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9Lvt\fUolositiil journal. 


Cite Andaeolosftal Snstitute of iffitrat IScitain anii Sitlanli, 



Ede CSatls anlr ffUMt ^tff, 
VOLUME xxr. 




Thi CumUL CoidtiTTU bf the Asooaxoloqioil lannm ittlie tiutt it ihonld 
b« diEtiuctl; undeivtood tlial the; sta not reaponiible for taj etatementa or opiiiiinu 
expmsed in the AiohMologiuI Jonnial, ths aathon of the Bereial msmoirB »nd 
eommimintian* being iktte uuwenbb fbi the lame. 

) by Google 

Gandnlf, Biihop of Boaliwtsr. 'Bj ttta Very Rev. the Dun of CaioHxiTkii, 

D.D.,F.R.a. 1 

Ruga de LeybonniB ; lus Bhaie ia tha Baroni^ War. By JoaBpa Basn, Aidst- 

ut Keeper of Pnblie Rooards 20 

A liitlierto impnblulied Fasuge ia tha Life of John Wamer, Kahop of Koahe»- 

tar. B; the Rer. Juiis Lu Vaskbb, U.A 42 

Contrilmtiaiu towardi the Ancient Oeograpb; of the Troad. On the Bite of 

OeiKtthe. Bf Frank Caltbbt 4S 

Hotes on certain objects of Btag'e-Hom nsed for hafling atone Implemeott. By 

Albmt WiT, M.A., PAA SI 

niting-helm of the Eftemth centnrj, in the Bojftl Artillar; Uiwenm, Woolwich. 

B; JoFH EiwnT. 60 

Swoid of the Poke of Hoamauth. Bj the tame 62 

On • Tsnudcible looident in the life of St. Edward the Confeeaor, with tToticM 

of Boyal Cramp lUnga. B7 Bdvuhi) WaiKSTOV, E.U., FJ.A. . , . 103 
Caatell Dinaa Bifln, near Uangollen, Danbighshira, B; Waltib H. Treoeixu 111 
On the date of the fonndation of Uriocoaium and of Caerleon-on-Uilc, with aome 

Mmarka on the «it« of tka OTerthrow of Caiactacua, By the Bev. HAakt 

U.Bau9H, U.A., I^bendaiyofWella 121 

Baport on the Fngntt of the EzoaTationi at Wroxetar, ^oe July, 1S60. By 

thesame -.130 

Kotioe of an Intaglio repreaenting the Clepaydra Died at Baoei in the Circua 

Ifaxfaaus, By 0. W. Knta, ILA., Senior Fallow of Trinity Conege, Cem- 

bridge . ISS 

Tha I^riiamant of Kenilworlh. By the late Bov. Cbaxum Huibt Hasib- 


EionUieFaiaUd01asiiktLich6eldCU£»dnL Bf thekteUr.CuBUS 

Wmnw 193 

Mnnl Paintings in Chftrlwood Cburch, Barray, with Ramulu on ths more 

ordmirj Polyohromy of tin tUrtoanth century. By Willum Bcbqih, 

F.I.B.A. 208 

"Lm troii Tia et 1m trota MotU:' Mural P«inting in Clwrlwood Chttroh, 

Smrey. By Aldsri Wat, H.A., P.8.A 210 

JdUd* CteMi'* loTsmon of Britain. By Bdwim Qvbst, LIi.D., F.KB., UuteF of 

QoDTiliB and Caiua Colkge, Cambridge . 220 

UiooTeiT of Flint Implemsnti in the higher leTel QniTal at Milford Hill, Salla- 

bmy. By a P. BuctMOBi, M.D 2*3 

On a Benurkable Sonlpture lately found in Bobbing Church, Kent By 

W.8. W.andA.W. 216 

TheBanof Eenilworth (Dictum de Eenelworthi). By the B«v.Joait BtCBARn 

Qmur, M.A 277 

Hie lUnted Qlan in the Baanchamp Chapel at'Warwick. By the Ute Mr. ' 

CflAXLS WiNBTon 802 

Medinral Oem EngTaring. By C. W. Kaa, ILA., Senior Felloir of Trinity 

College, Cambridge SIB 

Tiu Btatne of the Diadamenns in tlie Brltiab KnEeum oondderod with rafeTence 

to the Diadumenna of Polyoletui. By Richibd WzsTiuooit, Profavor 

□fSaDlptunB.A., F.R.S S3S 

Obioiral Domnannt— 

EiampMcBtion, from the Itecordfl kt Cumanon, of twoChirten of 
Henry Til. in &TOr of the lolutbltantg of the Conntiee of Heiio- 
netb, CaenuuTOD, and Anglesey, Commmiioated, from tbe Huid- 
mente of Km. Onniby Qore, by Ur. W. W. B. Wtmni, H.P. . 61 

Uoenoek under the Privy Seal, to remit a debt to Bobert Bmce, in order 
that the money might be applied towards the nuuom of a priioner 
in Scotland. Commnnimted by Ur. Qiobob Ai-ak I/Omton . . 156 

Dooome&tB relating to the Family of Swynford. Communicated by the 

Bar. EnwiN a. Jabtb 2G4 

" Banediotionea ad Hensai Ekkehardi Monaahi Sangalleuria.** Reprinted, 
with tranalationa of the Introduction and Notea, firam a Memoir b; 
Dr. FebDihaxd Eblub, President of the Society of Antiqnuiee at 
Zflrioh r5 zectvGooe^lc ^" 



PfooMdingi atHMtiDgi of the ArduMlogiMl Inititnto ^— Deoember, ISSS, to 

July, 18S4 86, lOS, 260 

Abctnustof Aooonnt^lSSS, MiditadlfoyBl, 1861 . .... 191 

Aniinil Mratiog held at Warwiok .... ... 866 

Aecexouwiui, ImLuaxHOB lOS, 276 

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SeatioDofaTumnluaanBalli-DagliintlieTKwd .... To&ee IS 

Objects of SUg'a-Hom for hafting stone implameDt* (two woodcata) To &ce St 

Tiltiog-Helm of tha filteenth ooutuiy, B, A. Koaenm, Woolwich . To (ace BO 

fonnerlj in the Baron da Peuker's Huieam fll 

in Aebford Churcb, Kent 69 

Bronza Celt trom Herculaaeum *■ 100 

and FalsUvet In Mr. Wertropp's ColIeoHon . To foce 100 

Edward the ConfeBui and the Pilgrim To face 10< 

Plan of Cutell Dinaa Bran, DenbigliBiiire To boo lU 

InoBed Markinga on Bocks, Crinan Uosi, ArgfleBhire . .To face 1S3 

Bouting Lynn, NortbumberUnd 18* 

Acbaabreek, Argyloiluro To fac« 18* 

Catreg-y-Saethau, near Aber, CaernarroDBhire 171 

Impreaaion of a Qold Bing found at Dundee 138 

Uuial Fainting, Charlwood, Surrey, Legend of St Margaret. . . To face 212 

" Lea Troi» Vi6 et lea Troii Morta." . To face 218 

Uap illurtratiTa of dcaar'a Inraaion of Britain. (Thia map ia kindly contri- 
buted b; Dr. Qaett) To face 219 

CbwBcten indeed on Rocks in Nubia S8I 

Stone Sun-dial found at Dover To &ca S63 

Soman Bing and Intaglio found at Dotct 261 

Uaion's Mark, Darenlh Church, Kant 265 

Soppoied Beal of St. Servaii, at Maeatricbt. (Two catt.) These illnatratiou 

ara kindly presented by the Bav. C W. King 27fi 

Diagrun, Eaat Window of the Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick . To &ca S02 

Qold Bing, and three Hedimral Intagli To face 82S 

Section of bfue-mauIdtDga, Coventry Cathsdnl 380 

) by Google 


Paee 67. The oIq«ct of ■tag't-honi, here described, was obbuned hj Mr. Hani Biuk, 
during proeeedingti for dimAmating Wyehvood Poreat ; it waa preiealed bj Mm to Mr. 
BaniLard Smith. Gocksboot Hill ia aliown in a map of tbat aacieot fsreat, pnpared on 
(ba occamon abors noticed. 

Page 78, line 26, and page 62, line 4, /or "Noria Qetbiu," rtad "Uaria Qetbin." 
Ve are ioformed b; Mr. Wfnna that he waa Bteiracd of the disolved manaakr; of Con- 
Tar, SO Hen. Tin., and one of hia aona waa grantee of portiona of the .poamdoDB of 
that honae. Levla ap Horii Qathin was doobttew of the Bsme fiunil;. Sii Thomaa ap 
William, mentioned aa tranaoiiber of the H3. dtcd at p. 78, ia beliersd ta have been 
ennite of Tiefriw, near Llanmt ; the country of ttie QeUuna ia vithin a abort diahuioe 
of that toTn. 

Page 88. The incised markioga oq rocks in NorthumberUnd lutre been lepeatedlj 
BoUoed by Hr. Qeorge Tate, F. O-.S., in the Frooeedingi of the Berwickabira NatunUiala' 
Clab, to), iu. p. 1S7, ToL it. pp. 233, 337. At their meeting in Maj, 1858, Hr. Tale 
waa reqneated to prepare a paper ^tlt dniwinga of the eircuUir markings at BonUng 
Linn, Berwick, &a. ; this commonicatiDn baa recently appeared in toL t. of the Pro- 
eeedingi of the Club, p. 138, illnatiated by twelve plates from accnisle diswinga by Mr. 
John Storey, inctnding nearly every example fonnd in Northumberland, with a few from 
Scotland, Ireland, &e. Mr. Tate's cnrians memoir baa been printed eeparalely i it may 
be obtained &om Mr. Blair, Bookaeller, Alnwick, price 5i. (postage free). 

Page 9i. The aarooph^Qs and leaden ooffina here deaciibed have been prtsenled to 
the Britiah Huaenin. 

Page 91, line 11. IThe leaden coffia noticed aa foond at Shadwell ie figured, JourDal 
Biit. Afcb. Abboc, 18SS, p. 3fi5, pi. S6. Tiie discover; occurred in September in that 

Page 103. The matrix of &e aeal of Bertiand de Veiselo, here deseribod, ia in the 
p e aaca aion of Mn. Halke. 

Page 111. A ihoit notice of the architcetsral veatigei at Dinai Brin may be (baud in 
the Builder, July 23, 1864. 

Page 170, line 36, and page 171, Una 3, /or " Carreg-y-Saalhan," wad "Carreg-y- 
SaetliaD.'' We regret to leam from Mr. WilUama, that this eurions relic, of wbi^ a 
drawing waa sent by hU kindneaa throng!) the Hon, W. 0, Stanley, M.P., waa shortly 
after broken in pieeea and destroyed. 

Pags 180, lioe 24, /or "Lyons," rtad "Sycn." This error waa inadvertently repeated 
from a nsefol work of reference by Mr. Fisher, relating to Bnglisb history and family 
descenta. Dugdala, Baron, ii. p. ISO, on the antbority of Balpb Brooke, gives, amongat 
the children of John de la Pole, Duke of Boffclk, "Anno, a nun at Sion." Compare 
Sandford, p. 402. This, dunbtlcas, waa ths "My lady Aunc," whose name occurs in Hr. 
Puller BosmU's MS. described U aupm. The will of Cecity, Duchess of York, has been 
lata^ printed for the Ctunden Society. See Wills from Doctors' Common^ edited by 
Mr. Brace, p. 3. She beqneathed "to the honae of Sion two of the best ccope* of 
oymysoa clothe of gold." To her " donghters," Brigitte, Cecill, Anne and Kateryn, 
being in fact her granddaughters, the daughters 'of Edward IV., certain books, be. 
"Also I geve to mj daughter Anne priores of Sion a boke of Bonavenlure and Hilton in 
the some in Bnglisht^ and a boke of the BeveUciDus of Saint Bnrgitte," the tatter being a 
gift peealiarly suited to a member of that community. It seems by no means impro- 
bable that this "boke" may hare contained the "Speculum Vile Chriiti, or the Myr- 
rouracftheBleaaedLyfof jiieauCrystO," printed by Caiton in I4B4, nnd the "Ladder 
of Peifbction, " by the Corthniian monk of Sheen, Walter Hilton, which waa printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde in the aame year, being that, it will be observed, preceding the date 
of the will of the Duehesa of York (April I, 1406). 

Page 217. The moat detwled notice bitherto given of the paintings ftt DUchingham, 
now dvtnyed, may b« found in the Clent. Mag. 1647, Nov., p. 52S. 

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Sfie ^[tclratolflflieal Soutnal. 

Bt th* Varj B». Iha DEAN OF CBlOHESTtB, D.D., P.RB. 

When our attention is directed to the antiquities of 
Rochester, the mind at once adverts to the name of Gun- 
dulf, and I have been requested to bring before the Archae- 
ological Institute what is known of Gundulf's history. A 
life of that distinguished prelate is given in one of the 
Cottonian MSS., Nero, A. 8., of a date little later than his 
age. Many passages in it tend to the conclusion, that it was 
written by a monk of Rochester ; and the author affirms in 
the prologue, that he had conversed with the sabjeet of his 
biography. This life has been printed in the Anglia Sacra," 
and reprinted by Migne.' 

There are several scattered notices of Gundulf in the 
Anglia Sacra. Letters from him and to him are to be found 
in Eadmer's Tita Anselmi, and in the correspondence of 
Lanfranc.^ There are allusions to Qundulf in the writings 
of William of Malmeebury,^ and in those of Florence of 
Worcester. Some information is supplied by the Registrum 
Roffense, the Custumale Roffense, and the Textus Roffensis. 
From these sources the following notice of this distinguished 
man has been compiled. 

Gundulf was bom in that part of Kormandy called the 
Vexin. As he died in 1108, being then in his eighty-liflh 
year, we may fix the date of his birth in the year 1023. 
Of his &mily httle is known ; his father's name was Hathe- 

1 RoLd ia the BUtoritsl Section at tlia ■ Patrolog. Vit Guadnlfl, II. 812. 

Kcetuig of tb« Archteological Inititute * Opp, Laofr. L S9,ed.Qi]ei. 

■t Roch«et«r, July 31, 1S63. * Mdmeib. da Titii FontiC 

» Aug. Su. IL 273. 




guinus, or Hadwin ; his mother Adelesia survived her hua- 
band, and became a nun. He had a brother named William, 
who accompanied him to England. In the survey of the 
manor of Maidstone, in Domeaday, this WilUam is returned 
as holding of the Archbishop of Canterbury two suitings 
valued as high as as 10/.* Gundulf received his primary 
education in his native place, and probably from his father, 
who destined him, not to monastic seclusion, but to the 
secular life, which at this time opened the way to all worldly 
honours, except those confined to the use of arms ; if even 
here an exception may be made, when the Bishop of 
Bayeux was a soldier and a general, only second in ability to 
his brother, the Conqueror himself. At the proper age, and 
when he had mastered all the learning he could receive at 
home, Gundulf was removed to Rouen, the chief city of the 
diocese. He was here distinguished for the gentleness of 
his manners and the humility of his disposition ; and (after 
he had received the minor orders) for the conscientious 
regularity with which he performed his duties in St. Mary's 
Church. His good conduct did not escape the observation 
of William, at that time Archdeacon, and afterwards Arch- 
bishop, of Rouen. The archbishop who ordained Gundulf 
was Maurilius ; and, through the kind offices of the arch- 
deacon, Gundulf found in Maurilius more than a patron — a 
paternal friend. It speaks well for Gundulf, that be was 
not only entertained at the archbishop's table, but that he 
was permitted to join in the conversation, which turned 
chiefly on the topics frequently under discussion, contempt 
of the world, and the glories of eternity — on the hardships 
which righteousness had to encounter, on the self-denials to ' 
be endured in our earthly warfare, and on the fullness of the 
recompense in heaven. 

At this period the minds of men were generally found in 
one of two exti'emes : they were either seeking for wild 
adventure, or else, in monastic asceticism, excluding them- 
selves from the world, in which very frequently they had 
indulged their passions without restraint Even sober- 
minded men were influenced by the spirit of the age, and 
a man like Gundulf was not likely to remain long a mere 
student at Rouen, performing a routine of clerical duty. 



When it was proposed to him by the archdeacon to start 
on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, the proposal met with 
ready acquiescence. From what subsequently took place 
we may conclude that, while a religious motive sanctified 
the proceeding, it was rather from a lore of adventure and 
excitement that Gundulf set forth on his travels. It is to 
be regretted that he did not, in his conversations with his 
biographer, enter into a description of Palestine as it 
existed in the eleventh century ; but at this period external 
things, except as they related to the pomp and circumstance 
of war, to warlike exercises or religious ceremonial, were 
only valued for the impression which they made upon the 
mind, and the pious feelings they excited. The mind was 
becoming awake to the beauties of art, but could not as yet 
take an artistic view of nature. Gundulf and the arch- 
deacon went, as they said, to risit the places of the Incarna- 
tion, Passion, and Ascension of our Blessed Lord, that they 
might ever after have a cheering recollection of these events, 
and they were duly impressed. One or two things emerge 
from the darkness. They travelled then, as now, in cara- 
■ ans ; and the dangers to which they were exposed from 
attacks by the Saracens were so great, that we can account 
for, if we cannot justify, the Crusades, which soon after com- 
menced, not for the conquest of the land, but, as at first 
proposed, for the protection of pilgrims. 

Gundulf and his party lived in constant dread of attack, 
and had to undergo intolerable hardships ; they were into- 
lerable, in the literal sense of the word, to Gundulf, for 
he sank imder them. He was so prostrated, that when an 
onslaught was expected upon the caravan, and orders were 
issued for its removal to higher ground, Gundulf, unable to 
move, was left behind. When the party halted, Gundulf 
was sought for in vain among his friends ; a young noble- 
man, whose name ought to have been preserved, boldly 
dared all danger, and hastened back to the place of their 
late encampment. There he found Gundulf in great pertur- 
bation, expecting, if he did not perish through weakness, to 
he exposed to a death of violence from a cruel enemy. The 
young nobleman did not hesitate for a moment ; he placed 
Gnndulf on his shoulders ; he re-climbed the hill ; he 
restored Gundulf to the archdeacon, who must have blushed 
to find that accomplished by another, which he had not him- 


self the courage to attempt. Gundulf and the archdeacon 
were glad to escape the perils of robbers, and turned their 
faces towards home ; but they had first to encounter the 
perils of the deep, which made a more lasting impression on 
their minds than any danger to which they had been 
hitherto exposed. On their voyage they were overtaken by 
a tempest. Oundulf and hia companion prayed. They 
vowed, that if God in hia mercy would preserve them, they 
would renounce the world and assume the cowl. The 
tempest soon after ceased ; the ship came safe to land ; the 
archdeacon returned to his archdeaconry ; Oundulf made 
his way to the monastery of Bee, where, in the year 1060, 
he became a Benedictine monk.' 

A happier home than the abbey of Bee, Gundulf could 
not have chosen. The monastery was known throughout 
Normandy for the Btrictness of its discipline, and for the 
regularity with which the Benedictine rule was observed. 
Here, however, he could enjoy the conversation of some ot 
the most learned men in Europe, and profit by the instmc- 
tion given in schools, designed not merely for the young, but 
for those older persons who, when books were scarce, flocked 
to the lecture of the professor. The abbey stood in a valley 
extending for three miles through two ranges of hills, and 
was placed on the banks of a beck, or stream (the word 
is still used in Yorkshire), flowing into the Bille. Planta- 
tion, as well as building, was in progress, and some of the 
trees, which Gundulf assisted to plant, are .said to have out- 
lived the revolutions of France, and to be in existence at the 
present time, flourishing in a green old age amidst the ruins. 

When Gundulf arrived at Bee, the venerable founder was 
still living. Herluin, who had been a gallant knight, and 
was by birth allied to some of the first families in Normandy 
and Flanders, was a meek and pious old man ; innocent of 
book-learning, for in his old age we find him straining his 
eyes over his spelling-book, and unable to master its mys- 
teries, but respected by men really learned themselves, for 
his intuitive wisdom. The old abbot was also a good man 
of business, who, in an unworldly spirit, but with much 
worldly wisdom, husbanded the resources and managed the 
temporal afiairs of the establishment ; the temporalities of 

' ChroD. Bee. ad. Oilaa. 



the monastery consisting chiefly of bis own princely estate, 
with which he had endowed it. Meanwhile, no less a person 
than Lanfranc filled the office of prior, and presided in the 

The peaceful valley of Bee was invaded by persona in 
©very condition of life : poor scholars attended to drink in 
wisdom as it overflowed from the teacher, while they lived 
on the alms supplied by the monastery ; nobles, princes, the 
sons of kings, laid aside their armour for a season, and took 
their place among the hearers of Laniranc. The idea was 
prevalent, that knowledge was not only power, but wealth, 
or the cause of wealth, and mea rushed to the schools of the 
greater teachers with a feeling kindred to that which now 
animates emigrants to the diggings in Australia — in either 
case to be subject to disappointment, at flnding that the 
vicinity of wealth does not make men wealthy, and that 
neither learning nor gold can be procured without labor. 

These formed, as it were, the mob of hearers ; there were 
others who were really students ; and many more who fled 
from the gross immoralities which pervaded society, to 
plunge into a life of asceticism. 

Id our own days, those who are intimate with the working 
classes have heard the wise men among them, those whom 
Mr. Cobden aptly describes as the aristocratic portion of the 
working classes, affirm that, until habits of temperance have 
been permanently formed, although there are many who 
quaff beer or spirits ia moderation, yet, as regards the 
majority of their class, the question lies between drunken- 
ness and teetotalism. In the middle ages, while there were 
some who could live soberly and without dissolute morals in 
general society, there were many who felt, that they must 
bind themselves by the strictest rules, and take upon them a 
vow of asceticism, or they would soon fall into the prevalent 
gluttony and immorality which were to be found in most of 
die great castles. 

In either case an error was committed ; the error so 
common to man, too often unconsciously intolerant. What 
was a useful discipline to some, was enforced by enthusiasts 
as a system necessary to all, and asceticism then, like 
teetotalism at the present time, became a religion. 

To the monastic vows Gundulf conscientiously, but not 
without difficulty, adhered. His energetic character, his 


practical ability, and afterwards his science and skill as an 
architect, iavolred him in pursuits inconsistent vith the 
duties of a contemplative life — to which, indeed, he was not 
inclined by nature, or qualified by genius. But he intensely 
admired in others those virtues in which he did not himself 
excel, and for not excelling in which he tormented his mind 
and sometimes lacerated his body. 

For Gundulf, when at Bee, an enthusiastic friendship was 
formed by one, whose praise was soon to be, and still is, ia 
all the churches ; and the fact that Grundulf was admired, 
consulted, and beloved by Aoselm, is a sufficient testimony 
to the excellence of his character and to his proficiency as a 
scholar. This last remark is made, because it is supposed 
that William of Malmesbury speaks disparagingly of Gundulf 
when he describes him as " literamra non nescius."* Scholars 
in one department of literature are too much inclined, at all 
times, to speak slightingly of thoso whose line of thought 
has been in another direction. Gundulf could not, perhaps, 
have written a chronicle so well as William of Malmesbury ; 
bis genius did not incline him to the dialectic and meta- 
physical studies in which Lanfranc excelled ; neither could 
he fathom the depths of that scholastic philosophy into 
which Auselm was launching the church. Nevertheless, he 
who could erect the Cathedral of Rochester and the White 
Tower of London must have been a man who had mastered 
the science of the age, with the ability of applying it to 
practical purposes. He was, also, in grammar and all that 
related to language acknowledged to be profound. 

The firmest friendships are sometimes formed by a union 
of souls entirely opposite in what relates to external gifts, 
but made one by some kindred sentiment ; and the one 
sentiment which bound together the hearts of Gundulf and 
Anselm was, love to God and zeal for His service. Two men 
more different in character we cannot imagine. Gundulf 
was a man of action ; the genius of Anselm led him to a life 
of contemplation. To Anselm, whose nature revolted against 
self-indulgence, the Benedictine rule was scarcely a restraint ; 
Gundulf found it a restraint so irksome that he was con- 
tinually inflicting penances upon himself for the non-observ- 
ance of it. Anselm, when «dled into active life, for want of 

' Malmetbur; ds Qsit, PonUf. 132. 



■worldly wisdoro, did not excel; whereas Gundulf, when 
released irom the cloister, plnnged isto secular business with 
sach assiduity, that his monastic biographer, in recounting 
his proceedings, is continually obliged to pause, that he may 
remind us that, if busy like Martha, he always made time to 
sit at Jesus' feet like Mary. 

The practical wisdom of Gundulf was attractive to the less 
practical mind of Anselm ; and, when Anselm poured forth 
with unrestrained fervor the riches of his overflowing mind, 
he would find in Gundulf a listener ever ready to drink in 
every thought as it flowed forth. Anselm sometimes became 
almost ashamed of being the sole talker, for great talkers 
have sometimes scruples of conscience, easily expressed, 
though not long influential. On one occasion Anselm ex- 
claimed, when Gundulf proposed to him a question — " You 
are always seeking to sharpen your knife on my whetstone ; 
but my knife you never permit me to sharpen on yours. I 
do insist upon your taking your share in the conversation, 
that I may derive from our intercourse my fair share of 
advantage." It does not appear that Anselm talked less ; 
but at this very time he showed how highly he respected 
GundulTs character, for, referring to a short period of his 
own life to which he coiJd not look back with satisfection, 
he exclaimed, " I may, indeed, compare myself to a whet- 
stone, obtuse of mind as I have been made by my sins ; 
whereas your mind, like a knife always sharp, is ever ready 
for Divine contemplation," 

Anselm was said to be more learned in the Scriptures ; 
Gundulf more abundant in tears. The author of the " Cur 
Sens Homo " would discourse on the mercies of redeeming 
love, until he was silenced by the sobs of Gundulf ; which 
was the reason, probably, that Anselm said, that he would 
that he were another Gundulf, and Gundulf another Anselm. 
An union of the two characters would have been, he thought, 
perfection, so far as anything human can be perfect. 

There is nothing which strikes us in the history of Gundulf 
as more remarkable than his copious weeping. He seems to 
have encouraged it as a virtue, and he certainly indulged in 
it to such an excess as to injure his health. A frequent 
shedding of tears is observable in the history of other persons 
in the middle ages. They desired to excite sympathy by a 
display of their feelings in all their unrestrained energy, i 


The aptitude of Gundulf for secular employmeot did not 
escape the notice of Herluin or Lanfranc, both of whom were 
gifled with a discemnient of character, and with a power of 
commanding the services of others. With the former it was 
an intuition ; in the latter it was the result of experience. 
By these, his superiors, Gundulf whb employed as sacrist of 
the monastery, an office of importance, which made the 
holder of it a dignitary of the church. He had the custody 
of all the valuables of the monastery, including not only the 
sacred vessels of silver and gold, but all the vestments, the 
office books, and the rehcs.^ Hence he had much to do in 
the regulation of the processions, and in making the arrange- 
ments on all festal occasions. Throughout his life, Gunduli 
was consulted as an authority in all that related to the 
ceremonials of the church. 

The period of his residence at Bee was, perhaps, the 
happiest of Gundulfs life. With little responsibility, he bad 
plenty of occupation ; he was able, without interruption, to 
discharge his devotional duties as a monk ; and when we 
consider the dissoluteness of the age, the savage character of 
society scarcely redeemed by chivalry, the profligacy and 
sensual indulgences patronized, not only in baronial castles, 
but, as we have the authority of Herluin himself for saying, 
in many of the monasteries also, Bee must have appeared to 
Gundulf a very heaven on earth. It resembled a well- 
ordered college at one of our modem universities. Here he 
enjoyed the conversation of some of the foremost men in the 
world ; and even from female society he was not wholly ex- 
cluded. A few ladies, some of whose relatives had fled from 
a profligate world and sought an asylum in the monastery of 
Bee, took certain vows there as nuns, with the sanction of 
the Archbishop of B,ouen. These ladies, however, did not 
renounce all the comforts, or even the frivolities, of their 
former mode of living, as we gather from a ghost story pre- 

■ The fonctioiu tai Aigaitj of m Banctnarii ac totiiu ecclede, aivB ia knro, 

taeriMa wa Mt forth by Duruida^ lib. ii, Mve in argento, aira in oatro, at palliia, at 

RatloD. & L; teo alio Bernard. Hon. in tapetibua, et cortinia; aacraa quoqqe 

CODBtit. Cluniao. o. SI and C2 ; Odilrie. veates, e( patlas, at manutclsia, oalioea, 

lib. iiL ; Cone Tolet. in lib. 1. ; Deent. et textoi, et craoea, et thuribula, at 

tit 26 ; and the Liber Ordinia S. Viotorii candelabra, et cetera vasa qua Tel ad 

Paria. HS. e. SO, irhere we read aa rainiBtarium vel ad onamentum altarii 

folloira : " Ad offidnm aacriite perUnent et aanetuarii toUiuque ecalecie pertinent ; 
omnia que in tbeaauro nut cuatodire, libroa quoque roigaaloa, epistolant et 
reliqiuaa et omnia omamenla altaris et eraogelia." — See Dac«iin,~M n i 


setTed in the Chronicle of Bee. A good old lady promised 
one brother Kodolf, that, if possible, she would appear to hitu 
after her death, which was then imminent, and make known 
what she found in the other world. She died, and was 
buried. As she did not make her appearance immediately, 
Rodolf slept in peace, until one night his slumbers were 
suddenly disturbed.' The venerable dame stood before him, , 
" How now, lady," be exclaimed. " Quid est domina ? 
quomodo se babes ? " She sadly replied that she had to 
undergo a penance of sixty years, on account of her attach^ 
ment to lap-dogs and other pet animals. I do not, of course, 
vouch for the truth of this story ; but from that time the 
brothers of Bee were never more annoyed by canine favorites.* 

The monastery of Bee had commenced on a small scale ; 
Herluin neither expected nor desired to become the founder 
of that magnificent abbey which he soon saw growing under 
his eyes. An extension of the buildings became necessary 
from the influx of students and monks, and works on a large 
scale were in progress during the whole period of Gundulf s 
residence. . The practical mind of the sacrist was thus 
directed to the study of architecture. Had he commenced 
those studies sooner, he would probably have profited by the 
specimens of Saracenic art which must have met his eye in 
the East ; but we do not trace the influence of his travels in 
any of the works in which he is said to have been concerned. 
It was, no doubt, on the ground of his skill in architecture, 
as well as for his practical wisdom, that when the Prior of 
Bee became the Abbot of St. Stephen's in Caen, he sought, 
in the discharge of the new duties devolving upon him, the 
assistance of Gundulf. The migration of Gundulf to Caen 
must have taken place about the year 1066. He does not 
appear to have held any definite office in the new abbey, 
but probably sustained the same position in Lanfranc's 
household as he afterwards held when his patron removed to 
Canterbury. The works at St. Stephen's were incomplete ; 
and here again, therefore, Gundulf could pursue his archi- 
tectural studies, and obtain that practical knowledge which 
he afterwards turned to good account. 

Gundulf, once more came into contact with his old friend 
Archdeacon William. They spoke of the perils they had 
encountered among &lse brethren, and they discoursed of 

■ Chron. B«o. 202 ; Ed. Qilw. See alio Aiualnii 0pp. Lib. IL Ep. Sesi ; Lib. UL ISB. 


tlie perils of the great deep. Gundulf reminded the arch- 
deacon of the prayers aad vows which, in the midst of 
danger, they had made ; and how, in answer to those prayers 
and vows, the storm had ceased. His own vow Gundulf had 
fulfilled : he was now a Benedictine monk. Archdeacon 
William was still one of the secular clergy. It was at Caen 
. that he finally made up hia mind to follow the example of 
the more consistent Gundulf, and he hecame a monk of St. 

Lanfranc, when Abbot of St. Stephen's, continued his bibli- 
cal lectures ; and to his lectures resorted not only the young, 
but men of all ages, who were anxious to advance in Scrip- 
tural knowledge. When copies of the Bible were scarce, and 
commentators few, a learned lecturer was a man of high 
importance. During Gundulfs attendance at one of these 
lectures something occurred which, when he became a great 
man, was magnified into importance. Gundulf, sitting near 
the lecturer, had a book of the Gospels in his hands, and was 
looked over by a friend on either side. The lecture ended ; 
and Lanfranc's attention being directed to something else, 
the three friends proposed that they should discover who of 
the three should be an abbot, and who a bishop, by turning 
over the pages of the Bible, and fixing upon a text,— by 
recourse to the " Sortes Evangehcse," as they were afterwards 
called. The passage on which Gundulf opened was Matt 
xxiv. 45 : " Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his 
lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat 
in due season 1 " One of Gundulfs companions, Walter by 
name, opened upon Matt. xxv. 23 : " Well done, good and 
faithful servant ; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I 
will make thee ruler over many things : enter thou into 
the joy of thy lord." The third person opened upon some 
text which is not given ; but laughter was occasioned 
by their inability to decide upon the interpretation of the 
oracle, when Lanfranc inquired into the cause of their mirth, 
and at once decided that Gundulf was destined to be a bishop, 
and Walter to become an abbot Years rolled on : Lanfranc 
became Archbishop of Canterbury, and Gundulf, Bishop of 
BxKjhcster ; Walter became Abbot of Evesham. Then would 
the monks of St. Stephen repeat this anecdote as something 
eeriouB, and deduce the conclusion that Lanfranc waa in- 
spired, and possessed the spirit of prophecy. 



"We are struck with the delicacy of William of Mahnes- 
bury,' to whom we are indebted for the anecdote, when he 
Bays of the third person, — " Some hard text, I know not 
what, caused him trouble of mind : I hare indeed heard it ; 
but I gladly forget it, for it is not the part of an ingenuous 
mind to insult the misfortunes of others." 

Gimdulf, brought up at the feet of Lanfranc, was a devoted 
student of the Bible, to which Lanfranc, quite as much as his 
greater successor, Anselm, directed the attention of his 
hearers. It is an interesting fact, that Gundulf's Latin 
Bible is still in existence, and, after enduring many vicissi- 
tudes, it is at present in the hbrary of Sir Thomas Phillipps 
at Middle Hill. It ia in two folio volumes, and the writing ia 
certainly older than the eleventh century, the character being 
that used in the ninth and tenth. Even in Gundulf's own 
time, it must have been highly esteemed ; and, after his 
death, it was preserved as a valuable relic in the library of 
St. Andrew's, Rochester : any person abstracting it was 
threatened with excommunication by the Bishop, Prior, and 
Chapter,^ as set forth in an entry in this remarkable manu- 

The denmiciation had no effect to restrain those among 
the Reformers, who thought it meritorious to destroy the 
monastic libraries, and to sell them to grocers, unless they 
could obtain a higher price by sending them to foreign 
parts. Among the MSS. thus disposed of, was Gun- 
dulFs Bible. Its subsequent history may be found in a 
valuable memoir on the catalogue of the library of Rochester 
Priory, in 1202, by Mr. Rye.* It was sold at Amsterdam 
in 1734, after having been for some time in the library of 

' W. Halmsb. da Oett, PontiC, i<. 133. comniiiiiication ia the Textua RotTeniiti. 

' Thars u a farm of eieommunication Tlis chapter of Rocheater appear to htva 

attached at tha end of a Vulgate Bible, been more moderate in their maledio- 

Harl.HS.2TB8,whichiiextreme];BeTere. tiona ; the; content themKlvtw with a 

"Liber .... quam *i quia abetulerit, geneiiLlthreatofexcommuniutioDngMnat 

none moriatur; in Bartaguie coquatur; ati; one who should purluin, deface, or 

caducna morbuB ioatet eum et febrea; et deetrof tlie Tolume "ProboDB menioriB 

rotetur et autpendatur. Ameii." /■;. Oundulfum KoETeu. Epim. Liber d» 

It any one take away thia book, let him Claustro HuSena. queui qui iiide alieoaiit, 

die the death; lot him be fried iu a pan; alienutum oelaiit Tel hunc titulum in 

Jel the falling aickneaa aad fever aeiaa fraudeiu delevit eicommuuicatuB eat. 

bim; let hiu be broken oa tbs wheel Ferentib. Sentenciam Da. Scd. KpS- Priors 

Md hanged. Amen. Tbia, which I et Singulis Preebitcris papituli Rof- 

hBTO found died in tbs ArohsBologia fenaia." 

Cantiaiia,ToLiil.l>.Gl,aeemBtoapproacb ' Archteotogi* CantiMM, toL Hi- P- ^3. 

Btabop EniuirB celebrated form of ex- 



Herman Van de Wall, a great collector of MSS. The 
next notice of GundulPB Bible is in the Custumale Roffense in 
1788," stating that it had been sold, not many years before, 
for 2000 florins ; afler which it fell into the hands of Mr. 
Theodore WiUiams, at whose sale, in 1827, it vr&s purchased 
by Sir Thomas PhiUippa for £180. 

Gundulf followed the fortuoes of Lanfranc ; and, when 
Lanfranc was settled at Canterbury, he sent for Gundulf to 
preside over his household. As no inconsiderable portion 
of Lanfranc's income was spent in the restoration, or rather 
the re-erection, of Canterbury Cathedral, here again Gundulf 
was perfecting himself in architectural skill. As the arch- 
bishop's steward and almoner, he exercised a wise economy ; 
but, in accordance with the wishes of Lanfranc and his own 
inclinations, he was most Uberal in dispensing the charities 
of the archbishop. He arrived in England soon after that 
devastation of the country, which was the greatest blot in 
the history of the Conqueror, and which excites the abhor- 
rence of posterity whenever his name is mentioned by those 
who have Anglo-Saxon blood in their veins. 

The distress of the country was at this time so great, that 
even a chancellor of the exchequer would have been com- 
pelled to admit that almsgiving is sometimes a necessary 
department of charity. The misery became so great that 
Lanfranc despatched Gundulf to London, where there was 
an absolute famine ; and night and day was Gundulf em- 
ployed in relieving distress. His readiness to weep with 
those that wept, made bis charity the more effective ; at 
the same time his compassion extended even to his beasts of 
burden. He visited the stables to see that his horaes were 
duly fed, and he was sometimes found concealed there, to 
perform his devotions in that peace and quiet, which he 
sought in vain in his crowded apartment, where his ears were 
assailed by the importunity of starving applicants. 

Gundulf appears to have had a difficulty in abstracting 
his mind when surrounded by companions or immersed in 
secular business, and, wherever he went, in his manor-houses, 
he required his chamberlain to precede him to provide an 
oratory, and there to deposit his boot of devotions. Never- 
theless, when actually engaged in his devotions, he became 

' Cmtum. Eoff. p. 158. 



entirely absorbed in the duty ; so much bo, that on one 
occasion, when miniaterirg at the altar, by some inad- 
vertence he suffered the chalice to fall from his hands. This 
was regarded as an omen of evil, and it made the greater 
sensation from the fact, that Lanfranc had been engaged in 
controversy with Berengarius on the subject of Transub- 
stantiation, and Gregory VII. had been pressed, against his 
will, to convert that dogma, which bad hitherto been mooted 
as a pious opinion, into an article of faith. The friends of 
Gundulf attributed the accident to the malignity of Satan, 
eager to bring discredit on a man so holy as Gundulf ; and 
a monk of Canterbury was accused of having been in league 
with Satan, because, having probably observed that Gundulf 
was far from being adroit, he had predicted the accident. 

We gather from the Epistles of Anselra, that Gundulf left 
his native country with regret, and at first regarded his 
residence in England as that of an exile. This feeling he 
overcame ; but it made him anxious to keep up a cor- 
respondence with his old friends at Bee, and he complained 
much of Anselra's neglect in ' not writing more frequently. 
This brought a letter of apology from Anselm, expre.ssed in 
exaggerated terms of affection, in which he speaks of Gundulf 
as — " Soul of my soul, most beloved." " When you ask me," 
he says, " by your messengers, when you entreat me by your 
letters, when you knock me over with your gifts (pulsas me 
tuts donis), that I may bear you in mind, I answer — May 
my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if Gundulf be 
not among my chiefest friends." He says that, as the im- 
pression of a seal upon wax, so is the memory of Gundulf 
fixed on Anselm's heart. " Why," he continues, " do you, as 
I hear you do, complain so bitterly that you never see letters 
of mine, and why do you desire with such affection to receive 
them frequently, when my thoughts are always with you V 
There is more to the same purpose. And then, when we 
hope that he will pass on to a description of what was doing 
at Bee, he disappoints us, by saying, that of the state of 
affairs in the monastery it is unnecessary for him to write, 
as Gundulf will become acquainted with them through the 
bearer of the letter.' 

There are two other letters ' written in the same strain, 

' Ibid, Bpp. Tii xir. 



from which we gather that Gundulf was continually sending 
presents to his old home. In one of the letters Anselm says, 
" We should do you wrong, if among your so many acta of 
kindness we should single out one as deserving of special 

Meanwhile higher honours were in store for Gundulf. 
The see of Rochester stood at that time, and long after, in 
relation to the see of Canterbury, much in the same position 
in which a chapel of ease is now placed with reference to 
the mother church ; or, as the comparison would hare been 
made in the twelfth century, the Bishop of Rochester stood 
a feudatory to the Primate. The bishop was, to a certain 
extent, independent ; and yet he was, as a kind of curate to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, to perform official acts in the 
diocese, when the Metropohtan was engaged in the affairs of 
the province. In poiat of fact, atler Gundulf's consecration, 
such duties as the dedication of churches, conErmations, and 
ordinations in the diocese of Canterbury were usually per- 
formed by the Bishop of Rochester. During the vacancy of 
the metropolitan see, while the Chapter of Canterbury ad- 
ministered the temporaUties, the spiritual duties devolved 
upon the Bishop of Rochester. It was on this account that 
the diocese of Rochester was so small, until the late division 
of dioceses ; and on this account it also was, that Lanfranc 
became, as we shall presently see, a benefactor to the church 
of Rochester. He repaid the bishop by contributing to the 
endowment of his chapter. 

Hence, too, the archbishop had certain real, though unde- 
fined and scarcely acknowledged, rights in the appointment 
to the see of Rochester, when the bishopric was vacant. The 
chapters, in the other dioceses, claimed a right to elect their 
diocesan, and, as now, they received a cong4 ^ilire from the 
Crown. But the Crown then, as now, expected its nominee 
to be elected. The king did not then enforce his commands 
with those heavy penalties which at the present time invest 
the sovereign with despotic power, and render the election of 
a bishop merely a nominal right ; but still, if the executive 
was strong, the will of the king was only in extreme cases 

But, as regards the see of Rochester, the archbishop stood 
in the position of the king ; he was at least, though subordinate 
a suzerain; and, consequently, it would be equally correct 


to speak of Guodulf 'a unaimnous election by the chapter, or, 
as ia the case of his bi<^rapher, to attribute his appointmeat 
to the Domination of Liuifraiic. 

Gundnlf was consecrated on the 19th of March, 1077," 
and was booq after enthroned at fiochester. Oundulf was a 
party man, and commenced his episcopal labors in a party 
spiriL He was himself a Regular, and his first object was 
to displace the Secular Canons, who from the time of Justus, 
in 604, had formed the chapter of Rochester Cathedral. 
Like most party men, he was blind to the merits of the party 
to which he waa opposed, and eiaggerated the virtues dis- 
played on his own side. But we must admit, that at this 
period, the monks had the advantage of the secular clergy in 
zeal, etctivity, and learning. The secular clei^ in the time 
of Wyclifie had regained their position, and were superior in 
all these respects to the regulars, and they finally triumphed 
over the monks at the Reformation. But in the twelfth 
century there can be no doubt, that the regulars were the 
real working clei^, and as such were in favor with the 
latty. From the time of Dunstan, the attempt had been 
made to place the management of the Cathedrals in the 
hands of the regulars, but only with partial success, as in 
the time of Henry VIII. there were only nine cathedrals of 
which the chapters were formed by monks, and so requiring 
to be reconstructed at the Reformation. 

Gundnlf was one of the bishops who desired conscientiously 
to effect this object, but he was a just man, and did not seek 
to accomplish his end by harsh conduct or recourse to 
unlawfiil measures. His proceeding were perfectly legiti- 
mate. He found the cathedral in such a state of dilapida- 
tion that repairs would be useless ; it required to be rebuilt. 
But bow were the funds to be procured 1 Could the chapter 
provide the means 1 Ethelbert, when the see of Rochester 
was established, endowed the chapter with a portion of land, 
known to the present day as Friestfield, and subsequently 
with some other portions within and without the city. But, 
as Bugdale remarks, from that time to the Conquest, bene- 
factors were few, and many of their donations trivial. The 
hndB had suffered much under the Danish invasion ; other 
causes might be assigned to account for the decrease of the 
funds of the chapter ; but, whatever the causes may have 
> Le Ner^ edit. Hard;. 



been, the fact was that, at the time of Gundulfs consecration, 
there were only five canons. When we remember that these 
were unassisted by minor canons or by any staff of sub- 
ordinate clergy, that the daily services in the cathedral were 
numerous, that pastoral work was to be performed among 
an ignorant population, that this work was to a great extent 
(as it still is in our large towns), missionary work, that owing 
to the late devastations under the Conqueror the distress 
among the lower orders was indescribably great, that upon 
the clergy devolved the duties now performed by the over- 
seers of the poor, and that the upper, middle, and even the 
humbler classes expected to find a good school attached to 
the cathedral for the education of those members of their 
respective families who thought fit to prepare for holy 
orders — we perceive that the chapter of Eochester was in- 
suflficient to perform the ordinary duties which they were 
justly expected to discharge. Gundulf offered to procure 
the funds, not only for rebuilding the church, but also for an 
increased endowment, but then he depended upon the arch- 
bishop for the assistance he required, and Lanfranc attached 
to his donation the condition that the chapter should hence^ 
forth be composed of Benedictines. 

Grundulf made his bargain, and Aiirly purchased his posi- 
tion. The five secular canons took the monastic vows, and 
provision was made first for twenty, and eventually for sixty 
regulars. Gundulf introduced the system and discipline 
which he admired at Bee. In his own person, notwithstand- 
ing bis various engagements as a bishop, an architect, and a 
politician, he exhibited a model of monastic propriety, and 
he was a strict though a kind and considerate discipUnarian. 
As at Canterbury, the bishop reserved to himself the rights 
of an abbot over his new institution, which was governed 
under him by a prior. He did not permit his monks to eat 
the bread of idleness. Some presided over the schools which 
were now called into existence or restored ; others were, by 
constant transcriptions, adding hooks to the Ubrary ; a few 
rendered assistance to Gundulf in his great architectural 
works ; others were employed in managing the capitular 
estates ; not a few were engaged in dispensing the bishop's 
charities, which were profuse ; and all in their turn found 
pleasure and employment in rendering the services of the 
church more solemn than they had been heretofore. 



Bishop Gundulf was a man of the world aod a good 
manager. He was incessantly on the watch to increase the 
treasures of his new establishment. We have a curious 
instance of his eagerness to secure any advantage for his 
cathedral by what occurred at the translation of the body of 
King Edward the Confessor. The Bishop of Rochester was 
present during that solemnity in Westminster Abbey, an act 
designed to conciliate the Anglo-Saxons. 

There is a MS* Life of Edward the Confessor, in verse, in 
the Pubhc Library of Cambridge. The poem is of the 
thirteenth century, written in the langue d'oil or Norman- 
French, and has been lately printed under the auspices of 
the Master of the Rolls, with a translation by Mr. Luard. 
He shows that the life embodies traditions of earlier date ; 
and we have an account of an attempt on the part of 
Gundulf to obtain a rehc, the possession of which would have 
given additional sanctity to his new monastery in the eyes of 
the Anglo-Saxons. The poem contains a graphic account of 
an attempt by Gundulf to obtain a hair from the beard of 
the Confessor, on the occasion of the opening of his tomb, 
but his object was frustrated by the remonstrance of the 

They who desire to see the dificulties which were at this 
period encountered by persons who would retain their pro- 
perty and assert their rights, will be interested in the account 
of a law-suit in which Gundulf was successful.' The amount 
of nerjury committed on this occasion shows the very low 
state of morals, which is further proved by incidental circum- 
stances to which allusion is made in various parts of the 
correspondence of Ansehn. 

It was now that Gundulf assumed that character by which 
he is best known in modern times — the character of an 
architect. How far his scientific knowledge was employed 
in those buildings which were erected under his eye at Bee, 
at Caen, and at Canterbury, it is useless to conjecture. That 
he was the architect of fajs own cathedral at Rochester is 
certain, but whether any portion of his work beyond the 
crypt still remains is, I fear, more than doubtful ; on this 
point we shall be enlightened by Professor Willis. 

* LiTM of Edmrd tha Confeaur; Great Britaio, ka., p. 168. 
«dit«d by H. R. Luu^ B«q., for tbe ' AngLu SaciK, t. L p. SS9, from tha 

colleMioa of diroaJclM and memoi^ of CuitumHle and the Kegiitmia Rofibiua. 


la the renerable ruins of Rochester Castle the mhabitants 
of Rochester have long felt an interest, in which the 'whole 
country may now be said to participate, since, under the 
shadow of those walls, in a house situate in the garden on 
-which the tower abuts, was born a successor of Lanfranc, 
whose praise is now in all the churches. But I fear that 
when Mr. Hartshorae shall make known the result of his 
examination of the castle, he will he compelled to admit that 
the ruins are the remnant of works of at least half a century 
later than the time of Gundull' 

Not so the architectural remains at West Malhng. Here 
Gundulf, soon after his consecration, erected a monastery for 
nuns, and St. Mary's Church. A part of this nunnery was 
destroyed by fire, half a century after Gandulf 's death, but 
large portions undoubtedly remain of his work. 

There is one fabric still existing, and not a ruin, which is 
attributed by all, I believe, who are qualified to form an 
opinion on the subject, to Gundulf — the White Tower in the 
Tower of London — the fair proportions of which we moat 
of us gazed upon, in our earliest years, with delight, not 
unmingled with awe. It is not, however, my province to 
enter into an examination of the claims of Gundulf to a high 
place in the hst of mediaeval architects. A division of 
labor is most important, especially in such a society aa 
the Institute. The business assigned to me is to collect the 
facts which have come down to us by tradition, and through 
the chronicles and contemporary writers, which bear upon 
Gundulfs history ; and I leave the investigation of his 
architectural skill to Mr. Parker, who vrill, I apprehend, only 
ma^ify the genius of the artist, by showing the difficulties 
he had to encounter through the rudeness of contemporary 

In passing lightly over these topics, I am follovring the 
example of the monastic biographer of Gundulf. There 
was evidently a feeling among the stricter religionists of the 
day, that Gundulf permitted himself to be too much involved 
in secular pursuits and duties. The object of his biographer 
by writing was to show that he made his spiritual duties to 
himself and to others his first concern, or, in his own repeated 

* Sm Hr. Barttborae'g Hemoir on ■ Hr. Pu-ker'i Memoir on the Bnild- 

Boohsatw Cutis, Anh. Jonn., toL u. Ingi of Bishop QuaduLT hu beaa giTcn 
p. 209. in Ihs Qent. Hag. Sept. 1S63, p. 255. 


phrase, that his work was not mere Martha-work. He 
passes over, where he can, any allusion to his conduct as a 
politician, and entirely ignores his skill as an architect, 
architecture not having yet assumed the importance which it 
soon afler reached. 

We, on the contrary, are led to admire the wonderful 
power of work which Gundulf possessed and displayed. At 
the busy period of his life, he had to perform his own epis- 
copal duties and those of the archbishop ; he had to organize 
and govern his new institutions at Rochester and Hailing ; 
he had to attend to his public works ; he had to resist the 
aggressions of lawless barons upon his property ; and he was 
inTolved in law-suits. Add to this, that there was no other 
mode, except for a sick person, of moving from place to 
place but on horseback. We are not surprised that at one 
period his health gave way — a feet made known to us by 
the following letter addressed to him by Lanfranc : — 
" Having read the letters of your brotherhood, I find that 
you are laboring under some indisposition. Let .me. entreat 
you not to be cast down by this circumstance, but rather to 
rejoice, for you know the Scripture which saith, 'I will glory 
in mine infirmities;' and that other Scripture, * The Lord 
scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.' He would not 
afflict you with stripes in this world, if he did not design you 
to be free from correction in the world to come. Examine 
yourself, call to mind jour most recent offences, and confess 
your sins ; so shall you be healed of your infirmity, or meet 
■without fear that death which is so terrible to others. 
Death will be to you the end of all evil, the commencement 
of all good. I send you an electuary of horehound,* which 
the doctors prescribe for such a complaint as yours. Tou 
may take about as much as a wild nut will hold three times 
a-day. May the Lord God Almighty ever be your everlast- 
ing safeguard, and absolve you from all your sins." * 

Lanfranc delighted in the society of Gundulf, and would 
oflen invite him to Canterbury to enjoy his conversation. 
We are informed that he never permitted him to depart 
empty handed. Sometimes he would give him copes, some- 
times candlesticks of gold or silver, always something orna- 
mental for his church. Those who have had to do vrith 

• Unfr. Opp. 1, 70. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


building churches, know the value of discreet b^ging, and 
vill sympathize with Gundulf, who, somehow or other, per- 
suaded or compelled his friends to contribute laigely to the 
work he had in hand. 

At length the happy time arrived when Bishop Qundulf 
could call on Archbishop Lanfranc to return his visits, and 
to assist at the consecration of the cathedral church of 
Rochester. According to the custom of the Norman 
bishops, Gundulf had probably commenced vrith the east 
end, or the choir, and when this portion of the building was 
fit for occupation, the day of dedication was appointed. This 
event must have taken place before the year 1089, when 
Laufi-anc died, and yet not long before : Mr. Denne assigns 
1084 as the date. There was a large assembly both of 
clergy and people. When the consecration waa concluded 
a procession was formed to translate the body of Faulinus 
from the old church to the new. Paulinus, " the Apostle of 
the North," and the first Archbishop of York, when driven 
from the diocese he had established among the people whom 
he had converiad, sought refuge in the south, and became 
Bishop of Rochester. Here he was thenceforth, or rather 
afler his death, accounted a saint. Lanfranc had provided 
for the remains a silver shrine, and in this the rehcs were 
transferred to the new cathedral. 

At Lanfranc's death, which occurred in 1089, Qundulf 
administered the affairs of the province of Canterbury in 
apirituals, having received a mandate from the king to that 
effect, thus acting in accordance with the custom of the 
metropolitan see. Duriug four years Gundulf was de facto 
Archbishop of Canterbury. A troublesome post he must 
have had, with William Eufus on the throne ; surrounded by 
barons rendered lawless by the royal example, and by a 
population groaning under oppression and scantily supphed 
with food, with the will but without the power to revolt 

It was a great relief to Gundulf when at length Rufus con- 
sented to appoint a Primate ; and Gundulf's heart was filled 
with joy when he knew that Anselm was the man. Hearing 
that his friends at Bee were offering impediments to the 
removal of their abbot, he addressed to them the follovring 
letter, which is published among the works of Anselm. 

" Gundulf, by the grace of God, Bishop of Rochester, 
to his lords and very dear friends the servants of God at 


Bee, greeting. Dearly beloved, you are well aware how 
long the Anglican Church has, hke an orphan, been destitute 
of a pastor of its own, and deprived of all fatherly counsel 
But the God of the fatherless and the widow has heard the 
complaints of his faithful people, and has graciously answered 
their prayers. Through the unspeakable power of Divine 
grace, the King of the English has been induced, with the 
counsel and advice of his peers, at the petition of the people 
and after the election of the clergy, to commit the govern- 
ment of the Church of Canterbury to the lord Abbot Anselm. 
That this is to be attributed to an immediate operation of 
Divine Providence, there can be no doubt. Therefore we do 
in all humility demand, we do with aU earnestness entreat 
the brethren dearly beloved, not to resist the Divine will, 
and the choice of pious men ; but, overcoming the reluctance 
they naturally feel to resign so great a man, or any indigna- 
tion, if it be 80, that may be occasioned by his being taken 
from them, to glorify God for what has been done, and to 
give their assent to the proceeding with hearty good will 
I will go further, and I will not conceal the fact, that what- 
ever impediments you may offer to this proceeding, it must 
take place ; it is only a question of time. The preliminary 
measures have been already taken, and by this time the 
Apostolic see must have become acquainted with what haa 
been done. Act wisely, therefore, and do without delay, 
and in a spirit of love, what you will indisputably be obliged 
to do some time or other. Farewell." 

We see here that Oundulf was a man who, though evincing 
through life a conciUatory temper, could be firm in the 
maintenance of any cause he undertook, when the occasion 
required him to be so. The conciliatory disposition of Gun- 
dulf is remarkable ; he retained the fevor as well as the 
respect of three kings, who are generally regarded as having 
been the most impracticable of men. He came into contact 
with the Conqueror when employed in building the Tower of 
London ; and William became, out of respect to Gundulf, 
one of the benefactors of the church of Rochester. The 
biographer of Gundulf mentions it as a remarkable circum- 
stance in the history of William Bufua, that among his many 
oppressions he spared the see of Rochester all his days ; 
and not only spared, but largely augmented the episcopal 
revenues. Among other donations of the red king was that 


of the manor of Lambeth. The maoor-house on this estate 
was frequently placed at the dispoaal of the Archbisbopa of- 
Canterbury when they visited the metropolis, until it at 
length passed entirely into their hands, and became ulti- 
mately the chief residence of the Primates.' I need not 
mention the other donations of William Rufus, because they 
are to be found in those invaluable records- — the Registrum 
Kofiense, the Custumale Roffense, and the Textiis Roffensis, 

The mention of Gunduirs connexion with Kufus introduces 
the bishop under a new character, that of a negotiator. He 
was employed to negotiate between WiUiam, when he was 
besieging the castle of Rochester, and his uncle Odo, Bishop 
of Bayeux. Odo, being the leader of the insurgents in favor 
of Robert, Duke of Normandy, had been permitted, after his 
capture at Pevensey, to join Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, in 
Rochester castle, with the view of persuading the earl to 
deliver it up to the king. Odo, as usual, was false to his 
engagements, and the king, with the rest of the besiegers, 
were exasperated to the highest indignation. It was then 
that Gundulf interposed ; and though we are not acquainted 
with the circumstances of the case, we must think highly of 
Gundulfs ability as a diplomatist, when we find him success- 
ful in persuading the besieged on the one side to propose a 
capitulation, and the infuriated king on the other to spare 
the lives of the garrison. Our appreciation of his abiUty is 
raised when we remember that the Earl-Bishop of Bayeux 
and the King of England were the most unprincipled and 
unscrupulous men of the age. 

From Henry I. Gundulf obtained a confirmation by royal 
authority of the grants and possessions which, through the 
industry and economy of the bishop, had accrued to the sea 
and priory of Rochester.' To the Bishop of Rochester Henry 
was, equally with his brother, under obligation. Gundulf 
again appeared as a mediator, and successfully negotiated 
between the king and the barons who had risen up in arms. 
We are told that in carrying out these difficult negotiations 
he so conducted himself that, whether he was in the king's 
palace or the baron's castle, he was welcomed by either party 
as a friend and father ; in other words, alt placed confidence 
in him, because they believed that he had no private ends of 
his own to carry. 

■ Ducwel'i Lambeth. ^ The ohaTtar u givBD Reg. Boff. 3G. 


Gundulf was respected by Henry, and was receired by 
the good Queen Maud as a paternal friend. She consulted 
him, visited him, and when her son was born she appointed 
Gundulf in the absence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, to 
officiate at the baptism of the young prince. 

It surprises us to find that, notwithstanding all this, Gun- 
dulf never sacrificed the friendship of Anselm. The politics 
of the two prelates were certainly not the same, and there is 
a letter in the fourth book of Badraer's Hiatoria Novormn, 
addressed by Gundulf to the Primate Anaelm, when he was 
at Lyons, in which the Bishop of Eochester lays before him, 
as the consequence of his self-imposed exile, the deplorable 
state of the Church of Canterbury. Gundulf implores 
Anselm to return, and reveals a state of society so horrible 
that the letter is unsuitable for translation.^ 

The decided line, however, taken by Gundulf when he 
thought that the zeal of Anselm in the maintenance of his 
principles had degenerated into obstinacy, did not cause any 
permanent estrangement between the two friends. When 
Anselm returned, their friendship was as cordial aa ever, and 
we find him ministering to the comfort of the bishop, when 
lying on his deathbed. 

Gundulf lived to an extreme old age, and till his eighty- 
fourth year his- health never failed. But iu the year before 
his deaUi, body and mind became enfeebled. He was afflicted 
with headaches, occasioned, it was said, by that copious effu- 
sion of tears in which he was accustomed to indulge. He 
was so completely prostrated at one time as to be unable to 
officiate in his cathedral, or to perform any episcopal act. 
To a man of active habits, who compelled himself to attend to 
all the minutiee of duty, this was a severe trial. He employed 
himself, however, in regulating his charities, and in giving 
directions for the management of that property with which 
he had enriched his see and his priory. His conduct was 
regulated by principle. He increased his charities by in- 
creased self-denial, but he was careful to leave the property 
in such a condition as not to impoverish his successor. He 
acted as a wise steward. He husbanded the revenue which, 
according to notions then in vogue, belonged to St. Andrew ; 
and he spent it as he supposed St. Andrew would desire it 
to be spent, in donations to the poor. 

* Eadm. Bist. Nov. IV. 153 : ed. Higne. . , 


The uld man rallied from his first attack, and he displaced 
the energy of his character by resuming his duties. The 
barons around were lawless, and the property of the church 
could never be secure from depredation unless the bishop, 
himself a baron, -was present to protect the weak. When 
Gundulf could no longer sit on horseback, he caused himself 
to be carried in a litter from vill to vill, in order that he 
might superintend the distribution of bis charity to the 
poor, and at the same time take care that there should be 
no encroachment on his prebendaries. It would often 
happen that when he arrived at one of his manors, he would 
cause himself to be lifted down from his htter, in order that 
he might visit the sick, who seem to have been sufferers 
chiefly from rheumatism and leprosy ; and he would not 
only supply them with food and clothing, but standing by 
their bedside, would weep with them, and offer for them 
the prayers of the church. He did this by night to escape 
observation, attended by his chaplain, and by two servants, 
who were required to assist him in his weakness. The 
bishop returned to Rochester in impaired health, and when 
his voice was once more heard within the walls of the 
cathedral, erected by his skill and enriched by his munifi- 
cence, nothing could exceed the enthusiasm of his people. 
Gundulf, however, reminded them that the hfe of an octo- 
genarian would not be much prolonged ; and to a friend 
who was delighted with the bishop's popularity, the 
good bishop said meekly, " Who am I that I should be 
applauded by the people ; I who have hved so long, and 
done comparatively so httle." There was not any affectation 
in bis humility, for, throughout his hfe he bewailed the fact, 
which caused him to weep profusely, that he did not ex- 
perience those ecstatic fervors in religion which enthusiasts 
in all ages have regarded not only as a blessing — which 
they indisputably are — but as a proof of their being truly 
pious, which they as certainly are not Gundulf prepared 
for death by a patient continuance in well-doing. 

A relapse soon occurred, and, during this, Gundulf received 
a visit from his friend Anselm. One would much desire to 
know what transpired in the communion of two such souls 
at such a time. We only know that Anselm comforted him, 
received his confession, and gave his benediction. Gundulf 
was so greatly reduced that Anselm thought him to be 


dying, and administered the last offices of religion. But 
Gundulf again rallied, and Anselm was obliged to leave him. 

Gundulf now felt that hia life of action waa concluded, 
and he determined that he would derote to the duties of a 
contemplatire life hia few remaining days. His last public 
act was the appointment of an abbess in his nunnery at 
Mailing. He had hitherto left the nuns to govern them- 
selves, under his own superintendence. At St. Andrew's 
the bishop was the abbot, with a prior under him, and he 
determined that so it should be at MaUing. There was to 
be a prioress, but he was himself to be the supreme governor. 
He forgot that he was usually resident in Rochester, and 
only occasionally at Mailing ; his friends, who had urged 
him in vain to appoint an abbess, now obtained letters from 
the king and the archbishop, entreating him to nominate a 
head to that establishment — and he yielded. 

Having, after this, distributed all his goods among the 
poor, even to hia shoes, and having bequeathed his rich vest- 
ments to the cathedral, he assumed the monastic dross, and 
directed that he should be carried to the priory of St. 
Andrew, there to die a monk among monka, which of all 
things waa considered by his party in the church to be most 
desirable. With his usual consistency, he insiated, contrary 
to the advice of his brethren, to submit to all the discipline 
which the regulations of their founder required ; but this could 
not last long, his weakness increased, and he waa removed 
to the infirmary. A brother waa appointed to attend him. 
There was only one ornament viith which the bishop could 
not part — the episcopal ring, and he confided this to the 
care of his attendants, intending probably that it abould be 
delivered to his successor. Ralph, who had lately been 
elected Abbot of Battle, had formerly been Prior of Rochester, 
and had been deservedly popular. The monks were anxious 
that he abould be the auccessor of Gundulf, and were pre- 
pared to elect him, if they could obtain the consent of the 
archbishop. If to the Abbot of Battle Gundulf bequeathed 
or resigned the epiacopal ring, it might be produced as an 
indication of Gundulf's wish that Ralph of Battle Abbey 
should succeed him. A suggestion to this effect was made 
to the old bishop, who said curtly, " He is a monk, what 
has he to do with an episcopal ring 1"' He was probably 


offended at the ambitioa of the ex-prior of Rochester, who 
ought to have been contented with his oewlj acquired dignity 
at Battle Abbey. 

Soon after this another Ralph made his appearance at tlie 
priory, Ralph of SeeZj who afterwards became Archbishop of 
Canterbury. He, too, had the title of abbot, but he had 
been several years before ejected from his monastery by the 
violence of Robert de Belesme. Ralph had come to England, 
and, having no home of his own, he found one in every 
episcopal palace, abbey, or well-ordered castle. Wherever 
he went he was welcome, for he was a man of wit, distin- 
guished for the point and vivacity of his conversation ; and 
he was the more welcome because, under a cheerful exterior, 
ho concealed a heart " open as day to melting charity," and 
deeply impressed with a sense of reUgion. He was the friend 
of Anselm and of Gundulf ; and when he heard of Gundulf's 
illness, he hastened to Rochester, that he might console him 
on his bed of sickness. The friends employed themselves, 
as the biographer tells us, in sweet conversation on the 
heavenly life. Ralph was, however, obhged to leave Rochester 
after a short visit, and the friends parted, weeping to think 
that this would be their last meeting in this world. Ralph 
had scarcely reached the door of the infirmary, when Gundulf 
called him back. He remembered what had occurred in the 
case of the Abbot of Battle, and, demanding of his attendant 
the episcopal ring, he placed it as a parting gift in the 
hand of Ralph of Seez, who suggested that it might be better 
bestowed upon one of Gundulf's episcopal friends, since it 
did not pertain to an abbot to wear a ring. He reminded 
the bishop that, though not Uving a monk, still a monk he 
was. " Take it, nevertheless," said the bishop, " you may 
want it some day." 

It had been probably arranged between Anselm and 
Gundulf at their last interview, that Ralph of Seez should be 
his successor ; and his possession of the ring reconciled the 
monks to his appointment, as they regarded the donation in 
the light of a prophecy on the part of Gundulf. The cases 
of the two Ralphs were not parallel. Ralph of Seez did not 
seek the episcopal office, which the Abbot of Battle, contrary 
to his vow, coveted ; and while the latter was presiding over 


a monastery, Ralph of Seez was an exile, a monk unat- 
tached.' From this time Gundulf grew visibly worse ; and 
not long afler he made a proposal to the monks, which, 
whether we have regard to the request itself, or to the 
manner in which it was met, fills the modem reader with 
astonishment, and presents to us a scene which we find it 
diflGcult to realise. The old man seems suddenly to have 
called to remembrance some offence he had committed, and, 
according to the notion of the age, he supposed that for 
every offence he would receive punishment either in this 
world or the next. He therefore called upon the monks to 
administer stripes to his emaciated body. They were justly 
horrified at the proposal, and, as the efficacy of vicarious 
punishments was believe^ they offered to be flagellated in 
his stead. The biographer says — " Factum est igitur." 

On the following Sabbath, or Saturday, the good bishop 
was so feeble that he thought himself dying ; he received 
the holy communion, and caused alms to be distributed. 
He was comforted by the fervor of his devotions, and was 
able to raise himself in his litter to show his reverence when 
the Gospel was read. A change took place towards evening, 
and he lay till midnight, speechless, though conscious. At 
matins the service was performed as usual in the infirmary, 
and it became apparent to those around that the venerated 
father was now in arttculo mortis. The tabula was sounded 
— a board of wood which it was customary to strike with a 
mallet when it was desired to summon the inmates of the 
monastery without sounding the bell, which would rouse the 
external world.'' The tabula was sounded, and the dying 
man was placed on the pallet of horsehair. The brethren 
knew what the stricken tabula meant : they hastened to the 
infirmary ; they solemnly repeated the creed, the litany, the 
commendatory prayer. The breathing, however, continued, 
and the Fsalms were chanted in the ears of the dying man ; 
the 80th Fsalm was selected by the grateful monks : 
"Turn thee again, thou God of Hosts, look down from 
heaven ; behold and visit this vine, and the place of the 
vineyard that thy right hand hath planted ; and the branch 
that thou madest so strong for thyself" The day was just 
dawning as they came to this verse ; the light of the easteru 

' ConL Cbron. Hon. d* Bello, p. Gl. full uoountof the traniacUoiimentioDsd 
TLis chronicle bu enabled me to giTe a in tbe text. .. 



Bun shone brightly through the chequered window ; ere the 
psalm was concluded the spirit bad departed from the body. 
"Their father had quitted that vineyard," says the bio- 
grapher, " which under God he had planted, which by pre- 
cept and example he had carefully cultivated, commending 
it to the care of God Most High.'* 

) by Google 


By JOSEPH BDRTT. Ai^Uot KMpar of FnbUc Bacardi. 

Some original documents which were found a few years 
ago among the archives of the Royal Exchequer, and have 
been hitherto unnoticed, enable me to bring before you the 
following new particulars relating to the life and times of 
Sir Roger de Leyboume. His active life causes him to stand 
out boldly in the long roll of the chivalry of the county of 
Kent These docaments were forwarded to the Exchequer 
by Roger de Leyboume, in support of a claim made by 
him for a large sum of money ; as that claim chiefly arose 
from the execution of his office as Constable of the Castle 
of Rochester and for services which that position as a sup- 
porter of Henry III. enabled him to perform, and as by far 
the greater part of those services were performed in the 
county of Kent, it seemed a fitting opportunity to bring to 
notice on the present occasion some of the illustrations of 
the times afforded by these accounts. 

I trust that the few extracts which I shall be able to 
give in a notice, necessarily very limited, will be sufficient to 
excite the interest of the Archaeological Society of Kent, 
and stimulate it, perhaps, to publish entire the interesting 
record of the expeditions in which Leyboume was engaged 
for about four years. To the founder of that Society, the 
antiquary — to whose impulse the cause of archaeology in his 
comity has often been indebted — we may look for a full 
narrative both of the part taken by Roger de Leyboume in 
events to which the record under consideration relates, and 
of all the incidents of the long career attributed to him. 
We anticipate from the promised memoir by Mr. Larking, 
in the Archseologia Cantiana, satisfactory elucidation of 
obscurities in which the history of Sir Roger seems, ac- 
cording to received statements, to be involved. 

Those who are acquainted with the work will not need to 
be told how well and fully our old and valued member 

' CaiDmnDiixted to the HinorUal mads known to oi hii diccoTsiy, that tb« 

Sictioil, ftt tb« HMtbg at ths Initituta Soger dt Leybourua aboTeniBntioned 

rt BoebMt«r, Jalj 30th, 1863. WbiUt ww ion of the Roger taken prisoner at 

th«M ahnta were paialng throngh the RocheMer In 121S, and that the bther 

prMthapnblicationofMr.Larkiiig'Biiis- died ^nfore IICI, &cta niikuown to 

Boir, ArchnoL Cent. toL t. p. IBS, hai Dogdale. 



Mr. Blaauw has told the atory of the Civil War of the thir- 
teenth century in his Tolume, *' The Barons' War." In that 
able work the author has traced the course of events in which 
those wars had their rise ; he has shown their oscillations and 
fluctuations, and sketched their varied phases with a careful, 
and at times an eloquent, pen. I only regret that the docu- 
ments I have to bring to your notice were not known before 
his book was written, that they might have had the advan- 
tage of Mr. BlaauVs careful examination and able treatment, 
and bis work perhaps have received some additional interest 
fi-om their contents. 

It would be beside my present purpose to dwell longer 
upon the contentions between Henry III. and his barons 
than is necessary to show how matters stood when the . 
subject of these remarks came actively upon the scene. 

Henry III. ascended the throne of England under no 
favourable auspices. His father had ended a short, inglo- 
rious, and most distracted reign in a struggle against the 
powerful party of his nobles which had wrested from bim 
the Great Charter : his death perhaps saved the nation from 
becoming the tributary province of a foreign power, Henry, 
then but nine years old, was at first under the guardianship 
of the able Earl of Pembroke ; and, while that nobleman 
lived, the country was ruled with wisdom, although the party 
of the BaroQS was excluded from all political power. 
But a foreign Bishop of Winchester succeeded the earl as 
Regent, and the great source of strife and contention — the 
preference of foreigners to places of profit and distinction, 
and their monopoly of ecclesiastical power — soon revived 
the slumbering fires and produced the worst results. The 
king's marriage to the beautiful and accomplished Eleanor, 
daughter of the Count of Provence, and the great addition 
made by that event to the number of foreign nobles and 
their dependents settled in England, thriving upon the land, 
holding its castles and enjoying its offices of trust, provoked 
this feeling of discontent to the utmost. Subject to such 
influences, the state of affairs between the king and his 
nobles soon became one of complete antagonism. Again and 
again the provisions of the Great Charter had been disre- 
garded and confirmed in their turn ; till at length in the 
year 1258, in the Parliament summoned at Oxford, a strong 
party of confederated barons insisted upon a scheme for 


reforming the abuses of the royal government. The pro- 
visions of this scheme, known as the " Constitutions of 
Oxford," or the " Oxford Statutes," among other things again 
confirmed the Great Charter, regulated the arrangements 
relating to wards and their lands, and required that the 
offices of state and the fortresses of the kingdom should be 
held by Englishmen alone. I need scarcely say that the 
leader of the Barons' party was the famous Simon de Mont- 
fort, Earl of Leicester. His party at that time comprised in 
its ranks many nobles who were afterwards strenuous sup- 
porters of the royal cause, including Sir Koger de Leyboume, 
the lord of Leyboume. 

For four years many attempts were made by the Barons 
to carry out and act upon these Oxford Constitutions or 
Statutes, and by the royal party to repudiate them ; but the 
feelings of animosity increased, and an open rupture occurred 
at the latter part of the year 1263. 

Sir Roger de Xeybourne was then well known for his 
proweas in the field. The early history of his family is 
exceedingly obscure ; what is known of it is chiefly to be 
found in Dugdale, or in the authorities he quotes. In the 
10th year of Bichard L (a.d. 1199), Robert de Leyboume 
being dead, a fine was paid for the marriage of hm heir, and 
in t&e 9th of John (a.d. 1207-8), Margaret de Leyboume 
(most probably his widow) paid a fine for a licence to marry 
again. The subject of these remarks was probably their only 
son, and be may hare been born in the year 1194 or 1195, 
as in the year 1216 he was married and had seisin giren 
him of his lands, so that he was then of full age. Young as 
he then was he took part with the barons in their struggle 
for the Great Charter, and for his share in the conflict that 
ensued (having been taken in Rochester Castle) he was com- 
mitted to prison under the charge of Peter de Maulay, and 
released only on paying the moiety of the fine of 500 marks 
which had been imposed upon him, and giving security for 
his future behaviour. From that time nothing appears to 
be known of him till the year 1353, when royal letters of 
protection were granted absolving him from the consequences 
of having killed a Norman knight, Emulph de Mounteney, 
which, as Matthew Paris states, occurred at a tournament 
called that of the Round Table, at Walden in Essex. In the 
ensuing year he attended the king to Gascony. Here again 


there is a hiatus in his history. When the fin^ rupture took 
place between the, king and the barons in consequence of a 
breach of the Oxford Statutes, actual hostilities first occurred 
on the distant frontier of Wales, and there, " among the par- 
tisans of the barons, who took a leading part in these hos- 
tilities, which spared neither houses, parks, or even churches, 
were Rt^er de Leybouru and John Gifford " (Blaauw). Their 
exploits, while thus engaged on the popular side, are the 
subject of high praise in one of the curious political songs of 
the time, and Leybourne was also engf^ed in the negotiations 
which were carried on at intervals from that time. 

The contest continued with varying success and with many 
a lull, for nearly two years, when the French king, who had 
been appealed to iu reference to the Oxford Statutes, 
delivered his judgment at Amiens on the 23rd January, 
1264. ThiB judgment was favourable to the royal cause, 
whereupon the barons again flew to arms, alleging as their 
plea the partiality of the French king. But several of them 
now deserted their party, and among these was Roger de 
Leybourne, whose defection was conspicuous on account of 
bis previous activity on the part of the barons. Corrupt 
motives are generally assigned as the cause by the writers of 
the period. 

From that time till the conclusion of the Civil War, the 
documents which are the occasion of the present remarks 
tell the story of Roger de Leybou'me's active services 
on behalf of the king in his own words, or at least in the 
words of the account which he sent in to the Royal Exche- 
quer, claiming a large sum of money for those services and 
the expenses and dami^es he had incurred in them. The 
detailed accounts setting out every item of his actual occu- 
pation and his cost of living, day by day, are not quite 
complete ; but, if the items are defective, the bill itself, divided 
into several portions according to the business on which he 
was engaged, is entire. Besides the interest they afford in 
their subject-matter, they are curious as being still earlier 
than the earliest account of any individual's expenses hitherto 
known. Nothing so early as the account of the Countess of 
Leicester's household for a portion of the year 1265 had 
been known previous to the present notice of the household 
expenses of one of the royal party in the year 1264. 

The first portion of Leybourne's account comprises the 


period from the 6th of March to the 27th of May, 1264. 
The arms of the Montfort party had, since the renewal of 
hostilities, been crowned with success in various quarters, 
and the wives of Leybourae and of other barons had been 
made prisoners in a successful attack upon Gloucester — a 
BQccess which was more than balanced by that of Prince 
Edward at Northampton, A considerable number of 
adherents to the royal cause were scattered over the 
counties of Kent and Sussex, and it is evident that Ley- 
bourne entered most actively into the arrangements for the 
campaign that was about to ensue in that quarter. It was 
kuown that Montfort was threatening Rochester ; and, by 
a remarkable contrast, the place which had witnessed Ley- 
boume'a first unsuccessful essay in arms on the barons' side 
was now to be the scene of his first successful engagement 
on that of his sovereign. 

His account tells us that he returned from a visit to the 
king at Windsor to Eynesford in Kent, on the 6th of March, 
whence he came to llochester and provisioned the castle in 
case of siege. It then details bis expenses of housekeeping 
day by day, and the stores of various kinds — carcases of 
oxen, sheep, and bacons, together with fish and wine — which 
he stowed away in the tower or keep of the castle. There 
are also entered several chaises for letters, and a payment 
for hiring a horse for a messenger to " enquire about the 

On the day after the feast of St. Tiburtius and Valerian 
(April 14), Leybourne was visited in the castle of Rochester 
by the Earl of Warren (the king's brother-in-law) and 
William de Breuse. Something like a feast was held on 
the occasion, as 24 sextaries of wine and 24 of cider 
were consumed ; 164 horses were also fed within the 
castle. At this time the barons' party bad attacked the 
town, and on the next day they assaulted the castle. 
The story is graphically told in the pages of Wilham 
Rishanger, a monk of St Alban's ; but it is not my pur- 
pose to dwell upon this incident. It is most simply and 
exprrasively stated in the documents now brought to your 
notice by three words, " etetit insultum castrum." This 
was oD the Thursday in Passion-week, and on Easter-day 
(April 20), 1400 eggs were bought : so that the blockade 
could not have been very strict ; but nothing was bought on 


the next five <iajs, and on the Saturday following the barons 
are said to have withdrawn (" receasenint barones "). On 
the Sunday two calves, a kid, lard to the amount of 3^., 
pork to the value of 12d., fresh beef to the value of 9s., and 
one hen, were purchased. There is no item in the account 
of the expenditure of this time to corroborate the etate- 
ment made by one writer, that Leyboume was dangerously 
wounded in this defence of Rochester Castle. 

On Tuesday, the 29th of April, the Earl of Warren left 
Rochester, I think there is no reason to doubt that he was 
accompanied by Roger de Leyboume and the other leaders 
who had successfully defended the castle, though the account 
records the daily household expenditure without reference 
to that fact. The comparison of several passages leads to 
this conclusion, and, from other authorities of an indisputable 
character, we know that forces were drawn from all the 
neighbouring strongholds to swell the royal army that was 
gatliered at Lewes, and that Roger de Leyboume took a 
prominent part in the negotiations which preceded the 
unfortunate battle at that place (May 13th). The small 
force left in the castle of Rochester was so far unaffected by 
the struggle at Lewes, that these accounts contain no reference 
to it. It must be borne in mind, however, that the purport 
of these accounts was simply to justify the claim made upon 
the Royal Exchequer, and passing events are only noticed 
when they affect the subject. It was'only as the interest of 
his master was affected by the expenditure or loss of the 
goods committed to his charge, that the accountant recorded 
or referred to what was passing around him. 

In conformity with the terms of agreement entered into 
between the king and the barons after the rout of the royal 
army at Lewes, the castle of Rochester was given up, and 
the loss sustained by Sir Roger in goods stored up in the 
castle, owing to its surrender, is thus recorded : — " De it 
known, that on the return of the king into Kent, after the 
battle of Lewes, he came to Rochester, and commanded the 
constable of the castle and others there immediately to sur- 
render the same to the E^rl of Leicester, who did so, to the 
great loss and damage of the goods of the said Roger, as 
well iu gold as in silver, and arms, and many other things, 
to the value of more than 600/., together with chargers and 
riding-horses lost in the assault on the city aforesaid, and in 


the aiegB of the castle." To each item of the stores this 
remark is appended, or the memorandum made that the 
stock was lost, " ratione predicta." 

For some short time after the battle of Lewea, Leyhourne 
seems to have Iain inactiTe. When the royal party began to 
take heart again, he was soon found among its leaders, 
negotiating with Montfort, and obtaining pennission to 
visit Prince Edward in his confinement at Kenilworth, and 
the king at Perahore. Shortly after Prince Edward's escape 
hoatilitiea again commenced, and the decisive battle of 
Evesham was fought on the 4th of August, 1265, in which 
Montfort was slain and his party routed. That Leybourne 
contributed much to this result, there is no doubt, and that 
he did good service in the fight. On the ground of those 
services in the battle of Evesham, letters patent were issued, 
pardoning the offences he had committed while adhering to 
Simon de Montfort — apparently an unnecessary process afler 
what he had so lately performed for the royal cause. Such 
a form might, however, he considered expedient, on account 
of the engagement he had just entered upon, Among the 
Royal Letters preserved in the Record Office is one written 
by Prince Edward from Chester, on the 24th of August in 
this year. The prince addressed Roger de Leybourne and 
Nicholas de Leukenor, respecting the men of the Cinque 
Ports (whom the Earl of Warren was about to admit to the 
king's peace), and the precautions necessary to be taken with 
reference to foreigners entering the kingdom. He then speaks 
of those holding the castle of Kenilworth, and directs that they 
should be written to, requiring its surrender if they did not 
wish to be considered public enemies, and be disinherited as 
they deserved. A regular bill for services performed and 
expenses incurred in following up the successes of the royal 
party is again commenced by Leybourne, beginning on the 
28th of September. On that day he went to the king at 
Windsor, thence to London to treat and arrange with the 
citizens (who had throughout strongly supported the barons) 
to take the Tower into the king's hands, and to munition 
and keep it.' In this he was engaged for ten days, in the 

' la k letter to the king, probably the dtiEen* and read to them the kins'e 

relating to this dealing with the dtjniiu, directions — thst tbej bod commwtded 

Eager de Lejboume sad those sBsoniated the chains to b« taken dawn and the keyi 

jiih liim report that thej bad asaambled of the gates given up, and allowed no 

36 BOOEB DE letbourne: 

first instance, and his costs amounted to 35/. 18s. Id. In 
the Tower, however, he seems to have staid about three 
months longer (ninety-one days), charging the Crown 40s. 
per diem. On Tuesday, the vigil of the Epiphany (January 
5th), he was sent by the king^s command to the port of 
Sandwich, " with horses and arms to repress the malice of 
the sailors (galioti), to bring back the king's enemies to his 
peace, to take the said port, and to eject therefrom the 
sailors (galioti) of the Cinque Ports, the king's enemies 
there." In this he was engaged forty-three days, and 
charged 124/. 12s. 8d. Oa his way he slept at Lulling- 
stone ; thence he passed on to Ayleaford, from which he 
visited his home at Leeds, and slept there, and " so 
charged nothing ;" thence through Wye to Canterbury, 
where he stayed six days to assist the people. On the 
Friday he was at fiastry, and on the next day he attacked 
and took Sandwich. In the assault he alleges that he lost 
horses to the value of 200/. After staying in the place 
some time, he left his son William and Simon de Creye in 
charge of Sandwich, and thence went to Hastings, to 
strengthen and munition the castle. While so engaged be 
visited London, staying nine days, leaving his family at 
Hastings, and only charging for them. Returning to 
Hastings he wont to Winchilsea, "with horses and arms," 
and " aJI the power he could collect," to chastise and drive 
out the disaffected there, as he had done at Sandwich. In 
this he was engaged twenty-nine days, and charged 
40/. Is. 9d. The attack upon Winchilsea lasted throe days, 
and 323 archers of the Weald were engaged for two days, 
and 254 for one day. The horses lost in the assault were 
valued at 140/. 

Although routed at Evesham, the barons' party was by no 
means annihilated, and a desultory war was long kept up. 
The above notes show how they continued the struggle. 
The main stronghold of the " disinherited " ^ was however 

debate kbout it. Aa thosa thing! were aa tbe ci< 

settled, thejtboughtthe king might Bend agr«ad to < 

letters into the neighbouring couotiea No. TS6. 

auuring merchaata that theymight come ■ Tlie ftmUiea of the defeated put; 

in safety to the city and bring their whose poBseMionB were oonGscatad by 

guoda ; — that the " foreign " lanila of the Henry, were orten styled " ezhnredati ' 

burgOMea were taken into the king's for several yean after De MontFort'a 

bands, and no Btrangera were in the city rebellioo wasoninhed. See Hr. Blaauw'a 

aa their goods were aure to be injured. Baroui' War, p. SSfl. 

Tbe king should be informed as soon 



in the marshy and fennj districts, and thither Sir Roger de 
Leyboume was sent. He went to Eobertsbridge, where 
he was enteri^ained by the monks ("and so charged the 
king nothing ") ; thence to London, where he stayed with 
the king, and accompanied him to Northampton. On 
Ascension Day (May 6th) he started for the county of Essex 
" with his army." His expenses during the eleven days 
after leaving Winchilsea were 63^. 1 6*. 5^d. He is spoken 
of as being at Colchester, Chelmsford, and Ongar ; but a 
hiatus now occurs in the roll on account of its condition, and 
his campaign in the county cannot be further traced. He 
was engaged twenty-seven days, for which he charged 
117/. 14^. O^d., and lost horses to the value of 110/. His 
force seems to have consisted of thirty-four knights, whose 
wages were 82/. 18*; seven men-at-arms (servientes ad 
arraa), seven of the king's valets, seven of the king's 
balistarii, certain " Welshmen and trackers " (exploratores), 
for whom he charged 30/. 7*. 2^rf., and 500 "archers of the 
Weald," who were each paid 3a!. a day for 23 days, making 
143/. 15*. ; there were distributed 200 tunics, costing 3s. 
each. These accounts are somewhat disjointed, and their 
order uncertain. Shortly after, Leyboume was sent again 
into the Weald to keep the peace and repress the malice of 
the king's enemies. He left London on Thursday after AU 
Saints', and slept at Newenden. Here rabbits and birds were 
presented by E. de Estryng, and other evidences appear of 
attempts to conciliate the great soldier by contributions to 
his table when on this expedition. On Friday he went to 
Udymer, whence he departed on Saturday, leaving his 
household ; on Sunday he was at Battle, on Monday 
at Echingham, on Tuesday at Headcorn, and on Wednesday 
at Farieigh. He was thus occupied seven days, and his 
expenses amounted to 28/. Gs. 9^. He had also to employ 
a force of 200 archers to convey prisoners from Winchilsea 
to Rochester. He again went into the marshy districts, to 
Huntingdon and elsewhere, " to pursue the king's enemies 
who came out of the Isle of Ely towards London." In this 
he was engaged three days, and charged 11/. 4*. 7^d. This 
was probably after the battle of Chesterfield, which occurred 
on the 15th of May, 1266, where the Earl of Ferrers was 
taken prisoner, and which was the last occasion of the 
parties meeting in a regular battle. |. , _^^ i. (^^ooQ Ic 


Another portion of the account records another Btay at 
Bochester, the execution of small repairs there, the refitting 
the engines of war, and the purchase of plates, saucers, and 
other household necessaries. 

For the year 1267 the accounts are again incomplete. 
The " disinherited " were struggling hard, especially in the 
fen counties, and it required all Prince Edward's energies to 
subdue them. There is enough in the documents before us 
to show that Leybourne was once more actively engaged in 
the county of Essex, as boats and sailors were hired, and a 
messenger paid for bringing news of the breaking down of 
the bridge at Tilbury — probably the stairs or approaches 
to the ferry. In the early part of this year Roger do 
Leybourne seems to hare been residing in Kent at his house 
the Mote at Leeds. On the Thursday after Ash-Wednesday 
he lefl the Mote to go to Tenterden to treat with Wence de 
Waus on the king's affairs. On Friday he was at Newen- 
den, and on the Saturday he was at Westerbanger. On the 
first Sunday in Lent he was at the house of Nicholas de 
Criol, and on the Monday he went to Canterbury, " to make 
an arrangement, in the king's name and by his command, 
between the barons of the Cinque Ports and the knights of 
Kent, for the service of the country." In this business he 
seems to have been occupied about three days. On the 
Friday before Palm Sunday Leybourne went from Canter- 
bury to Huntingdon, "to pursue Sir John de Eyvill ;" and 
he slept there on the Friday following. He seems to hare 
gone on to Bedford, and thence to London, where he 
appears to have been instructed to return to Kent, and 
attend to the munitioning of the castles of Dover and 
Bochester, to send provisions to the royal army at Strat- 
ford, and to go over to France to treat with the Earl of St. 
Paul {the king's son-in-law) and the Earl of Boulogne, for aid 
to be sent to the king against his enemies in London. 
Accordingly on the next Friday he was at Dover arranging 
these matters, whence he paid a visit to Sandwich, leaving 
his family at Dover. On the Tuesday he returned to Dover, 
and the next day he crossed the Channel and stayed at 
Calais and Witsand in the company of the earls above 
named, for ten days. On account of that embassy he 
charged the Crown with the expenditure of 30/., including 
the expenses of his passage ; but his total charge was 


d7A 2s. 4d., as he was engaged twent7-8ix days altogether. 
These nobles accompanied him on his return, as they are 
said to bare been with him at Canterbury in the following 
week. On the next Thursday and Friday he was at Leeds, 
and chained nothing, "as it was his own manor." As 
far as his own traveU subsequent to this period can bo 
followed, he seems to have been occasionally at Leeds, 
Rochester, and in the neighbourhood : his last active pro- 
ceeding on behalf of the royal cause being a journey to 
Winchiisea to fetch thence some persons who, as stated, had 
conducted themselves ill towards the king, and whom he 
caused to be brought to Rochester. 

The total amount of Roger de Leybourne's " bill," as set 
out in the items I have brought before you, for work actually 
done, was 1551/. is. 10^., equal to upwards of 30,000/. of 
the present valuatioD. 

There is a further charge of 115/. for the performance of 
what may be called " poHce " duties in the county of Kent, 
described in these general terms ; " for the custody of the 
parts of the valleys and for ridding the fairs and the woods 
of those parts from robbers and from the plotters (insidia- 
tores) there, and for keeping the king's peace, with 200 
archers for 46 days." Neither does it include his claim on 
account of the loss sustained by the surrender of the stores 
in the Castle of Rochester, which amounted to 279/. IGs. id. ; 
or the 600/. for plate and other articles said to have been 
destroyed or lost there. 

While thus actively occupied wherever the exigencies of 
the time demanded his presence or the king directed him 
to go, Roger de Leyboume was also Constable of the' Castles 
of Rochester, Nottiugham, and Carlisle, besides occupying 
other official posts. Accordingly the account of his deputy 
in Rochester is sent in to the Royal Exchequer, and a claim 
made for 479/. 17*. 6d., as due for the service and expendi- 
ture of 2 years 1 9 weeks and 2 days immediately following 
the battle of Evesham. Simon de Morlak held the office ; 
and he tells in detail the provisions purchased from day to 
day, the wages of every one employed — how their numbers 
varied irom time to time — and how they repaired the 
engines of war, the drawbridge which had been broken down 
in Montfort's assault, and other parts of the fortifications 
which had been injured at that time. On one day four 
I ., ,Ck")Oi^ic 


sextaries of wine were bought and eent to the messengers 
of the King of France ; they cost 7«. 6rf. It was a quiet time 
within the castle while Leyhourne was scouring the country. 
On one occasion for 108 days, while the king was at Strat- 
ford with his army, there were six knights and forty esquires 
with their families in the castle ; but for the greater part of 
the time from five to ten knights and as many footmen formed 
the whole strength of the garrison. The number of horses 
seems to have varied exceedingly — from 20 to nearly 100. 
For the custody of the Castle of Carlisle Leyhourne simply 
makes a claim for 206^., without any particulai's — at least 
that hare come down to us. In bis account for that of 
Nottingham, he charges for its custody for a period of 444 
days, from Friday the morrow of the Epiphany (January 7th), 
1267, to the Feast of the Annunciation (March 25th), 1268. 
Some of the items gire insight into the interior economy 
of the garrison, and among them are two entnes showing that 
the armed force in the castle was marched out against the 
enemy when occasion required it. The hrst item is a charge 
of 1 51, " for the expenses of William de Leyhourne going by the 
king's command from Oxford to Nottingham with 8 knights 
and 30 'servientes ad arma,' with 64 horses, to receive the 
said castle for Sir Reginald de Grey ; where the said William 
and his household stayed 4 days, and returned to Oxford with 
6 knights. 

*' In expenses of the Constable, 2 knights and their esquires 
with 8 horses, 20 ' serrientes ad arma,' each with 2 horses 
and the Constable with 3 ; 10 balistars, 20 archers, 2 swine- 
herds, 3 watchmen, 1 carpenter, 2 keepers of the mill and 
meadow, a mace-hearer (claviger), a baker and cook, 20 
serving boys (garciones), 411/. 

" la robes for 2 knights and 7 ' servientes ad arma,' 
having two robes a-year, 23/. As. id. 

" In horses lost in the perilous week (septimana periculosa) 
in the Slst year (a.d. 1267-8), when the whole garrison went 
out with arms to fight the king's enemies then being in the 
forest of Duffield, where many of the garrison were wounded 
and some killed, 24/. 

" In horses lost on the day of the exaltation of the Holy 
Cross (September 14th) in the same year, the same garrison 
going out to fight the king's enemies in the forest of Cham- 
wood, by whom many were killed, 30/." 



It was DO part of tnj plan in drawing attention to these 
accounts of Roger de Leybourne to attempt to work up the 
whole of the documentary matter relating to his share in 
the public events of his time. There are allusions to these 
accounts and distinct references to Leyboume's engagement 
in the affairs to which they relate in many entries upon the 
Patent and other Rolls, as well as elsewhere. In one of 
those entries (Rot. Pat 52 Hen. III. m. 7) is an acknow- 
ledgment by the king of the total amount of his debt at that 
time to Leybourne on account of his services. The sum is 
stated to be 3094/. 10s. l\d., which may be reckoned as 
equal to 62,000/. of our present valuation. This was exclu- 
sive of what had been paid on account ; so I fear it will not 
be easy to make out the total cost of Leyboume's engage- 
ment. There is, however, a fragment of a roll containing a 
portion of his receipts, which seem to have been gathered 
very widely, and it includes this characteristic item, " Et in 
pardonia eidem Rogero, 1114^. 128." 

I am not aware of the existence of any. rolls of account 
for military service similar to these sent in by Roger de 
Leybourne. The conditions of such service were then as 
much the subject of arrangement as other matters of business, 
and many other nobles of the land were rewarded, as Ley- 
bourne was,* for their services to the Crown by grants of 
various kinds, and often at the expense of the weaker side ; 
but there seems to have been no such "running account" 
between the sovereign and any other military leader. A 
letter to the king from the Treasurer and Barons of the 
Exchequer (Royal Letters, Record Office, No. 707), with 
reference to these accounts, is an evidence of the singularity 
of the transaction. These officers had been directed to exa- 
mine and audit those accounts, and they report that they 
found the previously-mentioned sum of 3094/. 10*. Ijrf. 
. owing to him. In several of these documents direct allusions 
are made to the king's writs, by which the various expe- 
ditions had been commanded, but I have failed in endea- 
vouring to find sUch waiTants entered in any form of enrol- 
ment. It is probable that like many of the royal missives 
of that period they were looked upon as of a private rather 
than official nature. 

* Ai hia shsra in the upoil of Ibe tbirtMn Duman of Hsnry Elti-Auchpr 
' DUiDherited " after tlie battle of Bret- and the houso of Pater da Hootfort Id 
him, LejboDni* bad given lo him the WB«ttma»t«r (Bla»uw). tOUqIc 



The time on which a man falls unavoidably stamps an 
impress on all his future history. Hence the " natale 
astrum " is pictured by the poet as the " naturae deus 
humanse," deciding the " albus an ater " of all that is to 
follow. And, without pressing the sentiment to its strict 
and legitimate conclusion in the case now before us — without 
seeking to justify the Buicidal policy of Laud and his asso- 
ciates — I claim for a distinguished ancestor this merit at 
least, fidelity to the party with which he was linked by 
circumstances, through evil as through good report. Koyalist 
as he was by conviction, he stands out a regular royalist 
according to the form and pressure of the BeventeenUi 

In the course of a long life he experienced some strange 
vicissitudes. In honour, as a royal chaplain, he attended 
Charles to Edinburgh ; in dishonour, as Bishop of Rochester, 
he obeyed a summons to Newport, as the unhappy monarch's 
adviser; and when that forlorn Conference was rudely 
interrupted, he witnessed the crowned head falling at White- 
hall, and the divinity that hedges kings outraged and 
blasphemed. No wonder, then, that the scenes passing 
before him stirred the deptiis of his nature, and wrung from 
him strong expressions, which even the sanctity of his 
cathedral could not always restrain. 

Few men's lives have ever been longer ; few were ever 
more laborious. And yet history has taken small note of 
his labours. Fuller names him as the Prelate to whom 
the Bishops in Parliament confided the defence of their 
order, and designates him accordingly, as him in whom "dying 
Episcopacy gave its last groan in the House of Lords." 

' Boad io the Historical Section Bt the Ueeting of the ArctuBologinl Institata 
nt RocUsBter, Jul; 29, IStiS. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


His Treatise on the Sale of Church Lands, ■written at the 
royal mandate, exhibits his pen, hke his voice, ready in the 
service of his brethren." And his share in the most volami- 
nous commentary, then extant, on the Holy Scriptures, called 
forth from the Editor of Poole's Synopsis a deserved acknow- 
ledgment Uniform hberaiity marked his steps from the 
earliest One of his first cures, the Parish of St. Dionia 
Backchurch, London, still retains a silver sacramental ilagon 
— the Cathedral Church of Canterbury a costly font — as the 
Bishop's gift. His journey with the king to Scotland seems 
to have suggested the endowment of two scholarships for 
natives of tiiat country at Ballol College, Oxford ; and his 
connexion with Magdalene College is attested by its library, 
in which the donor's portrait thus records the gift : — 


But chieSy in his own diocese his charities will be remem- 
bered — for the asylum for clergymen's widows connects his 
name with Bromley as its chief benefactor. 

The passage in Warner's life, on which I would now dwell, 
is best prefaced by an extract from his earliest biographer, 
who tells us, that " in the second year of Charles* reign, the 
Parliament sitting, he preached a sermon at Whitehall, oa 
Matt, xxl. 28, in which he urged the consequence of that 
Parliament's proceedings so far, as very highly provoked 
some members of both Houses ; from the effects of whose 
resentment nothing but the dissolution of that Parhameut 
could secure him." ' 

I cannot confirm this anecdote by producing the discourse 
in question ; but there seems little doubt that a bold and 
uncompromising style, especially in the pulpit, was the cause 
of Warner's promotion, a.d. 1637, to the See of Rochester. 
Here, we may be sure, he did not disappoint his patrons, 
as is testified by an anonymous writer in a libellous publica- 
tion of the day, called the Scot Scout's Discovery. " All 
Lent long his majesty's chaplains, instead of fasting preached 
figliting, and instead of peace preached punishing of rebels ; 
among whom wily Warner of Rochester, having got a 

* OmrebLMidi nottoba SoM.wutha in 161S, and b secaud edition in 1618. 
title of ttiii treatise, wbioh WM priuted » Biogr,Brit»ioi.,ToLTLp«rtii.p.416»' 


bishopric for making one sermon, he gave the king another 
gratis, ■wherein he bo railed at the rebela, that his patron 
hath promised him a better bishopric." 

It is held, " the greater the truth the greater the libel." 
Whether it be so, or not, I am able in this instance to 
measure the extent of the libel by producing not only the 
discourse itself, but a correspondence arising from it. No 
sooner did it attract attention, than the Primate, Archbishop 
Laud, i-equested to have a copy of it. 

The Bishop's answer to the request sounds strange to 
modern ears. Was it empty adulation ? or was it an ex- 
pression of homage to one whom the writer counted worthy 
of double honour 1 I am inclined to deem it the latter. At 
all events, it runs as follows : — * 

" Bbomleioh, 
"March 8, 164*. 
" My most honor'd and good Lord, 
" Id a dutiful obedience to your most gracious commands, 
I here humbly present to your merciful judgment the Eccho 
of those Voices which I fear, for their manifold imperfections, 
might better have been forgot. But I hold it neither discre- 
tion nor modesty in me to dispute, where your wisdom and 
love are pleased to lay on the charge. However, I hope 
your Grace will give me leave to crave your accustomed 
pardon, that I have sent this poor body so naked and inide. 
Por your Grace's summons came to me so late last Friday 
night, that I had no more time than to awake it out of 
sleep, and to restore it to its former senses, without kemb- 
ing or washing the very face. And dare your Grace believe 
me, I had enough to do to shifl it out of a foul into a clean 
shirt, though this but made of rags. And Bromley is so far 
from being able to furnish it with a silken coat, which in 
respect of your entertainment it !iliouId have, that it will not 
BO much as afford it a leathern doublet, or jerkin of vellum, 
as though all too good for this poor wretch. But your Grace 
hath a derivative power from God to draw good out of evil, 
which grace I here humbly implore. And then, tlio' these 
voices shall purchase me some enemies, yet I shall not there- 
with be moved, especially since that my heart bears me 

prerarred unoDgat falnilj papcn 

DC, zecbvGoogIc 


witness, that neither hath his sacred majesty, nor our holy 
mother, a subject or servant of my rank more ready to lay 
down his life for either, than is 

" Your Grace's most humbly affectionate servant, 

"John Koff." 

The sermon thus distinguished by the approbation of the 
Primate would be deemed in these days a model of prolixity. 
It starts from the position that Fsalm Ixzir. describes the 
desolation of the temple in the days of King Antiochus, 
proceeding to draw a parallel on the 24th verse : " Forget 
not the voice of thine enemies I " The enemies are, of course, 
the Puritans : their voices, the string of objections which 
they urged against the Church of England — whether against 
priestly orders, vestments, idolatries, endowments, and the 
long catalogue of real or unreal abuses I These voices, under 
eight heads, the preacher undertakes to demolish, and he 
does so in the main successfully. 

Sometimes, by a quaint expression, he conveys a pithy 
meaning ; as where incentives to rebellion are called the 
" gladius oris, which devours worse than os gladii," or 
where they are likened to " Sbimei's venomous breath, which 
was able to fill Sheba's seditious trumpet." 

Sometimes the line of argument is worked out clearly and 
forcibly, as where the Puritan objection to the pulpits of the 
Establishment is thus stated and answered : — 

" But these great priests, they do not their duty ; they 
preach not. Kesp. (1) Be preaching a part of the duty, 
yet not the whole : neither was the maintenance only 
for preaching. (2) But what is preaching ? Is it nothing 
but saying good words upon a text out of a pulpit t Where 
then shall we prove that the Apostles preached 1 (3) But 
may not the grave, wholsome instruction, exhortation of 
apostohcal men — as weekly epistle — as word of mouth — 
whether publickly or privately, go for preaching, as in St. 
Paul's epistles it may appear it did ? (4) Or do ye not hold 
that he doth the work of the carpenter, who directs and sets 
others to work, unless he himself be daily hewing of the logs ? 
Or unless the pilot row or work, but only steers and directs, 
is he not worth the title and pay of a pilot 1 (5) Or, lastly, 
when, under God's law, the Levite at 50 years of age was 
exempt from bodily service in the temple, yet shall the High 


or CUef-Priest, neither at 50 nor 60, have any dispensa- 
tion ? * Cast me not away in the time of age I forsake me 
not when my strength faileth me 1 ' Ps. Ixxi, 8." 

Or, to give yet another illustration of Bishop Warner's 
Btyle. By a dexterous repartee he sometimes orerwhelms his 

The Puritan has often urged the poverty of the Apostles 
as a precedent to be invariably followed. To this the Bishop 
answers ; " If this be the voice, upon one condition, we 
may say. Amen. Be ye as the primitive Christians, who 
laid all at the Apostles' feet, aud we are content to be as 
poor as the Apostles. Which if ye refuse, then I perceive 
your desire is to keep yourselves rich, and to make us poor ; 
and thereby prove us Apostles, but yourselves no Christians. 
And I would hardly trust to be at his courteous finding, who 
would take from me that which is mine to the end he might 
maintain me." 

In a memoir like the present, a complete abstract of a 
sermon would be considered out of place ; but it is hoped 
that the foregoing extracts are not irrelevant to the objects 
of archeology, as recalling important argimients which 
were urged by the good Bishop in his cathedral church of 
Rochester 200 years ago, at a solemn crisis, and which 
otherwise would have been forgotten. 

In this same discourse the writer has preserved an anec- 
dote current in his time, to the effect that when Henry VIII. 
and Charles V. were riding through London (a.d. 1522), 
they were greeted with the popular voices ; — " Vivat de- 
fensor uterque — Henricus fidei — Carolus Ecclesije!" "A 
happy presage this" (he adds), " sung in England 100 years 
ago, and many 100 years after may it continue' — Carolus 
Ecclesiffi I " This was indeed the key-note of all our author's 
writings, and if the presage failed (as fail it did), it was not 
for want of a loyal subject, or a bold and able advocate. 

The only printed discourse of this Bishop, which I have 
been able to discover, is among the collection of tracts 
presented by George III. to the British Museum. It was 
preached on Quinquagesima Sunday, almost on the morrow 
of the tragic 30th of January ; and appeared soon after, (as 
well it might) anonymously ; for had the authorahip been 
avowed, assuredly another prelate would have fallen to the 
axe of the executioner. This extremity of trial was, how- 


ever, graciously averted. We may-, in the divine recompense 
for a given line of conduct, frequently trace an analogy — a 
repajTmeot in kind (aa it were) from the hand of retributive 
justice. And so it waa here. Warner had been faithful to 
his principles, and his fidehty waa fittingly rewarded. He 
lived to a great age ; and after " the battle and the breeze " 
he came back to his old moorings, reposing on the still waters 
of his episcopal palace at Bromley. He is noted by history 
as an instance ahnost solitary of a bishop who exercised his 
iiinctions before as well as after the Commonwealth ; and in 
his eighty-first year his sermons give proof that " his eye was 
not dim, nor his natural force abated." In that year (1662) 
he held a visitation, and issued articles of inquiry for the 
reformation of the ritual, and, preaching on the 11th of 
February before his assembled clergy, he thus alludes to the 
events of the preceding quarter of the century : — • 

" It is twenty-five yeeres since I visited in this place, and 
in twenty of these the Bishop's power hath been utterly taken 
away, and in the two last yeeres much suspended ; no mervail 
then that the Bishop hath work inough to set all in order 
that is left undone or done amiss ; yea, or to tell you all 
in particular that is to be corrected, when, as to this, I have 
to my best understanding given you of my clergy, church- 
warden^ and sidemen, articles to be inquired into by you, 
and by you to be made knowen to us, that therby we may 
by the best of our ability study to set all in order in due 
time ; for Christ when (Mar. xi. 11) he went into the temple 
to see the profanation therof, the text notes that he did not 
correct all the same day, but that he took another time to 
do it, and so much more must I." 

To the Bishop, thus engaged in the oversight of his 
diocese, the final summons came. And it found him, not 
only watching, aa ready to give account, but it found him 
ready to confess that he was but an unprofitable servant. 
About this time be made his will, and wrote his own 
epitaph ; in how opposite a spirit to that which fulsome 
adulation has 'since inscribed upon his monument, let his 
own words testify 1 




The remains on Balli-Dagh near Boumabashi, the site of 
ancient Troy according to Le Chevalier's hypothesis, have 
often been described, — the Acropolis, the vestiges of the wallB 
of the city and of the buildings within, and the four tumuli. 

An examination of the portion of the town walls still 
remaining in situ, which can be traced for some distance, 
has persuaded me that they belong to an epoch posterior to 
that of the " well-built " Homeric Troy, the comparatively 
small hewn stones in regular layers, of which it is composecL 
being dissimilar to the more massive masonry that charac- 
terises the remains of Tiryns, Larissa, and Mycenae, true 
Homeric cities. The walls of Cebrene and Neandreia can 
also claim an earlier date than the remains on Balli-Dagh, as 
will be shown in a future memoir on those ancient cities. 
Within the precincts of this last-named site are found frag- 
ments of black glazed and light-red pottery, and occasionally 
coins of Sigeum, Novum Ilium, Gergis, and other towns of 
the Troad ; facts which further tend to prove its compara- 
tively modem date. 

My special attention has been directed to the tumuli 
which Le Chevalier supposed to appertain to the Trojan 
heroes, and which assumption ia one of the chief ai^umeiits 
adduced in support of his hypothesis. It must be re- 
membered, however, that this rests oq the conjecture only, 
that the Trojans, having no other defence from the incursions 
of the Greeks than the walk of their city, deviated from 
their ancient practice, and buried their dead within the 
town, outside the walls of the Acropolis. Thus does Le 
Chevalier account for their situation at the summit of the 
hill ; and in proof of this supposition he quotes Dares the 
Plirygian — " The body of Paris was carried within the city, 


i 1 

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and Priam constructed a tomb for him." ' Morritt, folIoTring 
Le Chevalier, says these tombs ■were, of course, near Troy, 
for the same reason that tliose of the Greeks were near the 
shore.* Francklin, although adopting Le Chevalier's views 
generally, here diffei-s from hira, for he asks, with reason, 
why demand leave of the Greeks to bury Hector if within 
the walls of Troy ? ' 

Being determined, therefore, to ascertain the true character 
of these mounds, and how far they might correspond with 
the Homeric description so strikingly illustrated in the 
tumulus of Hanai-tepeh, I subjected them to a careful ex- 

According to the description of Porchhammer, three of 
these tumuli are situated on the summit of the rocky 
eminence, a little distance outside the thick wall which 
separates them from the Acropolis, and by the side of each 
of which is a deep pit, apparently artificial. Tlie fourth is 
on the same ridge, more to the west.* He is not altogether 
correct, however, in stating that their materials are all 
derived from the natui-al rock on which they stand, for one 
of them alone js entirely so — namely, the one correctly so 
described by Le Chevalier, and which he names " the tomb 
of Hector."' 

The largest of the other mounds (which is yet very in- 
ferior in size to Hanai-tepeh), supposed to be the tomb of 
Priam,* was the one I decided on excavating. It is about 
tliirteen feet in heiglit, and, cropping out on the summit, 
traces of a quadrangular building were visible. I caused an 
open shaft to be commenced at the base of the mound, and 
it was carried along the surface of the natural rock through a 
mixture of earth and stones, as far as the masonry in the 
centre which rested upon it. This structure I found to be, 
as at the top, square in form, and measuring about fourteen 
feet by twelve. It is formed of large irregular stones, 
roughly hewn on the outward faces alone, and put together 
witliout cement. The space in t)io interior is filled in with 

> Vuyoga da ft Trowle. par J. R Le edit, ISOO, p. 19. 

ClieTftlier. 8rd eiliL IBO:!, vol. i'u ]>. < JourDol of tbs OeognttiliiciLl Souiet; 

990. Ditto, tniuBlated by Andrew Dalxel, fur 1343, vol. lii. p. 37. 

EiliiiburgL, p. 122. » Voyaga do la Troade, par J. D. 

) WalpoU'i Tnvola, 2nd edit. ISIS, lo Chevalier, vol. it. p. 260. 

»oI. i. p. E78. ' llemark* and Obwrvationa on tl.o 

' Heniwlit and ObMnatioiis on tlio Plflin of Troy, by Wm. Francklin, p- 1"; 

rUin of Troy, by Ww. FnmckUu, 1st WaJpile'a TraTcI', vol. i. p. 108. 


small loose stones (see section, artte). A few accidental 
fragments of the pottery already described were thrown out 
during the excaTations, but noUiing was found to indicato 
that this mound liad been used as a place of sepulture. It 
appears rather to bare served as a base to some statue or 
public monument, or, as Dr. Hunt remarks, as a foundation 
to some altar or shrine.^ It bad apparently been hitherto 

I feci very sceptical, likewise, as to the sepulchral nature 
of the heap of small stones which Le Chevalier denominated 
the tomb of Hector. This irregular mound is situated near 
seme of the quarries called by Forchhammer "deep pits, 
apparently artificial," which furnished stone for the use of 
the ancient town ; and the frequency of similar mounds of 
various dimensions which are to be found lUl over this hill, 
and on the one facing it on the opposite side of the river 
Mender^ wherever stone has been quarried, leads, I think, 
to the reasonable inference that they are nothing more than 
heaps of refuse stone thrown out during the works. 

The two renuuning tumuU, which are smaller and com- 
posed of earth and stones, have not yet been excavated. 
The isolated one to the south {or, more correctly, westward), 
Francklin thinks not impossibly to be the tomb of Paris, for 
Aristotle mentions his being buried near Troy ° — a statement 
which, it will be noticed, is at variance with that of Bares 
the Phrygian. 

I found the necropolis of this town outside what Le 
Clievalier terms the " Acropolis walls." The tombs consist 
of the large kind of "pithoi," or earthen jars, containing 
unbtimt skeletons, which, as I have already shown in the 
memoir on Hanai-tepeh, must be assigned to a later period 
than the heroic age to which that tumulus belongs." Those 
which I have as yet- examined contain fragments of black 
glazed pottery. 

We are informed by Demetrius that after the fall of Troy 
the stones were removed for the reparation of other cities, 
and Archceanas of Mitylene is said to have fortified Sigeum 
therewith.' If this statement is to be relied on, some trace 

' BomiU'ka and ObsemtlotiB on tlie FUin of Troy, bj Wm. nnuctlin, n. 19. 
Plun of Troy, bj Wm. Franklin, p. 19 ; ' Jouni»l of tha Arcbnologieal Imti- 

Wa'roIo"« Tnval'H toI. L p. 108. tute, vol. ni. p. 4. 

* Rdtntrkt imd ObMrvations on tlio ' Strabo, xiit. c. i. S ^^-C oOqIc 


of these materials ouglit surely to be found on the Sigcan 
promontory, among the several disputed sites of the town. 

