anne, coh. Four other daughters 

=Sir William Williams, the =Thomas Edwards and coheirs 

Speaker of the House of of Kilhendre 

Commons. See before V 

V Issue extinct. 

It must be observed with respect to this pedigree, 
that in the latter part authorities differ. According to 
Additional MSS. 9864, etc., Brit. Mus., Richard 
Kyffin married twice, the first wife being named 
Goleubryd, but of the same descent as Gwladis above, 
and evidently intended for the same person. By this 
wife he had issue, with others : — 1, John Kyffin of 
Glascoed ; and 2, Gruffudd Kyffin, whose son, Thomas 
Kyffin, was Master of Oswestry School. 

John Kyffin, the eldest son, married Dowse, daughter 
of John Lloyd ab Richard of Llwynymaen, and by her 
had issue, Richard and Griffith (or Geoffrey) of Cae 
Coch, as above. Richard Kyffin is stated to have 
married secondly, Elizabeth, sister of Sir Adam 
Mytton, Knt. 

It is worthy of observation that the pedigree of 
Lloyd of Llanvorda says that Dower (sister of the 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 107 

John who married Margaret Kynaston) was the wife of 
John Kyffin of Glascoed, so that this is probably so 
far the correct version, though there are other instances 
which seem more difficult to corroborate, as for example 
where this MS. states that John Lloyd of Llanvorda 
(son of John and Margaret Kynaston) married Maria 
Lettie, daughter of George Cawlfeild of Oxfordshire, 
and Judge of North Wales, and Baron Charlemont in 
Ireland, and was by her father of the last Edward 
Lloyd of Llanvorda, etc. The person here intended 
would seem to be George, son of William, Lord Charle- 
mont, by Mary his wife, daughter of Sir John King 
by Catherine, daughter of Robert Drury, nephew to 
Sir William Drury, Lord Justice of Ireland. Such 
may be the case. The same MS. informs us that 
Meurick Lloyd, Baron of Isaled, Captain under the 
Earl of Arundel at the siege of Ptolemais, achieved 
the Spread Eagle in 1191. The above-mentioned 
George Cawlfeild was killed at the siege of Dunkirk. 
These manuscripts are by John Davies of Rhiwlas in 
Uansilin, the author of the Display of Heraldry. 

We return to (see pp. 108-9). 

The above Sir Edward Vaughan of Terracoed, after 
the death of his wife Jemima, married Elizabeth, 
daughter and co-heir of Sir William Appleton, Bart., 
of Shenfield, co. Essex, by whom he had, with other 
issue, John, who succeeded, to the Golden Grove estate 
under the will of his relative, the Duchess of Bolton. 

Harl. MS. 1972, says that Morris Kyffin of Maenan 
had issue by his wife, Alice Wynn of Melai, daughter 
of John Wynn, Esquire of the Body to Queen Mary, — 

1, Margaret, wife of John Vaughan, Earl of Carbery; 

2, Jane, wife of Peirse Pennant of Bychton; 3, 
Catherine, wife of John Price of Llewesog, father by 
her of William Price of Oxford ; 4, Edward Kyffin of 
Maenan ; and 5, William Kyffin of Maenan, who ohL 
s.p. But according to Harl. MS. 1977, which is pro- 
bably more correct, the issue is given as above, the 
issue of the second match being only Jane, wife of 
John Price of Llewesog. 



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110 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

There are two estates at Maenan, one Maenan Hall, 
which now belongs to the Lenthalls, and is let to a 
tenant farmer ; and the other Maenan Abbey, which is 
also let. Both have good residences upon them, that 
at Maenan Abbey quite modem, that of Maenan Hall is 
more ancient. There seems some discrepancy as to the 
Maenan Abbey estate. Dugdale says, in his Monas- 
ticon, vol. V, p. 671:— "In 26 Henry VHI, the 
revenues of Conway, otherwise Maynan Abbey, 
amounted in clear income to £162 155., in gross revenue 
to £179 105. \0d. The site was granted in the fifth 
year of Queen Elizabeth to Elizseus Wynne, in whose 
family it still continues, Lord Newborough being the 
present owner. A large house built from the materials 
of the abbey still remains." On the other hand, in the 
pedigree of Wynne of Garthewin, we find it stated 
that William Wynne of Melai married Mary, heiress 
of Maenan Abbey, being daughter and co-heir of Sir 
Richard Clough of Plas Clough, co. Denbigh. She 
died in 1632, and the abbey descended in the male line 
to John Wynne of Melai and Maenan, Sheriff of 
Denbighshire in 1712, who married Sydney, second 
daughter of Sir William Williams of Llanvorda, by 
whom he left two co-heirs, of whom Jane, the elder, 
married Sir John Wynn of Bodvean, and was so 
mother of Thomas Wynn, created Lord Newborough, 
23rd July 1776. 

Of the old Abbey of Maenan not a trace seems to 
remain. In it was preserved the stone coffin of Prince 
Llewelyn the Great, which has since been transferred 
to the church of Llanrwst, and is placed upon the floor 
of the Gwydir Chapel there. 

With respect to the Kyffins of Maenan Hall, Sir 
Davydd Kyffin was a priest, and is called Rector of 
Llanddoget, and his great- uncle was Abbot of Conway. 
It would seem probable, therefore, that, like the Pen- 
nants, this family came from a monk "deraigne", who 
secured part of the lands of his convent at the dis- 
solution, and having married, founded a flourishing 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. Ill 

family. It must be confessed by all fair and impartial 
judges that the Welsh clergy did not observe very 
strictly the disciplinary rule of celibacy imposed upon 
the Western Church, and it must be very questionable, 
whether the enforcement of such a law, attended with 
so many and such grave scandals as it was in this 
country, and is still in others, is in any way conducive 
to the spreading and welfare of Christianity, or counter- 
balances the advantages which a celibate priesthood 
may possess. A manuscript from Vron Iw, under the 
head of " Kyffin of Maenan ', says, p. 32 : — " Thomas 
Kyffin, vicar of Trallwng, brawd i Edd Vicar Caerwys, 
Richard Kyfl&n ab William ab Richard ab Edward, 
Vicar yn Caerwys, ab Morris ab Sir Davidd ab Owen 
ab Gruffudd", etc. In the fine old hall at Maenan, the 
beautifully enriched roof and gables, now, alas, falling 
into decay, were the work of Morris Kyffin, whose arms 
and initials are on the end, with the date 1582. It is 
the local tradition that the unquiet spirit of Sir Thomas 
Kyffin still haunts the spot, whose rest is said to have 
been broken by his having, in a fit of rage, caused the 
death of a boy. He was a learned man and a lawyer 
of considerable eminence, but having one of the usual 
characteristics of the British race, a hot and violent 
temper. 

Maenan Hall passed to the family of Lenthall, the 
descendants in the male line of the Speaker of the 
House of Commons during the Long Parliament, and 
with them it remains. Several manuscripts in the 
British Museum speak of one family of Kyffin as being 
of Swiney or Swinney ; and others when speaking of 
the same persons, call them of Oswestry, — no doubt, 
from the fact that the Swinney estate lies near that 
town. It passed from the Kyffins, and became vested 
in a family of the name of Baker, apparently of 
puritanical proclivities. During the period of the 
Commonwealth a burial ground was used here by 
some of the Puritan faction, and upon tombstones 
therein are the following inscriptions : — 



] 12 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

" Here lies Mrs. Abigail Chetwood, daughter to Sir 
Richard Chetwood, who died the first of May 1658/' 

"Thomas Baker, Esq., deceased March 19th, aged 
68, Anno Dom. 1675." 

This was the Thomas Baker who was Sheriff of 
Shropshire in 1649, son of Thomas Baker who had 
been in the employment of Andrew Chambre of 
Swinney, and grandson of Thomas Baker of Weston 
Lullingfield, in the parish of BMchurch. According to 
the letters of Edward Lloyd of Llanvorda, Thomas 
Baker had " entertayned Bradsdawe and his deputyes 
at his house". Gough says, " He was chosen by the 
Protector to be a Parliament man. The other knight 
of the shire, chosen also by the Protector, was John 
Brown of Little Ness, one that Mr. Baker had a great 
respect for. It was thought that the Protector chose 
this Parliament on purpose that they might make him 
king." Dying without issue, the above Thomas Baker 
(whose father had purchased the Swinney estate from 
Andrew Chambre) left his property to. his niece Mary, 
wife of Thomas, son of the above-mentioned John 
Browne of Little Ness ; and the last male of the line, 
Edward Browne, dying in 1794, the estate passed to 
his niece Sarah, wife of Thomas Netherton Parker, 
and so by an heiress to the Leightons, the present 
possessors. The modem house, built in 1805, is the 
successor of one built by Thomas Baker about 1640, 
and stands upon rather a flat piece, of ground, though 
looking on to hills. Not far from it is Llynclys Pool, 
a natural sheet of water of no great size, but very 
deep, and hiding in its bosom, as is averred, the remains 
of a palace, whence the name. 

The mention of Swinney, or Sweeney, connected 
with the Kyffins has carried us from the line of Einion 
Evell, to which we must return, finishing this long 
account of Oswestry and its environs. Indeed, it 
would be an oversight to leave so interesting a place 
and fine a specimen of mediaRval architecture as Park 
Hall unnoticed. The Powells of the Park descend 
from Robert ab Howell as under. 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 



113 



- OniffUdd of Moeliwrcb. See before, nnder Abertanat 
»Gwen, d. and heir of Madoc ab Meredydd ab Llewelyn Dda of Trevor 

Howel=Angharad, d. of Biohard Strange of Enockyn 

Robert ab Howel. i,e„ Bobert Powell of the Park 
=Katherine, d. of John Edwardes Hen of Plas Newydd Chirk, to Tudor 
1^ Trevor 

^ 1 II 

Thomas Powell of the Park Martinet Blanche 

=Mai7, d. of Sir Robert Corbet = William yioetyn =7=Thoma8 WiUiams 

I of Morton Corbet of Mostyn, as I of Willaston 

before | 

V 



Bobert Powell Elizabeth 
of the Park =Morri8 Ladlow 
npAnne, d. of of Moorhall 

Bobert Needham 

of Shavington 



bh< 



Eathenne 
=Edward 
Acton of 
Acton Scott 

V 



Mary Beginald 

=Bhy8 =T=Margaret, d. of 

Tanad (Gerard Gore of 

V 



London 



Thomas, 
eta 

V 



Edward 

V 



I ^1 

Mary Frances 

=Edward Jones =ThomaB 
of Shrewsbury Thinne 

I V 

Sir Thomas, Lord Chief Jastice, etc. 

V 



•I 

Thomas 

V 



Elizabeth 

=Sir Richard 

Hnssey 

V 



The male line continued until Thomas Powell of the 
Park, Sheriff of Shropshire in 1717, whose eldest 
daughter and co-heir Jane sold the Park to Sir Francis 
Charlton of Ludford, and it has since repeatedly 
changed owners. 

The writer has seen it stated that the Park was 
occupied by Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, and his 
consort, Lady Frances Brandon, eldest co-heir of Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and the Princess Mary 
Tudor his wife ; so that there would be a connection 
between this place and the unhappy Lady Jane Grey, 
Queen of England. It will be remembered that after 
the death of her first husband, who was beheaded in 
1554, the above Lady Frances consoled herself by 
espousing her handsome Master of the Horse, Adrian 
Stokes, mentioned in the will of Henry VIII, by 
whom, however, it is believed she left no issue. This 
Adrian Stokes seems to have been connected by birth 
with this part of the country, and by marriage with 
the south. Another of the co-heirs of Charles Brandon, 



6th beb., vol. II. 



8 



114 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

Anne, was wife of the last Grey, Lord Powis, whom 
she survived. 

In looking over the foregoing pages, which contain 
a genealogical history of the neighbourhood of Oswestry, 
it becomes a matter of regret that time and space 
forbid a further elucidation of the manifold relation- 
ships and connections between these several families. 
It would seem as though the old town had not only 
been a trysting-place for the purposes of commercial 
enterprise, but a matrimonial market between Welsh 
and English families. As has been sufficiently shown, 
this country formed a stronghold of the Royal Tribe of 
Powys, most of those classes who held land there being 
descended from that tribe. 

We shall conclude our remarks by two quotations 
from Harl. MS. 1982, which tells us that Edward ab 
Hugh Muckleston of Llanvorda married Angharad, 
daughter of Thomas ab Rhys ab Guttyn. A reference 
to the pedigree of Lloyd of Llanvorda, above given, 
will show that John ab Edward ab Hugh Muckleston 
married Anne, a daughter of that house of the Llwyny- 
maen branch. This Edward was his father, and by 
referring to the pedigree of Kyffin of Swinney, it will 
give the descent of his mother ; for it will then be seen 
that Guttyn ab Gruffudd ab leuan Gethin had a son, 
Rhys of Rhiwlas. This Rhys married Anghared, 
daughter of lorwerth ab lorweth Goch, and was father 
of Thomas (ab Rhys ab Guttyn), who married Margaret, 
daughter of Llewelyn ab Maurice of Ysgwennant, 
derived, through Gruffudd ab Beli of Cegidfa, from 
Brochwael Yscythrog, Prince of Powys {sa. three nag's 
heads erased argt), and this Margaret was mother of 
Angharad, wife of Edward Muckleston, whence it 
will be observed that the Mucklestons were cousins of 
the Kyffins of Swinney, as well as related to the 
Llanvorda family. 

The above Margaret had a cousin, leuan, whose 
estate of Lloran Ganol was forfeited and given by 
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, to John Chaloner ab 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 115 

Robert of Denbigh, whose descendant Robert Chaloner, 
married one of the co-heirs of Morris Tanad of Blodwel ; 
and this brings us to our second quotation. 

The estate of Blodwel came to the family of 
Matthews by an heiress, or more correctly, a co-heir. 
Morris Tanad of Blodwel (ab Robert ab John ab leuan 
Lloyd of Abertanad) married Margaret, daughter and 
heir of Thomas Owen of Phis Ddu, co. Carnarvon, 
and left issue nine daughters, co-heirs in blood, — 1, 
Katherine, wife of Francis KyflSn ; 2, Jane of Blodwel, 
wife of John Matthews; 3, Anne, wife of Robert 
Chaloner of Lloran ; 4, Elizabeth, wife of Davydd 
liloyd ab Hugh ab Rhys of Plas Ddu ; 5, Alice, wife 
of William Wynn of Moeliwrch ; 6, Sina, wife first 
of Thomas Blighe, secondly of Edward Hanmer ; 7, 
Margaret, wife of John Pugh of Pentre Vychan ; 8, 
Lucy, wife of Thomas Da vies of May brook ; 9, Dower, 
wife firstly of John ab Robert of Finnant, and secondly, 
of David Evans of Soughton. 

It has already been shown how the Blodwel estate 
passed with the heiress of Matthews to the family of 
JSridgeman, who still retain it. The ninth daughter, 
Dower, or Dowse, married as her second husband a 
descendant of Ednowain Bendew. Her first husband 
derived his descent from Edwin of Tegeingl, but by her 
left a daughter and heir, Joan, who carried Finnant in 
marriage to her husband, Richard ab Robert, descended, 
through Gwyn ab Gruffudd of Cegidfa, from Brochwael 
Yscythrog. They also had issue an heiress, Catherine, 
who carried Finnant in like manner to her husband 
William Lloyd, father of John Lloyd, father of 
William Lloyd of Finnant, who left a sole daughter 
and heir, Mary, obt. 18th March 1789, wife of John 
Jones, obt 4th Oct. 1763, younger son, as shown above, 
of William Jones of Chilton and Susanah Calcot, his 
wife. They had issue a son, Lloyd Jones of Finnant, 
who died without issue 1801, leaving his sister Martha, 
the wife of Rev. Richard Congreve, heir in blood, but 
the Finnant property was sold. This Rev. Richard 

8* 



116 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

Congreve, of an ancient Staffordshire family, was the 
son of John Congreve, 1694, by Abigail, daughter of 
John Harwood of Shrewsbury, son of John Congreve 
of Stretton, co. Staffordshire, 1659, by Mary, daughter 
of Thomas Nicolls of Boycott, mentioned under the 
Kynaston pedigree. 

LACON OF PORKINGTON. 
{HarL MSS, 1,396, 1,982 ; Add. MS. 14,314, etc.) 
Sir Robert Lacon of Lacon. co. Salop 

I 

Sir Bichard 

Richard 

=Matilda, d. and b. of Jobn Boterell of Aston Boterell, son of Sir Thomas 

WiUiam 

=f=Elizabeth« d. of Sir Owen or St. Owen 

Kichard 

=Hellena, d. of Sir Huflrb Bomell of Acton Bomell 

J 

John of Lacon 

yElizabetb, d. and b. of Sir Jobn Stanlowe or Standon of co. Stafford 

Robert 

=f£Uena, d. and b. of Nicholas Coeton of Coeton 

I 

John of Lacon, ==Ellena Alan, second son, 11 Rich. II 

eldest son | = Agnes, d. of Walter de Pembmge, Ent., 

I I by Margery, d. of Sir Jobn Barley, Knt. 

Ellena, heiress of Lacon | 

=Robert Hussey William Lacon, son and heir, 2 Rich. II 

I =Margaret, d. and h. of Richard or Ralph Paalew, 

Margaret, heiress I by Amicia, d. of Richard Kynaston 

=Bane8ter of Lacon and | 
V Hadnall Sir Richard Lacon, Sheriff of Shropshire, 1415 

==Elizabeth, d. and b. of Hamon Pesbale of co. Staf- 
ford, by Alicia, only d. and h. of Robert Harley (by 
Mary, d. and b. of Sir Brian de Brompton), son of 
Sir Malcolm (18 Edward II), son of Sir Richard by 
Borga, d. and h. of Sir Andrew de Willey of Willey, 

CO. Salop 
William Lacon of Willey, co. Salop 
==Magdalen, d. of Richard Wigram or Wisbam of Holt, co. Worcester 

I 
Sir Richard Lacon of Willey 

= Alice, d. of Thomas Howard, Esq., of Bridgnorth, by Joyce, coheiress of 

I Sir John Stapleton 

Sir Thomas Lacon of Willey=Gwenhwyfar, d. to Gruffudd John, fourth son 
=jrMary, d. of Sir Richard Vychan ab Gruffudd Deuddwr =tF 
Corbet, Knt. to Brochwel, second wife | 

(Ilarl. MS. 1,982) Anne 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 117 



a J 6 1 c 

Richard Lacon. buried 1541 | _Philip Oteley 

=Agne8, d. of Sir John John Lacon of Porkington V ^^ Oteley 

\/ Bloant of Kinlet, and ^Gwenhower,d. to Dayid Eytton 
Katherine, d. and h. I of Eytton 

of Sir Hngh PeshaU | 

of CO. Stafford Thomas Laoon of Llangollen and Porkington 
Xiscon of Willey ^Margaret, d. and h. to John Wyn Edwardes, called 

and Linley | SsJter, by Elizabeth, d. to Hugh Lewis, son of 

John Edwards of Chirk, by Gwenhwyer, d. to Ellis 
I Eyton of Rhiwabon 

John Wyn Lacon 
===Ellen, d. to Bandall Dimock of Willington 

Thomas Wyn Lacon of Warden in Bedfordshire Margarets=Sir William 
=^ Elizabeth, d. of John Look of Cambridgeshire Morris, Knt. 



ridgett=Thoma8 Wyn of Comedwyn. 



So important a family as that of Lacon of Brogyntyn, 
-which, with the estate of Llandyn, in Llangollen 
parish, has passed to their descendant, the present 
LiOrd Harlech, should find its pedigree in every history 
connected with the neighbourhood of Oswestry. It 
will be seen from the History of Powys Fadog, vol. i v, 
p. 63, that John Wyn Edwardes was the second son of 
John Edwardes, heir of Chirk, derived from Tudor 
Trevor. (Harl. MS. 4,181.) The family of Boterell, 
ancestors of Lacon, became much increased by the 
marriage of William Boterell with Isabel, daughter and 
heir of Helias de Say, lord of Clun, and relict of* Wil- 
liam Fitzalan. The older estates, of course, passed to 
the senior branches of the Lacon family. 

Before putting an end to this account, however, 
perhaps it would be of interest to some to mention 
another family descended from leuan Vychan ab leuan 
Gethin of Abertanad, who still own an estate near 
Oswestry, and one related to many of the families 
previously mentioned. 

Robert Edwards of Rhydycroesau, who first assumed 
that surname, was the son of Edward Thomas (by 
Margery, daughter of Thomas Wycherley of Eyton), 
son of Thomas ab Llewelyn of Cynllaith, by Jane, 
daughter of Griffith Lloyd of Rhagad (a family of 
Lloyds which possessed that estate before the present 



118 OSWESTRY, ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

one of that name, and were descended from Osbom 
Wyddel). This Robert Edwards married Anne, 
daughter and heir of Robert Kyffin of Cynllaith, 
and was father of John Edwards, who purchased the 
estate of Ness Strange, and died 1709, having issue 
by Dorothy his wife, daughter of Thomas Barnes, 
a son, John Edwardes of Ness Strange, who married 
Mary, daughter of Richard Muckleston of Shrews- 
bury, brother of the Recorder of Oswestry, and had 
issue John Edwardes of Ness Strange, who by Margaret, 
daughter of Robert Lowndes of Winslow, co. Bucks, 
was father of twin sons, Rowland and John, the latter 
of whom was founder of the family of Edwards of 
Dolserau, co. Merioneth*. The elder son, bom 1738, 
married in 1765 Dorothy, daughter of John Scott of 
Shrewsbury, and was by her ancestor of the present 
owners of Ness Strange. By this match they are 
related to the families of Scott- Waring, Stokes, Reade, 
Faber, etc., etc. 

Thus has time blended these several races, uniting in 
one channel the blood which had been rendered hostile 
by the passions and iniquities of mankind. The Nor- 
man, blood of the Plantagenets and Fitzalans flows 
peacefully intermingled with that of the Royal Llew- 
elyn. Time has softened injuries, buried old griefs and 
heartburnings, as it has also changed the wild Welsh 
warrior, the haughty Norman noble, or the lowly Saxon 
serf into the gentle and simple folk of the present day. 
It is thus that a deep study of the gentle sciences of 
heraldry and genealogy ought to make men feel more 
fully the unity of the great human family, and to induce 
a spirit of courteousness to all ; a spirit whose absence 
is rather the mark of the risen man of our time, than 
that of the older and nobler families. It inculcates 
a loftier and less variable standard of nobility than 
that of accumulated wealth, oftentimes chastens the 
rich and cheers the poor, thus tending to equalise the 
various conditions of men in this changeable, unstable, 
and sorrowful world. 



AND ITS LOCAL FAMILIES. 119 

It remains, in closing this history, to say what is the 
authority for the information therein contained, and 
this may be classed under the following heads : — The 
Harl. MSS. and Add. MSS. of the British Museum, 
several county histories, collections, and information 
relative to the family given by the late George Jones, 
Esq., to his grandson Henry, and taken from his fore- 
fathers, compared with parish registers, the Blakeway 
MS. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, old deeds, and 
other authentic documents, etc., etc. 

Henry F, J. Vaughan, B.A., S.C.L., etc. 



120 



NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES IN THE 

FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 

BT THE LATE 

Sir STEPHEN RICHARD GLYNNE, Babt. 

(Continued from p. 48.) 



PENNANT MELANQELL (bT. MONACELLA). 

Oct. 14th, 1848. 

A CHURCH of mean exterior, but with some points of 
interest. It consists only of nave and chancel, west 
tower, and south porch. The architectvire is rude ; but 
worked into the south wall appear some Norman capi- 
tals, also two small broken snafts, and sculpture with 
crockets. The south porch is large, and within it is a 
doorway, tall and narrow, with semicircular arch on 
imposts, which must be early Norman. There is also a 
small Norman window on the north side. Other win- 
dows are late and square-headed, and some wretchedly 
bad ; but the east window is wanting, a building used 
as a school being added to the end of the chancel. The 
tower is low and heavy, quite plain, and without but- 
tress or window, except only a slit on the south. It 
is surmounted by a sloping roof and wooden belfry. 
There is a very curious wooden gallery at the west 
end, with tracery, and eleven square, paneled compart- 
ments with cornice above, in which is some foliage 
intermixed with sculpture representing the legend of 
St. Monacella, which is very curious and interesting. 
Below it is also a cornice with oak-leaves and acorns. 
There is also a rood-screen with four compartments on 
each side, and a door in the centre with some ogee 
tracery, and painted red. The pavement is of slate. 
The cnurch is very untidy, and awfully crowded witli 
pews quite up to the altar. In the north wall is a 



NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES, ETC. 121 

black-letter inscription in Welsh, a.d. 1555. The font 
is circular, banded, but much knocked about. 

In the churchyard are some very fine yew-trees and 
two sepulchral effigies,— one with a lady's effigy, one 
with a shield. There are a lych-gate and the shaft of 
a cross. The view from the churchyard over the 
lovely, retired valley, secluded among fine mountains, 
is most enchanting.' 

WELSHPOOL (ST. MARY). 

This church has a west tower, nave, side-aisles, and 
chancel. The walls of the nave are rebuilt in a modern 
style ; but internally are five late Perpendicular arches 
of Tudor form, dividing the aisles on each side, spring- 
ing from moulded piers of diamond shape, without 
shafts, and having embattled capitals. The tower is of 
plain Perpendicular work, with a battlement and simple 
belfry windows. The chancel is of good Decorated 
work ; the east window of five lights, like that at 
Haseley ; the north and south windows of three lights, 
with good tracery. The ceiling of the chancel is flat 
and paneled, painted and gilt, and the ivy grows 
through some of the windows. There are galleries and 
a good organ. The arcades may possibly be modern ; 
and probably there has been a change in the original 
plan of the nave, the south aisle being very wide, and 
the north aisle so narrow. The chancel is crookedly 
placed with reference to the present arrangement. The 
chancel (1857) has recently been improved, and the 
roof much raised internally, paneled, and ribbed, and 
coloured blue. There are two arched recesses south 
of the altar (one of ogee form), but encroached on by 
the steps. The east window is of five lights, and with 
new Decorated tracery. On the north side of the 

^ The church was restored in 1877, and put into good order. The 
effigies were at the same time removed into the church. They pro- 
bably represent lorwerth of Penllyn, the second son of Madog ap 
Bhirid Flaidd, and his wife Gwerfvl. 



122 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

chancel is a fine recumbent monumental effigy of Ed- 
ward, second Earl of Powis, 06. 1848. The body was 
rebuilt 1774.^ 



DEANERY OF WEEXHAM. 



GRESFORD (ALL SAINTS). 

This large and beautiful church is of a style nearly 
singular in Wales, and in its richness resembles the 
style of Somersetshire rather than the Principality. 
The whole is Perpendicular, except a few portions of 
the wall, which are Decorated, There are, however, 
many points of resemblance in it to the neighbouring 
equally fine churches of Wrexham and Mold. The 
plan comprises a noble west tower, a nave and chancel, 
each with side-aisles, which are continued to the east 
end. The whole of the body has a good battlement. 
A south porch has been converted into a vestry. The 
tower is lofty, and finished with a handsome battle- 
ment, eight crocketed pinnacles, and eight statues, 
apparently of apostles, in the intermediate spaces. 
There are also statues in niches at the angles of the 
upper story. The belfry windows are double on each 
side, with ogee canopies. The lower portion of the 
tower appears to be earlier, both from the difference 
of the stone and its plainer character. The south 
porch has over its outer door a square dripstone, and 
in the centre a fine niche, with canopy projecting out- 

^ In 1871 the chancel was remodelled, and a north organ- chamber 
added ; a new bay opened at the west end by the removal of the 
gallery and throwing the porch into the chnrch. An open roof of 
pitch-pine was erected in lieu of the preyions ceiling, a new memo- 
rial pulpit was set np, and several memorial windows. The archi- 
tect was Mr. G. E. Street, A.B.A. A fine, new organ has been 
added in 1884. 



r 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 123 

wards, with the figures of the Virgin and Child. The 
wall is rather bare, and there is no large west window, 
only a small one of two lights set high in the wall, 
which has a Decorated appearance ; and there is a very 
plain west doorway. The tower* opens to the nave 
by quite a small pointed arch in the wall, bevelled 
and continued without shafts, which, being entirely 
below the present gallery, is well seen. The west 
window of the south aisle is a flowing Decorated one 
of three lights ; the other windows are all large and 
Perpendicular, of four lights ; those of the clerestory 
have rather depressed arches, and are of four lights.' 
The interior i^ of great beluty. and the symmetry 
uninjured by galleries, the only one being at the west 
end of the nave, for the reception of the organ, and 
on the whole inobtrusive and well-contrived. There 
is no chancel arch or architectural distinction. The 
body is divided from each aisle by six pointed arches, 
of which one is in the chancel. The piers are rather 
coarse, composed of shafts clustered in lozenge form, 
with a general plain-bonded octagonal capital. The 
clerestory windows have four lights, except in the 
eastern compartment, where are but three lights. The 
roof is of wood, and very elegant, formed by ribs into 
panels with flowered bosses.' Another most beautiful 
feature is the roodloft screen reaching across the 
entrance to the chancel, in very perfect condition, of 
three compartments on each side of the centre, with 
most elegant tracery and cornices of vine leaves, 
crowned by Tudor flowers: the loft itself is extant. 

' There is a cornice under the battlement containing animals, 
etc. 

^ The windows have dripstones with most cnrions corbels repre- 
senting gprotesqne heads, animals, etc. Over the east window, ex- 
ternally, is a crocketed dripstone, and the apex of the east gable is 
crowned by a cross. 

^ That of the aisles is plainer than in the nave, the ribbed panels 
having no bosses. Those of the two aisles are rather dissimilar. 
The ribs rest on largo and curious corbels rcpi*esenting heads and 
auimals, very grotesque, and differing from each other. 



124 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

There are also elegant parclose screens, enclosing tho 
chancel aisles, of later and rather less good style than 
the roodloft. The altar is raised high, though less so 
than formerly, and there is a kind of crypt beneath it. 
The east window, of seven lights, is entirely filled with 
very rich, ancient, stained glass, representing various 
saints. In the north aisle was the chapeP of the 
Virgin Mary, and its east window contains representa- 
tions of several passages in her life in admirable stained 
glass, and several inscriptions on scrolls, recording the 
donors with dates, but these are mostly mutilated in 
some degree. The date 1498 appears. In the south 
aisle was the chapeP of St. John the Baptist, whose 
history is seen in its east window, the stained glass 
of which is also in fair preservation. In this chapel 
the altar was originally raised on a step, and in the 
south wall is a niche with piscina of Decorated 
character, having crocketed ogee canopy.^ The eastern 
arch on each side of the chancel is walled up. In the 
north chapel there is a fine canopied niche. The 
chancel contains all the original stalls and desks in 
front, with much excellent wood carving. In the north 
aisle is a slab under a recess in the wall with an in- 
scription, and under a flat arch in the south wall an 
effigy of a knight in chain mail, with a lion rampant on 
the shield, with this inscription : — "Hie jacet Madoc 
ap Llewelin ap Grifiri, obit. 1331." The font is an 
octagonal basin of rather elaborate design, upon an 
octangular pedestal. The sides of the basin have sculp- 
ture of the Virgin Mary, of the infant Jesus, St. Peter, 
and various other subjects, some mutilated ; below 
the bowl on the sloped sides is some curious paneling 
without bosses. In the south chapel of the chancel are 
Elizabethan monuments of the Trevors of Trevalyn.* 

1 The Llai Chantry. « The Trefalyn Chantry. 

' *'A beantifal monumental brass has lately been erected here to 
the memory of the Rev. C. Parkins and Anne his wife.'* 

* In 18G7 the church was effectually restored by Mr. G. E. Street, 
A.B.A., and the damaged glass in the fine east window at tho same 
time renewed. 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 125 



HANMER (ST. CHAD). 

This is a fine church, but in a bad condition, con- 
sisting of a west tower, a nave with side-aisles, south 
porch and chancel. The whole is Perpendicular, of 
late, but good, character. The tower lofty and em- 
battled, the belfry windows long and double, with 
transoms, and in the stage below the belfir is a square 
containing a quatrefoiled circle. The whole church, 
including the porch, is embattled, but there is no 
clerestory. The windows (one square on the north) 
are chiefly of four lights, some with and some without 
transoms. On each side of the nave are four Tudor 
arches dividing the aisles, and springing from clustered 
piers. The east end of each aisle is enclosed by a 
wood screen, that on the south very fine. The east 
end of this aisle belongs to the Hanmer family, and 
contains several monuments to them. Both these 
enclosed chapels have very beautiful wood ceilings, 
paneled with quatrefoils in the spaces, enriched bosses, 
and beams foliated. The pulpit has wood carving of 
the age of ElL^abeth. The font is octagonal. The 
chancel is modem and ugly.^ 

HOLT (ST. chad). 

This is a handsome church of good and well-finished 
Perpendicular architecture. It has a west tower, a 
nave, chancel, and side-aisles. The tower is embattled, 
has a good west window, comer buttresses, and a belfry 
window of two lights, having a Decorated look, and a 
flowered band under the parapet, and gurgoyles at 
the angles. The body has no battlement, and there 
is no clerestory, but the windows are very numerous, 

* The chancel is now (December 1884) being restored in charac- 
ter with the date of its erection, famished with cedar-wood, and laid 
with encanstic tiles, at the expense of the patron, Sir Edward Han- 
mer, Bart., who has also filled the windows with memorial glass. 



126 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

and make the interior very light ; they have mostly 
flat arches, and those at the east end are large and fine. 
The nave is unusually narrow, and the aisles greater 
in width, which is singular. There are Tudor arch 
doorways on the north and south, with labels and circles 
with quatrefoils and shields in the spandrels. Above 
the south door is a band of paneling. The arches 
dividing the nave from the aisles are very acute, and 
perhaps may be of earlier period than the other parts 
of the church. The piers are octagonal, both in the 
nave and chancel. The latter has two arches on each 
side, but they are of Tudor form. In the chancel are 
some wooden stalls. At the east end of the south 
aisle is a fine ogee niche crocketed, set between 
buttresses surmounted by pinnacles. The font is octa- 
gonal, paneled with armorial bearings. There are six 
bells. 

Revisited, Nov, 26^A, 1853. 

The interior fine, and unencumbered by galleries. 
The nave extremely narrow, and though of fair height, 
without clerestory. The nave has five remarkably 
acute chamfered arches on each side, the piers octagonal, 
with moulded capitals. The aisles are wider. The 
ceilings throughout modem and flat ; no chancel arch, 
but a modern Gothic screen dividing the chancel. In 
the chancel are two flat, wide, Tudor arches, with good 
mouldings on each side, dividing the aisles, the piers 
octagonal and channeled. Some of the old stalls remain. 
The east window is a large one of five lights, with two 
transoms. In the south aisle, the east window, a very 
large one and fine, of six lights, subarcuated, having 
a quatrefoil in the centre of the head, and mouldings 
and shafts ; that at the east of the north aisle has five 
lights ; the others are chiefly of four lights, set very 
closely, and with Tudor-shaped arches, resembling those 
at Mold. The south-east respond is a finely moulded 
corbel. In the south aisle, near the east end, is a fine 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 127 

piscina. There are fragments of stained glass. The 
parapets are moulded, and there are shallow buttresses 
with incipient pinnacles. The east end is flanked by 
square paneled bases of pinnacles. The south door 
has an elegant square label finely moulded and foliated, 
and above it a horizontal band of paneling ; the 
spandrels paneled, and containing heraldic shields. The 
north door has also a label and spandrels of plainer 
sort. The tower finely mantled with ivy on the south. 
The ground is uneven, and falls from the east end, 
where there seems to be a crypt under the church. 
A curious monumental brass plate in the north aisle, 
1666, with Latin inscription and English verse, and a 
name in Greek characters.* 



OVERTON^ (ST. MARY). 

Nov. 7th, 1871. 

This church was reopened on the said day, after con- 
siderable restoration and improvement. It consists of 
a nave with aisles, chancel, and western tower, and all 
the portions that are not reconstructed are of late 
Perpendicular character. The tower, which is quite 
untouched, is a good specimen of plain Perpendicular^ 
built of red sandstone, with embattled parapet and 
corner buttresses, but no division by string courses. 
There is a good west doorway, with flat arch and con- 
tinuous mouldings, and hood . on head corbels, above a 
two-light window; the belfry windows also of two lights; 
and at the north-east angle is a square turret for stair- 

^ Holt was in the diocese of Chester till 1861, when it was trans- 
ferred to St. Asaph. In 1871-73 the church underwent a complete 
restoratiod at a cost of upwards of £4,000, the chancel heing done 
by Mr. Christian at the cost of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
the rest under the direction of Mr. Douglas of Chester. The 
brass above referred to is in the Crne Chapel, and engraved by 
Silvanus Crne to the memory of Thomas Crue, whose name is given 
in an acrostic formed by the initial letters of the verses. 

• This parish until 1867 was a curacy under Bangor, and, with 
the rest of English Maelor, was in the diocese of Chester until 1861, 
when it was transferred to that of St. Asaph. 



128 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

case rising above the parapet. There is a gabled chapel, 
like a transept, forming the east end of the north aisle, 
but ranging with it, the wall of the said aisle being 
modem. In this quasi-transept is a large late Per- 
pendicular window of five lights, with Tudor-shaped 
arch and transom. All other windows are modem ; 
those of the north aisle very poor ; those of the south 
aisle better, Perpendicular, and of three lights. The 
tower arch to the nave is small and stilted, and un- 
usually low. The arcades of the nave have each five 
arches, all of late Tudor form save the two western of 
each arcade, which are lower and narrower. The piers 
are all octagonal, with capitals, but the western pier on 
each side is a plain wall, whence rises the arch on the 
west, but on the east from a respond. This marks 
some change of plan. The chancel has been wholly 
rebuilt in plain Perpendicular character. The east 
window of five lights contains good modem stained 
glass, and there is a three-light window on the north 
and east. The chancel arch is new and pointed, on 
shafts with octagonal caps. The font small and poor.* 
The roof of the nave is a new one of timber, with 
hammer beams, and some quasi-clerestory windows, or 
rather dormers of two lights have been introduced in 
it. The uprights are supported on corbel shafts, which 
are much too large ana conspicuous (being white), 
resting on the caps of the piers. The seats are all 
open and uniform, of pine. The organ is at the east 
end of the north aisle. 

RHUABON (ST. MARY). 

This church has a west tower, nave, chancel, and 
side-aisles. The tower is embattled, and has a two- 
light belfry window, apparently Perpendicular. The 
church has been much altered, the whole of the ori- 
ginal arches and columns removed, and replaced by 

^ A new font was presented in 1872 bj the friends and tenants 
of Mr. Edmand Peel, to commemorate the christening of his son. 



IX THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 129 

plain pillars, and the greater part of the windows also 
modernised. At the west end of the aisles remain two 
Perpendicular windows ; and a very good one, of five 
lights, at the east end of the chancel, has a crocketed 
ogee canopy. There is an organ in the west gaUery, 
and there are some tombs. In the north chapel of the 
chancel is an altar- tomb of alabaster of debased charac- 
ter. The sides have niches within which are weeping 
figures and angels with shields. On it are recumbent 
figures of a man in armour, with head in helmet and 
feet on a lion, and a lady, with an inscription which 
runs thus : " Orate pro a'i'a Joh'is ap Elis Eyton armi- 
geri qui obiit vicesimo octavo die mensis Septembris 

an'o D'ni Elizabeth Calfley uxoris ej' que obijt xj 

die mensis Junii Anno D'ni m**d**xxiv. Quor a'i'abus 
propitietur Deus. Amen." 

In the porch of Rhuabon Church are two old muti- 
lated figures on slabs bearing shields. There is no 
distinction of chancel, and the north and south chapels 
have been rebuilt. The octagonal pillars of the arcades 
may be original, but the arches and clerestory are 
modern. There is a private chapel at the east end of 
each aisle, divided from the rest by Pointed arches on 
octagonal piers, and from the sacrarium by crocketed 
smaller arches which may not be original. The south 
wall is original, and the plaster has been removed ; but 
the windows are mostly modern, some not recent, 
though debased. 

1869. 

The original east window has been replaced by a less 
good Perpendicular one. The tower-arch is Pointed 
and continuous, but masked by the gallery. Some of 
the seats have been made open. The tower is of very 
poor Perpendicular. The belfry windows have a flam- 
boyant look ; the west window is closed. The tower- 
arch is on pointed corbels. 

1872. 

The restoration has been completed. The arcades 
have been replaced ; five Pointed arches on pillars 

5th sir., yol. II. 9 



130 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

• 

alternately octagonal and circular ; also a new clere- 
story, of which the windows are alternately square- 
headed, and of spherical, triangular form. The roofe 
are all new. A chancel-arch is added on marble shafts, 
and a new east window.^ The aisle- windows are new. 
Decorated, of three lights ; the organ removed to the 
south aisle, and the Wynnstay seat into the tower. A 
curious mural painting has been discovered in the 
south aisle, appearing to represent the corporal acts of 
mercy.* 

WREXHAM (ST. GlLES).' 

This is a very fine Perpendicular church, the exterior 
most gorgeous, especially the tower, which is at the 
west end. The nave is long, and has side-aisles, but 
not the chancel, which is not large in proportion, and 
is singular in having a polygonal east end in a half 
hexagon. The tower is one of the richest in the 
kingdom. The whole of the exterior is embattled, 
and the buttresses are crowned with crocketed pinnacles. 
The windows of the aisles are all of four lights ; those 
of the clerestory are of rather inferior character, and 
have obtuse arches. The side-aisles are not carried 
quite to the west end of the nave, and the west end 
of the north aisle is occupied by a porch. The interior 
is spacious and imposing, though some of the effect is 
lost by the insertion of galleries in the aisles. The 
nave has six pointed arches on each side, springing 
from octagonal columns with capitals, which columns 
do not quite correspond with the richness of the other 
portions. Over each pier is a rich bracket or corbel 

1 This window has been filled in with stained glass bj those con* 
neoted, in the past and present, with Wjnnstaj, in memory of Miss 
Marie Nesta Williams Wynn. 

' This has been renewed, and the mutilated figures above referred 
to removed from the porch to the Plas Madoc tombs on the nortii 
side of the church. 

' The accompanying view of the fine tower is reduced, by per- 
mission, from Llojd Williams and Underwood's excellent illustra- 
tions of the Village Churches of Denbighshire. 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 131 

in stone, which present various sculpture of foliage, 
heads, and angels bearing shields. The roof is boarded 
in paneled compartments, the ribs having foliated 
bosses at the points of intersection. There is some 
good tracerv above the beams, and the spandrels rest 
on figures of angels. The aisles have plainer roofs, 
with corbels supporting the beams. The chancel arch 
is very singular, from the evident remains of stone 
tracery in its head, whence it seems probable that it 
was originally the east window, and that the chancel 
was subsequently added. On each side of it is a niche 
with very rich canopy. At the east end of each aisle 
is also a fine canopied niche. The chancel had, till 
lately, a gaudy modern altar piece, and the three east 
windows closed, but this has recently been corrected. 
On the south side of the chancel are three very rich 
sedilia with crocketed ogee canopies, feathering and 
foliation in the adjacent spaces. The windows in the 
chancel are of three lights ; some fine niches were 
formerly in a great measure concealed. In the chancel 
are several modem monuments ; one by Boubillac 
rather celebrated. There is also a brass eagle lectern. 
The pulpit and desk are of cast-iron, in a Grothic pattern, 
and unnappily placed so as to hide the altar. The 
tower arcn very lofty and fine, and the ceiling within 
the tower has beautiful stone groining ; within it is 
placed a considerable organ.^ 

^ An effective restoration of the ohnrch was carried out in 1867 
by Mr. B. Ferrey, when the galleries were removed from the north 
and sonth sides, and the whole snitably furnished ; the Boubilliac 
monument was transferred to the north wall, and a handsome, new 
pulpit presented by Mr. P. Walker, the Mayor, to which a subse- 
quent Mayor added also a reading-desk. 

{To be continued. ) 



02 



132 



LLANDDERFEL PARISH REGISTERS. 

THE LLOYDS OF PALi AND OTHEB FAMILIES. 

At the inspection of the Llandderfel parish registers 
by the members of the Cambrian Archseological Asso- 
ciation, on the occasion of their meeting at Bala in 
1884, a suggestion was thrown out by the Rev. Canon 
Thomas, with the view of obtaining a copy of the more 
interesting records. By the courtesy and kindness of 
the rector, the Rev. William Morgan, the local secretary 
has been enabled to act upon that suggestion. 

The earliest register of baptisms, marriages, and 
burials of the parish of Llandderfel is dated 18 th of 
November 1599, under the rectorship of William 
Kenrick, which extended from 1592 to 1640. The 
books are in a fair state of preservation. With a few 
partial exceptions, the entries in Register No. 1, the 
oldest, are not only legible, but present a wonderfully 
fresh appearance. A few of the earliest are in English, 
and the rest in Latin. Most of the writing in English 
is in the style of the period as to orthography and 
formation of the letters, but the greatest part of that 
in Latin is in both respects similar to the writing of 
the present day. Besides the usual entries, there are 
records relating to the church, boundaries of the glebe 
lands, undertakings at baptism to protect the parish 
from burden on the rates, clandestine marriages, mode 
of burial, and burial of friends in other parishes. 

There is also an interesting account of a family 
within the parish, from the burial of a widow lady and 
the marriage of her granddaughter, heiress to the 
estate, in 1591, to the birth of the twelfth child, issue 
of the marriage, in 1624. The account gives the dates 
and places of birth of the children ; states when, where, 
and by whom each child was baptized ; the names and 



LLANDDERFEL PARISH REGISTERS. 133 

residences of the sponsors ; and a few other particulars. 
The record is in English in the old style, occupies seven 
pages and a half of Register No. 1^ and is placed 
between the portion allotted to marriages and that 
assigned to burials. The ink has become dull and in- 
distinct, and several portions of the writing required 
close attention before the words could be deciphered. 
As a passage of early date in a family history may 
be of interest to the readers of the Archceologta, the 
account last referred to has been selected as the subject 
of this communication. 

'*Mariadges, Christenings and Burialls of the House 

of Foley. 

" Doulce vhr David ap Will'm widowe daughter and cohiere 
to David ap Will'm ap Eden of Mochnant late wief to John ap 
EUice ap Howell and mother to Maurice ap John ap Ellice was 
buried at Uanthervell in her own pewe or gavell the last day of 
June 1591 She dyed at Paley on St Peters day Ao p** 

" Evan lloid Jeffrey sonne and heire of Jeffrey ap Evan lloid 
of Dyffryn Erethlyn in the P'ishe of Eglois vach in the Coun* of 
Denbighe gen and margrett morice daughter and sole heire to 
niorice ap John ap EUice of Paley gen were maried at llandtrillo 
in Edeimion on monday the twelf day of July being Uanriiaidr 
in mochnant ffaire Eve 1591 and that the said Evan at the time 
of his m'iadge was juste xvj en yeres old and the said m'grett 
xi en yeares of age Ao p^ and they were m'ied by Sr Evan 
lloid then Ciu^te of Uanthervel 

" Elizabeth lloid daughter and first child to Evan lloid Jeffrey 
and m'grett morice was borne at Paley on Wednesday the xiith 
day of October 1597 and was christened at Uanthen^ell by Sr 
Evan lloid then Curate there the xiiith day of the said moneth 
her godfather was her grandfather morice ap John ap Ellice and 
her godmothers were Elizabeth price daughter to m"^ Cadwaladr 
price of Rhiwlas & wief to m' John Owen of Caerberllan and 
Catrine Ed's second wief to m'" David lloid morgan of Crogen 
Ao p* wch Elizabeth Uoid died at Paley aforesaid on palm 
Satturday the 4th of Aprill 1612 and was buried in her grand- 
fathers pewe the 5th day of the said moneth of Aprill being 
palme Sonday m*d that Uanthervell bridge was then downe and 
her body broughte to the Churche over pent gilan Ao Dni 1612 
Digwyl ddervel y claddwyd hi 

" Jane lloid second child and daughter tu Evan lloid Jeffrey 



134 LLANDBERFEL PARISH REGISTERS. 

and the foresaid m'grett his wief was borne at Paley the xvth 
day of December 1599 being fiiidaj and was christened the 
xxth daie of the same moneth at Uanthervell by Sr Edward 
Jones then Curate there her godfather was Bichard Thelvall of 
branes and her godmothers Gwen lloid and Jane Thelvall her 
fathers ij susters 

" m'grett lloid daughter and third childe to Evan lloid Jeffrey 
and the said m'grett his wief was borne at Paley the 18th daie 
of Aprill 1601 being Satturday & was christened at Uanthervell 
by the forenamed Edward Jones Gierke at service time on Son- 
day the 19 th day of the same moneth her godfather was morgan 
ap John ap Eobt lloid and her godmothers were m'grett Thel- 
vall of Branes her fathers mother then wief to Bichard Thelvall 
and Agnes vch David ap Thomas gruflf afterwards wief to Ed- 
ward ap Cadr : wch m'grett lloid dyed at Paley the 25th day 
of June 1602 and was buryed by the same Curate neere the 
comunion table in the chauncell of the same churche 

" Mary lloid daughter and fouerth childe to Evan lloid Jeffrey 
and the said m'grett his wief was borne at her fathers house in 
Egloisvach the xth day of flfebruary 1 602 being xlvth or the 
last yeare of the reigne of Queene Elizabeth for her ma'tie died 
the 24th of March following and was christened at Eglois vach 
church by Eoderick Evans clerke then vicar there the xith day 
of the same moneth her godfather was Will'm lloid ap harry 
and her godmothers Mary Owen wief to mr Bobert holland of 
Penant Erethlyn and mary Williams daughter to Will'm prich- 
ard of Aberconway 

"Allice lloid daughter and fieft child to Evan lloid Jeffrey 
and the said m'grett his wief was born at her fathers house in 
Eglois vach the 30th day of October 1605 and was cristened at 
Eglois vach Churche the 3th day of november following by the 
foresaid Boderick Evans her godfather was mr Thomas lloid of 
Uansannen and her godmothers Allice lloid then wief to Hughe 
holland gen and AUice vch levan lloid her fathers Aunte wief 
to Geffrey ap Bobert of Cefnycoed m*d that the vth day of this 
moneth of 9b 1605 was the greate gunpowder treason intended 
at london. 

" Jeffrey lloid eldest sonne and sixth childe to Evan lloid Jef- 
frey and m'grett his wif was bom at his fathers house in DyfF- 
ryn Eglois vach the xiiith daie of marche 1606 being Satturday 
and christened at the pishe church of Eglois vach by Bodericke 
Evanse the vjcar there on Sonday the next day after his birth 
being the xiiiith day of the same moneth his godfathers were 
flfoulke holland of Groes Onnen and Jeffrey ap Bobert of Cefn 
y coed gentlemen and his godmothers Elline vch Bobert wyn 



LLANDBERFEL PARISH REGISTERS. 135 

the vicar of Eglois vaches wif and EUine hookes wief to hugh 
David ap Jeflxey wch Jeffrey lloid was afterwards cruelly mur- 
dered at Dol y Clettwr in Khewedog in m'ionethshire on St 
John Babtists day the xxiiiith of June 1626 by Evan thomas 
al's Jockus or tiler son to thomas ap Jen*yn ap Jockus of glyn 
dowrdwy and thomas Roberts son to Eobt ap hugh Yaine of 
St Assaphe then both resident at Ehewedog house the cause of 
the munier was never knowen the maner tooe lamentable to 
sett downe upon wch fact both the malefors fledd and the tiler 
being wthin fewe dayes after at goytre in llang'adr in Chirke 
land taken & brought before Sr Thomas middelton who sent 
him to go to Wrexh'm goale and on his way he caste himself 
ov' new bridge upon dee betwene Chirke and Ehuabon and 
being drowned and taken up his villanous despate carcase lyeth 
buried at the bridge end pierced throwe wth an oken stake 
tooe small punishment for such a wicked murdrer thother vil- 
lain flying to london was there likewise taken by Evan lloid 
Jeffrey the p murdreds father and brought to tryall and by 
countenance of ffrends was found giltye but of manslaughter 
God forgive them that did it & bringe the cause to light and 
noe doubt but God will disclose all murderers in time for the 
innocent blood cryeth for Reveng wch only belongeth to God 
Jeffrey lloid having nine wounds upon his body p'sented by the 
Coroners Enqueste whereof one mortall upon his head to the 
braines given him on the backside of the scull with the butt 
end of a ffowling peece and his necke bone broken the rest in 
his thighes and legge was buried in his grandfather maurice ap 
John ap ElUce grave in Paley pewe close to the wall the xxviith 
day of the said moneth of June 1626 by m"" Will'm Kenricke 
Sector of llanthervell after a good ffunerall sermon preached by 
m*" Richard Lewis Chaplaine to the right ho*ble William Erie of 
Pembroke and then vicar of Uandnllo in Edeimion uppon this 
text oute of Genesis viz. Caine Caine ubi est Abel frater tuus 
&c. et hoc in perpetua' lamentablilis ejus mortem remanere de- 
voc... p' hunc librum in scriptis testatur. 

" Gwen lloid daughter and seaventh childe to Evan lloid Jef- 
frey and m'grett his wif was borne (in the seaventh moneth of 
her adge in the wombe) at her fathers house in Eglois vach the 
xxxth day of December being ffriday Ao dni 1608 about cock 
crowing and christened afore day by candlelight because she 
was weake by Rodericke Evanse the vicar her godfather was 
Griffith David lloid her godmothers gwen lloid of Groes onnen 
wief to fToulke holland & gwen lloid of Tanyrallt her fathers 
sister wief to Jeftrey Owen gen, 

" Elizabeth lloid second, daughter and eighth child to Evan 



136 LLANDD£RF£L PARISH REGISTERS. 

lloid Jeffrey and m*grett his wif was borne -at Paley on Sattur- 
day the laste day of May 1612 and was christened the next day 
at service time being Whitsonday the firste of June 1612 by 
m' Kenrick her godfathers were Cadr Watkin & Edward Cadr 
her godmothers m'grett meyricke wif to morgan lloid of Crogen 
& her Aunte Ellen vch John ap Ellice m'd that she was named 
Elizabeth in remembrance of her eldest sister Elizabeth that 
was buried upon palm Sonday before Ao p** 

" Catrine lloid daughter and nienth childe to Evan lloid Jef- 
frey and m'grett his wief was born at Dyffryn Eglois vach on 
Monday the 25th of September 1615 being Monday afore mich- 
mas day wch fell out to be ffriday and was christened on tues- 
day the 26th of the same moneth by Bodericke Evanse the vicar 
her godfather hughe hoUand of Penant & her godmothers Cat- 
rine lloid of nant y Eamas & her fathers Aunte Grissel hooks 



** £arbai*a lloid daughter and tenth childe to Evan lloid Jef- 
frey and m'grett his wief was bom at Dyffryn Eglois vach 

24tli day of fi'ebruary being monday and St. Mathias dale about 
cockcrowing & was christened the same day by Roderick Evanse 
her godfather Will'm holland of cefn y coed her godmothers 

Eline wen will'ms gm' ap Jeffreys wief and Catrine wch wief 

to Evan lloid y brane but she was named Barbara at the quest 
of Barbara Smith wief to John Prichard linen Draper of Den- 
bighe whoe desired to have her christened after her name 

•* Maurice lloid second son and eleventh childe to Evan lloid 
Jeffrey and m'grett his wief was born at Paley the xth day of 
January 1618 being Sonday before Epiphany a little befocB 
midnight and was christened by m"" Kenricke on tuesday follow- 
ing being the xiiith day of the same moneth his godfathers 
maurice lloid of Cowny and thomas ap John ap Elizec his god- 
mother grace lloid wief to Roland Elizeg esq m'd that this yeare 
the fflashing biasing starre appd in the skye Ao p** 1618 

"Dorothie lloid daughter and twelfth childe to Evan lloid 
Jeffrey & m'grett his wief was born at Paley the xxvjth day of 
Auguste being thursday about three of the clock in the after- 
noone Ao dni 1624 and was christened on monday following 
being the xxxth day of the same moneth by m'^ Kenricke her 
godfather was hwffrey Jones als thomas and her godmothers 
Dorotie meyricke wief to w' hwffrey and grace vch thomas ap 
John ap Elizec m'd that m"" Herbert vachan was borne the laste 
of July before Ao p*» 1624." 

In the foregoing history, the character of the hand- 
writing is throughout uniform, and, when compared 



LLANBB^RFEL PARISH REGISTEBS. 137 

with that of the customary entries, somewhat peculiar. 
From these characteristics, taken in connection with 
the fact that the tragical end of Jeffrey Lloyd forms 
part of the narrative, it may be inferred that the whole 
account was written by the same hand, about the same 
time, and that not earlier than the date of Jeffrey 
Lloyd's murder in 1626. By bearing in mind that the 
whole must have been composed at a later period than 
any of the events recorded, all seeming anachronisms 
will be avoided. The early age of the bride, whilst it 
cannot fail to strike the reader as remarkable, affords 
an explanation of the unusually long period between 
her marriage in 1591 and the birth of the last child in 
1624. At the same time, the length of the interval, 
coupled with the birth of the first child in 1597, con- 
firms the correctness of the reading of her age as being 
only eleven years. 

There is reason to believe that matrimonial alliances 
in childhood were not rare in those days. In the 
Oswestry Advertiser of the 18th of March 1885, occurs 
a paragraph in which Mr. J. P. Earwaker, at a meeting 
of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 
mentions certain early marriages illustrative of the 
bygone social life of Cheshire. In 1562, Margery 
Vernon, between the age of nine and ten, was married 
to Rendle More, who was two years younger. Isabel 
Orrell, seven years, married in Turton Chapel to a 
bridegroom of the age of five or six. At Leigh Church, 
Gilbert Gerard, five years, and Emma Talbot, who was 
not six years old. John Rigmarden, at the age of 
three, was married to a bride of five. A daughter of 
Sir William Brereton was married at the age of two to 
a husband who was a year older than herself. If there 
was no ratification of the marriage when years of con- 
sent were attained — twelve for the girl and fourteen 
for the boy — it might be dissolved. 

It may be noted that clerks in Holy Orders were 
addressed Mr. or Sir, but not Reverend ; that infants 
were taken to church on the second day after biith, or 



138 LLAKBDERFEL PARISH REGISTERS. 

earlier, to be baptized ; and that the interval between 
death and burial was equally short, as in the case of 
Elizabeth Lloyd. 

It is interesting to observe that LlanrhaiadrMochnant 
Fair, held to this day on the second Tuesday in July, 
was held on the same day as far back as 1591 ; and 
that as at present, so in 1612, the 5th of April was 
dedicated to St. Dervel, as further appears in the 
register of burials : — " Elizabeth Lloyd filia Evaui 
Lloydd JeflFrey sepulta fuit in ecclesia perochiali de 
Llandervell Quinto die Aprilisdieq'Dominica Palmarum 
Dieq' Festo Dervell Dicato Annoque Redempti Orbis 
1612. Annoq' Regis Jacobi Decimo." 

The statement that Llandderfel bridge was down in 
1612 is incidentally and impliedly confirmed by the 
registration of Elizabeth Lloyd of Crogen, who, instead 
of being taken to Llandderfel Church, is said to have 
been baptized in Llandrillo Church, " causa fluminis 
octavo die Martii Dieq' Solis Anno 1611." At that 
time the 8th of March 1611 and the 5th of April 
1612, were within a month of each other. 

Rhewedog, the scene of JefiVey Lloyd's murder, is 
the name of a township adjoining the township of 
Selwm, in which Palfe is situate. The burial of 
JeflFrey Lloyd is recorded in Mr. Ken rick's handwriting 
in the following terms : — 

" Gatfridus Lloyd Adolescens et Generosus Hseres de 
Pala occisus et trucidatus sepult' fuit in eccl'ia cu 
majoribus suis vicesimo Septimo die Junii dieq' Martis 
Anno Dni 1626. 

** Ante peroptatos primed lanaginis Annoa 
Gatfridus snperas Lloidas migravit ad oras.*' 

'* The Slashing biasing starre", said to have appeared 
in the year of Maurice Lloyd's birth, was doubtless the 
comet to which Longomontanus refers as having been 
observed on December 10th, 1618, with a tail above 
1 00 deg. in length. 

Roderick Evans is described as Vicar of Eglwysfach 



LLANDDERFEL PARISH REGISTERS. 139 

when he christened Barhara Lloyd on the day of her 
birth, which ceremony, although the year is not men- 
tioned, must have been performed in 1616. That 
Barbara Lloyd was born in 1616 is suflBciently clear 
from the facts that the event took place on a Monday, 
24th February, after the birth of Catrine, 25th Sept. 
1615, and before that of Maurice, 10th Jan. 1618, and 
that 24th Feb. fell on a Monday in 1616, but on a 
Tuesday in 1617, the only other possible year. The 
year is fixed as above on the strength of a rule of 
general application for ascertaining the day of the 
week on which any day of a month will fall, and which 
will be found explained at the end of this paper. In 
virtue of the same rule a few corrections might be 
made in respect of the weekdays of certain days of the 
month relating to the births or baptisms of Jane Lloyd, 
Elizabeth Lloyd second, JeflTrey Lloyd, and Maurice 
Lloyd. 

Of the history of some of the houses and families 
subsequent to the period of the record, the following 
particulars may be given. Pal^ has been in the posses- 
sion of the same family down to a recent date. In 
1863 the last male heir, Mr. David Maurice Lloyd, died 
after devising the estate to trustees, with power of 
sale, for the benefit of his daughters. That power was 
exercised some sixteen years since, when the property 
passed to Mr. H. Robertson, M.P. Four of the 
daughters survive, of whom the eldest is married to 
Dr. R. O. Jones of Bala, and the second to Mr. George 
Cruddas of Newton Leys, Derbyshire. 

Rhiwlas, which forms so attractive an object from 
Bala Bridge, is still the seat of a descendant of Mr. 
Cadwaladr Price, in the person of Mr. Richard John 
Lloyd Price, the owner of the largest landed estate in 
the county. Mr. Price acted as chairman of the local 
committee at the recent visit of the Association to 
Bala, and hospitably entertained the members on the 
occasion at the old mansion of Rhiwaedog. 

Caerberllan, which is situate in the parish of Llanfi- 



140 LLANDDERFEL PARISH REGISTERS. 

hangel y Pennant, the then seat of Mr. John Owen, to 
whom Mr. Cadwaladr Price's daughter Elizabeth was 
married, passed out of the Owen family into other 
hands only within the last few years. 

Crogen, the ancient seat of the Lloyds, from whom 
the family name of Lord Mostyn is derived, was sold 
within the first third of this century by the late Mr. 
Bell Lloyd, and is now the property of the Earl of 
Dudley . 

Thelwall, a name still known in Denbighshire, is no 
longer to be found in Merionethshire. Richard Thel- 
wall is said to have been of Branes in 1599 and 1601. 
From the following affectionate tribute to the memory 
of his friend by Mr. Ken rick, it may be inferred that 
the owner of the place was a Mr. Branes, and that 
Mr. Thelwall occupied the residence whilst the owner 
was a minor. " Morgan Branes de Branes perochia de 
Llandrillo Amicus mens familiaris et singularis obiit 
apud Branes in Aedibus suis Decimo quarto die Julii 
dieq' Jovis & sepultus fuit in sepulchre Patrum suorum 
in ecclesia de Llandrillo decimo sexto Julii dieq' Satumi 
Anno Aetatis suae Tricesimo secundo Anno D'ni 1614." 

At the period in question, Meyrick was the name of 
one of the leading families in the vale of Edeirnion. 
Within the present century the estate has been sold, 
and the heir-at-law is now earning his livelihood by 
breaking in and training horses. 

The Hollands of the neighbourhood of Conway 
formed one of the numerous branches of the family 
which were to be found in Lancashire, Cheshire, Car- 
narvonshire, Anglesey, and Merionethshire. The ori- 
ginal stock is said to have come over from Normandy 
and to have settled in Kent. Whether there is now 
any living representative of one or other of the four 
Hollands near Conway, the writer is not informed. 
Mr. Samuel Holland, M.P. for Merionethshire, belongs 
to the Cheshire branch. 

There is no monument to the memory of Mr. Ken- 
rick except that furnished by the Registers. From his 



LLANDDERFBL PARISH REGISTERS. 141 

name he was probably one of the Kenricks of Nant- 
clwyd, who in years gone by owned landed property in 
the parish. •His death and burial are recorded in 
Register No. 3, fol. 19, in these terms: "Gulielmus 
Kenrick Rector de Llandervel et totius AcademiaB in 
Artibus m agister obiit in Xp'o et sepultus fuit ib'm 
primo die octobris Anno supradicto"; which year was 
1640. 

The rule referred to for ascertaining the day of the 
week on which any day of a month will fall consists in 
committing to memory the old couplet, 

*' At Dover Dwells George Brown Esquire, 
Good Christian Friend And David Friar." 

The couplet contains twelve words, one for each month 
in order, beginning with January. The initial letter of 
each word corresponds with the 1st of the month repre- 
sented by the word. The key to the use of the rule is 
the knowledge of the Sunday letter for the year, which 
this year (1885) is D. 

Example 1. — On what day of the week will August 
10 fall this year? C, the first letter of " Christian", 
stands for August 1. But C is the letter or day before 
D ; that is, C, the 1st of August, is a Saturday. The 
calculation is instantaneous that August 10 will be on 
a Monday. 

Example 2. — On what day of the week will June 1 7 
fall ? E, the initial of " Esquire", stands for Ist of June. 
But E is the day after D, i.e., Monday ; hence June 17 
will be on a Wednesday. 

The above rule, slightly varied, appeared in The Times 
a few years ago. 

It should be observed that eveiy leap-year has two 
Sunday letters, — one for the first two months, and the 
other for the remaining ten. 1884 being a leap-year 
had F as a Sunday letter for January and February, 
and E for all the months from March to December, 
both inclusive. 

The Sunday letter of any year may also be ascer- 



142 LL^NDDERFBL PARISH REGISTERS. 

tained by a simple and easy method whenever the day 
of a month in that year is given together with the day 
of the week. 

Example. — Let the 12th of July 1591 be a Monday, 
then the Ist must have fallen on a Thursday. But the 
letter G in " Good" stands for 1st of July ; then G in 
that year is Thursday, A Friday, B Saturday and C 
Sunday ; C, therefore, is the Sunday letter of 1591. In 
like manner, with similar data, the Sunday letter of 
any year may be deduced. 

As the Gregorian reformation of the calendar was 
not adopted in Great Britain before 1752, the older 
Registers of the parish were kept according to the old 
style. The Sunday letters deduced from the entries 
therein are those of the old style, and have been veri- 
fied as such from a table of Dominical Letters. It must 
not be overlooked that before 1st of January 1752 the 
legal year began on the 25th of March. The import- 
ance of attending to this point will be evident by refer- 
ring to the date of Alice Lloyd's birth on the 30th of 
October 1605, and to that of Jeffrey Lloyd's on the 
13th of March 1606, and measuring the length of the 
interval between those two dates according as the year 
is supposed to begin on the 25th of March or on the 
Ist of January. In the one case the interval will be 
upwards of sixteen months, in the other not more than 
four months and a half. A similar remark applies to 
the extent of the interval between the 8th of March 
1611 and the 5th of April 1612. 

With regard to the months covered by a Sunday 
letter when the year commenced on the 25th of March, 
it may, it is thought, be taken as established, from a 
careful examination of the old Registers, that the year 
of a Sunday letter extended from 1st January to 31st 
December, and not from one 25th of March to another. 
In ordinary years, January and February to 24th of 
March of one year took the Sunday letter of the year 
commencing on the morrow, viz., 25th of March. In 
leap-years the first of the two Sunday letters applied 



THE PORIVS STONE. 143 

to the last two months, viz. January and February of 
the previous year ; and the second letter began to run 
from the 1st of March to 31st December of that leap- 
year. For example, G and F were the Sunday letters 
of the leap-year 1616. G applied to January and Feb- 
ruary 1615, and F thence to 31st December 1616. The 
Sunday letter of January and February to 24th of 
March 1616 was E, being that of the year commencing 
25th March, and ending 31st December 1617. 

