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The CODSCn, ot the Royal Aboh.'eolooicai. iNsriTuTr deeire that it should be 
diatincttf underatood that they are uot re!<poiiiiib1e fur any statement or iipinionH 
ei[ires9ed in tlie Archaalogical Journal, the author? of the HeTemI memoirs and 
inicfiUons being nione onawcruble for tlic sAme. 

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Iiutngural Addrem of the Rifibl Honourable Lord dnuNOFOiiD to the AnDiuI 

Meetiog of the Institute at Colcbeeter .1 

The Luid of Horgnn : ita Coiiqu«et ontl its CoDquerora. B; O. T. Cluuc, Esq. . II 

DiHoovaiee in the Chit Dueil Wildemees. Bj G. W. VnB, Esq., B.A. . 40 

AddrcBs to the Hiitoi-iaal Section of the Annual Meeting oE the Iiwtitut« at 

ColduBter, IST6. Bjr R A. Freehak, Esq., D.C.L,, LL.D. . . 47 

Un the Bomon Lucriptioiu at Colcheeter. By W. T. Watkut, Eaii. . . TO 

Rouuufa on the Eihibitioa ot the Etched Works of Rembrandt. By the Bev. 
C. H. HmDLETOtr, K.A. ....... 83 

The Siege of Colchetter. Bf C. R. Mahkbaw, E«q., C.B. . . .107 

Sloauments of the De Burgh and IngoldsthoFpe families, in Burgh Oreen Church 

Comlvidgeehire. By the Rev. C, R. MAMMtNO, H.A. . 121 

BritMUo-Roman InecHptionB discovered in 18TS. By W. T. Watum, Esq. 130 

Huckron and Inisfallen, FrandacAO Abbeys. By 0. T. CuBK, Esq. . 149 

Roman London. By the Rev. W. J. LoiTO^ B.A. . .164 

What ii a Town t By T. Ebbslakb, Esq. .199 

St. Peter's- on -tiis- Wall, BradweU-justa-mare. By F. Chanczllob, Esq. . 212 

On the Wall PaintiDgti discovered in the Churobee of Raunds and SlsptoP, 

NorthamptonBhire. By J. Q. Waller, Esq. . . . .219 

The Antiquitiea of tiuindiiiavia. By Frofe<iaar Blnhill IiKWIS, ILA., F.SiV. . Hi 

The Mural Paintings at KempU; Church, Olousestenhire. B; C. E. SustJt, 
Gaq., H.A. ...,,..., WO 

Note* on an EOgj attributed to Rlahard WBlIeabome d« Uontfort, and otb«r 
Sepulchral If smorlala in Hughsnden Church, Buokinghamahire. B7 Albkbt 
HABnBORHB, Esq. . .279 

Dr. Schliemann's Trojau Collectiou. B; B, F. HABTeHOfti'K, Esq., B.A. ■ ■ 291 

Hoi'efoid Catbedrat. By Sir G. O. Scott, 11.A 323 

Hoiuan Uereturdshire. By W. T. Watkin, Esq. . . .310 

The Family ot Lingeu. By J. T. BuBOBes, Esq. . . . . .373 

Od Uie Disikivery of the Remains of John, Fiivt Earl uf Shiewsbui7, at 

Whitchurch. By Stephbk Tuckbr, Esq. fBeuffe CnleJ .386 

On the Boman Hitliariea found in Britain. By the Rev. Prebendai^' Scabte, H.A. 39S 

On Certain Sepulohral Effigies in Hereford CaUtedial. By M. H. Buxah, 

Eau; F.S.A. . . . . . .406 

HateriaU for n History of Herefordshire. By the Rev. C. J. BoBINSOK, H.A. . 42fi 

Notoe ou the Dates of the PaiutJilgs iu the Roman Cutacombd. By J. H. 

P.UISEB, Esq., C.B. . . . . . .131 

Obiqinal DocuHEins : — 

Of the time of Edward I. By J. EuH, Es^., F.8.A. Scot. . . 87 

Charter of Confirmation by Richard Ear) of CornniJl and Puiotou, of 
Grants of Land in the Honour of B«rkhampat«de, 1256. By O. T. 
Clabe, Esq. . . . .ISO 

Concerning Guildford Castle, t«mp. Edward I. By J. Baim, Esq., F.S.A. 

Seot. ....... 207 

Relating to Hereford and the Weetem Counties, temp. Edwaid I. By 

the same H3 

ProC'juJiLiss i>t Mertiug^ of tho It-jyal AiuLwologi oal luBtitutc :— February, 1877, 
to July, 1877 187,208,118 

AUtnot of Accounts uiil Auditors' Report for 18TS .... 907 

Rsport of AnniMl MMting h«ld M Her^ord, 1B77 . ■ tOT 

Honcn OF AxooaoLooiCAL PuBUCinoss :— 

Aniula of ^nchcombe and Sudeley. Bj Ehma Dent .93 

The Flnt Book of the Pu-uh Rf^lera of Madron, By Qkoboe Bhowh 

iSiLLSrt .99 

Iiotca on the Etched Works of R«mbruidt, with special reference to the 
reoent eihibition in the Gallery of the Burlingtoa Fine Arts Club. 
B; the Bev. C. H. Uiddlito.v .163 

The Churches of Kent. Bf Sir S. R. Qltxhe, B«t. . .103 

HiBloi7 of the Dhodiow Flitch of Baoon cuitom. By WiLUU AHDBiwa . lOt 

Inductive Metrology. By W. M. F. PxnUE . . .809 

The Viaitation of the County of Warwick. Edited by JoBN FmasssiQS 310 

Calendar of State Papera, Doroeetic series, teuip. Charles I- Edited by 

W. D. HUULTOS . . .507 

Hoticea of the Historic Persons buried in the Chapel of SU Peter ad . 
Tineula in Uie Tower of London. By D. C. BSLL . 607 

AmcHsOLOGiOAL Lnteluqkuci .... 100, IM, 311, 609 

Indki 10 Vol. IXIIT. . . . . SU 

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Chit Doen WildeiiieHH. Tomb in the 

AntiquitieH fruui 

Figure of a Boman Centurion .... 

West view of Embattled Tower, Sudoley 

Seals of Otuer and Halpb de Sudcley .... 
Portmare Tower, Sudeley . .... 

Seal of Abbot Ancelme . .... 

Uonumenta in Bui^ Green Church .... 
MuckrotH Abbey. Ground Plan of . 

• Upper Flow of . 

Diagnun of pattern on Old Vaedlework in Cugenhoc Church 
Thurible found at Perahora ..... 
The Eastneaa Sarcophagus ..... 
Bndnell-juxta-nure. Plan of Soman Renuuns at . 

—Chapel .... 

Pride and her Six Dftughters, or Uie Seven Deadly S 

To iux 213 

wall paiuting ui Raunda 
To face i 

Churdi, Northamptonahire .... 

' Scene in the Life of St. Cstberine, ditto 

■ Bucket handle and ears, from Trondhjem 

■ Bronze Viae of Farmen, and Sword from Einang 
' Efflgf in Hughenden Church .... 

Creacent containing Lion's face .... 

The Porticua IngressuB, Hookweanoouth Church, and Sepulchral Stab found at 
ditto ........ To face 

British Sword and Bronze Wei^na from the bed of the Thunea . To follow 
Amu of Digby . . . . . . .To fuce 

Fwgineut of a " Tabula Honestu: MLnsiouiB'' fuuud at Wiiltot, near Bath, iu 





General Plan of Hereford Catbednd. . . . .To (iu« 333 

Komum Cnthedrcd at Hereford, Plan of . . . „ 327 

Interior view of , , . „ B2B 

Eleration of Weet end ot . „ 3S0 

Docovay of Kortii Porch of Her^ord Cathedral and Pisoiiui at Orosmont „ 340 

Portrait of John Talbot, Gist Earl of Shrewsbury. From tli# Picture at Castle 


Skoll and Jaw-bone of ditto . 

Hereford Cathedral. EfBgy ol Biihop Hayo . To feoe 416 

EfDgy of Biahop Coke 

-_^— Effigy of a Dean 

— — EiBgy ot Biabop Stanbiuy 

Effigy of Bishop Cbarlton 

Anglo-Saxon Bone Comb 
Eiamplea of Leather VeeselB 
Stitrap and Hone aboee 
EfGgy at Mocrae 

To face 

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P. 1*0,1. 39,>("Willi(.ma"r»Brf"WUb™hftm." P.303,totlie names of Menibrra 
o! tlie Cotuwil vrho Hlgned the ttddrem to Dr. and Hrs. Schliemnnu Khould be oddetl 
"tlicHev. R. P. Coftt«fl." Page 318— The Additional Remarku on a "T,il>u!aHone«t»P 
MiwiioDis " wei-c contributed by Mr. W. T. Watkin. 

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^^t !3[rtf)aealosJral journal. 

MAECH, 1877. 


My business and duty, and my pleasure, is to open 
the Congress, by what the pn^ramme calls an Address 
from the President of the Roy^ ArchsBologieal Institute 
of Great Britain and Ireland. Having undertaken 
many months ^;o to perform the responsible duty 
that now lies before me, I, with the usual foUy of 
human nature, at the eleventh hour began to consider 
wliat these duties were, and I confess that that very late 
consideration has left me in a state somewhat of per- 
plexity. At ali events, the position of temporary and 
local President of the Royal A rchieological Institute 
i.s one of a somewhat complex and peculiar nature : I have 
the honour of finding myself for a moment at the head of 
this great Society, which makes Archaeolc^ its object, 
and I find myself there without any of what may be 
supposed to be the necessary qualifications for the post — 
with nothing more than an ordinary country gentleman's 
smattering of History, ^rcbaiology, or Architecture. But, 
as an old politician, and an old official, I am, perhaps, 
less surprised at finding myself in this position than 
some other people woula have been. As a politician and 
a Parliament man, I know very well, as you probably 
do, that a politican at all events, may wake up in the 
morning and find himself Minister for War, without 
knowing anything about guns or soldiers, or First Lord 
of the Admiralty, without knowing anything about 
ships or sailors, and that is very much my position upon 

> Delirrred Augnnt lat, 1ST6- 
TOI_ IXXIV. (No. 133). B 




the present occasion. But I am bound to say that my 
tenure of office is even shorter than that which prevails 
with Secretaries of State, and First Lords, and 
Presidents of the Board of Trade, because it is limited 
to a week, in which I am afraid there is not very 
much professional knowledge to be acquired. I have 
been consoled a good deal in my position by being assured 
by my Archteolo^cal friends that very little is expected 
their local President in the way of A-rchseology and 
Architecture. That expectation is foimded, I believe, 
upon 33 years of experience in all parts of the British 
Isles, and highly as we may value the good City of 
Colchester, I do not suppose, at all events, I do not feel, 
myself to be an exception to that experience. More 
than that, I am bound to make a confession to you. 
I think I have detected in the faces of some of my 
ArchEBological friends belonging to what, in official 
language, I may call the permanent Archaeological 
service, a certain dismay at the idea of their temporary 
President poaching upon their preserves, or venturing 
upon a professional Lecture upon the subject of 
Archfeology and Architecture. Well, I can assure you 
that you need be under no feelings of dismay on that 
account. I am not going to inflict upon you a 
lecture upon the antiquities of Colchester or the 
neighbourhood ; but I have another character to fill 
here, which I shall do my best to discharge. I am 
not merely a sort of First Lord of Archseology, with 
a week's tenure of office, but it is my business to 
endeavour to play- a double part : I not only un- 
worthily represent the Royal Archseological Institute, 
but I also represent the County of Essex, in an official 
capacity, and, especially on the present occasion, Col- 
chester and that part of the County of Essex or land of 
the East Saxons, which Kes within a few miles of us. I 
represent not only the visitors, but the visited ; not only 
the Antiquaries who come to inspect us, but the 
antiquities that are to be inspected ; not only the 
learned, but the ignorant ; and in spite of some kind 
things that I have heard in the course of our varied 
proceedings of this day, I feel, I am bound to aay, I am 
much more at home in the latter capacity, and I do 


not think you will differ from me when I say that in 
that capacity I have the larger body of constituents. 
Upon the one hand, in this complex character I am trying 
to fulfil, as the representative for the moment of the RoytU 
Archseological Institute, I venture to say, and I am 
sure my noble friend Lord Talbot will bear me out when 
I say it, that the Institute has gladly and thankfully 
accepted the invitation to Colchester, that the Society is 
so well aware of the historical and architectural interest 
of the place and its neighbourhood, that it would have 
been ashamed of itself if it had omitted, in ita 
peregrination round the great centres of historical 
interest in these Islands, to visit the City of Colchester, 
the ancient Camulodunmu of the Komans. On the other 
hand, in my other honourable capacity as representative 
of the County of Essex, I say m your name that we 
are well aware ourselves of the objects of interest which 
are te be found here. We beheve it is well worth 
while for the central Institute of Archseologists te pay us 
this visit ; we know very well what a long train of 
historical memories and associations gather round the City 
of Colchester and its neighbourhood, and we feel a proper 
pride in their possession. The truth is that in and around 
this City — within a few miles — there are many most 
interesting memorials of the long and glorious history of 
our country, mainly, I mvust say, confined to the e,arher 
portions of that great history. Here, in this Gty and its 
neighbourhood, the early races who inhabited our country 
played a great part, Briten and Roman, Saxon and Dane. 
There are many other parts of Bjigland in which the later 
histery of the coimtry ia more fully and remarkably 
illustrated than it is here, but as to the earher history of 
the Island I think my scientific friends around me will 
agree that there are few places of greater interest in the 
Biitish Isles than the City and neighbourhood of 
Colchester. It is difficult, as one glides in the railway 
train through this rich, and peaceful, and smiling Essex, 
almost upon the track of the Roman road, te realise the 
scenes which have been enacted in this region ; it is 
difficult to throw one's imagination back to that remote 
age when all tliat Britain, as it was then Britain, not 
England, all that Britcdn knew of Englishmen was that 


they were an inconvenient set of free-booters, infesting 
what was called the Saxon shore in this immediate neigh- 
bourhood. That was before the days when England was 
England, and what scenes and what figures nave this 
place and neighbourhood witnessed since that distant 
day I It would be tedious to attempt for a moment, 
altliougli it would be easy, to go through the list. If 
one thinks for a moment, one has, for instance, a Cymbeline, 
the British Chief Cunobelin, whose coins we can see and 
liandle in the Museum here, and which, I believe, have 
been dug up over and over again; we can see the Emperor 
Claudius, with his elephants, tramping along, probably 
this very street of Colchester, to the astonishment of the 
northern people ; we can see the grim figure of her of 
whom we have heard in our youth, Boadicea and her 
Iceni, sweeping down from what was to be first East 
Angha, and then Suftblk and Norfolk, upon the Roman 
Colony in Colchester. 1 have a sort of infantine recollec- 
tion of Boadicea, but it seems to me, upon comparing 
notes with younger people, that she has rather gone out. 
of fashion in these days. Nevertheless, I believe that 
many men, who have reached that uncertain time of life 
that I have, will remember some traditions of the school- 
room, and certain Hnes of Cowper that they used to 
learn, about 

" 'When the BritiBh ivarrior Queen, 

Bleeding from the Boman rods, 

Sought, with an indignant mien; 

Counsel of her ooiuitry's gods." 

Anyhow, it is an historical fact that Boadicea is a great 
Colchester heroine, and that the fearful revenge wluch 
she and her British followers took for fearful wrongs, has 
been in its time one of the most extraordinary events 
that have been enacted upon British soil. Then we come 
to the times in whicli Colchester was secured against such 
dangers by Roman fortifications, and to the aays which 
seem so short now, hut which were long then — the days 
lasting for many generations and several centuries, during 
which Colchester was one of the foremost colonies and 
garrisons in the Island. Those times have utterly passed 
away, but they have lefl here many remarkable monu- 
ments, and when we see or handle a Roman brick or a 


Roman coin, we are carried back in imagination to those 
almost incredible days, and we learn that the presence 
of the legionaries here was not a dream. After that 
we come to the time when Britain became England, 
and then during a length of centuries many eturing 
scenes were enacted in the neighbourhood of Colchester. 
It is well known that the East Saxons were among 
the very earliest conquerors and settlers of our 
race in the land of Britain, and it so happened that 
afterwards, in following centuries, some of the most 
bloody and fearful struggles that took place between 
the two great races who have formed the people 
and the language of England, were carried on within but 
a few miles of where we are now assembled. Anyone who 
has looked into that portion of the History of England 
will at once remember the names of Maldon and Assan- 
diuie (Assingden), those two great battle fields which 
were the scenes of bloody fights in the days to which 
I am now alluding. One of these, — and one of the most 
interesting, Maldon — you will, if you please, have an 
opportunity of visiting during the excursions of this 
Society; and let me remind you that this particular 
fight has had the good fortime to be sung in one of 
the noblest monuments of the early hmguage of England. 
. These great struggles were scarcely known— I believe 
certainly not in their interest and importance, even to 
the educated people of England — until within a very fev 
years ; and the nfan who has made them known to us I 
am happy to say is sitting by me now. It is my friend, 
Mr, Freeman in his work " The History of the Norman 
Conquest," who has revealed to most of us the truth 
and the interest of that great period of our history. I 
am glad to welcome Mr. Freeman here into this land 
of the East Saxons. I have been accustomed rather to 
associate him ivith the land of Alired and Wessex 
than with the land of the Trinobantes, or East 
Saxons ; but he has made every part of England his own 
in working up the great drama of his History, and I have 
no doubt he 18 as much at home at Maldon as at Athelney 
or at Battle. "Well, after the Norman conquest, to whicn 
in these desultory remarks I have now arrived, no doubt 
the interest of Essex somewhat fails. After the 


Norman Conquest our- monuments are less remarkable, 
and our historical associations less exciting. But still, 
during the long period of the Middle Ages, we have 
monuments which are good specimens and good records 
of the two great characters which strike the eye 
■ in that age— I mean the feudal Baron and the mitred 
Abbot, We have two great religious houses, or rather, 
the relics and remains of them, which you will no doubt 
visit, in Colchester itself ; and we have, at all events, 
two magnificent and first-rate specimens of the keep of 
the Norman Baron — the one being that great Castle which 
lies within a few yards of us in tms room, which I believe 
to be one of the most interesting buildings of its kind in 
the breadth and length of this island, n^e out of the 
abundant resources of the Roman materials which lay at 
the hand of the builder, within a very few years of the 
great events of the Norman Conquest. The other great 
Norman keep, which you will have the opportunity of 
visiting if you please, is the magnificent Castle of 
Hedingham, the head quarters of the great family of De 
Vere. I need hardly remind you of the burning 
times which succeeded this perioa^a very considerable 
interval — the time of the Civil Wars, in which Colchester 
played a great part. I have myself been visiting 
to-day the spots which saw the painful scenes of 
the siege of Colchester enacted ; and I have seen that 
place especially in which one of the very few deeds was 
done by an exasperated conquerer — one of the very few 
cruel and xmnecessary deeds which disgrace our civil 
wars — I mean the execution under the Castle wall, of the 
gallant defenders of Colchester, Many years elapsed after 
that terrible time, before Colchester regained and 
recovered its former aspect. Tliere is a very interesting 
book — I don't know whether it is known to you or not — 
written by De Foe ; a little book of travels over England, 
a large portion of which he devotes to Essex and 
Colchester, written about the year 1722, and in that he 
describes Colchester as it then met his eyes, and he says 
tliat Colchester " is still mourning in the ruins of the civil 
war." That certainly is not the case to-day ; and let me 
say that it is a great nappiness and great good fortune for 
this country, and for thjs Institute which is meeting here 


to-day, that such an interval of peace and calmness has 
elapsed since those days, as enables us to deal with these 
questions, I hope with intense interest, but with im- 
partiality and calmness. I take it that whatever our his- 
torical sympathies may be, there are few who do not find 
themselves able to give credit both to Cavalier and 
Roundhead of those days. There are few, at all events, 
who would feel like that very original and eccentric man 
who died lately, and whose memoirs were writteii the 
other day, the Vicar of Morwenstow, in Cornwall, 
who refused to admit that Milton was a poet ; and had 
such a hatred of the Puritans that he said the only man 
who ever estimated him at his right value was the book- 
seller who offered him £10 for " Paradise Ijost." I think 
there are few of us who will look upon the past with such 
heated minds as that, and that we shall be able to afford 
our pity and our pride, both for the Cavalier and the 
Ironside. These few remarks have referred, as you will 
see, to two of the branches which constitute the 
prf^ramme of this Institute ; I mean Histoiy and 
Arcnseology. With respect to Architecture, I believe 
that we nave not quite so much to say for ourselves in this 
County of Essex, I believe we are not very rich in great 
specimens of the Architecture of England, either in the 
roimd-headed or pointed styles ; and that, perhaps, not 
through any fault of our own, but irom the important 
fact that in Essex we have always had a great deal of 
wood but no stone. And, as many of you know well, we 
have — I don't know whether in the immediate neighbour- 
hood or not — a great many interesting Churches, in 
which timber, and magnificent ancient timber work, 
plays a great part ; but I beUeve it to be true that in 
specimens of architecture we are not veiy rich. At the 
same time I am certain you will find quite enough 
to interest you in that department. At this point there 
LS an observation I should like to make before I sit down. 
I should like to point out to you the value of the lesson 
read to us by the combination in the programme of this 
Institute of Architecture with History, and with Archseo- 
logy, for, as Tennyson says on another subject — 



And while, on the one hand, History gets on very badly, and 
has made many blunders without the help of Archaeology, 
tliat is to say, the study of documents and books has got 
on very badly in the hands of men who have not had 
eyes to see, or who have not taken the trouble to examine, 
the records left on the face of the land by our forefiithers ; 
On the other hand — and this strikes me most forcibly — 
Architectiu« has done a good deal of mischief when 
separated from History and Archseoli^y. I know, from 
what I have heard in the course of the day, I am getting 
on rather deUcate ground ; nevertheless, I must say what 
I have to say on this point, and it seems to me that one 
of the foremost duties of this Institute is to endeavour 
to propagate, throughout the length and breadth of the 
land, what I may call the historic sense— the historic 
sentiment — a reverent feeling for the works of our fore- 
fathers. That propagandism seems to be our especial duty, 
and I hope the eftect of such meetings as this will be to 
add new interest to our homes, fresh interest to our walks 
and our journeys — possibly, to enhance our affection 
for our coimtry. But more than that, it ought, and I 
hope it will, teach many of us a reverent cai-e for the 
works that have been handed down to us from our 
ancestors — the desire to preserve them against all 
dangers, including that which I am bound to call the 
peril of architectural restoration. We know the ravages 
that have been made by enlightened architects, 
in what is called the restoration of the .ancient 
buildings, and, of course, especially of our ancient 
Ecclesiastical buildings, It is not only, as is oixlinarily 
the case, a smattering of Architecture that is dangerous, 
but even a knowledge of Architecture, without the 
association of what I call the historic sense, the historic 
sentiment ; that knowledge and that fancy has led to 
many lamentable deeds, and the sweeping away of what 
were supposed to be" incongruities in a building, probibly 
a Church, and in the endeavour to reduce all to some 
fancied standard of architectural correctness. We may 
hope that things are already very much improved in this 
respect ; we may hope that the days have passed in which 
such things were done, as for example one which is 
denounced by my friend Mr. Freeman in that same great 


book — and it has a connexion with this neighbourhood — 
when he tells you that the tomb of Brightnoth, the hero 
of the battle of Maldon— the tomb of that hero in JEly 
Cathedral was swept away, demolished, and his aahes 
scattered, by what wie htstoiian calls " the savages of the 
18th century." Such a deed as that, I believe, will never 
happen again ; but I feel convinced that our only security 
against such mistakes and ravages is that iiLstoric sense 
and feeling to wliich I have referred. It is not enough, 
it seems to me, to feel, with Wordsworth, 

"The memorial majesty of time," 
in the case of great buildings and noble monuments ; one 
wants to have the same feelings carried into all matters, 
small and great. One wants a certain tenderness for 
" old, unhappy, far-off things," and even for old and ugly 
things. Without that feeling, I beUeve, we shall have 
no safety in the work of restoration. Of course there will 
be doubtful cases, and ugliness sometimes reaches a point 
which becomes unbearame ; but still, upon the whole, the 
only safety is to listen to the Muse of hiatoiy, and she 
will always say " Let it alone." In connexion with that 
there is a question which I cannot pass before I sit down 
without one word of notice. It is the question of State 
interference in the preservation of our national monuments. 
This is a matter of practical and, I may say, Parliamentary 
interest. It was only to-day that I heard from the highest 
possible authority, Mr. Parker, that the Government of 
Italy has utterly outstripped us in this matter. The 
Government of Italy has recognised the duty of the State 
to preserve these national monuments, ana lias fulfilled 
the duty in a trenchant manner, which is undoubtedly 
alien to our English ideas, and which I shall not attempt 
to recommend, at all events in a manner which I should 
not have the pluck to stand up and support before either 
the House of Commons or the House of Lords. But a 
distinguished English antiquary has been endeavouring 
to preserve our national monuments in an extremely 
cautious and prudent way, and I confess I find it impossible 
to fill even for a moment the honourable position of Presi- 
dent of this Institute without saying a word of appeal on 
behalf of Sir John Lubbock's BiU. I do not know what the 
object and duty of such an Institution or of such a meeting 
vol; zzziv. o 


as this is if we do not do something in behalf of that 
measure. I am sorry to say, and I do not think it 
creditable to the House of Commons, that that measure 
has failed again ; it has not been rejected, and there- 
fore there is every hope for the future ; but it has 
not succeeded. Of course one knows the difficulty 
with the noble British sense of the rights of pro- 
perty, but we know that the wholesome feeling can 
be, upon occasions which seem to the public sufficient, 
made to give way to the public interests, and whenever 
one -fiftieth part of that feeling, which over- rides the 
rights of property for the sake of a new railway, a road, 
or a drain, sliall be applied to our national monuments, 
this measure of Sir John Lubbock will pass without any 
difficulty. In the meantime I hope that we, at all events, 
all in this room, will give it the support it deserves. I 
am not going to detain you any longer. I have en- 
deavoured to fiilfil the duty of making a sort of ceremonial 
address upon these subjects, the interest of which, little 
as I know of them, I feel very strongly, but I now have 
the pleasure of handing you over to the severer discipline 
of the Vice-Presidents, and I trust that as they will find, 
as I believe they will, much in this city and its neigh- 
bourhood to interest them, so we shall find much to leam 
from them ; and I sincerely hope that the week which 
has begun so successfully to-day will be one of pleasure 
and profit to its end, and that neither the Institute, nor 
the people of Colchester and its neighbourhood, will then 
have any other feeling than one of mutual cong^tulation. 

3 by Google 


BY G. T. CLAEK, £30- 

Of the forty shires of England there are certainly not a 
score of which good histories have heen written, and not 
above five or six and twenty of which there are any 
tolerable histories at all. Even Yorkshire, so rich in 
antiquities of every kind, ethnological, ethnographical, 
architectural, and genealogical ; in .pra^-historic tumuli ; 
in proper names given by the Briton, the Roman, and 
the Northman ; in march dykes ; Koman and other 
encampments ; military roads and moated mounds ; in 
the ruins of glorious abbeys and mighty caatles ; in its 
noble cathedral and grand parish churches, upon two of 
which the brevet rank of cathedral has been imposed ; in 
its venerable and splendid country seats, and in its 
ancient and often historic famiUes : even Yorkshire, so 
rich in all these varied and tempting subjects, and rich 
too in material wealth, has yet met with no historian. 
Divisions of the county, as Richmondshire and Hallam- 
shire, Doncaster and Sheffield, are the subjects of works 
quite of the first class, but neither the great Sliire, nor 
even one of its Ridings, has been placed upon record. If 
such be the case in wealthy and cultivated England, it 
is no great shame in Wales to be, as regards county 
histories, in.a still more unprovided condition, as indeed 
the Principality must be admitted to be. There is but 
one history, Jones's " Brecknock," of any Welsh county, 
at all worthy of the name, for assuredly neither Fenton's 
" Pembrokeshire" nor Meyrick's " Cardigan" merit that 
title. And yet, as is abundantly shewn in the volumes 
of the '"' Archseologia Cambrensis," and in the copious 
though incidental notices of Wales in Eyton's excellent 
" History of Early Shropshire," it is not the material that 


is wanting. Cambria, though not the cradle, the latest 
home of the Cymric people, has no reason to complain of 
her share of the gifts of nature or of their adaptation to 
produce material prosperity. The incurvated coast, whence 
the country is thought to derive ita name, abounds in 
bays and headlands of extreme beauty and grandeur. 
In the North its scenery ia bold and striking ; in the 
South it is of a softer character, and celebmted rather for 
its valleys than its mountains, its meandering rivers rather 
than ita dashing torrents. In mineral wealth the North 
is not deficient, but the South has the lion's share, nor 
does any part of it approach in value the division of 
Glamorgan. Here, in the centre of the Welsh coal field, 
that mmeral is not only abundant in quantity, easy of 
access and convenient for transport by sea, but it is of a 
character equally removed from the bituminous varieties 
of the east and the anthracite of the west, so that it 
produces unusual steam power in proportion to its weight 
and bulk, and does so without raising the usual accom- 
paniment of smoke — qualities which render it valuable 
in commerce and still more in request in naval warfare. 

Wales moreover, and especially Glamorgan, was for 
centuries the scene of romantic and spirit-stirring events, 
and lias had a large measure of ecclesiastical and military 
renown. To JPelagius, tliough their names have the 
"merit of congruity," the land of Morgan cannot indeed 
lay claim ; and too many of her early sons, like the Greeks 
before Agamemnon, slumber unrecorded beneath her 
cairns and barrows. Of others notices have survived, 
and their sweet eavour is found in the churches which 
they have founded, in the records of Llandaff, the earliest 
of British bishoprics, and in the fragmentary, but ancient 
literature, of the peojple. Bede relates now " Lever 
MawT," " the great lignt," better known in translation as 
King Lucius, moved Eleutherius, a.d. 160, to send over 
from Rome Fagan and Dyvan to preach the gospel to hts 
people. They settled at Avalon, but seem to have laboured 
much across the Sevei-n, where their names are yet pre- 
served in the Churches of St, Fagan and Merthyr Dovan, 
the latter indicating the manner in which its founder 
bore testimony to his &,ith. 

GQdas, an author of the sixth century, whose name 


is prefixed to the ti-eatise " De excidio Britanniae, " 
written certainly before the time of Bede, is associated 
with Glamorgan from having paid a visit to St, Cadoc 
at liancarvan, where, before either Saxon or Norman 
had profaned the banks of the Carvan, the Siloa of 
Glamorgan, were educated, and thence sent forth many 
of those holy men who gained the appellation of " terra 
sanctoi'um " for the land in which they laboured. The 
monastic schooi, or " Chorea Sanctorum" of Llancarvan, is 
said to have been founded by the saints Germanus and 
Lupus to counteract the Pelagianism of the district, strong 
in the name and heresy of Morgan ; but the claim of Ger- 
manus in this respect is challenged for Dubricius, a saint of 
the close of the sixth century, and for Cadoc, or Cattwg, a 
saint and prince, whose name survives in the adjacent 
Cadoxton, whose triad has gained for him the appellation 
of "the wise," and who, with St. David and Nenmus, claims 
to have shared in the instruction of St. Finnian, one of the 
apostlesof Christianlreland. It was at Llancarvan, towards 
the middle of the twelfth century, that Caradoc, named from 
thence, penned that account of the Principality known as 
the "Brut-y-Tywysogion," which, expanded and continued 
by the successive labours of Price and Lloyd, Powell and 
Wynne, still holds the chief place in Welsh historical 
literature. In Llancarvan also, upon his patrimony of 
Trev- Walter, or WaJterston, was probably bom Walter 
Calenius, or de Map, a son of Blondel de Map, chaplain 
to Fitz-Hamon, and who acquired the property by marriage 
witJx Flwr, its Welsh heiress. Walter became chaplain 
to Heniy I, and Archdeacon of Oxlord, and was one of 
those who, during the reigns of the two Henries, and 
under the protection of Robert Earl of Gloucester, Lord 
of GlamoTO;an, promoted the growth of English Utemture, 
and was besides celebrated for his lively and pungent 
satires upon Becket and the clergy of his day. He 
also seems to have added largely to the stocks of 
Arthurian Romance, and to have made popular those 
legends upon which his friend and contemporary Geoffrey 
of Monmouth founded his weU-known volume. These 
well-springs of Cjrmric history are indeed scanty and 
turbid, and must be drawn from with great discrimi- 
nation ; but it is from them, from the " Lifr Coch," or 


of Llandaff, and from the lives of St. Cadoc, St. Iltyd, 
and other of the Welsh saints, that is derived all that is 
known of the history of Glamorgan before the Norman 
invasion. Nor is. the testimony of the " Book of Llandaff" 
coiiBned to Llancarvan, Both Llan-Iltyd or Llantwit, 
under the presidency of St. Iltutus, and Docunni or 
Llandoch, no^v Llandough upon the Ely, were celebrated, 
as monastic colleges early in the fifth centm:y, and even 
now, in the churchyard of each place, are seen those 
singular obelisks or upright stones rudely but effectively 
adorned with knot-work in stone, and of very ancient 
though imcertiiin date. 

Glamorgan extends about fifty-three miles along tlie 
northern shore of tlie Bristol Channel, here broadening 
into an estuary. From the seaboard as a base it passes 
inland twenty-nine miles in the figure of a triangle, the 
northern point abutting upon the range of the Beacons 
of Brecknock. Its principal towns, Cardiff and Swansea, 
are placed near the southern angles of the triangle : 
Mertnyr, of far later growth, stands at the northern angle, 
and near the head, as Cardiff is near the opening, of the 
Taff, and Swansea of the Tawe. Aberdare upon the 
Cynon, and Tre-Herbert upon the Khondda, tributaries 
of the Taff, are the centres of immense nebulae of popula- 
tion, at this time condensing with more than American 
rapidity into considerable towns. The actual boundaries 
of the county, east and west, are the Afon-Eleirch or 
Swan river, now the Khymny, from Monmouthshire, and 
the Llwchwr or Burry from Caermarthenshire. The 
episcopal village and Cathedral of Llandaff stand vipoii 
the " Llan " or mead of the Taff, a little above Cardiff. 

The great natural division of the county is into upland 
and lowland, called by the old Welsh the "Blaenau" 
and the " Bro," the latter extending, like tlie Concan of 
Bombay, as a broad margin along the seaboard, and 
covering about a third of the area; the former, rising 
abruptly like the Syhadree Ghauts, and lying to the 
north. The Bro, though containing sea clifis of a hun- 
dred feet, is rather undulating thanhiUy; the Blaenau 
is throughout mountainous, and contains elevations which 
rise to 1200, ICOO, and at Carn Moysin to 2000 feet. 
From this high giound spring the rivers of the county. 


Beeides the four already mentioned, are the Nedd, on 
which are the town of Neath and the dock of Briton- 
Ferry, the Ely with the dock of Penarth, the Ogwr 
flowing throiigh Bridgend, and the Cowbridge Thawe, 
whose waters roll into the sea over a field of water-worn 
lias pebbles, in repute as an hydraulic limestone, in great 
request among engineers, and as celebrated aa that of 
Barrow on the Soar. Besides these are a multitude of 
smaller streams bearing Welsh names, some of which, as 
the " Sarth " or Javelin, and the " Twrch " or Boar, are 
highly significant. 

TheLIwchwr is the only Glamorgan river admitting, in 
any degree, of navigation, and that to a very small extent. 
The northern streams are rapid and \incertain, sometimes 
foaming torrents, sometimes dry beds of shingle, but 
more commonly with a moderate flow. They descend 
through those wild and rocky but always verdant valHes 
for which Glamorgan is justly famed. Both the Taff" 
and the Nedd are celebrated for their scenery, but the 
Taff" has the advantage not only in the conflux of vallies 
which form so pleasing a feature at Pont-y-Prydd, but 
in the grand clefl by which that river, guarded by the 
ancient castle of the De Clares, and the far more ancient 
camp of British origin, bursts from its constraint amidst 
the mountains, and rolls in easy and graceful curves 
across the plain of Cardiff. 

Cardiff, the principal port of the county, is formed by 
the union of the Taii and the Ely, and its roadstead is 
protected by the headland of Penarth. Swansea, its 
western rival, opens upon its celebrated bay : Briton- 
Ferry, Port Talbot, and Perth Cawl are intermediate 
and smaller ports. A curious featiu-e upon several points 
of the sea coast are the large deposits of blovm sand, 
probably an accumidation of the twelfth century, but 
first mentioned in a charter of Richard II., 1384, in 
which he grants to the Abbot and Convent of Margam 
the forfeited advowson of Avene on account of tneir 
lands " per sabulam maritimam destructam in nimiam 
depauperacionem abbatise. " This sand, the movement 
of the surface of which has hitherto defied all attempts at 
planting, has advanced upon Merthyr Mawr and Kenfig 
and some parts of Gower, and, like the dragon of 


Wantley, has swallowed up much pasture, at least three 
churches, a castle, a village or two, and not a few 
detached houses. 

The superficial features of the county are largely 
affected by its mineral composition. The mountain 
districts contain the coal field, of late years so extensively 
worked :the lowlands are mainly old red sandstone and 
mountain Hmestone, more or less eroded by water, and 
covered up by the unconformable and nearly horizontal 
beds of the magn(38ian conglomerate, the new red, and 
the lias. The county contains no igneous rocks, nothing 
known older than the old red, and no regular formation later 
than the lias. The gravels, however, are on a large scale, 
and their sectionn throw much light upon the origin 
and dip of the pebbles, and upon the measure and direction 
of their depositing forces. 

The charms of Glamorgan have not wanted keen 
appreciation. An early triad asserts of it : — 

" The Bard loves ttis beautiful country, 
Ite wines, its wives, and its white houses," 

Its wines are, alasl no more; not even the patriotic efforts 
of Lord Bute, in his vineyards at Castell Coch, have as 
yet been able to raise a murmur from the local tem- 
perance societies ; but the white cottages stiU glisten, 
nestled in the recesses'uf the hills ; and if its wives no 
longer enjoy a special preeminence in Wiiles it is only 
because the fair sex of other coimties, emulous of the 
distinction, have attained to the same merits. The 
following lines by Dean Conybeare seem worthy of 
preservation here : — 

Uor^anwg ! thy vales are fair. 

Proud thy mountains rise in air ; 

And frequent, through the varied scene 

Thy white-walled mansions glare between r 
May the radiant lamp of d&y 
Ever shed its ohoioest ray 
On those walls of glittering white j 
Horganwg ! the Bards' delight. 



Uorgaiiwff ! those wliite walls hold 
A matchlees race in warfare bold ; 
In peace the piuk of courtesy, 
In loye are none so food and free. 

May, etc. 
MoTgaawg ! those white walls know 
All of bliss is given below, 
For there ia honour dwells the bride, 
Hor lover's joy, her husband's pride. 

May, etc. 

The glowing description of Speed has been orten quoted 
and is well known ; a modern and more pro:]aic writer, 
following in the same school of geography that has 
compared Italy to a boot, and Oxfordshire to a seated 
old woma,n, has employed a sort of " memoria technica " 
for the general form of Glamorgan, which he likens to a 
porpoise in the act of diving : " Roath represents its 
mouth, Ruperra its prominent snout, Blaen-Rhymny and 
Waun-cae-Gerwin its dorsal fins, the peninsula of Gower 
its outstretched tail, and the Hundred of Dinaa Powis 
its protuberant belly." 

Glamorgan received a western addition and became a 
r^ular county in the reign of Henry VIIL, but the 
ancient limit still divides the sees of Llandatf and St. 
David's. Both districts, by some a*;counts, were in- 
cluded in the ancient Morgan wg. "Glamorgan," says 
Rees Meyric, " diiFers from Morganwg, as the particulars 
from the general," Morganwg being the older name and 
far more comprehensive territory. "Morganwg," says 
the same authority, " extended from Gloucester bridge 
to the Crumlyn brook near Neath, if not to the Towy 
river, and included parts of the later shires of Gloucester, 
Monmouth, Herefora, Brecknock and Glamorgan, and it 
may be of Caermatthen." Glamorgan, on the other 
hand, seems to have been confined to that part of the 
present county that lies along the seaboard, south of 
the portway, or road, probably Roman, from Cardiif to 
Cowbridge and Neath, and this it is which is said to 
have been ruled by Morgan H^n, or the aged, in 
the middle of the tenth centuiy. To this Prince has 
been attributed the name of his territory, Gwlad-Morgan 
or Morgan's country, and there is no evidence for its 



earlier use. The rale of his descendants, however, under 
the same name, seeins to have included the northern or 
hill country, and finally Fitz-Hamon and his successors, 
although of the ancient Morganwg thoy held only that 
small part between the Rhymny and the Qsk, always 
styled themselves "Domini Morgania; et Glamorganiie" in 
their charters, nor was the style altered even when the 
Monmouthshire lands passed away for a time by a coheir 
to the Audleys. 

The Britons, both of East and West Britain, seem, 
when fairly conquered, to have accepted the Boman yoke 
with equanimity, and it is evident, from the remains of 
Roman villas all over Wales, that the intruders lived 
there in peace. This was never the case with the 
English. The Welsh never aceepted their rule, and 
their language contains many expressions indicating their 
deadly and continued hate. Even in the Herefordshire 
Irchenfield, where many parishes bear English names, and 
which probably from the time of Alfred was part of an 
English county ; and along the Shropshire border, within 
and about Offa's Dyke, all the English dwellings were 
fortified. The points of contact between the Welsh and 
the various tribes of Northmen were numerous, sometimes 
on the English border, where a large infusion of the names 
ai-e English, sometimes along the seii coast, where such 
names as Skokholm, Holm, Sealm, Gresholm, Gatholm, 
Strumble Head, Nangle, and Swansea savour strongly of 
the Baltic, and it seems probable tliat to those early vikings, 
and not to the later settlements of Flemings or English, is 
due the Tentonie element which prevails in the topography 
of Lower Pembroke and Gower. In Glamorgan, however, 
the Welsh in the eleventh century seem pretty well to 
have recovered their territory, and to liave disposed of 
their invaders as they disposed of Harold himself when 
ho attempted to erect a hunting lodge for the Confessor 
at Portskewit. 

Gwrgan, the penultimate Welsh prince who ruled over 
Glamorgan, is usually called by the Welsh Lord of 
Morganwg, which however he certainly never held in its 
extended sense, his rule having been confined to the tract 
from the Usk to the Crumlyn, and from the Brecknock 
border to the sea. His name is said to be preserved in 


Gwiganstowii near Cowbridge, but he lives chiefly in the 
memory of the Welsh as having laid open the Common 
of Hirwaun, thence known as " Hirwaun-Wrgan," or 
" Gwrgan's long meadow," near Aberdare. 

Jeetyn ap Gwrgan, hia son and successor, had a powerful 
and ambitious neighbour in Rhys ap Twdwr, Lord of 
Deheubarth, or the shires of Caermarthen, Cardigan, and 
Pembroke, with whom, as was natural to his race, he was 
at war ; and getting, or fearing to get, the worst in the 
stru^le, he dispatched Einion ap Collwyn, a refugee from 
Dyfed, who had lived much with the Normans, to Robert 
Fitz-Hamon for aid. Fitz-Hamon was a friend and 
follower of Rufus, and lord of the Honour of Gloucester, 
the magnificent heritage of Brictric, who is said to have 
refused the baud of Matilda, who afterwards married 
William the Conqueror, but never forgave the spreta 
injuria ftyrma. Tne Roman de Brut says — 

" Meis Brictrich l[aTide refusa 
Duut ele mult se coruqa." 

Fitz-Hamon, not insensible to the attractions of a 
Marcher lordship, crossed the Severn with his troops, and 
landed, it is said, at Porthkerry in or about 1093. 
Joining his forces to those of Jeatyn, they met, attacked 
and conquered Rliys at Bryn-y-beddau near Hirwaun, 
withia or close upon the border of Brecknock, and slew 
hiuk on the brow of an adjacent liill in Glyn Khondda, 
thence called Penrhys. Goronwy, a son of Rhys, also 
was slain, and Cynan another son was drowned in a large 
marsh between Neath and Swansea, thence called Pwll- 

The Normans are said to have received their subsidy at 
the "Fill-tir-awr," or Golden Mile, near Bridgend, and 
to have departed by land. Einion, however was refused 
his guerdon, the hand of Jestyn's daughter, on which he 
recaHed the Normans, who had a fray at Mynydd Buchan, 
west of Cardiff, at which Jestyn was slain. 

The proceedings of Fitz-Hamon during and upon his 
conquest have Ireen woven into a legendary taie, very 
neat and round, very circumstantial, but as deficient in 
evidence as though it had proceeded from the pen of 
Geofifrey himsel£ The story, which in South Wales is 


an article uf faith, explains the jealousy between Khjs 
and Jestyii, resting, of course, upon a woman ; the cause 
of the special selection of Einion to bring in the Normans ; 
the hattle of Hirwauu Wrgsm ; the deam of Rhys and his 
sons; the payment of the Normans in gold ; the refusal to 
Einion of his guerdon ; the retirement and return of 
the Nonnans ; the death of Jestyn and the occupation 
of his territory ; and finally its partition between the 
conqueror and his twelve principal followers, and four 
or five Welshmen. 

By whom or when this story was concocted is not 
known. It was certainly accepted without challenge in 
the reign of Elizabeth, and could scarcely have oeen 
circidatod before the extinction of the Le Despencers, 
early in the fifteenth century. Probably its author was 
some follower of the Stradlings of St. Donats, a family 
somewhat given to Hteratiu-e, and whose fictitious 
pedigree it sets forth as true. What is certain is, that 
whatever may have been the cause alleged, the invasion 
was not really due to any local quarrel, but was part of a 
settled policy for completing the English conquest, and 
which, if not undertaken by Fitz-Hamon, would have 
been carried out by Rufus in pereoii, or by some of the 
adventurers who about the same time were taking 
possession oi Monmouth and Brecknock and the whole of 
South-west Wales. Indeed, Rufus awaited the result 
of Fitz-Hamon's expedition at Alveston, between Bristol 
and Gloucester, and it is supposed was only prevented by 
UlnesB from bearing a share in it. A few months after 
the main success there seems to have been a rising of the 
Welsh in Wentloog, Glamorgan, and Gower, the result of 
which, according to the Brut, was so far successful that 
it secured for tliem somewhat better terms, of which, 
however, there is but little evidence in what is known of 
the disposition of the lands. 

It is singular that of so notable a man as Fitz Hamon so 
Uttle should be known. His father " Hamo Dentatua " 
seems to have received favours from Duke William, who 
noticed his detection with that of Neel de St. Sauveur, 
Grimoilt de Plessy, and Ranulph of Bayeux at Val-6- 
Dunes, thus recorded in the Cronique dea Dues de 
Nonnandie : — 

DD.- zed by Google 


Far oel Bannol de Beiosin 
£ par Xeel do Costestia 
£ par HamuB uns Antecrlz 
E par Qrimont des Plaiseiz 

Felun, paijor e traitor 

E vers Dou e Tera lor Seizor 

Neel, Hamun, Banol, Grimoiit. 
In the battle, among the leaders, was " Haimonem 
agnomineDentatum," who led the first Hne of six -thousand 
men and much distinguished himself, fighting hand to hand 
with the King of France, by whose attendants he was 
slain. He is there called Sieur de Thorigny, de Bersy, at 
de Creully, and his war cij; (according to the Koman de 
Rou) was " St. Amant ;" 

" Et Han-a-dens Ta reclamant, 
' St. Amant,' sire ' Saint Amant*. '" 
Malmesbury speaks of Haimon as " Avura Roberti qui 
nostro tempore in Anglia multamm possessionum incu- 
bator extitit," but he was more probably the father. 
Hamo-a-Dens seems to have had two sons, for Hamo 
Dapifer is stated by Wm. of Jumifeges to be brother of 
Robert Fitz Hamon. " Dedjt etiam dli [Roberto Comiti 
Glouc :] rex terram Haimonis dapiferi, patrui videhcet 
uxoris suje." Hamo Dapifer, though omitted in the index 
to the foho Domesday, appears as a tenant in chief in the 
record, holding in Essex fourteen parishes, and as " Haimo 
Vicecomes" possessing others in Kent and Surrey. 
Hasted says he was also called " Crevequer," He was 
one of the Judges in the great cause between Archbishop 
Lanfranc and Odo, and died childless in the reign of 
Henry I. The land thus granted by Henry I to Earl 
Robert's wife descended to her children and their suc- 
cessors, and thus it was that Dunmow came to the De 

In the list of fees held imder the Church of Bayeux, 
" Bobertus fiHus Hamonis " is entered as holding ten fees 
of the Honour of Evreux under Bayeux, and he was 
heredita^ standard bearer to the blessed Mary of Bayeux 
as Earl Robert of Gloucester was after him. Meyrick 

1 Bt. Amand wag thv pabtm uint of * The office of Dtpifsr bobiiis to hire 
ThorigDTiioinstiinw called "St. Amaod be»i held bj- the elder Huno, for in 1088 
da Tbongny." Robert aon of Hamo Dapifer aided Bntiu 

in Uie lUge of Booliarter Caalle. 


calls him Earl of Corboile, but the Hayrao who was Lord 
of the Castle of Corbolle died on his way to Rome^ during 
the reign of Hugh Capet, and his son was Theobald, as is 
related in the life of Earl Burchard, who married his widow. 

Though not mentioned in Domesday, Fitz-Hamon was 
probably then in England, for Mr. Ellis has found his 
name connected with Gloucester, in what he regards as 
the notes whence that pai"t of the survey was compiled. 
He was in the confidence of Rufus, and on the eve of the 
Welsh expedition received from him the Honour of 
Gloucester, whence indeed he drew, as was of course 
intended, men and means. On the death of Rufus, when 
Duke Robert landed at Dorchester and advanced in arms 
from Winchester to meet his brother he was accompanied 
by Fitz-Hamon, who succeeded in negociating a peace be- 
tween the brothers. An Seigneur de Thorigny and Creully 
he was homager of Robert, " Homme de Due," as it. was 
called, but he seems thenceforward to have adhered to 
Henry, whom he supported in 1101 against the "Opti- 
mates," who supported Robert. In that year the letter 
written by Henry on his accession, to Anselm, is witnessed 
by Robert Fitz-Hamon and Hamo Dapifer. In 1105 he 
was captured during the seige of Bayeux, taking refuge in 
the Tour de Moustrier de Secqueville, which was burned. 
Henry however obtained his liberation immediately, for 
" moult il se fioit en Robert Fitz de Hamon." Very soon 
afterwards, in the same year, he was wounded in the 
temple at the seige of Caen, of which wound he lingered 
till 1107, when he died.' 

The policy pursued towards the Welsh seems to have 
been severe, since only one Welsh lord occurs in the low 
country, which was parted between the invaders ; the few 
Welsh, with that one exception, who were allowed to hold 
considerable estates being confined to the hiUs. In 
settling the lordship, the old Welsh divisions of cantreds 
and commotes were preserved, and usually the parishes, 
but by a modification of these divisions the lordship was 
divided into body and members. The body, the Welsh 
bro, became the shire fee, and was placed under a sheriff ; 
and the members, though extending at points into the 
lowlands, corresponded for the most part to the Blaenau. 

■Chran. de NomandM in EUr.QiU. Script, xii,ea8,xiii,20e,31S,IM-l, XT, M. 


Besides these were the lord's private or demesne lands, 
the borough towns, and the possessions of the chiirch of 

The shire fee or body was settled in accordance with 
the feudal system in use in Normandy. The private 
estates became manors, and in many cases also probably 
new parishes. There were 36j knights' fees, divided 
into about twenty-six lordships, held by castle- 
guard tenure of the castle of Cardiff, to which the 
tenants were bound to repair when needed. Besides 
these there were mesne manors, subinfeudations from the 
original tenants, holden of them and their castles, also 
by military service, the whole being held by the chief 
lord under the sovereign. 

The boroughs were sis, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Kenfig, 
Llantrissant, Avan, and Neath. The four first held direct 
from the lord, and enjoyed the \isual liberties and 
privileges, guai-anteed by charter. Neath held originaUy 
from de Granville, but came by exchange to the lord. 
Avan, or Avene, stood out much longer, but, on the 
extinction of the elder line of Jestyn, that also fell in. 
Probalily these boroughs were wholly of Norman intro- 
duction. Caerphilly has been classed with the boroughs, 
but it does not seem ever to have received a charter or to 
have had a governing body. It sprung up with the castle, 
and no doubt fell with it into spsedy and complete decay. 

The members were ten, of which two were subdivided. 
They were Avan Wallia, Coyty, Glyn Khondda, Llan- 
blethian, Miscin, Neath citra and ultra, Ruthyn, 
Senghenydd supra and suhter, Talavan, and Tir-y-iarl 
or the earl's land. It is said that tenure by gaveUcmd, 
called " randyr," or partible land, prev-ailed, but the 
curious thing is that it is not found in the pure Welsh 
part of the county, but only among the copyholders in 
the low country. How gavelkind came into Wales is 
uncertain. England certainly did not borrow this or the 
cantred or hundred from that country. The members had 
their local courts, and their lords the right of "bren-o- 
ffwl," or pit and gallows, no great concession, as seven of 
the twelve were in the hands of the chief lord. Each 
member had its steward or seneschal, who presided at its 
courts, from which an appeal layto the shire court at Cardiff. 


Although Llandaff was a very ancient ecclesiastical 
title, there seems to have been an attempt for a time to 
make Glamorgan the designation of the see. At Bishop 
Urban's consecration by Anselm he is called Bishop of 
Glamorgan, and the same appears in Eadmer. The Bishop, 
as head of the Church of Llandaff, and lord of that manor, 
had the prerogatives of a lord Marcher, but his temporalities 
were confirmed to him by the chief lord, who claimed to 
hold possession of the see when vacant, though thi3 right 
was afterwards challenged by the crown and surrendered. 
The Bishop held the lordship of Llandaff and the manor 
of St. Lythan, or Worlton, in the shire. 

The lands given by the Welsh princes to the collies 
of Llantwit and Llancarvan seem to have been trans- 
ferred to other foundations ; for it is stated in the 
cartulary of St. Peter's at Gloucester that Fitz- 
Hamon gave to that church the church of St. Cadoc at 
Llancarvan, and Penhon, with 15 hides of land, probably 
about 1102. Llancarvan is mentioned in a bull of 
Calixtus in 1119, and of Honorius in 1128, and King 
Stephen, in confirming lands to Gloucester in 1 136, 
mentions St. Cadoc of Llancarvan and Tregoff, among 
the gifts of Fitz-Hamon. On the whole, the church in 
the lordship had no reason to complain of the new lords. 
The Benedictine Abbeys of Neath and Margam were 
founded in 1130 and 1147, and their endowments rapidly 
augmented. Ewenny, as a cell of Gloucester, was founded 
about the same time, and therefore it is not probable 
that Fitz-Hamon or his successor confiscated any church 
lands ; and no doubt the local property held by the 
Abbey of Gloucester, and now by uie Dean and Chapter, 
represents the old Welsh endowments. 

The part played by the Crown in the conquest of 
Glamorgan has never been clearly defined. Fitz-Hamon 
certainly received the Honour of Gloucester to enable him 
to undertake it. That he did so with the consent of 
Rufus is certain, and upon the condition that he held it, 
as such conquests were elsewhere held, of the Crown as 
a Marcher lordship. What was the precise- position of a 
Lord Marcher has not been settled by legal antiquaries. 
They received no charter defining, establishing, or 
limiting their ample privileges. These privil^;es were 


necessary, under the circumstances, but would naturally 
become circumscribed as Wales became settled, and as 
the Crown retained over them the usual feudal rights, it 
would, from time to time, during a minority, or upon an 
escheat, have an opportunity of checking encroachments. 
In truth, however, a Lord Mareher, and especially the 
lord of so compact a territory as Glamorgan, was little 
short of a crowned king. The king's wnt did not run 
in his territory ; he had his sherifli liia chancery and 
chancellor, his great seal, his court civil and criminal, 
rights of admiralty and of wreck, of life and death, an 
ambuhitory council or parliament, jiua regalia, finea, 
oblations, escheats, wardships, marriages, and other feudal 
incidents- Some of his greater tenants held "per baroniam," 
others by grand and petit sergeanty, socage, and villenage. 
For some time he held, " sede vacante," the temporalities 
of the bishopric, he was patron of the principal abbeys 
and of the municipal boroughs, and he liimself held 
"in capite de corona." A Marcher Lordship had also 
this in conmion with an Honour that, when it was, by 
an escheat or during a minority, vested in the crown, it did 
not become merged, or lose its individuality. The personal 
service due from the military tenants to the lord was not 
transferred to the crown, but, if tliey so pleased, could be 
compounded for in money. Nor were the Marcher privi- 
leges mere assertions. They were regularly exercised, 
and occasionly pleaded in the king's courts. A plea is 
preserved in the records of the Curia Eegis 8th July 1 199, 
and noted by Palgrave, in which the sheriff of Hereford, 
when ordered by the king's court to take possession of 
Bredwardine castle, protests that he cimnot do so, it being 
out of his bailUewick, and Wm. de Braose, the Marcher 
Ijord, declares that neither king, sheriff, nor justice has 
any right to enter upon his liberty. Also, in 1302, another 
William de Braose claimed in parliament that in his liberty 
of Gower he had his chancellor and chancery and seal, the 
judgment of life and death, and cognizance of all pleas, 
whether of crown or others, arising in the lordship, between 
all peraons whomsoever. Similar statements are pleaded 
by the de Clares, Earls of Gloucester, In l»ar of appeal from 
their courts to Westminster. Also in a cause reported 
in the Cotton MS. [Vitell ; C. x, f. 172\] where Richard 



Syward, 1248, appeals to the Crown a^inst.a judg- 
ment in the Earl of Gloucester's court in Glamorgan, the 
Earl demurs to the appeal on the ground that Sywaid is 
his vassal, and that the transaction, the cause of the 
proceedings, was in Glamorgan. He suggests, however, a 
sort of compromise, a royal commission to report upon the 
case to the king in person, which was accepted. 

No wonder that the great English lords coveted the 
Welsh lordships. Unproductive in money or pastoral 
wealth, they were inaccessible, contained excellent soldiers, 
and by a temporary arrangement with the Welsh leaders 
a Marcher could at any time secilrely defy a weak sovereign. 

There is direct evidence for but few of Fitz-Hamon's ■ 
grants, or even for the names or numbers of his principal 
followers. Tliere is known but one extant charter by 
him relating to Wales, and by that he grants the fishery 
of an arm of the laff at Cardiff to Tewkesbury Abbey. 
Other of his charters, relating to other counties, are 
however extant, and from the witnesses and similar 
sources the names have been established of a few 
of his principal followers, and of several others whom 
it is highly probable were of the number. What 
makes it probable thnt the greater number of tenants 
whose names appear in the twelfth or early in the 
thirteenth centuir were derived from original settlers, is 
that most held directly of the lord. Of mesne or sub- 
ordinate manors there were comparatively few, and those 
of course may have been created at any time up to the 
passing of the celebrated statute " quia emptores. ' 

The records of Glamorgan for the first century and a 
half from the Conquest are very scanty indeed, chiefly 
charters from the lords to their dependants and to the 
Church, though usually with many witnesses. Some of 
Fitz-Hamon's followers seem to have staid but a short- 
time, and, if they received grants of land, to have disposed 
, of it, and in consequence they have escaped notice 
altogether ; but even of the greater lords, who founded 
local families, the origin and early descent has hitherto 
been involved in much obscurity. 

Under the feudal system the relations between the 
crown and its tenants in chief and "Between these and 
their subtenants were very intimate ; the crown per- 


petually claiming services or their redemption in money, 
tlie tenants resisting, and all parties appe^iog to grants 
and charters, extents or surveySj remissions or excep- 
tions for and against the claims of wardship, livery, 
relief, sf^utage, escheat and the like, all which were set 
down with an accuracy well befitting transactions relating 
to property. 

Belations similar to these in substance, but modified by 
the delegated powers of the Marcher Lords, subsisted 
also in Wales. Each Marcher, while holding in chief 
from the crown, was himself in many resnects a sovereign 
io his relations to his own tenants and tneir sub-tenants. 
Every manor in the March was held mediately or 
immediately of a lord marcher, and its mesne lord paid 
his reliefe, wardships, scutage, and waixlsilver ; and each 
had its customs, exemptions, payments and quittances 
recorded in the chancery, which it was the prerogative of 
every marcher to hold, attached to the court of his caput 
Baronias, which took cognizance, in the first instance or 
by appeal, of every cause, civil or criminal, arising within 
ite hounds. There must, therefore, have been accumulated 
in the several chanceries a mass of records similar to those 
which, from tlie other parts of the kingdom, were preserved 
in the royal courts and the exchequer. 

What then has become of these records, which were, in 
fact, the early title deeds of the Welsh estates? It is 
scarcely surprising that the records even of the most 
powerml private families in Wales should have been 
destroyed, so frequent were the incursions and retaliations 
of the two parties, who, of course, burned and destroyed 
everything within their reach ; but this does not apply in 
the same degree to the records of the Marchers, whose 
castles were strong and well garrisoned, and in many 
cases, as at Chepstow. Ludlow, and Shrewsbuiy, scai-cely 
at all exposed to be taken and sacked. Cardiff indeed was 
once or twice in the hands of the Welsh, and- Glendowr, 
who was its last invader during its existence as a Marcher 
lordship, is supposed to have destroyed all he found, 
which may pernaps account for the disappearance of the 
earlier records ; but. even then there must Iiave been many 
of a later date, accumulated under the Beauchamps and 
Nevilles, and Jasper Tudor, and these also are lost. The 


loidship then reverted to the crown, and as Edward VI 
and Elizabeth, while selling the lands, retained the 
signoral powers, it might be expected that their officers 
would take charge of the records of the chancery. It is 
understood that neither at Badminton, Wilton, nor at 
Cardiif, aie there any documents relating to the signory 
of Glamorgan, nor of e:irlier date than the entrance of the 
Herberts into that estate. 

Some have suggested that when the Marcherships 
were abolislied or vested in the crown, and the govern- 
ment of Wales was administered by the Council at 
Ludlow, the records were all transfen-ed tliither, and 
penshet) in the subsequent civil wars ; others suppose 
them to have been removed to the repositories in 
London, and still to slumber unknown in that vast and 
long neglected though valuable collection, a theory which 
recent research renders scarcely tenable. The subject of 
the disappearance of the South-Welsh records is one of 
considerable interest, and it is to be hoped that it will 
be investigated by one of the able antiquaries on the staflf 
of the Record Office, since none other could direct the 
necessaiy researches. 

Foitunately for posterity, although the records of 
the transactions of the Marcher loi-ds with their tenants, 
of the Mareschals and De Clares, the Mortimers, Mont- 
gomerys, Newmarcbs, Bellomonts, Braoses, Bobuns and 
Hastings's, with their knights and military dependents 
are lost, a hetter lot has attended the records of their 
transactions with the crown, and the inquisitions taken 
upon their deaths or escheats, and the detail of their 
feudal services, are in great measure preserved. 

Also, it has 'fortunately happened that whereas the 
Marcher lords, from their detached position and great 
military power, were frequently tempted into rebellion on 
such occasions, or when an estate suffered forfeiture or 
escheat or during a minority, the crown stepped in and 
seized upon or administered the lordship, and when this 
occurred the dues were usually paid to the officers of the 
crown, and the transactions were recorded in the records 
of the realm, and are preserved. Thus the Honours of 
Gloucester and Brecknock were in the hands of Henry I. 
and Stephen. Kichard and John both held the Honour 


of Gloucester, and the " compotus" roll returned by their 
officer givffl much information as to the intemal state 
of Glamorgan at that remote period. 

There is also another source, botli copious and accurate, 
of which little heed has hitherto been taken, but which 
throws considerable light upon the names and origin of 
the followers of Fitz-Haraon into Glamorgan. It appears 
that almost all who joined in the conquest or settled 
in the conquered territory came from the Honour of 
Gloucester, and were therefore connected with one or 
other of the shires of Gloucester, Somerset, Devon, Dorset, 
or Wilts, and as they were either landowners, or the 
cadets of landowners, in those counties, their names occur 
in the local records, which not imfrequently explain 
various particulars as to their descent and connexions. 

Of the leading settlers, whose names occur in such 
records as exist in Glamorgan, some contemporary with 
Fitz-Hamon, others who, or their fathers, may, many 
of them, be really of that date, de Granville held 
lands at Bideford, Turberville at Bere-Turberville. St. 
Quintin at Frome-St.-Quintin, Umfraville at Down-Um- 
fraville, Halwey at Combe-Halwey or Hawey, Reigny at 
Esse and Culm-Reigny, Bawdrip at Bawdrip, Cogan at 
Huntspill, Bonvile at Bonvileston in Devon ; while Barry, 
Bawcen, Butler, Corbet, Dennis, Fleming, Joel, I* Sore, 
Luvel, Maisy, Norris, Payn, Sandford, Scurlage, Stormy, 
St. John, Valognes, Walsh, and scores of othere occur m 
various parts of the Honour, and are found in either the 
eleventh, twelfth, or thirteenth century in Glamorgan. 

Many of the settlers reversed the usual practice in 
England, and, as in Ireland, gave to their lands their own 
names ; sometimes, it may be, because they found the 
Welsh name hard to pronounce, more frequently because 
their castles and the 1 units of their estates were altogether 
new. Thus Barry, Bonvileston, Flemingston, Colwinston, 
Constantineston or Coston, Gileston, Marcross, Sully, all 
names of parishes, were evidently taken from their lords, 
and possibly were carved out of earlier Welsh parishes, 
which were usually very large indeed. St. George's and 
other churches dedicated to English saints, of which there 
are several, are no doubt of the same class. There are 
^so many private estates, sometimes manors, but not 


parishes, bearing the names of the intruding owners. 
Such are Cantelupeston, Maes-Syward, Odins fee, Siggins- 
ton, Samonston, Picketston, Lloyn-y-Grant, Beganston, 
Sturmy-Down, Walterston, and the fike. 

Fitz-Hamon, though certainly a severe conqueror, 
probably, like the greater conqueror under whom he had 
served, did not disturb the Welsh more than was necessary 
for his own security, though that, no doubt, is admitting 
a good deal. Einion and other Welsh lords were per- 
mitted to retain large tracts on the hills, and of four 
of the sons of Jestyn, the eldest was allowed to hold a 
member-lordship in the low country on at least equal 
terms with the greatest of the Normans. The position 
held by the descendants of Caradoc ap Jettyn is unlike 
any retained in England by men of pure Saxon descent. 
They built a castle on the Avan, established under its 
protection a charttred borough town, were large bene- 
factors to Neath and Margam, two Norman abbeys, 
burying at the latter, and, as their seals shew, used 
armorial bearings and armour like the Normans. With 
all this they continued for four genei-ations to bew Welsh 
names, and to sympathise with the Welsh people ; for 
which they were sometimes summoned to do personal 
homage to the king, and sometimes called upon to give 
hostages for their conduct. It was Morgan ap Caradoc 
who, m 1188, convoyed Archbishop Baldwin across the 
treacherous sands of Avan and Neath, on his way to 
Swansea. Morgan Gam his successor was shut up in an 
English prison by the Earl of Gloucester, and in reprisal 
he burned the earl's grange at Kenfig. Their original 
tenure, Uke that of the other Welsh lords, was without any 
definite service, but they afterwards acquired a commote 
held by sergeantry, adopted Avene as a simame, inter- 
married with the Norman Aunihes, added the great lordship 
of Glvae and the manors of Sully and Eglwys-Brewis to 
their possessions, and finally, in the eighm descent, ended 
in an heiress, who married Sii- William Blount, and 
exchanged her lands for others in England. 

Of the Norman settlers there were six, unquestionably 
contemporary with Fifcz-Hamon, whose power was far 
more considerable than that of the others. These were de 
Granville, de Turberville, de Londres, Syward, St. Quintin, 


Umfravile and Sully. Richard de Granville is reported to 
have been Rtz-Hamon's brother, and there certainly 
occurs a Ricardus filius Hamonis in 1096 as a baron, &c. 
with possessions in Normandy. [Rerum Gall., scrip, xiv, 
146.] He or his son founded Neath Abbey, and retired 
to Bideford, where they became the progenitors of one of 
the great families of the West, achieving high miUtary and 
naval fame, and not unknown in literature. Pagan de 
Turberville had Coyty, much celebrated in bardic story as 
the seat of a royal lineage. He or his son strengthened 
their position by marrying the dispossessed Welsh 
heiress. The family always shewed Welsh sympathies, 
and continued to hold a veiy high rank in the county 
until the fifteenth century, when the main line failed, as 
the cadet lines have since also lailed, so that there remains 
now but the echo of this very considerable name. 

St. Qiiintin settled at Uanblethian, but they have left no 
special tradition or mark in the county, from which before 
1249 the fiunily was gone, and Syward held their fees. Pro- 
bably they resided mainly elsewhere. Their heiress was the 
lady whose blood, mingled with that of Fitz-Hugh and of 
Marmion, centred in Parr of Kendal, and now flows in the 
veins of the Herbeiis of Wilton. Syward had the 
lordship and castle of Talavan and the sub-manor of 
MerthyrMawT, and, before his fall, in 1249, the castle of 
Llanblethian. They were a turbulent race, alternately 
useful and injurious to their lords, and remembered as 
having carried on a plea agiunst Gilbert Earl of Gloucester, 
into which laigely entered the very curious legal question, 
how far an app^ lay from the earl's Marcher court to 
that of the king at Westminster, 

Of these lords, de GranviUe, de Turberville, de St. 
Qiiintin and Syward, held member -lordships, with powers 
of life and death and other Marcher privileges. De 
Londres, probably more powerful than any of the others, 
held the lordship of Ogmore with the sub-manor of , 
Dunraven. The family tenitory was, however, mostly 
in Caermarthenshire, where they held the great lordship 
of Camwilthion, of which Kidwelly was the chief seat. 
They built Ogmore castle, but mostly resided at 
Kidwelly. Wifliam de Londres and Maurice, his son, 
were the founders of Ewenny priory. The heiress of 


de Londres married de Cadurcis or Chaworth, and their 
heiress, Henry Earl of Lancaster. In consequence, the 
lordship has never had a resident lord, but on the other 
hand it has been held together, and is now a part of 
the Duchy of Lancaster. 

The other considerable settlers were TJmfravile and 
Sully. TJnifravile is stated by genealogists to have been 
the head of that faml^, cadets of which settled at 
Prudhoe, and became Earls of Angus. The connection 
seems probable, tor the Glamorgan Umfraviles sealed with 
a hexapetalous flower, which also forms a part of the 
Angus coat. They built Penmark castle, and there is 
some reason to suppose that the St. John's, who married 
their heiress, held Fonmon manor tmder them. Somery, 
of Dinas Powis, ought perhaps to be added to the above 
" Barones majores," since they were Barons of Dudley 
castle, and held their Glamorgan fees for some centuries ; 
but they do not seem to have taken a very active part 
in local afikira. 

The earliest inquisition extant of the Lordship of 
Glamorgan was probably taken in 12G2, on the accession 
of Earl Gilbert de Clare, and therefore one himdred and 
seventy yeai's or so after the conquest. This gives a list 
of all the holders of lay fees, who held in capita of the 
lord, and the service due from each. The table is most 
interesting, and has only lately been discovered. 

The names and holdings are : 

Q. TurberviUe in Newcastle .Vfee. Conetantine in Loninaes i fee. 

Nerberd in Lancoviau i „ deGloucestrininWrenchester}^ 

Sandfotd in Leckwith i „ de Kaerdiff in T>antrid | 

Scurlap^ in Ijlanharry \ „ ClilTord in Kenfeia ^ 

H. Sully in Pentywh i „ Basset in St. Hilary J 

Piretcn in Nova- Villa ^ „ Sully in Lanmaea | 

Butler in Murcross 
Conetantine in Coaton 
Hawey in St. Donate 
Norria in Penllyne 
8yward in Merthyr-Mawr 

fee. Le Sore in St. Fagans 

,, Walsh in Landoch 

,, de Winceatria in Landon 

„ Mayloc in Capella 

Cogan in Co|^n 2 fees. Nerberd in Abron Tbawe 4 feea. 

Somery in Dinas Powia 2) ,, Su^ly in Sully and Wenvo© 4 „ 

Corbet in St. Nicholas 3 ,, Uni&evile in Fenmark 4 „ 

Do Londres in Ogmore 4 „ 


The abbot of Margam held Langewy, probably a lay 
fee, but no service is named. Tiirberville held Coyty by 
grand serjeantry. Of the Welsh lorda, Morgan Vachan 
(of Avan) held in Baglan half a commote by Welsheir ; 
no service, but a horse and anns at the death of the 
tenant, the old form of heriot. Two sons of Morgan ap 
Cadewalthan held half a commote in Glyn Rhondda ; 
no service. Griffith ap Rees held two commotes, an 
immense holding, in Sengenibt : he was the ancestor of 
Lewis of Van ; no service. Moi"ediht ap Griffith held 
one commotB in Machheir, probably Miscin ; no service. 
De Granville's lordship is not mentioned) it having lapsed 
to the chief lord, aa probably had those of Syward and St. 
Qnintin. Marcross had been succeeded by de Pincerna 
or Butler. BerkeroUes liad not yet succeeded to Nerberd, 
nor Stradling^ to Hawey. Fleming probably had not 
arrived, and Bawdrip was then only a burgess of Cardiff. 
St. John of Fonmon and Butler of Dunraven are not named. 
The latter certainly was a subtenant, and possibly this 
was so with St. John. Probably for the same reason, as 
not holding in capite, are omitted Joel, Odin, Barry, and 
Bonvile, though they appear as inquisitors. It is to be 
observed also tliat in these inquisitions the jurors 
at Cardiff are all English. At Uantrissent and at 
Llangonydd all are Welsh. At Neath only three of the 
twelve are English. This shews how largely the Welsh 
element prevailed, and how completely the Welsh were 
trusted with the ordinary duties of free- tenants. The 
next extant survey of the shire was taken in 1320, 
about sixty years later, and in that time considerable 
changes had taken place. The knights' fees are numbered 
at 3Gi, and of the former tenants there remain the names 
but of ten — the Abbot, Basset, Corbet, Mayloc, Nerber, 
Norris, Turber\ ille, Umfi-avile, Walsh and de Winton, 
and of these there remained, in the reign cf Elizabeth, 
but two — Basset, and a cadet of Turberville. 

The proximity of Strongbow's estates and castle of 
Chepstow, and the passage of the road thence to Milford 
across Glamorgan, seem to have led many of the settlers 
to a further adventure in Ireland, where we find such 
names as Barry, Cogan, Basset, Cadoc, Bonville, Fleming, 
Kenfig, Lamays, Landochan, Norris, London, Penrice, 



Swaynsey, Siward, Saudford, Newton, Scurlock, Welsh, 
and a great number designated by a christian name, and 
as of Cardiff. 

The position of the English in Wales during the two 
centuries following the conquest, in fact until the reduction 
of the Principility by Edward I, was such as to make a 
castle a necessity; so much so, that there is no trace of a 
" licentia crenellare" having been thought necessary under 
the Marcher rule, though the Marcher Lord of Whittington 
had such a licence from Henry III. Every landowner's 
house was literally his castle. In parts of Glamorgan they 
atood so close that it is difficult to understand whence 
their owneis derived their revenues. For example, within 
a radius of six miles from Barry, half the circle being 
occupied by the sea, were twelve castles, and in the county, 
and mainly in its southern part, were from thirty to forty, 
of which but one, Aberavan, belonged to a Welsh Lora. 
Most of these castles were the residences of private persons, 
and were built for the defence of the estate and its tenants, 
others, the property of the chief Lord, were constructed 
for the defence of the countiy, and were so placed as to 
command the passes by which the Welsh were accustomed 
to descend upon the plain. The sites of most of tlie 
Glamorgan castles are known, and of many of them the 
ruins remain, though they rarely contain masonry of an 
earlier date than the reign of Henry TIL Gu^iff, however, 
boasts a shell keep of Norman date, as is probably its 
immense outer wall, attributed to Robert Earlof Gloucester, 
Ogmore has a square keep of undoubted Norman pattern, 
doubtless the work of the firat or second de Londres; and 
at Penllyne are fragments of a similar keep, containing 
gome curious, and it may be, early, herring-bone work, and 
probably built by Robert Norris, who seems to have boen 
the first grantee. At Newcastle by Bridgend is the gate- 
way and the original wall of a castle, certainly early, 
because it gives name to the parish, and the masonry of 
which is evidently of Norman date and very peculiar in tlie 
pattern of its moulding. Here, as generally in the 
Norman buildings in Glamorgan, Sutton stone is employed. 
It is tmcertain by whom Newcastle was built. The name 
of Oldcastle is preserved in the adjacent town of Bridgend, 
though where it precisely was, or what it was, is not known. 


Of Early English castles the rectangular keep at 
Fonmon, still inhabited, is the best, and indeed the only 
tolerably perfect example. The base of the tower of 
Whitchurch is in that style, as is part of Coyty, and in 
the foundations of SuUy Castle, opened some years agw, 
were Early English fragments. Also in the centre of the 
later house of Dunraven, some masonry of Early English 
aspect is walled in and is probably jWt of the castle of 
Arnold Butler. 

During the troubled reign of Henry III, a great ^;e for 
castle building in Wales, many strong places in Glamorgan 
seem to have been renewed. Castell Coch and Caerphilly 
were" then built, and to that reign or that of Edward I 
are due the fine gateways at Neath and Llanblethian, a 
smaller one at Barry, parts of Cardiff and Morlais, the 
ancient wall of St. Fagans, and probably the fr^ment at 
Llantrissant. The gate house of the old episcopal palace 
at Llandaif is excellent Decorated. The central building 
at Cardiif and the polygonal tower, now, alas ! dwarfed and 
buried under modern additions, were the work of Richard 
Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, the builder of a similar but 
far grander tower at that castle. St. Donats, the most 
complete castle in South Wales, is very late, as is most of 
Coyty. Besides these, of doubtfiil date are Dinas Powis, 
the fragments of St. George's and Peterston, parte of 
Kenfig, Penmark, and Castleton, the ditches and a 
few fragments of Talavan and Bonvileston, and the 
foundations of Llanquian. Avan, Wenvoe, and Wrinston 
are utterly gone. At Van, Cogan-Pill, Cardiff, Cadoxton; 
West Orchard, Aberthin, Llanveithin, Llanvibangel, 
Llantrithyd, Pencoed, Caerwiggau, Sutton, and IJan- 
cayach are ancient houses, some very perfect. Camllwyd 
is excellent Decorated, as is Cantleston and part of 
Flimston, where the court has an embattled wall. 

Many of the churches, and mainly the cathedral, 
contain Norman work, and in others, where the church 
has been rebuilt, the font and the holy water stoop, on a 
stunted column, are of that date. Throughout the lord- 
ship are in most churchyards the polygonal stepped base of 
a cross, and of some the shaft is preserved, and of one or 
two the actual carved stone which formed the apex, and 
represented the crucifixion. In the churchyard of St. 


Doiiata is one of these crosses of remarkaWe elegance. It 
has been copied at Llandaff, but in dimensions, and 
placed in a position, entirely fatal to its effect. There 
also remain a few of the upright shafU) of crosses of an 
eiirlier date, carved in bold basket work patterns, and 
usually set upright in the ground without base or pedestal. 
Time, neglect, and the laboui-s, not uncalled for, of the 
diocesan architect are annually bringing about the des- 
truction of these remains and, what is archsDolt^ically 
much the same thing, tlie restoration of the ancient 

The gentry and yeomanry of the lordship, that is those 
who have any real claim to antiquity of descent, are' still 
divided into the pure Welsh and the descendants of the 
Norman settlei-s. Tlie genealogies of these settlers, 
" Advenai " as they are styled in the local pedigi-ee books, 
are scarcely so well pi'eserved as those of the corresponding 
class in England, but their estates have usually been 
known, and their possession of a simame gives a facility 
for tracing their descent which does not extend to tlie 
natives. The Welsh genealogies pretend to far higher 
antiquity, and are recorded with much greater fulness of 
detail. Unfortunately their compilers — it were discour- 
teous, perhaps unjust, to say their authors — seldom con- 
descend to mention the place of residence of the families, 
or to introduce a date. These omlsaions — the alienee of 
simames — and the very limited number of Christian names 
in use, and their frequent repetition in tlie same family, 
not to mention the frequent introduction of a train of 
natural children, and the names and pedigrees of their 
mothers, reduce an English genealogist to despair. "Oh I" 
said a late Garter, indicating the genealogical MSS. left to 
the College of Arms by Sir iKaac Heai-d, "Oh I those are 
Welsh pedigrees ; we have nothing to say to them." In 
truth the Welsh counties were seldom, if ever, included in 
the Visitations of the English Heralds. 

And yet these Welsh genealogies are really extremely 
curious, and for the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
probably fairly true. To what extent the Welsh bards 
preserved private pedigrees is unknown, but, no doubt, 
Welsh genealogy received a great impulse on the acces- 
sion of the House of Tudor, and in consequence of 


the enquiries set on foot by Henry VII and by the 
Herberts. Still the extant manuscripts, of which there 
are many, are rarely, if ever, older than the reign of 
Elizabeth, and more generally of those of James and 
Charles. Looking to those of Glamorgan, what is most 
remarkable are the small number of stocks whence the 
native famihes are said tn be derived. These are maiuly 
five only ; Jestyn ap Gwrgan, Einion ap Collwyn, Bleddyn 
ap Maenareh, Gwilim ap Jenkin, Llewelyn ap Ivor, and 
Gwaethvoed. From these are deduced from three to 
four hundred distinct familiea Roughly, it may be 
stated, from Caradoc ap Jestyn, 26 ; from Rhys, 1 2 ; from 
Madoc, 30.; and from GriflGth ap Jestyn, 3. Einion ap 
Collwyn, notwithstanding the stigma attached to his 
name, is recorded as the ancestor of 90 families ; Bleddyn 
ap Maenareh of 4G, besides those pertaining to BrecknocK ; 
Gwilim ap Jenkyn, 74 ; Llewelyn ap Ivor, 23 ; and C^drich 
and Aidan ap Gwaethvoed, 21 and 50. Besides these 
were a few otnere, families ot no great note, whose remote 
ancestor is not recorded, and who chiefly inhabited the hill 
country north of Bridgend and Margam. 

Of wie descendants of the above patriarchs, among the 
best known were, from Caradoc, A.van of Avan, Evans of 
GnoU and Eagle's Bush, Pryce of Briton Ferry, Williams 
of Blaen-Baglan, Thomas of Bettws, and Loughor of 
Tythegston. From Rhys ap Jestyn came WiUiams of 
Duffryn-Clydach, Peniy of Reeding, and Llewelyn of 
Ynis-y- Gerwn. From Madoc ap Jestyn, Uewefyn of 
Caerwi^au, and the numerous descendants of Jevan Mady. 
From Emion sprang Gibbon of Trecastle, Prichard of 
Collenna, Price of Glyn Nedd, Prichard of Ynis Arwed, 
Powell of Loydarth, Energlyn, Maesteg, and Baydon, 
Cradock of Swansea and of Cheriton, and Powell of 
Llandow. Bleddyn ap Maenareh was the forefather of 
Jenkins of Hensol, Griffith Gwyr, Penry of Lanedi, 
Williams of Bettwa, Llewelyn of Ynis Simoon, Evans of 
Cilvae, Jones of Fonmon, Price of Penllergaer, Gethyn 
of Glyn Tawe, Bowen of Court House and Kittle, Powell 
of Swansea and Seys of Boverton, 

From Gwilim ap Jenkyn sprung the very copious race 
of Herbert, of whom about seventy-four distinct branches 
may be traced, very many setUed in Glamorgan under 


various names, of whom were Raglan of Camllwydd, Gwyn 
of Llansannor, Thomas of Llanvihangel and Pwllyvi:ach, 
Herbert of Cardiff, of Cogan, and of Cilybebill. 

Llewelyn ap Ivor was of Tred^ar, ' whence came a 
number of familes, almost all bearing the name of Morgan, 
of whom were those of Coed-y-Gores, Penllwynsarth, 
Rubina, Ruperra, and Cilfynydd. 

Gwaethvoed was the fruitful stock of Mathew of 
Llandaff, with about twenty-three cadet branches, of 
which the most conspicuous were those of Kadir, 
Aberaman, Castell-y-Mynach, Ht-y-NiU, Maes Mawr, and 
Miros. These came from Aidan. From Gweristan ap 
Gwaethfoed came Thomas of Blaenbradach, a house 
imusualiy bare of cadet branches ; and from Cydrich ap 
Gwaethvoed the immensely numerous family of Lewis of 
Van, of whom may be mentioned Wilhams otherwise 
Cromwell, Pricliard of Llancayach, and the Lewises of 
Cilvach-Vargoed, Penmark, Lystalybont, Glyn Taff, 
Llanishen, Newhouse, and GreenmeaHow, besides a 
flourishing branch in the United States represented by 
Mr. W. F. Lewis of Philadelphia. 

It is to be regretted that these Welsh genealogies have 
not received a critical examination. It is true that they 
are without dates, and present but few of the points by 
which an English pedigree can be checked and proved ; 
but allowance must be made for the habits of the people, 
who had little idea of the accuracy derived from records. 
Here and there, where a name occurs in the county 
records, as in the Rne and Docket book of the great 
Sessions, or where a will has been preserved in the 
Llandaff registry, they can be proved to be correct. For 
the rest it may be said that they seem probable enough, 
the number of descents given through the thirteenth, 
fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries is not, on the face of it, 
fabulous, and in the various manuscripts there is neither 
enough coincidence to indicate collusion, nor suflacient 
difference to destroy all belief Unfortunately neither 
Sir T. Phillipps nor Sir S. Meyrick, though they printed 
collections of genealogies, knew or cared enough about 
the matter to edit them ; that is, to collate and compare 
the several versions, and to seek and import such collateral 
evidence as might be found. 


There is no other part of the kingdom in which so 
marked a line still remains drawn between the residents 
of pure Welsh descent and the settlers from England, 
even after centuries of r^dence, much intermarriage, and 
no difference of religion. What is at this time in 
progress, the opening up of the coal field, and the construc- 
tion of docks and railways, is doing much to break up 
the peculiarities of the coimty. The limits of manors are 
no longer preserved. Manor courts are rarely held, 
copyholds are becoming enfranchised, chief rents abolished 
by mutual consent and composition. On the other hand, 
though the Jui-a regalia and Marcher preri^atives were 
withheld from the ancestore of the present owner of 
Cardiff Castle, his rights of common and to minerals have 
been presei'ved, and constitute a very valuable property. 

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Halfway between the junction of the Ravi and Chinab 
Rivers, and Bhawalpur, stretches a barren tract of 
country, the heart of which is known as Cliit-Duen {i.e., 
Chit mirage, or Duen chaos, or desolation.) With the 
exception of a few jhund trees, (or rather bushes, for 
they never exceed 12 feet in height) which are situated 
in a veiy regular manner at almost stated intwrvals of 
about one hundred feet apart, and which are provokingly 
alike, in every respect — identical as to color, size, height, 
and general appearance — there is nothing whatever for 
hundreds of miles to break the dreary scenery, the 
monotony of which becomes very trying after a few 
marches. The whole of this country, including the 
districts of Montgomery, Mozuffergurh, Dera Ghazi Khan, 
Mooltan, and Bhawalpur is rainless. Sometimes for years 
together there is not even a shower of rain, and water is 
consequently a thing almost unknown unless it is by an 
occasional inundation of an adjacent river. The Satlaj for 
instance, in the hot months, when the snow melts in the 
Himalayas, will inundate miles of country on either side 
of its course and deluge the outskirts of the Chit-Duen 
Wilderness, but this is only once in about halt a dozen 
years. In former times the Wilderness afforded a capital 
hiding place for outlaws, highway robbers, and armed 
hordes of banditti, who plundered passing caravanseraies, 
bound either for SInd, Beloochistan, Rajpootana, or Upper 
Punjab, and they could always get clear away before they 
were caught. The southern part of the Wilderness has a 
covering of fine sand over it, blown up by the terrific sand 
storms of Sind, and where in this region they have spent 
themselves out ; for towards the north the sand so 
peculiar to Sind is almost unknown, and the whole 


siir&ce of the dead level country is here covered with a 
crust of the hardest ima^nable clay, and baked by the 
fierce heat of the sun until it has become as hard as brick- 
work. A horse cantering over it makes not the smallest 
impression on the surface, and the cling and clatter of the 
feet ring out as if on a hard metal roadway. It is this 
surface which is so smooth and shines like glass, reflecting 
an ethereal sky overhead, which changes at times this 
dreary monotonous waste, into the most varied and 
beautiful landscape scenery imaginable. The most perfect 
mirages I have ever seen I have witnessed here. Ex- 
pansive lakes and little islands, with fields of rich cultiva- 
tion on the shores ; mighty trees and pretty villages 
dotted here and tliere, showing life and industry, broken 
occasionally by towns of enormous magnitude ; vast cities 
with clusters of grand palaces and mosques, and minarets 
towering far away into a heavenly blue sky ; and yet, even 
knowing of this mirage phenomenon, I have myself been 
repeatedly deceived oecause the fraud was so true to 
nature, the perspective, the blending of the distance, and 
the harmony so exact, perfect, and 2iatural. It is such 
scenery as this that has taken many a wretched worn 
traveller miles and miles away from the beaten path, and 
whilst he follows this freak of nature, as his only gofd, his 
only escape and last chance of existence, has left him 
mockingly to die, the most awful death of thirst and hunger, 
friendless in the desert. The number of skeletons and 
bleached bones T met with in my wanderings, prove how 
great a number have met their end in this way. 

Twenty miles to the east of Dumjapur (place of the 
world) I came to a deserted city. There was not the 
vestige of a living thing about it — bird, animal, or insect, 
and for the whole journey I had not even met a camel 
traveller. It was on this site that I made certain 
discoveries when I came here a week later with a gang 
of workmen, which I shall now describe. I opened up 
some old streets and houses from a pile of rubbish and 
ruins. The bricks were of huge dimensions, being six feet 
long and three broad and one foot in thickness. On one 
of these was an engraving, (see Plate ii) rudely done, and 
from long exi>osure nearly worn away. My guide, a very 
intelligent native, told me the meaning of the engraving 



was that the elephant represents the government or ruling 
powers ; the figure in the centre is supposed to be justice 
or the executioner, and the round thing is a man's head ; 
the body is buried in the ground, and underneath the 
man's head is written his name, or offence. In old times 
all religious crimes and misdeeds against the priests were 
punished in this way, that is to say, the cidprit was 
buried up to his neck in the ground, facing the sun and 
his eyelids cut off The pain and agony that would th\is 
be caTJBed by gazing at th3 sun becomes unendurable, so 
the old recoras say, and produces the worst type of fever, 
followed by madness, until death reliev^ the poor wretch. 
This mode of torture was invented by the Nepaulese, 
and is still practised in certain parts of China. 

This buned city was about two miles in circumference, 
and, judging from the densely-packed buildings and walls, 
it must have had a population of quite fifty thousand 
inhabitants. It showed signs of being fortified, and bad 
evidently been pillaged and burnt, my guide said he 
thought it more than probable by Alexander the Great. 
Certain tombs on the outskirts of the city were after 
the style and order of Western architecture and there 
was nothing Indian about them, and if my guide's 
surmises are correct, this city must have flourished about 
2,500 years ago. These tombs were four in number and 
of great elevation, the highest measuring 70 feet from 
the ground, and 25 feet square at the base, {Plate I.) 

Half way up the pillar or obelisk was a tablet with , 
the inscription perfectly clear and distinct. It is very 
evident, therefore, that it cannot have been Mahomedan, 
because the Mahomedans were not permitted to put any 
inscriptions over their tombs. It cannot be of Hindoo 
origin either, because they invariably burn their dead, 
and -I am therefore inclined to think my native guide 
is correct. He is of opinion that the writing is between 
Hebrew and Sanscrit, and that the four tombs mark the 
resting-places of four distinguished officers of Alexander 
the Great's army, who fell in attacking the place. The 
inscription of the writing buried in the column is in the 
most perfect state of preservation, and the accompanying 
sketch is a fiic-simile. {Plate ll.) ITie whole piece, I 
regret to say, I was unable to bring away without breaking 


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the slab. I have placed the three pieces in the order I 
found them, and I have drawn them one-fifth their natural 
size. The distance apart is from the cast, and in due 
proportion as I found them embedded in the obelisk. 

The houses were generally small, the rooms being 
about 12 feet by 10 feet long, although occasionally they 
exceeded this. The principal houses had back courts 
and passages, and the whole of the buildings were built 
of brick, which were of the old pattern, being about 8 
inches square, and 1^ deep. The inner walls had mud 
run into the joints, and the facing and all exposed points 
were well covered with mortar, which had become very 
hard although here and there atmospheric, or other in- 
fluences had damaged and worn the brickway away. All 
exterior joints were pointed with mortar. Many baked 
earthen jars and vessels were uneai-thed, some in a 
wonderful state of preservation. One huge jar (pottery) 
was discovered under a wall, and what my guide called 
a " charity jar," came to light close by it. In former 
times this "charity jar" rested before the door of a 
privileged person, such as a priest or Ucensed mendicant, 
and all passers by were invited to throw in any coin, 
grain, or food for the poor man or people the jar belonged 
to. I have drawn the jar one twentieth its natural size, 
(Plate u.) Its weight is about 50 lbs. The inscription I 
have copied, but I cannot make out whether it be Sanscrit 
or a mixture of Hebrew and Sanscrit. 

There were several circular plates with a similar inscrip- 
tion rotmd the edges and some blue mosaic work, a sort of 
enamel, perfectly flat, about one foot square, and an inch 
and a half in depth. The circular plates were nine inches 
in diameter and perfectly flat. They measured half an 
inch to an inch and a quarter in depth, and were 
thoroughly well burnt ; some were almost vitrified. A 
braes vaae of very elegant workmanship was discovered 
in the middle of a lot of square and circular plates ; the 
under part and one side is rather damaged by heat, the 
hraes having melted, but the side I nave drawn is in 
perfect order and intact. The vase stands about eighteen 
mches high, and the drawing represents it as about one 
eighteenth its natural size. It is about ten inches deep, 
and was intended either for flowers or fruit ; its 


weiffht is about 35 Iba. The stone objects (I — 5) are one 
twdith their natural size; the stone is tlie sameais the 
hard bUie granite of the Betoch hills.' No. 1 is scooped 
out for seven inches in depth ; No. 2 is a ring ; No. 3 an 
oval pkte slightly hoUoweA out towards the centre ; Nos. 
4 and 5 are jwunders or junipers for bruising grain, &c., 
in the vessels 1 and 3. Tlieso wer.e found five feet below 
some ruins, among bones and bricks, evidently at one 
time the interior of a house. 

Tlie following brass instruments of tortiu-e {l^ — 7) were 
foimd quite by themselves at the opposite side undemeath 
a mass of ruins. No. I is one twentieth its natural size, 
all the others are one tenth theii- natural size. No. 1 is 
evidently for the throat, tliere are two pins to fasten the 
victim in. Nos. 3, 4, and 5 are for the wrists. No. 6 Ls 
for the thigh or leg. No. 2 is for the small of the back, 
and No. 7 is very likely a mouth and nose gag, to prevent 
the victim from calling out. They are nearly all round 
in section with the exception of Nos. 1 and 2 which stand 
upright. No. 2 is revei-sed. No. 3 is intended to be driven 
into the ground to fasten the victim out. 

Returning by way of my camp my men discovered a 
most curious idol, which appeared much damaged, or 
rather it was a sort of three idols in one. The sketch 
(No. 8) represents it one thirtieth its natural size and is 
a fac-simile ; it is of the same hard blue granite as the 
pounders. On the opposite side it has a similar repre- 
sentation, the figures being equally hideous and un- 
meaning. The legs and arms are damaged or broken off 
?uite short to the stumps. Its weight was about 1 20 lbs. 
t had evidently been nearly twice its present size. The 
nose, ears, mouth, Kps, and sides were almost worn away. 
Such an idol is totally different to anything I ever saw in 
India before, and is not unlike a sketch I once saw, made 
I think by Mr. Gerald Massey, of certain gods and idols 
pecuHar to the ancient Egyptians. 

There cannot be the least doubt that in spite of the 
instruments of torture and gods, this place must have 
been in a very flourishing state, and enjoyed (considering 
the time) a very high state of civilization, and judging 
from the buildings and knowledge of order, ideas of 
comfort and luxury, and appreciation of certain arts, Ac, 


I AN-rrawi-ries from the cHrr-ouEN wilderness.n.i 



tliat it could not have been in tlus state less than 2500 
years ago, and it is highly probable that it was known and 
reached a certain degree of importance 4000 years ago. 

From observations taken along the base of this lost 
city, I find there is a gradual fall towards the south west, 
and it has a sort of hollow or basin scooped out for some 
distance in that direction. 

There cannot be a doubt that tliis hollow basin is the 
channel of a river, and that that river is no other than the 
" Lost River of the Indian Desert." .It has been clearly 
proved that the NaiTa or Hakra was not the old bed of 
the Indus, and the course of the lost river is traced hxnti 
the Himalayas to the Sea. Evidence is brought forward to 
show that the Hakra did not dry up in consequence of any 
diminution of rainfall or &ilure of the course ; but that its 
waters, having ceased to flow in their ancient bed, still 
find their way by another channel to the ocean. It has 
also been demonstrated that the missing river was not the 
Gaggar, nor the sacred Sarawasti, nor yet a mythic 
stream, but was no other than the well-known Satlaj. 
The Dhora Pflr^m may be traced under different names 
from above Halia to the RanU of Kach. There can be no 
doubt that, as observed by Pottinger, (see "Journal of 
Asiatic Society"), this was the eastern branch of the 
Indus, down which Alexander the Great sailed to the 
great lake and to the sea. 

This also was evidently the eastern or greater arm of 
the Mihran described by Kashid-ud-deen as branching off 
from above Mansura to the east to the borders of E^h, 
and known by the name of Sindh Sagara. (Hliott i, 49) 
This ancient river bed is also identical with the Sankra- 
Nala, which was constituted by NMir Shilh, the boundary 
between his dominions and those of the Emperor of Delhi. 

Tlie coins I have found are certainly of a much later 
date, and show possibly that this country was under the 
power and control of Poms or Phoor, as they bear his 
authority. They may not, however, have been in circula- 
tion, or were perhaps brought here by some traveller for 
inspection, so that the evidence they afford is scarcely 

But there cannot be the smallest doubt that the present 
wilderness was at one time under cultivation, that the 


land waa as rich and good as elsewhere about, that the 
Satlaj passing through it watered the whole of the 
surrounding country and pi-oduced sufficiently good crops 
for a thriving and industrious population, that vegetation 
was abundant and covered tne country, and that the 
rainfall was aa great as in the present surrounding 
provinces. It is more than probable that at some date 
subsequent to the country being overrun by a victorious 
army, who pillaged the towns, killed the inhabitants, 
and left their route to the flames, the severe 
erosion, always going on in the Punjab streams, 
changed the Satlaj course higher up near the 
Himalayas, and forming for it a new channel, the country 
was left to its fate, and without water everything became 
parched and consequently died. When vegetation was 
gone the rain ceased to fall, and the terrific sand-storms 
from Scind soon laid waste a thriving province and 
changed it into a barren desert. The substratum of the 
vast sandy regions and boundless arid plains in the 
Ajmere direction and again to the north of Bickanneer 
prove that at some period the whole of this country waa 
watered by the neignbouring rivers, and most likely much 
of it has been in byegone ages peopled and cultivated. 

Marching northwards towards Montgomery and branch- 
ing off on reaching the high road to Lahore, I came to 
high impenetrable jungles and patches of cultivation, 
where the antelope and ravine-deer, partridges, sand 
grouse, bustard, coolan, and other large game birds 
abounded in number, and where the shooting is very 
good. I had been wandering in the jungles and desert 
for mne montlis without once seeing a European face or 
hearing a word of English spoken, and was delighted to 
get back again to civujsed life. 

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I am a second time called by the favovir of the Institute 
to the presidency of its Historical Section in a part of the 
island which lies &r away indeed from that in which I 
had the honour of holding the same office some vears back. 
I held it then on a spot which still keeps its British 
name, in a land which our formal geography still ac- 
knowledges as part of the land of the Briton, a land from 
which, if the British tongue is fast passing away, it is 
passing away mainly through the immediate circumstances 
of our own day. I am now called to hold that place on 
a spot whose name speaks alike of Eoraan and of Teutonic 
victory, in a land to which Teutonic invasions once gave 
the name of the Saxon shore, and to part of which Teu- 
tonic settlement has given the more abiding name of the 
land of the East-Saxons. It seems a wide step from the 
land of the Silores, to the land of the Trinobantes, from 
Morganwg to Essex, from British Cardiff to Saxon 
Colchester. And yet there are points of connexion 
between the two lands and the two spots. Colchester 
has in its earlier days a privil^e which is shared by no 
other city or borough of England. The first beginnings 
of its history ai-e not to be found in British legend or in 
English annals ; they are recorded by the pen of the 
greatest historian of Borne. It is in the pages of Tacitus 
himself that we read of the foundation of that veteran 
colony whichj swept away in its first childhood by the 
revolted Briton, rose again to Ufe, first to be emphatically 
the Colony of Rome, and to become in afler days the 
fortress which the men of the East-Saxon land wrested 
by their own swords from the grasp of the invading Dane. 
But, in the very page in which he records the beginnings 


of the Trinobantitie colony, hs brings that colony into a 
strange, and at first sight puzzling, connexion with move- 
ments in the far Silurian land. Later on in his Annals, 
he has to record the overthrow of the new-born colony, 
the first of all the sieges of Colchester. His narrative of 
that stage of British affairs brings in in its first clause a 
name which, in Legend at least if not in history, is held to 
be preserved in the name of the greatest fortress of Mor- 

fanwg. Before Tacitus can tell us how much Suetonius 
id in the east of Britain, he has first to tell iis how 
little Didius had done in the west. Now this same 
Didius is, at least by a legendary etymology, said to have 
given his name to Caerdydd, the fortress of DidiuSj as a 
more certain etymology sees in the name of the town 
where we are met the name of the fortress of the Colony. 
If then there be any truth in the popular etymology of 
' Cardiff, the beginnings of Cardiff and of Colchester must 
be dated from nearly the same time. And, even with- 
out trusting too much to so doubtful a legend, we at least 
find the land of tha Silures and the land of the Trino- 
bantes brought close together in our earliest glimpse of 
both. The foundation of a Rom'xn colony in the east 
is directly connected in the narrative of Tacitus with 
patriotic movements in the west. And, as it was in the 
earliest days of which we have any record, so it was in 
the latest days which can be looked on as old enough to 
claim the attention of such a gathering as this. If the 
elder Colchester sank before the arms of Boadicea, the 
younger Colchester had to surrender to the arms of Fair- 
fax. And then too warfare in the Silurian and in the 
Trinobantine land has to be recorded in the same page. 
In the royalist revolt of which the fall of Colchester was 
the last stage, no part of the island took a greater share 
than the land to check whose earliest revolt Colchester 
was first founded. When the royal standard was again 
unfurled at Colchester, it had but lately been hauled down 
at Chepstow ; it was still floating over Pembroke. And 
one of the fortresses of the Lvnd of Morgan wg, one of the 
lowlier castles which surround the proud mound and keep 
of Robert Fitzhamon, sa\v perhaps the last encounter in 
that last stage of the civil war wnich even local imagina- 
tion can venture to dignify with the name of battle. The 


fight of St. Fagans does not rank in English history along 
with the fights of Marston and Nasehy ; and the siege of 
Colchester, with all its deep interest, mihtary, local and 
personal, can hardly, in its real bearing on English history, 
be placed on a level with the siege of Bristol. Yet the 
siege of Colchester and the war in South Wales were 
parte of one last and hopeless struggle. The remembrance 
of its leaguers and skirmishes lives in local memory there 
as keenly as the last siege of Colchester lives in local 
memory here. And if the name of Fairfax may be 
bracketed in the East with the name oi Suetoni\is 
Faullinus, in the West the name of Oliver Cromwell 
has left but small room for the memory of Aulus Didius. 
I have then, I trust, done something to establish my 
point, on that side of it at least which is personal to 
myself, that there is a certain propriety in the course 
which this Institute has taken m translating me as it 
were from the Silures to the Trinobantes, from the Caer 
of Didiiis to the Ceasta- of the Colony. But the historical 
connexion between the two districts in the earUest stage 
of the history of the two is as clear as it is strange. I 
am not gomg here to give you a history of Colchester or 
of Essex, or to dispute at large on points which will be 
more properly argued by other members than ruled by 
the President of the Section. I presume however that I 
may at least assume that Camulodunum is Colchester, 
and not any other place, in the kingdom of the East- 
Saxons or out of it. I feel sure that, if I had any mind 
so to do, my East-Saxon hearers would not allow me 
to carry the Colony of the Veterans up to Malton in 
Yorkshire ; and I eertaii:ly cannot find any safe or direct 
road to guide them thither. I trust too that there may 
be no civil war in the East-Saxon camp, that no ore may 
seek to wile away the veteran band from the banks of 
Colne to the banl^ of Panta. Maldon has it own glories : 
its name hves for ever in the noblest of the battle-songs 
of England ; but I at least can listen to no etymologies 
which strive to give a Iloman origin to its purely English 
name. Let more minute philologera than I am explain 
the exact force of the first syllable alike in Northumbrian 
Malton and in East-Saxon Maldon. Both cannot be 
contractions of Camulodunum ; what one is the other 




must surely be ; one is the town, the other the hill, of 
whatever the syllable common to both may be taken to 
be. I at least feel no doubt that it is the town in ■which 
we are now met which has the unique privilege of having 
its earliest days recorded by the hand of Tacitus. 

But if it is Tacitus who records the foundation of the 
Colony, it is not in what is left to us of his pages that we 
find our first mention of the name of Camulodunum. That 
unlucky gap in his writings, which every scholar has to 
lament, sends us for the first surviving appearance of the 
name to the later, bst far from contemptible, narrative of 
Dio. Claudius crossed into Britain, and went as far as 
Camulodunum, the royal dwelling place of Cynobellinus. 
That royal dwelling place he took, and, on the strength of 
that and of the other events of his short campaign in the 
island which men looked on as another world, he enlai^ed 
the ponuxiium of Rome and brought the Aventine within 
the sacred precinct. Whether the royal dwelling place 
of Cynobellinus stood on the site which was so soon to 
become the Roman colony, I do not profess to determine. 
The Roman town often arose on a spot near to, but not 
actually on the British site. Roman Dorchester — if any 
trace of it be left — looked up on the forsaken hill-fort 
of the Briton of Sinodun. Roman Linduni came nearer to 
the brink of its steep hiU than the British settlement which 
it supplanted. I do not pretend to rule what may be 
the date or purpose of the earthworks at Lexden.' All 
that I ask is that I may not be constrained to believe 
in King Coel's kitchen. But wherever the British 
settlement was, I cannot bring myself to l)elieve that 
the site of the colony was other than the site of the 
present town. It was a site well suited for a militair 
post, fixed on a height which, in this flatter eastern land, 
IB not to he despised ; it approaches in some faint measure 
to the peninsular position of Shrewsbury, Bern, and 
Besan^on. On this site then the Colony of Veterans 
was founded while Claudius still reigned. When he had 
taken his place among the gods — Seneca to be sure had 

' It bus been luggeBted that tho ex- timo of Britiah reeiatosco to Teutonic 

trauivo eftrthvorks to be seen ut Lcxdnn invasiunii. They would be a defence 

are part of n syBtem which took in Die raised affnioat the East-SaionB, as Ware- 

sito (K)Ui of an older and a later Cumii- ham and Wallin^ford arc dufraccs mierd 

loduanm, a tyttem beloogiag to thn against the West-Saxon*. 


another name for the cliange in him — the temple of the 
deifiecl conqvieror arose withjn the site which the Roman 
occupied to hold down the conquered peopla And now 
comes the difficulty, the strange relation in which two 
such distant parts of Biitain as Camulodunum and the 
land of the Silures appear in the narrative of Tacitus. 
The Iceni axe subdued ; the Cangi have their lands 
harried ; the Brigantes submit. But in the East and in 
the West, by the banks of the eastern and of the 
western Colne, another spirit reigns. The Silures, the 
people of Garadoc, still hold out. Neither gentleness nor 
sternness will move them ; nothing short of regular 
warfere, regidar establishment of legionary camps, can 
bow those stubborn necks to the yoke. With a view to 
this warfare in the West, the Colony of Veterans is 
planted in the East. Some have therefore carried 
Camulodunum elsewhere — though assuredly matters are 
not much mended by carrying it into Yorkshire — others, 
more daring still, have sought to depreciate the authority 
of Tacitus nimself. But, as I read the passage, though 
the connexion is perhaps a little startling, though 
the wording is perhaps a Uttle harsh, the general mean- 
ing seems plam. In order that the l^ons and 
their caraps might be more easily established among the 
threatening Silures, a feebler defence was provided for 
the conquered Trinobantes. As I understand the terse 
phrases of the historian, the legions were removed from 
the East for the war with Caradoc, and a colony of 
veterans was thought enough to occupy a land where 
little danger was feared. How little danger was feared, 
how thoroughly the land was held to be subdued, appeals 
from the defenceless state of the colony eleven years 
after. The colonists lived at their ease, as if in exjpecta- 
tion of unbroken peace. The town was unwallea; the 
only citadel, the " arx setemse dominationie," was the 
temple of the deified conqueror. The mission of the 
veterans was less to fight than to civilize their barbarian 
neighbours. They were sent there indeed as " subsidium 
adversus rebelles " ; but they were sent there also 
" imbuendis socits ad ofiicia legum." Sterner work than 
this had to be done among the hills where Caradoc was 
in arms ; but thoae who founded the unwalled colony 


hardly dreamed that, before long, work no less stern was 
to be done there also. They little di-eamed what feats of 
arms were to be done upon the Iloraan as well as by him, 
in the land which they had deemed so thoroughly their 
own that its capital hardly needed warlike defences 
against an enemy. 

For eleven years the colonists lived a merry life, the 
life of conquerors settled upon the lands of their victims. 
The dominion of law which the veterans set up at 
Camulodunum did not hinder the conquering race from 
seizing the lands and houses of the natives, and insulting 
them with the scornful names of slaves and captives. 
Such doings are not peculiar to the dominion of the 
Roman ; but it does say something for the Roman, as 
distinguished from the oppressor of our own day, that 
it is firom a Roman historian that we learn the evil 
deeds of his countrymen. Tacitus neither conceals nor 
palliates the wrongs which led to the revolt of eastern 
Britain, as wrongs of the same kind still lead to revolts 
before our own eyes, as they always will lead to 
revolts as long as such deeds continue to be done. Crime 
was avenged by crime, as crime ever will be avenged, till 
men unlearn that harsh rule which excuses the wanton 
oppression of the tyrant and bids men hft up their hands 
ill lioly horror whuii his deeds are returned on himself in 
kind. Fearful indeed was the vengeance of the revolted 
Briton : hut when he used the cross, the stake, the flame, 
against his oppressors, he was but turning their own 
instruments of civilization against themselves. 

The tale is one of the most familiar, one of the most 
stirring, in that history of the former possessors of our 
island which so often passes for the history of ourselves. 
We see the British heroine, as we might now see some 
matron of Bosnia or Bulgaria, oalUng on the men of her 
race to avenge her own stripes, her outraged daughters, 
the plunder^ homeri of the wiiefs of her people, the kins- 
folk of their king dealt with as the bondmen of the 
stranger. But we are concerned with Boadicea, her 
wrongs and her ven^reance, only as they concerned the 
Colony of Veterans at Camulodunum. The tale is told 
with an Homeric wealth of omen and of prodigy. The 
statue of Victory fell backwards ; strange sounds were 


heard in the theatre and in the senate-house ; frantic 
women sang aloud that the end was come. The men of 
the defenceless colony, and the small handful of helpeis 
sent by Catus Decianus, guarded by no ditch or rampart, 
defended the temple of Claudius for two days till town 
iuid temple sank before the assaults of the avengers. So 
the first Camuloduniun fell, in one mighty flame of sacri- 
fice, along with the two other great settlements of the 
Koman on British ground. London, not adorned like 
Camulodunum with colonial rank, but already the city of 
ships, the place where, as in after days, the merchants of 
the earth were gathered, fell along with the veteran 
colony. So too fell Verulam, doomed again to arise, 
again to fall, and to supply out of its ruins the materials 
for the vastest of surviving EngUsh minsters. All fell, 
as though the power of Rome beyond the ocean was for 
ever broken. But their fall was but for a moment ; the 
sword of Suetonius won back eastern Britain to the 
bondage and the slumber of the Roman Peace. The 
towns tliat the Briton had burned and hanied again 
arose : a new colony of Camulodunum, this time fenced in 
with all the skill of Roman engineering, again grew up. 
It grew up to live on through four unrecoraed centuries, 
carefully marked in maps and itineraries, but waiting for 
a second place in history till the days when Roman and 
Briton had passed away, when the Saxon Shore had 
become a Saxon Shore in another sense from that in 
which it bears that name in the Domesday of the tottering 

The Roman then passed away from the Colony of 
Veterans, as he passed away from the rest of Britain. 
But in the Colony of Veterans he left both his works and 
his memory behind him. When I say that he left Ms 
works, do not fancy that I mean that ne left the temple 
of Claudius behind him. On tlie grotesque delusion 
which mistook a Norman castle for a Roman temple I 
might not have thought it needful to waste a word. 
Oi3y, when I was last at Colchester, I saw, written up 
in the castle itself, such names as " Adytum," " Podium, ' 
and the like, implying that there was still somebody, in 
Colchester who believed the story. Perhaps there was 
also somebody who believed that the earth was flat. 


and that tlie sun was only a few miles from it. The 
scientific antiquary will give exactly as much attention 
to the one doctrine as the scientific astronomer will 
give to the other.' Of the two stories I should be more 
inclined to believe in old King Coel, in his fiddlers, 
and even in Iiis kitchen. Yet I have come too lately 
from the Illyrian land, my mind is too . full both of 
its past and of its present history, to let me believe 
that Helen the mother of Constantine was the daughter 
of Coel of Colchester. The strange hkeness between the 
names of the river and the settlement, between the Colne 
and the Colony, accidental as it doubtless is, is, if not a 
puzzle, at least a coincidence. But King Coel will be at once 
sent by the comparative mythologist to the same quarters 
as Helltin and Homulus and Francus the son of Hector. 
Saint Helen, says Henry of Huntingdon, surrounded 
Colchester with walls. So she did many things at Trier 
which the last and most scientific historian of Trier has 
pulled to pieces in a way which must grievously shock 
some oi his brethren. I trust that I shall not shock any- 
body in Colchester by disbelieving iii old King Coel. I do 
not think that I shocked anybody in Exeter by declining 
to believe that, when Vespasian marched off to besiege 
Jerusalem, it was because he was bent upon taking some 
city, and had found Exeter too strong for him. 