The whole of tho upper part of Balli-Dagh is formed of 
primitive limestone, ■which furnishes good building material, 
as is seen by the existing remains on its summit, and it 
would undoubtedly have served the same purpose in a pre- 
existing city. I^ot BO the base of the hill, which is black 
trachyte of a disintegrating nature. The geological forma- 
tion of the promontory differs from that of Balli-Dagh, being 
tertiary oolite ; yet we find amongst the various supposed 
vestiges of Sigeum none but the materin,! produced on the 

The consideration of all these facts' has converted mo 
from the belief that the actual remains on Balli-Dagh can be 
those of ancient Troy, as held by Le Chevalier ; still less 
can I suppose them to be these of its predecessor Bardania, 
as suggested by Francklin. If the hypothesis be advanced 
that a city may have existed on this site prior to that of 
which the vestiges now remain, it is one which for the 
present, at least, must rest on conjecture alone, being entirely 
unsupported by evidence. 

The question then naturally arises, if this site be not that 
of ancient Troy, to what other town can it bo assigned 1 I 
am inclined to place here tlie ancient Gcrgis, a city whoso 
geographical position has not been identified. Its name, 
which is variously given by different writers as Gergithos, 
Gergithes, Gergithus, and Gergitha,' is not mentioned by 
Homer, we may, therefore, infer that it did not exist con- 
temporarily with Troy. It occurs first in Herodotus, who 
states that the inhabitants were considered to be the re- 
maining descendants of tho ancient Tencrians, and that 
they were subdued, with the .^olians who inhabited the 
territory of Ilium, by Hymeas, aon-in-Iaw to Barius (b.c. 
511 — 485).* As Webb remarks, the opinion of Herodotus 
is borne out by Athenseus, who relates that the Trojans, 
conducted by Teucer to Cyprus, returned in great numbera 
to .£oha, and one of their cbie& persuaded a body of them 

■ It U birdlj naceuarj agflia to men- odb temperiLturo; viz., 63° tt> 64*, nml 

tion Le CheTaller'a Imogiaativa and art hdt assertiaa to tb« coiitrwj is nbguril. 
Tcful«d mcooant nf BournikbaBbi and Uie ' Staph. Bjcint,, b. v. ; 1J>7, iixviii' 

"hutuidoaMipringBortlieSomiinder," §39; Stiaba, xiii. o. 1. 1 70. 
whicii lent to pUusible m color to ha * Uentdotiu, v. g 12. _ 

liypollirali Tho forty source) have nil I^tOOQIc 


to colonize their ancient fatherland at the foot of the Trojan 
Ida, where they built the town first called by them Gergina 
and afterwards Gergitha.' 

That Gergis cannot hare been sltnated far from Ilium 
Novum we may infer from tho foregoing passage in Hero- 
dotus, and from the statement of Livy that Ebceteum and 
Gergithus were added to tho territory of the Trojans* 

In his account of the march of Xerxes from Ilium Novum, 
Herodotus says that the Persian aroiy bad on its left the 
cities of Rhceteum, Opbrynium, and Dardanua ; and on its 
right the Gergithe Teucrians.' It is on the authority of 
this passage, that in Smith's Geographical Dictionary these 
people are placed to the north of the Scamander, their town 
being only mentioned after the passage of that river. On 
refeiTing to a map of the Troad, however, it will be perceived 
that Ehoeteum (Palaio Castro) is scarcely at a greater 
distance from Ilium Novum than Balli-Dagh or Gergis ; 
and that, looking from Ilium Novum on a line parallel to 
Ithceteum and Ophrynium (near Ronkioi), the site on Balli- 
Uagli is still nearly as much in front on the right hand as is 
llhieteum on the left. It is evident that the mention of 
these towns by Herodotus was not intended to define their 
exact relative positions, but merely bad reference to the 
movements of tlic army and the general direction of its 
march, which appears to have lain up the valley of the 
Bumbrek-Sou. Xeuophon mentions Gergis with Scepsis, 
as strongly fortified towns where the treasures of the 
Bardaniau princess Mania (appointed to the governorship of 
.^olis by Pliarnabazus) were deposited, when tliey were 
seized by Meidias, her son-in-law and murderer. Xenophon 
further informs us that when Dercyllidas, general of the 
Lacedaemonian army in Asia Minor, proceeded against 
Scepsis and Gergis, the men at the latter place who were 
on the towers, which were very lofty, seeing Meidias, to 
whom be had granted conditions of alliance, advance with 
him, they laid aside their weapons and opened the gates, 
when they entered the city together and went up to the 
citadel, where they jointly sacrificed to Minerva.* 

The description of Gergis, as a place of groat strength, 

' OaeOTvniioni iDtorno nllo stnto nntico ziii. c. i. § TO. 

« prewotfl deir Agro Trojnno, dul Sig-ior ' Hcrodoliia, vit. § 3. 

Pilippo Barkar Wel>b, p. 73. ' HoUen. Ill, i. J 13. 

• Uvj,iiiTiii.§3», ViaeolsoSlrabo, I^tOOqIc 


^ith lofty towers and an Acropolis, answers to Balli-Biigh 
surrounded as it is on three sides by precipices four hundred 
feet deep ; whilst the quantity of fallen hewn stones which 
are found on the northern side, corresponding with those in 
sim, shows the town walls to have been of considerable 
dimensions. Gergis was the reputed birthplace of a 
^bil.° This might appear to have been suggested by the 
wild and romantic situation of the town, and the existence 
of some caverns on the face of the precipice which overhangs 
the river Mend^re. The modem name of Balli-Dagh, which 
signifies in Turkish, " honey -abounding mountain," is derived 
from the produce of thia cliff. The coins of Gergis bear 
the type of the prophetess and of a sphynx (with the letters 
FEP), as noticed by Stephanus Byzantinus. It is a circum- 
stance worthy of remark, that these coins are offered for 
sale for the most part by the peasantry from this neigh- 
bourhood, and some have been picked up on Balli-Dagh, as 
already mentioned. According to Athenseus, the inhabitants 
were in repute as court flatterers, so that the name Gergitha 
became synonymous with sycophant.' 

Alexander gave Phocion the choice of one of the four 
Asiatic cities — Cios, Gergithus, Mylassa, or Elsea ; the ofiFer 
was declined," Gergis was destroyed by Attains of Per- 
gamus (b.c. 217 — 197), who transplanted its inhabitants to 
a place near the sources of the Caicus, and incorporated its 
territory with that of Ilium Novum several centuries pre- 
vious to the time of Strabo, which accounts for the scanty 
information given by that writer, and also by Pliny, who 
merely mentions its disappearance.^ 

It is difficult to determine how far inland the territory of 
Gergis extended, and what part of the Dardania of 
Demetrius it included ; but Neandi'eia probably formed its 
boundary to the south. We may assume the upper part of 
the plain of Troy, on the further side of the Mendere-Sou, 
the Scamander of Demetrius, to have appertained to the 
people of Gergis, as far as the boundaries of Ilium Novum 
to the north and north-west, affording by its proximity, in 
like manner with Khceteum on the other side, a motive for 
their annexation by the Ileans. 

* Stepliuiiii Bf eantinn*, ■. v. Lact. de o pmnita dall' Agra Trojano, p. "IS, 
I>1>. neb. I. s. e. ' Plutaroh't Live>, hit. Pliocioti. 

' OncTTuiani intomo alio itoto antico * Stnibo, ziii. o. i. S 70. Pliny. ▼> S3. 


ninnntlcd hj two tzusplu In the collcoUiBi ol Ui, W, J. SsBanxaD BunH. 

Ahomo relics of the earliest period, those of boue, stag's 
horn, or the like materials, may be pointed out as deserring 
the consideration of the archieologist ; this special class of 
vestiges of rude races, by -whom the British Islands were 
occupied at a remote prehistoric age, does not appear to 
have received the attention which it may well claim, so as 
to combine the scattered examples in some order of scientific 
arrangement. We therefore gladly avail ourselves of the 
friendly communication by Mr. W. J. Beruhard Smith, of 
two remarkable specimens in his possession, and bear tribute, 
with renewed gratification, to the constant kindness and 
liberality with which his varied stores of olden times have 
always been available for our information. 

It is scarcely needful to advert to the obvious fact, that 
within the narrow range of the objects of bone and horn 
which occasionally fall under observation, we must seek for 
vestiges of the earUest races, and of approaches towards 
the artificial appliances of daily life in an age of incipient 
civihzation. In the rude conditions of the first settlements 
of peoples, whether in our own islands or elsewhere, man's 
first necessities, in regard to tools, weapons, or mechanical 
aids of any description, would necessarily be suppUed from 
those materials which were most readily attainable, such as 
horns and bones of any animals which had served as food 
or were captured in the chase. Weapons formed of these 
materials may seem indeed, as our friend Keroble Las 
observed, to belong to the earliest periods, and to be as old 
if not older than stone weapons. The adaptation of bone, 
as one of the most acute archaeologlsta of our day remarks, 
belongs to all ages, sometimes used by itself, sometimes as 
tiie recipient of other materials. It has been indeed con- 
tinued to our own times. " The employment, however, of " 

Fig. 1.— lUIt rouudin WfibnoadForeal, OifariUhiro, foimBd DtthBhoin otlhaaxUiKl 

Fig. 3.— Haft rocmcdoTtUs bom of tbs extinct elk> 
Otjeota of Horn, auppoasd to have boon uisd for hafUog sto 
to tin CdllecUoa ot Ur. W. J. BeucdjUU) Sana. 

:ecb> Google 

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80 brittle and unsuitable a substance aa bone, by itself, for 
axes or cutting instruments requiring strength, implies a 
state of Bociety when man was unacquainted with the use of 
metals, or unable to obtain them by commerce." * 

As regards the implements of such primitive materials, 
comparatirely rare, and found only under exceptional con- 
ditions, in dry graves and caves, or in turbaries, we may 
refer the reader to the series pourtrayed in Plate 1 in the 
HoriB FeraleB, recently published under Mr. Franks' aus- 
pices, to the few examples noticed and figured by Dr. 
Wilson in his Prehistoric Annals of Scotland,^ and to other 
hke rehcs in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, 
described and illustrated by Sir W. B. Wilde.' The late 
Mr. Bateman, in his explorations of barrows in Derbyshire, 
constantly met with portions of deer's horns, occasionally in 
a state indicating the intention of applying them to certain 
mechanical uses. On one occasion only he appears to have 
disinterred a hammer of such material ; namely, in a barrow 
on a ridge near the village of Biggin, known as " The Liffs ;" 
in this grave-hill Mr. Bateman discovered human bones, 
horses' teeth, &c., and in the centre an octagonal cist, in 
which lay a skeleton, the knees drawn up, indicating the 
antiquity of the interment ; and near them lay " a hammer- 
head ingeniously constructed out of the lower part of the 
horn of a noble red deer ; one end of this instrument is 
rounded and polished, the other is cut into a diamond 
pattern, somewhat similar to the wafer stamps used by 
attorneys." Near the shoulders lay a pair of boar's tusks, 
arrow-heads of flint, fiint celts and spears, &c.* Our present 
purpose, however, is to offer a few notices of relics of deer's 
horn, intended to serve, as Mr. Franks well designates them, 
in the passage above cited, as " the recipient of other 

We are not aware that any object of the same precise 
description as those now brought under our notice by Mr. 
Bemhard Smith, has heretofore been described as found in 
the British Islands. In continental collections such relics 
are comparatively of common occurrence ; examples of 

' Ur. F^uka, ia Hone Faralei, p. 129. and the remiLrlcabla lemi-miasraliiad 

* Vol. L, Moond edition, p. 202. horn of k verj larga red deer formed 

* jDesoripUra Ctltd. Bof. Iiuh Acad., into a pick or tool, figured ibid., p. 260, 
Animal loatarialB, bone, bom, ftc. Seo * Vestigoa of Autiqu. of Derbyaliire 
tlio wnpont utd toola Sgnred at p. 25S, p. 42. 


"instnimena Celtiques en come de cerf" in great variety, 
and also varioua implementa in bone, found in Picardy, 
are figured by M. Boucher de Perthes, in his Antiquites 
Celtiques." Herr Lindenschmit lias given well characterised 
speciineDB both of axes and hafts of stag's horn, irom the 
museums at HanoTer, Schwerin, Munster, &c.^ Mr. Franks' 
has selected for the Horae Ferales examples found in the 
Seine at Paris, in the valley of the Somme near Amiens, 
and in Lake dwellings in Switzeriand — the Pfahlbauten, first 
noticed through the sagacity of our friend, Dr. Keller, 

We may cite especially the memoir by our learned friend, 
the President of the Antiquaries of Zurich, which appeared 
in 1854, in the Transactions of that Society," with remark- 
able illustrations of the contrivance of haftiug by means of 
pieces of stag's horns ; the specimens there figured were 
discovered in the early part of that year at Meilen, on the 
northern shore of the Lake of ZUrich. Nearly two centuries 
ago an example of the stag's horn haft for weapons of stone 
bad been noticed in France, in some remarkable interments 
brought to light in 1685, at Cocherel, in Normandy. Mont- 
faucon has preserved the interesting narrative of M. de 
Cocherel, by whom the discovery was made ; ' the bodies 
had been deposited in rudely formed cists of slabs of stone ; 
under the skulls lay stone axes, in one instance of green 
oriental jade, a fact deserving of note, since the like exotic 
material has occasionally occurred in the Swiss Pfahlbauten. 
There were also pointed objects of bone, supposed to have 
served as lance-heads, &c., one of them being formed of the 
bone of a horse, with arrow-heads of bone and stone, but no 
metal was noticed. M. de Cocherel described also a curious 
relic : — " Un morceau de corne de cerf qui fiit lrouv6 au 
mfime endroit avoit servl pour y insurer une de cea baches ; 
cette come avoit un trou & I'un des bouts pour y ficher un 
manche de bois." It is to be regretted that Montfaucon has 

* Tame L, p. 9TS, cb. 14, pi. 1—3. of haftiag itoiia implemsnta In wooden 

Printed in ISiT, uid published two h&Ddlei, u need b; the oceapuita of the 

jeais subuqneatly. LunutriDB dwetlingB, ia wall illuatrated 

< LitidenBcbmit,DieAItarth.iui.heid- in Dr. Eeller'e fifth memoir, in theumo 

nleahen Vonceit, EeR B, Tof. 1. eoriei, Buid liv. pL 10. 

' See Hone Ferales, pL i,, p. 131, * AJitiqu. Bipliqute, tome t. pi. iL p. 

■ Die keltiachen P&^baiiten in den 1S4. The jade luce waa seen by Mont- 

SchweiierMen, besohr. t. Dr. Ferd. faucon, who alludes to the iirtue« at 

Keller, HHth. der Antiqn. Oeiella. in tbo etone "contra I'epilepde et U 

Zurich, Band Ix., p. T7, pi. 2. The mode nophretique." 


not giTen representations of this or of any of tbe objects 
noticed in this interesting narration. 

Of the two remarkable relics brought under onr notice by 
Mr. Berohard Smith one (see woodcut, fig. 1) is formed, as we 
were informed by the late Professor Quekett, of a portion of 
tbe bom of the red deer, of an extinct species {Cervui elaphus) ; 
it is stated to have been found in 1856, with human remains 
and pottery of early character, at Cockshoot Hill, in Wych- 
wood Forest, Oxfordshire, a district replete with vestiges of 
ancient occupation, and adjacent to the line of the Akeman 
Street, as shown in a map accompanying the View of the 
Ancient Limits of the Forest, by Mr. Akerman, published by 
the Society of Antiquaries.' It measures about 5 in. in 
length, and 2 in. in diameter. At one extremity there is a 
cavity, shown in the woodcut, in which, by comparison with 
other like objects of horn, it appears probable that a small 
celt or cutting implement of stone was inserted ; the horn is 
also pierced at mid-length, as supposed, to receive a handle ; 
the size of this perforation may appear somewhat inauflScient 
for secure adjustment to a haft of wood, or even to one of 
bone or other material, metal excepted. Our lamented friend, 
Kemble, however, who was present at the meeting of tbe 
Institute in January, 1857, when a notice of the discovery 
was first communicated, bad no hesitation in regarding this 
object as a baft for an implement of stone, in like manner as 
those with which be had been familiar on the continent. 
He expressed bis opinion that it is an object of singular 
interest, and observed that it was the only one, to his 
knowledge, noticed as found in this country.^ However rare 
in the British Islands, the want of examples, as Mr. Eemble 
truly remarked, may probably be due only to the want of 
more careful observation. He submitted to the Institute, on 
that occasion, a series of liis own drawings of objects of the 
like class which had fallen under his observation in museums 
in Germany and other countries.' As regards the nature of 
the haft which may have been used with such appliance of 

) ArohBoIogia, Tol. zxxTu. p. 121. horn, at Ueoklenbiirg; an Bzs-b««i), in 

Ur. AkennaD dnoribos WTeral burova, the HanoTer Mxuiuin (Horn Feiolea, 

in OF nau Wjclmood Foreat, which plata i. fig. i.) ; an axe of elk's born, at 

were examinsd about 181S ; ibid. p. 132. Berlia ; and a remarkable object of atas'a 

* Arohwol. Joum., toI. ii». p. 82. bom grooTed along tbe edges for the 

* Amongst theaa iatereatiag illoa- ioaertioii of amall flint SukoB afBzed by 
'" •... -.. black maatic of ceman^ ao aa to fonn a 

catting edge. 


deer's horn, it may be stated that specimens found by M. 
Boucher de Perthes, in the valley of the Somme, had not 
only the cutting implements of flint still fixed in their extremi- 
ties, but the -wooden handles of oak or birch-wood occasion- 
ally accompanied these appliances of a rude and primitive 

The second specimen, more recently obtained by Mr. 
Bemhard Smith (fig. 2), consists of a portion of the horn of 
an extinct species of elk {Megaceros Hibernian ?), cut off 
immediately above the burr. It is to be regretted tha,t the 
place of its discovery is unknown, Mr, Bemhard Smith is 
of opinion that it may have been from the drift strata, 
the surface being much worn, as if in rolling amidst shingle ; 
numerous minute portions of quartz, moreover, were to be 
discerned in the superficial crevices or cavities. It measures 
rather more than 5 in. in length ; the perforation for the 
haft measures about 1| iu. in diameter, and it may deserve 
notice that on one side it is of oval form, on the other it is 
more nearly circular. At the end, where a tine appears to 
have been cut ofi*, in like manner as another has been near 
the burr, there is a cavity supposed to have been intended 
for the insertion of a small celt or chisel of stone ; the 
injury which the object has undergone by attrition has pro- 
bably damaged the edges of this end of the horn, and thus 
the original fashion of the cavity in question is less distinctly 
shown. It is, however, possible, that tliis object of elk's horn 
may have served only as a maul or hammer. 

The relics to which, with Mr. Bernhard Smith's friendly 
permission, I have endeavored to invite attention, are 
not undeserving of the consideration of the archseologist, 
although comparatively inferior in interest to implements of 
deer's horn recently discovered in Central France, and of 
which some have been secured through the energetic negotia- 
tions of Professor Owen for the British Museum, Amongst 
relics brought to light in the caverns and the sheltering 
recesses under cliffs in the department of the Dordogne, by 
the explorations of M. Lartet and Mr. Henry Christy, are 
to be seen many implements or weapons fabricated of the 
reindeer's horns. The evidence of the remote antiquity of 
man, derived from these recent researches in ossiferous 
caves, may be classed with the most important scientific 
discoveries of our times. They prove that savage man, of 


what has been designated the "unground and unpolished 
Stone Period," was able, in advance of the use of metals, 
to carve on deer's horns and grave on stono representations 
of animals, his contemporaries, especially the reindeer, now 
extinct in that region. The striking rehcs, for instance, 
found in the ancient Ferigord, include a long dagger formed 
out of a single bom, the handle representing the body of a 
reindeer not unskilfully carred ; there is also a spear, 
bearing in partial relief the heads of a horse and a deer, 
whilst upon other objects appear animal forms, supposed to 
pourtraj the Aurochs, the Bos primigeniiis, with other 
singular traces of the arts of design in times of such rude 
antiquity. Tho numerous relics from the Bruniquel cave 
lately secured for our national depository through tho 
timely mediation of Professor Owen, have brought this 
remarkable cla^ of remains within our reach ; they present, 
doubtless, a chapter of the unwritten History of Man, of 
inappreciable instruction and interest, not less to the Ethno- 
logist t^an to the Antiquary. 


) by Google 




A PINE example of a Tilting Helm, of about the close of 
the fifteenth century, was exhibited at the meeting of the 
Archjeological Institute in January last by General Lefroy, 
by whom it has recently been added to the Royal Artillery 
Museum at Woolwich. It formed part of the collection of 
Mr. Brocas, of Wokefield, Berkshire, and will be found 
figured in the sale catalogue of that collection. It ia very 
clearly identified, as may be seen in the engraving there 
given, by the broken portion at the lower edge of the helm, 
as well as by the very curious perforated bar in front, for 
fixing the head-piece to the breast-plate. The hehn subse- 
quently passed into the hands of a Norfolk gentleman, by 
whom it was presented to the Richmond Museum. On the 
breaking up of that collection it was returned to the executors 
of the donor, who presented it to Mr, Harrod, the Secretary 
of the Norfolk ArchEeological Society. It afterwards became 
the property of Mr. Bayfield, of Norwich, at whose recom- 
mendation it was copied as part of the decorations of the 
celebrated " Norwich Gates," now at Saudringham. From 
Mr. Bayfield it was purchased in December last by General 
Lefroy. See Official Catalogue, class xvi no. 6. 

As a sample of the knighUy tilting helm this is an exceed- 
ingly fine specimen, but the particular points of interest in 
it are the singular contrivances for attAchmg the defence 
to the breast and back-plates ; the former consisting of 
a perforated iron bar, moving on a hinge, and adapted for 
the passage of a pair of staples at a height that might bo 
adjusted to the convenience of the wearer ; the latter being 
an iron buckle of peculiar construction, to receive a strap fixed 
to the back-plate. The securing of the helm fore and aft to 
the cuirass is indeed no new thing, but the particular manner 

TUting'Helin of ths attssnUi oactuv, in tha Reytl AniUei? Uuseuro, Woolwiob. 
(From ■ dnwlDg b7 Wdtor H. Ingdlu, Ite),] 

) by Google 


of fastening here seen is veir rare. An example, however, 
existed in the collection of the Baron de Peuker, at Brusaela, 
and is engraved in the sale catalogue of that museum. It 

TUtlng-IIglm Itna^lj In Ihs Butm da Pmkn'* 1Iu«mid. 

will be observed that, besides the fastenings in front and 
behind, the helm had two lateral stays : these consisted of 
straps, which, attached to the shoulder, passed through the 
staples seen on the lower edge of the helm, and were then 
secured by buckles. This side-strapping is also found in 
other examples. The fine tourneying helm figured by Hefner 
(Costumes, plate 137 of part ii.) exhibits it, and we find it 
again in the Grerman tourney helm engraved in the Journal 
of the Arcbasological Association, vol. iii. p. 59. In both these 
specimens there are on each side two staples. The casque 
before us has no opening on either side of the fore part : the 
hind plate has four clusters of air-holes, two in the upper, 
two in the lower part, close to the vertical row of rivet& The 
usual perforations for fixing the crest and mantfing are seen 
in the crown. The rivets themselves are not unworthy of 
remark. Each boss consists of three metals — ^first the iron, 
then a coating of tin, and lastly the surface of brass. 

By examining the interior, it will be seen how the lining 
of the head-piece was held in its place ; for, simple though at 
first it may seem, it was by no means an easy thing to 
bring the padded lining over the top of the head and there 
fEtsten it. This was effected by means of a thin strip of iron, 
passing across the head just behind the ocularium, and 
secured at each extremity by one of the temple-rivets 


passing through it The Iming was made fast to this iron 
strip by short rivets, ■which, while they pierced the lining, did 
not penetrate the helm-plate above. 

The weight of the helm is 22^ lbs., its height 18 inches. 
Some pieces of modem rolled iron, fixed at the sides for 
purposes probably of suspension in a museum, have been 


By the kindness of the Rev. J. B. Waldy, and of Mr. 
Allfiop, of Cheltenham, I vras enabled to exhibit at one of 
the monthly meetings of the Institute a very curious and 
richly-ornamented sword ; left, as it is believed, by the Duke 
of Monmouth among the villagers of Dorsetshire on his 
flight from the Field of Sedgemoor. 

This sword has never been in the hands of dealers ; its 
claims to authenticity are founded on no bold history ; all 
its guarantees he in itself — in the emblems with which it is 
adorned, in the singular manner in which it was rescued 
from the hands of a knot of rustic mummers, and in the 
locality where it was discovered. 

In the year 1844 the weapon was found in the possession 
of a band of villagers, exhibiting their histrionic talents at 
Woodyates Inn, a hamlet rendered celebrated in the West 
Counti-y from its being the spot where the fugitive duke 
changed dresses with a peasant a little before his capture. 
It was purchased from the "mummers" for the sum of 
eighteen-pence, and presented to Mr. Howitt, a collector of 
antiquarian objects, residing at Wilton. From Mr. Howitt 
the sword came into the possession of Mr. AUsop, its present 

After the battle of Sedgemoor the Duke of Monmouth 
fled across the country, by the north of Wells, to the east of 
Shepton Mallet, and by Giliingham and Shaftesbury, to the 
village of Woodyates Inn. At Woodyatea Inn, as we are 
told by Bishop Burnet and other chroniclers, the duke 
changed clothes with a shepherd, his horse and those of his 
attendants were turned loose, and their saddles and bridles 
concealed. Soon after this the duke dropped his gold snufl"- 
box, full of gold pieces, in a pea-field, where it vraa picked 
up, the lucky finder obtaining the half of the contents for 
bis share of the transaction. A little to the south of Wood- 


yates Inn the duke was taken, and on his person, we leam, 
" were found certain papers and books, one of which books 
was a manuscript of sp^, charms, and conjurations, songs, 
recipes, and prayers, all written with his own hand. The 
charms and spells were against death in battle, for opening 
prison doors, &c. Two other books were manuscripts on 
fortification and the military art The fourth contained an 
estimate of the yearly expenses of His Majesty's nary and 
land forces."' 

Let us now see what internal evidence the sword presents 
to justify us in identifying it with the forfeited blade of 
Honmouth. The guard and pommel are covered with royal 
emblems, portraits and military subjects, chased with great 
care (though indeed with little skill), and the whole has 
been richly plated. Among these ornaments we hare the 
Hose and Crown, the Prince of Wales's feathers, and two 
portraits which may, I think, be fairly assigned to Charles 
I. and his queen. The hair, beard, and moustaches of 
Charles are exactly those of his other portraits, and tho 
hair-dress of the companion figure is similar to that of 
Queen Henrietta. lu this view, it is clear that the sword 
could not have been made for Monmouth. He landed as 
duke, and at Taunton set up as king : he never claimed to 
be Prince of Wales. I am inclined, therefore, to believe 
thai the sword belonged originally to his father, Charles II., 
when Prince of Wales ; and this would be during tho 
residence of that prince at the Hague. I am wilhng aJso to 
think that the weapon is of Dutch manufacture — at all 
events, to enter the strongest protest against its being 
accepted as a sample of English art. 

The grip, it must be observed, is a restoration. The 
original was probably of silver wire, which the Shake- 
spearians of Borsetshire would naturally, at the earliest 
moment, convert into cider. The blade, which is two-edged, 
bears the common inscription of andbia feraba, Andria 
being spelt with an i. The armourer's mark is a very rude 
version of the Sun in his splendour. The hilt has a thnmb- 
ring, and there is both a front and lateral bar for handguard. 
The blunted point of the blade is not unworthy of notice, as 
furnishing a memento of the fortunes of the weapon while jn 
the hands of the Dorsetshire playera. 

' EobnU'a Lite of the Dnko of Monmoatb, vol. ii. p. HAOC^Ic 

©ctfiinal Bocununts. 


AMD A Letter op Placard op IIesrt VII., ix pator op the Inha- 


Dated I Jaueb I. (a.d. 1604), 

For pennisaion to pnUiah this document, wbich haa been preserved 
Among tlie muniments of Mrs. Ormsbj.Qore at Porkington, Shropsbire, tbo 
Instituta is indebted to tlie kindness of tbat ladj tbrougb tbe obliging 
intervention of Mr. W, W, E. Wjnne, M.P. Mrs. Oore, as we are informed bj 
Mr. Wjnne, is the represeutative and heiress of the estates of Sir William 
Uanrice, knight, one of the persons at whose request this Excmplifieation is 
stated to have been granted hj James I. 

We acknowledge with mnch pleasure the valuable assistance received on 
the present occasion from a friend well versed in the ancient history of tho 
Welsh, and in tbe rights and liabilities formerly incident to property within 
tho Principality. Those who take interest in such subjects will not fail t-* 
appreciate the Memoir on the Political Geogropby of Wales, communicated 
to the Society of Antiquaries by Mr. H. S. Milman, U.A., F.S.A., ami 
printed in the Arclinologia, vol. zxxviii. p. 19.' To his kindness it is wo 
have been chieBy indebted for the following introductory observations. 

In historical documents the three counties of Merioneth, Caernarvon, 
and Anglesey ore often found grouped together, being the King's Princi- 
pality of North Wales, and having as such the town of Oaemarron for their 
common capital. 

Soon after the accession of King James I. to the throne of England, tho 
inhabitants of the three counties applied for an Exemplification by letters 
patent of certain charters granted to them in the reign of Henry Vll. 
The records at Caernarvon were searched for the charters, but in rain j 
for it would seom that the neglect, if not destruction, of archives there, is 
not wholly chargeable upon the present ago. Evidence, however, of tho 
charters and their contents was found in the Originalia of the Ezcheqner at 
Caernarvon. Tbe officers' revenue accounts seem to have been better 
preserved than the charter rolls. Prom early times part of the revenue 
of theso counties had arisen from certain customary payments, peculiar to 
Wales and the Marches, if not to the thrco counties alone ; some of which 
payments were abolished by the charters in question. In the year when 
tlicse sources of revenue accordingly ceased, the officers justiGcd their 
blank returns eitlicr by reciting or abstracting more or less of the charters 
in their accounts, or by adding or annexing to them copies of those 

' It ma^ be eonvenimit to soma of the in the Archswlogia CsmbrsiuU^ third 

orcbmologiBts of the Friaclp«lit]F to serioa, vol. vL p. 31. Some exceptions 

know thnt this vmluable mamoir of Hr. wero taksn to ths views of our friend, 

Milmnn lias been reprinted, with per- ibid. p. SHI ; nee alw Mr. Milmon'a rep'y 

minion of the ijociety of Anliquariei, to these critioiims, p. 321. 


Accordingly it appears from the Exemplification now published, that 
unong the btuiiff's accounts for the coanty of Merioneth for ^e year ending 
at Michaehnas 23 Heniy VII. (1507), there was fonnd an account of the 
Commote of Penlljn, which hod at the end of the part intitled " Finne 
balliTarum," in ez^ana^n of the blank return, an abstract of a charter or 
letters patent dated the 27th October 20 Henry YII. (1504) ; and a copy 
of another charter or letters patent dated the 3rd March 22 Henry VII. 
(1506 — 7) ; and also a copy of a royal letter of placard dated the 28th 
September 22 Henry VII. (1506) ; and in the same account at the end of 
the part intitled " Putura Stallon," was, for the like reason, aa abstract 
of part of a charter or letters patent said to be dated the 28th October 
20 Henry VII. (1504), but intended in all probability for the abore-men- 
tioned charter of the 27th October 20 Henry VII., the day of the month 
being a clerical error occasioned by the occurrence of the 28th of 
September just before, either in the record or in the account itself.' There 
was also found an account for the Commote of Bstyn manor with a blank 
return, having at the end of it, by way of explanation, a reference to what 
bad been stated at the end of the part of the Penllyu account which was 
entitled " Firme ballivarum." 

If the date of the royal letter he correctly giren in this Exemplification, 
it preceded the charter of the 3rd March 22 Henry VII. some months, 
though it is introduced as relating to that charter. Por the regnal years 
of that king were computed from the battle of Bosworth (August 22nd 
1485], and consequently in those yeara September came before March. 
But possibly the apparent iiTcgularity in the place giren to this royal letter 
may be thus explained. It will be observed that in the letter itself there 
is no mention of any charter ; but there is a reference to a bill of petition 
that had been presented 'by the inhabitants of the three shires, which was 
probably the petition in compliance vrith which the charter of 3rd March 
22 Henry VII. was granted. The king may hare acceded to that peti- 
tion, and then the letter been issued, as a preliminary act, to give partial - 
effect to it while the charter was in preparation. The fine of 450 marks, 
mentioned in the letter, was probably that which was paid for the charter. 
Thus the three documents in question would stand in the following order of 
date : the charter of 27lh October 20 Henry VII. (1504) ; the royal 
letter of 28th September 22 Henry VII. (1506), and the charter of 
3rd March 22 Henry VII. (1506—7). 

la the charter last mentioned are recited two Acts of Parliament dis- 
qualifying Welshmen, the origin of which it may be well briefly to explain. 

Among the events that disquieted the reign of Henry IV. was au 
insurrection of the Welsh under Owen Glendwr. This chief, who claimed 
throngh his mother to be a descendant of their native princes, was educated 
in England, and for a while studied in the Inns of Court. Ha entered the 
service of tho Earl of Arundel, and afterwards became one of the esquires 

' The 23th October 20 Henry Til. Is, giren in this Exempli&cation as from a 

probably, the correct d»te of the chartar charter of 2Tth October 20 Eeary Til., 

fint mentioned in the Eiemiili&cation. but nith b fen varintioiu! such as might 

For a chuter of that date ii set out in an bo due to traaicriptioa. It is, however, 

Inspeiimus of 4th Uarch 1 BeoryVUL, romarksble thkt the charter in that 

fiinted in tho Arcbojologia Cambreniia InspeximuB does not extend to the 

[. p. 293, and it contains, among others, connty of ADgleiay, but ia con&ned to 

claiues like thoaa of which an abstract ia those of Merioneth and CaemarvoD. 


of the body of King Richard II. The latter he Qccotupamed on his ill- 
fated expeditioD to Ireland, and on his return was with him at Flint 
Castle when he was betrayed into the hands of Heor;, then Duke of 
Lancaster. The attendants of the captive being left at liberty, Olendwr 
retired to hia estatos in North Wales. There he was disposseaaed of some 
land by Lord Qrey of Ruthyn, one of the Lords Marchers. He petitioned 
FarliEunent for redress, and !t was bffenuTely refused. On receiving further 
proTocation from Lord Grey he had recourse to arms, retaliated on his 
adversary, and was soon m active co-operntion with the friends of his fallen 
sovereign. Bichard had remained popular in the principality ; bat with 
the Welsh a prospect of independence was a much stronger motive to 
action than their loyalty, and it induced even many of them in England 
to quit their studies and employments and join Glendnr. He assumed the 
style of Prince of Wales, and was crowned at UachyuUeth. For two yeara 
before the battle of Shrewsbury (23rd July, 1403}, he had baffled all the 
attempts of the Lords Marchers, and also those of Henry himself, to reduce 
him to obedience. Though in alliance with the Fercjs, he was not present 
at that battle. After their defeat he coutinuod the unequal contest, and 
was assisted by the King of France, who recognised him as Prince of 
Wales. It was not, however, by arms only that the refractory Welsh wero 
assailed ; it was thought expedient to subject them to some severe re- 
strictions, and for this purpose the two Acts of Parliament above mentioned 
were passed. 

By the Act of 2 Henry IV. (1401) all Welshmen were prohibited from 
purohasing any lands or tenements in England or in any of the English 
towns in Wales ; and no Welshman was to be admitted a burgess, «r to 
have any other liberty in the realm of England, or in any English town in 
Wales (o. 20). 

By the Act of 4 Henry IV, (1402], besides some enactments of a 
temporary kind, no Englishman was to be convicted by any Welshman 
. (c. 26) ; nor was any Welshman to hold either for himself or another any 
oastle, fortress, or defensive house otherwise than was used in the time of 
Sing Edward the Conqueror of Wales, except bishops and temporal lords 
for their own use* (c. 31) ; nor was any Welshman to be a justice, cham- 
berlain, chancellor, treasurer, sheriff, steward, constable of a castle, 
receiver, escheator, coroner, chief forester, or other officer, or keeper of 
records, or deputy in any of those offices in any port of Wales, or of the 
council of any English lord, except the bishops in Wales ; and of them and 
Other persons whom the King bad found to be good and loyal liege 
people he would be advised by his council (o. 32).* 

The Welsh were thus placed very much in the condition of aliens ; and 
we find during the remainder of the fifteenth century several Acta of 
Parliament and letters patent for relieving some who by their services iu 
war or otherwise had obtained royal favor, and wished to settle in 

ft will be obsorved that the charter of 22 Henry VII. did not even 

■ Ths words ore "pom Uur corps ttro chapton there referred to, bat the 

propree ; " but iu all probOibility " corps " purport »t them. That of 2 Hen. IV. c 

laancrrorof lamstraascriberfar "oepa." 20, reads like a oommentary on a part of 

* In the recitals of tliue two acta in that chapter, so much is the effsct de- 

Ihe charter of S2 Ham? TIL, there was tailed. 

no attempt to gtve the lanffuaKe of the /• i 

D,D.t.zea by Google 


parport to remore all tbe restrictiona imposed bj tbe abore-mentSoned 
aiatutes. The etiactmeDts were not fonnallj repealed tilt the 21 James I., 
c. 28 ; but they Tirtnallj ceased to have eSiect after tbe hdiod of Wolea 
with England hj the 27tb Henry VIII., c. 26 (1536), when it was 
declared in the first BecLion of that statute, that all persons bom in the 
principality of Wales should hare, enjoy, and inherit all freedoms, liberties, 
rights, pririleges, and laws within the realm and other the King's 
dominions, na other tbe King's subjects Daturallj bora within tbe some 
hod, enjoyed, and inherited. . 

The charters and royal letter exemplified by the document under con* 
sideration were granted at a remarkable period of Anglo- Welsh history. 

On April 2nd 17 Henry Vll. (1502) died Arthur, Prince of Wales, the 
last Prince to whom the territorial principality wag granted. Tbe Crown 
resumed, and never again parted with, the territorial jurisdiction there. 
The new heir-apparent, Henry, afterwards King Henry Till., became 
Prince of Wales, but in title and dignity only. 

The reasons for this polioy of the Crown ore clear. When England 
rested from tbe wars of tbe Roses, it found Wales a great social and 
political difficulty. Tbe counties of Chester, Salop, Hereford, and Glou- 
cester — the last three not reaching so far westward as thoj do now — were 
on the edge of the realm of England, Beyond tliem, outside the realm, 
extended Wales, then but partly divided into counties. The then counties 
were Uerioneth, Caernarvon, and Anglesey before mentioned ; Flint 
(attached to Chester, and under the same government as that county) ; and 
Cardigan, Caennartben, Pembroke, and Glamorgan, each much less in 
extent than it is now. The counties of Monmouth, Brecknock, Radnor, 
Montgomery, Aud Denbigh had not been created— their area was then part 
of the Marches. 

Wales, politically, was an aggregate of petty manorial governments, 
standing between the Crown of England and its Welsh subjects, to the 
disadvantage of both. The lords of Wales were strong for evil, yet weak 
for good — active in wars among tbemselres, but adding littlo to the mili- 
tary power of tbe realm— misgovemiug, and jealously excluding the Crown 
from interference with their misgovernment — able to oppress their vassals 
in person and estate, but unable to restrwn those vatisals from preying 
upon their English neighbours. 

To curb the lords and conciliate tbo people of Wales — to supersede 
manorial by royal and parliamentary rule— to extend to the Welsh tbo 
rights and laws enjoyed by the English — to level the barrier raised by 
difference of race and strengthened by centuries of warfare, and so to pre- 
pare the territory for union to tfae English realm, and its inhabitants for 
fusion with the English nation— was the policy of Henry VII. and his 

Evet7 lord could, if so minded, further this policy within bis own lordship 
by abolishing bnrdenaome fines, dues, customs, and offices, and by fntaog 

Now the King was not only paramount throughout Wales, but also im- 
mediate lord of many and great manors there, and at this period of the 
counties of Menonetb, Caernarvon, and Anglesey also, by reversion of 
thcso three counlies-to the Crown on Prince Arthur's death. With a view 
to the policy above described, be retained the reverted principality, and 
ranted these charters to tbe inhabitants. 



The eulier charter, tljot of 20 Eeury VXI. (1504), dealt with n 
of local admiiuBtriitLoa bdiI roreBUe wholljr wUhia tlu lord's power, uot 
toackiog any general rule of law or Act of FarliaoKDL Hoice it waa, ia 
oil probability, enrolled at Caernanroti, and it required no parliamentaiy 
authority or confirmation. 

The royal tetter was an inBtmctioa to the Crown officara in the three 
counties to allow the King's concessions, as well those already specified by 
that charter as those which at that date had not been so fornuUy made. 

The later charter, 3 March 22 Heu. VII. (1506-7), began by reciting 
the two disabling statutes aboTe mentioned. It removed all the restrictions 
OS to purchasing lands, but not those aa to offices.* It also freed the vilUna 
within the three counties, including those subject to the Bishop of Bangor 
and to Abbots, and converted their servile into free tenures. It abolished 
many ancient burdens, reliefs, exactions, and tolls. It protected the goods of 
intestates from the interference of tho King's secular officers. It regulated 
the practice as to persons bound over to keep the peace, or appearing to 
informations for felony or breach of the pence, and settled the court fees in 
Buch cases. It declared freemen in the three counties capable of holding 
and serving on inquests relating to Englishmen. This charter — so far as 
it excepted the three counties from any general statute, as it gave to 
Welshmen the privileges of Englishmen, and as it trenched upon the 
manorial rights of the Jiishop and Abbots — was beyond the scope of the 
King'e sole authority, and accordingly was backed by the authority of 
parliament. This we learn from a statement at the end of it, but we have 
not been able to discover, either in the statutes or ia the rolls of parliament, 
any evidence of such authority for giving full effect to this charter. It was 
" tested " at Westminster, and most probably enrolled in the Exchequer 
ttiere ; yet, though careful search was made for the enrolment a few jtan 
ago when it was wanted for a legal purpose, it could not be found,' 

• Tho cliBTter of 28th October, SO 
Henrj VII., sat out In tha iDapeiimuiof 
1 Henrjr VIU. appear! to htve abolUhed 
tbe restrictioDS oa purchaaiog lands and 
on holding offlcoa, bo far u regudsd tbe 
inhsbilants of tbe countiw of Merioueth 
■nd Ciwriuivon, but Baid nothmg of 

' WafatTfl mide diligont search nfter 
other oapiea of the following EiempUfl- 
catioQ, presarved either ia publio depo- 
sitories or in privste hnnds, but without 
GucceM. It might have been reuonably 
expected that s cop]', if not tha enrol- 
asnt itself, would l>e found unocg the 
Itecords formerly preterved st Cser- 
tmrvoQ : ill. Hilman hsa adveited in 
the foregoing aburratioQa to ths neglect 
of the archives tbers, and the Bsport 
on the Bscords of Wales by Hr. Block, 
iu 1840, diicoursged sll hope of attoin- 
ment of our object in that quarter. 
Tbat gentleman states that tho records 
of the ooontiM of Anglesey, CaemarvoD, 

sod Hwioneth, were k« 
oppoiits to the weatei 
narvon Castle. "I In 
Mr. Block obnerres, by "diligent en- 
quiry that a great quantity of onoient 
records had been deposited in a kind of 
celhir in the basement of the building, 

aUored out by order 
about twenty or thirty years ago, and 
partly eald, together with old Acts of 
Farliameut and other wosts paper, bj 
tUo hundred weight, and partly thrown 
ipon dungheaps sad wheeled into the 


and « 

of the Ilecords were bought or athei^ 
wiie obtained by lli. David Williomi, 
of Turkey Shore, Caernarvon, who for 
many yean past fass eupplied tailors end 
others with psrohment, for Tarioui pur- 
poses, out of the materials," — Appeadii 
to the first Beport of Oi« Deputy Keeper 
of Public Bwords, p. E>Oi see also p. 

) by Google 


Sxx»rawn!i.rt<yg, itsokr tiib great seal of Jaues I. ron the Shiuks 


A LsTrEK OF Placard of Hevrt Vlt.' 

Jacobus, Bel gracia Anglie, Scocle, Francie, fit ffibeniie Hex, tii&i 
DcfenBor, &e. omnibus ad qnoa preseutea litere nostre pervenerint 
aalutem. ScUtia quod inBpexiiniu Records quonindam Couipntoruni 
miiiistronim in Scaccario nostro apnd Caemarron in Comitatu Caornor- 
Ton, inter memoranda et Recorda ejuadem Scaccarii ibidem de Record' 
remanentia, in hiia verbis : — Comitatos Me rionjtb.aci licet, — Originolia Com- 
putoram omnium et siagulorum Mioistrorum domiai Regis dddo Henrici 
vij*^ de omnibus et aingulis domioiia, manerils, tcrrta, et tenementis suis 
ibidem, a festo Sancti Micbnolis Arcbangeli anno ziij'" dicti domini Regis 
Henrici vij'B' usque idem feslum Sancti Michaclis Archangel) anno cjus- 
dem domini Regis xxiij'''', scilicet, per unum annum integrum, — scilicet, 
Peklltn : * Computus Jobannis ap David ap Robert Ballivi ibidem loco Ring' 
nnper dictum officium occupands per tempus predictum. FinuE Rallivaruu : 
Nee receptum de aliquo proficuo proreuiente do oiGcio Amobr', aut do 
officiis Ragl' et Rogl' Advocar', ve! de officiis Woodvrni'd et Ring' istius 
Commoti et omnium aliorum Commotorum Comitatuum Merionjtb, Oaemar- 
Ton, et Aogleaej, que per cciiij"! libria solebant affirmari, aicut contineturin 
Computis precedent) bus, videlicet, de tempore nnper Regin Ricardi secundi ; 
eo quod dominus nunc Rex Hcnricus septimus, in consideracione gratuiti, 
boni, et laudabilis servicii que dilecli snbditi sui tenentes et inhabilnntca 
infra Comotos suos de Kerionytb, Caernarvon, et Anglesey in North Wallia 
sibi diverumode ante bee tempera impenderuot indiesque impendcre non 
dcaistmit, de gracia sua apeciali ao ex certa sciencia et mere motu suo 
nccnoQ de adviaamento consllii sui concessit pro se et heredibus suis, quod 
Custuma sive oxaccio ibidem vocata Amobr' de cotcro non oxigatur, 
usitetur, aeu levctur, sed omnimodo Amobr' peiiitus dcleatur, admissetur, {tic) 
evacuetur, et irritetur imperpetuum ; et insuper iibi in dictis Cemmolis 
usitatam fuit, quod si Wallicus homo vocatus an Arthelmen, vel Walltca 
mnlier dicta an ArtheUiroman, non habens exitum decesserit abintcstatas, vel 
testamcntum suum rite condiderit, eiecutorem in codem nominaverit et 
ossignaverit, officiarius ibidem appcllatns Raglowe Artbell' voluit omnia 
bona bujns decedentia in manus suas capere et seisire, oeetiom de qua- 

I Of one of these chartsn, namsly, illetnble. It formorl; belonged to tbe 

ttut of March 3, 22 Hsn. VII., a oopr is Hollands ol Berir, in tbs parish of 

printed, Arolinol. Catnb., vol. ii., p. 215, IilanidM). We are indebted to Mr, 

from a traoacript of Bonluida, tbe W. W. E. Wjune, H.P, for a third copy 

author of Mona Aniiqaa, purporting to in the bund writing of the Uerioneth- 

be from a Bsngor Register. Tho tmn- shire antlquarj, Robert Taugban, of 

script wna then in the ponession of the Hengwrt, who died in 18BT ; it is pro- 

B«v. John Jonea, Rector of UanUjfnL served in one of the Hengwrt HSS. now 

Through the kindness of Mr. John in Mr. Wjnne's Libnr; (No. IID). At 

WJllUras, of Benumaris, we h«»o beon the cloao of tbi» tnmscript are eiplana- 

£iTored by Mr. H. Tiypira Qrifflth of tioni, hereafter rated, of Welsh terms 

Chiregliryd, Angleaeo, with the oppor- oociirring in the charters of Henry VII. 
tunity of inspecting another copy of tbe ' Penllyn oocun as ono of tlia Com> 

same oturtcr preaervad among bis muni' motes of Merionethshire in the Eitenta 

ments. It appears to be a copy made Com. Morion., Record of Caem., p. 261. 

in the ssrenteeoth century, and is a A Comntatiu, aeeonling to Spelman, waa. 

good deal injured, snd in many pUooa the moiety of a OattO^ut or Hnndrod. 


liter persona TOCata Arthellmun rel Arthellvoman voluit idem officiBiiui 
tjiutuor denarioa annuatim percipera et habere, in detrimcnto ezeencionia 
et porimplecionis Toluntatia hujua decedentia et contra commnnem jna- 
tioiani ; quapropter predictus dominua Rex Toluit et per preaeatea coiM:«dit 
pro ae et hcrediboa auia antedictia, quod dictus oSciariui vocatni Raglowe 
Arthell', nee aliquis aliua officiarius deincepa infra dictoa Commotoa aut 
corum aliquctn, aeisiat nee capiat aliqua talia bona nee aliquam partem 
eorundem, nee aliquam monetam annnam pro eodem. Bed qnod dtcta 
Custuma de Arthell' et quodlibet inde proficuum de cetero caaaetur noe 
alicujua ait effactua, Bed quod homines et mulierea dicli Arthellmen et 
Arthellwomen aint liberi ao libere, condeut et coudere posaint testamenia 
Bva, aliqua proTiiione in contrarium habita sive usitata non obstante ; et 
qnod Custume aive ezaccionea ibidem rocate Wodward et Forestimeth [et] 
qucdam exaccio aive Custuma Tocata Killghej da cetera delcantur ezt[er]- 
minate,' nee aliqua denaiiorum sumtna de seu pro eisdem per ailvauoa sen 
forestarioa infra Commotoapredictosaut eonimaliquem aut aliqnoa officiarioa 
qaoacnmquo levetur neo lerabilis ezistat, aliquo statute, actu, ordinacione, 
proclamacione, proTielone, prescripcione, aut consnetudine in contrarium 
premiaaorum ante hcc tempera factia, editis, ordinatia, prorisia, aeu naitatia, 
ant alia re, eauaa, vel materia qnacumque non obstante : Per litcraa dicti 
domini Regie Bub magno sigillo suo patentea dataa apud Weatmouiuterinm 
xxvij" die Octobris anno regni ejusdem domini Regia zz*™, et irratulantnr 
in originalibuB Scaccarii de Caernarvon de eodem anno. Summa nulla, ss. 
Carta domini Regis de dircrBis priTilegiia oonoessis inhabitantibus' infra 
comitatua Caemarvou, Anglesej, et UeriouTlh, scilicet, Henricua, Deigracia 
Rex Anglie et Fraiicie et dominua Hibemie omnibus ad quoa presentea litere 
pervencrint Balutem. Sciatis quod licet in parliamento domini Honriei 
nuper Regis Angiie quarti, progenitoria nostri, apnd Westmonasterium 
anno regni sui secundo teuto, auctoricate ejusdem parliament! ordinatnm, 
inactitatum, et statutum fuorit, quod nultas WallicuB aut homo de Wallia 
aliqua terras, domiuia, maneria, villaa, Ttllatas, redditua, reveraionea, ant 
aervicia, siro hereditamenta quecumque infra Aogliam aut in aliquibna 
burghfl seu tIIIib Anglicanis infra Walliam acquirore seo obtinere dcberct 
aut ralerct, tenenda sibi et beredibua auia in feodo aimplici, feodo talliato, 
aut alio mode quocumque, prout in eodom atatuto plenius contiaetnr ; et 
licet in parliamento dicti domini Uenrici nuper Regis Anglie quarti anno 
rcgni But quarto apud Westmonaaterium, auctoritate parliamenti sui, inter 
alia, ordinatum et statutum fuerit, quod nullua hujusmodi Wallicus Ben homo 
do Wallia ali quod officium Vicecomitis, Majoratus, Balliratus, Constabnlarii, 
BJTe alteriuB conaimiliB in aliqua civitate, villa, rel burgo infra Angliam 
sea in aliqno burgo aut villa Anglicana infra Walliam gereret, tene- 
ret, aeu occuparet sub certis penis in atatuto prediclo ezprcasis et limi- 
talis, ut in eodem statute plenius contlnetur : Nus tamen bona, gratuita, et 
laudabilia aervicia quo dilccti subditi nostri ten cntes et inhabitontea infra 
ComitatuB nostros de Anglesej, Caernarvon, et MerionytU in Nortlivrallia 
nobia divereimodo ante bee tempora impendorunt indiesque impcndere non 
desistunt intime considcrantcs, de gracia nostra speciali ac ez certa scieacia 
et mero motu nostria necnon de ndvisamento Consilii nostri concesumua 
pro nobis et hercdibus nostris, quod omnea et unguli teoentea et inhabi- 

* ThewUnoernor anreontraotlonfor * In lbs ortgionl tha word is iniiC, 

thoaa letters, but the ward iDtended mnf with the uiual horiiontal line of eon- 
probsblr hBve been cxItrmtKate, ttaction over it. 


Untes inirft Comitttm predictoi et eonim quemllbet et eorum herodea et biic- 
eessoreB et etnum quilibet de cetero per totoa Comitatiu prediotos habe&nt, 
utaatnr, et gtuideant omniboB buib terriB, tenementu, poBBesNombuB, et 
hereiiitainentiB de qnibtu Beiuti rel posBeBtlonati aint, ant [que] id manibuB 
eorum eiiBliuit qualttennimque aeu eorum alionjuB, [et] tenere. poBaiot et 
qnftibet coram possit sibt beredibuB et oasignatis sui.i in feodo simplici, aat 
ia feodo qnalitercnmque talliato, ad terminum Vite vel annorutn, aut alio 
Inodo quocumque imperpetuum ; et de eisdem terris, teaemeDtis cum 
eeteria prenominetiB tarn per cartam anam quam alitor alienare, feoffbre, 
dare, ant vendere in feodo aimplici, ant in feodo quat!tercumque talliato, 
ad tennioum vite rel anoonim, aut alio modo quocumque, et cuicumque 
penODC, bene et qniete et in pace, absque aliquo fiae iude nobis et here- 
dibns nostris Bolrendo pro hujusmodi terns, tenemeutis, et aliiB premissJB, 
BiDO eontradiccicne, impedimeoto, moleBtacioue, sen gravamino quocumque 
noBtri Tcl heredum uostromm aut officiariorum seu baUivoram vel minia- 
trorom nostrorum aut sliormn qnorumcnrnqoe, aliqua consnetudiue, re, cauB*, 
more, rel ubu infra Comitatus predictos in contrarium premiaaiB priuB 
babitis non obslantibaB. CoDcessimuB eciam pro nobis et beredibna nostris, 
quod tam omncB nostri natiTi tcnentca aeu inbabitontes in ComitatibuB 
nostria predictis eorum heredes et succeasorcs, quam natiri Epiacopo Ban- 
gorii et Abbatibus qnibuacnmqne debiti, generatem maDnmissionem et 
libertatem tenore presentium habeant, et eis de cetero piece gaadeant et 
utaatnr, et quod ternu suas de libera tcnura amodo teneant reddentea inde 
anonatim tam nobis quam prefato Episcopo Bangorii et Abbatibua quibuseam- 
qoe redditua perantea debitos et conauetos pro omn'i eiaccione, servicio, 
et conanetudine inde prius debitia, redditia, aut solutia, prout nostri iiberi 
lenentes sIto inhabitantes in Comitatibua nostris predictis faciunt ant faeere 
consueTerunt ; et quod nullns tenencium, reiidencium, bitc inhabitancium in 
Comitatibus noBtria predietia eorum heredum et aucceBSorum nee eorum 
aliqnis de cetero compellatur sive cogatur ad subeundum, aerriendum, aire 
occnpandum onus Ringildre, neo [ad] aliqua taiaa aire trethea, tallagia bitc 
miaaa, aut aliquas denariorum aummaa nobis aut aliis quibuacumque debitaa 
racione officii Ringiidre predicte aive aliter, ooUigenda aire leranda qno- 
vismodo artetur, neo aliquam penam Beu forisfoctnram rooione non col- 
leccionia bnjna incurrat, aed inde ezoncretur et aequietotur imperpetuum. 
Concesumua pre nobis et heredibas noslria, quod nullus tenencium sire 
inbabitancium predictonim sen alicujua eorum sen Bucoeasorum suoruin 
Gompellatur aut cogatur ad aoWenda aliqua rolcvia, custumaa, aire eiaccionea 
ibidem vocata Abedoo detevedd'autbeddeirojeBdeteweddSnoc non indebitaa 
ezacciones* et pasta porcorum Tocato takkes aliter Wallice Tocato Arian 
mocb, neo etiam alias cuatumaa Angtice vocatas pollepena, Wallice Tocatos 
Keniok pen Arian respeite, necnon de reparocione maneriornm aliter vocata 
Gwaytb IliB, Arian Qwajth, et Arian Penta;, nee eciom aliaa custumas 
Wallice Tocataa Fine Kajr, et de terrene aut stauro domini aliter TOcato 
store vanrer vel store iatia, et Caries, necnon de pasta stallonia et garcionis 
aliter voeato portbiaut atalirjn et Gwaja, de pasta Intra' cum canibus, 
Brian keulo, kircb, blnrde, et butur', ac de operibus molendinoram, de pastu 
Pennkaya et Gweision beighn', necnon de omnibus et quibuacamqua 
denariorum summis et hujusmodi costumis preantea eiactis sen exigendis, 
cogatur aliter ant alio modo quam burgenaes ' ville de Bowmaros Tel Angli- 

«'. SMn.«,; 



cane Tille {tie) infn Principfditatei MBtra IforttiirBllie eomormteB dant ef aol- 
vnot ant du« [rri] B^mra coarotHrtnr, wA quod onmn cvBtnrae et eneeionea 
ille aiiiiiiodo(ne) pcnhns deleftntnr et datertninentar n«e aliqaatinns iinpos- 
ternm naitentur ; necnou onines alie caBtmne lea indebite ezaceionea qnaa 
prediotl tenentea et inliabitantea per totoa ComitatuB predictoa ante confee- 
cioaem preaenctma aolrere consnerenint eciam penitus deleantnr, nee 
ftiiqua denaTioniin summa de sen pro eisdem cnBtamis predieiis Ben eoram 
aliqua infra Comitatua prcdictoB ant eornm aliquem qDaliteranniqiia 
eoltatnr, leretnr, aea lerabilia existat, set tenentea et tnhabitantea prc- 
dicti et eorum heredea et succesBorea et eornm qaiiibet (de cetero)* nnt 
et (ait) de premiaaia quieti et qnietus imperpetnum ; et qaod Tieeeomea 
Comitatua de Anglesey caatodiat Aen cuatodire faciat omnea Comitatua aooe 
in Tilla de Nenburcfa, et non alibi da menae in menaemet de uino in annnm 
fiituria temporibna perpetnia teneantur. Conceaaimna eciam pro nobia et here- 
dlbua nratria, quod tarn tenentea et inhabitantea predicti qnam aiin extrance 
peraone cnjaacumqne condicionis fuerint veniendo in Comitatibua predictis 
pro aliqnibuB bonia, rebua, ant cattallia emptia sen vendttia ant emendia 
aen Tcndendia infra Comitatua predictoB, ac ab eisdem Comitatibua 
redenndo, et eorum heredea et auoceaBorea aui, aint quieti et exoneTati 
et eornm quilibet ait quietus et exoneratna de theoloneo aire tolneto, 
atailagio, pasaogio, et custnma per totoa Comitatua predictoa, tam infra 
villam da Boirmarea rel Anglicanaa rillaa infra priDcipalitateB noatro 
Northwallie comoranteB (quam ex}tra ; et quod predicti tenentes et inbabt- 
tantes et alia extrance peraone predicts non compellantur neque cogantnr 
nco coram aliquia compellatur aire cogntur per noa, heredea, theolonarioa, 
h^liTOS, firmarioB, miniatroB, aut aliquoa officiarioa noitroa ibidem ad 
soWe(nda} aliqna tolneta, Btallagia, paaaagia, aeu cuatumas infra Comitatua 
et loCA predicta pro aliquibua bonia, rebua, aut cattallia emptia aea renditia 
aut emendia aen Tendendts, set de premiaaia. de oelero pro totia Comita- 
tibua prodictia tint quieti et exonerati ' et (quili]bet eornm ait qnietna et 
ezoneratuB inperpetuum. Conceaaimua etiam pro nobia et beredibna 
noatria, quod ai quia tenendum vel inhabitancinm predictornm heredum 
et ancceasomm auomm inteatatuB obierit, Escaetor aut aliquia aliua offieia- 
riua noatri ibidem nomine noatro rel heredum noatrorum [in] aea de bonia, 
cattallia, et debitia hujuamodi decedentia nullatenua intromittat, aen' totn- 
liter decedentiB bonoram diapoaicio loci ordinario cedent et rerertetur od 
UBum heredum et propinqnorum conannguineomm aeu amicoram talia 
decedentia. Conceaaimua etiam pro nobia et .beredibna noatria, quod ai 
quia tenencium aive inhabitaacium predictorum ait manucaptna aire in 
poatenira manucnplendna de aeu pro bona goatnra aire de paoaferenda 
od aeotam noatram aeu ad aectam altcriua cujuacumque peraone, quod 
talia manncoptuB aeu manucapiendua non compellatur aeu cogatur ad 
comparcndum eornm JuBtioiorio noatro Northwallie ad aeaaionea ibidem 
tcntaa in Comitatibua noatria predictia Northwallie de cetero niai aemel 
in anno, hoc eat, in aeasione proxima et in mediata {lie) post fcBtum Sancli 
Michoclia Arcliaogeli ; et ai principales manucapti sire principnlia manu- 
captui in aeaaionibua noatria coram Juaticiario noatro personaliter com- 

■ The xiarabmBot ii here duuagad,and when «ordi omitted ora inaciied, Lhej 

b1«> in Bome other parta of tbe docn- are in bracketa. 

ment. The probable readingi are beM ' Written tx«neroali, 

nud alaenbere lupplied in parentheaei : ■ Sie, probably fur te( or Ntl. , 


l«rcwi( Beu fiompftrMt, quod ttmo {degii, manncaptorei, tire fidejus- 
Borea pro Imjuamodi monuCBptu Bi«e manuMpto nuUum dsmpoum forts* 
iaotDre incurraat elre inonrrat et (indemp)iieB penilva eilstKut sire esistat 
dfl ftliquaforuikotiir»; riquodteoenleBet iuhabiUatoa predict! Ammodo (noo) 
MiereDtur seu compellantur per prefatum Juaticiarium sea per praBotariiiia 
lire per preaotanoa aut per aliqoos clericos Curie ibidem ad solrenda aliqna 
■ire ulteriora feoda qnam duM deoarios pro feed' de(bit') cujoslibet eomm ; 
et in casu quo quia eorum teneuoium el iahabitanciuiii jH-edictorum per 
JoqniticioDem Tel iDformaciouem accDiatus fuerit do aliqua felonia aeu 
fonafactura pacia pnratua roBpoadero relit per debitam legU fonnam, 
quod i»«aoUriua aeu prenotarii ao alii clerici sea ofGciarii Curia ibidem 
•int eontenti eam duobua solidia pro feodia et regardia auia, et quod 
Qullna eorum aogabir ampliua aolrere in aeu pro acquietaucia ana de pre- 
miuis, aed penitna deleantur imperpetnum. Couceasimua etiam pro nobis 
et beredlbos oottria, quod liberi teneutea eiro inhabilantea in Comitatibus 
noBtris predict!* habiles sint ad inquirendum, et quod inquirant aeu inquiri 
faciant, in omnibui oaaibua quibuaoumque conceroentibna Anglicaa peraonaa, 
prant Anglice peraoue prefata inquirant sen inquiri faciant coucementibus 
Waltieaa peraonos ; et quod bujuamodi inquiaiciones aic capte aut pre- 
■entate per prefatos teneutea sire inbabitantea noatroa Wallicoa quoscumque 
allocentnr et in rigore eiiatant et habeantnr, et quod uullum impedimentum 
preratia tenentibua noalris Wallicia in premiasia de cetero obatet aeu obstaro 
debeat aut raleat ; et quod nullua ballirus itinerana infra Oomitatua pre- 
diotoa seu eorum aliquem aliqua aire alia fcoda pro eiercicio officiorum 
Bnomm, quam ia Scaccario nostro ibidem per hujuamodi balliria (lie) 
allwsaotur, acoipere aeu percipere debet, aliqua conauetudine aire indebita 
ezaccione pro eiadem perantea exacta sea usitata in aliqno non obstante ; 
et hoe abaque oliquo fine seu feodo indo ad opua noatrum solrendo aeu 
capiendo. In cujua rei testimonium has literaa noatraa fieri fecimus patentes. 
Teste meipao apud Weabnonasterium tercio die Maroii anno regni noatri 
riceaimo aecuade. Per ipsum Regem et de data predicta auctoritate par- 
liamenti. Bajnbrig. Litere domini Regis de Floccard'' qaoad cartam pre- 
dictam. Henry by the Grace of God kinga of England and of Frnunce and 
Lord of Irlonde to our trustie and well belorid the Chamberleyn, Auditor, 
Shiref, Eachetor, and all other our officers irithin the iij ahirea of Angloaey, 
Caemarron, and Merionjtb in North Wales, and to their deputies in their 
abaenoe and to eny of theym, greting : forasmoch as ne of our apeciall 
grace have graunted manumyeaion to all our bondemen dwelling within tho 
iij shires, and to holde their landea free yelding therfore yerelie the due 
rentes and assises therof and other duties aa other freeholdera done within 
the a^d Counties, and also certaigne other freedomea and liberties to tbeym 
and to all other tenaunta and iuhabitaunce wilhia tlie said iij Shires, and 
to their heires and Buccessora, and pardoned theym for erermore of direrse 
CuBtumes and eiaccions heretofore had and perceyred to and for our use 
within the said shires, as by their bill of peticion it shalle more eridentlio 
appere ; wee therfore wolle and stray tly chargo yoir that ye nor non of yoiv 
lefie nor gedetne, receyre, nor cause to be gedered, levied, iie receyred 


of or Appon the Hsid tanaantes or intubiUDtes or of an; of thejm cer- 
teigae CuatameB or exoccious ther oalled atftunim tlomini uliu dictuoi 
store rawr, and kftrics da His alios dictum Qwajth Pen taj or &riaii 
Gwajth i and also that nan of tho said tenauntes or inhabitantes nor 
their heires or successoures he compelled from hencefurth to serra the 
office of RingiUhipp irithia the said shirei or any of thejm ; and if any 
DiBD or woman die intestate or without heir, or hatb died, irhos goodes be 
not as yet receared and accompted to our profitte and use, tliat ye uor non 
of yaw medle oe iotromitte in or with his goodes, cattails, or debtea, but 
that all such goodes and cattalles remayne to the order and disposicion of 
the ordinary ther to the use of his next frendes that loe disseasilh, 
according to the law of holy churche. And whereas ye our said Chamber- 
leyn have taken suertiea afibrs yow by recognystyauucO for the summe of 
foura hundred markes and fifty of a certeygne fyne graunted unto us of 
and for the premisses, to bo payd in manor and forme following, that is to 
wytt, at the feast of olle saintes next following the date of thes our letters 
too hundred and fyre and twcntie markes, and at the feast of thappostlos 
Petre and Paula then next eosuing thoder too hundred and fyre and 
tirentie markes, as hy your letters of certiGcot by yow send unto us 
apperith more at large ; wa therfore woUe and comonde yow from tyme to 
tyma to make out such processe and eommissions, and unto such parsons, 
as the said auerties for the spedie levie and gadringe of the said aomme sholle 
thinko necessary and expedient. Fayle ye not in the premisses as ye 
tender our pleasure: yovyn under our Signed at our manor of Okyng* the 
xiviij"' day of September, the xiij"" (ric) yero of our raigne. PoruitJL 
Stalum' : De xxx' nuper prorenientibus de putura stallon^ ibidem ut ia 
Computis precedentibuB hoe anno non receptis, go quod domious nunc 
Rex Henricus vij^^" in consideracione gratniti, boni, et laudabilis serricii 
quo dilecti subditi sul tenentes et inhahitantea infra Comitatua do 
Merionyth, Caernarvon, et Angleaey in Horthwallia aibi dirersimode 
ante hec tempera impenderunt indieeque impendete non dealatunt, de 
gracia sua special! ac ez certa sciencia et mero motu sue necnon do 
odviaamento consilii aui conccaait pro se et horedibus suis, quod exaccio 
Btve custuma vocata Kyllghey de cetero deleantur (tie) extermientur (ste),* 
neo aliqua denariorum summa de sen pro eisdeni per aliquos officiarios 
quoacumque levetur neo levabilis existat, aliquo statuto, actu, ordinacione, 
pi'oclamacione, provisioue, proscripcione, aut consuetudine in contrarium 
premissorum ante hee tooipora factis, edilis, ordinatis, proviais, seu usitatia, 
aut alia re, causa, Tel materia quacumque in aliquo nou obstantihus : Per 
litoras dicti domini Rogia auh magno aiglUo sue patentes datas apud 
WcstmonoBterium xzTiij° die Octobris anno regni cjuadem domini regis 
zx™", et irrotulontur in ortginalihus Scoccarii ile Caemarron de eodem 
anno. Neo receptum de aliquo proficuo prOTonietitD de firm' Tenocionis 
finibuB per tempuB Computi ; non receptum eo quod Ticecomes Comitatus 

' WokiDg in Surrey, an aocient royal * The word ia Lere written without 

manor. The moated mansion there was aoy mark of contraction over the lut 

a fsTorite reaort of royalty. Henry letter; cUei^hare it oocuia with • con- 

VII. was often at Woking. It waa given tractian. 

by him to his mother, the Coantesa of * A mark of contiactiou was probably 

Richmond, who died there. Itwaian oe- omitted over the i, so tLa ex ia k mii- 

cuional aummer retreat of Henry VIII., reodiag of rt, and that in ths origiaal 

Edward VI, and Jamsa L Manning and cbartsr the words were et lenainaitttr. 
Bray, Hist.of aoner.Tol. Lpp-lia, 122. 


predict! recepit : inde in Compute mo hujus anni. Snmma nulla. 
EsTTXKAimoii : Computus Jenkya ap Gruff' np Tuder BalUri ibidem toco 
lUng* per tempua predictum. Firmn fiallianini : Nee reccptam de aliquo 
proScno proveniente de officio Amobr* aut Ragl' et Rogl' AdTooar', ie\ de 
officio Woodward', sen de officio Ring' islius Comoti ac omnium aliorum 
Comotomm Uerionjth, Caemarron, et Anglesey hoc anno ; non recepl' 
cane' in Compulo Ring' de Fenllya de hoc anno in titulo Firm' Balliarum 
ibidem planiua annotatnr. Summa nnlla. Que omnia et ungula, ad 
reqiuacionem Willielmi Manrice mlUtiv, Willielmi Thomas militia, Johannis 
Wjnne de Gfdder armigeri, Qniffini Vaughan armigeri, Hugonia Nanney 
annigeri, Roberti Lloyd armigeri, et aliorum inhabitanoium Comitatnum 
predictoram, sub aigillo noatro original' Comitatuum predictorum Caer- 
narron, Menonyth, et Anglesey infra Piiacipalitatem nostram Wallie tenoro 
presencium duximua exemplifioanda. In eujns rei teatimonium baa literas 
noetraa fieri fecimua patentes. Teste meipso apud Caemarron quinto 
die Maroii anno regni nostri Anglle Praucie et Uibernie primo et Sootis 
irioeaiino teptimo. 

JONEi. Examinatis, Pekkadts. 

[with a paraphe] [l. a.] [with a paraphe] 

This document consists of two sltina, the lower part of the former bebg 
tnmed over the latter at the foot, and fastened by the parchment label by 
which the seal is appended. The seal is imperfect ; it was of white wax, 
circular, diameter 3^ in. ; it should seem to hare been an impression of the 
Great Seal of the Chancery for the three ahirea of Merioneth, Caernarvon, 
and Angleses, of which the dcrice was as follows : — Obv. A mounted 
figure of the Sorereigii, to the right. Ben. The arms of France and 
England quarterly ensignedwith ncrown; no portion of the dexter supporter 
remains ; it was probably a dragon as on the Great Seal of Charles I. for 
the counties of Caermarthen, Cardigan, and Pembroke, engrared in the 
Archnolo^, toL izii., pi. 37 ; the sinister supporter is a goat. Below 
the eacntcheon is the triple plume of the Prince of Wales. Of the legend 
only a few letters remain. 

We acknowledge with gratifica^on oar obligation to the lion. William 0. 
Stanley, M.P., for friendly assistance on many occasioos in our investiga- 
tion of the conoessioDs of Henry VII. to North Wales ; we are indebted to 
his kindness for calling our atten^on to the following instrument preserved 
among the Public R«cords, and also to an abstract (noticed hereafter) 
setUng forth the pririleges granted by Henry VII. in both his charters to 
North Wales. Mr. Milman has obserred in the foregoing introductory 
remarks, that the earlier charter (20 Hen. Vir.), of which an abstract is 
found in the Eiemplification now published, dealt with matters of local 
admiDistration and reTenue not touching any law, and that hence it was 
probably enrolled at Caemorron, not requiring parliamentary confirmation. 
Careful search at the Rolls made at Mr. Stanley's request by our obliging 
Aiend Mr. Burtt, Assistant keeper of Public Records, has brought to light 
the writ under priry seal of Henry VII. for the charter in question. We are 
assnred by that gentleman that he has sought in vain for the enrolment 
of the letters patent which were sealed in pursuance of this writ ; but 
they were tested at Westminster on Oct. 28, 20 Hen. VII., four days 
salraequMitJy to the date of the writ, as appears by a recital in the 
InspeximuB I Hen. VIII. printed in ArchaoL Cambr., vol. ii. p. 292. ' 


Writ dhdeb Fbivt Siil op Hembt ru. poa a Chastek ir tatob or tbb 


Ueuoheth. B«ted 24th October, 20 Hen. VII (1504). (FubUo 
Records, Rolls Houee. Bundle of Privj Seal Silli, 20 Henry VIL, 
no. 226, among the Secotda of the Inaaaij of the Exchequer.) 

Meroonndnm qnod viceumo ocUvo die Octobris umo re^i Regit sub- 
■cripto istud breve liberatum fuit Domino GancellArio Anglie apud Weat- 
nonuterium ezequendum. 

HcdHcub, Dei gracia Bex Anglie et Francie et Domintu Hlbernie, 
Beverenduuimo in Cbristo patri Willielmo Cantuariensi Archiepiacopo/ 
tOcioB Anglie primati et ApostoUce fledia Legato, Canoellario nostro 
■olutem, Vobia mandamus quod literas noatras patentes aub magno NgjUo 
nostro in forma sequeati fieri faciatia :' Rox ooinibua ad quos, inc. ealntem. 
Sciatia quod licet in parliamenlo Domini Henrici uupar Regis Anglie 
quart!, progenttoria noatri, apud Westmonaaterium anno regni aui qnarto 
teuto, auotoriute ejuadem parliameuti ordinatum et inactitatum et statutoiu 
fuerit, quod nullus Wallicua aut homo de Wallia aliqua terru, tenementa, 
dominia, maneria, villas, villataa, redditus, reveraiones, aut servicia, aire 
hereditamenta quecumque infra Angliam aut in aliquibua burgis et TiUii 
Anglicania infra Walliam adquirero aeu optinere deberet, tenenda sibi et 
keredibns suia in feodo aimplici, feodo tolliato, aut aliquo modo qoocnnque; 
noo quod aliquia hujuamodi Wallicus aeu homo da Wallia aliquod officinm 
Vicecomitatua, Majoratus, Balltratus, Conatabulariatus, aut alterins cou- 
aimilia in aliqua civitate, burgo, sou villa infra Angliam aeu in aliquo burgo 
Tol villa Auglicana infra Walliam gereret, teneret, occuparet, aeu super ae 
assumeret aub certis penis in statute predioto ezpreaua et limitatis, at in 
eodem atatuto pleniua continetur: Nos tamen gratiuta, boaa, et laudabilia 
servicia que dilecti aubditi nostri tenenlea et inhabltantea infra Comitatns 
soatroB de Camarran', Anglessejr, et Uerionnetb in North- Wallia nobis 
diversimode ante hec tempora impenderunt indiesque impendere non 
desiatunt intime conaiderantes, de gratia nostra apecioli oc ei certa acientia 
et mere motu nostria necnon de aviaameato Conailii noatri conceasimua pro 
nobis et beredibua nostris, quod omnes et staguli tenentea et inbabitantea 
infra Comitatua predictos et eorum quomlibet et eorum heredea et sue- 
ceasores ac eorum quilibet deoetero terras, tenementa, dominia, maneria, 
villas, villataa, caatra, redditus, reversionea et servicia, possessiones, et 
hereditaments quecumque iufra Angliam et in burgia et villis Anglicauls 
infra Walliam perquirere, habere, reciperc, et tenere possint ubi et 
beredibua auis in feodo aimplici, aut ad terminum vite vel annorum, feodo 
qualitercomque talliato, sut alio modo quecumque imperpetuum ; cC quod 

I William Wsrlistn, tramUted from tnmscript by Bovrlands, tha author of 

the see of LondoD, Nov. 20, 1603; ap- Mona Aniiqua, purportiiig to b« from a 

p<riiited Eee»r of the Oreat Seal, Aug. Bangor Itegu(«r, occurring in a tnuisoript 

11, ISOZ, and ChanceUor, Jan. 1 folloif of an Iiupeximua of Hanry VUL teated 

ins. at Weatmioiter, March 1, 1 H«d. VUI. 

' Of the ohut«r vrliich was lealed in (lElO), and in which tho charter S3 

ptmoauc* of this vrit, a copy ia ptinted, Hen. TIL, ptintad abova, waa likowiia 

ArchooL Camb., vol. ii., p. S92, from a recited and ooofirmad. 


hujiumodi tCDentea et inlubitaiites ac eoniin beredes et Bnoceuorei et 
coTDin qailtbet sint et ait liberi et litwr, ao offieia VicecomitatDB, Uajoratoi, 
Cmtodum pacu, BoUiTatiu, Coastabulariatuft, &o alia offid« quecnmque eia 
consona, u ad officia ilia elecU aat evocati faerint aat eoram aliquia electna 
aut eroeatua fueri^ iofra Aogliam et in burgis et ia villia Anglicanis iofra 
Walllom libera gerere, tenero, gaudeie, et occapare valeant et poBiint ao 
Taleat et possit licite, quiete, iMoe, et io poae; et quod iidetn tenentea et 
inhabitantes et eonim heredes et successorea ot oonim quilibet sint et eaae 
posaint Burgenaes et eonitu quilibet sit et ease possit Burgensia in aliquibua 
et quibualtbet hujuamodi bnrgia et Tillia Anglicania in Wallia, et pro Buis 
genaibna in burgis et villia prediotia habeantur et reputeutur ao uiiue- 
qaiaque eorum babeatnr et reputetur, coDHmtUbns et in eiadem mode et 
fonna qnibua Anglici impraaenciarum exiatant, habentnr, et raputantur, 
absque controdictione, impedimento, perturbacione, moleatacioiie, inqaieta- 
Clone, >ea graTaraine qnoonnque noatn Te(1) heredum noatronim aut officiari- 
onim aeu miniatrorum noatroram aut aliorutn quorumcnmque : Et inauper 
coDceaaimuii pro nobis et heredibna nostria predictis, quod omnia ilia terras, 
tcoementa, redditua, reTeraiones, serricia, possessionea, et hereditamenta 
infra Comitatua predictos, que aunt ile tennra de Gavelkjnde aut de tennra 
Wallicana et inter beredes masculos divisibilia, decetero non aiut di7isibilis, 
sed primogenito Tel aeniori filio sive heredi discendeucia [tic) et hereditabilia 
secundum modum et formam ct prout terre et tenementa aecundum legem 
commnnem regni noatri Anglie aunt descendentia, remanencia, aeu rererta- 
bilia. Conceasimua etlam pro nobis et dictis heredibus nostria, quod nullns 
tenencium anl bhabitancium predictorum aut aliquis eorum heredum sea 
SDCcesBorum amodo amercietur sire ad aolrend' amerciamenta cogatur 
aliter ant alio mode quam Anglici infra Tillas Anglicanaa Comitatuum pre- 
dictoram commorantea dant et Bohunt aut dare et aolrere ooartantur ; et 
quod quedam cuatuma aire esactio ibidem TOcata Amober' decetero 
nan exigatur, uaitetur, sen levetur, aed omnimodo Amober' penitas 
deleatur, adnulletur,* eTacnetor, et irritetur imperpetuum ; Et insnper cum 
Ht in dictis Comitatibus nsitatum, quod si WallicuB homo Tocataa an 
Arthelman, rel Wallica mulier dicta an AKbeliroman, non habena axitnm 
decesserit sb intestatus, yel teatamentum suum rite condiderit et executorea 
in eodem nominarerit et asaigDarerit, officiarius ibidem appellatua Raglawe 
Arthell Tnlt omnia bona bujusmodi decedentis in manua auas capere et 
aeiaire, aceciam de qualibet persona Tooata Arthelman vel Artbelifoman 
Tidt idem officiarius quataor denarioa annuatim percipere, in detrimentum 
eiecncionia et perimplecionis roluntatum hnjuamodi decedenoium et contra 
commnnem juaticiam ; quapropter volumus et per preaentea concedimua 
' pro nobis et heredibns noatris antedlctia, quod dictus officiariua Tooatna 
Raglawe Arthell nee aliquia alius officiariua deinceps infra dictoa Comi- 
tatua aut eorum oliquem aeiaiat nee capiat aliqua talia bona neo aliquem 
partem eomndem nee aliquam monetam annuam pro eodem, sed quod 
dicta ctiBturoa de Arthell et quodlibet inde proficuum decetero casaetur nee 
alicnjna ait effectua. Bed quod homiuca et mulieres dicti Arthelmen et 
Arthdiromen sint liberi ao liberOi condent et condere poaaint teatimenta (n'c) 

* In the EzempUGation 1 James I., written odrntHrtttr; probably hj a 

aboTe print«d from Hn. Ormabj Ootb'h clerical nror, im having beni read as mi, 

copy, and also in the eharter printad in imd II ta a, acoordliig to the old Jong 

Aich. Camb., vol, il. p. SBl, thi* word ia form of the letter «. l^ ooolc 


SDA, Aliquft prorluoDQ ineontnuiuin habita nve nuUto turn obatanto ; et 
quod eiutume sive eiaotionet ibidem Torate Wodmrdethe etForeatwrietli, [et] 
quedam ezactio aiye aastnmB Tocata Kellcbej decetoro deleantnr, extemti- 
nentur, nee aliqua deoarionun Bununa de een pro eisdem per biItuiob aeo 
forutarios infra Comitatna predictoa aat eonitii aliqaem ant aliqnoB t^i- 
arioB quoacanque levetnr neque lerabilis exiatat ; et quod qailibet saoerdoa 
BC alius ecclesiaBticDs bene£ciatiu iofra Comitattu predictoB et eomm 
quentlibet libertatem habeat condendi teatamentam sauni, et qnod qnidem 
teBtameotum dobite exequatur absque impedimento siTe iDtemipeiona 
EBcaetoria aut alicujus alteriui officiarii tire miDiBtri ibidem pro tempore 
eiistentiB, statuto prcdicto aut aliquibuB aliis Btatutis, actubtis, ordina- 
cionibuB, proclamaciDuibua, proTiBiouibus, preBcriptionibua, aut coiuiieta- 
dinibuB incontrarium premiBSDrum ante hec tempera factiB, habitis, editia, 
ordinatia, prorieia, aeu naitatia, aut alia re, cauaa, Tel materia qoacnnqne in 
oliquo nou obatante ; et hoc abaqus aliquo fine aeu feodo ad opus noatnun 
qnoTiatnodg aolvendo son capiendo. In cajua na, Ito. Datum nostro anb 
prirato aigillo apad manerium nostrum de Riohflmount * xziiij". die Oetobria 
anno regni noatri Ticeumo (a.D, 1^04). 

Ro. Sauhsox. 

We are indebted to Mr. W. W. E. Wjnne, M.T., for tbe foUowms 
translation of tbe cbarter of Uarcb 3, 22 Henry VII., giTen abore, in the 
BxempliScation prcaerred among Hrs. Omub; Gore's muuimenta. Tbia 
old vertion, which haa been pointed out by Mr. yfyona in one of the 
Hengtrrt MSS., now in bia library at Peniartb, Merioneth abire, seema to 
hare been written in 1548 by Lewis ap Noria Gethin, and transcribed in 
15'35 by Sir Thomas ap William, a learned lexicographer, geaoalogiat, and 
physician in the reign of Elisabeth.* The MS. in question ia almost wholly 
in hia handwriting ; it contuina transcripts of Welah laws and documents, 
with historical ooliections of considerable interest. 

* The ancient manor-lioiiM iit Shsen, «t putim rMldtutn per Tbo : Ouilielml 
Serrgy, a IiiTorite royal raoortj wai Cunbrobi7ttiDnin,lIedicnin,lfiSl." Thare 
aoctdnitallf burned in H99, and rebuilt are alio fteaealogiol colleetionB in Wclili, 
by order of Henrj TIL, who in 1501 eiideDoea relating to Bardiea, a cbtrtcr 
gftveitthonameofRiohinondjlnallinion, granted by the Black Prioco, Not. 1, 
it ii itated, to hli earldom of that name 136fi, to the abbot and convent then^ 
in Torkahire. He frequently reaidad at and a list of Indalgencai Ranted to 
Richmond in Surrey, in great atate, and pilgrlmB and benefactora to that mona*- 
there died in 1S09. LyioaB' EoTirotia, tery. With WaUh poetry and miicel- 
vol. i. p. 438. Inneous oollectiona are moreover found 

* See Wood's Athenie, and Williiuna* thelegendofSt.Daniel,BLabopofBaagDr, 
Diet, of Eminent Welahmeo, p. C37. It and a relation of the diaooTeiy of the re- 
doea not appear tiiat he ever took a de- mains of Sir Qeiard Biaylioak in St 
gree in mwlidne, but he was in holy Paul's Cathadral, London, in 1608, with 
ordeie, and heoee is uiuallj called Sir a cojiy of the Pardon from BoDibce IX., 
Thomaa ap William. The H3. kindly found upon the breast of the corpea, and 
plaoed in our baoda by Mr. Wynne con- printwi by Dugdale, Hiit. Sb Panl'i, 
taioaacopyof the Laws of Howel Ddho, p. JS, sd. 16GS. 

" CI Latino eiomplari in multia corrupto 

) by Google 

ofiiQiKAL Doouusirrs. 

TnB Chabtxr aitd MAirninssioire (xnumon, interlined) aETEirE bt 


CocxTiEa OF Anglesbt, CAntiABT05, aho Uboiohtth. 
(Ttam Hoagirrt US. do. 204.) 
H«iirie by tbe g^ace of God Ejng of England &nd of FrsBM and 
Lords of Irelande to all men to whome these presente letera shall como 
sendeth greetlnge, Enotre je that althongh in j' parliament of Lorde 
Henrie the iiij"' late Kynge of Englande onre progenitore bolden at West- 
minster the aecunde jeere of hjs reingne by the anctboritie of the lajd 
parliament jt hath bene ordajnede, enacted, and atatutid that no Walshmaii 
or man of Walea ought or myght have or obtayne anje landes, lordBbippea, 
manera, townei, Tillagea, rentea, reversions, or eerrice, or anje manere of 
heretages within England or any kingefror English tomes within Wales 
to be holden to theyro or the heyres in fee simple or fee tayle, or by any 
Other manere, as in the same statnte more playnlie ia conteyned ; and 
although in the parliament of our aayd Lord Henrie the iiij*'' late Kynge of 
Englande in the iiij"" yeere of hys reigne at Westminater by j» aucthoritio 
of hya parliamente omoDge other tbingea, yt bath beno ordaynede that no 
manere of Watahman or man of Wales shoulde bear, hold or occupie under 
a certene peine in the aayd atatute expreaaede and limitede (as in the aayd 
statnte mor playnly is conteynede) any ofGce of Shyrefe, Maiore, Bailife, 
Constable, or other lyk in citie, towne, or burghe within Bngtande, or 
anye burgh or Englisbe townes within Wales : not with standi nge we inwardly 
conayderinge the good, free, and laudable service the which oare wel- 
betorede subjectea, tenauntea, and inbabitauntea within onre Counties of 
Angleseye, Caemarron, and Iferionyth in Northwales bare done onto as 
diveralie befor this tyme and do daylie, of oure speciale grace and of 
certeine knowledge and of onre meer movinge, also by the advisement of 
onre Connaeile, we hare grannted for us and onre heyrea that all and ererie 
of theym thejr beyres and succesBors and eehe of tboym may have, use, 
and injoye from henceforth thoroagbout all the sayd Counties all theyr 
landes, tenementes, possesaiouns, and bored i tame ntes the which they be 
potaeased of, or bang in theyr handea by any manor or any of theym and 
everych of theym may hold [to] theym, theyr heyrea and assignea in fee 
■imple w in fee tayle, by any maner of temie of lyfo or of yeerea or auye 
other manere for ever ; and the same landes, tenementes, with other 
thingea afor named, as well by theyr deed as otherwise to alienate, feefc, 
geve, and sell in fee simple, or any manere of fee tayle, to terme of lyfe or 
for yeerea, or any other manors, to any manere of personea, quietlie and 
peaceblie without anye fine to be payd therfor to ns and oure heyres for 
which manere of landes and other the premisses, without contradictione, 
impcdimente, molestation or any grefe of ns or onro beyres, ofScers, 
bulifes, or of oure serrauntes or any maner of other men, any custome, 
manere, cause, maner, or use within the foraeyd Counties contrarie to the 
}vcmissAS aforseyd notwith stand in ge> We have grannted also for ua and 
oure heyrea that na well onre native tcnanntes, or inbabitauntes in our 
Counties aforseyd, theyr heyres and successors, as native to the Byshopp 
of Bangor and nil Abotes dowe, may have generate manumisBion and 


libertie hy tbe tenure of tbea presentes, and ma; injoje and use Knd ech 
of theym from hencefurth thejr landsB of tree tenure, yeldiDg thetfbr 
jeerlie u irell to ub u to the fonayd Bjrahop of Bangor and to all Abbatec 
[the renU] afor due and accuBtomed for every [ei]actione, lerrice, and 
oustome therefor afor yelding due and pa;d aa oure free tenanutea and 
iohabitaunteB in oure forsajd CountioB have doneorhaTe bene ironte to doe; 
and that oon of the tenauntee abyding or diretling in tbe Countiea afbr- 
aeyd, tbeyr beyrea and BuccesKra, nor anj of tbeym be compelled or 
ooDBtreigaed from benccfurtb to go under to lerre or occupie tbe charge of 
Kjngjlld, nor to other tazea or treytbea telaijea' or misea or any fioea of 
pcnies due to us or to any other man by reaione of the office of Ryngylljdh 
aforaeyd, nor may be conBtreigned to any other thinges to bo ge&thered or 
levycd in any maaere, or may runne in anyo peine of forfeicte by reaaone 
of Buch manere of geatheringe, but may be dyecharged therof and 
acquieted for evermore ; vre have grauoted for us and oure heyrea that non 
of tbe tenanntes or inbabttauntea aforseyd or any of theym or theyr auc- 
ceaaorea may be compelled or constreigned to paye aaj relifea, cuitomes or 
exactiouns tber cauled Abediw dltivedd or Bedewa dltivedd, alao other 
eustomes in English named pole pennea, ia Walsh cauled Ceinioc peon 
Arion yryspyde, alao for the roparacion of maneria othenriae named Gwaith 
llyH and Arian pentai, nor also other cuBtomes in WcUh cauled Fin Coer 
and da Tervyno, or of the atore of the lord otherwiBe cauled Stor vawr, or 
Stor Juatua and Canas, alao of the fcding of y° atalione and the charges of 
the kepere of y' aamo, otherwiao cauled porthiant ttaltryn and Qwae, of 
the forester vith hia do^es, Arian Cedla, Cylch y Bland, and Butre, and 
of the workea of myllea and of the fcedlnge of Pencaia and Gwraaion 
byehain, also of all and everie £nea and pennea for the same cnatomeB afor 
aaked or to be asked, may be constreigned othenriae or by other manor 
then tbe burgesea of the toirne of Beomarish or menn dwelling in any 
English towne within our principalitie of Northtrales geven or payd or be 
constreigned to geve or pay, but that all eustomes and thes eiacciouna 
from boDCerarth may be done awaye and determined nor sballe not be uaed 
afterward ; also all other eustomes or due eiaceiona the which the foraayd 
tenanntea and inhabitanntes thorough all the Countiea aforaayd hare bene 
wont to paye afor the making of thes presentes may also be done away 
ntlerlye, nor fines of pennes or of the same customea aforaayd or any 
of theym within the foraayd Conntiea or any of theym boweBoeTer they be 
payd, levyed or to be learable, but the tenauntea aud inhabitauntea aforaayd, 
theyr heyrea and successors, and every of theym henceforth may be quiete 
of tbe premiBsea for evere ; and that the Sheref of y' Countie of Anglesey 
shall keepe or cause to be kepte all hia Shyrea within the towne of New- 
burgh and not otherwhere, and that they hold the aayde Shyres from 
moneth to monethe and from yeere to yeere in tymcs to come for erere. 
We hare graunted also for na and oure beyres that as well tenauntea and 
inhabitauntea aforaayd as other atraunge pcraones of what condicioun 
soever they be cominge to our Counties aforseyd for any goodes, thinges, 
or cattaeles bought or aould or to be bought or to be sould within the foraayd 
Countiea and goinge agayne from the aayd Counties, thoy and theyr heyres 
and ancceasors may be quiete and dyscharged of tollea, atallagea, passages, 
and eustomes thorough all the Countiea aforseyd as well within the towne 

' Written telaiiea, probably for tallmeos. Em Latin text, p. 1U'VfhQ\c 


of Beomariiili oji other Bngluli townea within cure principal itie of Nortli 
Wotea dwelling u withoute, and that the forsa^d tenauntea and inhabitauntea 
ftnd other Btraunge peraoneb shall not be oompelled nor conatraigned nor 
atDj of tbejm maj be compelled or constrcigned bj ua, oure heyrea, or 
toUetaken, boilifea, fermera, aerrauntea or any other officera ther to paye 
any toUo, atalagei, paaugea, or ctutomes within the CouDtiea and placet 
aforaeyd for any goodea, thingea or cattaelea boughte or aold or to be 
boDght or aold, but of the premUaes from henceforth thorough all the 
Conntiea aforaayd they be quiete and dyachorged and ererie of tiieym may 
be quiete and dyacharged for erere. We hare graonted olao for ua [and] 
onre heyrea that if any of the tenauntea or inhabitauntea aforaayd theyr 
heyrea or aucceaaors' shall dye tmteatied' the ezcheator or any other officer 
ther ahall not intromitt in the name of ua or of oure heyrea of audi 
eattaylea and dehtes of the man disceunge, but the diapoaitioae may ceaae 
and ^albe rererted by the ordinarie of the place to the uae of the heyrea 
and nezte coayna or frendea of the man diaceainge* We have grauated 
alao for ua and oure heyrea that if any of the tenauntea or inhabitannlea 
be maynpriaed, or afterward be to be maynpriaed, of or for good abearing 
or to keepe the peoz at oore auet, or at ^e anete of any other peraone, 
that anch one maynpriaed or to be maynpriaed be not compelled or con- 
atreigoed to appere aJbr oure Justice of North Walea at the Seaaiouna ther 
holden in oure foraayd Countjea of North Walea from henceforth but onca 
in the yeere, that is, in the nexte Seaaioun imediatly after the feat of Saint 
Uichael the archangel ; and if the prinoipalea or prinoipale mayDprised do 
appear peraonalye in oure Seaatouaa afor oure Juatlcos, that then the 
suertiea shall haTB no hurte for such manor of men or man ao maynpriaed, 
but shalbo ntterly without hurte or harme of anyo forfeicture ; and that 
(he tenanntea and inhabitauntes aforaayd may [not] be charged or compelled 
by the aforaayd Justices, or by the prenotarie or preuotariea, or by any of 
the elerkes of the same Conrtea, to paye no further fee hut ij, d. for the fee 
of maynprisioge or aoy of theym ; and in cose wherin any of theym the 
tenauntea and inhabitauntea aJForaayd by inquiaition or informacion ahalbe 
accuaed of any felonie or forfeicting of the peaz he wilbe readie to 
awnswer by due forme of the lawe, that tho prenotarie or preuotariea and 
other clerkea of the aame Courtea ther ahalbe coutente for theyr fees and 
rewardes to tak ij. a., and that non of theym may be reieaied and dya- 
charged thereof for evere. We have graunted for us and oure heyrea that 
oure free tenauntea and inhabitauntea aforsayd may be hsble to inquyer 
and that they may inquyer or mak inquiaition in all maner of cauaes 
conceminge English personea as Engliah peraonea aforaayd inquieren or mak 
inqnisitlone in thinges concerning Walah personea ; and auch maner inquiaU 
tioue ao taken or preaented by the foraayd tenauntea or inbabitouutes Walah- 
men may be had in atrength, and that no impediment may let or withstand 
from henceforth oure forsayd tenauntea Walahmen in y* premisses ; and that 
baylife errante withiu the Counties aforaayd or anye of theym ahall recere nor 
percere non other feea for th'ezerciunge of theyr office but as ia allowed 
in our Courtea for such bailifea in oure Ezcbeaquor ther, any custome 
or due ezaccione asked or used for tho aamo afor tyme in any moucr not- 
vithstandinge ; and that without any fine or fee therfor to he payd or 
takeno to oure uae. In wytnea wherof we have caused thes euro letera 

' In tlia ni«sm « written— Inteatato. l^^OOQ Ic 


pktentes to be made. Teste meipio apod Westmeaf iij. die Uarlii iuido 
regni noatri Ticeumo secundo. 

PeripiuinRegem ftuctfaoritstepu'liBiiienti, anno Bapredicto.* Scripalt 
Lewis ap Nona Gethiiii xsiij. die Aprilis anno Re^a Edirardi aexti aeonnda. 

Tranaeripai ego 16 die Deoembria anno regni regin» Elizabeth Dei 
graoia triceumo octaro, anno donuni uoatri Jeau Chriati inoamati 1595. 
Per The: OuiUelmit' medicura. 

Among Itworda of the Treaaoij of the Exchequer formerly at the 
Chapter Hooae, now remored to the Public Reeoi^ OfGoe, an abstract of 
the two foregoing oliarteni of Heorjr VII. baa been praaeired. (Wallia, 
Supplementarj Bag, no. 32.) Through the kiodneag of the Hon. William 
0. Stanley, M.P., a tranacript baa been placed in our handa, aa before 
mentioned. The heading ia as foUoira — " Henrioua, Dei gracia nuper Bex 
Anglie et Francie septimuB per cartas auas concessit omnihua et ungulia 
tenentibua et inhabitantibua infra Comitatus Angles', Caem*, et Uerioneth 
in Northwallia libertates et privelegia subsoripta." The passage in which 
enumeration is made of certain reliefs, oustonu, and exactions remitted by 
the charter 22 Hen, VII. (compare p. 71, lupra, and the English veruon, 
p. 60), auppUea some Tarious rcadinga of Welsh terms, the intcipretation 
of which haa preseoled oonuderablo difficulty, aa will be seen in the snb- 
joined Gloaaarial Notes. It has therefore seemed desirable to ^ve Id full 
that portion of the abatract, aa followa : — 

"Aoeciam quod ouHua eorum compellatur ad aoWenda aliqna releria, 
cnatumaa, aire exacciones ibidem Tocata obodiw ditibedd aut obedlwie 
ditibedd, necnon indebitaa exaccioucH pro pasta porcorum vocato tackya, 
Wallice vocato arian moch, neque polpena, Wallice vocat' Eentiok Ken', 
arian respice, neo de reparacione maneriorum alitor Tocata gwaithe Ilia, 
Brian gwaith, et arian petai, neque custumas alias Tocatas Fyne Kaer et 
Datryn,* aut de ataur domini vocat' atero Tawre Tel atore Istya, et karias, 
nee de poatu atallonia Tocato porthiant Stalwyn et gwias (nc), de paatu 
lucrar" cnm canibua, arian Keble, Eeirch, blawe, et buttur, et do oneiibua 
molendinorum, de paatu Pencais et Oweiaaiou' bygheyn." 

> From th« MS. It night at firtt ba the period is well known, ud ws should 

thought that tfas words "Anno supra- protnbl; read hlra, aad Inlrar' {tw 

diato" weretobe i«ad with those which lutrarii); there •aemi little doubt Ui>t 

immediately follow, but on con^deiation allusion U mode to proTision which soma 

we are ooDriDced that thej must be Tillans weis bound to supplj for the 

read in oonnactiou wiUi the prsoading prinoe'a of lord's otter-hontar and hi* 

words. dogs. See the Glonahal Notes under 

* This genitive case is doobtleis equl- XiOghej. In the old translation, given 
valent to the patronymic WillUms. above from Ur, Wynne's US., the pasuga 

* Ponibly for Datervpi, by a clerical ia rendered — " the forsrter with his 
error, the mark of contraotion after ( doggea' It appeara by the eonteit that 
being omitted. the "chacea de t^nbryn," Beoord of 

* The corresponding worda are written Caern., pp. 13S, 139, 110, 1 12, lignified 
in Un. Ormiby Qore's copy— ^* cum otter-bunting; no such word as Synbrjn 
euibuB, — but elsewhere, and in Robert oocurring in the Welsh dictioniries, it 
Vtughan' s explanations of words (Hengwrt may be auppowd to b« a variation of 
U3.) ItKTO. The diffionltj, however, of i'iicr, whicli goneially signifies a bearer. 
distinguishing t from c in the writing of 



OLoasAUAL Nona, 

-fl^'t Wti^U, ring'ild. — Among eipUnations of words giren hj 
Robert Taughan in one of the Hengwrt MS. in Mr. Wynne's librBrj,' we 
find " Ringildr ; the officer that lerjed the princes rent of aasis, and that 
bj compnlBioD," Wotton interprets it thus, — "in aula preeco, in curia 
apparitor qui partes litigantes, testes, et sdrooatos citabat." RicbardB 
giTca, ■■ Rhingyll, the crier of & court, an apparitor, a summoner." The 
term occars frequentlj in the Ancient Laws of Wales, rol. i. pp. 188, 448, 
762 ; vol. ii. p. 624. See also Record of Caemarron, Introd. p. zii. 

Amobr', amo&yr. — A payment on the marriage or seduction of s tenant's 
daughter, or on the tenant's adultery. Robert Vaughsn gives, — "Amobr; 
the parentes were forced to pay fyne if enj of their daughters or neere 
kinswomen committed fomicacion, and the parentes distrained." Hengwrt 
U3> The term is of frequent occurrence in the Welsh Laws ; see Index 
tn r., Rowlands' obserrationB on Mulcts, Mona Antiqua, p. 131, and 
Richards' Dictionary. The nature of the custom was fully discussed by 
Ur. Salt in a memoir on documents relating to the Honor, Forest, and 
Borough of Clun, read at the Meeting of the Archteological Institute nt 
Shrewsbury in 1855, and privately prioted by the author in 1858. 

Officio BagV et Bagl Advooar'. — Raglaw, Raglottus, a collector or 
bailiff; "Rh^law, a lieutenant, a deputy, a gorernor or ruler under a 
superior," Richards' Diet. A Rhaglaw, according to the Glossary in the 
Welsh Laws, was the sheriff or deputy {mceeomet). See the duties of the 
BagloUut Adtocariee, Record of Caern., Introd. p. xi. 

ArAeUman, arihellwoman. — These should seem to hare been a hind of 
serfs, who paid fourpence a year to the lord, and whose goods, in case of death 
without issue, were liable to he taken by the lord. From the context the 
artliellmen and artbellwomen appear to have been Welsh. In the transla- 
tion of the Andent Welsh Laws we find the following passage, in which the 
arthellman seems to be mentioned, — " Three persons who pay an ebidiw of 
threescore pence, a king's taeog, an arddelw man, and an alltud, whom the 
kino; has enfranchised.' Ancient Laws of Wales, vol. ii. p. 609. 

Wodfoard, tooditardetlie, /orettwrietk. — Robert Vaughan gives, "Wod- 
wardirth ; the woodwardship of the forest ; this is yat in other places. 
Forestorieth ; all the eiacions and money levyed in the forest except 
woodwardshyp, " Hengwrt US. 

KiUffhe]/, keUehey. — Robert Vaughan gives, in his explanations of terms 
occurring in these documents, " Kylcbey, viz. kylch staloun, kylch dou'- 
gonn, gwysioun bych'ann, &c. ; when eny of the princes officers course 
cam to eny Townshipp then they of that towne found their diet for a day 
or too for the officers.'^ Hengwrt MS. See Wotton, and Richards' Diet, 
under Cylch, and the Glossary appended to the Ancient Laws of Wales. 
In the Introduction to the Record of Caernarvon, p. x., it is stated that 

' Baoord* ndatiDg to Wake, Hengwrt peatedl; dlai in thaw gloamul notei, 
"" ">. 119. Wears Indebted to tlie aod thns entitled; "Lea aundeot parole 

kiixinanofW.W. E.W7mifl,Esq., M.P., et aoatomea de Nortbgals* que UteDt 

for the nia at thli valnable US., tho reejta duis le graunt et otarter del Boy 

whole of wUeh la in the handwritbig of HeDt; le 7 jadec Ro; Denglitere Ian da 

" I Matiooethahirs antiqaary, Bobert soun reigne vlnct"; and alao of worda 

Te^u, of U«OKwrt, who died in leer. in the oharter of il2 Hen. TIL 

.. . , .. ... .... _. r.:|-:ect>G0l^lc 

k B&Mf gloesatial liat, r 



. uinual aerrices to wfaicli ekch i^lUge, &c., wu Babject were ealled Kilgb, 
ia modem Welah Cjle, a jearlj coslom of proririon or other things pua to 
the prince's officers hj those who held lands under him. In th&t Record 
occur Kilgh' for herds, hawks, and stallionB ; Kilgh'doorgon, for the prince's 
honnds with which the otter was hniited ; Kilgh' Raglot', &e. Payment« 
occur "pro TCnators fimhrium," namely, otten ; some lillans provided 
" prandium et potum pro venatore' flmbrium " ; and the mention of the 
" chacea de fjnbrjn " shows how much that sport waa in vogue. 

Trelhet.— la Welsh treth eigoifies a tax or tribute. Robert Vangban 
gives "Treihes; oertajne tjnet, paymentt, and ezacciona." Hengwrt 

Abt^o dttevtdd ant btddevooyet defeviedd'. — These terms teem to be 
nearly aynonymouB ; abedinr, ebediw, or ol)ediw, supposed by Dr. Wotton 
to he derived from the Latin ohUn, was, according to Kichards and other 
writers, a heriot, but the context would seem to show that it was a 
relief; the former being s chattel, the latter a sum of money, which 
became due to the lord on the death of a tenant. Dietifedd signiflea 
iu Welsh iuuelesa or without iaane, therefore the two words combined 
signify a payment oa the death of a tenant without isaue. See alto Row- 
lands' obaerrationa on Obediw, Mona Antique, p. 131. Robert Taughan 
fives, " Abedeo detevedd. Bedews detefedd ; reljrffes of ix t. when one 
ycd without iaane of his body." Hengwrt US. 

Arvm mock. — Swina money, some payment for the maintenance or 
shack of swine, aa is shown by the context. Tai^t* is not Welsh, but an 
Bnglish term occurring in old records. 

Keniokjpea. — For Ceiniog pen, head money. 

Arian retpmU. — Probably the latter word is for the English legal term 
"respite," and the meaning of the two reapite money, or a capitation tax 
derived from the commutation of some general service or duty that had 
been reapited or indefinitely deferred. 

Qtcayih llii. — Hall or conrt work, work done at the hall or conrt. 

Artan gvayth. — Work money, some commutation for work that might 
have been required, 

Ariun Pentay. — Houae money, probably some commutation for work 
that might have been required to be done at the manor houae. 

Fine Kayr. — Fin ia a boundary and also a fine ; Kayr is probably for 
caer. Could this have been some contribution or payment towards a town 
or castle ? 

De Tenme. — The context shows this was equivalent to stanrum domiiii. 
For de Robert Vaughan'a transcript in Mr. Wynne's MS. has da, which 
signifies goods, chattels, or cattle. Tervene ^ould aeem to be used for 
Teym, a prince. We read in Mona Antique, p. 125, of iha etaurum 
principis, which was an annual payment of a certain number of oxen and 


Stare vatcer ; itore itlit. — These it ia evident from the context are other 
equivalents of staunim domini. Store vawer is great store or stock, 
nothing baa been diacovered that throws any light on iatie. 

Cariet. — From the asaociation and use of this word in the Royal Letter 
it should seem to have meant the aame as Gwayth, i.e., work of some kind. 

PorfAtonf ital'ujyn et Gtoayt, — Maintenance of a horse and groom. 

ilrtan ke^Jo, kireh, blavde, et butw. — If these words refer to the otler- 
' vntflT and hia doga, they probably meant money for his and their main- 


tatunoe, or tat finding him with ourda, oota, bread-corn, and butter. The 
mea]-rent (see Cowel) ia the Honor of Clim Beema to hava been a paj- 
me&t of a aimilar kind. Bread and butter payments, hofferer, ooour bo 
frequently in the Welsh Laws, that these words may not have had any 
reference to the otter-hunter or his dogs. 

Peimtayi, — Probably for Fencaes, a receirer-general, a head treasurer. 

Oweinon beighn'. — For gweision Tychain, small serTanta or lads. Foa- 
sibly, judging from its association here with Fennkaya, it may hare meant 
Ilia clerks or aasiatanta. See also Robert Vauirhan's note «upra, under 
Kill^ey. * ^ 


) by Google 

^comtrin00 at ffitttinei of tlie ^ccfiacolJiflfcal Institute. 

December 4, 1863. 
The Verr Eer. Cakok Bock, D.D., in the Chur. 

Thib being the first meeting of another uuion, and the fint oocaaion on 
whioh the membera ABsembled in the oommodioDslj-Bituated apartments in 
Burlington Gardens, the chairman opened the proceedingB with a short 
address. He congratulated the members of the Institute on the satisfae- 
torj issne of the congress at Rochester under the auspices of the Marquess 
Camden. The meeting held in Kent bad giren a fresh impulse in that 
county to the exertions of the historian and the archnologist ; the field of 
research which for sereral jears bad so well reptud the labors of the 
local society had proved still teeming with materials of high interest ; on 
DO oocaaion, probably, had the advantages accruing from such gatherings 
been more fully shown, whilst the oommunicatioos to the sectional meetings 
had been almost without exception illustratire of local antiquities or history. 
Amongst these the memoir, by Ihe Haster of Caius College, on Cfesar's 
landing in Britun, occupied a ground of more than ordinary interest. The 
Emperor of the French, being informed that this difficult question would 
be brought under consideration, had directed the accompliahed antiquary 
and confidential agent of His Imperial Uajesty, M. Alfred Uaury, to pro- 
ceed to Rochcater, and to prepare an accurate statement of the ditcussiooB 
on a subject of essential interest to the Imperial biogrepher. The Memoirs 
of Julius Cfcsar, to which the Emperor's attention has for several years 
been devoted, will, it ia understood, era long be given to the world. Canon 
Rock, in noticing numerous accesaions to the liat of members of the Insti- 
tute during the annual meeting in Kent, observed that he could not refrain 
from ozpresaiag also a tribute of hearty esteem and regret to the memory 
of several valued fellow-labourers, whose loss since their last meeting in 
London the Institute had to lament ; especially Professor Cocherell, one 
of the earlieet and most valued of their friends, Mr. Botfield, Mr. Henry 
Rhind, of Sibster, and, very recently, Mr. Bowyor Nichols, whose long life 
had been devoted to porsuits kindred to their own, and who might well be 
honored as the Nestor of Arehnotogy. 

The special attention of the members was then invited to the threatened 
injuries to which the Roman grave-mounds on the -borders of Essex and 
Cambridgeshire, known as the Bartlow Hills, had been reported to be 
exposed, through the projected construction of a branch railway to be 
carried, accordiag to tho proposed scheme, between two of those interesting 
tumuli, cutting away the baae on either side. The Central Committee had 
lost no time, when informed of the encroachment with which these unique 
sepulchres are threatened ; they had addressed an urgent appeal to tbo 
Directors early in the previous month. Tho correspondence which passed 


between the Committee uid the Great Eutem Rulwa; Compsof WM ntd 
by Ur. Fnrnelli inelndiiig the foUowmg rep); from l£r. Sinclair, the chief 
Engineer :— 

" En^neer'a Office, Stratford, 24th Horember, 1863. 

" Sis, — I haTO onlj tiiit moment received joor letter of the 11th inatant, 
to the Chairman of the Great Eastern Railway, on the anhject of the Bart- 
low Bills, and I hasten to aaanre jou that no iojurj whatOTer to those intC' 
resting monumeuta has ever been contemplated bj me. It wa> Deoeuary 
to ran the line of railway between two of them, but precantions were taben 
to pravent their being materiallT interfu«d with. 

" I shall see my reudent Engineer to-morrow, and will repeat my 
injnnctiona to him to leave the Hills undisturbed, and in the coarse of a few 
days I shall hare the hononr of sending yon a section through all the four 
hiUfl, ihowing the manner in whieb our line ia intended to pau them. 

" Although not a member of your Society, I hare far too neat a sym- 
pathy with its object to disturb willingly aoy remnants of the olden time. 
" I hare the honour to be, &e., 
(Signed) " Robert Simolaib. 

" Thomas Pumell, Esq., 

" See. Arch. Instit. of Great BHtun." 