Since parish registers usually give both day of the 
month and day of the week in any year, by duly weigh- 
ing the considerations suggested, it becomes compara- 
tively easy to correct errors of, or verify, dates in such 
records without the inconvenience of having recourse 
to tables or almanacks. 

Owen Richards. 

y ronhenlog. 1 1 th May 1 885. 



THE PORIVS STONE. 



It is with something of compunction that I have ven- 
tured to call in question the reading which has been so 
long accepted as the true rendering of this inscription : 



PORIVS 
HIC IN TVMVLO lACIT 
HOMO XPIANVS FVIT.* 



Mr. Longueville Jones' rubbings and Professor West- 
wood's skill in deciphering inscriptions seemed to have 
set the question at rest, and the reading itself has ac- 
quired such a deep interest as a very early Christian 
memorial, that it looks almost like sacrilege to throw 
any doubt upon it. That this is not the present read- 
ing, however, is evident to any one who will carefully 
examine the stone itself; and it appears to me more 
and more doubtful whether it ever was the correct one. 

^ Lap. Wallice^ p. 161. 



144 THE PORIVS STONE. 

I refer, of course, to the word xpianvs in the lowest 
line. 

On June 4th, last year, I made an inspection of this 
stone, but was unable to take a rubbing as I had no 
materials with me. I made, however, a very careful 
note of the lettering, inasmuch as instead of the ac- 
cepted XPIANVS, it appeared to me to be simply planvs, 
whatever the meaning of the word might be. On com- 
municating this result to two or three expert friends I 
was met with considerable incredulity, and the matter 
remained sub judice until the Annual Meeting at Bala 
in August. On that occasion a visit was made to the 
place during the excursion from Trawsfynydd to Dol- 
gelley, carefiil rubbings were taken, and a sketch made 
by Mr. Worthington G. Smith with the aid of the 
camera. The result is given in the accompanying 
woodcut, where the word in dispute is unmistakably 

PLANVS. 

Professor Westwood, in his valuable work, the Lapu 
darium WallicB, gives a brief notice of earlier readings, 
from which we see a great diversity of opinion had 
existed as to the disputed word. Robert Vaughan of 
Hengwrt (1592-1666), the earliest to record a notice of 
it, read xrianvs ; Edward Lhuyd, in Gibson's Camden^ 
p. 662, RiANUS ; Pennant, Tours in Wales, ii, p. 256, 
PIANVS ; Jones {Histoid of Wales), including part of 
HOMO (mei)rianvs. Pennant adds, "some have sup- 

Eosed the P to have been an R, and the words to have 
een christianvs fvit ; but whatsoever the letter in 
dispute might have been, there certainly never was 
room between homo and the next word for the letters 

CHRIS." 

Professor Westwood, however, meets this objection 
by suggesting " that the diflBculty has arisen from the 
curious conjunction between the first two upright 
strokes not having been clearly understood. This con- 
junctional character represents, in fact, an x of the 
Anglo-Saxon form, whereof the left hand portion also 
forms the loop of a p ; the P and x and i following 



r 



THE PORIVS STONE. 145 

being equivalent to the monogrammatic contraction of 
the name of Christ, and enabling us to read the third 
line as * Homo Christianus fuit (he was a Christian 
man)." 

Unfortunately, however, there are serious difficulties 
in the way of this explanation. In the first place, the 
Greek monogram form, px, seems hardly to be in place 
as a prefix to a full Latin termination ; and even if it 
were, we should expect the order reversed, and look 
rather for xp. In the next place there does not appear 
to be any indication whatever on the stone of this 
"curious conjunction", or of there ever having been any 
such. Moreover, the foot of the L is not any recent 
addition. It is of the same smoothness of incision and 
date as the rest of the letter ; and that it has existed 
as long as any notice of the stone goes back is evident 
from its having been mistaken by Vaughan and Lhuyd 
for the lower limb of the P, thus converting it into 
their B. The former, indeed, has prefixed an x to the 
R (not p) ; but must have supplied it to fill the space 
in front, not from an Anglo-Saxon x. This space, how- 
ever, is only marked by a few irregular dots which do 
not take the form of x at all. 

On these grounds, therefore, we feel constrained to 
read the line as simply homo planvs Fvrr; and we shall 
be grateful to any member who will explain the mean- 
ing of the word planvs in this connexion. 

Another word read difierently has been PORivs as 
EPOHivs, equivalent to eborivs, and a connexion drawn 
out between him of Merioneth and him of York ; but 
the stone itself contradicts such a hypothesis. 

We have taken no notice of the fourth line as it is 
palpably and confessedly a comparatively recent addi- 
tion. 

D. R, T. 



5th BBS., VOL. ir. 10 



146 



FURTHER NOTES ON ANCIENT INSCRIBED 
AND SCULPTURED STONES. 

CBOSSED STONE NEAR GOODWIC. 

In one of the excursions made by the members of the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association during the Meet- 
ing at Fishguard in 1883, after passing through the 
village of Goodwic, and on the high ground about half 
way towards Llanwnda, the party arrived at a cross- 
road, the four angles of which, as we were informed on 
the spot, had originally been marked by four flat stones, 
one at each angle, on each of which was carved the 
figure of a cross. One only of these stones now remains 
in situ, at the south-east angle of the junction of the 
roads, the three others having either been broken up or 
removed, possibly to Llanwnda Church, and fixed on 
the outside of the walls of the sacred edifice. 

As is so common in the district with these crossed 
stones, the one in question was found fixed upright into 
the bank, which it served well partially to support. It 
is of an irregular, oval shape, broken off at the bottom 
on the right side, measuring 28 inches by 18, and hav- 
ing a very rudely shaped tross inscribed on the face, 
formed of double, incised, parallel lines, the angles of 
the arms and top being rounded off. In its very simple 
form it differs from any of the crosses figured in my 
Lapidarium Wallice. 

We were informed that another stotie marked with 
a cross, still undescribed, was used in making a bridge 
across the road, a short distance west, beyond Llan- 
wnda, the incised side being turned downwards. Mr. 
Romilly Allen endeavoured to examine this stone, but 
from its unsatisfactory position he was not able to de- 
termine the form of the cross. 



wlimi/ 



FURTHER NOTES ON INSCRIBED STONES. 14 



SCULPTURED STONES AT LLANDDEW CHURCH, 

NEAR BRECON. 

The church of Llanddew is one of the oldest in the 
county of Brecknockshire, and is historically interest- 
ing as the parish church of Giraldus Cambrensis, with 
whom it is associated in some of the most stirring and 
interesting episodes in his eventful history. It was 
here, in 1187, that Archbishop Baldwin commenced 
his crusading mission through Wales, "the Word of the 
Lord being preached at Llanddew". Giraldus accom- 
panied the Archbishop in his tour through South Wales. 

" The church is a massive structure of the thirteenth 
century, cruciform, with lancet- windows. It is severely 
plain, but perfect in design, as has been well observed 
by one of our best authorities in speaking of it in the 
ArchcBologia Cambrensis. The long chancel with its 
three lancets on each side, its eastern triplet, its trefoil- 
headed priest's door, is unsurpassed for the perfect 
combination of perfect plainness with perfect excel- 
lence." 

By the exertions of the Rev. I. Lane Davies, the 
Vicar, the restoration of the church was commenced in 
the summer of 1883, in the course of which additional 
proofs of its antiquity were discovered. Underneath 
the whitewash on the chancel-walls traces of illumina- 
tions and sacred texts were discovered. On the north 
wall were portions of the Lord's Prayer in Welsh, the 
characters and spelling clearly pointing to a period not 
much later, if any, than that in which the Bible was 
translated into the Welsh language ; and on the inter- 
section of the south transept, just above the squint, 
were found the faded remains of a well executed fresco 
of an angelic form. 

The Vicar was good enough to forward to me sketches 
and rubbings of two carved stones ornamented with 
lozenge-shaped devices, accompanying, on the larger 
fragment, tne representation of a Maltese-formed cross 



148 FURTHER NOTES ON ANCIENT 

with dilated ends to the lirabs, which at some former 
period had been used as the top-stones of the quoins 
carrying the coping of the east gable of the church, and 
which had plainly been hammer-dressed on three sides. 
The larger and more perfect of these two fragments 
measures 30 inches by 14 ; and the other, which has 
a portion of the right hand ornament cut away, is 30 
inches by 9. The ornament of the two portions is con- 
tinuous, and incised to the depth of three-quarters of 
an inch ; so that the stone, when unbroken, must have 
been 5 feet long by probably 1 8 inches wide ; whence 
it may be conjectured either that it was an upright 
cross with a long stem, or a coffin-lid. As, however, 
the stones were at least a foot thick, the former sug- 
gestion seems ' the more probable. The ornament is 
very peculiar, and unlike any other discovered in Wales, 
bearing a slight resemblance, in the numerous lozenges 
and square spaces into which it is divided, to the 
Llowes Cross. (Lapid. Wall., "PI. 73.) The form of the 
cross, in the upper portion of the larger piece, is also 
very peculiar, the ends of the limbs being marked with 
triangular incisions which might possibly have been 
intended rudely to represent tne nails with which the 
Crucified was fixed to the cross. Over the head of the 
cross a small triangular space occupying the place of 
the titulus is marked with slender diagonal and straight 
lines, forming a smaller series of lozenges. Between 
this and the top of the cross is a space formed by a 
trough cut to receive the coping. As the sculpture on 
the smaller portion is across the natural bedding of the 
stone, whilst it is on it on the larger piece, it is pro- 
bable, as suggested to me by Mr. J. R. Cobb (to whom 
I am indebted for a knowledge of these and numerous 
other sculptured stones) that the stone was originally 
sculptured on each side, thus supporting the idea that 
it was originaUy an upright pillar or churchyard-cross. 



Mr. Cobb also kindly sent me rubbings of another 
• stone which had been built into the wall of the south 



INSCRIBED AND SCULPTURED STONES. 149 

• 

transept, whicli, from its character, has been supposed 
to be pre-Norman. This stone is oval in shape, 20 
inches long by 12 wide ; its face is very uneven and 
scaly, clearly not having been dressed or rubbed before 
the cross was cut, as the lines of the. latter are con- 
tinued over the inequalities. The cross is very plain, 
and formed of double parallel lines surrounded by 
double circular lines, resembling that of the Trallong 
Stone {Lap. Wall., PL 80). The lower part of the stem 
of the cross seems to have been cut off, and within one 
of the lower spaces between the arms of the cross is an 
inscription consisting of only six letters, which, how- 
ever, are paleeographically of considerable interest, and 
are separately represented in the smaller of the adjoin- 
ing woodcuts. The first two letters resemble two y y ; 
but I consider them to represent a w. • The next tall 
letter is joined by a short oblique stroke to the outer 
line of the second y, and being conjoined with it 
forms, as I believe, a capital A. This is followed by an 
L with the bottom stroke oblique. Then follow four 
straight strokes which are somewhat blurred in the 
lower part. These seem to me to represent mi, followed 
by a curved stroke and oblique dasn, which I presume 
are a terminal e=WALmie. The letters are formed of 
slender, simple, incised lines about two-thirds of an 
inch long. I should suppose they may be of the ele- 
venth or twelfth century. 



Mr. Cobb has also sent me a drawing of another in- 
teresting stone which, inverted, was placed as a finial 
at the point of the east gable ; but which, when ex- 
amined, must evidently have been used as a piscina, 
being too small for a font. The larger, upper part (on 
which it rested upon the gable) is quadrangular, being 
9 inches square, with a cable-moulding round the top 
edge, and another similar cable about 6 inches lower. 
The lower portion of this capital, as it might be called, 
is 3 inches deep, formed into wide scallops ; and the 



150 EXTRACTS FROM A MS. OF ANCIENT DATE. 

basal portion, or stem of the structure, is quadrilobed, 
measuring 7 inches across the widest part, and 5 inches 
between the sunk part of the lobes. The upper part 
has a well formed cistern, 5 inches square, gradually 
diminishing to a hole 1^ inch in diameter, which passes 
out on a curve to the back, or apparently unsculptured 
side, at the junction of the capital with the basal pillar. 
As placed, reversed, on the gable, the cistern and hole 
had no function whatever. Three of the semicircular 
lobes of the support plainly show sculpture, but are 
very much weathered. The present piscinal recess in 
the chancel is very ill formed, and it is pretty clear 
that it was once square. If square, it would hold this 
stone ; but the drain in the stone would not tit. It 
may, however, be further suggested that this was a 
holy water stoup, or was connected with the font, and 
used in the office of holy baptism as a receptacle for 
the water which had escaped from the head of the bap- 
tised infant, — a use of which other analogous instances 
have been traced by my niece, Miss E. Swann, whose 
elaborate memoir on the subject will, I trust, shortly 
be published. 

I. 0. Westwood. 

Oxford. May 1885. 



EXTRACTS FROM A MS. OF ANCIENT DATE, 

GIVING SOME CUSTOMS AND USAGES 

IN NOETH WALES. 

If there be a " Ffynnon Vair" (Well of our Lady) or 
other saint in the parish, the water for baptism in the 
font is fetched from thence. Old women are very fond 
of washing their eyes with the water after baptism. 

At the delivery of bread and wine at the sacrament, 
several before they receive the bread or cup, though 
held out to them, will flourish a little with their 
thumbs to their faces, something like making the figure 



EXTRACTS FROM A MS. OF ANCIENT DATE. 151 

of a cross. They (the women, mostly), when they say 
their prayers on their first coming into church, will do 
the same. 

The Sunday after marriage they come to church with 
their friends and relations ; with splendid appearance, 
the clerk of the church, primary, shall place the groom 
and bride in a most humble seat. After church is over, 
with the fiddlers before them, they run to all the ale- 
houses in the town. [Eglwysfach. J 

When they bless another, they are very apt to add 
to the blessing of God the Blessing of White Mary. 

Christmas Plygain. — Upon Christmas Day, in the 
morning, about three o'clock, most of the parishioners 
meet in the church, and after prayer and a sermon, 
they continue there singing psalms and Welsh hymns 
with great devotion and earnestness till broad day; and 
if any, through age or infirmity, are disabled coming 
to church they never fail to have players and carols, on 
our Saviour's Nativity, at home. [Llanbrynmair.] 

Women draw the tenth pole out of the hedge on 
St. Paul's day, in order to know before-hand whether 
they shall have a crooked or straight husband. Pawl- 
fign both. [St. George.] 

The custom of heaving upon Monday and Tuesday 
in Easter week. — On Monday the young men go about 
the town and country from house to house, with a 
fiddler playing before them, to heave the women. 
Upon Tuesday the women heave the men in like 
manner. [Llangollen.] 

No farmer dare to hold his team on St. Mark s day, 
because (as they believe) one man's team was marked 
(that did work on that day) with the loss of an ox. 
[St George.] 

Custom of strewing green herbs and flowers at their 
doors upon Corpus Christi Festival. [Llanasaph.] 

On Thursday after Trinity Sunday, which they call 
dydd lau Duw or dydd gwyl Dduw, on y* eve before, 
they strew a lot of fern before their doors, called 
Rhedyn Mair. [Caerwys.] 



152 EXTRACTS FROM A MS. OF ANCIENT DATE. 

Custom of sticking St. John s wort over their doors 
and windows upon the Eve of St. John the Baptist. 
[Llanfair.l 

Small Bonfire, which the Welsh term " TS,n Buchas", 
on the eve of St. John Baptist day. [Darowen.] 

The custom upon All Saints' Eve of making a great 
fire, called Coelcerth, when every family, about an 
hour in the night, make a great bonfire in the most 
conspicuous place near the house : and when the fire 
is about quite extinguished, every one throweth a white 
stone into the ashes, having first marked it, and having 
said their prayers round the fire. In the morning as 
soon as they are up, they come to search out the 
stones ; and if either of them is found wanting, they 
have a notion that the person who threw it in will die 
before he sees another All Saints' Eve. [Llanbrynmair.] 

Custom of distributing seed cakes upon All Saints' 
Day, at the receiving of which the poor pray to God to 
bless the next crop of wheat. [Llanasaph.J 

The night before a dead body is to be mterred the 
friends and neighbours of the deceased resort to the 
house the corpse is in, each bringing with them some 
small piece of meat, bread, or drink (if the family be 
something poor) ; but more especially candles, whatever 
the family is; and this night is called Wyl Nos, whereby 
the country people seem to mean a Watching Night ; 
their going to such a house they say is " i wilio'r 
corph", i.e., to watch the corpse. But " wylo" signifies 
to weep ^nd lament, and so "wyl nos" may be a night 
of lamentations. While they stay together on these 
nights they are either singing psalms or reading some 
part of the holy scriptures. [Llanycil.] 

Whenever anybody comes into the room where a 
dead corpse lyes, especially the wyl nos and the day of 
its interment, the first thing he does, he falls upon 
his knees by the corpse, and saith the Lord's Prayer. 
[Llanycil custom.] 

Pence and half-pence (in lieu of little rolls of bread, 
which heretofore generally, and by some still are given 



EXTRACTS FROM A MS. OF ANCIENT DATE. 153 

on these occasions) are now distributed to the poor who 
flock in great numbers to the house of the deceased 
before the corpse is brought out. [Ysceifiog custom.] 

When the corpse is brought out of the house, laid 
upon the bier, and covered before it be taken up, the 
next of kin to the deceased — widow, mother, daughter, 
or cosin (never done by a man) — gives across over the 
corpse to one of the poorest neighbors two or three little 
loaves of bread ana a cheese with a piece of money 
stuck in it, and then a new wooden cup of drink (all 
which things are brought upon a large dish and 
reached over the corpse to the poor body, who returns 
thanks for them, and blesses God for the happiness of 
the soul of his friend or neighbour departed), [Llan- 
gollen], which some will require the poor body that 
receives it immediately to drink a little of. When 
this is done, the minister (if present) saith the Lord s 
Prayer, and then they get forwara toward church. 
[LknyciL] 

And all along from the house to ye churchyard, at 
every cross way, the bier is laid down and the Lord's 
Prayer rehearsed ; and so, when they come first into 
the churchyard, before any of the verses appointed in 
the service be said. [Yskeifiog.] 

Some particular places were called " Resting Places". 
At church nothing is done but as directed by the 
Rubric, besides that Evening Service is read with the 
office of the Buriall. [Llanycil.] 

At those words," we commit this body to the ground", 
the minister holds the spade and throws in the earth 
first. 

At Dimeirchion there is a Custom of ringing a little 
bell before the corpse from the house to ye churchyard. 

When a corpse is carried to church from any part of 
the town, the oearers take care to carry it so that the 
cross may be on their right hand, though the way be 
hester (nearer) and it be less trouble to go on the other 
side ; nor will they bring the corpse to the churchyard 
any other way but through the south gate, singing 



154 EXTRACTS FROM A MS. OF ANCIENT DATE. 

psalms on the way as the corpse is entered into church. 
The minister goes to the altar and there saith the 
Lord's Prayer, with one of the prayers appointed to be 
read at the grave, after which the congregation oflFer 
upon the altar, or on a little board for that purpose 
fixed to the rails of the altar, their benevolence to the 
officiating minister. A friend of the deceased is 
appointed to stand at the altar, observing who gives 
and how much. When all have given, he tells the 
money with the minister, and signifies the sum to the 
congregation, thanking them all for their goodwill. 

The people kneel and say the Lord's Prayer on the 
graves of their lately deceased friends for some Sundays 
after their interment, and this is done generally upon 
their first coming into y® church, and after that tney 
dress the grave with flowers. [Llanvechan.] 

In the church there is a general spitting ; they 
usually spit at the name of the Devil or any of his 
synonime, and smite their breasts at the name of 
Judas. NoTiTiA. 



We have reprinted the above ** Extracts" from the 
Rkyl Journal for Nov. 22nd, 1884, because they com- 
prise a highly interesting list of old customs, some of 
which, indeed, still linger among us. From the locali- 
ties named it is evident that they relate to the diocese 
of St. Asaph, and they look as if they were taken from 
the Returns of Rural Deans on some of the ecclesias- 
tical uses of their parishes. The probable date may 
be the earlier half of the last century. Many of the 
customs are very curious, for different reasons. The 
throwing of white stones into the Coelcerth and the 
drawing of the Pawl-fign were probably survivals of 
heathen practices, though the former may have been 
spiritualised by association with the Christian doctrine 
of living stones in the heavenly temple. This seems 
to have been the case with the custom of " heaving", 
which was evidently associated with the Resurrection, 
first of our Lord, and then of all, male and female. 



EXTRACTS FROM A MS. OF ANCIENT DATE. 155 

A similar association, or acted parable, may be observed 
in the gift of seed cakes and the prayer for the crops 
of wheat ; in the *' Pawl" of St. Paul's Day and the 
" St. John's Wort" of the Baptist's day. Why " Rhedyn 
Mair" (Fern) should be strewed on " Dydd Gwyl Duw" 
(the festival of God), or why the day should be so 
called, looks more difficult to understand ; but probably 
the day meant was that one in the latter end of May 
(the 28th) given in some old Welsh calendars as the 
festival of " Theocws", a name which I take to be a 
corruption of "Theotokos" (the mother of God), so 
that we have thus combined the commemoration of 
the Holy Birth and the simple carpeting of the stable 
at Bethlehem. "Smiting tne breast", at the mention 
Judas, falls under the same category, so does " spitting 
at the names of Satan" ; though we by no means imply 
that the custom was limited to that one occasion. The 
funeral customs were, all of them, expressive. The 
distribution of roUs of bread and of pence and half- 
pence at the house, was very likely symbolical of the 
obligation of charity, and the need to make friends of 
the mammon of unrighteousness. The prayer, by the 
way, explains the purport of the name of many a road- 
side resting-place, such as Gorphwysfa, Bryn Pader, 
and Bryn Paderi. The bell served as a solemn re- 
minder of their common end : ** I to the grave do summon 
all." The oflferings in the Church, the House of the 
Good Physician, the spiritual " Inn" on life's journey, 
may have been, in imitation of the Grood Samaritan's 
care, for the sick and sorely wounded soul, and intended 
not so much to buy masses for the dead, as to give the 
living a last opportunity of, in their way, " doing like- 
wise", just as in another they gave their prayers on the 
grave. This last custom appears to have prevailed 
more extensively and much more recently in Edeyrnion 
in Merionethshire, as we are told by the Rev. Elias 
Owen in his newly published work on the Old Stone 
CrosseSy in which he not only records the tradition, but 
illustrates the practice by the forms of certain head- 



156 DAGGER FOUND AT BWLCH Y DDAU FAEN. 

stones in Corwen and the neighbouring churchyards. 
Last of all, the dressing of the grave with flowers told 
of life in death, and hope beyond the grave, and the 
beauty of the Paradise of God. — Edd. 



ON A BRONZE DAGGER FOUND AT BWLCH 
Y DDAU FAEN, BRECONSHIRE. 

A SHEPHERD passing, in June 1883, along the mountain 
track which leads from Abergwessin, Breconshire, to 
the valley of the Clarwen and Rhayader, observed some- 
thing glittering in the peat-bog, which had been re- 
cently much washed by heavy rain, on the pass known 
as Bwlch y Ddau Faen. On examination he found a 
bronze dagger, of which a drawing is now given, lying 
on the black peat at some depth below the general 
level around, the turbary having been excavated from 
time to time for fuel. The dagger may be compared 
with the daggers having a mid-rib and inclining to a 
rapier shape, described in Mr. Evans' work on the 
Ancient Bronze Implements in Great Britain^ pp. 243 
et seq. It is well cast, and is in a good state of pre- 
servation. The mid-rib on the reverse side is less pro- 
minent. Its length is six inches and one-tenth, and its 
weight rather more than three oz. Mr. Frank Thomas 
of Welfield, near Builth, is the present possessor of it. 

An opportunity is now afforded of requesting any 
one who may make a like find to communicate the par- 
ticulars to the Editors, and thus enable a comparison 
to be made of every fresh find in the Principality with 
types already known. 

R. W. B. 




INZE DAGGER. BWLCH-YDDAUFAEN. 



• # • . » 



157 



©bituarg. 

Thb Society has lost another of its oldest and most valaable mem- 
bers by the death of Charles Baker, Esq., F.S.A., of 11 Sackville 
Street, and latterly of 7 Westbourne Crescent, Hyde Park, to 
which he had only lately removed. He managed the large estates 
of the Dnkes of Beanfort in Glamorganshire and other parts of 
South Wales, to the great satisfaction of those whom he repre- 
sented. Nor will it be easy to replace him, so well was he acquainted 
with the details of such an extensive property. To him the Society 
is indebted for the Survey of Oower^ — a work of no little value to a 
county which still wants a historian. At the Bangor Meeting in 
1860, the Duke of Beaufort sent for inspection of the members the 
account of the progress of the first l)uke of Beaufort through 
Wales in 1684, illustrated by sketches of places and houses in 
Wales. Mr. Baker superintended the printing, in facsimile, of the 
valuable work, which unfortunately was not sold to the public. He 
died on the 12th of March, aged sixty-four. 

Erratum. — In " Obituary" of Mr. Charles Allen, p. 95, line 13, for 
"first wife" read "wife**. 



fHigcellaneous j^ottces. 

The Annual Mbetinq at Newport. — We wish to draw the atten- 
tion of members to the very attractive programme of the Newport 
Meeting, to be held on August 24)th and following days. Caerleon, 
Caerphilly, Caerwent, Chepstow, Monmouth, Raglan, Tin tern, and 
Usk, besides many other places of interest, present a list such as 
we have seldom had put before us ; and the welcome co-operation 
of the Caerleon and Monmouthshire Association must make the 
gathering doubly pleasant and successful. The sketch-map of the 
excursions is a new feature in our programmes, and one which com- 
mends itself to our cordial acknowledgment. 



MoNMOUTHSHiRB Reprints. — Members will like to know that it is 
proposed to reprint a series of seven curious and rare tracts relat- 
ing to this county, and dating from 1607 to 1660. A prospectus is 
sent herewith ; and the series may be had complete, on large paper, 
for £2 6«., and on small paper for £l 3«., on application to Messrs. 
Hazell, Watson, and Viney, 5, BZirby Street, Hatton Garden, Lon- 
don, £.C. 

We are glad to announce that a new edition of Murray's excellent 
Handbook for North Wales is nearly ready for issue. It will prove 



158 MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 

a most asefa] guide io tourists, and will be not unhelpful to resi- 
dents, by virtue of its varied and accurate information. We under- 
stand that it is also intended to issue a new edition of his Handbook 
to the Cathedrals of Wales. 



Egclesioloqigal Notes on home of the Islands of Scotland is 
the title of a series of articles, partly new and partly reprinted, by 
Mr. T. S. Muir, which Mr. David Douglas of Edinburgh is about to 
publish in one volume. They are likely to throw mach light, not 
only on Scottish, but also, by comparison, on Celtic ecclesiology, 
and being illustrated will be all the more attractive and helpful to 
archasologists. 

A MEETING was recently held at Cardiff, at which it was resolved 
to form a new society, under the title of " The Cambrian Society of 
South Wales and Monmouthshire", for ''the promotion of litera- 
ture, music, and art, the collection of books and manuscripts relat- 
ing to Wales, and the promotion of all questions of a national 
character that may prove of interest and use to the inhabitants of 
the southern portion of the Principality." These objects appear to 
us to be nearly identical with those of the London Cymmrodorion ; 
but we can well understand the desire to have the advantage of 
such a society nearer home, especially when we bear in mind the 
new intellectual movement inaugurated with the University College, 
and the vast population lying within its influence. We wish the 
new Society a useful and prosperous career. 



Old Stone Crosses of the Vale op Clwtd and Nbiohbourino 
Parishes ; together with some Account of the Ancient Manners 
and Customs and Legendary Lore connected with the Parishes. 
By the Rev. Elias Owen, M.A. Illustrated with Engravings 
on Copper and Wood. Publishers : Bernard Quaritch, 15, Pic- 
cadilly, London, W. ; and Woodall, Minshall, and Co., Caxton 
Press, Oswestry. Part I. 

Although not unacquainted with the ecclesiastical antiquities and 
traditions of the district thus treated of, we have been much struck 
by the abundance, the variety, and interest of the information here 
brought together. Mr. Owen has utilised, in a notable degree, the 
opportunities which his duties as a diocesan inspector have placed 
within his reach, and has shown how much may be effected by dili- 
gence and method in the brief intervals available in a more than 
usually busy calling. He has evidently gone about, not only with 
open eyes and ears, but also with an inquisitive tongue, and a ready 
pencil to note down and illustrate what he has heard and seen. 



S H 



«. 



REVIEW. • 159 

Not content with describing those crosses which may still be seen 
in ntu within the precincto of the chnrches, he has followed up 
hints, and traced the migrations of others, which had been more or 
less lost sight of, snch as those of Cwm, now in the orchard-wall of 
the Vicarage ; of Denbigh Abbey, at present in the precincts of 
Dolhyiryd Honse ; and the old High Gross now preserved in the 
Bowling Green adjoining the Castle walls. Others, again, he has 
brought to light by following np the hmt implied in a name, as at 
Maes y Groes, near Cilcen. Of these, the most elaborate and inte- 
resting are the Abbey cross, Denbigh, and the churchyard cross at 
Derwen, both of which we reprodace here to show the completeness 
of the descriptions and the character of the engravings. 

The Abbey Cross, Denbigh. — " The stone measures 25 inches in 
length, 11 inches in width, and 8 inches in thickness. Four deco- 
rated niches ornament its sides. The subjects, sculptured in relief, 
are more or less defaced by the action of the elements or other 
causes. In one of the broader niches is a carving of the crucifixion 
(fig. 1), and on each side of the cross are the emblems of the Pas- 
sion. To the right are the pincers, nails, hammer, anvil, and two 
scourges ; to the left are the ladder and spear, with sponge at the 
end, and a single naiL This niche is trefoil-headed. The shafts at 
the angles have disappeared, and the ornamentation at the top is 
much worn. 

" The opposite face is occupied by a figure of the Virgin and Child 
(fig. 2). The hair of the Virgin falls over the shoulders, and her 
head is encircled with a crown. In one of the side-niches is the 
figure of an ecclesiastic (fig. 3) in the act of devotion, robed in alb, 
chasuble, and maniple. Traces of a series of Y-crosses are observ- 
able on the chasuble. The lower portion of the figure has been 
mutilated. In the remaining niche is a male figure clothed in a 
flowing robe (fig. 4), the left hand holding a book ; the right, three 
or perhaps four balls. The sleeves of the garment do not come 
lower than the elbow. This figure probably represents St. John. 

" It belongs probably to the early part of the fourteenth century ; 
but it may have been erected when the Abbey was built, at the 
close of the thirteenth century." 

Derwen Cross, "after many visits, and careful observation in 
many lights", is thus presented : " In the west niche is a crucifix 
with the figures of St. John and the Virgin, one on each side ; all 
greatly de&oed, not by time, but by the spoiler. In the south 
compiurtment is an angel holding a scale in the left hand, while 
with his uplifted right hand he grasps a sword which is seen above 
the head, and from the mouth proceeds a trumpet. A portion of 
the angel's wing is visible at the top of the left corner, and the feet 
stand on a somewhat rounded surface (a globe). The scene repre- 
sents the summoning of the dead to judgment, and it is, therefore, 
an appropriate symbol for a churchyard. The east face is sadly 
defaced and worn by time, and the figures are indistinct. In the 
centre of the niche is a chair, on which is seated a person clothed 



160 REVIEW. 

in flowing garments. On each side are two fignres, an adult and a 
child ; so that the compartment contains fignres of five persons. 
It has been supposed that the gronp represents the wisdom of Solo- 
mon ; bat it is more probable that it was intended for the Virgin 
and Child, and possibly the second child stands for the infant fore- 
mnner of Christ" 

Bnt we have quoted enough to show, with the engraving, the 
completeness of the description. 

The lore that he has accumulated adds great interest to the de- 
scriptions, as may be seen by the account of the old High Cross at 
Denbigh, which leaves the strong impression that our ancestors 
were careful at least to hallow their undertakings, whether of busi- 
ness, duty, or pleasure, though their less reverent descendants ob- 
scured this purpose by much of sensual indulgence. The passing- 
bell, we are told, is rung at Efenechtyd on the evening of the death ; 
elsewhere it is on the evening before the funeral, for the purpose, 
we take it, of giving notice of the " Gwylnos", or watoh-servioe, or 
vigil, for the dead. 

The tradition noticed in connexion with Maesygroes (p. 15), of 
an army crossing over to fight the Saxons in Mold or Chester, 
seems to us to point to the great *' Alleluliatic" victory at Maes 
Gtirmon, close by, though Mr. Owen has not alluded to it. The 
curious knee-stones placed at the head and foot of graves at Cor- 
wen, which he assigns to the custom of praying for the dead, we 
were at first inclined to question ; but we think he is borne out by 
the same custom being mentioned elsewhere as occurring at Ltan- 
fechain, in Montgomeryshire ; and it is corroborated by the inscrip- 
tion formerly existing on Bishop Barrow*s tomb, near the west door 
of the Cathedral : '* vos transeuntos in Domum Domini, domum 
orationis, orate pro conserve vestro, nt inveniat misericordiam in 
Die Domini"; and by the somewhat contemptuous comment of 
Philip Henry thereupon, that '* he appointed to be buried in the 
church porch because he observed poor people praying". (^Letters 
and Diary^ p. 290.) 

While congratulating Mr. Owen warmly on his very excellent 
instelment, and expressing an earnest hope that the subsequent 
Parte may bear comparison with it, we must add a word of com- 
mendation on the very creditable manner in which it has been 
issued from the Caxton press at Oswestry. 



%n\iutth$u €nmhnnm. 



FIFTH SERIES.— VOL. II, NO. VJI. 



JULY 1885. 



THE CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTIC 
WORDS OF THE COUNTIES OF NORTH- 
AMPTON AND LEICESTER. 

(Continued from p. 96,) 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Sizzle, to dry and shriyel np by the W. sis, a low sonnd ; sisialu, to mar- 
fire; formed from the Bonnd pro- mur 
dnced by the action of heat on 
greasy snbfltances (N.). Properly 
it means to ciaokle^ 
Skeg, the wild damson (N.), 8. Ir. €rael. sgecLch=skega, the haw or 

berry of the whitethorn ; Manx 
shaig^=skaga, id. 
Skelper, a tall, lanky youth (L.) Gael. sgealp=skalpi,tL tall man ; Ir. 

Grael. sgealb, a long stake, a splin- 
ter 
Sherry, skerrig, the thin, grey bands Ir. Gael. sgrecLg^shragi, W. eareg, 
(pt stone) found in the red brick- rock, stone ; Manx, karrig, sker, 
earth near Bosworth (L.) id.; Ir. W. craig, rock 

Skid, an iron slide applied to a wheel W. esgicU^^^kid, Com. escid, a shoe ; 
on going down hill (L.) ; A.-S. Sans, sku, to cover 
scid, a bUlet of wood 
Skilly, a drink made of oatmeal and W. isgell. Com. iskell, broth, pot- 
water (L.) tage 
Slats, the sleepers or rails for the Ir. Gael, slat ; Manx, slatt, branch, 
bed of a cart (N.) bough; W. llath, rod, lath ; Sans. 

lata, branch 
Slim, thin, slender, slight (N.V, O. Ir. Gael. «/im, lank, lean, thin ; Manx, 
Do. slim^ awry, bias- wise (Sxeat) sliman, a loose garment; W. llym, 

sharp in edge or point ; Arm. 
lemm, id. 
Shmmacks {slommach-es^), a drab, a Ir. slab (for slam)', Gael, slaih, mnd, 



n 



^ ^^ Sizzle, the half hiss, half sigh of an animal; of an owl, for instance 
(Hall). Ray says that yeast is called in the North sizzing, from the sound 
of the working beer. 

' 'S or -es is a Celtic feminine suffix. 

5tB 8KB., yOL. II. 11 



162 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

slovenly girl or woman (N.) ; A.-8. 

slim, Germ, schleiniy slime, mud 
Slynes, the faces of the pecnliar 

** jointing** foand in the cual-beds 

are called sl^nea by the colliers 

(L.) 
Snag, to hew or cut roughly with an 

axe (N.) 
Sock, a farm-yard drain (N.), S.; 

A.-S. socian^ to soak; Sw. soggy-wet 



Sog, a mass of earth, any solid bulk 

(L.) 
Soo ! Sue I a word addressed to a 

cow that she may be quiet (N.), S. 
Sooniy to drink a long draught (L.), 

H.; O. N. sumbla, compotare, de- 

glutire 
Sosh, to dip as in flight, to plunge 

suddenly (N.) 
So88f anything foul or muddy (N.) 



Soughy a covered drain (N.), L. 
Sowy a wood-louse (L.) 

Spade-bone, blade-bone or shoulder- 
bone (N.), L. 

Spank, to strike with the open hand, 
to smack (N.), L.; O. N. hang, pul- 
satio 



Spicket, a spigot or peg, a foucit 
(N.), 8. 

Spiff, dapper, dandified (N.) ; Germ. 
puff, a puff, something puffed up 

Spree, a lark, a wild frolic (N.) 



Spud, a small, narrow spade for re- 
moving weeds (N.), L. 

Spuddy, short, thickset (N.) ; Du., 
Dan. spade, spade 

Spunk, mettle, spirit, vivacity (N.); 
Lat. spongia, spunge 



Sfank, a dam across a stream, a pool 
formed by such a dam (L.) 



CELTIC. 

mire, filth ; Ir. slam, slime (slam- 
ach, slimy, dirty) 
Ir. GaeL slirm, a flat stone or tile ; 
also a weaver^s slay or slea ; pri- 
marily a flat stone 

Ir. Gael, snaigh, to hew, cut, cut off; 

Manx,9neiA (pi. 8neighf/n),s. wound 
W. sock, a drain ; sug, moisture, 

juice; Com. so^, moist, wet; Sans. 

e^uch (for such), to give moisture, 

to wet 
W. sawch, heap, pile, load ; Com. 

saw (for 8awg=sog), id. 
Ir. Gael, so, W. hoe, rest, quiet 

Ir. snm, to gulp, to swallow ; sumaire, 
a gulper, a great drunkard ; Ir. 
Gael, sumaid, a wave , 

Ir. Gael. mo«, downwards, down 

W. sds, a sluttish mess ; pulpamen- 
tum sordidum (Dav.) ; Gael, sos, 
an uncleanly mixture, a foul mess 

See Sock 

Ir. Gael, sor, a louse 

W. y8bawd=spad, the shoulder-bone 

W. y shone, a jerk, smack, slap ; ys- 
hongc, ictus, verber (Dav.) ; Ir. 
speach, a kick, a blow ; Ir. Gael. 
spag, a paw; W.paw,pav}€n; Arm. 
pao, paw, hoof 

Ir. Gael, spiocaid, a spigot. The root 
is pic, a sharp point ; Ir. spice, a 
spike ; W. pigoden, a prickle 

Ir. Gael, spailp, a beau, one with 
airs of importance; spailpin^ a fop, 
a conceited fellow 

Ir. spre, a spark, life, animation; Ir. 
Gael, sprac, spraic, a spark, life, 
motion, vigour ; W. ashri, mis- 
chief (?) 

W. pwt, any short thing ; short, 
squabby; pwten,^^ short, squat fe- 
male; ^9,iL%.putt, to be small 

Ir. Gael, sponc, touchwood, tinder; 

Manx, spongey, spunk, anything 

dried up and ready to take fire ; 

V. to dry up, parch 
Ir. Gael, stang, a ditch ; tain, water; 

Arm. stajik, a pool ; Lat. stagnum 



OP NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 163 

ANOLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Stew^ staur, vaponr, dnst^ dost in Ir. Gael, stur, dust; Manx, «toor, id. 

motion (N.) 
SlooTj in the North (Brogden) 

Sucky a word Uised to call sheep, etc. Ir. suig, a pig; 9uige=:suge, a call to 

(N.), S. ; prim., to call pigs, as sic pigs ; W. hwch, a sow ; Sans. sH- 

in Hallamshire; A.-S. 8ugu^ a sow kara^ pig 

Sunther, fright ; to fear (North) ; W.sufyd, awe, dread; swydo^ to awe; 

stooothy a fright (L.), H. ; Sw. ncidaj Ir. sgatk^ fear, fright; W. ar-twyd^ 

to hnm, to give severe pain ; O. terror 

N. gvida^ to bum 

Tab, the latchet of a shoe listened W. tap^ a projecting ledge ; Arm. 

by a string or thong (N.) iapen^ a piece 

Taching-endsy shoemaker's threads Ir. Gael, taca, pin, nail, surety, bail; 

with a bristle for attaching the /o^A, joining, weldering, soldering; 

leather (N.) Manx, taaghey, to solder, cement; 

Tctck, to attack (N.) taggad, a little nail ; Arm. tocA, 

Tctckle, a horse's harness (N.) nail ; Ir. toe, a lease ; tacair^ one 

holding land under a lord ; W. 

taig, a nail 
Tag, the low rabble (N.) W. taeog, taiog^ vassal, tike, peasant; 

rustic, rude, clownish ; or from 

the tag of a cord. See supra 
Tang, to ring bells (N.) W. tone, a ringing of bells; toncio, to 

ring 
Tank, a blow, a stroke (L.) Arm. tonka, tounka, toucher on frap- 

per dans la main, en signe d'ac- 

cord ; W. ton, shattered, broken ; 

tvmio, to brealE 
Tanlarrow, a savoury pie made of W. tan, a spread, and tarad, taste, 
apples, onions, and isX bacon (N.) flavour (?) 

Tantle, to fondle, make a pet of (L). W. tant, a throb, sudden gust of pas- 
Tantrums, airs, odd freaks of pas- sion. Prim, tant means a cord, 
sion (N.), L. and its contortions are used figu- 

ratively. Sans, tantu, a thread 
or cord ; ianiri, chord of instru- 
ment 
Tare, tear, to go at full speed (N.), W. taer, eager, ardent ; Arm. tear, 
L. vif, prompt ; teara, marcher vite; 

Ir. Gael, tara, brisk, quick ; Sans. 

tur, to hurry 

Tawsey, a term applied to hay when W. tas, heap, rick, stack ; Arm. tas, 

it clings together in masses (N.) amas, monceau ; Ir. Gael, taince, 

Tazz, a heap of knots, etc. (L.); Fr. store; taisg, laid up, stored; Sans. 

tas, A.-S. tass (borrowed) t<is, to cast, throw up 

Ted, to spread about new-mown W. teddu, to spread out; tedd, a 
grass (N.) spread, row, range ; tgddu,io lay out 

Teer, to smear with earth (N.), L. ; W., Ir. Gael, tir. Com. teer. Arm. tir, 
^mry, adhesive as earth (N.); Lat. land, earth; Sans, sthira, earth 
terra 

Teg, a yearling sheep (N.) Ir. Gael, othaxsg, a yearling sheep 

Tether, to confine animals by a rope Ir. iead, ted, a rope ; Gael, teadhair, 
(N.); Low Germ, tider. "Proba- rope, tether; Manx, tead, teid, id.; 
bly of Celtic origin" (Skeat) W. tid, chain 

11« 



164 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

Theave, thave, a female yearling See Teg 

sheep (L.) 
Thump, to beat, to strike (N.)) L. W. twmpian, to strike, to stamp ;^ 

Com. tummas, a blow; Arm. tum- 

pa, yerser, en parlant d^nne cha- 

rette ; Sans, tup, tump, to hnrt, 

wound 

Thurrock, a heap, chiefly applied to W. twr, heap, pile [tyrog, a little 

manure (L.) ; A.-S. tor, tower, pile] ; Arm. tor, belly ; tcrgen, 

high hill (borrowed) small hill ; Com. tor, prominence, 

womb, hill ; Ir. Gael, tor, tower, 
lord ; Sans, torana, mound or ele- 
vated place 
Tiff, a slight quarrel (N.) ; tiffle, to Ir. Gael, tibhe, jibe, taunt ; tahaid, 
wrangle, dispute (L.) broil, quarrel ; Arm. tabut, bruit, 

dispute, querelle 
Tig I tig ! tig! k call to pigs (N.); Ir. Gael, tigh, come I 

Low Sax. tik, a call to hens 
Till, to entice, draw on, tempt (N.); W. twyllo, to allure, deceive ; twyll, 
toll, to attract, entice, allure (L.) ; evasion, deceit, fraud ; Arm. Um- 
O. N. tala, decipere elUi, charmer, seduire, tromper, 

allecher ; Com. tolla, to deceive, 
allure 
Tiller, to throw out a number of Ir. Gael, tilg, to throw, to cast ; 
stems from the same root (N.) ; Manx, tilgey, to throw, throw out 
Prov. Sw. tilldr, to roll as a ball 
Tin, a name given to some meadows W. tyno, dale, green 
near Grace Dieu Abbey (L.) 

So named because they belonged to a Despenser who 
had been attainted. (Evans.) 

Titivate, to make yourself smart W. twtio, to make neat or trim; twt^ 
(N.) neat, smart 

Tittup, a canter, a slow gallop (N.) W. tuth (tt=Eng. i), a trot ; tutUo, 

to trot 
Titty, a fond name for a kitten (N.). W. titw, a cat 

Sternberg has ** tit, a cat'' 
Toggery, togs, clothing (N. L.) W. tvyyg^ cloak, wrapper; Lat. toga. 

Probably the Arm. words, toek^ 
fleece, wool, and tok, hat, head- 
cover, may be related ; Sans, tuj^ 
to clothe 
Tommy, provisions given to work- W. tama, hard food, as bread and 
men instead of money (N.), L. ; flesh ; O. Ir. tomil, manduca (Z., 
tommy, tam^ bread, meat, any food 457); Ir. Gael, tomaltas, food, vic- 
opposed to broth, etc. (N-)? ^^ ^'^v tuals; Ir. tiomal, to eat 
hard food; tammy-lnig, a provision 
bag (N.), S. 

^ In Welsh tvmip, a round mass, and twmpian, to beat, there is the same 
connection as between Sans, tumba, a gourd or milk-pail (from their form) 
and tnmb, to hurt. Perhaps the primary meaning of the verb was to 
strike with the closed fist. Cf . pojnmcl, to beat ; prim, a round lump, a 
boss. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 



165 



ANGLO-CELTIC. 

Tomodgey the ventricle of a pig (N.), 
S. 



Totf tot up, to add up, cast up ac- 
counts (L.) ; toot, the whole (Suff.), 
tote, the whole (N.) 



CELTIC. 

A corrupt form of tormodge (?). Cf. 

W. tor J a belly, and mochyn^ a pig ; 

Arm. tor^gros ventre; moch^ pore, 

cochon; Com. tor and moch 
Ir. Gael, toit^ whole, entire ; Xiat. 

totu9; Ir. Gael, toitear, lumpy ; 

Sans, tati, so many 



The Ir. toil is for toti or tati^ which Fick (i, 85)a8sumes 
as the Aryan form for Lat. totus. 



Trangle, luck, chance, way. " Turn 

the pigs out, an' let 'em tek their 

own trangle^^ (L.) 
TresselSf trusselsj long-legged stools 

for holding up planks, etc.* (N.); 

Fr. triteau for tresteau^ trestle 



Trig, a term used by boys at mar- 
bles (N.). It is a word for the 
line or spot from which they 
shoot 



W. trangCy departure. Now used for 
the final departure, death. Sans. 
tranky to go, move 

W. trawsty rafter, beam ; trestlj 
stretcher, frame; Com. troster (pi. 
treaters}, a beam ; Arm. treust, trest, 
poutrej pi^ce de bois qui sert k 
soutenir le plancher; Gael, treast, 
long bench or form 

W. trig, a fixed state. In North- 
amptonshire it means a fixed po- 
sition 



Trigged, decked out fine (N.) W. tree, gear ; trecio, to furnish, 

equip 
Trim, to beat (N.); to whip or beat, W. trino, to handle, scold, fight 
to scold (L.); A.-S. trymian, to 
set in order, prepare 
Trolly, 9k dirty, indolent slattern W./ro/^n, a fat female; Arm. ^ru^^, 
(N.) ; Germ, trolle, truU, trollop. femme sale, malpropre, delabr^e 
Must be a borrowed word en ses habits ; Ir. Gael, troll, cor- 

ruption, defilement; trail, a drab, 
a slut; Manx, trallee, sordid, dirty 
Trolly, a hand-barrow without sides, W. trol, a cylinder, a small cart; tro- 
for wheeling 8acks,etc.(L.); Germ. lio, to trundle ; troelli, Com. tro- 
trollen, to roll illia, to turn, to whirl; Arm. troel, 

the convolvulus, from its winding 
shoots 
TrooA;, to give in, give way, "knuckle W. trycio, to fail, decay; trychu, 
under" (L.); Fr. troquer, to barter Com. trochy, to cut, to break 

Truss, A bunch of flowers growing W.^rtru,^ a covering; /rtfi«a, a packet; 



1 Prof. Skeat has a long note on this word, which he derives from Lat. 
transtillum, a little cross-beam, from trans. He has caught the right idea, 
for the W. trawst is from traws, a traverse or cross ; but this is not from 
the Lat. trans. It is a relative of Sans, tira^, through, across. The W. 
traws is for tras, and hence a regular change to the dialectic form, trussel. 
Cf. Com. trus, transverse; trusse, to cross. 

' The W. trws means* also a dress, that which is put together (?). The 
prim, idea seems to be to grasp or keep together, as in the Sans, tras, to 
grasp, to hold. 



166 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

in one foot-stalk (N.); O. Fr. Ir. Quel. /rtu, a bundle; to gather, 
tru88er, to pack, bind in collect ; Sans, trasy to seize, to hold. 

Cf. Jr. glacotriy bnnch, bundle, 
from glac, to take, seize, grasp 
Tunkj a blow, generally with force, See Tank 

so as to leave an impress (N.) 
Tussock, tusk (L.), tufts of coarse W. tvoys, twysg, a tnft, a heap; ttoys- 
grass (N.); Prov.Sw./tf««, a handle og ; Corn, tushoc, tufted. The 
of hay. See Tcu suffix is a diminutive ; Ir. Ghiel. 

doSj Manx, doss, a tuft ; W. tusw, 
a bunch 
Tut, to be prominent, to jut out or W. twdd=tooth (soft th), what pokes 
forward. A bonnet tuts up that or juts out (P.); twddf, a poke ; 
is too much elevated in poke or tyddu (^=Eng. u), to spread out 
crown (N.) ; O. N. tutna, tumes- 
cere 
Tut, offence (L.) ; tutty, short-tern- Ir. Gael, tut, a bad smell, stink; tut ! 
pered (X.), L. W. twtl an expression of dislike 

and anger. Cf./unJb, dislike; prim, 
a bad smell 
Twiddle, to twist and twirl things W. chivid, a quick turn ; chuoido, to 
about between the fingers (N.) turn quickly. Cf. ^tm//=:=quill ; 

/trt//=quilt (see Hall.) 
Twig^ to comprehend, observe slyly Ir. Gael, tuig, to see, observe, under- 
(X.) stand; /ui^ae, discernment; 0. Ir. 

tuicci, intelligit (Z', 438); Manx, 

toiggal, to perceive, comprehend 

CTrcAin, a hedgehog (N.); ttrA;, a small It, uirchin, urcain, Gael, uircean, a 

child or diminutive person (X.), little pig ; Arm. heureuchin, a 

S. hedgehog 

Vamped, invented (N.); a waw/?«rf-up W. gwam, a tilt, a vamp ; Ir. Gael. 

8tory==itrumped-up story (N.) ; fairne, border, hem ; Sans, vimba 

We speak of such a tale being for vamba, disc of sun or moon, 

patched up; Ft, avant-pied (Skeat) i.e,, round border; prim, border 

simply (?) 
Varnish, barnish, bamess, to grow See Barnish 

fat and well -liking, to fill out (L.) 
Vlannen, flannel (N.) An archaism. W. gwlanen for vla- 

nen, flannel; gwlan, wool 
i Wadge, a large bundle (N.) W. ffasg, a bundle ;/a«, ligature, tie, 

< Wadjet, id. band; ffasgell, a bundle; ffasgu, to 

( IFarf/ ocAr, id.; Germ. ira«c, a bundle tie in a bundle; -et and -oc are 

of brushwood Celtic forms 

Wap, a blow; v. to beat (N.); Low W. chioaj), waj), wab, a blow; cAww- 
Germ. qunbbeln, to palpitate pio, to strike smartly 
(Skeat) 
Washej', a flat ring of iron or leather Ir. Gael. /ai>?^==/<:i«^i, to press, com- 
placed before the nut of a wheel pre8S,bind;/axgrair,keepep,binder; 
to prevent rocking (N.) /<'«y> band; W. gvoa8gu=^vasgu, to 

press, to squeeze 
W^ft, a musty taste. " The beer has W. chwaeth, taste, savour, or chwxff, 

a weft of the barrel" (N.) a whiff 

Welt, a seam (L.) ; welting, a scam, W. gwald=^valt, border, rim, welt ; 
seaming (L.) Ir. Gael, faltan, belt, welt ; Jal, 

rim,border; Sans, ya/, to surround, 
enclose 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 167 

ANGLO-CELTIC. CELTIC. 

TFerrM^, feeble, deficient of stamina, W. guxtr, mild, gentle, tame (?) 
insipid (L.), N. 

Westy, giddy, confused (L.). "My W. gwestl^ hurly-burly, riot ; gtpest- 
head 's very toesty and bad" ^, tumultuous; gioesiol, roving 

Whewtf to whistle (N.) W. ehwyth^ blast, puff ; ehwythellu, 

to whistle ; Arm,chouital, a whistle; 
chouitella, to whistle 

Whiff, to puff (N.) , W. cKwiff, a whiff, a hiss 

Whiffle, to shift as the wind, to veer W. chwify a whirl, a turn ; chwifio, to 

(N.), L. ; to whisk (L.) ; 0. N. veifa, fly about, to wind 

vibrare, gyrare 

Whig, sour whey or buttermilk. Yf.chiing, — (1), sour; (2), clarified 

Used only in the phrase, *^ Sour as whey; Sans, sukta, sour, acid (V) 

whig^^ (N.). N. S. hwceg, whey; 

Du. wei 

Whin, the rest-harrow (N.), Ononis W. chwyn, weeds ; chwyno ; Arm. 

arvensis ; gen. furze or gorse chouenna, to weed 

Whinnock, to whimper, cry as a W. cir^, complaint, wailing; cto^no, 

child (N.), N. S. The verbal ter- to complain ; Arm. keina, g^mir, 

mination -oc is Celtic. A.-S. hwi- se plaindre ; Ir. caoinim, I cry, 

nan, to whine; 0. H. 6. toetnon, to lament; cao'ine, dirge ; Sans, kan, 

weep to cry as in distress 

Winte, a name given by butchers to Ir. Gael, cuithe, furrow, deep place, 

the part that joins the round, i.e., pit 

the flank (N.) ? 

Whop, a blow, a heavy stroke, to See W?iap 

beat (L.) 

Widdle, to fret (N.) W. gwyth, anger, fret (Evans) ; gy- 

thu, to murmur, grumble; gythol, 
murmuring; Sans, vid, to cry out 
against, revile 

Widdle, to move loosely about, to W. chwid, a quick turn ; chwido, to 

oscillate (L.). See Twiddle move quickly, to juggle 

Woa, a call to a horse to stop (L.) W. %do, a stop, stop I 

Yangle, a triangular frame of wood Ir. Gael, ceangal, band, tie, restraint, 
placed over the neck of a cow to fastening ; Manx, kiangley, band, 
prevent its breaking through tie ; v. to bind, tie, secure ; W. 
fences (N.); L. cingulum, girdle cengl, girth ; Sans, kach,^ kanch, 

to bind, to tie; kacha, a band 

It now only remains that I should prove my former 
statement, that the Celtic inhabitants of the Eastern 
counties were of the older Celtic or Gaelic race, which 
Professor Rhys calls Goidelic. As this paper has 

^ The Sans, kach is a near relative of our dialectic cagg, a voluntary 
engagement (generally to abstain from intoxicating liquors for a certain 
period), and of the Ir. cacht, restraint, fetter. The latter is said by a 
well known Celtic scholar to be a borrowed word from the Lat. captus. 
Karh and carht are related to the Lat. ringo, but have no relationship 
whatever with captus or capw. See Fick*, i, 36. 



168 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

already extended to very large proportions, I do not 
propose to present the whole Celtic element in the 
dialect of these counties. There are many such words 
that are common to the earlier and the later forms of 
Celtic speech, but I offer only some examples of the 
earlier form or division. Some of these words may 
have been in use among the Cymric race in the fifth 
and sixth centuries, but it is difficult, if not impossible, 
to suppose that all were then used, and were afterwards 
forgotten. 

IRISH OR GAELIC WORDS IN THE EASTERN 

COUNTIES. 

EASTERN COUNTIES. IRISH QAELIC. 

A ijyahj^ the fat about the kidney of Ir. Gael, igha, pron. ^yha^ fat : Manx, 

veal or mutton (Suff.). The form eeh, saet, tallow, fat of the caul; 

is properly iyahj the first a being Sans. a^\ to smear, anoint 

inserted according to a well known 

Celtic law 

Ask, lizard, newt (Line.) Gael, cue, adder 

In Yorkshire ask means damp. Ir. Gael. easc=asci9 
water. 

Bambary. A bambary tale is one not See Bamy Gael, beurra (pron. barra), 
to be relied on (Line.) spoken ; Ir. Gael, berach, talkative; 

bearla, language ; Sans, bru (for 
beru), to speak. Bambary means 
a mocking or deceitful tale' 

Bosky to be drenched in a heavy Ir. &a«y(6a«c), to drown ;&ai«, water, 
shower (E.), F. heavy rain; O. Gael, bats, water 

Bear, a tool to cut sedge (Norf.) Ir. Gael, bearr,* to cut, cut off, lop; 

Manx, baarey, to cut; baare, edge 
of a tool 

Bige, a teat (G.), H. Ir. Gael. bo%g^x=J)iga, a teat 

Bog-spavin, a soft spavin (Line.) Ir. Gael, bog, soft 

Boof, stupid (Line) Gael. 6ao6^=&q/a,wild, foolish; Ir. 

baobhalta, wicked, foolish 
Bop, father (Suff.); 0. H. S. babes, Ir. Gael, bolxin, father ; Hind, b&p^ 
papes, papa (Graff.) father 

* Major Moon says that it is also called niyah, and sometimes ear and 
near. This is a mistake. Near, O. N. nyra, denotes the kidney itself, 
ren ; aijah, the fat upon the kidney. ** Ben a nere^\ Nom, M. S. ** neare of a 
beest, roignon" (Palgrave, Hall.). Ear may be related to W. aren, a kidney. 

^ Bam-bary means in itself a false or mocking tale. The Irish ber-ach 
implies a noun, ber=bari, word, narrative, 

> The verb bearr has not been retained in Welbh ; but it is the source 
of W. byr, short. Cf . W. cicta, short, and cytio, to cut. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 169 

EASTERN COUNTIES. IRISH GAELIC. 

Botty^ proud (E.) Ir. Gael, hoiteal (hotel), pride, arro- 

gance 
Bratty^ dirty (Line.) Ir. Gael, hrod {hrot\ a spot ; hrod- 

ach, filthy ; W. brontj dirty, cross 
Bruff, the halo round the edge of Ir. Gael, bruachj edge, rim, border 
the moon (Line), P. Cf . cough, 
pron. cof 
Bud, a calf of the first year (E.), Ir. Gael, hodog, hodag, a yearling 

Suff. calf 

Budranij oatmeal-gruel (Norf.) Ir. Gael, huadh (huda), food ; ram- 

har, gross, thick 
BufUeTf a low, bad woman (E.), H. Ir. Gael, ban, woman; toir=^«r, low, 

vile 

Bylders, a kind of water-cress (E.); Ir. Gael, biolar (bilar), water-cress ; 

bylUrne, in-Promp. Parv. ; billere bit, water; W. berwr, from O. W. 

in old English^ ber, water 

CatldaWy a jackdaw (Suff.), E.; Sw. Ir. cathag, Gael, cadhag, the jack- 

kaja, Du. kaauw, a daw d|tw ; &ins. kdka, crow. The change 

from A; to t or J is not uncommon 
in Celtic 
CcdlendeTf the top soil of a grayel- Ir. Gael, caille. veil, hood Icaillean 
pit (Ess.) =callen, id.] ; tir, in comp. dir, 

earth 
Cast, warped (Line.) Ir. Ghiel. cas, to twist, curl ; aista, 

twisted 
Cat, a mass of coarse meal and other Ir. Gael, coth, food ; cothaigh, to 
ingredients placed in a dove-cot feed; Sans, kkad, to eat 
as a lure (E.), H. ; Du. cost, food 
Caul, a landmg-place (Line.) Ir. Gael. ccUadh (pron. kala), port, 

harbour 
Caul, the fatty membrane of a pig Ir. Gael, ceal, covering (W. caul, a 

(Line.) calf's maw) 

Clan, &mily, taken in a wide sense Ir. Gael, clann, children, tribe; Sans. 
(E.) ktila, n. c. kulam, troop, family, 

race 
ClecJcs, refuse of oatmeal (Line), Gael. caiZZeacA, husks of com ; Manx, 

H. cletch, bran, husk of wheat 

Cod, deception. ^^ That *s all cod^* Cod represents an older cuda for cu- 
(Line.) ta. This is the Sans. kfUa, fraud, 

deception, from hit, to be crooked ; 
in Irish, cud-al, wicked, with a 
more general meaning; W. hud, 
illusion 
Cbmm«nre,an awkward event (Ess.). A curious corruption of Ir. Gael. 
Bell cumhainge, distress, difficulty ; 

Manx, comys, offence, blame (tor 
comym) 
Cbn^y^oj^Z^, to cheat by bewildering It. fog hail, an inroad into an ene- 
(Linc), B. my*s country, robbery, plunder. 

Cotu>y is perhaps from Ir. cu, for 

1 **Bibulta, billere'' (E. Eng, Voc, i, 286). I cannot find bibulta in any 
dictionary; but it must be related to bihulus, and will therefore denote 
an aquatic plant. 



170 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



EASTERN COUNTIES. 

Cork, a hard chalk (Norf .), Britten 
Cosher, huge, extraordinary (Line.) 

Creel, a basket (Suff.) 

Cuff, to insinuate (Ess.) 



Cull, the fish called bull-head (Ess.), 

tom-cull in Wilts 
Currel, a rill or drain (E.), H. 



Dak, a call to pigs (Line.) 



IRISH QAELIC. 

cun, dog (Sans, a' van). Coining 
rabbit, is in O'Reilly's Dictionary 

It denotes primarily hardness ; Ir. 
core, a hard skin 

O. Ir. coscur, a marvel. " Bahard 
in co8cur", high was the marvel 
(Goid. 138) 

Ir. criol=crila, a basket; croil, bas- 
ket, hamper ; Gael, croidhle {dh 
silent), id.; Ir. crilin, box, chest 

Ir. Gael, cubhas, word, promise; 
cuibhet, fraud, deceit ; Sans, kup, 
to speak 

Ir. Gael, coll, head 

Ir. corr, Ir. Gael, curr, pit of water, 
well-spring; with a suffix of dimi- 
nution 

Ir. deacadh, coming (deach, come) 



Dallaring, dressing in a great variety Gael, deallair, to shine, gleam, glow ; 
of colours (Line.) Ir. Gael, dealradh, brightness, 

splendour; Manx, dallagh, dazzl- 
ing^ 
Darnak, a thick hedging - glove Ir. Gael, domog, a glove ; dom, W. 
( Suff. ) dwm, a fist ; Manx, domaig, cover- 

ing for the hand against thorns 
Daw, a beetle (Suff.) Ir. Gael. d4ior, a beetle 

Dibles, difficulties (E.), H. Gael, diubhail, dibal, calamity, dis- 

tress ; Ir. Gael. diobhal==dibal, 
loss, want, injury 
Didall, a spade used for ditching in Ir. Gael, dig, a dyke ; tall, to cut ; 

the marshes (E.) tal, in comp. dal, a cooper's axe 

Z)i/t?er, to weary by labour (E.) ; dil- Ir. duilbhir, Gael, duilbhearra, sad, 
vered, weary, confused, heavy, anxious, cheerless 
nervous (Suff.) 
Doggery-baw, nonsense (Line). Cf. Ir. Gael, doghra, dnlness, sadness ; 
doggery, dull, slow (Cumb.) dogar, sad; baidh, to speak; Sans. 

vad 
Z>om€/ozi«, wicked; especially applied Gskeh domail=domil, injury, harm, 
to a seducer (Line.) damage, especially by cattle in 

trampling com (McAlp.); domail- 

each, hurtful, injurious; Ir. dom- 

haoin, evil, wicked 

Doon, the village prison TLinc); Ir. Gael, f/wn, a fort, a fortified house 

A.-S. tun, close, field, dwelling or hill; v. to shut in, inclose; W. 

din, city 



* The Manx dallagh seems to show that W. daJl, blind, denotes blind- 
ness by excess of light, being dazed or dazzled. From this root dall, we 
have daioks (Line.) for didlachen, a woman dressed in gaudy clothes. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 171 

EASTEBN COUNTIES. IRISH GAELIC. 

Duddle, to cover with an onneceB- Gael, dudt dudagyA rag; Manx, doo- 

sary quantity of clothes (E.) ; 0. dee, a sloven 

E. dudSy rags (see Nares) ; Da. tod, 

a rag 
Eerie,^ causing fear (Norf .), N. Ir. Gael, earadh, fear 

Emer, one who rescues another from* Ir. eimh==emi, protection, sanctuary ; 
any danger or difficulty (Line.) Sans, inv, to surround, embrace, 

gladden (?) 
Fapes, gooseberries (E.) Gael. faob==^apa, lump, knot in 

wood, acorn 
Fassilj to loiter, waste time, work Ir. Gael, fuasgailj to loose, untie ; 
lazily (Line.) fuasgailtey loose, untied, dack 

Feedj to amuse by talking or read- Ir. Gael. /eo^, fiadh==fida, to tell, re- 
ing (Line), H.; to tell, relate' late; Lr./ed, a narration 

Feel, to smell (Line.) Ir. Gael. /ai/«, smell, scent 

Flacky a blow, especially with some- Ir. Q&el. JUig=flac, a blow, a bang 

thing pliant (E.) 

Foh/y soft ; used of fruit. Boggy Ir. Gael, bog, soft ; bogachy morass, 

hmd is said to hefoky bog 

Frothy small, not fully grown (E.) Ir. Gnel. frioth=fi'oti, small, little 

GarUy scanty (E.), N. Ir. Gael, gann for gant, scarce, short; 

gainney scarcity 

GaffeTy an old man (Line); gotfer in Com. cothy goth. Arm. coz, old ; W. 
Wilts cothy an old man; Ir. Gael, feavy 

W. gioTy man 

Gare, heat, heat of passion (Ess.) Ir. Gael. gar,^ to heat; garaily warm; 

Manx, gaevy heat ; Sans, gharmay 
heat 

Gashiny a horse's thigh (E.) ; gca- Ir. Gael, gasgaroy buttocks ; gasg, a 
coyneSy buttocks (Herts.) tail 

Gockeuy voracious. " That gilt (sow) Ir. Gael. geoc=^goc\y throat; geocachy 
is very gocken" (Line.) voracious 

GolUy the hands (Ess.). In Forby's Ir. Gael, glac, palm of the hand, for 
East Anglian Vocabulary the word oo^c; (70/, drop, tear; Sans, ^o/a, 
is said to mean *^ fat chops, ridges ball, anything circular ; gulay a 
of fat on a corpulent body". Nail pill, any globular substance. The 
says that goll means, in Suffolk, Essex (70// meant probably, at first, 
a fist. O. N. kollry head the closed hand or fist 

Grede, a small wash-tub (Line.) Ir. Gael. criot=creta, vessel, earthen 

vessel 

Grogy vexed, excited with passion Ir. Gael, grog, frown, huff; grogachy 
(Line.) pettish, sulky; grug, morose 

Gulpy a short, squabby person ; O. Ir. Crael. galba, stout, firm, hard 
N. kalpay tumere 

Gtir, green as a wound (Line), H. Ir. Gael, gormy green, blue 

^ This is not a modem word. ** Common", says Nail, in his East Anglian 
Glossary y " to Norfolk and Scotland." 