But the walls are there, whoever built them, the walls 
which, at some date between the invasion of Boadicea 
and the invasion of the first East-Saxon settlers, were 
raised to shelter the Colony. And even the l^end of 
Helen may be taken as pointing to the ^e of Constantius 
and Constantine as the most likely time for their building. 
Those walls are, as far as I have seen, unique among the 

I It marks bow macli Bomo bnmches trovers^," a diffetencA it opinion where 
of knowledge kg Irahiod otherB in their there a no room for cuntiova«]r c~ 
popnlar mind, tl ' " "' ■ - -■ " ■" . r> . . « .. 

iiold on the popolar mind, that since the opinion at all. That Colchester Castle 
Colcheater Meeting, there has actoally is a huildiog of Roman date, that the 
hean what is called a " controveray " Cvmryweio so called from Cmri, king; 

That th« castle is a Norman, and not a CoUese, are positions of exactly the same 

BODUUi, building IB OS certain, to use my scientific value as the position that the 

old illastration, asthattheearth is round Hun is only three miles from the eaith. 

and not flat. But when a man has a When historical knowledge has gained 

croze about natural science, it aimply the mime position as Hstronomicalknow- 

i for a cnue : when ho has a cnzo ledgo, thoy will bo tnetod is oskctly tba 



inhabited towns of Britain. Neither York nor Lincoln nor 
Kxeter, nor even Chester, can boast of being still girded 
by her Roman walls in anything like the same perfection 
in which Colchester is. Nowhere else in Britain, save in 
fallen Anderida and Calleva, have I ever seen the line or 
the old defences so thoroughly complete. But unluckily 
it is the line only. While the circuit of the walls is so 
much more perfect than at York and Lincoln, the frag- 
ments which still remain at York and Lincoln have kept 
much more of their ancient masonry than can be found at 
Colchester. Still Colchester can show far more than can 
be seen at Chester, where, though the Roman lines are all 
but as perfectly followed by the later defences, little is left 
of the actual Roman wall beyond its foundations. As the 
abiding wall of a still inhabited town, the Roman wall of 
Colchester is, I repeat, unique in Britain. And a Roman 
\vall I do not scruple to call it. In so calling it, I am far 
from meaning to rule that the whole circuit of the existing 
wall actually dates from the time of Roman occupation. 
I have no doubt that the hnes are the Roman lines ; I 
have no doubt thiit part of the wall is the actual Roman 
waU. But I have just as httle doubt that it has been in 
many places patched and rebuilt over and over again; one 
great time above all of patching and rebuilding is recorded 
in the days of Eadward the Unconquered. But the wall 
has a higher historic interest, it becomes a more living 
witness of Roman influence, from the very fact that much 
of it is not actually of Roman date. This very fact shows, 
far more clearly, far more strikingly, how the arts and the 
memory of Rome lived on. Whatever be the date of any 
part of the walls, they are Roman ; they are built viore 
Jiomano. It is at Colchester as it is at Trier, as it is at 
Perigueux, as it is in a crowd of other places where the 
influence of Roman models had stuck deep. In places of 
this kind the Roman construction lived on for ages. Here 
in Colchester we have actual bricks of Roman date in 
the places where the Roman engineer laid them. We 
have bricks of Roman date used up again in the construc- 
tion of later buildings. And we have bricks, not of 
Roman date but of thoroughly Roman character, made 
afresh at all times, at least down to the fifteenth century. 
Here, where brick and timber were of necessity the chief 


materialB for building, the Roman left his mark upon the 
bricks, as in some other parts of Britain he left his mark 
upon the stones. Northern England reproduced the vast 
stones of tlie Roman wall in a crowd of buildings built 
inore Romano, with masonry of massive stones. With 
such stnnes again, no less inore Jtomano, did .^thelstan 
rebuild the wfdls of Exeter. Here at Colchester Roman 
models were no less faithfully followed ; but here the mos 
RomantiS naturally took the form of brick, and to build 
more Romano meant to build with brick and not with 
stone. It meant to build with bricks, either taken from 
some Roman building or cast in close imitation of those 
which the Roman buildings supplied. In this sense the 
castle of Eudo Dapifer may be called a Roman building. 
So may the one tower of Primitive Romanesque to be 
found in Colchester, which, while other towers of its type 
are of stone, reproduces in material as well as in form the 
campaniles of Italy. So may Saint Botolf's priory, second 
only to Saint Alban's as an instance of Roman materials, 
not so much taught to assume new shapes as brought 
hack to their true Romsm use before Italy began her 
imitation of the arts of Greece But the walls are Roman 
in a yet stricter sense than any of the other buildings 
around them. They are the old walls of the Colony, in 
many places patched, in some, we may believe, actually 
rebuilt. But they have undergone no change which at all 
destroys their personal identity. The wall is not an 
imitation, a reproduction, of a Roman wall ; it is the 
Roman wall itself, with such repairs, however extensive, 
as the effects of time and of warfare have made needful. 
The walls of Colchester are Roman walls in the sense in 
which the walls of Rome are the walls of Aurelian. 

We come then to a time when the walls of the Colony 
were still standing, but when the legions of Rome were 
no longer marshafled to defend them. Was there ever a 
time when those walls stood, as the walls of Bath and 
Chester once stood, as the walls of Anderida and Calleva 
still stand, with no dwelling-place of men within them ? 
That question I will not undertake to answer. I think I 
remember that, in one of his scattered papers and lectures 
— when will they come together to make the History of 
the English Conquest of Britain ? — ^the great master of 


those times, the dtsooverer of early English history, told 
us that of all the towns of England there was none more 
likely than Colchester to have been continuously inhabited 
through British, Roman, British, and English days. If I 
am right in thinking that Dr. Guest said this, he doubtless 
had some weighty reason for saying it. I have not myself 
lighted on any direct evidence either for or against such a 
proposition. It is only in a very few cases that we have 
any direct evidence as to the &te of this or that particular 
town during the progress of the English Conquest, And 
of the circumstances under which the kingdom of the 
East-Saxons came into being we know absolutely nothing. 
The Chromcles are silent ; no legend, no fragment of 
ancient song, is preserved to us by Henry of Huntingdon. 
We have nothing but a dry list of princes, and that given, 
as might seem at first sight, in two contradictory forms. 
We hear of .(Escwine as the first founder of the East-Saxon 
settlement ; we find his remote descendant Sleda spoken 
of as the first East-Saxon king. In this I see no contra- 
diction. The story of the growth of Essex is doubtless 
much the same as the story of the growth of East-Anglia 
and of the two Northumbrian kingdoms. Several scattered 
Teutonic settlements were gradually united under a more 
powerful chief; he then deemed liimself great enough, as 
the head of a nation and no longer the nead of a mere 
tribe, to take upon himself the kingly title. Such was 
Ida in Bemicia ; such, we may believe, was Sleda in 
Essex, But we have no trustworthy details of the East- 
Saxons and their kings till their conversion to Christianity 
in the banning of the seventh century. We have no 
trustworthy mention of the town of Colchester till the 
wars of Eadward the tJnconquered in the tenth. All that 
we can say is that the Colony on the Colne, like the 
Colony on the Rhine, kept its name. One was Colonia 
Camulodunum ; one was Colonia Agrippina ; but Colonia 
was name enough to distinguish either. Latin Colonia 
became British Caer CoUun ; and Caer Collun appears in 
every list as one of the great cities of Britain. British 
Caer Collun passed into English Colneceastet; with no 
change beyond that which the genius of the British 
and English lang^uages demanded. In British and 
in English alike it remains the city of the colony. 



From this preservation of tlie name I argue, as I argued 
elewhere last year from the like preservation of the name 
of the sister colony of Lindura,' that, if Camulodimum ever 
was like Deva " a waste Chester" it was only for a very short 
time. It became again an inhabited chexter, a dwelling 
place of men, while the memory of its Roman rank was 
still living. It was not, as it was for instance at Isurium, 
where the Roman name had utterly passed away, and 
where its first English settlers, seeing and wondering at 
the Roman walls, turning them a^in to use as the 
shelter of a new settlement, but having lost all memory 
of their former name and history, had nothing to call 
them but the Old Boro\igh. We may be sure from this 
that some considerable time elapsed between the over- 
throw of Roman Isurium and its new settlement as 
English Aldborough. I infer in the same way, from the 
fact that Lindum Colonia kept its name in the form of 
English Lincoln, that, if Lindum Colonia ever lay in the 
state of a waste Chester, it was but for a very short time. 
It was settled again and named again while the memorj' 
of its old name and its old rank were still fresh. And I 
make the same inference in the case of Colchester, though 
with one degree less of ceii-ainty, because I must stand 
i-eady to have it thrown in my teeth that the town is 
called, not from the Roman colony, but from the river 
Colne. Here is a point on which each man must'judge 
for himself. I cannot get over the succession of Colonia, 
Caev Colhm, Colneceastei: I feel that it is awkward to 
say that the likeness of the name of the colony and of 
the liver is purely accidental ; it would be more awkward 
still to hint that the river may have taken its name from 
the colony. But the colony is a fact ; the retention of 
its name is a fact ; and, in the face of those facts, all that 
I can do is to leave the river to shift for itself. 

It seems likely then that, whether Colchester was or 
was not continuously inhabited through all the revolutions 
of the fiftli and sixth centuries, its time of desolation, if 
it had any, was but short. If it did not become the 
dwelling-place of Englishmen in the first moment of their 
conqnest, it at least became the dwelling-place of 
Englishmen before its British and Roman memories were 

' See Maemilliiti' I Mugaiiiir, AnguBt, 1875, Art, " Lindim ColoriH." 


fui^tten. But, as I just now said, of Colchester itaelf 
there is absolutely no mention in history between the 
(lays of Boadicea to the days of Eadwaid the Elder. All 
that I can find is a dark and mythical reference in the 
story of Haveloc as told by Geoffrey Gaimar. But we 
must not forget, even within tlie walls of the Colony, that 
Colchester is not the whole of the East-Saxon realm. 
Colchester is not a city ; it has never been the seat of an 
independent bishopric. That was because another of the 
Human towns which was overthrown by Boadicea, lowlier 
in raidc in those early days, had, by the time that the 
Elast-Saxons embraced Christianity, outstripped the 
veteran colony. London, already the home of commerce 
before her first overthrow — a^iu, under her new name of 
Augusta, the home of commerce in the later days of 
Roman power — was now, as an East-Saxon city, the head 
of the East-Saxon realm, again the home of commeix^e, 
the meeting-place of meixihants and their ships. London, 
not Colchester, became the seat of the bisnopnc of the 
East-Saxojis,and remained so till the strange arrangements 
of modem ecclesiastical geography gave Colchester a 
shepherd in the realm of Hengest.' But the very greivt- 
nes3 which made London the head of the East-Saxon 
kingdom tended to part London off fi-om the East-Saxon 
kingdom. Among the shiftings of the smaller English 
kingdoms, London seems to have held her own as 
a distinct power, sometimes acknowledging the supi-e- 
niacy of Mercia, sometimes the supremacy of Wessex, 
but always keepuig somewhat of an independent being. 
She parts off from tne main East-Saxon body ; slie cai-ries 
off a fragment of it along with lier, to become what we 
may call a free Imperial city, bearing iide, Uke Bern or 
Venice, over her -r-tpioiKoi, her UnteHhanen, the still 
subject district of the Middle-Saxons." Ixuidon there- 
fore soon falls out of our special survey of the East- 
Saxon land. But the East-Saxon land can number within 

' The creation ol the now diocese of haa hliariffu — more gtrictly ono BherilT, 

Snint AllniiB lua talion awaj this slngu- though the office ia hsld hj two men — 

larljr grotcsqae pi«ee of gn^jTSphy. Uut who are neither chogcn by Uie Middln- 

liaiiit Alhena ie atill, both histui-icallj' Suxons nor appointed b/ tho Ciuun, hut 

and geographically, a strange contrc for choacn fay the citlzcni of a neighbouring 

Enei. eity, MiUdlosox mnst bo looked on as ii 

- I have pointed out more than oneo diatiict eubject to I^ndoo. 
that, OS long a* Ibe coonty ot Middltscx 



its borders not a few historic sites besides the towns 
which Boadicea overthrew. There is the battle-field of 
Maldon and the battle-field of Assandiiu ; there is the 
wooden church of Greenstead where Saint Kadmimd rested; 
there is Earl Harold's Waltham and King Kadward's 
. Haverine ; there is Barking, where the Conqueror waited 
while his first tower was rising over L.)ndon, where 
Eadwine and Morkere and perhaps Waltheof himself 
became the men of the stranger, and where Englishmen 
first bougbt back their lands at a price as a grant for the 
foreign King. The East-Saxon land has thus its full 
share among the great events of our early history ; but 
the history of the kingdom itself, as a kingdom, fills no 
great place in our annals. Essex supplied no BretwaJda 
to bring the signs of Imperial dignity to London or 
Colchester as Eadwine brought them to York. After 
some flittings to and fro, Essex passed, like the other 
English kingdoms, imder the supremacy of Ecgberht, 
and by the division between Alfred and Guthrum, it 
passed under the rule of the Dane. It is in the grpat 
struggle of the next reign that Essex, and especially its 
two great liistoric sites of Colchester and Maldon, stand 
forth for a moment as the centre of English history, as 
the scene of soms of the most gallant exploits in our 
early annals, exploits which seem to have md a lasting 
effect on the destinies of the English kingdom. 

It was in the year 913, the thirteenth year of Eadward's 
reign, the year aftgr he had taken possession of London 
and Oxford, that ^ve hear for the firet time of a solitary 
East-Saxon expedition. He marched to Maldon ; he 
stayed there till he had built a fortress at Witham, and 
had received the submission of many who had been under 
Danish rule. This soxmds like the emancipation of all 
Essex south of the Panta or Blackwater. Our nest notice 
is nine years later, after Eadward and his sister, the Lady 
of the Mercians, had won back most of the central part of 
the island to Enghsh and Christian rule. We now again 
find Eadward carrying his sphere of operations into the 
East-Saxon land, lie first fortified Maldon, the goal of 
his former march, the borough which seventy-three years 
later was to behold the valour and the death of Brihtnoth. 
But Colchester was still left in the hands of the enemy. 


The next year the Danes again broke the peace ; and, 
during the whole former part of the year, fighting went on 
in central England between the Danes and the defenders 
of the various towns which King Eadward had already 
foi'tified. At Towcester, at Bedford, and elsewhere, the 
English defenders drove oflT the Danish invaders from 
King Eadward's new fortresses. Towcester was not yet 
surrounded by the stone wall which girded it before the 
year was out ; but the valour of its defenders, fighting, we 
may suppose, behind a palisade or rampart of earth, was 
enough to bear up till help came and the enemy was 
driven away. During all tlus stage of the campaign, the 
war&re seems to be purely local. The Danes attack, the 
Kn glis b defend ; there is no mention of the King or of 
any royal army. Presently the tables are turned ; the 
. local force of various English districts begins to attack 
posts which the Danes still held among them. And now 
comes our first distinct mention of warfare on East-Saxon 
soiL Colchester is still held by the enemy, Maldon is 
held by King Eadward's garrison. The tale cannot be so 
well told as in the language of the chronicle; — "There 

fithered mickle-folk on Imrvest, either of Kent and of 
urrey and of East-Saxons, and of each of the nighest 
boroughs, and fared to Colchester, and beset the borough 
all round' and there fought till they had won it and the folk 
all slew, and took all that therewitnin was, but the men that 
there fled over the wall." Colchester was thus again an 
English borough, won, as it would seem, by the force of a 
popular movement among the men of Essex and the neigh- 
bouring shires, without any help from the West-Saxon 
king. Then,inthesameharvest,the DanesofEast-Anglia, 
strengthened by wikings from beyond sea, set forth to 
attack the English garrison in Maldon. In the words of 
the Chronicler, " they beset the borough all round, and 
fought there till to the borough-folk there came more 
force from without to help them, and the host forsook the 
borough, and fared away from it; and then fared the men 
after out of the borough, and eke they that had come to 
them for out to help, and put the host to flight, and slew 

* Such. I tnko to be tho diffenmcn 
between " ymbuetao " which ia raid 
both of Colcheatar and of Maldon, m 



of them many hundred either the ashmen^ and othere." 
llms, of the two great points in the Eaat-Saxon land, 
Colchester was won, Malaon was kept, and that without 
any help from the king. Local energy had done so much 
that, when shortly the Unconquered King came witli his 
West-Saxon army, his march was little more than a 
triumphal progress. He came to Towcester ; he girded 
the town with its stone wall, and received the suhmission 
of Northamptonshire. He marched to -Huntingdon ; he 
strengthened tlie fortress, and received the submission of 
the surrounding country. Then comes the fact which 
immediately concerns us here. Tliat " ilk year afore 
MartlnmaB fared Eadward king with West-Saxons' fyrd 
to Colneceaster, and repaired the boroug}i and made it 
new there where it tobroken was." Here tlien we have 
a distinct record of damage done and of damage repaired 
in the circuit of the walls of Colchester, Part of the wall 
was broken down hi tlie siege, and the breach was repaired 
on the king's coming. It will be for some member of the 
architectuiw section to point out, if there be any means of 
kjiowing them, those bricks which were set in their place 
at the bidding of the founder of tlie English kingdom, and 
not by any earlier or later hand. If we can find the site 
of the breach which EngUshmen made in winning Col- 
chester from the Dane, Englishmen may look on that spot 
in the Roman wall with the same eyes with which all 
Europe looks on that spot in the wall of Aurelian where 
the newest bricks of aU tell us where the army of united 
Italy entered her capital. 

But the two great East-Saxon sieges of this memorable 
year have more than a local interest. They were the last 
warfare of the reign of the Unconquered King. After 
Colchester was won and Maldon saved, no sword was 
drawn against Eadward and his dominion. The rest of his 
reign is one record of submissions on the part of his 
enemies. At Colchester itself the men of East-Anglia 
and Essex, who had been under Banish rule, first bow to 
him ; then comes the submission of the Danish host 
itself ; then that of all Mercia ; then that of all North 
Wales. Tlie realm of the West-Saxon king now reaches 
to the Humber. Noi-thmnberland, StrathcJyde, Scotland, 

' The moil o{ tho ships, tlkO wikiuge. 



have as yet been untouched by his arms or his poUcy. 
But next comes the great day of all, the crowning-point 
of West-Saxon triumph, when the Kin^ of Scots and all 
the people of Scots, and Rsegnold and Eadwiilfs son, and 
all that were in Northumberland, Angles, Danes, Nortli- 
men, or any other, and eke the King of Strathclyde 
Welsh, and all the Strathclyde Welsh, bowed to Eadward 
at Bakewell, and sought him to father and lord. The 
fights on East-Saxon ground, the storm of Colchester, the 
defence of Maldon, had taught the wliole world of Britain 
that Eadward and his people were not be withstood. 
The gallant gathering of the men of Essex, Kent, and 
Surrey had led to the establishment of an EngUsh 
kingdom bounded only by the Humber, of an English 
Empire bounded only by the Northern sea. 

Thus two East-Saxon sites, one of them our present 
place of meeting, have won for themselves a foremost 
place in that stnwle with the Dane which welded 
England into a single kingdom. And one of those sites 
joins again with a third whose name we have not yet 
heard to form another pair no less memorable in the 
struggle which gave the united kingdom of England into 
the hands of a Danish king. If the days of Colchester 
and Maldon stand forth among the brightest days of 
English victory, so Maldon and Assandiin stand out 
among the saddest yet noblest days of English overthrow. 
Our last East-Saxon memory snowed us the invading 
Dane flying from before the walls of Maldon ; our next 
East-Saxon memory shows us the Dane victorious in the 
hard handplay, and the Ealdorman of the land dying in 
defence of the Saxon shore. The fight by the Planta, the 
fight where Brihtnoth fell, lives in that glorious battle- 
song which, were it written in any tongue but the native 
speech ot Englishmen, would have won its place alongside of 
tne battle-songs of ancient Hellas. The song is plainly 
local and contemporary ; it comes straight from the soul 
of the East-Saxon gleeman of the tenth century. It is 
something to stand on the spot and to call up the picture 
of the valiant Ealdorman, hghting from his horse among 
his faithful hearth-band, marshalling his men in the thick 
array of the shield-wall, refusing to pay tribute to the 
wikings, and telling them that point and edge shall judge 


between them. Then we see the dauntless three who 
kept the bridge, Wulfetan, ^Elfhere, and Macciis — 
Wulffitan the Horatius, his comrades the Lartius and 
Herminius, of the fight in which the legend of the Tiber 
was repeated in sober truth by East-Sazon Panta. Yet 
among the crowds to whom the legends of distant lands 
are as household words, how few have ever heard the 
names of the true heroes of our own soiL Then Brihtnoth, 
in his "overmood," in his excess of daring and lofty 
spirit, allows the enemy to pass the water : then comes 
the fight itself, the Homeric exploits on either side ; the 
death-wound of Brihtnoth and his last prayer ; the 
dastardly flight of Godric . on the horse of his fallen lord ; 
the fight over the body of the slain chief; the self- 
devotion of the true companions who in death are not 
divided, as they lie " thegn-like " around their lord, their 
Earl and ring-giver. No tale is told with more spirit, no 
tale seta better before us that great feature of old 
Teutonic, and indeed of old Aryan, life, the personal 
and sacred tie which bound a man to the lord of his own 
seeking. But the men who fought on that day were 
Englishmen ; the tongue in which their deeds were sung 
was English ; their deeds are therefore forgotten, and the 
song which tells of them sounds in the eara of their 
children like the stammering speech of an unknown 

But if the banks of Panta saw the glorious death of the 
local East-Saxon chief, the banks of another East-Saxon 
estuary saw, not indeed the death but the last struggle, 
of the champion, not only of Essex, but of all Eng£nd. 
The fight of Maldon is handed down to us in the glowing 
strains of native song ; the song which told of the fight of 
Assandiin has perished : we have only feeble echoes pre- 
served to us in the Latin pages of the historian who has 
kept so many such precious fragments, from the song of 
Anderida to the song of Stamfordbridge. As to the site of 
Assandiin, I will not enter on any discussion; I think that 
no one will doubt about it who has been there. There is 
the hill on which Eadmund Ironside marshalled his army 
for the last battle, the hill down whose slope he rushed 
with his sword, as the faint echo of the ballad tells us, 
like the lightning-flash, leaving in his charge the royal 


post between the Standard and the West-Saxon Dragon, 
and fighting hand to hand in the foremost rank of his 
warriors. We hear from the other side how the Raven of 
Denmark had already fluttered its wings for victory ; but 
it was only through Eadric's treason — treason which no 
effort of ingenious advocacy can wipe out irom the pages 
which record it — that Eadmund, in the sixth battle of 
that great year, found himself for the first time defeated. 
The spot which saw Cnut's victory over all England saw 
also a few years later his offering in his new character of 
an English King. Then arose the joint work of Cnut and 
ThurkUl, the minster of stone and lime, whose material 
WB8 as much to be noted in the timber land of Essex as 
the material of the wooden basilica of Glastonbury was to 
be noted among the rich stone quarries of Somerset. Of 
tbat minster the first priest was Stigand, the man who 
won his first lowly promotion at the hands of the Dane, 
and who lived to be hurled from the metropolitan throne 
at the bidding of the Norman, 

But the East-Saxon land contains a memorial of those 
times more precious even than the memories of Maldon 
and Assandiin, a memorial too wbich forms a special tie 
between Eastern and Western England. It was on East- 
Saxon soil, just within the East-Saxon border, on the 
spot to which the willing oxen draw the Holy Cross of 
Lutgaresbiu-y from the place of its first finding in the 
West, that Tofig first deared the wild forest, that he 
first reared the minster of Waltham in its earUer and 
lowlier form, and gathered round it a band of pilgrims 
and devotees who changed the wilderness into a dwelling- 
place of man. It was on that spot that Earl Harold, 
patron of the secular cler^ in the most monastic period 
of our history, patron of learning in a day when the 
light of English literature seemed almost to have died 
away, enlarged the church and tJie foundation of Tofig. 
It was for the good of that spot that he sought m 
lands beyond the sea, in the kindred land with which 
England had exchanged so many worthies — the land 
to which she had given Ealhwine and whence she had 
received Old-Saxon John— for men to help him in the 
work which he had planned for the good of Waltham 
and of England. It was there that the doomed King, 



marching forth to the great strife for his land and people, 
went to make his last prayers and to offer his last gms, 
and it was there that, as men of his own day helieved, 
he leceived that awfvd warning which led his faithful 
bedesmen to his last field, standing afar that they might 
see the end. It was fhere, in his own minster, that nis 
bones, translated from their earlier South-Saxon resting- 

fJace, lay as the most precious among his gifts to the 
louse which he had founded. And it was there, when 
his foundation had been changed to another form, when 
a choir in a new style of art had risen over his tomb, 
that the greatest of his successors, the first of a new 
line of English kings, lay for a moment by his side, Tlie 
choir of Waltham has perished along with the choir of 
Battle; the place of Harold's tomb, like the place of 
Hai'old's standard, again lies open to the day ; but if the 
East-Saxon land had nothing to boast of beside the im- 
marked spot where Harold and Edward met in death, 
that alone would place the shire where Waltham stands 
among the most historic shires of England, 

Among his other possessions in all parts of England, 
Earl Harold held four houses in ('olchester. This feet, I 
need not say, comes fi-om the Domesday Survey, which 
tells UH how those houseJ^ had pa.ssed away to the abbey 
of Wftstniinster. The Domesday of Essex is very full, 
Essex being one of the three eastern shires of which we 
have only the first and fuller account, while in most of the 
other shires we have only tlie shorter form which is found 
in the fii-st volume of the Exchequer Dom&sday.' Essex 
was one of those shires wliich came' into tlie possession 
of the (Conqueror, not indeed, like Sussex and Kent, 
immediately after the great battle, but immediately after 
the submission at Berklvampstead. Like Kent and Sussex, 
its men had been in their place in the battle, and it became 
subject to a confiscation only less sweeping than that of 
Kent and Sussex. We do not find in Essex, as we do in 
many other shires, either one or two English landowners 
still keeping great estates, or a whole crowd of them 
keeping smaller estates. A few entries of English names 

' The diarovrry of the " Inquisitio (tives nnother shire, of which wehaTB 
Comitntus Cnntabripienflis,'' Intely pub- bolli thehillprnmltheibridgednetount. 
lUhed by Mr. N. E. S. A. llsmiiton, 


towards the end of the record are all. We hear of no 
revolts in Essex after the coronation of William ; the 
strengtti of the shii-e, like tlie strength of Kent and 
Sussex, must have been cut off on Seidac, and no foreign 
prince offered himself as dehverer to the men of Essex as 
Eustace of Boulogne offered himself to the men of Kent. 
Still there must have been some confiscations in Essex 
later than the time of the redeniptio]i of lands, for the 
penalty had fallen on one of the veiy commissioners by 
whom the redemption was carried out.' Engelric, who 
must have played much the same part in !^sex whicli 
Thurkill played in Warwickshire and Wiggod in Berksliire, 
as the Phiglishman who, by whatever means, rose high in 
William's favour, had fallen from his high estate before 
the Survey was made. Another man, Ejiglish by birtli 
though not by descent, Swegen the son of Robert, who 
took the name of the shire as a surname, he whose father 
had stood by the death-bed of Eadward and had 
counselled William on his landing to get him back to his 
own duchy, still keep great estates ; but he had lost liis 
office of Sheriff. Most of the familiar names of the 
Conquest appear in Essex as well as elsewhere ; but the 
Eiist-Saxon shire enjoys a suigular privilege in not having 
had an acre of its soil handed over to tlie Conqueror's 
rapacious brother, Count Robert of Mortain. But Bishop 
Odo is there, and Count Alan, and the Count of Eu, and 
William of Warren and Hugh of Montfort, and many 
another name of those who found their reward in almost 
every shire of England. Among the names specially 
connected with the district stand out Geoffrey of Mande- 
ville, father of a line of East-Saxon Earls, Ralph Baynard 
whose name lives in London city, and the names specially 
belonging to Colchester, Hamo and Eudo. Of Colchester 
itself the record in the Survey is one of the fullest among 
the boroughs of England. It ought to be fully illustrated 
by some one who, to minute local knowledge, adds the 
power of comparing what the Survey tells us about Essex 
and Colchester with what it teUs us about other shires 
and boroughs. A general historian from a distance cannot 
do this ; a dull local antiquary cannot do it ; it needs a 
man on the spot who knows the ins ajid outs of the laud, 
' Sob fliBtory of thu Norman Conquest, voL iv., pp. 26, 72j, 



but who also understands historical criticism and who 
knows somethuig of other parte of England as well as of 
his own. 

The Stirvey gives us no such precious notices of the 
municipal constitution of Colchester as it gives us of the 
municipal constitution of Lincoln, Cambridge, and Stam- 
ford, Colchester had been held by the Dan^ ; but they 
had been driven out too soon and too thoroughly to allow 
of the formation of a patriciate of Danish lawmen. Nor 
do we find any such curious notices of municipal matters 
as we do at Nottingham and Chester. But we see the 
burgesses of Colchester already forming a recognized body, 
holding common lands, and claiming other common lands 
as having been unjustly taken from them. We specially 
see them holding the land for a certain distance rmmd the 
walls. The walls are thus distinctly recorded in the 
Survey ; but there is no mention of the castle. There is 
therefore no entry of the destruction of houses to make 
room for the castle, such as we find in many other English 
towns, A long list is given of English burgesses who 
kept their houses, followed by a list of possessions within 
the borough which liad passed into the hands of Norman 
ownera. Among these, of course, appear the Dapiferi, 
Eudo and Hamo, and about the latter there is an entry of 
special interest which I trust will be thoroughly explained 
by some one who has local knowledge. • Hamo, besides a 
house, had a " curia," a rare word whose use here I do 
not fully understand. And whatever Hamo held had 
been held in the days of King Eadward by his English 
antecessor Thurbeim. When I was last at Colchester, I 
was shown a building of Romanesque date which was 
oddly described a« " Hamo's Saxon hall or curia." Why 
the hall of Thurbearn, if such it was, should be specially 
marked as a hall more Saxon than any other in this Saxon 
land is quite beyond my understanding. But I should 
greatly like to know what is really meant by the " curia " 
of Thiu-beam and Hamo, and what ground there is for 
identifying it with this particular building. The first 
entry of all is also one of a good deal of interest, sis mark - 
iiig the subdivision of property in Old- English times. The 
houses and other property of Godric — one of the many 
bcai-era of one of tne commonest of English names — had 


been divided among liis four sons. They liad died on 
Senlac, or had otherwise brought themselves imder the 
displeasure of the Conqueror. Of the four parts of 
Godric's property the King held two ; Count Eustace 
had the third, and John the son of "Waleran the fourth. 
The church of which Godrie was patron had passed whole 
to Count Eustace ; but his mill — a most important pos- 
session, and one always most accurately noted in the 
Survey — was careftilly divided. 

Another point to he noticed in the Survey of Colchester 
is tliat the borough had clearly been, before the coming of 
WilUam, allowed to make a money composition for 
military service in the fyrd. In many towns Domesday 
records the number of men which the town was to find 
when the King made an expedition by sea or land. 
Instead of this we find at Colchester a payment of 
sixpence from each house for the keep of the King's 
soldarii or mercenaries, that is doubtless the housecans. 
It is possible that we have here the key to the fact that 
so many English burgesses of Colchester remained im- 
disturbed by the Conqueror. The borough, as a com- 
munity, had served King Harold, not with men but with 
money. It would have been hard even for the astuteness 
of William's legal mind to turn this payment of a 
customary royal due, the last payment of which might 
actually have been made wlule Eadward was still ahve, 
into an act of constructive treason against the Norman 
claimant of the crown. The community then, as a 
community, was guiltless, and fared accordingly. But 
volunteers fi-om Colchester, as well as fi-om other places, 
had doubtless flocked to the Standard of the Fighting 
Man ; and they, whether dead or alive, paid the forfeit of 
their patriotism. 

Here is a point which touches the general histoiy of 
England. There are other ciuious entries with regard to 
the customs of Colchester which I leave to local inquirers 
to expound to us. I pass to the Ecclesiastical histoir. 
The Survey mentions several churches ; but there clearly 
was no great ecclesiastical foundation, either secular or 
religious, within the walls of Colchester. The two 
religious foundations which have given Colchester an 
ecclesiastical name arose after the taking of the Survey 


and beyond tlie iincient walls. They arose on the south 
side oJ' the town, the side away from the river, a fact 
which accounts for tlie way in wliich the iiJiabited town 
of Colchester lias spread itself, Wliiie on the northern 
side void spaces have arisen within the walls, houses have 
grown on tne south side round the priory and the abbey, 
covering a large space which lies outside aUke of Homan 
Caniulodunum and of Old-English Colchester. The great 
abbey of Saint John, the foundation of Eudo, rose on a 
height opposite that on wliicli the town itself stands ; the 
priory of Saint Julian and Saint Botolf rose between the 
lieights on the low ground just below the hiU of 
Camulodunum. The history of Eudo's foundation is told 
in a document in the Monasticon, which in all points 
bearing on general history is highly mythical. Eudo's 
father, Hubert of Rye, is a well-known man, he who 
sheltered WilUam on his perilous ride from Valogues 
before the fight of Val-es-dunes. But the embassies on 
wliich Hubert is sent between William and Eadward 
simply take their place among the Norman legends of the 
Conquest. There is also a very mythical air about the 
extraordinary importance in securing the succession to 
William Rufus, which the local story assigns to Eudo. 
We may however accept the purely local parts of the 
tale. Eudo's special position at Colchester, by whatever 
name we are to call it, appears in the story as the gift, 
not of William the Great but of WUliam the Red. Tliis 
at once falls in vnth the absence of all mention of the 
castle in Domesday. The castle was not one of the castles 
of the Conqueror ; it was clearly a work of Eudo, a work 
dating from the reign of the second William, and not the 
first. Tliat vast pJe, so widely differing in its outline 
from the towers of London and Rochester, will doubtless 
find its exponent in the course of this meeting, though the 

freat master of military architecture is not among us.* 
he abbey again gives us in its last days one of the ties 
which connect the East of England and the West. John 
Beche, the last Abbot of Colchester, was one of the three 
prelates who refiised to betray their trust. He was a 

:ectv Google 


sharer in the martyrdom of Richard Whiting on the Tor 
of Glastonbury. 

The great Benedictine abbey began in the later days 
of Rufiis ; tlie priory of Austin canons began a little 
later in the early years of Henry the First, It botisted the 
Lion of Justice himself among its benefactora, as appears by 
his cliarter dated while Queen Matilda and Bishop Robert 
Bloet of Lincoln were still living. The abbey, like that 
of Shrewsbury, arose on a spot where had stood the 
wooden church of the English priest Sigeric. Of the 
material of the new biiilding the local history does not 
speak ; the foundation stones whose laying it records are 
fpiite consistent with a superstructure of brick. Saint 
Botolfs, we all know. Is built more Romano, more Camuh- 
tlunensi, of bricks which are none the less Roman, even 
if some of them may have passed through the kiln in 
the twelfth century. So it is with Eudo's castle also, 
though there brick is not so exclusively the material. 
The colony, like its metropolis, remained in all ages and 
iinder all masters emphatically a city of brick, and 
happily no one has been found to change it into a city of 

I have now reached the point at which I commonly 
find it expedient to bring discourses of this kind to an 
end. 1 do not often attempt to carry on my comments 
on local history beyond the stage where local history, for 
the most part, becomes purely local. I commonly make 
it my business in any district to show what were the 
contributions of that district to the general history of 
England, what part it had in building up the English 
kingdom and nation. The purely local history, municipal, 
ecclesiastical, genealogical, or any other, belongs, not to 
me, but to those wno have a special interest in the 
particular district. Such local history is sure always to 
supply some matter for which the general historian is 
thankful ; but it is hardly the business of the general 
historian to seek it out for himself. He accepts it 
with all gratitude at local hands, and then makes use of 
it for his own purposes. But at Colchester I must 
follow another nde, as in some degree I did at Exeter, 
The place of Exeter in English history woidd be im- 
perfectly dealt with, if we did not bring the entry of 


William the Conqiieror into its obvioiis contrast with the 
entry of William the Deliverer. So at Colchester I 
cannot bring myself to stop at the days of William the 
Red. I must leap over a few centuries. To many the 
scene which the name of Colchester first calls up will be 
the scene which followed the last siege, the day when 
Lucas and Lisle died on the green between the Norman 
castle and the Roman walL I have already pointed out 
that there is, in some sort, an analogy between the 
beginning and the ending of Colchester history, between 
the warfare of Boadicea and the warfare of Fairfeix. It is 
hardly allowed to me here to speak as freely of Fairfax as 
I can of Boadicea, Of Eudo the Dapifer I can perhaps 
speak more freely than of either. The strife of the 
seventeenth century is so closely connected with modem 
controversies and modem party-feelings that it cannot be 
made purely archEeological ground like the strifes of the 
first century or of the eleventh. I perhaps need hardly 
tell you that my own personal feeUngs go with the cause 
of Fairfax, though I trust that I am fiuly able to under- 
stand and to honour all that was good and highminded 
and self-sacrificing on the side of his enemies. But in 
summing up the last stage in the long life of this historic 
town, I must call attention to one or two obvious facts 
which are apt to be forgotten in forming an estimate of 
that great piece of local history. Remember then that 
the warfare of which the siege of Colchester forms the 
last, and the most striking scene, was a warfare wboUy 
distinct from the earUer warfare of Edge-hill and Naseby. 
Colchester was not a fortress which had held out for the 
royal cause ever since the royal standard was first 
upreared at Nottingham. During the whole of the first 
war, Colchester and Essex were hardly touched. The 
men of Colchester were strong for the Parliament, and 
they had shown their zea], a bttle too fiercely perhaps, 
against their royaUst neighbours at the abbey. The 
royalist movement of 1648, alike in Essex, in Kent, and 
in South Wales, was in the strictest sense a revolt, a 
rising against an existing state of things. Whether that 
revolt was to be praised or to be condemned I will not 
argue here ; all that I insist on is the plain fact that the 
enterprise of the Earl of Norwich and Lord Capel was not 


a continuation of the war which began at Nottingham, 
but a wholly new war of their own levying. Before 
Colchester was besieged by Fairfax, it had in truth to be 
besieged, though only for a moment, by those who - 
presently became its defenders. Again be it remembered 
tbat, in the execution of Lisle and Lucas, Fairfax went 
on perfectly good technical grounds. They had been 
prisoners oif" war, and had given their word of honour 
never again to serve against the Parhament. I am far 
from insisting with any undue severity on the obligations 
of such promises as this. It is a question of casuistry 
whether such a purely military promise should or 
sbould not keep a man back jrom an enterprise to 
which he deems that loyalty or patriotism calls him. 
But, as a matter of military law, bis life is fairly forfeit ; 
the man who has been set free on certain conditions 
cannot complain if the sternest measure is meted out to 
him when he bieaks those conditions. The military 
justice of Fairfax touched those only whose breach of 
military honour had fairly brought them within its reach. 
The escape of Norwich, the execution of Capel — Capel, 
a man worth Norwich, Lucas, and Lisle all put together — 
were the work of another power in which Fairfax had no 
share. Whatever may be thought of the political or 
personal conduct of either of the two lords, there was no 
stain on their military honour. The General therefore did 
not take on himself to judge men who, whatever they were 
in the eye of the law, were on the field of battle entitled 
to the treatment of honourable enemies. But, " in 
satisfaction of miHtary justice," he let the laws of war 
take their course on men who, whatever may be pleaded 
in their behalf on other grounds, had, by the laws of 
war, lost all technical claim to honourable treatment.* 

One point more there is which brings the last siege of 
Colchester into direct connexion with earlier times, and 
which I may therefore plead as a further excuse for 
carrying my story on into days which I seldom venture 
to touch. The site of Saint John's abbey, the house of 
Lord Lucas within or close to its precinct, play an 
important part in the siege. The gateway, occupied by 

' Thn caie of Lucas and Liala hu 
«n tally gone into by lit. Clementa 



the insurgents, was Htormed by the parliamentary forces, 
and doubtleas whatever other remains of the abbey were 
left at the Dissolution, now perished. Saint Botolr s too, 
standing immediately between the batteries of the be- 
siegers and the wads of the town, was exposed to the 
fire of both sides, and became in that siege the ruin 
which we now see it. 

I have now brought my tale, and that by somewhat 
of a bound in its last stage, to the latest point which can 
well come within the consideration of the present meeting. 
I have tried to sketch out the chief grounds on which the 
shire of Essex, and, above all, the town of Colchester, are 
entitled to a high place among the shires and towns of 
England. It is for others, with more of local knowledge, 
to fill up that sketch in detail, I trust that among our 
members men will be found to do justice to every part of 
the local histo^, above all in those five centuries over 
which the President of the Section has ventured to pass 
with a bound. I have exhausted nothing ; I stand in the 
way of no one who has specially mastered any portion of 
East-Saxon history. In the days of Boadicea and in the 
days of Fairfax I may even be deemed an intruder. . But 
I am no less ready to invite every help, to welcome every 
light, on the times in which I may say that I myself have 
lived. That I have lived in those times makes me know, 
perhaps better than other men, how much there is still to 
be found out, how many things Ln them there are that to 
me at least are grievous puzzles. The greatest of English 
scholars, once a dweller in the East-Saxon shire, has made 
the history of the Holy Cross of Waltham plain to all 
men. But we still need a worthy commentator on the 
Song of Maldon. Even in those parts of the tale at which 
I have specially worked, I feel, better perhaps than others, 
how much I have left uncertain, how much there still is 
for others to fix by the light of sound and sober historic 
criticism. But, in any case, there is no part of the isle of 
Britain in which one who has lived in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries feels more at home than within the 
walls which felt the repairing hand of Eadward the Un- 
conquered, in the land which beheld the exploits and the 
death of Brihtnoth, the land where Eadmund fought the 
laat fight of the year of battles, the land where Harold 


knelt before the reKc which was brought fi^m the green 
hill of Moiitacute, the land to which he himself was home 
from the craggy hill of Hastings. It is something that the 
hero of Engmnd should he in this way a common posses- 
sion of the three branches of the great Saxon colony, that 
the Saxon of the West, the South, and the East, should 
be all bound together, as by a threefold tie, by the presence 
among them in life or death of the last kmg of the old 
stock, the king who died on Senlac and who no longer 
sleeps at Waltnam. 

3 by Google 



That Colchester occupies the site of the Roman 
Camulodunum is, I think I may now say with certainty, 
the opinion of almost every antiquary of note. Possibly 
there are stiU some Kving who incline to the theory that 
Maldon represents the site, but the absence of any remains 
of buildings there, whilst Colchester abounds with them, 
is conclusive evidence to my mind on the point. But 
although everytliing at Colchester of the Roman period is . 
found to be on a grand scale, especially the walls, it is a 
matter of surprise that so few inscriptions, and those 
nearly all sepulchral, have been foimd. The only hypothesis 
to account for this seems to be, that every inscribed stone 
found in the middle ages was utilised by the large i>opu- 
Uttion stiU resident on the site, for building or other 
purposes, and by this means the stones, if ever afterwards 
disinterred, were completely despoiled of their inscriptions. 

The first inacription recorded to have been found at 
Colchester is given in the Museum Disneianwrn, part i, 
p. 99, fol. xlv, fig. 15. It was discovered in 1713, and is 
now preserved in the Disney collection at the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, Cambridge. It is a tombstone and is inscribed. 

FILIA. V. A. m. P. XXX. 



i.e. Considia Veneiia FUia vixit annos in dies xxx 
Considia NatcdU Mater vixit annos xxxv. " Considia 
Veneria (the) dau<'liter lived three years thirty days, 
Considia Natalis (the) mother lived thirty-five years." 

In the "TesoroEritannico" (1719) by Haym, mention is 
made of a Roman ocilist's stamp found at Colchester, 
subsequently described, by many authors, amongst them 
by Mr. Albert Way in vol. vii of the Archjeological Journal, 
p. 357. It bore the inscriptions, — 


The inscription on the side reads : Q. Iidi Murrain 
■mdinuni ad claritatem. " The melinum (an eye salve) of 
Quintus Julius Murranus for clearness of vision," That 
on the other side is : Q. Ivli Murrani staclum opobalsanmt 
(xun) ad ca^(liyinem). " The balsamic stactum of Quintus 
Juliiis Murranus for weakness of the eyes." 

Morant, in the Colchester volume of his " History of 
Essex," p. 195, aud pi. ii, fig. 10, describes a Roman 
ring " of coarse silver" that had been found previous to 
1768, inscribed in reversed letters. — 

L V 

N I 

It was then in the possession of Charles Gray, Esq. 
It reads, Luciard, (The ring) of Lucianus. The next 
discovery appears to have been that of a marble stone 
(probably an altar), now lost. Morant does not give it in 
his Colchester volume, as it was only found Nov. 14th, 
1 764, but he gave a copy of the inscription to the Society 
of Antiquaries, which is preserved in their minutes. (Vide 
Inventoriuvi SepulchTrdc, p. 213). Gough, in his 1789 
edition of Camden's Britannia, vol. ii, p. 58, also published 
it. He read it as follows : — 


AV o 








D. S. D. 

and calls it an inscription " to a new topical deity." It 
is evident that the fourth, fifth, and sixth lines ai-e 
erroneously given, destroying the sense of the whole 
inscription, with the exception of the three first lines, 
from which we learn that it was dedicated " To the 
divinities of the Augustus (the reigning Emperor) and to 
the god Merciuy." 


In 1820 (circa) there was found at " The Turrets" a 
bronze stamp, now preserved in the Colchester Museum, 
bearing the mscription — 

p. F. 

Professor Hubner {Corpus Insci: Latin., vol. vii, No. 1322) 
siiLTgetity the readiii^^- /*, ^''{lavii ?) Ilygini, or in other words 
that it wiis tlie stKiinp of PubUus Flavius Hyginus. 

In 1821, ill excavating the site for the Colchester 
Hospital, there was found, near to where the celebrated 
sphinx was discovered, the fragment of a Roman tomb- 
stone, the lettering on which was — 

3- LEG . HI . AV 
EG . XX . VAL V 

Ttiere ai'e portions of lettere remaining in the two lines 
wliicli 1 have marked with dots, but they are too imperfect 
t.o be made out. Professor Hubner (Corpits Inscr. Latin, 
No. 91) reads the inscription, with the exception of tlie 
fii'st and part of the second lines, as "centurio leg(ionisJ 
.... centurio leg(ionis) III Aitg{iixt(B) {centurio l)eg{ionis) 
Val{ena) V{ictricis) {Oriun)dus Nicae{a in) {Bithyni) a 

militaviit) {annos) .... {v)ixit ann{os) " The 

centurial mark =- for the word C€7iturio will be noticed in 
the second and third lines. This stone is now in the 
Colchester Museum. 

Another fragment of a sepulchral inscription, found at 
the same time and now preserved in the Disney collection 
at XJambridge, reads thus {free of ligatures) : — 



cracn . Mvc 

ERVHT .... 

The first line has certainly been D . M for DUs 
Manibus. The ascia or axe is sculptured on the stone 
between these two letters, a frequent occurence on Roman 


tombstones. Profeaaor Hiibner {Corpus Inscr. Latin, 
No, 92) reads the second and third lines as "{hoc t)um.uio 
teg{untur)," and "{ossa mi)rahilia ivve («w)," which is very 
uncertain ; of the remainder nothing can be made out from 
its fragmentary state. 

These stones were first engraved in Cromwell's History 
of Colchester, 1825 (vol. ii, p. 374), and again described 
in Wright's History of Essex, vol. i, pp. 295-6. 

In 1850 a fragment of another tombstone was found 
bearing the inscription — 

It was the right hand (proper) half of a tombstone, and 
liad been clamped to another stone, which was not found, 
and which contained the remaining portion of the 
inscription (Journal Bnt. Archl. As^., vol. vi, p. 446). 

In 1854 there was discovered in the large Roman c/oaect 
or sewer, excavated by Dr. Duncan and others, a fragment 
of a marble tablet inscribed in large and fine letters, — 
H I c 
It is now preserved in the Museum. (Vide Proc. Essex 
Arch. Soc., vol. i, p. 210). 

At the meeting of the Institute at Norwich in 1847 
there was exhibited a Roman cochlear or spoon found 
near the western wall of Colchester eight feet beneath the 
surface. It was then in the possession of Mrs. Thorley, 
and was inscribed — 


i.e., mayst thou live, Aetemus! It is not said of what 
metal it was composed,' but the letters were inlaid and 
resembled niello. (Vide Norwich vol. of Institute Cata- 
logue, p. xxviii, and plate at p. xxvii). 

At the Chichester meeting of the Institute in 1853, the 
late Lord Braybrooke exhibited a Roman ring found at 
Colchester bearing the inscription — 
# E P M t A 

The lettera were on an intaglio, and beneath them was a 
sphinx-like 6gure. The reading is simply Thermia, 

1 I have liiice uBcerUined that it is of btonxe. 



Another gold signet ring found at Colchester, and also 
in the late Lord Braybrooke's possession, is engraved with 
two heads feeing each other, and above them are the 
letters — 

It is difficult to understand the reading of these letters. 
The ring is described by Lord Braybrooke in vol. ii, 
p. 63, of the Essex Archseological Society's Transactions.- 

In 1853 there was discovered on the Lexden road at 
West Lodge, the property of Mr. John Taylor, which 
stands partially upon the site of a Roman cemetery, a 
fine cinerary urn of Durobrivian (Castor) ware, with a 
cover. It was nine inches in height and six in diameter, 
and contained a " bottle of straw coloured pottery and a 
red ' Samian' dish." It is covered witn bae reliefs, 
divided into three groups. One consists of two stags, a 
liare, and a dog, with various ornaments introduced ; the 
second consists of two men with a bear between them ; and 
the third of two gladiators fighting. Above the heads of 
these latter is an inscription traced with aome sharp 
instrument, and concealea by the Kd or cover, until the 
latter was lifted. The inscription is — 

As the thirtieth le^on was never in England, these 
scenes must refer to events that happened on the Con- 
tinent. The first two words, I opine, shew that the urn 
was a ^ft firom Secundus to Maiius (as Mr, C. Roach 
Smith thinks). It is by no means clear what the meaning 
of the remainder is. If sac, stands for sEc. the first 
portion refers to a secutor named Memnon, who had 
apparently been the victor nine times. If the other 
figure be that of a retiarius, he is the vanquished party. 
In any event his name seems to have been Valentinua, of 
the thirtieth legion. This vase is stUl preserved in the 
Colchester Museum. 

In 1865 a remarkable green glass drinking cup of 
the Roman period was fotmd in the same cemetery, on 
the Lexden road. Though only three to four inches in 
height, it bears the representation of foiu* chariots in 
succession, with the names of the charioteers over them, 
the inscription being — 

3 by Google 

3 by Google 



The reading being, doubtless, Hierax ra{le) Olympae 
va{l€), Antuoce va{le), Cresce{n)s Av{e), thus indicating 
Crescens as the winner. This cup is now in the British 
Museum, where I recently inspected it. 

In 1868 Mr, George JosUn, who had purchased a piece 
of groxind in Beverley Road for the purpose of making 
excavations on the site of a large Roman cemetery existing 
there, discovered a lai^ sepulchral slab of tine oolite six feet 
high, two feet four inches wide, and eight inches thick, in 
good preservation, bearing the figure of a Roman centurion 
in a sort of recess, and beneath it the inscription — 

SI . FA VON . M . F . POL . FACI 



ERVNT . H. S . E. 

i.e. Miftixus) Fawn{ius) M{arci) F{{Uits) Pol{lia) Facilh 
centwio Leg[ionis) vicesimae Verecundus et N'oiiciiis Lib 
(erti) posuer^jnt H{ip) S{itus) E{st), or translated, "Marcus 
Favonius Facilis, the son of Marcus of the tribe Pollia, 
a centurion of the twentieth legion. Verecundus and 
Novicius his freedmen placed this. He lies here," From 
the absence of the letters v. v after the numerals of the 
legion, it is probable that this monument is of a very 
early date, possibly before the insurrection of Boadicea. 
The stone had apparently been purposely breken, and 
the upper portion thrown down on its face at some remote 
period. The lower portion which bore the inscription 
was still standing in situ at a depth of 2-i^ feet below 
the surface of the ground. Near it was found a leaden 
cylindrical box with a lid containing the bones. On the 
Vxick of the stone are the letters — • 


probably the abbreviation of the sculptor's name (TuUius). 
It is stUI in Mr. Joslin's possession. Since writing the 
above I have been informed that some antiquaries dissent 
from the idea of the stone being of an early period of the 
Roman sway, on the ground of some of the letters of the 
inscription "being ligulate. In reply to this I would 
observe that in the pig of lead dated A.D. 60, and bearing 
the name of Nero, found at Stockbridge, Hants, we find a 
great part of the inscription ligulate, so that ligulate 
inscriptions are not confined to a later period, 

TOt. XXXIT. u ^ 


There are one or two other minor inscriptions found at 
Colchester, which I will now refer to. They are — 

(1) (2) (3) (4). 


The first of these, which wants the last letter, is on a 
tile at the Museum and reads Primus. The second occurs 
on a bronze helmet now in the British Museum, and which 
is twice stamped wich the letters p e t r o n i (probably 
the genitive of i'e(/'OJ»'jts)nearthe neck. The third occurs 
on the handle of a 2^iella or simpulutn of bronze found 
in a field near the town in 18fi3. (Vide Archcpologiu, 
vol. xzxix, p, 508). Difierent readings of it have been 
given. The Rev. J, H. Pollexfen, in the Ai-chteologia, 
reads it as simply pomponi, and regards it as the stamp of 
the maker, but Professor Hiibner (Coi-ptts Inscr. Latin. 
vol. vii. No. 132.3) reads it as (L) Pomp(oniu.s) Ni(co). 
The fourth is on a large vase of white ware or oUa, now 
preserved in the Museum, the front of which represents a 
human face (veiy similar to a vase discovered at Lincoln, 
and bearing an inscription to Mercury, engraved in the 
Proc. Soc. of Antiq., vol. iii, 2nd series, p. 440). The 
letters, which are in black, occur on the hack of it, and 
are of good formation, but the inscription being imperfect 
nothing can be made of it. 

Another bronze Roman stamp found in Colchester, and 
preserved in the Museum there, I>eaT-s the inscription — 


The inscription (which is a barbai'ou.s one) was com- 
jnunicated to me in 1873 by Mr, Gunner, the curator of 
the Museum. The same barbarous woi-d occurs in pottery 
found at Colchester, but its meaning is unknown. 

There have also been found at Colchester a number 
of roundels or tessenc of gi'eyish earthenware bearing 
barbarous words, such as etkeron, &c., and on some of 
them are numerals. In one instance xvi occurs, accom- 
panying the figure of a galley with rowers. I have 
rubbings of most of them, but until antiquaries are agreed 
as to their being genuine Roman relics, I refrain from 
noticing them. Perhaps some of the members of the 
Institute will embrace this opportunity of inspecting 
them. With these exceptions I believe that the whole 
of the Colchester inscriptions are noticed in these 





This axhibition, lield in the moatliB of May and Juno last, was, 
through the generosity of the several contributors, an exhibition of 
such unusual excellence, illustrating in so great perfection the genius 
of Holland's greatest painter, that it may fitly be chronicled. The 
Committee, to whom was entrusted the selection, made it their chief 
endeavour to bring together the finest procurable examples of the 
Rembrandt etchings, and generally speaking their endeavour was 
crowned with success ; for although in so extensive a collection thore 
were, undoubtedlvi several prints of little merit, yet, as a whole, 
the collection well deserved the encomiums of artists and amateurs, 
contuning as it did not only early states and impressious excessively 
rare, in some instances unique, but also, what was of far greater 
importance, impressions so inBnitely superior ta the average of what 
are usually seen, that a standard of comparison was aSarded, by 
which all other impressions might bo tested. 

A marked feature of the exhibition was the arrangement of the 
prints in what is believed to have been the order of their execution. 
AVhen it is remembered that about one half of what are attributed to 
the master are undated, and that only about one third of those undated 
prints were hung n^n the walls, it tv-ill be seen that the Ck>mmittee 
had undertaken no idle task. To place these in order among the 
dated prints it was necessary that the whole series, whether exhibited 
or not, should be aiTanged; the work was surrounded with difficul- 
ties ; but the labour was not ill bestowed, adverse criticisms from 
tximpetent critics were few, and the corrections sug'gestsd were of 
value to those who, hke ourselves, think the consecutive arrangement 
of a great artists' works a matter of importance. 

A question of considerable interest was raised as to the extent to 
which the handiwork of pupils or assistants appears tn certain of the 
larger and more elaborate plates. The idea that Rembrandt was so 
assisted is not a new one. F. J. Mariette in his Abecedario refused to 
recognize Rembrandt's hand in the harsh burin work which contrasts 
BO painfully with the finer ports of the " Descent from the Cross." 
The opinion that the master entrusted much of the detail in the 
" Ecce Homo " to another has almost become traditional in the British 
Museum Print Room. I have, mjsolf, no hesitation in attributing the 
infeiior workmanship in the larf^ " Resurrection of Lazarus " to Van 
Tliet ; but in all discussion care must bo taken not to lose sight of the 
fact that only comparatively unimportant parte of the several plates have 


been thna entrusted to inferior hands, and that we are not called upon 
to repudiate a print, because an artist of less ability bus been allowed 
to execute a pait, any more than we sbould refuse to recognize a 
Bubens, for instance, because wa had clear evidence that he aid not 
cover every inch of his vast canvasses with hia own brush. 

Among so many works of the highest class it is difficult to make a 
selection, but for rarity and excellence, or both combined, the following' 
doaerve to be recorded : — 

ConlrihtUed hij S. Addivglou, Eiiq. — 
The Sf.vmish Gipsy, a finer impreasion than the one which 
appeared at the Hume sale last year. 

Contribvied by Henry Brodhwtt, £tj. — 

The second (really the third) state of the "EcCe Hollo," very 
fine impression. 

Larqe L.VNDBCAFE wiTB. THE MiLL Sail. I only know oneimpree* 
sion of the plate which could be compared with this, it is in 
the collection of Monsieur Dutuit. Mr. Brodhuret's Landscapk 
WITH Cottage and Dutch Hay Sabm is of nearly equal merit. 

OoTTAQB WITH White P.eles, first State, extremely fine and in ^od 

The Thbbb Trees, on India paper, of the highest excellence. 

A Gbotto, first state, a brilliant impression. 

Bembbanct Dhawinq ; the late Mr. William SmiUi considered this 
one of the best impressions of tho plate he bad ever met with. 

Tns Thre£ Cbosbes, first state, superb. 

The Ou) Haabino, a finer impression does not exist. This is the 
imptession with broad untrimmed mar^n which appeared at 
Manchester in 1857, and again at Leeds in 1868. 
CotttribtUed by Edteari Cheney, B*q. — 

Jan AssELYif, first state, completed in tauyon by IJembiandt. 

Janus LnxMA, also thus completed. Two veiy valuable prints 
of the greatest interest and beauty. 

I^om tke Colleelion of St. John Dent, Eiq.— 
Thx Anoel Appeabikq to the Shepherds, finished state, perfect. 
The Three Trees, on white paper, a magnificent impression. 
The Prebemtaiion, in Bembrandt'a dark manner, nnusually rich 
in colour. 

From Moimtur Eugene JhUuit't Colleetion.— 
The small grey landscape called The Hottbe with a Laboe 

Tree, SVUson 204, Bl. 310. Extremely rare and not less 

" The HmiDRED Ouiuibb," first state, from the Palmer and Price 

Portrait of Behdr&kdt ok a high and harrow i-late, a print nut 

known to Bartecb or Wilson, and hitherto supposed to be unique. 


/VoM RiekarA Ihher, £tq. — 

A Ter; fine impreasion of the FiiEseKTATtOH nr tub Tadijed 

TxMPLE, second state. 
Lakge Landscape vith Cottage and Dutch Hat Babx, of equal 

merit to the one exhibited by Ur. Brodhuist. 
"Thz Hufn>BSD QuiLDER," second state, of tho greatest excellencfl. 

l%t Rev. S. Griffith; Warden of WadMam — 

" Tk8 Httetdbed Guilder," second state, white paper, a singularly 
beautiful impreesioa, witbuat exception tbe finest I have seen 
in this state, thought by some eren superior to tbe impressions 
of the first state. 
Portrait or Yak Toluxo, first state. This came from the collec- 
tion of Baron Verstolkde Soelen. Only four impressions of this 
state are known. 

Among thott conlributed by F. Seymour Maden, Eiq. were : — 

Portrait of BBUBRAimT with Mocstaches, Wilaon 2. 

PosTRAiT OF fiEUBRAintT LEANiTro ON A Stoke SiLi., first Bud secoiid 
states, both extremely ^e and possessing the additional interest 
of baring been worked on in pencil by Bembrandt's own hand. 

Brkbbaniii's Muj., probably the licheet impression existing of 
this plate. 

A Woman in a. Largs Hood, Wilson 353, two impresdons. 
Charles Blanc calls this " La femme de Bembrandt malade ;" 
the second impression worked on in bistre by the master. 

St. Francis Frayino, second state. 

The Woman with the Arrow, an impression of great excellence- 

From the OoUectim ofR. 8. Soljord, Etq.~ 
Beubrandt in Turned ■■ur Hat and E^ibroidsred Uaktuc, a most 

interesting and rare impression, with Bembrandt's name and 

age writtra in pencil by himself. 
Briibrandt in an Otal, first state, the uncut plate, the only 

im^oreesion of &ia state in private hands. 
Qbsat Jswisd Bridb, first state. 
A Faibteb Drawino from a Model, first state, unique. 
TiBW OF OuvAi., an unequalled impression. 
JoBv CoBKELius Stltivs, fitst atate. I have seen no impression 

at all equal to this In any coUectioQ. Wilson described it as the 

finest known. 
The Bukqokaster Six, second end third states. 
EPEB.UU BoNtra, first and second states. 
" Tub Hcsdrxd Guilder," first state. 
Village stkak tub High Road ; or, Tub Three Cottaoes, first, 

second and third states. 
The seriea of small landscapes ; first and second states. 


Otra Lord bbk>c£ Pilatb, first etate. 

PoBTRAn OF CapFENOL, Wilson's second state. All these im- 
pressions were of tbe very greatest beauty and in splendid 
condition, among the richest gems of the eshibitiou. 

livm the Cellecttm of R. P. Soupell, Etq., Q.C.— 

A Mait MEDiTATma, in Bembrandt's dark manner ; this and an 
equally fine impression &om the same plate, from the collection 
of J. Webster, Esq., xrero hung together. Mr. Webster also 
sent two rich impreseious of the St. Jebomx, in the dark manner, 
first and second states. 

J^rom the Colleetion of the late Danh^ Seymour, £tq. — 
The first and second states of Jesus Chbist Ektoubsd, very fine. 

A superb portrait, in oil, of Bkubraitdt by himself, was kindly 
contributed by Lord Porlarlington ; and a grisaille of the "Ecce 
Hojio," the design for the etotiing, by Zadt/ £a«tlate. 

Visitors who acquainted themselves with the treasures displayed, 
will think this list far too short. I am aware that many are omitted 
which might well have been introduced, but to enumerate them all 
would have unduly lengthened this notice. Probably such a collection 
has not been seen before or will ever be brought together again. 

3 by Google 

(Sii'sinnt Boninunls. 

Commimicated by JOSEPH RAIN, F.R.A. Soot. 

"A treanolile Boy Dengleterre Siro Edward qe Dien U garde 
mustrent Johan Le peintur de Blida Et Beatrice sa flfeme qe enoontre 
la pees nostre Uei^eur le B07 riat Stofiie Atteyate de BUd le ioiir 
de la Seint Marip Magdalene qo drein f ut a la mesenn le auannt dit 
Johaa et luy dona saut et luy prist par le ool et luy Ha de eon 
ebaperoun et a poy luy aroyt estrangie. et vileynement luy detira. 
Tiat la fenune le auauntd [it] Johan, beatrice pur noun, et detiuera 
son baroun de les mains ausuntdit esteueae. Et autre forth vint 
Stefiie auaunt nomee le Lundy procbein apres la feste S[eint Pijere 
ad uincula et dona saut a beatrice la ffeme auauntdit Joban et miala- 
ment la batyet et la nofriet perilousen .... plubon lues de son corps 
et la maybema et la leesa com mort. Et eetre cestes Eateuene auant 
nomee et Soger le keu son frere manaoent les auant ditz de vie et de 
membre Dunt ly auant dtt Johan et beatrice sa femme prient de 
p^rante et de dreyt le tel trospos pur Dieu et la grationso Yirgine 
Marie, et de tons soynz et quil pussent viure tn peea." 

(No endorsement). 

The above document, supplying contractions, is No. 4685 of the 
US. collection of Royal Jjettera, &c., preserred in the Public Record 
Office. It affords a curious example of the direct access which in those 
days the humblest had to the king. BIyth in Nottinghamshire was a 
well' known baiting place on the road to the north, and Edward I was 
no doubt on one of his numerous journeys on Scots' aff^re when this 
matter was submitted to him. John the Painter, sitting quietly in his 
bouse on 8. Uary Magdalene's day (22iid July), possibly intending to 
go to (^urch, was violently assaulted, half straiigled, and vtllanously 
handled by Steven Atteyate his neighbour. His good wife Beatrice 
delivered him, and probably drove Stephen off the premises with some 
household implement. The tatter, however, nourished hie wrath for 
ten days or so, and on tbe Monday after the Feast of B. Peter ad 
Vincula (1st Aug.) assaulted in a most ungallaut mannerpoor Beatrice, 
and, inflicting many wounds on her body, maimed and left her for dead. 
Moreover he and bis brother Boger le Keu also threatened the luckless 
couple with loss of life or member. Quite a cose for royal intervention 
and swifl justice, whioh was doubtless administered, though no record 
appears on the petition, which seems in all probability to have been 
written by the parson of Blyth on behalf of hie aggrieved parishioners. 
It is-ott a small square piece of parchment, much browned by ag<>. 

The next document, from the same collection (No. 3280), is from the 
Prior and Chapter of S. Mnlo un a different SRbject. Supplying con- 
tractions, it runs thus : — 

" Seronissimo Prindpi, . . .E. . dei gracia illustrissimo Regi An- 
glorum . . Duci Aqnitnnie et Oueosium prinoipi . . Prior et Gapitulnm 


aoOfflcialUSanctiMaoloniBde insula.. Salutem etparataminomiubus 
Toluntatem ad 8ua beoeplacita et mandata . . Cum intelleximus quod 
veetri prepoaeti eeu juaticiarii de Foitemue in Anglia nauein Sancti 
Marie de Sancto Maclonio dd insula cuiuB nauis GuUlermua Aubant 
ciuis Maclonien^ia lator preaencium eat magiater -arrestauerunt et 
detineant arrestatam cum tjuis exiRtentibus in eadem pro eo quod ipai 
aaserunt ut intelleximus quod nauiu et vina predicta sunt hominnm 
vestrorum de Tasoonia sen pars aliqua eorundem Nouerit vestra 
screnitas Teneranda quod dicta naiuB est dicti magistri et quorundam 
aliorum ciuium maclonienBium. Nee in ipsa naui habet aliquis de 
Yasconia partem ullam. Et de dictia rioia sunt sex dolia et due pipe 
dtcti magistri . . decern dolia Xicliolai pillart . . viginti duo dolia et 
due pipe Itadulphi f^enchan . . unum oolium Stephani lestouchie . , 
uuum dolium iotkonnis de Capella . . unum dolium Sadulphi Dinasdi 
. . unum dolium Guillermi Lalwe , , unum dolium Alani Cucu . . 
uaum dolium iohannis richardi . . unum dolium iordani bullion . , 
due dolia iohannis Anglici , . duo dolia inliannis Johennis . unum 
dolium Peiroto Eanul^i . . unum dolium robini de Paluel civium 
maolonienuum Et quatuor dolia Badulphi iouiiin et io]:annis eueni de 
dolensi dyooesi nautarum dicte nauin de quibue vinis nichil debent 
alicui Yasconi dicti oiues ne predict! magiater Nicliolaus FUlart 
Eadulphus Geacbon, Stepbanua lestoucbie Johannes de CapeUa 
radulphus Dinandi OuiUermus Lalote Alanus Cucu Johannes Bichardi 
et Jordanus burlon nobis aaseruenint per sua iuramunta quae super 
Mis recepimus ab eisdem £t ut accepimus a plm-ibus aliis fidedignis 
quibua fidem super hiis Eidhibemus Besiduum vero dictorum sunt ut 
nobis datum sint intcIHgere quorundam burgensium de Sancto iaoobo 
de beuron Dyocesis Abbrincenais hominum illuetrissimi principis 
Domini Hcgis Fi-ancie et quorundam burgensium de Dinanuo Mac- 
lonieneis Dyocesis hominum uobilia viri domini Duels britannie unde 
serenitatem veatram in Domino commendantes Bequirimus et Bogamus 
quatinuB de Serenitati vestro phiceat dietam nauem et Tina predicta 
saltern ciuium macloniensium predictorum iacere liberari ■ . Datae 
i^ud Sanctum Moclonium de mania Alannie et in remotis agente 
Iteuerendo in Chrieto Patre et domino Macloniensi episcopo die 
Yeneris onto festum Purificacionla Beate Marie Yirginis anno 
Domini M' CC° octogesimo non[o]." (No endorsement). 

This is written in a fine clear hand, the ink a good deal faded 
towards the end. The St. Mory of St. Malo, William Aubant, master, 
had been captured by the Portsmouth authorities under the belief that 
she and her cargo of Tfines were the property of Edward's men of 
Gascony. The Prior and Chapter state the contrary, and give a 
minute list of the shippers, chiefly citizens of St. Malo. 'i'he master, 
who is the bearer of the letter to the king, and two of the sailors, ore 
also shippers. The name of one of these men, "John the son of 
Evan," shows his Breton origin. Saint James de Beuvron, some of 
the burgesses of which are said to be part owners of the vine,, is a 
border town of Normandy on the Breton fiontier, and as a fortress 
played an important part in the war which saw the English expelled 
m>m that province. According to a charter cited by Mabillon. the 
castle was built by William the Conqueror in 1067. It stood on the 
edge of a steep and narrow valley, and some remains of walls and 
bastions still attest its strength. Dinan, an ancient seat of the dokes 
of Brittany, is better known. 

Pnicttliings at inettinga of itic iSopl 9rr{)30lagical 

la cunsequence of the wrioue illnees uf tlio Honorary Setretary, 
Mr. Uurtt, no MeetiDga were held ia November and December, by 
order of the GoimciL 


D.D.t.zea by Google 

Ci)e Utt i«r. -Burtt. 

Among the many losses the Archicological Institute lias been called 
of late to auBtoin there ia not one Tvliich will have been mote ividely 
felt and more sincerely deplored than that of ite late Honorary 
Secretary, Mr. Joseph Burtt. From his long connection with the 
Institute, of which he waa a valued member, and contributor to ita 
proceedings for some years before he entered upon Ids official engage- 
ment aa Secretary, few were more completely identified with our body, 
and none have ever laboured with greater diligence, and more zeal 
and int^jlligence for its welfare. Becoming Honorary Secretary in 
1862, Mr. Burtt waa for years, as has been truly said, " the prime 
mover and guiding spirit" in all the oporationa of the Sociuty. Tlie 
arrangementa for the montlily meetinga, and the diificult task of 
aecitring suitable memoirs for reading, and objects of interest for 
exhibition, devolved upon Idm, and like all that he undertook, how- 
ever wearisome, was performed with untiring enei^y and u ever-failing 
good humour. 

To Mr. Hurtt also, after failure of health compelled the late 
Mr, Albert Way to retire from that duty, was year by year entrusted 
the responsible and anxious task of organizing and carrying out the 
Annual Congresses, and to his tact and courtesy, toge^er with his 
clear head and calm business-like habits, the success of these gather- 
ings haa been mainly due. Few could have executed the preliminary 
duty of visiting the proposed place of meeting, stimulating the languid, 
encouraging the desponding, and awakening a general interest in the 
coming visit of the Institute, with so much delicacy and judgment as our 
lamented friend. The writer of this notice has on several occEisionsbe«>n 
associated with Mr. Burtt in the correspondence and other arrangements 
for the Annual Meeting, as well as in carrying these arrangemonts 
into elfeet, and he can truly aay that he never knew one wiUi whom 
his unfailing good senee and good nature made it more pleasant to 
work, and who in^nressed one more with the sense of earnest determi- 
nation and hopeful courage. In the face of all ditHculties, Mr. Burtt's 
resolve was that each meeting as it came should be a success ; nor was 
he ever greatly disappointed. 

During Mr. Albert Way's gradually failing liealth, tlie task of 
editing the Journal of the Institute was entrusted to Mr. Burtt, who 
became more and move reaponaiblo for it, until ultimately tlie whole 
burden devolved upon him. Hie untiring energy found a congenial 
exercise in bringing up the arrears of the publication, and making it 
increasingly worthy of the Society, whoae organ it waa. In this 
Mr. Burtt was ubly seconded by tjoverul leading members of tlie 


Institute, and the growing excellence of the Journals during the two 
nr three years preceding his decease was moat marked. Another 
very laborious work undertaken bj him, in addition to hia other 
labours, was the preparation of the index to the volumes of the 
'' ArchjBological Journal," from its commencement. He was engaged 
upon tbis when his &tal illnew began. It is aatisfoctory to be able 
to state that our lamented friend's unfinished work baa been taken 
up by the able hands of Sir John Uaclcan, and will, it is hoped, be 
before very long in the hands of the Subscribers. This Index will 
show bow largely the Journal has been indebted to Mr. Burtt's pen. 
But hia acknuivledged contributions only show a small portion of 
the labour bestowed by him In working up the rough material 
furnished by others into a form suitable for appearance in its pages. 

Mr. Burtt was also a contributor of archtcological articles to the 
fientUman'i Magadne and the Athiiaum. A paper of his appeared in 
the " Archtcologia Cantiana," vol. vi. 

The second volume of the " Miscellany" published by the Camden 
Society contains " the Household Expenses of John of Brabant" (son 
of the Duke of Brabant, aud husband of Margaret, daughter of 
Edward I) and "Thomas and Henry of Lancaster" (sons of the 
king's brother, Edmund Earl of Lancaster), in the year 1:^92-3, from 
the original roll in the Chapter House, from which place the Intro- 
duction is dated "Dec. 1852." 

^Ve have spoken of Mr. Btirtt hitherto only in connection with 
the Arcbicological. Institute, but it muEt not be forgotten that his 
archioological reputation fvaa won in another field, before he became 
officially connected with our body. Bom in 1818, he commenced bis 
life-work when a lad of fourteen, under Sir Francis Falgrave in tho 
Chapter House at Westminster. " Under that able aud learned 
antiquary," to quote an appreciative notice that appeared shortly after 
his death in the Atlieuteuni, "be served bis appranticeship, being 
chiefly employed on work connected with the Eecoid Commission 
until tbe year 1840, when he was appointed to a clerkship in the 
New Becord Establishment. He continued his labours for many 
years at the Chapter House, arranging and making inventories of tbe 
valuable collection of ancient records formerly stored in that depository. 
In August 1851 he was promoted to an assistant keepership of the 
second class, and was made a first class assistant keeper in June 1859. 
About this time he superintended the removal to the new Becord 
Office, and the arrangement therein of the vast mass of documents 
which bod been lying (many of them in a state of disorder) for 
centuries in the Old Chapter House." The calendaring of the 
Chancery Records of Durham was a task in which he was engaged 
for many years in addition to his other official duties. 

Mr. Burtt had very few equals as a decipherer of ancient documents. 
The writer of this notice made his first personal acquaintance with 
Mr. Burtt in this character. He was examining some rolls of Isabella 
(ie Fortibus, connected with her possessions in the Isle of Wight, and 
was baffled by some medieeval contractions. The document was shewn 
to some able paleeographists belonging to the office in vain, and the 
cry arose, "Send for Burtt, he'll mdke it out." Mr. Burtt's attendance 
IV as requested, and without a moment's hesitation the words were read 
off. On anotiier occasion tbe writer remembers taking to Mr. Burtt 
a dirty crumpled piece of parchment covered with writing by an 


iUiterate hand, in pale ink, with the remark " Here's Bomflthiiig that I 
thinlc will baffle you." But the apparently illegible document was 

redily dociiihered, almost afl easily as if it had been written io a 
■kly hand. 

Mr. Burtt wan alwayn most ready to devote his archaeological and 
palreographioal tnowledg* to the service of others. For some years he 
was employed in his privnte capacity by the Dean and Chapter of 
Westmmster in examining and describinR the muniments connected 
with that ancient monastic foundation. He also performed the same 
serricee to a minor extent for the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln 
Cflthedral. Some of the interesting historical documents discovered 
by him in this latter collection have been printed and illostrated in 
the pat^eH of this Jonmal. 

Floriculture was Mr. Burtt's favourite recreation. Both at Brixton, 
and aftei'wards at Tuko Hill, he was accuetomed to devote his mornings 
and evenings to liis garden with great huccom. Chrysanthemums wore 
his especial hobby, and he took great pride in the varied hues and 
perfect forms of his favourites, which he tended and sheltered with 
affectionate care. 

As a &ienil and colIeaKiie Mr. Burtt necured the respect and 
affection of nil with whom he was connected. His well-storad mind, 
his genial character, his forgctfulneas of self, and readiness to oblige, 
endeared him to all who knew him, who feel that his premature 
decease has left a gap in the circle of the friends that it will be 
impossible ever to fill up. The loss to the Arclueological Inedtute of 
one who had its intereritn bo zealously at heart, and who laboured no 
untiringly and intelligently for their promotion, is incalculable; though 
happily not so entirely iireparable as that sustained by his widow and 
large familv. 

E. V. 

3 by Google 

^UcM gf ^nj^BtoIoBital yubluab'aiu. 

It is very gratityiag when owners of hietorio sites take such an 
interest in them aa haa been bo lovingly shewn by Mrs. Dent in her 
"AnoaUof Winchcombe and Sudeley." Few places have witnessed 
greater vicissitudes than Sudeley Castle. We will not dwell upon the 
pre-liistoric description of the district, and the evidences of Koman 
occupation no profusely found on the Sudeley estate, as illustrated by a 
fioman villa found on 
Wadtield farm in 1883, 
the ground plan of 
which, together with a 
fine pavement, is given 
by Mrs. Dent. Nor will 
w e h n ger ov er th e tragio 
history of the Saxon 
rule in "Winchcombe, 
as the capital of the 
kingdom of Mercia, 
where Otfa founded a 
nunnery in 787. This 
was soon allerwards 
superseded by a monax' 
tPry of the great Bene- 
dictine Order, and thn 
legends, traditions, and 
superstitions connected 
with its early history 
are very pleasantly 
related by our author, 
who prints, at length, 
tho life of St. Kenelm, 
from the Saxon ^S. in 
the Bodleian Library. 

The early history of 
our interest more parti- 
cularly centres, is very 
obscure. It is not men- 
tioned in the Domesday 
Surrey, and hence it 
was, probably, one of 
^c i_ UT *^® many adulterine 

we«\iewofEoito«i«iToi.«. castles erected in the 

troublous time of King Stephen. No trace of works so early can 
now, however, be found, unless a portion of a low embattled tower, 
now foiming a part of a cellar, be of that date, as it was considered 
to be by Sir Gilbert Scott when making a survey of the castle in 1854. 
The number of castlos erected for purposes of offence and defence 

94 notk;es op ATif:H.r,oT/)nif;Ai- pubucations. 

without licenee during the civil war hetween the Empress Uaud and 
Stephen was verj gi-eat, and many of them were dismantled and 
doBtroyed in the following reign. Henco it ia not surprising that few 
remains of the original Castle of Sudeley now exist. 

Mrs. Dent traces the devolutionof the Manor of Sudeley from King 
Etiielred, who being thereof seized granted it to his youngest daughter 
Qoda, w))ose liusband, "Walter do Nantes, lield it "in right of the 
King." From tho said Walter it descended to his son Halph, called 
"the Earl," whose son Harold 
held it at the time of the Domes- 
daySurvey. From Harold itpassed 
to his son John, who, by Grace 
daughter of WilliHm Tracy, had 
two sons, Ealph and William. 
I Ealph succeeded hia father at 
Sudeley, and William, the younger 
son, who assumed from his mother 
the name of Tracy, was one of the 
murderers of St. Thomaa (Becket) 
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ealph 
' died in 1192, and was succeeded 
by Otuer (usually called Otwell), 
his son and heir, who granted 
certain landsinBIakepit to Winch- 
combe Priory, the charter of which 
ispi-eservod intlieBritish Museum 
with its seal appendant.' Otuer, 
dying s.p., was succeeded by liis 
brother Enlpt, whose son Ralph 
Staiof Oiutt de Siiiidev succeeded him having livery of 

siozin in r222. Mrs. Dent favours 
us also with the seal of this Ealpli, 
ns appenrled to a eharter also in 
tlie British Museum.' 

From the last named Ealph the 
castle and manor descended to his 
groat grandson John de Sudeley, 
who died in 1340, leaving by his 
wife Alianora (called by Mrs. Dent 
" Eleanor") daughter of the T>ord 
Scales, an only son of his own 
name, end two daughters Joan 
and Margery. John died in ISC" 
s.p., when Thomas Boteler son 
of his eldest sister Joan, who had 
married William Boteler of 
AVemme, and Margery younger 
sister of the aforesaid John, were 
found to be his nearest heirs. 
Jn the partition of the estates, 
the Castle and Manor of Sudeley 


3 by Google 



fell to tho share of Thomas Boteler, who, eventually, by the death 
of Ids aunt Margery, became sole heir, but though iuheriting 
the Barony he was never aununoned to Parliament. Balnh eon of 
Thomas and Joan, Urs. Bent tella uh, was one of the most illustnous 
owners of the casUe. He greatly distinguished JiimHelf in the Vrenuh 
wars, and held several hign offices of state. In H41 lie was, by lotters 
patent, created Baron Boteler of Sudeley. He rebuilt the castle, chiefly 
nom spoils taken in the war. Portmare Tower, according to tradition, 
derirea its name from the French Admiral whom Boteler had made 
prisoner, and whose ransom was given to him by the kin^. 

Iiord Boteler was also a great benefactor to the neighbourmg churches, 
uid, among other works of charity, rebuilt the church of Winchcombo. 
He was, however, a stout Laucastrian, and after the result of the battles 
of Bamet and Tewkesbury, of conrse, fell into discredit, and eventually 
was obliged, at the demand of King Edward IV, to convey his castle 
of Sudeley, which he had with so much affection and cost ro-edified, 
to certain persons who, the year following, conveyed the castle and 
manor together with the advowson of tho church, to iRichard Duke of 
Gloucester. Richard in 1478 exchanged them witlt the king for the 
Castle of Bichmond, in Yorkshire, but on his accession to the crown 
they agMn fell iuto his hands. After the battle of Bosworth they 
passed to Henry, 1^1 of Bichmond, and were granted to his uncle 
Jaspar Tudor, upon whose death in 1497 s-p., they again reverted to 
the crown. 

Mrs, Dent refers to the great festival in dedication of the Monastery 
of Winchcombe by King Kenulf when she supposes St. Kenelm 
was baj)tiz<id, and when Kenulph at the high altar liberated E.'idbert, 
who being of royal blood had become professed, but had left bis 
cell and assumed the crown of Kent, and had been defeated and 
taken prisoner by the King of Mercia. On the morrow after the 
dedication there was a great hunting party, and according tu tradition 
the king finally took leave of his guests on Clove Down, whore a atone 
was erected to commemorate the event. On this stone Camden says 
there was a rude inscription on tho upper side, and Mrs. Dent stales 
that there is now an Inscription on the same side, " seemingly not long 
since cat with a tool, in Boman characters, caUed ' Huddlestone's 
Table.' " She does not, however, sJiow any connection between the 
Huddlestone family and this district. Tliis we can supply. 
. The manor and castle of Siidoloy, &c., being in the hand of 
Henry "\^I by the death of his uncle, by letters jiatent, dated 4 Sept. 
Id0>'>,' a grant was made to Johu Hnddlcaton, Knight of tho Boyal 
Body, for life of the manor and lordship of Sudeley, tocethor with 
the advowson of the churrh, and lands, &c., in Sudeley, lodryngton, 
Stanley, Orette Qretton, Catesthorp, and Newnton in co. Gloucester, 
described os late the property of Ralph Boteler and Alice his wife, 
and of a rent of one hundred shillings per annum, payable to the king 
for the herbage and pannage of Suddoy I'ark; al»') all the posses- 
sions of the king within the said mauor and villes (the Castle 
of Sudeley excepted) with all courts and all other privit^^es. He 
was also exonerated from the repair and supiwrt of the castle, 
the custody of which was included in the grant. Sir John HuddleBfon 
died soon afterwards, and it was doubtless some incident during 
his brief occupation which led to the inscription referred to by 

1 Fat. ItoUH, nal itiauy Til, part 3, m. 10. 



tin. Dent. We may also add to Mrs, Dent's account tlie fact tliat 
tiie lands of Sudeley, as above described, beini; again in the king's 
hands, by letters patent dated 29th Manji 1508-9,' were granted, ia 
mortmain, to Sicbard Keddennynster the Abbot and the Canons of 
the monastery of St. Uary and 8t. Kenelm of Winchecombe, which 
grant woa vacated and the patent surrendered on 13th November 1510, 
from which time the lands remained vested in the crown until granted, 
together with the then lately dissolved monastery of Winchcombe, 
to Sir Thomas Seymour, afterwards created IjOrd Seymour of Sudeley. 
'We must here briefly advert to the Abbey of Winchcombe. Among 
the moat able of her abbots was Ilichard KidderminEter, the last 
but one, whom we have just mentioned, who was appointed in 1488. 
Willis says: "He was a learned man, and by his wise govern- 
ment and his encouragement of virtue and good letters made the 
Monastery Sourish so much that it was equal to a little University." 
Abbot Kidderminster was an eloquent preacher, and he vehemently 
opposed the statute of 4th Henry VllI depriving tlie clergy of certain 
privileges, preaching agiunst it at Paul's Cross. ^Vhat, however, is 
more to our present purpose, he wrote a History of the Monastery 
from the time King Keaulph founded the Church to the Abbot's own 
day. The history of this work is very singular. After the dissolution 
of the Abbey it fell into the hands of a farmer, who produced it at an 
assize at Gloucester in 
support of some claim 
he bad made. Sir 
William Morton, the 
Uien Iiordof the site of 
Winchcombe Abbey, 
was present, who, by 
some means, got it 
out of the farmer's 
hands, and taking it 
to his chambers in the 
Temple it was even- 
tually destroyed in 
the Great Fire of 
London, but fortu- 
nately Dugdale had 
previously made some 
extracts from it. To 
Abbot Kidderminster 
succeeded Bichard 
Ancehne, who with 
his monks in 1539 
surrendered the Ab- 
bey to the King, the 
revenues beingwjued 
at £759 Its. 9d.per 
BJinum. The Abbey 
being included in the 
grant to Sir Thomas 

Sul ol Abbot A 


Seymour, the whole of the buildings, except the Abbot's houae, vere 
by him taken down and destroyed, eo that scarcely a fraffment now 
remains to rnerk the site of tliie once famoua house, one of the three 
mitred abbeys in the county of Gloucester. 

We must not omit to notice the tomb of St. Kenebn. Leland saya 
that : " There lay buried in the east part of the church of the Monastery 
of Winchcombe Kenulphus and Keneimue, the father and sonne, both 
Kings of Uerches." In 1815 Mr. Williams, then of tho Abbey House, 
made extensive esearations on what was supposed to be the site of the 
ancient abbey. The foundations of the church were clearly traced, 
and seyeral ponderous stone coffins, containing the remains of human 
skeletons, were discovered, but the circumstance which attracted the 
most attention arose &om the examination of a small stone coffin at 
the east and of the interior of the church, close to the side of another 
of the usual size. Upon the removal of the stone which covered it 
tliere appeared a skull with a few of the other larger bones, and a very 
long-bladed knife, which was a maus of rust and fell to pieces on being 
handled. These were believed to be the remains of the young king 
Kenelm, murdered, as stated in the " Golden Legend," at the instance 
of his wicked sisttr Quenrida, and of the instrument with which the 
bloody deed was perpetrated ; whilst the larger coffin was thought to 
contain the remains of his father King Kenulf, by whose side, some of 
the nhroniclers tell us, the body of his son was buried. 

There is no portion of the history of Sudeloy of greater interest than 
the short time in which it was in the possession of Sir Thomas I^eymour. 
Handsome, courtly, courageous, ambitious, bold, and, like most of his 
contemporaries, unscnipiilous, he was one of the most prominent 
personages of the pei'iod in which he lived. A great favourite with 
King Henry TITI, be was entnisted, not only with important com- 
mnnds both by sea and land, but was also employed in difficult and 
delicate missions, all of which ho accomplished to the entire satisfaction 
of his capricious master. So great was the king's fnvour towards him 
that in the dissolution of the religious houses, like other members of 
his family, he shared largely in the plunder of the Church, and the 
king not only designated him for a peerage, but api>ointed him one 
of the executors for carr3'ing out the provisions of his will. In 1547 
he was created I-ord Seymour of Sudeley, and received, by the gift it 
his nephew, Edward VI, the Oastle and Manor of Sudeley, and the 
possessions of the dissolved Abbey of "VVinchcombe. His ambition 
led him to aspire successively to the hands of tlie Frincessns Mary and 
Klizabeth, and failing in this, he made advances to the widowed 
Queen Katherine, by whom, as appears from her letter to him, now in 
the Sudeley collection, which is given us in f«c-simile by Mrs. Dent, 
he was more than readily accepted ; the Queen avowing, " My mynd 
was fully bent the other tyme I was at Itbertye " (tliat is in her 
previous widowhood) " to maryo you before any man I know," 

The marriage having taken place, great preparations were made at 
Sudeley by Seymour to receive, with fatting splendour, his royal bride. 
The neglected and delapidated castle was renovated, and suitable 
accommodation was carefully provided for the expectant infant. Here 
Seymour and the Queen lived in great magnificence, but the period of 
their felicity was very short. Katherine gave birth to a daughter, 
and died in childbed, and Seymour, though doubtless turbulent and 

VOL. zxxiv. o 


ambitJotiB, without trial or proof of orime, waa sent to the block by 
hie veak and jealous brother. 

By the death aud attainder of Seymour, Sudeley CftsUe again 
reverted to the Crown, and though Mary, Seymour's infant daughter, 
iras restored in blood and honours, she was deprived of all the rich 
possessions of ber pai'ents, much of which, iaduding Sudeley Castle, 
was secured to himself by Jier uncle the Mart] nia of Northampton, but 
fell again to the Crown upon his attainder for the share he took in the 
cause of Lady Jane Grey. By Queen Mary it was conferred upon 
Sir John Bridges, who was created Lord Chandos of Sudeley in 1554, 
&om whom it descended to hie grandson. Grey iiflh Lord Cbandos, 
who died in 1621, leaving; George his son and heir an infant of a year 
old. He became of age upon the breaking out of the great rebellion, 
and was very remarkable for hia darins and valour in Uie cause of his 
sovereign. Sudeley Castlo was several times taken and retaken, and 
was, at one period, the head quarters of the king, who, firom " our 
camp at Sudeley Castle," in 1643, addressed his famous letter to the 
County of Cornwall. In the following year Sudeley was in the bands 
of the rebels, and Jxird Chandoe, who had behaved with great loyalty 
and bravery throughout the war, most unexpectedly, and without any 
apparent cause, eurrendei-ed liimself to the Parhament. He was 
deprived of his seat in the House of Tiords and compelled to take the 
National Covenant and Negative Oath, and though he was admitted 
to compound for his estates Sudeley Castle was not restored to him, 
and in 1649 the Council of State oi-dered it to be "slighted," or 
rendered untenable as a military post, and it was soon afterwards 
entirely denioHslied. Lord Ohandos died in IR.iS, of the small pos, 
s.p.ra., and was succeeded by his brother "William, but the Sudeley 
estate was settled upon Jane his relict, who, by a second marriage, 
curried it to George Pitt, whoso great grandson, in 177C, was created 
Ijord Rivers of Sudeley Castle. 

In 18.10 the bulk of the Sudeley estates became the property, by 
purchase, of Messrs. John and William Pent, and subsequently they 
acquired the cnstle and remainder of the land from tlie Puke of 
Buckingham. Through tlio taste and muniJicent liberality of the Bent 
family, the Castle and Church of Sudeley have, from an almost 
shEipeless ruin, been restored to sometliing like their former beauty 
and grandeur, and Mrs. Dent concludes her annals by saying : " Here 
I end my pleasant task, for pleasant it has been to gather up the 
records of the past, and retrace W'inthcombe and Sudoley's many 
historic ])nth8 so often trodden with equal pleasure by those who have 
gone before. Equal did I say ? Nay, that caji never be ! for who 
among them all have hud the pleasure and the privilege of building 
up the waste places, and seeing life and beauty ci'eep like sunshine 
once more over lier crumbling and fallen walls." 

Mrs. Dent has exhibited in the compilation of her work, extensive 
reading and a vast amount of research, and though we are unable, 
wholly, to agree in some of her ooneliisions, and think the mass of 
matter she has so industriously collected might have been somewhat 
better arranged, we are gratified in being able to state that we have 
read her interesting and superbly illustrated book with great satisfac- 
tion, and consider it a very valuable and important contribution to local 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


The book hero printed embraces the period froml577 to about 1700, 
tliougli some hw leares are missing, and, notwithstandiog that the 
pariui of Madron, which Is the mother parish of Penzance, was not of 
so mnch consequence during the penod over which this Register 
extends as it has since become by the rapid ^rowtli and just popularity 
of this the Madeira of England, tiie Parish Registers are of considerable 
iuterest, and Mr. Millett liaa exoruCed his selt'-iuipoeod tusk in a very 
couiplete, conscientious, and satisfactory manner. 

The volunio is printed rerhatim el littratim, except that the constantly 
occurring words, "was baptized," &c. are omitted. Great cure has 
been taken to preserve the varying orthography of proper names. In 
liis valuable preface Mr. Millett fully describes the MS. he prints, 
which was btated by the vicar of the parish, more than half a century 
ago, " to be decayed, worm-eaten, and periHliing," since which time 
it has suffered mucli from damp, and still more from having been 
entrusted to au iguoront and unskilful binder, who misplaced the 
leaves aud so cruolly cut the edges as to destroy many of the entries. 
Mr. Millett also mentions in his preface many unusual Christian names 
wliich occur in the Register, and points out that there is now a 
tendency to disguise the sound of Ouniish names in euch a manner 
that we (Cornish men) do .not know them with their " foreign ring," 
and he states, what is worth knowing, that, as a I'ule, in all Coruish 
names the accent is laid upon the second sjllablo in words of two 
syllables, and on the next to the last on words of more than two. 

Besides printing the Registers Mr. Millett has added an appendix 
containing a lat^e collection of the most important and int«Testing 
monumental inscriptions in the church ; a list of the incumbents of the 
benefice &om the middle of the thirteenth century to the present time ; 
and estended transcripts of various original documents m the Public 
Record Office, i-elating to the parish ; and ho has also supplied, that 
which greatly enhances the value of a work of this kind, a very full 

Mr. iliUett deserves the thanks of all who take an interest in 
Cornish genealogy, and we heartily wish tliat his book may have such 
a Bale as to compensate him for the time and trouble ho has bestowed 
upon it, so that he may be encouraged to undertake to edit and publish 
in the same manner the Registers of some other Cornish parish. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

Tlie remarkable discovery of a Edinun easlrum at Tomploborougli 
liBS beeu 80 well described by Mr. "W. Tliompsfin Wutkiu ia a letter 
to the ShejfJeld Independent tliat o-e gladly reproduce hia observations 
for our readers : — 

" Tbo uiicovonng of a Ronjaa cadram at Tempi eboro ugh is an. event 
wbicb should create tho deepost iutorost amongst the antiquaries of 
Sheffield and its neighbourhood. For my own part 1 aui quite 
sensible that it will be tho raeaua of filling up a considerable hialut 
in the map of Roman Britain. Beyond tho fact of tho existence of 
an cartliwork at Tern plcboro ugh, generally supposed to be Roman, 
Anglo-Roman antiquaries knew absolutely nothing of interest in tliis 
neighbourhood, with tho exception of a few isolated discoveries of 
coins, and the appearance of small fragments of Roman roads here 
aud there. Tho time lias, however, arrived when these disjointed 
fragments of roads can bo connected, and an idea formed of their 

"Having long studied Britanno-Roman topography, I have been 
asked for an opinion as to the Roman name of the newly discovereJ 
castrum. With this request I will endeavour to comply, but my 
answer must of necessity, at present, be confined to stating proba- 
bilities. Nothing but further discoveries, especially of inscribed 
stones, can fix tho name with certainty. 

" In the first place, then, I must at onco say that the centrum nt 
Tentpleborough cannot be an Itinerary station. Every station named 
in the Itinerary as being in this neighbourhood has been loug since 
identified. Nor does there appear to be anj' station named in the 
geography of Ptolemy which will correspond. There remain, there- 
fore, the Notilia Iviperit and Chorography of Ravennae to be consulted. 
In the former there ih this remarkable feature noticeable. Its author, 
in desciibing each section of Britain, gives the names of the stations 
either from north to south, or from oast to west, and always gives the 
cavalry stations separately (in tho same order) except upon the line of 
tho groat nail, where lie names tho stations in regular euocession. It 
was upon this principle that in tho Archmologieal Journal, vol. asviii, 
p. 120, I allotted the name Concant/ium to the Roman Station at Greta 
Bridge. In section Ixiii this author names first the three cavalry 
stations under the command of tlie Duko of Britain, before naming 
those garrisoned by infantry. The former are Fraetidiwn, garrisoned 
by the -i'juiVff Dalmatat-um; Danum, garrisoned by the Eqitttet Cn't- 
paniorum ; and Morhium, garrisoned by tho Equitet Cataphraetariorum. 
Now, where were these stations ? "We know the site of one of them, 
Danum, which the Antoiuno Itinerary |)rovos to have been at Doncaster. 
Of the othui two, was one to the nortli of Doncaster, and the other to 



AHCHjEOLOOICAL intellioenx-e. 101 

the Kuutb ; or was one to the east of it, and the other to Uie vest ? 
Since the Toiupleborough discover}', I iucliao to the former hyputhesie. 
" The great station at Malton is known to Lave been a cavalry station, 
iirom an inscription on a' tombstone found there, oommemontting a - 
soldier of the Eqvite* Singviaret. Some antiquaries have recently 
given to it the name of the Derventio of the Itinerary, &om the fact of 
its being situated on the river Derwent, but this is in total contradiction 
to the Itinerary itself, which placns Serteniio at only seven miles from 
York. This Serventio has generally been previously placed near 
Stamford Bridge, but wherever it wa», it appean to have been only a 
small iutermeoiate station or mulatto, and cannot have been as far 
from York as Malton is. I am inclined to consider MiUton to be the 
Preetidium of the Notitin, especially as the Emperor's body guard of 
cavalry (Eqvite» Singulam) were at one time stationed there. Bnt 
where was the station south of Doncaster, Jforiium? Was it at 
Templeborough ? Singularly enough the great Horsley ( though 
apparently on different grounds from those I have mentioned), in 
hiB "Britannia Romana," published one hundred and forty-five years 
ago, placed it there ; and for the reasons abovo stated I am inclined to 
think there is a prohahiUfi/ of the newly discovered castmm being the 
site. The £qmU» Cataphractariwum who gnrrispned Morbium were a 
body of cavalry, clothed in armour irom head to foot. They were 
chi^y Sarmatians, i.e., Poles, and their weapon was the spear or 
lance. Their modem counterpart was to be found in the I'ohsh 
lancers serving in the armies of Napoleon I. Should an inscription 
naming this corps be found during the cx<.-avations, no doubt can esist 
as to the name of the ca»lrum. tfr. Soach Smith has correctly read 
the inscription on the tile discovered as Cfohon) IlII Gfalloruni), but 
this merely shows that it was the -Ith Cohort of the Gauls which built 
the fortress. 

"There is, however, another view which may be taken as to the name 
of the fortress, basedupon theChorography of Bavennas. This author, 
apparently proceeding /rem east to west, gives the names of the fol- 
lowing stations between Lincoln and Manchester : — Bannoeallum, 
Ifavio, Aqvtp., Amameza, Zierdotalia. In the Arehaologieal Journal, 
vol. xxsiii, p. 54, I have shown, Irom the evidence of an inscription 
on a Homan milestone found near Biixton, and marking eleven miles 
from Nanio, that the station bearing that name was probably at 
Brough, near Castleton, Derbyshiro ; whilst as to the name of the next 
station. Aqua (The Waters), tliere is but one place iu the neighbour- 
hood to which it would apply — Buxton. There several Boman roads 
centre, many Boman remains have been found, and the Roman baths 
were only finally destroyed in the last century. The eattrwn atBrough 
is a fine one, many Roman remains have been found, but it liaa never 
been excavated. It is connected by a direct Roman road with Buxton. 
But what of the station ( BannotaUam) immediately preceding Navto in 
the Ravennas' list? It must have been situated between Lincoln and 
Brough. Was it the coitrum at Templeborough ? Mr. J. D. Ijeader 
has ^own in his interesting lecture on "Roman Itotherham" (and by 
a study of the Ordnance Map, I can confirm his statement), that 
Brough and Templeborough were connected by a Roman road, similar 
to that between Brough and Buxton. There is here strong evidence 
in lavour of BannovaUtim being the Roman name of Temp^borough. 


The tenuination of the name, Vallum (Wall), is isignificaQt when 
viewed iu the light of the recent discoreries. 

" It ie therefore most prol)able]that the name of the etation at Teniple- 
boroiigh waa either Morbivm or Bannorallum, but the only certain 
method of airiviBg at the right name will be hy tho discovery of an 
inacription in the caitrum itself giving ua further partieularB. 

"The question niay, liowever, arise, Wliy waa not the station named 
in the Itinerary f To this it may be replied that, of the many stations 
named in the Notitia, only ten occur m the Itinerary. In fact, in 
ti-acing some of the Iters, especially tho fii-st and second, ire find some 
very large walled stations existing, of which the Itera take no notice, 
Buch HB Ifieingham, J.'OncheBtor, Pierse Bridge, and Greta Bridge. 
Why was tliia F Bimply because these stations did not exist at the 
time the Itinerary was compiled, eirea A.u. 138-140, but were built by 
Septimus Soverus at the commencement of tho third century. I have 
dwelt upon this at some length in the Arehigalogieal Journal, vol. xxviii, 
p. 12'>. The station at Tompleborough may have been built by 
SeverUB, or possibly even existed at the date of the Itinerary, but as it 
does not stand upon the route of any of the Itinera (like many other 
Iloman stations), until it yields itfl own history nothing can be said. 

"In the meantime I would press upon those conducting the exca- 
vations the importance of exploring the gateways. These were sur- 
mounted by a slab bearing tho name of the emperor reigning at the 
time the fortress was oonstructod, the name of the imperial governor 
of Uritain for the time being, and the name of the cohort whidi oi-ectcd 
the buildings. These slabs have generally beenfound at otherstatioua 
either just inside the gateway or amongst Uie dehrii in the fosse in 
front of it, and sometimes a little further on dio op[>osito bank of the 

"Such are a few of the suggestions which have forced them- 
selves upon my mind, when reading the account of tlie excavations 
already made. I sliidl be glad to hear of further discoveries, which 
cei-tftinly cannot fail to be most interesting." 

Since the above remarks were written, a lai^e building, colonnaded 
on two eides, has been discovered ; the excavations are still pro- 
ceeding, a portion of one of the gateways with the remains of a 
guard-house have been laid bare, nad more tiles inscribed (' IIIl G 
have been found. We shall look forwerd with interest to farther 
communications from Mr. Watkin on the subject. 

Mr. Bukn, the author of "Rome and the Campagna," proposes, if 
a sufficient number of subscribers can be found, to publish a relievo 
map of Home in embossed papier mach^, showing the configuration of 
the site of the city and the course of the Tiber through it. The size 
of the map will be 22 x 1i inches, and it will comprise the district 
enclosed by the Aurelian walls and by those of the Trastevere and 
the Vatican. Subscriptions, twenty-five shillings, will be received by 
the Rev. K. Bum, 15, Brookside, Cambridge, iip to the end of the 
present year, when the list will bo closed. 

Mb. W. H. Hauiltdm Booehs hns published by subscription, in 
medium quarto, price thirty-five shillings, "Tlie Ancient Sepulchral 
Efi^ies and Monumental and Memorial Sculpture of Devon," from 
125U to 1550, illustrated by engravings of about 100 effigies and monu- 
ments, with 2S0 smaller ulustrations of brasses, dett^ of oostnme, 
badges, inscriptiona, &c. This comprehensive work was begun some 


years wo, and forma a valuable addition to the hietorr of tlii» well 
fAToured coonty. With, the exception of Yorkshire and Northampton - 
tihire no English county contains bo largo a number of monumental 
effigies aa Deronsbire, and we welcome their publication. 

" The Mtszreees " of Beverley Minster are in course of publication 
by Mr. T. T. Wildridgo in twelve parta, price eleven shilUngs each. 
SubscriptionB will be received by the Author, Dock Co., Hull. 

A New Arehreoli^ioal Society for the South West of Scotland, with 
the title of "The Ayrshire and Wigtonshire Arcbieological Associa- 
tion," boa been lately eBtnblished under the presidency of the Earl of 
Stair, for the purpose of publishing illustrated descriptions oF the 
Fre-historic and Mediteval Boinains in these counties, and printing 
Early Chai-ters and other Documents relating to the History and 
Antiquities of the District. 

So little appears to be known now about the artists. Price, who 
restored the window in St. Margaret's Church (see vol. xxxiii, p. 454), 
thnt we venture to give our readers a copy of their modest advertise- 
ment : — 


" "niiereas the ancient Art of Fainting and Staining Glass has been 
much discouraged, by reason of an Opinion generally received. That 
the Sed Colour (not made in Europe for many years) is totally lost ; 
These arc to give Notice, that the said Jied and all other Colours are 
made to as great a degree of Curiosity and Fineness as in former Ages 
by William BnAJoihwa Price, Glasiere and Glass- Painters, near Jlattoa- 
Gardeu in Ilolbom, London ; where Gentlemen may liave Church- 
HiPtory, Coats of Arms, &c. Painted upon Glass, in what colours they 
please, to as great Perfection as ever ; and draws Sun-dyols on Glass, 
AVood or Stone, &e., and cuts Crown Glass, with all sorts of ordinary 
Glass, and performs nil kinds of Glazing- work." 

We have evidence that Joahua Price restored the painted windows 
in Denton Church, near Bungay, for Aivfadeaonn Postlethwaite, in 
171C-19, and like restorers of all periods, he appears to have been 
more anxious to put in his own work than to reinstate the old glass. 
He was nevertheless described as " the notest man for that art." 

3 by Google 


To tho Eilitor of the Airchaohgieal Journal. 

Dear Sir, — In tlio " Journal" of tlie Atchfcological AsHociatioii 
(vol. xx\iii, part .1) Mr. Irvine lia.^ made a friendly attack iipon me 
ou the subject of " Wide-jointod and Fine-joiated ifasonry." I liave 
long been accuatomod to cou9idt>r this to be a distinguishing feature 
between tho eleventh and twelfth eentury, according to the words of 
William of Malnieshury, who wrote in the early part of the twelfth 
century^ and in describing the buildings of Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, 
tho greatest builder of hi^ time, says, the walls were bo admirably 
biiilt that th«'j appfared to he all of one stone, clearly showing that tho 
writer was not accitstomed to see fine-jointed masonry. Prof. Willis 
also showed the members of the Institute the same thing in his lectures 
at Canterbury and at Winchestei-, esiieci ally the latter, where the outer 
walls of the transepts, which are of the eleventh century, are all wide- 
jointed, and the parts rebuilt with the central tower, after it fell upon 
the body of William Eufus, and therefore early twelfth century, are 
fine-jointed. I have found the same thing in scores of other instances 
Loth in England and in Normandy, where I was generally accompanied 
by M. G. Bouet, who made me drawings of them, and we had an 
Itinerary given to us by the late M. Aruiaae de Caumont, my much 
Tolued friend for many years, and the heat Norman antiquary of his 
day. I was the first to give this clue to them, and they verified it on 
many oeeasions with the French Archreologicni Society, especjally in 
the two celebrated abbey churches at Caen, which they examined with 
mucli care, and ascertained by means of the jointing of the masonry 
that the vaults and clerestoreys are additions of the latter half of the 
twelfth century ; they originally had flat wooden ceilings as at Peter- 
boi'ough. It is therefore evident that this is a useful distinction 
between early Norman and late N'orman buildings, and these are usually 
the one of the eleventh century, the other of the twelfth. 

Nevertheless, Mr. Irvine has proved his point as far as it goes ; but 
none of the buildings that he cites are Xorman ; they are all of the style 
or type usually called Anglo-Saxon, and the buildings of tliis kind aie 
more often of tlie eleventh century than any othot period. The Norman 
flonquest made no immediate change of style of building in England, 
For a generation after that to the end of the eleventh century there 
was an oi-e.rlnppiiij of th' xfiiJen ; the Norman had been introduced into 
England before the Conquest by Edward the Confessor at Westminster 
(as we can still see by tho remains of his buildings), but this was the 
Hfiw fathiott ; many old fathioned people continued to build in the style 
of their fathers; perhaps the Sasou prejudice against the Normans 
added ta this old fashion. It is certain that many of the buildings 
called Anglo-Saxon are of the time of the Conquest, or even later. 
The churches in the lower town nt Lincoln are well known examples ; 


they ta»- atricUy of the Anglo-Saxon type, though built after the 
Conquest. A large proportion of this class of building is in the 
eastern counties, whldi were the Danes' laud in the eleventh ceutniy, 
and there is every probability that Then the Danes first became 
ChristiaiiB they vere very zealous church builders, and followed the 
example set by the King Canute (or Cnut), who ordered a stone 
church to be built where a wooden one had been burnt in his wars, 
at Ashington in Essex. But the truth must be acknowledged that 
to call the styles of architecture by the names of the centuries, though 
very convenient, and in the main correct, is sometimes misleading, and 
is so in this instance. The width of the joints is a useful dietinction 
between early and late Norman building ; but a laige proportion of 
the buildings of the eleventh century in England are not Norman, and 
the distinction does not apply to the AnglO'Saxon buildings. 

Formerly, it Is true, I did not acknowledge that there was any 
Anglo-Saxon ityle. but I am not ashamed to acknowledge that further 
observation during the last forty years has made me see that this was 
an error, though the best informed people of that time agreed with 
me, and considered all these pre-Norman buildings as debased Boman 
only. Bictman and his &iends considered these Duildings to be before 
fhf year 1000, and overlooked the eleventh century altogether, which 
was a very important building era.' The best authorities in foreign 
fronntries consiuer that the debased Boman continued to the year 1000, 
and after that time the national characters began to he introduced, and 
this seems to be equally the case in England. In the early part of the 
eleventh century the buildings were usu^y small, rude and clumsy ; 
but a rapid improvement was going on before the Norman Conquest, 
and was stopped by the introduction of the Norman st?le in England, 
but not so in Oermaoy for a much longer period. 

Tour obedient Servant, _____ 


Oxford, Nov. 22, 1877. 

> See Viollet k Dnc, "Dictionnwrp I uml Styles," translated by W Collett- 
Ae I'ATchitectiiw," lot Fiance, and SFindara, for Oermany. 
Boseagart^n, " Handbook of Architec- 


3 by Google 

(Tfie 3rct)solostcnI journal. 



