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I hare no intention of entering on a systematic or general 
oonsideration of the subject X name, but rather of laying 
before the Institute some of the more remarkable products 
of Boman work in ^ypt, which have come to light in 
the course of my excavations this spring. Nearly every- 
thing that I have brought to ^gland was found in a 
large cemetery belon^ng to the town of Arsinoe, the 
capital of the province of the Fayum; this district is 
about 60 miles south of Curo, and ia really one of the 
oases of the western desert, near enough to the Nile to be 
fed by a canaL I had this province assigned to me last 
winter by H. Gr^baut, the director of the department of 
antiquities at Cairo, and for the archaic interest of the 
pyramids and labyrinths, and the later value of the Boman 
portraiture, I could hardly wish for a better district. 
The whole of the work in the cemetery of Hawara was 
entirely a bye-afilur; I did not stop there a single day 
outside of the time spent in opening the pyramid there, 
of which I hope to have somewhat to say next year ; and 
the products of the cemetery were so much given in as 
well, a prize to maintain patience. 

The whole system of the mummificatioD in later times, 
and the decay of Egyptian customs, could be traced out 
in this cemetery with great advantage. The native 

> Bmd at tha HontUr HMtiuf; ol tiw Iwtltut^ Jaij Hh, ISSS. 

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diatom in £^ypt, aa u well-known, waa to embalm the 
body and deposit it in a subterranean chamber approached 
by a tnnnel or well. In the Ptolemaic times this system 
degraded into catting a pit 8 or 10 feet deep, and letting 
the coffin down on end into, it, finally laying die coffin / 

flat at the bottom with ita feet in a recess cut on one 
aide of the well and the head end in the bottom of the 
well iteelf, in fact reducing the chamber to a TniniTnnm- 
But about the b^inning of our era a great change took 
place, perhaps consequent on the Boman occupation of ''j 

£^ypt. The embalmed bodies in place of being interred J 

were kept for years above ground, probably in the houses f 

of their families ; and hence arose a new motive, and a I 

powerful one, for decorating them. Tliis decoration at i 

first took the form of a more elaborate style of the same / 

covering used before. The head piece of canvas covered ''I 

with stucco and punted was enlarged downwards over I 

the chest, and covered with brightly painted scenes of ; 

the deceased and the divinities ; not only the face was { 

gilt but more and more gilding crept into the decoration. j 

This stage, retaining the old motive but making it purely / 

decorative, with the original ideas partly lost, and the ' . 

old hieroglyphic inscriptions reduced to nonsense or mere 
twirls of the bmah, or even omitted altogether, — this was I 

in force during the first century of our era ; and a late ^ 

type of this is dated to about 100 or 120 a.d. by the I 

name of a person Titas Flaviaa Demetrias (misspelt | 

Hagias). / 

The next stage, when all the religious decoration had -^ 

become confused and corrupt, waa to introduce the arms j 

of the figure in relief on the stucco work of the chest. 
Barely the fiesh was naturalistically painted, usually the 
whole waa gilt ; the conventional attitude waa with the \ 

left fore arm horizontal, and the right arm bent up and j 

holding a wreath of red fiowers, grasped together in the | 

hand. This stage probably lasted some little time, judging I 

by the number of examples ; and if it is dated between 
100 and 140 A..D. it will not be far wrong. These mummies 
usually had a canvas wrapper richly painted with the 
traditional religious scenes ; afterwards it was of pink with 
gilt figures. Ilie gilt heads were more and more carefully 
modelled, the faces being in some an evident portruture i 


of the indiTidual ; and tbe genm^ work is about aa fine 
aa sach materiala ooold possiblj allow, the ricbnefla of 
the bninidied gilding and its condition aiter mcfa a long 
bniial being sniiHrunng. , 

Somethi^ more liftHlke was still craved for, to represent 
the lost Sues in the hoose, and tiie punted canras 
cover of the nmmmj snggested the next step, to punt 
the face on canvas instead of modelling it Accordmglj 
we find a few instances of portraits painted in colours on 
a canvas ground, sometimes in tempera on gesso, some- 
times with wax on the thread of the canvas diiectlj. The 
scheme was not very happy, and was felt to be unsuitable, 
for it was continued but a very short time. Probably 
this introduction of Oreek painting — for Gheek it dis- 
tinctively is — at the period of about 140 a. d. may be 
traced to the great impulse ^ven to late Grreek art, 
particularly in £gypt, by Hadrian ; and his visit to E^ypt 
in 130 A.D. may wdl have been the cause of the settle- 
ment of Qreek artists in Egyptian towns. Another 
attempt was made by the placmg of a portrait on a 
wooden panel in the place of uie face, amidst the 
moulded and gilt draperies, and arms encrusted with 
onyxes and agates in tiieir jewellery. This wooden panel 
had a gilt background to the head, like a Byzantine 
picture ; only one example was found, now at the Bulak 

These tentative experiments in decoration quickly gave 
place to the use of a portrait on wooden panel alone, 
without any remains of the gilt draperies or arms, but 
with occasionally a simple stucco ^t border of vine 
pattern around the face. The banda^ng of the munmiy 
covered tiie edges of the panel portrait aud secured it in 
pomtion ; while the body was covered with an elaborate 
s^tem of cross bandages formiog sunken squares, with a 
ffllt button in the bottom of each. This system previuled 
for probably a century or so, from about 150 to 250 a.d. 

About the time of Constantine portraiture seems to 
have finally disappeared, and probably the mummies were 
no Itmger kept above ground. The bodies seem to be 
then merely dried without the elaborate preparations witii 
bitumen or cedar oil which belong to those of earlier 
times. While at the same time the personal possessions, 


Boch aa childreii'B toys, &e., were more tumalfy buried L 

with the body. Funereal offerings of coins in jars were 

still made down to the end of the fiftii oentnry a.d. ; as 

large numbers aa late aa Leo arp, found buned, in one 

case all cut into fragments to .prevent their re-use» and in f ' 

another case pbun blanks of thin copper foil were buried. \ | 

In all the Boman period the cnstom was to bury not in M 

m coffin, nor in a pit-well ; all that system went out when / 

bodies were kept above ground and decorated. The f 

cnstcnn then was to build brick chambers above ground, I 

along the sides of the road In the cemetery, and to bury j 

the bodies in shallow graves in the floors of tjie chambers y 

covered with loose earth and dust, often only a foot or I 

two down. Very frequently a whole family of mummies 1 

appears to have been huddled off b^ an undertaker, and ; . 

buried anyhow in the first convement hole, heads and / 

feet in any direction: in one case a dozen gilt head | 

mummies were forced into a square pit of an old tomb, ,' 

several upside down in order to get room for their \ 

shoulders among the legs of the others. I 

All this period is of little interest from an Egyptian ( 

point of view ; but as an illustration of the decay of 
belie& and customs of extreme andquity, as a study of the 
extent to which Gh-eeks and Italians adopted the habits of 
the people among whom they lived, and aa the surround- 
ing of an important chapter in the history of paintiag, we 
may well give some attention to thia series of changes 
which I have now briefly ta'aced. 

We will now turn to some technical examples of the 
products of Boman life in %ypt. The portraits on cedar 
wood panels are rarely in tempera, only a few early trials 
being thus executed. The regular mode was by mixing 
die ooloors with melted wax, exactly as we do with oil, 
and then laying them on, usually with a brush, sometimes 
with pasteL A ooat of priming of the ground-colour of the 
subject was Itud on first, and then the painting was worked 
in upon that. Cross-hatching of a darker tint, or spotting, 
is occasionally seen in the earlier examples ; but usualfy 
the right tint was mixed and laid on smoothly with a great 
delicacy of blending in and shading. Of the technical 
excellence of these portraits I need not speak, as it is 
manifest to all ; many of them could hardly be surpassed, 



I BOUAN tiFE ts vartT. S 

I and would be creditable to any master of the present age. 

] Yet it mnst be remembered t^t these do not shew us me 

best work of tJiat time ; they belong to a small provincial 

M school of punting in an out-of-the-way distHct of Eeypt, 

. and they may have been as far bdow the work of ^e 

1/ Greek artists of Alexandria, as a portrut painter's work 

' in a county town in England is below the quality of 

Boyal Academy pictures. If such work as we see in the 

Faynm belonged then to a mere province, what would be 

the skill of really celebrated artists in Alexandria ? And 

j if such was Uie art in the decadence of Greek work, of a 

J Ume when their vase puntings and sculpture are con- 

/ ridered barely passable, what mnst we imagine the 

. ptuntings of the grand age of Zeuzis and Parrhasios, and 

\ the richer magnificence of Apelles, to have been ? 

But pictures were piunted not only to decorate the dead, 
but also to hang on the walls of the rooms. The first 
, actual example of a picture frame preserved to us comes 

/ irom one of these tombs at Hawara. It is almost exactly 

.' like a modem Oxford frame, bat with a slit and groove in 

( front of the picture to slide in a sheet of glass over it ; 

|! and clear gbtss as large as this I have found some years 

' ago at Tanis. This had been placed by the side of a 

mummy in its grave, hanng evidently been hung on a 
< wall before that, by the cord fastened to it. 

Over the bodies wreaths of Sowers were often placed, 
boUi when buried in wooden coffins, and when laid in the 
open ground. These wreaths of red roses, of nardssus, of 
immortelUs, and many other flowers are beantifhlly pre- 
served, and can be identified, and the separate fiowers laid 
I out as botanical specimens in the present day. Thirty-five 

' different species of plants have b^n labelled by my niend 

', Mr. Newberry in this collection from the cemetery (tf 

Hawara. We are brought much nearer realizing the 
\ flower wreaths of the GreeK and Egyptian banquets, when 

I we see and handle these actual plants entwined when 

the Ptolemies still ruled. 

Some of the toys are remarkable for originality. 
Bag dolls and pottery dolls may be expected ; but a bird 
on wheels, and a sedan chur with a lady inside borne by 
two porters all modelled in terra cotta, are very curious, 
and unique as far as I know. A good example of the 


Boman cinerary urn of lead, filled with burnt bones, was L- 



In technical work a cnt glass vase is worth notice, from 
the clearness and whiteness of the glass, and the firm and 
regular execution of the wheel cut pattern upon it. A 
set of paint saucers was found in the tomb of a man who 
was probably a tomb decorator ; and a perfect example i 

of a bow drill occurred amount a quantity of carpenter's / 

chips and leavings, lumps of pitch, &c, &c. ( 

My other work of thu season, the examination of the s 

site of the Labyrinth, the tunneling of the pyramid of ) 

Hawara, and the discovery of the remains of the ... 

celebrated colossi mentioned by Herodotus, all lie outside j 

of the scope of this paper. But I hope it will be seen f 

how for purely classical art, literature, and work, Sgypt ^' 

is one of the best grounds for research ; in no other ', 

country could such remains have been preserved in such ' 

perfect condition. | 


Digilizcd by Google 




jf I can add but UtUe to the account given bj the official 

I guide and the various guide booka. Some few particulars 

\ I hare gathered from other sourcen as to its histoiy, its 

probable author, and its possible original destination. 

I The guide-books tell us that it was purchased hj a late 

I Earl of Warwick from Sir William Hamilton towajxls the 

/ close of the last century. The inscription on the pedestal* 

tells us tliat the vase was dug out of the ruins of Hadrian's 

' " lordly pleasure house " at Tivoli, that it was repwred at 

the ch^^e of Sir William Hamilton, then our ambassador 

to the Kjng of Sicily, sent home by him and dedicated by 

him to the ** ancestral or national genius of liberal arts " in 

■~, mi. The inscription in question is not, as sometimes at 

Borne, a defacement of old work, the pedestal, and part of 

the foot of the vase, being modem. The repairs you can 

\ see. They are evidently the futhful replacement of the 

(original in all cases but one — to be mentioned presentiy — 
as to which there is some question. 

What Sir WiUiam Hamilton meant by ** the ancestral or 
national genius of liberal arts," I do not exactly know. 
/ Sir Willifun was a man of elegant taste in more directions 

r* than one. We owe to him the collection and preser- 

I ration of many beautiful works of ancient art, the majority 

J of whidi were purchased by Parliament for the British 

I Museum after hu death in 1803. 

> ■ Bnd Bt Wanrick CMla, Angut Mi, grMnhonw and filled it wHh beuitihil 

• I8SS. phnti. I plaaad in it « vlM oolutdsnd 

' I MtppOM tbSt wu the ■econd Bmil to be the fineat * ranuin ' erf Ontciui art 

]booka aod Wanridt iA«, aeoarding to for ha riaa aad baaaty." Qoeiji ttw 

We•^ writw thaa at the wok ol Mt and Eari'i or Waat'a Witting t 

iti pnaaot looilitf ; " I bailt a nobto 

: .c, Google 


The present one was engraved in his " Vasi e Candalabra," 
by Firanesi, from whose brief notes to the engravings I 
leam the further particulars that it was found in iha year 
1770, during excavations carried on in the bed of a small 
lake called Fantanello, which was anciently included in 
ibe eneanta of Hadrian's villa. Of conrse, this is not tlu 
time to describe that wonderful town of walla and terraces 
which Hadrian built or finished on his return from his last 
progress round the world. I cannot trace tins lake Pan- 
tandlo on the modem plabs. Near t^e entrance are the 
renuuns of what is generally considered to be a Greek 
theatre, overlooking the so-called valley of Tempe and the 
stream at the bottom of that valley. The " lake " may 
have been there. How the vase came into it we do not 
know. The villa u sud to have been occupied by the 
Gothic EIng Totila, 544 A.D., in bis si^e of Bome. This 
precious monument of art may have been flung in to save 
It, on the invader's approach, Uke the mass of curiosities in 
the well of Coventina, near Hadrian's own Roman wall from 
Newcastle to Carlisle. Hadrian's villa was fiQished between 
135 and 138 a.d., but the works of art brought to it from 
all parts of the world might have various and much earlier 
dates. This work is, I know not on what authority, 
generally attributed to Lysippus, celebrated for his por- 
traits of Alexander,' a Greek artist of what is called the 
third period, about the close of the fourth century before 
Christ, in which the beautiful or elegant style began to 
replace the noble severity of Phidias and his school. The 
subject speaks for itself. The lower rim, so to speak, is 
covered by two tiger or panther skins, of which the heads 
and the fore paws decorate the sides of the vase, while the 
hind 1^ are interlocked, and hang down between 
the handles. These handles are formed of purs of 
vine trunks, the smaller branches and grapes of which 
twine round the lip of the vase. Heads, each with a 
thyrsus or a club, belonging to the owner of the head, 
are arranged along the tiger skins. With one exception 
these heads are generally, and, I think, correctiy r^arded 
as Silenuses, or male attendants of Bacchus, the god of 
wine. The exception is of a very beautiful female face. 
This has been h^d by some savants to be modem, and it 




hu been nunrasted that it u in fact a portrait <d Lady 
Hamilton. TleaTe the qneation to interest yoor corionl^ 
or thirst for knoiriedga as soon as I have dtme, wluch will 
I be in a very few momoits. There is a crack roond the 

(greater part of the head ; the face is somewhat modem ; 
ue reBtoradais of the eighteenth century were by no 
means free from insertions of this kind. On the other 
, hand, the hHr is, I think, oontinuoas with the main 

I : safastance of the rase ; the face is attributed, yon mnst 

I remembffl-, to a period of beauty and softness rather than 

cS Phidian dignity ; and it does not appear to me to be 
j exactly that of utdy Hamilton. That she lored to be 

represented as a Bactuumte, we know — whether she would 
have acquiesced in the pointed Faun's ear, which this 
figure bears, as cheerfully as Hawthorn's Dcmatello, I am 
1 not so snre. I^anesi gives ^e female head in his at- 

i graving, and says nothing of any change. Assuming this 

\ to be 'an original Bacchuite or Faun, the somewhat mas- 

t culine surroundings of the lady are not out of keeping 

I with the accounts of the strange and rather mixedpicnics 

in which the votaries of Bacchus indulged. CUssical 
scholars will remember, in that w^rd play, the Bacchae, 
how the mother of Pentheus vaunts her prowess and 
success in their wild hunting revel over the hills of 
Boeotia. Apropos of hunting, I may say a word on the 
dub. lliis object is both pastoral and hunting — used 
to throw at a stray sheep, also to knock down a chance 
hare. The thyrai bear the usual fircone, or the whorl of 
vine or ivy-leaves, with the pyramid of grapes, or the 
roeaivpoint, inciting to madness, which peeps Uirongh. 
The tigers or panthers, the vine trunks, tendrils, and 
grapes, the thyrsi, and the beautiful Bacchante, amidst 
ue Amuses, all belong to the same god. lliis is a 
Baccluc representation, a subject which will suit very well 
with the time of Lysippus, as the beauty of the work suits 
the traditional characteristics of his school. 

Several suggestions have been made as to the oiiginal 
destination ofthis vase. The most favoured one appears 
to be that it was " a vessel in which to mix vtine with 
water, and was intended for the centre of such apartments 
as were devoted to festive entertunments," or " was pro- 



hably dedicated in some temple of Bacchus." With r^ard 
to this wine mixing story, I may Temtad you that the 
vessel holds 163 ^aUons. It may have had that qnantity 
of liqoor put in it in Hadrian's time. Even in oar de- 
generate days we read of conduits and foontuns running 
wine. But X think you will agree that the or^nal des- 
tination of the vase could scarcely have contem^ated this 
as an ordinary proceeding. Moreover, I believe I am 
correct in saying that no aperture has been found in the 
bowl, which is, perhaps, a little against its having been 
used for holding any liquid. A fountun might have been 
intended to play in it, of which the water was to run over 
the edse, but even here we should expect a pipe to intro- i 

duce the supply. I should question whether this parti- 
cular apecimen, and others l^e it, were ever meant for 
anythiog but purely decorative purposes. But as most 
decorative objects have had their origin in a use of some 
kind, I am inclined, in the case of Uiese hu^e vases, to 
suggest the bath as furnishing their first idea. The Gh'eek 
bath was not on so vast a scale as those stupendous laby- 
rinths of building which we see at Borne — club-house, 
public-house, people's palace, all in one. The great hot- 
ur chamber and cold swimming bath were by no means 
the invariable and conspicuous features which they became 
in the days of Diocletian and Caracalla. What we do see, 
in the Greek painted representations of bathing, is, some- 
times a basin or tub wherein the bathers could stand or 
sit, but more oflen a round or oval vase, resting on a 
pedestal, round which they stood to wash themselves. 
That is the vessel which I imagine to have been enlarged 
into the great ornamental vases, such as the one before 
you. A^euEBus, it is true, writing under the Boman 
Empire, speaks of those in uae as holding sometimes as 
much as 50 gallons. This is much larger, and, if for use, 
would I think have been of metal. Of course, this is far 
too clean and sharp workmanship to be a copy from metal, 
though metal copies have been made of it. 

I take the object, then, of this work of art to have been, 
from the first, purely decorative. Prom the Bacchic 
emblems wliich it bears, [ think its original ItHxUe to have 
been, very probably, a temple of Bacchus, as was suggested 


by Piraoesi ; iior is it impossible Lba.t Hadrian may have 
placed it in some oorre^wnding positioD witUn hii town- 
like palace under I^toU. There was, as 1 have said, among 
the otho- theatres, aoe which modem antiquaries conmder 
to be a Qogj of the QnA ; and Greek th^tres contained 
freqnent artistic references to the origin of all dranuUio 
repreaentatiim in the feast of Dionysas. 

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Ardueology, aa U is now understood, or the stadj of 
the Monuments and relics of begone ages, was never 

Eursned widi greater ardour than in the present day. 
luring the last century, and in the banning of the pre- 
sent, classical antiquity was the object of careml study, and 
many admirable works, some remarkable for th^ colossal 
learning and exhaustive research, were published by the 
scholars of Europe, in iUoBtration of tiie history, laws. 
customs, and remains of classical an^qulty. Great and 
important, however, as were these works, which will ever 
be regarded as a mouumeut of the industry, culture, and 
intelligence of their authors, they were bsised on a study 
of mere books and records, and on such inductions as 
might be drawn from & biowledge of the present, for 
the nnravellinff and unfolding to us the history of 
the past. It IS only, to spes^ roughly, witliin the 
last quarter of a century, that excavations have been 
conducted on a large scale, and that the wrecks and 
still surviving monuments of antiquity have been invesd- 
gated and studied on the spot. TI^ value of the informa- 
tion derived from actual contact with the tangiUe remains 
of Uie past, the sureness of touch k>u^ by familiarity 
with visible structures, the light shed on the dark r^ons 
of antiquity by this new method of practical experience, 
cannot be too highly estimated. It is needless to 
say how by the aid of the decisive test of actual measure- 
ment, of ocular inspection, and of present personal 
discovery, surmises were found to be suddenly changed 

> R«ad at tbe Anniul llcrtins wt tlw luUtiita, mt t ■»..,<»([««., Id^. Tth, tSSS. 


into fkcts, theories erected m inrofEciait ffronnds were 
scattered to the wind, and many a cherished hTOOthesis, 
based merely oa indacti<m fixm the present, was banished 
for ever frmn the dimun of science. 

Suffice it to recall the disooTMies made in Assyria, Aria 
Minor, lEEgypt, Greece, Italy, and Qfpnis, to ffn an idea 
of the ertent and oom^^^aMss ta the infOTmatiou now 
^ned. The names akmec^miutveh, the Trosd,MyceiuB, 
Tiryns, E^ihesas, (Hympia, ^Hdanms, ElensiB, Athens, 
Pompeii and Borne, are enon^ to assure us of that re-birth 
oi the knowte^ of antiquity, and of that retom of taste 
for and interest in the histoiy of the past, which is so 
striking a characteristic <tf the present generation. Nay, 
it may DC sud, that we are bnt at the Uireshold of great 
revelations, and the awak«ied interest in antiqni^ c» the 
cultured and educated classes of our age and country, 
gives every promise of rising to the importance of the 
' occasion, and of girding itself to make stiU further efforts 

i to win the prize within its reach, which is nothing less than 

' that of bringing the peoples and places of ancient times 

within the fi^d almost of actual observation. The Societies 
recently founded for exploration in Egypt, Palestine and 
Cjrpnu, the Society of BiUical Archsology, the ^Uenic 
Society, and that of the British School at Athens, are 

frocrf" enough of this enoour^ing hope. Egypt and 
'alestine alone, we may say, give every sign of beuing in 
their womb vast surprises for us. It is quite evident Uiat 
the knowledge we have of these two countries, or rather 
of the two phases of ancimt civilization represented by 
these names, is as yet in its infancy ; and that we are on 
the ere oi making, on this almost unexplored ground, dis- 
coveries which will confirm the Kble records, and throw 
new light upon its teachings. I am told by a great 
authority in Egyptoh^y, that in spite of our many dis- 
coveries concerning the dynasties and history of ancient 
E^rpt, we have as yet found no record or distmct mention 
in men^yphics d Hoses, Jacob, Joseph, or Jeremiah. But 
we must remember, that it is cmly in Ihjs present century 
titat we have b^nn slowly and painfully to spell out, as 
it were, the pictorial language of ancient Egypt ; that the 
number of hieroglyphic records brought under our noUce 
is as yet bat snuul ; that an immense number of papyri . 


and inscriptioiu are yet waiting U> be ezamiQed ; so that 
sooner or later amongst the countless records of ancient 
£^ypt we are ahnost sure eventually to find all that we 
want. Nay, cannot we even now triumphantly say that 
these hallowed names have, during the last few months, 
from Egyptian sources been swimming into onr view, 
thanks to the timely aid and to the efforts with pick aud 
spade of some of our own members ? 

The last half century has seen revealed to us another 
ancient language, that of Assyria, and we are only now 
putting together the broken and scattered fr^ments of 
Its cun^orm tablets, and of its cylinders, which carry us 
back, in the information thsy give us, to a period of the 
world's history long anterior to that of E^ypt itself. Uany 
other languages of the ancient peoples, which occupied 
the countries round about the Mediterranean, are still as 
sealed books to us and utterly unknown. When the 
long lost languages of Phrygia, Caria, Ly<ua, Pamphylia, 
Carthage, Iberia, and Etruria, shall have become known 
to us, and their inscriptions and records have been read, 
how much information shall we not receive P From this 
rapid survey it is evident to what direction the attention 
of our fellow workers throughout the world is now 
chiefly turned. Indeed, the field of Archseological 
study seems suddenly to have shifled ground, and to \ 

have reached deeper, wider, richer, and more fruitful 
strata. Our minds seem to have been lifted out of C' 

the narrow sphere of home concerns, and of the ( 

contracted region of our own country, and to have / 

been almost wholly transported to those vaater fields 
occupied by t^e nations of antiquity. The study of the 
monuments and customs of our own country will ever be 
of immense importance for the illustration of our own 
natbnal history. But we must remember that we are 
only one of many nations, and there is far away in the ( 

dim re^ons of the past, and calling for attention at our \ 

hands, an aboriginal history, of universal, or, as I may \ 

say, of kumaniUtrian interest, which equally uoncems us I 

all. Knit as we all are in one lasting brotherhood, we 
cannot but feel attracted to the ori^ns of our race, which, 
moreover, contain within themselves, in some way or other, 
the genus of all future, separate, distinctive and national 


development throughout the many laada of East and West 
The names of Ldand, the prince of antiquaries; of Camden, 
Oale, Stnkeley and Horsley, and ctf our great county 
historians, will ever be held in honour, and thdr labours 
highly appreciated by on; but the^ themselves would 
I have been the finit to acknowledge, had Uie regions that 

j are now being explored, been known to them, and could 

! ^e cities and monnments that have now been unearthed 

have been visited and inspected by them, that these 
visible records of the past contained within them secrets 
of the utmost value which were more worthy of their 
I . attentitm. For in the far past are the seeds of the future, 

] and it is only by investigating the first efforts of man in 

j art and haodicraft, that we can thoroughly understand 

j the after developments of Boman and medi»val times, 

and indeed judge and estimate in a proper manner the 
results we have attained to at the present day. It is in 
the intimate study of the monuments and remains of the 
I Andent World, when man was feebly beginning to shape 

the records of his history on the native rock, on hewn 
blocks of granite, or on polished marble, and to trace the 
glowing fandes of his mind on moulded or on painted 
day, that we see those germs of light and beauty which 
were afterwards to dazzle us with their finished splendour, 
and to charm us with their incomparable grace, on the 
Acropolis of Athens or in the baths and palaces of Borne. 
It IS not for me to dwell on the refining and ennobling 
influence which a disinterested study of the past has upon 
I the human mind. There is something in the contemplation 

of the past which lifts us above our present interests, and 
the lower atmosphere of our daily hfe, and transports us 
into a realm, where, divested of all thought of ourselves, 
, i and without any reference to the strife on many battle- 

fields that is goic^ on around us, we can study and in- 
vestigate the monnments of antiqui^ umply for their own 
sakes. In this serene atmosphere, in this unclouded sky, 
in this all-inspiring field of the labours of our fathers in 
human history, and of the makers of what we are, we can 

Jspatiate at peace and gather in a rich harvest of useful 
information, of novel interest, and of unceasing charm, 
without any disturbing thought, or any lurking ulterior 
view. Not, however, that the study of die past is without 


16 orasma addrbbs ot tri ahtiquakuh SBOinm. 

all bearing on the present ; for to great are the leaaonfl 
and exanplea of former times, that far fnun blinding or 
blnnUi^; our ene^es in the present, they give as still 
greater zeat and interest when we return therefrom to our 
daily avocations. Enough for me to recall to your recol- 
lection in this place the words of the great moralist of our 
Ekiglish Midlands — "Whatever witl^raws us from the 
power of our senses — ^whatever makes the past, the distant, 
or the future predominate over the present, advancea us 
in the dignity of thinking beings.^ But the stady 
of archeology has far man important issues in the 
domun of science than to a^rd a ^easurable pastime, 
or to have merely an indirect bearing on the culture 
and iuproTement of our minds. Of archaeology, we 
may say what Quinctilian said of the study of langoage 
— Plus habet in vtcfMU qtuim m/ronU promiUk. 

In all fldences it is the origins of things that require our 
first attention, and the case is not different in arctueology. 
It is in order to illustrate this truth that I wish ubiu 
evening, however briefly, to draw your attention to that 
distant and hazy period when man's yearning and attempts 
after artistic expression were in a state, we may say, of in- 
volution and potentiality, rather than of actual exercise and 
ezecation. It is by peering thus into a time when things 
were at ihdr beginning, when ideas were assuming form, 
and forms were settling into outward shape, that we can 
come to asmst, as it were, at the genesis of art, and by 
se^ng from what it has come, discern alao after what it 
is striving, and whither it tends. A mere dilettante 
acquaintance with tiie monuments of antiquity, with 
ruins, and sculptures, and heirlooms from the battle- 
field, or from the chance surnvals of the ancient 
household, is not enough to satisfy the thirst for know- 
ledge which is characteristic of the modem mind. We 
live in an age of exact definitions and of scrupulous 
adherence to facts ; when everything concerning man's 
actual physical existence upon earth must be brought to 
the test of accurate observation, and of strict, logical 
induction therefrom. If we would daim for arcluealogy 
a place amongst the sciences, it must be on tins coniUtion : 
that it is studied in a proper and scientific manner within 



Uie rmoge of dw faots with which it deolfl. The rank of a 
sdoioe can be dAimed by as for archeol<^ only on the 
odnditioa that we take tlungs at their ongin, watch over 
their prognMH, a&d follow their derelopment, and thns 
beoMne eiubled to assign to every effort of the mind of 
nun resulting in a fresh direction imparted to architecture, 
tti scnlpture, and to painting, to tbe growths and dif- 
ferences apparent in art, in warfare, and in domestic 
manners, its proper place in the world's list of fulures or 
in its moster'-roll of victories. 

And here I most say a word on another advantage to be 
derived from the study of archeology, viz., its relation to 
history. I am about to introdnce yon to a period <tf time 
in the world, and to a scene of man's activi^ in Eorope, 
dating from before the age when history proper began to 
be wntten. For the office of the antiquary precedes that 
of the historian. Long before the first literary effort of 
the historian, there were tools, arms, buildings, and monn- 
mraits. The period of which we have here bung on the 
wall some genuine specimens in these beautiful voUve 
shields, that have just been discovered in Crete, belongs 
to the eighth century before C^irist, a period which, to 
accurately discriminate from the prt-histonc, of which there 
are no records or inscriptions whatever, and the kiatoriej 
when the first Uterary record b^an, we had best perhaps 
style proto-kistoric.^ An artistic culture flourished on the 
k luand of Crete long before the time of Homer, ^ere is 
> book, we may say, of the Iliad or of the Odyssey, 
^here there is not mention of Crete. For its laws it is 
[ebrated by Flato and by Aristotle. In Crete Plato 
la^the scene of his dialogue on laws. From Crete come 
the first artists into Greece. But we know that in Crete 
there ^ere, before the Greeks, Phtenician Colonies, and 
these were nothing else than so many emporiums or 
factories, 'yrhence the merchandize of the East was carried 
and spread ^ftbroad over the whole country. History tells 
us nothing of the actual period of which we speak. 

' Hfatorioil FMOrdL ntopMb *M«II«d, of Hwfod to Uie lulf oraturj prMeding 

i^i Qrot^ do WfOt ht^ anlll Vng titer 700 B.C.. and be Dotitn it* duUnot 

tlw date of Um flnt noordad (Hympiad, bearing, in Uic portioa whii^i reqiecta 

or 770 B.C. ; Mid tbipuwt^ of atteetod Hekkti, npon pneeot 1U« and eiaUnM. 

beta for two cantoria^ *'*<' that data k — traMd in the allumm to Onto and 

I [^^ of GTMoe, Vnlt»). DdpU. (Cli. I, note). 

^^dbv Google 


Whatever we know about thia veiy andent phaae of 
Cretan civilisation, and of the relationB of this island with 
the East, and especially with ^rygia and Fhoanida, a 
the outcome of a numW of notices and inradents scattwed 
in classical authors, which have to be tested by the dis- 
coveries of Archsaology.* These dedactions from the 
evidence of visible remains, whether in sculpture or in 
colour, together with the conclusions we can draw ieom. 
a naturalistic or ethnolc^cal explanation of the most 
ancient myths, is all the information that can be gathered 
about those primitive times. Hence the historian can 
now no longer dispense with the archaeologist,* and 
ArduBology is absolutely necessary for this archuc, non* 
historic, or ante-historical, because unrecorded period, in 
order to show forth the relations which the different 
peoples of the earth had then with one another, and to 
illnstrate the high significance which all artistic produc- 
tions of that age have for the history of religion and tiie 
development of human thought. 

About the year 625 before the Christian era, there 
suddenly sank beneath the horizon, and disappeared from 
the face of the known world, a city which had filled a 
great place in history, a city with the name of which we 
have all been familiar from childhood — ^Nineveh, the city 
of Sennacherib, where Jonah had preached, whence 
Holofemes had marched, where Tobias had lived in 
bondage. One might think that it had been engulfed , 
like Sybaris, swallowed up by some cataatrophe like/ 
Sodom and Qomorrah, or buried in its own ruins by a 
earthquake, so that not a vestige of it remain^ 
Xenophon passed by the site where it had upreared iti 
in magnificence, and he had not heard even of its mfme ; 
Alexander the Great never suspected, when he leid his 

dwDtfcErtU, hi 


IIm Oneiaii iMocUd^ 

VdiSmtM AUm M. 

r improlMtdB, tint tiMT an nngi 
bf /anul, ■■ A glf(4iis oBupk 

Mrij inltuaDcs of PfairgUi i 
Uinor upon Ereta : nothiag iiri •« 

UiniiUfl. azcept tha genanl (act ; 

Um partieaUr •Tidenoo ars boMotablf Aoilat in faMtoria. ; (Sat x, 17S-7S.) 

iwue." [Hutor7, ToL ii, p. IS.) Hiatoriaw h^rt liow no doubt of Uia 

■ TIm caiul dug b; order i^ Xenaa occuiroDCe and the' Dirio diiooTered in 

acTon tha pramratoT uf Hount Athoa, ths wixl during tbs praasnt jm*, affindl 

and tha uiliag □( tha Psnian fleet aiehaioki^ioal ocoOnnatioD at our hia* 

lluough it, an t«ati in thenuelTca to tone osrtituda. , ~ 


victorious army into th&t very land, that a great city 
once floaridMd on ^e banks of the TigTia.before which had 
tntuUed ounre than once the proad capital seated on the 
rival BaidiratM, that Babylon which he himself wished to 
make the capital of his vast empire. Borne established 
on the spot one d her military colonies ; but no son of 
Borne ever thooffht of the warlike memories buried 
beneath the stul miich the Boman le^nariea delved and 

Cemimue exemj^ oppida poaae mori. 

A few years ago we were ignorant not only of its site 
but ni alinoet everything abont Nineveh. The Bible alone 
had preserved the record of events contemporaneous 
with the varions Assyrian Empires ; for other ancient 
lustorians gave but scant and broken indications of any 
knowledge of Nineveh, and held an almost inexplicable 
nlence concerning its checkered fortunes. A histo^ of 
Aasyria by Herodotos, if ever written, has not come down 
to us. All information about the manners, arts, st^ences, 
works, and even the type and character of the Assyrian, 
were involved in the same uncertainty. We were 
ignorant alike of the costume he wore, of the arms he 
bore, of the tools he worked with, of the language he 
spoke, of his writing, and of his phy«ognomy. We 
could represent to ourselves with tolerable exactness an 
andent Egyptian, a Greek, or a Boman ; we could not 
sdze with aconracy and fiilness the outward semblance 
of an Afisyrian, and reproduce him as a living bdng 
before onr eyee.' 

For two thousand foor hundred years Nineveh lay lost to 
view, and after this immenfle lapse of time the knowledge 
(tf Nineveh was restored to us by the labours and discoveries 
of Botta and of Layard. The people of the country had 
ndther pemi nor ink nor paper ; they had no papyrus like 
the Egyptians, nor prepared skins like the inhabitants of 
Fei^amus, Greece or Borne ; but they had soft clay in 
abundance, a substance which when hardened is proof 
against both fire and water ; and on this they wrote their 
records in a manner more lasting and imperishable than 
either paj^rus or parchment afforded. Thus within the 
last few years, in addition to the palaces and the humaD^^i,. 


headed winged animals revealed to lu by excavation, 
which by the way throw such light on the acn^toraB of 
the Tabernacle, and on the ordinance! of the Uoaaic ritual, 
we have been thrilled with surprise by the discovenr of vast 
subterranean libraries fall of inscribed tablets, which have 
givm us unexpected confinnatioa of the traditi«»al stoiy 
of the Creation, of the Fall, of the Flood, and of the 
Dispernon of mankind. 

lliuB was restored to life, we may aay, a great and 
populoos city, possessing palaces whiich displayed a 
barbaric ma^iificence, at once colossal, rich, elaborate, 
and artistic, which no ancient or modem edifice has 
probably ever surpassed — the splendid capital <^ an 
em|ure which extended roughly from the Oaniian Sea 
to the Mediterranean and to pTpms, and m»n the 
Euxine to the Persian Qulf. 

But what has Assyria to do with Crete ? A number of 
bronzes bearing representations of an Assyrian diaracter, 
and decorative motives of ABsyrianising tendency, or 
evidently in imitation of Assyrian onuunentaUon, have 
just been found buried under the earth in a cave sacred 
to Jupiter in Crete. In the whole world there is nothing 
like them. No bronzes have as yet been found of so rich 
and advanced a character bearing so early a date ; shieldB 
BO ancient have never before been found in Europe and 
perhaps not in Aua. The question arises how Assyrian 
work of the eighth century before Christ should be found 
in Crete. We interrogate history, but history gives no 
answer. l^iiB is evidently a question £» the ardueologist 
not for the historian. If, then, we inquire how tlMse 
brcHizes of an Assyrian (diaracter could have come to 
Crete in this so-called proto-historic age, we shall find that 
the sea-faring Fhcanioian merchants must have been the 
intermediaries between Crete and Asia. Now the 
Fhsniciana had warehouses in the bazaars of ancient 
Babylon, and there they would natnrally leam to imitate 
the decorative system of the country, and after api^yii^ 
it to the metal work of their own forges, afterwartU carry 
these trophies of their skill with them in their ships and 

' Ai Ml old pui^ o( &■ Sulpice I bars 
■Uoircd myicU to kdipt Uiii pamga 
About Nmcreh from tbe work of ods of 

oniNnro address or thb antiquartak skotioh. 21 

scatter them over the whole world. Written records for 
this period are wholly wanting, bat the predous and 
tdltnff cmntbfl of knowledge, history's xevntXi* as we may 
call uem. that we gather ap by archsaological reeeardi, 
enable ns to re-oonstmet and pictare for ourselves a most 
important page of man's life and labours on earth in the 
twui^t of time, when natifms were in th^ infancy. 

The island of Crete, therefore, holds a very important 
place in the hisUn^ of art development. In ^e centre of 
the great Mediten-anean* on the highway of the seas, 
ntuated mid-way between Asia Minor, E^ypt, Gh-eece and 
Italy, it served as a connecting link between East and 
West. On mount Ida, where Cretans, Phoenicians, and 
Greeks met for common worship, lived in the most 
distant times the first inhabitants of the island, the fabled 
inventors of the use of fire, of smelting copper and iron, 
and of the working of Uiese metals into tools and weapons ; 
tb.t first, according to Diodorus Siculus, to use the bow, 
the sword and the helmet in warfare, and the first to 
establish military games ; the reputed anthors of poetry, 
mudc and religious rites. Here lived Minos who first 
gave laws to men, the first amongst mortals to bnild a 

>F«feifi*il««iiUbiiBan«bnti>nMU> OdUni, I haM takn Umm quoUtioR*. 

h> tb» nod* it ^aaUag at Ibe utcMnta •Una* ala> the willKirity of DtiiD7«ui 

to^MdribaCbateMin OaAdiktfeSw. «f HaKounww tormdttag ths Adrittta 

Oirtdotr SoUmw (fiat. diM SS8 A.D.) itntdi fmn the ooaati at SyriB to tb* 

trwl toadMhalto u to what nune ■tntl«B«(Gftnltar(l,S),abo Pompaoin* 

UAovldjito tbaiMln wUdiCntab Mila(iI,^S),l[utfMMCiV«lk<V£«7), 

ilhwti, Aw tii , - — . . _ 

'" • -*-•■"'- KMB urm 

...•i~Mi«r» thrt ni^nli i« wMbsd ni tha Korth and 

WMd MMlfa p mfim d Umr tt JmftUa. BkSfy on tha aaat b; tba Adriatk : 

OL a.) Mmt «&Bt h ban o^mI bf IV^wUlma pronMcia JUte • tflmHritmi 

Sebum Mart Ittfiam, wo awoftBMto mart akuhm ad po(tM iAiMrticMN. 

OndBalBoaallad tha UiUId: fu^n AsOJa ■( ortMrtE oiagJlMr aurf A'adrfaNw 

■t (I, S, f M, ^. f. 100). IbaTagiTanthaae 

Ijba tbaa«ln wUdiCiatab MalB(iI,^S),l[ajtfa«iMCapalk<V£«7), 

Aw iini ml CMaai 4(«n, fuam JwdaHa Bomanu^ lAo m^ : JUda* 

tm gna umri jmcmt : Ma 4mlm iamtla dieltur totiM Alriat w iafan aa 

■aUmimtmtau Onuel rtr mi tm t mt f t l it (). US, H; tf. {. lt,\ A.\ 

Am MU Mm ii^trmi, fmt and M. f. 16«}, and Ondaa wfaa aOtma 

S K * m pt< 

HmA- i u ti am tboaa mentiMMd ^ Dau Homm wbara 

rtoleu* howatar b* pforw Bt Paul landed in Malta aAar 

^ .. Adriatfa tb« ata St. Luke bad aaU : — a ^anWt w iioMi « 

toodiiac OMa npcn tb* mat : "R Kr*ni MrU. l[oinaMaii,inUiiMnt»atioaof 

*VM|>((>»i'*fwfc#)HwMraa'AIH>- Uia monamaat of Ancri* (B«r&, tSSt), 

naa* mA^ywf (^17, 1 ; tf ii, IS, fimkhea a proof thU En the Am of 

1 a St *ra, 0, X, ate.). Kf nnKBtad Angnatua (ha Adriatio ma ooMUarsd 

HmdaodaailffnabnBtor, ttcrf.De. nt, manjtatm with our KaditamBaan. 

from winaa laarnad inona|r«iifa b two PUe alao Da Vlt, OmiuangoB, mA avM 

S«h ndmnaa, of aoma SOO pagaa, on Adifa. 
Adiia, ]iMt pnUUiad at Fknnaa by 

by Google 

22 opevrao address of thb ahtiqdabian mcrtos, 

fleet,* and to make hinuelf feared at sea. Here we aee a 
fltrikiiig resemblance between this little iile iriiich mled 
the waTes, cleared tlie ocean of conain and extended its 
inflaence orer many lands, of thii little isle, which already 
in the time of Homer was celebrated for its hundred 
cities, with that other isle, which in the time of the 
Bomaos could boast of a hundred townships, an isle no 
less famed for its metal work and its mastery of the sea, 
the Isle of Britain. 

But Crete was principally famous, as the birthplace 
of Zeus and the cradle of Zeus worship. Zeos or Jupiter, 
the greatest of the Olympian gods, and the pivot tm iniich 
tnnwd the legends of Greek and Boman mythoI<^, was 
accOTding to the common account brought up in Crete. 
There was he fed by nymphs with the milk of the goat 
and with the honey of the mountain bee, while the 
Curetes ' claahed their weapons in a warlike dance, to 
drown the cries of the sacred infant entrusted to Uieir 
care, and to prevent his father, Cronus from learning the 
place where he lay concealed. An ancient tradition, older 
than the memory of man, pointed to Mount Ida as at once 
his cradle and his tomb ; for there Zeus was reputed both 
to have been bom and to have died ; and, throughout the 
world, Crete was esteemed the favourite isle of Jupiter, 
as Cypms was of Venus, and Delos of Apollo, llie priest- 
hood of Delphi, the seat of Apollo, son of Zeus, the most 
famous orade of antiquity, and styled by the Greeks, the 
*' navel of the earth," was but an ofishoot from the still 
more andent fane of Crete.' 

■ "WhM the 6»j «f KjiMM ma djBM^. 

fonndid ■ cmtiuT ud k tnU iHo- Tnlntlj CraU h 

tha b¥t OtjatpiMl (77S RC), it ma anrnfa* onr tha 

dittoDlt to Sad ■njwbwe > Qriok navl- in tail «braiiiale miiiiii am inTanun ol 

ntor who bad «tm- Tinted tha ooait of CjRMiw bj tha PtlMglaiia in ISH 

Lflrn." (Oiola. Hi*. U, p. 101, of B.O 

H««dIV.,Ul.) ■DMiMtOT, aaoocdiK to tha Haaiodio 

Tba eiAami^pnla of Ctala. notad lliaiigaaT, livad in Oret^ and tbm hj 

ij HnodotH, niundidaa, Ariitatk and Jmoo, W a aoa namad FhitM. In 

Stnbo, ii an nndaasnad coimidanea, in tka F'™'-'-- aion, piaawwd in the 

DOJnt of data witli what wa ara told I17 Hoiwrig B-ma, tha past abcde at 

Sgffliaa moQamaota a* to tha *aiio<ia Damstar io Crate ia not toigottao. CMe 

inTMJDpa of Tonnhk and Peleata fratn ■■ alao iIm aaaM of tba mflh of Bniopa, 

oTcr tba nter, whicli Efvpt mflirad or at liMt id U» Anal act It wa* ia 

duiiog tliB XYth and XIVUi oanturica Grata that In Zena Barapa baoame tba 

B.C., tlut i* from tin reign* nf I Samaca mother of Hmaa, and die wa* afterward* 

and of hi* aon Sati I, luniamed Hinphtah maniad to AatenoD, King of Crete, who 

(theQTaakSathoaJiOfUieXIXthrijrnaatj, brought up for liar the «bildnn wham 

to that ol Ramaea in, head ot tba XXth Aa had had bj tlu Kiiv of the goda. 


In the summer of 1884 a shepherd, who wu feeding 
his flocks on the slopes of Kount Ida, happened to scratch 
with a stick on the floor of a grotto, when he was sar- 
priaed to find ahnost at the very surface numeroiu 
namnents of terra-cotta lamps, some pieces of very thin 
gold-leaf, and a few small bronzes. On the news spreading 
to the neighbonring village, shepherds and peasants ran 
ap the moontain side and b^an without deuy to break 
ap the ground in all direcUons, within and without the 
grotto, and soon found themselves possessed of con- 
siderable booty in the shape of antique objects of different 

Dr. Fabricins waa at that time travelling in the island 
engaged on an ardueological mission he had rec^ved 
from the Carman Archwolc^cal ^tituLe. He no sooner 
heard the news than he betook himself to Mount Ida, 
where he arrived iu time to be able to examine and take 
notes and drawings of the objects found while they were 
still in the hands of the country people. Shortly i^ter 
they were all sold and irretrievably dispersed in various 
private collections. 

Towards the end of September the Greek Syllo^ of 
Candia' took steps to have the cave explored, but it was 
not until the melting of the snows of winter, that they 
were able, in the spring of I8B5, to have a picket of 
Turkish gendarmes posted near the grotto, in order to 
protect its hidden treasures. The revolutlonaiy move- 
ment, however, which took place in the island about the 
end of May, frustrated even this good intention, and 

* Too iBiieb pnin ttmooi b* dran wUdt htm ilna^y ^^b* ** ""^ ** 
to tU wBtarpriaa, faraUiought, wd to- Ilia gcatitata 0/ ill kmn id ut 
Htfi^Mifl Md br Um taw inttrata of ^boAmOa at hUoiy. Inm ik» tmA 
aStuet dfafdrnd br tfak inluit Bod^ 
<rf tlM Qnak hiluUtanti of Crat^ iMA 

at Iha usual mminl B«aiiq( hM in 
0etob», 1887, tta a ' 

1878. A 

* Ita Ml rt «BB> tmij from tba jmr aaroHad, t ri ndm np thi 
i. A oMcU need of Mwe ii due to buodred, lod aabadin 
CbaWdaUi, wfccs mat 1883, hai ladgad from tbe Ardw 

ladgad from tbe ArdwoleglMl Sodetr 

ham at (be hMd U tbk litan^ and o( AOmol iAUi mntdl than 4>N) 
acfanttt* halitalion. But let lui pet^ baaat, and bom t£a a«T«nior-a«Mnl 
eonal fa t w i iUuM and anperter lewAig. 

of Oral^ who bad aaiignad Uum 1 

at tbe Sooalj durinc Dm paaji 7«ar had 

r pcriiua have tabn 

i. mmla not hara ao 
diraatlj and as hUj ooom to tite know- aoqnirnut 
ledge of the »a»aiai of Europe. Soma and {dacuig Ibun In their Dctrij-founded 
idMiMjbeptiiedoltheiainddfiv^op- tmueam, amounted to S2,S84 piaetn*. 
DMntoI UuaEntaraatinsOnakSjUaKw, 


during twenty daja of anarchy, the gendarmef of Mount 
Ua having returned home, almost the whole village 
poured into the grotto, and, dividing out the whole ground 
round-aboiit amongst themselves, excavated it without let 
or hindrance for two or three weeks. On order being 
re-established in the island, the gendarmes returned and 
the Greek Sylli^us, having paid an indemnity to the 
villagers according to the valae of their discoveries, were 
able on August 31st to undertake excavations on a 
r^ular plan. They were confided to the direction of Dr. 
Halbherr, and to Q. Aeraki, one of the professors of the 
Greek Gymnasium of Candia. 

A b^ter idea can be obtained of the position and nature 
of the grotto from the two drawings which are exhibited 
on the wall, than from any description of mine. Suffice it 
to say that the newly identified Zeus cave presents the 
appearance of a large opening in the flank of a lugh vertical 
rock on the eastern slope of Mount Ida and is divided into 
two distinct compartments. The first or outer cave is 
twenty-five metres wide at the mouth, and thirty-one 
metres wide about the centre. It had been filled in by 
earth and stones that had fallen from the top of the 
mountain, so that the floor slopes steeply inwards for 
about nineteen metres, and then becomes level at the 
further end, forming an almost level space nearly fifteen 
metres square. At its mouth the cave is about nine- 
and-a-half mitres high. Advancing in a north-westerly 
direction we come upon a smaller and inner grotto, about 
twenty-two metres long and twelve metres wide at its 
opening, but only four-and-a-half mitres high, and almost 
quite cutrk. The ground of this inner cave, as also a 
la^e portion of that of the larger one, is composed of 
ashes, charcoal and bones of animals, amongst which are 
some ox skulls, the remains of ancient sacrifices. 

The month of the principal cave bears an exact resem- 
blance to the square stage opening or drop scene (tf a 
rigantic out-of-doors theatre, and, like the front of all 
jrecian temples, looks towards the East. On either side 
project from the mountain flank two huge masses of rock, 
reared like bulwarks to defend the entrance, and in the 
open space between them stands the imposmg altar of 
sacrifice, which has been square-hewn ou> of a massive 



nx^ which ia «gefl long gone by had dropped Srom above. 
Hie altar fbmu on tiu top a rectangular surface four-and- 
threaqoarter mitres long and nearly two wide ; ita h^ht 
is ^loat three feet and it ia correctly oriented in the sense 
of its greatest length. It stands on a rocky platform one 
niitre and a half wide, raised about three mwes above the 
level of the ground. The platform, or dus, oommaads a 
view of the whole of the mterior of the first grotto and 
of a part of the fnrther grotto aa well. Before the grotto 
ia a level space or platform, as wide as the grotto itself 
and sevens-five inches long. 

Bound MMut the altar, at a depth of about two feet^ 
were fbtind a number of votive objects, lamps, ornaments 
of gold, feet and other portions of tripoos, ntuneroos 
fragments of terra-cotta, with many cast bronzes of a very 
archaic period, and of high signincance. In the grotto 
itself, besides some few prehistoric objects, as two or 
three needles made of bone and a kind of two-edged knife 
made of obsidian (which may also be part of a necklace), 
were found a great number of hammered bronze articles, 
as shields, caps, cauldrons, eto. 

The great number and variety of objects found answer 
well to the great veneration in which this cave was held, 
consecrated as it was by one of the chief myths of the 
religious sj^atem of the Fan-Hellenic world, and to its 
utuaUon in the centre of the island, at about an equal 
distance from the two flourishing dtiea of Gortyna and 
Cboflsos. AH the objects found are either utensils directly 
serving in the ritea of worship, as tripods, cauldrons, etc., 
or votive ofieringa of the most various kinds, such as are 
found in tiie inventories of the treasuries of the Parthenon, 
and of the temple of Delos, or amongst the recent dis- 
coveries of temple oflerings at Olympia or at Dodona. 
Amongst all this variety of objects, as bronzes, beaten 
with the hammer or decorated in repottasS work, as tiiA 
great cauldrons, the shields, the bowls and cups, plain or 
figured, eto„ and the cast bronzes, as feet of tripods, 
numberless handles of vases, statuettes, votive anizoals, 
decorative figures single or in groups, ornaments of gold 
and silver, ivoty, amber, crystal, engraved stones, pseudo- 
Egyptian majolica, terra-cotta, arms of iron, coins, eto., 
what surprises us not a little is the total lack of inscrip- 


tioiu. Only one small piece of gold haa npon it a few 
Iett«^ bat they are well nigh ill^Ue. Of Uie nomeroua 
vasea and other votive objecta found, not one bean a 
trace of the leaat dedicatory inscription. 

The identification of thia now hiatoric and truly pro- 
tific cave on l&mnt Ida with the 'ISoTov ivrpm raw Amc> the 
importance of which waa first pointed out by me in a letter 
totheilfA«fUR«nof Feb. IZth, of last year, was worked out 
by Dr. Fabridus in the Athenian isaue of the German 
Arclueological Inatatate, Vol X. His reasoning is based 
npon a personal examination of ^e locality, which waa 
evidently nsed for worship and the object of ^reat 
COQCoorse, and on compariaon of its chief characteiutica 
with all that can be gathered from ancient authora; to 
which must be added uie aacred and votive nature of the 
objects fonnd there. He confirma his conchisions, first, by 
a passage of Diodorus Siculns (V, 70), who speaks of the 
God's cradle-cave, of the pastures on the mountun-side, 
of the copper-coloured b^, and of the cold wind and 
snow that wreath those giddy bights. Theophraatus 
next is quoted, who, in his Kstory of Plants (III, 3, 4), 
speaks of the votive offerings put up in the Idssan Cave, 
ramishing us further with a distinct local designation and 
distance, thongh the name Sauros is not now known to 
the mountain shepherds as one attached to any of its 
seven or eight water springs. Lastly, Plato's Dialc^e on 
Laws begins with a poetical description of a pilgnmage 
from Cbossus to the Idiean Cave, in which the scenery of 
the present site is clearly discemable. The distance of 
the grotto from Cnossus is about a day's journey, eight or 
mne hours' walk. Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. IV, I, 3) 
and others state expressly that the slopes of Mount Ida 
were covered with cypresses ; though now nothing there 
is seen but evergreen oaks, maplea, and scattered brush- 
wood. Thus, besides the information we gain from Plato 
tiiat the Zeus Cave was a well-known object of pilgrimage, 
such as friends might make together on a summer's day 
from CnoBsuB ; the mention by him of the cypress shade 
through which they would w«)d their way, is an additional 
confirmation of the identity of this long-lost but now 
recovered site- At the time Dr. Fabricius wove this 
reasoning he was not aware of the confirmaUon that 


wonld 80 shortlj be brought to hu argunwnt by the 
actual dlBcoveiy on the spot of a dedicatory inscriptioii, 
which coiutitutei our solitary but suffident proof in point 
of fact. The slab tirns inscribed to the Idnan Zeus is of 
the Boman period. 