^ ^^Gestis to fede'^ (Line. MS.; Hall.); Sans, vad, to speak, tell. 

2 The root of Eng. garish, glowing. " Day's garish eye"; from garCy to 
stare (Skeat). 



172 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

EASTERN COUNTIES. IRISH GAELIC. 

Hunger-stone, a qaartz pebble (L.) Lr. GaeL unga, copper 

Isrum, iserum, a long, stupid story Ir. us, narrative, story ; Ir. Gael. 

(Line.) iurram for iusram^ a tedious 

rhyme, a long story ; ramhar, 
gross, large; raime, fatness 
Jiliby^ a flaunting wench, dressed in Ir. Gael. gMog=g%b'Og, a rag, a 

flashy finery (E.) fringe; giobal, rag, clout ; gibeal, 

Jibby-horse, a showman^s horse, de- a covering ; giobog = gib-og, a 

corated with trapping, streamers, rough, untidy woman 

etc. (E.). Cf. jib, a rag, a tatter 

(Webster) 
Job, to peck with a beak, to strike Ir. Gael, gob, beak or bill of a bird 

with a pointed instrument (E.) 
Jockey, gay, very lively (Suff.) ; O. Ir. Gael, gaige, a fop, a proud cox- 

Fr. gogues, joUity, glee comb ; gogaid, a giddy female ; 

gog, a toss of the head 
Jot, plump, downright (Suff.), H. Ir. Gael, goth, straight, even 
Jot-gut, intestinum rectum (E.), H. 

Jug, to squat on the ground as part- Ir. Gael, giuig, to cringe, droop, 

ridges at night (E.); Fr. sejucher, crouch 

to roost as fowls 

Kain, rent paid in kind (E.), H. Ir. Gael, cain, rent, tribute 

Kelch, kelk,&h\owoTthujxip(Jjmc,), Gael, sgailc, pron. skelk (kelk), a 
F. smart blow, to beat roughly ; Ir. 

Kelk, to beat severely (Newcastle) sgaileog, a blow 

Klick up, to catch up quickly (Line.) ; Ir. Gael. cltoc=^clica, a hook ; to 
cf . klick, a nail to hang things on ; catch with a hook 
prop, a hook; klucks, claws (N.) 
Lape, to walk in mud (Line.) Ir. Idp, Gael. Ihb, puddle, mire ; Ir. 

Gael, laban, mud, mire; lapach, a 
marsh; la, water 
Lash, soft and watery (E.), H.; to Ir. Gael, la, water ; luis^^lusi, for 
pour out water (Mid-Yorks.) ; last, drink; lasach, slack, prim. 
lashy, wet, applied to weather moist ; laith, ale, strong drink 
(Suff.) 
lAnty, lazy (Suff.) Ir. Gael. lu%nf=lina, sloth ; Ir. liun, 

slothful ; Ir. Gael, lundach, lazy ; 
luinse, sluggard 
Lob, to lean, incline. " The stack Ir. GaeL lub, to bend, incline 

lobs heavily" (Line.) 
Locer, a carpenter's plane (Line); Ir. Gael, locar, Manx, locer, a plane ; 
A.-S.*^^c6r, a joiner's instrument, Manx, lockerey, to plane ; locker- 
a saw, a plane ? (S.)", Bosworth's skeeagh, shavings ; Sans, lunch 
A.-S. Diet. {luk), to pare, peel, tear off ; lun- 

cha (lunchas), that which pares 

Lonche, sonitus, strepitus (Prom, Ir. lonaiche, Gael, lanais, prattling, 

Parv,^). Cf. longe, to tell a fair tattling; lonach, talkative; luinne, 

tale, to make a flattering speech mirth, music ; luinneog, chorus, 

(Jamieson) glee. A nasalised form of Sans. 

loch, to speak 

^ Written in the Eastern Counties. 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 1 73 

EASTERN COUNTIES. IRISH GAELIC. 

Lure, to make a loud and shrill cry Ir. Gkiel. liur=luriy a noise, prating 

(E.) 
Mallocky to abase (Line.)' Gael. maillaicJi, Ir. malluigh,to curse, 

condemn; Ir. mallachi^ a curse 
Monk, a trick (Line), T. Ir. Gael, mang, deceit 

Marfer, the grass which grows close Properly mere-grass, or grass by the 
to the hedge-side or bottom (Line.) sea; Ir. Gael, mara (gen. of mutr, 

sea), Badfeur; W. gwair, hay 

iMeal, a sand-heap (Norf .) Ir. Gael, meall^ ball, knob, round 

Million^ a pumpkin (E.), N. hillock 

Ir. meallan^ a bulb, a plump child 
Mosey J mogy, rough, shaggy, covered Ir. mosach, rough, bristly; mosan^ a 
with hair (Suff.), Ess. rough, dirty fellow 

Mug, to beat (L.) Ir. Gael, mag ; Manx, mage, paw, 

Mage, the hand (N.) clumsy hand 

Mute, an animal of the male kind Ir. Gael, moth, the male of any crea- 

(Linc), H. ture (Cormac*s GL) 

Netting, urine (Line.) Ir. Gael, nightinn (gh silent), a mix- 

ture of urine and other things 
used for bleaching linen 
Noggin, a lump (Line); gen. a small Ir. Gael, cnoc, lump, boss ; noigean, 
round mug noigin (nogin), a mug 

iVbnnocA;, an idle whim,childish fancy Gael, neonach, droll, capricious, ec- 
(E.) centric; neonachas, a oroU person; 

Nonny, to sport, play the fool (E.) Ir. monach, pleasant, merry 

Nookins, the comers of a stack Ir. Gael. niuc=nuci, comer (nucin 
(Line.) a single comer) 

Okers, boots ior ploughmen (E.); Ir. GaeLocAar, shoe; Manx, oashyr, 
Lat. ocrea, legging or greave stocking ; Sans. S-char^ to step 

upon, go (?) 

Pelt, blow with the fist (E.), Wr. Ir. GaeL palltog, palltcig, a blow 

Pirry, a storm (Pr. Parv,) Ir. Gael. piarraa^rra, squall, strong 

gust 
Plaw, to boil slightly (E.) Gael, plod, to scald partially, as a 

pig; Ir. plutadh, scalding 
Quilt, to beat (Line.) Ir. cuilse, a beating 

Rally, a coarse sieve; to sift (E.) Ir. Gael, rillean, sieve; rill, to sift ; 

Manx, realley, to riddle, sift 
Banning, scolding (Line.) Ir. Gael, ran, squeal, shriek ; Sans. 

Ranny, the shrew-mouse (Suff.) ran, to maJce a noise, shout 

Rivets, bearded wheat (E.), H. Ir. Gael, rihe, hair, whisker; ribeach, 

hairy ; Gael. reibheid=^rivet, barb 
of a hook 
Rodner, any large or good thing Ir. rod, very great ; ro, intensive 

(Line.) particle ; rodhuine, nobleman 

Ruin, a woodman's term for a pole Ir. Gael, ruibhne (pron. ruin), pole, 
of four years* standing (H.) lance 



* Mallock implies a root, mall, oc being a Celtic verbal formative. Cf . 
Sans, mala, dirt, filth, impurity; Lat. malua. 



174 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

EASTERN COUNTIES. IRISH GAELIC. 

RyndeSf trees (E.) Ir. Gael, rtnn, for rindf tree 

Sannix, hay- time (Line), M. Ir. Gael. saidJk^sadi, hay; nidhe^tuxie 

For sad-nicas : d or dh being often put in Irish and 
Gael, for g or gh (kh). 

Sannock, to weep bitterly (E.), H. Ir. Gael, san, to dissolve 

The termination -ock is Celtic 
Sarnickj inanimate (E.)) ^' ^^* seam, to loose, dissolve; seamach, 

dissolving 
Scotch, to cut, trim (Line.) Ir. Gael, sgath, Gael. «^oc^, to cut, 

lop 
Skelp, a blow (Suff.) ; to beat with Gael, sgealp (skelpL a slap, a blow 
the flat hand (Torks.) with the hand; Ir. sgealp, to tear, 

cnt, rend ; Manx, scelp, a lash, a 
rent ; scelpagky to lacerate 
Skuty, smart, brisk (E.), H. G&el.sgddach, proud, conceited; sgdd, 

pride; Ir. sgoid, pride, affectation; 
sgoideasach, proud, affected, flirt- 
ing 
Smale, the form (seat) of a hare Gael, smdl, place, seat (Ebrard) 

(E.), H. 
£»^;a^, the cartilaginous membrane by Ir. Gael, spat, a flap 
which an oyster adheres to its 
sheU rSuff .) 
Speyre, the flap of an inner feminine Ir. Gael, speidhir (pron. speyre), the 
garment (Prom, Parv.) flap of breeches 

Stithey hot, oppressive (E.), H. Ir. Gael, teith, hot, warm 

Tag, to follow closely, as if an ap- Ir. Gael, t^gh, to weld ; ta^a, nail, 
pendage (E.) fastening, peg, security, bail 

Till, the diluvial soil of the cliff Ir. Gael. /^a//a, earth; hut. tellus 
(Norf.) 

Tiff, liquor, a draught of liquor (E.) Ir. Gael, daif, drink ; Hbre, tipra ; 

Manx, tihhyr, spring, fountain 
Tigh, teage, a close, an inclosure Ir. Gael. %^, a house; W. ^^ 
(E.) 

Tovnl, a tiresome boy (Line.) Ir. Gael, tuathail (th silent), rude, 

Towel, a wild or bad character awkward ;^uaZ,awkward,unlucky, 
(Leeds) sinister, base 

TrucA;,useless commodities. "There's Ir. Gael. truagh=truga, poor, mean, 
a lot of truck^' (Ess.) ; O. N. tros, useless ; W. ti^wch, cut, maimed, 
waste, refuse; Ang. trash unlucky 

Tusky, the itch (E.) Ir. Gael, tctchas, the itch, scurvy ; 

Manx, taghas, the itch ; Sans, tak- 
man, kind of skin disease 
Twall, a whim (Suff.) Ir. Gael, toil, will, pleasure ; Manx, 

toill, id.; Ir. Gael, toileil, wilful 
Wallis, the withers of a horse (S.) Ir. Gael, guala, Gael, guallain ; 

Manx, geaylin, a shoulder 
iyajj)», nonsense (Line); Germ. &OM, Ir. baoi8=basi, ioUy, levity, non- 
bad, hurtful, angry sense 



OP NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 175 

EASTERN COUNTIES. IRISH GAELIC. 

Wheules^ gickly (Lmc.) Gael, etusail, disease; Ir. Guel. aicid, 

Manx, eighid, sickness, disease 

Whurn/y a light boat (E.) Ir. Gael, curach, skiff, small boat, 

canoe 

YarCj nimble, brisk (Norf .) Ir. Gael, gear^ gir, sour, sharp (W. 

garw, rough, harsh) 

These instances may suffice to prove my assertion, 
that the Celtic race along the east coast was mainly of 
the older or Gaelic branch. The inquiry has been 
limited to the counties of Essex, Suflfolk, Norfolk, and 
Lincoln, but if it were extended as far as to the Border 
line, the same result would follow. If we extend it to 
Northumberland, there seems to be a larger blending of 
the two divisions of the Celtic stock as we advance north- 
wards, for there they met again after their long separa- 
tion. The older division seems to have come from the 
lands that borderon theMediterranean,probably through 
Spain, and to have crossed into England by the Strait 
of Dover, and thence to have spread partly to the 
west, but chiefly northwards into Scotland. The later 
division appears to have journeyed through the centre 
of Europe, and at the marsh land of Western Germany 
to have split into two parts, one turning southwards 
and entering France near its central part (as traced by 
nant and other words); the other, advancing westwards, 
crossed the sea to Scotland near Aberdeen (for there 
the abers begin), and descended southwards through 
Cumberland into Wales. The words that belong to the 
earlier division of the Celtic race, and are still used in 
the counties that lie to the north of Lincolnshire, are 
numerous, but I can only offer a small number as 
examples, chiefly from Brockett's North Country Glos- 
sary, 3rd edit., 1846. 

EASTERN COUNTIES (NORTH). CELTIC. 

Airty point of the horizon, district Ir. Gael, airdj region, point of the 

compass 

ArleSy earnest- money Ir. Gael, earlas^ earnest-penny 

Bannock, a cake of barley-meal Ir. Gael, bonnach, an oaten cake ; 

Manx, bonnag, id. 

Braughanij horse-collar Ir. braicaniy Gael, braicheamj horse- 

collar, from braigh, O. Ir. brdge^ 
neck, npper part of the breast, 
and ama forcrtww,winding,a curve 



176 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



EASTERN COUNTIES (NORTH). 

Brogs^ kind of coarse shoes 
Cade^ sheep^s louse 
Callantj boy, youth 



Colley, butcher's meat 

Coo, cowy fear 

CVo, crowy bar, lever 

Cutea, feet 

Daiker, to wander, saunter 



CELTIC. 

Ir. Gael, brog, shoe 

Ir. Gael, cavdeog, earthworm 

Ir. Gael, gallon for callan, branch, 

youth 
Ir. Gael, colann, flesh, a carcase ; O. 

It. co/tnn, gL caro (Z.*, 61) 
Ir. cotachf fearful {cota, fear) 
Ir. Gael, cro, crodh, an iron bar 
Ir. Gael, cos, foot; W. coea, leg 
Ir. Gael, deach, moving, going ; Ir. 

deachair, separation, following; 

prim, going off 
Diting, a very small quantity of meal Ir. dit, end, remainder ; Ir. Gael, 
or flour di/A, want, failure; Sans, di^i, cut- 

ting, splitting 
Divety duffet, a turf or sod used for- Ir. Gael. duibJieid, a flat turf used 

merly for thatching for covering cottages 

Dorty, pettish, saucy Ir. dordha, Gael, dortha, harsh, surly 

Doxy, sweetheart (in a good sense) Ir. Gael, eloigh, fire, flame, trust ; 

dogh, to bum; doighir (for dog%8)y 

flame 
Ir. Gael, donadh, bad, evil 
Ir. GaeL Jigh, to weave 
Gael, fealan, a boil ; Ir. Gael./ai//, 

faiilin, kernel, hard lump of flesh 
Ir. Gael, gu-leor, enough, plenty 
Ir. Gael, gcuns, wisdom, prudence 
Ir. Gael, gugan, the daisy 
Gael. giu8, a sow; Ir. Gael, eeis, pig, 

sow 
Ir. Gael, aingeal, fire 
Ir. Gael, cha, negative particle ; co, 

what (?) 
Ir. Gael, cil, ruddle 
Ir. Gael, cabag, cheese 
Ir. Gael, ling, to leap, bound 
Ir. Gael, lot, foot ; lathar, vigour ; 

luth, quick, nimble 
Ir. Gael, ogha, pron. oha, grandchild 
Ir. Gael, partan, a crab 
Ir. Gael, somm, luck, happiness 
Ir. Gael, araith for Btraith, valley 
Ir. Gael, tochar, portion, dowry 
Ir. Gael. ^m^€, embrocation (a second 



Dunt, bad coal 

Feckle, to entangle 

Fellony a cutaneous eruption, a boil 

Galore, plenty, abundance 

Gash, wise, sagacious (Border) 

Gowan, the daisy 

Gissy, call of pigs to meat ; 0. N. 
gris, porcellus 

Ingle, fire, fireplace 

Kae, an interjection denoting disbe- 
lief or contempt 

Keel, ruddle 

Kebbuck, cheese 

Lainch, a long stride 

LcUter', to run about hastily 

Oye, a grandchild 

Partan, a crab 

Sonsy, plump, thriving, lucky 

Straith, vallejr 

Tocher, marriage portion 

Treetf a species of bran 

meaning) 
Weight, weyt, hoop with skin over it Ir. Gael, guite, the same, used for 

winnowing com 

It is impossible to determine with certainty the lines 
which marked out the different forms of speech, but 
they were probably the tribal boundaries, and were 
subject to change by invasion and conquest. We may 
assume, from the evidence of language, that the Iceni, 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 177 

the Tiinobantes in the south, and the Brigantes in the 
north, were of the older or Gaelic race. The northern 
counties of Cumberland, Westmoreland, with Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire, were occupied mainly by the Cymric 
tribe. The same race, but another division of it, held 
the ancient Loegria, i.e., the rest of England from the 
south of Yorkshire to the Channel. There was, how- 
ever, throughout, a mixture of races. There was a 
lower stratum of the older race, though only sparse in 
some parts of the land. There were also some breaks 
of continuity in different places. The Belgae, who came 
probably at a late period from the opposite coast, occu- 
pied part of the south, and the Parisii, apparently a 
Gallic tribe, dwelt along the banks of the Humber. 
There was a notable break in the extension of the 
Cymry to the district of Elmet, of which Leeds was 
the centre ; a spur of the wide-spreading Cumbrian 
range. Here a Celtic and Christian community main- 
tained itself in partial independence for a long time, 
under its own chiefs or reguli. Its latest chief, whose 
name, in a Latin form, was Cereticus, held sway over 
it until deposed by Edwin in the seventh century. 
Their independence was taken from them, but the fire 
burned on their hearths and they wrought with the 
plough or followed the chase, as their fathers had done 
for many generations. As this dialect is interesting on 
many accounts, I offer some instances of its Celtic 
woras, which are numerous, and here close ray long 
list of dialectic words that have been drawn from 
Celtic sources. 

LEEDS DISTRICT. CELTIC. 

Aag, eager O. W. di-auc, gl. segnem (Jav. 93); 

W. egr^ eager; atoch=ach, sharp 

edge; Sans. d^'u^^aAni, sharp, swift 

Bawdy, a prostitute W. baw, dirt, filth ; bauxiiddy dirty, 

mean, vile 
Bicker, to qnarrel peevishly W. bicrOy to fight, to skirmish (P.); 

bicre, conflictns, pngna (Day.) 
Bran. " Marrow to bran^\ a match Must have been some Celtic hero 

for bran 
Brock, Not a badger, bat the cnckoo- W. brock, froth, foam 
spit insect 
6th ssb., vol. II. 12 



178 



CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 



LEEDS DISTRICT. 

Chuffs pleased, excited 

Codger^ an artfnl person 
Oroodle, to croach 
Dumiock, a hedge-sparrow 

Fady to deceive in talking 
Flos, a giddy, impndent female 
Gammy, crooked 
Guffin, a dull, awkward person 



CELTIC. 

W. hoff, dear, fond; hoffi, to delight 

in 
W. coegitoTj a deceiyer, a cheat 
W. crwd, a round lump 
W. dum {doon\ dun, dusky ; with a 

Celtic suffix 
W.ffaduj to mask, to fei^ (P.) 
W.fflioch, full, flush, bri&, lusty 
W. cam, crooked 

W. cyff, a stock; cfjffo ddyn, a block- 
head ; with the suffix of indivi- 
duality 
W. hutan, an oaf 

W. cenel, tribe, kindred ; cenedl, id. ; 
cenedlu^ gignere, producere (Dav.) 
W. moloch, tumult, uproar 
W. muyrly crumbling, friable 
W. cnuch, junction, joint ; if not 

cnwc, a lump 
0. W. nor, than 

W. osi, osio, to dare, to attempt 
W. pig, for pic, a sharp point; pigin, 
a pointed stick 

W. rJiamu, to rise up 
W. set, a view ; selu, to gaze at, ob- 
serve; Arm. sellout, regarder, jeter 
la vue sur quelque chose ; Com. 
sell, view, prospect 
W. stigno, to suck (ti^=Eng. i); Sans. 
sich, to moisten, wet 

W. titw, a cat 

W. tama, hard food, as bread and 
flesh ; perhaps related to Arm. 
iamoez-en, ear of com 

Arm. gwerbl (in comp. werbl), bubon, 
tumour, glande. Dr. Davies ad- 
mits the word, but as Armoric. 
Richards has, ** Gwerbl, Arm., a 
kernel or fleshy substance growing 
between the flesh and skin." 

The only Celtic words in this dialect that I cannot 
connect with a Welsh equivalent are meg, a halfpenny, 
spiff, smartly dressed, and an interesting feminine 
word, toit, which means contentment, quietness. When 
a husband takes the baby on his knee, and keeps it 
quiet during the evening, the delighted wife will say, 
" Thah's kept him i'toit rarely a wait' neet (a whole 
night) lad !" This is the Ir. Gael, tait, pleasure ; prop, 
a pleased, quiet, contented state, as the Sans, tush, its 



Hoit, a foolishly awkward man 
Kirmle, to bring forth young 

Moloch, a disturbance 
Merle, to crumble 
Nogs, knees 

Nor, than 

Oss, to attempt 

P^OQVi ^ name given by boys to a 
piece of wood sharpened at both 
ends, used in the game of '^ piggy'' 

Raum, to curvet as a horse 

Seel, to look. Seeling-glass, a look- 
ing-glass 



Six, ^^ Let 's hev a 8ix^\ a pull at 
your pipe ; rather a suck, A.-S. 
moan, to suck 

Tii, used for calling a cat 

Tommy, bread. " Two pund o' tom- 
my, Missis." 

Warble^ a small, hard, lump on a 
horse's back 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 1 79 

relative, deuotes.^ Tait corresponds, therefore, to the 
Arm. diidi, pleasure ; but even in the fifth or sixth 
century the final vowel had been dropped in the Elraet 
district. 

And now my task is done. The evidence that has 
been brought forward is conclusive, in showing (1) That 
a large Celtic population was left on the soil in every 
part of England. If there was any part in which the 
theory of extermination would meet the facts of the 
case, it would be the counties of Northampton and 
Leicester. The Welsh border was far away. The 
northern 'Celts, whether they belonged to the Cymry 
or the Gael, could not interfere to protect their distant 
kinsmen in these counties. There was absolutely 
nothing to check the course of the victorious Saxon. 
He might have commenced a war of extermination, 
and have destroyed, as he pleased, the whole Celtic 
race there. But the tokens of their abiding un- 
molested in these counties are as abundant as they are 
in Lancashire, whose northern part was not finally sub- 
dued until the year 945, when, as the A. S. Chronicle 
declares, " King Edmund ravaged all Cumberland and 
gave it to Malcolm, King of Scots." It is evident, 
therefore, that the Celtic population in England lived 
and multiplied in peace, and that there was a gradual 
blending of the two races by intermarriage. The 
advocates of the " theory of extermination" give the 
Saxon race very little credit for common sense, or 
regard for their own welfare. They were only warriors ; 
and who, if the Britons were destroyed, unaertook the 
tillage of the soil and the tending of the flocks? The 
conquered race became, in fact, the most valuable 
appanage of the Saxon. They ploughed for him ; they 

^ Cf. Sans, ttuhti, satisfaction, contentment, pleasure. The Irish 
tail is from ta(8)ii (pron. tusti), and denotes primarily quietness 
more than pleasure. The Elmet toU has no connection with tight 
(sometimes pronounced toit), for it is a noun, and the two words 
express contrary ideas. Tightness denotes pressure and discomfort, 
not a qaiet, contented state. 

12« 



180 CELTIC ELEMENT IN THE DIALECTS 

tended his cattle ; they were his artisans, for the Celtic 
words still used by our workmen show that they were 
skilled in all the arts of the time, either by their own 
ingenuity or by Koman teaching. The civilisation of 
Rome reached our island before the Saxon came, and 
even before Caesar invaded the land the Britons were 
skilful agriculturists, had a large foreign commerce, 
coined money, dug and exported metals, and built war- 
chariots of wood and iron. Their weapons were such 
that they could attack Caesar's forces openly in the 
field, and not always without success. The most 
foolish course the Saxon could adopt would be to de- 
stroy these men, who were his tutors in many things : 
for the rude warrior-races brought very little know- 
ledge of the arts of life, or of literature, from their 
dense forests in Germany. He had, however, good 
sense enough to retain and protect the Celtic race, 
that wrougnt in various ways to his advantage. If 
this be denied — and there has been much hardihood of 
assertion on this question — ^how is the large Celtic 
element still existing in the dialects of Leicester and 
Northampton to be accounted for ? In all future dis- 
cussions of this subject this fact must be considered, 
and unless it can be shown that this element could 
have been brought in by other means, it is certain that 
a large Celtic population remained on the soil. If this 
cannot be done, the question is at rest. 

2. The evidence of our dialectic words con^rms the 
statement of the Welsh Triads, that " a great multi- 
tude of the Loegrians became as Saxons", i.e., there 
was a gradual and peaceful blending of the two 
races in England. These Triads only represent a 
national tradition ; but a tradition of this kind, so wide- 
spread as to be accepted by the whole nation, has much 
probability in its favour. It is much more likely, if 
the whole of their kindred race here had been destroyed 
by the Saxons, that such a fact would have made a 
deep impression on the national mind, and have been 
recorded in its traditions, from mingled emotions of 



OF NORTHAMPTON AND LEICESTER. 181 

indignation and horror. It is not at all probable that 
the national record, as handed down from father to 
son, should have been of union, if extermination had 
been the fact. Their hostility to the Saxon would 
have been a barrier against a rejection of the sterner 
and more hateful issue, and to the invention of one 
which was much more to his credit. But when to 
this improbability there is added the evidence of our 
dialectic words, it becomes quite certain that there 
was a blending of races, and that the possession of 
England after the sixth century was effected much more 
peacefully than our historians represent. 

3. The dialects that we have now examined contain, 
as other dialects, many words that are exclusively 
feminine or belong to a state of childhood. This proves 
that in the Anglo-Saxon age, the mother of the house- 
hold must often have been of Celtic blood. When a 
Northamptonshire matron directs that her child shall 
be hurked, she uses a Celtic word which means only 
that it shall be thoroughly warmed ; and when one boy 
asks another to give him a bunt (push up) he gives 
evidence of the fact that some boy; like himself, had 
been wont, in a distant age, to hear a form of Celtic 
speech. These are only instances of a large class of 
words. How could they have entered the nursery, or 
been borne on the lips of children, if no Celtic inmates 
had ever occupied tne nurseries, and no Celtic parent 
had ever trained a child to speak ? These and other 
Celtic words must either have been inherited from 
Celtic ancestors, or have been communicated from 
without. The only possible inference seems to be that 
these words are an historical record of a race that 
formerly held possession of the soil, and were retained 
on it, as tenants or labourers, by the conquering race. 

4. It seems evident from these lists that the Celtic 
languages in a collective form survived in England to 
a much later period than is commonly supposed. We 
know that when a Celtic MS. was found at St. Alban s 
near the close of the tenth century, a priest was found in 



182 CELTIC ELEMENT, ETC. 

the country who could interpret it {Arch. Carnh., 1879, 
p. 154). And if the language, as written, was under- 
stood by some, we may reasonably assume that it was 
still understood and spoken by many who could neither 
read nor write. We know, also, that in the north of 
England, along the border line, a form of Celtic speech 
was retained as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. We may then reasonably assume that the 
Celtic form of speech that had been spoken in the 
counties of Northampton and Leicester before the 
Saxon invasion was still understood there until the time 
of the Norman conquest. It was this great event that 
happily crushed the Celts, Saxons, Angles, and Danes 
into one mass, out of which eventually arose the 
English people. 

Here 1 must pause. There are many facts connected 
with the social position of the Celtic race in the Anglo- 
Saxon age, and with the forms of their language, to 
which these words bear witness ; but from the length 
of this paper I must content myself with my main 
proposition, that the dialectic words in these counties 
prove that there was a blending of the two races in 
England by intermarriage, and that the Celtic race 
has contributed largely to the formation of the English 
people. 

John Davies. 



EREATA. 

Page 16, line 42, for Ir. cws read W. cws 
„ 21, „ 16, for eecle-hickol read eccle^ hickol 
„ 29, „ 6, for hare read hari 
„ 87, „ 14, for of read oaf 
„ 94, „ 10, insert (N.) 



183 



LLANUWCHLLYN. 

There can be no doubt that the parish of Llanuwchllyn 
derives its name from its position, Llan-uwch-y-Llyn, 
i.e., the Church above the Lake. This probably in- 
spired the idea that the other parishes of Penllyn 
received their names also from their proximity to Llyn- 
Tegid. According to this theory Llangower is merely 
an abbreviated form of Llan-cwr-y-Llyn, and Lianfor 
of Llanmor-y-Llyn and Llandderfel of Llan-Ddiferion- 
y-Llyn. I am disposed to think that two only of the 
five parishes of Penllyn take their names from their 
relation to the lake, namely, Llanuwchllyn and Llany- 
cil. Oil signifies a nook or recess, and the corresponding 
paraphrase of Llanycil would therefore be Llan-jnig- 
nghil-y-Llyn, or the Church in a nook or angle of the 
Lake. The other three follow the general rule of 
Welsh parishes and take their names from the patron 
Saint under whose name the parish church happens to 
be dedicated. Llangower, from Gwawr, the mother of 
the Welsh warrior bard Llywarch Hen ; Lianfor from 
St. Mor, and Llandderfel from Derfel Gadam. 

From early times the word Llan has been applied to 
churches, and especially to the ground or yard around 
them, but in this sense it is always used either alone 
or as a prefix. When applied to secular uses — as corlan, 
a sheepfold ; gwinllan, a vineyard ; ydlan, a stackyard ; 
perllan, an orchard, aU of which also imply an enclo- 
sure-it always figures as a suffix. 

Although a great number of the parish churches in 
Wales bear the name of the Blessed Virgin in their dedi- 
cation — a fact which Rees, in his Welsh Saints (p. 69), 
attributes to the Cistercian monks, whose order was the 
most prevalent here during the Middle Ages, — it can be 
proved that nearly one-half of them had Welsh saints 
for their original founders, just as in the case of the 



1 84 LLANUWCHLLYN. 

parish church of Pool, now St. Mary, but originally St. 
Cynvelyn; and Meifod, originally St. Tysilio, afterwards 
St. Mary ; because it was the custom of the early 
British Church to dedicate churches under the names 
of native saints. The name of the Blessed Virgin was 
either substituted or added wherever the Cistercians had 
influence, because it was a rule of their Order that 
their religious houses should be dedicated to the mother 
of our Lord (Tanner's Notitia Monastica). 

It is worthy, however, of note, that although the 
parish of Llanuwchllyn was closely connected in one 
way with the Cistercians, inasmuch as Owen de Brogyn- 
tyn made a grant to God, St. Mary, and the monks of 
that Order at Basingwerk Abbey, of " a certain water 
in Penthlinn called Thlintegit or Pemblemere, and 
all the pasture of the said land of Penthlinn" {Pennant, 
vol. ii, p. 207), the name of the parish was not, as in 
most cases, changed to Llanfair. indeed, the existence 
of so many Llans which bear the names of Welsh saints, 
such as Llan-Dudno, Llan-Ddewi, Llan-Deilo, and Llan- 
Ddeiniol, bears witness to the independence of the 
early British Church, and shows that she had a " noble 
army of saints and martjrrs" to boast of W before 
St. Augustine came over in a.d. 596 to preach to the 
pagan Saxons. 

Llanuwchllyn is a parish of much archseological 
interest ; and not the least so, in that the historic 
river Dee takes its rise within it, under the hill called 
Duallt, rather than at Pantgwyn, as is sometimes sup- 
posed. Some, however, say that the river does not 
take its name until it emerges from Bala Lake ; but 
the tributaries to this lake are so well defined that 
one of them must be the Dee. They are the Twrch, 
the Afon Llan or Little Dee, the Lliw, and the Llafar. 
The Welsh name of the Dee is " DyfrdwV', which is 
variously derived. Dwfr-dwy-afon, from the fact of its 
springing from two sources. Giraldus calls it Dever- 
doeu, the full spelling of which would now be, according 
to Prof. Rhys, Dyfrdwyw or Dyfrdwyf (the Water of 



LL ANUWCHLLYN. 185 

the Divinity), from the fact of its waters having been 
held sacred, and so many pious legends being connected 
with its history. Dwfrdu, or Blackwater, from its 
source on the Duallt or the BlackhiU.* Whatever be 
the correct derivation of the name, there can be no 
doubt of the great historic prominence of this river in 
the annals of our country. There is, perhaps, no other 
river in the kingdom that takes precedence of it in 
this respect, nor one which furnishes a more fertile 
source for archaeological research. 

The poet Spenser puts the scene of King Arthur's 
home at the foot of the Aran, and on the banks of the 
Dee near its source ; and there is in this parish a place 
corresponding to this hypothesis, called " Llys Arthur", 
or Arthur's Court. Spenser, in his Faery Qtieene 
(Book I, Canto 9), makes Arthur speak thus of his 
foster-father, Timon or Gai, who is supposed to have 
lived at Caergai — 



'' His dwelling is low in a vallej greene, 
Under the foot of Banran mossy hore. 
From whence the river Dee as silver cleene 
His tombling biUowes roll with gentle rore. 
There all my dayes he traind me up in vertuons lore.*' 

The word " Rauran" in these lines is of course only an 
Anglicised form of " Yr Aran''. 

Llywarch Hen, who is said to have been buried at 
Llanfor, and to have been a contemporary of King 
Arthur, is supposed to have been stationed at Llan- 
uwchUyn for some time, and to have been a member of 
Arthurs Court. There is still a place near ^'Arthur's 
Court" called ** Tyddyn Llywarch*', Llywarch's tene- 
ment, which, if it did not suggest the connection, seems 
at least to favour it. 

' Is the word Dee an Anglicised form of Da ? English people wonld 
so pronounce the Dn. Sonth Welshmen always pronounce the word 
Dn as Dee ; and perhaps the word Deva is only a Latinised form 
of the word, which has been Anglicised into Dee. This is not at 
all improbable if we consider how many Welsh names are Angli« 
cised, e.g., Owen Olendower for Owen Glyndwr or Olyndyfrdwy. 
Gladys or Oladis for Owladys. 



186 LL ANUWCHLLYN. 

The pl^e of earliest historic note in the parish is 
Caergai, of which Camden says, " that it was at one 
time a castle built by one Caius, a Koman^ while the 
Britons ascribe it to Cai or Timon, the foster-father of 
King Arthur." It is this last which Spenser has sur- 
rounded with such poetic interest. Pennant states it 
has been a Roman station, and mentions the discovery 
of many coins ; and this is further corroborated by the 
Roman tiles found in great abundance about the present 
house, some of which appear to have been the pillars 
of a hypocaust. On the west and south sides the 
vallum is still very perfect, and at some distance an 
outer embankment may be traced for a considerable 
portion of its circuit, having once enclosed many acres 
on the crown of the eminence on which it stands. 

Caergai has also some ecclesiastical connections to 
be noted. Cae'r Capelau, or " The Field of the 
Chapels", is situate on the south-east side of the house, 
and is in length about 200 yards, by 50 yards broad. 
Bones have been dug up lately in this plot of ground, 
near the traces of the foundations of a building about 
15 feet square, near the centre of the field. The out- 
lines of this building are visible on the surface when 
the grass is scorched. This field is also called " Y 
Fonwent", or the graveyard. It is this to which 
Lhwyd, the eminent antiquaryand archaeologist, alludes, 
when he writes : "By Kappel medha nhw gynt mewn 
Kae a elwir Kae'r Kappele Ue mai palment pan glodh- 
ier". I.e., "They say there was a chapel in a place 
called Kae'r Capelau, where there is a pavement when 
the field is dug." 

Within the area enclosed by the square vallum was 
erected the mansion of the family of Vaughan, a branch 
of the Vaughans of Llwydiarth in Powys. Here lived 
John Vaughan, an eminent Welsh poet, who flourished 
about the middle of the seventeenth century. Of this 
John Vaughan the story is told that he enlisted as a 
soldier, and went on foreign service without sending 
word about his whereabouts for a long term of years. 



.t 



LLANUWCHLLYN. 187 

At last he came back to the neighbourhood, and lodged 
a night at Rhiwaedog, on his way to Caergai. He 
awoke some time in tfie night on hearing great pre- 
parations going on in the hall, and was told that the 
son was to be married to the heiress of Caergai in the 
morning. On hearing this Vaughan hastened to Caer- 
gai, and rapped at the front door, and asked permission 
to enter, but was told that it was a busy day, owing to 
the wedding, which was to be celebrated there that 
morning. He, however, obtained admission. Dancing 
had begun, when soon afterwards the poet asked for a 
harp, and after putting the chords into tune, he played 
a spirited Welsh air, which affected the bride very 
much. Some friends mterfered, and ordered the 
stranger to leave the house, when Vaughan answered 
in the following impromptu verse : 

" Os collais tra fuais o*r fan-fy Dgwraig 
Fjngaredd Fychan 
Ni choUaf, ewch chwi allan, 
Na'm ty na'm telyn na'm tan." 

The free translation of which is : 

" If while away I lost my wife, 

My own Angharad Fechan 
I will not lose, go out yourselves, 
My home, my harp, my hearthstone." 

The bride was asked which of the two men were to 
leave. She quickly answered that the first husband 
was to remain at Caergai, and that the son of Rhiwae- 
dog must quit the mansion at once. 

Another eminent member was Kowland Vaughan, 
who flourished about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury and deserves notice as the translator into Welsh of 
Bisnop Bayley of Bangor s well-known book of devo- 
tion, " The Practice of Piety ; directing a Christian 
man how to walk that he may please God." This book 
was so popular that thirty-nine English editions of it 
had appeared by the year 1734. John Bunyan, the 
author of the Pilgrims Progress^ refers to it as a book 



188 LLANUWCHLLYN. 

he had read with great profit in his prodigal days, and 
which sobered him much. Copies of the Welsh trans- 
lation are still extant, but very rare. It was first 
published in London in 1630, and passed through four 
editions. This Kowland Yaughan was a stout Koyalist 
and a captain in the King's army during the civil 
wars. He was taken prisoner and confined in Chester 
Castle for three years ; and his mansion of Caergai 
was burnt to the ground in 1645 by the Bepublicans, 
and his estate confiscated, the recovery of which cost 
him many years of expensive and vexatious lawsuits. 
The mansion house was rebuilt by him in its present 
form, which is well shown in Mr. W. 0. Smith's 
engraving. Many inscriptions were set up on different 
parts of the front, some of which bespeak the sturdy 
loyalty of the old Royalist, e.gr., " Na werth y nef er 
benthyg byd" (" Sell not heaven for the loan of the 
earth"). Some describe his late troubles as a discipline 
of Providence — " Cerydd Duw, Cariad yw" (God's 
reproof is love). Others bespeak his grave meditations 
on eternity — " Meddwl dy ddiwedd" (Think on thine 
end), and " Resurgam" (I shall rise again). On another 
were engraved the initials and the ages of himself, 
his wife, and child. R. 60 

1-V39 
A. 8 

On a block of red sandstone over the principal door 
this comprehensive and loyal stanza : 

" Dod glod i bawb yn ddibrin 
A char dy frawd cyffredin 
Ofna Ddaw can*8 nyn sydd dda 
Ac anrhydedda'r Breniu." 

The English of which is 

" Give praise to all ungradgingly, 
And love thy common brother. 
Fear God, for this is good and right, 
And yield the King bis honour." 

Rowland Vaughan is best known in the Welsh 
literary world as Rowland Fychan Y Cyfitithydd o 



LL AN D WCHLLYN. 189 

Gaergai, or Rowland Vaughan of Caergai, the trans- 
lator. All his translations, with the exception of the 
devotional work, Practice of Piety y were of a polemical 
nature, and in defence of the Church of England. 

Another beneficent member of this family was the 
Rev. Maurice Vaughan, M.A., Canon of Windsor, who 
built almshouses for six poor old people of this parish, 
and endowed them with two tenements (Tymawr and 
Tynycae), and with the interest of £200 left towards 
their repair and the augmentation of their maintenance. 
This charity is now in full operation, and is under the 
management of the patron of the benefice as inheritor 
of Caergai. A stone slab sunk into the gable of the 
almshouses bears the following inscription : — " The 
Reverend Doctor Maurice Vaughan, late Canon of 
Windsor, built and endowed this Alms House in ye 
year 1721 for three decayed old men and three old 
women. David Ellis, Hoc fecit, IZSl.** 

Castell Cam-Dochan occupies an imposing situation 
on a precipitous spur of Ffridd Helyg-y-Moch. The 
ruins form an inner parallelogram 24 feet by 20, with 
walls six feet thick, defended by a rampart of loose 
stones. A curtain wall across the enclosure cuts off 
the keep and a square room, the latter being 23 
feet square, the former about 8 feet square. The outer 
wall is 8 feet thick. The bare walls only remain, and 
there are no architectural details. No doorway has 
been discovered in the present ruins. Probably the 
portion now exposed formed the dungeons and cellars 
of the old fortress, the entrance being at a higher 
level and over a drawbridge. Castell Cam-Dochan 
could hardly have been a pleasant residence at any 
time, but it was a strong one ; the " Llys" or Court 
below forming the residence in time of peace. 

A writer in the Gwyliedydd, 1828, p. 120, states 
that "fifty years ago an old man, in expectation of 
hidden treasure, had dug through the ruins to the floor 
(y Uawr), but found nothing save human bones and 
bunit wood, whence it was inferred that the place had 



190 LLANUWCHLLYN. 

been burnt down." About 1872 further diggings were 
made, and search made for a doorway, but in vain. 
Charcoal, blackened soil, animal bones, and pieces of 
lead were found. 

Near the foot of Castell Carn-Dochan is a place 
called " Ty Cerrig", owned by Hugh and Edward 
Edwards. This is the only freenold within this manor, 
all the rest of the property belonging to Sir Watkin 
Williams Wynn, Bart. This place is said to have been 

given by a former lord of Carn-Dochan to an old family 
arper, from whom the present owners claim to have 
inherited it. 

The brook Eglwysen or Eglwysarn, which runs into 
the river Lliw hard by Lle'r Llys, deserves some notice. 
Sam-yr-Eglwys, or the Church Causeway, suggests the 
idea of the existence of a church here at one time. 
Higher up in the mountain, near Buarth-y-meini, is 
" Clogwyn-yr-Eglwys", or the Church Precipice ; and 
near Dolhendre is also a place called " Bwlch Eglwys 
Tudur'', or the Pass of the Church of St. Tudur. There 
is also a farm near this place called Dolfudr, or more 
correctly Dol-Tudur. Here we have two places sug- 
gesting the idea of a church, and two places on the 
same spot connecting the church with the name of 
Tudur. 

The church of Llanuwchllyn is dedicated in the 
name of St. Deiniol or Deiniol Wyn, one of the monks 
of Bangor-is-y-coed in Flintshire, who planted a branch 
of that monastery at Bangor in Carnarvonshire, a.d. 
525 ; and when, in a.d. 550, it was elevated into a 
bishopric and endowed by Maelgwn Gwynedd, Prince 
of North Wales, he was consecrated its first Bishop. 
The cathedral church of Bangor, the parish church of 
Hawarden, and the church of Llanuwchllyn are the 
only instances in North Wales that bear his name, and 
there is only one, viz. Llanddeiniol, in South Wales. 
Deiniol Wyn died A.D. 584, and was buried, according to 
Giraldus Cambrensis, in the Isle of Bardsey. 

The old church, which was taken down in 1872, com- 



LLAND WCHLLYN. 191 

prised chancel, nave (divided in 1729), and south aisle 
of five bays with a western gallery, erected about 1745, 
probably when the roodloft was taken down. Edward 
Lhwyd mentions that in his time, which would be about 
the year 1700, there were several Boman bricks worked 
into the walls of this church and those of Llanycil 
and Llangower, but none were discovered at the late 
restoration, which was completed in 1873 at a cost of 
between £1,600 and £1,700. 

The chief object of interest within the church is a 
recumbent effigy in plate armour over a mailed coat, on 
the north side of the chancel within the altar rails. It 
bears a mutilated Latin inscription, which originally 
read thus : — " Hie jacet Johannes ap G...t. ap Madoc 
ap lorweth cujus anime propitietur Deus. Amen. 
Anno Dni, mccolxx". This John, or leuan, was the 
grandson of Madoc ap lorwerth, who held Pennanlliw 
by gift of the king. 

" Bwlch-y-Groes", or the Pass of the Cross, on the 
road to Dinas Mawddwy, is of some interest, as a cross 
is said to have existed here until the time of the civil 
wars. Rhydybod, in the same direction, probably 
means Abbotstori There is a yew tree at Coedladur 
from under which human bones have been frequently 
unearthed, and a little above this place, near Bryn- 
Melyn is a place called " Yr hen Eglwys", where there 
are traces of the foundations of a building. 

W. Hughes. 



192 



SEPULCHRAL RECUMBENT EFFIGY IN 
LLANUWCHLLYN CHURCH, 

NEAR BALA. 

This is one of those interesting Welsh effigies, repre- 
sented in armour, of the latter part of the fourteenth 
century, which more or less differ in detail from Eng- 
lish emgies of the same period and class, though there 
may be a general resemblance enabling us to fix a 
proximate date (should, indeed, such be required) in 
the absence of any sepulchral inscription ; which is, 
however, more generally to be found attached to Welsh 
effigies of this than to English effigies of the same era. 
This effigy, then, may fairly be compared, though 
there are some differences in detail, witn the effigy in 
Bettws y Coed Church of " Grufyd ap David Goch", of 
which an engraving and description appear in a former 
volume of the ArchcBologia Cambrensis} This effiigy 
is, as usual, recumbent, the head reposing on what 
appears to be the tilting-helmet. The head is protected 
by a plain, conical basinet, or war-helmet ; the chin, 
neck, and shoulders are defended by a camail or tippet 
of mail ; and the hands are conjoined on the breast, as 
in prayer. Brassarts, or rerebraces of plate, inclose 
the upper arms ; coudes of plate appear at the elbows, 
conically shaped ; and vambraces of plate cover the 
lower arms, whilst roundels of plate appear in front of 
the shoulders, and at the bending of the elbows. At 
the arm-pits gussets of mail appear. The gauntlets are 
of plate, the fingers being protected by small articu- 
lated finger-joints. Round the neck is a collar with 
quatrefoil ornaments at intervals. An emblazoned 
jupon forms the external habiliment, worn over the 
body. The skirt of this is escalloped round the border. 

^ Fourth Series, vol. xiv, p. 127. 



SCULPTURED RECUMBENT EFFIOT. 193 

About the loins, and round the jupon, appears a nar- 
row, horizontal belt or bawdrick. Beneath the jupon 
appear the skirts of an apron of mail ; the cuisses pro- 
tecting the thighs, of which the lower portions only 
are visible, are of plate ; so are the genouilleres or 
knee-caps, and the jambs covering the legs. At the 
insteps spur-leathers appear, whilst the feet are covered 
by soUerets formed of lamiruBy or small flexible plates, 
pointed at the toes, and resting on a lion. On the 
verge of the slab on which the e£Sgy reclines, on the 
south side, in raised capital letters, and in Longobardic 
characters, is the inscription, in two lines, commencing 
in the lower, — 

hie i IMCBT i lOhMNBS [ MP • 0....T ] MP ] MMDOC i MP • 
lOBWETh : CYIVS : MKIME • 

(Propicie)TVB • dbvs I mmeh • mkho : dni • m i coc f vxx 

The letters M and a are similar, the latter being repre- 
sented as the former. The xx in the date appear like 
the Arabic numerals 88. 

The description here given is taken from the engrav- 
ing, as I have had no opportunity of examining the 
effigy itself or the details of what appear to be the 
armorial bearings on the jupon. 

M. H. B. 

By the aid of Mr. J. Y. W. Lloyd's History o/Powys 
Fadog (vol. iv, pp. 359-362), we are enabled to identify 
this Joannes ap Gruffit ap Madoc as the fifth in descent 
from Rhirid Flaidd, or the Wolf, the powerful lord of 
Penllyn in Merioneth, of Lleyn and Eifionydd in Car- 
narvonshire, of Pennant Melangell and Bryn in Mont- 
romeryshire, and of Ruyton of the Eleven Towns in 
Jhropshire, about the middle of the eleventh century. 
From the further fact that his grandfather, Madoc ap 
lorwerth ap Madoc, is mentioned as petitioning Ed- 
ward I at Kensington (33 Edward I, a.d. 1305), that 
he " might quietly enjoy certain lands and the bailiwick 
' Unius Cantr. in Penllyn and Ardudewey', which the 

6th sbb., vol. II. 13 



1 94 SCULPTURED RECUMBENT EFFIGY 

King had given him for his services";^ and that in the 
Extent of Merionethshire^ he is described as being in 
possession of Penanthlu " ad tenninum vite per donum 
regis"; and that he himself is said by Robert Vaughan, 
the antiquary, to have ** lived in great credit and 
esteem in the days of King Edward III, who allowed 
him an annual stipend for guarding and conducting of 
y* Justice of North Wales with a companie of archers 
whilst he should soejoume and stay in y* countie of 
Merionydd."' We shall not be wrong,! believe, in assign- 
ing as his residence the stronghold of Castell Carn 
Dochan, or Com Dochen, on the precipitous spur of 
Ffridd Helyg y Moch, admirably adapted, by its posi- 
tion, to guard the passes from the eastern to the western 
portions of the county. The accompanying pedigree 
tends to confirm this conclusion, as it shows how the 
Castle would naturally descend, by inheritance, from 
him to the Vaughans of Glanllyn and Llwydiarth, and 
through them to its present possessor, the Baronet of 
Wynnstay. 

Bhirid Flaidd,=j^Ali8> vz. Bleddyn Fychan 
lord of Penllyn J of Hafod Unos 



:y 



Madoc ap Rhirid Flaidd=T=Arddan, vz. Philip ap Einion, slain at the 

J Ucchtryd, lord of Cyfeiliog siege of Diserth 
[ Castle 

I I I 

QwTgenea Llwyd» lorwerth ap Madoc=7=Gwerfyl, vz. Rhiiid Tjohaai, 

of Bhiwaedog of PexUlyn Cynwrig ap ancestor of the 

Pasgen, lora Myddeltons of 

of Cegidfa Gwannynog, Gtarth- 

gynan, and Chirk 

Castle 



Madoc ap Iorwerth=f=ETa, vz. Gruff, ap Einion of Corsygedol 

Griffith ap Madoc=f 1, Alis, vz. Bleddyn Fychan 

2, Janet, vz. Cynvelyn 

3, Gwenllian, vz. leuan ap Howel 



1 III' 
Ieuan=f 2, Howel y Gader of Cader Benllyn 

3, Bhys, ancestor of the Joneses of Llandymog and Halkin 

4, Goronwy of Penllyn, ancestor of the Lloyds of Bala and 
Glanhavon 

6, Griffith of Trefgoed 

* Arch. Camh.y Ser. 4, vol. viii, p. 200. 

2 Ibid.y Ser. 3, vol. xiii, p. 188. * Ihid.f Ser. 4, vol. viii, p. 200. 



IN LLANUWCHLLYN CHURCH. 



195 



Qriffith ap Ieuan=f=1 , Gwenllian 

2, Anneeta 

leuan Vych'an=pAnii, vz. Sir Griffith Vychan 

David ap lenaD yychan=pMargaret, vz. David Lloyd ap Howel ap 

Tyd'r ap Gronw ap Howel y Gader 



T 



David Lloyd=pI, Lleiki, vz. Deio ap leuan ap David 
purchased 2, Lowri, vz. of Howel Vychan of Llwy- 
Glanllyn | diarth 



Howel Vychan=p 
ofGlanllyn 



•Marget, vz. Ellis ap Howel Williain=r= 
ap Rhys, and so up to | 

Owen Brogyntyn David Lloyd==Klen, vz. Howel 



of Haesmochnant, 
Llanrhaiadr 

John Yychan,==Gwen, d. Dorothy==John Owen Vanghan 
High Sheriff, ~ " ----- 

1594 



of Owen Vychan 
Wynn 



of Llwydiarth 



ap David ap 

Meuric Vychan 

of Nannau 



Catherine, »Bobt. Wynn. fourth son of 
only d. and h. Maurice Wynn of Qwydr 



John Vaughan=i=Mari, vz. Roger Owen Vanghan=pCatherine Manrice^d. and 

Kinaston of of Llwydiarth, 
Hordley High Sheriff, 

Mont., 1601 



of Glanllyn- 
tegid 



Howel Vaughan=f= 



h. of Maurice ap Robert 
of Llangedwyn 



Sir Robert Vaughan, Knt.=FCatherine 

I Herbert 



Edward Vaughan, Eleanor Vaughan, h. of =f=John Purcell of 



0. s. p. 



of Llwydiarth and 
Llangedwyn 



Nantcribba 



Edward Vanghan of Glanllyntegid, adopted son of =^Mary furcell, d. 1722 
Edward vaughan of Llwydiarth, M.P. Mont- 
gomery, o&. 1718 



Shakerley 



Edward Mary « Thos. Ann Josephine, = Sir Watkin Williams,=j=2, Frances 
Vaughan, Strange- h. of Glanllyn, who took the addi- 
d. young, ways, Esq., Llwydiarth, and tional name of Wynn 
1700 of M'elbury Llimgedwyn, on succeeding Sir 

which, on the death John Wynn, second 
of her own children, she con- Baronet, of Wynn- 
veyed to her husband stay 



Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, fourth Baronet, M.P. for Denbighshire, 

d. 1789 



13 « 



196 



THE ROMAN STATION OF CAERGAL 

Although not named in any Roman itinerary, this 
place has long been known as a Roman station. William 
Camden, in his Britannia (edit. 1600, p. 593), after 
noticing Cam Dochen, proceeds : " Nee procul abest 
Caergai, id est, Castrum Caii a Caio Romano aliquo 
extructum de quo magna et mira vulgus vicinum prae- 
dicat," (And not far off is Caergai, i.e., the Camp of 
Caius, built by Caius, a Roman, of whom the people 
thereabout tell great and marvellous stories.) This is 
further amplified by Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt, the 
Merionethshire antiquary, who lived 1592-1666, and 
wrote in a MS. which was printed in the ArchcBohgia 
Cambrensis (2nd Series, vol. i, p. 204), " In the parish 
of Llannuwchllyn, upon the south bank of the river 
Lliw, on a high, craggy rock, are seen the walls of an 
old castle called Castell Com Dochen. Over against it 
is Caer Gai, built in the time of the Romans, as many 
suppose by the ancient coin of the Emperor Domitian 
found there of late. Here also was digged up a stone 
with this inscription, hec iacet salvianvs bvrsocavi 
FiLivs CVPETIAN. This place was called Caer Gai of 
Cai Hir ap Cynyr, that was King Arthur's foster- 
brother, who dwelt there. But by what name it was 
called in the Roman time I know not." 

Pennant has added nothing to the information about 
it : indeed, he does not appear to have actually visited 
it : " Leave on the right another ancient seat, ' Caer 
Gai', placed on an eminence. Camden says it was a 
castle built by one Caius, a Roman. The Britons 
ascribe it to Gai, foster-brother to King Arthur. It 
probably was Roman, for multitudes of coins have 
been found in different parts of the neighbourhood ; 
and it is certain that it had been a fortress to defend 



THE ROMAN STATION OF CAERGAl. 197 

the pass, for which it is well adapted both by its situ- 
ation and the form of the hilL"* 

Lewis, in his Topographical Dictionary^ enumerates 
the above items, and points out a further feature in 
the Roman roads converging to it from Tomen y Mur 
and Mediolanum : '' In the vicinity of this station are 
vestiges of roads resembling those of the Romans lead- 
ing from the station Eryri MonSy at Tomen y Mur, near 
Festiniog, and from Castell Prysor, in the parish of 
Trawsvynydd, to the ancient Mediolanum, probably 
near Meivod." The pass traversed by this road appears 
to be the one referred to by Pennant, though he does 
not mention the road itself. But as every Roman sta- 
tion was connected with those adjoining it, it is strange 
that other converging roads have not also been noticed. 
Happily Mr. Hughes, the Vicar of Llanuwchllyn, and 
Mr. Edward Jones of Newport, a native of the parish, 
have recently paid much attention to this subject, and 
their inquiries enable us to fill up, to a considerable 
extent, this important item of its ancient history. 

On the occasion of the Annual Meeting at Bala last 
year, an excursion was made to this place, which is 
thus briefly noticed in the Report : " Tne Roman sta- 
tion of Caergai, with its well preserved fosse and val- 
lum, occupies the crest of the bank so called ; and near 
the centre of the square stands the old mansion, now 
used as a farmhouse. The vallum is best shown on the 
western side, the eastern having been almost levelled 
away. At a little distance an outer dyke encloses a 
considerable circuit, probably 6 or 8 acres ; and on the 
north-western side are large quantities of boulders, 
some standing as if they had formed a scarpment or 
chevaux-de-fnse, and others dispersed as if they had 
been the foundation of some primitive buildings.'** 

Taking, then, our stand at Caergai, we will endea- 
vour to trace some of the roads that diverged from it : 

(1.) To Tomen y MuVy W. — This is represented by 

1 Tours in Wales, 1810, vol. ii, p. 220. 
^ Arch. Camb.y 5th 8er., vol. i, p. 333. 



198 THE ROMAN STATION OF GAERGAI. 

the road that leads, on the left bank of the Lliw, past 
Elusendy, and follows roughly the course of the river 
by Dolhendre, Bwlch Eglwys Tudr, Dolfudr, Buarth 
Meini, to Blaen Lliw-isai. Thence it passes north of 
Pen Efeidiog for a short distance, till it forks into two 
branches ; the northern one passing Dolymoch and 
Buarth Brwynog to the upper course of Nantbudr, 
which it follows to its junction with the Prysor stream 
near Glan Llafar. Crossing the valley and the hill 
northwards, along the course of the LJafar, it passes 
Dol Dinas and Dol Belydr, and thence on to Tomen y 
Mur; from whence it was continued onwards, by 
Maentwrog, Tanybwlch, and Beddgelert, to Segontium. 
The southern branch followed the line of the Nant 
Canol as far as Gelli Gain, from whence it rounded the 
slope of Y Foel Ddu, leaving Bedd Porius and Llech 
Idris just below, to the left, till it joined the Sam 
Helen at Peny Street. From this point it appears to 
have descended westwards by Rhiw Goch, and crossing 
the Eden, to have been carried on to Bwlch Drws 
Ardudwy, or perhaps to Bwlch y Tyddiad, and so into 
Dyffrjm Ardudwy, and on to the sea-coast. 

(2.) Towards Mediolanum. — This is supposed to have 
led south-east from Caergai, by Madoc and Dolfudr, up 
to Lledwyn Mawr, and thence by Bwlch y Pawl into 
the Llanwddyn Valley, and to have crossed Sarn Sws 
near Llanfihangel yn Ngwynfa. This, however, was 
probably no more than a utilised British trackway. 

(3.) Towards Maglona {Penal). — This probably fol- 
lowed the course of the present road to Bwlch y Groes, 
or it may have followed No. 2 as far as Ehydfudr, and 
then winding around Penygym, have followed the 
Afon Fechan, and joined the present road near Tai'n y 
Nant. 

(4.) Another road led over the Milltir Gerrig, and 
by Llangynog, to Llanfyllin, Bwlchycibau, and Stryd 
Fawr, towards Rutunium and Uriconium, with a branch 
down the Tanat Valley to Clawdd Coch, which most 
authorities think to have been the site of Mediolanum. 



THE ROMAN STATION OF CAERGAI. 199 

(5.) Towards Deva (Chester). — This line took a north- 
east direction, along the north side of the lake, through 
Bala and Llanfor, and crossing the Meloch below To- 
men y Castell, sent off, at Cefn Ddeusam, a branch 
towards Penygaer. Passing over Cefn Creini, it crossed, 
at the place called " The Four Crosses", the road from 
Old Oswestry to Penygaer. This cross-road is called, 
above Llanarmon Glyn Ceiriog, "Ffordd y Saeson"; 
most likely from having been traversed by Henry II in 
his advance against the Welsh, to that region whence 
he was driven back by stress of weather and the gather- 
ing forces of the Welsh chieftains, and following the 
higher ground of the Berwyn withdrew to Crogen 
(C^rk), where Adwy 'r Beddau ("The Gap of the 
Graves") is still believed to mark the site of his defeat. 
From " The Four Crosses" it led by the Druid and 
Bhug through the valley of Caenog, and by Highgate, 
to Bryneglwys and Llandegla, and thence to Bovium 
(Caergwrle) and Deva. 

(6.) A road leading north, past Pyrsau, Cystyllen, 
and over Bwlch Llwyd, may have been used, as far as 
Blaen Lliw Isaf, as an alternative to the one described 
in 1. 

(7.) Another road, or rather the continuation, west- 
wards, of No. 5, probably led by Rhyd y Sam and Tref 
Eurych into the Dolgelley Valley, and then joined the 
Sam Helen to Maglona. 

These roads, however, it will be seen, have only been 
partially sketched out, and we hope that those who 
nave local knowledge and opportunities will carry out 
more fully the researches they have begun. 

When the Roman legions were withdrawn from Caer- 
gai, it would still remain, from its position and strength, 
a place of prime importance for the government of the 
district. That it was so is implied in the brief notice 
of an event which occurred here, according to the Anna- 
les CamhricB, in a.d. 656. The record simply states, 
**ccxii annus, strages Gaii Campi". But what the occa- 
sion, or who the parties engaged, we are not told. The 



200 THE ROMAN STATION OF CAERGAI. 

old chronicler apparently forgot that what may have 
been well known in his day might become a matter of 
uncertainty, or total ignorance, in after times. We 
would venture, however, a suggestion that it was a 
desperate, if not final, struggle between the Cymru, or 
Romanised Britons, and the Gaels or Gwyddelod, of 
whom the district westward, to the coast, is ftill of 
memorials. On the withdrawal of the Roman forces 
from Britain, the Picts and Scots (Y Gwyddyl Ffichti) 
came down from the north, and tried to gain or regain 
possession of this country. 

Cunedda Wledig, Prince of the Strath Clyde Britons, 
had many possessions hereabouts by virtue of his 
mother, Gwawl, daughter of Coel Coedhebog, and he 
sent his sons southwards to defend them against these 
invaders. To a large extent they were successful, and 
gave their own names to the districts they rescued, 
including the cantrefs of Din Mael, Edeymion, Meirion 
(between the Mawddach and the Dysynni), and others 
more to the south ; but Ardudwy and other parts to 
the north and north-west we may suppose to have con- 
tinued still in the hands of the Gaels, whose cyttiau 
(hut-circles) and muriau (larger and more elaborate 
enclosures) are yet to be seen in numerous places on 
the Merionethshire and Carnarvonshire coasts. Their 
expulsion from Anglesey is attributed to Caswallawn 
Law Hir, Prince of Gwynedd, 443-517; and as it is 
probable that they held the more inland fastnesses to 
a later period, we would suggest that Caergai wit- 
nessed their last struggle and overthrow, and that it 
is to that event we are to refer the " Strages Gaii 
CampL" 

But few relics have been recorded as found here. 
The place was probably used, as so often was the case 
elsewhere, as a nandy and convenient quarry for build- 
ing material. Edward Lhuyd, the author of Archceo- 
logia Britannica, mentions tnat there were in his time 
Roman bricks worked into the walls of the churches 
at Llanuwchllyn, Llanycil, and Llangower, but none of 



THE ROMAN STATION OF OAERGAI. 20 1 

these have come to light in the course of their restora- 
tions. There is, indeed, in Llanfor Church a portion of 
an inscription which has been variously read as cavo- 
SENiARSii by Eobert Vaughan of Hengwrt ; cavoseni- 
ARGii by Professor Rhys ; and by Professor Westwood, 
CAVOSBNiAROi. (See Arch. Camb., Series V, vol. i, p. 342.) 
Professor Rhys, in his Lectures on Welsh Philology 
(p. 391), draws attention to the common element in 
CAVO-SENiARGii and in bvrgooavi, which he conjectures 
to have been the reading of the stone long lost from 
Caergai, Hic iacit salvianvs bvrgooavi filivs cvpeti- 
ANi, and suggests that it " very possibly implies the 
blood-relationship of the two men meant; and it is 
natural to conclude that Caer Gai (which translated 
into an older form must have been Castra Cam or Cavi 
CcLstra) bears the name of some person of the same 
family, — perhaps of this very Burgocavi mentioned in 
the lost inscription.'' A considerable number of Roman 
tiles have been found about the house and the fields, 
some of which were supposed to have formed portions 
of the pillars of a hypocaust. 

About twenty years ago, in the course of draining 
the field on the east side of the vallum, called now ^'Cae 
Dentir", but formerly "Cae Dwyndir" (the field of 
bushes or hillocks), a number of funeral urns of coarse 
texture and grey colour were brought to light. One of 
them was perfect, and full of dust ; but what became 
of it was not known, probably it was thrown aside, like 
the rest. The neck of one such, which appeared to 
have had a handle, was found by myself, four or five 
years ago, in one of the field- walls. But the most inte- 
resting discovery of all has been made in the spring of 
this year, in this same field. 

In the beginning of March, as the tenant was plough- 
ing the field, the plough-share came in contact with a 
stone which, on the removal of the soil, was found to 
be a portion of a large block of red sandstone, sculp- 
tured and inscribed. Mr. Williams of Gwernhefin, the 
agent of the Glanllyn estate, at once saw to its being 



202 



THE ROMAN STATION OF GAERGAI. 



taken care of, and superintended its clearance and re- 
moval. Clearing away the space adjoining, it was 
found to be lying in a sloping condition, at the north- 
west angle of what may best be described as a square 
enclosed in an Oxford frame ; the sides of which, in- 
cluding the projections, were 9 ft. long by 2 ft. broad ; 
forming an enclosing trench, 2^ ft. deep, and filled, for 
the most part, with black soil differing from the sur- 
rounding earth, and bits of charcoal. The stone in- 
clined inwards towards the square, adjoining the north 
edge of which was found a circular pit, 3 ft. in diame- 
ter, and 3^ ft. below the surface, within which pieces 
of grey pottery (probably an um) and fragments of 
Samian ware were discovered. 




What remained of the stone was 2 ft. 6 ins. in length 
by 1 ft. 11 ins. broad, and 10 ins. deep ; and it had 
been split lengthwise, from top to bottom, into two 
parts. The upper portion had been so injured that the 
entablature can be but approximately reproduced. 
Two human feet in front, some animal feet behind, and 



THE ROMAN STATION OF CAERGAI. 203 

a small wheel, which has subsequently become de* 
tached, would show, however, that it was intended to 
represent a man leading a wild beast attached to a 
chariot. At one end was represented the coil of a 
scaly animal, perhaps a dragon or a serpent. The in- 
scription, which is exceedingly clear and well preserved, 
with letters 2 ins. high, reads — 

IVLIVS . GAVERONIS . P 
FB . MIL . CHOT'NER 

The I of FiLivs, in the first line, is cut horizontally, and 
placed above the F, and not, as more usually, after it ; 
and the F and £ at the beginning of the second line 
lean forward considerably, and are of different charac- 
ter to the rest of the lettering, as if they had been 
engraved by a less skilful hand. Between the o and 
the T, the rubbing shows an inverted dot, as if the 
second stroke of the o were intended to form part of an 
R. The face of the stone is very smooth, and the let- 
tering clear ; but the explanation of the inscription is 
not equally plain. Mr. W. Thompson Watkin, a very 
high authority on Roman inscriptions, would read it in 
full as 

IVLIVS GAVERONIS FILIVS 

FECIT MILES COHORTIS NBRVIORVM 

That is, "Julius, the son of Gavero, a soldier of the co- 
hort of the Nervii, made it"; and he adds that the first 
cohort of the Nervii were in Britain a.d. 105, as shown 
by the Sydenham tabula of Trajan. 

With this may be compared the following extract 
from the article by Mr. Watkin on " Roman Inscrip- 
tions found in Britain in 1884'*, printed in the Archce- 
ological Journal, vol. xlii, p. 148: — "There was also 
found in the same city (Chester), in November, in exca- 
vations made by Mr. Bullin in White Friars, a portion 
of an ordinary red tile bearing upon it, in very fine 
letters, ivli\ , which has probably, when entire, been 
IVLIVS . F.; the F standing, of course, for fecit.'' 