The authorities for the history of the memorable Siege 
of Colchester, in the summer of 1648, are not, on the 
whole, so complete as those for some of the other great 
events dimng the Parliamentary War. The only eye- 
witness who has told the story in anything like satismc- 
tory detail is Matthew Carter, the Quarter -Master- 
General of the insurgent forces, under the command of 
the Earl of Norwich. He, of course, gives an account of 
the siege from the point of view of his own side. The 
people of Colchester have a very different story to tell, 
which is condensed into the cunous tract entitled " Col- 
chester's Teares." This tract, with ita quaint title, was 
re-printed in 1843 by Mr. W. Wire, of this town. Three 
tracts, describing separate events in the siege, will be 
found among the King's Pamphlets in the British Museum. 
The particulars of the siege, from the Parliamentary point 
of view, may be gathered from the pages of Rushworth, 
and some additional facts of importance from the Tanner 
MSS., from letters in the Fairfax Correspondence, and 
from Lord Fairfax's own short memorial. The real searcher 
after truth will confine himself to these contemporaneous 
sources of information. I fear that it is too frequently the 
case that Goldsmith or Hume are tlie authorities of those 
who form and e?(press opinions on events of the Civil 
War. If we desire to do justice to both sides — to the 
besi^ers as well as to the besieged — we must banish from 
our minds all political bias ; the two sides must be to us, 
not Royalists and Roundheads, but the forces of Lord 
vot. xzxnr (No 1^4). Q 


Norwich and Lord Fairfax, both ruled by the praeticM of 
civilized warfare — both enjoying the privileges, and 
subject to the recognised pentuties, of martial law. 

In order to understand the positure of affairs when the 
siege commenced, it will be well to cast a glance at events 
which immediately preceded it. Essex had, with the 
other associated counties, escaped almost entirely from 
the misery of being the theatre of war. The mass of the 
people and many of the chief men, such as Sir Thomas 
Honywood, Sir Harbottle Grimston, and others, had 
taken the side of the Parliament, and the King's party 
had never succeeded in making any head in the county. 
The citizens of Colchester were staunch Parliament men, 
and made short work of the Royalist leanings of the Lucas 
tamily, which had hitherto possessed considerable influ- 
ence in the town. In 1644 the zealous townsmen seized 
upon Lord Lucas, destroyed his house on St. John's 
Green, and even broke open the family vault. This 
family of Lucas had been much connected with Colchester 
for nearly a century, John Lucas, the Town Clerk, 
bought the site of St. John's Abbey after the dissolution, 
and his son, Sir Thomas Lucas, was Recorder of Colchester 
in 1575. The grandson of John Lucas, also Sir Thomas, 
had four children, the eldest born before marriage. The 
rest were, John, created Baron Lucas by Charles I in 
1644, whose heiress, Mary, married the Earl of Kent, and 
is the ancestress of the present Countess Cowper and 
Baroness Lucas; Sir Chai-les Lucas, whose n;mie is in- 
dissolubly connected with the siege of Colchester ; and 
Margaret, the literary and eccentric Duchess of New- 
castle. With the exception of the Lucas family and a few 
others, Colchester and the county genendly were for the 
Parliament ; and, before the insiurection broke out in 
Kent, in the spring of 1641, it was supposed that the 
arbitrament of battle had been decided, and that peace 
had been restored to the country. The question had been 
fully fought out and settled. 

In calling the men who disturbed this settlement, and 
renewed the disturbances, insurgents, I use the word in 
no disparaging sense. I siniply wish to express a fact, 
and to make a clear distinction between them and the 
belligerents of the wai" that had come to an end. This 


was a new insurrection. The outbreak in Kent was 
promptly suppressed by Lord Fairfiix, but there were 
plots in other parts of the country, and the time of 
Colchester's sufiering had arrived. Hitherto the war 
clouds had kept cleai- of Essex, but now, at the last 
moment, they burst suddenly and fiercely over its chief 
city. There was little warning. It was not imtil the 
middle of May, 1648, that the tumults broke out in 
Kent, and in the beginning of June the Earl of Norwich, 
beaten and baffled, fled across the Thames and made his 
way into Essex. At Chelmsford he was joined by Lord 
Capel, Lord Loughbon)ugh, Sir Charles Lucas, Sir George 
Li^e, and Col. Farre, with reinforcements, collected m 
Hertfordshire and Essex ; and here ten Parliamentaiy 
Commissioners were seized as hostages. On the lOtii 
of June, 1648, Lord Norwich marched from Chelmsford 
at the head of 4,000 men. This was on a Saturday. 
Late in the afternoon of the following Monday they 
approached tliis city by the Lexden road, and found the 
gate closed, and a body of armed citizens drawn up across 
the road. Sir Charles Lucas, with the advanced guard, 
galloped forward, followed by the main body, forced his 
way through the obstructing citizens, killed one of them, 
and then the gates were thrown open. The intention of 
the insurgent leaders was only to remain at Colchester a 
day or two, and then to march into the Midland Counties, 
where they hoped to receive reinforcements. But the 
rapid approach of Fairfax made them alter their plans. 
They conceived it would be impossible to continue their 
march with so active an enemy m their rear, and resolved 
to stand a siege. This decision was fatal to their cause. 
AH the leadera of the insurrection were thus entrapped, 
and the prolongation of the siege only added to the 
BufiEerings of the people, without in any way rendering 
the prospects of the insurgent leaders more hopeful. In 
a mflitary point of view, the decision .to await the result 
of a siege was a gross blunder. A retreat to the Midland 
Counties, even if ending in a hurried flight, would have 
been wiser. 

George Goring, the old Earl of Norwich, was a man of 
wit, and was excellent company. But he was no general; 
had been abroad with the Queen dui-ing the greater part 



of the civil war, and had little military experience. Nor 
were his officers able to supply the deficiencieB of their 
chief. Capel was an honourable and chivalrous nobleman, 
who had joined the insurrection at the urgent request 
of the King. He had seen some service in the West 
Country ; and Lord Loughborotigh headed a regiment of 
"blue coats" at Naseby. But neither had ever shown 
any capacity for command. Sir Charles Lucas had served 
for a short time in the Low Countries, and was at the sack 
of Breda. " Though brave and a gallant man to follow in 
battle, he was at all other times of a nature not to be lived 
with, rough and proud, and of an ill understanding. He was 
a mere soldier, unfit for any society but that of the guard 
room." At least so says Clarendon, and we gather much 
the same account from his sister. Yet as a soldier he had 
always failed. Beaten and taken prisoner at Marston 
Moor, he made a weak and unintelligent defence of 
Berkeley Castle; and was again beaten and taken prisoner 
at Stow-in-the-Wold, on the 23rd of March, 1646. He 
then gave his parole of honour never again to take arms 
against the Parliament until regularly exchanged. Sir 
George Lisle, judging from his antecedents, was the best 
officer in Colchester. He was knighted for his gallantry 
at Newbury, and led a brigade at Naseby with some 
ability, where he was wounded, being afterwards taken 
prisoner at Leicester. Clarendon says of him that to liis 
fierceness and course he added the softest and most 
- gentle nature imaginable. Subsequently be was Governor 
of Farringdon, and surrendered that town on the same 
terms as Oxford, on Jime 24th, 1646, the officers under- 
taking never again to serve against the Parliament. 

With reference to the events after the surrender of 
Colchester, it must be borne in mind that Sir Chas. Lucas 
and Sir George Lisle had given their words of honour, the 
former at Stow-in-the-Wold on the 23rd of March, and 
the latter at Farringdon on the 24th of June, 1646, not 
again to take up arms against the Parliament. They 
liad deliberately broken faith, and received the pimishment 
which, by the laws of civilized warfare, now, as then, was 
due to such an offence. Moreover they were acting in 
this way, with their eyes open to tne consequences. 
Early in June, when Lord Fairfax was at Canterbury, 


he distinctly excepted men who had broken their parole 
of honour from any amnesty. Later in the same month 
he directly warned Lucas, by letter, that he had forfeited 
his honour, being a prisoner on parole, and, therefore, 
was not capable of trust in martial aflairs. Lucas could 
not deny the fact. The excuse he made was, that 
he had compounded for his estates since he gave his 
parole. But this act was merely to enable him, by pay- 
ment of a fine, to retain his possessions, on condition that 
he lived peaceably under the new order of things. It was 
an agreement with the civil power, and in no way released 
him fi\)m his mihtary obligations. 

Another leader was Colonel Farre, who was a deserter 
from the Parliamentary army. The other leading oflScers 
of insurgents were Bernardo Guasconi, a foreign adven- 
turer ; Sir William Compton with the remains of the 
Kentish fugitives ; and Colonels Shngsly, Culpepper, 
Tilly, Tuke, and Bard. Matthew Carter was the quarter- 
master-general and historian of the siege. The garrison, 
thus assembled, numbered 3,400 foot and 600 cavalry, in 
all, 4,000 fighting men. The ten Parliamentary Commis- 
sioners captured at Chelmsford were retained as prisoners, 
to be made use of as occasion might suggest. 

At the outset. Lord Norwich had the advantage of a 
large superiority in numbers, and a very strong position. 
Standing on the summit and side of a steep hul, looking 
to the north and east, with the river Colne TnaVing a 
circuit round its northern and eastern side, Colchester is 
a place of considerable natural strength. The walls were 
then complete, forming a parallelogram which enclosed 
118 acres. They were, and what remains of them are, 
seven to eight feet thick, of large flints imbedded in hme, 
with sever^ courses of Roman nricks, the whole having 
become, in the course of centuries, one solid mass. In the 
centre of the western wall there was, and stUl is, a semi- 
circidar bastion, called the halhon ; in which was the 
principal inn of Colchester in those days, with the sign of 
the " King's Head." The north wall, running along the 
base ■ of the hill, and 'fiicing the Colne, was of the same 
massive character ; and the eastern w^ had small semi- 
circular flanking towers, intended for musketeer or for 
light ordnance. The south wall also appears, from the 


plan in Cromwell's " History of Colchester," to have liad 
flanking towers. A ditch was carried along the swampy 
meadows at the foot of the north wall, and up the w^tem 
hill side. 

Tliere were four gates and three posterns in the walls of 
Colchester. Near the western corner of the south wall, 
at the end of Head street, was the Head Gate, whence a 
lane turning sharp to the west, called Crouch street, leads 
to the London road over Lexden common. In about the 
centre of the south wall was the Scherde Gate Postern, 
whence a lane led to St. John's Gate House. Near the 
east end of the south wall was St. Botolph'a Gate, which 
opened on to Magdalen street, and the road to the Hythe. 
In the centre of the east wall, at the end of High street, 
was East Gate, whence the road, crossing the nver by a 
bridge, led to Ipswich. In the north wall were the North 
Gate at the foot of the steep North Hill, and the Rye Gate 
Postei'n, leading to a ford over the Colne, near a water mill 
called King's or Middle Mill. There was also a postern in 
the west wall, opening on St. Mary's Churchyard. On the 
highest part of the town, overhanging the west wall, is 
the Church of St. Mary's ad tnuros, with a strong square 
tower of the same materials aa the town walls themsdves, 
having massive buttresses at its angles. The old castle 
is some distance within the walls, and therefore did not 
come within the plan of the defences. 

The defenders were strong enough to occupy the exten- 
■ eive ruins of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Jonn's, outside 
the Scherde Gate Postern, and the ruined house of Lord 
Lucas, They also held the Hythe, the port of Colchester, 
and fortified St. Leonard's Church there. They had time 
to scour the surrounding country, and bring in stores of 
provisions ; besides securing large supplies at the Hythe. 
But Fairfax was not a man to let the grass grow under 
his feet. He was close at their heels. On Sunday, the 
11th of June, the day after they left Chelmsford, he 
crossed the Thames at Gravesend, and advanced to Brent- 
wood. Leaving the main body to follow, he then galloped 
across the coun^ to C^geshtul with an escort often men, 
where he found Sir Thomas .Honywood at the head of 
2000 Essex Volunteers. He was reinforced by Colonel 
Whalley's regiment, and on the 13th, only a day after the 


anival of Lord Norwich in Colchestei', Loi-d Fair&x 
inarched across Lezden Common, and Bummoned the he- 
si^ed to surrender, 

A large body of Suffolk Volunteers had occupied Ney- 
land bridge, and the other passes over the river Stour, to 
oppose any attempt of the besieged to escape northwards. 
For the siege Lord Fairfax eventually had four troops of 
horse, under Major Deshorough, six troops under Colonel 
Whalley, five trooje under Major Coleman, three troops 
under Commissary General Ireton, and two troops of dra- 
goons, in all about 1,200 cavalry. His foot consisted of 
a complete regiment of ten companies, commanded by 
Colonel Barkstead, seven companies under Colonel Need- 
ham, some companies of Ingoldsby's re^ment, and half a 
regiment led by Admiral liainsboroiigh. On the 18th, 
Colonel Eure arrived from Chepstow with four companies, 
This brought up the number of regular infantry to nearly 
3,000 men, besides the Essex and Suffolk Volunteers. 

Thus commenced the siege of Colchester, which lasted 
from the I3th of June to the 28th of August, an interval 
of 75 days. It may conveniently be divided into three 
periods : — 

1st, the period during which Fairfax was taking up his 
positions from June 13tn, when he summoned the town, 
to July Gth, when the besieged made their great sortie by 
the East Gate. 

2nd, from July Gth to July 20th, when all the outposts 
of the besieged were driven in. 

3rd, the period of the close blockade, from July 20th to 
August 28th. 

Ist Period. Taking up Positions. 
June XZth to July \Qili. 
On the 13th of June, after Lord Norwich had refiised 
to surrender, the advanced brigade consisting of the regi- 
ments of Needham and Barkstead, with Wlmlley's horse, 
and some Essex Volunteers, assaulted the Head Gate 
with great fury. The defenders, gallantly led by Colonel 
Farre, the deserter, came down Crouch Street to defend 
the approaches, and there was a fierce hand-to hand fight 
which lasted several houre. The besieged had occupied 
ground called Sholand and Boroughjield, but at last they 


were driven back, and retreated within the Scherde Gate 
Postern, and the Head Gate, closely followed by Bark- 
stead's men. ITiere was a desperate stnt^le to dose the 
Head Gate, Lord Capel bravely leading on his men on 
foot, pike in hand, and he fastened the gate for the 
moment with his own cane. It was late at night before 
the action waa over, when several hundred slain were left 
under the walls. Among those who fell was that gallant 
Yorkshireman, Colonel Needham, the companion of Fair- 
fax at Selby and Marston Moor, and in many a hard 
fought skirmish beyond Trent. 

After a careful reconnaissance, and taking into conside- 
ration the formidable defences and the great numerical 
strength of the besieged, Lord Fairfax resolved to take 
the place by a regular siege. He, therefore, fixed hia 
head-quarters at Lexden, and commenced the besi^ng 
works by throwing up an earthwork in the Sholand, facing 
St. Mary's Church, which was named Essex Fort. His 
plan was first to open ground along the west side of the 
town, from Essex Fort to the Kiver Colne near the North 
Bridge, and then to occupy points along the left bank of 
the River, and on the south side of the town, finally 
closing in on all sides. After completing Essex Fort, 
Lord Fairfax steadily continued his siege operations, 
breaking fresh ground every night, and running his 
trenches from one small sconce or redoubt to another, 
until he had completely closed up all approaches to the 
town on the west side, between the Lexden Road and 
the river. 

The besieged certainly sliowed great want of enterprise 
in not commg out and giving battle to the besiegers 
before the arrival of Colonel Eure and other reinforce- 
ments. After the General had been ten days before the 
town, the Colony of Flemish hay and say makers, which 
had been established at Colchester in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, petitioned to have free trade with London 
during the siege. Fairfax, always anxious to mitigate 
the evils of war, considerately agreed to allow tEese 
industrious cloth workers to hold a market on Lexden 
Heath, \\ith freedom to sell or take their goods back, as 
the case might be. 

On the 20th June the works on the west side were 


completed, and operations were commenced againBt the 
north and south walls. Colonel Eure crossed the Colne 
near a hamlet called llie Shepen, and threw up a work in 
front of the North Bridge, called I^ort Ingolaaby. Fort 
Rainsborough was next thrown up, opposite the ford at 
Middle Mill. The besiegers thus gained a footing on the 
left bank of the river, where they were joined by 2,500 
Suffolk Volunteers, who encamped on Mile End Heath. 
At the same time Colonel Barkstead was ordered to throw 
up a redoubt across the road to Maldon, facing the Head 
Gate ; and here the defenders made despeiate attempts 
to hinder the works. On the 26th they sallied out in 
force, but were driven back beyond their own guard house, 
where the hour glass for setting their watches was cap- 
tured, and carried oft in triumph. By the end of the 
month Lord Fairfax was strong enough to extend his 
operations and occupy the chief positions on the left bank 
of the Colne ; and on the Ist of July Colonel Whalley 
took Greenstead Church, opposite the Hythe, and erected 
a battery in the churchyaid. The Suffolk volunteers also 
seized a water mill at East Bridge. 

2nd Period. Diiiing in of the Outposts. 
July 6th to July 20th. 

Lord Norwich now found himself nearly surrounded, 
and, in consultation with his officers, a great saUy was 
resolved upon from the East Gate. Accordingly, on the 
6th of July, Sir George Lisle and Sir Charles Lucas, with 
200 foot and 500 horse, marched oiit of the East Gate and 
down the long hill to the bridge. The Suffolk men fired 
upon them from "behind a breastwork at the bridge head 
as they advanced, but their position was carried by a rush, 
and Lucas led his men across the river, some nmning over 
the bridge, and others wading through the water. Flushed 
with success, instead of securing the important ground 
they had gained, they then charged up the hill towards 
the windmills, where they were met by Whalley's horse, 
and thrown into confusion. They fled back into the town, 
losing many killed and wounded, and the position at East 
Bridge was recovered by the besiegers. On the 14th of 
July some Suffolk Volunteers took the Hythe with little 
VOL. XKxiv. a 


Opposition, and made prisoners of the garrison, consisting 
of 80 Kentish fugitives. 

On the 1 5th of July, Lucas and Lisle, knowing that the 
consequences of having broken their parole would be 
serious to them, made an attempt to escape in the night. 
They forded the river at Middle Mill, intending to make 
for Neyland Bridge, and so get away into Suffolk, but their 
guides felled them, and they were obliged to go back into 
the town by the Rye Gate Postem. On the 18th they 
made another attempt to get away, and repeated the ex- 
periment on several succeeding nights, until the discontent 
of their own followers was aroused. 

After the occupation of the Hythe and the East Bridge 
the General determined to complete the leaguer by driving 
the besieged out of St. John's Gate, and their other ad- 
vanced posts beyond the south wall. The first step was to 
silence a eaker, which was planted on a platform in the 
frame of the bells in St. Mary's Tower, and which caused 
considerable annoyance by enfilading the trenches near 
Barkstead's fort. Two ^dcmi-culveyuis were brought to 
bear on the Tower, and,' after about CO rounds, one side 
was breached. Lord Fairfax then opened- fire on the 
position occupied by the besieged among the ruins of St. 
John's, and having opened a breach with two cidvcyins, 
he led Barkstead's regiment to the assault, and drove the 
defenders into the old Gate House. Here they made an 
obstinate stand, and repulsed several assaults. At l^t. 
eight guns were brought into position, undercover of which 
a storming party advanced, placed laddere and eft'ected an 
entrance. There was then a sharp hand-to-hand fight, 
which ended in the retreat of the surviving defenders into 
the town through the Schenle Gate Postern. The besieged 
were now closely confined witliin the walk of the town. 

Srd Pcnod. The Close Jilockade. 
July 20th to August 2Sth. 
We now come to the period of the close blockade. After 
the water mills on the river were captured, the besieged 
set to work with horoe and hand mills, and constructed a 
rude wind-mill on the top of the Castle, which was, how- 
ever, knocked over by a shot from Rainsborough's Fort^. 
Scarcity now began to be felt, and on the 20th of July 


the garrison commenced the eating of horse flesh. The 
trenches were advanced close up to the south wall, and a 
redoubt was thrown up in Berry Fields, between Magdalen 
street and the East Hill, when a determined sally of the 
besieged from St, Botolph's Gate was repulsed. On this 
occasion Lord Fairfax, who was always somewhat too 
reckless in exposing his person in action, had a very narrow 
escape. He now removed head-quarters from Ijexden to 
the Hythe. As August set in, the sufferings of the be- 
sieged became very severe, Tliey had nothing but. horse 
flesh, and cats and dogs. The wretched townspeople were 
worse off than the soldiers, and the cruel treatment they 
were exposed to from Su- Charles Lucas and liis followers 
is recorded by the citizens in their tract, entitled " Col- 
chester's Teares." lielief was now alffiolutely impossible, 
and the prolongation of the misery of these people was 
utterly indefensible conduct, from a military point of view, 
(in the part of the leadera of the defence. On the 11th of 
Augiist the stores were nearly empty, the magarine would 
not maintain two houra' fight, and the clamours of the 
townspeople for a surrender began to be echoed by the 
soldiers. Negociations were attempted, hut Lord Fairfax 
steadily adhered to his original terras— quarter for the 
soldiers and suboixiinate officers, but the leaders must 
surrender at dLscretion. Lucas, Lisle, and other officers, 
then determined to make another attempt at escape, in- 
tending to break through on the night of the 25th of 
August and leave the men to shift for themselves. But 
the soldiers became mutinous when tliey discovered the 
intention of the officers to desert, and agreed to kill them 
if they attempted to stir. Then the clamour for a sur- 
render increased, and the men swore that if conditions 
were not agreed to, they would make them for themselves. 
At last Commissioners were sent out to accept such 
conditions as Lord Fairfax would offer. Before he would 
ti-eat, he insisted upon the hberation of the unfortunate 
Parliamentary Commissioners, Articles were then agreed to 
and signed at the Hythe on the 27th of August, at about 
ten o'clock at night. All horses, with saddles and bridles, 
were to be collected at St. Mary's Church and delivered 
over at 9 a.m. All arms and colomB were to be deposited 
in St. James's Church. All soldiers and officers imder 


the j-aiik of captain were to have fair quarter, sun-endering 
in Friar's 1 ard, by the East Gate, at 10 All 
superior officei-s were to assemble at the King's Head Inn 
by 11 a.m., and surrender to mercy. The total number 
that surrendered was 3,471, of whom 3,067 were common 
soldiers, 324 subordinate officers, 65 servants, and 75 
superior officers. In reply to enquiries it was clearly 
explained In writing, that fair quarter eiisured to the 
soldiers their lives, clothing, and food while prisoners: and 
that surrendering to mercy signified surrender without 
assurance of quarter, the general being free to put some 
to the sword at once and to leave others to be dealt with 
by Parliament. The town waa to have paid £14,000, but 
Lord Fairfax remitted .£4,000, and £5,000 waa levied on 
Royalists throughout Essex, so that Colchester got off 
with £5,000, of which £2,000 was given to the Essex 
volunteers who had left their homes at great incon- 
venience, and £1,000 to the poor of the town. The rest 
(£2,000) was the prize money of the besiegers. At about 
two in the afternoon of the 28th of August, Lord Fairfax 
entered the town of Colchester, and rode round it. He 
then returned to his quai-ters at the Hythe, and a court- 
martial assembled at the Moot Hall to try Sir Cliarles 
Lucas, Sir George Lisle, Colonel Farre, and the Italian 
Guasconi — the two first for having broken their parole of 
honour, Farre as a deserter, and the foreigner for piracy. 
Farre managed to escape, and Guasconi was pardoned. 
Lucas and Lisle were found guilty, the facts being noto- 
rious and incontestable, and they were condemned to be 
shot. They were executed on the green on the north 
side of the castle at about seven p.m. Their bodies ■were 
interred under the north aisle of St. Giles's church. The 
reasons which induced Lord Fairfax to confirm the 
sentence of the court-martial are stated in an official 
despatch dated from the Hythe on the 29th of August. 
They are : Ist, " the satisfaction of military justice ;" and 
2nd, " avenge for the iimocent blood they liave caused to 
be spilt, and the trouble they have brought upon the 
town, this country, and the kingdom." 

Commiseration may he felt for the fate of these brave 
soldiers. Sir George Lisle appears to have been a gallant 
and amiable officer : but there is nothing either to respect 


or admire in what is i-ecoi-ded of Sir Charles Lucas. Their 
private eharacters are, however, quite beside the question. 
An officer who accepts his freedom on parole, on condition 
that he does not serve again, and who is afterwards taken 
in arms, deserves death. This is the mihtary law of all 
civilised nations, as much in the 19th as in the 17th 
century. It is a law which is observed, and which must 
be observed, for without it all honoiirable intercourse 
between hostile forces would be impossible. Lord Fairfax 
could not have indulged in any desire he doubtless felt to 
show mercy ; for an example had become absolutely 
necessary, owing to other Royalist officers having broken 
their paroles, among them so well-known a veteran as Sir 
Thomas Glembam. It is high time to protest against the 
injustice of accusing Lord Fairfax of cruelty, or even of 
undue harshness in sanctioning these executions. He 
always proved himself, on scores of similar occasions, to be 
the most generous and lenient of victors, and he un- 
doubtedly felt the confirmation of the sentence of the 
court-majtial to be a most painful, though a most neces- 
sary, duty. It is no light matter that, in order to furbish 
up the sullied reputations of mere guard- room soldiers, an 
accusation of cruelty should be brought against a great 
and good man, whose only thought through life was to do 
his duty to his country without one thought for himself. 
The accusation is utterly untenable, and historical truth 
demands that it should cease to be repeated. After the 
executions, the other officers were assured of fair quarter 
as prisoners of war. Lords Norwich, Capel, and Lough- 
borough were sent to Windsor Castle, the latter escaping 
on the road, and reaching Holland in safety. In February, 
1C49, the two Lords were tried for their lives. The 
casting vote of the Speaker saved the old Earl of Norwich, 
but Capel was condemned by a majority of three in the 
House of Commons, His execution was cruel and un- 
necessary, and in my opinion, that majority was guilty of 
a judicial murder. 

As soon as the prisoners had been dismissed, a grand 
review of the besieging ai'my was held on the 29th of 
August. Unluckily it was a very rainy day, btit the 
soldiers shook hands with each other, salutes were fired, 
and the Volunteere returned to their' homes. Lord Faufax 


then devoted some days to his ftivourite pursuit — 
archfeology, carefully examining the Roman remains here 
and in this neighbourhood. Eventually, with his troops, 
he marched north from Colchester, arriving at Ipswich on 
the 7th of September. 

Thus ended this famous siege, and Colchester, bleeding 
at every pore, ruined, impoverished, and half destroyed, was 
left to recover gradually, and with the sure aid of time. 
But it was many years before the old city was restored to 
the prosperity it enjoyed before the tiery l.ucas broke 
through the weak line of opposing citizens and entered the 
Head Gate. The calamity came upon her suddenly, and 
almost by accident. The war was over, and a month before 
that fateful 12th of June, or even aweek before, thehorrors 
of a siege seemed almost an inipossible contingency. 
When they did come the people of Colchester seem to have 
borne the extremities of suffering as became brave Enghsh 
men and women. Their descendants may look back on 
the conduct of the inhabitants of Colchester, ever 
staunchly faithful to the cause of the Parliament, with 
feelings of pride ; and the memorable siege will for ever 
give a special historical interest to the old city. The 
general outlines are but little altered. Nearly every spot 
mentioned by the nan-ators of the events of the siege can 
etisily be identified and in many instances even the ap- 
pearance of the localities is httle altered. So that a 
detailed examination of the positions of the besieged and 
of the lines occupied by the besiegers will long continue 
to be a very interesting, as well as a profitable, historical 

3 by Google 


By the Bev. C. R MASSING, M.A. 

The monuments to which I have the pleasure of calling 
the attention of the Archseological Institute have been 
more or less noticed, in the pages of Gough, Bloraefield, 
Lysons, and others, but have never been accurately de- 
scribed, and from the somewhat retired situation of the 
parish where they remain, in a sadly injured and neglected 
condition, are known but to very few. Yet they are fine 
and interesting examples, and in some points present pecu- 
l^jities which render them worthy of publication. It 
may add to our interest in them to think that their con- 
templation seems to have given to the indefatigable anti- 
quary, Richard Gough, his first impetus to the study of 
this branch of antiquities, a taste which residted in the 
production of his magnificent work, the " Sepulchral 
Monuments." He says : — " They were some of the first 
objects of my antiquarian contemplation, in the frequent 
excursions to their chiu-ch ot Burgh, with my respected 
friend and tutor, the Rev, Dr. Bamardiston, of Benet 
College, who then served the living for the late Dr. Green, 
Bishop of Lincoln, Master of the college. They recall to 
my remembrance the many pleasing hours spent in their 
neighbourhood during four years' residence at the Univer- 
sity, now thirty years ago. ' O noctes coenaque Deum.i* " 

Burgh Green is a village in Cambridgeshire, on the 
borders of Suffolk, about two and a half miles from the 
Dullingham Station, near Newmai-ket. The Church has 
now but little in it of interest beyond these monuments, 
and has greatly suffered during the worst period of archi- 
tectural neglect. It has a deep chancel, a rather short 
nave, and two aisles, with a south porch and a western 
tower. There was formerly a chantry chapel on the north 
side of the chancel, belonging to the family of De Burgh, 

» Sep, Mot., L. Pt. ii., p. 820. 

Dci-zec by Google 


from which, at its demolition, some of the monumenta 
now in the chancel were removed. There was another 
chantry on the south side. The east window of the chan- 
cel is Decorated, of the middle of the 1 4th century, and 
one window of the same style remains on the south side. 
The only indication of earher work in the Church is in the 
sedilia and piscina, which are Early English. The latter 
is a double one, with round shafts and trefoil arches. The 
sedilia arches are not trefoiled. High up in the walls are 
some remains of battlemented corbels, supports of a former 
roof, which preceded the present ceiling. The chancel 
arch has been destroyed, but the shafts remain, each sup- 
porting an incongnious marble urn, The nave has three 
arches on each side, with Decorated pillars. The aisle 
windows have lost all tracery, and the roofs have been 
modernized, with dormer windows. There is a plain font, 
dated 1G72, with a low cover surmounted by a dove. The 
tower is small, and has a good window of two Ughts at 
the west end. 

The manor of Burgh, before the Norman conquest, be- 
longed to Queen Edith, wife of Edward the Confessor, 
who had large possessions in the county, and as this is the 
only one of her manors where a deer-park is described in 
the survey of Domesday, Lysons observes that " it is most 
probable that she had a palace here for her occasional 
residence." " Near the village, and near to a wood still 
called Park Wood, within the demesne of the manor, is a 
moat about 12 feet deep and 30 feet in breadth, inclosing 
somewhat more than an acre of ground ; without the 
moat are the remains of a keep, and other traces of build- 
ings ; there can be little doubt that this was the ancient 
site of the manor." ' If there are any of these remains to 
be seen now, they would appear worthy the attention of 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society.' The Conqueror gave 
the manor to Alan, Earl of Brittany, and we subsequently 
find it in the family of Burgh. In 1330 Sir Thomas de 
Bnrgh had the king's license to impark his woods at 

' Ljaons' Ctunb. p. 96. 

' I havo since lucerlainad that thn two othor aimilnr moate in the parish. 

moatexirta. There nrs do remnins of Bureh Green HrU, near the chmth, i« 

matonry vithin it ; nor of any earihnn nn old honse, with Bome remains of the 

mound. It is of equare form, irith ai\ aixteectb century ; and probably occupies 

enlmnce on one side only. There uro a more ancient site. 


Bui^h.' From them it passed by an heiress to the family 
of Ingoldsthorpe and their descendants and representa- 

There are now three canopied tombs remaining, with 
six effigies, two of them being on the floor at the east 
end, partly built over. Much conftislon has ensued from 
their removal from the destroyed chapel, and it is some- 
what difficult now to identify them. They are thickly 
coated with yellow wash, and the parts nearest the ground 
are a mass of green mould. Ail the painting and heraldry 
is now obliterated, unless preserved beneath successive 
coats of wash. In Philpot's Cambridgeshire Collections 
in the College of Arms, some poor drawings of the figures 
are given, with pedigree and arms.' There is also a pedi- 
gree in Richmond's Visitation by Camden, 1619, with 
additions, in the British Museum.' To these I will refer 
in enumerating the diiferent tombs. 

1. The earliest effigy, which I will caU No. 1, now lies 
on the middle tomb of the three. This does not appear to 
be the one mentioned by Gough as that of Sir PnUip de 
Burgh on the south side of the north aisle, cross legged, 
iinder an arch, which seems to have been lost, but of his 
son Sir Thomas. The knight is clad in the armour of the 
middle of the fourteenth century. He wears the usual jupon 
with a baldrick, and the camail, and a pointed bascinet . 
Over hie camail is a collar, but any devices on it cannot 
now be made out. His head is much disfigured, and rests 
on his tilting helmet. The most remarkable point in the 
effigy is that his body is half turned on the right side, 
his right arm being being placed on his breast {his left is 
partly concealed by the wall buUt upon him), and havmg 
held a tilting spear ; his left leg is crossed over the right, 
and he lies on a bed of large pebbles. The foot rests on 
a lion. Traces of colour appear in various parts. I am 
only aware of two other monuments in England repre- 
senting knights thus lying on a bed of pebbles — one at 
Ingham, Norfolk, of Oliver, Lord Ingham, 1344, and the 
other of Sir Roger de Kerdeston, 1337, at Reepham, in 
the same county. Both these are engraved in Stothard. 
The meaning of the bed of stones has been variously ex- 




plained. Weever, speaking of the Ingham effigy, says 
that "being a great traveller, he Heth upon a rock." 
Blomefield raJls it a "mattress."' In Murray s Guide it is 
" lyine upon a rock, as if ahipwrecked ; " and the half 
turned position is described by another as " ready to 
jump up on his feet." It may have been only a fashion 
of the time ; or a sculptor's peculiarity. Its occurrence 
seems to be only associated with these few examples of 
knights' effigies, half-turned, all of nearly the same date. 
The present instance appears" to be about 1345, and is a 
late example of a cross-legged figure. On the eastern end 
of the arch, under the canopy, are marks of the place 
where the feet of a knight's effigy reached the waU, the 
figure having been forcibly torn away, so that the impres- 
sion of the soles of the feet as it were remain. This is a 
proof that the figure of Sir Thomas de Burgh did not 
belong to this tomb or canopy, and indeed the architec- 
ture of it would be twenty or thirty years later than his 
armour. This canopy is beautifully double foliated and 
cinquefoiled, deeply recessed, of ogee shape, with crockets 
and finial, and side pinnacles. The altar tomb on which 
the effiOT rests is low, and partly hidden by the raised 
floor. It had three large shields witliin quatrefoils on 
the side. On the same slab with the knight is now placed 
an effigy of a lady, of which I will speak imder No. 4. 

2. Sir Thomas de Burgh married a Waldegrave, of the 
adjoining parish of Westley Waterless. His son, Sir Tliomaa 
who mamed the daughter of Roger, Lord Grey of Ruthin, 
appears to be the one next mentioned by Gough as 
" grandson to the founder, Sir Philip," and having a monu- 
ment here representing him with a chain. This I take to 
be the tomb and figure to the east of No. 1. It repre- 
sents a knight, apparently in banded mail, with a jupon 
and horizontal baldrick, camail and pointed bascmet, a 
sword and dagger, his head on a helm, and his feet on a 
lion. His hands hold a small object, probably a heai't. 
There is now no appearance of a chain. The date would 
be about 13G5. This tomb is higher than the other two. 
It has a lofty cinquefoiled canopy, with a four-centred 
arch under an ogee one, with a shield in a circle in the 
spandriL The tomb has no panels at the side. 

No. 3. The son of this Sir Thomas was Sir John de 

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Bui^h. Goxigh says, " He was stately entombed at 
Burgh with one of his wives. He gave the advowson of 
Swaffham St. Cyriac to the convent of Ely. In his will 
dated 7 Ric. II, J 384, he mentions Mary, his first wife, 
buried at Anglesea Abbey, Cambridgeshire. Katharine, 
his second wife, in her will dated 1409, bequeaths her 
body to be buried in Burgh Church, and wills that Sir 
John Iiiglethorp and his heirs should be lords of Burgh 
and jjatrons of the chantry there." Tliis Katharine was 
an Engain of Stow Quy, Cambridgeshire, I suppose the 
tomb to the west of No. 1 to be his, although there is no 
second eflBgy of a lady there now. He is ^ad in armour 
very similar to No. 2. He has an escalloped jupon, and 
may well be of the date of 1384, The tomb below is the 
same as that of No. 1, and the canopy above very similar 
to No. 2. His hands also hold a heart, or other object. 

No. 4 is the lady's effigy lying on the same slab with 
No. 1. She is dressed in the sideless garment and mantle, 
with buttons or studs of a square form, from the waist 
nearly to the feet. Her hands hold a heart. Her hair is 
coiled in a net, with a fillet above the forehead, very 
much like a small brass at Long Melford. Her head rests 
on a double cushion, supported by a single angel, whos.- 
wings reach to her shoulders. There is no animal at her 
feet. This costume is of about the year 1410, and it most 
probably represents Katharine, second wife of Sir John de 
Buigh, whose will is dated 1409. 

No. 5 is the male eflBgy on the floor, below the tomb 
No. 2. This is a rather remarkable one, and there is less 
doubt as to the person represented, or the date. He is 
in armoiu-, but has no camail or gorget, or bascinet. He 
is bare headed, with flowing locks, confined by a roll or 
band. Appended to this roU was formerly to be seen a 
buckle hanging on the forehead, but there is no trace of 
it now. It is so mentioned by Gough, and by Blomfield 
form a note of Le Neve's.' He wears a jupon and hori- 
zontal baldrick. On the right armpit is a large roundel. 
His feet rest on a Hon. Unfortunately this figure is 
divided down the middle by the tomb No. 2. It appears 
that it was once on an altar-tomb of its own, described as 
a stately monmnent on the north side of the Chancel, with 

Bkmofidd, Norfollc, \a., 120. 


statues of himself and his lady ; he in complete armour, 
with a sarcoat of his arms, and a collar of S S. about his 
neck.' This is Sir John Ingoldsthorp, who married Eliza- 
beth, daughter and co-heiress of Sir John de Burgh. By 
his will, dated the Thursday after All Saints, 1419, and 
proved July 8, 1420, he gave £20 to the chantry at 
Burgh, and l^acies to the churches at Tilney, Emneth, 
Bainham, Ingoldsthorp, Snettisham, Norfolk, and Swaff- 
ham Bulheck, Cambridgeshire, in all of which places he 
held lands. 

No. 6 is the figure of a lady beside No. 5. It may be 
that of Elizabeth de Burgh, his wife, but she is a foot 
taller than his efEgy, being seven feet in height, and 
therefore it seems unlikely that she was on the same slab. 
It is a fine figure, of about the date 1420, dressed in a 
long sleeved garment with a falling collar. Her hair is in 
two large coils, with a jewelled band, supported on a 
double cushion. Her hands are broken on. The feet 
rest on an animal The will of Elizabeth Ingoldsthorpe 
was proved 12th February, 1421. 

There was formerly another large tomb m tlie middle 
of the Chancel, as Gough relates, with brasses of the 
grandson of the last named Edmund Ingoldsthorp, son of 
of Thomas Ingoldsthoip of Burgh Green, by nis wife 
Margaret, daughter and heir of Walter De la Pole, of 
Sawaton and Trumpington, Cambridgeshire, who married 
Joan, daughter of John Lord Tiptoft, of Burwell. His 
brass represented him in armouv without a helmet, his 
head resting on a bull's head couped, in a coronet, (his 
ci-est)* with a Latm inscription, part of which was as 
follows : 

Sponeavit Comitie de Wjrceter ille Bororem 
Ajuio milleno quater et CCCG quoque deno 
Ecce dies bioa Septembris quaudo trina, 
Uilitis hajis erat. 

He died 1456. 

The arms of Buigh of Burgh Green were Argent, on a 


!es8 indented, sable, tliree bezants ; and tbose of Ingolds- 
thorpe. Gules, a cross engrailed, argent. The drawing in 
the College of Arms shows this brass, with the arms on a 
banner, and also those of Neville, Waldegrave, Engain, 
Cromwell, Bradstone, De la Pole, and France and England, 

Gough adds to his account that Mr. Waterton of Walton 
Hall, Yorkshire, (a name since well known 'to antiquaries 
and naturalists) is one of the heirs general of this family, 
which expired in co-heiresses, one of whom married Sir W. 
Assenhall, and the heiress of Assenhall married Waterton, 
temp. Henry VI, who, on the division of the Burgh 
property, had the manor of Walton. {See Pedigree.) 

There are stones in the Chancel at Burgh Green to the 
following persons : — Anthony Gage, D.D., rector, died 15 
December, 1630; Attiis — 1, a saltire ; 2, two birds 
(swans 1) ; 3, three bulla' heads, couped ; 4, two birds' 
claws and legs in saltire. \* illiam Wedge, died 29th 
April, 1850, aged 21. Mary Ann, wife of Rev. C. 
Wedge, rector, died 20th June, 1863, aged 75. Rev. 
Cliarles Wedge, 69 years rector, bom 9Qi September, 
1780, died 28th March 1875. In the Nave :— Richard 
Holt, gent., servant to Sir John Gage, Knight, and Sir 
Anthony Gage, Knight, his son, both lords of the manor ; 
died about 6th Marcn, 1637, in his 77th year, leaving his 
master, Sir Anthony Gage, his sole executor. 

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Carrying out the plan which I first proposed to the late 
Mr. Albert Way, who strongly advised its being put into 
practice, I now publish the first of an annual series of 
papers on the discoveries of Britanno Roman inscriptions 
during each year. 

The late year (1876) haa not, with the exception of the 
great " find at ProcoUtia, been very prolific of discoveries 
of this nature. The first one, with which I am acquainted, 
took place near the site of the Roman station at South 
Shields, where, on the T 9th and 20th February, several 
tombs were exhumed, foiTned of stone slabs, on ground 
belonging to Mr. James Pollard, near the end of Bath 
street, — which contained bones, &c. Near to these was 
found a portion of a Roman tombstone bearing an inscrip- 
tion. All that could be deciphered was 

D. M. 

the rest being worn away. 

At Charterhouse on Mendip, two inscribed pigs of lead 
were found, the first in June, and the second in July. 
The first bore on its upper surface the inscription 


On the side was also the following inscription ; — 


The length of the pig was Ifb. Sin, ; its width at the 
base 6 inches, and at the top 5 inches — the slope from the 
inscribed upper side to the base 6 inches, and the weight 
about 143los. This is the first pig of lead found entire, 
bearing the name of Vespasian oruy. In the others the 
name of Titus also occurs. We learn from this that the 
date of the pig is early in the reign of Vespasian, between 


A.D. 69 and a.d. 71, in which last year Titus became 
associated with his father in the empire. The abbrevia- 
tion VE has not before occurred on any of these pige. 
Dr. McCauI proposes, for the last three words, the expan- 
sion ex myfentaria) ve(na) which is probably correct. 
The second pig found in July was of similar weight and 
size to the other, but was only inscribed 


i.e., Imperatoris Vespasiani Augusti. 

In the metropolis, during the demoUtion of some old 
houses in Camomile street in October, a portion cf the 
Rjman wall of London and a bastion were laid bare. 
Built up into the wall were many interesting sculptured 
fragments, and a fragment of an inscribed stone, but un- 
fortunately the only letters visible on it were 

Whilst pursuing his researches at Carrawburgh, (Pro- 
eolitia) during the summer, Mr. Clayton unearthed the 
upper portion of a small altar inscribed 

and has probably read when entire Mntribiis Coh^ors) I. 

Batavorum, C(ui) Pfraeest) V(otum) Sfohit) 

L(ibens) Mferito). Two small fragment of inscribed 
slabs were also found, but the lettering was too faint to be 

In the month of October Mr. Clayton commenced the 
excavation of a small well or reservoir, about 150 yards 
distant from the western rampart of Procolitia, and 
which had been noticed since the days of Horsley (1732). 
It was lined with massive masonry, measuring inside 
8ft. 6in. by 7ft. 9in., and was a little over 7ft. in depth, 
Horsley describes it as being filled with rubbish, nearly 
to the surface, but the water rising in it was "a good 

A few years ago owing to some mining operations in a 
lead mine about two miles distant, the spring wid a 
rivulet flowing ftx)m it suddenly disappeared. 



Within a foot of the surface, the excavator came upon 
a masa of copper coins of the lower Empire epread over 
the whole surface. " Part of a human skuU, the concave 
part upwards, was found here filled with coins." Im- 
mediately underneath were a number of small altaiB, with 
broken bowls of Samian ware and glass ; also bones of 

At three feet in depth were found two ornamental in- 
scribed earthenware vases, and the coins had reached the 
period of the higher Empire ; with them was a sculptured 
stone representing three water nymphs ; below this were 
more altars, vases, brooches, rings, dice, mixed with 
quantities of coins, continuing to the very bottom, and at 
the bottom was a large inscribed votive tablet. The 
earliest coin was one of Claudius, a.d. 42. Mtuiy 
thousands of them were secured by Mr. Clayton, but 
visitors attracted to the spot carried away several 
thousands more. They were considerably corroded with 
the exception of about sixty of Hadrian and Antoninus 
Pius, which seemed quite new, and had been preserved 
in the clay at the bottom of the well. The coins of these 
emperors greatly preponderated amongst those of the 
higner Empire, and from their newness seemed to prove 
that the deposit commenced at that period. The couis of 
Claudius, Nero Vespasian, Ac, seemed considerably worn. 
The deposit extended as late as the reign of Gratianos, 
and embraced three gold coins and a few score of silver 
ones. Those of the Constantino &mily and of Gratianiui, 
&c., were at the upper surface of the deposit, and on each 
side of the votive tablet at the bottom was found a small 
altar. Twenty-four altars in all were found, of which 
eleven bore inscriptions. Two vases and the votive 
tablet were also inscribed. The inscriptions were aa 
follows : — 




D I E C O V F, 



N T r N E A 






B T V S 






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(10) (11) (12) 





VT. I 1. BAT. LM 





CV 1 ••• j 'SA I TV I E I Nl I GA IIV 

Of these I would read No 1 as De(a)e Coventine 
Aurdiua GrutXLS Gennan{wi) : ' To the goddess Coventina 
Aurelius Grotus a German.' 

No. 2 I read, Deae Cove{n)tine Ghvtus V{o)t{um) 
L(i)be{n)s S{o)lvi{t) Pro the close of the inscrip- 
tion being obliterated, though it was probably Se et Suis : 
' To the goddess Coventina Grotus Willingly performs his 
vow for (himself and his}.' Mr. Clayton reads the end of 
the third and commencement of the fourth lines as Utibes 
and the remainder as S{olvtt l{iben3) v{otum) pro (salute). 
It will, I think, at once be seen, that this is an error. The 
dedicator is doubtless the same person named in No. 1, 
Aurelius Grotus. 

No. 3 has one or two peculiarities. I read it as Deae 
Nimfae (for Nymphae) Coventine Madunus, Germ{anus) 
Pos(uit) pro se et su{is) V{ptum) S{olvit) L{ibem) M{erUo). 


In English ' To the goddess Nymph Coventina, Madunus, 
a German, places (this) for himself and his (family). He 
performs his vow willingly to a deserving object.' 
Nwifae frequently occurs in epigraphy as an abbreviation 
for Nynvpkae. Mr. Clayton reads the name of the 
dedicator as Ma{nlius) Duhus. I think that there is 
little doubt of his name being Madimus, especially as we 
find the name gamidianvs spelt as gamidiahvs in 
an inscription at Birrens, in Dumfriesshire, where the 
fiiist cohort of the Germans were stationed. 

Na 4 I think should be read as Deae Coventine Coh{ors) 

I Cugernofum Aur{diana) C{ut) (^Prae)est Mr. 

Clayton does not venture upon a reading beyond the 
word Cugernorum, which in the original is erroneously 
spelt as Cvheiiio^-um. The only other known inscription 
left by this cohort in Britain is on a milestone found on 
the line of the Antonine wall. From the Malpas and 
Riveling diplomas we find, that it was in Britain in a.d. 
103 and in a.d. 124. The discovery of this inscription, 
seems to enable us to give the true reading of part of the 
inscription on the altar to Minerva found at the same 
station in 1875. {ArchaologicaJ Journal, vol. xxxiii p. 34). 

No. 5 appears to be De{ae) Conventine. Optto 

Coh{orti3 I) German{orum). As Aurelius Grotus and 
Madunus are described as Germans, they probably be- 
longed to this cohort, of which we also find traces at 
Birrens, {as I have said previously), at Netherby, and 
near Bowness, on the wall of Hadnan. 

No. 6 is plainly Deae Saiictae Covontine Vinc&itius 
pro salute sua v{otum) Haetui) l(ibe)is) m{erito) d{icavit). 

No. 7 is somewhat obscure at its termination. The 
commencement is Deae Minervae Venico; the next lines 
may be read as pro salute The last line is pos{uit) but 
the s after it, unless again followed by v (as Mr. Clayton 
considers it to be) is puzzling. 

No. 8 reads plainly Deae Conventinae Bcllicus V(otuin) 
S{olvit) L{ibens) M{erito) P{osuit). The use of two I's 
for E is common. The name of the dedicator " Bellicus " 
occurs on an altar found at Tretire, Herefordshire, 
(Hubner, No. 163). 

No. 9 is D{e)ae Covent{inae) Nomatius V(ptum) 
S{olvtt) L{ib€n3) M{erito). Mr. Clayton gives the dedi- 
cator's name as Nomateus. 


No. 10 can only be read aa fer as the middle of the 
second line — i.e., Deae Cowentine. 

No. 11 18 still more obliterated, D(ewi) Co{vcntitiae), 
being all that is visible. 

No. 12, which is on the lai^ votive tablet found at the 
bottom of the well, is plain, and reads Deae Covventinae 
T{itus) D{omititis) Cosconianus, Pr{aefectus) Coh{ortis) 
I Bat{avorum) L{ibens) m{erito). The first cohort of the 
Batavians by inscriptions and the Notitia Ust, appeal- to 
liave been for several centuries at Procolitia. 

No. 1 3 occurs on one of the vases in four compaitments, 
and the lettering is very rude. The second letter in the 
third line of the second compartment and the third letter 
in the second line of the fourth compartment are identical, 
and seem like an s reversed, with the lower extremity 
widened into a leaf shaped form, which Dr. HUbner, 
to whom a copy of the inscription was sent, reads as B. 
Dr. Hubner reads the whole as Covetina A{v)gusta Votu 
Manibus Su{is) Satuminwi Fecit Gahinius, and thus 
makes the vase to be dedicated by Saturninus Gahinius, 
and to be the work of his own hands. The chief objection 
to this is, the interpolation of/ecit between the two proper 
names, but which ever way the inscription is read there 
appears to be a difficulty. Possibly this is as ^ood a 
reading as can be obtained, but I am not satisfied with 
it, or with my own as pubhshed in the Newcastle Daily 
Chronicle, Dec. 27th, 1876. 

The last of this series of inscriptions is still more rude. 
It occurs upon another and similar vase. The first com- 
partment 1 have rendered c v, as the first letter seems 
too curved for an i, otherwise this and the letters of the 
next compartment resemble mostly i v | s 8 1. The first 
letter in the second Hne of the seventh compartment is 
the peculiar one rendered as B in the last inscription. 
From the third to the seventh compartments, inclusive, 
is doubtless to be read as Saturni GabiniiirS. Is the first 
of these names in the genitive 1 If so, and the true 
reading of the first two compartments is i v 8 a v, we get 
Iiissu Satumi{ni) Gahinius 'wiihfecit understood, shewing 
that Gahinius made the vase by order of Saturninus. 
This would imply a different reading for the last inscription, 
which the position of the -word, feat in it seems to justify. 


It will be noticed that various fonus of the name of the 
goddess occur in the inscriptions. It is spelt Covetina, 
Coventina, Conventina, C<yvontina, and (foweniina ; in 
one she is called a nymph, in another she has the title of 
Augusta. The former title only occurs in one other 
inscription found in Britain, conjoined with the name 
of the goddess, which is Deae Nyvvphae Briganttae 
(HUbner, No. 875V The title of Augusta has not been 
found previously m Britain as applied to a nymph, but 
several examples occiur upon the Continent. 

In hie account of the discovery read before the New- 
castle Society of Antiquariea, Mr. Clayton described the 
nrnnifimatic portion of this find as the contents of a Roman 
military cheat which had been deposited in the reeervon 
as a place of safety. I immediately published my own 
views of the subject, which were that the whole of the 
coins, altars, vases, fibuUe, rings, &c., were offerings to 
the goddess Coventina. Both theories had at the outset 
numerous partisans, and this led to a lively correspondence 
in the Newcastle press, but the result, I am glad to say, 
has been in my favor. The number of discoveries exacuy 
similar in their nature is considerable, and it requires but 
a knowledge of them, to ascertain at once the meaning of 
the contents of the reservoir at Procolitia. In 1852, in 
clearing out the reservoir at the watering place of Vicarello 
a few miles from Rome, there was found an immense mass 
of Roman copper coins from the earliest Etruscan tim^ to 
the Imperial period. Upwards of 24,000 pounds weight 
were sent to the Etruscan Museum in the Vatican. Out of 
a great qxiantity of gold coins found, a considerable number 
foimd their way, I believe, to the British Museum. Votive 
oflferings of various descriptions occurred, medals bearing 
inscriptions to Apollo as tne presiding god of the spring, 
and a series of gold and silver vases, the former being 
preserved in the library of the Vatican, and the latter at 
the Kircherian Musemn at Rome. Three of the latter 
were inscribed with the Itinerary from Rome to Cadiz, at 
different dates.' In 1 875, at the French Spa of Bourbonne 

' The celebrated "BodffB Cup," found vrs probnbly thrown in as a TOtiTe offar- 

in t, veil at Hndge in Wiltahirs in the in^ot Ihii nature. A nomber of Boman 

' last oentoiy, hoarin^ the namei of flvo couu wsn with it. 
Doinan towns inicnbed arouiLd its nm 


les Bains, in cleaning out the reservoir 4,000 bronze coins, 
300 of silver, and a few of gold were found at the bottom in 
the mud, together with rings, statuettes, bronze pins, and 
a number of stones inscribed to a god Borvo and a goddess 
Uamona. The coins ranged from Nero to Hononua (see 
Times, February 2nd, 1875), Inscriptions to those deities 
had previously been found in the neighbourhood {Orelli, 
No. 1874, and Henzen, No. 5880) and, lite Pi-ocolitia, 
the foundations of a temple were viable round the spring. 
At the source of the Seine, similar discoveries took place 
some thirty five years ago, a goddess Sequana being 
worshipped there (Journal of British Arch8eol(^cal 
Association, voL ii, p. 404). In June, 1875, at Horton in 
Dorset, at the source of a small brook, a number of vases 
containing coins were found. And at the "Abbot's Well," 
near Chester, where the celebrated aJtai- to the " Nymphs 
and Fountains " was discovered in 1821, vases and coins 
have frequently been foimd. But these instances of spring 
and river worship were not confined to reservoirs, where- 
ever there was a bridge, a ferry, or a ford, coins, Ac. were 
invariably thrown in as ofierings to the presiding god or 
goddess of the stream. In this way it was that the 
enormous masses of coins, fibuhe, statuettes, &c. found in 
the Thames when new London Bridge was being buUt, 
some forty-seven years ago, were formed. Great masses 
of the eame natuie were found in removing the old bridge 
at Kirkby Thore in 1838, and the ford of the Komanroad 
at Latton near Cirencester has afibrded a similar yield. 
The sources of the Exe and the Slea have received many 
offerings, if we may judge by the coins and vases dis- 
covered, and the site of the old bridge over the Tjne at 
Newcastle has produced a large number of coins. Many 
other instances might be adduced, but the above wiU, I 
think, suffice.' A representation of the goddess seated, 
floating on the leaf of a water lily, is sculptured on the 
votive tablet. She has a branch of palm in her hand. 

Mr. Clayton, also, recently discovered in a turret of the 
wall between Prucolitia and Cilumum a centurial stone, 
inscribed rudely : — 

> Dr. HcCnn), in b letter to me, tajs, BrvMlitia. I h&ve nevir had a doaU 

" Ton ratber iDTpiue me by stating: that that they were tlirowa in, as an offering 

Qiere baa been a doubt about the mode to Ootrntina." 
in irhicb the coina got into the well at 


apparently c{entuna) Adauct{ii) Piid{eiit{s).* 

In the fifth volume of the Proceedings of the Ijondon 
and Middlesex Archseological Society (Evening Pro- 
ceedings), just published, Mr. C. Roach Smith engraves 
and treats of a Roman leaden seal, found Amongst the 
ruins of buildings at Combe Down near Bath. It bears 
on one side, apparently, the figure of a deer at rest, round 
it are the letters — 


Mr. Roach Smith reads it P{lumhum) Br{ita7micitm) 
S{ignatum). I do not think this correct, but will at 
present (untU we have more light thrown on this class of 
objects) refrain from giving a reading. 

Two other inscriptions nave also been recently found at 
York, as follows : — 

(I) (2) 


N I, I V S 




The first is the right hand upper portion of a tombstone, 
and apparently has commemorated Manlius Cresces, a 
veteran of the sixth legion. The second, which was 
presented to the York Museum (where the first is also 
preserved) by Canon Greenwell, was found a few years 
ago, but has remained unpublished. It is on a frs^nent 
of a small tablet of slate or green stone, finely polished, 
which seems to have been originally enclosed in a frame 
of wood. A most interesting sarcophagus, inscribed to 
the wife of Verecundus Diogenes, has also been found, 
but as the discovery took place in 1877 I must defer an 
account of it to my next, 

A few other previous discoveries remain to be noticed. 
In the Lincoln, Rutland and Stainford Meivui-y (pub- 
lished at Stamford), July 18, 1845, is an account of some 
excavations in High street, Lincoln, where Roman coins 

' A tombstone and centurifil stone 
have bean found on the line of the wall 
•ince the 7e«rl877 eomniBnced, but they 


and bases of pillars were found. It ia said ; " On Wed- 
nesday afternoon (July 16) the workmen discovered some 
huge worked stones aL about four yards irom the present 
surface ; these have evidently been plinths to some pillars 
supporting a Roman building. On one is an inscription 
which, as well as it could be traced, consists of the follow- 
ing letters : — 


Most probably this is incomplete, as in all likelihood it 
was continue along the fellow plinth. Al! the earth 
above the level at which the stones were discovered is 
made ground." Immediately upon seeing this I conjec- 
tured that Miother portion of the same inscription was 
that foiind in the last century, reading — 

and described by Gongh in his edition {180G) of Camden's 
" Britannia," vol. ii, p. 392. It was said by Gough to he 
" On the hollow moulding of a stone found m the east side 
of the old Roman wall below the hill at Lincoln, on 
making the new road, 1785, lying near a number of large 
atones, in a situation which seems to imply that they had 
been thrown down from a considerable building." These 
stones were three or four feet below the surface, and some 
had mouldings. I had also no doubt but that the letter 
T was hgulate with the h in the 1 845 inscription, so that 
the second word woidd read thrvpo, a name foimd in 
several inscriptions in England. On commvmicating my 
views to Dr. Hilbner, he replied, " If measures, form of 
stone, Ac. are corresponding, there is no reason why 
the fragments {A)poLLiNEs{rvM) and vic thrvpo 
mercvbesivm should not have been parts of the same 
epistyle of a buUding bslonging perhaps as schola to 
some collegia or sodalitia Mercunesium et Apollinesium ; 
societies for the worship of Apollo and Mercury. If it 
was a large epistyle there is no hope to find out a probable 
restitution, vie may be an abbreviation for (deae)vic- 
(toriae). Thnipo thus can be the name of the dedicant 
of a temple to her, and he may have been Mercunesium 
et {A)poUines{iu7n servus) but all this is, of course, very 

At Silchester Mr. J. Wordsworth tells us in the 



Academy, April 18, 1874, there was found a tile bearing 
the inscription scratched on it. — 

Is this name Birgaius ? 

In the first volume of the Transactltms of the London 
and Middlesex Archseological Society (Evening meetings), 

{). 121, my friend Mr. H. C. Coote described another of the 
eaden seals found at Brough-under-Stainmoor. On the 
one side it was inscribed — 

On the other — 

The two I's in the first inscription, not being perpen- 
dicular, but leaning inwards towards each other, may 
stand for the letter a, but as two I's frequently occur, as 
the representative of the letter e, it follows that the 
inscription may read either ala sab(iniana) or ala 
8eb{o8LANa). The second portion is evidently Val(ei-ius) 
Decfurio). Another seal which may also have belonged 
(from its inscription) to a soldier of the Ala Sahinimia 
has been found since the commencement of the present 
year at South Shields. It must, however, be reseived for 
my account of this year's discoveries. 

At South Shields also were found in 1875 these graffiti 
inscriptions on fragments of an amphora ; — 

(1) (2) 


From these fragments nothing can be gathered. 

To the list of " Anuli" must be added a ring of bronze, 
hoop shaped, dug up at Rugby, inscribed within in Greek, 
"Esunera Euneiske." As Mr. Bloxam, who ^vea the 
account of the discovery in vol. i of the Journal of the 
Associated Architectural Societies, p. 227, does not give 
the text of the inscription, and as I am unable to obtain 
it from him, I have not given any supposed version of it. 
Dr. Hubner omits it. At the meeting of the Institute on 
May 6, 1864, Mr. G. Fortescue Williams exhibited, 
through Mc. Bernhard Smith, a bronze ring of the lower 
Eoman empire, inscribed — 




with the device of a. fode or hands conjoined within a 
garland ; on the shoulders are the names rvfvs and 
VIATOR. Mr. Williams informs me that he is ignorant 
where the ring was found, but it was probably discovered 
in Britjun. Dr. HUbner omits it from bis list. 

In the inscriptions given by Dr. Hilbner in his lawe 
work there are a few errors which need correcting, ana a 
few inscriptions need some supplementary remarks and 
emendations, which I think coiud be introduced in the 
most fitting manner in the present paper. 

There are three inscriptions amongst the list at page 2 
of Dr. Hilbner 's work of those which he considers doubt- 
ful, which are certainly genuine. They are numbered 17, 
18, and 19, and are as follows : — 


YOVI, ... 


The first was discovered in the Castle Field, Manchester, 
in 1796, and was on a stone fifteen inches long by eleven 
inches broad, surrounded with a border. It waa described 
by Mr. Thomas Barritt of Manchester in vol. v of the first 
series of the '' Transactions " of the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of Manchester, p. 675, and plate vii, 
fi^re 1 3. It was found in front of the principal entrance 
to the caetrum, and was in the possession of Charles 
"White, Esq. F.R.8., who died in lt!l3, since which time it 
has been lost. At the time Mr. Barritt made the drawing 
for the Society's volume he also engraved the inscription 
upon the handle of an amphora. ' At the place of j unction 
of the handle with the vessel he rudely inscribed a 
memorandum of the dimensions of the inscribed stone 
and the year when it was found, thus " 15 by 11, 1796." 
This amphora handle after passing through several hands 
is now in the museum at Peel Park, Salford, where 
Dr. Hubner saw it and pronounced it a forgery ; he, 
however, appears to have known nothing of the description 
or engraving of the original stone. The inscription is a 
very peculiar one, but the drawing by Mr. Barritt and 
the engraving taken from it seem to differ materially in 

' Chothun Bocicty'ii Proceedings, vol. Utui, p. 16. 



the third Ime. In the former it looks like vovinwv. 
Is this the centurial mark, followed by qvintiani in a 
ligulate form ? Tlie first and second lines are un- 
questionably Coh(p)r[s) J Frisiavo^num). In the last line 
P{edes) xxiiii is preceded by a figure which seems in 
shape like a note of interrogation reversed. 

The second- of these, which occurs on a tile found at 
Leicester, Dr. Hubner says is, " without doubt," the title 
of the sixth legion, instead of the eighth. Having 
inspected the tile, and also having a rubbing of it, I can 
confirm, "without doubt," the reading Lvni. In the case 
of the third, which Dr. HUbner says should probably be 
of the second legion, the discovery of tiles at the same 
place, Caerhun, inscribed leg. xx v v shews that it 
was a portion of one of these latter that had been found. 

In his inscription No. 12, found at Chichester, Dr. 
Hubner Includes Gough's restorations {erroneously), and 
thus makes it appear entire, which an inspection of 
Gough's plate will shew was not the fact. Nos. 67 and 
69 are now preserved in the Gloucester Museum. Nos. 
68, 70 and 71 in the Cirencester Museum ; and No. 74 in 
the wall of a summer- house at Watercombe House, Bisley. 
Nos. 166 and 169 are now in the Chester Museum. No. 
167, which had been reported as lost, I found in 1874 in 
the possession of the Rev. Mr. Prescot, Vicar of Stock- 
port. He died in 1875, and his heirs presented the altar 
to the Chester Museum. In the same place also is No. 
168a, which Dr. Hubner erroneously gives as deae 
MATRi. From personal inspection I find it should be — 

i.e. J)eab(us) Matrilus, &c. 

No. 211 was last heard of in the Leverian Museum, sold 
and dispersed in \%0Q (Chetham Soc. Proc., vol. Ixviii, p. 
54). No. 284 is in the possession of my friend, T. H. 
Dalzell, Esq., of Clifton Hall, Workington ; whilst No. 
285 is built up into the wall of the study at Halton Hall 
near Lancaster. The firet and second lines of No. 415 are 
undoubtedly from a lithogiuph of the stone taken when it 
was first discovered — 


but the upper right hand comer has. Lord I^econfield 
informs me, since been considerably broken. The above 
reading of these lines I first published in the Arckatological 
Journal, vol. xxviii., p. 131. 

With regard to Dr. Hubner's No. 484 a peculiar ques- 
tion arises. In the year 1838, when cutting through the 
Castle Hill at Northallerton, for the formation of the 
railway, amongst a number of other Koman remains there 
was found a stone Ijearing the following inscription : — 


F L A ■ H Y R 

L E ■ V I ■ V . 

(See Ingledew's "Histoiy of Northallerton," 1858, p. 124, 
and the Appendix, in which latter the inscription is given). 
Tliis stone was lost immediately after it was found, but in 
1841 attention was drawn to a stone built into the 
Chapter House of Hexham Minster, inscribed — 

I N s T A N E 


(Gent. Mag., Sept. 1841, p. 302). 

The similarity is so remarkable tha,t the question arises, 
are thej one and the same, the inscription having been in 
the first instance badly read ? In the first line of each 
Tiistante is the word indicated, the second t being ligulate 
■with the N. Dr. Hubner places this stone under the head 
of Hexliam, but omits any reference to Northallerton. 

No. 5026, which Dr. Hubner gives under the head of 
Newcastle, being uncertain where it was found, is evi- 
dently the same inscription as that found at Carrawburgh 
(Procolitixi) described in Abbot's Rainan Wall (1849), p. 

In No. 513, found at Benwell, Dr. Hubner adopts 
Baxter's reading whilst giving a different expansion, but 
both Baxter's and Horsley's readings are erroneous. In 
the Ashmolean MSS. {826, fo. 37) in the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford there is an account of the discovery of this 
stone, with two drawings of it, one of them being in a 
letter from Dr. Geo. Davenport to Mr. Dugdale, dated 
May 30, 1670, a few months after it was foimd. In both 


of these copies the second, third, and fourth lines ai-e thus 
given — 




The I in the last Une is ligulate, being formed by an 
upward prolongation of the last stroke of the N, and is 
probably meant for part of the letter e, the rest having 
been obliterated. In any case the correct reading of the 
etone is established, showing that the word Felix, instead 
of being a proper name, is used in the same sense as in 
the inscription lately found in the forum at Cilurniim 
(Lap. Sept., No. 943). Dr. Hubner's No. 865 found at 
Amboglamia (Birdoswald), and reported both by him and 
Dr. Bruce as lost, I was fortunate in re-discovering at 
Caton, near Lancaster, in 1873. (Vide Lap. Sept. Ap- 
pendix, p. 474). 

No. 948a, c^ven under the head of Drumburgh, was 
certainly not found there, but at Kirkby Thore in 1859 
(Lap. Sept., No. 751). In No. 1021, Dr. HUbner gives 
the third line as ''^AnvN, and Dr. Bruce as falivn. I 
think tliere is Uttle doubt that the letters are f al tvn, 
and are part of the words Pracf {ectus), Al (ae), Tun- 
{ffroi-um). We find the abbreviation al tvn appKed to 
this ala in an inscription found at Burgh upon Sands 
(Dr. Hubner's No. 941). In No. 1047 I take the second 
hue to be Tl trie mil avg, from Hodgson's engraving of 
the stone, taken when it was much more perfect. The 
first I is formed by the upward prolongation of the upper 
stroke of the T, and the abbreviation trib is formed in 
identically the same ligulate manner, as in the ninth line 
of Dr. Hubner's No. 1003. In mil, the i and l are both 
formed by upward prolongations of the first and last 
strokes of the M. 

In No. 1055 Dr. Hiibner reads part of the third line as 
COH I da, but he fails to see that the figure which he gives 
as I simply is a ligulate fi {Lap. Sept., No. 5G5), and that 
it thus forms the word fida, the prefix to the name of the 
cohort wliich garrisoned the station. No. 1082 Dr. Hiibner 
wiU find from the Arch^eologia Scotica, vol. ii. p. 1 63, was 
buried again amongst the rubbish on the sitje of its dis- 
covery. The stoue No. 1085 I agree in calling with Dr. 


McCaul (Brit. Rom. Inset:, p. 233), a milestone, and if 
Dr. Hilbner's reading of the last line . . monti mp is 
correct, it evidently marked the nimiber of miles from the 
place where it was set up to Trimontium. It ia uncertain 
where the stone was found, but it was in the neighbour- 
hood of the Scotch Wall. Trimontium was apparently 
at Newstead near EUdon, in Roxburghshire. Of No. 
1168, which is the Roman milestone, found at Buxton in 
1862, 1 have alreatly given the corrected reading {Archa- 
ologicai Jou^'nal, vol. xxxiii, p. 51). In the Sydenham 
Tabula, No. 1194, I think that in the seventh line the 
cohort of Spaniards named is probably the tenth, as stated 
by Mr. Lysons in the Reliquiae Jinlannico Romanae (part 
4, pi. i). In Mr. Lysons' plate the x seems plain, but of 
late years every trace of a numeral has been obliterated. 
Mommsen {Insci: Neap., No. 5024) g^ves P. Septimius 
Paterculus, who was Praafect of the firet cohort of the 
Pannonians in Britain, as Praef. Coh. X Hispannrum, in 
Cappadocia. In the Riveling Tabula, No. 1095, the name 
of the ala, given by Gough in the missing plate (fifth line), 
as <jv . . . RV, I think ia qv(ado)rv{m). The Quadi v/ere 
a people who resided on the Danube near the Bohemian 
frontier. From a recent inspection of the pig of lead. No. 
1212, found at Chester, I find that instead of the last 
letters being vadon they are probably snadon, or sandon, 
the n in each case being reversed. I consider them as 
being the abbreviation of the name of the town sandon- 
IVM, or SAVDONivM, given byRavennas as existing between 
C'onoviuin (Caerhun) and Deva (Chester), which in a recent 
paper read before the Historic Society of Lancaflliire and 
Cheshire, I placed at Croes Atti, near Flint, where im- 
mense heaps of lead scoriae, mixed with Roman coins, 
fibulae, implements, pottery, &c., occur, and many founda- 
tions of buildings.' 

The inscription on the ring, No. 1304 (corrected in 
Additamenta, p. 31 4 J, I would expand as O(ptimo) 
V(iro) N(umerius) V{otum) S{olvil) L{ibens). I con- 

■ Dr. Eilbnec'i Nos. II73-4 nre now FfiirliiKion of Worden Hall near I'res- 

pi«BerTed lit Lanocliffa noBr Laacnster ton. In the ffiil. of JV, IFala by W. 

by E. B. I>awaon,Ewi. ;hUNo. IITS at CntheraU (UancheBtor, 1828) the first 

Brooriiam Hall by Lord Brougbam, lina of Dr. Hubnor's No. ll84Uj^veii 

- and ue only exampla of the tilea No. m tiVH!<8 iiutend of nthc. Is thia an 

1233 DOW extant ia preserred bj Miea abbreTiation of JVKniiiM/ 


Bider the gift of it, to have been the result of a vow, 
made by Numerius to his intimate friend. 

Of Roman inscriptions which have been found in modern 
times, and again been lost or destroyed without copies of 
them having been preserved, the following are to be added 
to the list already given : — 

A Roman urn, "red-like coral, with an inscription," 
was found at Salndy, Bedfordshire, according to Aubrey 
( ArcJuBologia, vol. vii, 412). It contained ashea. Another 
inscription on a stone which perished by being exposed to 
the wet in a frosty season was found at Cirencester, with 
that to JuUa Casta, in the last century (Stukeley, Itin. 
Curiosum., p. 63). The Rev. Thos. Reynolds, in his Iter 
Bntanniarum, p. 448, says : — -" Kibworth, Leicestershire, 
between Harboroiigh and Leicester. — A stone is said to 
have been found with a Roman inscription upon it. — T.R." 
At Exeter fragments of Roman inscriptions appear to 
have been built up into the town walls, m a manner simi- 
lar to those at Bath ; but while copies of those at the 
latter place have been preserved, those at the former have 
entirely perished. Leland says of them (Hearne's Leiand, 
1 7G9, vol. iii, p. 60), " Ther appere 2 fragmentes of inscrip- 
tions of the Romaines sette by chaunce of later tymes in 
the Town Waull, renewid on the bak side of the House 
Kumtyme longging to the Blah Freren. One of them 
standith in a tower of the Waul, the other is in the Waul 
hard by." 

At Castleshaw, near Saddleworth, Yorkshire, an in- 
scribed Roman stone was also found and destroyed in the 
last centm-y. — AixhcBohgia, vol. i, p. 236. 

Camden informs us that a number of Roman inscrip- 
tions were found on the site of the castnim, at Over- 
burrow, Lancashire (Galacum). They are generally sup- 
Eosed to have been lost again in a vessel in which they 
ad been shipped (with some others) by Sir Robert Cotton 
'and Camden himself, through her foundering. — Gibson's 
Camden, p. 976. 

At Lancaster, in 1776, a Lar bearing an inscription was 
fovmd and again lost ( ArckcBologia, vol. v, p. 98.) Two 
years previously, at Quernmoor, near that town, a number 
of bronze utensils bearing inscriptions were brought to 
light, but dispersed amongst the residents in the neigh- 


bourhood (vide p. 1 05, vol. iv, 3rd series, Transactions of 
Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire). At Kenches- 
ter also within the last foity years inscribed stones have 
been found and destroyed (Wright's Wanderings of an 
Antiqua}^, pp. 39, 40). At Heaaington, in Oxfordshire, 
an inscribed stone, though much obliterated, was found 
among the ruins of a Roman villa in 1848-9 (Journal of 
British ArchiBological Association, vol. vi, p. G6). At 
Tilne or Tylney (Notts) there were found in the last 
century, with other Roman remains, " several agates and 
comeUans, with inscriptions and engravings" (Beauties of 
England and Wales), vol. xii, pt. I, p. 309). In the Win- 
chester volume of the Congresses of the Archseological 
Institute, Mr. Hartshome, in an article on Porchester 
Castle, says at p. 25, "Fragments of Roman inscriptions 
are hmlt into the wall to the right of the entrance into 
the inner baly." As these inscriptions do not appear 
to be visible at the present day, it is to be hoped that 
some copies of them may have been taken by residents of 
the neighbourhood, and that they will publish the same. 
No inscription from this large castnim has heretofore been 

Such are the additional inscriptions for the year 187G, 
and those found previously which have remained inedited. 
My additional notes on those already published seem 
necessary for the completion of the readings of the whole 
series, which I trust are now before the archasological 
world in as complete a state as it is possible to attain. 

P.S. — Since the above paper was written. Prof Hubner 
has published in the third volume of the Ephemeris 
Epigraphica a second supplement to his large work. In 
this supplement, which is entitled " Additamenta Altera," 
the inscriptions found in the well at Carrawburgh are 
included, and as there are a few of them read differently 
from the copies I have given, it seems needful that the 
readings of Dr. Hlibner should be added. In No. 2 Dr. 
Hubner adds A after the MS in the last line, and expands 
it as m{ea)saijute). In No, 4 he reads the fifth line as 
AVE , CAMP, the sixth as bstek..., and the seventh aa 

vol. i, p. 6), ftnd Bome intcribod tiles 
found in the Roman Tilla of Eozby, 
Linoolnthire (vol. vi, 2nd aanta. Fret. 
Sot. of Antiq., p. I IS) are to be added. 


VET In No. 7 he gives the last line as simply p.b. 

with a le»f stop between the letters. In No. 9 he reads 
the second line aa vinoma th, the last two letters being 
ligiilate, and expands it as Vino^nathtts, the name of the 
dedicator. Nos. 10 and 11, which are more eifeced than 
any of the others, he reads as— 

(10) (11) 


TINE N ....... 


A E T . . . . 

. . . A S HI O 
DED .... 

Bxit little or nothing can be made out of these. In 
No. 1 4 he gives the second compartment as CAi. 

I have aJso to add two broken altars, found with others 
uninscribed at the Kingsbolm, Gloucester, in 1 876. They 
are much worn and cannot be distinctly made out. The 
lower part of each is wanting The inscriptions appeay to 
he, to the local antiquaries : — 

'.") (2) 

D . D . E . O 



The first is plainly D{€o) MaHi. The second, I think, 
may be Deo San{cti) Mercvrtn, and the name of the 
dedicator Orivendtis. 

3 by Google 


By O. T. CLARK. 

Among the venerable and, at the least, poetic traditions 
that cluster round the older ecclesiastical foundations of 
Christendom, and of which Ireland has a fiill share, is one 
which explains the origin of the Abbey, best known as 
Muckross, or Mucniss, and the cause of the name of the 
group of limestone rock amidst which it stands. It re- 
lates that Mac Carthy More, the bearer, in the fifteenth 
century, of that distmguished Irish title, being minded 
to found a religious house, was warned in a vision that 
the site of his foundation was to be at ' Carraig-an 
Cliiul,' or the ' Kock of Music,' a place to him unknown. 
Tliose whom he, in consequence, sent forth to search his 
western territory, returning homeward by ' Oirbhealach ' 
or ' the Eastern passage,' between the lower lake of Kil- 
lamey and its rocky boundary, were arrested by the 
sotmds of music proceeding from a rock, wliich Mac Carthy 
accepted as the indicated spot, and where he erected liis 

, The choice, by whomsoever directed, was an exceedingly 
happy one. The celestial concords indeed no longer 
vibrate in the air, but if the eye, like the ear, be admitted 
to be a recipient of harmony, it must be allowed that the 
site is one to commend itself to all beholders, for around 
the sacred spot, wood and water, mountain and glen, 
verdant meadows and over-arching trees are seen in their 
happiest combination, and if art has contributed to the 
beauty of the scene, its efforts are well concealed behind 
the ample vesture of Nature. 

It appears from a record cited by Petrie that a church 
at Irreiagh was burned in 1192, but of this early edifice 



nothuig else is known. The foundation of the existing 
structure is far later, and indeed, as compai-ed \vith the 
adjacent House of Inisfallen, is but as of yesterday. 
The Four Masters ascribe it to Donnell, son of Teige Mac 
Carthy, who was living in 1340, but O'Donovan, their 
translator, points out that it is DonneU, son of Cormac, 
who corresponds to that date, and that the real founder 
was probably Teige Mac Carthy, described on that 
account in the pedigree of the Sept, as Teige -na-Mainis- 
treach, or ' of the Monastery,' the father of another 
Donnell, known as ' An Dana,' or ' of the song ;' and he 
agrees with Ware, that the actual foundation was pro- 
bably some years before 1440, but that the work was 
completed by Donnell in that year. Teige Mac Carthy 
was Prince of Desmond, and recognized by the Sept as 
' Mac Carthy More.' The establishment was Franciscan, 
and lasted till 1589, when the brethren were ejected with 
some violence. Probably the violence did not extend to 
the buildings, which, with their modest demesne of ' four 
acres, two orchards, and a garden, valued at 16s. annually,' 
were granted to Capt. Robert Collon, also the grantee of 
Inisfallen, in 1594-5, This did not prevent the Monks, 
imder Father Holan, from returning hither in 1G02. In 
162G, it appears from a contemporary inscription in the 
choir, the building were repaired by Brother Thadi Ho 
Leni, but only to be inhabited tiU 1629, when the frater- 
nity retired, once more, though for a few years only, 
again to return in 1641. It seems probable, from this 
repeated re-occupation, that the ejected Brethren ever 
lingered about the spot they loved so well, and this may 
account for the unusually perfect condition of the 

The Abbey was naturally the burial place of many of 
the name of Mac Carthy. Mac Carthy More, Earl of 
Clancare or Clancarty, was laid in the centre of the choir. 
Here was also buried in IGOO, Patrick, Lord Kerry, the 
Earl's nephew ; in 1560, Eveleen, daughter of DonnelMac- 
Carthy, son of Gorman Ladhrach, widow of James Earl of 
Desmond, and then of Conor Earl of Thomond ; and, in 
1582, Catliarine, daughter of Teige, brother of the above 
Dojinell, and widow of Wm. Fitinnaurice, Knight of Keny, 
a liidy who passed her latter days in fear and dread, upon 

the adjacent lake, moving from one island to another. 
Others of, or allied to the family, continue to be buried 
within the walls ; and as late as 1804 the Glenciire or 
Clancare gravestone was obscured by a huge ill-placed 
altar tomb to O'Donoghue More, of the Glens, but very 
partially redeemed by an epitaph by Marcus Hare. 

The Abbey is in the barony of Magimichy, and stands 
upon the eastern shore of Ix)ugh Lean,' the lowest and 
largest of the KUlamey lakes, in the bay of Castle Lough, 
one of the numerous inlets of that enchanted territory, a 
few feet above, and about a iurlong distant from, the 
margin of the water. The walls, though roofless and ivy- 
covered, can scarcely be said to be ruined, so Uttle have 
they suffered from time or fit)m violence. The ancient 
name of Oirbhealach, corrupted in Sir James Ware's time 
into Irrelagh, and so recorded in the Irish Monastlcon, 
has in these latter days been iU-exchanged for Muckross, 
a word derived from the swine that fed upon the mast 
shed annually by the beech trees, which with the ash, the 
hme, the oak, and the chesnut, there attain almost gigan- 
tic dimensions. 

The walls, even to the gables, remain perfect. The 
roois have disappeared, with the whole of the timber 
work, but the ground floor of the conventual buildings is 
mostly vaulted, and the stairs of stone, so that the upper 
chambers are still accessible, and the plan and details of 
the whole structure evident to the eye of the visitor. A 
noble yew tree darkens, but gives solemnity to the inte- 
rior court of the cloister, and is fer more in harmony with 
the character of the place than are the heaped-up and 
uncared-for graves of the MacCarthys, whose final spoils 
encumber and disfigure the church, and are out of keeping 
with the ivy-draped walls and the velvet sward of the 
surrounding grounds. 

The establishment consistfl of a church and the conven- 
tual buildings, built against its northern side, and forming 
with it a tolerably regular block of thirty yards square, 
from which the transept and choir of the church project 
towards the south and east. 

The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is composed 

of a nave, soutli transept, central tower, and clioir. The 
cloister is placed against tlie north wall of the nave, and 
the conventual huildings stand outside of and upon the 
cloisters on the three disengaged sides. Tlie church has 
three doors — one at the w^ end, one from the tower into 
the cloister, and one from the choir into the sacristy. 
The convent has outer doors to the west and north, and the 
upper floor was reached by three staircases in different 
parts of the building. 

The nave is 52 feet by 24 feet, interior dimensions. It 
is entered by a west doorway, with an equilateral arch, 
exterior drip, and moxddings of great delicacy. Above is 
a rather small window of two lights, ogee headed, with a 
flat top and drip, with plain returns. Above is a sort of 
hollow projection, or concave table, by means of which the 
parapet is brought forward about two feet, to give room 
for a rampart walk in front of the gable, as in Scottisli 
peel towers. The north wall is blank, save that in its 
upper part is a sort of hagioscope opening from the library. 
In the east end a lofty lancet arch, 7 feet wide, opens into 
the tower, and through the tower into the choir. Above 
the arch is a square chamfered loop, and above that a rude 
square aperture. Both were within the i-oof, the pit<ih of 
which is marked by a stone weather-moulding, above 
which is a small window with one light, trefoiled, beneath 
a square drip, marking the second floor of the tower. 
Above the north wall of the nave, in a projection from 
the tower, is a small square headed door, opening upon 
the gutter, here a rampart walk. In the east wall are 
three corbels, probably for images. 

The south wall is pierced by a large pointed arch of 13 
feet span, which opens into the transept. The wall piers 
are plain, with slightly chamfered angles. The arch is 
more boldly chamfered, and has besides a central rib or 
member, which springs from two polygonal corbels. East 
of the arch is a small, plain, full-centred doorway, of four 
feet opening, the use of which is not clear. East again 
of this is a very long, narrow, lancet loop, boldly splayed, 
which opens between the transept wall and the tower. 

The transept is spacious, 36 feet by 28 feet ; its west 
wall is blank. In its east end is a window of three equal 
lights, each tall, naiTow, and round headed ; and above, 

MuCKROSs Abbey. 

f — ^ t — t^ 

3 by Google 

the muUions are interlaced, so as to form six lights in the 
head. The lights are quite plain, without cusps. In the 
south wall are two ttul pointed windows of two hghts 
each, ogee headed. Between these are two fidl centred 
niches, of 2 feet 4 inches opening and 1 foot 4 inches 
deep, rather high for seats, and too low for images ; and 
in the wall between there is a deep chase or recess 3 inches 
broad and 2 feet 6 inches deep, as though to allow a 
screen to he pushed back. 

The toiver is placed over the junction of the choir and 
nave, which is carried through it. It is 32 feet wide by 
1 G feet deep, or east and west, and its lofty base is pierced 
east and west by an arch 7 feet wide, and north and south 
by another of 6 feet 1 inches, each being divided into 
two parts by its intersection by the other. The nave and 
choir arches are lancet, and strengthened by a chamfered 
rib, springing from plain corbels. The north and south 
arches are in fact plain pointed barrel vaults. At the 
south end this vamt is lighted by a tall, narrow loop, 
having a curious crenellated head, very peculiar. At the 
north end a door lead? into the cloister. The central 
opening of the tower, a space 7 feet by G feet 10 inches 
at the mtersection of the arches, is vaulted and ribbed. 
There is a central boss with two ridge ribs, which are 
abutted upon by twenty springers, five from a corbel at 
each angle. The vault is pierced for a bell-rope. Above 
the vault are two floors, and above the level of the second 
a string course and parapet. This, however, has been 
repaired and partially pulled down, so that it is uncertain 
whether there m^ not have been a third floor. 

The choir, 42 feet by 24 feet, is entered at the west 
end through the tower. In its east end is a large window 
of five narrow lancet lights, and in the head ten hghts, 
the whole very plain and meagre, without mouldings or 
cusps, but a very common Irish window of the 15th 
century. In the north, an equilaterally arched doorway 
opens into the sacristy, and east of this are two ftill 
centred recesses, 6 feet broad by 2 feet deep, containing 
aJtar tombs. Chie has been adapted to a modem intruder. 
It is probable that these tombs are those of the founder 
and his son, this being the usual place of sepulture of 
such. High up near the west end a small door opened 


upon a short wooden balcony, entered from the dormitory' 
and over the sacristy door is another small opening, for 
the convenience of the sick, who could thus take part in 
the service. The south wall is pierced by three windows, 
two of two lights, and one, more westward, of three. All 
are lancet of equal height, quite plain, and placed in splayed 
and low pointed recesses, slightly four centred. Below the 
window cills, next the eaat wall, is first a double piscina, 
with a central and two flanking octagonal shafts and ogee 
arches; next is a single recess, with a trefoil head and 
flanking octagonal shafts, probably a sedUe. West of 
this is a sepulchral recess 4 feet broad by 2 feet deep, 
full centred, an insertion. The choir roof, like those of 
nave and transept, was of timber, with a high pitch. 

The sacristy is a small chamber, 23 feet by 10 feet, 
attached to the choir. It has a small two-light window 
to the east, and to the west a door, leading by a dark 
passage, 17 feet long and vaidted, to the cloisters. From 
this passage a well stair ascends to the dormitoiy. 

The cloister is contained within four walls, and com- 
posed of four alleys, 7 feet broad and 44 feet and 46 feet 
long. In the north and east alleys are five arches, in the 
south and west, six arches, all opening into the cloister 
court, which is about 28 feet square. The western alley 
has an acute barrel vault, quite plain. Tlie south and 
east alleys also have pointed vaults, but groined, as has 
the north alley, though but slightly pointai. There are 
no ribs, and the vaulting shows Iragments of reeds im- 
bedded in the mortar with which the centring was thickly 
spread. The arch piere are double octagons, connected bj 
a sunk panel, and each stands upon a low parapet, and is 
supported from the court by a buttress 10 inches wide 
and of 22 inches projection at the base. Each buttress 
has parallel sides, but tapers on the front, and finally dies 
into a string course above the top of the arches. The 
arches of the north and east alleys are slightly pointed ; 
those of the south and west full centred. 

The cloister lavatory is a mere triangular bin formed by 
a wall six feet long, which cuts off the soutli-west angle 
of tlie cloister. It is said to have been only a support for 
an image, but for this it is unnecessarily large, nor need 
it have been hollow. Probably above the basin was an 

MUCKHoas.- 155 

image. From the court are seen the walls and windows 
of an upper floor resting on the arcades, ^id it thence 
appears that the range on the north and east are of one 
date and slightly pointed, and those of the south and 
west full-centred. Along the top of each arcade runs a 
projecting string, which carries the upper wall, and into 
whjch the buttresses die, so that each arch is enclosed in 
a sort of panel. The string along the south and west 
sides is aoout six inches lower than that on the other two, 
showing a difference in date, though not a considerable 
one, answering probably to the founder jind his son. 
The yew tree alr«idy mentioned stands in the centre of 
the court, and is remarkable for its clean unbroken stem, 
rising about twenty feet before its branches are given off 

In the cloisters are seven doorways ; one from me tower 
of the church at the east end of the south wall, and two 
in the east wall, one from the sacristy, and one from the 
eastern vault. In the north wall one doorway leads into 
the northern vault, which is also lighted by a narrow 
loop placed horizontally. In the west wall is a pointed 
doorway, opening by a passage upon the west front, and 
there are doorways in the passage, right and left, the 
former through a vaulted lobby to a stair leading to the 
kitchen, and to a door in the north front ; the latter into 
a room under the library, which appears to have been 
vaulted, or to have been intended to nave been vaulted, 
and which has three loops into the cloister and two upon 
the west front. A second doorway in the west wall of 
the cloister opens into a straight stair leading by eighteen 
steps to the library. The two great vaults were probably 
cellars and store rooms. One of them, 45 feet by 9 feet, 
is lighted by four loops to the northward, the other, 
46 ieet by 11, has a fire place, a sort of squint or 
oblique loop, and three loops to the eastward. In the 
east wall is a loop, and by its side a small mural gardrobe. 
The loop has probably been blocked, for it now opens into 
a, sort of cess-pit which has been added. 

The upper floor is necessarily of the same general plan 
"with the gound floor, resting upon it, and the room 
having the additional breadth afforded by the cloister. 
Over the sacristy is what appears to have been the 
ii^rmary. It baa a small door which opened upon the 



choir, and in the wall is a fire place and a small window 
In the east end is a window of two lights, and in the west 
end a door leading into the dormitory. The floor was of 

The dormitory, 57 feet by 20 feet, stajids over the 
eastern vault. It has four loops and an oblique loop 
in the east wall and four ottiers opening upon the 
cloister court. Doors in this wall lead into the refectory, 
and what is called the lavatory. In the south end a door 
opened upon the balcony in the choir. Above, to be 
reached by a ladder, is a small door opening into the belfty. 
In the north end is a narrow tall pointed window, and a 
mural passage opening into a gardrobe. In the passage is a 
window of two lights. The gardrobe is an addition, and 
is a room, nine feet by eleven feet, with walls only two 
feet thick, and a loop to the noilh. The floor was of wood 
and the basement seems to have been a cess pit. In it is 
a large drain to the east, and above the ground level. 
In the centre of the dormitory, near its south end, is the 
entrance of the staircase from below, which seems to 
have had a sort of hood, like the companion, or head 
of the cabin stair in a ship. Between this hood and the 
wall a narrow passage, walled off, led into the lavatory. 
The dormitory walls are thick, and the roof sprung from 
corbels along its inner face. The object of this was to 
admit of a broad gutter, for a rampart walk, between the 
roof and the parapet, and in the tower are two small 
doors which opened upon this walk, and upon that of the 
nave. This was, of course, for defence. The dormitory 
must have been very cheerless and cold, receiving but 
little light, and having an east aspect. It has no fire place. 

The lavatomj, entered from the dormitoiy near its 
south end, is a narrow room 25 feet by 8 reet, placed 
over the south cloister. It has two small windows 
to the north looking into the cloister court, and had a 
lean-to roof against the nave wall. In its west end is 
imbedded a large stone trough which conveyed the water 
from the church roof to a spout in the inner court. 
Possibly this was intercepted for the use of the lavatory. 

The refectory stands upon the northern cloister and 
its adjacent vault. It was a cheerful room, 31 feet 
by 20 feet, with two windows of two lights to the 



A Cloiater Cetirl,. 




3 by Google 


court, and two, one of one light only, to the north or 
exterior face. Between these latter, and in the north 
wall, is a recess of 5 feet 5 inches opening and 
"1 foot 6 inches in depth, containing an arrade of two 
pointed arches, divided and flanked by three octagonal 
shafts with bell caps. The recess is six feet high and its 
clU four feet from the ground. This seems to have been 
intended as a station for a reader, whose position must 
have been equally inconvenient whether he sat or stood. 
From this room an east door opened into the dormitory. 
In the west end is a large nre place 7 feet long and 
3 feet deep, with a flat top and a broad mantel piece. 
On each side of it is a door opening into the kitchen. 

The kitchen is 18 feet by 22 feet, resting on the 
vaulted passage and staircase below. Its north and 
south walls are blank. In its east end are two clum^ 
wfdla of 7 feet projection, 2 feet thick, and 8 feet 
apart, which contained the fire place. This has been 
reduced in breadth to 4 feet 6 inches, by thickening 
the walls. The west wall is 6 feet thick, and contains a 
loop and a two light window, and in the block between 
them ascends a mural staircase of twenty-one steps from 
the ground floor. This stair opens into the recess which 
contains the two-light window, and in the opposite side of 
the same recess is a door which opens upon the head of 
the cloister staircase, and, with a western loop, leads on 
to the pulpit door and to the door of the hbrary. The 
pulpit doorway is flat-topped and only 1 foot 9 inches 
wide. It opens in the west wall, at the first floor level, 
and led into a small wooden balcony, the holes for the 
beams of which remain. This wets evidently to enable the 
Abbot (whose personal dimensions must have been 
moderate), to bestow his benediction upon the people, 
assembled in the churchyard below, or possibly for 
occasional preaching. 

The library, 31 feet by 23, must have been a pleasant 
room though, like the rest, rather badly lighted. It was 
directly accessible from the cloisters. It had three single- 
light windows to the west and two to the cloister court, 
and near the south-east comer a fire place. In the south 
wall a hagioscope looked into the nave. This completed 

Dci-zec by Google 

the suite of the conventual accommodation, which, it "wiLl 
be Been, was of a very simple description. 

The Abbot seems to have lived with hie monks, at 
least there is no trace of any private sitting or sleep- 
ing room. The revenues of the monastery were very 
STnall, and the brethren certainly had no inducement 
to indulge in idleness or luxury. It is to be hoped 
that when the Dissolution came it found them faith- 
ful servants, free from the laxity which certainly 
prevailed at that period in too many of the Englisn 
establishments. Muckross has many points in common 
with other Irish Franciscan Abbeys. The single south 
transept is found also at Adare, Buttevant, Dromahiure, 
Kilconnell, Kilerea, Eoeerick, and Sligo. Irregularities 
in the cloister arches are found at Adt^, Askeaton, and 
Quin, and in the centre of the cloister court of the two 
latter is a yew tree, making it probable that these trees 
were planted before the Dissolution. At Adare every 
fourth cloister pier is buttressed ; but the buttresses are 
not taper as here, but have setts off, and are stopped at 
the spring of the arch. The central tower is also a common 
feature, and the door from it into the cloisters. 

The building throughout is of mountain limestone, cut 
as ashlar for the windows and a few of the doorcases, m(«t 
of the latter being mere rude apertures. The wails are 
of rubble, only occasionally coursed. The west door of the 
church is the only one with any pretensions to ornament. 
It has rather a deep splay, occupied by two bands of ogee 
moulding, separated by a square nook. The doors from 
the choir into the sacnety, and those from the cloister to 
the west wid north fronts are also arched and slightly 
moulded. Others, also pointed, have plain, chamfered 
edges. The windows generally ai-e either square-topped 
loops, or long, slender lights of 8 to 11 inches brcMid, 
lancet or ogee headed, and, if more than one, of equal 
height. Probably the small apertures suited the wet 
climate. The whole building seems very nearly of one 
date, but few years intervening between the commence- 
ment and completion of the cloisters. In England, the 
style, so far as it is there foimd, would be called the very 
Late Decorated, but the larger window of the transept and 
choir, and the full-centred i^ecesses would be later. The 

absence of cusps and qxiatrefoUs in the heads gives to the 
two large windows a poverty-stricken aspect. The but- 
tresses applied to the cloLster and piers are unusual, at 
any rate, in the taper form. Upon the inner face of the 
north wall of the choir two plates of limestone are thus 
insmbed in relief : — 


It may be that brother Thady repaired the roofe and 
church fittings. There is no trace of any decay in or 
reparation of the actual walls. 

This is an excellent example of a small and compact 
Franciscan Abbey, fairly perfect, and in its position and 
surroundings very favourable to the practice of virtue, if 
only " fugitive and cloistered." The silence of the woods, 
the deep shade of the mountains, and the lone bosom of 
the lake expanded to the sky, are all favourable to a life 
of contemplation, though there is ample evidence that the 
inhabitants of such places, in Ireland, gave up a portion 
of their time to the pursuits of the arts of jewelleiy and 
of illumination, as well as to the more strictly rebgious 
duties of their profession. 

Muckross is fortunate in its owner. Mr. Herbert does 
all that, and no more than, is necessary to keep the ruins 
in their present condition. The only drawback to their 
appearance is the utter want of taste and even of decency 
in the grav^ and monuments by which the area of the 
church IS crowded, a nidsance wnlch is supported by the 
continued practice of the country, and which probably 
nothing but a general consent could remedy. The area 
should be cleared, the remains deposited, with all due 
reverence, beneath the surface, the gravestones laid flat 
above them, and no more burials allowed, save in the 
exterior churchyard, and there only under restrictiwis of 
position and dimensions in the monuments. 

3 by Google 


This is an island near the centre of Lough Lean, and 
distant about a third of a mile from the point of the 
peninsula named from Ross Castle. It is in area about 
twenty acres, thickly wooded with ash, oak, beech, lime, 
and holly, mostly of large size, and the surface is ex- 
ceedingly irregular, and the shore composed of bays and 
low cliffs, the latter thickly draped with ivy. This broken 
surface or outline, which adds much to the beauty of 
the spot, is produced by the disposition of the mountain 
limestone of which the island is omposed, and which is 
here interstratified with a number of toin shaly beds, the 
whole arranged vertically. 

Upon the island are two buildings ; one, a chapel upon 
a small promontory at the north-east comer, about 30 feet 
above the water; the other a group of walls, a short 
distance inland. They are the remains of InisiaUen Abbey, 
a reU^ous house of great renown in its day. 

The chapel stands east and west, and is rectangular, 
19 feet by 11 feet inside, with walls 3 feet thick. The 
gables remain, and appear to have supported a timber 
roof. In the east wall is a narrow but rather tall loop- 
like window, splayed intemalty, and with a round head 
cut out of a single stone. The recess is also round- 
headed, and the vaulting is supported by a plain cham- 
fered rib. Near the centre of the north wall is a breach, 
where, probably, was a small window. The south wall is 
much broken down, but in it also is something like a trace 
of a window. 

The doorway is in the western wall, and though its 
ornaments are weatherworn, it is in substance quite per- 
fect. The opening is 2 feet 9 inches broad, with a very 
slight but perceptible taper of the jambs. The arch is 
fuU- centred. By way of exterior moulding are two nooks, 
the outer of which is occupied by an engaged shaft, cylin- 
drical, with bases and ca^tals carved in a light and now 
all but efiaced pattern. The ring stones are worked in a 
chevron pattern, never deeply cut, and now scarcely visible. 
The head, is included in a bold member, of a character 
rarely, if ever, foxmd in English Norman, and not easily 


deecribed. The stones are cut in ridge and furrow, radia- 
ting from tile centre, and returned inwardly below, bo 
that ^e pattern is continued in the soffite. It is bold, 
aimple, and effective, and at a little distance resembles the 
chevron moulding, of which it is, in fact, a variety. Above 
is a bold drip or head-moulduig, the under or chamfered 
face of which is set with what appear to be small 
leopards' heads, full faced, or, as the heralds describe it, 
" caboased." It may be that the heads alternate, three 
and three, with heads of a different animal. 

A fireplace has been inserted in quite modem times in 
the north-east comer of the building, the flue of wliich is 
worked into the wall. It is an insertion of the last 
century or later. 

The chapel appears to be all of one date, and that, pro- 
bably, towards the middle of the 12th century. The 
masoniT is imperfectly coursed rubble, riide but substan- 
tial ; the door and window of excellent ashlar. The pecu- 
liar Irish features of the building are its small dimensions, 
the taper of the doorway, and the variety of the chevron 
mouldmg round the head. Possibly some of the Irish 
readers of these pages, conversant with the ecclesiastical 
antiquities of their country, can give the saint to whom 
this chapel is dedicated, and some particulars of ita 
history, which, from its proximity to so celebrated an 
abbey, is probably on record. 

The island of Inisfellen has for many centuries main- 
tained a great reputation for sanctity, and seems from an 
early period to have been in request as a place of burial. 
Hence there is nothing improbable in the general belief 
that its abbey was founded in the seventh century, or in 
the statement that the name of one of its abbots occurs as 
early as a.d. 640. The Irish annals also make mention 
of *' Maelsuthian Ua Cearbhaill, one of the family of 
Inis-Faithleann, chief Doctor of the Western World in 
his time, and Lord of J^oghanacht of Loch Lein .[the later 
Barony of Magunichy], who died in 1008, after a good 
life," and record that "in 1144 died Flannagan of Innis- 
Faithleann, a distinguished ' Anmchara,'" or counsellor. 
The founder of the monastery is generally considered to 


have been St. Finan Lobhor, founder also of Ard-Finan 
in Tipperary, a saint who died late in the 6th century, 
and whoae day in the Irish Calendar was the 16th of 

But InisfeJlen is known to fame not so much for the 
Saints or Chieftains, with whom it has been connected, as 
for the celebrated annals, ecclesiastical and historic, com- 
posed within its walls, and which are regarded by Irish 
critics as dating from the 11th century, and second in 
antiquity only to the history of Tighemach. They have 
been attributed to Maelsuthian, whose connection with 
the monastery has already been mentioned, and who was 
probably one of many persons who at various periods took 
a share in their compilation. 

Of an establishment so famous in the West, and which 
has contributed so largely to the early history of the 
country, it might bo expected that the remains would be 
considerable, or at any rate that their fragments would 
bear witness to the taste and magnificence of the com- 
munity. This, however, is by no means the case; the 
ruins are very restricted in area, were evidently never 
more extensive, and are of the rudest description, both m 
material and workmanship. Not therefore the less, but 
much the more, is honour due to a poverty which has 
erected a monument far more important and more durable 
than any material structure. 

The abbey was composed of a church, conventual 
buildings attached to it, the abbot's house, and a kitchen. 
The church is rectangulai-, with no present distinction 
between nave and choir, and no trace of a tower. The 
door at the west end is at present a mere breach. In the 
fragments of the choir wall may be seen the southern 
jimib of the recess of the great eastern window, and 
contiguous to it that of a south window. Both seem in 
the Perpendicular style, and contain the only trace of 
ashlar to be found in the buildings. The walls are mostly 
ruinous, but the gables remain and shew the roof to have 
been of timber. The area of the church was nearly that 
of Muckross without the transept. 

The cloister was on the north side of the nave, and may 
be traced by its containing walls. Its arches and inner 
walls are gone, A roofless building on the east side of 


the cloister was probably the dormitory, and another to 
the north the refectory. From the dormitory was an 
aperture to the choir, now closed. There does not appear 
to have been an upper floor. 

A bmlding, detached a few yards from the church, 
westward, seems to have been the abbot's house. It 
resembles a lon^ cottage, and is divided into three com- 
partments, of which the eastern was evidently a chapel, 
and the western a kitchen. The central was probaoly 
the sitting and bed room. 

A few yards north of the abbey refectory is another, 
and smaller, detached building, which coutiuns a large 
fireplace and an oven, and was evidently the pubhc 

The whole structure is as simple and rude as possible. 
Such doorways as remain are mere square headed aper- 
tures with rough unhewn lintels. There is no vaultmg, 
no arch, no quoins or dressings of ashlar, save in the 
two fragments of windows in the choir. Still the rude- 
ness has no mark of antiquity, and nothing now remaining 
points to an earlier period than the fifteenth or even 
the sixteenth century. The stones are mere plates of 
shistose limestone, showing no mark of the tool, and 
probably broken by the hammer. Mortar is very freely 
used. The charm of Inisfallen is certainly not in the 
remains of the abbey, which are overgrown with weeds 
and nettles, rude, untidy, and quite devoid of beauty. 
The charm is in the history of the past, and in the natural 
loveliness of the place, which within its narrow and water- 
girdled area includes a considerable variety of scenery, 
rising at one point, which seems to have been the abbey 
cemetery, to near ninety feet. The great attraction to 
Inisfallen is, and ever should be, the monastery for which, 
for centuries, it was famous, but, once upon the island, 
the ruins of that monastery would be the last object to 
engage the attention of an ordinary visitor. 

TOt. XZXIT. ^ T 


By th« REV. W. J. LOPTIE. 

I HAVE attempted in the following notes to sum up the 
present state of our information with r^ard to the history 
and remains of our city as it was before the coming of the 
English and Saxona. The task is not an easy one; too 
much, rather than too little has been written about the 
early history of London : and the accumulation of litera- 
ture resembles that of the made earth above the old level. 
Full fathom five is it buried, and modem London, stand- 
ing on the accumulated ruins of a succession of cities, can 
but peer down into the darkness of twenty centuries, and 
dimly discern a few broad facts, while all else is obscured 
by mystery, fable, and ingenious but embarrassing conjec- 
ture. Just as the city of the present day must be cleared 
away, so to speak, before we can find the older city, so 
the early history must be sought by sweeping at once out 
of sight all, or almost all, that we find in the mediBBval 
and even in the recent works of historians, and an attempt 
be made to reconstruct for ourselves a new view of the 
subject, founded upon the few real facts which we can 
find. Lud and Belin, Troy-Novant, and Llyn Dinas must 
disappear, with St. Helena and her wall, Lucius and his 
church, and the Temple of Diana on the site of St. Paul's. 
We must cast aside tradition and everything built upon 
it. We must use theories and conjectures with the 
utmost caution, if at all, and go to work untrammelled 
and very much as if we have never heard of the place 
before. A very few documentary facts are beyond dis- 


pute, and as we proceed it will be easy to bring them in 
where they come. 

Upon looking at a map' we observe that a great many 
of the early roads pass tMough a point on the northern or 
left bank of the Thames, We observe further that some 
of these roads, contrary to the usual practice, do not come 
straight to the point, but seem to go out of their way to 
reach it. It strikes us at once that there must be a 
reason for this deflection, and a moment's observation of 
the geographical features of the district gives us the 

The narrowest place on the Thames for many miles 
above and below is at a little wharf adjoining Thames 
Street, and just opposite St. Olave's church, on the other 
bank. If the roads had to cross the Thames, it is but 
natural to suppose they would cross it there, and that a 
great city woiud be likely to grow at the crossing. But 
such a supposition would not be strictly correct, because, 
as we have seen, the roads went out of their way to get 
to this crossing. 

Let us take the most remarkable example. The Wat- 
ling Street is still traversed daily by thousands of people 
who have not the slightest idea that what they call 
Edgware Eoad was a highway at so remote a period that 
it may have been old in the days of Jidius Cffisar. Now 
if, as we walk down Edgware Koad towards the site of 
Tyburn Turnpike and the Marble Arch, we cast our eyes 
forward, we observe that the line of the houses in Park 
Lane .runs on, so to speak, with that of the houses in 
Edgware Road. And if we follow the Une thus given we 
find it reaches the Thames at a point in Westminster close 
to the Houses of Parliament, and nearly opposite St. 
Thomas's Hospital. There is an ancient road from that 
point, which traverses Surrey, and which possibly con- 
nected itself with the southern branch of the Watling 
Street &om Dover to Canterbury. The point where that 
old road left the bank of the river is still called the Stan, 
or Stane, gate, as the road beyond was once called the 
Stane Street. But we are going too far afield, for it is 
worth remarking that all traces of the Watling Street 


cease at the Marble Arch, and that instead we have a 
road which we name Oxford Street, rumiiiig due east, 
called in the oldest document in which it is mentioned the 
" militaiy way." It runs eastward untU it comes to a 
stream called the Fleet, there it ascends a hill, winding a 
little on the slope, for the convenience of traffic, and then, 
turning a little to the south, it reaches the Thames at the 
place of which I have spoken, namely, Botolph's Wharf, 
opposite St. Olave's Church. If we look at a map of 
modem London, we see the only part of the old Watling 
Street which retains its original appellation, and observe 
that it runs along part of a line drawn from the crossing 
of the Fleet below Newgate to the narrow part of the 
Thames at Botolph's Wnarf, and that on the opposite 
shore a lane still bears the name of Stony Street. Keeping 
these things, which are not conjectures, but &cts, in 
OTir minds, we must conclude that the Watlinff Steeet 
and the Stone Street met across the river at the place 
of which I liave spoken, that they formerly met at Weet- 
minster, but that, at some very remote period, a reason 
came into existence which made it convenient to cross 
the Thames at Botolph's Wharf rather than at West- 
minster. This reason must have been the building of a 
bridge. It has often been pointed out that, instead of 
being narrow opposite London, the Thames was once a 
lagoon or tidal lake, stretching fixim the base of the line 
of hills on which the city now stands to Nunhead. In 
process of time tliis lagoon was drained and embanked, 
the shaUoweet places were selected for driving piles, 
causeways were made from islet to islet, imtil the lagoon 
became an archipelago, and the archipelago firm ground. 
Then it was that the roads were diverted, the bridge 
built, and a Boman city founded on the south as well as 
on the north side of the Thames. When was this ? 

We are going a little too fest. It must be evident, if 
only from the course of the WatUng Street, that in its 
earliest infancy London was not a place of much consider- 
ation. From a mere fishing village by the side of the 
Walbroofc it may have grown by commerce — maritime 
commerce only — mto a populous little town. It can have 
had no communication, except by ship, with the opposite 
side of the Thames, and must have b^ quite apart from 


the course of either the norttem or the southern end of 
the Watling Street. 

Just here we come upon our first piece of historical 
evidence. We learn from Tacitus* that in a.d. 61 it was 
full of merdiants and their wares, but was undefended by 
ramparts, and a place, except for its comparatively large 
population, of little milita^ importance. It is evident 
that this could not have been, said of a place which was 
the terminus of several roads, and at which the Thames 
could be easily crossed. 

We are driven thus to the conclusion that there was a 
British town, as indeed its British name, still retained, 
Droves, at some place not far from the modem site of 
Ixmdon, and we learn concerning it that, tbough it was 
full of merchants and a great niart, it was not a colony, 
and was not worth the risk of defending it against 
Soadinea. When I call it a British town, I do so because 
of its name, and because, although it may have been 
largely occupied by Roman merchants, it had not grown 
up exclusively under Roman care. 

As to its size at this time, it is as well to acknowledge 
that we know nothing, except that it must have been very 
small. Tacitus speaks of the massacre of seventy 
thousand people by Boadiceain the three towns of Camu- 
lodunum, Verulam, and liondon ; and it has often been 
assumed that this expression points to a population of 
about 30,000. But it is impossible to draw any such con- 
clusion from the text, and it is only certain that London 
was the least important of the three towns. 

From the time of Tacitus history gives us no information 
about London for more than two centtnies, and we are left 
to conjecture, from diggings and other investigations of 
the kind, what became of it. That such a place existed, 
in fact, is only proved by the remains which have been 
found. They are of various kinds, and for the most part 
give us few chronological data, for the discoveries have 
seldom been made by people who were not either ignorant 
of the subject or else biased by some preconceived theory 
of their own. If I purposely omit references to authorities 
it is because they are too many rather than too few, and 



almoBt every line I write has been, at one time or another, 
the subject of fierce controversy. 