Among the many and diverse objects found in the 
Idsoan Care, the most important from an artistic point of 
view, are some votive shields, about a dozen in alL 
These are all <drcular, wilit a diameter varying 
between twenty-two and twenty-aeven inches,* of very 
thin bronze metal. These two latter characteristics 
show that th^ were not used really for defence, but 
only as ornamental and votive uuelda, like those 
described by Fausanias as seen by him in tiie 
gymnasium of EUs.' We know that in all great sano- 
tnaries, such votive offerings were entrusted to the care 
of special functionaries, who were charged with making 
periodically the necessary repairs, or if the objects were 
much damaged, they could be melted down. Willi the 
exception of such repairs as have been made at a much 
later date than the time of their fabrication, not one of 
these votive shields bore any trace of soldering. They 
are all single disks of metal, beaten out with the hammer 
in repouss6 work, and oftentimes finished externally with 
some sharp pointed instrument or the graving tooL This 
chiselling is especially observable in tiie central boss or 
omphaloi, which invariably takes the form of a lion's head. 
The most common ornamentations in the decoration of 
the concentric zones, or of the band dividing zone from 
zone is the guiUoche, that rope intertwinement, consisting 
of two bands or strings twisted over each other in a con- 
tinued series, and (2), embossed knobs, or (3), more 
rarely, garlands of palm-leaves or of flower^buds, which 
two latter decorations however are more frequently 
found on the metal bowls discovered in the same place, 
and at the same time. 

* TlM«a«et DMHanment, T>rw* gtn- 6«ai«al«l«<r V^■•'<•■i^>"> wm^hmt, 
uaib bstmMi OU" Mid O'SS^, Um (Faiuuiut^ DcKriptio Qntcus L ti o. 

nral^ nirpudiiK ixni, 7.) 

. of a nilluiiMra in tha middls uid 1 In Pernit uA Ctupiei't WA. at Ait in 

milUmMn attlMadgB. Onl; two ihleldi Amtiu (toL I, p^s 80( of BngL truit.,) 

dtfiart bom Umm p npar&am, ons ma be Msn tba flgnra U a tempi* of 

maanrina; In ■"""*— O'SO" and tlM AraMDiatroni abai4»lirfcrf8*q!Dii,widi 

othvO'Sf^ it* facade hinnad of pilaiteta, upon iriUdl 

*«^ HtMinOftMafirTa^Mu hang votire «hUdi or tugeta. 


In Plate IX we see a ifaield with two concentric zones 
<Hiiainent«d with figures, beaten out in relief with a 
hammer, sharply rounded off with a chisel, and finished 
with the gravuur tooL The outer drde contains twelve 
bulls stepping, curided into four groups ; the umw circle 
contains four groups of the Ibex, or ten wQd Assyrian 
goats, at full gallop, equally divided into four connMrt- 
ments, with between than bcAd reptesentatuitis of the uitus 
flower. The central bow forms the head of a Uon vith 
jaws open, a piece of wotk marvellansly executed. The 
mane is combed, as it were, into a number oi tongue- 
shaped tufts. The two cavities for the eyes form ludes 
expressly hollowed out to ctmtain pupils of some other 
material now lost The illusti*atlon is two'thirds the 
natural size. At the nde of the sheet is seen the lion's 
head in profile. It projects from the surface somewhat 
over three inches, and displays a freshness, a vigour, a 
beauty, and a knowledge of anatomy, more Greu than 
Assyrian, and superior to anything yet found in the 
archuc strata of Olympia. 

Plate III represents another shield, two-thirds the natural 
size, with the mnphalot representing also the head of a 
lion projecting ten centimto^s, or nearly four inchee from 
the surface. Four large figures fill the inner band, two 
winged sphinxes, facing each other, in the act of putting 
away the cup-shaped flowers of a plant placed between 
them, and two Uonesses, tigers, or else panthers, which 
meet together in the upper part of the ^eld. Iliese two 
«min«l« ore again separated by a pabn, the art^t having 
wi^ed thus to fill in every vacuit sj^ace at his dkpoau 
with a leaf, a palmette, or a flower. The skin of the 
sphinxes, and of the other two animals, Es marked by a 
kind of network of square or rfaomboidal scales, with in Uie 
centre of each an embossed knob or ball. 

Hate V, also two-thirds of the original size, represents 
a shield with a decorated border filled with two figures 
of warriors and two figures of lions, between which Utter 
is a winged globe, from which proceed two arms grasping 
some sheaf-uke object. The warriors are clotlwd in a 
long coat of mail covoing the whole body down to the 
feet, with conical helmets on their heads, the best pre- 
served of the two figures having a round shield in fats left 


hand. The right huids of the two warriors meet with 
dosed fists before an object like a fan, or flabellam, placed 
between them. Hub shield has been cleverly pnt tt^ethw 
ont of thirty fragments. 

Plate IV, also two-thirds of the original size, representa 
an enormous lard in the act of taking wing, or ratiier a 
fantastic ammal which combines the nature of both bird 
and fish. This monatroas creature occupies the upper 
and central portion of the shidd and stretches with its 
extended wings beyond the outer ornamental border, al- 
most to the edge of the shield. The back and breast are 
covered with thick feathers delic^ely finished with a 
graver. In the lower part of the shield is a large sphinx 
m modon with her feet resting on the inner border. The 
breast is covered with the same kind of pinnule as the 
bird and the head is covered with a kind of tiara, some- 
what like a crown of upper Egypt. Two large homed 
serpents occupy the rest of the field, the vacant spaces 
being filled in with a ram mnning, and with two small 
figures of lions. The border is composed of ornamental 
roeettes now coupled together, now divided by a pur of 
smaller rosettes, or else by an ornament like a twisted 
ribbon or scroll work. Tins magnificent shield has been 
put tt^ether firom five large broken fragments composing 
the centre, and twenty-nine smaller ones for the most part 
belonging to the rim.' 

Bnt the finest specimens are Kos. I and n, both represent- 
ing sabjects of the lushest interest, lliey are both like the 
for^wn^ of Phoenician workmanship, but in character 
and detail thoroughly Assyrian. The first of these shields 
represents Melkart, the Tyrian Hercules, throwing a litHi 
into the air, with on either side winged deities beating 

* 0ompu«ths dUii 
tB Ctoldwand Ampif 

iths dUior^attn flgnrad the niliD( ptiaifia of tha dMontioafi 

id Ohqdw'a HMon «f ijt, the divWoB of the dfak Into thi«v (ow 

and AmrrU (Lonaaa 1881, or S*e «iimo»tMe ctntm, ■ bat in eeme 

tl-nt, if. tl7btiioUJndi. lutuMM tbe whofe Add, wWi the «k- 

■Mmg HUM MOM «( Mitm«b. th* flnt tBfUtM of k dupl* bordw, k iie w |4B d 

aMllei,tlMMa«>dm ball,»pMllikan It odb ■olriaA,'' <pL *SS). The bert of 

Urn nd > winded (riffln, and in the than are like mu-eUahK beataap futo 

tlmdsaDaUhmT«~t^)><>U^ "^^ ralM with the hammer, and tbaaflnfahed 

idM «C Mn^oj^ aU thna anknnU ler with the bncin. 

ttke adiinuiMat «( MMh a aurfaoi^ ii en- *H«nUw aod Aphradite^ two w«U. 

(fadr ia ttw qdrit of A»^tita daoom- ddbMd^paaaf aaolHitGniknqlhokc*, 

tW* (/t. p. SSS) ; epeafciiwaf Aiqrtiu fa«m«Mfa thA eniata nagatt aaS» 

f tax t, «w authof* mj z " In nmit mms Ib ligMd, in mnnlp, and In «|iie^ Ijtia, 

80 opsmira addbbsb of tos antiquabiam sbction. 

13ie second ahield representu Afltarte,* the Sidonian 
Venus, nude between two lions, whom she htdds sabdued, 
as it were hj an imperious gesture, with underneath two 
S^iinxes, in the same face to face symmetrical arrange- 
ment, l^iese two shields have been carefully reproduced 
in Flates in the Reliquary for December, and t must 
Iherefore refer to its pa^ for a full desmpdon of the 
peculiar character of their oroamentation, and for thdr 
hi^ artistic and btttoric significance. 

^re, then, on these shidtds we have the memories of 
manyluds gathered into one. Here we have the sphinx, 
the palm-tree, and the lotus, borrowed from Egypt, set in 
die stiff, formal, heraldic, and face to face arrangement 
peculiar to Assyria. To Assyria, too, belonss the liybrid 
monster, the winged creature, the clothed human form, 
the love oS rich decoration. Here on these shields we 
have pourtrayed the relation of Phoenicia with both these 
seats of ancient civilization, first with B^pt and after- 
wards with Assyria. What fresh motive in decoration or 
what new idea the Phcenicians engrafted on to this double 
Ktream of artistic development, it is difficult to say, for 
this is a portion of the history of art, which, owing to 
the great scarcity of materials from which to judge, is 
as yet in its infant^. The independent art creations of 
Fhsnicia, are, so far as known, very few. Hence the 
great v^ue of these new discoveries is abundantly 
apparent. In Phoenicia itself sculptured monuments are 

tad tagic portn. To IbnUM Um paoolbilr mpfmfr^taA bf tb* Ouunlta 

Qniki talifDod AtiMiu u tba eoniUnt tnAtn, that th^ iwtm' «ti|tiad UKdMr 

■nd watebfnl pmtMbvL Tb* utifktl^ witkmit taUam an fmyi a< bar wfth 

id Haa icaiDrt Hcnklai ww the Mf- than ; aad waatw ar thay toaniti ■ 

nllDg oaaw of mjtha baamaMi, budarj th« aat thk ap H Ita awrsd 

" Hmelaa,'' i^ Onla, " ma tb« moat a«ntn...lMWtaa h the mn» wmm ai 

nnomad aod moat nhignitooa o( aU tha M elkart, adaptad to tba Halkok tot^aa. 

aanMhiiw pawo oag aa worahi^Md b; Whanw TyriuM Mttled they owtad 

Um H«a(M*...H« k tMwd not oolr in aanotoaiisa to Malkait, thair d^ god. 

DMNtiiailxit HdUa;b«Ath«Mit;hiMit>U Tba awotial tnita of Uie atj H<t« of 

th* vUmt npona than knows to tba tha T^iiana now tranrfarad to Handka. 

QnAM, tnm Oadte to tha thmt TIm wonhip of thaaa divinitin, aa wall 

TbnaMAn, in tha Eiabt*. and to aa that at Holoefa, of whicli tnoaa oooor 

Sqthia; oTCroomiiig all difficolUaa and inOrataandalaewben^mv^Ji'*'''*^? 

TanqoiihiDf aDoppaDeoti. Dutingnidiad natomad to hare b«M bmngbt W tba 

famuiaa m erarjwban to be traoed who PliOMiidaDBintoBaiQpvanQraaoe. niaae 

bear hk patnOTinkv and rioiy in the two fonna of wonhto ttaord at the aima 

* I tbay an bii ifaacaDdaDtB " tima tha Mai epoch* of tba PboBnidBn 

n, M). influaaoe whidi Mlowed tit* poriod of 


"'■■'- - ■ "nurB ol a (*_ — ^ „,^ , 

14 that of town." (Cnitina, Hirt. of Qraaca, toL I, 

Ood iriiieh thepcanilincdiiaiinion<rfeachpaTtiouUr 
■ * m.~(CniSiia, r' ' ' ~ 


few ; her temples hare all periahed ; all that remaiiu of 
the ardiitectnral arJiievementa of early days are a few 
caTe-tombs and rock-sculptures. Harried in turn by 
natum after natUm, nothing dse has survived as evidences 
of art in the home of that great merchant people. But 
in die islands of tlw great Mediterranean Sea, in the 
tombs of Hycenn, and in those of a host of Etmscan towns 
in Italy, have been preserved the decorated bowls, and 
shidda, and swords, that these sea-roverB earned with 
them in their ships. Anyhow the metal work of these 
diidds is Fhienician. On them we see the Melkart of 
Tyre, and the Astoreth of Sidon, the god of force and 
the goddess of love, the divinities of destruction and of 
preservation, of death and of life, those two cardinal 
mvots or centres of ancient mythology, which the 
nKemcians thus carried in two distinct currents towards 
the West. Here Phcenicia, after serving aa & link between 
Egypt and Assyria, between Africa and Asia, now serves 
as a connecting bond between East and West, between 
Assyria, ^^^pt, and Greece, between Africa, Asia, and 
Europe, ^e divinities seen upon these shields were 
first beheld by the Greeks when they themselves were 
fashioning into shape their first expressions in art.' 
What iimnence the decorative motives of Egypt and 
Assyria, imported by the Fhcenicians, had upon the early 
artists of Greece, it is agun, as yet, very d^cult to say, 
and we have to glean such scanty information as we can 
from what exists of archaic Cb-eek art in pre-Fhcenidan 
strata, compared with such ancient Fhcenician remains 
as are entirely destitute of any admixture of Greek 
influence.* Such is the surpassing value of these Fh<Bnician 
shields, the most ancient metal ahielda yet discovered. 
They belong to an epoch when the Greek race was in its 
youth, when the springs of its mind were fiesh, when it 
was most likely to be influenced by external agents, and 
such objecta were the flrst to introduce the young and 
aspiring Greek to the rigid, severe, monotonous, mys- 


I Aceacding to Oroti^ KfiTPt ""^ ^ wholly dviwd bom tlia SjHui Fl 

op«n«d to tbs OnckM, daring the maun and Camunlto,'' 
J pMrntnodduiMbout SOO ac. -<-!--'--•.- 

In Um (til Bl. of Pralltr-i OrtaAuok 

MfAalagit now la eonna of publieation, 

ao doDbt i* left tiMt "Aphwdito w in "Cb«ieilEBVl«r," JbrNo*. 1»8«). '- .j,|.. 


steriom, and impenetrable forms of EigypC, and to the 
dreamy, lack-life, symbolic and ideal creaUona of the 
Anyriana. Others may be interested in tracing the 
motives vinble on these shields to Jerusalem, wh^«, in 
the Temple of Solomon, we shall find instead of the lotua 
the lily-work, for winged-animals the cherubim, then the 
palm trees, and the borders figored with lions and <aen. 
What light these Kioenician sculptures may throw on 
Scandinavian art, may be best said by others. In 
prinraple we must at leiait admit some connection between 
Scaudmavian art and ancient Oriental or rather Asiatic 
art (that is to say, not exclusively Assyro-Babylonian), to 
aay nothing of uie influence that may have been bronght 
to bear on the far North by Oreco-Flueniaan or Etroacan 
mediation. Such purely Asiatic influence may have 
reached the North by land across modem Russia, at the 
time of those migrations which brought into Scandinavia 
the use of metals. 

Never before on Grecian soil have so large a number 
of archaic bronzes, of such high interest and of such 
great variety, been found. Indeed so scarce are archsso- 
u^cal remains of this kind in this age that the lessons of 
these shields constitute in themselves a perfect revelation. 
Of this proto-hiatoric period, when written documents are 
entirely wanting or are extremely scarce, our only in- 
formation concerning defensive annour comes exclusively 
from the poems of Homer or from a few primitive vase- 
paintings and sculptures, while our knowl^ge of warlike 
weapons of the andent Italic, Hellenic, and drcnm- 
Mei^terranean races is not mu(di greater. No real shields 
of so early a date as these before us had hitherto been 
found. Some twenty-one examples of ancient bronze 
shields have been found in Etruria, which may be safely 
held to be anterior to the 6th century, B.C. But none so 
old as these had been as yet found in Qreece or in 
Phoenicia, and we have only two of an equally ancient 
date from Cyprus, one quite smooth, and therefore of 
little value, from Ntmroud, and four from Van in Armenia. 
Amongst the rich archaeolc^cal remains of ancient Egypt 
we have no specimen of a metal shield.' Bvery one knows 


the difficulties that philologists and commentators have 
conseqaently encountered in determining the shape, 
m^enal, compontion and ornamentation of the shields 
of Homer, llie extreme importance therefore of this 
discoverer of actoal shields, cannot be too much insisted 
on. To the written words of Homer and of Hesiod, 
to the pictures of nuBuidan, Pelasgic* and Chalddian 
rases, and to some Attic ones of very archaic style, 
to some . Cyprian terra-cottas, and to the numerous 
sculptures of the ancient Ajsyro-Babylonian monarchies, 
which have hitherto been the only sources whence we 
could obtain any trustworthy knowledge of the ancient 
Greek and Eastern shield, we can now add this fine series 
of Cretan shields which have just been unearthed in time 

thns dewaibad lij Pnrot and Chiirf^ who 
flnnltbtlHirHlrt.o( Art in AMjrii, 


tat, tht MM bet««Mi wilk bulk 
in Om MUM •ttitodtL' Hie Fbotogi^ifa 
tlbun la th« AnilHt nllmj of Uw 
BritUi MuMDm gim for eranta of 
Aaovrtulpal^ faM-rdiati, tlie d>te« SW 
to «M &C. AMOidlng to EUwUimod 
"It hM bMn MoenUj lappoMd that 
AaAnr-ban^ diad abont B-C SM or 

U7 bat laoaot diasoitarMa raDd«r It 

probabla th*t hii imgu waa aztoodad to 
« mad* prnttM- lanitb," parfiap* down 
to8S<B.a CnafiTSBnatiiKiunliiaa 
of tka aiMHBt Eaatsrn World,' Vol II, 

' Tba Pahan, attar lumag long aarrad 
H ft kind «f MMbMtk m a Uria pii m A , oot 
of wfakh WH« avulved tfa* Tsiloaa popn- 

Pilaata, iriia, with ths Tonrdw, luntlad 

tuMB, who had than for ai 

- 1 «a tba waata d Palaatlw^ tmd 
tba Paleata and PtJliatanaa «m 
oal with tha PelaasL Dr. Qaaa^ 
la hia Origtmm CUttw, aaya tha Pdai«i 
(n)ul«) wen tba andeut TTrriMot . - 

LanonnaiS,Mua«tbaPa)eato' _ 
mantkoad mi Bgjptiaa monnment*. 
Now tha FhOittiiHa are oallad la th* 
KUa CwatfaliB, and Iha Baptoapit 
taaulata the Garelhlm of tha Uahraiw 
tart OrataD% whoioa It ia ooadndad that 
mMnnbiaa tha FabHsi, Palaali^ FhiBatliMi, or 
" " ' " Caratbim, an all om pwpla, aad cum 
originallT from Cnt*. FortartharprMt 
aae DTVit'a OntmatHmt, Um. U., ad 

fr havias limg flfnrad in introduebnr 
(bwtara b«bc* Mch aapanto aonutrf '• 
keal hiataiT bagan, ham ia lb* bat taw 

na t Joaaltly, 
mad to ba 

baaioi *"^ b^rptiaa 
troduebnr Qafanw ' 

a DiaUooary we nad,''nw 

of an J dtim i 
that tlMT hare j 
dfaniwwl with 

Ur^tm with 

of aa J <J«tm to a dktiiMit 

I Didaoa'a <tletam, * 

Cbcnthlni) of tha Sat, are 
nvfmaij Cratana" (nndar PdtMlm). 
konn and Bwald both bring the Pbnb< 
tiuaa bt« PalMtiM from Cratei. DeVlt 
thinka that the Veoetiao ctty Adtia wm 

Chrfatbr the Paleata or Pelai^ and ba 


e help of Lloonnant^ 

B with tho Phfliatuie^ 

and Dr. Da VU derotaa aareral dnptara 

tu Aa lint voltuaa of Ua noant work on 

Adria la aupport irf thla e 


hj nondnoa {Agr imi utr) to AdiiK in 

_ I: C^oo^Ie 


to 611 up a notable gap in our knowledge, and which show 
1U the passage from the rich geometrical decoration of 
the borders, and from geometric decoration generally, to 
that which consists in genres, so that their study is of the 
greatest use in determimng tiie Tarious points of contact 
between Oriental and Italo-Oreek ciTilization, and in 
illustrating the transmission of both geometric as well as 
animal and figurative decorated f&noB from East to West. 
It has been remarked that all the most andent shields 
yet found, present a great family likeness, whether we 
consider their dimensions, their form their mechanical 
construction or the character of their ornamentation, as an 
example either of the rich geomebic concentric borders, \ 

or of the transition from iho geometric to the figured \ 

style. But the principal service, these newly discovered i 

shields render us is that by the evidence of an actual i 

and tangible object, they act as a trustworthy check on i 

the imaginative creations of the poet, and on the oftentime 
no less free and unf^thful creations of the decoratory and 
representative Arts, just as the knowledge of geography, 
and the use of a map enable us to correct the legend of 
the fabulous localities visited by the Argonauts, or the 
notion propounded by AristoUe, that the Danube had a 
forked course with one mouth in the Black Sea and the 
other in the Adriatic' 

In conclusion I must express my great indebtedness to 
Dr. Halbherr, Professor of Greek Epigraphy at the Soman 
University, and to Dr. Orai, now attached to the museum 
at Syracuse as Inspector of Excavations, whose joint or 
double monograph, the first part upon the technique and 
the second on the artistic and historic meaning of these 
shields, published at Florence by their respective authors 
in the Mxtseo di Antichitd CUunca (VoL II, Punt. Ill), in 
the spring of this year, has been my almost exclusive guide 

■Sea In the Joornil of the Aiutu baoipd. In the laiiuner U ISM Mr. 

Socutr (VuL XIT, p. «S3) Prof. Sajoe'i Rmmoi axoiTeted on the Mine ate and 

account of the broDie ilualda fn>ni the diaootered two ottMr braue ahield^ 

ruined temple not far (rom Kar«t«h, whidi are onumanted wit^ rowa of liona 

oar Tattui, aouth of Van, purchaaed bf batwean linta of waraa, alao ol the tiuM 

Sir A. H. Layard at Conatimtinople, and of RAaaa. Compara the ahialda and om«- 

now in the Britiah Muaeum. The in* mantatioD figured in I^jard'a " llonu- 

•cripUon which nina round the ahield meDta uf Ninarah," Seoond Sanaa, PUte 

theoi it to biivc belonged to ROaaa, aon LVII to LXVIU. 
of Eimeuu, the eontemporarj of Awur- ^ 

zed b, Google 


and inatmctor in the description of these works of art. 
I have also to thank them both for some valuable assis- 
tance I have very courteously received from them by 
letter in answer to my inquiries for further information. 
ImMj a word of pruse must be accorded to Prof. 
GomparetU for the excellent and munificent way in which 
he has iUoatrated the letter-press by Halbherr and Or« 
with nomoxtus wood-cuts, and by the further addition of 
an AUante in imperial folio, containing twelve lar^ 
reproductions in phototype of the chief objects found m 
the Idasn Cave. 

Digilizcd by Google 

I^ THE BEV. a. lOLLBR, H.A. 

It wu oa the evening of the 22iid of October that 
Charles arrived at Edgecot, a lit^e village in Korthamp- 
tonahire, about four miles from Banbury, which town 
waa garrisoned by the FarUamentary troops. A council of 
war waa aummoned, at which, as there were no tidings of 
Essex's armj, it waa determined that Sir Nicholaa £^ron 
should, with hia brigade, storm the caade of Banbury, on 
the morrow, while the rest of the army continued their 
march towards London. The council broke up, and the 
officers returned to their quarters, which, as the troops 
were spread over a lai^ area of ground, were in many 
instances at some distance from h^d quarters. Bupert^ 
quarters were at Ux>lUngton, a village parUy in Warwick- 
shire and parUy in Oxfordshire, about iour miles off. 
Theposition of his tent is to be seen in an old map 
of Warwickshire, which also fhmishes much important 
evidence on the sabject before us, as well as. on many 
others of historical and antiquarian interest. Some say 
that Rupert slept at Ur. Spencer's seat at Wcamleighton, 
but of this I can find no real evidence. When night had 
closed in, the watch fires of Essex's army lighted up the 
country in front of the litUe town of Eineton, and shewed 
to these videttes the near approach of their opponents. 
Tidings of the close proximity of the two armies was sent 
at ouce to Bupert, and about midnight the King received 
a message from the Prince " that the rebel army waa 
within seven or eight miles (the distance was really ten 
milea), that their head quarters were at a village called 
Kineton, on the edge of Warwickshire, and that it would 



be in hJB HBJe8ty*8 power, if he thought fit, to fight a 
battle the next day." Woid. was therefore sent to coonter 
(Mtler the march to Banbury, and the different divieions 
of the anuT were inatructed to march the next day to 
the Elge mila. 

It waa not till ught the next morning that the King 
left Edgecot, and aa the distance was nearly ten miles, 
noon was passed before he arrived at the Edge Hills, and 
saw the enemy drawn out in the plun below. Early in 
the morning Bupert's advanced guard had occupied the 
hills, and me sight of them, as they lined the hillside, 
gave to Essex the first intimation that his road to London 
was stopped by the Sing's forces. As the soldiers on the 
lulls increased in numbers, Essex drew out his forces in 
front of Elneton, the advanced guu^ taking up a position 
about a quarter of a mile below the village of Radway, 
having with them some of the artillery. When the King 
arrived at the HiUs, he made a careful examination of the 
enemy's forces with a telescope, from the point called 
Knoll ]E^d. The spot were he stood has been raised into 
the shape of a crown, and was planted with a clump of 
toees early last century by one of my ancestors. The 
enemy were near enough to be able to distinguish the 
King, and immediately fired th«r guns at the place were 
he stood. The shot fell short, boieath him, mto a field 
since called BuUet HilL The firing of the cannon was 
followed by cheers irom Essex's soldiers. The position of 
the King on the brow of the Edgehill was a peculiarly 
strong one. The hills rise gently from Kineton to Badway, 
to the height of 100 feet ; the rise from the village for 
the next 300 yards is very considerable, and from that 
point to the top of the hill the ascent is precipitous, the 
hills rising abruptly about 280 feet A council of war 
was held to determine the next step to be taken. Lord 
lindsay, the General, strongly advised that they should 
remain on the hills and await the enemy's attack. This 
advice was opposed by the fiery Bupert, whose success at 
Worcester over some of Essex's best troops made him 
inclined to hold the enemy cheap. The King was appealed 
to for hb dedsion. He was anxious to engage the enemy 
at once. 

There was also great difficulty in obtaining proviuon, 

_ I Google 


as the country hereabouta was so much under the control 
and influence of Lord Brooke : so many false reports too 
had been spread abroad respecting the fierce and bloody 
dispontion of the Cavaliers — of the cruelty they indicted 
upon the inhabitants of which robbery was one of the 
least. The King also had with him a number of pro- 
clamadons, ofienng a free pardon to all who would lay 
down their arms. These he wished to distribute amongst 
the enemy's soldiers, many of whom, he was assured, were 
anzious and ready to desert the Parliament and join him. 
Charles, therefore, gave the order for marching down the 
hill to attack the oiemy, an order which made Field- 
Marshall Lord Gougb, when surveying the battle field from 
the hills some few years back, exclaim that Charles was 

not only no general, but a fool. The position eveu in 

these days of rifles and powerful ordnance would be 
difficult to take; in the days of the Civil Wars It was 
simply impregnable. The line of battle was formed in the 
following order. On the right wing was Kupert with his 
cavalry; Carnarvon in his rear forming the reserve. Next 
to him were the brigades of Digby, Astley, Willoughby, 
and Aston ; while the left wing was commanded by 
Wihnot, the Commissary-Oeneral. 

The Edge Hills above the village of Radway in those 
days, were not clothed with wood as is now the cas*^, but 
were for the most part entirely open ground, like that 
part of the range above the village of Tysoe. There was, 
however, a small park round Badway Grange, surrounded, 
as was the custom in those times, with a thick belt of 
trees. The occupant of the Grange was John Washington.' 
There also appears to have been a wood of some extent 
on the brow of the Hill above the house. The King's 
standard, near which the Elng stood, was on the spot now 
occupied by Edge Hill Tower, which was built by the 
writ^'s ancestor and opened in March, 1751, and from 
this spot Charles took a careful survey of the enemy's 
position before he descended the hills. The wood and the 
park, surrounded by the belt of trees, obliged Charles, as 

< Hnt pntHblj IIm Joba WmihingtoD ton, of Sulgnre, irtiu tourfed Mut Ligli, 

wbo Mmgnted Uter od to Amarics with hoir— of R&dwiy. Tha duin of aridMica 

Ilk wit* umI two toam, tnd who wu the in ttiemtot to l£ii nibjaot I ihaU pubfiih 

diract uMMtor of Qtom Wuhiiu;toiL thorUr. 
H« wH*d«aoaidut of ffir L. Wnuung- ( ~ C)lM'<\c 


he marched with his centre down the hill, to dive^ 
aomewhat to the left. He, therefore, pasied die village ttf 
Badway, on the left of the old charohyard, and while his 
troops marched on to meet the enemy, he took his stand 
fm a knoll of ground to the left hand, about 100 yards on 
the south of the present church. It was three o'clock 
when the King descended the bills, like bells were 
rii^jing for the aft«moon service, the Yicar of Badway 
b^ng then Jeremiah BiiU who seems to have been in 
hiding during the Gbmmonwealth, and was restored to his 
own agun in 1662. 

l^e aftemocHi was far advanced, and the sun had only 
two hours more to shine before sinking beneath the 
horizon. SB8ex*8 army was ready for resistmg the attach 
Starting from the right wing, his line c^ battle was 
cfnnposed as follows : First stood the regiments of Balfour, 
Hildmay, StapIetoD, Constable, and OoTonel Essex ; then 
Ballard, Lord Brooke, Hollis, and near to them towards 
the left, Wharton, Mandeville, Cholmondeley, Lord Essex's 
regiment, Fairfax, and Bamsay ; Fielding's regiment being 
in the rear. Essex's position, in the centre, was a strong 
one. He had taken advuitage of a ridge between 
Badway and Kineton for drawing up his line of battle. 
The ridge was naturally covered with furze and bush, 
thus afTording shelter for the troops. And while, too, all 
was open field elsewhere on the plain, along the ridge the 
only hedgerow, that was to be found hereabonta, ran 
parallel with Essex's broops. At the foot of the ridge 
there was a small brook. These advantages of position 
were to be found also on Essex's right wing, though to a 
less degree ; while the left wing, being on open ground, 
and that falling ofi* towards the little Biver Dene, pre- 
SNited no advantage to the Parliament troops, bat was, 
on the contrary, adapted for the advance of cavalry. To 
strengthen, as he supposed, this wing, and to prevent his 
porition on the ridge from being outflanked, Essex 
extended his line in this direction, tactics as faulty as 
those of Marmont which ended in his defeat at Salamanca, 
when a Wellington, not a Charles, was in command. 

Arriving on the plain, Bupert fiercely charged the 
enemy's I^t wing, and as soon as they joined the battle, 
Bi Faithful Fortescue, with the troops that had lately 


arrived from Ireland, discharged their pistolfl on the 
groand, and, wheeling around, joined Rupert's cavidiera. 
The enemy's left was instantly routed. Bupert'a im- 
petuous charge nras delivered with such effect that his 
opponents fled with loose rein to Kineton, some never 
stopping till they arrived at Stratford, where they 
announced the defeat of Essex. Bupert Mmself did not 
draw rdn till he came to a spot near to the road between 
Bjuettm and Chadshunt, stiU called Bupert's headland. 
At the head of Bupert's force, the Sing's Bodyguard, 
which consisted of some 200 gentlemen, were allowed to 
<diat^. They were anxious to answer the jeers of the 
common soldiers, who thought but lightly of these guly 
dresiied cavaliers, by showing that they were really to 
lead the attack. The folly of the King in giving way to 
their request was shortly seen. Wheelmg round when he 
bad arrived at the headland, Bupert's troops fell upon the 
baggage of the Parliament army, and carried off* Lord 
Essex's carriage. 

Near to the old ford over the brook at the bott(Hn of 
Bridge-street, Eineton, where a new road was made a few 
years ago, some skeletons were found, which, from the 
position wherein they were discovered, makes it more 
than probable that they were the bodies of some who 
were defending the ford against the assaults of Bupert's 
soldiers. After a while the cavaliers were disturbed 
in their pillaging operations by the near approach of 
Hampden's regiments, who, on hearing the guns of the 
combatants, hastened to join their companions in arms. 
The advanced guard, wi^ some guns they had brought 
with them, opened fire upon the cavaliers, who then 
retreated from Kineton. Had Bupert held his force well 
in band, and, having driven back the enemy's right, had 
formed <m the flank of Essex's centre, and charged it 
with the same impetuosity with which he had defeated 
the right wing, Essex's centre must have been com- 
pletely rolled up, and Edgehill not Naseby would have 
been the decisive battle of the Civil War. Whether this 
would have been an advant^e to (he country or not, it 
is not for me to say : I have only now to do with 
describing the battle. While Bupert was attacking the 
enemy's left, Ciommissaiy-General Wilmot proceeded to 


attack the left ving. At the fint onset he appears to 
have driven back the foe, but when he arrivBd at certain 
hedgerows and endomres which had been lined with 
flna mnaketeeta, his advance was stopped. Clarendoa 
states that these endosores were near to Eineton, while 
moat of the Parliamentary aathoiities make oat that they 
were within the lines occupied by Essex's soldiers. The 
farm honses of Battle farm and Thistle farm were 
[HobaUy not in existence at that time, as except in the 
case of an old house or two sUll remMning, where once 
there had been a village, single farm houses were seldom 
to be met with in the dd open fields till many years after 
the battle of Edge Hill. 

TraditicHi says, as I have remarked, that there was only 
one hedgerow between Badway and Kineton, and that 
hedgerow, which still exists, is on the spot occupied by 
Essex's centre. The ditches too which are mendoned, 
must have been on the lower ground, somewhat to the 
rear of Essex's army, where some natural watercourses are 
still to be found. Willmot, therefore, in the first instance 
seems to have driven back the enemy, but was afterwards 
checked in his advance. Some authorities following 
Ofdonel Fiennes uid others, state that he was driven back 
to the hills, while others say that he lost but little ground. 
This and other disputed points have lately been elucidated 
by the deep draining and deep cultivation of the land. 
The actoal area on which the battle was contested, can 
now be shown with considerable cleamees, I have care- 
fully traced out the area on which bullets, cannon balls, 
and otiier rdics of the fight have been found by this deep 
cnltivatitm, so that I can point out to within a hundred 
wda or so, the area on which the combatants contended. 
That Wilmot was driven back to the vilh^ of Badway 
can now be dearly disputed, as no renmant of the fight in 
the shape of bullets, skeletons, or cannon balls have been 
found beyond this the immediate confines of the two 
parishes, and no bullet marks are to be seen on the wall 
of the old house. That a number of his raw recruits, 
when his force was galled by the fire of Essex's musketeers 
and he was obliged to give ground, fled to the hills is 
more than probable, just as some of Essex's troops fled to 
Stratford when driven back by Bupert, and as the Belgians 


fled to Brussels from Waterloo, but that there was not 
anr fighting between the two forces beyond the first 
field or two in Badway parish, as now enclosed is qnite 

any fighting between the two forces beyond the first 
field or two in Badway parish, as now enclosed is qnite 
apparent. Simnltaneonsly with these two attacks of the 

two, the king's centre moved forward to attack the centre 
of I'!ssez's army. Now when the king descended the hill 
and proceeded to attack Essex's centre, he not only gave 
np his impregnable position on the hills, bnt, as Esnx's 
centre was posted apon the before mentioned ridge, after 
crossing the Badway brook, the king had to ascend the 
rising ground to attack the enemy, and to attack them 
too as they stood under the cover of the broken ground. 
Notwithstanding this, at the outset, he seems to have 
driven back the enemy's centre, and advanced through 
the bush and furze till he came to the before-mentioned 
hedgerow, in front of which the fighting must have been 
excessively severe. Here the largest amount of the ddiris 
of the fight are found ; here was the grave in which the 
common soldiers were buried. Just at this time, the 
attack of Wilmot, on the king's left, began to fail, and he 
was driven back some little distance. This, Major Kosa, 
who is writing accounts of the battles of the CSvil Wars, 
as military studies, raiher disputes. He has not, however 
personally examined the ground. The discovery of bullets 
in this direction shows that there was heavy fighting on 
that spot, to which t assert he was driven back. The 
enemy was, therefore, able to attadc the king's centre in 
an oblique direction with his cavalry. Bapin states that 
the attack of the king's centre by Balfour and the cavalry 
was from Essex's left wing on the side left exposed by 
Bupert. This view liajor Boss endorses, and the number 
of bullets, skeletons, &c., found in this direction, leads 
much to the same conclusion. 

The King's centre was now in danger of being utterly 
routed. The standard bearer, Sir E. vamey, was kiUed, 
and Secretary Chambers, attended by six troopers, was 
carrying off the standard in triumph. Just then Captain 
Smith, of Skills, a Warwickshire squire, was riding with 
his groom near che spot, when a boy cried out *' They are 
carrying off the standard." Putting on an orange scarf 
which had belonged to a dead trooper, and calling to some 
infantry soldiers to follow him, he attacked Qiambers, 

T^ BJiinrue bt nmBHox. 48 

nulning him thrtm^ with his swotd. And though afler- 
warcU wounded in the neck with A poUtJi^^ he pierced 
and killed ailother of hia assi^Iuits, and the rest ran 
awaj- Thw, inooating one of the Soundhead's hortes^ 
and caUine mi a foot soldier to hand him the Standard, he 
rode 00 with it. Soon after, meeting with some of the 
Sing's hwse soldiers that had rallied, he detivered the 
Standard to BcAwrt Hntton, who took it to the King ; 
and the next day Sinith was knighted for his gallant act 
The King seeing that matters were going ill for him in 
the centre, left his position near the present chnreh, acid, 
with the courage he ali^ajn showed in adrernty, went 
forward to rally his troops. For a time the King lumself 
was in great danger of being captured, as he had no 
body-^ard with him. He was, however, soon surrounded 
by some of his own soldiers, and the danger pattsed away. 
Lord lindsay endeavoured to rally the Boyalists, but, 
advandng too far in fi^nt of hiA own regiment, was shot 
in the tmgh and taken prisoner, as was also his son, 
Lord Willoughby, who tried to save his father. It was 
Lord Lindsay who, before he entered the battle, uttered 
tiieee well-known words to GK>d: "O Lord! Thou knowest 
how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not 
Thou forget me. Karch on, boya" The contest mnst have 
been excessively severe. The number of bullets that 
have in the last few years been ploughed up or found in 
digging the new drain, is, after the lapse of so many 
years, very large. 

The King's troops contested the ground inch by inch, 
and at the end were only driven back some 400 yards from 
Hie front of Essex's position as barely any traces of the 
battle have been found on the Badway side of the brook, 
or where the brook tnms up towards the hill beyond a 
straight line drawn in the direction the brook has hitherto 
run. Bupert's troops having, as we have seen, been 
disturbed in their acts of plnndering by Hampden'n 
advanced guard, retired in straggling order to the battle- 
field. On their retnm, accor£ng to Rupert, Balfour'n 
troops at once returned and formed safely in Essex's 
rear. The King who retained at this crisis his full 
presence of min^ endeavoured to collect a sufficient body 
of the straggling soldiers to charge the enemy on their 


flank. He was, however, able to get only a few tt^ether. 
And the sncceaa of their efforts seem to show that had 
they charged in iufficient number the isnte of the day 
wonld have been different. But the men and their horsefl 
were weary. Now was seen the folly in allowing the 
Body Guard to leave the King. Now was seen the mia- 
fortune of Camarron's troop disobeying their orders and 
chaiging with Bapert's Cavalry. Had they remained in 
reserve to act when reqaired and cover the flank of the 
centre, a victory, not a drawn batde wonld have been the 
result As it was Essex's bxx>ps would not leave their 
good position on the ridge amongst the bushes, so the two 
forces for the few remuning minutes of daylight stood 
looking at each other ; but mght, the friend of weary and 
dismayed armies, parted them. Then the Elng ordered 
bis cannon nearest to the enemy to be drawn off, and with 
his whole forces spent the night upon the field. His 
carriage, which had descended the hiil from Knoll End 
late in the evening, down a trackway still known as King 
Charles's road, drew up at a spot called the King Leys 
fiam, where the writer's great grandfather planted a clump 
of trees to mark the spot. The trees were cut down in 
1863 to enlarge the farm-yard, but the spot is still to be 
identified. This spot is h^-way between the hills and the 
position occupied by the army of the Parliament, and 
only 600 yards in the rear of the brook. As the King's 
carriage came down the hill it would draw up not in uie 
front, Tiut somewhere near the rear of his forces. 

We have here another fact to show the King's centre 
was not driven back to any great extent. That many of 
their enemy, unused to warfare, fled for refuge to the top 
of the hill when the battle was somewhat against them, 
we know was die case, aa one-third are said to have fled 
the field. But that the King was driven back to the hills 
dther in the centre or to the left, is from these facts 
amply impossiUe. The next morning the King walked 
to tlu village of Badway, where he breakfasted at a 
cottage, in wnich was preserved Uie old table, on which 
his meal was s^red. The cottage was puUed down in 
1882. Neither party was anxious to resume the battle ; 
the Farliamentarians had a wholesome dread of Bupert's 
cavalry, while the King found that Essex's infantry, 


which had been for many weeks longer in tfaininff 
than hia own — for his own troops had cmlj been formed 
into an army after his arrival at Shrewsbury, September 
the 20th, — ^were better soldiers than his own. A small 
troop of the 'Km^t cavalry, however, went forward, 
vaiAex Captain Smith, and brought off four gnna which 
had been left dose to Essex's pontion. Towards noon 
the Sing sent his herald, Sir William Neve, with a 
proclamation of pardon to those who would lay down 
their arms. This proclamation he was not allowed to 
distribute. He brought back, however, tidings that Lord 
lindaay had died of his wonnda, as there was no surgeon 
to attend him. In the afternoon Essex drew off his forces 
towards Kinetcm, and from thence marched to Warwick. 
The King, seeing this, went back with his two sons to 
the hospitable qnarters of Mr. Channcey, of Edgecott. On 
the Tuesday morning, Rupert's cavalry followed the 
retiring army almost to Warwick, and found that they had 
left many of thdr wounded and some of their carriages 
at Kineton. On the Wednesday the King's army was 
numbered, when it was found that the numbers were 
greater than he expected, those that had run away in the 
midst of the battle having rejoined regiments. The 
number of soldiers on each side was somewhere about 
10,000. The dead, which amounted to about 1,200, were 
buried on the field of battle, in a field just in front of the 
oft mentioned hedgerow, in the parish of Kineton, by Mr. 
fisher, the vicar. The officers were buried by themselves, 
about 200 yards ^tant, in a north easterly direction. 
The army, fining themselves masters of the situation, 
marched to Edgecott, and from there to Banbury, where 
they stormed the castle. The statement of the numbers 
killed is given by the Bev. Mr. fisher. 

Digilizcd by Google 


B)r a. & FOX, FJLA. 

The Town Uuseam of Leicester possewea one of the 
largest ooUecUona of architectural fragments of the 
Bomano-British period* that can be found in this country, 
moatlj derived from excavaUons made for varioos par- 
poses and at various times, wiUiin the lines of the walls 
of that ancient city. 

Before proceeding to describe in detail these relics of 
the Bomaa time, it will be necessary to give a slight 
sketch of the site on which they have been found. 

The present town of Leicester, has within the last fifty 
years far out^own the narrow limits of the older city. 
But in so doing, it has left very distinct traces of the 
ancient boundaries. On examining the map, it will be 
seen that the streets called Soar Lane and Sanvy Gate 
on tlie North, Church Gate and GUlowtree Gate on the 
Esst, and Millstone Lane and Horsefair Street on the 
South, form three sides of a paralleU^am, on all which 
sides the walls of die mediieval town are Imown to have 
existed, which walls there is very little room to doubt, 
were built on the foundations of t^e walls of the Roman 
dty.of Bates. 'Diere is no trace of tiie fourth wall, on 
the West ade, but it is scarcely to be supposed that the 
Boman town was not completely surrounded by a mural 
defence. It is conjectured that the western wall ran 
from a point where the northern one touches the river 
Soar, to some point west of Southgate street, where it 
joined the southern wall. The huge mass of masonry 

' SmA *t tU XoatUj' llastiiwcrf tha ■ lli* MuNuro OommittM tmbm 

lortitQte, KomnbM- lit, 1B85. Ti» fol- UUljr doddwl on » ra-amui^emMit of 

lowing p*per dott not pratniil to da>l thi* uoUtotion, in ortUr tc ' 

with ill tha Romui Architaataml JLati- [4*j, tha n 

□uitiM found in Ii«iotatar, but onlj irith out with nakt indgmant by the praMat 
thoaa pnaaned in tha Hiuamn, Cantor, Mr. Honb^n Brawna, r,ZS. 


tilled the Jewry Wall, occurs in the centre of this supposed 
line, and has been conaidered with great probabiUty, to 
be the western gateway of the fioman dty. Westward 
agun of this supposed wall, and at no great distance from 
it, the river Soar flows in an irregular Una, from south to 
north. As Boman remains have been found qnite down 
to the brink of the Tiver, and between it and the snppOMd 
line of the Boman western wall, there must have been a 
miburb here, if the western wall lay on the conjectured 
limit. The discussion of this question does not, however, 
come within the scope of tins paper; it is enough to 
state that all the relics preserved m the museum, with 
a few exceptions, were unearthed within the boundaries 
just mentioned, viz., the lines of streets whose names have 
been given, on the north, east and south sides, and the 
banks of the river Soar on the west. Within the area 
just described, two lines of main streets will be seen to 
cross each other, the one running east and west, consisting 
of High street and St. Nicholas street, (in which latter 
street most of the Boman remains have been found), and 
one from north to south. High Cross street and Southgate 
street. As is so usually the case where a town sprang up 
i^ain on a deserted Boman site, and even within existing 
Boman cireumvallations, the mediaeval lines of communica- 
tion do not represent the Boman ones. Thus in Ldcester 
the streets named are of medieval origin, though perhaps 
in High Cross street, there are faint indications that it, m 
part, followed one of the Boman ways. The greater 
number of architectural objects preserved in the museum, 
came from the four streets mentioned above. The excep- 
tions are fragments of a mosaic floor, and a short column, 
both of which came from the ruins of a villa in a field, 
called the Cherry orchard, near Danett's hall. This is a 
site, west of the old town about three quarters of a mile 
from the present West Bridge. It will be described 
further on. 

Beturning now to the consideration of the fr^ments 
in the museum, the most prominent of these form the 
group numbered from 4 to 7b.' in which all the parts are 

' ne nfonooa Domban pnn in Uiu np«fttad Id tlia plaD and pkU MOOMfaof • 
papOT an tlioM bonM bj the objeoto ing tlili p^Mr. 
tMOwalTai En tba mDnnni, hmI are /-^ l 


placed as thej appeared in mfu. The following sentencea, 
recording their discoyer}r, (in St. Nicholas Street, Novem- 
ber 1867), are quoted from a Beport for the rear 1867, in 
the truLsnctiooB of the Leicester Xrchitectunu and Archn- 
ological Society.' 

" During ezcavations at the north-east comer of that 
street " (St. Nicholas Street) *' abutting upon High Cross, 
the workmen came upon portions of two Boman columns 
standing upon a plinth, at a depth of between fourteen 
and fifteen feet from the present surface. The plinth of 
wrought stone, one foot thick, rested upon a rubble wall 
or foundation. The two columns with their bases com- 
plete, stood (measuring from the centre of each), 10 feet . 
10| inches apart. They were each 1 foot 11 mches in j 
diameter. The height <^ the portion of one was, 1 
including the base 4 leet 4 inches, the height of the other j 
also including the base and a portion of the column found 

at its side and replaced, 6 feet 2^ inches." "It 

should be mentioned that in the year 1861 remuns of 
other columns were found in the same locality, one column 
being discovered in a direct line with those now under 
notice." This is No. 8 in the museum and on the 
map. There are some slight difierencea of dimension and j 

proportions in these three bases found on the same spot, ■' 

but they are practically the same, and all belonged to the ' 

same building. 

The large drum of a column marked No. 4 has a 
dowel bole in the top and a lewis hole cut through it, 
and near this, what looks very like a mason's mark in the 
shape of an incised letter T. The hollowed stone which 
lies on the plinth, in this group, between the columns 
appears to be part of the guttering which ran in a 
line with the pUnth, to receive the rain dropping from 
the eaves of the portico or colonnade. The drum of 
a column lying n^ it is interesting for the following 
reason. In every Boman site in Britain where columns, 
or capitals, or bases are found, there is evidence of the 
lathe being used in forming them, and in thi^ Leicester 
collection that evidence is not wanting. Even such 
heavy masses of stone as the drums of shafts seen here, 
have been turned into shape in the lathe. If this 
I VoLin. Put 1 iwt p. «4. zcdb> GoOqIc 


dram (No. 6) be examined, it will show a dowel hole 
in each end meant to contain a plug of wood, in which 
the rods of iron forming an axis are fixed* and 
at one end a second hole near the circomference to 
receive the elbow from this axis, without which the 
movement of rotation coold not be imparted to the stone 
to be worked upon. 

Not only was this method employed in Briton, but it 
spears to have been in nse in Qaul also, for U. de 
(^mont, in hu work on Gtallo-Soman antiquities, la^ 
that the form of capital the most frequently found m 
France must have been turned. Some of the bases in the 
Leicester of^ection have been thus worked ; certainly the 
portion of small shaft with its base (No. 15) has been 
formed in this manner. The little column, found on 
the site of Wyggeston'a Hospital, High Cross St., July 
the 27th, 1875, looks very like the column of a colonnade 
of the upper story of some buUding, which had a hand- 
rail from shaft to shaft. The hole for the tenon of the 
rail, cut as small as possible so as not to weaken the 
shaft, with the little bracket worked on the shaft under 
it, to carry the greater width of the rail, are noteworthy. 

St Nicholas Street yielded further specimens of the 
Roman builders' work. No. 2a and No. 10 bases, and 
No. 3, a capital, (see plate), were found in this street 
between the Methodist Chapel and the comer of ^e line 
of houses known as the Holy Bones, facing St. Nicholas 

Here, fortunately, we have a capital of one of the 
ctduums, of somewhat remarkable form, a peculiar variety 
<A the I)oric. There is another in the Uuseum, No. 19, 
resembling it, but more elaborate and of smaller dimen- 
nons. It is a singular fact that this capital (No. 3) is 
not nnlike in section the fragment of a capital of one 
of the columns of the portico of the building supposed 
to be the Basilica of Lincoln, lending probability to the 
idea that it exhibits a local variety of the Doric order 
employed in the Midlands. In the necking of the large 
capital (No. 3) and in the mouldings of the base No. 9, 
may be observed deep holes and grooves. Such grooves 
occur opposite each other in the upper monldmgs of 
the bases of the columns, in situ, of the portico at 




Lincoln, just named, and they may be nen cut iDto the 
sides of capitals and bases on most Roman sites. They 
indicate, with little doubt, in many instances, the 
existence of screens of open work of nmple geometrical 
pattern fixed between column and column, or used to 
nil either square or arched opening affording light and 
air to the interior of buildings. In Rome itsof, and 
in the principal edifices of important continental cities, 
these screens were ^ther of marble or bronze. In this 
distant province they were, more probably, of the humble 
material, wood, bronze being too costly to be much in 
use. To a certun extent barriers of latticed work of 
this character may be considered the prototypes of the 
traceries which filled the windows of churches, and the 
arcades of cloisters, in the middle ^es. 

The two bases Nos. 13-14, were found, m aitu, in 
July, 1861, close to St. Martin's church. The following 
extract from the report for that year in the Transactions 
of the Leicester Architectural and Archeological Society, 
^Tes the details relating to their discovery. "The 
excavations at St. Martin's, Ijeiceater, have brought to 
light many antiquities of great interest. Several consider^ 
able portions of the foundations of ancient walls have 
been discovered, and upon removing the earth — in July 
last — on the north side of the church dose to the 
palisading dividing the church ground from the Town 
Hall lane, the workmen came to a rubble wall of 
considerable thickness, surmounted by a wrought stone 
platform, upon which stood the bases of two massive 
Jkmc columns, each about two feet in diameter. These 
columns in all probability formed a portion of a 
colonnade, which, judging from their size and the space 
intervening between them — about ten feet — would be 
of considerable length." I will here only remark that 
the section of these bases shows a comparatively late 
date, being much ruder than the profile of those found 
at the comer of St. Nicholas street. 

A few other fragments will attract attention, Nos. 21 to 
26, part of well carved impost moulding, and what may 

gossibly be the stones of an arch all found in High 
ross street at its junction with Blue Boar lane. Also, 
may be noted the Corinthian capital, the only one of that 


Older in the collection (No. 17), found in a garden in 
Talbot lane. It ia very rude in execution and doubUess 
very late in date, and its effect much injured by Uie loss 
of the volutes. 

Last bat not least in interest, the fountain tank No. 12 
most be noticed (for section see plate). This vas 
discovered September 5th, 1862, at No. 52 High Cross 
street, near its junction with St. Nicholas street, at a depth 
of about lO feet in excavating for a cellar. It may have 
been a street fountun, but if objection be made that it is 
too small for that purpose, then it must have stood in the 
peristyle of some important house. Its finely moulded 
outline, unfortunately not perfect in any one part, may, 
with some attention still be made out and ia worthy of 
study. There are traces of a lining of the usual pink 
cement on the inner surface of the basin. 

Before passing on to describe the Mosaics which the 
museum contains, mention must be made of a few minor 
objects. ' 

The collection shows variooa forma of tiles, roof tilea, 
with fragments of their cover joint tiles (imbricea) (Noa. 
49, 50, 49a), found in Jewry Wall Street (at M. on 
plan) ; the usual building tiles marked by the feet of the 
animals which have strayed across them in the brick-field, 
where they lay drying before being baked, amongst them 
being one with the impressiou of the nailed sandajs of the 
brickmaker himself. There are also flue tiles of the usual 
form and character. One of these, however (found on 
the site of Wyggeston's Hospital), has an exceptional 
interest, for it is ugned. It is preserved in case No. 4 of 
the archsBological room, and is Inscribed " Primus fecit." 
The letters are scratched out with the tools used in 
scoring the surfaces of flue tiles to give a firmer hold 
to the plastering with which they were covered. 

As to the patterns on flue tilea scored in this manner, 
they are far too rude to have been made with any intention 
of being used for decorative purposes. But there is a 
class represented in this collection, specimens of which 
are placed in the case containing the inscribed tile 
mentioned above, which were undoubtedly employed for 
decoration. These are the tiles stamped with reed-like 
linea, forming patterns of diamond atid other shaped 


diapers (see Nos, 3,010, Case 4, archnological room, and 
3,495 same Case, the latter found near Talbot Lane. 
They may have been employed for the wall linings c^ 
bath rooms (for sudatona or calidaria), for all the 
tiles Uius stamped have traces of flanges, indicating 
their use for fines. Occasionally they are found with 
mortar adhering to th^r faces, but this (mly proves that 
such fr^ments have been worked up as old materiaL 

A second variety, much more rare than the above, of 
which the museum possesses only a tiny fragment (No. 
3,498, Case 4, archaBological room), shows the imprint 
of patterns in very low relief. Pieces of such tiles, 
with an ornamentation of peculiar character, were < 

picked np in the excavations of a Boman house at I 

Alresford, near Colchester, and a portion of one of an j 

identical pattern with these on the site of a villa at I 

Chelmsford, both in ' Essex, Similar specimens are 
preserved in the British Museum, which were found in 
London. Others again are in the Guildhall Museum in 
the Qty of Loudon. 

The Mosaic pavements which the museum contains are 
perhaps more interesting as affording opportunities for 
studying and ascertaining the nature of the materials of - 

which mey are compowd, than for any singularity of j 

design or excellence of workmanship. | 

Cm this site, there seems less certainty than on others 
of naming the districts from which these materials were i 

drawn ; and perhaps the considerable use of tile tessene 
in the pavements of the villa, in the cherry orchard, 
Banett's Hall (to be hereafter described) miy be an indica- 
tion that the mosaic workers could rely less than usual, 
for the construction of their pavements on the natural 
products of the surrounding country than was the case 

The mosucs preserved in the museum come from three \ 

diSereat floors, two found in the town, one from the 
cherry orchard, at Banett's Hall, ontside it. 