Hiibner, however, on the other hand, to whom a rub- 



204 THE ROMAN STATION OP GAERGAI. 

bing was sent, "cannot imagine that fe means /eci^* It 
would be quite in the wrong place. Then the soldier 
of the Nervian cohort cannot properly have been styled 
only by a nomen gentile (Julius) and perhaps a prceno" 
men} We expect besides a cognomen^ and this he 
fancies must be hidden in the letters ¥e (Jelix or ferox 
or something like). 

C (?) IVLIVS GAVERONIS FILIVS 

E FEROX MILES C'hORTIS NERVIORVM 

would be the proper nomenclature.'* The lettering he 
describes as " a curious specimen of the transition from 
the monumental to the painted or cursive form of writ- 
ing ; and the serpents indicate one of the Gigantes, as 
on the Pergamenean altar/' 

The material employed, red sandstone, is. not to be 
found within a radius of many miles of Caergai, and 
must, therefore, have been brought from a considerable 
distance ; and it is not improbable that some of the red 
stones worked up in the walls of the house are relics of 
the same monumental use. 

This inscribed stone was removed, in the first in- 
stance, for greater security to the house at Glanllyn, 
and was subsequently presented by the late Sir Wat- 
kin Williams Wynn, Bart., our President, to the Mu- 
seum of Natural History and Archaeology at Chester, 
where it may be conveniently seen and compared with 
others of a similar character and the same period. 

D. E. T. 

' He thought there were traces on the rubbing of some letters 
before ivliys, which, however, do not appear to exist. 



206 



MELIDEN CHURCH. 

Until last year this church was one of the most unin 
teresting ecclesiastical structures in the diocese of 
St. Asaph, and is briefly described by Sir Stephen 
Glynne as having ** a great want of ancient features ; 
and though neat, very modern in appearance." But 
investigations rendered necessary during the work of 
restoration, recently completed, have brought to light 
ancient features which mark every epoch in the history 
of the diocese, except the British, which is indicated 
only by the dedication of the church to St. Melyd, and 
of the Norman period. 

Part of the inner jamb and arch of the west window, 
and the masonry of the west wall, belong to the church 
built in the thirteenth century, which must have been 
destroyed by the soldiers of Henry III, who made such 
havoc of the churches as to call forth a threat of excom- 
munication from Bishop Anian, and a letter of urgent 
remonstrance from the Archbishop. 

The period of extensive church renovation and reform, 
and the publication of the Taxatio (128 i-139 5)^ is repre- 
sented by the north and south doors and a portion of 
a sill of a north window, and fragments of tombstones, 
and the apex-stone of the bell-turret. 

When the Cathedral of St. Asaph was burned, and 
the Bishop's houses at Meliden (Llys), Bodidris, and 
St. Martin, were destroyed during the revolt of Owen 
Glyndwr (1395-1411), the church most probably suf- 
fered considerable damage, as the fourteenth century 
walls do not extend eastwards beyond the position 
occupied by the present doors ; and it must have 
remained a long time in ruins, until late in the fif- 
teenth century, when the eastern end of the church 
was built, and the chancel furnished with a roodloft. 



MCtLYO MELIDEN 




ISZISZ^- 



Vi 



I-- 
en 



MBLIDEN CHURCH. 207 

of which the beams remained ; and with chancel-stalls, 
of which a fragment was discovered, forming a support 
to the pulpit, but just sufficient to show that the design 
was very similar to those at Clynog Church in Carnar- 
vonshire. This relic is of considerable value as being, 
I believe, the only evidence of the character of the 
chancel-fittings in small churches of this type. 

In removing the wall blocking up the north door was 
found the bowl of a font much defaced, which was 
most likely buried in compliance with the order of Par- 
liament in 1643, that all copes, surplices, superstitious 
vestments, roods, fonts, and organs, were not only to 
be taken away, but utterly defaced. As the font now 
in use bears the date 1686, the church must have been 
without a font for forty years. 

Further evidence of activity during the seventeenth 
century was afibrded by the elliptic-headed windows, 
the roof, and portions of the delicately moulded oak 
seats. Evidence of painting of difierent dates, in layers 
covering each other, was discovered on the walls ; but 
the plaster was in such a rotten state that it was found 
impossible to preserve them. 

Arthur Baker. 

May 21, 1885. 



208 



NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES IN THE 

FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 

BT THE LATE 

Sir STEPHEN RICHARD GLYNNB, Bart. 

{Continued from p, 131.) 



^iattsiz of ^t. DBb(ti'& 



DEANERY OF DUNGLEDDY. 

UZMASTON, PEMB. (ST. ISMART). 

8 July 1858. 

A SMALL church of curious, irregular outline, and badly 
modernised. It has a nave and chancel, and quasi 
transepts on the north and south of dissimilar form 
and size, and a small tower at the north end of the 
transept. There is much of the rude local Pembroke- 
shire type. The chancel-arch is Pointed, very rude and 
plain. The chancel is small, and much blocked by 
seats, but has curious features. In its north and south 
walls are flat, rude arches, seen elsewhere in this dis- 
trict. The southern arch has in its jamb a large ob- 
long recess ; and within the arch a two-light Perpen- 
dicular window of trefoiled lights is opened in the wall. 
Near the arch appears a rude corbel on the wall. The 
east window is small and Perpendicular, of three lights. 
In the south wall is a small square recess. In the 
angle between the north transept and chancel is the 
shed-like contrivance for a hagioscope, once communi- 
cating with the arch in the north wall of the chancel. 
There is no arch from the nave to the transept. The 
south transept is modern in all probability, and has a 
gallery. The windows of the nave are all modem. The 
font is an ancient one of local type ; the bowl square, 



NOTES ON THE OLIVER CHURCHES, ETC. 209 

and scolloped at the base, upon a cylindrical stem, 
having round it a cable-moulding, and set on a square 
plinth. The tower, which contains two belk, is small, 
and has a saddle-back roof with scarcely any apertures, 
but a little slit near the gable. It has no buttress, and 
on the east side are a kind of horse-block steps, on the 
outside. The porch is modern.* 



DEANERY OF EOOSK 



ST. BRIDE. 

16 Sept. 1856. 

The plan of this church consists of a nave without 
aisles, a north transept, chancel, and south porch. There 
are here two bell-cote, one over the west, and one over 
the east gable of the nave, each for two bells; the 
former square-topped, the latter pointed ; the walls, 
externally, whitewashed ; the windows mostly modern- 
ised, and fortified with shutters. There is a rude 
pointed chancel-arch, and another between the nave 
and north transept. There is a rood-door on the north 
of the chancel-arch and a stone bracket. The chancel 
is large, has a lancet on the south, and a mutilated east 
window. On the south of the altar is a piscina upon 
a corbel-table. On the north of the chancel has been 
once an aisle or chapel ; and a rude, misshapen arch is 
seen in the wall. Several pews are painted blue I The 
south porch is large and plain.* 

ST. THOMAS IN HAVERFORDWEST. 

20 Sept 1847. 

An uninteresting church, much modernised, compris- 
ing a long nave with small chancel, and a tali western 

^ The chnrch was sabstantiallj repaired in 1870. 

^ This charcli has been admirably restored hj the late Mrs. Allen 
Philipps, the principal landowner, under the direction of Mr. C. 
Buckeridge. 

6th 8£R., VOL. II. 14 



210 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

tower. The latter is the only portion that retains its 
original character, and has some resemblance to others 
in the county, being without stringcourses, and but- 
tresses to the lower part only. Below the battlement, 
the usual corbel-table of uncertain date. The belfry- 
windows of two lights ; and at the north-east is an 
octagonal turret. A west porch has been added. The 
west door has a flat, pointed arch. The window over 
it is mutilated. On the west side is sculptured a rood. 
The tower has the usual stone arch within, over the 
lower story ; and the small openings to the staircase 
have, internally, trefoil heads. The windows in the 
body of the church are all modern ; the roof is coved ; 
the chancel-arch plain, pointed ; the altar-rails enclose 
the whole of the chancel ; the pulpit is in the centre, 
blocking the altar, and under it is a modern font.^ 

ST. ISMAEL. 

Sept. 16, 1856. 

A church wholly of the South Pembrokeshire type, 
but creditably distinguished from its neighbours in 
having undergone a well intended though not quite 
satisfactory restoration, and being in a clean and tidy 
condition, most rare in this part of the country. The 
plan is cruciform, without aisles, the transepts being 
rather as chapels. There is a south porch, and a quasi' 
steeple at the west end, common in the vicinity, being 
a sort of thin tower perforated by two arches for bells, 
and a modern west window inserted. The interior is 
very neat ; but the pews, though regular, are far too 
high. The north transept opens to the nave by a rude 

^ This church has been greatly improved by the present Kector. 
The nave has received a north aisle, affording accommodation to 
one hundred additional worshippers. The "modern font" had been 
replaced, before Mr. Hilber's incambency, by one still more modem, 
near the west end of the nave ; and the pulpit had been placed 
against the south pier of the chancel-arch. It has been suggested 
that the above description of the altar-rails may mean that they 
extended in the form of a parallelogram westward, so as to receive 
communicants south, west, and north. 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 211 

obtuse arch ; that to the chancel is equally rude, but 
pointed. The chancel is new and larger tnan the ori- 
ginal one, which was very small and low. There is the 
stone ledge on each side of the base of the chancel- 
arch, — a feature of the country. To the south transept 
there is none. The curious, oblique hagioscopes com- 
mon in Pembrokeshire, and nowhere else, occur here, 
forming rude vaulted passages from each transept into 
the chancel, and cutting oflF the angles. They are 
vaulted, fitted with stone seats, and lighted by small 
slits. These open to the chancel by very rude arches ; 
the northern round, the southern nearly flat. There 
are square recesses in the wall, north and south of the 
altar. On the south is the bowl of a piscina. The 
chancel-window is Decorated, of two lights ; also some 
in the transepts ; but these seem to have been restored. 
One window is late, square-headed, with label ; and in 
the west wall of the south transept is a small, square 
window. Some new painted glass has been introduced. 
The font has a square bowl, scolloped below, on a short 
cylindrical stem. The roof and pavement are new. 
There is an octagonal stoup in the porch. The outer 
walls are finely covered with ivy. The site beautiful 
and sequestered, and the spacious churchyard consists 
of very steep ground.* 



JOHNSTON. 

August 1862. 

A very nice specimen of the Pembrokeshire church, 
having a nave, small transeptal chapels^ chancel, and 
west tower, but no porch. The tower resembles that 
of Steinton, except that it has no battlement, but a 
corbel-table under the parapet. It is undivided by 
stringcourses, and is tall and slender, without buttresses, 
and having a small turret at the south-west. There is 
no west door, the west window is square-headed, the 

^ In 1884 the pews were replaced by good open sittings, and the 
entire church put into excellent order. 

14* 



212 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

north and south belfry-windows are of two lights, the 
western closed. The windows of the nave, which have 
been nicely restored, are square-headed, of two lights, 
and Third Pointed character. 

The transeptal chapels are extremely small and shal- 
low, vaulted in stone, and with very flat arches. The 
windows of the transepts are square-headed, of three 
lights. The chancel-arch is a very plain Pointed one. 
On each side of it is a hagioscope of Third Pointed 
character, with open paneling. On the north and south 
sides of the chancel are small vaulted projections open- 
ing by very flat arches, and lighted by square-headed 
windows. These occur in other Pembrokeshire churches. 
Whether they were sepulchral or not, it is difficult to 
say. There is another on the north side, ranging with 
the sacrariura, now made into a pew. These have, 
externally, sloping^ roofs. On the south side of the 
chancel are two Pointed sedilia with shafts, and also a 
piscina, with round basin, under the window. The 
east window is Third Pointed. The foat is a square 
bowl, scolloped. This church is in neat order, having 
lately undergone some restoration and improvement ; 
and the situation, on an eminence, is very pleasing. 



LLANGWM (ST. HIEROM). 

Sept. 17th, 1866. 

This church is so entirely modernised, externally, as 
almost to discourage any examination of the interior ; 
which, however, is by no means devoid of interest. 
The plan comprises a nave, north chapel, south transept, 
and chancel, and a belfry over the west end. The outer 
walls are rough-cast, and the windows all modern ; 
the inner walls fantastically painted red. The interior 
is, however, clean and tidy compared with neighbour- 
ing churches. The north chapel has been little altered, 
and opens to the nave by two very good but small 
pointed arches of Decorated character, having fine 
mouldings quite unlike the usual Pembrokeshire Gothic, 



IN. THB FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 213 

and springing from an octagonal column. On the north 
side, facing the chapel, these arches are surmounted by 
others, like hoods, springing from a corbel. On the 
east side of this chapel is a niche with a coarsely carved, 
overhanging canopy, surmounted by a large rude pin- 
nacle. At the north end of this chapel are two ogee- 
arched recesses in the wall, with crocketed ogee cano- 
pies having finials and pinnacles between them, under 
which are effigies of Sir Daniel de Roche and his lady. 
He is represented as cross-legged. The south transept 
is very small, and has the common, rude stone vault 
opening to the nave by a plain, small, pointed arch. 
The chancel-arch is also pointed, and quite plain and 
rude. The font has a square bowl, scolloped, on a stem, 
and square base.^ 



LLANSTADWELL (ST. TUDWAL). 

July 8th, 1858. 

A plain church of the Pembrokeshire type, consist- 
ing of nave and chancel, a wide transeptal chapel on 
the north, and a western tower. There is no arch at 
present opening to the transept; but a rude, plain, 
pointed one to the chancel, with a small squint on the 
north side of it, similar to others of the district, cutting 
oflf the angle. There are no windows on the north of 
the nave, and almost all the existing windows are 
modern abominations; but on the east side of the tran- 
sept is a closed one of two trefoiled ogee lights, 
with foiled circle between, and the whole under a flat 
label. The chancel is lower than the nave. The tower 
has the rude, fortified look so common in this county ; 
is embattled, with a corbel-table, divided by only one 
. string, and without buttresses ; has a square turret at 
the north-east, and the openings are only square-topped 
slits. The windows are all guarded by shutters. 

^ See Kenton's T<mr through Fembroke, pp. 147, 239. 



214 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 



MARLOES (ST. PETER). 

16 Sept. 1856. 

This church, in general arrangement, is not unlike 
St. Isniaels, but has not had the same advantages of 
repair and improvement. The plan comprehends a 
nave with north chapel, a north and south transept, 
and a chancel, with a belfry over the west end, which 
has two arched recesses, but only one bell. There are 
no windows on the south of the nave, and those on the 
north have been modernised. There is no pavement 
in the western part of the nave, only the bare earth ; 
the other parts have pavement of the rudest kind. The 
church is of some length, and the north chapel and 
transept range as an aisle outwardly. There is a rude, 
misshapen arch opening from the nave to the north 
chapel, but no arch to the south transept. The chancel- 
arch is most rude, but pointed, with stone blocks 
against each side of it, upon a plinth ; and a square 
aperture into the nave, on its north side. The chancel 
has a plain stone vault, with stone seats on each side 
of it. There are rude segments of arches opening north 
and south of the chancel, and communicating with the 
transepts by odd passages which cut off the angles, and 
form very large, coarse hagioscopes. The stone seat is 
continued along the south hagioscope. There is a 
piscina south of the altar. The east window is Deco- 
rated, of two lights. The roofs are open, and out of 
repair. The font is an octagonal block, very plain. 
There is a stone seat along the west end of the nave. 
The external walls are whitewashed. 

This church offers an interesting specimen of the 
rude local peculiarities, and it might be wished that it 
was more cared for.^ 

^ In 1874 it was carefullj repaired and restored, mainly by mem- 
bers of the family to which the present condition of the neighbour- 
ing church of St. Bride's is due. 



IN THE POUR WELSH DIOCESES. 215 

NOLTON (ST. MADOC). 

29 Aug. 1861. 

The church has a nave and chancel, and over the 
west end a bell-gable for two bells ; the whole of the 
outer walls whitewashed. There is a south porch 
which is vaulted in stone, with moulded ribs. The 
chancel-arch is a rude round one, having an impost on 
the north. There is no west window. Those on the 
north are bad and modern ; on the south, square- 
headed and poor. The west door Pointed. Along the 
west end is a stone bench. The east window of the 
chancel is a singular one, with a First Pointed look ; 
but it is doubtful whether it is altered. It has two 
lights with plain mullion, surmounted by a depressed 
hood which has foliated corbels. In the angles of this 
window, internally, are shafts with First Pointed capi- 
tals. Near the east window are two niches with cham- 
fered brackets set very low down. The font is early, 
of a kind very common in Pembrokeshire, — an oblong 
bowl scolloped below, upon a cylindrical stem. There 
is a part of a stone effigy set up against the wall. 

The churchyard, picturesque and shaded with trees, 
has no graves on the north side. 

RHOS MARKET (ST. ISMAEL). 

17 Sept. 1856. 

A very characteristic church of the South Pembroke- 
shire kind. It has a nave and chancel, with no aisles ; 
but a north transept, and a belfry at the west end ; a 
large north porch of rude construction, having a de- 
formed outer arch ; and an ill-shaped, obtuse inner 
door, and stone benches. The windows are mostly 
wretched ; but at the end of the transept is a square- 
headed one of Perpendicular character, and two lights. 
There are several original benches of stone against the 
walls. The arch to the north transept is rude and 
obtuse. The chancel-arch is also low, rude, and obtuse ; 
and there is a stone bench on each side of the chancel. 



216 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

returned, as at Marloes, on each side of the chancel- 
arch. There is also the odd, vaulted passage of the 
lychnoscopic nature, from the north transept to the 
chancel, cutting off the angle, and opening by a very 
flat arch. On the north of the chancel-arch are also 
the rood-steps. The transept is very long. On its 
walls are several stone brackets, and a square recess in 
the west wall. The font much resembles a cushion- 
capital, upon an octagonal stem on three steps, but is 
not 80 early as Norman. The west end of the nave has 
no pavement, only the bare earth. The belfry resembles 
St. Ismael : a kind of shallow, oblong tower; the upper 
part, above the church roof, perforated by two open 
arches for bells. The west window is much overgrown 
with ivy, 

STEYNTON (ST. PETER). 

August 1851. 

A tolerably capacious church with aisles to the nave, 
but not to the chancel, and a west tower and north 
porch. The architectural character is, as usual in this 
coimty, coarse and rude ; and there has been the ordi- 
nary amount of mutilation and destruction of original 
windows, most of which are square-headed, with sashes. 
The nave has on each side a rude arcade of three plain 
jointed arches without mouldings, and clumsy, large, 
square wall-piers. The chancel-arch is much of the 
same character. Over the east end of the nave is a bell- 
cot. In the south aisle, near the east end, is a piscina 
with slate shelf. The chapcel is much modernised, but 
cont^-ins two stone brackets. The tower opens to the 
nave by p, low pointed arch, and has the usual stone 
vault. It is tall and slender, embattled, having a shal- 
low square turret at the north-east, and tapering up- 
wards. No west door; the belfry-window of two lightis; 
the other op^nipgs paere slits. The font is a square 
mass, near one of the sopth piers. The exterior of the 
church is whitewashed, except part of the tower,^ 

^ In the year 1882 this church was re-roofed and re-seated, and 
windows of appropriate design were inserted. 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 217 



TALBENNY (ST. MABY). 

Sept. 16, 1856. 

A neglected church in a high situation, not far from 
St. Bride's Bay. It has a nave and chancel of some 
length. The chancel-arch is Pointed, and very rude. 
There is some indication of capitals in the north and 
south walls of the chancel, as if there had been an aisle 
or chapel. On the north of the chancel is one trefoil- 
headea lancet and one square-headed slit. The chancel 
is nearly equal to the nave in length. On the north 
of the chancel-arch is a rood-door. The north door is 
obtuse, the south door rudely pointed ; the windows 
mostly modem, and closed by shutters. The font has 
a square bowl scolloped at the bottom, of the form 
common in the county. At the west end is a bellcot 
with two open arches, but only one bell, carried on a 
kind of buttress down to the ground. The exterior 
w^alls and roof are whitewashed. 

walwyn's castle (st. james). 

Aa^. 29, 1851. 

The plan is a tolerably spacious nave and a chancel, 
without aisles, a western tower, and north porch. The' 
tower is plain and poor, without buttresses, and of no 
particular architectural character. The lower part has 
the usual stone vault, and opens to the nave by a plain 
arch. The north door has a round arch. On the north 
side, near the west end, is a single lancet-window ; the 
other windows of the nave are modern. The chancel- 
arch is plain and obtuse. In its north pier is a square 
aperture for a squint. On each side of the chancel, near 
its west end, is a curious projection opening to the 
interior by a depressed arch ; each of them has exter- 
nally a cornice of plain corbels. These projections are not 
uncommon in Pembrokeshire. In the east wall, inter- 
nally, are two brackets, and a long piscina with trefoiled 
head and good mouldings, the bowl octagonal. The 
south-east window of the chancel consists of two lights 



218 NOTES ON THE OLDER CHURCHES 

slightly ogeed and trefoiled. The roof is open and 
plain. The font has a small square bowl on a cylindri- 
cal stem, with square plinth. Against some parts of 
the walls of the nave are plain brackets. The church 
is newly pewed. The pulpit is in the centre. 

The churchyard is extremely large, — a circumstance 
not very unfrequent in South Wales, even in small 
parishes. 

The churches of Nolton, Haroldston, Walwyn Castle, 
and others about, seem to form a kind of connecting 
link between the small, towerless churches of the Welsh 
part of Pembrokeshire, and the peculiar ecclesiastical 
buildings, with lofty to wers, ^of the English districts. 

WEST HAROLDSTON (ST. MADOC). 

29 Aug. 1851. 

A small church having only a nave and chancel^ with 
a modem west porch, and a small squared bell-gable 
for one bell. One window on the north appears to nave 
been Norman originally, but now altered ; the other 
windows are modernised. The north door is closed. 
The chancel-arch is Pointed, but very rude, without 
moulding, and much depressed. On the south side of 
the chancel is a stone bench ; in the nave, a stone 
bracket. The walls are whitewashed, and there is a 
large growth of ivy. 

There is rather a pretty view from the churchyard 
over the sea, and the open ground all covered with 
furze. 

WEST WALTON. 

29 Aug, 1851. 

This church is now in a most forlorn state of dilapi- 
dation, but improvement is contemplated. The nave 
has a very low and narrow north aisle. The chancel is 
properly developed, and there is a west tower. Over 
the east gable of the nave is a bell-cot for one belL The 
tower is patched, and partly rebuilt. It has a saddle- 
roof, and the west gable is terminated by a bell-cot for 



IN THE FOUR WELSH DIOCESES. 219 

two bells. Its lower part, internally, has a rude stone 
vault, and opening to the nave by a very plain Pointed 
arch. It has but little architectural character, but a 
double window with two obtuse heads. The windows 
are all bad and modern, except one on the north of the 
chancel, now closed, which is a single, square-headed 
light, trefoiled. The chancel-arch is but small, opened 
in a plain wall or mass of masonry, and so strangely 
misshapen that it is difficult to comprehend what it 
could originally have been. There is on its south side 
a very large hagioscope with straight-sided arch. There 
are two very low, flattened arches between the nave 
and aisle, not exactly similar, without mouldings, and 
with a plain wall-pier. The aisle seems never to have 
had any windows. There is much dead wall about the 
chancel-arch. In the chancel, on the south side, is a 
stone bench, and another at the west of the aisle. 
Under the east window is an arch, closed externally ; 
and there is a small, rude, little piscina. The masonry 
near the east end is varied, and evidently of different 
ages ; but it is not easy to say what is the architectural 
character of the church, from its rudeness as well as its 
mutilation. The font has the common square bowl, 
scolloped below, and a cylindrical stem. The interior 
is dilapidated to an incredible degree, and the ground 
rises high against the walls. 

Sept. 1856. 

West Walton Church is now in an excellent state, 
thoroughly restored, and partially rebuilt ; a small 
aisle or chapel added on the north of the chancel, open- 
ing by a low, flat arch. The new inserted windows are 
lancets, some trefoiled; the east window of three lights; 
the seats low, open, and uniform. 

(To he coniinued,) 



ST. ASAPH CATHEDRAL: 
A PRE-REFORMATION PATEN. 



In the volume of the ArckcBologia Camhrensis for 1869 
(Third Series, vol. xv, p. 6 1), an engraving is given of 
a relic found daring the restoration then going on, and 
briefly described as " a flat, leaden, circular box -cover 
or lid, with a hand in benediction rudely cut or scratched 
upon it." Tt was found beneath a flat stone orna- 
mented with a floriated Calvary cross, and with it also 
the remains of a shallow vessel or cup of the same 
material ; and there can be, I think, no doubt that they 
are the remains of a paten and chalice, which must 
have been buried with the ecclesiastic over whose body 
the cross had been placed. 

The engraving which represents the paten is In full 
size, being 2^ inches in diameter ; the material being 
lead or some similar white metal. The two outer lines 
mark the rim ; and the right hand is shown in the act 
of blessing, two fingers being closed. From the arm a 



PRE-REPORMATION PATEN. 221 

maniple is suspended, and a zigzag or chevron orna- 
ment marks the end of the arm. Around the arm, and 
between it and the line of the rim, a faint band of orna- 
mental work may be traced in a careful rubbing, though 
it is not noticeable on the relic itself: indeed, although 
the relic had been for months in my charge, and often 
looked at and examined, it was only when beginning 
to write this notice, with the aid of a pencil-rubbing, 
that the band was first detected. The floriated cross 
belongs to the fourteenth century, and evidently marked 
the grave of a bishop or a priest. 

" I have been unable", writes Mr. M. H. Bloxam, in 
his eleventh edition of the Principles of Gothic Eccle- 
siastical Architecture (vol. ii, p. 88), ** to ascertain when 
the practice commenced of depositing a chalice, and in 
some instances also a paten, on the breast of the body 
of a deceased prelate or priest ; but it was undoubtedly 
a custom very generally observed in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries. Some chalices", he adds, " found 
with the remains of certain of the Archbishops of York, 
having been regilt, are, I believe, now used in that 
Cathedral at the celebration of the Holy Communion". 
And yet more pertinently to the present case, " in or 
about the year 1862 a silver-gilt paten, vnth a hand 
engraved in the centre (a not unusual device), was found 
in the stone coffin, in Worcester Cathedral, of Walter 
de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester, who died in a.d. 
1266." And yet again, "a chalice and paten of base 
metal were discovered some years ago in a grave in the 
churchyard of Sandford, Oxfordshire." And " it is from 
the chalices and patens found in the graves of ecclesi- 
astics of priestly rank and upwards that we have the 
form of the ancient chalices of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries ; those found in the graves of bishops 
being generally of silver ; those of inferior dignitaries, 
as priests, being of tin, latten, or other base metal, 
more or less corroded or broken. Sometimes the chalices 
deposited with the dead were of wax, as those with the 
monks of Durham." 



222 



PRE-REFOBHATION PATEN. 



Had the rule of appropriation noted above been ab- 
solute, it would be useless to make any attempt to 
identify the memorial, as we 
have no sufficient records of 
the places of burial of the 
several members of the Ca- 
thedral staff in those early 
days ; but as it is only men- 
tioned as "general" (and 
therefore we may conclude 
that sacred vessels of the 
inferior metal may have 
been buried with bishops 
also), it will not be amiss to 
compare such records of the 
burials of bishops as seem 
to be applicable to the pre- 
sent case. 

The stone, of which an 
illustration is given, is now 
placed in the floor of the 
south transept, to which it 
was removed from its pre- 
vious position, "a little 
way beneath the ground or 
pavement of the nave, near 
the eastern arch of the cen- 
tral tower, close by the en- 
trance into the choir." Now 
this must refer to the ear- 
lier choir, as represented in 
Browne Willis' Iconography 
of the Cathedral in 1720, 
and including only the east- 
ern arm from the central 
tower, and not to the later 
choir, which extends to the 
western pillars. 

Of the fourteenth century bishops, the earliest re- 
corded to have been buried in the Cathedral is Leoline 




PRE-REFORMATION PATEN. 223 

(or Llywelyn) ap Madoc ap Ellis, who died in 1375, 
although "doubtless several of his predecessors had 
been before the burning of the church, anno 1282, and 
since the rebuilding of it ; before the second conflagra- 
tion, about the year 1402, in Henry IV's reign, not- 
withstanding the memory of all their monuments is 
perished." (Browne Willis' /S^^isopA., p. 54.) He desired 
that his body should be buried near the high altar, where 
the gospeller was wont to standi " juxta magnum altare 
ubi evangelium ad magnam missam legi solet." 

William de Spridlington, his successor both in the 
deanery and afterwards in the bishopric, by his will in 
1381, directed his body to be buried in the choir, at 
the south end of the great altar, under a low stone 
even with the pavement, — " in chore EcclesisB Cathe- 
dralis Assav., ad caput australe Magni Altaris^ sub basso 
lapide concordante cum pavimento." 

Laurence Child, the next Bishop, a.d. 1390, directs, 
in like manner, his body to be interred " before the 
high altar, where the chaplain is wont to celebrate", — 
** ante Summum Altare, sub pedibus capellani ubi cele- 
brare solet." 

None of these, indeed, correspond exactly with the 

Eosition in which the stone was found ; but it may have 
een previously removed, as was the case with the 
effigy of a bishop which is now placed against the 
south-west pillar of the tower, within the south tran- 
sept ; but in 1 720 occupied the space south of the altar, 
and against the south wall. We should, therefore, sug- 
gest that it may have been the memorial of Bishop 
Spridlington, and that his second resting-place was 
close to the stall which he had occupied as Dean pre- 
vious to his elevation to the Bishop's throne. 

In the course of the same restoration a small silver 
coin, a half-groat of James I, was found, but not quita 
in the same place. It bears on the obverse a rose 
crowned, with the legend, i D. G. kosa. sine spina ; and 
on the reverse a thistle crowned, with tveatvr vnita 
DEVS, referring to the union of the two kingdoms. 

D. R T. 



LLANBADRIG. ANGLESEY: INCISED CROSS. 

I AM indebted to Mr. J. Lloyd Griffith for having sent 
some notes on this stone, and also the rubbings from 
which this illustration has been reduced to one-sixth 
actual size. The stone had been noticed some years 
ago by the Vicar, the Rev. P. Lloyd Kyffin, as lying 
then, in a horizontal posi- 
tion, against the inside wall 
at the west end of the 
church, and it was partly 
embedded in the plaster, 
the carved surface of the 
stone being uppermost. At 
the recent restoration of the 
church it was again placed 
against the west wall, in- 
side, but in an upright posi- 
tion, and with the carved 
surface facing eastward, the 
lower end being sunk an 
inch or two into the floor. 
The stone itself is not of a 
kind found in the locality, 
and its dimensions are : — 
height above the floor, 4 ft. 
Gins. ; width of carved face, 
12 ins.; depth from face to 
back, 11 ins. 

The design of the cross 
is unusual, and ill propor- 
tioned, and the workman- 
ship rude; and there are no 

traces of lettering upon it, nor is there anything to be 
seen on the sides or back. There is no notice of it in 
the account of Llanbadrig Church given in the volume 




LLANBADRIO, ANGLESEY: INCISED CROSS. 225 

for 1862 (3rd Series, vol. viii, p. 43), nor is it to be 
found in Professor Westwood s Lapidarium Wallice^ nor 
am I aware of any record of it elsewhere ; so that we 
have to thank Mr. Lloyd Griffith for having brought it 
first into notice. 

The design may be described as a cross within a circle 
(the cross being formed of two elongated ellipses inter- 
lacing each otner transversely, and nearly at right 
angles), with a stem probably intended as " budded" or 
" ragule", and having near its top a kind of tie or knot- 
pattern. The nearest approach that I have seen to 
this particular pattern is one on the Kilfountain Cross, 
figured in Brash's Ogham Inscribed Monuments of the 
Gaedhil (Plate xxx) ; but it is only a partial resem- 
blance, as that is much more elaborate and well pro- 
portioned. 

D. R. T. 



THE BUCKSTONE, NEAR MONMOUTH. 

We regret to have to record that this curiously poised 
stone has been thoughtlessly overthrown ; and though 
H.M. Commissioners of Woods and Forests propose to 
replace it in poRition, it will never be a rocking stone 
again. Its measurements were : extreme length about 
22 ft. ; on the top it was 19 ft. long by 13 ft. wide ; 
and about 53 ft. in circumference ; its height was 1 3 ft.; 
and its figure somewhat of an inverted oyramid poised 
on its apex, which was about 3 ft. in diameter where 
it touched the pedestal The sketch gives a good idea 
of its form and position. (See Archceologia Camhrensis^ 
1846, p. 377.) 

A correspondent in a local paper thus describes the 
method by which its restoration is intended to be 
effected : 

" Two cranes will be placed on the hill above where 
the stone originally stood, and two cranes on the lower 

6th 8AB., TOL. II. 15 



226 THE BnCKSTONE, NEAB MONHODTH. 

level. The chief mass weighs about forty tons, and lies 
from 20 to 30 ft. down the hill. The top slab (strata) 
has slipped oST, and fallen just bejond the stone, right 
side up, while the stone is upside down. The project- 
ing comer has been broken off, and is of a triangular 
shape, about 10 ft. wide, and lies but a short distance 
from its original position. The pivot upon which it 
rocked is still on the foundation, having slipped onlj 
ahout 2 ft. 10 ins. down the table-rock. 



" Chains for the four cranes will be first attached to 
the chief milss, which will then be 'skidded' up baulks 
of timber to a position near where the broken comer 
lies. The corner will be affixed by means of a special 
kind of concrete, in which glue and wax are used, the 
ordinary concrete being liable to burst in frosty weather. 
The stone and corner will then be bound with iron, 
which will, however, be removed when the concrete has 
set. While the latter process is going on, a key-stone 
will be let into the original base, which will then be 
placed in its original position. 

" In order to supply the place of pieces carried away 
by visitors, and sent to all parts of the kingdom, some 
rocks lying near, of exactly the same nature, will be 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 22 7 

ground up and mixed with concrete ; and this will be 
put into the vacancies, in accordance with photographs 
taken from different points, when the stone stood in its 
original form." 



MERIONETHSHIRE. 

We are indebted to a friend for the following transcript 
of a covenant relating to this county, made a.d. 1260, 
between Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffydd and Richard 
Bishop of Bangor,A.D. 123767. It relates to the bound- 
aries of certain lands in the neighbourhood of Towyn 
and Talyllyn, and the respective rights of the Prince 
and the Bishop. Talyllyn is a small village at the 
southern base of Cader Idris, and Botalog is , near the 
coast, a little south of Towyn ; but Lanwndaf is a name 
I am unable to identify. It is dated from Rhydyrarw, 
on the Thursday following the Feast of the Assumption 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

At the same place, on April 29th of the following 
year, another agreement was made between the same 
parties, also by Anian, Bishop of St. Asaph, and others 
as arbiters ; and this is printed in the Councils and 
Ecclesiastical Documents by Haddan and Stubbs (i, 
p. 489). The names of the arbiters are the same in each, 
and supplement one another ; but the names of the 
jurors are not given in the latter document, which is, 
moreover, of much wider scope than the one we now 
produce. 

On a future occasion we hope to print some more of 
these records, of which our correspondent remarks that 
"each subject in the book (MS.) is indicated by a 
drawing according to the fancy of the clerk. For in- 
stance, a Norway subject has a ship ; and Wales is 
always headed by a man with a long shock of hair, 
naked legs (except boot on one foot), and drawing a 
bow, or else with a spear and knife in his hands, and 

15« 



228 MERIONETHSHIRE. 

in one case butting with his head : the features in all 
instances exhibiting the sharpness which might have 
been considered by the London scribe the type of the 
Cambrian Celt." 

" Gonv&nXofda int* Bang' ep'm et Lewelinu* de f minis asng- 
nandis inV quasdam Vras p^ p'uisione* Sni A, Assaph' 
ep*i. 

"Hec est forma componis fte apd Eydarani^ Anno dni 
x®.cc.lx. p*mo die Jouis px' post fifi assupconis beate marie* Inter 
Dnm E. Bang Epm et Captm ex una pte et dnm Lewelinu filiu 
Griffini ex aHa sup ?minis assignadis apd Tallyllynn et in? Lan- 
wndaf et Botelauc p puisione diii A. Assaph' Epi fris Ade Pri- 
ons et ffis I. Lector pdici Bang' leruaS et fhaeru fratru minor 
de Lamaes* et Dnor Goroii et Tudry filiof EdH pv'^ Enn fit ker- 
radauc pacis reformator' in? dcas ptes videlicet qd dfis Bang ex 
puisione dcof virof ratam habet assignacdn termini apd Tally- 
llynn fcam a dno L. epo et eius pJsentibj Item qd sue dca de 
dco ?mino amoto sic misericordia dm L. et volutate. De ?mino 
aut' assigna int Lamundaf et Botelauc sic fuit puisu etc qd in 
q'ndena a festo dci Michis pxio futuri debent couenire Dauid 
Goch fit Ky wuerch . Goron fit Gviann . Elidyr fil Edn . Lewelin 
heylyn Adaf fit ynyr. Kadugann Junior mad Lywarch fit Ka- 
dug Ky wwth . lorweth Wydel . lorwth Coch fit heylyn . Madauc 
vychan . Mared fit Lewelyn . Kynwric Wydel . sup ?ram vbi est 
contecio de ?mino et tuc ipi iurati et gb excone in eof veredco 
assignabut Aminos in? dcas villas scdm qd ipsi vidernt ?minu vsi- 
tatii t' p's Lewelin bone me' et dm Bangor et suof accessor et ere- 
dnt ef vef si autem dici viri dix'int ?minu usc^ ad locu vbi 
dc ?miii amo? et ad que holes Epi fuernt citati vindca tarn de 
?mino amoto qm de cotumacia erit dno L. Si aut* dci viri assig- 
nauint tminu ul? pdcm locu sup Epm vindca solu de ?mino amoto 
erit domino L. Si dci viri assignauint sup pace dm L. et appba- 

^ Rbydyrarw. Can any of our readers identify this spot ? 

^ The Feast of the Assumption falls on the 15th of August. 

^ Prior Adam and Brother leuaf were of the Friars Preachers in 
Bangor. 

* Gervase and Trahaearn were of the Friars Minors of Llanfaes. 

^ Sirs Goronw and Tndyr, sons of Ednyfed Vychan (parvi). Sir 
Tudur ap Ednyfed was one of the commissioners for the conclusion 
of peace between Edward I and Llewelyn, and from him were de* 
scended the Ghriffiths of Penrhyn. Sir Tudor was bnried in the 
Priory, Bangor, which he had himself built. Another brother was 
Howel, who became Bishop of St. Asaph in 1285. 



OBITUARY. 229 

uint {minu Epi capiat vindcam ab hominib; suis qui ei solum 

suggesseriit. Si autem aliq' de pdicis epi de viris dcis die 

et loco no poHnt inJesse et necessaria ca tuc p puisione Goroil 
fit Eda et EuH pm et Em? fit Karad loco absenem in piculu an- 
imaf suaf elegant alii viri honesti. In cui^ rei tes^m pti hui^ 

scpti penes dam L. remaS remaneti a5d dKm Epm et 

sud Captm sigilhn dni L. est appensum. Dat anno die et loco 
sup^dcis." 



©bituars. 

Sir Watkin Williams- Wynn, Babt., M.P., President. 

For the first time in its histoiy, the Cambrian Archeological Asso- 
ciation has been deprived by aeath of its President daring his year 
of office. The late Sir Watkin Williams- Wynn was twice chosen 
to be our President : the first time iu 1874, when the Annual Meet- 
ing was held at Wrexham ; and again in 1884, when the Associa- 
tion met at Bala. 

Sir Watkin, though he did not devote himself in any especial 
manner to arch»ological research, still took a lively interest in 
Welsh antiquities and in the proceedings of local antiquarian soci- 
eties. Although at the time in infirm health, he attended the Bala 
Meeting last year. His death, on the 9th of May this year, was 
monmed throughout the whole of Wales, and by that event our 
Association lost a most honoured member. 

Sir Watkin was born May 22, 1820, and succeeded, as sixth 
Baronet, his father, who died Jan. 6, 1840. On April 28, 1852, he 
married his cousin, Marie Emily Williams- Wynn, third daughter of 
the Right Hon. Sir Henry Watkin Williams- Wynn, G.C.H., K.C.B., 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of 
Denmark. The issue of this marriage was two daughters, Louise 
Alexandra, bom Dec. 21st, 1864, who married, Aug. 26th, last 
year, her cousin, Mr. Williams- Wynn, the present Baronet; and 
Marie Nest^ who was bom Oct. 23, 1868, and died Jan. 26th, 1883. 

Sir Watkin sat in Parliament as Knight of the Shire for the 
county of Denbigh unintermptedly from the year 1841 to the time 
of his death, — a position, he said, which '* had been, for more than 
a century and a half, the most prized distinction of his family*'. He 
applied himself heartily to the manifold duties of a great landed 
proprietor and the pursuits of a country gentleman. He had the 
keenest love of sport ; for more than forty years hunted the Wynn- 
stay hounds, and as a master of fox-hounds was never, perhaps, 
excelled. In 1852 he was appointed Provincial Grand Master of 
the Freemasons of North Wales and Shropshire. Among the offices 
held by him were those of Deputy-Lieutenant and Justice of the 



230 GORK£SPONDENC£. 

Peace for the coanties of Denbigh, Merioneth, Montgomery, and 
Salop, and Aide-de-Gamp to the Qaeen. 

Sir Watkin in every way worthily fulfilled the traditions of the 
great position he inherited. The most striking proofs of his nniqae 
popularity were displayed during his lifetime, whenever a fitting 
opportunity presented itself, and culminated in the public rejoicings 
upon the happy occasion of the marriage of his elder and surviving 
daughter. Not less remarkable were the manifestations of sorrow 
last May at the tidings of his death, and upon the day when the 
remains of the " Prince in Wales" were laid to rest in the quiet 
churchyard of Llangedwyn. 



Corre£(ponlience. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE ABGHiEOLOGU CAMBRENSIS. 



AN ORIGINAL LETTER OF EDWARD RICHARD. 

Sir, — The following characteristic letter of Edward Richard of 
Ystrad Meurig, is one of several original letters in the possession of 
the Rev. J. W. Kirkham, Llanbrynmair, who has kindly permitted 
me to transcribe and publish them. They formerly belonged, toge* 
ther with others from Richard Morris and Lewis Morris, to the late 
Rev. John Black well {Alun), and from him they came to his nephew, 
Mr. Kirkham's hands. This one now appears in print for the first 
time, so far as I have been able to ascertain. 

Newtown. Yours faithfully, R Williams. 

From Mr. Edward Richard to Mr, Lewis Morris, 

" Ystradmeuryg, 3rd Aug. '62 [1762]. 

" Dear Sir, — Had Apollo kept the reins in his own hands, the 
giddy Phaethon had never set the world on fire. Had you not made 
me a compliment of your chair at Kadair Idris, the poor pedagogue 
had been content to make his exit in obscurity, nor would have 
presumed to peep out of his humble cot to be pointed at for his 
contemptible figure, — a Dryden's head in the helmet of Virgil. Bat 
set a beggar on horseback, and he will ride. A word or two, there- 
fore, by the authority of my chair, in answer to your last, and I 
have done for ever and for ever. ^Expleho numerum^ reddarque tene* 
hris.* (Virg.) 

" You are the first that ever charged the author of Bardd Ciosc 
with stifiness. Everybody knows that even his prose is harmonious 
and poetical. 'Tis true I blamed him for his incorrect versification. 
^Nempe incomposito dixi pede currere versus Lucili.^ (Hor.) What 
Horace in another place says of Lucilius, may very justly be applied 



CORRESPONDENCE. 231 

to El. Wynne, ^piger scrihendi ferre laborem, scribende rede, metuitqtLe 
lituram. But I would not have an ordinary critick, and of mj class, 
attack his Odes at the close of Owel. y Byd and Owel. Uffern, lest 
*framli quoBrens iUidere dentem offendat solido.* (Hor.) 

'* xoor argument in defence of ' Y Daran fawr a deifl ei BolU, I 
laenio 'n hoU Elynion' is altogether unworthy of my learned friend 
Mr. Morris. It may pass upon myself and a few old women besides, 
but * parcvM ista viri8\ (Yirg.) Boll, should we so pronounce the 
word, must still be one syllable ; and Bollt can be no more ; and the 
accent being upon the last letter, t, it cannot properly be taken off. 
But admitting it transferred to the beginning of the next verse, it 
would serve to no manner of purpose, for I defy Corelli, and even 
Apollo himself, to carry the sound of it to Holl ; and if they did, it 
would never make a ' Cynghanedd gudd* (you mean an * Odl gudd'), 
but in spite of tbem both must still be and remain a ' Twyll odl*; 
for ' Odl gudd', or an occult rhyme, is neither improper nor unna- 
tural, though it appear not in the usual place ; e.^., ' Nid af i Lan- 
daf am nad wy Zawen. Mae Lewis heb ddim hivyU (Yid. Dr. D., 
Orammar de RhythmU.) You may see several instances in our 
Psalms by the Archdeacon, and, to be so vain as to quote something 
of my own, in the following : * Ni ddes i'n awr T anwylyd Ion. 
D^llwch oncT, eta Hvoyl and ond can never rhyme to wy and Ion; 
but as the latter rest upon and are pronounced with the L and i>, 
the initial letters of the next succeeding words, Lawen and Deallwch, 
and this makes the *' Odl gudd', which can never be found in Bollt 
and Holly unless the word immediately following the latter begins 
with a t. 

'* Some resemblance of an ' Odl gudd' may now and then be met 
-with in the Oreek and Latin poets. I shall just mention one out of 
Virgil, * occulta 9polia\ The letter a in occvlta is short ; and the 
semipede would be lame, but that it is borne up by the two conso- 
nants 9, p, in the next word, spolia ; so that the foot may be read 
and scanned thus, occult, aspolta. Thus, to speak in the language 
of grammarians, a dactyl is made out of the tribrachys. But ' Turpe 
est difficUes habere nugas.* (Mart.) *Hic cestns artemq' repono\ 

(Virg.) 

** Ood Almighty send you health, and grant us all understanding 
to embrace the doctrine of our holy religion ! Usher, Lock, and 
Newton had more knowledge, worth, and learning than perhaps any 
three besides that ever yet were born ; but for their salvation they 
depended entirely upon the merits of our Blessed Redeemer, look- 
ing upon their own as nothing ; and taught the world, by precept 
and example, that faith unlocks the gates of happiness. 

*' I am, dear Sir, yours sincerely, 

*' Edwabd Richard. 

"The bov you sent mo is, I apprehend, a little top-heavy. Be 
wants to take a nap upon Parnassus, which may clear his intellectual 
faculties, * ex quovis ligno nonfit Mercurius,* 



232 CORRESPONDENCE. 

** I intended to have finished this yesterday ; bat Dewy fardd, 
attended by the nine Mases, flashing npou me unawares, strnck me 
blind, and I oonld not proceed." 

Endorsed ** To Lewis Morris, Esq., Penrhyn." 



KYFFIN OF MAENAN. 

Sib, — The pedigree of the family of Kyffin of Maenan Hall, which 
incidentally came into my article upon Oswestry, is extremely con- 
fused in the latter part. The main body of the pedigree, down 
'to William and Catherine of Maenan and their issae, is taken £rom 
Harleian MS. No. 1,977, parts of which are very difficult to de- 
cipher. There seems no doubt of its general correctness, as it is 
supported by other pedigrees ; e.g.j I find in my large pedigree of 
our Tribe that Winefred, the sister of Thomas Evans of Northop, 
who was Sheriff of Flint in 1624, did marry " Edward Kiffin of 
Mainan". Upon referring again to the MS., I find that the name 
of the eldest son of the above William and Elatherine, which is 
printed " Roger" (and which in the original is both very badly writ- 
ten, and also indistinct), may and oaght to be read Richard ; and 
in my published pedigree the line should have come from him, with 
the words '* a quo", etc. 

My thanks are due to my friend, H. W. Lloyd, Esq., of Kensing- 
ton, for information lately received, by which the pedigree seems 
able to be satisfactorily completed, and which is derived from tab- 
lets at Llanddoget, etc. It is as follows : 

William £yffin of Maenan Hall 

=Katherine, d. and coh. of Boger Davies of Erlys 



Bicbard of Maenan Hall Jane Anne 

=== Jane, d. of Sir Richard Price of Gilar 

I 

Thomas, Attorney-General for Anglesey, Carnarvon, and Ellen ob. 22 Dec. 

Merioneth, ob, 20 June 1745, at, 67 1688 

^"Elen, d. of Owen Roberts of Caerau, co. Anglesey, ob, 20 Nov. 1739, 0t 65 



i 



homas Kyffin, who put up a tablet to his parents in 1752 
=f Elizabeth, d. of ...» 

Sir Thomas Kyffin, bom 1739, ob, 7 June X784 

=j= Elizabeth, only d, and heiress of Hugh Hughes ot Coedy brain, oo. FUnt, 
I Esq. 

Seven daughters, of whom four only survived, and three marriedi as before. 

Yours faithfully, H. F. J. Vaughan. 

Humphreston Hall, Salop, 1885. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 233 



iEiscellaneous Notices. 

Bonb-Gayes at Tremeibchion and Llandudno, N. Wales. — Cefn 
Caves, near St. Asaph, have for many years been visited by hun- 
dreds of tourists every season ; and at Plas Heaton there is also a 
smaller bat mach less known cave, from which similar animal 
remains have been dug ; and now at Tremeirchion two new caves 
have been opened up, which promise to become in future formidable 
rivals to Ceth in this particular. Dr. Hicks, President of the Boyal 
Geological Society, has been making explorations of the two caves 
in the rear of Ffynnon Benno, by which name one of the caves will 
be known. This cave is situate on the estate of Mr. P. P. Pennant ; 
and the other, Cae Owyn, although close by, is on property owned 
by Mr. Edwin Morgan. 

When Dr. Hicks discovered the caves, in August 1883, it might 
&irly be said that the event was accidental, at any rate in its 
results ; for although Dr. Hicks supposed there was a g^at likeli- 
hood of finding some such caves in this ravine, he did not anticipate 
the results which have rewarded his labour. The owner of the 
laud o£fering no objection to the operations, a grant was made by 
the Boyal Society, out of which a body of labourers have been em- 
ployed under the supervision of Dr. Hicks. The caves penetrate to 
a good distance from, the mouth, and they have not been particu- 
larly difficult to work. The first substance encountered was a stalag- 
mite floor covered with limestone ; and beyond this a large variety 
of bones, including those of the mammoth and rhinoceros, some of 
which were embedded in the underside of the stalagmite. A few 
yards from the entrance was a quantity of charcoal, which, from its 
position, Dr. Hicks said was the remains of a fire made by primi- 
tive man for the purpose of cooking his food. The cave has been 
open, to the extent of a few yards, for generations, and was utilised 
as a cattle-shed ; but most of the inhabitants of the district were 
ignorant of the existence of the larger tunnels beyond. The mouth 
of the cave is 280 feet above sea-level, and 42 feet above the stream 
rauning along the valley. The Cae Gwyn Cave is 20 feet above the 
other, and it is supposed they will be found to communicate. 

Along with some remains of the reindeer a flint implement has 
been discovered. This implement is described by Mr. John Evans, 
F.R.S., as a scraper, bearing similar evidences of wear to those 
found in La Madeleine, a reindeer-cave in France. The matrix in 
which it was discovered was similar to that which encased the 
mammalian remains. A quantity of sand is found in the cavities of 
the bones. Dr. Hicks also shows a piece of granite which had evi- 
dently been brought down from Scotland by glaciers. The quantity 
of remains of scientific and general interest discovered has been 
large. The bones have been cleaned and coated with a prepara- 
tion to prevent their decaying. They will be sent to the British 
Museum for the authorities to make a selection, after which, what 



234 MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 

remains will be distribated amongst the local societies. The 
classification of the bones will be no light task, as, in addition to 
the large quantity to deal with, thej include remains of both herba- 
ceous animals and beasts of prey. With regard to these latter, 
Dr. Hicks points out the interesting fact that the shoulder and the 
other hard portions of bones had been rejected, whilst shins and 
other parts offering no more serious obstacle to mastication had 
been devoured. 

Llandudno. — We copy the following from the current number of 
The Geological Ma^azine^ in which the Bev. Canon W. Ingram, F.G.S., 
writes: — *'A cave in the south escarpment of the Great Orme's 
Head has been in gp^ual process of exploration by a person named 
Kendrick. In its silt and breccia he has discovered fragments of 
human skeletons, indicating by their dimensions that the indivi- 
duals to whom they belonged were about 5 feet 6 inches in height. 
Some of their tibiae are still to be seen embedded in situ. There has 
also been found a considerable quantity of swine's teeth, each 
marked on the fang with from four to six transverse lines, and per- 
forated at the extremity vnth a hole, through which ran probably a 
tendon of a reindeer, or some other ligament, stringing tbem toge- 
ther as a necklace. There is a similar one, composed of human 
teeth, in the Christie collection in the British Museum, worn by the 
inhabitants of the Solomon Islands. Fron^ the same cave-deposit 
there have been extracted several bears' teeth with a hole in each of 
them for their suspension as earrings ; and two lower equine jaws 
with the enamel of the four incisors highly polished, and with zig- 
zag marks on the surface of the maxillary bone. These were pro- 
bably hung also from the necks of the cave-men as ornaments. The 
whole cavern, or a portion of it, has been considered to have formed 
a banal-place for some Iberian tribe ; but the careless and irreve- 
rent manner in which the dead in it appear to have been disposed 
of seems to indicate that it might have been the habitation of a race 
of cave-men akin to the Eskimos, whom Professor Boyd Dawkins, 
in his Early Man in Britain^ describes as so indifferent to the sepul- 
ture of their deceased relatives, that they sometimes cover up their 
bodies with snow, and leave them to be eaten by dogs or foxes. 
The cave, which contains a natural reservoir of water, has only been 
partially excavated, and further researches seem most desirable, as 
they might lead to the finding of very important relics of its ori- 
ginal inhabitants, as well as settle any doubts which may have 
arisen as to the accuracy of the present explorer's statement, on 
which the truth of the discovery of the above mentioned remains in 
that particular cave rests." 

A Saxon House at Dbebhurst, near Tewkesbury. — We shall be 
pardoned for copying the following description from a notice by the 
Vicar, the Kev. G. Butterworth, in a recent issue of The Ouardian : 
" It was always known that a portion of a farmhouse called Abbot's 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES. 235 

Court, belonging for centnriesi first to the Abbey, and Babseqnentlj 
to the Chapter of Westminster, was of considerable antiquity ; bat 
there was nothing on the surface to determine its age. Within the 
last few days, howeyer, it has been sabjected to careful examination, 
and features hidden for ages have been brought to light. The ori- 
ginal house was small, 80 feet long on the inside, with walls 2^ feet 
thick. Its four external walls are perfect. In one of the end walls 
is inserted a large round-headed archway having very solid jambs 
and imposts. A smaller archway is found in the wall forming the 
front of the house. Both these archways tend slightly to the horse- 
shoe form ; that is to si^, the centre of the semicircular head is 
rather above the spring of the arch. The house must always have 
had an upper storey ; and in this there is now to be seen a ronnd- 
headed window splayed both inside and outside. The reason for 
assigning so very early a date to an existing dwelling-house is the 
following. Its rude and very peculiar architecture follows closely 
that of Deerhurst Church, which is within a stone's throw of it. 
Now there is good evidence to show that the church was built in 
the year 1056. The late Mr. Parker entitled it ' the oldest dated 
chnrch in England*. Just about the time given above, Edward the 
Confessor gave the large Deerhurst manor, including the estate on 
which Abbot's Conrt stands, to his new Abbey of St. Peter's, West- 
minster. Abbot's Court may have been erected at the actual time 
of the donation. It is singukir that close to this very ancient house 
there should be standing another also of remarkable antiquity. This 
is Deerhnrst Priory, which was a religious house dating from the 
eighth centnry, and belonged to the Abbey of St. Denis, near Paris. 
A portion of its buildings still exist, and they show a Norman 
column in the cellar of the inhabited house." 



The parish church of Llansawel, Carmarthenshire, which dates 
from the thirteenth century, is to be restored as soon as our Secre- 
tary for Carmarthenshire, the Rev. Ch. Chidlow, can succeed in 
collecting the necessary funds, viz. £1,000. About £300 are ntill 
wanting. The Easter sepulchre, hagioscopes, and other features of 
interest, will be carefully preserved; and the only resident land- 
owner will restore the chancel, and build a vestry, at his own cost. 
The parish is very extensive, above 10,000 acres, and is held with 
the still larger one of Caio, or Conwil Caio (famous once for its 
Roman gold mines), which has 22,710 acres ; and both together are 
about eighteen miles long by nine miles broad. Their united value 
is under j£240 per ann. 



All Saints, Hbbbfobd. — The members of the Cambrian ArchsBo- 
logical Association will be pleased to know that the work of restora- 
tion of the spire of All Saints Chnrch, Hereford, has progressed 
most satisfactorily under the untiring energy of the zealous Vicar, 
the Rev. Frank Woods. The rolls or rib-courses at each corner of 



236 REVIEWS, 

the spire have been completely restored up the fall height, which 
has been done at a cost of between £1,800 and £1,400. It has 
been farther resolved to restore the lights or windows at the foot of 
the spire, which will entail an additional outlay of about iB350. 
This work the Church Committee thought desirable to have done 
while the scaffolding exists, as it would involye a much larger ex- 
penditure at a future period. There is still a deficiency of about 
£600 to complete the whole of the intended restoration of this 
noble spire, which ranks amongst the highest in the kingdom ; and 
if any of our members who feel interested in the preservation of our 
national monuments, and more particularly the ecclesiastical anti- 
quities of our old parochial churches, would feel disposed to assist, 
subscriptions towards the restoration- fund will be very thankfully 
received by the Vicar, the Rev. Frank Woods, All Saints' Vicarage, 
Hereford. 



Medieval Military Architecture in England. By Oeo. T. Clark. 
2 vols., 8vo., with Illustrations. London : Wyman and Sons. 
1884. 

6t *' collecting together, and reprinting as one work*', the different 
Articles upon the subject of Mediceval Military Architecture which 
he has contributed to various journals daring the last fifty years, 
from that on Caerphilly Castle, drawn up in 1884, down to the pre- 
sent day, Mr. Clark has conferred a lasting boon not only on arch®- 
ologists in particalar, by the completeness and lucidity with which 
he has described the architectural features of some of the principal 
castles of England, and a few typical ones of Scotland and France, 
but on the public in general, by the historical interest and by the 
social and political significance with which he has clothed their 
story. While some parts of the country are peculiarly rich in these 
memorials of the great past, and none are altogether devoid of 
them, Mr. Clark has put it within the power of all to trace out their 
details with intelligence, and to realise more vividly the stirring 
scenes and movements of which they formed so large a part. And 
jast as the student of botany learns to see fresh beauties in the 
wayside flower, and the geologist to read a revelation of the long 
past in the common pebble at his feet, so may the student of medi- 
aeval military architecture learn to identify the earthwork and the 
moated mound, the timber castle and the fortress of stone, each 
with its own nationality or special type of warfare, and to mark the 
changes, political and social, which they respectively indicate. 

Mr. Clark now presents his collected essays under two general 
divisions. Under the first he has traced out, in twelve chapters, 
the characteristic features which have marked the growth of mili- 
tary architecture from the simple earthwork to the elaborately forti- 
fied mediaeval castle supporting his conclusions with a wealth of 



REVIEWS. 237 

illastration such as half a centniy of skilled ezperienoe only could 
snpplj. In the second he has described in detail no fewer than one 
hundred and two iniportant or typical castles, which he has further 
enriched, in almost every instance, with the invaluable aids of a 
gpround-plan, section, or general view. Some of these descriptions 
have appeared in our Journal, such as those of Blaenllyfni, Bron- 
llys, Caerphilly, Cardiff, Castell Coch, Crickhowel, Ewias Harold, 
Harlech, Kidwelly, Ludlow, Tretower, Whittington, and others; 
and those who have studied these will be glad to know that among 
others contained in the present volume may be enumerated Beau- 
maris, Carnarvon, Conway, Ha warden, and Montgomery, within the 
immediate province of our own range. We miss, indeed, the vivid 
description of the remarkable castles of Pembrokeshire and Mon- 
mouthshire in the second part ; but they are all touched upon more 
or less fully in the earlier chapters; and perhaps we cannot do 
better, in view of our Meeting at Newport, than quote the concise 
enumeration of the castles of Monmouthshire. 

'* Monmouthshire, though exposed to occasional inbreaks, was, 
in the eleventh century, and especially after Harold's Welsh war 
of 1063, as completely a part of England as Hereford or the con- 
tiguous parts of Gloucester. Its western border was the Rhymny ; 
but by much its more important part lay between two very 
deep and rapid rivers, the Wye and the TTsk, and upon each were 
posted formidable castles ; those of Monmouth and Chepstow upon 
the one river, and those of Newport, Usk, and Abergavenny, 
upon the other. Chepstow is placed upon a cliff on the western or 
right bank of the river, evidently (like Newport) intended as a tite 
du poni^ to cover the passage of troops, the river not being there 
fordable. As the name imports, the settlement is of English origin, 
its Domesday designation, ' Estrighoil' (corrupted into * Striguil') is 
Welsh. The CasUe is divided from the town by a deep ravine, and 
is altogether outside the wall, which was unusual. The keep, of 
Norman masonry, may be the work of William Fitz Osborne, Earl 
of Hereford ; or, at latest, of Roger de Britolio, his son and succes- 
sor. As early as in the reign of Henry I, Chepstow had come into 
the possession of the De Clares of the Strongbow line, often called 
Earls of Striguil. Its possession enabled the Mareschals, successors 
to the De Clares, to hold their earldom against Henry III. 

** Monmouth Castle occupied the top of a promontory of rock 
between the Wye and the Monnow, and was long held by a line of 
border barons, to whom it gave a name. 

" Upon the Usk, the old Castle of Newport has long been re- 
placed by a later structure ; but parts of Usk Castle, some miles 
higher up, are old ; and Abergavenny, which descended from De 
Braose, through Cantelupe and Hastings, to the Nevilles, is still 
held by the chief of that family, though little remains of it save the 
original mound. It was at Abergavenny Castle that William de 
Braose slaughtered, in 1175, a number of unarmed Welshmen, in 
revenge for the murder of his uncle, Henry of Hereford. Caerleon, 



238 REVIEWS. 

between Newport and TTsk, tbongli foanded by a Norman upon an 
earlier English site connected with very celebrated £U)man remains, 
was the heritage of a Welsh family, and continued long in their 
occupation. Between the Usk and the Wye, the ground, in itself 
strong, was strongly occupied. 

" Upon the Monnow were placed Scenfrith and G-rosmont, which, 
with White Castle, formed the famous trilateral so important in the 
war between Henry III and the Earl of Pembroke. The keep of 
Scenfrith is a round tower of early date, placed within a right-lined 
enclosure. Though small, it was very strong, and its remains are 
tolerably perfect. Grosmont, also of early date, is somewhat larger, 
and its remains are also considerable. ' White Castle is an enormous 
shell of lofty walls and mural towers, placed within a most formid- 
able ditch, beyond which are very extensive outworks both of 
masonry and earth. It stands very high, and commands a most 
extensive view, and its defences are wholly artificial. 

''All these three castles are reported to have been originally 
Welsh seats ; but their earthworks have an English aspect They 
were obviously intended for the general defence of the country, and 
as usual were always in the hands of the great lords or of the 
Crown. There were, besides, several smaller castles or fortified 
houses, the centre of private estates. Of these were the castles bor- 
dering the Chase of Wentwood ; Dinham, long since a ruin ; Pen- 
how, the cradle of the house of Seymour; Pencoed, which still 
retains some early masonry ; Llan&.ir, built by the Pain or Pagan 
family ; and Castroggy, where is seen a part of the hall and some 
other masonry. Upon the Ebbw, west of Newport, stood the small 
castles of Greenfield and Boyeston ; and at Castleton is a monnd 
said at one time to have been accompanied by masonry. On the 
hill above Ruperra is a very large and very perfect moated mound, 
but without any trace or tradition of masonry. Llangibby is an old 
Monmouthshire castle." 

After a similar enumeration of the Pembrokeshire castles, Mr. 
Clark adds the important distinction that '' probably there are many 
other castellets and fortified houses in the northern and more ex- 
posed half of the county, the sites of which are confounded with the 
earlier raths and circular earthworks of a period preceding the Nor- 
man conquest" The term "rath", he tells us, and the pattern of 
the fortification also, are probably imported from Ireland, where a 
circular bank and ditch surrounded the dwelling-place of almost 
every landed proprietor ; differing from that in use in England and 
Normandy by the absence of the mound. In contradistinction to 
these were the " burhs" or moated mounds, which had " a table-top, 
and a base-court (also moated) either appended to one side of it> or 
within which it stood ; which are to be attributed to the ninth and 
tenth, and possibly to the eighth centuries, and to the English 
people, — that is, to the northern settlers generally as distinguished 
from the Britons and the Romans" (p. 23). 

'' The British encampments intended for the residence of a tribe 



REVIEWS. 239 

baying all things in common, were both in position and arrange* 
ments utterly nnsnited to the new inhabitants. The Roman stations, 
intended for garrisons, save where they formed part of an existing 
city, were scarcely less so. Nor were the earlier works of the North- 
men soited to their later wants. These were mostly of a hasty 
character, thrown np to cover a landing, or to hold at bay a sope- 
rior force. No sooner had the strangers g^ned a pernmnent footing 
in a district than their operations assumed a different character. 
Their ideas were not, like those of the Romans, of an imperial 
character ; they laid ont no great lines of road, took at first no pre- 
cautions for the general defence or administration of the country. 
Self-government prevailed. Each family held and gave name to its 
spedieJ allotment. This is the key to the plan of the later and 
great majority of the purely English earthworka They were not 
intended for the defence of a tribe or a territory, nor for the accom- 
modation of fighting men, but for the centre and defence of a private 
estate ; for the acconmiodation of the lord and his household ; for 
the protection of his tenants generally, should tliey be attacked ; 
and for the safe housing, in time of war, of their flocks and herds" 
(p. 16). 

Again, " In viewing one of these moated mounds we have only 
to imagine a central timber-house on the top of the mound, built of 
half tronks of trees set upright between two waling pieces at the 
top and bottom, like the old church at Oreensted, with a close 
paling around it along the edge of the table- top ; perhaps a second 
line at its base, and a third along the outer edge of the ditch ; and 
others, not so strong, upon the edges -of the outer courts, with 
bridges of planks across the ditches, and belts of * wattle and dab' 
or of timber within the enclosures ; and we shall have a very fair 
idea of a fortified dwelling of a thane or franklin in England, or of 
the corresponding classes in Normandy, from the eighth or ninth 
centuries down to the date of the Norman conquest." 

" The existence of these mounds in distinctly Welsh territory'*, 
Mr. Clark accounts for by their immediate neighbourhood, in some 
instances, to the English borders ; and by the influence, in others, 
of intermarriage and intercommunication with the English. 

These extracts, though long, are so helpful to the understanding 
of remains to be met with in so many directions, that we make no 
apology for their length. They are taken from Chapter ii, "On 
Earthworks of the Post-Roman and English Periods." The subjects 
of the remaining chapters will give a good idea of the matter and 
order of the earlier division of the book : in, '' Of the Castles of 
England at the Conquest and under the Conqueror"; iv, " Of the 
Political Value of Castles under the Successors of the Conqueror"; 

V, "The Political Influence of Castles in the Reign of Henry II"; 

VI, VII, VIII, "The Castles of England and Wales at the latter Part 
of the Twelfth Century"; ix, " The Rectangular Keep of a Norman 
CasUe"; x, " Of the Shell-Keep"; xi, " Castles of the Early English 
Period"; xii, " Of the Edwardian or Concentric Castles". 



240 REVIEWS. 

Of these last we will only add that whilst North Wales supplies 
the finest specimens of Edwardian castles in those of Conway, Car- 
narvon, Beaamaris, and Harlech, the earliest and the most oomplete 
example, in Britain, of a concentric castle is to be fonnd in Caer- 
philly in South Wales. 