All uiat appears certain, then, is that London very soon 
recovered from the ravages of the loeni, and became a 
place of greater wealth than ever before. It is evident 
that a strong fortification surrounded it, and that it pos- 
sessed extensive suburbs — that, in fact, it consisted of a 
fort, a harbour ouLside the fort, and the villas of the rich 

It was still a very Uttle place, and the best way of real- 
ising ita features will be to walk round its site, which may 
be done within an hour at most. Let the perambulator 
take it for granted that London Stone marks the site of a 
gate in the western rampart ; for though it has been re- 
moved from the middle of the roadway, it is still not very 
far from its original place. Let him then, with such a 
place as Bichborougb in his mind's eye, ascend from the 
valley of the Walbrook to the level of the ground above. 
Turning his face towards the Thames, he finds himself in 
an oblong walled space, extending along the brow of a 
line of bluffe from what is now Dowgate HiU on the west, 
to the place where Little Tower Street and Great Tower 
Street meet with a bend on the east. A great semi-cir- 
cular bastion is at the south-western comer, extending 
from Scot's Yard beside the Cannon Street terminus, to 
Laurence Pountney Lane. Here the level ground seems 
to approach nearer the river, and the lanes leading down 
to Thames Street to be shorter and steeper. To the east 
there would be a strong wall, to the north another, de- 
fended by a wide and deep ditch full of water. Traces 
of this ditch remained for a thousand years or more in the 
neighbourhood of Lombard Street, and they were often 
looked upon as forming the bed of a stream which ran into 
the Walbrook, Streams do not flow up-hill, and though 
the English called this ditch a " bourne," aitd the wimi 
which it traversed Lai^boume, we can have little doubt 
in thus identifying it. The long bourne or ditch ran from 
the eastern end of the city to the declivity of Walbrook, 
all along the northern fiont, cutting it off from Fenchurch 
Street and Lombard Street, and turning south just behind 
the Mansion House, where Wren's beautiful Uttle church 
of St. Stephen stands now. On the west side the ram- 


part overlooked the valley of the Walbrook and the har- 
bour at Dowgate. The whole oblong space was traversed 
by two great streets and a number of smaller ones. The 
main street ran along the line of Cannon Street ; there was 
probably a market ^ace in the centre, where Great East- 
cheap was formerly, nearly on the site of King Wilham'a 
statue, and it was crossed at right angles at the eastern 
end of the market-place by the Ime of tne present Grace- 
church Street, which led up from the river, where there 
may have been a ferry — possibly even a bridge — but it is 
absolutely uncertain when the bridge was made. 

As the town grew, the original fortified position became 
relatively smaiier ; the whole surrounding district was 
covered with villas, pavements were laid down, and hypo- 
causts made as far out as Camomile Street on the north 
and Paternoster Row on the west. All kinds of remains 
have been dug up within the boundaries of the fortifica- 
tions — all kinofa except one. No interments were made 
within that space ; no urns containing ashes, no coffins or 
bones are to be found, for the obviovis reason that under 
Roman rule it was imlawful to bury within the walls of 
a city. The moment we get outside those walls we find 
Bepulchral remains. They occur at St. Dunstan's Church 
on the east, they are frequent in Lombard Street, and the 
western bank of the Walbrook had several. In some 
places these graves have been covered with a mosaic pave- 
ment, or a roadway has been made across them ; and 
when the present circuit of the city walls took in a space 
so much greater than that surrounded by the previous 
wall, niunerouB cemeteries were included. It is evident 
that the Roman or British inhabitants, kept the law only 
in the letter and broke it in the spirit. It was probably 
just as hard to enforce sanitary r^ulations in the third 
century as it is in the nineteenth. The great size of 
the suburbs, their irregularity, the heterogeneous popula- 
tion gathered in them, must have been difiScult efements 
to regulate. The Roman citadel frowned from the eastern 
lull, but diggings make it likely that opposite to it, on the 
western sitfe of the Walbrook, were the huts of the abori- 
ginal natives, who probably formed a troublesome class, 
excitable and fierce, and long in coming to that pitch of 
civilization of which the Roman boasted. 

Dci-zec by Google 


There are many traditions as to public buildings in tliis 
earlier Bomtm London, but we may safely set them all 
aside. We do not know where any great temple stood, 
and we may conclude from the absence of an amphitheatift 
coupled with other reasons, that the military element in 
the population was not great, and probably kept itself veiy 
much apart and within its fortifications. A great bath was 
near the river-side, and may have been a public institution, 
but no forum, no basilica, has been identified. Where the 
main street and that which led from the bridge, if there 
was a bridge, intersected each other, there may, as we have 
seen, have been a market-place. It has been observed that 
the Churches now or lately standing within this area bear 
the names of saints of the British and Boman Churches. 
But these names are common all over the later and laiver 
London, and it would not be safe to conclude that they m- 
dicate the presence of a Christian community. That were 
were a few fine buildings is, however, proved. In the 
remains of the later Boman wall sculptured fragments are 
ofWi found, indicating not only the existence, but the eaiiy 
destruction of the buildings for which they were originally 
executed. One reason for the disappearance of almost all 
vestiges of this kind must be sought in the universal use 
of wood for houses, and another in the probable use of 
brick only for buildings of a more permanent character. 
Whenever we find Koman remains in the city a layer of 
black ashes is above them, and sometimes there are two 
such layers. Fires frequently raged, and even without 
supposing that London was ever burnt like Canterbury or 
Anderida by the English invader, it is easy to understand 
that wooden houses would gradually disappear ; while in 
a place devoid of building-stone brickwork would be 
constantly pulled down, and the old bricks used again in 
fresh buildings, until by degrees the older bricks would 
disappear, or be pounded up to make the new. 

London up to the third century, then, like London at 
the presrait day, was essentially a city of suburbs. The 
long security of Boman rule had made it unnecessary to 
live within fortifications, and in this respect London has 
almost always differed from the great cities of the Conti- 
nent. It is needful to bear this fact in mind if we would 

3 by Google 


uuderatfuid the second historical iact which we have 
about it. 

Before we go on to notice this fact, it may be worth 
while to attempt, if we can, to realise what London looked 
like at the end of the third century. 

The two hills, of which the western is now crowned by 
St. Paul's, and the eastern by the Exchange, were then 
covered with houses, not so thickly set as now, but low 
villas of one story in height, surrounded by trees and 
gardens ; on the eastern hiO waa the citadel, and close to 
it, and within its walls, the nucleus of the Homan city, 
with its market-place. On the western hill, and down 
the slopes of the Walbrook, were the fishing and ship- 
building part of the population ; a poor quarter, probably 
iimng the little creek at Dowgate, while the greater mer- 
chants had their quays below the bridge and at Billings- 
gate. To the north, Comhill and Threadneedle Street 
conttuned the better sort of houses, some beii^ placed by 
the side of the great road which is now Bishopsgate 
Street, though not exactly on the same site, and some 
more irregularly on the two hanks of the upper course of 
the "Walbrook, which here wound through a deep ravine. 

We may picture the Roman maidens tripping down the 
steps to the water's edge to fill great jars of Kentish 
pottery with their woollen skirts tucked close about them, 
where nowadays bank clerks hurriedly descend from 
Threadneedle Street to Broad Street and never think of 
the reason which makes the steps necessary. We may 
\n8it the market-place and see, at the point where now 
the Sailor King's granite pedestal forms a refuge from the 
wheels, some foreign slave merchant higgling with the 
driver who has brought a gang of wretched children fi^sm 
beyond the northern forests. We may perhaps be wit- 
nesses to a dispute between the merchants from Gaul and 
the Frankish mercenaries who were now frequent in the 
Koman service, and the guard may be called out, and the 
ringleaders of the disturtwince taken before the centurion 
or the propraetor, who perhaps sends them on to York for 
trial, and writes with them such a letter as Claudius 
Lysias wrote to Felix. Or we may go on towards the 
river and get our money ready to pay the toll. The 
bridge is made of great beams, supported on pUes, and we 



must be careful lest our coin slips from our fingers as it 
will faU through the gaping boards into the stream. At 
the Southwark side we shttQ find fresh fortifications, a few 
houses, and the road to Canterbury banked up at both 
sides and defended by wooden walls against the inunda- 
tions and the marshes. 

Such was probably Roman London during a fitll half of 
the period of its existence. It is not the picture usually 
drawn : for we are accustomed to talk as if Roman London 
was always the same, and to forget that it underwent 
many changes, and only acquired «ie walk which stiU in 
part survive towards the end of the Roman occapation. 
That the bridge crossed the river very early and long 
before the greater circuit of the wall was completed there 
can, I think, be little doubt. When the foundations of 
the old bridge were taken up a complete line of coins, 
ranging from the republican period to Honorius were found 
in the Dcd of the river. Some of them may have been 
thrown in as a kind of religious ceremony, but many must 
have been dropped much in the way I have indicated 
above, and the completeness of the series found, comprising 
as it does, specimens elsewhere scarce, can only be ac- 
counted for on the supposition that the bridge, preceded 
perhaps by a rope or chain ferry, was very early thrown 
across the Thames. 

And now we, find London once more upon the page of 
history. And it is characteristic of the place that the 
mention of a great fog is the means of removing the mist 
which has so long hung over it. It was almost at the 
close of the thinf century, and Diocletian was emperor, 
and h^ associated Mazimian with him in his government. 
Britain had long been under the power of Carausius who 
called himself " emperor," and trusted in the fleet which 
he had constructed at Boulogne, and with which he con- 
trolled Southampton, where iiis pier stiU exists, and other 
Channel ports. But the lieutenant of the emperors,' the 
Csssar Constantius, laid siege to the dockyards at Bou- 
l^ne, and Carausius fled with his ships into Britain. 
There he was murdered by one of his officers, AUectus, 
who with an army formed from various sources, and com- 
prising some Franks, endeavoiu^ to defend his claims to 
the empire. But the general under Constantius, Asdepi- 


odotus by name, eluded the vigilance of the fleet of Allectus 
by going to sea in a fog, landed in the west, and marched 
to meet the usurper. Allectus, thinking Asclepiodotus, 
if he came at all, must come through Kent, was waiting 
near London, and when he heard of the landing had only 
time to assemble some of his troops before Asclepiodotus 
was upon him. He was defeated and killed, and his 
Franks were driven back upon London. Had we any 
idea given us where the battle took place, it might help 
us to determine several questions as to tJie condition of 
London at the time. But we are in the dark, and can 
only conjecture as usual. Conjecture, then, leads tib to 
suppose that if Allectus watched for the coming oi Ascle- 
piodotus through Kent, and if he had London open behind 
him, he must have been somewhere in Surrey, or along 
the line of the Old Kent Koad, and must have march^ 
westward, perhaps as fcir aa one of the fords, Wallingford, 
or some other. There are remains of " Csssar's Camp " on 
several hills west of London which would point to such 
occupation, and just as Belgium has been called the battle- 
field of Europe, so the country between London and 
Windsor merited at an early period the name of the 
battlefield of England. 

When the Franks in the pay of Allectus found them- 
selves free on his death, they made for London ; and some 
historians have been surprised to find that they broke into 
the city easily and plundered the inhabitants. But we 
need not feel any surprise in the matter, if we remember, 
first that Allectus was in fact emperor till his defeat, and 
had London in his power, possibly in his occupation ; and 
that, even if the citadel held out against him, which is 
very improbable, the whole of the vast suburbs were \m.- 
defended, and lay open as a prey to the barbarous Franks. 
They amused themselves plundering and burning in mere 
wantonness, for they coula have but Uttle hope of ultimate 
escape from Asclepiodotus and Constantius, though it is 
asserted that they proposed to sail away with their spoils. 
However, the Roman general overtook them in the 
streets of London, — another fact which indicates its de- 
fenceless state, — and slew the most of them ; no wonder 
thai, we read of the joyfVd reception given hj the citizens 
to Constantius and bis army, for order and strong govern* 

,., , Google 


ment must have been necessary to the mere existence of 
Buch a city. But Constantius did not stjyr. York was a 

?lace of much greater importance than London, and €he 
'icts and Scots had begun to be troublesome. So of 
London we hear little or nothing in history for a second 
long interval. It is not so long as the first, but about 
half a century elapsed before the journey of Lupicinus, 
the lieutenant of Jidian, who came over to repel an inva- 
sion of the northern bartwrians. He started from Boulogne, 
landed at Bichborough, and marched to London, but what 
he did further we do not know. 

And now, once more, we must return to the diggings 
for om- information : and they offer us one of the greatest 
of all the great puzzles which beset the early history of 
London. What is the age of the outer wall ? Is it true 
that the wall and gates which came down to recent times 
accurately represented those of Roman London ? 

To botn of these questions veiy positive answers may 
be found in most of the London histories ; but if we say 
that the wall was built by Constantine, we say what may 
or may not be true ; while if we say that the mediaeval 
wall represented, in its situation, the Roman wall, we 
may be still nearer the fact ; but ii we go on, thirdly, to 
say that the gates, and the roads through them, were the 
same under the Romans and under Edwaid the Fourth, we 
shall be almoBt certainly mistaken. 

To save time I will refer you for what has been said and 
may be said on these questions, to the papers of Sir 
WUUam Tite, Mr. Taylor, Mr. Wright, Mr. Roach Smith, 
and the late Mr, Black, all of which are in the Archceologia, 
as well as to some separate tracts by Mr. Smith and Sir 
William, and will myself pass on to give my own conclu- 
sions without making further reference to the grounds on 
which they are founded. 

We may, I think, assume with tolerable certainty that 
the present line of the wall was marked out about the 
time of Constantine and his family ; and about the same 
time the name of the city, which must, after the building 
of the wall, have been one of the greatest in Britain, was 
changed to Augusta. In other words, London became 
for the first time an important Roman station, a centre of 
the civil and military organization inaugurated by Con- 


stantine, and possibly, but not certainly, the occasional 
residence of the Vicar of the Emperor. We find a mint 
and money coined in London, and although the name 
Augusta hardly appears in history, and never without a 
reference to the older name, its existence proves at least 
that a great change had suddenly taken place in the esti- 
mation of the city. It is not likely that a new name 
would be given to an old city unless it had in some way 
been renewed; and if we could get the exact date at 
which the name was conferred, we might be able to assign 
an approximate one to the wall. This we cannot do, but 
by a comparison of tw:o passages in Ammianus, it seems to 
have been somewhere between 350 and 369, that is to say, 
between the reigns of Julian II and Valentinian. Tlus 
date answers very well to the coins found in and near 
the wall, which we may safely place, therefore, in the 
second half of the fourth century. In places where the 
foundations of the wall have been disturbed, as at Camo- 
mile Sti-eet, remains of a more ancient kind have been 
discovered underneath. Interments and pavements occur 
not only under the wall itself, but in. many places within 
its circuit ; and all must be attributed to a period before 
the wall was built and the city boundaries extended. 

It is only by looking at a map that the great increase 
in the size of the city, since the building of the inner wall, 
can be estimated. The modem boundaries are almost 
precisely those which existed in tiie fourth century ; for it 
IS only by courtesy that Fleet Street can be reckoned in 
the city. This remarkable fact can be accounted for on 
one of two supfHjsitions ; either that the wall took in a 
great deal of ground not then covered by buildings ; or 
else, that already the population to be protected waa so 
large as to make London one of the greatest cities in 
Britain, But we must remember that the houses w^e 
probably only one storey in height, and that they may have 
spread over a large space of ground, especially as many of 
them partook rather of the ct^acter of villas than of town 
houses, and that some were no doubt surrounded by gar- 
dens and other grounds. 

The wall commenced at BUlingsgate, where probably 
there was a dock or water gate, for the ground on which 
the Tower now stands must then, and for long after, have 


been under water. Signs of a wall have been seen along 
the edge of the Thames to the bridge, from the bridge to 
Dowgate at the mouth of the WaJbrook, and thence to 
BlacKfriars, or rather Ludgate ; which; as its name 
imports, waa then and long afterwards, a water gate. No 
Roman remains have ever been found along t£e line of 
Fleet Street and the Strand. A great fen extended from 
the mouth of the Fleet river to tae site of the new Hol- 
bom Viaduct, and was not crossed by any Roman road. 
The only road to the west, that which, as I have said, 
was called afterwards the " military way," emerged from 
the city somewhere near Newgate, descended the deep 
(Snow) hUl, crossed the river by the Holbom bridge, and 
ascended the opposite (Holbom) biU. The road may 
have early assumed that zigzag character which it long 
retained, out the exact site of the gate cannot now be de- 
termined. Until lately, indeed, its existence was denied ; 
but remains, found a year ago, make it certain that some- 
where between what is now Newgate Prison and the site 
of the old Compter in Giltspur Steeet stood the principal, 
perhaps the sole, western gate. Through it the Watfing 
Street entered London, and made its way towards the 

From the bridge also another great road took its way 
to the north. Whether the northern gate of London was 
at Bishopsgate, or a little to the south-east, it is impossi- 
ble to say. The extensive remains found on several 
occasions in Camomile Street, make it very possible but 
by no means certain, that when the wall waa repaired in 
the middle ages, as it was on more than one occasion, the 
Bomaa gate was abandoned and Bishop^ate bmlt instead. 
The opening of Aldgate may have been a sufficient reason 
for this alteration. Let us, however, for convenience, 
speak of Bishopsgate as the northern entrance, and we 
shall see that two country roads came up to it, and meet- 
ing there passed on to the bridge through Bishopsgate 
Stoeet and Gracechurch Street, or a little to the eastward 
to suit what was then the position of the bridge. 

One of these two roads, when it left Bishops^te, took 
its way nearly due north to Lincoln and York. The other 
tendii^f eastward, crossed the Lea at Old Ford, which at 
that period was the lowest point at which a ford was safe. 


and went onward towards Colchester. The modem road 
runs almost over the same ground, but shortens the way 
by crossing a little lower down at Stratford. 

All round about this ancient gate was the great ceme- 
tery of the later Roman London. Graves have been 
found in the Minories, in Mile End Road, and in Spital 
Fields. One or two which have been discovered on Hoi- 
bom Hill show that the Romans passed that way, but the 
passage of the Fleet probably made it inconvenient to 
carry their dead so far, and they are comparatively rare. 
But in Hounsditch, Finabury, Shoreditch, MoorHelds, 
Goodmans Fields, Whiteehapel, and especially just out- 
side the wall in Eldon Street, Liverpool Street, and 
Bloomfield Street, interments of all kinds have been 

This may be the proper place to inquire as to the 
Christian Church in London under the Romans. A great 
deal of legend and invention has been spent on this as on 
other subjects connected with the early history of our 
city. But it is important to note that among the hun- 
dreds — I might, perhaps, correctly say, thousands — of 
interments found in and about London, not one bears 
distinct marks of being the burial of a Christian ; and that 
among all the remains of other kinds, only a few bone pins 
with cruciform ornaments and a stamp or seal, found in 
the Thames, can be classed as having Christian emblems 
on them. A British bishop, Restitutus, said to be from 
the city of London, was at the council of Aries, in 314. 
But if there were Christians in London, they can hardly 
have been either numerous or influential. St. Peters 
upon Cornhill is traditionally said to have been the seat 
of Bishop Restitutus, and wie fifteen predecessors and 
successors assigned to him by the mediseval historians; 
but I am here endeavouring to deal only with what has 
been ascertained to be true, and it is remarkable that of 
the sixteen names alluded to above, not one occurs as the 
titular patron of a church. The existence of a church in 
Roman London, is therefore, a thing to be classed among 
those unproved possibUities, perhaps it would be safe to 
say prolmbilities, about which nothing positive can be 

And now we come to the last documentary mention of 


London by the Roman historians. In 368, Theodosius 
was sent into Britain to repel the Picts and Scots, who 
had begun to threaten Tjondon, and were plundering the 
surrounding country, Theodosius landed at Richborough, 
and finding the ban)arian8 scattered about, defeated them 
in detail, restored the booty they had taken to its owners, 
and, reaching London, was joyfully received by the citizens 
who opened their gates to hun. He rested his troops in 
the city for a short time, and then marched north waid to 
complete the destiuction of the savage invaders. These 
events took place in the reign of Valentinian. Theodosius 
was father to the emperor of the same name, who died in 
395 ; and it was in the time of his successor Honorius, that 
the Roman lemons, the second, posted at C'aerleon, the sixth 
— which with the ninth — was at York, and the twentieth, 
which had its head-quarters at Chester, were withdrawn. 
The feeble emperor wrote a letter to the cities of Britain, 
exhorting them to guard themselves as best they could ; 
and we have no further information. Although it is likely 
that until the last a veiy strong force was constantly in 
London, we know little tor certain, and cannot even tell 
from which of the legions the troops of the propraetor were 

Xondon is not he-ird of again in history until after the 
arrival of Augustine, if we except a passage in the English 
Chronicle which makes it the refuge of the Britons 
defeated by Hengest at Crayford. 

How the city fared during the great Anglo-Saxon 
invasion, we have little evidence, and that of a negative 
kind. That it enjoyed some years of comparative security 
after the departure of the Romans, we may perhaps con- 
clude ; but the history of its fate has yet to be written. 

Although I have endeavoured to piece together the 
historical and monumental history so far, I fear that my 
attempt has been chiefly of a destructive character. If I 
have succeeded at all, it is only in showing that we know 
very Uttle beyond the mere existence of the place. That 
it was ever the capital of Britain, as so many have 
asserted, can only be doubtfully proved for the period 
succeeding the reorganisation of the empire under Con- 
stantine and his successors. The remains discovered, 
plenty as they are, tell us very little in comparison with 


what we know of other Roman towns. But we know 
enough to show us that far beneath the feet of the husy 
throng which presses every day the pavements of modem 
London, there exist the traces of an ancient city, buried 
in phices to the depth of a dozen yards below the 
present surface ; and^ if a conjectiu^ may be hazarded, 
it ia that, from the days of Tacitus until now, there has 
been no cessation of that concourse of merchants, that 
crowd of foreign peoples, that activity and bustle, which 
have made it during nearly two thousand years a thriving 
commercial city, and rendered it at length, in the words 
of a foreign poet of the seventeenth century, 

" CimctaH celebrata per oraa. 
Got mnndi, mandiqae oculue, miuidiqae theKtmm, 
Annnlna Europes, m^fesi^nis adorea teme." 

— iFlmeeslai Clrmentii TriMohantiad**, lib. 1. 

.-a A. . 

®tfBinaI Bonimmts- 


Communicated by O. T. CLARK. 

The following charter is one of a large coUectioa of sinular doca- 
meDts and of privato letters relating to the estates and family of the 
Vemeji, still preserved at Olajdon House, their ancient seat. The 
charter seems to have come into the possession of the family as one of 
the title deeds of the manor of Pendele or Fendley in the pamh of 
Trin^, which was the inheritance of Margaret Whittingham, who 
marned John Vemey in the reiga of Edward IV, and was by him 
ancestreea of Edmond Yerney, wno sold the manor in the reign of 
Elizabeth. It has been selected for publication on account of the 
strong local interest which attaches to it, for it contains the names of 
very many persons and places, mostly of and in the Hundred of 
Dacorum in Herts, and near to Tring. Had this document been 
known to Ohauncy or Cluttorbuck it would have enabled those 
industrious writers to give a far mere perfect account of the descent of 
landed property in that division of their county. 

Earl BicEard, as Lord of the Honour of Berkhampstede, was chief 
lord of a sort oi cape of the county of Hertford, about five miles broad 
at the base, and which extends to the north-west about eight miles 
into Buckinghamshire. Berkhampstede Castle stands at the base of 
this district, the parishes of Futtenham and Long Karston at its apox, 
and the town of Tring is included within it. 

Maiuly within this area a certain Bafe de Geyton' had acquired 
divers lands by ehartera from their owners, and as they were ali also 
within the Honour of Borkhampstead he brought their charters, six 
in number, before the over-Ioi-d for his confirmation, which, with the 
recitation of each of them, is here given. 

liichard Flantagenet Earl of Cornwall and Foictou, better known 
to posterity by his later title of King of the Romans, ivas the younger 
son of Kiu^ John and brother of Henry III. He was bom in 1209, 
and only eight years old at his brother's accession, by whom nine 
years later he was created Earl of Cornwall and Poictou. He was for 
a time heir to the throne, and always exercised great influence in the 
affairs of the kingdom. In the earlier part of the reign he uded with 
the Mareschals, and took up arms in their cause, marrying Isabel, 
daughter of the elder Williaiu Earl of Pembroke and widow of the 
Earl of Oloucester. He was a far wiser man than his brother, who 
Beeiqs to have consulted him on many occasions, although they were 
often at variance. No doubt his weight was much augmented by his 

' Pro1>ably of Oafton near BliBirortli, fine effigies of Philip do QaTton (died 

where a family beHring; the loi:^! aur- 13IC) and hia wife Scholattica, and a 

oame wai flooiiahiDK in the thirtecDth diminutive hgaie of a child, ia Qaytou 

and fourteeaith centntioa. There are Chorch. 


immeose wealth, a part of which he sqoandered in bribes to the 
Qerman electors. To the Castle and Honour of Berkliampstede, the 
caput of his Hertfordshire possesBiunn, he attached ^eat importanoe, 
excepting the castte from the estates settled bj Mm in aowor on 
Saunchia of Provence. WallinKford, however, whence the charter is 
dated, was his chief seat, where he lived with great splendour. 

The charter bears date the year before he became King of the 
Bomans. In hia latter days Earl Bichard took part with tne king, 
and commanded at Lewes, where he was made prisoner. Subee- 
qoentl^, after the surrender of Kenilworth, hie counsels, ia conjunc- 
tion with those of Prince Edward, compelled Henrr to be merciful, 
and hud the foundation of tiie good order b; which the new reign was 

The £arl died at Berkhampstede April 2, 1272, a little before his 
brother. Henry, hie eldest sou, died either before or just after him, 
childless, and fidward, his successor, died also childless in 1300, when 
the titles became extinct. 

The charter oontains thirty-nine lines, and is written upon a skin of 
parchment eighteen and a half inches broad by seventeen and three- 
quBxter inches long, polled at the top and folded at the bottom to 
carry the cord of the suspended seal. It is written in a clear hand, 
with good black ink, with the usual abbreviations, which are here, for 
the most part, expanded. It ia quite perfect, save that in the twentieth 
line a strip of the membrane, about five inches long and a quarter of 
an inch wide, has been cut oat, and is replaced by a slightly laiger 
strip, which is neatly sewn in all round. AJthongh this inserted strip 
ia blank, the top of the letters of the following hne run into it, and it 
is pretty evident that the whole defect is as old as the charter, and 
was caused by the derk having made some blunder in the writing 
which he could not erase, and for the sake of which he did not care to 
begin his work over again. Probably the Eari's diancery clerks found 
their own parchment. 

The seal is imperfect, but what remains is well cut and clear. It 
has been circular, three and one-eighth inches in diameter, of dark 
reddish was, and about one-third of its most important part remains. 

On the upper side, that which corresponds with the face of the 
charter, is a knight on horseback galloping to Uie proper left. He 
wears a loose plaited surcoat, girdled at the waist, and with the skirt 
flowing &eely backwards, shewing the right leg &om the knee in 
armour, apparently mail, with a prick-spur. The right arm, in mail, 
ia exteuded backwards, and holds upright a long straight sword. 
Above the upper edge of the surcoat is seen the tlutiat, closely fitted 
with mail, and on the head a flat-topped helmet. The left arm is 
covered by a heater shield, which conceals the breast and bears a 
rampant hon, with probably a border. The saddle is raised before 
and odiind, and the two girths cross saltire fashion under the horse's 
belly. Over the knight's right shoulder is a narrow embossed belt, 
for sword or dagger. The horse is cut with great freedom, and does 
not appear to be in armour. The legend is: "siaiL[LOH bioaedi 


Upon the obverse is a large, bold heater shield, about two inches high, 
bearing a lion rampant within a plain border, charged with fourteen 
ronndelB. Bound and behind the shield is scroll work of on early 


Enfflish ohsTKcter. The leeend, in plana of the usual cross, oomiiieiu»B 
vith a oresceiit " 8iQriu.THj rioabsi cx)iiinB[ooiurjuBiE." 

The seal is formed upon two plaited silk cords, either gilt or made 
with gold thread. The upper bend passes through four noles in the 
par<dunent, the lower ends are unravelled aa tassels. A. not very 
accurate engraving of Bichard's seal is giren hy Sandford. 

It is remarkabU that Sichard did not bear the arms of England, 
but took those of PoictoD, " Aif;ent, a lion rampant gules, crowned or," 
which he placed within " a border sable, bezant^e, darired from the 
old Earls of GomwoU, and thus, aa was not unusual, represented both 
his earldoms on his shield. 

The present writer, not being familiar vith the district, has failed 
to identify many of the persons and places named in the several 
charters. Almost all belung to the district, but most of the person? 
are tenants of the Earl, not tenants in capite, and consequently do 
not appear in the inquisitions or other records of the realm. If any of 
the places were those of prirate estates or farms, not of manors or 
parishes, and have been lost, and unfortunately there is no inquisition 
extant giving Earl Bichard's estates at his destli, and in which most of 
these local names would have appeared. What have been recovered 
have been found in OhauiK^ and Clutterbuck, in the Close, Patent, and 
Hundred Bolls, in the Testa de Kevile, and in similar records of the 
reign of Henry III. No doubt a further search on the spot, into 
parish terriers and estate maps, would shew many more of these 
names. — 

"Oknibcs ad quos presens scriptum perrenerit, Bicardus Comes 
Comubie et Pictavie, scuntem, noverit universitas vestra nos inspexisse 
cartam qoam Gal&idus de Lucy fecit Badulfo de Qeyton in hoc verba. 

" Ijci^iT presentss et futuri quod ego GalMdus de Lucy dedi oon- 
oessi et hoc presenti carta mea oonflrmavi Badulfo de Geyton, pro 
homagio et servicio suo, unam viigatam terre et dimidiam, et unam 
aoram prati et dimidiam, in feodo meo de Wygenton ; scilicet, llbuu 
terram quam Willielmus Basset, quondam de antecessoribus meis, 
tenuit in Wygenton; et prediotum pratum sicut presoriptum est in 
LoUeseye j habend: et tenend: de mc et heredibus meis sibi et 
heredibus suis aut suis assignatis, ezceptis viris religiosis et Judeis, 
bene et integre, paci£ce, cum suis perttnenciis, reddendo inde annuatim 
ipse et heredes sui mihi et heredibus meis sex eolidos et octo denarioa 
ad qnatnor terminos anni, scilicet ad Festum Beate Marie in m. ...o, 
viginti denorioe, et ad Nativitatem Soncti Baptiste, viginti denarios, 
et ad Festum Sanoti Michaelis, viginti denarios, ct ad Nativitatem 
Domini, viginti denarios, pro omni seculari servicio, salvo forinseco 
domini regis, quantum pertinet od tantam terram in eodem manerio, 
pro hao autem donatione conoessione et carte mee oonfirmacione dedit 
in manibuB dictus Badulfus viginti morcas in Qersinnam. 

" £t quia ego Qalfridus de Jmcy et heredes mei dictam terram et 
prenominatum pratum dicto Badulfo et heredibus suis sicut predictum 
est contra omnes nomines warantizare debemus, banc cartam aigilli 
mei impressione roboravi, hiis testibus, Jobanne de Merston, Boberto 
fratre suo, luliano de Chenduit, Symone de Bisevile, Will'mo de 
Audebur", Will'mo de Woderore, Alexandro de Wygenton, Waltero 
de Beledon, Bad: de Nevile, et aliis. 

" InsnxtHUs et cartam quom Sylvester de la Grave fecit predioto 
Badulfo in hec verba. 


"SciART presentea et fiituri quod em 8j-lv«st: de la Grave dedi 
concesai et nao present! carta mea conumavi Sadnlfo da Qeyton pru 
homasio et eemcio buo totam terram meam qnam habui Tel habere 
potui in villa de Fichele^a apud fseleje cum omnibus suis per- 
tiuesciia in aliquo reteaemento. Habeod: et tenend: eidem Radulfo 
et heredibuB euis tcI cuicnnqua earn dare vel asaignare voluerit do me 
et heredibus mein, libnre quiete integre et plenarie, imperpetiiam. 
Keddendo inde annuatim pro me et herenlibusmeiacapitaUbusdominis 
feodi illius, quatuor solidos et sex denarios ad tree terminoa anni. 
scilicet ad Featum S'ti Andree octodecim deoarios et ad Festum S'ti 

Uarie in m octodecim denarios et ad Featum S'ti Fetri ad riacnla 

octode<slm denarios, pro omni serricio, salvo forenseco serricio, et ego 
Silvest: et heredes mei warautizabimus predicto Badulfo et heredibua 
suie Tel ejus aaaignatis totam predictam terram cum unmibus perti- 
neatdis Buia contra omnes gentes imperpetuum. Fro hoc autem 
donocione et presentis carte mee confinnacione dedit milii predictus 
Hadulfna noveni marcaa argenti in Oersinnam, et ut hec mea donacio 
concessio et carte mee coofirmacio rata et stabilis imperpetuum 
plererit aigiUi mei appositione earn roborari. Hiis teetibus Bad': 
Uarescal':, Bob'to de Dalinghen: Bad': de Eaton, Will'mo de W;l- 
beanade, Henrico de Dagenhale, Simone de Danarile, Adamo de 
Danevile, Will'mo de Audeburi, Bad: de Bratton clerico, et aliis. 

" InBPEXiMua et cartam qnam Frater Albanus Martel milicie Tempi! 
in Anglia minister fedt predicto Bad': in hec verba. 

" Omuibus et fidelibus ad quoB preaens ecriptiun pervenerit Frater 
AlbanuB Martel milioie Templi in Anglia minister humilie salutem in 
domino. Sciatis quod nos de communi consilio et assensu capital] 
nostri in FbbcIi.' apud Dineale concessimus et hac preaenti carta oon- 
firmarimus Bad': de Gheyton et heredibua suis totam terram illam in 
villa de Fandele quod appellator la Inlande, cum toto Qraacrotto et 
Finnokesbnlle, et cum omnibus aliis pertinenciis suia, et Ulud mes- 
Huagium quod fuit Aliredi de Woderore cum crofta que pertinet ad 
idem messnagium, et croftam illam que appellator Clerke'B crolt, 
similiter croftam illam quam appellatur Mustelesoroft, et croftam illam 
que appellatur la Stane, et totum, assartum in villa de Audeburi, quod 
est inter terram que fuit Will'mi filii Hugonis de la (}rave ex una 
parte et les Hores ex altera similiter paaturam illam que jacet inter 
predictum aBsartuui et fossatum quod se extendit ad Wyugate et inter 
les Hores ex una parte et Aylmerecrofte ex alt«ra parte, et pasturam 
illam que jacet inter dictum fossatum quod est in Buperion parte et 
viam que appellatur Fottereswey ex inferiori parte et vocatur pastura 
ilia Baywedime et incipit a fine de Oodwinstune et durat uaque la 
Wyngate et de la Wyngate versus vallem usque ad pruam spinam, et 
de prua spina descendendo uaque ad viam que appellatur Potteresweye 
videlicet usque ad illam locum nbi via que appellatur Mullesweye 
iotrat in viam que appelatnr Potteresweye et pratum illud quod est de 
quatuor acria in Lullesey et jacet inter aquam de LuUesey et pratnm de 
Wingrave et dtcuitur ex omni parte de prato de Wengrave, et preterea 
totum jus quod habuimos de dono Hawysie de Bovill in communi 
Ikwco ubi Abbas de la Fereresham et dominus Oalfrid: de Lucy com- 
mnnicantur ; ooDcessimua et eidem Bad: et heredibua suis quietum 
de pannagio in boBoo de Audeburi qaum dedit nobis prediota Hawiaia, 
et preterea deoem solidos de dimidia hyda tene in viUa de Chetendon 
qua fuit Badolfi de Cheteodon et homagium de terra Biutrdi filii 


Will'mi Me)rnardi, et duos solidos et corpus sunm et consuetadinee 
cum tota sequela sua de terra Bartholomei de Beininden, duos solidos 
et quatuor denarios et corpus suutn et conauetudlnes com tota 8«queU 
sua de terra Hugonis Grom, sexdedm denarioa et corpus suum et con- 
enetudines cum tota sequela sua de terra Will'mi filii Oodwini, 
quinque solidos et corpus suum et cansuetudinea cum tota eequela sua 
et totam terram illam quam appellatur Edithecrofte quam Willmus de 
Wederare tenuit, et totam terram illam quam Al&edus de Wedetore 
tenuit, et totam terram quam Alfredus Juvenis tenuit, et totam terram 
quam Willmus de Bonteslje tenuit, que terre jacent inter dominaiunm 
antiquum et terras hominum dePeudele, et dimidiam virgatam terre 
quam Bad: de Bonteelj'e tenuit et corpus suum et sequelam Bnam, que 
scilioet omnia predicta tenementa habemua ex dono predicte Hawisie. 
Habenda et tenenda predicto Bad: et heredibus suis cum omnibua 
pert's, libere quiets et integre ; reddendo iude annuatim domui nostra 

Stuuque Bolidus od duos auni terminos scilicet duos solidos ut sex 
enarios ad festum S'ti Ificb's et duos solidos et sex denarios ad 
Faach: Florum: et nos omnia predicta predicto Bad: et heredibus 
Buis warantizabimus. Hiis testibus, domino Qalfrido de Lucy, Bad: 
de Olanvile, Bad': mareacal, Badulfo milite de Fidielestom, G : : 
mllite de ejusdem ville, Gregorio de Lembui', Alano de Hyda, 
Symone de Frangleye, Boberto de Mariaco, Aleir filio Ful<^er, 
Samuele de Wygenton, Jobanne de Merston, et aliis 

"IiisPKzaiusetcartamquam Bicaidus lif aresc: fecit predicto BaduUo 
ia hec verba. 

"SouKT preaentes et futuri quod ego Bioardus Mareacal' dedi conoessi 
at hoc preeenti carta mea coufirmavi Domino Badulfo de Geyton et 
heredibus suis to! cui dare vol assignare voluerit et qaando, totam 
terram meam quam babui in villa de Magna Xanford, in dominicis et 
redditibuB in bomagiis serviciis releviis et escaetis in pratie et pasturts 
in viia et semitis in boscia et plania et omnibus aliia dicte teire porti- 
nentibus, vel que dicte terre pertinere possint pro homagio et aervicio 
Buo et pro sexaginta marcaa argenti quas mibi pre mauibus dedit: 
tenand: et habend: de me et heredibus meie aibi et heredibus suis vel 
aut dare vel assi^are voluerit et qnando in feodo et hereditate, libere 
quiote bene et in pace ; reddendo ipse annuatim mihi et heredibus 
meis septem denanos, videlicet ad pascham, pro omni secular! con- 
Buetudine secta curie evictiones et demandaa aalvo forinaeoo aervido 
domini regis quando acutagium erenerit, acilicet quantum pertinet ad 
terdam partem uniua feodi militia do proprio feodo de Morteyn ; et 
ego predictus Bic: Mareac: et heredsa mei waxantizabimua acquietabi- 
muB et per predictum servicium defendemua predicto Bad: de Qeyton 
et here£buB snia et eorum assignatis totam predictam terram cum omni- 
bus suis pertinenciia nominatia et non nominatiB contra omnea homines 
et feminas in perpetuum: et ut bee mea donacio cosoessio warantixatio 
et presentis carte mee oonfirmaoio firma semper permaneat et atabilia 
earn eigilli mei impressione roboravi. Hiis testibus. Domino Ste^hano 
de Ohenduit, Ivone de Ficheleston, . . . orante de PioheleBtom, ^c: de 
Molend', Will'mo de Audebur', Will'mo filio PhiHppi, Willmo filio 
Willmi Thuriet, et aliis. 

' ' iHBPExnius et cartam quam Bogerus filius Bioardi de Dunesle fbcit 
predicto Bad: in hec verba. 

"SculVT presentes et futuri quod ego Bogerus filiue Bioardi do 
DunecHey dedi cooombI et hao preeenti carta mea coufirpuivi Bad: de 


Qeytone et heredibTis auia pro serrido eno, dimidiam Tuvatam terre 
emu capital! mesuagio in Dunesle in parochia de Trenge, similiter cum 
capitali meauagio in Dancsle Bimiliter cum capite illiufi acre terre que 
jacet iuter meauagium predictiua et mesuagium Badnlfi Clerioi de 
Dimealey et ee liabutat rersus magnam. Tiam in Dunesle, et etiam 
uuam denarium tedditua quam recipei'e aolebam de Bicardo Coco de 
Dunesle de feodo predict] ILadulfi, sine aliquo retenemento mihi vel 
herediboa meis de se rel heredibua auia : habeud: et teaend: aibi et 
heredibuB suia vel assignatis, libere quiete bene integre plenarie in 
pace et honorifice, iaviis aemitispratispascuisetpasturis etmotunibaa 
locis, fadendo ipse Radulfus et heredea aui vel asMgnati capitali 
domino debitum aerTidum ; pro hac autem donadono conceseione et 
preeentis carte mee confirmaoione dedit mihi predictua HadulAia sex 
marcas et octo aolidos et octoDenarioapremanibus; et ego aupradictoB 
Bogerus et heredea mei val aadgnati predictam dimidiam virgatam 
terre cum capitali mesuagio et capite ocra et denariis rcdditue predioto 
Badnlfo et heredibua suis vel assiguatis contra omnes homines et 
feminaa inperpetuom warautizabimus ; et ut heo msa donado finna dt 
et Btabilia huic preeenti carte ai^Uum meum apposui. Hiis testibua, 
Johanne Blundel, Thoma de Huntendon, Will'mo de Wedebore, 
Johanne Foreatario de Trenge, Will'mo de Audebur', Will'mo Coco, 
Johanne de Dore, Willmo de Hamel, Ada Serriente de Fendele, 
Waltero Glerico de Wjgenton, et aliis. 

" iNSPBznnra et cartam quam Bicardua de Habinton fecit predicto 
Radulfo in hec verba. 

" SciANT preaentes et futuri quod ego Bicardns de Habinton dedi 
eoDGessi et hac presenti carta mea oonfinnavi Badulfo de Ge3'ton pro 
homagio et serricio suo totam termm raeam quam Qilbertus calvus 
advunciUus mens tenuit in Seybroc, in Pitcheleston, in Chetendon, cum 
omnibua pert'sad predictam pertinentibus: tenend; ethabend: demeet 
heredibus meis dicto Sad: et heredibus auis vel asalgnatis, ezceptJa 
viris religiosis, libere quiete integre hereditarie; reddendo inde annuatim 
Simoni de Stukeli et heredibus suia ipse et heredes sui vel asdguati sex 
Bolidoa et octo denarios, scilicet ad festum St'e ]t[arie in M. . tres 
Bolidos et quatuor denarioa, et ad festum S'ti Afichaelis tres solidoa et 
quatuor denarioa, et mihi et heredibua maia vel meia aasignatis unum 
par cyrotecarum pro omni serrido, salvia duobos solidis solvendis pro 
qnolioet soutagio quam srutaKium currit per preceptum domini regis ; 
et ego prediotus Bicardus de Habintou et heredes mtA vel mei 
asaignatt warantizabimua per predictum servidum dicta Radulfo et 
heredibus suis vel auis assignatis totam predictam terram cum omnibus 
auis pertinenciia contra omnes homines et feminas : pro hac autem 
donadone et conoesaione et warantizacione dedit mihi prediotua 
Badulfus quinquaginta marcaa argenti et ut heo mea donacio et con- 
cesaio et warantizado rata sit et stabilis presenti soripto sigillum 
meum apposui. Hiia teatibus, Gileberto Oreinvile, Johanne de Mereten, 
AViU'mo de Bello Campo, Nicholao Burdun, Militibus ; Waltero de 
Belenden, Boberto de Uerston, Will'mo de Wederore, Will'mo de 
Audeburi, Will'mo de Hamele, et aliis. 

"HOS vera dictaa donadones et oonfinnadonea ratas et gratas 
babentes eas predicto Badulfo hetedibua et aseignatia suis quibuacun- 
que, exceptis viris religioda, pro nobis et bereoihua nostris confirma- 
vimus ; habendas et tenendaa prout predicte ante evideatiuB et plenius 
protestantur ; in cujus rei testunoninm presenti soripto sigillum menm 


appoBuimuB. Hub teetibus, Stophano de Ghendnit, Bogoio de Amari, 
WJl'mo BuBsell, Milone de Bello Campo, Will'mo de U'le, Boberto 
de Eetlial], Will'mo Bluudel, Will'mo Thuiiet, et aliie, Datum apnd 
Walingeford eeptimo die Julii anno gracie millesimo ducentesimo 
quinquagesimo sexto." 

It wUl be seen that tlie cbarter commeucea and concludes with Earl 
Biohard's con^rmation of the contents to Kalph de Qeyton, styled in 
one place Dominus, whom, however, he does not directly address. Of 
the Earl's witnesses, Stephen de Chenduit was the head of a family 
who had long held Charwelton and Middleton-Chenduit, corrupted 
into Cheyney, in North amptoD shire, and vere tenants of the Honour 
otBerkhampstede. Hulian or Julian deChenduit granted his manor of 
Ashridge with Fileton to Edmund Earl of Cornwall. In 1215 King John 
ordered the Constable of Berkhampstede to give to Bafe Cheadult seizin 
of his lands. The Amari family held lands under Wallingford, as did 
the Euesells, in the fee of Mortaine, in Northamptonshire. Bwer 
Amari held half a fee in Thombury of the £erl of Warwick. MQes 
de Beauchetnp held land at Lavenden, Bucks. Blandel was from 
Devon, and received from the elder Bichard, Henry Hi's uncle, lands 
at Binatardele^, oo. Northampton, which passed to his brother Bobert 
as " Bcutellanus" in the reign of Henry III. William Blundel is 
described as " Cancellarius doniini comitia." 

The Earl's part of the charter is very brief, and is confined to the 
introduction and conclusion, and a line introducing each of the edx 
recited charters, to which his confirmation was necessary as over-lord 
of the Honour of Berkhampstede. All are in favour of Qeyton. 

Geo&ey de Lucy, the first grantor, conveys lande in Wygenton, and 
a meadow in Lollesey. He was a Baron of the realm, of Newington 
in Kent, the eon and father of other Oeof&iea, the first and last Borons. 
He died 12th Edward I. They held Wygenton, and in Bucks lands 
in Chetendon. They also gave name to the manor of Lucy's in Little 
Oaddosden, which they conveyed to Earl Edmund when he founded a 
reh'gioQs houBe at Ashridge. Wygenton is a parish and manor near 
Xring. Lollesey was near Albury. The Merstons of Merston, Bede, 
were local gentry. The Belendens were tenants of Fevereham Abbey 
in Herts. \Vm. Basset was probably of Adestoke, Bucks'. 

Fitcbeleeton or " torn" and Taeley, in the second charter, are, tko 
one a parish, now Ficheleatom or Iltston, and the other a manor. 
De la Grace ocoura at Ghalfont St. Giles and in QlouceBterahire. 

Alban or Alan Martel, who grants the third charter, was in 1224 
Master of the Temple in England, and Dinaley was one of thor 
Preceptories. Of persona, Bolph de Glanvile was a Crevequer tenant, 
and the Hydes were an old family in Albury. The ptacns named are 
probably in Tring parish. Chetendon or Cheddington, andAudeburi, 
Al- or Aldbury are parishea and manors near Berkhamputede. Wen- 
grave is Wingrave, a manor in the Honour, but near Ayleabury. 

Bichard Mareschal. who grants the fourth charter, was of Qreat 
Linford near Newport Fagnel, as waa Balph, who waa ordered in 
1223 to hold Berkhampateae Castle. Bafe Chenduit was conjoined 
with him. 

Duneate or Donsley, the land granted by the fifth charter, was in 
Tring. De Hatnele held lands in Herts under Feversham Abbw. 

Of the persons in the last charter, Nicholas Burdun held Kings 
Teignton in Devon, and lands in WUts, Oloucester, and Northampton. 
He was probably connected with Biohard's earldom of Cornwall. 

H^mttUngfi at iSittUn^ of tbe laopal an|raealog(cal 

Febraory 2, 1877. 
C. D. E. FoBTKOH, Esq., F.8.A., V.P., ia the Chair. 

At the opening of the New Session the Cbaimuui adTerted in 
feeling terms to the ^eat loss the Institute had sustained in the 
death of Mr. Bnrtt. Kia intimacy with the method and the require- 
ments of the Institute, and his est^neire acquaintance throughout the 
kingdom, gave him a power which vaa lon^ and abl; devoted to the 
interests of the society. After referring to the course which had heen 
adopted by the Council to mark their esteem for their late &iend, and 
their sympathy with his widow and family, the Chairman alluded to 
the retirement of Kr. Itanking, and explained the arrangements which 
had been made for the Eecretttriat of the Institute by the appointment 
of Mr. Albert Hartshome and Mr. William Brailsford. As to the 
condition of the Institute, it was most satisfactory. The Colc;bester 
Meeting had been eminently successful ; much cordiality waa evinced 
by the inhabitants, and the papers read were of great Interest and 

With regard to the inconvenience arising from the premnt restrictionB 
upon tb"* gratuitous access to Wills in Her Majesty's Court of Probate, 
Sir John Macleait proposed the following resolution : — 

"That this Society should unite with Uia Society of Antiquaries and 
the Camden Society in making a representation to the Judge of Her 
Majesty's Court of Probate of the inconvenience suffered by authors 
under the present restriction upon the gratuitous access to Wills, and 
in a petition that free access to those documents for purely literarg 
purpOKK be extended at the Chief Probate Court and allowed at the 
Local Probate Courts." Thin was seconded by Ur. Soden Siuth, and 
carried unanimously. 

Hr. £. C. Davey then read a memoir " On the recent discovery of a 
Roman Yilla at Crauhill near Wantage." The author, who illustrated 
his remarks by maps and plans, compared it with one at Wheatley, 
which it closely resembled, and g&ve a detaUed account of the hyper- 
caust and the antiquities which had been found on the spot and in the 
neighbourhood. Mr. Tuckzr (Houge Croix) made some remarks upon 
the Soman untiquities in the district which he had lately visited. 
Mr. Davey's ^taper is printed in Vol. xxxiii, p. 382. 

Mr. Hartshorite r^id a paper " On a Monumental VMgy at Hugh- 
paden, Bucks, attributed to Richard Wellesbonme deMontfort,"wluofa 
will be printed in a fiituro number of the " Journal." Mr. Wai.lbh 
yoi.. zxxiT. 2 b ,,,. 


made some abBerrastons on the extreme interest and grandeur of the 
effig; and the vei? pnszling heraldry exhibited on the shield and 
Burcote. The little ooata of arms on the acabbard ^ere, he thought, 
those of personal friends. Mr. Tuckeu (Bouge Croix) said that the 
peculiarity of the heraldry had often been discussed at the College of 
Arms. Ue saw no reason to doubt the statements of Lipecombe, the 
historian of Buckingham shire, which was based upon a record left bj 
a vicEir of Hughenden in the early part of the seventeenth century, that 
the effigy was intended to represent Richard de Uontfort. The occur- 
rence of a crescent repeated three times at the feet of the figure 
remained unexplained. 

atntiqullits ant tSAexktt of ^ct Si^ibiUti. 

By Mr. E. C. D.vvey. — Maps and plans in illustration of hia paper, 
some bronze celts and a gold coin of Tincomius found near Wantage. 

By Hr. Haktshobne. — Three full-size drawin<i;8 of the effigy at 

By Sir John Maclean. — ^Rubbings of a crosa now at Trevena, 
Tintagel, formerly at Trevillet. TJiis oTtampIe of a Cornish cross of 
tlie tenth century, measuring 3 Tt. in len;;th, 1 ft. J in. in width, and 
9 in. in thickness, is inscribed on one tide in Bomano-Oothic charac- 
ters: -I- UATHFtTS MABrvs LVPAs lojT ; On the other, ^lnat + fecit 


By Mr. H. F. CiifRcii. — A collection of silTSr and hronse brooches 
and six rings from the Island of J-ewis in the Hebrides, collected by 
Mr. W. 8. Farker. In remarking upon these objects, Mr. Sooek 
BxiTH said that they bore in their foi-ms the traditions of a very earl; 

Sjriod, and were in fact the degenerate descendants of the ancient 
eltio brooch. He described the rarious kinds shon-n, remarkinp^ 
upon the difference between a brooch proper and the " brocl} ofgolt full 
ftStXt" if'orn by Chaucer's Piioreos on her arm, which was a pendant 
jowel. Some of the e-xamplas shown were very iate, one brooch being 
dated 1704. The fashion of wearing pendant brooch-jewels about the 
arms continued loug after Chaucer's time. Such decorations appear 
in great elegance on the beautiful effigy, in Harefield church, of Alic« 
Countess ot^erby, the " sweet AmaTyllis" of Spenser, and to whom 
he dedicated hie Ttaret of the Muaei. 

By the Eev, Hugh Pioot,— Cloth, probably of Persian needlework, 
formerly in use as the Altar-cloth in Stretham chiu-ch, Cambridgeshire. 
This was of blue silk, quilted, and backed with linen The centre 
contained a repreaentntion in tent-stitchof a pelican feeding her young, 
Burrounded by peacocks and otiier birds, the whole being contained 
within a border of ^ihl beasts and hunting scenes, similar to what is 
often seen on circular Oriental shields. The employment of such a 
covering as this for the altar of Stretham church is a curious and 
perhaps unique fact, and worthy to be chronicled. 

By Mr. 0. C. Pell. — A fine example of a stone hammer and three 
beads found at Stretham. 

By the Rev, C. H. Bitrsham.^ — An altar cloth of needlework of the 
t'me of Elizabeth in an intricate piitturo and delicate shades, but now 
in a great state of dilapidation ; and two other pieces of needlework of 
the same period, from Cogenhoe church, Northamptonshire. 


L ' r ; ^i6>CooglC ' 

3 by Google 


B7 Hrs. DnnBLD. — Samplers of the seveuteeuth and eighteenth 
century in fine aeedle^rork. 

B; UisB SntsoiT. — ^A toaselled uubUod, said to be for the exhibition 
of relics, representing Adam and Ere, in needlework upon a ground uf 
silver vire ; and an embroidered " Maccaroni " coat and \t'ai6tcoat. 

B7 Uiea M1UB8. — Sai^lere, including one dated 1662. 

By Mt. BBAiLGFons. — Embroidered waistcoat of tho time of George I. 

By Mrs. Wllloughbt.^ — Fortioneof alady'e dress of the close of the 
eerealeenth century ; and pieces of embroidery of tho early part of the 
eighteenth century. 

By Misa Hopkinbon. — Embroidered purse of Charles I, 

By Mrs. Bahnwell. — Two French flower pieces delicately worked on 
satin, dated 1770. 

By Mrs. Cakiji,e. — An eighteenth century porte-monnaie. 

By Mr. B. M. Bankino. — Two pieces of eocloBiastical embroidery 
representing saints, probably sixteenth century French work. 

B^ Ur Souss Smith. — Leather flask found at the depth of twelve 
feet in exc&Tating in the parish of St. QeorgeVin-^ke-East in 1876. 

March 2, 1677. 

Sir J. SiBBAiD D. Scorr, Bart., F.S.A., V.P, in the Chair. 

The C3AISUAK spoke of the loss that the Institute had sustained by 
the death of Mr. Talbot Bury, one of the earliest members of the 
Institute, and for many years an active and valuable member of the 

In pursuance of a resolution passed at the meeting on Feb. 2nd,— 
"That this Society should unite with the Society of Antiquaries and 
the Camden Society in making a representation to the Judge of her 
Majesty's Court of Probate of the inconvenience suffered by authors 
under the present restriction upon the gratuitous access to Wills, and 
in a Petition that free access to those documents for purelj/ literary 
purpotet be extended at the Chief Probate Court, and allowed at the 
Local Probate Courts," — Mr. BaAiLSFOBS read the following corres* 
pondence : — 

" Ta the Sight HomuralU Sir Jamtt lUimen, Knt., Judge of 

Her Majnttf't Court of Probate. 

"The Memorial of the Hoyal Archraological Institute of Qreat Britain 

and Ireland. 

" Sheweth,— That the advantages which have resulted to historical, 
genealogical and biographical literature through the liberality of your 
predecessors, judges of Uie Court of Probate, in allowing to historical 
students free access to Wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury before the year 1700, without payment of fees, are conspicuous 
in the greater degree of accnracy in works of those classes. Manj 
years have elapsed since this privilege was first granted, and it 
appears to your memorialists that the time has come when its exten- 
sion may be granted with corresponding public advantages to literary 
students. Your memorialists, therefore, respectfully beg that you 
will be pleased to take the subject into your favourable consideration, 
and they venture to hope that you will see fit to take such steps, and 
give sudt orders, as will insure access, for purely literary purposes, to 
all Wills proved and Administrations granted, prior to ike end of the 


reign of King Qeorge II in the Chief Court of Probate and also in the 
DiHtrict Gonrta, the documenta in which latter are soaroel; less valuable 
for Ut«ia^ purposes thau those in the former, whilst reference to them 
is barred by so much expense aa to render diem almoet inaccessible for 
the purposes above-mentioned. 


"Feb. 16th, 1877." 

" The Probate Court, Westminster, 

"Feb. 2lBt, 1877. 
" My Lord, — I am directed by Sir Jumes Hannen to acknowledgs 
the receipt of the memorial of the Boyal Archteological Institute of 
Gtreat Britain and Ireland bearing your lordship's signature, and 
dated the 16th inst., and to state that Sir James Hannen considers 
that the period during which wills are permitted to be examined for 
literary purposes may properly be extended irom a.d. 1700 to A.O. 
1760, and that Sir James wilt give directions accordingly. 
"I am, my lord, 

"Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " JAMES C. HANNEN, 

" Sieretar^." 
" To the Eight Honble. 

" The Lord Talbot de Malahide, PMsident," &c, &c. 

On the motion of Mr. Octathts Mokoas, seconded by Mr. C. S. 
OnzATEB, a cordial rote of thanks was passed to Sir James Hannen 
for his compliance with the request set forth in the memorial. 

Mr. Hastshobne read " Some ObservationB upon the Yenus di 
Medici and the Works of Nollekens," which will be printed in a 
future number of the " Journal." 

Mr. Olditels spoke at some length upon the early sources of Qieek 
art. He alluded to the first introduction of the nude figure by the 
prelerence of the people of Onidos for such a statue of Venus by 
Ib:axiteles, a dr^iM Venus by the same artist being chosen by the 

Seople of Cos. The idea of the Venus di Medici seemed to have been 
enved horn the statue at Onidos, but each of the works of Praxitelea 
were frequently copied. With regard to the fancy that the Medicean 
Venus was the model of the height and proportions of a female figure, 
the Greeks had no such canon of excellence ; but seven feet, the height 
of the Apollo Belvedere, and of the Yenus of Miles, had been distin- 
guished as the heroic standard. With regard to Nollekens, be was 
not an antiquary or a poetic sculptor. 

Mr. Walusk considered that the restorations to the Yenus di Medici 
were not admirable ; he thought the head was by a sculptor of the 
ieeadenee, an opinion in which Mr. Oliifibld did not coincide, the ears 
of the figure being pierced. 

Mr. Greaves, speaking generally as to the idea the Greeks had of 
great size and stature, said, they ever considered these attributes as 
an excellence, as much in women as in men. This was clearly 
shewn in the works of Aristotie, Theocritus, and other Greek authors. 
In the "Odyssey" Minerva is described aa making Penelope taller 
and plumper, iu order to make her more admired, and Eutymachua 
afterwards lauds her for excelling other women in size, amongst ofliez 


1 liuriblc found b( Perahon 



^ntfquitiES anti VSo^ of 3it £ibibfte)r. 

By Mr. A. Habtshobhe. — Four original dravlngs of tho Venus 
de Medici, by NollekenB, with autograpnio atteetatione. 

By Mr. HKWDEReoM. — A Feraian shield of steel, damascened in guld 
with horsemen engaged ia the chase. An Indian shield of rhinoceros 
hide, formerly in the collectioR of Lord Conning. A battle-axe from 
Oude of great beauty, and Eve similar weapons from Delhi. 

By Mr, "W. Niybn. — A thurible of bronze found at Pershore in 
18S6, among a heap of old metal in a founder's yard, and said to have 
been dug up near the Abbey church. This had been considered by 
some antiquaries as of Dani^ origin, but Mr. Micklethwaite thought 
it was English work of the twelfth century. He called attention to its 
general characterietics, and particularly to the special and unusual 
arrangement of its details, to prevent the entanglement of the chains. 
It does not appear that tho directions of Theophilus (De Diversia 
Artibus sen I^reraarum Artiam 8chedula), written probably in tho 
early half of the 1 1th century, hare been adhered to in thia particular 
example. There roust have been a vast number of thuribles in 
existence in the middle ages, and, although their trorkmanship is 
often rude the^ are always thoroughly practical, considerable ingenuity 
being exercised in adapting them for uieir special purpose. 

By Mr. 8. Tucxek (Bouge Croix). — Three small Soman intaglios in 
cornelian, viz. : a heai] of Bias set in a ring ; a head of Hercules, and 
a fine head of a female, in gold seals ; aod a cameo in amethyst of a 
comic mask perforated at the mouth, and set in a gold ring. 

By Mrs. Jaokson Gwilt. — Subbing from a brass at Isleworth, with 
the following inacription: " Margaret Dely, a syster professed yn Syou, 
who decessed ye viii. of October, 1561," and an engraving of the City 
Arms of Oroseeti, from the church of 8. Lorenzo in Florence. 

3 by Google 

^icra of %c1)EeoIog{caI ¥u)ilical{on0. 

UiDDUiTON. London : Joun Wilsos. 

The collection of Bembrandt's etdungs, which was held this year at 
the Burlington Fine Arts' Club, formed a very remarkable exhibition, 
and one wnioh every one ought to have seen. It is probable titat, 
although it inclnded eeveraf works of doubtful authenticity, a more 
complete oollection was never brought together. By the juxtaposition 
of different "states" it was made spec! ally interesting and instructive, 
and while it served to spread a bettor knowledge of Rembrandt's work 
amongst amateuis generally, a rare opportunity was afforded to experts 
of puisuing their study of the master. Any one of the more important 

Slates of the great artist who " rendered even darkness visible is, no 
ouht, Buihcient to astonish and to fascinate, and to illustrato, in the 
fullest manner we can imagine, the capabilities of etching; but to study 
seriously tbe master himself it is necessary to trace the chronological 
order of his work. If Bembrandt had dated and signed all his works 
a great deal of time and labour would have been saved to his admirers ; 
but, out of about 350 plates that have been attributed to him, at least 
half of them are undated; 152 are not signed, and throe or four 
different modes of signature were adopted in the remainder. The 
comparison of works of dubious authenticity with those undoubtedly 
genuine, the examination of signatures, and the collecting of all avail-^ 
able evidence in order to distinguish the work of Bembrandt &om 
that of his followers, and originats from copies, and to fix with some 
accuracy the dates of the undated plates, is no light or easy task, and 
one which is by no means accomplished yet. 

In "Notes on the EtchedWorkof Bembrandt," published since the 
exhibition in Savile Bow, by the Bev. C. H. Uiddleton, we find a very 
useful contribution to the fund of Bembrandt lore. This ia we under- 
stand to be followed by a more complete work on the same subject 
now in progress ; but we have in these " Notes" the results of mucdi 
investigation of the disputed plates, and while awaiting the appearance 
of the larger work we content ourselves with a brief allusion to this 
first inntalment. Amongst the independent theories regarding some 
of the plates we may mention tbe suggestion that the poria-ait of an old 
man in Jewish dress marked No. 15 in tbe catalogue may have been a 
portrait of tbe artist's father Harman. Concerning the " Bsaurrsction 
of Lazarus" (No. 16) Hi. Middleton argues that, as also in the 
'■ Jacob Lamenting," we have " the design of Bembrandt, and 


probabl; Bome of hia actual work, but that the grvater pari of 
That we see ia the work of Van Tliet."' "The Good Samaritan "he 
belieroa to have been desijtaed and parti; executed by Kembrandt, 
and finished by a pnpil, differing from Mr. Haden, who attributes the 
plate to BdI. In his remarks on the plate traditionally called the 
" Great Jewish Bride," and which haa generally been considered a 
portrait of hia wife, the author remarks that Itembrandt's genius did 
not lie in accuracy of likeness. We confess we do not see that the 
fact of his 80 frequently idealising his models proved his incapacity 
for accuracy when that was the quEility moat to be desired. His large 
painted portraits were certainly accurate to the life. 

The "Flight into Egypt " Mr. Middleton holds, with the catalogue, 
to be not a work in whidi Bembrandt haa borrowed from another, bnt 
ODe in which he baa taken an already engraved plate nnd altered it to 
his oirn purpose, the group of the Holy Family with name part of the 
foliage behind them, and parts of the foreground only being his. In 
reference to the peculiarity of the foliage ia this print, consisting of 
" dots more or less thickly spread, differing in their form and tone, 
^hile the few strokes that can be discovered appear rather to have 
been added as an after-thought," Wilson's rather wild conjecture is 
quoted, namely — "If in spreading the varnish on a plate we bear 
hard with the dabber we find, on removing it, that the varnish has been 
penetrated, producing an infinite number of minute holes. . . . We 
may imagine that Bembrandt resorted to this manceuvre with effect, 
and that the masses of foliage were expressed, in the first instance, by 
the movement of tha dabber, and completed by a second operation, 
preserving the lights from the corrosion of the add by a brush dipped 
in liquid varnish." — {D»»eriptiiie Catalogue, n. 2L), It is by no means 
certain that Sembrandt used a dabber in laying his grounds. He 
may have hit on a more convenient plan, as many etchers have at the 
present dny, but we do not think that it is characteristic of him to trust 
to BUL-h a very haphazard process for his effects. 

By Sir Stbfhs.i R, Olyssb, Butt. 1877. 

It was said of Sir Stephen Glynno, that he had visited every church 
in England, and those who talked ivith him on this, his favourite 
pursuit, became aware that he had not only visited and acoavately 
observed a vast number of churches, but that he remembered their 
particulars with a readiness and correctness that was little short of 
marvellous, and not unfrequently besides the architectural details of 
the building he knew the name and something of the character of the 
incumbent. The note hooka in which he recorded hie observations were 
a part of the man. Probably lie never left home without one, and it 
was understood that he had accumulated a vast number of these 
records of his experience. But, though all knew the extent of hia range, 
and the acuteneaa and accuracy of his power of observation, it ia 
probable that few supposed hia records to be so full, or were at all 
aware that hia notes upon above 5,530 churches were bo entered up as 
to be fitted for pubhcation. Whether he himself contemplated such 


publication ie not known, even to his family. He was a man of a 
veiT Bhy and retiring diaposition, very averse from an; personal display, 
and it is not improbable that he merely wrote up his notes, as be did 
every thing else, with a sense that he ought to do his best. However 
this may be, all will, we tbink, applaud bis distinguished brotber-in- 
law, Mr. Qladstone, for the publication of the present volume, which 
proves to the world that the reputation enjoyed by Sir Stephen as an 
eodesiastical antiquary, so far as cburob architecture is concerned, 
rests upon a very solid foundation. The selection of the coun^ of 
Kent for the subject of the volume is judicious. Archdeacon Harrison 
and the Bev. Scott Bobertaon have given it the benefit of theirrevision, 
and have added the illustrations by which, the work is graced. Mr- 
Qladstone's introduction is ju&t what was to be expected &om so 
loving and so accomplished a kinsman, and all, end no more, than was 
aoitable to the occasion. 

The notes themselves are a model of what such -notes should be, 
they are clear, comprehensive, show a thorough knowledge of chorcli 
ardiiteotura, a very rare accomplishment when Sir Stephen began his 
work, and are besides brief. The following aooount of St. Peter's 
church, Sandwich, is selected almost at random, as an example of the 
style and general character of the notes : — 

"The church has undergone considerable mutilation, and has at 
' present a very unsightly, patched appearance. It consists now of a 
nave and ehancel, with a north aisle, and a tower placed between the 
nave and chancel. The south aisle is destroyed, but part of its outer 
wall is standing, and the arches are visible, built into the !H)utb wall 
of the nave. 

"The walls are mostly of flints; the tower is large, but the upper 
part is modern and built of brick. There is a rectilinear north porch, 
embattled ; sll the windows of the nave have been sadly mutilated. 
The interior is spacious and lofty ; and the nave is divided from its 
aisle by thi'ee pointed arches with octagonal pillars. The chancel is 
divided from its aisle by two similar arches, and those which support 
the tower are of like character. There is no vestige of very early 
work about the church. The chancel has a fine curvilinear window on. 
the north side, of three lights, but unfortunately walled up. In the 
north aisle is an ogee arch for a tomb, Eanked by buttresses with 
pinnacles ; there are also the effigies of a man and woman, and a alab 
with a cross floir and inscription in Lombard letters. A small altar- 
tomb is panelled with trefoUs containing heads, and bears the muti- 
lated effigy of a knight. There is one good carved pew-end. In the 
west galleiy is an organ." 

The author of this little book has brought together with much care 
some interesting notes upon this singular custom, and few persons are 
perhaps aware that the custom of Dunmow has its origin as early as 
the time of Bobert Fits-Walter, if indeed it was n..t actutdly instituted 
by that famous opponent of King John. There is at any rato certain 


eridence that it w&a well established in the fourteenth oentury. Allasion 
ia made to the custom in the vision of Piers Fh>wmaa, and Ohaucet's 
Wife of Bath says :^ 

" The hoMK teat not Jit for hem I trow 
ITutt nme men have in Euex at Oonmovi." 

Mr. Andrewa girea some extracts from the Oartnlary of Dimmow 
'Pnarj as to the deliveTT of the flitch to certain male claimants in the 
fifteentli century ; liut uie Dieaolution seems to havA pat a stop to the 
continuance of the custom until 1701. It would appear 1^t the 
character of the proceedinga now became ooneiderablj changed, and 
the boisterous hilarity exhibited in the picture "bv Oebome of the 
*' Dnnmow Procession" in 1751, may be contraated with the simple 
procedure when "one Richard Wright, yeoman, came and required 
the bacon of Dunmow on the 27th April in the 23rd year of the reien 
of King Henry VI, and was sworn before John Cannon, Prior." The 
revival of the custom in 1855, and subsequently, is characterized more 
by levity than dignity — such is the taste of the age — and we cannot 
help tbinking that it would have been better to have allowed the 
Dunmow custom to remain, like its counterpart at Wiohnor, obsolete, 
and well-nigh forgotten, save in such interesting records as Mr. Andrews 
has ^ven us. 

Ii^e many other mediaeval observances, that of the !Flit«h of Bacon 
hae had its day, and we confess our dislike to this revival at Dunmow 
as much as to the recurring and senseless travesty of history at 

VOL. xzxn. 


SItrfiarolagttal Sntelliffmtr. 

The EASTHBBa SABOopnAaus. — ^In a cop; of Camden's Britan»ia in 
the Bodleian libnur, Oxford, tbe foUovine note occurs :— 

" Within a cornefield of Est-Nesse, the lorduhip of Mr. CrathonieB 
is the weapon take of Bhydale in the oounty of Torke, there was a 
oofiin of £&ee stone 2) yarda in length, 3 quar(«r'8 broad, dij^ed np 
with a plough about 3 years since, with a cover thereon very olosely 
fitted 3 quarters deep withia the ground, the endes there of standing 
North and South contrary to the use of our tymea, within it were 
bones of mi^a and the outside there of these wordes engravde very 
faire taken out by me Boger Dodsworthe June 2, 1619." 

F C. 

In Oough'e Camden (edit. 1789), vol, iii, p. 85, it is said of this 
inscription : — 

"This inscription was found in a ploughed field at Easiness near 
Hevingham, the seat of Henry Cratbome of Crathome, Esq., and tune 
remaini there. A drawing of it was taken by Sir William Dugdale at 
his visitation of this county in 1 665." 

Through the courtesy of the officers of the College of Arms wo are 
enabled to reproduce Duf^dale'e drawing and his description of the 
sarcopbaguB from his Yoriski're Armi, p. 65* : — 

" Cralltome. — Fi'gura cujusdam vetustiSarcophagi, in Agris arabilibas 
de East Ness, infra Dominium de Crathome et Wapentachium de Byn- 
dale (ah Austro ad Aquilonem jaeentia), circa annum M.D.Cxxiiij" 
Aratro sulcanto, reperti ; et nunc juxta Portam Domus mansionolis 
Badulphi Crathome de Crathome preediota Armigeri ; exiatentiB. 
Juxta quem locum diversa etiam Bomanorum numismata seepiasime 
eruta sunt." 

iliOngitudlne septem pedum. 
. I duonim pedam et 

Proftmditate. tri"™ Polli<=i«m. 



Tlir. W. Thom|)son Watkia has fladdaroured to ascertain whether 
the earoophagiiB is still preserved in the neighbourhood, but without 

The Ber. C H. Uiddleton is about to publish a DescriptiTe 
Catalogue of the Etched Works of Bembrandt, giving an aocurate 
description of every print, or state of a print, and a reference to the 
large public coUections in which it may be found, the whole forming 
an index of all the works of the great master in the British Museum, 
at Cambridge, Paris, Amaterdam, and Haarlem. This will be followed 
by a similar work on the prints of the Bembrandt school. 

The excavations at Templeborough ceased on Bee. 15 until the 
spring. We shall look forward to some further parttculora of these 
important discoveries &om Mr. Thompson Watkin. 

BoHAK LoNDOK. — We are indebted to Mr. J. £. Price for the following 
description of some discoveries recently made while excavating within 
the precincts of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

"In clearing what was once the site of Pye-oomer for the erection 
of a new libraiy and museum two stone sarcophagi were exhumed. 
They were eleven feet from the surface, situated some fifty feet from 
the new buildings in Windmill Court, and at no great distance from 
tixe line of the City wall, tbey lay east and west, are about seven feet 
long, of coarse oolitic stone, have massive lids or covers, and may be 
clearly identified as Boman. In one, two skeletons were fonnd, the 
one of a man with his head to the west, the other a woman lying with 
her head towards the east ; both the skulls and also the teeth are in 
good preservation. In the other tomb a leaden coffin bad been placed. 
It is much corroded, and has been considerably injured by the efforts 
of the finders to convey it away piecemeal for sale, and ultimatoly to 
the melting-pot. It has, fortunately, been secured, and BufB.eient remains 
to identify the ornamentation upon it. It shows the rope or cable 
moulding disposed in a diamond pattern, resembhng similar examples 
found years ago at Betbnal Oreen, Old Ford, Stratford, Stepnev, to say 
nothing of those at Colchester and other places. The sarcophagi are 
alike in form to that fonnd a year or two since near Sea-cool Lane, on 
the bank of the old Fleet river, and which is now preserved in the 
museum of the Corporation of London at Ouildhall. At the head of one 
of the tombs was extricated a short stone column, with sufficient of the 
moulding remaining to. indicate its origin. It is such as havebeen often 
found among the debris of Boman baUdinge, and possibly served as a 
head-stone or other memorial of the dead, the forerunner, doubtless, 
of the ' shattered column ' familiar enough in our modem cemeteries. 
Smithfield has long been known as the site of one of the extensive 
cemeteries once attached to Boman London. The remains, however, 
usually found have been charred bones, cinerary urns, and broken 
pottery, there not being, so far as I can remember at the moment, any 
publidied description of so important an interment as that now under 

" As the works are still in progress, further objects of interest may 
be revealed." 

3 by Google 

by Google 

<^\)t arcbaeolasfcal journal. 



Wlien it is aaked, what sort of a place is some 
"Northport," or "Southliury," or "Mudford," or "Sand- 
bridge ? '- is it a city, or a borough, or a town, or a 
village ? — if the answer should be that " it is a town," or 
perhaps more definitely, " it is a market town," we — at 
least, in South Britain — hear the word "town" in the 
sense in which it is here proposed to consider it. 

The story of the west-coimtry clown, who was laughed, 
at because he " could not see the town for the houses," is 
very unjust to the clown. His blindness is unconsciously 
shared, not only by the broad majority of his betters, but 
even by the learned themselves. The " town is to be 
found neither in books nor in houses, but in the streets :" 
and has thus been hitherto undiscemed by those who have 
sought it. In one respect the countryman was wiser than 
the learned : he saw the mote that caused his bhndness. 
The houses must be abstracted from our thoughts before 
we can perceive the original town. The houses have been 
replaced many times over and over again. Even the 
most ancient churches, abbeys, or cathedrals, are often 
comparatively late additions to the town. It is the 
grotrnd plan of the highways and byeways which is the 
greatest antiquity of the typical or proper town. 

Indeed, this paxticular class of our social concentrations 
seems to have been the very one that has been hitherto 
ignored by those who have professed to give us any 
account of -the origin of the various kinds of our con- 
densed populations that are usually included tmder the 
TOL. xzxrr(No. 13fi). 2 t> 


broader sense of the word " town." The learned scan to 
have come to what they deem to be a settlement of the 
etymology and meaning of the word, which haa entirely 
excluded from their consideration the limited use of it 
that is here referred to. They have decided " that it 
is the "tto" of the Anglo Saxon Dictionaries, having 
the special meaning " an inclosed place ;" and that it not 
only therefore describes fortified towns or boroughs, but 
is still visible in the very many names of English places 
which end in "ton." In this last position they are 
probably right; but the names so labelled are far too 
numerous, and the great majority of the places are too 
unimportant, to have ever belonged to that class here 
proposed to be looked at as being specially called 
" towns." Most of the places ending in " ton "■ are, and 
always have been, the merest rural villages, or more often 
hamlets. Inclosures they may have been from the be- 
ginning, being, in fact, the homesteads of the clans, or 
families, or tribal settlements, of the original colonies. 
Such places do not, however, satisfy the more conspicuous 
and limited meaning of the word " town " above defined ; 
as when it is used to distinguish a community of the 
second class from one of the first class — a city or borough 
— on the one hand, or from one of the third class — a 
village or hamlet — on the other. 

Our pohtical and social antiquaries seem to have been 
content to look no farther back than to the military con- 
dition of the colonists for the earliest motive or initial 
principle of a town : that towns were first of all either 
themselves the fortified inclosures of governing powers, or 
that they sprang up under the shelter and protection of 
some baronial stronghold. To this they add that, in after 
times, the cathedral, or great monastery, became another 
attracting centre or cause of such communities ; offering, 
as these no doubt did, a protecting and fostering influence, 
which by that time had become at least the rival of 
physical military protection. Mr. Kemble, in the chapter 
headed " The Towns," in his most instructive work, The 
Saxons in England,^ although, as might have been 
expected, he has developed them with the great store of 
learning at his command, has been content with these 

■ VoL ii. pp. 26i-M]. 


three sources of the existence of our towns, which may 
be shortly described as the municipal, the baronial, and 
the ecclesiastical. 

With deference, however, it is presumed to think that 
the unmixed ideal "town," as distinguished, on the one 
side from cities and walled boroughs, and on the other 
from the inclosed settlements oi early rural colonists, 
now perhaps villages and hamlets, or the homesteads of 
manors ; had an actual existence — must from a natural or 
social exigence have existed — independent of these three 
artificial causes. That, although in aftertimes the original 
town has in many cases had one or more of these other 
causal agents grafted upon it, or has even been absorbed 
into them — has become fortified because of its strategic 
value ; or its privileges have been both protected and 
overawed by the stronghold ; or nourished and aggrandized 
by the growth of its missionary cell into a rich and power- 
ful religious college — in its natural or unmixed state it 
was essentially uninclosed. In fact, its chief cause or 
initial purpose required that it should be a neutral spot 
and open to all comers. 

But this state of it must not be expected to be found 
in books or records, all of which it pre-existed. Early 
written history almost entirely deals with war and defence. 
But the booty of war and the objects of defence must 
have preceded war and defence themselves. If war fills 
the pages of history ; both the many antecedent ages, and 
the centuries of years themselves from which histoiy has 
been gleaned, must have been filled in with a broad back- 
ground, diapered with the variously chequered though 
uniformly recurrent incidents of ordinary life : not per- 
haps so much unlike oxu: own condition as we are apt to 
think from the foreshortened backwaid, view, of the more 
prominent events that overshadow them, which we get 
from history. The story — ^very likely a true one — that on 
the morning of Naseby a gentleman with his hounds was 
met by the King with his army, will be remembered as 
continuing this constant pacific subtexture of human 
afiairs down towards our own times. The results of 
peaceful production and of, at least rudimentary, com- 
merce, must have already existed before the attempts to 
seize, and the struggles to keep them. 

DC|-:ec by Google 

202 WHAT 18 A TOWN. 

The pacific or commercial cause of these mere towns is 
however not only manifest in their obvious necessity — the 
positive need, ftom the very first, of places of mutual 
resort and intercourse between primitive neighbouring 
village settlements — but may, it is thought, be discerned 
in a general characteristic, still to be oWrved in the 
ground-plans of most of them. The typical contrast of 
plan between the ancient English city and the ancient 
English town must befamiliarto even the most unobservant 
wayfiirer. The ancient part of a city almost always still 
consists of a boundary, orig^aUy fortified, approximating 
to a quadrangle ; with four principal entrances admitting 
four ways that meet in a rectangular cross at the centre. 
All the subordinate streets more or less obey this rect- 
angular precedent, and even late accretions repeat the 
sqxuire masses. But a town has three principal ap- 
proaches, meeting at a central triangular space, usually 
occupied by the market — where a market survives — and 
the smaller streets often acknowledge a governing 
tendenCT to feather oflF into repetitions of this triangular 
rule. Li fact, whilst the original city was designed of set 
purpose, and fortified, and the primitive village or tribal 
settlement was planted or colonized, and probably inclosed, 
at a chosen spot ; the town, on the contrary, has groxon up 
between them spontaneously, out of a mere natural 

As long as two neighbouring rural settlements desired 
to meet, either for conference or barter, any spot on the 
interval or path between them would serve ; and no 
accustomed or appointed place of meeting would be 
necessary. They had only to approach each other until 
they met. But when the intercourse was to be between 
three or more, the point where two paths or trackways 
join into one would, from obvious convenience or ex- 
pediency, become the appointed place of meeting. Con- 
ferences of this kind, where the parties are more than two, 
would soon bring into action a new principle. The 
presence of two buyers to one seller, or of two sellers to 
to one buyer, constitutes the substratum of Market- 
price— the first rudiment of trade. These triangular 
spots, therefore, are the first cradle of that giant whom 
we now see, with his seven-league boots — ships and 


railways — striding across oceans and continents. This 
new principle, which we now call commerce, once 
quickened, would induce a frequent repetition of the 
gatherings at these places, and they would speedily 
become periodical — that is, they would be markets, fairs, 
and perhaps religious festivals. The want of some per- 
manent shelter would next be felt and supplied, after- 
wards continued to our day in the market cross, now 
being developed into the market-house with the town- 
halL dose at hand would be pitched the reireshment 
booth, afterwards to become the more permanent inn. 
Then would follow the shoeing forge, the general shop, 
and the other appliances not only for the occasional wants 
of congregated numbers, but also for a supply of exotic 
home comforts until the next meeting. All this change 
and progress would meanwhile leave their first cause, 
the forked trackway, as they found it, and as we now 
find it. In aftertimes the missionary would take advan- 
tage of these central assemblages of the country district, 
and hold field -preachings in one of the three interval 
spaces left by the forked road ; and his teachings would 
afterwards be perpetuated in the church, named perhaps 
after some famous apostolic teacher, whose disciple or 
suffiragan he was, or after the name of his predecessor, 
who had been rewarded for his misconstrued message of 
peace by martyrdom upon tliat very spot. 

The case of these towns of emergence includes their 
chief organic fiinction, the market, as already suggested. 
. intimately involved in their cause. Not l>eing sought 
beyond what is written, the origin of markets is usuSly 
attributed to special grants, actual or presupposed ; but, 
like other steps in social progress, although of independent 
ori^, political exigency speedily brought them under 
state control. This, it will be remembe^^, was the fate 
of the printing press : also of that greater institution, 
within which the memory of this native immunity, and 
the struggle against subjection, stiU smoulders. As 
central governments increased in power they purposely 
restricted the number of places where markets and 
assemblages of people might be held, both for the enforce- 
ment of police supervision against fraudulent sales, and 
for security against revolt. One of the laws of WilliEim 

204 WHAT 18 A TOWN. 

the Conqueror expi-essly limits them to cities, walled 
boroughs, and fortresses. The original markets, therefore, 
may have been fer more numerous than we now find them. 
A natural centralizing tendency must have since come 
into action in favour of the superior attractions of those 
within the cities and boroughs, and in the larger towns. 
Improvements of roads and in the means of traveUing. 
and the passing of markets out of this original natural 
(ree or optional state into that of subjection to royal pre- 
rogative and manorial right, have no doubt greatly 
restricted their numbers. These original markets are in 
many cases, prolwibly, still represented by the village green, 
with its maypole sometimes yet standing. For even here 
the fairs, revels, and annual festivals, and the occasional 
pitching of wild-beast-shows, conserve that sense of a 
public right to assemble there which has prevented their 

This initial triangular rule is still wonderfiilly persistent 
even in those towns which have grown up to be the rivals 
of cities and, even of capitals It is not only still to be 
traced in the ancient nucleus around which the largest of 
our towns have gathered themselves, but is often so 
vigorous as to germinate throughout their most extensive 
accretions and suburbs. This may be partly due to the 
approaches from the country having necessarily conformed 
to the trifold character of their central tenninus, and the 
overflows of the town have naturally flanked the roads 
already existing. In some cases even the necessary en- 
largement of the market-place itself, although very great, 
has continued the triangular form which had been first 
impressed upon its centre. In the noble example of 
Nottingham this triangular law is still supreme. In 
others of the largest towns it may still be made out, 
although muc^ overlaid, or obscured, or almost obliterated. 
In Manchester some traces of it may be discerned in the 
old Market-place, contiguous to the parish— collegiate — 
now cathedral — church ; but, influenced perhaps by re- 
mains of Roman 'streets, the present great town had 
ali'eady assumed the general quadrangular aspect of a 
city, long before it was tardily promoted to that dignity ; 
or more likely its great sudden growth may have resulted 
in an analogy with BerUn. At Birmingham also the 


ancient triangular centre is still very conspicuous in " The 
Bull King," a name in which one of its festival puipoBes 
has deposed the utilitarian one of " The Market Puce." 
The name " Bull Bing" also remains at the central area 
at Kidderminster ; and in other towns not only in the 
Midland counties, but in other parts of England. 

Good, perfect, and unaltered specimens of this ideal of 
a town are indeed very frequent all over the kingdom, 
and three or four at least used to he passed tlm)ugh 
during a short ' journey from one city to another. 
Tewkesbury is a good example ; so also Shrewsbury, 
Fayersham, Tiverton, and others ; and althoiigh Leland 
fiuled to discern the general principle which now engages 
our attention, this characteristic of the plan of a 
town in one instance attracted his notice. He describes 
Thombury, Gloucestershire, as we now see it, — " to 
the proportion of the letter Y, having first one long 
Strete and two Homnes goynge owt of it."' This 
principle is also very obvious at Alcester, Warwick- 
shire ; from which it may be inferred that the Roman 
chest-er, still remembered in the name, had become 
desolate, and that travellers already passed by it, 
without using its forsaken streets, before the adjoining 
English town arose in the spontaneous manner here sugges- 
ted. Not many increasing English towns have continued 
almost to our own time contacted within the limits of 
chronic fortification ; but where this has happened, as at 
Sandwich, — still confined within an ancient earthen wall 
similar to that of Wareham — the feathered tendency of 
the street plan has, by compression, been contorted mt« 
some approach to what is called flamboyant. 

In many cases the increase of the market, instead of 
enlarging the triangle, has preferred to overflow into one 
of its three arms, the one street being much widened 
to receive it; as at Chipping-Sodbury, Marlborough. 
Southmolton, and very many towns in the south-west of 
England. Tlie large square markets resembling the 
Flemish Grande Place, especially fii^uent in the north of 
England — as at Ripon, Richmond, I^ybum, and Dar- 
hngton — may be a still further development of this same 

' Itin.. vol. Tii, fol. 7*6. 

■Dci-zec by Google 

method of enlargemeat by widening one of the tiuee 
anus. But in both of these classes it will generaUy be 
found that two entrances remain at one end, whilst there 
is only one outlet at the other. 

What the numerous " tons" really represent are the 
centres of the original territorial imit, the colony or 
township or tithing which became the constituent of the 
hundred, and itself afterwards chiefly merged in the rural 
parish ; in which the " tons," although still the merest 
villages, are now often called the "church-town." When- 
ever this settlement of the rural tithings or townships 
into parishes took effect, such of the upsprung towns as 
had provided themselves with churches of their own made 
good a share in that arrangement, resolving themselves 
into one or several independent parishes. But it does not 
seem likely that a plurality of parishes in a town, even in 
the old larger towns and boroughs, hands down any 
original divisions of it, or any planted constitution. Any 
sucn intramural plurality of parishes would arise from 
offehoots or accretions of emeigency : constitutional 
oiganizations or privileges being superinduced when the 
community was ripe for them, or powerful enough to 
obtain them. It is hardly likely that even a municipal 
borough was, as has been claimed for it, " nothing more 
than a hundred, or an assemblage of hundreds, surrounded 
by a moat, a stoccade, or a waU."' Although apparently 
ignored in written evidences, their growth by successive 
accretion is attested by an extrinsic monument. The 
dedications of the churches, in the oldest of our lai^e 
towns, indicate a succession of different ages, and even of 
different peoples. The town of Bristol, for example, shews 
a stratified succession of dedications &om the firat half of 
the eighth century (a.d. 741) downwards. And even 
the chesters, that still preserve their Roman pUm and 
outline, have been materially resuscitated in this pro- 
gresfflve manner. Exeter, for example, presents accessions 
of different ages and nations in the names of the churches ; 
and a reference to a plan in this Journal' will shew the 
churches accumulated near the arterial centre, by later 
deposit, with a considerable unoccupied space nearer the 

< f&t F. PalgnTs, XHgl. Oamm., p. 102, 

■Vol. HI, p. an. 


WHAT 18 A TOWN? 207 

walls. Dorchester is a smaller example of this. So that 
althoiigh country parishes may have, to a (jreat extent, 
continued earlier civil divisions of land, those within even 
the most ancient towns do not transmit any ancient 
municipal organization, but are rather ratifications of the 
limits of those for whom the diurches had been estab- 
lished, either as chapehies or ofi&hoots of mother churches, 
or of additional colonies of townsmen. In the case of Exeter 
the civil division which survived was still later than the 
parochial ; for while the parish boundaries had respected 
the more ancient line of street, the civic wards are found 
in accordance with the mediaeval deviation from that line, 
made a.d. 1286. 

On the other hand, existing specimens are for from 
uncommon, of important old towns, of our occasional 
or undesigned class, that must have grown up since the 
settlement of rural parishes, still remaining in a parasite 
condition within the precincts of the parities, but quite 
distinct and even remote from the comparatively incon- 
siderable original head-centre or " ton." The ancient 
cheaters, moreover, are not the only witnesses of the 

auadrangular result of the artificial or simultaneous 
esign, as contrasted with the spontaneous cause. New 
Sarum, with its conspicuous " chequers," is an early 
mediaeval one. The plan of Berlin may also be seen in 
immediate contact with its ancient suburb on the Spree ; 
not to mention the great modem capitals of the new 
continents and the colonies, 

Neither are entirely wanting similar monuments or 
continuances of the original " tons," or central homesteads 
of the rural territorial units, firom which the present 
purpose is to discriminate our " towns" of the narrower 
meaning. The tide of modem life and great highways 
have rectilineated and nearly obliterated the original 
character of those that are more commonly seen. But m 
secluded nooks in the extremities of the land, a stroller is 
sometimes surprised, on passing through a gate or over a 
stile, to find that he has really entered a village instead 
of a farm-yard, as he may have expected. The clustered 
cottages are spotted about without order, and among 
them the larger farm-honse, with its appendages ; one of 
which at firet sight seems to be the church, asserting its 

208 WHAT 19 A TOWN? 

dignity, not by ita situation, nor always by its size, but 
by the visible evidences of its middle-age ecclesiastical 
masonry and attributes. In more urbano districtfl, the 
manoT-nouse, instead of degenerating to a farm, has grown 
into a palatial mansion, under whose wing the churcli 
remains, a himible but ornamental adjunct, often included 
within the park fence itself, but with a right of way from 
the still contiguous but now excluded village. 

How then does it happen that the very class of 
the concentrated communities which are self-grown, and 
essentially open and neutral, should not only be called by 
a word which is understood to mean an mclosure, but 
that it is also so called in emphatic distinction from the 
other classes which are by their nature planted and in- 
closed or fortified, and therefore comprehended under the 
same word "town," but in a wider and more general 
sense of it ? Can it be another example of, what is fer 
more common than suspected, two words of different 
origins and meanings that have become identical in form ? 
Much political evolution must have preceded the earUest 
outcrop of social institutions into written evidences, 
wherein we may expect to find them already in many 
distinct threads ; and it need not be wondered at if some 
two of these, on coming into light, should be found to be 
of one colour. Can it be that the word "town," in our 
more limited sense, is closely allied to the word "two," 
as. being tiie place where two roads or trackways joined 
into one — bivium ; that it is a word of the same kindred 
as "twin," "twig," "twine," "twain," and their numerous 
fraternity ? Pkices which occupy a similar confluence of 
two rivers very often have names formed upon this 
principle : as Twinham. or Tweoxnam, now Christchurch, 
Hants ; Twinfebam, Sussex ; Twickenham, Middlesex ; 
l^wjverton, Devon ; Tw[iv]erton, Somerset ; and very 
many more. In several of the Anglo-Saxon charters are 
boundary spots called the "twicene," explained by Mr. 
Kemble, " the anglo or point at which two roads 
diverge or meet ;" and an inspection of the Ordnance 
or other road maps will often confirm this interpretation, 
by showing that obscure places so situated are still 
often named "Twitchen," or "Twitching," 

An example is indeed quoted by Lye, from iElfric's 


Glossary, of the word " Tiin-thorp," explained as " Com- 
pitum,' a meeting of two ways ; in which " tiin " seems 
to have the meaning which we want, uistead of that of 
inclosure usually imputed to it; and the word "Tiin- 
weg" of the Saxon Dictionaries, also from iEliric, may 
be to the like effect. The word "tine," for the forlts 
of a stag's antlers, will also come to mind. Even if it 
should be conceded that our word " town " proper has a 
more direct causal comiectiou with the word "two," it 
would not necessarily withhold from the terminal " ton," 
which may be in fact another word, its received opposite 
meaning of an inclosure. 

This explanation is confessed to be rather of necessity 
than choice ; but the survival of what is apparently one 
word, not only with two opposite meanings, but also with 
two distinctly separate derivations, is beheved to be much 
more common ia topographical etymology than has been 
hitherto believed. If two eg^-like stones picked up 
&om one of the pebble beaches of our southern coast 
should be cracked, one might prove to be a flint and the 
other a limestone. Starting from two distant matrixes, 
innumerable tides, many storms, and constant encounters 
with their ru^ed companions, have not only finally laid 
these strange bedfellows side by side, but brought them 
both to the same complexion at last. So it is with names 
and words. Perpetually bandied during many ages frx>m 
mouth to ear and from ear to mouth, many of tnem, which 
started on their career in different shapes and from totally 
different points, have been reduced to the same form witn 
each other. 

No doubt many of our towns, as we now find them, 
have had this general initial principle of an open neutral 
and spontaneous growth, variously combined with the 
other causes of origin or development. In some cases 
they may have occupied or continued the already fortified 
military post or Chester, the seat of some earlier central 
government ; in others they may have sought the shelter 
of some baronial castle, or the fostering munificence and 
sanctuary privileges of a great ecclesiastical college. 
Some of the towns as well as cities and boroughs may 
have arisen out of the presence of a convenient sea-port, 
or the accustomed ford of a river have established it as a 


halting-place. Others perhaps utilized, or continued a 
civilized occupation of, the sites of the leas elevated hill 
fortresses, of which we see so many, less fortunate, that 
owe their present desolation to the remoteness of rivers 
or of the other needs of a more advanced social state. 
Some may even be the uninterrupted continuations, from 
an unsuspected antiquity, of such assemblages of " pit- 
dwellings ' as those which, when abandoned, still excite 
our passing curiosity under the vague description of 
"British villages." All that is here proposed is that 
there was another and more universal cause of towns, 
independent of, and even antecedent to, all these, which 
has called into existence a great number, perhaps a 
majority of them : in fact, has created them as a distinct 
type, still to be discerned in their ground-plans. 

But more often the other agencies are combined, as 
accidents, with towns of this typical origin and growth — 
have been added to them. Some towns, ah^ady formed 
by tJiis natural growth, have afterwards been fortified as 
occupying strate^c positions too important to be n^lected 
by centrS supreme powers ; a condition to which that 
convergence of roads which had been the cause of the 
towns would itself be a frequent contributorjr. Many in 
which had sprung up home-appointed and home-ruliiig 
municipal governments have fortified themselves, and not 
only commanded toleration or defied interference, but also 
exacted from superior governments recognition, and 
special privileges or francmsea Others, too populous to 
be trusted unawed, have had castles raised over them. 
Perhaps Totnes on the Dart is a good specunen of these 
compounds of our three-way germ with several other 
conditions, such as fortifications, added ; or Launceeton, 
where there was a " North-gate," a " South-gate," and a 
" W^t-gate," still so named, but no trace or possibility 
that there ever was an East-gate. 

In many cases the church, which had taken root in one 
of the three unoccupied triangular areas or wards — ^where 
it is still generally found — has been garrisoned with a 
chapter of clerks, and become the nussionary or baptismal 
centre of the entire rural district. In a like manner to that 
by which districts that had been reduced to a central 
civil polity had been called " civitates," bo were probably 


Buch christiaiuzed circles called " Christianitates," a name 
which etill remains in their centres, the home deaneries of 
some of our dioceses. The Vale of Evesham was a "Deanery 
of Christianity," and the deaneries ofExeter, York, Lincoln, 
Norwich, Leicester, Thetford, Warwick, Totnes, and some 
others, are still, or until lately have been, called "the 
Deanery of ChristiMiitie." The secular clerkja — the clei^ 
of the world or of the people — in their turn were some- 
tjmee replaced by a congrecation of monks or r^ulars. 
A settlement of either of these orders often had its pro- 
vincial school of the liberal sciences, in some cases to 
become &mouB far beyond its original local purpose, even 
into distant foreign lands. Sometimes these churches, 
beneficed by neighbouring benefectors, or enriched by 
endowments of pious kings or penitent marauders, have 
thus grown up into the great monasterr, and finally com- 
pleted the material outlme of the social group that makes 
up a town with the crowning grandeur of the minstw 

3 by Google 


After the exhaustive and interesting Paper com- 
municated by Mr. Levtfin to the Society of Antiquaries in 
1868, upon the Castra of the Littus Saxonicum, it would 
be presumption in me to attempt to add anything to hie 
description of the Castrum of Othona, and I intend 
therefore, to confine my remarks to the chapel on the 
walls ; not with the view of setting myself up aa an 
authority upon the subject, but for the puipoae of obtain- 
ing the opinion of those better able than myself, to give 
one as to its date. 

The building is 49 feet 7 inches long by 21 feet 7 inches 
wide in the clear of the walls, and 24 feet 9 inches high 
from the present ground level to the wall plate. The 
walls are 2 feet 4 inches thick, and it is built, as its name 
denotes, upon the old Boman wall. We may dismiss the 
roof from our discussion, because that is undoubtedly of 
modem construction.. 

When the foundations were laid bare a good opportunity 
was afforded of ascertaining where the old Soman waU 
. left off and the walls of the building commenced, and 
after a critical examination I arrived at the conclusion 
that there was a marked difference between the con- 
struction of the chapel walls and those of the castrum, 
which satisfied me that the wall of the castrum had been 
demolished to somewhere about the level of the ground 
before the chapel was erected. 

Mr. Lewin, in his Paper, suggests that the principal 
entrance to the castrum was on the western side, and 
where the chapel now is. This appears to be a very 
reasonable su^estion, because the foimdations of the 
gateway would probably extend somewhat beyond the 
face of the wall on either side, and thus a larger area of 
foundation would be found there than at any other spot. 
It has been argued that this building was erected — 

3 by Google 




i ^ 







I ^ 




1 . By the Biomans, 

2. By the Saxons. 

3. During the Norman Period, or even somewhat later. 
I propose shortly to discuss the evidence upon which 

these theories rest. 

As regards the B^man theory. I wish I could sub- 
scribe to this idea, and that the evidence of the building 
pointed to its being an undoubted Boman basilica. 

That the walls are erected of Boman materials there 
can be no question, for undoubtedly the old Roman walls 
formed the quarry from which th^ were raised, and upon 
comparison, the materials, Boman tiles, septaria, and 
rubble stone are ident'cal in each case, but tne mode of 
putting them tqjether is very diflferent. In the Boman 
wall, as can be seen by the sketch of the fragment left, 
the first course consisted of a layer of tiles, 3ien about 
eighteen inches of septaria and rubble, then three courses 
of tiles, then eighteen inches of septaria and rubble, again 
three courses of tiles, and again the septaria and rubble ; 
and wherever the walls were of sufficient height to show 
any construction this arrangement of mateiiala was carried 
out ; and I would remark that the construction of the 
waUs of the Boman villa, which was discovered in 
Chelmsford in 1849, were exactly of the same character 
as the waUs of this castrum.' 

With regard to the construction of the chapel walls the 
tiles are, as a rule, reserved for jambs of openings, or for 
quoins, the main part of the wall being bmlt of the sep- 
taria and rubble without the intervening bands of tiles. 

It must be remembered that the wsIIb of the castrum 
were 12 feet thick, and the builders meant that it should 
be a stronghold in every sense of the word. We know 
how the Romans excelled in military engineering. Can 
it be believed that they would commit such a wretched 
engineering mistake as : 

1. To build out upon their wall of defence any building 
not forming absolutely a building of defence, such as a 
tower to watch from, or to enable them to sweep the face 
of the wall with some of the engines of defence ; and 

3. To make a break of 21 feet in a wall of 12 feet in 

> A precuelf aimilar mode of ooliRtruction cecum nt Burgh CasUe. Sm artide 
on Fordieeter Castle in the WinchertCT volume.— ED. 

Dci-zec by Google 


thickness, and for that 21 feet to trust solely to a wall 
2 ft. 4 in. thick, 

I submit therefore that upon the evidence of the 
construction of the walls not coinciding with the con- 
struction adopted by the Romans in works of a qimilftr 
character, and the interpolation of such a building with 
walls not much thicker than would be put up by a 
speculative builder of the present day in the centre of a 
wall of huge strength meant for defensive purposes, the 
Roman theory must fall to the ground. 

As r^ards the Saxon claim there can be no doubt 
that after the exodus of the Koman legions the whole 
coimtry was in a disturbed state, and we are informed 
that the sea kings of the North amused themselves 
from time to time by swooping down upon the Eastern 
coast of England, and carrying o£f such loot as they 
could secure. Any building, therefore, of a military or 
defensive character would no doubt be preserved — and 
in such an exposed position as this Castrum occupied, 
the shelter it would afford would be peculiarly valuable. 
The military argument against the erection of the 
building by the Romans would therefore have equal 
force as r^ards the Saxons, but in addition there is 
an absence in the building itaelf of the chief charac- 
teristic of Saxon work, namely, the long and short 
?uoins — and there is a peculiarity about the quoins which 
shall point out presently in dealing with a later period 
which I apprehend will take it cleariy out of the Saxon 
period, I may also mention that the presence of buttresses 
18 an additional piece of evidence agamst the Saxon claim. 

We now come to the Norman period. In a building 
which is absolutely devoid of mouldings, and about 
which there is not a fragment of carved or moulded 
work, it is somewhat difficult to fix upon any feature 
by which to determine its precise date, but there 
is one feature about this buildiog which I think will 
afford strong evidence that its erection could not have 
been before a certain period, although we may not be able 
satis&ctorily to fix any subsequent date. I allude to the 

Of these there are altogether seven. It has fellen to 
my lot to have to do with a great many of the old parish 


churches of Essex, and in very many of them I have found 
remains of Nonnan work. Indeed it is not all an unusu^ 
thing to find the shell of the building of the Norman or 
transition from Norman to the Early English period with 
windows and doors of later insertion. I mi^t instance 
' Great Waltham, Broomfield, and Great Canfield as 
examples, but I have invariably noted an entire absence 
of buttresses of the Norman period in these buildings. 

I do not mean to say that there are no Norman build- 
ings with buttresses, because T believe even in this 
county there are one or two examples, but they are the 
exceptions rather than the rule. 'TiiB quoins are square, 
and in very many instances formed of Soman tUes or 
bricks, and I would here remark that from the large 
number of Roman bricks and septaria which I have 
found worked up in some old churches throughout the 
county, the buddings left by the Itomans must have 
been for more numerous than we have any idea of; 
because, in addition to their serving as quarries for 
any new building, they were too uresietible to be 
neglected by the road maker. And not only in Essex do 
we find a general absence of buttresses in buildings of this 
class but in other counties as well, and where buttresses 
in buildings of a larger class are used, the projection is so 
slight that the wall space between has more the appearance 
of being recessed than the buttresses of being projected. 
And again when buttresses were used they generally 
covered the angle. 

Now in this building we find the buttresses of consider- 
able projection, and although from time and rough usage 
they have been much defaced, there is still saf&eient 
evidence to prove that originally they projected at least 
2 ft., thus indicating a period of erection coinciding with 
what we understand as the Early English period, or at 
any rate Transitional Norman ; but there is still another 
feature which was certainly not in use prior to the Early 
English period, and that is the position of the angle 
buttresses. They are not exactly at the angle, but tlie 
quoin of the buUding is shewn for some few inches before 
the butteess breaks out. I should not like to make the 
sweeping assertion that in no building previous to the 
Early English period does such a feature exist. All I can 


say is, I have never met mth an example, and I think 
I am justified in saying, that it is a feature admittedly of 
a latOT date than the Early Norman period. 

I may he met with the auggestion, that these buttresses 
have been added, but upon a very close examination I 
could not find any evidence in support of this theory. 
The work is of the same character and materials as the 
bulk of the walls, and is, I think, unquestionably bonded 
in. I have met with many instances where buttresses 
have been added to buildings of an earlier date, but there 
has always been a marked difference between ihe work of 
the origmal wall and that of the buttress ; I think a 
tolerably conclusive piece of evidence as to the buttresses 
forming part of the old work is the fact of their crumbling 
away to within a very few inches of the face of the wall, 
if they had been added they woxild in many cases have 
left the old work bodily from the rough usage they have 
undoubtedly received. 

It is most unfortunate that we have no documentary 
evidence upon the subject of this building. It is true 
that Camden cites Bede, and Ealph Viigil, monk of 
Coggeshall, to show that Cedd buUt a chapel in the city of 
Manceeter; but in addition to the arguments I have before 
named upon this point, I apprehend that the chapel was 
buUt in the city and not in the fortress, and therefore the 
chapel thus alluded to was destroyed with the city. 

The only other mention we have of this building is by 
Morant, who informs us that in 1442, a jury found that 
this building, which was then undoubtedly used as a 
chapel, had a chancel, nave, and small tower with two 
bells, that it was burnt, and the chancel was repaired by 
the Hector and the nave by the parishioners, but when 
it was fotinded and by whom they know not. The nave 
only now exists, but when the excavations to which I 
have before alluded took place, we found a confirmation 
of this return Iw the juiy of 1442, and I have marked 
upon the general plans the foiuidations of an apse at the 
east end, no doubt the chancel alluded to, and at the west 
end the foundations, d,o doubt of the tower, which were 
then exposed, and are now again all covered up ; 
in further confirmation of the former existence of 
the apse^ I would refer to the broken walls at the east 

DD.:ea by Google 

3 by Google 


end, clearly proving that the building was in some form 
or Miother continued in that direction. 

This semi-circular apse is strongly relied upon by some 
as proving its imdoubted Norman character, but I think 
we must not place too much reliance upon this point, for 
it must be remembered that in old time the abbey of St. 
VaJery, in Picardy, held one half of this parish. We i Jso 
know that the round apse was very commonly adopted in 
France, even at a later period than that corresponding with 
oiir Norman work; and it is possible that the architect 
may have been of foreign extraction, and taking into con- 
sideration the very remote position of Bi-adweU, far away 
firom the great thoroughfares of the county, access by 
sea was probably as convenient as that by laaid, and thus 
the introduction of the apse may be accounted for. There 
is one other point in connection with this apse which 
may be worth a passing thought. 

It is. clear that the old Roman wall was strengthened 
with at least one circular tower, and these towers may 
possibly have had narrow openings either for look-out or 

Surposes. May not the materials thus worked to a 
efensive circular face have suggested their re-production 
in a circular form in the new budding to be erected ? 

The absence of windows has been commented upon. If 
there is one feature of our Norman and Early EngUsh 
Churches in this district more decided than another, it 
is the extreme smaUnesa of the windows, generally not 

more than six inches wide outside, but splaying off, of 
course, to a much greater width inside. These windows 
would, when the building was converted into a bam, be 
useless, and therefore I can readily imagine that they 
would be widened to the width of the mner splay or 
thereabouts, and converted into loops to enable the 
labourers to load the bays of the bam with com. I 
apprehend that two of these narrow windows on either 
Bide, together with those in the apse, would be considered 
quite Bil£cient for lighting purposes. 

A veiT curious feature is the starting of an arch at l^e 
east en^ One woidd naturally expect to find the remains 
of an arch which would cover tiie whole width of the nave, 
but if this arch is completed in a semi-circular form it 
would scarcely cover half the width; it woxild seem, there- 

218 ST. peteb's on the wall. 

fore, that if there was only one arcli it must have been 
very flat at the top or four-centred. The other alternative 
seems to be a double arch with a pier in the centre — a 
feature which, if I remember rightly, is to be seen in the 
so called chapel at Beeleigh Abbey. 

Taking a survey of the whole building, both as r^^ards 
the visible, and what is now the invisible parts of it, and 
relying mainly upon the buttresses which I might almost 
say are the only architectural features left, I would 
submit that the date of this building may be fixed at the 
latter end of the twelfth century, and that it was built 
for ecdesiasticaJ purposes. 

by Google 





Duringtheautunmsof 1875 and 1876, 1 paid visits to the 
church of Slapton, a small village four miles from Towcester, 
and to that of Raunds, a few miles from Higham Ferrers, 
both in the county of Northampton. And it is but 
right to state, that, in both placeSj I was the guest of the 
incumbent, with much kindly hospitality. The church 
of Raunds has lately been restored by Sir Gilbert Scott, 
ajid it was through him that I first became acquainted with 
the discovery of the extraordinary series oi paintingB in 
that church. The paintings of Slapton were discovered by 
the exertions of the late rector and his lady, Mr. and Mrs. 
Edman, the latter hereelf having worked in removing the 

Ab time aiWr time, these discoveries are made, it is 
found, that there is a recurrence of the same subject) 
therefore to avoid a tedious repetition of description, 
it is now necessary to classify and to generalize, as 
well as to allude to the principles, which governed the 
decoration of our churches during the middle ages. A 
most useful list of the paintings discovered and record- 
ed has been drawn up under the editorial care of our 
friend Mr. Soden Smitn, and published by the authorities 
of South Kensington Museum. This list I hold to be 
valuable In more ways than one, and I consider it must 
be appealed to by those, who, in future, would study the 
religious teaching of our ancestors. Briefly let me state, 
one fiict, that subjects from the Bible are rare, and one of 
the most so is that of the " Last Supper." Instead of 
illustrating the doctrine of the Eucharist by that, it is 

g referred to do so by an illustration of the story of St. 
Gregory's Mass, and this is significant, because it enforces 


the doctrine of transubstantiation. The subjects, mostly 
found, are taken from legends of saints, and from a class to 
which we must give the name of moralities. Some of the 
legends of the saints we must look upon as parables or 
apologues, and, as such, they have in them much beautiful 
teachmg. Turn them into real histories and you degrade 
them. If we would comprehend these paintings in the 
spirit in which they were intended, which in all justice to 
our forefathers we ought to do, we mxist never forget what 
the ecclesiastical writers §ay of them from the eighth to 
the jfifteenth century, viz., that they are for instruction, for 
the use of those who cannot read — in fact, the " Book of 
the ignorant." Any criticiam which does not recognise 
this is unsound and unjust. 

Now, of all subjects, St. Christopher is the moat com- 
monly found, and is always placed where it can be most 
readily seen by the worshipper on entering the church, 
usually, therefore on the north wall. The next meet in 
favour in England was St. George, our patron saint, 
generaUy placed on the south wall, often opposite to that 
of St. Christopher. The legends of both these saints are 
typical. Both are imquestionably apologues and nothing 
more. The storv of St. Christopner is fully illustrated in 
an article of mine, published in the collections of the 
Surrey Archseological Society,' and to that I must refer 
for fiiU detaiLs. 

Among the female saints, the most popular was St. 
Katharine of Alexandria, and her legend is of frequent 

Of the so-called moralities, there are two, which are 
mostly found. One is " Soul weighing," the history of 
which carries us back into the remotest antiquity. Then 
comes that of " The three Kings dead and the three Kings 
living," which subject has been fully illustrated by mys^ 
in an Article on the Paintings in mittell Church, Sussex,* 
and also in one by our latfi friend, Albert Way, in the 
Journal of this Society, But of this no example, yet 
discx)vered,can compare in importance with that at Baunds. 
Not only is it finer for the art it displays, but its size is 
grand and imposing, the figures being much beyond the 


3 by Google 



D,,z.db, Google 


size of life. It is on the north wall of the nave, filling 
up spaces between the spandrils of the arches. A 
figure of St. Christopher separates it from the symbolic 
representation of the " Seven Deadly Sins," and altogether 
it makes the most complete and effective decoration, yet 
discovered- in any of onr mediaeval churches. The whole 
of this series, excepting the figure of St. Christopher, is 
dedicated to the exemplification of the sin of pride, and 
instability of all worldly things, vdth the moral that all 
ends in death. I will begin my description with the 
painting of the " Seven Deadly Sins." (vide Plate I.) 