Ko. 1 has some interest as showing the only figure 
subject yet found in Leicester. 

It was discovered according to Nichols, the historian 
of Leicester,' about 1675, in making the cellar of a house 

TuwQ of Ldcnter, 

db, Google 


opponte the £3m trees, near all Sunts' chnrch, (for the 
Bite, Bee No. I on plan). It is an octagonal panel, one no 
doubt of others now IcMt, Barrounded hy the usual braided 
border, and containing a youthful male figure, nude, with 
flying drapery behind him, leaning against a stag. In 
front of this group is a Cupid, with bow bent, and arrow 
raised towards the other figures. The subject may 
posdbly refer to the myth of C^arissns and the stag. 
it has been absurdly misnamed Diana and Actnon 1 
No adequate representations of this pand exist. Those 
which have been made are little better than cari- 
catnres, both as to colour and form. Though the figures 
are ill drawn in the original, the copies made of them are 
atill wors& There is a great delicacy in the colouring, 
unuBually so for Komano-firitisb mosaic In these days 
when so many processes are available for re-producing 
form and colour, it might be worth while to attempt a 
faithfid copy of this curious fragment of uitiquity. 

Mr. John Paul, F.G.8., of Leicester, to whom I am 
indebted for the careful identification of the materials of 
this and of the other Boman pavements in the museum, 
sends me the following note on the tesserae of this panel. 
He says, " The white, grey, creamy white, the blade and 
a few pieces of liver colour in the horns of the stag, are 
all fragments of marble. The bluish grey, is a limestone 
probably from the coal measures, the tesaerss of reddish 
brown, and others of a yellowish brown are both limestones, 
whilst a brown and a dull citron are both fine griuned 
sandstones. I am unable to determine from what locality 
these materials have been procured, but I think the 
probalulity is in favour of Derbyshire for the marbles and 
limestones; and the sandstones must I think have been 
brou^t from a distance. In both pavements " (this and 
the Cherry Orchard one) " the red tesserse are pottery 
and as you suggested this is the only artificial material 

Nos. XI., ni. and IV. are portions of a pavement from 
Tine street. They exhibit a somewhat coarse piece of 
work thoi^h showy and effective. 

No. y. This is part of the pavement of the largest 
room of the villa discovered in the Cherry Orchard, 
Danett's Hall. 

..db, Google 


Tim villa lay to the westward of the BomaQ city oq the 
opposite side of the liver Soar, at a distance of about 
three-quarters of a mile from the old town. It must have 
had flome road comiectlng it with the town ; ponsibly a 
lane called Watt's Causeway, enlarged and since named 
Elng Biehard's Boad served ior purposes of communication 
with Bats. 

According to an account in NichoLi, the cherry trees 
which gave the site its name were planted sometime early 
in the last century. In this orchard, about 1782, in 
grnblung up the roots of one of the trees, a portion <rf the 
floor of a corridor was discovered, and though a continua- 
tion of it in a northern direction was traced by the owner 
of the ground, no further endeavour seems to have been 
made to uncover it. The portion of floor found at tiiis 
period was figured in Nichols' Hist, and Antiquities of the 
Town of Leicester, (pi. ix., fig. 2.) and also in a com- 
munication from that writer to the Genileman's Magazine 
(Oct. 1786). 

In the year 1851, the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of Leicester, through its Archi^Iogical Section, undertook 
the exploration of the site, and an account of the pro- 
ceedings drawn up by the late Mr. Walker (the architect 
who superintended the excavations) was transmitted by 
the Secretary of the Society to the British Ardueologic^ 
Association, by whom it was published in the seventh 
volume of their Journal. Operations were commenced 
with the object of finding the fragment made known by 
Nichols. On the first day a pavement was uncovered but 
not the one illustrated by that gentieman, It was the 
floor of a room about 15 feet square, the tesseree of 
which were about 1 inch square and composed of red 
brick and a greyish drab stone. The pattern con- 
sisted of interlaced squares of red on the grey ground. 
Continaing the excavations onward in the same line in 
a northerly direction, the explorers came to the largest 
room discovered, which measured about 28 feet by 
18 feet. Here, at the western end of this chamber 
Mr. Walker says, " A very beautiful semi-circular 
pattern was disclosed, executed in very small tesselhe of 
four colours, viz., blue, red, brown-pink, and white,' repre- 

tl l MBrW o( Uui pSTttlMt 

■iden Uiat ths white r 

VBAanxxm pound nr lbicbstbr. 55 

Renting in the centre a shell pattern, in the two divisioas 
of which, next the line of the diameter of the ■emi-^urcle, 
are dolphins swinuning towards the centre. This shell 
pattern is bounded all round by the guilloche ornament, 
outside of which is a vandyke of black and white, 
bounded by strips of grey and red tesseUn about one 
inch square. On the south-western aide of this pavement, 
,a stone pedestal" (No. 27 in the collection) "was found Uud 
carefully down on the tesselhe, which were ani^nred 
beneath it ; this pedestal seems to be executed in Ketton 
stone." A fragment of a guilloche border at the eastern 
end of the room marked the extent of this chamber. 

Pushing the trenches stilt further north in the same 
Une, the explorers came upon another floor of a chess- 
board pattern in red and gr^ tessene, the whole showing 
a room 14 feet square. 

The pattern figured by Nichols was not yet found, bo 
the excavationB were continned in another direction, with 
the result of laying bare the pavement of a corridor at 
right angles to the range of rooms already discovered. 
This was 56 feet in length and 7 feet 8^ inches in width, 
and consisted of alternate squares of grey and red tesserae, 
brick and grey stone, each tessera being an inch square. 
At the upper end of this, the corridor floor illustrated by 
Nichols, was at last found. It ran beside the range of 
rooms just described and at right angles to the corridor 
mentioned above, with which it probably communicated. 
This large gallery was upwards of 120 feet long by over 
11 feet wide, and showed in its flooring the same red and 
grey tesserss as in the other rooms, arranged in three 
distinct patterns. 

The walls of the villa had been eradicated to their very 
foundations. No hypocansts appear to have been found 
though flue tiles were turned up, and one filled with 
concrete to serve apparently as a support to a floor was 
discovered tn ntu. EVagments of widl plaster were of 
course numerous, but some must be specially noted as 

kind of dutlk auoh u that mad u building 

matarial ID the interior of BW Orthadnl, __,_, , „ „„ 

Mtd that thablae ornther bine grnmnd mn— iiik iif Tjiiiwlwililmiii , 

tlM jallmr (allad mba*e brawn-pink) nuj I tUnk it werj poMible that the blulih • 

Iwva b«M obtained in LcHestenhire. gMj and black taaaKH of tba htmmlm 

"^ ^ Ml Cor the ooounon grejiah drab pavementa maj, ovi lorthir tif i m i n aiinn. 

.. 1 ! . u prore to be ol Bamnr lii — " -- 


they bore the impress of reeds. Common pottery was 
plentiful, but no Samian ware was discovered, and only 
four coins, — all of the lower empire. 

The simple style of all these floors, with one exception, 
and the poverty of the material possibly indicate that the 
owner of the villa, though well to do, and having doubtless 
"everytiiing handsome about him," was hiuxUy in as 
affluent drcumstances as that wealthy citizen of Bate the. 
floor of whose dining room (?) may still be seen in the 
town in Jewry Wall street 

Be thai aa it may, before the site was built over in 1868 
^rther explorations were made by the Literary and 
Fhilosophiod Society conjointly with the Architectural 
and ArchKolodcal Society of Leicester, but with little 
result. Anomer pavement however rewarded their 
researches. This was 15 feet by 9 feet 6 inches and 
showed a pattern of intersecting circles in coarse black 
and white teaseree. It was situatra opposite the Newfound 
Pool Inn and 25 feet £rom King Bichard's Hoad, formerly 
known as Watt's Causeway. 

All vestiges of the villa were then obliterated by the 
increase of the town in that direction and the only relics 
of it now to be found are in the museum. 

It is to be regretted that some framents of each pattern 
of the corndor floors uncovered in these excavations could 
not have been preserved. The plan however, prepared 
by Mr. Walker and exhibited m the museum, a^ords 
valuable information. From it we learn not only the 
dispoaUoD and colouring of the floors, but it preserve for 
us the Unes of the walls of the building. 

The villa seems to have been erected on the plan, usual 
in the larger class of Bomano-British houses in the 
country, viz., of a series of rooms of various sizes and 
destinations, placed round an open court, or round two 
courts if the establishment was a large one, all connected 
by corridors looking into the open space, not infrequently 
laid out as a garden. Even in the smaller houses, not 
built in this fashion, a corridor running along the front 
of the house is a common feature. These corridors 
surrounding a central court or garden, play an important 
part in the economy of Boman houses in Britun and 
elsewhere, for many of the ordinary employments of the 


household were undoubtedly carried on in them where 
they were snfficiently ample. Such is certainly the case in 
Uie smaller class of houses in Pompeii, as the excaTations 
constantly reveal. 'In one house there, Fiorelli believed 
he found indicadons of tlie presence of looms, with the 
name of each slave who worked in them scratched on the 
wall in the place asngned to him.' 

Periups it may not be too great a stretch of imagination 
to faiu^ that the voices of women occupied with that 
spinning and other household cares, and uie click of the 
busy loom echoed through the corridors of this little 
country villa within ught of the western gate of Batts. 

I have now described in some detail, the architectural 
fr^ments preserved in tlie Leicester Museum. It remuna 
to be seen what deductions may be drawn from them as 
to their probable date in the long period of the Boman 
occupation of Britun. 

Unfortunately, speaking generally, our materials for 
forming a judgment on this subject are but scanty. Undl 
a very recent period and even at the present day some- 
times, but little care has been taken to preserve the few 
architectural relics of the Boman peru>d which have 
escaped destruction. While minor antiquities, often of 
little value, have been carefully treasured up from the 
earliest times of investigation, ^e fragment of frieze, or 
shaft, or base which might have afibrded an invaluable 
key to tiie age and proportions of the building, amongst 
the ruins of which it had been buried for centuries, was 
left abandoned on the spot where it was unearthed, for 
rain and frost to desbtty, little or no record being made 
of its existence. 

The evidence afforded by these sculptured stones of the 
d^;ree of civilization in Boman Britain has scarcely yet 
been appreciated at its fuU value. 

Of Uiese stones those most frequently found, are the 
bases and capitals of a^umns. 

The capitiJs are for the most part of t^e Doric order, 
differing widely from the usual form. The t^pe most 
commonly seen is represented in the Leicester collection 
by the capital of the short column from the cherry orchard 

di Pompoi p«r Oiowppe KonUI," U75, ^., M^jOOqIc 


at Danett's Hall (No. 27)^ and one other (No. 18) (see 
plate for both). Not only is this a common form in Britun, 
but in France also. It may perhaps be taken as the type 
oi Dotic capital throughoat Britain and certunly id 
Northern Gaul. The base used was the attic one, as was 
shown by a discovery of colomns with their shafta and 
capitals intact at Saincuze, near Nerers, in France, m the 
year 1861.* It is impossible at present to say at what 
period this peculiar form of capital was adopted in 
Bomano-British buildings and in those of Gaol. U. de 
Caumont beUeves that it is as old as the age of the 
Antonines, from the fact that the columns mentioned 
above were found in the ruins of a building which 
contained busts of the emperors Hadrian and Marcus 
Aurdius. The profiles of &omano-Britiah capitals of Ulis 
order (the Done) vary continually — in this collection 
alone four or five difTerent profiles may be observed. 

If, however, the sections of the capitals give little help 
in the determination of their age, we may conjecture with 
more certainty the comparative periods of the bases. 
These do nut vary to the same extent, in the form and 
number of their several members, as the capitals do. 
They all, or mostly all, follow the form commoi^y known 
as the attic base, consisting of an upper and lower torus 
moulding divided by a scotia with a fillet above and 
below it. Frequently a large reversed cyma moulding, 
or a hollow (cavetto) occurs above the upper torus, 

i'oioing it to the shaft, and the larger this member is the 
ater in date will the base be to which it belongs. The 
two torus mouldings, with their dividing scotia, are, 
however, constant features in these bases, and the greater 
or less projection of the torus mouldings, and the depth 
or shallowness of the hollow between them, are, in all 
probability, indications of their earlier or latOT date. 

If reference be made to the bases No. 4a and 7a 
(see plate), from the comer of St. Nicholas Street, it will 
be seen that they follow pretty closely the usual type 
of attic base, though they are somewhat clumsy. 
From this fact they may be taken to belong to one of 

> Id the Muaom >t Cb«o«e«t«r, uu] in ' Sm L'AUoidui* or Budtnwnt 

tli« RoQuu b«thi tt Bath, miy be aaMi d'ArdifolLgia, En OmOo-BomaiDa, pw 
□ipitiil) uf tlkii tjp« ID ita moat perfected M. A. de Caumoat, p. S5. 

b, Google 


- the eartiest buildiogs yet found in L^cester. Let these, 
however, be compared to those found, in aitu also, 
near St. Martin's Ohurch (Nos. 13 and 14). The 
section of these at once shows a difference of propor- 
tioQ. The torus mouldings are much heavier, they 
are nearly of equal size, and the lower scarcely has a 
greater projection than the upper one. The hollow, too, 
between them is much reduced in depUi. That this is 
not a mere accident can be shown by the comparison of 
these bases with examples from other sites, and the 
museum exhibits other bases with even flatter torus 
mouldings and shallower hoUows, (see especially the foot 
of the dwarf column fix}m the Homan villa in the Cherry 
Orchard, No. 27 ou plate). Approximately such a 
base as No. 14, from St. Martins Church, may be 
conjectured to be of the time of Constantine, H we 
make allowance for the difference between the art of a 
distant province and that of the capital, it may be 
compared not unfavourably with such a base as that of 
the great pier, occurring at the angle of the apse of the 
Basilica of Constantine in Borne — ^(see plate of sections). 
Here, the fatness of the torus mouldiugs is a striking 
feature, and constitutes a strong point of resemblance 
with the Leicester base. 

Another likeness to the art of Constantine's time may be 
found in the flatness of the ornamentation of the Corin- 
thian capital (No. 17) from Bath lane. This might be 
compared with a pilaster capital irom the Basilica above 
named. Although of far inferior workmanship, and in a 
less precious substance (for one is of white marble while 
the other is of a coarse red sandstone), it shows that 
tendency to mere surface carving whidi is so apparent in 
irtiat remains to us of the works of the Constantine period. 
The capital in question probably formed part of a building 
of very late date. It must not be supposed that this 
example is flat because it is of rude workmanship, for 
ntde ornament has not, necessarily, this quality. Taking 
into consideration therefore, the characteristics mentioned 
above, it may be furly conjectured that the building of 
which the fragments from the comer of St Nicholas 
Street formed part, was one of the cariiefit edifices of 
Bfttie, possibly of the period of Hadrian, while the bases 


from St. Uartiu'fl Church upheld the colimmi of a far 
later stnictare, perhaps of the time of ConstantiDe, and 
that some edifice with Corinthian colunuu of whose 
c^tals No. 17 ia an example, stood in Bath lane, and 
was an erection also of the age of Constantine. 

It is greatly to be regretted that the evidence ia not 
sufficient to shew the nature of the buildings of which 
Uiese fragments formed parL It is not impossible that 
the broken columns from the comer of St. Nicholas 
Street sustained the portico of the Basilica of fiatas, and 
that those found m situ, by St. Martin's Church, adorned 
a temple, but such conjectures are mere guess-work, and 
their too ready acceptance only tends to restrict research. 
It is an interesting fact that the present St. Nicholas Street 
from its junction with High Cross Street, to the comer at 
Holy Bones, and onward along the line of houses so 
named, has produced more fragments, and those of more 
importance, than any other part of the city. 

These discoveries all point to the fact that important 
buildings of the ancient town stood in this locality, and 
somewhat closely together. 

How complete the destruction or abandonment of the 
Boman dty must have been, seems to be shown by the 
absence of Boman stonework of any size in the fabric of 
the primitive church of St. Nicholas. Bubble from the 
walls, and a certain quantity, not large, of Boman tile are 
visible in the masonry of its rude nave, and appear to be 
all' the materials the site afforded when the (JijistianiBed 
Teutons raised the humble edifice of their iiew faith upon 
the ruins of tiie Boman dty. No massive pllnUis and 
shafts from Basilica or temple were used again in its 
construction, as is seen so often in more southern lands, 
and the only conclusion that can be drawn is, that the 
fallen columns and huge entablatures, either overthrown 
by violent destmction, or levelled by gradual neglect and 
decay, had been so completely covered by the accumula- 
tion of the soil and the wreck of the buildings they 
supported, that only grass grown mounds met the view of 
the early builders seeking materials for their church, 
then rising upon the desolate site. One mighty fragment 
(now called the Jewry Wall), alone presented itself to their 
view, the most perfect part, it might well be, of the ruiued 



walls of the town, and that the; possibly utilised in their 
new fabric, and so preserved it to be a pnzzle to future 
generations and a subject for l^endary aUny and 
medinval romance. 

The mins of the Boman town of Batss still exist deeply 
buried beneath the streets and lanes c^ th» modem city of 
Leicester. Systematic research for tbeir discovery is no 
l(Higer posnble, but some favonring chance, and the 

Sublic spirit displayed by her citizens, who have already 
one so much, may yet bring to light relics of the long- 
forgotten Boman past, even more historically valnable than 
those preserved in the museum, which I have here 
endeavoured to classify and describe. 


Tha nomenlB in nd on the Plan indicate remaina either cxialing in 
tiht or preaeired in the Town Museum. In the latter cue, only those 
an marked, the site of whoee di«cov«iy hu been Mcertained. The linea 
in red ahow the liniiU uf the Roman Citjr. 

Lm or ABBBEvuTiom. 

Carte in NichoU' Hist Leioeit. — " The History and Antiquitioa of the 
Town of Leicester, Bio., 1798. B7 John Nichola, F.aA," in hit Hist, 
of Leicestershire, Vol i 

Nichols' Hist. Lei ceat.— Idem. Idem. 
Throsbjr, Hist. Leioeat — " The History and Antiquities of the ancient 
Town of Leicester, attempted by John Throeby," 1791. 

Thompson Hist Leicett. — "History of Leicester," I8i9. By James 

Truis. L A. and A. Soe. — " TranawtioBs of the Leicestershire 
Atcbitectantl sod Arch»ological Society." 

Old. SuTY. _ Ordnance Surrey. 

A. Vloor of mortar, walls and traces of a hypooaost (t), and large 
foundations of a wall of Forest stone, laid dry. Near Water 
Honse, High Cross Street, next west end of the Friars. (Site 
of Johnsons Buildings.) Found 1667-8. (Caite in Nichols' Hist, 
Leicest, p. 11). 

A tesselated floor, a hypocaust snd painted wall^ siLe of John- 
sons Buildings. Found 1667. (Throsby, Hist Leicest, p. 19.) 

B. Large Sewer from East Gate, found nt end of seventeenth 
century. (Thompson, Hist Leicest Appendix A. p. 447.) 

C Walt and pavement of stone like s street. Found 1716. (Carte ■ 

in Nichols' Hirt. of Leicest. p. II.) ^ iOO^IC 


T«SMlat«d floor, White Lion Inn. Found 172S. (Cute in 
ineh<d<* HisL of LeicecL, p. 11.) 

TcMeUtod paVRUenU on site known as Vauxhtll, doae to the 
Birer Bov. Found in 1717. (Thrasby, pL 19., Nichtdi' Hiit 
LdeMt.p. II.) 

TatnUted pavament found in S. Aiala of St. Mairtin'a Chnich, 
1773. (Nichols' Hiat Laiceat, p. 12.) 

Taaaelated pavement found on aiU of County Oao). (Thnwbj' 
Birt. LeicMt, p. 383.) 

TeaMlated pavement and hypocauats, nnder Mr. 8ta|dMn'a Honae, 
now No. 18, Hig^ Croaa StraeL (Thtoabj, Hiet. Leioeat., p. 2a) 
Teaaelated pavament under Hr. King's Houm, aftannuda in 
poMeasion of Ur. Collier. (Throeby, Hist. Leioeat, p. 20.) 
. Conciett floor, large foandaticnB, colnmna, and large drain. 
Foimd 1793. (Throab;, Hiat. LeioaaL, p. 388 tt teg. with fold- 
ing plate, p. 387.) — and foundationa at the Talbot Inn. Fonnd 
1793. (Throabf, Hist Leiceat., p. 2.) 

Concrete floor, and maeaive wall in line with the Jewry Wall, at 
Eecruiting Sergeant Inn. (Nichola' Hiet Leineat, p. 12.) 
Tessalated pavement, in ritu.^ found 1830. (Thompeon, Hiat 
Leiceat Appendix A. p. 446.) 
Pavement found in 1839. (Old. Surv.) 

Wall and basea and shafto of columna. Fonnd 1869. (Trans. 
L A. and A. Sue, voL ii, Pt 1, 18fl6, p.p. 28, 24.) 
Fainted walls of a room. Found 1866, in the street, Southgate 
Street, near Ur. Wamn's iremises. (Trans. I. A. and A. Soc., 
voLii,Pt 1,1866, p. 22.) 

Coaiae pavement and fngment of column. Found 1866, in South- 
gate Street, in street, between Mr. Johnson's Malt Officea, and 
Mr. Colliar's house. (Trans. L. A. and A, Soc, vol ii, Ft. 1, 
1866, p. 22.) 

Boagh tesaehUed pavement Found 1876. Site of Opera House, 
Silver Street (Ttana. L. A. and A. Soc., vol. iv, Pt 2, 1876, p. 
106, and voL v, Pt 1, 1879, p. 66.) 

Concrete floor, foundations, and drain. Found 1869 and 1876, in 
Bath Lane. (Inna. L. A. and A. Boc., voL ii, Pt 1, 1866, p. 
22, and vqL V, Pt 1, 1879, p. 41.) 

Inscribed tile, " Primus fecit," WjTgeaton'a Hospital. (Trans. L 
A. and A. Soc, voL vi, Pt. 2, 1886, p. 96.) 
Odumns fonnd in 1886, now placed in St Nicholas* Churoh-yaid. 
(Tiana. L A. and A. Soc., voL vi, Pt 3, 1886, p. 161.) 
TMselated pavement, Black&iaia St Fonnd 1886 (I) (Ttana. L. 
A. and A. Soc., vol vi, Pt 4, 1887, p. 208.) 
Tesselated pavement, Sanh Street Found 1885 (t) (Trans. L. 
A. and A. Soc, voL vi, Pt. 4, 1887, p. 210.) 
Foundation of wall, roof tile, and fragments of ornamented, 
stamped flue tiles. Fonnd 1888, in St NichoW Church-yard, 
in digging foundations for new N. transept to Church 
Large drain to W. of Jewry Wall, (mentioned by Throdby) re- 
discovered and its diiectiou traced towards the Jewry Wall. 
(Tiaos. L. A. and A. Soo., vol. vi, Pt 6, 1866, p. 312.) 

I bv Google 


Aiic ftii T» un r E 4L Fkaommxtb ih Town MvBiniL 
(HOTK— TIm fiagBMnto ar* nninlHrad ■■ bi tbt Mwiiiim ) 

Houio rAVxuntn, 
No. L Oot^DDal puwl bom a MTammt. Sotgaet, CnuiMO* 

a>d tba Stag (f) Foaiid 1675. (Cut« in Kisbdi' Hirt. 

LuGMt, p. 9.) 
Noft n, tn, IV, Pottiooi of a [MT«MDt of gwmotrieal ctMign. Fonnd 

in 18S9 in Yiiw Street 

No& 1 And 1 A. ^lifl of iluft of eolnmn found kt S.W. aomar of 

Hethodut Ch^, SL NiohoUa Stnat (Old. Snrr.) 
Voi. 3 A. to S, 1 Biaea plintlu ud capital of oolumu. AU foimd in St 

9 utd 9 A. and > Niehous Stnet, between Methodist Ch^ial aod eonar 

10 and 10 A ) of Ho!; Bonat. 

Koa. 4 to 7 R Tvo baaei of eolnmna, with ahafta, and fdinth, fa. 
Foond in tHu at X.E. corner of St Nichdaa Stieat in 
1867. (Traiu. L. A and A Soc, toL iU. Pt 4. 1874. 

to and plinth of column, found in St Nieholaa 

Stnet, matching the above and cloae to them, 1861 

{Trsne. L. A. and A Soc., toL iii, Pt 4, 1674, p. 334.) 
No. 12. Fountain tank. Found at No. 62, High Ctosa Btnat, 

in 1662. 
Noa. 13, 14. Two baaes of columnB found tn titu when axcarationa 

ware made for new N. traneept of St. Uartin'a Chnrch, 

1661. (Trans. L A and A. Soc, toL ii, Pt 1, 1666, 

p. 90, for plan of site Bee plate opposite p. 96.) 
No. 16. Small base and shaft, with bnckat worked on the shaft 

Found 1875, on sit« of Wyggeetou's HoeintaL 
No. 16. Small base and shaft. Foimd in 18S0 (called in 

Ordnance Surrej, " an altar stone."} 
Vo. 17. Corinthian capital, found in 1844. (L. A and A Soc, 

voL ii, Ft 1, 1866, p. 24.) 
Na 19. Portion of capital, fonnd in Sarah Street, 1676.(1) 

Nofl. 31 to 36. Carred impost mouldinga and carred fragmenta, perit^M 

from an uch, found at junction of Blue Boai Lane and 

High Ctoes Stnet 
Not. 3496-6. Fr^menta of ornamental, stamped flna tiles in Oaae 

No. 4, archieological room. Foond in 1879. (Tnuu. 

L. A and A Soc, toI. r. Pt. 1, 1879, p. 41.) 
t Huch worn base and fngment of a Capital. Found 

under house, W. aide of Southgsta Street, about 

12 yards south of Bakehouse lana Lying in grounda 

of liCnseum, outside conserratorj, 
A. A Fragment of stone carved with a niche, containing a 

portion of a rude figuie in lolief . 

DuooTUtn uooHDSD IK LnoBmn but mot Noted ni thi Plait. 

From about Bed Cross Stnet down to the Elm Trees, (near All Bainta 

CSturch,) 6 or 7 feet from the houses on W, side of street, an old stone 

wall, faUen down towards the houses. Found 1686, (Carte in Nichol^ 


EGst. Leioeet.) DnJn of h«wn stone tX enttauce to lane iMtdinft to 
CnOt, running from the Friar* to the rirer. Found in 168fi. (Cute 
&c.,^ 11.) 

FooDd next the Kiii;;'B Amu, ((ormerij in ffigfa Street), a itooe well 
nnniag to the etnet, 1710. (Geite Ac, p. U ) 

Fonnd, e well in tlie cellan of Hr. Carter'e houee, end, in next houae^ 
a drain of atone, 1717. (Ceito Ac., p. 11.) 

Two Mamie paTemente, foond in 1754, in Blaekftiara, on prapot^ 
belonging to Roaen *tniltn» Eiq._ figured in platea rii atvl nii. A tiling 
a^joiniDjf, in iriatea iz, % 1, fonnd at eame date. (Niehola' Hiet. 
LeioNt., p.p. 11, 12.) 

FnunMnt of teeaetated pavement, found on aita of Qmr Frien. 
(Throab7, Hi«t. Leioeat.. p. 396^ 

Fonndation* and remeina of flooia, near the Peaoook Inn, High Croaa 
Street, 1858 (1> (L. A. and Soc, toL i, Pi. 3, 1864, p. US.) 

Foundaliona, B. and W. nf Jawr; WalL (L. A. and A. Soc., toI. i, 
Pt. 3, 1664, p. 306.) 

Granite and Sandatone Walk, from near All Sainta Gfanrch, to neai 
Goal, ranning in middle of High Crosa Street (L A. and A. Soc., 
vol. ii, Ft. 1, 1866, p. 33.) 

FoiindatioDa un Mr. Saraon'e ptemisea, near Si Nicholas Street. 
{L. A. and A. Soc, vol. ii, Pt. 3, 1869, p 207.) 

Reanlta of excavations along the east front of the Jewry Walt. (h. A. 
and A. Soc , voL ii, PL 2, 1867, p. 302 et mq., and vol. iv, PL 1. 1S75, 
p. p. 54, 79.) 

Foundations and town ditch (T) Messm. Rast's yard, near Jewry Wall 
(L. A. and X. Soc, vol. v, PL 1, 1879, p. 41.; 

Digilizcd by Google 

A. Tm FouKDiKa or ynoooinuif.1 

The militazy operations of OitorinB Scapula, in Britain 
(ctrea, A.D. 50) are described by Tacitaa in some detail, 
but wiUi that fatal want of precision which niina nearly- 
all the Boman historian's military descriptions. One 
passage, which might otherwise be comparatively clear, 
18 unfortunately corrupt. " As soon," says Tacitus,* " as 
Ostorius perceived signs of coming trouble, he disarmed 
Uie suspected tribes." Then — to quote the MS. reading — 
cunctaque caatria anUmam' et SeUtrinam fluvioa eohwere 
parat. I propose to consider the emendation and inter- 
pretation of this passage. 

It has usually been held that Ostorius erected a chun 
of forts from the Severn to the river denoted by (he 
corrupt word antonam. Almost every river in the Mid- 
lands, has at one time or other, been pressed into service, 
but assent has been given generally to Sfannert's con- 
jective Avonam. Thus Nipp^^ey and MuUer — the latest 
editors — read AvoTtam inter. Ostorius, on this view, erected 
foetB from the Severn to the Warwickshire Avon. Some 
writers have, indeed, talked of the Bristol and Salisbtuy 
Avons, but these ideas require no refutation ; th^ are 
geographically absurd. If Avonam is correct, the War- 
wickshire Avon must be meant. 

There are, however, several objections to this view. (1) 
The military significance of the operation is not very 
dear. Why should a chain of forts have been drawn 

' TbSa, iMt UriMniom, Mem* to b« the > The T«*diiu: trnttam, gnta in tb* 

oorreot ipeUlng. TCn gjiJi tmuletion of HonuiMeiL JtnuiH 

' Aanek, xh, SI. Provinai, i, 178 n, ii » tniiprint. Ol^iolp 


along this particular line ? lliera ia not a word in Taeitns 
to confirm or explain such a proceeding. Again, the 
Avon is not a lai^ river ; it is of no strat^c inqurtance, 
and a line drawn from the Severn to it, rimpty ends in 
the air. Nor ii the difficolty less if we asnmte, aa cne 
aathority does, a line of forts *' along the course of the 
two rivers," rea^ng, I suppose, ad Avonatn^ not Awnam 
inier. Ostoritis would not be at all likely to fortify the 
line of the Avon. (2) Bendes this, no one has been able to 
point out these forts with any definiteness, nor is there 
much agreement among tiiose who suggest sites. I do 
not, however, attach great importance to this point ; 
forts might vanish in the lapse of years. (3) A more 
serious difficulty, and one wluch cuts at the root of all 
previous ezplanationa, is supplied by the latin itself. We 
have really no warrant to translate ctt^ria " forts." The 
singular cattrunit though often used by modem antiquaries 
in England and abroad, is rare in latin unless coupled 
with a proper name, like Castrum Tnui. The plural 
caatra denotes two things, (i) " a camp," and (ji) where 
the context implies plurality, " camps. ' I do not know 
any passage in any good writer where caatra is simply the 
plural of eattrum ; certainly, as the index of Gerber and 
Oraef shows, there is no snch passage in Tacitus. The 
latin for " fort " is caaUUum, for forts caatdla. Now, in 
the passage before us, there is no implied notion of 
plurality, and we must therefore render " camp " and 
give up our "line of forts." Indeed, the best editors of 
Tacitus, tho' they accept Avonam, correctly render caatris 
"a camp." 

This rendering has also been adopted by Uommsen in 
bis Soman Provincea {Rdmiaehe Geachiehie, v. 162.) He 
supposes that Ostorius fortified the site near the junction 
of the Tern and the Severn, which we know as Viroconium, 
making Antonam represent the otherwise unknown name of 
the Tern.' I think this view deserves general assent. Tiro- 
conium was certainly founded about this time, and " near 
Tern and Severn " is a good description of its position. 
It is, indeed, just the description given by the foreigner 



HttbDer sixteeu yeftrs ago, before Momouieu's view was 
thongbt of. 

I believe that a nmple conjecture will greatly strengthett 
Homnuen's view, and I propose to read coitrts ad Triaan- 
tonam. The palaec^aphical alteration ifl very slight, far 
slighter than is involved in any rival hypothesis. The 
name TrisanUma is well known as a British river name. 
Ptolemy mentions one in the south, which is probably the 
Snssez Avon. Now the name Tritantona would regularly 
MBS into ** Tryhannon " or some similar form/ and from 
Tryhannon to Tren — the older name of the Tern — ^is but 
a uttle st^ 

B. BoMAJi BoAOB n Sono. 

It usually assnmed, indeed it is an article of faith 
amongst Sussex Archieologiste, that a Boman road ran 
along the south east coast of Sussex from Chichester to 
Fevensey, and Hubner has admitted it to his map of 
Roman Britun, marking it as carta aed rum exploraia. I 
have lately ventured to deny that this road is proved, and, 
as I have been told I am unreasonably sceptical, I should 
like to briefly state what I believe to be the facts. 

The arguments for the road are a priori and a posteriori 
It is contended, (1) that the road must have existed, and 
(2) that we have evidence of its existence. 

(1) It is not unnatural to suppose that there was some 
communication between Fevensey and Chichester. The 
former may, I suppose, be assumed to be Anderida ; the 
latter represents uie capital of the S^ni, whatever 
exactly t^t capital was called. The district between the 
two towns was also occupied by the Bomans, or by 
civilized Britons, to an extent which, if not so great as 
has been thought, was certainly considerable. But it does 
not foUow from this tiiat there must have been a road. 
first, there was no great need of communication between 
Chichester and Fevensey. Chichester was, an important 
town, but nearly all the coins and other datable remains 
found in it belong to a period before 270 A.n. Fevensey 
on the other lumd, bdongs to the 4tb century. The 
Noiitia, as Mommsen has pointed out, represents the 
military condition of Britun, as it was about 300 A.D., 

* BbTi, Odtk Briimm <«d. S) p. 80, a Bnrilqr, in Jeadtmf, lUy IB, 1S63. 



and ii perhaps connected with the refomu of Diocletian.' 
Andenda then miut have risen as Ohidiester dedined — a 
fact which would be Borcested by the coin finds alone.* 
Secondly, as to the dvuized inhabitants of the inter^ 
mediate districts, Aviaford, Clayton, Doncton, Eastbonme 
and BO forth. It seems not imposable that Uiese people 
may have communicated with one another, and with the 
outer world, over the treeless downs or along the shore in 
coasting vessels. We know that, 1500 years ago, the 
estuaries of the Sussex rivers, Adur, Aran, Ouse and so 
forth, were very much larger than they now are and 
General Fitt-Bivers has pointed out that Uie arrangements' 
of the pre-Boman fortresses, Cbanctonbury, Gssbnry and 
the rest seem based upon this fact. SbaUiem Sussex was, 
in fact, broken up into several pieces by these rivers, and 
the probabilities are rather against land communications. 
It is not difficult to construct, from the evidence supplied 
by IHzon and Dallaway, a map of Sussex as it was before 
the Norman Conquest, and anyone who will do so, will, I 
think, admit that the Chichester and Fevensey road does' 
not look so very probable. The fortress of the ** Saxon 
Shore" porttta Adumi belongs, of course, to the same 
date as Anderida. It is uautdly placed' at the mouth of 
the Adur, but without real' grounds. It is almost cdrtsdn 
that the river was called Adur only after and because the 
partus Adumi had been located by Camden near its 

(2) An examination into the evidence for the' existence 
of ^ road, wiUT believe; equally lead' to sceittidsm and' 
a verdict of non-proveii. 'Ui^'. are sf Vast niunber of 
statements in print relating to this road, but, so ftu- airi I 
C3n judge, nearly all these statenientk are' simple statist 
ments. A Boman rOad is a^ definite thing'; it' is not" dHy 
cdd trackway which will serve as & specimen of BbmW 
woi^. And what I miss in the stateibents about tbe~ 
" road " is just the evidence required to prove it Boman. 
The facts amount to the following. Between Cbidiestto' 
and Shoreham thereis no trace' of a' roadj A' good maiiy 

' It M to ba ncratted that Engiidi tha NetitiB, do donbt, bolongt to tlw 

antEqiuite bsTC lo Ur igttond Uranm- lattf date. 

•fft'a MtUempnt of the quasliaii, md go ■ Tlia coin fibdi tt Chiatmtir range 

OB nfeni^ Uic Briliali ctwpten uf t£« (rou^y) betmm A.a. 60-!70, thon t 

.YuMia fai too A.O. Th« nuda bulk of Perau^'betwieii 'A.b. S80-380 



usertioDB have been made, but no one really pretends to 
hare cUacovered a Boman way. For the section frcnn 
KiOTehatn to Brighton the ultimate authority is a remark 
in Belhan's Hitlory of Brighton {p. 8 in the 1st ei.y, bnt' 
thu remark is just one of those assertions which cannot 
be accepted untested, and it gives no indication of the 
course of the allied road. E^ of Brighton the case is 
somewhat different. Kear IHtdiling and Glynde thiftre 
are undeniable remains cX old trackways, but it is un- 
certain whether Uiese are British or Boman. General 
Htt-Kivers decides in favoor of the former, bnt It is (^aite 
possible that the Bomans used the roads. From th^ce 
to Pevensey, the statements are most conflicting. The 
supposed road has been traced in many places; bnt these 
places do not fit in. A map of them would shew parallel 
pieces, gaps, and a general direction by no meanit straight. 
Besides, there is, here too, a distinct want of proof. 
An old way can be traced through certain fields, says 
one writer ; it is, therefore, assumed to be Boman, and 
yet it is most uncritical to make the assumption. 

I shall be asked why, with all this lack of evidence, the 
road was ever conjectured to have existed. I am afraid 
that " Richard of Cirencester " (i.e. Bertram), and the false 
reputations of Arundel and Lewes are most to blame. 
B^rara saw, no doubt, that a road from Chichester to 
Pevensey joined together what skeined two points of a Y. 
He therefore, for the edification of Stukely and' to the 
confusion of real research, dr^w the roid and pnt into 
the 15th iter the detailn 

ad decihium z 

andenda portu mp . . . 
Clearly he saw that Anindel wotdd form' a' convenient 
station, so he inserted it, unfortunately giving it a name 
which is — in form — unparalleled in the itineraries of 
Britain. He did not, however, — nor did anyone till 
1852— know for certain the site of Andenda, so he 
omitted the distance irom Arundel, and left a gap between 
Anderida, and the next entry. Ad Umanum. Most un- 
fortunately, his forgery was not detected for nearly 100 ■ 



years. Antiqusriei went on believing in the road, and 
naturally th^ " saw " it — the wish was father to the 
thonghl. Naturally enough they aaw it at Arundel and 
Lewea, for there they b^eved Uoman stations to have 
eijsted. But it is a literal fact that no Boman remains of 
any sort have been found in Arundel ; the importance 
(tf the place is first apparent in Domesday Book. At 
Lewes somMhing has bemi found, but nothing to prove a 
settlement, — an urn or two, a few coins, afibnla. Such 
things occur round Lewes ; they are traces of the time 
when the B(»nan armies stormed the hill forts on the 
noghbonring hdghts, and they occur most abundantly on 
l^rant Oabnrn and die earthworks connected with it. Of 
a Bxmaa settlement in or near Lewes Uiere is no trac& 
1. In the ArduBologieal Journal for 1886, (xliii. 286) 
ISx. W. T. Watkin gives a new description *' recently 
found built up into a wall at the Bishop's Palace, 
Giichester." The inscription runs thus : — 

At first nght it is obvious that the reading is suspidous. 
The first une of a Boman inscription could hardly end 
with BiAU. A modem enquirer, thinks, of in or ad 
HKHOBiAH. This phrase does occur, usually abbreviated 
(e.g. Wilmamu 82, from Aquileia], but, so far as I know, 
seldom at the commencement of sepulchral inscriptions. I 
was therefore tempted to examine the stone myself. I 
found it in a comer of the Bishop's garden but not 
"built into a wall" : indeed, so far as I could find out, it 
never had been built into a wall. As far as could be 
deciphered, it read. 

The letter m is larger than the letters below it, the down- 



atrdces bdng 2| inches hiffh. It w«b also plun that 
there were no letters immediately before it ; the first line 
of the instription mnat have read 1.0.IL or dm. the latter 
beinff the more likely. It is, indeed, no new iosoiption 
but sunply one disooTered in 1809 in the S.K part of the 
walls, published by SiJlaway andEorsfiekU and reprinted 
by Hflbner (gj.l. vii, 14). In 1809 mrae of the stone 
was sorviving Uian now. The ioscriptlon was then, as 
Hflbner gens it 

Of course the fragment is not, in itself, of any importance, 
bnt inscribed stones are so rare in Sonthem England, and 
indeed in any part of England except the four northern 
counties, that it is doubfy necessary to be correct in 
dealing with them. This inscription, then, is not, as the 
ardueologists thought in 1885, a new find, but a stone 
published half a century ago. 

2. In the CSuchester Museum are to be seen some 
fragments of a marble inscription from Denaworth, which 
were copied by HUbner (ct.l., vii, 17). It has not been 
noticed that these fragments are almost certunly the 
fragments alluded to by a writer in the Gendeman'a 
Mageuine 1858 i, 532. 

3. It may be convenient to print here the names of 
potters on the so-called " Samiaa ware " preserved in the 
Chichester Museum. 

ABn from the "East walls" Hllbner 1336. 501. 

I should read fabh, as there are traces <tf a 

letter before A. " Fabius " has been found in 

OBSoBim This stamp is not given by Hflbner, 

but is quoted 1^ Mr. Boadi Smith irom the 

Allier valley (ColL Ant., vi. 71), and Uie 

Compile district (vii, 26). OBHSOBDn is ' 

oocvEO . F quoted by Hubner (331) from 

London, Colchester, C^tor and Tork, by Mr. 

Boach Smith from France (U.) vi. 72). 
CBACVNA - F Hflbner No. 358, Boach Smith 

Roman, London, p. 106. OOqIc 


ITLUHIK »6. 580. 

iqicviUBisr t&. 823. 
BnyBBn • or ib. 898. 
snxnH ib. 1062. 

TATwcoc Httbner hu tatbestbf and tatbkot 

4. Ut. W. T. Watkin {BomanrLanccukir^. p. 187) 
quotes among the pottofs' marks fomid at Lancaster the 
name dukhi. and the same mark is given br Mr. BEoach- 
Smith {Soman-London, p. 104), dcahn. Httbner who 
saw the piece read duxa aija puts it beside a sup- 
posed DfBAv from Aldboioiigh (No. 515). dcan is 
quoted from ^e Allier vaUey {(mL AnL vi, 72). I 
ausp^ these marks, mostly imperfect, are resUy variar 
tions of rasHAio. The name very ofteu appears with 
letters reversed: thus cinvahi occnrs in the Pesth 
Museum, craNyia la sud to have been found in London 
and uuKHio is quoted from Ficardy. These last three 
facts I borrow from Deacemet (iTUCriptioru Doliara 
Latins, Paris 1880), who (pp. 138-154) discusses the 
meaning of these inverted letters. His conclusioQ is that 
they are sometiiues errors, more often distinguishing 
marks of different or rival factories. 

Digilizcd by Google 

®r(g(nal Donnnent. 

ObmrntmiMtod hj Juimb Bah, F.&A. (Seat). 

Tiio TBoanbili et unico «qo in Chriato kariuEmo, domino priori d« 
Hotaatonte, W. d« Peici nlutem in Domina Norerit diloctio vestn 
quod implAoiUti ininua apud Leioeatriam coma jiutioiuiis itinorantibiu, 
ego «t dominoa EiutMhiiu de BuUoillio, et domina Agne> filia mes, 
uxor illioB E., et dominoa prior de Suidonia, de villa de Foteatona. 
Qnan Toa exoro qnatinot fto amoi« meo mittatis mibi par Bicardum de 
Horadona, onam cartam de confinuacione Domini J. Begia de omnibus 
t«ria et tenemcotia qne joate adqnieirit dominiu W. Briwene vel 
potnit adquiieie, et mazime de manerio de Foteatona cnm omnibua 
periinenciia ; et quoddam t^iographam de finali conoordia facta in curia 
Domini Begia inter Hargarilam de Pillanda et W. de Briwene de tercia 
parte Tille de Foteetona ; at unam caitam Jordan! de Abemon(?) de jure 
et dameo at quod habuit idem W. in tenia qne fnerunt Henrici de 
Seceherilla in Foteatona, que quietum ei clamavit; at uoam cartara 
domine Haif;aieto de Pilland de toto jure et dameo quod habuit in 
Foteatona et in lincnmbe et in Qodeling, que quietum damavit domino 
W. Briwerre et heredibus suit ; et cartam Bogeri GiSaid qui renuudt et 
quietum damavit domino W. Briwene totum jua et dameam quod Mam 
ava illiua val Baldewinus pater dn> habuenint vel habere potuemnt in 
Foteatona in Leioeatreaiia ; et aliam cartem Bogeri Giflard quod debet ad 
Toluntetem et summonidonem W. Krtwene coram jiuticiariie nbicnnque 
foerint vd alibi ubicu&que voluerit Tenire ad lecognoaoendnm qnietam 
jilamnATii qtum d per carta goa fadt de toto jura et damea quod Mazta 
ava illiua vel Baldewinus pater illiua vd aliquia antecessomm iliiua vel 
ipae vd aliquia herednm auorum unquam halnurant vel habere potuemnt 
in Foteatona in Leieeatrenra £t Toa precor quod cum festinadone eaa 
mihi mittati^ qui dicti juatidarii aaderant apud Leioestriam die Lune 
lotnrimo poot featum Sancti Hjllarii, taman iode faeientes ne dominoa 
Eoatoohiua, nee ego, nee domina Agnea filia mea, nee prior de Bandona, 
nmua peidentea per defectum cartanun illarom. lo cqjna rd teati- 
moninm mitto rolria haa literaa meas patentea, 

A seal in fallow wax ia appended on a atiip of tha paichmenL A 
knight on horsebat^, in flat-topped close hdmet, sword in hand, and 
^dd on left aim, gdlopping to dexter : Siqilldk Willeuh di Fkrot. 

Thia docoment is among the charters of the Duoby of Idncaator (A) 
289, and ia briefly catalogued in the 35th Beport of the Daputy Keeper 
of the Pnblio Records (Appendix No. 1), and there said to date between 
1199 and 1216. I took a copy of it whan going throngfa these Duchy 
Beoords some yeaia ago. 


In the " HottM of Pukj," hj lb. da BoaVlanqm (nLi, fp. S5, tsa.), 
it ii related that thia WUliam da Pan^ waa the 011I7 ant of Hrary da 
Peny, the rixth baron, who died in IIM, irtun the nn [iriio, if boni in 
1193, waa ralf three jeara old, tbo<^ on another pa^ ha ia aaid to hav* 
len fifteen at hu (ath«^ deathJifeU nnder the tntdm o( hksn^ 
BiAaid de Pen^, irito nauped hu nephew'a lighti and baaame aeventh 
barai, holding a bige part m the Canuiy promttr till hie death in 1M4. 
lb. de FonUanqne actda that William d« biwere (donbtla* tha Hune 
penon telaned to in the letteti petent) waa the oSoul gnardian of tha 
minor, bnt miaara to hare wanted eitiw tha will or tiu power to leaiat 
Baehaid'a hipi handed [moeedinga, l!hat this waa eo ia dear bota the 
Torkahim Hpe Boll, 13 John, whsve Bichard de Pw^ appeaia aa 
bdding fifteen fees of the half fee of William de Penj'a Honour, while 
William Briwen hold* the fifteen feea of the other half of the aame 
Honoor with the heii, whom he no doobt mamad to hia daoghter Joan, 
aa ^ ia named by Dngdala. On p^ U, M& do PonbUnqna mju that 
Agoea, the yoangflat danghter of the above William de Pnoy and Joan 
Bnwere^ nuiried Enataoe de Batlicd after 1354. Thi^ howevei^ moat be 
inooneet, if this William, eighth Lord of Peny died (aa ho mj»), in 134S, 
a jear after hia tuniping nnde Bichmrd, for the abore leUw to the [«i(» of 
MottiafMit Digentif lequeeting him to land with haate aix writinga in 
hii hands, tot m impending law plea at Laioeater, ahewe that Lady Agnee 
had manied Sir Eiutoce de Balliol before her father'a death. 

This Sir Euitace de Balliol waa no doubt nearly n^ated to the chief 
line, and perhaps an ancle of John BtUliol, King of Scotland. He aeeou 
to have been dead before 5Ui May, 1276, when hia widow Agnes leased 
her land in Foxton to her son. Ingram de Balliol, for five years, con- 
firmed by Edwiid I (Patent Boll, 4 Edw. I). Ingnm a[^)eaiB eariier, on 
8th Oct. 1370, in his father's lifetime, bef<»a an Aasiie Court at Leioe«ter 
for dissdsing the master of the Hospital of the Holy Spirit of Sanndon, 
of a freehold in Foxttm, probably the same given thwn by hia gnod 
bther WDIiam de Peiey (Calmdar of Seott DocmmtmU, vol i, no. 2673). 
Lsdy Agnes his mother was dead by 28 May, 1391, whm Edward I 
then atNortiamCaatledeoidiiwthe dauns to the Soottish Crown, respited 
Sir Ingrsffl'a homage till All Saints' day, at the requeet of the Ki^ of 
Fkanoe. (dloidar ttf tupra, voL ii, no^ 479). Sir Ingram, a^led " of 
Toua," waa dead befwe SO Feb. 1298-99, when Edward I gave aU hia 
landa in Eo^and and Scotland (iuclnding Foeton) to hia cousin Heniy 
de Percy, as Ingebmm de Umfnville, who had tne hereditary right to 
them, wBsarebel(Cli2«ntto-iifMpra, vol ii, nos. 1060, 1102). He left a 
widow Isabel, who being in Frsnoe, had licence from Bdwaid II to 
q^mint attomeya on 28 January 1S07-8. {Caleadar id tupra, vol. iii 
no. 34). From the nature of his suocession, they evidantly had no 

The seal of William de Percy, which ia the fitet given on the Platea 
of Percy eeals, is the same aa ^t appended to the above letters patent, 
which ia a very good impression. But I foil to trace on it the aaltiie 
which q^tean on the shield in tha plate. 

Digilizcd by Google 

frocnUnss at IKutinfltf of ^t Xtesal ard^Iosfcal 

Norambn li^ 188& 

J. T. UkKutBWAin, Esq.. y.P, V.B.A., in tha CSuir. 

Ub. O. K Fox md ft piv« on " BooMn LaioMter," in wkidt he gara 

• ikatch of tha rita Mt which Boman nmaiu have baan fonnd, and a 

gBMnl dncBptico of tha impootanl laliea vhieh hava Imn hnm^t 

loMtharinOialideaatarHsMUD. Tbia ii printed at ^ 46. 

j|>. & tauocK Mat loiDe notai deaeribiDg a ringnUr baad of a 
naa holding hii baatd wttii tha ri^t hand, and fonning one of the drip 
rtonee of a laneet window on t^ waatem aide of the nuHira Early 
, ^diih tower of Uia chtudi of Kirton in Lindaejr. 

Vote* of thankt ware paaead to Mr. Fox and Mr. Faaoock. 

jlntiqnities siit Worfc* of JUt Cxhibiteb. 

Bj lb. O. £. fox: — A Uige plan of Laioeatar, and a aeriei of 
dnwingi of Boman Mooldiogi and Antiqoitiea frum sxamples laeaemd 
in the Laioeatat Mnaeom. 

By tSi. £. Feaooek :— A drawing by Mr. E. Hewlett of a drip-afa»e 
head at Kirton in lindsey, and a htten diah with a Christopher in 
the oeofae. 

Mb. C D. E. Fobtkdii exhibited and preaeated a liUiogTaph drawn 
by Mr, J. H. Stainmeti, confuting tha new ionth ttanaept of St 
iJban'a Abbey with the pictoresque old one now deatrojed, and with the 
*• Fire Sisten " at Ywk, the euppoeed type of the Siaten of 8L Alban'a. 
Ui. Steinmeti asked, "will it be believed that the ceiling at the tian- 
BMit enle this extraordinary five-light window in two, and, that the St. 
Albaa's Siateta an prondad wi& another set of heads intamally 
diagtdaad by arane nteana of bUokened felt from being seen exteniallyl" 

The Chairman added that he had seen the aontb baoaept of St 
Alban's and eonld hardly imagine anything more ugly, thondi he had 
bean informed that the "natcnation " of the north tranaept was the 
wont t^ tha two. 

Deoember 6th, 1888. 
The Ber. Sir T. H. K Bakkb, Bait, in tha Chair. 

Mr. V. C. J. Spubrxll read a paper on an And&nt Boat or "dog ont," 
diaoorered in the excavations for the Albert Dock lA Norlh Woolwich, 
whoae form was peonliar, bat the interest of which lay in the tact tiiat a 
■action of tha soils above and below it — a thing rarely attended to — 
showed that it belonged to a period very slightly preceding, if not actually 
that of the Boman arrival in Britain. The camp of Hastings at Shoe- 
bozy was described by plans and sections, and was shown to belcmg to 
that type of eamp to which Witham and Danbnry also belong. At the 
time <k Cooatanline it was an inland camp, and, judging from a stady of 
the eroam of the ooaat, mnat, when complete, have had between its 
neareat p(Hnt and the sea a distance of btit, or even a whole, mile of 
cooatry, which latter distance Mr. Spurrell preferred. The ratite taken 
by Fhutias in his inTaaionof Britain was examined, particularly irith 



ngud to the mtanattn^ poiot mentumed in Dion's nanstiTo u to the 
loolitf of &» nnt JMnug the gw. By Moeot exunioatkn of Uw 
bnriM mkI of th« lIuuaM mwnhoi^ Us. BpntteU gave dutinet twrnui 
why the point eonld not be nau London, *■""""*' u dncing peit of the 
Bonan oeenpatioD the tide bed not yet mbmeiged the low lutde of the 
I ao nir np the nnt, which wen dij and the watan fraah. S» 
jaical leaaona for pboing the te^on wheta the Thamaa joined the 
1 aome twenty muea, or tharaaboola, lower downi utd in the 
nej^bomfaood (rf OiaTeaand or Eaat Tilbniy ; and mmkad tiiat had the 
late Dt Gnast and Sit Q, Airy, tha lataat writara on the aulgao^ 
**""*"*^ the matter more da^y, Qwj would have found tha old aorfaae 
very diflerent fn»n what they euppoeed, and they woold hare learnt, aa 
he had done, that the ocean waa further from London in the fiiat eanbiry 
than in the UMtoenth. 
Vn. J. Pabx HmueoN drew attention to tha beauty <rf the earning, of 
e <rf the apandrila of St. Frideawide's abrine in Oxford Cathedral, and 

the original deaign, mnch might be dona to abow ti 
Tantage. He alM referred to uetifmbolloalrepreaentation in atainad^aaa, 
istheaameeatiiedral,of the dedication of the eonrent of Bi ]£ary"by the 
Thomea," and ita poaaeaaimu at Thonebary (now called Binaey), which 
he sud waa almost unique ; and mentioned Uiat the seal of the monaa- 
tery, which dates from about 1120, ahowa SL Frideawide, wiUi an open 
book in her band, sitting beneath an aicb over which is a thatcheii 
buildins, piobably inteudad tot Thomebury. Hr. Harrison thought that 
the bow m the Unireraity arma waa poaeibly deriTed from this aaal; and 
he qnoted Dr. Ingram as having stated that the monastery of St 
Fiideswide, with ila snnonnding hslla — aome of which wars foundsd by 
An^ian (or Uarcian) kings — wss a place of learning in very eariy timas^ 
a fact raeogniaad alio by the Warden of Uarton College. iSi. Haniaon 
further auggested that St Frideawide may have been adopted aa pationeaa 
of the UhireEBty from a tradilum whit^ had been handed down of her 
Jmi™™^ and ikjll in the arte of healing and mnaio beyond that of h«! 
oontentporaiiaK The book appeara in the hand <rf her stainsd-^ass 
eS^as in tha I^tin chapel, and in the statae ontadde the cathediaL 

The Ibr. P aw wroa Tirablb gave an account of the pofti<HL of the 
Boman wall lately diaeovered at LJncoIn. Thia will appear in a fnton 

lis. WoRLOW JoMia read a paper on a Saxon font in Dolton Church, 
Deroa, iriiieh appears to have originally fomiad the lower portitm of' an 
eariy moaoUth, and to have been inverted and hollowed oat tot a font 
It ia deaoibed in Lyaons's "Devonibire," p. 331, but linoa that auti- 
qnary*! time it waa caaed in wood. In 1862 thia waa taken away, and 
the fimt found to be coated with plaster ; ou this being also temovad tbe 
™^g™«' highly sniiched suifsoe wsa rsvesled. 