The Bey. Elias Owen, M.A., in the second Part of his Old Stone 
Crosses of Hie Vale of Glwyd^ continues the same full and interesting 
descriptions which we noticed in Part I. All kinds of subsidiary 
information, legendary, pictorial, and historical, are pressed into 
use, so as to give not only facts and traditions, but also the reasons 
for them ; as, for instance, in the case of the *' Cerrig dioddefaint", 
or stones of penance (p. 113), and the sale of wares and merchan- 
dise in churchyards, as noticed under Llangernyw (p. 126) ; and 
the porch of Llangar (p. 125) ; and he might have added, in this 
connection, the row of stone benches around the neighbouring 
churchyard of Llandrillo in Edeimion. 

It seems strange that penance in a white sheet should have been 
performed so recently as 1817. The custom of communicants com- 
ing up to the chancel at the invitation, " Draw near with faith" 
(p. 98), noticed under Llanasa, prevailed also, at least until recently, 
in the adjoining parish of Caerwys. Perhaps we may detect in the 
regulations about burying in churches, the true distinction between 
" corphlan" and " mynwent", as implying respectively the interior 
and exterior spaces. 

Mr. Owen may be glad to know that there is at least " one exter- 
nal cross in the diocese of St. Asaph'*, namely at the east-south-east 
angle of Meifod Church, about 4 feet from the ground, and closely 
resembling in size and form the one depicted at Llangwyfan (p. 94>). 
Many curious old customs find a place in this book ; but one of 
the strangest is that which once prevailed at Kerry, in Montgomery- 
shire, where " Dr. Thirlwall, the late Bishop of St. David's, found 
an official whose duty it was to perambulate the church during ser- 
vice with a bell, to awaken sleepers" (p. 109). By the way, we 
notice an odd mistake in the rendering of " placita secularia*' aa 
*' secular amusements" (pp. 123, 124). Of course it should be *' secu- 
lar pleas" as opposed to ecclesiastical ; and the word bears witness 
to many a controversy between the clerics and laics of days gone 
by, — a notable instance of which we have in the complaints of Bishop 
Anian of St. Asaph against the officers of Prince Llewelyn, that 
they had presumed to hold their courts within the churches. 

We can recommend this second Part also with the same satisfac- 
tion as we were able to express over the first instalment. 



EERATA. 

P. 88, eighth line from bottom, for " Fick corrects with Sana", read 
" Fick connects with Bans." 

P. 206, fourth line from bottom, instead of " occupied by the present 
door*', read ** usually occupied by the priest's door". 



Jtrckwltfjgia €nmhumh. 



FIFTH SEBIES.— VOL. II, NO. VIII. 



OCTOBER 1885. 



ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE LAND 

OF GWENT. 

(Read cU the Annual Meeting at Newport.) 

The Meeting of the Cambrian Arch geological Associa- 
tion at Newport naturally suggests an inquiry into 
what may have been the early history of the district 
visited, what its natural features and its position as 
regards the counties which adjoin it, and what remains 
of the past there are to aid in elucidating its history. 

Although constituted a county, and annexed to Eng- 
land by a statutory provision, the history, position, and 
place-names of Monmouthshire remind us that it was 
part of Wales, and that it is still more connected with 
the Principality of Wales than with England. Before 
an endeavour is made to give a sketch of the early 
history of the land of Gwent, it is necessary to make 
a few introductory remarks as to the earlier inhabit- 
ants of this island, and the means of information which 
have enabled those who have given their attention to 
the subject, to arrive at a conclusion who they were. 

It is a matter of common agreement that the Celtic 
tribes whom Caesar found, on his arrival, in possession 
of Britain, were not the original inhabitants, but in- 
vaders who, at a then remote period, had either dis- 
placed, or incorporated with themselves, the original 

5th bbr., vol. II. 16 



242 ON THE EARLY HISTORY 

inhabitants. The researches of the Bishop of St. David s* 
and of tke learned Professor of Celtic^ at Oxford have 
led to a belief that these invaders were of Celtic origin, 
and consisted of two groups of people with marked lin- 
guistic features, who at a considerable interval of time 
crossed over in succession to Britain ; the earlier known 
to us as the Gael, but to themselves as Gwyddel or 
Goidel, the ancestors of the people who speak Gaelic 
in Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Highlands of Scot- 
land ; and the later group, the Bretons or Brythons, 
who came over from Gaul some centuries, probably, 
later, and gradually dispossessing the Gael or Gwyddel, 
drove them back to the northern and western parts 
of the island ; bringing about as a result, in course of 
time, the gradual absorption of the Goidelic dialect in 
the Brythonic or Welsh language, and the incorpora- 
tion of both groups as one Brythonic people. 

Many years have now passed since the Bishop of 
St. David's in an able paper traced the presence of the 
Gwyddel in various parts of Wales in the names of 
places. Recently, Professor Rhys, bringing the clear 
perception of a scholar to a critical knowledge of Gaelic, 
and comparing it with his native tongue, has been able 
to arrive at the conclusion that the authors of the 
Roman-British epitaphs in Latin, or in the Ogham 
character, on inscribed stones, estimated, in point of 
date, to range from the fifth to the seventh cen- 
tury, spoke a Goidelic language, which continued to 
exist in parts of Wales to the end of the seventh cen- 
tury. It will be unnecessary to mention the different 
localities in Wales where these inscribed stones occur. 
It may suffice to say that in South Wales they form 
two groups, — an eastern one, around a line drawn from 
Brecon to Neath, including what in the Roman period 
was part of the territory of the Silures ; and the other, 

^ Vestiges of the Gael in Qwynedd (Sapplement to Arch. Camhren-^ 
eis^ 1850). 

* Celtic Britain (Christian Knowledge Society), with which may 
be associated Professor Westwood's Lapidarium Wallioe, 



OF THE LAND OF GWENT. 243 

and more numerous one, in the district west of the 
river Towy. 

The historic period of the eastern portion of the island 
commences with Caesar's invasion ; but more than a 
century elapsed before the Romans crossed the estuary 
of the Severn, and made its western shore the chief 
station of the second Augustan legion. It is difficult 
to assign any definite limits to those portions of Wales 
which were occupied by the diflferent tribes. It may 
suffice if we adopt Professor Rhys' general definition of 
their territory, and say that the Silures and Demetse, 
both Goidelic tribes, were at the earliest known period 
the possessors of the country between Cardigan Bay 
and the lower course of the river Severn and its tribut- 
ary, the Teme. Of the country so defined, the Silures 
occupied the eastern, and the Demetae the western 
portion. The middle of Wales, to the north of these 
tribes, was occupied by the powerful state of the Ordo- 
vices, who probably belonged to the later Celtic settlers, 
or Brythons, and were a more civilised and less war- 
like people than their Goidelic neighbours. 

The second Augustan legion first came to Britain 
with Aulus Plautius, and was under the command of 
Vespasian, afterwards Emperor, who in successive 
battles reduced to subjection the Belgse and Dumnonii, 
two of the most powerful tribes, who occupied nearly 
the whole of the south-west part of the island from 
Wiltshire to the Land's End. On the recall of Plau- 
tius, he was succeeded, in a.d. 50, by Ostorius Scapula, 
who fortified the line of the rivers Avon and Severn, 
with a view to repress the incursions of the unsubdued 
Britons. After quelling a revolt of the Iceni, and sub- 
duing the Brigantes, who occupied the country north 
of the Mersey, from sea to sea, ne turned his attention 
to the Silures, who, under the leadership of their chief, 
Caractacus, had carried on an unintermitting warfare 
with the Romans for nine years, and remained uncon- 
quered. As a last effort Caractacus removed the seat 
of war to the country of the Ordovices. The spot 

162 



244 ON THE EARLY HISTORY 

where the decisive battle which resulted in his defeat, 
and after betrayal as a prisoner to the Romans, took 
place, has been, and must ever be, a matter of uncer- 
tainty, for the account which Tacitus gives does not 
afford sufficient information. Although defeated, the 
Silures remained unsubdued. Again and again, for a 
long series of years, they renewed the unequal conflict, 
" maintaining in their mountain fastnesses a warfare of 
forays and surprises which kept the Romans ever on 
the alert." 

Ostorius died shortly after his victory. The generals 
sent as his successors do not appear to have gained any 
decisive advantage over the Silures until the arrival of 
Julius Frontinus, who, after an obstinate resistance, 
succeeded in subduing them a short time before the 
arrival in Britain of Julius Agricola, as Vespasian's 
third general, in a.d. 78. 

The second legion formed part of the forces employed 
in the reduction of the Silures, and Caerleon became 
its headquarters. At Caerleon it remained, as nume- 
rous inscriptions testify,^ until the latter part of the 
third century, although it was occupied from time to 
time elsewhere, in conjunction with other legions, in 
building the Roman walls and otherwise. The fact 
that the series of coins found in the neighbourhood 
commences with the reign of Claudius shows that the 
Romans did not obtain an earlier footing on the west 
of the Severn estuary. 

After putting down all hostility to the Roman forces 
in North and South Wales, Agricola, to whom Britain 
was assigned as a province, directed his attention to 
the reconciliation of the conquered people to the Roman 
rule by inducing them to adopt the habits of a more 
civilised life, leading them to settle in towns, build 
houses, baths, and temples, and establishing a sys- 
tem of education for the sons of the British chiefs, who 
gradually became familiar with the Latin tongue, and 

^ See Mr. J. E. Lee*8 exhaustive Catalogne, " Isca Silurum", a 
copy of which is in the Maseum at Caerleon. 



OF THE LAND OF GWENT. 245 

adopted the toga as their dress. We may, therefore, 
assume that it was he who gave the first impulse to 
the building of the towns of Caerwent and Caerleon, 
and the making of the great lines of road which led 
from Caerleon, as lines of communication necessary to 
the Roman occupation of this part of the island. The 
remains of baths, votive altars, and other objects found 
at and in the neighbourhood of Caerwent and Caerleon, 
attest a high degree of civilisation, and a mode of liv- 
ing attained by no other town in Wales during the 
same period. 

It is probable that when the Romans finally with- 
drew their legions from Britain, the seaboard west of 
the estuary enjoyed the advantages thus acquired for a 
considerable period ; for it was long free from Saxon 
inroads, although its situation suggests that it may 
have been always liable to continual' invasions of ma- 
rauders from the broad estuary of the Severn up the 
rivers Wye and Usk. The numerous entrenchments* 
which remain near the coast show the need that there 
was of intermediate places of refuge and defence for 
the inhabitants, with, their flocks and herds, in cases of 
sudden invasion from any quarter by sea or land, before 
they fell back on their natural strongholds, the woods 
and mountains of the interior. 

How it fared with the inhabitants of the WentUwg 
and Caldicot levels when the Roman legions were 
finally withdrawn from the island, in the beginning of 
the fifth century, is a question which cannot be an- 
swered. It may well have happened that when the 
well-ordered military rule of the Romans ceased, the 
uncivilised inhabitants of the mountains may have 
overpowered the towns and low-lying country on the 
line of the Roman roads, and again thrown them into 
a state of comparative barbarism, or that their ruin 
was reserved for the Saxon or Danish invaders. All 
that we know for certain, from the excavations which 

* Coze*B Mofimouthshire contains n amorous plans of British camps. 



246 ON THE EARLY HISTORY 

have been made, is that Caerleon and its neighbouring 
town shared the common fate of Roman towns in Bri- 
tain, destruction by fire, on more than one occasion. 
Visible remains of the former grandeur of Caerleon ex- 
isted when Gerald de Barri visited it on his journey at 
the end of the twelfth century, however coloured we 
may consider his description of its then state to have 
been. He deemed it worthy of remark that the people 
of the land of Gwent were more warlike, of more valour, 
and more accustomed to the use of the bow, than in 
any other part of Wales. 

We may well omit, in this brief sketch, all account 
of the successive arrivals, on the eastern shore, of 
Angles, Jutes, and Saxons, and pass on to the gradual 
approach of the West Saxons to the river Severn.* 

Towards the close of the sixth century the West 
Saxons were in possession of the towns of Gloucester, 
Cirencester, and Bath. In the middle of the next cen- 
tury the Britons of the west, who occupied the south 
of the island and Cornwall, rose against Cenwealh,King 
of Wessex, and were defeated, in 658, at Bradford on 
the Avon. This occurrence led to successive incursions 
of the West Saxons into the country west of the estu- 
ary, for we learn that in 681 Centwine subdued the 
Northern Britons, or North Welsh, — a term which at 
this period included all who dwelt in North and South 
Wales, who were meditating rebellion, and were pre- 
viously tributary to Wessex. 

In the early part of the ninth century, Egbert, after 
subduing the Britons of Cornwall and the south, in- 
vaded the country of the Northern Britons, who are 
described as divided from their countrymen by an arm 
of the sea, and made them agree to pay tribute ; but 
the Saxon supremacy there still continued to be little 
more than nominal. In 852, Burhed, King of Mercia, 
sought the aid of Ethel wulf. King of Wessex, to reduce 
the North Wealas to obedience. With their united 

^ It mav Rnve trouble in notes to state that the narrative is de- 
rived from Fioi-ence of Worcester, William of Malmesbarj, and the 

Anijlo'S'.ixon Chronicle. 



OF THE LAND OF GWENT. 24 7 

forces they passed through Mercia, invaded the adjoin- 
ing Welsh country, and subjected it to tribute. 

During the reign of Alfred several Welsh kings, in- 
cluding Brochmael and Fermael, Kings of Gwent, ac- 
knowledged Alfred as their lord, and sought his protec- 
tion against their enemies. During the same reign, in 
895, the Danes, after ravaging the neighbourhood of 
Chester until a scarcity of provisions arose, passed on 
to the country of the North Britons, and devastating 
the districts of Brecheiniog, Morgan wg, Gwent, Bualt, 
and GwentUwg,^ carried away with them, through the 
country north of the Humber (because they dared not 
to retrace their steps through Mercia), as much booty as 
they could to their vessels, which were anchored on the 
coast of Norfolk. 

In the early part of the next century, 915, Danish 
pirates, who about nineteen years before had left Eng- 
land, and entered France by the river Seine, returned 
with their two leaders, Ohter and Hroald, and having 
sailed round Wessex and Cornwall, reached the mouth 
of the Severn, where they at once invaded the land of 
the North Britons, and destroyed all that they found 
on the banks of the river Wye. Crossing the river, 
they proceeded into the district of Ergyng, or Archen- 
field, which then formed part of Gwent Uchcoed, and 
taking prisoner Cyfeiliauc, the Bishop of Llandaff, they 
retraced their steps, with him and their plunder, to 
their vessels at the river's mouth. King Edward 
shortly afterwards obtained the release of the Bishop 
by payment of a ransom of £40. 

Encouraged by their previous success, the Danes 
soon disembarked again, and made their way to the 
same district for the sake of plunder ; but the men of 
Herefordshire and Gloucestershire, with others from 
neighbouring towns, assembled, and suddenly attacked 
them. In the encounter Hroald, one of the Danish 

^ The Anglo-Saxon Ghronxcle merely states that the country of the 
North Britons was devastated &r and wide. The Welsh Chronicle 
gives particulars of the country wasted. 



248 ON THE EARLY HISTORY 

leaders, and a large part of their followers, were killed. 
The rest, taking to flight, were followed, and compelled 
to give hostages that they would speedily leave the 
kingdom. In order to prevent their further ravages. 
King Edward had taken the precaution of stationing 
his army at suitable places from the coast to the mouth 
of the Avon. Returning by night to their vessels, the 
rest of the Danes sailed southward, and leaving their 
vessels drawn up on the shore, plundered first Watchet 
and then at Porlock. Many of them were killed at 
both places by the King's forces ; the rest took refuge 
on the Island of Flatholme, in the Bristol Channel, and 
driven thence by hunger, sailed to the coast of Pem- 
brokeshire, and in the autumn crossed over to Ireland. 

On the death of Ethelfleda, the Lady of Mercia, her 
husband, Edward, assumed the government of it, and 
three Kings of the North Wealas, and their subjects, 
formally acknowledged him as their lord. In 926, 
Athelstane, who had succeeded to the kingdoms of 
Mercia and Wessex, compelled the Kings of tne North 
Britons to meet him at Hereford, and somewhat unwil- 
lingly submit to his rule. Previous Saxon kings had 
made the North Britons agree to pay tribute ; but 
Athelstane succeeded in exacting from them payment 
of £20 in gold, and £300 in silver, in addition to a 
render of a large number of cattle, and fixed the river 
Wye as the limit of their territory. This limit included 
the districts of Ergyng, the Saxon Arcenefeld, and 
Ewyas ; also part of Gwent Uchoed, which before the 
Norman conquest were both added to Herefordshire as 
the result of Saxon inroads. Ergyng included all the 
land between the rivers Monnow and the Wye in its 
course from Hom Lacy to Monmouth. Its northern 
limit was the Guormwy, or Wormbrook, to its source ; 
and thence by a rivulet which ran into the Wye, four 
miles below Hereford. Ewyas occupied the foot and 
the eastern slopes of the Black Mountain, to the con- 
fine^ of the counties of Monmouth and Brecon. 

In May 973 Edgar was consecrated King at Bath, 
and soon afterwards sailed with his fleet tq Chester, 



OF THE LAND OF GWENT. 249 

where he received the homage of eight tributary kings, 
including three kings of Wales, who followed him in 
his triumphal procession up the river Dee. The Welsh 
Chronicle places the scene of Edgar's triumph at Caer- 
leon on Usk, the other civitas legionum; but the Anglo- 
Saxon and other chronicles concur in stating that his 
fleet was anchored in the Dee. 

In the year 1037, Grifl&th ap Llywelyn ap Seisyllt, 
whose name is conspicuous in the annals of Wales on 
account of his continual and often successful encounters 
with the Saxons, succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd. 
The Welsh Chronicle alone mentions that soon after his 
accession he fought his first battle at Rhyd y Groes, 
near Upton on Severn, and was victorious. In the 
same year Grifl&th dispossessed Howel ap Edwyn of his 
territory, and assumed the government of South Wales. 
In 1041 Howel died. Two years later, Grifl&th and 
Rhys ap Rhydderch, on the strength of their father 
having once had the rule of South Wales, rebelled. 
War ensued between them and Grifl&th ap Llywelyn 
for two or three years. Sevenscore of the family of 
GriflSth ap Llywelyn were treacherously killed. In re- 
taliation ne devastated the Vale of Towy and Dyfed ; 
and in 1047 The Welsh Chronicle has the short and sig- 
nificant entry that all South Wales lay waste. 

Before passing on to after events we may notice a 
passage in The Saxons in England, of Mr. Kemble,^ 
which throws much light on the condition of the neigh- 
bouring country on the left bank of the Wye. King 
Edwy in 956 granted Dyddenham' to Bath Abbey. His 
charter^ mentions Wye s mouth and Twyfyrd as some 

1 Vol. i, p. 320, ed. W. de Gray Birch. 

' In 10t>(), AlwiD, Abbot of Bath, granted it, at certain rents, to 
Stigand, Archbishop, for his life. In Domesday Book (Gloncester- 
shire) it is stated to be in the hundred of Twyferd, and then in the 
tenure of William de Ow. 

* Codex Dtpl., cccclii. The boundaries are — Djddanhame, W«- 
genmu1$an, Iwes heafdan, Stanrsswe, Hwitan heal, Iwdene, Bradan- 
mor, Twyfjrd, ^tegepul, Saafem. I owe this note to the kindness 
of Mr. Birch, whose Cartulartum Saxoniaim, when completed, will 
be most valuable. 



250 ON THE EARLY HISTORY 

of the boundaries of the land granted, and thutJ leads 
to its identification with Tidenham, situate on the 
tongue of land between the Severn and the Wye, just 
before the latter river enters the Severn. 

In Dyddenham there were thirty hydes ; nine inland, 
or demesne, and twenty-one let. In Straet, which may 
be readily identified with Streat in the same neigh- 
bourhood, on the Roman trackway to Cirencester, were 
twelve hydes and twenty-seven yards of gafolland ; 
and on the Severn, thirty cytweras, or weirs for catch- 
ing fish. In Bishopstun (which possibly may be Bish- 
ton) were three hydes, and fifteen cytweras on the 
Wye. In Llancawit, which differs but little from the 
present place-name, were three hydes. Several other 
places are mentioned which cannot be readily identified. 
"Throughout that land each yard-land pays twelve 
pence and four alms-pence. At every weir within the 
thirty hydes, every second fish belongs to the landlord, 
besides any uncommon fish worth having, — sturgeon, 
or porpoise, or herring, or sea-fish ; and no one may sell 
any fish for money, when the lord is on the land, until 
he has had notice of the same." In Dyddenham the 
services were very heavy, and such as a recently con- 
quered people in a state of serfdom would alone sub- 
mit to. 

In August 1049 pirates from the Irish coast sailed 
in thirty-six vessels along the Severn estuary, and 
entered the river Usk.^ Griffith, King of South Wales, 
assisted them in plundering the neighbourhood. They 
then, with their united forces, crossed over the Wye 
and burnt Tidenham,* destroying all that they found 
there. Aldred, Bishop of Worcester, quickly assembled 
a few of the men of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire, 
and went to meet the invaders ; but the Welsh, who 
formed part of the Bishop's force, and had promised to 
be true to him, secretly sent messages to the South 

1 " In loco qui dicitar Wylesc Eaxan." (Flor. Wig., i, p. 203.) 
^ DTmedhatn (Flor. Wig.) may, from its position, be assumed to 
be the Saxon Dyddenham. 



OF THE LAND OF GWENT. 251 

Wales King urging a speedy attack of the English. 
Griffith, profiting by the intelligence, advanced with 
the Irish pirates at break of day ; surprised the English 
force, still few in number, and killed many of them ; 
the remainder took to flight. We may infer, from the 
mention of Welshmen as part of Aldred s force, that 
the invaders were on the left bank of the Wye, and 
that the encounter took place on the confines of the 
counties of Gloucester and Hereford, near Archenfield, 
which was then chiefly inhabited by the Welsh, owing 
little more than a nominal allegiance to England. 

Three years later, Griffith, the North Wales King, 
ravaged a large part of Herefordshire as far as Leomin- 
ster. After a successful encounter with the Norman 
settlers there he returned with his booty. In 1054 
Griffith ap Rhydderch was slain by the North Wales 
King, who then became sole ruler in North and South 
Wales. In the following year, Earl Alfgar, the son of 
Leofric, was banished by the King and his council. 
Alfgar crossed over to Ireland, and soon returning with 
eighteen pirate ships which he purchased there, sought 
out the Welsh King, and induced him to act as his 
ally. Griffith immediately summoned a large army 
from the whole of Wales, and arranged that Alfgar 
should join him, with his forces, at a place suitable for 
ravages on the English border. Entering the Severn, 
Alfgar united his forces with those of his Welsh ally 
in the land of Gwent. Crossing the Wye, they passed 
through Archenfield, laying waste on their way all the 
lands which belonged to the King.^ On their arrival 
within two miles of the city of Hereford, Earl Ralph, 
who had the command of the English force, encountered 
them, and sustained an ignominious defeat. The vic- 
tors pursued their way into the city, sacked it, and 
burnt the Cathedral. This done, they retired into 
Wales with their prisoners and much booty. 

^ " Rex Grifin et Blein vastaverant banc terram T. R. E. et ideo 
nescitar qnalU eo tempore fuerit." (Domesday B») 



252 ON THE EARLY HISTORY 

On receiving the intelligence the King summoned a 
large array at Gloucester, and gave the command of it 
to Earl Harold, who quickly followed the steps of Grif- 
fith and Alfgar through Archenfield, and encamped at 
Stradel, in the Valley of the Dore. His opponents learn- 
ing with whom they had to deal, did not dare to come 
to an encounter, and retired into South Wales. Harold 
then dismissed the greater part of his army, and retired 
to Hereford. Soon afterwards, overtures for peace were 
made to Harold by Griffith and Alfgar, and the terms 
were arranged at a place which has generally been con- 
sidered to be Billingsley in Shropshire, but more pro- 
bably may have been Willersley,^ on the left bank of 
the Wye. After the peace, the fleet of Earl Alfgar, 
which had been sent to Caerleon,' there awaited the 
pay which he had promised. 

We may pass over the subsequent warfare with Grif- 
fith, and Harold's victories in North Wales, with the 
mention that in the autumn of 1064 Griffith was killed 
by his own subjects, and his head sent to Earl Harold 
for the King. It is stated that the King gave the 
whole of Griffith's Welsh territory to his half-brothers, 
Bleddyn and Rhiwallon, on their taking the oath of 
fealty. Their rule, however, does not appear to have 
extended to Morganwg and Gwent ; for at the time of 
the Norman conquest, Cadwgan ap Meurig reigned in 
Glamorganshire ; Caradoc ap Griffith, the South Wales 
King, in Ystradyw, Gwent Uchoed, and Gwentllwg ; 
and Rhydderch, his son, in Ewyas and Gwent Iscoed, 
as subjects of the crown of England.' 

Harold's victories in North Wales freed him from 
any adversary in Wales. Archenfield was in a state of 
subjection, although its inhabitants were for the most 
part Welsh, who yielded an unwilling obedience, and 

^ " Willaneslege" of Domesday is snfficientlj like " Biligesleaga*', 
the place mentioned in Florence of Worcester, to lead to the belief 
that Willersley was selected as a place near at hand. 

^ *' Legcceastrum'* can in this case be no other than Caerleon. 

^ Liber Landavensis, p. 550. 



OF THE LAND OP GWENT. 253 

retained their own laws and customs. He was able, 
therefore, to cross over the Wye, and invade the land 
of Gwent without any obstacle. The territory which 
he acquired there was probably limited, and held by a 
precarious tenure, for the orders which he had given in 
July 1065, for the erection of a large building at Porth- 
skewet, as a hunting-box for King Edward, were in 
the latter part of August set at nought by Caradoc ap 
Griffith, who, with all whom he could muster, came 
there, killed nearly all the workmen engaged in the 
building, and carried away the provisions which had 
been provided for the King's reception. Harold was 
too fully occupied by military matters in the North to 
punish this outrage. On the King's death, in January 
following, Harold was elected King. Before autumn 
was over, the battle of Hastings was fought^ and his 
short reign ended. 

How long afterwards Caradoc ap Griffith was allowed 
to have the rule in Gwent is uncertain. We learn from 
The Welsh Chronicle that in 1068 there was a battle 
between Bleddyn and Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn and the 
sons of Griffith, in which the latter fell. Rhiwallon 
also was slain ; and then Bleddyn held Gwynedd and 
Powys, and Meredith ap Owen ap Edwin, South Wales; 
not without opposition on the part of Caradoc, who 
appears two years later to have allied himself with the 
Normans, and fought a battle with Meredith ap Owen 
on the banks of the river Rhymney, in which Meredith 
was slain. In 1073 Bleddyn ap Cynfyn was killed by 
Rhys ap Owen, and then he and Rhydderch ap Cara- 
dog are said to have been the rulers of South Wales. 

It is unnecessary to pursue further the account of 
these interminable contests for the succession in South 
Wales. It sufficiently appears that the Normans were 
continually advancing, and were at the time of the 
Domesday Survey, in 1085, in possession of the greater 
part, if not the whole, of Gwent. 

The limits of this paper will not permit an examina- 
tion in detail of the Domesday account of Norman ter- 



254 ON THE EARLY HISTORY 

ritory on the west of the Wye, under the head of 
Gloucestershire ; but it may suffice to note a few par- 
ticulars. The fact that a small part of the land had 
been portioned out among the Conqueror s followers, 
that the rest was still in the occupation of its previous 
possessors (under the care of his reeves), and the great 
want of names of places, suggest that the occupation of 
the country by Saxon and Norman was a very recent 
one. 

Soon after the Conquest, William Fitz Osborne, Earl 
of Hereford, one of the Conqueror's most trusty fol- 
lowers, built the Castle of Estrighoiel or Chepstow. 
On his death, in 1070, his son Roger succeeded to the 
earldom and the English territory of his father. By 
his rebellion, eight years later, Roger forfeited all his 
possessions. At the time of the Survey the Castle was 
in the Kings hands, and valued at £12. The rent of 
Caerleon and its land, with seven fisheries in the rivers 
Wye and Usk, yielded a return of £7 10^. In Wales 
were three hardwicks, Llanwem, Porthskewet, and 
Din am, cultivated by the serfs attached to them. 
Fifty-four vills or townships were under the charge of 
the King's reeves. The inhabitants of these vills held 
their land subject to a small render in honey, swine, 
and cows, and a sum of money for hawks. Eight vills 
rendered nothing, and were permitted by Earl William, 
with the King 8 leave, to hold under the customs which 
prevailed there in the time of King Griffith. Under 
the same reeves were four vills which had been laid 
waste by Caradog ap Griffith. All these vills were 
farmed iDy Durand, the Sheriff of Gloucestershire, to 
William de Ow, the owner of Tidenham and other 
lands in that county, who had, in addition, three fisheries 
and land on the west of the Wye. In Caerwent (Car- 
ven), Durand, the Sheriff, held Caldecote, with the 
half villeins and serfs attached to it. Others who held 
land, and had probably also taken an active part in the 
acquisition of the country, were Roger de Laci, Roger 
de Berkeley, Turstin, son of Rolf, some of whose land 



OF THE LAND OF GWENT. 255 

lay between the Wye and Usk, and other parts west 
of the latter river ; and Alfred the Spaniard. William 
de Scohies had eight carucates of land in the castlery 
of Caerleon, which he sublet to Turstin. Part of this 
land was held by Welshmen living under "Welsh law, 
and the whole of it is stated to have been waste in the 
time of King Edward. 

The Castle of Monmouth, then a part of the county 
of Hereford, was also built in the lifetime of Earl Wil- 
liam. It was in the custody of William Fitz Baderon. 
Welshmen occupied there twenty-four carucates of 
land, and rendered thirty-three sextaries of honey, and 
a small rent in money ; and the military followers of 
William Fitz Baderon occupied seven carucates. 

William Fitz Osborne continued the line of defence 
against the Welsh frontier by fortifying the district of 
Ewias. The castlery of Ewias, afterwards known as 
Ewias Lacy, was granted to Walter de Lacy ; and the 
Castle of Ewias and its lands, the larger part of which 
was held by military tenants, and the rest by Welsh- 
men (afterwards called, by way of distinction, Ewias 
Harold), to Alfred of Marlborough. The Castle of Clif- 
ford, with its castlery, occupying a wide extent of land 
on the right bank of the Wye, to the Dulas brook, com- 
pleted his line of defence, and was in the tenure of 
Ralph de Todeni, among whose military tenants were 
Gilbert, the Sheriff of Herefordshire, and Roger de 
Lacy. 

As the Normans advanced onwards, and obtained a 
firmer hold of the country, a second line of fortifications 
arose along the Valley of the Usk. Hamelin de Bala- 
dun, another of those who came over with the Con- 
queror, acquired the lordship of Overwent, and built 
the Castle of Abergavenny and the Priory there. At 
a somewhat later period, Walter de Clare, the founder 
of Tintem Abbey, acquired, under a general licence 
from the Crown to get what he could in Wales, all 
Netherwent. After various changes, Milo Fitz Walter, 
by his marriage with the daughter of Bernard New- 



256 EARLY HISTORY OP THE LAND OF GWENT. 

march, united the lordship of Brecknock to Overwent, 
while Netherwent continued in the Clare family. The 
three Castles of Whitecastle, Skenfrith, and Grosmont, 
erected about this period, and ever after, until their 
ruin, held together under the same custody, connected 
Abergavenny with the line of the Monnow ; while on 
the sea-coast the Castle of Caldicot and the older Castle 
of Caerleon formed a line of communication between 
Chepstow and Newport on the mouth of the Usk. As 
time went on, numerous smaller castles, of which we 
now see the ruins, arose in the neighbourhood as a pro- 
tection to their possessors alike against the invasions of 
the Welsh and the oppression of neighbouring lords 
marchers. 

The Norman occupation of all Went forms a fitting 
conclusion to a paper which has already reached its full 
limit. The after history of the county of Monmouth, 
its castles and monastic nouses, may readily be learned 
in the well illustrated history of Coxe, and in the 
numerous publications of the Monmouthshire and Caer- 
leon Antiquarian Association, which for completeness 
and profuseness of illustration may be well compared 
with those of any other kindred Society. 

R W. B. 



257 



SOME ACCOUNT OP THE 

HISTORY AND DESCENT OF THE LORDSHIP 
MARCHER OR COUNTY OF WENTLLWCH, 

AS IT WAS CALLED IN EARLY TIMES, AND WHICH IS IN 

THE PRESENT DAY DESIGNATED AS THE MODERN 

HUNDRED OF WENTLLWCH OR WENTLOOG^^ 

The county of Monmouth was formed by the grouping 
together, with several smaller manors, the six great 
lordships of Abergavenny, Monmouth, Striguil or Chep- 
stow, Usk, Caerleon, and Wentllwch, which is on the 
west of the river Usk, and of this T propose to treat. 
It was one of the lordships marchers which were taken 
by the statute 17th Henry VHI, in 1535, to form the 
county of Monmouth when it became a portion of the 
realm of England under the English crown. 

It may be as well to state here that these lordships 
marchers were small, independent sovereignties \mder 
the especial government of their own lords, and each 
independent of the other, unless they might belong to 
the same lord ; and they owed no allegiance to the 
English king, but only to their own lords ; but inas- 
much as those lords were subject to the king of Eng- 
land, they and t^eir subjects were under some control 
of the English crown. The king's writs, however, did 
not run in them ; and all malefactors against the king's 
laws could find a refuge from them, and thus disregard 
his power ; and this state of things being found so 
inconvenient and mischievous, made Henry VIII anxious 
to seize and get them into his power ; and this he ac- 
complished by declaring these lords who were his sub- 
jects guilty of high treason, by which their possessions 
became forfeited to the crown ; and that was especially 
the case with the Duke of Buckingham, who was Lord 
Marcher of Wentllwch, among his vast possessions 

^ Head at tbe Animal Meeting at Newport. 
6th sir., yol. II. 17 



258 HISTORY AND DESCENT 

which on his death bec5ame forfeited to the crown ; and 
the King was enabled, by an Act of his own Parlia- 
ment, to form them into a county, and add them to his 
own dominion, and they thus became part of the realm 
of England in 1535. We have, however, only to deal 
with the lordship of WentUwch and its history. 

The lords marchers, in the management ana govern- 
ment of their lordships, copied as much as possible the 
usages of the great realm of England, and they had 
their castles or palaces, and their chanceries and chan- 
cellors, with the courts and great sessions, and chan- 
cery and privy seals, judges and officers ; and under 
their great chancery seals they issued writs, and the 
lords granted charters just after the manner of the 
kings. The charter creating and incorporating the 
borough of Newport, which has recently been recovered 
and restored, is a most excellent example. The revenues 
were most carefully collected by the receiver and pro- 
per officers, and the accounts of the receipts and ex- 
penditure most accurately kept, and rendered every 
year on parchment rolls, and deposited in the lords 
chancery or other office ; and there are in the Public 
Record Office many of these rolls. When Henry VIII 
held the lordship in right of his possession of it by 
reason of the death and forfeiture of the estates of the 
Duke of Buckingham, who was beheaded by the King's 
order, in these rolls he is styled " King of England and 
Dominus de Wenllouk." These rolls aflford much curi- 
ous information, but they are difficult to read. 

That part of the country now occupied by the county 
of Monmouth was in very ancient times called Gwent, 
probably from the name of the first tribe who settled 
there. It was divided into a Gwent Ucha, or Upper 
Gwent, occupying the northern part; and Gwent Isa, 
Lower or Netherwent, lying along the banks of the 
Severn sea ; and Gwent Uwch, usually written Went- 
Uwch. Most, if not all, early Welsh names are de- 
scriptive of the locality, or have reference to some tribe 
or individual. This name GwentUwch is compounded 



OF THE LORDSHIP OP WENTLLWGH. 259 

of Gwent and Llwch ; which latter word appears to be 
the same as the Scotch Loch and Irish Lough, meaning 
an inlet of the sea, a lake or large collection of water, — 
a name quite appropriate and descriptive of the fens or 
moors, as we here call them, before they were embanked 
or drained, when they were overflowed every spring or 
very high tide, and must at other times have presented 
the appearance of a number of small lakes or inlets of 
the sea. These embankments or sea-walls were cer- 
tainly the work of the Romans during their occupation, 
as the finding one of their stones at Goldcliff has 
proved. 

Wentllwch, in its original acceptation, appears to 
have included the whole territory between the lordship 
of Abergavenny on the north, the Severn sea on the 
south, and was bounded by the river Usk on the east, 
and the Rumney on the west ; and a portion of this 
territory, together with the great lordsnip of Glamor- 
gan, formed the dominions of Jestyn ap Gwrgan before 
they were wrested from him by the invasion of the 
Normans under Robert Fitzhamon in 1090. 

Of the early history of this tract we know little but 
what may be gathered from the genealogical labours of 
the " arwydd feirdd", or heraldic bards, and the legends 
of saints; and although these sources of inteUigence 
may be scanty, and not to be implicitly relied upon, 
they are entitled to considerable attention, and, more- 
over, are the only documents to be found that treat of 
this part of the country. From these sources we collect 
that in the first half of the fifth century (calculating 
from the number of descents to some of tds successors 
whose eras are better established), Wentllwch acknow- 
ledged for its lord a chieftain named Cadell, called 
DeymUwch or Teym Llwch (king of the lake or fen). 
Cadell was the father of Tegid, who was succeeded by 
his son Gly wys, who by some means extended his pos- 
sessions, and the whole territory was called Glewiseg, 
or the county of Gly wys. This chieftain had several 
sons, among whom his dominions were divided, and 

17« 



260 HISTORY AND DESCENT 

WentUwch fell to the share of his eldest son, Gwy nlly w 
Filwr (Gwynllyw the Warrior). Having determined 
to take a wife, he sent an embassy to a neighbouring 
chieftain named Brychan, Prince of Brycheiniog, to 
demand the hand of his daughter Gwladys. The father 
refused, treating the ambassador with indignity. The 
lord of WentUwch put himself at the head of a band 
of his retainers, and succeeded in carrying off the lady 
by force, was pursued by Brychan, and was in danger 
of losing his prize ; but with the assistance of Arthur 
defeated Brychan, and returned to his own residence 
at a place called Allt Gwynllyw (that is Gwynllyw's 
Hill), now St. WooUos. 

There Gwynllyw and Gwladys dwelt, and a numerous 
issue was the result of this marriage. The eldest of 
them was the celebrated St. Cadoc or Cattwg. They 
all embraced a religious life, and are enrolled among 
the saints. St. Gwynllyw (whose name has been Latin- 
ised into Gundleius, and thence corrupted, in common 
parlance, into St. Wollos or St. Woolos) has been said 
to have given his name to the district ; but it is not 
found so written, and the origin of the name Gwent- 
llwch or WentUwch is more probable, inteUigible, and 
satisfactory. 

In Hie Lives of the Camhro-British SaintSy copied 
and translated from MSS. in the British Museum by the 
Rev. W. J. Rees of Cascob, and published under the 
auspices of the Welsh MSS. Society in 1853, we have 
the life and history of St. GwynUyw. These MSS. are 
supposed to have been written in the twelfth century. 
We are told that in consequence of a dream he foUowed 
a certain white ox which conducted him up to the hiU, 
and he then said, " Sea-coasts, with fields and a wood, 
and high groves are seen far and wide. There is no 
prospect in the world such as is in the space where I 
am now to dweU. A faithful place, and inhabiting it I 
shaU therefore be more happy.'' Having said these 
words, by the divine appointment and the concession 
of Dubricius, Bishop of Llandaff, he there remained 



OF THE LORDSHIP OP WENTLLWCH. 261 

and built a habitation, and consequently marked out a 
burial-place, in the middle whereof he built a church 
with boards and rods, which he diligently visited with 
frequent prayers. " Signavit cimiterium, et in medio 
tabulis et virgis fundavit templum, quod visitabat assi- 
due cum frequentationibus orationum/' 

St. Gwynllyw has been said to have given the name 
to this part of the country, which has sometimes been 
called Gwynllwg, but which has no meaning ; and I 
think that there can be very little doubt that Gwent- 
llwch, or Wentllwch as it is usually written, is the pro- 
per name for the region, as has been before explained. 

As St. Gwynllyw established his oratory or church 
on the hill, the site of his dwelling can, I think, be 
identified. It will be seen that his habitation and his 
oratory, or templum, as it is called, were not the same ; 
for after he had dwelt there for some years he marked 
out a cemetery or burial-ground, in the middle of which 
he erected his templum or oratory, having been the 
chieftain of the district for some years before he 
built it. 

In a field within a short distance of the church, for- 
merly very well known, there was, not long ago, a 
moated mound, on the summit of which was planted a 
group or clump of fir-trees, and it was called " The 
Fir-Tree Field". There are several of these mounds 
about the country. They consist of a circular, conical 
mound having a flat, table-top, usually about 50 ft. in 
diameter, and surrounded by a deep foss or moat. The 
summits are always flat. This mound is now in the 
grounds of Springfield, laid out by the late Mr. Geth- 
ing, who bidlt the house. It is, however, no longer a 
mound, but is buried up to the top with the spoil 
brought up to the surface by the shafts during the 
excavation of the timnel of the Great Western Rail- 
way, which runs underneath. Its site, however, is still 
marked ; for in order to preserve it, as the fir-trees 
were all cut away, I suggested to Mr. Gething, when 
he was laying out his grounds, to collect together the 



262 HISTORY AND DESCENT 

large masses of rock brought up out of the tunnel, and 
place them in the form of a cairn on the summit of the 
mound where the fir-trees had stood This he did, and 
the spot and the size of the flat summit of the mound 
are still preserved by the heap of large stones. The 
diameter of the top was exactly 50 ft. It used to be 
sometimes called " the Grave of St. Wollos"; but that 
was incorrect, as these mounds were not burial-places, 
but the dwellings or strongholds of the chieftains or 
rulers of the district, and in subsequent times were 
converted into castles by the erection of stone edifices 
on their summits in lieu of the timber or wattled struc- 
tures which originally crowned them. The mounds 
were steep, and could only be approached by a timber 
bridge across the deep moat and a winding path. 
There are several in the neighbourhood, as at Caerleon, 
Llangstone, Castleton, Cardifi', on the hill above Ru- 
perra, Gelligaer, and Llanhilleth : and they are to be 
found all over England, as at Windsor, Oxford, Tun- 
bridge, Canterbury, Lincoln, in ComwaU, and North 
Wales. 

This mound I believe to have been the dwelling of 
Gwynllyw, the Prince and chief of this district, where 
he founded his templum or church in close proximity 
to it ; and I fully believe that that mysterious portion 
of St. WoUos Church generally called St. Mary's is the 
church, or rather the site of the templum first erected 
by our saint, and enlarged and altered at various sub- 
sequent periods (but always spared) by adding on the 
east end, like the church of St. Joseph of Arimathea at 
Glastonbury, when the great Abbey was added on to 
the east end of it. But that becomes part of the his- 
tory of the church. 

In their old age, Gwynllyw and his wife Gwladys 
renounced the world, and became recluses or hermits, 
leading very austere lives. He was established on the 
hill near his oratory; and she is recorded to have 
retired to the banks of the Ebbw river, a short distance 
off, to have practised great austerities, and always 



OF THE LORDSHIP OF WENTLLWCH. 263 

bathing in the coldest water. The precise spot to 
which she retired has never been ascertained; but 
though long lost, I am disposed to think can be now 
satisfactorily identified. 

On the banks of the river, just above Ebbw Bridge, 
is a cliflT, on the top of which is a small spot of ground, 
adjoining Tredegar Park walls, of less than half an 
acre, on which there is a very old cottage. This small, 
detached spot of ground has always belonged to the 
church of St. Woollos, and was part of the glebe land ; 
and when the glebe lands were sold, a few years ago. 
it was purchased by Lord Tredegar. The history of it 
could never be made out. Nothing was known of it ; 
but some have heard the term chapel applied to it. A 
short distance off, in the Park, there issued from the 
bank a remarkably beautiful spring of very cold water, 
over which a bath-house had been erected in 1719, and 
it always used to be called " The Lady's Well"; but 
why or in honour of whom it was so called was not 
known. Gwladys is recorded to have had near her dwell- 
ing a remarkably cold spring of water, where she con- 
stantly bathed. I cannot help thinking that this small, 
mysterious spot of holy ground belonging to the church, 
with its cold bath spring in its immediate vicinity, 
must have been the unknown spot to which Gwladys 
retired, and that her name may have been perpetuated 
by the name of the bath, and that " The Lady's Well" 
may have been only a corruption, by persons ignorant 
of the history, of Gwladys' Well, and that this spot may 
fairly be considered the spot to which she retired on 
her first becoming a recluse ; that the small piece of 
ground was hallowed, and became part of the posses- 
sion of the church ; and as the word chapel seems to 
have clung to it, that would indicate that at one time 
it may have been an oratory or place of prayer. 

Of the local history of Wentllwch under the domi- 
nion of the Princes of Glamorgan, down to the latter 
part of the tenth century, nothing is known. About 
the year 967, in the time of Morgan Hen, it appears 



264 HISTORY AND DESCENT 

that after a long contest Owen ap Howel Dda obtained 
possession of Caerleon, Eddlogan, and Machen, with 
the consent of the Sa^on King Edgar, leaving the 
remainder of the district, which is now called the Lord- 
ship of WentUwch, in the possession of Morgan. This 
transaction is so obscurely alluded to in the Welsh 
chronicles that it seems impossible, at this time of day, 
to understand what claim Owen could have had to 
these possessions. From Morgan Hen, the lordship of 
WentUwch descended to his successors, and was part 
of the territory conquered by Fitz Hamon from the 
last Welsh Prince, Jestyn ap Gwrgan, about the year 
1090 or ] 092, and was by him parcelled out among his 
followers, reserving the superiority to himself, as he 
did the other parts of the Principality. It is remark- 
able that none of the published accounts of the con- 
quest of Glamorgan take any notice of WentUwch, yet 
its subsequent descent, and that of some of the mesne 
manors, leaves no doubt that it formed part of Fitz 
Hamon's dominions. 

The descent of the lordship after this conquest opens 
a new era, and wiU foUow in a consecutive history, 

THE DESCENT OP THE LORDSHIP OF WENTLLWCH, 
OR NEWPORT, IN THE MARCHES OF WALES. 

The lordship of WentUwch was a lordship marcher, 
or small independent sovereignty, subject to the govern- 
ment of its lord, whose annual accounts of the rents, 
issues, and profits of certain manors within the lord- 
ship, being members thereof, and which, belonging to 
the lord, and forming his revenue, were made up every 
year at Michaelmas by the chief steward or receiver of 
the lordship, in the form of rolls of parchment written 
in Latin, as was the custom of the time ; and except- 
ing the names of persons or places, not a Welsh word 
is found therein, and most of the chief oflicers have 
EngUsh names. Many of these rolls, which are the 
Exchequer RoUb, and at the Record Office called Minis- 



OF THE LORDSHIP OF WENTLLWCH. 265 " 

ters' Accounts, now exist. The earliest known roll is 
that for 1435, and is in the possession of Dr. Nichol 
Carne of St. Donat's Castle ; and the first of my collec- 
tion is a correct English translation of it made by the 
late Joseph Burtt, Esq., of the Public Record OflSce. 

The original parchment rolls for the years 1447 and 
1493 are among the Tredegar muniments, having been 
presented many years ago by the late Rev. John M. 
Traherne. In the Public Record Office are many others 
to be found imder the head of " Buckingham's Lands" 
(Ministers' Accounts). The earliest became the pro- 
perty of the crown when the estates of the Duke of 
Buckingham were seized, upon his attainder, by Henry 
VIII. The later are those which were returned when 
the King was lord of WentUwch, as he is styled in the 
Rolls. Of some of the principal of these I have had 
copies made, which form my collection, and they throw 
much light on the history and condition of the lordship 
and its inhabitants at the time they were made, and it 
is curious to observe for how long a period the same 
names and rents continue unchanged. It is hardly 
probable that so many tenants and their rents should 
always have remained the same, and lived so long ; 
and it may possibly arise from the circumstance that 
one account was in a great measure copied from an- 
other, and as long as the same rent was paid, no alter- 
ation was made in the account as to the name of the 
tenant. 

THE DESCENT OF THE LOHDSHIP OF WENTLLWCH. 

A.D. 1090. — Robert Fitz Hamon, lord of Gloucester, 
conqueror of Glamorgan and WentUwch. 

1107. — Mabel, d. and h., mar. in 1109 Robert, nat. 
son of King Henry I, who then created him Earl of 
Gloucester. He is frequently called Robert Consul. His 
mother was Nest, d. of Rhys ap Tewdwr Mawr. 

1147. — William Earl of Gloucester, s. and h., left at 
his death, in 1183, three daughters, coheirs (Robert, s. 



266 HISTORY AND DESCENT 

died young, b. at Keynsham), viz., Mabel, whose issue 
failed before 1213. She married Almeric Devereux, 
who, on the death of Isabel, in 1217, became Earl of 
Gloucester, and died childless in 1226. Amicia, mar. 
Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford, who died in 1206. 
She was mother of Gilbert de Clare, afterwards Earl of 
Gloucester. Isabel. 

1183. — Isabel, third d. and coh., in ward to the King, 
Henry II, who gave her in marriage to his second son, 
John Earl of Mortaigne, but retained the earldom. 
King Richard I in 1190 gave the earldom to his brother 
John, who succeeded to the throne in 1199, and was 
soon after divorced from his wife, Isabel, but retained 
her estates untD 1214, when he gave them, with her 
in marriage, to Geoffrey de Mandeville, Earl of Essex, 
who died in 1216. Isabel Countess of Gloucester died 
in 1217. 

1217. — Gilbert de Clare, son of Amicia and Richard 
de Clare, nephew and heir. Earl of Gloucester, and on 
his father's death, of Hertford. He married Isabella, 
one of the daughters and coheirs of William Marshall, 
Earl of Pembroke, and by her acquired Machen, which 
from that time has been united with WentUwch. 

1229. — Richard de Clare, s, and h., Earl of Glouces- 
ter and Hertford. 

1262. — Gilbert de Clare, s. and h., Earl of Gloucester 
and Hertford, whose earldom and estates, on his mar- 
riage with Joan of Acre, d. of Edward I, were settled 
on them jointly and their issue. He was surnamed Gil- 
bert the Red, and had a brother, Bogo de Clare, in holy 
orders. 

1295. — Joan of Acre, his widow. Countess of Glou- 
cester and Hertford, mar. in 1297 Ralph de Mouther- 
mer, who, with her, did homage for the earldom, and 
retained it during her life. 

1305. — Gilbert de Clare, s. and h. of Gilbert de Clare 
and Joan of Acre, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford. He 
died in 1314, leaving three sisters coheirs, viz., Eleanor, 
wife of Hugh le Despenser, who had Glamorgan ; Mar- 



"J 



c 



OF THE LORDSHIP OP WENTLLWCH. 267 

garet, wife of Hugh de Audley, who had WentUwch ; 
Elizabeth, wife of John de Burgh, who had the honor 
of Clare on the death of Gilbert. 

1314. — King Edward II retained the estates until 
partition in 1318. 

1318. — Margaret de Clare, wife of Hugh de Audeley, 
received WentUwch on partition ; and on this separa- 
tion of WentUwch from the lordship of Glamorgan, the 
name of the former lordship was changed to that of 
Newport. In 1320, however, Le Despenser and his 
wife obtained it, and it was not restored until the 
death of Le Despenser in 1326. Hugh de Audeley^ was 
created Earl of Gloucester in 1337, and died in 1347. 
Margaret Countess of Gloucester died in 1342. 

1342. — Margaret de Audeley, d. and h., wife of 
EaJph Lord Stafford, died in 1349. 

1349. — Ralph Lord Stafford, her husband, created 
Earl of Stafford in 1351, held her estates for his life. 

1372. — Hugh Stafford, second Earl, their son and 
heir. This Hugh Earl of Stafford and lord of Tone- 
brugge and WentUwch, grants first charter of incorpo- 
ration to burgesses of Newport, dated 13 April 1385. 
Mayor and bailiff. 

1386. — Thomas Stafford, third Earl, s. and h. 

1392.— WiUiam Stafford, fourth Earl, brother and h. 

1395.— Edmund Stafford, fifth Earl, brother and h. 
In 1402 Owen Glyndower invaded and ravaged Went- 
Uwch, burning down the castle and town, and all the 
churches and houses in the moors, so that on an inqui- 
sition being held, the value of WentUwch was returned 
as nil. It is most probable, judging from the architec- 
ture, that during the reign of Humphry Stafford the 
church of St. Woolos was repaired and enlarged, and 
the churches of St. Bride and Peterstone, in the moors, 
newly built, as the architecture of aU three is of that 
period, and there is a strong resemblance in the win- 
dows of all three. 

^ During tho minority or attainder of the yoangor Despenser, 
Hagh d'Audeley may have held Cardiff. 



268 HISTORY AND DESCENT 

1403. — Humphrey Stafford, sixth Earl,s. and h., cre- 
ated Duke of Buckmgham in 1444, a minor, two years 
old ; of age, 1424. In 1427 he granted to the Mayor 
and burgesses a charter of inspeximus and confirmation 
of previous charter of 1385, in which the original char- 
ter is confirmed. 

1460. — Henry Stafford, second Duke, grandson and 
h., in ward to the King. Beheaded, 1483, and his 
estates forfeited to the crown. 

1483. — Richard III retained the forfeited estates. 

1485. — Henry VII, soon after his accession, reversed 
the Duke's attainder, and granted the lordship of Went- 
Uwch and other estates to his widow, Katherine, then 
wife of Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, for her life, with 
remainder to their son Edward as third Duke of Buck- 
ingham. Katherine, Duchess of Buckingham and Bed- 
ford, survived her second husband, Jasper Tudor, Duke 
of Bedford, who died in 1495, and married, thirdly, 
Sir Richard Wingfield of Kimbolton, co. Hunts., who 
survived her, and married again, and was created K.G. 
by Henry VIII, She died before 1498, as her son, the 
Duke, was then the lord of Newport. 

Edward Stafford, third Duke of Buckingham, be- 
headed 17 May 1521, and his estates forfeited to the 
crown. On this second forfeiture of the estates, all the 
documents, records, and papers relating to the lordship 
were taken up to London, and are now in the Record 
OflSice, where they may be consulted, and are known 
as papers relating to " Buckingham's Lands." 

1521.— Henry VIII held the lordship till the end of 
his reign in 1547. In 1535, the twenty-seventh of his 
reign, this lordship, in conjunction with many others, 
was incorporated in the new county of Monmouth, then 
formed by Act of Parliament ; at which time the juris- 
diction and authority of the lords marchers were abo- 
lished, all the manorial rights being reserved. 

1547. — Edward VI succeeded to the lordship of 
WentUwch, and that year granted the lordship, toge- 
ther with the lordship of Glamorgan, to William Her- 



OP THE LORDSHIP OF WENTLLWCH. 269 

bert, who in 1548 was installed K.G., and in 1551 was 
elevated to the peerage as Baron Herbert of Cardiflf, 
and Earl of Pembroke, 

William, first Earl of Pembroke. 

1570. — Henry, second Earl, K.G., s. and h. 

1600. — William, third Earl, K.G., s. and h., oh. s. p. 

1630. — Philip, fourth Earl of Pembroke, also Baron 
Herbert of Shurland and Earl of Montgomery, brother 
and h. of the last William. 

1655. — Philip, fifth Earl of Pembroke, and second 
of Montgomery, s. and h. 

1669. — William, sixth Earl of Pembroke and third 
of Montgomery, oh. unmarried. 

1674. — Philip, seventh Earl of Pembroke and fourth 
of Montgomery, half-brother and heir to William. He 
died in 1683, leaving an only daughter. 

1683. — Charlotte, sole child and heiress, married first 
John Lord Jefferies, son of Lord Chancellor Jefferies, by 
whom she had an only daughter; secondly, Thomas 
Viscount Windsor of Ireland. In the year 1710, by 
decree of the High Court of Chancery for the payment 
of the debts of the late Earl of Pembroke, the manor 
or lordship of WentUwch, with all its rights and ap- 
purtenances, was sold by Lord Windsor and his wife, 
and by them conveyed to John Morgan, Esq., of Lon- 
don, merchant, for the sum of £9,000. 

1710. — John Morgan, Esq., merchant, afterwards of 
Ruperra, which estate he purchased. 

1715. — John Morgan, Esq., of Tredegar, nephew and 
heir. 

1719. — William Morgan, Esq., s. and L, afterwards 
Sir William Morgan, Knight of the Bath. 

1731. — William Morgan, Esq., s. and h., died un- 
married and intestate. 

1763. — Thomas Morgan, Esq., of Ruperra, commonly 
called General Morgan, brother of Sir WiUiam Morgan, 
and uncle of the last. 

1769. — Thomas Morgan, Esq., died unmar., s. and h. 

1771. — Chas. Morgan, Esq., brother and h., oh. $. p. 



270 HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 

1787. — John Morgan, Esq., brother and h., 06. 8. p. 

1792. — Sir Charles Morgan, Bart., husband of Jane 
Morgan, daughter of Thomas Morgan of Ruperra, and 
sister of the last John Morgan, who devised by his will 
all his estates to his brother-in-law, Sir Charles Gould, 
who, in consequence of the direction of such will, 
assumed with the estates the name and arms of Mor- 
gan. Ob. 1806. 

1806. — Sir Charles Morgan, Bart. 

1846. — Sir Charles Morgan Robinson Morgan, Bart., 
afterwards the first Lord Tredegar. 



HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF NEWPORT 

CASTLE. 

The first building of a castle at Newport is, according 
to Mr. Wakeman, attributed to William Earl of Glou- 
cester with every degree of probability, and the town 
soon after. There can be little doubt that this is cor- 
rect, as it would be most natural for him to erect some 
defence at the entrance of his territory at the river 
where the road crossed it from the other side, which 
belonged to another lordship. I have, however, not 
seen any traces of a structure earlier than the present, 
though there may be some, and have only to treat of 
that which we now see. 

The present Castle, as its style of architecture and 
plan seem to indicate, appears to have been the work 
originally of the fourteenth century, though from cir- 
cumstances altered, modified, and in fact partly rebuilt 
in the early half of the fifteenth century. 

From the time of the conquest of Glamorgan by 
Robert Fitz Hamon, the lordships of Glamorgan and 
WentUwch had always belonged to the same person, 
and Glamorgan being the most important lordship had 
always been the residence of the feudal chief ; but in 



OF NEWPORT CASTLE. 271 

consequence of Gilbert de Clare dying in 1314 without 
issue male, his estates were divided between his sis- 
ters, coheiresses. Eleanor, the wife of Hugh le De- 
spenser, had the lordship of Glamorgan ; and Margaret, 
wife of Huffh de Audeley, had WentUwch. Here, then, 
these lorddiips became disconnected, and Wentllwch 
became a separate, substantial, and important lordship 
•of itself, and was afterwards designated the "Domi- 
nium de Newporte in Wallia." Margaret de Clare 
and her husband, Hugh de Audeley, did not come into 
possession immediately, for the King, Edward II, kept 
possession of the estates till the partition took place in 
1318, and then the Kmg and Le Despenser had it till 
1326. 

Having become an independent lordship, a suitable 
castle and residence for the lord and his family became 
necessary ; and about this time, or somewhat later, the 
architecture seems to fix the period of the commence- 
ment of the present structure, thus tallying with the 
history of the lordship. Much of the" original walls of 
this structure still remains; but in 1402 Owen Glyn- 
dwr ravaged and laid waste all Wentllwch, and burnt 
and destroyed the town and Castle ; so that on an in- 
quisitio p. m. being held in 1403, on the death of Ed- 
mond, fifth Earl of Staflford, the jury returned the 
value of the lordship as worth nothing. 

Humphrey, sixth Earl of Stafford, who succeeded in 
1403, was an infant, and when he came of age, and had 
possession of his estates, probably commenced to re- 
build or repair the Castle, as we find by the Exchequer 
EoUs they had been going on for some years, and the 
difference in the architecture seems to show iJiis. The 
conversion of the Castle into a brewery some sixty 
years a^o has necessarily made great disturbance, and 
renderea it somewhat difficult to trace the original 
plan of the interior. I find from documents that the 
Castle has been for centuries in a state of ruin ; but 
how or when it became so is not known. 

By indenture dated 1578, Henry Earl of Pembroke, 



272 HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 

to whom it then belonged, granted all use of the Castle 
of Newport to William Herbert of St. Julian s, Esq., 
to hold for the term of three hundred years, at the 
yearly rent of five shillings, with a covenant for Mr. 
Herbert to repair the same from time to time, and leave 
it in repair at the end of the said term. In 1749 the 
Castle was reported entirely ruined, and so has re- 
mained to the present time, and is likely to continue. * 

DESCRIPTION OF THE CASTLE. 

The Castle is built on the verge of the river ; the 
walls rise perpendicularly from the muddy shore, and 
are washed by the tide at high water. It faces the 
east, and presents towards the river a grand frontage 
of 228 feet in length, which consists of three bold pro- 
jecting towers (one central, and two flanking), with 
intermediate receding curtain-walls. In this range of 
buildings were the principal apartments of the Castle. 
Great pains must have been taken, and great skill 
required in forming the foundations of this structure. 
There seems to have been no settlement in any part, 
and the foundations must be very deep, unless a por- 
tion of rock had been met with. It completely com- 
manded the river and the bridge. The flanking towers 
at each end of the river-front are octagonal above, 
rising from square bases ; the angles of which slope off 
in the form of triangular buttresses, and die against 
the alternate faces of the octagon, — a style of building 
frequently used in the fourteenth century, and of which 
similar examples are seen in Caerphilly Castle, of the 
same period as these. The central tower is flanked at 
the corners by small octagonal turrets built in the 
same fashion. 

The walls of the Castle, as will be seen by the plan, 
were nearly at right angles with this front, and en- 
closed an irregular space, one angle at the south-west 
corner being cut off. The walls were surrounded by a 
wide, deep moat, which every high tide must have 



OP NEWPORT CASTLE. 273 

supplied, and must have been crossed by drawbridges 
at the entrances. The western portion of the moat is 
said to have been occupied by the Monmouthshire 
Canal, and the remainder to have been filled up with 
the excavated earth when the Canal was made in 1792. 
The plan of the walls is chiefly taken from that given 
by Coxe ; but whether that plan was made from a sur- 
vey is doubtful, as portions of the main building are 
certainly incorrect ; for he makes the south wall con- 
tinuous the whole way, whereas the wall at Q termi- 
nates abruptly with a flat face, as though there had 
been an opening. The only portions of the waU now 
to be traced (1858) are those shaded in the plan. The 
principal entrance seems to have been on the south 
side; and the south gate, with the towers and defences, 
probably occupied the space between the end of the 
wall Q and the block of old masonry at B, which, from 
its massive thickness, and certain stones which resemble 
portions of steps, looks as though it had been part of a 
tower. If the gate were here, it has been entirely 
removed with the wall between Q and B. The only 
other remaining portion of the wall is a part of the 
north wall, where are several fireplaces, showing that 
there was a range of buildings two stories in height 
against that portion of the wall. 

In the account of the repairs of the Castle in 1448 
WO' find the cost of raising the north wall 3 feet, with 
wall-stones from a quarrv belonging to the lord at 
Stow, that it was finished with battlements, and that 
the crests of these were made of ragstone brought from 
a quarry the other side of the Channel, belonging to 
St. Mary Redcliffe. The whole cost of the work, stone, 
carriage, labour, and all, being £20 : 9 : 3. We also find 
mention made of stone from a quarry at Milne Hill, 
outside the " north gate". 

The north gate was situated at D in the plan, but all 
traces of it have long been removed, and the only record 
of it is the remembrance that some one who once dwelt 
in the Castle claimed a right of way out at that spot. 

6tr 8£r., vol. II. 18 



274 HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 

A drawbridge must have been necessary to cross the 
moat. The north-east tower is still inhabited. It was 
of three stories, the lower chamber being square, the 
two upper octagonal. The entrance to it, at (a), pass- 
ing through the porter's or warder's room to the door- 
way of the lower chamber, and winding stairs lead- 
ing to the upper rooms. This lower chamber was most 
likely a guardroom, as both it and the warder's room 
had loopholes which could command the bridge and 
approach at (d). The upper chamber was very likely 
occupied by the constable of the Castle, an oflScer of 
whom we find mention. 

The staircase is made in the thickness of the wall, 
and both it and the guardroom were lighted by cross 
loopholes, which commanded the water-gate ; and simi- 
lar arrangements were made at the south-east tower. 
There is, therefore, reason to believe that there was 
another gate to the Castle, most probably on the south 
side, for on the opposite side of the road, near where 
the bridge-house stands, was a building called " The 
Long Stables", for the repairs of which we have ac- 
counts. Behind that was the Castle green, whilst 
across the road leading from the bridge were an arch- 
way and gate called '* The Bridge Gate", and was most 
?robably connected with the south gate of the Castle, 
'his archway across the road existed in 1732, when 
Buck's view of the Castle was taken. The bridge across 
the river had always been a timber structure till the 

{)resent stone bridge was erected in 1801, and it is 
ikely that at that time great alterations were made 
about this spot. 

Leaving the exterior walls we now come to a more 
interesting part of the ruins, and by careful examina- 
tion, and the assistance of the Exchequer KoUs for the 
years 1435, 1447, and 1498, which I am so fortunate 
as to have, I think I am enabled to show the general 
arrangement of the interior of the Castle, and appro- 
priate the various apartments to their proper uses, as 
will be seen by reference to the plan and the descrip- 
tive explanation. 



OP NEWPORT CASTLE. 275 

I have the Exchequer Rolls of 1435, 1447, and 1498, 
and there are in the Record Office other similar Rolls. 
In the accounts of 1435 we have the cost of building 
and repairing the tower nigh the bridge ; and in 1447 
we have the cost of the building or repairs of the tower 
called " The Chapel Tower", and the caviera retrcLcta 
adjoining it ; and in 1498 the cost of repairing the 
camera retracta adjoining the Chapel Tower. By these 
accounts we learn that it was a long, narrow chamber 
which ran parallel to the south enH of the hall, and 
joined the Chapel Tower as it is called in the accounts 
of 1447, ''camera retracta turri vocat : le Chapel 
toure annexata." 

From the position of this chamber, and its possible 
connection with other parts of the Castle, there can, I 
think, be no doubt that it was the lord's withdrawing- 
room, to which he would retire from the public hall, 
and where he could diQe in private if he chose. It 
directly communicated, by the turret-stairs, with the 
large room over the chapel. 

The great tower in tte centre, facing the river, was 
the Chapel Tower, on the north side of which were the 
great hall and other apartments looking over the 
river ; and on the other side were the lord's family and 
living chambers, in the upper story ; and the offices 
in the lower part, terminating in the Bridge Tower, 
where, in the two upper chambers, were two charming 
rooms, the upper one having once had a beautiful oak 
roof and ceilings. The Chapel Tower was in the 
middle, and the chapel occupied the whole of the 
middle portion of it ; and it is finely vaulted, very high, 
and of a cruciform shape ; and at each internal corner 
is a small square chamber in the two octagonal turrets, 
probably serving for sacristy or confessional. Above 
the chapel was a very large room, probably the princi- 
pal apartment of the loras suite. The approacn to it 
was by the turret-stairs, marked K on the plan. 
f On the north side of the Chapel Tower, looking on 

the river, was the great hall (p), which occupied nearly 



276 HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 

all the space between the north-east tower and the cen- 
tral or Chapel Tower. Its entire length within the walls 
was 50 feet, and its breadth 26. It had two large 
windows looking on the river, with a large fireplace 
between them, and probably had also windows looking 
into the Castle yard. The chief entrance was at (b), a 
portion of the doorway still remaining. 

The south end wall (o) is altogether gone ; but a 
small portion of it still remaining at (h) shows where 
it had been ; but that is now gone, having been re- 
moved a few days after this survey was made. 