The further conaideration of this subject was deferred until the reoeipt 
of the section thus courteously promised by the Chief Engineer of the 

The Rer. Dr. Ooluhowood Bauoz, F.S.A., placed before the meeting, 
by the courteous permission of the Duke of Northumberland, an extensive 
aeries of drawings executed, by His Grace's desire, by the skilful pencil of 
Mr. D. Hoesman. They represent incised markings of doubtful import 
occurring upon rocks in NOTthnmberland, chiefly in the neighbourhood 
of Wooler, Doddington, and Old Bewick ; they have been found in the 
vicinity of the ancient entrenched works in the district surrounding the 
Cheviots, which hare been recently surveyed, by the Duko's directiona, by 
Ur. Henry Hoc Lanchlan. Dr. Bmce exhibited dso rubbiogs and mcold- 
inga in gutta percha, which he had taken from some of the most remark- 
able rock-marking B, consisting chieSy of incised concentrio eireles 
traveled in one direction by lines which proceed from a central p<»nt or 
cavity. These curious vestiges were first brought under the notice of 
arcbnologists by the Rev. W. Greenwell, of Durham, now President of 
the Tyneside Club of Antitjuories ond Naturaliite, a memoir on the sub- 
ject having been read by him at the aunaal meeting of the Institute at 
Newcastle, in 1852. A short notice of the numerous markings near Ford, 
in Northumberland, was shortly after published by Dr. Johnson, of Ber- 
wick, in his Natural History of the Northern Borders, from the account 
communicated by Mr. Qreenwell, and accompanied by an engraving from a 
drawing executed by him, which representg a remarkable rock adjacent to 
a small entrenchment at Rowting Linn, near Doddington. This mysterioas 
subject had anbseijucntly attracted the notice of Sir Gardner Wilkinson, 
by whom icme notices have been nven in the Journal of the Arehnologioal 
Association, vol. xvi. 1860, p. 118. Tho Duke of HorthumbcrlancJ, a few 
yeara rince, stimulated further invealigadons, and personaliy examined the 
variona places where auoh markiuga had bean noticed. Numeroue vettigea 
of the same class wore brought to light shortly after through Hia Grace's 
snggeetioos, eqiecially by tiie Bev. W, Procter, of Doddbgton, and other 


reudenti in that part of Horthnmberluid. Some exami^ had been dia- 
corered on rooks (ODCSBled under an accamulalioD of monid covered br 
ranlt vegetation, and indicating the lapse of many years since these circles 
had there been traced. The origin of such markings, and the period or 
race to phiob tliej may be uBsigned, remain, as Dr. Bmce stated, without 
satisfactory explanation. The Duke of Northumberland, with the noble 
patronage of researches into the hietory and antiquities of his county 
which he has shown in so remarkable a degree, has directed that representa- 
tions of all these mysterious traces of the earlier iDhabitonts of the Northern 
Uarches should be prepared for publication, for the purpose of eliciting 
information regarding any like vestiges which may occur in any other 
ports of the British Isles or in foreign countries, and to afford to anhnolo- 
gists accurate materials for investigation of so curious a subject. It is 
remarkable that, as Dr. Bmce observed, these matluDgs appear to have 
been produced by a metal implement ; this is shown by indications of 
tooling in the grooved lines, wronght as if by an iron chisel upon the bard 
rocks of the Cheviot district. He mentioned that a few similar markinga 
had been noticed near Scarborough, also in North Britain, and in tiie 

Mr. FzaausoM, of Morton, near Carlisle, to whose most kind eiertioos 
and ocurtesj the Institute was greatly indebted during the meeting at 
Carlisle, in 1859, gave an account of Roman remains found on the sonth- 
eaat side of that city ; he exhibited some of the relics there discovered which 
bad come into his posBession, and photographs of the whole coUectioD, 
III recent buildiog operations near the great thoroughfare towards the 
south, still known as London Road, various antiquities and interments hare 
been found ; it is probable that the ancient cemetery of LuguwUiiwn was 
on that nde of the city. In August last a fine two-handled vase, 15^ in, 
in height, in perfect preservation, was disinterred in Devonshire Street, 
accompanied by other Roman remains, amongst which is a fragment of a 
Samian vessel, having on its under side charaoters traced with a sharp 
point i this grafito may be read — VATicoifTic, or, TATicOflia ■ x ■ — for manu, 
indicating a potter's name. A disoovery of considerable interest also 
occurred in Orey Street, near the old station of the Newcastle Rulway, in 
digging foundations about 4 J ft. deep, on ground not previously disturbed. 
The objects brought to light consist of a square cist of red sandstone, 
oarefully hollowed out, as is also its cover ; in this cist lay a gloss vase in 
remarkably good preservation, measuring 12 in. in height ; breadth of 
each side, 5 in. ; it has one broad handle, strongly ribbed, and it con- 
tained burned bones, to one of which an iron nail was found adhering. On 
the under side is the letter ic, within a circle, probably a mark of the 
maker. A similar rose, of rather smaller size, is described by the Bev. £. 
Trollope as found at Lincoln, and is figured in this Journal, vol. xvii. p. 3. 
On the mouth of the glass otsuarium lay, as described by Mr, Ferguson, a 
lamp of light cream-colored ware ; and on its left was a small urn of dark 
ware. The cist measures 2 ft. by 22 in., the height being also 22 in. 
Upon the cover lay a fragment of an inscribed slab, upon which may be 
decyphered the letter u (probably r> u), and part of a second line— bits. 
A second ronghly-squared block was found, with a ciroular cavity con- 
taining a small urn of pale red ware, posubly a heartrdeposit ; the little 
vase was filled with dark moist mould. A fragment of sculpture (length, 
22 in.) lay about six feet from these remains ; it is much mutilated. 


tepreunUng a lion deronring the head of a bull, of which one of (be horns 
ftppean tinder the lion's mouth.' Several examples of a like Uithraic 
BpoboIiBm have occDired vith Roman remains, such aa the large lions 
found at Calaracttmium, and exhibited hy Sir W. Lawson, in the Unsenro 
of the Institute, at the York meeting. Musenm Catalogue, p. 8. Horaley 
gives tiro lions, found at Corhridge, with their fore-paws resting on hulls' 
heads ; also other similar scnlpturos from Walwick, North nmherland, and 
Stanwicks, Cumherlaod, StaUoDS per lineam tallL Ur. Ferguson brought 
also for examination nine objects of iron, found upon or near the principal 
deposit ; owing to the singular forms assumed bj the blistered and corroded 
metal, these relics present a certain resemblance to human figures, and had 
been regarded by some persons as lares standing upon small pedestals. The 
enpposition, however, seems unfounded, and they are probably large, broad- 
beaded iron nails, not unfrequently found accompanying Roman deposits, 
and which probably had been used in the construction of a stoat, external 
chest of wood. See Mr. Koach Smith's Coll. Ant., vol. iii. p. 19. The 
largest of the nails exhibited measures, in its broken state, 2^ in. in length. 
Mr. R. M. Phipbon, of Norwich, gave a short description of a recent 
discovery in Eolbrook Church near Ipswich, to which the attention of the 
Society had been called by Sir John £oileaa, Bart. In the course of 
restorations of that fabric, under Mr. Phipson's directions, a diminutive 
effigy, measuring about 18 in. in length, which lay in a small arclied 
recess in the north wall of the chancel, had been displaced ; under the slab 
on which the figure is sculptured, a small circular cavity was found imme- 
diately beneath the part where the breast of the effigy is situated ; In this 
depoutory had been placed a covered vessel of brass ; fragments of thin 
metal widi an acorn-shaped knob in which the cover terminated, were ex- 
posed to view, accompanied by dSbrit and dust having an aromatic odour, 
portions of charcoal and lime, possibly also of decayed animal matter, but no 
bony substance could he distinctly traced. It has been snpposed that this 
vessel, measuring about 51in. m diameter, and 5in. in height, may have 
contained a human heart, which in other instances has been found accom- 
panied by a miniature effigy sometimes represented as holding a heart or 
heart-shaped box between the hands conjoined upon the breast. The 
cavity was carefully cut and neatly finished ; the vase precisely fitted it, so 
tiiat the knob on its cover would almost touch the under surface of the slab 
upon which the figure is carved. Mr. Phipson brought the fragments of 
the vase, &e. for iospection, with drawings of the little figure, which has 
been intentionally defaced, so that the costnmo and other details cannot 
now he ascertained ; also of the niche in which it is placed, and of a fine 
doorway of Early English character, adjacent to the niche, to the east- 
ward, and now forming the approacli to a vestry built about 1830, on 
the north side of the chancel, where probably a chantry or sepulchral 
chapel had formerly stood. The doorway and niche, and the mouldings, 
are of good work, of the time of Edward I. ; the small figure, as we team 
from Mr. Blore, who bos recently visited Holbrook with the kind intention 
bf examining and making drawings of these remains for oar information, ia 
aadly battered and damaged, hut it retams sufficient indications of its 
original condition to lead to the conclusion that it was one of those 

t EEUied, Jaum. Brit. Arch. 


niioiftlnra e&pea, moitlj represented ts creu-l^ged, wliidi we meet with 
at that period. Hr. Blwe belieres that this fignra nwy likewise hare been 
ia that attitude ; there aa.y have been a heart-shaped object between tho 
bands npon the breast ; the proportions are singnlarlj dwarfed and clumsy, 
and scarcely a ves^ge remains of the original carred surfaoe. Sir John 
Boileau remarked ^t tho small mural recess at Holbrook, with its carious 
accessories, recalled that in Lejboume church, Kent, which he had lately 
visited during the Rochester Ueeting of the Institute. A remarkable leaden 
rase, enclosing, as it is belisTed, the heart of Sir Roger de Lejburti, had 
there been brought to light, as related by the Rev. L. Larking, in the 
Archsologia Cantiana, toI. t. p. 136. Some interesting particulars regard* 
ing Holbrook church and its monmnents may be found in Davy's Suffolk 
Collections in the Bri^sh Museum, Add. MS. 19,105, pp. 50, 51, 56. 
The manor of Holbrook was held by a family of that name in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, and the singular memorial noticed by Mr. Fhip- 
Bon may have commemorated one of the possessors or some person of their 
kindred, who was a benefactor to the fabric of the chnrch towards the close 
of the thirteenth century. 

General Lefbot, R.A-, read an intorestine memoir on two ancient 
cannon at Moot St. Michel, in Normandy, left there by the English 
besiegers of the fortreas after the nnsuecessful assaolt in 1423-21, It has 
been published, at Woolwich, in the Royal Artilleiy Journal, accompanied 
by. diagrams and the narrative by Professor Pole, F.R.S., of bis eiploro- 
^ona in September last, in quest of these remarkable epecimens of English 
artillery. Qcneral Lefroy exhibited also several photographs obtained by 
that gentleman, to whom we are indebted for so curious a contribution to 
the history of English war^re in the time of Henry VI. 

Mr. Bbwitt gave an account of a richly ornamented sword supposed to 
have belonged to the ill-fated Duke of Monmouth ; it was exhibited by the 
kindness of the Rev. J. E. Waldy, and of Mr. AUsop of Cheltenham. 
This notice is pinted in this Tolome, p. 62. 

flntfquUlM in]i tIBarU of art (EAAitt*- 

By Mr. W. Phillips. — Several bronse celts and weapons found in the 
Isle of Portland, consiBting of four celts discovered there, beneath the 
vestiges of Roman occupation, in tlie excavations for the defences now in 
course of construction by Government. Also a bronse sword-blade, a spear- 
head, and an arrow-head, an object of stone supposed to have been a sling- 
bullet, and a small Roman coin ; the whole of these relics were from 

By the Right Hon. W. E. Oladbtomb. — A beautiful cameo on sardonyx 
of two strata ; it is of oval form and unusually large dimensions, measuring 
71 in. by 6 in. This choice specimen of glyptic art, which was obtained 
by the Chancellor of the Exchequer from the Herts collection, represents 
Jupiter and Thetis. The great Jove appears in an unusual attitude, 
seated on a rock nnder a drooping laurel tree ; his right hand leans upon a 
sceptre, whilst in the left he grasps a thunderbolt ; at his feet reposes the 
esgle, seen in profile, with half-spread wings. The lower part of the 
figure of the god is clothed with a chUon; opposite to him stands Thetis, 
holding in her left hand the falling drapety of her pe^ifoj, and entreating 


Jupiter to bestoir ireapons on ber son Achilles. This cameo is considered 
to bo one of the finest works of the cinque-cento period ; the subject is 
treated with such adroinble skill and confonnitj to antique design, that 
ih'e gem has been regarded by some judges of art as a production of the 
Greek or of the Greco-Roman school of art. 

By the Rev. Jakbs Beck. — Photographs of casts of remarkable hnman 
remains latelj exhumed at Pompeii. See Proceedings Soc. Ant., toI. ii. 
2nd ser. p. 286. 

Bj Ur. Edvdnd Watertok, F.S.A. — Several valuable rings, recent 
additions to his dactyliotheca. A massiire Roman ring of gold set with an 
intaglio of a grasshopper ; gold ring from Sicilf, thirteenth century, set 
with an antique intaglio ; gold ring from Sicilj, set with a pearl attached 
to the bezel, which projects considerably ; silrer ring inscribed, in black 
letter — abel + diabel -|- gugul + gugul + a — fourteenth century ; silrer 
signet ring, engraved with the letters — Ir — ; another, with a crowned letter 
I i and a third, with the initial R. Also a gold " iconographic " ring, 
finely chased, found bear Tork, fifteenth century ; within the hoop is 
eugraved, in black letter, the chanson or posy — de ' bon ' cor ■ — ; a gold 
ring set with a garnet, sixteenth century ; and a gold ring, seventeenth 
century, with an inicription in Sanecrit character ; a pilgrim's escallop 
shell, of iron, in rfpouM^work, fifteenth century, found lately at Bury St. 
Edmund's and there purchased. 

By Hr. W, Benvett. — Silver ring found in a garden at Chapel-en-le- 
Frith, Derbyshire ; it had been broken and so unskilfully repaired that an 
inscription around the hoop is not dccypherable. By the form of the 
letters, however, and general fashion, Uie date appears to he about the 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

By General Lefrot, R.A. — An instrument apparently intended to afl'ord 
a very fine eight with a fire-arm, the principle being that of the perfo- 
rated bead sight. It bears the date 1594, 

By Ifr, W. J. Bebkhabd Suith, — A oulet of scale armour of Italian 
work ; the scales are of russet steel, with engraved and gilded ornaments. 
It retains the original liniug. — A hood of fine Oriental chain-mail, with 
a nasal of steel ; the original lining has been preserved. This remark- 
able specimen was obtained at the capture of Seringapatam, in 1799. 
From the Codringtou Collection. 

By Mr. Hensebsoh, F.S.A. — Threo Chineso vases of metal, choice 
specimens of Chinese eloUonn/ enamel ; one of them decorated with the 
rare imperial yellow coloring. 

By Mr. Hewitt. — A Persian dagger, with a hilt of ivory elaborately 
sculptured. — A dagger, with a hilt of crystal, the blade of watered 
steel: from Central India. — Ghoorka Eookree, an Oriental weapon, with 
knives and a purse ; the mountings of chased silver. 

By Mr. W. Fhilufs. — A vase, or beaker of singular form, found at 
Fiesoli in 1862. 

By Sir JonK Boileau, Bart.— An admirable medallion of the dietin- 
guiahed historian, Henry Hallaoi, struck in bronze by Wyoa, and pour- 
trayiog very artistically the striking features of that eminent writer. 

By Mr. Birch, F.S.A. — Imprpssion of a brass seal found at Colchester, 

in poseession of the Rev. J. H. Pollexfeu of that place. Of circular form, 

diam. nearly t in., date fourteenth century. The device is a hare sitting, 

within a .figure formed by two squares interlaced — bohov i go. Several 

TOL. XXI. " o 


seals of tlie period ban been found with grotesque derices ollusiTe to the 
liuntiag of the hara Oae, of frequent occurrence, \i given bj the Her. G. 
Dasbwood in the second aeries of liis " Sigilla Antiqua," of trhi^h he baa 
kindlj presented a copj to the Institute. Upon this seal, appended to a 
deed 5 Hen. V., the bare is seen mounted on a hound, and bloniog a horn. 
— sonoT ROBiH. See pi, 4, fig. 7. Another vith the same derice has the 
legend — allonb i ride i hab no sweth. 

January 8, 1864. 

The Rev. John Fuller Rdssell, B.C.L., F.S.A., in the Cliair. 

Mr. Pdrnell placed before the meeting a section of the tumuli at Bart- 
loir, which had been prepared for the Institute by the Bngineer of the 
Great Eastern Bulwaj, in accordance irith the promise in bis proTious 
Gommunicatian, for tlie purpose of sboiring the course of the projected 
line between two of those remarkable grave-mounds. Mr. Sinclur 
renewed the assurance of his desire to ohviate, as far as practicable, the 
apprehended iajurj ; and he esplained the precautions which he proposed 
to take, in accordance with the conditions of the conrejance of tlie land 
from the Viscount Mayoard. A communication was likewise received 
from the Conncil of the Society of Antiquaries, expressing concurrence in 
the remonstrance addressed bj the Committee of the Institute. After 
some discussion a resolution was proposed by the Veiy Rev. Canon Rock, 
seconded by Mr, W. S. Wnlford, and carried unanimously, to the effect 
that the projected intersection of the Barllow Hills by a railway was 
highly objectionable, and that any such scheme which would expose those 
monuments of antiquity to seriouB jeopardy must be strongly reprobated, 
not only hy the Institute, but by archnologista nt large, and by all persons 
wbo regard with any intelligent interest the landmarks of our early history. 

The Chairman called the attention of the meeting to a present received 
from H. R. fl. the Prince of Wales, and he congratulated the Society on 
the satisfactory evidence of the interest in their pursuits thus manifested 
h; the Frinoo. The following gratifying communication was then read : — 

" Windsor Castle, Deo. 10, 1863. 
" Sir, — I am directed by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales to forward to 
TOO. for the labrary of the Archteological Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland, a copy of the description of a papyrus, which was found in an 
excavation made by direction of the Prince during the Eastern tour of 

" I am, Sir, ic, 
" (Signed) M. Holzuaxk, 

" Librariiin to II. B. H. the Prince of Wales. 
" T. Pumell, Esq., Sec. Arch. Inst" 

Afler a special vote of acknowledgment of the favor thus graciously 
conferred upon the Society, Mr. C. W. Goodwin offered some observatious 
on this interesting relic of antiquity. The papyrus, which had been 
described and ably edited by Mr. Birch, is of the fourth century before 
the Christian era, aod consequently of a time irhcn art in Egypt was 
in a state of gradual decline. The MS. is, moreover, unfortunately 
imperfect, having sustained injuries from various causes, and it ts 
apparent that it was produced by a scribe who was not a proficient in 


tlifl t»sk upon irliicK he was engaged. Papyri, it is well knoim, were 
frequently kept in readtnese, with blank spaces for tbo namea and 
dencriptiOQ of the deceased ; the papyrus, in fact, formed part of tho 
regular funeral appliances. Thcj were of three claases, namely. Ritual, 
Books of Transmigrations, and Solar Litanies, or deBcriptions of the 
passage of the soul through the earth in tho solar boat. These highly 
enrious MSS. contain minute descriptions of alt tho regions through which 
the soul was supposed to pass after death ; but unfortunately there are 
few, if any, perfect examples of papyri, and iir. Goodwin was able to cite 
only one in remarkably fine condition, preserved in the Soane Museum, and 
shortly to be published. 

A notice by the Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Kewcastlo, 
Dr. Cbabltok, was then read, relating to the discoveries of ancient remains 
in Schleswig, and the valuable collections preserved in the Museum at 
Flensborg, (Printed in this Journal, vol. xr. p. 298.) A copy of the 
admirably illustrated work by Conrad Engelhardt, director of the Museuni 
above mentioned, was sent for inspection. Dr. Chariton invited special 
attention to the distinct and satisfactory execution of the plates, surpassing 
anything known to him produced in this country. It may interest some of 
our readers to know that, during tho late deplorable onslaught on tho 
Danish States, Flensborg having been Occupied by tho Prussian marauders, 
a formal demand was made on Herr Engelhardt to deliver up the Museum, 
so that the collection noticed by Br. Charlton might be sent to Berlin as 
Old QenDBn antiquities. This danger of such arbitrary spoliation had 
happily been foreseen, and the Unseum had been removed beyond the 
present reach of German aggression. 

Ur. Albbrt Wat communicated the folloning notes of recent discoreries 
of Roman remains near East Ham, Eesex : — 

" During the last month my attention was invited by a kind friend and 
early member of the Institute, Mr. Colquhonn, to vestiges of Roman occu- 
pation lately brought to light in Ilssex during the constroction of the 
metropolitan works for the high level sewer, traversing the Flaistow and 
East Ham levels. Hr. Colquhoun suggested that some report on these dis- 
coveries, which present facts of interest, could not fail to prove acceptable 
to the Institute, and he referred me to his relative, the Rev. E. F. Boyle, 
vicar of the parish of East Ham, in which the remains in question have 
been discovered. It is to the courtesy of that gentleman that I have been 
mainly indebted for the following information. I regret that I havo been 
unable to examine the site and the relics there collected, and which I hope 
may be deposited iu the British Museum. Mr. Burtt has, however, hnd 
the kindness to visit East Ham at my request, and I may refer to bis 
personal investigations to correct any inaccuracy in these notices. East 
Ilam, on the ancient river-margin of the Thames, from which it is now 
distant about two miles, is a locality not devoid of interest to the antiquary. 
The church, built of flints, and consisting of a nave and two chancels, 
shows indications of antiquity in its so-called Saxon arches with xigsag 
ornameuts, and the apodal termination of one of the chancels, with 
narrow window-openings of early date. In the grave-yard rest the remains 
of one whose name must ever be held in honored remembrance amongst 
English arehieologiBts, and to whose personal examination of our earlier 
antiquities in their more perfect condition a century ogo, we are con- 
etsntly indebted in our researches. The Nestor of archeology, Stukele.y, 


was there interred ; hj hU special desire the smooth tarf was laid orer 
the resting-place selected bj himself, without any monument. Roman 
TOBtiges are not wantiag in the neighbourhood. About two miles to the 
north runs the Roman line of road towards Colchester by Durotitum, 
supposed to hare been at Romford, and Ccetaromagus, (Chelmsford) ; 
many Roman traces might doubtless be enumerated on either side of this 
ancient way, throughout its course eastward from LondAninm, Not far 
distant from the locality under conuderation, and to the north of the 
Roman via, LothieuUier has recorded the discovery, in 1724, at a place 
called Valentines, of a skeleton interred in a stone coffin placed snlh 
and south and circular at the feet ; this was probably Roman : near it 
was an urn filled with burned bones. The most remarkable work, how- 
ever, in these parts, is the camp at Uphall near Barking, about a milo 
south of the Roman road, in a well-chosen position on the eastern bank 
of the river Rodtng. Its form is nearly quadrangular, the area being 
upwards of forty-eight acres ; it has been attributed to the Roman period, 
and appears to resemble the cntrenchmeDts of that age. I am indebted, 
moreover, to Mr. Boyle, for information that remains exist of a Roman 
camp, not indicated in the Ordnance Survey, on the river's edge opposite 
Woolwich, within a mile of the spot where the recent discoveries occurred. 
I now proceed to notice briefly the objects brought to light during the lost 
month on the site, as Ur. Boyle believes, of an extensive Roman cemetery. 
The principal relic disinterred is a stone coffin with a coped lid: this 
sepnlchral cist ib formed of coarse oolite brought from a considerable 
distance ; it measures about 7 ft. in length, by 25 in. in width ; the thick- 
ness of its sides is nearly 5 in. : it contained two skeletons, the heads, it 
deserves to be noticed, having been placed at the opposite ends of the 
oavity. I am not aware that any deposit has been described in which tiiis 
pecuUarity occurred. The remains appeared to be of adults, the teeth not 
muclf impaired by age. Three leaden coffins were also disinterred, the 
throe tombs being in a row, placev north and south, and not many feet 
apart. The coped lid of the stone cist lay at a conuderahle depth under 
the snrface, the leaden coffins not far from it. In one, the smallest of 
these, were the remains of a young person ; the other, messurlng 
4 ft. 10 in. in length, contained a skeleton, likewise of a youth ; its lid is 
ornamented dovrn the middle with the peculiar beaded strings of ornament 
and scallop-shells at intervals at the sides of these beaded lines, repeatedly 
noticed on leaden coffins found in the neighbourhood of London, as 
described in the ArchKologia, and by Mr. Roach Smith, in his Collectanea 
Antiqna, vol. iii. p. SO. There are three Roman coffins of lead in the 
BriUsh Museum ; one of these, found at Shadwell, is ornamented with 
scallop-shells. Near the coffins, discovered at East Ham, were some cinerary 
nms and other pottery, with fragments of glass, also two skeletons, 
which appeared to have been deposited in wooden cists. The leaden 
coffins measure in length about ^ft., 4ft., and 5ft. respectively, the 
contents in each instance being, as Mr. Bojle observes, mixed apparently 
with lime in a granulated state ; the bones in the stone cist were in better 
preservation than those in the leaden depositories, but this circumstance 
may be accounted for by the fact that the remains in these last were 
doubtless of children. Mr. Boyle has sent for inspection some of the 
fietilia ; they are of the description usually found near Roman interments, 
and include three vessels of ^aminn ware ; the potter's mark on one, a 


paleni, 8in. in diameter, being appuentlj— icebcitts ' F. — , or/ecU, a 
name whicli I have not before noticed ; on another tnay pouiblf be — 
itJtJrsi ; the third it a saucer, with tho naual ornamental leaves in relief 
aroand its rim. 

" There ia also a sepulchral olla of coaree brovm ware, and a small ei/lix 
of Buperior workmanship, but unfortunately broken ; it may he of Castor 
manufactnre, nud is of light red ware, faced with chocolate-brown, and 
elaborately engine-tomed. Ur. Boyle has also sent fragmeuts of very 
thin, colorless glass, probably Roman, but there is nothing to indicate 
what may have been the fashion of tho unguentary or other vase of which 
they are portions. The spot where these interments hare been found, 
indicating probably the position of a cemetery and of some more eitensive 
Roman occupation in that part of Essex than has been hitherto obserred, is 
aboot 900 yards west of the church of East Ilam, and at the base of the 
swelling ground which runs along the margin of tho East Ham Level. Tho 
circumstances which led to the diacovery ore remarkable, according to the 
particulars which Mr. Burtt related af^er his recent examination of tho 
site. The great high-lerel sewer, destined to coavey the impurities of 
the metropolis and to discharge them at an embovehwe about two miles 
distant from East Ham, consists of three tunnels or great culverts, side by 
ude, which, in the part adjacent to the Roman site and for some distance 
as the sewer traverses the marshy level, are constructed considerably above 
the surface, and are covered over with soil, so as to present the appearance 
of a long embankment about 20 feet in height. It was in obtuning soil 
or ballast, as the ganger stated to Mr. Burtt, to cover this great work, that 
the discovery occurred, on December 16th or 17th ult. : a piece of land 
adjoining the sewer has been taken, the top ' spit, ' a foot and a half deep, 
was removed temporarily, and the sand and gravel excavated to the depth 
of 10 or 13 feet over a large area. The find occurred near the edge of tho 
cutting. The stone sarcophagus was first exposed at a depth o^ about 
4 ft. 6 in. ; then the leaden coffins snirounded by the pottery ; lime appeared 
to have been placed around and over the coffins. The ballast thus obtained 
is sandy gravel ; the section at the edge Af the cutting is curious, and not 
without interest as an example of alluvial accumulations. In one port ap- 
peared a straight band a few inches thick ; above it a larger stratum, 
wholly of fine soft sand ; then a thin layer of small, clean, water-washed 
stones, lying loose, as if in a modem aquarium instead of having lain for 
centories under six feet of soil. 

" Leaden coffins have occurred repeatedly with Roman remains around 
London, near the Old Kent Read, at Stratford le Bow, Shadwell, and 
elsewhere. In several instancea the peculiar ornament of the beaded string 
and scallop shells in rehef has occurred. A remarkable example was 
brought to light in 1813, in operations for the water-works near the Deaf 
and Dumb Asylum, Kent Road. This coffin was decorated with bands, 
longitudinally, transversely, and diagonally, of the beaded pattern which 
has been noticed. At one end were two figures of Minerva, at the other 
two scallop shells.' Morant mentions, in his History of Colchester, p. 183, 

' Bit Robert Cotton inronued Wscret 
that a chert of lead wis found in lUt- 

EliS* FiaM, St^uey, the npper part of 

which wu " garaiihed with scslop shells FaArsl Monnm., p. SO ; Oougb'i 
■nd a erotister border." Thare warn two Uon. vot. i. p. 8*.) . ^,-.,-„-i|^ 
j»rt at the head and foot of thu coffin, . '^Ti.>'-'yi*- 


a leaden cofSa fannd there in 1749 ; it wag wrought nil over with loiengea, 
in each of which was a scallop ahell. Other examples have been recorded, 
chieflj near London. It maj deserre mention that, as Mr. Franks has 
pointed out to me, these scallops are eTidently casts from the naturnl 
shells, which have been used in forming the mould or bed, probably of sand, 
on which the leaden slab was cast destined to form the coffin-lid. The 
shells occar, as Mr. Burtt informs me, on two of the leaden coffins found 
ftt East Ham ; in one instance a single moulding with dirergent shells runs 
along the middle of the lid ; in the other these ornaments appear likewise 
at the sides of the cists. These leaden otsuaria are doubtless to bo 
attributed to a late period of Roman sway in Britain ; they ore remarkable 
not onljr as examples of Roman metallurgy, shewing considerable skill in 
the art of casting, but as evidence of tlie prevalence of interment without 

" I am bappy to learn from Mr. Rojle that careful drawings and photo- 
graphs of these interesting relics have been secured for the Essex Archteo- 
logical Society, under the care of a well-informed archteologist, Ur. H. W. 
King. It is satisfactory to know that the diacoTery will bo duly recorded 
in the Transactions of the Society of the county where it lias occurred, and 
which contain Taluablo materials for the history of the Roman times in 
Esse:c. Meanwhile I haTo gladly availed myself of the recommendation of 
myfriend, Mr. Colquhoun, and the kindness of Ur. Boyle, to invite attention 
to a discovery which doubtleas may be the precursor of more extensive 
investigations. It is the proper province, and declared purpose of our 
Society, to wateh over the progress of public works, and profit by informa- 
tion which may be brought to light in such operations as that which has 
now revealed vestiges of the Roman colonists near the Essex margin of tho 

Mr. Warwick Kixo made some observations on the same subject, and 
promised to bring at the ensuing meeting drawings which he had executed, 
representing the ancient remains diunterred at East Ham. 

VntitraUiti imQ tsatii at 9rt ej^Otita. 

By Mr. Walter L. Lavresce, P.S.A FhoEograph of a rudely sculp- 
tured tablet of stone, lately found, with numerous Roman remains, at 
Wycombe, near Andoveraford, Qloucestenhire. The sculpture measures 
10 in. by 7 in., and represents three figures in relief. The principal and 
central figure has been supposed to pourtray a chieftain in miUtary attire 
between two attendant musicians. He is apparently clad in the ehort- 
skirted panufa with a peaked hood or cveuilut, a fashion of Gaulish 
origin, and adopted by persons whose occupations exposed them to tlie 
weather. This garment had no sleeves, and it appears to have been open 
at the right aide. It may have been used by the Roman soldier in incle- 
ment regions, as it was also in the chase. There is n tablet at Netherby 
with three figures thoa attired, which was exhibited by the late Sir James 
Graham in the Museum at tho Carlisle Meeting of the Institute ; it has 
been figured in Pennant's Tour in Scotland, vol. ii. p. 83 ; Bruce's Roman 
Wall, p. 403. Another Roman sculpture with two figures in like cos- 
tume was found at Carlislo, and is figured, Archteologia, vol. x. p. 139. — 
Photograph of a well-preserved cranium and horn-cores of a Boi limgi/ront, 
the ancient species of ox existing in Britain as late as Roman limes. 



although its remains nre of compvatirely rue occurrence on Roman aiUs. 
Wjcombe, the place where these objects wore found, is supposed to have 
been the site of a large military station, with an adjacent town of some 
extent. The vestiges lately explored to a small extent bj Ur. Lawrence, 
may be traced over an area of about 25 acres ; foundations of extensive 
buildugs haTo been partially excavated, including a semicircular wall, 75 ft. 
in length, supposed to be part of an amphitheatre. No moiuc floor has 
hitherto been brought to light, but numerous hjpocaust tiles have been 
found, and minor relics, such ns coins, Samian and other pottery, personal 
ornaments, styli, keys, implemeuts, articles of the toilet, &,c. in abundance ; 
the coins extend from the earlier emperors to Aroadius, with some Romano- 
British coins of a later period. The most remarkable specimen of ancient 
art is a bronze draped statuette of Mars, of beautiful workmanship, mea- 
suring 3 in. in height. The site, which is on Mr. Lawrence's estates, has 
been traditionally regarded as a " burnt Roman city ;" it is probable that 
further researches might bring to light remains of considerable interest. 
A committee has been formed, and contributions are requested towards the 
excavations. It is the wish of the proprietor of the land that all anti- 
quities which may bo found should he depouted iu a Glouceaterabire 

Sy Mr. Hdufurbt Wickbah. — A specimen of medinval pottery found 
at Strood, in Kent, and beloogmg to Mr. W. J. West of that place. It is 
a pilgrim's bottle, or costrel, of pale yellow-colored ware, the upper 
port only being glazed. There are two small ears for suspension. Height 
6 in. A Bomenhat similar vessel is figureil, Journ. Arch. Ass., vol. t. 
p. 33. 

By Mr. Webb .--Several choice specimens of sculpture in ivory. 

February 5, lS6i. 
OcTATins MoRQAS, Esq., M.r., V.F.S.A., Vice-President, iu the Chair. 
Hr. Pumell reported further proceedings regarding the Bartlow tumuli. 
At the request of the Central Committee, the Rev. Edward Hill had con- 
sented to make a personal examinstion of the intended course of the 
branch line, &om which serious injury to those unique vestiges of Roman 
times is to be apprehended, and for which it appeared that an Act of Par- 
liament had been ohtuned during the last Session, and the conveyance of 
the land actually completed by the Viscount Uaynard, on whose estates 
the Bartlow gravo-mounds ai'O situated, Mr. Hill stated the results of 
his visit to Bartlow, in company with some residents in the neighbourhood 
who take interest in the preservation of these remmna Ho expressed 
bis opioion that the projected line carried at the foot of one of the most 
remarkable and best preserved of the Roman tumuli, rendering a deep 
cutting at its base requisite, must prove in no slight degree detrimental to 
that monument, uot withstanding tUo stringent conditions of the conveyance 
whereby the Railway Company had been required to construct sustaining 
walls in the cutting, for the support of the tumuli so needlessly invaded by 
their scheme of operations. It had been considered, however, as Mr. Hill 
stated, that the sacrifice might be made of a portion of the adjacent 

* Sm an aoooimt of Mi. Lawreoca's invaitigstions in Proo«eduig« Sos. Ant. vol. ii. 
•eeond Buio, p. 302 i Qeiil. Mig. D«c,1863,p. ti27i Jon, 18Bi,p.~M. i 


anialler tumnlm, nameljr, that nearest to the Tillage of Bartlofr, and 
irkicb Buffered coaaiderable mutilation some yean aince throngh injudi- 
cious excaTatiooB bj Sir Buaick Horwoad. 

The following resolutioa wna then proposed bj W. W. £. Wynne, Esq., 
M.P., seconded by W, 8. Walford, Esq., and unanimouflly adopted :— 
" The Uembcra of the Archeologicol Institute have received with sincero 
satisfaction the asBurance from the Engineer- in- Chief of the Qreat Eaatem 
Railway, expressing his disposition to accede to their request for the pre- 
servation of the Bartlow Hills, as far as may be consistent with the 
arrangements made under the Act of Parliament passed for the construc- 
tion of the line. Tho interest taken by the public in their preservation 
bos been abundantly shown by the Resolutions passed by various Anti- 
quarian Societies, and by the communications which hnvo appeared in the 
Times and other public Journals. In reliance upon the willingness of tlie 
Board of Directors to prescrTO monuments of so much archfeological 
interest, the Members of the Institute would suggest whether it might not 
be prEUiticable to alter tho gradient of the line from the point where it 
crosses the Saffron Walden and Linton road at a level, bo that the cutting 
between the Hills might be reduced in depth. They would suggest also 
that some deviation of the line towards the north-east might be found 
practicable, by which its course might be somewhat removed from the 
base of the principal Dill even at tlie partial sacriiice of the adjacent 
tuDinlus comparatively of minor interest." 

A memoir nas then read, addressed through Mr. C. S. Grcavos. Q.C., 
by Mr. Frank Calvert, relating to the site of Gergis in tho Troad. Printed 
in this volume, p> 48 ante. 

The Rev. H. M. SciRin, Prebendary of Wells, gave a report of the 
excavatiooa at IZrtocontum, subsequently to his statement read at tho 
Meeting of the Institute at Gloucester, and printed in this Journal, 
vol. zvii,, p. 240. Printed in this volume, infra. 

Mr. Hewitt contributed a notice of a tilting-helm, sent for the inspec- 
tion of tho Society by General Lefroy, having been lately acquired for the 
Armory at Woolwich arranged under his direction. This helm had formed 
part of the Brocas collection. Printed in this volume, p. 60 ante. 

The remarkable helm of the same period and general character, here 
figured, was exhibited, by kind permission of tho Rev. J. P. Alcock, Vicar 
of Ashford, Kent, in the Museum of the Institute at ihcir last annual 
meeting. It was provided with contrivances for attaching it to the breast 
and back-plates, not dissimilar to those in the fine example communicated 
by General Lefroy ; the perforated bar in front, however, described in Mr. 
Hewitt's memoir on that specimen has been lost, part of the binge alone 
remaining ; and at the back, part of a buckle only is now to be seen. 
There do not appear to have been staples for side-straps, as in the helm 
described by Mr. Hewitt ; but on the left side, near the lower edge, there 
are two rouud perforations connected doubtless with some adjustment for 
attaching the helm to the breast-plate ; the left side of the helm, being that 
most exposed in tilting to the stroke of tho adversary's spear, is strengtli- 
ened by a strong second plate, or piece de renfort, extending just beyond 
the fore-part, where a small staple and bolt are seen, apparently for attach- 
ment to the plate below. On the right side there is a rectangular open- 
ing (about 3J inches by 2\), and, on the left side, a regular ovbJ aperture, 
shown in the woodcut ; the latter only boa closely-sot rivet-beads round 


its edge. At first sight the conjcctare appears probable tbat both theso 
apertores were for TeDtilation, like the cruciform and other breathing holes 
ia the behns of an earlier period ; but possibly tbat on the left side may 
have been a pai:C injured ia conflict and repaired bj an oval plate rireted 
on i the helm, howeTcr, of Sir John Croaby, formerly in St. Helen's 
church, BIshopegate, has a circular plate with numerous small perforations 
for air a£Gicd on the side near tho right car. He died in 1475. The, 
tilting-helm from Ashford cliurch, here figured, may be regarded as an' 
ciamplo of value, its date being known ; it vraa part of the funeral aohieTe- 
ment over the altar-tomb of Sir John Fogge, Treasurer and Comptroller 
of the Household of Edirard IV. He died in 1499, baring been a liberal 
benefactor to the fabric of Ashford church and to the town. The weight 
of this helm is 23 lb. 15 oz. 

Tflttng-balmat ia AjhAjrd Cluing, Ksn 

A short communication was receired from Mr. C. Wimstor, inTitiug 
the attention of the Institute to the discovery, during the previous month, of 
a leaden coflln at Barton near the Bishopstoke station of the South- Western 
Railway. It contained tho skeleton, as ■ supposed, of a female, accom- 
panied by several ompvlltB or unguontaries of glass, of various forms i 
these vessels lay in fragments over tho right shoulder. The coffin was 
deposited with the head towards the west. It was enclosed iu a wooden 
cheat, which had wholly decayed.* 

• An account of IhU diicoTery is given, Jonrn. Brit. Arch. Asmc, 1884, pp. 83^ 
189 ; QenL M«g., Much 188i, p- 380. ^ ^ ^ CioOfi Ic 


By the Ber. C. W, Kino. — EDgraviiigs of Etruscan palttavea and a celt 
of bronce in tbe collection of Ur. Wotropp of Cork. Theso ezunptes 
differ in manj respects from the wenpona or implementa of their ctoss found 
. in our own country, in France, or in Germany j they present a group of no 
slight intereRt for purpoBOS of comparison in 
prosecuting the obscure ques^on of the nso 
and origin of these objects, occurring in soch 
remarkable variety of types, whilst those of 
each country respectively appear to be dig- 
tingnished by some characteristio peculiarity of 
fashion or detail. See woodcuts. The celt 
deserves notice on account of the flanges along 
its entire length, and the perforation at the 
narrow end. It measures & in. in length. Com- 
pare one from Herculaueum figured by Caylns, 
Rccueil d'Antiqa., torn. ii. p. 321. Of the 
other speolfnens here figured the largest mea- 
snres 9 in. in length ; it is of remarkable 
fat&ion, and finished very skilfully ; another, 
ornamented with numerons impressed con- 
centric circles, meaBurea 6| in, in length. 
C&ylus gives two, of singular types, from 
Uerculanenm, ornamented with impressed cir- 
cles. Of these bronze imptements one ia 
socketed, and fnmished with singnlar lateral 
hooks. CayluB, it( supra, pi. zcii., xciv. See 
also the accompanying woodcut.* 

By Mr. W. Wabwick Krsa. — Drawings of 
the Roman sarcophagus, the leaden coffins, 
vessels of Samian and other wares brought to 
light at Bast Ham, Essex, oa related at the 
previous meeting. See p. 94, ante. 
(^^raud broiua Ddt iMm By Mr. Samuel Dodd. — A facsimile of an 
origiDii^w'ijainEAM. inscribed slab near Penzance, firat noticed in 
1700 by Edward Llwyd, and described and 
figured by Borlaae, in his Antiquitioa of Cornwall. It formerly aerved as part 
of a foot-bridge across a mountain rivulet between Gulval and Madron, the 
inecribed face being turned downwards, so that the inscription could only 
be riewed by pas^ng beneath in the bed of the brook. It has been lately 
removed, and is now placed erect by the side of a hedge near the bridge. 
The spot is approached by a picturesque walk from Chyandower, the north- 
western suburb of Penzance, and is known as Blue Bridge, in a dingle 
ealled Barlowina Bottom. The inscription has been thus read, — qvehatau 
BELisiHVi FiLiVB, — or, according to Borlase,— QVEHATva lODiNVi pnjva. 
This inscription is noticed in Murray's Cornwall, p. l28. Mr, Dodd is 

' Thi« I . 

noUced by Ur. Junaa Titea In bis He- 
TBcAt on ths UM of o«lt* in tallitBij 

OS, In thU Jonmn], vol. vL pb 


> GtruBOSD Celt KOd F&UUTes. 
th« CoUmUdq dT Hr. Wottropp, Cork. 


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dispoMd to regard th« name aa identical vlth that of Cyncddav, a BriLisli 
vorthj who lired about a.d. 380, called by NenninB Cimedag, and in tbo 
lolo US. Cunedda or Cjnneddaf. 

B7 Ur. H. Dbnnt, A.L.S., vtth tbe obli^ngpermiBsion of Ur. Nanneley, 
Bon. Curator, Antign. aad Art Department, Philo). and Lit. Soc. at Leeds. 
— An Anglo-Sazoa brooch of Bilvered metal, partly gilt and ornamented 
with n central boss formed of a piece of shell, surrounded by four thin flat 
pieces of garnet in cruciform arrangement set over bright metallio foil ; 
the interrening spaceB are chased with intorlaeed patterns. The centre of 
the boea was donbtleBS originally enriched with a small plate of garnet, 
and aronnd the rim are zigzag ornaments in niello. This beautiful orna- 
ment measures 1^ in. in diameter. It closely resembles specimens found 
at Oilton and Kingston, Kent, and now in tbe Faussett Collection in Mr. 
Ifayer's posaession ; they were exhibited by the kindness of that gentlemnn 
in tbe Museum at the Bocbester meeting, Seo the Inrentorium Sepnl- 
chrale, by Mr. Boach Smith, pi. iii. fig. 1, 7, 9, ice. The brooches thero 
figured differ chiefly from that exhibited in baring three ornaments of 
garnet only instead of four. With this relic of Sazon jewelry there are pre- 
senred in tbe Leeds Museum an iron shield-boss of tbo form commonly 
found in Kent (Inr. Sep. pi. xr. fig. 14) a broken iron sword, and a spear- 
head measnring 15} in, in length. These relics were, as stated, formerly 
in the possession of the lato Mr. Lana Fox, of Brambam Park, near 
TadcBSter, and were accompanied by a note by Mr. T. S. Prescott, stating 
that they were found on tbo breast of a man in a stone cist or coffin, tbo 
hair and tcetli being perfectly preserved, and that they were shown to an 
antiquary at Dover, by whom they were pronounced to be Saxon. Unfor- 
tunately tbe precise place is not mentioned ; the interment in question was 
probably bronght to light in the parish of Ouston, near Dover, where a 
person named Prescott formerly had a farm ; the Dover Castle Farm, on 
the summit of the Castle Hill, was also in his occupation. — Two smalt bones 
or bnmisbing stones of fine gnuned greenish stone (chlorite?) found in 
1841 at Drewton, near North Care, in the Bast Riding of Yorkshire ; one 
of them measures 2| in. in length ; it is perforated at one end for suspen- 
MOn ; tbo other which has been much worn by use is broken. — Three silver 
rings, one of them of liv. cent., inscribed, — ijrl mims t^[ snttn + — 
another having ten knobs around the hoop, used for- devotional purposes 
instead of a string of beads or numeralia, on tbe head is engraved the 
sacred monogram with three nails, emblematic of the cruoifiiion ; the third 
may have been a betrothal ring, inscribed ont«ide — Feare god — and within 
tbe hoop 4- BE • TRVE ■ iir ■ hart ■ The objects above described are pro- 
served in the Museum of the Philosophical and Literary Society at Leeds. 

By Mr. Octatiub Morgan, M.P. — Thirteen ornamental objects of silver 
curiously chased, collected by an officer of rank in India ; their date and 
use has not been ascertuoed. Thoy consisted of a miniature model of a 
tmunud, or throne with a canopy resembling an umbrella ; a diminntive 
bell ; massive and richly chased spoons ; a salver bearing a Sanscrit 
inscription i two ingeniously constructed ornaments in form of fish, with 
pliable scales, and a cylindrical vessel elaborately wronght with flowers, 
Jtc. Some of these objects are believed to be of considerable antiquity. 

By Hr. NPNNXLBr, Hon. Curator for the Antiquarian and Art Deport- 
ment, Leeds Philoeopbical Society. — A beautiful and massive gold ring, 
reported to have been found at Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire ; around tbe 
hoop ia the posy, — gnbme bonl — (Muveruv eoui) with small trailing flowers 


Boparoting the words, and doubtlesB originally enriclied witli bnamel, 
Within ue engraved fire trefoils, and on each of these is a letter, not 
to bo deciphered utiafactorilf. 

By Hr. W, Bcboes. — A oorered cap encrusted vith mother of pearl ; 
a cbaUce enriched with precious stones, in imitation of one of early form t 
also a. knife and fork with handles decorated with filagree-work of the 
Boventeenth century. — Photograph of an eiquiutely illuminated page in 
possession of M. Alexandre de la Hercbe, of Boauvais ; it depicts four 
scenes, — Savage Life, represented by a family in a desert, contrasted with 
Base, a charming delineation of an industrious carpenter in a well-foniished 
workshop, with his wife and child ; Misery, in squalid wretchedness in' a 
hoTcl ; and Wealth, an eiqniuto interior of the dining hoU of a rich 
burgher, surrounded bj luxuries, a cupboard of costly plate, im. The 
illumination appears to be of most deUcate execution, French art in the 
fifteenth century. 

Ueoiatal Sbals. — By Mr. Ferquson, of Morton, Carlisle. — Impression 
of a brass matrix found in the town of Lanark, and now in possession of 
Mr, Adam Sim of Biggar, N. Britain. The seal is of circular form, diam. 
rather more than i inch t date fifteenth ceutury ; the doTice is a triangle 
with a small circle at each of its angles, possibly aymbolicol of the Holy 
THuity. The legend, in old English letters, not sstisfootorily decyphered, 

seems to begin thus — Si : ^ttren (? for Evan) It will he noticed 

in Mr. Henry Laing's forthcoming catalogue of Scottish seals collected in 
public and prirate depositories since the publication of his ?alaable roluuo 
by tho Bannatyne Club.' 

By Mr. Readt. — Impresuon of a matrix, probably of lead, stated to bare 
been found at Strood, near Rochester ; it has not been ascertained where 
the original seal now exists. This example is triangular or esoutoheoo* 
shsped, measuring about I| inch in width at top, and each of the other 
udos of tiiQ triangle IJ inch. Tho whole of the central compartment, 
surrounded by the inscribed margin, is charged with cinquefoils or attgammat, 
4, 3, 2, 1 ; the legend is as foUqws :— ^ a' nEHTB&NDl os terketo. 
Date twelfth century. At the upper edge there was a loop Jor suspension, 
OB frequently found in leaden mati'ices of the period. Vernetum, or ver~ 
nagium, according to Ducange, signified on alder-grove, alnetum ; Fr. 
verne or vergne, an .alder ; Roquefort. The bearing on this ourious seal 
may seem, however, to have reference to the flowers of spring, " illud quod 
seniinatnr tempore veris," according to one of the old Olossatisls, whilst 
elsewhere we find Fern explained as " Roa Syriacus — floa arbotia que 
dicitur aluus." 

The Rev. JonH Eesrick, F.S.A., Curator of the rich assemblage of 
antiquities in the Museum of tho Yorkshire Philosophical Society, announces 
for immediate publication a Selection of papers on Archeology and History 
commnnicated to that body, and relating to the Knighta Templars in 
Yorkshire, the traditions of Pontefract Castle, numismntie discoveries, a 
tablet of tho reign of Trajan found at York, kc. Subscribers' names are 
received by Mr. Dallas, at the Museum, York, 

* This nipplementuy volume will be Mr. HonrjlAio^sformarcatalagne, Sob- 
printed OS soon M 100 lubgcnbars ore Bcribars' nunea 4re raoeived hy Usura. 
obtained : H will oontain deiariptioiis, Edmonitan, or by the author, 3, Elder 
witb woodoDts, fto. of more tlun 1200 Street, Edinbuish, Piio^ tosnbscriben, 
ceoli obtained siaoe the publioalion of two gnineos. 


f (|) 

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Prom dmwlDiii b; Hr. Henry DBmipMt Oimhatn. 
[Dluwila or Uie lutnt clrtX "Vint H iiiEln.1 


) by Google 

) by Google 

Bt BdwarcttbBOonfeBBorftiTBB Mb Ring to 8t, John diflftuiHBdSHS. Pilgrim 


ZU 9rc|raeolofiical Journal. 


Bt EDMUND WATERTON, Z.1C., K. Oh., 7.B.A. 

For sereral centuries the Rings of England were wont to 
bless or to " hallow " certain rings, which were to be worn as 
of virtue against the cramp and the falling sickness. This 
appears to have been a custom exercised exclusively by the 
monarchs of England, and the last who so blessed cramp 
rings was Queen Mary. 

The origin of this custom is obscure. The historians only 
state that the ring of Saint Edward the Confessor was kept 
for some time in Westminster Abbey, as a relic of the holy 
man ;' that it was applied for curing the falling sickness ; 
and that this practice led the succeeding Kings of England 
to bless rings on Good Friday against the cramp and 
epilepsy. This very meagre account is the only one given, 
and no reason is alleged why the former should have given 
rise to the latter practice. 

The history of Saint Edward's ring is related by several 
writers, and is to be found in his various biographies,^ After 
comparing the different versions, I have selected that given 
by Caxton in the " Golden Legend," which is as follows : — 

" Whan the blessyd Kyng Edwarde had lyvid many yeres 

■ SMPolrdoreVortp!, i.o.Tiii. p. 187; Elsaaor, Qaeen of Hear; III., lately 

•d. lOiB. Also Uurpafeld, udo, si. o. iiL edited by Mr. Luard for the terix of 

p. 219; ed. 1B23. ahroQlolw publiihad under direution of 

3 Sea Alnred RiraU. ooL 3ST, Bromp- the Muter of the BoIIj, p. 122: and 

toD, cbron. 956. Alio the Fraaoh Ho- the Latin Lifo of the Conftuor m the 

trital Life of St Edmid, dedicated to Bodleian UbtMT,At(2.,n.ST^.,j, 


and was 'fallen in to grete age, it happed he came rydjnge by 
a chjrche in Essexe, callyd Claverynge, whiche was at that 
tyrae in halouynge, and Bholde be dedycate in the honour of 
our lorde and saynt Johan the evangelyste. Wherfore the 
kyng, for grete devocyon, liighte downe, and taryed while 
the chyrche was in hallouynge : and in the time of processyon 
a fayre olde man came to the kyng aad demaunded of hym 
almea in worship of God and Saint John Evangelyst. 
Thenne the kynge fonde noo thynge redy to gyve : ne bis 
amener was not present, but took of the ryng fro his fynger 
and yave it unto the pour man : whom the pour man 
thanked and departed. And wytliin certayn yeres after, 
ij pylgrymes of Englonde went in to the Holy Londe, for to 
visyte holy places there, and as they had lost theyr way, and 
were gone fro theyr felyship, and the nyghte approched, and 
they sorowed gretly as they that wyst not whyder to goo, 
and dred sore to be perysshid among wylde beates. At the 
last they sawe a fayre companye of men arrayed in white 
clothyng, with two lyghtes born afore theym. And behynde 
theym there came a fayr auncyent man wyth white heer for 
age. Thenne thyse pylgryms thonghte to folowe the lyght 
and drewe nigh. Thenne the olde man axed theim what 
they were, and of what regyon. And they anawerde that 
they were pylgryms of Englonde and had lost theyr felyship 
and way also. 

"Thenne thia olde man comforted theym goodly, and 
brought theim in to a fayr cyte, where there was a fayre 
cenacle, honestli arrayed wyth all maner of deyntees. And 
whan they had well refreashid theym, and rested there all 
nyghte; on the mome thia fayr olde man wente wyth theym 
and broaghte theym in the ryght waye agayne. And he was 
gladde to here theym talke of the welfare and holynesse of 
thejT Kyng Saynt Edwarde. And whan he sholde departe 
fro theym, thenne he tolde theym what he was, and sayd, 
I am John thevangelyst, and say ye unto Edwarde your 
kyng, that I grete hym well, by the token that he gaaf to 
me this rynge wyth hia owne hondes at the halowyng of my 
chirche, wliiche rynge ye ahall delyrer to hym agayn. And 
say ye to hyra that he dyspoae hia goodes. For wythin 
five monethea he shall be in the joye of heven wyth roe, 
where he shall have hia rewarde for his chastite and for his 
good lyvinge : And drede ye not for ye shall spede right 


well in your joamey, and ye shall come home in shorte tyme 
sauf and souode. And whan he had delyverde to theim the 
ryng he departed fro theym sodenly, and soon after they 
cam home and dyde theyr message to the kinge, and 
delyverde to hym the rynge, and sayd that John the Evan- 
gelyst sent it to hynu And as soone as he herde that name 
he was ful of joye, and for gladnes lete fallo teres fro his 
eyeo, givynge lawde and thankyng to Almyghty God, and 
to Saynt John his avowry that he wolde vouchesauf to lete 
him have knowlege of his departyng out of this worlde. 

" Also he had a nother token of Saynte John, and that 
was that the two pilgrimes sholde deyo before him, whiche 
thing was provyd true, for they lyvid not longe after. And 
at the fest of Crystmasae the kyng was soke, and on the 
day of thynaocentes he herde masse in the newe Chirche of 
Westmestre, which he had new reedefyed, and thefie he, 
givyng thankinges unto Almyghty God, retoumed in to his 
chamber sore seke, there abidynge the mercy of our Lorde."* 

Of the history of this ring there are two accounts ; one is, 
that the Confessor in his last illness gave the ring which be 
wore to the Abbot of Westminster. Such is the statement 
of Alban Butler, who says that it is so related by William 
Caxton, in the reign of Henry VI., in his MS. Chronicle of 
England.* There is a belief that Havering, in the parish of 
Homchurch in Essex, was so called from having this ring, 
but there is no foundation for the statement. One of the 
royal hunting-seats in Waltham Forest was called the Bower, 
and Saint Edward was dwelling there when the pilgrims 
dehvered the ring to him. Another account alleges that 
from that time this royal hunting-seat was called Havering- 
atte-Bower. Morant ia inclined to derive the name from 
the Saxon h(E/er, a goat, and ing, pasture ; — the goat's feed- 
ing place, or pasture ;' but Caxton, in the Golden Legend, 
calls this place Claverynge." At Romford, which appears to 
have been the parish church of Homchurch, the history of 
this ring was represented in stained glass, and the king was 
figured with these words underneath : — " Johannes per 
peregrinos misit Regi Edwardo . . . ." When Dart wrote 
his History of Westminster Abbey, the statues of Saint 

* Qoldeo Legend, Caiton, t ccciiiL ' Morent'i Bnax. toI. ii. p. 58. 

' Botlor, LdTw of tbs ^uta, vol. x. ' Oaldeu Legend, ut ii^o. 


Edward and the pilgrims were, according to his statement, 
over the Courts of King's Beach and Common Pleas in 
Westminster Hall, and oyer the gate going into the Dean's 
Yard. The fltory is also wrought in bas-reSef in the Abbey 
Church of Westminster, in the chapel where Saint Edward's 
relics lie at the back of the screen which divides them from 
the altar.' It was also embroidered in the hangings of the 
choir, with these verses under the figures of Saint John and 
Saint Edward : — 

" Villibus in panDig mendicat imago JohaDuis. 
Rex dftt ei munus : dooum fecit annulua unua. 
Aonulus iste datus mitteute Johanne relatus 
Begi scire moram Titn dat mortis et boram." 

The same subject, according to Caxton's Chronicle, was 
represented in a window in the south aisle, next to that over 
the door leading into the west side of the cloisters ; under- 
neath the figures were these verses ; — 

" Rex cui nil aliud presto fuit, accipe, dixit, 
AdduIuio, et ex digito detrahat ille buo. 
. . Evangelist . . villa Jobannis 
gra^a petit."' 

Prefixed to an abbreviated copy of the Domesday Book in 
the Public Kecord Office, are three pages, each containing 
two representations of incidents in the life of the Confessor, 
as described by Abbot Ailred. The earlier years of the 
thirteenth century may bo assigned as the period of their 
execution, but they are earlier than any of the architectural 
or other representations previously referred to. The last of 
these illuminations represents St. John, in the habit of a 
pilgrim, receiving the King's present, and it is described by 
a quotation from the biographer (p. 397) — "De annulo 
quern sanctus Eex beato Johanni Evangeliste dcdit et 
quomodo eundem receperit." A woodcut of this interesting 
delineation, to which my attention has been called by our 
obliging friend Mr. Burtt, accompanies this memoir. Another 
remarkable illustration of the same subject occurs ia the 
MS. Life of the Confessor, in the Public Library at Cam- 
bridge, written about X245. 

' TbesB curiolu series of subjects of to b« found In pi. lit. p. S8, edit. 18SS. 
ths Confessor's life are GguT«d iu * Dar^ Antiqn. of Wwim., roL L p. 

Cuier*B Sculpture and Painting in Eng. GO. 
land : the incidents here refcirnd to are , -■ ■ 



At his coronation Edwaxd II. offered a pound of gold 
wrought into a figure representing Saint Edward holding a 
ring, and a mark of gold, or eight ounces, worked into the 
figure of a pilgrim putting fori^ his hand to receive the ring. 

It appears, however, that Saint Edward's ring was de- 
posited with his corpse in the tomb. His translation took 
place on the third of the ides of October (Oct. 13), a.d. 
1163, seventy-seven years after his burial. This solemn 
ceremony was performed at midnight, and on opening his 
coffin the body was found to be incomipt. On this occasion 
the Abbot Lawrence took from the body of the sainted king 
hia robes and the ring of Saint John ; of the robes the abbot 
made three copes, as appears from the following entry in the 
catalogue of the reUcs of the Saint, The abbot also gave 
the ring to the abbey. — " Dompnus Laurentius quondam 
abbas hujus loci .... sed et annulo ejusdem (Sancti 
Edwardi) quem Sancto Johanni quondam tradidit, quern et 
ipse de paradise remisit, elapsis annis duobus et dimidio, 
pOBtea in nocte translationis de digito regis tuUt, et pro 
miraculo in loco isto custodiri jussit." The same MS. con- 
tains the indulgences to be gained by those who visited the 
holy relics : — " Ad annulum Sancti Edwardi vj. ano. 
iijcxi dies."" No further mention has been found of Saint 
Edward's ring. 

The precise date when the Eings of England commenced 
to bless rings regarded as preservatives against the cramp, 
or against epilepsy, the morbus Sancti Johannis, is uncertain. 
The earliest mention of the practice which I have found 
occurs in the reign of Edward II. 

It appears that on Good Friday, when the King went to 
adore the cross, he was wont to make an offering of money ; 
that the money so offered was redeemed by a sum of equiva- 
lent value ; and that the money so redeemed was converted 
into rings, which were then " hallowed" by the king. The 
prayer used in the blessing of the rings implores — "ut 
omnes qui eos gestabunt, nee eos infestet vel nervorum con- 
tractio, vel comitialis morbi periculum." And the King, to 
impart this salutary virtue, rubbed the rings between hia 
bands, with this invocation,' — " Manuum nostrarum confrica- 

* 0« fnD<Uoi«ao eccle«« Wwtm., by 33. 
Rie. Sporlm, • mook of tba Kbhej, a.d. ■ Lia&i, Hut. of the aarter, vol. i p. 

1430: M83. Cotfc CUud. A. viii. ff. 83, 223. l.k")0<7lc 


tione quas olei sacri infusione externa sanctificare digoatus 
es pro ministerii noatri mode consecra," Sec. 

Hitherto these rings are simply described as anntdi. But 
in the 44th of Edward III., in the account book of John de 
Ipre, or Ypres, they are termed medicinales. 

In the last chapter of the coostitations of the Household 
settled in the reign of Edward II., the following entry 
appears: — " Item le Eoi doit ofirer de certein lejourde grant 
vendredi a crouce v.j. queux it est acustumez receirre devers 
lui a la mene le chapelein aiair ent anulx a donner par 
medicine az divers gentz." 

In the Eleemosyna Roll of 9th Edward III. the following 
entry occurs : — " In oblacione domini Regis ad crucem de 
Gneythe die parasceres in capella sua infra mannerium suum 
de Clipstone, in precium duorum florencium de Floreucia, 
xiiij. die Aprilis, Yi.s. viij.c^., et in denariis quos posuit pro 
dictis florenciia reassumptis pro annulis medicinalHus inde 
faciendis, eodem die, -n.s. \ summa xii.«. viiLt/." ^ 

In the Eleemosyna Eoll of 10th Edward III. we hare the 
following entry : — " In oblacione domini Hegis ad crucem 
de Gneyth in die parasceves apud Eltham, xxix. die Marcii 
Y.S., et pro iisdem denariis reassumptis pro annulis inde 
faciendis per manus Domini Johannis de Crokeford eodem 
die, v.«." And in the following year : — " In oblacione domini 
regis ad crucem de Gneyth in capella sua in pcho de Wynde- 
sore die parasceres t.«., et pro totidem denariis reassumptis 
pro annulia inde faciendis, t.s." ' 

In the accounts of John de Ypres, 44th Edward III., the 
following entries are found : — " In oblacionibua Regis factis 
adorando crucem in capella sua infra castrum suum de 
Wyndesore die parasceves in pretio trium nobihum auri et 
quinque solidorum sterling*, xxy.i. — In denariis solutis pro 
iisdem oblacionibus reassumptis pro annulis medicinalibus 
inde faciendis, ibidem, eodem die, xxv.5." 

The same entries occur in the 7th and 8th Henry 17. 

In the 8th Edward lY. mention occurs that these cramp 
rings were made of silver and of gold, as appears by the 
following entry : — " Pro eleemosyna in die parasceves c. 
marc, et pro annulis de auro et atgento pro eleemosyna 
Regis eodem die," &c. And a Privy Seal of the next year, 

1 M33. CoA. Ken, C. viiL C 209. > Ibid. ff. 212, 213, b. 



amoDgst other particulars, enumerates, — " Item, paid for tlie 
Kiog'a Qood Fryday rings of gold and silver, xxxiii./. vi.s. 

Mention of these rings is also found in the Comptroller's 
accounts in the 20th Henry VII. 

A MS. copy of the Orders of the King of England's 
Household, 13th Henry VIII;, 1521-22, preserved in the 
Imperial Library at Paris {No. 9986), contains "the order 
of the Kinge's of England, touching his coming to service, 
hallowing y< crampe rings, and offering and creeping to the 
Crosse." * 

" First the king to come to the closett or to the chappell 
with the lords and noblemen wayting on him, without any 
sword to bee borne before him on that day, and there to 
tany in his travers till the bishop and deane have brought 
forth the crucifix out of the vestry {the almoner reading the 
service of the cramp rings) layd upon a cushion before the 
high altar, and then the huishers shall lay a carpet before 
y' for y« king to creepe to the crosse upon : and y' done, 
there shall be a fourme set upon the carpet before the 
crucifix, and a cushion layd before it for the king to kneele 
on ; and the Master of the Jewell house shal be ther ready 
with the crampe rings in a basin or basins of silver ; the 
king shall kneele upon the sayd cushion before the fourme, 
and then must the clerke of the closett bee ready with the 
booke conteyninge y* service of the hallowing of the said 
rings, and the almoner must kneel upon the right hand of 
the king, holding of the sayd booke, and when y* is done 
the king shall rise and go to the high altar, where an huisher 
must be ready with a cushion to lay for his grace to kneele 
upon, and the greatest Lord or Lords being then present 
shall take the basin or basins with the rings and bear them 
after the king, and then deliver them to the king to offer ; 
and this done the queen shall come down out of her closett 
or travers into the chappell with ladies and gentlewomen 
wayters on her, and creepe to the crosse ; and that done she 
shall retume againe into her closett or travers, and then the 
ladies shall come downe and creepe to the crosse, and when 
they have done, the Lords and noblemen shall in likewise." ' 

* Cited In an iatsreatiiig Dotico of quoted in tba notice of cnrnp-rings 
Orders of the Koyal HoiinhoM, t. Hea. b; Mr. SteveneoD. Oant. Hag- tdL L 
VIII., QcDt. Mig. to). L N. S. p. 48. N. S. 1834, p. 40, 

* Cod. BibL Imp. rarie, do. adStt; ,- , 

v.,.xx,. r.„ „„,C,oqt^!lc 


Chancellor Fortescue uses an argument 'which shows that 
the saDatire virtue of these rings was held, as in the above- 
mentioned litual, to be derived from the anointing of the 
king's hands with the sacred chrism at the coronation. In 
his defence of the House of Lancaster, he says, — "Item 
EegibuB AnglisQ regah ipso officio plura incumbunt, qaso 
naturse muliebri adversantur ;' " then, after setting forth the 
cure of the king's evil, he proceeds, — " Item aurum et 
argentum sacris unctis manibus Regum AngliEo in die 
Paschffi " (it should have been in die Parasceves), " divinorum 
tempore quemadmodum Eegea Anglise annuatim facere 
Solent, tactum devote et oblatum, spasmodicos et caducos 
curant quemadmodum per annulos ex dicto auro seu argento 
factos et digitis bujusmodi morbidorum impositos multis in 
muadi partibus crebro usu expectum est. Quie gratia Reginis 
non conferatur, cum ipste in manibus non ungantur."" 

These cramp rings hallowed by the Kings of England were 
celebrated throughout Europe, and were in great repute. 
Lord Bemers, the translator of Froissart, when ambassador 
to Charles V., writing to " my Lorde Cardinall's grace from 
Saragoza, the xxi. dale of June," 1510, says — "If your grace 
remember me with some crampe rynges ye shall do a thynge 
muche looked for, and I trust to bestow thaym well, with 
Godd's grace, who evermor preserve and encrease your moste 
reverent astate."' 

The Emperor's jewel case, according to Mr. Stirling, was, 
as might be supposed, rather miscellaneous than valuable in 
its contents, amongst which were various charms, such as 
the bezoar stone against the pl^ue, and gold rings from 
England against the cramp." 

A letter from Dr. Thomas Magnus, Warden of Sibthorpe 
College, Nottinghamshire, to Cardinal Wolsey, written in 
1526, contains the following curious passage : — " Pleas it 
your Grace to wete that M. Wiat of his goodnes sent unto 
me for a present certaine cramp ringges, which I distri- 
buted and gave to sondery myne acquaintaunce at Edin- 
burghe, amonges other to M. Adame Otterboume, who, with 
oone of thayme, releved a mann lying in the falling sekenes, 
in the sight of myche people ; sethcnne whiche tyme many 
requestes have been made unto me for cramp ringges, at 


my departing there, and also sethenne my comjng frame 
thennes. May it pleas your Orace therefore to show your 
gracious pleasure to the said M. Wyat, that some ringgea 
may be kept and seut into Scottelande ; whiche after my 
poore oppynnyoun shulde be a good dede, remembering 
the power and operacion of thayni is kuowiie and proved 
in Edinburgh, and that they be gretly required for the same 
cause both by grete personnages and other."^ 

From a passage in Burnet's History of the Reformation 
it appears that Henry VIII. ceased to hallow cramp rings 
afler he was declared to be the head of the Church of Eng- 
land as by law established. Burnet says — " When he • 
(Gardiner) went to Rome, in the year 1529, Anne Boleyn writ 
a rery kind letter to him, which I hare put in the Collection 
(Records, No. 24). By it^ the reader will clearly perceive that 
be was then in the secret of the King's designing to marry 
her as soon as the divorce was obtained. There is another 
particular in that letter, which corrects a conjecture which I 
had set down in the beginning of the former book concern- 
ing the cramp rings that were blessed by Kmg Henry, 
which I thought might have been done by him after he was 
declared head of the Church. That part was printed before 
I saw this letter ; but this letter shows they were used to 
be blessed before the separation from Rome ; for Anne 
Boleyn sent them as great presents thither. This use of 
them had been (it seems) discontinued in King Edward's 
time ; but now, under Queen Mary, it was designed to be 
revived, and the office for it was written out in a fair manu- 
script yet extant, of which I have put a copy in the Collection 
(No. 25). But the sOence in the writers of that time makes 
me think it was seldom if ever practised."* 

In a letter from Gardiner (1547), written to Ridley, 
who had preached against images, is this passage : — " The 
late King used to bless cramp rings both of gold and mlver 
which were much esteemed every where, and when he was 
abroad they were often desired from him. This gift he hoped 
the young king would not neglect. He believed the invo- 
cation of the name of God might give such a virtue to holy 
water as well as to the water of baptism."" 

• MSS. Cott, Calig. B. ii., fol. 116 toI. U. p. flSi, ei 1829. Collection of 

(formerly 112), cited by Mr. BtoreaMn, Reoord*, No. 2B, Mm Striekland'* Liv«« 

(hut. Mag. »ol. L N. S. p. 60. of the «ue«n« of EDgluia, voL iv. p. SOS. 

' Bonet'a Hirt. of the EeformaUon, ' Ibid., p. 2*. l ooolc 


Queen Mary (whose hands were anointed at her corona- 
tion) revived the blessing of the cramp rings, as well as 
the touching for the king's evil ; and her illuminated Manual, 
which she used on these occasions, is now in the possession 
of Cardinal Wiseman. By the kind permission of His Emi- 
nence I was enabled to submit this precious MS. to the 
inspection of the Institute. 

On the second leaf of the MS. the service for the blessing 
of the rings begins with this rubric : — 

" Certeyne Prayers to be used by the Quenes Heighnes 
in the Consecracion of the Cramperings." 

The next rubric is as follows : — " The Rynga lyeng in 
one bason or moo, this Prayer shall be said over them," &c. 
This is followed by the " Benedictio Annttlorum," consisting 
of several short formulae and sentences. Then another rubric 
sets forth : — 

" These Prayers beinge saJde, the Queenes Heighnes rub- 
beth the Rings betwene her handes, sayinge Sanclifica Do- 
mine Annulos," Sec. 

" Thenne must holly water bo caste on the rings, sayeng, 
* In nomine Pairis etfilii et spiritus sancti,' Amen." Followed 
by two other prayers. 

This Formula is printed by Buraet.' 

Miss Strickland claims the blessing of the cramp rings as 
the peculiar privilege of the Queens of England.* But her 
argument falls to fiie ground when tested by collateral and 
official documents. It is to this effect, — that the other 
Queens of England must have blessed them, because Queen 
Mary did so. 

This is the evidence which I have been able to collect 
concerning the blessing of cramp rings by the sovereigns of 
England. Cramp rings of another sort may form the subject 
of a memoir on a future occasion, I regret that I am unable 
to accompany this essay on royal cramp rings by the repre- 
sentation of any example, but I have never met with a spe- 

' Eittory of the Reformation. Vol. ome trota which Burnet printed the 

ii p. 2B6 of Recorda, Book U. no. formals. 

»T. " Ex MS. in BibUoth. R. Smith, * Lirea of the QaMia of Gnglaad, 

Lond." The poasetaor of thll predoui vol. i*. p. 208. In lytler'i Lettars from 

TOlume at thU period im, it is belisred, the State Paper Offioe the eaToji of 

the titular Bidiap of Ch»loedon; the Queen Marj r«qiie«t tbat aonie iiawlj- 

HS. now in the libriuy of Cardinal hallowed cramp tingi ahonld be fant for 

WiMinaD, to which isfoKDOa ban boea diatribuUon. 

made in thig memoir, 1* apparent!; the ( OOqIc 


cimen that could, with any certainty, be pronounced a royal 
cramp ring ; neither have I found any description of the 
rings made, as the entries state, from the gold and siWer 
coins offered by the King on Good Friday, and then redeemed 
by an equivalent sum. Probably they were plain hoop rings. 
In the will of John Baret, of Bury St. Edmunds, 1463, a 
bequest is made to "my lady Walgrave" of a "rowund 
ryng of the kynges Bilvir." In another part of his will he 
bequeaths to " Thomais Brews, esquiyer, my crampe ryng 
with blak innamel, and a part silvir and gilt" And, in 
1535, Edmund Lee bequeaths to "my nece Thwarton 
my gold ryng w' a turkes, and a crampe ryng of gold 
w' aU."' 

But there is no evidence to show that the second ring 
mentioned by John Baret was a royal cramp ring ; whereas 
it appears to me that the one bequeathed by Edmund Lee 
may hare been one of the royal cramp rings, for otherwise 
a more particular description would have been given. 

) by Google 



It may appear strange that so relnarkable and picturesque 
a ruined fortress as Caatell Dinas Bran should hitherto have 
had no monograph devoted to its description. The exact 
date of the fabric seems to be a matter of uncertainty ; the 
only existing portion of the building which might give a clue 
to the precise time of its construction having been attributed 
to a period somewhat subsequent to such particulars of the 
history of the castle as are extant. I wish therefore, in the 
following remarks, rather to collect such notices as I have 
been able to find, than to frame any hypothesis regarding 
the origin of this striking stronghold, or the period to which 
it should be assigned. 

The castle is situated on an artificial plateau on the top 
of a conoid hill which rises about 1,000 feet above the river 
Dee.^ Its position is familiar, no doubt, to most persons who 
have visited North Wales. The hill rises so suddenly, and 
it is so completely detached from the surrounding heights, 
that it frowns savagely down upon the quiet glens of the 
neighbourhood, and seems to overawe the valley of Llan- 
gollen. An earlier structure is said to have been destroyed 
by fire in the tenth century." 

The place, in its almost inaccessible seclusion, afforded a 
secure refuge from the infuriated Welsh, when Gryffydd ap 
Madoc Maelor — his sympathies weaned from his native 
Wales by his English wife — took part with Henry III. and 
Edward I. in their endeavors to subjugate his countrymen. 

There is a tradition that the present building sustained a 

< L«lkDd thnideioribeiitiutQaUon; — itoQitith (pontn bighhillaouthe North 

'■ Dims Braaa Cutel on ■ rokky hills Hipg of D«o, b S qiurten of > mils o£" 

BUndith AlmoBt u nmra u Valii CrucU L«duid'a Itin. tdL t. ff. 36, (iS. 

to Dee Ripe, end going up on De Water ' Ceradoa of LIuioar&D, 601, C 6, 

u comeffheC loirer thu the Abba;:— Bril Miu. Topographical Notloee by 

Llui Qotlen villege ih on the aouth aide fid. Llwyd, 1832, p. 64. 
[of Dee RiTer] and Dines Braiie Cutelle 

) by Google 


<# . :«^ ; 

^ 1 1 .11 1 ll li 1 — -^ - 

;->wn a .Wvp mad, ni «6/ 2 fy WidlerS lyKfjilln, 


) by Google 


siege at the commencement of the fifteenth century by Owen 
Glyndwr, when held by Thomas Fitzalan, Earl of Arandel, 
a strenuous supporter of the House of Lancaster.^ 

Dinas, signifies, beyond all doubt, a fortified place ;* but 
as regards the signification of Bran there seema to be great 
difference of opinion. Some hare supposed that it was 
derived from a corruption of the name of Brennus, king of 
the Gauls, the brother of Belinus, as conflicts are said to 
have taken place between the brothers in this neighbour- 
hood ; whilst others conjecture that the name was taken 
from Bryn, a mountain, or from Bran, the mountain stream 
which runs at the foot of its northern slope. The only 
author of reputation who advocates the former derivation 
appears to be Humphrey Llwyd, "an antiquary of good 
repute," who, in 1568, in his "Britannije descriptionis com- 
mentariolum," referring to the history of Breimus, thus makes 
mention of the place, — " casCellum Dinas Bran, id est pala- 
tum Brenni vocatura"; and again, — " illud castellum quod 
palatium Brenni in hunc diem vocatur." ' 

Fenoant is amongst those who advocate the latter etymo- 
logy, namely, that Dinas Bran takes its name from the 
mountain stream; ^ there is a stream on the northern side, 
taking its rise amongst the Bglwysegle cliffs, subject to 
"spates" or sudden swellings after rain, which I believe 

' Owen Qljndirr h>d mora tbui one atates that the comnion peopls beliered 

•Ironghold in proximity to Diou Brftn, Diiiu Brftn " to Iibvb baen built by 

■nd clumad w hii temtory the Olya BrcDDna, the Oauligh ^aDeiml, uid ctdled 

Dyfrdwy, or VnIlEy of the Uee, now the afior him ; othera explain it, the coitle of 

Vale of Llangollen, FsnDUnt, who Tigited the royal palaoe ; for Srenn, in Britiab, 

the Bite of hi> cliief reeideaoa, givea the aigniGes & king; whance, perhaps, thai 

dNcription of its ancient magniScanoe most potent king of tbs Oauls and 

« Bung by lolo Ooch, Oveo'a faTOrite Britons was called BreDDQB, by way of 

bard. Tour in Wales, toI. i. p. 305. eniinenca. But otbura, 1 ihiok with 

Leland remnrhs that "Owen Glindour greater probability, deri™ its nanjB from 

had a place in Yals, upon the north side itn bigh situation on a bigb bill, wbioh 

of De, caullid Eaganh, t. mile above tbc Britona call Bryn." L'omdsn'a Bri- 

Dioaa Brane," and noticH vflstiges of a tannia, under DtobiKhshiro. 

castle of Qlyndwt's midway between ' HumF. LVyd, Brit. D»cr., pp, 69, 

Valle Crucii and Ruthin, called " Kevea 91. It may not be out of phice to Te- 

De, i. e., the bokka of the Blake Hille, mark hero, that a fine monument of 

*bere now ahepardee kepe ghape." Itin. Humphrey Llwyd (orLloid), may ba seen 

TOL T. f. S5. at Whitcburoh, near Denbigh, in the 

* Srt Kicharda' Dictionary, v. Din, and north wsia, near the altar ; tbe inacrip- 

Tin, the same aa Dinas, a eity. Its pri- tion, when I saw it some time ago, was 

mar; acnoe, aa Edward Lhwyd obtenes, half bidden by tbe baek of a pew, and 

ID hia ArchEeologin Brit., Menu to be a nearly obliterated with planter. 

forliGed hill, aa ihown by Dinbron, al. ' Tour in Walaa. ToL L p. 280, where 

Tinbren, the township where Caatell a general view of the caitle and adjacent 

■ aitnated, and by other oonntry ii 
I of places cited Md. Camden 



the word Bran implies, but I hare been unable to find, 
either from the Ordnance survey or from iuquiries iu the 
neighbourhood, whether its name is or ever has been Bran. 
It should also be noticed that Bran in "Welsh means a crow ;' 
and the castle is called " Crow Castle " by the inhabitants of 
Llangollen, where there is an inn with that sign." 

Close under the hill lies a smaller eminence, called Dinbren, 
on which are still to be seen traces of what appears to have 
been an ancient encampment ; and possibly the syllable 
"bren" may hare been derived from the same root as 
Bran. Watson, in his history of the Earls of Warren, says 
distinctly that Dinas Bran "gives its name to the township 
of Dinbren in which it stanch."' In the west of England 
some isolated hills,* such as this, have Bren or Brent prefixed 
to their names, and there may perhaps be some common 
origin for the two words. 

The general arrangement of 'the structure will be under- 
stood by the accompanying plan and elevations. No eleva- 
tion is here given of the western side because the ruins are, 
on that side, nearly level with the surface. The dotted 
lines at the south west angle are taken from a small-scale 
survey in the War Office, made by a candidate for a cadet- 
ship iu the corps of Boyal Engineers, in 1831, to which I 
have been enabled to refer by the kind permission of Sir 
John Burgoyne. If researches by excavation are ever made 
at this castle, it would be desirable to ascertain whether any 
remains can be found to correspond with the plan at this 

The walls have been built chiefly from the dSlai of the 

T <'BrAD, > orowj Braucw, yonng • W»t«on'> Hemoln of the Fjirla of 

erom'ko. Blobwds' Welsh DiotioDnrr. Wmren, voL i, p. 268, where k viBW of 

Fennaot rejeota tbq suppoaitioo tliit tfaa tlie caatla it giTen, showing its poiition 

CMtle hence took ita Dune. Kdward and theajiprixch totbepUteao on wbidi 

Lhuyd, in hia Advtnaria, appanded to it planda. This engmving ia not a Tory 

Baxter*! QtiHtariiim Antiqu. BritaDD, p. truitworthy repreBeDtatioD. 

267, gi*ea " Bran, a crow, probably from ' Such aa Brflnt Tor, near Taviatock, 

it* iwiftneaa. There ia a brook of thU and Brent EduII, near Aibridge, where 

name b^ Lfaan-Oollen, in Denbighahirs, there are tracea of a Bomon camp. 

whence the name of Dinaa BrAn, and Again, about a mile weit of Bancreed 

not, aa Humphrey LhUyd and Camden church, at the Land'a Knd, srs traces of 

■uppoaa, from the Gauliah general, an ancient liillfnrt called Caer Brftu. 

Brennna." And wbilut caaliug about for the etjmo- 

■ " Dinaa BrAn is Tulgarlj called Crow lopj of the vord, it baa occurred to ma 

Ciwk, from Bran, a crow, but more pro- ibsC Bran is the reputed name ot Uie 

bablv derivfd by E. Lhuyi), from the father of Csnclncua, and king of the 

brmkSran.wbiah ia croaud by abridge Cymry. Bran inny have bean Uie name 

near Llangollen." Additions to Cam- of aome early occupant of tbe atrong- 

den'a Brit, edit. Oough, toL Ui. p. 218. hold. 



Qoble fosse on the south and east sides of the castle ; they 
are composed of rather small slaty stoDes, imbedded in a good 
mortar, which has been freely used. In maay places, the 
■wall of the enceinte can scarcely now be traced ; and it is 
only at those parts which appear to have been the principal 
entrance and the keep, that any considerable mass of 
masonry is now standing. In no part does any upper 
room remain, and indeed the only portion of the ruins 
which is not open to the sky is a chamber with three small 
circular holes in its vaulted roo^ near the principal entrance, 
and which has proved an enigma to all recent inquirers.* 
The caatle was in ruins in Leland's time ; and the frag- 
ments that remain are faUing rapidly into decay. Unless the 
southern wall is underpinned without delay, it is not 
improbable that the destruction of the southern front — by 
far the most striking and important part which exists — must 
speedily occur.^ From the absence of all foliage on so bleak 
an eminence, the scene is not invested with the picturesque 
air which so frequently surrounds a castle in ruins ; but two 
or three ferns, which I believe are rather uncommon, grow 
on the walls, and the view from the castle amply repays the 
visitor for the ascent of the hill. 

In some places are to be found mutilated free-stone 
voussoirs, bases of shafts, groins, sills, and corbels, appa- 
rently of the stone of the neighbourhood obtained at Cetb. 

The principal approach was from the south-east, through 
Llandin farm, just below which a bridge once crossed the 
Dee on the road of communication between Castell Dinas 
Br&n and Castell Crogen (Chirk Castle). This road doubt- 
less formed a connecting link in the great chain of border- 
fortresses in the Welsh marches. 

On the north and west sides there is no ditch ; on the 
north the hill is almost precipitous, and on the western side, 
it is only after two or three rests in a scramble of about a 
quarter of 4 mile, that the summit is reached. Even the 
ardour of a lover-bard, Howel ap Einion Lygliw, could 
not pass unnoticed the steepness of the hill ; for, writing a 
long poem to the celebrated beauty, Myfanwy Vechan, a 

* Tba antranca to tlia QiSttui de Uutn any other that I bave •xaminei). 

C011C7, d«acrib«d uid figured !□ H. ■ Tha Bnuthem front aUllsttuida, July. 

Violtat La Duo'a Dictionniiiro ds I'ArcM- 1864. 
tectnre Fnnfoliie, p. 16B, ia mora like it 

VOl- XXt. D:|-:ectvCjOO^IC 


descendant of the House of Tudor Trevor, and whose father 
probably held the castle under the Earls of Arundel, in 
1390, he says, — 

" Though bkrd the Bteep ascent to gain, 
Thj BDiiloB were h&nler to obtain." 

It has l>een stated that the lovely Myfanw/s tomb is to be 
seen at Yalle Crucis Abbey ; but this appears to bare been 
the resting-place of another Myfanwy, the wife of Yeaf ap 
Adam of Trefor. 

In the Beauties of England and Wales * the Rev. J. Evans 
has stated that there were two wells and a chapel in the 
castle. Mr. Llwyd, in his Topographical Notes to Caradoc 
of Llancarfan, and Mr. Wyndham,* repeat this statemeut as 
to the wells, but I have been unable to find any traces of 
them. Boti Mr. Llwyd and Mr. Wyndham mention that 
there were drawbridges over the fosse, and the former states 
that there were two drawbridges. 

Where Tower Farm now stands, about a mile distant to 
the west, there existed formerly, it is said, a tower, which 
was a sort of advanced post of the castle ; and there is the 
common rumour of a subterranean passage having existed 
between the two places. 

What can be further said of the history of this interesting 
old fortress 1 The date of its abandonment is unknown ; 
and in the days of Henry VIII. Leland could only say — 
" The castelle of Dinas Brane was never by^e thing, but 
sette al for strenght as in a place half inaccessible for 
enemyes. It is now al in mine, and there bredith every 
yere an egle. And the egle doth sorely assaut hym that 
distroith the nest, goyng down in one basket, and having 
a nother over bis hedde to defend the sore stripe of the 

Conjecture, however, is busy on the subject. Mr. King 
observes, in his Muntmenta Antiqua, that, " It is known that 
it existed as a castle in British times ;" ^ but be gives no 
authority for this statement. Nor is it anything more than 
an opinion on Pennant's part, when he says that a primitive 

* North Wales, toI. xtIL p. ES9. • ItinMaCT. toI. t. pp. 86, 53, sditioo, 

' WjTQdbNii'a Toon through Walea in 17iG. 
177* and 1777. ' VoL iiL p. 135. 



Welsh castle formerly occupied the poeitlon." He is further 
of opinion that Eliseg, prince of Fowys, whose pillar etill 
stands on a mound in one of the meadows near Yalle Crucis 
Abbey, lived here ; and remarks that the letters on that 
pillar resemble those in use in the sixth century.* 

From the absence of any evidence of a later time, and 
notwithstanding the date which has been given to one of the 
Tousfloira at the north-east entrance, it appears probable that 
the castle was built in the days of Henry III., by one of the 
Welsh lords of Bromheld ' and Yale ; possibly by the 
GryflFydd ap Madoc Maelor, to whom reference has already 
been made, and who was buried at Talle Crucis Abbey, 
in 1270. He was the only son of Madoc ap GryfFydd 
Maelor, who founded the abbey in 1200, and the great 
grandson of Owen Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales about 
1137. The Maelors seem to have been a powerful family.* 
They were lords of Bromfield and Yale, of which Castell 
Dinas Bran formed part, and also of the territory of Tref y 
Waun, in which Chirk Castle, formerly called Castell Crogen, 
now stands. 

Gryffydd retired to Dinas Bran to seclude himself from 
his infuriated fellow-countrymen, when, after his marriage 
with an English woman, Emma, daughter of James, Lord 
Audley, he transferred his sword as well as his heart to the 
foreigner. But what the Welsh in those days considered no 
doubt a righteous judgment fell upon him. After his death 
the guardianship of his yoimg sons was conferred by 
Edward I. on two of his favorites ; John, seventh Earl of 
Warren, received under his tutelage Madoc, and Roger 
Mortimer, son of Roger, Baron of Wigmore, was appointed 
guardian of Llewelyn.* It is stated that the two children 
were soon afterwards drowned under Holt Bridge, which is 
seventeen or eighteen miles distant. This is said to have 
happened in 1281. John, Earl Warren, obtained the fortress 
of Dinas Bran, with the lordship of Bromfield and Yale ; 
his grant bears date 7th October, 10 Edward I. (1282),* 
whilst Mortimer made himself master of Tref y Waun. 

■ PaDDuit, Tout in Walee, voL L p. dted in DuifdoIcTB Bu. toI. L p. 79. 

SBO. * Rot. Wall. tan. 10 Edw. I. " CoQ- 

' Ibid., p. ST4. OeKaJo cutri da Dynaibna et totinn 

' HKjlor (HmIot) is BromBsld in terra da Bromfeld cDnGrmBU Johumi 

Eogliah, looardiiig to Lelaud. da Woreiia comiti Surreia. Apud Ki>- 

' Rotali WdluB, 81, Hemb. 3. thaUn, T Oat." 

> Bm PomU'i HU:. of Walag, p. 194 ; 



According, however, to a statement in Watson's Memoirs of 
the Earls of Warren, it is uncertain whether the king him- 
self did not cause the children to be put to death.^ From 
the Warrens, Castell Dinaa Br&n. passed by marriage to the 
Fitzalana ; it now belongs to Colonel Biddulph, of Chirk 
Castle. Gryffydd's youngest son appears to have escaped 
his brothers' fiite ; and John Earl Warren obtained from 
Edward I. a gi-ant, dated 12th February, 1282, of the 
tract of Glyndwrdwy {terra de Glyndeoerdo), for Gry0ydd 

This is all that I have been able to gather on the subject 
I should feel gratified if my enquiries might lead to more 
careful research into the history of this ruined fortress, 
and especially if these remarks should lead to the rescue 
of the remaining fragments from the destruction which now 
seems imminent.' 

* Yol. L p. 3flS ; ths iMined katbor htre bMO derived from lame bter diro- 

obterres thai butoriani lesTe iu too uiclerbrvbombiahiitcnyintaaautiiiued. 

much io tba dark to allow of taj ded- See WilliamirB Biog. Diet, under Can- 

■ion in r^ard to tbe alienation of tba dawe. 

ntatea oF Ma^oc, "Catadoc of Llancarvan ' Hot. Wall. ann. 11 Edw. I. 

oxpresily cbarging the whola tranwctioa ' View> of Castell Dinaa Brftn may ba 

totheking'aaccount." As that bietorian found in Henr; Qwtioeau'a Tiem of 

howevar, is guppoead to bave died in Antiquitisa in Wilea, and in loma other 

1 I57i the etaCemeuC in question may topographical worka. 

) by Google 


Bt Uis REV. HAURT 1L BCARTH, H.A., PlebraiduT of WsUl 

The foundation of the city of Urioconium in Shropshire, 
■which has of late attracted attention by the remaina which 
eicavationa have brought to light, may probably be fised in 
the times of the campaign of Ostorius Scapula against the 
British chief Caractacus, about the middle of the first cen- 
tury of the Christian era. The situation of Urioconium, on 
the borders of the Comavii, and adjacent to the Silures and 
Ordorices, placed on the east bank of a noble river navi- 
gable up to the walls, together with the extent and import- 
ance of the city in after times, gives the impression that it 
must have been very early chosen as the spot from whence 
operations could be carried on against that chief, who held 
the country immediately to the westward. Moreover, the 
hill within sight of the ancient city still bears the name of 
Caractacus, being called Caer Caradoc, having been pro- 
bably held by him as one of the frontier strongholds. 

As some doubt attaches to the spot where the last battle 
was fought between Ostorius and Caractacus, and as much 
has been written on the subject, I would venture to put 
forth some ai^uments, not to prove the precise spot where 
the British chief was defeated, but to point out the proba- 
bihty that the city of Urioconium may have owed its origin 
to that campaign. We are told by Tacitus that Publius 
Ostorius, proprietor in Britain, having found affairs in a dis- 
tracted state, took care by prompt action on first coming to 
his command in Britain, to rout and disperse his enemies, and 
then to form a line of fortified camps between the rivers 
Antona (Aufona X) and the Severn, — " Cinctosque caatris 
Antonam (Aufonam) et Sabrinam fiuvioa cohibere parat."' 
By the celerity of his movements he leil the Britons no time 



to combine against him. In the seren years preceding the 
appointment of Ostoriua, Flautius and Vespasian had subdued 
the southern and western counties, as far aa the Bristol 
Channel and along the Talley of the Thames, comprising the 
territories of the Cantii (Kent) and the Regni (Surrey, 
Sussex, parts of Kent and Berkshire) ; the Betgse and 
Damnonii (Cornwall, Devon, and Somerset) were reduced to 
the form of a province, and a colony of veterans was placed 
at Camulodunum. This new colony was planted on the 
borders of the country of the Trinobantes, to protect the 
eastern frontier of England against the Iceni. Mr. Leman, 
in his MS. notes to Horsley's Britannia Romana preserved 
in the library of the Bath Literary Institution, considers 
that the site of the British city at Lexden in Essex, where 
there was a deficiency of water, was then exchanged by the 
Romans for the preferable situation on the banks of the 
Colne at Colchester. 

The line of fortified posts drawn by Ostorius has been a 
subject of much discussion ; it was this act which seems to 
have roused into open hostilities the Iceni, the inhabitante 
of Norfolk and Suffolk, who were before friendly to the 

Mr. Leman says — " The rivers Antona and Sabrina have 
been by some supposed to have been the Bath Avon and the 
Severn : but, in this case, how would the fortifications on the 
first of these rivers have anything to do with the Iceni t 
By others the Antona has been imagined, and indeed with 
more probability, to be the Avon which runs from War- 
wickshire, and foils into the Severn near Tewkesbury, as this 
might have served as a line of defence against the lately 
conquered Dobuni, and against the incursions of the Cor- 
nahii ; but still it would be no use against the only enemy 
Ostorius had to fear, the great and powerfijl nation of the 
Iceni ; for this reason Lipsius, followed by Camden, seeing 
the absurdity of the first hypothesis and the impossibility of 
the second, proposed amending the passage by substituting 
Aufona in the place of Antona. Now, as we know from 
Kicbard of Cirencester that the Aufona was the Nen, which, 
rising on the borders of Warwickshire,- runs easterly by 
Boston Flats, I examined, with my friend the Bishop of 
Cloyne, this line attentively in the year 1795, and found the 
remains of fortifications of Ostorius completed on the eastern 


side, almost as far as the Watling Street ; while, on the 
Avon, which I before mentioned as running from Warwick 
to Tewkesbury (where this officer did not fear the enemy so 
much), the greater stations only were finished, without the 
chain of connecting fortified posts between them."' The line 
of fortified pcets would thus extend from Boston Flats to 

It seems that while making preparations to draw this line 
of forts the Iceni took alarm, and having hazarded a battle 
with the Romans, they were defeated and brought under 
the Roman power. No doubt alter this the hue of forts 
was completed, by which the conquests of the Romans to 
the south of the rivers above mentioned were secured. If 
we look to the map of Roman Britain, we shall see that 
there is a continuous Une of strong Roman posts to be 
traced from near Peterborough, across the island to the 
Severn at Tewkesbury. We read further in the narration 
by Tacitus, '* ceterum clade Icenorum compositi .... ductus 
in Gangos ezercitus." Here therefore we find Ostorius at 
the opposite or western side of the island, having con- 
structed his line of fortified stations. 

The Cangi, or Cangiani, says Mr. Leman,' were a small 
tribe, who possessed the westerly parts of Caernarvonshire, 
under their capital, Segontium, and lying immediately oppo- 
site to Ireland. This statement is confirmed by the fact 
that the extreme point of the promontory which forms the 
northern limit of Cardigan Bay, now Braich y Pwll, is called 
by Ptolemy " Ganganorum Promontorium," and also by the 
discovery of a number of leaden pigs near Chester, inscribed 


Camden, in his notices of Runcoi-n and Halton Castle, in 
Cheshire, records the discovery of twenty pigs of lead on 
the coast of Cheshire, inscribed with the names of Vespasian 

* Sm LMOaa'a MS. notai an Honle/s Aafona wm the river Nene; ud from 

BriUoDut Bom., in the Lfbmy of Uie the unusual numbar of fortiSed CBmp* 

Bath Lit. Init Sir R, Colt Ei>»re, in big on ita eastern banks, we might almost 

Oinldns Camb., Introd., p. xcii, poiots oonclude that Tocitiu bad mistaken the 

oat that Biohard of Ciranceater, (De AqIodb for the Aufons." Whatever we 

aitn Brit., lib. L c vi. SO,) docribing the may think of the auUientJcit; of Richard 

riTers on the eastern coast, saji, *■ Flu- of Cirencester, there seema no reason ta 

minum notisalma sutit Qarion (Qare), doubt that his work wu compiled from 

Snrius (Stour) et Aufona, in Sinum He- authentto sources, H his itatements are 

torin aeae eioaemna." As we know that confirmed bj Bubsequent diiooveriaa. 

the Sinus Uetoria was Boston Daepa, ■ Horslej's Brit. Kom., a. 2, p. SS. 
we liare eTeiy reason to suppose that ibo 



and Domitian. On the latter were the words — de ceano, 
and Camden, discuasing the question of the locality of the 
Cangi, inclined to place them in Cheshire.* 

Pennant obserreB that the ore which produced this lead 
was dug and smelted either in that part of Flintshire 
anciently called Tegangle, the summer residence of the 
Cangi, or from the residence of the same people in Derby- 
shire, or some neighbouring county.' 

Tacitus, after describing the reduction of the Cangi, 
says — " Jamque rentum baud procul mari quod Hiberniam 
insulam aspectat;"* This corresponds exactly with the 
locality in which the lead was found, aud we may conclude 
that the Cangi occupied the country extending betwixt the 
promontory which bears their name and the Ili7er Dee, 
and probably also parts of Cheshire and Derbyshire. 

It seems that at this time Chester must have been selected 
as a point of military occupation where the twentieth 
legion was quartered. "We have thus the southern part of 
the island cut off from the noi'them, and a line of communi- 
cation existing from sea to sea, the two extreme points of 
which are accessible from the sea, by which the fleet could 
communicate with the army on either side of the island. 

Since the foregoing otmerrations were written, I have 
received a copy of Notes on Koman Inscriptions found in 
Britain, by the Rev. Dr. McCaul, LL.D., Principal of Uni- 
versity College, Toronto.' Speaking of the inscriptions on 
the pigs of lead which bear the mark ceang, Dr. McCaul 
observes — " these seem to be the Cangi of Tacitus (Ann. xii. 
32,) ductus in Cangos exercitus." Different opinions have 
been formed relative to the position of the Cangi. Camden,* 
Gibson, Gough, and the author of the Index to the Monu- 
menta Historica, place them in Somerset Camden subse- 
quently altered his opinion, and was incUned to place them 
in Cheshire. Thus also Dr. Latham regards North Wales 
as a likelier locality than Somerset.^ In this opinion Dr. 

* CMnden'i BritMinia, edit. 1607, p. ' Tacitus, Aon., lib. lii. 32. 

463 i Oougb's edit, I^OS, Tol. ill. pp. tS, ' Theae vnluable uotea appeared 6nt 

01. A pig of lead witb tlie aune mark in tfae CanaiJiui Journal, and hava been 

was fouod in Staffordshire, and is Dowin published subisqueDtly in a collsctad 

tbe British Museum. See Mr. Albert ibnn. Toronto, H. Rowsell ; Loiiil, 

Waj's Inventoi? of pigs of lead found in Lonf^sns, 1862, Svo. Sea pp. 6, S6. 

Great Bribun, given in this Journal, vol. * Britannia, edit. Qongb, toI. L p. 8S^ 

xvL P' ^ ' Dictionary of Qreek aod Ronun 

t Fennant'a Tour through Wales, toI. i. Qeograpby, by Dr. Smith, *. Cangi. 
p. G7. 



McCaul concurs. " The poaition," he obserres, " suits better 
the description of Tacitus^ — 'jam rentum hand procul mari 
quod Hiberniam insulam aspectat.' It accords also with the 
situation of Cancanonim, or Ganganorum, Fromontorium of 
Ptolemy ; and Flintshire, in which, and the adjoining counties 
of Cheshire and Denbighshire, I would place the Cangi, waa 
probably even then noted for its lead-mines, at present the 
most productive iu the island, Horsley, and the author of 
the Index in the Monumenta Historica Britannica, identify the 
' Canganorum Fromontorium ' as Brachy pult Foiot in Caer- 
narvonshire, which suggests that the Cangi may hare occu- 
pied that county also."' I am, however, inclined to suggest 
the Great Orme's Head. 

We are informed by Tacitus that, after the subjection of the 
Cangi, the Brigantes gave the Roman general some trouble — 
" ortsB apud Brigantes discordiie retraxere ducem ; " but 
this rising was soon put down. The Koman general waa 
thus taken further north, probably into Yorkshire ; he was 
from thence obliged to march against the Silurea ; and here 
a difficulty is supposed to have arisen in the account of the 
Roman historian. After mentioning the Silures as perfectly 
intractable, and requiring the strength of the legionaries 
to bring them into subjection, Tacitus says — " Id quo 
promptius veniret, colonia Camulodunum valida veteranorum 
manu deducitur in agros captivos, subsidium adversus 
rebelles, et imbuendis Sociis ad officia legum."^ The men- 
tion of this need, does not, however, necessitate that the 
Roman general should have returned to Camulodunum, and 
settled the garrison there himself or marched his whole 
army back thither out of Cheshire. It was a wise proceed- 
ing to place a strong garrison at Camulodunum, where the 
Iceni might have given trouble, while he marched against 
the Silures at the opposite side of the island. The expres- 
sion — " id quo promptius veniret " — would rather lead us to 
suppose that he marched at once f^ainst the Silures from 
the north, probably by way of Chester or Manchester, and 
it may be taking the road which led from Mancunium to 

The fact that Caractacus " transferred " the war into the 
country of the Ordovices, would rather lead us to think that 

' Dr. HcCaul'* Brit. Rom. lose, p. 36. > Twitoi, Ann., lib. bL ^ 

VOL. I XI. ' T 


the Romans attacked him on their march out of the country 
of the Brigantea. Caractacus ia not said to have been driven 
out of the country of the Silurea ; the expression is as follows 
— " transfert bellum in Ordoricoa," probably knowing that 
country to be the most defensible.' Operations had probably 
been carried on against Caractacus also from the south, and 
he may hare abandoned to the Romana the country about 
Caer-went — if Caer-went was. really his capital, as some 
antiquaries think — but the main body of the Roman army 
appears to have been with Oatoriua marching from the 

This ia not, however, the general view. Thua Sir Richard 
C. Hoare, in his Introduction to Giraldus Cambrensis, aaya — 
"The private road between Caerleon, Abergavenny, Ken- 
cheater, and Wroxeter, was the line on which the main body 
of Ostorius' army acted, and Brandon Camp, in Herefordshire, 
the place from whence he made the attack and carried the 
fortified entrenchments of Caractacua at Coxall Knoll."* In 
another note he says — " Many different aituations have been 
ascribed to the acene of action between Caractacus and 
Oatoriua ; but none rest on such atrong grounds of pro- 
bability as the Btations of Brandon Camp and Coxall Knoll. 
The first of these is situated a Uttle to the west of the great 
Roman road leading from Magna or Kenchester to Urioco- 
nium, or Wroxeter, and between Wigraore and Leintwardine. 
Its form is square, and the fragmenta of Roman pottery which 
may still be picked up within its precincta, evidently prove 
its origin. The second is within sight, and distant from the 
Roman camp about three miles, and a little above the village 
of Brampton Brian. It crowns the summit of a lofty hill, 
well covered with oak troea, and is (like the generality of 
British fortresses) very irregular in shape. The river Teme 
runs through the vale near the foot of the hill." 

This is the spot supposed by many antiquaries to have 
been the site of the battle so graphically described by the 
Roman historian. A little further to the north-west, on a 

■ Morvcver thera ■eomi to haTe b^eii Strang as pawibis, *□<! gin the inrading 

ngood iindentaQding batwsentheSilursi foi'ce do adTaatage. Heaoa C&nctaciM 

and the Brijsntei. Tha; teera to hava probabl; met tham on the bordera of 

been in one mind « to the neceiaitjr of Montgomerjthira. 
opposing the Roman power ; and now * Bo&re'i adit, of Qiraldua, Introd. 

that tba Briiraniei had bean put down, note, p. d. 

ttie Siliirea most mmkt their deranca aa .. , 



hill, is a very perfect camp, called " The Gaer Ditches," 
evidently British, fortified by a double ditch and rampart ; 
here it has been supposed that the wife and daughter of 
Caractacus may have been captured. The same opinion as 
to the locality was held by Mr. Leman. A writer in the 
ArchiBologia Cambrensis' adopts the same view, and argjues 
in favour of this site with some ingenuity ; while Mr. Leman, 
in his Notes to Horsley, supposes Caractacus to have 
marched along the road from Caerleon to Urioconium, when, 
as Tacitus states, — " transtulit bellum in Ordovicos ; " and 
he observes that " the territories of the Ordovices, mentioned 
by Tacitus, were separated from those of the Demetie and 
Silures by the Teme and the Dovey. It was probably upon 
the banks of the former that Caractacus placed himself to 
oppose the force of the invading enemy ; having retreated 
before the Romans by the road which led, and which indeed 
still remains, between Caerleon and Wroxeter, and must then 
have been only a British trackway." Mr. Leman also would 
fix the site of the celebrated battle at Coxwall Knoll, on the 
borders of Herefordshire. Although it may appear pre- 
sumptuous to differ from such high authorities, after care- 
fully inspecting the site, I cannot agree with their conclusion 
— as the Roman general Ostorius seems to have been 
advancing from the north, and coming from the country of 
the Bngantes — unless we are to suppose that an interval of 
time elapsed between the conclusion of his expedition 
against that people and his commencing the war with 
Caractacus, of which no intimation is given by the historian. 
I am therefore incUned, with Mr. Ffoulkes, to fix upon the 
Brydden Hill as a point answering better with the circum- 
stances of the battle recorded by Tacitus. The Severn 
flowing at the foot of that mountain, answers better to the 
character given of the river, — "Et prsefluebat amnis vado 
incerto." It is a far more serious impediment than the 
Teme, especially if at all swollen. Mr. Ffoulkes, in his paper 
read before the Cambrian Archseological Society, supposes 
the Roman camp, the head-quarters of Ostorius, must have 
been at Clawdd Coch, within sight of the Brydden, and about 

* New Sorias, vol. ilu p. 2D3, 1852. 
Mr. W;DDa FfonlkM, in id abla psfar in 
the BUDfl publioatiou, oonaidan that thu 



five miles distant — which would be the point occupied by 
them if coming from the north.' 

Another site has also been suggested for this battle, as 
may be seen in Mr. HartshOruo's Salopia Antiqua, where the 
subject is treated at length, and the same view taken as that 
of Sir Eichard Hoare, namely, that Ostorius was marching 
from the south-east ; not having, however, personally 
examined any other sites than those I have here considered, 
I would not at present venture any further opinion. 

If the Brydden Hill be the point, the distance from 
Urioconium would be about ten or twelve miles, and to this 
point supplies would be readily brought fixim the country to 
the east of the Severn, then in the pt^session of the Romans. 

In an enquiry into the first rise of Urioconium, the 
question necessarily suggests itself, at what period was the 
second legion first stationed at Caerleon-on-Usk 1 This 
seems to have been one of the points from whence the war 
against the Silures was carried on. The second legion, under 
Vespasian, had conquered the country south of the Bristol 
Channel, where he had thirty conflicts with the enemy. 
Suetonius states that Vespasian having been sent by Claudius 
into Germany as legate, — " in Britanniam tranalatus, tricies 
cum hoste conflijit ; duas validissimas gentes, superque 
viginti oppida, et insulam Vectem Britanniie proximam, in 
deditionem redegit." ' All the coast of the Bristol Channel 
being under Koman power, supplies could most conveniently 
be drawn from thence to that point on the river Usk where 
Caerleon is situated, and the establishment of a Roman 
garrison there, composed of the second legion, may in all 
probability be assigned to the commencement of the war 
with the Silures, a.d. 50. Horsley, however, conjectures 
that the Romans did not settle there till the reign of Anto- 
ninus Pius. If Caerleon became a Roman station as early 
as I suppose, there would be three principal points by which 
the conquered part of the island would be held at that 
period, — namely, Camulodunum or Colchester, Deva or 
Chester, and Caerleon in Monmouthshire, — it may be also 
Glevum or Gloucester.* We are not told what were the 

< Ardiieol. Camb., toL il New Seri«s, * Sir R. C. Hoire feein* to UiiDk tb«t 

122. tbs Leg. II. Aug. wu aUtioned U Cuc- 

' Suetonina, in vit. T. F. VeapMiani, Isod prerioua to a.d. 63. 

) by Google 


legions sent over by Claudius, or the amount of the numbers 
that formed bis army, but the command of the second legion 
had been conferred on Vespasian ' when in Britain ; and we 
find from subsequent faistory tbalt the second, the ninth, the 
fourteenth, and the twentieth legions, with their auxiliaries, 
were serving in Britain.' From the account of the battle 
with Boadicea, it appears that these legions were bere in the 
time of Nero. According to Tacitus, the ninth legion was 
surprised and cut off ; the fourteenth and the Tezillarii of 
the twentieth were in the battle ; and the second, though in 
Britain, and probably stationed at Caerleon, was absent, 
through the fault of the commander, Ftenius Postumus. 

These circmnstant^s induce the belief that the second 
legion was first stationed at Caerleon-on-Usk, at the time 
when Ostorius began his campaign against Caractacus, 

The Roman road from Caerleon to TJrioconium is to be 
traced with great certainty, and is accurately laid down in 
the maps of Boman Britain. Along that line we have 
several important towns, which no doubt were of later 
growth, and probably had their rise in camps formed to 
subjugate the Silures. Thus the principal stations on the 
Roman road from Caerleon to TJrioconium are, — Burrium 
(Usk), Qobannium (Abergavenny), Magna (Eenchester), and 
Bravinium (near Leintwardine) ; but of these by far the 
most important seems to have been Urioconium. Six ancient 
roads seem to have centred there, three of which passed 
into Wales. From this it would appear to have been a 
central point, from Whence supplies had been dravm for the 
war against Caractacus, and probably a point in which fresh 
levies were concentrated. Again, in the march of Suetonius 
for the conquest of Anglesea, it must have taken an im- 
portant part, as well as in his march from thence to suppress 
the revolt of Boadicea ; and when Agricola, a.d. 78, finally 
reduced Mona, Urioconium must have been a point of pri- 
mary importance. It could hardly in later times have held 
the same petition, as the Roman arms were more occupied 
in the north of England, but it probably became a place of 
trafiic for the produce of the mines of Shropshire and North 

Tacit., Hilt, lib. iiL oh. zlir, it u loog u the Romui*. Biitorr does 

a:- ,. n rr .. ™. . 1 __. ._._ _ ,. i.. -^^ ampiojed ■■- 

rkble bftttla wi 
toniiu in hia < 

Sir H. C, Boara aayi, " Tha aaeond not Intbrm ua if it waa aropiojad b; 
._ — r. ■..■ . ■ ., Ostoriua in hia mamorable battla with 

Canwtacui, or bj Buetoniul in hia ax- 
command of Veapaaioi^ and conbiuuBd in podition agiilnit Mona." 

Wales. Situated in the heart of a nch and fertile valley, 
with a noble river available for navigation, it must have 
ranked as one of the moat flourishing mercantile cities, until, 
abandoned by the Romans, and having subsisted for nearly 
a century and a half under Eomano-Britiah rule, it fell at 
length, as seems most probable, under the sword of the 
invading Saxon.* 

It is to be regretted that the funereal inscription to a 
Roman soldier, lately found, adds nothing to the knowledge 
already obtained from the inscribed stones discovered at 
Wroxeter, the number of the legion being partly obliterated ; 
but so large and promising a field of investigation remains, 
that if the explorations so successfully commenced be pur- 
sued vigorously, we shall doubtless hereafter obtain what 
may confirm the truth of previous history, if it does not 
extend its limits and clear up its obscurities. 


Bv Uis REV. HARRT U. 8CARTH, H.A., FnbsDdiu? of WoUt 

At the meeting of the Institute at Gloucester, in July, 
1860, 1 had the pleasure of bringing before the members an 
account of the discoveries which had been made at Wroxeter 
up to that date.' In the three years which have elapsed 
since that time the excavations have been continued, but 
they have not been confined to the Bame ground where the 
first discoveries were made. It was considered by the 
Excavation Committee that enough had been done for the 
present in ascertaining the form of the buildings and the 
direction of the streets, shown in the excellent survey by Mr. 
Hillary Davies engraved for this Journal,* and that the 
cemetery on the east side of the city was more Ukely to 
yield new matter of interest to the antiquary. 

' See Dr. Qucat'i Hemoir, ArcbaeoL ' Archaeol. Jonnia], vol. rvi. p. 2flS. 

Jonrnsl, voL xiz. p. 216. 8e« alio tiia Quida to the Biiins of 

' Printed in the Archuol. Joun)»], Uriconinin, by Ur. Thoitiu Wright, 

Toi xvii. p. 2i0. SlirewibuiT, 1859. . , 


Although the grouod-plans of several extensive buildings 
had been laid bare, and the floors uncovered, yet neither 
altar nor inscription of any. kind had been found. The relics 
discovered consisted chiefly of bones, broken pottery, flctitioua 
Samiaa ware, a touchstone, and a mass of powdered granite, 
possibly for Uning the vessels known as mortaria, and to 
render them rough, 13 coins, a leaden ornament, a peculiar 
skiff-shaped capsule of bronze, in form resembling a little 
basket, possibly intended for use as a purse to be worn on 
the arm, and similar to that found at Thorngraflon, Nor- 
thumberland, as described by Dr. Collingwood Bruce,^ a coin 
of Antoninus, a block of red sandstone, bearing the letters 
Q M M, deeply cut, a heavy mass of impure iron, probably 
weighing about one cwt., and considered to be an anvil, many 
. shells of a large white kind, a prettily formed female head 
cut in red sandstone, the eye-holes having been filled with 
pieces of vitreous paste, which has fallen out, leaving the 
sockets empty, a hammer-head of lead, and a fine fibula with 
the word fecit inscribed upon it ; these were the articles 
discovered from the latter part of the summer of 1860 until 
the autumn of 1861. It was then determined that examina- 
tion should be made of the ground which had always been 
regarded as the necropolis of TJrioconium. Accordingly, on 
September 16, 1861, workmen were directed to trench the 
field to the eastward of the city, which had long been known 
as the cemetery. There it was that the sepulchral stones 
were found which are now preserved in the school library at 
Shrewsbury. The Wathng Street passes out of the city by 
what has been known as the ancient East-gate, and along 
the line of this road the cemetery extends. 

After the men had been at work two days, they found a 
large inscribed stone, the upper portion of which had evi- 
dently contained a figure in relief, which was broken away, 
but the under portion, bearing an inscription of seven lines, 
remained perfect, although many of the letters are almost 
obliterated, so that it is feared the whole inscription cannot 
with certainty be made out. The stone was found with the 
inscribed portion downwards. Search was made for the 

* I'lgnrcd in Dr. Bruce'a Konun Wall, ii Bgiir«d in Uiu Jonmal, toL tMi. p. 89. 

p. 416; md id Akernuut'i Coioa of ths S«e notice! of olber likereliei.CaUlogiiB 

Komana relating to BtHwh. Another of the HaMuin farmed at the meoting of 

•ptdmen fuimd tit Farndale, Torkabire, the Inatituteat Kdinbut^^p^S^ 


upper part, but without effect, A photograpli of tbis stone 
has been taken by Mr. Colley, and also an accurate dra^ring 
executed by Mr. Hillary Davieg,; a photograph was also 
taken of the pottery then dug up* The feet alone of the 
figure remain, which are apparently those of a soldier 
wearing the military caligce or sandaJa. 

The letters — amihivb — are distinct, with sufficient space 
intervening between the A and the outer mai^ of the stone 
to admit the letters fl. If we read the name Flaminius, 
after the s follows the letter T, and what appears to be 
a stop, and we naturally look for an f, but the T is followed 
by the word POLIA, which would ordinarily be taken to 
indicate the tribe {PoUia) to which the soldier belonged, 
but we have only one L on the stone. I am inclined, there- 
fore, to think it must be taken for a cognomen of Flaminius, 
and that the F after the T must hare been omitted in error. 