Votes of thanks were returned for these communication a. 

JlntiiinitiM itnb tBorks «f ^tt tfxhtbitdl. 

Sy He. Park Harrison — Photographs of foliage and beads from the 
Anne of St Frideawide. 

By the Bev. Precentor Tenables. — Plans, Sic ahowing the noe&t 
disoovetiea of Soman temuns in Xincoln. ^ CiOO^Ic 

■UtLT UNOOUr WILLS. An atslnot of alt Wllk and AdmlnUntiMM nooidcd 

fnthaBpiMoadB^btmot thaOUDiooBwirfl' ' ' ' 

Qmon. (Uaeofai : Jum« mUhmaoc^ 1888). 

Tbe diooMa of Linooln wu in the middle agai moch laigu thin it ii 
rt pw mpL Befon the dungea whioh took pUee in tha raign of Homy 
Vlli it indndBd tha coimtira of Linooln, ButUnd, IToithunpton, Hunt- 
ingdon, Bodford, Bimfcinghwn, Oxfoid, Leicwtei and Haitfoid. Wo 
need not therefore paint oat to oat readen how Tslnable a Tolome we 
hkTe before oa. Mr Oibbona has inclnded ere^ teabmenbuy document 
to be found in the regiaten, and aa far aa we can teat hia wnk without 
baring the M8. before ua vre are bound to aay that it eeema extiemely 
well dune. We have, in fact, found no enors whaterer, except a few 
miaprinta which the reader will be able to correct without diffici^ty aa he 
goes along. It ia of coune unfair to criticiBB a book for not being 
•omething quite difieient fcoui what it piofeaoea to be ; we cannot, 
however, help njing that we regret that the docuroenta have not been 
^ren in fuU. The reaaon, of coune, ia tliat had thif been done the 
number of pages, and oonaeqnantly the prioa, would have been mnoh 
iacreaaad. We think, however, conaideiing to how very large a portion 
of En^and theoe doeumenta relate, that had it been properly made 
known funda would have been forthcoming for printing the whole of 
them in extauo. For genealogical purpoaea an abatract nude by a carefnl 
anti^Daij like Ur. Qibbona ia aa Taluahb aa the original, but for almost 
•Tfliy other purpoae it ia much leaa uaefuL The teetatora who figure in 
thaee p>goa an of all ranks of life ; we have yeomen, ahopkeepera, mer- 
chant^ caqniiee, knighta, peers, and membera of the princely race of 
Clantagenet. Wa are not nue that the great people's willa are by any 
asana the most interesting. 

Ibe cnatoma and ritaal practicea of the medinval cfanrah have li^t 
thrown on them on almoat every pag& Some things that occur an 
^quite new to ua, for example, in 1880 John de Beverley " domicellus " 
'wills to be buried in Weatminater Abbey on the south side of King 
Edward, and deeirea Uiat hia body be drawn to aepulture by two male 
aaaea, if auch aniroaJs can be procured, but if they cannot, then by two 
borsea One would like to know what is the meaning of this, was it 
provided for aa a mark of humility, or was it an act of reverence, in aa 
much aa our Bleaaed Lord entered Jerusalem riding on an ass t This 
same parson leavea forty shillings each for the repair of the glaas windows 
' in thi«e parish churches, on condition that his shield of arms be placed 
therein. In thi^ aa in so many other casea, it is probable that the 



. _.ld wu naad not u a marit of nnity, bat for tha nk* of 
g the panont who obaemA tha window to pttjr for tha raat of tha 
ctooof^ aouL Then an aannl tnsntiotu mada of pilgnmagea. Men not 
utooBBualj mada laah towi whieh they wen oniUa or amrilliiig to 
perfom, and then the oUigatfao had to ba handed ob to tha azecnttaa. 
For frampla. Soger Baawhamm, Knl^l^ pcoridM that Soger, the •« 
and heir u Soger, hia aon asd nelr, it otdend to nalw ■ njage againat 
the infidela, to whkb the teatetor ii boond in the aun of two hnndnd 
marca bjr tha will of hii grandfather, Sir WilUam da Bewuhanp. the 
data o( thii will ia 1879. In tha aama jear a Londoo oitiMi. Jout VpH, 
dincti that a man ahaU go on pilgrim^e to Walihingfaam, Cantertnir, 
linoidn and 8t John of Beverley, and in 1408 a memW of the kni^tty 
noe of Copoli^k of Harrington, c& lineoln dennw a nun to nuke a 
pilgriBBge to Janualam. In lilS we find a peiaon learing monar for 
muMB " in meompenMdonem quinque Tnlnerum at aeptnm moituinra 
pncstomm." A ma« in reeompenae for Uie aeraa deadly lina may 
ezidain why they an amnatuneerepreaeatedinetainodgLuiL Soina.Tny 
eariaaa fragment* illuatiatiDg thia snttject itiU Mdat in a window of tha 
pariah chorch of Newark npon Tnnt In 139S Richard de ^atoi, 
rector of OiutdeU, leqairea that five candlee in the form of a oroas atunild 
be bnmt round fait body. He evidently feared that hit frieoda would 
gire bim too pompom a fnneni for he proTidaa Uiat no mon eandlee 
than the number specified ahall be used. The intereot of this rolnme ia 
not confined to En^and. In 1416 John Frowger, Knight of Wett 
Baiaen, a little town in Lincolnshire, makei bia will at Calait, and deaina 
to be buried in the church of the Bleseed Virgin Uacy of Calais, before 
the Cnicifix, if he diet then. John de Ajaheby, Eaquin, who also 
seems to hare been a Lincolnshire man made hia will on tha 6th of 
September, 1416, "In visgio domini noatri Begis apod HaaJlew nnper 
ezistens, pa ictnm lapidis ibidein morte preTentoa" Wo hare by no 
means pitted ont the most interesting passages. There is in fact not 
one page in the Tohime which does not contain facts worthy of the care- 
ful Kady d all who an intonated in mediKral manners 

ivui-OnB4L Pm-BiTXHL D.O.L., F.KB., F.B.A., P.G.B., FXB., An., 
Frmtad |>intdr, 1S88, Td. U. 

In the September nnmber oi the Jonmat for last year we notieed at 
some length the first volume of this vslaable yroA .* the Beoond ia now 
before n& It records the excavations in some bartows near Bnshmon, in 
Hk Bonuno-Kritisb village at Kotherley, in Winkelbutj Csmp, and 
in Britiah Bbrows and An^o-Saxon Cemetery on Winkelbnry HiU. 
The excavations have been eraiducted with the same patience, thoroogfa- 
nees, and attention to detail that chancteriaed the excavations recorded 
in tha first TCdvine, and the results an chronicled end tabnhited in Ae 
preaott volume with the same canful minuteneaa : eighty-five plates, 
most conscientiously drawn, bring the objects fonnd moat clearly to the 
readn's mind. 

Unlike tha village at Woodcuts, with which the litat volume of this 
work is laigely taken up, the village at Botheriey had never before been 
ezploied, or indeed even noticed. Tha Genual spent ei^t months over 


it* vxmrttiaa, dniiog vbioh tune eleven oi twelTe men, « well u hie 
trained ataff of aniaUnta, wen oonaUntly employed. Botherie; prored 
to be •mallei thaa Woodoati and to be a much poorar village : this waa 
made«Iaar by the [sneitj of the ooins, Oib few ojratet-Bbella, the tbaenoe 
<tf onaiMatu plaataiii^ and other nidieia. The ikeletona of nnmben 
at new bmn ehUdien were found in difFerant parta of the villaga. He 
inhaUtanla of fiotheriejr an of the aame low atahira aa thoee at Wood- 
eoti^ a Cast to which the attention of the Inatitate waa diieeted by the 
Q«nenl in hie Pnaidential addnaa at 8ali«baiy,i to which w* ref^ our 

To diow the thnonshnen of the way the QBitatal wo^ wa may 
mmikn ttut no leaa wan fifteen domee^cated animal* of varioaa aorta 
wan meeanred extemilly ; they wera tiien alan^teied, ud their bonea 
aeaanred ; from Hm infOTinatiim thna deriTod, the aize of Uie ■™ni«l« 
whoae bones were found at Woodcut and Rotherley have been ealcnlatad. 
We own to a feeling of owamisention for the fifteen victims to science. 

The balk of the volume is taken np with the Rotherley ezcavotiona of 
the Bomano-British period, but the banowe excavated at Soahmore and 
elsewhere are of the bronte period, and the cemetery at Winkelbary is 
Anglo-Saxon, so diat a variety of rslics ate figoted in tiie plates of this 

We are afraid the General will not find many imitatora of hie noble 
way of spending the wealth he has inherited : but the following sentence 
frtHQ his preface ^ould have been recently read in every court of quartet 
sessions in En^and, when they wound up their afftdra for trensmiwion 
to the county connols. 

"TIm emon of ooDdaotitig szidontlaaa npoa thii ^f>Um k cxMoIdMablat bat tha 
weeHli tvuUbla in tiw oomilzj tar tho pmpoH k nil ample, if onlf it eoold b* 
tmaad into thil i?hwilBH. QkB nnmbsr of OMinliT notlixn of maana, who ara at a 
km tar lnt«Iligeiit eaeapatioa bajond bonting SM **-^"c most be aawidcnble, and 
sow that a patwDalOoranuNBt haa mada aftMMit o( UuirBaM to thiirtauaita, 
■Bd Udt tdr to deprire thnn of tlia part Uiat aooM of tham tata hiUurto takm, 
moat advanti^aonalf bo tha pnbliiv In tba managaoiant of local a&ii^ H maj not 
p«^a ba (ow of tha l«Mt iwrfnl naulU of tlMas Tobunv U thaj ahoiild ba Uia maana 
of diieallK attMiUoa to a saw Md of aettrl^, tor which tba owneta of land am, 
bcTend aff otbw^ favonnbl; dtnatad. It tt baidlj Daaewary to iiMbt upon tha 
bag* anoout of aridwwa at aarlj timaa that Ii«e bvriad in tba acQ apMi naadj •vwj' 
latga proparlj, irilidl ia eonatuitlj baing dtatroyed through the (^nrationa of agn- 
oDUmat and wbich MJanlifla antluopc4oglata hara aaldom tha opportoni^ or tlia 

XSSiJJi OF THE HOroB Of PEBOT, faOM vn OOBQinwi v> m otRnno or 

tnt Nnnnm> CnniaT, 1^ Bdwakd BAaanwnw di FoaaLurqua. {Londmi : 

fihitod faj Bidtard C^ and 800a, for piinta droolaliDD onlj. Two Tolomia 

oataM^ I, pp. zzTi, tSO, and folding ped^aa in podut : U, WS. 

There is no necessity to call the attention of the preaokt rnneaaktativea 

of tiie Honse of Percy to tba aaieaatio adviee given by Qenenl Pitt- 

Sivers to his laother laadownen^ which wa have cited in a ncrtice of the 

aactmd volume of the General's JBKeavaiiotu in Bttihmon CSuue. Aich»- 

(dogista, antiqaatiea, anthrapologists, and hoa gamt omne owe a debt 

of gratitade to the Dukes of Notthumberland fot the care with which 

they have preserved for the scientific eatamination of the above-nuned 

> AanM^ nL ^t, p. 171. 

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so ironcEa of abchaboloqioal pubuoatiohs. 

gsBtlsnun " Um BvideueM of nrijr timw," thtt ooear oi hava been foimd 
nptxi ttteir property, and ttT«ti bt beyond its limito : nsj, thej have done 
iniRie ; Uuy UTe iwordad, oi cwued to be toootded a n troyi o( theee 
olgeete in nutjr nliubla volnmee. ^le tnaafemue of oonn^ bniinnw 
bom qnuter w io m to eonnty eooitdb it not liUy to Wre »y 
nwmbw of the Hovm of Pevnr "at a Iom fw inteUigaot oooopatioii 
beyond hantitu and ebooting; ' the beradiluy tMtw of th« tuni^ wQl 
be nn to bnak oot in a my that will be agneaUe and pnfilaUo to the 
woridng mamben of the Inatitat^ and, that will insMaae the geneal 
■am of Knowledge poiaeaeed by the worid at laiga of the waya and doingi 
of oar ptedeoewiHi in the land that ia now onn. 

Kothing piuilea mora the intelligent fonignat than the habitoal in- 
flotnoe whiw the great goTarning familiea t^ England baTO exaidaed 
bom the earlieet timei down to the preeent day, and wbieb {sfSie of 
what cmahen may aay) ia only acotcbad, not kitlod by leeent le^alatiTe 
cbangn .- thoae penona, (oraignen or Englishmen, who have the oppop- 
tnni^ of reading Uie two Tolnmaa whooa title ii at the head of Una 
notiee, will leam aomething about the extant of Uiat inflaanc^ and the 
reaaon of ite exiatenca in the caie of one of the gi«ateet of the gnat 
governing fomiliei of England. 

L^nd hu done much to obscnra with traditioni the origin of the 
Honae of Percy ; these Mr. Fonblanqae has mthlauly swept away : the 
first of the EngUiih Fetci<« wa« a William de Percy, probably cadet of a 
noble family that ownad the Chiteau de Parci near Tillediaa in the 
Department of La Manche. This William da Farcy appeaia to haTa 
letiled in England in tha days of Edward the Confeaaor, and to 
have more or leaa adopted the habita of the AngloSaxona ammg whom 
he lived, aa evidenced by his tobriqutt at Ala (Mrwma, showing he had 
adopted the An^o-Ssson practice of growing whiaken, while ttte Nw- 
man coatom was to go clean shaven. Ha alao matriad a Saxrat lady cf 
rank, though the story cannot be maintained tliat makes her a dangbter 
i£ GoBpatiick, Eatl of Korthnmbatland. William de Fatcy wonld have 
to leave England irhen Harold expelled the Korman aetlian whom 
Edward the Gonfeiaor had enoc»araga«l, bnt ha ratnmed Uie year after the 
battle of SenUa He reoeived from Hngh Lnpns, the Conqueror's 
nephew, a giant of land* which Lupus had had from his uncle, and on 
which he was himself indispoaed to settle, preferring to latum to Nor- 
mandy. The giant included the town and port of Whitby with the 
sBRounding lands ; Yorksbiia, not Kotthnmbarland, waa, as many of onr 
leadeiB will be ■niprised to leam, Uta cndle of the EneJish Femaei. 
This William da Percy waa summoned to Parliament, as a baron : his 
great-giandstm, the fourth baron, alao named William, aoquired huge 
landed powes si cma at Petworth in Snasex. He left two oohrir ew M, 
Maud, who maniad William d« Newbtugh, third Earl of Warwick, and 
died without issue, and Agnes married to Joeeline de Louvain, who took 
the name of Faicy, but by speeial anangement ntained the arma ti 
Lonvain and Btahant, and Uina Ute blue lion ramping in a giddan field 
became, on the intoodocticai at a later date of qnaitering, qnarterad with 
the £v« golden mill picka in a bine field of Percy. Jooeline'a faalf-aister 
Addiza, queen of Uanty I, obtaiaad for him a giant of tha hndship of 
PetwoiUi. With Agnes de Percy, who long snrvived bar hnsfaaiid, the 
line of tbe Norman PeraieB ended, and a new line oominineed, whujt for 


nMdj five ontatM pUjMl t oonspieaaiu put in Engluh hiitoiy. Th* 
Kcnua Um it nuj be ramukod mra grwt benefaoton to Whitby 

Fbor banan Ponnr of Lonnia meoMd«d and bring ths Um down to 
137S, iriMB Um nintii baton Ponj died aged for^-An, I«&nng an infant 
BOB. Thia litlla lad gmr np Six Henij ewj, Ute fint in tbe faoiU^ ol 
Aat nMOO, and baaama a ^^i■t1■gyTTht^ aoldier, pramiiunt in oaupaigna 
in Seotfand, Walaa and Fianea ; Iw pntehaaad in 1S09 hen Antbotijr 
B^ Biahop of Dn^an. tba Bafony and CaaUe of AInwiti, wbioh that 
pntata had obtained in a latlwr ahadj my . Thaa eotnueaieed the ooa- 
neetitu of the Peniea with IToithumbetland. Hia aon and grasdaon, 
abo named Heniy, diatingniahad wairion bj land and aea, wen the 
aeoood and thiid lotda Fei^ of AlowioJ:, and tbe elevanth and twelfth 
banma ^kt redoung fitMn AU Chrwma the fint banm. The ^ree 
loida Fen7 of Alnwiak did great woriu at Alnwialc Caatl^ which the 
fint of them almoat moonateneted, and mneh of hia buflding ean be 
Eaeogniaad at tlie pteaent day. Tbe aeeond loid Peny had a gtant bom 
the Ctown of tha eaatle and manor of Wa^^worth. 

TLe life of the fourth l<xd Percy of Alnwick (he waa born in 1343 and 
fell at Bninham Afoot in liOS) waa caat in erentfol and tnmoltiunu 
timea. When but fourteen he fluhed hia maiden sword at Foitien : at 
eighteen he was married to Ua^aret, daughter of Lord Nerill of Baby, 
and l^ her was the father of tha world-renowned Hotspur ; by lus 
aeoottd wife, Maud, aistar and heiieaa of Anthony, Lotd Lnay and widow 
of Qilbert de Um&erille he acquired the eaatle and honour of Coekei^ 
month in CumberUnd, and the ailrer iuciea of Lucy as an addition to his 
aehiovament of arms. He waa admiral at sea and general on land, and 
waa in 1377 created fitst Eari of Kortbamberiand. Hotapnr [mdaoaased 
bia fatber, bUing at the battle of Shrewsboiy, so that when tbe first Eari 
of Northnmberintd fell at Bramham Uoor, the title devolved npon a boy 
of 10 years, whoae mother bad carried bim into Scotland, when Hotapnr 
fdl at Bbrewabnry. There he waa kindly reoeiTed by King Bobsrt, and 
brought op on tOTnts of intimacy with his eldest nirriTing son, afterwards 
Junee L He was leatored in England on the scceeaioa of Henry Y., and 
was killed in defence of the house of Lancaster at the battle of St. Alban's; 
four of hia sons fell in the same cause, namely Henry the third Earl at 
Towton Field, Sit Thomas at Northampton, Sir Bal|A at Hedgeley, ukI 
Sir Richanl alao at Towton, Tbe f oum Eari waa mardersd by a mob at 
Coekledge. Over the fifth Earl, Henry tha Magnificent, whoae House- 
bold Book was printed in 1770, and who kept almoet rc^ state ; over 
tbe aixth Eari, Henry tbe Unthrifty, tbe lover of Anna Boleyn ; over 
Simple Tom, dying on the scaffold for hia bith, and hia anocessor and 
brother ctuel Henry ; over the Wizard Earl, and his aon the Lord High 
Admiral and Lord Qenatal of En^aod, apace forbids ns to linger, 

JooelioB Feroy, cmly son of the Lord High Admiral, snceeaded in I66S 
aa eleventh Eari, but died two years Uter. As he left an only daughter, 
tbe Lady lliaabeth Feroy, the honours of the ancient hoose passed for a 
second time by an heiress, who in her sixteenth year, having already been 
twice a widow, but never a wife, married that Doke of Somerset, wlio 
was known as " The Frond," She inherited the baronies of Fercy, Lucy, 
Poyning^ Fiti-Fayne, Brian and Latimer, but not tjie earldom of Percy, By 
pre-nnptial settlement the Proud Duke bound himself to aasome foe hina- 



•elf and his ume tbe name and amu of Pan^, a oondttioa fr<HB whioh 
hia dndiMi releuod him oa attaining hai m^oritj ia 1888. Vtom hoc 
Uu lix Perey baroniea, aqoyed bjr ber, pawed to her aon, Algerocn, lAa 
m heir to hia fathat, hod the oonrlraj title of Eari oi Hectfoid, and aa 
hair to hia nKHhar waa Baron Farejr, Lney , Poyninga, lib-Fajna, Bipn 
and l^timer : be mceeeded aa aaventh Doke of Bomenet in 1716, and 
waa in 1749 eieated Baron Waikwoith and Eari of Notthnmberiand witb 
apedal isnainder in defanit of heira mala to hia aon4ii4«w, Sir H«|^ 
Smitham and EKnbeth hia wife. Thia Algernon, Doke i^ Someraat. 
and Eail of Northumberland had two ohildmn, George Sexnaoor Load 
Beanchamp, and Ladv Elisabeth Beymonr. who in 1740 married Biz Hu^ 
Smithaon, an Eogliu gentleman of good family with Percr blood in bia 
veins. By the death of ber brother in 1744 die became heinae to the 
Pernes* honoora. On her fathei'a death she snoeeeded to the Fwqr 
baroniea, and ber hnaband nnder the special remaindw auoeeeded aa 
Baron WarbwoiUt and Eari of N<»thuuberiand, and h« waa in 1797 
created Duke of Northamberiand and Earl Perey ; in 1781 be waa 
created Lmi Lordne of Alnwick with apecijl Temainder to hia aeoond 
son Algernon Percy. I>dy Eltaabeth, Ist Duehsas of N'orthnmbedand 
broaght to her btuband the Percy eetatea in Northamberiand, but the 
Proud Dnke of Someraet alienated the Ferey eatates in Suasex, 
To^ahire and Cumberiand, and aetded them on his grandson Charies 
'n'yndham, afterward* Eari of Egremont and Baron Cockermouth. For 
something like two cmturiee tiiePerciBB had made Fetworth their home : 
now that it was alienated, they retnmed to Northnmberland, and made 
Alnwick Uieir home. 

The first Duke'a son Henry, who served as Lord Percy in America, 
aucieeded aa aeoond Didte, and waa sncceeded, as third and fonrUi Dukes 
by two of his sons, Dnke Hngh, who might haTo been called "The M^;ni- 
fioent," and Doke Algernon, a name doir to antiqnariea and to men of 
acience. On the death of the laat the honours devolved on Duke George, 
eon of the second son of the first Dnke: he enjoyed tbem but for two years, 
and was ancce c ded by hia eldest son Algernon George, sixth and present 
Duke and the fourteenth member of the House of Percy on whom the 
Sovereign has eonferrcd the Order of the Garter. 

The qiace at our dispoeal hindeis us from going more fuUy into the 
history of the Perciea ; this sketch we have given will serve to show 
that tfiey have from the Conrjnest to the present time been intertwined 
with the whole history of England : during all that time there has never 
been a period, when Uie influence aod support of " the Poroy " baa 
not been of the first importance to the Ooverament; scarcely a century in 
which the lives and lands of the house hare not been staked in defence 
of the popular cause. Throughout that period, also, thwe has been in 
the North no rival in magnifioenoe or social weight to the head of the 
House of Percy. 

By the munificence of Hia Grace the Duke of Northumberland these 
noble volumes have been placed upon the shelves of the library belonging 
to the Institute All Uiat the paper maker, the type founder, the 
engraver, the lithographer, and Ibe binder can do for a book hat been 
done for these beautiful volumes: if one waa inclined to be hypercritical, 
one might hint that the vulumea are a little too heavy to be held in the 
readei's hand, and must be perused at a reading desk, or at a table ; and 

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7«t one mmld not wiih them to be a ain^ leaf the lev. They oMwort 
well OB the ihelTes ot the Institnte with another moonjiMnt of the apiiit 
«| UwDokea of Northnmberiaud, the Burreji of the Somaa Wall and of 
Watliofi atnet BLada br Mt. Um Lauchlia at the ezpeiwe of a former 

A wall aaanged f<ddiiig pedigree in a pocket at the end of the first 
Tolnme enahlee the leader to trace eleariy the deaoest of tiie hononra, 
Am more eanlf beoaoee the pedigree doea not loOow to tbetr remoteat 
deeeendaati tbe odlataml bnjtohea ; a oonfnaing habit, to whieh modem 
pedigiee ruken are too mnoh addicted. The padigtee iprm the armorial 
bearuga of Percy and all ita aUianeea . and the preaent Doke'a a^ieve- 
mant ^ anna, emblanmed in ecdonia, is pUeed in ao oddpoaitioD, at the 
TCtjr end <tf the aeeond Tdnme, after the indkea. Tlie atudent of 
■phie^atiea will revel in the platea of Percy aeala in the firat Tolnme : 
manj-/K nmUau of antographa aie given, aiul the portraita alao form a 
moat intereating aeriea. 

W oi wfa r Oollwa, Oxford, Anthor el Bmtia mtJA* B trftm M ; Mvnttmign, ia 
PmfU mmd llmr SiHorji ; 37u CArMnt i» Turktg ; Smrdi oj SL Oiia, 
OnprUgaUy*tt.,ttc LondoQ : a«iii]te B«U and Sou, ISas. 

Thoae who had a peitonal knowledge of the late Mr. Denton, or are 
aoqitainted with hia nnmeroiu worka, know with what paioataking care 
and tboronghneas they were produced, and the pictiin he draws of the 
eondition of all clnwwia of the comiaunity in England in the 1 5th century, 
(and there ia no reaatm to believe that it waa any better in other countriea) 
ia limply appalling 

Hr. Denton dividea his wodc into an Introduction divided into two 
parts, and the body of the work containing two chapters. In the first he 
aeeaibea ^tm state of England down to the death of Edward L, at which 
date he eonaidera the ooontry waa at the leuith of its proeperity ; and 
that dnang the period following the death of that Monarch it bej^ to 
decline nntil it toadied ita loweat state of misery towards the end of 
the fiftemth oentnry, from iriiioh it waa delivered by an entin re-organisi- 
taon nnder the deapotie tyranny of the Tndor^ 

In the tanning of hia admirable Introduction Mr. Denton treato of 
the benefite ariaing from the amalgamation of the langotge and raoee of 
the Saxons and Xormaos, foTming one nation of Englishmen poeseased 
by the same patriotic feeling, leading to the growth of the constitotion 
and parliament and the reeponsibility of the King's Ministers. He 
points out that long before any parliament was summoned the moat 
important fnnetiona of a parliament were ezecutad by the Manorial 
and Coanty Courta. " These Courts legislated for the Ihnor as fully as 
the parliament legislated for the nation in its eorporate capacity. Indead," 
he aaya, " it seems to have been intended at the first that parliament 
shonld not interfere within the jurisdiction of Uie Msnonal authorities^ 
unless by way of appeal ; anl it waa not without remonstrance on the 
part of the suiton in them local courts that parliament and ^e King's 
court olaimed, after a time, to pass I^ws effecting manorial rights, 
and to adjndicato on matters touching the tenure of lands and the 
costtMna (tf Uanors." After giving * deseriptton of Uia constitution of 



Muon, and of lbs wvenl cImmm of tenanta, free aod nnfrM, ho Btatea 
that " at the death of Edward I, the popniar alemuit reonMotad hj 
tha [HaiK«ial1 courta waa pdwerfttl and exerted oonaidanUs inflnenoe 
thnn^KWt Ent^and. Pariiameatary powsn were iU-dafined, new, and 
faabla, vhflat ^ local eoutta ot Maaoia, at which aveiT man waa boosd 
to be Dnaant^ occupied mnch of tlia gronnd now held )^ parilanMiit and 
wan both pcmolai and actJT&" Tbeae ooorta were held fron thraa woeka 
to three weaL% and eonaeqnentij wen afanoat in eonatant aeaaion, and 
jnatice waa ptoiBptly azeented b; a popalac tribunal poaaaaaed of a local 
knowledge of tbs eircamatasoei^ and there wtite notanjcrinwa oroffonoaa 
with which tbef aonld not deal exeapt high treaaon. 

Daring tbe whole of hia reign Edward gare bia vigilant and eloae 
attention to the improvement of hia realm, and the promotioa of the 
ptoaperity and happtneia of hia pnojde. Immediataly on hia aoai wi wt 
be took rtapa to ameod the lawa, and affected aneh reformation aa jnatly 
to acquire tha designation of tha Engliah Jnatinian. Chief JToatiee Hale 
affirma, " that nuoe waa done in the flnt thirteen Teari of bia reign to 
aettle and eataUiah the diatribntiTe juatioe of the Kingdom than in all 
tbe agea nnca that time pnt togetker." He modified the feudal ayatem, 
and improved the eoodition of the BarvilB tenants. He ancoon^ed ttie 
making of toads and of building bridgea, and, geneially, inoeaaing tbo 
means of commooication, with nnmberleas other improvemant& At hia 
death the people of England were in a state of gnat proaperity; the 
coantty was making continual prcf[roea, population was advancing, the 
local courta wen in fall vigour, and bronght justice to every man's door. 
A growing cotunerce repaid and encouraged tha labouia of the agrioul- 
tniiat and the indoatiy of tha artizane. Tbe people were amply proridod 
with food and clothing, and a growing refinement waa faat obliterating 
the coananeai which had hitherto provailed. 

Ul Denton writaa that the aufierings andund by the people of thia 
conntiy during the 183 yaara foUowinfi the death of Edward I cannot 
be tabnlated. The whole ooarae of the reign of hia aneoeaeor waa 
maAed by domeatic deterioration and external diagraca The loaa of the 
Battle of fiannodibaiii waa the lose of SooUand, a calamity alike to both 
natiooa. In 1332 araae a renewal of the war with that oonntrj to bring 
it under feudal aalg'ection to England. The French King having 
afioided conaiderable auocoura to Scotland, in retaliation Edward invaded 
T^noe in 1338, which was the beginning of a war with that country 
which laated over 100 yean, and altlumgh Uie viotoriea of Crecy, FoielierB, 
and Agineonrt ahed the gioateet lustre on the Engtisb arma, it exhausted 
the reaouieea of the country and checked the increase of the population 
in En^and, and so greatly diminished i^ that soldiera at timea could no 
longer be raised. Though from oxhanation short truoea were from time 
to time made, it could not be ealled a atate of peaoe, and peatilence 
aopervened and awept impartially over both countries. 

England, in many ways, suffered much in consequence of thia war, in 
the heavy burden of taxation — tbe soepensJon of trade — the inroads of 
pitatee on the coast towns, which were sacked and destroyed and the 
isbabitanta slain. There were, however, other miseriea more desolating 
than war approaching to raVage tbe country. Famine and pesmence, 
the fruit of war, destroyed what man failed to reach. 

Tbe greater [Mrt of the twenty years reign of Edward II wore years of 


mnt ooBMqDont npoa & miw of bad buretta. Tbo lalferii^ of the 
pnMntiy wen intoOM. Corn row to oDonnova i«ioM, and the poor had 
BO aooef to pankaM. A mnmin tin deitn^r^ Um nttlo tad dwep ; 
tha pooltiy tm>, and flvea the beee mn deatooysd. The Iom of hanun 
fits vu eowiMnit. To thn aaooeedod " the Omat Feetflaaee," ktunm 
M "the Bhdi Detth," which iwept ofT one4hiid of die wmieiiiing 
pmoletian. We eennot enter into the piteou detailt niated by Hr. 
Deotoi^ hnt mtut leier onr leadeie to hia Rnphio pagea. 

"Dm deoMaae of the population in eonaeqnenoe at war, famine, and 
paatilanoa had tbia fOitber leaolt It brake vp the manoiial aTitam upon 
iriiieh the Cooatitntion waa baaed. Diiordar and lairtaanaaa eretTwhere 
pnvailed. Fanonal aarriee dne to the J/adM of Manoaa bj their atnUt 
tenanta^ bad in better timei^ when w^tt were low and ptoTidona verj 
duam been oonunnted for a monejr pajmaat of oiie half-pennj for 
a labmmr'a day*! wotk. Bnt this aimngenuot was only of a piovisianal 
duaacter, it bdng apeoifteally prorided that it mii^t be ehanged at any 
time at the i^eaMue of the Loids. Thit agreement was diaavowad by 
the tenants, who claimed the right, in the scarcity of labonnn, to demand 
aneh wages as they could obtain ; and absolutely lefosad to give thoaa 
peraoBsl seirices to which the horia were Ic^ly entitled. An attempt 
WIS made, by the Lords, generally, to resume ths Isbonr serrioa. This 
led to Tiolent agrarian insurrections snd the grossest outrages, even to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury being dragged from bis retreat in the 
Tower nnd beheaded by the mob on Towor Oteen. Within twenty 
yean after these insurrections arose the eucceaefnl rebellion of Henry of 
Lancaster. Henry, welt knowing the shadowy nattiie of bis titie to the 
Grown and the base means by which he obtained it, and the loyalty to 
Bichard XL which atill animated some of the great nobles and a large 
portion of the people, thought it pmdent to abstain from entering upon 
a war with Fiance, which some of the Batons greatly deaiied. Bat no 
sooner was be dead, in 1413, tban his son Henry T. prepared to renew 
the war snd re-conquer the oonntiy. He won the fsmons battle of Agin- 
eourt snd many other great Tietories, and BTentoslly was recognised as 
heir to the Crown of ¥nat» after the death of Charles in 1420l It was 
estimated that a greater nnmber of men had been alain in theae ware 
tban waa then living in both realms. 

Heuy YX was a very weak though peaceful sorereign, and in the first 
thirty yean of hia reign loet all that hii father had won in France. The 
Iom of the French territories, which hsd been acquired st tile cost of sn 
enormous smount of blood and trcssare, sioused the discontent of the 
aatioD, and encouraged the adherents of thn House of York to put 
Eorwaid their claim to the throne of England. The fint battle was 
fou^t at St. Albans in 1494, and the decisive battle of Towton placed 
the Ihike of York on the tlmne as Edward IT. From this time until 
148S when Henry, Earl of Richmond defeated King Bidiard III. and 
usurped the throne, the country waa in a state of great disorder. 

Mr. Denton states that at tUa time the commerce of Eng^d had been 
almost destroyed by theae incessant wan. Qreat parts of the lend, 
formerly coltiTated, lay waste for want of bands to till it Hamlets and 
Tillagea had diaappeued, and the sites could only be traced by the 
remains of the Gniige round which the tenants had once clustered, or by 
the ruins of the chuich tower in which sheep were folded. The gentiy 


had mlbnd in common with tits fwmen and copyhold tatuntat ** tlta 
famiBr coold not tupply • anffioieot Doiabar of penona qnalifiad to BH 
the impoctant and hououraUe pott of Sherifb of oountie^ nor the Utter 
•nm to eerre a> jiurman in the ooorta of law." Ait the towna except 
LondoD w«a well ni^ rained, and the ataodatd of moiab gveattj redneed. 

Tnnung bom the intfodootiim to the bodj of the woric the fiiat 
ehapter ■m]aek attncta oni atteotioa in the antbor'a iliiiiptiou of tlie 
rtate of the coontrj, ia the eztnine ignoranea of rtafnmnn of the valo* 
ofatata t ita. They ^uMaed at the niiniberotpari«bM,a(Knigbt'Bfeei; of 
aena nodei enltiTatiMi, and the pmolatiMi, and iti. Dentoo eouriika 
that Uamf Aukd to gOMt rightly. Tneie now imnaina abaolately no data 
tqpott which to fonn eren an a^nozimate eMimate of the nnmbei of the 
peiqile, and thmfoie we pon e w no aaanianee that lit Doatoo, whilst 
eandemnii^; the goeMoi of hie prodeoeaioia haa in eatimating tbe popiil»- 
(ion of Ei^^and and Walea in 1S72 aa not exceeding two and a half 
■™"™^, gOMMd any way neaier the tnith. Many remaikaUe siiahkee 
hare anacii in ooiueqaence of the ignorance alluded ta Verr intenating 
deacriptiona an giren of Bnml England, ita fonata, fena aiid awamp^ 
moon and monmeti agricnltuial prodcoa^ lenta, and maniuea, Um 
commim field ayatam which ereiywhMe, more or leai prerailed. and eon- 
tinned down to the laat centniy, thou^ doi^)Ueaa, it was not a profitahle 
method of cttltiratioD ; encloearea, game, and poaohing. Foioata, theiz 
naton and priTilegea, highways and byewaya, means of conveyanee and 
iwte of tntTelUng, postage of letters, &c., &a. Upon all tiieae sabjecta 
mudi cniioos informatioD is affbidsd. 

Chapter II. lelatea more especially to the rarions gradea of pec^ilt^ 
thsii dwellings, food, habita, and wages. With lefeience to the laat a 
ampaiison ia diawn between the relatire oondiUon of sgrioultuial 
labcmnn at the end of the fifteenth century and the present, le^ooing^ of 
ooon^ theii adrsntsges snd disadvantages reapeotively, and Ifr. Denton 
justly eomes to the eoncluaion that the former were infinitely inferior 
to those ot the eame class at the preeeut day. The ooa^deiation of the 
qneatioa id taxation, land tenures, deprBSsion of trade, and condition of 
Ute stnall landowners oondudas this chapter. 

In the third and laat ehapter the Author deals with tiia anstoeacy, 
which, dming tbs CiTil War, hsd been nearly one half exterminated. At 
the bMinning of the fifteenth centnry fifty Peera had been mmmoned 
to pariiament, bat to the first parliament of Henry VIL they hadbeoome 
reduced to twenty eight or twenty nias. They all possessed msnora and 
lud Baronisl hsUs or castles, wluch, as a rule, they no longer ooonpied. 
Their minds had been given to martial Bzeroises to the ne^^ect of 
edncatian and liteiature, in which they ware genenlly grossly ignorant ; 
and, moieover, were greatly impoverished by the extravagancies connected 
with costly pageants, splendour of dress, and hosts of idle retainera. 
After the eeiiure of the crown by Henry the whole power of the country 
was centred in the hands of four or five great houses, snd it was the 
pdicy of the Todor Kings to depress the ancient nobility and to raiae up 
new men. 

Ui. DeDton'a ia a work of gnat intereet and value, and bean evidence 
on every pegs of its impartiality and honeaty, and extensive examination 
of authlnities. Nevertheless, it appears to as that he haa failed to place 
himself mentally in the period of which ha writes^ and to look at facta 

HonoBS or abchaxolooical fubucatiobb. S7 

BotMtbexTooldbeMaabjaooiitomponij, oMueqiwtitly tlwpMaiMlM 
hM gimn of lunl Ufa in Uu foaitMDth tui fiflMoih oeotaiiM u« ma»- 
iriut distorted. Mndt of the ulamitiee ud •ztnme dietraM isfferad by 
the poor would mp^MX to us to hara erieeu nther from the TJii t i t ion of 
God, in the kng ■noeenioD of bkl barraU, peetileaen ud munin in 
cattle, end is tlw tamble eonasqueDoea inaepanble bom war, and yet 
wan will nerer oea«^ than to bad goTenuneat Ws aia not azempt 
from andt Mtamitiea eren oow. Sone^ at leaat, of the aovwagiM no 
ioeeeeded Bdwaid I. wan act bad or heaitlaai men : a;. Edward IL, 
SiohaidlL, aDdHwtyTL were weak lathei than oTiL Audit w« had 
the power to leleot Strang men, like Edward IIL, it muht BOt aodi ib- 
[aove mattara. With Uieae temarki we can eoidia^ erauMnd ICr: 
Denton's book to our leadeTi, and tmat it will in do long while be 
followed by his work on the Chueh daring the same. period, Cm wbidi 
wa an told in the Frefaoe to this Yolume, he has eollected malariahi 


KuamMr, Author at 3%» OMUOOti amd Ihmmtie AttkUttttm ^ SttHmi. 
Bdinbiugh : Dand DauglM, 1S88. 

This is a very weleome Tolume, for we apprehend little is known in 
En^nd of the special peculiarities of the architecturs and othat arts 
prevaJeDt is the remote district to which it relates. JSx. UaoQibbon 
points out that in the south of Fiance the ancient aichitectute is 
distinctly unlike that of norihem France, with which, from our contigaity 
and early political associations, we are acquainted, thou^ not bo in- 
timately as from those cauaea we ought to bt. To aeoonnt tot tha 
difference to which he alludes he givee a brief and rapid sketeh of the 
history of this sonthem region, shewing how political oircnmatanoea have 
influenced the chaiacter of its architecture. 

In carrying out his work in aocordanoe with (he oircnmstanoea related 
in his historical sketch, he divides the snlfject under two epochs — the 
Boman epoch, and the Ifediaral epoch, traating of eash period 
separately; taking up first the buildings of the Soman period in 
seqaenoe as they are met with in deacending the Rhone from Lyons, and 
in the rarioua localities along the Kiviera both east and wast of 
Maraeillea ; and having exbausted the examination of the Bomaa 
buildings in the provinos, returning to Lyons to repeat the prooess and 
examine the mediKval atnictures tuoughout the same district. 

The first place of importance visUed in going down the river was 
Ynmix, on the right side, now called St. Columbe. It is a plaoe of 
great intereat as the cradle of Christianity in the west^ having aoeotding 
to tradition, been founded by SL Paul in his joum^ into Bpain. The 
Archbiahopa of Tienne became for aometinie, Hr. hfacGibbon tells us, 
Prioiates of OauL The town haa had a very ohequeiad hHtny, from 
which its buildings have greatly sufiered. The most important of the 
Boman buildings now remaining is the tein{de dedicated to Augaatns and 
livia. It haa been applied to varioas uaes and has been sabjected to 
gteat abuses, but it has been carefully and jndicioasly nattned, and is 
now <mly surpa«aed, as a complete example of a temple of the Bomans in 
Gaut, by the Ikfaisoa Carrie at Nimes. It is about 60 ft long and 60 ft. 
wid& In front are rix Corinthian eolumns crowned with an s&taUafam 



ud pedimaat, aod on aaeh nde six detected oolonuM, wtth two piltrtew 
in reu stUdud to the oella. Hm whole ii pUoed noon ■ a^rlobat^ to 
which twelve rtepi ucend in front The temple itooa on e foram, some 
of the p^Tsment <^ iriiieh hes been rseenUjr nnoorend. An iil n s fait ica 
of tUeelepnt stnotttre is girea 

At OBum, the andent AxKoao, some gnsd Bomsn nmains exist ; 
the BHMt intpoHD]; of which is, we think, the olerattra of the ptoosoiom 
of the tbeetfe. It wis e Isiga bnildinK, the setts wets smuged in titn 
ee ia en AmpUtbsttn ezeept thst theee extended onlj to a half onle 
the otkec huf being appcopriated to the acton, &o. xhia boildiiv was 
coDStraeted to aeeommoute 16,000 speotatora. Bnt the finest nlio in sa 
aitistie pnnt of view, iSr, Mae Gibboa mje, ia the Triumphal Anb. It 
has bsen ascribed to Tiberioa a.d. SI, bat the author oonndeta that its 
st^ and itmsmfml forUd this eoncltuion. It is oOTSied with soolpton 
of a hij^ dam. It had snfieied mndi damage but ICr. UaeOibbon is 
able to say that " The wotk of nstontion has been aueotsd wHh gnat 
cars and mweBi. The west side hss been almost tebnilt, bat wtth plain 
stont^ ^[died msnly for ths poiposs of {wossrring the rest No attempt 
has been made to imitate the M work, end what nmains of the anoient 
stracton is not soaped and polished up, aa so often happens in Fnneh 
mbnatiooa, whereb; the nine of the monnmen^ as an example of 
andent art, is entirely deatiojed." Alas I the evil here referred to is 
not confined to Frsnce. It is rampant in onr own country, and has been 
for half a eentuiy. Would that our so-called " restoiera " would learn 
the lesson here taught them I The architecture of the buildings at 
Orange as eUewhete ia very particularly described, but for these delaila 
we most tefei the reader to Mr. Uao Qibbon's pagea. At CASFivTEAa 
not ftt tnm Orange ia another triumphal airh, mora aimple in design 
than that tast meoticmed. It haa only one arch which ia supported by 
fluted pilairtan with composite capitala. The upper parte above the arch 
an dastroyod. Seme sculptores lemsin on the sides nprasentii^ eap- 
tivea chained to tn>pbieB. The basreliefs ai« in very bold pntjeotirai 
and an ramaAable, in that distant objects are charactarised by a sunk 
line around them . " This style of omphasiEiiig shadows and outlines, and 
' o the method of doing so hj means of holes drilled round objects, is 

nmoD," the author says " in the sculptun of the lower Empire." 

At St. Bsut, also, are the miss of a grand triumphal arch of the same 
type, and a well preesrred mansolaum. The arch has wily one opening 
flanked by fluted ednums of which the capitals are gone. On eadi side 
ot the ardi an weltaoolptorad ba»«liefs representing captives in chains 
acconpaniad bj women. The Anhivolt ia admired by If^rim^ whidi 
be calk a piland of fruit and flowen. He is of opinion from the giaat 
analogy of style between the various Triumphal Arches of Provence ; 
that those at Onnge, St. Kemj and Cwpenlns wen eneled at ttie aame 
epodi and to celeh^ Uie same event : namely, the victories of Hanns 
Auielins in Gennany. 

Anus, the andent Aralata, the famous capital of Boman Oaul, is 
suppoeed to have beoi founded by the Greeks from Maasilia before the 
time of CsBsar. There are here the remains of a magnificent Amphi- 
theatn. The walls form a oomi^eto drcnit and a large part of the eeate 
still exist. It is in the shape of an ellipss and measnies 459 feet in 
length, 341 feet in breadth and is calcuuted to accommodate 26,000 


tpaiMam. Vmj vslioi Iuitc baan found at Ailea ud tbs AmphitbMtn 
■ad aoma bawtifal ot^Jaela an figured. 

NiMH, to iriodi wa paM on, it aitaated at tb« baae of the luUa whieh 
bond Cha pUn of tha Kbona. It fonMd tha a^Mtal of tha Voieit 
.AneoBiaaai <or iaWiiluta erf tha flat wmakj). Id 131 B.a it nbaa- 
lanly aQhnfttod to Bonw. and a lew ywia EC. A^oabta plantad a 
Ooknj han^ aad it baaama an impOTlaiit town with walla and towvK. 
In 447 AJ>. it wu nwad ht tha Yaada^ and « few yam latar fall 
into tha banda of tha Vudgatti^ who made tha Amphithaaln thrir 
fnrtwa. Tbia atfoeton ia not ao fiaa aa that at Ario^ nor ii tha iatarior 
■0 wall pwawred, but tha •ztnior la mon oompletci It maanna 4S7 
ft \j SS3 with 3S rowa of aeai^ wfai«h wootd ascommodato 30,000 
paopliL It ia now wall aeon in oonaeqnanea of tha iMnoral ot mean 
WUinga whieh lanoandad it. Ita arahitaotnial ahanetgr ia wall 
deacribed. A ittj laiga part of Iha omamant ia left in blodc, aoaofding 
totbawoalpnotioaof tbeBomana, until tha eomfdation of tha atmoton. 
Tha gam, howarer, ot Kimea ia tha Maiaon Omit baton nuntioaed 
(p. An, aa mipaaus tha tample of Angoatna and Lina at yi«ui& 
Th»ludaanOBtlfaiatbon^ttobB, poaaiUy, the moat pore piaoa of Boman 
week b^ood tha Alpft It ia fnllj deaeribed and bewttfolly figoied. 

Iha Finn dd Oabd ia a magnineent apeaiiBieB of Bonan ifa»etn*^Mriwg. 
It ia aitnated about 13 milea N.E. fiom Nimea on the way to Avignon, 
and fMmed a potHoa of the Aqoadaet, partly in tunnel and partlj in 
open canal, of about 36 miles in length, for aupplyiog wator to Nime^ 
■ltd wsa built bf K. Agrippa, aan4n-law <rf Anguatua 19 jeara B.CL 

" Roman rBmaia^" Hr. MacOibbon remark^ " are found VB17 capri- 
doualjr in Southern Gaul. While a email prOTincial town like Nimea 
poaaeaaesao many aplendidaxamplea, the gnat ancient oitiai of ICacaaiUM 
and Narbcmne hava aeaimly a ainf^ nlie of their Oreefc or Boman 
eivilitalum left." Thiaaeetioa of the toIuom^ referring to the line aariaa 
of Binnan atracturaa which we hare baen contemplating eonahidaa wittk 
tite ramaA that it ia not tiU we reach Yeiona, ot Bona ilaelf an 
■umomoita to be found ccmpanUe with ^le amphitheatiM of Ariaa and 
Himea, ta the thaatn at Orange, and then ia no t«ni^ even in Bmn^ 
ao oonqiMe and ao atiiking in ita uni^ and qiirit aa tha Maiaon Cairta 

Ia CSiaptor V. H& MaaQibbon treata of the anhitecton of the Soman 
tmuitioD period. Ha aaya :— " The tnuiaition £Knn tlte aiohiteetDn of 
Boman to that of MedijBTal timee forma one of tha moat intonating and 
inatmotiTa qtobhe in our art The whi^ biatoiy of Boman arohfteoton 
ia that of a tranaitum bom the external tmboated atyle, with ita htainmtal 
entahUtotca, to ttie complete danlopment of the inteoial arched anhitee- 
tnre) iriiidi waa tiia find oaterane u Bootan cooatruetiMul tomw." He 
aaji I — " Hm leading teatniea of that Italo-Oreak aidiitactan oontaina • 
RuiniaecBMt or anrmal, of the ptinitiTe dementa of a wood eaostrue- 
tion, aad.pmnta out tho identitT of the < 

pagea. The tnbeatad ayatam waa gradoally aaperaaded by the nee ot 

the arch, which, from ita pceTiooaly obaenn apfdication to vaults drains, 
&C., waa adTanoad to external nae in elerationa in combination with 
demcota of ttia tnbeated atjle, and together formed that arehiteetani 
method of whieh the Bomana wen anch maetera. ^lia oombined uaa 
TOL. Jtifn IT 

_ I: Google 


nuj b« Men in all the beat Roiubii itrnotniM, a> in trinraplul unlu* 
flanked I7 pilutcta, and smphitheatraa with roonded mU openlnga, 
GomUiwd with tnbeatMl deeontiooa in the f onn at borinntal flntubtarai 
nta on ensagad colomaa or pilattaiL A flna ■^f—r'* (^ 

Buxeda^iaahewnm tbeehowhof BuiHini«to(flgaiad,p. 101.) Tba 
afdi ahpo waa iatiodneed into the interiw in nnlting M well aa for other 
pwpoaaa; and, in eotuaa of time, tlie tnbeatod elamMrta gnduUj 

Iff. IbeOibbon in treating of the plan of the earij Omitiaa (Aofebea 
aaaecJT aeeepta tte faaditional belief that their spiidal twminatinn waa 
derived front the Bonua baoliea, and thnt^ tn fioti in manjr inatannae, npon 
the adoption of (Ariatiani^, the baaiUena tbemoelna had been eooVaitad 
b> Chiwian woniiip. **Theb>dlieahnd,nodoiibt,*he a87a,"thelonnof 
a piUared hall with central and aide«ialM,tIie former lifted by a e l ere at o iy, 
bnt it had no apes, or if it had one it did not oeaofj tbn pmminoit 
potitian of that feature in the early ehnrehea." He doaa not ■petifianllj 
aee^it the theMj of PnfeMor Baldwin Brown, aa atated in the Fmteaaon 
. fhm Sehala to Oatktdral, whith Ur. UaoQibbon haa plaead before hia 
render* whoee theory ia that, aa Uw domed b^itiaterie*, ao freqnmtly 
bnilt in eoonection with early Christian ehorehaa were decived from toe 
memwial ceUa need alike by pegana and ChrtatianB in the ennetttiee, ao 
the apaidal chnrcbea ven imitationa of the Sehidn, or halla of merting 
of pnrate aodetiea, and that the Chriatian buiialgild* like other gtlda, 
were allowed by the Emperon to have their aeht^ Hr. UaeOibbon 
doea not uaent to, or reject, thia new theory, but paaaea on with. — 
" However thia may be," — and we shall do tba lame, and leave the eonai- 
deiation of thia iotcreiting question to experts who are better qoalified 
to deal with it. ** However this may be," Hr. HacQibbon aaya : " the 
type of the early Cbriatian chnrch or baailica preMnted to view an 
uongated hall, with two or fonr rowa of pillara, dividing it into three m 
five aidea^ with a lofty trinniphal arch at the end of Um eentml nave, 
lending into an open spnoe raised aome steps higher than the nave, and 
in which stood the altar. Beyond thia waa the invariable apae with ita 
aemi-doraed eaUing adorned with moaaica, and eontaining, elevated by a 
few atepa above the floor, the throne of ttte Bishop and iba aeata of the 

Me. UaeOibbon says "there ia every reason to believe that thia wu 
Uie naoal form of the eariy chorchea in the weet, and that in Bonu such 
chnrchea have been pteeerved orrestored." He mentionaalao theezoeed- 
in^ interesting chtueh of San Vitale at Ravenna, bnt whetiter this waa 
dfiT^[nfd as a monament or a ohnroh ia nneertain. It is oetagonal and 
donwd, very much after the atyle of the temple of Minerva MediflK and 
ainiiiar Boman stmctnie& Ha aaya " San Vitals haa a special intatcst 
from ita tumng formed the model adopted by Chariemagne fm thechnidt 
whidi be ereetod at Aix4n4!!hapel]e to serve also as his own nuiQaoleam," 
and he rema^ ** tibat it craiatitntes tn example of Boman deaign repro- 
dnced in Kavenna nndw the late Empire, as a Christian rtractnre, and 
again serving aa a medimval maoaoleum aa late aa the eighth eentnry," 
which shows diatinotly the continuity of Roman design and ita direct 
infinence on the art of later Umea. 

The atyle of the Bomane«qaa in Provence was greatly inflnenoed by 
Byiantina art and the early nee of vanlting in the Provencal bhnrchea 

MoncBS or abohaxolooioal pubuoatiokb. 91 

u uwtlMr itrikiiig chuactMutio in ttts tnhitectan of Um diibiot. A 
^ood example ii iliewn in ToolouM Cathednl, an iUnatnlioii of tike 
interior of whioh k giren. Anothtt raoiaikaUe foatnra in thia clinrdi b 
the aadjr naeof the pointed aruh in the Taoltiii^ wisdom, and in other 
detaili. HoFBOTcr no tnoo of the tnJmite element ta appaieni Tba 
intradootion of the pointed arch in the north of Fmioa did not ariae 
nntil long aftennud^ and it ia nma^able that when it did onne into 
naa then, it waa diaeontinned, at leeat for a while, in the aonth, and the 
raoBd Bidi adopted in peefwenea 

After the introdnetuai of Qothie Arduteetore in narOtem Ttanee in 
1174 on the baiUing of the Abb^ chnieh of SL Denjra ita nfiA and 
exteoaiTe develt^Mnent waa wjr remaAable, Within a eentnij aftei- 
warda it had leadwd ita hifl^ieat excellauce and waa found in moat of the 
gBsat oathedralf of that n^ion. Nor waa the atyle confined to eeeleai- 
aatieal atroetnna. It axtuded to ereir elaaa of bnildingi, foi; aa iSx, 
IfaeOibbon obeenraa, " it ia one of the ehanetariatiei of Oothio that it ia 
available for erarf varietj of arehitectnial reqaiieroeot It ia a free and 
natmal atjle, not aobjeot to arbitiaty nilea, bat nadj to apply iteelf in 
the aimpleet and moat diiect ■nBi''°r to all baman wania in the way of 

The architectuie of the Sonth became infinenoed hj nriona diatnrbing 
eaoaeb The Rivien, or Uediteiranean littord, fell into the power of the 
Qenoeaa and of ths French. Tbe former introdaced the elemante of 
ItaUan Gothic, and the latter flambojaat work, and the Roman elanio 
atill lingered on. How much theae influences affected the erchiteetore of 
the diatrict which we have under review ia shewn by the remaina jet 
exiatiog, or by atudfing the deecriptioo and illaatratinna given in Mr. 
HaoGibbon'a very intercating work, to which we muat refer the leader, 
for we have already exeeeded the apaoe aaaigned to na. We, therefore, 
can only give a brief and haaty oketoh of tite Anthor'e aeoond jonmey. 