The wooden screen, which always parted off the 
entrance-door from the body of the hall, stood where the 
dotted lines (c and d) are, with doorways as marked 
by those letters ; whilst at (i) is a loop, or narrow win- 
dow, to give light to the dark space behind the screen, 
which was usually covered by a gallery. 

At the south end of the hall was a long, narrow 
chamber, called in the accounts the camera retracta^ 
which I take to be the lord's withdra wing-room, where 
lie retired from the hall, as it also, by the staircase (k), 
communicated with the large apartment over the 
<^apel. 

The kitchen-offices were most probably situated near 
the apartments of the lord, and below them, and near 
the south tower ; but all trace of them has long been 
removed. About twenty or thirty years ago there was 
a prodigious oven discovered there, 12 feet in diameter, 
about 3 feet high in the middle, and 18 inches at 
the sides ; the wall of the vaulted roof was 1 8 inches 
thick ; and the floor was of very thick concrete. It 
appeared to have been new, and not much used. These 
huge ovens are occasionally met with in large castles. 
There is one at Caerphilly, outside the building ; there 
is also one near the entrance of Oystermouth Castle, 
near Swansea; and there is also one of prodigious 
dimensions within the Castle at Ludlow. The baking 
of both bread and meat must have gone on on an im- 
mense scale. I fortunately saw this, and took the 



OP NEWPORT CASTLE. 277 

dimensions of it, and it will be found marked on the 
plan of the Castle. It was, however, necessary to take 
it down to make room for the alterations wnich were 
required ; but it was a sad pity to destroy so fine a 
work. 

In the centre tower, beneath the chapel, was the 
water-gate, or approach to the Castle from the river ; 
and here we have some fine vaults. The water-gate 
consisted of a low drop-archway with plain chamfered 
moulding, stretching across the whole space between 
the square bases from which the octagonal turrets at 
the corners rise. Its width is 18 feet ; and it was de- 
fended by three portcullises, which must have been 
drawn irp into the chapel above, probably behind the 
altar. There is a similar case in the Castle at Chep- 
stow, where the small portcullis was drawn up behind 
the altar in the small oratory of the apartments of the 
castellan or chief officer of the Castle. The water-gate 
opens into a lofty vault, 46 feet long, into which a boat 
could enter at high water. At the western end, on the 
north side, is a vault, 24 feet by 12, for the stowage of 
goods brought by boats; opposite to which was the 
access to the court-yard of the Castle by steps on an 
inclined plane, as shown on the plan of the Castle. 

The south gate, of which not a trace exists, was cer- 
tainly the principal entrance to the Castle ; and there 
must, in all probability, have been a gate-house, cer- 
tainly with towers and drawbridge, if the moat ex- 
tended so far ; but as every trace has been for a long 
time swept away, it is vain to conjecture what may 
have been there. 

On the plan I have suggested ideas of what may 
have been the internal arrangements from traces of the 
passages and buildings which I saw, and all that I saw 
in solid masonry is shaded in the plan ; the other out- 
lines are conjectured from a continuation of the walls 
in actual existence. 



278 HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION 



PLAN OF NEWPORT CASTLE. 

Beferencefi to the Plan of the Castle of Newport, on the Usk, in the 
County of Monmonth, made from accurate Measurements by 
Octavius Morgan, Esq., M.P., F.S.A., and F. J. Mitchell, Esq. 
1858. Scale, 12 feet to 1 inch. 

Length of river-firont, 228 fb. ; north-east tower,. 80 ft. : south- 
east tower, 82 fb. ; central or Chapel Tower, 40 fb. ; curtain-wall of 
hall, 65 ft. ; curtain-wall between chapel and south-east tower, 61 ft. 
Total, 228 ft. 

The shaded parts show the portions of the walls which then ex- 
isted ; the entire lines, the walls as given by Coxe ; and the dotted 
lines, conjectural continuations and arrangements of the buildings. 

A. Great courtyard or bailey of the Castle. 

B. Walls of the Castle enclosing the bailey. These were sur- 
rounded by a wide and deep moat which was filled at high water. 
These walls are as given in Coxe's plan ; but he shows no opening 
in the south wall for a gate. All the walls, except the parts shaded, 
are now destroyed. 

C. The south gate and principal entrance (oot shown in Coxe*s 
plan) were probably hereabouts. 

D. The north gate, shown in Coxe and mentioned in documents. 

E. North-east tower ; (a), entrance and winding stairs. 

F. Great hall ; (b), principal entrance ; (c, d), site of screen 
across hall, with openings at (c and d) ; (e), fireplace with chimney, 
now removed. 

G. Wall at south end of hall, separating it from H. 

H. A long, narrow apartment called in documents camera re- 
tracta. 

I. Central or Chapel Tower, entirely occupied by the chapel, 
having in the comer turrets two small, square, vaulted chambers 
(f and g). 

K. Turret-stairs leading to larg^ square room over chapel. 

L. Supposed continuation of chapel westward, or antechapel. 

M. Chamber similar to H, approached by L and N. 

N. A narrow passage in the thickness of the wall, leading to O. 

0. South-east tower, containing the principal apartments of the 
Castle, for the use of the lord and his family. 

P. Turret-stairs communicating with those apartments, the roof 
of tower, and passage along the top of wall, Q. 

Q. Portion of south wall approached from staircase, P, having a 
walk or passage on the top which probably communicated with the 
towers and buildings of the south gate. 

E. A large, low, circular, vaulted chamber resembling a vast 
oven, 12 feet diameter, and 3 feet high ; probably connected with 
the kitchens, which most likely were in this part of the Castle. 
Similar large ovens are met with at Caerphilly, Oystermonth, and 
Ludlow Castles, but usually outside the walls, as if additions. 



OF NEWPORT OASTLE. 279 

S. Site of the entrance (now closed) of the passage which de- 
scended to the vaults and water-gate beneath the Chapel Tower. 

T. Conjectured west wall of chapel. 

Y. Conjectnred wall enclosing in a conrt the kitehens and other 
domestic buildings. 

W. Conjectured covered way from kitehen to hall. 

X. Conjectured position of the buildings of south gate and offices. 

h. Entrance from hall to camera retracta, which was the lord's 
withdrawing-room, to which he retired from the hall. 

i Small loop or window to give light to the space behind the 
screen of the hall, over which was freqaently a gallery. 

It is most probable that the lord's chancery, exchequer, and other 
government offices, and also barracks for his troops, if he had any, 
would be within the Castle walls. 



ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH, NEWPORT, 
MONMOUTHSHIRK^ 

St. Woollos' Church has ever been regarded by anti- 
quaries, and, indeed, by all who have paid attention 
to it, as one of the most curious, interesting, and re- 
markable churches not only in this neighbourhood, but 
also in the Principality. For this reason the intended 
repairs and restoration have induced me to make a 
careful examination of it with a view to preserve an 
accurate account of its present architectural condition 
and peculiarities, by pointing out not only what actu- 
ally exists, and is seen, but also recording any disco- 
veries which may be made during the progress of the 
works. I hope I shall be able to show that this church 
is still more curious and interesting than it has hitherto 
been considered, and I shall at the same time endeavour 
to trace out and elucidate its progress and history. 

The church of St. WooUos is remarkable on many 
accounts : first, from its fine position, standing, as it 
does, on the summit of a lofty hill, commanding a most 
extensive and magnificent panoramic view, and being 
itself a landmark and a prominent feature in the land- 
scape from a vast tract of country ; secondly, from the 
great and unusual length of the building as a simple 

^ Written in 1854, before the restoration. 



280 ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 

parish church, being 165 feet ; thirdly, from its highly 
picturesque exterior and outline, arising from the num- 
ber and variety of its gabled roofs of diflferent heights ; 
and lastly, from the extraordinary interposition of a 
small, low building between the tower and the main 
body of the churcn, usually called St. Mary's Chapel. 
This portion of the church has ever been an enigma to 
all who have studied it, nor has its position as yet ever 
been satisfactorily explained or accounted for. I hope, 
however, by the joint aid of history and its archi- 
tecture to be enabled to throw some light upon this 
mysterious place : at least I shall hazard a new con- 
jecture as to its histoiy, and endeavour to show the 
grounds on which I have based such conjecture. 

The church is divided, in its length, into five parts : 
the tower, the so-called St. Mary s Chapel, the great 
body of the church (consisting of the nave and aisles), 
a certain prolongation of the nave, and the chancel at 
its extreme east end. These we will consider in their 
chronological order, by which plan we shall have a con- 
secutive history of the church, and shall see how and 
when the alterations and additions were made to it. 

The patron saint to whom the church is dedicated is 
St. WooUos, and a reference to his history will, I think, 
be necessary to enable us to elucidate the history of 
the church. The proper and original name of our 
Saint Was St. GwynUyw (in I^atin, "Sanctus Gundleus"), 
afterwards corrupted into St. WooUos. All the accounts 
of him agree in the facts of his being a person of great 
sanctity, who lived at the end of the sixth century, 
and who dwelt and built a church in that part of the 
country called Gwentloog, but said to have been called 
after him Gwynllywawc, and that he died and was 
buried there. The most detailed history of him, how- 
ever, is given in the life published by the Welsh MSS. 
Society, in the Lives of the Cambro- British Saints, from 
an ancient MS. of the thirteenth or fourteenth century 
in the British Museum ; and as this history will be of 
assistance in the elucidation of our subject, I shall give 
a short abstract of some of the principal facts recoraed. 



ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 281 

St. Gwynlly w was the son of Glywys ap Tegid ap 
Cadell, and was chieftain of that part of the country 
now called Wentllwch ; but which some say was called 
after him Gwynllywawc, and thence Wentloog ; pro- 
perly, however, Gwentllwch. He married Gwladys, 
daughter of Brychan, King of Brycheiniog, and had a 
numerous family. Being a person of great sanctity he 
was instructed by an angel, in a vision, to go and seek 
for a mount where he should find a white ox having a 
black spot on his forehead ; which mount, when he had 
found it, should become his country. He obeyed these 
instructions, and travelled till he came to the mount 
where he met with such a white ox. There he re- 
mained, built a habitation, marked out a burying-place, 
in the midst of which he built a church with boards 
and rods (" tabulis et virgis fundavit templum"), which 
he visited with frequent prayers. This spot has always 
been believed to be the site of our church. Here he 
continued to live, practising great austerities. One 
day, complaining of the dryness of the soil, he pierced 
the ground with his stick, and a spring of water gushed 
out and continued to flow without intermission, and 
was afterwards called Gwynlly w's Well. At length he 
died, and his body was " buried in the pavement of the 
church, where angelic visitation is frequently seen, and 
persons sick of divers disorders are cured of every com- 
plaint." 

The next historical fact recorded is that in the time 
of Griflith ap Cynan, King of all Wales, Edward the 
Confessor being King of England, merchants frequently 
came from England and exchanged merchandise in the 
harbour at the mouth of the Usk. After the business 
was accomplished they paid toll. Having refused to 
do so on one occasion, Rigrit, son of Imor, went to the 
harbour, cut the rope from their anchor, and carried 
off and deposited the anchor m the church of St. Gwyn- 
lly w. The merchants complained of this to Earl Harold, 
who came with a force and ravaged the country. The 
alarmed inhabitants brought their valuable property, 
and deposited it for safety in the Church of St. Gwyn- 



282 ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 

Uy w, which was full of garments, provisions, and many 
valuable things. The followers of Earl Harold about 
1060 broke the loch of the churchy and plundered it 
The anchor, however, which was the cause of the rob- 
bery, was not seen, though it was in the church ; but 
some cheeses, when cut, appeared bloody within. This 
supposed miracle so alarmed the plunderers and Harold 
that they restored everything they had taken. Harold 
(who was then probably living at or near Portskewet) 
was shortly after conquered at the battle of Hastings. 

Ednowain, from North Wales, a friend of Caradoc, 
King of Glamorgan, being excited by the persuasion 
of the Devil, one night broke the lock, and got into the 
church of the holy Gwynllyw, stole the cup and the 
ecclesiastical vestments. For this he was struck with 
idiocy, and dressed himself up in the sacerdotal vest- 
ments, and was found by the priests in that state. 

Certain Norman knights having entered into a con- 
spiracy against William, the old King of England, on 
being discovered fled to Oaradoc, King of Glamorgan. 
The King, William (the Conqueror), hearing whither 
they had fled, sent to Caradoc to demand that he 
should deliver them up or expel them from his domi- 
nions. This he refused, and the King sent his son, 
William Rufus, with a large force into Glamorgan, 
which was laid waste. The army, on their return, 
rested one night in tents about the Church of St. Gwyn- 
llyw, the town being empty of men, who had fled to 
the woods for safety. The men fared abundantly from 
the corn in the houses ; but at the intercession of St. 
Gwynllyw no food could be got for the horses, who 
would not eat the oats. This miracle having been seen, 
William Consul among the first offered valuable gifts 
to God and the church ; and they returned to England, 
and related in magnificent terms the noble intercession 
of St. Gwynllyw.^ 

^ We insert here the following note npon St. Woollos Chnrch, 
from a paper written by the late Mr. Wakeman :— 

** This chnrch was plundered by Irish pirates in 864, and by the 
Danes in 875 ; again by Earl Harold and his Saxons in the reign 



ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 283 

So much for the original foundation of the church, 
on which I consider its subsequent history greatly de- 
pends. We have seen that tne Jirst structure, erected 
at the end of the sixth century, was a wooden church 
built with boards and rods, probably wattled work. 
This was in due course replaced by a stone structure, 
and enlarged from time to time. It was a church where 
miracles had been performed, and was therefore held in 
great veneration. What was its architecture cannot be 
told ; but my impression has always been that the mys- 
terious building between the greater Norman church 
and the later Perpendicular tower was the site of the 
original church of St. WooUos ; that it had ever been 
venerated and preserved, first by the Normans, and 
later when the Perpendicular tower was added at the 
west end ; in fact, that it had been considered as a very 
ancient church of peculiar sanctity, and treated in the 
same way as the Chapel of St. Joseph pf Arimathea at 
Glastonbury ; and a larger new church erected and 
added at the east end by the Normans, in a way simi- 
lar to that in which that great Abbey Church was 

of Edward the Confessor ; and entirely destroyed by Caradoo ap 
Griffith ap Rhjdderch, lord of Caerleon, in the reign of William the 
Conqueror, who gave the Chnrch of St. Gnnlens to Gloucester 
Abbey, the year uncertain, but the gifb was confirmed by King 
Stephen in 1138. The chnrch was, no donbt, rebuilt by the monks 
of Gloucester, who appropriated the great tithes, and placed here a 
yicar, who was occasionally assisted by one or two monks sent from 
Gloucester for recreation or change of air, as appears by a very 
curious document in the possession of the kite Sir Thomas Phillips 
of Middle Hill, unfortunately imperfect. 

" In the Gloucester Cartulary is the following entry : — 

" * De Novo Bnrgo. Dominus Willelmns Junior Bex apud Glou- 
oestriam, morbo grayi vexatus, dedit Deo et EcclesisB Sancti Petri 
Gloucestriae Ecclesiam Sancti Gnndeley deNovo Burgo cum xv hidis. 

" ' BK>bertus filius Omeri dedit Ecclesiea Sancti Gnndeley de Novo 
Burgo decimam molendini sui de Ebboth. Milo filius suns confir- 
mavit. 

" * Morganus filius Morgani dedit quadraginta acras terrse ecde- 
siea de Novo Burgo in Mora de Goldeclyve tempore Serlonis Abbatis. 

" ' Ecclesia Sancti Gnndeley de Novo Burgo in curia domini Theo- 
baldi Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi monachis Gloucestriae adjndicata 
est et postea Willelmi Comitis Gloucestrise confirmatiooe donata 
tempore Hamelini Abbatis.' 



> f 9 



284 ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 

added to the east end of the earlier and highly vene- 
rated Chapel of St. Joseph ; and thus the small Church 
of St. Woollos has, in consequence of the veneration in 
which it was originally held, been preserved to the pre- 
sent day ; probably, in the first place, as a narthex or 
porch of entrance to the larger church which was added 
to the east end of it by making the entrance where the 
apse or chancel-arch was, and where the fine Norman 
archway now is. This is, I think, evident, and proved 
from the fact that the Norman archway (of which we 
give an illustration engraved by Mr. Worthington G. 
Smith from a photograph taken by Mr. W. H. Banks) 
has never been an outer doorway. It is too wide for 
a door, and there are no marks of there ever having 
been hinges in the wall, no hole for a large sliding bar 
to fasten the door (if there ever had been one), and the 
stones of the mouldings, columns, and capitals, can 
never have been exposed to the outer air as they are 
not in the least weathered. 

I can, therefore, come to no other conclusion but that 
St. Mary 8 Chapel is on the site of the church which 
St. Woollos built on the top of the hill, and is the oldest 
•part of the structure, though probably repaired and 
enlarged at various times ; and that the other buildings 
have been added on down the hiU at the east end, and 
the tower added on at the west end at a later period. 
It is only of late years that this chapel has been opened 
and used as an entrance ; for the church was the last 
building in the town, there not having been a single 
house on the west of the church, and down to 1818 it 
was only used as a burial-place. In that year, however, 
much repair was done to the church, and I am told 
that the windows in St. Mary's Chapel, which were 
very small and narrow, were considerably enlarged, and 
the walls repaired ; but I can get no information as to 
their peculiar character. 

I conclude, therefore, that this is the ancient church 
founded by St. Woollos, and that though the stones 
may have been renewed, it is, perhaps, the most ancient 



ST. WOOLLOS CHURCH. 285 

place of worship in England. As a proof of its anti- 
quity, it may be remarked that the side-walls are not 
parallel, and the junction of the new Norman wall with 
the previous one could be observed when the repairs 
were being made. Within there is some arcading of 
rude late work, but nothing to fix a date. 



This" archway is very remarkable from the fact that 
though the mouldings of the arch are Norman, and 
very fine, the detached columns which support them 
are^jRoman, or were very probably copied, if not actu- 



286 ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 

ally brought from, some Boman remains at Caerleon. 
This is shown by the fact that the capitals are debased 
Corinthian or composite. At the top of the shaft is 
the Boman apophysis ; and the shaft, which is too large 
for Norman, enlarges with the classical or Boman enta- 
sis. The lower apophysis has been cut off to shorten 
the column, the lower part of which rests on a double 
Attic torus, and that on a plinth. 

In the New Series of the Archceologia Canibrensis 
(1851), Mr. Freeman has written a long account and 
description of this arch, and he there remarks on its 
inexplicable peculiarities. Only two sides of each capi- 
tal are seen (they being square, and standing in an 
angle), and they look as if the large, coarse leaves had 
been cut away to introduce some religious subjects. On 
one side there seems to be a representation of the 
Creation and the Trinity, the creating Father being 
represented by an open hand, the impersonation of the 
Son by a human face, the Holy Ghost by a dove, 
beneath which is an orb to represent the Spirit of God 
moving on the face of the waters. On the adjoining 
side is shown the fall of man, by the expulsion from 
Paradise by a rude figure of a person with a sword 
driving away a man. On the other capital are shown 
figures holdmg up the arms as if in torments ; and on 
the fourth side a figure holding a palm-branch, ascend- 
ing, and conducted by the Dove over the globe. 

Mr. Freeman seems to fancy the building to have 
been a western Lady Chapel ; but I can hardly think 
that a Lady Chapel would have been tacked on to a 
larger church, especially of such rude construction, and 
so become simply a passage to the larger church. There 
does not appear to have been any bell-tower to the 
Norman church ; but there may have been a bell-cot at 
the west end of the gable of what I call St. WooUos' 
original church. 

This Norman arch is now closed by a wooden door, 
and made the principal entrance into the church. It 
leads down by two steps into one of the most perfect 



ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 287 

and beautiful Norman naves to be seen. The Church 
of St. WooUos was at a very early period given to the 
Abbey of Gloucester, and the Norman nave was most 
probably built by the abbot and monks ; but it may 
nave been built by Robert Earl of Gloucester, natural 
son of Henry I, and frequently called Robert Consul. 
He married Mabel, daughter and heiress of Robert 
Fitz-Hamon, the original conqueror of the district of 
Wentloog ; by which marriage he became possessed of 
the country, and lord of Wentloog. 

It consists of an arcade of five arches with clerestory 
quite perfect, and the corbels now remaining in the 
aisle and the clerestory windows above them show that 
there were originally lean-to aisles. At the east end 
must have been the high altar ; but that wall has been 
cut through to lengthen the church, in the Decorated 
period, as portions of arches show. A Decorated chapel, 
probably a Lady chapel, which now forms the chancel, 
was added ; but the great east wall was not cut through 
for an arch, but only an opening about 15 fe.et high 
made; the wall above resting on a horizontal bresumner- 
beam, having above it a singing-gallery approached by 
a turret-staircase. It was when the church was re- 
stored, in 1852, that this wall was cut through, and a 
chancel-arch formed. The chancel, as already stated, 
was originally Decorated ; but had a poor, debased Per- 
pendicular window at the east end. The walls and 
windows were defective, and it was necessary to re- 
build them. The chancel is, therefore, nearly all new ; 
but the tracery of the side-windows was carefully 
copied, and shows the style ; a new Decorated east win- 
dow inserted; and the whole church was newly roofed, 
the old ceiling having been rough lath and plaster. 

In 1403 Wentloog and Newport were ravaged by 
Owen Glyndwr, and the Castle, town, and church were 
burnt. Early, however, in the century it was repaired, 
and new aisles erected, with the beautiful, large, Per- 
pendicular windows which now exist, and they are 
beautiful examples of the work. By whom I cannot 



288 ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 

say ; but in the small lights of the tracery there existed, 
in coloured glass, the badge and knots of the Stafford 
family, Henry Stafford, second Duke of Buckingham 
being lord of WentUwch and Newport at that time. 





Stafford Badge. Kjxot. 

The lower story of the tower was then added to the 
west end of St. WooUos, or, as it was called, St. Mary's 
Chapel. The tower was then only built up one story, 
as the architecture of the large window shows. 

In the latter part of the fifteenth century Henry VII 
reversed the attainder of Henry Stafford, Duke of 
Buckingham, who had been beheaded. Henry VIII 
granted the lordship of Wentloog to his widow, Katha- 
rine. She married Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, and 
he, in right of his wife, became Lord Marcher of Went- 
loog. He seems to have had a fancy for church build- 
ing, for he built the great tower at Llandaff Cathedral 
which goes by his name, and I have strong reason for 
considering the completion of the tower of St. WooUos 
to have been his work, and that the statue upon it is 
his statue. It is a very rare thing to have a statue of 
an individual on a church tower. There is one at 
Shrewsbury. The tower is of three stories, with angu- 
lar buttresses at each comer, having two sets-off in each 
story ; and the buttresses continue up to the top of 
the battlements, and form a square bea on the top, as 
if it had been intended for a small pinnacle. The door- 
way and window in the lower story correspond in every 
particular with the large Perpendicular window of the 
aisles erected in the early part of the fifteenth century; 



ST. WOOLLOS CHURCH. 



289 



but the windows in the two upper stories are small, 
square-headed, two-light windows of- the latter end of 
the century ; and there is also a perceptible difference 
in the masonry. In the middle story is a small, single- 
light window above the two-light, and dose below the 
stringcourse which divides the stories. 

Just above this window is a round bracket on which 
stands a statue of a figure in armour, beneath a canopy, 
which is in front of the 
upper windows. This figure 
is in the armour of the lat- 
ter part of the fifteenth 
century.andtimeofHenry 
VII, and the figure wears 
a mantle fastened over the 
breast in a clasp or morse. 
The head, however, is want- 
ing : it is said to have been 
torn down at the time of 
the civil war by the fol- 
lowers of Cromwell. 

In the centre of the up- 
per stringcourse, below the 
battlements, is a shield of 
arms, viz., three trumpets, 
or clarions in pale. They are 
clearly and distinctly trum- 
pets. This is on the west 
side. On the north side of 
the tower is a similar shield 
bearing the cross of St. 
George ; and on the south 
side is a similar shield 
bearing the large double 
Tudor rose, one rose on 
another. I am strongly in- 
clined to consider this to be 
a statue of Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, and uncle 
to Henry VII. The wearing a mantle indicates him to 




&TH a IB.. TOL. II. 



19 



290 



ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 



be a Knight of the Garter ; the arms of St. Geoige 8 
cross borne by the Knight of the Garter on the mantles, 
and the other shield bearing the royal Tudor badge, 
the double rose, the red superimposed on the white. 
None but a royal personage would have borne oi put 
up that badge. 






Now for the arms of the three trumpets. I can find 
no such coat, and can only imagine that they may have 
been chosen for a compliment or memorial to Robert 
Earl of Gloucester, frequently called Robert Consul, 
who was the first Lord Marcher of WentUwch by mar- 
rying the heiress of Robert Fitz-Hamon, and in whose 
time the Norman church was built. His arms are called 
three rests, organs, clarions, or other things, which 
no heralds seem to understand. The word clarion is 
always understood to mean a trumpet, except in the 
parlance of heralds. What these trumpets may signify 
I should be glad to learn, but have never met with any 
one who can tell. 



MONUMENTS. 

There are a few ancient monuments in the church, 
but they have in past times been sadly mutilated; pro- 
bably, in the first instance, in the time of the civil wars 
of the Commonwealth, and subsequently neglected 
because no one knew to whom they belonged, or cared 
to inquire. The oldest is a figure of a cross-legged 
knight with long heater-shield in sandstone, sadly mu- 
tilated. There is, however, a small, single flower of 
foliage, which together with the armour and position 



ST. WOOLLOS' CHURCH. 291 

exactly correspond with the monument in Salisbury- 
Cathedral, erected to William Longsp6e, Earl of Salis- 
buiT, which fixes its date to be about- 1226 ; and that 
enables me to identify him with William de BerkeroUes, 
grandson of Roger de BerkeroUes. The latter was one 
of the Norman knights who aided Robert Fitz-Hamou 
in the conquest of Glamorgan, received the grant of 
the manor, and built the Castle of Rogerstone, near 
Newport, to which he gave his name. There is a 
female figure of the same date, which may have been 
his wife. Roger de BerkeroUes helped to form and 
endow the parish of Bassaleg. 

There are also the mutilated remains of an alabaster 
monument which once existed in the church, to the 
memory of Sir John Morgan of Tredegar, Knight of the 
Holy Sepulchre, who died in 1491 ; and his wife, who 
was th^ daughter and heiress of David Matthew of 
Llandaff. These are sadly mutilated, some of the ala- 
baster having been used in bygone days for burning 
into plaster. An angel, however, bearing a shield of 
arms, remained among the fragments, which enabled 
me to identify the person represented. The figure is 
in armour, and wears a collar of SS, to which is ap- 
pended a small Maltese cross. He is also said to have 
been a Knight of Rhodes, and to have gone on a pil- 
grimage to the Holy Land, and made an offering to the 
Sepulchre.^ 

There is also another monument, of the body of a 
man lying beneath a canopy, with various coats of arms 
sculptured on the stone, which proves it to have been 
the tomb of Sir Walter Herbert of St. Julian's, of the 
time of Queen Elizabeth. 

C. O. S. Morgan. 

* See Arch. Gamh», Series V, vol. i, p. 40, for a poem in his 
honour by Gwilym Tew. 



io« 



292 



CAERLEON, MONMOUTHSHIEE.^ 

This old city is greatly honoured by your presence. 
Deserted almost for ages, your visit here to-day brings 
back to one's mind some of its former glories, when it 
could boast of its seat of learning, its archbishop's see, 
and of it being the home of chivalrous deeds. The 
memory of these yet lingers, and inspires, as of yore, 
noble thoughts which have but recently found expres- 
sion in some of the sweetest poetry of the present aga 
Long before the Roman came, ere the universal con- 
queror set foot upon the soil of Britain, Caerwysk (for 
that was its old British name) was a place of some im- 

Eortance, and was said to have been built by Belinus after 
e and his brother Brennus had invaded Gaul, Italy, and 
Germany. Then Belinus returned toBritain, where, when 
he came, he repaired old and decayed cities, and also 
built a new one on the river Usk, near to Severn, called 
Caerusk ; and afterwards the " City of the Legion", 
because in the time of Claudius Csesar divers Roman 
legions were there billeted and lodged, — now called 
Caerleon. He also built a harbour or small haven for 
ships to ride in, in Troynovant, in the summit at top 
whereof stood a vessel of brass, in which, after his death, 
his burnt ashes were inclosed, which still retains the 
name of Billingsgate. 

Caerleon, then, may be said to date from about B.c. 
300. Whilst an old British city it must have grown 
into some importance, for when the Romans came it 
was presided over by an Arch-Flamen, of which there 
were three in Britain ; the sees of these Arch-Flamen 
being three of the most noble cities in Britain, which 
were London, Everwick, and the " City of Legions", on 
the river Usk, in the county of Monmouth ; which " is a 

^ Read on the visit of the Association, August 25, 18S5. 



CAERLEON. 293 

place delicious, and passing in riches all other cities'^ as 
we are told by an old French writer. And it was here 
Caractacus held his court some two or three centuries 
before King Arthurs time. 

During the Roman occupancy of Britain its import- 
ance was increased. It became the headquarters of the 
second legion of Augustus, with Vespasian at their 
head, and Roman civilisation became engrafted on the 
old British city ; and \yhen Giraldus came to it, be- 
tween seven hundred and eight hundred years after 
the Romans had left, he described it by saying " it was 
of undoubted antiquity, and handsomely built of brick. 
Many vestiges of its former splendour may yet be seen; 
immense palaces ornamented with gilded roofs, in imi- 
tation of Roman magnificence ; a tower of prodigious 
size ; remarkable hot baths ; relics of temples and thea- 
tres, enclosed within fine walls, parts of which remain 
standing. You will find on all sides, both within and 
without the circuit of the walls, subterranean vaults 
and aqueducts ; and what I think most worthy of no- 
tice, stoves constructed with wonderful art to transmit 
the heat insensibly through narrow tubes." 

This old city is intimately associated with the intro- 
duction of Christianity into the island. It was under 
Vespasian's fostering care, the lieutenant-general of the 
second legion, that St. Joseph of Arimathea and his 
companions came to Britain ; and it was through his 
entreaty with the then King and Queen of Britain, 
Arviragus and Genissa, those favours and freedoms 
which by our histories he enjoyed at Glastonbury, were 
bestowed upon him; for thus speaking of Vespasian, 
John Harding says,— 

'' With whom Joseph, fall holy and wise, 
Of Arimathea, with his followers fourteen. 
Into this land came, and gave content ; 
For whom so then Vespasian praj'd the King, 
The Qneen also, to him to be good Lord 
And good Lady, which they granted in all things. 
When Vespasian returned to Rome, home again, 
The King indued Joseph in Mcatrine." 



294 GAEELEON. 

If, as some authors state, St. Peter went to Britain, 
and there made a long stay, the probability is that he 
came here. In this city, saith a French author, King 
Lucius was bom, and the old school founded by him 
brought forth many noble martyrs. St. Amphibalus, 
who converted St. Alban, was born and bred and in- 
structed in learning, and was living here probably 
when the Diocletian persecution began, when St. Julian 
and St. Aaron were martyred ; and this before St. Am- 
phibalus fled from Caerleon, and was entertained by 
St. Alban. 

On the south-west, the first Christian martyrs that 
ever suffered in Britain, SS. Julian and Aaron, have 
consecrated the spot, and the name of St. Julian still 
points out the place of their martyrdom. St. Gildas 
describes them as ^'summa magnanimitate in acie 
Christi prsestantes". They were greatly honoured by 
the Christians of that time with churches dedicated to 
them, pilgrimages to the place of martyrdom, and both 
here and in other places honoured, invoked, and prayed 
unto fervently upon the ceasing of the persecution. 

Of these churches there are no traces left ; indeed, 
with the exception of the Roman wall at its south-east 
angle, the amphitheatre, the base of the Giant's Tower, 
and the contents of the Museum, there is little beyond 
history and tradition to tell us of the former magnifi- 
cence of Caerleon. 

After the Romans had left, it became the metropoli- 
tan see of St. Dubritius and St. David ; and there is 
still hovering about the old city a halo of romance, 
especially within these walls, as being the very spot 
where King Arthur held his court, and where he kept 
the Feast of Whitsuntide. It was here he was crowned, 
and here yet remains the base of the gigantic tower 
which was without the Palace, and into which the old 
writers tell us King Arthur and his knights withdrew 
to discuss the matter of paying more tribute to Rome, 
concerning which ambassadors had arrived whilst the 
festivities of the coronation were going on. Around 



CAERLEON. 295 

the mound upon which the gigantic tower Giraldus 
speaks of stood, there was a moat. The base of one of 
the towers which supported the drawbridge may yet be 
seen ; and nearly forty years ago a large building was 
discovered, described by Mr. Lee as a Roman villa, the 
lower part of some columns from which are placed near 
the walk as you ascend the mound. Proceeding to- 
wards the top you will observe the place where 

" Arthur had the jousts 
Down in the flat field by the shore of Usk 
Holden. The gilded parapets were crowned 
With faces, and the great tower filled with eyes 
Up to the summit, and the trumpets blew." 

This was probably the spot, also, where, as Lord Trede- 
gar told us on Monday, the races were held in the 
Roman times. When you arrive at the top you will 
observe the same kind of flag King Arthur used as his 
banner in 516, at the battle of Mount Badon, as Bede, 
Nennius, and Henry of Huntingdon, all allude to. The 
Annates CambricB say thus, " Bellum Badonis in quo 
Arthur porta vit crucem Domini Nostri lesu Christi : 
tribus diebus et tribus noctibus humeros sues, et Brit- 
tones victores fuerunt"; and ever after assumed this 
ensign for his arms instead of the dragon which he had 
borne before. 

You will observe with especial interest also, towards 
the north-east, a church now called Llanhinnock, the 
place where Taliesin " of the radiant brow" the chief 
of the Bards, erected a church, and dedicated it to the 
name of his father, St. Henwg, who went to Rome on 
a mission to Constantine the Blessed, requesting he 
would send St. Germanus and St. Lupus to Britain to 
strengthen the faith, and renew baptism there. The 
large stones you will see are the only relics of the 
gigantic tower. ** Sic transit gloria mundi." The tra- 
dition is, that this tower was so high that from its top 
you could see the Bristol Channel over the Christchurch 
Hills ; and in the Enid Tennyson says : 

" Now thrice that morning Guinevere had climh'd 
The GKant Tower, from whose high crest, they say, 



Men aaw the goodly faille of Somerset, 
And white sails flying on the yellow sea ; 
But not to goodly faiU or yellow sea 
Loot'd the fair Qneen, but np the Yale of Usk, 
By the flat meadow, till she saw them come, 
And then descending, met them at the gates ; 
Embraced her with aJl welcome as a firiend. 
And did her hononr as the Prince's bride. 
And clothed her for faer bridal like tfae sun. 
And all that week was old Caerleon g^, 
For by the hands of Dnbric, the high Saint, 
They twain were wedded with all ceremony." 

After the sixth century all we learn of Caerleon is 
that the Danes occasionally plundered the town, and 
ravaged the district, that in 958 and 962 King Edgar 
visited it, that he arranged the disputes between Mor- 
gan and Owen ap Howel Dda, and got as a tribute 
from Morgan one hundred cows annuwly. What with 
the attacks of the Saxons, the Danes, and the continual 
quarrels with the lords of Caerleon and the Princes of 
South Wales, it must have been a place of almost con- 
stant warfara In 976 the Danes entirely destroyed 
the city, and it was no better after the Normans came. 
Sometimes held by them, and then retaken again, at 
last, in 1217, William Marshall the elder got possession 
of the Castle. In 1231, however, Llewelyn attacked it, 
and after much fighting destroyed the garrison, and 
burnt the Castle to the ground. 

ROBT. F. WOOLLBTT. 

Kewport, Angast 26th, 1885. 



CAERLEON SEAL. 



297 



CAERLEON ON USK.^ 

It is not often that antiquaries in these days have an 
opportunity of getting so interesting an insight into 
the works and ways and old memorials of the Ilomans 
in Britain as may be enjoyed at the famous Isca Silu- 
rum. It is in the Koman associations of this ancient 
station of the second Augustan legion^ who were in 
barracks here for years, and in the evidence of this 
occupation, which is afforded by coins of the late Roman 
emperors, by tesselated pavements and Samian ware ; 
by objects in bronze and iron, glass, enamel, bone, and 
ivory, intended for ornament or use ; and especially in 
memorial tablets, commemorative, votive, and sepul- 
chral, that the interest of Caerleon chiefly consists ; and 
every one interested in such things cannot do better 
than study at Caerleon the reflnement and civilisation 
of the lives of the Romans in Britain. 

The Via Julia, which ran from Caerleon, through 
Caerwent, to Chepstow or Caldecot^ to cross the Chan- 
nel, may still be traced in the neighbourhood ; and 
along its route, after the Roman fashion, have been dis- 
covered tokens of ancient sepulture, suggesting the 
exact fitness of the epigraphic adjuration, " Siste, via- 
tor/' The immediate neighbourhood, which in Roman 
and later times must have been richly wooded, and is 
described as having been a very bower of trees, has for- 
tunately escaped the invasion of the iron trade ; and 
in tracing the old walls, whose mortar is stiU binding, 
through the cementing property of its pounded brick 
element, the visitor roams over the greenest of mea- 
dows. 

^ We have much pleasure in reprinting here, with the kind per- 
mission of the Editor, Mr. W. F. Pollock, an article which appeared 
in The Saturday Review of 4th December 1875, written by oar late 
valued member, the Boy. James Da vies of Moor Court. 



298 GAERLEON ON USK. 

The chief points of interest are in private grounds 
or in the excellent local Museum ; but the modem 
occupants of Caerleon are the very reverse of churlish 
as regards access to their old memorials ; and from Mr. 
J. E. Lee, the owner of the Priory, and author of that 
very thorough monograph (now out of print), entitled 
Isca Silurum, down to the cottage-dweller who has a 
brick with a Koman stamp upon it in his coal-yard, all 
evince a worthy pride in facilitating and rendering 
pleasant the visits of the curious. A hasty or indolent 
visitor will, perhaps, find it enough to spend two or 
three hours in the Museum, where local pride and 
energy have collected many curious mementoes of our 
Eroman conquerors and civilisers; but it needs no 
great effort of pedestrianism to reach the hamlet of 
Bulmore, little more than a mile from Caerleon, on the 
Caerwent road, where have been found a large number 
of sepulchral stones. The Castle grounds, where a 
Boman villa with a series of baths, flues, and drains, 
was laid open, are within the walls and precincts ; and 
the amphitheatre is just without the walls, in a field 
to the left of the Broadway, still telling its history 
and original use with sufl&cient clearness, even if we 
ignore the discovery there of numbers of small tessersB 
which, Mr. King thinks, cannot have formed part of a 
tesselated pavement, as such a work would have suc- 
cumbed to the severity of British winters ; and the 
very curious collateral testimony of the name of a field 
next adjacent, and immediately opposite, the " Bear- 
House Field"; a name surely significant of its having 
been the place appropriated to the animals destined 
for the sports of the amphitheatre. 

But the concentrated interest of Caerleon is in the 
Museum, and in it the inscriptions claim foremost 
notice. Amongst them are seeming anomalies, such as 
the rude, conventional palm -branch, bespeaking a 
Christian Roman, on a stone where the first letters are 
D.M. {Dlis manibus) ; and such barbarisms of stone- 
cutting as vixsit and vicsit, for vixit. But as regards 



CAERLEON ON USK. 299 

the first, many parallels in the epigraphy of the Cata- 
combs testify to the survival of thie pagan formula for 
several Christian centuries ; and as to the second, no 
one acquainted with Britanno-Roman inscriptions will 
credit the engravers with having been purists as to 
orthography. Amongst the minor curiosities of the 
sepulchral stone class is the record of the age of a vete- 
ran, Julius Valens, who centum annis vixit ; and the 
problem of another inscription from the wall of the 
ruined bath-house near Caerleon, which was a puzzle 
to antiquaries for years, was solved in the space of a 
few weeks coincidentally by Mr. Boach Smith, Mr. 
Franks, and Dr. McCaid, wno each and all hit upon 
the truth by simply turning the inscription round. 
There stood the centurial mark, followed by C. Julii 
Cseciniani ; the double i being used for 6, as is common 
in Eioman inscriptions. 

But there are other inscriptions in this Museum 
which have supplied greater cruces for scholars, and led 
to a talent for conjecture which has borne its best fruit 
in the fields where it was least to be expected. Mr. 
Lee, the author of the excellent illustrated Catalogue, 
was a geologist before he took to the study of Roman 
remains ; but thirty years' residence in this old Roman 
town has naturally given a new direction to his studies. 
Among other things he has interpreted a couple of 
inscriptions which are among the most curious in the 
Iscan repertory. The first of these is a stone found 
with an inscription, in excellent preservation, at the 
foot of the Castle mound. The letters on it import, 
with but few abbreviations, and no diflficulties of legi- 
bility, that 

IMP2BAT0BBS VALERIANYS ET OALLIENYS AYOUSTI ET 
▼ALEBIANyB NOBJLISSIMTS CAESAB COHOBTIS BEFTHIAX 
CENTYBIAS A SOLO BBSTITYEBYKT FEB DE8TICIYM 
lYBAU YIKYM GLABI8SIMYM LEQATYH 
AVGYBTOBYM PROPBAETOREM ET Y1TYLA81YM 
LAETINIANVM LEOATYM LEOIONIS 8ECYNDAE 
AYQYSTAB CYRANTE DOHITIO POTEMTINO 
PRAEFECTO LEOIONIS EIYSDEM 



300 CAERLEON ON U8K. 

It will be seen here that the stone commemorates some 
restoration or rebuilding, and that the puzzle, the solu- 
tion of which ought to indicate the word referred to, 
is the word centurias. Mr. Lee was the first to divine 
that centurias here stands for the century's quarters ; 
and though his friend, Mr. King, could find no author- 
ity for such a use of the word, both he and Dr. Hiibner 
of Berlin regard it as the only interpretation which 
gives sense to the inscription. It records the restora- 
tion of the barracks of the seventh cohort. But what 
is still more interesting is the corroboration adduced 
by Dr. McCaul of Trinity College, Toronto (the author 
of a work on Roman epigraphy as found in the Cata- 
combs), in the second oration of Cicero, De Lege Agror- 
ridy in the thirteenth chapter of which it is said of 
Rullus, " Deinde ornat apparitoribus, scribis librariis, 
proconibus, architectis, prseterea mulis, tabemaculis, 
centuHis, supeUectili." There the italicised word was 
such a puzzle to commentators that one of them (Tur- 
nebus) rang a prosaic change on tabemaculis, and pro- 
posed to read tentoriis, and Mr. George Long honestly 
gave it up. " There is no meaning", is his note, " in 
Qiis word." But take Mr. Lee's sense of centuinas in 
the inscription, and apply it here with an eye to the 
immediate context, and a regard to the gist of the 
oration in quiestion, and we think the sense takes rank 
as authorised, and deserves a place in Latin dictionaries. 
Another inscription, much more defaced unfortu- 
nately, and surmounted "by two now very imperfect 
figures, has furnished food for much more conjecture. 
It runs somehow thus : " Fortunse et Bono Evento Cor- 
nelius Castus et Julius Belisimnus conjuges' pos". . r... 
Mr. King said that when he first saw uiis stone, the 
figures were less defaced than they were afterwarda 
Both seemed to be males, and the right hand figure 
had a patera in his hand, as if sacrificing. His idea is 
that this tablet is erected by the two persons named 
to their patrons. Fortune and Good Luck, on taking 
possession of their allotments; and an authority at 



CAERLEON ON USK. 301 

Cambridge interprets conjuges, which is the difficulty 
here, in uie sense of contubemales, intimate friends and 
companions : or, as another critic puts it, " like sworn 
bretnren of the middle ages". 

We agree with Mr. Albert Way and Dr. Hubner in 
discrediting here this sense ofconjiyes. Mr. Lee notes 
that though there is no sign of the conjunction que 
after conjuges (which would associate the wives in their 
husband's dedicatory memorial), there is a chisel-mark 
of some abbreviation, which may be one of the sigla 
for que. 

Another theory of two competent antiquaries is 
noticeable for its rashness. They take it as a sepul- 
chral memorial by the widows to Castus and Belisim- 
nus, and refer to another Caerleon inscription to show 
that the names of the deceased were often put in the 
nominative case. But then these divinities, Fortuna 
and Bonus Eventus, stand at the head of the tablet, 
and, as Mr. Lee with some humour objects, " the diffi- 
culty of this interpretation is one which probably did 
not occur to these learned antiquaries. I never can 
believe that they would willingly have libelled the tw;o 
Bx)man-British ladies by supposing them to have erected 
a monument to Fortune and Good Luck on the death 
of their husbands." 

Here, as in other difficulties, the detcs ex machind 
from Toronto comes in not unhelpfully. Dr. McCaul 
objects to the admission of qiie after conjuges, but 
divining vs in the final letters of the broken word now 
read Belisimnus^ takes them to stand for votum susci- 
perunty and the whole to mean that the two men vowed 
a tablet to their deities, and that their widows piously 
fulfilled their vow. 

In another conjectural reading of an inscription to 
the memory of Julia Veneria, we cannot think Dr. 
McCaul equally successful. Instead of reading the last 
words of the Bulmore inscription (p monime fo) as 
** Filius monimentum faciendum curavit", he changes 
the abbreviated words into matri optimcBy — a guess for 



302 CAERLEON ON USR. 

which an inspection of the stone and its lettering affords 
no warranty. 

We cannot here notice the curious " Saltienus'' or 
" Salienus*' inscription, and the light thrown on it by 
an altar found in Caerleon churchyard ;* and we reluct- 
antly pass over several other discoveries due to well 
applied and sagacious comparison and epigraphic skiU ; 
but we must not turn our backs on Caerleon without a 
glance at the well arranged curiosities which add a 
scarcely secondisiry interest to the treasures it has 
afforded in the way of inscriptions. 

A cinerary urn of red ware, and half full of burnt 
bones, curiously illustrates at the same time an excep- 
tion to the rule of not cremating infants, and the cus- 
tom of interring them within the walls, beneath the 
eaves or suggrundce or subgrundia. 

In unglazed pottery is a noteworthy jar or vessel with 
a $eptum^ to contain two condiments in the same vessel 
unmixed ; and amongst lamps and implements classi- 
fied therewith is a curious, fictile shape, which turns 
out to be a lamp-mould ; which is the more remarkable 
as such moulds are most rare' in Britain. 

Amidst the glass objects will be found a marvel- 
lously early specimen of the lately rediscovered " pillar- 
moulding", which might convince the amazed patentees 
of the modem pattern that there is nothing new under 
the sun ; and the beautiful enamels (especially fig. 14, 

^ The inscriptions referred to are read as follows (Isca Silurum^ 

p. 8) :- 

On the Altar, 

BALTTI REGINAE PVBLIVS SALLIENVS F7BLI FILIYS 
MAEGIA ET THALAlfVS HADBIANYS PRASFECTVS 
LEQIONIS BECVNDAE AYGYSTAJB GYM FUillS SYIS 
AMPEIANO ET LYGILIANO DONG DBDEBYNT 

On the Votive Tablet. 

PRO 8ALYTE AYGYSTOBYM NOSTBOBYM BEYERI 
ET ANTONINI ET QETAE GAESABIS FYBLIYS 8ALTIENYS 
PYRLI FILIYS MAEGIA ET THALAMYS BADRUNYS 
PRAEFECTYS LEOIONIS SEOYNOAE AYGYSTAB GYM AMPEIANO 
KT LYCILUNO 



GAERLEON ON USK. 303 

Isca Silurum) would repay the inspection of ingenious 
enamellers of the present day for finish and elegance. 

The bronze bell discovered near the bath in theKoman 
villa is brought to the notice of classical scholars by 
Mr. King, in connection with Martial's line (Ep. xiv, 
163, 1)9 "Kedde pilam : sonat ses thermarum' . 

Here, too, are the styli used for writing on waxen 
tablets ; the ligulcB, which are ladles, spoons, or skim- 
mers ; and a variety of rings, bosses, and JihulcB. 

One of the quaintest of sJl these curiosities is a foot- 
rule in bronze, unique among Roman antiquities in 
Britain. There is a stay at the back, turning on a 
pivot, with two notches on the edge to receive two 
studs on the opposite limb, so as to render the rule 
stiff, and prevent its closing when extended for use. A 
similar bronze regula has been found in a mason's shop 
at Pompeii. 

Of the tesselated pavements the most striking is one 
with a labyrinthine pattern, removed to the Museum 
from Caerwent. It does not strike us as so beautiful 
as the pavements at Lydney, which is within a score 
of miles ; and where, if we remember right, the name 
of Senicianus crops up, as here also, in an inscription. 

Amongst building ornaments were a number of orna- 
mental substitutes for a parapet, about a tile's breadth 
apart, with a ridge-tile fastened to them behind at 
right angles. Similar specimens are also to be seen in 
the Museum at Chester. These ornaments are techni- 
cally called ante-Jixa, and are well exemplified at Caer- 
leon. We have heard it said (and it was certainly our 
own impression) that the word is a stranger to Latin- 
English lexicons ; but we are glad to do Dr. Smith's 
most useful dictionaries the justice of stating that the 
word is there satisfactorily explained as "the little 
ornaments affixed to the cornice of an entablature", 
and that Livy (xxxiv, 4) is correctly cited as an author- 
ity for its usage. 

Such is but a slight and hasty survey of the many 
Roman relics stored up at Caerleon ; an invaluable re- 



304 MONTOOMERTSHIRE DOCUMENT. — IL 

pertory which all young scholars who desire to add life 
and reality to their classical reading will find worth a 
visit, especially if they can couple with it Caerwent 
and the remains (if they can take them in the same 
route) of Lydney and Cirencester. 



MONTGOMERYSHIRE DOCUMENT.— IL 

The occasion and the terms of the alliance made be- 
tween Griffin ap Wenwynwyn, lord of Powys, and 
Llewelyn ap Griffith, Prince of Wales, of which this 
record treats, are given in an article by Canon Bridge- 
man on " The Princes of Upper Powys", which appeared 
first in Collectanea ArchcBologica (1862), and was re- 
printed in the first volume of the Montgomeryshire Col- 
lections (pp. 1-194). 

It appears that whilst the Lord Griffin was in alli- 
ance witii the English, the Prince Llewelyn, with others, 
had in 1256 entered his territories, and subdued the 
whole, except the Castle of Trallwng (or Pool), a part 
of the Vale of Severn, and a little of Caereinion ; and 
again, in 1259, he had driven the Lord Griffin from his 
territory.^ Irritated by an adverse verdict, in which 
some lands in Gorddwr, which the Lord Griffin claimed 
for himself, were assigned to Corbet of Cause, and 
anxious to recover his lost territory. Griffin broke off 
from the English alliance, and entered into an alliance 
offensive and defensive with Prince Llewelyn, in the 
form recorded below. 

On comparing this copy with that printed in The 
Montgomeryshire Collections {vol. i, pp. 117-119) from 
the Hengwrt MS. No. 119, we find that they not only 
supply each other's defects, but also represent the two 
copies retained respectively by the two parties of the 

1 Mont. CoU., i, 29. 



MONTGOMERYSHIRE DOCUMENT. — II. 305 

covenant ; for in the last clause of the one here given 
we ready "In cujus rei testimonium huic parti scripturcB 
remanenti penes dominum Gfriffinum Dominus Leweli- 
nus sigillum suum fecit apponi, una cum sigillis dicto- 
rum Episcoporum et Abbatum : parti vera remanenti 
penes Dominum Lewelinum, sigillo domini Lewelini, 
sigillum Domini Griffini cum ceteris predictis sigillis 
est appenftum"; so that we have here the Lord Grif- 
fin's copy. In the Hengwrt MS., on the other hand, 
we have the Prince's copy : " Huic parti scripturse re- 
manenti penes dictum Leioelinum'\ 

The unknown " Esconn" of the Hengwrt MS., where 
the concord was signed, is here shown to have been 
" Ystumaner", a commote in Merioneth ; the chief place 
in which was Castell y Bere, built (according to Robert 
Vaughan) by Gruffydd ap Cynan, and now probably in 
the hands of Llewelyn, who had also a royal residence 
within a few miles distance, at Talybont, near Towyn. 

The witnesses to the homage of the Lord Griflfin are 
many of them identical with those whose 'names occur 
in the covenant made in a.d. 1260 between the Prince 
and the Bishop of Bangor.^ But we have here not only 
an Abbot of Pool (Strata Marcella), but also Cyfnerth 
ap Heylyn, Prior of Pool. Was this simply a Prior 
Major elected by the monks, or was there at this time 
another religious foundation ("de Pola**) besides the 
one at Strata Marcella ? There evidently existed one 
before it. Did it survive side by side with it ; and if 
so, for how long ? 

" Llanwyddelan" here takes the place of " Llan^ 
wydelas** (Llanidloes),*and is evidently the correct read- 
ing, from its situation between the Rhiew and the lost 
name of Clegir. 

" Kiminauc", " Kyminant", " Akeymynardo", ** Akey- 
rainandV is difficult to identify ; but as it was a limit 
that should distinguish between the over-lordship of 
Gwynedd and the independent lordship oi' Powys„ — sa 

1 Supra, p. 228. 2 MonL Coll, i, 30. ^ Ibid,, i, 30, 118. 
5th sbr., vol. II. 20 



306 MONTOOMERYSHIRE DOCUMENT. — II. 

that acquisitions " helow it, towards Salop", should re- 
main to Griffin, while those above it were to be in the 
dominion of the Prince, — I would look for it somewhere 
on the Shropshire borders ; and I am disposed to iden- 
tify it with Trefnant, one of the vills in dispute between 
the Lord Griffin and Thomas Corbet of Cans. If Griffin 
could recover it from the Marcher, he should retain it 
for himself, and welcome. 

The readings within brackets, given below, represent 
the Hengwrt version. 

D. R. T. 

Fo. ccclvj. 

T*ra p* q'm D'n's Griffinus fecit homagium. — ad p'petuam rei 
memoriam geste facta est hec f nal' concordia Anno d'ni m*cc® 
Ixiiij" in vigilia Beate Lucye v'ginis apud ystmuanneyn int' 
Dominu'Lewelinu' fiFG. p'ncipem Wallie ex ima p'te et Dominu* 
GriflSnu' fir Gwenwynwyn ex alt'a videlicet q'd d'c's Dominus 
Gryffinus spontanea voluntate sua fecit homagium p' se et here- 
dibus suis et tactis sacrosanctis juravit fidelitatem d'c'o Domino 
Lewolino et heredibiis suis [coram] venerabili patre d'no Eic'o 
Ep'o Bangor' Dominis Abbatibus de Aberconewy et de Pola f re 

Folio ccclvi.^ 

The Lord Grif&n renders homage. — As a perpetual memorial 
of the transaction, this final agreement was made in the year of 
Our Lord 1264,^ on the VigU of St. Lucy the Virgin, at Ystu- 
manner,' between the Lord Llewelyn ap Grufifydd, Prince of 
Wales, on the one part, and the Lord Griffin ap Wenwynwyn on 
the other part, to wit : the said Lord Griffin of his own free will 
hath rendered homage for himself and his heirs, and oa the 
Holy Gospels hath sworn fealty to the said Lord Llewelyn and 
his heirs, in the presence of the Venerable Father, the Lord 
Richard Bishop of Bangor f the Lord Abbots of Aberconwy and 
Pool ; Brother leuaf of the order of Friars Preachers f Master 

» 

^ Public Becords, London. 

' The year 1263 is given in the Hengwrt MS. 

^ " Ystumaner" or " Estimanner", a commote and rural deanery 
in the soathemmost part of Merioneth, lying between Talybont and 
Cyfeiliog. 

♦ Richard, Bishop, 1236-67. 

* ** I. Lector. Predic. Bangor.", supra, p. 228. 



MONTQOMERTSHIRE DOCUMENT. — n. 307 

Jeuaf de ordine p'dicator'mag'ToDauid Arch'Bangr' Addaf decano 
de Ardudwy Dauid fil' Will'i Offic'deDiffrinclewid Gronon Tudur 
Kynewreth fili' ydeneweth lorwerth fil* Guigmian Aniani fil' 
Karaudauc Dauid fil' Amiany Kysnerth fil' Heylim Prior' de Pola 
Addaf fiP M'urith mag'ro yuone Grifi&no fil' Owen Anian fil' 
Ydnyved et multis aliis. Pro d'c'o autem homagio et fidelitate 
d'c'i G. d's L. concessit et restituit eidem G. omnes t'ras et 
possessiones suas videlicet Keuelauc et Mauduy in t'minis suis 
Arwystly in t'minis suis et Cerinian et Mochnant vwchradir in 
t'minis suis £t wyrsoyd cum p'tinent' suis et t'minis totam 
t'ram int* Ry w et Helegr cum villa de Uanwydelan D'c's vero 
G. et heredes sui d'c'as t'ras p' metas et divisas suas de d'c'o 
Domino L.et heredibus suis iure hereditar'tenebunt et in p'petuu' 
possidebunt. Si v® contig'it q'd absit d'c'm G. amitVe aliquam 
p'tem de t'is suis sup^d'c'is p' Gwerram d'c'o L. t'ras suas in 
integru' possidente Id'm L. d'c'o G. restaurabit de p'di'ta in 
t'ris ad p'uisionem subscripto' viro' videF ven'abilu' p'r'm de 
Bangor' et de s'c'o Assaph' E'por' de Aberconeway et de Pola 



David, Archdeacon of Bangor; Adam, Dean of Ardudwy ; David 
ap William, OflBcial of Dyffryn Clwyd; Grono, Tudor, and 
Cynwrig, sons of Ednyfed ; lorwerth ap Gwrgenau, Anian ap 
Caradoc, David ap Anian, Cyfuerth ap Heylyn, Prior «of Pool ; 
Adam ap Meuric (?), Master Guion, Griffith ap Owen, Anian ap 
Ednyfed, and many others. In consideration of the said homage 
and fealty of the said Griffin, the said Llewelyn has granted and 
restored to the aforesaid Griffin all his lands and possessions ; 
that is to say, Cyfeiliog and Mawddwy with their bounds, 
Arwystli with its bounds, and Caereinion and Mochnant-Uwch- 
Baiadr with their bounds, and Trawscoyd (?)^ with its appurte- 
nances and bounds ; all the land between the Rhiew and the 
Clegir,* with the vill of Llanwyddelan.' The said Griffin and 
his heirs shall hold the said lands, by their metes and di- 
mensions, of the said Lord Llewelyn and his heirs of heredi- 
tary right, and shall possess them in perpetuity. But if it 
happen (God forbid !) that the said GrifiSn shall lose any part of 
his aforesaid lands through war, the said Llewelyn, meanwhile 
retaining his lands in their entirety, shall make good the loss at 
the provision of the undermentioned, viz., the Venerable Fathers 
the Bishops of Bangor and St Asaph, the Abbots of Aberconwy 

^ This may, from the context, represent Mechain-iB-coed. 
' *' Hlegir" (Clegyr). This name ia lost. Probably it is one of 
the streams south of Llanwyddelan village. 
' This, and not Llanidloes, mast be the right reading. 

20* 



308 MONTGOMERYSHIRJE DOCUMENT. — II. 

Abbatu' Prions fr'um Predicator' de Bangor* fratris Jeuaf eius- 
dem ordinis fr'um Jeuaf Coch et Jorwerth fil' Cadugun de ordine 
fratrum minoru' de Lanmaes Gronon Tudur Kynwreth filior' 
ydeheweth Jorwerth fil' Grugunau Aniani fil' Karaudauc Dauid 
fir Will'i et Kysnerth fil' Heylin. Si vero contig'it aliquem uel 
aliquos p'nominator' viror* dece* u'l abe'e fiat d'c'a p*uisio p* eos 
qui sup'stites fuerint u'l p'sentes Si u" contig'it dom' L. ali- 
quam p'tem t'rar' suar* amitt'e p* Gwerram q'd absit sit in p'ui- 
sione d'c'or' viror' compensac'o vt'usq' p'tis dampno de p'd'c'a 
d'c'o G. p'ut melius pot'unt restaurar' si u° adiutore d'o seped'c'o 
G. pot'it aliquas t'ras conquirere vltra metas suas A. kiminauc 
inferius u'sus Salop' Id'm G. et heredes sui optineant et godeant 
conquisitis A. Kyminant sup'ius d'c'o L. et heredib' suis re- 
maneant conquisita si uero Gwerra u'l exe'citus d'c'i G. t'ram in 
vadat Gwerra u'l exe'citu d'c'm L. eod'm tempor' non molestante 
p'no'i'atus L. succurret d'no G. p' omnibus aliis suis imposiis si 
maiorem habuerit necessitatem. Et si ita contig'it q'd absit q'd 
d'c's G. castrum suum de Pola p' Gwerram amiserit ad p'uisio- 

and Pool, the Prior of the Friars Preachers of Bangor, Brother 
leuaf of the same order of Preachers, leuaf Coch, and lorwerth 
ap Cadwgan of the order of Friars Alinors of lianfaes ; Grono, 
Tudor, and Cynwrig, sons of Ednyfed ; lorwerth ap Gwrgenew, 
Anian ap Caradoc, David ap William, and Cyfnerth ap Heylin. 
And if it happen that any one or more of the aforenamed should 
be dead or absent, let the said provision be made by those who 
survive and be present. But if it happen that the Lord Llew- 
elyn should lose any part of his lands through war (which God 
forbid !), then in the provision of the aforenamed men, let com- 
pensation be made for the loss of both parties, as they may both 
best be restored. But if with the aid of the Lord aforesaid, 
Griffin succeed in acquiring any lands beyond his boundaries 
from Kiminant^ (?) downwards towards Shrewsbury, then Griffin 
and his heirs shall retain and enjoy their acquisitions ; but from 
Kyminant upwards the acquisitions shall belong to Llewelyn 
and his heirs. But if war or any army invade the territory of 
the said Griffin, and neither the one nor the other molest the 
said Llewelyn at the time, the aforesaid Llewelyn shall come to 
the help of the said Griffin before all other of his subjects, if he 
have a greater need. And if it should happen (may it never be) 
that the said Griffin should lose his Castle of Pool through war, 

* Probably Trefnant, on the bonndary of the county, on the old 
road from Welsh Pool to Sbrewsbury, and on the border of the 
territory in dispute between Griffin and Corbet of Canes. 



MONTGOMERYSHIRE DOCUMENT.— II. 309 

nem sup' scriptor* viror' diet' L. assignabit eid'm 6. aliud Cas- 
trum vbi possit res et familiam custodire secure donee castru' 
suu' recup'au't* Omnes vero infeodari [infeodati?] per bone 
memorie p'ncipem Lewlinu Vl p' Dauid filiu' suu' aut p' ip'm 
G. Veant t'ras suas et quiete possideant nisi in posterum deli- 
querint cont'a dVm G. vt m'ito debeant d'cis t'ris p'uari. De 
omnibus vero terris et possessionib' a d'no L. quibuscu'q' collatis 
in d'no d'c'i G. sit in voluntati ip'ius u'l ip'as t'ras auferre u'l 
concedere possidentibus, Dominus vero Madoc' fil' Gwenwynwyn 
conmotu' de Mauduy q* ad vix' in capite tenebit de d'c'o G. et 
heredibus suis. Si vero contig'it d'c'm G. accusari penes d'n'm 
L. sup' aliquo acto' L. non magnificabit d'c'am accusac'onem nisi 
manifeste possit p'bari. Si v' p'bata fu'it faciat condingnam 
eniendam ad arbitrium p'd'c'or' viror^ saluis sibi t'ris et possessi- 
onibus suis sine corporis sui inearcerac'one et ostasis [hosta- 
gio ?] du' modo satisfac'e pot'it et volu'it. Si u' aocusac'o con- 
tra d'c'm G. p'po'ita ad plenu' p'bari no' pot'it d'c's L. animad- 
u'tet in accusatorem secund'm quantitatem delicti et in'urie 
vt'que d'no satisfaciendo. Nouo' v' d'no [Neuter vero domino- 



then, at the provision of the above written jurors^ the said 
Llewelyn shall assign to Griffin another castle where he may 
safeguard his property and family until he shall recover his own 
castle. All those, however, who may have been enfeoffed by 
Prince Llewelyn of good memory, or David his son, or by Griffin 
himself, shall keep and quietly possess their lands, unless they 
shall have subsequently transgressed against the said Griffin, or 
be deservedly deprived of them. But concerning all the lands 
and possessions conferred by Llewelyn upon any persons within 
the lordship of Griffin, it should be at his (Gi:iffin*s) option 
either to take them away or.confirm them to those in posses- 
sion ; save that the Lord Madoc, son of Gwenwynwyn, shall hold 
the commote of Mawddwy in capite as long as he lives. And 
if it should happen that the said Griffin should be accused of 
any misdeed before the Prince, the said Prince shall not attach 
weight to such accusation unless it can be clearly proved ; and 
if it be proved, then he shall make suitable amends on the ver- 
dict of the aforesaid jurors, but without loss of lands or pos- 
sessions, and without personal imprisonment or hostage, pro- 
vided he be able and willing to render satisfaction. And if the 
charge brought forward against the said Griffin cannot be fully 
proved, the said Llewelyn shall punish the accuser according to 
the extent of the crime and injury, to the satisfaction of both 
lords. Neither, however, of them shall receive or protect an 



310 MONTGOMERYSHIRE DOCUMENT. — II. 

rum] L. G. receptabit vel defendet contra reliq'm delinquen- 
tern. Dictus v* G. cum toto [posse suo defendet] et succurret 
t'ris et possessionibus d'c'i L. vicinis et a d'c'o L. remotis 
quotiens nec'ce habuerint t'ra sua sine hostili incursu exis- 
tente Homines vero d'c'ar^ terrar* uice uersa [tenentur terns 
dicti] d'ni G. simili modo succurrer*. D'c's vero G. tenef venire 
in exercitu' cu' d'no L. quociens ab eo fu'it requisitus nisi hos- 
tilis incursus sue t're tunc iminneat manifeste sc' ip' [uterque] 
v* d'co' domino' L. et G. fideli' adiunctum se tenebit Ita q'd 
sint vniu' Gwerre et vniu' pacis et nullis se confederabit alter 
sine al' Quicq' v^ heres [homines] de powys quamdiu fue'int 
in d'n'o d'c'i L. deliquerunt cont* dom' G. Id m G. total'r eis 
condonauit et remisit. Ad plenam V p'sc'ptor' fidem et secu- 
ritatem suprad'c'i L. et G. supposu'unt se et heredes suos Juris- 
dicc'oni ven'abilium Patrum de Bango' et de sancto Assaph' 
Ep'or' necnon et de Aberconewey et de pola Abbatu qui p' temp*e 
fu'int ipsis in se d'c'am iurisdic'onem assum'tibus q'd possint 
coniunctim et diuisim p'mulgare sentenciam exco'icac'onis in 
p'sonas d'cor* L. et G. et heredum suot' et int'd'ci in t'ras eor^d'm 



ofifender against the other. The said Griffin, moreover, shall 
defend with all his power, and come to the support of, the terri- 
tories and possessions of the said Uewelyn, whether near at 
hand or at a distance off, as often as may be necessary, provided 
his own territory is free from hostile invasion ; and the men of 
the said territories are in their own turn bound in like manner 
to succour the territories of the said Llewelyn. The said Griflfin, 
moreover, is bound to go into the field with the Lord Llewelyn 
as often as he shall be required by him, provided no hostile in- 
vasion be clearly threatening his land. £ach of the two Lords 
also, Llewelyn and Griffin, bind themselves mutually and loy- 
ally to have but one war and one peace between them, and that 
neither of them, without the other, will ally himself with any 
third party. Whatever wrong the men of Powys, whilst in the 
dominion of the said Llewelyn, may have been guilty of against 
Griffin, the said Griffin has fully condoned and forgiven. In 
order to the full and true fulfilment of the aforewritten condi- 
tions, the aforesaid Llewelyn and Griffin have submitted them- 
selves and their heirs to the jurisdiction of the Venerable 
Fathers, the Bishops of Bangor and St. Asaph, and of the Abbots 
of Aberconway and Pool, for the time being, taking on them- 
selves the said jurisdiction, jointly and severally to pronounce 
sentence of excommunication upon the persons of the said 
XJewelyn and Griffith and their heirs, and of interdict on their 



M0NT00MERY8HIRE DOCUMENT. — II. 311 

si contf aliq' de dictis articulis venire p'siunpserint Benunci- 
ant et d'c'i L. et 6. p' se et heredibus suis om'i appellac'o'i im- 
pet'coni Cauellac'oni et omni remedio iur* Canonici u'l Ciuil 
contf d'c'as sentencias exco'icac'onis uel int' d'c'i ualitui^ D'ci v* 
£p'i et abbates ad petic'onem p'tis d'c'as conuenc'ones obs'iian- 
tis tenentur coniunctim et diu aim d'c'as sententias p'mulgare 
et e'd'm execuc'oni demandare Cont' p'tem a d'c'is conuenc^o- 
nibus resiliente In cuiu' rei testimoniu' huic p'ti script'e re- 
manent' penes d'n'm 6. D'm'us L. sigillu' su'm fecit apponi vna 
cum sigiUis d'c'or* Ep'or* et Abbatmn p'ti vero remanenti penes 
d'n'm L sigill' d'ni L sigill' d'ni G. cum cet'is p'd'c'is sigill' est 
appensum. 

lands, if they presume to contravene aught of the said articles. 
The said Llewelyn and Grifi&n, moreover, renounce for them- 
selves and their heirs all appeal, entreaty, complaint, and all 
remedy, whether of civil or canon law, against the validity of 
the said sentences of excommunication or interdict. The said 
Bishops and Abbots, moreover, are bound, on the petition of the 
party observing the said terms of agreement^ both jointly and 
severally, to proclaim the said sentences, and to demand their 
fulfilment against the party who may reject them. In witness 
whereof the Lord Llewelyn has caused his seal, together with 
the seals of the said Bishops and Abbots, to be appended to this 
part of the Eecord, which is to be kept by the Lord Griffin ; 
while to the part to be kept by the Lord Llewelyn, the seal of 
the Lord Griffin is appended, with the other aforesaid seals, to 
the seal of the Lord Llewelyn. 