Id the inscription to C. Mannius, found in the same 
cemetery many years since, we read c. hannits c. f. pol. 

The second line of the newly-found inscription, which gives 
the age of the deceased as forty-five, and the period of ser- 
vice twenty-two, may be plainly read, except the letters after 
the abbreviated words mil. leg., if indeed there were any, 
as the space seems to suggest, though none are now trace- 
able. The beginning of the next fine is defaced, and we 
have only two straight strokes — ii — which probably give 
only a part of the number of the legion, and therefore we 
are left to conjecture whether it was the second or the 
fourteenth. We have from the same cemetery a stone to 
the memory of a soldier of the fourteenth legion, which is 
also inscribed oem. ; this tablet is noticed in a preceding 
paper in the Archawlogical Journal.' After the title of 
the legion the word militavi follows, and then aq : probably 
for apiUi/erj then svsc, and the letters Hi, and, after a 
small intervening space, an a just discernible, and probably 
to be read Hic sitvb or Hic. sru. After this seem to follow 
three hexameter lines, a few words of which only are to be 
deciphered at intervals, the last line ending tekfvs eoneste. 

* It U eDgTSTcd, Gent. Mag., toL coxii. secoiid memoir onUrtooDiuni, when this 

April, 1802, p. 101. memori&I is figured, Journal Brit. Arch. 

'See the author's memoir in thia Aao., 18S9, p. SII. 

Jouroaj, ToL xvL p. 63 ; uid Mr. Wrighl'i ' S«a Arab. Joum., vol. xvL p. IttL 


Thej may be conjecturally restored, but I feai' little more 
cau be done. The Rev. John McCaul, LL.D., FresideDt 
of UiuTeraity College, Toronto, to -whom I sent an accurate 
photograph of this inBcription on its first discorery, has pub- 
lished his interpretation in a valuable selection of Britanno- 
Roman Inscriptions, with Critical Notes,' which are well 
worth the attention of scholars fond of inscriptions. 

Dr. McCaul would read the inscription thus : — T. [or c] 
FLAHiNiTS. T. F. FOL. (tribu), FOLIA being used for pollia. 
The second line he reads as I have done : — annohvu zxzxv. 
STiFSNDiOBTH XXII. MILES LBOiONis. In the third line he 
would read xiT for the number of the legion, and aq. for 
aguUifer, thus : — xiiii. qeuinab. hiutavi. aqtiufbb. nvno 


Dr. HcCauI observes that the use of the first person in 
funereal inscriptions is common, and the word uilitavi is 
clear ; also we have an example of uic svh in Orellt, n. 
4738, and Henzen,'n. 7411. The hexameter lines he thm 
completes : — 

" Ferlegite et felices riti pliu minuB juta,* 
OmDibus equA lege iter est ad Tmura Ditis, 
Virite, dum Stjgiui viUa dat tempuB, hooeste." 

On the use of vivere and fumeste in such inscriptions, see 
Orelli, n. 4807, and Henzen, nn. 6843, 7347, 7402, 7407. 
Should the conjectiu^ be correct, that this stone is the 
memorial to a soldier of the fourteenth legion, it is the 
second found in this cemetery, and adds one to the few 
memorials that remain in this island of the legion which bore 
the title Domiioret Briianniee ; the only other record being 
the funereal stone found at Lincoln.' 

The stone was found about seventy feet from the hedge 
which divides the field from the old road known by the 
name of the Watling Street ; and about sixty feet west from 
this place the foundations of a building were met with, on 
October 28, 1861. They consisted of a few feet of rect- 
angular walls, 18 in. thick. A description of the work 

' Publlabed bj Heor; RowmII, To- BritU]iio-BoniuiInNSrip.,p.SOS. Ithoold, 

ronto, uid Longmuu, Ltrndon, ISflS. honerer, have pTeferrvd nading alba or 

■ The &iii( mark* on Uie itoaa aeem atba, initaad of jcia, whioh U very on- 
to finor tbla nading ; tlioogh aomawhat uanaL 

nit8*d, it ia not, howerer, more ao than * Sae AnhaaoL Jounial, 1B6(^ toL Sfii. 

otliar mUitaiy intcriittioii^ or thoao api- p. IB. 
tat^ f n onr own Utna. SeeDr. HcCaui'B 

»<"-«■• DDfzea by Google 


carried out*in excavflting in the cemetery, is given in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, with a plan and drawings.' Dr. 
Johnson, under whose zealous direction the excarations hare 
been conducted, in that account describes this building as 
haying been cut through by a modem drain ; the foundations 
were not deeply laid. It is considered to have been a tomb, 
but had been entirely denuded of every mark by which its 
former purpose could be recognised. It is conjectured that 
the inscribed stone above noticed may have been taken from 
it.' We can only regret the entire destruction of Roman 
tombs in this country ; many of them must have been in- 
teresting illustrations of the fiinereal customs and modes of 
honoring the dead common among the Roman population of 
this island. Some years ago a well-preserved tomb was dis- 
covered in Suffolk, in a tumulus at Bastlow Hill, near 
Rougham, and described by the late Professor Henslow,* who 
published a drawing of its construction, with a ground-plan 
and section. This may serve as a guide whereby we may 
reconstruct the ruined tomb at Urioconium. 

Wood-ashes were found in the cemetery in many places. 
These are marked in the plan,* and were probably the 
vestiges of fiinereat rites. About eighteen cinerary urns 
were obtained from the cemetery. They are now placed in 
the Museum in Shrewsbury, and form a very instructive and 
interesting collection.* Burnt human bones were found in 
several of the urns, and sometimes incinerated bones were 
found deposited by themselves, without being enclosed in 
any vessel, the urns which contrined them having possibly 
perished. Many small glass unguentaries were also found; 
of these some had undergone the action of heat, and were 
pai'tially melted. Their contents having been chemically 
analysed, they were found to contain sand, carbonaceous and 
oily matter. Two lamps were also found, one of elegant 

' Gent Hag., toL ociiL April, 1BS2, thai jetr, by FrofaMor Beaalow, iritli ft 

p. 308. Tfaia aoeount waa rmd at a lithogrspb npreaentiDg tba interior of 

mmting of the Society of Antiquariw, tha tomb, the umi, glaaa vaaaala, ftc H« 

Harcb, 1802, and vaa diawn np by tb« Addrened alao a letter on the aubject of 

Hod. See. of the Excavation Committse, the diaaorer; to ths Bury Povt, dated 

Utaij Johnaon, Baq., HJ)., of Shrewa- Jul; 4, 1S14. An acoomit by Mi. A. J. 

bury- Kempa «m gifsn in Oent. Hag., Hot. 

1 CoioB of the EmperarB Hadiiui and 1S18, p. GS4. 

Tnyan were found at ttie aama time. * Oant. Uig., toL oeiiL p. SOS. 

* An Aooomit of Uie Roman Antlquitiea ' Figured ibid., p. 493, with oereral 

found (kt Kougham, September 16, lft43, other relic*. 
was pnblialied at Buiy St Edmunda in 



shape, and almost entire, having the maker's name — ^kodks — 
stamped on the bottom.' Two large colored glass bowls or 
drinking-cupa were also obtained ; these show cooBiderable 
skill in the working of glass. One of the cinerary urns con- 
tained not only burnt bones, but also an unguentary, and a 
single (jopper coin. Dr. Johnson states that the field called 
the cemetery was thoroughly investigated, and that the whole 
side next the Watling Street road was trenched. Most of 
the articles discovered were in one particular part of the 

In December, 1861, the workmen were directed to dig in 
the glebe land, in order to ascertain if any remains of the 
wall which surrounded the city could be discovered : an 
embankment with a deep depression marks the boundary of 
the city on all sides, and is clearly and well defined. 

On December 26 they had uncovered in the glebe 34 ft. 
of a wall 6 ft. wide. It had been built upon a foundation 
of rough boulder stones laid in clay ; this foundation alone 
remained, from 6 in. to 18 in. deep in the ground.' Besides 
the part exposed, the wall could be traced for above 100 
yards. A coin was found under the foundations, but could 
not be deciphered. The workmen were afterwards employed 
upon another spot, where the lane leading &om Wroxeter 
enters the Shrewsbury road, and where the embankment is 
well shown. Here ^so the wall was discovered in every 
trench made by the workmen. A coin of Tetricus, and a few 
fragments of bronze and pottery, were all the relics found 
in excavating for the walls. It was, however, proved by these 
excavations that a stone wall, and not merely an earthen 
embankment and ditch, had surrounded the Roman city. 
Id February, 1862, an ancient trowel made of iron, an 
object comparatively of rare occurrence, was found. It is 
preserved in the Museum at Shrewsbury. 

In October, 1862, the ground where the old north gate of 
Urioconium is alleged to have stood was opened, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining whether any remains could be found. 

* It ii Sgnrad in Oent. Uag., voL oatlL rara in Eo^^d. Sm Ur. Ro«oh Smith'i 

p. 403. On Satnita wue the potter*! Illuttr. of RomEui LonJon, p. 110. 

name HodMtu oooun tn>«atedlj. Sm ' See some remarks on tbaoonBtrucCioi) 

Hr. T. Wriflht'j valuable lut of Potten' of tiie oitj wait, in a lecture dslinred by 

Harka, in App. to the Celt, the Bomaa, the author of this memoir, at a meeting 

•ad the Saxon, p. 4TS. fictile tampa of the Shropahire Nat. BiaL and Antiqu. 

bearing potton^ naue* are comparatively Soo., Osnt. Mag., toL ccxiv. 1S63, p. S06. 


The fonodationB of the city vail were traced nmniag towards 
Norton, but nothing serring to indicate a gateway was dis- 
covered, and only some Saraian ware and IJpchurch pottery. 
A few days were spent in resuming excavations in the 
cemetery, in Mr. Jukes' land beyond the field formerly 
examined, when sufficient evidence waa obtained that the 
ancient burial-ground had extended thus far &om the gate. 
These diggings were undertaken at the suggestion of Mr. 

Among the additional discoveries made, were the vestiges 
of a square building, similar to what was found before in the 
other part of the cemetery ; there was no floor, nor any 
remains of a body. About a dozen entire sepulchral urns 
were found, of various forma and sizes, containing burnt 
bones, chiefly humau. Some of the urns contained unguen- 
taries, in one of which Dr. Johnson also detected traces of 
oil. One of the cinerary urns has a cover. A beautiflil um 
of clear glass, about 8 in. high, was disinterred, and another 
glass vessel of the form of a cinerary nm ; also one entire 
speculum of circular form, and another in fragments." These 
Roman mirrors are of copper, with a large mixture of tin so 
as to appear white ; they are brittle, and present a brilliant 
surface. A silver buckle of elegant fashion was also found. 
Two nearly perfect lamps, which Dr. Johnson supposes to be 
made of foreign clay ; one of them has the head of Hercules 
figured upon it, the other has a kneeling 6gare well executed. 
An article of bronze much resembling a surgeon's lancet, 
and which had been enclosed in a case of wood, apparently 
of cedar. This rare implement is fashioned very ingeniously; 
the point for penetrating the flesh, as supposed, is of steel, 
not unlike that now in use. It is furnished with a guard, to 
prevent its cutting too deeply; the handle is of bronze and 

I have omitted to mention a small gem, the only one that 
the late examination of the site of the city has brought to 
light. A few other antique intagU are recorded to-have been 
found and drawings of them are preserved, and some are 
still to be traced in private hands. Mr. Wright has given 
representations of those that can be authenticated as found 
at Wroxeter, in the Journal of the Archseological Association, 

eurrenoB, hu been found at Wrotator in 
the recent raerardisa. .^ . 


accompanied by an interesting memoir, tfaua adding to the 
obligation which antiquaries owe to him for the efforts he 
has made to disinter ^e vestiges of the buried citj.' The 
number of gems known to have been found at various times 
amounts to seven, and these indicate different periods of 
glyptic art. The intaglio last discovered is of small dimen- 
sions, hut not ill executed, and the subject, as Mr. Wright 
observes, "full of fancy and imagination;" it represents a 
&wn springing out of a nautilus shell.* The stone is set in 
a smaU iron ring. The intaglio with the ring, as it was 
found, is now in the Shrewsbunr Museum. For a particular 
account of the gems found at Wrozeter I must refer to Mr. 
Wright's interestii^ paper. 

I ought not to conclude this account of excavations at 
TJrioconium during the three last years, without mentioning 
that the fragments of tesselated floors which were laid bare 
in tmcovering the fonndations of the Basilica, have with 
much care been reproduced, and an accurate plan made of 
them by Mr. Maw of Broseley. From actual measurement 
of the portions remaining, and hv carefully collecting such 
traces as were distinguishable, he has reconstructed the floor 
in the eastern half of the north corridor of that building. 
His plan is accompanied by a description of the pavements, 
in which he shows his authority for every pattern. The 
paper was read at the Congress of the Archaeological Asso- 
ciation at Shrewsbury, August 10th, 1860 ;^ and it shows to 
what practical purposes the pursuits of arcbmology may be 
applied, since these mosaic floors exhibit patterns well worthy 
of the imitation of our artists of the present day. The glass 
also and examples of earthenware collected in the course of 
the excavations, and now so well placed in the Museum of 
Roman Antiquities in Shrewsbury, may furnish suggestions 
to modem workers in glass and pottery. These remains of . 
the old world may often indeed become valuable lessons 
for improvements in the arts and manufactures of our own 

* Jonnal Brit Anh. Anoo., 18SS, p. iDtkglio in poMc^oa of the Rer. C. W. 

1(ML King tbe Buimftl laauing from tba ibell 

' This prstty devica U not nnoommoD la an alaphant. Tbaae derioaa, m Hr, 

on antiqae gama. Sararal intagli thui King obaenaa, wara probtbl; rapvded 

aogratad were lent to tba exhibition of m ohvnu •gainrt tha anl «7e. 

G^do Art in tha tpMimanti of the 'Sea Joaraal of BriUah AtoIl Abm., 

Inatitate, June, 1861. On a nrnftrkabla Jane, 1861. , - i 


Bt C W. kino, H.A^ Senior Fallow of Trlattj CMega. OmbMgt. 

At the recent diaperaion of the valuable collection of 
works of ancient art formed by the late Mr. J. W. Brett, I 
became possessed of a very curious, possibly unique, intaglio, 
the subject engraved upon the gem being the ancient 

Althoiigh the nature and general fashion or construction 
of the instrument originally employed by the Greeks, and 
subsequently used in Rome, for measuring time by the 
escape of water, may be understood from passages in the 
works of Aristotle, and other writers of antiquity,' repre- 
sentations of the Clepsydra are of very rare occurrence. 
An example which has been pointed out in a bas-relief at 
the Mattel Palace in Rome .closely resembles in form the 
hour-glass of our own times.* 

The remarkable antique gem (drawn to twice the actual 
size), which I am desirous to bring under the notice of (he 
Institute, is an intaglio on a " banded agate " (a sardonyx 
cut transversely) representing two Cupids turned back to 
back, and supporting in their upliited arms a huge oviform 
vase with a contracted mouth, whence issues a stream of 
water. On the belly of the vase appears a horse at full 
speed, and a large star (the sun). These adjuncts precisely 
indicate the subject of the design, the Clepsydra of the 
Circus Maximus, where the great races were held on De- 
cember 25, the Natale Solis. In a bas-relief of the date of 
the Lower Empire, figuring the Hippodrome in Constanti- 
nople, a similar vase appears, but more simply mounted, 
being merely traversed by an axis and turned with a crooked 
handle by the proper official, the entire arrangement being 

I«tiii DlotioDuy, v, ClBptjdta. 


Aatiquo Intaglio. 

i the Clopaydra UMd 
iicuB Maxjmua, 

iKtloDorC. W. Kins. K.A. 

DC, zecbvCiOOglc 

) by Google 


Trhat is Still seen Id a large grindstone. By this contriT- 
ance the instantaneous iuversion of the rase T?a8 secured. 
The contents escaping in a certain definite time showed 
the number of minutes taken up by each misstts, or course, 
of which, at the Great Games, there were twenty-four. 

The gem which has suggested this brief notice, in itself a 
very remarkable relic of ancient art, — a fine engraving of the 
best Roman period, — doubtless is a faithful picture of the 
elegant adaptation of such a timekeeper that adorned the 
Circus Maxlmiia in the days of the first Ciesars. 

The clepsydra) used in the ancient law-courts to regu- 
late the time allotted to each pleader were yet simpler in 
arrangement — a mere vase inverted by an attendant. 
Pliny incidentally mentions that each marked the third of an 
hour: — "Dixi horia paene quinque ; nam xij clepsydria quaa 
spatiosissimas acceperam sunt additse quatuor." — Ep. ii. 
XL 14. 

From the fact that so many clepsydne were assigned to 
each pleader before opening his case, it would appear that 
a large number were kept in readiness, filled beforehand, 
and inverted in succession by the special officer until the 
speaker's allowance was run out. Hence, in the extant 
speeches of the Attic orators, we find " water " perpetually 
used as a synonym for " time." This custom supplies 
Martial with a humorous allusion where describing a dull 
declaimer repeatedly moistening his throat with a glass of 
water during the progress of his interminable harangue, he 
suggests that it would be an equal reUef both to himself 
and to the audience were he to drink every time out of the 
clepsydra itself.* 

" Septem clepBjdras magnft tibi voce petenti 

Arbiter inrituB Cnciliaae dedit. 
At tu multft diu ducis, fitreisque tepentem 

AmpuUis potas seiiiisupinus aquam ; 
Ut tandem aatiea Tocemque aitimque roganiua, 

Jmu de clepsydra Craciliane bibaa." — Ep. vi. 35. 

* The reftder wlio may duirs further cunoiu piiHiculara collected by Bsok- 

iDfomiation in rt^nrd to tha cltpiydra ot mann, in bis Uistoiy of luTeatioas, in 

the Qreelu and Komuii, or tbe watar- the Dluertation on Water-Clooks, and 

cloeki of modiEQTol timea, ma; be re- also iu that on Clooka and Walchea. . 

ferred to the obBorvation* by Dr. Scliiniti Nolicea of writers who have treated on 

on the word Horologium in Dr. Smith'* wAte^cloak> are given by Fabrioius 

Dictionary of Antiqoitiaa, and to tbe Bibliognph. Aiitiquaria,p,1011. 

yoL. 1.1. ^,oqg[c 


Thifl contrivance in its primitive form, it will be per- 
ceived, only marked the lapse of a fixed portion of time, 
and not the steps of its actual progression. Its improve- 
ment and adaptation to this important use was due to 
Gtesibius of Alexandria some two centuries before our 
sera, a mechanician who had paid particular attention to 
hydraulics. <The principle of his water-clock was simple 
and effectual ; a cylindrical vessel filled with water bearing 
up a float loosely fitting its interior, out of which rose a 
vertical gauge marked with the hours, which by its gradual 
ascent, as the water entered through a small aperture into 
the cylinder, showed the passing away of the day with 
tolerable accuracy. Indeed, after due allowance had been 
made in the first construction for the variation in the 
rapidity of the water's escape as the weight of the column 
above diminished, in the equable climate of Egypt, where 
the atmospheric pressure may be assumed as almost con- 
stant, a very efficient timekeeper, never liable to get out of 
order, was thus readily attainable. And such must have been 
the case, since the principle was applied to the most complex 
motions, for Vitruvius has a chapter upon the construction 
of a, clepsydra which, besides the hours, told the moon's 
age, the zodifical sign for the month, and several other 
particulars, — in fact, it was a regular astronomical clock. 
His details, though in their time a valuable guide to the 
horologists used to the making of such machines, are now 
so obscure and complicated as to afford but a confused 
idea of its mode of working. The principle, however, is 
sufficiently intelligible : the fioat, acaphium, or phetlos, as it 
moved upwards, by means of the vertical column fixed in it, 
drove different series of cog-wheels, tympana denHctdu 
aqttalidtts, which impelled in their turn other sets, " by means 
of which figures are made to move, obelisks to twirl about, 
pebbles or eggs are discharged, trumpets are sounded, and 
many other tricks, parerga, put in action."* The admisaion- 
pipe was made either out of goid, or a gem perforated, in 
order neither to wear away nor to be liable to fouling. But 
there is a circumstance that renders it extremely probable 
the common Roman clepsydra had both a regular dial-face 
and one hand, set in motion by a string and float, exactly 

♦ VitruvidK, lib. ii. 0. vliL 



like the index in our wheel barometers. In his horohgium 
anaphoricum, the dial, painted with the world and the zodiac, 
was traversed by an axis, on which was wound a flexible 
brass chain, supporting by its one end tbe float, on the 
other a balance weight, saburra, equal to that of the float 
As the latter rose with the water, so the balance weight, 
descending, unwound the chain and made the dial revolve. 
In two of Albert Durer's engravings, known as "The Knight 
and Death," and "Melancholy," the hour-glass there repre- 
sented displays a dial (of different shape in each instance, a 
circle in one, a quadrant in the other) fixed upon its top, 
and marking the hours by the revolution of a hand. This 
result could ouly be attained by the contrivance just noticed ; 
and it is allowable to conjecture that the notion was bor- 
rowed from the ancient water-clock. At what pi-ecise time 
the classic timekeeper became obsolete cannot now be ascer- 
tained ; but a water-clock is specified amongst the presents 
sent by Haroun-al-Kaschid to Charlemagne, early in the 
ninth century.' 

Yet further, the Romans had already " given Time a 
voice," to make them take note of his loss ; for, though 
Petronins makeu the millionnaire Trinalchio keep a trum- 
peter who by hia hourly blast apprizes him " how much of 
his life is spent," and warns bim to make the most of the 
remainder (which could not have been done without some 
exact mode of marking the time being accessible to this 
human bell), yet, in 'the next century, Lucian, amongst the 
numerous conveniences of certain newly-built baths, describes 
a horologium that proclaimed the hour 8td ftv^^fiaro^, — by 
means of a roaring sound." This sound was doubtless pro- 
duced by hydraulic pressure upon the air contained in a 
cupola with pipes attached, according to the plan so skilfully 
elaborated by the Komans of the Decline in their kydrauUs 
or water-organ. The principle of the latter was exactly 
that of the steam whistle, water-pressure being substituted 
for that of heated vapour, and the confined air driven into a 

* A.D. S07. " HoTologintn sx w.xn\- bant." Egiubwd, Ann. Fnoa. In tba 

diklco »rte mMhuiick mirifiea com- CbnmiooD Turonensa it Is sUted thtt 

poaitum, in quo duodecim bonrum th« boon wera mukod not ovAj b; a 

conos tA depajdram *ertebatur, cnm aouad (qratoXv) bnt bj tirslva boTMinMi 

totidem nraia pilulia que ad oompla- iNoing lirom windowi, 

tUincm honrum deddabuit, et cun buo * Lueiu, Hip^M^ S. 

•ubJMtum libi cjmbalnu tiunira &cto- ,-- i 

* ^ D,D.t.zeabyC,OOglc 


vast brazen cylinder or iterris by means of forcing-pumps 
(worked sometimes by seventy men at once) was allowed to 
escape through valves placed in pipes arranged above, and 
regulated by keys worked by the performer. 

It will hence be seen how Lucian's horologium might have 
made its voice audible to as great a distance as the modern 
giant whose whistle so perpetually assails our ears. 

The name horologium eeema to have been given to the 
clepsydra, or " lose-water," after, the improvements in the 
latter enabled it to tell the time. The same term is used 
for that other most ancient indicator, the sun-diaL This 
originally was no more than a column, the shadow of which 
by the variations in its length marked the hour. Aristo- 
phanes speaks of its being dinner time when the shadow of 
this gnomon, which he terms trroixtlov^ waxed ten feet long. 
Augustus, says Fhny, converted an Egyptian obelisk (that 
now serving the same purpose in Rome, on the Monte 
Citorio) into a gigantic gnomon in front of his Mausoleum 
in the Campus Martius. Pliny notices that in his day it 
had ceased to mark the hour correctly, either through "some 
change in the solar orbit," or the settlement of its own foun- 
dations, in spite of the vast depth (equal to the height of 
the obelisk) at which they had been laid by the emperor's 

Vitruviua assigns to Berosus the Chaldean the invention 
of the concave sun-dial (the usual form with the ancients), 
the " hemicyclium excavatum ex quadrate ;" to Aristarchua 
of Samos, the convex kind, the " hemispherium," and also 
the horizontal dial ; to Scopinaa of Syracuse, the vertical, 
" plinthus, lacunar," one of which was set up in the Circus 
Flaminius ; to Theodorus, that for all latitudes, ttph^ irai> kX^ui, 
an invention implying an extraordinary proficiency in the 

' Pliny, Hist Nit, lib. uivi. c. 10. " Vitroriiw, Ub. ijt. c ii. 

) by Google 



The battle of Evesham, on August the 4tli, 1265, trans- 
ferred the power of England once more into the hands of 
Henry III., its legitimate ruler. Amongst the first measures 
he adopted -was the summoning of a parliament on the 8th 
of September following, at Winchester, to dehberate upon 
the disposal of the estates of those barons who had been in 
rebellion against the Crown. At this time the legislature par- 
took more of the nature of a privy council than a parliament ; 
the nobility and the bishops alone were called to the royal 
council, and on this occasion only such of them as were 
agreeable to the monarch. Thus, in this first parUament 
convened after the battle of Evesham, the bishops of London, 
Worcester, Chester, and Lincoln were omitted, because they 
were favorable to the cause of Simon de Montfort. It was, 
indeed, scarcely to be expected that, whilst the events of 
the preceding years were still fresh, the tribuiial would be 
impartially constituted. Nor would the feelings of the king, 
after his fourteen mdnths' captivity, permit him to view the 
proceedings with moderation and justice. The Parliament 
of Winchester thus framed would, therefore, have little 
scruple in carrying out the entire wishes of the king. It 
cannot, then, be a matter of surprise to find that, whilst 
he exbibited a willingness to extend mercy towards the 
offenders by humanely sparing their lives, he should have 
forfeited all their estates. 

The parliament decreed that the lands of all who were 
found in arms against the king should be seized into his 
hands, and in the next parliament they became absolutely 
vested in the Crown. This act led (September 21st) to the 
appointment of two commissioners for each county, who, 

> Commonieated to (lis HUtorioil Saotion at the Meeting of the Arcbnolegical 
luatitut* M WiTwick, July 27, IBM. , 'onolr 


with the sheriffs, were deputed to make a return of the 
extent of these farious possessioDS by the 13th of October 
following. Upon this day all the adherents of Simon de 
Montfort were disinherited. Many of the delinquents 
pleaded that they were unwilling instruments in the power 
of the Earl of Leicester. In order, howerer, to ascertain 
whether this was really the case, an inquisition was ordered 
to be taken by the sheriffs and inquiries made, so that 
right should be done to them. 

After the Parliament of Winchester had broken up, the 
king, who had remained there from the 12th to the 22Dd of 
September, weut with a large force to Windsor. His first 
intention was severely to punish the citizens of London for 
the part they had ^ken in assisting Simon de Montfort. 
But, afler receiving their submission and treating them in 
a manner quite contrary to the promise of safe conduct he 
had granted for the interview, after violating the reception 
he had guaranteed, he imprisoned the greater number and 
seized the liberties of the city. 

The parliament having already granted to the king the 
full possession of the lands of the insurgent barons, he began 
to use the acquisitions by bestowing them upon such persona 
as had served him with fidelity during the late war. This, 
as will presently appear, became the fertile cause of fresh 
complications and difficulties, and ultimately led to another 
appeal to arms. It is true that some of those implicated — 
Ferrers, Earl of Derby, for instance — were permitted to 
redeem their estates by the payment of money. The citi- 
zens of London had, however, sinned beyond the limits of 
pardon. Henry therefore distributed the property of sixty 
of the most wealthy of them amongst his favorites, and 
committed four of the leading citizens to prison. (Jan. 10.) 

About the end of November, Simon, son of the Earl of 
Leicester, who was then in command of the Castle of Kenil- 
woi'th, foreseeing the probability that it might undergo a 
severe siege, as indeed it afterwards did, suddenly left it 
with a chosen band of followers for the purpose of making 
an incursion into the Isle of Axholme. He was immediately 
joined by the disinherited barons. As soon as the king 
received tidings of this unexpected outbreak he sent against 
them such forces as he had at disposal, placing the array 
under the command of Prince Edward. The Prince bo 

Dg zecbvGoOgIC 


Tigorously besieged the insut^ents that they were forced to 
sorrender, Tvhen his cousin retreated to Kenllvorth. 

A similar outbreaJc happened in the following year towards 
the end of April, when Earl Ferrers, who had just received 
the royal pardon, bringing together a large number of sup- 
porters witii some of those who were in the Isle of Axholme, 
b^an to plunder the counties in the north-west. They 
were, however, routed at Chesterfield, on the 15th of May, 
by Henry, the son of the King of Almain. 

It is desirable to bear these two engagements in recol- 
lection, as they were subsequently the cause of just complaint 
on the part of the king, whilst the barons who were against 
him in these engagements were specially included under the 
second and seventh clause of the award of Kenilworth, as 
will be hereafter noticed. 

On the 1 4th of December Henry III. left Windsor, resting 
at Dunstable and Hanslope, for the town of Northampton, 
where he arrived on tho 20th. One of the first acts of the 
king, on his arrival at this place, was to send precepts, 
dated on that day, to all the sheriffs throughout England to 
make proclamation, in their respective counties, that all who 
held of him in captte and owed him service should be at 
Northampton on the 27th of January, to join the array 
opposed to his enemies who then held Eenilworth against him. 
The king and queen passed the Christmas at Northampton, 
and were attended by Richard Earl of Cornwall, recently 
elected King of Almain, or, as he is sometimes entitled. King 
of the Romans. He was brother-in-law of Henry III., and 
by this connection became uncle to Simon de Montfort. 
C^dinat Ottoboni, the papa] legate, was also among the 
royal guests. 

The presence of the legate in England during the disorder 
that prevailed was certainly beneficial to the peace of the 
country. There can be no doubt that he acted the part of 
a mediator ; the ultimate subsidence of the angry passions 
that had been aroused in the hearts of both the contending 
parties is mainly attributable to his sage and considerate 
advice. It was owing both to this, but more particularly to 
the friendly intervention of the King of the Romans, that 
Simon de Montfort the younger was induced to submit his 
cause to their arbitration. After receiving hostages Simon 
de Montfort was prevailed upon to appear before the king 


at Northampton. Oa his arrival he was iatroduced into the 
royal presence hy his uncle. The King of Almain opened 
the business of the visit by thanking his nephew for having 
saved his life at Kenilworth, when Simon's father was killed 
in the hght of Evesham ; for the garrison of the castle 
holding it on behalf of the insurgents were so exasperated 
at the death of the Earl of Leicester, that it was with the 
utmost difficulty they were restrained from putting the King 
of Almain, then their prisoner, to death, ' He was not un- 
mindful of the protection which the younger Simon rendered 
in this peril, and, in consequence of these services, Henry 
admitted him to the royal favour. Indeed he would have 
obtained other advantages had not the Earl of Gloucester 
interposed and prevented this act of grace. Finally it was 
arranged that he should give up the Castle of Kenilworth, 
that he should leave the kingdom, and receive annually 
500 marks from the king's exchequer. 

Upon these terms being made known to those who held 
the Castle of Kenilworth, they declared they would neither 
yield it to the king nor to Simon de Montfort For they 
urged that he was still held in restraint, and that they had 
not received the castle from him but from the countess his 
mother, who had lately been expelled the kingdom. There- 
fore, they would only consent to make the surrender to her, 
and that in her own presence. During this time, whilst 
Simon de Montfort was kept in the power of the king, 
Kenilworth was held by the supporters of the countess. 
When, however, the king returned to London on the 26th of 
January, his captive found means of escaping to Winchelsea, 
where he was supported by a large number of privateers 
belonging to the Cinque Ports. With them he entrusted 
his fortunes for a time to the ocean, and for the present 
his name will not be found in the narrative of succeeding 

On the 10th of January the citizens of London were 
allowed to make a composition for their liberties. They 
bound themselves to pay to the king the sum of 20,000 
marks in satisfaction of their transgressions. Their pardon 
contained several grants and exceptions which it is unne- 
cessary here to recite. Ultimately the city recovered all its 
privileges, though it was not until four years after these 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


On the 11th of February, the important question of the 
disinherited barons engaged the attention of the king. As 
a preliminary, they had safe conduct given them to come to 
the sovereign, until Easter, in order effectually to 'treat with 
him and make their peace. It has not, however, transpired 
how many availed themselves of the overture and accepted 
the terms of composition. All that can be ascertained is 
that the citizens of London gladly took advantage of the 
oflFer, though they were heavily fined for their opposition. 

The kingdom at this moment was in a most unsettled 
state, and consequently many important transactions during 
the period after the battle of Evesham (August 4, 126.^) 
to the fall of Kenilworth (December 13, 1266) are involved 
in much obscurity. 

Many of the barons escaped after the battle of Evesham, 
and during the whole of this interval continued in opposition 
to the king. Although the adherents of Simon de Montfort 
felt that their cause was daily growing more desperate, they 
continued still to cherish a faint hope that tlieir ascendancy 
would be maintained, and their further fortunes preserved 
unbroken. Some, like Earl Ferrers, had been already dis- 
inherited, whilst others lay entirely under the mercy of the 
Crown. The kingdom continued in a very distracted state. 
Neither party felt quite secure, and thus the policy of 
strengthening the power of the king became more urgent. 
Henry consequently took advantage of every opportunity of 
increasing it ; we accordingly find that, March 15, he wrote 
to those bishops who had collected a tenth of the eccle- 
siastical revenues of the kingdom during the time he was 
held in captivity, desiring them to pay the sums so collected 
to the bishops of Wells and Coventry, being desirous that 
it should be expended both in defence of himself and the 

On the 28th April, Henry III. passed through Brackley 
to Northampton, where he arrived on the same day, and 
continued there till the 15th Of June. He spent from the 
16th till the 24th of the same month at Warwick. On the 
25th he appeared before Kenilworth Castle, where he 
remained with his army till the 16th of December ; on tiiat 
day he left it, returning through Warwick, Banbury, Oxford, 
and Windsor, to Westminster. 

The king collected all his forces to make an assault upon 


KeDilworth. It was whilst they were vainly attempting its 
reduction that the barons in arms againet him, now dis- 
persed throughout the country, taking advantage of the 
absence of the royal army, and knowing that Cambridge* 
shire and Huntingdonshire were without protection, united 
and ravaged that part of England (May 22), carrying away 
considerable booty. Unchecked in their career, early in the 
month of August they entered the Isle of Ely, where, taking 
advantage of the fenny nature of the country, they firmly 
established themselves for a year, extending in the mean 
time their ravages as far as Lynn. 

During the prolonged siege of the castle at Kenilworth, 
which, for the endurance and valiant defence of the garrison, 
is one of the most remarkable events of the diirteenth cen- 
tury, the king found it expedient to devise some measures 
for conciliating the disaffected persons, as well as to provide 
for the general peace of the realm. In order to accomplish 
an object bo desirable, a meeting was beld on the 24th of 
August, 1266, in the royal camp before the castle, when 
certain provisions were established which are popularly 
known under the English title of the Award of Kenilworth. 
They are, however, printed in the Statute book and men- 
tioned by the chroniclers of the period as the " Dictum de 
Kenilworth." ' 

Before entering upon an examination, necessarily brief, of 
this celebrated Adjudication, Enactment, Edict, Ordinance, 
or Decree, as it may variously be called, it will be desirable 
to settle three facts. 

I. The nature of the assembly that drew up its clauses. 

II. The persons authorised to put them in execation. 

III. The aims or proposals of the Council. 

I. The meeting at Kenilworth, whose decision made the 
Dictum the law of the land, strictly speaking can in no sense, 
as has been customary, be called a Parliament. When sum- 
moned on August 22nd, it was devpid of every form that 
could constitute it a legislative meeting of this description. 
The pressure of circumstances under which it met rendered 
it essential for the king's interest that it should be entirely 
wanting in everything that could make it a popular assembly.' 
The people, or at least a large proportion of the kingdom, 

> SUtuteB of th> Bcalm, vol. L p. 17. • Bep, Dign. Po«r., j. \\^^^q 


were hostile to the wretched policy that directed the royal 
couacils. They had seen the king's promises violated in the 
safe-conduct he had guaranteed to the citizens who trnsted 
their persons to him, when they accepted his invitation for a 
conference at Windsor in September in the previous year. 
The barons had found that alt the constitutional progress 
they had made under the Provisions of Oxford was entirely 
destroyed. Neither class could have any faith in Henry's 
engagements. The Pope, it is true, absolved him from the 
oaths he took to the magnates, under the pretext that they 
were adverse to his authority (June 12, 1261), but neither 
the nobility nor the people admitted so manifestly perverse 
and unjust an interpretation. These are reasons sufficiently 
apparent why the king should have feared submitting his 
OWD case to popular and dispassionate adjudication. Popular 
indeed no assembly could then be called, since the utmost 
privilege the people had then attained was to hear the faint 
pulsations of liberty struggling for existence in a committee 
of twenty-four of the aristocracy. Dark and hopeless at 
this time was the prospect of a national representation, for 
patriotism was absolutely crushed. 

This will show that what has usually been called the Far^ 
liament of Kenilworth was in reality a meeting of a totally 
different kind, even as the word signified in those days of 
monarchical misrule and feudal oppression. It may excite 
surprise that these disorders in the body politic, after having 
been once overcome, should have ever again broken out. 
But we must remember that a social evil then, as in our 
own day, takes a long time to eradicate. Nor, again, does 
it appear that the persons who had the authority to draw 
up the award were, taken as a body, of that character 
or so numerously convened that they constituted a legal 

It has also been doubted by some of our chroniclers 
whether the Council, for so it must correctly speaking be 
called, actually held their meeting at the Castle at Kenil- 
worth. A sufficient proof to the contrary is given by one 
of the copies of the Dictum being dated " in castris apud 
Kenilworth," whilst we know that the award was in other 

' Anawar to Hr. Petjt's book ant<tl»d controTerts the idoa of th« Conunoaa 
the Right* of the ComniaDa Mwrted, luviiig U17 voioa in this UMmbI;. 
pp. BB-C, In «bieh work Dr. Bnd; area I^tOOqIc 


copies dated on the Slst of October, the Castle not being 
surrendered until the 31st of December following.* 

II. The nature of this assembly, then, in no manner par- 
taking of that of a Parliament, what was its actual consti- 
tution 1 This is gathered from the terras of the record 
itself entered on tSe Patent Rolls that describes it. It is 
in French, and its purport is as follows : — 

Henry by the grace of God King of England, in the 
fiftieth year of bis reign, in the octaves of the Assumption 
of our Lady, at the request of the honorable father Otto- 
boni. Legate of England, summoned his Parliament at 
Kenilworth ; where it was agreed and granted by common 
consent and common council of the Bishops, Abbots, Priors, 
Earls, Barons, and others, that six persons, that is to say, 
the Bishop of Exeter, the Bishop of Bath, the Bishop elect 
of Worcester, Sir Alan Zouche, Sir Roger Somery and Sir 
Robert Waleraad, by their oath there mtide, should choose 
six others, no ways suspected, who knew best and would, 
according to their understanding, do what was best for the 
security and peace of the land, of which six one was to be 
a Bishop, and the other five knights, aad those twelve sworn 
upon the Holy Gospels,* 

These six are named in the preamble of the Dictum 
together with the six other Commissioners chosen by them, 
namely, the Bishop of St. Davids, Gilbert de Clare Earl of 
Gloucester, Humphry de Bohuo Earl of Hereford, Philip 
Basset, John Baliol, and Warin de Bassingbourn. Five of 
these knights fought on behalf of the King at Lewes or 

III. Without examining each of the forty-one clauses of 
the award, it will answer the present object to state that, 
amongst other matters, the first six declare the full authority 
and exercise of the royal power, the liberties of the Church, 
the remission of pardon and the rights and possessions of 
the Crown. 

The twelfth clause fixes the terms of ransom for those 
who commenced the war, or who were in arms against the 
King at Northampton, Lewes, Kenilworth, Evesham, and 
Chesterfield. All of these were to pay the value of their 
land for five years. The conditions imposed on the Earl of 

• Tjrrell, vol. il p. ICflT. ' Bimdj'. Anawor to Mr. pBtyt, A5i.;illn^fc|(; 


Derby and Henry de Hastings were more severe, the re- 
demption of their lands being set at seven years' return. 

With the exception of the seveoth clause it will be need- 
less to inquire into any others, the same application of the 
principle of ransom being laid down throughout. These 
tei-ms of composition were in fact the main objects of the 
Dictum of Kenilworth. 

Considering the particular circumstances under which the 
authors of the award drew up its provisions, there is even 
now, when it can be dispassionately reviewed, very little 
deserving the reprehension of a more civilised age. The 
seventh clause is, however, an exception. But' for the in- 
sertion of this, the Dictum might have challenged compa- 
rison with many later proffers of mercy shown to political 
offenders. Its general tone was one of moderation and 
equity. Its general scope was wide. This clause, however, 
was for a time fatal to the progress of constitutional liberty, 
since it utterly annulled and quashed the Provisions of 
Oxford, to use the word of the award, when speaking of 
them, " penitus adnichilentur et cassentur, et pro cassis et 
pro nullis penitus habeantur." The repeal of these provi- 
sions at once threw back again all power from the twenty- 
four into the mere will of the monarchy. 

Yet how much blood had been shed to gain this very 
small advance in the path of practical freedom. In vain 
had the Barons led on their victorious ranks at Lewes 1 
The repeal of the Oxford Provisions destroyed all the 
poUtical advantages their contest had gained, and it in- 
vested Henry III. once more with uhcontroUed and irrespon- 
sible power. 

An interesting series of documents has been preserved, 
which give au account of the proceedings subsequent to the 
publication of the Dictum of Kenilworth. These documents 
have been printed in a volume which has become of much 
scarcity, and, therefore, a notice of them is desirable, inde- 
pendently of the particular illustration they give of these 
events. One of the six documents is entitled, — " Terne 
rebellium dat» fidelibus tempore Hegis Henrici III. in 
diversis comitatibus Angliae ;" another, — " Terrie Norman- 
norum seisitss in manum Domini Regis in diversis comita- 
tibus." The other four are, — " Placita de terris datis et 
occupatis occasione turbacionis in regno AngUss^i^^pymitatu 


Essex, in coniitatu NorthamptonisB, in comitatu Suffolcise, 
in comitatu Cantabrigise." ' Thus the six rolls furnish the 
pleas set up by the owners of the estates confiscated in the 
four counties of Essex, NorthamptoD, Suffolk, and Cam- 
bridge, which were bestowed on the king's adherents, and 
those of the Normans seized into the hands of the king in 
Beveral counties. « 

The first of these documents simplj mentions the names 
of those who bad previously held the forfeited Unds, their 
value, and the names of tliose upon whom the king had 
bestowed them. 

The Plea Rolls are much fuller. These not only funush 
the names of a large number of possessors of property in 
these four counties, thereby furnishing much information of 
a topographical and statistical kind, but they supply many 
miaute facts which illustrate the social habits of the period ; 
they give the value of agricultural stock, furniture, wearing 
apparel, and other personal possessions. The evidence is 
throughout adduced against the accused with great detail 
and circumstantiality, whilst the repUcations are equally 
minute and positive. 


in BIS 49th, 50tH, ABB filST KMSAt TEAIM. 

49lh Hmrj III. 
A.I>. 1265 September S 

12 to 22 


2«to25 . 


Sept. 26 to Oet. 8 


October 10 to 20 

„ 22 to 28 


50tb Te.r. 

Oet. 29 to Not. 2 . 


Not. 5 to Dee. 8 

; Rohdi SelMtl «d TM AntJicM et Domo Ckpltnkri Wnt-UoDHtenend 
Hibwmcw ■peoUDtn, ei Aj«Iufia in dapnnnpti. 1881. 


fiOth Tear. 

December 10 to U . 


..16 . . 


.. 18 . . 


A.D. 1266. 

-Dec 20 to Jm. 19 . 


Jan. 24 . . . . 

St. Alban*. 

„ 25 to 26 



Jbd. 26 to April 4 
April 6 to ir 



„ 18 . . . . 


„ 22 to 27 


., 28 . . . . 


April 28 to Jam 15 


June 16 to 24 . 


„ 26 to Oct. 28 


«Ut Yew. 

Oct. 29 to Dec. 15 


December 16 . . 


17 to 20 . 


22 to 27 


A.D. 1267. 

— January 2to 3 . 


„ 5to28 


) by Google 

^tiflfnsl Bocumtntfi. 

LAND. Dated at York, Sept. 4th, 8 Edw. II. (a.d. 1314). 

From ths Uanlmsnti it BurlngtiHi Hill, Xun, 
ConimiiiiI«t«d by OBOftOB ALAN LOVITDB8, B^. 

Amonq freqiieat proofs of the kind aasistanoe of our lamented friend, 
Mr. William Clayton, we recall, with grateful remembrance, how freelj 
the Btores of documeDtary evidence, which it was his delight to inreitigate, 
were always at our disposal. Not many days before his decease, Ur. 
Clayton made ns acquainted with one of hie latest discoTeries in the varied 
historical and topographical materials among the Barrington munknenta. 
By the friendly courtesy of Mr. Alan Lowndes, the docuioent to which onr 
attention was than inrited has heen placed in our hands, and we are now 
permitted to brin;; it before the readera of this Journal. 

The transaction to which it relates is of a somewhat unnsoal nature ; 
there can be little doubt that it may be connected with an important crisia 
in the reign of Edward II., namely, the fatal disaster of Bannockbom. 

It appears that Sir Thomas de MandeTille had been taken prisoner by 
the Scots, and, judging by the date, probably at Bannockbum ; that he 
had agreed with his captor or detainer for his ransom ; that part of the 
money to be paid consisted of a debt of 94Z., which the Bruce owed to 
Nicholas de " Banitone," or Barenton. who had formerly been bis steward 
of lands held by him (Robert de Bruce] in Essex, and had purchased eloth 
and other things, which doubtless had been delivered, but the price 
remained unpaid and was a debt from the king's enemy to Nicholas, which 
the king was probably considered to hare the right to seiie, or, at aU 
erents, Nicholas did not feel himself ssfo in remitting it to the enemy 
without leare from the king. Hence, as we may conceire, arose the need, 
or at least the wish, to hare the king's authority for sending an acquit- 
tance to the Bruce, who bad engaged to pay the money thereupon to the 
person entitled to the ransom, 

This Licence, as it appears, Nicholas de ^arenton had solicited through 
the sister of Edward II., Elisabeth, countess of Hereford, whose husband 
had likewiae been taken at Bannockbum, and exchanged for fire distin- 


gniabed captires — Isabella, Bruce 'a wife, his aister, daughter, and Dephew, 
and the venerable Bishop of Glasgow.' 

TbomaH de MandeTille was probablj a distant relation of tbe Earl of 
Hereford, who was descended from an heiress of HaodeTJlle, and he may 
have held lands of tbe Eorl, as fieri of Essex. 

The battle of Bannockburn, which was fought on the memorable June 24, 
1314, and put an end to the hopes of the English soTeretgn to accomplish 
the subjection of Scotland, was important above all the oonflicta between the 
^len rival naNons, and attended with results most disastrous to Edward II. 
and bis army. Philip de Mowbray, who had gallantly held Stirling Castle 
againat Sir Edward Bruce, brother of the Scottish king, sorely pressed 
and apprefaensive of the failure of hia provisions, agreed to surrender that 
fortress, if not relieved before the feast of St. John the Baptist (June 24). 
Edward II. made large preparations for the succour of the fortress, the 
last stronghold of importance which stood between Scotland and freedom. 
He summoned the military force of his kingdom to meet him at Berwick, 
on June II;' some months later he issued writs to the sheriffs to make 
levies of infantry, to be assembled at Wark on June 10 ; ' he demanded 
aid from the Irish cbiefs, and made other extensive preparations for the 
eampaign. It is impossible to aacertaia the number of Edward's army, 
multiplied by Fordun to 340,000 horse and as many foot. Of those 
summoned some refused to come and others were ezciised ; but, when 
Edward set forth from Berwick on June 18, he was accompanied by a 
force superior doubtless in Dumbers and effective equipment to any pre- 
viously led against the Scots by an English monarch.* Tbe details of the 
eventful engagement are familiar to all who take interest iu the history 
of the period ; certain discrepancies, however, occur between the accounts 
of English and Scottish chroniclers, which it may be di£Scult to reconcile. 
Edward, closely pursued, effected a disgraceful flight to Dunbar, whence 
he escaped by sea to Berwick, having lost hia privy seal and his treasure, 
which, as well as the vast array of military engines and provisions, fell 
into the hands of the victors. It is said that the number of the slain 
vas comparatively small ; according to other accounts 30,000 English, 
including 200 knights, were left on the field. The fugitives captured in 
their wanderings appear to have been treated with a certain degree of 
lenity. Walsingham observes that the victor made liberal distribution of 
the spoil; " captivoa tractavit oivilitcr ; " he alao sent the corpses of the 
Earl of Oioucestcr and tbe veteran Robert Clifford to Berwick for 
honorable burial.* Twenty-two barons and bannerets, with sixty knights, 
fell into the hands of the Scots ; their lives were preserved for the sake of 
ransom. Among those who escaped was probably Sir Thomaa de Uande- 
ville. to whose liberation the subjoined Licence relates. The captors doubt- 
less reaped a golden harvest on the occasiou, besides the great amount of 

■ Rymer, vol. {]'. pp. SGI, 2SS. Tytler, leaguea; Ualmeib. p. 151. 

HUt. Soot, vol L p. 278. ' T. de WaWngtiun Ypod. Neust., p. 

* Rjmer, vol. ii. p. !3S, doted Dec. 601. Tfaomu do U Hon ennmentti 
23, 7 Edff. II. A.n. 1313. Tlia writs bodib af tbe chief ouptives; "fers tre- 
wera addiaued to 93 barons. ceati viri militarea " as he obserria were 

* Ibid, pp. 21t), 248. apored, for tbe *ake of ranioni. VIU 
' It is aUted that the waggons and Edw. II., Angl. Norm. Script, p. 694. 

vebicles Iwlen with military atoras would See also Knighton, S5S3, and Trivet'a 
have extended, in a line, to twenty Annali, w '' ~' " - '" 
rOL. XII. 

I. u. p..l5. I 


boot^. According to the cnrions contemporarj bftlW on the disaster at 
Bannockburn, preserved in one of the Cottonian MSS., and printed hj Mr. 
Wright in the selection edited for the Camden Society — 

NoBtits gentb Anglm qnidam nmt o^tiri, 
Cumbwat ab sda qtiiduu wmiviTi, 
Qui fuwuDt divitea fluat r«demptiTi, 
Q(ii>d deliruiC nobilea pleotuntur Aohivi I 

PolUiaU Satgi, -p. 2W. 

The captire knight wss probably of Black Notley in Esbbx : there 
appear to bare been two manors ia that parish in which Geoffrey de Man- 
deTille had posseBsions at the time of the Domesday surrey ; subsequently 
the lands belonging to the manor of Qobions in Notley became incorpo* 
rated into the liouor of UandeTille. Walter, younger son of William de 
Uanderille and brother of Qeoffrey, created Earl of Essex by Stephen, had 
this estate. The descent of the family may be found in Morant's History. 
Sir Thomas, son of Sir John de Uanderille, had licence, 48 Hen. III., to 
hunt in the county ; and his sou Walter, who married Agnee, daughter of 
Nicholas Barenton, was father of a Sir Thomas Uanderille liring in 1 372.* 
The Sir Tbomas, to whom the snbjoiued document relates, was pro- 
bably the person of that name first mentioned, and the same irho occnra 
among the bannerets of Essex in the Roll of Arms compiled, according to 
Sir Harris Nicolas, between 1308 and 1314.' In the same Roll are fonnd 
the arms of " Sire Nicholas de Baringtone,'" a descendant of the family 
in Essex, of which some notice has been ^ren, ^m information aupplied 
by Mr. Clayton, in a former Tolume of this Journal.' We are unable to 
identify the " Nichol de Bamtone," formerly steward of the Bruce's lands 
in Essex, as stated in the document here printed, in which he is not 
described as of knightly rank ; be may hare been Nicholas, one of the 
sons of Sir Nicholas de Barenton, living temp. Edward II. and Edward 
III., by Alice, daughter and heir of Sir Richard Belbouae.' 

* Morant's Hist of Eshz, vol. iL p. 119 b. A brsnoh of the llanderiUe 

123. Sunily appean to hare been wttUd in 

^ Roll of Arms of ths reign of Edward Ireland, probabi; at an earlj period. In 

II., p. 89. Among person* of note to S Edw. IIL Sir Heurr de Haoderille 

whom ciedeDttalg in taror of John de and John de UanderiUe oceur among 

Hotham on bis mission to Ireland were penoni in Ireland nimmoned against 

addremed by the king from Tork, Aug. the Scota ; Rjraer, vol. ii. p. 907 ; and 

12. 1814, includiog Richard de Burgo, others of the name of Huiderille are 

Barl of Ulster, the nunc of a Thomaa de mentioned in dooumenli to be found in 

Uanderille occun. Rjmar, vol i. p. 2tl£. the Fndera 

There Bppean, however, no reason to ' Ibid, p. S3, 

suppose that he may have been the same * Archaeol. Jauni., voL xz. p. 1S4. 

person of the name who, according to ' This Nioholaa de Buanton married 

the royal licence bere printed, was a cap- Emma, dau. and coh. of Sir Bobart 

tire in Scotland on Sept 4th in that Baard, with whom ba hod ths manor of 

year. In Nor. ISOB, a Thomas de Little and other eatatea. Chauncey'a 

MandeviJle was summoned from Ire- Herts, p. S6T. See the aoooant of tbe 

land to meet the Icingat yewoaatle luptr Barrington family in Collins' Baronetage, 

Art, on ths feast of St John next, to voL I p. SG, edit. 1T41. The alliancs 

join an ezfiedition into Sootlond ; RoL between the Uandevillea and the B 

aired thanks for aarvioes in defending dooament here given. 
Ireland sgaiust tbe Scotch. Ibid., p. 

) by Google 


The poueisiona iu Essex held by the Bruce, nntil, on his coronation at 
Soone in 1306, he wa» depriTed of them by Edward I., were the manors 
of Writtle, Great Baddoir, and Bromeshobery in Hatfield Broad Oak, with 
the half hundred of Harlow. The descent of these eatates to the Earla of 
Chester is related bj Horant : on the death of Ralph Blondenlle, the last 
of the line of Hugh Lupns, in 1232, his fonr aiaters became bis heirs. 
Hand, the eldest, eipoaaed Darid, brother of William, Kiag of Scots ; and 
Isabel, the second, married Robert de Bms, from whom the above- 
mentioned estates in Euex descended to Robert Bruce, on whose assertion 
of his right to the kingdom of Scotland alt his poesesBions in England were 
seised by Edward I.' They were auboequently granted by Edward II. to 
Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, and to Elisabeth, his 
counl«M, aiater of that king ; at her request, it will be obserred, Edward 
granted the Licence in faror of the captive Sir Thomas de Handeville, 
who probably, as has been stated, was a distant relation of her.husband.* 

In the nnmbor of captivea, according to Walungbam, was Roger de 
Northburgh, Keeper of the Privy Seal (" Gustos tM-gis Oomini Regie") 
which was taken from him by the Scots ; a disaster doubtless very 
mortifying to the fugitive king.* Three days after the defeat at Stirling 
Edward issued from Berwick writs to the sherifie, to the constable of 
Dover, and to the warden of the Cinque Ports, notifying the loss ("priratum 
sigillnm nostrum a nobis est elongatnm"], and enjoining proclamation to 
be made in all cities, towns, and elsewhere : — " et ex parte nostra firmiter 
iuhiberi ne qnis, pro aliquo mandate sib! sub dicto sigillo exnunc porri- 
gcndo seu etiom liberondo quicquam fociat, nisi aliud a nobis habuerit 
mandatum, de priori mandate aub dicto privato sigillo contento Bpecialem 
fociens mentionem, vol nisi viderit quod ea, quie in dicto mandate snb 
dicto privato ugillo contenta fuerint, ad noatrnm teudant commodom et 

■ lloiant, Bist of Eiaez, voL iL p. handi.* Lord Campbell, lives of tbe 

502. ChuMllon, voL L oh. aii. onarte that 

* Henry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford acoording to the English authoritiea, 

in the reisn of Kins John, marded Hand which he thinks ma; be reliod upon, but 

sister and eventuBlI? heimM of William does not cite by name, no ana bail 

da Hatidaville, Earl of Ewex. attended Edward to the north as Chan- 

' Waltingham, Hiitoria brevii, edit. cetlor or Kseper. Walter Bejmolda, who 
1574, p. 81 ; the cause of the lou of bba had beau Edirard's tutor, had succeeded 
king's seal ia not stated in the Y^igma I^ngton ai Chancsllor July C, ISIO ; it 
Ifeustrie, where ib is also mentioned as is probable that having receotl; been 
the "ta^ia regis." Roger de North- tnnslatad to the see of Caaterbui7 ha 
burgh was clerk of the wardrobe, and may not have accompuiied tba king. 
held Dunieroui eccleaiasCtoJ preferments Edward set forth on Marcb 30, or April 
in the time of Kdward II., by whom he 1, and doonmeata occur on the Patent 
aiipean to have been much esteemed. and other Holla, tested at various places 
In 1 323 he was appointed Treasurer of where he lojuumed in his progress, ex- 
England ; in JuDs S7, in the same year, tending over more than tan weeks, until 
he was conseoratad Bishop of Lichfield. bis arrival ab Berwick. It is probable 
It has been erroneoualy stated by some that tbe Oreat Seal bad been consigned 
writeis tiiat it waa the Qreat seal which during that time to tbe Hester of the 
was taken b; the Soots at Banoookbum ; Rolls, Adam de Osgodaby, as on a pre- 
Hume of Goldscroft, in his Histoir of viousocoagioo. when he atUnded Edward 
Scotland, as dted by Lord Campbell, to Berwiakin ISll.havingthesaal tn hia 
adda that the Lord Keeper was alain, keeping, ami that he may have been also 
sod that Sir Ralph Mortimer, not Ralph with the king during bis expedition in 
de Konthermsr, as stated by Walsing- 13U, but have remained at Berwick 
ham, "waa dimitted ransoma free and doting the king's abMuoe in Scotland, 
obtained tbe king's Broad Seal at Bruco's 



honorem." Theee writs were tested b; Edwaxd at Berwick on the 27tli June 
— " Per ipsum Regem, aub priTato sigillo Regine.'" It would hence 
appear tliat daring the interval, until Edward II. regained poBBession of 
Ilia privj aeal, be made uh of that of Isabella, bie queen, by whom and b;^ 
the infant prince, Edward of Windaor, he had been aecorapanied in his ill- 
advised expedition. The queen's seal here referred to may have h^en that 
engraved b; Sandford, p. 1 3 1 , a circular seal of moderate size ; the device 
being an eacutcheon of the queen's arms dimidiated with those of her hus< 
band, the nhield is placed within a quatrefoiled panel surrounded bj elabo- 
rate tracery, and without an inscription. 

We learn from the above-mentioned write that Edward had reached 
Berwick on June 27tb, the battle having occurred on June 24th. He had 
fled to Dunbar, a distance of nearly seventy milea, attended by the Earl of 
Pembroke and 500 horsemen ; there he sought refuge with the Earl of 
March, who jirovided a small vessel in whieh the royal fugitive was con- 
Tcyed to Tweedmouth. Itineraries, such as that accuratelv compiled by 
Mr. DuffuB Hardy for the reign of John, and Hr. Hartahome s compilationa 
for the reigns of Edward 1. and Edward II., professing to show, from 
attestations of public documents, the place where the sovereign was on 
each BuccesalvB day, are obviously of utility to the historical student. 
We may take this opportunity, however, to remind our readers that, accord- 
ing to the caution given by Mr. Duffus Hardy in his Introduction to tlie 
Patent Uolls, and as pointed out to us by one of the most acute of record- 
antiquaries, the late Mr. Hunter, Itineraries such as the compilation by the 
Rer, J. Stevenson, to which Mr, Hunter kindly gave us access at the Record 
Office, should not be received as oF unquestionable authority in regard to 
the presence of the king at any place where a document was tested. It ia 
even doubtful whether the phrase " Teste meipso," or "per ipsum Regem," 
unless with the addition " manu sua propria," always indicates personal 
presence ; where " Teste Rege " is found, it cannot be concluded that the 
king was at the spot in question on the day when a document under the 
Great Seal is tested.' Our friend, Mr. Hartahome, may not, as we 
apprehend, have been fully aware, in preparing hia Itineraries printed 
in the Collectanea of the British Archraological Association, how important 
is the caution for which we are indebted to our friend Hr. Hunter; a proof 
of the accuracy of whose observation Is found in the portion of Mr. Harts- 
home's Itinerary under the seventh year of Edward II., according to 
which we are led to suppose, on the evidence of Patent, Pine, Close, and 
Scottish Bolls, that the king constantly sojourned at Berwick from June 
1 1, the day when his forces were summoned to assemble there, to June 28, 
1314. It is, however, well known that Edward aet forth with his host 
from that town on June 18; they were at Edinburgh on the 22 nd, and 
arrived within view of Stirling on the following evening. It is remarkable 
that Mr. Hartshome'a Itinerary contains no allusion to Banuockbum ; it 
would indeed induce us to imagine, on the evidence of Parliamentary 

* Rymer, vol. iL p. 2i9, from Bot cnped to Uridliegton, having abandoned 

Clsus. 7 Kdw. 11. This was not the only bi^age, treusure, and bib "privatniu 

occuiaa on which Edward II. had tha ai^Tlum." B;mer, vol. L p. 48S. 

mufortune to lose his privy seal. In * Sea Jus Sigilli, Lnud. 1073, p. 1S2 ; 

1S22, vben Robert Bruce compelted him Blackatone, B. ii. ch. 21, s. 2. 
to decamp from Bylaud Abbey, be ee- 

) by Google 


'Write and Patent Ro]1r, that, during the time of Edward's memorable 
march abo*e-mentioned and at the criaie of his ill-fated expedition, be 
was etill lingering with his queen and her iafant- son on the banks of 

It IB probable that Edward's lost priry seal or tarffia, which, as already 
atated, had been taken from Roger de Northbnrgh when he fell into the 
hands of the king's adterwries, had actually been restored before the date 
of the Licence here printed, preserved among Hr. Lowndes' muniments, and ' 
it may doubtless hare been the matrix of which this interesting document 
aeppliea an impression. Walsingbam relates that Ralph de Uonthermer, 
who married Joan, uster of Edward II,, was among the captiTea at Bau- 
nockbum ; that baring found favor with the Bruce on account of prerious 
acquaintance with him at the English court, he was released without ran- 
som ; and that on his return to England he brought with him the king's priry 
seal, which had fallen into the enemy's hands ; — " reportavit secnm domiiii 
regis targiam captam a Scotis, usu tamen ipaius primttus interdicto."' It 
may be remembered that, after the first excitement of the memorable 
atruggle and victory under the walla of Stirling had passed, the Bruce 
must have felt no slight anxiety for the safety of bis consort, who bad 
been captured in the sanctuary of St. Duthao in 1306, and atill endured 
the Borrows of her protracted captivity in Rochester Castle, whither she 
had been removed in the month of Uarcb previously from the more gentle 
custody of the abbess of Barking, and had been consigned to Btemer 
durance under the constable of Rochester, Henry de Cobham.' Horeover, 
Christian, Bruce'i stater, his daughter Uaijory, his nephew the young 
Eari of Mar, and other Scottish peraons of distinction were still prisoners 
in England at the mercy of the vanquished Bdwnrd. It may well be 
imagined that the Scottish king would be disposed to propitiate his 
adreraary, and that he would evince that generous forbearance as victor, 
commended not only by Scottish writers, but by our own chroniclera.' 
Before a month had elapsed after the fatal battle, Bruce had anccossfully 
negotiated the liberation of bis queen and of bia daughter, and alao of 
other illustrious eaptivea, who were exchanged for the brother-in-law of the 
English king, the Earl of Hereford. The probability is obvious that Bruce 
may even before that arrangement liavo sought to gratify Edward by 
liberating Montbermer free of ransom, making him also, as we are 
iuformed by Walsingbam, the bearer of the lost targia. No evidence has 
been found to show the precise time of bis fortunate relum to his sovereign ; 

^Mr.HarUlionie'altinBrarfofGdw. IT. doubtleia to ths prscantioonrr writs Mot 

(Calloct Archnol. vol. i. p. 12G) givea, furtti hj Ednranl from Berwick, on Juua 

•'Jnae 24, Berwick. F. W. 124," uamely, 2T, as bsfura mentiaaed. Duffdale, 

Pirliamenlar; Writs, vol, ii. p. ISt. Bsron^e, voLi. p. 217,citiDgthe relatioa 

The writ wu addressed to John de of WalainghiuiiiDreg&rdto UoDthennBr'B 

B«iBteda, raquiring bia prMeoCB at the liberation after ths defeat at Bamiock- 

Kicheqaer witbin 16 diiji, pnpared to burn, seeuie to have luppowd that tarjiia 

go to fureign )«rta on the king's service. wu a ihield. He >&;■ that he "retumsd 

"Teate Rege apud Berewicum super into England and brought the king's 

Twedun 'U die Junii." In like muiner target, which hod beeo tokrn in that 

to John Abel and seven othara Uot. flgbt, but prohibited the uge tbereoC 

Clsiu. T Edw. 11. ■ Rjtner, vol. u. pp. ■,!41, 2*7. See also 

" Tho. doWaliingham.Tpod.Neuatrie, Tjtier, Hist. Scot., vol. L p. 211 

p. fiai;aad Hist, brerii AurI., p. 81. ' Job. de TTDkdow«,p. S7S. 
Tbeexpresiion "uiuioterdicto' rererred 



on August 18th, lowerer, Edward, then at Tork, issued b writ in 
f&Tor of Rftlph de Houthenner, in r^;ard to his dwelling-place at Clifton 
near that citj, which at the king's request he had pennitted the Earl of 
Surrej to take as hia ahode on occasion of the approaching parliBment at 
York.' There can exist, we apprehend, no reasonable ground for doubt 
that, before the date of the following docnmeot (September 4), the missing 
targia had been restored. 

According to the chronicler, bowerer, to whom we owe the Continuation 
of Nicbolaa Triret's Annals of the reign of Edward II., the king, having 
lost his seal as abore stated, caused another to be quickly proTJded. After 
a long enumeration of the slain and of the captive harons and knights at 
the fatal conflict under the walls of Stirling, theie supplementary Annala 
contain the following statement: — " Clerici quoque et scutiferi plures 
ibidem fuerunt occUi et oapti, de quihus et dominuB Rogenis de Northburge, 
custOB Domini Regis targtcB ab eo ibidem ablats, una cum dominia 
Rogero de Wikenfdde et Thoma de Switoue, dicti domini Rogeri clericis, 
pariter detinebautur ibidem ; ob quod diminus Rex cito postea fieri fecit 
sigillura, ToleuB illud privatum tifjiUum appellari, ad diflerentiam targice 
sic, nt prnmittitnr, ablalEe." The narration of the return of Ralph de 
Hontbermer &ee of ransoni, on account of his former friendship with the 
Scottish king, ia likewise giTen, as before cited from WalBingham, and it is 
said that he brought with him the king's targia, " obu ipsius, ratione 
prnria, nihiloroiniu ex toto ioterdicto."* 

No other instance, it is believed, has occurred of the use of the term 
largia, properly signifying s shield, to designate a seal ; nor haa it been 
found as the distinctive appellation of a privj seal of any English sovereign, 
with the exception of Edward II. The term targa, however, occasionally 
denotes pieces of money struck in Bretagne, Oascony, and In Spain, pro- 
bably at the period when a shield of arms was introduced upon coins, a 
type of numismatic dengn not found in earlier times.* In the Appendix to 
the Liber de Antiqnia Legibus, edited for the Camden Society by Mr. 
Stapleton, we find a memorandum that on St. Agnea* day, 2 Edw. II. 
(January 21), "isserent les href 1e Rei ove ces lettres desuz son prive 
seal de la tor^a parmy tns lea contes de Engletere," hc.^ In the Liber 
Custumarum edited by Mr, Riley, in his valuable collection of Muniments 
of the City of London, we find a petition from the bakers, in 1320, to be 
relieved from payment of pesage ; whereupon " le Rot msnnda soun bref a 
sea Justices eirauntz a la Tour da Loundres, sur soun targe ;" the writ 
concludes thus — " Bon^ suth nostre prize teat a. Qloucestre le primer 
jour d'Averil, Ian de nostro regne xiiij."' Mr. Riley suggests that the 
seal may have been thus designated from the shield of arms upon it. It 
will be seen that the device on the seal appended to the king's Licence here 
printed is an eacutcbeon only ; there was an inscription round the margin, 
but no ornament or device appears to have been introduced in the field, 

* Bymer, vol. IL p. 2S3. lent to leulwn. Ft. feu, tha coin so called 

* Nich. Triveti Annalea, «cl. Ant. Hall, from ita bsariaK a shiald of btids. 
Oiou. 1722 ; vol. ii. pp. IS, 16. * Liber de Ant. Legibua, App. p. 2C2. 

* See Duiaugs, v. Tar^a. Mention ' Chroniolci nnd Uemoriala of Qreat 
ocaun of " gnus bluia appellez targtM," Britnin, kc, publiahed under direction of 
daubtlen ■ilvsr coitiB, <uid of " ilsmi the Muter of the RolU, HanimBUta Oild- 
targea." The term !■ obviously equiva- liallie, voL ii part L, appendix, p. 880. 



and the ^avice of the targe or ftnnorial escutcheon van thus rendered, 
apon a seal of comparatiTely small dimeDsione, more than uaaallj con> 


Edward par la graos de Diea Roi Dengletem Beignoor Dirlatmde et 
DuGB Daquitaine a toux ceux qui cestes lettres Terrant uIoe. Sacbiec que 
come nonB eoms enteaduz que Robert de Brue soit tenaa a Nichd de Barn- 
tone [tic) en quatre Tinta et quatorie Itrrea pur drapa et autroi choaea 
donnt le dit Nicliol fit cheriiaanoe pur Ini tanque il estoit piece a' Senes- 
chal de aes teires en Eaaexe, dea queni deniers le dit Niohol roudra aider 
noatre oher et foial' monaire Thoraaa do MaundeTille, qui est pria et dete- 
nus en prison par noz enemia Deaooco, en eidc de sa raunzon, et lea queux 
le dit Robert aerra prest a puer a celui qnl enai tient en prison le dit mou- 
airo Thoniaa a quele houre que le dit Nichol lui enToit lettre daquitance de 
la dite oomme, la quelo aquitance il ne ose faire ne y onToIer aanna especial 
oonge de dour ; Nona, a la requeste nostre cber eoer la Contesse de Here- 
ford, aTOms donei conge au dit Nichol quil puisse la dite aquitance faire et 
enroier an dit Robert saunz estre chalange de ce par nous on par noz hcira 
on par noa Ministrea queucumques, isaiot que meisnies les deniers aoient 
toumei en eide de la raunzon le dit monaire Thomaa sicome deasua est dit. 
En tesmoigoance de qneu chose none aroma fait faire cestss noz lettres 
patontes {tie). Done aouz nostre prire aeal a ETerirjkea le quart jour de 
Septembre Ian de noitre rogne oytiamo [a.d. 1314.]. 

There ia appended, hj a label partially cnt from the bottom of the 
parchment, an imperfect impression of the priry seal on bright red wax ; 
it is of circular form, diameter nearlj U in. { device, an escutcheon of the 

arms of England ; of the legend onlj the lettora . . a : EDW remain. 

The parchment measurea only 9^ inches in length, hj 3| inohes in 

' Cfataaaot, In hii nasfiil DiotioDiialra * Written on an ensare, poedU; tn- 

de Sigillogmphie, p. 131, givei tha follow- tended to b« read as one word. " Piita, 

ing in his enumeratioD of the formaln autrefoia, olim'' Lanombe. 

of legenda on oounteraeala ;— "Sub meo * "Foi^/Eol.- Fidile." Koqvefort. 

) by Google 

$ioceet)inj3f( at iSeetinjis of tfie Srdiaeological Knstitutt. 

Harcti 4, 1S64. 

The MARQtia Caudbn, E.Q., President, in the Ch&ir. 

The gnitifjing intelHfCBnca conveyed in the following communication from 
Qeoer&l Enollya vas brought before the meeUng b; I^ord Talbot db 
Hal ABIDE, V.P. — 

"8th Feb. 1864. 
" Mj Lord, 

" I heve the honor to notify to you, by desire of the Prince of 
Wales, tiiat His Royal flighneas will hare great pleasure in acceding to 
your request, that be would become the Patron of the Royal Archaeological 
Institute, in the place of his lamented father. 

" I have the honor to be, my Lord, 

" Tour most obedient Serrant, 

" W. Kmolltb. 
"Tbe Urd Talbot de Malahide." 

The announcement of this eoconrsging mark of royal consideration and 
fftTor towards the Society, conveyed through tbe noble Lord to whose 
constant kindness and co-operation the Institute hod for many years been 
greatly indebted, was receiTod with most lively and grateful satisfaction. 

It was slated by Ur. BaRTT, in reference to the efforts of the Committee 
for the preservation of the Bartlow Hills, that the chief engineer of the 
Qreat Eastern Railway, Hr. Sioclair, had invited a deputation of members 
of the Institute to accompany him to the spot, on the earliest day which 
might be arranged, and to confer with him there in order to determine 
more advantageously the eitent of deviation which it would he desirable to 
make in the projected line, so as to preserve those interesting vestiges of 
Roman times from injury, as far as might be foimd practicable within the 
limits laid down by the Act of Parliament pasted in the previous year. 
Ur. Burtt expressed the hope that some effectual conservative precautiona 
might result from this friendly conference with the representative of the 
Company. A courteous reply had likewise been received from Ur. 
BrasBcy, tbe Chairman, in acknowledgment of a communication addressed 
by the Committee. That gentleman wrote as follows : — " The direction of 
the railway resls with the Company's engineer, to whom I have sent your 
letter, and with whom I shall be most happy to co-operate in carrying out 
the wishes of the Inatitate as far as practicable." 

The Hon, W. OwBN Staklet, M.P., read a memoir on remuus of 
ancient circular habilstions, known as Cuttier Gwyddelod, eiisting in 
msny parts of Anglesey and especially ou Holyhead Uountun. Ifr. 



Stanley described excavatToiis made in September, 1862, vhen some of 
these dwdlingB utuated upon his estates nere carefuUj ezunined, and he 
placed before the meeting a detailed Rurrey of the fortified settlement, of 
considerable extent, of whioh the circular sites which he had examined 
form a part. This valuable memoir and sarrey will be given hereafter. 

The following notice was then commnnicated by Hr. Albert Wat, 
relating to circular incised markings on rocks in Argjleshire and in 
Ireland, resembling those in Northnmberlsnd to which the notice of the 
Society bad been called at a prerious meeting. See p. 87, antt. 

" The discovery of symbols or incised markings of unknown import npon 
rocks in Northumberland, was lately brought before the Institute, through 
the kind permission of the Duke of Northumberland, by our friend l)r. 
Collingwood Bmco, who plseed before us the accurate drawings of these 
markings, executed for his Grace, by Mr, Mossman. The first occasion, it 
may be remembered, on which attention was called to these mysterious 
vestiges near the base of the Cheviots, was at the annual meeting of tbe 
Institute at Newcastle, in 1852, when a memoir was read by the Rev. 
William Oreenwell, of Durham, now President of the Tyneside archieolo- 
gists, and to whom the credit of bringing so curious a discovery under con- 
sideratioD is wholly due. The subject was subsequently taken up by Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson ' and other antiquaries, whose enquiries have been 
stimulated by the liberal patron of archnological research in the northern 
counties, the noble duko who lately permitted us to examine the drawings 
shortly to be pablished by his direction. It has been stated that similar 
markings upon rocks have been noticed in other parts of Great Britain, in 
the neighbourhood of Scarborough and in some other parts of the North of 
England. Some casts of like relics of a remote period and unknown raco 
hod also been received from Scotland, and it was hoped that, attention 
liaving been invited to such incised work upon rocks, in many instances 
where the surface had been concealed under a thick coveting of vegetation 
and occnmulated earth, examples might he noticed elsewhere, and light 
thrown npon so obscure a subject. It is satisfactory to be enabled to state 
that this hope was not in vain ; notices of similar mysterious markings 
have been received &om several quarters, and their existence, both in 
North Britain and in Ireland, gives fresh interest to a question which may 
welt clum our examination. Through the kindness of Mr. G. V. Dunoyer, 
to whom we have often been indebted for information, wo may state that in 
certain dlstricls of the south of Ireland, the rock-surfaces are found to 
present numerous markings, as we believe, similar to those in the Cheviot 
district, and we ore pleased to know that they are in course of careful 
investigation by our learned friend, the Very Rev. Dean Graves, of Dublin, 
who has commnnicated a memoir to the Royal Irish Academy, as yet 
unpublished. It may be observed that, in the opinion of that antiquary, 
the concentric circles, lines, and other, singular configurations found npon 
such incised rocks, represent, although very rudely, forti6ed dwellings, 
entrenched works and lines of communication, snch as abound in the sister 
kingdom. Whilst the theory which would thus explain tbe import of these 
markings most be left for further investigation, it is worthy of note that 

I Uamoir on theBock-bMuuof Dart- Jonrn. Brit. Arch. Assoc, Jane, I8S0 
moor, and soma British renuiDs in p. llfC 
Bngland, by Sir J. Qardner Wilkiatou, 

TOL. XII. D,„,„ze.b,C,0(JglC 



the ume general anppoiitioii ngajiiag the intention of those found in 
Northumberland waa antertuned bj Mr. Greenirell, the first antiquary, as 
before mentioned, who brought the discorerj forward, and it is thus stated in 
the earliest publbhed notice, namely, that communicated by bim to Dr. 
Johnson, of Berwick, bj whom it was giTon, with a reproduction of Mr. 
Greenwell's drawing of the remarkable rock at Routing Lynn near 
Doddiugton, in the Natural Htstorj of the Eastern Borders, vol. i., in 1853. 
Bj the coorteay of Mr. H. B. Qrabam and of Ur. Richardson Smith, we are 
enabled to place before the Institute diagrams of incised markings on 
rocks in Argyleahire, on the estates of John Malcolm, Esq., of Foltallock. 
We are also under obligation to the Rev. James Graves, Secretary of the 
Kilkenny Society, for communicating a map, from actual surrey by Mr. 
Graham, which has been published in the Kilkenny Journal, rol. iv. N. S. 
p. 382, In the general character and groupiog of the circular markings 
shown in this map of the examples occurring near Loch Qilphcad, they 
appear to be similar to those in Northumberland, with this exception, that 
tiie Scottish figures seem to be inrariably annular — that is, formed of con- 
centric circles, two to six or even eight in number, unbroken, bnt trarersed 

Ctreakr IndMd msrUdSi OD rocki 4t Rontliig Lynn. DoddlagtoD. K 

by a line radiating from a central cavity ; whereas in the NorthnmbriDn 
markmgs the concentric circles ara pen-annular — that is to say, inter- 
rupted where the radiating line traverses. In dimensions and other parti- 
culars there appears to be no material difference. The central cavity is 
described as an inch or more deep, and two inches in diameter ; the 
circular grooves being about half-an-inch deep, very rude and irregular : 
the peculiar feature common to all ia the radiating line, which extends 
frequently to a long distance, and these lines run one 
into another, resembling roods or lines of communica* 
tion, most frequently towards the south or south-west, 
bat by no means invariably in the direction of the 
inclined surface of the rock, or in other respeota 
adapted as drains to allow any liquid to flow away from 
the central cup, as had sometimes been conjectured. 
There is only one exception to the concentrio type 
which prevails ; this is a nngle kidney-shaped figure, 
here figured from Mr. Graham's drawings ; ' there are, however, numerous 
cups which baTS no rings around them. The rocks shown in Mr. Graham's 


Foition of tiie tnukioSa, with cososatiio cixolea bom foui to ai 

Incisad markiiiflB on rocks ; Achsa'bnsk (Bpottad Field), about thrse milsB ftom 

Loobgilphsad. The numbara of oonoeaCrio riuga ia aa^h ciicla &ra 

indicatad "by aumeiKla. 

Froni iliawiDgB bj Bturj DaTenpoit Qnliun, Ea^ 


) by Google 


diagram &ro aituated about three milcB from Loch Gilphead, near the 
old road to Kilmichael, on the farm of Achnabreek (the Spotted Field]. 
They are of chtoritic Bchint, very hard and smootb, like eea-woni rock, 
and incised all orer with markinga which can 011I7 be likeoed to tattooing, 
the largest figures composed of eight circles measuring a jard in diameter, 
Tito rocks faaTo been Barvejed bj that gentleman, situated about 100 yards 
apart, one of them situated rather lower than the other, being more 
completely covered by a thin coating of turf, audcr which doubtlew many 
figures sdl lie concealed. 

" It may deserre attention that this last is known in the country as Leae- 
»a-Sluagh, — the flat rock of the host or army. The district is full of 
standing stones and restiges of a remote period. The first notice of sucli 
markings was given by Dr. Wilson in his Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, 
namely, on the Coil stone at Kyle in Ayrshire : that dtstinguished archteolo- 
giat waa of opinion that this relic belougs to the earliest stone period. It 
must, however, be considered that the first specimen found in Argyleshire 
by Ur. Richardson Smith, near the Criaan Canal aud Loch Gilphead, a die- 
GOTcry which has been followed by the remarkable notices of the objects in 
that neighbourhood now brieSy described, waa a slab forming part of a 
sepulchral cist containing bumed bones and flint flakes. This slab bore 
incised markings, and it may probably have been a detached portion of one 
of the rock- Borf aces, serving to indicate, as has been suggested, that the 
mysterious earrings belong to a race as old, if not older, than the tribes 
who burned their dead aud buried the calcined remmns in small cists 
formed of slabs of stone, by whom also flint flakes were used as weapons 
or implements. The attention of Mr. Malcolm, of Poltallock, has been 
attracted by the curious vestiges on his property in Argyleshire ; they will, 
I hope, be thoroughly investigated by his chaplain, the Rev. Mr. Mapleton, 
who is engaged in prosecuting researches ; probably other examples may 
be found besides those represented in the diagrams eibibiled, for which wo 
are indebted to Mr. H. Davenport Graham and Mr. Richardson Smith, to 
whose sagacity it is, I believe, due that these long neglected relics of 
antiquity in North Britain have at length been noticed. The publication 
of notices of the incised markings on rocks in the county Kerry is much 
to be desired ; the attention of antiquaries was invited by the Earl of 
Dunraven, and a memoir on tbdr curious character read before the Royal 
Irish Academy in February, 1860, by the Very Rev. Dean Graves, by 
whom, as already stated, these rock carvings were supposed to have served 
as rude maps of the ratbs, duns, and lissea, which are found to be, in 
general, three by three in strnight lines, in all parts of Ireland. 

" The general character of the circular markings in Argyleshire shown in 
Mr. Graham's diagrams, of which engravings on a very reduced acale may 
be seen in the Kilkenny Arch sol ogical Journal, vol. iv. N. S. p. 382, is 
shown in the annexed reprcscutation of a few specimens, for which we are 
indebted to the kindness of that gentlemao ; his skill as on archieological 
draughtsman was some years since familiar to us through his memorials of 
sculptured tombs and crosses at lona. The principal rock, about three 
mites from Loch Gilphead, according to Mr. Graham's description, is an 
inclined surface, measuring about 200 ft. by 100 ft., known as L«ae-na- 
Sluagh, before mentioned. The incised markings ore very thickly scattered 
over it. On a similar smooth face of rock, about 100 yards to the S.W., 
where it has been denuded of a coftting of turf scantily covering it, numerous 


fignres hare been laid bare. The third example is at a diatanca of amrlj 
two milea, at Cam Ban (White Cairn) ; part of the amooth rock hariog 
been cleared of turf, nxaixj like markings hare there also been discoTered. 
Ur. Graham adverted to numerous examples of standing stones, in the 
district of Argjleshiroi near the Crinan Canal ; in two instances these 
stones hare apertures through which the hand might he passed, acoordiDg 
to ancient superstitions usage, especiallj in making on attestation of anj 
solemn corenout. See Dr. Wilson's Prehistoric Annals, vol. i. p. 14/, 
second edit. Of erect stones in that part of Arg^lcshire eiplared bj Mr. 
Graham, few now rcmuu where scores existed within memory ; there are 
abo numerous cairns aud hill-fortresBes crowning the abrupt conical heights. 
The great Crinan moss through which winds the rirer Add seems to haTO 
been rich in vestiges of the earliest periods." 

Hr. Cbakles Winstoh offered somo observalions on two drawings of 
painted gloss in Nettlested church, Kent ; one subject had been token bj 
bim from a window in the chancel, and represented the emblem of St. John 
the EvaDgelist under the somewhat unusual tjpe of an angel with the head 
of an eagle. Figures of the Evangelistic Bjmbola with human bodies, tho 
heads being those of the animals hj which the evangehsts are tjpified 
respectively, occur in Hedieeval art, as in frescoes hy Barnabo da Modena 
figured bj D'Agincoort, pi. 133. Mr. Winston's aecond drawing, from a 
window in the nave, represented a group of oonuderable interest, especially 
in regard to costumo ; this subject, as Ur. Winston believer, was intended 
for the triumphal reception of St. Tbomaa of Canterbury by the prior and 
monks of Christ Church, on his return from exile not long beforo his 
martyrdom. Ur. Winston supposed tho dato of tho first to be the end of 
tho reign of Henry VI„ and that of the second the earlier years of the 
same period. A memoir on the glass in Nettlested ohoroh wUl be given, 
with engrannga from Mr< Winston's drawings, in the Arobeolcgia 

General Lefrot, R.A., gave a description of a collection of ancient 
relies which he had brought for examination, lately obtaioed from the 
Pfahlbouten or lake-habitations in Switzerland. They conusted of aze- 
heods, adzes, and implements of stone, &e., objects of stag's horn and 
bone, flint flakes and arrow-points, sling-stones, bone pins, horns supposed 
to have been used in garden labor, flat and cylindrical pestles for crushing 
grain, portions of the clay walling of a pile-dwelling, charred apples, wheat 
and bread, also fragments of fishing-nets, linen cloth and fringe. These 
curious objects were from Wangen on the Lake of Constance, Uoilen, 
Nidau Steinberg, and Robeohauses on the Pfaffikon Lake near Ziirich. 
They have been deposited by General Lefroy in the Museum at the 
Rotunda, Woolwich, and ore described in the Official Cotalogue of that 
collection recently arranged and augmented through his exertions i see 
p. 109. The remarkable preservation of articles of food, grain, and of 
linen tissues is to be attributed to their having been charred, doubtless 
during the destruction of these aboriginal Swiss lako-dwellings by fire. A 
full relation of the various discoveries is given by Dr. Keller in die Trans- 
ootions of the Antiquaries of Zarich, where representations will be found of 
the principal relics brought to light in the Pfahlbauten. A smoll series of 
these antiquities has been recently obtained for the British Museum throngh 
the exertions of the Hon. Admiral Harris, H.B.U. Minister at Berne. It 
was noticed that oae of the com-onieherB exhibited by General Le&c^ is 


nlmoet ittenticiil in fashion with one found by Kr. Stanloy in ezcKTationi ftt 
the hutHiiroles on Ilolyhead UonnUin before noticed. 

Hr. Chakleh Rebd, F.S.A., offered soma obaorvations on the fabriea^on 
of antiquities in Boft white metal, nsvutUjr alleged to hare been fonnd near 
the Thames or io the City of London daring sewerage or rulway operationa. 
He exhibited specimens of these ficUtious objects, irhich consist of images, 
TBses, grotesque medallions, pilgrims' signs, and mdelj fashioned ornaments, 
occasionally of elaborate description. Mr. Reed brought also for inspection 
Hverol moulds and tools used in the manufacture. Public attention was 
called to this dishonest traffic bj a collection of such objects, designated 
" recent forgeries in lead," submitted about 1858 to the British Archso- 
logical Association ; no doubt was tlien entertained in regard to their 
fictitious character.* The report, however, of the proceedings at tho 
meeting of that Society, printed in the Athenseum, furnished a dealer in 
these spurious objects with an opportunity of bringing his clums for 
redress. The trial took place at the Quildford Assizes, August 5tb, 1858, 
and although he failed in obtaining a verdict against the proprietors of the 
publication which contained tbe alleged libel, be succeeded in securing n 
testimony in faTor of these nawly-found curiosities, which enhanced their 
Talue aa marketable commodities. It appeared that he had purchased as 
many aa 1,100 of the articles in question, and bad expended £346. It 
was alleged by the vendors that they had been found in excavationfl for 
tho new docks at Shadwcl). One of the " shore-rakers " eugaged in tho 
traffic gave evidence that 2,000 had there been found (as he stated) 
between June, 1857, and Korch, 1858. Ho and a companion used to buy 
them of the navigators as they were discovered ; he also found many by 
raking over the earth after it was dug out. The result of the trial is well 
known ; the Judge considered that there was no case against tho Athenmum 
for libel. It hod been laid down that what a man said bond fide in public 
discnswon on matters concemmg the public interest, even if spoken rashly, 
or if what was said was not true, should not be considered as a hbel.' The 
trial terminated with a verdict for the defendant, and, no evidence having 
been given on the other side, the result was considered in certain quarters 
to stamp upon these leaden objects an impress of antiquity. For some time 
after, the public, who cared for such relics, were anxious to bo possessed of 
specimens of these newly-acquired treasures, which were rapidly produced 
to meet the extended demand. Mr. Seed's attention having, on reading the 
report of the trial, been directed to the spot from which these objects were 
said to have been brought, and being satisfied thot articles in such numbers 
could not, if found there, have been removed without notice, he set himself 
to trace out the two men who had been the purveyors, acting between tho 
finders and the dealer. The statement that the two men were " ehore- 
nkers " was ascertained to be true ; it appeared, bowever, that no com- 
munication took place, so far as Mr. Reed could discern, between them 
and the navigators in the dock. In the following year a man employed tn 
constructing the city sewers brought to Mr. Reed some pottery for sale i 
be produced aUo some of the Iraden objects, and, on being questioned, 
admitted that he believed them to he forgeries, and thai before the trial be 

■ Tbeee forgeries are likon'iM men- See olao a oommunication b; Ur. Haod 

tionedinOenLHag.jMRrcb, 1858,p. 23*. ta the Sodety of Antiqiuiioi, in thtdr 

* A full report of tliii remai^abla ttul Proceedings, vol. 1. second Maea, p. 801. 
WIS fpven in the Atbennum, Aug., 1S5B. 



had endeBToured to trace tho authors of the fraud. He vaa preruled 
npon to renew tha inquiry. Ho soou became acquainted with the ah(a«- 
ralcera before mentioued, one of whom had giren evidence at the hial. Ho 
obtained from them a number of apeoimens, brought before the Society of 
Antiquaries bj Mr. Eeed in 1860, and found the men in the act of pre- 
paring moulds, some of which ho obtained, with the tools nscd in their 
fabricotion. Mr. Keed's informant nctuully saw the objects cast aud 
produced by these men. Rude as llie forgeries are, and inoongruous as the 
multifarious designs may appear, they exhibit a remarkable amount of skill, 
fully eTidenced, moreover, by the success of the wide-spread deception, 
now practised for several years. That illiterate " mud-rakers " should 
have acquired such power of design and manipulation as these producliona 
evince may lead us, as Mr. Reed ohscrred, to wish that such talent had 
found a worthier sphere for Its development. The designers of the objecta 
exhibited, and of thousands more, had made their own tools and prepared 
their complicated moulds. Patterns or sketches hare douhtless been 
supplied, but the manufacture has been carried on through the whole tinio 
by these two men after their hours of daily work. The castings aro of lead 
mixed with pewter ; after having been exposed to a strong acid they were 
freely daubed with river mud. It is to he feared, as Hr. Reed remarked, 
that these men have only been doing what numerous fabricators of bighor 
class are constantly carrying on with success. It is the dnty of all persons 
who take interest in antiquarian pursuits, and especially of societies instituted 
for the investigation of national antiquities, to expose, hy every legitimate 
means, frauds which are prejudicial to the interests of archicological science, 
and bring scandal and reproacli upon the honorable pursuits of the antiquary. 

Mr. A. W. Franks, Bir. S.A., after a few remarks in corroboration of 
Mr. Reed's statement in regard to the spurious antiquities of lead recently 
vended in profusion to the unwary collector, especially large unsightly 
medallions bearing the dsto in several instances of the eleventh century, 
observed that several new classes of forgeries had lately come under his 
observation. These consisted of bone pins and flute*, purporting to be 
Roman ; the pins being remarkably coarse imitations of Roman bronie 
pine, but with all the details preposterously enlarged. These objects are 
weekly offered for sale as having been discovered at Dowgate, whore 
genuine antiquities of the Roman period have occurred. Another class 
consists of hronse or brass fibulte of large size and peculiar ornamentation, 
some of them resembling a medinval pilgrim's bottle ; also bosses of shields, 
in dimension similar to genuine Roman vmbonei, such as that found in 
Northumberland and published by Mr. Franks in this Journal, vol. xv. 
p. 55, but with very imperfect imitations of the decorations of late Celtic 
times, the peculiar wavy character of which has been illustrated in the 
Horte Forales, pi, 14—20, p. 1S4. 

antituflie^ «iB estdtU of 9tt efyHiUH. 

By the Hon, W. Owra Staklbt, M,P.— Flint flakes or chippings. 
speciraens of a considerable quantity found in a tnrbary at Heneglwys, 
Anglesey, hy the Ven. Archdeacon of Bangor, and by him presented to 
Mr. SUnley. These flakes appear to be from chalk flints ; it is remark- 
able that no ulex is known to occur in the strata of the island. 



By Mr. A. W. Fbakks, Dir. S.A. — An oral cake of white netal, in 
which a conBiderable proportion of Ha ia lapposed to be combined with 
lead. The dimensiona are 8| in. hj 4| in. ; weight, 6 lb. 15 ox. It was 
fonnd in the Thames, near Batlersea, and is doubtless a rolic of tho 
mineral wealth of Britaia exported in Roman times. One side of this 
object is conrez, as if tho fused metal had been poured into a dislicd 
carity ; on the other, presenting a flat surface, there are two stamps ; ono 
of thorn is circular, being the ChriBtian monogram composed of the 
Greek letters Chi and Rho, with Alpha and Omega at the udes; tho 
other, of oblong form, presents the name — btaorits, struck twice, one 
impression partly overlapping the other, and thus rendered somewhat 
indistinct. Thie is probably the mark of an imperial officer of the mines 
in Britain, or of some other Roman functionary, found likewise upon another 
cake of metal obtained from the same part of the Thames, as stated in Mr. 
Albert Way's enumeration of relics of Roman Uetallurgy in Britain, giren 
in this Jonmal, vol. iri. p. 38. That ipeeimen, now preserred in the 
British Hnseiim, bean the Christian monogram with the letters — speb — 
and a second mark — btaor — donbtless an abbreriated form of the same 
name wluch occuni on the cake of metal now exhibited. Ur. Franks 
remarks that "the stamp is not unlike a coin-die in eiecution, and is 
attributed by numismatista to the fourth century. It has somewhat tho 
appearance of an ofGcial teal, and if so, it is pouible that tho oblong stamp, 
which seems to bear the name Syagrius, may refer to tho well-known 
individool of that name, Afraniua Syagrius, secretary to the Bmperor 
Valentinian in 369, and consul in 382," Proceedings Soc. Antiqu., vol. ii. 
second series, p. 87. 

By Mr. J. Jofb Rooeos, M.P. — A collection of Saxon siWer ornaments 
found in 1774, in a Streamwork near St. Austell, Cornwall, together with 
a chalice- shaped cup, gold ornaments, rings, and coins, some of them of the 
reign of Burgred last king of Mercia, a.D. 874. The ornaments were 
described by Mr. Philip Rashleigh when they were brought before the 
Society of Antiqnaries in I7S8 ; and they are figured in the ArchKologia, 
vol. zi. pi. 8, p. 187. Mr. Rogers promised to give some further par- 
ticulars at the ensuing meeting. 

By Mr. Hain Fribwell. — The Ashbourne Portrait of Shakcspearo, now 
in the possession of the Rer. Clemcot Kingston, of Sutton near Wisbech. 
A photograph from the portrait will be given by Mr. Friswell in the second 
edition of his " Life-Portraits of Shakespeare.' 

By the Very BeT. Canon Rock, D.D. — A supposed paieting by Albert 
Durer, which had been purchased for a considerable sum, but upon close 
examination it had prov^ to be merely on engraving colored and varnished. 
Canon Rock was desirous to caution collectors of early works of art against 
the fabrications now carried on extensively in certain continental cities. 

By Mr. Edmdhd Waterton, F.S.A.— Two leaves of an ivory devotional 
folding, tablet lately obUincd in Yorkshire ; they are of fonrteenth century 
art, and represent scenes in the life of our Lord- 
By Mr. Ubwitt^ — Several stone shot, found in the Tower moat when it 
was filled up in 1843. The shot then discovered, of Kentish rag or 
Maidstone grit, aa described by Mr. Porrott, Archaologia, vol. xxx. p. 323, 
varied in diameter from 10 in. to ii in. He supposed that they are relics 
of the assault by the Yorktsta under the Borl of Salisbury and Lord 
Cobham, 38 Hen. VI. 1460. Shot of stone were used oa cannon-balls as 



late fts tho aizteeiith centnrr. The ortOler; of eBrlier ttniea vero lience 
called pUrriert, in Latin <peirarise, X term b; tvUch origiDally maogoDels 
and oilier engincB of war Berving to throw atone projectilee hsd been 
demgs&ted. The shot exhibited hare been presented b; Mr. Hewitt to the 
Uaseam of Artillery at Woolfficb. 

Bj Mr. W. J. Berbharu Shtth. — Three iron daggers found ne&r 
Lambeth in dredging in the Thames ; date sixteenth century. 

By Ur. AsHunsT Majbndie. — Two Indian stamps or seats of brosa, 
bearing derices in oriental characterB of nnknown import, ingeoiougly 
formed by narrow slips of metal compacted together like coarse filagree. 

Impressions of Medixtal Seals. — By Mr. RicnAas Cadlfield, F.S.A., 
President of the Cork Cavierian Society. — Facsimile, in gutta percha, of a 
seal of tho Abbot of Albus Tractas or Tracton Abbey, in the co. Cork, 
founded in 1224 by tbe MacCarthy family for Cistercian monks, who come 
from the monastery of Alba Landa or Wbiteland, in Caennarthenabire. The 
seal, of pointed-oval form, measures about 2^ in. by If in.; the impression, 
on green wax, is appended to a grant dated October 16, 1542, from Philip 
Barry-i^, Lord of Kinnalega and patron of the Church of Inishannon, 
with the consent of his brothers Thomas and John Barry, to Patrick 
Hyaghe, burgess of Kinsale, of a piece of arable land and the patronage 
of the said church. DeTico, a dexter arm sleeved grasping a crosier, the 
orook is turned inwards, showing, as sometimes suppwed, that tbe jurisdic- 
tion of the abbot was limited to his monastery, the crosier, when repre- 
sented as borne by a bishop, being frequently turned outwards. Undemcatli 
is a diminutire kneeling figure, probably of the abbot represented as 
receiving the pastoral staff from a gigantic hand over his head ; under this 
figure is an escutcheon of tbe anus of Barry-ogc, harry of six. The legend, 
somewhat indistinct, and in black letter, seems to read as follows ; 4* c^igill' ' 
iotpiimu * IratiQ ' abb'is ' m bi albo traiia.* 

April I, 1864. 
Sir John P. Boilbad, Bart., F.S.A., Vice-President, in tbe Chair. 
The Hon. William 0. Starlet, M.P., gave the following account of a 
remarkable block of stone in one of the mountain passes of Caernarvon shire, 
and placed before the meeting a drawing by John Williams, Esq., of 
Beaumaris, representing the curious relic in question. (See woodcut.) 
This rock, which is known by the popular appellotion of " Carreg-y- 
Saelhan " — The Stone of the Arrows — is Mtuated on a path about three 
miles above Aber on tho northern shore of Caernarvonshire, in a pass 
among the mountains called " Nant-an-Afon " — The Volley of the River. 
Tho stone is flat, measuring about six feet in length ; the path crosses 
directly over it, and, according to tradition, on the commencomcnt of war 
the chieftains were accustomed to sharpen their arrows or other weapons 
upon this rocli, and the marks upon the surface, which are about a quarter 
or half an inch deep, were made by the arrow-hends. They undoubtedly 
present the appearance of having been produced by the ppints of spears or 
arrows. In tlio neighbourhood of Aber, the Welsh princes had a residence 
adjoining an ortificiBl mound called " The Uwd," about six miles west of 
Bangor. The Welsh princes, Llewellyn ap Jornrerth, at the close of tbe 

* Sea ■ notics of this seal, Gent Mag., tbst tbe figure of the sbbot may repro. 
May, ISfll, p. 625, where it is suggoated not St Bemard. , . , 



twelfth eentor;, and Llewdljn ap OryffjrdJ, i.d. 1246 to 1282, lived much 
in this part of Uie countj, vhich is full of traditions Kud vestigGB of ancient 
interest. The entrenched direlling near the Mwd yiaa the scene, according 
to tradition, of the tragical death of William de Breoa, who was captured by 
Llewellyn at the aiege of Moutgomei; in 1229. The Welsh priacci who hod 

B, niur Alter, CacroiirToiublra. 

espoused Joan, natural daughter of king John, brought bis prisoner to the 
stronghold near Aber, where he won not only tho compassion but the 
aSections of the princess. The intrigue being detected by Llewellyn after 
the captire baron hod been liberated by ransom, he tempted de Breos to visit 
him again at Aber, and forthwith caused him to be hmig on an eminence 
near the castle within riew of the princess's chamber. Upon a mountain 
south of Aber there is on artificial cave at a spot called " Car Gwillim 
Ddu," where, according to popular story, William de fireos was buried. 
Llewellyn seems to have forgiten his frail consort ; she survived this 
tragical event eight years, and was buried in tho Dominican convent which 
she had founded at Llanvues near Beaumaris. The efligj wbich is sup- 
posed to represent her is now in Sir Richard Bulkeley's park ; it has been 
figured in the Arcbieologia Cambrensis, vol, it. p. 316. The numerous 
historicsl traditions associated with the neighbourhood of Aber seem to 
corroborate in some degree the suppositiou that the Stone of the Arrows 
may have been a relio connected in a certain manner with early warfare. 

Ur. Hewitt gave the following particulars regarding a recent discorory 
of bronse colu and other relics at Uurston, about a mile to tbe N.E. of 
Sittingboume, and the same distance from the ancient Roman way or 
Watling Street :— 

"Through tho kiudness of & friend I am cuablcd to ozhibit b few 


oncient objects lately found in digging for brick-eutU in the puiah of 
HurstOD, Kent. I regret tbftt the account bj vrbicb they were Accotnpaiiied 
is Dot so fully detailed as might be desired. The deposit appears Ui have 
consisted of bronie celts, occompanied by bones of large dimensions; 
these objects were found early in the last month, about eight feet below 
the surface. The three celts laid before the moeting belong to Mr. Smeed 
of Gore Court, Sittingbourne, by whom they have been entrusted to me 
for eibibltion." Among the discoTeries near Sittingbourne by the Rev. 
W. Vollance, communicated to the Archieological Congress at Canterbury 
in 1S45, and published by Ur. Roach Smith in bis Collectanea, toI. i. 
p. 101, were two urns, one of them containing four socketed bronco celts 
and a gouge, with about thirty pounds of pure copper id lumpg. In the 
other urn were a broken bronze blade, measuring 12Jin. in length, and 
uz bronzo rings, from I J in. to 2^ in, in diameter. These relics were 
found near the Anglo-SaxoD cemetery in the direction of UUton, described 
tbid.r p. 97, plates 36—38. 

The Rev. Qeorqe Cardew, Rector of Helmingbam, Suffolk, commani- 
cated a notice of the eitensire sepulchral remains with other vestiges 
brought to light by him near the church and parsonage house in that 
parish. The attention of the Institute had been called to these curious 
discoveries by the Rev. Isoao Taylor. Helmingbam, as Mr. Cardew 
observed, abounds in traces of the early inhabitants ; there are no conspi' 
cuouB monuments, erect stones or cromlechs, no Roman masonry or medieval 
castle, but the ground can scarcely be moved without evidence being 
afforded that the spot was extensively occupied from early times. During 
the lost winter excavations have been made, and in almost every instance 
traces of tho ancient inhabitants brought to light ; in some places the 
vestiges of each successive race were discernible, in something like the 
following order. In the first foot of earth, recent remains ; in the second, 
medioival ; third and fourth, Saxon, Roman, and aboriginal. The undis* 
turbcd natural soil appeared at a depth varying from 2 to 5 ft. Adjoioiog 
to the rectory there is a field called Pond Meadow, containing a singular 
long moat of considerable depth, in some parts 12 ft. The portion of the 
field of which this is the eastern boundary is raised abore the adjacent land, 
possibly for defensive purposes. Traces of ancient occupation have been 
noticed in almost every part; near the north west comer of this ancient 
enclosure is a brow which seemed a likely spot for a harrow, and tfao 
appearance of the ground suggested that one might have existed which had 
been leveled for cultivation. An excavation waa made, by which this 
anticipation proved well-founded. At about 2 ft. in depth a atratnm of 
charcoal, earth and pottety appeared, with fragments of a quern, ft thin 

?iece of bronze, shells of oysters, whelks and mussels (the spot is about 
5 miles from the coast), bones of oxen, pigs, ke. At a depth of 4 ft. 
a grave was found 18 in. in depth, lying nearly east and west, and almost 
filled with charcoal, ashes and broken urns ; it contained also three lower 
jaw-bones of different animals, carefully deposited, one being evidently th« 
jaw of a pig, also another of smaller size, the teeth much worn. There 
was in this cist a rude speor-head, as supposed, of flint. The pottery is 
black, rery rude, rooidded by hand with occasional finger-mark indenta- 
tions. The pottery in the upper stratum of charcosl, dec, was of red colour, 
fire-baked, and possibly of later date, as was also indicated by the piece of 
broDie. Mr, Cardew's impression is that here there werfttwo intermeatsi 


the origiDftl one BC«ompi»iieii hj the fliot being of lugh nntiqiuty. The 
fuDor&l fire that had been made on the spot had partially oonrerted the 
olaj into imperfect terra ootta. Over this grave a tumulus may h&ve been 
raised, and in this, as Ur. Cardefr supposei, a later or Romano-British 
people maj hare interred their better-baked uma irith the ashes of the 
dead, Ifr. Lubbock, in a recent commontcatioa to the Ethnoloncal 
Society, describing barrows eiamined bj Mr. Bateman in Derbyshire, 
alluded to the ooourrence of bones of animals in tliese burials as showing 
that funeral feasts were held orer the intennent. Mr< Cardew's most 
recent excarations hare brought to light further Testtges of an extensive 
necropolis ia the rectory garden, and in an adjoining copse known as " the 
Wilderness," It had been closed in by high banks, but part of these had 
been leveled and a graveled walk formed where the old ditch hod been ; 
there does not appear to have been any vestige of oldea times noticed at 
that time. Ur, Cardew determined to explore the area of this space, a 
project difGcult to carry out, owing to the roots of trees ; after removing 
a foot of surfocs-soil, fragments of charcoal were seen everywhere, and 
next, hlack pottery with portions of thick ware ; animal bones were soon 
after thrown out. Tha excavation had reached a depth of about 2 ft. when 
a skeleton appeared, every bone in place; it was supposed to be of a mole, 
laid on his bsck, nearly east and west ; at the feet were the lower jaw- 
hone of a pig and a tooth of an ox. Vary near this lay another skeleton, 
with a hoar's tosk, horse's tooth, and a pig's jaw ; then two other skeletons ; 
one of these seemed to have been depouted in a curved posture, as noticed 
ia interments in Derbyshire, Wiltshire, and other places. Being carefully 
nnooTered the right arm was found to have been parted at tha elbow and 
buried near the feet, where lay also a pig's jaw, with teeth of the horse and 
cow. Seven or eight skeletons were then found together and overlapping 
eooh other, with a few bones of large animals. Within a sraall extent, 
along a trench about 2 ft, in width and a few yards long, twenty-four 
■keletons were disinterred, being those, as supposed, of men of great stature, 
the bones were of unusual size ; in some instances there were indications 
of mutilation, or of limbs severed. In one case the head had been cut oif, 
and one of tha vertebral hones disunited from tha nook, and deposited in 
another part of the grave, although the severed head had been placed in 
its proper position propped up by a large flint. Two remarkable inter' 
meats were noticed, in which a skeleton was found accompanied by that of 
a child laid across the body, doubtless of the parent ; the first impression 
■uggeated that the deceased had probably perished together, the oireum- 
Btauces and mutilated condition of the remams seemed to tell of the 
results of deadly conflict. Tho late Lord Braybrooke, it may he remem- 
bered, found graves in an Anglo-Saxon cemetery near Bartlow in which 
the akeleton of a man in the prime of life lay with that of a child placed 
across his breast. As far as has been at present ascertained tha remains 
found at Helminghom ore supposed to be of males. Further explorations 
have shown that the deposits which have been described are only examples 
of those to be found under like aircumstances over an area of considerable 
extent. There bos been no weapon or other relic brought to light which 
may suggest the date of so extensive an interment ; no funeral urn has 
beni found accompanying the skeleton, although broken vessels of black 
coarse wore oecur in abundance in the earth above tha deposits : the dis- 
covery of bone*, however, of pigs, ozcn, honca and irild boor would suggest 


the probability that the remuus are thou of paguii. Dot of Cbristian 
inhabitants of But Anglia. The charred vood eTeiyvhere, over and in 
immediate contact with unburut romains, Beems, as well as the broken 
ahards scattered around, to suggest that these maj be Yeatiges of foaeral 
feastingH ; no trace of any wooden coffin or of anything placed in the grave 
with the corpee has beau obserred. The position in which the bodies lay, 
east and west, deserves consideration. Within a few yards of " Tho 
Wilderness " there is a field of four acres, part of the glebe, in almost 
every part of which remains occur. The church of HelmiDgham stands 
in close proximity to tliis extensive cemetery : instances might indeed be 
cited to show that the early British churches were constructed near spots 
held soured by the heathen, or long used as their burial-places. If, how* 
ever, the probability that these numerous interments were made subsequent 
to a fatal massacre bo admitted, the inquiry presents itself upon which 
future explorations may throw light, to what race the slaughtered population 
belonged. May they have been the victims of Homao vengeance, when 
tho legions returned in a.s. 60 to punish the leeni after the insurrection 
of Eoadicea ? or may they present the sad traces of tho wreck and ruin 
that Hinguar and liubba caused throughout all East Anglia, a.d. 870 ? 
Though nominally Christianised at that time, the Saxons in remote rural 
districts may have retained the customs of their forefathers and their 
funeral feasts and usages. Two other ancient cemeteries have been found 
at HelmiDgham, in one instance with entire funeral urns ; in both these 
burial-places the human remains were so abundant as to require carts for 
their removal. 

Mr. J. BnitTT described a visit made by him and some other members of 
the Institute on March 30, ult., and recapitulated what had previously 
passed between the Great Eastern Railway and the Council of the Institute. 
Ho took occasion to bear his tribute to the uniform courtesy of the com' 
pany's engineer, Mr. Sinclair, on whoso invitation a deputation had 
visited Bartlow for the purpose of taking iuto consideration, on the spot, 
tlia amount of deviation which, under the powers conceded by the Aet of 
Parliament passed last year, and the terms of tho conveyance of the land by 
the Viscount Maynard, it might be possible to give to the line so as to 
obviate as far as practicable &o injury which had been apprehended from 
the proximity of tbe cutting to the Roman grave-hills. The deputation 
had been acoompanied to Bartlow by Mr. Sinclair ; and on arriving at the 
tumuli, Mr, Burtt perceived that the line of railway was already completed 
to that point, tbe sides of the cutting trimmed and finished, and the road 
ready for the rails. It was intended that its course should run between 
two of the hills in a manner which would havo seriously injured the 
principal tumulus ; an amended course, however, proposed by Mr. Sinclair, 
within the prescribed limits of deviation, was finally decided upon as more 
desirable, and this will accordingly be adopted. Tlio members of the 
Institute were met at this interesting spot by Mr. Joseph Clarke, of Saffron 
Walden, and some other gentlemen of the neighbourhood, who have taken 
interest in the preservation of tbe Bartlow Bills. From them and from 
the "ganger" of the works information was received of a singular dis- 
covery, which had occurred in the excavations. As tbe cutting passes 
between the hills, the ciialk appears to make a deeper dip than iu the 
adjacent parts ; at this spot in the superior incumbent earth, a considerable 
quantity of human bones was found, stated to bavo filled two barrows, or. 


u described b; one of tbo eicaratora, About fifteen skeletons. Thef were 
reinterred, by order of the " ganger," at the lide of the cutting, but he 
declined to point out the spot, and there seemed to be almost a super- 
stitious reluctance to refer to the subject, and a manifest wish to sa; as 
little about it as possible. But the fact was undoubted that in the earth 
below the base of the Roman tumuli there had eiistcd earlier interments. 
One skull onl; had been preserved, and it is hoped that it maj be sub- 
mitted to Dr. Thurnam, or some other skilful coraparativo anatomist, in 
order that, if possible, an opinion mo; be obtained in regard to tbe race or 
period to which these remains, disinterred under such remarkable conditions, 
inaj he ascribed. After a summary of the results of the explorations by the 
late Ur. Qage Bokewodo, published by tbe Society of Antiquaries, and 
which had attracted attention to the remarkable character and unique con- 
tents of the grave-hills, Mr. Burlt concluded his interesting narratire with 
the following pertioent obserrations : — 

" There is no doubt that the line could faa*e been well mode, so as to 
have altogether avoided the Hills, and that too without any great increase 
of distance or expense ; but the time bad unfortunately gone by for such a 
deviation. I may be permitted to express great regret that the timely 
attention of influential residents near the spot, interested in the preservation 
of historical monuments in their neighbourhood, or tbe sympathies of the 
County Arcbieologicat Society, which once occupied so influential a position 
under our lamented friend Lord firaybrooke, bad not been called to the 
subject, when interference might have proved far more effectual than after 
the passing of the bill for tbe construction of the raiWay. It is of little 
avail to call in tbe best medical skill when tbo sufferer is tn exlrtmu. 
The Arcbnologicol Institute must depend upon local eyes and snggestions 
for tbe application of its influence in matters in which the iotoreBts and 
sympathies of all its mcmben are concerned, but the information upon 
which that inflnence can he exerted must be given in good time in order to 
be effectual. In such occasions as tbe conservation of monuments of so 
interesting a character as tbe Bartlow Tumuli, or tbe proposed ' restoration ' 
of an early and remarkable church by a process which may leave littie of 
interest remaining, of which examples might he pointed out, information 
can scarcely be given too early, if it be deured effectually to arrest the 
hand of the destroyer," 

Tbe attention of the Society was then invited by Mr. W, Sidhet GidS05 
to the continued refusal by the Tonn Council of Edinburgh to fulfil tho 
contract into which they bad entered, on tbe demolition of the collegiate 
church of the Holy Trinity in that city, either to rebuild the structure etse- 
wbero or to erect another church in its place. A statement was read, 
setting forth tbe circumstances under which the church was demolished 
in 1848. and the arrangements then made between the Council and tho 
Horth British Railway Company, by whom 17,000i. was paid on llic 
rcmovsl of the venerable fabric in question for the erection of a waggon- 
shed. Tbe church was founded in 1462 by the queen of James III., 
Mary of Gueldres, whose remains were there deposited in tho following year. 
The church, of which the nave was never completed, presented features of 
unusual beauty, Mr. Billings, in his Ecolesiattical and Baronial Antiqui- 
ties of Scotland, gives an external and an internal view of tbe church as it 
appeared shortly before the fatal requirements of railway speculations. It 
IB also figured in Dr. Wilson's Memorials of Edinburgh. On ita destnictUtn 


bj the railway company .the matarialB had been euefully removed, and the 
atones numbered in orAvr to eoBure the accurate reconstniction of the 
jsacred Btruoture, to which the municipal authoritiei of Edinburgh were 
pledged. It ia, however, to be apprehended, as Hr. Sidney Qihson forcibly 
alleged, that the ample funds paid over for that special object to the Town 
Council by the Company will be appropriated to other purpoaes, in defiance 
of the rem oni trances addresied hy tho Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 
and from rarioDs other quarters. The remains of the royal foundresa were 
brought to light, a« supposed, during the removal of the church, and they 
were transferred to Holyrood ; an account of the discovery and of certain 
enrioua details connected with it was given hy Dr. Wilson in the Gentle- 
man's Uagasine, vol. xxii., N. S., p. £22, After some discussion in 
regard to Ur. Sidney Qibson's appeal, a resolution, deploring the recent 
decision of the Lord Chancellor and the consequent pertinacity of the Town 
Council of Edinburgh, promising also the co-operation of the Institute in 
any steps taken to prevail on them to fulfil their original intention, was 
proposed by the Hon. W. 0. Stanley, M.P,, seconded by Mr. Edmund 
Oldfield, F.S.A., and unanimously adopted. 