After deeerilnng LTom, and the medieval buildinga that^ the Author 
pomied hia joomey, aa betbie^ down the riva Bhon& YuMsam ia 
Tinted, which ia iu>t very tieh in arehiteetniml nmain& ^le Cathedral 
Mr. l^cQibbon otmaiden is of the twelfth oentoiy and ahowa aome 
apecial faatnrea of the influenoe of the atyle of Aavaigne. Thence 
to CBnu and the ancient Ciatercian Abbey, the eh^el of wfaidi, built 
in the aame eentory, ahewa the aimple a^Ie of tiie Cisteniaa bahion. 
Further <ai ia Avuson, which, in 1308, became for more than a oantory 
the aeat of the Bonaa Ponlifb. The Fahue of the Fopea is attoated on 
the top of an abnipt rock, on ttie aomuut of which atandi the Chomh of 
ITotre Dame dea Doma, a building of great intereet, eompoeed of R«naa 
and aronated woric oombined. ISott of the preaent palaoea, however, 
were built in the fonrteonth oentniy. Of this atraotun, and of the town, 
a TMy intenating deecription ia given. The Cborch of Taraaoon waa 
originaOy bnflt in the twelfth osntory, and re-edified in the fourteenth. 
nw aostik porch ia of ttie earlier date and is a beautiful exaaapie of the 
Pn>Ten(al atyla, dtowing the mixed duuMter of the detaila of the atyla 
nie round and octagonal nook-ahafta haye cape partly copied bam the 
Corinthian and partly carved with Bonuneaque flgiina. The nnmerow 
fine mouldings of the arch contain a ctuioua mixture of Boman and 
mediaval otnamenta in the claasio combined with the dogtooth 
enrichmenta. The amall Mcade above with alternate floted pilaataii anl 

I bv Google 


ronod AattH all finuhed with mriebMl o^w iiwliim aa % eoniw mpportad 
on nrred bndi have an adnnoad BomanMqiw appManos, of which » 
good ilhiitation u pvon. 

Ib Hm outfa it an exam|da of the KHithaBi aqoan tower wiA the 
iMirth«nioii»dfani^iriiiletbeiM«ikBnBll(rfthetiacflMnidiuut«. It 
WM enetad in tha fourteenth orataiy. At Ailm the prinoipal medwfel 
edifice ia the chnrch of St. Tiophtme a b» and importMit atnetwa 
•xhihilitig acamplaa of all the peoaUarittae « FnnofU aiduteotnn, on 
a eotnpl^ and extauiTe eoalflL The weat poctieD ie paftJenhi^ fine^ 
and ta (rf the nme at^ aa tha poteh at IWaaeoo abon aantfamad, thoofl^ 
nndi finer. It ia wall illaatn^. The cdofttan of the diudi an mj 
aplendid and era abo inoslntted. St Onui faaa ft atOl mon ^fandid 
portal of the mum ehameter of thoae at Ailea eodT^naDon. St Oillea 
waa the diief prioi7 <rf the Kniriite of 8L John of Jemaalem. At 
W»— tiT» faw teUca an fonnd m Boraan or medinral atraetniaa. Of 
the kttn the mcMt lemarfcaUe k the chnrah of St-Tietw, in which k an 
inatanee td the paitial adoption of the Oolhio of tha eoath, and an attaoipt 
to combine Oo^u deteik with aoathem aknetual feetaiaa. Hm «liDidi 
(rf St. SanmiT at Aiz-Kii-FBomTOi was baOt in 1 KM. The aiduteetnte 
reaeniblee that of Notre Dame dea DoDU et ArignML We find the aame 
Bated CorinAian colomna and eomioe of Koman enridimento and arched 
openJDga between. The amall engaged soInmDa with twiated and Anted 
shafta and itraigbt arched lintel are, however, Hr. UaeOibbon remaika, 
Kctotationa of the twelfth centnrj. The cloister* are an admirable 
woi^of art 

InespectiTe of Ht. MacGibbon'a deacription of the amhitectnre of the 
coantriee of which be traata hu historical sketchea are of mneh interest 
and valne. We bare greatlv exceeded the nmal apace at onr command, 
and without tonehing npon Uie mediaval architecture of the Biriera must 
cloee this Dotica, If, howerer the Editor will oonrteonaly allow us the 
requisite room in the next nnmber of the JounaL, we ahall be pleased 
to add a aeeond brief notice of that portion of Mr. HaoGibbon^ 
instractire and ralnable work. 

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firc^aeotoffital JonvnaU 

Bj aw. T. OLABK. 

Whatever may be the value of the patriotte boast that 
" Brittanis needi no bnlmudn^ ao towen tloag th* steep," 
she U not altc^ther nnproTided in this respect, and 
Dover on the Bonth and Bamburgh on the north, have 
been from remote, and probably from pre-historic times, 
fortresses by nature ahnost impregnable, and rendered 
completely so, in proper hands, by art. 

Nature has indeed done much for Bamborg^ but art 
has there done ample juatice to nature. Bamboi^h has 
been compared to Windsor and to Dover, and the com- 
parisona are not to its disadvantage. It resembles Windsor 
in its length of front and in the position of its keep, a 
massy, loity, and central structore, not inferior even to 
the celebrated Bound Tower of the royal fortress. Of 
oaks and elms and velvet turf it cannot boast, but it has 
the wide waste of waters on the one hand, and the broad 
and highly cultivated lands of Northumbria on the other, 
and the roving Angiander who first fixed upon the rock 
as his residence, probably found the pathless ocean more 
to his taste, and productive of richer spoils, than the glades 
of even a Norwegian forest. 

With Dover the northern hold has more in common. 
Less lofty indeed; and in area leas extended, Bamburgh 
is by no means its inferior in strength of position, and is far 
beyond it in that stem and savage grandeur that so well 
becomes a fortress exposed to the fury of a turbulent ' 
ocean. Its walls seem to form a part of the rifted face of 
a great mass of basalt, a fragment of the vast sheet of 
Hutonic rock spread partially over Northumberland, and 

VOL. iLvi -OOqIc 


the eastern edge of wliich forming the reeb and islanda of 
Fame, rendent all approach from the sea difficult and 

The basalt, black, intensely hard, and more or lett 
colnnmar in its itmcture, is here about 75 feet thick, and 
rests upon a subatratnm of sandstone, the line of janction 
being a little above the level of high water. The platfOTm, 
entirely occupied by the castle, iwdndes an area of about 
three acres, lai^ enough not only to accommodate a very 
itnmg garrison, but to afford protection to the adjacent 
villagers aod husbandmen, who are recorded to have 
found shelter tiiere during the not infrequent ruds from 
ScotUnd. It is, naturaUy, preci|>itou8 all round, but with 
faces varying considerably m height. That to the land- 
ward retains its original cliff of 50 feet, unbroken, and 
predominates far and wide over moor and fen and not 
unproductive corn-land, but that towards the sea, 
naturally lower, is choked up by a mass of blown sand, 
which at one time threatened to overwhelm the castle, and 
had to be removed by art. 

No inhabitant of these re^ons, in times when every 
man's hand was lifted against his neighbour, could afford 
to neglect a position so secure by nature, and fortunately 
so, since the bare scalp of rock would afford little materiu 
for any primitive defences, and any sort of fosse would be 
both unnecessary, and with the tools of a savage people, 
impracticable. Hence there is no trace of early occupa- 
tion, nor of the works which are said to have been thrown 
up in the sixth century, and as to the exact character 6f 
which there is much doubt. In truth, however, no work, 
short of masonry, and that of a superior character, could 
long stand agunst the rude s^tentrion bU^ts from tiie 
German ocean. ;. ; 

The history of Bamburgh, though dating' from bo early 
a period as the sixth century, includes but few events of 
more than local interest, although the rock was for more 
than five centuries the chief seat of an important province, 
and was besides closely associated with Aldan the apostle 
of Northumbria and Oswald its Bretwald.'and its earliest 

It is still a vexed question when, or even about what 
period the Northmen began to invade the shores of Britain, 


or in what puis, from pirates and [dtuideren. first became 
owners of land, and coUected their family settlements into 
provinces and kii^oms. It was however certainly a 
very early settlement that took the name and place 
of the Celtic province of Bryneich or Bemida, a tract 
extending from the Forth to the Tyne, or it may be to 
the Tees, widi a seaboard open to the still-arriving hordes 
from the loins of the North. All who so came were 
doubtless welcome, for beudes the Ficts and Scots from 
beyond the Forth the province lay open along its whole 
vestem length to the kingdom of Strath-dwydd, at that 
time held by the remnant of the Britons with even more 
titxa. their wonted braveiy and tenacity. Never were 
these qualities made manifest more brilliantly than on the 
field of Cattraeth, and in Uie person of Urien Bheged, a 
battle and a hero fortunate in that they have been 
commemorated in enduring verse by such masters of 
patriotic song as Aneurin, Llwarch h^u, and Taliesin. 

It was towards the middle of the sixth century, in the 
thick of the struggle between the rival races, those battles 
unjustly called of " kites and crows," but which were the 
making of the English nation, that Ida, son of Eoppa, 
* tenth m descent from Woden, arrived with a strong body 
of Angles in forty ships upon the shores of Bemicia. He 
landed north of Uie Tweed, but speedily overcame or made 
common cause with his Jutish predecessors, and took 
possession of and identified himself with the rock known to 
the Britons as Dingaearoy, and to the Jntes as Oyncli- 
canberg or " the royal dwelling ** and afterwards 
" . . . . oubmn a prisoiB jaia nomine diotmn " 
as Bebbanbntgh, so called, accoraing to Bede, from Bebba, 
the queen probably of Aethelfrith, the grandson of Ida. 
In what condition Ida fonnd the place we are not told ; 
Gaimar describes it as even then a royal seat, and Ida's 
work as a restoration. 

** Ida resent Northumberland. 
Sachez co fu 11 primers reis. 
Ej la tenist del lin d'Engleis. 
Icist Ida dusze anz regna, 
£ BaenbuTC ben restora." 

He enclosed, it appears, the place with a hedge and 

_ I Google 


afterwards with a wall. " He timbrode Bebbanbnrh, aeo 
was aeroat mid h^ge betyned bar aeftermid wealle." 
Not certainly what we now nndsrstand by a hedge, for no 
thorn, even blessed by St. Joseph himself, would floatish 
on that weather-beaten crest ; nor indeed was that or 
any oUier defence needed upon the greater part of the 
drcoit. We may snppose the hedge to have been a 
palisade of timber, confined to the hmer part of the cliff 
abont the present entrance, and the wall r^nforcing it to 
lure been without cement, such as the Vikinga sometimes 
employed with connderable skill in their sepnlcluee. 

Nennins, who barelr menUons Ida, says of his grand- 
son Eadfered (Ethelfritn) flesann^ that he reigned 12 years 
in Bemicia, and as long in IMra, A.D. SSS'GIB, and gave 
to hia wife Dingue-Aroy, called also from her, Bebban- 
burh. The fame of Ida has been proclaimed by his Celtic 
adversaries, who mention him only as " Flamddw}ii," or 
" the Flamebearer," from the conflagrations that accom- 
panied his progress. Thoagh described, not unnaturally, 
by the Celtic bards as always overthrown, he was on the 
whole, victorious, and " semper armatus et laboriosus," 
closed his reign in battle, having consolidated Bemida 
into a powerful kingdom which he transmitted to his . 
descendants, of whom Eadwin gave name to Edwiosbuigh 
or EcUnbuigh, and under whom Bemida and Deira 
became the Northumberland of the Saxons, and finally an, 
luteal and very important part of die realm of 

Although there is no continuous history of Bamburgh, 
it is occanonally mentioned in the chromdea as the scene 
of connderable local events, and it certainly contimied to 
be the seat of the rulers of the province, Fenda, th» 
opponent and conqueror of Oswald, laid siege to the place 
in A.D. 642, It seems he collected fuel far and wide, and 
|Hled it up; probably in front of the works in timber, 
covering the entrance. . The Pagan chief, however, 
reckoned without the Sunt whom he had outraged, and 
at the prayer of St. Aldan the wind shifted, and the fire 
was kindled in vain. Above half a century later, a.d. 
710, a second attack also fdled, when Eadulf, the usurper 
of Northumberland strove to get possession of its lord, 
Osred, sou of the Northumbrian Alfred, a boy under the 


charge of Berthfried his guardian. For^ rears later, a.d. 
750, King Eadberht here imprisoned &uiop Eynwolf of 
lindisfame, and kept him here thirty years. 

The next considerable mention of Bamburgh was in 
A.D. 666-7, when the Danes, then holding York, lud waste 
Uie coimtiy from Whitby to Ifelrose and forced the 
ffishop to leave Lindisfame, and seek a safer resting place 
for the renuuna of St. Cathbert. Later on, a.d. 924-6, 
Athdstan, the founder of the English monarchy having 
destrojred the castle of York, t^e mound of whidi still 
remuiu, dinKWsessed Ealdred from Bamburgh, and hav- 
ing defeated the Danes at Bmnenbni^h, added Northum- 
berland to his kingdom, and established it as a Saxon 

The next assailants of the fortress in force were 
agun the Danes who, aj). 993, having fuled in their 
attack upon London by the Thames, ascended the 
Humber, and marching with their usual rapidity upon 
Bamburgh, found it in the hands of earl Eadulf, an aged 
man under whom the defences had been neglected, so 
iJiat the Danes were able to enter by storm, and to obtain 
thence considerable booty. A few years before this, 
Lothian, less the castle of Edinburgh, had been ceded to 
the Scots, and their king, Kenneth, had been escorted by 
Eadnlf to the court of I^e ^iglish Edgar. A. little later 
however, soon after the Danish attack, Eadulf recdved a 
hostile visit from the Scots under Malcolm the son of Ken- 
neth, niey penetrated, almost unopposed, as far as Dur- 
ham. Eadnlf, unable to take the field in person, confined 
himself to Bamburgh, while ITchtred his son muntuned the 
&mily reputation by defeating the Scots and putting 
them to fi^Kht. He died in 1016. 

Dnke mlHam, on his arrival in England, found 
Morcar, and after him Copsi, in the Saxon earldom. 
Th^ were succeeded by Cospatric, and he, in 1068, by 
Bobert Comyn a Norman, whose death at tJb^ hands of tiie 
people led to William's celebrated march into the Nortl^ 
and to his savage treatment of that conntry. This was 
followed by the re-admission of Cospatric into the 
earldom and his establishment at the casUe. During this 
brief second tenure of office Malcolm again invaded the 
earldom and reached the mouth of the Wew, and there 

.cdb, Google 


welcomed his Saxon relatives who were ia flight from 
William. Oospatric meantime made a counter attack 
npon UalcolmB wevtera territoiy, and returned thence 
laden with spaSl to Bambarvh. 

Bambnrrii was next hda by Waltlieor, and after an 
epiicopal mterral, by Alberic whom genealogiate have 
tned to estaUish as the de Yere ancestor^ and tiien by 
GeoflfrCT Uowbray, bishop of Contancefl, supported and 
ittcceeded by his nephew Bobert Mowbray, the head of a 
most turbulent fami^. Bobert, who had supported Bofus 
against his brother Bobert, finding himself in a distant and 
independent position, played the robber baron at the ex- 
pense of some Swedbh merchants who had landed on his 
shores. The Bed King summoned liim to answer to their 
compbunts. Bobert declined to obey and garrisoned his 
castles. The Sng conld not afford to pass by a defiance 
from such a quarter, and marched ag^nst the Earl, took 
Tynmouth and Newcastle, held by his brother, and laid 
siege in person to Hamburgh. A few particulars of the 
riege are preserved by Oderic. 

An assault was out of the question, and Mowbray, a 
man of great personal strength and stature, was a bold 
and experienced captiun. Bufus therefore lud out a 
regular camp, of wUch it is probable the traces renuun in 
the fields south of the village, and within this he con- 
structed a large tower of timber called in the CSironide a 
** Malvtnsin.'* The tenn, in mediseval warfare, ia usually 
applied to a tower, also of timber, but placed upon smaU 
strong wheels, on which it could be pushed up to wi^uu 
a few feet of a castle wall, and from it a plank bridge be 
let fall upon the rampartB. Such a work was here im- 
practicable. The cliff with the wall upon it was much too 
high for such an attempt, and the ground at the foot of 
the cliff far too steep. The ** Malvoisin " was probably 
intended as a precaution against a sally from the garrison 
and as an intimation that the besiegers were prepared to 
undertake a blockade. It also would increase the power 
of throwing light projectiles over the walls. 

Earl Bobert, secure in the strength of his fortress and 
probably having a free communication with the sea, could 
afford to despise all open attacks. His enemy therefore 
had recourse to stratagem. A letter was written inviting 


the earl to come to Newcastle, and pointing oat how that 
castle midit be retaken. In consequence Mowbray left 
Bambar^ with an escort of thirty knights and rode 
toward! ffewcasUe. When nearly there he was attacked, 
wounded, and taken, and Bufos, ^o had left for the south, 
directed him to be brought before the walls of the castle, 
with the threat that unless it was instantly surrendered 
his eyes should be put out Upon this, iua wile, Matilda 
L'Aig^e, and his kinsman and lieutenant Morell, gave 
way. Mowbray was imprisoned for Ufe, Ma^Ida flowed 
to find another husband, and Morell took service with the 
King. Bambunch thus fell into the hands c^ the Crown 
and so remainec^ with some trifling intervals, castle and 
manor, for several centniiea. 

Bambnrgh now appears in the Public records. Its 
castle^uard and other Krvices were paid to the Crown, 
and the eroenses incurred on its account are met by tJlie 
Bheriff and charged in the roll of the pipe. Various 
manors are named as held of the Crown and lands are 
granted in Bamburgbshire, The Churches of St. Oswald 
and St. Andrew were given by Henry I to the Priory 
of Nostell, and in a later inquisition, 17 John, they 
are called " Baeubnrc church and chapel, attached to 
St. Oswald-Nostell juxta Pontefract : " but the parish 
church is dedicated to St. Aidan, and there are now three 
chapelries. Also a cell or sub-priory seems to have 
been founded. The castle and manor were placed in 
chaise of a constable under whom all works were carried 
on, estimates of their cost being first certified by a jury. 

Bambu^h did not stand alone as the property of the 
Crown. Wark at times, Berwick and Newcastle always, 
were regarded as royal castles, bnt Durham remained in 
the possession of the bishops, as did Nur^^, the keep of 
which, built by bishop Flambard in- l^^l, rivalled 
Hamburgh in size and strength. Newcastle had been 
provided with a Norman keep in 108U, and Carlisle in 
1092. The particulars of Tynmouth and Harbottle 
castles are unknown. Frudhoe, an ITm&aville castle, has 
a Norman keep. Wark had a shell keep on a mound, 
but the great Saxon burh, wholly artificial, a short 
distance north of Coldstream, did not receive any Norman 

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The chaives for works &t Bambur^ lie vexy tluok 
about the &*st half of the reign o! Hairy I^ when 
[1169, 16 H. n] 'VrUliam son of Waldef was fined for 
reftunng help to the king's work at the castle, and after- 
wardfl paid to have a respite ctmceming U. 13ie internal 
evidence of the keep .coinddee generally with this 
period to which it may very probably be attributed. 

There is no r^olar list of the castellana, thcr mdy 
appear frcnn time to dme in the Pipe, Patent, and Qoee 
rolls. The artizans employed are nuned from tihdr trades, 
as Osbert cementarins, Flulip carpentarios, Adam fober, 
Bobert janitor etc. 

There bong no stan^ng army, and the royal rerenne 
being often levied with great difficulty, tlie royal castles 
were usually left with but small garrisons, often just 
enough to close the gates, and when a war was impending 
repairs were hastily and imperfectly executed, and merce- 
naries hired as a garrison. Still the continual danger 
from Scottish raids, caused more than usual attention to 
be paid to the Border castles. 

On the accession of Stephen, when David of Scotland 
overran NorthamberUud, Bambnrgh held out. It was 
besi^ed, and a part of the wall thrown down, but it war 
not Uken, and when, after the battle of the Standard, 
David of Scotland was allowed the earldom, Bambnrgh 
was at first witheld. It would seem however that Prince 
Henry of Scotland obtained it, since one of his charters 
in 1147 is dated thence. He may have retained it until 
his death in 1153, when it was again in the possession of 
the English Crown. 

Soon after his accession Henry II visited the north 
as far as Wark, where works were in progress, but there 
is no evidence that he was at Hamburgh. It is probable 
that by 1174 the keep and exterior walls were completed 
and that the castle was thus able to resist the Scottish 
invanon wluch was fatal to Appleby and Brougham, 
where the keeps are of somewhat later date, and resisted 
by those, somewhat earlier, of Frudhoe and Carlisle. It 
was at the close of this expedition that William of Scotland 
was taken prisoner before Alnwick. 

During Uie reign of Bichard, Bamburgh seems to have 
remuned nnassuled ; but it was included in the sale of 


the earldom to IKshcm Vndaej, on whose death the impe- 
cn ni oaB nuxiareh i^red it, bnt without Bambn^h, to 
Wiltiam of SooUand. Nothing, however was concluded. 
Ur. BxidgKa ffinde baa diBOovered that, at the acoearion 
of Biehara, Boger Hoveden, who ia one of the autiunitieB 
for tlie partiouuni of the cartle, was one of the two justices 
bedding forest pleas in Northumberiand and Oumbwland. 
At this time the men of Bambni^b are set down at £9, 
Sfl, 4d. as a gift to the king, l^e repun are continued 
through the rragn and iriien John came to the tluone, the 
king's houses were repured and the castle was providoned 
with pork and wine. Kng John, that most locomotive of 
ioveragns, was here 13th, 14th, and 15th of February, 
1201, and again, 28 January 1213, when he dated a 
letter to ihe Emperor Otho from hence: When John's 
nu^ovemment tempted Alexander to cross the border to 
promote an English rebellion, Bambargh remained faitb- 
ml. Nevertheteas the reigu of Alexander is honourably 
remembered for the attempt then made for the first time 
to establish a general though rough code of laws for the 
border, to which either nation could appeal with some 
diance of being listened to. 

Henry III was here in Karch 1221, when a grange or 
bam was ordered to be constructed within the castle, 180 ft 
by 34 ft, for which timber was supplied from the forest 
In times of danger balisterii and soldiers were provided, 
and cross-bows and quarrell-bolts, bacons and wine were 
supplied. Sometimes the stores of wheat and wine suffered 
from keeping and were ordered to be sold, and fresh sup- 
plies purdiased, but always under proper inquisitions and 
certancatea. No doubt the greater part of the cost of the 
works was in labour and materials, which do not to any 
greak extent appear in the sheriff's accounts. 

Under Henry the expenditure was continued. Smiths* 
work and carpenters' work went on ; balisUe of horn and 
of wood were supplied, and a thousand quarrells for 
ammunition. In 1221 Robert de Leni^ton, a justice, 
informs Hubert de Burgh that the Border was tranquil. 
Meantime the gutters of the keep were to be put in-order, 
and the lodgings, the great gate, and its drawbridge were 
ordered to be repaired, and the stores of com and wine lo 
be replaced. The king's tower was to be covered with 


lead, and the mill and mill-pool attended to, and ao all 
through the reign to its end in 1272. Henty foouded a 
^nse of Friara Freachen in Bambnrgh towarai tl^ dose 
of hia ragn. 

Edward I does not appear to have . visited Bambnr^ 
nnleas when in 1296 he sommoned Ballol to attwd 
him there, and on lus n^lecting to ob^, marched to 
Edinbn^ and made him prisoner. TTi&r Edward 11 
Bt^er de ^rs^y was castellan, but Edward ocmunitted 
die castle to Isabella de Bellomtmt, widow of John de 
Tesci, " cam toonagio "RcffB ibidem" that is with the royal 
toll on the weights of wool, but for this she was to pay 
£110 per annum. Probably she did not reude here, for in 
1315 Horseley seized upon certuu provisions on thar way 
to the garrison of Berwick, the contents of a ship cast 
ashore below the castle, a breach of the law for which he 
was called to account. 

Bambui^ was a part of the dower of Isabella, queen 
of Edward ll and it was thither that Gaveston was sent^ a 
nominal prisoner, in 1811, to be transferred to Scai^ 
borough ^ust before hia death. It was probably under 
Uie dictation of the Barons that in tiiat year an ordinance 
provided "Qe le chaatel de Bamboorgh soit seisi en la 
maynes le roi sicom I'ordeynment veut." A few years 
later, 12 Ed. II the burgesses of Bambuivh and other 
crown tenants under the castle petition to be allowed to 
cwttanne in their lodgings within the castle with remission 
of rent, thdr lands having been wasted by the Scots. 
This was granted, as were similar petitions from the other 
tenants. No doubt they had been allowed to erect tem- 
porary buildings in the lower ward. In 1323 the queen 
was here, and the castle seems to have been threatened 
by the Scots ; a movement intoided to divert the fcing 
fifom an attack on Berwick. 

There is no special mention of Bambnrgh during the 
reign of Edward HI save that in 1334-5 tiie Earl of 
Murray, a prisoner at war, was lodged here until his 
removal to York, costjng altogether £32, so that the castle 
was then inhabited, though probably not much more, for 
86 Ed. in it appears that the " foiis " in the great tower 
was corrupted by butcher's offal thrown into it in the 
time of ^chard Fembridge. On the accession of 


Kchard II Parliament prayed that Bamborgh and other 
castles taiAt be pot in order. In this re^ mention is 
made of three springa of sweet vater belonging to the 
buigesaea of the Till ; Wydenrell, Edgewell, and Handlyn- 

In the war of the Boses, as the conflict moved north- 
wards, Bambnr^ came within its sphere. After the 
battle of TowtOQ in 1461, when Queen Margaret sought 
asdstance on the contdnen^ and returned with 2000 
auxiliaries, she landed first at l^nmonth, but finding her- 
self unsafe there, re-emburked for Berwick. In the 
passage her lieutenant, Pierre de Bracy or Br^, was 
driven a^ore under Bambnrgh and had to flee on foot to 
Bic/fy Ldand, with the loss of 400 men. The Qneen how- 
ever recovered Bambuigh, which was hdd by the Yorkists 
till after tbB battle of Hexham, in May 1464, when Sir 
Balph Gray fled thither from the field, and was besieged 
by the Earl of Warwick, who battered down a portion of 
the wall which fell upon and nearly killed Sir Ralph. 
The castle was given up and Henry Percy, afterwards 
Earl of Northumberland, had charge of it. He also 
abused his privil^e of right of wreck by plundering a 
Scottish vessel ca st up on that inhospitable shore. 

Natber Henry Vli nor his successor seem to have paid 
much attention to the border fortresses, and Bamburgh 
px>baUy became ruinous. There was however a Captam, 
and from time to time the Warden of the Marches was 
adm<miahed to keep lus castles in proper order. Jn 1552 
ffir John Horseley is to see to the castle beacon, and in 
1587 Lord Wharton is to look to the general defences. 

At the IXssolntion John Forster got a share of the 
Bamborj^ church lands and the fanmy established them- 
selves at Edderstone in the parish, and took an active 
part in the defence of the Muches ; but there are com- 
plaints that the Captain does not reside in the castle, and 
finally John Fmster got a grant of botii castle and manca: 
from James IL The family adhered to the Stuart cause, 
and in 1715 Thomas Forster joined the rebeb and for- 
fdtedhis estates. 

Lord Orewe, Bishop of Durham, had married a sister of 
Thomas Forster, and at her instance he purchased the 
forfeited estate, and founded the beneficent tnut wbish 

_ I: Google 


bean his name, andU still in full actinty. It would seem 
that Lord Crewe found the castle a mere min, and nearly 
covered up with blown sand which had choked np the keep 
and covered the remains tk the chapeL This most have 
been going forward for a considerable time, for when the 
sand was removed in 1770 the well and the chapel were 
looked upon as discoveries. 

Happily for the success of the trust Dr. Sharp, Arch- 
deacon of Northumberland had a seat at the Board. 
Under his active care the sand was cleared out, the keep 
made habitable, and the great hall and lod^ngs fitted up 
and converted to their present uses. 


The rock rises from 120 to 150 ft. above low water, for 
its surface though smooth, is not level, the central part on 
which the keep stands being the highest, and the 
eztromities from 10 to SO ft. lower. l£e area is long 
and narrow, bdng about 406 yds. long by, at the broadest, 
100 yds. and at the north end much narrower. The 
whole area was contained within an exterior curtun wall, 
which towards the sea has decayed and been replaced by 
modem masonry capable of carrying guns and connected 
with a ngnal battery. It includes about 3 acres. Along 
the western or land front part of the curtain is original, 
though it has been sorely breached and battered and 
where necessaty rebuilt. Its lower 20 to 80 ft. is bulk 
as a rev^ment against the rock, but above the interior 
sni&ce it rises sometimes as a parapet, but more generally 
as a loRy wall supporting the domestic buildings, or as a 
mem pliun curtun of 20 to 25 ft. high. 

Upon this front are four half round towers or rather 
bastums, unce they rise but slightly about the curtain. 
One, Uw largest, caps the junction of the main with a 
cross wall ; a second, of no great size, is placed opposite 
to the keep, and two others are connected with the 
domestic buildings ; that nearest the great gate com- 
manding the approach. Between these last are two rect- 
angular towers, also connected with the buildings. The 
keep is the grand and central figure of the group, rising 
far above Uie whole. It is mfficult to exa^erate the 
grandeur of this landward front, the rock, and the curtun 
which seems to be a part of it, extending nearly a fifth of 


a mile, with & hnght of from 130 to 150 ft. above the 
plain, and the rude massy keep rising some 70 ft. 

The area is divided into tiiree wards, of whitdi the 
upper or southern contuns the ancient £htraace hyatms, 
the CSiapel, and die Lodgings or domestic bnildings. The 
Keep stood upon a cross wall, now removed, diviung the 
npper from tins middle Ward, and this again is divided 
firam the northern or lower ward by a cross wall, 
strengtiiened by a half-round tower with prolonged sides, 
and a gateway which has undergone restoration. 

Tbe mun entrance is at the south end through a sort of 
barbican, between two half-round tower^ once protected 
by a drawbridge, and dulyportcnllised. !Ekitering, on the 
Wt, the ancient entrance, a steep narrow flight of steps cut 
in the rock, ascei^ to the ward abSve. The main 
entrance is continued, ascending, and having on its left the 
precipitous rock crested by the wall of the upper ward. 
The road thns reaches a second gateway, also strongly 
fortified, and is continued between U^e ward curtain on Uie 
left and a partial enter or seaward wall on the right, until 
it reaches tiie level of the middle ward, when it turns 
abruptly to the left, and through a gateway, long since 
removed, reached the upper ward, and the entrance to the 

Tbia npper ward is protected towards the sea hy an outer 
curtun, commanding the roadway just describecL Along 
its west or landward side are placed the domestic dwelt 
lings, arranged against the wall, and overlooking the cliS*, 
Nearest to the keep are some vaults, possibly for prisons. 
Then what may have been retiring rooms from the ball, 
and next the hall itself, 57 ft by 30 ft, having four windows 
and a door towards the court, and probably having had as 
many windows towards the cliff. Beyond the hall are 
butteries, and between them a cnrious vaulted passage 
leadhig to the kitchen and to a small chamber, probaUy 
a cellar. Other buildings eztoid towards the nuun 
entrance. These domestic dwellings have fonnerly been 
allowed to fall into ruin, and they have been restored, 
added to, partitioned and plastered, so that though most 
of the old walls, passages, and vaults remain, the whole 
has been so diagmsed that but littie accurate knowledge 



of the old smmgement can, at present, be obtained. The 
intmon of the mural towers nave, however, been bat 
little altered, and there remains a curious balcony or 
par^)ettad passage between two of the towers, commanding 
the exteruH* approach. There is no verjr evident Nozman 
wwk in these buildings, they probably rai^ from Ebnry 
nL to Edward n. 

Hie ch^td stood detached near the sonth end of the 
ward, »t the head of the steps. It Ilea east and west, and 
was composed of a long narrow nave, 56 fL by 12 ft. 
having a small door. An eastern archway opened into 
the chdr, 15 ft by 16 ft., beyond which was an apse, 
semi-circalar, with prolonged sides and strengthened ex- 
ternally by flat pilasters of which tiie bases remain, llie 
chapel is nearly levelled to the ground, and its existence, 
long foi^otten, was only discovered late in the last century 
on the removal of a heap of blown sand. It is late 
Norman of about the age of the keep, but the apse and 
perhaps the choir, are the older parts, though not by 
much. The choir seems to have had a small sonth 

The keep stands between the upper and middle wards, 
being entered from the former. It stood in the line of a 
cross wall, now removed, in which a gate, as has been 
mentioned, conmianicated with the midme ward. 

Hie middle ward was divided tram the lower ward by 
a strong cross wall or curtain pierced by a strong gateway 
now rebuilt Near this, upon the wall, is a small hau 
round tower, with prolonged ndea. At the west end of 
this wall, where it joins the mun curtain, is a three-q^oarter 
tower or bastion. 

The lower ward, somewhat triangular in figure, is pro- 
tected along its western front by the curtain, here of great 
height ana strength, againsrt which modem storerooms 
and stables have been bnilL In this wall is a small 
postern from wUch a steep narrow flight of steps descoids 
mto a sort of small outwork, intended to cover the postern 
and to give a safe passage to a spring of freshwater. This 
ward is at mesent very weakly defended towards the sea 
front. PrtMiably an attack in force was not apprehended 
on this quarter. There do not seem to have b^n any de- 
tailed buildings of a permanent character in eiUier of. 



Uuae two wards, they were no doubt intended for the 
barracki of meromanefl, and for a shelter for the tenants 
and their cattle on the occorrence, not infreqaent, of a 
Scottish mid. 

The Keep. 
^ on the one hand, Bambnrgh, as it now stands, pte- 
xatB nothing that ,can be attributed to its fonnder, or 
even to those who possessed it for the five and a half 
succeeding centuries, on the other hand the casUe, at 
least in its general Mpect, remains pret^ much as it 
stood in the reigns of Keury HI, or Edward IL 

The predominating feature of the fortress, that by which 
it is blown to those passing within view of it by sea or by 
land, is its grand central tower, a very fine, and on the 
whole a very perfect example of a late N'orman rect- 
angular keep of the first class, worthy to be named with 
Hedingham, or Kenilworth, or the tower of London, and 
resembling the latter, and the keeps of Dover, Lancaster, 
Newcastle and Appleby, in that it is at present inhabited. 
Its base, laid up<m a rock, probably but little below 
the surface, measures 77 ft. 2 in. east and west, by 69 ft 
8 in. north and south, as it will be convenient to desoibe 
i^ though in truth the north face fronts about ELN.R 
These dimensions include a plinth 
with a projection of 4 ft. all round, 
and a height varying with the uneven 
surface en the rock, but averaging 
about 5 ft. 6 in. Its mouldings, are 
not altc^ther of a Nonnan caarac> 
ter, and have probably been recnt 
whrai the building was restored in 
the last century. 
Each angle of the stmcture is 

'»%W><^ — 

cwped l^ a pilaster 12 ft. broad, 
and of 9 m. projection, meeting at 
a solid angle, and between them are 
on t^e. north and south fronts, two 
pilasters of similar projection, and 
6 ft broad and lift, apart ; and 
upon the east and west fronts a 


single pilaster, 7 ft. iHoad, and placed near the centre of 
each face. The capping ptlaatera rise Tortically, without 
set off or redactioI^ 60 ft., to the top level of the inter* 
mediate parapets, whence thej are contdnaed as turrets, 
7 ft. square, to a height of 8 ft Their parapeta have 
one notch or embrasure on each face, and the parapets of 
the intervening cortains have four and five each. The 
six subordinate pilasters retain their breadth, bat are set 
back at two ofisets of a foot each, corresponding to sets 
off or redactions in the wall, into which these pilasters 
die a little below the base of the parapet. Beudes these, 
oBual in such keeps, there is another pilaster 15 fl. Inoad 
and also 9 in. deep, placed near the east end of the south 
front, snd carried ap to the second floor. In this is 
placed, at the base, the entrance portal, and above it a 
pair of round-headed windows, no doubt representing 
earlier loops. This thickening of the wall to give depth 
to the portal may be taken as a part of the endence that 
Uie eub'aQce here is original. 

The dimensions of the building above the plinth are 
61ft. 8 in. north and south by 69 ft. 2 in. east and west, 
and the north, east, and west walls are 9 ft. thick, iiie 
south wall 9 ft. 4 in. leaving an internal area of 43 ft. 4 in. 
1^ 51 ft. 2 ins. This is divided by an R and W. wall, 
4 ft 6 in. thick, into tiro unequal portions, the northern 
16 ft. the southern 22 ft. 10 in. broad. These again were 
subdivided, the north part by a cross wall 4 ft. thick, the 
south wall by two arches springing from a central pier 4 
ft. by 3 ft. and from two responds in the walls. Besides 
these the southern portion was again subdivided by an 
arcade, running east and west, of three arches. The 
gener^ result is the subdivision of the basement area into 
nine bays of which the three northern are nearly 16 ft. 
square and the six southern are considerably smaller. 
The bay occupying the N.W. quarter is shut off and is 
entered by a small original doorway. The rest are either 
open or divided by modem partitions. The main cross 
wall, at its east end has been cut away to represent an 
arch, and thus a small doorway has been removed. The 
vaults are some groined and some barrel vaulted of differ- 

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PLAN. i, 


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taxt spani and hdght, the lu^^^ ^^ ^ but dlroQnd- 
headed, aad aU wry ^un. The [uen are reetangnlar, 
vithoat c^M, Jn tiu ceatral western bay is tlie oolebrated 
weQj 150 ft. deep* now disnsed. The vaults are evidently * 
cvigmal, at^ a miKment of plinth shews the original floor 
to have been abont 10 inches lower than the present one. 

The basement was li^tdd, or rather ventilated, by 12 
loc^iB, three on each face, or rather by eleven loop^ the 
door taking the place of one, so that that Bach of seven 
of the d^ outer bays had its loop.- T^e six to the K 
ud W. are nnaltored, and have narrow slightly 
ii^ayed recesses, the others have been converted into. 
small windows and the recesses enlarged, l^ie eastern 
loop aa the north front has been altered and in its side a 
small mural cluunber has been excavated as a garde-robe, 
probably modem. ' Near to Qua is the entrance to 
a well-sturcase 5 ft. 6 in. in diameter which rises by sixty 
two steps 52 fL to the upper gallery, and communicates 
with each floor. 

The only entrance to the keep is in the sbuth front 
near its east end. Five steps lead up to the doorway 
which is 3ft Sin. broad and 7ft. ein. high, flat-topped 
and shoulder-headed. Above is a plain tympanum set m a 
round-headed recessed arch of two members. The arches 
spring from four detached shafts with plain Norman caps 
said abaci, two on each side ; the passage within is 5 fl. 
wide and vaulted. There was no portcullis and the 
portal was only closed by a stout door supported by 
a strong wooden bar. Neither was there any drawbridge 
or exterior defence, as is proved by the unbroken surface 
of the rock. 

On entering the doorway, in the passage, on the left, a 
small plain opening admits to a flight of 27 steps, the 
staircase threading the south wall, 4 n. broad and vaulted, 
and lighted by a loop io the exterior wall. At the head 
of the staircase is a landing, and on the right 2 steps more 
reach the level of the first floor and open into the 
Court room. 

This floor measures 43 ft. 4 in. N. and S., by 51 ft. 2 in. 
E. and W., and there is a reducUon of the east wall to 
7 ft;. 10 in., the west wall to 8 ft. and the north to 8 ft. 
6 in. ; the south wall is increased to 7 fr. This area is 

TOL. xi.n 

' .lOO^Ie 


divided between four roonu: — the Court room, the 
Kitchen, and the Armonrr. The Aimomy oocapies the 
whole west ride of Uie bouding. It b 41 ft. 3 in. tong l^ 
14 ft. IntHid, and has a window at eat^ end, and one near 
the centre (^ (he west side. The windows are set in aesni- 
domed recesses and have been enlarged. This room is 
vaulted and divided from the others by a wall 4 fu thick. 
Two cross arches divide the room into three bays. The 
nctrthem bay' 16 ft, by 14 ft. has a groined vault with 
diafits at the angles, ^e other bays nave barrel vanlts 
laid crossways. There were orlginulytwo rooms divided 
by a wall 4 ft thick, and this has been cut away to 
resemble an arch, so that at this time the room may be 
described as divided by two cross arches into three bays. 
The norUiem bay, 16 ft. by 1411., has a groined vault 
with shafts at the angles. 

That there were two rooms is evident from the 
appearance of the masonry and by the existence of two 
original doors. Had not this chamber lain north and 
south it would certainly be taken for the chapel wtuch 
even as it is, one half of it may have been. As at the 
Tower and at Colchester, it is the only vaulted chamber 
above the basement level 

The Kitchen, 17 a 2 in. N. and a by 33 ft. 2 in. E. 
and W. occupies the north-east quarter. It is entered by 
original doors from the Court room and Armoury through 
walls 4 ft. ^ck, and has two windows to the north and 
one to the east. All have been enlarged and small cup- 
boards cut in the window jambs. There was originally a 
short passage in the wall leading from the side of the east 
window to the well-staircase. This has been blocked and 
a more direct opening made. 

'llie Court room occupies the 8. R quarter. It measures 
33 ft. 3 in. by 22 ft. S in., and is 17 ft. 3 in. high. It has 
a large window in a splayed recess towards the east, and 
to the south a deep recess, 10 ft. by 8 ft. contains the two 
coupled windows over Uie entrance doorway. From the 
west side of this recess a staircase 3 ft. wide ascends in 
the south wall to the upper floors. It is lighted by a 
lateral loop enlarged into a small window. This staircase 
ascends twenty steps to a small landing, whence a passage 
passes off to the right, up three steps, and reaches the 
second floor level. 


At this Level the walls are »gam reduced ia ttucknesa, 
the west wall to 8 ft 2 in., the north to 8 ft. 6 in., the east 
to 7 ft. 10 in., but the southern wall remains at 9 ft. 6 in. 
She area u Sift. 7 in. by 43 ft. Sin. 

Ilin flcxK- tike the lower one contains three roonu, bat 
none are -vaulted. Ihey are diree bedrooms and a library. 
3Sie first and second bedrooms occupy the west side, 
bong over the armoury. Tbat in the 8.W. quarter is 
18 ft. 7 in. by 10 ft. 8 in., and has a window to tiie west. 
That in the N.W. quarter is 18 ft. by 10 ft. 8 ul, and has 
windows to the west and north. The partition between 
them ia 7 ft 1 in. thick* and is threaded by a vaulted 
passage S ft. 9 in. broad by 6 ft. high, which leads into a 
moral chamber in the west wall lighted by a small loop. 
The chamber has been enlarged into an oval, 8 ft Irf 6ft., 
and servefl as a dressing and bath room. The Ihird bed- 
room faces the north. It was 33ft. Sin. by 17ft, Sin. 
and had three windows to the north and one to the east, 
wi^ splayed recesses, from one of which a narrow mural 
' passage leads into the well staircase. There is some slight 
doubt whether this passage be original This room has 
been divided into two by a modem partition. 

The fourth room is the Library. It occupies the S.EI. 
quarter and measures 33ft. 3in. by 22 ft. Sin., and is 13ft. 
4 in. high. Its Soor is four steps higher than the others, 
to give height to the Court room below. This arrange- 
ment is no doubt modem. There is one window to the 
east and to the south are two. llie two communicate by 
a mural passage which at its centre expands into a small 
chamber, lighted by a loop. This passage is continued on 
the further side of the easternmost window and leads into 
a circular chamber, 5 ft 6 in. diameter, contained in the 
- S.E. angle, and lighted by a south loop. Probably this 
<diamber was originally a well sturcase ascending from 
the second floor to the upper gallery. In. diameter it 
matches with the N.E. well staircase. 

This floor contains an arrangement which-is exceedingly 
rare in these keeps, being found only at Dover. The wall 
separating the eastern and western rooms 7ft. 8in. thick, 
is threaded by a vaulted pasaage 3ft. 9itt. broad, which 
gives access to all the rooms, and from whidi the cross 
passage ah^ady described la given off. The wall between 

_ I Google 


the north bedroom and the library ia 8(did : at its eaat end 
u a doorway which opeu both into the bedroom and into 
a chamber m the east wall, probably an ori^nal gaide- 
robe. It will be remarked that the moral staircase from 
the landing upon which steps led to the second floor 
was menUmea as continving to the floor abore. From 
that landing 16 steps asoenid to t^ S.W. anffle of the 
boilding, which contiuns a moral chamber li^^ed b^ a 
sonthem loop, ^ence the sturcase is continaed, lismg 
by 6 steps, in the west wall, to the upper. gallenrjUt 6in. 
broad eh. high, which threads the VfJS. and W. walls. 
Within the two fonner it is unaltered, and is lighted by 
three loops on each face, but in the east wall the gallei^ 
has been blocked in modem times, though in places it u 
still seen. It was evidently continued to a c^indrical 
chamber in the S. E. angle, now closed, and which no doubt, 
u already mentioned, contuned a well stair ascending 
from the second floor to the galleiy. There has always 
however been a difference between the east side and the 
two others. In them the windows are ample apertures 
in the outer walL In the third side the gallery traversed 
the splayed aides of the windows so as to admit the light 
into the rooms within. At the N.E. angle the well stair 
below ends and communicates with the gallery. At the 
K.W. angle a fre^ well staircase commences and ascends 
by fourteen steps to the allnre or rampart walk. 

There is some doubt as to the date and original arrange- 
ment of this upper floor. It was clear from weadiJer 
mool^ngs now concealed in the east and west walla that 
onginally there was no third floor, but the second floor 
was roofed ridge and furrow, no doubt with a covering of 
shingles, and a central gutter: the whole bemg concealed 
within the outer walls. This was so at Forchester, Eenil- 
worth, Bridgenorth, and in many other keeps. Soon 
afterwards, quite within the Norman period, more space 
was wanted and lead coming into use, an upper floor was 
added, and a flat roof laid on. Here the walla of this 
new chamber with the original doorways remain, though 
plastered over in quite modem times, probably about 
1770. The flat roof, then no doubt rotten and gone, was 
replaced by a ridge and furrow, but at a higher level, as 
now seen, so as to give more bedroom accouuidation. 


The rampart walk along the top of the oater wall, stiU 
remains, and from it short staircases ascend the fotir 
angle torrets. The pecnliarities of this keep are the 
entrance at the ground level, not, it is believed, known in 
any other laive keep ; the mnral stair, as at Bichmond 
and Pmdhoe, oat found nowhere dse to the same extent; 
and the absence of fireplacea and flnes which the Tower 
of London, was long supposed to be without, but recently 
one or more have been discovered there, though without 
flues, the smoke having been allowed to escape by small 
apertures in the outer wall a few feet above the fire, as 
at Colchester and Bochester. It is not likely that any fire- 
pUces or smoke vents should be concealed here; they 
wonld have been discovered when the keep was re-fitted, 
nor in this case would the Orewe trustees have gone to 
the ezpence of building fireplacea and running up flues 
agUQst the face of the walls. 

It is probable that Dr. Sharp found the keep open to 
wind and weather ; the roof and floor gone ; the basement 
choked with sand ; and the parapets and an^e turrets 
much broken down. These be replaced, preserving, as 
may be seen, a great deal of the old work. He laid new 
floors, put on a new roof, cleared out the well, put fire- 
places and flues into the rooms, converted many of the 
loops and some of the smaller openings into Norman 
windows, and made the whole buildug not only habitable 
bnt comfortable. Looking to the period when all this 
was done, and what the Canons of Durham were then 
about to do to disfigure their cathedral, Archdeactm 
Sharp surely deserves praise, not only as an active trustee, 
but, at least at Bamburgh, as what was then far more 
rare, a skilled and tasteful restorer. 

This paper would be very inc(»nplete did not the writer 
acknowledge the hospitality he received from Sir John 
Lubbock, at his visit, the occupant of the keep, and the 
assistance he has had from Hr. B. G. A. Hutchinson, the 
able and active Besident, tmder the Crewe Trustees. 
His are the plan» and sections of the keep, and with them 
he has favoured the writer with his own valuable ob- 
servations upon the details of the buUding. The general 
plan is taken, in substance, from the Ordnance Surr^. 

J, zed by Google 



On the morning of Saturday, March Uth, 1889, the 
workmen engaged in repairing and partially relaying the 
pavement of the presbytery of lincoln Minster, popularly 
known as the Angel Choir, preparatory to its being once 
more made available for purposea of worship, had occasion 
to raise the slab which was known to cover the grave of 
Oliver Sutton, who was Bishop of the See from 1280 
to 1299. The position of die grave was under the second 
arch from the east end, on the north aide, in a line with 
the recently erected cenotaph of the late Bishop Words- 
worth, which occupies a similar place under the third 
arch. The slab covering Bishop Sutton's grave was one 
of very large size, measuring 12 jl in length by 4 ft. in 
breadth, of Farbeck marble, which from its want of 
hardness and homogeneity had become grievously decayed 
and fractured. It is said, in Brooke's reprint of Sander- 
son's MS. catalogue of the sepulchral memorials in 
lincoln Cathedral, taken before the devastation of the 
Great Bebellion, to have borne an inscription in Lom- 
bardic letters. Of this inscription, if it ever existed, all 
traces have disappeared. The covering slab being raised 
the workmen were led by a natural curiosity to pursue 
their investigations further than necessity required, 
resulting in me curious and interesting discovery which 
I am about to lay before the Institute. 

Immediately beneath the slab was a layer of rough 
stones embedded in sand, below which lay slabs of uie 

'Bnd It tiMKoiitlilyHartiiiKi^tlMliiftitate, Apia 1,1889. ( \),^o[r 

opKHiHa or TBI nniB or bobob outkr sirrroN. 115 

local Lincoln oolite, covering the grave as a lid, 1 ft. 7 in. 
from the level of the floor. l£e grave itaelf was an 
oblong rectangular stone chest constmcted of dressed 
nuaoniy, and, as already stated, covered wil^ a stone 
lid. The dhnennons of diis chest were 7 ft. 3 in. 
long, 2 ft. Sin. broad, and I ft. 10 in. deep. The 
whde of the interior was lined with sheets of lead, 
fmning & shell ooataining the body. One sheet covered 
the bottom of the chest, rising up all round vertically 
to the hdght of 3 ins., and met by another sheet of 
lead running down the sides and covering the junctures, 
the whole being invested by a third sheet running 
all ronnd the cavity from top to bottom. All the joints 
were carefully soldered. The whole aperture ai the 
grave was covered by another horizontal sheet of lead, 
strengthened and kept in its place by four transverse iron 
bars, I ft. 6 in. apart, soldered to the lid by leaden 
" tabs," two to each bar. 

On removing this last covering the skeleton of Bishop 
Sutton was discovered, in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, with the exception of the skull. The bones lay in 
the midst of a mass of decaying vestments, perfectly 
formless, having lost all that would indicate their material 
or texture. The flesh had completely decayed, leaving 
the bonea bare. Though the skull had entirely dis- 
appeared, neither tooth nor fragment of bone remaining, 
a considerable mass of hair of a bright brown hue inclin- 
ing to red, indicated the place where it had lain. Beneatii 
it was a head-rest formed of a block of oak, 2 ft. by 6in., 
cased in lead supporting a mouldering woollen cushion. 

The leaden receptacle shewed indications in the dark 
stain 2 in. deep all round, of the brine or otiier antiseptic 
liquid which had been poured in upon the corpse, upon 
closing down. The workmen informed me that the lid 
ran down with moisture when first opened. 

To come now to the most interesting feature of this 
discovery. On the right side of the skeleton were a ailver- 
gilt chalice and a paten laid on it as a hd, standing npr^ht 
as originally placed nearly six centuries back. Ilie 
vessels were covered with a piece of fine linen about 7 in. 
or 8 in. square, which, when first discovered, was hanging 
in graceful folds all round, tiie bright metal gleaming 

L. _ I Google 


through the rents time hod made. On the admunon of the 
air, the frail tianie soon fell to pieces. The chalice is 
of much the aame shape and dmienrions aa that from 
Berwick St^ James, ^Wilts, now in tiie British Mnsenm, 
also of lilver^ti which is figured in' Mr. St. John 
Hope's memoir on "Medinral Ghalioes and Patens," in 
7%< Arehaoloffieal Journal (toL ^iii, p. 142). Its fonn 
is somnrtuit more elegant, the lower part of the stem 
beknr the knop having a more graceful concave curve. 
This chalice bdongs to *' Ijpe A. " of Mr. ^pe's dasa* 
fication, to which he asmgns the approximate date c 
120&— 1250. These vessds are somewhat later in date, 
the bishop having died in 1299, but were probabfy 
of e&rUer construction, being almost certunly " massing 
vessels " not vessels expressly made for the purpose m 
interment with the corpse. The chalice stands 4^ in. 
high. The bowl which is broad and shallow is 4 in. in 
diameter, and If in. deep. There is a slight quasi lip round 
its edge. The foot is circular, of the same diameter as 
the bowl. There is a bold knop to prevent the cup 
from slipping through the hand of the priest, projecting 
half an inch from the stem. The chalice was constructed 
of Uiree pieces of metal, the bowl being soldered to 
the stem, and the knop with a ring below supporting it, 
riveted to it. The whole vessel is very cardully made, 
but is entirely destitute of ornamentation or symboL- 
The gilding is still brilliant on the inside of the bowl, 
but has disappeared from much of the outside surface of 
the vessel From the carefulness of Uie fashioning of 
both chalice and paten, and from the solidity of ti^eir 
make, as well as from the predousness of their material, 
Hr. Hope is of opinion tiiat they must have been intended 
for use at the Sacrament of the Altar. The bishop 
probably had richer and more elaborate vessels for his 
customary use, but those now found would have been 
occasionfJly used by him. They almost certainly do not 
belong to the class of, funeral vessels. 

The paten is 4£ in. in diameter. Both the inner and 
outer depression are circular, uncusped. In the centre 
of the inner depression is the J/antu Bet issuing from 
conventional clouds, in the act of benediction. This 
symbol marks an early date. In later times the VemicU 


— i*. the Face of the Blessed Lord — or the Agmu Dei 
were more in hvovx. 