312 



Corrnsjponlience. 

TO THE EDUOB OF THE ABCHiBOLOOU CAMBBBNSI8. 



THE CAERGAI STONE. 

Si r, — In the description of the Roman tombstone found at Caer- 
gai, in the last Namber of the Arch, Camb.^ p. 208, there is a slifi^ht 
error in ray reading of the inscription, which I gave as "Jtdiw 
Chveronis Filiuty Felcerunf] millites] eohortU I Nervioirum*\ or, 
translated, " Jalias, the son of Gavero. The soldiers of the first co- 
hort of the Nervii have made [this]." This reading I gave on the 
first discovery of the stone, in The Academy for 4th April last, re- 
marking on the singular position of Fe, and the fact that the stone 
is the first memorial of the first cohort of the Nervii found in Britain. 

Yours, etc., 

Liverpool. 1885. W. Thompson Watkin. 



RAMBLES OVER THE DENBIGHSHIRE HILLS. 

No. L 

SiB, — ^The writer had arranged with Mr. Robert Roberts, Clocae- 
nog, to accompany him in a ramble over the hills to the west of 
Ruthin ; but the day fixed upon, August 27th, turned out to be a 
wet day. Still the journey was undertaken, and much curious in- 
formation, or folk-lora, was collected; and in this letter I will relate 
what we saw and heard. 

My companion is a native of Bala; but his vocation has made 
him acquainted with other people and places than those that were 
or are in the neighbourhood of the place of his birth. He has 
walked over most of the hills in West Denbighshire, and he has 
visited most of. the farmers that live along those hills ; and he is 
well known for many miles around the village of Clocaenog, which 
is about four miles distant from Ruthin. He has read Welsh poetry, 
and the literature of his native country he is not ignorant of, nor is 
he an unbeliever in the traditions of the people. He has mastered 
English, and the few books that he has in this language he has 
carefally read. Such was my agreeable fellow traveller. 

We were to meet each other, at 9.30 A.u., at a hamlet called 
Clawdd Newydd, or the New Dike. This place we did not explore, 
but we proceeded for about three miles along the road that leads 
to Cerrigydrudion from Ruthin, until we came to a bridge called 
Pont Petrual, which spans the river Clwyd. The river here is a 
small rivulet, a mere mountain brook. It looked to-day quiet and 



CORRESPONDENCE. 313 

harmlesB ; but when swollen by wintry floods it rashes along with 
almost irresistible force, and roaring and foaming, it then engpilfs 
any stray sheep, or even larger and stronger animals, that it over- 
takes. A proof of its power is given in the remains of a bridge a 
few yards lower down than the present bridge, that tradition says 
was swept away by a mighty flood. We leave the bridflfe and go to 
a honse called iBodmal, a small farm reclaimed from the mountain, 
and here trap and pony are left. 

The rain continued coming down, and to make the time pass 
away quickly and agreeably, the writer introduced subjects of con- 
versation which he knew country people often talk about. Seated 
around the fire, for no out-door work could be done, because of the 
rain (and it may here be said, by way of a passing remark, that wet 
days are capital times to visit upland farms on folk-lore expeditions, 
as then time hangs heavily on the farmers' hands), the conversation 
commenced on the subject of corpse-candles". A couple of tales 
on this subject I shall now relate. 

A Corpse- Candle. — John Roberts of Pentre, near Felin y Wig, a 
hamlet a few miles off, was, the narrator of the tale said, in the 
habit of sitting up after his fiimily had retired to rest, to smoke a 
quiet pipe ; and the last thing he did, before going to bed, was to 
take a peep into the night to ascertain the state of the weather. One 
night, while peering about, he saw in the far distance a light in a 
place where no house was, and upon observing it intently he ascer- 
tained that the light was moving slowly along the road leading from 
Bettws G. G. to Felin y Wig. Where the road dipped, the light 
disappeared, but only to reappear again in such parts of the road 
as were visible from John Koberts' house. It was so late, and so 
unusual an occurrence for a man with a lantern to travel on that 
road, that John Roberts continued watching with considerable curi- 
osity the course taken by the light. It passed Felin y Wig, and 
took the road towards Bodmal ; and then, when it arrived at the 
gate, it turned towards Pentre, Jones' abode, and came slowly 
along, and evidently its destination was John Roberts' housa Jones 
could not hear footsteps as the light approached, nor could he de- 
tect anybody carrying the light ; he therefore, in considerable fear, 
entered the house, closed the door, and seated himself with much 
dread by the fire, awaiting the approach of the light towards the 
house. To his horror, the light passed through the shut door, and 
then gradually approached the place occupied by Jones, and then it 
ascended to the floor above the kitchen, and after quivering in a 
certain spot awhile it vanished. 

Jones, when he recovered the use of his limbs, retired to rest for 
the night ; but, singularly enough, the servant-man was found dead 
in his bed, which was over the very spot where the light disappeared. 

This strange appearance, I* was told, took place not many years 
ago. I do not know what I -shall call the next tale ; but it is a kind 
of apparition. I will relate it just as I heard it. Mr. Roberts re- 
lated this tale, which I will call — 



314 CORRESPONDENCE. 

J Dead Man appearing to hie Mother. — Two men, who were 
firiends, and visited together two jonng women who lived in the sune 
fiurm, were returning together, from one of their vimtey over a spu* 
of the Arenig Mountains, in the early mom ; and as their homes 
lay in different directions, they separated on the wild monntain, 
each making for his house. One arrived at home in dne time; 
hut the* other did not. Inquiry was made after the missing man 
from his friend; hut all the information that this friend could 
ffive was that they had parted at a certain spot on the mountain. 
It was therefore surmised that the man had lost his way, wan- 
dered along the mountain, and perhaps Mien over a precipice. All 
the neighhonrs, consequently, formed themselves into a search-party, 
and with forebodings proceeded to the mountain. They returned, 
however, as night approached, worn out with their journeys, but 
without having come upon any traces of the lost man. The next 
and the next day the search was continued ; but all to no purpose, 
and so the search vras given up ; but the following night the mother 
of the missing man saw her truant son looking through the window 
at her. She immediately remonstrated with him for playing tricks 
with them, and bade him come at once to supper. Sut there was 
no response to her words. She now went to the door, expecting to 
see her son'; but no, — he was not to be seen ; but turning her head 
towards the mountain, the poor woman observed a strong light 
resting on a certain spot on the Areuig Mountains, and she was con- 
vinced that there her son was to be found. The neighbours, the 
following day, proceeded to that spot which the mother indicated, 
and there they discovered the body of the young man, who evi- 
dently had lost his way, and having fikllen over a precipice was 
killed. 

Several other similar tales were related ; but I have no doubt I 
have recorded a sufficient number, so I will now describe a wonder- 
ful well which is in the neighbourhood of Bodrual. This well is 
called " Ffynnon y Puwch Freeh" (the Speckled Cow's Well). 

TJie Speckled Cow's TFe^Z.— The well stands in Skffridd, by a wall, 
and it is in a very neglected state. A few stones surround it, but 
it is overgrown with grass, and presents the appearance of a simple 
mountain spring. However, tradition says that in remote times a 
wonderful cow quenched her thirst in this now forsaken well, and 
gave a name to it, for it is called afrer her, '^Ffynnon y Fuwch Freeh". 

Thomas Jones (Cefn Bannog), who occupies a small mountain- 
farm close to the well, gave me the following particulars respecting 
this cow. She gave milk willingly and copiously to every one who 
milked her, and this she continued doing until she was milked into 
a riddle, when she immediately lefb the country, and her ofispring 
also followed her. Two of her children made for a lake, Thomas 
Jones said, called after them " Llyndau Ychain*' (the Lake of the 
two Oxen), in the parish of Carregydmdion ; and it is related of 
these ** dau eidion Bannog", as Jones called them, that they went 
one on each side of the lake, and, bellowing as if the one was call- 
ing the other, they entered the lake and disappeared. 



REVIEWS. 315 

This filmoiiB oow was the mother, Jones said, of all the '* jchain 
Bannog"; and it is oertain that after her the places on the hill-side 
were called by the names they still retain. Thus there is a pathway 
(now nnnsed) that led from the well to the ''Preseb y Fnwch 
Freeh*', of which traces are left to this day. It was along this path 
the cow went from her crib when she wanted water. The road or 
pathway is abont a hundred yards from the cowhonse. Here, again, 
there is another pathway from the cowhonse to the pasture of the 
cow, called even now " Waen Bannog"; and close to there is a spot 
called '* Gwal Erw y Fuwch Freeh", and the side of the hill is named 
•• Cefn Bannog". 

All these names give to the tradition a reality that otherwise it 
would not possess ; and the few inhabitants of these upland farms 
implicitly believe in the existence, in years long gone by, of this 
oow ; and the wanton behaviour of the thoughtless milker conveys 
to them a warning, and teaches them not to waste even what they 
want not. They know not that in Derbyshire and Shropshire a like 
tale is current ; and were they to be told that those counties had a 
oow like their own, it would not destroy their faith in the existence 
of their speckled cow. 

B. O. 



The History of thb Literature or Wales from the Year 1300 

TO the Year 1650. By Charles Wilkins, Ph.D., Member of 

the Honourable Society of Oymmrodorion, and Local Secretary 

' for Glamorgan of the Cambrian Archsdological Association. 

Cardiff: Daniel Owen and Company, Limited. * 1884. 

No one who has not dug deeply beneath the surface can have any 
adequate idea of the amount of material which is available in print 
and manuscript, in poetry and prose, for the three hundred and fifty 
years between 1 800 and 1650, for the historian of the literature of 
Wales. But it is not only the quantity of matter, but rather the 
difficulty of unravelling the exact meaning of the highly alliterative 
and often obscure involutions in which the earlier poems abound 
(thanks to the requirements of the '* cynghanedd"), that render the 
historian's task both difficult and delicate ; and it is, therefore, not 
of necessity any derogation to those who have hitherto attempted 
it (the present work included) to say that the historian of the lite- 
rature of that period has not yet appeared. 

Mr. Wilkins' book partakes of the character of a compilation 
rather than a history, and its chief merit, in our opinion, is that it 
has brought together a considerable amount of information upon 
the subject which was previously dispersed in many quarters, and 
notably in the lolo MSS., IJhe Cambrian Begietery The Oam&ro* 



316 REVIEWS. 

Briton^ The Archasologia Oambreims, and monographs on the works 
of Lewis Olyn Gothi and other bards. Where these have not led 
the way, no new ground appears to have been yentured on ; and, 
indeed, the whole looks more like second-hand knowledge than the 
result of any original study. The treatment, too, is exceedingly 
uneyen; writings already fairly well known are copiously refor- 
bished, and authors of whom we should like to know more are 
simply named, with an index to their poems, as if a catalogue only 
were had in view. We are sorry to say, too, that the book is dis- 
figured, more than any other we remember to have read for years, 
by slovenliness of style and an abundance of printer*s errors, as if 
it had not been thought worth while to correct the proof-sheets. 
P. 2, 0.^., of five of the productions of Llygad Gwr, '* one is an ode 
to GrufTydd Moelawr (sie) ; second^ to Llewelyn ; ihirdy** etc. P. 3, 
again, '* Einion ap Owgan" (should be Qwgawn) is another of the 
early list of poets. One of his (tic), an address", etc. P. 14, 

** HUlyn a poet of eminent qaality. Two of his addressed to'*... 

But this is of continual recurrence. On the same page we are told 
that '^ of lorwerth Llwyd there are no remains", whereas the Myvy- 
rian Archaiology contains an ode by him to Hopcyn Thomas. Part 
of the bardic names is made to do duty for the whole, as if a sur- 
name. Thus we have frequently Benfras, Grog, ab Gwilym, Glyn 
Cothi, Hiraddug. Sometimes the Christian name is inserted, with 
such a result as ''Huw Ceiriog" for Huw Morris, ''Eos Ceiriog"; 
or it is put alone, as '' Llywarch*', as if there were only one of that 
name. ** Dafydd Llwyd Aber Tarad" (p. 81) becomes on p. 86, 
'' Davydd Llwyd of Glan Tanad". The Abbey of Valle Cnicis was 
''one of the first to be abolished tempo, (sic) Henry VIII" (p. 8.^). 
levan Tew " was an eminent poet of Arwystl" (p. 100). The trans- 
lation of Davydd ap Gwilym's ode to May (p. 40) is ascribed to 
" O. Jones, 1797". It was really the work of Arthur James Johnes, 
as well as the one to " The Summer", and both are included in the 
" Translations" of his poems published by Hooper (London, 1834). 
When Mr. Wilkins tells us (p. 80) that David Vychan " was known 
as Sir David Vychan, being a bard as well as clei^man ; and it 
was the custom, in such cases of twofold significance, so to distin- 
guish", he transposes the order of clergyman and bard, and does 
not appear to understand that the title "Sir" does not indicate 
either one or both together as such, but only that the bearer was a 
" Dominus", i.e., a gradaate of a Uoiversity. But what does he 
mean when he says that " the mention of Hywel Swrdwal and his 
degree of M.A. yields us one of the earliest indications we have of 
the preference indicated by Welshmen for Jesus College, Oxford P 
He figured from 1430 to 1460." When does he think that the Col- 
lege was founded ? 

But we pass on to the sixteenth century, and the writers in prose ; 
and we turn first to the accounts of William Salesbury and Bishop 
Morgan as the translators of the New and Old Testaments respect- 
ively, and we find them hopelessly mixed up. Thus, p. 1 76, of the 



. REVIEWS. 317 

former we are told that " this important undertakinflf (the New 
Testament) was, with little exception, done by himself alone (t.ff., 
William Salesbury), Bishop Morgan aiding in the Epistles that fol- 
low those to the Thessalohians, Salesbnrj doin^ the Second Epistle 
to Timothy and the Epistle to Philemon, and Thomas Hnet the 
Book of Revelations. Dr. Davies prefixed to it an address to the 
Welsh.*' Now it was not Bishop Morgan, but Bishop Richard Davies 
who assisted Salesbnry ; and it was he who wrote the address pre- 
fixed to the New Testament. Dr. William Morgan was not " the 
coadjator" of Salesbnry ; and the Bishop whom Dr. Davies (for 
Dr. John Davies is the one best known by that name) assisted was 
Parry, whose chaplain he was, in the revision of 1620. 

We tarn next to a writer of a different type, Yavasor Powell, and 
we are told that '* most of his works pass beyond the limit of the 
time devoted to this essay, and nearly all were acrimonious rejoin- 
ders, such as Strena Vavasoriensit^ — a hue and crie after Mr. Vava- 
sor Powell, metropolitan of the itinerants, which his vigorous attacks 
elicited." Evidently, according to this, Mr. Wilkins must have 
supposed the Strena Vavasorienaia to have been one of the ** acrimo- 
nious rejoinders" of Vavasor Powell, whereas it was the work of 
Alexander Griffith, whom he does not even mention. Another Grif- 
fith (not Griffiths), George, D.D. (p. 242), we read, '* accomplished 
in part a translation of the Common Prayer into Welsh.'* What he 
really did was to compile '* The Service for Adult Baptism", first of 
all, in Englishy to meet the new requirements of those days of auti- 
psedo- baptism. 

Turning once again to the poets of this, period, we have, on p. 193, 
a brief account of " Hugh Ceiriog", who flourished up to 1620, and 
is recorded as the domestic bard of Moeliyrch" (should be Moel- 
iwrch), and so on ; and then, pp. 248-256, an elaborate account of 
** Huw Morns" and his works, — in happy innocence that the two 
bards were one and the same, viz., Huw Morns of Pontymeibion, in 
Glyn Ceiriog, best known as " Eos Ceiriog". 

Only one more instance, and we have done. The list of 361 MSS. 
at Hengwrt ends thus, '* bequeathed to Sir Watkin W. E. Wynne by 
Yaughan, his kinsman"; and in the next sentence follows, '* the late 
W. W. E. Wynne, writing to the Arch. Camb,, October" («c, no 
reference, which, however, we have by this time got used to), '* pays 
the best testimony", etc. But would any one suppose from this that 
it was to the late Mr. W. W. E. Wynne (not Sir Watkin) that they 
were bequeathed ? Or understand that they now form an important 
part of the invaluable Peniarth collection p 

We fear we must close this notice with a warning that the His- 
Urry of the Liiernture of Wales is neither worthy of the title, nor to 
be altogether trusted for its accuracy.. 



318 REVIEWS. 



A Handbook fob Travellers in North Wales. Fifth Edition. 
Bevised. With Travelling Maps, etc. London : John Mairaj, 
Albemarle Street. 1885. 

Ten years have elapsed since the fourth edition of this most ser^ 
vioeable Handbook was noticed in a very complimentary para§praph 
in the Annnal Report of the Association read at Wrexham, and sub- 
sequent use has fully confirmed the high estimate then re-afi5.rmed of 
its excellence. It is rather the changes that have been necessitated 
by the opening out of new railways, than any defects in that edition, 
that have led Mr. Murray to publish a fifth edition rather than re- 
print the former one. Indeed, in some respects, and from an anti> 
qnarian point of view, we think the fourth edition the more valu- 
able, as being more full and minute in the description of objects of 
archfloolog^cal interest ; but travellers who desire to see within the 
allotted holiday, and in the most convenient manner, whether by 
conveyance or on foot, the chief objects of interest, the finest views, 
the best lines of road to take, the pleasantest quarters to rest, and 
at the same time to know a good deal about the places they pass 
through, will find many little advantages in this fifth edition. The 
first of these (and it strikes one at once on opening the book) is the 
introduction of new maps ; and we specially like those of the 
Snowdon and Cader Idris districts, as well for their effectiveness as 
for their accuracy. We observe also, throughout, greater accuracy 
and system in the spelling of Welsh names, — ^a matter of no little 
importance with respect to a country where so many names are 
apparently similar, and a slight variation in the lettering may make 
a vast difference in the utility of the Handbook. But even here we 
do occasionally fall in with a word that has escaped the reviser's 
pen. Upon the whole, however, and in the face of many competi- 
tors for favour, we know of no other book that can compare with 
this one for accuracy of information, completeness of matter, and 
handiness for use, and we therefore commend it heartily to the 
notice of all travellers in North Wales. 



iLfterarp Batim. 

Ik The TowHy Fields^ and Folk of Wrexham in the Time of James J, 
Mr. A. N. Palmer has shown how useful and interesting for local 
history such dry details as those given in Norden's " Survey of the 
Lordship of Bromfield and Yale*', made in 1620, and printed as 
** Original Documents" in the Archosologia Gamhrensis (1871-77), 
may be made. The " Survey", which is mostly in Latin, — and, if 
we remember rightly, gave umbrage to some of our members at the 
time,— contains, nevertheless, a list of the demesnes, freeholds, and 



LITERARY NOTICES. 319 

leaseholds of the lordship, together with the rents due therefrom to 
the Prince (Charles of Wales) ; and as the names of the tenants are 
also given, and the nature of their several holdings, and frequently 
also the names of the fields thej held, and the situation of their 
houses described, a large amount of curious information lies scat- 
tered through its pages. Upon these Mr. Palmer has brought to 
bear not only a minute local knowledge, but also a patient and labo- 
rious research into local documents of many kinds, civil and eccle- 
siastical, with a result that presents to us the old town, with its 
chief features and its inhabitants, as it was two and a half centuries 
ago ; and we have only to follow him as our guide through one 
street after another, to have pointed out to us not the mere names, 
but the chief historical and municipal events with which they have 
been connected. 

We are glad to know that this pamphlet is to be followed up by 
others on the history of the town and parish, of which a prospectus 
accompanied the last issue of our Journal, and in the carrying out 
of which we wish Mr. Palmer the support and success which his 
instalment justifies. 

A History of Early Pembrokeshire^ by Mr. Edw. Laws, our General 
Secretary for South Wales, we are glad to announce is now ready 
for the press. In the treatment of that battlefield of many races, 
the volumes of the Arckasologia Gambrensis contain a vast amount of 
helpful information, and nothing can be more satisfactory to our 
Association than to find it utilised for a county history. We wish 
that every other county in the Principality may be equally fortunate 
in finding some member to take up its history. The work will be 
copiously illustrated, and is to be printed and published by Mason 
of Tenby. 

We have also much satisfaction in learning that not only the 
Glamorgan Pedigrees, to which we referred in the volume for last 
year, but also another volume containing a collection of the Early 
Charters relating to the County^ are both all but completed. Every- 
thing that comes from the pen of Mr. G. T. Clark we know will be 
both accurate and valuable, and we therefore congratulate the 
county of Glamorgan on this further contribution to its history. 

Mr. G. Wilkins informs us that he has in hand a monograph of 
the Tredegar family, in which is given the Welsh ancestry of Lord 
Salisbury from Llywelyn ap Seisyllt, a.d. 1020. Llewelyn married 
Angharad, daughter of Meredith ap Owen, Prince of South Wales, 
and is stated to have held court at Maes Essyllt, now Bean pre Castle, 
Glam. This Maes Essyllt was conceded to Robert Sitsyllt by Robert 
Fitzhamon, and by him sold to Basse tt. We lose sight of Robert 
Sitsyllt from this time ; but Richard, lord of Altyrynis, district of 
Ewyas Harold, on the boundary between Monmouthshire and Here- 
fordshire, claimed descent from him ; and the arms emblazoned on 



320 LITERARY NOTICES. 

tbe windows of the family mansion are identical with those borne 
by the Earls of Salisbury and Exeter. 

The work, if compiled with care and accuracy, will be of inte- 
rest to the antiqnaiy. In the lengthy notice of the Tredegar family, 
the conspicuous members come in for fullest illustration, from 
Sir John Morgan, to whom Owilym Tew indited the ode printed in 
the Areh. Camh. for 1884 (p. 85), to Thomas Morgan who leaBed the 
whole of the Dowlais mineral district for £26 per annum I The 
work is dedicated, by special permission, to the Marquis of Salis- 
bury. 

Mb. Wilkins also proposes to publish, as a memento of the Mar- 
quis of Salisbury's visit to Newport, the speeches delivered ob the 
occasion, prefaced by a history and description of the town of New- 
port, and accompanied by biographies and portraits of the principal 
notabilities of the occasion. 



Cambrian 2lrtt)aeolo0ical 3£(0odation. 



THE FORTIETH ANNUAL MEETING 



WAS HSLD AT 



NEWPORT, MONMOUTHSHIRE, 



ON 



MONDAY, AUGUST 24rH, 1886, 

AND rOUR FOLLOWINQ DATS. 



PBSSIDXHT. 
THE RIGHT HON. LORD TREDEGAR. 



VICE-PEESISEKTS. 
E. J. OBICE, Esq., High Sheriff, The FielcU, Newport 
THE WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF NEWPORT 

(COLONSL LtNB) 



Hon. Arthur Morgan, J. P. 
Sir Gkoror Walkkr, Bart. 
Sir H. M. Jackson, Bart. 
J. A. Bolls, Esq., M.P. 
E. H. Carbutt, Esq., M.P. 
OcTATTUs Morgan, Esq., J.P. 
T. M. Llewxllin, Esq., J.P. 



T. Cordis, Esq., J.P. 

F. J. Mitchrll, Esq., J.P, 

Rev. W. 0. Brucr, M.A. 

Thomas Gratrsx, Esq., J.P. 

John Lawrxncs, Esq., J.P. 

E. A. LxE, Esq., J.P. 

Trjb Bxt. Canon Hawkins 



LOCAL COniTTSE. 

The Worshipfttl thb Mayor of Nbwport (Colonbl Ltnb), Chairman 



B. Donald Bain, Esq., Newport 
Thomas Canning, Esq., Newport 

R. Layboume, Esq., The Firs, Malpas 

C. Eirby, Esq.Caeraa Park, Newport 

A. C. Jones, Esq., The Oaks, Newport 

D. Whitehouse, Esq., The Gaer, New- 
port 

B. F. Woollett, Esq., M.D., The 
Mount. Newport 

W. W. Morgan, Esq., M D., Palmyra 
Place, Newport 

A. C. Pilliner, Esq., The Orange,Llan. 
tamam 

H. Prothero, Esq., Malpas Court, New- 
port 

Bev. F. Bedwell, Newport 

6th sbr., vol. 11. 



Bev. F. B. Leonard, Llandevand, 

Caerleon 
Bev. W. T. C. Lindsay, Llanvair Bec- 

tozT, Abergavenny 
Bev. W. B. Oakeley, Newland, Cole- 
ford, Gloucester 
Bev. J. M. Beynon, Llanvaches Beo- 

tory, Caerleon 
W. S. Smyth, Esq., Bosetta, Stow 

Park, Newport 
Major A. E. L. Lowe, F.S.A., Shire- 

newton Hall 
T. H. Thomas, Esq., 45, The Walk, 

Cardiff 
H. J. Pamall, Esq., Newport 
J. W. Jones, Esq., Blaenpant,Newport 

21 



322 CAMBRIAN ARCHiEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 



G. W. Nichol, Esq., The Ham, Cow- 

bridge 
W. N. Johns, Esq., Newport 
A. J. Stevens, Esq., Newport 
Bev. A. Wilkins, Newport 
0. W. £. Marsh, Esq., St. Helen's, 

Newport 



Bev. H. B. Boderick, Bassaleg, near 

Newport 
W. O. Bees, Esq., Holly House, ditto 
J. D. Pain, Esq., Christcharcb, ditto 
A. G. Thomas, Esq., M D., Newport 
J. A. Morris, Esq., M D., Caerleon 
G. L. Hiley, Esq., Gilwem, Aberga- 
venny 



Loeal Treasurer. 
E. W. Willey, Esq., National Bank of Wales, Newport 

Local Seeretary. 
T. D. Boberts, Esq., Newport. 



REPORT OF MEETING. 



MONDAY, AUGUST 24. 

Thbouoh the conrtesy of the Mayor and Corporation, the meetings of 
the Association were held in the rooms of the handsome new Town 
Hall, which had only been declared open with due civic ceremonial 
in the conrse of the afternoon. The Inangnral Meeting was thus 
the first public one to be held within its walls. 

After the necessary preliminary business of the Association had 
been transacted, the Members of the Committee proceeded at half- 
past flight to the Town Hall, where a goodly company had already 
assembled. Owing to the death of their late President, Sir Wat- 
kin Williams- Wynn, Bart., M.P.,and the resignation of their Chair- 
man of Committee, Canon Thomas stated that their first datj 
was to appoint a temporary chairman, and he had very great 
pleasure in proposing the name of one who was not only a veteran 
archsBologist, bnt had on a former visit to the county acted as their 
President, and was still one of their Vice-Presidents and Trustees, 
as well as being President of the Monmouthshire and Caerleon 
sister Association, in whose welcome and co-operation they greatly 
rejoiced — Mr. C. Octavius S. Morgan, P.R.S., V.P.S.A. This was 
seconded by Professor Rhys, and carried unanimously. Mr. C. 
O. S. Morgan, on taking the chair, said that he had a light and 
pleasant office to fill : pleasant, because he had long taken great 
interest in the Association and its work ; light, because he had only 
to call on the President-Elect, the Right Hon. Lord Tredegar, to 
take possession of it and enter on his duties as actual President for 
the year. 

Lord Tredegar began by thanking the Association for the high 
honour they had conferred upon him in making him their President, 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 323 

and then sp oke in feeling terms of his predecessor in that chair, the 
late Sir Watkin Williams- Wynn, whose death was monmed not 
only by the Association, but, he wonld add, by all Wales, and not 
least by himself, as an old and intimate friend ; for his simple life 
and amiable character were worthy of his great name and his exten- 
sive wealth. Turning to the programme, he felt inclined to object 
to the language of the paragraph which stated that he wonld *' de- 
liver an inaugural address", as such.an expression might be supposed 
to imply a long and deep acquaintance with archasology, a claim he 
could by no means venture to make. Still, no one could have lived 
long in such a county as Monmouth, and fail to imbibe some of the 
spirit of the science ; indeed, he had long had a liking for arclueo- 
logical study, and had often followed the course of their local 
history through the Silurian, Roman, Saxon, and Norman periods to 
the present day. He might, it is true, have compiled, out of the 
writers on their county history, a striking and stirring address ; but 
some ladies and gentlemen present might have said, " We know all 
that", and others might have added, *'That is all out of Coxe's 
book, and we can prove it all wrong.'* For there was a sort of 
feeling about archsdologists, that they were very fond of upsetting 
cherished notions, and dispelling the halo of veneration that often 
attached to places ; he wonld, therefore, rather wait and see what 
new lieht the Association might throw on their antiquities. One 
thing, however, in connection with Caerleon he hoped they wonld 
not destroy, and that was its association with King Arthur and 
the Knights of his Round Table, which he had been brought up to 
believe in. He had recently been reading a history of Newmarket, 
in which the writer had attributed the origin of horse-racing to the 
Romans, and had stated that there was a race-course at Caerleon. 
He hoped that Mr. Mitchell, who knew the antiquities of the place 
well, would be able to tell them where it was. Among the 
numerous Roman remains preserved in the Museum at Caerleon, 
they wonld see a very interesting stone, which had been discovered 
in 1878 in the old sea wall on the Caldecot Level, and had solved 
the question of the draining of those marshes by the Romans. 
The inscription upon it ran thus : 

cohT 

STA'rOBI 
M-M I 

The last line was not quite complete, as there were faint traces of 
other letters, but it showed that the " First Cohort of the Centurion 
Statorius built so many paces (one or two miles) of the wall.^ 
In an able paper read at the meeting of the British Archsdological 
Association at Brighton, mention was made of a line of camps from 
Chepstow to Cardiff, which were stated to be Roman, and used 

^ For an account of this find, see " Goldcliff and the Ancient Roman 
Inscribed Stone found there", by Mr. Octavius Morgan, F.R.S., F.S.A., 
President, in the Transactions of the Monmouthshire and Caerleon Antiqua- 
rian Assocxaiion^ 1882. 

21 « 



324 CAMBRIAN ARCHiBOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

some for defence and some for exercise. He looked forward with 
interest to see what the Members of the Cambrian Archseological 
Association would saj abont them. 

Canon Thomas, in proposing a vote of thanks to the President 
for his address, said that although his lordship had modestly dis- 
claimed any deep knowledge of archsBology, he had given evidence 
of a spirit which was dear to antiquaries. They, too, came more or 
less as learners, and were often chary of expressing an opinion, 
from a mere casual visit, of what they only saw in passing. They 
knew that, though there were general types that belonged, roughly 
speaking, to special periods, yet, inasmuch as one generation 
frequently copied another in its architecture and method, their 
opinions were continually liable to be corrected by local records ; 
and one advantage of these meetings was that they drew attention 
to these points, and often brought unthonght-of matters to light 
They only wished to overthrow existing notions, where they could 
be fairly shown to be untenable. He did not think any of them 
would wish to disconnect Arthur from Caerleon. 

Professor Rhys, in seconding the vote, quite sympathised with 
his lordship in deprecating all attempts to sever Arthur's name 
from that of Caerleon. This had been suggested in favour of 
Southern Scotland, of Cornwall, and of Brittany. It was partly in 
consequence of the topography of those districts ; but on that score 
Wales and Monmouthshire had quite as good a claim, and in his 
opinion even a better one. It was, however, quite enough to let 
those claims neutralise one another, the fact being that Arthur 
belonged to all the Brythonic Celts from the Clyde to the Loire. 
Those who would locate King Arthur exclusively in Southern Scot- 
land, in Wales, in Cornwall, or in Brittany, cannot be said to under- 
stand the question. The whole subject of the history and position 
of King Arthur was, it could not be denied, a very difficult one. 
He had lately been trying to study it, as he could not pass over it in 
silence in his Hibbert Lectures. 

The President then called upon Mr. Laws, the General Secretary 
for South Wales, to read the Annual Report. 

" Report for the Year 1885. 

'' At this, its fortieth anniversary, the Association meets for the 
first time in its history without an actual President. Those who 
were present last year at Bala will remember with what physical 
suffering, and at what personal inconvenience, the late Sir Watkin 
Williams- Wynn attended our opening meeting there, and joined in 
our excursion to Caergai ; we desire, then, to take the first oppor- 
tunity of testifying to our sense of the loss which we feel, in common 
with almost every other institution for the promotion of the interests — 
literary, social, and philanthropic — of the northern portion of the 
Principality, which always found in him a willing and genial 
supporter. We welcome, however, into his chair to-day, the 
worthy representative of the ancient lords of Tredegar. 



NEWPORT MEETING. — ^REPORT. 325 

" We are glad, moreover, to tbiok that this, onr fortieth Annual 
Meeting, proraises to be in no respect behind the most attractive of 
its predecessors in its programme of places to be visited. The 
ethnographical history of the district opens np in succession 
Silurian, Roman, British, Saxon, Danish, and Norman questions. 
Its antiquarian remains are singularly rich in Roman stations, no 
fewer than five being embraced within the limits of the county, 
viz., Blestinm, Burrium, Gobanninm, Isca Silurum, and Yenta 
Silnrum; and of these, three are included in our programme. 
British earthworks abound in all directions ; and medieval castles, 
such as Caerphilly, and Chepstow, and Newport, and Raglan, and 
Usk, tell the same tale of the struggles of the men of Gwent 
against Saxon, Dane, and Norman, who coveted their Bstir and 
fertile plains. And when we turn to its ecclesiastical features, we 
shall find ourselves at one moment standing on the threshold of 
British Christianity at Caerleon on Usk ; at another, admiring with 
bated breath the beauties of ruined Tintem ; at another, rejoicing 
that St WooUos and Chepstow, Bassaleg and Magor, Caerleon and 
Caerwent, still hand down from age to age the offices of prayer and 
praise and eucharist. 

" We look forward, too, with all the more pleasure to this our visit, 
because coming, as many of us do, as learners in the field, as well 
as promoters of the spirit of archaaology, we are met at the out- 
set with the right hand of fellowship by our sister Society, the 
Monmouthshire and Caerleon Antiquarian Association; and we 
cordially hope that, the result may prove as agreeable to them as 
the prospect is gratifying to ourselves. 

'* Since our Meeting last August, death has removed from our 
list of patrons, not only our late President, Sir Watkin Williams- 
Wynn, Bart., but also a former President — at Machynlleth in 1866 — 
the Most Noble the Marquis of Londonderry, K.P. ; whilst from 
our roll of Members there have been removed, for the same cause, 
the names of Mr. C. Baker, F.S.A., to whom the Association was 
indebted for the completion of its supplementary volume on the 
Survey of Gower ; Dr. Barham, of Truro ; Mr. Charles Allen, of 
Tenby ; Mr. R. D. Jenkins of Cardigai^ the Rev. T. W. Webb, 
and others, who have in different ways helped on the work of the 
Association. 

" We have this year again to regret the loss of another of our 
earliest and most constant officers, — this time happily not through 
death, but through the necessity of well-earned rest. For nearly 
twenty years Professor Babington has acted as our Chairman of 
Committee, the onerous duties of which he has discharged with 
unfailing courtesy and with a breadth of knowledge on archsological 
subjects which has been of great service to our Association. Into 
his place it is necessary, therefore, on the present occasion, to 
appoint a successor, and the Committee recommend for the office 
the Rev. Canon Thomas. 

"They also recommend that Prof. Rhys be elected on the 



326 CAMBRIAN ARCHifiOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Editoral Committee, to fill the place vacated by the Bev. E. li. 
Barnwell. 

*' To the list of Vice-Presidents they recommend the addition of 
the following Members : 

" Prof. C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S., F.SA. 
His Honour, Judge Wynn Ffonlkes, M.A. 
Frederick Lloyd -Philipps, Esq., M.A. 
John Edward Lee, Esq., F.S.A. 

" Your Committee recommend farther the re-election of the four 
retiring members, viz., Howel W. Lloyd, Esq., M.A.; J. Y. W. 
Lloyd, Esq., M.A.; M. C. Jones, Esq., F.S.A. ; Rev. M. H. Lee, 
M. A., and the election of E. G. B. Phillimore, Esq. 

" As Local Secretaries, to fill vacancies caused by death, removal, 
or withdrawal, they propose the following names : 

" Carnarvonshire : Richard Lack, Esq. 
Denbighshire : Rev. D. W. Evans, M.A. 
Flintshire : T. Morgan Owen, Esq., M. A., H.M.I.S. 
Cardiganshire : Rev. L. T. Rowland. 
Radnorshire : Stephen W. Williams, Esq. 

The following names are proposed for Membership : 

** North Wales. 

" Right Hon. Lord Kenyon, Oredington, Flintshire 
R. B. Bamford-Hesketh, Esq., Owrych Castle, Abergele 
John George Briscoe, Esq., Glyn Ceiriog 
C. S. Main waring, Esq., Galltfaenan, Rhyl 
T. Morgan Owen, Esq., Rhyl 
R. J. LI. Price, Esq., Rhiwlas, Merioneth 
Rev. J. Gwynoro Davies, Llanawchllyn, Bala 
Rev. D. Williams Evans, M. A., St. George Rectory, Abergele 
Rev. R. E. Jones, M.A., Llanllwchaiam Vicarage, Newtown 
Rev. W. Yaaghan Jones, B.A., Wrexham. 

"South Wales. 
•* Peter Price, Esq., 3 Crockherbtown, Cardiff. 

*' England and the Bordebs. 

" Rev. Osborne AUen, Sherbame Vicarage, Tetsworth 

Mrs. Romilly Allen 

William H. Banks, Esq., Ridgebonme, Kington 

J. Hight Blandell, Esq., Marlowe's Cottage, Hemel Hempstead 

Chetham Library, Manchester 

Thomas Canning, Esq., Newport 

Cecil G. S. Foljambe, Esq., M.P., Cockglode, Ollerton, 
Newark 

Edward Owen, Esq., St. Martin's Road, Stockwell 

Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A., Dep. Prof, of Comparative Philo- 
logy, Queen's Coll., Oxford. 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 327 

'< It will be remembered that at the Bala Meeting last ^ear, it 
was resolved that an Index of the thirty-eight volumes forming the 
first four series of the Archoeologia Cambrensis should be prepared, 
and that Canon Thomas should be asked to undertake it Your 
Committee have now to announce that several volumes have been 
already done ; but the work is a laborious one, and but few Members 
have as yet signified their readiness to subscribe either for the 
volume or to the guarantee fund for the expense and costs. 

'^ Other works m progress by Members of the Association com- 
prise the account of the Old Stone Crosses of the Vale of Clwyd^ by 
the Bev. Elias Owen, M.A., of which two parts have been already 
issued. The fifth volume of the History of the Princes of Powys 
Fadog, by J. Y. W. Lloyd, Esq., of Clochfaen, is in the press. Mr. 
A. N. Palmer, of Wrexham, is engaged upon a series of essays to 
illustrate the History of the Toum and Parish of Wrexham^ and 
Canon the Hon. G. T. 0. Bridgeman is at work upon a History of the 
Bectory of Wig^an. 

" Mr. C. Wilkins' History of the Literature of Wales has been for 
some time in the hands of subscribers, and the Bev. D. Silvan 
Evans's long-expected Welsh-English Dictionary is in the press. 

** In closing their Beport, the Committee have once more to urge 
upon the Members the duty of punctual payment of their subscrip- 
tions, which are due on the 1st of January in each year ; and they 
trust that the Local Secretaries will send to the Editors a timely 
notice of any antiquities found in their neighbourhoods, so that the 
Journal may be not only a storehouse of information on the more 
important remains, but also a handy record of the smaller discoveries 
made from time to time throughout the Principality." 

The adoption of the Beport being moved by the Bev. B. Trevor 
Owen and seconded by Mr. Hartland, was carried unanimously. 

A vote of sympathy with Lady Williams-Wynn was next pro- 
posed by Canon Thomas and seconded by Mr. Octavius Morgan, and 
the President was requested to convey the same to her ladyship. 

The President then called upon Mr. F. J. Mitchell to read the 
paper on "The History and Descent of the Lordship Marcher or 
County of Wentllwch", prepared by Mr. Octavius Morgan, which 
is printed in the current number of the Journal. 

The thanks of the Association were heartily accorded to Mr. 
Octavius Morgan for the same, and after a brief discussion, in 
which Professor Bhys, Mr. Mitchell, and others took part, the 
Members adjourned to another room, where the Mayor and Cor- 
poration had very courteously provided refreshments. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 25. 

By the 9.15 lm. train a large party proceeded to Magor. The 
church has been well described by Mr. E. A. Freeman in his article 
on the ** Architectural Antiquities of Monmouthshire" in the Archaso^ 
logia CambrensiSf Second Series, vol. ii, p. 197, to which we are 



328 CAMBRIAN ARCH^OLOOICAL ASSOCIATION. 

largely indebted forthepresent notice, and from which ve reprodace 
the accompanying view. 



" This chnrcb is one of considerable interest, as exhibiting some 
of the radest work in the district broaght into close jnxtapoeition 
with some of the richest. The gronnd-ptan comprises chancel, 
tower, and nave, with two aisles, which are continued to the east 
face of the tower, forming false transepts inteniBlly. The chancel 
is maioly Decorated, and has a canons window of two lights on the 
sonth side, having the qnatrefoiled pnrlings of a reticnlated window 
standing quite free, without any arch over it The central tower is 
of the rough local early English, with very rade pointed lantern 
arches and plain pairs of lancets for belfry windows. There is a 
corbel table, but no battlement, and a square turret at the north- 
west comer. To this tower are, strangely enough, added a nave 
and aisles of Perpendicular work. The north-west view has an 
imposing effect : the clerestory is, as asnal, absent ; and the nave 
having a high pitched roof, does not at all harmonise with the low 
ones of the aisles, finished with parapets. The massive and pic- 
turesque outline of the tower groups well with the enormoos porch 
below, of the fall height of the aisle, and projecting in proportion. 
The outer doorway of this porch is very elaborate, and specially 
remarkable for an ornament, now sadly mutilated, of open foliation 
round the arch. This beautifnl decoration, which occurs also at 
Caerwent, may not improbably have been imitated from the well- 
koown iustanco at St. Stephen's, Bristol. In the interior we find 
arcades of very elaborate character. The piers are of the nsnal 
rather low proportions, but of more complicated section than any 
of their neighbours, and finished with capitals of a rich and singular 
kind, introducing figures holdiog scrolls, an ornament found in 
several Somersctsbire examples; but here the effect is much altered 
by their being brought, from the lowness of the piers, very much 
nearer the eye. The east and west arches of the lantern are left 
in theiroriginal roughness, while those into the quaai-tnmsepts have 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 329 

received a casing of panel work. In the chancel is a timber roof 
worth notice, a strange variety of the cradle form, describing a sort 
of pointed arch depressed at the top." In the north qnasi- transept 
are corbels representing a bishop and other ecclesiastics ; 4 coffin lid 
with a Calvary cross, flenrie, within a circle, and fragments of a 
rood screen ; and on the east wall are niches for statues. Externally 
shonld be noticed, in the sonth-east angle of the chancel, above a 
stone with chevron ornament, at least ten consecration crosses. 
A honse in the village, called " The Church House", is worth noticing 
for some good oak panelling ; and there are some considerable ruins 
a little to the north-west of the church, of which nothing appears 
to be known. 

A pleasant drive from Magor, by Penhow, brought us to Caer- 
went, where we were met by Major Lawson Lowe, F.S.A., who 
acted as a most efficient guide for the rest of the day. The first 
object visited was the church, with respect to which Major Lowe 
stated that it was dedicated to St. Stephen, and might not impro- 
bably be of very early foundation, though of this there was no direct 
evidence. Mr. Freeman, in his paper already referred to, says that 
*Hhe church seems certainly to have been built on the site, and 
partly out of the materials, of some Roman edifice. On the south 
side of the nave about one half the wall is built with common 
rubble, the other half of huge, rectangular stones, quite unlike the 
usual Gothic masonry. They are, however, most wretchedly put 
together, and we may most probably conjecture that they are the 
remains of a Roman structure, built up again as far as they would 
go, the rest of the wall being continued of new materials." The 
church was once of greater extent than at present, and seems to 
have had two side chapels or aisles to the chancel, and likewise a 
south aisle to the have. A very remarkable arcade, now blocked 
with masonry, still exists on the south side of the chancel, and two 
blocked arches may also be seen from the outside in the south wall 
of the nave. The north wall of the chancel was entirely rebuilt 
between thirty and forty years ago. When the late vicar of Caer- 
went, the Rev. Macdonald Steel, was first appointed to the benefice, 
in 1843, the foundations of the two chancel aisles could be very dis- 
tinctly traced, and some part of the walls of that on the south side 
was still standing. The chancel, which is of somewhat unusually 
large proportions, belongs to the Early English period ; but the 
north wall has been rebuilt. The chancel arch has also been 
rebuilt, though with the old materials so far as was practicable. In 
taking it down, several fragments of earlier work were found, 
amongst which was a piece of Norman work, apparently an impost, 
and a stone covered with what seemed to be classical carving. The 
blocked arcade on the south side of the chancel, to which we have 
already alluded, and of which we i*eproduce an illustration from 
Mr. Freeman's article, is very peculiar. It is conspicuous for the 
extreme flatness of the arch, a peculiarity to be found in other 
churches in South Wales, notably at St. Lythan*s, near Cardifi*, and 



330 CAMBBIAN ARCH£0L0OICAL ASSOCIATION. 

St. Florence, in Pembrokeshire. Bat, whilst those &Fe deemed to 
be of Perpendicalar work, showing aimpi; the mdeoess of work- 
manship to be expected from comparatively unskilled local masons 
when BO nnnenal a reqairement was laid npon them as that of con- 
straoting aa arcade, the arcade at Caerwent, though it agrees wiUi 



CAERWETNT CHURCH. S.E- 

tbe three other examples in the flatness of the arch, yet the form 
ia not the same, and the work, though very plain, is by no means 
mde. The pecnliar form, thouKh it might be nnsightly, seems to 
have been intentionally selected, and is evidently not the resnlt of 
mere inability to prodnce something better. Mr. Freeman argnes 
from this that the arcade mnst, in all probability, be genniiie Early 
Englitih work, and contemporary with the elegant east end, and the 
somewhat elaborate chancel arch, now, nnfortaaately, rebnilt. The 
nave is principally of Perpendicular work. There is a holy water 
stonp in the north wall, close by the door. The rich outer doorway 
of the porch, originally ornamented, like that of Magor, with open 
foliations ronnd the arch, is worthy of notice. Unfortunately, all the 
onsping has been destroyed. The tower maybe considered as intei~ 
mediate between the more purely ecclesiastical and the military 
fype, of which the latter forms one of the most marked feataires 
in the churches of this district, and of which a fine example m&y 
be seen at Magor. The tower at Caerwent certainly approximates 
to these, but the usual corbel-table is wanting, and in some 
respects it deviates altogether from the defensive type. In its 
general features it greatly resembles those of Somersetshire, as 
will ho seen from the accompanying engraving by Mr. W, G. 
Smith, from a photograph taken at the time by Mr. W. H. Banka 
About twenty-five years ago the interior of the tower was seri- 
ously damaged by fire, arising from some defect in the heating 
apparatus, and the two old bells whioh it contained fell down and 
were broken to pieces. The present bell was cast from the tra-g- 



NEWPORT MEBTISQ. — EEPORT. 331 

ments. Tbe fine old Jacobean pnlpit haa upon it the arma of the 
WilUamB of Llanf^bby, former lords of the maoor of Caerwent ; the 
anna of the Uorgona of Tredogar, who intarmarried with the 
Williama family ; and a third shield bearing a representation of a 
cathedral, iosoribed, " Ecclesia Landaven", — obviously referring 
to tbe Chapter of Llandaff Cathedral, to whom the Charoh of 



CMnrtnt Chnrab Towar. 



Caerwent was granted, together with tbe Chapels of Llanfair, 
Dinham, and Crick, by Almeric de Lncy, lord of this place in or 
abont the year 1337. There is an inscription ronnd the top of 
the pnlpit, " Woe nnto me if I preach not the Gospel", with the 
date 1632 ; bnt the panels on which this is carved do not occnpy 
their original position, having been reversed, and on the other aide 
of them are carved the names of " John Eovrells and William 
Parker, Church wardens"; ao that the inscription and date were 
probably added some few years l&ter. 



332 CAHBRIAK ARCHi£0L06ICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The walls of the ancient Roman city were, howerer, the main 
centres of interest ; and after the company had had an opportunity 
of examining them, Major Lowe very londly proffered some ohserra- 
tions. He remarked tnat he helieved the fiict of Caerwent heing 
the Venta Silnmm of the Romans was nnqnestionahle. The 
remains of the Roman city that conld then he seen were confined 
to the city walls. These walls oonld hfi traced the whole way ronnd 
the city. They formed a somewhat irregolar parallelogram; the 
north and sonth walls were something over five hundred yards in 
length — ^the east and west walls about three hundred and ninety. 
The north wall was slightly bowed outwards, but the sonth wall 
was nearly straight The walls could be traced round the city; 
but excepting the south side, comparatively little of the facing 
remained. On the south wall were four bastions These had been 
supposed to be later work, but he offered no opinion on the point 
The south wall was what was locally known as the port wall. 
There was a tradition that Caerwent was once a seaport, and that 
the Nedem, a small rivulet flowing at the bottom of the field they 
were then standing in, was once a tidal river, and that ships came 
up as fiur as they were standing. The local sages went farther than 
that, and said that the water came up to the walla There could 
be no doubt that there had been an enormous alteration in the 
coast line, and it was quite possible that small ships might have 
come up the Nedem as far as Caerwent The local sages he had 
spoken of mentioned that there were iron rings in the walls, and 
asserted that the ships were fastened to the rings. The fact that 
there ever had been such rings in the walls was generally disputed, 
bat there seemed good evidence of them. A mason living in the 
village, one of many who distinctly assert that they have seen 
them, described them as being about ten inches or a foot in dia- 
meter; they were very much corroded. Major Lowe offered no 
opinion as to the origin or use of these rings, but pointed out that 
their existence would very probably account for the story that the 
tide came up to tti^^alls. Remains of Roman buildings were 
found outside the walls. A short time ago he found what 
appeared to be the remains of a Roman villa of extensive dimen- 
sions on the north-east side of the city. He was told that other 
interesting discoveries had been made, but he was not able to fix 
the locality. About the year 1786, Sayer, the historian of Bristol, 
visited the place, and stayed some time, making careful notes. He 
found in the sonth-west angle remains of cross walls, which occu- 
pied considerable space. Sayer said that at that time limekilns 
were in active work, and it was marvellous that there was so much 
of the walls left. These cross walls were being taken down at the 
time he wrote, and burnt for lime. As they were aware, many 
tesselated pavements were found, — no less than three in 1689 ; 
and one very good one was discovered in 1777, in the south-east 
angle ; another about 1830 ; and in 1855 the Monmouthshire and 
Caerleon Antiquarian Society made some interesting discoveries, an 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 333 

acconnt of whioh they wonid find id the thirty-Bixth Totame of the 
ATchaologia. These remaiaa were re-covered with earth, and etill 
remaioed in the same condition as when found. Many of the pave- 
ments had, however, been wantonly deetroyed. A small qoantity of 
pottery had also been found, and also a larfi^ nnmber of coins. A 
number of these, collected by Mr. William Till of the Great House, 
Caerwent, were exhibited in the Temporary Museum at Newport. 

Mr. Wdter Myers spoke of some very interesting discoveries made 
while excavating at Chichester with the British Association. He 
referred to the discovery of some bastions found at the base of a 
Koman structure, and twenty yards further they found the base of 
a Roman wall. He said the results of their labours were very satis- 
factory, and proved beyond doubt the existence of a Roman encamp- 
ment. Perhaps if they were to excavat« they wonld find something 
similar here, built at about the same time. 

Major Lowe quite agreed that the walls had never been specially 
excavated, and said he wished the local Antiqnarian Association 
would undertake the work. Mr. Octaviua Morgan had oondncted 
some excavations, and it was a remarkable fact that everything 
fonnd within the Roman buildings was of Roman origin. The build- 
ings themselves seem to have been allowed io Ml into mins. There 
was no trace of anything later, and it was difGonlt to reconcile that 
with the fact that when the Romans lefl the place it became Etn 
important British city. 

Caldicot Chnrch, restored in 1858, and the north aisle rebuilt at 
the cost of the Rev. £. Turberville Williams, comprises chancel, 
nave, and north aisle, with central tower, but no transepts. The 



334 CAMBRIAN AKCHJEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

nave arcade resembles that at Magor, and the south windows of the 
chancel have Decorated, or rather flamboyant, traoeiy. The tower 
has a '* quadrangular capping, and no battlement, and although 
plain, is a bold and handsome structure". The porch is fine, and 
has a niche for the patron saint. In the wall is enclosed an effigy 
of a civilian, the lower part of which has been mutilated. Both 
church and churchyard are kept in excellent order. 

The drive to Portskewet 3rielded some fine views of Caldicot 
Castle, which, unhappHy, was not open to our inspection. 

At Portskewet we were reminded by our guide, Major Lowe, how 
Saxon Chronicles tell us that *' in this year [1065], before Lammas, 
Harold the Earl ordered a building to be erected at Portskeweth, 
after he had subdued it ; and there he gathered much good, and 
thought to have King Edward there for the purpose of hunting; 
but when all was ready then went Caradoc, Griffin's son, with the 
whole force that he could procure, and slew almost all the people 
who there had been building, and they took the good which then was 
prepared" This was done on St Bartholomew's mass^day (August 
the 24th). This same Garadock ap Griffith had previously assisted 
Earl Harold against Griffith ap Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, and it is 
said that he destroyed Harold's palace in revenge for the Earl 
not having aided him in recovering the Principality of South 
Wales. The site of this palace, according to tradition, was in 
the meadow immediately adjoining the churchyard, just beyond 
the west end of the church, where some traces of the foundations 
of buildings are plainly visible. The church itself, which is dedi- 
cated to St. Mary, presents several interesting features, vestiges 
of early work being discernible both in the nave and chancel, and 
it is not improbable that it may have been originally erected by 
Earl Harold. Over the north door of the nave, of which we give 
an engraving, is a large block of sandstone, forming the tymp&- 
num, upon which a Greek cross is somewhat rudely sculptured 
in relief within a semicircular compartment, at the bottom of 
which runs a band of cable moulding; and immediately beneath 
it a similar band, but with the moulding reversed, runs along the 
whole width of the doorway. This interesting early Bomanesqae 
door-head, or tympanum, seems clearly to belong to the pre* 
Norman period, and has been recognised as such by Mr. £. A. Free- 
man and other authorities. No less than three consecration crosses 
appear incised on the jambs of this doorway. The one on the 
western side seems of very early character, presumably contemporaiy 
with the doorway itself, whilst the two others, on the opposite 
side, are obviously later. The south door is of the same period 
and very similar, but it has unfortunately been plastered over ; and 
the massive round-headed chancel arch is probably of the same date 
as these two doorways. Unfortunately the interior of the church 
is sadly disfigured by plaster and colour-wash. Were these removed, 
other interesting features would doubtless be brought to light. In 
the churchyard stands an unusually large cross, concerning which 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 335 

there ia a tradition tliat some saintly personage onoe preached from 
it. There is also another hia^hlf improbable tradition, that the cross 
marks the grave of one of the native princea of the district. 



TTjapAiiBiii, Fartgkewet Cbimh. 

Fassmg throngh the eztensive vill^^ temporarily erected in 
connection with the works for the Severn Tannel, we reached the 
great camp at Sndbrook, which overhangs the aea-clifi'. Mnch dis- 
cnssion has taken place as to the origin and date of this camp. 
Some have maintained that what now remains is only a portion of 
the original ; that it was at first qoadrangnlar, and erected by the 
Romans, bat that a large portion of it has been gradually nnder- 
mined by the action of the tides and washed away by the sea ; and 
in support of this theory it is asserted that the rocks and shoals 
known as Bedwin, Grnggy, and Dinan, now far away in the Channel, 
were once connected with the mainland ; that it was owing to the 
encroachments of the sea that the Chapd of the Holy Trinity, the 
remains of which stand in the foss of the camp, fell into disnse and 
decay; and that a medal in honour of Severos fonnd here, as well 
as the discovery of Roman bricks and coins (which last, however, 
Ormerod in his SiTtgulentia, p. 27, conaiders inaccurate), argue its 
Romau origin. Others maintain, and among theni Ormerod himself, 
tfaat although it may very likely have been occupied by the Romans, 
it bos much more the character of a British camp. Some of onr 
Members, however, doubted very mnch whether it bad ever been 
materially diminished by the action of the sea; and tbey held that 
it bore a strong resemblance, both in form and position, to the 



336 CAMBRIA!! ABCU^OLOOICAL A8S0CIATI0K. 




NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 337 

Cliff Gamps on the coast of Pembrokeshire ; some at least of wbich 
are assigned to the predatory inroads of Norse and Danish pirates. 

A full acconnt,^ with many illnstrations, is given by Mr. Octavins 
Morgan and Mr. Wakeman of the rained chapel of Sndbrook. 
It consisted of nave, chancel, and sonth porch ; the oldest portion 
being the nave, on the south side of which there still remains " one 
very small round-headed window to announce the fact of' its having 
been originally a Norman structure". The chancel appears to have 
been rebuilt, and a new chancel arch inserted about the middle of 
the fourteenth century. Between the priest's door and the east 
wall is the piscina, which has a simple square water-drain. Pro- 
jecting from the east wall are the remains of two moulded stones, 
which may have been brackets to support figures on each side 
of the altar. In the north-east corner are the remains of a nar- 
row shelf, about seven iYiches wide, and pierced with five holes, 
apparently to " support an iron grating, probably to protect some 
painting or sculpture of a Scriptural subject behind it." It is con- 
jectured that the alteration in the church may have been made 
either by Walter de St. Pierre, lord of Portskewet and Sudbrook, 
1330, or his son, John de St. Pierre, lord of Sudbrook. From this 
John, the last male heir of the family, the manor of Sudbrook 
passed to the Kemeyses of Began, and from them to the Herberts 
of Galdicot, by one of whose descendants it was sold to Mr. Lewis 
of St. Pierre, its present lord. 

A pleasant drive brought us to the wild and picturesque park of 
St. Pierre, where Mr. Lewis received the party with a genial and 
welcome hospitality. The gateway tower, the wainscoted rooms, 
the rich tapestry, and the painting^, were inspected; and after- 
wards the very interesting church, with its historic monuments, 
which Major Lowe described in illustrating the earlier fortunes of 
the manor. 

The church shows workmanship of different periods, from the 
Norman doorway (closed) and gable loop at the west end, to the 
later chancel, which is divided from the nave by a screen. Over 
the doorway of the north porch is a niche for a statue, as is so fre- 
quently the case in the churches of this district A walk across 
tiie fields brought the members to Moyne's Court, a fine specimen of 
an Elizabethan house, with its singular gatehouse, flanked by two 
towers, leading into the courtyard. The house is noteworthy as 
having been built, in 1609, by Bishop Francis Godwin of Llandaff 
(1601-17), the author of a Catalogue of the Bishops of England, 
1601, but best known from the later Latin edition of the same, 1616, 
De Prcesulibus Anglice Commentariui, 

Another place famous for its connection with the see of Llandaff 
is the neighbouring palace at Matherne, a residence from veiy early 
times of Uie bishops of that diocese. The present edifice was built, 

^ Notes on the Ecclesieutical Remains at Runston^ Sudbrook^ Dinham, and 
Llanbedr. Printed for the Monmouthshire and Gaerleon Antiquarian 
Association. 

5th 8BB., VOL. II. 22 



338 CAMBRIAN ARCH JSOLOGICA L ASSOCIATION. 

according to Godwin, by two different bisbopa. The tower, porch, 
and other parts of the north and north-east, were portions erected 
by John de la Zonch, a monk of the Order of Franciscans, who 
presided over the see from 1408 to 1423. The chapel, halL kitchen, 
and adjoining apartments wore added by Miles Salley, 1500-1516, 
abbot successively of Abingdon and of Eynsham. " The principal 
ball was thirty-two feet by sixteen-, and twenty feet in height. The 
chapel, when undivided, was eighty feet by ten." Freeman calls it 
" the Liamphey of Llandaff*'. It is now nsed as a farm-house. 

The churcb of Matheme, which has lately been very effedavelj 
restored by Mr. Prichard, diocesan architect, consists of a stately 
massive western tower, with nave and aisles, south porch and 
chancel; and is noted as having been the burial-place of St. 
Tewdrio, the hermit king of Glamorgan. The story of his death 
is given in the Liber Landavensis, and BisHop Godwin has given ns 
the following account of the endowment of the church and the see. 
'* The Manor of Matheme, where there is now a palace, was given to 
the Bishops of Llandaff* by Maurice, King of Ghimorgan, about the 
year 560, on the following occasion : his father, St. Theodoric, as 
he is usually called, having resigned his crown to his son, embraced 
the life of a hermit. The Saxons invading the country, Theodoric 
was reluctantly called from his hermitage to take the command of 
the army. He defeated them near Tintem, upon the Wye. Being 
mortally wounded in the engagement, he precipitated his return, that 
he might die among his friends, and desired his son to erect a 
church, and bury him on the spot where he breathed his last. He 
had scarcely proceeded five miles when he expired, at a place near 
the conflux of the Wye and Severn ; hence, according to his desire, 
a small chapel being erected, his body was placed in a stone coffin. 
As I was giving orders to repair this coffin, which was either broken 
by chance, or decayed by age, I discovered his bones, not in the 
smallest degree changed, though after a period of a thousand years, 
the skull retaining the aperture of a large wound, which appeared 
as if it had been recently inflicted. Maurice gave the coniiguons 
estate to the churcb, and assigned to the place the name of Merthyr 
Tewdric, or the Martyr Theodorick, who, because he perished in 
battle against the enemies of the Christian name, is esteemed a 
martyr." 

This is further commemorated by a tablet in the chancel ; and 
during the restoration in 1881, when excavating at the base of the 
north wall, just beneath it, the stone coffin above alluded to was 
found and carefully reburied on the completion of the work. A 
little to the east of the coffin was also discovered an earthen vessel, 
believed to have been the urn in which had been deposited the 
heart and bowels of Bishop Salley, who directed in his will that his 
heart and bowels should be buried at Matheme, and his body in the 
Mayor's Chapel, Bristol. Other bishops of Llandaff* buried here 
were Anthony Kitchen, 1545-1566; Hugh Jones, 1567-1574, and 
William Blethin, 1575-1590. The earliest portion of the present 



NEWPORT MEETINQ. — REPORT. 339 

charch is the square pillar in the north-west of the nave ; twelve 
feet to the north-west of which the base of a similar one was fonnd 
in 1881, thus indicating tho position of the original nave. The 
existing nave and chancel were built in the thirteenth century, and 
the tower and aisles in the fifleenth, by Biahop John Marshall, 
1478-1496. The chancel arch is carried throagb with continnons 
mouldings, and in its crown are three grooves which mark the posi- 
tion of the rood ; above it are two openings, and on either side a 
squint or hagioscope. In the south wall of the chancel is a double 
I piscina ; the pillars of the nave arcades are clustered shafts around 

I a central column ; the west window contains the collected frag- 

I znents of old stained glass. All these points were clearly described 

by the Bev. Watkin Davies, who kindly acted as guide for the 
occasion. 

Chepstow Castle, the next place visited, has its main history briefly 
summarised by Mr. Ot. T. Clark, as follows : — " Chepstow is placed 
upon a cliff, on the western or right bank of the river (Wye), 
evidently, like Newport, intended as a tSte du pont, to cover the 
passage of troops, the river not being there fordable. As the name 
imports, the settlement is of English origin, though its Domesday 
designation, Bstrighoil, corrupted into Striguil, is Welsh. The 
Castle is divided from the town by a deep ravine, and is altogether 
outside the wall, which was unusual. The keep of Norman 
masonry may be the work of William PitzOsbome, Earl of Hereford, 
or at latest of Roger de Britoli, his son and successor. As early as 
in the reign of Henry I, Chepstow had come into the possession of 
the De Clares of the Strongbow line, often called Earls of Striguil. 
Its possession enabled the Mareschals, successors to the De Clares, 
to hold their Earldom against Henry III."i 

Its " Annals" have been treated in full by Mr. Fitchett Marsh, 
and edited by Sir John Maclean; while the late Mr. Ormerod^ 
D.C.L., has published in his StrigtUensia several articles beiuing on 
its early history, and that of its parish church. 

We were, however, none the less fortunate in having once again 
the guidance of Major Lowe, who led the members from court to 
court, pointing out their notable features, both architectural and 
historical. In the third court, where Mr. G. T. Clark thought 
there was no absolutely certain trace of Norman work, and little 
that could with certainty be pronounced Early English, Major Lowe 
suggested that the four windows of the hall on the upper floor of 
the building, flanking the gateway, were late Norman, with some 
later additions ; and in the fourth court, again, within the vaulting 
of the gatehouse, where Mr. Clark points out that the grooves fcr 
the portcullis stop about six feet above the level of the road, and 
states that the grate of the portcullis must have had prongs of that 
length. Major Lowe urged, from an examination of the quoins of 
the inner archway, that the road had been raised some feet above 
the present level, and that the portcullis grooves had consequently 

* Mediaval Military Architecture, i, p. 3. 

22* 



340 CAMBRTAK ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, 

come to within a foot or so of what had been the original level. 
Before leaving the Castle, Canon Thomas expressed, in the name of 
the Association, their great indebtedness to Major Lowe for his 
valuable and oonrteons services throughout the day. The paper on 
Chepstow Castle will, it is hoped, appear in due time in the Journal. 

The last object inspected during the day was the very interesting 
parochial, and formerly conventual, church. The earliest notice of 
it occurs, according to Ormerod,^ in a Bull of Pope Alexander III, 
A.D. 1168, from which it appears that "it had been given, * cum 
omnibus pertinentiis,* by some unnamed donor, to the Abbey of 
Cormeilles in Normandy, founded in 1060 by Earl William Kite- 
Osbome, who built the Castle of Strigul in later days, and whose 
son, Roger de Bretville, incurred forfeiture in 1073, before the 
completion of the Domesday Survey, which is silent as to the 
existence of either the priory or church at Strigul, now Chepstow. 