The Hon. Robert Cdkzoh offered some interesting observations on the 
helm exhibited at a previous meeting by General Lefroy, and described by 
Mr. Hewitt (see p. 60, ant«). He p(nnted out that it belongs to a peculiar 
species of til ting-armour used in Qermany in the time of the Emperor 
Maximilian, and that there are many representations of knights in that 
kind of armour in the Triumph of Maximilian, illustrated hy the woodcuts 
of Hans Buigmair. " It is called in French, armure d la haute horde, 
and was never used in war, as a man once accoutred in it and set upon hit 
horse could not turn, move, or see, except just before him. The butt of 
the heavy tilting- lance, three iocbea in diameter, was held up hy a long 
piece of iron, c^ed a queue, which stuck out behind ^e right arm, and waa 
screwed on to the curiously square-shaped breast-plate. The principal risk 
from the shock of tho adversary'a lance was in breaking the back on the 
high oantel of the ateel saddle ; this was guarded against by an appendage 
to the back-plate, like a bird's tail ; the left aim waa defended by a small 
shield about two inchea thick, made of wood covered with small square 
piecea of hone or ivory, and hung round the neck by a hempen rope with 
the ends unraveled ; silk cord or a strap not being fashionable. The right 
arm waa covered by the vomplate of the lance, uaually longer than the 
shield i the right hand hod no gauntlet, but probably waa covered hy a 
strong padded glove ; no example, however, is known to exist. The horse 
waa blindfold, having a chanfrein on ita bead, with no apertures for the 
eyes ; a large poitrinal covered the breast, and the animal was covered 
down to the feet with houaings embroidered with some qutunt device, 
generally not heraldic. The horse had no armour behind the saddle ; tbe 
rider had no armour on his lega, and faia thigha were protected by an 
appendage hanging &om.the saddle, called a toequette ; uaually there were 
a pair of these, hut aometimea one, on the left aide, only. On the top of 
the helmet was a crest, two or three feet high, and generally with a pair of 
immense homa at the sides. The silk or velvet mantelet hung over the 
hack of the helmet, and was cat in fantastic forms, as may be seen in 
Albert Durer's beautiful engraving of anch a helmet ; this rare print is 
known as " La TSte de Mort. No perfect suit of this kind of armour is 
known to exist in England, except one in the Tower Armn?, bnt cerbun 


portioiui are there nuBpIoced and dUanited from the othera. Many such smta, 
aoirevor, are to be seen At Vieana in the Ambru Collection and at the 
Arsenal : there im one at St, Fetersburgh, two are at Dresden, with the 
original honsings of black cloth ; two are in the MuB^e do I'Artillerie at 
Parii, and six in the Emperor'a private collection. These suits were made 
in pairs, that the armour of each combatant might be the some, and they 
could be padded so as to fit taj wearer. luside the helmet there was a 
wadded leather cap fitting tight to the head and kept in the centre, apart 
from the sides of the helmet, by four straps. By this contrirance the tilter 
escaped generally without a fractured skull ; but the shock of being thrown 
from the hone by a blow on the helmet from the aJrersary's lance, with 
aboTfi a hundred weight of armour on the upper part of the body and none 
on the lower, must hare been very severe. The heavy powerful horse 
sometimes had, iostead of armour on the breast, a loug bag stuffed with 
straw hung round its neck, with the two ends attached to the high pummel 
of the saddle ; this was less cumbrous than armoor, and was concealed by 
the housings i an original cushion of this kind existed some years ago in 
the Castle of Amhras in the Tyrol. Snob a contrlrance had the odditioual 
advantage that it entirely protected the rider's legs. It is believed that no 
portion of horse-armour d la haute barde exists, except the chanfrein, of 
which several specimens are preserved; one is at Warwick Castle, The 
tilUng-helm, like that recently obtained for the Woolwich Armory, was not 
always used with the armour above described, a lalade with a peculiar 
high metttoniin was frequently worn in its place; in thik case the proper 
stroke was to knock off the salade, or bear it off in triumph on the three- 
pronged coronal of the lance. It appeared to me that the appendages to 
the front and back of the helmet exhibited by General Lefroy are not 
original ; all the helmets of that kind which I have observed were screwed 
down to the breast-plate, in front; at the bock a bolt, bearing soma 
resemblance to an octangidar pig-tail, fits into a hole low down in the baok- 
plate. The helmet at Woolwich may have been adapted, soon after it was 
made, to a suit, called in French, armuve d la potuaitie, with long toes; 
the rack in front was made to fit over the staples which held on the 
mentoni^e on ordinary occasions, and the buckle at the back was intended 
to be secured by the strap, as seen in illumina^ons and painted gloss in 
back-plates of the later part of the fifteenth century, which were in two 
pieces, buckled together with a strap. I know of one specimen only, now 
at Partiam ; and do not understand its object. The armour for the tourna- 
ment and the weapons employed had arrived at perfection in the days of 
Maximilian; and the arts of offence and defence had become so nicely 
balanced, tbat generally the confliot terminated without damage to either 
of the combatants, who had tilted at each other according to the strict 
laws of the lists as laid down by the quaintest of old monanths, Res^ of 
Provence. After the times of Uoximilian, the last of the emperors of 
chivolfT — the last of the Gothic knights— tournaments degenerated and 
lapsed into the mere shovr of a earouiel." 

Mr. Curion accompanied these remarks by the exhibition of some 
portioni of armour of the Maximilian period, from his own oolleotion at 


pBOCEODmas at uebtings of 

«ntfquUi£« xntt VSetU at flrl Cj^fbitctf. 

Bj Mr. BoaEHAH, of Haverhill. — A flint celt, of the ubobI mut sunple 
type, found near the Bartlov Hills ; also a flako or chippmg, described aa 
A fliot knife. 

B; Mr. UtLTOK, of Linton. — A small bronzo hell, of Roman work ; 
nieasnrlng about 1 i inch in height ; it was found near Bartlow, 

By Mr. Buatt. — A small brass coio of the Ilmperor Taoitns (tj). 275), 
fouud at the Bartlow Hills, and obtained there from one of the laborers 
engaged in the railway cutting. 

By tlio Rev. H. M. Scarth. — A series of engrari&gs of inscribed slabs 
and altars, sculptures, with numerous other Roman relics found at Batb, 
being illustrations prepared for Iiis fordiooming work on the Ancient restigei 
of that city in Roman times.' 

By Mr. John E. Lee, F.S.A. — A drawing of an ancient piece of artillery 
formed of bars of iron welded and liooped together, with part of the origisid 
oak stock. It was found aboat 1830 in Tenby Bay, and is now preserred 
at Pembroke Castle. 

By Mr. Edmohd Watebtoit, F.S.A. — Two Itfttian anolaces, called from 
their peculiar form lingue di bovt ; one measures 19 iiyihes in length ; ths 
hilt is of irory, the blade is a fine example of offemma or inlud work in 
gold, arabesques with a bust in profile ; the edges of the blade and also 
the cross-goatd are elaborately engraved with a scroll pattern resemblicg 
that which oocurt ob Saxon crosses. There are cavities which were pro- 
bably filled with filagree. The other lingua measures 22 inches in lenglh ; 
the lower part of the blade is engraved with two figures, male and female, 
and between them are the words — tirtv * cokdvce. Ob the other side are 
two figures on horseback, and between them the words dentil (a heart) 
HOR * ADALTO . — probably forming a verse — Virtii conduce gentil cuor ad 
alto — Valor conducts the noble heart to eminence. Round the hilt, which 
is of horn, there is an inscribed band in repoutii work — SECEXSinrso + 
QOMiHEa + TiMiDOB f DRTES 4- FACiT. Thoso wespous were pnrohased at 
Rome. Date, sixteenth century. — A silver crucifix, formed to contuo 
relics ; found at Rome. Date, fourteenth century. — Leaden badge of St. 
George.-^Two paintings from an old house at Bory St. Edmunds ;- one 
represents St. Catherine, the other St. Edward the Confessor givug the 
ring to St. John, who appeared to him as a pilgrim. — An ivory spoon, found 
near the church of St. Peter at Norwich. — Two Majolica drmking bottles, 
one of the fifteenth, the other of the sixteenth century. — Five balls of 
glass curiously streaked or mottled, and hearing some resemblance to those 
found with Anglo-Saxon interments, but probably of comparatively receat 
date. They were found in the lake surrounding Walton Hall, Yorkshire. 

— A gold ring inscribed outside 1- ms ■ fnitiililQ . togt. ^. .tntt. 

— and inside — \- ^irt . ihong^ . Igfe . anlj . Inet. 

By Mrs. Esuond Watestok, — Badge of the Order of the Qolden Fleece, 
made of a natural pearl set in gold. Date, eighteenth century. 

By the Rev. J. Fdllek Rdssell, 5.D., F.S.A.— MS. " Proceauonale 
ad usum monastcrii Salvatoris de Syon," as described by Canon Rock, and 
regarded by him as a great curiosity among liturgical codicet, perhaps an 
uoique muDuseript, in England, of its olass, and once employed by the 

> See a notice of Ur. Bearth's forthcoming volume oa Agua Sniit, p. 102, oatc; 


Bridsetine inina of Sjon near lelewortli.* In some parte it differs from the 
Salisbury ProcoBsional ; for inatance, in tbo anthemg and collect for Palm 
Sunday. That this Procesaional was the recoDstniction of an older one we 
learn froin the following nibric : — " Ut BOrores monasterii Sancli BalratoriB 
de Syon tam presentes quam future a conaciencia scrnpulosa removeantur 
intuentea in hac processionario plura addita siro diminuta aliter quam 
consnetudo primaria antiquitus Bolebat habcbat (^tic) Bererendus in 
Christo pater et dominus, Dominua Johannea bone memorie Londoniensis 
episcopua, auctoritate sua ordinaria et eciam delegataria, conaiderans 
omnia addita aire diminuta ad cultum dirinum pertinencia et valde conaona 
i^probaTit et hujuamodi frui ad Dei laudem cum sororibua diapcnsavit, 
earum conaoionciaa acmpnlosas ea occaaione habitoa vel habeodaa auctori- 
tate predicta removondo." The John, Bishop of London, here mentioned 
and then dead {'* bone memorie"), would aeem to have been John Kerapo, 
translated from the see of Chichester to that of London, 1431, elected 
Archbishop of York, 1426, translated to Canterborr, 1452 ; ho died in 

Canon Bock is of opinion from the style of the writing that the Syon 
MS. was copied about 1480, and that, from the name " Dorothe Slyght," 
mitten on a fly-leaf at the beginning, that lady, one of the nuns at the Snp> 
preasion of the bouse in 1539, may hare carried it to her home. He lias 
in his poaaession a amall printed Samm missal which belonged to " Elyxa- 
beth Fettiplace," another of the nuna, who was living with her family at 
tlie end of the reign of Udw. VL, at Pusey, Berks.' Dorothye Slyghte 
occurs in the list of thoae nnna, to each of whom an annual penaion of 
82, was assigned at the Surrender ; her name is found again among the 
sisters dispersed in England, 17 in number, besides Catherine Palmer, who 
was choaen abbeaa, the community having been reassembled hy her on the 
restoration of the monastery by Hary in 1557. Dorothys appears also in 
a roll of penaionera, 2 kZ Philip and Mar; [Add. MS. Brit. Mus. 8102), 
her allowance being there entered as 61. ISi. id.* On the accession of 
Elisabeth the nuns again quitted England and took refuge in Flanders. 
At the end of this interesting US. are written in a later hand, on a 
fl;-leaf, certain reaponses and prayers to St. Catharine, who seems to have 
been regarded by the nuna aa the daughter of their foundress " St. 
Birgitta, ' the name being usually ao written. These additiona end with 
the following : — " Clementiam tuam domine auppliciter imploramus ut 
intercedentibua beata Boitherina et sancta matre ejus Birgitta omnium 
graciarum tuamm plenitudinem conaequomnr. Per dominum.'' On tho 
rererae of the leaf entries by rorious hands are to be dccyphered, — a short 
prayer, — the sentence " Duleis Ih'c eat amor mens," neatly written in 
inverted letters ; a cross rudely traced, with a large black-letter s under 
it ; and the following lines : — 

In qaacuDque domo nouen herit vel ;mago 
Tiisinis eumie Dorotbes martiris alms, 
NdUos abortivus iafam naacetur in ilia, 

' It Is Bcaroelj necwwry to observe list of earl^ printed Froocsaionala ao- 

that tbe Mrvice books deaigtiatad Pro. cording to ths Salisbury use, and of tb« 

osanoDais, whaUin MSS. or tbs early libmriea in whicti tliey are presetveJ. 

iwoductiona of typography, ire of great ' Eccleaiologut, vol. xiv., N. S-jp. 126. 

rarity. Mr. Dickinson baa given, Ecele- " Aungier, Uiit. of lalewortli, pp. 89, 

riolc^iati Tol. Tii., N. S., p. 275, a corioas iT, 99. 


it ignii flirtiijae perionI> m 
I potent inibi m&la morte ] 
iiori«Dt qui premnnUtar. 

Brand mokes no mention of tfae popular b^ef in sach ptiyboterio 
effioaof of the name or image of St. Dorothj. On the following leaf is 
Written, with entries by Tarious handB, — " My Lady Anne." It has been 
supposed with much probability that this may designate n distinguished 
inmate of the Uonoatery of Syon towards the close of the fi^eenth century. 
In the will of Cecily, DuchesB of York, and mother of Edward IV., dated 
April 1, 1495, we find, according to an abstract by Dugdale, the bequest 
*' to my daughter Anne, Prioress of Syon, a book of Bonarentnre," also 
her largest bed of baudekyn with a counterpoint of the same.' It has 
been snpposcd that this was Anne, who married fint, Henry, Duke of 
Exeter, and, secondly. Sir Thomas St. Leger, beheaded in 1483. It 
appears, however, by an inscription to her memory in St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor (figured by 9andford, Qeneal. Hist., p. 396), that she died 
January 14, 1475, learing an only daughter, Anne, married to Sir 
Qeorgo Uanners, Lord Roos. Although the Duchess of York, in her will 
nboTO cited, makes mention also of " my daughter Kathorine," bfflng in 
fact, as it would seem, her grand-dangbter, the Countess of Devon, it is 
scarcely probable that Lady Roos, likewise her grand-d&agbter, should 
hsTe been the lady designated Prioress of Syon in 1495. Another grand- 
daughter, Anne, daughter of the Duke of Suffolk, ofBanced to the Duke of 
Rothsaj, afterwards James IV. of Scotland, became a nun at Lyons, 

On tlie sumo leaf in Mr. Fuller Enssetl'sMS.istoberead, near the name 
of "my Lady Anne," an antograph in red ink, — " C. Browne." This 
doubtless waa Oonatancia Browne, elected Abbesi of Syon, Angust 31, I51S.* 

By the Hon. Whxiak 0. Staslky, M.P, — A square brass money-weight, 
found near Bodelwyddan, Denbighshire. On one side, within a beaded circle, 
there is a coronet formed of crosses patty and flenrs-de-lys, and beneath — ' 
XI 8. ; on the reverse, within a beaded circle, is St. Michael transfixing 
the dragon's jaws with a spear; legend — I : R : BRI : — Dimensions, 
Beven-twelftbs of an inch in each direction ; thickness about one-twelfth ; 
the edge chamfered on the upper side. It weighs in its present defaced 
condition only 68 grains. It is, doubtless, a standard weight for the gold 
Angel or double crown, temp. James I., the device on that piece being the 
Archangel, as above described. The current value of the Angel was raised 
by Proclamation, 23rd November, 1611, from 10*. to lis., in order tci enhance 
the ralue of gold coins, so as to make them of equal value with the price 
of gold in foreign parts, and to discourage exportation which had become 
A serious evil, the unit current here at 20«. being valued at 22i. abroad. 
As this raising the value of gold coins caused gold to be more used than 
heretofore, it was thought fit to check the circulation of light pieces, by 
declaring it lawful (according to the precedent of a Proclamation 29 Elisa- 
beth) to refuse all gold coins which should be lighter than allowed by a 
stated table of abatements ; this, in regard to the Angel, of which the 
tme weight was 77 grains, was not to exceed 2 graius.* Standard 
weights were thus rendered indispensable, and the privilege of making 

* Nicolas, Teatam. Vet., p. 423, sl^a some notlee of her fomilf, ibid. p. 
note. G83. 

< Auuglsr, Hist of S;on, p. 81 ; ua ■ Radii]g,ToI.i. pp. S68,^^ l 


them was probably conferred upon some farored person, as in other reigns. 
On tbfl weight found in Nortb Wales, which has lost by wear and time not 
leu than 13 grains, the open coronet, similar to that with whieh the 
achieTcment of the Prince of Wales is ninallj ensigned, may show that 
the weight is one of those prorided for the Principality ; & little stamp may 
be noticed on the obrerse, produced by a punch, doubtless the royal cowi- 
tersign, the derioe being a monogram of the letters I R (Jacobus Rax). 

By Sir JoHir Boileau, Bart., P.S.A. — A miniature pistol -barrel of brass, 
chased with ornamental wor^, amongst which is introduced the date 1638, 
It was found in Norfollt. 

Matbiceb or Seals. — By Col. Tzhfest. — Tffo small brass seals, stated 
to hare been found under the stalls in York Uinster after the destruction 
of that fabric by fire in 1828 ; one of them is a signet of good work, date, 
fifteenth century ; derice, a swan with wings closed ; the field ornamented 
with foliage. There is no inscription. The derice on the other seal, 
which is of later date, is a heart. 

IiiFaGSSiosa or Sbals. — By Hr. Joseph Clahke. — Seal of John de 
Ferring, probably the Abbot of Walden, Essex, of that name. He snc- 
Deeded in 1270 and died 1285. It is of pointed oval form ; device, a 
tonsured head couped at the neck, seen in profile to the left ; orer the 
fordiead is 4 star ; legend, + Oaftd iobaknis ; db FsiUNaGB. Dimen- 
sions, H in. by scTen- eighths. The matrix, which is of silver,, was found 
near Hadstock, Sssex, and is an example of good work of the period. — 
A seal of oral form ; device, a figure, as supposed, of the Precursor, hold- 
ing in his left hand a nimbed Agnvi, the usual symbol of St. John the 
Baptist ; in front kneels a diminutive figure representing dcubtless the 
original owner of the seal, to whose name of John allusion is made in the 
following legend ; \- forto tciiu noueit uichi obacia dett& et OVBn. 

By Ur. KlQBTHiOALS. — Impressions of three matrices in the Salisbury 
Museum. — Unfinished seal, of circular form, formerly in possession of the 
late Dr. Powter, of Salisbury. It bears only a plain escutcheon placed 
obliquely and ensigned with a helm, lambrequins, part of a crest, be., 
the field partially worked with elaborate tracery in the style of the time of 
Henry IV. No legend or other details are even outlined upon the 
metal. — The other two seals were deposited in the Museum by Mr. Hicks, 
of Salisbuiy ; one of them is a small privy-seal of the fourteenth century, 
of pointed-oval form ; device a bird and a branch ; legend, • crbde , iuchi. 
The device on the other, which is also of pointed-oval form, is an 
embattled gateway between two round towers ; beneath the gate is a heart, 
or heart-shaped escutcheon, between the initials L — S. Date, fifteenth 
century. These seals were obtained, as stated, at Winchester, 

May 6, 1864. 
The Marquess Cahdek, E.a., President, in the Chair. 
Mr. AuBBOSB PoTNTBR commonicated the following notice of Roman 
intenneots brought to light during the prerious month at Charlton, neu 
Dorer. Some particulars regarding this discovery were likewise sent by 
Ur. W. P. Elsted, with sketches of pottery and a glass ampulla described 
by Mr. Poynter. These objects have been preeented to the Dover Mnscnm 
|>y Mr. Tucker, through whose pruseworthy care thsj were preserved to 
enrich that interesting local collection. 


NnmerooB reilicB of Romui oconpation, stich as coins, potteiy and personal 
oniEimentB, have been brought to light at varioiiB times near Dover ; of 
some of these notices have been sent to the Institute by the late Mr. 
Clayton, which have appeared in tfae Archaological Journnl, and also of 
the singular discorery of the Testiges of a PbaroB which existed in Roman 
times on the west side of the harbour of the ancient Dvbrit, opposite to 
that more generallj known, namelj the mnltangular Pharos still standing 
on the eastern heights, and within the enceinte of Dover Castla. Inter- 
ments and other traces of the Roman occupants of the banks of the river 
Dour have occurred, chiefly on the line of the ancient Roman way towards 
Canterbnrj, especially at the village of Charlton adjacent to Dover on the 
north west ; many specimens of Roman pottery and other objects thus disin- 
terred have been deposited in the Museum at Dover, from ivbich, by the 
kind permission of tbo local authorities, various antiquities were sent to be 
exhibited at the Meeting of the Institute at Rochester, 

A few days since as the workmen in the employ of Ur, Tucker, builder, 
were excavating the ground at the comer of Bridge Street, Charlton, they 
brought to light a piece of pottery. Ur. Tucker, being on tbo spot, cansed 
the earth to be carefully removed ; the result has been the discovery of 
some interesting Roman remains, buried at the depth of 10} ft. from the 
surface. 1. A globular dolfum, 22 in. high and 18J in. in diameter ; the top 
of this vase was covered with a tile ; within it was found a beautiful long- 
necked glass ampulla, 1 in. high, in perfect preservation, and marked with 
some letters, as supposed, but they have not been satisfactorily deciphered. 
At the bottom of the vase was a quantity of mould, which, being washed and 
sifted under the direction of Dr. Astley, was found to be mixed with cal- 
cined human bones in small fragments. 2, Another doliwm, precisely 
similar to the first ; within it was found a broken patera, 7^ in. in dia- 
meter, of Samian ware. At the bottom were calcined bones as in the 
former, but mixed with a great quantity of snail shells of several species 
common' in the locality. The bones in these vases consisted of only a 
small portion, in each instance, of the human skeleton, and, with the 
exception of a fragment of a cranium in the second vase, the bones of the 
head and also the jaws were, in both instances, entirely missing. It has 
been considered somewhat remarkable that bones should, have been found 
in these vases, since they are such as were used for domestic purposes, and 
unlike those commonly regarded as cinerary urns. 3. A jar-shaped vessel 
of black ware roughly glazed, H in. high, and 13 in. in diameter ; in this 
also were foand a few fragments of calcined bones. On one siSe some 
characters appeared to be rudely scored. 4. A beautifully formed can- 
iharut of brownish red ware, 10 in. high, nearly perfect. 

No Roman vessels of such large dimensions had previously, it is believed, 
been brought to light at Dover. They have occurred repeatedly on other 
sites of Roman occupation, as in Essex and at Lincoln. A remarkable 
example found in Bedfordshire, with sculptured statues, Samian vessels, 
and other relics, is preserved at Wobum Abbey.' The large globular 
vessels thus used as sepulchral depositories have been designated dolia ; 
in their perfect state the upper part terminated in a short neck with two 
small stout handles, doubtless convenient in the transport of snch ponderous 
vessels, and might serve for attaching them to pack-saddles or other means 


of conrejanco. Theie Teueli, li^e the large amphora in which doubtleM 
«in«, oil, ko., were imported iu Romaa times, are of foreign muiufacture, 
and it is worthy of note, that fragments, handJes stamped with pottera' 
names, and the like, occur commonly in localities occupied by the Romans, 
even in lemote Stations such as those on the Roman Wall, When used as 
receptacles for cinerary deposits, occasionally in glass rases, or in fictile urns, 
as in the ioterments at Charlton, the neck was broken off, and an aperture 
formed of suScieot diameter to admit of the introduction of the vases, 
accompanied by other sepulchral accessories, such as glass ampuUce or 
bottles for unguent, Samian dishes, k,o'., which may hare conttuned objects 
of food, deposited with the corpse, or with the burnt remains when crema- 
Uon was used, as in the present instance. ' The large globular vessels found 
at Lincoln enclosed glass vases of beautiful quality and considerable dimen- 
sions, measuring about 17 in. in height,' and in these the ashes of tho 
dead were placed. Glass amprtUa, precisely similar in form to that found 
at Charlton, have repeatedly been found, especially in funereal cists or 
coffins of stone, as at Avington in Sussex, and near Gloucester in an 
interment discovered by the Rev. Samuel Lysoiis.* 

The discovery of snail shells in one of the dolia at Charlton is worthy of 
notice ; they have occurred elsewhere under similar circumstances, as have 
also shells of the oyster and others. It is doubtless possible that snails 
may have penetrated to a considerable depth, when the accumulation of 
soil over the deposits was comparatively inconsiderable, yet it must be 
remembered that snails were a favorite article of food amongst the Romans, 
as they now are io France and other continental countries ; and tho sheila 
thus found at tho bottom of the dolium may have been placed there with 
provisions of food.* The characters traced on the vessel of black ware, of 
which a sketch was sent by Mr. Elsted, are not undeserving of notice. 
These are probably numerals, apparently VV, or X and V, and they may 
have indicated the measure of the contents of the jar. Such graffiti aro 
not often found ; the late Lord Braybrooke published in this Journal a 
Tase found at Chesterford thus marked with rude characters, of which a 
few other examples have been noticed.' 

Mr. J. JoPE RooBHS, M.P., gave the followmg account of a coUeoUon 
of Saxon ornaments, coins and other relics, found in 1774 in Cornwall, and 
of which a portion had been exhibited by him at a previous meeting. See 
p. 169, ante. These antiquities were found at Trewhiddle, half a nule 
south of St, Austell, as briefly related in a memoir by Mr. Philip Rash- 
leigh cemmunieated to the Society of Antiquaries in 1788, and printed in 
the Arobeologia, vol. ix. p, 187. Accurate repreaentations of Uie variona 
objects are there given. This remarkable hoard was found by some 
tinners in a Btream~work in St. Austell Moor ; it lay about 17 feet below 
the surface, and consisted of two gold objects, since lost (figured in tho 

• AtoIumL Jouni., vol. iviL p. H. * There were, however, at w« are in- 

* Tba Romans in Qloueestenbin, by formed bj Hr. Poynter, no ihBlIs of the 
the Rev. S. Ljioni, p, 48. Sea sn ic- Heliz pomsUa, but those of the H. hor- 
count of a aimilar gUii ampulla found tandi, the H. viigata, and H. aipera in 
at Colchester, accompuijmg a depocit in abundance, and also of s freuwater 
a globular diola, Joum. Brib Arch. Au., tpeoisi, the Limnea palosttii, a proof, u 
vol. L p. 239; and Hr. Kempa'a notieee heobMrve*,that thesusilshad notcrapt 
«f intarmenta in dalia found in South- acddantallv into tha vaawl, 

work and Whitedhapel, Aral eologia, vol. * Aroh. Joum. voLzviip. 126; Sussex 

uvi, p. 170; Qant. Hsg. 183S, p. S69. ArcbnoL CoU. vol. sL p. 138. 


ArchBologia, pi. VIII. figs. 2, 3), one of them being a oircul&r pendant 
ornament enriched with fila^e ; a Bilver chalica-iliaped cup broken into 
Beveral pieoea ; a eilver cord of ybtj cnrioua workmanship to irhich is 
appended a bead of greenish mottled glasa, thia cord terminates in four 
knobbed luhes like a scourge, and it iras described by Mr, Rogers as a 
duciplinariwn ; several silver rings and other ornaments elaborately 
decorated ; a penannular brooch ; the tip of a belt ; buckles ; richly 
chased bands supposed to Jiave been bracelets ; and a long pin, ^e head 
of which is curiously fashioned with fourteen facets chased with various 
omamenUi patterns and partly nielloed. There were also about niuety- 
five silver pennies, being coins of five kings of Uercia, an unique penny of 
£anred, king of Northumbria, with others of which a list is given hereafter. 
Mr. Bogers observed that rarely can the date of deposit of any hoard of 
aacient relics be fixed so precisely as we are enabled to do in this instance 
by aid of the coins accompanying it. He considered it probable that the 
hoard was interred soon after a.d. 874, possibly in 876 or 877, when the 
Danish host invaded the West of England, as related in the Saxon 
chronicle. The coins are now in the possession of Jonathan Aashleigh, 
Bsq., by whose kind pertnission they were brought for examination. We 
are also indebted to his courtesy for the subjoined list. The silver oma< 
nionts were presented, as Mr. Rogers believed, to his father the late Rev. 
Canon Rogers, of Penrose, about 1S06, by Mr. Rashleigh's great uncle on 
whose estate the dUoovery occurred.' 

Tho coins, as enumerated by Mr, Rashleigh, consist of about 95 ulver 
pennies, with some fragments. 

Kings of Mercia. — Coenvulf, a.d. 796 — 818 (one); Beomvulf, a.d. 
820—824 (one) ; Berhtulf, a.d. 839—852 (ten) ; Burgred, a.d. 852— 
874 (fifty-four) ; Ciolvulf, a.d. 874 (one). 

Sole monarohs. — Ecgberht, a.d. 800—837 (three); Etbelvulf, A.d. 
837—856 (ten) ; Ethelred, a.d. 866—871 (two) ; Alfred, a.d. 872—901 
(two) ; also an unique penny of a King Eanred, supposed to be Eanred, 
King of Northumbria, a.d. 808—840. 
Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury, a.d. 830—870 (six). 
Also a silver coin of Fepm, A.D. 752 — 768 ; and one of Louis le Debon- 
nfui«, A.D. 814—840. 

Prom this hst Mr. Rashleigh considers that the treasure was bnried 
about A.I). 874 — 875, probably soon after the death of Burj|red, whose 
coins are those most numerous, and, at he supposes, during the short 
reign of Ciolvulf, and the early part of that of Alfred the Great 

The Rev. Johs W. Astlet, Rector of Chaltou, Hants, gave an account 
of some mural paintings in distemper lately discovered on the north wall of 
the chancel of Idsworth Chapel in that county. He placed before the 
meeting drawings of the same siise as the originals. The principal subject 
is from the well-known legend of St. Hubert, and his conversion when 
hunting in the forest of the Ardennes. In a lower compartment are repre- 
sented the beheadinff of St. John the Baptist, and the presentation of tiia 
Precursor's head toHerodias, who is seated at a banquet. These pointings 
appear to be of the lat«r part of the thirteenth century. Trocinge were 
also exhibited by Mr. Aatley of two full length figures of St. Peter, in papal 



nttire, and St. Paul, painted on the jambs of the east window of Idsworth 
Chapel. There are likewise some inscriptiona, apparently ioTOCatioDs of 
the B. Virgin, the sacred mODOgram, and some indistinct words. Scarcely 
anj particnlara are known regarding that little fabric, a cbapelrj to 
Chalton, from which it ie distant aboQt a mile and a-half, and utuated in 
Idsworth Parli, tbe property of Sir J. Clarle-Jervoise, Bart. The chapel, 
in close proiimity to the former residence of his family now demolished, is 
a simple structure consisting of a nave and chancel ; it has some portions 
of early Snglish work, but the exterior has been modernised in the style 
of late Tudor work ; in the north wall are remains of a small Norman door- 
way now built np. Hr. Astley obsorred that the district of Hampshire 
occurs in Domesday under the name of Ceptnne hundred, corresponding 
with the present Finch-dean hundred ; the Manor of Ceptune consisting of 
the parishes of Chalton, ClanHeld, Idsworth, Catherington, and Blend- 
worth, formerly known as "The Five Manors." Mr. Astley suggested 
that, as St. Hubert was the patron of hunters, tbe introduction of his legend 
in this instance may hare been connected with the state of the country in 
early times. Idsworth was situated on the verge of the great forest district, 
tbe Silva Anderida, of which tbe ancient Forest of Bere and Stanated 
Forest are doubtless remains. Representations of St. Hubert, of frequent 
occurrence in French and Flemish churches, are very rare in this country, 
no other example, indeed, has come under our notice. 

Mr. Kdudhs Watertok, F.S.A., read a memoir on Royal Cramp 
Rings (printed page 103, ante), and placed before the meeting, by the 
courteous perniissioa of Cardinal Wiseman, the illuminated maou^ used by 
Queen Mary at the benediction of these rings. 

9nl(qu(tie< mtt TOfltU at ^rt Cjf^fbOclr. 

By Hr. R. H. Bbaokbtodi, — A bronze vase, stated to hare been brouglit 
from Egypt by the late Mr. Kemble of Cheltenham, a collector of coins 
and antiquities ; it has unfortunately been scoured and tbe patina 
destroyed. — Three bronze libulie, probably from Italy, but the place of 
their discovery has not been recorded. — A bronze Karpago or sacriScial 
grappling boob, described as brought from Ftruria, and resembling speci- 
mens in the British Museum obtained from Etruscan tombs. A similar 
relio, in possession of Mr. George Stephenson, was exhibited at tbe meeting 
of the British Association at Belfast, 1852. It was stated that it had been 
found in Ireland, in the county Down ; this specimen is figured in the 
Ulster Journal of Archseology, vol. iv. p. 96. — A bronze dagger, the 
handle in form of a female figure probably intended to represent Venns. 

By Mr. Edmiiiid Watertoh, F.S.A. — A small figure of a pig, of terra- 
cotta, probably a votive offering to Lstona, found near Rome in I860, in 
excavations for the railway. — A silver-gilt hanap, date about 1620; a 
silver cup, date 1636 ; and four silver taxze. — A curious jug resembling 
productions of Arabian manufacture ; it was disinterred in 1859 in tlie 
vestibule of the old basilica of St. Clemente in Rome, at a depth 
of 30 feet from the surfnce, in the course of the excavations which have 
lately produced many interesting results. This vase was presented to Mr. 
Waterton by the Prior of St, Clemente. 

By Mr. Q. Fortescue Wii,BRAnAU, through Ur. W. J, Berhhard Smitb.— 

VOL. XXI. n D 


A brODEe ring, of the Lower Smpire period ; the dev'tce on the head, which 
is of oval form (nieiitnriDg about J in. by ) in.), is & ftdt, or hands con- 
joined, within a chaplet of leaves ; over the/e<ie ia inscribed — fides — and 
underneath— CONCORDIA — at each side is a fmaU erect olive branch ; on the 
shoulders of the hoop are engraved the names nvFVS d. d. and tiatob. 

Bj Sir J. Clarke-Jbrtoise, Bart., M.P. — Several specinienB of Roman 
potter; found at Idsworth, Hants ; and four photographs of mural paintioga 
discovered in the basilica of St. Clemente at Borne. 

By Ur. Jaices Neish, of the Laws, Dundee, through the Rev. G. Rhodes. 
— A gold signet ring, found, about 1790, in digging the foundations for 
Heathfield House, on the Hawkhill, Dundee, formerly called the Sparrow 
lluir. The device is a head, apparently regal, bearded, with the hair lonj; 
at the sides ; on the breast there is a mullet or star of five points introduced 
in scrolled ornament; around tha edge there is a corded hordure with 
knots at intervale like a eordeliere, instead of the pearled margin usually 
found on seals. Tn the woodcut it is shown somewhat more distinctly than 
it now appears, being partly effaced by friction. This knotted cincture ia 
well-known as worn by the Franciscana thence designated Cordeliers ; as 
an accessory to heraldic or personal ornaments its use seems to have been 
Erst adopted by Anne of Brittany after the death of Charles VIIL in 1498, 
as we are informed by Falliot and other writers. It has, however, some- 
times been assigned to a rather earlier period. The hoop of Mr. Neish'a 
ring is plain and massive, the weight being 199 grains. The device, shown 
in the accompanying woodcut, double the original 
sise, is engraved with skill. It is difficult to 
determine whether tha object worn on the head is 
intended for a crown or a helmet with lateral pro- 
jections resembling horns. On minute examination 
of the surface it seems possible that there may have 
been a third projection in front, although shorter 
than those at the sides, Biamples of helmets 
with comnte appendages, occasionally found in 
classical art,' are not wanting in medicBval times ; 
Brito describes, in the Fhilippidos, the helm worn 
by the Earl nf Boulogne at the battle of Bovines, 
A.D. 1214, with horns of &a{nn«; in later times also 
such a fashion occurs, especially in Flanders and Germany. It has been sug- 
gested that the mullet on the breast may indicate some allusion to the 
heraldic bearing of the Douglas family, especially as the ring was discovered 
in the district of Angus, of which the earldom was conferred, in 1377, on a 
branch of that noble race. Mr. Neisfa, to whom both the remarkable ring 
here described and also Heathfield House where it was found now belong, 
stated that he had been informed by two persons that they remembered the 
discoTery ; one moreover said that Mr. Webster of Heath6eld House, to 
whom it formerly belonged, told him that the late Mr. Constable of Wallace 
Craigie (the Moukbarns of the " Antiquary"), had taken interest in the dia- 
covery, end, having carried the ring to Edinburgh, he had found there, in 
some depository, a proclamation or public notification regarding the loss of 
a gold ring on Sparrow Muir by a certain Allan Dorward, who had been 

I Rev. E. Trollope'a IllaatratioDH of Andrnt 
DC, zecbvGoOgIc 


«nplojed bj D»id, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of Willwm the Lion, ia 
building n church founded by the Earl at Dundee and completed in 1198. 
The King, according to tradition, waa so pleased with the builder's work 
that he presented to him a ring, which Allan, being nfterwarda at a boar- 
hunt on the Sparrow Muir, had there lost, and he had offered a reward for 
its racoTerj, as made known in the proclamatioa before-mentioned. Tliis 
tradition has been related by Ur. Andrew Jerriee, in his Memoriala of 
Angus and the Meams, p. 178 ; according to another TersioD, the ring was 
asserted to have been giren hj David II. (a.s. 1329 — 71] to his master 
mason, and lost bj him on the Sparrow Uuir in the manner before related. 
Ur. Jerrise remarks that, if the Barl of Huntingdon founded a church at 
Dundee, a oircnmstance of which there is no record, no vestige of the 
fabric exists ; according to one tradition it may have been destroyed by 
Edward I. in 1303 ; the lofty bell-tower now to be seeu is described as in 
the Decorated style introduced into Scotland in the reign of David II.' 
The beantiful ring in Mr. Neish's possession may possibly be assigned to 
later part of the fourteenth century ; the workmanship presents no feature 
of early character to justify the supposition that it was a gift from Williaqt 
the Lion. We have, moreover, the assurance of one of the most accurate 
and acute of Scottish antiquaries, that no such document or " advertise- 
ment," as is alleged to have been put forth by the loser of the ring, is in 
existence ; neither is there record of any architeDt employed by David II. 
or by his father, Robert I. 

It may deserre notice in regard to the oordeliere, commonly associated 
vilh the Frauciacan Order, and introduced on this remarkable ring with 
the accompaniment of the mullet, as above noticed, being a portion of the 
bearing of Ihe Douglas family, that there existed at Dundee a Franciscan 
convent, the most important institution of its class in the town, fouuded by 
Devorgilla, mother of John Baliol. It appears to have received support 
from the Douglas family ; when the Friars became so impoverished that 
they were compelled to Bell their sacred vessels and books, Beatrice 
Donglas, Countess of Errol, bestowed, about 1480, a donation for which 
they bound themselves to say daily mass for her soul and those of her son 
and deceased husband. Sea Jervise's Uemorials of Angus, p. 192. 
Through her liberality repaii-s were mode in the ruinous fabric of the 
" HowEF," as the site of the Qrey Friars at Dundee is now called. The 
aupposition seems by no means improbable, that the ring in Mr. Neish's 
possession may have belonged to some person of the distinguished family 
of Douglas, by whom St. Francis was held in special veneratiou, and that 
hence the cordeliire was introduced upon it. We learn from Uenestrier, ' 
in his Origine des Omemens dea Armoiries, Paris, 1680, p. 161, that 
Anne of Brittany, who, as already observedj introduced that accessory 
to beraldio atchievemeuts in fashion amoog the ladies of her court, 
adopted it in accordance with the customary uso of such a device by her 
hther, Francis, Duke of Brittany, who, fur* the devotion which he had 

T Of this style, Mr. Jerries olwerves, Cathe<!nl ii suigned, and it may deserre 

good exsmplst are sxtant, suoh as the Dotioo, that William DisachiiigioD. whe- 

church of St. Hotians, ia Fifs, of which ther for architeoturol or other Hrvicea 

it is known that Sir WiUiuu Disiching- in Forfarehire, h«d a gnmt from David 

ton wa4 architect, or maatw loaaoa ; II,, of a mill with •oiue adjoining landn. 

CbamberLkin's Bolli, i. pp. i96, £21. To Jerviae's Homonals of Augvu, Kdinb., 

Uuspariod alao.the balltowBr of Brochia 18fll, p. 179. l^doir 


towardii St. Pranci5.of Aasisi, placed a knotted cord aroaod hU arms, u 
wiiB to be Been on his tomb at Nantes. It had, howeter, been uud at an 
earlier time by another Duka of that noble race, Francis I., in 1440, as 
shown by the cortUliereg which accompanied his atchierement at Rennes. 
Uenestrier has figured seieral interesting eiamples of its use in heraldic 
decorations, Bhowing the preTalence of such a fashion in France, and it 
may be remembered that intimate relations subsisted at the period betveen 
that country and Scotland. 

By His Eminence C&hdinal Wibeuak, — A remarkable illnminated MS. 
of the sixteenth century, being the Manual used hy Queen Mary I., con- 
taining prayers used in the consecration of cramp-rings and the ceremouy 
far the healing of persons diseased with the king's-evil.' The two ser- 
vices fill nineteen leaves of Tellum, with ornamented bordures and three 
miniatures. On the first leaf there is an atohicvement of the royal 
arms, namely those of Philip II. impaling the coats of France and Eng- 
land quarterly, within a garter ensigned with an Imperial crown ; the 
field within the garter is colored green. The bordure is enriched with 
pomegranates, red roses, and a fieur-de-lys ; at the bottom there is an 
escutcheon charged with the cross of St. George. On the reverse is a 
portrait of the Queen kneeling in front of an altar, her hands are joined 
in prayer, before ber on a blue cushion lies an open book, at each side of 
her there is a gold basin containing rings. In the bordure are introduced 
birds and animals amidst foliage, flowers and fruits; also St. George 
and the Dragon, David with the head of Goliah, Sia. On the second leaf 
the first service commences with the rubric, — " Certayn prayours to be 
used by the quenes heighnes in the consecration of the Cramperynges." 
The whole of this curious Office has been printed by Bishop Burnet, appa- 
rently from this identical US., in the Appendix to the History of the 
Reformation, Book II., No. 25.' After certain prayers said over the 
rings lying in the basin or basins, the BenedtctUt tumulormn follows ; 
then, according to the rubric, — " Tbeise prayers being saide the quenes 
heighnes rubbeth the Ringes betwene her handes, sayinge — Sanctifica 
Bomine annQlos istos, iie. — Thenne must hallv water be caste on y* ringes, 
sayeng. In nomine patris," itc. Among the decorations of the illuminated 
margins occur an escutcheon with the arms of France and England quar- 
terly, another with the arms of the city of London ; also Uary's favorite 
motto — TEBiTAs TEUPORis riLiA — and— DOMiNva hihi adivtoh — the port> 
cullis, the white rose in the centre of the red rose, and figures symbolising 
Patience, Prudence, Charity, Justice, Faith, Hope, Fortitude, and Temperance. 

On folio 11, which separates the first portion of the Manual from " the 
Ceremonye for y< heliog of them that be diseased with the kynges Eritl," 
is represented the Saviour on the cross, with the Virgin Mary and St. 
John ; on the reverse of this leaf the Queen is seen kneeling at a desk 
upon which there is a large open book ; at her right is a stripling youtli 
brought by the Clerk of the Closet, both of them kneeling, and the Queen 
places both her hands upon the suferer's bared neck. On the left of the 
Queen, at the aide of the desk, the Chaplain Is seen kneeling and reading 

• The offlca of conwcratiog cramp- 1680) "in Kbiioth. H. Smith, Lonil." 
TiDgB kocampanin ■ re)>riiit ot tha Th« poBiewor oF the HS. thuM deaignited 
Euglish version of tho ritual tor the bv Biahuii BurueC wis, it U believed, the 
healing, u lute lu 1786. titular Bwliop of Chalcedon is oartj&u. 

• TLe U3. i* dsBeribed as then (about , -■ ■ 



the Mrrice ftppdnted, whicb, it maj deserve notljije, according to the 
rubrics is sat forth for the King, not for the Queen, probably througK 
inadTerCenc; of the trauBoriber. Tikis Office has not been printed bj 
Bishop Burnet irith that before noticed. It has been stated ("bat the 
earliest ritual came into use in the time of Henry VII. ; it was much 
modified in suocesaire reigni, until that of Queen Anne, the last of our 
MTercigns who " touched' for tlie Evil. The original Iiatin ritual may 
be seen ia the Appendix to Beckett's Enquiry into the Autiquity of 
touchiog for the cure of the King's Eril ; Lend. 1722.' 

By Mr. TV. H. Hart, F.S. A.— Commission from Queen Elisabeth, 
appointing Sir Richard Lea, knight, " our true and undoubted Attorney, 
Procurator, Legat. and Ambassiulor" to the court of Russia; — "In 
witnes whereof wee have caused these our letters to he made Pattentes 
and sealed with our greate seale:" dated at Qreenwich, 30th May, 1600. 
This document is beaatifulty written on Tellum ; the first line and some 
words and initial letters being in gold. Although in the form of letters- 
patent, it is not entered on the patent roll, as stated by Mr. Hart, and 
it bos another peculiarity, namely, that it is signed by tlie Sorereign lo 
the left hand upper corner like a sign-manual, which is not necessary for 
the ralidity of a patent. By the string-marks and holes at the bottom of 
the parchment, the Qreat Seal (now lost] would appear to have been 
attached. The appointment sets forth that the " high and mighty Prince 
Sorit Ftdoromch, great Lord, I^ng, and great Duke of all Russia," had, 
sines his entry into his reign, shown tokens of friendship and desire to 
continue the intercourse of merchandise which had been for many years 
between his subjects and the Queen's, and confirmed by letters-patent 
under his Great Seal, such liberties, Jic. as Bngiish merchants heretofore 
enjoyed. Wherefore, the Queen, desirous to respond to his goodwill, — ' 
" and for congratulacion of his good estate (whereof wee wish all happy 
continuance), ' had resolved to send her said Ambassador to his court. 
Further particulars regarding this embassy have been given by Mr. Hart in 
the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. i. second series, p. 188, 
where the document has been printed at length. There is at the State 
Paper Office, as he obserres, a letter dated April 19, 1600, shortly before 
this appointment, wherein Sir Richard Lee submits to Sir Robert Cecil 
various considerations concerning a mission to the court of Muscovy ; that 
he went as ambassador appears by Sir Thomas Smith's " Voiage and 
Entertainment ia Rushia," London, 1605, in which mention occurs of Sir 
Richard as the previous eoToy. He was probably, as Mr. Hart remarks, a 
younger brother of Sir Henry Lee, K.G., of Quarrendoo, Bucks ; Bliiabeth 
was there entertained with a masque in 1590. Boris, brother of the 
Ciarina Irene, wife of Pedor I., having by ambitious artifices seiied the 
reins of government, caused the Czar's only brother to be assassinated ; and, 
on the death of Fedor without issue in 1598, he obtained possessioD of the 
throne, and courted popularity by treaties with the sovereign powers of 
Europe, ofiering facilities for commerce, and giving encouragement to 
foreign artists and men of learning for advancement of civilisation in 
Rnaeia. It is somewhat remarkable that Elisabeth should have signified 

' See also Cbarurma, sive donmn nana- the Tojal touah, hat been fully treated 

tionis, by Dr. Tooker, Doan of Lich- by Hr. E. L. Huseej, iu this Jouruil, 

field; LoDd. 1634. The subject of the vol. i. p. 1ST. 
oure of ecToftUuaa dieeaees attributed to ( OOqIc 


BO wftrmly tLe gog^will of England to<rarda tliis crs% usarper. Oa 
September 18, 1600, au ambaeBage from Boris reacbed LondoD, and, after 
being honorably received bj the Queen, was entertained for eighteen moatha 
St the charge of the Museovy merobauts. Stoir's Annals, 12 Eiii, 

By the Karl of Duhratek. — A relio of booe of unknown nse : in ite 
present imperfect condition it is difficult to ascertain the purpose for frhicli 
it waa intended ; it has been auppoaed to have formed part of a musical 
instrument or of a croas-boir. It was found in Irelaud, in a moat at 
Desmond Castle, Adara. Professor Owen pronouDoes the material to be 
a bone of the elk, Cereut akei, 

Sj Ur. K. H. SODEN Shith, F.S. A. — Two small " Bellarmines," or grey- 
beard jugs, lately found in Southwark ; probably of- English ware, mx- 
teenth century. — A gold motto-ring;, of English workmanship, uiteentli 
century, engraTed with the posy— jom tarn fyn. — A gold ring, of old 
German or Swiss workmanship, set with a tourmaline, carbuncle and peri- 
dot, in triangular arrangement. — A gold armlet, of modern African work. 

By the lion . Mrs. Aubutunot. — A silver case in form of a bird bearing 
a Cupid, and containing a watch of English workmanship. 

By Mr. Jaues Yates, F.R.S. — A fine medal of the Emperor Charles T., 
■truck in ] 537, in the 37th year of hia age. 

By Sir Geoeob Bowteb, Bart., M.P, — A statuette sculptured id wood, 
representing the Virgin, with the Infant Saviour ; probably a French work 
of the fifteenth century ; also three paintings ou panel, early speclmetu of 
Italian art. 

By Hr. Webb, — A small reliquary of ulver-gilt, on which is represented 
St. Qeorge and the Dragon. U vroa described as found at Bang^ in 
Anjou, on the field of battle where the English under the Duke of Cla- 
rence were defeated in 1421. This interesting object was obtained 
recently by Mr. Webb at Paris. He brought also a devotional folding 
tablet of silver gilt, date about 1450. 

By Sir Thouab E. Winhinotoh, Bart., M.F.— A copper plate etched 
representing an aged man reading, in the style of Rembrandt, and bearing 
his name with tbe date 1651. The plate has been gilt and framed ; it haa 
been long preserved among the numerous workB of art and medieval taste 
at the residence of tbe Winnington family, Stanford Court, Worcestershiie. 
We are informed by Mr, Carpenter, that the Dutch amatenra not unfre- 
quently sought to obtain one of the original plates eiecuted by tome 
engraver of whose works they had formed collections, and caused it to be 
gilt ; after that process no impression could be taken. It is on record that 
the Emperor Rudolph II. caused the copper plate of the admirable engraving 
by Albert Durer, representing St, Hubert, to be gilt, Tbe plate preserved 
at Stanford Court is probably not by the great inaeter whose name it 
bears ; its ezecutioQ bears resemblance to the work of Lirena or of S, 

By Mr. Abhckbt MAJENnii. — A decorative pavement tile, found at the 
east end of the church at Castle Hedingliam, Essqz. 

By Colonel Tbhi-ebt. — Two paintings, one of them supposed to be an 
original portrait of tbe nun, Catherine de Bohren, who escaped from a 
convent and became the wife of Luther. This painting was executed in 
1525, the year of her marriage with the reformer. 

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Vift 9[rcl)aeoIog{caI Journal. 




The beautiful glass paintings which occupy (amongst 
others) the seven eastern windows of the choir of LichheUl 
Cathedral, belonged originally to the Abbey of Herckenrode, 
in the old episcopal principality of Li4ge. They are of the 
Italian-Flemish school, and appear from dates upon them to 
have been executed between 1582 and 1539. After tho 
destruction of the abbey, the glass passed into the possession 
of Sir Brooke Boothhy, Bart., vrho transferred it to the Dean 
and Chapter of Lichfield, by Trhom it was placed where it 
now is, in or about the year 1803 (A). 

At the present time, when the very refuse of the con- 
tinent is sought for, and even forgeries of ancient painted 
glass occasionally command high prices, such an acqui- 
sition would hare produced no dight sensation, and a 
knowledge of the surpassing merit of these windows would 
have been generally diffused by means of the presa As it is, 
there is perhaps no work of ec[ual importance in this country 
so little known or appreciated. 

To the antiquary this glass may appear less interesting 
than that in the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick, to which 
so many historical and local associations attach ; but it must 
^ways be an object of the deepest interest to the student 

' tUad on tb« oecarion of the vwt of JdIj S9, dnriai; tfa* Annual MsaUDghdJ 
the ArabMolo^cal lutitDto to liohBald, at Warwick, 1864. 



of glafis-painting, anxious to trace the progress of the art, 
and to ascertaia the method by which such striking and 
beautiful pictorial effects hare been produced. 

To those who have recently examined the painted glass in 
the Beauchamp Chapel,' it may seem somewhat surprising 
that both examples should have been produced by precisely 
tiie same technical process (B) ; and that the difiereuce in 
effect between thera, which we cannot fail to observe, should 
be entirely due to the greater skill of the artists who 
executed the works now under consideration. 

We are familiar with the expression " the new method," 
by which Vasari and other writers on art designated the 
practice of the great painters of the Renaissance. The in- 
fluence of this practice is shown as clearly in the Lichfield 
windows, as is that of the hard, dry, flat style of the pictorial 
art of their day in the windows of the B^uchamp Chapel. 
And surely if the " new method" of the Renaissance (the 
invention be it remembered of the greatest artistic geniuses 
whose works have come down to us) is admirable, and is 
admired in all other kinds of painting, we may weU ask why 
should its adoption in glass-painting alone be deemed wrong j 
In what does the impropriety consist 1 Is any essential or 
fundamental rule of glass-painting thereby violated 1 I feel 
that a glance at the windows at Lichfield ought to set these 
questions at rest. But, as the works of the Renaissance in 
painted glass have been of late years systematically decried 
by a certain class of writers, not merely on account of their 
style, as being in the Italian and not the Gothic manner (a 
question with winch we need not concern ourselves), but 
upon the broader ground that their design and mode of 
execution (matters perfectly distinct from style) are essen- 
tially erroneous, I trust that I shall not be deemed tedious 
if I endeavour briefly to show, that in works like those at 
Lichfield there really is no violation of the conditions imposed 
by the nature of glass, considered as a material affording a 
means of art I am not aware, indeed, of the existence of 
any conditions that can be supposed to prohibit an artist 

■ The piuated glua in the Btauahunp ocouion by the author of tbii Hemoir. 
Chapel waa • speoial lut^eet of intereet We hope to be enabled to pabliab her«- 
at the Hseting of the Inatitute at War- after hia valuable diMartaUon on the aab- 
vlek ; a Duoourae on iti peculiar featurea jecL 

■tid bfator; waa communicated on the / - i 



from producing as perfect a pictorial effect in a glass-painting 
as be is able, provided he does not unnecessarily or exces- 
sively reduce the transparency and brilliancy of the glass. 

The principal objections urged are, I believe, that the 
artists of the Eenaissance ought not to have attempted 
pictures in painted glass, or anything higher than mere 
colored mosaics, because the nature of glass is such that 
more complete and perfect pictures can be produced by 
other methods of painting ; that their works are overshadecl, 
and therefore unsuited to the nature of a translucent ma- 
terial ; and that the attempt to form a picture in glass is 
always accompanied by a diminution, ih a certain degree, of 
the depth of coloring. 

The first objection can easily be disposed of, upon the 
ground that it tends unnecessarily to limit the resources of art. 
Experience shows that we take delight in various methods of 
representation, some of which are certainly not less imperfect 
than glass-painting ; and that an artist's power in meeting 
and overcoming technical difficulties always forms a large 
ingredient in our estimate of bis abilities. 

To the second it may be answered, that, though it is true 
that translucency is the essential characteristic of a painting 
upon glass, and that any practice tending unnecessarily to 
reduce it must be vicious, yet, as it is impossible to give 
force and expression to a glass painting without some 
diminution of its transparency, the extent to which obscura- 
tion may properly be carried becomes a question of degree. 
Thus we rightly condemn the use of enamel coloring, that is 
to say, the method of coloring glass with enamels, instead of 
(as in the windows at Lichfield) using for the colored parts 
of the picture glass colored in its manufacture, and not after- 
wards, and which is as transparent as white glass itself. For 
though more varied and even truer effects of color are 
obtainable by means of enamels, such gain is disproportioned 
to the loss of effect through the dulness and want of bril- 
liancy occasioned by the use of enamel coloring. But the 
employment of an opaque enamel color for the purpose of 
producing the chiaroscuro of a picture in glass is legitimate, 
if confined within reasonable limits. 

The third objection must necessarily fall to the ground 
upon its appearing that pictorial compositions of a higher 
nature than mere mosaics are allowable in painted glass, as 


being unopposed to any rule of glass-painting ; for, without 
using colors varying in degrees of depth, it would be impos- 
sible to impart requisite distinctness and re1ie£ 

In determining the various questions iuToWed, we natu- 
rally turn to ancient examples as affording the best means of 
comparison and selection. But, before submitting ourselves 
to the teaching of antiquity, we should do well to bear 
in mind that mediseval architecture and mediaeval painted 
glass stand upon a very different footing. The one bad 
reached a point high enough to place it in the first rank of 
the architectural styles of the world, at a time when the art 
of representation ou a plane surface (including glass-painting) 
was comparatively in its infancy. The latter, as is well 
known, did not attain perfection in the north of Europe 
until the period to which these very glass-paintings belong, 
and not until afler the decline of Grothic architecture. The 
accidental association therefore of the earlier styles of glass- 
painting with Gothic buildings is far from proving, that any 
necessary or scientific connection exists between the best 
Gothic architecture and the state of the art of representation 
as then practised in glass-painting. Nor ought we to 
be deterred by any such association from condemning, along 
with their bad drawing, the confusion and want of relief 
which in a greater or less degree characterise all the painted 
windows executed previously to the second quarter of the 
sixteenth century. It is observable, however, that the most 
keen opponents of cinque cento art justify, on the score 
of taste, their preference of what may be familiarly de- 
signated the " ironed-out-flat-style " in painted glass, namely 
complicated compositions intended to represent objects 
occupying various distances from the eye, but which are so 
inartificially drawn, shaded, and colored, as to look as if 
they bad all been compressed flat into one plane, as is 
exemplified in old windows (C). 

It may be admitted that a composition of a flatter nature 
than is absolutely demanded by the conditions of glass- 
painting, might occasionally be employed with advantage, if 
it was treated artistically, and did not exhibit (like the 
ironed-out-flat-style) the flatness which results merely from 
feebleness and imperfect knowledge. And such a glass 
painting, in proportion to its simplicity and approach to a 
mere mosaic, might display a more uniform degree of bril- 


liancy aud a more uniform expanse of the deepest coloring, 
than would be possible in one of a more complex and pic- 
torial diaracter. But it would be found Tery difficult to 
design such a composition upon a rerj large scale ; nor 
would its style be suitable for general adoption, since it 
would necessarily confine the subjects of glass-painting to a 
very few, and those of the simplest nature. Practically, there- 
fore, our choice would be in favor of glass paintings more 
nearly approaching the character of pictures (of which class 
those at Lichfield and other contemporary works might be 
considered to be the type) on its appearing that they exhibited 
the highest pictorial effect of which glass-painting can be 
rendered capable, without riolating that condition of the art 
which forbids undue obscuration of the material. That they 
do not infringe this rule is actually proved by those most 
opposed to the style in question, who occasionally place in 
invidious comparison with " the overloaded (with enamel), 
and orershaded cinque cento," medieval works in which 
shadow not unirequently occurs equal in quantity, and even 
more opaque than what was used in the cinque cento style. 
It is a iact that the fourteenth century figures and canopies 
in the east window of Gloucester Cathedral are more pro- 
fusely and densely shaded than the pictures at Lichfield, and 
other examples might be adduced. Doubtless the effect of 
relief thus produced in these early works is very inferior 
to that in the Lichfield glass-paintings ; but this, after 
all proper allowance has been made for the difference of 
material, is found to be due only to the greater skill and 
knowledge with which the shading in the later works is exe- 
cuted : the aggregate amount of obscuration is about the 
same in both instances. Nor, indeed, do the Renaissance 
glass paintings of this particular period, although so pictorial, 
and exhibiting such masses of shadow, at all suffer by com- 
parison with the most brilliant medisval examples. On the 
other hand, the comparative dulness of glass paintings of a 
later date, though scarcely attended by any corresponding 
advantage, proves that the obscuration of the material had 
reached its proper hmit in such works as those now under 
consideration. That these glass-paintinga also exhibit the 
greatest pictorial effect of which glass is legitimately sus- 
ceptible, is manifest on comparing them both with earlier 
and later examples. ( "ooqIc 


The radical error of the earlier works of the J 
is the complicated nature of their composition ; that of the 
later is the complicated nature of their chiaroscuro ; for to 
deal with either composition or chiaroscuro succesafiilly 
■would require resources not possessed hy the glass-painter. 
His difficulties spring from the fewness of the glass colors, 
their unifonn brightness, the impossibility of providing hues 
and tones to modify or unite them, and the imperfect means 
of imitating light and shade. 

The evil attending the use of compositions too complicated 
is shown in the windows of King's College Chape^ Cam- 
bridge, and the east window of St, Margaret's Church, West- 
minster (D). These are mostly overcrowded with groups of 
figures extending backwards into the extreme distance, which 
is elevated to an absurd height in order to display them. The 
background occupies too large a proportion of ^e picture to 
admit of its .being executed in the few retiring tints which 
glass supplies, without injury to the general coloring ; other 
colors are therefore necessarily introduced, which come as 
forward as those in the foreground (E). The effect is flat 
and confused, however skilfuUy the light find shade may be 
managed. To a certain extent the same fault is observable 
in such of the glass paintings at Lichfield as exhibit groups of 
figures in the distance, and especially where the coloni used 
are primary, or strongly contrasted. 

We become only the more sensible of the disagreeable 
effect occasioned by the attempt to produce complicated 
chiaroscuro in painted glass, when contemplating the very 
works in which the experiment has been carried out with 
the most success, viz., those large pictures on glass, common 
towards the close of the last and at the commencement of 
the present century, which were faithfully copied from oil 
paintings especially remarkable for the breadth and variety 
of their light and shade. The glass, hke the canvas, is 
shaded all over gradually from a point of light ; but it is 
immediately perceived that an extensive mass of shadow in 
glass fails as an imitation of shade. It looks flat, dry, and 
even flimsy, and suggests rather the idea of a dirty window 
that has been sprinkled with drops of rain, than of clear 
immaterial gloom, such as is so well expressed by the shadow 
in an oil painting (F). To the same cause, the attemptmg 
too much in the way of chiaroscuro, may be traced the 


dulnesB of almost all the glass paintings that were executed 
after the middle of the sixteenth century. 

Subject to these introductory observations, I would invite 
attention to the manner in which the difficulties of the art 
have been met or evaded, and its resources developed, in the 
glass at Lichfield. Whether it was dictated by a profound 
kuowledge of the material, or by timidity, by the influence of 
traditional rules, pt by some happy chance, we must admit 
that the end proposed was admirably adapted to the means. 

The picture is extremely simple in its composition, con- 
sisting of a foreground group, a landscape background of a 
sketchy character, and a clear blue sky. As a rule, it is 
represented as if seen through a& architectural framework 
or canopy, which is more or less connected with the group 
by means of piers or columns introduced in the background. 
The whole ia harmoniously colored upon a principle of 
relief and general resemblance to nature. The more posi- 
tive colors, and those possessing the greatest degrees of 
depth, are conflned to the foreground, being used in the 
group and in the ornaments of the architectural framework. 
The more qualified — the lightec shades and retiring tints — 
are employed iu the background and sky. The architectural 
framework or canopy is composed principally of white glass 
shaded with brown, and enriched with yellow stain. It is 
adorned with garlands and other ornaments in which, as 
being the objects nearest the eye, the colors are with pro- ■ 
priety harmoniously conti-asted. In the group harmonious 
gradations of color occur, though on account of the nature 
of the material the harmony of contrast prevails. Its 
coloring is moreover so arranged that the eye ia insensibly 
led up to some striking point or spot, produced by the 
decided introduction of one of the primary colors, or by a 
strong contrast, which gives life and spirit to the composi- 
tion. In the distance and sky the harmony is that of 
gradation or resemblance. Id general the most successful 
pictures are those in which the landscapes are wholly formed 
of different tints of grey, modified with brown shading and 
the yellow stain ; for in these vrindows the space occupied 
by the landscape and sky is intentionally so confined by the 
architectural framework, or by some other means, as to 
prevent its color presenting too extensive a mass. The 
horizon is sometimes lighter, sometimes darker, but always 


more solid in appearance than the skj, which is left clear 
and transparent, whilst the brilliancy of the landscape is 
necessarily more or less subdued by the enamel hrown used 
in the drawing and shading. The architectural distances are 
generally rendered - with much fidelity and consistency. 
They are worked out chiefly on white glass with drawing 
and shading, and the occasional addition of the yellow stain. 
To a certain extent the colors are united and brought 
together by the enamel brown with which the chiaroscuro 
of the picture is represented, but the harmony of the color- 
ing depends principally on the skill shown in arranging the 
pieces of colored glass. It is true that all the colors used 
are very modified in their tone, more so indeed than those 
of any other period, but this has only rendered their har- 
monious disposition so much the less difficult. 

In the subject of Christ before Pilate the harmony of 
coloring is effected principally by contrast In the picture 
above it, Christ bearing the Cross, it is produced chiefly by 
gradation or resemblance. In the subject of the Day of 
Pentecost a curious example is afforded of gradation of 
color worked out very completely. One of the most beau- 
tiful, as well as most picturesque, of the architectural back- 
grounds is that in the Lord's Supper, in the east window. 

The force and expression of the picture are of course 
chiefly given by its chiaroscuro. And, bearing in mind 
what has been said of the ill effect of very extensive masses 
of shade in painted glass, it is remarkable that here, as in 
the vorks generally of this period, the shadows are always 
confined within comparatively narrow limits. The chiar- 
oscuro, though Tery powerful, is extremely simple. The 
requisite relief is imparted by means rather of strong but 
harmonious contrast^ than by gradations of light and 

The subjects are treated as if they were seen in the open 
air, whatever their situation may be. A point of light is 
barely if at all distinguishable. It is seldom that a figure, 
even in the rear of a group, is entirely in shade. The light is 
usually made to fall on all the figures alike, and the dark or 
shaded side of one figure is contrasted and relieved against 
the light side of the next. For the more extensive shadows 
necessary to give breadth and relief to the composition, 
recourse is had to the soffits or roofs of the architectural 


framework, under or behind which tlie group ig placed, and 
which are deeply shaded. A pillar, or other architectural 
accessory, ia not unfrequeatly represented in shadow behind 
the group. The shaded soffit is contrasted with the clear 
sky and with the full light on the front of the architectural 
framework or canopy ; the shaded pillar or other accessory 
is contrasted with the landscape background, which is repre- 
sented in full light, or with the sky. Instances of these various 
modes of producing relief by means of shadows of limited 
extent may be met with in nearly all these glass-paintings. 
The artifice is most shown in the subject of the Annuncia- 
tion on the north side of the choir ; the principal mass of 
shadow here is on the roof of the apartment within which 
the scene occurs, and it is remarkable how small is the 
extent of its deepest part : the effectiveness may be readily 
estimated by covering this portion of the picture with a book 
or the hand. It is most concealed in the subjects of Christ 
before Pilate, and the Incredulity of St. Thomas. In the 
former, which is the most effective of all the pictures, there 
is an unusually large quantity of shade in the sunken arched 
panel which surmounts the lintel of the opening through 
which the group is viewed ; but it is so artfully disguised by 
means of the ftiU lights introduced on the arabesques spread 
over the panel, and by their golden color, as not to catch the 
eye. In the latter subject there is not only. the dark pillar 
in the background, but an accidental shadow is cast upon 
the tribune behind the group, the scroll work on the top of ■ 
which comes darkly across and gives value to the bright 
landscape in the distance. 

The result of these various expedients and contrivances 
has been the production of a series of pictures in painted 
glass, harmonious in their coloring, simple and intelligible 
in their composition, distinct and powerful in effect, yet 
always brilliant and translucent. They also display a very 
advanced state of art in the grouping and figure drawing, 
and, as works intended to be seen from a moderate dis- 
tance, they are of unsurpassed merit. It is probable that 
if the three apsidal windows had been painted for the situa- 
tion they now occupy, and of which so distant a view 
is obtainable, they would have been designed in a simpler 
and severer manner, more approaching the style of those 
most powerful and striking of glass-paintings, the window^ 

VOL. zxi. ' ? 


in the chapel of the Miraculous Sacrament and in the tran- 
septs at Brussels Cathedral (6). 

I am aware that id this necessarily brief and imperfect 
statement I may I^ave failed to do justice to the euhject. 
My object is to induce that actual study of these windows at 
Lichfield which will supply all my deficiencies. Whilst ex- 
amining them we must constantly bear in mind that, althoagh 
they have hitherto fortunately escaped " restoration," they 
hare suffered materially from three centuries of exposure to 
the weather. The whole outer surface of the glass has 
become corroded, by which not merely the high lights, but 
the unpointed parts, have been toned down and subdued, 
and thereby not only a flatter appearance has been imparted 
to the windows than they must have possessed when recently 
executed, but eren much of the effect intended by the con- 
trast of the clear brilliancy of the sky with the comparatire 
obscurity of the painted figures, architecture, and landscape, 
has been lost 

Great however as these works are, they are objects of 
study, not of servile imitation. If ever the time come when 
the practice of glass-painting shall be taken up in England 
at the point where the Bendssance left it, even the best exist- 
ing glass paintings will be found susceptible of improvement 
No advance has been made beyond such productions as the 
Lichfield windows, except in some recently executed by the 
modem Munich' school That school, after nearly half a cen- 
tury spent in the consistent treatment of glass-painting as a 
branch of fine art, has lately abandoned the vicious practice 
of coloring glass with enamels, for the purer, though infi- 
nitely more difficult, method of the KenaiBsance, at the 
instsaice of those true patrons of the art who conceived and 
have carried out the greatest modem work of its kind, the 
adornment of Glasgow Cathedral with painted glass. The 
chief improvement displayed at Glasgow is the employment 
of many new and additional tints of colored glass, which have 
enabled the artists more easily to blend them, and to avoid 
repeating in the backgrounds the colors used in the fore- 
grounds. The evil of this is seen in the tendency of some 
of the white objects in the Lichfield foregrounds to unite 
with the architectural distances. The avoidance of distant 
groups and of any strong contrasts of color in the back- 
grounds is also an improvement; and so is the occasional 


enliTening of the horizooB by the introduction of rosy tints, 
kept in their place by means of a blue enamel legitimately 
applied in the same way as the ordinary shading. Some of 
the figures are indeed noble works of art, but art has always 
characterised the Munich school. In coloring and power the 
Glasgow windows are inferior to those at Lichfield. Their 
material, like all ordinary modem glass, is comparatively 
flimsy, and its colors are crude ; the general treatment also 
is rather of the kind suitable to fresco, which requires light 
colors and light shadows for effect at a distance, than that 
proper to aglass-paintiug, which, being by nature translucent, 
demands deep shadows and much powerful coloring to pre- 
vent its appearing weak. We must expect, howoTer, that 
the Munich artists will rival the old glass in both particulars 
long before our glass painters can approach it in either, 
unless we renounce our practice of encouraging the produc- 
tion of works that will bear no comparison with the high 
standard we usually propose to ourselves in secular art (H). 
Archseology is not art, nor will a great artist ever condescend 
to become an arch£eological pedant. If we could transfer him 
from the influence of the art of the modern world to the ex- 
clusive study of some phase of medisdval art, we should only 
cramp his energies, and at best create a learned mannerist 
resembling a professor of religious painting in £ussia. 


A. — The Abbej of Harokenrode (flqairalent to Herckenrotxl) BeeniB 
to hare been Bituftte near the nlUge of Uerokea, in the anoient couotj 
of Looe, which io the seTonteeath century beoame aaoezed to Li^ge. 
See Chronologie HiBtorique des Comte* de Looa ; Art de Verifier les 
Dates, torn, iv., 254. Li^ge was annexed to Franoe bj the treatj of 
LonoTille ia ISOl, after whioh the Abbe; wsa probably disBoIved. At 
the general peace the diatrict became part of the kingdom of the Nether- 
lands ; and Bioee the revolution in 1830 it has formed part of Belgium. 

The circunutances which made Lichfield Cathedral the depoutor; of 
these fine glass pain^gs are recorded in the following inscription in the 
east window of the south aiele of the ohoir : — 

"Qun in apsida vicina insunt, septem fenestrs pictaratie, cmnobio 
oanonieonim Herckenrodensi qood olim ezomaverant ftBdisNine direpto 
atqne dirulo, noram, et, deo rolente, stabiliwem sedem b&o eoeleeii naete 
sunt ; ope et coovlio viri in omni judicio elegaotisauni, D<xa. Brooke 


Boothbj, de Asliburn aul& in oomitatu Derb. Barooetti : anno sacro 

The following principal subjecta are represented : — 

The Resurrection anJ, in the diHtanco, Christ appearing to Peter (dated 
■1538) J Christ before Pilate (dated 1539) ; The Descent from the Cross 
And, in the distance, the Three Marjs anointing the bod; ; Christ bearing 
the Cross ; the Incredulity of St. Thomas ; the Da; of Pentecost (dated 
1534); the Day of Judgment ; the Betrayal; the Triumphal Enirj 
(dated 153S) ; tbe Last Supper and, in the distance, Christ washing the 
disciples' feet i the Lord's Supper and, in the distance, three small figures 
(dated 1537) ; the Ascension ; the AnouDciation and, in- the distance, the 
meeting of Marjr and Elizabeth (dated 1539) ; Christ crowned with 
Thorns and, in the distance, Christ buffeted by the soldiers ; and the 

The first four are in a window on the south ude of the choir ; the three 
following are in the next window i the next three in the southern apaidal 
window ; the next two in the east window ; and the next three in the 
northern apsidal window. 

There are, besides, in the next window to the last, six smaller subjecta 
representing benefactors to the Abbey (parte of larger subjects) ; and in 
the next are four other subjects simitar to the last, but of larger sixe. The 

C>rtrait in this window of the Cardinal de la Uarck, Prince Bishop of 
i^ge 1505 — 1538, much aa it has suffered from time, shows to what 
extent direct imitation may be carried in glass-painting. The tracer; 
lights of all these windows are filled with fragments of painted glass of the 
same period as the subjects, disposed in a kind of mosaic pattern. Uuch 
ingenuity has been exerted iu fitting the glass-paintings to the widths of 
the present windows, and the muUions to the dirisions of the glass. Back 
composition wag orifpnally designed to fill a space divided as now, by 
mullions, into three parts, for the areas occupied by the stone work are 
excluded from the designs, over which the mullions seem to pass, in the 
same manner as the horisontal saddle-bars. It may shock ■ modem 
arehilectural purist to find the mullions treated, according to their primary 
use, as mere uprights to support horizontal iron bars [ but as they inter- 
fere with the glass compoaiiion scarcely more than upright iron hare would, 
the practice (which by the way dates from rery early times) may bo justi- 
fied as a means of combining grandeur and breadth of effect in the glass 
painting with the construction of a Gothic building, 

B. — This process is technically called the " mosuc method," in 
order to distinguish it from two other methods of painting glass, the 
"enamel, and " the mosaic enamel." A full description of each is given 
in "An Inquiry into the Difference of Style obserrable in Ancient Qlass 
Paintings, especially in England ; with Hints on Olass-Painting; by an 
Amateur. Parker, 1848," 

The following account of the process may, however, not be unac- 

The foundation of a glass painting, executed according to the mosaic 
method, is a mosaia formed of pieces of white and colored glass 
nicely fitted together, by which the coloring of the intended picture is 
represented. If such a work were leaded together and put up in a 
window, without being touched with paint, it would then oonst4tut« a 
mare piece of eobred glazing, and iu harmony would depend on the good 


qusUty of the colon used and the skllfulneBH of their arrangement. Such 
an appearance would of course be presented bj anj one of the Lichfield 
glass paintings, if all the chiaroscuro were cleaned off it. Whenever thft 
limits of the pieces of glass happened to coincide with the outlines of the 
composition, some features of design would appear ; but, in general, little 
else would be recognised than unmeaning patches of color. Some of tlie 
draperies might be indicated, but many essential parts, such as' heads, 
hands, feet, ^c, might be altogether undefined. It is upon such a basis 
as this that the glass-painter works. He paints the chiaroscuro on tlie 
glass with an enamel color, usually called from its hue, " enamel brown," 
which is fixed to the glass by burning the latter in a kiln. The high 
lights are formed hy leaving those parts of the glass where they occur, 
free from enamel. The depth of the shadow depends on the density of 
the coat of enamel color which represents the shadow. There are two 
principal modes of applying the shading ; one, by simply smearing the 
enamel on tbe glass ; the other by stippling the coat whilst moist with a 
brush. The latter process (generally adopted in the Lichfield windows) 
waa the later and improved invention ; by its means transparency is pre- 
served even in tbe deepest shadows. The color of the shading, a rick 
cool bromi. Is always affected by the color of the particular piece of glass 
on which it is placed, which shows itself through the shadow, so powerfully 
as to make it appear as if the shadow was produced by deepening the 
local color. In the Lichfield windows, where only enamel brown is used 
for shading, no attempt is made to impart to reflected lights the color of 
the body causing the reflection. Nor would it be possible to modify the 
colors of the reflected lights by using other enamels than brown for 
shading, except where some particular Local colors might happen to form 
the basis of the painting. The whole coloring of a glass- pain ting is 
■0 imperfect and conventional, that so minute a defect as this is over- 
looked. It should, however, be remembered that the very want of the 
power of closely imitating the hues of nature renders the creations of 
^e glass-painter the more like works of monumental art, and requires 
appropriate treatment on his part to enable them to sustain that character. 
If we mention the "yellow stain," the means of removing the colored 
surface of " coated glass " so as to expose the substratum of white, and 
of obtaining a certain variety in the shade of color by chooung a piece 
of glass irregularly colored in its manufacture, we may be said to have 
recounted all the resources which the mosaic method places at the glass- 
piunter's command : what may be achieved by such means in skilful hands 
is sufficiently shown by the specimens under consideration. There are satis- 
factory reasons for considering the mosaic method to he the true method of 
glass-painting ; and I am not aware of any modem improvement upon it 
except the occasional use, by the Uunich glass-painters, of an enamel of 
a different color from brown for shading purposes. 

The " enamel method " is the system most opposed to the " mosaic" in 
principle. In it the picture is painted upon white glass, as npoa can- 
vas, and entirely colored by means of enamel colors. Many more 
varieties and gradations of colors and tones can thus be produced than 
would be possible by the " mosaia method." But as, owing to tech- 
nical difficulties which have hitherto proved insurmountable, glass colored 
with an enamel color is less transparent than glass colored in its manu- 
&cture, the nse of the "enamel method" has been attended with so 


great a diminutioD of the tronaparencj and oonsequeot firidneM of the 
picture, as to expose its best Bpecimens to an unfarorable oompariaon 
with even the iDferiar specimeDs of the "mosaic methoij." 

For the same reason, the productions of the intermediate system, the 
" mosaic enamel," are inferior to those of tlie "mosaic." Although 
glass colored in its manufacture ia used for some of the colors of the 
picture, it is found necessary to dull these parts down with enamel, in 
order to reduce their brilliancy to a level with that of the other parta of the 
work which are colored only with enamel colon. 

C. — No one holds the earlier glass in greater respect than myself; 
without it we should not hare had the cinque cento, which is the derelop- 
meot of the older ezperience. But nothing can be less scientific or more 
ridioulous than the indiscriminate reproduction in' modern works of tbe 
imperfections of the old. 

D. — The contracts for the King's College Chapel windows, published in 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Fainting, are dated 1526. It is my belief that 
the date of the window at St. Margaret's, Westminster, is about 1526. 
Hr. Seharf, in his excellent notes on the windows of King's College 
Chapel (see this Journal, *ol. iti., p. 356, also vol. xiii., p. 45), which 
abound in raluable- notices of Flemisn glass-painterg, attributes die Lich- 
field windows, on the authority of Mrs. Jameson, to Lambert Lombard of 
Liege, the master of Franz Floris commonly called the Flemish Raphael. 

E. — An instance of tiiis, which occurs in the east wiudow of Kbg's College 
Chapel, is thus noticed by Mr. Seharf, in this Journal, vol. xiii,, p. 55, 
" One singular expedient (of preserving the balance of color] is worth 
mentioning. In the lower right-hand subject a mass of red was required 
against the extensive blue and green of the landscape. To afford this, a 
large patch of the landscape itself wes colored bright red. At a distance 
it looks like a banner floating, but on closer inspection rocks and grass on 
it are distinctly visible." 

F. — This results from the very nature of a traiuparent picture. The 
shadow painted upou glass is only a partial etopping out of the light, 
the rays of which are equally bright, however much diminished they mar 
be in size by the smallness of the interstices in the coat of enamel through 
which they find their way. A similar appearance may he noticed in line 
eugravings, though not so easily, partly owing to their small siie as com- 
pared with a glass- panting, hut principally because the rays of light are 
there modified by being reflected from an opaque surface, instead of coming 
directly to the eye from the source of light, as in a glaas-painting. In an 
oil-painting the rays, besides being reflected, usually pass through some 
medium which is not perfectly transparent, 

G. — The dates of these windows, as appearing on the glass, and u 
given by Uvy (Histoire de la Feinture sur Verre, Bruielles, 1860], vary 
from 1537 to 1547. The second window from the east, in Uie chapel, is 
proved by this author to have been designed (and he adds, executed) by 
Bernard van Orley, whom he conjectures, and with reason, to have dewgned 
the two transept windows. The fourth window from the east, in the ohapel, 
appears, from the same authority, to have been designed by Michael van 
Coxie, and executed by Jean Ilsecht of Antwerp. Van Coiie is also stated 
to have designed another, and Haecht (or, as it is sometimes spelt, Ack} 
to have executed two other of the ohapel windows. 

These works are remarkable for a simplicity of design, with a vigor and 


breadth of treatment worthy of wtthors who were digciples of Raphael. 
Intended for distant effect, the)' are, perhaps, less delicate and refined 
than the Lichfield windows, though entirely free (rota any imputation of 
coarseness. The groups are less crowded, and the figures, instead of 
heing much under life-size, exceed it by seieral inches. The pictures 
resemble those at Lichfield in the use made of architectural accessories as 
an additional means of simple but powerful effects of light and shade, and 
also in the principle of their coloring, which is in entire harmony with 
the chiaroscuro of the composition, instead of being nncomfonnable with, 
or even opposed to it, as in earlier examples. The archi(«ctural frame 
which Bupporta the groups and regulates the extent of the bacliground is 
umple and grand in design. In the transept windows it is in the form of 
a parilion, having an arched roof on piers, within which is the group 
consisting of the kneeling figures of the donors supported by their patron 
■aints. In the chapel windows similar pavilions are used alternately with 
loggias, or double colonoodes. All these are of two stories ; the upper is 
occupied with the figures representing an incident of the legend, the lower 
with the effigies of the donors and their patron aatnti. The perspectire is 
modified so aa to avoid the occurrence of unpleaaing angles in the upper 
parts of the composition ; and for the sake of picturesque nees the chief point 
of sight is a little removed from t^e middle to the side of the window. The 
figures are in strong but simple light and shade ; the soffits of the arches 
and Tooh, and the further row of piers and columns, arc in deep shade. A 
landscape is properly dispensed with, since its appearance woold be incon- 
sistent with such an elevated position above the eye as is by the perspective 
■hown to be occupied by the group, and the architecture and figures are 
represented as if they were seen in relief against a clear blue aky. The 
extensive mass of white which the architecture presents (tinted, however, 
with the shading and drawing upon it and enriched with the yellow Rtain) 
imparts, as at Lichfield, great value to the other colors. Garlands and 
other ornaments are nsed, the colors of which, when occurring in large 
quantities, are qualified and harmoniously graduated ; positive colors and 
strong contrasts being usually confined to the smaller accessories. Tha 
group is colored generally on the same principle which prevails at Lich- 
field ; the more powerful and positive tints predominate, and are arranged 
■0 aa to lead up to some striking point or spot of color. In one of the 
vindowB, the first &om the east in the chapel, the subordinate figures are 
rendered less conspicuous by the introduction of much white iu the 
draperies. The sky was originally many degrees paler and less positive 
than the blue used in other parts of the picture, being rather warm grey 
than blue. That it was intended, as at Lichfield, to relieve the more 
positively and deeply colored, and comparatively more solid, figures and 
architecture, ia shown by the placing of blue draperies immediately against 
it. In consequence, however, of a moat unfortunate and injurious 
"restoration" which within the last fourteen vears has befallen these 
windows (in eourse of which a large proportion of the original glazing has 
either been altogether removed, on the pretext of being disfigured with 
cracka, and supplied by modem glass, or toned down with an enamel color) 
the skies, for the most part, have been obscured, their color also deepened 
and rendered more positive, to the manifest deterioration of the relief of the 
pictures. The npper subject, indeed, of one of the chapel windows appears 
ahnoat as if it had been punted on a blue ground. Ignorance of the 


extent of the rcBtorntion has probably betrayed some vriters into the 
aHsertion that these windows are in character flat, like the mediteval. Before 
tlicir restoration they were no flatter than those at Lichfleld, and it is a 
proof of the intrinsic excellence of their dciign that, notwithstanding the 
injury they have sustained, they still occupy the first rank amongst glass 
paintings of the more powerful and effective class. The most striliing is, 
perhaps, the second of the chapel windows from the east, the design of 
Bernard van Orlcy, principally on account of the varied and vigorous action 
of the groups. At a distance, however, it is leM broad in effect thaa 
the fourth window from the east. 

H.— We hope that the projected annual eihibitions of " stained glass " 
at South Kensington may in eooree of lime exercise a beneficial influence 
on the practice of glass-painting in this country. The present exhibition 
shows the deflciencies of our native artists, and how much they hsTS to 
learn before they can compete successfully with foreign schools. Whether 
a demand for painted windows of a high class will ever be created suffi' 
cient to induce our best artists to direct their attention to the subjeot, 
may be doubted. The praiseworthy efforts made at Glasgow and at St. 
Paul's Cathedral are, it is to be feared, efforts, which for the present 
must necessarily be responded to by foreign artists who have devoted their 
attention to the finest examples of glass-painting. It cannot be supposed 
that a committee qf management appointed by any body of subsoribera will 
ever entertain the no^ou of educating a school of glass- painters. Their 
duty is simply to seek out and employ those whose works offer the best 
guarantee of ability to execute fresh commissions. Nor are they likely, 
if they have the interests of their constituents at heart, to submit to the 
guidance of any artist, however distinguished, who is wholly inexperienced 
in respect of glass-painting. The most important recent work, designed 
by a late eminent Royal Academician, demonstrates that glass-painting 
has conditions affecting the very nature of the compositioni which must ho 
thoroughly comprehended before a satisfactory result can be attained. 

Whilst the foregoing pages were in the press and after they had received 
the author's revision, the painful intelligence of his sudden decease reached 
us. This sad event, full of anguish to those who best knew the excellent 
and amiable qualities of our lamented friend, claims our most hearty con- 
dolcnce. All who enjoyed his kindly intercourse, who were familiar with his 
generous dieposition, bis accomplished taste and attainments in a depart- 
ment of art which none had so successfully pursued as himself, will dee])ly 
deplore the loss of such a genial spirit. We must cherish the memory of 
the friend taken from us in the fresh energy of life, and of his wonted 
interest in our common pursuits — of one who was ever foremost in bygona 
years to impart the knowledge which be acquired, or to contribute to our 

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One great merit of the Greek and Medieeval phases of 
architecture is their completeness. Buildings erected in 
those times were not, as with us, mere shells, destitute aUke 
of sculpture and painting ; on the contrary, both those arts 
were more or less employed before any edi&ce was con- 
sidered as entirely finished. Of course it is not to be sup- 
posed that every building could be decorated in the same 
manner or degree as the Parthenon, on the one hand, or the 
church of St. Francis at Assisi, on the other; still some 
storj was told, either in stained glass, ia painting, or in 
sculpture ; the only difference being that artists of inferior 
abilities were, doubtless, employed in the more humhle 
buildings. Thus, for the most part, in structures of less 
atatel; character, the glass was merely grisaille, with colored 
windows at the East and West ends ; a few carved label- 
heads or the tympanum of a doorway represent the Art of 
Sculpture, while the painting ia executed in three colors only, 
or even is reduced to monochrome ; but still there was sculp- 
ture and painting — the dead walls spoke and a story was told. 

Leaving aside, however, the important subjects of glass- 
painting and sculpture, it is proposed to consider how the 
artists of the thirteenth century carried out their less costly 
wall decoration. 

Through the industry and perseverance of the Rev. 
Thomas Bumingham, Kector of Charlwood, Surrey, a series 
of very curious paintings has been brought to light in the 
church of that parish which perfectly illustrate the subject 
under consideration.* It should be mentioned that the writer, 
having been afforded every facility in the use of scaffolding 

wof lS£S,*nditi«aoUMdlntIi{i JodruI, 



and other assistance during four days occupied in their 
reduction upon paper, has heen enabled to make a careful 
examination of tbe processes employed. 

Charlwood church presents the usual plan of a Saxon or 
Norman structure of its simple class, namely, a nave, cer- 
tainly with one aisle, if not with two, a tower at the eastern 
extremity, and beyond that a shallow chancel. The first 
alteration was the rebuilding or addition of a south aisle, 
some time towards the latter part of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, and it is upon tbe walls of this aisle that the contem- 
porary paintings have been discovered. The next insertion 
was a window, about the time of Edward II., in the old 
north aisle ; iu this window may be noticed a rude figure 
of a peacock incised or scratched upon one of the jambs, 
being possibly a rebus of the name of a workman, for the 
height from the floor prevents our considering it to be the 
work of some idler during diyine service. At the end of 
the fourteenth century, part of the paintings ia the south 
aisle having suffered damage, perhaps in consequence of 
the erection of a south porch, the martyrdom of St. Edmund, 
or of St. Sebastian, was executed iu figures of gigantic pro- 
portions. In .the fifteenth century a chantry chapel waa 
built at the east end of the south aisle, thereby destroying its 
eastern wall together with the paintings upon it ; and quite 
at the end of the same century the chancel was entirely 

We will now return to the paintings in the south aisle, of 
which only two bays have been preserved, namely, those on 
either side of the window easternmost from the porch. 

When a church is built in the present day, the jamb- 
stones of the doors and windows stand out about an inch 
above the rubble walling, so as to allow room for a thick 
coating of plaster; when the whole work is finished, the 
stone-work presents one color, and the plastered sur&ce 
another. In the old work, on; he contrary, the jamb-stones 
and the rubble were hearty on a level, the interstices of the 
latter being filled up with coarse plaster, and over all was 
placed a coating of fine stuff, or gesso (whitening and size), 
to receive the paintings. This coating is seldom found more 
than one-eighth of an inch in thickness. When it approaches 
to the stone it is then eased off and becomes httle more 
than a thin wash, to stop the pores when directly applied to 


that material. The consequence vas that the jamb-stones 
did not ahow at all ; they were there, because the angles 
wanted strength, and not for mere ornament, or to show 
that stone was actually used and not plaster. 

Sooner or later the services of the painter were required. 
In all probability he may hare been a travelling limner, who 
went &om church to church with colors and brushes in the 
wallet on his back, and a sketch-book like that of Willars de 
Honecort under his arm. It is also not unlikely that he may 
have had some choice and difficult subjects portrayed fiill 
size on Unen, so that they might be tramferred to the wall 
with little trouble. The artist, having found the wall to be 
perfectly dry (a rare circumstance in these days), and having 
settled the subjects with his employer, forthwith began by 
dividing the walls into horizontal bands ; he seldom sub- 
divided these by perpendicular lines, as the Italians were 
in the habit of doing ; on the contrary, some of the finest 
works, such as the Painted Chamber at Westminster, are 
without any such divisions. The next process was to 
enlarge the subjects from the pattern-book ; to do this he 
, probably used charcoal, which would easily admit of cor- 
rections by means of a cloth or feather, and he then traced 
over the outlines with red ochre or Indian red, probably the 

The figures had next to be colored and properly shaded ; 
to do this the mediaeval artist had only four colors — red 
ochre, yellow ochre, lamp-black, and white, this latter being 
used for high lights and details ; for instance, the ribs of the 
skeletons in the Charlwood painting described hereafter are 
marked out with white. The great difficulty must have 
been so to distribute these four colors, that there should be 
no preponderance of any one over the others. To effect 
this he frequently broke one color by means of another, as 
may be noticed in the middle skeleton. It is often difficult 
to determine at the present time whether a certain color is 
red or black, and if this tone has not been efiected by the 
blending of the black and the red, it could only have 
resulted from the employment of red lead, which has since 
become decomposed by the action of the air or by the 
whitewash laid on in the sixteenth century. However this 
may have been, there can be no doubt that portions of 
these paintings were shaded, but the broken colors and 


the vhite details must still hare had a very important shard 
in the general effect. In the fourteenth-century picture of 
St. Sebastian, at Charlwood, vte find vermilion added to the 
pigments, and indeed, from that period the decorations gain 
in gaudy colors Trhat they lose in drawing. After the four- 
teenth century the art of our church decorators appears to 
have declined, nearly in the same manner as the ardiitectura 

It would be a long task to enumerate the Tarious dis- 
coveries of wall-paintings resembling those under considera- 
tioD, namely, those executed ia the four colors, but almost 
every church anterior to the fifteenth century will be found 
to possess some traces of such decoration. The most 
complete series perhaps is that covering the interior of the 
chancel of Charlgrove church, Oxfordshire, described by the 
writer of this memoir in a Yecent volume of the Ardiseo- 
logia.' It must be remarked that these paintings are of the, 
middle of the fourteenth century ; the art, however, is by 
no means so good as in those at Gharlwood. At the latter 
church, unfortunately, only two bays are preserved, one on 
the east, and another on the west, of a two-light Early . 
Decorated window. The easternmost division contains three 
bands, — the westernmost only two, thus carrying out the 
principle of increasing the decoration as it approached the 

We will begin with the eastern hay which ia occupied 
with the history of St. Margaret ; the arrangements of the 
subjects corresponding closely with the illuminations in a 
nearly contemporary MS. in the British Museum, commonly 
known as Queen Mary's Psalter.' The story begins on the 
upper band (see woodcut), where we see the Governor of 
Antioch, Olibrius, engaged in hunting ; behind him is a 
huntsman or attendant who blows a horn ; and behind this 
figure appears a hand grasping, as it would seem, a bow or 
a hunting-staff. It was upon such an occasion that Olibriua 
first saw St. Margaret, as she was guarding the flock of her 
nurse. The legend relates that on his return from the chase 
he sent a slave to summon St. Margaret to his presence, 

* ArohaoIogiK, toI. sxxriiL, p. 4S2, Hr. C. H. BdoUst for the illnitnUoiU 

pUta S3, 24. FuU-UE«d tnoinga of of Ihkt paper. 

Iboe r«mukKble mural puotingi wsra * Kojal MS. 3 B. vii. 
obtainsd bj Ur. Pu-ker, ud radnoed bj 



ioja ia ChatlvQod Churoh. Surrey. 

) by Google 


and accordingly we here next see the messenger bearing a 
banner, fringed, and charged with a cross on a field fretty ; 
he appears to be kneeling before St. Margaret, whose figure 
is not shown in the woodcut, whilst he delirers his master's 
commands. It is indeed possible that this figure may be 
intended for the governor himself, as the colors of his dress 
correspond with those of the equestrian figure. This view 
is farther borne out by the MS. before cited, where OUbrius 
is represented addressing St. Margaret, while seated on his 

In the middle band there are three scenes, arranged from 
east to west, whereas those above run from west to east. 
The three subjects, which are very indistinct in the present 
damaged condition of the paintings, represent, first, St. 
Margaret beaten with rods ; in the next she is portrayed 
thrown into prison ; and, lastly, she is seen swallowed by 
Satan in the form of a dr^on ; above, in the westernmost 
corner, is seen the Divine hand, in the gesture of benedic- 
tion, issuing from a cloud. The first subject is curious as 
showing corrections in the drawing ; the figure of the 
jailor, in the second scene, having been commenced too far 
to the east, it was subsequently covered over by that of the 
executioner. In the MS. all these subjects occur, vrith the 
addition of St. Margaret's first interview with the governor. 
In this illumination, the servant who introduces her holds 
a long wand, which seems in some degree to correspond 
■with the banner held by the kneeling figure in the upper 
band of the Cbarlwood paintings. 

The lower band of the paintings, which is very much 
obliterated, appears also to be disposed from east to west 
It contains two subjects. The first is nearly effaced ; the 
second represents the decapitation of the saint in the pre- 
sence of Olibrius, who is apparently crowned and seated on 
a throne ; her soul, ascending towards heaven, is represented 
under the form of a white dove. This symbol is generally 
an adjunct to the legend of St. Bulalia,* and it is possible 
that the whole of this last band may have related to her 
story ; the very mutilated state of the easternmost subject, 
however, prevents any definite conclusion. The Hoyal MS. 


concludes the legend of St. Mai^ret with the following sub* 
jects : — she is swallowed by the dragon ; she conquers two 
devils; placed between two jailors, she disputes with 
Otibriua ; she next appears plunged naked into a caldron of 
boiling water, whilst two executioners blow the fire with 
bellows ; one of these tormentors appears to have wings 
on his head, probably a representation of an helmet thus 
ornamented ; she again disputes with the governor ; an 
executioner leads her away, three women following her ; 
she prays to Our Lord for women in childbed who may 
invoke her intercession ; the hand of Our Lord appears 
through a cloud ; on one side is the group of three women, on 
the other are seen the executioners, one of them wearing the 
winged helmet ; the executioner cuts off her head, whilst a 
violent storm kills the assistants ; she is placed in the tomb ; 
and, lastly, angels present her to Our Lord. 

The westernmost bay has only two bands, and it evidently 
contained ike story of St. Nicholas and his miraculous 
resuscitation of the three scholars, after their bodies had 
been cut up and salted as pork. A figure of an armed 
knight, to the east of this subject, has probably no con- 
nexion with it ; like the coats of arms on either side of the 
top of the window, this figure had probably been introduced 
oi^y to fill up the space. The lower portion of the figure 
of the pork-butcher's wife is covered by the remains of the 
head of St. Sebastian, added in the fourteenth century. 
These subjects, which like other portions of the paintings at 
Chartwood are in very imperfect state, are not included 
among the illustrations accompanying this memoir. 

The lowest band is occupied with the popular Middle-Age 
story of " les trois vifs et les trois morts," of which other 
examples have been brought under the notice of the Insti- 
.tute, and are enumerated in some observations by Mr. Albert 
Way which are appended to this memoir. The group of 
horsemen in royal attire, shovm in the accompanying wood- 
cut, is exceedingly spirited, and vrill almost bear comparison 
with the similar group by Orgagna, in the Campo Santo at 

It should be observed that in the eastern bay the bands 
are divided by double thin parallel lines ; in this hay. on the 
contrary, the division is effected by a broad interval of 
red and yellow chevrons, the artist having more space than 


required for hia work. Over the doorway may be seen the 
fourteenth-century additions and the lower part of a seated 
figure, evidently the judge or persecutor under whose direc- 
tions the martyrdom took place. 

There are certain considerations which it will be well to 
bear in mind on our inspection of these mutilated paintings 
at the present day. First, they have been destroyed, and, had 
they been lefl untouched, they would probably have been 
nearly as fresh as on the day when they were painted. The 
reason for this is that they are executed in distemper, not 
in oil or encaustic. The colors are simply earths ground 
more or less finely, and mixed with just sufficient medium, 
such as size or white of egg, as would prevent their being 
rubbed ofT. The second point to be considered is, that, how- 
ever carefully the removal of whitewash may be effected, it 
is almost impossible to prevent the scaling on of portions of 
the painting together with it ; thus we have before us not 
only what the artist intended that we should see, but much 
that he had intended to conceal ; hence the appearance of 
one figure cropping out fi'om under another, and hence also 
the frequent complication of details. 

Such are the remarkable relics of thirteenth-century 
design which have been brought to light at Charlwood ; it 
is true that they frequently err against anatomy and good 
drawing, yet, if we compare them with the subsequent pro- 
ductions of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, we cannot 
fail to be struck with a certain gracefulness and monumental 
severity displayed in the earlier works. They enlivened 
the general aspect of the church, assisted both the archi- 
tecture and stained glass, besides telling a history upon 
which the unlearned of such a rural parish might look both 
with pleasure and instruction. 

These notices would be incomplete without mention of the 
credit which is due to Mr. Burningham, not only for the 
care with which he removed the encrustation of whitewash 
with his own hands, but for having insisted upon the pre- 
serratioD of the paintings j if others, under the like circum- 
stances, followed his example, we should become possessed 
of ample materials for the illustration of Iconography in 
England, and be enabled possibly to trace the progress of the 
arts of design as compared with those of other countries. 

, . W. BURQES. 




Amono the mural decorations brought to light in 1858 
by Mr. BurmDgham in the south aiale of Charlwood Church, 
and described by Mr, Surges in the foregoing memoir, the 
curious subject intended to convey a salutary admonition of 
the uncertainty of Life is not the least remarkable. It was 
doubtless taken from a popular mediGeval moralitS, composed, 
according to Mr. Douce, in France, in the thirteenth century, 
and entitled, "Li trois mors et li trois vi/s"^ Three coeval 
MSS. of this metrical work were in the library of the Duke 
de la Vallifere, differing, however, from each other, and fur- 
nishing names of two authors, to whom they are attributed 
respectively. These poems relate that three noble youths, 
hunting in a forest, were intercepted by three hideous spec- 
tres, images of Death, from whom they received a terrific 
'ecture on the vanity of human happiness and grandeur. A 
very early, perhaps the earliest, allusion to such a monitory 
Tiaion, seems to occur in the painting by Andrea di Orgagna 
at Pisa, to which allusion has been made by Mr. Surges j 
although varied in some respects from the description in the 
French poems, the story ia evidently the same. In the 
grand composition by Orgagna, which has been designated 
the Triumph of Death, the three princes are seen attended 
by a brilliant company, and approaching open tombs, in 
which are seen the ghastly corpses of three princes ; close 
by stands the aged St. Macarius, who points to that 
fearful memento mori,'^ A similar vision, first noticed by 
Mr. Douce, occurs at the end of the Latin verses ascribed to 
Macaber, and of which there are translations both in French 
and English.' In the MS. collection of poems by John 
Audelay the blind hard of Haghmon, Shropshire, 1426, now 
in the Bodleian, there is one, a composition a^ikingly ex- 
pressed, on the trois vifs et trois marts. 

Examples have been noticed among numerous mural 

' Douea'B DlBMrtation on the Didm gncd eompotitton if tbers gireiL S«e 

of Death, Loud. 1898, p. 81; hia eurioiu aUo Laiioio, nUora > ttaaeo d«l Campo 

ramarki hitTe been copied b; Luiglou, Santo, end Uoaiui'a Detcription of theie 

ElHWBurlee Daoeei de* Unrti, Tol. L p. peintingi. Orgagna flourished Id the 

107: Roueu, 18G1. eeco&d half of tbe fourMeuth oantur; ; 

■ Handbook of Paiating, twuUted ha died io tSSB. 

from Kugler, edited bj Sir C. Eaatlaks, ■ Douce, DaDoe of Death, p. 92. 
foL i. p. 146; a repreaentation of this 

D.D.t.zea by Google 

by Google 

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paiDtings brought to light in churches in this country, for 
the most part in the course of works of " restoration," which 
have led to the removal of encrustations of whitewash. An 
illustrated synopsis of these valuable materials for the 
history of the arts in England were much to be desired. It 
is probable that few churches exist, even in remote rural 
parishes, in which some evidence regarding Iconography 
or the peculiar styles of medijeval ornamentation might not 
be obtained. It is scarcely needful to point out that the 
selection of the subject derived from the "Dit dea trois 
vifs," associated with scenes from Scripture History or, as at 
Charlwood, from legends of Saints and MartjTs, must be 
attributed to the same solemn feeling which produced innu- 
merable representations of the Dance of Death and other 
like relics of early art. We read the great moral admoni- 
tion — Let no man slight his mortality — in the ghastly 
eiQgy of an emaciated corpse, the frequent accompaniment 
of some stately memorial in our cathedrals ; the like solemn 
monition appears also constantly on our sepulchral brasses : 

" Lole, BQche bb we ar, buc^io achall je ^e. 
And such as we were, sache be ye ! " 

A remarkable representation of the Trois vifs et trois 
marls was communicated to the Institute in 1848 by the 
Rev. W. E. Scudamore, Rector of Ditchingham, Norfolk. 
The subject, painted on the north wall in the church at that 
place, was found associated with the Last Judgment, as it is 
likewise seen in illuminated MSS. and service books. The 
painting at Ditchingham has been figured in this Journal, 
vol. V. p, G9 ; it portrays three aged regal personages stand- 
ing in a forest ; they are not, as at Charlwood, mounted on 
horseback ; one of them holds an axe ; the ghastly spectres 
are likewise crowned. This painting, which we regret to 
learn has been concealed by whitewash, may be assigned to 
the close of the fourteenth century.* In the accompanying 
notice Mr. Hudson Turner pointed out a well-executed 
delineation of the like subject in a MS. in the Drltish 

* Dnwingi of the Ditohiogham piint- 405. TbU example ii ciUd by Langloii, 

inga wers brought befora ttis Norfolk Euu Bar lea Dkona dea Morta, *ol. i. 

Arohnologioal Sooiat; in 1S18, and >re p. 234. 

noticed in tbcir TranwcUouB, toL ji. p. / ^ I 


Museum ; two kings and a queen are there represented, 
they meet three skeletons, over the former is inscribed, — 

" Ich am Bfert, 
Lo whet ich ee ! 
Me tbinketh hit beth derelet thre." - 

Over the skeletons is a triplet expressive of the admonitiou 
frequently found, as above noticeii in sepulchral inscriptions, 
here commencing thus — " Ich wes wel fair, such scheltou 
be I " This illumination precedes a remarkable dialogue, in 
French verse, on the vanity of earthly things.* 

About the same time when the discovery was made known 
to us, in 1848, by Mr, Scudamore, another painting of Lea 
troia vifs et trois marts was revealed to view in Belton 
Church, Suffolk. A drawing of this painting, on the north 
wall of the nave, was sent by Mr. Harrod to a meeting of 
the Institute, Dec. 1, 1848. The colors were decayed, and 
the inscription illegible ; the three regal figures on horse- 
back were designed with much spirit On adjoining spaces 
had been painted St. Christopher and St. James the Less. 
Mr. Woodward, in a memoir on discoveries at Wymondham 
Abbey in 1834, notices fresco paintings in the conventual 
church, of which one represented three skeletons ; above, in 
a cloud, were seen three figures, "fat and well liking." 
This was doubtless an illustration of the popular allegory 
to which the present notice relates.^ 

In the parish church at Battle, Sussex, the whitewash was 
removed from a remarkable series of mural paintings, about 
1847; they have been described by Mr. J. G. WaJler in a 
valuable Memoir on this class of early examples of Art.' The 
subjects are chiefly from the Passion of Our Lord, with 
figures of saints ; over the chancel arch are portrayed a 
king and queen with traces of a third figure apparently 
seated ; in an adjoining compartment stand two ghastly 
skeletons with indications of a third seated. Above is the 
moral apothegm of Lucan, " Mors sceptra ligonibus equat." 
This painting seems to be of the fourteenth century. We 

■ Amadel MS. 83, t 128. This M3. prior eren to the eiecotion of tho psint- 

■ppeara to havs been executed in Eng- iog at Ksa by Orgajna. 

lani1,aiiditeontaiiiH a coatemponuTiiDto ' Norfollc Arcbnologj, vol. ii., p. 

that it waa givan la 3338 by John de 40e ; Arohgeologia, »oI. ixtL p. 2W. 

Lylo to hU daughter, an intoreiUng 7 Joonwl of tho Brit Aroli. Anoc, 

Eroof that the tnoralilt hare notioed waa tqI. ii, p. Ilfl. 

\ vogue in England at that early period, , - ■ 


are indebted to the constant courtesy of the author of the 
" Emblems of Saints," the Very Rev. Mons. Husenbeth, for 
information that traces of a similar painting were formerly 
noticed by him in the church of Limpenhoe, Norfolk, but it 
had been nearly concealed by a series of subjects from the 
martyrdom of St. Catherine. 

.Among mural decorations brought to light in Tettenhall 
church, Staffordshire, during repairs in 1841, portions of a 
subject were found in Lord Wrottesley's chancel which may 
probably have been of the same curious description ; on re- 
moval of the whitewash three skeletons were to be seen in 
fair preservation ; no traces of Les trots vifs were, however, 

Other examples of this singular subject doubtless ezist 
on the plastered wails of churches in England. On the 
continent they are likewise to be found ; Lauglois enume- 
rates a painting at Zalt-Boemel in Holland, one also at the 
Abbey of Fontenay in Normandy, in which the three gallants 
appear mounted, as at Charlwood, and another, of later date, 
at St Eiquier ; of both these last he gives representations. At 
Fontenay there was a sculpture of the same subject ; at 
Paris it was painted in the Cemetery of the Innocents, and 
also sculptured there over the portal of the church, by order 
of the Duke of Berry, in 1408.' It was to be seen at Bricy 
near Metz, and on the exterior of the apse at Longpaon 
near liouen. Another interesting fresco of this subject, 
at Ennezat in Auvergne, is described in the Voyage dans 
le centre de la France, by P. Castel." 

Mr. Douce has remarked that this popular allegory ia 
found prefixed to the burial office in MS. Hours and other 
service books ; many of the printed editions of the Macabre 
Dance contain it with some variations ; it occurs also in 
printed service books, and in some of those of the use of 
Sahsbury. He cites, as the earliest wood-cut engraving of a 
like subject, one in the Block Book of the " xv, signa Judicii," 
date about 1430, which has been copied in Dibdin's Biblio- 
theca Spenceriana.' 


" Iduigloii, Esski, fto., lom. i. pp. 235, which raprewnUtioiii of La (roii vifi et 

239, torn. ii. p. ISfi, pl*to« 16, 47. IroU morli <xo\iT, ibid, pp, SifS, 230. A 

* BuUetiD ot tfaa Sooist; of Sclenoeo, facaimile of the ourioiu woodcut ia ■ 

Arti, ka., >t Ba;eux, 1881. vary early edition of the DviM Usi-kbre 

■ DouM, Dknoe of Death, p. 34 ; «ae priatad at Troju a giTSti, pL t., p. 2S0. 

■~ — ■■ , of printed booka iu ,-- ■ 



Bt EDWIK OOEST, LL.D., F.RS., UMCor ot OouilDa *Dd CMoa CoU«g«, Cambridge. 

Circumstances have given a firesh interest to all matters 
connected with Caesar's invasion of Britain, and the criticism 
his narrative has been subjected to, more particularly in 
France, seemed to require some notice at the hands of Eng- 
lish antiquaries. The subject was accordingly selected as a 
suitable one for discussion at the meeting of the Institute 
held at Rochester. The arguments then brought forward 
were afterwards circulated more widely in the pages of the 
AthensBum;' and the present article is little more than a 
republication of the papers which appeared in that journal. 
Some alterations and additions have been made and a map 
appended, which it is hoped may make the author's reason- 
ing clearer, by bringing the relative position of the several 
localities more distinctly before the reader. 

Caesar twiceinvaded Britain. It is clear from his narra- 
tive that on both occasions he sailed from the same port in 
Gaul, and landed on the same part of the British coast. In 
his account of his second transit he calls the port he sailed 
from the Portus Icius. Our first question, then, will be, 
Where was situated this Portus Icius 1 

After his interview with the Gaulish traders, Csesar 
despatched Volusenus to explore the British coast. He 
then, as the narrative tells us (B. G., IV. xxi.), " sets out for 
the country of the Morini, because from thence the passage 
to Britain was the shortest. Hither he orders ships to come 
from all the neighbouring districts, and also the fleet which 
he had constructed the summer before for the war against 
the Veneti." A few sentences afterwards we read (B. G., 
IV. zxii.), that "while Caesar is detained in these parts with 

2, p. 241; S«pt S6, p. lOOj OcL 8, 

>'=• «RITAIN. ^ v*„.-^ 

Goo<^lc ' 



the yiew of getting the vessels ready," embassies come to 
him from various tribes of the Morini. When I read these 
passages, I find it very difficult to arrive at any but one 
conclusion, viz., that the Fortus Icius was some port of the 
Horini ; and I should be driven to adopt this conclusion, 
even though Strabo had not distinctly told us, that " the 
Itium which the deified Caesar used as his port when he 
crossed over to the island" was in the country of the Morini 
(Geogr., IV. v. 2). I shall start therefore, with this assump- 

On the coast of the Morini, from the Canche northwards, 
are numerous little inlets, which are, or we may presume at 
one time to have been, tidal harbours — Etaples (formerly 
Cwanta-wic), Boulogne, Wimereux, Ambleteuse, Wissant, 
Sangatte,^ Calais, Gravelines, and Dunkerque. Each one of 
these small ports has in its turn been selected as the repre- 
sentative of the Fortus Icius. But in the midst of the rival 
ports there are two, Boulogne and Wiasant, whose claims 
have always stood forth pre-eminent. It was their claims 
which divided the great European scholars three centuries 
ago, and which have been the subject of the keenest contro- 
versy among our modern antiquaries. I shall therefore 
narrow the question to the issue, Was the Fortus Icius 
Wissant or Boulogne ? 

In his second transit, Csesar ordered his ships to assemble 
at the Fortus Icius, " from which port be had ascertained 
that the passage to Britain was extremely convenient " 
(B. 6., V. ii.) — commodisiimum. The partisans of Boulogne 
construe the word as if it signified " the most convenient ; " 
and a vast amount of learning has been expended to show 
the superiority of Boulogne as a port over Wissant. Caesar, 
during his first stay on the coast, was busy providing ships 
for the transport of fais legions, and was at the same time 
watching the movements of his dangerous neighbours the 
3Iorim. Though the busiest man the world ever saw, be 

> 6uig>t(e h DOW > larn Tilltgi, Bonuiti r«muti* as fraqneoUy found 

■itnotcd on alowcliffbcaide th« lea. It there, or for ths Roman read which 

hai no port, nor it it euj to ■«• how it leadg to it from ThdroouingL PoaiU; 

•Ter could have bad one. Tet all who Caps Blanc-Dei maj hava projected fur* 

haie diKussed thia qneation an agreed ther aeawarda two tbou>and jeati ago 

in aacribiDg to it the character of an than at preaent, and eo hare afforded it 

ancient port, and I think with reaMtn, aometbing like « ahelter from ths aouth- 

tor if It wars not a port in ancient timei, west wind, 

it would be difflonit to acconitt for th« , -. ■ 



had no time for weighing the comparative merits of the 
ports north and south of him, and for determining which of 
them was "the most convenient" He went into the 
country of the Morini " because the passage from thence to 
Britain was the ahortest ;" and I heheve he selected the 
Portus Icius because it afforded him this shortest passage. 