The ring had dropt from the filler, and vat found 
between^e 1^ of the skeleton. ^Tt is pronounced by 
an e^wrjenced jeweller to be of pure gold, 22 carats fine. 
After the dirt was washed from it it was as bright as the 
day it was fint pat on, and still bore marks of the 
bumishing tool It is of Urge size, probably intended 
for Uie inder finger of the right hand. The hoop is 
massive, circolar in section, not at all flattened. It is 
joined to the bezil directly wiUiout any shoulder, or 
lateral sprea^ng out. The bezil is large and maaure, 
gabled in section, roughly oval in shape, adapted to the 
outline of Uie large piece of rock crystal with which it is 
set The bezil is strengthened with four slender bands of 
circular section. A similar rim mna round it and unites 
it to the setting which encircles the crystal. The face of 
the stone is perfectly flat and highly polished. Mr. Hope 
writes, '* the ring is clearly Oliver Sutton's ring, and not 
undertaker's stun. The crystal may be a pale sapphire, or 
the bishop may have liked the crystal" 

This is the third episcopal ring in the keeping of the 
Dean and Chapter of Uncoln. The other two are those 
of Bishop Gravesend, which has lost its stone, and of 
Bishop Grosseteste, which is set with a sapphire of fine 
hue. The chalices and patens found in the graves of 
these prelates, when opened at the close of the last 
century, are also preserved, witii others, in the Cathedral 

On the left side of the skeleton lay die mouldering 
renuuns of a crozier. This was of wood, and was in the 
last stage of decay. Ur. fiadley was enabled to take 
phot(^raph8 of the head of the stafi^ which was ex- 
qmsitely carved with vine or maple leaves. 

A few biographical notes of Bishop Sutton may not be 
out of place. He was originally a Canon of lincohi. and 
was elected Bean in 1275, It is recorded of him as an 
unusoal merit, that as Dean he kept residence at Lincoln. 
By the futhfiil and kindly performance of his decanal 
duties Sutton so completely gained the confidence and 
goodwill of his Chapter that on the vacancy of the See by 
the death of Bishop Oravesend he was chosen his sno- 



eessor, per if^piniiumem, the choice Imng accepted by tbe 
king. Be u described u vir Uueraiuat -wbo bdfng a 
regent in arts had studied canon and ci^ law, and had 
purposed to devote hinuelf to Uieolcw7, and proceed to 
the highest degree in that achoci had he not been elected 
Dean. Both as Dean and ffishop he prored himself a 
carefol govemor, both in temporal and spiritual matters. 
" EnUrdy averse &om avarice he canaed all tlie fines and 
amerconenta pud to him by offenders agunst the 
ecdesiuUcal laws to be made over to the mwi^cant 
iriars, poor nuns, and the poor and needy of the.parishes 
where the offences had be^ committed, *' not retaining a 
penny for himself." He never distressed the people of 
his manors with exactions or tallages beyond their, l^al 
dues, and distributed liberal alms to the more needy among 
them. To his Cathedral and his Chapter he was a great 
beoefactor. He increased the Commons of the Canons, 
and for the protection of the Canons as they went to 
the nocturnal services, from evil disposed persons who 
had previously made the Close their rendezvous, he 
obtained the license of the Eing, Edward L, for the 
erection of an embattled wall round the Close, strengthened 
with towers and with double-gate houses at all tjie en- 
trances to the predncts. For Uie use of the parishionerB 
at St. Mary Magdalen, whose chnrch had been puUed 
down by Eemigius for the erection of his cathedral, and 
who had up to this time been accommodated in the 
nave of the Minster, Sutton erected a separate church, 
where its successor now stands, between the north-western 
gate-houses — the Exchequer Qate— ^f the Close. He also 
caused the cloisters to be erected, and commenced a 
college for the residence of the vicars. Senior and Junior, 
who had previously lived dispersedly, and not always 
very reputably, in different houses in the town. This 
"Vicars Court," as it is termed, left unfinished at his 
death, was continued by his executors. 

Bishop Sutton died during Ms attendance at KaUns, in 
the Minster on St. Brice's Day, Nov. l3, 1299. He 
breathed his last as the choir were singing the last words 
of the Antiphon — 

Digilizcd by Google 


lite ooofsnor Domini ncntiu 
¥ttU ^bs eajtu odebnt per orban 
Hodie uetns merait nonte 
Seftndara oolL 

Schftlby, Sntton'fl r^ristrar, to whom we are indebted 
for these particnlara of the bUhop, states that he bad 
coDTersed with SntttHi'i cimfeflaor after his death, whose 
wmple and enfAiBtia testimOnjT was **»« pbwam n^i;ae 
qnin jtutissimns, constantisumus et mondusimus homo 

Digilizcd by Google 


Sr 3. BAnr, fjul. (Scm.) 

Few places in Brittany have a more interesting 
histoiT man tihe Castle of Foog^xes — literally "Ferns, 
snch being the meaning of its name, and the herald 
device of its ancient lords. Already a great and im- 
portant fortress iu the days when Uie £ngs of Bag- 
hnd were also Dnkes of Normandy, it tus seen at 
least two English monarchs and a King of ScoUand in 
warlike array before its walls ; it has been the scene of 
many stirring events in the middle ages, and nearer our 
own time it was one of the rallying pomts of the Choaans, 
those bold peasants who so gallantly maintained the cause 
of their Church and King against the armies of the 
Bevdution. Balzac's gemns has illuminated this p^ 
of its hist^ny in one of his inimitable romances. Let 
Chouant en Br^ague. The traveller who leaves Nor- 
mandy (or Brittany, and who prefers to the usual tnu^ 
by St. Halo and Z)iiiau, the road from Avranches by St. 
James de Beuvron to Eennes, will enter the old Armori- 
can duchy under favouring auspices. "By Qas road the 
Bretons used to invade Normandy till William Uie Con- 
queror planted the castle of St. James in their way 
and forced his turbulent ndghbours to take the route by 
the mouth of the Couesnon, where the " Fas an Boeuf ' 
below Pontorson, has engolfed many a plundering Breton, 
The road from Avnmches to Foug&res is highly 
picturesque. The trees in this part of France, perhaps 
owing to the nearness of Brittany, where nature is allowed 
more of her own way than elsewhere, are not ruthlessly 
cropped, and growing in clumps and hedgerows have more 
of a forest appearance than usual. The crimson stalks of 

> Bmd A tha K«Uilj Umting U Um Inrtitat^ A|«il 1, 188». 


the sarrazin or backwhe&t, Btandingcut in the fielda, glow 
IB anttunn with a novel charm for English eyes, oontraat- 
iug finely with the changing hues of the forest timber. As 
we approach St James, a deep narrow valley on the left, 
richly clothed with wood, marks Uie course of the little 
river Beuvron. on its way to join the Selone, which soon 
after loses itsdf among the treacherous saodi of the bay 
of Mont St. Ulchel. St. James, once possessing a strong 
castle and a priory of Benedictines, Ib now a Uttle open 
town. Only a few fragments of walls and towers on tlie 
edge of the ravine overhanging the river, renuun to shew 
its former strength. Shortly after leanng it, the road 
enters Brittany, a fact made evident in many ways; the 
country becomes wilder, the road more tortuous, with 
stretches of gorse covered land, a plant much used by 
the natives in foddering their cattle, and instead of the 
tan, spare, Norman, the dark, long htured, and short 
Breton will be seen in autumn busy with his family or 
servants thrashing his crops with Uie primitive flul, on 
the smooth surface of his open farmyard. 

Few things shew more clearly than their husbandry the 
conservative character of Uie Bretons. The road winds 
along, passing now a wood, in whose dark recesses one 
might almost suspect a wolf or two to be lurking, now an 
old mansion with its ^tang, or moat, and at last reaches 
tJae base of a tree-crowned hill, from which the old walls 
and houses of a town look forth. By many indications 
one can perceive that a place of some consequence is near 
at hand. The traveller is, indeed, close to Foug^res, the 
chief place of the arrondissement, with a population of 
between 9,000 and 10,000 inhabitants. A strong smell 
of leather pervades the environs, revealing the principal 
trade to be " cordonnerie." The natives also carry on 
other industries, such as dyeing, tanning, glass blowing, 
and the making of sabots, The hill, on which the town 
stands, rises to the height of 440 feet, and an extensive 
view is gained from the platform, east, soath, north, and 
west. In the last direction, a winding street nms through 
the market place by a steep declivity to the gateway of the 
castle. The town of Foug^res in shape much resembles 
a pear, the broadest part being at the top of the ridge on 
which the visitor is standing, while the narrower part 


122 THE CASTLX of rOUaKtUB AND m L0BD8. 

tapera off downwards towards the casUe, the old town 
walls bounding uther edge of the declivity, and leaving 
litde niOTe space than the breadth of the street, and the 
honsee and gardens on each side. To tiie east and south 
of its upper and broadest part, Fong&res is now an open 
town, its gates and walls there having been long destro^d. 
It has burst its bounds in that direction towards the 
forest, and the road to Bennes. Slsewhere the walls 
stiU remain, no kmger fit for defence, for houses have 
been tmilt on them, and ivy creeps over all the old em- 
braznres. On a spar projedingfrom ^e plateaa towards 
the south, just ontnde tlie walls, stands the principal 
churdi of St. Leonards, a conn>icuous object in the 
landscape, as the richly timbered ground slopes steej^y 
away from its site northwards into Uie valley, where 
stands another church under the castle walls with an 
oddly deflected spire — that of St. Sulpice. Further to 
the north and west, an amphitheatre of low billB sorroundji 
the castle, broken only by the road to Dol and St. Ualo. 
In the valley between, the litUe stream of the Nan^n 
winds arouDct the town and castle, flowing gently to join 
the Couesnon, a mile or so further down. The town once 
possessed four giUeways, only one of which, that of St. 
Sulpice, remains. ESght important highways intersected 
at this town. Fong&res bemg one of the most ancient 
fiefo of the duchy, its early lords, who were of the same 
stock as the Dukes of Brittany, took precedence of all their 
other feudatories. Fasung down the street already de- 
scribed, between old houses with arcaded fronts resting 
on hearr wooden pillarB, we arrive at a moat, suppUed 
by the Nan^on, and eroeaing two successive drawbndges, 
no longer moveable, we ent^ under an archway into a 
court umked l^ two towers of the 12th century, ^ere 
doubtless in days of yore buj stranger undraVent a 
strict examination before obtumng permission to proceed 
farther. But we may now go on unchallenged to the 
place d'armes or outer bailey of the fortress, large enough 
for a tournament, surroonded by many flanking towers, 
all bearing individual names indicative of historic inci- 
dents in me annals of the Castle and its owners. The 
donjon, or keep, has long been rased, though its three 
flanking towers remun, two of them bearii^ ^e romantic 


nuuca of the ** Tour de Hflaune * and the ** Tonr de 
Cktbelin." llie third, at the eztreme north-west angle, 
bean the name of " Clisson," Uie constable of Brittany, 
and contain a prima chamber at its base, acoesrible onty 
by a ladder. The only light is a small dit in the 12 or 
IS ft. wall Near the laUer, a postern, once oommuni- 
cating with the keep by a coT^«d way, opened on the 
high road, many feet above its level, affording aooess 
by a ladder or otherwise without pasmng through the 
main entrance next the town. He fortress, like Um solid 
rock on wMch it stands, resembles an irre^nlar triangle, 
the apex being next the town. The great hdght of its 
walls, seemingly from SO to 40 feet, added to mat <tf its 
rocky foundation, protected it on iJie south and north- 
west. To the nort^-east, a moat in addition protected it. 
Notwithstanding this, it was carried by escalade on a 
memorable occasion in the 15th centniy. It is said to 
have been founded in the 11th century, but little of it 
probably dates earlier than the end of the 12th. Two of 
the largest towers which cap the angles of the walls to the 
south-west bear the names of " Baoul " and " Sorienne," 
and seem, (or possibly the superatnictnre only) to be of 
the 14th or 15th century. These, with a square tower 
called the " Tour de Cadran," front the church of Sl 
Salpice, and command the road from Dol and St. Halo, 
which enters the town by the already named gate of St. 
Sulpice, whose tower is still entire, and shews we grooves 
for working the chains of the drawbridge. Closely ad- 
jmning is the last of the castle towers on this ude, the 
** 'J'onr de Plesguen," joined by a curtain to the gateway, 
^trough which nothing could enter the town save by 
permission of the Lords of Foug&res. Having thus given 
an imperfect outline of their fortress and bonrg, let us 
see what manner of men and women held high state in 
these deserted halls and towers^ now in the peaceful 
occupation of a large manufacturer of dyed wool The 
origin of the Lords of Foug&res is lost in the mists of 
Breton antiquity. The first their historian traces was Meen 
or Maino, the younger son of Juhel Berebger, count of 
Bennes, who. in the lOth century, received the lordship 
in appanage from his father. The Counts of Bennes were 
of the stock of the old Breton princes, derived from 


the British leader Conan, who is sud, early in the 5th ceu- 
tiuy, flTiog from the tyrannj of the stranger, to have 
led a body of his countrymen to a new Britain beyond 
the sea, then known as Armorica. In a later d a y, the 
deecendants of these men swelled the army of mlliam 
the Conquwor^ and rec^ved wide lands in the coontry 
that their fcnvfathera had abandoned to the Saxon and 
An^. For two centuries and a half the male descendants 
of Muno held the foremost place among the nobles of 
Brittany. Th^^ allied themselves wiUi the Dokes of 
Brittany, the Earls of Chester, the De Botuuis, and other 
great houses. They founded, after the manner of thor 
tames, abbeys and churches, and sometimes retired to 
t^iese sanctuaries. They also made war on not unequal 
terms with crowned heads. Those who wish full details 
of their history will find it in the works of the learned 
Benedictines, fathers Lobineau uid Morice, and the 
Sieur d'Ai^entr^. The third baron, Haino, and his 
wife Adelaidis, appear in a deed granted by their 
relative Maiuo, bishop of Beones m 1050, of two 
diurches to Mont St. Uichel, and it is added in the 
record, that " their young son Juhel present in his 
mother's arms, and crying, was pacified by a monk 
with twelve pemiies," an interesting and graphic touch of 
nature in a dry legal document. This Muno was a 
mnnificent benefactor to the Abbey of Marmoutiers, and 
after his death, Adelaidis his widow, and her surviving 
son, Baool L, in 1104 granted to the same house the 
church of St. Sulpice in the valley below the castle, till 
^en known as the chapel of Notre Dame de Marais, with 
all rights of baptism and burial over the inhabitants of the 
castle of Fouglres, reserving only to the lord of Fougires 
the right to hear mass in his own chapel of Bt Mary within 
its walls. This Baoul, besides making the pilgrimage to 
Bome, was himself a great church benefactor. He was 
endowed by the Conqueror with many lands in Normandy 
and England for his services at the Conquest, and in 1112, 
with consent of his wife Avicia, and their four sons, he 
founded the celebrated Cistercian abbey of Sav^y across 
the Norman border, conferring on it valuable possessions, 
an example follow^ by many other Briton and Norman 
notdes. Scarce a stone remains of this great abbey, the 

•na CASTU OF h>uobris and ITB LOBDOL 123 

mother faotue of Fnmess, Eorkstall, inland, ind numy 
othen still 8[^aidid in nuns, whose ridus are com- 
memorated ia the Norman proverb — 

"!>• qui oOU qv» !• Taut nnta 
L'AUMje da SftTignj ft nnta." 
"Beary, his son, the next lord^ gave additional lands to 
Savignr^ and endad hia days th^ as a monk. Wm son, 
Baonl it, was tiie most distingoished of the line. With 
the air of a soTerdga prince, he styled himself in his 
charters " Badolfus, Dei ffrada ^Igeiiamm Dominns." 
Daring the straggle for the succession to the Duchy, 
between Eudon, viaooont of ForhoSt, the second husband 
of Bertha, danghter and heiress of Gonan the Great, and 
his steps<Hi, Oonan earl of Kchmond, Baoul aided with 
Sndon, and in 1163 seized the castles of Dol and Com- 
boui^. Conan obtuned the aid of Eleonora of Aqnitaine, 
Queen of England. Baoul, foreseeing trouble, took the 
cross in ] 164, hoping to obtain the protection of the Holy 
See. But Henry U. descended that year upon Brittany, 
and Baoul, in place of departing for the crusade, had to 
defend his castle. Henry sat down with an army before 
it. The siege was long and severe, and, as we are told 
by the chronicler, proved the courage and skill of BaouL 
But in 1166, both town and castle were taken by assault, 
and dismantled by Henry. William the Lyon, Eng of 
Scotiand (whose sister was the wife of C!onan), is known 
to have been with the besiegers. Such losses would have 
been enough to arouse the resentment of Baoul, but another 
motive animated it. Henry, by marrying his young son 
Qeoffry, to Constance, the youthful daughter of Ck>nan, 
imagined that he had quietly secured the ducal throne. 
The proud Bretons disgusted with Conan's thus bringing 
tiiem under tiie yoke of a stranger in preference to one of 
the princes of his own sovereign house, of which the 
warlike Baonl was a scion, formed a leagoe, with Baonl 
at its head, against the foreigner. Conan, called "the 
little," to ^tinguish him from hia grandfather, had died 
young in 1170 (he was only 31) perhaps of chagrin. 
Baoul seized the castles of 3t. James and Le Xilleul, 
defended by Henry's Braban^on mercenaries, and burned 
them. He restoreid his own castle in 1173, and also pre- 
pared a singular sobterranean retreat, in which to couce^ 

VOL, iwn , ' I 


his treuores, the " celliera of Landean/' itill existing in 
the forest, a few miles from the town. Unlucky for him 
Henry's s^dien cwtured ihe convoy on its way to this 
place of safety. Baoul, howerer, again sdzed Dol and 
Comboorg, and met the Kn^ish force in a pitdied 
battle on the plun of DoL aa lost nearly all hu alliei 
in the battle* and had barely time to take refuge in D(d 
when Henry, hurrying from Bouen, made him and the 
Earl of Chester raisoners. Baool regained his liberty by 
giving his sons, William and JuheU as hostages. Henry 
at last made peace with him, and in 1185 Baoul, as 
Seneschal of the Duchy, " an officer," says the chronicler, 
" of the first dignity, which he merited by his high birth 
and rare valour," assisted at the asnze of C^ffry Han- 
tagenet, Duke of Brittany. In 1190 he carried out his 
long cherished design, and departing for the Holy Land, 
is said to have died there in 119i. Like his ancestors he 
was a munificent benefactor to the Church, and founded 
the Abbey of Bill<$, between Foug^res and Bennes. It 
was by this active and turbulent noble thai, the following 
curious act of homage was performed to the Abbot of 
Mont St. Uichel, for the land held of that reli^ons house 
by the lord of Foug^es. In the chartulary of the abbey 
it is related that in the year 1188 Baoul de Fougires 
rendered his homage on the ffite of St Michael in October, 
St. Michael de Monte Tomba (on the 16th of that month), 
by ringing the bell for vespers and matins until the 
abbey servants took the cord from his hands, when he 
was bound to give them a cask of wine ; in the evening 
there was brought to him a habit, similar to that of the 
monlu, and one "bote" ; he might sleep if he choose in one 
of the chambers of the abbey, and after the High Mass 
on the f%te he, with three or four of his knights, sat at 
meat on the Abbot's right hand in the refectory, while 
the rest of his retinue took their repast elsewhere* or in 
the town. If the seigneur of Foug^es slept in the town 
Of the Mount, the seigneur of Ma^^, a neighbouring 
manor, was bound by his tenure to awake him and 
conduct him with a lantern to the monastery before 

William the son of Baoul, died before his father, and 
Geofiry his grandson, was one of the chief opponents of 


King John, when that unprincipled monarch attempted 
to seize the possessiona of hii murdered nephew, Arthar 
of Brittanj. In 1202 John laid siege to Foug^res, but 
retired without attacldng it, and revenged himself^ 
laying waste the country to ^e gates of DoL Hu 
Brmban^on routien desecrated that caUiedraI« and even 
set fire to its roof, as is still remembered there and 
related by the local historian. The distafi succeeded to 
the sword, and the grandrdau^hter of Geofiry, Jeanne de 
Fongires, carried me inhentance into the family of 
Lusignan, renowned in histoiy and romance. It is 

Erolwble that to her hnsband, Hugh XII, count of 
a Marche and Angoalesme, may oe attributed the 
building of the 18th century tower, bearing the name 
of his ancestress, the fairy Kelusina. " Thus," says an 
eminent writer, M. Leopold Deliale, " ended the House 
of Fougferes which, during two centuries, had played so 
brilliant a, part in the annals of Brittany, Normandy and 
Engltuid." Tet the castle was destined m other hands to 
witness important events. Guy de Lusignan was forfeited 
by Philip le Bel in 1307, who united La Marche and 
Augoulesme to the crown of France, giving hia sister 
Tolande the lordship of Foogires, which she held till her 
death in 1314. It passed to the house of Alencon, and 
after being captured by the celebrated Du Gnesclin 
became the property of the Bakes of Brittany in 1415. 

In Hay 1444 a truce for five years was signed be< 
tween France and England, including Brittany. Frau- 
ds L of Brittany, however, had seized and imprisoned 
his brother GKlles on pretence of his treating with 
the English. In retaliation it is supposed, and secretly 
instigated by Henry VL, or some of his nobles, 
Francis de Sorienne, an Arrasonese knight, governor 
of Verenueil, and Gonde snr Noireau, and a might of 
the Garter, suipiised and took the castie of Pongees on 
the night of the 23rd March, 1448-9, and renised to 
deliver it to the Duke of Brittany, saying he held it for 
the English king. The truce was at an end, and the 
events which followed form a brilliant chapter in the 
history of France. The EbgUsh, with singular iU-fortune, 
rapidly lost all that had Deen won by the valour of 
Heniy T. ; while the Frendi, under Arthur of Bichmond, 



Constable of France, cloBed a Beries cS roccesses l^ the 
decisive battle of ForauAny in April, 1469, whidi ended 
the rule of tixB Bjoaae of Lancaster in France. 

Such is an imperfect oatline of the chW erents in tiie 
history of this romantic place. The visUrar, who from 
the hdghts to the west, looks down at evening, on the 
Tast btuk of the mined fortress lying in deep shadow, 
while the bst rays of the setting son light up the dd 
town bOTimd, its houses rising, tier above tier, till the 
view culminates in the Be&oi, and the tower of St 
Lecmard's cm its wood crowned slopes, will admit, varied 
as his ocperiences may be, he gazes on a panorama of 
angnlar charm. Shoold he be endowed with some aS 
that imaginative facul^ that so greatly enhances the 
pleasures oi travel, fancy will come to his side, and 
re-people the deserted battlements. He may recall the 
warlike Baonl, setting forth with his chivalry to Palestine, 
the bold Da Ouesclin, incormptible champion of Brittany, 
or the crafly Aragonese, and his midnight escalade. Or 
furer forms may flit across the scene ; ladies look out 
from their towers, as thai knights ride forth to battle, 
the fabled Uelusine hovers around the abode of her de- 
scendants, and Diana of Foictiers (for she, too, once 
owned tlw caatle) dis^ys once more the charms which 
captivated the most Chnstian king. And as the short 
tinliffht melts in darkness, and the gazer, shaking off 
his virions, seeks the valley below, he may even fancy in 
every bush a devoted Chouan, stealthily creeping to srize 
the walls manned by the hated severs of the Bepublic 

Digilizcd by Google 



Such are the names given in the JBoglish, fVench and 
Qerman works on armoor to the erect guards on the 
flhonlderB of suits, aa seen in original examples and as 
found in monumental effigies, brasses and other repre- 
sentations in pictures and illuminated manuscripts. 
Whatever may be said of the French and German terms 
for these defences, the English word paeguard is certainly 
misapplied when referring to them. 

Wlien this erroneous nomenclature first obtained, it is 
difficult to say ; bat as late as 1697 there were some who 
still knew what the word really referred to. In the 
Tower Inventory of that year, the fine suit of tllUng 
armour (No. -^ of the present collection) was described 
as " One Armour cap-a-pe Engraven with a Ba^ed StaSe, 
made for ye Earle of Leisester, a Mainfere, Passguard and 
Uaineguard and Gantlett." The Mainfere and Gantiett 
are of course t^e defences of the left and r^t hands, the 
Mainfere as expluned by tiie late Albert Way being the 
mun de i&c or bridle gauntlet. The Maineguarde we may 
reasonably suppose to be the large detached piece of 
armour engraved like the suit, with tiie Bagged Staff, and 
covering the front of the upper part of the body. This 
piece as will be seen on examination fitted closely over 
the upper part of the cnirass and the left shoulder, and a 
small attadied piece, farther defended part of the left arm. 
The whole was kept in position, by the upper part fitting 
tightly round the front of the helmet, a pin on the right 
«de of the latter passing throagh the Mainguard; and 
below, a staple projecting from the tapul or ndge of the 
breastplate paued through this extra defence ud would 



be secured by a Unch pin. At some period the slot for 
this staple {in the breastplate) has been filled np bnt its 
former existence u still clearly defined. A strap with a 
metal tag was aim attached to the small plate, and the tag 
wludi was pierced with an eye, fitted orer a pin pro- 
jecting from the -left side of the cuirass. The npper put 
of this Uaingnard wluch, conformed as beffnv noted, 
to the c<mtonr of the neck and lower part of the helmet, 
was actaally a separate piece of metal and only rivetted 
to the main portion. This apper part has been (we con- 
cave) wrongly tenned the volanie piisee but was really 
only a part of Uie Uaiiu;aard. Having thus disposed of 
three of the pieces mentioned in the 1697 Inventory we 
may take the Faa^aard to refer to the other looee piene 
now seen with the suit. - This portion of the panoply is 
also engraved wiUi the Bagged Stafi* and is undoubtedly 
of the suit. 

In shape it is irr^ular, and in Heyrick and Skelton's 
fine work a similar piece is engraved at fig. 5, plates 
vii and viii. 

It has a hole in it, for passing over a pin on the left 
elbow piece, to which it would be thos fixed by a linch 

Its purpose was to afibrd additional protection to the 
left arm at the elbow joint between the top of the Kun- 
fere and the lower part of the Grandgnard or Mainguard. 

To return to the so-called Fasguard ; in this suit 
neither of the upright plates springing from the shoulders, 
is now leil. That there were two originally, may be seen 
if we examine die means by which they were attached to 
die pauldron. It wUl then be observed that the upright 
plate had its lower edge bent so as to form an angle ; and 
in the bent portion were three holes which passed over 
inns standing out of the pauldron. These pins also have 
gone, and the holes for thiem on the rid^e of the shoulder 
have been filled np. Small hooks acting as linch pins, 
probably secured the upr^ht plates on these pins, as may 
be seen in the one plate stiQ. remaining on the left shoulder 
of figure No. A> of the Tower collection. For further 
proof of the former existence of these plates on this suit, 
we have only to look at the sketch by Zucchero for a 
portrut of the Earl of Leicester, who is represented in 



this very soit.' The Grandgaard is seen oa the ground 
behind him, and on each ahoulder are shown the so-called 

It may noT be interesling, having shown what the so- 
called Fasgnards were not, to examine what these 
defimces wwe, and to endearonr to trace thur use in 
armour inBogland. 

Thdr ohjeot was clearly to protect the neck from blows 
of sword or lance directed from the side. Some have 
imagined that the Ailettes of the 14th centory were for 
this same purpose, but if so it is curious that ^ey should 
.have dis^pctfed from Uie scene, after the comparatively 
short period during which they are represented or 

The earliest instance of the upstanding plate on the 
shoulder that we have yet met with, is in the Bedford 
HissaL This nuwnificent MS. was executed about 1424. 
Three of the illuminations are figured in outline in 
Oough's description of the MS. 1794. In one of these is 
seen a king, standing in a room and being armed by his 
attendants. The king who is in full armour except as 
r^ards his head, on which is a crown, has on his right 
shoulder a series of three plates or lames, the upper one 
of which is bent upwards so as to form a standing ridge. 
The left pauldron is composed of two plates only, but me 
upper one is veiy large and this also has its upper part 
bent so as to form a similar ridge. 

The Manuscript having been executed in France, this 
may have been a foreign fashion only, and indeed the two 
next instances in point of date are, in one case certainly, 
if not in both, subject to the same observation. 

In the National Gallery there is a beautiful little picture 
of St. Anthony and George, painted by Pisano in 1438. 

St. G^rge, who stands in full armour, except a laige 
straw hat which he wears in place of a helmet, has on his 
shoulders the very large shoulder pieces which appear to 
have been in fashion in Italy at that date. His back is 
turned to the spectator, but one can see the standing-plate 
on the left shoulder. Its upper edge is bent over so as 
nearly to reach the plate of the pauldron itself. 

lb, Google 


The neid; ezan^iile in point of date it the latten effigy of 
Kchard Earl of Warwick. This exquuite figure 80 often 
of the greatest use for the solation of qaestions of detail, 
afforda ffood instanceB of the upright guards. As figured 
by Stothard and Blore, one can see not only the mmt, 
but the back and side views of tliese addiUons to the 
shoulder defences. 

The left pauMron also gives indicaUons of the fashion 
which later on became a decided feature of this part ot 
tiie suit. This is a point <m the very slope of the shoulder, 
and we see it strongly marked in the brasses of Stapleton 
1466, Curson 1471, and Sir H. Grey 1492. In the brasses 
of fflierboome 1458 and Dengayn c. 1460, we find the 
upright guards and also a second ridge on the shoulder, 
wlule the Quatremain brass of about 1460 has a series of 
ridges on the large left pauldron. X similar treatment of 
the left pauldron is seen in the brass of Sir Thos. Fqrton 
(1508) and several others. 

Standing plates with invected edges, on both shoulders 
are seen in the Farice brass c. 1460, and double ridges on 
the left shoulder only, are observable in the brass of 
le Strange 1478 and that of W. Berdwell 1508. 

In the portruts now at the Pinacothek of the brothers 
Baumgartner c. 1512, figured by Hefner, both these 
warriors wear shoulder pieces mib. e rect guards. In the 
splendid engraved suit of Henry Viil No. } of the Tower 
Collection the two guards vary in size and shape. That 
for the sword arm, as one woiUd expect is much smaller 
than the one on the left shoulder, which is high enough to 
reach to the levd of the ear and instead of being a simple 
curved upright plate, is in three planes. 

The guards on the Anted suit No. ^ of which one only 
now remains, were Uke the later examples on the Leicester 
figure and No. ^, fixed by pin and staple to the pauldron 
and ao could be removed at pleasure. 

When the Salade and beaver were worn, one might well 
wish for a ^rther and more complete defence for the side 
of the neck, but with the Armet, and the Burgonet and 
Buffe, it seems hardly necessary to add to the protection 
aSbrded by these close fitting headpieces. There is no 
doubt however that the upright guards were invented and 
used to meet some special requirement; for the extreme 


reaaonablenen of each portion of the warlike panoply 

(until eza^erated by individaals) is one of toe di»- 

''"gwiffhiT'g and most worthy points of the armonrer's art. 


Merrick and most other writers on Armour have-spoken 
of this piece, as an ad^tional protection for the lower 
part of the head of a jouster, but rivetted or otherwise 
made fast to the npper part of the Qrand^^uard. Such 
defences are seen in many collections and besides detached 
examples in the Tower Armoury, that belon^ng to the 
Leicester suit No. ^ may be mentioned as a fine specimen 
of this portion of the panoply of the knight in the Tilt 

That it had some n)ecial name there is little reason to 
doubt, but we are inclmed to think that VoUmte Place was 
not its proper designation. We do not propose to enquire 
here what that name waa, but to oBer some suggestions as 
to what the Tolante piece really was. The term belongs 
to the 16th century and is used by Hall in his interesting 
account of tiie accident, so nearly fatal, which befel Henry 
YHI in 1524. 

It will be remembered that on that occasion HeiOT who 
was jousting with his friend and brother-in-law Charles 
Brandon Bnke of Suffolk, started on his course " the riser 
of his headpece beyng up aud not doune nor fastened, so 
that his face was clene ni^ed," Brandon, who was not only 
short-sighted but unable from the fashion of his headpiece, 
to see the king, also started and, to the great dismay of 
the beholders, who perceived the state of t£e king, but too 
late to prevent the encounter, " strake the ^mg on the 
brow right under the defence of the hedpece on the verye 
coyfie Bcnll or bassenet pece, whereunto the barbet for 
power and defence is chameld, to whiche coyffe or 
bassenet never armonr taketh hede, for it is evermore 
covered with the viser, barbet and volant pece, and so 
that pece is so defended that it forseth of no charge." 

We here have the Volant piece, Barbet and Viser 
mentioned as the hvnt portions of the helmet. The 
Barbet is the piece protecting the chin and lower part of 
the face and like the viser, it is " chameld " or hii^ed to 
Uie Coyffe or bassenet piece which includes the main 


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portion of the helmet The Yiser is of course endent, bnt 
what is the Volant piece? Tbe name impliek a moreable 
portion, and referring to Baron de Oossm'a ralnable 
Catalogue of Helmets in vcA. xxzvii of this JoanuU we 
find on page 51 something which oompUei with this 
condition. Speaking of the Salade tor the jonste, we are 
told that some examples have on the front portion, 
two plates corresponding tn contour to the exterior 
of the Salade, and resting on or in some cases behind 
a Blight ridge on the Salade. These plates are retuned in 
positjon by a bar with forked extremity, which fastened to 
the upper part of the Salade, holds the two plates by this 
forked end, against the Salade. A smart blow from the 
opponent's lance would displace the bar, and the plates 
being liberated would fall or fly off. Here we have the 
idea of " volant, " But the nuun object of these plates 
was to add to the protection of the brow. In the Mus^ 
d'Artillerie, Paris, there is a Salade of this kind, figured at 
p. 404, Vol. H of Viollet le Due's ZHctionnaire du mobilier. 
At the Tower, the suit No. 2, supposed to have been 
purchased in Spun, and worn at the EgUuton Toamar 
ment in 1839 by the late Harquis of Waterford, has these 
two plates. But thu suit is a modem forgery, and one of 
tbe most glaring proofs of its falseness consists in the 
position of these plates which have been rioeUtd to the 
Salade, and fixed in a way that could never have been 
tlie custom. In fact they are sometimes described as 
-vrin^ The Armet of figure No. % however has an 
additional rdnfordng plate over the brow. A similar 
piece LB also seen in the Armet No, 30 at Paris and 
figured in Viollet le Due's work at Vol V., pi. L This 
reiuforcing plate answers the purpose of strengthening the 
"brow of ue helmet, and though not detachable like the 
plates on the Salade, by a blow from a lance, it is not 
rivetted to the "bassoiet pece " but is removable just as 
tlie Visor is. 

Von Leber at page 112 of his Wim'a KaiaerUches Zeug- 
hatts mentions that this extra brow piece Stimdoppelahtck 
is not uncommon or of very great antiquity. He mentions 
four other helmets at Vienna as having such a piece. 

In the suit No. f at the Tower the absence of ornament 
on tbe part of the helmet under this piece (the whole of 


the rest of the helmet and suit being eograved) points to 
its being always worn on the helmet. It has a stout rib 
OQ its lower edge which coincides with the brow of the 
main porUoa of the armet, and conforms to the ridge of 
ths armet terminating at the mdes in invected outlines 
with trefoiled finials between the carves. It is reUuned 
in pondon l^ the pivots of the Visor which pass through 
it and the Armet itself on each aide. 

When Henrv YII created his son Henry, Prince of 
WaleSt at the Pas d'armes, at Westminster, the challenger 
was to come ** in harness for the Ult," without taige or 
brochette, woolant piece over the head, rondall over 
the garde, reste of advantage, fraude, deceit or other 
malengine." We may then suppose th^t the term does 
apply to something over the head, and not the fixed 
piece which forms a part of the Grandguard. That 
piece in modem French works is called the Haute piece, 
and such may be a fair term for it, but Volant cannot 
be applied. 

It would be v»7 desirable to ascerttun the earliest 
occurrence of the dlOerent terms as now used for armour, 
and we should then avoid much of the confusioD which 
is caused by giving names to things, whi(^ when they 
were in use were never known by them. 

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9j3.U AHDBlf. 

The remarks which it is proposed to <^er here on Uie 
churches of the north-eutem part of Norfolk, beit^ ooa- 
fined to obserrationa on the buildlngB and their ottings 
only so far as they appear to illustrate Ute belief and 
ceremonial of the medueval church, I have ventured to 
entitle Ritualistic Ecclesiology ; as it is not intended to 
nodce any features in the architectural or constructive 
sense usually implied under the designation of Ecde- 

Norff^ may be called a ** happy hunting-ground " for 
die eccleuolc^ist, as the ehurches are nnusually numerous 
for tiie area th^ occupy, are generally easy of access, 
and a very large unmber of uiem were re-erected or 
altered at the close of the fourteenth century, a date 
from which till the middle of the sixteenth, the un- 
altered Ekiglish ritual displayed the greatest amount of 
its splendour, and probably was in no place more efiec- 
tually carried out than in the ecclesiastical ecUfices of 
East Anglia, a conclusion to which I think every eccle- 
Edologist will come who has inspected a fair number of 
these buildings. 

It is hardly necessary to say that in Norfolk there are 
several examples of churches standing in the same church- 
yard, as at Antingham, and GKllingham ; but at Wey- 
boume, on the north-east coast, there is a still closer 
combination of ecclesiastical ediJices, the monastic and 
the parochial churches being conjoined in the following 
singular manner : — The tower of the former, of very 
early Norman date, forming now a north chapel to the 


parish chnrdi, the east wall of the chancel of which 
was the west wall of the monastic nave, and is quite 
solid, there bong no east window to tiie parochial edifice; 
this latter had its own tower, so that the appearance 
of the combined dmrches resembles that presented by 
a somewhat sinular example at Wymoadham, ako in 

A peculiar feature in some of the smaller parish 
churches is the great width of the nave, as at Ajlmerton 
and Hempstead (near Ecdes) ; a width allowmg of a 
western tower flanked by windows in the end wt^ even 
where there are no usles. At Beedham, there is a simi- 
larly wide body with western tower, and covered with a 
nngle span roof, the east wall of this nave has two 
angles, the northern one opening into l^e chancel, the 
other into a south chapel.' The position of the tower 
in the middle of the west wall forbids t^e idea of there 
having been a central arcade under the apex or ridge 
of the roof ; such as is not unknown in some few ex- 
amples. These wide aislelesa naves were perhaps in- 
tended to facilitate preaching to large congregations, as 
we find them in several of Uie churches erected by the 
Dominican order abroad, an order called also that of 
the Friars Preachers, &om the prominence given by them 
to pulpit oratory. The space obtained by the width of 
these naves also allowed of altars being placed one on 
each side of the chancel arches, the piscinas in con- 
nection with wMch remain in numeroos examples. 

At the Collegiate Church of Ingham, we have the 
sipgnlar feature of a chapel raised one storey above the 
rest of the floor of the building ; it is now in ruins, but 
the holes for the joists which carried the flooring, and 
the piscina remain ; the latter in the south wall shows 
condusively the use to which the chamber was applied. 
The only similar instance that I know of in England is at 
Horsham in Sussex, where there is a diapel placed over a 
crypt. In boUi these cases they occnr on the north sides 
of the chancels. At Horsham there was an altar dedi- 
cated to St Michael, which was probably the one in the 
chapel mentioned, as there are altars in the galleries of 

I wdtM in iU Mit mil, a 

), Google 


Bome (amga churches, and erected in honour of that 

lliere is a very peculiar arrangement at the east-end of 
the chancel at Tunstead, and which can perhaps be best 
described aa a vestey, nmilar in position to that seoi in 
some late examfdes at the back of the high altar ; here it 
is within the bunding and oocninefl the whole width of 
the chancd, hsring a depth of about four feet ; there is a 
doorway on the south nde, entered by a descent of one 
or two steps, whilst on the north is a night of eight high 
and sdid stone steps, landing on the flat stone roofing of 
the chamber ; in Uiis roof is an iron grating, and besides 
this and the door there are do other openings. l!he use 
of this apartment the stiurs and aperture are quite un- 
known, but I venture to suggest that it was a relic 
diamber, because the permanent character of the ap- 
proach to the roof points out that it was in frequent use, 
and the narrowness of the platform, together with the 
position of the iron grating, forbid the idea that there 
could have been a second altar in such close proximity to 
the "Uaster Altar," as the French call it. If access to 
the roof over the chamber was only occasionally re- 
quired, a common wooden ladder would have answered 
the purpose equally well without the wide and inel^ant 
stone steps, and my conjecture is that the worshipper 
ascended, and lcn<neii»g on the platform prayed to the 
saint whose relics he beheld undo* the grating.' 

Singular as is the chancel at Tunstead, that at Bollesby, 
near Martham, is equally remarkable, and here also I 
think we may attribute its peculiarities to ritualism in 
comiection with relics. In the interior angle, formed by 
the jnnctitm of the east and south walls, is a square 

N MMfawat 

Ohttti&iWan ._, 

<4 wUdi ■ dMoMiaa Mtd a^THiiy an 

ciTCB In AtA fyftrnti, Td. s^ ^ S7. Oma «t OmUod, b t» U Mtn a bo^ 

If Um gntjng in Uie duiDbar «t Jon- Mpolclin, a. nliubl* woik of tb* fotir- 

«t«ul k uodan, parikqn uratlur dtMcy tMnth oMtnir," Labke, Ei»efari»i»tlc«l 

mi7 b* ■dmuad u to tlw protabU laa Art, pp. 2S0-U1. A "— ii" cliaubcc 

of tliBapvtiiMnt,iiuii>l7 t&ttitMTtad t« tlut at Tnnrtod U «ud to fokt *t 

u an &rtsr Mpnlchia, th* dwliot ud Under, ilw in Norfolk. 8m VivMk 

liost being puMd tbroogh Um ipattura Aich., h, p. 806. 

atBartw. Mtd boRw down tba itoM C\)0*Mc 


encluanre nude by two pointed arches, placed at right 
au^ea to each other ; they are about a foot thick, and the 
east window, a Ferpendicnlar one of three Ugbta, has the 
Bplayi of the jambs or ndes continued to the ground. 
leaviDg a recess in the wall, a feature somewhat unusual 
in oonnection witJi an east window; the whole arranee- 
ment Bnmtests that a passage was intended through we 
arches and behind the altar, which would usually in the 
middle ages stand a couple of feet or more from the east 
walL* No tradition exists as to the use of this singular 
addition to &e end of a church, and its preservation 
tiirongh the last three hundred years of a changed ritual, 
borde^ on Uie marrelloTis. The theory which I adTance 
respecting it is that the arches supported a chasse, or 
reliquary chest, under which sat any diseased person 
desirous of obtuning his cure by the intercesuon of the 
saint whose relics were placed above him. This idea I 
confdder to be supported by some remarks furnished by 
Ur. John Hewitt, in a paper published in the Twenty- 
sixth Volume of the AreJusological Journal^ and devoted 
to the consideration of a perforated tomb at Newington 
Street, Kent Amongst other examples the writer 
describes the shrine of St. Dizier at Alsace, and gives an 
engraving from an old illumination, reproduced in a 
work of H. YiolleUle-Duc, which exhibits an altar with 
its rotable, at the back of which, supported partly by the 
east wall and parUy by the reredos, is a chasse of relics. 

Concerning this representation an extract is given from 
the above author's book to the following effect : ** The 
retable masks and supports the reliquary, under which 
any<me might place himself, according to an andent 
custom to obtain the cure of certain infirmities."' 
I believe that at Hollesby the arches may have been the 
supports of a chasse of relics under which a person sat 
for the cure of his malady, and then passed out behind 
the altar. In confirmation of this view I am informed 

' n* Motn tt tn. altar ao pUoad at monk aod aoolrtM nniliDg tiun. Tba 

BoUaaby, would ba anwtlj oammaiided print than takea tha ratio friJeh b tha 

b; ■ aquint atfll ramaintng in tfaa oottli ifcall of fL Apollinaria anaaaed in an 

aiale lA that dkoroh. artitdal aknll aet with jpld and pncioDa 

* At Uh praa ep t dor the Oermui ahnaa, and holda it orar tba taad of 

pilgrima to tha Qturdi 01 S. Apdliiiait^ aach pilgrim, altar ho or aha hw 

craotad on tha high hill north of Ramo- raratantlr lliiiil it" CUk Taum, 

gao, on raadiiDg tha adiOoa find, " a Jul/ S7th, I8BS. 

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that some yean back there was a kind of seat under the 
arches in question. At Westminater the shrine of 
St. Edward has open archea, under which, I beliere I am 
correct in saying, it was customary to seat those who 
deured that saint's intercesaion to cure their maladies. 
Bespecting the shrine of St Dimer Mr. Hewitt quotes a 
passage from Didron to the following effect : ** Taa tomb 
of St/Diner in the little Church of St Birier, in Alsace, is 
nothii^ but a stone hollowed into the form of a little 
cell with two openings. Until 1835 persons suffering 
from mental malady were passed through these apertures ; 
then they plunged t^em into a spring of water which 
runs thron^i the village of Val. Aji analagous ceremony 
took place m Anvergne, at the tomb of St. Menonx, for 
the cure of head-a^ies." Didron, rviii, p. 51. The 
arch opening on the north side of the enclosure at 
Bolleaby, and the lowered sill of the east window surest 
that the invalid, after sitting under the relics, passed 
round the back of the altar to complete the cure. 
Passing through or round a sacred object has been a very 
common process in faith-healing,' and having never met 
with any explanation of the peculiarities seen at Tun- 
stead and HoUesby, I have ventured to suggest the above 
soluUons of the problems — ^which may b« worth very 

Nearly all Norfolk churches possess west towers, the 
doorways of many being of great richness; thus at 
Hickliog the western entrance is combined with the 
window over It and a lofty niche in the apex of the 
latter, and decorated with more than thirty shields in 
panels. The width of many entrances is very great, so 
aa to allow of the free egress and ingress of processions ; 
at Tnnstead, the opening has a clear space of six feet and 
seven inches ; whilst at Fehningham it is no less than 
seven feet three inches; in both cases the doors are 
necessarily folding ones At Cromer a band of sex-foils 
runs entirely round the doorway with six winged seraphs 
within the panels, and at Acle we find the donors of the 
north porch in a spandril of the outer door-head where 

> At bkpli(m in On Ora«k Cbuidi, the walk tliru tinm rDawl tba tempo**!; 
child u earriad thricv nund tba font, aHw waoted ia tb* efaorA. 
and at mairiiga the newly wedded pair 


th^ appear *'bidditigtfa«r beads."' A consecration cross 
remuns on the same entrance, one of &e two directed to 
be made by the iHshop in the Boman ritual. The parrise 
it a frequent feature in Bast Anglian churches, and at 
&(nner there is one over each of the nortii and south 
porches.' These chambers -were sometimes the abodes of 
recluses, both male and female, and the church at Lowes- 
toft, in Bufiblkf but on the border of Norfolk, still retuns 
t^ porch chamber which tradition sam was occupied by 
two- sisters before the Beformation. Even after the ux- 
teenth century they were occasionally inhabited, and it 
is said that John GKbbs, the non-jurine incumbent of 
Qisdnff, resided in the north porch of the church there 
after hu emulsion from his cure. Frequentiy the floors 
of these parvises rested on groining; tiie bosses, of which 
ezhilntea rdigious figures or emblems.* At Worstead we 
have one with the Holy Trinity ; two throned and triple- 
crowned personages, wit^ the dove at their knees ; a 
symbcdicu representation differing from the usual m^i- 
eval one as commonly met with in England.* Our Lord 
ia seen ascending, accompanied by angels, on the centre 
boss at Hemsby, whilst His mother is ^gured on another. 
The coronation of the Blessed Virgin was at Cromer on a 
bo«s, now re-placed by one of a different design, and St. 
Michael^ the patron saint of Worstead, appears in a 
dmilar manner. Holy water stoups are frequentiy met 
with, and there is a very elegant example at Aylmerton, 
where the bowl is under a finialed arch and carried by a 
shaft springing from the floor.* 

Ajlilum, hu ridilj monldad baanu 
■opportad ^ earrad braoM ipringiiig 
tram angvl oorbeli. At AjliMrbHi Um 

— — - roof of thii Ambtr hi* b«aa pnttOv 

tOmjhAmg. At St. JuMi, Sonth daodntod wittflomrptOilMiMinaaloiin. 
aim, Um Mdlop iball ot tit* Apoatle When the •pMtmMt wm 'ihn^jt^il aitd 
ii utlniddaad uaid wavins trmoaiy, Mid oitand from Um '"'■'- ol tlio timnb, 
•t S. Q«qi*X HiMMveiitoiM, the Um doon of Um Utter wn iMtMud bj 
BTOwiMd 0, ukd k Sorialod aom >n woodan bui M into hole* in tlM walla, 
aimlUilj plaoed. nia lowor part of the a praotira atiU in naa in aoDM ooDDtrie* 
toww at ColtidMll baan the crowDsd I, of th« Baat 

far B. John tba patron of that dinrdL * At 8. VitbcHiM, Ijun, Uw oentral 

At North lUppa the oornin orer the and largaat boa* repraaant* Ood the 
mat door haa panaladiarBad with IHC. FaUur enthroned wil^ a lajad gloty, 
and ILR aHamatdj. and tripled crowned ; the imaller aar- 

- . •,nora^ 

tonth, and eaat. * At Felfadgge thare an two ■toupa 

* ^e wooden Soar of the parriae at in Mnneotion wiUi the aouth porn. 




At North Walshun a very cnrioni altar table is pre- 
served in the vestry, it Is about the middle of the sixteenth 
century in dat«, long and narrow, aa though intended to 
be sat at, it has turned legs which carry a nieze inscribed 
•* The body of our Lord Jesus Christ," &c., over which 
the words '*And blood" have been inserted in smaller 
letters ; over the inscription is a band of pierced trefoiled 
tracery, showing the work to be very early in the Beform- 
ation p^od,' At Wickhampton, there is, X believe, an 
altar stone in t^ churchyard, but I have met with none 
in mtu. The altar platforms remain at the ends of tlie 
aisles at Salthouse, with wooden risers, and the recesses 
for the altar tables or reredoses exist at the same place. 
Tanstead retains traces of the panelling over the high 
altar, and above the site of the north chapel altar at 
Worstead is a long panel bordered with foliage, which is 
said to have contained a representation of the beheading 
of St. John the Baptist.* The piscinas differ in many cases 
from those in other parts of England, being formed in 
the east splays of the side windows, the outer angle of 
each piscina being fitted with two arches supported by a 
shaft, and under the canopy thus constructed is the basin, 
which is single and foliated. An Early English one, of 
the more usual English form, is at Strumpshaw ; it is very 
elegant and with two druns. At Upton the aisles have 
single piscinas under peculiar canopies filled with pierced 
tracery of very pretty design ; whilst the high altar has a 
sunken sill for a seat, slightly raised above which is the 
basin for the pisdna, without any covering. At Sherring- 
ham is the rare feature of one on the ground, the orifice 
being on the top of a small stone, moulded like the base 
of a column ; it was in connection with an altar at the end 
of the north aisle. At Trunch is an example in the un- 
usual poution of the north wall of the north aisle, though 
there is ample room for its insertion in the southern 

BuonatboTp* hu ■ neem for ona In tli* U Puritaniad timia, aodoMd In a qiud- 
lr««toTii nmpoai o( Um Bfitih ii«l«> 
Then ua tiro itoupi on* over tba othar 

at BiUingford, ITorfdk. whflit mt S. , ^. 

KididjU^ Lynn, ii ona in Um iliap« of 'At WiltoD, Korfolk, dia ivodoa of 

n gnii]] ocUgonal tent bovl wIUi pKnoHad tha Ugb alUr b aaid to retnain, with 

■idea, toA an angal bearing a tait. paintiiqi* of SS, John Brang«liit and 

' At Winchoomb, Qloa., "Tbo tabla John Ehptiat. 
tor Communion ii plaoad in the bubioa 


respond.* At Wroxbam there are squints from each aisle, 
and at I'ronch there was one from the now destroyed 

BesnIiAiI as are tiie traceried bowls of many of the 
Bast-An^an fonts, thar interest is, I tliiak, far surpassed 
by those which bear representations of the administration 
of the sacraments on seven of their sides, whilst the 
eighUi has some appropriate scriptare scene. These 
scnlptnres are mostly confined to this district, the only 
place idiera, so far as I am acquainted, a similar series 
ensts, being at Farningham, in Kent. The idea intended 
to be conveyed in some examples is that the sacraments 
accompany the Christian from his birth until his death, 
and " after death the judgement," that event forming the 
subject of the last panel at Marsham and Hartham, in 
the latter example epitomised by a figure of our Lord, 
flanked by two angels, triple crowned and bearing 
trumpets, a small skeleton rising from a tomb beneath 
our Lord. At Qresham the baptism of the Saviour forms 
the conclusion of the series. Many of these representar 
tions exhibit the ceromonies attendant on each rite very 
clearly, and often with a sly touch of humour. At 
Martham the priest in Baptism is seen dipping a nnde 
infant into the font, whilst acolytes, one with an open 
book, the other with \h.e crueta, stand at the left hand of 
the ecclesiastic, and the mother of the child kneels in 
front bidding her beads. An attendant in the represen- 
tation of the same sacrament holds the chrysom cloth at 
Harsham. At this church Penance shows the confessor 
and hia penitent beneath the outspread wings of an angel, 
whilst the devil is skulking away with his tall between 
his legs. At Gh'esham the figure of Satan was so dreadful 
that when uncovered from a coating of plaster some 
years back it was chipped away, leaving only its outline.* 

' ne lu^ aUar at BMonaUwn^ tiLfpfaaA At BtmAtoa, am Cnmur, 

bM a mj baMitifnl pMpMtdknkr than imts tira ffr—TT, ona naar Uia 

ffamn^ with tiro tnfoOid utsliM od bif^ altw, and ■wtfa«r in tlia iKnr 

niarbh ilufti^ uxl a tUrd iidi in the Amiaojtii nAj. 

ipb? ot Um window whoM lowsad aill * CmiBiniaUMi m repfwntad at Or>- 

fona* tlie Md3e ; there it » batin undat ham, If aitham, and abawhan, ahon 

' ' ' ic in Uie caiteni, babea in long doUie* broDght to tha 

a ahdf for the biihop ; in an example at Waat I^nn, 

banakth tlie netm, ■ reiy nnuiual a 

.cdbv Google 


These sculptures were very often coloured and ^ded, 
and ibe flpaudrils over them occasionally show the rarions 
ttutrumenta emplf^ed in the administration of the cere- 
monies. At Acle ^e font has panels, one of which has 
the usual representation of the Trinity, and another the 
virgin of Pity, the latter a curious composition, as our 
LokI is portrayed reclining in the arms of His Mother, 
^o appears to be offering to him her breast.' Buckenham 
Feny has on the shaft among other figures those of 
S3. Mai^aret and Kicholas, the first being the patroness 
of motherhood, and the second, the patron of childhood. 
Seated lions and woodhonses, or wild men, are placed 
alternately on the shafts of many Norfolk and Suffolk 
fonts, as at Acle and Ludham, in Uie former county ; at 
Ladhiun the woodhouses are male and female, the Utter 
holding a little woodhouse in her arms. 

Woodhonses are the supporters of some coats of arms 
and form chaises on others, hut this does not, I Uiink, 
account for th^r appearance on the stems of so many 
fonts, for they would seem to have entered into other 
features of church decorative sculpture. Thus, at Potta 
Heigham was a large figure of one, part of which has 
been placed in the niche over the south porch doorway, 
and uiere is in the accounfas of Mettingham College, 
Suffolk, the entry of a payment in 1413 of 40' to Thomas 
of Yarmoudi for making a " woodwyse " or woodhouse. 
The presence of the statues in churches of such *' halfe- 
beastly men," as Spenser entitles them, is unaccounted 

At Potter Heigham is a remarkable font which, with 
the high steps forming die base, is entirely composed of 
terra cotta, or moulded brickwork, the joints of which 
being wide and the edges of the various pieces very 
rag^d) would seem to show that it was originally covered 

' Oar L<4r ol Wj oocnn on tlM font " Bat tar inUnd a nlvage nktion dmlt, 

bowl «t WMt Dn^ton, MMdlMOC, upon Of hideoiu gunoU and hiUe-bortly 

irfaUi tban a* (Mo tlw CrnoIfizIaD, Mid HMO, 

% w mlx iBeil iia wwi Ut ioa of "UwtOM That iMT«r tMt«d ei*a% ixir goodiMn 

bid «t tb« root ol the trae." The itMH Mt." 

cf tlii« noMriubl* font li paced in an And in book iv, canto 7 — 

nnnaaal bat elegant ntauner. " a wilde and salnge man 

* In tlM Fatti* Qnaao^ Iiook [i, Ya( wa< no nun, but onely like in ihajw 

onto z, ire lead— And eke in atatDra higher by a «[»ti 
All on '■* ' " " 


with ED extremely thin coating of plaster, such aa was 
used ia former times, but never seen now. 