It represents a female in nch attire having the long 
flowing garments of the fifteenth century. A closely fitting 
corse is at her waist, worn over a richly embroidered gown, 
and she wears m» ample mantle lined with ermine. She is 
crowned, and holds a sceptre in each hand. Her feice 
has somewhat of a scornful look, the eyes looking half 
shut: her neck, with a necklace around it, is bare; as 
well as her bosom. Beneath her is the yawning mouth 
of a monster, signifying Hell, out of which flames are 
issuing, and in the midst is a figure representing a soul in 
torment. At her head, on each side, is a demon. From 
her body issue six demoniac forms winged, each vomitincr 
forth figures, illuatrative of each sin ; and these are 
accompanied by another figure, a shade, which seems 
to pomt the moral. Over the head of the principal 
fijgure is a scroll ; some few letters remaining Ruggest, 
that it may have been " Imago Superbiee et Inanis 
Glorise." Oyer each of the groups are other scroUa, on 
which has been written the name of the sin symbolised. 
Then, at her right hand, is a hideous cadaverous figure of 
Death, holding a lance in knightly fashion, with which he 
pierces the woman's side. 

This composition is intended to illustrate the sin of 
Pride, as the mother of all the other sins, and the moral 
that all ends in death and punishment hereafter. That 
this view is not based on mere conjectiure, I shall now 
proceed to show, and to give a history, as far as possible, 
of the groivth of the ideas embodied, as far as I can 
trace them in the Christian Church, and particidarly in 
naedisBval theology. 

First, let me direct attention to the writings of 


the monk Csesarius,' who lived in the twelfth and thir- 
teenth century, to whom I have often referred. In hia 
dialogue on "Temptation," is a chapter entitled "Pride 
and her Six Daughters." 

In the preceding one he says " Seven are the principal 
vices spnngii^ from one virulent root, that is to say. 
Pride, from which almost all temptations proceed. The 
first vice of Pride succeeding to jt is " Empty Glory." 
The second is "Anger;" third, "Envy;" fourtn, "Sloth;" 
fifth, "Avarice;" sixth, "Gluttony' (Gula vel Gastri- 
margia) ; seventh, "Luxury." He then classes these. 
He calls some spiritual, as " Empty Glory," " Anger," 
and "Envy;" others corporal, as "Gluttony" and 
"Luxury;" some mixed, as "Sloth" and "Avarice." 
He proceeds to say, Lucifer, ejected from Heaven on 
account of Pride, diEfused himself in the human heart, 
darkened by mortal sins ; and, that the sins were desig- 
nated by the seven deviU ejected from Mary Magdalene. 
He then minutely defines "Pride" as heing of two kinds 
— one within, as in elation of the heart ; the other with- 
out, as in works of ostentation. He then defines "Anger," 
quoting many passages of Scripture. " Anger," he says, 
" is a fira" "Envy," he continues, "is born of anger; 
" indeed, an inveterate anger, and is a hatred of another's 
" felicity. This vice makes a devil of an angel, and was the 
" cause of miin being ejected from Paradise. ' The next vice, 
" Sloth" (Accidia) he states to be much too importunate 
to religious men. The Novice asks, "What is the 
meaning of Accidia?" it having a somewhat barbarous 
sound. The question is interesting, for our Monk is a 
scholar, and fond of quoting the mssics. He expUuns 
the word as being "quasi acidia," rendering spiritual 
works acid and insipid, as malice, rancour, pusUlaiiimity, 
desperation, a torpor concerning the commandmente, a 
wandering of the mind about unlawful things. We now 
come to " Avarice," which he calls an insatiable axid 
immoderate appetite of having all things, and he quotes 
the Apostle, "The root of all evils is Avarice."* The 
sixth vice is "Gluttony" (Gula), which he styles the 

t Dialoftu MiratuUnum. CttBoriiu Eomnwintar on the Rhine, 
was a monk of Uie Cuterci&n Ord«r ot ' 'Kmothy ti, 10 ; " Love of monejr," 

Uls UnnBitery of HdiUrlnch, near in oar Vernon. 


iiumoderate cause and appetite of eating and drinking. 
Last and seventh, "Luxury" (Luxuria), the which he 
minutely d^crib^, and wnich in mediseval theology 
signifies illicit afiections. 

Having thus given the theology, I will now proceed to 
describe the emblematical figures in agreement with it. 
It will be observed that these, which represent the six 
daughters of Pride, are arranged on each side the principal 
figure. On her right, first comes "Avarice," and un- 
fortunately some details here are indistinct; but the demon 
seems to issue from the head, as possibW indicating, that it 
was a vice peculiar to the mind. The figure also appears to 
be holding, what must be intended to represent, sacks or 
purses of money, but this is somewhat defaced. Next, 
beneath this, is " Ira" (Anger), and here the figure from the 
demon's mouth exhibits drops of blood issuing from the 
breast ; and another figui'e, like a shade or shadow, stands 
by pointing at the wound, as probably showing the 
dangerous coects of Anger. !Beneath this comes "Invidia" 
- (Knvy)) tearing her breast, as it appears, — the shade again 
stands by pointing. 

We now pass to those on the left side, which show the 
vices mostly corporal. First is " Gula," in which the 
figure has lost it« distiuctive emblem, and the shade b 

to be an animal,' but is too defaced to speak with certainty. 
The next is " Luxuria," shown in a most unmistakable 
manner : lastly " Accidia ;" here the figure seems as if 
wearily stretching, and the shade, apparently, quickly 
moving towards it with uplifted switch. 

We must not for one moment suppose that in this 
curious and interesting composition, we get the work of 
an individual mind. It is the result of a series of develop- 
ments, doubtless handed down from very early times. 
Though by far the most complete and the finest of the 
various illustrations of the "Seven Deadly Sins," with 
which we are acquainted, it will be well to make a com- 
r^rison with others. One discovered a few years ago at 
Wisborough Green, in Sussex, gave a lame nude female 
figure with a series of winged demons or dragons issuing 
from the different parts of the body, in which each sin is 
supposed to reside, or to be affected by. In this we get 

' Tb» embleiDatical animal Qnully given to Quia is a hog. 



another version but by no means so complete nor bo full of 
thought as that at Raunds. On a Bcreen at Cat£eld, in 
Norfolk, remain representations of three of the deadly sins, 
viz., Pridoj a figure with a mirror and comb ; Anger, with 
two knives in tne breast, from which issue bloody drops ; 
and Avarice, holding out two money bags.* Eadi issue 
from a yawning mouth.* At Ingatestone, in Essex, the 
" Seven Deadly Sins" are represented in the form of a 
wheel, the subjects being between the spokes. Pride is 
a ladv seated, attiring by the assistance of a maid. Anger 
is a fight between two persons. Luxury, a man kissmg 
a girl. Sloth, a man in bed, seemingly in a monastery. 
Avarice, a miser with his money. Gluttony, men and 
women drinking in a cellar. Envy, scene before a justice, 
witnesses sweanng faJaely. In the centre is Hell's mouth. 

In the early ages of Christianity there was no such 
classification as the " Seven Deadly Sins." This belongs to 
a later time, and was possibly due to the spread of monas- 
ticism. Amongst the poems of the poet Frudentius, who 
lived in the fourth century, and was the contemporary of 
St. Ambrose, is one entituled " Psychomachia," which 
arrayB the Virtues in a struggle with the Vices. It is 
too classical in its allusions to help us much in the history 
of our subject; but it serves to point out the changes, which 
a later time had developed. Here are Superbia, Ira, and 
Avaritia. There is also Luxuria, but it is as we understand 
the word now ; luxury as expressed in superfluity and 
excess in attire and mode of life. There is aho " Libido," 
which of course has the meaning given in Monkish Latin 
to Luxuria; and lastly "Discordia, ' which, if expressed at 
all in the later time, must be found in the term " Invidia." 
The most illustrative passages are those relating to 
" Avaritia," whom he describes as, not content only to 
collect fragments of gold into heaps and to fill her ample 
bosom, biit delights to stufl' the base lucre into bag^ 
" Nee euffldt amploa 
Implevieee Blniu, jurat iafaitsire orunwnis, 
Turpe lucrum." 

In a curious collection of medieeval sermons of the 
fifteenth century, entitiiled "Dormi Securfe," there are 

'ThuconfinnitliepreviouBniggsatioii. > See the paMBgM quoted Irom 

* Vide engrSTiuga in Norfolk Archte- Ctetaiiua, anU. 



often allusions to allegorical figures and their mode of 
treatment by the Romans. I am not inclined to think 
these are references to classic times, exactly, but possibly 
to those succeeding, and a tradition of early art as it came 
to be developed in the Church. Among these is one 
given on the authority of Fulgentius, a writer of the sixth 
centuiy, in which at least are some suggestions towards 
our subject, although having a wide divergence from it in 
details. He says : The Romans made the images of 
Vain Honour in the manner of an inconstant woman, 
writingabove her in golden letters, " This is the image of 
Vain Honour, look at her and always fly her." This 
image had a crown on its head, and a sceptre in its lefb 
hand, and a peacock in the right, and was blind in the 
eyes and veiled, and seated upon a car drawn by four 
lions. And the meaning of these was, that whoever loves 
the vain honour of this world, is inconstant as an unsteady 
woman having a crown upon her head, because by the 
world, as by a king, she desires to be honoured. The 
sceptre in her hand is a sign that she always desires to 
command. Blindness in the eves and with veiled face, 
because malice blinds her, so that she cares for no sin ; 
whence the Book of Wisdom, " He blinded diem by their 
malice." She has a peacock in one hand, for that as a 
peacock with its tail adorns its hinder part and front, but 
when it adorns its front it denude its back, so such a 
one, adorning himself in the world, deprives himself of 
eternal glory. The four Kons before her signify, that the 
four sins come with the vain honour of this world, namely 
Pride, Avarice, Luxury, and Envy. 

Now in this description it is impossible not to see the 
analogy vrith the painting at Raunds. The subject is, 
indeed, substantially the same, for Vain Honour and Vain 
Glory are identical terms, and associated with it are the 
four principal vices. Moreover, we see other suggestions, 
such as the Crown and the Sceptre, signifying the vain- 
glory of this world, and its desire to rule.' It is to be 
noted that Fulgentius lived in a time, when there were 
two parties in the Church in fierce conflict with each 
other. The one, and that mostly in power, desirous to 


develop the ceremonial and decoration familiar/to the 
temples of heathendom ; the other section averse to 
this, as fearing from it the corruption of the simplicity of 
worship. The struggle continued long, and was saddened 
by the outrages of either side. There cannot be a doubt 
but, that from this time, we must trace the history of that 
art we call " Christian," and any relic of it, even in 
description, must be eagerly sought. 

There is another work to which one must also refer as 
^ving us some illustrations, and this is Spenser's " Fairy 
Queen." Spenser lived in an era of great development, 
when England was rapidly passing from the middle ages 
and its associations. Yet his poem shows abundantly 
where he had studied and ennched his mind. In the 
second Canto he describes the house of Pride; and 
Lucifera, whose name symbolises this vice, is associated 
with all the other deadly sins, forcibly painted, he often 
using the very words of tne mediaeval writers. In fact, in 
the whole poem there is no more noble passage than in this 
description of the House of Pride, and of Lucifera and her 
train. In one part she is thus described : — 
" Lo I undemeath her sconiful feet, was lain 
A dreadful dragon with an hideous train, 
And in her band ehe held a mirror bright, 
Wherein her facie bKo often viewed feign.'' 

Then she issues forth in her chariot, and strove to match, 
in royal rich array, "great Juno's golden chair" : — 

But this was drawn of aiz unequal Beaata, 

On which her six sage counsellore did ride, 
Taught to obey theii beatial beheate, 

With like conditions to their Hnda appli'd ; 

Of which the first, that all the rest did guide. 
Was sluggish Idleness the Nurse of sin ; 

Upon a slothful Aas he chose to ride, 
Array'd in habit black and amirs tbin, 
Like to an holy Monk, the serWce to begin. 

It is impossible not to see the analogy in these passages 
with descriptions previously given. It would almost 
seem like a satire on the Monkish life, written by a 
Reformer so to typify Sloth, had we net read CEesarius. 
But the whole passage, which occupies several stanzas, 
is rich in imagery, suggested or derived from mediaeval 
influences ; and it is singularly interesting to trace these 


in the priwiiiction of one of the greatest poets of the 
Augustan a^ of English literature. 

But nothing is so complete or so full of meaning as the 
painting at Kaunds. It is a combinatian of all that 
mediseval symbolisni has arrayed upon the subject. 
Pride, in all the ftdness of worldly honour and glory, is 
attired as a Queen. She has two sceptres, showing that 
she rules over the vices of the mind as those of the body, 
and they issue from her head and heart But Death 
strikes her down, and HeU yawns beneath her feet. 

The whole wall was to illustrate the moral, that how 
great soever man's estate upon this earth, death may 
overtake him in the midst of all; even in the sport which 
he is enjoying, or in the pursuits of pleasure or of self- 
indulgence. The next subject, therefore, continues the 
theme ; and we see three kings, richly attired, have issued 
from a castle to enjoy the pleasures of the chase or of 
hawking. They are attended by hounds, and carry hawks 
upon their wrists, when they are suddenly encountered by 
three grisly emaciated forms. These are three dead kings, 
who, in discourse, warn those living in their kingly honour 
" that such as they are now so shalt thou be." As this is 
by far the finest composition of this subject ever before 
discovered in this country, ifc would be most desirable 
could tracings from it be made, or at least good drawings, 
as a valuable record of our mediaeval art, early in 
the fifteenth century, in case of their decay or future 

The interest attending this example lies in its grand 
size, and the complete manner in which it is carried out. 
The figures are well proportioned and picturesquely 
composed, especially as regards the arrangement of the 
draperies. The first king, in the closely fitting jupon of 
the fourteenth and fifteenth century, has his ermined 
mantle thrown over one shoulder, thus shewing his entire 
figure as he turns towards the second king, who strides 
towards him, looking at the uncouth objects, that thus 
cross their path ; this figure is also most picturesque. 
The third king, who is timidly advancing in the rear, 
has his mantle more closely wrapped around him. The 
whole group shows a very superior knowledge and artistic 
power to that usually seen in the ordinary paintings dis- 


covered in our church^. Some details are curious. In 
the rear of the last king, and in front of the castle, are 
two posts, through which a large chain has been drawn ; 
but whether it belonged to the machinery of a drawbridge 
or not is not obvious. Babbits or hares are visible on the 
ground by their feet. All the figures have scrolls, but 
none of the inscriptions are legibte from below, but the 
character of all these is well known. 

As one of the most popular of the subjects found in 
our churches, it merits attention, especially when treating 
of so fine an example. I shall have again to allude to it. 

The north aisle contains remains of paintings from the 
legend of St. Katharine, and, originally, must have had 
eight subjects completely illustrating it. There are two 
dates to the paintings preserved ; the earlier ones, and the 
best, are in monochrome, simple red outlines, and may be 
placed to the commencement of the fifteenth century. 
But the latter, though of the same subject, and overlying 
.the earlier series, are executed in various colours after 
nature. They have not an equal merit with the earlier work, 
and from the broad -toed shoes belong to the early part of 
the sixteenth century. In some places these have been 
entirely removed in clearing off the whitewash, thus dis- 
closing the older series. 

The legend of St. Katharine of Alexandria is one of 
a class, evidently in high favour, illustrative of the 
early struggles of Christianity. Altars, dedicated to 
this saint, are found to have existed in some of the 
humblest of our parish churches. It is a strange story, 
altogether mythical, the chief tendency being to enforce 
what was called the " religious life," that is, monacbism. 
It is proper, therefore, that we view it in its ancient spirit, 
and not in that of modem criticism. It is necessary to 
give an abstract of it, as we follow the description of the 
paintings preserved. 

At the east end of the aisle, above and around the 
situation of the Altar, are traces of diaper work, but the 
illustrations of the story begin, and are continued, on the 
wall intervening between the windows of the north side. I 
do not doubt but that the first was that known as the 
" Marriage of St. Katharine," one whichhas exercised the 
art of many of the great masters, and is often found in 


our galleries. To explain it we must recount the legend. 
St. Katharine was of royal parentage, her father beinff 
King of Cyprus. The Emperor Maxentius summoned 
him, with many other of his vassals, to his court at 
Alexandria, whither he went with his wife and daughter ; 
and whilst they sojourned in that city he took the oppor- 
tunity of having Katharine instructed in all knowledge 
and science. She was of extreme beauty, and was eagerly 
sought in marriage ; but the Emperor asked of her mother 
that she should espouse his son, and this she communi- 
cated to Katharine. But the young lady's reply to the 
proposal was, that she never would many any man who 
was not as noble, as prudent, as beautiful, and as rich as 
herself; and although the Emperor's son might be in 
nobility and riches equal to her, yet in knowledge and 
beauty he was a long way off. Thereupon her mother, 
much distressed, seeks advice, and it is thought, that her 
daughter should see a pious hermit, who questions her, ' 
and finding out her disposition addresses her thus: — 
" Oh I beautiful young lady 1 if you will beheve in Christ, 
you will have a spouse who mcomparably excels thee 
in nobility, wisdom, and beauty." Katharine consents to 
his teachmg, and he presents her with a picture of the 
Vii^;in Mary holding the Infant Jesus, enjoining her to 
pray that she would show her Son to her. She obeys, 
but ever the Child averts his fiice. On the^Virmn Mother 
asking why, he answers, "Katharine is ignoUe, foolish, 
poor and bare," and she is directed to go again for in- 
struction to the holy man. This she does, and he 
converts her to the Christian faith. Returned home, 
when at night in bed, she had a vision of the Virgin 
with her Son approaching her joyfully. And now 
Katharine is pronounced fair and good, and wise and 
fairer in fiuth. From being as a crow, rfie is now white 
as a dove. The Yirgin then takes her right hand and 
conveys it to her Son, who places upon her finger a ring 
of £u.tb, and accepts her in perpetual espousals. 

This, very much contracted, is the basis of this legend, 
but of this subject no traces remain, as the place wherein 
it would have been is occupied by a tablet. The next 
space, however, contains traces of both periods. Of the 
later time, there are but few remains, which consist 


chiefly of portions of an altar with candlesticks. Of the 
earlier work there are indications of a number of figures, 
and a Gothic structure in the background with trees, &c. 
One of the figiu«8 has a triple crown, in front of whom 
long ttumpets are being sounded, and before it is a female 
crowned and nimbed. There is also one in mitre, 
chasuble, &c. 

To explain this, one must continue the legend. 

Now the Emperor commmanded all, both rich and 
poor, to assemble with animals and to sacrifice them to 
the gods, and the Christians were to do so on pain of 
death. St. Katharine, now eighteen years old, hearing 
the bellowing of oxen, the sounds of music, and the 
tumultuous smging of the people, issued forth signing 
herself with the cross, and found Christians, from the fear 
of death, sacrificing. Seeing this, she boldly walked 
towards the Emperor saying, " Salvation, O King, I offer 
to thee, if thou will recall thy mind from the gods ; " and 
she continued rewoning against his idolatiy. The 
Emperor, astonished at her Doldness, and admiring her 
beauty, told her that after the sacrifices he would give 
her an answer. She is led to the palace, and the Emperor 
comes and asks her name and parentage, and finally 
appoints a time for the subject to be discussed with the 
learned men of his realm. 

We now pass to the next subject, and here the later 
one is best preserved, but shows traces of the earlier series 
at the foot, which makes us regret that it is not xmcovered. 
Here is a seated figure of the Emperor with triple crown, 
beneath a canopy, on his throne holding a sceptre in his 
right hand, with the end resting on his left, his right 1^ 
crossed over the other. He has long hair and beard, is in 
yellow robes and red mantle, and a dog is by his feet. 
Before him stands a female figure in royed robes, crowned, 
St. Katharine, who is arguing with an array of doctors 
in red gowns and black caps, one of whom conspicuously 
places one finger to his thumb. 

This is the continuation of the legend. The Emperor 
has here assembled fifty of his wisest men from all the 

Erovinces who are to confute St. Katharine, one of whom 
as asserted this to be very easy. But the Saint reasons 
of Christ's passion and resurrection and reduces them all 

3 by Google 

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to silence, at -which the Emperor was esceeding wroth, 
but they told him that the spirit of God was in ner, and 
finally, that she had converted them to the Christian faith. 
At ■fldiich the tyrant, inflamed with fuiy, commanded that 
they shoxild all be burnt in the midst of the city. But, 
fortified by the sign of the cross, they rendered their souls 
to God, and neither hair nor clothes were injured by the fire. 

Now the last portion of the subject is illustrated by one 
of the earlier series, and that which is the most perfectly 
preserved ; which is the more interesting, as it is exceed- 
ingly rarely found. There is a pit, into which a number of 
figures have been thrust by officials with pitch forks. Some 
hold books, and a figure laden with books is about to cast 
them in. By the side stands the Emperor in triple crown, 
and holding a sceptre. He is giving orders. By his side 
stands his sword-bearer, the baldnc wound about the 
uplifted sword, and he wears a kind of turban. The 
figures in the pit wear the cap or coif of doctors of law. 
(Plate II.) 

Over the north door is the figiire of St. George 
encountering the Dragon, but it ls not a very complete 
rendering of the legend, allowance being made for its 
mutilated condition. It is executed in outline like the 
rest in this aisle and is of the same date. On the other 
side of this door the story of St. Katharine continues, with 
an illustration of the earUer series, but much more muti- 
lated. It is nevertheless very curious. In the centre we 
see a castellated structiu-e with erabattlements and square 
towers at the angles. Through a laige open window in 
this are seen the remains of the figures of St. Katharine 
crowned and nimbed, and on each side an angel, all very 
much defaced. In front, outside, is a crowned female 
figure kneeling, and by her side also kneeling we recog- 
nise by the turban like head-dress the sword bearer of the 
previous subject, i.e., the Porphyrius of the legend. There 
are other figures, one on the left of the caatVe wears on his 
head, a hat similar to that worn by the Papa of the Greek 
Church, and on the other side a female is approaching 
with the well known homed head dress. The legend will 
ex^ain this in continuation. 

TheEuaperor then addressing the Saint in flattering 
terms, teUs her that after the Queen she shall be called 



second in his palace, and her image should be placed in the 
city and be adored as a goddess. To which she answered. 
" Desist from speaking of such things, which are wicked 
to think of; I have delivered myself over as the Spouse 
of Christ, and not even torment^ shall make me recall." 
Then he, filled with fury, commanded her to be stripped 
and given up to be scourged, and to be taken to a dark 
ceil in prison, and there kept twelve days without meat 
or drink. The Emperor had occaaion to depart to the 
confines of his realm on certain urgent afiairs. Tn the 
meantime, the Queen, accompanied by the chief of the 
soldiers, went in the middle of the night to the prison, in 
which, when she entered, she saw an ineffable brightness 
shining, and angels anointing the virgin's wounds. Then 
Katharine began to preach of eternal glory to the Queen, 
and converted her fw the faith, and predicted for her a 
crown of martyrdom, which when Pftrphyrius had heard 
he threw himself at the feet of the virgin, and together 
with two hundred soldiers received the faith. 

The next space, where a subject would naturally have 
been continued, is entirely defaced, yet it is easy to say 
what would have occupied it. For it is a subject which 
specially belongs to this legend. The Emperor again 
endeavours to shake her constancy, and, failing, threatens 
her with torment. He commanded her to be put between 
four wheels having iron teeth, and the sharpest nails 
around them. These, moving in contrary directions, 
were to cut the virgin to pieces. Then she prayed to 
God that he would convert the people, and break the 
machine. Forthwith, an Angel of the T^ord descended 
imd struck the wheels with such force that the broken 
parts killed four thousand men. 

The Queen then avows herself a Christian, and is put 
to death. Porphyrius does the same, and is beheaded, 
and his body given to dogs. Maxentius orders St. 
Katharine either to sacrifice to the Gods or to undei^o 
decollation. She replies, " Do what you will with me, I 
am prepared to suffer," She was then led to execution, 
begging permission to pray, and finally said to the exe- 
cutioner, " Do as you ought," and she was beheaded. 

The decollation, aa above described, is represented by 
one of the later series, and is on the west wall. It 


shows the Saint kneehiig, her hands conjoined in prayer, 
whilst the executioner, in slashed doublet, with one hand 
holds the maiden's Iiair, and in the other brandishes a 
lai^e uplifted sword ; a figure in yellow stands by — 
perhaps, the Emperor. 

The story is finally concluded by a painting which also 
belongs to the later time, on the other side of the west 
window, and shows a series of angels around a tomb. 
The execution is rather coarse. There is no difficulty in 
comprehending this subject, as the legend tells us that her 
body was conveyed by angels to Mount Sinai, and there 
honourably buried. The artists of the Renaissance often 
painted it, but perhaps none surnass the fresco by Luini, 
now preserved in the Brera at Milan. It is also given in 
the series in the Chapel of St Sepulchre, of ttie Cathedral 
of Winchester, date thirteenth centuiy- ( Vide " Win- 
chester Volume" of British Archseological Society.) 

Over the chancel arch, there are representations of 
angels kneeling and holding the several instruments of 
the Passion between the four arms of a cross, which pro- 
bably was raised above the surface and highly decorated. 
But all this is in a very mutilated condition. 

Over the arch which opens into the tower there are the 
remains of a painted clock face, shewn as being held by 
angels kneeling, behind which are figures of a man and 
his wife kneeling, with hands conjoined as in prayer. These 
are the donors, and an inscription beneath desires a prayer 
for their souls. The face of the clock is remarkable for 
having the twenty-four hours of the day inscribed upon 
it, which is perhaps an unique instance in England of this 

Eractice which still retains in Italy. The date of these 
itter belongs to the fifteenth century. 
The village of Slapton, a primitive place, four miles from 
Towcester, though close to a railway, may still be said to 
be — 

"Far from tho madding crowd's ignoble strife." 
Its church stands on the edge of a little knoll, and though 
small, has many interesting architectural details. It 
consists of nave and north aisle with TH)rch forming the 
principal entrance, and a tower at tne west end. It 
commends itself to Archaeologists as, at present, it has not 
suffered restoration. It contains the original seats, possibly 


iis oUl lis the oldest part of the church, which may be re- 
ferred to the thirteenth century. The arch, separating 
the nave from chancel, is remarkably small, being under 
feet in height, and not quite 4 feet in width. The side 
piers have both been perforated at a later date in order to 
make the altar more easily seen. The floor of the nave 
rises from the chancel arch towards the west end, and 
, preserves some very good specimens of early tiles. The 
features here described are snown in the several examples 
given in Vol. iii of this Society's Journal {p. 297, et seq.) 
Entering by the porch we perceive that the north aisle 
is divided from the nave by an arcade of three arches of 
unequal size. The largest of these is the central arch 
beneath which leads into the nave. In the spandrils 
which face us are traces of paintings. One is too much 
defaced to give any clue to its subject, but the other is 
the Annunciation, having no particular features. Both 
fio;ures are st-andlng, and a scroll is between them, upon 
■wliich has been inscribed, " Ave Maria, gratia plena." 
This is the only scriptural subject in the Church. As we 
proceed into the nave, on our right hand is a painting 
upon the voussoir of the arch. Its date is possibly at the 
commencement of the sixteenth centuiy, and represents 
what is called " St. Gregory's Mass," or " St. Gregory's 
Pity," and is that subject which is intended to enfoi-ce me 
doctrine of transubstantiation. There is an altar, above 
which arising aa from a tomb appears the figure of Christ 
displaying the wounds of his passion, and the " bloody 
sweat," the left hand elevated, the right at his breast. 
Kneeling before him is a priest in the vestments of the 
Mass, and by his side is deposited the triple tiara. 

The story is told in the Golden Legend. A certain 
woman brought bread to St. Gregory, and when in the 
mass he offered the body of the Lord and said, " The body 
of cm- Lord Jesus Christ keep thee to eternal life," she 
smiled. He then removing his right hand from her mouth 
replaced that part of the bread on the altar. After which 
he asked her before the people why she laughed. Becaiise, 
she repHed, the bread which I have made with my own 
hands you call the Lord's body. Then Gregory put him- 
self to prayer, and arising, found that paiticle of bread 


made flesh to the size of a finger, and thus the woman was 
brought back to the faith. 

In art it is always represented as above descril>ed. It 
is rarely, if at aU, found before the fifteeath centiu-y, but 
continued to be so treated until late in the sixteenth 
century, as by Albert Durer and others. 

The nest arch, abutting on the tower, has a subject 
in a similar position on each side- One representing the 
ecstacy oi 8t. Francis, is very common with the painter of 
every school. Here the Saint is kneeling before a crucifix 
upon a rock or mound, and scintillations issue from the 
wounds, as rays to his hands, feet and breast." Usually 
it is a Seraphmi displayed as a cross, by which the stig- 
mata are affected, and which is m<st in accord with the 
legend, which says that " in a vision of God the blessed 
Francis beheld a Seraphim as crucified, and so to him 
evidently impressed the signs of crucifixion that he 
appeared as if he himself was crucified." 

The painting on the opposite side shows two persons, 
apparently male and female, who are carrying a beam 
between them. I do not know of any story which 
answers to this, and consider it to be merely a record of 
some benefaction to the structure of the church, as 
neither figures are nimbed. 

On the north wall is conspicuously placed, nearly 
opposite to the chief entrance, as usual, the figure of St. 
Christopher, differing in no material points from the usual 
conventional treatment. It is in tolerable preservation, 
but shows in many places traces of an earlier figure 
beneath the present one. Amongst the details most 
worth remarkmg is the figure of a siren or mermaid in 
the river, who is combing her long locks by the aid of a 
min-or, which she holds m her hand. Westwards of this 
is a painting of our Lady of Pity. The Virgin is seated 
in a chair with the dead body of our Lord across her lap. 
It is not common to find this subject in England, but one 
of the finest works of the sculpture of the Benaissance is 
a Piet^, by Michael Angelo. 

On the splayed jamb of a window close by is a figure 
in long tunic and mantle, seemingly holding a bag, but it 
is a good deal defiiced. The symbol is that given to 



St. Matthew, as having been a Publican, but one cannot 
say with certainty if this be truly attributed. 

Turning now to the south wall, we find the famiKar 
subject of St. Georffe encountering the dragon, and it is 
as usual to find this on the south wall as that of St. 
Christopher on the north ; and they are frequently, as in 
tills instance, opposite each other. Here again are traces 
of a previous painting of the same subject, and, as it 
appears to me, the later artist has utilised portions of 
the earlier work. Some parts of the design are boldly 
designed and executed with some degree of skill, the 
figure of the dragon especially so. The features of this 
subject are so common, and offer little variety of treat- 
ment. St. George encountering the dragon, with his 
lance in rest ; in the background a lady, royally crowned 
with a lamb in tether ; a castle, from which look out a 
king and mieen, is the usual treatment observed. The 
story is told in the Golden Legend, as follows :— 

George, a tribune of the country of Cappadocia, arrived 
by a certain way, in the province of Libya, to a city called 
Silena, near to which city was a lake as big as a sea, in 
which a pestiferous dragon lay concealed, who oftentimes 

f)ut to flight the people who armed themselves against 
lim, and by his breath killed all those approaching 
to the walls of the city. On account of which, 
the citizens were compelled to give two sheep daily 
to him, that they might appease his fury ; otherwise 
he so invaded the walls of the city, that many 
were slain. Now, when nearly aU the sheep had 
gone, counsel was taken that each man by lot should 

five of his sons and daughters, ajid these had nearly all 
een consumeil also. In this strait the king's dau^ter 
is taken by lot and adjudged to the dragon. Then the 
king in great grief says, " Take my gold and silver and 
the half of my kingdom, but send back my daughter lest 
she likewise dieth. ' To whom the people in fury replied, 
" Thou, O King, hast made the edict, and aU our children 
are dead, and thou canst scarcely save thy daughter. 
Unless you comply, as in other cases you ordained, we 
will destroy thee and thy house," The king, then, 
weeping, took his daughter, and besought that he might 
have eight days of mourning previously to her bemg 


given up. The time having expired, he took his daughter, 
indued net with royal robes, saying, "AlasI I had thought 
to have invited princes to thy nuptials, to have adorned 
the palace with pearls, to hear drums and trumpets, 
but you go to be devoured by the dragon." Then she, 
throwing herself at his feet, asks his blessing ; and with 
tears he leads her towards the lake. Then the blessed 
George, as he passed by, saw their mounning, and asked 
her what it meant. She answered, " Good youth, mount 
your horse and fly, lest with me you likewise perish," 
To whom he said, " I fear not, damsel, hut tell me what 
this means, with all this crowd looking on." At length 
she related her storj', again beseeching him to retire ; but 
he replied he would in Christ's name help her. As they 
were discoursing the dragon raised his huge head, from 
the lake.- Then George mounting his horse, fortifying 
himself with the sign of the cross, boldly put his lance 
in rest and went to meet the dragon, grievously wounded 
him, and cast him to the ground. He then said to 
the damsel, " Cast your girdle about his neck, nothing 
doubting," which when she had done, he followed her 
like a dog. 

This is as much of the legend as is illustrative of this 
subject, so commonly found in cur churches, and doubtless 
once universal in this country. That the story is like 
that of St. Christopher and many others, a parable to 
illustrate christian teaching in a familiar manner, one 
cannot doubt when it is well studied. The dragon is an 
old symbol of evU, and plays its part in numerous stories 
and christian legends, all tending to the same end. Here it 
is vanquished by the christian knight, that is, he conquers 
evil, fortified by the sign of the cross, the symbol of gospel 
truth. The legend of the Drachenfels on the ithme 
(the Dragon's Rock) is exceeding pretty, having exactly 
the same tendency. It is the cross which saves and 
which conquers. So also in the story of St. Margaret 
and many others. To read it as a mere tale, the story of 
St. George may excite but little reverence ; look upon it 
as we look upon the stories given to children, and as it was 
once addressed to minds scarcely more informed, and its 
teaching is beautiful. It is only when we would make it 
a real mstory, and analyze it as such, that we degrade it; 


because it woxild not then pass a critical analyas. Aa 
St. ChriBtopher was addressed mostly to the common 
mind, aa potent to aid in all the instant maladies and 
evils of tnis life, saving from fatigue or firom sudden 
death, so St. George appealed to the knight or soldier, 
who was to succour the distressed and to be the scourge 
of evil. Such was the theory of chivalry. 

"Why St. Geoige became the patron saint of England 
belongs to another history. It is stated that Bobert 
Duke of Normandy, the father of William the Conqueror, 
fighting against the Saracens, saw St. George visibly on 
their side, giving them the victory over tneir enemies. 
Certain it is that the ancient war-ciy of England, " God 
and St. George," appears nowhere before the Norman 
Conquest, and, most probably, not till some time after. 
It is easy to understand how, in this popular worship, 
the tradition of having given military aid made his figure 
an object of reverence, as the representative saint of the 
Eiiglish knighthood. Spenser's Redcrosa knight is but 
the legitimate descendant from the ancient legend of 
St. George, Beneath the figure of St. George is the subject 
of " Weighing of Souls," which belongs to an earlier date, 
and it was partially, or wholly overlaid by the later work. 
The figure of St. Michael, holding the balance, is nearly 
obliterated, but on his left is a female figure in red mantle 
and blue tunic, holding in her left hand a little box 
and in her right a rosary, which she is laying upon one 
end of the beam. In one scale is a demon, in the other 
a small figure with hands enjoined as in prayer, represent- 
ing the soul being weighed. 

On a former occasion I gave a sketch of the history of 
this myth of "Soul weighing" as one of the most 
curious in the history of reUgion ; and I alluded to the 
story here represented, but having forgotten my reference 
could not then give the original. I now supply the 

The stoiy, speaking of a usurer, is as follows : — He, 
among all his vices, had one sole virtue, that he recited 
the Bosaiy of the Blessed Virgin Mary daily, as it had 
been taught by St. Dominic. At length, when near to 
death, he had a vision, in which he saw St. Michael the 
Archangel placing in one part of the scale aU the good. 


which this man had sometimeB done ; and in the other 
part, he saw demons placing all his vices, which were 
infinitely greater and drawing down the balance. Who, 
deep in tnought and astounded in consequence of the 
vision, presently beheld the Vjrgin to come nigh ; and she, 
nearing the scale, in which his good deeds were reared up 
high in the air, placed her rosary upon it ; and immediately 
it D^an by its weight to fall and, by its sinking, to raise 
the scale on the opposite side.' The meaning of the box 
most likely- is intended to represent the good works or 
offerings made to her by the departed during his life. It 
is not without precedent. 

On the south wall of the aisle, within the screen 
which encloses a chapel, are remains of paintings, here 
as elsewhere, of two periods. Figures of skeletons in a 
mutilated condition, which shows others beneath them, 
indicate the well-known morality to which I have before 
alluded. Some undecipherable inscriptions are beneath. 
Close by these, at the extreme east comer, there are 
traces of the earlier series, A figure of a bishop in 
chasuble, in front of whom is a youth in a fringed tunic 
and a cap upon his head, which shows the date to be early 
in the fifteenth century, and other fragments obscured 
by the overlying painting only sug^st the possibility 
that it may relate to the legend of St. Nicholas, and it 
is a matter of regret, that it has been covered over so 
ruthlessly by the painter of the sixteenth century. The 
later subject shews a figure tied to a tree, and being shot 
at with arrows by archers in short tunics and broad-toed 
shoes. The familiar St. Sebastian, ofourpictiu-e galleries, 
at once seems to come naturally as a solution. But we 
must bear in mind, that our churches were only decorated 
by the stories of such saints as were commonly known to 
us. Now St. Sebastian was not a saint worshipped in 
England. He specially belonged to the Peninsula, Italy 
and France, where the name is frequent enough in 
families. But in England we have no churches dedicated 
to St. Sebastian, nor are children baptised with his 
name— a sure test of the reverence in wiich a saint has 
been held. In some parts of England there are saints 
localised, churches are dedicated to them there, and 

i. Imepimm, i«., #«., LoTmii, 1771. 


scarcely anywhere else ; but others are common to 
Christendom, and are found everywhere. The same 
principle obtains in every country. 

In the eastern counties the saint of most honour was 
Edmund, King of the East Angles, martyred by the 
Danes in 870 in the woods of Hoxne, near the Waveney, 
which separates the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. He 
was bound to a tree and shot to death with arrows, and 
the homage to his memory extended as far inland as 
Northamptonshire. We must therefore rather ascribe 
this representation to him than to St. Sebastian, for the 
latter coiild scarcely have been introduced into an English 
village except through some foreign influence. I have 
therefore no doubt, that this represents the martyrdom of 
the Anglo-Saxon King, Edmund, one of the most cele- 
brated of English saints, and about whom legends still 
exist in the village near which he met his death.' His 
body was for a long time sheltered in a little oratory of 
wood near Ongar, m Essex ; and there can be little doubt 
that this now forms a portion of the church of Green- 
stead. Lidgate, a monk of the Abbey of Bury St. 
Edmimds, wiere his shrine was, elaborated the story of 
his life, and the richly illuminated MS., which he pre- 
sented to Henry VI, is now preserved in the British 
Museum. Beneath one comer of this painting, there also 
appears part of the subject of St. Anne teaching the 
Virgin. It is interesting to note, that the character of 
the painting of the sixteenth century, in both these 
churches, is so identical in style of execution, that, it is 
extremely probable, the same hand did both. The monk- 
artist, for such, doubtless, he was, paid little respect to 
what had gone before, and the new style, being more 
showy in its colouring, was evidently preferred. And it 
was painted over the older work without any preparation, 

1 At one end of ths villHge ie a brook vho sbould artcnranls crora that bndn 

crossed bv a little wooden foot-bridge on their way to or from mamage. The 

esUed Gofdbridge. It is said tbatundor common people (at least eighty yean 

this bridge, far there is another not far ago) alvays avoided the btidgo on such 

off. King Edmund eoDcuuliid himself occasions, and vould rather ffi miles 

from bis porsuert. But a bridal party rounii than run the hsxard of the eoree 

rc^tuming boire by moonlight, tho bride falliog upon theai. 80 relates a lad^ 

sav bis golden spun glitti^ in the now ninety six years of age, boni in this 

refltction of Uie sti'eam, and her ex- village, as one of the memoriee of her 

damatiun led to his discorer;. The youl£. 
king then pronoaoced a corse on all 

:ec by Google 


a slovenly proceeding, which has its reward in being less 
durable, and yielding with the removal of the whitewash. 
There is a coarse diaper, done in black, showing a duck 
swimming, &c., perhaps some heraldic cognisance, which 
appear in many parts of the walls, and must be later than 
any other part of the painting. It is unimportant, and 
cannot be well understood in its mutilated condition. 
Altogether, the numerous objects here described, mutilated 
as they are, teach us a good many facts towards a general 
history of the paLnting in our medieeval churches. 

3 by Google 


The antiquarian traveller, especially if he has received 
a classical education, is for tne most part tempted to 
move southwards, and visit those regions that were the 
subject of his early studies, and will ever be associated in 
his mind with the perfection of art and literature. But 
he would do well sometimes to turn his steps in an 
opposite direction, and investigate the monuments of that 
vigorous race which overthrew the solid fcibric of Roman 
dominion, gave its name to a province of France, infiised 
new life into an effete civilization, left its mark on tlxe 
architecture of Southern Europe, and contributed the 
most healthy elements to our own national character. 

We often regard these hyperborean countries as isolated 
fi'om the rest of the world, but this is a mistake, for they 
are connected by many links with nations geographically 
remote.' During the heroic age of Norwegian history — 
from the ninth to the thirteenth century — foreign in- 
fluences were working actively in the North. The 

' Fur evidencw of thU conuectiuD we parativel<^ short time, and bag left behiml 

need not travel beyond ourowu metrouo- it fewer tnicee than imj other invader. 

lis ; four churcliee in the City of Londou Pet«r CutiDinfj^iBtu, Hend'bitok of LmtdoH, 

Mere iledicSited to Ulave the Iforwegiiiii. [ip. 1S£, Z6i. But a remarkable elab 

It wua only just that St. OlavB should uith Hunic charactera may be aeeo in the 

be thus honoured in England, aa he had vestibule of Uie Library of the Corpon- 

naaiHted our f orefathent in their wnra with tjon at the Uuildholl: upon it an aiuina] ia 

the Danea. The church named after him repreeentod with honied head and sparred 

ia Tooley Street waa erected cloee to the claws, bearing a itrilung resemblanoe in 

scene of one of hia moat famous eiploita, subject and style to the memoiiol atone 

fi<r in the reign of Ethelred he broke of Kine Oonn at Jelling in JutJand. 

down London Bridge, and thus caused This cunoiia relic of the eleventh centuir 

tJie surrender of the city by the Uanee. was discovered in St. Paul's churchyard, 

Newcourt, Eecclaiailital Jlitfoiy rf Lon- .ind has been fully described by the 

don, i, SOS ; coiapore Carlyle's Earlg learned Danish ontiijuory C. C. fliin, to 

Kiagi of Noi-ioay, p. 103. St, Clement whom we owe the interpretation ot the 

Uanoi, in the bitnuid, ooiumemomtes HuneBontheculuaBal lionofHraeua, which 

anoUier branch of tlic Scandinavian race, now adorns the anwual at Venke. 
which occupied our couutiy for a cum- 


Vikings and their followers were pirates ; they were 
the scouiKe of the European coasts ; they outstripped 
their neighbours in ship building and navigation, but had 
little indination to cultivate the arts that minister to 
comfort and luxury. They were therefore obliged either 
to satisfy their requirements by direct importation from 
their more civilized neighbours, or to imitate the pro- 
cesses of superior skill as well as their own semi-barbarous 
condition would allow. 

I do not propose on the present occasion to take a 
comprehensive view of Scandinavian antiquities, but 
i-ather to notice some proofe of these foreign influences, 
and to group them under the following heads: — 1, Roman ; 
2, Byzantine ; 3, Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman. 

The Greek and Roman writers do not throw much light 
on the early history of Scandinavia, for even in limine we 
are met by a proof of their ignorance — they all assert or 
imply that this peninsula is an island. Strabo, as far as ' 
I am aware, is quite silent on the subject. For this 
ODoission two reasons may be assigned : he flourished 
under Augustus and Tiberius, and therefore at a period 
when the relations of Rome with the north of Europe 
were not so fully developed as in later times : he also 
knew how to weigh evidence, and to apply the tests of 
historical criticism to the statements of his predecessors — 
hence he shows great caution in describing those regions, 
which were then imperfectly known. Moreover, he justifies 
his reticence by remarking that Augustus forbade the 
Roman Genwals to pursue the Germans across the Elbe.' 
The next author is Pomponius Mela, who lived in the 
reign of Claudius. We know his date from the passage 
in which he speaks of this emperor as reveahng the 
Britons to his coimtrymen, and of his triumph over them 
as an impending event. Thus it appears that the Romans 
had already been brought into closer contact with the 
north-west of Europe. Accordingly, Mela is the first 
geographer who mentions Scandinavia; he calls it Can- 

' Stistio, <jMgraphira,hooivu,c, 1,b. 4, rit ixif»S- The hoslJlB mnfedarscy, 

*iit>l Si ivattiiTipor 'uTt\»ffi STMtT»yiit wUch the cautioo of AugustuH fureaaw 

rir » XtP*' ni>ii/ter, ii T«r i£« vou and BVuidefl, was fomuid under the 

'AJifiitt nuf i/iufjiiii itTM dvixfiiTt, AuloaiDeB, BH will be seen below. 

< 1*^ irMfofcHf vfci r^v Kviimittitt 



dunovia, adding that it surpasses in size and fertiiity the 
other islands in the bay Codanus, and that it is inhabited 
by the Teuton!.' Pliny, in his Natural History, gives us 
the names Scandia, Bei^os, and Nerigos, which bear a 
striking resemblance to Scania, Bei^n, and Norway, or 
rather Norge, as the natives themselves call it. He 

r>tes Xenophon of Lampsacus as his authority for stating 
t there is an island of immense size, Baltia, three days' 
sail from the Scythian shore. The name appears to be 
the same as we have in the modem Belts and Baltic, nor 
need we be surprised that Pliny has transferred this 
appellation &om water to land. Again, he speaks of 
Sevo as a vast chain of moimtains not Inferior to the 
Rhipaean. This is probably Mount Kjolen, which sepi- 
ratra Norway from Sweden, and of which the southern 
branch is c^ed Seve-Ry^en.' Tacitus, repeating the 
error of his predecessors, says that the Suiones inhabit an 
island in the ocean. From the context, as well as the 
form of the word, we infer the Swedes are meant, for he 
tells us that the Sitones are their next neighbours, who 
are governed by women — an assertion which seems derived 
from the name of the Finns, Kainu-laiset, apparently a 
variation of the Norse Qvirid, a woman.' Lastly, Ptolemy, 
who was a contemporary of the Antonines, mentions four 
Scandinavian islands east of the Cimbric Ghersonesus, 
three smaller ones, and the largest opposite the mouth of 
the Vistula and inhabited by the Chtedini.* Agricola's 
fleet circumnavigated Britain, but neither Greeks, Ro- 
mans, Phcenicians, nor Carthaginians penetrated further ; 
however, they were well acquainted with the existence 

'Mela, De siiu orbii, Book iii, c. 6. I'unbre iume duul'antiqnitf, rmdat the 
Iq illo sinu, quam Cuduium diiimua, StcKjkhoIm Cungreai o' ' ' 

ex iiuulia Codumnw, qimm adhiic Teu- eepedally p. 7 93. Pliny, yaluralSuiory, 

taid teDent, ut feounditsta t^at, ita ii. a. 13, a. 06, Haiu Sovo ibi immeiMUB 

nugnitudino antoetat. In thu paaiiAgfl, nee Ripaeis jugii minor. 

■caording to Vouius, ths bevt nuuiu- * Twatiu, Ommanvi, c. 41. Smch 

Bdipte luve CuidanoTia. num hino dvitaUs ipsa in Oixaoo, li., 

1 PSnj, Nataral SUIorif, Bode iv, c c. 4Ji. Suionibua Sitooum gentee ood- 

10, ■■ 101. Sunt qui et alias prodant, tinuantur, cetera aimilee nno difteuot, 

HJ^^^lli«ln ^^^^^^^l llll■tn , fairgiTinMiiinimniim qaod femina dominatur. Dr. William 

unmium Neiuon, ei qua in Thyleu Sndtii'BDielioiiarf e/(^atticalGnfniplijf, 

navigetur, Bidtia is mentioned, ii., c 13, B.V., Sitones. 

B. 95. Thia name was inteirireted to * Ptolemy, Ongrapkia, Book ii, c 11. 

mean the peninsula of Snmland b; Hon- Ab Orientoli parte Chersonem (Cimbncn) 

HJeur Wiberg in the discuBaion that IV Scandia: nuncupetic, III quidem 

folloited Uonaieur Bjslmar Stolpe'n porvae, una rero quae ni~~~' 

U^oire BUT Vorigine et le commerce de et nuuime orientaUa juita Vistuls fl. 


of the Arctic ocean, as many passages both in the poets 
and in the prose writers abundantly prove.* 

Naval and mihtary expeditions contributed much to 
the spread of geographi(Ml knowledge, but commercial 
intercourse was still more efficacious, and the amber trade 
especially produced communication between the northern 
Mid southern parts of our continent. 

Amber was a favourite substance with the Romans; 
the ladies used it for necklaces, both as an ornament and 
because it was supposed to possess properties that would 
cure diseases of the throat. Juvenal, speaking of a woman 
addicted to astrology, who has an almanac constantly in 
her hands, compares her to those who carry amber balls 
for the sake of their coohieBs and perfume.* 

We can trace almost with certainty three routes by 
which this trafl&c was conducted — the eastern, the central 
and the western. The greatest quantities of amber were 
found in thfe peninsula of Samland, near Konigsbeig, 
between the Frische and Curische Haif — a fact which is 
curiously illustrated by its being mentioned in a Japanese 
map as the primary source of this material. From the 
embouchure of the Vistula, the first route followed the 
rivers Pregel and Pripetz, passed through the towns of 
Amadoka and Azagarion, marked by Ptolemy,' and then 
descended by the Dnieper to Olbia, on the Euxine, which 
has been happily descri oed as the morning star of civiliza- 
tion for these barbarous regions.* Many autonomous 
Greek coins found in Prussia, Courland, Livonia, and 
even in the island of Oesel, near Riga, together with 
similar discoveries and deposits of amber in the interior, 
seem to indicate the activity of commercial relations 

oBtU . . . VocatiiT &utem et tuec propria Uartia], Epigrame, iii, 65, G, sncma tnta. 

Scaudiai et tenent ipaiua ooddeataUa xi,S,0,SuouuiTirgineaqui>dregeUtaiiuiiiu. 

CluBdim. ' Ptolem;, iii, C. Circa aatem Borya- 

* It ia needlraa to odd reference, aa thenem fl. boe Antgarium, Amadoca , 

the most import&nt of them ore quoted * Olbia was abio caJIed Borrsthsneii, 

in tlis IHelioitary of Clauieal aeogmpAi/, Herodotus ir, 17, 18, K3, 78. It Beenu 

B.T., Oceaniu SeptentrioDslis. highly probable tiiat the Father of flia- 

> Pliny, JVnt. Sitl,, xzxrii, c. S, a. 14. tory viaitad thia city, and derived hia 

Feminii moailium rice Hucina geatontibLU, ioformation about Scytbia from the in- 

etc, JuTsiu! vi, 5rj. In cujua manibui), hftbitaote of that oountry and the Qreek 

ceu pingnia ancina, tritaa Cemia ephe- traders, who met at Olbia for the purpoeea 

mnidaa. of commercial iuteroourae : Baehr'a edi- 

ThBdaou. who«»o«MJo/^BT»lB(t(. tiau of Herodotiui. Rcmrtut nil iv, IS, 

GirFDU-s TiaiuUtiaL vol. iv, p. 3BG. 


along this line of country at a period antecedent to 
Alexander the Great. The central route beginning from 
Pomerania, proceeded by the lower Vistula and Upper 
Oder ; having traversed Silesia, it followed the course of 
the Waag and reached the Danube a little below 
Vienna. Recent investigations have brought to light 
at Hallstatt, near Ischl, a remarkable combination of 
industrial products from the North and the South — 
articles in amber from Prussia and bronzes from Etruria; 
hence we infer that the communication between the 
Danube and the Adriatic was carried through this place, 
in accordance with Pliny's statement that amber was 
bi-Qught by the Germans into Pannonia and received 
thence by the Veneti.' The western route may be 
easily traced from Jutland and the mouth of the Elbe 
along the Rhine and the Rhone to MaxseiUes. Though 
the coast of Denmark was visited by Pytheas, a Greek 
navigator supposed to be contemporary with Alexander 
the Great, his countrymen do not appear to have 
emulat:ed his enterprising voyage, for Greek coins have 
not been discovered in the west of Germany. On the 
other hand, Roman coins of the first and second centuries 
of our era show that after Cfiesar's Gallic conquest trade 
in this direction was considerably developed.* 

I. In a paper I had the honour to read before this 
Society last summer, I noticed some antiquities dis- 
covered in Brittany as proofs of the vigour and extant of 
Roman civilization, but I now direct your attention to an 
iUustration of the same subject, far more striking when 

' Pliny, zuvii, c. 3, a. 43. lb., s, 4S, in the clwvrical writers, the Boiith of 

we are informed that the Qennnn coast Kurupe aeema to have been colder in 

frum -which the Kunuuu ohtoined umber ancient than in modem timsa. " The 

W1L.1 nbout 600 milea from Comuntiim in Qrecian colonieB to the north of tba 

Panoonii, which would n^ree with the Euiine . . . drew auppliee of paltrj, 

gitiiation of Somland. In the Mime chapter the skioa of the otter and bearer, from 

PImy, describing a show in the amphi- the very interior of Huaaia, and poasiblT 

Uieatre, says that all the objocta exhibited even from the Hhorea of the Baltic ' 

during ooe day eonaisted of amber eiclu- Heeren, EUtoricnl Sa/arcAa, Aiialit 

nively (totua iiniiu diei apporatiui . . . Aafiaiii, i, 12. Comwe Herodot. iv, 109, 

e Eudno). vii, 67. TaciUu, Gcrmania, c. 17, im- 

* The trade in fur, aa well an that in pliea ttuit a trade in funi with Qennany 

umber, diflUsed aoma knowledge of the waa oairied on by the Scandinariaoa, u 

northoTD regona amongat the Oreeka and he mentiona aking that were imported 

Rotn&na. Their requtrementa in thia from the outer ocean and the unknown 

reapect were, of coune, restricted by the aea (exterior Ooeaaua atque ignotun 

warmth of their climate j however, aa tar mare), 
■a we can draw an inference from olluaiona 


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we consider the locality from which it is derived. The 
province of Trondhjem, which is as far north as Iceland, 
has yielded no xmimportant supply of Roman bronzes. 
The most interesting of these has found a resting place in 
the Bergen Museum, and has been figured and described 
by Monsieur Lorange, the Curator of that collection. 
This object consists of a handle and ears that belonged to a 
bucket, which is lost ; they are well executed and m good 
preservation. On the upper part of the handle there is a 
thick ring, and both its ends nave the form of a serpent's 
head ; the ears exhibit in the centre a female head of a 
somewhat Egyptian type, with long flowing locks, a neck- 
lace and fan-shaped collar, whUe on eaSi side a long 
animal's head projects,^ The snake as a finial frequently 
occurs in remains of Roman and Graeco-Roman art — in 
rings, bracelets, paterse, mirrors, ladles, for. sacrifices, 
(simpula), fibula, lamps, candelabra, and water-taps'; the 
hea^ of rams, swans, and other birds are similarly used 
for decorations." There can be no question about the 
Roman character of this object, as examples of the same 
kind have been found all the way from South Italy to 
Trondhjem. Some closely resembling the one under 
consideration axe engraved in Montfaucon's Antiquit^e 
Expliqu^e ; he also gives what is of rarer occun-ence, an 
instance of a head with the fan-shaped collar, which, he 
says, was an amulet worn suspended from the neck, like 
a bulla.* With reference to the serpents' heads, it may 
be observed that they are simple imitations of nature in 
the classical style, not grotesque or symbolical, as is the 
case with mediaeval dragons. The Museum of Bergen 

' liartnge, Samling n/ 2fortit Oidtager di reire hltu ; Roach Smith, Illutlraiuint 

1 Birgera Miiuiim, p. 112 ; Nordiitc Old- of Raman Loaifon, steel for shiu'iieiiuig 

imffei idtt Kangeligi MiuiumiJtjbbmAavn, knives fonad in Princeo-Btreet, nitli 

orinrdtog farldandtaf J. J. A. Wortaai, hnncUe consigtJDg of a horae'ii head 

p. 75, No. 307. Thitf catalogue raigomi^ Hpringiiig from the learen of a lotiin 

it moat uBBfuI, and even indiapeiuable, to p. 141 ; compare the bronze rock of a 

the student of Scnndinaviui antiquities ; fountain found in Fhilpot-lane, ih., \\. 145. 

it coataina upwards of 300 well-executed Rich, Latin dictionary, s.v. aimpidiim. 

engravings of obieota belonging to the These speciraeua show how aadent art 

Stone, Bronze, Iron, and ^ddle Ages, lavished omiunent upon the most oommou 

with introductions to each period. Ilia utensils of domestic life. 
price ia only two kroner, or little more ■ Montfaucon, Antiqviti ExfliipKr, 

than two alulUngs. Tome ii, p. 117, PI. Ivii, no*. 1, i, 8, 

' P«lemi, Ilaceolla di Dipinti, Me- handles of vaaea. Tome iii, p. 73, PI. 

uniei, #(., Napoti, 1S6G ; Bronzi, PU. 130- inCTiii, No. 3, fiin-HliB|ied collar. 
134 : Oggetti Prezioai, 136, 137, Telera 




contains also the following articles in bronze : — a strainer, 
wliich seems to have come from the Roman frontiers ; a 
vessel holding burnt bones, and a hemispherical cooking 
utensil, like a saucepan ; ' and in Roman glass : — drinking 
horns with rings round them, like the natural horn ; cups, 
of which the most remarkable pecuHarity is the rows of 
ovals on the sides, and draughtmen — some black and 
othere blue—round, flat on the lower side, but slightly 
curved on the upper," 

As far as I ara aware, a denarius of Antoninus Pius and 
a gold medallion of Valentinian are the only specimens 
of Roman mintage found in Norway, but the barbarous 
imitations are more numerous. The Museum of the 
University at Christiania poese^es a very curious esample 
of the latter class ; it was discovered in 1872 in the lai-ge 
chamber of a tumulus near Aak, a place well-known to 
English tourists from its picturesque situation at the 
western extremity of the Romsdal ; this medal is of gold 
and copied from a coin of Magnentius, who reigned a.d. 
350^353. In the preceding year an imitation of a coin 
of Honorius was found at Gunheim, in the Lower 
Telemark.* These facts assist us to explain the deriva- 
tion of the bracteates, i.e., thin pieces of money with a 
device upon one side, which are of frequent occuiTenee in 
the Norwegian series,* 

Enough has been already said to prove that the Roman 
influence had extended much further northwards than is 
generally supposed, but this view receives additional 

' These cibjectji were found in the dvi fer ; ifpoque byzantino barbare, on 

dlatiict of North Troodhjein, which b1»> f jyxjue des brscttntss, entre le t^vc et 

yielded other KomoD ntitiquitieu, e.g., two viiL^nio ei^clee. The bnicteatefl ive oft^D 

fflnsa cupi4, & bronze atnunor and didh, &c. fumiBhed with ringa for Buapeiwion, Mid 

honnge, Colalogue ef the Brrpfi Mtftiim, nppeiir to have been worn ae ornament*, 

p. 111. Some of the«e vessaU come from like bulliE in ancient times and locketn in 

the neighbourhood of Leviuiger. our own day, Woraiae, Hordiile OMtrjer, 

' Lomoge, 'J., pp. 6H,68iLDd101. with Jemaldtreu II OaUlbiiie.lci.ttT, dob. 3B9- 
engTHTinga ; Woiwiae, i*., nog. al2. 317, 40», jip. 95-97 ; *ii», Etterligning of en 
318, 320. Koncb Smith, Boianti Landaii, kufisk eller anlitik UynL Some of tli^e 
p. 1 '4, montioua unong remarkable ex- bractentei have Runic legends, li. Intro- 
amplea of Roman glaiu found in Londun, duction, p. 93. Stevens' greot work on 
a drinkiDg cup covered with a pattern KoriherH Antiguiliu conlaiuB many en- 
formed of Liiouae besr.goiifl, and another gravings of this claaa of coinit, coloured 
with incuBC ovals and heiBgona ; compare bd aa to represent the originals veryclosely. 
Pints xxii, figure 7. \orgeM Myiiler i MiddcUildtren latul/dr ag 

' Lorange, ib., p. 9fl, note. beairitt'ie af C. J. Sohivo, t«b. iv, nqq., 

'■ Engelhordt, (jtiidi: Illuilri d« 3fiiidt Bhowa the Norwegian bracteatm fnna tlie 

da Antiqttitit da Xeid d Coptnhagvi, pp. twelfth to the Biiteenth oentOTy. 
26,27,andfigB,1,2,8. Deuiiime pfriodo 

3 by Google 


cvRAKBCfinf e^: j/i;rv:A7 t- 

D.D.t.zeab, Google 


con6nnatioD from the statements made by Monsieur 
liorange at the Archaeological Congress lield at Stockholm 
in 1874. Summing up the results of his investigations/ 
he divides the tumuU of the Iron Age in Norway into 
three classes — I. Those which have no chamber and 
exhibit no traces of Roman influence. II. Those which 
have a small chamber sometimes contaiiiing objects of 
lloman origin. III. Those which have a large chamber, 
where such objects are almost invaiiably found. There 
were ninety examples of the second class and eighty of 
the third, as fiir as Known at that date. In 1872 twentj- 
eight Broman bronze vessels had been found in Norway, 
ninety-three in Denmarkj and twelve in Sweden. Of 
glass vessels, the numbers for these three countries were — 
twenty-four, thirty-six, and nine respectively, but these 
figures must be considered as appro^dmate, because some- 
times the attribution is doubtful.' 

Among the monuments of this class a prominent place 
is due to the bronze vase of Farmen, in the parish of 
Vangs and district of Hedemarken, It was discovered in 
1865 in the small sepulchral stone chamber of a round 
tumulus. The vase was cast in a mould, but the bottom 
of it was fastened to the foot by a row of nails, which 
form a pleasing decoration, like beading. We remark at 
first sight a great difference in colour between the upper 
and lower part ; the former looks as if it had been covered 
with green enamel, while the latter is blackened with 
soot. The feature, however, which most attracts our 
attention here is the inscription, both for other reasons 
and because it is unique in Norway. Between the neck 
and the middle of the vase the following sentence is 
engraved in large, legible and separate characters : — 


The words are divided by small circles on a level with 
the middle of the letters, lust as a leaf is often used for 
the same purpose." A hole in the imi has produced a 

' Lorange, Orn Spot nf romtrth ITullur Swadiah and Danieh archBco]oBi8ta. 
I Xtrfit acUri Jmtaiifr, pp. 4, 5. Huiu. ' Mr. A. S. Murray, of the Britiali 

Lonuge, >s a Nurwqjion, has defended MuBeum, bos called tnj nttentioa to the 

the iuitiqiiitie« of hia on-n cuuntry with fact thnt a circle U kued to divide the 

patriotic enthiuiami Bguiut tjie dia- words becaiue it could be conveniently 

panging minrepTeeentationa made by made on a. metallic aubstiince, aa in the 


lacuna, which, however, may be easily supplied, at least as 
far as the meaning is concerned, so that we should read 
CVRATORES " PosVERVNT, and the translation is, 'Libertimis 
niitl AjiruB, guardians of the temple, have placed in it 
tliis offeriug.' Some liave conjectured that tlie urn once 
contained the ashes of a Roman, but this is highly 
improbable, because the deceased is not mentioned. Nor 
can we suppose that either of the names, Libertinus and 
ApruB, belonged to a native Roman, for the former 
signifies a freed-man, while the latter is an irregular 
variety of Aper, unknown to classical Latinity, and 
accordingly rejected by the grammarian Probus ; ' the 
appellationa therefore must designate provincials. There 
is some difficulty in determining exactly the manner in 
which tlie final woi-d should be supplied, as there appears 
to be room for a letter between S and V, so that it might 
liave been posivervnt, though an objection may be raised 
against tlds fonn as too archaic* This vase, having been 
consecrated as an offering in a temple, should be con- 
sidered in connection with the Apollo-vase found in 
Vestmanland, Sweden, as their origin, destiny, and 
inscriptions are similar. Devoted by their first possessors 
to the worship of Roman divinities, in all probability 
they became the property of barbarous chieftains, were 
employed by them as household utensils, and were finally 
applied to tlie purposes of sepxdture. Thafthe Farmen 
vase was so used before its deposition in the grave is 
proved by the soot on the lower part of it, as well as by 

present case ; on the other hand, n triangls of Clatticel Biegraphy, but Aprr is veil 

ur a leaf frequentlf occura lui n mark i>f known aa one of the gpeskeni In the 

BeparntioD, wbeD the imicripljon ia carved Biahgui an Oratorg ascribed ta Tacitns ; 

on Rtune. X>r. Bnice, Smnan Wali, give«, uther peraone of the same name are also 

p. 21*, man^ einmpleij of the triimgle in mentioned ; Vopiecua, A'lMwriaB. cc. 13- 

tm inscription diswvered at Carvoraii, 16 ; Orut«r, Iiurr^iont, p. Huiii, Nu. 8. 
whiuh iaidenUtied with the Kouuiu elation * Flutimi ih found in OreUi'e IiiBcrip- 

Hngrni, and p. iiH, \ii the leaf hIbu on tioua, No. 3308 ; poiiri in PluitUA. 

another stune frum the some spot, axtf. PeeuduluH V, 1, IG ; cf petireni. Id. 

i^,]>.17. Hiibaer, iHteripliuHttBrUaHnuil! TriuummuB I, 3, lOS ; &uith'a laliit 

Latinie, pauim. Ditlimari/, av., peno. These old fonne 

' H. Volerii I'robi OmmuuilKa Iiiiti- eanieliinee reappear after a long interval, 

liaiimt*,a. 38, ijuoted by Lonuige ; thia and man j wurds, which are not Augustan, 

reference I have been unable t<i verify, .ire at once aiilc and jnwt-Augustan. 

but in his Catludita, p. 1467, ed. Putadi. Compare Trench, Sacred Latdn Poetjy, 

PrubuB gives the forme aptr, apii for tlie p. 21. So Horace »ays, Als Poet., v. 70. 

common noun signifj'iiig a iaar. The Miilta reDHH<«ntur, quic jam oecidere; 

pi-o|ici' name ApruM doeii nut occnr iu cadentijiiB, Qiuc nuuu sunt in hunorc 

KorucUiui'B LexKOH or Smitli's UietioHanj vodtbula. 


the traces of an iron band round its neck, which seems to 
have been placed there as a fastening for a handle. 

It was a practice at this early age to convert into 
cinerary urns such domestic vessels as were most con- 
venient, whether of clay or of metal, and to this custom 
we owe many proofs of the spread of Koman civUization, 
which are also records of a period concerning which the 
historians are silent. It seems almost idle to speculate 
about the province from which these objects ori^nally 
came, but the discovery of two Roman burial places at 
Haven and Grabow, in Mecklenburg, suggests the pos- 
sibility that they may have been earned across the sea to 
Norway fi^ra that part of Germany, especially if we adopt 
the view of Dr. Lisch, who regards these cemeteries as 
indications of a Eoman trading factoiy in Mecklenbuig- 
Schwerin. The form of the letters inscribed belongs, 
according to Professor Ussing, to the first or second 
century of the Christian era, and this would prove the 
date of the manufacture of the vase; secondly, the denarii 
discovered in Scania and Denmark, being chiefly of the 
second and third centuries, enable us to fix the time, at 
least approximately, when this work of Roman art arrived 
in the north, allowing, of course, some interval for the 
passage of the coins from their place of mintage to 
countries beyond the limits of the empire. This vase 
was full of burnt bones, so that there can be no doubt 
about the use to which it was applied. It only remains 
for us to explain its mutilated condition. By its side 
was found the upper part of a. similar bronze vessel, 
crushed and bent by the weight of a stone, which, in its 
fall, pressed the one first mentioned against the wall of 
the dmiubered tumulus. Thus the fracture on both sides 
is clearly accounted for.' 

Next in importance to the Farmen vase is the sword 
from. Einang m Veatre SUdre, Valders. It closely re- 
sembles those which were dug out of the Nydam peat- 
moss, described and figured by Dr. Engelhardt, Plates 
VI, TIL* It bears two stamps, one wneel-shaped, the 



otlier rectangular, and containing the letters banvici. . . ; 
a circumstance worthy of remark, since only eight or ten 
stamps have been found on one hundred swords at Njdam. 
Tliis sword is bent like the one in Plate vn, No. 13, with 
this difference, that the curvatui-e is made in the lower 
part of the Norwegian example, but in the upper part of 
the Danish, Many objects, especiaUj weapons, liave been 
brought to light by excavations in an imperfect condition, 
either broken or bent, in order to render them useless. 
Their withdrawal from all purposes of human life was 
px-obably intended to symbolize consecration to some 
deity. So Tacitus, in his account of the war between the 
B ermanduri and Catti, relates that the conquerors devoted 
their enemies to Mars and Mercury (Odin and Thor), and 
that all the property of the vanquished was utterly 
destroyed.' (Jrosius also informs us that when the 
Cimbn defeated the Bomans near Orange, garments were 
torn, gold and silver cast into the Khone, and coats of 
mail cut in pieces, so that there was neither booty for the 
conquerors nor mercy for the conquered.* As some of 
the subject nations, e.g. the Spaniards and the people 
of Noricuro, were very skilful in the manufacture of 
swords,* the Latin letters ranvici do not prove the 
Einang example to be of Koman workmanship, though 
they, of course, imply a certain amount of intercourse 
with the Romans, for the woi-d seems to be a barbarous 
name that has undergone some modification. Besides the 
objects already mentioned, the wooden buckets bound 
with bronze form a class by themselves, which some have 
considered to be Roman ; but this explanation may be 
feurly questioned, for while they frequently occur in 
Norway and Denmark, and sometimes in Germany also, 
they are very rare in France; thus, as we approach Italy, 
the number diminishes — a fact that seems to favour their 
attribution to the Scandinavians as their inventors. 

' Tacitus, Ann., xiii, C7, equi, nri, tern bnnc pmsnUt ut in Noricin, diubi 

cuncta victa occddiuui dontur ; compare factun ut Siilmona. ItBrtial, Epigrmwii, 

Ctcaar, Belt. Onll., vi, 17. i, 1> ; lii, 18, uid eapecUU; iv, F4, when 

* For thic paaaage in Oroaiiu, Lib. T, he speiiks of his birthjilfioe, Bilbilis : — 
c xvi, I aia indebted to Dr. EngeUuutlt'a SaeToBQbQinnjitimunmetaUa.QuffiTincit 
Gaidi JUuUri du Mniit dn Ant. da Nurd Chnlybaaque Noricoeque, Etferro FUtsm 
6 CoptnhagVB, p. SG. HUO Bonuitem, (juun fluctu tend aed 

* Pliny, Jfalural Sirtary, uiiv, c 14, inquieto Armonim Sklc temperator ambit. 
t. 115, la Doetro orbe aliubi vena boaita- Of. H*r. Cam., i, 16, 9. 


With respect to Roman antiquities Sweden occupies 
an intermediate position between Denmark and Norway. 
Denmark contains many domestic utensils as well as 
arms and ornaments that are unquestionably of Roman 
origin : on the other hand, Sweden exhibits few articles 
that relate to comfort or elegance, but is comparatively 
rich in coins.' About 4,000 denarii have been found 
altogether, some of the first but most of the second 
century after the Christian era: approximately 3,200 in 
Gotland, 100 in 61and, 600 in Scania, and only twelve in 
the rest of the mainland. The cessation of the denarii at 
the close of the second century can be easily understood ; 
at that period and under the Emperor Septimius Severus 
a great deterioration of the Roman coinage took place : 
denarii of copper plated with silver, like the modem 
groschen, were issued, and these the barbarians natundly 
refused to take,' just as Tacitus informs us that the 
Germans of the preceding century, preferring those kinds 
of Roman money with which they were acquainted — liked 
the denarii that had a serrated edge, and the biga for 
their device.* In the Constantine period medals and 
medalUons of gold found their way to Sweden, and rude 
imitations of them gave rise to a type of biucteates 
exclusively Scandinavian. ITie total number of other 
objects discovered in Sweden, including the adjacent 
islands, is very small; amongst them are bronze dishes 
and bowls — one containing burnt bones — and a drinking 
vKSsel of white glass. A bronze vase from the province 
of Westmanland, now preserved in the museum at Stock- 
holm, is the most conspicuous proof of Roman influence, 
because, like that in Norway above-mentioned, it has the 
pecuUarity of being inscribed. The Apollo vase, as it is 
usually called, was found in a tumulus, and upon it were 
engraved the following words : 

' LoTUige, Oia Spur af Sarairik KuUnT, Jiomain, iii, 232, speaking of the coinage 

Jf., p. 0. of the first four jeam of Sept. Severus, 

'Arclucological Congreea at Stockholm, nuee the terma fabrique etrang^re, tr&< 

1874. Le MiiBde royale d'arch^ologie de groBsi^re, cf. it,, note 2, and p. 322 Lea 

Stockholm, jiar M. Hana Hildebrand, mfdaillea de petit bronze de Septime 

Z'cijf ^>i/er, p. Oil. V-Qihe), Doct. Nnm. SiTi:re me paraiasent tuiitea . . . den 

Vii., vii, 1G7, B.r., L. Septimiua Severus, deniera faux antiques. 
complurea (numoe) ex his esse fabricto ' Tacitus, Otmnni", c. 5. Femniam 

nidioria . . . ejuemodi sunt etiam sjn- probant reterem et diu notam, aemtoB 

cbroni numi CanoaUa; et item Domntc. bigatoaqne. See the notes of Brotierand 

Cohen, HAiailla frappitt Kvi t Empirt OreUi, 







To Apollo Grannus Ammiliua Constans, guardian of his 
temple, has offered this gift ; he has paid liis vow joyfully, 
willingly, and deservedly. This epithet of Apollo seems 
to be derived from the Granni, who lived on the river 
Granua, a tributary of the Danube. The word is per- 
petuated in the modem name of Gran, which belongs 
both to a river and to a city well-remembered by tra- 
vellers on account of its magnificent Cathedral, whose 
vast cupola crowning a hill is visible for many miles. In 
this neighbourhood, amid the heaviest anxieties that 
could press upon the mind of a statesman and a general, 
Aiurelius composed the First Book of his Philosophical 
Meditations.' The war in which he was engaged lasted 
twelve years with little interruption, a.d. 168-180, and 
was the result of the most formidable combination of the 
barbarians, which the Romans had hitherto encountered.' 
It is said to have included the Gennans, Scythians, and 
Sarmatians, but, whether this statement is exactly true or 
not, these protracted hostilities on the fr,)ntier diffused 
the civilization of the south more widely through central 
and nortbern Europe. Accordingly, we find among 
existing remains in Scandinavia evidence of more active 
relations with Rome after this war with the Quadi and 
Marcomannl. If my interpretation of the word Grannus 
be correct, and the date of the vase, aa inferred from 
coins, be assigned to the second century, a remote pro- 
vince of Sweden supplies an object which may be re- 
garded as commemorating an iUustrious personage and 
the commencement of the death-stuggle between the 
Gothic races and the Roman empire. Another expla- 
nation of Grannus derives jt from a Celtic origin, and 
makes it equivalent to Grian, the sun, with whom Apollo 
is often identified. This may, perhaps, be the same as 
Brian, which occurs in Temple Brian, a place in the 
county of Cork, where a central stone was discovered, 

' U, Antonini i)e iviHi (Hii, Lib. i, fin. uidtr tit Empire, to\. m, p. S84, note'], 
Ts » Ktuiitic rfif Tf) T^ftutf. where the norUiem D>tions itn enuine- 

' Merivnle, Hitltry *? lie StmnHt rateil. 



and others round it, supposed to be the remains of a 
temple for heathen worship.' 

The Roman antiquities in Denmark, taken collectively, 
are more interesting than those of Norway and Sweden, 
but they require less notice, because they have been fiilly 
described in the English language by Dr. Engelhardt. 
As might have been expected firom the geographical 
position of North Jutland, very few denarii have been 
found in that province, while, on the contrair, they are 
abundant in Sleswig or South Jutland, and the ishinds, 
Sealand and Fyen.* The peat mosses of Thorsbjerg and 
Nydam have yielded specimens of the Roman silver 
coinage from Nero to Macrinus, a.d. 60 — 217. Two 
handles of bronze vessels bear makers' stamps, DlSA^cvs f. 
NiOELLio F, resembling potters' marks, in which the 
abbreviation F for fecit frequently occurs.* On the tangs 
and blades of iron swords we find native names expressed 
in Latin character, and sometimes with Latin termina- 
tions, the letters being raised on sunk plates, e.g., ricvs, 
HicciM, cociLLVS, TASVIT.*' The last name is evidently 
barbarian ; it may be compared with Tasgetius, mentioned 
by Caesar aa King of the Camutes, and Tasciovanus, the 

> Amutrong's Giujlic Dictionttly, and 
CBrisD'H Irish Dictiouaij, nv. Griao. 
Smith'a JJiifarv «/ Cork, vol. ii, p. 418, 
conbUne an engraving uid grouwl-pkn 
of an uidani beatlwD temple at Temple 
Brian. Thin ward is Bud by Celtic 
Hcholora to be a corruption of Qrian. 
Qruter has nine examplee of Grannus, 
p. xiivii. No*. 10-14, p. uiviii, Noe. 
1-4 ; the last ie from EudcrnBk, which 
«K>ean to be intended for Inveresk, near 
l^Unburgh: oompare Htibner, Irucrip- 
tienut Britanniea laliiia, p. 190, c liT, 
where this moQument is given mure 
ooirectlf. Onmaua occurs also in Bram. 
bach's Inter iplionet SAmana, No. 484, 
in the Museum at Bona, foiuid in bhnt 
citf, Mo. BflS found at Eq) in the district 
of Cologne, No. 16U in the Roya] Col- 
lection at Stuttgart, No. ISIS in the 
Librar; at Strasbuig. Eckhait, Bii- 
lerttUio de ApoUiru Qramo Ifogoune in 
jlltalia naptr dttecto, contained in the 
Analecta Hassiocn, Colledjo 


considers Gra 

mected with 

the Welsh gro and gr^jan, the French 
grttf and gratitr, and the Qermou 
fTriof— words sigtutjing gravtl; so he 
ezplaina Aquisgrannum, " quia solum 

ejus sabuloeum est magna siii pni-te." 
In the Breton language grouan menns 
gravel ; in the dialect of Vsnne:) this 
beoomes yrojn. It has been conjectured 
that Orannus is another fonn of Oiriietis. 
which occurs in Virgil as an epithet of 
ApoUo (.^n. It, 345, cf. Eel. vi, 12), but 
tlus seems very douhtfuL 

' Engelhardt, Jknmart in l!if Earig 
Iron Agt. See map opposite, p. 8, show- 
ing where objects from this period Lave 
been found. The mark -*- denot«e Ro- 

• Compare Hoach Smith, fiomau Lbii- 
lion, p, S9, marks and names of pottem 
impressed upon the handles of amphoiae ; 
pp. 99 and 101, engravingB of these 
stomps; pp. 102-107, potters' marks on 
Samion ware discovered in Loudon ; pp. 
107, 108, a list of those preserved in the 
Museum at Douai. In these collectiona 
the abbreriationB F for fecit or foetus, H 
for numn, and O or OF for offldun, are 
fnHjuent. Wonnae, Nordiiie Oldtagn; 
Jsnalderai, i, SOS. Brudstykke af Han- 
ken til etBroncekar, medromersk Fabrik- 

). 18, 


father of Cunobeline, who figures bo prominently in our 
legendary and numismatic annals. Taximagulus aiao 
occurs, a king of Kent when Ceesar arrived in Britain, 
and Moritasgus, a king of the Senones. From these 
analogies we may infer, with a high d^ree of probabUity, 
that TA8VIT was a CSmbric chieftain.' 

With respect to Roman inscriptions Denmark is inferior 
to the other two Scandinavian kingdoms, as the longest — 
if we exclude coins — consists of only two words ael. 
ABLIANVS on the boss of a shield, which may be the name 
of the owner or of his general.* A head-stall, found at 
Thor&bjeig, is remarkable, as the only object of this kind 
that is left from antiquity in tolerably good preservation. 
It is made of leather ana decorated with bronze studs, of 
which the heads are silver-plated, so that it resembles 
the harness of the ancients, as we see it on the Antonine 
column. These ornaments, caUed phalerse, were not only 
worn on the breast by men as military difitinctiona, but 
also used for the trappings of horses ; so Juvenal describes 
in almost the same terms the soldiers and the animals 
pleased with their phalerse.' But a breast-plate from tlie 
same find is still more worthy of notice on account of the 
mixture of classiial and barbarian art. We have here 
Roman Medusa's heads, hippocampi and dolphins, a semi- 
Roman figure of a seated warrior, and barbarous rewe- 
sentations of horses, fish, and mythical animals.* Tlie 

> The murder of Tasgetiua is related IVkjuio Aug. Qerm. ob bellum Dade, 

b; CiCBur, D) Bell. Oall., v, 25. For ihe torqti[b, armill, phalerig, gotoqa tsIIiu'. 

cuiaa of TuciovanuB see Akermui's Ah- Cf. U. Nos. 3, 6, 8, 10. In the TnijaD 

nilUMric Jfaoiu/, pp.2l0-3S4, and Evuiia' cotumu iiie b&rbsnui ouxiliaiiM who 

Avrient Britith Otint, pp. 220-246, Platea Bervod IB oavdrj are without hwidflt-ilis 

Y, No. 7— Ti, No. 9. T^iimagulua ocoure or bridlee, Fabretti, ■.197, PI. uiii, ; on 

in Cccaar, it., c, 2% tad Xoriiatgiu, c. 64. the contrary, the Komana may be eaeily 

Tasconus F., TaaciUa, and Tasci! H., are distJnguUhed by thsir pad saddles, caja- 

amongst the potters' marks found in ritioDB, and r«n^ 
London, Roach Smith, p. lOB. * Engalhardb, p. 46, Thorsbjerg, PI. fl, 

■Engelhardt, p. 4S and note; p. 7fl flg, t : PL 7, % 7. With theHi eDgraTings 

index to the P!at« ; and PI. 8, Thorsbjerg, of broast-plates compare ThnrHbjerg, PL 

Noa. II, lla, lib, lie: in the last en- 11, fig. 47, wherethereia a representation 

graving a full size fnc-simile of the in- of an object that aeema to have decorated 

Bcription is shown. a helmet ; the figures upon it are a hipix>- 

•Engelhardt, p. 81, PI. 13, Thorsbjerg; camp, Capricorn, boar, Wrd, and foi or 

Rich, Latin IMctionary, phalfra, phaH' wolf. As the first two sre types common 

rnlai. Juvenal, li, 103, Ut pfialeria in claSBiisl art, I cannot agree with Dr. 

gauderet equus : ivi, flO, Ut laeti pha- Engelhardt's ssiertion that there is here 

leria omnes et torquibus omnes. W. not the least trace of Roman influence, 

Froehner, La Colonne Trajsne, Appen- though it muat be afliinwledged that the 

dice. Inscriptions relatives aui guerres style of eiecution is quite barbajMus. 
Daoea, No. 1, donia donato ab imp. 


hippocampi or sea horses in the border are so small that 
they might escape attention ; however, an antiquary 
should not neglect details because they are microscopic. 
This type appears on the denarii of tie gens Crepereia, 
and on large and second brass of Mark Antony's praefects 
of the fleet or admirals, in which case the device is 
peculiarly appropriate.' Again, we may trace a connec- 
tion with British numismatics, and observe that our 
ancestors, like the Scandinavians, imitated Italian 2n-t 
in their own rude fashion. The coins of Amminus and 
Tasciovanus show the same marine monster, though his 
form varies in the Roman, Danish, and British examples ; 
in the two former his hind-quarters are those of a fish, 
in the latter they retain more of the equine shape. 
Whether this emblem was simply copied without any 
special significance, or intended to represent maritime 
and insular position cannot now be easily determined.* 
Hippocampi and dolphins are often engraved on gems, 
sometimes carrying Cupid, sometimes drawing him in a 
shell instead of a chariot; they are aJso naturally 
associated with Neptune, Nereus, Doris, Galatea, Triton, 
and other marine deities.* 

But we may go further and remark that amongst these 
antiquities some vestiges may be observed of a civilization 
older than the Roman ; even here, in the neighbourhood 

' Cohen, UUailU* GmnUaira, PL ivi, i, p. 3il, b-v. Ippocuii))o, gives two 

CnfMrtia, 'Sob. 1, 3: PI. Ixi, Oppia, 7; examples from Emporice, tn the pruvince 

PI. Ixvi, Stmpronia, S, 7. Ur. EvanB, uf TarroooDa, with dllic legends, which 

jlneient Britith Cnni, p. Sfi9, mentioDR itre therefore peculiarly apfwaiUi for our 

Mark Antony'ii Prtufi^i, but hai failed to present purpose. The mppocamp also 

obtwrre that thBaa officers oonnnanded ooourainPompeian pwntingB,ttnd acoord- 

t^ fleet, which is spedally worthy of ingly has been introduced among the 

Qojdoe in oonnexioii with ^is maritimt dacorationB of the Pompeian Court at the 

device on their coins ; the legend contains Cryiital Palace. 
the BbbreviaUons niAET. oi.ass. 'Qori, Gemmat Atiliqitat Mtuei Ktren- 

■ Forthe Doins of AumuDus tee Evans, tin', VoL i, Pls. Ixivii and Iiiviii, p. 1E3, 

p. 211, PI. Y, No. 2, and PI. nil, So. 7. Cupidinta cyinbula, vel delphinibus val 

/£., pp. 258-SSO, PLvii, e-11, thecoiDHof hippocampo vocti per niare;Vol. ii, Pis. 

VamUunium are dcaoribed, which exhibit ilvi— li, Ixxiz, pp. 99 and 127, Circi 

the same type ; the lettenTAS for Tasdo. aliqua ^rtecipua omsmenta, delphinee, 

vanus occur tm the Tcvena of Mo. 11. In etc. King, Antigut Oinu end Ri«gt,Vo\. 

Bome of these eases it is difficult to decide ii, Fl. liv, No. 10; copper-plates of 

wheUier the device is a hippocamp or a miscelluieouB gems, PI. iii, No. 4, Cupid 

caprioom ; ita origiii may be explained by steering a dolphin by the sound of his 

oompaiisoD with the Oreek ; Combe's pipe ; Ho. 10, Cu^ living, with trident 

dtlalojut uf the Hanleriaa ColUftion, b.v., for whip, a marine team ^ htppocajnpi, 

Syracusto, p. 293, equus niarinus ad yoked to a great ahell for a, car ; a parody 

iDiiiBtrani, el. tab. liv, fig. 15. Ft. De on the usu^ Victory in her biga ; compare 

Dominici*, ReptrttrM Num i t n t l iti, Tome Nos. 12 and IG. 



of the Cimbiic ChensonesuB, the Greeks have left, a 
witness to oriental philosophy and mysticism. On a 
female skeleton, dxig up near Svenborg, in Fyen, there 
was discovered, among other ornaments, a crystal ball 
inscribed with the wonl ABAAeANAABA, which has been 
translated^" Thou art our Father" — a Gnostic invoca- 
tion often occurring on gems, which was derived fi-om 
the Syriac, and afterwards corrupted into the Latin 
Abracadabra.' But another example is still more in- 
teresting for the following reasons. The object itself 
belongs to an earlier age, viz., the bionze, which preceded 
tlie iron ; it is copied from a more ancient original ; it 
reproduces a beautiful device of classic art ; and lastly, it 
resembles the old British coinage. A kind of cover or lid 
has been found in Denmark, shaped like a funnel reversed. 
On one of these a figure appears, which is doubtless a 
barbarous imitation of the charioteer in the stater struck 
by King Philip H of Macedon. The same type is 
frequent in the GaUic coinage, and may be traced 
through its successive stages of deterioration by means 
of Fairholt's admirably executed plates illustrating Mr. 
Evans' work above-mentioned.* 

' Woriaae, Kerdakt OUtagtr, Jim»l- 
itrcH, i, p. 87, fig- S79, engntTed of the 
MtuAl size. Engelhardt, Denmark in tht 

Harlj/ Iron Agr, p. 18 and cote. It U 
Htated that this ia the only ciystal bell 
f Dund with an inncriptioD on it ; cf. King, 
Tlu Onottiet md thiir SrmtiiK; p. 81. 
TUeitivocattunl.BA4e«NlABA accompuues 
the pantheistic raijreBentatioQ of the god 
Abraiaa, with the hand of a cock or lioD, 
the body of Si man and the lege of an aap. 
Ulr. Fr. Kopp, Fvlaegraphia Crilica, Vol. 
iii, pp. 681-SBD, givee many varietiee of 
thin farmuU, and diecuBses at great 
length its origin and meaning. It seenu 
connected with the New Testament 
phrasee 'Aj)3([ i lartif, Mark xiv, 8S, 
Bom. viii, 16, Oal. iv, 6, and MmftrMim, 
1 Cor. xvi, 22. For the Latin word 
Jbraeadaira, which waa uaed aa a chaj^ 
against diseiBaeB, and written in the 
form 1^ an inverted cone, aea Forcellini's 
Leiieoii, tv. Bailey's tHmslatton. 

» Oaiigrii Inlernttiaiial f Anthrepelogit 
ltd Jrthieltffit PriAiilorignei,Stiixkiu>hn, 
1874, Sfir lei Commtnermtntt de fAgt du 
Fee tn Eiirtpe, par M. HiUiB Hildubraod, 
Touie ii, pp. 800, w|. EiigravingB are 
given of a Maceduuuiu lAMur, a 0»11ic 

cun and two barbaroua tmitationa ; 
according to HH. Monteliua and Hane 
Hildebrand these last were &bricated 
toH'ards the cloee of the BroDxe Age. 

If we take a compraheiuivs view of the 
antiquitiea discovered in the three Scan- 
dinavian kingdonia. we csnnot bnt come 
to the conclusion that during the earlier 
Iron age an uniformi^ of style pemded 
their art, manners, and customs, and that 
it was deeply imbued with Roman influence- 
Abundant corrobomtion of tliia st 

the Preservation of Ancient Honuments 
(Foreningen til Noreke Fortidsmindesmer- 
keis Bevaritig) and Wonaae'a lUmtraUd 
Calclagve of tht Jfuaeum at Cojitukmfai. 
The Danish Bnnch of this sabject has a 
apecial attraction fur the archseologUt, 
Iwcaute it has been investigated with the 
greatest leal and care bv the local asvaiui, 
and discussed with a view to eataUish a 
rational system of pre-historic chrotMkg}*. 
Mr. FergmBwu, Jiudt Stent JfosaowMi, 

E. 275, says, "The Danish autiquarin 
avB been bo busy in arranging their 
micrulitliic treasures in gloss cases thst 
they have tottdly neglected their larger 


II. Byzantine art had an extensive and lasting influence, 
overspread southern and central Europe, and left indelible 
marks even in the remote comei-s of the north and west. 
At first sight we may feel surprised that a style so con- 
ventional and rigid, debased by luxurious tyranny, iuid 
enslaved by hierarc^cal prescription, should have exercised 
dominion over various races and through many centuries. 
But the difficulty disappears, if we consider the circum- 
stances, which were p^urticularly favourable to Greek art. 
Constantinople was the only great city not taken and 
pillaged by barbarians till the close of the dark ages; 
the Lower Empire had retained many forms of the old 
classical period to which Christianity imparted new life ; 
and Byzantine symbolism was widely diffused, because it 
alone satisfied the instincts and embodied the aspirations 
of humanity.' But, whatever may have been the cause, 
it remains an undoubted fact that the peculiarities of this 
school are as clearly visible in Scandinavia aa in Italy or 
Gi-eece itself. The coins of Magnus I, who reigned 1035- 
1047, show us a seated figure, like that of Chnst, with a 

flory rotmd the head, the book of the Gospels on the 
reast, and the right arm raised in benediction. This is 
clearly a Byzantine type, and may be seen on the solidi 
of emperors who were nearly contemporary, viz., John 
Zimisces, the Airueniaii, and Nicephorus III, Botaniates. 
Even the patterns of the richly ornamented robes worn 
by Greek sovereigns re-appear on the persons of Danish 
and Norwegian kin^. Magnus is dressed like Justinian 
in the mosaics of S** Sophia at Constantinople, or San 
Vitale at Ravenna.^ Similarly, before the profile of St. 

■uonuments outaide:" — and agBin, p, 367, derm, pp. 20-S4, espedaJly p. SSuid note 

"In Denmvk an;UuDK that cMiuot ba i. Ligner bTEontuuke Ptteg f» Jcihiuine>i ' 

put into a glua case in a museum ie so Zimiscea oe Nicephonu Botaniatee, ee 

completely rejected ee valaelea that no Banduri, NuminDatA Imp. Kum. u, p. 

una nrea to record it." Thoee who can TS6 og 748. It is worthy of remark that 

read the elabontti work of Komerup, the earlier [liecei ut thii king h&ve b 

with preface by Wonaae, on the Soyal crowned btut en the obrerve, but the 

Xouitdt (Kongeheiaoe) at Jelling will Snd later a sitting figure, which it probablj 

therein sufficieat proof that the Dsnea do St. Olaf in the likenMe of Chiiat. This 

it deservs Uie censures with which they device eeema to have been adopted < 

have been so severely visited. account of the sBaistBDce which the saint 

' Kugler's Hanilbeok of FniHling, edited was supposed to have afforded to Magnue 

b^ Eaatlake, Vol. i, pp. 46-61, TheByzan- nt the battle of Lyrskov. The Byzantine 

tme Btjle. dress on the Norwegian coins may be 

' Por the coins of HaBnus I una Schive compared with the robes of Jiutinian and 

and Holmboe, Sargei Mynttr i Middtlal- Theodora and attendant courtiers, hs they 


Olaf, we have a cross raised on two steps, which also was 
derived from Byzantium ; amongst many other instances 
the coinage of Heraclius and Constans II may be cited.' 
At this period the course of trade seems to have been 
from Asia to Constantinople, overland through Russia to 
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, and thence to Great 
Britain and Ireland ; somewhat later the crusades must 
have impelled traffic still more in the same direction, in 
consequence of hostilities prevailing through the Mediter- 
ranean. These commercial relations between Asia and the 
north of Europe during the epoch of the Vikings from the 
eighth to the eleventh century are proved by thousands 
of Cufic coins discovered in Sweden and Denmark, which 
are now deposited in the national Museums of Stockholm 
and Copennagen,* 

We shall find the same influence in the architecture of 
the north ; the forms of the capitals and sculptured deco- 
rations in relief equally exhibit it. A good example is 
supplied by the church of Vaage, in Gudbrandsdal, the 
long and picturesque valley that leads from the Miosen 
lake to Trondbjem, The tracery of interlaced serpents, 
which characterizes Scandinavian art, ajid afterwards 
appears on Irish crosses, only reproduces Byzantine sym- 
bolism, typifying the Fall and Redemption,' Another 

appear in the tuosaiia ftt Baventw (Liibke, worn in the aame tray, Nos. 399-401. 
Orundi-iM der KunitgeiMcHi I, 2S8, Sg. Dahl, J}eiitmdkr aner tt\r aiustUUttm 
176. Vou den Moraifcen m» San Viute), HolsiautuHil aiu dinfrUittm JaAriitt,. 
of wtiich Urge coluured cupies may be seen derlm in dm innem LaiiitckifltH Str- 
ia the Suuth Kensington Hueeum. The leagmi, eaye that at the nuptial oercoiony 
eeated ChHst occurs frsquently in tjie the bodee wore crowne on which h-btb 
art of the Lower Empire ; so Eckhel, Awf. hung Byzantine gold coing, bractestes, 
JVuM. J'et., viii, 2G7, b.v., Eadmie aays, and eolidi of the Middle Ages. 
Chriilia udtni mnt teiite. Liibke, ib., * Ardnctlogieal Cimgrui at SlofliMm, 
fig. 177, Moeaik sua der Vorhalle der tome ii, B32 et kj. Arehisol. Joumal, 
Sophienkirche, which shows the Christ iv, 199-203, contauu some intereatiag 
.enthroned and the court drees of the remarks by WorsMe on the courae of 
Greek emperor. trade through Novogorod in Rimia and 
' Sarget Myntet, pp. 11, IE, tab. i, Wiaby in Ooiland. The great importance 
So. 16. Eckhel, liii, 228, Ctui iiuiilttu of the latter ae an empoiimn te attested 
gradiiut, and it. 226. The coins of by coins and seals, and still further con- 
Bomttnus I and Chiistophnrue afford finned by the number and magnitude of 
eiomplee both of the seated Christ and orcbitectursl remuns, uaparalleled in the 
the CTDSi on stepe ; Sabatier, Dttrription north of Europe. Bergmau and SaveV 
giniraU ia mBnnaiu Bytanliiui, pi. book is the beat nuthohty for the onti- 
ilvi, 13. quities of Wiaby ; ii is written in Swodish, 
Worssae, Korditka Oidtagtr, Jri-iml- and accompcmied by lithographs. The 
fbj'M, ii, p. 95, givee examples of Byzan- earlier work of Peringakiiild may also be 
tJue gold ouina used ss ornaments, bus- advontageouely consulted, 
peaded from the Deck, Nos. 3B7, S9Sa, ' HiooUyeen, Norttt Bggnmftr fn 
S98b, and uf gold bniateat«e, which were FarlidtH, p. S, pi. v. Woraum, .Jnm^tu 


instance occurs in the church of Urnes, where the wood 
carvings bear a strong resemhlance to the illustratioiii9 in 
the Bible of Charles the Bald and Greek manuscripts of 
the ninth century.' 

The great variety £ind irr^ularity in the sculptures of 
these wooden churches must strike even a superEcial 
observer. It is easy to eaplain, if we call to mind the 
Varangian body-guard of the Greek emperors." The 
Scandinavians must have often seen in the south oi 
Europe buildings for whose construction columns, archi- 
traves, and friezes of pagan temples had been used 
without any regard to architectural symmetry, — -hence 
they repeated this confusion when they returned to their 

0/ OnuinunI, p. SS. '' The ctobb planted 
iiD the Keipent is foand sculptured on 
Mount Atboe, aod the craaa, gumtiutded 
by the ea-called Runic knot, U tm]^ a 
tkandnuvian veruon of the original 
Byzantine image — the crushed snake 
eurting round the stem of the avt nging 
iTToiH," kc Beiidea the churches men- 
tion^ in the text, many others cont&in 
curious specimens of wood c&rving ; good 
engrarings at them may be seen in the 
fiillowioE works ;^Opdal and Aardal in 
.Vsrjjb BygniHgcT, Hedol in the Miiidtk- 
iniritr nf iliddiMdtrent Sutut 1 Norge, 
both by Nicolayaen; Mitlerdal, Burgiind 
and Va*g in Dnhl's book cited above. 

The affinity betveen Iriab and Scandi- 
iiavian art is evident, it we compare with 
these monuments O'Neill'B Soulptured 
Crosses of Ancient Ireland, and the Foc- 
ximilee of National Manuacri]>ta of Ire- 
land, photo- rinoographed by Uajor- 
(ieneral Sir Henry Jamee. Accorduig 
\a some writers this style, of which 
iuterlsced ornament is the chief charac- 
teristic, originated in Ireland, and was 
thence difiused into other countries ; but 
I tMnk a careful eioJuinatioD of the facta 
will ahow that it come from Constojiti- 
nople, underwent many modifications iu 
tjcondinavia, and Snally was carried into 
Ireland by the victorious NoiMmen. A 
fnend reminds me that the testimony of 
the Hibemo-Danish coins coirobomtee the 
opinion that the so-called Irish art is 
BdBentially Scandinavian. 

' This name is also spelt Omea and 
Urnnes. The terminatioD naei ia common 
in Norway, and ODrraBpondH to the Eng- 
lisb niu and nan. This church, which is 
nob mentioned in Hurray's Handbook, is 
itusted on the promontory of Umes, that 

juts out into the Lyster Fiord, the ex- 
treme north-east branch oF the Sogne 
Fiord ; Horikt Bj/gninger, pp. 1-g, Plates 

Seroui d'Aginoourt, Hiilaiie de VArt 
par ItM Maiununli, Vol. iii, P!at« il, ilv, 
gives several engravings of the illustra- 
tions of this manuscript, which he calls 
Uie Bible of St. Paul from the Benedictine 
monastery in which it was formerly pre- 
served. The title page eihibitH a king or 
emperor sitting on a throne, with a globe 
in his hand as a symbol of power. The 

veil Si 

B Charles o 

I monogram ai 
I under the point- 
1 ChorlemngDc or 

ing, but wbetJier this U 
Chsrlea the Bold canno 
Plates zUt and zlv contain good speci- 
mens of interlaced ornament. Plate Ixxxiii 
repreeento the Virgin Laid in her tomh 
by the Apostles and holy women. There 
are Sunie letters in the border, but 
the figures and dreesee are Byanttn'. 
Compare Strutt's ChioniiU of EngUinil, 
Part i, p. 344, where there is a cony 
of the initial page of a Soion US. of St. 
Luke's OoBpeli the letters are explained 
a., p. 163. 

' Some account of the Varannans will 
be found In Gibbon, c i, Vol. vii, pp. 82, 
83, edit. Dr. Wm. Smith ; the etymology 
of the word is explained in the note, p. 8l>. 
The Vanmgions, VBeringets, or Bagsyyof, 
as the Qreeks c&U them, re-appear in the 
English names Warins and Baring ; 
Cariyle, Early Kinpi of Koraag, p. 161. 
Earl atsjihoj*, in his article on " Harold 
of Norway," Quarttrlt) Rtvinc, vol. c»nv, 
p. 171, quotes from a modem traveller, 
who etatee that in Persia all forngners 
are designated ty the name Feringhee, a 
corrnptaon of Varangian. 



own country, perhaps in some cases by the sai 
namely, by interpolating fragmentfl of earlier edifices. - 

The monuments of this class have unfortunately suffered 
much mutilation in the course of the present century. A 
fire broke out in the Grue-Kirche, which was attended 
with great loss of life because the doors were made to open 
inwards, and this was impossible on account of the crowd. 
A law was consequently passed requiring all church doors 
to open outwards, and in effecting the necessary alterations 
much ancient carving was destroyed. 

These churches are specially interesting, because they 
are built of wood. As this material is so easily worked, 
it would naturally be employed at an early period, so that 
we may here trace back to their origin designs afterwards 
executed in stone.' The absence or deficiency of foliated 
and floral patterns in these buildings is very remarkable, 
but arose naturally out of the circumstances under which 
they were erected.* In a large part of Norway there is 
scarcely any tree but the fir, whose needle-leaves do not 
readily lend themselves to artistic purposes, and the 
severity of the climate during a large portion of the year 
almost precludes the contemplation of external nature. 

III. From the ninth to the eleventh century the 
Northmen were constantly invading and pillaging the 
English coast; they were therefore tronght into contact 
with a nation more civilized than themselves. The 
former excelled in the arts of war ; the latter had made 
considerable progress in luxury and refinement, inheriting 
mannera and customs and technical processes from the 
Romans, Hence we may expect the monuments of the 
conquering race to show that the experience of classical 
antiquity was repeated : — 

Grcecia capta ferum Tictorem cepit, et artes 
Intulit agresH Latio.' 

thus the space betwesn two beanu ob- 
. _ tained Uie nuneof ametopo." Sunilvl; 

i»>.Q.._ ... ^ of construction. Sir the Roman Ucuna meant the deoiamtian 

C. FellowBj Lyeia, c. 8, pp. 128-181, iuMrtcd i" 

Plat«e ii-xii, ehowB many variBtiea of formed by tlie reflate of t. root or coliDg 

rook arobitectura and tombe «ciilptured intonecting at right anglee; it was afWr- 

in imitation of wooden buadings. Sir wards applied to the mme spacee in 

Henry Ellis, i'/jiii Marbla, Vol. i, p. 132, brickwork or maaoniy. 

oiplaming Ihs metopes of the Parthenon, s O'Neill, £M«yeii^Brim(JrtiA^r(,p.l, 

quotas from VitruviuB, "The Greets, by afterenameratingthecharactenBticaof tliia 

the word &■«(, rngmfy the beds of the Btylo,Bajr!, "VegetablBfotmaar^Teiyrarf," 

beanw, which we call cava columbaria ; " Horace EpUlUt, Book ii, ], G6. 

THE anhqxtities of soandihatia. 209 

The fibulee, which are perhaps the most curious remains 
of this epoch found in England, have been divided into 
three classes — the circular, the cross-shaped, and the 
concave. These abound in the museums of Bergen and 
Copenhagen. The materials and form are identical, and 
the resemblance may be traced in minutest details— in the 
gold filigree work, concentric circles, ovals, chain or 
cable patterns, and stones or vitreous pastes used as 

If we turn to the coins we shall find prools of relations 
between England and Scandinavia at this period. The 

gennies of Ethelred the Unready compared with those of 
t. Olaf mav be taken as an example. 
One of the most frequent types of the former exhibits 
on the obverse the king s head to left without sceptre or 
diadem, and the hair represented by divergent lines, each 
terminating in a pellet. The device on the reverse 
consists of a voided cross, with an annulet in the centre 
and three crescents at the end of each arm.' In Olaf s 
coin all these particulars are exactly copied, and therefore 
need not be described, but the legends deserve notice : — 

Obverse + VNLAFI +E+ ANOR 
Heverae +ASS>RiaEI MO NOR 

i.e., Olaf Rex a Normamiia, and Asthrith Monetarins 
Normannonun.' There is here a strange discrepancy 
between the inaccuracy of the first and the correctness 
of the second fine. It was necessary to cut a new die to 
express the name and title of the Norwegian king, which 
was done in a very clumsy fashion, the R of Rex 

' The fibulio, distiiutuulieil m conc&ve oocur often and with rich voiiet j, but are 

or flaacer<fthflped, are nlao cirouUr. With irnkDovu in tilw other old Qennamc landB. 

Wright, Cell, SBtxaa and Sazen, pp. 41G- See also Wonaa«, Xordiiit Ohtiafer i 

420, and engraving opposite p. 4 IS, and Bit Emgtlig» Muuum i Kji^nhava ; Koa. 

Akennan, Fagan Saxvndom, Pis. iii, vii, 415aDcHlBare clover-ahaped, aimilar to 

Tiii, xi, xii, liv, ivi, ten., compare I*. that figured in Wright, p. 417 ; Nob. 428 

range, Samlingm af jfariit Oidiager aad 429 resemble the crou-Bhaped. 

i Btrgau Mutnim, pp. 83-90, fige. G84a, ' Eawkini, Coiiu «/ England, .Xtliel- 

M4b! pp. 117, Bq. fig, 461; pp. 148, rsed 11, i.D. 978-1018, vol. i,pp.67, aq. ; 

aq. figs. 2017a, 2017b; p. 172, fig. lOB? ; voL ii, pL x»i. Nob. 208-207, especially 

p. 180, fig. 706. Lorugs renuib that the laat SchiTe, at the commanccmont 

the croea-ahaped fibuho are far more of the Kvrgf MyiKer, p. 4, haa ux wood- 

' I Norway ^lan in Sweden, cuta of dif^«nt types of Bthelred's coini, 

numerous in Norway Uian in Sweden, cuta o( ilifite«nt types of Ktnelrea h coma, 

referring to Hans HUdebrand, Dm Sldre which he expluna fully on account of 

JemaUtm t Norrland. The Bergen Hu- their importanoe aa ehiddating the 

seiim alone poasesaca 4S apedmens, and Norwegian aeriaa. 
thore are alao a great number of them in ' See Nergti Mynler, Olaf II, Haralda- 

the Univnnty Collection at Chrtatianla. 
He adds tliat in the English gnirea they 

VOL, xxx:v. 

Bfin (den BeUige) (lOlB-1023 1 1D80), pp. 
lS-17, pi. i, Noe. 16-80, eapedally No. 16. 


being omitted. On the other hand, as Schive plausibly 
BUOT;ests, an Anglo-Saxon die was used for the reverse 
without any alteration, since the letters nor, which 
originally stood for Norwich, would answer equally well 
for Norway, vnlafi is an Anglo-Saxon form of Olaf, ' 
for the Daniiili language frequently omits the letter N, 
e.g. using the preposition i for in, and the particle u for 
UN in such words as ulitj, unlike ; Uh/ndighed, un- 
skilfulnees. The interchange of v and o is so common 
as to call for no remark. In the legend of the reverse 
we have two examples of the Saxon barred S, which 
resemblea the Greelt theta both in form and sound ; 
moreover the Royal Cabinet at Stockholm contains a coin 
of Ethelred bearmgthe same inscription, abs>riVihonob. 
During this reign the invasions of the Danes and Norse- 
men were more systematic, and affected a larger portion 
of the kingdom than at any former period.' Heavier 
contributions of money were therefore levied, amounting 
to'^1 67,000 pounds of silver, according to Dr. HUdebrand's 
calculation.* St. Olaf also visited England in the year 
1014, and Ethelred's coins must have been familiar to 
him. Lastly, the reign of this monarch was a long one, 
hence the circulation of his money was lai^, and it 
would on this account be more readily imitated by the 

' Olaf is cnlled UnUf in Strutt's xon, king of nenmark, vho begui to 

Chmaielf, vo]. u, p. 79. The letter n reign iii iO*7. . . . The legenda are 

uften DCCun befure uiother coniunant iu compared of thoae Hunes, so cocamon on 

Anglo-Snion names, aa mny be seen in the Daniah colni minted in IreUnd, and 

the genealogieii of the kin^ of Uarcia, which conauted of a mixture of letters 

Nurtbiimberload, Ejwt AngliH, Kent and and atrokee, the latter supplying the 

WesBGi, and in the chronological table of pluce of aatOTisks, and denotuig the plafe 

the Beven kiiigdouui of the Aoglo-Saionn, of a letter." The blundering in the 

K.-Lpin, Hiitory of Eigiand, vol, t, pp. 47, l(^endii of Irish ooine closely resembles 

bb, 67, and 80, and in the linta of English that in the Norwe^an examples men- 

Archbiehopa and BiahopB, vol. v, pp. 238- tioned above. For inatance, in the ooiiM 

254. Edmund, Alcmuod, Oamond, Or- of AnUf IV Uie king's Dame is scarcely 

mond, Andred, Anfrid, and Kenriok will intelligible, and in tiose of Ifarall, the 

suffice aa eiamplea. Bapin itses the legends of the obverse and reverse are 

fomui AnlafTor Anlaf, beeides Olaph and very rude; Lindsay, pp. 10 and IZ 
the lAtin Olsiis. Thia old H-riter will be • Freeman, Norman Cbnguat, i, !8S- 

found useful, not only for philological 2S7. 

illiutmtion, but also for the history of ^ The accountfl of the historimu are 
the connection between England and oonfirmed by the great number of Anglo- 
Scandinavia liuring the Saion perio<l, Saion coins found in Sweden; accor- 
which is related in Books iv and v. dingly the Royal Cabinet at Stockholm 
Various forms of the name Anlaf appear is very rich in this department, even 
also on Hiberno-Dsnish coins; Lindaay'it aurpaesing the coUsction of the Bntiali 
View e/ Ihe Coiiiage of Ireland, p. lU ; Museum; Hildebnmd, JfcnfMiu Anglt- 
Aolaf iv, p. IS; Anlaf v, p. 18; Anlaf Saseuutt tn Snide. Angiataehiitka Mfitl 
vi, plate i, Nos. 8, 17-21. "The typeof iSvenskn Kongl. Myntkahiiirltet.Jiimiai 
No, SO is exactly that of Svend Eatritb- Sterifu Jori 


less civilized nations that had relations with him, either 
peaceful or hostile. 