Closely connected with this part of our inquiry is the 
question, Which are the ports in Gaul that have at various 
times been selected as channels of communication between 
Britain and the Continent ? During the Roman occupation 
of Britain, Gesoriacum, or Boulogne, was the favoured port. 
The fact cannot be denied, and I admit it most fiilly. 
Equally clear, though leas known, are the facts, that during 
the Anglo-Saxon period — that is, from the sixth to the 
ninth century — Cwanta-vric (now Etaples) was the chief 
port of communication ; that fit)m the tenth to the fifteenth 
century Wissant^ enjoyed this honour ; and that Calais in 
its turn succeeded Wissant. It is interesting to speculate on 
the causes which led to these several changes. Wissant 
seems to have yielded to Calais because early in the fifteenth 
century its port was destroyed by one of those sand-storms 
which are so frequent on the opposite coast, and with which 
all who have been resident there for any length of time 
must be famiUar. Cwanta-wic fell a prey to the Northmen 
in the latter part of the ninth century ; and Wissant may 
have taken its place owing, as M. I'Abbe Haignere suggests 
(Etude sur le Portus Itius, p. 28), to the growing import- 
ance of the Flemish towns in the neighbourhood, and their 
increasing commerce with England. The motives which 
inducod our ancestors to abandon Gesoriacum (Boulogne) for 
Cwanta-wic, are not easy to discover, but the reasons which 
led the Romans to prefer Gesoriacum to the Portus Icius 
are I think sufiSciently obvious. They are, however, too 
important to be noticed incidentally. They bear directly 
upon the subject before us, and will require a distinct and 
careful consideration. 

On the eastern coast of the sea which divides England 
from the Continent, there seems to be a tendency, owing to 
the action of the tides, to deposit a line of sand-hills across 

» This TilUge U gsnenll; ollod Wit- owing to tb* whito Hndg wClh whkh it 
Mud in madiaTsI writinga; and wear* wu muroondad. 
•iprMilj told that it reoaivsd thia rnuue -. , 



the mouth of any bay -which deeply indents the land. To 
Buch a belt of sand-hills Holland owes its origin. The 
whole apace between the sand-hills — or downs, as they are 
called — and the uphind was originally, at high water, a lake, 
and at low water a collection of mud-banks, through which 
the great rivers from the interior worked their way, escaping 
into the sea through gaps in the Une of sand-hills. A 
similar belt of sand-hills stretched across the bay which, no 
doubt, once existed between the capes Gris-nez and Blano- 
nez. The sand-downs still rise from 50 to 60 and 70 feet 
in height, and stretch from a point east of Oris-nez to 
Wissant, a little to the west of Blanc-nez. Between these 
downs and the upland is now a fiat sandy plain, some two 
or three niiles long, and varying from a quarter to half a 
mile in breadth. I think no one can look down upon this 
phiin from any of the neighbouring heights without being 
convinced that it was formerly what in some parts of 
England is called a " backwater." The waters which cross 
the plain reach the sea by three outlets iu the line of sand- 
hills, — the Rieu d'Herlan by an outlet near Wissant ; the 
Rieu des Angjuilles, the drain of the Marnis de Tardinghen, 
which seems to be the lowest part of the plain, by another 
gap ; and by a third gap further westward, the Rieu du 
Chatelet. It is probable that these little streams once 
flowed into the backwater, and that the latter was connected 
with the sea by a single outlet ; and if I might be allowed 
to speculate on such slender premises, I would say, that the 
gap through which flows the Rieu des AnguUles may 
probably represent the mouth of the ancient port. 

At the east end of the plain, near' Wissant, are sand- 
drifla which have evidently been swept there by the pre- 
vailing south-west wind. In the midst of these drifts is a 
little basin, scooped out by the windings of the Rieu 
d'Herlan, or Wissant brook, and which some antiquaries 
have mistaken for the mediaeval port. No doubt it occupies 
in part the site of this port, for on the banks of the brook 
have been found balks of timber which it is generally 
admitted must hare been part of the old quay ; but a basin 
surrounded by clifls of sand cannot be of ancient date, and 
it certainly does not define the limits of the port of Wissant. 
What those limits were it is very difficult to say. M. de 
Saulcy seems to consider them (see Les Campagoes de Jules 


Cesar, p. 172,) as coincident with those of the little plain I 
hare described, and he mentions a tradition which assigns to 
the port two entrances, one at its eastern and the other at 
its western extremity. I have myself little faith in tradi- 
tions, and think it would not be impossible to point out the 
circumstance in which this particular tradition originated. 
When in the tenth and eleventh centuries the port of Wis- 
sant first began to play a part in history, it seems probable 
that a large portion of the ancient backwater was already 
silted up, and that the entry of the mediseTal port was where 
the Rieu d'Herlan now enters the sea. At an earlier 
period, no doubt, it was otherwise, and everything tends to 
show, that in the time of Cfesar the whole space now 
occupied by the plain was one continuous port. 

Here, then, between Cape Gris-nez and Wissant was 
formerly a port, amply large enough to contain the 800 
ships which on his second transit Ciesar collected there. In 
the ofBng was a roadstead fairly sheltered, and containing 
good anchoring ground ; and immediately in front was Dover. 
Czesar might well consider the transit from thence to Britain 
" extremely convenient." How the Romans came to reject 
all these conveniences of transit and dehberately to select 
Boulogne as their 'Tortus Britannicus," we have now to 

No one can explore the neighbourhood of Wissant without 
being struck with its extreme sterility. In one of the dis- 
sertations appended to the Histoire de St. Louis, and the 
existence of which seems to be unknown to our English 
antiquaries, Du Cange has collected all the learning relative 
to Wissant, and in spite of himself has shown the poverty 
of the place and the slendemess of its resources. On one 
occasion, when two or three hundred travellers had been 
staying there fourteen or fifteen days, we are told they 
could hardly obtain food owing to the barrenness of the 
country. The Boulogneae antiquaries dwell with much 
triumph on these testimonies to the poverty of the rival 
port ; but it ia forgotten that these testimonies afford a 
sufficient answer to the question put forward with so much 
confidence, viz., how came the Romans to make Boulogne 
their port of transit during their occupation of Britain, if 
Wissant were the Portus Icius ? Wissant, or rather the 
port adjacent to Wissant, may have answered Caesar's pur- 


pose, when he had hundreds of ships to supply the wants of 
his commissariat ; but when a port was to be provided to 
meet the ordinary purposes of traffic, it was necessary to 
select one that possessed local resources. The neighbour- 
hood of Boulogne was, comparatively speaking, fertUe, and 
as its harbour was not inferior to that of Wissant, the 
Romans selected it for their port notwithstanding the greater 
length of the voyage. If Boulogne was the original terminus 
of Agrippa's highway, this selection must have been made 
within thirty years of Csesar's transit, and it certainly must 
date earlier than the Roman occupation of the island. 

During three days J carefully explored the country round 
Wissant, but found nothing in the neighbourhood which I 
could venture to call Roman. The several "mottes," 
which have given rise to so much discussion, seemed to me 
to be of mediaeval origin, and I looked in vain for anything 
of a Roman character in the old road which runs from 
Wissant to Guines. It is undoubtedly the road referred to 
in the old chronicle quoted by Bergier (Hist, des Grands 
Chemins, i. 104) but may have come into use in the tenth 
century as a means of reaching the Roman Road that led 
from Sangatte to Therouanne. It is said that a Gallo- 
Roman tomb has been found at Wissant, but, on the whole, 
it seems probable that from the time of Caesar to the tenth 
century the Fortus Icius was the subject of little pubUc 

As I extended my wanderings, I obtained ready answers 
to many of the objections which have been brought against 
^e views I am now advocating. Csesar tells us that, at his 
first transit, the eighteen ships of burden which conveyed his 
cavalry were kept from joining him, owing to their being 
wind-bound, eight miles off, in what he calls " the further " 
fB. G., IV. xxiii.), and in another place "the upper port" 
(B. G., IV. zxviii.). Sangatte, it is urged, is six miles, and 
Calais eleven miles from Wissant, the first distance being too 
short and the latter too long. The answer is an easy one. 
Wissant was not built till centuries after Cjeaar's time, and 
lies at the eastern extremity of the Portus Icius. We have 
only to suppose that Caesar's camp lay near the middle of 
the port, and we at once get the eight miles to Sangatte. 

On the return from Britain two of the ships missed their 
port, and landed the 300 soldiers they carried a few miles to 

£26 juLina csaxRs istasion of Britain. 

the southward, probably at Ambleteuse. As the soldiers 
were making their way to the camp, they were attacked by 
some thousaads of the Morioi, but brarely defended them- 
selves till relieved by the cavalry sent to their assistance. 
The next day CsoBar despatched Labienus a^inst the 
Morini, and as this people, " on account of the drying up of 
the marshes (jtaludum), had no refuge to betake themselves 
to, as they had the previous summer, almost all of them 
fell into the power of Labienus " (B. G., IV. xxxvlii.). It 
has been asked, where cao we find these marshes except to 
the south of Boulogne t I know of no fen-district which is 
now to be found in the country of the Morini south of 
Wissant ; but in Caesar's time every brook must have had its 
marsh, and no one who has explored the Slacq-valley and its 
tributaries above Ambleteuse will be at a loss to discorer the 
locality where, under ordinary circumstances, the dehnquent 
Morini might have found a refuge. This valley has a 
bottom some half-a-mile broad, flat as the fens of Cam- 
bridgeshire, and stretching for miles into the country. Even 
at the present day, after a rainfall, much of the valley is 
under water. 

It has always seemed to me that the language of the 
classical geographers goes far to disprove the identity of 
Gesoriacum (Boulogne) and the Portus Icius. When 
Ptolemy mentions the Ician promontory, and immediately 
afterwards Gesoriacum, we might have expected him to c^ 
the latter place the Ician Port, if it ever really bore that 
name ; and it ceftainly is strange, if we assume the identity 
of the two places, that Boulogne is never called by that 
name, notwithstanding the frequent references made to 
Gesoriacum in classical history. But the strongest argument 
is, perhaps, furnished by the language of Strabo. This 
geographer tells us (Geogr., IV. v. 2) there were four ways 
of passing over to the island, viz., from the mouths of Uie 
Khine, of the Seine, of the Loire and the Garonne ; and he 
proceeds : " when people sail from the country near the 
Rhine, the voyage is not actually from the mouth of the 
river, but from the country of the Morini, who border on the 
Menapii, among whom also is the Itium, which the deified 
Cassar used as his port when he passed over to the island." 
Every Boulognese will admit that this usual port of transit 
which Strabo refers to must be Boulogne ; and erery 


unprejudiced reader, I think, will be of opinion that he 
distinguishes it from his " Itium," 

When describing the coast of Gaul, Ptolemy mentions 
three places as lying between the Seine and the Scheldt — - 
the river Phrudis, the Ician promontory and the port of 
Gesoriacum. As the only river of importance on the coast 
is the Somme, and the only promontory of importance is 
Cape Gria-nez, the great French geographers D'Anville, 
Walckenaer, and others identify the river Phrudis vrith the 
Somme, and the Ician Promontory with Cape Gris-nez. In 
BO doing they assume that Ptolemy has committed a blunder 
in placing the Ician promontory before, instead of after 
Gesoriacum. This kind of blundering is not unfrequent with 
the author who assigns London to Kent, and fixes the 
second Legion at the Isca of the Bamnonii, instead of the 
Isca of the Silures ; and such blundering need not surprise 
us, when we remember how great were the difficulties of the 
task he had undertaken. The partisans of Boulogne, as 
might have been expected, refuse to abide by this decision. 
They fix the Ician promontory at Cape Alpreck, a little 
south of Boulogne, and tell us that it once projected much 
further seaward than at present. This is probably true, for 
the cliffs both on the French and the English coast have 
certainly been much wasted by the action of the tides and of 
the weather. But there is nothing that gives importance to 
Cape Alpreck save its connexion with this "Ician contro- 
versy ; " whereas Cape Gris-nez is the most important point 
on the French coast north of Uie Seine. At Cape Gris-nez, 
the coast, which has hitherto trended to the north, begins to 
turn eastward. It is this capo, moreover, which, together 
with the cliffs of Dover, forms the Straits, and which the 
Dutch must have had in view when they gave the Straits 
the name of De Hofden — the headlands. South of this cape 
the flood-tide flows to the eastward, while north of it the 
tide changes its course and flows to the north-eastward. 
The importance of Cape Gris-nez, indeed, cannot be over- 
looked, and is still fully recognised. On it the French 
Government have lately exhibited one of those magnificent 
lights which put our English lighthouses to shame, and 
which, with commendable pride, they are now enshrining in 
a structure built of the most costly materials. Cape Gris- 
nez, there can hardly be a doubt, was the Ician promontory; 


and if so, the great port which lay beneath it must have 
been the Ician Fort. 

Amid that vast mass of authorities which Du Cange has 
brought together respecting Wissant are extracts from 
William of Poitiers and William of Jumi^ges. The latter of 
these writers tells us that the joung prince, the brother of 
the Confessor, who was murdered soon after his landing in 
England, sailed from Wibsand ; while the other tells us that 
he sailed from the Fortus Icius. Du Cange points to this 
testimony as making strongly in his favour. M. Haignere 
considers that it merely adds one more to the number of the 
partisans of Wissant (Etude, kc, p. 59). The answer is 
hardly worthy of a man so able, for it assumes that the 
"Ician controversy," and all the partisanship it has given 
rise to, were known in the eleventh century I It might, 
however, be said — true this Norman monk calls Wissant the 
Fortus Icius — in his days it was the ordinary means of 
communication with Britain, and he naturally supposed it 
was used by Caisar. I believe this answer would have no 
sounder foundation to rest on than that of M. Haigner^ but 
it is much more difBcult to dispose of. The knowledge of 
classical literature possessed by the educated monks of the 
Middle Ages, though a subject of very interesting inquiry, 
has been hitherto but little investigated. They were well 
acquainted with the classical poets, and even with some of 
the classical historians, but seem to have been almost 
entirely ignorant of Caesar's Commentaries, I know, indeed, 
of two instances in which the Commentaries are quoted 
previously to the eleventh century, but in both instances 
with considerable parade of learning. In the present case, 
we must suppose that Wilham of Foitiers quotes them 
familiarly, and expects his reader to be equally well 
acquainted with them. I cannot believe that either the one 
or the other possessed this knowledge. It may be a^ed, 
whence then did William of Foitiers get the name of Fortus 
Icius 1 I would answer, most probably from that current of 
obscure literature which, from the nature of things, we 
might assume to have existed, and which many facts con- 
nected with our national history prov^ almost to demon- 
stration, did exist during the Middle Ages. It seems to 
have consisted mainly of chronicles, of compilations like that 
of Nennius, and of national songs. By this means the name 


JULIUS o^sae's ihtasion op beitaik. 229 

of Icius, which must origitiBllj have been nothing more than 
the latinized form of Bome Celtic word, may hare come 
down to William of Poitiera. The old Irish name for the 
English Channel is Muir n' Icht, and Donovan, the first of 
modem Irish scholars, translates it without hesitation "the 
Ician Sea." Dr. Reeves, in a note to his Life of Adom- 
nanus, follows Donovan's example. Neither of these scholars 
gives any reason in support of the translation, but I think, 
nevertheless, that it may be supported, Muir n' Icht 
means the " Sea of the Icht" The word icht is found in 
no Irish dictionary or glossary with which I am acquainted, 
but the Gaelic vchd means "the brow of a hill" (vide 
Gaelic Diet, of the Highland Society) ; Muir n' Icht may 
therefore signify the " Sea of the Promontory," and we are 
at once referred to the Ician promontory of Ptolemy. I 
know of no Gaelic word of which uchd can be a derivative, 
but in the Welsh there is an adjective, uch, higher, which 
may very well be its root. If we might assume that in 
ancient Celtic uch was used as a substantive in the sense 
of height, then we see at once the origin of the word 
Icitis, and perhaps may account for all the variations that 
are found in the MSS., viz., Idus, Ictius, and Itius. Icius 
and Ictius may represent the Celtic words uch and uchd, 
aud Itius be a corruption of Ictius. When in Celtic, a 
guttural precedes a dental, it is very commonly melted into 
a breathing and lost ; thus the Caractac-us of Tacitus became 
in Dion and Zonaras Karatak-oi, in modern Welsh Cara- 
dawg, and in English Cradock. 

Briefly to recapitulate — I believe the port which once 
existed between Cape Gris-nez and Wissant to be the Portus 
Icius : 1st, because it afforded the shortest passage to 
Britain, 2ndly, because it was amply large enough for 
Ca3flar's purposes, Srdly, because it lay immediately beneath 
Cape Gris-nez, which I believe to be the Ician promontory, 
and lastly, because a Norman monk in the eleventh century 
expressly calls it the Portus Icius ; and I think this name 
may have been handed down to him by the Komanized 
Gauls, inasmuch as the name of Ician seems to have been 
long kept afloat in the recollection of the Celtic population of 
these islands. 

In his first invasion of Britain Cnsar carried over with 
him two legions, probably from 8000 to 10,000 men. Some 


of his vessels io the " further port " could not join him for 
the wiud. His means of transport wore eighty ships of 
burthen, and a certain number of " long ships " or galleys, 
perhaps in all a hundred sail. On the fourth day after he 
reached Britain there was a fiill moon, and we may, with 
much probability, fix the day of his sailing to the 25th of 
August in the year 55 B. o. He weighed anchor at mid- 
night (B. G., IV. xxiii.), and as it was half-way to low water 
at that time on the French coast, and as the Portus Iciua 
was, no doubt, a tidal harbour, he must have brought out 
bis ships as occasion served at high water, and sailed from 
the offing. 

The wind was suitable (idonea iempestas), and as on bis 
second invasion he sailed with a south-west wind (B. G., 
V. viii.), and as a south-west wind would keep the vessels in 
the "further port" wind-bound, we may presume that he 
sailed with the wind in that quarter. The presumption is 
strengthened on our finding, that when on the occasion of 
his second transit he first ordered his troops on board, he 
uses the very same expression, and speaks of the wind as 
"suitable" (B. G., V. vii.). If, then, as is probable,* he 
steered for Dover, he would have the wind nearly abeam or 
at right angles to his course. His first vessels reached the 
opposite coa£t by ten the next morning, but the whole fleet 
was not assembled there till three in the afternoon. He 
found the clifis covered with armed men, and so closely waa 
the sea hemmed in by these clifis, that a missile could be 
hurled from the heights upon the shore.' Like HaJley and 
the majority of our English antiquaries, I recognise in this 
description the clifTs near Dover, and I suppose that Csesar's 
fleet vf&8 moored in DoTor-wick, the roadstead which lies 
between Dover and the South Poreland, and is commanded 
by the guns of the castle. 

The slowness of the passage is remarkable. The vessels 
of burthen, which of course were the laggards, were country- 
built ships. These Gaulish vessels are elsewhere described 
by Csesar (B. G., III. xiii.). Their sails were of skins, and 

* From the heightg dmt Wistuit may onoe &iu tha attention and is the onlj 

ba Bean the whole of the Boglish ooast irell-daSnad landmark within tibw. 

from Sandgate to the South Foreland, * Ade6 montitnia angnatia mare ooO' 

and a beautiful light it ia, a long line of tinibatur, uti ex locii rapeciarlbns In 

white oliff broken in the middle bj the littua telnm »4Jioi powet (B. Q. IV, 

gap, in which liea Dotot. Thi« gap at xuiL). 



they had, strange to say, chain-cables ; their keels were 
flatter than those of the Koman vessels, to enahle them to 
take the ground more easily at tow water, and they were 
raised to a great height both at stem and stem ; their 
timbers were alt of oak, and of such stout scantling, and so 
strongly put together, that the beaks of the BrOman galleys 
could make no impression upon them. They were evidently 
huge vessels, built almost solely with a view to strength, 
and therefore their slow rate of sailing need not surprise us. 
But even the Roman "long ships" were ten hours in cross- 
ing; and as the flood and the ebb may to some extent have 
counterbalanced each other, I do not think that the tide- 
drift will altogether account for such slow progress. On 
certain occasions Roman ships are known to have sailed 
seven miles an hour ; but in such cases, whenever reference 
is made to the wind, we always find it was right astern. 
What was the rate of sailing when the wind was nearly 
abeam I do not know, but I suspect it was extremely slow. 
The ordinary Roman galley was propelled by a single square 
mainsail, for though it carried a small for^ail on a raking 
mast, such foresail was evidently used less to propel the 
vessel tlian to swing it round when tacking. The motive 
power must have been applied much in the same way as 
that which acts upon a Chinese junk. The junk, as is well 
known, makes good way before a wind, but with the wind 
abeam is httle better than a log upon the water. Csasar's 
vessels too were probably ill built ; they were put together 
in a hurry {celerUer, B. G., HI., ix.), and by imperfectly- 
skilled workmen ; for though Csesar sent for sailors, rowers, 
and pilots from " the Province," he says nothing about ship- 
wrights, and there can be no doubt that the ships were con- 
structed by the artisans of the legions, to whom he entrusted 
their reparation when they were damaged by the storm 
(B. G., IV. xxxi.). When we remember, also, that these 
"long ships" formed part of a fleet, and would naturally 
have their speed in some measure accommodated to that of 
the other vessels ; that the sailors and pilots were from the 
Mediterranean, and strangers to the perplexing currents 
and the short jerking waves of the new sea, I think our 
surprise will be the less, when we find their rate of sail- 
ing through the voater was barely two miles an hour. The 
difficulties we have been considering will be diminished 


only in a trifling degree by supposing that Caesar sailed from 

Casar reached Britain at tea o'clock in the morning, but, 
"judging the place by no means a suitable one for landing, 
he waited at anchor to the ninth hour (three o'clock in the 
afternoon),*' till the rest of the vessels were assembled there. 
In the mean time, having called together the Legati and the 
military tribunes, he told them what he had learnt from 
Volusenus, and what he wished to have done. Sec When 
these were dismissed, baring got at the same time 6oiA wind 
and tide in his farour, he gave the signal, and weighing 
anchor advanced some seren or eight miles (the MSS. differ 
aa to the distance) &om that place, and brought the ships to 
on a level and open shore." ' The question is, did he advance 
eastward or westward "i 

flalley, arguing from the present state of the tidal currents, 
concluded, that on the day when Csesar reached Britain, it 
was low water off that place about two (he should have said 
half-past one) in the afternoon ; that at tliree the flood-tide 
was well made up, and that Csesar proceeded with it east- 
ward towards Deal ; and he speaks with singular confidence 
as to the correctness of these results. He seems to have 
thought that, after slack water the flood-tide ran for five or 
six hours to high water, and then after a pause the ebb-tide 
ran for five or six hours to low watpr, and so on. This is 
not the law which prevails in narrow channels like those of 
rivers, or in narrow seas like that which separates Britain 
from the Continent. In such cases the flood-tide begins to 
flow two or three hours before high water, and continues to 
How two or three hours after it, then after a pause the ebb- 

* BomBD houn eoineided with our •nbordiiMte iutorwt, and da not materi- 

modera hotira oolf at the equiDoiBB, all; tSeat tbe iuueo, on which, as it 

±od •■ Cedar tailed tliTM oi four wseka leeniB to uis, the decision o( the quea- 

before the autumnal Bquinoi, hii ninth tion now before oi mainl; reata. 
hour did not coincide with our '*S o'clock ' Uuna ad agradleuduin nequaquam 

in the afternoon." But all who have idoneum arbitivtua Iocutd, dum reliqun 

hitherto trented on theae But{jecta have navee ab conrenirent, ad horam naaam 

a«umed tbe ooincidence of our own and in ancboria fipeoiavit. Interim lagutia 

Roman houn, and to make the neceuarf tribuniaque mLlitum couToeatla, et qua 

corrections would not only require some ex Volueano cognSasat, et qum fieri vel- 

nica calculation, but would render it let, oaUndit : monuitqua, ftc Hia 

difficult to lay the pnaant apeculatioua dimUaia, at veiitum et natum uno tem- 

eide hj lide with the argumeota of those pore nactua Beeundum, data aigno et 

who have preceded me. I have pruferred aublatii anchorii, ciroiter millia panuam 

therefore to uae langnaga not aJtogethar viL ab ao loco progrefBUB, aparto ao piano 

carrect, rather than p«rplaz the reader Uttore navaa ooiiatituit. (B. Q., IV. 

with oieetiea that relate to mattera of xxiii.) 



tide flowa two or three hours to low water, and two or three 
hours after it, and so on. This general law, however, in 
subject to many exceptions; a headland may divert the 
current, or an estuary produce in it the most extraordinary 
disturbances, so that no man, however great his analytical 
skill may be, can calculate from mere theory what will be the 
state of the tide at a given time, at any particular place in 
the Enghsh Channel : it can only be learnt from observation. 
Professor Airy, to whom we owe the ablest work on the 
tides that has yet appeared,^ at once saw the weak point in 
Halley'a ai^ument. With that eminently pi-actical turn of 
mind which distinguisheB him he consulted Captain Beechey, 
who had been officially employed in investigating these 
currents, and satisfied himself that the ebb-tide was still 
flowing at three o'clock, and, accordingly, he carried Csesar's 
fleet with it to the westward. Mr. Lewin, who brings 
Csesar from Boulogne to Folkstone, following Professor 
Airy's example, cari'ies him westward and lands him at 
Hythe. Br. Cardwell, who appears to have paid much 
attention to the tides off Folkstone, distinguished between 
the in-shore and mid-channel currents, and thought he had 
good grounds for maintaining that near shore the flood-tide 
would make as early as three o'clock, and might very well 
have carried Ciesar eastwards towards Deal. I may say in 
passing that my own observations at Folkstone strongly 
corroborate those of Dr. Cardwell, but unfortunately I 
cannot avail myself of them, as, according to my theory, 
Cffisar's fleet was moored at Dover-wick. Captain Beechey's 
observations, conflrmed as they have been by those more 
recently made by order of the Admiralty, show clearly 
enough that, if we admit the premises, tlie tide off Dover at 
three o'clock in the afternoon of the day in which CajHar 
reached Britain must have been flowing to the westward. 
As I believe Caesar's fleet sailed in the opposite direction, I 
can only extricate myself from the dilemma by attacking the 
premises on which the conclusion is founded. 

It is a curious circumstance that French and English 
antiquaries put different constructions on Caesar's language. 
Our countrymen seem to consider the words in anc/toris to 
form, as it were, a substantive part of the verb ea^pedavit, as 

In tha Enof clopndia IfatropoUttiia. 



if the sentence might be reodered, " to the ninth hour he lay 
at anchor waiting for the assembUng of the other ships." 
The Frenchman appears to consider them as parenthetic, 
and would, I presume, construe " to tlie ninth hour he waited 
(at anchor) for the assembling," &c. This construction^ 
admits of there being a certain interval between the assemb- 
ling of the ships and the time of Ccesar's departure ; and as 
the military tiibunes were legionary officers, it is not very 
easy to see how Caesar could give them his orders till all the 
ships carrying the legionary soldiers had come ia. M. de 
Saulcy assumes (' Campagnes de J. C.,* p. 193) that an hour 
and a half were spent in making the necessary preparations 
for departure, and he starts Csesar at half-past four, whea 
he supposes that the flood-tide was making towards Deal. 
Of course, if we admit there was an interval, it can be 
accommodated to any hypothesis, and all the reasoning of 
our English antiquaries, from the time of Halley, downwards, 
ialls at once to the ground. 

But there is another objection, which seems to me to bo 
no less fatal to the arguments usually adduced in support 
of the opinion I am now combating. I shall venture to ask 
whether we are justified in reasoning from present pheno- 
mena to the state of the tides in the time of CBesarl — 
whether the conditions of the problem are the same now as 
they were 2,000 years ago 'i — whether, in short, the altera- 
tions in the coast-Une of Kent have been so insignlflcant 
that they may be safely neglected in the calculation 1 In 
discussing the question I shall put out of view the waate of 
the cliSs and the more substantial parts of the coast — first, 
because I believe this waste has been overrated, and, 
secondly, because in all probability it has been, on the whole, 
pretty equably distributed, so that the general outline of the 

* I have beOD uked to aUta more «z- Our ooaDtiymen ntm to hav a bMU 

plicitl; m; OWQ Tiew of tbecoDBtructioQ misled by the empbaBit givsn to tho 

oftbepumgamqueitioD, Itioajbedone words ia ancAorit, omug to thair ooUo> 

Id few words. Tbe pbnM txjitctart dum, catioa immediately before tbe verb. Ttis 

to wait for the happeoing of a oertain words are certainly empbasiaed, bat I 

event, is a weU-knowa Latiu idiom ; aad tbiok the ■igniBciuice of the empbaaia hsi 

tn aackorii cxptdan dam can Doly mean, been mistaken. Cbsit probably steered 

to wait at anchor for the happening of for Dover with the view of landing his 

the event. If we add the words ad men u the vessels came to, but finding 

horam noiutm, surely we make the ninth hii landing opposed, he awaited tba arn- 

bour the limit, not of lying at anchor, Tal of hii other vessels in anchorit, L a. 

but of wailing for tbe event. I do not in the roadstead. The emphasis marks 

see bow U. De Sauloj's tranaUtioo con the change of plan occasioned by tha 

be queationed. unexpected opposition be met with.. 


coast may not be greatly altered, though it may be now 
more inland than formerly. What I want more particularly 
to call the reader's attention to are the changes which have 
been wrought ia the marshes, the sands, and the shingle- 
beds of the Kentish coast. 

We will begin with the Romney Marshes. No one now 
doubts that the portiou of the Marshes called Old Bomney 
Marsh was " inned " by the Romans ; and as it is protected 
from the sea by the spit of shingle which runs from Hythe 
to New Eomney, we may conclude that thus far the present 
coast coincided with that which existed in the time of Csesar. 
According to Mr. Elliott, the very intelligent engineer of 
the Marshes, the Rother formerly emptied itself at New 
Romney, and there, accordingly,' must have been the inlet 
by which the tide originally entered. By a cautious and 
well-reasoned induction, Mr. Elliott arrives iat the following 
conclusions : that an inland spit of shingle called " Lydd 
Rypes" was the ancient beach south of this inlet, in the 
time of Csasar, the remainder of Dungoness being a later 
accretion from the sea, — that this spit was prolonged across 
the bight formed by the Rother when it scooped out its 
present channel in the thirteenth century, — and that Old 
Winchelsea stood on this prolongation of the spit, many 
circumstances conspiring to fix the site of the lost town in 
this position. What then must have been the course of the 
tide -wave in these days of old 1 It must have come up the 
Channel uninterruptedly along a coast of gentle curvature, 
and at New Romney must have been swallowed by an 
estuary spreading over some 50,000 acres. From this 
estuary it is now excluded, and instead of the uninterrupted 
flow I have described, it is dashed against the shingle-beds 
of Dungeness. Diverted from its course, it runs round the 
Ness with a current like a mill-race, and forms on the other 
side, in Romney Hoy, a strong eddy, so that when a vessel 
is wrecked (as too often happens) on the west side of the 
Ness it throws up its timbers and the bodies of the poor 
fellows who went down in it in this Romney Hoy. Can we 
readily im^ne a greater derangement of the tidal currents 1 

Let us now pass north of Dover to the Goodwin Sands. 
All the antiquaries who have lately discussed the present 
question assume that these sands existed in the time of 
Csesar. Is this probable 1 Somner, who is preeminently 


tho antiquary of KoDt, iDforma us that, " with several men 
of judgment, it (i. e., the Goodwin) is looked on as a piece 
of later emergency than Earl Goodwyn" (Roman Forts, 
p. 24) ; while Sir Thomas More's atory of the Teuterdea 
steeple shows us that, in his opinion, the sands were of 
recent origin ; and his testimony is valuable, for though not 
ft Kentish man, he was brought up in the household of 
Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1500 ; and 
we may infer that such at that period was the opinion of 
educated men who had local knowledge, and, therefore, the 
best means of information. Leland (vii., 138) attributed 
the decay of Sandwich to the Goodwin Sands, and as Sand- 
wich was a flourishing port in the fourteenth century, wo 
may infer that it was not' till the fifteenth that the sands 
attained those formidable dimensions which produced so 
much mischief. John Twine, of Canterbuty, that " learned 
old man," as Camden calls him, describes, on the authority 
of " certain writers," an island named Lomea, the history of 
which he connects with that of the Goodwin Sands. Accord- 
ing to him, it was exceedingly fertile and abounding in 
pastures, and was once the property of Earl Godwin. It 
was somewhat leas elevated than Thanet, from which it was 
three or four miles distant, and it was swept away during a 
terrific storm and an unusually high tide (De Hebus Albioni- 
cis. Lib. 1). As Lomea is not mentioned in Domesday, it 
was probably destroyed before that compilation was made. 
Hector Boethius has also given us a short account of the 
Goodwins, which, as far as it goes, is in perfect agreement 
with that wo have taken from the pages of John Twine. 
The conclusion these considerations point to is confirmed by 
the names given to the celebrated anchoring grounds off 
Deal and Sandown CMtle — viz., the Downs and the Small 
Downs. The word dowtu signifies sand-hills, and in this 
sense is well known on both sides of the Channel Imme- 
diately north of Sandown Castle is a tract of land covered 
with low sand-hills, and which in the older maps of Kent — 
Philipot's, for example — is called the " smale downes." The 
sea has long been eating away this tract of sand-hills, and 
even within my memory the changes wrought have been 
most extraordinary. The sea has lately reached the fort, 
which has been dismantled and sold, and in a few months 
every vestige of Sandown Castle will have disappeared. I 

j[7Lins c^sae's invasion op BHITAIN. 237 

can only account for the name given to the anchorage by 
supposing that it once formed part of these " smale downes " ; 
and for a similar reason I infer that the Downs were also at 
one time dry land covered with sand-hills. As the land was, 
probably, from the first nothing but a mud-bank covered 
vrith sand, a deep channel might easily be scooped out of 
it. In the Komney Marshes the aea-silt has been found on 
boring to be fully ninety feet deep. 

I Uiink there can be little doubt that the flats round 
Sandwich onco projected into the sea as a low ness or fore- 
land — ^probably divided into islands, of which Lomea was the 
easternmost. After the destruction of this island, the Good- 
win Sands may have been gradually accumulated, not neces- 
sarily OD the site of the island, but near it, and the Downs 
just as gnidually excavated. If I have been correctly in- 
formed, the Goodwins are still slowly growing to the south- 
ward, and the Small Downs are certainly, and by no means 
slowly, enlarging their boundaries. How altered has been 
the working of the tides in this neighbourhood appears 
from the fact that the beach now thrown up at Deal and 
Sandown is shingle, whereas we have very clear proof that 
it once was sand. 

It may be well to recapitulate the several changes in the 
coast-line, on which I rely to support my inference as to 
there having been some changes in the inshore tidal currents. 
They axe — the contraction of the Thames estuary owing to 
the inning of its marshes, the silting up of the Wantsum, 
through which we know that vessels sailed as late as the 
fifteenth century, the formation of the Goodwin Sands, the 
excavation of that deep-sea channel called The Downs, the 
inning of the Romney Marshes, and the creation of Dunge- 
ness — and by the creation of Dungeness I do not mean 
merely the accretions of shingle that have been added to it 
since the time of Caesar, but the entirely new configuration 
given to it owing* to the bight which the Rother excavated, 
when it formed its present channel some five centuries ago. 
These are not "changemens peu considerables," according 
to the language adopted by General Creuly,' but changes 

' Qaneral Craalj's Btuds mi, I aberished ■pMulaiioQa. Tb«M speouU. 

belieTB, in typ« when mj papen in the tioiu eeom to be tho OsneraTs tMt of 

AthenauEa appeared. Thej muit I fear orthodoxy. When ProfeBaor Airf agrees 

huTfl been ttrj diitutafiil to him, for vitb then), hii dedaion ii repreaeoted 

they na counter to aoma of Ma most aa auUioritatiTo; when he diOen from 


of enormous ina^;mtu<le, such as are without parallel else- 
where on the British coast, or indeed on the coast opposite, 
if we except the changes that have taken place in Holland. 
What effect these changes would hare on the inshore cur- 
rents I believe no one can tell The laws which regulate 
these currents are to the last degree perplexing. They 
evidently depend on complex causes, and cannot be treated 
as mere corollaries to the law which regulates the great 
tide drift in mid-channel. No one by the mere aid of 
calculation can say for how long a time the tide will run on 
a given day, at a given place, on the coast of the English 
Channel. The modern theories which have been started on 
the subject of the tides, admirable though they be, cannot 
solve the problem. The learoed mathematician is on a level 
with the illiterate ; both must trust to " the practical man," 
and wait for " observations." To assume that changes, such 
as I have enumerated, could not affect the inshore currenta 
off Dover, seems to me an assumption much too hazardous 
to reason from. 

If we hesitate to yield our assent to conclusions drawn 
from the state of the tides, we are necessarily thrown back 
upon the statements made by the classical writers. Csesar 
tells us he "advanced" (progreasus),'^ and from the language 
he usually employs we may presume it was to the north- 
eastward ; for he calls the western parts of Britain " the 
lower part of the island " (B. G-., IV. xxviii.), and it is 
generally admitted that the " upper " or *' further port " was 
to the north of the Portus Icius. According to a passage in 
Dion (Hist. Kom., XXXIX. li.), which Halley relied on, 
Caesar went round a certain headland, and landed on the 
other side. The rounding of the South Foreland is the chief 
incident of the voyage from Dover-wick to Deal ; and this 
promontory was Uie only one on the coast, for Dungeness 

them, Iiis Tiim nra thrown adde w of HanheB, for no Frenoh officer who poa- 

littleiKloe. Oeaeral Creu); Btarti Cnur asBBed local kDowledgn conld under 

from Amblsteiue aad lands him at Fart Ciesar'* circumatuioBi have thought of 

Sutherland, In the Ronuie; HuBhe*. landing 10,000 men in the neighbour- 

Thue mia^ai, for such I muit conrider hood of Fori Sutherland, 
them, may I think be traoed chisfly to ' Mr. Lewin wu the firat to point out 

hi* ignoranoe of the looalitiea. He uemi the argument that might b« raised on 

to hare b«ea at Deal, but It la pretty the uae of this wordb? Camr, and it 

a1«ar that he nsTer aaw Sangatte or was much to the oredit of his oandour, 

Wisaant. I have doubts if he ia even ss it made Btnmgly a^ptinat the (heoi; ha 

acquainted with Ambleteuae, and I am had adopted 

lute he never visited the Romnev , ^ i 

' Ds z.ce>C,OOglc 


waa DOt then in existence. He brought his ships to a coast, 
level and open (B. G., IV. xxiii.) and soft (B. G., V. ix.). 
All these conditions are fulfilled if we suppose Ceesar to have 
.landed on some of the marshy lands off Deal. If we land 
iiim at Hythe, though the shore be level, it can hardly be 
called open, for there is a range of heights at no great 
distance, and the word soft seems strangely out of place 
when applied to a bed of shingle. It has been said that the 
shingle was soft " in a sailor's sense," as it would " give " 
when a vessel was beached upon it But I know of no 
authority for assigning to it this meaning, and it surely 
indicates a soft, oozy and muddy shore. Can we suppose 
that Ceesar would laud close to Hythe harbour (the Portus 
Lemannis) without once alluding to it, or upon a bed of 
shingle, where his only means of obtaining water for 8,000 
or 10,000 men would he from his ships? 

As regards the length of the passage from the Continent 
to Britain, we get the thirty miles at which Caesar rates it 
(B. G., V. ii.) by adding seven miles to the distance from 
Wissant to Dover, He reckoned, no doubt, as D'AnviUe 
.pointed out, from the port of departure to the place of 

On his second transit, Caesar carried over from thirty to 
forty thousand men, and sailed about sunset with a gentle 
south-west wind (B. G., V. viii.). He had with him 800 
ships, most of them small, flat-bottomed vessels, constructed 
specially with the view of landing the soldiers in shallow 
waters, and of being afterwards drawn up on land ; the 
time was, probably, the latter end of July, and we may 
conjecture that he steered for Dover. At midnight the wind 
fell, and the fleet drifted with the tide, so that at daybreak 
they found they had left Britain on their left hand. The 
tide then turning in their favour, they betook themselves to 
their oars, and about noon reached their former landing- 
place. D'Anville supposes they drifted into the Thames, 
and that six or seven hours' rowing, with the tide in their 
favour, would carry them beyond Deal, and he therefore 
lands them at Hythe. But the drift could not possibly 
carry them where D'Anville supposes. The flood-tide runs 
to the north-east ; and if we draw a line of eight or ten 
miles towards Dover, to represent the space sailed over, and 
then one of fourteen or fifteen miles to the north-east, to 


represent the drift, we shall have the position of Cssar'a 
fleet at daybreak. They would, at that time, have the 
Dover cliffs on their larboard bow, and would be about as 
far distant from them as when they first started. The ebb- 
tide would, perhaps, about counterbalance the error pro- 
duced by the flood ; but, on the lowest computation, they 
would hare to make some twenty miles through the toater 
before they reached their former landing-place. When we 
remember the kind of vessels they were rowing, the soldiers 
fairly earned the compliment they received for their exertions 
(B. G., V. viii.). 

The Britons, affrighted at the vast number of vessels, 
deserted the shore and took refuge in the hills [loca superiora, 
B. 6., V, viii.), and the same night Csosar marched against 
them to the banks of a certain river about twelve miles off. 
The Britons opposed the passage of the river with horsemen 
and chariots drawn up on the hill side, but they were 
repulsed, and retired to a wood where was a fortified post- 
no doubt a "British oppidum, such as Ctesar has elsewhere 
described, and, probably, the stronghold of one of the four 
petty kings who, at that time, Iwre rule in Kent. The 
stronghold was attacked, and, after some little trouble, taken 
by Ciesar. 

I believe this stronghold was the capital of the district of 
which Canterbury is now the centre ; but om- antiquaries 
make a great mistake when they suppose this city to occupy 
its site. Canterbury represents the Roman casteUum, and 
the Romans generally built their castdlum two or three 
miles from the British oppidum. If we pass two or three 
miles down the Stour, we shall find a locality which answers 
all the demands of Cxsar'a narrative. North of the river is 
a range of low hills, on which sttll lie large masses of natural 
wood. The river runs at the foot of the hills, and to the 
south of it is a flat country which stretches away towards 
Sandwich and Deal The latter place is about twelve miles 

Those who maintain that Caesar landed at Hythe suppose 
that the night march carried him to Wye. But at Wye the 
Stour is a more brook, and there is nothing to justify us in 
supposing that there was ever a British fortress in the 
neighbourhood. It has, indeed, been assumed that this was 
the highway to Canterbury, and that a fortress was erected 


to bar the pass, which has been termed "the British 
Thermopylje." But if Cssar wanted to reaxih Canterbury, 
why did he not at once march oTOr the downs in the direc- 
tion in which the Roman Road was afterwards carried 1 
The distance from Hythe to Canterbury was little greater 
than that to Wye, and the road to the one was as easy as 
to the other. 

Wbile on this subject of topography, it may be well to 
notice an objection that has been brought against Deal as 
the place of Ciesar's landing. The neighbourhood of Cjesar's 
landing-place, it baa been said, was a mixture of woodland 
and arable ; the uplands round Deal are a chalk district, 
unsuited for com crops and perfectly open. It might be 
answered that these uplands are erery autumn white 
with com ; and if it be said this is the result of modem 
farming, I might reply that a system of long fallows 
might be a substitute for sheep-husbandry. It is a mistake 
to suppose that the shallow soils were not formerly culti- 
vated ; I have seen undoubted marks of ancient cultivation 
in localities where a modem farmer would long hesitate 
before he risked his capital. The disappearance of the 
■woodlands ia what might have been expected. Where are 
now many of our great historical forests, — Arden and 
Braden, for example ? They have been long swept from 
the face of the country. On the Downs further south, 
where the sward barely covers the chalk, and the profits of 
the woodland equal those of the arable, we find the wood- 
lands preserved ; and the same character of country, no 
doubt, once extended to Deal — a wide, undulating plain, 
dotted over with beechwoods. 

Camden quotes Nenoius as stating that Csesar fought at 
Dole, and he supposes the name to ,be the Welsh word Dol, 
which is generally said to mean a plain beside a river. 
This word, no doubt, gave a name to the town of Do! in 
Brittany, which, Uke our Deal, is situated on the borders of 
an alluvial plain. It may have been the British name for the 
flats round Sandwich, and gradually appropriated to designate 
the seaport which arose on their confines. When D'Anville 
afiects to place the testimony of Nenoius on the same level 
with that of Geoffrey of Monmouth, he shows a want of 
critical discrimination. But the passage Camden refers to 
ia certainly surrounded with difficulties, arising from the 


■variations in the MSS. It was, no doubt, a subject of 
blunder and mistake as early as the tenth century, and the 
attempts made by copyists to explain the mistakes, have 
increased the confusion. Dropping an obvious interpola- 
tion, the Vatican copy furnishes the following extract, 
■which will, I think, give the text much as it was read 
by Camden ; — " Tunc iulius caesar cum accepisset totiua 
orbis singulare imperium et primus obtineret, valde iratus 
ad brytanniam cum LX ceolis pervenit in ostio fluminis 
tamensis, in quo naufragium naves illius perpesssB sunt dum 

ille pugnaret apud dolo bellum et iulius reversus 

est sine victoria cassis militibus fractisque navibus." 

The use of the phrase " apud dolo " strengthens my belief 
in the genuineness and the antiquity of this fragment, which 
was probably taken, at least portions of it, from some very 
ancient chronicle. Dolo is, no doubt, one of those monoptote 
or uudeclined nouns which occur so frequently in the Itine- 
raries, and appear to have gone not long afterwards out of 
fashion. When the Wantsum was open, the country round 
Deal and Sandwich might very well be described as lying at 
the mouth of the Thames ; and I think we may point to this 
fragment as bearing something like historical evidence in our 
favour, when we venture to fix upon Deal as the place where 
Ciesar landed. 

It is a source of do small comfort to me, differing as I do 
■ is these speculations from many whom I respect, to find 
that, both as regards the port of departure and the place of 
landing, I am in so close an agreement with a man like 


) by Google 


To the east of Salisbury, immediately above the point 
where a small tributary stream, called the Bourne, joins the 
River Avon, rises a low chalk hill which is partially covered 
with a thin layer of drift gravel, in every way corresponding 
to the implement-bearing deposit at Bemerton on the west. 
This deposit at Milford Hill is about one hundred feet above 
the level of the rivers Avon and Bourne, is thickest at the 
summit, gradually thinning out on the sides, and ceasing 
altogether about half-way down the hill. 

This drift varies much in different spota, its general 
color, however, is dark ochreous brown ; the great bulk of the 
gravel is composed of subangular chalk flints, some of them 
of very large size and but Uttle rolled or water-worn ; there 
is also a considerable proportion of greensand chert, a few 
small boulders or "grey wethers" of saccharoid sandstone 
and some well- rolled tertiary pebbles from the eocene beds. 

There is a total absence of anything like stratification, the 
gravel resting unconformably upon the chalk, which in parts 
has been considerably eroded, giving rise to the formation 
of shallow "pot-holes." The only organic remains as yet 
found consist of a few land shells, all of species now existing 
in the neighbourhood, a small piece of bone, and a fragment 
of an upper molar tooth of a species of eguus. The shells 
found are of the following species : — Helix Mspida (very 
plentiful) ; Helix arbustorum ; Pupa muscorum ; and Zua 

With regard to the implements, they belong almost with- 
out exception to the pointed type, which, as Mr. Evans has 
before remarked, is the form most prevalent in the higher 
level gravels. They have all been made by chipping only ; 
there is a total absence of any subsequent human rubbing, 
although, in some cases, the sharp angles of the fractures 


hare been much worn down by travelling along the bed of 
ancient Drift river in company with rough stones and aand.' 
Some are stained a bright ochreous color, whilst others still 
preserve the original tints of the flints ; this is entirely owing 
to the unequal compOBition of the beds of gravel from which 
the implements have been derived, and in no way affects the 
comparative age of the specimens. 

Hitherto all the implements from the Drift have been 
stated as manufactured from flint, derived either directly or 
indirectly, in the shape of eocene pebbles from the chalk ; 
there are, however, in the S^isbury and South Wilts 
Museum two interesting exceptions to this rule, where 
the fabricator, either from choice or necessity, has employed 
coarse greeusand chert, a material which, although much 
tougher, is far less easily worked than flint ; one is fit>m 
Milford HiU, and the other, deposited by Mr. James Brown, 
is from the Drift, at Hill Head, on the Fareham coaat, a 
locality remarkably rich in the oval or lower-level type of 

Besides the well-marked implements, which however rude 
in outward form still bear considerable evidence of dwign 
and forethought, there exists, scattered through the gravel, 
a large number of rough flint flakes or chippings, which 
were cast aside as apparently of no use ; indeed, such rough 
waste flakings must necessarily have been struck ofi" in tiiie 
manufacture of the more finished tools, and they are impor- 
tant as supplying a link in the evidence that these remains 
are the handicraft of man. They are easily overlooked, and 
do not at first sight appeal much to the uneducated eye. 

During the month of June last, from this spot alone, 
about thirty well-marked implements have been obtained, 
hence Milford Hill may fairly rank with some of the most 
productive of the continental localities. The accompanying 
section of the gravel-pit (taken from west to east) may 
suffice to illustrate the nature of the deposit. 

In the present state of our knovrledge of this subject, it is 

' EIm the TBluabU Memoir by Hr. John Id the Skliabnrj Uosanin, illnBtntug 

'"" -, F.S.A., QU tha Tuioua typw of the type* of form b; ipeeiiinu Grom 

jDpIamenta of the drif^ BDd the Torioua looklitUa In thia oountry tad in 

wUuieca oonnected with thair dis- Fnaot, with mamtnalbui renudas by 

ooveiy both Id EVanoe and England, which the; are aiwoinpaiuad. 8aa U>* 

ArchBologIa, *oL ixinii. p. 287. DeacriptiT* Catalogon of tho Huasum 

* Aa InttnictiTe aeriaa of Biut imple- (iUuatrated edition), whiah maj be ott- 

menta from the Drift hae bean foniad tained tcota Hr. £. T.Steven^BaUalwij. 

DD.-:ea by Google 


UDdesirable to associate these implements with any crude 
theories as to their origin, and this brief paper has merely 
sought to place upon record another well authenticated 
example of the hnding of human-worked flint weapons in 
perfectly undisturbed beds of the Drift period. 

A. Vegetable mould. 

B. Dark reddish grarel clay perfectly unstratified, 

C. D. Sandy portions of the deposit. 

E. Loose whitish gravel with chalk marL 

F. Small pointed flint implement dug out by Mr. Wheaton 
about Sft. from the surface. 


) by Google 


DimiNO the autumn of 1863 extensive repairs took place 
in the parish church of Bobbing, Kent. In the course of 
the work a piece of fine oolitic stone, most probably from 
Caeo, about 2 feet 4 inches in length, and about 6 inches 
in its greatest width throughout, having at one end the 
sculpture represented in the woodcuts, was found in the 
south wall of the chancel, forming the quoin of the western 
jamb of the sedilia.' These recessed seats consisted of an 
arcade of the Decorated period in three compartments, 
separated by small columns ; and at each end was a similar 
column attached to the JEimb. The figures are 10 inches 
in height. From them downwards the continuation of the 
angle between them is chamfered off to form a narrow face, 
and that and the two sides below the figures are carved 
with ornamental work, of which a portion is shown in the 
woodcuts. The two sides opposite to these (supposing a 
section of Ute stone when in block to have been a square) 
had been cut away to form a cavetto moulding and a hollow 
to receive an engaged column, so as to correspond exactly 
with the eastern jamb. It should seem therefore probable 
that the stone was either taken from some other part of 
the church, or brought from some other church, with the 
sculpture and carving on 'it, and worked up for a portion of 
the sedilia. The top and also the bottom were plain, although 
not smooth. Mortar or cement might have been apphed to 
them, but there was no appearance of any stone or other 
object having ever been attached to either of them. How- 
ever, the stone may have been shortened to adapt it to the 
place it occupied in the sedilia. What the construction may 
. nave been of which it originally formed part, it is difficult to 

Bobbing is a small village, and the chiirch one of moderate 

' The woodeoti kMompoDTuig thU anphi vary mocoMfuUy tilsn by Mr. 
DOtdoe tMTB boon sxeontad Izma photo- H. Q. Pilolwr of SlttiiigbaanWb 

) by Google 


dimensions id the Decorated style throughout, hut by no 
meaus enriched with ornament in any part The sculpture 
is evidently of earlier date. A shrine naturally occurs to 
the mind, but there is do known historical or other evidence, 
or even any tradition, of there having ever existed any shrine 
at Bobbing, or of there having been any saint, image, or rehc 
specially venerated there. 

The stone was placed in the wall in a perpendicular posi- 
tion with the sculptured figures downwards, and the sculp- 
ture aod ornamental carving inwards, bo as to he whoUy 
concealed. It is not improbable that this re-apphcation of 
the fragment to a sacred purpose may have been regarded 
as a becoming, if not reverential, mode of disposing of it. 
The position of the sculpture was, no doubt, reversed in 
order to get a plain sur&ce on which to work the cavetto 
moulding corresponding to that on the other jamb. 

No other stone was found in the course of the repairs, 
which had any appearance of having formed other pat of 
the same construction as the stone in question. As soon as 
this fragment was discovered, it was taken to the house of 
the Vicar, the Rev. G, J. Simpson, to whom we are 'indebted 
for these particulars ; and there the mortar and dirt which 
adhered to it were carefully removed by him. It has since 
been replaced exactly where it was found, but in its proper 
position, and vrith the jamb cut away sufficiently to leave the 
sculpture and the ornamental carving open to inspection. 

The sculpture is probably of about the middle of the 
twelfth century. The subject of it will be seen to be a 
sainted bishop, holding in his left, hand a pastoral stafi*, and 
apparently giving the benediction with his right to a ton- 
sured figure who has a book, and is bowing his head and 
raising his left hand in a manner expressive of great 
reverence. This may probably have been intended as a 
representation of the ordination of a deacon. According to 
the practice of the twelftJi century in regard to that rite, 
the deacon stood while the bishop delivered to him a copy 
of the Gospels, and pronounced the form of words used in 
an ordina&on of that kind. There was formerly great 
diversity in the mode of conferring that order in difierent 
churches ; see Hartene de Autiquis Ritibus, lib. i. cap. viit 
art. viii. In later times the usage was more uniform, and 
the bishop commonly placed a stole on the neck of the 


candidate for the order of deacon before delivering to him 
the Goapel.' In this sculpture no stole appears ; but, seeing 
the conrendonahtj of the subject, and how little uniformity 
there was for a long time in this ordination, the absence of 
the stole is not conclusiTe against this riew of the signifi- 
cance of what is represented. 

The inscription over the bishop, read with the contractions 
-extended and the last letter suppUod, is bamctdh ilueoialis 
-pilTS PATBONDS. The word "patronus" was sometimes 
used for " episcopiis ;" but it may here hare been used to 
signify also the ecclesiastical relation of the bishop to the 
deacon whom ho is ordaining. The inscription over the 
.latter is missing, except probably the final letter,/or an L 
precedes the inscription over the bishop. It was most 
-likely the name of the person whom the bishop appears to 
be addressing, and was begun near the middle of the space, 
and carried into the other compartment to show more clearly 
that the two figures formed one subject. 

St Martial was one of the first apostles of France, having 
been sent thither from Rome, with several others, about the 
year 250. He was the first bishop of Limoges, and his name 
is &mous in martyrologies. Little, however, is known of him, 
and no real or legendary incident in his life has been disco- 
vered that throws any hght on the subject of this sculpture. 

The representations of St. Martial most frequently por- 
tray the sainted bishop standing near an altar, and receiriog 
from St. Valerie her head, which had been cut ofi*. The 
Abb€ Texier gives an example of this subject from the 
enameled shrine of St. V^erie ; date thirteenth century. It 
occurs hkewise in painted glass of the fourteenth century 
published by the Comte de Lasteyrie, and in a bas-relief on 
a tomb of the same period.^ St. Martial is also' sometimes 
figured in the act of extinguishing a conflagration. In a 
beautiful sepulchral memorial of a priest at Ch^nerailles 
in the ancient Limousin, a sculpture of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, the saint is seen ascending the steps of a kind of throne or 
elevated platform, on which is a figure of the fi. V. Mary, 
and swinging a censer. In this curious subject St. Martial 

* S«e CuoQ Book's Church of Our par le Comts de I^Btojrifl, pL xlUI.; 

Fttlwn, ToL iiL urt U. p. SI. itatiMier, Hirt. de I'Art HonomaDtiU, 

■ Taxier, E«al enr lea ■rgantien at part iL plat« ab the aod of ths Tolmnaai 

lei jmaillaun da Limogea, plataa t. and see alao Qudaebaolt'i lu^iil DiotMUiBin 

tL i HiatoiM da la Funtnra lur Varrr, Icocograpbiqua, ool. 101, 


appears to be associated with the martyrdom of St. Cyr and 
his mother St. Julitta.* 

There are some peculiaritiea of ecclesiastical costume 
which this sculpture may serve to illustrate, not undeserving, 
perhaps, of examination. In the episcopal figure may be 
noticed, first, the singular mitre, low and, for the period, 
unusually pointed, the two points moreover being somewhat 
widely separated. It appears to exemplify a fashion of 
transition between the low mitre of the twelfth century, 
worn so that the apices or horns are at the sides, the inter- 
vening depression being over the forehead when seen full- 
&ce. Not long after the mitre seems, as it were, to have been 
turned partly round, so that one apea? was over the brows, and 
the other at the back of the head. A curious example of 
the low bifid mitre of the eleventh century, copied from a 
MS. in the Barberini library, is given by d'Agincourt, pL Iv. 
These peculiarities are well illustrated by episcopal seals. 
As instances of the fashion first described may he cited 
the seal of Halph, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1114, and also 
that of Thomas ^ Becket, 1162, pubhshed by Mr. Grough 
Nichols in the Gentleman's Magazine, on which the outline 
of the upper part of the mitre is a r^ular crescent' Other 
examples are supplied by the seals of Alexander, Bishop of 
Lincoln, 1123, and Kobert his successor, 1147; also by 
those of two bishops of Exeter, Eobert, 1128, and John the 
Chantor, 1186. In France we may notice, among numeroua 
examples of a like fashion, the seals of Rotrodus, Archbishop 
'of Bouen, 1166, and William, Archbishop of Bheims, 1168. 
An early illustration of the low mitre pointed in front- is 
supplied by the seal of William de Longchamp, bishop of 
Ely, 1191. We may next observe, in the figure of St. 
Martial at Bobbing, uie absence of the amice, which is in- 
variably to be seen in later times with its stiff fxarura at 
first sight appearing like a collar of the chasuble, and with 
small folds in front where the parura opens on the throat. 
In this sculpture the chasuble seems to have a broad em- 

* 8m the datcriptloD of thii mnark- eonmendo tiU orea quia mlhi tradl- 

mbh monnmeiit by the AbM Teiior, dirtL" Sm klto the Huiael d'Epi- 

Didron, AddiIm Anihiol. t. iz. p. 203. gnphia el Reaueil dw Inioriptioiii da 

St. Hartiid !■ raprMcnted in ui engtmT- Limooain, by the Abb6 Taiiar, Piritisr^ 

log bj Btb. Leolera kneeling before mn ISCl. 

elUr : ftbore is anen & n; of light and * Qent. Mag. toL m. K. S. p. 191. 
|li« incoription — " D. J. C, paator boue, 

Dg zecbvGoOgIc 


broidered margin around the neck, terminating; in a collar 
which turns over and forms a little roll under the chin in an 
unusual foshion. In the earlier representations of bishops, it 
may be observed, that the amice is not shown ; thus, in the 
representation of Egbert in an Erangeliary of the tenth 
century at Treres," the chasuble has a broad margin brought 
to a point in front upon the throat, and carried up behind 
the head like a hood thrown back upon the neck. It can, 
indeed, scarcely be affirmed that this is not an early form 
of the amice, but its appearance is dissimilar to that of the 
Testment in question at a subsequent period. Another 
curious representation of pontifical usages at the same 
period, in regard to the ornamented collar of the chasuble 
and the non-appearance of the amice, is to be found in a 
Pontifical at Rouen.' It is worthy of obserration that in 
both these instances last mentioned the bishop is seen with- 
out a mitre. That pontifical ornament is not mentioned in 
the earlier rituals in the ordination of bishops. Some learned 
liturgical writers are of opinion that the mitre was scarcely 
adopted before A.«. 1000." 

The effigy attributed to Maurice, Archbishop of Rouen, 
who died in 1235, but possibly of somewhat earlier date, 
represents a prelate vested in sumptuous pontificals; the 
upper part of the bust and also the shoulders are covered 
by a rich deep embroidery with a small erect col- 
lar. This last may possibly represent the amice, although 
indistinctly. The fine monumental statue in question at 
Kouen cathedral may seem, in these features of its details, 
to' present certain analogies with the episcopal figure at 

Under the chasuble in which St. Martial is vested there 
appears a garment with wide sleeves and open at the sides, 
resembling the dalmatic, but with this exception, that it 
reaches to the feet, where the skirt terminates in a broad 

■ De VigDd, Coitumca du moysn Age, ■ Compua ths fig;am of Haddm, 

torn. i. pL 72. Biahop of WinebeiUr, uid St. Outhlmc, in 

' 8m tha Hemciir bj Oie late Mr. Bu-L Charter T. «, futhfnlly raprodniMd 

flags Rokemdo, ArahnDlogia, vol. zzt. in Stuw's Dranei, to), f. The broad 

pi. 29. Among many UliutratiDDi of Um jawelxl ooUarof tliechuuble, m it thara 

aarlf form of the mitre, vary low and appaani to ba, atanda np behind the 

withoDt paaka, thraa flguraa of hiahapa head forming an angular peak. The 

iu Cott. HS. Kero C. IV., Anglo-Komua data of thla drawing ia lata in the twelfth 

art about 1120. may •pedall; be cited. century, 

Thii UlumlnBtion hu tweB well repro- * TombaMi da la CathMnle da 

duoad in Shaw's I>reaMa, tti. L Konaa, par A. Darilla, pL It. p. Sfi. 



orfray or embroidered bordure, and the sleeres have like- 
vise at the wrists bands of similar ornament. Although in 
other representations of pontifical vestments both the tunic 
and dalmatic commonly appear reaching only to the knee, or 
a little below it, there can scarcely be a doubt that the 
sculptor here intended to represent one of those episcopal 
garments. Lastly, the termination of the stole, aa it must 
probably be considered, may be noticed under the chasuble, 
its fringe reaching as low as the margin of the skirt at 
the feet. One end only is indicated, which may hare 
occurred through an overaight of the artist, possibly to be 
attributed to the diminutive dimensions of the figure. Its 
breadth is, however, so great that possibly the sculptor 
intended to represent the two ends of the stole, but has 
omitted the line of separation. The head of the pastoral staif 
has unfortunately been broken oS; it seems to have turned 
outwards. The outline of the pointed ferrule may however 
be distinguished, and it recalls the verse inscribed at Toiilouse ' 
over a sculptured figure of St. Satumin — 

Curra trahit qnoa recta regit, para nlUma pungit. 

The supposed deacon, aa will be seen by the woodcut, is 
tonsured ; his hair and short beard are arranged in small 
regular locks, and carefully chiseled, though imperfectly 
shown in the cut. He is vested in a loose garment reach- 
ing to the feet ; over this is a kind of mantle falling in 
ample folds. Around its collar, which seems to stand up 
and turn slightly over at its margin around the neck, in 
like manner as that of the bishop's vestment before described, 
there is a band of simple ornament or embroidery ; no fasten- 
ing is indicated at the throat. Under the right arm there 
is a book, doubtless the Textus or Gospels delivered to the 
deacon at ordination ; in the hand, which does not touch the 
book, a fold of drapery is held up, possibly, as has been 
suggested, with a certain reverential intention of which we 
see examples in works of early art It should seem to have 
been thought indecorous to hold the Gfospels, or any object 
of very sacred character, in the bare band. Not unfre- 
quently the tesivs is to be seen wrapped in a covering 
termed camisia} 

It may be difficult to ascertain what were the garments 

■ See Ducann, v. Caminn libroram, and *. Aimigeri ; adit. H«iuob*], torn. L 
ool. 401. 

VOL. III. DBtzeabyCOjPgIc 


whi(!h the sculptor here intended to represent. The proper 
attire of the deacon in early times is indicated by the Pon- 
tifical of Scgberht, Archbishop of York, m the eighth 
century. They are thus specified in the prayer for fiieir 
consecration ; — " banc planetam &muU tui ill. seu padorem" 
{$. poderem) "albam ac stolam, cingulum orariumque dextera 
tua saneta benedieere digoeris."' There is, however, no 
slight difficulty in satis&ctorily identifying these liturgical 
garments respectively. The first is usuaUy explained as 
signifying the chasuble, which seems sometimes to have been 
thus designated, but here it appears distinct from the caatiia, 
with which in the context the priest ia stated to have been 
vested at ordination. In the &izon Glossary attributed to 
Elfrio, Archbishop of Canterbury a.d. 996, we find, — 
"flaneta, cfeppe, i. cappa sou paJlium." The poderit above 
mentioned was doubtless, as its name expresses, a long gar- 
ment reaching to the feet, — " tunica talaris," — and, according 
' to Canon Eock, identical with the subucula, which was worn, 
as we leara &om the canona enacted in the reign of Edgar, 
under the alb," and properly to be distinguished from it, 
although confounded with that vestment by some later 
writers. Thus, likewise, in an Anglo-Saxon Pontifical in 
the Public Library at Bouen attributed to the tenth cen- 
tury, the prayer for their benediction at the consecration of 
a church enumerates the following : " planetam ac casulam, 
atque superhumerale, seu poderem, albam ac stolam, cingu- 
lum orariumque." We here learn that the term super- 
humerale, usually considered to denote the pall or an ornament 
resembling it and attached to the chasuble, designated also 
a long garment such as the poderis before noticed. The 
priestly vestment called guperittdumentum or superhumerale 
is thus described by Eucherius, bishop of' Lyons in the fifth 
century, — " est velut in caracallse modum, sed sine cuculo ; 
cujus vestimenti duo sunt genera, unum lineum et simplex, 
quod sacerdotes habebant, aliud diverais coloribua et auro 
gemmisque contextum, quo soli pontifices utebaotur."' 

* Hartaiia,i,iitBeo1.Bft.UKLc.TUl., * ArehwologU, tqI. xir. p. SS2. Th» 

vol. iL p. Si, edit. Baasuii, 178S. See reprewotetiotiB of *■ biihop and deaconi 

ftlso Canon Bock's Church of our id the miniatuTM in Uiti HS. ore well 

mhen, ToL iii pvt iL p. 51. doerving of oanful sx*iiunktian. Ibid. 

■ Aoolant Uwi at EDgknd, edit. platsi 20. 80. 

Thorpe, vol. il. p. SGO. Church of our 'See Dncxuige, v. BafAammi», and 

Ffttben, toI. L p. 160. other Buthoritiai there dt^d. 



Od careful comparison of the foregoing passages it ma^ 
aeem probable that the ecclesiastic portrayed in the curious 
sculpture at Bobbing is a deacon, wearing either the poderis 
or the alb, and over it a kind of cope without a hood (" in 
caracallsB modum "), and differing chiefly from the pontifical 
cope in being of more simple character. It is remarkable 
that there is no indication of the stole, so specially associated 
with the ordination of a deacon, but it must be remembered 
that the stole was customarily placed upon the left shoulder 
of the postulant, and it may therefore be supposed to be 
concealed under the upper garment represented ia this 
sculpture. It was only when the deacon became a priest 
that the bishop placed the stole about his neck so that its 
two ends fell in equal lengtiiB on both sides in front of the 
wearer, as commonly seen in sepulchral portraitures and 
other representations of ecclesiastics. 

■ff. 8. "W. and A. T. 

) by Google 

0risinal Bocuments. 


Cammnntotteil I17 tha BET. SDWIN QEOBOE JABVIB. 

For the followiog docoments, preBerved among the title-deeds of Cot. 
Cracroft-AmcottB, we are indebted to the kindoeas of the Rer. Ed«ria 
Jarfia, Thej will be »eea to relate to property in the parish of Kettle- 
thorpe, Liucolnahire, now belonging to Col, Crooroft-Amootts, and in the 
adjacent townahipg of Laughterton and Feotoa, in the same oountj. 
AJchough perhaps comparatively of small hiatorioal interest, and suppljing 
DO nev genealogical facts, jet they introduce us to seTeral members of a 
family closely connected with the distinguished son of Edward III, and 
the royal house of Lancaster. The documentary evidence, moreorer, con- 
nected with the Swyaford family is Tcry limited: there is a brief com- 
munication by the late Hr, Hunter published iu the Archieologia, toL zizri. 
p. 267. which brbgs before us two deeds relating to Sir Thomas Swynford, 
in the time of Ueniy TI., that were found at Wolley in Torkshire, among 
the eridences of Mr. Wentworth, to whoee son, the late Mr. George Went- 
worth, we have often been indebted for troiucnpts of documents from the 

The documents are here placed in chronological order ; of the greater 
port it has been thought that abstroots would be found sufficient ; and 
the remaining two are printed at length with the contractions extended. 

1 . Bond from Sir Thomas Swynford to William Aunsel of Horbling. 

Ceste endenture temoynge qe, com mon Sir Thomas de Swynforde 
eoyt oblige a Wilifaam Aunsel de florbliog en riot un liTers six south* Tiij. 
deners do sterlinges par son escrit obligatorie apaier a la feste Seint 
Ificbel proschein avenir, et cum le dit mon Sir Thomas eyt graunte Bt 
Bssigne le dite Wiliham et sex assignies a prendre et a destreyndre deina 
lez maners de Horbling et de Segbroke ' on lex apurtenancei pur un anuel 
rente de quatre livres dsrgent et pur un robe corenable pur un chiTaler de 
ante man Sir Roger le Eetraoge, a prendre la robe a la feste de Nouwel et 
la rente de quatre lirers a lei festez de Pasch' et de Seint Michel par 
onwels porciouns a tote la vie le dite mon Sir Thomas, cum par un escrit 
de annuito au dite Sir Thomas par le dito mon Sir Roger en fete plus 
pleinement et {tic) oontenni ; le dite Wiliham Aunsel Toate et graunte pur 

of Horbling on the road from Qiknthi 
to iNottiugbam. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


luj et ML [tic) ezecQtouri qe si le diu mon Sir Thomas seit prest a serrer 
ftu dit mon Sir Boger, oolom le parporte le dit anaaite fut a mon Sir dit 
Thomaa, doini le Conale de Nicole a les couatages mon ^ dit Roger, isunt 
qe le dite Wiliham Anosel oe soit pas ouBte ne destonrbe a prendre la dite 
annuel rente de qoatre lirers et de la robe arant dite ; et qe le dite mon 
^ Roger le Estrange qe ore eat ne a nnl altre tenante de manen de 
Uorbliag et de Segbroke de la rente et de les robes araiit dits, iasint qe le 
dit Wiliham Annsel ne soyt destourbe a destrejndre et a prendre la dite 
annoite ; et qe le dit mon Sir Thomas soit preat de aToutrer et a meiatenir 
a let couBtagez le dit Wiliham quant ke le ditec Wiliham en aerra pnr lever 
de la annnite avant dite en le non le dit Sir Thomas et a le eus et profit le 
dit Wiliham ; adonkea la dite eaorit obligatorie de Tint un lirers sic south' 
Tiij. deners soit tenu pur nul; et si non qeledit eacrite obligatorie de vint j. 
liTer sis south' viij. deners soit tenu par bon et estoiu en sa force. En 
temoinannce de ceatei chosez a ceate endenture lea parties auz ditei 
entrechangablement ount mys lour eeels. La date a Sleford li Inndy pros- 
ehein derante le feste Seint Margarete Ian du regno le R07 Edward terce 
apres le conqueste vint syme (a.d. 1352). 

The seal, which was appended bj a paiehment label to the foot of the 
document, is lost. 

2. Grant by John de Seynte Crois, lord of Kettlethorpe, to Thomas 
Frankjs of Kettlethorpe, of a tenement in Kettlethorpe and half a bovate 
of land, to hold to him and the heirs of bis bodj at the annual rent of 5$. 
Witnessed by " Johanni filio Qerardi de KetUtborpe, Heorico Serjante de 
eadem, Johanni Claypolle de Laghtertone et aliis.' Cated at Eettiethorpa 
on Sunday before Michaelmas, 1350. 

3. Grant by John de Dovdale, dwelling in Chaworthe, "domine 
Katerine de Swyufiirde domine de Eetilthoqt," Her heirs and assigns, 
of certain tenements which he had of the feofiinent of Sir Robert de North- 
wode, rector of Kettleth(Hpe, and John de Chorley, dwelling in Lincoln, in 
the town and Gelds of ^ttlethorp and Lagbterton, to bold to her, her 
heirs and assies. Witnessed by " domino Roberto de Northwode rectore 
eccleaie de Ketillborpe, Johanne de Ralbam (1) de eadem, Johanne de 
Cleipolle de Laughtertone, Thome Hodreffen (?) de eadem, Thonia filio 
Hugonia de Ketiltborpe, et aliia." Dated at Kettlethorpe, on the Feaat of 
the Exaltation of the Holy Croaa, 3 Rich. II. (Sept. 14, 1379). There is 
appended by a parchment label an imperfect impresaion of a signet ring 
on red wax ; the donee was probably St Christopher. The followinr 
memorandum is endorsed in a later hand upon the deed : " Thys Norwod 
gaTc the lordship off Kettjlthorp in taylle to Hugo Swynford," 

4. Grant by fiicholaa Hebdenne, knight, to John de Seuerby,* citisen of 
Lincoln, in fee aimple of all tbe rents and eerricea of all bis tenants in 
Langbterton, Fenton, and Kettlethorpe. Witnessed by " Roberto persona 
Eccleaie de Ketulthorpe, Johanne de Claypole de Laghtertone, Thoma da 
Matberaay de eadem, Johanne de Torkesay, Willelmo filio Walter! da 

* Probably tha nme p*raon who is Briggiintbsnorthof LinaohuUie,<»llMl 
•allvd in tha followinK docoment John SearbT- 
"d« Swbj." Tbareli a parish nau ,'- , 

Dcr:scb>. Google 


Sasulbj, et aliis." D&ted at LaaghtertoQ, on Moodftj, on the Feut of 
St. Andrew the Apostle, 7 Kich, II. (Nor. 30, 1384). 

An impresBion of the seal of Sir Nicholas Hebdenne ii appended bj a 
parchment label to the foot of the docamenL The devioe is & shield, 
placed diagonallj within a lozenge- shaped panel oroamentod with gothio 
tracerj, bearing ermine fire fuuls in fess, and enugned with a helm on 
which is a crest, apparentij a bird's head ; of the legend the lettera 
moH SBBEDEH, in black letter, remain.* 

5. Grant bj John de 3erbj oitisen of Lincoln to Ladj Katharine de 
Swyuforde ladj of Kettlethorpe in fee simple of all hia rent which 
he had in Kettlethorpe, Laughterton, and fenton in the conntj of 
Lincoln, called " Howelle-roit,"* which he had of the gift of Sir Nicholas 
" Hebdejne," knight. Witnessed by '■ Johanne de Suttone, cive Lincoln', 
Johanne Norman de eadem, Roberto de Suttone de eadem, Johanne de 
Clajpulle, domino Roberto persona de Keteltborpe, Johanne filio Henrici de 
Fentone, et multis aliis." Dated at Kettlethorpe on the Feast of SL James 
the Apostle, 11 Rich. II. (April 30, 1388). The seal, which was appended 
bj a parchment label to the foot of the document, is lost. 

6. Grant bj Thomas Ajlemere of Kettlethorpe to Ladj Katherine 
Duchess of Lancaster, in fee simple of a piece of Ijuid. 

Sciant presentes et futori qnod ego Thomas Aylemere de Ketilthorpe 
dedi ooncessi et hac presenti carta mea con(flrmaTi) Domine Katertoe 
Ducisse Lancastre domine de Ketilthorpe heredibus et aasignatis suia 
nnnm placiam terre, nuper nnum curtilagi(um),' oontinentem in lon|ptndine 
triginta ninas regis cum quatuor policibus (tie), et abbuttat super solum 
diet! Thome versuB boriam, (et) super riam regiam rersuB occidentem, et 
super fossatum dicti Thome rersna orientem, et eontinet in se in Istitu- 
dine Dorem ulnas regiaa, et abbuttat super solum dicte domine Ducisse 
vertue austrum, habendam et tenendam prediotam ptaoiam terre dicte 
domine Katerine Ducisse Lancastre domine de KetUtborpe heredibus et 
assignatis Buis, libere, quiete, bene et in pace. £t ego rero predietus 
(Thomas) et heredes mei omnem predictam plaolam terre dicte domine 
Katerine Ducisse Lancastre, heredibus et assignatis snis, contra omnes 
gentes warantizabimus et imperpetunm defend^nua. In oujus re! testi- 
monio huic presenti carte mee sigillum meum apposni. Hiis testibus, 
Johanne de StafForde armigero, Roberto Hare, Johaime Robjnsone, Philippo 
de Ketilthorpe, et Johanne filio ejusdem Fhilippi, N(icholao) Qerarde, 
Johanne Gierke, et multia alii (tie). Data apnd Ketilthorpe die Uercurii in 
festo translacioniB * Sancti Bdwardi Regis, anno regrni Regie Henrioi 
quarti post eonquestum Auglie secundo (Oct. 13, i.D. 1400). 
The seal, which was appended hj a parchment label, is lost. 

* The arms of Hebden, of Bebden in mentdon ia mads of lands in Laughterton 
Ctbv«d, are given \>j Burke as <rm. Are " de feodo da Uowelte.'' 

ftuiti in fees« gu. In the Holl of Arms ■ Some nnoertaint; exists In r^ard to 

of the raign of Rlohard IL edibad b; Ur. this faaat ; the flnt traasIatioD uf St. 

Willement wo flad "Ho. i7i. Honsr. Edwaid, king and martTr, having been 

Bipdon. Ermine Sve fuaila in fees gfalea." aBtigned to Feb. 18, and the second to 

* Poaaibi; a rent for awglty (aqnalitr) June 20. It is therefore ponibla that 
on some partition ; oompare, howsTar, tha doeiunMit here priotea ahoold be 
tha doonmeDt No. 7 i'\fra, in wbiob nfamd to ls. 1101. 



7. Deed 4ated at Idraj^hterton Tnesda; next before Euter 14 Hen. VI. 
(A[>ril 3. 1436), whereby ThomaB Swynford, Knight, gnntad to Peter Stowe 
of Newton "nnumnieauagiumin Lsghtertone cum duabuaboTatlB terreetno- 
vem acris et dimiilia prati cum pertiiienoiia auia in Lnghtertone predict' de 
feodode Howelle; quarum unaacraetdiiuidiajacent super Wetdaille, et una 
acra et diuidia jacent super Robertholme, uua acra et dimidia jaoent super 
UeTedlaoddaille, et qulnque acre jaoent super Hortbredgate, cum una 
dimidia acra prati in Weldailloi" and also "noani boTatam terre in se 
eontinenten) Tiginti quatuor acras terre de feodo domiiii de Kettilthorpe, 
dum quatuor acria prati jaceutibus ia Wetdaille, cum capitibus herbagii, 
et unam rodam prati jacentem be (nc) Northredgate ez orieotalt parti de 
Dajnpolajk inter pratum Thome Ajlmer ez parte auitrali et pratnm 
Jobannia Soarle ez parte boriali, que nuper fuarunt Roberti Clejpole da 
Laghtertona, et que habui ez done et feoSaoieuto Jobannia Fbilipotte de 
Kettilthorpe ;" to bold to the said Peter, bis heirs, and aseigns for ever, at 
the yearlj rent of 15i. 3d. to the lord of Kettlethorpe. Witnessed bj 
*' Boberto Manbj, Eugone da LiccolDe de Neutone, Roberto Emound da 
Laghtertone, Jj)haiuia Uautoue de eadem, Jobanne Fez de Fenlone, et 
multis atiis." 

There is appended by a parchment label a fragment of the seal of Sir 
Thomas Swjnford on bright red wax, of circular fonn, diam. about l|in. ; 
device, a shield placed diagouallr ; bearing a olievron probably chained 
with three boars' heads, now effaced ; there remains on the sinister side, 
aa a supporter, a wolf or dog collared ; of the legend may be read the firat 
words :— staiLLD : thoiu .... in black letter.' 

8. Bond from Thomaa Swynford, Knight, to Peter Stowe of Newton 
" (Nautone juxta Trenle in comitatu Lincoln)" in lOI., payable at 
Christmaa then nezt enautng. Dated April 4, 14 Hen. VI. (a.d. 1436).' 

The aeal of Sir Thomaa Swynford which was appended by a label 
partially cut from the bottom of Uie parchment, is lost. 

9. Indenture dated at Lincoln Sept. 8, I Edw. IV. (1461), between 
Thomas Swjnford, Bsq. (armiger) of the one part, and William Swyn- 
ford, Rsq., of the other part, which witnessed that, although the said 
Thomas by hii Slatnte Merchant dated at Linoolu SepL 8, 1 Bdw. IV., 
was bouDd to the said William in 2001. to be paid to the same William 
his heirs or executors at Uichaelmaa then next ensuing, the said William 
granted that if he, bis heirs, and assigns should quietly enjoy for e*er tlie 
mnnor of Kettlethorpe with its apporteoances, which the said WilUam had 
of the feoffment of the said Thomas, without any disturbanoe by the said 
Thomas, his heirs, or assigns, then the said Statute Merchant should be 

The first of the documents given aboTC is a bond from Sir Thomas de 
Swynford to William Aansel of Horbling, iJucolDshire, iu the sum of 

' In th* Roll of " lea nons e !■■ ■rioM de Swyneford, de srgmit s on oheTeroon 

a buieras de Eniletere," about 1308-11, de sable* a ig. testa* de caaglers d* 

edited bj Sir Nicholas Harris Nloolas, gouljs." 

we find the arms of the grsDd&tiier nf ' Newton issituBte near Kettlethorpe, 

the Sir Thomaa Swjnford part; to tliis about nine mitaa wast of Linouln. 
dwd are thus bUsoned— "Sire Thomaa / - i 



211. 6«. Sd., irith a ooodition, for bettor secarlng to him jeorij 41. of 
silver uid a goirn suitable for a knigbt of the saite of Sir Roger rBstrange, 
which Sir ThoQiaB being entitled to out of the manon of Horbling and 
Sedgebrook had granted to William Annftel for hie life. The Sir Thomas 
de Swjnfbrd, party to this deed, was the father of Sir Hugh, the first 
huiband of Eatherine Roet (aftenrards Duchess of Lancaster), and lord 
of the manor of Kettlethorpe ; he died 35 Edw. III. 1361, leaving Sir 
Hugh, his son and heir, of full ag«. The grant to Sir Thomas de Swjnford 
out of tho manors of Horbling and Sedgebrook was by Sir Roger 1 'Estrange 
of Ejiolijn, Shropshire, who was then lord of them.* The bond, preserved 
among Col. Cracroft-Amcott's evidences, was probably part of an arrange- 
ment for retaining William Aunsel to do some service as a knight, jointly 
with Sir Thomas, in the retinue of Sir Roger I'Gstrange. 

In No. 2 we find a grant of a tenemont and land by John de St. Cross, 
described as lord of Kettlethorpe, to Thomas Prankys of that place. The 
family of St. Cross seems to have been of some note in those parts oS 
Lincolnshire in the reign of Edward I. Gilbert de Sancta Cruce held a 
knight's fee in Upton, probably the parish of that name not far distant 
from Kettlethorpe towards the north. 

The deed No. 3, dated 1379, brings under our notice Katharine de 
Swynford, described here, and also in the subsequent doanment. Ho. 5, 
hearing date 1388, as domttta of Kettlethorpe ; it relates to tenements 
in that place and the adjacent township of Laughterton. At the period 
of the date of this grant she had, it is evident, become the mistress of the 
Duke of Lancaster, as John Beaufort, their eldest son, was created a 
knight in 1391, snd must have been born as early as 1375. 

It may be hardly necessary to remind our readers that we owe to the 
indefatigable researches of the late Sir Nicholas H. Nicolas a concise but 
comprehensive notice, given in the Eicerpta Hiatorica, of the family of 
Swynford at the period to which the foregoing deeds relate. Many parti- 
culars will be there found regarding Katherine, the daughter and coheiress 
of Sir Payne Roet, a native of Hainault, Ouienne king of arms, and who 
may probably have come to England in 1328 in the retinue of Fhilippa, 
Queen of Edward IIL' 

Eatherine, it is well known, was first the wife of Sir Hugh Swynford, 
of Kettlethorpe, called by Sandford (pp. 253, 322) " Sir Otes Swinford," 
(about 1367), by whom she had one son, Thomas, aged four years at his 
father's death, which occurred in Guienne 46 Edw, III. (1372). It has 
been supposed that she was shrosd with her husband, having taken charge 

' Dugdala'a Bmron&ge, vol. i., p. 635. mentionsd Katberiaa. In the life of 

* Excerpts Hiatorioa, p. IGS. Id tbst Cb&uoer, howevsr, b; Sir H. Nioolsa, 

vslusble notioe of the iaaua of KatheriDo, prefixed to his edition of the Ronuumt 

wife of Swynford and afterwards of of the Kom and the Minor Poems, tbe 

John oF Qsunt, her maiden name is given name is written " Boet." See vol. i., 

■a "Roelt;" it ii thui written in Pat. pp. flO, 1B4, and pedigree, p. 110. The 

IS Hen. IT., printed in the Fcsdera. Sir name of Sir Fsjae Roet baa not been 

Huria Nicolas atates (Eicerpta, p. ISS) foand in any noord, but Weever de- 

tiiab DO parliculan of Sir Payne Roet'a Bcdbea a flab io St, Paul's, London, Onca 

rjigreebave been discovered; hia arma, decorated with a aepulahral brass, eacat- 

alluaion to hii name, were gula three cheons, Ac., snd inscribed — "Hie jaoet 

Katberiae wheels (routita) or, whieh PaganuaSoetmileaQujeDDereiarmorum 

occur on the tomb of Cbauoer, who es- pster Catherine Duciase Lancastrie." 

ponsed Fhilippa, daugfatsr and oobeireea Foneral Honamenti, p. 4S1. 

of Sir Psjne, and slater of the above- -. , 


of the daughters of Juhn of Gaunt, then at hia castle of Beanfort in Anjott, 
and at that time under ten jean of age; ahe became ahortlj after bia 
mistress, and eTentnallj, in 1395 — 6, bia wife. 

In No. 6, which bears date 1400, and is a graut of a portion of land 
described as a curtilage or plot of ground of verj moderate dimensions 
adjacent to the property of Katherine Swjnford, we find her entitled 
Duchess of Lancaster. After the death of his second wife, Constauoo of 
Castile, John of Gaunt married at Lincoln on Jannarj 13, 1396, to the 
great displeasure of the Duchess of Gloucester and others of the blood 
rojal, the lady whom, uot less than seventeen years before, be designated 
" nostre treachier et bien amee dame Katherine Swynford, maiatresae de 
noa tree ames filles Philippe et Elisabeth de Lancastre." ' He died two 
years aftor, having, it may be remembered, obtained from Richard IL 
letters patent of legitimation dated February 9, 1397 for their foni children 
bom before marriage, who subsequently occupied diatiugiushcd positions in 
the history of the period.* 

The deeds Nos. 7 and 8, abcTe printed, relate to transactions to which 
Sir Thomas Swynford, great grandson of the Sir Thomas wboae name has 
already occurred in these documents, was party. Hia father Sir Thomas 
was son and heir of Sir Hngb Swynford by Katherine Boelt, and 
appears to hsTO been four years old at his father's death in 1372. There 
is reason to beliere, as Sir Harris Nicolas observes, that be was in the 
suite of his father-in-law, the Duke of Lancaster, by whom he is styled, in 
bia will dated 1397, " nion tres chore bscheliere."* He died 11 Hen. VI. 
1432 — 3, having alienated his lands in Lincolnshire, as the inquisition on 
his death finds that he held nothing in that county. He appears to bare 
had issue two sons, Thomas and William. The eldest, party to these deeds, 
Nos. 7 and 8, was a knight at bis father's death, being then twenty-six 
years of age. He died before 5 £dw. IV., 1465, and was probably father 
of the Thomas Swynford, who in that year made proof of his age and 
obtained livery of his lands in Lincolnshire. 

In No. 9 it appears that Thomas Swynford had conveyed in fee to 
William Swynford in 1461 the manor of Kettletborpe, and that the said 
William took a Statute Merchant from Thomas Swynford for quiet enjoy- 
ment. It is Dot clear who these parties may have been, the said Thomaa 
who Is described as armiger, was probably son of Sir Thomas Swynford who 
died about 1465, and in his father's lifetime was only esquire; he seems 
to have had the manor of Kettlethorpe with an imperfect title ; hence the 
Statute Uerchaiit. It is remarkable that No. 7 seems to show that hia 
father was not seised of it, since at the end the lord of Kettlethorpe ia 
mentioned as if Sir Thomas was not the lord. William may have been the 
younger son of the Sir Thomas Swynford above mentioned, deceased in 
11 Hen. VL Of this William Swynford all that is known is, according 
to Sir H. Nicolas, that hia hsif-uncle Cardinal Beaufort, by a codicil to 
Ilia will dated 1447, bequeathed to him 4001. and a quantity of silver 

' Patent gnnted bj the Duka of Lan- 
CMtvr, Deo. 27, 8 Rich. IL, cited £rom 
Out Blaok Book of the Dueb; of Lu- 922. 
cuter, Sandford, Qened. Hut. p. SC3 ■ Excerpts Hist.i p. 1B7. 

' Elee > tnuHlation of this document. 


l&taa&tixisfi at ^ettin^s of tte S[rc1]stolog{cal fnstitute. 

Sir John Boilbau, Bart., Yice-Preudent, in the Chftir. 

The Rer. Habbt Soahth, Prebeud&rj of Wells, read ft tneiooir on 
restiges of Roman rillu brought to light at Tarioua periods near B»th. It 
forma a section of his work recently pubiiihed on the remains of Agva 

The ReT. Oretillx J. Chbbtsb, B.A., gare the following account of 
some eurions Testigea of unknown date which had come under his obserrt- 
tion during a recent tour in the Baet : — 

"I desire to bring under the notice of the Institute certain ancient 
markings and inscriptions which I noticed last winter in sereral places in 
Upper Egypt and Nubia, and which, tboogh resembling the celebrated and 
muoh-disputed Sinattic Inscriptions, hare, so far as I know, never hitherto 
been described. At all eventa I found that U. Mariette, the learned and 
succeasrul explorer of antiquities under the Egyptian Government, was 
altogether unaware of their existence before I had the pleasure of meeting 
him at Thehea in February last. 

The inscriptions in question occur in great nnmbera upon the sandstone 
rocks on both udea of the Nile near Silsilia, and with eren greater 
frequency in aeveral placea in Nubia, especially on the east bank below 
Sabooa, and on the west bank near a hamlet named, as nearly as I could 
ascertain, Saarleh. The markings are often at a conuderable height, and 
there are more of them in the small secluded lateral ralleys leading up 
from the Nile into the desert than upon (he rocka facing the Nile itself. It 
ia to thia cuvumatance, perhaps, that the fact of their having been bitherto 
orerlooked may he attributed. The inciaed markinga generally represent 
animals, such as giraffes, an elephant, ibexes (>),gaEelles, oxen, camels (?), 
dogs, and ostriches, of which it ia important to remark that the two first 
and the last are at present extinct in those parts. Sometimes men bearing 
bows, and apparency engaged in hunting, are represented,' and boats of 
ancient form with double prowa are of frequent occurrence. In two 
inatances near Saarleh, and in two only, I obaerred crosses, and one of 
tbeae was reared up upon the back of an anioial. An upright lateral mark 
which occurs upon either side of this cross may possibly ba*e been intended 
to represent the Blessed Virgin and St. Juhn. Giraffes and gaselles are 
always the farorite subjects, and some of these are executed with consider- 
able spirit. High up in the chain of rocks on the west bank below Silsilia 
there is a group of no less than twelre giraffes, which are represented with 
their heads reverted towards another animal and some central object. 
Another rock in the same neighbourhood has two giraffes with their heads 



turned to th« left, while a third, with his head in the ur, is prostrate. 
Below is a man with a whip and orook, and close bj is a crescent-shaped 
oniament. In one Wady I noticed two men with bows and a dog, and a 
gTotes<iae animal mth a bird's hill. In one inatance only were there any 
letters wlucli I eonld decipher, and theae formed the word ANAKICOT, 
Near Saarleh I noticed the following symbol, and 1 copied 
some characters (here represented) on a rock near that in- 
scribed with the girafies near Silsilis. It is worthy of remark 
that in all cases the incised Ggores, which are extremely 
numerous, are out in a hard and not in a soft sandstone 
rock i they are plunly the work of men familiar with ostriches, giraffes, 
and elephants, animals now unknown in the districts where these markings 

occur. I have already obserred that some are executed with spirit, but 
others of like though inferior execution occur high up on the doorway of the 
pylon of the Ptolemaic Temple of Sakkah. la connection with this I 
may mention that I procured two eurious {ueees of pottery in the shape of 
giraffes' heads from the mounds of the Isle of Elephantine. 

With regard to the markings generally I am inclined to conclude — 

1. That they are not the work of casual travellen. This is evidenced 
by the hardness of the rocks on which they occur, as well as by the diffi- 
culty of approaching sc«ne of them ; by their extraordinary number, and 
by Uie care with which many of them are execaied. 

2. That they are of Christian times, but cut either by persons from the 
interior of Africa, where giraffes, elephants, and ostriches are found, or by 
people living at a period when those animals were common in districts from 
which they bare now disappeared, if, indeed, they ever were found, since 
the Christian era, as low as Silsilis. 

3. That at all events they are ancient, as is shown by the obsolete form 
of the boats, which have double prows, by the use t^ bows and arrows, 
and by the use of (apparently) Bgyptian symbols and Greek letters. 

I shall be very glad if by drawing attention to these singular remains, I 
may induce any one about to proceed to Egypt to provide himself with 
appliances for procuring impresaioos from some of the inscriptions." 

Hr. AxaiiOBE PorMTXK commonicated a notice of the discovery of a 
small stone sun-dial now preserved in the museum at Dover ; it was sent 
for examination by the kind pennission of Dr. Ajstley, Hon. Curator. This 
relic was found on the site of the deeecrated church of St. Martin-le-Grand, 
on the west side of the Market Place at Dover, in 1862, wlvn several 
adjoining housea were pulled down and some remains of the ancient fabric 
were exposed to view. It is stated that the church wasfonndedby Wictred, 
King of Kent, 693-725, with certain buildings for the accommodation of 
twenty-two canons removed by him from the cattle. In 1130 Archbishop 
Corboil obtained from Henry I. a grant of the church, designated captlla 
rtgia, and of the possessions of this collegiate foundation, and he erected "le 
novel monster " and priory at a short distance from the town ; some of the 


couraDtual buildings still exist.' It is stated that the ancient charch of St. 
Hartin's was not disused nn^ 1646. Roman coins and relics hare been 
brought to light near its site, and the snn-dial brought under the notice of the 
Institute by Ur. Pojnter fau been regarded hj some peraons as a vestige, 
posaiblf, of the Roman occupation of Dubrce. It is formed of a cube of 
Gne-grained oolite, measuring about 4{ in. in each direction ; on one of 
the faees, as sboirn in the acoompsnjing woodcuts, there is a Tertical dial, 
in form of a heart-shaped caritj. scored with eleven diviuonB or hour-lines ; 
on two other faces are semi-eylindrical cavities, with, on one side, the 
moiety of a cone, and, on the other, the moiety of a triangular pyramid 
(see woodcats), each of these dials being scored with four or at most five 
hour-lines, and the upper edge of the cavity, in each instance, cutting the 
lines drawn in the hollow, and that serving the purpose of a gnomon. The 
fourth side of the cube is plain and roughly worked ; on the top of the 
block, as here shown, Uiere is an iron dowel or pin fixed by lead. The 
moldings are worked mi all sides of the cube, which presents the general 
appearance of the oapitst of a small pillar of the Norman period, and, if 
thus adjusted, the slender shaft should appear to have measured only 2^ in. 
in diameter. 

From the slight dimeositniB of the support upon which the cube of atone 
would thus have rested, according to this conjectord explanation of its use, 
it has been suggested, with much probability, that it may have been affixed 
against a wall, either on the face of a buttress on the south side of the 
charch, or in a oloi star-court, or the like. It has, however, as Mr. Foynter 
observed, been supposed that the dial may have been otherwise diepoeed, 
namely, with the principal face, on which the heart-shaped cavity is found, 
placed not in a vertical, bnt in a horiiontal position ; it hu been ascer- 
tained that the shadows fall upon the hour-lines with fair accuracy when 
the dial is thns exposed to the solar rays. To this supposition, however, 
objection has been made that, if the cube were thus placed, the cavity would 
obviously become a receptacle for rain-water, for which no escape is pro- 
vided ; for this inconvenience no remedy has been proposed, unless by 
placing the dial under such shelter as would necessarily interfere with the 
solar rays. It appears, therefore, more probable that the cube was intended, 
as above suggested, either to form the capital of a little column, or posubly 
to be affixed like a bracket or corbel on the south side of the church, and 
that the heart-shaped cavity was in technical language a "direct south dial," 
the cusp or point of the heart serving the purpose of a gnomon, for which, 
by careful experiment, it has been proved to be well adapted, the shadow of 
the cusp falling successively upon the hour-lines with considerable preciai<m. 
The dials upon the other two faces, namely, those on that sapposed to have 
been turned towards the east, are found to indicate the forenoon hours, 
and those on the opposite or western face the afternoon hours, respectively, 
with sufficient accuracy. It has been imagined that a horizontal dial 
might also .have been constructed on the top of the cube, with a gnomon, 
but the appearance of the stone does not indicate such an arrangement, 
although not nnoommon in cubical dials of comparatively modem datoy 
when hollow dials were likewise in vogue not only on account of the quaint 
variety of thur forms, bat because they did not require the projecting 

1 Sm Hon. An^ voL Iv. p. 6SS, Csley's edit, and the acoonnts given hf bated, 
I>70D, &«. -. , 



) by Google 


gnomon whioh was liable to injury. Mr. Ootaviua . Morgan remarked that 
the little dial commanioated bj Mr. Fojnter had probably been set on » 
■lender Bhaft near the aoulh side of St. Martin's ohnrch, aud it may havu 
been sunnounted by a eroes or some other sacred ornament affiled to it 
by the iron pin. Ho had noticed two auch pllarniialB in Monmonthshiro, 
which had probably replaced crosses of an earlier age. 

In regard to the snpposition that this curions relic may be of Roman 
origin, it should be noticed that the moldings, aonaistiiig apparently of » 
bead and hollow chamfer or oatwHo, hare no distinot character of antique 
forms ; holloit dials were, indeed, maoh in use among the ancients, 
and examples are preierred at the British Museum And in continental 

ffntituUM war roaiu of 9trt e^aiua. 

By the Rer. Gheville J. Chester. — Inscribed tablet of stone obtained 
during the prerioua winter at the remote temple of Mahanuka, in Nubia. 
M. Uariette, Director of the Museum of the Viceroy at Cairo, informed 
Mr. Chester that the inscription ia in the ancient SIthiopio character, and 
that such monuments are of extremely rare occurrence. There is only one 
in the Cairo Museum, and that example is much broken. M. Mariette was 
not aware of the existence of any like inscription in any collection in 
Europe. There is, however, one in the British Museum, having been pre- 
sented by the late Mr. Rhind. 

By Mr. H. G. Bohn. — An Egyptian sepulchral tahlet, representing » 
feast, and a papyrus. Also two paintings in fresco, obtained, as stated, 
from Hercnlaneum. One of these represents Psyche armed with a sword 
and carrying a torch, and proceeding to the chamber of the sleeping Cupid, 
according to the story of Apuleius. This subject, beautifully treated, is 
supposed to have been copied from some earlier Greek origiual. The sub- 
ject of the other mural punting, probably by the same artist as that first 
noticed, of inferior art, but probably origin^ in compositon and design, is 
Minerva, or possibly Rome personified, seated on a cippus near a reclining 
nymph and a seated male figure. 

By Mr. W. L Lawrekoe, F.S. A.^— Photographs of the fine bronie 
statuette of Mara, found in excavations on the extensire Roman site at 
Wycomb, Glouystershire, on Hr. Lawrence's estates. A plan of the 
vestigea which have been- there brought to light is given, Qent. Hag., 
1864, vol. ii. p. 85, where also numeroua other Roman relics found at 
Wycomb are described. The figure of Mars is engraved, ibid., p. 432, 
These discoveries have been noticed in this Journal, p. 96, ante. 

By Dr. Astlet, of Dover, through Mr. Ambrose Fuynter.— A fine 
Roman ring found at Dover among the ruins of St. Martin's church, where 
many Roman ooias and relics have from time to time been found. The ting, 
here figured, )■ of base white metal, probably silver, or of iron plated with 
silver, the setting bdngan intaglio on sard, set in a small collet of gold. 
The device on the gem is a horse, with the Greek letters — HPAKAI^ 
above, and, underneath — AHC — probably the name of a favorite horse of 
the owner of the ring. The first of the three letters under the horse is 

DiotloDuy, «. Discni, QnomoD, Hamid- 
' ».*o. 

1.7 00<^|C 


indistinct. We &re indebted to the accoropliahed author of the treatise on 
Antique Qems for the informaUon that the intaglio certainlj belongs to the 
Early fJmpre, and it is rare to find so good a work in the ancient setting, 
although possibly later than the gem itself. The name. Seraelidet, as Ur. 
King obeeireB, being in the nominatiTe, appears to refer to the bone; the 
name of an owner of the gem or ring is hj rule inscribed in the genitive. Such 
heroic names as that supposed to be found ou the intaglio under considera* 
tion were, in fact, given to horses. Engenius, a famous auriga, is figured 
on a contomtato with his four steeds, Achilles, Deuderius, Speciosus, and 
DignuB. Ur. King baa also pointed out that the set^ng of Dr. Astlej'i 
ring may probably be ascnbed to the time of the Lower Empire, because 
it is evident that when Pliny wrote, about A..D. 72-75, rings were customarily 

of iron when not of gold, for lie speaks of silver rings asaumed by Arelliua 
FuscuB, as if to wear such ornaments had been very unuBual ; Kat. Hist., 
lib, zziiii. c. 12. But Isidore, five centuries later, states that the gold, 
silver, and iron ring distinguished the free-bom, the freed man, and the 
slave reBpectively. The gold bezel surrounding the gem is not uncommon 
where the ring itself is of silver. It may deserve notice that there was a 
small silver bead or rim attached by solder to the hoop on each of its 
margins ; this rim, however, having been partly broken away, the edges 
of the hoop, as shown in the woodcut, appear as if formed with a little 
shoulder or projection on each side ; originally the rim was doubtleas con* 
tinuous all round the hoop. 

By the Rer. H. Uaoleak, Vicar of Caistor, Lincolnshire. — A fine Saton 
cruciform brooch of bronie, with remains of gilding on ita surface, found 
some years ago at Searby, near Caistor. Numerous relics of the same 
period have been found at various times in the parish of Searby oii the site, 
as supposed, of an extensive Saion cemetery, at a spot where a chalk-pit 
has been worked in former years, but it is now almost exhausted. Ur. 
Maclean, to whoae kindness the Institute had on several previous occaaiona 
been indebted for the communication of objects of the same period found 
near Caistor, has seen human skeletons disinterred at the place in question, 
but rarely accompanied by any ornaments, with the exception of the simple 
flat ring-brooches often found with Saxon interments in various parts of 
England. The brooch exhibited measures 5^ in. in length ; it resembles, 
in the general character of form and ornamentation, the specimen found 
near Rothley Temple, Leicestershire, now in the museum of the Society 
of Antiquaries, and another found at Sporle, Norfolk. These brooches 
are figured in Akerman's Pagan Saxondom, plates xi., xL The brooch 
found in Leicestershire was, like that sent by Mr. Maclean, partly gilt) 


And Bomo portions were plated with silrer. Numeroua Saxon relics found 
at Searbj, a fine gilt brooch Bet with plates of garnet, beada of vitreouB 
paste, bronie appendageB of the girdles of the Saxon women, with other 
ouriouB remains, are figured in Mr. Roach Smith's Collectanea Antiqua, 
»ol. 55, vol. T. pi. 12, 13. 

Bj Hr. Webb, — A procesBional cross of ailrer gilt, from the Soltikoff 
eollection ; it is enriched with uncut sards, amethyatB, and sapphires, 
en eabochem. One of these gems, placed at the centre of the cross, is of 
remarkably rich color, but it has a perforation through its aiis. The 
arms of the cross are decorated with eiquiaitelj enameled roundels. This 
beautiful example of art, date thirteenth century, is deacribed in the cata- 
logueof the Soltihoff collection. No. 102. — ScuIpturedgroupiniTory, repre- 
senting the baptism of Our Lordin the rirer Jordan; Italian cinque-cento art. 

!Bj the ReT. R. F. Co&teb. — A fac-simile of a mason's mark occurring 
at Darenth church, Kent. Its general form resembles 
that of the numeral i, eo frequent in the varied " mer- 
chants' marks" of the fifteenth oentury. The mark 
here figured is to be seen on many of the atones which 
form the coigns of tlie tower, a structure of Early 
English date. They appear only at the S.W. angle ; 
the N.W. coigns having been much weathered. 

By Sir Philip de Gret Eoertob, Bart., H.P. — A 
folio volume contoinbg memorials of the family of 
Imhoff, of Nuremberg, purchased in Paris in February 
last at the sale of the efiects of that ancient family, and consisting of 
S9 elaborately -finished water-color drawings of monumeDte, sculptures, 
paintings, painted-gloss, seals, and heraldic achievements. The later 
drawings are by an artist, named G. Von Bemmel, in the last century. 
The series includes numeroua Imhoff monuments in the churches of 
Altdorf, Nuremberg, Komburg, and Moseidorf ; eburch plate, altar- 
pieces and church decorations, of which various members t^ the family 
appear to have been the donors, and which ore charged with armorial 
insignia. Among the most interesting memorials are those from the 
churches of St, Laurence, St. Sebald, and St. Giles, at Nuremberg ; 
on every object, however sacred, the golden lion with a triton'a tail 
(Hon fnann«) on a field gulet, the bearing of the Imhofis, is introduced, 
even on the shaft of a cross, beneath the crucifix. On the drawing of 
folding doors of the great organ in the church of St. Laurence, the 
Apocalyptic vision of the Adoration of the Lamb, with cherubim in glory, 
is delineated ; below are aeen the four-and-twenty elders with their harps, 
all of them being portraits of members of the Imhoff family. Of that 
diatinguished race was the eminent genealogist and antiquary, James 
William Imhoff, of Nuremberg, among whose numerous valuable worka 
was hia Regum Pariumque Magnn Britannin Historia, published in 1690. 

The Hon. Robert Curzoh observed, in regard to the innumerable family 
relics and memorials of the noble race of whose history the sumptuous 
volume exhibited comprises so many curious illustrations, Uiat a large shield 
of the fifteenth century, charged with the Imhoff arms, ia in his collection 
at Parham, Sussex. A small metal casket, of beautiful workmanahip, with 
the same heraldic bearing, is in the possession of Ur. Dickens, at Cool- 
hurst near Horsham, and the late Duke of Hamilton had a rilver fpit 
haoap, supported by the Imhoff crest. , . , 

YOU III. D,«.,C,9qglc 


By Mr. T. Blakchbtt. — Portr^t of Queen Elizabedi, latdy bronght to 
light in Cambridge^ire, in pOBoetMioo of an old-eatabliBhed funilj, and 
probablj of the period. 

By Mr. Hendebsoh, F.S.A. — A pair of beautiful candlesticks of metal 
damaBcened with silver ; choice specimens of Venetian trork of Uio latter 
part of the sixteenth century. 

By Mr. £. W. Cooke, R.A. — A statuette poarlraying Leonardo da 
Vinci ; three sculptured ivory medallions, and a chasing ia steet set on a 
■nnff>boz> The aubjeet is an e4]ueetrian combat executed irith spirit and 
ortiatio skill. Also a glass ampulla or rial for perfume, compressed by 
exposure to heat, probably in the funeral pile, 

By the Very Rev. Canon Rock, D.D. — A US. book ot Bora ; date, 
early fifteenth century. 

By Urs. W. CoDBTNAT MottUNo. — A cushion cover of black velvet 
richly embroidered in silks and gdd thread, with portions in teiit-stitch 
overlaid on the velvet, ^e decoration consisting of large bowjueti of flowers 
and fruits, with animals and birds in the intervening spaces ; abo insects, 
soch as caterpillars, dragon-flies, he. In the centre is the vine between 
an unicorn, on the dexter side, and a yellow lion not crowned, on the 
sinister ; the flowers most conspicuous are the English rose, columbine, 
marigold, red caruatiun, narcissus, and honeysuckle ; also a gourd or 
pumpkin {flower and fruit). Of animals pourtrayed may be enumerated a 
camel, elephant, tiger, leopard, white lion, hare, r^bit, and a small dog ; 
also an owl in a bush, a cock, and a parrot on a cherry-tree. This 
sumptuous " pillow-bore " has its original tassels and fringes of green 
silk and gold lace, with the lining of sea-green damask. The date ia 
about 1600, or early in the reign of James I, It is beKeved that it was 
formerly at Fowderham Castle, Devon, or at one of Uie ancient seats of the 
noble family of Courtenay. 

By Mr. R. n. SoDEir SutTE, F.S.A. — A pair of gilded spurs, and 
three other spurs of various periods. — A glass bottle of English manu- 
facture, lately found in Southwark ; the surface is beautifully iridescent, 
the effect of partial decomposition. On the lower part of the neck there is 
A Tudor rose in relief ; date, early seventeenth century. — A silver ring 
formed with five hoops and three moveable bands set with turquoises ; by 
these bands the hoops are joined together. Probably of the work of Upper 

By Mr. WlLKUtsOH. — A German wheel-lock rifle, date about 1760, 
elaborately engraved with hunting subjects, and bearing the name of the 
artificer, Neyrnter in Salzhwrg, It was formerly iu possession of the 
Emperor Napoleon I., and was presented to Mr. Wilkinson by H. M. the 
Emperor of the French, whilst resident in this country previously to his 
being elevaled to the Imperial dignity. 

By the Rev. Fbederic W. Rdbbell, through Sir John BoUeau, Bart. — 
Bronze spoon, stated to have been lately found near Allhallows Pier, City, 
probably in the course of railway operations. 

By Mr. Maolahchlah R. OiBfis. — Bronze dagger, stated to have been 
dug out of the foundation of the railway near Allhallows Pier, City, within 
100 yards of the Thames ; a medal or coin of the Emperor Claudius, and 
a considerable quantity of Roman tile and broken pottery, lay, as described, 
near the spot. The handle is in form of a nude female figure, probably 
Venus, holding the apple; another dagger with the same figure had been 


prerioiuly Mnt for elimination. It is believed that theae, with rariona 
fictitious objects ctut in "cock-brass," to which a deceptite aspect of 
antiquitj is given hj eiposure to acids, and by other artifices, might be 
traced to the same source as the pretended medallions and castings in lead, 
to which attention was called bj Mr. Reed and Mr, Franks on a prerious 
occasion; tee p. 167 ant«.'. It is desirable that the unwuy colleotor should 
be put on bis guard against such malpractices, some of the recent fraudu- 
lent productions in brass bnog fabricated with no slight skill and knowledge 
of gennine ancient tjpes. 

Mediatal Seau. — B; Capt Edward Hoasb.— Silrer matrix of 
pointed-oTal form, with a scaall crooked handle ; the device is composed of 
small demi-figureB, arranged in three tiers. At the top is seen a boly 
personage, poseiblj the Blessed Virgin, whose right hand is extended down* 
wards towards the two saints in the central diriuon, and beneath is a 
diminutive figure in profile, kneeling, with hands uprusod in supplication. 
The legend is as follows : — h a : rbikalsi : sa : tiwb : udnachi. Date, 
fourteenth century ; dimensions, 1^ in. bj f- in. A similar silvM" matrix 
was brought before the Institute about 1S47, by Sir Augustus Hillary. 
The portion on which the design was engraved was of considerable thick- 
uess ; on the reverse there was a ring attached to the upper put of the 
oval. A third matrix, likewise of silver and of like fashion, was sent for 
examination by the Rev, Bdwin Jarvis, of Hacktborn, Lincolnshire, at the 
meeting of the Institute, Nov. 3, 1S48 ; it was stated that it had been 
brought from Scotland ; but it had been, as believed, part of the Neville Holt 
colleotion which was dispersed at that time. This last had the appearance 
of being a genuine original, from which possibly that exhibited by Cspt. 
Hoare may have been cast. There are several places in Essex called Tew i 
also Great and Little Tew in Oxfordshire. From one of these Reinald the 
monk may have taken his surname. Hugo de Tiwa is mentioned in the 
Handred Rolls as a benefactor to Oseney Abbey ; and Ralph de Tiwe 
occurs in the same record as one of the vifians of the manor of " Magna 
Bollendre." Oxfordshire. Rot. Hnndr., vol. ii. pp. 717, 727. 

July 1, 1864. 
The Lord Talbot de Malahidb, P.S.A., Vtee-President, in thfl Chair. 

A short account was read of recent researches in Argyleshire by Mr. 
Henry Davenport Graham, illustrated by his drawings, and by a plan of a 
group of erect stones and other early remains which exist a few yards from 
the road leading from Kilmartin and Kilmichsel, Argyleshire, The spot is 
in a field once a portion of the gr^at Crinan Hoes, a district in which 
numerous standing stones occur, and where also the rocks incised with 
circular markings are to be seen, described by Mr. Davenport Graham at a 
previous meeting ; see page 164 ante. Dr. Collingwood Bruce, on a recent 
visit to Mr, Graham, had found on the standing stones, of which drawings 
were exhibited, certain markings apparently simitar to those noticed upon 
the rocks. The group of stones consists of a circle of fragments and debrii, 
possibly tho remains of a csira partly swept away by a brook which ran 
near it ; thirty-one paces to the west are four tall stones, measuring from 
ift. to 12 ft. in height, in a straight row, fifteen paces in length ; two of 
these- bear punctures and incised markings. Forty paces further towards 


the west there u another erect stone, faafing an oval perforation about a 
jard abor« tha groand, which measures about 4 in. bj 3J in., the edges of 
the hole being much splajed on both aides. On its east face tbisstonehas 
more than a score of circular punctures, similar to the central cups in the 
incised mnrlcings on rocks in the Crinaa district, as before described. The 
largest itone of the group, 12 ft. in height, has uumeroua cop-shaped 
carities on its east face, and alao four like cups circumscribed hj an outer 
ring, and baring in each instance a spout or radiaiing line from the centre 
that cuts the ring ; these tnarkinga closelj resemble those on the rocks 
noticed bj Mr. Graham on a preTious occasion. On another of the stones 
he noticed markings on the western face ; besides a number of simple 
caTities, there are two annular figures with radiating lines, and near its 
base are to be seen leren csrities connected b; a line of inter-communica- 
tion. These cavities and markings rary in aise, depth, and preaerration, 
the stones having suffered from long action of the weather. The best 
preserved of the cup-shaped cavities appear as if the; had been drilled with 
a rotator; action, leaving circular markings within the eavitj as the tool 
advanced, a circumstance which ma; tend to show the nature of the imple- 
ments used and the mode of working. 