The canopy euclosing the font at Truncb is so well 
known that it is only alluded to here as displayii^ traces 
of a crucifix and its attendant figures, having bewi once 
fixed on its east side. Pyramidal covers of rich character 
have adf»ned the fonts at Worstead and North Walsham, 
the latter example ending in a pelican for finial, as in 
many other cases both at home and abroad. At 
Sherringham the font, placed as usual in Norfolk in the 
central passage of the nave, has over it a tie beam 
entering into the construction of the roof and fomished 
with wall pieces and curved braces, all having been 
elaborately polychromed, and evidently intended to sup* 
port ^e chain connected with the canopy of the font 
under it. 

At the above-named village, and at Bamingham North- 
wood, the seats are shortened la length, or splayed off as 
it were, to allow of die free progress of proceflsiona round 
the font. In the latter example, immediately east of it, 
is some stonework let into the floor ; it is exacUy like a 
wheel window, and forms a circle 5 ft. in diameter, with 
a small nave or round in tiie centre, from whence radiate 
ei^t spokes, ending in trefoil arches, the interstices being 
filled in with neatly cut pieces of bri<^. This remarkable 
inlaid figure appears to me intended for a wheel of 
fortune, placed before the font, as an emblem of human 
life b^un at baptism, to which opinion some measure of 
support is given by tradition, wmch asserts that it Is a 
ujhed placed in memory of a coachman ; so that popu- 
larly ^e stonework is considered a wheel, and not the 
template of a window, as some have conjectured it to be, 
t^ngh there are no traces of any circular window at 
Bunmgham Northwood. The probability of ita having 
been intended for a wheel of fortune does not appear so 
improbable when it is remembered that the same object 
was punted on the wall at CatfieM, in this part of 
Norfolk. Ailnaiona to fortune and her false wheel are 
frequent in contemporary writers, such as Chaucer and 
Gower, and occur in the works of the 16th century Spenser, 
Great dignity is given to many East Anglian fonts by the 
number and richness of the steps upon which they are 

L. _ I Google 


placed ; elaborate panel work cover the risers of maiiyt 
aad OD the tread of oae set at Acle U inscribed a request 
to pray for the souls of the douora. Occasiooally t^e 
upper ranges of steps are so contrived as to allow four 
out of ihe top range to project in the form of a cross, 
as at Potter Hugham ; in oth^s, two only do so, as at 
Worstead, on the east and south sides, and where they 
are traditlonaUy jthuB placed for the priest and the 

There is a very interesting leaden font at Brundal, 
where die bowl has several crucifixes upon it, the date 
is very late Konnan, or more probably Early English ; 
the figure of onr Lord has the feet uncrossed. Another 
fine leaden example was at Gtreat Flumpstead ; but it has 
been so shockingly mutilated that only a portion remains 
about the depth of an ordinary stew-pan. I had been led 
to expect a third specimen at Hasingham, but was dis- 
appointed to find that it had been replaced by a stone one 
of common-place design. Notwithstanding the icono- 
clastic doings of the Puritans the old fonts were generally 
respected, and the only seventeenth century one that I 
have met with occurs at BurUngham 8t. Edmund, where 
die stem has very quaint columns to support the bowl. 

The many charmingly beautiful rood-screens remaining 
in Norfolk and Sofiblk show us in a vivid manner by their 
punted efi^es, Uie saints chiefly honoured by our an- 
cestors. T^e Apostles are those most frequently met 
with after which come the four Evangelists, and the four 
Fathers of tiie Western Church. Perhaps next may be 
placed the two deacon martyrs, Stephen and Laurence, 
generally seen together on the same screen ; the prophets 
of the <A6. dispensation and the nine choirs of angels were 
duly honoured, as were the local saints, either those 
canonized in due form, or such as were reckoned saintly 
only in popular estimation. Perhaps St, Catherine is the 
foremost in the number of female saints pourtrayed on 
these screens, but S3. Cecilia, Helen, Margaret, Barbara, 
and Mary Magdalen appear with almost equal frequency. 
The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin is seen at North 
Walflham, and she appears in company with her mother 
St. Anne, at Somerla]rton, in Sufiblk, but on the Norfolk 
border ; her effigy does not occur frequently on screens, 

Digilizcd by Google 


n in moat chnrches she bad an altar, image, or chapel 
devoted to her honour. The Apoetles are figoied so 
frequently that it is anneceBsarj to mentiou any examples. 
At Beeston, St. Feter holds a book inscribed " Credo 
in dm. pat. oupt.;" he is placed immediately north 
of the Bcre«i doorway at fllby, and St. Paul, in a o(HTe»- 
ponding poation, south of it. The keys held by St 
Peter are occasionally conjoined in base, as at Klby and 
Ladham. St. Mark at Potter Heigham is presented, to us 
carrying hia emblem of the lion very comfortal^ seated 
oa. lus right arm, and St. John at Belaagh holds a chalice 
from iriience an extremely ugly black devil is issuing. 
Hany figures exhibit excellent examples of the eccle- 
uastical vestments. St. Jerome is always in tiie scarlet 
robes of a cardinal, and at Lndham bis hat has the 
broad brim turned down and decorated with several 
golden ouches or broaches, whilat at his feet gambols 
his pet lion like a small dog, in a most playful manner. 

St. Gregory seen triple-crowned at Upton, wears the 
mitre of a umple bishop at Tunstead, where he holds a 
douUe crozier; at Potter Higham this emblem is in the 
form of a single cross, and is altogether omitted at Upton. 
St. Benedict at Burllngham St. Andrew, has a large ton- 
sure, and holds a pastoral staff which pierces a howling 
demon at his feet, another devil is langhing behind the 
saint's ba^ and both have skins of dark brown dotted 
over with red spots, like those of the fish called plaice ; 
the saint is vested in appareled albe, which is crossed by 
a bright green stole, and covered by a cope of the same 
colour. At Great Flumstead, the patriarch of western 
monks is in the full black habit of his order edged with 
gold, and having two golden broaches attached to the 
hood, a feature which I have not met with elsewhere. 
At Hempstead, St. Francis shows uplifted hands to exhitnt 
his stigmata, whilst a crozier leans against him ; this 
emblem is I believe unusual in connection with this sunt. 
In the same church SB. Stephen and Lawrence shew the 
sleeves of their dalmatica turned back over their arms in 
a curious manner. St. Clara with book in left hand and 
monstrance in right, is at Trimmingham, where she 
appears in full conventual dress of a puce colour, whilat 
the Benedictine costume and attributes of an abbess 


adorn the figure of St. Etheldreda at TTpton ; here the 
habit is coloured a very dark green, and a rich crown 
surmounts the hood. St. Withiburga, bom at Holkham, 
Norfolk, appears in an int«'esting pictnre at Bnrlinghsm 
St. Andrew, clothed in royal robes dnly enmned ; in her 
left band she carries an elaborate model of a cross chnrch 
inscribed " Ecclesia de Dereham," in allusion to the one 
she founded at that place. With her right hand she up- 
holds her mantle, and on either side of the figure trip two 
harts, as symbols of the solitary life of tM samt. St. 
Cecilia at Filby is crowned with a rose gariaod, and bean 
another in her hand for Valerian, her betrothed hnsband, 
in accordance with the legend, which says : — 

" Talaiuii godi liom« and fist Oedlio 
W ithin his ohambn irith ui rumI atondo } 
This angel liod of rooM and of ui« 
Corones two, the wHoh he bore in honde, 
And first to Gedle, as I nndentonda, 
He yaf that on, and after gan he take 
That other to Valerian her make." 

Oaucfr, Cant. TaUt, 1£,686. 15,692. 

A fine series of prophets exists at Aylsham, the figures 
being remarkable for the variety of life-like attitudes in 
which they are placed by the artist. A similar company 
of Old Testament worthies was at Salthouse, bat of madi 
less merit in conception. The remarkable screen at 
Barton Turf with the nine choirs of angels is wdl 
known. St. George combating the dragon appears on 
many screens ; at Filby his emgy is clad in armour and 
appendages of a thoroughly German type. St. Eligias at 
Hempstead has a hammer in one hand and a horse's leg 
in the other. Occasionally saints of whom little is known 
appear on screens ; thus at Upton is St Joan of Valois 
holding a very capacious wicker basket, and a bowl as 
large as an ordinary wash-hand basin. St. Petronilla 
appears at Trimmiugham with book and key, and at 
Worstead is a remarkable female saint bearded and tied 
to a cross ; she is crowned and the nimbus is placed at 
the back of the cross. In the same church is also 
Sl William of Norwich, thorn-crowned, with a knife in 
his side, and holding two nails. 

Kingly saints were much honoured and the screen at 
Catsfield bears no uncrowned figures on its pan^, whilst 


at Barton Turf, a parclose u similarly enriched with 
royal saints. St. Edmund appears at Trimmingham in 
company with another personi^ who may be Saint 
Edward the Confessor ; he holds a small bird in his left 
hand, and is remarkable for harinc not only a respect- 
ably sized forked beard, bnt abundance of long flowing 
tresses reaching to his waist ; the Confessor holding up 
the traditionary ring is fignred at Lndham, where is also 
the local royal sunt ^^^Istan with his emblem of the 
scythe ; he u met with also at Burliagham St Andrew, 
where his legs are bare to the knee in allusion to his 
having given his ^oes to a beggar. 

EiDg Henry TI. is often seen on East Anglian screens 
as weU as wall paintings, in which representations due 
attention is paid to the fact that he was uncanonised; thus 
at Barton Turf, he is unnimbed, whilst at Ludham he has 
the aureole, but in both cases the word Rex is prefixed to 
his name, instead of Sanctus, placed before Uiose of the 
Bunts with whom he is associated. I know of no emblem 
given to this sunt, but a painting at Weasenham had an 
antelope at his feet.' 

At Sherringham the screen and loft are unusually 
perfect, retaining the staircase with its upper and lower 
wooden doors. In the aisleless nave at Hempstead there 
were altars on either side of the screen, it having been 
returned at right angles to enclose them ; and at Tunstead 
the north and south ends of the loft projected beyond 
the rest. Before the west face of the screen at Ludham 
is a platform several feet wide, rused on one step, similar 
to one at Hitcham, Suffolk, which, however, has two 
steps. At Potter Heigham the loft appears to have been 
east of the screen, but is generidly supported by a beam 
resting on two posts, a foot or two west of the rood- 

' ^la pMsotul popularity of HenryVI, nufs unto j* Abbaj of CbaAttj ther 

niut hkTB beao tkt grot in EMt u King Henij lyath." Sort. ArchaMl., 

Anglia, capedaUj if tha political ten- toI. ir. Atwthiu- will, ttwt of a IjtAj 

dnudn of tiM peopla in ttuit part of Daray, enjoina her aemnt Harguerate 

England, wore in favour of the Yorkiita, Stamford to go a pilgrimage to " Seint 

aa tbey are aaid to hare been. Many William of Rowchaater, and to King 

wilb give diiectiona for pilgrimagen to Henry." Enez Arch. Traaa., vol. ir, p. 6. 

be made from ptaoaa in tbe ^atnm llieae vlcarioua pilgrimage! vera not 

coimtisa to the king'a temporary burial confined to ChriaUaoitj, but the Hoham- 

^ace at Chirtaey ; that of Uainret medan nilet aim oommanded that "thsM 

Eat, of B. Hartin't-ia-the. Bailey, Nor- who cannot go UiemMlvM mtiat Ura 

wich, dated 1484, proTidee n aum to aoma other to go in their rooa." Sala'a 

eoaiAe a man to go for her " on [lyigry- Koran, p. 44, n. 


'd by Google 


screen, as at Sheningham, and at Buiton, in Stusez. 
The rood was often borne on a beam above and indepen- 
dent of the loft, as at Tunatead, where the mortues for 
the cross and Uie attendant figures are pltunlr visible ; 
this beam also remains at Lndham and Potter Heigham.^ 
At Acle and Worstead the screens rise to a magmficent 
height, and the one at Ingham was c^ stone, of which 
part only remains. 

The coodition of these fine screens is in many cases 
lamentable, partly from tiie effects of time, but still more 
so from bad usage or nwlect. Several have been 
demolished during the last row years, others have been 
cut up to form reredoees, as at Beeston and Salthouse, or 
put away with old lumber, as at North Bepps ; but the 
worst case is at Lessingham, where from the nave roof 
having fallen in during the winter previous to my visit, 
I am unable to say if any of the screen remains amid 
the ruins. 

The rood-loft staircase is often formed in Norfolk 
churches in the following manner. A flight of steps is 
placed in front of the lower doorway of the stairs turret, 
which is thus entered at three or four feet from the floor 
level, and the turret itself does not spring from the 
ground but ia projected from the wall at some distance 
from it, and supported on a cross arch, as may be seen at 
Belaugh. A similar arrangement was a favourite one for 
the staircase leading to the parvise. At Catfield this is 
made a very pretty feature, the inner doorway being in 
an angle having a battlemented cornice; in the same 
edifice the rood-loft stretched across both aisles, and some 
of the steps up to it were cut in the sills of the adjacent 
windows in an ingenious manner.* 

There is a feature in East Anglian churches not often 
seen elsewhere, I allude to the mediieval western gallery 
or bell solar which is found in many of the more im- 
portant edifices, and treated in a much more ornamental 
manner than the generality of later west galleries, of 

' The lood-baim >t SuttoD bean a deu'lT tea. At Salhaiue and Soarniiig 

text in modeni lettering, psrhipi repla- the banctua bellj are tH to bo itill 

nii3 » toTtatr inscription. At Sliopluid, bsngiDg from the tcraaiia. 

EueK, till! rood KUcniriedoDa tie-been * Thi( method at eooilmctiDK the 

of the nwf (there being do chancel uch), rood-loft ituircue occura abo at H. Hi- 

the mortue for ite ioiertimi bdng verj chael'a, Ormetbjr, mid elsewhere. 


wliicli these erections were the prototypes. They are 
often Hupported by stoutly timbered framework and 
arched bracing pieces, as at AylBham and Tninch ; both 
are coloured, the latter in a bold and rather vulgar 
design, and is destitute of a gallery front. At the 
magnificent church of Worstead, the bell solar is an 
elegaat structure groined in wood in a manner fdmilar to 
that of a rood-loft ; an English inscription running along 
the front, records the erection of it in 15U1, when there 
" Wer hus bodis Chrystofyr Kat JeSerey Bey ; ** an early 
instance of churchwarden self-glorification. There were 
bell solars at Cromer, Felmingham, and the mined edifice 
at Overstrand. It is hardly necessary to say Uiat they 
were not intended for congregational purposes, but as 
their name indicates for the greater convenience of bell 

There are many examples of low aide windows, those at 
Sherringham ana Wickhampton have their sills lowered 
to form seals similar to thone often found in connection 
with altai's ; this feature shows that at both places it was 
customary for someone to sit before the openings inside 
the chancels, and, I consider, thus proving these lych- 
noscopes were for confessional purposes. At Ludham 
there has been an opening, now blocked, immediately 
under the west window, in place of the usual doorway ; 
it resembles a wide lancet and has the head simply 
trefoiled, and the sill has under it a piece of moulded 
work or stringing course ; it is placed at a height suitable 
for a p erson to uieel before the opening and look through 
it. Western low-side windows occur at the ends of tJlie 
north aisles at Stanford-le-Hope, Essex, and St. Hary, 
Guildford, Surrey. At North Walsham, close to the 
inside of the north doorway, has been an opening 
6 in. high by 4 in. wide pierced in the wall, at about 
4 ft. fixim the floor, and was probably for confessional 
tises. A lychnoscope is found on each side of the chancel 
at Hempstead.' 

' There ia tiao & bdl aoUr at Biodol- w«rtem eotAUMi wUUt the belU were 

nntaa; in all the <■"*">'— ated the baing nuu^ 

lowen in which thej are met with ' At Hancham, neu Attlsborough, 
tberaiaa mil at the back of o ' " 

I bv Google 


There is a statement in an arclueologtcal work tliat 
only one Easter Sepulchre exists among the 729 parishes 
into which Norfolk is divided ; this is quite incorrect, for 
besides the noble one at Northwood, reported to be the 
largest in England, there are many others, of which 
that at Baconsthorpe deserres notice. The front has 
Uiree arches orer which is another panelled and flanked 
by pinnacles; it is pierced through at the back into the 
sacristy. Another somewhat resembling the above is at 
Kelling, in the same neighbourhood ; here the pinnacles 
are combined with the panel work in an effecttTe and 
original manner. 

A long cupboard is provided for the parish proces- 
sional cross and banner staves in some East of Eingland 
churches ; there is a l&rge one in the north wall of the 
tower at Cromer, and at Catsfield it is formed in the west 
wall of the nave, north of the belfry. 

There is a beautiful wooden pulpit resting on a stone 
base, at Burlinghain St. Edmund's ; it has been highly 
coloured and gilt, and round the cornice is the text in 
Latin : " Among those bom of women there has not risen 
a greater than John the Baptist." A very ancient ex- 
ample is, I believe, at Thuming, Norfolk, and a late one 
at Hingham bears the text " Necessity is laid upon me, 
yea woe is me, if I preach not the Gospel," 1 Cor. xx, v. 6. 

At Ludham there is a remarkably rude alms box, 
placed at the west end of the nave ; it consists of a post 
hollowed out of the solid at the top, and firmly clamped 
with stout iron strap-work, which has been furnished with 
three padlocks ; a more elegant example remains at Blyth- 
but^h, tiufiblk, but also wiui the receptacle for alms suikk 
out of the block of wood. Townley in his work BiblicdL 
Literature says : " This kind of poors-box is common all 
over the north of Europe, and is placed either at the 
church door, the entrance to the churchyard, or at the 
roadside adjoining the church." At Sprawston, Norfolk, 

but Dot dincUf , m >i to lerre M a feature appeon at Doddiiul'Hi in Kent, 
— mt, but with acurre, witliiit it oould An eDg;nving of thia peculurity u given 

ml; be vttA for the purpOM of ipeakiog; in Qljnne'i Cbuicfara of Kent, p. 900. 
T hearing throueh. Eitenullyit had An Article on Hed[eini] ConfeBiit ' 
been bricted up. Korf. Arch., iv, 363. will be found in ReUquarj, voL i 

At Melton -CuQitable the lycbnuKupe a 
provided «itb a dealt, and the aame 

DiBiiizcdb, Google 


there is an alms coUectiug box, of 17th century date, 
sinular to one at Shipley, Sussex.* 

Consecration crosses are generally plain red crosses- 
pat^ and there are four such at Upton, two near the 
diancel arch and the others adjacent to the usle piscioas; 
but at Worstead the consecration crosses are dDTerently 
treiUed and become prominent features in the wall 
decoratjons ; whilst to a certain extent retuning the 
pat^ outline, the emblem is floriated, and in some of 
them encircled with a garland of foU^e and flowers, 
whilst others had black letter legends round them, the 
size of these crosi>es is also larger than umxuL I am only 
aware of one other example of an elaborately ornamented 
consecration cross — at Darenth, Kent, where there is one 
punted on the south wall of an usle. In the present 
Soman ceremonial observed at the consecration of a 
church, the bishop " anoints with holy chrism the crosses 
on the two stone door-posts of the church," and after- 
wards '* tlie bishop proceeds to anoint the twelve crosses 
on the walls of the church, and afterwards incenses 
them." An engraving from an illumination (given in the 
Art Jmirnal for 186G, p. 359), represents a bishop anoint- 
ing these crosses on a church interior, of which emblems 
three are seen, one over each of the piers of the nave 
arcade; they are of the pat^e form, and reached by a 
ladder on which the bishop is represented standing. At 
Cowfold, in Sussex, the same ceremony was performed at 
the dedication of the new Carthusian monastic church, a 
few years ago, temporary staircases being erected for the 

llie remarkably fine church ' at Salthouse, a litUe 
village near Holt, has aisles of four bays, each of whidi 
has two complete and long two-light windows, a concep- 
tion giving a wonderful amount of dignity to the edifice, 
and which I have not met with elsewhere. These windows 
have their inside sills lowered for seats, forming an almost 
continuous beach table, and at Belaugh there is a stone 
seat at the west end of the north usle, whUst at Tunstead 
both aisles have benches of stone. 

I At AVhattoD, Kcrtolk, ii an Almi- langUi figure, with ■ bag ia tba left 
bux dated 1S3S, with text " Remember bu>d, into wUeh dte tiaa we druppeat 
Uie Pwra," it ia bihimied like ■ half- See VoA Ardi., iH, f. SH. 

: zed bv Google 


The wooden seats which remaiu are generally narrow 
and low, with very small bench^ends. At Martham and 
Ludham they had no backs, but in the latter place the 
end row of seating had the space under it elaborately 
panelled with pierced tracery. There is a fine series of 
bench-ends at Sherringham, having among other things 
carved on them a mennud, cat and kitten, and a crying 
child with its nurse. At Trunch there are wirems and 
gphynxes on the stall ends.' 

Considering the numerous fittings which exist perfect 
in so many churches of East Norfolk the quantity of 
stuned glass remaining is remarkably smalL The choirs 
of angeb appear to have been in the upper part of a 
window at Hempstead, of which only a power, triple 
crowned, and a six-winged seraph remain.; there are 
several siuntly figures at Martham, including a large one 
of St. Michael with scales, and others of S3. Agues, 
Edmund, Margaret, and Martha, and some pretty border- 
ing remains refixed at Potter Heigham. The emblems 
of the Eucharist, a golden chalice and white host, are 
on the red field of a shield at Fiumstead At Belaugh 
the Excuraima in Norfolk, published in 1819, mention an 
interesting window, showing St. Michael as the patron of 
the Universal Church; this has quite disappeared, and 
such being the case I quote the account given of this 
glass : " m the north chancel window of ihe church St. 
Michael holds a sceptre and a sword, and a pair of scales 
with the bible in the other hand, and under him are a 
number of men, women, and children ; above him is a 
Latin inacriptton in ancient characters, expressing that 
Saint Michael is the giiaTdian of the faithful people" 
{Ex. Nor/. I, p. 124!) At Lammas the same work 
records the representation in one window of the Last 
Judgement, and the Blessed Yir^n Mary as patroness of 
the seven corporal works of mercy (I, p. 165). I am 
unaware if this still exists. 

Ancient altar cloths are stud to remain at St. Ghr^ory's 
Norwich, and a frontal from the ruined church of Whit- 
lingham, to be preserved at Trowse. 

At Great Fiumstead a volume of the Pharaphases of 

' At Long Stntton, ITarfolk, the opta wtta •>« aUtad to h*** ii«alT|n 
hundred different pattenu on the finiab. ^ ,OO0 IC 


£i-;i;imiu remains in the church chest. It is very perfect 
and has quuntly engraved initial letters, another book at 
the same place is a sixteen^ century collecUon of 117 

The tomb of ^ Boger de Bois and his wife, dated 
about 1380, at Ligham, has a very beautiful scolptared 
representation of angels presenting the souls of the former 
to QoAf and the angelic figures at the ndes of tibe same 
monument are unusually graceful in design. 

In many churchyards, there formerly existed chapels, 
which were separate buildings ; the remains of one such 
exist at Salthouse, and there was a similar erection at 
Hickling now destroyed. l^e mortuary or chamel 
chapel at the west end of Norwich Cathedral had its 
exact -counterpart at Elng's Lynn; in both cases 
there was an undercroft lighted by windows and sur- 
mounted by a lofty single aisled chapel.' The only 
churchyard cross I have heard of in East Norfolk is at 
Ingoldsthorpe. A very pretty wayside one remains at 
Aylmerton, and has a well designed base and shaft ; the 
head, however, is new. Hespecting these latter crosses, 
I cannot refrain from quoting a passage from the will of 
an East Norfolk lady, one Joan Thurcock, of Cley-next- 
the-Sea, it bears date 1505, and says: "I will that myn 
executors do make a crosse of tree be twix thys and uie 
church, if so be they may gett the ground of some gode 
man to set the crosse on and ther to have a restyng stole 
for folkys to syt on." At Hemsby there are four crosses 
at some distance from the church, and said to have 
marked the space included as a sanctuary,' 

Much more could have been said on the ritualistic 
ecclesiology of this part of England, especially as regards 
the fine rood-screens; but as, in the words of an old 
preacher, I would "rather send away my hearers longing 
than loathing," I bring these remarks to a conclusion. 

' In ISOS, a cMiurj Or cbMnd-houM HamMp's Hiitoiy lA OmA YannoiiUi, 

wu built in tlia ohurchnrd of S. quo. in Qiiide to S. Niidiolai Chuivh, 

NichoUs, Qreat Tannouth, hj a widow p. SS. 

SflnlU F1*th, with a chapd otw it, aait * The boundUT ot the nnotuaty 

sodoned bj bar (or two priesta to con- Epace at Ripon, waa " indicated by aight 

duet diTine •enrice in it. In 158S, it croewa aatTouading tha cfauroh at aoma 

«a* pulled down and one of the citf dUtanee, one of which Tcmaini in a 

loiren, King Hencj III tower, cod- ruined Btate, lud ia Called ShutDw 

Terlnl toaTcccptocle for liumnnremnitis. Croes." About Vorfcahire, p. 310. 

.cdbv Google 



In 1882 the Warwicbhin Fi«ld Club Tinted Scdihull, when upon the 
vest end of the church npon both aides of the doonraj we found ebont 
100 irell-formed cup marks upon the wall, within a few feet of the 
ground. Thej were hemispherical, and about !i ins. in diameter, smooth 
inside and ^ell-finiahed, and had evidently been produced bj a drill ; 
upirards of fort; vere upon one block of atone. No knowledge of the 
origin of them waa poaseiacd by the ofBciala of the church. Interepersed 
among tbeoi were a number of Teiiicnl grooves. Tlieso grooves are very 
common upon church \ralls in Warwickshire, and arc traditionally 
believed tri have boen produced by sliarpcning arrowa. Two years later 
1 noticed a number of similar cup marks upon the tower ot Yardley 
Church, near Birmingham ; and afterwards about fifty upon the south 
face of the tower of All Sainta' Churcfa, Derby. This led me to make 
further researches, and within the last year I have found similar marks 
upon at least a doien village churches within a few miles of Coventry, 
There are also a great number upon the bell tower at Evesham. I can 
give no opinion about the origin of these cnp marks, but two theories 
have been suggested. The first is, that they are ballet marks. This 
theory would suppose that the walls of three-fourths of the Warwick- 
shire churches have been used for target practice, which I find difficult 
to believe. Also the Solihull marks have certainly been made by a 
drill I have seen thousands of bullet marks npon walla on the battle- 
fields of the continent, but they bear no resembleuce to these cups upon 
the church walla Possibly, however, the following may throw some 
light upon the subject In the proceedings of the Beriin Anthropological 
Society for June, 1876 (see Nature, June 8th, 1882), attention was 
called to the existence of cnp marks on the church of Cotthua in 
Brandenburg. The result of this was that similar marks were after- 
wards discovered in more than twenty different localities in Prusaia, also 
in Germany, Switzerland and Sweden. They are usually on the south 
side of churches, near an entrance, and not beyond the height of a man's 
arm. These cupa sre believed to poesess healing virtnes, chiefly for 
charming away fevers, and in some modem instances these cups in the 
church walls hare been anointed with greese like the cups in the pre- 
historic elf-itenar in Sweden. In Posen a tradition refers to the cups as 
the work of damned aouls, who ground them out in the night time. 


I hkre slao found thai chuidi walla ocmUiD other maridagB, Mpecull^ 
inciaed cirdei^ whidi oftoo hare taja diveigiog from tlia oontre. Tlie 
amallaat which I have yet fonnd ia 1] in. utdiamater optm Noneaton 
Church, and the laignt 23 in. in diametoc (half a ciida oolj) upon the 
CSionh of Hampton in Aiden. The ■pwpl'Mi fonn ia a plain ciicle with 
hok in centre Fig- 1* ^^u™ >» thiitMU of thia patten, abont 7 in. in 

diameter, upon a butkeia at the north-weat comer of tiie Abbey Church 
at Bath. One aimiler in siie upon Dadlington Church, LeioeeteiBhire. 
Three enuller onee upon Floore Church, Northamphmihire, Ac There 
aro aiz tpot drclea^ similar to Fig. 2, upon the aouth wall of Nuneaton 
Caninh. The; Tar; from I) to 3^ in. m diameter. There ia one 16 in. 
in diameter, repreaeated by Fig. 8, npon a aouth buttms of the chaaoal 
of Cubbington Chuich, WanvLckehire. Of Fig. 4 there are two oxamplea 
on Nuneaton Church ; one upon Berkawell Church, Warwidnhire ; and 
two upon Norton Chnich, Northamptonshire. They yary &om 3| i» 
9 in. in diameter. 

Upwi 8tdw Oolding Church, LeioeeterBhiie, ia a 12in. circle, of 
which Fig. S is a sketch. Beside the direrging raya there are rowa of 
hdea SMnetimei coinciding with the rays and aometimea not Upon 
Knowk Chnrch, Warwiduhire, ia & group of aixteen raya of 7 in. 
in diameter, but without a circle similar to Fig. 6. Fi^ 7 is a common 
pattern, lliese usually are from 6 to 8 in. in dismeter, and at first 
sight look like miniatare sun diala But the rays are eqni-distant or 
nuily so, and consequently do not anreroond to the hour lines upon a 
dial AJao no fignree are engraved. There are four of these upon 
Shilton Chnrch, near Coventry, three of which are cloee together and 
near the ground. The south wsll of Floors Church, Kortiiampton^re, 
has the remains of nine of ttus patten, some of them Mem not to hare 
VOL. XLVl z , 


been properly completed. There are also exunpleB upon the chnrchea of 
Cubbington and ChilTera Coton, 'W&rwickshire ; and aloo at Hinckley, 
Leiceitenhiie. There ia a well cut example of Fig. S upon the aoath 
aide of Ledbury cbuich, Herefordthiio, alio another ot aimiUr appeuanoe, 
but not ao diatinet UptMi Hampton in Aiden church ia a botml inch 
dicle, ahewn in Fig. 9, with •nottier dicla ooncentric within iL Hare ia 
■lao a five inch dtele. Fig. 10, with a reitical groove below the centre. 
Alw np<m the aame wall ten vertical gioovea aimilar to Fig. 11. Upon 
tbia chufdi it ako a^ain half diele, Fig. 12, fifteen inehea in diameter 
At Bmdfoid Abbaa, I)onet, are two myMl citclw similar to Fi^ 7. I have 
UD fortunately spoiled the aketeh of tb«n, but my reeoUeoUon ia that one 
of them overlapa the other. 

It will be Btted, Who made theae circles ; why were they made ; and 
when were they madet To theea quaaUons I can at preeent give no 
answer. Further investigatioa is deniable. All the circles contain a 
amall central hole, and, as I have already explained, many of them possets 
ran. There is no uniform number of rays to the cirde. Fig. 6 has 
sixteen. Twelve in the half circle or twenty-four to the circle is not an 
uncommon number. A sketch which I have of a circle upon Nuneaton 
church contaiuE only ten to the circle, and I think it is correct My 
belief is that some of these rayed circles hiive been left unfinished. On 
Nuneaton church there is a central spot with only three rays, and another 
with only one ray. The worn and decayed state of most of these circles 
thews that they arc ancient Host of them are upon the BOUth side of the 
churches. I only know of one instance (Bath) trhero I have found circles 
upm the north eide. Tliis seems to indicate that, alLhough they are not 
Eun dialf, they may possibly in some way symbolize tbo sun. 

Digilizcd by Google 



It BMy be tafely tfflmMd that, thanks to tho aoneiT ibyme, this 
eelebnted tram will never bo foigotten while the English Ungaoge luta. 
Looking back to eul; times we uiaW see wb&t wu nid of the cross. It 
is mentioned in the leign of Edwaid VI u the " High GroaaB." Leiand 
writes, " The faTieet stieet of the town lyeth bj West and East down to 
the River of CbarwelL In the West part of this street is a large area 
invironed with meetly good buildings, havinge a goodlj Croeae with 
many degrees (stepa) alMut it In this area is kept CTeiy Thnnday a 
very celebrated market. There runneth through this area a purle (pool) 
of fresh water." The situation of the principal cross is thus identified 
as being in the part now called the Horse Fair. But Jonaon tells nsthat 
the advent of Queen EUaabeth brought evil days to the Catholics. From 
tha date of the execution of the Earl of Eaaei:, which took place in 1601, 
the oppreaaed adherents of Rome waxed boldly in the expression of their 
opinion. Under the strict role of the Puritons the Show and Pageants 
which were periodically used itt Banbury, Coventry and other places wen 
suppressed, and an attempt was made by the Catholics to revive them. 
The dresses were procured, the characters rehearsed, and a day fixed for 
the performance at Baubary. The procession of the performeis had 
reached the High Croas, and the acLord were engaged in the prologue of 
the play when a counter-demonstration ittned from the High street, and 
a collision ensued between the excited partisans of the conflicting cieeda 
A regular miUe is described as having taken place ; but the supporters of 
the reformed doctrines having both numbers and ttie law upon their side 
seem eventually to have had the beat of the fray. Having sncceeded in 
driving their antagonists out of the town the rage of the populace took a 
new direction. Hammers and pickaxes were procured and the " goodly 
cross," the symbol of the faith of the CaUiolic World, was strewed in 
ruins throngh the Horse Fair. Bo thorough was the work of destruction 
that Richurd Corbet, Bishop of Oxford, in his Iter Boreale, thus 
describes it — 

"Tba Crosses also like old stumps of trees 

Or stoole for horaemen that have feeble kneea^ 

Carry no heads above ground. Tbey which tell 

That Christ hath nere descended into hell 

But to the grave, his picture buryed have, 

In a far deeper dungeon than a grave." 

zed bv Google 


To Um draidi the crowd t«p«imd next, and mik«d Utsii fmitto will 
BpoB the rtaUlj tompla. Tbe mignifloBBt windowa of ttaiiud gkv wen 
wiTflnd to atonu u nTooriiw too ftnn^ of id<rfatef , and tu aMaarj 
umI Molptan mntUated and Mfaead by tM luiida of tton inatniiblo to 
focou of boM^. Biabop Coibet dtaigaa Ihs liotom with not baying Mt 
^ lag or aim ol an apoath^ and aaja that tha namei of tha dinnhwar- 
daoa wen the only inaoriptione to ba aaen npoo tha walU Soma legal 
pneeedingi appnar to haTe baaa takann^wetii^ tUa Mlnga at Baabn^, 
•a iOBw "duigM about tha ayta of the Craaa" an mantionad in the 
Cotpofatiai Aeammta ia 16IS. Thia wotfc of mad daatnetioa mean to 
bare at t ended to enrj onae in Banbnir, aa appaaa by Cotbara linea 
befbn quoted. At an auljr date the namca appear of the "Uaikat Craaa,* 
"ThaB(«adCfaMr(rapatndin 1M3X and tiie << White Craaa* without 


Sugatfnd Bai^ Waat Bar, bnidM Weeping Craai bmood the boondaiy 

of tha paiiah. Then ia an andant gift of one HaU of Bodioot of Si 

to be (uatribnled in bnad to the paot of Baabuij. Tlw Conni 

on Chnrchea in 1834 atalo that It baa been uiraal to diatribuU thia broad 

in Oxford Bat Stnet on Qood Tridaj ; the Ticinify <d the enaa thereto 

aaama to give ua the origin t4 tha name of Bnad Croaa, 

Bat to return to the " High Craaa." The inhabttaata have to thank 
tha preaant Empieaa Fiadetiok tot ita reabnationf for it waa not until her 
marriage that it waa leaolred to tcaton the Craai aa the moat gncefnl 
memonal of that event ; for to think of Banbmy withoat a eraaa ia to aet 
at defiance all the teeotda of legendary lore. ^ aobacription liata wen 
opened, and the preaent eletnot etmeton of hexagonal form waa 
erected from a deiiga by Vr. Qibbe of Oxford. It i> fiftj-two feet in 
height, of Bath atone, and ia dirided into three rtonys or compartmenta. 
The panela of the eentn oompartmont an richly wnamented with the 
foliage of the Noe^ irj, acacia, oheatnut, hoUjhoi^ and Tine, and graced 
with the arma <d Qneena Harj and VietMia, Kinga Charlee I and 
Oe<Hge I, the Empreei Frederick William of Pmnia, the Earia of 
BaobuiT and Guildford, Tlaeount Saye and Sale, Sic WHUam Cope, 
Sir Wuliam Compton, the Biahop of linoc^ and the Bar. William 
Whately, who waa Vicar of Banbury from 1610 to 1639. Thia William 
Whatety waa a Puritan, and ia thua referred to by Biahop Corbet — 

** If not for Ood'a for Ur. Whatd^a aake 

Lerel the walka ; anppoae theaa pitfalla make, 

Him Bprain a leetnn or diai^aoa a joint 

In hia long ptayra oi ia hia fifteenth point" 
The following an some alluaiona to Basbuiy in lltwston : — 
Braithwaite in hia "Drunken Bamabj'a Four Joum^" nfem to 
the town in the well-known strain — 

" To Banbuiy came I, pw&ne one I 

There I saw a Puritane cme 

HanipBg of hia cat OB IConday 

For killing of a monae on Sunday." 
Ben Jonaon in hia comedy of " Bartholomew Fair " thua refen to 
Banbury — 
TFinwi/f. Alaa, I am quite ofT that aoent now. 
Quarto,^ How «,! ^ ^ GoOglc 


Wiitwifi. Put off br a brother of Btnboiy, osa Hut itmj mj it «om« 
ben >ad goT«nu all alrwtdj. 

(bmriom. What do yott oil him 1 I knew diren of tboae Bubariana 
Tbeii I waa in OxfonL 

nttlmit. BMi hfuy, rir ; he ia more tiuui aa Eldar, he ia a pnqihet, 

(biaHoiu. 0, 1 knov himl he 14 a baker, ia be nott 
LHHemtt He «m a hakei^ air, bat hedoee dream now and aae Tiaioiu, 
he lua nna orar the tndei 

QmoAma I ramembw that, too ; out of a aemple he took that in 
^ueed oonaoiaDoe thoee oakea he made were aarrad t» bridalea, maj polea, 
mtciim^ and aneh piofanA feaata and meetings Hla Ghrirtian nam« ia 
Zai, of the I^nd Bwy. 

'Winiam Oaitwright, in hia eomedj entitled " "Dm Oidinaij," niiidi 
ai^wared in 1651, makea a gameater aay — 

" ni aMid aome fo(^ thovMud onto Fanl'a^ 
BaiU a Cathedral next in Butborj, 
OiTo otgutM to eaeh pariah in the KingdtHa, 
And >o root out the n 

John CI«*eUnd, in a poem printed in 1666. in delenee of the deceot 
omamenta U Cbiiatchnnsh, Oxon, oeearioned bj a Banboir Brather, who 
called them Idolatries aaks — 

" Bball we laj 

Beobarf ia faun'd Borne becaoae we maj 
Bee the Holf I^mb and Obristopher f Naj more, 
The Altai atone set at the tarem doon." 
Sir Wm. Dareoant, in hia Corned; of " The Wita," in ^waking at a 
kdf , (ays — 

She ia more deroot tban a WeaTer of Banboir ^^ hopea to entice 
Wren bj ainging, to make him lord of twenty loama I " The Tattler" for 
Sept S, 1710, givea a jocular account of an Eodedaatical Tbermometer 
wtuch had been invented for teating the degteaa of leal of paiticolai 
^acea in behalf of the Church. The writer atatea that the town of 
Butboiy, which had been ainglad ont by Dr. Fuller a oentnty before for 
it* cakea and teal, pcoTed its&u by " the ^aaa," 1.0. the abovo-mentioned 
thermnmeter to be aUU chaiactariaed in a maAed maoiLai by the latter 
peculiarity. In the daya of Fuller the material things which the town 
waa remarkable for were — veal, ehetae and cakea ; while it ia not leaa 
certain that in the abatract article Zeal Banbury waa aim notable. 
Thereby hangs a jest. When Philemon Holland waa printing hia 
English Edition of Camden'i " Britannia " ha added to the anthor'a state- 
ment of Banbury being famooB for cheeae, the words "cake and ale," 
and ao it waa pasnng through the press when Hr. Camden toraing in 
and teeing the change, thinking " ale " a somewhat dianapaetfnl refernice^ 
■nbstitutad for it the word seal, very unluckily, aa it proved, for tha 
Puritana who abounded in the town veto gteatly (tended by the 
alluuon, and so more was lost than gained. 

Hr. Philip Rashes, who waa a reaident of Banbury, and died in 1832, 
thus deacribea the church in 17Sd, the year befon its destruction in lus 
metrical description of the chuichea seen from Oonch Hill— 

I bv Google 


" But BM wlurs o'er the rwt will nobler blu« 
Ita right cromiBd titmU Buibary diipUn 
Upon ila hallDir'd willi uid wide uound, 
Thick riling ■traotani oocnpy the ground. 
Behold how Fboahae witii his eailf lighte 
Shinee on the baUIemeote nnd baUded heigfata." 

The old dinrdi, a jnj Hpn^*"" ediflo^ utd ooa ct the laigeet in 
the eoon^, wia tdun down in 1790 under the Mitiwrit; of aa. Aet 
of Fadiament and the preanit vngainlr atnwtar* erscted on ita ata. 
(Add. US6L Cola, 8833, p^ ifs. Benbur Chnich, hf Browne 

Td«. Ik h. 

Lensth of the Bodr from Weit to Eaat • 91 1 9 

Bndth of the Cioee lale from Ikat to Weat • 10 2 $ 

Leneth of the Ouuuel from Wert to Eaat - 31 1 9 

Bndth of the Body from South to North - 37 1 « 

Length of the Cro« laU • 3i 

Bcedtb of the Cbaneel • -811 

Hk iriiole length ot the Chnrch and Chancel from Eact to We«t 
64 yuda or 192 feek 

Bnj, writing in 1777, bkjm that Aloxander, Bitlutp of Line<4n, la 
■nppowd to have been buried in the chaneel of &tnbnrf Chnich, 
" undei a tomb on which Is a mntilated figun recumbent." 

The efGn- of an eccleaiutic of the fourteenth century, deaeribed in 
Plate XVII of Beeilej'i Hiitorv of Banbury, ia probably the figure 
refemd to, but thfa writer says that it oeitainly was not erected OTer 
the remaina of Kahop Alexander, ai that Prolate waa buried in Lincoln 
CathednL None of the ancient monumeata have been re-erected in 
Uie pieaent church, but « few fngmenta Ot eome of them still nmain in 
the room which ia over the reetiy. 

Leiand write*— " I eaw but one notable tombo in the Chnrch, aod 
that ia Blacke Uatble wherein William Cope Coferer to K Hcniy YIL 
ia buried.'' 

For thoae fading an interaat in this place the excellent History of 
Beaboiy, written by Alfred Beeeley, and publiahed in 1811, with cojnaus 
illnatratiQni, will aSbrd a real troaL He reoeired information and assiat- 
snce from eraiMnt antiquariei and literary men in almoet all parte of 
Enghmd. Then ia alao a vetT good Strangen' Onide by W. P. Johnson, 
and published by Mr. Walfoia of the Adveriizer, Banbury, at the mode- 
rate price of nzpenee. 

To thoae interested in epitaphs the followmg aro selected from sereral 
preserved in the British Musum, (Add. M8S. Cole, 5831, fo. 86 b).^— 

^UaphMtn Banbwy ChunA. 
Beie lyelh the Bodies of John Knight 3 Times Baylee of thia Boros^ 
& Jone his wife by whom he had throe sons & 10 danghten whereof 
9 were married. They ssw springing from their own Loyns 81 childroa 
which like Olive Branches wero sn ornament to their Table. In their 
Life Time they cherished the Poor & having bequeathed certain Lands 

BANBuav cKoaa 16S 

for their perpehiml Belief dyed full of daja desired, loved, & bewailed of 
tbat Childrwi, Frienda & Neigfaboois. 

He dyed ) 23 Nov. 1587. 

She djed ) Sfi Dec^ 1590. 

OmT«a ve Lodgiogs to the Blert 

Not of Honour but of Beit : 

Cebineta that ntdj keep 

Uoctal^ Beiiqnei while Ihef sle^ 

When the Trump elult ell awake 

Ever; atral her Fleeh ahall take, 

And from that which pntrif ya 

Shall immortal Bodiei riae. 

In thia Faith the; lir'd & dyd : 

In this Hope they here reaioei 

(Baker'a MSS. T<A xxxnii, p. iU). 
On the aame wall the proportion of an old man in the middle between 
two nUus of U&cke marble with a booke in one hand and a handker- 
chiele in ye other. Under him, on a table of blacke marble this — 

To the pioDB mamoiy of Will: Knight Gent, sometime Justice of 
Peace and Qiiora in tbia Borongh, who having had hia education both in 
the Uaiv. and Iqqs of Court continued in the love and practice of good 
study, gave good example of morality and piety finishod his course in 
the true faith aud was here layd up in the Hope of a glorious tesunec- 
tion, 20th Sept., 1631— 

Hia iifev His Braath, His Facultya are gone: 
Yet Virtue keeps him from oblivion 
Thoae Arts and Parta that beautifyd his mind, 
like preciooa ojntment leave his name behind. 
His Dunp ia out ; yet still his light doth shine 
His Faith and works sarviva aa Uiinga divme, 
To God he live^ to ua tho' dead he be; 
The buryed seeds do spring : and lo shall Hei 

Died 1631, JEMia 73. (Baker'a MSa) 

To the memoty of James White, eon of tSt. Ric. White, of London, 
-who dyed Dec. the 4th, 1669, having almost finished the 23nd year of 
Ilia age — 

Brother yoa've ontstript me, I fiist bom 
Yon first unto the Womb of Earth retnm, 
But I shall follow you 'ere lon^ and tUen 
One Womb shall aa enclose yet onoe again. 
Which Womb shall open that like twins we may 
Be boTu on one the Resurrection Day. 
Sic litavit Prater ejus natn maximna, R.W. 

Ih Banbury (Simrehyard. 
To tho memory of Ric. Kichards, who by a Oangreen first loat a Toe, 
afterwards a leg, and Uatly his life, on the 7th day of April, 1656— 

zed bv Google 

164 BAMmjBY G&OfiS. 

Ah I cmd D«>lh to nuk« S meala ol one 1 

To UsU utd Mt um) oit till mil wu gone 

But know Ukm Tynnt I when Um IVtunp ilidl call 

HsU find fail feet and rtuid when tiioa ihalt lill. 

Petition of a gnet Number of the town of Benbniy in teroar of tbeit 
1 TbotaaM Bmbridge, likel; to be d^mTed for dioliki 

OMiuae ISM, with e letter to hii Lotddiip faun tb« Mid Brute 
(Luwdovn 1I&, Bmglmr Pkpen. 64, fo. 13>— 

"VSffiit HoDonUe — wlicrwe Thonua Biubridfs xaaay jtua a praacher 
ot j% woida of god allowed bf tlio n&hwnitjr of Oxfwd vai b; the 
p i ew n ta t ion of her mi^ieitjre placed atnoogit «• foe oar paatoc of whoee 
|od^ ooBTeaalioii we an all witoetMe : where elw ha hatha payn' 
fnllje laboted la hit vooation ttadiing na oar dniiea towards Goo, her 
mqes^ and <rf one towarda another : So it ia (Sidit HononUa) that j» 
■aid lb; Braoebridge i* either altogelber or nfj ljt» to be deprjTed of 
jre small linnga he hath amongit u^ rnna mattera of oanmoniea beins 
I«OMeoted a^nit him by anche hia adreraariaa of whoee Tiokmce and 
wrongi) towards him ye whole ooonttTe haithe heaid. In tender eon- 
ddention whatoctf and for that the majmteaanoe in this plaoe is so small 
that no learned man will tmdettake the same wharebye we ate lyke to 
be Udd by sn unfit gnyde. May it please yr. honor yf upon his ratation 
of ye matter it shall se«me reaecmable to Toacbsafe ns the inhabitanta of 
Banbory ye honorable farour to be a meanee that he may ooDtinne 
amongst ns hii paynfol function and we all shall make prayers for so 
hononrable a personaoa bj whom we have recuTed so great a bleaonge 
aa is the cndinarye wmuinge of oar aonles nnto God. 

" Yonr honCHS moat hmmbly to eommand, 

"The BsyliS; Jostice & other the inhaUtants of the bono^ of 

Then fdlow the signatares of ninety-fiTe of the inhabitants, 

fiidonedI6 Jan.lfidO. "To the BaAt Hon. & oar Ts>y good Lord 
the Lord Treasnrar of Kigland ms of Her Mqes^s most kmoorahle 
priry CoanuL" 

Letter, S9 Jan. 1690, from Hr. BrasMdge to his Lordship^ endorsed 
as ftdlows : — " That if the eommendacion giren snent him by the inhabi- 
tants of Banbon and the request of Mr. Treasurer of the Hoosehold to 
whom he is well known may not kepe him from deprivation. 

"Tett »w«i'»l«f«g the towne In respect of his former prayers are 
cootnt to ^re hym majntananee pteaehe he ct preaohe he not he praysas 
that hj ye good meaaes he nay be permitted to preaohe." 

MSS. 1^ 15 Jan. 1590, omtaina Arsumwita of Sir Vikoom Kndlee, 
Tnamrei it the Hoosehold, against tne Oroaa in B^itism and the 

Non.— He oMsed to be Ticsi in 1690 and died in 1693 at the age of 
66 yean, and was btuied 11 Not, He was the author of "The Poor 
Man's Jewel, or a TreatiBe of the Peitiieooe. 

Digilizcd by Google 

ok the uonuuektal effigies in coberlet 
chusch; qloxtcestebbhibki 


In oflering k fev tenuifa on the UKwnmeaUI efflgtu in Cobeilej 
Chnicb, it ia > aomewlwt ominooi praftn to hare to nj that the whole 
Aaidt, nve the tower, whioh hu been left in ita integrity, spparenUf 
ander » sort of ptoitMt, has been n^boilt within the Is«t few jwn. 

It ia almoat an udom, in what is called " the thotongh resbrntion " of 
ut old church that, whatorer elae happana, the tomba mart be well pulled 
abont ; no " teatoration " would be complete without this paiticularity. 
'With lefeience geneiallf to these long-aoficriag memorials, in eariier daya 
the clerk and Uie sexton vied with each other in the violent wtesting 
of the \aaM plates from their atony beds. Effigies were tnroed ont into 
the drarchyaid, eoon to be binned by moea or graased over; buried, like 
those atOotulaton, under pewa; Ixoken up, despniled snd connteichanged, 
Efce the tombs, braaaea, and effigies of the six Sir Thomas Greenes at 
Gfeene's Norton ; hidden under aeata, as at Hcridmby, or cut up 
into altar steps as at Bradbounie ; while those tare and btantiftil works 
in wood often found a last resting place in the Testry fin, though, 
certainly, the Sgnn of John de UsstingB at Abergarenny has bosn 
ssTod by being mounted up upon a window sill, and that of 'WHliam 
de Gombermaitin at Aldnfam, Iforthamptonshire, lescned from the 
" lestontion " oi 1848 ^ being banished to an upper stage of the tower. 
We must be tiiankfnl tor snuiU mercies t Other effigies were trans- 
ported into fields and found osefnl as gate poets ; oQten again were 
handed off by dUletkmti eqitiiea to decraate Uieir grottos — ^there ia a 
notable example near Walsall— witii the foil c<msent and appioTal of 
thoM, their [woper cnatodian^ whoee ptide it should hare been to cherish 
such records. In one brilliant disfcnet of "the Herald'a Garden," the 
alalwster effigy of no lesa a man than a scion of the great House of Tere, 
one who foa^t at Bosworth, the " picter inaolid " of his pious will, is 
snflisred to remain in the chnrch, bnt to fomish a nostrum for the local 
children known as "Tore Powders." These are a few examples of a 
large class taken at random, but mdancholy enough; a atill larger 
number has been claimed by the modem bnildet for foundations, how 
large a nnmber we shall nerer know, and probebly as many hare beeii 
turned upride down for the paving of dairies and less cleanly places, or 
bratally broken to bits for genoraJ utilitarian porposei. 

zed bv Google 


A glance throogh a oonntj liiiloiT of ■ handnd jean igo ahowt how 
mueb we hare thus loat in the ahitpe of monnmeDtal Moorda, snd the 
dreary blanka in couatleaa old ehnrahei to whieh m liBTe baTelled, 
hopiiig to find effi^ea exhibitiiig tba oonoeataftted hiatoty of heraldiy and 
oortoniei lerre bat to lemind oa, if not exactly vhst ahsdowa we an^ at 
leaat what ahadowa we often pmaoe. 

Some forwaid a[Hrita fonaaw ttie impending Toida «a Iwg ago aa 2B0 
yean; and Weerer wrote : — ■■ Alaa I our noUe numnmenta and pracioaa 
aatiiiidttea, which aie the great beanty of oat land, we aa littb tcgaid aa 
the pBiinga of onr naiU" The aathoi of FimenU Mo m Mm mt t ^poke 
li^iu;, and, taking " monnmanta ' in ita narrow aenaa aa monnmental 
effi^ea, hia wmda tippHy u mnch to our own time aa to hia, and ao we 
coma ba^ to the point at which we etuted, namaly tite aeant legaid 
that ia paid to the clainia of the momunaota and offinaa of fonnden and 
benefacton when a chnnh ia " natond." It maj, howem, be btMrne in 
mind that the hiatorical Tahie and hnman inteieat of tbaaa mwnorial a 
conaiata fint of all in thair nmfining in the plaoea when thejr wan 
oiiginalljr tot. lliey wen cartainlT luA put into partieulaz anhad 
' riOun or without the ai 

leceaaea, nnder certam wiadowa, witun or without the aacnnom, apon 
high tomba, or lerel with the floor, without apedal reaaona, and leaama 
far more intenae in theit nligioua natOTB than auch aa at the pieaent daj 
piumpt orderly persona to choee a nicbe in the cataoomba of anburbon 
cemetaiiea, or to pitch upon a particular spot in the deep ahade of a 
spreading yew in a counti^ churchyaid. 

But efflgiea and monuments are not the only things that anffer. Uoet 
of na are bmiliar irith the proceas and reaulta of " reatoration," many of 
u> hare leen an old church in the agoniea ; tiie roofa off',— all at once, of 
course, BO that the firascoed walla can be well aoaked by the raina and 
piovidfl a plaoaible excuse for atripinng oS the plaater and pointing rabble 
masonry which never before wia ptdnted ; the tAi oak atalla and aeata 
turned oot to make way for haiah frameworiu in fritoh pin^ and re- 
appearing later on in the empMiuota of "ait manufactnrera," tianaformed 
into gtoteaque dining^oom aidaboarda and * Eariy Eng^iah " occasional 
taUea for ttie benefit of Ihoee nnhappy people to whom aome danuHi baa 
whiapered *■ have a taate." When the effigiea and tomha (d the fbnndara 
and benefactors are routed out of the ohancela or chapels often built 
specially to contain them, Ihey are, aa being, aoooiding to the fatoona 
modem prindpla "ao much in the way," GMiveyed hy the loving banda of 
the British labourer to a part of the church which they do not fit, ^lile 
such trifling detaila aa aeulptured aJabaatw angela and henldio shielda 
are abolished, loat, carried away by the builder to decorate hia summer 
houae, or, aa in a certain villMe in the befote mentioned " Herald'a 
Garden," atilized for a pigsty. !niia is but a li^t sketch of the kind of 
work that usually goca on in a " reatcmtion," and iHien it is remembered 
that it has been taking |dace all over En^am) for the laat fifty yeara, 
some idea may be gathered of what we have loat under the hMd of 
monuments alone ; we shall see a dark aide of the picture indeed, as 
regard aichitectuie, and church fittinga generally, when we viait Eaat 
An^ia. It doea not, however, appear that we are even yet sufficiently 
awaie of our poaition, and it would be interesting, but venly deptessuig, 
if one could calculate how few peraons in all those re-opening congi^^ 
tiona lealised how much "reatoration" had deprived them of which 

Digilizcd by Google 


could a«T«r ba bionRbt back, tnd hov nunj wen simplj glamoumd 
hf the gmdj new tile pevinij, the golden fleura-do-lia on the betTenlf 
luae omn fupe^ end the Uwn sleeTes,— «iid n)joteed in their rimplicitr 
thai alTtliingt b«d iMOome new. 