Two classes of objects found in Norway, viz., glass 
diinking vessels luid wooden buckets bound with metal, 
which have been referred to a Roman origin, may, in some 
cases at least, with great probability be assigned to the 
Saxons, as they were accustomed to imitate late Roman 

Subsequently to the Norman conquest, Norwegian 
architecture exhibits striking proofs of English influence. 
The King's Hall at Bergen and the Cathedral at Trondhjem 
are the most remarkable monuments of the middle ages 
in the three Scandinavian kingdoms, and the style of both 
may be characterised as English. The hall was built of 
stone by King Haakon Haakonson between the years 
1245 and 1260, in place of an earlier wooden structure. 
It was originally used on festive occasions, such as corona- 
tions and royal marriages, but it has undergone so many 
alterations that its former beauty and magnificence 
can with difficulty be discerned.* However, by careful 
examination of existing remains and comparison of them 
with some old drawings, Mr. Nicolaysen has been enabled 
to produce a restoration that may be accepted as almost 
certain.' There were two storeys, the lower of which 
was subdivided by a floor. The upper had seven great 
windows on its west side or principal front, and smaller 
ones at the back. These great windows were constructed 
in the pointed arch style, each probably containing two 
lights and a quatrefoil above. But there was one much 

' For AdkIo-Soxoii elan compare * CotnM of tbrw old drawings of the 

Wright^ Celt, Soman ani Saxon, pp. 42S- EW'h Hull an givea in Mgea, f, 6, 10 of 

431 and engnkTiogB, with Loisnge, the JVoriii Bygtiiiigtr. The fint shuwa a 

SamUngen af iVorjfa Oidtagtr i Birgem projection in ths roof, whidi must b»ve 

Muttim, p. 87, TSo. 2182, woodcut, and been added for the purpou of fixing a 

VareMaa,KorditkeOldt(igmr,p.76,'So.Z\Z. pulley or cnne, and provee that Uio 

* This buHding bos been moat full; buiJ^ng was used aa a warohouBe about 

and accurately deecribed by Nicolaysen the year 1680. The second eibibita the 

in the Norikt Sygningir frt Fortidtn, mutilated appearsnoe of the building 

pp. 6-lS, platea x-zvl From his intro- about the year 1663, after the injuries it 

ductoi; narrative we learn that shortly euatained in the wars, during which it 

previoua to 1S80 this hall waa a kind of waa one of the batteries for the defence 

warehouse, that it was afterwacda uaed aa of the caatle. In the third, which ia 

quarters for solfUers, and in the {ollowiag dat«d 1743, we ue a double roof and 

century conTertad into a com-magamge, other alterations that bad been made 

and lastly, that in our own time it has towarda the dose of the sevent«eDth 

been employed aa a prison and a place of century. 
worahip for convict*. 

Dci-zec by Google 


larger in the north gable, which by its position shows that 
the roof consisted of open timber-work ; below it was the 
king's seat in the centre of the dais. A music gallery 
extended across the south end, and the space tinder it 
was employed as an ante-room. The hall was one 
hundred feet long, forty wide, and fifty-four high. From 
these particulars and proportions we see that it resembled 
those baronial and collegiate halls, which are more 
beautiful and numerous in our own coimtry than any 

But this buUding, interesting as it is, especially to 
Englishmen, cannot vie with the cathedral at Trondhjem, 
which stands pre-eminent among the ecclesiastical edifices 
of Scandinavia on account of its size, its elaborate details, 
and its intimate connection with mediseval history. At 
Trondhjem the petty states of Norway were consolidated 
into a nation by Harald Haarfager : at Trondhjem, in the 
following century, the Christian religion was established, 
and a church erected by Olaf Tryggvesson. Here the 
first archbishopric was founded, here many kings were 
crowned and inten-ed, but, above all, here was the shrine 
of Olaf, the patron saint, revered by the neighbouring 
nations, and visited by pilgrims irom regions more remote.' 
A minute account of this structure would be superfluous, 
but it is wortli while to observe that the great transept is 
a fine specimen of the Norman style, while the choir and 

1 Ferguuoa, SitlMy b/ ArthUteturt, m entering at ■ window abore. Bishop 

VoL ii, pp. 7d-78. The EongehiiUa at Jocelfs'iFaUoe at Wells i* ol imu^ 

Bergou U more tbiui a century older thaa lie ume date u the KoDgehalle, and its 

Wentnimter Hall u ire atm sea it, for geaeralcKnutruationiaaiialogouaiUuiTay's 

urebuUt under RicbvdU,lSe7-lSS9. Bmdbtok of tlit S»iit)nm aUludraU,rtxt 

Both in eitenul iftpeanmoe and interior j, pp. 2ti sq., and Hr. 3. H. Pukar'a 

■mnsements, the great Ball at Eltham ArekitMlun of tin Oily if WtOt ; Uta 

resembled the one at Berseu ; it was used latter work auppliea much imriaua infor- 

for mmilar pnrpoees, the sovereign often malion, it is also copioiulf illujrtrated bj 

dined there, Bdmrd III held mors than plana and views. 

one parHament, and gave a splendid re- * Hr. Nioolaysen has recently pub- 

cation to John, King ol Fnmce, within lished a pamphlet relating the hiatorj of 

its walls. See AreAaolagia, VoL vi, pp. the cathedral, and aooompamed by eii^n. 

S86-S73, Platoi U, lij, and liiL The vingi that show its ground-plan, preaoit 

author of this ezoellent memoir calls appearance, and intended restoration. 

attention to the imall window in the 'Hus church is rendered Terj a«oessibIe to 

upper end of the Hall, and at a con- visitnrs, who are conducted throuf^ it by 

Biderable height from the Boor ; through it a candidate tor the ministiy, Qood pho- 

the king, in his private apartment, could tographB at the whole Btruoture, <H its 

see all that poised below. This aasistB principal division!, and of the aichitec- 

IIS to explain a passage in Shakespeare's tuml details, can be purduaed frun the 

Hinry VIII, act T, so. 2, where the attendants. 
monoTuh and his phy rician are intioduced 



tomb-house are Earlj English, with details of the Deco- 
rated period in the interior of the latter. The dimensions 
i^emind us of our smaller cathedrals, the total length being 
350 feet, and the width of the nave 84. Exeter is 383 
feet by 72, and Lichfield 319 by 66.^ The wonderful 
lightness and elegance of the tomb-hoiise suggest a 
comparison with the extreme east end of Canterbury, 
called Becket's Crown, .while the west front of unusual 
breadth, 'adorned by sculpture and gilding, must have 
produced an effect not unlike the facade of Wells.* Such 
are the merits of Trondhjem Cathedral ; on the other 
hand, it is disfigured by want of symmetry, caused by 
many unfavourable circumstances. In the twelfth century 
a group of three chiirches stood where we now see one ; 
when additions were made it was necessary to retain the 
high altar on the spot where St. Olaf was buried, and to 
include his sacred well within the walls ; the side-aisles 
of the choir could not be sufficiently enlarged on account 
of the adjoining sacristy and chapels ; lastly, after the 
Reformation, the simplicity of the Protestant ritual 
interfered with a design conceived in Boman Catholic 

It is gratifying to be able to state that this noble edifice 
which has suffered so much from destructive fir«>s and 
tasteless alterations, is now at last recovering much of its 
pristine beauty, though we cannot e:tpect that it will ever 
again be enriched with the splendid ornaments lavished 
on it by mediEeval pietism. It will, however, hold its 
place as a national monument, restored with a skill which 
our own architects would do well to imitate — the gloiy of 
the citizens who dwell in its shadow, and a powerfiil 
attraction for visitors from foreign lands.' 

' PerguraoD, SitlMry af Arehitatwre, Calhednd ; Sohwacb, fauutuiHeoe, No. 0, 

ii, 78. CompantiTe Table of Engluh vEew of th« west end as it appeared in 

Cathedrals. ISSI, froia the copp«r-plste of Maschius ; 

' See Thn>n4ii»u Ihmkirka Bittarit Murray, Xatlt7ti OalludraU, pp. fi7-S0 ; 

tg Bttkrifiht af C. N. Sthwaeh, frontiB- Ferguson, EUtorf tf -Anliittetm-t, ii, 4B. 
piece. No. 1a groimd-plan, No. i, Thron- ' Norikf Mindemttrrktr ^tgntdt paa 

dhjem CathednJ from the north-west m Stiu is/iaiunt m -Dftl a/ dtt Sorden- 

aide ; and Hurrsy's HaadlK»k to thi Stulh- jdeldikt, og betkreviw af Lorentz Diderich 

<rnCalhtdralt<ifEafla«d,'Wii\la,f;rvaaA- KlUwer, I8SS. Pages 1-30 and PUtea 

plan and west front, p. 320. The three 1-10 of this TBtaable work are devoted to 

portals in die west boat ftt Throndhtem, Trondhjem Cathedral, and especially to 

(Drantheim), though very inferior, bear Iha grave-atones dating from the eleventh 

•amamembhuM to the three great arches century to the Beformation, tof^ether with 

in the corresponding pcut of Peterborough the Runic and monkish inscriptions. One 


This j.ccount of Northern antiquities is necessarily very 
imperfect, but I hope it may induce some younger tounste 
to remembei" that uiese countries contain other objects of 
intei-est besides snow-capped mountains, romantic fiords, 
aiid giant forests : that a heroic race lived there in the 
olden time, that its monuments still remain, that its words 
aud deeds are so blended with the language and traditions 
of Englishmen, that we may almost regard them as be- 
longing to our own inheritance. 

uf a later date in iu Gh^^hK, tad luay 
nmiue Uie reader by il« iiuaiDtnees ; it 
HUH coDlpuaed tu honour uf a Scotch b1u|)- 

Tlio' BoriouR blnKta ft Ke|)tune wav™ 

Uatli toat me tu ft fru, 
Yet by the onler of gwU decree 

I harbour hero below. 
Where now I !y at anchor sbure 

With many of uiir flset, 
Eii>ecting one day to net sail, 
M; Admiral Cliriit In meet. 
Kliiwer mentiouri, p. 13, liia diecuver^' 
uf Hpeakiiig-tubee, rather uore thua an 
iuch in diameter, which went through 
the vsultingi and the walln of rouma in 
the upper part ot the choir. He adda 
that theee tubes were [irorided with 
Hmall holes in their aides, tu in a flute, 
to inorcaao or diniiiiiiih tlie buuu(\ at 

the monks, themaelvea 
see all that pajwed both in the choir and 
the church. Schwnch, in hia Hutarie ag 
BtMkriccltf, 1838, pp. 15-16, confirms thi> 

account, but thinks the tube might alau 
have been used fur a s|>ecial purpobc on 

Qood Friday, vii.., tu utt«r the painful 
cry of Judas, "I have Binned in that 
I have betrayed the imiocent blood." 
Schwach aliw mentions a small room in 
an octagonal pillar of the choir — " it 
received light from a high narrow wiiiduw 
in the Qortb-east side of the pallar, aud 
was called the Chamber of Eicommuiii- 
catiun (Baolyaningakanuueret,) because, 
accurdiog to tiaditdon, Uie Archbiahup, 

promulgated, remained there uassen till 
he Htepped out on the balcony, and hurleti 
duwn his bolts as if they issued from the 
clouds." The clasaical traveller will re- 
member similar arrangemeDto iu the 
Temple of Us at PoEnpeu. 

The muet elaborate woil on Trondh jem 
Cathedral in that by Profeasur Munch. 
Chriattania, 18G9, hut an account uf still 

of the Norwegian 
Society of Antiquaries, Fermiiigin til 
Narite firtitbnuMleimerien Btraritif, 
dm-ibcrtlninj for 1S60, pp. 0'2C. 


Tbia Memoir is derived from persoaal observation during a journe; 
through Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, in the eummnr of 1876, 
from convereation with eminent antiquBriea in these countries, and 
&om a careful stud; of their writings, especially those of MH. 
Nicolaysen and loranee, Worsaae and Engelhardt, Wiberg and 
Hildebrand, whom I have closely followed, and in some cases 

&Iy spedal thanks are due to Overintendaut Eammeherre Heist, 
Secretary of the TTniversity of Christiania, for the great kindneas and 
courtesy with which he faoihtated my researches, and placed at my 
disposal sources of informatioa not eanly accessible to foreigners. 


Besides the works above mentioned, the following will be useful to 
those who wish to pursue the study of Northern antiquities : — 
Nioolityiea, Nortke Mrnlmniru/»r, 1862-1866. 
C. A. Holmboe, North Va«gthddtr fra U"** Aarkimdride. 

En mMrkvaerdig Samling of Smvkktr, fortUinttdeltn af 

Quid, og Mynttr . . . paa Oam-den Horn. 

J>0t OldHortit Verhum oplyit ved Satamtnligning mtd 

San^rii og andre Sprog aftamtM .^t. 

P. C. Schiibeler, Die Altnorietgiiche Zandieirt/uchaft. 

Det Oldnortkt Mit»»wn i ChrUUania. 

l%e aneitnt vestel found in th pariih of Tun«, in Jforway. OhrLStianin, 

Carl Andeiaen, Df Dantke Songtn Sronologtth SamUng. 
Ikn EoiwUgf Mynt-og MedailU-Samling paa Prindmu Palait. 

KiobenhavD, 1869. 
Oscar Montelius, Fahrtr durch da» JftuMtm Vaterldnditehtn AlUr- 

th&mer in Stocliholm, iibereetzt von J. Uestorf. 

Antiquitii Stt4dmt«». 

A. P. Madsen, Danthe Oldtagtr og Mind^tmerktr. 

BUliographit d« I' Archiologie Prehistoriqut de la Snide pendant h 

xix' Siieh. Stockholm, 1379 
British Scandinavian Society, Library Catalogue, indudinj* Icelandic 

Quaritch, General Catalogue, 1874, "Scandinavian Philology," 

pp. 1073-1084. 

Supplementary Catalogue, 1876, " Bibliotheca Septen- 

trionalip," pp. 1018-1089. 

Quaritch's list, though long, omita some of the most important 

The prospectus of the University of Norway f Index Seholarum in 
Univertitate Regia Frederieiana . . . hahendarwmj gives the names of 
distinguished Norwegian savans, such as Daa, Bygh, Bugge, &c. 

It is much to be regretted that some English authors have written 
on Scandinavian history and antiquities without a competent know- 
ledge of the Danish language. This has been a fertile source of 
error. Names are frequently misspelt, and their true significance 
therefore lost ; for example, Mardrade is written for .^ardraade, 
which is compounded of h^rd, hard, and Raad, counsel. Those who 
wish to learn Danish only for literary purposes will find the Nor- 
wegian Grammar of Frithjof Fose, pp. 49, sufficient, the Norwegian 
language differing from Danish only in pronunciation. Swedish is so 
closely connected with Norsk that it can be mastered with little 

3 by Google 


The village of Kempley is situated in the north west 
comer of GlouceaterBhire, about seven miles from Ledbury, 
the nearest station on the Worcester and Hereford line. 
The chiirch, which is some distance from the present 
nucleufi of the village, does not possess any special 
external attractions, but contains some of the most 
interesting mural paintings in the kingdom. It is dedi- 
cated to St. Mary, and is a plain Norman fabric, with 
a chwicel, nave, and a west tower, a later addition, on 
which a slate cap now occupies the place of a former 
spire. There is a plain Norman doorway withia the 
tower, formerly the western entrance to the church, but 
the present and only entrance is through a fine Norman 
doorway on the south side of the nave, within and partly- 
concealed by a wooden porch. The arch over the door is 
ornamented with several rows of chevrons and a double 
row of pellet moulding, and on the tympanum is the tree 
of life, similar to that on the south door of Moccas 
church in Herefordshire. There is one shaft on each side 
unusually massive, and with an eaiiy foliated cap of a 
peculiar type, which also occurs in the chancel arcn, and 
of which other examples exist at the neighbouring 
churches of Dymock and Pauutley, and at the churches 
of Bromyard and Thornbury in Herefordshire. Within 
the church with the exception of the paintings, the only 
ornamental work is on the chancel arch, which is a fine 
specimen of Norman work, and is enriched with the 
chevron and star niotildings. The windows with one 
exception are small, round headed, and deeply splayed, and 
on the north wall of the chancel is a plain aumbrey, or, 
as has been suggested, an early example of an lister 
sepulchral recess. The church was restored in 1872, and 


it was then, on the removal of the whitewash, that the 
numerous paiiitings about to be described were discovered, 
and, aa far as possible, most carefully preserved. 

On entering the church the first pamting to be noticed 
is that on the west wall of the nave, on which are remains 
of blue letter Scripture texts, which date either from the 
latter part of the fifteenth or early part of the sixteenth 
century. In removing the whitewadi in the nave two or 
three courses of colouring of vjirious periods were dis- 
covered, but on account of the crumbling and rotten 
character of the distemper it was exceedin^y difficult to 
discern the scheme of any particular subject. This is 
especially the case with a large painting on the south 
wall of the nave. It is much obliterated, and appears to 
be a jumble of more than one series. One subject seems 
to have been in compartments ; in the lower part are two 
figures in armour, one holding out a sword ; above their, 
heads is a cross surroimded by rays of white light. It 
has been suggested that this subject represents the 
Conversion of St. Paul or the History of Constantine. 
Within the splay of a window, an insertion of the 
fourteenth century, on the south side of the nave, is the 
figure of an archbishop with a crozier. On the north wall 
of the nave is a large wheel with ten spokes radiating 
from the centre and terminating in as many medallions, 
within the outer circle. The suojects of the medallions, if 
any ever existed, are all obliterated. Similar wheels exist at 
Rochester Cathedral, at the west end of the original north 
aisle of the Priory Church at Leominster, and another one 
could be seen twenty years ago at Catfield in Norfolk but 
is now hidden by a fresh coat of whitewash. These wheels 
are commonly t^ed "Wheels of Fortune," and must be 
distinguished from such wheels as those now existing at 
Arundel and formerly at Ingatestone and elsewhere, and 
exemplifying the Seven Deadly Sins, These Wheels of 
Fortune probably date from the thirteenth century. Within 
the splay of a Norman window, also on the north side of the 
nave, is, on one side an Archangel weighing a soul, with the 
Blessed Virgin Mary interceding on the soul's behalf, and 
on the other St. Anthony with his usual symbol of a 
pig ; the figures are all as on tracings on a red ground, 
and appear to belong to the Norman period, though no 


other example of the subject of an Archangel weighing 
souIb treatra in this particular manner, is known as 
belonging to so early a period. In the head of the arch 
is a pattern of blue roses on a white ground ; on the 
south side of the chancel arch is a large hgure of a Saint 
under a semicircular canopy, doubtless dating from the 
twelfth century ; there was probably a corresponding 
figure on the north side, but here the plaster had been 
destroyed and a tablet was erected in the last centurj-, 
which has now .been removed. The mouldings of the 
■ chancel arch have been coloured in red, yellow and white, 
and the soffit of the arch is ornamented with alternate 
squares of red and white. Above the west face of the 
chancel arch is a diaper pattern of the Norman period, 
and above again and partly mixed with the diaper pattern, 
is a large and indistinct subject probably representing the 
Day of Judgment.' 

Far more perfect and interesting than the paintings in 
the nave are those in the chancel, which will, it is hoped, 
be conclusively proved to be entirely of Norman workman- 
ship, and to be the most perfect and brilliant specimens of 
colouring which we have remaining from that early period. 
The chancel is small, about 20 feet by 12 feet, having 
one window on the East, N orth, and South, and a plain 
barrel roof There is no ornamental moulding of any 
kind, which tends to prove that the painting of the ceiling 
and walls formed part of the design of the original bxiilding. 
Those who have seen the better known paintings in the 
apsidal chancel of Copford Church in Essex will be struck 
with the numerous coincidences which occur in these two 
churches, the general scheme being almost identical in 
each case. At Copford there is Uttle doubt that the 
paintings have been restored at some time subsequent to 
their execution, and they have, within the last year or 
two, 'been in a great measure repainted, while at Kempley 
the paintings remain exactly in their original condition. 
At Copford again, the various ornamental patterns are, 
with one or two exceptions, if Norman, of unusual design, 
while at Kempley the chevron and other ornaments are 


such as are commonly found among the distinguishing 
mouldings of the twelfth century. 

The whole of the ceiling or vault is occupied as at 
Copford and in the chapel of St. John in the crypt of 
Canterbury Cathedral, with a painting of Our Lord in Glory. 
Our Lord is represented as seated within an irregular vesica, 
with His head to the west, and in the act of benediction. 
The monograms " IHC " and " XP8 " are within the vesica, 
and the difference between the " sigmas " is especially 
noticeable. Our Lord is surrounded by the emblems of 
the four evangelists, two on each side, while at His head 
stand two cherubinfts with folded wings and with pennons 
in their hands, and two more cherubims and St. Peter and 
the Blessed Virgin, with the names scs. petrus and scA. 
MARIA, stand at His feet. By His side are the seven 
candlesticks, and scattered about en the groundwork, 
which is of a deep red colour, are the sun, moon, earth, 
and stars. As a border to the east and west ends of the 
picture are some interlacing chevrons or lozenges in red, 
yellow, and white, forming a most elegant design. On 
the north and south walls of the chancel, filling up the 
whole space between the chancel arch and the windows 
on the north and south sides respectively, are paintings of 
the twelve apostles, sis on eacD side, seated on thrones, 
and in attitudes of profound adoration. As at Copford, 
where however only ten of the apostles are depicted, 
St. Peter, in this instance, only holding one key, occupi^ 
the most eastern place on the north side, and he is the 
only apostle who has his distinctive emblem. The 
apostles are represented as being seated under semi- 
circular headed canopies painted yellow, the pilasters 
supporting the arches being pierced with long round 
headed openings. Within tbe splays of the windows on 
the north and south sides of the chancel is a pattern of 
alternate semicircles of red and white on a black 
ground, with a semicircular bordering of red and white to 
the one and of yellow to the other, and above the heads 
of the windows are painted numerous towers and tuiTets, 
doubtless meant to convey an impression of the Heavenly 
Jerusalem. Between these windows and the east wall 
are, on the south side beneath a canopy, a female Saint 
mth a cmious mui-al crown and holdiDg a awonl, and 


supposed to be the Blessed Virgin, and on the north, St. 
James the Great. The scraping off of the whitewash has 
not been completed in this north-east comer of the chanceL 
On each side of the east window, under a canopy, is a lai^ 
figure of a bishop in mitre and eucharistic vestments 
holdinjr a pastoral staff, and in the act of benediction. 
On either side, at his feet were discernible on the north, 
the chaUce, and on the south, the host. The splay of the 
east window, only partially exposed, contains similar 
ornaments to those on the north and south sides. Above 
it within medaUions are three angels, seated and holding 
wliat appear to be scrolls. Two much larger figures 
of angels occupy a similar position at Copford, On 
the east face of the chancel arch, is a sort of orna- 
mented " tau " pattern, similar to the embattled parapets 
of Flemish houses, the pattern being carried round the 
outer courses of the arch in successive orders of red, white 
and yellow. It is the opinion of a very high authority 
on this subject, that this pattern is one of the ornaments 
xised only in the style of Byzantine architecture. Round 
the inner course are a series of ten medaUions, the subjects 
of which are entirely obliterated. These may have con- 
tained the signs of the Zodiac, which are painted on the 
Kofiit of the chancel arch at Copfoi-d, and though here 
there are only ten medallions, it is possible that two Gdgns 
may have been represented in the same medallion, as is 
the case in the Norman arches at Shobdon and Brinsop, 
in the neighbouring county of Hereford. 

Such is a brief description of these most interesting 
paintings. The whitewash still remains undisturbed at 
the west end of the north and south walls of the nave, 
in the north-east corner of the chancel, and on one side 
of the splay of the east window ; but in these particular 
localities it was foimd that some comparatively recent 
disturbance had taken place, so that it was deemed use ■ 
less further to interfere with the surface. There can be 
no doubt that the whole of the paintuig in the chancel, 
and a considerable amount in the nave, date €com the 
Norman period. On close examination, it appeared that 
the paintings in the chancel, and some of those in the 
nave, were executed on a very thin coating of dis- 
temper, probably not exceeding one-sixteenth of an inch 


in thickness. It Beems, therefore, highly probable that 
as the paintings are executed on this very tnin coating of 
distemper, wmch is directly laid on the rough surface 
of the wall, the paintings are, as has been previously 
suggested, coeval with, and formed part of the original 
design of the building. As to the date of the building of 
"the church, no record exists. Kempley is mentioned as 
Cheneplei in Domesday Book, and seems to have been 
situated in the centre of a forest district. It may be 
■worthy of discussion as to how these elaborate paintings 
came to be executed in a place, which seems always to 
have been out of the way and of no importMice ; and one 
theory su^ests that it may have served, as in the case of 
Greenstead in Essex, as the temporary shrine or resting- 
place of the body of some saint or important personage. 

Jud^g from the massive character of the chancel arch 
and the south and west doorways, the date of the church 
can hardly be later than the year 1130, and to this date, 
or very shortly afterwards, the execution of the paintings 
may be assigned. In a gazetteer of Gloucestershire, in 
which some account of the paintings is given, the probable 
date of them is said to be 1160; whue it is stated that 
Mr, Gambler Parry considers them as late as 1180. 

The paintings at Kempley are, in all probability, by 
far the most interesting of the Norman period, whicn are 
at present known to be in existence in England, and they * 
certainly remain as most valuable examples of the manner 
in which even the plain and comparatively poor Norman 
buildings were beautified in order to atone for deficiency 
in stone or ornamental carving, and they afford an 
additional proof, if any were required, that the interior of 
churches, even as far back as the twelfth century, did not 
present the bare and cheerless appearance that one is 
accustomed to notice in their present condition. 

A list and short account of such other examples of 
Norman paintings, of which any information has been 
obtained, though probably only a portion of those actually 
in existence in England, will peraaps fonn a fitting con- 
clusion to this subject. 

^^Veerhtmt.' The earliest existing pwntingB in England are probably 
ose at Deerhurat in OlouceBter^ire, which are assigned to a period 

' AreAxotoffical ^.tiimialioH Jottmal, ji, 3S0. 



anterior to the Norman conquest, though, as we knoir that this 
church waa conseci-ated in lUe year 1056, the early date given to these 
paintings must be received with some hesitation. 

Canttrhwy. The earliest mention of church painting in England is 
a record hy one of the early chroniclers of the splendid painting in 
Prior Conrad's Choir at Canterbury Cathedral. It is not impro^blo 
that those now remaining in St. Michael's Cliepol, on the north side 
of the north choir aisle, and consisting of panJlel bands of colour, 
zigzags, foliago and other Norman decoration, may belong to this early ' 
period. The paintings in St. John's (or more properly St. Gabriel's) 
Chapel, on the south-east side of the crypt, certainly belong to the 
Norman period. On the ceiling of the nave are numerous medallions, 
'wliich are still partially concealed hy whitevash. Un the ceilinfr of 
the diminutive chantel is a representation of Our Lord in Glory, and 
on the walls the incidents connected with the Birth of Our Lord and 
8t. John tiie Baptist, the Vision of Ezelciel, and St. John writing the 
'' Book of Hevelation," with the Angels of the Seven Churches and the 
Seven Stars in medallions. 

Durham.^ At Durham Cathedral traces of colour remain on the 
chevron mouldings of the arches of the Galilee, and on the east wall 
of the same building are two full length figures, supposed to represent 
Bichard I and Bishop Fudsey, and to have formed part of a painting 
of the crucifixion of the latter part of the twelfth century. 

PeUrhwough. At Peterborough Cathedral, on the ceiling of tho 
nave are various figures, supposed to have beea painted in the twelfth 
century. The ceiling waa probably put up by Abbot Benedict, who 
ruled the monastery &om 1177 to 1193. 

£ly. At Ely Cathedral round the arches at the eastern end of the 
nave, and on the vault of the south aisle, are cable, zigzag, and flower 
ornaments. In two chap«>la on the east side of the north transept are 
some circles and other ornaments, and in tlie vestry on the west side 
of the south transept are some scroll and fioial patterns partly restored, 
these are all late twelfth century. 

Norwich. At Norwich Cathedral are remains of painting on the 
arches and capitals at the east end of the choir in the choir aisles, on 
the ceiling of the sacrist's room and of St. Luke's Chapel ; also 
(restored) on the eastern face of the chancel arch, and on the ceiling of 
the Jesus chapel, date about 1170. 

WorceiUr. At Worcester Cathedral round an arch on the east side 
of the south transept is a roll moulding with an elaborate beaded cable 
pattern painted rm it. 

St. Albatu. At the Abbey church of St. Albans, the tower uohes, 
and the Norman arches and piers of the choir to Ihe west of the tower 
and the north side of the nave, are ornamented with patterns of rose>s, 
cables, chevrons, and squares or oblongs in alternate colours, red and 
yellow being the most common ; the capital of one column at the east 
end of the north side of the nave is painted eo as to represent the 
early cushion capital, and round the windows in the nortti transept 
oro painted arches resting i>n Norman shafts and caps. In the spandril 

1 Murray'B Sandiaokof Daiham; HuM'tAiilijaarinn Oleaningt, V\. vii & vm. 


of the arch opening from the south transept to the south choir aiale is 
the figure of a seraph with a scroll. 

Doiteaiter.' Bound the arches of the church of St. Mary Magdaleue, 
Doacaster, now destroyed, were scroll and otheT patterns of the twelfth 

Smitigham. At the Norman church of Eonngham, in Yorkshire, 
were discovered and destroyed numerous layers of paintings, Iho lowest 
of which probahly dated from the Norman period. 

Haletotem and Beawde»ert. Bound the splay of a Norman window 
at the churches of Halesowen in Shropelkire, and of Beaudesert in 
Warwickshire, are some masonry ornaments of the twelfth century. 

Yaxhy? At Yaxley church in Huntingdonshire, in the north 
transept is a representation of the Torments of Hell, which has been 
re- white washed, though drawings axe in existence. 

LeomituUr. At IJeominstcr priory church, on the south side of the 
original Norman nave triforium story are remains of elaborate Nor- 
man deroration, the chevron and scallop ornaments being most used. 

Tewimbury. At Tewkesbury Abbey church, numerous most in- 
teresting paintings, stated to be of the twelfth century, have recently 
been discovered. 

Dem'iM. At St. John's church, Devizes, on a Norman arcade, 
walled up in the chancel, remains of early painting were discovered. 

Aeington. At Avington church, Berkshire, on the columns of the 
chancel arch is a lozenge pattern, and on ttie sofdt of the arch an 
irregular row of etara. 

Stanford Dinghy. At Stanford Dingley, in Berkshire, are masonry 
patterns, late twelfth century. 

SlewhUjf. On the soffit of the chancel arch at Stewkley in 
Buckinghamshire a floral pattern was discovered and destroyed. 
The design has been copied in the present decoration of the vault of 
the chancel, the original being probably late twelfth century. 

Cattle Heiingham^ At Castle Hedinghnm church, Essex, on the 
south wall of the chancel is a painting of a bishop in full pontificals, 
now whitewashed over. 

HadUigh.* At Hadleigh, Essex, within the splay of a window is 
a figure with the inscription " Eeatus Toinas " below it. This is by 
some supposed to have been painted between the years 1170 and 1173, 
the dates of the martyrdom and canonization of Thomas a Becket. 

JHott Ham.' At East Ham, Essex, are some masonry patterns. 

Guildford.' At St. Mary's Church, Guildford, are numerous paint- 
ings of the twelfth century, conjecturedtobe the work ofWilliam the 
Florentine ; the subjects represented are, St. Michael weighing souls, 

^Builder, 1864, p. 721, Collin's ffoMic 
. , , r. J. E, Jnekson. Oi-namtnU, plates 37-*0 and 44. Archao- 

^ SeeUtiahgitt.Mi, 6h. togieal Jouynal, xxvii' 413. Btaylev's 

■ Builder, 1861, p. 724. Sitlary of Surrey. Mumif's ffamil^ 

* Hansy'i Saiidbook of Elttx. ofSarTcy. 

* Buildtr, 1SS4, p. 683. 


the Tonnents of Hell, Onr Lord in majesty, uid Tarioru otlien, ia 
medallionB, with numerous scroll patterns. 

Pirford. At Ftrford ohnroli, Snrrsf, ore puntintfi ani^ed to the 
early part of the twelfth centur;, vie., on north wafi of nave " a acroll 
with figures above it, and beneath it two ang;ela welooming a soul to 

Srahoumt. At firaboume, Kent, at the east end of the chaiic«l, 
Bome walled up Norman arches with a floral pattern have been recen^ 

Uleemit. At Uloombe, Kent, on the soffit of an arch are some 
chevrons, late twelfth century. 

ChiehMter} On the east wall of the church of St. Olave, Chichester, 
are paintings of " The Assumption," " twelve figures in nichea, Ac," 
assigned to the twelfth century. 

We»tm*»ton^ On the east wall of the nave of Westmeston church, 
Sussex, were sabjects from the Passion, &□., twelfth centaiT, now 

Slindon* At Slindon ohnrch, Snscez, are ornamental patterns, 
partly of the twelfth century. 

Battue On the north wall of the nave clerestory at Battle church 
in Sussex were discovered " a series of paintings of the tweliUi 
century, with outlines of red ochre and nat tints of green, blue, 
yellow and red representing saored subjects, with figures of aaints and 
worthies in the window jambs." These are now very faint. 

WinehfitU. On the exterior of the tower of Winchfield chureh, 
Hampshire, is a large, though now faint, ropreaentation of a Sala- ' 
mander or serpent, probably coeval with the Norman tower. 

Milton Abbtu. At Hilton abbey, Dorsetshire, on two panels, are 
early portraits of Athelstan and his queen, which may possiblj date 
ftom Oio Konnan period. 

Tintagtl.* At Tintagel, iu Oomwall, beneath several layers of later 
puntings, a bold chevron pattern was discovered, which is now again 
concealed by a coating of yellow wash. 

Brahounu. In conclusion should be menlioaed as an unique apecn- 
men of Norman painting in a perfect state, a small window on the 
north side of the chaacef of Braboume church in Kent, the glass of 
which remains in perfect condition. This is believed to be the only 
perfect window remaining in England of the Norman period ; and in 
Norman^ there is also but one perfect relic of the glass of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries. 

I SutMx AreXoB'^ieal Jaanul. * Rev. E. C. Mackesrie W«)c<A*b 

> Artlunlegieal Journal, xx, 168. SatiU Abbet, p. *7 ; Jamtint Bril. Arth. 

* Su—ei AreiaeltffKiit Jbunel, ziz, Anot. ii, I4T-I6S. 

130. * Bcelmeitsit, xli, 33t. 



After the decisive victory at Evesham in 1265, in 
which Simon de Montfort, with his eldest son Henry, 
was slain, his "widow Alianora, second daughter of 
King John and Isabella of Angoul^me, with her only 
daughter Alianora, retired to a monastery at Montargis. 
His second son, Simon, after holding out for a time in 
Kenilworth Castle, and being excepted from taking any 
benefit under the Dictum de Kenilworth, fled finally to 
the Continent, and we hear of him in 1270 as taking part 
in the murder of Henry, eldest son of Richard, kmg of 
tlie Romans, at Viterbo. He was Count of Bigorre in 
' France, where he founded a family bearing his patrimonial 
name. Almeric, the third son (Dugdale calls him the 
fourth), was first a priest in York ; he embraced the 
military profession abroad, became a knight, and died 
shortly eifter 1283. Guy, the fourth son, (whom Dugdale 
calls the third) was taken prisoner at Evesham, and after - 
wards escaped into Italy, where he joined his brother 
Simon in tne murder of nis first cousin above mentioned. 
"For Bcarcelr mass was done 
When Leicester's offopring, Guy and Simon fierce, 
Pierced his young heart with uurelentiiig swords." 

He was Count of Angleziaand progenitor of the Montforts 
of Tuscany. Of the fifth son, Richard, Dugdale makes 
no mention ; and Brooke, in his Catalogue of Nobility, 
says that Edward and Richard, sons of Simon de Montfort, 
died young, a statement which has not been corrected by 
Vincent on Brooke. 

In Nichols' History of Leicester,^ is the following deed, 
quoted as from Vincent's MS8., p. 40 b: 

(1) Vol. L, part ii, appendix, p. 30, Chortera and Orento of the ewlj Earlb oE 
Ltioarter, paragnph 1 S. 

VOL. XXXIV. 2 ;"-' 


" Sciant presentes et futuri quod Ego Wellysbome filius 
comes Symonis de Monteforte unus filioruni domina Alia- 
nora filia Johannis Regis AngUse dedi conceesi et hac 

Sresenti carta mea et concessione Mariee us mei Bicardo 
e la RosehuUes, unum messna^um cum gardino et cum 
tilag' et cum aliis pertin. supra KingshuU m parochia dc 
Hugenden. Hiie testibus, Symone de Hugenden, GalMdo 
Tykfer, Eicardo Tere, WiUielmo Brand et aliia" 

There are two seals appended to this document. The 
one represents a man m coif, hauberk and gambeson, 
holding a banner of St. George in his right hand, armed 
with a sword suspended in front, and carrying a shield on 
his left arm, slung by a gigue, and charged with a lion 
rampant, double queued, and holding a chud in its mouth. 
On either side of the figure, on a lozengy ground, is a fleur- 
de-lia. The legend runs : + s wellisbvrne ■ bellator • 


The other seal exhibits a shield within a cusped circle, 
Bub-cusped at the sides, hanging from a bough of a tree 
and charged with the lion rampant, double queued, holding 
a child m its mouth, with the l^nd : wellbsbtrne • 
DE • LA ■ MONTEFORTE. The reverse is a secretum repre- 
senting a shield within a cusped circle, and charged with 
a grifim segreant, a chief chequy, 

At paragraph 16 of Nichols, as above, the follovring 
deed is quoted : — 

" Ricardus Dominus de WeUesbume, miles, nuper de 
villi de Wellesbume Monteforte, in com' Warwyke Dat' 
apud Wellesbume in com' War', anno 1 Edw. II. 

To this deed is attached a seal containing a shield 
displaying a griflSn segreant, a chief chequy, over all a 
bendlet dexter, with the legend, s. rioabdi de WELuas- 
BVENE MILITIS. All these seals are engraved in Nichols, 
(Plate xii, figs. 4, 5, and 6). 

There is no notice of Richard de Montfort in any of the 
Calendars of Inquisitions or Patent Rolls, but there is 
mention in a Close Roll of 49 Henry III. (1264), of a 
grant by the king to Richard de Montfort, son of Simon, 
Earl of Leicester, of fifteen head of deer in Sherwood 
Forest to stock his park, where is not mentioned. 

The following entry appears in one of the old pariah 


registers of Huffhenden : "Memorandum, Nov. 1690, y* 
in the Isle of the Chancel of Hitchenden Church was a 
brass Inscription taken off one of the tombstones, which 
certified y* two children of Richard Welleshoume of 
Kingshall were buried there above three hundred years 
sigoe, whose names were formerly Montforts as ye Inscrip- 
tion specifieth. The brass was stolen away in October, 
1690. Witness my hande, John Jenkins, vicar." 

A copy of Vincent's deed in Cotton MSS.,' has the 
following note, signed " W. Camden Clar." 

" It is thought to be a forged deed by reason of the 
false Latin, the character new and the style absurd both 
in deed and seah" 

Camden was no doubt the earhest writer on heraldry 
whose works are of real value, but whatever force his 
remarks may have as regards the wording of this 
document, it does not appear that he ever compared 
the heraldry of the seals with that on the eflSgy in the 
church. Since the genuineness of this remarkaMe figure 
is unquestionable, the joint evidence thus afforded must 
have due consideration, and in regard toCamden's scruples, 
the remarks of Langley, in his History of Desborough 
Hundred, himself no mean authority, are not without 
significance. He says : " No one would forge a grant 
from persons who did not possess the property granted ; 
it at least shows that a son of Simon de Montfort and 
his wife Mary possessed lands in this parish, and it is re- 
markable that true seals were annexed to the deed." 

Making allowance for the inferior work of Nichols' 
engravings there is certainly nothing in the style of the 
Beds which is not of the period to which they pretend to 
belong. The oidy differences in the armorial bearings 
are that the grimn on the surcoat of the effigy holds a 
child in its paws which that of the secretutn does not, and 
the Uon rampant with a child in its mouth on the shfeld 

Kppeare to be inaocurate. The ccn>y bjr 
Nicholu ChHrleH vuiea slighUj m the 

. ._, , ... orthogrftpliy, bat Ail druwingH of tho bbJb 

Ws hava not been able to find the deed ^pear to have been exactly fullowed bf 
quoted bj KichoU omoDg Vincent'i MSS. 

X ih» doltege of Armt ; Uie raferaoce 

3 by Google 


of the efligy is contained within du orle of crosses, trefflees 
titclietSs, which does not appear upon either of the seals. . 
- The effigy being of coiurse of a later date than the deed, 
these charges may have been subsequently assumed. It 
hi not so easy to explain the non-appearance of the child 
in the griffin's paws in the seal to the deed dated I 
Edward 11. The authenticity of this seal has, however, 
jiever been questioned, and it will be shown that this 
singular addition occurs in every sculptured example of 
tlds coat exhibited on and about the effigies in the churcL 
It would seem that Langley caimot have compared the 
" true seaU " with the effiey, because he says it represents 
Henry de Montfort, a Knight Templar, which he was not, 
and who certainly belongM. to the family of the Montforts 
of Beaudesert who bore arms Bendy of ten or and az. 
With some inconsistency he goes on to say that the 
posterity of Richard, son of Simon de Montfort, are said to 
nave itssumed the name of Wellesbome, and to have 
lived at Wreck Hall in Hiighenden. 

Stothai-d says that Richard, 6fth and youngest son of 
(Simon de Montfort, did not fly the counti-y after the battle 
of Evesham, but retired to Hugheuden and assumed the 
name of WeUesbome. He coimdently appropriates the 
effigy to this personage, and adds that the faulty Latin of 
Vincent's deed is "perhaps no proof of its bemg fictitious." 

Lipscombe gets over the difficulty of the number of 
Simon de Montfort's sons by considermg that Ahneric and 
Richard were the same person ; and we accordingly find 
that Ahneric was banished after the battle of Evesham, 
that he returned to England, probably after having been 
to the Holy Land — for which there is not the slightest 
evidence — and assuming the name and arms of Welles- 
bome, Hved at Hughenden. 

Dugdale impHes that Ahneric died in Italy ; and the 
one point in favour of his claim to be the founder of the 
family which continued at Hughenden until the time of 
Henry VI, is the peculiarity of the armorial bearings, the 
child in the lion's mouth. This has a certain foreign 
appearance, calling to mind the arms of the Visconti of 
Milan— a serpent with a female child in its mouth — so 
iidmii-ably exempHfied in the fine equestrian statue of 
Bemabo Visconti, in the church of St. Giovanni in Conca, 


in Milan, who died in 1385 ; this resemblance, however, 
may well be fortuitous. 

Now, supposing for a moment that the deed is fictitious, 
we BtiU liave the Close Roll entn^, showing not only that 
Simon de Montfort had a son Richard, wtiose existence 
Dugdale ignores, but that he was in favour with the king 
at a time when his father and brothers were in open war 
against the crown, for the year before the battle of Eve- 
sham fifteen head of deer were granted to him Irom a 
i-oyal forest. Whether he at once settled quietly at 
Hughenden, or was one of the 120 knights — the criice 
signati — who received the cross at the hands of Ottoboni 
at Northampton in 1268, with the view of accompanying 
Prince Edward to the Holy Land, in 1270, it is needless 
to speculate much. The cross-legged attitude of the 
effigy is of course of itself no proof of such a voyage 
havmg been taken, but the intention may possibly be 
thus signified, and the addition of the crescent, tnrice 
repeated at the feet, has appeared to certain authors to 
lend some c(^our to the beUef 

If, on the other hand, we put faith in the deed and 
seals, we have to consider why the grantor used a secretum 
with the arms of Wellesburne. Langley thinks that the 
subject of the effigy took the name and arms of Welles- 
borne, from a place in Warwickshire belonging to the 
Montforts of Beldesert, called by Dugdale " W^esbome 
Montfort." This is reasonable enough as far as it goes, 
and is corroborated by the heraldry of the effigy, but there 
does not appear to be the same confirmatory evidence to 
support him in his conjecture that Richard de Montfort 
married a Bishopsden, of which family one of tJbe coats 
was. Bendy of six ara. and sa. a canton erm. — for it will 
be noticed that Bendy of ten, a canton, occurs only upon 
the scabbard of the sword, and it is unlikely that the 
anas of the wife would be placed in such a minor position. 

Again, we may utterly ignore both the deed and the 
secretum, and we still have the authentic evidence of the 
effigy, which exhibits on the surcote the arms of Welles- 
borne. The not unreasonable inference to be drawn from 
this is, that Richard de Montfort married a Wellesbome 
heiress, who brought him lands there and probably the 
property in Hughenden. As r^ards this property we 


may for the moment recall the wording of the deed, 
where the consent of the wife was thought necessary. 

It will be further shown that the coat of Bishopeden 
occurs only upon minor shields in connection with the 
eflSgies in the church, while the arms of Montfort of 
Beldesert are quartered with those of Welleebome upon 
the princmal shield of an effigy of an early period, pro- 
bably of Richard's son ; upon the jupon of a later effigy, 
and upon the shield of a figure of a still more recent date. 

Juliana, a daughter of Henry de Montfort of Beldesert, 
(also called Peter,) was married to William de Bishopsden, 
who was enfeoffed by Henry wi{h lands in Wellesbome ; 
it is an open question whether Bichard's wife was not also 
a daughter of Henry de Montfort, and thus possessed of 
proparty in Wellesbome and elsewhere. It is not easy 
otherwise to account for the appearance of the Beldesert 
Montfort coat in so conspicuous a manner on the later 
effigies, for it represents quite a different family. Against 
this theory it may be urged that the Beldesert Montfort 
coat does not appear at all on the effigy of Kichard, where 
it might be expected. The date of the figure would partly 
account for this omission, marshalling by quartering being 
then quite in its infancy, and the arms of Wellesbome 
alone would have the preference as representing the 

As regards the differences exhibited in the heraldry of 
the effigiea, taking the deed of I Edward II, quoted by 
Nichols, we find on the seal the coat of Wellesbome 
without the child, and differenced with a bendlet dexter, 
like that of Henry of Lancaster (the arms of England 
differenced in the same way). On applying this to the 
effigy, which probably represents this second Richard, we 
find a quartered shield exhibiting — 1, Montfort (much 
defaced) ; 2, Montfort of Beldesert ; 3, defaced ; 4, Welles- 
bome without the bendlet. On the effigy of the end of 
the fourteenth century we have Wellesbome without the 
bendlet, and Wellesbome without the chief ; coming later 
still, an effigy apparently of the time of Heniy V, exhibits 
a quartered shield of Montfort with the child, Montfort of 
Beldesert, and Wellesbome, differenced with an inescut- 
dieon; lastly an effigy of the time of Henry VI presents a 
shield with the arms of Wellesbome, differenced with a 


bendlet, whicb Ib a^ain difierenced with three crosses, 
patties fitch^es. ' As regards the differences of the Mont- 
fort coat, the orle of crosses tref&des fitch^es appears only 
on the shield of the earliest effigy. The lion of Montfort 
is invariably shown with the child in its mouth, and the 
child in the Wellesbome griffin's paws is similarly a con- 
stant feature. The crescent occurring upon the slabs of 
tliree of these effigies is very noticeable, it was no doubt 
originally assumed us a hadge with some significant 

Thus, we have at Hughenden, in addition to the histor- 
ical points which are involved, a most interesting display 
of heraldry, heraldic differences and devices ; and it is 
probable that no five effigies in any parish church in the 
kingdom exhibit such valuable illustrations of cadenCT-. 
Since these authentic memorials have suffered not a Uttle 
from the inaccurate descriptions of historians, and the 
careless work of engravers ; and, as Weever says, " such 
is the despight not so much of time, as of mtdevolent 
people, to all antiquities, especially of this kind," ' it may 
be well to place on record the ir&rmation which is still 
affiarded, both as regards the heraldry and the costume of 
the figures. 

These sepulchral monuments appear to have remained 
undisturbed until 1818, when they were " cleaned" and 
placed much in the positions they now occupy by the late 
Mr, Norris. 

" What call unknown, what charme preaume, 
To break the quiet of the tomb f 
"Who is ho with voice unblessed, 
That calls me from the bed of rest f 

Taking them in chronological order, No. I is the effigy 
attributed to Richard Wellesbome de Montfort. It lay, 
in the time of Langley, under an arched recess in the 
north wall of the chapel. Mr. Norris placed it on a new 
tomb in the midst of the chapel, where it now remains. 

The figure represents a man in the usual military 
costume of the end of the thirteenth century, viz. : in a coif, 

' One of eight shields of armi, paiDted with ihree croBaas pfttt^ fitdilei, vliiah 

on paper uid fixed on the cap of a shaft are each again differenoed with an ermine 

supporting the arcade that dividee the spot. These shlelde were apparentl; put 

chapel from the chaocsl, exhlbitB the coat up b; Ur. Stma. 
of Welleebome with the dazter bendlet * AneUnI Rattral Uomtmtutt, p. 661. 


hauberk and chausses of mail, a gambeBon, and a surcote, 
confined at the waist by a cin^^iua. On the forehead, 
the coif is arranged in a most unusual way. An oblong 
opening is shown over the temples, closed on the right 
Bide by a lace threaded at intervals through a band of 
mail of two rows, with the links set in the same direction, 
like the mail on the effigy of Peter, Earl of Richmond, in 
the church of Aquabetla, in Savoy, who died in 1267. 
The lower edge oi the liniiig of the coif is shown, and the 
object of this contrivance was to enable the wearer to put 
on the coif when -be chose. The lace being un&stened, 
this hood would fall backwards upon the shoulders, in the 
same manner as we see it represented in the effigy of a 
De Roe, in the Temple Church ; in thu,t of Brian Fitz Alan, 
at Bedale, and in the effigy of Robert, son of St. Louifi, 
formerly in the church of the Jacobins, at Paris, This 
arrangement answered the same purpose as that shown in 
a different manner in a knightly figure at Pershore. 

In this opening is shown the cerveli^re or scuU cap of 
iron. Joinville in his Memoirs, speaking of St. Louis, says, 
" he raised the helmet from his bead, on which I gave 
him my chapelle de fer, which was much Ughter."' The 
gambeson, here represented in the usual manner, calls for 
no special remark ; it was a hot substantial garment, 
padded with cotton or tow, and qidlted, as in this example, 
m parallel lines. The knight wears a ponderous broad- 
bladed sword with seven shields on the scabbard, viz : — 
1, defaced ; 2, bendy of ten, a canton, Bishopsden ; 3, a 
chevron, Stafford (?) ; 4, a cross, Bigod, Earl of Norfolk (?) ; 
5, chequy, Warrenne (?) ; 6, quarterly, Mandeville, Earl 
of Essex (?) ; 7, a pale, Grantmesnil (?). In his right 
hand he grasps a dagger, slung fi-om the oingulum by a 
thin cord. The figure is considered by Meyrick to exhibit 
the earliest example of a dag^r worn with the sword. 
He puts the date as about 1275. 

In the Statutes of William the Lion, King of Scotland, 
(1165 — 1214) a knight is thus spoken oi: — " Habeat 
equum, habergeon, capitium & ferro, ensem et cuteUum, 
qui dicitur dagger.* Again, St. Gekis, in his Viridario 
Honoris, says, " K son cost^ chascun la courte dague,'' 

I Miyrielft Ancient Armeur, v. i, p. 102. 
> Mtyriek, T. 1, p. 1S9. 


KIHEr ill ([iiehMiden 

n.r,-...h...G0 0<?lc I 

3 by Google 


and, with regard to the Bword, " h, leur cost^ I'esp^e 
longiie et hu^."' 

On the dextei" side of the head of the pfiigy is a coat, 
bendy often, a chief, Betiin (?). - The principal shield Is 
of large size, as in all early efiigies, and is charged with 
the following arms : — Wiuiin an orle of crosses treffl^es 
fitch^, a Hon rampant double queued, preying on a child. 
Three crescents are sculptured on a olock at the feet. 
The effigy is executed in a light red stone, and represents 
a powemil and life-like figure. There is no departure 
from the usual manner of representing the deceased at 
this period, but th^re is an amount of repose and vigour 
about the statue which is extremely strikuig, and we may 
justly admire the dignity which it presents. 

No. II represents a figure in low relief, carved in 
Purbeck marble upon a greatly disintegrated slab, narrow- 
ing to the feet, and pro^bly originally placed level with 
the pavement as the lid of a coffin. It is now placed 
upon a low modem tomb in the arched recess from which 
the effigy No. I was ejected by Mr. Norris. 

A man is here shown in a plain coif and chausses, and 
a " cote gambolsi^e." Meyrick tells us' that these gam- 
bolsed coats were made more ornamental than ordinary 
gambesons, and this is confirmed by the present example 
which has a collar ornamented with roundels, similar 
decorations occurring on the lower edge of the skirt. It 
is perhaps a unique instance of the representation of 
suca a garment on a military effigy. Upon the body is a 
large shield covering the arms of the figure and exhibiting 
the coats of Montfort with the child, Montfort of Beldesert, 
and WelUesbome ; the third quarter was entirely defaced 
in Langley's time (before 1798). Tlie knight holds up 
in his right hand a naked sword and in bis left a stafl 
with a cross on the top. In front of the right leg m a 
second sword, not suspended in any way, and piercing 
the neck of a mutilated lion. Lipscombe compares this 
beast to an owl, and his engraver has turned it into 
a cherub. On the slab, at the dexter side of the 
face, are two small shields, one charged with a chevron, 

■ ' VoL i, p. 139, toy whether these chargee or iwles «re 

'The bends being on); just out of intended. 

the vertical direction it is impoeuble to * VoL i, p. ISO. 




the other showing bendy. On the sinister side are two 
similar shieldB, tiie one with a cross, the other with a 
saltire. On the breast is a heart, and close by it a small 
sliield entirely defaced. 

No. Ill is an effigy in the well known miKtary costume 
of the time of the Black Prince, consisting of a bascinet, 
camail, and jupnn, a skirt of mail and the usual defenses 
of plate for the arms and legs, the latter resting upon & 
lion with a shield on its chest, charged with the arms of 
Wellesbome. The original fore -arms and gauntlets had 
been broken away before the time ot I^angley and rudely 
re-carved, partly out of the upper portion of the body. 
On the jupon, below the waist, are the arms of Montfort 
of Beldesert, Wellesbome without the chief, and Montfort 
with the child. On the breast below the camail is a heart 
The head reposes upon two couchant griffins, much 
mutilated, and each holding a child within its outstretched 
paws. On the slab at either side of the camail are shields 
bearing the arms of Montfort with the child. Opposite 
the waist on the dexter side is a shield with bendy of four, 
a canton sinister^ and on the other side bendy of six. 
Opposite the legs, on the dexter and 
sinister sides are very peculiar cres- 
cents containing lions' faces. Opposite 
the heels, on shields, are the arms of 
Wellesbome, on the dexter side and 
on the sinister, the same bearing with- 
out the chief The effigy is carved in 
limestone, and now lies on the sill of 
the east window of the chapel. 

No. IV is the effigy of a man of the 

time of Henry VI. This represents a 

bare-headed figure wearing a close 

Qu«H«r Fiiu siz* garment with a collar, and skirts in 

vertical folds. It is much abraded and no armour is 

visible. He holds up a sword in his right hand and on 

his breast is a shield quartering : — 1, Montfort with the 

child ; 2 and 3, Montfort of Beldesert ; 4, Wellesbome. 

Above the head on the slab are two shields with the 

charges entirely defaced and between them a crescent. 

The feet are clear of a greyliound courant. It is carved 

DD.- zed by Google 


in limestone, and is now reared up against the wall on the 
north side of the east window of the chapeL 

No. V represents a man in a costume of a slightiy later 
date than No. IV. It is similarly carved in limestone, in 
low relief, and formerly lay on the floor of the chancel. It 
is now placed in a vertical position against the wall, on 
the south side of the east window of the chapel. Here 
we have a knight wearing a hehn for the combat & 
Voutrance, with a single cleft, and perforations for breath- 
ing in the upper part. On his body he has a shield with 
the coat of W eUesborne, debruised by a bendlet dexter, 
charged with three ci-osses, patt^ fitch^es. He wears 
tassets reaching to the middle of the thighs and a skirt 
of ring mail. In his upraised right hand he carries 
a mace or masud, perhaps the omy instance of such 
a weapon occurring upon a monumental effigy in this 
countiy. It reminds us of the martd or horseman's 
hammer, borne by a figure of an earlier period, at 
Great Malvern. The example at Hughenden is no 
doubt a mace for the tournament of which the herald in 
Chaucer's Knight's Tale thus speaks : 

" Qod speed vou ^th and layeth on fast, 
With sworda and long mases fighten yoar fill." ' 

It was the special weapon of the sergeant-at-arms, and 
as such is represented in an incised figure now in the 
church of St. Denis. On the dexter side of the slab, 
which is 6 ft. 3 in. long, 2 ft, 1 in. wide, and 9 in. thick, 
the following arms are sculptured upon shields: — 1, a 
saltire and a cross, patt^ grady ; 2- a cross of St. George, 
and an inesciitcheon ; 3, on a chief three pellets ; 4, 
Montfort of Beldesert; 5, a chevron, between three 
crosses patties, Berkeley (?) ; 6, bendy of 10, a chief 
chequy ; a coat of Wellesbomne (1). On the sinister side 
are these coats : — 7 as 3, 8 as 2, 9 as 4, 10 as 1, 11 as 5, 
The effigy probably represents John Wellesbome, whose 
name occurs among the gentry of the county in 12 Henry 
VI, (1433), and who was Member for Wycombe in several 
sessions during that reign. The costume is of the latter 
part of the time of Henry VI, 
Upon a high tomb, in an arched recess in the south 

1 Edit. 1197. 

Dci-zec by Google 


wall of the chapel, ib a ghastly representation of a full 
sized corpse, stretched upon a winding sheet or shroud, 
which partly envelops it. The stemutn or breast bone is 
hollowed out in the shape of " a mystic oval," containing 
a littie figure, with the bands elevated. This represents 
the departed soul, and may be compared with a similar 
object in the hands of a knight of the fifteenth century 
in the church of Minster, Isle of Sheppey ; ' On the 
breast are eight incised crosses. 

The figure shows considerable power of sculpture and 
knowledge of anatomy, and is of a kind not unusually 
found in most cathedral churches. Here, as elsewhere, 
the foolish legend is attached that the deceased en- 
deavoured to &at for forty days. These repulsive 
memorials were no doubt intended to convey a salutary 
lesson to the living, and are striking instances of the 
terrors with which death was associated in the minds of 
our forefathers.'' We happily live in a more rational age, 
and " the lively picture of death " merely appears at tbe 
piresent day as a strange ensample of the religious teaching 
of the fifteenth century. 

It is a matter for congratulation that these valuable 
memorials of an ancient family are now under the en- 
lightened protection of the noble owner of Hughenden ; 
and that, in this instance at least, we cannot say with 
Weever: — "Alas I our own noble monuments and pre- 
cyouses antiquyties wych are the great bewtie of our 
lande, we as little regarde as the parynges of our nayles." 

1 Sue Anliteel^kal Journal, rul. vi, p. > A aimiUr figure ab Tenkeflbuiy hai> 

i4. liiards uid other raptil«a cre^nug aliDUt 

tbe body. 


Few penonB can have anticipated that the wild and iiniDhabited 
plateau of Hissarlik would surrender to the excavator such treasures as 
are nov exhibited at the South Keasiugton MuBeum. The history of 
Dr. Schliemo nil's discoveries on this memorable site is well known to 
bU archtooloKists, but the fruits of his successful labours can at length 
be fully realized and appreciated. The collection which he has ^no- 
rouslj brought to EngUind for exhibition fills twenty or thirty cases, 
and consists of about one-twentieth part, but that by far the most 
important portion of the total number of objects brought to light. 

It will be remembered that below the remains of the Greek c'ty, 
Ilium Novnn., the strata of four separate cities were found one below 
the other, the native rock being only reached at a depth of fifty-two 
feet from the surface. The earliest of these cities extends upwards for 
nineteen feet, thus occupying in the series of the strata the space lying 
between the depths of thirty-three feet and fifty-two feet from the 
the present surface soil. 

Tae principal objects discovered in this stratum consist of highly 
glazed black vases with ,two vertical tubular holes for suspension, 
funeral urns of black clay, brooches of bronze or silver, indented fiint 
knives, spindle whorls of clay with or without incised ornaments, 
needles of bone and ivory, whetstpnes, stone hammers and axes, hand- 
mill stones, black and highly glazed hand-made pottery, with incised 
ornamental patterns filled in with white clay, and a glazed red goblet 
with one handle, closely resembling the Myceneean goblets. All theae 
remains afford evidence of a very early, but not of tiie rudest, stage of 
civilizatiou. They are, indeed, the relics of the city, which, accoKling 
to the tradition preserved by Homer, underwent destruction at the 
hands of Herakles himself. 

Oc VOTf itup' eXflarw(ii(Y' (jrwww AaOfdSovTOG 
Vi, oipc <'^v vi]i>9( Km avopitai iraoporipoiaiv 
IXiDV t^aAawn^ ttoXiij, j(t}p<t>at c ayvia^ 

n. V, 642. 
"With but six ships, and with n scanty band, 
The horses by Laoniedon withheld 
Avenginc, he o'erthrew this city, Troy, 
And made her streets a desert. 

Lord Verbi/'ii Trinuilulion. 

The next suoceeding city, which Dr. Schliemann identified with 
the Troy of Homer, reaches upwards, ^m the depth of thirty-three 
feet to ttifl depth of twenty-three feet. The discoveries made in this 


stratum probably attract the most general interest. They may at once 
bo readily dietinguished, owing to the simple and cnnrenient motfaod 
of elaselficatianiThicliliasbeen adopted, whereby each individual obje«A 
in the entire collection Is marked with a printed label, shewing the 
depth at which it was found. In this city, the second from the 
bottom and the fourth from the top, was brought to light that which 
Dr. Schliemaiin called the " Treasure of Priam," and which is here 
desienated the ''Trojan Treasure. " It has already been rendered 
familiar to English readers by the excellent itlustrations given in his 
well known work " Tri>ff and iU Remain*," end it now forms the contents 
of two lai^ glass cases. Most conspicuous among the numerous 
golden ornaments are the two diadems, severally identified by Mr. 
Gladstone, with the ttXekd] avaSftr/d) such as Homer describes 
Andromache to have worn. Either of thrai may posBibly be the very 
one which she tore from her head in her grief at the death of Hector. 

TqXt S* aVo Kjoaro; /3aAE Sioftara ffiyaXotvra, 
''A/iwwca KtKpwpaXov te iSt n-XfKriJv avaShfinv 
Kpijoifivov 60 pa ul eHiKi •^(jmaiii Afoocir)}. 

II. xxii, 470. 

" Fsr off were flimj; th' adornments of her head; 
The net, the Met, and the woven hands ; 
The nuptial veil by golden Venus giv'n." 

iord Dtrtnfi Tran»latioK. 

They appear bright and perfect as if newly made, whilst the inge- 
nuity and regular workmanship shewn in their construction, at once 
gives them a high artistic value. The larger one of the two coosists of 
sixty-one small chains, formed by leaves of ropoussfe work, and evidently 
originally suspended from a fiat golden band or aft-wv^, which would 
have encircled the head of the wearer. Seven of these chains, at either 
extremity of the band, are about ten inches in length. They would 
probably have fallen over the sides of the head, whilst the remainder 
formed a sort of fringe, four inches long, over the forehead. At the 
bottom of every chain hangs a peculiarly shaped flat piece of gold, 
stamped with a line down the centre and two dots on either rade, 
forming, as Dr. Schliemann thinks, an unmistakeable repreaentation 
of the FAflwicwjric 'A9f}tnj, 

In the other diadem the corresponding pendants of the ohaina are 
differently ornamented, but it is possible to observe in them a conven- 
tional configuration of the human form. 

The beautiful golden cup with two handles is one of the most striking 
and the most interesting features of the Trojan Treasure. Itsintrindc 
value is also considerable, as may be inferred &om its weight, one 
pound and sLx ounces. Until quite recently, Dr. Schliemann was of 
opinion thdt it had been cast in a. mould. It now appears, however, 
that this is not the case, for it has been discovered that the body of 
the cup is composed of two separate plates of gold welded together by 
the hammer, a^vpriXarov. In this respect it answers to the deacriptloo 
of the cup or dish given by Achilles, for the fifth prize in the games 
celebrated aftOT the funeral rites of Fatrtxdue : — 


irlfiTiTtfi' ififiBtrov fiuX^v avvpurrov iSnKtv. 

II. 3txiii, 270. 

"For the fifth, a rose 
With duable ciip, untouched liy fire, he gave" 

Lord Derbji't TratulaHon. 

Tbere can be no doubt that it ia, as Dr. Schliemaiia says, the 
Homeric Sfirnc afifticinrtWov, aad that the meaniag of these vords is 
not, as was formerly supposed, a double cup with a common buttom in 
the centre, but a cup_ with a handle on eiUier side, an interpretation 
supported by the analo^^y of the word autpifoptv^, and more consonant 
with the idea implied by the word dfi^i. It is suggested that the 
mouth at one end, being larger than that at the opposite end, may 
have been used for pouring libationB, and that the worshipper after- 
wards drank from the Bmalier end, as when Achilles poured a libation 
to Zeus trota the cup which lie treasured up in his cnest. The cup is 
not, however, here called ifii^iKvirfWov ; none ever drank from it 
save Achilles himself, and he poured libations from it to Zeus alone. 

tvda Si ol SiwaQ iaxf rtrvyfifvov, ovBi ric aXXoc 
Owr avSftwv rivfOKeV aw aoTou aiOova oTvov 
Ovri nifO«ivStaKt Bfoiv, ori fiti Ati irarpl. 

II. 3cvi, 227. 

" There lay a goblet, richly chas'd, whence none 
But he nluue, might drink the ruddy wine. 
Nor might libations thence to other Gods 
Be made, pave only Jove, 

Lord Va^t TrantUUioTi. 

A passage in Tirgil seems fully to illustrate the use of a cup of this 
nature : — 

" IMxit, et in menson) laticnm libavit lionorem 
Priii]iu|ue, libnto, snuimo teuus attigit ore, 
Tom Bitiie dedit increpitane ; ille impiger bausit 
Spnuiantem pnteram et pleno se proluit auro. 
Post alii procerea." jEn. j, 740, 

Here Dido first poured the libation and then drank hsrsolf, handing 
the cup on to Bitias, who in turn passed it on to tlie other chiefs. 
The two bandies would seem to be necessitated by tbe shupe of the 
cup itself, and they would be convenient for the purpose of sendiog it 
round at the banquet from one person to another. 

Other cups of gold and of silver, together with golden bracelets and 
earrings and an immense number of small gold jewels, also form part of 
the Trojan treasure, as well as six flat blades of pure silver, which 
Dr. Rchliemann thinks are most probably Homeric talents ; they con- 
sist of throe pairs, differing in size, the largest pair weighing about 
one pound, and t^e smallest p^ about one ounce lees. Their several 
values therefore would not nave been uniform. Irrespective of the 
Trojan treasure, the principal relics of the Homeric Ilium wero 
numerous hand-made vases and wheel-made dishes, many of the 
former bearing the owl-headed or the human type, idols or figures of 


bone, marble, clay or common stone with incised owl heads, funeral 
urns with human aahcs, spindle whorls, either plain, ornamented, or 
bearing inscriptions in Cypnan characters, lyros of ivory, needlcR of 
bone or ivor}', silver brnorbei', and imnienso jars of baked clay ; and. 
aK in tho lowi-nt stratum nf ull, indented flint knives and hammers nnd 
other stone implements were found along with bronze weapons. 

^.mong the remains of the city next above this Homeric Uium, hand- 
made pottery was also discovered, but it was inferior in character to 
that of the older and lower city ; spindle whorls, owl vases, and stone 
hammers were comiron,. but goblets in the form of hour glasses were 
peculiar to this stratum. 

In the next succeeding city, the remains of which extended &oqi the 
depth of six and a half to thirteen feet from the surface, tbo buildings 
were chiefly of wood, a fact now attested by the vast layers of ashes 
whiub have taken their place. Here, the implements were mainly of 
flint, and the level of civilization generally indicat«d is lower than that 
of either of the two preceding and older cities. 

This curious concurrence of stone and bronte instruments in the 
older cities, ooupled with a progressive decadenoe in the social arts, 
betokens perhaps somewhat of an anomaly, but as Hi Philip Smith, 
the loamcd editor of the English edition of " Troy and it» Bemain*." 
has pointed out, it demonstrates the impossibility of fixing by a hard 
and fast line, at any rate in this locality, the respective ages of stone 
and bronze. 

The collection of pottery is veiy large, and it embodies a great 
variety of shapes and forms. Some of the long narrow necks and 
spouts closely resemble the wares wliich are made at the present day 
at Chanak Kalessi, tfae seaport town, abont fourteen miles from the 
site of Homer's Troy. The representations of the Ilian goddeaa, the 
dfa fXauKCiiTiQ "Aftijvti, are quite evident in many of the vases or jars, 
particularly in that splendid example discovered in the palace of 
Priam, which now stands in the cose where three human skulls are 
shown. It forms illustration No. 219, at p. 307, of " Troi/ and iU 
Stmai'm." Occasionally, the lid or covering of a jar is made in imita- 
tion of the ^aAoc or helmet, as may be seen in illustrations No. 195, 
at p. 2R3, No. 207, at p. 294, and No 173 at p. 25fl ; but there arc 
other examples in which it is less easy to discover the characteristics 
ot the owl countenance, whilst in two instances at least the whole 
human face ie clearly delineated— see No. 185, p. 268, and No. 74, p. 
1 15. In cases where the sharp beak and large eyes of the cwl are 
unmistakoabte, the addition of the breasts and oufaXoc in the same 
figure is of course inconsistent witli the view that it represents the 
9ea yXavKiiiirtt ABnvtf, unless it is conceded, as regards the age 
to which these examples must be assigned, that this expression 
signifies '' Athene, with the face or countenance of an owl," and not 
merely "with large or bright eyes." In this connexion it is interesting 
to note that Dr. 8ohUemann, in 1872, anticipated the subsequent 
discovery of the image of the f3(>bJTic ''Hpi) upon idols, cups, or vasas 
at Mycoree {Troy and ttt Semaim, p. 113) and a few specimens from 
that place, exhibiting the cow's head and horns, one being beautiinliy 
engraved as a seal on a piece of agate, are added to the IVojan collec- 
tion at South Kensington. 


Dr. Schliemanu's summary of the ailments, with hia final condu- 
aiona, regarding the Tespective meanings of the epithets yXavKwriQ 
and /Bowie ^^^ ^6 found at p^fo 22 of hia most interesting work 
upon his discoveries at Myeenee. " No one," he writes, " will for a 
moment doubt" that these Homeric epithets shew that Hem and 
Athene were severally represented at one time with the face of a cow, 
and with the face of an owl, but that in the histoir of the two words 
there are evidently three stages in which they bad different significa- 
tions. In the first stage the ideal conception and the naming of the 
goddesses took place, and in that naming the epithets were figurative 
or ideal, that is, natural. Hera, ae deity of the moon, would receive 
her epitiiet ^oUtiri^ from the symbolic horns of the oresoent moon and 
its dark spots, which resemble a face with large eyes ; whilst Athene, 
as goddees of the dawn, received the epithet yXavKwri^, to indicate 
the light of the opening day. In the second stage, to which the pre- 
historic mins of Hissarlik and Mycen«e belong, the deities were 
represented by idols in which Uie former figurative intention was 
forgotten, and the epithets were materialized into a cow-face for 
Hera, and an owl-&cs for Athene. The third stage, in which the 
Homeric rhapsodies are included, is when, after Hera and Athene bad 
lost their cow and owl faces, and received the faces of women, the cow 
and owl had become the attributes of these deitie», and the ancient 
epithets /Btxinric and yXavKiairtq continued to bo used probably in the 
sense of "large-eyed and "owl-eyed." An unprejudiced and careful 
examination of the present collection will tend to confirm this theory. 
It will further illustrate the general anthropomorphous tendency of the 
pre-Homeric as well as of later ages in regard to culture and the arts. ' 

The projections which at the sides of some of the vases are mani- 
festly meant for ears, as in iUaEtration No. 132, p. 171, and 
No. 185 at p. 268, appear in others in an altered shape, and are 
affixed to the sides so as to serve merely as handles or ledges for 
lifting the vessel, as in illustration No. 136, p. 171 ; hence we meet 
with such an expression as rpiwoSa uruEvra, II. xsiii, 264, of which 
an admirable representation may be seen on page 152, No. 106, or 
p. 229, No. 161. 

NomerouB specimens of terra cottaSfira afi^iKVjriWa, of exceedingly 
graceful shape, are grouped together in one case, each with supports 
to keep it in tjie proper position for holding liq^uid, for the bottom 
terminates in a point which would not preserve equilibrium. Some 
belong to the stratum of the Homeric Troj, whilst others of similar 
dedga and character come from the latest Greek city, having been 
discovered at a depth of about only six feet from the surface. Spindle 
whorls of terra cotta were found in great numbers at all depths at 
Hissarlik, and several hundreds of them are exhibited. They are of 
innumerable kinds, and display great diversity of ornamentation. 
Bude figures of animcds or representations of lightning, or of the stars 
of heaven are here and there plainly discernible ; several small round 
balls of terra cotta are marked in a somewhat similar manner. One 
which is suspended in order to show the whole of the doaign upon its 
outer surface is described thus : " The Ilian Minerva, in form of an 
owl, with two hands (one of which has three fingers) rising to heaven, 
VOL. XXXIV. 2 a 


having to ^er right a wheel iymbolical of the ann, to her l«ft the fidl 
moon, and between the bud and moon the morning star. On the 
reverse, the hair of the goddess is distinotlv engraved." No, 2579. 

The actual purpose served by the spindle wnorls is not very clear, 
tuUess they were, aa Br. Schliemann suggeeta, ex voto offering ; this 
explanation however does not seem to be founded upon anything but 
Buppoaition, nor does it account for the reason why these offerings 
ahould have assumed bo peculiar a character in such numerous 
inataucea. They do not appear to have been, in any case, used for the 
practical operations of Bpinning as they show no aigna of friction or 
marks of wear and tear. In shape tliey answer to tiie descmptloD of 
the a^vSvXot, given in the tenth hook of P)ato'a Bepublic, § 616, 
where the Spindle of Nec^saity, the mother of the Fates, is aaid to 
revolve to the songs of the Sirens as a new cycle of mortal existoDoe 
is prepared for the departed spirits. 

** rqv M rov afovSiiXov ^wriv iivat roiavof, ro fuv 9yvf**i aiaw^ 
i| rou tvBaet' voqirai Si oiT c$ uv f^ift, roiovoE avrop ((ivi, uawtp 
av ti (V fvi fuyaXtfi v^vovAy KOiXy xai iSfiyXuftfilvtf aiaiiwcpic 
aXXoc roiovroc iXan'uv iyKtotro apfioTTuv, Kadairtp ei KaSoi ol tic 
oXXtiXovc apporrovTit' Kot ovrui Si) rpiTov oXXov Kai rfraprov Kal 
uXXovc riTTapac Oktw yap fivai roue ^vpwavra^ a^viiiXovi, 
fv aXXqXoic lyKUpivovi: kukXou^ avuBiv to )(«Xi| ^ivovrac, vwtov 
OVVl-jftQ tvoc iT^owSuXou avipyatopivovc vtpt T^V ijXoKorijw (Kttvqv 
Si Sia fthov rov oySCov Siapirtpif; iXijXdaftit." 

Ot) as Professor Jowett translates, " Now the whnrl is in form like 
the whorl used on earth ; and you are to suppose, as he described, 
that there is one large hollow whorl which is scooped out, and into 
this is fitted another lesser one, and another and another, and four 
others, making eight in all, like boxes which fit into one another; 
their edges ate turned upwards, and atl together form one continuous 
whorl. This ia pierced by the spindle which is driven home through 
the centre of the eighth." 

It should be added that among the patterns engraved upon these 
Trojan whorls, and other terra cotta objects, is frequently found the 
Swastika, one of the most ancient emblems of the Aryan race, a 
circumstance which would aeem to indicate the common Aryan descent 
of all the successive inhabitants of the site of Hiasarlik, before, 
the age of the Greek city Ilium Novum. But the chief point of 
interest in the whorls is the discovery of inscriptions upon some of 
them in ancient Cyprian characters ; it is not improbable that one 
of these has been correctly deciphered by Professor Oompera of 
Vienna, who reading from right to left, made out the charactera to 
represent the Greek words ray^ St<f, "to the divine commander-" 
This interpretation cannot be utilized at all as a key to the solution of 
the meaning of the other marks or characters which can be traced 
on whorla or vases, terra cotta balls, or other objects ; still it is suffi- 
cient, aa Professor Gomperz maintains, to prove that although no direct 
mention of the art of writing ia made in me poems of Homer, still the 
Greeks before that epoch were acquainted with a written language. 

®ifsinal Sorumtnt. 

CommimiMted by JOSEPH BAIN, F.S.A. Srat. 

This document was noted some time ago in consequence of liearing 
and in due time reading Mr. Q. T. Clark's intereeting memoir 
on Guildford Caatle {Archceologkal Journal, vol. xxix, pp. 1 et 
seqq.J There is no date or signature, nor is the name of the 
kii^ given. So these particulars can only be guessed at from 
the persons who are suggested as fit gaol-deliverers for the 
ouuQties of Sussex and Surrey. WiUiam Brayboef appears as one 
of the Justices itinerant nt AViuchestar in tho Octaves of Hilary, 
1*280-1 {Calendar of ZhotrntnU, Inland, by Mr. H. B. Sweetman. Mo. 
1778J. William de Braybof, possibly the same person, appears a little 
earlier in letters of attorney, diriacted to the king's baiti& in Ireland, 
about 4th June, 1278 (lb., No. H58). William de Wintreshill Is a 
witness to a deed by Thomas de Clare on 30th March, 1270 (lb., No. 
867). From Brajley and Uantell's Sumy (vol. ii, pp. 31 and 53,) it 
appears that William de WintreshuU was a landowner in the Hundred 
ofWokinKin 1270, and died in April, 1267. Ajid though his brother 
Justice, W- de firaboef, is not mentioned by name, yet as there was a 
manor of Brabenf or Brabief, near Guildford, which was owned by 
Qeof&y de Brabeuf and his descendants from the 16th of Henry III 
(1232) for 130 years, it is more than probable that this Tiutice was also 
a Suirey landowner (lb., vol. i, pp. ■)02-3). Sir William de Wynters- 
hylle and other Justices are found sitting at Winton, in August, 1271 
(Loard's AnnalM Mimattiei, Rolls' Pub., ii, p. iii). I do not find any 
mention of Sir Bauid de Jargovile, so far as I have been able to look. 
It may thus be concluded that the document is, in all probability, to 
be referred to the end of Henry Ill's reign or beginning of his son's. 
And as the keep of Guildford Castle, doubtless the "prison" referred 
to, does not seem to have been converted to that use before the Slst of 
Henry III (1267), (Brayley and Uantell, vol. i, p. 320,) it would ap^r 
that it was very soon found to be defective in its accommodation; 
though, as we learn from authorities, it continued for upwards of two 
centuries to be the common gaol for Surrey and Susses, till the 
inhabitants of Sussex, making a strong representation to Parliament 
(3rd of Henry VII., 1 488), obtained the prayer of their petition, that 
their county gaol should be at Lewes (Brayley and Kantell, vol. i, p. 
321). The contractions of the original are supplied. It is seven inches 
long by two deep, and forms No. 4692 of the collection of Koyal, &c., 
letters in the Public Record Office. Mr. W. D. Selby of that Office 
has kindly decyphered several doubtful letters in the last sentence, 
shewing that the matter was very urgent. 

" Por oe que la prison de Gaildeford est plaine et grant mestier et 
auroit de deliuranoe nos vos prioma que vos voiUez granter que mon 
sire Willaume de Braiboef Sire Willaume de WintreshuU et Sire Daui 
de Jargondile on un fou] deus de ens par autres cheualiers que il 
porront acompagner a ens — des Contes de Sussey ou de Surrey- 
poussent deliurer les prisons des deus Contez. Aussi ceus qui [sont] 
rete de mort de home com dautre ret. Ceste chose vos prioms nos a 
oeete foiz deapecial grace." 

[No Endorsement.] 

Dci-zec by Google 

IProceetiinaEi at jVteetfngE: of ifyt Edpal SlrttaeolaQical 

April 6, 1877. 
TitB Jx>BD Talbot ue Maiahide, President, in the Chair. 

A paper, by Mr. G. T. dark, on Norham Castle, waa read, in the 
absence of the airthor, by Mr. Bbailbfobd. The value of this carefU 
account of the celebrated " Castle Dangeroue," of the Marches, was 
spoken of by the noble CHAinMATf , who expressed his great satisfaction 
that this intereeting building had found such an acoom^ished exponent. 
The author had added one more to the long list of the valuable 
memoirs which had proceeded from his pen. A cordial vote of thanks 
was passed to Mr. Clark for bis paper, which is printed in vol. xxxiii, 
p. 307, of the Journal. 

Mr. M. H. B1.0XAU then read the following notice : — 

"Oh an Ancient IssouJtBED Sepulchral Slab, Fonns at Mone- 
wEARMOUTH, IN THE CouNTT OF DtTtHAM. — Of the Original church of 
the ancient Monastery of Monkwearmouth, near Sunderland, in the 
County of Durham, erected by Benedict Bisoopius, a.d. 674, ten years 
earlier than the foundation of Jarrow, which took place a.d. 684, no 
part of the structure now exists, except the tower. 

"InterestingparticularBof the founaation of Monkwearmouth MoQsa- 
tery, and of the erection of the church, are given by Venerable Beda. 
He, indeed, may be considered as a contemporaneous writer. The 
workmen weie &om Gaul, brought over expressly by Biecopiua. The 
windows were glazed, and the walla covered witii paintings and other 
decorative embellishments. 

" Biscopius himself was the first Abbot. He died a.q. 690, and was 
succeeded in the Abbacy by Ceolfrid, who died a.d. 716, when 
Huaetbertus became the Uiird Abbot. 

"This Monastery was destroyed by the Danes about a.d. 869, and 
again a.d. 1070. The church has been recently restored, and was re- 
opened for divine service a.d. 1875. 

" On the 24th of September, 1 866, the Portieut imret»tu, forming the 
lower or ground stage of the tower, was exoavated under the super- 
intendence of Canon Greenwell, the Bev. J. F. Hodgson, and othw 
members of the Archa)ological Society of Durham ana Northumber- 
land. In the excavations which then took place — the rubbish, which 
covered the fioor of the porticus — was cleared away, &nd about eight 
feet below the oxtornal surface the labourers raised with their picks 
an oblonc' sepulchral slab of sandstone, which had evidently oeen 
removed from its original position, as the inscribed face had been laid 
downwards. Beneath this slab was found a stone coffin, said to be of 
a mediiwal typo, full of human boneSj mixed together indiscriminately 

3 by Google 


with apwarde of a dozen skulls. This sepulohral slab -was four feet 
long bj two and a half feet wide.' It waa oovered with a cross in 
low rdief, and on either aide of the cross was'a Latin inscription, in 
letters carefully cat by some akiUed workman, well defined, and very 
paifect. The eh^)e of the cross is that of a rare and early Anglo- 
Saxon type, of, I should think, the seventh or eighth century. An 
ancient sepulchral slab, with an incised cross approximating this 
shape, was, in the year 1633, discovered at Hartlepool. This a'ab, 
bearing a Sunic inscription, has been considered by I^ofessor Stevens, 
of Copenhagen, to be of the seventh century. 

"lathe famous Gospel, called the GKispel of St. Chad, now preserved 
in Idchfield Cathedral, and supposed, from the paleography, to have 
been written about a.s. 700, is an illusiination which exhibits in 
outline much the same form of cross as that on the sepulchral slab 
found at Monkwearmouth. 

" The inscription on this slab, which ia peculiar, is as follows : — 
Hie in sepulchro requie.scit 
corpore Herebericht TUB 

The three last letters with the line over forms the abbreviation of the 
word " Presbyter." 

"Venerable Bede or Beda died and waa bnried at Jarrow, a. d. 735. 
In the twelfth century, a. D. U04, bis romaina were trajislated to 
Durham Cathedral. William of Malmesbury, one of our ancient 
Chroniclers, who flourished in the early half of the twelfth centnty, 
givea us the original epitaph over the tomb or grave of Beda at Jarrow. 
The first line oi which ia as follows : — 

Presbyter hio Beda requieacit oame sepultus. 

" On comparing this inscription with that on the slab at Uonkwear' 
mouth, we may at once perceive how nearly tbey coincide. One 
indeed appears to have been a plagiarism on the other. For if " in 
upvlehn we read " lepidbu," and for "corpora" we read "eitrrte," 
the rest is a mere transposition of words. 

" But who was Herebericht, of whom this sepulchral slab at Mook- 
wearmonth was commemorative f 

"Beda, in the fourth hook ot'iaa EeeUiiattieal BUtoi-y, ^ti,^. ixa^ 
A. Q. 687, tells UB of a companion to St. Cuthbert of this name, ' Erat 
enim Fre&byter vitto venerabilis nomine Hereberct.' 

" There was a certain Priest of venerable life called Hereberct." 
" ^en the l^end goes on to state that ho died on the same day as St. 
Cuthbert, the 11th of the kalends of April (20tb March), a. d. 687. 
This Hereberct lived a solitary life on an island in the lake of Derwent- 
water, but as he was accustomed to visit St. Cuthbert every year, and 
paid his accustomed visit shortly before the death of the latter, it is 
iffobable he died at a distance &om his hermitage. To this Presbyter 
Herebericht I would assign this sepulchral slab, which, if I am correct, 
is probably the earliest Christian sepulchral monument in this country, 
to which a precise date can be assigned. 

" The discovery of this slab, therefore, the form of the cross, the 
latinity of the inscription, the formatioa of the letters by a skilled 
hand; carrying us back probably to the days of St Cuthbert and to 

' Another account ilatw it to have been forty inchea long bj twenty inches wide. 


those of venerable Beda — to a somewhat remote period in our Ang^ 
Baxon ecoleeiaBtical histoTf , is a matter not devoid of importance. 

"The name of Herebericht occuw in the Ihirham Lii*r Vita, bnt at 
vhat period this Herebericht lived I am ignorant; the entiT in tlut 
book is said to have been of the ninth century, bnt I thinh the eUb ii 
of an earlier period. There ia, however, room for a difierence of 

" Unable during the last summer and autninn, to visit Monkwear- 
mouth, as I had hoped, I feel under obligations to Mr. E. Danka, of 
19, Olive street, Sunderland, for having most courteous!; answered 
several of my letters of inquiry. To him, also, I am indebted for 
photographs of the sepulchral slab, and of the Anglo-Saxon doorway 
of the Porticus ingressus of the church of Monkwearmouth, published 
by Mr. A. U. Carr, Bridge btreet, Sunderland." 

^ntiquitirB anH CHdHis of 2(rt (Sifiibitflr. 

By Professor Obdboh. — A silver-gilt mounted and inscribed Hazer 
bowl of knarled root-wood of maple, six and a half inches in diameter 
and two inches high. This had been Jong preserved in private hands 
at Cirencester, where a tradition of a somewhat indefinite character, 
states that it belonged to one of the hospiraa of a religious guild in 
that town. It was taken to Qlouceater and purchased by Professor 
Church in the spring of 1876. It has no Hall mark, but is undoubtedly 
of English manufacture, and may bo compared with a eiphua of the 
same period, which it greatly resembles, belonging to Ur. Fountaine, 
of Narford Hell, Norfolk, engraved in the Areketologia, vol. xsiii, p. 
393. The date of the Narford Mazer may be safely placed at 1 532, 
and the Cirencester example cannot be much earlier, although the 
monogram in the bottom, consisting of two interlaced A's, engraved 
upon a circular plate two and a half inches in diameter, has been 
attributed to Alice Avening, a local benefactor, who was alive in 1601, 
but who was probably not living after that year. On the outside of 
the rim, which ia one and a quarter inches deep, is the follawing 
inscription in letters seven-eighths of an inch high : — " Miskkkmibi ■ 


These letters appear to be about thirty years later in date than the 
monogram. The ground ia engraved in zig-zag lines, technically 
called "nurling," fike that of the inscription on the Narford bowl. 
The field of the monogram is partly ornamented in the SEune way, 'and 
partly with chevron punctures. 

Successors of the Itrinking-homs (which are still in use in Qerman 
University towns), the ctpJii murrei, were made of hard or knotty wood 
of maple, walnut, ash, or chestnut; and were in common use among 
all classes of society in the middle ages. They were hooped a^ 
mounted or "harnessed" in silver; special names were given to them 
by their owners, and they are mentioned in ancient inventories among 
the most costly objects. Physical properties were attributed to the 
various kinds of wood; and the inscriptions or sentiments round the 
silver rims vary in character firom grave to gay. Thus the fine mazer 
in the possession of the Ironmonger's Company bears the following 
insoription : — " Avjs ■ Mabia. ■ qra' ■ plena • d'ms ■ teovh • 

b'hSIOTA • xn • I . UUUEBIBZ • T • BENEDICTD8 • FKOOTDs" — while 

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British Sword. 

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Mr. Shirley's well known example of the time of lUchard 11, allures 
the reveller in the following words: — "Iir • thr ■ kamu • op • 

THE . TBUflTE • FIIJ.E - THE • KUP • AlfD • DEIlfKB • TO • ME." 

Mazer bowls were of all sizes, some with coverR like a hanap, others 
with feet like Archbishop Scrope's Indolgenoe Cfup at York. The 
expreeaion "harnessed in silver," was a common one in the middle 
ages. In the Vinon of Patrick's Purgatory, by William Staunton, 
(Boyal MS , 17, B 43], he relates how he saw people in 1409 with 
"hameist horns about their necks;" and in the will of Thomas 
Kaleigh, of Famborough, Warwickshire, who died in 1404, he 
bequeaths to his ton WilJjam a sword " harnessed with silver." 

Uazer bowls were in use in the time of Pepys, and with his usual 
appreciation of anything of a convivial kind, he does not fail to men- 
tion in his Diary, 1659-60, that when he visited the almshouses at 
Saffiron Walden, " they brought me a draft of their drink in a brown 
bowl tipt with silver, which I drank off, and at the bottom was a 
picture of the Virgin with the Child in her arms, done in silver." This 
mazer still exists. The custom of giving a bowl of spiced wine to 
criminals on their way to Tyburn was evidently a remnant of the nse 
of drinking vessels of this kind. 

By Mr. T. Laytoit. — A la^e collection of bronze weapons and imple- 
ments, chiefly from the bed of the Thames. Among these objects was 
a sword or dagger (see plate), found in the Thames ballast off Mort- 
lake in 1861, and pronounced by Mr. Bloxam to bo British. This 
was an iron blade, rusted in a sheath, formed of thin overlapping 
plates of brass, rudely rivetted at the back, where also the sockets for 
the suspending loops remained. Several fine leaf-shaped sword blades 
of bronze, in remarkably good condition as regards the edges, were also 
exhibited. Figure 1 represents an example found at Greenwich. An 
empty sword sheath of bronze, and another rusted on to a blade, found 
in the river off Isleworth in 186.5, (fig. 3) were specially noticeable. 
Many of these blades had been greatly bent and twisted by violence, 
but the tenacity and cohesion of the metal was well shown by the 
absence of any cracks or flaws in it. Among the many examples of 
spear heads was a very el^ant one (fig. 2). A number of celta, 
chisels, gouges, and other im^ements found at Hounslow and in the 
Doighbonrhood, also came from Mr. Layton's collection. 

By Mrs. Fitzfatricx. — A marble slab, from the Catacombs of St. 
OalixtuB, in Bome, incised with a dove bearing an olive branch. 

By Mrs. Jackson Gwilt. — A Roman lamp, found in Paternoster 
Bow ; a similar object from Bouthwark ; a lachrymatory from Italy ; 
a piece of painted glass, representing a man's bead, from Lacock 
Abbey ; rubbings of sixteenth century brasses ; one of a priest holding 
a cup and wafer, in the Chapel of Merton College, Oxford ; and 
rubbings from the well known brasses of " Sire Johan D'Aberhoun 
Chivaler," about 1277, and Sir John D'Ahemoun, who died in 1327. 
In remarking upon the figure of the '* Chivaler," Mr. Waller said it 
was the earliest example of a sepulchral brass, not only in England, 
but also on the Continent, and the only instance of a knight bearing a 
lanco. He remarked upon the large size of the blue enamel plates on 
the shield, which were contained in shallow copper trays, let into the 
slab. Mr. Hartshome made some observations upon the costume 
exhibited on thebrassof Sir John U'Abemoun (1327), and the Qumb«r 



of garments vbich wen worn, including Hie cydas, a rare military 
▼estment, and of vrhioli so few instances occur in monumental effigies 
and braaees. The fluted basoinet, also of very in&equent occnrrenoe, 
and vbich was compared witb a similar example on a wooden effigy 
at FBulerapstry, in Korthamptonshire, and the distinct kinds of mail 
shown, all tended to prove that medieeval scnlptoTs not only worked 
from actual armour but also represented tbeir patrons accurately " in 
their habits as they lived." Mr. Walier called attention to the 
engraver's marks — a mallet and a mullet — and explained the most 
probable method of construction of " Banded Mall," so long the ontr 

By Mr. A. SAvysE.— A curious self-feeding breoch-loadisg gun, 
which had been oonverted f^m a matchlock, with the name, " Bobert 
Smyth " on the lock, and a scrap-book containing portions of illumin- 
ated M88. 

It was reported that two Roman pottery kilna had been discovered 
at Lexden, near Colchester, on the proper^ oi Mr. F. 0. Papillon, 
who was kind enough to offer facilities to any members of the Institute 
who might wish to inspect them. 

May 4th, 1877. 
The Lord Talbot de Maiahide, President, in the Chair. 

At a meetiug of the Council of the Institute, held on April 14th, 
1677, it was proposed by Stephen Tudcer, Est]., Soi^e Croix, seconded 
by Sir 3. Sibbald D. Scott, Bart., and unanimously resolved that the 
I>iploma of the Institute sjid congratulatory addresses be offered to 
Dr. and Mrs. Bchliemonn on May 4th. In accordance with this reso- 
lution a large and distinguished company assembled in honour of the 
Eeat explorer. Among those present were the Lord Aoton, A. J. B. 
iresford Hope, Esq., M.P., Sir J. Sibbald D. Scott. Bart., Sir W. H. 
Drake, K.C.B., 0. Morgan, Esq., Canon Venables., C.T. Newton, ^q., 
O.B., 0. 8. Greaves, iSq., C. Dru^ E. Fortnum, Esq., John Hender- 
son, Esq., W. Jeremy, Esq., J. Bonomi, Esq., H. Q. Bohn, Esq., 
B. H. Soden Smith, £|q., 8. Tucker, Esq., Bowt Croix, Col. Hnnej., 
John Stephens, Esq., H. Yaughan, Esq., The Bev. J. Fuller BuaseU., 
H. T. Church, Esq., Capt. Molton.. The Bev. 0. W. Bingham., J. G. 
Waller, Esq., Sydney Hatl, Esq., &.. Diyden, Esq., etc. Mr. Qladstone 
was prevented nom atteni^ng oy a prior engagement. 

XiOrd Talbot de Maiahide, in introducing Dr. Sohliemann to the 
meeting, spoke in the highest terms of his discoveries, which had 
placed him and Mrs. Schliemann in the first ranks of explorers. The 
noble Chairman then read the following addresses : — 

"To Dr. Henry Schliemaitn, 

Honorary Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, &c., &o., 

" We, the President, Vice-Prasidente, and Council of the Boyal 
Arohnological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 

" For ourselves, and on behalf and in the name of the Society we 
represent, beg to tender you our heartiest welcome here, and our 
warmest congratulations on the great achievement in antiquaiian 
investigation and discovery by which you hare placed your name in 
the foremost page of arehceological history and distinction. 

"Sympathising as we naturally do, in all such objects as that In which 


you have been ho honoTBhlj and succeesfiilly en^ged, we need aot eay 
that we have wetrhed tiom the first, with the most profound interest, 
the progress of the great work upon which you entered, and which you 
pursued with such indomitable energy and ability, and we feel that 
we are not employing the hyperbole of complimentary address when 
we say that to you is due one of the greatest antiquarian discoveries 
which haa yet been chronicled, and which, by reason of its olaseical 
associations, has conferred a benefit and diffused an interest through- 
out the whole educate world. 

" It is onr privilege to number ^ou amongst our members this day, 
and we are sensible now much their list is honored by the addition. 

" In conclusion we wish you "Godspeed" in your return to your 
labors, and we hope that it may bo at times an encouraging and 
gratifying reflection to you to remember how entirely those 1m>our8 
are appreciated by your friends in England, and how sincerelv thev 
will welcome their completion and your presence again amongst tJiem. 

"To Mbs Henry BoHUEUAmr. 

""Wo, the President, Vice-Presidents, and Council of the Boyal 
Archseological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 

"Beg to tender to you the homage of our most respectful admiration 
in the work in which you have proved yourself, in its truest sense, a 
help-meet to your disticguished husband. We who know and honor 
him here are loth to detract in any way from the merit we ascribe to 
him, but we are justified by his own affectionate testimony to your 
devoted and chivalrous aid, in what will ever be accounted as your 
joint work, to associate you in our congratulations and thanks, and to 
ask you to permit us to enrol your name on the list of our Honorary 

" It is a disappointment to us that we are deprived of the greater 
pleasure of receiving and personally honoring you here ; but you will 
be at least assured by this and the other testimonials you will have 
received, that the essential part you have taken in the unprecedented 
discoveries of Troy and Mycente is fully understood and gratefully 
appreciated by numberless sympathising Mends in this country. As 
the first lady who has ever been identified in a work so arduous and 
stupendous, you have achieved a reputation which many will envy — 
some may emulate — but none can ev;r suipass." 

These were signed respectively, in behalf of the Royal Archsoo- 
logical Institute, by the Lord Tcdbot de Malahide, A. J. B. BeresFord- 
Hope, Sir 3. Sibbald D. Scott, Bait., 0. Drury, E. Fortnum, 0. 8. 
Uorgan, John Henderson, W. D. Jeremy, R. H. Soden Smith. H. 
Taughan, H. T. Church, Sir W. H. Drake, k.c.b., S. Tucker, John 
Stephens, A, Hartshome, and W. Brailsford. 

The Diplomas, engrossed and illuminated upon vellum, sealed with 
the seal of the Institute, and contained in a morocco leather box, were 
then presented by the nuble President to Dr. Schliemann. who spoke 
as follows : — 

"My Lobd PaEEiDEsT asd Gentlemen, 

" I warmly thank you in my own.nameandin that of Mrs. Schliemann 
for the high honour you confer upon us by these diplomas of honorary 
membership, and I assure you that we shall endeavour to the utmost 
of our abihties to render ourselves worthy of them. You are awaro that 



we havo a/riiMn for the ooutinaation of our ezcKTatioiiB at Troy, and 
that we intended to resume tbem at once, but unfortutiately, as long as 
tlie war lasts, it Is impossible to return to the Troad, for my servant 
writes me that Afount Ida abounds now with deserters fiom tiie armr, 
who have turned robbers t» satisfy their bun^r. la Mycenie, I think 
I know for certain the exact place to which tradition pointed as the 
sepulchres of Gytaemnestra and ^gisthus, but I will not divulge it 
to the Greek Qovernment, for th^ think that nothing is more easy 
than to find treasures at Uyceneo, and consequently the Greek Parlia- 
ment has voted 50 m. dr., 45 m. tr. annually for oontiuuing my 
e^^cavations by their own officials and without me. But an ex- 
perienced pickaxe is nacessaiy to discover treasures; thus I expect 
they will not find anything, and that after having worked in vain for 
six months, and after having spent one thousand pounds, they will get 
tired of it and will beg me to continue the excavations for them, 'which 
I shall gladly do. But meanwhile, 1 may go to the island of I^haka, 
because, except the sinall excavation which I made there in 1868, it is 
virgin soil to archaxilogy. In the Odyssey, the town of Ithaca is 
merely called rtt,ic, and there are two places in the island which may 
claim the honour of being identified with its site. One of them is a valley 
still called t^k, aud the ancient ruins we see in it can leave no doubt 
that a ci^ once stood there. The other place is at the foot of Mount 
'Ami, and in fact all over the small isthmus by which the southern part 
of the island is joined to the northern one ; here also once stood a city i 
the deep accumulation of debris proves this with certain^. A. man 
who buys a house must, before he concludes the bargain, carefully 
inspect it ; in the same way, he who wishes to explore an ancient site 
ought, before anything else, to examine into the state of the debris in 
order to see whether it is worth his while to undertake the excavation. 
This is easily accomplished by sinking a few shafts down to the virgin 
soil, because each shaft must necessarily bring to light the remnants 
of all the houses which stood on the site since the first settlement. If 
then the explorer sees, by the monuments he brings to light, that the 
prospects hold out eucouragement, he must as soon as possible get well 
acquainted with the underground topography, and to this end he at 
once sinks a large number of shafts in all me most promising parts of 
the site and according to the result he arranges the exploration. But 
the archojological researchea, whether on a vast or on a very small 
scale, should bo made with (act, system and plan, and unless monuments 
are found which prevent the explorer from digging deeper, all excava- 
tions should invariably be made down to the virgin soil, and the 
debris which are thrown out should be removed to a place where they 
can never be in our way. He who throws the dSbris on the site he 
has to excavate invariably makes himself double and treble labour. 
Wheelbarrows should only be used where the distance does not exceed 
one hundred feet ; if the distance is longer man carts should be used, 
aud invariably horse carts if the distance exceeds two hundred and 
forty feet. Tramways are only useful if the distance exceeds one mile. 
" My Lord President and Gentlemen, I again warmly thank you.'' 
On being called upon by the President, Mr. Newton said that " the 
true value of Di-. Sthliemann's discoveries at Myceno) could hardly be 
appreciated yet. It would be neeessary carefully to compare the 
objects found at Myccnio with specimens of archaic art extant in 
— : — » — . ^j^j jjy gm^,jj compaiison to fix, if possible, th 


period to Tvhich they belon^ced. His impression was, that the result 
of Buch a comparison would be to shew that tho Myceneoan antiquities 
belonged to a very remote antiquity, that they were jrobably pro 
Someric. But in making this remark he would carefully guard 
against too hasty an assumption that the^e antiquities from the My- 
ceueean Akropolia could be identified as belonging to the tombs of 
A^roemnon and his companions, which Fausanias notices. It must 
he borne in mind that the dynasty of the Atreid» can hardly be re- 
garded as an historical one. This line of Felopid kings, projected on 
the blank background of an unknown past, seems to the sceptical eye 
of modem historians hardly more substantial than that shadowy pre- 
cession of kings shewn to Macbeth by the witohee, or to take a more 
modem illnstration, it might be likened to one of Mr. 'Whistler's 
portraits in the Grosrenor Gallery. And even if we admit that the 
Greek belief in a Felopid d^asty rested on an historical basis, how 
are we to decide how much in the legend of the Atreidse ia true, and 
how are we to disen^^ this residuum of truth &om the mystical 
compound in which it is involved. He who attempts to solve such 
problems as these, finds himself constantly at fault, he is for ever trying 
to steer between -the quicksands of specious pseudo-historical mytlw 
and the shifting shoals of an uncertain chronology. But, admitting 
that the problems raised by Dr. Hchliemann's discoveries are yet to be 
solved, let us not foi^et how deep is the debt of gratitude which wo 
owe bim for what he has achieved. Those who have been engaged in 
euterprizes similar to his, can testify how much of ungratofbf labour, 
anxiety, and weariness of spirit has to be gone through before success 
can be achieved. To parody well known hues, he would say, 
" How little knowest thou who hast not tried. 

What toil it is in di^ng long to bide. 

To speed to day to be put off to-morrow." 

"He would then hold up the enterprize of Dr. Schliomann as an 
example of single minded and disinterested devotion which has no 

Earallel in the annals of archaeology. And here, addressing an 
Qstitute specially devoted to kindred research, he would exhort the 
members present to aim at a discovery which it would be in the 
power of any of them to make. The discovery which he had in view, 
a discovery, the ultimate value of which to archa}ology might be almost 
incalculable, would be to find, somewhere in the, rank and file of 
. British millionaires, — some of whom are so rich that their money is a 
burden to them— some one whose enthusiasm, intelligence, and love 
for archsBology would entitle him to rank as another Scmiemann." 

Mb. BERESTOiin Hope begged to be allowed to add his thanks to Dr. 
Schliemann, as himself one who desired the alliance of classical 
arclueology and classical litorature, for the eminent explorer's dis- 
covery, not only of the topography, but to so great an extont of the 
very ways of Uving in those far off days, aye and of the household 
stuff and of the cunningly wrought bimion *Aix^'*M>MiiK4ni(of the 
Mycenre, — not only of Homer but of .^schyliu. It was not so long 
since that oven the most accomplished scholars would read those 
wonderful descri^tious with eyes blind and minds dead to all the 
living accomponiments. The learners were not so lazy, perhaps, 
and they turned to the bontispiece of their well-thnmbed books 
only to realize Agamemnon as a ruffianly Soman soMier of the later 


days of tiie Empire, apparently issuing from a building that miglit 
have been designed by tne office boy in Palladio's studio. Ko\f, thsuke 
to that noble band of discoverers of whom Dr. Schliemann, though 
latest, ie anything but least, Greek is no longer as HomaD, nor heroic 
Greek as Athenian Greek ; now even the arms whioh Agamemnon bore 
and the type of face which he esliibiied have burst into the light of 
day. With such helps, the men and women of those great poems are 
aeain the men and women of their age, and not meroly abstractions or 
the dull creations of ignorant draftsmen earning the wages of Paris 
or Leyden engravers. He prophesied for classical literature, thus 
brought face to face with life itself, a deeper rooted popularity and a 
stroDger grasp of intelligent empathy. 

A general discussion ensued, in which the President, Mr. Greavee, 
and Mr. Tucker took part, and the meeting closed with the usual 

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Kotfcts of Stc^sologrcal |9ublicatians. 

The object of the author of this book is to obtain from existing 
mouumeuta the standard measures used in ancient times. For this 
purpose he employs three or four modes to ascertain the ratios between 
the different measured lengths ; and from these ratios he derives the 
probable number of unite of which the lengths are formed. 

It would seem, however, that, as a graphic method is emplojed in 
planning, and an analogous method in setting out for construction all 
building and monuments, that the standards of measurement used by 
the ancients would be more easily arrived at, especially by those who 
are not mathematicians, by adopting such a method in order to trace, 
from actual measurement of the monuments, the units employed. For 
instance, in the example of the Cypriote Tablet from Dali, the readiest 
mode of proceeding would be to mark off to scale, on a straight line, 
the measurements 1-45, 2-15, 2-92, 3'24, 5'77, 25'49, and 44-2 inches ; 
then, it will bo readily seen, by dividing off the lengths with a pair of 
compasses, as near a« may be into multiples of the smallest measure- 
ment, that if 1 '45 was the unit of measure used, there were respectively, 
1, \i, 2, 2i, 4, 17^, and 30} units in the different measurements given ; 
or, to do away with the fractional multiples, if ^ was the unit, there 
were respectively 2, 3, 4, 4}-, 8, 35, and 60 units. 

, It may also be seen by setting the compass to the length of 5-77 
inches, that the difference between 44-2 and 25-49 or 18-71 is very 
nearly equal to 3 x 5-77 + 1-45 and 25-49 is very nearly equal to 
4 X 5-77 + 2-15 or in terms ol units 44-2= (3 x 8 + 2} 4- 
(4x8 + 3) unlts=6l units instead of fO as given in Mr. Petrie's 
results. If 44-2 is divided by 61 it gives the unit "7245, if by 60 it 
gives -7366 as the unit. The latter multiplied by 35, 8, i^, 4, 3 and 2, 
gives the lengths 25-78, 5-89, 3-31, 2 95, 221 and 1-47, while the 
former gives 25.36, 580, 3-26, 2-90, 2-17 and 1-45, which evidently 
agree much better with the actual measurements; and as Mr. Petrie 
proposes that surveyors and others who have opportunities for 
measnring ancient monuments should furnish plans as accurately as 
possible of them, it would be well, in order to have their assistance 
in obtaining the different standards of measures, to Eidd for their 
guidance in more detail than is possible in a short review, a descrip- 
tion of such a method as that indicated above, and any result they 
might obtain could afterwards be x^roved by calculation, whereas on 
the other hand, where the units have been obtained by calculation, as 
in Jiis book, they could easily be checked b^ the graphic method. 

If the standards found by the inductive method are sufficiently 


accnrate, as they ought to be, they should, There any literary record 
oxiBts, receive full confirmation. 

Til© Becond and third chapters of the boot giye the application of 
tho doctrine of probabilities in order to ascertain the limits of error, 
and treat also of the bout-cgb of error in the mean units found, and 
here the author very justly remarks that tho number of mean units 
resulting from biB investigations is not astonisbioR. Even in our own 
day, in worka of a buildiug or of a monumental character thero would 
probably be a large number of mean units arising from any attempt 
to find theoretical^ tbe standards of meaEuren u^, and this would 
appear of necessity to be the case in all works which do not require in 
a bigb degree accuracy of measurement. 

Mr. PeCrie app«arB to have made his investigations with great care 
and preciaion, and tho case of the Eoyal Egyptian cubit is worth 
noting, where the mean derived from twBnty~eigbt monumental 
examples agrees almost exactly with tho mean of about a dozen 
examples of cubit rods which have been discovered. 

Edited by Jobn Fbteebstos, F.S.A. (Harleian Society). 

This valuable Society has recently iesued to its members another 
sumptuous Volumo of more than 460 pages, indusive of tbe full Index 
of Names, being the " Visitation of ^e County of Warwick" made 
by William Camden, Clarencicux King of Arms, and bts deputies in 
1619. The greater part o! tbe MS. from which it is printed is in 
Camden's onn handwriting, nevertheless it does not appear to be the 
original record, neither is the official copy preserved in the Herald's 
CoOege. Both are transcripts. In the British Museum (Harl. MS. 
1195) are some of the original loose papers signed by the representa- 
tives of the families whose pedigrees are recorded. Of theee signatures 
Mr. Fetherston gives facsimiles at the end of his volumo. Tbe last 
Visitation of Warwickshire wes made in 1682, the only MS. of which 
extant is in the Herald's College. An alphabetical Hst of the pedi- 
grees recorded at this last Visitation, made by the Editor some twenty 
years ago through the courtesy of a Herald now deceased, is printed 
in the fteface to the work before us. 

The volume appears to have been very carefully edited, and all the 
Arms are engraved in outline, the blazon being supplied underneath. 
It would, however, we think, have been better nad tbe tincture marks 
been shewn on the shields, so that the blazon of the Arms might bave 
been read at a glance. 

The same objection obtains with respect to the appropriation of tbe 
quarterings. If, instead of this information being given in a table 
preceding the pedigrees, tbe names had been inserted under tbe arms, 
or bad been introduced, within parentheses, in tbe blazon, it would have 
been far more convenient. In some cases this has been done. We 
do not know, however, if, in this respect, the Editor has followed his 
MS. We annex the engraving of the arms of Dioby (p. 16) as an 
example of the manner of treatment. 

3 by Google 

® A 



1 1 1 

1 K 

8 A 

Arms — Quartoi-ly of six. 1. .-tzurf, i' Jlenr-^e-lit 
argent, in cltiter chief a crescent for difference. 
2. Gulet, a fesi ermine. 3, Argent, on a bend 
guleg, three martUtt or. 4. Argent on a feu 
het.;een three birds nahh as many ui'illeis of the 
field, a. Ermine, on a bend gules two cherront 
or. C. Anfir'^L 

Chest— .Jii Ostrich }irnper. in its heak n horse- 
shoe (iiiitliicturedj. 


by Google 

artbaeologi'cal SnttlUgnur. 

The Bomav Fobcv. — Th4 Monummt of Mareui Awelitu. — ^We are 
indebted to the oonrtesy of Ur. S. BuBsell Forbes, of Bome, for the 
following commiinioation : — 

"In excavating the open spaoe of the Gomitium upon the Forum in 
the enmmer of 1872, an interesting diecoveiy was made of two marbte 
BcraenB or balustradea soulptnred on either of their sides, the one being 
some historio scene, the other representing aoimalH. At the time, and 
since their discovery, many suggestions have been offered as to their 
siKnifLoation and nse ; hut none seemed satisfactory ; at least to ujb. 
Aner considerable thought, examination of the ground, and putting 
this and that together we hare arrived at an estimate of their use and 
meaning entircJy different from the hitherto received opinion; in 
which we are supported by their conetruction and the olasaic pansages 
relating to them. 

" From this it will be seen that we have made an important discovery 
bearing upon the topography of the Fomm, which will be of interest 
not on^ to classical students but to every one interested in the word 

"We have discovered that the reliefs on the screens upon the 
Gomitium in the Forum portray scenes from the hfe of Marcus 
Aurehus, showing in their back grounds the buildings occupying two 
sides of the Forum ; and that these marble balustrades lea up to the 
statue of that Dmperor; the space where it stood can be plainly 
traced upon the pavement, and that is why these pictures refer to 
epochs of his life. The statue is still existing, and now stands in the 
sijnare of the Capitol, where it wea erected by Michael Angelo, who 
brought it from the Lateran in 1538, where it had been placed about 
1187, when it was removed &om the Forum near the column of 
Fhocas, where it had long been looked upon as a statne of Constantine, 
and is BO called in the B«giona Catalogue, hence its preservation. 