Two circumstances of interest are connected with this group of andent 
stone monuments, the first being that thej seem to be associated with the 
period of the incised circular markings, more complicated in their configura- 
tion, but the same general characteristics present themeelvea alike on the 
rocks and on these erect stones, namel;, the incised circle and the line 
radiating from the central cup. It should be observed that on the standing 
stones described this line takes a vertical direction towards the base of tl)e 
stone, A like cup-shsped marking, it ma; be observed, was noticed b; 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson on the largest of the stones that form a circle near 
Penrith, in Cumberland, known as " Long Meg and her Daughters."' 

Another remarkable circumstance connected with the vestiges noticed bj 
Mr. Graham Is that these rock-markings are here found associated with 
one of those objects of a ver; ancient superstition, not wholl; extinct until 
. recent ;ear8, namel;, with one of the perforated rocks, or so-called " Stones 
of Odin," used in time of remote autiquit; in solemn adjurations or vows, 
b; the ceremon; of joining bonds through the aperture, with the solemn 
pledge b; the parties concerned, of which such primeval usage woe the 
irrevocable bond. Man; traces might be noticed of such ancient cnstoms 
in the British islands. Where a district abounded in wood nHore than in 
rocks, the custom existed in regard to some ancient tree, through an aper- 
ture in which the persons who took part in the solemn treat; joined hands. 
In other places it was customary to pass a child through a cavit; either in 
a rock or a tree, with certain superstitious notions of curing or averting 
diseases. Borlase, in his Antiquities of Cornwall, mentions such popular 
customs at Maddern and elsewhere. A memoir on " the Holed Stones '' 
of that count; is given b; Mr. T. Blight, Archraol. Combr., vol. z, 3rd 
series, p. 292. See also Gent. Mag. 1864, ii. p. 686. Dr. Wilson, in 
his Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, gives particulars regarding vowa 
and oalhs taken b; joining hands through the " Stone of Odin." The 
most remarkable example of auch a stone is that near the circle of 

* See Sir QsrdDer wnkinion'a Unnoir British remains, Joum. Brit Arch. Asioa., 
on tbs Bock-bMins of Dsrtmoar uid some Juno, ISSO, p, 118, pi. 10. ' 


Stennis in the Orkneys ; there is an oTal hole in tbii itona large enough 
to admit a man's head. The superstition existed as recently as the close 
of the last century, when Dr. Henry refers to the ceremony as held sacred, 
and the person who dared to break the engagement thus made was accounted 
infamouH. Sometimes the hole was of large dimensions, and to pass a child 
through it was conaidered to be a sovereign preservatiTO from palsy or 
rheumatism in after life. 

It has not been stated whether, in North Britun, any ancient law or 
•cclesiasUcal monitions were directed against the popular perustence in 
tome of the usages of an olden superstition. In England we find such 
practices strongly condemned. Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 
his Penitential, distinctly forbids such heathen usages of pledging rows at 
trees, wells, and stones. The Canons enacted in the reign of Edgar are 
not less explicit in regard to vain coBtoms and spells, tree- worshippings and 
■lone-worshippings, and that devil's craft whereby children were drawn 
through the earth. 

In connection with the circles that bare lately excited so much interest 
among archeeologiats, Mr. Graham mentioned that similar markings are 
stated to exist on a stone near Duntroon ; other examples may doubtless be 
discorered, the attention of careful observere being now directed to the 
■ubject. He stated that, according to popular tradition, the spot where the 
rocks covered with circular figures are seen [see p. 164 ante] had been the 
scene of a great battle between the Feine (Fingalians) and their enemies, 
and that in the heat of the confiict Finn chanced to let fall a whole quiver- 
futl of arrows, which stuck in the rock, and formed the cup-like cavities. 
The story at least may serre to show, as Mr, Graham suggested, that the 
natives attribate these markings to the Feine, that is to say, they account 
them long anterior to all history or authentic record, and also that the 
markings have long since attracted attention in the district. 

The Very Re?. Dean Graves made some observations on the circular 
markings thus bronght mider the notice of the Society ; and stated that he 
would shortly publish in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy a 
memoir on the Irish examples found in Kerry by the Barl Danroven. 

Dr. Blackuohe, of Salishuij, communicated a notice of discoveriefl of 
flint implements in the drift gravel at Hitford Hill, on the east side of that 
city. It is given in this relume. See page 243, ante. Recent researches 
have brought to light numerous specimens of those remarkable relics in the 
■outh of England ; they hare been found by Dr. Blackmore not only at the 
place to which his memoir refers, but also at Fisherton about a mile west 
of Salisbury in the high-lerel gravels ; the implements there found are 
interesting on account of their dose analogy to many of those from the 
Tatley of the Somme and from Icklingham in Suffolk. By the kindness 
of Ur. Edward Stevens of Salisbury and Ur. James Brown, who has also 
lately delected a deposit of those objects in a new locality. Hill Head, 
between Qosport and Southampton, these discoveries were brought under 
the notice of the Institute, and a series of specimeiM were bronght by Mr. 
Brown for examination. The; hare been deposited in the Salisbury 
liuseum, which contains a rery instructire collection of flint implements 
and of mammalian remuns, by which in certain deposits they are found 
accompanied. The utility of that county Depositoiy has been much 
enhanced by the valuable catalogue published in the present year ; for the 
portion relating to the stone and other relics of the earliest periods we are 


indebted to Hr. SteTcna. A tnemoir on the recent ducoTcHes at Fuherton 
has been communickled bj llr. Erans, Y.S.K,, to the Qturterlj Joaraal of 
the Ge<J<^caI Sonet;, for Angnat, 1864, where some account of Hr. 
Brown'a sueoeuful reBearchea at Hill Head may also be found. 

Mr. Hbbrt F. Holt read Bome Obseiratioaa upon the woodoot of St. 
Christopher, in the Colleetioa of the Earl Spencer, dated 1423. He 
remarked that in the history of Art it would he difficult to aelaet anj object 
eompriaing to manj elemwitB of intereaL Since its diKOverf by the Baron 
Heioeken, in 1769, in the library of the CarthnaianB at Bnzheim in Suabia, 
this woodcut has been f^nerally recognised aa the moat ancient dated 
eiample, and the date has been generallj accepted, aa inarlcing with 
preciaion an important epoch in the annala ot Art. Ur. Holt con«dered it 
deairable to arrivo at acme dear deciaion in regard to the Talidity of the 
belief in the date of thia woodcnt, which haa occasionally been assailed bj 
the acepticiam of critics. The "St. Christopher of 1423"iswell known 
to all who take interest in the History of Xylography, and it is familiar 
throngh the excellent facsimile given by Ottley in hia History of Bngraring. 
vol. i. p. 90, and a reduced copy in Jackson's Treatiae on Wood Engraring, 
p. 60, where full particulars regarding its discoTery may be found, Tlie 
Baron Heineken, aa we learn from hia own account in hia "Id&g^o^raled'une 
Collection d'estampea," Leipsic, 1771, p. 250, had pursued bis researches 
in the eonrentual lihrariea of Franconia and other parts of Germany, and 
found woodcuts pasted into certain rolumes of the fifteenth century. " J'ai 
decouTert " (writes the baron) " dans la Chartreuse de Buxheim, pres da 
Uemmingen, nn de noa plus anclena conrenta en Alemagne, rimage de 
Saint Christophle ;" he gives a description, stating that it is a woodcut 
illuminated in colors like playing cards, and thus inscribed at the foot of 
the page — Cristoferi faciem die quacunque tueris — lUa nempe die morta 
mala nou morieris. Hillesimo cccc° zx° tercio. — This discovery excited 
considerable interest ; it was made known by Heineken as a fact (rf no 
alight importance, being free from suspiciou of any deception. '' On ne 
pourra meme " (the baron remarks] " soup^onner ici aucune aupercherie." 
On the authority of Heineken, at that time keeper of the engraTings in the 
Royal Collection at Dreaden, the " St. Christopher of 1423 " was accepted 
by Santander, the Baron de Reiffenberg, Duchesne, Firmin Didot, Ottley, 
Jackson, and nther authorities. The arguments, however, adduced in 
support of the date seem to be limited, according to Ur. Holt, to the 
decision of Heineken and the opinion of Ottley, who mainly relied on the 
paper on which the woodcut is printed, having as a water-mark a bull'a 
head with a line rising between the horns, found likewise on paper used id 
Holland in 1418 — 1421.* It was not until 1819 that any serious doubt of 
the correctneaa of the date aeems to have been entertained ; Koning then 
affirmed that it should be 1473—111" tertio— and that the I had been 
taken out ; in this conclusion he was supported by Sotaman, who alleged 
that no other woodcut of so early a date was known, and that ail the early 
examples were posterior to 1450. Mr. Finkerton proposed to read — xi° 
tertio (1460) instead of tertio. Ur. Holt now suggested that the confidence 
with which this woodcut was received was mainly due to the reputation of 
Heineken in regard to his knowledge of Art : it waa, however, well known 

i, Hisi of Bngntvin^ 

tzea by Google 


irheii the woodcut waa found that he vas on a tour in quest of freth facts, 
irhere doubtleBB thej were moat probabljr to be fouud, in the conreutual 
librofiea of Germany, The intelligeat librariau at Buzheim, Fraucis 
Krianier, was airare of tbe object of the baron's visit, and Mr, Holt Bug- 
geeted that in anticipation of his arrival the librarian took care to aelect 
something of more than ordinary attraction, which should alao bring 
Buxheira into repute, and possibly aid the funds of tbe monastery. 
Ueiueken, howeTer, as Ur. Holt admitted, did not seek to purchase the 
newly-found treasure ; in his Id^ Q^nerale, published three years sub- 
sequently, he made known its eiistenee ; Charles de Murr, editor of » 
Journal of Arts at Nuremberg, seems to have been the first to profit bj 
Heineken's discovery. He obtained a loan of the woodcut, and a facsimile 
was given in de Hurr's Journal. The original was stibsequently sold at n 
couaiderable price ; and Krismer was encouraged, according to Mr. Holt, 
(0 seek for further treasures, such as the St. Sebastian dated 1443, regarded 
by tome critics as apoeryphal. In regard to the important questions con- 
nected with these end other contemporary discoveries, the low estimate 
of the attainments of art-critics expressed by Bartsch may claim attention, 
as Hr. Holt pointed out ; Bartsch alludes to certain errors in the works of 
Heineken ; our accomplished countryman, Ottley eipresses likewise the 
same opinion. In conclusion, Mr. Uolt aaserted his conviction that the 
authority of Heineken has been overrated, that the circumstances unUer 
which the print was found are not free from suspicion ; that its character is 
so much in advance of the supposed dale as to discourage confidence in it 
as a production of 1423 ; he declared his conviction that the date is a 
forgery, and that the true date is 1493, the inscription having been altered 
by converting cccczc" terUo into ccecix" tertio ; according to his theory the 
woodcut should he assigned to Albert Durer ; that great artist, as he 
believed, had been apprenticed in 1486 to Wohlgemuth as n fornuchneider, 
and worked in that capacity alone until Easter, 1490, when be set out o» 
a four years' circuit to complete his apprenticeship ; in 1494 he returned to 
Nuremberg. Mr. Uolt asserted that Xiord Spencer's woodcut of 1433 ia 
the work of Durer eiecoted at Colmar early in 1493, during his visit to the 
brothers of Martin Schon. The prototype was, according to Mr. Holt, an 
engraving on copper by Martin Schon, and tbe supposition is supported by 
the fact that tlie woodcut is printed upon that soft, fine, and stroJig paper 
used by Martin Schon, the water-mark being the bull's bead with a single 
wire line between the horns, described by Uttley in his account of Lord 
Speuoer's print. Since the publication, however, of Ottley 's work in 1816, 
it has been ascertained that this paper was manuFactured by Prick and Uana 
llolbaio at Ravensberg, the hull s head being the trade-mark of that family ; 
moreover tbe paper oouiiuouly used by Durer prior to 1505 has the like 
mark, although some of his engravings are printed on paper marked with a 
Gothic P.* 

A warm discussion ensued on the question raised by Hr. Holt in regard 
to the authenticity of an example usually acoounted as of such high value 

* Sec full particulan In R Hautman's thej wera eommtuitcatad In 18S8 to the 

work on Albert Durer'a aDgravingfl, the Ocrman Hiit. and Antiqu. Society. Tbe 

Kl>er used by him, &e,, Hanover, 18S1. paper on whioLi tbe St, Chciatopber of 

le facta regarding tbe pap«c manufnc- 112S is printed ia limilar to tbat used hj 

turad by tbe Holbain family have becu Uartiu Sobija and Durer. 
mode known by Hbit Abel of Stuttgart ; , - i 



in the hiBtorf of the reTival of Art. Lord Tftlbot, Cuion Rock, uid If r. 
Beresford Hope took part ia the conrerution ; the general feeling appeared 
to be that, howeTer superior in artistic merits tlie " St. Christopher of 
1423 " UDqueatioaably may be, no sufficient ground hod been adduced for 
any insinuatioD against the good faith and honorable reputation of the 
learned librarian of Buibeim. The critical diBcernment and skill in mattera 
oi art poBaessed by Heineken, at a period when the researches to which he 
baa contributed to much were only commencing, may doubtless bare fallen 
far short of the attainraents of those who have had ample materials and 
information at their command. It was affirmed, moreover, that the St. 
Christopher does not present the familiar characteristics of the work of 
Durer. It is by no means iucredihle, that at a time when the newly-acquired 
art of Xylography was growing rapidly in popular esteem in Germany, some 
works, or even a solitary production of surpassing eicellenee, may have 
been produced, apparently far in advance of contemporary engravings. 

The Rev. Georob Cardew gare a detailed narrative of his recent 
eiploratioQB at Helniingham, Suffolk, and brought for examination « large 
collection of pottery and odier relics found at the extensive cemetery which 
he has there discovered, as staled at a previous meeting. See page 172 
ante. These vestiges appear to belong to the later times of Roman occu- 
pation. He exhibited 'also a series of admirable photographs taken by 
llr. Fiper, a very slalful artist at Ipswich, and illustrating the position of 
the interments and the general features of the ground where Mr. Cardow's 
remarkable explorations have be«n carried out. 

^ntE^uftiftf snS CQarU of 9rt Cytl^ittts. 
By Ur. H. Davehfort Gbahah. — Drawings of sculptured crosses and 
sepulchral memorials on the western shores of Scotland. Among these ira» 
a view of the mined chapel of Kilmory, St. Mary's cell, in Knapdale, near 
four or five thatched hovels in the wild district of the Point of Knap, at 
the mouth of Loch Swein. This. Mr. Graham observes, is an example of 
the primitive type of Highland Kill, an oblong parallelogram constructed 
of blocks of rough stona, without buttresses, the windows narrow, deeply 
splayed within ; the door is at the south side, occasionally it is found at 
the west end in these early structures. The orientation is mostly defective. 
There is a well-preserved and elabwately carved cross in the graveyard at 
Kilmory ; on one side, upon the head, is the crucifix, between two figures, 
probably the B. V. Uary and St. John ; on the shaft is a large sword of 
the peculiar fashion usual in these early Scottish sculptures. The sculpture 
of the shaft, on the other side, represents a stag at hay, and the hunter 
bearing a broad-bladed axe, a large hotn hangs at his hock { beneath is 
inscribed — heo est gbvz ■ alezakdri ■ macmvlek ; foliated scrolls and 
interlaced work fill up the vacant spaces. The ancient lords of Knapdale 
bore the name of UcMillan. There are also several slabs in the church, and 
some bearing the shears and mirror like a slab at the nunnery at lona. See 
Mr. Graham s Antiquities of lona, pi. 48, &c. At Kilmory, in two instances, 
these symbols of the female sex are found in combination with a sword. 
It had been conjectured that the shears may here he in allusion to descent 
from Ualen, so called from being tonsured or dedicated {Maol, shaven or 
bald). On the wild coast of tlie loch, on the way to Kilmory, there is & 
remarkable rock-chapel or anchoril«'g care, a natural fissure near the 


shore, with & green sirard alopiDg down to the laniliDg-pIace. The opening 
of the care was formerly waited op ; near the entrance there is a baein 
hollowed oat in the rock, pouibiy for holj water ; at the further end ia a 
square platform hewn ont of the rock, and upon this is an altar of rough 
stones ; above ia carved a cross ; on the green in front there is a roofless 
chapel umilar to those fonnd in these parts ; it was dedicated probabljr to 
the holjr tenant of the cave. There is no tradition, however, connected 
with the spot. St, Kentigem, who came from Ireland to Cantyre, lived ia 
a cave on thU coast, and the place described maj have been one of the 
rude retreats of bis disciples. At Eilmartin, another little ruinous chapel, of 
which drawings were exhibited, there are two curious sculptured crosses, 
now prostrate, one of them elaborately sculptured with interlaced work, the 
vuBander, &c. At Kilmichael, four miles from Loch Oilpbead, Mr. 
Graham found in the graveyard several carved slabs of considerable interest, 
such as are called commonly " lona Stones," and wbicb, although similar 
in character to the sculptured slabs at Colmkill, have a distinctive style, 
showing that they were the work of a different hand. Several examples of 
these so-called " lona Stones" exist at Strachur, and also in other ancient 
graveyards in Argyleshire, 

By the Hon, Robert Cdrzon. — Two helmet«, one of them flat-topped, 
of the time of Richard Cceur de Lion, a specimen of very great rarity ; 
the other is of the period of Edward the Black Prince ; it has, on the left 
aide, an additional piece of steel which, as Mr. Curzon stated, does not 
occur on any other head-piece of the time which had come under hit 
observation, but' it may be seen in representations of helmets in mOQU< 
mental effigiea of the reign of Edward III. These relics of ancient armour 
are in remarkably Gne preservation, and were selected as two of the most 
interesting objects in Mr, Curzon's armory at Farham. — Block Book, 
with the date 1414 in Arabic numerals. Mr, Curzon, by whom this 
curious acquisition had recently been made in Paris, observed that " it 
appears to consist of modern impressions from old German blocks. The 
volume contains two colored prints, which are woodcuts, not block prints, 
and seem to belong to a more modern edition of the same hook published 
towsrds the end of the fifteenth century." 

By Mr, Octavids Mobsah, M.P,, F.S.A. — An ancient Arabic quadrant 
with a Cofio inscription of the thirteenth century. — A dial in form of a 
' Corinthian column standing on a pedestal, and supporting a globe on the 
capital. The globe opens and discloses a sun-dial and compass ; on the 
shaft of the columu is a vertical cylindrical dial, and, on the pedestal, a 
dedicatory inscription stating that il was presented on January Ist, 1593, 
by I, Mauroy, as a new-year s gift in token of friendship, to his amiable 
and virtuous youug friend. Pel. Belpil, — A jewel of the order of the White 
Elephant, the Danish order of knighthood, one of the tnoat ancient, 
esteemed, and rare in Europe, Tho order is supposed to date from the 
time of the Crusades ; the precise time, however, of its origin is not 
known, but it is considered to have been established, as it now is, in the 
beginning of the fifteenth century. It was renewed by Christian I, in 
1458. After the English Garter and the Golden Fleece it is the most 
distinguished among the orders of Europe, its continuity never having 
been interrupted, and its distribution very sparingly awarded, for it is 
only bestowed on crowned heads, or on very remarkable and distinguished 
individnals. The Duke of Wellington was one of Uie Knights. The date of 

TOL.XXt I) I) 


this Jewel is the t&tter part of the last centaty, in the reign of Chiiitian 
Vn. No other example of this remarkable decoration ia known to exist 
in thia country. 

By Mr. EDiimir Watbrtof, F.S.A. — Photograph of the " Clatit (S)»- 
feuvmit S. Petri " given by the Pope to St. Hnbert, the first bishop of 
Liege, at the close of the Beventfa century. The haodle of this corioos key 
is elaborately wrought with pierced work, in which are introduced figures 
of lions. A somewhat similar key, of silver and of beautiful workmanship, 
is preserved at Uaestricht, which, according to the legend, was brought by 
an angel to St, Servuis whilst he was engaged in prayer at the tomb of St. 
Peter at Rome ; this key is figured in a memoir by Scbaepkens, Measager 
des Sciences Historiques en Belgique, 1847, p. 211. 

By the Hon. Wilbraham Egeston, U.P. — A steel vice for a lady's 
work-table, a beautiful specimen of Italian workmanship, sixteenth centoiy. 
— An oval cameo, Italian Bei-eenio art, representing the Blesaed Virgin, 
St. Peter, and St. Paul ; it is in tortoiseshell, a material rarely used for 
any work of artistic character. — A circular boss or ornament for the fasten- 
ing of a girdle, from Battistan in Western Thibet ; it is enriched with 
rows of small turquoises; diameter about five inches. 

By the President of the Colleob, Old Hall Green, Herts. — A set of 
keys, supposed to be of the fifteenth century, and to have been used bj the 
Cellarer, or by some other conventual functionary. 

By the Defartiieht of Science and Abt, through Mr. Soden Smidi, 
F.S.A. — A case of gold posy-rings, presented to the South Kenungton 
Museum by the late Rev. R. Brooke. 

By Mr. W, Bukoeb. — Two specimens of oriental plate, one of them bwog 
a nut elegantly mounted on a silver tripod ; also a silver patera ; a 
drinking cup of Qerman or Northern workmanship set with coins ; and a 
knife, fork, and spoon, enriched with chasing and filagree. 

By Mr. Johh Oodoh Nichols, F.S.A. — Portrait of Queen Elisabeth, 
on panel, three quarters to the left, a portrait in her younger years ; ahe is 
represented in a maroon colored dress puffed and jeweled with pearls, 
rubies, and emeralds ; in ber right hand is a red rose, part of a fan of white 
feathers in her left j around her neck is a collar of red and white roeeo, 
emeralds and pearls, irith a falcon displayed appended to it ; there is a jewel 
iu her light brown bair ; the back-ground is green. 

By Mr. Farreb, F.S.A. — A singular portrait of Queen Elisabeth, mi 
panel, three quarters to left ; the dress is black, the sleeves quaintly oma. 
mented with armillary spheres ; a large cord of pearls around the neck. 

Seals and Ivpressions. — By Mr. W. H. Wbale, of Bruges. — ImpresMon 
in gutta-percha from the obverse and reverse of a curious object preserved 
in the church of St. Servais at Maestricht, and described in the inventory of 
relics as the seal of the tutelar ttdnt. St. Servatins, the friend of St. 
Athanasius, was Bishop of Tongres in Belgium, and died there a.d. 384 ; 
his remains were preserved in the collegiate church at Maestricht, with his 
pastoral staff, pectoral cross, and other relics. The seal is described as 
of yelloiviBh-red color, probably jasper, flaked [nwmcee) with light and dark 
hues ; it is of circular form ; diam. about IJ inch, exclusive of a silver rim in 
which it is set with a ring for suspension ; it has the appearance of a 
medallion or bulla. Each face of the stone is slightly ccmvex and ruddy 
engraved in intaglio, Oboerge : a bust, apparently of an eoclesiaatie 
holding a croas-stoff in his hand (the right hand, as seen on tiie stofM) ; 


in the field, on either side, there are Greek letters, ivbich have not been 
Batisf&ctorily decjpbered, but they doubtless indicate the saint here repre- 
sented ; around the margin is inscribed -f- HAHCADOCKCOCA. 
ReTflrse, the Gorgon's head, and around it is the spell which occurs on other 
like objects, namely — iioipa Mihutni at o^it. This remarkable object, of 

which ne are enabled by the kindness of the Rct. C. W. King to give the 
accompanying representations, is noticed in his Treatise on the Gnostics 
and tbeir Remains, p. 119. The head of Iho Gorgon is represented by a 
diminutire face, from which seven serpents' or dragons' necks and heads 
appear gyrating like a wheel. The letters in the legends, although in 
intaglio as if for the purpose of sealing, are not lurerted. Mr. King informs 
us that the charm or iirudi), in full, which the engraver of the gem 
attempted to copy, is probably the same as that found upon a bronze 
medal figured by Miinter (Sinnbilder der Christen] ; Obv. the Gorgon's 
Head; Rev. the legend filling the field. +Ye— MEAANHMEAAI- 
ZAPNOZKYMHZH. The reading completely baffled him, but the 
charm is probably the Romaic form of the following: — + Y(iot) B(tov) 

MiXdiM fuXairoit^p^ toe D^it (iX(i lavxt vr Xfwv ffpvxtirti Km ft apvoi KOi/tqirti. 

There may he some ground for suspecting that the unintelligible legend round 
the saint's head on the gem may be the continuation of the same formula, the 
OC [m) being repeated in it. Although unsuited from the convexity of 
both of the faces to be used in sealing, the curious gem at Maastricht has 
always been regarded as a seal. It is mounted in a rim of silver with a 
■mall ring by which it is appended to a tablet, described as of green 
porphyry, and supposed to have been a portable altar used by St. Servais. 
With these relics have been preserved an ivory matnx of a seal bearing 
this legend -f- sc'a * bebvativs • ef's. The device is a seated figure in 
pontificals, the head nimbed but without a mitre. This interesting seal 
is attributed to the eleventh century ; it is figured, with the object pre- 
viously described, the crosier also and the pectoral cross of St. Servais, 
in a memoir by M. Schaepkens, Messager des Sciences Historiques en 
Belgique, 1847, p. 220. — Impression of a fine matrix, of circular form ; 
^m. 2^ inches. The device is the Annnnciation, the figures are in high 
relief, the legend is as follows: -)- s''scolssie'8c'e -marie ■ac'i' q'* 

0ABRIBLI3 IN BODE. Do. :eab GoOqIc 


9[rc1)aeologtcal InteUiffence. 

It U propoeed to publiah, in one rolome, inenioirs illastrfttiTe of the 
Art of Gi&M Fainting in ^e Middle Ages, communicated by our Iameut«d 
friend Mr. Winston to our own Society, to the Institute of British Architects, 
the Oxford Architectural Societj, kc. The information thus ^Ten with prac- 
tical notices of an art, of which the hiitory and progreseire atjlea have noTer 
probably been more carefully studied than by Ur. Winston, cannot fail to 
prOTO acceptable in this collective form. It has been the desire of his 
friends to unite the roluable contributions dispersed through numerona 
works, and to possess a last memorial of his intelligent researches into the 
speci&l subject of his predilection. This volume will form a valuable com- 
plement to Mr. Wioiton's " Inquiry into the Difference of Style observable 
in ancient Glass Paintings ; " and it will contain much of the results of 
his experience and observation during seventeen yeqrs that have elapsed 
since the appearance of that work. A catalogue will also be given, pre- 
pared by himself, of the collection of drawings of painted glass (720. in 
number), about to be presented by his widow, in accordance with his last 
intentions, to the British Museum. Illustrations, including tweWe plates 
in colors, will be selected from the most instructive examples in this 
precious series to accompany the forthcoming volume, which will be pub- 
lished hy Ur. Murray. 

A third and much enlarged edition of " The Roman Wall " is in pre- 
paration hy the Rev, J. Collingwood Bruce, LL.D., whose indefatigable 
labors in the archnological field have frequently contributed, through his 
friendly communications, to our gratification. The second edition, pab< 
lished in 1853, has long since been exhausted ; numerous excavations and 
discoveries have during the last ten years thrown light on the history and 
the remains of the great Northern Barrier. An accurate map of the Wall, 
reduced from the survey executed for the Duke of Northumberland by Ur. 
Mac Lauchlan, will accompany the forthcoming edition, which will also be 
enriched with many additional and instructive illustrations. The price of 
the quarto copies will be (to subscribers) three guineas ; fifty copies will be 
printed in folio, ranging with Uoraley s Britannia ; price seven guineas. 
Subscribers' names are received by the Author, and by the Publisher, Ur. 
Reid, Nowcastlo-upon-Tyne. 

We iuvite attention to the edition of Hutohins* History of Dorset, in 
course of puhlication, in parts, bjr Mr. Shipp at Blandford, by whom sub- 
scribers' names are received. The work, carefully revised and augmented, 
will he issued at the moderate cost of twelve guineas ; copies of the last 
edition have realised not less than sixty guineas. The undertaking will 
doubtless interest our members who propose to take part in the meeting at 
Dorchester next summer ; an auxiliary, however, of even greater value is 
promised hy Ur. Werne, namely the results of his careful investigation of 
earlier remains in die county, and his Map of Dorset during the British, 
Roman, and Saxon periods. 

Captain Paul Bial, Professor at the Imperial School of Artillery at 
Besan^on, has announced, in two vols. 4to., with illustrations selected from 
the principal museums in Europe, his " Uistoire de la Civilisation Celtique," 
from which valuable information is expected in regard to the most obscure 
section of archieology in the earlier periods. , - , 

Z^t ^rc^aeoIosUal Sournal. 




Pbom the slaughter of ETesham, where liberty laj, it 
seemed, dead wiUi De Montfort, to the Statutes of Marl- 
borough, where the rery spirit of the great Earl and of 
freedom is alire again, our modem historians pass quietly 
on without once pausing to ask the cause or nature of so 
great a revolution. And yet it is not the mere sharpness 
and rividuess of the contrast which gives weight to Uiese 
memorable years, they are of weight in themselyes ; they 
form the transition period between the two great sections of 
our history, the period which severs that age of formation, 
during which a succession of new peoples and customs and 
ideas were slowly mingling and fusing into fresh forms 
and combinations, from the six centuries of true national 
history which stretch thence to the England of to-day. It is 
in fact in the Dictum, the Award, or, to take the older 
English word,' the " Ban " of Kenilworth, that great national 
act which these historians in like intelligent fa^ion dwarf 
into a mere capitulation, that the key of this great question 
must be found. 

For the history of the events which led to it, over which I 
must necessarily hurry, and of the Dictum itself, on which I 
shall venture to dwell at greater length, the authorities are 
unusually numerous and valuable. The chroniclers divide 
into two great classes : we have first the adherents of the 
National party, Rishanger in his chronicle (Camden Soc. 

I Commmiicatad to tho Hiatoiical irick, July, 18Si. 
SecUon At the Addu&I Hfleting ol tbs * Robwt of Qloowter twnu it UtaB, 

Archaaological InatituU held mt War- p. G6S. 



1840), and in the continuation of Matthew Paris (Wats, 
1644), the annalist of Waverley (Gale, Script in vol, ii.), 
Kobert of Glocester (Lond. 1810), the chronicler of Mel- 
rose (Gale, Tol L). On the other side are the Royalists. 
Wikes (Gale, vol. iL), WeBtminster (Lond: 1570), the 
chronicler iu the Liber de.Antiquis L^bus (Camden Soc). 
All these are contemporaries, some were eye-witnesses of the 
eyents which they relate, and, with the exception of the 
historian of Melrose on the one side and Matthew of West- 
minster on the other,' are all, allowing for their strong party 
bias, thoroughly trustworthy. Nangis (Duch^ne, Hist. Fr. 
Script, vol. V.) gives a very Valuable French view of some 
of the transactions of the time ; but the great supplement 
to and check upon the chroniclers must be found in our 
national records, which I have been enabled by the courtesy 
of Mr. Burtt (though far too cursorily) to examine, the 
Patent and Close rolls and in the collection of royal letters * 
These not only furnish us with facts, but enable us often 
to form a decision amid the embarrassing discord of the 
chroniclers. To pass at once to the story. 

On the morning of the 4th of August, 1265, Sir Simon de 
Montfort, marching through the night from Kenilworth to 
his father's relief, reached the little town of Alcester at the 
confluence of the Alne and the Arrow. The delay caused 
by Edward's masterly surprise of his army under the castle 
walls had been more than compensated by the opportunity 
afforded by his absence to the Earl of Leicester of breaking 
the hne of the Severn. Severn crossed, the night-march of 
August 3rd had brought the Earl as far as Evesham ; he 
was now only some ten miles distant from the relieving army 
down the Vale of Avon, and the junction of father and son 
seemed secure. The Earl however listened, reluctantly 
indeed, to King Henry's request, and halted at Evesham for 
mass and dinner: the army of Sir Simon halted for the 
same purpose at Alcester. " Those two dinners doleful were, 
alas!"' for Prince Edward was hurrying through the night 
by country cross-lanes to seize the fatal gap which they had 
lefL As tiie morning broke his army lay across the road 

* At laut two diSermt aocountt are ^ WlareTsr tlteae Iuts been piioted 

obvionaly oonfiued together bjr Uatt of by Bndy or Byoier, I have lererred to 

W«stnimatar, uid hii obronologf ia enn their collectioiu. 

more eiroDeoui thui hi* fitcta. Lin|v^, ' Kobert of Qloowter, p. ESS. Adil of 

howarar, followi it. Fury (Hut of W**otUy, p. 21B. 

Farliamenta) ii oqukllj miilod. t C OOqIc 


that led northward from Evesham to Alcester. Ere three 
hours had passed the corpse of the great Earl lay mangled 
amid a ring of faithful knights, and the " murder of Evesliam, 
for battle none it was," was over. 

Simon de Montfort's army, after finishing its meal, was again 
on its march to join the Earl when the news met it, heralded 
■by that strange darkness that rising suddenly in the northwest 
and following as it were on Edward's track served to shroud 
the mutilations and horrors of the battle-field." The news 
was soon fatally confirmed. Simon himself could see from 
afar the noble head of that great faUier home ofiT on a spear- 
point to be mocked at Wigmore.' His retreat was uninter- 
rupted ; the pursuit had streamed naturally away southward 
and westward, through the streets of Tewkesbury heaped 
with corpses of the panic-stricken Welchmen whom the 
townsmen had slaughtered without ruth or pity ; and amid 
the darkness and the big thunder-drops the army fell 
despairingly back on Kenitworth. " I may hang up mine 
axe," are the bitter words attributed by the poet to their 
leader, " for feebly have I gone."* Once within the castle 
he gave way to a wild sorrow, day after day tasting neither 
meat nor drink,* till he was roused into action (^ain by a 
great emergency. The news of the shamefiil indignities 
offered by Mautravers and the Marchers to the corpse of the 
great Earl before whom they had trembled so long, had at 
last reached the garrison at Kenilworth, and the knights 
broke out in a passionate burst of fiiry such as we see in the 
story of Becket's murder.* Richard of Cornwall, his son, 
and some of his knights were prisoners in the castle, and 
the garrison clamored for their blood. Simon had enough 
nobleness and self-restraint to interpose. " To God, and Him 
alone, was it owing," owned his uncle afterwards, " that I 
was snatched from death." ' 

It was noble, for no mercy could be looked for from the 
conquerors. Fresh from the butehery of the fugitives in the 
corn-fields and gardens of Evesham, the Royalists flung 
themselves on their foes with the wild licence of victory. 
The triumphant blare of trumpets which welcomed the 

* Bob. of aioo. MW tt, " «ud wai well ' Wike«, p. 71. 

(Ore kferd," p. G60. ' Eishknger, p. GO. 

' Wika«, p. Tl. » iluhMgn, p. 60. 
■ Bob. oioc, p. Ml. -*;-• I 



delivered king into BTesham, " his men weepiDg for joy/'' 
rang out in bitter contrast to the universal mourning.* It 
was the inauguration of a reign of terror. The rights and 
laws for whidi men had toiled and fought so long seemed 
swept away in an hour. England, in the wori^ of her 
anonymoiis poet,' was — 

" Nescia Tentnri oujiu sit subdltit jurl. 
Sub quo onitode, sub ChriMo Tel Bub Herode." 

Every town which had supported Earl Simon — and what town 
had noti — was held to he at the king's mercy, its franchises 
to be forfeited." The charter of Lynn was annulled, Oxford 
was heavily fined, London was marked out as the special 
object of the king's vengeance, and the &rms and merchan- 
dise of its burghers seized as first fnijts of its plunder. The 
darkness which on that fatal morning had hidden their 
books from the monks of Evesham as they sang in the choir, 
was but a presage of the gloom that was to &11 on the 
religious houses.^ From Rainsey, from ETOsham, from St. 
Allans, rose the same cry of havoc and rapine. But this 
was little to the sweeping sentence of confiscation which was 
assumed to have passed by the mere fact of rebellion on all 
the adherents of Earl Simon. To disinherit these was to 
seize the estates of half the landed gentry of England. 
" Ezhteredati," says the anonymous poet, "si fiant con- 
numorati, millia cum binis deca bis sunt acta ruinis."^ The 
Royalists, however, did not scruple to declare these twenty 
thousand disinherited, nor the king to lavish their lau(u 
away on favourites and foreigners. The very chronicles of 
their party recall the pillage with shame.' But all thought 
of resistance lay hushed in the universal terror. Every 
prison, save those of Dover and Kenilworth, opened its gates 
to the prisoners of Lewes.' The wife of Hugh Despenser 
flung open the dungeons of the Tower, and fled weeping to 
the protection of her father, Philip Basset. Even at Kenil- 
worth Simon "saw no other rede"' than to release his 

1 WlkM, p. 71. ' 'Bex et nii compiler Bon rieut 

* RUbuger, p. 4B. daouerat caatlora e^ti ted potiui 

* Qaotod by Holliwall. MoUa to ttnltiores. ■ ■ ■ nop »olum powwiopei . . . 
lUaliaiigei'i Chronicle, p. 141. indigeiiiB imI et alienigenii nne perwina- 

* Coutin. Uitt. Puis, ad bdd. 1268. rum discretione conoaiuL" WikM^p.Tl. 
' mabuigar, p. 4T, ■ Lib. Antiq. Leg., p. 76. 

* Rubuger, p. US. • Bob. 01oo.,p. CSL 


But Other motives thao mere panic influenced Simon in 
this release. His captiyes were set free on the 6th of 
September,* two dajs before the date of convocation for the 
Parliament at Winchester. The more assembly of a Parlia- 
ment seemed to promise an end to the present reign of utter 
lawlessness. It was known too that in the Uoyalist camp 
itself a powerful party existed, headed by Prince Edward and 
Earl Gilbert de Clare, which, however hostile to De Montfort, 
shared his love for English liberties. By his release of the 
prisoDera of Eenilworth Simon added to their ranks the wise 
and moderate Eichard King of the Romans, and that prince 
returned the obligation by a promise, under bis hand and 
seal, to exert his influence in favor of the Countess of 
Leicester, of Simon's brothers also, and of himself. 

For the moment, however, all vrise and moderate counsels 
were of little avail. The Parliament met in the usual 
temper of a Restoration Parliament, only to legalize the 
outrages of the past month. The embittered prisoners, 
fresh from the dungeons of the Barons, poured into Win- 
chester to add fresh violence to the demands of the 
Marchers. The very wives of the captive loyalists and 
the widows of the slain were summoned to give fresh im- 
pulse to the reaction. Their place of meeting added fuel to 
the fiery passions thus heaped together, for Winchester yet 
bore the marks of its pillage by Simon on his way to 
Kenilworth, and its stubborn loyalty must have been 
fanned into a flame by the losses it had endured. In such 
an assembly no voice of moderation could find a hearing ; 
the four prelates who favored the national cause, ^e 
Bishops of London and Lincoln, of Worcester and Chiches- 
ter, were excluded; the heads of the religious houses 
were summoned for the mere purpose of extortion. The 
efforts of King Richard and Edward were met by those of 
Edmund, Henry's second son, who, unsated with tiie gift of 
the lands and honors of Earl Simon, placed himself with 
Mortimer and Giflard at the head of the ultra-loyalists.* 
The four resolutions passed were but the legalization of 
their violence ; all grants made during the King's captivity 
were revoked ; the Be Montforts were banished ; the charter 
of London was annulled ; the adherents of Earl Simon were 

* BUhuiger, p. IB. 

'"■ I 


disinherited, and seizia of their lands given to the King. 
Henry at once appointed commissioners* to survey and 
take possession of his spoil, while ha moved to Windsor to 
triumph in the hamihation of London. Its mayor and 
forty of the chief citizens waited in the caatle-yard amid 
the jeers of squires and grooms, only in defiance of their 
safe-conduct to be thrown into prison, and Henry entered 
his capital in triumph, aa into an enemy's city." The 
surrender of Dover came to fill the cup of victory ; it was 
by this port that the foreign auxiliaries whom Richard and 
Amaury do Montfort had sailed with the Earl's treasure to 
enlist, were designed to land ; while in itself it headed the 
formidable lei^e of the Cinque Ports. "On the sea," 
writes Edward of them, in August, "they commit a thou- 
sand piracies and murders ; nor is any one sufTered to land 
unless he be first conducted to Dover, and his arrival 
approved by its inhabitants."' A rising of its prisoners 
compelled its surrender in October, and the success of the 
Royalists seemed complete.' 

In fact, their difficulties were but beginning. Their 
triumph over Earl Simon had been a triumph over the 
religious sentiment of their time, and religion avenged 
itself in its own way. Everywhere the Earl's death was 
viewed as a martyrdom, and monk and friar, however they 
might quarrel on other points, united in praying for the 
souls of the dead as for " soldiers of Christ." Within a 
short time after Evesham ' it began to be whispered that 
Heaven had attested the sanctity of De Montfort by 
miracles at his tomb. How great was the effect of this 
belief may be seen in the request of the Arbitrators of 
Eenilworth to King and Pope for the suppression of these 
miracles ; in the efforts for their suppression throughout the 
reign of Edward the First ; in their continuance into the 
reign of his successor.' Their immediate result was a 
sudden revival of hope. " Sighs," breaks out Eishanger,' 
" are changed into songs of praise, and the greatness of 
our former joy has come to life again," Nor was it in 

' F(Bdem,i. p.t82. • Ruhuigflr, p. 48. 

* 8m tha full ■coount of the Lcmdon > An enquiry vru nuda in tliii reiga 
Tnuiuctioni in Ub. Ant Lag., p. TT,etc into tli» minclM worked ftt Hanr; de 

J Royal Lattare, Hen. III., p. 408, Montfort'a tomb. 

• Wikei, p. 73. t lUriiBogar, p. 49. - . 


mirades alone that the " faithful," aa they proudly styled 
themselves, began to look for relief from " tiie oppression of 
the Maligoants." ' The same Parliament which by its 
decrees of exile robbed Simon of any hope of accom- 
modation provided him with an army by its decrees of 
disinherison. In the first moment of the reaction he had 
quitted Kenilworth and joined John d'Eyvill and Baldewin 
Wake in the Isle of Axholme. So fast did foot and horse flow 
in to him, that Edward and his cousin Henry of Almaine 
hurried into Lincolnshire to hold him in check. But 
already the south and the west were backing the resistance 
in the north ; the men of the Cinque Forts, putting on 
board their wives and children, swept the seas and harried 
the coast ; * while Uewellyn, whose raid upon Chester had 
caused the hasty dissolution of the Parliament of Winton, 
butchered without mercy the routed fragments of the host 
sent against him.' Rishanger himself penning his grand 
eulogy of Earl Simon quietly amongst &ii the uproar, saw 
the rise of the new spirit of resistance in the streets 
of St Albans." The town (these details of the story 
light up the time) was diligently guarded and strongly 
closed with bolts and bars within and without, and in its 
dread of war refiised entrance to all strangers wishing to 
pass through, above all to horsemen. The Constable of 
Hertford, Henry de Stok, was an old foe of the townsmen ; 
he boasted that, in spite of bolts and bars, he would enter 
the place, and carry oGF four of their best villeins captive to 
Hertford. He contrived to make his way in, and loitered 
foolishly about A butcher passing by overheard him ask 
his followers how the wind stood ; and guessing his design 
to bum the town he knocked him down. The blow gave 
heart to the townsmen, t^ey secured De Stok and his 
followers, struck off their heads, and fixed them at the four 
comers of the borough. 

In this moment of reaction, the Legate Ottobuoni landed 
with the Queen,' bringing with him the calm wise pohcy of 
Rome. In the hour of their triumph Pope Clement had 
been a bitter enemy of the Barons ; immediately on his 
. he had despatched Cardinal Ottobuoni to preach 

"A pcMnin Bwliffuntiam." BU- * Ann. otWt,vmhf, p. 220. 

ew, p. IS. ■ CoDt Halt, Far. ad vin. ISSfi. 

Anoali of Waveriej, p. 2£1. ' Hot. 1, Ann. of Wftverlej, p. 221. 


a crusade against them, to form a league of princes for the 
defence of " the common cause of kings," and to induce 
Louis of France to put himself at the head of it. But 
with their overthrow his tone changed. " Tristia nobis et 
Iseta enarrastis," he wrote in reply to the news of Evesham. 
Henceforth congratulations on the Royal successes^ merely 
serve as preludes for earnest exhortations to moderation and 
clemency. " Clemency," wrote the Pope to Henry, on Octo- 
ber 25, " is the strength of a realm . . . Forgiveness will 
win more to lore you and your son than punishment and 
harahness ... If the heat of vengeance represses the 
hatred of a few, it goads that of the many." Clement had 
accompanied his letter of absolution to Earl Gilbert with 
like exhortations to assist the King and Prince Edward, but 
also anxiously to study the peace of the realm, and to 
exhort them to clemency. It was Edward's severity that 
Clement seemed most to fear, and to him he wrote In yet 
stronger apped. " It is against yourself that you are cruel 
when you are cruel towards your people ; it is your own 
power that you diminish . . . Rather knit their hearts to 
you by benefits ; by these win over your foes, that so of 
traitors you may make liege men, and of enemies friends." 
Ifoble words, and destined to find in Edward one noble 
enough to understand them. In the first flush of victory 
Edw^ had stood alone in desiring the captivity of the 
Ear] and his sons, against the cry of the Marchers for their 
blood.' He had wept over the corpse of his old playfellow, 
Henry de Montfort, and had followed the Earl, his uncle, to 
the tomb. If his brother Edmund joined Mortimer and 
the other loyalists, Edward took his stand resolutely with 
the party of moderation and peace. He had marched, aa 
we have seen, to stem the rising in the North. On his 
arrival at Azholme, he at once entered into negotiations with 
hia cousin, and, adding the solicitations of the queen and the 
legate to his own, prevailed on him to quit the island and 
appear before the King.' There Richard of Cornwall wel- 
comed him as the saviour of his lite ; he presented him to 
his brother, and Henry gave him the kiss of peace.' In 
spite of the opposition of the Marchers, conscious that 

■ Bjm^r, t p. <eS. * For the two bIcIm of k coiit«t«d 

* HugU, p. 873. atOTj eea Wikei, p. 73, mod Anmiii of 

> BUbwiger, p. CO. WtTorlsf, p. 221. 



however, from the blood-connection between them, the court 
might wish to save the De Montforts, yet that between 
Simon and the men who had sworn his father's death and 
mangled his father's corpse no terms were possible, success 
seemed on the point of crowning this bold stroke of the 
peace party, when Earl Gilbert interposed. His position 
was indeed most difficult. He had not fought agaiust 
Uberty, he had bound Edward by oath to preserve it, ere 
be entered with him on this campaign. He bad wrested a 
like promise from Henry in the very hour of exultation after 
Kvesham. So conscious was he that neither his love of 
liberty nor his past struggles for it could ever really be 
forgiven by the Royalists, that he had thought it wise to 
obtain a formal pardon for his share in the victory of Lewea 
from the King,' and a release from his excommunication at 
the hands of the Pope. But, if distrusted by the conquerors, 
he was hated by the conquered.* It was his treason to 
which they attributed the ruin of their cause. Above all, 
he, the pupil of De Montfort, had sworn the earl's death ; 
the blood of the father lay between him and the sons ; the 
safety of the one lay in the ruin of the other. In the face 
of the more pressing danger, Earl Gilbert threw his weight 
into the scale of the Marchers, and peace became impossible. 
The question was shelved by a reference to arbitrators ; 
Simon, so his party complained, was detained in spite of hia 
safe-conduct, and moved in the train of the royal army at 
Christmas from Northampton to witness the surrender of 
Kenilwortb, which had been stipulated in the original terms 
of agreement as the price of his reconciliation with the King. 
The castle was the one great obstacle that remained to a 
general peace. As early as August, 1265, Edward had 
enclosed, in a letter to Roger Leybume, a list of the chiefii of 
its garrison and a summons to surrender. " Et cum sint 
nonnulli in castro de Kenilleworth quos possumus et debemus 
nostroB inimicos merito reputare, quorum nomina vobis mitti- 
mus prsBsentibus annotata, existimatur pariter expediens 
ipsis fore scribendum ex parte nostri domini supradicti ut, 
si nolint inimici pubHci reputari et exbsredari ac vitam 
perdere, prout meruerunt, dictum castrum committant sine 
monl qualibet nostro domino et assignent, nee ista littera alii 

' Feed. 1„ p. Ui. * HutuuKer, p.^ei, 




quam religioso deferenda committatur." * But the garriBon 
attracted no specid attention till the departure of Simon for 
Azhokne at the close of Norember. It aeems to hare been 
pait of the plan of the campaign on which he entered that 
the castle should by increased activity draw down on itself 
the attention and efforts of the KoyaUsts, and thus giro the 
insurgents in the north time to take the field in arms. 
Immediately therefore on his departure, the garrison scoured 
the country, ravaging cruelly on all sides, and sweeping such 
a store of provisions into the castle as would suffice, they 
boasted, for seven years' consumption. Every day brought 
new troops of the Bisinherited to swell their numbers, and, 
pressing as was the danger from Simon at Azholme, the 
attitude of Kenilworth appeared so formidable to the 
Royalists that on the 10th of December the King despatched 
from Windsor a summons to his nobles to meet him at 
Northampton for a campaign against the castle, and from 
Northampton on the 26th he directed Osbert Gifiard to raise 
the posse comitatus of Oxfordshire and Warwickshire " ad 
grarandum et expugnandum illos qui se tenent in castro 
de Eenel worth." ' The sudden appearance of Simon in 
the Royal camp and his offer to surrender the castle 
promised to end the matter, but the opposition of Earl 
Gilbert had changed the face of affairs, and it was, in his 
own belief as a man betrayed and a prisoner that Simon 
was led before the castle to perform his part of the contract 
The reply of the garrison to the royal summons shows that 
they understood his situation, and freed him from the 
responsibility of their refusal. They had received ward of 
the castle, they answered, not from Simon but from the 
Countess, and to none living save to her, in her presence, 
would they surrender it.' Adroitly as the refusal was framed 
it was not Ukely to make Simon's position an easier one. 
Immediately on his arrival in London the award was an- 
nounced, binding him to quit the realm, and not to return save 
with the assent of king and baronage when all was again 
at peace. No formal acceptance seems to have been given, 
and Simon remained in free custody at London ; but sinister 
rumours, probably the work of the ultrarroyaliats whose 

■ Rojml LeUera, Bftn. IH., 406. T Uihuiger, p. 61. 

•B;...r,i,p.(S7. C-,O0<{k 


great aim it was to get rid of him, reached his eara, and, 
warned at length that he was doomed to perpetual imprison- 
ment,* he resolved to escape. On the night of Ash Wednes- 
day he stole cautiously out of London with his men and 
hastened to Wlnchelsea," where the citizens were expecting 
his arriraL His escape gave a new vigour to the war. 
Llewellyn wasted the Border; the Cinque Porta ravaged 
more mercilessly than ever; the garrison of Kenilworth 
pushed their invasions even to Oxford, and the Disinherited 
again rose in the north. It was spring-time, when, as 
Wikes expresses it,^ the vast forests which then covered the 
country " clothed themselves in their covert of leaves," and 
it was easy for outlaws to live under the greenwood tree. 
Baldwin de Wake and John de Byvil, hoth of them brothers 
of knights in garrison at Kenilworth, and the latter a prisoner 
at Eveaham who had but recently escaped, threw themselves, 
with a numerous band of followers, into the wood of " Suf- 
feld frith," and harried with fire and sword the counties of 
the north and the eastern coast ; Sir Adam Grurdon, a knight 
of gigantic size and renowned prowess, wasted at the head 
of a smaller band the shires of the south. In almost every 
county of the kingdom bands of outlaws were seeking their 
very existence in rapine and devastation,' while the royal 
treasury was empty, and London's enormous fine had been 
only swept into tbe coffers of the French usurers. 

But a strong hand was at the head of affairs, and Edward 
met his innumerable assailants with untiring energy. Henry 
of Almaine, son of the King of the Romans, was sent with a 
large fotxe to the north ; Mortimer to the defence of the 
Welsh border ; three or four men were levied from every town- 
ship in Oxfordshire and Berks to garrison Oxford. Edmund, 
the King's second son," was despatched to Warwick to bold 
the Kenilworth knights in check. Edward himself and Earl 
Gilbert hurried on Sir Simon's track to secure the sea-ports 
by which foreign auxiliaries could be introduced. Throwing 
out scouts in all directions, he fell, on tbe 7th of March, sud- 
denly on Winchelsea.* The surprise was complete. Many of 
the citizens were slain ; many rushing in wild panic to their 
boats were drowned, and their leader, Henry Pedeu, fell into 

■ Roh. OlooMt., p. C34. * WlkM p. 75. 

• WftTarlej, p. 221. ' Wikaa, p. 78. 

> VntM, p. T6. ' WiktB, p. 78. , 


Edward's hands.' His life was spared by Earl Gilbert's 
advice, and Edward made use of turn as an agent for the 
reconcihation of the Cinque Forts. The success of this 
policy of moderation was immediate. The most obstinate 
of Henry's opponents submitted in a week, for on the 15th 
of Marcn the Cinque Forts accepted a peace whose terms 
■were a presage of the coming Dictum.* They were pro- 
mised a complete obliTioa of the past, freedom from all 
forfeiture, the confirmation of their charters and privileges. 
" For what reason these concessions were made I know not," 
growls the royalist scribe of the Liber de Antiquis Legibus, 
and the growl no doubt echoes the general sentiment of his 
party. Heeding nothing of their discontent Edward held 
on lus way, scouring the south with the same mixture of 
caution and alacrity, clearing the woods of Berkshire, dis- 
persing Adam Gurdon's band at Whitsuntide, and capturing 
their renowned leader. The day before this close of the 
insurrection in the south had seen the last blow given to the 
rising in the north. Henry of Almaine fell on the knights 
at Chesterfield while the bulk of them were hunting in the 
woods ; of the two leaders who remained in the town, 
D'Eyvill cut his way out and escaped. Earl Ferrars, " sick 
with gout and other woes," was taken in his bed. The band 
dispersed, some keeping to the woods, others, amongst whom 
was Henry of Hastings, making their way to Kenilworth.' 

All was now free for the great siege. Edmund Croucbback 
had held Warwick in the face of the garrison, but he had 
been able to do little to check its insolence. The news of 
Simon's escape to France had filled the knights with hope ; ^ 
they raised his standard,^ boasted of the letters they had 
received from him,' and awaited eagerly the foreign 
auxiliaries which the family of De Montfort were making 
strenuous efforts to raise.^ 

The countess had retired to the Dominican nunnery at 
Montargis, but her sons were actively employed in. raising 
money and men. Guy de Montfort, their father's elder 
brother, had married Petronilla, countess of Bigorre in her 
own right, and this county their son, Eskivat, unable to 

> Annals of WoTirlay, p. S2I, 666. 

* Lib. AnL L^., p. BS. ■ WikM, p. 76. 

' "Sir Henrj of Hutinei to Kemng- * WoatmlDiter, p. MS. 

worUu drew and foond tbere fair com- ' Wikea, p. 77. 

pMy of giKMl men man." Bob. Qloc. ' Bisliuigar, E3-1. 



defend it agaiust the Gascons, had granted in 1250 to his 
powerful uncle, Earl Simon. In October, 1265, the countess 
and her son Simon, as yet still in England, surrendered it to 
Thebault, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne, 
probably to provide means for the army which the brothers, 
now united in France, were endeavouring to raise. The 
King seems to hare entertained considerable apprehension of 
their efforts : the grant made to Piiuce Edward in April, 
1266, of "all foreigners and merchants from beyond sea 
desiring to come into and abide in this our realm," and the 
directions to suffer none such to travel or traffic without 
special licence were probably intended to provide against 
Sir Simon's spies ; ^ while in May the King's fears 
broke out in a writ from Northampton to all bailiffs and 
barons of his ports ; " Cum Symon de Monteforte et complices 
et fautores sui, inimici nostri, cum multitudine armato- 
Tum quoB sibi jam coUigunt in partibus Gallicanis regnum 
nostrum hostiliter ingredi proponant, ut accepimus, ad idem 
regnum nostrum perturbandum et iteratam guerram io eodem 
de novo suscitandam," they were to keep guard against 
invaders day and night.* 

The bold attitude of the Kenilworth garrison, their 
hopes of foreign aid, and the universal outburst of the 
spring, bad changed the temper of the royal camp. The 
exultation of Evesham had sunk into despondency. Otto- 
buono had appUed for permission to abandon his hopeless 
mission, and the Pope, while reproving him for his cowardice, 
left it at his discretion to stay or to go." Henry himself 
gave the strongest sign of his wish to conciliate popular 
favor in the relaxation of his grasp upon London, and by 
despatching a writ from the camp enabling tbe citizens to 
elect their own sheriffs. The reception of the writ showed 
how, within the city, late bo panic-stricken, the old spirit of 
freedom had revived ; the popular party met tbe nomination 
of William Fitz-Richard by the King's friends with a 
tumultuous demand for the release of their leaders. " Nay, 
nay," they shouted, " we will have no mayor but Thomas 
Fitz-Thomas ; him we will have freed from prison with his 
fellows that be at Windsor," and a popular rising against the 
magnates was only prevented by the armed interposition of 


Roger Leybume." The same new spirit showed itself in 
the royal army on its gathering at Oxford in the middle of 
April. Though the summons against Kenilworth had been 
specially proclaimed at every market cross,' many re- 
fused to attend, alleging it to be contrary to law to be sum- 
moned thrice in a year ; ^ while those that came showed 
greater inclination for n^otiation than war. It was in 
compliance" with their counsel that the King and the Legate 
despatched the Archbishop of Edessa, an Englishman by 
birth, a man wary and eloquent, to exhort the garrison to 
Burrender ; but his exhortations, while giving them timely 
notice of the King's approach, succeeded only in quickening 
their activity in tlie collection of forage. Far from dreadinj^ 
they had long been desirous of a siege, and as if to provoke 
the King to yet speedier attack, they seized a royal cawor, 
cut off his hand, and sent him thus mutilated, with 
ribald jests, to the royal camp.' But, bitterly as Henry 
resented the affront, the siege was still delayed. From 
Northampton, whither the royal army had marched from 
Oxford at the end of April, Edward was suddenly called 
away to check the bands of northern maraudei-s, who had 
seized and pillaged Lincoln. The task proved an easy one, 
but it wasted two months, and an attempt of Edmund 
to invest the castle in the meantime, single-handed, was 
repulsed with loss." 

At last, on the 23rd of June,* 1265, the royal army en- 
camped around Kenilworth, and the siege was formed. But, in 
spite of the King's oath not to stir thence till the castle was his 
own,* it was plain from the first that war was to be secondary 
to negotiation. Even after the rejection of the Archbishop's 
offers we find a safe conduct granted on June lAih, while 
the army was still at Northampton, to the Disinherited who 
wished to treat with the Legate ; and, a few days only after 
the commencement of the siege the Legate, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and two of his suffragans, came with the 
purpose of arranging a peace." Fifteen days' fruittess efforts 
ended, however, in an equally fruitless excommunication of 
the obstinate garrison, and the siege commenced. It was no 

• Lib. Ant. L^., p. 88. i Anmh of WkTwley, p. 222. 
' Clou Bolli, Brady, p. BW. » WUtB^ p. 78. 

» Riib«iiger, p. 6*. 4 AnnilB of W«Terl«y, p. 222. 

• l™. • Ibid. 
■ Und. CloM tteSh, Biadj, p. OH. 



light andertaking, and Henry had shown hia sense of its 
magnitude by directing the citizens of "Warwick to forward 
to the camp at Northampton ..." Cementarios et omnes 
alios operarios de balliva tua, cam hachiis, pikasiis, et aliis 
utensilibus suia." ' The castle was so strong as to have been 
deemed impregnable. No fortress of the realm could riral 
it in its equipment of war. Its supplies would have sufficed 
an ordinary garrison for years.' But the 1,200 militea who 
had gathered there formed rather an army than a garrison, 
and made the operations not so much a si^e as a war. Sir 
William de la Cowe and Sir John de la W&rre were the 
wardens of the castle.' The names of some of its defenders 
are here g^ven, as appended to Edward's letter from Chester, 
in August, 1265. "Job. de Huzegros, Ingerramus de Bayllol, 
Rad. de Lymes', Hugo de Culeworth, Nich, de Bosco, Hugo 
WtJie, Job. Fitzwalter, Will, de la Cene, Philippus de Boyrille, 
Hugo de Traham, . . . de Gaudewelle, miUtea ; Watterus de 
Barkesrile, Nicholaus le Archer, Joh. de Bovy, Bic de 
Havering', Joh. Page, WiUielmus Camerarius; Walterus de 
London, clericus ; Thomas de Wynton, clericus ; Walterus 
de Glou, Galfridus de Crulefend, Joh. Luvel, Bob. Luvel, 
Thos. Luvel, Bicardo de Sancto Johanne, vallettL" Besides 
the two chaplains given here, Robert of Gloucester tells us of 
Master Peris of Radnor, that was the " stalewardeste clerc on 
of al Engelonde." ' 

All had hailed Henry of Hastings as their leader when, 
with Sir Nicole de Bois, he fled to Eenilworth, afler the rout 
of Chesterfield. They saw without alarm the "tents and 
pavilions " rising in the meadows around, the Hues dravm 
about them, and the erection of eleven petrarise, which rained 
thenceforth night and day a shower of stones upon the castle.' 
Edward had made vigorous efforts to -match its renowned 
armament. In the Close Rolls for the year we find man- 
dates directed to the wardens of the city of London, John 
Walround and John de Luids, bidding them supply Conrad 
the balistarius with £12, "ad nerves et cordas emendos et 
ad balistas faciendas ;" and on October 23rd an order to 
the constable of the castle to forward to Kenilworth quarrells 
and fourteen balistsQ without delay. But throughout the 

■ Rob. oioo., p. ses, 

• Ibid. 

r,p.57. i^;oO'^lc - 

292 THE BAN OS EBNairOBTff. 

royal eDg^neers found themselTes OTermatclied. A wooden 
tower of wondrous height and breadth, constructed by 
Edward at enormous cost, from whose floors more than 200 
balistarii poured arrows and other missiles on the garrison, 
fell before the stones hurled perseveringly against it by a 
mangonel &om within." A machine, called the bear, which 
sheltered a number of archers, was leyelled by one of the 
petraris of the castle. Barges were brought at much ex- 
pense from Cheshire, and an attempt was made to assail 
the walls fi-om the water, but the attempt failed. Through- 
out the siege, in fact, the beaiegers were thrown practically 
on the defensiye." The gates of the castle stood defiantly 
open from morning till night, and the garrison made daily 
sallies of horse and foot, threatening the very herds which, 
gathered for the consumption of the Koyal army, browsed in 
the meadows beneath. The besiegers, on the other hand, 
ventured on no general attack, but confined themselves to 
repulsing these desperate sallies. On one day only were 
they interrupted by an incident characteristic of the time. 
From the open gate descended a bier, surrounded with 
tapers, bearing the corpse of a brave knight of gentle blood, 
who had fallen wounded into the hands of the Disinherited, 
and was now borne forth for burial in accordance with his 
dying wish. The courtesy of the castellans may have aided 
the efforts of the peace party in the royal camp. Rejected 
as their first ofier had been, the Legate and the King of the 
Romans had not ceased their attempts at mediation, and 
their spirit was shared by the Parliament that met before 
Kenilworth on St Bartholomew's day, August 24th, 1266, and 
which a sense of the importance of the crisis caused to be 
numerously attended.* Their first act showed their resolve 
that this strife should cease. The King's moat pressing need 
was for money. The great expense of the si^e had forced 
him to leave his Queen penniless at Windsor.' The treasury 
he had brought vrith him was drained. His first demand, 
therefore, after a solemn confirmation of the charter, was for 
a tenth from the clergy for three years. The whole Parlia- 
ment united in their reply. They would first establish 
peace, if peace were possible, and then answer the King on 

' lUahugm, 69. of Watrwley, p. HZ 



this matter. The Legate added his approval, and the King 
at once gave way. On the 26th of August {according to the 
original record in Norman-PreDch on the Patent Roll, 50 
Hen. III. in dorso), "it was agreed and granted by common 
assent, and by the commoo counsel of the bishops, abbots, 
priors, earls, barons, and all others," that six commis- 
sioners should be chosen, who in turn should elect other 
six, to provide for the state of the kingdom and of the Disin- 
herited. The words of the record sufficiently indicate the 
national character of the act ; the additional words of the 
Annals of Waverley, perhaps, only indicate the general im- 
pression which it conveyed. In that account, it is stated 
that the commissioners, bishops or barons, were specially to 
be men English-born and lovers of their country.' 

The character of the commissioners chosen corresponded 
with the temper of the Parliament. All were of the party 
which, as distinct both from the ultra-Royalists and from the 
National cause, we may call " Constitutional Royalists." The 
Bishops of Exeter, Worcester, Bath and Wells, Robert 
Walround, Roger de Someri, and Alan de la Zouche formed 
the first six, and these associated with themselves the Bishop 
of St. Davids, the Earls of Gloucester and Hereford, John 
Bajllol, Philip Basset, and Warin de Bassingbourne. With the 
exception of Earl Gilbert all had been staunch supporters of 
the Crown. De Bohun, Basset, De Someri, and De la Zouche 
had been captured at Lewes. Bassingbourne had headed the 
Royalist charge at Evesham. But the majority of them were 
well known as inclined to a policy of moderation. The 
peaceful inclinations of the court were notorious, and two of 
the bishops (Walter Giffard and Nicholas Ely) were, the one 
a Royal chancellor, the other an ex-chancellor. W^round, a 
man of great diplomatic experience, had in 1262 been joined 
on a hke commission with Philip Basset and Walter de 
Merton to effect a compromise with the barons. Basset 
himself, one of the bravest of the King's supporters, was 
pledged to moderation by the fortunes of his house. His 
son-in-law, Hugh Despenser, and his cousin, Ralph Basset, 
had fallen by Earl Simon's side at Evesham ; his daughter, 
Despenser's wife, had taken shelter with him after that fatal 
overthrow. The widow of Ralph Basset, again, was the 
daughter of Roger de Someri, and the father's loyalty alone 

■ * IndigMiu ct temua dilJgMilM." Ann, of Wktedof, p. 23>. y 

,01,, jii. ^4Vglc 


sared her manors from confiiscation. Bassingboarne bad 
been enriched by the forfeitures of the barons, but his son 
had aerred in their ranks, and was still unpardoned. Of the 
two earls, De Bohun, though ever on the King's side, was a 
staunch supporter of English liberties, and his son had been 
one of the rebel leaders at Lewes and a captive at Evesham. 
His colleague needs no comment — he was Earl Gilbert of 

The Twelve' were the first to make solemn oath, " de 
utilibus ordinandis ; " and the King, the clergy, and the 
people in succession swore to the observance of their Ban, 
The Legate and Henry of Almaine were added as umpires 
in case of any division of opinion," and at the close 
of August their deliberations began. It is worth while to 
notice that on the first head submitted to them, the question 
" De statu Regni," whose importance we shall see' presently, 
the twelve were perfectly in accord. On the second, of the 
state of the Disinherited, unanimity was impossible. Should 
any or none he excluded from the redemption of their lands 
— " fiat exhseredatio aut redemptio " — was the question that 
met them at the outset. Some contended that there might 
be cases of total confiscation, others that only a third of the 
lands should hero and there be restored, others advised the 
restitution of a half. The matter was at last referred to the 
umpires, and it is to Henry and Ottohuoni that the final 
decision was owing, and liberty of redemption on one term 
or another left open to all.* 

The decision wa^ the signal for a storm of opposition. 
Liberty of redemption — in other words the rescinding of the 
confiscation — was the death-blow of the ultra-royalists. 
Mortimer and his fellow-marchers had the credit, they 
pushed to the utmost the claim of having "brought the 
King back." "Quasi reges dicebantur, regale dominium 
sibi protectum usurpaado eo quod Regem tanquam a 
carcere liberassent." ' Theirs had been the profit of the 
pillage of the clei^, and of the confiscation of the Disin- 
hertted. Every motive of hatred and greed urged them to 
resist this proposal to disgorge their spoil. They broke out 

' WwtmiiiiteT, p. 344. Hid give ns th« inner hiitorj' of Um eoo- 

■ Hiahuigar, p. S7. iraltuioni of ths Tweln. 

' The quusUoni kod deoiaioDa of the ■ RuhangBr, [^ 48. 

nmpitei al« appvoded to the Dietvin, , . . 



in mad violence, threateaing the life of the Legate himself. 
But their power was over, the national resolve was not to be 
shaken by the threats of a faction, and the utter rout of 
Mortimer by Llewellyn at Brecknock,^ the only defeat that 
had chequered the course of the Koyalist success, ia the 
spring, had damaged their leader's influence. Backed by 
f^dward and Earl Gilbert the Legate met their threats boldly. 
He had received commission, he said, to excommunicate all 
disturbers of the peace, and the excommunication which 
they had solicited against De Montfort, he would, if need 
were, fulminate against them.* Then they turned against 
Earl Gilbert of Gloucester. On him vraa now to fall the 
Nemesis of the one black deed that stains his life. The 
departure of the sons of De Montfort bad left him free to 
break from his unnatural union with the Marchers, to stand 
forth again as the champion of English right and English 
justice. He earnestly supported the decision of the arbi- 
trators, and the restoration of their lands to the Disinherited. 
By grant, or yet oftener by lawless seizure, the bulk of the 
spoils were in the hands of the fierce mamuders with whom 
he had'swom against the earl's life, and now there were dark 
rumours of a league against his own.* The struggle at last 
ended in secession, both parties quitted the royal camp, 
Mortimer ostensibly to protect his lands against the Dis- 
inherited, De Clare with the avowed design of crushing, by 
the decisive stroke which he afterwards executed, the last 
relics of the influence of the Marchers. 

The strife did not interrupt the labours of the Twelve, 
while the Bishop of Ely brought tidings to the camp which 
quickened the anxiety of all for some speedy pacification.'' 
The whole face of the country, drained of its defenders by 
the concentration of the royal forces round Kenilworth, was 
scoured by the bands of the Disinherited, in spite of royal 
directions that castles and towns should he carefully guarded, 
and all depredators be at once pursued with the Hue and 
Cry (Close Roll, 50 Hen. III., Westm. March 15). By one of 
these bands the Isle of Ely, though jealously guarded by 
the bishop, was seized about Michaelmas, and the natural 
fortress at once filled with Disinherited.^ Prince Edward 

» Ann. of WaverUj, p. 222. * Biilmnger, p. B8. 

I HUhaoger, p. 67. • Wikea, p. 77. 

* Bubangar, p. St). _ , 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


Tras detached against this new danger, hut the tide of 
popular courage was still rising. The king's hrief, despatched 
to all the sheriffs of England, directing the obserTaoce 
of the Great Charter throughout the realm, had no sooner 
been read at Guildhall on the Eve of St. Michael, than the 
citizens claimed the free election of their own mayor and 
sheriffs which was provided in it. These envoys appeared 
now in the camp, and returned successful William Fitz- 
Richard, the royal nominee, was removed, and the city 
made its own election of bailiffs.' Amid all this the com- 
missioners proceeded in their settlement of the details of 
redemption, continually referring their disputes to the Legate 
and Lord Henry, who as invariably decided in a sense favor- 
able to the Disinherited. On the 7th of October, though 
still unproclaimed, the award must have been really com- 
pleted, for on that day the king (Pat. Roll, 50 Hen. JII.,) 
granted power to PhiUp Marmion, William de la Zouche, and 
William de St. Omer, " to treat for peace with those who hold 
out against us, and to grant them safe-conduct to the royal 
camp." But the formal announcement was reserved for 
the Parliament now summoned to meet at Northampton at 
the close of the month. The Legate, desirous of increasing 
the sanction to be given by it to the Dictum of the Twelve, 
had directed all archdeacons to forward lists of the abbots 
and priors within their provhices, and had threatened with 
excommunication all spiritual persons who neglected to 

In the presence of the two Kings, the Legate, and this great 
assembly, the Twelve, on the 30th of September, the 
Wednesday before AU Saints' Day, pronounced their award. 
Beside five copies of minor importance, the oldest and most 
valuable text of the Dictum is that preserved in the Cott. HS. 
Claudius D. ii. f. 119 b, a copy beautifully written and in 
complete preservation, and from which the text given in the 
Statutes of the Realm has been taken. It bears in the 
Chronicles and in the heading of the US., the same title of 
the " Dictum " of EenilworDi ; though sometimes In the 
course of the document styled " ordinacio nostra ;" the words 
have commonly been rendered the " Award " of Eenilworth ; 
it is, perhaps, too late to suggest a change, but I have 

' Lib. Aob Leg., se-S. ■ Riilwngw, p. ST. 



ventured to style it the "Ban of Kenilworth," partly as 
the rendering given by the only contemporary, Robert of 
Gloucester, who designates the Dictum by an English temi, 
partly as restoring to the word the truer sense, which, save 
in the phrase " giving out the bans," it has almost wholly 

The Dictum is so long, so encumbered with details, and so 
easily accessible in the Statutes of the Kealm, that I need 
not give more than a brief abstract of most of its later pro- 
visions. Its earlier are more important It is easy, by 
passing them over, to regard the Ban as the mere capitulation 
of a beaten party, though even then, our common historians, 
who adopt this interpretation, forget to explain why it is 
claimed as a victory by the chroniclers, such as the Annalist 
of Waverley and Riahanger. But, in truth, the " Award con- 
cerning the State of the Realm," which they pass over, is 
the most important portion of the whole, while the details 
of the redemption are but temporary arrangements, passing 
away with the emergency which called them forth. 

The Ban opens with words too solemn to bo viewed as 
merely formal. " In the name of the Holy Trinity, to the 
honour of God, the Saints, and the Catholic Church ; for the 
honour, prosperity, and peace of the King, the whole realm, 
and Church of England, we, associated to make provision 
for the State of the EeaJm, and of the Disinherited, having 
from the King and others, barons, councillors of the realm, 
and nobles of England, full power, according to the form 
written in public letters sealed with the seals of the afore- 
said King and others, make under God's favours those pro- 
visions which, according to law and right, we deem to be in 
accord with God's good pleasure and l£e peace of the realm, 
accepting no man's person in this matter, but having God 
alone before our eyes, and acting therefore as in the sight of 
God." After this solemn esordium, the Twelve proceed to 
the first great question laid before them, " De Statu Hegni." 
Their primary care is to restore the machinery of govern- 
ment to its full ef&ciency ; to render to the king all former 
rights and prerogatives ; to declare all amenable to his 
courts ; to annul all acts of his while in captivity. But from 
this they pass to a series of demands strangely neglected 
by historians, but constituting a solemn assertion of English 
liberty. First, they claim a real administration of justice. 


" We beseech the KiDg, and respectfully press on his piety, 
that he appoint such men to administer justice as. seeking 
not their own but what is of Grod and justice, may duly 
settle his subjects' business according to the laws and 
customs of the realm, and so render the throne of the King's 
majesty strengthened by justice." Thence they pass to like 
petition and request that " the King fully keep and obserre 
those ecclesiastical liberties, charters of liberties and of 
forests, which he is expressly and by his own oath hound 
to preserve and keep." " Let the King," they add, " esta- 
blish on a lasting foundation those concessions which he has 
hitherto made of his own will and not under compulsion, and 
those needful ordinances which have been devised by his 
subjects and by his own good pleasure." In the same way 
they demand the suppression of the abuse of purreyance, 
the restoration of the Church to its former condition, and 
the immediate restitution of its charters and pririlegea to 
the City of London. 

Id the opening of their second division, " De Statu 
Exharedatorum," they lay down the broad principle that in 
this alone among civil wars confiscation was to be the fate 
of none, " Non fiat exhieredatio sed redemptio." For 
this purpose the commissioners divide the Disinherited into 
classes, according to the ransom due from each. The garrison 
of Northampton, the plunderers of Winchester, those who 
had fought against the King at Lewes, Evesham, and Ches> 
terfield, who had sent their aids voluntanly against him, or 
committed ravage, murder, and arson on their neighbours, 
might redeem their lands on payment of five years' rental. 
Fines, gradually decreasing to half a year's rental, were 
assigned to lesser offenders, and elaborate directions given 
for the due execution of the redemption, on which it La need- 
less to dwell. The difficult question of the De Montforts was 
evaded ; Henry III. had referred it in the spring to the 
decision of the King of France, and the Court seems to have 
contemplated their return after all was settled and peaceful. 
The murder of the King of Almaine's son Henry by Simon 
and Guy de Montfort, in revenge of their father's death, 
alone prevented this by turning into fierce hatred the neutral 
dispositions of the Court. "Disposuit Deus," wrote some 
bitter EoyaUst exultingly under the picture of the murder 
on the wall of the church at Viterbo, "Disposuit Deus ut 



per eoa vir taniua obiret, ne, revocatis his, gens AngUca tota 
periret"* But the commiBsioners petitioned King and Pope 
alike against the popular canonization of Earl Simon and 
" the Tain and silly miracles " reported to be wrought at hia 
tomb. Henry was requested to satisfy as far as possible 
the disappointed grantees, lest their resentment should 
furnish occasion for fresh war ; immediate restitution was 
promised to those innocent persons who had been dis- 
inherited on false charges, and punishment was denounced 
against their accusers. Finally, a complete indemnity for 
all wrongs done or endured throughout the troubles, and 
the full benefits of the Ban were assured to those who 
a7ailed themselves of its terms within forty days after their 
publication, and the King was requested to appoint twelre 
commissioners to carry out equitably its details. 

The Annalist of Waverley's summary of it, " facta pronun- 
ciatione adjudicati sunt terris suis omnes exhseredati," ^ marks 
the popular appreciation of the Ban as a victory for the na- 
tional cause. Those only who had won the victory failed to 
recognise its value. With the exception of Henry of Hastings 
and the mutilator of the King's cursor, on whom a fine of 
seven years was imposed, the defenders of Kenilworth fell 
within the general terms of the Dictum, and on its confirma- 
tion by King and baronage it was at once oflered them. The 
exemption of their leader may have angered the garrison, 
or the rising at Ely roused fresh hope ; that offer was at any 
rate refused. Then the Legate, in his red cope among a ring 
of bishops, pronounced against them the sentence of excom- 
munication. They met it with defiiince and mockery ; 
innumerable pennons and standards fluttered out along the 
walls,' whence a puppet Legate, in cope of white, pronounced 
a jesting excommunication on Ottobuoni and the Royalists.' 
In spite, however, of defiance and mockery, the inevitable 
end drew near. Louis of France, since the rejection of his 
award- by the barons, had been the steady friend of the 

' Wertmioitar, p. SCO. ThB7 made a whiU Iiagkta in bia cop* of 
> Ann. of Wkverlsj, p. 228. white 

* Rlibanger, p. 68. A* the oUier red, ubim in deipite, 

* Bob. QlouoMter, p. SeS, nwHtha And be stood h ft Lenta npon the OMtle 
devioe of wall. 
" HMter Fbillp Farpda that «m b 

) by Google 


Crown. He had suffered the Count of S. Pol to conduct 
auxiliaries to the King, but his opposition had foiled* the 
efforts of the sons of De Montfort to raise a simitar force, 
and Simon and Guy had abandoned their enterprise and 
were following their cousin Philip de Montfort to the Italian 
campaign. Thinned as the rojal army had been by the 
departure of Prince Edward, Earl Gilbert, and Mortimer, it 
Btill clung to the aiege, and summoned carpenters for the 
erection of huts for winter quarters. Want and fever dis- 
abled the once enterprising garrison from taking advantage 
of their weakness. Provisions were failing ; there was no 
forage for the horses ; the want of water was ill compensated 
by abundance of wine ; there was no wood for fires, and the 
walls were so shattered by the constant attacks that the 
sufferings of the besieged from cold became intolerable. In 
the beginning of NoTember they were forced to agree to a 
surrender if no aid came within forty days, and in the sus- 
pension of arms which followed they sent letters to Simon. 
No relief came w was expected, and in the middle of December 
the garrison marched out. They had to the last hidden their 
state from the besiegers, but there were now only two days* 
rations in the place, and their worn and emaciated frames, 
the pale and discoloured faces of the Disinherited, told the 
tale of sufferings gallantly borne. The stench -within the 
castle -which they left was bo intolerable as nearly to suffocate 
the Royalists who entered it* 

This is no time to tell the story, which never has been told, 
of the events which followed the surrender of Kenilworth. It 
is enough to say that Ely accepted the Dictum, that Earl 
Gilbert's masterly seizure of London procured its definite 
acceptance as public law. 

I cannot close this memoir without suggesting two 
thoughts which seem to spring from the history of this 
memorable year. It is perhaps the greatest instance in 
our annals of that resolve to struggle on when all seemed 
lost, to which so much of our freedom is owing. It is fortu- 
nate that in the battle of liberty, as in the battle of Waterloo, 
Englishmen never knew when they were beaten. Other 
peoples hare wrested Uberty from weak princes on the crash 
of thrones, but England alone has won hers in the hour of 

* Eitbwiger, p. 5E. Wikoi, p. 77-S. 

D.D.t.zea by Google 


royal triumph, or from kings such as Edward the First. 
And then, with this Ban begins what has been a national 
characteristic ever jsince. We do not write Va Victis as 
the motto of our revolutions, nor oan party struggles cause 
UB to forget our truer brotherhood as Englishmen, It is 
something that from the Dictum of KenilwQrth we oan look 
proudly aJong to the self-restraint of the Restoration, to the 
clemency of 1688, to the forbearance and muti^al respect 
which restrain the bitterness of tk^ poUtipftJ Btrtfea of 



By tlw late Mr. CHABLH WnrSTOV. 

NoTWiTHSTANDlNQ the aBsistance afforded by Sir William 
Dugdale's account of the painted ghms in the Beauchamp 
chapel, its present shattered and dislocated state renders it 
a difficult task to re-arrange it, or to ascertain what parts 
occupy their original positions, or even to form a con- 
jecture as to the nature of that which has been lost. For- 
tunately for our investigations, the glass hitherto haa not 
been " restored," but only " repaired by some ignorant 
glazier," as the phrase is ; but such a person I have ever 
found to be less mischievous than even the most accomplished 

I -will not make any long quotations from the documents 
of which Sir William Dugdtde has furnished abstracts, but 
the following particulars will be found useful. 

It appears by the will of Richard, Earl of Warwick, whose 
executors built the chapel, and who was Lord Despencer in 
right of his second wife,^ that he bequeathed an image of 
gold to the shriae in the church of St Alban, to the honor 
of G^d, our Lady, and St. Alban ; another to the shrine 
of St Thomas at Canterbury ; a third to the shrine at 
Bridlington in Yorkshire ; and a fourth to the shrine in 
the church of St Wenefride at Shrewsbury. 

The contract for glazing the chapel windows was made in 
1447 by the earl's executors with John Prudde of West- 
minster, glazier.' 

Sir William Dugdale adds that after the windows were 
finished, the executors caused some alterations to be made, 

< la th« abunee of the lamantxt > [Sm Note A. at the end of tbi* M»- 

author, thi> memoir wt> read, at hii moir.] 

requsrt, by hla Mend the Rev. John * [Sn Note B. at Ui« end of this Ha- 

Louii Petit. moir.i , - ■ 

DC, zecbvCiOOgIC 

) by Google 

18 Boauohitnp Chapel, ■? 



being some. addition (not stated) for "Our Lady,*' and 
" scripture of the marriage of the eorL" 

The east window of the chapel, as the moat prominent 
and striking object^ naturally arrests our attention ; it irill, 
bovever. assist our inrestigation of its contents, if we first 
take a brief survey of the side windows. For it will, I 
fear, be found, that the east window has undeigoue the 
&te of most east windows, in having been made the recep' 
tacle of frf^raents collected from other windows. Indeed I 
may state my belief, that of the glaring of the east window, 
which at first sight appears so perfect, Uttle else remains in 
its original position, than the glasa in the tracery lights, the 
four upper figures in the aide hghts, and the small fragments 
in the cuspidated heads of the three central lights. In the 
accompanying diagram the original portions still in liiu 
are indicated by shading diagonally from right to left, and 
a piece which I beliere ^so to be original, though somewhat 
displaced, ia indicated by dotting, the spaces filled by glasa 
inserted being left white. 

To begin with the side windows of the chapel ; although 
the remnant of the ancient glaring of these windows is so 
■canty, there is enough to indicate the original composition. 

The same general design pervades the three windows on 
the north side of the chapel, and the first window from the 
east on the south side. 

The tracery lights of each window are filled with a choir 
of angels \ and each of the lower lights was originally occu- 
pied by a single figure with a waving scroll above its 
head, which ascended into the cuspidated head of the light. 
Of these scrolls only the upper parts now remain ; but by the 
inscriptions on them it sufficiently appears that the figures 
were mostly prophets or patriarchs. Figures with the 
lower parts of such scrolls waving above and about their 
heads are to be seen in the east window. These, it can be 
shown, have been removed from some of the side windows. 
Indeed it can, I think, be proved, that two of the figures in 
the east window have been removed from the first window 
from the east on the north side, by the agreement of the 
inscriptions on the lower parts of the scrolls with what 
remains on the upper parts still continuing in the side 

The lower lights had no borders, but were filled with 


colored grounds alternately red in one light and blue in the 
uext. Each ground was ornamented with a foliaged pattern, 
and was divided by a narrow ornamented band — interlaced 
like a fret — into a series of small compartments ; the red 
ground into lozenge-shaped compartments, the blue into 
square compartments, in which were placed alternately the 
founder's badges, viz., the white ragged staff, and the white 
bear with a yellow chain and muzzle. The figures and the 
scrolls were embedded in these grounds, and the figures 
were represented standing on bradiets only, and not under 

The remains of the colored grounds are found in the side 
lights, and are all in situ. They afford a means of identify- 
ing figures in the east window (which retain their grounds, 
and sometimes their brackets also) with the lights in the side 
windows out of which they have iieen taken. 

The angels in the tracery lights of the first window from 
the east, both oa the north and south sides, are engaged 
with musical instruments. They are placed on a blue 
ground powdered with yellow flaming stara. 

But the angels in tiie tracery heEids of the two remaining 
windows on the north side, and, as it would seem from the 
appearance c^ the fragments, in the heads of the two oppo- 
site windows also, were fumidied with scrolls inscribed with 
portions of the hymn supposed to be sung by the angels, 
and marked with appropriate notes of music adapted to 
some sort of instrument. These scrolls most resemble the 
leaves of a book ; and they are arranged in such a manner as 
to present the inelegant appearance of a series of chevrons. 

The scrolls are preserved only in the middle window oa 
the north side ; the inscriptions on them relate to a festival 
in honor of the Virgin ; and the prophetic scrolls in the 
lower lights of the same window seem to have a general 
reference to the coming of Our Lord. 

A somewhat different arrangement is adopted in the 
lower lights of the middle window on the south side. They 
appear to have been filled with a " multitude of the heavenly 
host " ; in some of the lights yellow rays dart upwards. 
The glazing in the lower lights of the last window on the 
south side cannot be considered as original. 

We will now return to the east window. 

It will be the more regular course to commence with the 



tracery lights of this window. They are evidently 'designed 
with reference to some important sacred subject in the lower 
lights ; though we find in some of them (as well as in the 
heraldic grounds of the lower lights of the side windows 
already noticed) that strange admixture of objects of secular 
pomp and worldly ranity which usually characterizes the 
works that we are fond of attributing to " the piety of our 
ancestors" in the middle ages. 

The upper row of tracery lights (marked A in the dia- 
gram) is principally devoted to a display of the founder'a 
motto, in allusion to his marriage with a lady who eventually 
became heiress to the great Deepencer family. The whole 
of this motto, " Louey Spencer, tant que vivray," is 
repeated in each pair of Ughts ; one half, *' Louey Spencer " 
(t. e. praise Spencer), being written on a scroll in one light, and 
the remainder, " tant que vivray," on a scroll in the next. 
The lights otherwise have reference to the sacred nature of the 
genei^ design. In the upper part of each light are repre- 
sented clouds colored in the lights alternately blue and red, 
and powdered with yellow flaming stars ; from which clouds 
yellow rays descend, and are received on the red or blue 
foUaged ground, as the case may be, on which the scroll con- 
taining the motto is placed. Of the originality of this glass 
there can be no reasonable doubt. 

The next row of tracery lights (marked b in the diagram), 
is entirely of religious design. In each is represented, on a 
blue foliaged ground powdered with yellow flaming stars, a 
red seraph standing on a yellow wheel, and holding a scroll 
of the same character as the angelic scrolls in the side 
windows, on which is set forth a portion of the " Gloria in 
excelsis," with musical notes. The bymn commences on the 
left hand or north side of the central part of the window, 
and continues across the six central tracery lights. It 
recommences on the left hand, or north side of the win- 
dow, and continues across the four north tracery lights ; it 
again recommences in the left hand light of the south side 
of the window, and terminates with that series. The adap- 
tation of the hymn to the number of lights, and the occur- 
rence of the blue ground with flaming stars, afford a proof 
that the glass in this tier of lights is also original. 

The glass in the two quatrefoils (marked c in the dia- 
gram) may also be considered as original. Each quatrefoil 


was origitially occupied by a cherub, ooloped yellow, on 
a blue foliagdd ground. Of the remaiqiug tracery lights 
the larger oaes are filled with the blue ground and yellow 
flaming stars, and the smaller ones, mere holes, with plain 
pieces of red or blue glass. There is ao reason for ques- 
tioning their originality. 

We can have no difficulty tn ooneluding that the fonr 
figures in the upper part of the lower lights on the sides 
of the window (which are marked d, b, f, o, in the dia- 
gram) are also cqiginal and in sUtt; for it abundantly 
appeafs that these figures represent the &ur saints in whose 
honor the earl bequeathed the golden images mentioned in 
bis will 

The first in order on the north side of the window 
(marked D in the diagraju) is that of uq archbishop, as indi- 
cated by his cross-staff. The inscription formerly on the 
bracket supporting the figure (the figures never had any 
canopies) is now lost, but Sir William DugdaJa, in his notice 
of the east window, states that there were in his time, '^besides 
those costly portf^tures in glass of £arl Richard, witii hia 
wives and chUdren," (of which we shall hear more presently,) 
*' the pictures, in their full proportion, of St, Aiban, the proto- 
martyr of Bnglaud ; St. Thomas of Canterbury ; St. John of 
Bridlington ; and of St. Wenefride." The figure in question 
may therefore be considered to represent St ^Thomas of 

The second figure from the north (marked B in the dia- 
gram), representing a king in royal app^el, armed in plate, 
having a blue surcoat with a yellow saltire, and bearing in 
bis hand a cross, is at wioe id^tified with Dugdale's 
description by "Ses Alb . . . ." (Sanotus Albanua), the 
remains of the words inscribed on the bracket supporting 
the figure, 

The third figure from the north (in the south wing of tiie 
window,and marked F in the diagram) is that of a female saint, 
in a state-colored purple mantle (black is hereby indicated, 
but Frudde was mindful of his covenant not to use black 
glass if he could avoid i^ having a jeweled border, and in 
a similarly colored under-dress, and bearing a pastoral staff. 
This is also identified with Dugdale's description by the 
word ". . . . Wenefrede" remaining cm the bracket which 
supports the figure. 



The fourth figure (marked G id the diagram) we may 
reasonably conclude represents St. John of Bridlington, 
though the name on the bracket haa been lost. It is that of 
a male saint, bald-headed, in a slate-colored purple cope 
and white surplice, and holding a pastoral staff. In scale 
and general character it entirely accords with the other 
three figures. 

The figures of St. Thomas and St John are on red 
grounds, those of St. Alban and St. Wenefride are on blue ; 
each ground being divided into compartments, and orna- 
mented with the founder's badges, the bear and the ragged 
staff, like the grounds in the aide windows. The order 
of the arrangement of the colors of these grounds — red, blue, 
blue, red — ^is a strong proof not only that the figures are 
in situ, but also of the originality of the glass which occu- 
pies the cuspidated heads of the three central lower lights. 
For it will be found, that of these three lights the two outer 
ones had red grounds, and the inner or central hgbt an 
exterior blue ground ; an arrangement which would produce 
an alternation of red and blue grounds across the lower 
lights of the window thus : — 

I Red I Blue || Red [ Blue I Ked D Blue | Red | 

The glass in the cuspidated heads of the three central 
lower lights would appear to have belonged to some large 
subject. It seems to have immediate reference to some 
design which consisted of three glorified figures, the centre 
one of which was either larger than the others or was 
raised above them. For the glass in the centre light 
(marked i in the diagram) represents the upper part 
of a nimbus (not cruciferous as far as I could ascertain), 
from which yellow rays proceed, and extend over a red 
ground next the nimbus, and over a blue ground beyond ; 
which blue ground occupies the remainder of the space as 
far as the stonework will allow. This blue ground is painted 
to represent clouds, and is powdered with yellow flaming 

The glass in the two outer central lights (marked H and K 
in the diagram) represents only yellow rays traversing a red 
ground, and these rays, it is evident from their less 
divergence as compared with those in the centre light, 
proceeded firom some point lower down in each Ught than 
the nimbus in the middle light. 

'OL. XXI. DiDKizeabyCioO^lc 


We probablj should conjecture rightly, if we supposed that 
the subject of 'which these Iragmeuts formed part consisted 
of some prominent piece of Marian symbolism. The 
chapel is dedicated to the Blessed Yirgin ; and she was one 
of the holy persons intended to be honored by the earl's 
bequest of a golden image to the shrine of St. iJban. But, 
in order to ascertain whether any other portions of the glass 
now in the window belonged to such a subject, a considera- 
tion of the speice which it may be supposed to hare 
occupied becomes necessary ; and in this we must par- 
ticularly attend to what Sir William Dugdale says, as to the 
state of the window in his time. 

In his Antiquities of Warwickshire there is an engraving 
of eight kneeling figures, the portraits, as appears from the 
inscriptions which accompany them, of Earl Richard, the 
founder ; of hU first Countess, Elizabeth, and her three 
daughters, Margaret, Eleanor, and Elizabeth ; and of his 
second countess, Isabella, and her two children, Henry, 
first Duke of Warwick, and the Lady Anne. Among these 
inscriptions we may recognise Uie " scripture of the marriage 
of the earl," added by the earl's, executors after the com- 
pletion of the windows. 

These portraits are arranged on the psge in three rows ; 
the upper one consisting of the effigy of the earl be- 
tween those of his two wives. But this arrangement, though 
the most convenient for the engraver, we may be certain 
was not the arrangement of the figures in the window. 
All analogy points to the conclusion that these portraits 
were placed in the window in a single row ; a supposition 
which, indeed, is strengthened by the attitudes of the figures 
in the enpaving. The earl, who is represented in profile, 
looks towards the spectator's left, which, if the figure were 
in the window, would in reahty be facing the north. His 
first countess and her three daughters look in the same 
direction as the eari ; whilst the second- countess faces the 
earl, and consequently would look towards the souths to 
which point also her son and daughter turn. So that if the 
figures are supposed to be in the window, and there placed 
in a single row, the earl, his first countess, and her three 
daughters would look towards the north, and face his 
second countess, her son, and daughter, who would look 
towards the south. 



The difficulty is to determine whether these figures were 
arranged in a row which continued uninterruptedly across 
the whole window, or which was divided into two portions 
and confined to the outer lights, under the figures of St. 
Thomas, St. Alban, St. Wenefride, and St. John. 

Of course, if our opinion should be in favor of the con- 
tinuity of the row, the space to be allotted to the central 
subject will, as a necessary result, be greatly diminished. 

If we could, with absolute certainty, identify the figure 
in the lower part of the middle fight of the window 
(marked l. 1 in the diagram) with the effigy of the founder 
delineated in the engraving given by Dugdole, its size, 
coupled with the appearance of the engraved figures, might 
solve the question. For the figure in the window, with 
its tent-like canopy of state of which the remains exist, is on 
a scale sufficient to occupy the entire breadth of the light. 
Such dimensions must have given rise to great crowding 
of the figures, if we suppose that they were all upon 
the same scale, and were confined to the four lights in the 
wings of the window. That they were of the same size, 
appears from the engraving which is given by Dugdale ; and 
all analogy would confirm that supposition, for the son and 
daughters were grown persons when the glass was put up. 
And that the figures were not so greatly crowded together, 
as must bare been the case had ^ey been confined to four 
lights, also appears from the engraving, where each figure is 
represented separately, and with the whole of its heraldry 
Bhown ; which the engraver could hardly have supplied had 
they very much overlapped each other. I say, had they 
Tery much overlapped each other, because, even according to 
the theory of a continuous row, two of the earl's daughters 
by his first wife must have occupied one light ; but, accord- 
ing to the contrary theory, five figures on one side of the 
window at least must have been crowded into two lights. 
I think that it is more probable that the figures were 
disposed in a continuous row which extended across the 
entire window ; and that the founder was placed in tho 
middle light, his countesses in the lights on each side, his 
three daughters by his first wife in the two south outer 
lightfi, and his son and daughter by his secoud wife in the 
corresponding lights on the north side. It is probable that the 
canopies of state in the three middle lights were a little taller 


than those in the outer Lights ; and, if the theory of a cod- 
tinuous row of figures is correct, we may reasonably conclude 
that the effigies occupied in the centre lights the spaces 
marked in the diagram l. 1 and 2, h. 1, 2, and 3, and N ; 
and in the side lights the spaces marked o. 1 and 2, p. q. 
and H, immediately under the figures of St Thomas, St. 
Alban, St. Wenefride, and St. John ; which woidd leave, as 
the space arailable for the principal subject, that mwked in 
the diagram 8. I and 2, t. 1 and 2, and n. 1 and 2. 

The difficulty felt in identifying the existing figure in the 
middle hght with the engraving of the founder's effigy arises 
from a discrepancy in the heraldry on the dresses of the two 
figures. The arras represented on this figure in the en- 
graving given by Dugdale are the quartered coat of Beau- 
champ and Newburgh. Those on the figure in the window 
consist of the same coat with an inescutcheon of }»'etence of 
Bespencer. The latter arms would no doubt foe the earl's 
proper coat alter his second wife became heiress of the 
Despencer family, and I can account for the discrepfuicy 
only by supposing, either that the figure in the window 
belongs to another series of effigies in the chapel, which 
is improbable both from Sir William Dugdale's silence, and 
the absence of any allusion to the founder in the tracery of 
the side windows, or else that the engraver by accident 
omitted the DespenOOT inescutcheon. Sir William Dugdale 
has left no description of the arms in addition to the 6n<- 
gravings ; and there is this circum^nce which seems to 
impugn the engraver's accuracy, that in the plate the 
Despencer inescutcheon (omitted in the earl's arms) is made 
to appear in the arms of the Lady Eleanor, the second 
daughter of the earl's first wife, who was heiress of Lord 
Berkeley, as well as (properly) in the arms of the Lady 
Anne, daughter of the earl's second wife, who was ultimately 
heiress of the Despencer family. The figure, which is much 
mutilated, is turned, like that in the engraving, towards 
the north, and has evidently been placed under a canopy of 
state. The head of the figure is lost, and has been replaced 
by that of a lady, perhaps one of the female effigies. The 
canopy has lost its upper part, and the whole subject has 
been thrust upwards above its proper position in the 

With the exception of two subjects which I shall presently 


notice, I think that we shall bare no difficulty in concludiDg 
that of the remainder of the glass in the window none formed 
part of the original deagn ; and that, with regard to these 
two subjects, strong grounds may be adduced for the belief 
that they liave been removed from some other windows in 
this chapel. 

To commence with the three lower centre lights of the 
window : the subject in the north light (marked 6. 1 in the 
diagram) is the upper part of the figure of St. Elizabeth. 
On the portion of the scroll which remains above the head of 
the figure is part of the forty-third rerse of the first chapter 
of St. Luke's Gospel ; and the residue of the scroll with the 
remainder of the Terse is, I think, in the cuspidated head of 
the next light but one to the east of the first window from 
the east on the north side of the chapel This glass is an 
insertion. What at first appears to be i^e lower part of 
the saint (marked s. 2 in the diagram) is, in fact, the lower 
part and feet of another figure on a largw scale than was 
that of St. Elizabeth, and probably the remains of the 
figure of a prophet or patriarch. Another ground for con- 
cluding that the glass in question is an insertion consists in 
the fact, that the nimbus is plain and not radiated, and that 
the red back^^und to the figure, instead of being plain red, 
like that in the cuspidated head of the light, is reticulated 
and ornamented with the bear and the ragged stafi*. 

The subject in the south light (marked n. 1 in the dia- 
gram) is the upper part of the figure of the Blessed Virgin. 
On the portion of the scroll which remains above the head 
of the figure is part of the forty-eighth veree of the first 
chapter of St. Luke ; and the residue of the scroll with the 
remainder of the verse is, I think, in the cuspidated head of 
the light nearest the east of the same window on the north 
side of the chapel to which the figure of St. Elizabeth 
belonged, and from which this figure also must have been 
taken. Another ground for concluding that it is an inser- 
tion in the east window consists in the fact, that its back- 
ground is not red, like the ground in the cuspidated head of 
the light above, but blue ; and moreover it is reticulated and 
ornamented with the founder's badges ; both which features 
would be correct, if this figure stood, as I have supposed, 
next to that of St. Margaret in the window on the north 
side of the cliapel. What appears to be the lower part and 


feet of this figure (and occupies the space marked u. 2 in 
the diagram) really belongs to a different figure ; which last, 
from the inscription on a scroll at the bottom of the bracket 
beneath, appears to be that of the prophet Amoa. 

The subject in the middle Hght (marked t. 1 in the dia- 
gram) is the upper part of the figure of a prophet or patri- 
arch. Tlie figure holds a small scroU rolled up, to which 
allusion is made in the inscription " . . . , non aperietur " on 
the scroll which wives above the head of the figure. It is 
clearly an insertion ; the ground is blue ornamented with 
the founder's badges. The lower part or feet (marked t. 2) 
in the diagram belong to another figure, which appears 
from the inscription on the bracket to have been that of the 
prophet Isaiah. 

The two subjects concouing which I think the greatest 
difficulties must he felt to exist are the following. It will 
be most convenient to commence with that in the lower part 
of the southern central h'ght (which is marked N in the 

The subject here represented is the Blessed Virgia. She 
is kneeling, and turned towards the north side of the 
window. The hands are crossed upon her breast ; the eyes 
and countenance are downcast. Above the head of the 
figure is a red cloud, from which yellow rays diverge, 
spreading themselves . over a blue ground powdered with 

Jellow flaming stars, down to the shoulders of the figure, 
t is habited in a mantle and close-fitting under-garment, 
the upper part or body of which is richly jeweled, and 
the lower part or skirt is purple, powdered with small 
roundels, each representing yellow rays issuing from a blue 
cloud. The nimbus is red. This figure, which is of a larger 
size than any of the four original figures in the window, 
but is on the same scale as the figures of some prophets or 
patriarchs in the lower part of the window, which clearly 
have belonged to some of the side windows, may, from its 
appearance, have formed part of the subject of the Annun- 
ciation, or of the Coronation of the Blessed Virgin. If the 
latter, we might be inclined to think that we had at last dis- 
covered some part of the subject which occupied the upper 
portion of the central lights. 

But the space required for the representation of a 
Coronation of the Virgin, on such a scale as the size of the 

Dg zecbvGoOgIC 


present figure would demand, would greatly exceed tbe limits 
necessarily prescribed by the adoption of the theory of a 
continuous row of effigies across the window. Though I fully 
admit the difficulties which surround the subject, in whatever 
light it is regarded, I think that, upon the whole, it is less 
easy to conceive that this figure formed part of tbe missing 
central subject, than that it belonged to one of the side 
windows of the chapel. 

In the most northern of the centre lights (at the spot 
marked H. 1 in the diagram) is a head of Christ crowned 
with thorns and surrounded with a cruciferous nimbus. 
The countenance, which is turned towards the south, looks 
downwards. The scale of this head is the same as that of 
the last-mentioned figure. Whether this head was originally 
on a blue background traversed with yellow diverging rays, 
I am unable to say, but, on a close inspection, it appears 
that the blue ground we now see is made up of fragments 
of glass once used for draperies ; and that the greater part, 
at all events, of the existing yellow rays has been cut from 
fragments of yellow glass originally used for other purposes. 
This modem work may have been done in repairing an 
original design ; and it may have been devised with the 
intention of producing an effect in conformity with that of 
the radiated ground above the figure of the Vit^n in the 
opposite light. 

The remains of a figure, which are just beneath this 
head (and occupy the space marked u. 2 in the diagram), 
appear not to have belonged to the head in question. 
About the shoulders there is a portion of background, 
red, diapered, and powdered with yellow flaming stars. The 
background to the remaining portion of the figure is blue, 
divided into small squares, and ornamented with the 
founder's badges. The rest of the light (marked M. 3 In the 
diagram) is filled with remains of a third figure. 

My impression is that the head of Christ belonged to one 
of the side windows, as well as the rest of the glass with the 
ezcepUon perhaps of the fragment of the red background 
which is powdered with yellow stars. This indeed may 
have belonged to the upper part of the middle light 

There seems to be no difficulty in supposing that the 
remainder of the glass does not belong bo the east window. 

The space below tbe kneeling figure of the earl (marked 



L. 2 in tbe diagram) is filled with fragments, amongst which 
is a portion of foliage with red fruit intermixed, which may 
hare belonged to a painting of the Temptation of our first 
parents — if there were such a subject — in any one of the 
side windows. 

To proceed to the glass in the lower parts of the outer 
lights ; that immediately below the figure of St. Thomas (in 
the space marked o. 1 in the diagram) consists of the upper 
portion of the figm:^ of a patriarch or prophet. This figure 
is on the same scale as t^t of the Virgin and the head 
of Christ in the spaces marked n and m. 1 in the diagram. 
It is evidently too large for the place it occupies ; for, if com- 
plete, it would extend about one-fourth of its lengtii below 
the sill of the window. There can therefore be no reason- 
able doubt that this glass belonged to one of the side 
windows. Above the head of the figure is a wavy scroll, in 
this instance complete, but without any inscription. The 
background is red divided into lozenges, and ornamented 
with the founder's badges. What appears to be the lower 
part of the figure (and occupies the space marked o. 2 in the 
diagram) is, in fact, a portion of ano^er. 

The subject which occupies the next light (in the space 
marked p in the diagram) is the upper portion of a 
prophet, as appears from the part of the scroll that remains 
above its head, and the inscription upon it. It is evident 
that this figure is not in siiu, it being too large for the 
place. If completed by the addition of its lower part and 
feet, the figure would reach below the sill of the window to 
a distance equal to one fourth the height of the figure. It 
is upon a blue ground divided into squares, and ornamented 
wil^ the founder's badges. Without doubt it belonged to 
one of the side windows. 

On the south side of the window, the lower part of the 
light (marked q in the digram) is filled with fragments, con- 
sisting principally of the remains of two figures, each on such 
a scale as would render them, if completed, about one-fourth 
too long for the light We may therefore conclude that 
they belonged to one of the Eude windows. The ground is 
red divided into squares, and ornamented with the founder's 

The remaining part of the window (marked B in the 
diagram) ia occupied with a portion of the figure of a 

DC, zecbvGoOgIc 


prophet or patriarch, which, if completed by the addition of 
its lower part and feet, would, like the others, be too tall for 
the light It may therefore be coDsidered to have been 
remoTed from one of the side windows. The background is 
red divided into lozenges, and ornamented with the founder's 

Such is the best account that I hare been able to furnish 
of these most interesting windows. It is unaToidably dry 
and technical ; and possibly acme of the positions which I 
hare adranced will not meet with ready acceptance. I 
shall, however, be sufficiently repaid for the pains I have 
taken, if my survey of the glaAS should in any degree &cili- 
tate the labors of others. 

In conclusion I will add a few observations on the general 
character of the glazing. 

In the contract wiUi the earl's executors John Prudde, 
the glazier, amongst other things, undertook to employ no 
English glass, but to glaze all the windows with the best 
foreign glass that was procurable in England ; to use the 
best colors, and as little white, green, and black glass as 
possible. Designs on paper were to be delivered to him by 
the executors, which were to bo fresh traced, and pictured 
in rich colors by another painter at Prudde's expense, from 
which the glasa-paintings were to be executed. The whole 
coBt of painting and fixing was to be at the rate of 25. per 
superficial foot, which would be equal to about 1/. 4s. pre- 
sent money. 

I imagine that the use of foreign glass at this period was 
not unfrequeat For I cannot perceive that the material 
used in these windows differs in texture or tone from much 
other glazing of the same date with which I am familiar. 
The small effect that the weather has had on it proves it to 
be a very hard kind of glass ; but glass of an equally hard 
nature, and of the same date, may be seen elsewhere. Nor 
is there anything remarkable in the quality of the colors. 
Frudde, indeed, seems to have been a man of sounder taste 
than his employers ; for notwithstanding their objection to 
the use of white and of green glass, he seems to have used 
each color without stint. In point of general execution bis 
work is a very good average specimen of the period. It is 
brilliant, rich, harmonious, and solid ; and as flat and con- 
fused as the contemporary glass-paintings, and paintings ia 


oil or vater-color always are. To have been otherwise at 
that time would have been 'impossible ; for the art of pro- 
ducing relief in any kind of painting was then unknown. 
Its discovery was reserved for a later period. Once known, 
the practice was adopted with equal eagerness by the artists 
in glass-painting, and by the artists who worked in oil or 
water-color ; and during the period when modem art touched 
perfection, the different means of representation were each 
mithfully worked out according to its own peculiar laws. 
In Prudde'a work we recognise the influence which the 
general art of his period exercised on his own, just as we see 
in the next century the glass-paintings influenced by the 
progress of the Renaissance. It is surprising to me that 
persons should ever fall into the error of supposing, that 
there is any necessary or scientific connection between glass- 
paintings which look as if they had been " ironed out flat," 
and Gothic architecture. Flatness was the fault of the art 
of representation in painting generally in Frudde's time. 
The flatness of his own work is evidently the result of bia 
ignorance of a better method, and not of intention. 

The members of the Institute will have an opportunity 
on their visit to Lichfield of comparing the effect of these 
glass-paintings with that of glass-paintings about oue 
hundred years later. I shall not anticipate their judgment 
by any remarks. I will only recommend them to prepare 
themselves for the occasion by studying the example under 
consideration, and noting its defects as well as its merits. 
If the state of modem glass-painting in England is deplor- 
able, as an examination of the specimens now exhibited at 
South Kensington abundantly proves it to be, we should 
remember that the fault lies rather with the patrons of 
the art than with its professors. A general truth is in- 
volved in the verse — 

" The Dr&ma's Ibwb the Drama's patrons gire." 

*** The correction of this memoir and its preparation for 
the press were among the last labors of the lamented autiton 
of whom a sudden aad unforeseen stroke has deprived xm. 
Though a learned, careful, sound, and acute archseologist in 
many branches of the science, he was best known from his 
DC, zecbvGoogIc 


studies in the art of glass-paiDting, in regard to which hia 
reputation was European. Of this art he not only investi- 
gated and illustrated the history and principles, but endea- 
voured, we may hope with Home success, to restore it, not 
in a spirit of mere imitation, but as a liring and progressive 
art, and to raise its standard to a level with those acknow- 
ledged by artists both in painting and in sculpture. Much 
remained for him to do had he been spared longer, but he 
has laid a foundation on which others may securely build. 
With his refined taste and sound judgment was combined a 
technical knowledge. Dot merely of the treatment, but of the 
actual manufacture of the material. His drawings of glass 
paintings are unique. In character and expression, force, 
truth, purity, and brilliance of color, as well as in the repre- 
sentation of the texture of the glass, they are unparalleled. 
They are, in>fact, aa perfect fac-similes of the originals as can 
be produced by water-color upon paper. 

A. — Richard Earl of Wanrici, who founded the Beauchamp chapel, in 
which be waa interred, and died 30th April, 1439, was son and heir of 
TlionaB £arl of Warwick b; Margaret daughter of William Lord Ferreta 
of Grob;. He married, first, Elizabeth daughter and heiresa of Thomas 
Lord Berkeley, bj whom he left three daughters, Margaret, who waa the 
wife of the famous John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsburj ; Eleanor, who married 
firat Thomas Lord Roos, and aecondlj Edmund Beaufort, Marquis of 
Dorset and Duke of Somerset ; and Elizabeth, who married Oeorge Nevit 
liord Latimer : this earl married, secondly, Isabel daughter of Thomas le 
Despencer, Earl of Gloucester, who hy the death of her brother Richard 
and her elder sister Elizabeth without issue became sole heir to her 
father. This Isabel waa the widow of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Wor- 
cester, the cousin of the earl, who had a special dispensation from the Pope 
to marry her. By her be left issue Henrj his son and heir, afterwanla 
Duke of Warwick, and one daughter, Auue, who became the wife of Sir 
Richard Nevil. 

B. — An abstract of the covenants between the executors of the earl 
and the several artists employed in the erection and decoration of the 
chapel aud tomb is given by Diigdale, Antiquities of Warwickshire, 
edit. 1656, p. 354, of which the following is an eitract, so far as relates 
to tho glass :— " John Prudde of Westminster, glasier. 23 Junii. 25 II. 6. 
covenanteth, dec. to glare all the windows in the new Chappell in Warwick, 
with Glasae beyond the Seas, and with no Olasse of Eugland ; and that in 
the finest wise, with the best, cleanest, and strongest glasse of beyond the 
Sea that may be had in England, and of the finest colours of blew, yellow, 
red, purpure, sanguine, and violet, and of all other colours that shall be 
moat necessary, and best to make rich and embellish the matters. Images, 
aud storiea that shall he delivered and appointed by the svd Executors by 


ktterns in ptper, Afterwards to be newlj timoed and piotared hj anotker 
'lunter in rich colour at the charges of the said Olauer : All which pn>- 
portions the said Jc^n Prudde must make perfectly to fine, glase, eneylin 
it, and finely and strongly set it in lead and souder, as well as anj Glasse 
ii in England. Of white Qlaase, green Qlasie, black Glasse, he ^all pnt 
in M litUe aa shall be needfuU for the shewing and setting forth of tb« 
matters. Images, and storjes. Aod the said Olasier shall take charge of 
the same Glaase, wrought and to be brought to Warwick, and set up there, 
in the wiodows of the said Cbapell ; the Executors paying to the said 
Olasier for ererj foot of Glasse ii.(., and so for the whole icLtt. i.t. x.d. 

" It appeareth, that after these windows were so finished, the executors 

devised some alterations, as to adde for our Lady ; and Scripture 

of the marriage of the Earle, and procured the same to be set fbrdi in 
Qlasse in most fine and curious oolours ; and for the same they payd the 
sum of xiii.Ii. Ti.f. iv.i. Also it appeareth, that they caused tbe windows 
in tbe restry to be curiously glased with Glasse of ii.*. a foot, for which 
thej payd L.t. The sum totall for the Glasse of the said Veatry and 
Cbappell, i*i.Ii. iriii.t. ri.i., which in all contain by measure ; 

" The East window, cilix. foot, i. quarter, and two incbes. 

" The South windows ccccclz. foot, li. inches. ' 

" The North windows occt. foot. 

" The totall Dccooz. foot, iii. quarters of » foot, and two incbee." 

) by Google 


Bl C. W. KINO, H.A. 

All who have written upoa the Glyptic Art assume that 
gem eugraving was utterly extinct in Europe during the 
whole extent of the Middle Ages — that is, from the coronation 
of Charlemagne as Emperor of the West in the year 800 
down to the middle of the fifteenth century (1453), when 
Greek fugitives from Constantinople re-established its practice 
in Italy. The continuance of the art within the Greek em- 
pire during that period does not enter into the question, for 
this, together with all the other arts of antiquity, maintaioed 
a feeble existence there down to the very last, as numerous 
camei, some in fine sardonyx but the greater part in blood- 
stone, remain to testify. The agreement of these in style 
with the bezants of John Zimisses and the Comneni shows 
that the manufacture of such ecclesiastical decorations (their 
subjects are always Scriptural) was prosecuted with con- 
siderable briskness between the tenth century and the 
thirteenth. No Byzantine intoffH were, however, produced 
during the same period, for if such had existed, they would 
be easily recognisable by the same immistakeable stamp of 
the epoch impressed upon them, both as to subjects and 
their treatment, that marks the Byzantine camei and ivory 
carvings. The reason for this extinction of intaglio engraving 
is obvious enough ; signets cut in hard stones were no longer 
in request, the officii seals for stamping the leaden bulla) 
authenticating public documents were, like coin-dies, sunk in 
iron ; whilst those for personal use were engraved in the 
precious metals. 