** A later document, however, the Confirmation Charter of King 
Henry II to the Abbey of Cormeilles, gives an earlier date for the 
existence of the church of Strigul, and confirms to its monks, 
churches, lands, etc., as held by them in the time of his grand&ther, 
Henry I, who died in 1100, and names among these tithes in the 
demesne of Earl Richard FitzOilbert, between IJsk and Wye, a 
fourth part of the tithes of Strigul, and the church of Strigul^ with 
its chapels^ tithes, rent, and appurtenances. 

'* The remains of the Anglo-Norman church, as they appeared in 
1837, consisted of a nave and side aisles, a comparatively modem 
north porch, concealing a beautiful Norman arch, with a niche in 
the early English style over it; belfrv tower, erected in 1705-6, 
under the direction of the port surveyor, over the two westernmost 
arches of the nave, and the characteristic Norman western porch. 

'* This western entrance, in the arrangement of its Norman door- 
way, with its lateral blank arches and the three round-headed 
windows over it, is noteworthy as being almost a counterpart of 
the beautiful entrance of St. George's at Bocherville, built about 
1050. The eastern piers, intended for the support of a central 
tower, also bore a close resemblance to some of the simpler parts 
of that noble fabria The side aisles also ag^ed at their western 
end with the same Norman fabric, and although much disfigured by 
comparatively modem windows in an anomalous Pointed style, bad 
originally been lighted by small round-headed ones set high in tlie 
wall. 

*' The aisles were separated from the nave by six unusually massive 
piers, connected by plain round arches with impost mouldings. 
.... Over these round arches still remain the Triforia, and over 
these a row of clerestory windows, all early Norman." 

The effect of the demolition of the easternmost pair of arches and 
the north porch that took place in 1837, and of the subsequent 
alterations and additions, have been vividly described by Mr. Free- 
man in the Archceologia Camhrensis, Second Series, vol. ii^ pp. 1-8. 

' StriguUnsxa^ p. 78. 



NEWPOfiT MEETING. — KEPORT. 341 



^- 



EVENING MEETING (TUESDAY). 

In the absence of the President, Canon Thomas took the Chair, 
and before giving a resume of the day's proceedings, took occasion 
to thank the members for the honour they had conferred upon him 
in making him their Chairman of Committee, a post which involved 
much labour and watchfulness for the welfare of the Association. 
He would do his best to discharge his new duties, and he asked for 
their forbearance with his shortcomings, and their hearty co-opera- 
tion, which he knew they would give, in order to render the work 
of the Association as efficient and successful as possible. One of 
these duties would be to give a resume of each day's excursion. 
Such a recapitulation would, he feared, seem tedious and uninterest- 
ing to some at least of those who had seen for themselves most, if 
not all, of the places and objects referred to, but the purpose of it 
appeared to him to be twofold, and the general result good and 
useful. It gave the Members an opportunity of drawing attention 
to points which, in the multiplicity of objeuts and the brevity of the 
time allowed, often escaped the general observation ; and by eliciting 
discussion tended to throw many side-lights upon the subjects, and 
so helped materially to elucidate and explain their character and 
purpose. Above all, it was intended to give the residents a wider 
insight into the antiquities among which they lived, and excite in 
them a deeper interest in their study and their preservation. He 
then proceeded to describe briefly the chief features of the day's 
excursion, and having referred, in passing, to their great regret at 
not having been permitted to inspect more closely the fine remains 
o( CaJdicot Castle, he expressed the great obligations under which 
they all lay to Major Lawson-Lowe for his guidance at Caerwent, 
Portskewet, Sudbrook, St. Pierre, and Chepstow, and the excellent 
papers with which he had favoured them at those places, 

Mr. F. J. Mitchell was then called upon to read bis " Notes on the 
History of Monmouthshire", a very timely subject, well and care- 
fully handled, for which the thanks of the meeting were heartily 
accorded. The paper will appear in an early number of the 
ArchcBologia Cambrensis, 

Mr. C. Wilkins exhibited rubbings of portions of two inscribed 
stones of Romano-British date, at Abercar in Breconshire, and gave 
an account of the discovery of one of them by lolo Morg^nwg, and 
how it was shown by the latter's son, Taliesin, to Prof. Westwood, who 
has given both a description and an engraving of it in the Archoeologia 
Cat^ensUy and in the Lapidarium WcUlice. Quite recently, however, 
he had himself foxmd a further portion of the inscription, and also 
a fragment of a second. The former read, "nnicci filivs ucit in 
SECVBI IN HOC TVMVLo"; all that remains of the second is simply 
•* ETA fil". Prof. Rhys made some remarks on the proper name 



342 CAMBRIAN AIlCH.£OLOGICAL ASBOCIATIOK. 

NNiCGi, and some cognate forms ; bat we purpose giving a fhUer 
aooonnt of these stones in a fatnre number. 

Before the close of the meeting a communication was read by the 
Secretary from Mr. Cobb, in which he expressed his regret at having 
been unable to receive the Association at Galdicot Castle, owing to 
the transition state in which it was involved for needful repaixv. 
Mr. Cobb also complained of the treatment his work at Monkton 
Old Hall had received at the Annual Meeting at Pembroke in 
1880, and claimed that he had carefully observed these two canons : 
(1) never to remove an ancient stone, except to put a similar sound 
one in its place, or to bring to light one more ancient ; and (2) never 
to put any constructural work (socket-pipes excepted) but what 
there is evidence that it or its equivalent existed before. Some 
notes on Chepstow and Caldicot Castles, included in the letter, will 
appear in a future number of this Journal. 



WEDNESDAY AUGUST 25m 

Leaving Newport at 9.80, the Members proceeded by carriage road 
direct to Caerleon, where they were met by Mr. F. J. Mitchell, our 
guide for the occasion. Having shown from the bridge the general 
lie of the Roman city and the mediaeval castle, Mr. Mitchell pointed 
out the position of the bridge by which the Boman road was carried 
over the Usk, and the means by which it was defended, and then 
led the party along the outer face of the Roman Wall, and by its 
south-west angle, where the best section is to be seen of the original 
walling, of which we are glad to be able to give an engraving from 
a photograph taken by Mr. W. H. Banks. This wall is not to be 
compared indeed with the similar remains at Caerwent ; but oonai 
daring for how many generations it must have served as a quarry 
for building material for the town, it is not to be wondered at that 
so little now survives. In the adjoining field, on the west, is the 
amphitheatre, no longer showing its rows of seats, but still giving 
evidence of the four points of ingress and egress. Though much 
worn away by the effects of time, it is still of considerable size, and 
far more distinct in its character than the one seen at our visit to 
Mens Heriri (Trawsfynydd, Merionethshire) last year. Its purpose 
is further confirmed by the name of the adjoining *' Bear House 
Field". Between the amphitheatre, however, and the field runs 
the expressive '* Broadway", i.e., the Roman road from Caerleon to 
Nidum and Maridunum. Turning along this, the Via Julia, we 
entered the station on its western side, and, passing the Priory 
House on the right, proceeded to the Museum. Numerous Roman 
remains had been dug up at different times within the limits of the 
wall and in the surrounding district, many of them were turned to 
other uses or destroyed ; but when, in 1847, that excellent Associa- 
tion the Monmouthshire and Caerleon Antiquarian Society, was 
established, one of its first cares was the erection of the Museum, 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 343 

where the finds might be safely stored. So that now, mainly 
through the indefatigable devotion of Mr. John Edward Lee, 
F.S.A., Caerleon can boast of a collection of Roman antiquities not 
often excelled. These have been described and illustrated by Mr. 
Lee in his DelinecUions of Roman ArUiquities found at Caerleon (the 
ancient Isca SUurum) and iU Neighbourhood ; but as this brief 
(only fifty-four pages) but scarce work has long been out of print, 
we would refer those who may wish for further detail to a handy 
little guide-book to Newport and Caerleon (Part I), published by 
Mr. W. N. Johns, Newport, who gives from it, inter alia, a handy 
summary of the contents of the Museum and their original locality. 
These remains embrace altars, votive tablets, sepulchral inscrip- 
tions, oenturial stones, tiles, pottery (black and red), Samian ware, 
amphorae, urns, lamps, fibular, columns from the market-place, a 
beautiful tesselated pavement, and a large collection of coins found 
either here or at Gaerwent. For a notice of some of these remains 
we refer our readers to the late Prebendary Davies's paper on 
** Caerleon on Usk", in the current Number. 

The church, recently restored by Seddon, is of Perpendicular 
character, and comprises chancel, nave, north and south aisles, and a 
north transept with vestry at north-east angle. The oldest portion 
is the westernmost bay of the nave, which is Norman, and has a 
doorway above ; it now forms the base of the tower. The chancel 
arch is continuous, as at St. Asaph Cathedral : the pillars of the 
arcade have been taken down and rebuilt. There is a handsome 
modern reredos, representing the Last Supper. Li the churchyard 
still stands the base of the cross, now forming a post for a lamp ; 
but a Roman altar, an inscribed stone, and a tesselated pavement of 
labyrinthine pattern (the last found in digging a grave in 1865) 
have been removed to the Museum for preservation. 

After the church, a visit was made to the site of the castle, in the 
grounds of Dr. Woollett, who very courteously received the 
Members, and read an interesting paper on the History and Legends 
of Caerleon, which will be printed in the JoumaL He also pointed 
out the site where remains of a Boman villa had been exhumed, 
and then led the party to the top of the castle mound, from which 
an extensive view was obtained of many places of interest in the 
neighbourhood. After partaking of his hospitality, the party pro* 
ceeded by road to Usk, passing on their left the ruins of Llangibby 
Castla 

At IJsk, the first object visited was the Benedictine Priory Church, 
the foundation of which is attributed by Tanner to Sir Richard de 
Clare and his son Gilbert, prior to A.D. 1236. The tower stands at 
the east end, and the space beneath it now forms the chancel ; but 
originally it was not so, but it stood at the junction of the monastic 
choir and the parochial nave ; and it shows by its external weatherings 
that the church had been cruciform. The arches of the tower are 
Norman, but the church was rebuilt in the thirteenth century, with 
later additions of Perpendicular date. On the Dissolution, the 



344 CAMBRIAN ARCHiEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 












estates of the Priory were granted to Roger Wil- 
liams, and the monastic portion of the chnrch, as 
well as the monastic buildings soon fell into decay. 
It was abont the same time that the chancel was 
transferred to its present position from the east- 
ernmost bay of the nave. Portions of the rood 
screen remain still in situ, and let into it is a brass 
plate, with an inscription which has been a pnzzle 
to antiquaries for generations. Coze has given a 
very fair engraving of it, and a nnmber of at- 
tempted translations, none of which, however, are 
very intelligible, or cateh at all clearly the purport 
of the wording. In the Archaeoloffia Cambrinnt 
(First Series, vol. ii, pp. 34-41) there is an article 
by Mr. Wakeman, who also gives the readings 
£rom Coxe, and another of his own, in which he 
appropriates the inscription to one " Adam Usk", 
whom he would identify with Adam ap lorwerth 
ap Oradoc, living in the time of Henry III, and 
Steward of the manor belonging to the Clare 
family in the county of Monmouth. This office he 
had held under the last of the Welsh lords, viz., 
Morgan ap Howel, and on his decease he trans- 
ferred his services to his Norman successors, and 
obtained a charter from Henry III, dated 1246, 
confirming to him the office and the estates 
granted to him by his former masters. Canon 
Thomas, however, claimed the inscription for an- 
other Adam Usk, an eminent native of the town, 
born about 1360 or 1365, a Doctor of. Laws of 
Oxford, and a prominent actor in many civil and 
ecclesiastical causes of his time. This Adam wrote 
a Chronicle of contemporary events, which has 
only quite recently been discovered, edited and 
translated by Mr. £. Maunde Thompson of the 
British Museum, and published by John Murray, 
1876, under the title of Chronieon Ad<g de Usk, 
The l)ook itself was exhibited by Canon Thomas, 
and sundry local references brought to support 
the appropriation, — a subject to which we hope 
a fuller recurrence will some day be made. Mr. 
Egerton Phillimore added much criticism of the 
somewhat hopeless attempte that had been made 
at translation, but confessed his inability to render 
a satisfactory one. 

Through the courtesy of the owner of the Priory, 
the Members were permitted on the present occa- 
sion to examine the south and east end of the 
church, which enabled Mr. S. W. Williams to work 
out some interesting pointe in ite architectural 
character, of which further notice will appear. 



NEWPORT MEETING. — EBPORT. 345 

Of the castle there ar« bat ecaat rem&ma, a mere shell enclosing 
an oblong court aboat 240 feet in length by 162 feet in breadth. 
The earliest portion is the keep, on the west aide, the base of which 
is Norman, with later additions above, bat the extenaive earthworks 
and djtcea, shown on the accompanying plan, indicate that it must 
have been a strongly fortified post before the existing castle was 
erected. The Great Hall appears to have been at the north-west 
angle of the court, and beneath it ^e battery; at the eonth-east 
comer, near the gateway, vhich is grooved for a portcullis, stood 
the principal apartments. 



-«w /f- 



It is not known who was the founder of the caatlo, but the earliest 
name that appears to have been historically connected with the place 



346 CAMBRIAN ARCHiBOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

was one Twrstain Fits Rolfe, who was standard-bearer to the 
Conqueror at the battle of Hastings, and is described as holding 
certain lands between the IJsk and the Wye and certain lands 
beyond the IJsk, which indnded Trelleck as one of its members. 
He was lord of Usk, and having died without issue, Usk appears to 
have been granted to Richard de Clare, who also came over with the 
Conqueror, and to whom he was very nearly related. He died in 
1114, and was succeeded by the two Gilberts de Glare, samamed 
Strongbow. The conqueror of Ireland, Richard Strongbow, held the 
castle for some ti;ne, when it was taken by Owen ap lorwerth of 
Caerleon. Isabella, the heiress of the last Richard, married William 
de la Grace, the first Earl of Pembroke, Earl of Chepstow, and Lord 
Mareschal of' England (William Marshall, so sumamed from his 
office), by whom ^e had five sons and five daughters. He died in 
1219, and was succeeded by his five sons, viz., William, Richard, 
Gilbert, Walter, and Anselm, who died without issue, upon which 
the property became divided amongst the descendants, and Usk 
was awarded to Richard de Clare, the son of Isabella, the third 
sister, who married Richard, Earl of Gloucester. Upon Richard de 
Clare's death in 1262, his son Gilbert, sumamed '' The Red'\ being 
under age, was a ward of the Crown, and on attaining his majority 
he went to law with his mother, who claimed Usk as a part of her 
dower. The castle was taken by Simon de Montfort in 1265, but 
three days afterwards he was driven out by Gilbert and Prince 
Edward ; he went to Newport, where he demolished the bridge, and 
afterwards escaped into Wales. Earl Gilbert died in Monmouth 
Castle, December 25 th^ 1295, leaving a son Gilbert, four years old, 
and three daughters. His widow then held the castle of Usk as her 
dower. Gilbert came of age May 11th, 1313, but was killed at the 
battle of Bannockbum, on the 24th June, in the following year, 
and his only son having died in infancy, his property was divided 
between the three sisters. Upon the division, Usk was awarded to 
the youngest, Elizabeth, who first married John de Burgh, Earl of 
Ulster; secondly, Theobald de Verdun; and thirdly, Roger de 
Amory. Notwithstanding her subsequent marriages she always 
styled herself Elizabeth de Burgh, the Lady of Clare. She was 
compelled to exchange Usk and Caerleon with Hugh le Despenser 
the younger, for manors in Glamorganshire, but not without a very 
solemn protest on the part of the Lady Elizabeth. Her third 
husband, Roger de Amory, was engaged with the other barons in 
ravaging the estates of the Despensers, and being taken prisoner 
was sentenced to be hung, but the king pardoned him on account of 
his former services, and because he had married his niece. The 
castle was seized by the king in 1322, and given into the custody of 
John Walwyn, and soon afterwards to Gilbert Glynkemey, who 
was ordered to levy 800 men for the king's service, and to obey the 
orders of Hugh Despenser. On the accession of Edward 111, he 
restored the estates to the Lady Elizabeth, who survived her throe 
husbands, and died in 1360. Her only son, William de Burgh, 



NEWPORT MBBTING. — ^REPORT. 347 

having died before her, Elizabeth de Bnrgh, her grand-daughter, 
became her heir, who at an early age was married to Lionel, Duke 
of Clarence, third son of Edward III. Philippa, their daughter and 
heiress, married Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, who died in 
1382, leaving his son Boger nnder age, the rightful heir to the 
throne of England. Roger .Mortimer, fourth £arl of March, was 
born here, April 11th, 1374, and baptised the following Sunday, by 
Courtney, Bishop of Hereford ; he had for sponsors the Abbot of 
Llandaff, the Abbot of Gloucester, and the Prioress of Usk, and was 
declared by the Parliament in 1381 heir-apparent to the Crown. 
On the 26th July 1397^ Earl Boger, who was styled Lord of Usk, 
Trelleck, Llangibby, Caerleon, Tredunnock, etc., granted a charter, 
conferring certain privileges on the burgesses of Usk, which charter 
was confirmed by his son Edmund. Ann, the sister of Edmund, 
married Richard, Duke of York. Edmund, being the right heir to 
the Crown, was imprisoned during the reign of Henry IV; but 
Henry Y, on his accession, had the generosity to liberate his prisoner 
and restore to him his estates. Edmund de Mortimer died in 1424. 
His widow held the castle in dower ; she died in 1432, when Richard, 
Duke of York, nephew of Edmund de Mortimer, succeeded to the 
castle and made it his residence ; and his son Edward, afterwards 
Edward lY, King of England, was bom here. William ap Thomas 
(William Herbert, first Earl of Pembroke) and his son, tne second 
Earl, were Constables of the castle ; and it seems probable that the 
north porch of the church, decorated with the Herbert badge, was 
erected by one of them. Henry YIl gave Usk to his son Arthur, 
Prince of Wales, upon whose death it reverted to the Crown, and 
was, in 1544, given to Queen Catherine Parr as part of her dower. 
After her death, Edward YI, on the 6th May 1550, granted it to Sir 
William Herbert, afterwards Earl of Pembroke. During the 
reigns of Henry Yll and YIII, the castle appears to have been 
neglected ; and in the valuation of the property at the time of this 
grant, it was stated to be in a ruinous condition and worth nothing, 
and that the herbage of the courts was claimed as a perquisite by 
the Steward. It continued in the Herbert family to the death of 
Philip, seventh Earl of this branch of the Herberts, and then 
devolved to his only daughter Charlotte, who married, first, John 
Lord Jeffreys ; and secondly, Thomas, Yiscount Windsor. Their 
son, Herbert, Yiscount Windsor, sold it to Yalentine Morris of 
Pieroefield, who disposed of it to Lord Clive, from whom it was 
purchased by the fifth Duke of Beaufort, and is now the property 
of the eighth Duke of Beaufort. 

Arrived at the beautiful ruins of Raglan Castle, we passed, 
under the guidance of the warden, Mr. Raglan Somerset, through 
the grand portal, between two imposing pentagonal towers, into 
the paved court, at the south-east comer of which stands the 
closet tower, and adjoining to it the breach in the walls made by Sir 
Thomas Fairfax, the Parliamentary general, which led, after a close 
siege of more than two months, to its capture and final dismantle- 



348 CAMBRIAN ARGH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

ment, bj the orders of tbe mthless Cromwell. This casUe was one 
of the most frequent and welcome resorts of Charles, in whose be- 
half it was the first to be armed bj its owner, the noble old Mar- 
quis of Worcester, and the last to surrender to the King's enemies. 
The oldest portion is the massive hexagonal keep, "Twr Meljn 
Gwent" (the Yellow Tower of Owent), surrounded by a deep moat 
and detached from the rest of the fortress, but enclosed within the 
walled area of four acres and a half. The hall of state, with its 
beautiful window ; the state apartments of the royal martyr ; the 
ruined chapel and the grand staircase in the fountain court, with 
such details as still survived of sculpture and carving, all made us 
regret that our time had run so short ; but it is something to look 
back upon with lingering memories. Although ''not of the ex- 
tent of Caerphilly or Carnarvon, nor of the antiquity of Harlech, 
Bhuddlan, or Chepstow, it is of an age sufficient to make it vener- 
able, and so decked with manifold beauty of design and execution, 
as to awaken a sense of boundless admiration, mixed with unavoid- 
able regret that a human work so grand and mighty should be 
lying ingloriously in the dust." 

Little is known of the castle built here by the De Clares in the 
thirteenth century, but it is believed to have occupied the site of 
the Tower of Owent. In the reign of Heniy Y the castle was in 
the possession of Sir William ap Thomas, the son of Thomas ap 
Gwilym ap Jenkin of Llansantffraed ; his son William was created 
Lord of Raglan, Chepstow, and Gower, by Edward IV, who com- 
manded him to assume the sui*name of Herbert, in honour of his 
ancestor Herbert FitzHenry, Chamberlain to Henry I, and he was 
afterwards created Earl of Pembroke. On the death of his eldest 
son, William, without male issue, in 1491, the castle and estates 
passed with his daughter Elizabeth to her husband. Sir Charles 
Somerset, from whom they have lineally descended to the present 
owner, the Duke of Beaufort^ 



EVENING MEETING. 

The President, on taking the chair, regretted that the great extent 
of ground covered by their excursion yesterday, and the lateness of 
their return, had rendered it impossible for him to get back from 
his house in time to take his place last evening, and that his duties 
as Chairman of the Alexandra Dock Company had necessitated his 
absence from to-day's excursion ; but he hoped that Members had 
had as pleasant and successful a day as the preceding, and especially 
that they had discovered the old Roman racecourse at Caerleon, 
and had come back quite convinced that Arthur and his Elnights 
had sat around the Bound Table there. He then called on Canon 

' See, farther, an interesting little Guide io Raglan Castle^ published, 
with plan and illustrations, by Waugh, Monmouth. 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 349 

Thomas to give a resume of the day's proceedings, in the conrse of 
which, after a notice of the visit to Caerleon, reference was made 
to the Historical Traditions and Facts relating to Newport and CaeT' 
lean, published by Mr. Johns of Newport, as containing, in Part I, 
besides mnch information as to the pre-historio and Roman periods 
a handy account of the contents of the Caerleon Mnsemn. Canon 
Thomas referred more fnlly to the " Adam Usk" inscription, and 
the light which a carefxil examination of the many local references 
in Chronicon Ados de Usk would throw on the history of that neigh- 
bourhood at the end of the fourteenth and beginning of the fifteenth 
century. 

Professor Sayce, speaking with special reference to the Roman 
remains seen yesterday and to-day, said: — '^ There are few remains 
of Roman Britain more interesting than the sites of Caerleon and 
Caerwent. Not only are the Roman structures which we siill find 
above ground in each place considerable, but the remoteness of the 
two cities from the eastern coast of the island and the attacks of 
invaders from Germany, render it likely that their &11 must have 
been delayed for some time after the departure of the Romans from 
the island. In fact, it does not appear that they were ever destroyed 
by the Saxons at all. When the Saxon invader at length found his 
way across the Wye he was already a Christian, and the era of his 
rage against cities and ch arches was past. The destroyers of 
Roman Caerwent and Caerleon cannot have been Saxons or Angles, 
aod we are therefore led to see in them the Irish tribes who may 
have sailed up the Bristol Channel, or have advanced by land from 
their settlements in Pembrokeshire. In the pages of Gildas it is 
the Picts and Scots rather than the Saxons to whom the destruction 
of Roman civilisation in Britain is due. 

'* Now there are several reasons which lead us to believe that 
Caerwent and Caerleon must have continued to exist as Roman 
cities for a considerable period after their severance from the civilisa- 
tion of the continent. Bath, Gloucester, and Cirencester, were not 
destroyed by the kings of Wessex until 557, and Dr. Guest has made 
it probable that Uriconium did not share the same fate until seven 
years later. If these cities were still standing at that date, there is 
no reason for supposing that the Roman cities of Monmouthshire 
had already perished. Tradition, indeed, makes Caerleon the 
81^ of St. Dubritius, the predecessor of St. David, and we know 
that it was inhabited by Welsh princes at a much later period. 
If Giraldus is to be trusted, the remains of magnificent Roman 
buildings were still to be seen there in his own time. We may, 
therefore, conclude that not only were Caerleon and Caerwent never 
captured by the Saxons, but that the destruction which their ruins 
attest did not take place till the sixth or seventh century, and that 
in the case of Caerleon it was so incomplete as to cause no break in 
the ecclesiastical history of the city. 

*^ This conclusion is confirmed by an examination of the coins which 
have been discovered on the two sites. Not only do we find among 



350 CAMBRIAN ARCHiEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

them coinB of Victor, Arcadins, and Honorias, and Honoriua alone, 
bnt also minims stmck in rude imitation of Constantino's coins, 
and thns belongfing to a time when the British cities of the west 
were cut off from the mints of the Continent and of London. 
Where such minims are fonnd we maj feel fairly confident that we 
shall find other remains of that dark period in British history, oTer 
which the pages of Gildas alone cast a faint flicker of light, but 
in which, nevertheless, the fonndations were laid of our modem 
social life as well as of our modem nationalities. A scientifically 
conducted exploration of the sites of Caerleon and Caerwent be- 
comes, therefore, a matter of high importance to the archieola- 
gist and historian. Systematic excavations may be expected to 
bring to light numerous objects which will show now Roman civil- 
isation in Britain kept up its long struggle against encroaching 
barbarism, and finally disappeared. Here, if anywhere, we are 
likely to find inscriptions, or other monuments, which may help to 
fill up the blank page in our national history, and possibly throw 
light on the mysterious personality of Kmg Arthur himself. At all 
events we cannot fSul to obtain some information as to Irish settle- 
ments in the west of Britain,^ and the origin and rise of the modem 
Welsh people and their language. Oaerleon itself must answer the 
puzzling question of the relation between the Caerleon of the Roman 
burghers and the Caerleon of the Welsh princes. Even Caerleon, 
however, is a less promising field for careful and systematic excava- 
tion than the site of its sister city Caerwent. The overthrow of 
Roman Caerwent seems to have been more complete than that of 
Roman Caerleon, and its site was never built over to the same ex- 
tent as that of Caerleon. We may, therefore, hope that means may 
be found for thoroughly exploring it in accordance with the scientific 
requirements of modem arcluBolog^." 

Mr. Stephen W. Williams described the architectural features of 
Usk church, and by means of indications in the external walls, and 
the help of a black board, represented it in its original form as a 
conventual and parish church combined ; and then showed the sub- 
sequent changes introduced in the fifteenth and sixteenth centariea. 
The present church he considered to be about as bad a specimen of 
churchwarden Gothic as he had ever seen. In Caerleon church he 
had noticed a portion of a Norman arcade, and over it Early 
English work. From what he had seen there he concluded that 
Caerleon had participated in the prevailing wealth of the period of 
Henry VII and Henry VIII, which had been a great age of church 
building. The general style of the churches corresponded with 
those of Somersetshire and Devonshire, and from those counties he 
believed the masons to have come who built the additions made 
during the Perpendicular period. 

Mr. Egerton Phillimore alluded to the different theories broached 
about the curious inscription in the church at Usk, and the various 
ineffectual attempts that had been made to decipher and explain it. 
It was entirely in Welsh, but it was not written, he thought, by a 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 351 

Welshman, or one acquainted with Welsh idioms, and it had also 
been engraved by some one who did not know the language he was 
dealing with. The metre employed was very common, and had 
prevailed from the time of Dafydd ap Gwilym, in the middle of the 
fourteenth century. 

The President then called upon Mr. R. W. Banks to read his 
paper — which is printed in the current number of the Journal — on 
" The Early History of the Land of Gwent", for which the Pre- 
sident expressed to nim the thanks of the Association, as being a 
useful contribution to their county history. 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 26th. 

The first point this morning was the Castle, to which a small 
party proceeded, through a downpour of rain, before the more 
attractive portion of the day's excursion was entered on. As a his- 
torical account of the foundation and after fortunes of the Castle, 
together with a plan and description, has been already given from 
the pen of Mr. Octavius Morgan, it is not necessary here to do 
more than mention that the prcHent uses of a brewery have in- 
volved much alteration of the interior arrangements, although the 
main features of the structure are not much altered. The two most 
important remains are the extensive vaults, which are still used, for 
the most part, for their original purpose ; and the chapel, which has 
been sadly desecrated. It is " finely vaulted, very high, and of a cruci- 
form shape ; and at each internal corner is a small, square chamber 
in the two octagonal turrets, probably serving for sacristy or con- 
.fessional."^ 

At 10.30 Newport Station was left, and as the train emerged out 
of the tunnel, some three miles above Chepstow, a lovely view of 
the windings of the Wye below opened out. On this side were the 
richly wooded slopes of the Banager Rocks; on the other rose the 
famous WyndclifiT. A little further, and we curve round the 
Plumbers' Clifi*, and a singularly beautiful view of Tintem Abbey 
and its surroundings lay before us. 

A walk of a mile and a half from the Station brought us to the 
site of what has been described, and perhaps not unjustly, as being, 
*'for rich picturesqueness of situation, and extent and beauty of 
architectural remains, the most attractive Gothic ruin in the world." 
It was founded originally in a.d. 1181, by Walter, third son of 
Richard de Clare, a Norman baron, and consin-german to the Con- 
queror ; but the present edifice is of later date, being the new 
foundation, in i.D. 1239, of Roger de Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, and 
Marshal of England, to whom the De Clare estates had passed by 
marriage. The Order to whom it belonged was the Cistercian, and 
the typical plan of their houses is well shown in its arrangements. 

» Svpra, p. 275. 



352 CAMBRIAN AKCH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

On entering, throngh the west door, the members were received 
bj Mr. Loraine Baldwin, the conrteons guardian, who had thonght- 
f ally secured for the occasion the services of Mr. Thomas Blashill, 
F.S.A. Mr. Blashill, who has for many years made the Abbey a 
loving study, then described its general features, and pointed out 
in detail, from the evidence of arch, and pier, and masonry, the 
several stages of its construction, and afterwards conducted ns 
through the several parts of the monastic buildings. As he has 
promised to contribute an article to our Journal, embodying his 
latest researches, it is enough to say here that in spite of the heavy 
downpour, which marred considerably the enjoyableness of the 
visit, the unbroken attention of the members showed how entirely 
they entered into the attractions of the place, and how fully they 
appreciated the benefit of having such a guide to lead them. 

The little church of Tintem Parva, prettily situated on the banks 
of the river, between the Abbey and the Station, has a good groined 
porch, with a holy water stoup. It consists of nave and chancel, 
with a vestry on the north side ; has lately been restored, and is 
kept in g^d order. 

At Monmouth the interesting Norman church of St. Thomas, 
Overmonnow, was described by the Vicar, Mr. Potter, in a paper 
which we intend to print; and some recent changes were illus- 
trated by contrast with an old picture of the interior, bought at 
Sir Charles Landseer*s sale, and presented to Mr. Potter by Mr. 
Mew, the architect, who superintended the repairs in 1880. 

Passing the base of the old Cross which, according to Speed's 
Map of Monmouth, formerly stood in the centre of St. Thomas* 
Square, we crossed the Monnow by the bridge, with its picturesque 
ToU-Gate, and proceeded to Monmouth. In the Borough Hall 
Mr. Champney Powell, the Mayor, and Mr. T. R. Oakley, the Town 
Clerk, exhibited an interesting collection of court-rolls, the maces, 
seals, and other valuables belonging to the Corporation. It is to 
be hoped that some good Monmouthian will carefully examine these 
early records, as they cannot fail to throw much light on the place- 
names, people, and tenures of which they treat ^ 

The parish church of St. Mary's has quite recently (1882) been 
rebuilt, from the plans of the late Mr. O. E. Street, B.A., with the 
exception of the tower and spire and part of the west wall. This 
wall is part of the Norman building, and against it has been built 
a Decorated tower surmounted by a beautiful spire. The " beaati- 
fal church built with three lies", noticed by Speed, *' and at the 
cast end a most curiously built (but now decaied) church called 
' the Monkes Church', in the monasterie whereof our great anti- 
quarie Gefiry, surnamed Monmouth and Ap Arthur, wrote his His- 
torie of Great Britain*', were ruthlessly taken down in 1736 to 
make way for a Hanoverian edifice, which in its turn, again, was 

^ In illnstration of our meaning we would point to TM Towa^ FieldSy 
and Folk of Wrexham, by Mr. A. N. Pahner, F.C.S. 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 353 

removed in 1881. Aronnd the base of the tower, internally, a quan- 
tity of encanstic tiles has been inserted for their preservation; 
some of them heraldic, others inscribed with texts and a date, 
[m]cccglvii. a portion of the Priory (Benedictine) buildings still 
survives on the north side of the church ; and a handsome oriel 
window of the fifteenth century is still shown as marking Geoffrey's 
study. 

But little of the Castle remains : only a few walls and skeleton 
apartments ; but among them one that is said to have been the 
room in which Henry Y (thence sumamed " of Monmouth") was 
bom in 1357. The materials were largely used in the building of 
the Castle House in 1682, — a handsome specimen of the period, 
with richly ornamented ceilings and good wainscoting ; at one time 
a dower^house of the Beaufort family, but now used as the Armoury 
and Barracks for the Royal Monmouthshire Engineer Militia. The 
Rev. W. Bagnall Oakley read here a very interesting paper on Mon- 
mouth, which will be printed in the next Number of the Journal. 

The evening meeting, at 8.30, was for members only, to decide 
the place for the Annual Meeting in 1886, and to transact other 
business relating to the Association. 



FRIDAY, AUGUST 28th. 

At 9.30 the members started by train for Caerphilly Castle. 
Here we were met by the Rev. J. W. Evans, Vicar of St. Melan's, 
who acted as guide for the occasion, and with the aid of Mr. G. T. 
Clark's account in "Medissval Military Architecture",* and an ex- 
cellent ground-plan, conducted us over the several parts, in succes- 
sion, of this beautiful and extensive ruin. The fine hall, the inner 
court, and the gate-house, are, according to Mr. Clark, finer than 
anything in Britain. In extent it is second only to Windsor ; and 
in the skill with which it is laid out, and the natural features of the 
ground turned to advantage, it is second to no mediaoval fortress 
whatever. There was a good deal of discussion as to the sites of 
the kitchen and the chapel ; but the more skilled opinion agreed in 
placing the latter at the east of the hall ; and the former on its 
south side, east of the so-called Kitchen Tower. An article on this 
Castle has been promised for a future issue of the Journal. 

At Bassaleg, on the return journey, an inspection was made of 
the parish church, which contains many monuments to the Morgans 
of Tredegar, but has little of antiquarian interest. In the Archwo^ 
logia Camhreima for 1859, p. 234, regret was expressed at the de- 
struction of a small isolated chapel of Perpendicular architecture 
that stood in the churchyard, and had been used as a school. The 

* This article first appeared in the WeM of England Journal^ 1835-36, 
and subsequently in the Archasologia Ckimbrensis^ 1850, New Series, vol. i, 
p. 250. 

5th sbb., vol. II. 23 



354 CAMbRTAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

name is apparently equivalent to MaeS'A\eg Campus Allecti ; just 
as we have Baoh and Mach, Bathafam and Mathafam, as local vari- 
ations of the same words. A misapprehension of this fact has pro- 
bably led to the dedication of the charch being assigned to St. Basil. 
Coze tells ns that *^ according to Tanner, Bassaleg was formerly a 
Benedictine priory of Black Monks, a cell of the Abbey of Glaston- 
bnry, to which the ohnrch was given by Robert de Haye and G-nn* 
dreda, his wife, between 1101 and 1120." No remains of the 
ancient priory exist ; but there is a rained building in the forest 
called " Uoed y Monachty", which appears to have been connected 
with it. 

A pleasant walk from the church brought us to Tredegar Park, 
where the Association was most hospitably received by the Presi- 
dent. The house is said to have been designed by Inigo Jones, but 
was not completed until 1672 ; but the great hall is a portion of 
the earlier " very fair place of stone" mentioned by Leland, and is 
probably five hundred years old. 

Canon Thomas, in thanking Lord Tredegar for his genial hospi- 
tality, took occasion to remark that whatever changes may have 
passed over Tredegar itself during the interval, their host admirably 
represented, in this respect at least, the character of his ancestor, 
Sir John Morgan of Tredegar, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, whom 
Gwilym Tew described, c. a.d. 1460, as 

'^ Morgan, gwin ll^dan Gwaun Uwg.** 
(Morgan, the Yme of broad Wentloog.)^ 

Crossing the railway to the other side of the extensive park, we 
visited the strongly fortified camp called " The Gaer", of which we 
give a plan, reproduced from the 25-inch Ordnanco Map. It stands 
on high ground which slopes sharply on the west, but on all other 
sides is easy of access. It commands an extensive view seaward 
over the month of the TJsk and Wentllwch level, suggesting that it 
was so placed by its constructors as to give the earliest notice of 
any invasion of marauders on the coast. The fine oak-trees which 
stand around it, and the name, " Coed y defaid", on the Ordnance 
Survey, of the ground on which it was constructed, lead to the 
notion that it stood in the midst of a primieval forest as a residence 
and place of defence, sheltered from wind and weather, and difficult 
of approach, and well answered Cesar's description of a British 
oppidum. The inner space, an irregular parallelogram, is defended 
by three lines of foss and dyke ; that on the north and most acces- 
sible side being the most formidable, with an extra line thrown out 
along the south. The entrances are skilfully curtained by the 
inner lines of defence, so that an enemy passing through the first 
would be subject to the arrows and other weapons of the defenders 
for a considerable distance before reaching an inner opening. The 
position was one of much strategic value, as it served to guard the 

' Arch. Camb,, Series V, vol. i, p. 40. 



NEWPORT MBETrNG. — REPORT. 



THE GAER IN TREDEGAR PARK. 



356 CAMBRIAN ARCH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

approach from Caerleon and Newport, to the Valleys of the Ehbw 
and the Bhymnej and the land of Morganwg. Its date and con- 
stmctors are points not easy to settle. The name " Gaer*' (castra) 
looks Roman ; bat it is too strongly fortified for snch a position, 
having no water-supply, and is not sufficiently regular in its form, 
to owe its origin to the Romans. In a district, however, which for 
its own wealth, and for its openings into the inner country, has 
from earliest times been keenly contested and firmly held (as wit- 
nessed by the number of camps on all the surrounding hills), snch 
a position as the Gaer would be sure to be coveted by every suc- 
cessive invader, and each occupant would in turn add some little to 
its means of defence. 

At St. Woollos' Church, Newport (the last but by no means the 
least interesting object for inspection during the Meeting), Mr. 
Davis read a paper, written in 1854, by Mr. Octavius Morgan, who 
afterwards described in detail the chief points touched upon, as 
well as some results of the late restoration. These have been in- 
corporated in his account of the church printed in this current 
Number. 

EVENING MEETING. 

The President having taken the chair, called upon the Chairman 
of Committee to give the resume of the last two days* excursions. 

In doing so Canon Thomas announced, as the resnlt of their last 
evening's consultation, that the Committee had fixed upon Chester 
for the Annual Meeting in 1886.^ He was afraid that many per- 
sons on joining their excursions for the first time, and seeing, as 
they had on the present occasion, a beautiful country with most 
interesting remains of Roman and mediaaval antiquity, in lovely 
weather (with only one exception), and under most favourable 
auspices, would carry away the idea that our Meetings partook 
rather of the nature of an enjoyable picnic than of the investiga- 
tions of a learned Society. He was glad to think that this Meeting 
had' been to all of them a very enjoyable one ; but if the surround- 
ings had been less favourable, he was qaite sure that this Meeting 
at Newport would have been, in any case, full of interest to them, 
for they would have gone about their own work resolutely for that 
work's sake ; and one result of their annual gatherings was to be 
seen in the information gathered into their annual volumes as a 
consequence of their visits. This time, indeed, they had been un- 
usually fortunate in having able guides to point out and illustrate 
the places they had seen ; and many promised papers would perpe- 
tuate, in the pages of their Journal, the fruits of this week's re- 
union. At the beginning of the week they had expressed their 

^ This decision has since been altered, on finding that the Royal Archs&> 
ological Institute have also selected Chester, and Swansea has been 8ub> 
stituted in its stead. 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 357 

gratification at being so cordially welcomed by the Monmonthsbire 
and Caerleon Antiquarian Association, and they had now to give 
expression to their great obligations to some of its leading members 
for the part they had taken in describing the history and antiqnities 
of the county. He then gave a short resume of the two days* pro- 
ceedings ; and speaking of Caerphilly, he hoped that their experi- 
ence there would give encouragement to some able but too diffi* 
dent members to put their thoughts on paper ; for the description 
of that Castle by Mr. G. T. Clark, which had been so helpful to 
them, was the matured result of a paper first printed by him 
exactly fifty years ago. Archsological knowledge, it must be 
remembered, like all other knowledge, vim acquirit eundo ; but it 
must first have a stai*t. The long and valued services of another 
of their honoured Vice-Presidents, Mr. Octavius Morgan, and his 
personal presence among them at this their closing meeting, 
showed how attractive the study of antiquity proved to be, and 
that instead of cramping their sympathies it enabled them to take 
an enlarged and correcter estimate of times and places by giving 
to each age and movement something of their fair share of weight 
and influence. 

The President then proposed a vote of thanks to the Mayor and 
Corporation for the use of their new Town HalL While the hand- 
some appearance and convenient arrangement of the building bore 
witness to the energy and prosperous commerce of their town, their 
courtesy in so readily placing those rooms at the service of the 
Association over which he had the honour to preside, showed that 
they were not unmindful of their debt to the past, and he ventured 
to hope that their Meeting at Newport would not pass away with- 
out producing some influence of permanent value. 

Canon Thomas, in seconding the vote, referred to the venerable 
relic of which Churchyard had written some three hundred years 
ago, as in past days — 

'^ The castle hard towin, 
Which yet shows fair"; 

and hoped that if ever the Mayor and Corporation should have the 
opportunity, they would secure its possession for the town ; other- 
wise there would be danger here also of what he had said of 
another castle in the neighbourhood, that — 

^ Sith it weares and walls so wastes away, 
In praise thereof I mynd not much to say : 
Each thing decayed goes quickly out of mind"; 

a contingency which it wsjb one object of their Association to 
prevent. 

The Miyri*^'^^* I^yne, suitably acknowledged the vote, and 
thbO»S*^ it was a great advantage that the vast number of people 
who had visited their new Town Hall during the week had also had 



358 CAMBRIAN ARCH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

the privile^ of inspecting the rare onriosities brought together in 
the local mnsenm.^ 

Mr. B. W. Banks proposed the thanks of the Association to the 
Local Committee, especudly Major Lawson Lowe, and their Local 
Secretary, Mr. T. D. Roberts. Seldom had they enjoyed a more 
pleasant and snccessfal week, and that was owing to the excellent 
arrangements made by the Committee, not only for seeing the places 
of antiquarian and historical interest, but also for finding some one 
on the spot to explain and illustrate them. And in this they had 
been throughout unusually successful, and more particularly so at 
Caerwent, Sudbrook, St. Pierre, Chepstow, and Monmouth. 

Mr.' Laws seconded the proposal the more heartily because Mr. 
Roberts had, by his great readiness, relieved him of a somewhat 
troublesome portion of his duties as a General Secretary. 

Professor Sayce proposed a vote of thanks to the readers of 
papers, especially to Mr. Octavius Morgan, Mr. Mitchell, Dr. 
WooUett and the Rev. W. B. Oakley. He was glad to renew an old 
acquaintance with the county of Monmouth, and to do so after a long 
interval under such &vourable conditions. We were told by an old 
author that— 

" SegniuB irritant animos demiasa per anres 
Quam qnsB sunt oculis snbjecta fidelibus et qu89 
Ipse sibi tradit spectator"; 

but on the present occasion they had been able to combine both 
through the help of the valuable papers read. He then spoke of 
the great historical importance of the finds at Caerleon and Caer- 
went, and the desirability of a careful supervision of any future 
exploration at either of those places. The vote was seconded by 
Mr. Hartland. 

Mr. R. H. Wood, F.S.A., in proposing a vote of thanks to the 
ladies and gentlemen who had sent contributions to the temporary 
museum, and to the curators, to whom they were so much indebted, 
drew attention to some of the objects before them, and which had 
been seen by the maoy thousands who had passed through the new 
Town Hall during the week. He remarked that it was rarely the 
good fortune of the Society to have at their Annual Meetings a 
museum containiDg so many things of interest and value. There 
were a number of locks of curious and intricate workmflnship, and 
a clock deserving close examination. There was such a collection of 
silver spoons, as few of them ever saw brought together, — the series 
extended over a period of 300 years, from 1500 to 1800, — and one 
longed to examine the assay mark at the early period to which some 
of them dated back. Of course these and other rare exhibits were 
from the collection of their old m«xnber and good friend, Mr. 
Octavius Morgan, who had been a colleCt*»p for very many years, 
and knew well what he was collecting. Then tliol^i>9«^^^*' Brank", 

1 We are glad to know that one result of this exhibition is thegi^t 
probability of a permanent museum being established in the town. 



NEWPORT ICEETINQ. — RKPOKT. 359 

used in former times as a punishment for scolds, and which, happily, 
along with that other relic of barbarism, the " DudnDg Stool", has 
long since been abolished. Next we come to a display of implements 
for producing light : first the tinder-box, with flint and steel ; then 
the tinder-pistol, followed by an improvement in the addition of a 
rest, so that the pistol would stand without support, and a socket to 
hold a taper, which made it complete. The wonderful discovery of 
the lucifer match of course putis all these out of court ; he would, 
however, mention that between the flint and steel and the lucifer 
match there intervened the. phosphorus box. A small tin box 
containing prepared matches and a oottle of phosphorus, into which 
the match was dipped. He himself had all these in his collection, 
with the exception of the phosphorus box, which he had never ^en 
able to obtain, and he hoped if anyone present happened to have one he 
would present it to this Collection, which was so nearly complete. 
There were a number of rare early- printed books and some most 
interesting MSS., but above all in interest to them was the original, 
charter to the ancient town of Newport, with the seal in almost per- 
fect state, presented by Mr. Octavius Morgan. 

Mr. Stephen W. Williams, in seconding the motion, drew attention 
to the crucifix, which had been discovered in Kemeys Inferior 
Church, and spoke of the character of the workmanship of the wood- 
carvers of that period. 

Mr. James Davies proposed a vote of thanks to the entertainers 
and those who had opened places of interest to the Association, 
especially to Col. Lyne and Mr. Loraine Baldwyn ; and this was 
seconded by Mr. E. G. B. Phillimore. 



LOCAL MUSEUM. 

Pbimitivk Bbmains. 



Spegimbns from Swiss lake-dwellings, — sixteen frames of cloth, 
three spindle-whorls, two cards of flints, one of hair-pins, one 
of fish-hooks, four boxes of sundries (burnt), three horn imple- 
ments, two flints, and six bone pieces or awls 

J. E. Lee, F.S.A. 

Roman. 

Cinders containing evidence of the use of coal by the Romans in 

smelting iron 
Coal found under tesselated pavement at Caerwent J. Storrie. 
Coins (two hundred and thirty-two) found under a stone at WooU 

as tone 
Coins (three hundred and forty-two) found at Caerwent 
Silver ring found at Caerwent 

J. Till. 
Fragment of mortarium T. M. Llewellin, Caerleon. 



360 GAMBBIAN AROHiEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Two Boman coins (Hadrian and Licinias) as pendants 

E. Sonthwood Jones. 
Bronze yotiTO figure of goat 
Roman lamp with three wicks 
Boman lamp 

Boman lamp with ornaments in relief 
Boman tile stamped leg. ii. avg. 

T. M. Llewellin. 
Three fragpnents of Samian ware B. H. Mansel, Gaerleon. • 

Eight fragments of Boman pottery found at Gaerleon 

W. N. Johns, Newport. 
Tessera of Boman pavement from Gaerleon 
Boman jar, Samian ware 
Bronze goat 
Goins as pendants, from Gaerleon 

G. Miles. 
Goins, seal, spoon, found at Gaerleon W. Downing Evans. 

Portion of Roman brick, Augustan Legion 
Goins, A.D. 218-290 
Tusks of wild boar found at Gaerleon 

Dr. WooUett. 

Mediaeval Art. 

Grucifix found with two hundred skulls at the church of Kemeys 
Inferior H. G. Bislej. 

Jewel casket, fourteenth century 

Wrought iron dagger, 1615 

Travelling watch or clock, 1510 

Locks and keys from the fourteentJi to the seventeenth century 

Chinese enamel dish, 1426 

Ditto, centuries old ; supposed to have been looted 

Brazen pail, 1500, and candlestick to match ; very rare Oriental 
wort 

Chinese vase, 1450 

Octavias Morgan, Newport. 

Three steel keys (cabinets), seventeenth century 

Two double keys with sliding bars, city of Nuremberg 

Steel gilt key, Francis I and Maria Theresa 

Ditto, Charles VI, Emperor of Germany 

Steel chamberlain's key of office of one of the German principalities 

Steel ecclesiastical key with latch-key and sliding bar 

Steel key, seventeenth century 

Lent by O. Morgan. 

Post-Medijeval. 

Knife and fork in leather case, temp, Charles 11 
Knife and fork (lady's), and contemporary gentleman's forki in 
leather case, temp, James 1 



NEWPORT MEETING. — REPORT. 361 

a 

Series of twenty-siz silver and base metal spoons, to illnstrate 
changes of form and fashion from 1500 to 1800 

Tomarion, or pitch-pipe, from Morwenstowe, Cornwall, formerly be- 
longing to B. S. Hawker, the poet 

Fonr tinder-boxes of varions forms, for obtaining a h'ght by means 
of flint and steel, from 1753 to 1820 

Smuggler's flask from an old farmhouse near Tintagel, Cornwall • 

Iron mask used at State executions 

Martel or battle-mace 

Brank, or scold's bridle, temp. William III 

Series of six pairs of shoe and knee-buckles, showing their changes 
from early fashion to 1800 

B. Drane. 

Ancient curfew (cover-fire) 

Bronze bushel of the manor of Darfud 

Milton shield, repousse work 

Three toilet-boxes, once the property of Lady Byron, mother of the 
celebrated poet 

Lord Tredegar. 

Splendid silver copy of Beaufort Cup won by '* Ely" at Bath, and 
presented by the late W. S. Cartwright to the Hon. Godfrey 
Morgan, in commemoration of his gallantry in the charge of 
Balaclava, 25th of October 1854 

Pair of blunderbusses and shield 

Massive silver cup, " the gift of my good friend General Phillips" 

Medallion of Sir Charles Morgan, painted by Plinner 

Official seal of John Morgan, Esq., Tredegar, Lord- Lieutenant of 
Monmouth and Brecon, 1715 to 1719 

Lord Tredegar. 

Silver punch-ladle with inlaid metal 

Roman coins 

Bev. T. L. Lister. 

Master-key of Windsor Castle F. Smith, Birmingham. 

Carving of the Saviour 

Carved Indian club 

Two framed casts of Elgin marbles 

Rev. W. C. Bruce. 

Miscellaneous. 
Algerian dagger 
Tlubet praying-wheel 

Part of old dessert-service (Flight and Barr, Worcester) 
Two silver patch-boxes, silver purse, silver-gilt chatelaine, — all very 
old 

Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell, Llanfrechfa. 
Drinking-jug, 1652 Captain Gumey. 

Two large wrought iron cannon of the latter part of the fifteenth 
century, found off St. Ives (in office, Austin Friars) 

F. J. Mitchell. 






362 CAMBRIAN ARCH.£OL0aiCAL ASSOCIATION. 

4 

DesoeDt of the myth of the Virgin Mother and Divine Child, illus- 
trated by (1) ancient Egyptian bronze of Isis, the Moon, nursing 
the infant Homa, the Dawn 

(2.) Indian porcelain figure of Maia, with the infimt Bnddha, seated 
on the rock of salvation, and having the bottle of the water of 
life at her right hand 

(3.) Japanese sanoer of Satsnma ware with the immaculate Mother, 
Divine Child, bottle of the water of life with the symbolic fish 
in it, and that old serpent the spirit of evil behind her 

(4.) Ivory figare of the Christian Virgin, Divine Child, and the seipent 
as tempter (as in the last) 

Silver hilted dress rapier 

Dress rapier, with Damascened blade and carved steel hilt 

B. Drane, Cardiff 

Pair of horns, believed to be the largest extant 

Bow and poisoned arrows from Solomon lahuids, Sonth Seas 

S. Dean. 

Tray of coins — Eighteenth centnry tokens of Gloncestershire, 
Welsh, Irish, Manx, Channel Islands, and Colonial coins (sixty- 
three in all) 

Specimens of Early English copper coins, with Colonial pennies 

E. Soathwood Jones. 

Sonth Wales tokens (eighteen) J. Stoxrie. 

Eight coins T. M. Llewellin. 

Medals (one hundred and seventy-eight bronze and brass, twenty- 
two silver, one gilded) J. Hutchins, Newport^ 

Case of impressions of seals J. E. Lee. 

Inscribed stone 1632, from wall Newport Castle 1874 C. Eirby. 

Five cases of gold, silver, and bronze coins and medals 

Curious engraved box (probably Scandinavian) of the Crucifixion 

R. D. Bain. 

MSS. — Old Books and DsAwntas. 

Illuminated MSS., History of Strasbourg from the Flood tUl 1830 

Lord Tredegar. 
Aincient Welsh and English Bible and forty sermons of 1497 frt>m 

a Royal Library W. W. Morgan. 

Black letter book, 1523 (from the Sunderland Libraiy) ; folio Bible ; 

4to. Bible, sixteenth century W. N. Johns. 

Loan of books, — Newport Free Library, Brig Evans, P. J. Mitchell, 

T. M. Lockwood, E. A. Lansdowne, C. Kirby, W. N. Johns, 

W. W. Morgan, etc. 

MONHOUTHSHIBE. 

Old map, Monmouthshire C. Octavius S. Morgan. 

Framed engravingps, Monmouthshire and Welsh Castles 

Bev. W. Bees and Dr. WoolletL 
View of the Van, near Caerphilly T. M. Llewellin. 

Two framed photographs of river Usk, before and after removal of 
Trostrey Weir by Conservators The Mayor of Newport 



NEWPORT MEETINQ. — REFOBT. 



363 



Welsh harp and several engravings Lady Llanover. 

Twenty-one water colours and sketchesi three rubbings Usk 

church, etc T. H. Thomas. 

Ten photographs, Cardiff Castle T. M. Lockwood. 

Two portfolio etchings, views of Wales J. Hewitt. 

Water-colour drawings, Caerphilly, Tintem, Chepstow, etc. 

J. F. Mnllook. 
Drawing, window, Raglan Castle K Lawrence. 

[Cannon baU, two keys, and fragment of grate^ 1678, from Leagners 

Field, Raglan J. Mnrphy.] 

Newport. 

Oldest charter of Newport in existence (recently presented by 
O. Morgan, Esq., F.H.S., to the Corporation) The Conx)ration. 

Ancient map of Newport (aboat 1750) Lord Tredegar. 

Old map of Newport, 1794 

Two silver maces Corporation of Newport. 

[Ballets from wall of Old Westgate £. A. Lansdowne 

Bnllet and seal fonnd at Gorelands 

Six silver and bronze coins J. E. Brewer.] 

Stand with ten Chartist pikes, formerly in collection of S. Hom- 
fray, Esq. S. Dean. 

Pictares of Chartist Riots (J. Frost, Firman, and others. Sir Thomas 
Phillips, Lient. Gray, etc.). Lent by A. A. Newman, Rev. W. 
Rees, Dr. WooUett, and C. Kirby 

View of New Westgate Hotel, with measured drawings and photo- 
graphs of steps and ancient arches, etc., discovered in 1884 

E. A. Lansdowne. 



SUBSCRIBERS TO LOCAL FUND. 

£ 
Right Hon. Lord Tredegar, Prendeni . .10 

Octavius Morgan, Esq., The Friars .5 

The Hon. Arthur Morgan .3 

J. E. Lee, Esq. . . .2 

F. J. Mitchell, Esq. . . . .2 

D. Whitehouse, Esq. .2 

E. H. Carbutt, Esq., M.P. .2 

F. Rafarel, Esq. . .2 
Sir H. M. Jackson, Bart. .2 
A. £. Lee, Esq. . 
T. H. Thomas, Esq. 
W. W. Morgan, Esq., M.D. 
Rev. W. B. Oakley 
a. W. NichoU, Esq. 
Rev. W. C. Bruce, St. Woollos 
H. J. Pamall, Esq. 
Thos. Cordes, Esq. 
Rev. W. J. C. Lindsay • 
Rev. F. B. Leonard 
Henry Proihero, Esq. 
R. F. Woollett, Esq., M.D. 






3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

1 
1 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 













1 
1 
1 



364 CAMBBIAN ARCH^OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 



£ $. d. 



A. 0. Pilliner, Esq. 


m 


• i 






,110 


W. S. Smyth, B»q. 






.110 


G. A. Brown, Esq. 






110 


T. Qreatorez, Esq. 


' 1 




.110 


Rey. F. Bedwell . 






.110 


J. D. Pain, Esq. 






.110 


B. Laybourne, Esq. 






.110 


0. W. £. Marsh, Esq. . 






.110 


Mrs. Prothero, Malpas, Newport 
W. G. Bees, Esq., Holly House . 






.110 






110 


J. Canning, Esq., Newport 






.110 


J. M. Llewellin, Esq., Caerleon 
J. Morris, Esq., M.D., Caerleon 






.110 






1 1 


B. Evans, Esq. . . . . 






.110 


Rev. E. L. Barnwell 










.110 


Major Law son Lowe 










.110 


J. W. Jones, Esq. 










.110 


G. W. Wilkinson, Esq. 










.110 


Rev. Canon Hawkins 










.110 


R. D. Bain, Esq. 










110 


J. A. Rolls, Esq., M.P. 
The Mayor of Newport 










1 1 










.110 


Sir George Walker, Bart 






• , 




10 


G. L. Hiley, Esq. 










. 10 


W. N. Johns, Esq. 










5 


Rev. J. M. Beynon 










6 


Rev. A. Wilkins 










A 


Rev. R. y. Hughes 










5 


Mrs. Micklethwaite 










5 


Mr. Dent 










5 


Miss Buckingham 
J. E. Cooke, Esq. 










5 










.050 


Rev. H. R. Roderick 










5 


A. G. Thomas, Esq., M.D. 








5 










£69 19 



NEWPORT MEETINQ, AUGUST 1885. 

8TATEMKNT OF ACCOUNTS. 



Receipts. 


£ ».» 


</. 


To amouat of subscrip- 






tions .... 


69 19 





Sale of tickets of admis- 






sion to meetings 


2 10 






£72 9 



Received by Treasurer of 
Association . 38 12 1 I 

Examined and found correct. 



EXFENDITURS. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


W. N.Johns, printing, etc. 


6 


2 





Mai lock and Sons, ditto • 


2 


17 


9 


E. Stanford, lithograph- 








ing maps 


2 


17 


9 


C. Kirby, expenses 


5 


2 


11 


T. D. Roberts, ditto 


4 


9 


6 


Postages, telegrams, car- 








riage of parcels, etc. . 


12 


6 





Cheque-book . 





1 





Balance .... 


38 


12 


1 


jC72 


9 






365 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



VOL. II. FIFTH SERIES. 



Abergavenny, lordship of, 257 
AlleD (Mr. Charles), 74 
Ancient cnstoms and usages in 

North Wales, 150 
Annual Meeting, Report of, 1885, 

321 
Architecture, medifiBval military, 

236 
Atpar, vill of, 68 
Audeley (Hugh de), 267 



Baker (Mr. Charles), 157 
Bangor (Richard, Bishop of), 227 
Bone caves, Tremeirchion, 233 

Llandudno, 234 

Bridgeman (Dr. John), Bishop of 
Chester, 56 

(Sir Orlando). 56 

Buckingham (Duke oQ, 257 
Backstone (The;, Monmouth, 225 



Caergai, 1-86 

Roman station, 76, 196, 

312 
Caerleon on Usk, 292, 297, 842 

lordship of, 257 

Caerwent Church, 329 

Roman station, 332 

Caerphilly Castle, 353 
Caldicot Church, 333 
Castell Cam Dochnn, 189 



Chepstow, lordship of, 257 

Castle, 339 

Church, 340 

Chester, Dr. John Bridgeman, 

Bishop of, 56 
Clare (Richard and Gilbert de), 

266 
Clwyd, stone crosses of the Yale 

of, 158, 240 



Deerhurst, Saxon house at, 234 
Denbighshire Hills, rambles over, 

312 
Devereux (Almeric),Earl of Glou- 
cester, 266 



Edward II in Glamorganshire, 76 
Edwards' pedigree (Rhydycroes- 

au), 117 
Effigy in Llanuwchllyn Church, 

192 
Einion Efell, descendants of, 100 
Fitz-Hamon, 264 



Garthbeibio Church, 37 
Glamorganshire, Edward II in, 76 

charters, 319 

pedigrees, 319 

Goodwic Crossed Stone, 146 
Greslord Church, 122 



366 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OP CONTENTS. 



Grnffydd ap Wenwynwyn, 306 
Guilsfield Charob, 37 
Gwent, early history of the Land 
of, 241 

Hanmer Charcb, 125 
Haverfordwest, St. Thomas's 

Church, 209 
Hereford, All Saints' GhDrch,235 
Himant Ghnrch, 39 
Holt Church, 125 



Jestyn ap Gwrgan, 264 
Joannes ap GrafSt, effigy of, 192 
Johnston Church,Pembrokeshire, 
211 

Kyffin pedigree, 105, 108 
Kynaston pedigree, 54 



Lacon pedigree, 116 

Llanbadrig, Anglesey, 224 

Llandrinio Church, Montgomery- 
shire, 40 

Llandysilio Church, 41 

Llandudno Bone Caves, 234 

Llandderfel Church, 33 

— Registers, 132 

Llanddew Church, Brecon, sculp- 
tured stone, 147 

Llanddewi Brevi, 68 

Llanerfyl Church, 41 

Llanfair Caer Einion Church, 42 

Llanfechain Church, 44 

Llanfor Church, 34 

Llangar Church, 34 

Llangadfan Church, 45 

Llangower Church, 35 

Llangwm Church,Pembroke8hiro, 
212 

Llansantfiraid Church, Montgo- 
meryshire, 46 

Llansawel, Carmarthenshire, 235 

Llanstadwell Church, Pembroke- 
shire, 213 

Llanwddyn Church, 46 

Llanuwchllyn, 183 



Llanuwchllyn Church, 35, 102 
Llanycil Church, 36 
Lloyds of Paid, 133 

of Llanforda, pedigree of, 

60 
Long^eville pedigree, 98 
Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, 227, 306 



Maenan Hall, 110 

Magor Church, 328 

Marloes Church, Pembrokeshire, 

214 
Matheme Church, 338 
Meifod Church, 47 
MeUden Church, 206 
Merionethshire, 227 
Monmouth, lordship of, 257 

town of, 352 

Morgan Hdn, 263 
Morgans of Ruperra, 269 
Montgomeryshire Document, 304 
Moyne's Court, 337 



Newport Castle, 270 

St. Woollos' Church, 279 

Nolton Church, Pembrokeshire, 

215 
North Wales, ancient customs 

and usages in, 150 



Oswestry, local families of, 49, 97 
Overton, Flintshire, 79, 127 



Pedigree of Edwards of Rhydy- 
croesau, 117 

Kyffins, 105, 108 

Kynastons, 54 

Lacons, 116 

— — — Lloyds of Llanforda, 60 
— — — Longueville, 98 

Powells of Park, 113 

— — Trevors of Oswestry, 63 

Yaughansof Caergai,194 

Warings, 51 

Pembroke (Earls of), 269 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



367 



Pembrokesbire, history of early, | 

319 
Pennant Melangell Churcli, 120 
Pentre Evan Dolmen, 72 
Porins Stone, 143 
PortWysky, 66 
Portskewet Gburcb, 334 
Pqyntas Castle, 66 
Powell of Park, pedig^ree of, 113 



Baglan Castle, 347 

Report of Annual Meeting, 1885, 

321 
Rhiwaedog Pebble, 73 
Bhos Market Chnrcb, Pembroke- 

sbire, 215 
Rhnabon Cbarcb, 128 
Robert Consul, 265 
Roman station at Caergai, 196 



St. Asapb Cathedra], pre-Reform- 
ation paten, 220 

St. Bride's Chnrcb, Pembroke- 
shire, 209 

St. David's, the lands of the Bi- 
shops of, 65 

St. Ismael, 210 

St. Pierre, 337 

Saxon house at Deerhurst, 234 

Stafford (Barls of), 267 

Steynton Chnrch,Pembrokesbire, 
216 

Stone, sculptured, at Llanddew, 
Brecon, 147 

crossed, near Goodwic, 



146 



inscribed, at Caergai, 202 
crosses of the Vale of 



Clwyd, 158, 240 



Sndbrook, 335 
Sweeney, 112 



Talbenny Church, Pembroke- 
shire, 217 

Tintem Abbey, 351 

Tredegar Park, Lady's Well in, 
263 

The Gaer in, 354 

Tremeirchion Bone Caves, 233 

Trevor pedigree, 63 

Usk, lordship of, 257 

Castle, 345 

Church, 343 

Uzmaston Church, Pembroke- 
shire, 208 



Vaughan (John) of Caergai, 186 

(Rev. Maurice), 189 

(Rowland), 187 

pedigree, 194 



Walwyn's Castle Church, Pem- 
brokeshire, 217 

Waring pedigree, 51 

Welshpool Church, 121 

Wentllwch, lordship marcher of, 
257 

West Haroldston Church, Pem- 
brokeshire, 218 

West Walton Church, ditto, 218 

Williaras-Wynn (Sir Watkin), 
Bart., 229 

Wrexham Church, 130 

in the time of James 1, 

318 



368 ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Gnilsfield Glinrcb 

Font in Llandrinio Ghnrcb 

Early English Doorway, Llanfair Gaer Einion Gharcli 

Scnlptnred Ton^bstone in Meifod Ghnrcb 

The Dolmen at Centre Evan 

Wrexham Ghnrcb Tower 

The Porins Stone . . . . 

Grossed Stone near Goodwic • 

Sculptured Stones at Llanddew Ghnrcb . 

Scnlptnred Stone at Llanddew Ghnrch, with Inscription 

Bronze Dagger found at Bwlcb-y-Dden Faen 

The Abbey Gross, Denbigh 

Derwen Gross .... 

Gaergai • . • . . 

Effigy in Llannwohllyn Ghnrch 

Portion of Urn fonnd at Gaergai 

Gaergai Stone .... 

Plan of Gaergai .... 

Tombstones and Plan, Meliden Ghnrch . 

Font and Stall-End, Meliden Ghnrch 

Pre-Reformation Paten, St. Asaph Gathedral 

Slab in the Cathedral of St. Asaph 

Incised Gross, Llanbadrig, Anglesey 

The Bnckstone, near Monmouth 

Newport Gastle .... 

Ground-Plan of Newport Castle 

Early Doorway, St Woollos' Church 

The Stafford Badge and Knot . 

Figure in Armour, St. Woollos' Church . 

Shields of Arms, ditto 

Caerleon Seal .... 

North -West View of Magor Church 

Chancel of Caerwent Church from the South-East 

Caerwent Church Tower 

South- West View of Caldicot Church 

Tympanum, Portskewet Church 

Plan of Sudbrook Gamp 

Chepstow Castle . , . . 

Roman Wall, Caerleon 

Inscription on Brass inserted in Wood -Screen at Usk Ghnrch 

Plan of Usk Castle .... 

Raglan Castle. — Keep from Inner Court 

The Gaer in Tredegar Park 



38 
40 
43 
48 
72 
130 
144 
146 
146 
147 
156 
158 
159 
188 
192 
202 
203 
205 
206 
207 
220 
222 
2^ 
226 
270 
278 
285 
288 
289 
290 
296 
828 
330 
331 
333 
335 
336 
339 
342 
344 
345 
348 
355 



wRiriiro Aim co., sakdutu stbkkt, lijtoolh'b xitn fiklds.