" The foar ends of the screens or balustrades arc finished, showing 
that they could not have been attached to any building. It is worth 
while to'look into the details of these reliefs. Commencing in their 
historic order, we see the Emperor standing on the Bostri Julia, 
which fronts towards the Fig-tree and Marsyas, he is holding in bis 
left hand a roll and addressing the people below ; the two foremoxt 
figures are holding up their tog&s with their left hands, whilst their 
right hands are h^d out with fingers extended, five by one, three by 
the other, thus making eight ; the number of years Maroufi Aurelius 
had been away and the number of pieces of gold which they demanded. 
Just above the hands of the Emperor and of one of the figures, which 
nearly meet, are two small round, pieces of marble which could not be 
connected with the roll, as one is not in its line, and the other is 


eeparated from it by one of the extended h&nds. Tha higlieet ia the 
attaehi of like Emperor's hand. Uay not the other represent the 
money g^tren by the Emperor ? One of the other figures of the groap, 
further back, likewiae has his arm extended. The head of the 
Emperor ia unfortunately gone, and the others are very much 
damaged. The next scene repreaenta a female figure approaching 
a man seated on a cunile chair, behind which four people are standing. 
The female figure had evidently a child on her left arm, the uenal arm 
to carry a ba5y, vhilat by her right hand she leads a child up to the 
Emperor, to thank him for founding the orphan aohools in memory of 
Faustina, the fragment of whose head is far more like the head of 
Marcus AnreliuB than anyone else. Then we have the Fiona Navia 
and the statue of Marsyaa, whose pedestal still stands uixm the 
Forum. The next relief commences with the Fig-tree and Marsyas, 
*o that if it were turned round it would form one with the other. 
There we have represented figures bearing paokagea and depositing 
them in a heap upon the ground, to which one figure is applying a 
torch, which ia just discernible. At the end, just a fragment remains, 
showing the old Bostra which looked towards Marsyas and the Fig- 
tree, in the oppoaite direction to the other, the marks where it stood 
can be traced on the Comitium, upon which we may preaume the 
Emperor stood to witness the burning, whilst in the background was 
seen the Temple of Concord, but this piece is unfortunately miasing. 

" Thus we nave two acenes of history, one taking place between the 
Bostra Julia and the Fig-tree and Marsyas, the other between the old 
Boatra and Marsyas ana the Fig-tree. 

"The whole group was evidently erected in honour of Marcus 
Aureliua, end in commemoration of the important events in bis life 
depicted on the i^creens, as recorded by Dio Oassius ; 

" Giving llie donation of eight pieces of Gold. 

"Boma, or perhaps Faustina, thanking him for the Fuellee Faua- 

" Burning the 46 years' arrears of taxes. 

" After he had come back to Borne, as he was one day haranguing 
the people, and speaking of the number of years he had spent abroad 
in his expeditions, tlie citizens with a loud Toice cried out 'Eight,' at 
the aamo time extending their hauda to receive as many pieces of gold. 
Qlie emperor smiling repeated 'Eight,' and ordered every Boman 
eight pieces, which was eo considerable a sum that bo great a one was 
never given before by any emperor." 

" After that he remitted all that had been due to the Public an<l 
Imperial Treasuries lor the course of 46 years, without including 
therein Hadrian's reign, and ordered all the papers of claims to bo 
burnt in the Foi-um." — Dio Cauiui. 

"Thia was on the marriage of his son Commodus with Criapina. 

"From along and cnreful study of iot and a/to reliefs we are oonvinced 
that the buildings represented in their back grounds actually existed ; 
thia is borne out when we compare these designs with the remains and 
with the buildings as shown on coins. Beliefs generally present to 
our yiow some historic scene — in fact, they are pictures in stone ; and 
when there were so many ancient monuments for the artiat to depict, 
perhaps in the neighbourhood of which the scene took place, there 
would bo no occasion for him to draw upon hia fancy for buildings to 
fill up his bade groond. To demonstrate our idw we will notice some 


reliefs, which alter rtndy and compariaon preBent to tib the building 
surrounding three aides of the Forum Somaniiin. 

" We wiU take first, the relief No, 43 from the stairs of the Palazzo 
dei Conserratori, which represents the Emperor Marcus Aurelius in 
his chariot pa«Hin|^ in triumph along the via Sacra, in front of the 
temple of the dei&ed Julius and arch of Fabius ; the second, the 
marble screen in the Forum nearest the arch of Septimius SeTenis ; 
third, the other marble screen ; and fourth, the relief over the left 
hand archway of the arch of Constantine facing the Colosseum. 
Placing them in the order mentioned we have a panoramic view of 
three aidra of the Forum presented to ua. The first building shown is 
a temple on a lofty basement with four Corinthian columns in front 
and a pilaster at the side ; this agrees with a coin representing tho 
temple of the deified Julius, the remains of which are at the lower 
end of the Fomm. Next is represented the Fornix Fabius, remains of 
which were found in making the excaTations between the temples of 
Ceesar and Castor. The second relief represents the same arch, as can 
be seen by comparing them. The next building shows a temple 
approached by a lofty flight of steps with Corinthian capitals, exactly 
resembling the remains of the celebrated templa of Castor and Pollux. 
Then we have a space marking the line of the Vicus Tuscus whidt 
turned out of the Via Sacra between the temple of Castor and Basilica 
Julia, which latter is represented by the arcade of Doric columns. At 
the end of this relief is the Fig-tree planted by Tarquiniua, in memory 
of Attius Naviua cutting the whetstone in two witn a razor ; and the 
figure of Marsyas, the emblem of civio liberty. The next relief showa 
the same Fi^-tree and Marsyas in the same position, but the relief is 
to the light instead of to the left, as in the other. Thia shows that the 
same lino of buildings is continued ; and, carrying on our story, the 
first building represented is the remainder of the Basilica Julia. This 
was confirmed in rather a singular manner. When the Basilica was 
excavated Signor Bosa found one of the columns of the arcade in frag- 
iDcnts, which he has had restored m titu ; and a fragment of this relief 
was found afterwards broken from the rest, which, when fitted into its 
place, exactly represented the restoration made by Signer Boss. In 
the next biulding we have a temple shewing six loaic columns in 
front ; this agrees with the ruin of the temple of Saturn. Next 
further back is shown an arch ; this is one of the closed arches of the 

ertioo of the Tabularium, the lines of which arch can still be seen 
tween the Temples of Saturn and Yesposian when viewed iroza our 
standpoint. Next in order is a Temple with Corinthian columns 
agreeing with the remains of the temple of Vespasian. Unfortunately 
the remainder of this soreen was not found, which would have shown 
the temple of Concord ^ thia we have restored from a ooin. The 
fourth relief remesents the buildings alono; the head of the Forum at 
a lower level. First, the Doric columns of part of the Basilica Julia, 
agreeing with the other reliefs and the iragments ; then the arch of 
Tiberius, which spanned the Yicus Jugarius, and which is not yet 
excavated ; then the third Bostra (ad Falmam), showing the atatne of 
the OeniuB of Borne, Constantine ^inus hia head], addressing the 
people, and the statue of Claudius II. Bemains of this rostra, which 
should not be confounded with the first rostra, still exist with the 
Umbilicna Boma at one end, whilst the Milliarium Aureum stood at 
the other end, under the temple of Batnm. The last building repre- 


sented is the arolL of Septimius Beranu, with vliich it ooirespondfl, as 
comperison vill ehow. 

"In OUT lectures upon the Forum we have demonstrated tliis many 
tiioes, and when pointed out our audience has affreed with na that it 
must bo BO, the renifunB correaponding with uiese pictures in an. 
extraordisaij manner, the Bomans themselTes having left as a graphic 
sketch of the buildings on three sides of their principal Forum. 

" Upon the inner eides of the avenue are represented on each balus- 
trade, a boar, a ram, and a bull ; the aoimals offered at thn triple 
sacrifice or SuoTetaurilia (from bus, ovis, taums), which was performed 
once every five ^eare, or Lustrum, for the purification of the cily. 

"It was an mstitution of Servius Tnllius, the ceremony coiisisting 
in leading the boar, ram, and bull, thrice round the assembly of the 
people, and then offering them to Mars. There ia a similar repreMtnt- 
atdon upon a relief of l^jan on the arch of Constantine and apon a 
pedestal at the entrance to the Palace of the Geeaars, fbitnd near the 
arch of Septimius Beverus. 

' ' We were ouraelves present at the discovray of these remains of what 
must have been a grand and unique monument ; a tower of the middle 
ages being built over them, this was destroyed, and the atones of the 
balnstradds fitted close together, they havins; fallen somewhat apart ; 
and a new piece of marble was inserted under them, so that they do 
not now rest upon the travertine as when found, but they are exactly 
in the same position. Close by, was found a piece of an inscriptioii, 
evidently referring to this monument; but it has been plaoed upon one 
of the restored bases of the Basilica Julia, (the last to the rignt). It 
is in beautifiil characters filled in with red. 


" At the time of their discovery it was stated, and this has been the 
received opinion, that the scenes referred to events in the lives of the 
Kmperors Trajan and Hadrian; and that it represented the bumins' of 
the bonds which Hadrian had remitted. We could not accept fltat 
opinion, because the Fig-tree reprcBented to our mind a scene in the 
^man Forum and not Trajan's Forura, where the bonds where burnt 
under Hadrian. The Fig-tree, planted by Tar^uin, gave us the key to 
our important discovery of the scenes here depicted, and of the pano- 
ramic view of the Fonim left us hv the Bomans. From the accounts 
handed down to us of this act of Hadrian we shall see that it doee not 
agree with the scene before us. 

" As soon as he entered Rome, Hadrian released all that waa due 
from private men for sixteen years together, amounting to 900,000,000 
BBBterces (£8,541,666, 13, 4), both to the private treasury of the 
Emperor and to the public one of the Boman people." Jho Cautiu, 

" Hadrian remitted innumerable sums which were due from private 
debtors to the privy purse of the Emperor in the atv and in Italy, 
and even in otner provinces ; he collected the bonds of the snma 
remitted ; and for greater security he enclosed them in oak boards and 
burnt them all in the Fortun of Tnyanj tai he fbrbade any of die 



money that had been fo^ven to be reoeived into the publio treasuty." 
Spartiantu t'n HaSriano. 

"Ae we have demonstrated, the scene on the relief ie on act taking 
place in the Forum Eomanum, and not Trajan's Forum ; and furOier, 
the bonds, as here shown, are only tied together, not " enclosed in oak 
boaida," 88 Hadrian's were. Harcus Aurelius, it is true, only followed 
Ilia example ; and according to Au»oniut, Gratia actio 21, the Emperor 
Oratian did the same. This scene is represented on a coin of Marcus 
Aurelius ; as is also the act of Hadrian, upon a medal of hia time. 

"The orphan schools founded by Marcus Aurelius had apecial refer- 
ence to Home, whilst those of Trajan were for the whole of Italy. They 
were endowed by him in the form of loans to the landed proprietors in 
the different districts, thoy paying the yearly interest. Coins and 
inscriptions still present this snbject to our view. Near Fiacenza a 
bronze tablet was found 10 ft. by 6 ft. containing 670 lines of the 
mortgage deeds on the sums lent by Trajan in this neighbourhood for 
the mamtenanco of these schools, the interest being 5 per cent. Part 
of a similar inscription was found at Benerentum. Hadrian Antoninus 
Pius and Marcus Aurelius followed this wise and good exam^e, and 
in A. D. 177 the latter Emperor foonded orphan sdiools in Bome in 
memory of his wife, and called them after her name, Fuellfe Fauati- 
niante. Upon the walls of the Yilla Albani are two amall reliefs, 
representing proceesions of girls called the orphans of Faustina, but by 
what aathori^, or where they were found we cannot discover. 

"It has been asserted that such good soulpture, as these reliefs 
evidently were, was not made after the time of Hadrian, and so they 
must be of his time ; such a statement could hardly be made by any 
one who knew anything of art in Bome under the good Emperon. 
The rsliefs &om the arch of Marcus Aurelius, his equestrian statue, 
liis column, numwous busts and statues, equal anything we have of 
the time' of Hadrian. Sculpture did not fall so low in the short space 
of twenty-fiye years, that these balustrades could not have Seen 
exeouted. Their style is very similar to the reliefs from hia arch, 
perhaps they are by the hand of the same master." 

Mr. BuBsell Forbes has arrai^ed a most interesting photograph, 

_!_• :- _: ^f the Forum as shown on anoieat reliefs. 

aph we 1: 
a positio 

trades, Marsyas, and the Fig-tree. This tree has been confounded by 
many writers, both ancient and modem, with the Baminal Fig-tree 
whidi grew upon the south west slope of the Palatine ; and which had 
nothing whatererto do with the tree on the Oomitium, which was planted 
by Tarquin, in commemoration of Navius Attius cutting the whet-stone 
in two with a razor ; these being buried at the spot where was erected 
tJie pnetoi's seat called Futeal Ldbonis. This is represented on a coin 
aa round, and was probably erected over the deep round hole existing 
on the Oomitium, and marked on our plan. Near Dy'" stood the statue 
of Attius NaviuB, over the very spot where he had cut the whet-stone 
in two, to the left of the Curia." — PUity xxxiv, 11. Dio Cattiut says it 
stood near the fig-tree, and we place it upon the pedestal existing to 
the right of -the hole, (see Lit>y, i, 36). To the left of the hole is 
another pedestal, and upon this we place Marsyas, with the fig-tree 
beside him, thus agreeing with the reliefs. It is rather a oorious 


coincddenc«, but since this ground has been cleared a fig-tree has 
sprung up by the niiued pedeetal on which we place Uarsjas." 

The Bamto Gaux or VAUStrciA. — Through the kiudnesa of Mr. J. 
C. KobiuBon, we are enabled to reproduce a portion of a communica' 
tiou upon Art Treasares in Spain, made by him to the Time* at the 
end of laat year, and which, as coining &om such an authori^, cannot 
iai\ to interest our readers : — 

"The Santo Calix of Valencia, like the so-culled emerald dish at 
Gtjnoa, has from time immemorial been considered one of the most 
sacred relics in Christendom. The Oenoa dish was thought to be the 
veritable San graal, whatever that mystical vessel niny have been, 
while the holy chalice of Valencia is still held to be tho veritable cup 
used by our Saviaur at the Last Supper. As to hnw and when it found 
its way to Valencia there is do record ; its advent is shrouded in the 
mist of antiquity. At all events, it is likely enough that generation 
after generation of devout believers, for a thousand years or more, 
have adored it with bended knees and downcast eyes, scarcely daring 
to cast even Airtive glances at the sacrosanct utensil. Need it be ssia 
that to see and examine such a treasure had long been a desideratum 
with even a heretic like myself? There were, moreover, ntecial 
reasons for wishing to get to know the real form and fashionmg of 
this venerable cup ; the curiosity of archeeolo gists and ritualistic 
antiquaries had always been stimulated by innumerable piotorial and 
other representations of it, executed centuries apart ; but scarcely any 
two of these representations were alike. In short, a delightful and 
tantalizing mystery prevailed in regard to the Santo edix. 

" I will, however, now set specu&tions at rest by describing exactly 
what the Santo ealiz really is, and approximately when it was made. 
It is clear &om the utter disagreement of the various graphic 
representationB, that they were all made from memory, and that 
nobody had ever been allowed to look long enough at the precious 
relic, to be able to carry away the precise details in his mind's eye. 
All the representations, however, agreed in one thing — that is, in 
depicting the Santo calix as a cup-shaped vessel, of some precious 
stone or other, mounted on a tall stem, flanked by two large loop- 
shaped lateral handles. Now, two-handled chalices are of extremely 
rare occurrence, and always of great antiquity. My own impresaioa 
was that it would prove to be a work of the seventh or eighth century. 

" The chalice is— or, at all events, was, when I was at Valencia — 
exhibited on certain days to parties of eight or ten persons at a time, 
who were required to kneel before it. After a prolonged interval of 
expectation, the chalice was brought out with great solemnity by its 
pnestly guardian, ani^ the stem bein^ enveloped with a linen cloth, 
it was held in succession, for a brief instant only, before the &ce of 
each person ; at the same moment the worshipper was allowed to kiss 
a oertun preoious stone, projecting f^m the gold framework of the 
foot of the vessel. In this way the entire ceremony occupied only a 
few minutes. Being forewarned as to the conditions of the exposition, 
I awaited it with eager eyes, with a little card in the palm of one htmd 
and a pencil in the other, ready, although in Jrantio haste, to make 
some sort of graphic memorandum in the presence even; bnt whether 
my fixed and earnest gaie contrasted too strongly with the reverend 
glances of my neighbours, or whether the astat« priest caught sight of 
Uie poaohing appaiattu in my hands, certain it is that, vhen my tain 


cfu&e, the chalioe was tmceremououBly whisked &om tmder toy nose, 
and all I saw was a passiiig formless gloam, while the ready, hot I 
fear faithless, kisB died on my lips. The defeat was compete and 
ig^ominions. Fortunately, I was not pressed for time in Valencia, 
and there waa nothing for it but to undertake a siege dmu let riffle*. 
There is, howSTer, a key to every lock, and it is not necessary to 
explain how, with patience and perseverance, I finally got a view of 
the Santo ealix, all to myself. The following is the result: — ^The 
chalice consists of a circular cup, nearly four inches in diameter, 
hollowed out from a single splendid hair-brown sardonyx. A plain 
but tasteful moulding wrought in the atone, round the lip, in addition 
to the evidence of the precious material itself, show^ it to be of 
antique Boman origin. The base is formed of another fine sardonyx 
cup of shallower form, and fixed in an inverted position. This is of - 
larger size, not leas than about 6^ inches in diameter. In one or two 
places I detected some incised marks, very like ancient Cufic characters, 
and from these and the general shape I suspect that the base is less 
ancient than the bowl. The bowl snd the base are united by a 
straight stem in pure gold, with a circular knop in the centre ; tour 
strap-work bands of gold connect this stem with the sardonyx base, 
the lower edge of which is also bound round with a gold band or 
gallery. The stem, as has been already noted, is fianked by two 
peculiar "ogee" shaped handles, also in pure gold. The stem, knop, 
and handles are inlaid with delicate arabesque patterns in black 
enamel. The band or gallery round the base Dean on the summit a 
string of fine Oriental pearls, which are also continued on the vertical 
bands. In the midst of each of these bauds is set, projecting in high 
relief, a splendid Cabocbon gem. These stones, four in all, are respec- 
tively two rubies, a sapphire, and an emerald. Finally, the entire 
height of the chalice is about 8f inches. As I have said, the cup itself 
is of Eoman work, therefore, however improbable, it ia not actually 
impossible, that it should have been used at the I>ast Supper. The 
sardonyx base is, I think, of Moreuco origin, probably of the eighth or 
ninth century, and I have now little doubt that the original gold 
mountings wnre of the same period. A mon^ent'e glance at those 
Bufficed to tell me their story. This is what has evidently happened : 
The ancient gold mounts in the course of time becoming dilapidated, 
some time about the year 1 400 Jhe band or gallery round the foot was 
renewed, and a cun'ent Gothic pattern of the dsy, consisting ot small 
pierced quatrefoila within lozenge-shaped pauets, was substituted for 
the original design, whatever it may have been ; somewhat more than 
a century later (probably about 1520) all the rect of the gold mounts 
were renewed, b»; tUia time the origiual pattern waa, I have no doubt, 
followed, 6xce]>t in one respect — that ie, in regard to a beautiful 
arabesque pattern in black enamel with which the various decorative 
ani-fsces are unifoimly adorned ; this consists of an elegant pattern of 
interlaced work and dehcate foliage, the peculiar style and workman- 
ship indicating, without any doubt, the hand of a [skilful Spanish 
^Idemith of the period above indicated. The Santo ealix as* it stands 
is thus a work of four distinct periods — namely, of the Itoman^Ira penal 
epoch, the eighth or ninth century, and the fifteenth and 'sixteenth 
centuries reepectively. Ford states that the chalice waa broken in 
i;44by adumsycanonigo, one Vicente Trigola ; but I saw no evidence 
of that disaster, and if it occurred it waa probably only some dislocation 
of the gold mountings. 


" In regard to five of the thirfr pieces of diver wbich Judas reccdved 
for betrajlDg our SaTiour, and whidh, bein^ Only filthy Incre, are 
handeH round for iuspectioa after the expoeitioti of the Santo ealir, I 
can only s^ that the coin put into loj nand wu a fine Chvek tetra- 
drachm of, I think, Thuriuni. 

" Among tbe other preciouB alhajat of the Oathedral at YEJenma, are 
three large altar &ontale, each about 12 ft. long by 3 ft. 6 in. higb, the 
designs representing subjeote from the Passion of Christ, finely 
executed in raised work of gold and eilrer thread and mlk embroidery. 
The opecial interest of theee &ontals, however, is from tlie fact that 
they originally belonged to old St. Paul's Cathedral in London, 
and were purchased and brought to Spain, at the time of the Beforma- 
tioQ, by two Yalenoian merchants, named Andrea and Petro de 
Medina. Their English origin is revealed in many characteristic 
details of costume, architecture, ornamentation, Ac. To all appearance 
they were made in the earlier yearn of the sizteenth oentnry, probably 
not very long before tbe change of religion in England." 

Additioitai. Behabxs on a. " Tabula Hohestak Mibbionib," fouhb 
AT Waloot, M&Aa Bath. — "Since I pablished Mr Lysons' remarks 
upon this tabula, ^Arekaologieal Jbumat, yoI. xzxiii, 250), I have endea- 
voured, in every possible way, to recover the original fragment, or in 
default, the drawing of it made by Mr. Lysons. In the latter respect, 
I am glad to say that I have been successful. Mr. C. Boach Smith wrote 
me to say that be believed he at one time bad a tracing of tbe drawing, 
but he could not then find it, much to my disappointment. Soon after- 
wards Mr. J. T. Irvine, a well known antiquary, who had happened to 
see my paper on the subject, wrote to me to the effect that the original 
drawing was preserved in the collection of Mr. W. Long, f.b.a., of 
Wrington, Somersst. On applying to that gentleman, I found that 
Mr. Irvine was correct, and Mr. Long has most courteously allowed a 
copy of tbe drawing to be made. Mr. Long infurme me that " it is 
pasted in one of tno very large folios, which were purchased for me 
some years ago &om Mr. Lilly, the Loudon bookseller. This purchase 
gave rise, I think, to Mr. dearth's statement that tbe ' tabula ' had 
been in Mr. Lilly's posBeBsion. It appears to be a copy of tbe inscrip- 
tion made by Mr. Lysons of the same size as tbe original, and has 
written upou it ' Tabula boneetae missionis, illustrated by Mr. S. Lysons 
from tbe original brass fragment in tbe possesBion of John Crunch, 
Dec., 1815, found at Walcot, 1815." The following words appear to 
have been added afterwards 'now of Jos. Barratt, 1817.' Barratt 
was a bookseller, end at one time the owner of tbe large folio volumes 
in which the copy of the inacription is placed." 

" From tbe annexed plates it will seen that tbe &agmentB of inscrip- 
tions remaining on each side of tbe plate were onlv: 

(1.) " (2-) 


T ■ 111 ' A VM ns QVAS POST 


RjsvaVB ■ STTPE £yn s ■ octobb 




3 by Google 

f^ ETlfh^- -.-.ETSVNTIN 


iRIBvSVEi-npWNpiis HON 


civYxatTm pepit ErCo nvb/va^ cvai 








3 by Google 


■ < These letters will be seen embraced witliin a border, markine the limits 
of the &^^Qnt ; those outside of this lino in the plate are Mr. Lysoas' 
restoratioD of the remainder of the lines, nhich commence at the 
conclusion of the list of cohorts named ; et . ui - a ' , referring to the 
third cohort of a people whose national name commenced with a. As 
stated in my previous remarks, the nam« of the imperial legato is lost. 
There is, howoTcr, one discrepancy between the drawing and the 
aocotmt given in the minutes of the Society of Antiquaries. In the 
latter the words "quorum noMina tuhcripta sunt" occur. In the 
drawing they are absent, but " mtrwrunt" is in their place. 

' ' I must thus publicly express my thanks to Mr. Long for the fnoilitieB 
he has given me, to enable a ct^y of the drawing to be made. 

" Like most of the other tabvbn, this one bears Uie duplicate inscrip- 
tion on its reverse, at right angles to that on its &ont, which aooounts 
for ao much more of the lettering being left on one side, to what there 
is on tiie other." 

Thz Ohaib of St. Pbtxb. — The following account, for which we 
are indebted to Mr. 8. Bossell Forbes, will be specially interesting at 
the present time ; — 

" As January 19th was the feast of the chair of St. Peter in Borne, 
some remarks on the chair (which does duty for St- Peter's) may be of 
interest to our readers. A photograph of this famous object was 
taken in 1867 when it was last exposed to view ; and can be had at 
any of the shops in Borne; visitors must ha content with looking at the 
photograph fur the chair itself is not to be seen. At present it is 
enclosed in the bronze covering, which is supported by the four 
colossal figures of the Doctors of the church, in the apse of St. Peter's. 

" It is encased in a frame work, in which are the rings through which 
the poles were inserted in order to carry the person seated ; this casing, 
consisting of four posts and sides, is made of oak, and is very much 
decayed. The straight vertical joints are easily distinguished ivhere 
the &ame is attached to the chair itself, which is oomposed of dark 
acacia wood. The front panel is ornamented with three rows of 
square plates of ivoiy, six in a row, eighteen in all, upon twelve of 
which are engraved the labours of Hercules ; and on the other six 
cosntellationB, with thin lamina of gold let into the engraved lines; 
some of the ivories are put on upside down, and had evidently 
nothing to do with the original chair; they ore Byzantine in style of 
the eleventh century. The ivory band decorations of the back and 
sides evidently belonged to the chair and correspond with its architec- 
ture, and fit into the wood-work. They are sculptured in relief, 
representing oombate of men, wild beasts and centaurs; the centre 
pomt of the horizontal bare has a portrait of Charlemi^ne crowned as 
Ehnperor. In his right hand is a sceptre (broken) and in his left a 

S' ibe ; two angels on either side offer him crowns and palms, th^ 
ring oomhatantfi on each side. The chair is 4 ft. 8j in. high at 
back, 'i ft. 10^ in. wide, 2 ft. 2^ in. deep, and 2 ft. 1^ in. high In front. 
Fancy St. Peter using such a diair as tlus ! . 

" It is asserted by the Boman church that this ohair was used by St. 
Peter as his episcopal throne during his rule over the church at 
Borne. Even, if we grant for argument's sake that he woa Bishop in 
Bome, there is no evidence to prove that this was his chair ; in fact 
every evidence is to the contrary. All tiie primitive episcopal (^irs 
are of marble and as unlike this one in construction as possible, which 



is not an episcopal throne, but & letla gettatoria or cathedra, similar to 
the chairs intioauced in Bomo in the time of tho Kinperor Clandins, 
mentioned by Swlonitu, Nvro 26; and JtKtnal 1-64, 6-90. It is not 
unlike in shape to that ueed to carry the Fope in ^and ceremonies in 
8t. Peter's. Home early authors speak of a leila r/atatoria which was 
placed in the baptistry of old St. Peter's by Damasius, and which 
formerly, on the 22nd of February, was carried hence to the high altar, 
where the Pope with much ceremony was enthroned upon it. 

"It was eyentually passed on from one chapel to another, till it is 
said that when Borne was sacked hy the Imperialists in 1527, they 
stripped it of its ornaments and covering, for the sake of its value ; 
ana that beneath they found an old carved wooden chair with the 
inscription. " 7%tr» u only one Ood and Mahemrt it hit Prophet." This 
same formtila is engrared upon the back of the marble episcopal chair 
in the church of St. Pietro in Castello, at Venice. In 1558 the feast of 
the chair of St. Peter was fixed in Borne for the 18th of January ; Md 
in Antiuch for February 32nd; and in 1655 Pope Alexander Vil 
placed the present chair where it now stands. It is medixeral, ninth 
century, and is not unlike early representations in art of the diair used 
by the Apostle Paul, which we may look upon as episcopal. 

" The iTory diptych of St. Paul, (a.d, 400) the property of Mr. Car- 
rand, of Lyons, engraved by the Arundel society, represents Paul 
seated on a chair holding in his left hand a roll, the symbol of apostle- 
ship, whilst the right hand is raised in the act of blessing Linus, who 
carries a book in nie hand. At the back of the chair is St. Mark, 
holding a roll in his left hand. The chair is light, and not unlike a 
modem library one in shape. Later art agrees with the present chair. 
A fVeBCO at Bt. Clement's (Kome). 1Q50, represents St. Peter installing 
Clement into the Papsl chair — a chair, as far as can be eeeU; not unlike 
^e present one of St. Peter — which was made after tho coronation of 
Charlemagne as emperor of the Holy Boman Empire a.d. 800." 

iMTXRBSTiMa DiBCOTEitT ui BoifR. — We are further indebted to Mr. 
Bnssell Forbes for the following communication : — 

" In making a new drain in the Piazza Pietra, near the Temple of 
Antoninus Pius, the workmen came upon en interesting piece of 
sculpture: — 

" It consists of alarge base six and a half feet high by fire feet wide; 
the marble is cnt so as to form a panel, with a projecting oomice, in 
the centre of which is a female neure five feet high in alto relief 
standing upon a projecting base j the face is unfbrtunattly gone, but 
the head is surmounted b; a Phrygian cap, and one of the curls of the 
hair is still distinguishable. The figure is clothed in the Bomau toga 
which comes down to the feet, which peep out beneath, showing; the 
shoes, which are not unlike what we term an Oxford shoe ; the right 
foot is more advanced than the other, so it can be plainly seen, showing 
that it was not a sandal. The ri^'ht hand is gone, but the remains 
show that something was held in the hand ; between the fore-finger and 
thumb of the left hand, which is nearly perfect, the lady holds some- 
thing small. The back of the base is hollowed out, as though it had 
been erected against a column. It is of a good period of art, of white 
marble with a dark grain, and excellent workmanship, tho drapery 
being very fine though rather thick over the left leg. 

" Cicero Ad Atticus XIII, 33, informs us that Jalius Ciesar com- 
menced a Septa in the Campus Martins for the Gomitia Oentarista 


and Tributo. It consisted of a beautifal building of marble aarrounded 
vith a portico a mile square. It adjoined thn Villa Fablica. It waa 
completed by Lepidus the triumTir, and dedicated by Agrippa, Dio 
53-:23. Frontiuus, Aq. 22, saya tho arcbea of the AquaVirfi;o ended in 
the Campus Martius, in front of the Septa. l>uQ&ti Bays such arches 
were found in front of the Church of St. Ignazio, not far from vbere 
this base has been found. 

"The Comitia Genturiata, when the people meet in their military 
order to elect their higheat magistrates, to pass their laws, and to 
vote upon peace or war, always met outside the walls in the Campus 
Martius. Gomitia Tributa for less important magistrates, tribunes 
and aediles, met sometimes in the Campus Martius. The Swta 
consisted of pens, (hence the name) into which the tribes passed to 
record their votes, which were given by ballot ; every voter received a 
tabella, tablet, on which he wrote the name of the candidate for whom 
be voted, be then dropped it into an urn. Near by, Agrippa built tbe 
Diribitorium, a large building, ussd for distributing and counting the 
balloting tickets. It was dedicated by Augustus, Dio dS-8, Fliny 
16-40. During a fire Claudius passed two nights here, Suetonius 18. 
" We may conclude that this fragment belonged either to the Septa 
Julia or the Diribitorium. Tbe figure has been supposed by some to 
r^resent an eastern city, by others a Dacian We think it represents 
Lioerty, as shown by the cap, which is an emblem of liberty all over 
the world, and that it formed the side of an entrance into one of the 
pens of the Septa ; that the something between the finger and thumb 
of the left hand is the voting tablet, and that in the other band she 
held an um, denoting that everybody should have perfect liberty to 
vote as ho pleased. 

" With this was found a beautiful piece of a marble ^eze, with the 
egg pattern, below which is a design that we do not remember to have 
seen elsewhere. The soil beneath the find is an accumulation ; below 
this was found a piece of a paved road. The soil above is an old 
accumulation, as shown by the base of the columns of the temple 
opposite. Some fragments of Corinthian capitals were also found, 
and a statue broken into pieces, one foot of which is in a good state 
of preser vati on . " 

BoTAi, BfSTmjnow or Coenwai.l. — This useful Society was estab- 
lished in 1818, and has just issued its Sixtieth Annual Report. It is, 
we believe, one of the oldest of our Archieological Societies, and has 
done good aerviee throughout its long career. Its objects, however, 
embrace natural philosophy and natural history as well as antiquities ; 
and it possesses amuseum at Truro, in which are preserved many objects 
of great interest in each of these branches of study. It has collected a 
most valuable series of meteorological observations, extending from 
1728 to the present time, of which a digest is being prepared for the 
use of members of the Institution and the public. The valuable papers 
printed in its earlier annual reports, and during later years in its 
Journal, sufficiently attest the value of the work of this Society. 

The Fifty-Ninth Annual Ueeting was held on the l»th Nov. last, 
when Mr. William Gopelond Borlose, f. a. a., the author of Aimia 
Conwbia, was elected President, in succession to Mr. Jonathan 
Kashleigb, Sheriff of Cornwall. 

BsistoL um Qlouoestekshihs Arohaolooioai. Sooistt. — Ajb the 
Society, to which we have just alluded, is one of the oldest, bo is this 


of wbioli we now troat one ctf the j^oneest of inoh Institntionfi ; and 
we are glad to add that it displays all the vi^ur of yonth, which 
vigour, we trust, will oontinae orer as long a penod as that enjoyed hj 
}ier elder sister. The Society was formed only in Apnl, 1876, and 
already it numbers nearly 600 members. Its Annual Winter Meeting 
was h^d at Oloueester, on 24tli January last, when there was a good 
sttendanoe of members. After dining togetiier at the " Bell Hotel," 
t^e members and a large nnmber of friends assembled at the Art 
and Boienoe InstitutioD for a coaveraazione, whero) throi^i the 
praiseworthy exertions of the local committee, a temporary Mosenm 
nad been formed, containing objects of great interest. Several papers 
by local ardueologiste were read in the lecture room, wbiob will be 
printed in the next Yolnme of the TranaactionB of the Society, now, we 
are informed, in the press, the First Volume of the Transactiona has 
been issued some time, and contains Heveral very valoable and in- 
teresting papers hy well-known antiquarian and historical authors, 
indnding JPraf. Bolleston, Dr. Beddoe, Sir John Maclean, Mr, Q. T. 
Clark, Dr. Smith, and others. 

We have pleasure in announcing that Mr. B. Montgomerie Banking 
has in the press on annotated edition of Milton's Comut, on the 
principle of uie Clu«ndon Press Text Books. It is prefaced by three 
essays, on the Masque proper, on the historv of this special example, 
and upon its actual origin ; in the last, oy parallel passages and 
otherwiae, Mr. Banking attempts to establish the sources from which 
MiltoQ took his idea. A short derivative gloesary, in which the author 
has had the assistance of his brother, Mr. D. V, Ranking, of Hertford 
Oolite, Oxford, will conclude the work, which is pabliaued by Henry 
West, 381, Mare Street, Hackney. 

We are glad to know that tlie Bev. C. W. Boase, Fellow and 
Librarian of Fxeter College, Oxford, has in the press a " B^iiater of 
the Sectors and FeUows " of that College, from the date of its found- 
ation, in 1314, to the present time. The work is not merely a list of 
names and of dates of the admission of the several parties, but contains 
also much biographical matter and many curious and valuable 
memoranda from the College Begistere. 

The Members of the Institute will be glad to hear that the General 
Index ro the first twenty-five volumes of the Jonmal is progressing 
well under the editorship of Sir John Maclean, who has witti great 
labour and care, verified every entry as left in MS. by the late Mr. 
Burtt. The appearance of this " ent^clopsedia of AriiluBolasicBl 
information " m^y be expected by the end of Jane. Upwards of 200 
pages are now in type, nearly all of which hare been worked off. 
onbscribers' names will be received by the Secretary. 

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3 by Google 

<?FioonD Ti^n op Hebbpobp Csthbi>r.ib 

Ct)p arcbaeologttal journal. 

DECEMBEE, 1877. 


When our annual gatherings are at a cathedral city, 
it is but reasonable that the cathedral should be our 
primary object of study. The architectural history of 
our cathedrals form the first page in the history of the 
architecture of our country ; and when a great Archaeo- 
logical Society, "such as ours, summons its annual synod 
under the shadow of one of these great typical edifices, 
it is naturally expected to be the signal for the fiUl 
investigation and elucidation of its architectural and 
antiquarian history ; and- such it was when we had a 
Willis for our leader. His monographs on Canterbury, 
York, Winchester, and others of our cathedrals, have 

S'ven world-wide celebrity to our Institute. Would that 
s mantle, as well as — on this occasion — his duty, had 
fallen on me I Having, however, at an unwary moment, 
consented to undertake this duty as regards Hereford 
cathedral, I was not long in discovering that I had 
undertaken a most difficult task. 

In some cases the difficulty in teUing the architectural 
history of a great building arises from too great a 
plenitude of information, an eitibarras de richesse of 
Historical fact. Such, I dare say, was felt by that prince 
among those who undertake such tasks. Professor Willis, 
when he compiled his iinrivalled architectural history of 
Canterbury Cathedral; for there, thanks to Emm^h, 
Gervase, and others, the most important parts of its 
histoiy were so fully and accurately chronicled, that he 
must nave found difficulty in condensing his facts, rather 
than in searching them out. 

Far different, however, is the case at Hereford. Here 
we have— I will not say a paucity, but ahnc«t a nvllity 



of Hstorical information bearing upon the building, other- 
■wise than indirectly and uncertidnly; and one's task is to 
search in every conceivable direction for such mere waife 
and strays of History as may surest or furnish excuses 
for guesses and theories, wMch after all, in a majority of 
cases; it is impossible either to prove or to test. 

Professor Willis, in writing on this cathedral in 1841, 
says, — " It is much to be regretted that the period of 
erection of no one pdrt of this cathedral has been re- 
corded, with the exception of its first foundation." 
(Willis's Repm% p. 9.) How then can I, who am no 
investigator of antiquarian documents, venture to give 
the history of a structure whose builders, and those 
who were eye-witnesses of its erection, have neglected 
to record what they did and what they saw? Having, 
however, rashly accepted the task, I must beg for kind 
consideration of the difficiilty of its performance, for, 
• strange as it may appear, the very paucity of sources 
of knowledge has increased tenfold the labour of searching 
for it ; and, poor as is the result, I should be ashamed to 
relate the amount of time and hibour I have devoted to 
the pursuit of faithless phantoms, which only held out 
hopes of knowledge to lure me to the doom of dis- 

I must, however, beg a /uHher indulgence. I know 
not whether we view our sister society — the Archaeo- 
logical Association — ^with feelings more of affection or 
of rivalry. Anyhow, they have been beforehand with us 
on this ground ; and a paper has been published in their 
journal, written by my friend Mr. Goraon HilUi, which 
is, to all appearance, so nearly exhaustive of the docu- 
mentary information at present within reach, that any 
idea on my part of ignoring it, or doing its work over 
again, would be absurd. I shall, therefore, with his kind 
consent, make free use of Mr. Hills' collected information, 
adding, if possible, any I may have elsewhere picked up ; 
and, if in any instance I may happen to differ at all from 
his conclusions, I trust that this may in no degree be 
considered as evincing any want of the highest appre- 
ciation for his very able and laborio^^s researchee. I 
should add that I am indebted to bim for much informa- 
tion privately communicated. 

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The See, which now takes the name of Hereford, dates 
from very early times ; and it is likely enough that there was 
a church of some importance here at least as early as the 
time of OlJa, the gi-eat Mercian king, who in the year 793 
treacherously murdered somewhere hereabouts his son-in- 
law (or intended son-in-law) Ethelbert, king of East 
Aoglia, for the purpose of adding his kingdom to his own. 
Hereford waa then known by another name — Femleigh — 
and hither the body of King Ethelbrt was brought for 
re-interment by a pious noble named Erithirid. 

In the year 830, or thereabouts, the church was rebuilt 
in stone by MUfrid, ruler of Mercia, in honoiir of the now 
sainted Kmg Ethelbert. 

This church was, after about two centuries, rebuilt in 
Edward the Confessor's day by Bishop Athelstan, whose 
cathedral, however, was but short-lived, being burnt in 
1056 by Griflm the Welsh king or prince, who slew 
Leofgan the bishop and many of his clergy. To him 
succeeded in turn two natives of Lorraine — the first, 
Walter, nominated by the Confessor, and after him Robert 
appointed by the Conqueror. 

Robert de Lorraine, commonly called Lozing (a cor- 
ruption of Lotharingus), was consecrated in 1079, and 
held the See sixteen years. He undertook the recon- 
struction of the cathedral, which had lain waste since 
the invasion by Griffin, and he is said by WiBiam of 
Malmesbury to have built it of a rounded Jorm, imitating 
the baaihca of Aix-la-Chapelle : " Qui ibi ecclesia in tereti 
sedificavit scemate, aquensem basilicam pro modo imitatus 
suo." It has been suggested that some other basilica 
than Charles the Great's round church is here referred 
to; but the expression "tereti schemate" — on a roundish 
or rounded scheme — appears to shew what church was 

Now, we know something of the church he chose for 
his model. It was on a round or polygonal plan, imitated, 
aa ifc is said, from the church of San Vitale at Ravenna, 
which had, about the year 550, been erected by Justinian, 
possibly in imitation of the Temple of Minerva Medica at 

' The word may be BuaeepUble of other a rounduh form, wunnta this iutor- 
meuimss, but I tone; that th« fact of pretation. 
Ui« Mtbednl at Aiz-lB-Ch&t«lle being of 

D,-;>»otv Google 


Rome, and more probably still of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem. These imitations were, however, 
all of them biit very rough ones, and consisted mainly in 
the adoption of a round or polygonal plan. 

Charlemagne's church at Aix-la-Chapelle in all proba- 
bility still exists, and is in ideal very similar to those 
built afterwards by the Templars in rough imitation of 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which he probably had 
in his eye quite as much aa that at Ravenna, though he 
had seen the latter only, and perhaps connected it m his 
mind with its more sacred type. Be all this, however, as 
it may, the unfortunate feet remains that we have not in 
the Norman cathedral here at Hereford a trace or a 
sfu/gestion of any of these buildings ; and, if Robert of 
Lorraine did really imitate Charles the Great's sepidchral 
basilica, his successors, and probably Bishop Reynelm, 
must have utterly obliteiuted his work. 

Reynelm held the See from 1107 to 1115. His 
i-eputed effigy beara what may be a model of a church, 
and his obit styles him as "fundator EcclesuB Sancti 
Ethelberti," altered in a later hand (and, I think, 
erroneously) to " Hospicii." Writers on the cathedral 
seem disposed either to deprive him of all claim as a 
builder of the cathedral, or to attribute to him the com- 
pletion of the work b^un by Lorraine. Neither of these 
suppositions seems to me agreeable to common sense. If 
Bobert of Lorraine competed his own design, or 11" 
Reynelm completed it, how is it that we have not a 
vestige of anything agreeing with William of Malmee- 
burys description 1 Insteaa of this we have a church on 
a very straightforward Norman type, apsidal truly, but 
less pronouncedly so than usual, and bearing no resem- 
blance whatever to that at Aix-la-Chapelle. A^dn, the 
architecture is not of the earlier Norman type, but Uiat 
of a more advanced period. Nor did Reynelm complete the 
cathedr^, for we find that it was not finished till thirty 
years after his death. I therefore incline to the belief that 
Robert of Lorraine only began the church, and that being 
a German he was proud to do honour to the imperial 
basilica of his fatherland ; while Reynelm, being probably 
a Norman, reverted to the manner of his own country. 
One cannot but regret that Robert's church does not 

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exist, as it would have been quite iinique among English 
cathedrals. Kobert was a man learned in all the wisdom of 
his age — a favourite, as Dr. Rawlinson says, of the Muses as 
well as of his king. He was a poet, a mathematician, and 
learned in the stars and their influence on human afi&Irs ; 
and though intimate with Remigius, the builder of Lincoln 
minster, with Wolstan, who built that at Worcester, and 
probably with the builders of Gloucester, Tewkesbuiy, 
and other vast churches then rising, he perhaps scoiiyed 
to follow in their wake, and gloried in imitating the 
basilica which overshadowed the great hero of his own 
race — a church of which Mr. Fergusson says : " It is the 
oldest authentic example we have of its style; it was 
built by the greatest man of his age, and more emperors 
Have been crowned and more important events happened 
beneath its venerable vaults than have been witnessed 
within the walls of any existing church in Christendom." 

Unhappily, what I have said is ail we know of the 
building of the Norman Cathedral, excepting that it was 
not finished by Reynelm, but by his third successor, 
Robert de Bethune or Betun, who held the see from 
1131 to 1148, and who, havingsuffered, and his cathedral 
likewise, during the wars of King Stephen's days, Uved 
to recover and repair the injuries incurred, and whose 
biographer B&ya of him, " Sepultus est in Ecclesia sufl 
matrice quam ipse multa impensa et soUicitudine consum- 
mavit ipse solomonis exempio, solemnisse dedicavit." 

The cathedral, then, throwing Lorraine out of the 
calculation, took forty years in building in its Norman 
form. The scheme of its design was as fdlows : — 

Its nave was of eight hays of not unusual Norman t^e, 
supported by massive round pillars, to which double 
shafts are attached, both to the north and south. The 
triforium was of moderate height and good design ; the 
clerestory somewhat lofty. The choir, (or rather the 
presbytery, for the choir proper was beneath the central 
tower), was of three bays, supported by piers which are 
rather masses of wall than columns ; and judging from 
the great projecting pilasters upon their mner ^ces, I 
agree with Mr. Gordon HUls that it must have been 
vaulted, which was very unusual at that time in churches 
of so great a span. 


It terminated eaatward in an apse, not formed, as was 
BO frequent, by the swinging round of arcade, triforium, 
clerestory and aisles upon the altar as a centie, and 
uniting themselves together in semi-circular continuity ; 
but a separate and narrower structure, opening into the 
presbytery by an arch of moderate dimensions, over 
which the eastern wall returned in a square foim. Each 
aisle also terminated in a smaller apse, and each of the 
three apses had its own separate roof. 

The transepts, of which one only remains, were of an 
ordinary type, without (at least the remaining one is) the 
apsidal chapels which are so usual.' 

I have elsewhere shown that the three not distant 
monastic Churches of Gloucester, Tewkesbury, and 
Pershore followed a scheme peculiar to themselves, and 
displaying great originality of invention. There is no 
trace of this scheme at Hereford. I am not sure, 
however, whether the nave here was not more beautiful 
than that of its more original neighbours. The less lofty 
columns, surmounted by a well proportioned triforium 
and lofty clerestory, formed a more elegant composition 
than the exaggeratedly lofty c<Jumns of Gloucester and 
Tewkesbury, unduly stunting the upper storeys of the 
nave ; though it is possible that the two ranges of aisles 
in the choirs of those churches, running unbroken round 
the apse, and the continuous aisle with its apsidaJ chapels 
may have produced a more pleasing effect than l^e non- 
continuous arrangement at Herefo^ 

It matters littk, however, which may have looked the 
best. They display two quite different srstems, each 
good, and each nobly carried out. We see them now but 
m imagination, for all these churches have been so altet^ 
that the tnxe effect is visible in none. 

I have said that the architectiure at this cathedral is 
not ea/rly but advanced Norman. Its details are, in 
all the principal parts, decidedly rich in omamenttd 
character ; very different indeed from those of Kemigius' 
work at Lincoln, at the consecration of which liorraine 
would have been present had the stars been propitious. 
No concurrence of stars, however, could render such details 


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Hereford Cathedral. 


Hereford Cathedral. 



3 by Google 


3S those at Hereford, pombly contemporaneous with those 
of Remifflus' work. Not a stone do I believe remains in 
place of Robert of Lorraine's cathedral. 

The great glory of the Norman cathedral at Hereford 
was its West front. We get a good idea of its design 
from Merricke's view, given by Browne Willis. I have 
attempted a restored elevation of it, which I exhibit. It 
was probably the work of Robert de Bethune, and was 
consequently very late in the style. I may mention that 
what Norman vaulting remains (which is right little) is 
without di^onal ribs. Feasibly, Bethune s work may 
have been otherwise, as that feature had become frequent 
in his day. At some time during the Norman period was 
erected the great timber hedl of the Bishop's palace, and 
the very curious double chapel of St, Margaret and St. 
Catherine, which adjoined it. 

Bethune's successor was the famous Gilbert Foliot, 
who, after ruling here for fourteen years, was translated 
to London in 1163. We hear nothing of him respecting 
the Cathedral, but he was too great a man to be passed 
by unnoticed, He was a most strenuous opponent of 
Becket ; so much so, that the Evil* Spirit is said to have 
addressed him, while revolving as he lay on his bed the 
plans he had been devising with the King against the 
Primate, as follows : — 

" Gilberts Foliot, 

Dum revolvia tot et tot, 

DeuB tmia est Aohterotii." 
The Bishop intrepidly repHed : — 

"MentiriB I>eemoii, Deus Meus est Deus Sttbaoth." 
Forgive my egotism in saying that a great ecclesiastic 
has done me the honour, while remarking on my wander- 
ings about on church matters, to parody the words on me, 
in the more favourable version, saying : — 

■' Georn Gilberte Scott, 

Dum rev^ria tot ot tot, 

DouB tuuB est Sabaotb." 

Two more prelates succeeded, of whom nothing is told 
us relating to the chiu-ch. During this period Norman 
architecture had been undergoing a gradual but radical 
change. I had the honour, two years back, at Canter- 
bury, of reading a paper before this Institute on this 


^reat transitioQ in medifeval architecture, and I shewed 
Uiat, while it had been going on for some time in 
England and in an English way, it was precipitated, 
and its manner ch^iged in a French direction through 
the rebuilding by Wifiiam of Sens of the choir at Canter- 
bury. Unluckily, in this cathedral, we have no specimen 
of the earlier and more English phase of the transition. 
The cathedral was complete, and as yet unaltered, during 
its rise. 

Bethune's two successors, Gilbert Foliot and Robert of 
Melun, had not seen French transitional art in an English 
buQding. The third, Robert Foliot {the friend of Becket), 
saw it, but as far as we know, was not architecturally 
disposed. The fourth, "WilUam de Vere, took more to my 
art. Godwin says of him, " Qui miilta dicitur construx- 
isse." Leland eays : " As appears by his epitaph, he 
constructed many excellent buUdings ;" and his epitaph 
itself said : " Strenue resit spatium xxx annis et multa 
edificia egregia per spatium construxit." Dean Mere- 
wether thus gives the epitaph, but he must have copied 
the number of years incorrectly, for De Vere ruled but 
fourteen years. As usual, we are not told what buildings 
these were : but, judging from style alone, we may fairly 
guess that the alteration of the east end of the cathedral 
was his. It may have been by his predecessor, who died 
just after the Canterbury work was done, but we do not 
near of him as a builder; and De Vere reigning from 
11 86 (two years after the Canterbiuy choir was finished) 
to 1199 — just the time of the two greatest transitional 
works in the west, Glastonbury and St. David's — is more 
likely to have been the promoter of tliis work, which dis- 
plays some marked resemblances to both of those splendid 
structures. I may mention that the older abbey at Glas^ 
tonbury had been burnt in- 11 86, the very year of De 
Vere's accession at Hereford. The few next years were 
devoted to the exquisite chapel of St. Mary, now known 
as that of St. Joseph of Arimatheea; while the last decade 
of the twelfth centun[ saw the rise of the unequalled 
abbey church itself. The chapel is more Romanesque in 
its character than the church, though both alike display a 
refinement of detail and workmanship, and an artistic 
sentiment impossible to be excelled. They are the 


i-iglU glorious cotemporaries of De Vere's work here at 

This work is in very fine transitional architecture, with 
a large supply of that rich semi- Norman decoration which 
characterises the two great works alluded to ; yet with 
other features derived &oui France, and with evidences, 
such as the great projection of the foliage of the capitals, 
that it is not quite early in its style. 

This great alteration consisted of the entire removal of 
the three apses, and the substitution of an eastern aisle, 
supplying the deficiency in the first scheme of a con- 
tinuous aisle or ambulatory round the apse, and the adding 
to this aisle eastward a range of chapels. 

I do not think that it was a part of De Vere's scheme 
to make what now take the form of eastern transepts. 
These, I think, resulted rather by accident from his plan. 
I rather imagine that an ambulatory and chapels were 
all he thought of. His scheme was some years later 
imitated on a less scale at Dore Abbey, where it takes 
the simpler form of an eastern aisle with five chapels, 
occupying only the width of the church. Here at Here- 
ford either six chapels, or one wide central one and four 
narrower ones, two on either side, were aimed at ; and as 
either the central two chapels or one occupied the width 
which at Dore Abbey is given to three, it followed that 
the scheme had to be extended in width to the north and 
south, which is clearly proved on the south side both by 
the base of the comer shaft, and by the remains of a tran- 
sitional doorway at the extreme end of the ambulatory. 

Whether this scheme embraced a Lady Chapel cannot 
now he ascertained ; the division of the central space into 
two by colmnns is rather against it, while, on the other 
hand, the triple shaft on either side of the second bay, 
which by the ranmng of its courses is shewn to belong to 
De Vere's work, shews that the central chapel or chapels 
were intended to go at least one bay eastward of the 
others. I think it probable that all the chapels gabled 
towards the east. It may be mentioned that, whue the 
central bays were divided by single columns, the side 
chapels were separated by heavy piers. 

The point most open to objection in De Vere's altera- 
tions was the blocking up of the fine eastern arch of the 


presbytery, by which the interior was deprived of its 
culminating feature without the substitution of any thing 
in its place, and the beauty of the choir was most seriously 
damaged. The re-opening of this arch is a work of our 
own age, and has done much • to remedy this radi«J 

We have now passed through what may be gathered 
of the cathedral's history through the Norman and semi- 
Norman period, and have arrived at the opening of 
the great thirteenth century; and here we must start 
afresh with, if possible, less direct information than we 
have hitherto u>uild, though the church is rich in noble 
work of every part of the century, but eveiy part left to 
tell its own tale, ahnoBt without the suggestion of a date. 

I pass over, at present, the mere guess that the first 
bishop in this century, Egidius de Bruse, built the central 
tower (the predecessor of that which now exists), of this 
we have no other evidence, than that his reputed eflBgy 
holds the model of a tower in its hands. This certai^y 
was not the western tower, as some have supposed, for no 
such structure existed before the 14th century ; and, as 
to its being the central tower, I am content to say with 
Dr. Bawlinson, " which supposition I cannot alti^ether 
confide in, therefore must leave it dubious, till I am 
convinced by a more sufficient proof." 

First of all, then, comes the noble Lady Chapel, 
wholly undated, and unappropriated to any founder. 
Mr, Gordon HUls seems to suppose it to have gone on 
continuously from Vere'a time to its completion. The 
ailments in favour of this seem to be the transitional 
details of the porch leading down into its crypt, and also 
of the arcade of intersecting arches over the exterior of the 
windows. Against these evidences we have to balance, 
firstly, the circumstance that, though the porch leading to 
the crypt has unquestionably some transitional details, the 
cr^t to which it leads has none. Secondly, there is a 
well defined break in the work inside after passing the 
triple vaulting shaft above named ; for, while the courses 
of stone fornung those shafts range with the courses of 
DeVere's work to the west, they are wholly disconnected 
from those of the Lady Chapel to the east. Thirdly, the 
mouldings and decoration of the ribs of the vaulting in 


the Lady Chapel wholly differ from those of De Vere's 
work. Fourthly, the details generally of the Lady 
Chapel are not Transitional, but are developed Early 
English, and the same may be said of the crypt below it. 
I conclude, therefore, that, though the Lady Chapel is 
somewhat early in its style, a mariked interval must have 
elapsed between the closing of De Vere's works and the 
beginning of the Lady Chapel. True it is that at Lincoln, 
Ely, St. Albans, and "Winchester we find developed Early 
English work at the very beginning of the thirteenth 
century ; but, nevertheless, where we have Transitional 
w^ork of a ve^ pronounced character up to the very end 
of the twelfth, we can hardly believe that the style at 
the same place suddenly changed without an intennil. I 
will not, however, venture to assign it to any particular 
bishop. The bowing down of the vaulting upon the side 
wbU, which necessitated the arcading over the windows, 
has an early look, yet, by no means, so early as to class it 
with Transitional work. I should call this work a fine 
design of the earlier period of Early EngUsh, though the 
details of the crypt seem too late even for this. 

The next work I will call attention to is the clerestory 
of the presbytery. This is a specimen of very advanced 
Early EngUsh, the windows of which have what Professor 
WilUs has named "plate tracery." It is not improbable 
that the original clerestory and vaulting had become 
dami^;ed by the setlement of the tower ; for one can 
hardly otherwise account for their having put themselves 
to the expense and inconvenience of reconstructing so 
important a part of the building. This raises the 
question, whether the cenfcr^ tower had been erected 
(or at least above the roof-line of the church) by Norman 
builders, or whether, as has been supposed, it was first 
built by Giles de Bruse, the first bishop in the thirteenth 
century ; a question to which I shall have by-and-by to 

The style and details of this clerestory are peculiarly 
elegant. Curiously enough, its architect did not lose 
sight of the design of the Lady Chapel. His overhanging 
cornice is a beautifid translation of that of the Lady 
Chapel into a more advanced phase of the style, and the 
interBecting arcade of the upper part of the walls of the 


older work — the reault there of construction — is imitated 
by arcading of another design in the presbytery without 
any such neceaeity — merely, as it would appear, because 
they liked the look of it. On the whole, this work is a 
perfect specimen of the later form of Early Engli^. 
Would that we had the smallest clue to its date or its 
promoter I It may have dated about 1240 to 1250. 

Wo now arrive at a yet more marked era, in the archi- 
tecture of our cathedraL The pointed style made its 
d^but here in the transitional work of De Vere — tiana- 
tional from the Romanesque or Norman. We now rea<^ 
a second transition — that from Early English to Deco- 
rated, or from first to middle Pointed. The windows 
of the Lady Chapel are strictly lancet-shaped ; those 
of the clerestory of the presbytery have plate tracery ; 
hut those of the part to wmch we now come, — the 
north transept, — have bar tracery, that is to say, tracery 
pierced in all its Uttle spaodms and comers, so as 
not to look like a flat surface, perforated by ornamental 
openings, but rather like an ornamental pattern, produced 
by bending about the mullion or stone bar, so as to 

S reduce the pattern i-equired. This invention was the 
lagna Charta of Gothic architecture, setting it free from 
all the trammels of its earlier years. This development 
hod begun earUer in France than in England. We see it 
strongly suggesting itself in the later parts of Salisbury, 
about 1240 ; out it seems to have been first systematically 
adopted in this country — as the rule — in Westminster 
Abbey, begun in 1245, while we have in the Chapter- 
house at Westminster, which we know to have been 
finished in 1253, large four-light windows with perfected 

The north transept here is throughout of this type. 
It does not look so early as the Westminster Abbey work 
in all respecto ; but that, having been a royal foundation, 
is likely to have taken the precedence of others in the 
march of development. Lincoln cathedral is perhaps the 
most parallel case, where the eastern limb was added in 
this style, between 1260 and 1280. The nave at Lichfield 
and that at Newstead are equally parallel to it, but I do 
not know their dates. The history of the see at about- 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


this period is remarkable, and throws more perplexity 
perhaps than light upon the orijjin of this great work. 

It was held from 1240 to 1268 by Peter de Aqua- 
blanca, a very turbulent foreigner, who came over in the 
train of William de Valence, half-brother of Henry III, 
of whose escapades we read so much in Mathew Paris, 
who, indeed, is equally uncomplimentaiy to our bishop. 
Aquablanca was a favourite of the king, but hated by the 
cler^. He was absent from England from 1250 to 1258 in 
the Holy Land and elsewhere. In 1264 the king, passing 
through Hereford, found there neither bishop nor cler^, 
and the church in a ruinous state; and was thereat so sorely 
enraged that, forgetting his former favouritism, he severely 
reprimanded the bishop by letter, threatening that, if he 
did not quickly return and mend his manners he would 
take the temporalities into his own hands, Aquablanca 
thereupon returned, but only to be taken prisoner and 
robbed of his wealth by the insurgent barons, who im- 
prisoned him in the castle at Ordelay. He died in 1268 
of a terrible complication of diseases, of which one was 

The great difficulty, if Aquablanca bmlt this beautiful 
transept, is to imagine how he came to have either the will 
or the way ; either inclination or time for such a work. The 
interval between his accession in 1240 and his absence in 
1250 seems too early for its architecture. It would better 
suit the presbytery clerestory. He could not have built 
it, one would think, during his absence in the Holy Land, 
■while only sis years intervened between his return and 
the king's reprimand for leaving his cathedral in a nunous 
condition, which seems inconsistent with the fact of so 
noble a work being in hand. Nor can we supfiose he had 
time or money for it after being seized by the barons. 
Yet, that he had a hand in it is certain: His exquisite 
tomb — which we may be sure that no one would erect to 
such a man but himself — bears so close a resemblance to 
the architecture which overshadows it as to leave no 
doubt that they are by the same hand ; indeed, I can 
point out details of the transept and the tomb which are 
tdentical, except in scale. 

Need we, however, always suppose the bishops to be 
the originators of every work 1 Surely the deans and 


chapters had a hand in maay, and we know that in 
secular cathedrals the greater and lesser chapters were 
often severely taxed for the works in their catnedrals. 

Now, we have clear proof that the central tower 
(whoever huilt it) had been giving way and crushing this 
ti*an8ept ; and it requires no stretch of fancy to think 
that the Chapter, though deserted by their Bishop, would 
set about the remedying of this serious danger. Perhaps 
the Bishop aided the funds, for we have no record, I 
think, that he was parsimonious, and he woiUd naturally 
be stirred up by the royal reprimand ; anyhow, he built 
his own monument in connection with the new work. 
Perhaps in 1264 it had fallen into m^lect through the 
civil war, or perhaps was only then begun. The bu i ldi n g 
itself shows evidence that it was not completed at one 
effort ; for the lower stage of the buttress adjoining the 
nave was pushed severely out of the perpendicular by the 
continued subsidence of the tower, while its upper parts 
were built and remain vertical ; and at the same level we 
find, in the north-eastern buttresses, a decided change of 
design ; the lower stage having the bases of intended 
shafts, which were not carried out above. I shall shew 
also later on that the upper finish of these buttresses is 
twenty years later in date. 

I conclude therefore that the lower pai-t of the transept 
wos carried out — ^probably by the Chapter — in Aqua- 
blanca's time, but that its continxiation and completion 
were during the three succeeding episcopates, extending, 
probably, to about 1288. 

The great fiiults of this design are the remarkable 
straight-sided form of the arches and the thinness of the 
detauB of the triforium, but, with these exceptions, it is 
an exquisite architectural design, deserving to be classed 
on equal terms with those I have enumerated. I mean 
Westminster, the "Angel Choir" at Lincoln, and the navee 
of Lichfield and Newstead ; nor is Aquablauca's tomb 
surpassed by any of its period. He and his master William 
de Valence, however careless their lives, took care that 
their bodies should be sumptuously housed when dead. 
I may mention that we find work of precisely the same 
architecture in parts of Ledbury Church. We now arrive 
at another period in the history both of the see and the 


Aquablanca's successor, De Breton, was a man of cha- 
ractOT and ability, and though we hear nothing of him 
respecting the building, there can be no doubt that 
during the six years of his rule the north transept 
was proceeding towards completion. His successor, 
Thomas de Cantilupe, was a man of great family, 
great political position, and great piety. He waa 
Chancellor of Oxford, and Lord Chancellor of England. 
We do not know of any architectural works in which, 
during the sevea years of his episcopate, he was specially 
interested ; but I think the transept was stiU in hand, as 
I find the marks of his successors hand on its topmost 
stones. Cantilupe produced, however, greater impres- 
sion on his cathedral after death than during his life ; for 
dying in Italy in 1282, he was at once pronoimced by his 
chapUdn and secretary, Richard de Swinfield, who suc- 
ceeded him, to be ft saint, though the Popes hesitated 
another thirty years in formally assenting to it. Swin- 
field, after interring his flesh in Italy, brought his heart 
and his bones back to England ; the former was deposited 
in the church of the college of Bonnes-hommes at Ashridge, 
in Buckinghamshire, and the latter in the Lady Chapel 
at Hereford. Some five years later the bones were en- 
shrined and translated to the chapel of St. John the 
Baptist, in the aisle of the new north transept ; partly, I 
dare say, built by himself, but not till then completed. 
The shrine, some sixty years later, was removed into the 
Lady Chapel. The document which records its trans- 
lation also states that where it was, it interfered with the 
fabric of the church. I have not seen the ipsis^ma verba, 
and am not able to judge how it so interfered ; but, in 
the absence of explanation, I fancy that the concourse of 
pilgrims in the centre of the church produced inconve- 
nience, possibly through some repairs going on owing to 
the pressiue of the tower. It remainea there apparently 
till the sixteenth century, when it was brought back to 
its old place. Leland saw it in the Lady Chapel in 
Henry VlII's time, but Godwin saw it where it is in 
Queen Elizabeth's time. 

It has ever since been undoubtedly acknowledged as 
the substructiure of the shrine of Cantuupe, or St. 'fiionias 
of Hereford, till quite recently, when a doubt has 1^ a 

: Google 


high authority, yet as I venture to think without suffitaent 
OTounds, been thrown upon it. The objections to it are, I 
Slink, the following : — First, it seems strange that, having 
first been erected in St. John's Chapel, and afterwards 
translated to the Lady Chapel, it should, when despoiled of 
its relics and its treasures, find its way back after two cen- 
turies to ite old place. Secondly, its eastern end is plain, 
whereas in the Lady Chapel it woidd be exposed to view 
all round. Third, the paucity of ecclesiastical and the 
abundance of military emblems displayed in the work; 
for what, it is said, have the fourteen figures of knights 
which surround the lower stage of the monument to do 
with a bishop or a saint ? It has consequently been 
su^ested that it may be the substructure of St. Ethel- 
berts shrine. 

I do not, however, think that these objections have 
much force as against the unbroken tradition of its 
belon^ng to the t^mtUupe shrine. That tradition has — 

First, the advantage of possession, which forms, to start 
with, " nine points in the law." 

Secondly, there is the fiict that on the marble slab round 
which the whole is constructed, and to which it is accu- 
rately fitted, is the matrix of the brass ef&gy, or at least 
the bust, of a bishop, and that slab is sem^e with the two 
cognizances of Cantilupe, the leopard's head, and the fleur- 
de-lis ; the latter, it is true, not issuing from the mouth 
of the former, but separate, a Uberty which, I dare say, 
an antiquarian herald would condone. 

Thirdly, the plainness of the east end would naturally 
result from the monument having been first prepared for 
the place it occupies (or nearly so), not for its subsequent 
position in the Ijady Chapel. 

Fourthly, it is objected that we ought to find some work 
agreeing with the period (1350) of its translation to the 
Lady CSapel ; but, curiously enough, such is the case, for the 
two arches of the upper range at the head differ in 
character firom all the othera m belonging to the later 
Decorated style. The original arches were probably 
broken by some accident during the removal, for we 
found in the floor near the monument a broken fragment 
of two original arches, which is now fixed for preservation 
against the foot. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


Finally, the objection to the military figures vanishes 
instantly, before the explanation mven by Mr. King in 
his history of the cathedral — that they represent knights 
templars, of whose order Cantilupe waa provincial grand 

We may, therefore, safely rest satisfied in the old 
tradition, that this is the bond Jlde substructure of the 
shrine of St. Thomas of Hereford, which was first set up 
by Bishop Swinfield in this place in 1288; afterwards 
translated by Bishop Trelick in 1350 to the Lady Chapel, 
and finally, removed to its old place, after having been 
deprived of the precious shrine it supported, and of the 
relics which that shrine contained. 

But how, it may be asked, did they know its old place 
after its absence of two centuries ? I would reply that 
Leland knew of this old position not long before its 
return to it, and that Dingley, in the seventeenth century, 
and Stukely, in the eighteenth, tell us of a painting in 
fresco of Cantilupe on the wall, at the foot of the monu- 
ment, which would have remained all the time as a 
witness of the old position. 

From its removal to this position, until Dean Mere- 
wether's time, was another interval of three centuries ; 
yet, when he cleared away the library from the Lady 
Chapel, about 1842, he found in the fioor the mark of 
CantUupea shrine. It consisted of a ciurb of stone level 
with the floor, fitted on its inner side to the shape of 
the shrine, and on its outer side, simk or rebated to 
receive the encaustic tiles of the pavement. Many of 
these tiles remained cemented to the stone frame, and 
were deeply worn by the feet and knees of pilgrims. 
The dean had them removed and placed near the shrine 
in the north transept, from which position they were, in 
1857, transferred for safe custody by Mr. Havergal to 
the present library, where these interesting relics may 
still DC seen. 

I will not attempt to describe the architecture of the 
shrine, as it may be itself inspected, but I will mention 
two or three circumstances about it : — Fu-st, it is quite 
in the style suited to its reputed date of 1287 or 
1288, Secondly, it is hondfide the support of a precious 
shrine, to receive which, its upper surface is sunk about 


one and a half inch, and in the comers of this sinking are 
still the irons by which that shrine was fixed. Thirdly, ita 
details are so peculiar that a like piece of work by the 
same man may be readily recognized. 

This brings us to the next architectural question : 
What other works did Bishop Swinfield cany out during 
the three and thirty years of his episcopate ? . I think I 
can detect some, at least, of his works. I have already 
stated that he finished the top of the buttresses of the 
great north transept. This is proved by their peculiar 
gabling, similar to that to the stair turret of the north 
porch, which I shall presently shew to be his. 

There is, leading from the north porch into the nave, a 
doorway of remarkable design, especially as to the cusping 
of its arch. Of what age is that doorway ? It (with the 
outer doorway of the same porch) contains both the con- 
ventional foliage of the Early English period and the 
crisp natural foliage of the Early Decorated, so admirably 
exemplified in Cantilupe'a shrine. This affords a primd 
facie suggestion of its being by the same hand ; but it 
does not exhibit the studding which characterises the 
mouldings of the shrine, suggesting their inlaying with 

Now, at a church some fifteen or sixteen miles away, 
that at Grosmont, is a beautiful piscina, whose mouldings 
are studded or gemmed like those of the shrine, while its 
arch is decorated with cusping closely resembling that of 
the porch doorway. The one shews it, as I think, to be 
by the same hand with the shrine, the other to be by the 
same hand with the doorway; ergo, the doorway was by 
the same liand with the shrine. 

Again, the coursing of the stone-work shows the porch 
and the entire aisle (so far as the original work remains) 
to be one and the same work ; in confirmation of which 
we find the Uttle capitals in the windows, both within 
and without, to have the same union of Early English 
and crisp Early Decorated foliage. It follows that the 
porch and the whole north aisle of the nave were built by 
Swinfield, and that in his earlier years, about 1288-90, 
when he constructed the shiine. 

Again, the south aisle, though less ornate, ia clearly 
of the same age or thereabouts ; consequently Swin- 


3 by Google 


field rebuilt both the aisles of the nave. The north 
aisle does not course ^ith the north transept, yet 
its base mould imitates it, though on another level. 
Probably the Norman aisles had given way, but Swin- 
fieldhad another object In view. The old aisles were low, 
as we see by the weathering of the older roof against 
the side of the north transept. The new aisles were made 
so lofty as almost to include the triforium, as is shown in 
Heame's view of the nave when in ruins after the fell of 
the west tower. 

Did Swinfield, however, stop here ? I think not ; for, 
though later in the style, the aisles of the presbytery are 
in the main a carrying on of the design of those of the 
nave, and the same may be said of the north-east transept. 
I should therefore call the style of the nave aisles " Early 
S^vinfield," and that of the presbytery aisles and the 
north-east transept " Late Swinfield," the latter term 
applying to the vaxilting of the whole ; for the foliage in 
the corbels of that to the nave aisles is not of the crisp 
kind of the earlier, but the softer type of the later variety 
of the style. 

In the north-east transept is the monument which 
Swinfield, no doubt in his later days, erected to himself. 
In it we first find a profusion of the ball flower ; and the 
foliage which ornaments the surface within the arch is of 
the softened form of his later style. 

It is not improbable that we owe to him also that 
series of t^cessed monuments and e£Bgies, by which so 
many of his predecessors are commemorated, in the walls 
of the presbytery aisles, though some of the effigies may 
he of later date, especially those which are not placed in 
these wall recesses. 

This brings us down to the period of his death in 1316, 
with, however, the reservation of the question whether 
or not he had a hand in the rebuilding of the central 
tower, which Professor WiUis seems to have thought. 

Swinfieid's successor was Adam de Orleton, who 
held the see fi-om 1317 to 1327, when he was trans- 
lated to Worcester and subsequently to Winchester. 
Two years after his accession, Mat is to say in 1319, 
one of the most remarkable circumstances in the whole 
architectural history of this church occurred. The Dean 


and Chapter, backed by the sanction of the Bishop of 
Salisbury (the reaaon of which will immediately appear) 
petitioned the Pope to sanction the appropriation to the 
fabric of the church of the tifchee of the parishee of 
Shinfield and Swallowfield in the County of Berks and 
Diocese of Salisbuiy, on the following grounds.- — " That 
they {the Dean and Chapter) in past times, wishing to 
restore the fabric of the Church of Hereford, upon an 
micient foundation, which, according to the judgment of 
masons or architects, who were reputed to be expert in 
their art, was thought firm and solid, had caused to be 
built many superstructures in sumptuous work, to the 
iionour of the house of God, on the construction of which 
they had expended twenty thousand marks sterling, and 
more ; and that owing to the weakness of the aforesaid 
foundation, that whidi had been built upon it now 
threatened ruin so severely thats according to similar 
judgment, there was no remedy to be had, unless the 
said fabric of tiie church were to be totally renewed. On 
account of which, and the expeiaes caused by the prose- 
cution of the canonization of Thomas de Cantilupe of good 
memory, Bishop of Hereford, they were oppressed ■with 
various burdens of debt." The Pope in a bull dated the 
following yeiu", 1320, grants their request, accompanying 
it with the assurance of a special devotion to "the blessed 
Thomas the Confessor, whose venerable rehcs the chxireh 
contained," and whose canonization he had so tardily 
granted only in the same year, the thirty-eighth from 
his decease. 

Now, this opens many and very complicated questions. 

First, what were the buildings which had tJius been 
erected on ancient foundations? Not the eastern chapels, 
for they were built on new foundationa Not the new 
aisles, for they had not ^ven way. I can only conceive 
of its being the tower and the north transept, though, 
it is true, they may have casually thrown in other 
parts not exactly tallying with the prenuses, as a make- 
weight, just as they (deariy exaggerated the circumstances 
in other respects, or we should now have no remains 
anterior to the bull of 1320. 

Second, what was done with the funds thus obtained ? 

Third, was the existing tower built previoudy and 


caused the failure, or was it rebuilt in consequence of 
that failure ? 

Fourth, had the Norman builders erected a tower? 
and, if not, had one been subsequently buUt, and by 

I will begin with the last questions. 

There can be no doubt, from Professor "Willis's descrip- 
tion, that a tower had existed before the present one, for 
its weight had bent domn the courses of stonework in the 
old parts below, which bending has been corrected in the 
later superstructure. This tower could hardly have been 
Norman, or it would not have been said to have been 
erected on ancient foundations; nor could it be the 
present tower, for that did not probably fail seriously tiU 
long subsequently. It was therefore of intermediate age. 
It was older than the north transept, for it had pressed 
hard upon that before it was raised to half its height. 
It may or may not have been older than the rebuilding of 
the clerestory of the presbytery. Its having bent that 
clerestory down by haJi a foot at least, looks at first sight 
as if the tower was of subsequent date ; but, on the other 
hand, I can hardly think that the clerestory would have 
been rebuilt at all had the older one not have been 
ruined by the subsidence of the tower. I am, therefore, 
indined to place it earlier, and this gives a colourable 

gTDund for the idea that it may have been built by De 
ruse, whose later eflBgy holds in its hand what appears 
to be the model of a tower. 

The architecture of the present tower is of a type common 
m the district. It seems intermediate between Early and 
Late Decorated, and is surcharged with ball-flowers. In 
this it agrees well enough with Swinfield's monument. 
It also agrees with the architecture of the south aisle at 
Leominster, to whose date I find no clue, and with a 
north chapel at Ledbury, bmlt in honour of St. Catherine 
Audley, who lived there as an anchoress in the days of 
Edward XL 

It fiu^her agrees in style with the south aisle at 
Gloucester cathedral, built by Abbot Thokey about 1318. 
It looks, however, just a shade later than this, so I con- 
clude that it was set about as soon as they b^;an to 
receive the funds granted them in the bull of 1320 ; and 


this is confirmed by the circumstance that the piers were 
strengthened, and at least one adjoining arch of the nave 
altered for greater strength, in a style agreeing with that 
of the tower. There is no old material to be detected in 
the renewed superstructure, all having been buUt of new 
blockstone, to give strength to its studiously light con- 
struction. It was, I dare say, a work occupying some 
years, but I cannot quite agree with Mr. Hills in prolonging 
it to far beyond the middle of the century. Possibly the 
outlay he founded this conjecture upon may relate to 
the western tower, which was — likely enough— a subse- 
quent imitation, probably for the reception of the bells. 

The tower is of singularly beautiful design throughout. 
It has some features precisely like those in St. Catherine's 
Chapel at Jjedbury, and some exactly like some in the 
south aisle at Leominster, and in the north aisle at 
Ludlow ; so, if we knew their dates, we could get at a 
fair clue to that of our tower. It is also much like parts 
of some other churches in the district, especially at 
WeobW and at Badgworth in Gloucestershire.' 

Mr. Gordon Hills tells us that on the 14th of April, 
1325, Bish(^ Orleton consecrated three altars in the 
church at Weobley, and that certain ptuts of this church 
have every appearance of having been rebuilt at that 
time ; " and tciat the nave, arcade is decorated with ball 
flowers placed in a hollow moulding on the arch precisely 
as in the tombs at the base of the work of Orleton's time 
in the cathedral" This is confirmatory of the supposition 
that the tower (which is fuU of ball flower) was begun at 
once after obtaining the bull in question, but rather 
against Mr. Hills' idea that it was still going on some 
forty years later. 

Mr. Grordon Hills, however, produces a piece of evidence 
pointing the other way in the bequest of Bishop Charlton, 
who held the see from 1362 to 1369, to the iabric of the 
belfry of St. Mary's Church at Oxford, which in its upper 
parts is also replete with the ball flower. Now, Charlton's 
tomb is nearly Perpendicular in style ; and I confess that 
it seems to me quite at variance with our evidences of the 

■ It aliui heart Home reeemUuice to the thare bss receoil^ bean piuT«d to be i 
u|>per HtsBB of the aouth-westem luwer HUbs*iueiit imitatiOD. 
■t lioliflald. The uorUi-weateni toww 



progress of the Decorated style to carry a work of such 
early character on to the extreme verge of the duration of 
the style. There are at Westminster, York, and at 
Gloucester, as early as the time of this bishop, works in 
purely Perpendicular style, and when we come to think of 
the advanced Decorated of the Eleanor crosses in the last 
decade of the previous century ; of the Lady Chapel at 
Chichester about 1308; of Prior Eastry's screens at 
Canterbury, 1304 {in which the lines of tracery are the 
same as in this tower) ; and of the Lady Chapel at St. 
Albans, in which we Imve flowing tracery filled with ball 
flowers before 1326, I cannot conceive that our tower 
work, which is so early in its appearance that Professor 
Willis places it quite early in the century, could have so 
lagged behind as to Unger on till close upon its third 
quarter. Mr. Parker (whose absence, and yet more its 
cause, we all so deeply regret), thinks that the ball flower 
work in St. Mary's steeple was the work of Adam de 
Brom, the first provost of Oriel, who died in 1332 ; so 
that I feel convinced that it was not to that part of the 
campanile that Charlton's bequest of forty shillings (which 
he says he had promised) was devoted. The spire may 
have remained unfinished or been, as so often was the 
case, injured hy lightning, and our Bishop may have pro- 
mised a subscription. 

The beautiful stall-work was of the late period of the 
Decorated style. It is of great dehcacy and originality of 
design, and finely executed. The throne seems somewhat 
later, hut is a very fine work. 

We are now getting towards the end of the more 
interesting parts of the Cathedral history. The transfor- 
mation of the south-eastern chapels into a transept was 
probably late in the fourteenth centiury, when the style 
had much deteriorated. Oddly enough, earlier windows 
were initiated ; not those in the Cathedral, hut perhaps 
those in St. Catherine's Chapel at Ledbury, though with 
a sad falling off in merit. 

Not long after the same time the beautiful Chapter- 
house and its vestibule were erected, in whirh a great 
revival in artistic taste is evinced. It was built before 
1375, because it contained in its vestibule, as Mr. Hills 
tells us, a monument of that date. The series of monu- 


ments about this time is interesting, as shewing 'the 
gradual passing off from the Decorated to the Perpen- 
dicular style. I leave the elucidation of these, however, 
to my friend Mr, Havergal, to whom we owe so very 
much for the careful identification and replacing in their 
proper positions of such as had been removed about 1841, 
owu^ to the repairs of the tower and preBbytery by 
Mr, Cottingham. 

Biahop Travenant's monument may be mentioned as 
the earliest purely Perpendicular work in the cathedral, 
and because its erection was accompanied by the rebuilding 
of the south wall of the south transept. He died in 1404. 
Possibly he also vaulted this transept and the crossing. 
Sometime before 1438 William Lockard, the Precentor, 
introduced a large Perpendicular window in the west end. 
Bishop Spofford, 1421-48, is said to have expended 2800 
marks on the buildings of his cathedral. 

Towards 1474 Bishop Stanbury erected his beautifii! 
chapel adjoining the north presbytery aisle. His monu- 
ment is not in, but opposite it. The monument and its 
effigy are very fine works indeed. His chapel contains 
the ef&gy of Bishop Richard de Capella, whose moniunent, 
formerly in the aisle, had been displaced by the erection 
of this chapel About 1500 Bishop Audley erected his 
chapel hard by the shrine of St. Thomas (Cantilupe) on 
the south side of the I-ady Chapel. About 1520 Bishop 
Booth made a very beautiful addition to the nortli porch, 
with a chamber over it for the bishop's archives. 

The later works to be recorded are rather works of 
deterioration than of improvement. Bishop Bisse early 
in the last century clothed the east end internally with 
work, of which, judging from the prints of it, even the 
Anti- Restoration Society can scarcely regret the loss ; 
and, possibly about the same time, some futile attempts 
were made to remedy the failure of the central tower ; 
works most successful in imparting hideousness to it, but 
utter failures as concerns strength. 

Towards the close of the last century the western 
tower {an addition of the fourteenth century) shewed 
unmistakable symptons of impending failure. More than 
one architect was consulted, and the worst advice accepted 
On Easter Monday in 1786 it fell, bringing ruin upon 


the adjoining parts of the nave. Its state after this 
catastrophe may be judged of l>y Heanie's view in his 
Antiquities of Great Britain, reproduced by Britton, 
•Tames Wyatt was called in, and to him we owe the 
present western faeade, probably the dullest piece of work 
to be found in any English cathedral, excepting perhaps 
the southern transept front at Cliester. He shortened 
the nave by one bay ; and, strange to say, took down the 
fine triforium and clereBtory which remained to the bays 
-which had escaped, and substituted for them a wretched 
design of his own, having no connection with any work 
in the cathedral. 

In 1840 serioxis symptoms of feilure were observed 
in and about the central tower, so that pubUc meetings 
-were held and definite steps taken. For a scientific 
description of these evidences of failure, I refer to 
Professor Willis' statement of 1841. Mr. Cottingham 
elaborately reconstructed the failing piers with (in 
great measure) the presbytery, and also the east end 
of the Lady Chapel externally, as well as repairing the 
work of De Vere behind the altar. At that time also the 
nave arcades were dealt with, and the very unsuccessful 
decoration appHed to the vaulting of the nave and its 
aisles. Of the work since that time I will say nothing, 
but that I am myself responsible for it. 

Having thus, hxuriedly and with scanty materials, given 
an outline of the probable architectural history of the 
building, I will only add in recapitulation that few of our 
cathedrals contain a more perfect series of specimens of 
the different styles of English ai'chitecture. We have 
Norman — not in its earliest, but in its more perfected 
phase. We have the Transitional style in De Vere's work 
behind the altar, in the vestibule to the Lady C'hapel. 
We have Early English in its earlier pliase in the Lady 
Chapel, and its later phase in the clerestory to the 
presbyteiy. We have a noble specimen of that style '" 
which perfected tracery is added to otherwise Early 
English work in the north transept and in Aquablanca s 
tomb ; we have developed Early Decorated in the Cantilupe 
shrine, and the nave aisles ; Decorated of one step later in 
the choir aisles, and another step later in the centre 
tower, and later yet in some minor features; we have 

VOL. XXXIV. 3 y 


Early Perpendicular in the south wall of the south 
transept, later, in Stanbury's Chapel, later again, in the 
Audley Chapel, and later than all, yet still excellent, in 
Booths porch.' So, were it not for the fall of the west 
tower and the consequent spoiling of the nave, few 
cathedrals would offer a wider field for study, as I hope 
will be found, when its work is examined on the spot. 

Mr. Gordon Hills is of opinion that tlie high altar was 
not placed in the eastern bay of the presbytery, but that 
this bay was cut off by a screen, as at Westminster and 
St. Alban's, as a place for the shrine of St. Ethelbert. 
I am not able to form an opinion on this subject, but feel 
a difficulty in receiving it from the fact that, if such were 
the case, the approaches hx)m the north and south to such 
chapel are shut off by the introduction of Stanbury's 
monument on the north and Bishop Matthews' on the 
south, leaving it to be appixwiched only by the two doors 
in the altar screen, which seem suited only to the use of 
the clergy. 

I will here mention that in the arr^igement which 
existed till the repairs undertaken by Mr. Cottingham in 
1841, the stalls were placed beneath the central tower, 
the eastern hmb of tlie cross being the presbytery. I 
confess myself responsible for this change. No trace of 
the old arrangement remained when the work was en- 
trusted to me, and for fifteen years the stalls had been 
stowed away in the crypt. A.t that time great stress was 
laid by ecclesiastical writers upon fitting the arrange- 
ments of oiir cathedrals to modem necessities, and at 
the same time to true church arrangement, making their 
choirs purely ecclesiastical, and openmg out their naves to 
the uses of the congregation. I was strongly carried 
away with this theory, and on again fitting up the choir 
I limited it to the eastern limb, introducing an open 
instead of a close screen. I am not sure that I should do 
so were my time to come over again, but I do beHeve that 
the uses of the cathedral have gained by it. 

3D. zed by Google 


Situated in Silurian territory, Herefordshire was, no 
doubt, the scene of some of tne leading events in the 
campaigns of Ostorius and Julius Frontinus. Whether 
the defeat and capture of Caractacus took place in this 
county, in Shropshire, or elsewhere, I do not however 
intend to enter into, but simply collate the information 
w^e possess of discoveries made, and of traces existing, of 
the Eomaji period, with the deductions that can with 
certainty (and without theorising) be made from the same. 
Leaving for the moment the Koman roads, (which wUl 
be considered immediately), we find that at the time of 
the compilation of the Antonine Itinerary, a.d. 138-144 
( ArchcBological Journal, vol. xxviii, pp. 112-113), there 
were three stations, named Magna, Ariconium, and 
Sravinium, which can, beyond doubt, now be proved to 
have existed in this county; whilst there are, in all 
probability, the sites of two or three others, named by 
Bavennas, existing within the same limits, stations of 
minor importance, and which possibly were not buUt until 
some time after the date of the Itinerary. 

The first and last named of these three stations were 
on the Roman road from Uriconiuin (Wroxeter) to Tsca 
Silurum (Caerleon), and occxu- only in the twelfth Iter of 
Antonine, in which, at a distance of twenty-seven miles 
from Wroxeter, is placed a station, named in some MS. 
copies of the work Bravinium, and in others Bmvonium. 
Until very recently the general opinion of antiquaries was, 
that a square camp on the line oi the above road, about a 
mile south of Leintwardine, and which went by the name 
of " BrMidon Camp " was the site of this station. This 
camp, which contains from six to eight acres of ground, is 
on a slight elevation, rising from the middle of a plain, 
uod lias a rampart which on the south side is eighteen to 


twenty feet high, and on the eastern side is also verj- 
l>ei-fect. Tlie northern rampart is much shattered, whilst 
on the west it appears never to have heen of any g^reat 
elevation, owing to the nature of the wound, the hill 
rising very precipitously on this side. The vallum in 
some places seems composed of earth, in others of loose 
stones. The only entrance is on the middle of the east 
side, and is very perfect. It closely overlooks the Roman 
road, which is a short distance to the east. At present 
there appears to he no vestige of a trench round it. 

But though this camp occurred very conveniently on 
the line from Wroxeter to Caerleon, at a proper distance, 
it wiis puzzling to antiquaries, that no Soman traces 
had been found there — not even a coin — ^whilst its Buriace 
presented, even when under tillage, none of the usual 
signs of a Roman station, in fragments of tiles, pottery, 
&c. The key to the solution of the site of this station 
would, however, appear to have been originally given by 
the Rev. J, PoiTiter in liis Britannia RomaTia, publislied 
at Oxfoitl in 1724, in which, when treating of the Roman 
camps in the various countit-s of England, he says at 
J). 54, " Herefordshire — in Dindar parish, near Hereford, 
js a camp called Oyster HiU. Another at Lanterdin, be- 
tween this county and SluvDpshire. Another at liedbury." 
This camp at Lanterdin or Leintwardine appeals to 
liave been completely overlooked, but in 1874 the truth 
was div\ilged. Mr. Banks, of Kington, in a letter to the 
Aivhceologia Cambrensis ^pril, 1874, p. 163), after 
speaking of the position of Leintwardine at the junction 
of the Clun and Teme rivers, says, — " From the junction 
of the rivers a strong and high entrenchment nms on the 
west of the village m a northerly direction for about 3fi0 
yards ; its present height above the ground level outside 
the enclosure is about eight or nine feet, and its width 
twenty yards ; the fosse has been filled up, the inner 
j>art of the entrenchment is gradually sloped off to the 
givjund level, and the outward face is steep. Altei'atlons 
of the giMund make it now impossible to trace the fonn 
of the vallum, and account for its unusual width. An- 
other old entienchment runs from the river Teme which 
foniis the southern boundaiy of the enclosure, nortliward, 
for the sivme distance, Iciivuig u space witliin about 208 


yai-ds wide. Within this area most of the observations 
Imve been made. Whenever graves have been dxig in 
the churchyard to the depth of eight feet, two layers of 
a«hes and cnarcoal intermixed with tiies, broken pottery, 
bronze articles and corns, have been passed through, the 
uppermost layer at a depth of six feet, and the lower one 
about a foot or eighteen inches beneath. A few years 
since, on the restoration of the church, a drain was cut 
tlirough the eastern entrenchment, but no trace of the 
iisby tiyers was found without the enclosure. The re- 
mains from time to time found were generally thrown 
away as rubbish, or dispersed, until Mr. Evans (the 
churchwarden) commenced his observations. Among the 
articles which he has stored away are half of a circular 
stone handmill or quern, pierced with a hole ; the upper 
part of an earthenware pounding mill, with a lip or nm; 
fragments of Roman pottery, a bronze ring, and a third 
brass of ConstantLne the Great, with a square altar on the 
reverse. At the noHh-eaat comer of the enclosure some 
grains of wheat in a charred state were found at the 
depth of a few feet -in excavating the foundations of a 
cottage, and on the south-west fr^;mentfi of thick brown 
pottery, apparently roof tiles, were turned up. There 
can, therefore, be no doubt that this was a Koman station, 
occupied for a considerable period. I think, therefore, 
we have now sufficient data to say it is the site of 
Bravinium, which appears in the twelfth Iter of Anto- 
ninus to have been situated midway between Magna 
(Kenchester) and Uriconium." Mr. Banka was appa- 
rently unaware of the Rev, J. Pointer's observation as to 
the uict of a Roman camp existing at Leintwardine, but 
I fiUly concur in his decision as to its being the site of 

The camp at Brandon would seem to have been either 
a temporary camp erected whilst that at Bravinium was 
constructed, or a summer camp to the latter station. 
Either of these hypotheses will account for the absence of 
Roman remains within it. At a further distance of 
twenty-four Roman miles the Itinerai'y places a station 
of the name of Magria, and accordingly at a corresponding 
distance, we have at Kenchester grand and imdoubted 
remains of a large castnim, which has been known and 


noticed since the days of Henry VIII, when Leland, in 
liis Itinerary, says of it — " Kenchester standeth a three 
mile or caore above Hereford, upward, on the same side of 
the river that Hereford doth, yet it is almost a mile from 
the ripe of the Wye. The towne is far more ancient than 
Hereford, and was celebrated in the Roman's time as 
appearethe by many things, and especially by antique 
money of the Csesars, very often found within the towne, 
and m ploughing about, the whiche people there call 
Dwarfe's money. The cumpace of Kenchester has heem 
by estimation as much as Hereford, excepting the Castle. 
The whiche at Hereford is very spacious. Pieces of the 
wall yet appear propefundaineTUa, and more should have 
appeared if the people of Hereford Towne and other 
thereabout had not in time past pulled down much, and 

?icked out of the best for their buildings." — Heame's 
leland, vol. v, p. 6G. 
Camden and Stukeley also notice at considerable length 
this station, which they very erroneously call Ariconiu7n. 
The great antiquary, Horsley, in his Bntatmia Romaiia, 
published in 1732, was the first to give it its proper 
name. Magna. The castrum is situated about five miles 
W.N.W. fram Hereford ; its form, as first described by 
Dr, Stukeley, is an irregular hexagoa Until about sixty 
years ago, it appears to have been a waste covered with 
del»is of buildings, &c. Leland saw it in this state, for 
in addition to what I have already quoted, he adds in his 
Itinerary: — "By likelihood men of old time went from 
Kenchester to Hay, and so to Breknok and Cairmardin. 
The place wher the towne was is all overgrown with 
brambles, hazels, and like shrubs. Nevertiieless, liei*e 
and there yet appear ruins of buildings, of the whiche the 
foolish people caull on (one) the King of Feyres Chayre. ' 
Ther hath been found nostra memo'na lateres Britannicl 
et ex dsdem canalea aqiuie ductus tesselata pavimenta 
/ragmentum catenulae aureae calcar ex argento, byside 
other straunge things." Dr. Stukeley fdso saw this 
" Chair " on the 9th of September, 1721, and has 
engraved it in his Itinerarium Curiosum, p. 66, pi, Ixxxv. 
It was again engraved at the commencement of the 
present ceutuiy for Britton and Brayley's Beauties of 
England and Wales, vol. vi, p. 583. From these en- 


gravings it would appear to have been part of the wall of 
fiome public building, containing a niche for a statue- 
Messrs. Britton and Brayley say of it (p. 584) — "Towards 
the east-end is a massive fragment remaining, of what is 
supposed to have been a Roman Temple. It consists of 
a Targe mass of cement of almost indissoluble texture, in 
which are imbedded rough stones iiregnlarly intermixed 
with others that have been squared. This fragment is 
called " The Chair," from a niche which is yet perfect. 
The arch is principally constructed with Roman bricks, 
and over it are three layers of the same materials disposed 
length ways. Here, in 1669, a tesselated pavement and 
stone floor were discovered, and in the succeeding year, 
according to Aubrey's Manuscnpis, buildings of Roman 
brick were found upon which oaks grew. — (Gough's 
Camden, vol. ii, p. 449). About the same time, Sir 
John Hoskyns discovered an hypocaust about seven feet 
square, the flues of which were of brick, three inches 
square, artificisdly let into one another. Another tessel- 
ated pavement of a finer pattern was found about seventy 
years ago, (1735 ?) but soon destroyed by the ignorant 
and vulgar. An aqueduct or drain of considerable extent, 
with the bottom entire, was also opened here about 
twenty years ago, (1785 ?) and various other vestiges of 
the ancient consequence of this city are very frequently 

It was in the second decade of the present century, 
however, that the greatest damage (in an antiquarian 
sense) was done. At that time the site which was, as 
Mr. Hardwicke (ArcJuBological Journal, vol. xiv, p. 83) 
observes " a complete wilderness of decaying walls and 
dSbris," was cleared, and no doubt many interesting 
remains were found, only to be again and more effectually 
lost. The exterior walls, however, remained in many 
places, disappearing gradually by being from time to time 
taken down in smaJl portions. It is certainly within the 
last fifteen years that the last portion of them has been 
destroyed. In the summer of 1 86 1 I inspected some frag- 
ments of them at the north western portion of the site, 
I'hey were fixjm six and a half to seven feet thick ; where 
large facing stones had been used they had been removed, 
and only uie core of the wall was seen ; in other places 


they were composed of "herring bone" masonry, well 
cemented with mortar. 

In 1840 the late Dr. Merewether (Dean of Hereford), 
commenced some excavations on the site. Through the 
courtesy of Mr. Franks of the British Museum, I have 
copied from some volumes of MSS, &c., in his possesEdon, 
belonging to the late Sir Hemy ElUs, a portion of a letter 
from the Dean to Sir Henry, dated from the Deanery, 
Hereford, 24th Oct., 1840, which refers to these ezcava- 
tions, as follows : — 

"My dear Sir Henry — During the last three or four days 
I have indulged myself with a holiday, after a long period 
of work, in making some examination into the site of 
Magna Castra (Kenchester), in this neighbourhood, and 
with remarkable success, at least, such as to prove that 
the whole extent of the twenty-one acres is replete with 
Roman remains, and many of the richest cbaracter. We 
have uncovered portions of three tesselated pavements, 
of different styles or gradations, the second and third 
being extremely beautiful ; the second, the border of a 
room, the centre of which has been destroyed — composed 
of red, yellow, blue, and white tesserae ; the third being 
a portion of the area of a room, highly decorated, and 
shewing the compartments of the varitnis devices, amongst 
which are a dragon and a fish, beautifully delineated and 
executed in variegated tesserae." 

"The annual ploughing of the land has reduced the 
protecting stratum of soil to a very thin covering at this 
spot, and Nos. 1 and 2 had been within an inch of the 
ploughshare ; and of course from that cause a part had 
been destroyed long since, as it was just on the brow of a 
slope in the field. My hope is tliat we may be able to 
take up in divisions, what has now been discovered ; to 
suffer it to remain would be to sacrifice either to the 
plough, or to the more relentless hands of the rustics and 
others (as we have aheady found), who visit it in oxu" 
absence. The main piece is covered up now pretty deeply. 

No. 1., I ought to have said, was a plain 

pavement of a bluish colour, and the apartment was quite 

small in which it was found The walls were 

weh built and faced. Quantities of stone, variously 

3 by Google 


painted were found, also coins and mill stones." A rough 
plan of the rooms and pavements is given in the letter. 

I am not aware whether the Dean made any subse- 
quent excavations, but Mr. Wright, in his Wandaings . 
of an Antiquary, says that "about 1846" the Dean 
found a pavement thirteen feet long and two feet wide ; 
the tesserae were red, white, blue, and a dark colour. 
Is this one of the pavements described in the Dean's 
letter, or another ? Certainly, a portion of one pavement 
discovered by him is in the Hereford Museum, whilst 


another, as the letter asserts, was covered up acain. 

From the account of the site mven by liur. Hardwick, 
the owner, it appears that the sou within the area is very 
dark, almost black, and quantities of charred wood, and 
molten iron and gln&s, have been found. The stones 
having been removed from the surface as deep as the 
plougn penetrates, very good crops of com are now raised. 
The land is loose and friable, and fine as a garden. In 
the drought of summer, streets and fotmdations of houses 
are quite visible in the verdure. The principal street lan 
in a direct line through the to^vn from east to west, and 
■was twelve or fifteen feet in width, " with a gutter along 
the centre to can-y off refuse water, as is traceable by the 
difference in the growth of crops. The streets appear to 
have been gravelled." Mr, Hardwick jUso says that no 
doubt many of the buildings were of timber, " for along 
the lines of streets, at regular distances, the plinths in 
which the timbers were inserted Irnve been taken up, the 
boles being cut about foiu* inches square, the plinths 
measured two feet in each direction, and lay two feet 
beneath the present surface." 

The sites of the gates of the castrum, four in number, 
vpere until lately (ifnot at present) plainly visible. They 
nearly correspond with the cardinal points. 

Amongst the most interesting rehcs found at Ken- 
Chester are two inscriptions. The first was found at the 
close of the last centuiy in the foundation of the north 
■wall of the castrwn, and is on a milliarium or milestone of 
the Emperor Numerianus, a.d. 282. The inscription as 

f'ven by Mr. Lysons in the Archceologia, vol sv, p. 391, 
ppencfix, and PL 27, fig. 2, is— 


D.D.t.zea by Google 



The first four lines plainly read Imp{eratore) C(asare) 
Mar{co, Atcr{dio) Nwneriano, but the last line, as 
pven in the copy, is unintelligible. Professor Hiibner 
suggests that the letters may be pfavq. As the 
letters rp are found in an inscription at Caermarthen 
standing for rdpuhliccB, I think it probable that 
BONO has been obliterated from the fourth line, and 
that the fifth has originally been R. P. nato. Mr. 
Lysons gives this last line as very doubtful, it being 
nearly obliterated. In 1800 this stone was in the possee- 
sion of the Kev. Charles J. Bird, F.a.A., but has since 
been completely lost sight of. If any one in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hereford can rive any clue as to its where- 
abouts at present, they wm confer a boon on archaeo- 
logists. This is the only inscription to the Emperor 
Numerian found in Britain, and they are very lure upon 
the continent. 

The second inscription occurs upon a small square piece 
of stone, one of the well-known medicine stamps of the 
Roman oculists. It is inscribed on all four sides as 
follows : — 

(1 ) (2-) 





The asterisks mark missing letters. On the upper surface 
the stone is inscribed senior, on the lower sen., the latter 
doubtless the abbreviation of the former, both being 
probably made subsequent to the larger inscription, and 
referring to the owner's name. All four of the sides it 
will be seen bear the words T. vindaci akiovisti ; to the 
first is added the name of the medicine anicet{vm), to 
the second another medicine nabd(vm), to the third 
the name of the medicine chloron, whilst in the fourth 
the name of the medicine has been obHterated. The 
English translation simply is that they are the Anicetum, 
the Nai-dum, and the Chloron of Titus Vtndacius AHo- 


vistus. The latter name " Ariovistus" is Geirman. This 
stamp was exhibited in 1848 to the British Archaeological ■ 
Association at Worcester by Mr. R. Johnson of Hereford, 
in whose possession it then was. (Vide their Jow-nal, 
vol. iv, p. 280). At the same meeting Mr. Johnson 
exhibited a horse's head in bronze, apparently made for a 
knife handle, a bronze fibula, some jet beads, and eight 
brass coins of Carausius, one of a unique type, all found at 
Kenchester. Mr. Johnaon had in 1867, when the Cam- 
brian Archteological Association held their congress in 
Hereford, a large collection of coins from the site. They 
were chiefly of the Lower Empire. Mrs. Hardwick of 
Credenhill bad also another collection, besides a number 
of fibulee and bronze figures. Mr. Wright, in Wandetiiigs 
of an Antiquai'y, p. 38, engraves and describes the figures 
of a mouse, a Hon, a cock, and a small hatchet or cultrum, 
all in bronze, found at Kenchester (probably children's 
toys), whUst on the 4th December, 1874, Mr. Soden 
Smith exhibited to the Institute a Roman bronze ring 
with original intaglio on glass plate, in imitation of niccolo 
onyx, from the same site. Lewis (Top. Diet, of England, 
edit. 1850, article 'Kenchester') tells us that in the 
hypocaust found in 1670 by Sir John Hoskyns there were 
entire leaden pipes. 

In 1829 a small bronze image of Hermes was found in 
excavating some ground in the city of Hereford. It was 
probably a lar (Liverpool Times, March 24th, 1829). 
There was also found some years ago, in excavdtions in 
one of the streets of Hereford, a Roman altar which had 
borne an inscription, but it was completely defaced. It 
is now in the local museum. The Rev, H, M, Scarth 
informs me that in the second line he thought he could 
trace the letters — 

. . NIIV 
and su^ests the word Minerva as being contained in 
the line, but all this is doubtful. Probably both the 
altar and the lar came from Kenchester originally, for 
there appears to be nothing Roman at Hereford. Many 
inscribed stones from Kenchester have certainly perished. 
Mr, Wright tells us that in reply to a query as to whether 
any Inscribed stones had been found, asked of an old 
villager at Kenchester, the old man replietl in the 


affirmative, but added that "they meant nought." From 
the discovery of the molten lead and glass and btimt 
wood, the destniotion of Magna, like that of Aricotdum, 
would appear to have been by fire. 

The third station, Ariconium, which occurs only in the 
tlurteenth Iter of Antoninus, and is there stated to be 
fifteen miles from Gtevum (Gloucester), is now generally 
allowed to have been situated at Bury -hill, near Bollitree, 
about three miles east of Soss. At this place there is an 
area of about iOO acres, over which the soil presents a 
deep black colour, and in which numbers of Roman coins, 
fi-agments of potteiy, fibiUfo, Sec, are found. Hoi-sley 
conjectured Ariconium to have been somewhere in this 
neighbouvliood, but was not aware of the existence of the 
site of Einy Roman town ui the locality. As Mr. Thomas 
Wright, in his Wanderings of an Antiqtiary, p. 25, says, 
" But while Ids (Horsley's) conjectures as to the exact 
locality fell first upon one spot and then upon another, 
he was totally ignorant that dose within the lunge of his 
conjectures, ou the bank I have just being d^cribing, an 
extensive thicket of briai-s and brushwood only partiaJly 
covered from view the broken walls and the rubbish of 
the very Ariconium of which he was in search. Such 
was the condition of the old town at Weston under 
Penyai-d, in the middle of the last centmy. Soon after 
that period, the proprietor of the estate, a Mr. Meyrick, 
determined to clear the ground and turn it into cidtiva- 
tion, and when he came to stub up the bushes, he found 
some of the walls even of the houses standing above gromid. 
AU these were cleared away, not without considerable 
difficulty ; and in the course of the clearing, great quan- 
tities of antiquities of all sorts are imderstood to have 
been found." 

In vol. vi, p. 514, of Britton and Brayley's Beauties of 
England and Wcdes, (published 1805), we have a fuller 
account of these discoveries. There were found "an 
immense quantity of Roman coins and some British. 
Among the antiquities were fibulfe, lares, lachrymatories, 
lamps, rings, and fragments of tesselated pavements. 
Some Pinal's were also discovei'ed with stones having holes 
for the jambs of doors, and a vault or two in which was 
eai-th of a black colom* and in a cinerous state. . . . 


Innumerable pieces of grey and red pottery lie scattered 
(at present, i.e. 1805) over the whole tract, some of them 

of patterns by no means inelegant Some of 

the large stones foxind among the ruins of this station, 
and which appear to have been used iu buUding, display 
strong marks of fire. During the course of last summer 
(1804), in widening a road that crosses the land, several 
skeletons were discovered ; and also the remains of a stone 
wall, apparently the front of a building ; the stones were 
welt worked and of considerable size. The earth within 
w^hat appeai'ed to have been the interior of the building 
was extremely black and shining." The same writer also 
informs us that the coins, which were chiefly of the Lower 
Empii-e, were of gold, silver, and copper. 

Mr. Wright further tells us (pp. 25-26) "that all the 
remains that were near the surface were destroyed, and the 
antiquities which might have enriched some local museum 
appear to have been scattered about and lost. .... 
The place can hardly be said to haye been explored by 
antiquaries, but Roman antiquities are often turned up 
by tne plough, and Roman coins are so plentiful that 
they may be procured of almost any of the cottagers. I 
was told that a gentleman of the neighbourhood riding 
across one of the fields had recently picked up a rather 
large Roman bronze statuette. Finding it somewhat 
cumbrous he put it up in the fork of a tree, intending to 
take it as he returned, but somebody had discovered it in 
the interval and carried it away. The present possessor 
of the land is Mr. Palmer of Bolitre, close to the site of 
the town called Aske Farm, perhaps from the ashes or 
cinders in the neighbourhood. . . . One of his (Mr. 
Palmer's) men, -miom we questioned on the subject, (of 
antiquities) could give us no ^rther information than that 
he knew such things were found, and he remembered that 
about twenty years ago when they were dialing a trench 
in the field where the old town stood, the latwurers came 
upon walls and the foundations of buildings. The gentle 
slope of the groimd on the western side of the site of the 
town towards Penyard is called Cinder Hill, and we have 
only to turn up the surface to discover that it consists of 
an unmense mass of iron scoriae. It is evident that the 
Roman town of Ariconium possessed very extensive forges 


and Binelting fumacee, and that their cinders were thrown 
out on this side of the town close to the walls. No doubt 
the side of the hill wa8 here oriainally more abrupt until 
it was filled up by these materials. The floors of some of 
the forges are said to have been discovered, but as I have 
just stated the place is almost unknown to antiquaries." 

In September, 1870, the members of the Briti&li 
Arehaeological Association, during their Hereford Con- 
gress, visited the site, when the above-mentioned Mr. 
Palmer sent a collection of articles found on the site for 
inspection, which form the subject of a paper in the 
Journal of the Association, vol xxvii, pp. 203-218. 
These consisted of one gold, six silver, and two copper 
British coins, some of them of Cunobelin ; one hundred 
and eighteen silver, billon, and brass Roman coins, ranging 
from Claudius, a.d. 41, to Magnentius, a.d. 350-353 ; 
twenty fibulse of bronze, a silver ring, six bronze rings, 
bronze keys, pins and nails, four intaglios (two of them 
cornelian), glass beads of various colours, bronze buckles, 
and other bronze instruments. This site is only eleven 
English miles from Gloucester, whereas the Itinerary 

fives the distance between Glevum and Ariconium as 
fteen Roman mUes ; but until we are certain of the 
Roman method of measuring, whether it was the same in 
a flat country as in a hilly one, it is useless to attempt to 
explain the diBcrepancy. Certain it is, that there is no 
other site in the neighbourhood which will at all suit the 
distances from the surrounding stations ; and upon these 
grounds, together with the fact of this ruined town being 
otherwise nameless, there can be little doubt of the 
correctness of the conclusion which places Ariconium at 
Bury-hill. The road from Ross to Gloucester, which is 
on the site of a Roman predecessor, passes about 
froi " 

half a mile from it, whUst the modem road from Ross to 
Newent actually passes through the station. la the 
ArcJitxologia, vol. ix, Appendix, p. 368, a figure of Diana, 
said to liave been found at this station, is described. 

As the Rev. J, Pointer was the first to point out (in 
the extract I have quoted) the site of Bravinium, so I 
think that when he says tnat there is " another (camp) 
at Ledbury" he points out the site of another station of 
which there is now even lees visible above ground than 



at Leintwardine, though at the commencement of the 
present century this was not the case. In Brayley and 
Britton's Beauties of England and Wtdes, vol. vi, p, 593, 
we gather a little more information as td this camp. It 
is there said that at a mile-and-a-half north-west from 
Ledbury there is a conical eminence called Wall Hills, 
the lower part of which is surrounded by large trees, and 
the vipper part is crowned by a spacious camp, the area of 
■which is between thirty and forty acres. It was then 
(1805) under cultivation, and had a single rampart and 
ditch, then half levelled. There were three entrances, 
one called the " King's Gate." In ploughing the area, 
spear and arrowheads had been found, with brass coins, 
antique horse shoes, and human bones. This camp has 
now entirely disappeared. Baxter, in his Glossarium 
Antiquitatum Britannicarum (1733) places ^fo^rna here, 
but very erroneously. From the combined evidence of 
Baxter and the Rev. J, Pointer I think that a station 
rather than a temporary camp existed here, though it 
might have been a British town originally, and subse- 
quently made use of by the Romans, especially as there 
appear to be some traces of a smaller summer camp at 

The Roman villas in the county, if we may judge by 
by the number discovered, appear to have been smgularly 
few. The first one to which any notice was prominently 
given was discovered at Bisliopstone, about a mile and a 
half westward from Kenchester, three and a half miles 
from CredenliUl, and seven miles from Hereford, in the 
year 1812, when digging a drain for the parsonage house. 
In the ArckcBologia, vol. xxiii, p. 417, there is an account 
of a tesselated pavement found in it, of which a drawing 
was exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries, June 10, 
by Thomas Bird, Esq., f.s.a.' This gentleman saj^, — "It 
appearing to me, that from its having been laid on a 
common bed of clay without any foundation, it was in 
great danger of being destroyed by the worms or by 
persons treading upon it in wet weather, I have had a 
plan taken upon a scale of one inch to a foot, for the 

' From the Manet writtsD by the poet coloun of ths pavement would appear to 
Wordnworth on these remainii, irhich he have been na bright ae when it was first 
siw at the time ot their discovery, the laid. 


purpose of preserving so beautiful a remnant of antiquity, 
which you will have the goodnees to exhibit to tie 
Society. The principal injury which this pavement has 
received is on the north ude, where a path appears to 
have been made from the north-east comer to the western 
end. The centre part is entirely destroyed, which is 
much to be regretted ; but from a careful and attentive 
consideration uf the pattern, which was found to corres- 
pond diagonally, my draughtsman has been enabled to 
restore the whole pavement, with the exception of the 
centre." (I have been recently informed that this plan 
of the pavement has been published by A. Frledel, 15, 
Southaropton-street, Strand, but have not been able to 
see a copy). The pavement, from information which I 
have gathered upon the spot, was afterwards removed 
into the cellai" of the rectoiy, but has now disappeared. 
There is little doubt but that the i-ectoiy stands upon a 
portion of the villa. Mr. Bird, in the above-named ajlicle, 
says that he had addressed some qneries to the then 
(1830) rector of Bishopetone, the Rev. A. J. Walker, and 
gives a portion of his reply, from which I extract the 
following : — " At distances of one and two hundred yards 
round this house we have dug up on every side Koman 
bricks, pottery, both coarse and fme, and many fragments 
of fimeml urns, and I am rather surprised that only three 
coins have yet been found ; a r^ularly pitched causeway 
or rather foundation has been found repeatedly ; and in 
Jime, 1821, in my kitchen garden, south-west of the 
house, a foundation of sandstone (which seems also at 
Kenchester to be the onli/ sfcone the Bomans employed) 
at the east end about three feet deep, and at the west 
deepening to about five feet deep, was discovered. This 
foundation is full three feet wide, and increases towards 
the angle, where it turns to five feet. I traced it to 
fifty-five feet ; it was substantially laid, but without 
cement. I found also a twenty-inch foundation wall, 
most strongly cemented, on the east side of the house. 
Considerable quantities of black earth, near the plac^ 
where Augments of urns have been found, are also dis- 
covered. Bones have likewise been collected at about the 
general depth of sixteen or eighteen inches, at which 
most of these Roman remains are met with at Bishop- 


stone. ....... 