Camei were the onuuneats above all others deemed appro- 
priate for rehquaries and similar furniture of the altar ; a 
tradition dating from imperial times. In the estimate of art 
then current, the value of the material and the time expended 


in elaborating it counted for much. Another consideraUon 
also influenced thia preference, the greater facility of exe- 
cuting a toleralile work in relief than in intaglio : a fact 
declared from the first by the nascent art producing the per- 
fectly modeled Etruscan scarabs, which serve as vehicles for 
such barbarous intagli upon their bases, and confirmed by 
this second childhood of the Byzantine school 

It is at first sight apparent, from two Considerations, that 
the genuine Gothic artists never attempted engraving upon 
hard stones. The first, and this an argument of the greatest 
weight, is that no gems are to be met with exhibiting purely 
Gothic designs. We know from the innumerable seals pre- 
served, both official and personal, many of them most elabo- 
rately drawn and artistically executed, what would be the 
designs that gems engraved by a hand contemporary with 
these seals must necessarily have exhibited ; for, as the 
analogy of the two arts requires, the same hand would have 
cut the intagli in stone and the seals is metal. Thus at a 
later Ume we find that the famous gem-engravers of the 
Kevival, such as II Greco, Matteo del Nassaro, and Valerio 
Belli, were also die sinkers. Any gems, therefore, engraved 
either in Italy, France, or Germany between the years 900 
and 1453 would necessarily present such subjects as saints 
in ecclesiastical or monastic costume, knights arrayed in 
the armour of their times, and, above all, architectural 
embellishments, canopies and niches, the customary deco- 
rations of the mediaeval seals in metal 

Besides this restriction as to subjects, the drawing of those 
ages has, even in its highest correctness, a peculiar character 
never to be mistaken, and which even pervades the paintings 
of the Italian school down to late in the fifteenth century, and 
those of the German for a century longer. Lastly, a class of 
subjects distinct irom any known to antique glyptic art, 
armorial bearings arranged according to the rules of heraldry, 
would have constituted a large portion of anything executed 
in those times for seals, and yet such are wholly deficient' 
Again, in the choice of the antique intagU set in mediaeval 
seals, there is oflen evident a desire to pick out some figure 
agreeing with the owner's cognisance. And indeed some of 
the metal seals exhibit in their heraldic animals an attempt to 

' Bm oote 4, pig* SiS. 



copy representations of the like objects upon gems. Antiques 
of the class being so highly esteemed from the supposed 
mystic virtues of both substance and sigi), doubtless, bad it 
been within the medi»Tal engraver's power, a gem would 
have been preferred by him for the purpose when about to 
execute the signet of a wealthy patron : on this consideration 
our second argument is founded. The great number of antique 
gemi set in medlseral priry seals sufficiently proves how 
much such works were in request. The legends added upon 
the metal settings enchasing them show how the subjects were 
interpreted to suit the spirit of the times, often in a sense 
so forced as must have tried the faith of even their simple- 
minded owners. Certainly, had it been possible to execute in 
such valued materials designs better assimilated to the notions 
they desired to embody, such would have been attempted 
in a manner more or less barbarous, but still bearing 
unmistakeably the stamp of Gothic art. This remark applies 
exactly to the latest intagli of antiquity, or rather to the 
earliest of medieeval times, the date of which can be accurately 
ascertained, the signets of the Emperor Lotharius. One is 
set in the cross that he presented to the Catbedral of Aix-la- 
Cbapelle, an oval crystal, If ^ Ij inch in dimensions, engraved 
with his head in profile covered with the closely fitting 
Roman helmet seen upon the contemporary coinage. Around 
runs this legend cut in the stone, in imitation of a favorite 
Byzantine invocatiott which is found upon the awei of the 
same epoch — 


— " Christe adjuva Hlotharium Regem." — Both the style of 
the portrait and the lettering ^ree with those seen on the 
Carlovingian sous d'or. 

Still 'more curious, because betraying more of a national 
character, is the other seal of Lotharius,' of which an impres- 
sion only exists attached to a document, dated 877, preserved 
in the archives of the department of the Haute-Mante, a 
bust in full face, the hair long and parted, with seemingly 
a nimbus over the head, having the hand upon his breast, and 
iu the field something like as arrow, perhaps intended for a 
palm-branch. The entire design shows the taste of the age, 
retaining no reminiscence of the antique even in its lowest 

* Ftgorcd in tlw Batvs Anhdologtqiu for 1868. 


decline.' The beveled edge atums that the stone was a 
nicolo about l;^x l inch in size. Od the metal setting is the 
legend, cut in lai^e letters— 


The Byzantine camei themselreB Bupply a further illustration ; 
they exactly agree in character with other bas-reUefe of the 
same origin in whaterer materials they may be executed, 
ivory, box-wood, marble, or bronze. 

Amongst the Transalpine nations, at least during the last 
two centuries of the period above indicated, heraldic devices 
would have been beyond all others the subjects to employ the 
seal-engraver in preference to those of a religious character. 
In fact, Agricola writing soon after 1450 mentions the en- 
graving of coats of arms upon the German onyx as then in 
common use, without the slightest allusion to that art as . 
having been but recently introduced into Holland. How- 
ever, as Bruges was then famed for its jewelers (L. de 
Berquem flourished there at that time), no doubt every new 
invention in the lapidary's art speedily found its way thither, 
and was cultivated to the utmost. It is on record how 
munificently similar discoveries were remunerated by the 
wealthy of those times, as Charles the Bold's liberality to 
the inventor of diamond-cutting conspicuously testifies. 

Briefly to sum up the substance of the preceding ail- 
ments. For the space of five centuries the Gothic seal- 
engravers were employed in executing an infinite number of 
signets in metal, to which business all their skill was devoted, 
as the elaborateness and occasional merit of the work mani- 
festly proves. The designs on these seals were invariably in 
the taste of their age, being either religious or heraldic, and 
generally accompanied by architectural decorations. 

The style of all these ages has an unmistakeable character 
of its own, from which the simplicity of the artists could 
never deviate by an attempt to revert to antique models; 
indeed, whatsoever Gothic art has produced shows the exact 
date, almost the very year of its production. Yet nothing, to 
speak generally, displa3ring the Gothic style has ever come 
to light amongst the profiision of engraved stones preserved, 
not even amongst those set in church plate, which would 
have admitted as more appropriate to its own destination any 

Ui* Safionr ia am*. 



contempoi-avy work, had such been attainable. As a proof 
of this, immediately upon the EenTal \re find the moat 
emineat gem-eograrers employed almost ezoluairely in exe- 
cuting crystal plaques with intagli of Scriptural subjects for 
the furniture of the altar. 

Kor did such an exclusion of contemporary works (had 
any existed) arise from a disregard of the productions of 
the glyptic art. The rudest works of antiquity are to be 
seen enchased in Gothic goldsmiths' work, honored with the 
same precious mountings as the finest and most costly 
stonra. It was enough that the subject suited the taste of 
the goldsmith, the art exhibited therein was altogether dis* 
regarded. It is very pl^a besides, that, iu cousequenee of 
the prevalent belief in the virtue of sigils, all engraved stones 
were esteemed as more valuable than those not engraved, 
even though the latter were of a more precious species. Again, 
it was not its mere antiquity that gave the sigil its virtue : 
that was derived entirely irom the heavenly iuBuenca under 
which it had been made, ^d therefore the same and invari* 
able whatever was the date of its execution. For example, 
ve have abundant proof that, as soon as the art was revived, 
the manufacture of astfologieal talismans flourished quite as 
vigorously as of old tmder the Lower Empire. The case 
therefore stands thus. We find signets as important as ever, 
and their execution employing the best skill of the age, but 
taking for their material only metal ; whilst, oevfflrUieless, 
antique intagli in gems were more valuable than ever, and 
adapted to the prevailing notions by the most forced inter- 
preUitions. The supply, too, &lling so short of the demand 
that the very rudest were accepted and highly prized by per- 
sons not de^itute of an appreciation of the beautiful, or at 
least of the highly finished — and, nevertheless, in spite of tdl 
this love of engraved stones, not a single production existing 
of that class which can be assigned to a Gothic artist. 
From these considerations we are forced to agree that the 
general conclusion of archaeologists is well founded, and 
that the art during all the above period was totally extinct 
in Europe except within the precincts of Constantinople. 

It is true that a passage or two in the works of mediaeval 
writers seem to contravene this conclusion, for example, where 
Marbodus, writing at the dose of the eleventh century, 
directs how to engrave particular sigils on tjie proper 


gems : such as a vine eatwined with iry on the sard ; a 
lobster with a raven od the beryl ; Mars and Virgo holding 
a branch on the calcedony, kc. ; directions which at first 
sight would appear to indicate the existence of artists 
capable of executing his directions. But in reality the pas- 
sage proves nothing, being no doubt merely transcribed from 
the same more ancient sources whence he drew the materials 
for his Lapidarium. 

We come now to consider a most interesting class of 
monuments, and which may be pronounced exceptions to 
the above rule ; few indeed in number, and their origin 
forming the most difBcult problem to be encountered in the 
history of this art. These exceptional pieces are what Vasari 
alludes to (Vita di Valerie Belli) where, treating of the 
engravers of his own age, the Cinque-Cento, he has these 
remarkable words: — "The art of engraving on hard stones 
and precious stones {gioie) was lost together with the other 
arts of design after the fall of Greece and Rome. For many 
and many a year it continued lost so that nobody was found 
to attend to it, and although something was still done, yet it 
was not of the kind that one should take account thereof. 
And, so far as there is any record, there is no one to be 
found who began to work well and to get into the good way 
(dar uel buono), except in the times of Martin Y. and of 
Paul IV. (U17 and 1464). Thenceforward it went on 
improving until Lorenzo the Magnificent, &c." Vasari's 
" buono " always means the classic style ; the expression 
" although something was still done," cannot be understood 
as meaning nothing more than the Byzantine camei that 
occasionally found their way into Italy, or works done in 
that country by the Greek artists, so much employed before 
the springing up of a native school, as painters and 
architects, like Buscfaetus, the builder of the Duomo at Pisa, 
and those who raised S. Marco at Venice in so purely 
Byzantine a style. The mention of the two popes indicates 
the place of the practice and the improvement of the art as 
Rome itself; in fact, we know that Paul IV. was a passionate 
lover of gems, and lefl a magnificent collection, purchased 
of his heirs by Lorenzo dei Medici, and incorporated in his 
own, a suffident proof of the taste and judgment exhibited 
in bringing them together. A cameo portrait of the pontiff 
amongst them is said by Giuhanelli to be a fine per- 


formance, and to etioxr the hand of an accomplished artist, 
affording the beat coafirmation of Vasari's statement. 

But to go back to the very earliest times in which any 
traces of the art appear, Scipio Ammirato (Hist Flor. 
p. 741) mentions a certain Fenizzt, " il quale era singolare in- 
t^hatore di pietre," as forging the seal of Carlo da Durazzo. 
This yraa in the year 1379.* Here then is an instance, not to 
be looked for at so early a period, of a prince having for his 
seal an engraTed gem, and that apparently not an antique, 
else the Florentine artist bad not been competent to imitate it 
so exactly. Again, Giulianelli (p. 76) quotes Gori's Adrer- 
saria to the effect that before the year 1300 the Florentine 
Republic used two seals — both engraved stones. The first, 
large, for sealing public documents, was a plasma engraved 
with a Hercules (one of the supporters of the city arms), 
with the legend running round it — SIOILLTH FLOBBSTiirOBrH. 
The other, small, for letters, bore the Florentine lily ; legend 
— aioiLLVu FBioRTU. The mention of the large size of the 
former seal, as well as the subject in such a stone, suffice to 
show that this plasma was not an antique intaglio fitted 
into the seal with the legend added upon the metal, whilst 
the engraving upon the second must necessarily bare been 
done expressly, as no such device could have been supphed 
by the relics of antiquity." Giulianelli also remarks, with 
some plausibility, that, in the same way as the art of mosaic- 
working was kept up at Rome during the ages following the 
fall of the Western Empire, there is reason to believe that 
the art of gem-engraving may in Uke manner have been 
maintained there. That the Italian lapidaries could at all 
times shape, facet, and polish the softer stones, such as 

* Tbs iiga»t of Jean auu Penr, Dak« LodoticL Sur la rend Am I'udiauimt ]• 

oTBui^ndj (d. 1117) il praurved. His dsduiB unit gruTei oM mola, Col It 

■rmi art engnred upon m pale aappfalre, Sigtet dm Say 8. timU, qui 7 onC eiti 

wbiob is colored undsmeMh witii th« ftdjomtea aprta ■amort' (p. 107). Tha 

proper henldic tinctureL In tbo Waters wedding-ring of the eama prinoa is «aid 

ton Collactian I obHrred a ehiald of to hara bam aat with ■ (appliire engraTad 

anni very ikilfully cut in a Sue jiciotli, with tiia Crud&zion ; tha ehank coTerad 

■nd set in a ring eTidtrntIf bf ita fuhion with liliaeand margtunUt, alluaira to hie 

beloDglog tothaflratbalf of thelUtaeiith own name and hii wifs'a. Thia attri- 

untiirv. bntion ia a mere ouUdt'i atorj. Hr. 
Watorton lately eiuntned the gem. 

Eula il doirn at a much later age: 

^ ^ _ . ^_. _ „. afnll langth.haa tha 

deux ; II eat d'or tem6 da flean de Ijs, afaowing the figure to ba poaterior to 

KarDyd'uDgrandaaphirquarT^eurlequel beatifioation. It prebably bdonsa 

■at gravde I'imige dn meama aainot areo Louie XlL'a Uma. 
l»i lettrea S. L., qui TsulaDt din SigilluM 



amethysta, garnets, emeralds, is apparent from the number 
of antique gems of those species extant, but recut into the 
then fashionable octagonal form for the purpose of setting in 
medisBTal rings. Vasari's second date indeed, 1464, might 
be supposed to have some connexion with the influx of 
Greek iugitives afler the fall of Constantinople eleven years 
before. But Vasaii would certainly not have discerned any 
" improvement " in what they were capable of produciDg, 
for ItaUan plastic art was by that time fully perfected, as we 
Bee by Luca della Robbia's terra-cottas, not to mention the 
bas-reliefs of Ghiberti and Donatello. And again, in all 
probability very few of the artist class fled from Constant!' 
nople, the Greeks naturally enough preferring the tolerant 
Mohammedans to their persecuting riyals of the Latin 
Church. The emigrants were the nobles, special objects of 
jealousy to the conquerors, and the grammarians, whose 
learning was greatly sought after in Italy and most liberally 
remunerated. Besides this, Byzantium, when the empire 
was once more re-established after the expulsion of the 
Franks, who had held the city during the first half of the 
thirteenth century, did nothing more for art, its ntaUty 
having been utterly exhausted by the grinding tyranny of 
those barbarians. When Vasari specifies two particular 
periods after 1400, and quotes the pontificates of two popes 
as manifest epochs of improvement in the glyptic art, he 
must be referring to works done in Italy and by Italians. 
It is very proToking that Vasari, usually so loquacious, 
should have passed over this most interesting dawn of the 
art with such contemptuous brevity. He mentions no en- 
graver by name antecedent to Gio. delle Comiuole, who 
worked for Lorenzo dei Medici, and had learnt the art from 
"masters of difierent countries" brought to Florence by 
Lorenzo and Piero (his father, not his son, it would seem) 
te repair (rassettare) the antiques they had collected. 
These expressions prove that the art was flourishing already 
in other places before it was domiciled in Florence ; and this 
was perhaps the reason why the patriotic Messer Giorgio 
passes so slightingly over these earlier celebrities — " vixere 
fortes ante Agamenona." Milan was long before noted for 
its jewelers ; Anguilotto Bracciaforte was celebrated in the 
fourteenth century. -These lapidaries cut into tables and 
pyramids the harder precious stones, such as spinels and 


balais rubies, and even polished the diamond before L. de 
Berquem'a discoTery in 1475 of the mode of shaping that 
stone ; and therefore, as far as the mechanical process vaa 
concerned, they ■were fully competent to engrave intagli. 
The engravers named by CamiUo Leonardo, in 1303, as 
then the most eminent, and Trho therefore must have been 
working for many years in the preceding century, in the 
school of the quattrocentisti, are Liooardo of Milan, Anichini 
of Ferrara, Tagliacame of Oenova, 6io. Maria of Mantua. 
" Their works, equal to the antique, were diffused all over 
Italy," which presupposes a long-established reputation pre- 
vious to the date of his " Speculum Lapidum." Some of these 
may hare been Vasari's " foreign masters." 

It was in the year 1488 that Lorenzo founded the 
Accademia di S. Marco, appointing as president the aged 
Bertaldo, the favourite pUpU of Donatello, for the cultivation 
of all the fine arts, including the glyptic. But it was long 
before this, and in his father's lifetime, that he had sum- 
moned the foreign engravers above alluded to : inasmuch as 
Gio. delle Comiuole learned the art from them it must 
have before been extinct at Florence. Vasari's expression, 
" diversi paesi," would, in the language of his times, apply 
to the stotes of northern Italy almost as strongly as to 
Flanders, or to Alexandria, for to the Tuscan even those of 
the nest city were foreigners and " natural enemies/' 

As the die-siokera of his age were, as a matter of course, 
the most eminent gem-engravers, such was probably the caae ' 
in the century before ; and Pollaiuolo, whose dies for the 
Papal coinage he so highly extols, may be supposed like- 
wise to have tried his skill upon gems, and to have inaugu- 
rated the improvement that dawned in his times at Rome, 
where he and his brother worked till their death in 1498. 
And since the earliest works quoted by Yasari are both 
portraits in intaglio — that of Savonarola (put to death in 
1498), by Gio, delle Corniuole, "and the head of Ludovico 
Sforza (Duke of Milan fh)m 1494 to 1500), executed in 
ruby by Domenico dei Camei ^ — we may conclude that the 
pieces done in 1417 and 1464, which began to show signs 
of improvement, were similarly portraits, and in intaglio. 
Such was naturally the first method in which the die-sinker 

IT In Ear H^JM^'a eolleo- 
DD.:ea by Google 


would essay his skill upon the new and refractory material, 
and the one in which the result would be most serviceable 
to his patron. No camei of that age are to be found that 
can be imagined to exhibit the improvement mentioned by 
Vasari, and the supposed cameo portrait of Paul IV., above 
quoted, I very much suspect belongs to a later pontificate. 

Yasari's hints, coupled with these facts, throw aome light 
upon the origin of that rare class of intagli mounted in 
massy gold rings made after the mediseval &shion, which, 
both by the intiinsic value of the stone and of the setting, 
evince that they were designed for personages of the highest 
rank, being the greatest rarities that the age could produce. 
On this very account such are the precise objects likely to 
exhibit the most novel and most admired improvements in the 
art. First amongst these ranks the spinel in the Marlboroi^h 
Collection engraved with a youthful head in front face, wear- 
ing a crown <5' three fleur-de-lys. (See woodcut, fig. 1.) The 
intaglio, in a small square stone, is deep-cut and neatly done, 
but the face is quite the conventional Gothic head seen on 
coins, and exhibits no individuality whatever to guide us in 
attributing it to any particular personage. It is set in a 
massy gold ring ribbed longitudinally, and chased with 
fiowere in the style prevailing about the middle of the 
fifteenth century, a date further indicated by the lettering of 
the motto engraved around it on the beasil — lei il nfst — 
"there is no one like him." It is evident that both intaglio 
' and ring are of the same date, for, besides the Qotbic fashion 
of the crown, the work of the intaglio has nothing of the 
antique character, and, though highly polished intem^ly, does 
not appear to have been sunk by the antique method ; this 
last remark, indeed, applies to the entire class now imder 
consideration. The portrait may be intended for some 
Italian prince of the age. The only circumstance against this 
explanation is that the motto is in black letter, a Tedescan 
barbarism unknown in Italy, where the round Lombardic 
continued in use until superseded by the original Roman 
about the date of 1450. The species of the gem at first 
suggests to us the f^imous portrait of Lndovico Sforza 
already noticed ; but, that being on a mby the size of a 
giutio (t. e., an inch in diameter), it follows necessarily almost 
that, like the heads on the improved coinage of the times 
(imitated by Henry VII., and by James IV. of Scotland in. 


Plf. l.-lDOgUaoDBpluL Uulbonragb ConMUon. 


rig. l—'-MgutnIHilthaw Full.'- WMarUaCc 

Fig. 9.— InUsllo 1 Poartimth oa 

Esunplea of UsditST*! EcgnT 

) by Google 

) by Google 


his bonnet- piecea), the latter would have been in profile in 
somewhat slight intaglio, stiffly drawn, yet full of character, 
like the contemporary relief in ruby of Louis XII. just 

The Marlborough gem was described in the old catalogue 
an the " Head of a Lombard king ;" but not only does the 
form of the crown contravene this explanation, for these 
barbarians, as their coins and the contemporary Prankish 
sous dor attest, aped the diadem of the Byzantine Caesars ; 
whilst for their signets they had their own image and super- 
scription cut on massy gold rings, of which Childeric's is a 
specimen, or on large gems of the softer kinds, as in the 
two seals of Lotharius above described. 

Mr. Albert Way discovers in this little portrait a resem- 
blance to that of our Henry VI. upon his great seal. Of 
this similarity there can be no doubt ; yet, unfortunately, 
such a coincidence is far from deciding the question, such 
portraits being entirely conventional, and suiting equally 
well any number of contemporary princes. He conjectures 
that the ring, a lady's from its small dimensions, may have be- 
longed to Margaret of Anjou, which is, indeed, supported by 
the loving motto, " There is no one like him," This pleasing 
and romantic theory has, doubtleiis, several circumstances in 
its favor. This princess coming from the south of France (if 
we allow that the art in Italy was sufficiently advanced to 
produce such a work), her position would have enabled her 
to procure its best and earliest performances. Her marriage 
with Henry VI. took place in- 1445, a sufficient time after 
the first epoch (1415), named as that of an improvement in 
the art in Italy. Her father, the " good king Ren^," had 
been diapoasessed of Naples in 1442, only three years 
before ; he was himself an artist as well as a poet, and 
introduced many useful arts into Froveuce, glass-making 
amongst the rest. The last heing then chiefly cultivated 
with a reference to art in the production of elegant vessels 
or of painted windows, there is a probability that gem- 
engraving likewise may have shared his patronage. Such 
an attribution of the ring would also explain the appearance 
of the black letter, used till late in the following century by 
the French, in the motto, and the general style of the jewel 
itself which certainly is not of ItaUan workmanship. But 
enough of attributions founded upon mere probabilities. Iii 

VOL. ixr. ■9"^i'8''^' 


the TJzielli collectioa there was a somewhat similar work 
(procured in France by Bocicke), a female head in front-face 
very deeply cut in an octagonal amethyst, but quite in the 
stiff Gothic manner of a metal seal, and certainly not antique, 
not even to be referred to the Lower Empire. It was set in a 
very heavy ring made like a many-Btranded cable, a fashion 
much used throughout the fifteenth century, and, indeed, 
extremely tasteful. Here, also, both gem and ring are 
apparently of the same date, but there is no inscription of 
any kind to assist conjecture. Of such heads given in full 
face more shall be said when we come to a most interesting 
specimen of the kind. 

A greater affinity to the " Henry VI," both in material, 
execution, and lettering, is the jacinth intaglio now in the 
Braybrooke collection, set in a weighty though plain ring, 
which is said to have been found in Warwickshire. The 
device is a triple face combined in one head, seen in front, 
but differing altc^ther in treatment from the three masks 
thus united so common in Roman work. Here, indeed, a 
certain Gothic grimness pervades the design, and the hair is 
done in a manner totally different from the ancient, being 
represented by thick straight strokes, each terminating in a 
drill-hole. The intaglio, highly polished, is deeply sunk in 
the stone, and executed with the very greatest precision. 
On the beasil is the motto noti twice repeated. This 
triune face is the cognisance of the noble Milanese family, 
the Trivulzi, being the rebus on the name, "quasi tres 
vultua." The style of this intaglio, so bold and forcible, yet 
full of a Gothic quaintness, has no similarity whatever to the 
Roman antique. There can be Uttle doubt that we have here 
an actual gem cut at Milan about the year 1450. A supposi- 
tion which would account for the use of the black tetter in the 
motto, will plausibly indicate at the same time the former 
owner of this valuable signet. Gian Giacomo Trirulzio, 
sumamed "the Great," bom in 1441, having been sUghted 
by Ludovico Sforza, became the most active partisan of his 
mortal enemy, Charles VIII., and afterwards of Louis XII. 
and Fraufois I. What, then, more natural than that he, a 
general in the French service, should inscribe upon his family 
signet the well-known Gallic war-cry, " Noel," i. e., Emanuel, 
" God be with us," and that in the character still prevailing 
in his adopted country 1 



Our third example is analogous to the last in many 
respects. It also is cut in a precious material, a large and 
good sapphire, and is a female face in profile, the head 
covered 'with a cloth after the fashion of the Roman canladine 
(see woodcut, fig. 2). It is worked out in a manner resembling 
the preceding, allowance being made for the difference 
necessitated by the superior hardness of the stoQe, the 
most difficult (after the diamond) that erer taxes the 
en^aver's skill. The intaglio has an extraordinary polish, 
but in technique equally as in design it differs totally from 
the few antiques extant in this stone, and yet more from 
the numerous examples in it executed after the Renaissance. 
Round the beasil, in neat Lombard letters, runs the warning, 
TECTA LEGE LECTA TEGE, a faToHte motto for medisval seals. 
On the authority of this motto the signet has been at- 
tributed to Matthew Paris, and the head-cloth fancied to be 
a Benedictine hood ; apart from alt other considerations, so 
valuable a ring was beyond the station of a monk like that 
chronicler. The Lombard character may appear on works 
made in the same year as others inscribed in the black letter, 
supposing the former executed in Italy, the latter by a 
French or German jeweler. The subject is undoubtedly the 
very one that we should expect a mediaeval engraver to 
select for so valuable a stone — the head of the Madonna. 
There is an attempt to represent curls where disclosed 
beneath the head cloth, the conventional drapery for such a 
type : blue is, moreover, the color appropriated to the Virgin 
Mary. This ring, also massy and valuable, was found in 
cleaning out an old well at Hereford. Thus we have, within 
the circle of my own experience, three intagli on precious 
stones, and bearing a certain family resemblance to each 

Last to be described, but not the least important, is an in- 
taglio on an occidental cornelian, not a sard. It is a female 
bust in front face ; upon the head is a sort of diadem, placed 
horizontally ; round the neck is a chain, supporting a small 
undefioed ornament. At first sight this bust reminds one 
of the typo upon the coins of Licinia Kudoxia in the fifth 
century ; but there can be no doubt, after examination, that 
it is designed for a Madonna. The work indeed is very 
tolerable, but the face has the usual impudent and smirking 
expression that marks the female heads in the later ages of 


Gothic taste ; certainly such a manner was foreign to the 
Roman hand, even in the lowest stages of the Decline. 
Imperial portraits, even after the execution had become 
quite barluirous, are still successful in preserving a certain 
rude expression of dignity and repose. This stone is not 
set as a ring, but in an octagonal silver seal, in shape far 
from inelegant. The legend on the setting — pbive svi b 
POT CONV — " Privfe suis et puis connu," is well cut in bold 
Lombardic letters, like that on the ring last mentioned. 
This seal, found at Childerley, Suffolk, in 1861, was ceded by 
the late Mr. Litchfield of Cambridge to the Prince of Wales. 

All the above described engravings distinguish themselves 
at the very first glance from the innumerable examples of 
really antique intagli adapted to mediaeval usages. The 
latter, whetlier the finest Grreek or the rudest colonial Koman, 
have an air of antiquity about them which cannot be mis- 
taken, in addition to the characteristic shaping of the stone 
itself. For all antique gems (excepting the sard, the red 
jasper, and the sardonyx, when cut transversely by the older 
Greeks) have always a surface more or less convex, and 
more especially bo in the case of the three precious kinds 
we have been considering, but which in all these is perfectly 
plane. The work also betrays in every line the heavy touch 
of the engraver accustomed to cut seals in metal. 

It is only a matter of wonder why the Italians, at least in 
the great trading cities, Pisa, Venice, Genoa, did not sooner 
attain to proficiency in gem-engraving ; in constant inter- 
course as they were with the natives of Alexandria and of 
the Syrian ports, to say nothing of their artistic relations 
with the Byzantine Greeks, in all which regions the art was 
extensively practised, the more especially amongst the 
Mohammedans, in the cutting of Cufic, and later of Persian 
calligraphy with the accompanying arabesques and floral 
decorations. This is the more singular as tlie Italians are 
known to have learnt many arts fi'om the Arabians, espe- 
cially those established in Spain, such as the manufacture 
of ' ornamental glass, enameled wares or Majolica, and 
damascening metal. Many Italian words relating to the 
arts betray the sources whence the latter were derived, 
being pure Arabic, such aa zecca, tazza, gala, perhaps also 
cameo, &c. It is not however unlikely that some amongst 
the ruder talismans, on which Hebrew letters appear, were 


made in the interval preceding the date of 1417, hinted at 
by Yasari aa the space when something continued to he 
done, although it was of no account. Yet, had the Italians, 
before the year 1400, practised gem engraving eves to this 
limited extent, we should expect to End a class of intagli 
existing, of which no examples have yet presented them- 
selves, namely, the patron saints of the respective cities, just 
as the contemporary Byaantines were doing with their St. 
George, Demetrius, and Theodore, and their own mint- 
masters in the types of their national coinages. We should 
expect often to find on gems the well-known figure of St. 
John of Florence and his old lion ; Marzocco, the " Tota 
Pulchra " of Pisa ; the Sant« Volto of Lucca ; St Martin ; 
and above all the Winged Lion of Venice. The last was 
the especial device for a merchant's signet, and therefore 
does it figure on so many counters or Nuremburg Rechen- 

Sometimes indeed a caloedony or cornelian is found bear- 
ing a regular " merchant's mark," but all known to me seem 
later than 1500, and may have been engraved as late as 
Elizabeth's reign, which has left abundance of signets of this 
sort in metal. 

To return to the triple face on the jacinth above described: 
its most strange magical-looking aspect irresistibly suggests 
an equally strange hypothesis to account for it. It strongly 
resembles the heads of certain mysterious statuettes bearing 
Arabic legends of unknown purport, figured by Von Hammer 
(Mines de I'Orient, vol. vi.) as the very images of Baphomet 
that the Templars were accused of worshipping. It cer- 
tainly would well represent the "ydole avec trois faces" 
specified in the articles of accusation. Hence sprung the 
but too seductive idea that some dignitary of the Order, 
stationed in the East, might have employed a native engraver 
to execute to his commission this image on a precious stone, 
and the same theory would account for the other female 
heads similarly on precious stones, whose style is evidently 
contemporary with this triplet's. In that case all such female 
heads would typify the Female Principle so important Jn the 
Gnostic scheme, their Achamotli, or Wisdom. As on the 
Roman talismans of the sect a Venus appears for her to the 
eyes of the uninitiated, so a bust that would do duty for a 
Madonna might Iiave served to ba£Qe the curiosity of the 


profane, when adopted by these the latest cultivators of the 
Gnosis, to typify their mystic Mete. 

In such a sense the enigmatical motto "Though secret, I 
am afterwards known," and the injunctions to silence would 
be highly appropriate, the true meaning of the devices 
being only understood by the "free, equal, and admitted 
brother ;" but such an explanation, tempting as it is, will not 
stand a closer investigation, for it is based upon a mere 
chimera. The figures so laboriously collected by Von 
Hammer manifest in everything the spirit of the Cinque 
Cento and a certain inspiration of Roman art, for in some 
the idea has evidently been borrowed from the Hercules 
wrapped in his Uon's skin, whilst the armour in others is much 
too classical in its details to have been of the work of the 
Templar times. The astrological symbols, too, so profusely 
interspersed are not even as ancient in form as those 
employed by the Gothic architects in their sculptured deco- 
rations, but exactly correspond with those found in printed 
books of the sixteenth century. The Arabic inscriptions 
also are in the modern Neskhi, which had not superseded the 
Cufic in the ages in question ; and this circumstance alone 
suffices to demolish the whole fabric he has so Ingeniously 
reared. All these considerations united show that these 
figures, if not altogether modern forgeries, were made to 
serve some purpose in the proceedings of the alchemists or 
astrologers in the train of the emperor Rudolph II., or 
perhaps, as certain Masonic emblems denote, they had 
reference to the arcana of the Rosicnicians. The latter 
flourished amazingly in Germany after the year 1 600, before 
they were merged into the Freemasons sometime in the next 
century ; and, seeing that the motives of these statuettes are 
evidently borrowed from Florentine bronzes, the latter ex- 
planation is, perhaps, the nearest to the truth At this date 
the notions of the Kabala and mysticism of every kind 
flourished most vigorously; indeed, the astrology and alchemy 
of the preceding ages were simple science conducting its 
investigations according to the rules of common sense, when 
compared to the extravagant theosophy established by 
Faracelsus and his disciples. 

From all this we are driven back to the conclusion before 
attained from other data, that these mysterious intagli, instead 
of being early mediseval works, are specimens of the earliest 


revival, and belong to the school of the quattrocentisti. By 
the very beginning of that age the Italians already sought 
after engraved gems as works of art, as appears from Cyriac 
of Ancona'a letter respecting the coins and gems collected 
by the Venetian admiral, Bertuccio Delfin, the first possessor 
of that famous amethyst, the Pallas of Eutyches, His words 
describing the latter prove that the merit of a fine intaglio 
waa perfectly appreciated before the year 1450. 

A silver seal, " of fourteenth-century work," found on tho 
site of the Fi-iory of St. Mary Magdalene at Monkton Farleigh, 
Wilts, displays a female head in nearly front face (intaglio), 
covered by a veil drawn closely under the chin. (Wilts 
Mag. vol. ii., 389). The legend is cafvt mabie iuodalenb 
in the Koman letter that first began to supersede the round 
Lombardic. But the design of this intaglio is too fine and full 
of the classical taste to be referred to the early Revival. Its 
motive may be even from a work of the Augustan age, the 
portrait of some imperial lady in the costume of a votaress 
of Isis. It is almost identical in design with the terminal 
figure in the Townley Gallery, mis-named the Venus Architis. 

Mr. Albert Way has favored me with an impression of a 
seal, containing an intaglio, perhaps the most indubitable 
example of a mediaeval engraving of all yet mentioned. 
It is a female bust, with a band around the head, and 
another under the chin : the hair is tied in a large bunch 
at the back of the head, a foahion peculiar to the early 
part of the fourteenth century. In front is a spray with 
flowers, a Gothic lily in its conventional form. The execution 
of the intaglio, highly polished inside, though far from rude, 
differs entirely from the antique. The subject, I have no 
doubt, is " Santa Maria del fiore," and engraved by an early 
Florentine ; perhaps a specimen of the skill of Peruzzi, that 
" singolare intagliatore di pietre ; " an artist capable of such 
.a performance in that age would well merit such a repu- 
tation (see woodcut, fig. 3). 

The engraved stones set in medieval metal works, even 
in the most important pieces remaining, such as the shrine 
at Cologne, and that of St. Ehzabeth at Harburg, are all of 
Roman date and of triSing artistic value — probably because 
they were extracted out of Roman jeweliy then in existence 
belonging to the latest times of the empire. The finer works 
of Greek art, ancient even to the Romans themselves, had. 


one may well suppose, disappeared in the ages following the 
fall of the empire, and are now the fruit of modem research 
amongst the remains of long-buried Italian and Grecian 
sites. Of this fact, the scarahei are a proof, now so abun- 
dant, yet unknown to the medisBral jeweUer, or to the earlier 
collectors after the Berival, almost in the same degree. In 
fact, the whole domain of archaic Greek and Etruscan art 
may be said to hare lain in darkness until a century ago, as 
that of Assyrian did until our own times. 

Not more than two engraTed gems, both camei, with 
designs in the genuine Gothic style, have come under my 
notice. Of these the first can easily be accounted for, and 
adds no argument to either side of the question ; not so the 
second, which set us as hard a problem in its class as the 
ruby forming the first subject of this dissertation. 

To begin with the first cameo, formerly in the TJzielli 
collection. The Madonna, a half-length and in front fiice, 
holds before her the Infant supported on a cushion resting 
on the balustrade of a balcony containing them. They 
are enshrined in a deep canopy sculptured in the latest 
Gothic or Flamboyant style. But, since this style lingered 
on in France and Flanders late into the sixteenth century, 
in a sacred subject like this (especially as it may hare been 
the copy of some ancient sculpture of peculiar sanctity), the 
introduction of Gothic ornamentation does not necessarily 
prove that this piece was executed before the year 1500. 
It may in fact have been done on this side of the Alps long 
after the classic style had regained its ancient dominion in 
Italy. The work is very smooth and rounded in its pro- 
jections, although in the flattest possible relief; and its 
whole manner reminds one strongly of that characterising 
the cameo portnuts of Henry VIII. and his family, of which 
there are several known. In all likelihood it was the work of 
some French or Flemish engraver in the reign of Fran(^is I. 
But the seal-engravers mentioned by Agricola in Germany 
and Holland towards the end of the preceding century, 
had they attempted cameo-cutting, would have adhered to 
the Gothic manner. The stone is a black and white onyx, 
the relief in the dark layer, I^ >: 1 inch. 

The second is an agate-onyx, 3 in. high by 2 wide. In 
the white layer, most rudely carved, Christ Ascending, hold- 
ing a long cross ; before him, a kneeling figure, a subject 


frequently seen in sculptures upon tombs. It is not possible 
to describe the rough chipped-out execution of the relief, the 
stone appearing as if cut away with a chisel. Neither work 
nor design bear resemblance to Byzantine camei, even the 
rudest of the class. The only plausible explanation is to 
suppose it the first essay of some Oerman carver, 'who had 
acquired some slight notion of the mechanical process from 
the Italian inventors, and had attempted a novelty as to 
material, following his own national taste in everything else. 
The stone seems to be a true agate-onyx, perhaps of the 
German species, not the softer alabaster-onyx often used for 
camei at a later date. This curious piece is supposed to 
have been found in Suffolk. The outline of the stone being 
irregular, it is difficult to conjecture the purpose it was 
intended to fulfil, perhaps to be set in a cross, or some 
object of sacred use. Even in this case, bearing in mind that 
a work in this medieval style would have been consistent 
with the state of art in England long after 1500 (the Gothic 
type was for many years retained by Henry VIII. in his 
coinage), this monument does not necessarily carry ns back 
to the first period mentioned by Vasari, still less to the times 
preceding it." 

Afler all, npon oonsideration of these data, the only con- 
clusion that they justify seems to be one not very dissimilar 
to that generally adopted by archteologists, that the- purely 
Gothic artists, down to the early Revival (this is until 
after 1400), never attempted gem-engraving, Yasari, in his 
remark that " something continued still to be done," must 
refer to the feeble productions of the Byzantine cameo- 
cutters ; but bis " improvement in 1 4 1 7 " may apply to Italy, 
and be the source of the singular intagli in precious stones, 
whose peculiar character is only to be explained upon this 
supposition ; whilst the Gothic camei may be ascribed to 
Teutonic apprentices in the new art, and so be in reality 
much posterior to the early period properly the subject of 
our investigation. 

* Cbaboaillst (OlTpUqne au Uoyen tnrj; the neit,Ctirl«t In flowing K)bea 

Am ; H4t. An:h. ISSl, p. 650) hu put^ ituding nodar • Ting, to Oa thirtvanth ; 

liibod three oamei in (he frrach oabloet, the third, the Adormtioii, en ezquiiitalr 

which he con«id*iB not of Bjnmtine finiahed piece, to the cloee of the th 

origin. The firrt, Ghiut teufalng hb teanth. Heiodget themltitUML 
diKiiida^ be Monbea to the tMith oan- 




AuoNo the valuable additioDS in sculpture m&de during 
the last few years to the collection of antiquities in the 
British Museum, are now to be noticed some statues very 
recently acquired from Rome, where they formed a portion 
of the objects of Art preserved in the Palazzo Farnese, the 
property of the ex-King of Naples. 

I have selected one of these as the subject of a few 
remarks which I propose to offer to the Arcfaseological Insti- 
tute, as it seems to me to have some special clauns to the 
attention of archieologists, independently of the interest it 
must have, as a work of sculpture, in the estimation of all 
intelligent and competent judges of Art. I shall add to these 
some conclusions at which I have arrived during my investi- 
gation of ancient authorities, and my own examination of 
the work in question ; and I shall beg to offer these with 
great deference to the impartial judgment of those scholars 
and antiqueiries especially who take an interest in ancient 

The statue referred to is in marble, and represents a youth 
of small life-size, entirely naked, adjusting a fillet round his 
head ; hence its title, Diadumenus. . The figure rests chiefly 
on the right leg, the left being slightly advanced, and bent 
at the knee ; but the lefl; foot is well planted on the grotmd. 
The support is at the right side, and is formed of the trunk 
of a p^m-tree, showing the stems of the leaves cut short, in 
the usual way of representing this accessory. 

The fillet, rauiCa, with long ends, embraces the head, being 
tightly pressed on the hair over the forehead. 

The right arm is raised, and the hand is holding one end 
of the fillet on this side, as if about to return or tie it. 

The left arm is broken off, but it is preserved. It is, how- 
Dc, zecbvGoogIc 


erer, a modeni restoration. The action is copied from the 
other arm. 

It has been supposed by the learned that this statue may 
be an ancient copy of a celebrated work by Polycletus, called 

The statue has received injury in various places. The 
surfiace, in the lower part of the legs, has been tampered 
with, apparently with the view of rubbing out stains in the 
marble ; and a cross fracture, running through both thighs, 
by which the statue was broken in two, has been repaired, 
and the separated portions fastened together by iron pins 
and clamps. All this has been done clumsily, and, as is 
often the case in works of this kind, evidently by incompetent 
hands. Fortunately, however, no irreparable damage has 
been done ; and, though it will require great care, it will 
not be difficult to restore the statue to its almost original 
condition, as, with the exception of the left arm and a portion 
of the nose, every part of it is indisputably ancient 

The style of Art in this work is characteristic of what is 
known to have prevailed in the advanced part of the fifth 
century, B.C., when sculpture was throwing ofi* the remaining 
stifihees of what has been called the later Archf^c school. 

The head claims attention both for character and treat- 
ment. It shows some of the peculiarities of the early school 
referred to, and at the same time the influence of the new 
and more perfect style that was being introduced. The 
same connection with the ArchMc manner may be observed 
in the somewhat conventional treatment of the divisions of 
the torso — less in the back than the front— and especially at 
the base or lower lines of the odliqui muscles, on both sides. 
On the side of the loose or resting (left) leg this is very strik- 
ing, and it is obviously untrue to nature. In that action of the 
lower limb there would be no indication of force or weight 
in this muscle. Another circumstance to be noticed, with 
reference to the archaeological question, is the peculiar and 
elaborate treatment of the hair on the pubis. It is carefully 
dressed in small parallel curls, showing, in this respect, a very 
remarkable resemblance to the same treatment in Archiuc 
works, of which good examples may bo seen in the casts, 
preserved in the British Museum, of the Eginetan marbles 
from the temple of Jupiter Fanhellenius. 



The peculiarities here generally referred to will be at once 
apparent if the work under consideration, and others known 
to belong to the transition period, are compared with the 
sculpture of ihe immediately succeeding school, inaugurated, 
or rather perfected, by Phidias and his contemporaries. 
Folycletus, it is true, was amongst these ; but it is important 
to this inquiry to know that he was also associated with those 
who belonged to the later phase of the Archaic school. This 
is clear from two curious passages, one of which occurs in 
Cicero (de elm: Orat. xriii.), the other in Quinctilian (lib. 
zii. 10). The writers are describing, in illustration of their 
own subject, the style of art of a series of sculptors, down- 
wards, from the artists of the most Archaic school ; and the 
various steps or changes in the productions of ihe different 
sculptors are traced down to Folycletus. These traditions 
are sufficiently interesting to be quoted at length. 

Cicero says : " Quis non intelligit Canachi signa rigidiora 
esse quam ut imitentur veritatem ^ Calamidis, dura ilia 
quidem sed tamen molhora qti&m Canadii; nondum 
Myronis satis ad Teritatem adducta . . . Fulchriora etiam 
Polycleti," &c., &c. 

Quinctilian, in like manner : " Buriora et Tusomids 
proxima Calon atque Egesias ; jam minus rigida, Calamis ; 
moUiora adhuc supradictis Myron fecit. Biligentia ac decor 
in Folycleto supra csBteros," &c. 

The examples that will most clearly exhibit the perfection 
of style ultimately attained may fortunately be found where 
the comparison may easily and readily be made. This is in 
the sculptures of the Farthenon now preserved in the British 

From what has already been said it will be seen by all 
who take interest in ancient art, that this statue of the 
Diadumenua has very great claims to attention. Although, 
in some respects, it may not be placed quite on an equality 
with the sculpture that illustrated the immediately following 
school, it must undoubtedly take a very distingiushed place 
among the producUons of a most important period in the 
history of this art. It precisely occupies that very narrow 
line of demarcation between the lingering traditions con- 
nected with the old prescriptive style — hallowed by long 
usage and its application to the mythical traditions of Greece 
— and the consummation of sculpture in its noblest and 



purest pbase ; when, under Fhidias, Alcamenes, Praxiteles, 
and others, the highest perfection of form, and the most 
refined and careful execution were shown to be compatible 
with the most dignified and sublime conceptiona, — a combina- 
tion which the religious prejudices of the prerious ages, iu 
their attachment to the Ardiafc types, deemed inadmissible. 

I shall now proceed to make some remarks on this statue 
with reference to the great historical interest that attaches 
to it. The artistic merits of the work are naturally those 
which have chiefiy claimed my attention ; but in order to 
explain, or lead up to, the supplementary matter I have to 
bring forward, it will be expedient to touch slightly upon 
some collateral circumstances bearing upon the history of the 
Diadumenus of Polycletus. 

The statue in the British Museum evidently represents a 
young man tying or attaching a fillet : precisely what the 
Greeks termed Diadoumenos. Two authors especially, Pliny 
and Lucian, describe a statue so called as one of the most 
celebrated works of Polycletus. The former (lib. 34, c 8) 
says, "Polycletus Sta/onius, Ageiadee disciptilus, Diadumettum 
/ecti mtdliter jmenem," that is, " Polycletus, the Sicyonian, 
the scholar of Ageladas, made a youthful Diadumenus, or a 
young man tying on a fillet" I omit here the expression 
moUiter, as it will hereafter be refeiTed to more particularly. 

Lucian (tn PhUopseude) speaks of "the statue tying a 
fillet on the head as very beautiful, the work of Polycletus." 

The original is rov fitafiovficvov r^f m^akifv r^ rawla, ritv KaX6v, 
fyyov noKvKXtCrov. 

FUny adds that this work was estimated (not sold, as 
some have translated it) at the sum of a hundred talents — ■ 
centum talentit nobiliiatutn — equal to nearly X25,000 sterling. 
However exaggerated this valuation may appear to us, 
yet, as Pliny seems to have been in the habit of recording 
every report or piece of gossiping that reached him, it is fair 
to conclude that this statue, so pointedly referred to, enjoyed 
a very high public reputation. The allusion to it by Lucian 
has, perhaps, still greater weight, for he had the professional 
and practical knowledge that would especially qualify him to 
give an opinion on a work of the kind. Although it appears 
he did not choose to exercise the art, he was educated as a 
sculptor, so that his testimony that the Diadumenus was 
beautifiil (koXov'j is of no small value. 



Now we not only hare here the subject of our statue 
defined, but there is further curious eridence to connect this 
identical work with the age of Polycletus himself in the 
charactemtic style it ejihibits. 

It is precisely that which is said to have distinguished 
this sculptor's productions. Pliny, describing the peculiarities 
of the manner of Folycletus, says that he usually made his 
statues standing on one leg: " Proprium ejusdem ut ttno 
crure insisterent signa." And wi^ respect to another 
characteristic — the square, conventional treatment to which 
allusion has already been made — 'that they, the signa or 
statues, were of a square character: " quadi-ata tamen ea 
esse," &c. 

This statue exhibits these very peculiarities. 

So far all this helps to strengthen the belief that the 
Diadumenus of the British Museum may be a true and literal 
copy of the celebrated statue referred to in such compli- 
mentary terms by the ancient writers above quoted ; and, 
beyond this, tlie evidence it bears of undoubted antiquity, 
may justify us also in considering it a work executed in the 
time of Folycletus. 

If it were possible at first to think it a late Roman copy, 
we should expect to find it executed in the marble of the 
country, the marmor Lunense, now known as the Carrara 
marble ; but the material is unquestionably Gfreek — the 
famous marble of Pentelicus, so extensively used by all the 
greatest sculptors of Greece. But there is room also for 
another supposition, almost logically arising out of these pre- 
misses ; and a question is Involved in it of the greatest pos- 
sible interest to antiquaries and lovers of art. It is very 
remarkable that there is no direct mention made, by any 
ancient writer, of the material in which two of the most 
famous works of antiquity, the Diadumenus and Doryphorus, 
were executed. It has generally been assumed that they 
were of bronze, as were so many of the best works of the 
great masters, but there is no authority for it ; while there is 
^ir reason for supposing they were among the numerous 
ancient works executed in marble. At any rate, no evidence 
can be produced to prove the Diadumenus of Folycletus was 
not executed in this material ; it, therefore, may, at least, 
be discussed as an open question. 



Though Polycletus is especially celehrated for bis works in 
bronze, in which he was the rival of Myron, " emulaiio autem 
in materia fuit," he is also mentioned aa the author of various 
statues in marble. Fausanias (lib. ii. c. 20) refers to one, at 
Argos, of Jupiter Milichius ; and again (c. 24) to three others, 
in a temple on Mount Lycone, of Apollo, Latona, and Diana, 
all of which were of " white marble " {^fiKov xfdov) ; showing 
beyond any question that this sculptor worked in this 
material ; of which the expression marks distinctly the 
white, bright hue (Xevuis). However, the object is simply to 
point to the fact that these were well-known works of Poly- 
cletus, in marble ; and, in the absence of any evidence to the 
contrary, to suggest that the Diadumenus may have been 
executed in this material. 

It is now time to refer to an expression used by Pliny {loc. 
cit.) in his description of the Diadumenus, the consideration 
of which was postponed when the translation of the passage 
was given, but which may now be properly introduced in 
connection with this part of the subject. It is the term 
moUiter, which means " softly " or " dehcately "—fecit moUiter 

The expression has usually been interpreted as referring 
to something delicate or effeminate in the sculptor's treatment 
of the figure. But, assuming that the statue represented a 
youth who had been successful in the games, as the palm- 
tree in our supposed copy would lead us to believe, moUiter, 
taken in the above sense, scarcely seems appropriate. It is 
true, the upper portion of the figure exhibits hghtness and a 
certain elegance in the forms, but not in a degree that 
would make the term moBiter applicable to the whole figure. 
The lower part is obviously of a robust character, rather 
overcharged than not, so that here there is still less justifi- 
cation or reason for the use of the expression. As then 
moUiter appears to be a term of questionable propriety as 
applied to the physical form of ant/ subject of the athlete 
class, or a trained competitor in the public games, may it 
not be permitted to endeavour to fiud an explanation for it 
free from the objection above referred to, and yet that may 
make the expression applicable to the statue of the Diadu- 
menus ? May it not be more consistent, as well as reason- 
able, to refer it to the techniad treatment of the materiai in 
which the statue was executed. — an explanation of the term 


vhich, while it meets the objection as to ita misapplication 
to the subject of the statue, gives great additional force to 
the presumption that the original work was in marble ? 
Marble admits of the finest and most delicate manipulation, 
and there is ample authority to show how highly the ancients 
valued perfection in this branch of art. The term moUiter 
would, then, correctly express this delicate exeoution, and 
would be taken in connection with fecit rather than with 
juvenem, and would be the equivalent to the modern Italian 
morhidezza, often used by sculptors to describe the soft, rich 
quality of surface which may be given to marble. 

This speculation may be thought to be beside the question, 
and I offer it with deference, not resting upon it as an argu- 
ment, inasmuch as the premisses are only assumed. I also 
admit that the view scholars have taken, that Pliny intended 
to imply a comparison, or rather contrast, between the works 
he is describing, is deserving of attention ; though in a 
question of artistic criticism the judgment of that writer 
may not be placed very high. It is to be remembered that 
Lucian, a better audiority in this respect, makes no remark 
upon the age or treatment of the statue. He simply says it 
was "beautiful" 

Incidentally, reference has been made, above, to the 
difference of character of form observable in the upper and 
lower portions of this statue ; that while all the upper 
portion, as the head, throat, and body, are comparatively 
of a light character, there are, in the lower extremities, the 
indications of great physical power. ' The quality of these 
forms, in a certain force and fulness in the thighs, the strength, 
shown in the hips, and the size and breadth of the feet, give 
rise to other curious speoulationa, suggesting the probabili^ 
that this statue represents a successful competitor who gained 
his distinction in one of those contests of activity, such as 
running, in which the lower extremities were chiefiy called 
into action. In all the contests requiring great muscular 
force and weight — as wrestling, boxing, quoit-throwing, and 
others of the kind — a very different development would, I 
am disposed to think, have been displayed. It would have 
been in the deep chest, the muscular arms, and the thick, 
short throat, that the appearance of great strength would 
have been exhibited. 

I will now briefly sum up the evidence tiiat has been 



adduced for claiming for tbia statue a rery distinguiBhed 

That the statue is ancient, there is no reason to doubt 

That it represents a youth occupied precisely as the 
Biadumenus of Polycletus, described by Pliny and Lucian, 
can scarcely be questioned. 

That the style of the sculpture corresponds with that 
which characterised the works of a certain age, and that this 
was the age of Polycletus, and recorded as essentially the 
manner of this sculptor, must be allowed by all competent 

And that the material is Pentelic marble, and not Italian 
marble, admits of no doubt, and is further corroboratire of 
the true Greek origin of the statue. 

There is no reliable history of the place or time of its 
discovery, though it is said to have been found, with other 
ancient remains, in the ruins of the Baths of Caracalla ; but 
the circumstance of this statue having been preserved in 
Home, where so many of the masterpieces of the great 
sculptors of antiquity were collected when Corinth, Athens, 
and other cities of Greece were despoiled of their best works 
of art by their Roman conquerors, strengthens the pre- 
sumption that it was among the important monuments of 
Grecian sculpture thus accumulated in the Eternal City. 

I approach the conclusion of my subject with some 
anxiety, but I will not shrink from announcing the strong 
impression that has been left on my mind, after a careful 
review of all these various arguments, and a not less con- 
scientious examination of the statue itself. 

It seems to me by no means impossible, nay, there is 
rather a very great amount of probability, in the cumulative 
evidence adduced, that in this interesting statue we possess, 
not simply an ancient copy of a celebrated work, but the 
original Diodumenus of Polycletus. 

I am of course prepared to hear so bold an opinion 
questioned as a mere conjecture. But though it may not 
be in our power, at present, to pronounce authoritatively on 
so nice a point, I have no hesitation in saying, that both from 
the ancient authorities, as well as from my own practiced 
acquaintance with technical points of Art, there appear to 
me veiy suffident grounds for entertaining this gratifying 


belief; while I think, I hope not presumptuoualj, that there 
are none equally stroag for rejecting it. I hare touched but 
gently on various questions which may Bcem rather to be- 
long to the province of scholars than of the practical artist. 
FeeUng my incompetency to deal fully with these, I respect- 
fully leare their consideration to others better qualified to 
decide upon them. 

Posses^Dg, as we already do in this country, the original 
sculptures of the Parthenon, of the Mausoleum, and of the 
Temple of Apollo in Arcadia, it would indeed be a subject 
of congratulation if we could establish the authenticity of so 
celebrated a production as the far-famed DiadumenuB — one 
of the most famous of the many famous statues of antiquity ; 
a work of one of the greatest masters of sculpture whose 
names have been handed down to modem times ; and so 
highly esteemed by the ancients, that we are told the almost 
&bulou3 money value of one hundred gold talents was set 
upon it. 

It is not necessary, nor would it .be desirable, to enter 
here upon the questions that have arisen among scholars 
and antiquaries respecting the precise date of Polycletus, 
and especially whether or not there were two or more cele- 
brated sculptors of the name. The artist whose work has 
now been discussed lived, there can be no doubt, in the 
earlier part of the fifth century B.C., probably between 480 
and 430 before our era. He may, tiiei-efot'e, although one 
of the late Archaic school of sculptors, have been also con- 
temporaiy with the sculptors of the beet age of Greek Art 

) by Google 

©rifltital Bocummts. 


CommnniaiUd br DR. I^RDIKAXD KKLLKB, PrtMdoDt o[ ths Bodatx of AnllqiuriiH 

ol Zurich; Hod. Ktmbn of the Arcbaeologiisl InitituU. 

(From UlUbsUuDgsD der Antiqu. 0«slU. In Ztlrlch, Bud 111.) 

la the collection of remarkable mannscripts preserred in the library of 
the convent of St. Gall is the "Liber Benedictionalie," a work vritten 
A.D. 1000 or thereabout!, the contents of which throw considerable light 
on the cloister- life, m also on the customs and general atnte of culture of 
that period. 

Ekkehnrd the Fourth, or the younger (bom a.d. 980, deceased 1036), 
was a monk and " mag^ster seholarum " in the convent of St. Qall, and 
author of the " Casus S. Galli," ■ a work of Inestimable ralne for a 
knowledge of the mediffiral period, and especially so with regard to Ger- 
many. While a student under the direction of his tutor Notker (Labeo), 
and also in after life, Ekkehard composed a number of poems on varioas 
BubjectB, such OS epitaphs, inscriptions on pictures, hjmns on the jrearlj 
festivals, short graces for meals, etc., which form collectirely a considerable 
volume. It bears the name of "Liber ficnedictionolis," and is numbered 
393 among the manuscripts in the librarj of the convent. 

All these poems are in Latin, and in the rhyming hexameter verse called 
leonine. They are bj no means remarkable for elegance of diction, 
nor correct in form ; occasionally they are so obscure that the author lias 
felt himself obliged to render his meaning more intelligible by the addition 
of detached words, or notes, in I^atin and German. In the case of several 
poems it is evident that they are no effusions of poetical inspiraticHi, but 
must be regarded as cicrcises for making Latin verse, or as themes — 
" dictamioa magiatri die! debita " — as the author himself terms them, the 
purport and development of which the tutor had eiplaincd. Occasionally 
tbey are mere memoranda of Notker's lectures on rhetoric, logic, dialectics, 
astronomy, etc., or quotations from Greek and Latin poets and historians 
read with the tutor. With all their imperfections and want of poetical 
merit, these poems, and among them the " Benedictiones ad Mensas " 
especially, a precise reproduction of which we now g^vo, form a part of 
those interesting works which afford us a glance of the inner life and social 
condition of the middle ages. 

It is well known that the term Benedicttonet, or blesungi. Is given to 
those solemn acta so frequent formerly in the Mosaic ritual, and adopted by 
the Christian religion, whereby, by means of certain prayers, the grace and 
favor of Heaven were to be extended to some project, or person, or thing. 
The ceremony in use since the fint centuries of the Chnstian Church,-at 
the rite of benediction, and also at that of exwcism so closely connected 
with it, has been the making the sign of the cross, and the aspersion of 
holy water. Under the former formula the blcBsing and the adjuration 

> Tliil d<na«stio leeord of the convent monite, vol. u., with axplonatoi; notw- 
is pnbliihed by PertiL MonimienU Qer- bj Ton An. , • i 

DC, :ecb>C,OOglC 


were practised not merely bj the priests at important ceremonies, bnt also 
by tbe laity tX the commencement of almost every daily occupation. They 
made the sign of the cross on forehead and breast, or on whatoTer came in 
their .way. They made it on cominff in or goiog out, on retiring to rest, at , 
striking a light, orer weapons and books, over vessels and garments, and 
especially over the meats of which they were shout to partake. That the 
use of the sign of the cross was associated with the enunciation of each 
of the following blessings is plain from the tenor of a number of the veraes.' 
It may be asked whether these and similar fonuulfe really were made at 
meals, and for individual dishes, in convents ; or whether we are to con- 
sider the examples before us merely as poetical essays. In favor of the fonner 
view is the fact that at the time when the author lived the most trivial 
OTants, such as putdng on new clothes, trimming of the hair and beard, 
or letting blood, were in this and ether convents preceded by certain 
prayers ; ^ and further, that this pious mode of regarding the eitemal 
events of life did not merely prevail in the convents, hut throughout 
Christendom generally. The second view is undoubtedly correct as regards 
a number of verses whiiA contain medical prescriptions, recipes for certain 
dishes, and so forth, which hare nothing to do with blessings. Graces are 
also enjoined in convents by the Benedictine rule, and by the Capitularies of 
the Prankish emperors. Among the poems of Alcuin * we finda benedic^on 
at meals, Eenedictions of bread, water, and salt occur in several forms, 
both in Latin and in Anglo-Saxon. Besides these examples very few graces 
have come down to us from the early middle-age period. 

Each of the lines in the following bened^ictions stands by itself, and has no 
coDnection with the rest; each conttuos the blessbg of some dish, or of some 
drink, that has just been brought to table. Sometimes the form of blessing 
of the same object is repeated with trifling variation. But what sets a value 
on the actual position of the verses is the circumstance that the individual 
groups appear to betoken the sepsraCe parts or courses of a repast, which not 
only includes the dinner, but also the dessert and the lympoiium. That 
it was, at least, the author's design not merely to quote a list of dishes, but 
to give a poetic description of the real repast with its individual accessories, 
appears from tho tenor of the first three lines, and from the heading of 
the different divisions being marked by tho repetition of the word " item." 

MenUon is naturally first mode of bread, the most saered of all elementa 
of food, in its various forms and modes of preparation ; and then of salt, a 

■ ProdoDtiai, Hjmn. ri. cggi, lights, water, salt, Seab, etc" — 

Fbo cum, peCenIa lomno, Bcnediotio avuum, novellEB fabce, noveUi 

Csstum p«tia oubile, psnia, mustL Stst. Ord. Clun., ete, 

FroQtam locnmqiia cordis ' Feroula niutra plus CtuiKtu* benedicat 
Cruoia flgiura ligaet. in anlH, 

Crux pcllitomiie orimen, Et bus muItipKcit clemsnter mnncra 
Fugiunt onicem tenebne. servii. 

Tali dicaia signo Qui nuumiun populo ccelcsU misit in 
Mens Suctu&re nescit. imbre, 

* Yon An, Qetohiahto vonSt. Oallen. Bapibos et Ao ei sitionti flumina fudit, 

1.S5i,snd in Pertz ii., p. TG, " Ekke- FuilbuBBt guinis istiavit milliaqDinqDe, 

bardoB verdbua leoninla benediotioneR Qui convertit aquas micandi in vtna 

multiplice* in usum Buperiorum icripeit, Baporis, 

quibni ete ad lectaoaeB in cbora et pre- KoB, et nostra simul benedicat fiarcula 

oes menBalea ThTthmlce pronuutiuideB raitls, 

erant."— Haupt'a Zeilscbnit, iv. GT7 : Couserretqus tuos fsmulos In pace 




DO leu important requiroment of life. The meal then comineiiceB with 
Sih, Bs is Btill the custom in manj' countneB. Then follow poultry, 
butcher's meat, game, mode-disheB, and Tegetablea, and the repast cIoBes 
with dessert and various drinks. We must not conclude that at that period, 
even at great entertainments, meats and drinks were displayed in such 
profasion and dirersity ; the purpose of the poet doubtless was, that no dish 
known at St. Oall at that period should remain without its appropriate 
blessing. Hence each separate verse tells us of some article of food con- 
sidered in Ekkehard's times acceptable and rare, the produce either of tlie 
adjacent mountains or the warmer plains of Germany, or placed within the 
power of wealth by the stream of commerce that flowed near St. Gall 
through the valley of the Rhine. In the eighth and ninth centuries the 
greatest abstemiousness, both as regarded the quality and the quantity of 
alimeuts, prevailed as a rule in the monasteries and was strictly observed. 
Later, however, after wealth and the need of a more generous mode of 
living hod entered their walls, these very institutions became the places 
where care of the body, and especially its daily nourishment, obtained 
particular consideration.* The art of preparing food then attained such a 
degree of culture that, jnst as the cloister-dwellers surpassed their con- 
temporaries in the department of knowledge, so did they also excel in that 
of agreeable and delicate living ; for centuries afterwards the convent- 
kitchen was held to be the school of cookery. In the case of St. Oall this 
transition from early simplicity and austerity to profusion and luxury is 
very remarkable, and of this the Benedklitmei give ns a striking proof. 
" Even in the ninth and tenth centuries," says Von Ars, " the monks were 
not allowed to eat meat, although their forests were full of game and their 
stalls full of cattle, and though, through lack of Italian fruits, and the high 
price of fish, they were compelled to live on pube and on mutt.' This mutt 
diet was so usual at St. Qall, that Qero knew no better translation of the 
words cibi and ecenari than fntu and evening mus. The bill of fare which 
Abbot Hartmuot, elected a,d. 872, made out, and which was followed at 
St. Qall for ttvo centuries afterwards, was completely Indited in this 
spirit. There is no departure from the Italian rule, except in the matter of 
drink and kitchen stuff, when the bottle of wine, which the rule allowed, 
was changed for two bottles (moss) of beer, and lard took the place of olive 
oil in cookery. Each had his separate portion of meat and drink." The 
aspect of the table was entirely changed after they hod taken to eat meat. 

Nor are the dietary precepts and the medicinal remarks altogether without 
interest. Thus we learn that mushrooms, to be eaten safely, must be 
boiled seven times ; that hazel-nuts are injurious to the stomach, while, on 
the contrary, garlic is wholesome ; that millet is poisonous in fevers, and 
leeks can only be safely taken with a liberal allowance of wine ; that the 
flesh of peacocks, swans, and dacks is indigestible, but goat's milk is very 
wholesome. Several of the statements betray the superstition and ignorance 
of the period. Thus the beaver is dossed with fishes, and called & fish ; 
and it ia further told how the qatui, to draw the sportsman's pursuit 

* As regards th« oonveDt-diet in the * Also in the Gugslborg gloia. Haupt, 

alevvnth century, compare S. Wilhelmi Zeltsolirifb ii!., eanaealam is rendered 

Conatitutionei HimogienMs in Yeters bj tauotgadan, and eUewhero b; n 

DUdplioa Monsitioa (inctora P. Mar- ■ -- 

quardo Hergott), cap. vi., fto. : PariaiEs, 


from W young to herself, vill feign lunenen ; that pigeons hare no 
gall, etc. 

Hsny of the thiags mootioned, the fruits in particalar, point to the 
vicinity of the commercial route to Italy, or to the close connection of the 
cloiitor with that land. That St. GtUl was in friendly interconne with 
Bobbio, a monaitoty founded hj St. ColnmbanuB, the master of SL Galloa, 
ia clear from Boreral passages in tho " Caans S> Galli." By means of 
the Italian convents it is probable that this famona and greatly frequented 
abbey obtained not only natbetio support in valuable manoBcripts, musical 
eompasitions, etc., but also mnny corporeal enjoyments, as rare and costly 
provision for tlio larder. If we allow that chestnuts, peaches, pinms, 
mulberries, figs, and other fruits were brought from the convent property 
on the shores of the Lake of Constance and in the valley of the Rhine — 
vet, in any case, melons, pomegmnates, olives, almonds, citrons, dates, 
kidney-beans, and many other such things are the produce of aouthem 
countries. The customs and usages of Upper Italy are also visible in the 
mention of wine thiclcened by boiling, the use of capons, the dish of eel- 
pouts serTed up with mushrooms, and the use of these fungi as vegetables ; 
also in the taking of little birds by threads (in roccolo], a pursuit in which 
the inhabitants of Lombardy still evince as much pleasuro as dexterity. 
Many of the dishes which, beyond doubt, were regarded aa delicacies not 
easily obtainable, as herrings and Btock-fiah, the spices and condiments 
requirod for made dishes (cibi arte facti), and prepared wines, teatify of 
the commerce of Central Europe with the North and also with the remote 

With regard to the order of the lines and the period of the composition 
of these forms of benediction, it must be observed that, although for the moat 
part the verses are written immediately in se^iuence, jet the poet has 
inserted no inconsiderable portion between the lines, and not alwaya in their 
proper places, at later periods, during numerous revisions of hia woric. 
These interpolations betray themselves sometimes by the color of the ink, 
sometimes by the smaller writing. 

The letters, words, and sentencea which are introduced between the 
lines and above the words to which they refer are partly changes of 
expression, partly more precise definitions and interpretations. The object 
of the first is either to famish the person saying grace with a formnla which 
accurately describes the quantity, (panis, pones,) or the quality, (niveos, 
mbeoB, CDCtus, frixus,] or the natnro (volatile — nataUle} of the dish actnally 
before him. The last explain, sometimes in Latin, sometimes in German, 
tho object in question, as — tenera Isougine mala — citoniK ; cambisaa 
(Gemse), i.e., fera Alpina ; panis elixus — cesotin (gesotten) brod ; or the; 
refer to diet, or to natural history. 

It must be further observed that in the manuscript the insoription and 
the greater part of the initial letters of each line are in red inh. 

To facilitate consideration of the plan of the repast and ila conrses, it 
may be well to enumerate the dishes in the order in which they appear. 

First, the poot prays Heaven to keep the guests assembled at the richly- 
spread board from conten^oo. This was by no means superfluons, when we 
connder the quarrels which at that period were continnally taking place, 
and especially among Germans, at festal occasions. 

Bread, and salt, which are already on the table, give occasion for the 
mention of the various fnrinaceous freparations and or the sauces. , 


Bread (t. 6, 7)— bread m tbe form of cakea, twists (t. 8, 9), i 
Bfaaped bread [7. 10), boiled bread (t. 11), toasted bread aprinkled with ult 
[t. 12), egg-cakes (r. 13), bread made with feast (r. 14), brood made with 
learen (r. 15), wafers (r. 16], uideaTened bread (r. 17), spelt bread [*, 18), 
vheaten bread [r. 19), rje bread (r, 20), borlej bread [t. 21), oat cakes 
(t. 22), new bread (r. 24, 25), broad, hot and cold (v. 26, 27), bread 
baked under bot ashes (r. 28). The list closes tvitli the blessing of tbo 
fragmeota [r. 29, 30) ; for, as the bread had been blessed, the remniuits 
could not be applied to any unworthy purpose (John vi. 12). 

After the blessing of the salt and the sauces (r. 37, 38) the dinner begins. 
First, fish are brought in : boiled fis]i (r. 39), stock-fish or tunay (*. 42), 
sturgeon [v. 43, 73), Tarieties of salmon (*. 44, 45, 47), varieties of eels 
(v. 46, 57, 58), pike (r. 48], rubvlgya (v. 49) ? lampreys and lamperns 
{T. 50, 55). rnrielies of trout (y. 51,62), herrings (y. 53, 54), porch {T. 59, 
60), roach (v. 61). roasted fish {</. 62), cray-fish (y. 63), fish broiled and 
peppered (t. 65, 66], char (y. 67), gudgeon, chub (r. 69], small fry (t. 70), 
beayer (t. 71). 

Birds (v. 74, 75]— peacock (76), pheasant (y. 77), swan (y. 78), goose 
Or. 79, 80), crane (y. 81), duck (t. 82), quail (v. 83), pigeon (y. 84), turtle- 
dove (r. 85], and other kinds of pigeons (v. 86], boiled fowl (y. 87), capon 
(v. 88), chicken (t. 69), ptarmignn (y. 01] ; small birds taken in snares 
(y. 92, 93). 

Butcher's meal— beef (r. 96, 97), yeal (y. 98), mutton (y. 99), lomb 
(y. 100), goat (». 101, 103), kid (y. 102), roasted meat (y. 104), aboulder 
of beef, roosted or boiled (r. 105], pork, roasted or boiled (r. 106, 
107, 108), ham (y. 109), young pork (y. 110), bacou (y. Ill), sausage 
meat (v. 112), flesh of the domesticated boar, boiled and roasted (r. 113| 
114), meat roasted on tbe spit (v. 115), boiled and roasted (y. 116). 

Game (y. 117, 118)— bear's flesh (y. 119, 120), wild boar (v. 121). stag 
and bind (y. 122), roasted venison (v. 123). bison [t. 124), urus (v. 125, 
126), wild horse (y. 127], buck (y. 128], roebuck (». 129), roe (v. 130), 
fawn [r. 131], ibex (v. 132), chamois, bailed and roasted (y. 133), bare 
{v. 134), marmot (y. 135). 

Afler-cDurscs- milk (v. 137, 138], cheese (r. 139, 140), cheese with 
honey, pepper, and wine (v. 141], with honey alone (v. 142, 143), cheeso 
of goats' milk (v. 144), honey (y. 145, 146, 147), honeycomb (7. 148), 
mulberry jam made of yellow and white mulberries (v. 149], mulberry 
wine (y. 150), warm drinks (v. 151), spiced honey-wine (v. 152), made 
dishes (v. 153), dishes Beaeonod with pepper and vinegar (y. 154, 155), 
mustard (v. 156), mashed herbs (v. 157), spices (v. 158, 159), thin cakes 
(y. 160], cokes of fino meal (v. 161], eggs (v. 162], pulee (v. 163, 164) 
pur^ of beans (v. 165], beans (v. 166), chicory (y. 167, 168), votches 
(v. 169), lentils (v. 170), purge of red lentils (v. 171, 172), puree of millet 
(y. 173, 174), kidney-beans (v. 175). 

Fmit (v. 177)— apples (v. 178, 186), olives (v. 179), citrons (v. 180, 
181). figs (y. 182), dates (v. 183), grapes (v. 184), pomegranates (v. 185), 
pears (r. 187), wild pears (v. 188, 189. 190), quinces (v. 191), cliestnuts 
(v. 192), peaches (v. 193), plums (y. 194), cherries (v. 195, 196), biUer 
cherries (y. 197), bazel-nute (v. 198), w&lnnU (v. 199, 200), nuta of aU 
kbds (v. 201). 

Garden stuff— roots (v. 204), seeds (v. 205, 206], medicinal herbs 
(y, 207), herbs (v. 208), cabbage (v. 209, 210), leeks, cooked and raw 


(r. 211), mushroomB. cooked (v. 212), all the brainoa tribe (r. 213). 
melons (r. 2U], garlic (t. 215. 216), pumpkins (v. 217), lettuce (t. 218), 
salads (v. 219). 

Drinks— wiae (y. 223—234), must (235—240), neir and old wine 
(y. 241, 242). wine, honied or spiced {v. 247), safre-wine {v. 248), cider 
(r. 249), mulberrv-wine (r. 250), boiled wii.e (t. 251). mead [t. 252. 253), 
honied wine (». 254, 255), beer (r. 256—259), water (t. 260—265). 


dlacordlim nil iDlmldtlu 

Non smat offensos super has deus afforo mensas. 


Largiter impensis assit benedictio mensis. 

Bito BuperpansoB repleat benedictio mensas, 

Appositi panes siut domnaparaiitia inanes. 

;, Hoc muuus pauum faciat benedictio sauuui. 

Dol (It flBodii et hostli 

Uerbum cum pane aon sit uirtutis inane. 


Egris et sanb bona sit benedictio panis. 
Hano panis tortam faciat benedictio forteni. 
Erige Christe manum tortis benedicero panum. 


Inluaainodam futum 

10. Fanem lunatum faciat benedictio gratum. 
Hoc notet eliium benedictio per crucifizum. 
Uulceat boo friium benedictio cum sale miitum. 

nxebtlste mu Iciumt dtut ftz 

Fooem fac gratum crux sancta per oua leuatum. 
Sit crace signatus panis de feco leuatus. 

y, 8. Totia pants (tart«lli,tourte),ro- V. II. Fimia aliiua — Boil«d br«ad — 

fan to all Mnds of okei mide with siiultrDllB,Gretboilsd, thenbakad, iathe 

while fiour, also to wheatcn bread iu uliape of a ring, ai etjll made at Scbaff- 

general. haunn. Foais ellzus ii ideDtical with 

V. JO. Ponifl liinaliu. — Small crescent. Ingana, tagena. 

■liaped rolls of the finest flour vere V. IS. Pania frixus cum sale. — Slices of 

eaten in convents, and eapedall; duriag bread toasted and prepoi-ed with butter 

CntM. They are atiU known in Tarious and salt, like Engli^ buttered toast. 

parts of Siritsertamd onder the name of V. 13. Fanisper ovalevatiis. — Asortot 

g^^ bread made with eggs and milk. 


ItiutDm fsnnaabl 

15. Hoc fermentatnm facUt benedictia gr&tuca. 

Hu doiu oblatoB faciat dulcedine grataa. 

Aiima Bignetur cruce paschaque commemorelur. 

Panam <le BpolU repleat benedictio multa. 

Tritieeum p&nem faciat crux pestis inanem. 
nplMtt oal foUdat 
20. Nomen diainum signet paaem aigaliDTun. 

Ordea si panes fiiennt aint peatia inanea. 

Robore sit plena fuerit u panis anena. 

Omne genua panie repleat beoedJctie donis. 

Tom souiter oocti cruce panea unt beoedicti. 

25. late recena coctua cruce ponis ait benedictua. 


Hi calidi panea aint frandis et hoatia inanea. 
Hie gelidoa pania alt peatia et hoatia inania, 
Feate proool ChrUte ait anbcmeritins iate. 


Nil leue nil uannm uiolet tot fragmina pannm. 
30, Fretnim fragmeutia aasit manua omnipotentia. 


Aaait canctonim fona lugitorque bonorum, 
Det dena ilieaua ait noeter potua et eaua. 
Sit cibua et potua noator benedictio totoa. 
Omne quod appoaltom eat cruce aancta ait benedictun 
35. Sit oibna appoaitna cntcia hoc aigno benedictua. 
Sit noater uictna nirtute cruoia benedictua. 

T. IS, Oblata, i.«, " piuiia ad tacri- prepare the diffarmt aorta of wheatan 

fieinm oblatu^ bottit nondnm eon- CBkoa, as wafers, twti, &o. 
wcnta. Nomen inde datum pani teuo- T. IT. Fuia tzjmuB. — nnleavened 

iirii9« on ferina et aqua oonfecto, ad bread. 

ignem ferreia prelia loeto;' in French, T. S3. Fatili nibciDeritiua. — Broad 

aMia. Du Cwigo. — In Oerman BwjUer- baked under hot aahea. " Pouaee, penla 

land they ara called ofielen. When, in Bubcioeritiua, »orte de grog glteau bi», 

the tenth and alirenth centurioa, fine qui bo £ut ordioairemeat an TiUage." 

baking wai Introduced in the couTCnts, Itichelet. 
peirona were Mpedally appointed to r- ;ec t CtOOqIc 

VOL. IXI, 3 B *" 


Hnno utliu ipM snlem fociat non exitiolem. 
Istam Balsuram facial benedictio poram. 
Hfls p'lBcea ooctos omce Bumamiu benedictM. 
40, Hos b«Dedio pisoes qui taliboB equora miscos. 
Fneunia aibi aanctam perfundat aquatile cnncturo. 
Sit cruce milleoa benedicta marina balana. 

huso rit odorOA 

Danubii piscis ait haso saporns in eaos. 
Salmo potens piads lit sanoB «t aptus lo eseii. 
45. Fortis in eBocem uittat benedictio nocem. 
Fociat grauidam fungi dulcedine triscam. 

lul luetDi ditoa 

lllaocli priecellat alemannicaB et mala pellat. 

uoD hkbat (pwlu deat illiplwH. Idiia nUquB m/L. 

Omnibus unns aquia sit luciiu eaca auauia. 

Cruz faciat aanam utrtute potente rubulgram. 

50. Lampredam raram nimtom benedio dee caram. 

trootu bnudlctu 

UuItipUci troctam crnce aumamua benedictam. 

Omne geniu trocts benedic auper omnia macte. 

Sit aalflua piscia bonus almarinua in eaois. 

V. S8. Saltura, ulu, coDdimentuiii, when it eaten the smalt rireu. 

Qallii lauee, tea qua) biIbu vel condi- V. IS. Ficiat, so. benedictia. TnK* 

mentiiiatarrimit, videlicet piper, linapi: (SwiM Germ, tritache), gkdiu lotft, ed- 

BBKUJwmiBnient. Du Cuige. — What the pont. — How fiTorito a S»b thia ma in 

middle ages underatood by $alta miy the middle tgea, and eapedallT ita lim, 

be clearly aeen from the old eoakerj ia shoira by tbe comment of the (Aroni' 

rempea published in the Bibliothek des den that the Abbeai of the St. ^dii 

Uterar. YeJrBinB ia Stuttgart, vol. ix., and Ragula convent at Ztirich, Elinb«llt 

according to wbioh the salsa (No. 43) is of Matcingen, " had Bwallovred up the 

made of aour grapes, saga, uid garlic; Tine^ud called the Oolden Slope, at 

or (No. 19} f^m wins, pure honey, Zollikon, with eel-pout lireis." 

ginger, pepper, and garlic. Bnlzs, salsura, V. i7. lUauch. — This is the name of 

a^ugo, murium, nitrum, etc., have all the lake aiUiaOD (salmo lacoatrii), whidi 

the same meaning. ascends the river lU from the Lake of 

T. 12. Marina balena. — Doubtleasstock- Constance, where great numbMi an 

fieb, also called strumulue. The mode of cnngbt — "Vel auetmi datu^" I casnut 

drea^ng is given in the redpes juat interpret. 

referred to. As, however, balena would V. IB. Bubulgra. — What fiali ia ia> 

appear to implya large fish, tbe tunny tended, I have not been able to aaeertiln. 

may be meant, which also formerly was 7. 50, Lampreda. — This waa alwayi a 

aalted, and formed an article of com- favorite fiah, and eipenlive by raeann 

merce. According to Oken, it was often of its acareity. It aacends the Rhine aa 

reckoned amnng the whale tribe bj old far aa Stresbouig, but ia not fonnd in tbe 

wrlten, and is the largest fish which waa riven of Switzerland. 

'it for food. V. CI, Trocta, tructa (tmite, b«ot). 


• well known, ealmo and aalmo lacuslris, aalmo brio. 
woz dedgoato tho same fiah, the sol- V. G3. Almaiinus,— This name >• not 

mon. It bears the former name in to be found in any loniance, or in any 

summer, and tiie latter late in autumn, mediKTal work on nabtral history, and 


Sit dulou [vorsuB piacis dee sic aale moreus. 
35. Angnillas gnUa fiu orux nonieg ocul&tus. 

Fercla Buperstantem signet crux sancta naUntem. 

Uittit in anguuillom dextram qui condidit illaia. 

Fara tanta piscis nostriB benedicta sit eacia. 

Non ainat Iibdc percam deui in dulcedine parcam. 
60. nunc piacem coctum cruoe aumamua benedictum. 


Huno rubriGum cootum factor fore fac benedictum. 

Piscie adcst usua, benedicat enm cruce paaaus. 

Cancrgrum uesoaa faciat qui condidtt eacas. 

Fiacia sit gratua crucis liao lurtute notatus. 
65. Pisces sint grati grato studio plperati. 

PUcIa ait gratoa signo Domini piperatua. 

Hano unalarom craaasm &atres cnice sumite prcssam, 

Pisoiculia tantia crux obuiet altitonontia. 

Sub crnce febrc sine sit crundula cum cspitonc. 
70. Millia coctorum benedio dee piacioulornm. 

Sit benedicta fibri caro piacis aoce salubri. 

Omne natans tcinus licitum benedicat et unus. 

Iiu ponibl; been invented by the poet, 

liks muiT other nomu in ths Benedic- 

lionaE, It niiiy be an abbreviation of cupidi 

ulax oralsc(herriug)Bnd moriuuB. V. TO. Hillia eootorum. — These are 

T. S5. Anguilla Doviea oculata (Petro- evidently the " hBuerlinge," or jrooDg 

myzon fluv;atili>). lampera, or river perch-fry, ivhich >re caaght in great 

lamprey. — In the time of Ekkebord thii nomben in the Swiaa lakse in Auguit. 

mi a very favorite fieh in the Qarman T. 71. Tibri (Castor fiber, Linn.). — The . 

convente. In England it occneionally bedvoi bu diseppeu-ed from the Swiu 

bean ths local name of " aeven-eyea " rivert, in which it iraa frequently to be 

and " nine-eyea." TarrelL found in the time of Oewner, the SniH 

V. 53. Ferda ii tbo •ccusative. Hay naturaliit. " The Aer, Keno, and Lim- 

the holj croH bleaa the fish now lying mat," he writes, " con^n many of them, 

in ths dieh. also tbs Sirs, near Boeel." Hiitimeysc 

T. 61. Iiubrieai{C7prinnirutilaa},the (Tbierreate am den Fbhlbantea) men. 

BoBoh. tiona the occasional appeoiancs of tha 

V. 6G. Kpentua, Le. plpera eondltua. beaver in the canton or Lucerne, a« late 

" UnuiquiB<}ue fiatnim accij^t duaa aa ISOJ, and, in the Talois, in ISZO. In 

portionsa piscinm, unam salsuginatam, the middle agea ths flesh of the boaver 

alteram piperatazn.' Du Caoge. was in request, and might moreover be 

T. 67. Walani, woler, wela (chart), eaten on fast-days, probahty from the 

Siluru*, Ausonii Moaello, v. 135, is not notion that it was rather fish than flesh, 

found in ths lakes of Qermut Snitsei- Tbs ohaae of tba beaver was also a 

land, but Id ths ama]! lakes of Suabia. popular amuaoment, for nhioh dogs, pro- 

V. 68. Crundula (Cobitia baibatula), perly trolnsd, were uaed. 


Pneuma .... donis pars hno bona bU sturiouis. 

FiscitmB KquipftKS benaJio ret cluiste uotucre:. 

nol hADo ilgDat M m 

75. Crux benedicftt auem facUtque sapore Bnauem. 

lul dapu iDdigaitt 

Nil noeeat ttomachis esro non digeata paaoniE. 

i.«. puBO albiu 

Sit stomachis una cmce nobilU hno pbaBiana. 
Iste cibuB cigai noceat mhil arte maligni. 
AoBeris illnaua nostril sit fancibua esus, 
80. Fauce malum rauoa nullum paret hso deus auca. 
Crux benedicta gruem benedic faciendo salubrcm. 
Escis decretam benedioat Christua anetam. 

mtunili ilmalmt h cl&udam, at pogt m cumntel s. pollli ibducat. 

Sit dulcia pemiz aimulataque olauda cotumix. 
Pneuma potens propriam benedio uirtute columbam. 
S5. Turtureis paribus benedicat trinus et unus. 
Omne columbinuin dominus boncdicat in imnm. 
Galliaam coctom B&ora crux f&ciat benedictam. 
CaHtrati galti sit jam caro noxia nulli. 
Plurima tantillia assit benedictio puUis. 

lul llcanlU 

00. Sit bona ee functis uolacrina comestio cunctie. 

V. 73. Btnrio. — The iturgeon uceadi in Oennuty. and must fannerl; have 

the Rbine as for aa tUe Mia at Schuff' been more contmoii. Bj the AUntannic 
lawB & fins wai iinpcMd on tboee who 
should atGBl or ktU this bird (icix. IT). 
T. 84. Sine felle.—Tfae people on the 

, . . bonka of the Bhioo Btili hold this b»di- 

ite beauty and partlj for Uie table, ia tlon. There wet do fiao for killing 

appareot Cmm Ctutrleiuaigne'B CopituUre pigeoci, kud he vho foond them on his 

de Tillis, Bcoording to which poultiy- ground mighb take thesi. Thli peifatpe 

juda in the coyil furoa wore to be pro- gsTO riae to the aajing, " Pigeona bare 

Tided with peacocks, phaaeints, ducks, no gall, therefore they belong to >JL* 

partridges, and tnrtlc-dovBa. Oalen had elread j ezpoeed the popular 

T. 77. Faro albus. — These words in error among the Bomana that pigeons 

the gloss doubtless belong to the word have no gall. 

" paTonis," joat aboTe them, and onlj T> 68. Csattati galll, oapooes. — The 

prove that XUehard was acquainted wi^ oastration of the sock, known to the 

the white peacock. Bomana, appeaia to have been oommonly 

T. 78. Cignus.— The nran, a bird of practised on the Sviia aide of the Alpa 

Northern Europe, Terr seldom appears in the eleventh centuy. 
In Switzeilaud. In the 3alio land it V. 90. Se functla— Perhaps this word 

figarea >a a domsetio animal. is to be dIvtded~MstandinBforaa--that 

V. 81. Graem.— ThecrBsealioissnuv is, comeetione— those who hats par- 

bird in Swiu TBUe;a, It waa pnaened taken thereof 


Sub nine >e perniz meruna sapi&t bene perdix. 
Infer tftntiUia dee mills crnces uolnoellis. 
Nil noeeant ulli de decipulia nolacelli. 
Crux faciat lalabrea quibus eit ana forma noluoreB. 
95. Sub cmce sit sanctum licitole nolatile cnnctnm. 

St boiuB iUnsoa aUniUM^ioqiie aolabilii eaiu. 
Sub cruce diuina oaro ait benedicta boniua. 
lapinguet uitulum crucis alma figura tenellum. 
Signa cruciB miUe cam! socientur ouilln. 
100. Christe erucis signnm depinxeria buno super agnum. 
Omne malum pelle dens hae de came oapeUn. 
Cruz sacra nos Iradi uetet his de carnibua mil. 
Sit cibuB illaiBUB caper et saaabilis esuB. 
Omnia qui cernis benedic cruatomina camis. 


105. Omnipotcns senno cocto superintonet anno. 

CoctuB adest porcus, procul Lino satan abstt et oicua. 

Per saora uexilla care sit benedicta suiSlo. 

ScultelliB porci procul omnia ait dolua orci. 

Fradonem coctum cruce ugnomus bcuedictum. 

110. Doztera porcellum bcuedicat aununa tenellum. 

Lardum lixatum facial benedictio grotum. 

Camcs conflictBB cruce surnames bcnedlctas. 

BHrnU plida. 

Hano ucrris mnsaam dulcem faciat deus aaaam. 

Pars uerria cocta cruco Cbriali ait benedicta. 

115. In cruce tranaEium gcrat nsaa ucni caro ClinslHui. 

T. 96. Lidtala volatile— Just u the dnodtdm furmellu, v>l anum Urdi bn- 

TSnd TtiH, Trbich dowa the Gah-Uat. donain det motwchia. Hoa ett, li bans 

T. 104. CruatuneD. — Wbataver is conjicio, petasonam aeo pemam. Hol- 

eoTet«d with a cnut, usimeo. Ibera landi etiatnnuni voooiil brsde pulpain 

ia in tboM linaa > ramKrlcably frequent petuonia, ecu partem ejus magia caruu- 

abbrariatioD of worda ending in tnlum, leDtam." Du Conge. BrAt, pulpa, pinguv- 

T. lOS. Sculbella, for ecutalla. do;bilto,BaBatura.OrafflW(irt8Tb. Qlooa 

T, lOB. FradoDam.— Hetn. Cartutm-. S. interl. Hllnabea,prat, pulpa, caro molUa. 

Crodi Quamparlas. " Samun Tini et In another gloaa, IJi«do,eur*. SchnwUerl. 


Carnibiu elixis benedlcimiu atqne refriziB. 


Sub cruce dtuina beoedicta at iata farina. 
Sub cnioe diuioa i&piat beno queque ferina. 
Et semel et runiui oruce sit medicabilis ursus. 
120. Huno medlci Banum mcmonat nulliqae DooiTum. 


Deoto timetur aper. onioe Ucliu ait miniu uper. 
Cerui cnmcis caro ait benedictio paoia. 
Uceo aatan et larns fugiant onutamba oeruffi. 
Signet ueBontam benedictio coruipoteiitem. 

ual b«Dt<Ui»t 

125. Dextra del ueri comes aaait camibua ori. 

Sit boa uluanua aub b'ino nomine sanns. 

V. 119. UedicabUia orau*. — Oettoei 
minutelT eDumemtei Uie midiakl luea 
mode of the fletb of the bear. Thli . 
■□imal, now onlj to be found in tbe Alps 

of tb« Oritatu, in T«uiii, nnd tbeValau, 
and nraly OTsn tliere, muat formerly 
bave ebouttded on the SeDtia moantainB 
in AppeuMlL Thu appean to be tba 
cue from the biogrspby of St. Qull, 
also from the nurative of a bunting 
cipcdition undertmkrn in the land* of 
tlia conTsnt in honor of Conrad I., . 
given in Ekkehard's "Caeui St Ool!!;" 
and further hj the etatementa that the 
"Tillioi mijoree" of the conTent kept 
bear-houndi. Mention occun in the 
Alamannio Inwa of the bear la a pre- 
served animal. 

V. 121. Teeonteoi conipoteatvm (Boa 
UeoD, Linn., Boa priscui, Bojanae). — Thi« 
animal bear* the name aleo in Latin of 
bkona, bubalua, booerua, bonuue. The 
Alamamiic lav (icix.) shona the siiit- 
ciice of the biaon formerl; in aouthem 
parts of Qermanj. " Si qui* biaontetn, 
bubalum, vel cerrum," etc. At alao 
doea the came of the Tillage of Wieen- 
dangen, near Zurich, written in the jeu 
eos, Wiauntvangaa, namely, a meadon 
where the biaon paaturee. The biaon, 
mentioned b; Plin;, Hist. Nat,, Tiii. IS, 
ma found in a wild itate in Central Ger- 
many till the beginning of the laet cen- 
lury. At present it is onlj to bo found 
iu B toreat of Lithuiuiia, where It owes 
> the prottction of the 

V. 125. Uri (Boa urua, Linn., or Boa 
primigeuiuB, Boj). Caiiar, Da B. OalL 
\i. S3. According to Cuvler the nrua 
alio was found wild in Europe till the 
aixtaenth century, and In EngUnd down 
to the eeventeenth centuiy, after tha 
biion had been long extinct. That both 
the biaon and the urua were numeroua in 
Switaerland in the pre-hiatoria period is 
proved b; the □umeroua renuuui of tha 
animal diacovered in so many Pfahlbaaten, 
or lake-dwellliign. A horn of the urua, 
Kt in ailver, was to be eeen some fif^ 
yeaiB linoe at the convent of Bhelnau. 
Even in the time of Pliny theae borna 
wore uaed aa drinldeg-cnpa, and they 
served the same purpoee down to the 
middle agea. " Uria comua aunt im- 
mensB concavitatia, ex quibua anipla 
aatig et Itevla pocula Esnt." Fulcxi, 
lib. L Tin HiuroeoL The elk (Ctrnu 
Alcfs) ia not mentioned here, though its 
horna are met with in the Pfahlbauten. 
It appears to have become extinct be- 
tween the period when these Uke-hibita- 
tioDB existed and the time of Ekkeherd. 
ClBur, De B. OalJ. vi. 27. 

V. 123. Boa silvanue, also boa ailrce- 
tris, vitulni agreBtia, bubalus, bo&lua, 
appear*, on comparing the numerona 
passages in mediaival works, in which 
the wild 01 is referred to, to be the 
same animal with the biaon. Namea 
and animals, however, were often con- 
founded, aa it waa not the intention of 
the authors to make an accurate dlMiae- 
tiOD betwean the diSlarent epeeiaa. > 

epeeiaa. • 


Sit feraliB equi can> dulcis in hae cruoe Christi, 
ImbeUem dammam fftciat beaedictio eummttm. 
Capreua ad BKltam benedictus git celer altum, 
130< Sit cibuB UlteBus capren. sit amabiliB esas. 

u* dot 

Capreoli ueBcam dent so oomedentibiiB CBcam. 
CarneB uerbicum nihil attulerint iuimicum. 

I.*, fan ilplu 

Perniz cambiua bona ut elixa Tel asBa. 
Sub cruce dinioa caro dolcii ait leporina. 
135. Alpinam auunm faciat benedictio crasBmn. 
Sit caro uluana crucis omma robore sano. 

Hoc mnlctro lactis sit oita uigorquo reflectis. 
PrimituB hoc macti memoTea benedicite lacti. 

T. IZ7. Equiu fsnlii, ffot eras, tbe 
wild hone, or rathor a hone bacome 
wild. Strabo reUtM that wild horses 
lived in the Alpaj but if this eTea-wsra 
so, it was no longer tha cose u for bock 
OS the time of Flin;. It is ^et less pro- 
bable that the upper regions of Switaeiv 
land should still hava contained wild 
horaas sftai the lapse of a thousand years, 
and whan they hiid become to a cartein 
extent populated. In Anton's Histor? 
of Gormju Agricultare, iii. 3T1, we find 
that, so late as the ;sar ISIS, ivild 
bones, " vagi equi," ware found near 
HUoater in Westphalia. " But tlieae can 
only hiTB baan such as ramoinad niRht 
and day in the woods, and nerer lived la 
BtablcB." By " equi fan," tharofore, we 
can only nndentond horoes which hsd 
become wild and ranged at liberty over 
the Alps. Thut the Qermocs, and eape- 
eiall; the Aiamanni, did eat and relish 
honefleeh, even after tboir oonversinnto 
GhrLatiaaity, is stated by credible authon. 
Thus Pope Qrego^, writing ( ~- - 
bee, a.D. 792. " Inter cmtei _ 
cavallum allquontos comedere odjt 
itti, plemqae et domesticum. noo 
neqaoquam fieri dainceps, sanetissime 

frater, sinas, elo; immundum 

enim eat, et eiecrabile^" Again, we 
find in a latter from Fops Zochanah to 
8L BoDiftee, i.D. TGI. "Imprimis de 
volatilibus, id eat, graonlis et corniculis 
' atque dconiia, ques otnnino cavraidn sunt 
ab esca Chti«ti«iiorum. Etinm et fibri 

et leporea et equi sllTatiei multo amplloa 
Titondi." It is to be presumed that, with 
the extinction of haatheniam, a oorre- 
Bponding change must have ocantred in 
the feelings of the clergyas to the lawful- 
ness of adopting the flesh of certidn 
onimala for food. The objecUonsto their 
use probably had arisen from the fact of 
such anim^ being commonly eaten by 
the heathen Tautens, and offered in thoir 
sRCriBces. Id any case, we see in the 
passage just quoted, that at least four of 
(he Btaadard dishes at St. Qall had been 
anathematised by Pop« Zochoriah some 
S£0 yean before. 

V. 12B.DBmma(C.damBsL.),EV.dum, 
Engl, the buck, was often taken in the 
woods near Lucerne, even in Conrad 
Qassner's time. It has since bean enCiralj 
extirpated by the ebase. Whan the Ijoke 
of Lungern was diuned, horns of this 
animal were found in the mud. 

T. 132. Verbez. For ibex, for the sake 
of the verse. — The ibex (ateinbock, 
bouquetin, oaprieoma) ia now only found, 
and rarely, in the Alps of Bavoy. 

V. 133. Cambissa (chamois). —This 
animal, in moat of the Swiss eaolons^ 
bean liie name of gamhathier. 

V. 136, Cassus Alplnua.~By aunu is 
undoubtedly meant tha marmot. I 
have not bean able to dtaeoTer wheueo 
this name cameg. In Ekkehard's tima 
at St. Oajl the maimot waa sailed mui- 
menti. Is It from cam, katM^ oatt 
V. 188. Hocforhuio,^TO(1Qic 


Hnnc coseum deitra eignet deuB intus et extra. 

140. Partunat nullos lactis pressura lapilloB. 

If el piper et itinum lac daat minus ejue noclnnm. 

LaotiB pressunun crux melle premat noclturam. 

OptJme Biimetnr caaeua u melle , . . detur. 

Lao mage eaprinutn medici perhibent fore Bonum. 

145> Hoo mel dulcoret deua ut sine peete saporet. 

Hoc nuUenarum benedic dee mel Bpeciemm. 

Tristia qui poUia beaedic dee nectara mellU. 

HIb bene Christe fanis benedic fauuB ipie Biunis. 

Fultiboa et luttis nineiB benedictio guttii. 

150. JuQgatnr Isto benedictio Iceta moretc. 

uel ealldoAqufl 

Qratia feruorea bSet quotcanque liquarea, 
Hoc pigmentattitn faolat enu addita gratnin. 
Arte cibos factos deus artia faa benediotoa. 
Omnia sint grata perfusa per lirac piperata. 

ugl giutuiD. ust triitia iKHidliDm lostl. Hnl. 

155. Somamus Isti miztam mordentis aceti. 

V. HI. Mel, piper et Tlnuai.— In nil 
msdinTiJworka vhioh treat of diet, chssae 
ii proDonDced unnbolesome, uid it ii re- 
commended not to piirtaka of it without 
the kddilion of ipicea. Hence the prac- 
tice, at an enrlf period, of njiiing up 
herbs and spies in cheeae, eipeoiall; in 
the taateleM kind made from goat's milk. 
The graen cheeee (lehabzioger) □»«■ its 
oruin to this practice. 

V. 14S. AniU'CODitructadTers*. Luttis 
for luteis. Does this beoedictioD apply 
to the lauoe of yellow mulberries f 

y. 160. Uoretum, momtnrn, momce- 
turn. — Mulberrf-wine. " Patio ex vino 
et maris dilutii confecta." Capttulare de 
Tillis: " Tinum, aoetum, moratum, 
vinum oootum," etc " Singulis vasis 
Tini, medoniSj eerriaiffi, pigment!, morfttl, 
daens," eta Du Cangs. Tliat on this 
ude of the Alps moretum was not only 
prepared from mulberriea, bat alto from 
bkckberries and other berries, i* well 

T. 1S3. Pi^entatam. — " Statntum 
est ut ab omni msllls et apeddrum cum 
vino confectione, quod Tulgarl Domino 

pigmen turn TDcatur, c(si]& Domini tantnm 
excaptA, qua die mel absque speciebns 
TiDO miatuni anliqiiitai permiait, fratres 
abatioeant." Statut. Ord. Cluo. This 
drink nas also knovrn b; the uuae of 
cloretum, ia tbe prepsratioa of wbioh, in 
former times, the most fsTourila of ill 
spicea, pepper, was used ; 

solum mellito sed et rsg;iis spedeboa tido 
confecto ntcntoa." Stat. Ord. Clun. 

V. 16t Fiporsta, pepper-sauces, Bpiood 
sauces in general, poivrade.^" Piperata 
Tini, Tel aeatL Piperis raritas ac pretinm 
fecit at pro quibuavis aromaticia ipocio- 
bus bico Tox UBurpata est." Da Caoga. 

y. 166. Mixtam for mixturam. — Con- 
diman aoeti is also a aauoe of ainir 
fliiTor, prepared from wiue or vinegaf, 
with a mixture of salt, omnin, leeks, anise, 
pepper, mustard, eto., and was serred 
withroasbmeat. Seethaaboira-meiitioned 
recipes (43-49) in note to vena 38. Con- 
dimen means ia general a spies fnr 
flavoring dishce. 



Crnz domini Nsapis jungatur mornbus scriB. 

Tot pIiuU erbu ulus ipsa ut addita nerbii. 

IsUm mixiamn facuit benedictio pimm. 


Hao cruoe pigmentis asHit maniu omnipotontia. 


160. Qrate commentia onicia uaint signa plaeentis. 


Hao crnce Bignata comedamtu adorea grata. 

In Bpem natiiu benedicat conditor oua, 

Cbnste tunm nnmen crnce condiat omne legamen. 

Pneuma tnum numen super istad funde legamen. 
165. FulmGntum fabie facial deus ease anatie. 

Summe dator fabas benedic qnai ipse creabas. ' 

Hono speciem ciceria benedic qai cuncta tqeris. 

Cruz domiiu pisas desoendat in hu numerosaa. 

UeaaicEe inuisu petru benedic dee pisas. 
170. Dextra cibos lentia benedicat onnel»potent!a. 

Frimatom sit nendenti benedictio lent!. 

Sit primogenita nendena rubra coctio lenta> 

Hoc milium coctnm aoper omnia ait benedictum. 

Kon pari&t milium febria uUi frigns et lestuni. 
175. Christ« habitana cnlum aolabere triate phaaelum. 

Sint crnce aub lancta benedieta legomina cuncta. 


Arboribns lecta aint dona dei benedieta. 
Ileo pie Cbnste doma aiot nobis initia poma. 
Hunc olea fruetum faciat lux pax benedictum. 

T. ISe. Pigmtntii.— SpicM. 

V. 160, Plftceatifi.— Thu ia « tort of 

cake still mada in SwitEsrland, and rerj of m 

popular with the peuantrj. It con- V. 1SL Adorea.— Cakes of fine wheaten 

■iit> of a large, fiat,roimd c&keof dougb. Soar. 

thickly covered with meat, fruit, herbs V. 171. Primatnm rendeDtl. — tn idlil- 

chopped Dp, onion*, bacon, or checM, all tloa to Baan, vrbo sold hii birthri^t 

well baked together. In the aboTe-men- for a mess of potta^ of red lentils. 

Uonad old Booker; reodpte (vide note V. IJS. Triste, that is mordenir 

to Tana SB), not len than nine diflersnt enna. See v. 1S6. 
aorta of pUosnta (Sat cakes) are men- 

TOl. XXI. D,DfzeabyCiS>(iglc 

12 BSNiiDionomss ad uenbas 

180* Ba Fetie d« roma Btnt mitia (xdntt poma. 

Cedria uirtatem dent poma ferantqne salutem. 

Ficorom grossia benedictio gratia maaaU. 

Auit dactiUoiB palmarom gnda groHU< 

AppropUre botiia uf nulla licentia tetris. 
185. Uola gnn&ta faciat benedicUo grata. 

Ualonim Bpecies faciat benedictio dulcea. 

Conditor ipse pyra fore det dulcedine mira. 

Ad la^dou pira ueuics torpeat ira* 

Ut ta^dosorum bona sit ueauoa pironim. 
190. MbUa jnncta pira etomacbi non Mntiat ira. 

Sab cmce aint sana tenera lanogine mala. 

Caitaneai mollea fao qoi auper omnia polloa. 

Feruceua fruotna cruce uncta ut benedictuB. 

Uajeatat tma benodicst cerea pnma. 
195. Chiute tna doztra benodio ceratia nostra. 

Hibeiin tellns dedit hnc Itallaqne Luculloa. 

Cbriatoa amarinaa cnice mnlceat Hiberianaa. 

Cmz in anellanaa neniena det eoa fore oanas. 

Gratia triua nuces aibi partas det fore dnlcea. 
200. QaoB dedit in flores nax ploHma Beruet honorea. 

Sit genua omne nncum Bpeoio diatana benedictnm. 

FnenmaticuB feruor foneat qufo qiusqne dat arbor. 

Arbona onuus oaoa benedioat trinua et nnua. 


Onatu radicea faciat crux haa fore dulcea. 
205. Seminia banc speciem dominua det ferre salatem. 

y. ISO. Sm Petra da Boma.— -"niiB b appropinqiuM. 

thaoDlTTarHlawMchamlatiai&Toked. V. 199. Hiberia or IboU.— A tat 

Tha Itdlan fruit, pioba'blj dtroiu, doobt- tory near tha Cancaau 

Ibob rsmlnded the poet to aak a bUaiiiig T. 1 ST. Amarinaa. — Chenuaof abitl 

tram Borne. and aonr taal^ still tanned «MrJ ai 

V. 1S4. Approplue, Le, approxlnurs, dmtri in Qenoan Siritaeriatld. 

Hoo holeris semett stmuolio bo Chriate leiumen. 
Sub crncQ dinina benediota lit hm mediaiuft, 
SomiDtu ab hao erba dator omma pellat aoerba. 
Hortornm fruotui sancta orace ait benediotni. 
310. Hoo benedicat ht^uB qui onncta oreat bona solus. 
CoctoB sen cnidos porros orox det febre nndo^ 

Hptlai earn ooqnl Jnbatar 

Stepius elixoa repleat benedictio fongos. 
Canles oamigenas faaiat beoedicUo unos. 
Christe potens pones snpor bos taa signa pepones. 
216. Uirtntem stomaclus solitam dent ^a lasus. 
Sed son millanas renibns operentnr arenas. 
Nomine sit domini benedicta oncnrbita sommu 
Lactncis borti bonedlcUo sit cnice forti. 
Concteas erbaa in aoetnm ornx det aceibas. 

AS oiocu. 
220. Ad cracis hoo signTun fagiat onuie mallgnnm. 
Omne nt edulinm nirtute cracis benedictnm, 
Onme lunm mnnns benedicat tiinus et nnus. 


Lntitiain domini aapiant hteo poonla nini. 

Sit noat«r potus domini benedictio totns, 
225. Sanota dei destra benedicat pooula noabv. 

Hobo fratmm potom repleat benedictio totum. 

Tot calicom mnnoa benedicat trinna et nnus. 

Chriate tunm rorem anper bnno effimde liqnorem, 

Uinitor h»c mitia benedicat mnneni lutia. 
230. Uitibna enatum benedicat gratia potum. 

T. S29. Tioitor.— An aUndon to tLo 
HUB term. panble of tiia Tina and nia^fttm, 

V. SlV.Condaaainaoatnm herbw.— .tCX^QIC 


THtibnt eti»tnm benedio dee daiate tcmetam. 


Lnti haoiito de nera gaudia mte. 

tmltat. nbont 

UiscMt intenta deoi luec nirtnt* phalerna. 

Unnere dinino sit buio benediotio nino. 

235. Crnx det in hoo mnitiim placida dulcedine gutain. 

nal rifluU drt anut 

Qaam lapiaDt giuta ootuUU pneumate maila. 

allois nBl banadlaElo 

Euno uitU hauBtiim faoiat naua gratia fauttiim. 
Kewiot luec Bromius. fugiat Caroheua Sachoa. 

bnio Tubso 

CompUoeat Obiuto niaeo benedioera miuta, 
240. IfoBta reoeiu baoita facial benedictio fanata. 

Q«l banedla 

Chriite hieau miuta bona fac et ulna netosta, 
Uina aatoatatia bona tint limul et nonitatia. 
FoeumatiB ebrietaa mantes det Bobrie latas. 
Cooditor k«d ninnin confortet in omne nanenum. 
245. Cor fauat Uatnm uiua de tiite temstom. 
Chmti miztnra sit perfloa potio purs. 
Hoc pigmentatnm sapero ait rore rigatam. 
Oulce iauinatum faoiat benedictio gratum. 

■Iceraist ut Aug| alC cucui pooili Dpllmia upmnu. Qui nelle dtaMtv ul 

Sacutn pomorum Biceram foo Cbriste saponim. uJonaiinKimt ei 

quoa mKMt morKatma dtatumlni dnrX. 

250. FoUo facta moriii auperi sit plena aaporia. 

Neminis boo pasaum caput eflSciat fore laaEum. 
Pneuma auum rorem det in bunc epirando medDoem, 

T. 218. Tinnm Mviiifttam. — PeriiBiM liquamcn ad bilwnduai aptam ftMtb 

MTinatum atanda for solTiatum, Hge facers aciaiit. CapiCalwe daTillii, etp. 

wioa, a faTorita drink in the iniddle agea. iS. fiioen impliaa tberafon erMj ta- 

"Viniini inde (aalvia) conficiuot, quod meoted liquor, except wine, made llToDi 

aalviatum Tocant, qao plnrimuni uti Rrain, fniit, Aa Thn* in a latter of 

•olenC in principio mentn," etc. De St. Boniface to Pope Trnt-hmwitl.^ ^j). 

Conurr. Vuletuditie. Puiaiii, IST2. In 7S1. "Uonachoi oooititnimiu 

the CapituUre de YilUa, taTina appCEU-s virat etrictn abatinentin, abique carae ct 

among the garden Tcgetables. The iims Tino, abiqua licera et aerrii^ propcio 

vord m OL B. BUa. p. £2, it rendered manuum auanim kbore oontentoB," 

b7 aaTinUum, or uvm. The lea*w of V. 2E0. Coot v. IGO. 
the aayin (Juniperua ubina) neie k«pt ' V. 2G2. SledoDem, mead, whiok in 

by apothecaries at a Tcry earl; period ; Southern Germany and Switcerlaitd hat 

wheUirr they were naed like worm- been lujieneded b^ wino, ^der, or ba<r. fl«Tor wing, I cannot eay. Aoeordiug ta madUTal dlraotiojia m«ad 

T. SiS. Slaem haro means ejitr. (raBiiuide&atnwatar,honey,andin»Qalu 

Blceratorefjle. qui oerevliiBiii,Tclpomii- herbe, boiled togather ud allowed to 

tliun tiTBpiratium, Talalindquodaunque fsnnent 

Mille sapora bonis aint pocnlA una medoius. 

Tpscm. la lanlM Utnt La. maUg ol aqna. 

Dextra dd celsa uelit luec benedioere mnlsa. ■^mu 
255. Hrata propnlM ut muUo. 

. La. RilaaDBrTlM 

Forida ab inmcta cruoe cnlia ait benedicU. 


Din per hone fortes aubiit Nomantia mortofi. 
Optime prouiaie nix graUa sit cereuies. 
Non bene prouias confuaio ait cereniae. 

260. Cor faciat olanun potna unoerus aqaanun. 

Huno banatom fontta mundet manua omnipotentia. 
Nolli fous uiuna Btomaclia ait Chriato nociuua. 
Timolbeo niniinn Paulua cni dat medlciniuiii 

Prigidna iate calix mercede ait unice felii. 
265. Fneomatia haa mnndaa faciat fore roi aaoer undaa. 

Tbe Inatilnte ia indebted to Mr. W. M. Wjlie, F.S.A., for tiie tranala- 
tioQ of Dr. Keller's Introduction and notea which accompany hia Memoir 
in tbe Transactions of the Antiquaries of Zurich. They are here given 
with tbe author's reTiaion and additional observations. 

We gladly avail ourselres of Mr, Wylie'a obliging aaaiBtonce la giving 
effect to the wish of our learned friend at Zurich that so iustructiTe a 
document ahould bo brought under tbe notice of fingliah orcbteologiata 
tlirongh this Journal. It cannot fail to bo acceptable as aupplcmentaiy to 
the highly curious Fku of St. Gall given in a former volume (vol. v. p. 
85), in which not only are arrangements shown for brewing, baking, and 
providing various articles of food above enumerated, but many medicinal and 
culinary herbs mentioned by Ekkebard appear in the Sortut. Amongat 
fruit-trees also the quince, medlar, £g, cheanut, mulberty, walnut, &c., 
occorring in the foregoing document, are repreaented as actually growing 
in the conventual orchard of the ninth century, 

T. SS4. Unlanm, k. vinum. — CUretium, moad, wLioh is also som'Hiimea called 
V. SG5. Aputof thizvmgiiillegibla. 


$ro«e1)infl0 at ^eetinflS of tfie 2[rci[iatoIo£icaI IFnstUtUe. 


Held «t Warwick, July 26 to Anguat 2. 

The Inaugural MeelJng was fixed for two o'clock, and a lai^ uaemUj 
having congregated at the Court Honse, which had been placed at the 
dispoeal of the Institute by the klndDeaa of the U&;or and Coiponti<Hi, the 
Chair waa taken by the Maii4ci3 Camdzv, K.Or. 

The noble President of the Inatituta, in opening the proceedings, alluded 
to the high gratification with which he presented to tiieni * nobleman so 
univeraallj esteemed and belored as hie noble friend Lord Leigh, who had 
most kindlj consented to take the part of Local President of th^r Meeting 
in Iris county. He (Lord Camden) alluded to the pleasure which he bad 
derived from the gathering of the Institute in the previous year in Kent ; 
he felt assured that, under the influential encouragement of his noUe 
successor in office, a fresh impulse would be given to their researches in a 
district full of objects of interest and attraction. 

The Lord Leigh, President-elect, having then taken the chair, the 
Worshipful the Mayor of Warwick, accompanied by the majority of (he 
Corporation preceded by the civic inugnia and mace, camo forward and 
presented the following address, which was then read by the Town 
Clerk :— 

" To the Bight Hon. Lo