" I ought to remark that the foundation above mentioned 
of fifty-five feet, with its right angle tvum, was parallel 
as far as I believe with the respective sides of the tesse- 
lated pavement ; there was no appearance of walls round 
the pavement," 

Another Roman villa (though not yet exploi-ed) exists 
on the boundary of the parishes of "Whitchurch and 
Ganarew, at the extreme southern part of the county, 
and in the midst of the Roman iron mining district (of 
which more immediately). A tesaelated pavement has 
lieen found and a number of coins, but no further 
I'esearches have been made, although there are consider- 
able inequalities of surface. It is situated in a meadow 
on the right hand of the road to Monmouth. (Lewis, 
Top. Did., edit. 1850, article ' Whitt^hurch ;' Wright, 
Wandenngs of an Antiquary, p. 14). Coins have also 
lieen discovered. Mr. James Davies, in the Arclueologia 
Camhrcnsis, vol. ii, 2nd series, j>. 50, says that in a 
Roman cahip at Walterstone vestiges of a Roman tesse- 
lated pavement have been found. This probably implies 
the site of a villa, imless the camp is full of foimdations, 
in which case a considerable station may have been hei-e.' 

At p. 40 of the same vol., the same gentleman says in 
a note — " In making excavations, during the constniction 
of the Gloucester and Hereford Canal, which crosses the 
parish of Stretton Grandison, several Roman remains were 
found, consisting of several pieces of pottery, a small 
weighing balance, resembling in form our common steel- . 
yards, and other curiosities, which are now in the custody 
of Mr. Philip Ballard, Widemarsh Street, Hereford, civd 
engineer to the Canal Company." There was probably 
another villa at this place. 

The only other vdla known to me has been quite 
recently discovered at Putley, about five miles west of 
Ledbury. At a meeting of tne Woolhope Club, at Here- 
ford, March 9th, 1876; and at a meetmg of the British 

' In Th4 jirclutobgia, toI. ti, p. 13, from the aunp at DooiMr. 

Mr. Stnuge m;b Uiat a Ronuui tesBelated Dnviea refer t« the mme pavement 1 Hih 

IMVeDientliad been ^incovered nt n place remark ttint itivan I'ntbe nimpwnulil neeni 

cnlled Cbr«rf Qttvtl, which lie sayn won to moke the pavement he nomeo totally 

two'mileB north of Old Cmitle. Tliitifipj>t rlialinct fmm that nnnicd l.y Mr. Slr;inRr. 
ia in Herefordshire, and bnrrly hulf n milo , 



Archseological Association, March 15th, 1876, {lide their 
Joumal,vo}.xxsu,p. 250), Mr. T. Blashtll exhibited several 
Roman flue tiles, flange tiles, bricks having the marks of 
sandals, woven cloths, cat's feet, and thumb marka, to- 
gether with Roman pottery. Sec, found in the foundation 
of the north wall of the church at Putley. Subsequently 
(Feb. 21st, 1877), the same gentleman repurted tne dis- 
covery of a number of Roman wall tiles, roof tiles, pottery, 
and other objects, found by John Riley, Esq., on his estate 
at Putley ; thus confirming the previous anticipations of 
a viUa being on the spot. It is not, however, yet explored 
Another important feature in the Roman antiquities 
of the county is the immense beds of iron scoriae and 
cinders, which cover nearly the whole of the southern 
part of the county, a great ^rt of Monmouthshire and a 
portion of Gloucestershire. The parishes of St. Weonard's, 
Hentland, Peterstow, Tretire, Bridstow, Weston-imder- 
Penyard, Llangarran, Walford, Goodrich, Welsh Bicknor, 
Ganarew, Whitchurch, &c., abound with them. Hand 
blomeries, with ore imperfectly smelted, have been found 
on Peterstow Common. Tlie beds of cinders are in some 
places from twelve to twenty feet thick. Many Roman 
coins and fragments of pottery ai-e found in them. Round 
Goodrich Castle the writer has tiuced them for many 
miles, and the number of mines and smelting plaees in 
this neighbourhood must have been immense. The hills 
called the Great Dowm^ and the Little Doward have 
been considerably mined. In the first named, the entrance 
to one of the Roman mines still remains in the hill side. 
It is a large cave-like aperture, with galleries running 
from it into the hill, in several directions, following of 
course the vein of the iron. It is now called "King 
Arthur's Hall." Aviconium would seem to have been 
the capital of this district, hut there were doubtless other 
small towns, which remain to be discovered. At Tretire. 
about for^ years since, Mr. Charles Baily, F.8.A., dis- 
covered a Roman altar, which liad been cut into the shape 
of a font, and used as such in the parish church. It is over 
twenty-nine inches in height, by sixteen inches in breadth, 
and contains the remains of an inscription, as follows : — 




( Wandei'inys of an Antuiuanj, p. 17, and Proceedings, 
fjondou and Altddtenex Arcfueological Society at Evening 
MeetiiufH, Session 1874, p. 147). It is to my mind veiy 
doubtful whetlier this is not an early Christian inscrip- 
tion, reading deo trivni, but it is at the same time 
scarcely probable that any Christian in that period loould 
erect an altar " to the Triune God." Dr. Mc Caul, in a 
recent letter to me, expresses the same doubt, and indeed, 
it is only just to say that Mr. Wright, when he first 
published the inscription some twenty-five years ago, 
made much the same remark. But so far modern anti- 
quaries (including Professor Hiibner, of Berlin) have read 
the inscription as Deo Tnvii, Bellicus donavit aram. 
" To the god of the three ways, Bellicus gives the altar." 
No doubt three ways or roads converged on the spot 
■where the altar was first set up.' 

In most of the English counties the discovery of hoards 
of Roman coins buried in the earth (not necessarily near 
a Etoman station) is a very common occurrence, but in 
Herefordshire there are few discoveries of this nature 
recorded. At " Copped Wood Hill," close to Goodrich, 
a lai^e collection of coins of the Lower Empire was dug 
up about 1817 {Wandenngs of an Antiquary, p. 14); 
and in 1855 a deposit of many thousands, of the same 
period, were found during draining operations in the 
Coombe Wood at Aston Ingham, in the south-east 
comer of the county, on the Gloucestershire border. 
They appeared to have been deposited in two chests, 
and ready for transport. Thirty-seven of them (now in 
the Gloucester Museum) were exhibited at the Gloucester 
Meeting of the Institute by I. Irving, Esq. They were 
all small brass, and were of the reigns of Maximianus, 
Maximinus Daza, IJcinius, Constantine the Great, his 
wife Fausta, Crispus, Constantine II, and Constantius II. 
The most singular fact connected with the discovery is, 
that near the spot where the coins were found " there is 
a gate, and according to local ti-adition the spot was 
considered to be haunted, and after nightfall pei'sons 

' It wtu uumuncwl a few luoutlu itince this altar to the Hereford HuMHim, but I 
tliat the ])Te>i«iit rector uf Trotirti, the aiu uut Hwnre wliethur this iiituntion ban 
Rev. K. F. Uwun, vim iibuut tu pnMaut been earned out 

3 by Google 


preferred taking a long circuit to venturing through the 
giite." — Catalogue Gloucester Tempwary Museum, p. 10. 

At Longtown, close to the Roman road leading to 
Abergavenny, there is a spot called "Money Farthing 
IliU,' which has, no doubt, derived its name (as is the 
case elsewhere) ii'om either the discovery of a large hoard 
of coins, or the fact of their havuig been for a long period 
occasionally picked up.' 

The Koman camps in tlie county, or such Britisli 
camps as were subsequently occupied by the Romans, in 
addition to tliat at Brandon, ah'eady described, must now 
claim attention. The first of these is the great camp at 
Ciedenhill, probably originally British, and after ite cap- 
ture converted by the Romans into a summer camp to the 
station at Kenchester, Situated on the summit of a hill, 
at about a mile and a half from the latter place, it is of 
an oblong shape, with the exception of one of the shorter 
sides, tliat to the south-west, being rounded. It encloses 
an area of about eighty aci^es, and has an entrance on 
each side, but, instead of their being in the centre of the 
sides, they ai'e all near the angles. Generally a single 
lumpart and ditdi suffices, but in weaker places there are 
two. The rampart is from ten to twelve feet high iii 
places. Roman coins and other remains have been lound 
within the area, and at the south-east angle is a covered 
way, leading to the Roman road from Magna to Bra- 
viniuvi. The close proximity of this immense camp to 
Kenchester, and its intimate connection with it by means 
of the covei-etl way, and the fact of the latter station 
being only about oue-foui'th the size of the camp, seems 
to have been the oi'igin of the name "Magna," — the 
Romans considering them botli as one lai^ town. In 
all probability the suburban buildings of the castrum 
(like similar cases on the Roman WalQ reached from the 
latter to Credenliill camp. This seems confirmed by the 
fact that in the cuttings for the Hereford and Brecon 
Railway, near CredenhiU, quantities of coins, pottery, 
horse shoes, and various other articles, were reported as 

■ Mr. Baiikx, in (legcriUng tbe itite ot ueai WsUord, and Uiitt fragmentit of 

JtraviiiiMm, at LeintH-anlJuu, myn tliat iwttery are oft«u bim«(l up in n BpIiI 

" nbuut twenty jiurii («u a qiuiutity uf u litUu higher u|i the valluy, ujiinwite to 

ItuinHii cuitb) wore fuuiid ou the ilruiiut^o Cuiall KaulL" 
of inrt ot tha Itrwnptuii Briuu cetHtu, 



having been turned up ; also a Roman road running from 
Kencnester to Credenhill, which the engineer (Mr. 
Itoberts) i-e])orted to have been cut tlu'ougli transvei-sely 
about two feet below the suiface of the ground, (Mr, 
Jas. Davies, in Ile-reford Times, Aug. I7th, 1867, reports 
these latter facts.) 

At Acconbury Hill, four miles south of Hereford, is 
another large Roman camp of a square form ; the rampart 
on the east side is comparatively perfect At Dinedor 
Hiil, three miles south east by south of Hereford, there is 
another conspicuous Roman camp — the one alluded to by 
the Rev. J, Pointer as " Oyster hUl." It is also called 
" Oster hill," and has been said by various writers to have 
derived its name from Ostorius Scapula, one of the Roman 
governors of Britain. There is not the least probability 
of such an oiigin of the name. Far more likely, that, as 
is usual on most Roman sites, quantities of oyster shells 
have been discovei-ed, and the hill afterwards called 
"Oyster hilh" 

At Bishop Eaton, about foiu- miles west from Hereford, 
another Roman camp occure on the banks of the Wye. 
It is from thirty to forty acres in extent, and is situated 
on the banks of the Wye ; with a single rampart and ditch. 
The area is under cultivation. Vestiges of another occur 
at Eardisley, five miles south by east fivam Kington. 
Britton and Lewis both report the existence of a small 
square camp at Pyon Grove, in the township of Yatton, 
parish of Aymestrey, seven miles north west from Leomin- 
ster. It overlooks the Watling street, on the opposite 
side of which is the large British camp of "Croft Ambrey." 
Lewis says that " the embankments of both are well worth 
the visit of the antiquary." 

A little to the south west of the village of Michael 
Church is a large squai'e camp ; the turnpike road to 
Hereford i-uns through it. It is marked in the Ordnance 
Map as " Camp Field," and is known in the locality as 
" Gmer Cop." This is close to Tretire, where the altar 
was found. At Burghill, four miles north west of Here- 
ford, Mr. Britton says that a square camp exists. This 
probably is a reference to the earthworks iidjoining the 
churchyard at Burghill, which are well defined, and to 
which the " Portway " seems to have led. They were 


visited by some of the membere of the Cambrian Arelia;- I 
olcigical Association, on 1 5th August, 1867. BritUm 
vejKirtH the existence of another sqiuire camp, three miles 
to the north west of this, and about a mile from Canon 
Pyon. I have no information as to it. On Bradnor 
mountain, near Kington, there is a square camp of small 
siza In the Golden valley, on an eminence above Vow- 
. church, there is another small square Roman camp, with 
extensive views to the south eaat. This overlooks, 
though at the distance of two or three miles, the Roman 
road from Magna to Gobannium (Abergavenny), Further 
to the south there is another camp overlooking the 
lute of this road. It is about a mile to the west of the 
railway station at Pandy, on a spur of the Black mountains. 
The original camp is rectangular — 485 feet by 240 ; but 
attached to its south east side is a similar sized camp, of 
a semicircular shape, and having a double ditch and ram- 
part. At nearly two miles north east of this, there is, 
above Walterstone, another camp ; which, I presume, is 
the one referred to by Mr. Davies, as containing a teasel- 
ated pavement. Its shape, however, being circular, it 
must have been merely occupied, and not made, by the 
Romans. About a mile north of Brockbampton there is 
on Caplar HiU, another large camp, probably occupied by 
the Romans ; whilst three miles further northward is 
the camp at Blackbuiy, clearly made, as I think, by that 
people. Mr. Duncomb, in his History of Herefordshire, 
vol. ii, p. 236, from information derived from the MSS. of 
Silas Taylor, says that in the park of the Bishop of Here- 
ford, at Whitboume, there was a Roman intrenchment, 
(and on the opposite side of the valley a British camp, 
which was circular). Another fine square Roman camp 
exists about a mile east south east of Upper Sapey. 

On the line of the Roman road from Kencheater into 
Worcestershire there exist some traces of a square camp 
at Stretton Grandison. Baxter in his Glossarium Anti- 
quitatum Bntannicarum, from this circumstance, placed 
the Roman station Cicutio — named, with five others, by 
the anonymous Ravennas in his Cfiorography as existuig 
between Caetieon and Kendiaiter — at ttiis spot. Mi-. 
James Davies (in seveiul papere), from the slight dis- 
coveries of jwttery, &i;., imide on the site, promiUgates 


the same idea, for which I cannot see the shadow of a 
foundation. Nothing but future discoveries of inscrip- 
tions can decide the situation of any of the above named 

In addition to these Roman camps, I think there is 
little doubt, from the course of the Roman roads, that the 
British camps at Sutton Walls (three and a half miles 
north of Hereford and containLig thirty acres) at Eisbiuy, 
St. Ethelbert's camp above Mordiford, another camp 
foxTuerly existing (if not at present) half mile north of 
Fownhope, and the great camp at Thombury called 
"Wall Hill," were occupied at one period or another by 
the Romans. It is possible that there may be other 
decided Roman cnmps in the county, but imless that 
at Ivington be classed as one I am ignorant of any others ; 
however, in such a case, some local antiquary may be able 
to supply the omission. 

Having thus considered the Roman stations, camps, 
villas, iroE works, and other remains in the county, it is 
necessary to speak 'of the means of communication between 
them in the shape of roads. 

The first road, which was probably also formed earlier 
than the others, and now bears the name of "Watling 
street," enters the coxinty at its north-west extremity 
from Shropahire near Marlow and runs to the station 
Bravinimn at Leintwardine, past its summer camp at 
Brandon, by Wigmore, past the small square camp at 
Pyon Grove, through Aymestrey, and Mortimer's Cross, 

gist Street Court, through the parish of Eardisland, to 
ainstree Cross, and Stretford. Thence it runs through 
the valley between Dinmore and Canon Pyon to Burghill. 
Here it bears the name of the Portway, and turning to 
the south-west it passes through the village of Credenhill 
under the camp, and so on to Kenchester. As the author 
of the Itinermy considers the road south-west from 
Kenchester to Abergavenny and Caerleon to be a con- 
tinuation of this one, it is best to consider it as such in 
the present instance rather than treat it as an indepen- 
dent road. After leaving Kenchester it proceeds to the 
bank of the Wye, crossing that river near the " Old 
Weir," and runs south-west by WormhUl to Wyddyats 
Cross at Madley. Here it is very conspicuous, and has 


long been known as Stone or Stoney sti-eet. Thence it 
proceeds by Brampton Hill, but is much obliterated 
beyond ; truces of it are, however, found at Abbey 
Dore and Ewyaa Harold, at which latter place we find 
the name " King street " applied to it. It then passes 
near Old Castle, by the camps at Waltenston and Pandy, 
and immediately aftenvards enters Monmoutlishire and 
proceeds to Abergavenny (Gobannium). This road, part 
of the twelfth Iter of Antonimis, is decidedly, fiom its 
remains, one of the Higher Empire. The other twuI 
mentioned in the Itinerary (thirteenth Iter) enters the 
county from Gloucester, somewhere in the neighbourhood 
of Aston Ingham {where the find of coins occurred), and 
proceeds to Bury hill (Ariconiuvt). It is now altogether 
obliterated. Its direction after leaving Anconiiim is 
uncertain. According to the Itinerary ib led to a station 
called Blestium, eleven miles from Ancoiiium, whicli has 
been fixed at Monmouth, though upon no sure groHnds. 
In any event its coiirse through the southern part of 
Herefordshire is a short one. Another fine Roman road 
coming from Builth, eastward, crosses OfBi's Dyke, near 
Downs hill, and running south of Bishopstone enters 
Kenchester, upon leaving which it proceeds by Stretton 
Sugwas and Holmer, crossing the Lug at Lug Bridge, 
past the "Black Hole" by moor-end and Pnrbrook to 
Street lane, and on to Stretton Grandison, after which, 
passing Frome hUl, it enters Worcestershire, running 
by MSvem and Worcester. Near the "Black Hole" 
another Roman road appears to cross it, which, in a 
southern direction, passes by Hagley and Bartestre 
Chapel, and points towards Mordiford. Sir R. C Hoare 
traced this road southward to Ariconivm. It apparently 
went by Fownhope, under the large camp on Caplar hill, 
by Brockhampton and How Caple to Bury hill (.^j-i'- 
conium). In vol. xxvii of the Journal of the British 
Archaeological Association, p. 381, Mr. James Daviessays 
that there was a road from Bravinimn branching off the 
WatUng street at Wigmore, by Croft, Stockton, Ashton 
to Comer Cop, "thence to a place called the 'Trumpet,' 
by Stretford, and along a lane called Blackwardine lane, 
under Risbury Camp to ' England's Gate,' and so on to 
Stretton Grandison, tvhere Cicutio was situate. This is 


the only road in Herefordshire which is not noticed by 
Sir R. C. Hoare, but there is the evidence of nomendature 
in support of it in many localities." 

As far as " England's Gate " I can endorse Mr, Davies's 
remarks, but, instead of leading thence to Stretton Gran- 
dison, I think he will find that it is a continuation north* 
-wards of the road I have just described as starting from 
the cross at the Black Hole. Northwards this road leads 
through Withington, and just beyond this is called 
" Duck Street," pointing direct {through Preston Wynn) 
towards "England's Gate."' But another road may be 
traced south-^st from Stretton Grandison, leading very 
straight through Ashperton, Fixley, east of Aylton, and 
Little Marcle, where it is only a roile from the Putley 
villa, and a short distance from the large camp at " Wall 
Hill," near Ledbury. It then enters Gloucestershire by 
Preston and Newhouse Bridge, leading through Dymock 
to Newent. About a mile from the latter town a " Gold 
Arbour " occurs upon its route. 

From the occurrence also of "Street Field," near the 
great camp at Thombury {Wall Hill), it is probable that 
a Roman road ran in that direction, but if so it has not 
yet been traced. 

1 also incline to the opinion that a cruciform earthwork 
at St. Margaret's, described in the Archaological Journal, 
vol. X, p. 358, and vol. xi, p. 55, was a Roman hoUmtimts 
similar to several found in recent years in Yorkshire, and 
described by Mr. Monkman, of IV^ton, in the Yorkshire 
Archaological Journal. 

Such, as far as I am able to trace them, are the foot- 
prints of Rome, in the county of Hereford. I by no 
means assert that I have reachra perfection in the matter. 
Far otherwise. The subject is a difficult one ; and local 
antiquarians may be in possession of much information 
which it is impossible for a non-resident of the district to 
obtain. If so, I would ask them, for the benefit of 
archfflology in general, to make pubUc whatever know- 
ledge of the subject they may possess. In the meantime, 
I trust that my imperfect endeavours to mould into shape 
and form, the scattered fragments which we possess of 
" Roman Herefordshire," may not be without interest to 


Dci-zec by Google 


the members of the lostitute, when meeting in the city 
around which they radiate. 

Mr. Thomas Wright, in his Uriconium, p. 48, makes 
the branch road which I have noticed as pasang through 
" England's Gate," run to Brodert's Bridge, near Worfer- 
ton, and adds — " In fact, Blackwardine appears, by the 
great quantities of Roman remains found there, to have 
been some rather important station." 

Since then I have made several important enquiries as 
to this place, and find that it takes its name from the 
black colour of the soil, different to all the land around 
it, like the site of many other Boman stations. I cannot 
hear of any foundations being discovered, but Roman 
coins of brass, silver, and copper have been foimd, among 
them those of Augustus, Trajan, Constantine the Great, 
and coins of the urbs Roma type, with the reverse of 
Romulus and Remus being suckled by the wolf; also 

Ct quantities of Roman pottery, honea of animals, 
an bones, and various other relics. Several local 
antiquaries make the road, passing this station, fall into 
the Watling street at Wigmore. 

3 by Google 


" The rfory of children are their fathers," we are 
told in the well-known motto of the Harleian Society, 
and the men and women of Herefordehire may be fairly 
congratulated on their glorious ancestry, and the long 
array of noble and histonc names they have added to the 
roll of fame and the annals of our common country. If 
our pride of ancestry gives place in any degree, it is to 
that courtesy and " simple faith " of which the Laureate • 
sings as being superior to "Norman blood." In Hereford 
■we - have met with courtesy, and have seen so many 
manifestations of simple faith, that we may fairly say 
that the fathers of the land are not di^raced by then: 
children, who have received us so hospitably during the 
present Meeting. 

It is not my purpose to give a general dLsquiaition 
on the fathers of Herefordshire, but to trace out the 
stream of life of one family as far as possible, and to 
show how it has had its volume increased by other 
streams, and how it in its turn has lost to a great 
extent its distinctive name, which, though not unknown 
at the present time in our midst, is no longer associated 
"with me historic sites, lordly castles, and taronial halls 
which once resounded with their names and were filled 
with their retainers. Many families of renown yet 
quarter the white roses on the red bend crossing the 
gold and azure bariy of six of the family of Lingen, and 
consider it a honour to do so. The Princes of Powis no 
longer wage war against the Loi-ds of Sutton Walls, for in 
the veins of the descendants of Sir John Lingen, living 
when Hereford gave a title to the reigning king, the 
blood of both families flow in harmony and in peace. 
The story of the family of Lingen, with its loves, its 
tn^edies, and romances, can hoJdly be separated from 


the places which they made their own, aud some of which 
are mchided in the programme of the Meeting. 

At a time wlien the City of Herefoi-d was in its infancy, 
and its distinctive name was hardly known, a family of 
some importance resided in the chattelhiny of Wigmore, 
a pUce afterwittds renowned as the seat of the Norman 
family of Mortimer. Their early history is involved in 
doubt, but at the time of the Domesday survey one 
Turstin (the Fleming) de Wigmore, who married Agnes, 
daughter of Alured de Merleberge, held the manor of 
Lingen, on the borders of Shropslure, under the Mor- 
timers. It is worthy of note that many Flemings had 
settled in South Wales previously to the Conquest, and 
in the course of the next fifty years large colonies were 
formed in Pembrokeshire. This Turstin is admittedly an 
ancestor of the IJngens, who assumed that patronymic in 
the reign of the first Richard (circa 1190), when Ralph 
de Wigmore founded the Priory of Limebrook. This 
adoption of a &esh surname is not uncommon, a well- 
known instance occurring in the case of Turchill, the 
Sheriff of Warwickshire at the time of the Conquest, 
who, on being dispossessed by the Conqueror, retained 
certain manors under the Norman earls, and assumed the 
surname of Arden, from the forest land in which the 
estate were situate. The coat armour of the early 
Lingens was argent, charged with three chevronells 
sable ; or, as an old pedigree has it, three greyhounds ; 
but a change of coat armour was not uncommon, for the 
ancient family of Shirley changed their simple pales of 
or and sable in the same manner, when the distinctive 
lines of Norman and Saxon became merged into one 

general English nation, and the laws of heraldry better 
By nis marriage with Agnes Merleberg, Turstin ac- 
quired the manor of Much Cowame, and nis son JEUdph 
appears to have married Joyce, the daughter of Sir Jasper 
de Croft, of Croft Castle, a family long and honourably 
distinguished in Herefordshire history. He appears to 
have left two sods, the first Sir William Wigmore, who, 
like his father-in law, became a knight of the Hoiy 
Sepulchre, and married Rose, the daughter of Sir Walter 
Pcdewardine, but left no descendiuite. His brother Ralph 


succeeded to the estates aiid founded the Priory of Lime- 
brook as before mentioned. His eldest son, Sir John 
"Lingen, first bore the Lingen arms, Ijany of six or and 
azui'e; on a bend gules, three roses argent. We have no 
record of who his mother was, or whom he married. His 
brother Brian became a secular canon in the monastery 
of Wigmore. We have no record of the doings of the 
liingen family during this period (circa 1086 — 1250), but 
aa the Lingen estates were held of the Lords of Wigmore, 
and the Mortimers were busy now against the Welsh, 
and now opposing the Empress Maud, these feudal 
vassals would follow their fortunes and engage in the 
crusades. This Sir John Lingen appears to have left 
four sons and one daughter — a daughter renowned among 
the romances of Herefordshire, and whose name in the 
family pedigree is eiuroimded by a gilded band. Con- 
stantia Lingen married in 1253 Grimbald, son and heir 
of Richard Pauncefort, a name not unknown in Leicester- 
shire pedigrees, and her marriage settlement is dated 
1 253, by which John de Lingain gives to the bridegroom's 
father, Richard de Pauncefort, " sexies virginti et decem 
marcas, duodecim boves et centum ovea " and the manor 
of Much Cowame. Richard de Pauncefort gives his son 
Grimbald "centum solidates terrse in maneria de Hatfield 
de quibus dictus Grimbaldie dictam Constantia dotabit ad 
ostium Ecclesise quando ipsam desponsabis ; " he also 
promises to settle further property as a Jointure. This 
dower shows the wealth and position which the family 
bad acquired. This lady is said to have been not only 
very b^utiful, but noted for her conjugal attachment, 
which is vouched for by the following anecdote : — 
"Li 1720 Grimbaldis Pauncefort joined Prince Edward, 
son of Henry IH, and Louis TX in the ninth and last 
crusade. He does not appear to have reached the Holy 
Land, but to have been captured by the Saracens at 
Tunis, about the time that Louis IX was struck down 
by the plague. The infidels demanded for the ransom of 
their captive no less a price than a limb of his wife 
Constantia, of whose beauty and constancy they appear 
to have heard. The present rector of Much Cowan, the 
Bev. J, G. Graham,' haa thus embodied the incident in 

' Foruiuriy Ciu-uto at Huly Trinity, Coventry. 


Ilia memoir of Much Cowarne Church : — 

No suouor hears Constantia tliat do less 
Will fVoo her huaband than her seTer'd hand, 
At once she deoided with love's promptitude 
To fulfil the hard condition. when 
Did hardness e'er deter woman ^m deed 
Of kindnesa ? The hardnees which others see, 
Hbe Bees not ; or rather heeds not : true love 
Shall contjuer all. like the fair Qodiva 
She laughs at hard conditions which depend 
On her alone. Or, like that lady brave 
"Who gave her arm to serve for bolt to guard 
The precious lives of those she lov'd so well. 

But to our tale. The limb is lopp'd and sent ; 
The captive is set &ee, How can we think 
But that he hastens home as fast as horse 
And ship can bear him ? Let Prince Edward ' win 
His bootless honours — love is more to Mm 
Thau aught on earth — though he be belted kni^t, 
Honour lies now in speeding to his home. 
'We can almost mark the spot — almost track 
The winding Jane 'long which Grimbaldus rode — 
The very spot on which these lovers met. 
For who heneeforth would lore' as they ? 

We may smile at this legend, romantic though it is, 
notwithstanding that Duncumb, in his History of Here- 
fordskire, tells ua that Constantia Pauncefort's heroic 
conduct is confirmed and proved by the fact of her 
husband's altar-tomb, with their recimibent efiBgies, once 
existing at the east end of the south aisle of the church, 
the latter croas-legged, and habited like a Norman knight, 
the former exhibiting her left arm couped above the 
wrist. The battered and defaced remains of Grimbaldus's 
effigy have alone survived the ravages of time, and now 
lie on the north side of the chancel, a precious relic of the 
past. When and why it was placed tnere the writer has 
been unable to ascertain. Duncumb informs us that the 
dispersed fragment (alas 1 we have now to use the singular 
number) of the effigies and monument were examined 
in the sixteenth century by Mr. Silas Taylor, and the 
following is his account in his own words {MS. HarL 
BibL) : — "To gainsay the report about it, I diligently 
viewed the record which might have between the two 
figures : the female liiid next the wall of the south aisle, 
on her right side, by which means his left side might be 

' Two yoani afturu'iirdB King Edward L 


contiguous to her right, the better to answer the figure ; 
alflo, the stump of the woman's arm is somewhat elevated, 
as if to attract notice ; and the hand and wrist cut off are 
carved close to his lefb side, with the right hand on his 
armour, as if for note."- In Gough's Sepulchral Monu- 
ments, part ii, vol, i, ccxxvlii, 1796, there is an allusion 
to this monument, but tlie account is evidently taken 
from Duncumb, and contains no new particuIaiB. The 
story may have some foundation in fact, but it probably 
arose from the mutilated effigy. 

Passing from the realm of fable, we know that the 
text of the marriage settlement of this memorable pair is 
preserved by Blount. 

Constantia's brother, the second Sir John Lingen, 
i-eceived a grant of free warren of Lingen, in the 40th 
year of Henry III. He lived during the long and 
troublous insurrection of Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and 
appears to have been one of the Commissioners, with 
Roger de Mortimer and the Earl of Gloucester, appointed 
to settle tenns with the discontented Welsh, for the 
injuries done to Prince Edward. In these disturbances 
we find the name of Peter de Montfort of Beaudesert, in 
Warwickshire, a follower of his namesake, the great Earl 
of Leicester, and the first Speaker of the English Parlia- 
ment. This Sir John de Lingen was, in the year 1260, 
one of the witnesses to a grant fi*om Walter de Clifford, 
Lord of Corfham, to Sir John de Haleton, of six acres of 
his "bog" (^) at Cleobury, to be measured by the royal 
perch, and with license to dig coals within the Forest of 
La Che, to sell or give away. One of the first records of 
coal in Shropshire. He appears to have fought with the 
Mortimers against Simon de Montfort at Eveshiun, 

A third John de Lingen was knighted by Edward the 
First, according to Ashmole, "at a great solemnity, in 
order to a royal voyage against the Scots." The family 
was becomiiw more influential in the county, for Halph, 
son of this Sir John, became M.P. for Hereford in 1374, 
and married Margery, sister of Sir Robert Pembru^e, of 
Tong Castle, Siuoti ; and his second son, Richard de 
Iiingen, married Isabel, daughter of PhiUp Holgate, 
4th of Henry IV. This Richard appears to have been 
entrusted with some special powers by the king. A 


warrant is extant and pi-inted in Blount's Law Dictionary, 
of such an unusual nature that I give it in full: — 

" Ridiard de Lingein, Emprover desueti commission. 
Nostra ne dont Seigneur le Prince deins le Comte de 
Hereford et le Marches ad joygnant a toutry y ceuxt qui 
cests letters verront ou orront Balutez. Sachery moy 
aver grant a ime lanin de Brompton, loyal et leige noetre 
Seigneur le Roy et ses servantee de vendre et le Marche 
ad joygnant sans empechment ou arrest de nulluy come 
loysJ et leige hommes a son propre use et encrese sotm 
ref're$hment des Rebels de gales. Et c^t mon lettre 
serra son garrant. En temoinage de quel chose a y ceste 
jay mise mon seal. Don a Lemestre le ll"" jour de 
Jules le Ann de Kege 6 Roy Henric le quart apr^ le 
conque quarte," 1403. Owen Glendower being then ui 
arms agEunst the king. 

Long before this Ralph Lingen, the nephew of Richard 
and son of the first Ralph Lingen, had succeeded his 
father in the representation of Herefordshire. He sat in 
the Parliament of 1382, and married Jane the daughter 
of John Russell, presumably judging from her arms of the 
Strentham family in Worcestershire. We no longer find 
the Lingens identified with the manor from which they 
took their name. This Ralph Lingen is styled of Sutton, 
or of Sutton Freene, a place historically interesting from 
its connection with the seat of the Mercian kings, and the 
site of the pilace where the tragedy took place, which 
disgraced Ona's name, and induced hun to found, as some 
retribution, the grand cathedral of Hereford, of St 
Alban, and made a pilgrim^ to Rome in expiation of 
his crime. The event is noticed by PhUlips in his Georgic 
Cyder : — 

" Aid Sutton acres drench'd with regal blood 
Of Eth«lbert, when to th' unhallow'd feast 
Of Mercian Ofia, he invited came 
To treat of Bpousals ; lonff oonnubial joys 
He ipromU'd to himaelf, allur'd bj &ir 
El&ida'a beauty, but deluded, dy'd 
In height of hopes — oh I hardest fate to fall 
By shew of fHendship and pretended love." 

Sutton appears to have remained in the possession of 
the Crown until the Conqueror granted it to Nigel, 
the physician to the king. Henry I. granted free 


warren of this part of Sutton, then known as Sutton 
St. Nichohis, to Alexander the Secular, whose daughter 
married "Walter de Freene, Lord of Moccas (circa 1290). 
Two parts of it hecame the property of the Talbots, but 
were sold by Sir John Talbot to Clementina, daughter of 
of Stephen Weite, who married Richard Walwyn, of 
Hellens, 1420, whose descendants sold it to the Lingens, 
who held the other portion of the lordship. As earfy afl 
Henry III the Lingens held the royalty of fishing and 
fowling in the king's manor of Marden, adjacent to 

Isabel, the sister of this lUdph Lingen, who died 
in 1446-47', married ber cousin Fulke de Pembrugge, 
and the last male of his lina She was busy in the twmith 
year of Heniy IV (1410) in the foundation of the 
itjligious establishment since known as Tonge College. 
In the chancel of the college are the arms of Lingen and 
the arms of Ludlow empaling Lingen, a lion rampant 
double queued empaling Lingen (Dudley or de Mont- 
fort), wni(^ Blakeway, in his Sheriffs of Shropshire, 
does not say. She appears to have married three times 
— first, FuUie de Pembrugge ; second, Sir John Ludlow ; 
third. Sir Thomas de Peytevine, whose arms I have not 
been able to discover. 

The first time the name of Lingen occurs in the roll of 
the Sheriffs of Herefordshire is in 1470, when Sir John 
Lingen, knight, of Sutton and Lingen, held that office. 
We find him holding it agam in 1476. In 1486, in 1495, 
and in 1522, and for the next century, the name ot 
Lingen is conspicuous in the sheriff roll. This Sir John 
Lingen married Isabella, the third daughter and coheir of 
Sir John Burgh, knight, Lord of Mawddwy, who died in 
1471, the last heir of the princes of South Wales, Lords 
of Powis. The de Biu^hs exercised great power during 
the reigns of the Lancastrian princes. Sir John was four 
times Sheriff* of Shropshire, and was a pei-son of gi-eat 
magnificence. He had greatly " increased the family 
estates by manying Joane, the younger daughter and 
coheir of Sir William Cloptou, of Itadbroke, knight, 
whereby he acquired the manors of Radbroke and 
Olopton, in the ox)unty of Gloucester, and divers other 
lands and manors, in the counties of Warwick and 


Gloucester." ' The other coheir of iSir "William Clopton 
married first, Roger Harewell, of "Wotton Wawen, in the 
county of Warwick, and secondly, Thomas Herbert. As 
the descendants of the coheiresses of Sir John de Burgh 
still exist, I may briefly here mention that Elizabeth, 
the eldest, married William Newport, the ancestor of the 
Earls of Bradford; Ankaret, the second daughter, married 
John Leighton, of Leighton, Salop ; Isabella, the third 
daughter, married Sir John Lingen ; and the youngest 
daughter also named Elizabeth, married Thomas Mytton, 
of Shrewsbury, a well-known family in Shropshire annals. 
. The property of Sir John de Burgh does not appear 
to have been divided for several years after his death. 
Among the Loton papers is preserved a singular letter 
on the subject of this partition from Sir John Lyngen to 
Sir Thomas Leighton, written in Ifitli Henry VII: — 

"To my ryght worshipfull cosen Sir Tliomas L^hton 
[be] this delivered in all baste." 

" Right worehipfull Syr, — I recomannde me unto you 
desyring to hear of your prosperitie, whiche J'hu p'serve. 
Amen. Lettying you to underston that my brother 
Mytton and my nevow John Newporte hath wryttyn 
nnto me to have partyc'on of all the londs that wher my 
fader in law Sir John de Bourgh's, and my lady hys 
tvyff; and I have wryttyn unto them under this form; 
that we should have a mettyng, and there to have a 
comynycac'on for the partyc'on of said londs, and to put the 
4 partyse of the londs equally devydyd in waxe, and so to 
take the parts thereof as fortune comythe : yf so be that 
they fynde any defiiute in the mackyng of the books of 
partyc on lett them amend hytt. Also I have poynted 
the plase of mettyng at Lodlow, the 7th day of the 
monythe of May, ana jf so be that ye wyDe he greabte 
therto, praying you to sende me in wrything under yo'' 
seale whether ye wylle be greable or no, by my serv', the 
whyche slialle bring you answere betwixte this and Estyr, 
as avoute the maryage betwixte my cosyn Acton, and my 
dortyre Jane. No njore unto yow at this tyme, but J'hu 
p'serve. Amen. Yo' lovyng wncull, John Lyngen, knight." 
This meeting apparency took place on the 12Wi of 
May, 1501, thirty years after the death of Sir John de 

' Bridgeman'fl Pi-iiiffs ifSaillk n'ale; p. 27o, 



Burgh, when Sir John Lyogen and Isabel his wife re- 
ceived " the loixlshipH and manore ot Yocelbon and 
Stretton, with the mill and the park, part of the forest of 
Cawes, Kynnertoii, Sturchley, W'entnor, with the ad- 
vowson of the church Gravenor, Overs, Shelve, and the 
fourth part of Walton, ^vith the appurtenances in the 
flfud county," as the portion which fell to the said Isabel, 
as daughter and heiress of Sir John de Burgh, and of 
her mother's inheritance ; " the lordships and manors of 
Rodbroke, Gretson, Wykelford, Upton llaselor, Exhall, 
Binton, Barton, Betford, Benhall, and Mickleton, within 
the CO. of Warwick ; lands and hereditaments in Rod- 
broke, Gretson, Wikelford, Upton Haselor, Exall, Binton, 
Barton, Betford, Benhall, and Mickleton, with the ap- 

Sir John Lingen died in 1522, and was buried at 
Amestry church, near Lingen, by the side of his wife, and 
their beautiful monumental brass yet remains on their 
tomb: The sisters of Sir John married well. Isolda 
espoused Brian Harley, an ancestor of the Earls of 
Oxford ; Matilda married Thomas Devereux, ancestor of 
the Earls of Essex. 

The fortunes of the family still continued to lise : the 
son of Sir John and Isabel, the second Sir John Lingen, 
of Sutton, was sheiifi in 1505, 1516, and 1520. He 
married in 1512 Eleanor, daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Milewater, of Stoke Edith, and acquired thereby that 
beautiftd and picturesque estate. Stoke Edith is supposed 
to take its name from the Saxon Saint Editha, daughter 
of King Egbert, whose story I have told in my Historic 
Warwtckahtre. It was the property of Ralph Todeiic 
(the king's standard beai-er at the battle of Hastin^^, 
lit the tune of the Domesday survey. Like Sutton, it 
came into the hands of the Walwyns. It continued 
in the Lingen family till the Restoration, when it 
was pei-manently alienated. The Lingens now seemed 
to have attained the height of tlieir prosperity. A 
third John Lingen succeeded his father in 1530, and 
married Marearet the daughter of Sir Thomas Englefield, 
of Englefield, co. Berks, k.b.. Speaker of tlie House of 
Commons and Chief Ju.stice of Cliester. In hl-i time 
Cutheriue of Arragon held Maiden (p. ^8) dining her 



forced widowhood. There seems to have been many 
diHputef) between the Lingens and the Crown, according 
U> IjoixI Coiiiiiesby's Histwvj of the Manor of Marden, 
judf^iiig from tlie Inquisition printed in page 30, which 
i-ecites tlie previous iigreeinent between the Crown and 
the LJngens. John Lingen seems to have taken i>art in 
the conspiracy to put Lady Jane Grey on the tlirone at 
the death of Edwai-d VI. (p. 42), and he died the same 
year that Mtuy came to the throne, 1544. He wras suc- 
ceeded by the fonvtli John Lingen, who mairied a daughter 
of Jolm and Sibell Ituynton, co. Hereford. He repre- 
sented the city in 1523. His daughter Jane mtttriecl 
William Shelley, described in tlie Histoi-y of Marden, as 
of Chipham, Surrey, but in the Bridgeman pedigree as ot 
Michelgrove, co. Sussex. It would appear as if the 
Slielleys had conformed to the old religion, and were 
conuected with the various conspiracies to release Mary 
Queen of Scots, and with the projected invasion under 
the Duke of Guise. He was attainted in 1583 and 
executed in 1597, and his property confiscated to the 
Crown. Mrs. Shelley was also imprisoned, but was 
subsequently released and permitted to enjoy for her 
life the estates she inlierited from Sir John de Bui^h. 
Tliese passed away at her death (childless) by the grant 
of King James I. to Sir Richard Preston, Lord Dingwall. 

The male branch of the family was continued by 
William Itingen, uncle of Mrs. Shelley, who married 
Cicelia, daughter of Anthony Ingram, of Wolverhampton. 
Their son lidward succeeded to the estates of Sutton and 
Stoke Edith on the death of his cousin. He appears to 
have been mixed up in the troubles of the previous reign, 
for in the man(U' of Marden he is spoken of as " ute 
traitor." He was, however, sheriff of Herefordshire! in 
1618, and married Blanch daughter of Sir Roger Boden- 
ham, of Rotherwas, co. Hereford. Edward Lingen left 
two sons ; from the youngest, Roger, who purchased the 
ancestral manor of Radbroke from Lord Dingwall, the 
the Lingen-Burtons of Longner, Salop, are descended. 
Tlie eldest stands forth prominently in the Lingen 
annals as the last male Lingen of Stoke Edith and 
Sutton, and a famous cavalier. Tlie manor of Lingen had 
been given by King James to Sii' John Peyton, nor 

Dci-zec by Google 

the: family of linoen. 

was it ever i-estovetl to the family, though they were 
diBtiuguished for their loyalty throughout the civil wars. 
Heniy Lingen niised a regiment in the king's service 
i\n<l joiued with the Coiiingsbya, Scudamores, Crofts, and 
Pyes ;igaiu8t the Harleys, Kyrles and Westphalings 
i^raJiigt the parliament. His siege of Biumpton Brian 
and defence of Goodrich are matters of history. In 1645 
he received the honour of knighthood from the hand of 
King Cltarles, at Mr. Pritchard's house near Grosmont. 
He was cast into prison aftei* the king's defeat, and 
fined £(),342. BesideR his expenses in maintaining a 
regiment of horse in the king's service, it is stated that 
Sir Robert Harley's losses at Brampton Brian Castle 
■were estimated to exceed X12,990, and the Parhamentary 
Commonwealth ordered the greater amount to be levied 
oflF the Lingen estates, but Edward Harley, Sir llobert's 
son, generously forgave the whole. The following curious 
memorandum shews the extreme distress to which 
Charles I was reduced for want of money March 23, 
1623, and what plate was due to Sir Henry Lingen, high 
sheriff co. Hereford, upon a privy seal for the loan of £20 
lent to His Majesty : — 

' One guilt Balte witli a cover, one guilte Bslte with a cover, one 
__ ilte trencher, oi 
and one tonne ot 

guilte trencher, one ereat silver ealte, one caudle oup, one little spoon, 
' tankard." 

The caudle cup is now in the possession of Mrs. Geo. 
Unett, of Castell Frome, Leamington, who is one of the 
coheiresses of Sir Henry Lingen ; for though the gallant 
cavalier had three sons and seven daughters, only one, 
Frances, had descendants as far as known, and she 
married John Unett, of Castle Frome, co. Hereford. 
His great grandson Henry Unett married Jane, the 
daughter of William Lingen, of Sutton Court, who was 
grandmother to Mrs. Geo. Unett and her sisters, the 
surviving coheirs of Sir John de Burgh and Sir Henry 
Lingen. In the History of the Manor of Ma/rden^ 
p. 537, there are some particulars of the old Cavalier, 
who was born at Rotberwas, near Hereford, and who died 
of sinall-pox at Gloucester, on his way from London, ■ 
where he had been attending to his duties as repre- 
sentative of Herefordshire in January, 1661-2. The 
Chronicler says :— " Sir Henry Lingen, eldest son of 


Edward the traitor, died, having been in the compaaB c^ 
five years a knight, and no knight, and a knight again, 
and after haviiig (between the years 1647, the year before 
King Charles I was murdered, and the year 1660, when 
his son was restored) with equal vigour and zeal acted the 
glorious part of a loyal cavaUer and a complying Roimd- - 
head ; the last part bo near the time that it pleased the 
Almighty to restore its lawful prince to the throne of his 
ancestors, and his injured mother, the Queen, to her 
jointured lands in Marden and Sutton, that it could no 
more be covered ^an excused, as 'tis said, broke his 
hardy heart." It is said also that he was in debt to the 
Crown at least £400, for the rent of Sutton and his 
royalties in Marden. He died, however, the owner of 
the demesnes of Stoke Edith and Sutton Freene, with 
the mills there called the King's Mills; also the demesnes 
of Sutton St. Nicholas, Aymestry, Connop and Lye, with 
500 acres of wood there, the demesnes of Buighill and 
TiUingtou, the manor of Broxwood, the demesne of 
Weston, in the parish of Brewardine, then in course 
of litigation, which terminated against his heir, who 
establiBhed a right to a fee farm rent of £13 6b. 8d., 
payable out of the manor of Weston. Sir Heniy had also 
possessions in the counties of Salop, Warwick, and Essex. 
His rent roll amounted to £1250 per annum. His 

Property was divided between his seven surviving 
aughters in 1670. Stoke Edith was sold to Paul Foley 
of Brom^rove, an ironmaster, and a great friend of 
Richard Baxter, in whose family it still remaina Sutton 
Freene or Freene Court was sold by Mrs. Unett and 
her sisters in 1873. Sutton Walls is in the possession 
of Mr. Arkwright. 

Castle Frome, near Ledbury, the married home of 
Frances Lingen, was a former manor of the liacies, and 
passed from them to the Devereux, and thence Iw^mar- 
riage to the Braces, whose heiress married John Unett, 
who then became (jure cxoris) lord of Castle Fnone. 
The Unetts intermarried with nearly every femily of 
importance in the county of Hereford, and remained 
loi-ds of Castle Frome until the last century, when they 
made Freene Court their principal seat. 

There are muny collateral branches of the lingeu 

D.D.t.zeabyG00glc . 


family remaining in different parts of the country, — the 
Lingen-Burtrons of Longner, the Lingens of Wytton, co. 
Salop, aixd the hranch represented W the Secretary to 
the Coounittee of Council, Ralph W. Lingen, Esq,, and 
Dr. Lingen, of the city of Hereford. Thus though the 
old name has like many a mighty river lost its distmctlve 
title, it stm survives in the minor streamlets, -whose 
names are written in the LibT-o d'Oro, — the noble and 
gentle men of England. 

3 by Google 


Although full accounts, which I will presently enii- 
merate, appeared at the time as to the discover)' t^f 
the great Talbot's bones beneath his well-known e%\" 
at Whitchurch, I hope the subject may be deemed of 
sufficient interest, firom the intunate connection of iht 
Earl and his family with this immediate neighbourhood, 
to justify me in again bringing it forward, and particiilaiir 
as there are one or two points not hitherto referred tn, 
which appear to me to add importance to the ciirioii* 
evidences of identity of the remains already collected. 

Any lengthened details of the history and exploits at' 
the great soldier, John Talbot, will not be expected fimi 
me, for, devoting as he did, the best part of his eighty years 
to the service of liis country in the warlike periods d 
Henry the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth, and embracing li'C 
whole career of Joan of Arc of France, his chivaJroiis 
deeds have been agaui and again recounted, and rendemi 
specially immortal by Shakespeare himself. 

He was the second son of Richard Talbot, of Goodricii 
Castle, in this county, to whom, by the death of the elder 
brother, he became heir, and marrying the heiress of I»nl 
Fumival had summons to Parliament in that dignity. 
He subsequently earned and received many other honour 
and the Earldom of Shrewsbury, and after a life of 
brilliant militair achievements, died on the field of 
Chatillon, 20th July, 1453. 

On the 9th of March, 1874, some workmen removetf 
the effigy of the Earl, at Whitchurch, in preparation fi>v 
some contemplated repairs of the canopy and front ^( 
the monument, and found underneath a sort of case or 
coffin, containing (with the exception of some vertebral 
an entire skeleton, each bone of which was separately m"' 
carefidly encased in cere cloth. The srector (the R*^' 
W. H. Egerton) at once conununicated with the i-epre 


sentative (the recently deceased Earl of Shrewsbury), 
■with Earl Brownlow, the present owner of the Blakemere 
property, and others, and forwarded an account of the 
discovery to the Society of Antiquaries, which was there 
read on 1 2th Mareh, Mr. Knight Watson giving a resum^, 
from contemporaneous chroniclers, of the manner of the 
Karl's death. Later in the month, Mr. Earwaker, of 
Merton College, Oxford, communicated Ashmole's own 
notes (Irom his MS., No. 854, Bodleian), taken at Whit- 
church, 31 August, 1663. He describes the tomb, says 
there was then no epitaph remaining, but quotes, from a 
MS. of 1598, of some extracts from the Whitchurch 
Roister, a iUU roU of his titles, which had fonned an 
inscription ; and gives also the Latin worduig of a brass 
■which formerly existed in the church, recording his name 
and titles and his death, " in hello apud Burdowe," aa on 
the 17th July, 1453. I may here say that a lengthened 
notice of the discovery of the bones and the Earl's history 
appeared in the Shrewsbury Journal of 18th March, and 
more Ml ones still, with an account of the ceremony and 
sei'vice on the re-interment of the remains, in the Whit- 
church Pa/rish Magazine, in the monthly numbers for 
April and May, 1874. 

Mr. Egerton corresponded witli me, and I took some 
pains to ascertain -where the Earl was really buried, and 
to assist in identifying the remains from the various 
circumstances recorded of his death. I found conflicting 
statements as to the place of his burial. Most modem 
■writers, and several early ones of repute, were agreed that 
he was interred at Whitchurch ; but he was otherwise 
said to have been buried at Kouen and at Blakemere. 
There were grounds, as I will show, for both these 
statements. Ralph Brooke, in his Catalogue of Nobility, 
gave Rouen as the place; and Augustine Vincent (Wind- 
sor Herald), in his Discoveries of Errours in Brooke, 
ever ready, and, I may add, able to correct him, points out 
the mistake. I referred to the Earl's will, which was 
dated at Portsmouth, 1 Sept., 1452, and was proved at 
Lambeth 18th January, 1453-4; and there I found the 
direction " My body to be beryed at Blakemere in the 
paryshe church on the right side of the chancell." I 
wrote to the rector (the Ilev. Andi'ew Pope), and heard 



that there was not even a tradition of this direction 
having been acted upon, for although contained in one of 
the hwt uistrumenta ne could have executed, it was over- 
niled by a promise he is reported to have made to his 
body-guard of Whitchurch men, who, rallying round him 
when in imminent danger in one of his battles, said to be 
that of Patay, saved his life, that he would be laid iii 
Whitchurch. That he was first interred at Rouen thwe 
can be no doubt, and hence that place has been recorded 
as that of his burial, but his remains were broi^ht from 
thence forty years after his death by his gnmason. Sir 
Gilbert Taftxjt, of Grafton, who led the right wing of 
Richmond's army at Boeworth, and buried where wbj 
were found — the heart embalmed, in a sUver um covered 
with crimson velvet, had been buried in the porch, 
probably immediately after his death. Sir Gilbert was 
the founder of the clmuntry at Whitchurch, and died Stli 
year of Henry VIII. 

I now come to the means of identifying the bones. The 
Earl was not only wounded at CiuitiUou, but his horse 
being killed, he lay on the ground, and In this position was 
" despatched," as it has been said, by a blow on the head, 
TOobably from an axe. Shakespeare's account of Sir 
William Lucy coming to the French prince, when seeking 
for Talbot's body, will be remembered : — 

Sir W. Lwey : Herald, conduct me to the Uaaphin's tent, 

To know who hath obtained the gloiy of the day. 
CharUi : Oa what BubmisKive measage art thou sent r 
Sir W, Lncy : Bubmiaaion, Dauphin ! 'tis a mere fVench void ; 

We EngliBh irarriore wot not what it means. 

I oome to know what ptisonen thou hast ta'en. 

And to surrey the bodies of the dead. 
Charlet i For pnioneis aak'et thou ? Hell our prison is. 

But tell me whom thou seek'st? 
Sir W. Lvey : But where 'a the great Aloides of the field. 

Valiant Ijord Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, 

Created, for his rare sucoess in arms, 

Groat Earl of Washford, Waterford, and Valence ; 

Lord Talbot of Ooodrig and Urchin£eld, 

Loi'd Strange of Blackmero, Lord Verdun of Alton, 

Tjord Cromwell of Wingfield, Lord Fumival of ShefBeld, 

The thrice victorious Lord of Falcon bridge ; 

Knight of the noble order of Saint Qeoi^e, 

Worthy Saint Michael and the Golden Fleece ; 

Greut Marshal to Henry the Sixth 

Of all hiii wars withiu the realm of France ? 


3 by Google 


Shakespeare was right in this. The body was anxiously 
sought for by many, and was at last identified by the 
Herald of the Earl, who, although it was so mangled and 
disfiffured as to be scarcely discoverable, recognised him 
by uie loss of his hinder teeth. I find the following 
account of this in the MSS. of John Anstis, Garter Kang- 
of-Arms, in the Heralds' College. He says — 

" But we are assured by a contemporary French historian 
that his Herald attended on him when he was slain at 
Chastillon, who had then been his officer-of-arms above 
forty years, so that he had auch in 1st Henry V. The 
passage is remarkable in discovering to us the customs of 
that age — that many officers of arms being sent to find out 
the body of this most valiant Earl, among whom was ' Le 
Heraud du dit Sieur de Tallebot qui avoit veetu sa cotte 
d'armes,' and knowing his master by the want of some of 
his hinder teeth, though his fece was so mangled and dis- 
figured with wounds. "II le baisa en la bouche, en disant 
ces mots, Monseigneur mon maistre, ce estes vous, je mie a 
Dieu qu'il vous pardonne vos mesfaits, j'ay est^ votre omcier 
d'armes quarante ans ou plus, il est temps que je le vous 
rende, en faisant piteux crys et lamentations, et en rendant 
eau par lea yeux tr^s pitousment, et alors il revestit sa 
cotte d'armes et la mit sur son maistre." 

It is worthy of note that the painted portrait eflSgy 
of the Earl ol Shrewsbury, which used to hang in Old 
St. Paul's, represented him in his Tabard and in the act 
of prayer. The original of this picture is in the 
collection of the Marquis of Northampton at Castle 
Ashby, and a copy is now in the Record-room of the 
Herod's College.^ It is a curious confirmation of the 
story of the Herald. 

But more interestii^ than this is a photograph, for which 
I am indebted to the Rev. W. H. Egerton, and from which 
the engraving is taken, of the skull and jaw found at Whit- 
church. In the former the remarkable confirmatory evi- 
dence of the axe blow will be observed, and in the latter 
the no less remarkable testimony of the entire loss of the 
hack teeth. 

I Ur. Tucker exhIUted an engmviog of the picture from hw own ooUectioii' 



Not the leaat curious circumstance in connection 
with the discovery of these bones is, that amongst 
them was the skeleton of a mouse I " As poor as a 
church mouse " we have often heard, and this poor mouse 
had not only sought the shelter of the great Earl's coffin, 
but the Impei'ium in impeno of his skull, as a nest to 
give birth to her young. " It is an ill wind that blows 
good to no one," and the fatal axe blow had created a 
convenient entrance for the mouse. Her bones were 
foimd mingled with those of the mighty soldier, while 
those of her young were found within his skull I 

Shakespeare, who knew and recorded so much of the 
Earl, had surely a forecast of this when he wrote — 

MamUt : To what base uses we may return Horatio ! Why may not 
imBginatioD trace the noble dust of Alexander, till he find it stopping 
a bung-hole ! 

Horatio: 'Twere to consider too curiously to consider so. 
HamUt: No, faith, not a jot ; but to follow him thither vith modesty 
enough, and likelihood to lead it : as thus — Alexander died, Alex- 
ander was buried, Alexander returneth to dust; the dust is earth; of 
earth wo make loam ; and why of that loam whereto be was conrerted, 
might they not stop a beer barrel ? 

Imperious Cuesar, dead, and turned to day, 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away : 
0, that the earth, which kept the world in awe, 
Slkould patch a wall to expel the winter's flaw !" 

For the following, I am indebted to Lord Talbot de 
Malahide, who copied it from a narrow pai'chment docu- 
ment in his possession : — 

3 by Google 


En la presence de moy Jehan d'EBtampee maistre d'ostel 
de Monsg' 1e Conte d'Angoulesme, Guillaume le Ves- 
ville commis par mon dit S' a la recepte generale de toutes 
ses financea a aujovirdhui paid et baiUd par I'ordonnanee 
et commandement de mon dit S' les sommes cy apr^ 
declare aux personnes et pour les causes qui ensuivait. 
Cest a savoir a Reslandire trompette d'icelKiy S' pour don 
a luy fait pour les bonnes et joyeuses nouvelles par luy 
apporfcdes a mon dit S' en la viUe d'Angoulesme de la mort 
de Talbot et de la disconiiture des Anglois devant Castillon 
cinquante cinq sols toumois et a Colinet Goulou poiu* aler 
de la dite viUe d'Angoulesme a Blois et a Kemiremont 
pour les dites nouvelles a Monsign' le Due d'Orleans et a 
Madame la Contesse d'Angoulesme cinquante cinq sols 
toumois. Tesmoing mon seign manuel cy mis le xviij 
jour de JuiUet I'an mil cccc cinquante trois. 


The following letter appeared in the Standard of the 
15th August, 1877, from which it was copied in the 
Shrewsbury Journal. It was to the Editor of this latter 
Journal that the reply of the Eector of Whitchurch was 
addressed : — 

Dbas Sis, — In a parograplt th&t appeared in jour paper of An^et 
ISth, giving a short account of the Boyel Archfeological Inetitute's 
excursion to Cloodrich Castle, I find several inaccuracieB in connection 
with the first £arl of Shrewsbury, mentioned in Mr. Stephen Tucker's 
Paper. The first one is that the great warrior's remains were foond 
at Whitchurch, in Shropshire, in 1864, whereaa thej were re/ound in 
1874, at the time the church was undergoing some slight alterations 
or reDovations. The next point I wouM like to call jour attention 
to is — " At Chatillon (he was then 80 years old) he was unhorsed, and 
lay for some time on the ground, until, we are told, he was ' des- 
patched' by a blow on the head &om a battle-axe." When the bones 
were lying in the vestry of the church at Whitchurch, I had the 
opportunity of examining them, and on taking up the ekuU (before I 
knew that the valiant warrior had been killed by a battle-axe) I 
remarked that tlie fracture observable on the left parietal bone had 
been made with a battle-axe or a sharp weapon having a segmented 
edge, judging from the shape of the fissure end the marked incision 
in the bone of the skull at either end of the perforation, I did not 
measure its length, but ^should say that it was about 3^ inches long, 
and the piece of bono that had been forced into the brain by the stroke 
was about two inches in length. The blow bad evidently been struck 
as he was standing unhorsed engaged to a hand to hand fi^ht 
with an enem^ in front, by an enemy coming somewhat behind 
him and striking him with a battle-axe on the left side of his 
head, which felled him to the ground, and he, as I ima^e, fell 


on bin right shoulder and forehoad or face, and the blood that 
floivod from the wound orer the left aide of the head and face, 
Vihioh was uppenuost, disgtuBed him to such an extent as to 
make his body difficult of recognition, eBpecially if he fell in 
a muddy or dusty spot. On viewing the skitll (a cast of which 
waa taken for the Archeeological S<xn(>ty if I am not mistaken) 
from the clean cut of the gaping tisBure and its perpendicniar 
lino with the body when in an erect position, shows plainly 
that it was not received at a time when he waa lying unhorsed 
OS the ground, and at the same time, irom its position oo the 
skull, there can be no doubt but that he was taken at a dis- 
advantage, and the foemaa that dealt it was not facing him at the 
time fighting hand to hand. Again — "His bodr was long sought 
for, and was at last rect^^sed by his herald, b^ the absence of 
the hinder teeth, the featates having been so injured as to be 
undietinguishable. The skull found at Whitchurch wants the 
hinder teeth, and has the hollow caused by the fatal blow." Now 
the skull at Whitchurch is wrapped round with a kind of narrow 
linen doth, about the width now used in bandaging (and aa I 
imagine in those days taken to the field of battle with them to 
be used for bandaging up of wounds). After the burial of the 
body at Eouen, como few years must have elapsed before the 
skull and bones were wrapped in the cerecloth that now covers 
them, for every trace of flesh or integument is entipely gone, 
and it is almost an impossibility to say what teeth he had at 
the time of his death ; from what I could see and judge by 
the drepressione, risiogs, or markings on the cerecloth covering 
the bones of the jaw, he had only one tooth remaining, and 
that was a dens sapientiaj or wisdom tooth on the left side of the 
lower jaw, and I also thought that five or sii lower front teeth 
had fallen nut from want of attachment before the bones were 
covered with the cloth covering that is now on them. It was 
my intention to have endeavoured to have obtuned permission 
to have taken a cast of the jaw bone, and irithout the present 
rovering, so as to have been able to have jpven a decided 
opinion as to the age, &o., &c., of the person to whom they 
had formerly belonged ; from what I could see of them I con- 
cluded the individual was upwards of 80 years of age, but on 
my next visit to the town I learnt that the valiant old Earl 
was being buried for the third time, and that the late noble 
Earl was attending his funeral. Again, "Among the bones was 
found the skeleton of a mouse who had ma3e her nest in 
the skull of the great Talbot, where the remains of her young 
were still remaining. It is an ill wind that blows no one 
any good. The mouse had entered through the breach made 
by the battle-axe, but having been unable to escape again from 
the cofBn, had suffered a fate more severe than that vhich is the 
proverbial lot of the ordinary church mouse." Now all that reads 
very prettily, but it will not do, the breach in the skull might adniit a 
silver crown piece, but never a mouse in an interesting condition, who 
must have gone into the skull to have been confined, for even her 
progeny never could have squeezed through the fissure ; she must have 
entered through the foramen magnum at the base of the sknU befiare 


it was coTered over witli ooreolotk, and most likely they were in a 
mummified condition when that was done, othetwiBS there is no account- 
ing for the circumstance. 

Apolog:iHing for trespassing so much on your valuable time, I would 

nut have done ao hail I not considered it my duty if possible to 

prevent such errors of traditional or hearsay eridonce being taken as 

matter of fact, as every day lam the more convinced of its unreliability. 

Youra faithfully, 


Doctor of Dental Surgery. 

47, Darlington-street, Wolverhampton, 
August 16th, 1877. 

Sm, — The interesting letter quoted in your columns last week from 
the Standard invites a few remarks. The purport of that letter was to 
correct supposed inaccuracies in a lecture on the discovery of Talbot's 
bones at Whitchurch, delivered by Mr. Stephen Tucker (Bouge Croix) 
before the Boyal Archseological Institute at Hereford. The first 
inaccuracy is an accidental misprint of 1864 for 1874. Setting this 
aside, the writer begins by objecting to the word /ound as applied to the 
discovery of the warrior's bones, fie says it should have been nfound. 
No such word exists ; but its equivalent in meaning seems to me need- 
less. Talbot's bones were found for the first time in the present church 
onthe9thof Uarch, 1874. Dr. Dolby's next remarks have reference to 
tiie drcumstances of Talbot's death. From the vertical character of 
the cut ou the skull, he argues that the body must have been erect 
when the fatal blow was given. I should have accepted Dr. Dalb3''s 
reasoning on this point wiUiout hesitation if historjr had been silent 
on the subject, but we are confronted by the authority of HoUinshed, 
who, aifter having described the siege of the Tower at Ohastillon and 
Talbot's victorious pursuit of the French into their own fortified 
camp, thus records his death — "Though at firste with manfull 
courage and sore fighting the Earle wanne the entrie of their 
camp, yet at length they compassed him about, and shooting him 
tiirough the th^h witJi an hand-gnnne, slew his horse, and 
finallj^ killed him, lying on the ground, whom they never durst 
look in the face, whjle he stoode on his feete." — EolHtuhed, 
block letter copy, vol. ii, p. 1285. 

The next point in Mr. Tucker's letter, criticised by Dr. Dalby, isthat 
Talbot's body was recognised after the battle "by the absence of the 
binder teeth." When Ute skull was examined there were three InoiBors 
and one molar tooth in the lower jaw. There were aparently 
no teeth in the upper jaw. Oertam it is that the body lay 
for some time on the field of battle until disoovered by tbe Earrs 
herald, "who broke oat into compassionate and dutiful expressions, 
disrobed himself of bis ooat of arms, and flung it over his master's 

We now come to the incident of the mouse's nest in the 
skull. Mr. Tucker asserts that the entrance to the nest was 
" through the breach made by the battle-axe." Dr. Dalby says that 
this " r«ads very prettily, but that it will not do." In proof of this he 
states that the gash in the skull was only wide enough to admit a 
crown piece, and that tlterefore the mouse must have entered by the 
foramen magnum. Now the actual dimensions of the gash are 2} 


indi«e in length, and fiilly { of an inch wide in th« centre part. 
KoreoTer the ndee of the <nific6 bore erideooe of ingreaa and egress, 
having that peculiar brown eemi-poIiBhed look which we know ao weU 
in the appearance of a mouse-hole. The entrance to the nest wss 
directly beneath the hole, and the cerecloth for eome dlstanoe round it 
had been gnawed away by the mice. If the mouse had made her 
entrance and exit by ttie foramen magnum she most have done ao 
before the bones were brought from Bouen, for that orifice was closely 
bound up fay the cerecloth. That a French moose should hare in- 
creased her progeny in the cavi^ of Talbot's skull would indeed hare 
been an indignity ; but the iact that fragments of the torn leaTee of an 
English prayer book formed part of the substance of the nest, prores 
to aemonstration that the tenant of the skull was none other than an 
Eoglish church mouse. Dr. Dalby is right in condemning Uie snbati- 
tntion of traditional or hearsay evidence for matter of fact. I hare 
endeavoured to supply him with some facts which rednoe hia list of 
inaocurames to a minimum, and substantiate in every important 
parti(»ilar the correctness of the statements made by Sooge Oioix. 
I am, &c., 


As an ■chutl instanoe ot the base 
luwB to which even kings return, it may 

be mentioned that wben the tomb <rf the sIreetB. A workman il 

King JuliQ was opened in 1797 " a vast bone, and sent it to Lmidon to be tipjiel 

quantitjr of the arj akine of Dugguta " with idlver, but it was lost aa the rad. 

were found within the roj'al coffin. Some — See Oonou's StjmUtitU Jfan— to , 

of these were purloined bj lui ingenioun vol. ii, part i, p. SSI, and Obeeks's 
Keatlenuui of Worcenter, who, baiting hifl ' . - . . « . .- 

huok witb them, and toiling for three 

3, baiting hie Aeemmt of tAe Openinf.— 



Professor HUbner, in his collection of " Tnscriptiones 
Britanmce Latince," has stated " Tituli Miliarii Britan- 
nici plus minus quadraginti," and has arranffed these 
forty mile stones under different heads, accordmc; to the 
districts in which they were found ; and he has also 
classed them according to date, allotting them to the 
several emperors whose name or titles they bear. This 
arrangement is very convenient, and he has thus called 
attention to their importance, and afforded an opportunity 
of comparing them, and eliciting any information which 
can be gathered as to the date of construction of the 
several Roman roads which traversed this island. He 
has also given an opportunity for rectlfymg any mis- 
reading of each stone, and of adding to his collection any 
stones that may be wanting to make the list perfect. 

Something has already been done towtu-da making his 
list more complete. Mr. T. Watkin, in two papers printed 
in the ArcluBological Jownal, has noticed eight omis- 
sions, which he has supplied, and more correct readings 
have been obtained of others, as for instance of the first 
recorded, viz., that found at S. Hilary in Cornwall, the 
reading of which Professor Hiibner has amended in his 
Additamenta. in consequence of a correct impression of 
the stone having been procured. Attention having been 
thus called to these monuments, it is not beyond hope 
that others may be rescued from oblivion, and that any 
more which may come to Ught in the future will be at 
once read and recorded. It is not improbable that by 
means of such {monuments a correct, or at least an 
approxiraate date, might be aasigned to the formation of 
the several Roman mmtary roads in Britain. 

The earliest [Miliaries that have yet been found, or at 
least recorded, are tuv of the date of Hadrian, (see 
VOL. xxxiv. S 


C. I. L., vol. vU Nos. 1169, 1175); two of Caracalla, 
(Nos. 1164, 1186); and a third of uncert^ reading 
(No. 1191), but probably of the date of Elagabalua 
There are also four of the Emperor Gordian (Noe. 1149, 
1159, 1183, 1184); four of Philip, father and son (Nos. 
1172, 1173, 1178, 1179); four of the Emperor I>eciu8 
(Nos. 1163, 1171, 1174, 1180) ; two of Gallus and Volu- 
sianus (Nos. 1148, 1182) ; one or two of Postumiw (1161, 
1162J ; one of Victorinus (1160) ; two of Tetricus (1150, 
1151) ; one of Aurelian (1152), one of Florianus (1156), 
one of Numerianus (1165), one of Diocletian and Maxi- 
mian (1190), one of Maximinus Daza (1158); four of 
Constantine (1157, 1170, 1176, 1177); one of Crispus 
(1153); three of Constantme Junior (1147, 1154, 1188). 
Add to these the eight supplied by Mr. Watkin, viz., — 
Tetricus, Tacitus; three which are undoubted miliary 
stones, but which are LUe^ble, found in Shropshire; one 
at Uriconium, and two found in a pool when drained near 
Rowton (Rutuniura) ; one lately found near BakeweU, 
in Derbyshire (see Arclueologiccd Journal, vol. xxxiii, 
p. 53) ; one foiuid at Segshill, fifteen miles from Leicester, 
on the line of the Foes road (see ArcJi. J., xxxi, 353), 
both of which unfortunately have the imperial titles 
effaced ; and another dug up at Middleton, three milefj 
from Kirkby Lonsdale (see AirJi. J., xxxi, 354). 

We have them extending from the time of Hadrian, 
A.D. 120, to Constantine Junior, A.D. 336, embracing a 
period of above two hundred years. There is little doubt, 
however, that the Roman roads in this island must have 
been begun before the time of Hadrian, and kept in order 
to a later period than that of Constantine Junior. We 
have evidence in Somersetsliire of a Roman road tra- 
vereing the Mendip minei-al district, on the line of which 
pigs of Roman lead are foiind, bearing the stamp of the 
Emperor Vespasian, A.D. 70, or still earlier that of Britan- 
nicus, A.D, 49. Along the line of this road, which ex- 
tended from Old Sarum (Sorbiodunum) in Wilts to the 
Bristol Channel at Brean Down in Somerset, no Miliaries 
are recorded to have been foimd ; neither have any been 
found or recorded in the neighbourhood of Bath, and 
onW one in Kent, 
it seems impossible to believe that the roads here 

Dci-zec by Google 


named were without the measured distances or im- 
perial titles recorded on stone. It must have been 
that the stones once standing by the Roman roads 
have been foiind so valuable for mere stones or for 
building, that they have been used for such objects. 
Miliaries are chiefly foimd in unfrequented districts 
ill Corawall, in Wales, in Cumberland, and in North- 
umberland. The formation of macadamised roads since 
the commencement of the present century has doubtless 
caused many to be broken up for material. The feet of a 
cylindrical column with a few letters \ipon it, hardly 
i^eadable, would provoke no great curiosity to enquire 
further into their meaning, and the stone would at once 
be consigned to the wayside heap, there to undergo a 
speedy process of demolition, and so a historical record 
would perish for ever. 

The first Roman roads constructed in Britain were 
doubtless those three which run from the Kentish coast, 
at Lymne, Dover, and Richboro', to Canterbury, and 
from thence to London. But one solitary uninscribed and 
obliterated " Miliarj " at Southfleet' denotes the lines of 
these important roads, the courses of which are ascertained 
beyond a doubt. 

The campaign of Aulus Plautius began a.d. 43, and the 
capture of Caractacus took place a.d. 50. This war 
opened out all the south-west portion of Britain to the 
Roman arms, and to this period we must look for the first 
formation of Roman roads, but the only spot in this 
i-^on where Miliaries have as yet been noted is at 
Bittern, near Southampton. Here four are recorded in 
Hiibner's collection, and two more added by Mr. Thomp- 
son Watkin, but all are of a late date. 

Goidianus - a.d. 238-244 

Qallus and Volusianus - 251-253 
Tetricus - - 267-273 

L. Domitius Aurelian - 270-275 
and another Tetricus, and the one containing an inscrip- 
tion not yet properly decyphered, but supposed to have 
the station LAJSDINIS or LINDINIS recorded on it, 
probably Lyvxe Regis. 

' See HUbner'<j line. Srit. Lat. p. 20, after Nu. U&D. 



The Itinerary of Antonimis does not go beyond Exeter, 
but that Koman roads extended into Cornwall is clear 
irom the traces of them, and the stations that renaain, 
and from the "Miliary" found at S. Hilary, which Ls 
given in HUbner's work (No 1147), but whwh has only 
been correctly read very recently. (See Addita/menUi ad 
Corporis, vof. vii, p. 1147, and a paper lately read to the 
Cornwall Royal Institution of Truro, by Dr. Barham, m 
which he has pointed out the direction of these roads). 
The date of this " Miliary " is of the time of Constantine 
the Great, a.d. 308-437, and is very similar to one found 
in the high road between Cambridge and Huntingdon, 
about tliree miles from Cambridge (see No, 1154). 

In Devonsliire and Wilts we have the Foss Road, and 
the Icknield Street, and also lesser Roman roads, but no 
Miliaiies are found, nor yet in Dorset, where we have the 
Acling Sti'eet, Portway, the Street, and Romansleigli 
liidge. Nor are any recorded to have been found in 

The " London Stone " in Cannon Street, in the city, 
lias been supposed to be a Roman " Miliiu^," and the 
centre from which the Roman roads were measured, as 
was intended to be the case with the famous " Miharium 
Aureum " at Rome,' but this is very doubtful, and there 
is no further proof of it, than that many of the Itineraries 
terminate in London.* It is doubtful if this stone 'U'as 
ever inscribed. 

Throughout the eastern portion of Britain Roman 
Miliaries are equally rare. In Cambridgeshire and 
Huntingdonshire four have been found (1153, 1154, 1155, 
1156), and one in Worcestershire (No. 1157). All these, 
except the last, belong to the Roman road between 
Lincoln and London, 

One is preserved in Trinity College, Cambridge, but the 
exact point at which it was found is not known. It is 
inscribed to the Kmperor Crispus, and is of the date 
A.D. 317-326 ; and the lettering rude. We gather from 

1 Seo Purker'a Jt)rHtH Koinimunt. "It ' The Itiuera whidi begin or twmiutt* 

n-DH Uiu iiiUntiim uf AiiguBtuH, wliea be at Loudiniuiu are neveu iu Dumber, viz., 

HTOctvil tliw inilattoiii! (n.c. 28), to have iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ij. Tliis i« mifliciti.t 

Iiatl all tlic milmtoiuM ou tlis ouriHge to bIiow the imi>aTbuice of the dty in 

rowlii iiteiiaun.ll from Uiix ]>uint, but Uie Ruiuiui timis, nlthough it does uot tean 

desigu Klin uuiur eariiud out." to have boea the cental city ot llritun. 


it no name of a place or distance, but simply imperial 
titles. And this is the case with that found three miles 
from Cambridge, on the road to Huntingdon, which seems 
to be of the same date as that found at St. Hilary in 
Cornwall, some time between a.d, 208-337. 

Another was found at Casterton, near Stamford. It 
is inscribed to M . amnio . floriano . a.d. 276. 

WorceBtershire has yielded one, found at Kempsey, 
inscribed — 

And Herefordshire one, found at Kenchester, on the line 
of Roman road from Caer Leon to Cliester, inscribed to 
the Emperor Numerianus (a. d. 282), and apparently 
ending with uncertain letters, which may probably be 
read " Bono rei-publicse nato." 

A "Miliary" with this inscription, found at Urico- 
iiium (Wroxeter), is preserved in the museum at Shrews- 
bury, and the fragment of another, which I made a sketch 
of in 1854, used to Ire in the rectory garden. The letters 
remaining were apparently 

very badly formed, and evidently of a late period of the 

Two other fragments, one ^ven by Professor Hiibner 
(No. 1167), and another beanng the letters T. o., which 
used to be at Donmngton, about two miles east from 
Wroxeter on the Roman road, called the Watling Street, 
leading to London, are probably also relics of "Miliaries." 

Uriconium was the centre of five lines of Roman road, 
viz, : — The Watling Street coming from London ; the 
Roman road coming from Glceter and Worcester up the 
Severn Valley ; the Roman road from Caerleon through 
Kenchester, which passed on through Uriconium to Deva 
(Chester) ; and the Roman road which continued on into 
Wales to Caer Leon and beyond. Here, therefore, we 
might naturally expect to find some remains of Miliaries. 

Button, celebi-ated like Bath for its mineral watere, and 
the Roman " Aqiue " of Ravennas, has not been so 
prolific in Roman remains as its rival " Aqute Solis," but 


a Miliaiy of some importance was discovered in 1862 
at Higher Buxton. This has been read by Mr. Thompson 
Watkiu from a cast made of the stone, unhappily now 
loet, or not to be traced at present.' Drawings of ihe 
stone aregtven in the Arch(Bological Journal, voL xxxiii, 
p. 49. Tke inscription is important, as fixing the site of 
another station mentioned W Eavennas, Navio. This 
was probably at Brough hear Buxton. 

Few of the Milianes like this have the name of a 
station, or the distance marked ; the lettering is either 
erased, or the portion of the stone wanting. Where the 
lettering is perfect the value of the stone in enabling the 
student to trace the lines of the itineraiy, and identify 
the stations, is very great. The most perfect " Miliary " 
is that found near Leicester, and it is the earhest inscribed 
stone yet found. The inscription is as follows : — 






The date is fixed by the imperial titles to A.D. 120-21, 
and the name of the nearest principal station, Katae or 
Leicester, is given. Another stone mis been dug up also 
at Segshill, fifteen miles frum Leicester (1855) on the line 
of the Fobs Road, which is now in the Leicester Museum, 
but the only letters that can' be traced are imp (see 
ArcJueologicaJ, Journal, vol. xxxi, p. 353). 

We might naturally expect to find Roman Miliaries 
more plentiful in Wales than in the south, west, east, or 
midland parts of Britain, because the Roman roads in that 
country pass over mountainous tracks, where stone is 
abundant, and the lines of Roman road have been in 
ma^ places left imtouched. Those, however, recorded 
by Prof. Hubner nxunber only seven, and another given 
in the Archaechgical Journal, vol. zxxi, p. 353, may be 
added to tliese, making eight in aU. They are aU of the 
third century, except one, which is of the fourth. 

The earliest is that found near Ty Coch, parish of 
Bangor, and of the date of M. Aur. Antoninus, or between 

' This atone ia Jitated tu have bmn in tlie poMMUou ol a bookMlIar in BuztMi 

3 by Google 


A.D. 211-217. The latest of the date of the anperor 
Maximin, A.D. 308-313. These stonM, therefore, embrace 
a period of nearly 100 years. 

They are, however, valuable testimonies to the courses 
of the Roman roads in Wales, which have been very 
inadequately described, except by Sir R. C. Hoare, in his 
introduction to Geraldus Camhrensis. Horsley and 
Burton, in their maps of the Ronuui roads in Britaiii, only 
give the roads indicated in the Itinera of Antonine, and 
the latest published maps, as that of Roman Britain in 
the Monumenta Historica, and that in Professor Hubner's 
/. B. //., only indicate some of the roads. 

Five of the Itinera of Antonine relate to the Roman 
roads of Wales," but these do not extend into the middle 
portion of the country, being confined to the eastern and 
the maritime parts, but Sir R. C. Hoare enumerated 
seven distinct fines of road, all of which are verified by 
Roman remains or by stations along their course. 

Having just touched" upon the Miliaries of Wales, I 
must pass on to those of the west and north of England. 
Following the lines of Roman road which passed firom 
Chester through Lancashire into Westmoreland and 
Cumberland, we have only ten Miliaries recorded, nuie 
by Professor Hiibner, and one added since by Mr. T. 
Watkin. The earliest is of the date of Hadrian (a.d. 
119-138), and was found in the bed of the Arkle b«;k, 

' The Itiuein relating to Uw Bonun uid Hiibner'a AAHlammla, No. 116, p. 

roadR ID WaIcb tire the li, part of iJ, put 139. 

of xii, 'part of xiii, nod A »iaiH portion of lite Boman ro*d over the Trecaetle 

ifo. liv. Mountain u not included in tlie Itinera 

The Miliariee found in Wales we— of Antoninus. It ia caUed b; Sir R. C. 

1 »t Port Tiilbot, aent Neath, Qordinn, Hoare, the Via Julia Montana, or Superiur. 

>.D. 30M-313. Antiquariea an much indebta) to 

1 at Aberavon, a.d. 238-244. Mr. W. Reus, of Tonn Llandoveiy, for 
lntPfle,nearNi»th. Vlctorinus, A.D. 237 elucidatiiig the Roman remain^ of thix 

2 nt Treeaetle, Postumus, unreadable, neighbourhood, and for giving a plan of 
probably date, a.D. 2&S-26S. the Roman camp, and the direction of 

1 at Llandiniolen, Dedua, l.D. !4S061. the Roman roads on Treoaiitte Mountain. 

1 nt Dynevor, Caermorthenahire, Tacitus, See Arehaologia CambreruU, new aeries, 

A.D. 2TC-S. 1861, which eaTS, "Near Treoutle two 

1 at Ty Cooh, Pariah of Bangor, Camar- Boniao roads InaniJied off, one direct to 

vonshiie, Antoninus, A.D. ^11-'.J17. Llandovery, and the other throng^ 

Another stone, (although its purpoae is TaUam, in Lhmddenaant, towards Llan- 

not yet dearly ascertained), was found at gadoc, and the Oam Coch." 

Caenoarthen, and haa the letters bono . We have also the same conjunciion of 

B p. KA10. It b an altar shaped atone, lUnnaii reads at Luantinum or Loventium, 

and may have been a "Miliary." See Llandovery, where four Ronuu roada 

jtrcktMUoiial Jmtmal, vol. xui, p. Hi, appear to meet. See AreJUnleaia Otm' 

irnuii, April, 1873. 

:ec by Google 


near Caton, Lancaster. There is some doubt of the 
reading of the last line {see Hiibner, No, 1175). Of the 
leniainder, five belong to the date of the Emperor Philip, 
A.I). 244-248 ; two to Decius, A.D. 249-251 ; two to Con- 
Ht-antitie the Great, a.d. 306-337 ; and the one di^ up in 
1836 at Middleton, three or four miles from Kirkby 
Lonsdale, on the Roman road from Overborough to Borrow 
Bridge, on which the letters mp and niuneral lth only 
can be read. {See Archaologtcnl Journal, vol. xxxi. 
p. 354.) 

Taking the line of the military way which led from 
York to the VaUnm of Hadrian, we have two Miliaiiee 
found at or near Aldborough, the ancient Isainutn. The 
one is a mere fragment found at Alborough, but the one 
found at Duel Cross, three miles from it, has been clearly 
read — (see Hiibner, No. 1180). It was erected in the 
time of Decius, and is of the usual kind, the dat« a,d. 
249-251. Going further north another has been found 
at Greta Bridge, inscribed to GaUus and Volusianus, a,d. 
251-253 ; and another at Spital on Stanmore, but the 
lettering has almost perished. These two are on the linp 
of road which crosses the island obliquely between 
Cataric Bridge (Cataractonium) and Carlisle (Lugii- 
vallium), and seem to point out that this road was made 
somewhat later {two years) than the direct northern road 
from York. Thus at Lanchester and at Ford, on the 
direct north road, we have two more Miharies of the date 
of the Emperor Gordian, a.d, 238-244, some years earlier 
than those on the cross road. 

The military way which accompanied the Vallum of 
Hadrian ha-s yielded at least six found along its course. 
The most important one is that which is inscribed to 
the Emperor Caracalla, and which is of the date a.d. 213. 
It is conjecturally restored by Hubner (No, 1186), but 
the ending seems a doubtfiil reading, as on the Miliaries 
found in Britain the name of the Legate never appears 
joined with that of the Emperor. 

A Miliary found near Old Walker, and containing only 
a few letters, cannot be assigned to any emperor, and it 
is doubthil if it was found per lineam valli, but probably 
in the neighbourhood. The last stone mentioned in Hilb- 
ner's collection (1191) appears to be of very doubthil 


reading, and has most certainly been tampered with and 
corrupted, if not a forgery. 

It Is much to be regretted that the Imperial Titles alone 
are to be gathered from most of these records, by which we 
can only fix the date of their erection ; the names of 
places, and the distances which ought to appear on the 
lower portion of the column, are for the most part 

The Miliary found near Leicester, and that lately 
■found near Buxton, can alone be said to have preserved 
this important part of the lettering ; all may have had 
originally the distance from some important station, as 
■well as the date of their erection. But from the date of 
the erection we may probably infer the completion of the 
roads in Britain. None have been found as yet earher 
than the time of Hadrian (a.d, 120), but from that time 
they occur consecutively to the date of Constantine the 
younger, so that road making went forward without 
int-ermission for more than 200 years. May we not hope 
that by calling attention to these memorials fresh in- 
formation may be gleaned about the Roman roads in 

List of Miliaiies. 
Found in Britain, Eastern Portion; 

Conlinitl, Kent, Hnnta, Cnmbridgeabire, Nortbnmptotuhire, HuDtingdonrihirr, 


1 St Hilary, Cornwall. 

6 or 7 Bittern, near Southampton, Hants. 

1 Southfleet, Kent. 

1 Preserved in the Trin. Coll., Cambridge, formerly at 

Conington, not known where found. 

2 One found between Cambridge and Hiintingdon, the 

othei', exact spot not known, but preserved at 

1 Caeterton, near Stamford, 
1 Kempsey, Woi-cestershire. 

13 or 14 


D.D.t.zea by Google 

404 " eohan uiliabiea " found in britain. 
Found in Wales: 

QUmorgutfhJn, Cunuithenaliin, Canurroiiiliire. 

2 Port Talbot, near Neath, Glaraoi^anshire. 

1 Pyle, 

2 Trecastle Hill, near Brecon, Caenuarthenshire 
1 Dynevor, Caermarthenshire, 

1 iJandiolin, Caernarvonshire. 
1 Bangor, Ty Coch „ 

Midland : 

Hel«ford, Salop, DerbTBhire, 

1 Kenchester, Herefordshire. 
3 or 4 fr^ments, Wroxeter, Salop. 

2 Near Hawkstone, „ 
2 Buxton, Derbyshire. 

1 ThurmastoD, near Leicester, Leicestershire. 
1 Sags Hill 
1 Ancaster, Lincolnshire. 

11 or 12 


I.ano(uihirc, Ciuulierland. 

1 Ribblechester, Lancashire. 

1 Ribchester, Township of Ashton, Ijnncashirc 

1 South from Lancaster, Lancashire. 

1 Castle HiU 

1 Arkle Beck, near Caton ,, 

1 At confluence of Loder and Eimote, Lancashire. i 

2 At Old Carlisle. 

1 Hangiiigshaw, near Old Carlisle. ' 

9 Great North Road: 

Ynrkiihirp, Diirhun. 

1 Duel Cross, three miles from Aldborough, Yorkshire. 

I Aldborough, Yorkshire. I 

1 Greta Bridge, Yorkshire 

1 Spital on Stanemore, Yorkshire 

1 Lanchester, Durham. ' 

1 Ford, near Bishop Wearmouth, Durham. i 

3 by Google 

"koman miliaiiies found in britain. 
Line op Rouan Wall : 

Northumberlaiid and CumbeiUiid. 

1 Old Walker, Northumberland. 

1 Welton, near Harlow Hill, Northtimberland. 

1 LittJe Chesters, Norbhumberland. 

1 ThirlwaU. 

1 lianercost. „ 

1 Old Wall, near Carlisle, Northumberland. 

1 BouhiesB, doubtful, but probably authentic. 


Total, 54 or 56 (2 being doubtful.) 

3 by Google 


Whilst none of the sepulohral eflagies in Hereford 
Cathedral pi'esent cUstinct features of peculiar rarity or 
of great antiquity, for we do not find one earlier than the 
middle or latter half of the thirteenth century, they are 
sutficiently >'aiied aa to be of iuter^t. The episcopal 
etiimes, indeed, exhibit a series in which the change of 
tasmon of the vestments in succeeding ages, from the 
thirteenth to the middle of the sixteenth century of the 
pre-reformation bishops, and the change which took place 
on the Beformation in the vestments or habits of the 
post-reformation bishops of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, is very apparent. The effigies of deans of the 
fourteentii and fifteenth centuries, those of the oue 
century differing from the other in fashion rather than in 
variety of the habits canomcaJ or choral in which they 
are represented, are more niunerous than we generally 
find in one Cathedral chureh. There is but one effigy of 
a priest, who probably may have held some subordinate 
office, attired simply in the sacerdotal veetmente. There 
are four effigies in armour, one of some degree of rarity as 
to costume ; four effigies of ladies, and three of civilians. 

The number of effigies of pre-reformation bishops is 
eight, exclusive of a series of eight episcopal effigies 
sculptured by one and the same hand about the middle 
or late in the latter half of the fourteenth century, com- 
memorative of bishops of a much earUer period, whose 
names are painted over them. Of the bishops of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, whose real effi^es 
sculptuied at or immediately after tbeii- death, viz., 

I.,... ..Google 


Peter de Aquablaiica mid Tliomas Charlton, we find they 
^vore the short crisp beard, a fashion which prevailed till 
alwiit the middle of the fourteenth century, after which 
jieriod the chins of all ecclesiastics were close shaven, in 
uxicordauce, I thmk, with some Canon or Provincial Consti- 
tution. This new fashion continued to the Reformation, 
after which the bishops of the Reformed Church of 
England wore first the spade-shaped and afterwards the 
flowing beard,' a custom which continued to the middle of 
the seventeenth century. 

Of bishops of the pOTt-reformation period we have one 
busto and four effigies. 

Of the effigies of deans, or at least of those of canonical 
rank, there are only two to whom names may possibly be 
assigned, viz., Dean Ledbury, who died A.D. 1324, and 
Dean Harvey, who died A.D. 1500. 

Of pre-r^ormcUion Bishops. 
The earliest episcopal effigy is that of Peter de Aqua- 
blanca, who died a.d. 1268. — In my description No. 32. 

Bishop Thomas de Charlton, who died a.d. 1343. Of 
this effigy an engraving is given. — No. 35 in the descrip- 

Bishop Lewis de Charlton, who died a.d. 1369. — No. 
15 in the description. 

Bishop Trevenant, who died a.d. 1403.— No. 5 in the 

Bishop Stajibmy, who died a.d. 1474. Of this effigy 
an engraving is given. — No. 19 in the description. 

Bishop jfayo, who died a.d. 1516, Of this effigy an 
enOTaving is given. — No. 1 1 in the description. 

Bishop Booth, who died a.d, 1535. — No. 37 in the 

Bishofffl, unknown.— No8, 6, 7, 8, 9, 27, 28, 29, 31, in 
the description. 

Of post-reformotiion Bishops. 
Bishop Westphaling, who died a,d. 1601, — No. 36 in 
the description. 

Bishop Bennet, who died a.d. 1617. — No. 30 in the 

Bishop Lindsell, who died A.D. 1634. — No. 18 in the 


■ Bishop Field, busto of, who diedA.D. 1636. — No. :J4 in 
the description. 

Biebop Coke, who died a.d. 1646. Of this effigy an 
engraving is given. — No. 14 in the description. 

Of pre-r^ormation Effigies of Deans. 

Dean Ledbury, who died a.d. 1324, — No. 3 in the 

Dean Harvey, who died a.d. 1.100. — No. 12 in the 

Dean unknown, hitherto ascribed to Dean Borew but a 
century earlier in date. Of this effigy an engraving is 
g^ven. — No. 18 in the description. 

Nos. 18, 21, 33, effigies of Deans unknown. 

In Brown Willis's Survey of the Cathedral, published 
A.D. 1727, au ichnography or ground plan is given, 
defining the positions of the various monuments as they 
then existed. In the ground plan of this cathedral 
which appears in the new edition of the Manasticon, 
published a.d. 1846, only nineteen of the monuments 
are set down, and some of these appear to have been 
subsequently re-ananged. In the ground plan in 
Britton's History of this cathedral, pubEshed a.d. 1836, 
the sites of some thirty-five of the monuments are given. 

In Dingley's Hist<yry from Marble, compiled in the 
reign of Charles II, edited for the Camden Society by the 
late Mr. John Gough Nichols, a name to be had in 
remembrance, and printed in 1867 and 1868, several 
rude representations by the author from monuments in 
this cathedral, reproduced in fac-simile in photo- 
lithc^raphy, are given. These consist of the stone work 
or pedestal of the shrine of St. Thomas de Cantelupe, 
BiBhop of Hereford from a.d. 1275 to a.d. 1282, who, 
according to Dingley, died at Civita Vecchia in Italy 
in 1282, and whose remains were translated to Uiis 
cathedral. Of the monument in the Lady Chapel 
attributed to Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 
a feet contested, as his remains were not interred in this 
cathedral Of five of the effigies sculptured by the 
same artist in the latter half of the fourteenth century, 
commemorative of bishops of a much earlier period. Of 
the effigy of Bishop Bennett, who died a.d. 1617. Of 


Bishop Charlton, who died a.d. 1343. Of the monument' 
and eflSgy wrongly ascribed to Dean Borew, and of 
Bishop Booth, who died a.d. 1535. Rude delineations 
are also given of some of the incised brass eflSgies, 
including those of some of the canons, who are portr^ed 
in the canonical or choral habit, consisting of the surplice, 
amesa or furred tippet and cope, but none of the 
sculptured eflSgiea of deans now in the cathedral are 
represented wearing the cope. 

The brasses in this cathedral were formerly very 
numerous, no less than 170 are said to have been taken 
away by the Parliamentarians in 1645, and Boon after 
the Ml of the west end in 1786 no less than two tons in 
weight were sold to a brazier. At present the number 
of Brasses, including fragments, does not exceed fifteen ; 
on these I have not dwelt. 

In Gough's Sepulchral Monuments are engraved the 
r^resentations of two of the sepulchral arches and 
effigies of bishops executed by the same hand in the 
latter half of the fourteenth century, commemorative of 
bishops of a much earlier period, and here assigned to 
Bishop Robert de Lotheringa, who died a.d. 1095, and to 
Bishop Reynelmus, who died A.D. 1115. Now both these 
bishops would have worn the moustache and short crisp 
beard, a fashion which fell into disuse about tlie middle 
of the fourteenth century. The effigies of bishops then 
sculptured appear all close shaven. 

Of the pedimental canopy crocketted and finialed, and 
moulded arch beneath cinque-foiled within and cusped, 
over the effigy of Thomas Charlton, Bishop of Hereford, 
who died A.D. 1343. 

Of the canopied high tomb and effigy of Lewis Charlton, 
Bishop of Hereford, who died a.d. 1369. 

Of the tomb and effigy of Sir Richard Pembridge, who 
died a.d. 1375, depicts with pointed sollerets. 

Of the monumental arch and effigy in the Lady Chapel 
with paintings on the hack of the arch, wrongly ascribed 
to Dean Borew, being of a date at least a century earlier 
than his time. 

In Briton's Cathedral Antiquities we have engraved 
the monument and effigy ascribed, but it is contended 
erroneously, to Humphiy de Bohim, Earl of Hereford. 



A portion of the monument of Bishop Lewis Ohaiitoa 

The monument of Bishop Mayo, and the stone work 
which suppoirted the shrine of St. Thomas de Cantelupe. 

In Murray's Handbook to the Western Cathedrcils are 
engraved the stone work which supported the shrine <^ 
St. Thomas de Cantelupe, and the monument of Bishop 

I now proceed to cive my notes of most, if not all, of 
the sculptured sepulchral emgies in the cathedral, and I 
have taken them m order, commencing with those in the 
south aisle of the nave, and going thence round the 
cathedral, rather than describing them in a more chrono- 
logical arrangement. 

1. Between two of the piers which separate the nave 
from the south aisle is the monument of Sir Hichard 
Pembridge, who died a.d. 1375. This consists of a high 
tomb, constructed of alabaster and stone, the sides of 
which are covered with quatrefoils, inclosing shields, four 
on each side and two at each end. On this tomb is the 
recumbent effigy of the knight. Tliis is of alabaster. A 
tilting helm and crest supports the head ; the helm is 
wreathed above the oculanum with roses. A conical 
basinet, with a camail or tippet of chain-mail, covers the 
head and neck, excepting the front of the face, eyes, nose 
and mouth ; the armpits are protected by guasetts of 
chain-mail, epaulieres, rerebraces, coudes, vambraces and 
gauntlets, all of plate, protect the shoulders, upper arms, 
elbows, the arms from thence to the wrist and hands, 
which latter are conjoined on the breast. Over the body 
armour or breast-plate is worn a close-fitting jupon of silk 
or linen, escalloped at the skirts and emblazoned with the 
same armorial hearings as are displayed round the sides 
of the tomb. Beneatn the skirts of the jupon appeai^s an 
apron of mail. A rich bawdrick or belt, horizontaJIv 
disposed round the loins, is buckled in front ; the sword 
is gone. Cuisses, genouilleres, jambs, and sollerets, the 
latter of overlapping laminse, protect the thighs, knees, 
legs and feet. Below the knee of the left leg is a garter, 
buckled on the side. Rowel spurs are affixed to the heels 
by leathers, buckled un the insteps. At the feet is an 
animal, collared round the neck. The left 1^ and foot 


have been restored, but without a sufficient knowledge of 
detail, for the new solleret is sculptured hroad-toed, a 
fashion which came not in before the close of the fifteenth 
century ; it oiu;ht to have been pointed. This is an 
anachronism to be regretted. 

This monument is said to have been originally in the 
church of the Blackfriars, and on the suppression to have 
been removed to the cathedral Such removals of monu- 
znents from Conventual churches which were suppressed 
were not imusual. 

In the ground- plan of the cathedral given by Britton, 
this monument is represented as placed against the south 
'wall of the south Msle of the nave, but in Willis's earlier 
TcJmography it is set down in the place it now occupies. 
It may have been removed at the close of the last century, 
on the reparations effected at the west end of the 
cathedral, and subsequently restored to its original 

2. In the south aisle of the nave, under an arch in the 
wall, cusped within and pedimentally canopied, of the 
fourteenth century, is the mutilated recumbent effigy, in 
stone, of an ecclesiastic. Of this, the head is gone. On 
this effigy the usual eucharistic vestments of a priest only 
appear, amice, alb, stole, and chesible, with the maniple 
hfmging from the left arm. Over Hie shoulders and down 
the front of the chesible appear the orfreys of that vest- 
ment The shoes or sandals are pointed. 

As there are no indications of either tunic or dalmatic, 
this is simply the effigy of a priest ; the drapety is well 
defined. Brown Willis, in his Ichnogrc^hy, ix, sets this 
monument down as that of " a dean unknown." In this 
I differ from him ; it is the effigy of a simple priest, of one, 
probably, who had some office of a subordinate nature to 
that of a dean or canon. Britton speaks of this as " a 
stone effigy, erroneously said to represent Bishop Athel- 

3. Eastward of the last described monument, and 
beneath a well moulded sepulchral arch of the fourteenth 
century, in the south wall of the south aisle of the nave, 
is the reciunhent effigy of an ecdesiastic of canonical 

VOL. XXXIT. ' °i ~ »ll ll " 


rank. The head is partly defaced, hut the biretum or 
dose-fitting scull cap la worn, and the chin is cloee shaven. 
The person commemorated appears in the toga talarit at 
cassock vnth close-fitting sleeves, the ordinary dress of 
the clergy when not engaged in divine offices. Over Uiie 
is worn the surplice wim sleeves, and the almadum, 
amess, or furred tippet, with its pendant bands hanging 
down in iront, whilst at the back of the head it appeazs 
like a standing cape. The head reposes on a square- 
shaped cushion, and the hands are conjoined on ihe breast 
Brown Willis, in his Ichnogrwphy E, sets this down as the 
monument of Bishop Walter, who died A.D. 1079,' but 
there are no episcopal insignia whatever. It is that of a 
dean of the fourteenth century, and may be commemwa- 
tive of Stephen de Ledbury, dean from 1320 to 135Z, 
when he died. 

"In the great south transept" saith Brown Willis, "is 
a very handsome raised tomb of Alexander Denton, d 
Hillesden, oo. Bucks, Esq., and his lady, the effigies 
curiously wrought in white marble or alabaster, lying on 
the tomb in fml proportion, round the verge of wnicli 
is this inscription : — Here lieth Alexander Denton, of 
Hillesden, in the Countie of Buckin^am, and Anne his 
wife, dowghter and heyr of Richard WiUyson of Sugger- 
wesh, in the Countie of Hereford, which Anne deceased 
the 29th of October, a.d. 1566, the 18th yere of her age, 
the 23rd of his age." 

"But this (says Willis) was but a csenotaph, for 
Alexander Denton, the husband, who lived some years 
after and marred another lady, was bury'd with Her at 
Hillesden, co. Bucks, where he died January the IStb, 

Here we have an instance, of which the examples are 
numerous, of the sculpture of an effigy in the Hfetime of 
the person of whom it was intended to be commemorative. 
For on this tomb is his recumbent effigy in armour, 
together with the effigy of his first wife. 

He is represented Imre headed, with a moustache and 
beard ; his body armour consists of a globular shaped 

> W&lter became coiuecTated at Rome doora, ii yet EJievn Hie efBgies of ft ladKip 

b; the Pope A.u. lOBO. Hediedi.D. 1079, cut in freettone, IriiiB in a tomb imdo' tt 

and WM buned in tbe catbednl, where in arch, aaid to be for nim. — Blown WiDia, 

the eouUi aiale, between the clojttor BUMepi tf Bn-fArrf. 


breast-plate, with a skirt of taces overlapping upwards so 
as to prevent the thrust of a lance. To this skirt two 
builles are attached by straps; beneath is an apron of 
mail of rings set edgewise with a protuberance — conunon 
a.^ this period — in &ont of the fork. The shoulders and 
ajms are protected by pauldrons, epaulieres, rerebraces, 
coudes, and vambraces ; the hands, liare and ruffed at the 
"wrists, are partly gone. Cuisses, genouiJleres, jambs, and 
round-toed sollerets, cover the thighs, knees, legs, and 
feet. On the right side of the body the gauntlets are 
represented lying ; a sword is suspended on the same side 
&om a belt crossing ihe waist ; a short ruff encircles the 
neck, from which latter is suspended a double chain. 
Heneatb the head is represented a tilting helm with 
mantling and crest, resembling not a real but a funeral 
helm, such as formed part of an heraldic achievement. 

The effigy of the laay reposes on the left side of that of 
her husband She is represented wearing a close fitting 
cap on the back of her nead, disclosing ner hair. Her 
hody attire consists of a petticoat with close sleeves, 
rufred at the wrists ; pendant in iront of this and reaching 
nearly to the feet is a round and flat pomander box. 
Over the petticoat ia worn a gown or robe open in front 
with shoulder guards, and rising on each side of the neck 
like a stiff cape. At the back appears a mantle or cloak, 
but this is unattached. On me left of the lady is the 
small effigy of a child wrapped in swathing bands, an 
early instance of a Chrisom. Both effigies are of alabaster 
and painted 

5. On the south side of the south transept under a 
t^pte canopy, apparently of the fifteenlJi century, is the 
recumbent effi^ of a bishop. The head is gone. The 
apparel of ihe wnice is richly wrought. The other 
vestments consist of the alb, the stole, the ends of 
which appear, the tunic which is fringed at the extremities, 
the dalmatic which is phun and open at the sides, and 
the chesible. The maniple is rich and fringed at the 
extremities. The pastoral staff, which is veued, is held 
in the left hand, and the feet rest against a lion. 

This monument and eflfigy appears to be of local stone. 
Brown Willis ascribes t^ monument to John Trevenant 



Bishop of Hereford from A.D. 1389 to A-D. 1403. _ " Id 
his will " ea3n3 Willis, " he appointed to be btuied in this 
cathedral in St. Anne's Chapel in the south part, -where i* 
yet to be seen his tomb, under the great south window ii 
the cross isle, containing his effigies of freestone under a 

I think this monument was not executed till some years 
after his death, as it appears of a later style to that 
pi-evalent in 1403, the dkte of his death, but there is eo 
other bishop to whom I can assign it. 

6. In the south aisle of the choir, under four septilclux 
arches, marked by Brown Willis in his Ichnography r, 
w, Y, X, are four recumbent effigies of bishops, evidently 
executed at the same period, and by the same sculptor 
Recumbent effigies of ladies in the diurches of Iiedbuiy 
and Much Marcle, appear to have been sculptured by the I 
same artistic hand A series of sculptured effigies, exe- i 
cuted at one and the same period, are to be found in the 
churches of Aldworth, Berkshire, and Houghton le Street I 
county of Durham. i 

These effigies of bishops are of the fourteenth century, 
aa are also the arches beneath which they are placed. It I 
is to the builder of this portion of the cathedral, about i 
the middle of that century, that we may ascribe the 
formation of these and other like recumbent effi^es, | 
which I shall point out, destined to be commemoratiTe 
of some of the early Bishops of Hereford, 

The westernmost of these effigies appears with the 
mitre on the head, the face close shaven, a practice 
introduced about the middle of the fourteenth century, 
up to which period we find the beard in both episcopal I 
and sacerdotal effigies to be worn ; the vestments consist ' 
of the alb, stole, tunic, and chesible. No dalmatic is 
visible, the maniple is plain. The right hand, which ifi 
gloved, is upheld in act of benediction ; in the left hand, 
also gloved, the pastoral staff is held, the crook of which . 
is foliated. This effigy is in high relief. There is no | 
great finish, but breadth is displayed in the arrangement 
of the drapery. 

7. The second effigy which hea eastward of the fonso' 

is very similar. . - I 

3 by Google 

3 by Google 



8. The third eflfigy differs very slightly from the two 
former, the sleeves of the tunic or dalmatic are wide. 

9. The fourth effigy exhibits a very slight deviation 
from the other effigies. 

10. On the opposite side of the choir aisle, westward, 
beneath a sepulchral arch of the fourteenth century with 
the ball flower in a hollow moulding, is the recumbent 
sepulchral effigy of a bishop, executed in the fourteenth 
century, similar to and of the same class as the four 
efligies I have thus described, but with a low mitre. 
The representation of a church is held in the left hand. 
This may be considered as commemorative of Bishop 
Btunelm, who occupied the episcopal throne from A.D.' 
1101 to A.D. 1115. This bishop, as Willis informs us, 
bmlt a good part of the cathedral now in being. This 
monument to his memory could not have been constructed 
till nearly two centuries and a half after his decease. 

Above the sepulchral arch is some decorated woodwork 
of good character of l^e fourteenth century. 

1 1. Eastward of the last, in the same line, imder a rich 
canopy of late florid hanging tracery, and beneath a 
Norman arch, is a high tomb piuielled in front in eight 
divisions, with a statuette in high rehef, but more or less 
mutilated, in each panelled recess. 

The first statuette is that of a bishop. 

The second, that of St Paul, with a book and sword. 

The third, tiiat of St. John the Baptist. 

The fourth, that of the Blessed Yiigin and In&nt 

The fifth, that of our Lord. 

The sixth, that of St. Matthew, with a book and palm 

The seventh, t^t of St. Fei«r with a sword and the 
representation of a chiux^. 

On this tomb lies the recumbent effigy of Bishop Mayo, 
sometime President of Magdalen College, Oxford, who 
filled the episcopal see of Hereford from A.D. 1504 to 
A.D, 1516, and in the fashion of the vestment* we may 
observe that change which appears to have taken place 



in the early port of t^e sixteenth century. His head 
reposes on a square cushion, his hair is clubbed in the 
fashion of the age, and he wears the rnitra pretiosa 
with the if^vlcB depending behind, and the &<ce is 
close shaven. He is represented as vested in the 
amice, the apparels of which are richly worked, in 
the alb, tunic, dalmatic and chesible ; the extremities 
of the stole ore not visible, the maniple is richly orna- 
mented and fringed, and depends from the left arm. The 
sandals are Toimd toed in accordance with the fashicHi 
which prevailed in liie early part of the sixteenth century, 
and which continued for a considerable time. The pastoial 
staff, which is veiled, is on the left side, and the orook is 
richly worked. The sleeves of the tunic (1) are wide, the 
episcopal gloves are covered with rings, and jewds at the 
Ixtck, and the wrists have pendant tcuaeU, the latter a 
&shion of the age. At the east eaA. of this monument is 
a bracket for an image. 

12. Against the south wall of the eastern south transept 
is a hu;h tomb with quatrefoils in front inclosing shields. 
On this reposes the recumbent effigy of a dean. On his 
head the biretum or close fitting scull cap is worn, and 
it reposes on a double cushion, square and lozenge shaped, 
supported by mutilated figures of angels. The apparel 
coQsista of the toga talaria or cassock, the oj/muciwn, amess 
or furred tippet with pendant bands, and the sunilice 
with large naiiging sleeves. On the breast is a laroe 
morse. This emgy, which is of alabaster, is in hi^ relief 
but much mutilated 

This monument is assigned by Willis to Joan Harvey, 
Dean of Hereford from A.D. 1491 to A.D. 1500, and tiiere 
is nothing about the tomb or e£Egy irrecon(slable with 
tiiat date. 

1 3. To the east of the last tomb is the recumbent effigy 
of a bishop clad in the episcopal habit of the Reformed 
Church of England. On the head is worn the square cap, 
the &ce is represraited with the moustache and beard. 
He wears the rochet and chimere with the tippet over, 
the rochet is plaited in front with a worked border, and 

3 by Google 

3 by Google 


tBe lawn sleeves are very full, the lappets of the breast 
of the chimere are thrown back. 

This is the effigy of Augustin Lindsell, Bishop of Here- 
ford from A.D. 1633 to A.D. 1634. 

14. Against the north wall of the south eastern tsunsept 
is another recumbent effigy of a bishop of the Reformed 
Church of England. On his head he wears the close 
fitting scull cap, he has a moustache and beard, with 
flowing locks of hair, and round his neck is a ruff. He is 
vested in the rochet with lawn sleeves edged with a 
worked border in front of the breast and reaching to the 
feet, over the rochet is worn the black chimere, and over 
that the tippet. At the wrists are ru£&, and the hands 
are upheld vertically and conjoined as in prayer. 

This is the effigy of Qeorge Coke, Bishop of Her^ord 
from A.D. 1686 to A.D. 1646. 

15 Westward of the foregoing, lies the mutilated effigy 
of a bishop. The head is gone. He is represented as 
Tested in the amice ornamented with the parures or 
apparels, alb, stole, the fringed extremities of which appear, 
tunic, dalmatic fringed at