Bat the exeqieniting put of "reatontion' ii that, with more diacietion 
and lenieel, we might eo euil; bare irteiued all that wai so ntoable, 
and alio have had ttte «barch aeemly and hanqnil aa it ahonld be, with- 
oot the violent dialocatioa of ita continuaoa hiatwy, and with the 
eridenee of ita ktng local nooid atill legiUe apon it. 

We have intimated above that we most be thankful for amall meicieo, 
and it ia f^ to aaj that, whaterer the Coheriey effigiee majr hare lost 
in intenrt bj being nmoved fiora their original sitea in the chancel, 
they have bean tukderijr dealt with in their tnnafennoe to the new altar 
tomb npim whidi thejr now lie in the aonth aiale. Han we hare a man 
lollf amed in the moat piatnneque of all militate hanMsa, that of the 
eztnnw end of tlia nign of Edwaid IL He wean a high pointed and 
ridged baacinot, to which a [Jain camail, with a fringed lower edge, ia 
attadted at the line of the noatrila hy four tank studa on uthac side of 
the face, and not hung on in the uanal way aa in later yean, by lacea 
threaded through atajJes. The dexter diouldcr is protected by four 
articulated platM, reinforced by large ronndela filled in with roeettei, and, 
the arms bung encased in plate, the elbows are simiUtly protected by 
eoudes, with single articulations, and reinforced with round^ oontatning 
roses. The fore anus are protected in like manner by tabular doable- 
hinged and strapped plates. The gauntlets have sli^tly peaked caffi^ 
strapped over leather foundations, the fingers and thumbs being defended 
by small aiticalated plates on leather, the whole forming a gauntlet of 
which we may in vain seek for an original example, A shield, now 
gone, has been suspended on the sinister arm. This appears, from 
certain existing iron stamps, to have been separately fixed on and may 
have been of wood, oovered with gesso, and painted with the wearer's 
anna. Over the body is worn a surcote repreaenting some thin material, 
pnbably silk, reaching in front to the middle of ttie thighs and then cut 
away nntil it falls in Itxig folds nearly to the ancles behind. The 
opening tiias formed in front discloses the lower edges of the following 
garments : — ^A hakcton ornamented with roaettee and a gambeeon de- 
corated in the same way and fringed; below this again appean the 
ponipoint covering of the Uiighs. Ilien is no hauben visible, nnless, 
indeed, the fringed garment below the haketon may be taken to be it, 
which is improbable. The suroote is confined at the waist by a plain 
nairow cingulnm, and, transversely ocroea the hips, is the sword belt 
studded at intervals with great toaettea, and to it is attached by a single 
locket doM to the cross piece, a long sword with a well-decorated scab- 
bard. The knee pieces an plain and fringed on the lower edges ; the 
jambs or greaves, of plain plate, thrice hinged and atnpped, and the 
feet, shod by four articnlations, rest against a lion with a vast and free 
flowing taiL The heels are armed with spurs of great elegance, with 
their rowels in rare preservation, with loog leaf-shapod points ; the right 
leg is crossed over the left — a not uncommon conventional English 
aUttnde long after the Crusades, with which this particular posture has 
nothing to do — and between Uie lion and the saroot« is some free leafy 
foliage wtiich the sculptor, like a true artist, untr^tmmelled by the 

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ezigenciM of " high art " choae to introdaee, nther than cut kwi^ « 
good piece of matMitL Tin vhols flgnrs ii boldly uid bedj Kiilptuied 
ta hard fellow limertoDe, and ii in «xeaUent eooditioii. Than is a fins 
natotal lie in tha atatna wbUii fpnt tiw idsa of ita haring boea d{» 
eormd in tiw atona— afUi tha nutuiw of M****^ Angalo— and not 
kboriooa maaannd and " pointod " for aoooiding to the modem pnction 
Th« man'i head laata npon a ^Oaw, and ia aai^K»tod b; two angda 

with lou faathmd wingi. 


Mold dHata lont foe i nata n o^ npon ttw bahlon of the baadne^ and 

be at OBoe iqipanot that a hamea^ aoeh aa haa been thna 
nddlT daaeribad, ia fiill ti intanat to atodaDta of annonr. A qtedaliat 

diow— CDch ia m t^fc"'—' knnriadge that haa been aoqnirad — how 
thia paiticniar Am^ had nadoallT giowii, afanoat Tear b; jeai, team 
cailiw fonna, and, aa gMoallT Imaed into latei tnaa, and finallj 
Tanidud u a neognised head-pieee for ptotaetion with tha aod of tha 
eiTil wars. Or he oonld indkate from toia atony twrt bow tha annsota 
had ita ria^ and ita aecidenta of f oon dariag the nigua of Henry m and 
the gieat Edward ; how it kwt in time, firat, ita long^owing beat 
pmtion, and then its oaeleaa flappnc hinder part; how it passed, in 
fact, from long and looae to tigfat and abort ; and, derelmnng into tha 
juponi paised finally away about 14S0; iriieninen were cud entirely in 
atael, with no mail or teirtile fabric viaible, to reappear not long after in 
the totally different shape of the heraMic tabard. 

All thia, and much mora^ a qwcialist could do^ and sustain the interest 
also, if he had the tima — but we iuve it not on the pneent ocewdon. 
Or he could take the atmoor for the hand, aa one of our memberB haa 
done, and again trace it down in its raiying forma from the mail roufOer 
with tha empty palm, to the tattling gauntlet <rf ttie doomed " White 
King,' for there will be always something fresh to learn; or he may deal 
with the sword, the iword bait, or the spur, and accurately act forUi the 
chronicle <rf each from the evideneea ot mtmnmeBtal effigies alonsw 
Alongside with thess studies Uie enquirar cannot {ail to eoTroborate and 
ilhuMe geoaral historr, and, what ia better still, reacne much local 
attny that haa well nigh peridied. All thia interest may apriog up at 
tiw oontemplatioa ot monumental efflgiee iriiich cbnrch " reetoiers " find 
"ao mndi in the way," and iriuoh are ntnally dismissed by casual 
Tiritoit with the tnroivm rtmaA, " It ia a ^ty that their noaee are 
brokw." Tba efBn- of the lady ia nm^ln almost to coareencsa, and the 
drapery is amaged rather as timt (rf a staoding than a recumbent 
fignre. She wears a wim^ or dunrcloth, pinned up to tha temfdes 
over amooth pads, irtiich, betag (daeed over tiw hair, canaed the wimfde 
to stand out free from the neck for the sake ot appearance and coohuaa. 
She wean a cloae ditas, of which the upper edge ia cut low in the neck 
and corers the bottom of the wimple, and a long sleeved gown falling 
in heavy folds to the feet, which it eovoL. 

In front of this tomb is a dimtnutiTe cSct of a female wearing a veil 
and a long gown draping the feet, and girded with a etrap, after the 
manner of a Frendi bathing woman ; it ianot a gracefal figure, but an 
interesting one vi a very small elaae concerning which sntiqnaries have 
not quite made up th«r minds, the question being whether childien or 
adolta are tbne repreaented. Examples occur, Tailing in length from 
two to fonr feet, at Westminster, Mapouder, Horeted Keynes, Tenbury, 


l.Tot Bt Laomice, little Euton, Long Wittenluin, Aaabej, StliibaiT, 
Abbej Don, Gajton, Fiwder, and Hsonnnbe. Tb» M om plo Kt 
Cobedeju twofaetton inobes long, indadiiig Um Uaa »t the feet. She 
wean * eoAd ^ore on the Isft head, and holdi the otlier in the right ; 
tbeae drtaOi indioate ajpenan of qnalitj, probablj a Betlelej, and i 

Mhtin <jt Tbomaa de Beifceler and his wif^ who are nippoaed to be 
lepraaeBted ia the panoMnat figoras. 

With fmtW legaid to ttte ehanetai of the annonr of Tlunnai de 
Be^eln, it ii deadj by the nine sculptor as thoee at Leckhampt(»i, 
near Cheltenham, and AlTe^nrch, in 'Worceatenfaire, and we have 
identified othen in the weeterm eountiee from the oame workahopL 

Under a low aidi, in what is now the organ chamber, ii an intenstine 
atoBeeffigjotanuminoiTildiess. He wears a tonic witii doee-bnttoned 
aleeres to the wriste, « long gown falling in laige folds to the feet, a 
enpertnaic opening from the waurt downwards, and a hood with looee 
careless folds lying on the left side of the neck. A young man is 
lepfeaented with legnlai features, a delicate month and stiai^t under 
eyeUdi^ that peculiar faahiim of Edwardian sculptors, occasionaUy seen 
in real life, and when, in coigunction with gny eyes, giving a most 
piquant effect to the eoimteaance. The youth wears a remarkable pro- 
fusion of hair, cnt square orer the fordiMd and standing out four and 
thre&4]uarter inches on either ride of the face. It is a capital example 
of civil costume ; he is "saying endless prayers in stone." 

Then is also in the chanoel of Coberley Church an interesting memorial 
of a heart burial, probably of a Berkeley lord. It represents a half figure 
of a knight in mul holding a heart id front of a, heater-ahaped shield, 
tiie whole being set within a trefoiled arch under a plain gable, and 
apparently forming part of a credence. By the process of " restorati<Hi " 
this has been removed from the north to the south sid& Its change ii 
to be regretted, inasmuch as the records of heart hnriala of thit 
chacacter ue not numerous, and form the most interesting lUnstfatifma 
of ttw long " Chnaucle of Human Tears." 

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^ttctaivtfi Ht ileetinfljf oC tf|e Xtogal ^cfrsologfcal 

FiuuAST 7th, 1889. 
The Eau. Pkbot, Vil.A^ Prandnit, in th* (9udr. 

Mr. T. TramB TMd a pAper on " Uauaiul Doonraji in Old 
ChuTchM," treating of audi MtnrM, and othan of an nnoonmian 
kind, in tks duirches of Orton Longiwville, nsu Petarbotot^b, 
Longford, n«ar LediUde^ and 8t OathmnA'a CSupel, ntax Onildfoid. 
C<Mic«Tniag tlie five doorways in tli« email rouwd olutp«t of P^ 

Catliarine, Hr. Turner gave an iatOMtang axpiaoatton of thmr pro- 
bable nse. A Tote of tfaanka waa paaMd to JSx. Tnm 
will appear in a future number of the AmtmI. 

bable UM. A rote of tfaanka waa pasMd to JSx. Turner, whose paper 
will appear in a future number of the AmtmI. 

iSi. £. LovKLL read a P*P^ <^ " Banbury Crass. " Th 
printed at p. 159. A Tote of thanks waa passed to lib. Iiovell. 

jtntiqitttiM anb CBirriw «f jlrt iCxhibittb. 
Br Hr. W. Q-. Uitokiu. — A pfaoto-Ittlu^;nph from an WTcellsat 
rabbiajt of Um great Brannche bnss at King's Lyu, taken tiy Hr. 
B. H. firioey jmr. 

Huron 7tfa, 1889. 
Tbb Eul Pzrot, VSJ^, President, in the Chair. 

Hr. W. H. St. J. Hon read a paper on " The Carmelite Viiory, or 
House of WhiteMars at Hulne, Northumberland, in which he set 
forth at length the remarkable arrangement of the buildings as 
shown p) by the exteosiTe remains; (2) from Olarkson's Surrey, 
begun m 1S67; and (S) from the ezoaTationB reoendy made by Uie 
noble owner, the Duke of Nmthvmberland. 

Lord PncT entressed hit satisfaction at having heard Hr. Hope's 
paper, as the subject was cue in whioh he tooK a great personal 
mtereal; he then described the podtion of some interments which 
had been found in the ruins, foinoipally in the vestibule to the 
chapter house. 

Ur. MicKLXTBWUTE said he had followed Hr. Hope's paper with 
great interest. Very little was known as to the arrangement of 


FrUn* hooBM, but here was one which, by the aid of CHwkion'B 
SutT«r, clMrij indioMted the e&tira amogemeat, uid W8% therefore, 
of greet vahw. 

A TOto ol duake wae paved to Ur. Sape, wboee paper will appear 
in a fntore number o( the JmrntaL 

lir. E. 0. HuuB oommiinicated the following Notes on a fine 
g(dd"8ahite"oI HeurVI. :— 

" An^o-OaQic eoina were etmok hj Edward IIL fn the Ki^ieh 
poaeeasuMu in France. He waa the fint king who ttnusk gold money 
m Ranoe. Under Edward HL • Urge inne appeared under the 
name of Oalaia groatt. 

" Henry T. ttmck in gold — moatona and demi-moatona — ^probably 
salntee and haU-aalutae. 

" T!b» aalatea iriiich hare two shields are generally ascribed to the 
6th Henr^,=54 nains, half -noble. The name is derived from the 
type, whidi nearly reraesents the Salatation of the Virgin, niey 
were struck in imitaticai of those by ChArleeVI., 1421. 

" Ihe anld coinage of Henry TI. consists of salatee, ongelots, and 
franca. The salutes have two shielda. The an^elot resembles the 
salute in ^pe, omitting the figure of the ^igin, and derives its 

name from the an ge l which supports the shield. 

"\ntihHeDry TC. th e An glo- Gallic currency comes lo an eno. 
Henry Til. and Heniy Vm. struck silver groat^ which were the 

last coins struck by any Tingl"*' kine in French territory. 

" legend on obverse of " Balutc exhibited : — AU. 53. Hehugdb : 
D£i : Oka : Fxacobt : & : aoua. Bbx. An augel salutes the Virgin 
Hary, with the word Avs inscribed in a scroll he holds; above 
celestial rays; in front two shields, one, the arms of France, the 
othera ttioee of Franoe and England quarterly. A roundel within 
an annulet under tbelast letter of legaid(indioating^ace of mintage); 
Hint mark, lion. The small doasee which in the previous reim 
occupied the position of the lion were not intended for mint manos, 
but merely a symbol of the pie^ of our ancestors, and implied upon 
the coin to point out tiie ocnninencement of the l^;end. 

"Beveise: — Legend, — Ohb. • vnrar * Oer. biokat • Cux. • 
umajiT. 'Within a oompartment of double moulding of ten cusps, 
each terminating in a flenr-de-lia, is a cross calvaiy between a Seui^ 
de-lis. and a li<m passant guaidant, underneath the letter ]). A 
loundel within an annulet under the last letter of legend. Ifint mark. 

JlnttqnttiM inti QRocltff ot JUt Cxlufiitcll. 

By Ux. W. H. St. J. Hors.— Ground plan of the Carmelite 
Kimy at Hulne, rublnngs of slabs, and rubbings and casts of a piece 
ot an early cross with knotwork, found during the progress of the 

By Xfr. E. C. Huiifz.— A gold "Salute" of Henry VI. 

By Mr. £. Jaicss. — A number of silver spoons of English and 
foreign make, indnding an English example of the fourteenth cen- 
tury with an acorn head ; a foreign maidenhead spoon, and several 
seal-headed ones. 

Digilizcd by Google 


Bdtabvr^: Dsfli Doofba. 

We iMoiiM oar natw* of lb. IhcGilAon'e inteiwting nlnme, tad 
fidlow him in hii tovta Mitwaids from Mm—JIIw aloBtf tke If «dit«r- 
ruMn littonl. The MeditamiMui Uafliray, t^ wfakh bo tnrdlsd for 
ft conndetsble diitanc*, [mmm throogli a moontaiaotu and ncky diittiot, 
the ramioits of the loftjr peaka of the hilli^ h« telli ni, eimtnat rtirf 
■tronglr with the rich Twdure and Inxuriant gioirth in the Tallsji below 
them, and the eemi-tnipical regtttfttion of the Rinera. Hie diatrict 
howerer, it singnUrly deetitate of snj uchitectuial nnuina of Bpeciu 
iatereii , 

The fint place i^ an; note ndted waa Htirb, one of the great 
health reaorta of ths Ririeta. It ia aituated toi the top of a hill, three 
milea from the aea, and ia famona for ita palma, (xangea, and other 
tnqiical pbnta. Tkaie ia a eaatle hem of kwm tntenat baUt in the 
thirteenth eentaiy. which, during the nxtaenth oentur, paaaad thiovrit 
man; aaMolta and ehangea in the tEme of the teligiona wai% being hud 
hj toe Cathoifae and noteatanta Mmal timea in torn. Hie omeinte ia 
weD pnawrcd, and manr of the towen wfafah atrengthen it an almost 
entire. Theae are, foe the moat pari^ eqtuue and 1^^, and hare thna 
quite a aonthem aapact The original creDellattona atiU eziat with the 
h(^ for the atoat beama whidi carried wooden hoaidinga for the 
defence of the atunmit. The openinga are generallj long narrow alita^ 
but in the eaaton angle tower there are utm email pelted ardkea. 
The keep ia almost whoUj demoliahed. 

In the middle <^ the old town ia the piotoreaqoe ancient Chnioh of 
St Fan], aud to hare been (niginallr built in the twelfth eentnry, but it 
baa been eonaiderablj altered. The walla of the eaat and hare lud to be 
bton^t up friKn a conaiddTalde depth on aocount of the slope <d tho 
ground, and the lower pert of the battreasea shows woA of the thirteenth 
centntf, but the nprcr part is later. All the interior is of a late 
character. A wide cupel crosses the building at the west rad, and is 
sunnonnted with a plitin square town of the type of the Italian 
campanile, of which numerous examplea are found at Chasse and elae- 
where along the RirienL The upper round aiehed doorwaf, with ita 
deep TouifioiTs, indicates a stjle of work not un&eqnentlf met with in 
the town, sod which, Mr. MacOibbou thinks, ia doubUesa of Mooriah 
or Spanish origin. 


The Hotel de Ville ooonpiea the rite of the Chapel of a Comiiuaderjr 
ot liie TempUn. Although ffrettly altend it cantuiu fngments of 
meduBTil ardiitoctnra, xad hu ft [oehueaqae round tower. Altogether 
it poMmm eonaidenUfl chuacter. 

Half-waj along the valley throng whieh the railwaj pasaes from 
Toulon t4 Frqui, lying between the rugged district of Lee Uaurei on the 
•onth, and the Alpinea <« the ntsth, ia the itation Le Luc, abont eix 
milea to the ninth of which ia a atineton of great inteieat to the student 
ot ArchiteotnNb Thia is THOSomr, one of the three eariy dangfatera o( 
Giteaoz^ erected during the twelftii century. We have ^ready noticed 
ttie very plain dtaiaeter of the eariy bnildinge of thia austere oider, and 
their ehancter ia well known to onr readen. The Church of Thoronet, 
Hr. HaoQihhoo ttaaaAM, ia a striking ezampla. It ia aitaated in a 
retired and nual Talley, and is concealed by oUre grovea on the waitem 
dope of the narrow valley. "The chuicb, with its plain apse and little 
apir^ first meets the view, followed, on near approach, by the ruinous 
Imt extensive buildingi of the monasteiy which disappear amongst the 
foliage down the slope of the hilI-Bi<UL The puUic road now runs 
through the upper part of the eneloanta of the abbey, and doee along 
the south side of the church ; while part of tha monastic buildings to 
the west are occupied as a tavern or farmhouse. The monastery was 
built in the b^inning of the twelfth century on ground granted by 
Baymond de B^ranger, Count of Provence, and continued to be occupi^ 
by the Older until the time of the Revolution. The plan is that usual 
in Cistercian buildings of the period." The church has a nave with 
aisles croeaed at tiie east end by a large transept, from which, in the 
centre, a short choir, having a circular apee and two small chapels in each 
transept, extends towards the east The choir and chapels have apsidal 
terminationa, "Ifothtng," Mr. Mactiibbon obaarvcis, "could exceed the 
niiadc«ned nature of the design, both externally and intenially." The 
^ncipal entrance is at the west end, and consists of a plain rbund- 
haaded doorway, without even a moulding, opening into the south aisle. 
There are two tall windows in the west wall of the nave, a ronnd one in 
the gable, and a smaller round-headed one over the door io the south 
•isla, treiUed with equal simplicity. The space at our disposal precludes 
OS from following Ur. lIucGlibbon in his lucid description of this 
lemarkahle and interesting ehuieh, and the details of &e architecture ; 
notwithstanding that the interior is entirely devoid of onuunent, the 
religious effect ia grand and imposing. The building is fully and well 

The next stmcture treated of is the Church of St. UizuaH. It is 
of a totally different charactAr from that of llioronet. It is said to be 
the moat perfect specimen in Provence of a building in a pure Gothic 
styl& "The des^," Mr. MacGibbon aays, "has svidentiy been im- 
ported directly from Uie north. The building of the cfanrch was begun 
towards the end of the thirteenth century by Charles of Anjou, but was 
not finished until the close of the fifteenth. The plan consists of a 
nave and uales, each terminated on the east with an apse. There is no 
Innsept The vaultu are pointed and simple in form, the central vault 
being 90 ft. in height," " When complete," Mr. MacGibbon says, 
" the aspect of the ^urch must have been extremely light and fain 
like. The lofty windows of the detestoiy and apee, which are ul 

zed bv Google 


poinkd, fill ap with their tnMriei tha whole Tidble ipMe, the n 
being reduced to the snullwl limite. The Hune idea wu eecried oat in 
tha aUlet, whete the windows wen originally hmuht down almoit to the 
pereinent When theee windows won filled win steinei ^um, is Hiuij 
sre beliered to hsve been (slthoogfa it is now oompleMy gone), the 
effect nioft have been vei; fine, ud all the more splendid bom tiu 
remsAabl* otmtnut that they would prasent to the onfldlj Mmewfaat 
dark and gloomy chatsctei of soDthem ehiuehes." 

JU Funra, ue cathadtal ■■ an ezample uf the adoptton in Proranea 
of the "dn^ haU- «tyle of ohnidi. llr. IbeQibboa WMidwn Ukat 
it was probaUy bnOt in the twelfth aentoty. The original ainiotnra 
eoflwts of a nave of thiee ^naioiia, ot bay^ aaoh eormd with nnnd 
int«*ectiag Taulta, sttengthaned with large aqnan gniu, and tai^ 
tninated at the east end with a cinnlar wae, the whole extending to 
120 ft in length and 2B ft. in width, "om vaalts spring from |rien^ 
which are really large internal battrasses, witii ransisa s betwven thwn 
7 ft. deep. The nor& side wall ha^ howeTei^ been oat ont, and an aisle 
added at a later date, with atill later cluq>ela beyond. The string- 
coarse, caps, Sk., are all ot the same simple fonn employed in so many 
buildiQgi of the period It is most mamiTe and impieeriva, and like 
numerous other churches in the south wai strongly Antified for the pro- 
tection of the Bishop's Palace and other ecclMiastical bnildings, the 
whole of which irc reiy iateresting, and are very fully iUnstrated. 

At RiEZ was a Roman colony. Xumeroos Roman remains, Corin- 
thian columns of grey i^mnite from the Eaterel, with caps, ha nes and 
architrare* of marble, and nnmerous fragments of pottery Mid moeaiea, 
and a large quantity of portions of columns and architraves have been 
found vhich hare been utilised in baildiu; modem walls. 

We pam on to Cannis, now almost as well known in England as 
Brighton. It was a mere fishing village until broaght into notice tn 
1631 by Lord Brougham, who built thne the first English villa. It is 
now "a town of fine residenoes and a[dendid hotela, extending four 
miles along the coast, ai^ rising on tlie wooded hilla, or nestling in the 
sheltered ravines which seam their flanks." Cannes owed its first 
existence to s rocky eminence in the bay, and the only ancient baildings 
are situated on the summit of this funinence. These consist of the 
"Toar du Chevslier," the ancient Church of St. Anne (formeily the 
Chapel of the Castle), and the modem parish church of the seventeenth 
century, the whole being surrounded with the remains of wslls, towen 
and butioDS of various periods, preianting a very pieturesqae mtambU. 
Mr. MacGibbon gives an interesting scconnt of the " Tour du (Aevalier " 
sod other remains of the casUe, of which there are several excellent 
illustrations, and of the Church of Sb Anne, which was built about the 
end of the twelfth century, and possesses all the unadorned chBracteristies 
of Cistercian architecture. 

In the bay opposite Cannes are the two Des de Lerins, St. MabodA- 
RITE and St. Hoxohat. The latter, Mr. MacGibbon tells us, " posseases 
the most interesting aeries of buildings in the Bivieia, combining, as it 
does, some featurea of tha architecture of every period and style of 
Proven9aI art, whether Ecclesiastical or Civil ;" and he adds that " in 
tlie fifth century the island Menu to have bean deserted when St. 
Honorat retired to it, and there •founded a monastery," which became 


moft famous for learning, and, like lona, "a centre from which 
wissiotiarieB ianied to enlighten tbo surronnding coontrioa and aprBatl 
religion amon^ tha barbaiuna," He gira a very full and interesting 
aoooont of the andant attnctanB on these iaiaoda with nuiuerooa iUnatra- 
tioDa, foe which we moat refer to faia !••({«• 

UonotKa and Quen are next viaited. Attha firat there ii not much 
to notice, but the Catbednl at the latter is of a type caaentiaUf different 
tram tliat which praTiila in Proren^ and rery doselj naeublea the 
•rahiteetnn of Itatj ; and thia character, Mr. UaoOibbon remaika, he 
found more and more atrongly developeid aa he proceeded eaatwaida. 
The Catbednl is retj 1*1^7 described and illustrated. Tha naxt plac* 
treated of which loqoima notice ia St. CfaaitB. Ibe aneiant ehsrdi hen 
is a very quaint little bnilding, conristing of a nare of three b^^ 46 fb 
kng by 20 ft widc^ with an apse 9 ft deep, built as it were againat the 
eaat mill of the nare. It is of the twelfth century, and poasesaaa all the 
simple featnrea of the Cistercian style. 

At La Bu the doorway of (he chunb is very remarkaMe for the 
richness of its dacorationa. It has a pointed arch, and is described by 
Ifr. MacGibbon as " line Italian Gothic." A Boman inscription ia boilt 
into the tower. Qiuaai admits of many pleasant ezcut8ioa& From 
thenca Godrdok TounnTsa, Abtibeb, and Caomes were visited and 
described. About two miles from the last named place is the Castle of 
ViLiAiEirvK-LocRiT. It baa been conaidetably modernised but suffi* 
cient of the original work remaining to shew its oticiant charaeter. It 
condsts of n central castln with towers at the angles and surmounted by 
a lofty, quaint, and Moorish-looking watch tower, the whole being 
endoaed by a strong wall of encaint defended with round towera at the 
angles, provided with large port-holes for guns, and a deep ditch. The 
entrance gateway oonsistB of ao iron gnting guarded by two round 
towen, and fomiahed with a drawbridge over ^e moat. These round 
towera and walls an deecribed as being by no means modem, probably 
about the sixteenth oentury, but they have been deprived of Uidr 
battlenients, and oonaequently have a very aqoat appearance. The cen- 
tral tower ia mnch more ancient, built of tiie rou^-faced ashler of the 
thirteenth century, and contains some decayed shields of arms bearing 
the lances of the Villeneuves and the star of Les Bauz. Externally, 
the eaat face presents two notevrorthy features in the apae of Uie chapel 
and ttie tall watch-tower. The chapel has been converted into aput- 
inente, but t^ outlines and buttiessea of the apse seem to bs of the 
fifteenth century. The watch-tower ia described aa " one of the moat 

rFect examples of those characteristio features of the Maritime Alps." 
is of the same nt^nre as the ke^ towen we have met with at 
Cannes, Omasa and Antibes, bat instead of being sqnan on pUn like 
them, it has the eastern aide prctjected in the form of a shwp angle. 
The tower retains its battiementod top almost unaltered. About a mile 
distant from the Castle just mentioned ia a tower, aimilar to that 
described, known aa La Trinity It is perebed on the top of a pre* 
cipitons rock, and is surrounded on the north nde by a bastioncd 
tcffTSca On the other aides it is inaooeauble. It is approached by a 
rude stair, and was entered through a strong gateway now in ruina, aad 
within the enclosure are the ruins of a small chapeL The nppsr inrtiaB 
of the tower was teatorod in IS63. Its ^peatanee from the di^Ml ia 

..db, Google 


■itigakri.j pietanwino. About 3| suIm bom Lk TnniU, m Ota crow 
flis^ U uw uwieat town of Bior, one (tf tha m(»( piiBitivB old towni 
in tiu dirtrict. It ttandt oa tha top o( • bill and ft oindfaMU poat road 
hu been oonatraetad to it, bat fte anolant aeowiii br looft flifl^ o( 
wide lUpa am 1101 oaed hy fte paaHuttt and thtir mvifOt, and ICc 
MaeOibboo atata that thaae atmeti an in dteit waj the bum* piotnnequ 
in the Birion. The dtoieh ia aitaated on the U^uat point of Uie bill. 
and was oon*eca»tod in liTS, aa taatiAed hy an inaoripttcn in the 
interior, bat the aoath doorway lun an eatiter ohanetac Ilw exteciot 
ia all altcnd, but aome tneaa of the oijginBl bdUiag an obeerrabie. 
lit. HaoOibbon anu "Biot belonged to the Tot^dua in 1M7, and 
eftarwaida to the Kni^ti of ICalta." The plan of the ohoreh as now 
existing is Jtxy nmatkaUft. It is a ainaje obltnig divided into three aisles 
with thiM tenainal ^wea. On eadi ada <rf dw eaatem bay is a semi- 
octagonal eh^pal ; pKyaeting fiom tiie westeni bay on the aoath is the 
tower, with a sqnara ehapd east of it, and thin is another ehapel, 

- " ; the leo^ of two bajr^ on the nrnth aidsi It has been 
" and triflked oat with atooeo worth/ of Sof^ish choreh* 
IS of the last oootarj. 

Ur. HacOibbon aaTS, one of the moat dsUghtfol excnrriona frcna 
Csgnes is tiiat to &r. pAntcDn-Yu and Vno^ two of the moat 
intensttng old towns in the Eiricn. These pUces are TC17 foUj 
deacribed, snd numetous illnstrstions ue giren of the dden-time bonaes 
and the canons earrings and other details. The earrings of a <^iininey- 
piece and a staircase in the Maison Souire are remarkably fine. Vonoa 
was th« Tentium of the Bomans, and namerons Bomaa inscriptions and 
other remains bare been fonnd and preserred. The Cathedral is a 
boilding oi great antiqaity, and is remaricable for the abeenoe of any- 
thing lue ornament. 

Kid is the next {dace treated of. It poaaeasea no remains ot antt- 
qoarian intenat dealing apedal nottoe, and ita enYinms an equally 
bsmn ; thoogfa full of natoral beaaties. At Cimies (Cementiam oif the 
Bontans), whne a few Soman nlioa have been fonnd, is an old eonfent, 
and in finot of it is a reiy remarkable cross. The upper limb beam, in 
a qoatnfnl, the image of the cmeified senidi which appeared to St 
Frands de Aasissi. Bach arm is similariy terminatea On one is 
Bcolptured a pelican in her [nety, and on the other the fignrea of a 
bithop and a monk. T\u croea is rery elegant in form, and ia supported 
by a twisted marUe abaft aome nine or ten feet hisfa, hJanng a compoaite 
capital bearing a shield, charged with the arma <a the founder Along 
the abacas rona an inacription, in which the date 1477 only is le^blsi 

Tisita to Utsrom, CARnuB, Four St. Louib, VmrronauA, Dta/m 
AvsA, BiM BxHO taA Qnroi, iriiifih places an admirably illnatrated, 
terminatothe tour. 

The Tolnma thioiq^at, from ootcc to cover, is of great interest, and 
the numaons iltostiaUons an generally adminbly executed. It should 
form the companion of every Englishman viaiting the intenstiog 
district the author so well describes. It aeems lamadsble, however, 
that Mr. MacGibbon does not appear to be aoquai&tod with the 
lata Bev. J. L. Petit's " Architactunl Stodtes in Fianoe." Mr. Petit 
visited many of the places treated of by Mr. UJuiGibbon, and has left us, 
in his iuimitable etchings numerous illustrations of the moat interesting 


eedeBiutical stmctviM of tbs continent, mny of which are ibo figorad 
in Mi. HacGibbon'n work. Than is also a tbort memoir iUastnted hj 
the aame talented anthn and artist^ with serMal of hi* unique dtawingi, 
coatribated bf Ur. A. HartahoiBe to toL xlir of the Arekaoloffieal 

Iha hktcn ri thiir Sunnidoa. Bj iMAMn Amu QUKtO*l, Uoak «( the 
Orte of SL BcMdiot, ■oDwtime P(to of 81. QiMaty'i HoDMtan, D<lWIliid^ 
Bkth. Vol. IL LoodoD: JolmHod««,HaiiMtU8tm«t,CbTaitaudcn. 

Tba fiat volume of Father Gaaqnet^ important work was Dotioed in a 
pcevione nnmbei of the Jmtmed. That now befbm oi eommenoeB with 
an accoant of the dimolutioii of the leeaec mtmaeteries, vis., thoee whon 
leTonnet did not exceed X200 a yeaiL In March, lfi36, an ohaeqnioaa 
pariianwnt bod girea power to the king to deal a* he ploMed with theee 
boiuea. HeniT had almady fwmed ub deaigna tor carrying out hie 
oh^ect^ bat about thia time impcntant evente oooorred whidi seemed, 
tor a while, to check hie ptoceediogi. On the 7th Jinnary, Qneen 
Eatberine d^iarted from this woiid and all its trouble^ and on the 
17th <rf Uaj following Anne Boleyn died on the scaSbld. The king 
waa thns leUeved from all his matrimonial difficulties, and hopes ware 
rateitained that, thn>iij{h the mediation of the King of Franca, a reoon- 
dliatitm might be effected between Henij and the Pope, which all men 
longed for except a few csntankerons epirita who had their own ends to 
serve. This reconciliation was confidently expected. The king had 
become very unsettled in hie religious opinions. Mr. James Qaitdner, 
the able saccessor of the late Dr. Brewer as editor of the State Papers 
of this reign, says : " Henry had not been quite sure for some yean past 
which doctrines he should coder to be n[^eld or denounced from vaiions 
pu^ts, except the preaolms were, of couice, to demmnce the authority 
of the see of Bome," but the pitiject of reoonciliBtion was fmstrated by 
an ill-timed imd injudicions letter addrened by Cardinal Pole, always 
impetuous, to the kLig^ 

The king tfaeienpcm entered wumly npon his design of •nptoessii^ 
the Isasnr monasteries^ and oonverting their po n s osni oos to his own nee. 
" The Court of Augmentation " was created to leoeive and account for 
all the lands and goods which were to be seixed into the king's bands. 
Father Oasquet shows ns the course of procedure which was adopted. 
" The Boyal Conmusaion wss issued to some of the leading men in each 
county to make a new survey of the bouses within the limits of tiieir 
districts. They were to form a body of six viators, comprising an 
auditor, the particular receiver appointed for the eoun^, and a clerk, 
who ware the royal officials, and who were to be accompanied by tiiree 
other discreet persons, to be named by tiie king in each county." On 
their arrival at each monastery they were ordered to summon the 
auperior and shew him the "act of dissolution," and their special 
commission. Next they were to make the officials of the house swear to 
answer truly the questions the commissionere put to them. Having 
done ttiis they had to proceed on their examination into the state of 
the establishment, and in their report to give the result of their inquiry. 
They were specially diiected to state the number of the teligioaa " and 

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the conY«TMtion of their livee f how mtaj wete prieeta, and how mtnf 
were willing to go to other honaei, or would take " cepedtiee f and 
what aenranta or other dmendaati w«n attached to the eataUiahmeni 
Having obtained thia inlormalion Um wpX nnmmJiiinnin wen to 
call for the cmtTent aaal and all tba mnnuMnta rf the hooae, and to 
make an inrentocj "by indeotom " with the anpecior, of all i^atc^ jewefa, 
and other gooda and pnpei^, which belonged to the eetabliahment on 
the lit Uarch of thia Tear, 1U6. They ware then to imm tfaeit ooitt- 
manda to the nperior not to leoeiTe any ranta, aor ipend an; mtnatf, 
except for the neeeaaaiy expenaea of the plate, sntil the Idng^a final 
pleanue wia known, at the aame time eqjiuning him to ooniinne to 
iratch OT«rthalanda,aad"aowand till" aa before, till Bdch time aa the 
king'a farawr ahoold nliava bin of thia do^. Aa for the oommoni^, 
tba officer waa "to aend thoee that will remain in religion to other 
booaaa, with letteia to tha oovwdot^ and thoaa that wiah to go to the 
world, to mjr lord of CaalenKUf , and the lord chanoellor for o^^adttaa." 
To the latter " aome reaaonri>la reward," aeeording to the diitauce of the 
pla«e appointed, waa to be givn. The anporior alone waa to have any 
penaioa aaaigned to him, rad he waa to go to the Chancellor of tu 
Attgmentatian Igc it 

Sisoa our notice of the flrat Tolume of Father Oaaqnat'a work, the 
Camden Society haa iaaued to ita membera, under the editorahip of 
Dr. Jeaaop, an eminent deigyman of the ChnrdL of England, an important 
volume coiitaintng Uie t^ooii* of fin Epiaoopal Viaitaliona of the 
Beligiou Houua of the Dioeeaa of Norwich, between 1192 and 1632. 
Tbeae naitations show that in many <A the monaateriea and conrenba in 
that diocaae numerooa inegularitiea existed, especially in the smaller and 
pocmr eataUisbmenla. nm were not, howevw, generally, of a gniTe 
character, and conaiated diiwy of a laxity of diaeiplina in many forma, 
and alaad«, qnarnUtu^ drinkmg^ not ^paiently to intoxication, and to 
the inuatea being «£Uoted to [drying earda and dominoea — haimlcM 
amnaementa in thMudraa, but not religioas exercisea. ^ one eaae was 
a dreadfal moial oflEsnee, the natue ai which is not stated. It waa 
leserred to be dealt with by the Biahop more delibentely. Ibis mm at 
Weatacre, in 1530l The nature of thia sln^e crime is not stated, and the 
result is not shewn. 

In the nunneries there seems not to have been found any more serious 
latUbs than thoae arising from the queiuloua irritabili^ of aged women, 
except in ntin imlitaiy initinre, f* O^"***", »*'"«*y'™"g nun had been 
seduced by a gentlemau of pontion Raiding in the pariah. Thia waa the 
only case of aexual sin ehaqged against any. 

Porer^ and miaery to a great extent prerailed in tbeae small eatab- 
liahmanta, arisiag front lecUeaa orerbuiloing in eariier times, and the 
Terenuea of thehouses wue insufficient to keqt the extensive premises 
in reiMir, and we all know how soon neglected repaira result in utter min. 
We remarked in our former notice upon the villaiDy of the agenta 
Klected by the king and Cromwell as the flnt naitors of the religions 
houses, and how utterly devoid of credit were the eon^terta which thej 
letunied. Dr. Jeaaop fully oonoboiates Father Oaaqnefs statements^ 
He writes : " They called Utemselves miUari ; they were in effect mere 
hired detectives of the v«xy vilest stamp, who came to levy blackmail, and, 
if possible, to find some excuse for their robberies by vilifring their 


victitnii. In ^1 the hidaous eomperta which hare eom« down to oa, tiiera 
u not, if I remember rightly, t nng^e iiuUnce of ao j report or oompkint 
haring been made to the pMon from any one outnde. The onormitiee 
■et down againtt the poor peofda eceoied of tbem are said to^hare been 
oonfeaed by tbemaelTW agaiut ttiemadrea. In other word^ the am- 
perta of 15S6 and 1556 oau oolj be teeetTed aa the horrible iaTentions of 
the miaNsUe men who wrote them down upon theii p^iera, well know- 
ing that, aa in no eaae oovld the ehaigea be aapported, ao^ on the other 
hand, in no csae oould they be met or were tiie aecaaed arer intended to 
be pat npon their triaL" (IntnMlxii). And again, laferting to these com- 
perta, he eays : " The mon inch docnmenta are examined the better ; if 
the eridence ia damnatoty, let the tnith be told. Eren thon^ it ahonld 
appear that e\-ery religiona hooae in England waa a hell upon earth, and 
every monk or nnn was steeped in the foulest d^iths of nceand wicked- 
ness, we may be staggered and confounded by the aad and dreadful and 
ioezplicaUa expoeure, but mutt needs aooept it, though hcoeeforth in 
Bpeecbless shame and honor we shall be compelled to allow that thishuman 
nature of ours is a thousand times more bue aad degraded than we had 
hitherto allowed ouraelves to beliere. If on the other hand the 
additional evidence that time may discover for oe shall prove no more 
ttian that which thU volume makea us scqusinted with, we shall bsve to 
take a difiiarent view from that which has hitherto been the popular 
view. Then it may happen that we ahall be forced to confess that in Uie 
sixteenth century there were creatures in common (1 human) form, who 
exhibited as shocking examples of truculent slander, of gratuitous 
obscenity, of hateful malignity, aa can be found among the worst men of 
any preriooa or succeeding age ; but we shall have to look for them, not 
within the cloisters, but outside them, among the robbers, not am<H]g 
the robbed" (IK I). 

The number of the houses of the class now under consideration, 
according to the best authorities, was somewhere about S60 or 370 ; the 
annual revenue of which aeized for the king's use waa about £30,000, 
according to the value of money at that time ; and the value of the 
goods seiied £100,000. 

It is impossible to form any estimate of the number of persona affected 
by the dissolution of the leeaer monasteries. It has been calculated that, 
besides servants and others employed and supported by them, over 
3,000 monks and nuns wwe turned out of their homes, in which many 
of them had lived in peace almost their whole lives, without any pn>- 
Tiuou for their future support, though many of them wen of great age 
and decrepid. It was only the heads of the houses who were pension^. 
Father Qasquet gives us some piteous tales, for which we murt refer to 
his pages. 

All theee amall houses, however, were not at this time absolutely 
suppressed. The king reserved power under the Act to continue some 
of uem. And such as he wished to continue were re-founded by Letters 
I>atent as of the king's new foundation, and such of their former landi^ 
and goods and chattels, as the king willed, were restored to them. For 
this indulgence they had to pay heavy lines, generally about three years' 
valne of the revenues, but within two years, at the general dissolution, 
though granted in perpHuity, they perished with the otheiK It will, 
however, be well to note, before passing on, that among the houses thus 

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n-tataUiihed there were KHiie of those which had beea most gnvetj 
de&med hy Lajton wni Le^ hi their eomperta, and in m«« tlun ou« 
iutanee a niperiw ineriminited by thwn waa t»«ppointed in the new 

Hm neluiow work pnweeded with mat n^nditj'. The Aet (or 
the dinolntion of the loNer monaatenea paaaed onlj at the end 
of Feb. lSSS-6, jet on the 8th July fdlowing Chapaye, the Imperial 
Ambaaaador, wit able in hia laport to write : " It ia a lamentable thing 
to aee a legion «E nionka and nana, ^o have beea ehaaad from their 
moDarieriea, waadaiing miaecshlj' hither and thither aneting meaiM to 
live ; and aereral honeat nien haTO told me that what with monka, nana, 
and penona dqiendent on the monaatoiea an pp c u aa e d, there were over 
»,000 who knew not how to lire." (State Fwera, xi, No. 42.) Ma 
Gaiidner (pnfaca xjj) eouideie thia eatimate too ntgb, onkaa it refera to 
Iba "'*■—** eStet (H the Aet, bat to na it appeaza not onreaaonaUe, 
indeed, perhaps, below the maife if it were the ease that 3,000 monks 
and nana alone wen rendemd h omeless in ttie ainrie ooantj' ot Xineoln. 

This mast haTo beta a most piteoos n^t to behdd, and the whole 
popolation most deepljr sympathiBed with the omessed m<»ks and nana, 
many of whom had most earnestly petitioned the king to be allowed to 
eontinae in religion. The man of the people, eapaciMlly, were drawn 
towards them from feelings of gratitude as their own friends in adver- 
aitjr, always ready to miniiter to ttieir necessities in body and sonL But 
this was not all that aronaed thoir indignation. The wanton and heart- 
leas spoliation and deatruelKMi of titt leligioaa hoaaes, the pride and 
glory of the oonntry side, and the hallowed Hoases of God, wUdi in 
those days all r^aided wiUi reTerBuoe, and the aale of the tresael tables^ 
stools, aitd benchea, which fonned the slender famiture of the poor cells 
of the monks, and still more the plunder of the rich Teatmenbs and altar 

£te which had been lavi^y bestowed for the Serrice of the Most 
jfa sggrsTated their anger, and excited a apirit of reaistance which 
even iliook tiie nerves of the mightf king. 

Apart from the question of relinon ttrne was another sulfject which 
greatly aggriored the upper and middle daasea. Lands weie then beld 
ehiefly by militaiy serrioe, either of the king in a^&e or of some mesne 
lord who held it of the king, and, theiefan^ on the death of a tenant it 
dsToInd iq>on hia aon, or next male heir. It could not be alienated 
without the royal licenae. ^m rigidity of the law of military semc^ 
had, however, for some time been aofleoing, and men had been in the 
habit of eonveytng lands to "aaea" or "tnuts" to make proviaion for 
thdr yonnger diildna, iriiicb piactiee bad been winked at. Bat Heniy 
was anxiona to maintain a strong military force, and to thia end to pre- 
vent tlie failare of military dues. To pat a check upon the practice of 
asea he proposed to give a teetamentary power to the extent of one half 
of the leal estata The statnte waa nnpopular to all daasea. Even the 
Duke of Norfolk, it was said, expressed disapproval of the measure, and 
it was delenniiwd in Linoolnshira to offer an active resistance to the 
king's measures, and the following demands were made of the kins : — 

1, The Commona complained of the dissolatioa of the religious houses 
and of Ihe consequent destitution of the povrealty of the retdm, 

2. Of the restraints imposed on the distribution of property by the 
statute ot uaes. 

Noncsa or abchakological publicatiohb. 181 

3. Of the gnuit to the king of the teatlu and flnt-froiU of qiiritual 

4. Of the payment of the snbiM^ demanded of them. 

R. Of the intaodnctton Into the J^aA Coanoil of Cramwell, Bioh and 
other mch penooagea aa be of low hirtti and nuJI npaUtioa. 

6. Of the ^omotioD of the Aiehhiahopa of Canterbntr and DnUin, 
and the Bislwpa of Bodieater, St DaTida and otbea, who, in their 
opiuimi, had mulj aahrerted Ute &ith of Chiirt. 

Fathir Qanoet gtrea na at eonaidenUe length the intenating 
T»itiwiUf (rf Um t^ee norihem iniaireetions at thic period : — The 
Biaing in liseolnshire, l%e Pilgrimage of Oiaoe, and the Second 
Nori£eni BiaiDg. He drawa his information from the original official 
depodtions of ue witnessea preaetred in the Public Beootd Office, ao 
that the aocoiacj of hia atatementa cannot be qnecrtioned. We mnat 
nf er the teadoi to hia pagea. 

The eoIliMe of the third attempt of the people to pieaaiTa the ancient 
abbeys of ^igland and maintain the ancient nligion, together with the 
fate of the leaden or aanimed leaders, etmck terror and diamay into the 
heaita of the "ff-ngliib peoplo— aeren^-fonr men had been, under martial 
law, hanged bj ue Duke of Norfolk, who oonmianded the king's forces, 
from the walla of Carlisle, and afterwards qoartered ; and the principal 
leadera were bronght before the said Duke, Sir Thomas Tempest uid 
others, who had been appointed special commisaionen, to enqnire, with 
the assistance of a jury, into the guilt or innocence of the persons 
accused. The eommissioners sat at York on the 9th May, but the Duke 
bad taken precautious with respect to the jurors previoudy. Writing to 
Cromwell he says : — " I am at this time of such acquuntanoe with the 
gentlemen that I dare well to adTentoic to put divers on the quests of 
whom some hate married with Lord Daroy'a daughters and aome with 
Sir Bobert Constable's." Adding: — " I doubt not my lord that the matter 
dun be found accotding to the king's pleasnie." "My good lord," " be 
goes on, I will not spare to put the best friends theae men hare upon one 
of Uie inquests, to prave thur affection, whether they will raiher serre 
his nuqes^ truly and frankly in this matter, or else favour their friends, 
and if they will not find, then they may have thanks aoooiding to their 
cankered hearts And aa for the other inquest I will appoint such that 
I shall no more doubt of than of mysell" They were anaigned on a 
charge of high treason " ia conspiring to deprive the king of Ms dignity, 
tiUe, name, and royal stats, munely, of being on earth thJe su|neme head 
of the T^ngliaK Church." !nke DiUce's policy was quite sucouafuL The 
prisonera were all found guilty. Lord Daicy was beheMied on lowsr 
hill, two abbots, two priors, and several oUiei eccleaiaatiea and other 
perscms were hanged and quartered at Tyburn, whilst ConstaUe and 
Aahe were hanged in chains at Hull and York respectively. 

Many of the abbots and monks, who through the chicanery of the 
king's agents had been prevailed upon to anrrender their houses and 
lan^, had, during the insurrection, been reetored, not altog^her without 
the ling's secret connivance, by the insurgent leaders; uid Uiere were 
also many houses which, aa yet, had not been induced to sunwider nor 
had been dissolved. These now in the spring of 1637, immediately after 
the abovementioned appalling executions, the king determined to proceed 
against, cautiously, but with the utmost rigour. Inatroctions were sent 


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182 Honcsa of abchabolooical pciokultions. 

to the Duke of Norfolk to immedUtelf qject the monke end noiu, who 
had baea nplaoed, u we here jiut etetedi and to leiton the hootee and 
laiida to the kbg*! lannen ; and he was fnitber oommandad "to oaoae 
all the nligiona MnoBathatw<te^otl»,inaajo(thenidhoiiiei,«llur 
to take theit liraigi in audi othei noBMtetiM of thaii Nligkn ■■ tber 
ahaU be aaignad to^ or ela^ if they iball nfnae ao to do^ he duU paniah 
theu at vapboDda aad ennnlea at the oonnonwealth, ao aa no one of 
that aort nmain at large in the ooonttjr." 

ttistns, indeed, that the king, in the time of Uaalaim at the pio- 
raeaa of die Mcond Nocthem Biafng^ had aothoiind IToifoIk and the 
Eari of SttlMk to make on bia behalf nlomn jmrnum that the leetoied 
nligioaa dtonld be left itndiatnrbed ontS the nofthem pariiamant had 
finalljr aattled tin qneation of the diaaohition ; bat each j^edgee atood 
not msdi in the tnj of a Tndor Ui^ who eoold diieet m oommander 
that he ahonld " in anj wiae caoaa waA dnadfnl axeeation to be done 
npon a good munber at the inhabitanla (tf omy town, villas *ad 
hamlet that have ofiended in thia lebdlion, ae well by tiMgiiw tDau n 

it havo ofiended in thia nbdlion, aa well by hmgii^ 
I by qnarterina ot tbem and antting of tiior * 
in evaty town, gnat and amall, and in all audi other 

ai by qnarterina ot tbem and antting of tiidr heoda aad qaactoia 
, town, gnat and amall, and in all audi other plaoaa aa they may 

be a tearful ipectacle to all other henafter that would [mottoa any like 

inattw." The king having atrook terror into the heaiia of his people, 
and at length aatidad himaelf with Uood, determined to proceed by what 
he conaiderad " the legal forma of oidinaiy joatioe to comjdote the work 
of poniahment." 

The king's next procedure waa by way of attainder in reapect to all 
abbota, prion, or other heada of houaea who had, been, or oomd, in any 
way, be accnaed of having been farourably diapoeed to the inannection, 
eren thon^ they had been involantarily forced into the re-poaaoaaion of 
their own honsM by the uunrrectionaiy power. Taiher Quqnet pcnnta 
out that in the atatute for the aettJement of the Boyal Snooeaaion 
(35 Henry VIII, o. 22), npon the deeUratioa of the anility of the 
king's marriage with Katharine of Anagtm, and oonaeqnent haatantiiiing 
of the Frinoeaa Vary, there were intnxbiced two ambtgoona tanna, via., 
" ' Estate of inheritance ' and ' aucoenon ' oniaing two gnat ohangea in 
Endiah law. By the firat eatates tail were made forfeitable (ot tHwaoi, 
and the aeccoid, other than aneh peraona as shall Iutb been ao oonrint 
theii heirs and succeaaor*." Under thia clanae the king elaimed upon 
the attainder of an abbot the forfeiture of the whole of the eatatee of 
the fraternity, a principle utterly unknown in fonnar H^ngljiJi joiia- 
pmdence, and which Bnmet argaea to be nnjustifiabl& 

Under this interpretation of the Act some of Qm great monaateriea 
immediately felL Anumg them weio the ablnw of Whalley, Bawley, 
Bariin^ Jarvanlx, and EiAstall, and the Priory of Bridlington. Their 
rulers wen hanged, generally npon the moat flimaey, or no, evidenee ot 
participation in any inaoneeUonary ^oceediog, and all the honsee, 
lands, and goods wen aeited into the king's hand, though much of it 
disappeared in appanntlj a most myeteriona manner. Sir Arthur Darey 
in Uie beginning of June informed Cromwell that he bad been at the 
BUppieesion, and says that "the honee* within the gate an covered 
wh^ly with lead, and there is one of the fairest churchea that I have 
aeUL" In fact he was eo delighted with the place, ^t he at^igeeted it 
would make a good stable for the Boyal " stud of mares," whidi were ao 
Goetly to tiie king, " at Tbombury and otlier places " (173). 


The epsoe et oni dispoul will not adniit of oar following the Mthor 
in hia intweBting thoo^ most pMofni nuntiTe of the malpnotioM of 
Ui« king tnd his renal igantB in deding with the nnluqip^ and defence- 
Itm niimks — the ^orts to incriminate initooent men— the wwing of 
disMntimii taong the Isethren and inducing the weaker hj bribed to 
hoBg falM aoenwtiong agiintt the mon ateadfaat, and other meana 
whidi an (mly daAlj hinted tX. At Fotneai, after nnaDoceasfallr nnng 
•reiy effort to obtain aofficieitt evkleDoe agafant the abbot, the Eatl (tt 
SnaaQX reported his diffiouUiea to tha kin^ who icfdiad : — '* W« dMire 
and pmy joa, with all the dexteri^ 70a ean, to dariM and ezeogitate to 
oae aU the means to jon poMible, to leiiardt and tr; out the toit tntttt 
<rf ttieir prooeedingi, and with whom thej (t^ nKmka) or any of them 
have had intelligence. We think rerilf , tlmt joo shall find therebj- 
•ndi matter as shall show the light of manj tttinga yet anknown," 
adding that meanwhile the abbot and some of the monks shoold be 
eonunitted to prison. On the 6th of April, Snaaex reported that in bia 
preTions ezaminatioii that he had used the said abbot and his brethrsD 
in such wise that it was impoesible to get any more than was bad before 
ovt of &em. He told the lung that he had committed to Lancaster gaol 
two ot the aaid monks, which was all he could find faulty, and that 
there was nothing that could now be discoTOied against the abbot Uiat 
would serve the purpose, and explained his plan for obtaining the rich 
poeeessions of the abbey for the king. " 1, the said earl," he eaye, 
" devising with myadf , if one way would not serve, how and by what 
other means, the Baid monks might be rid from (be said abbey, and con- 
sequently bow the same might be at your giadons pleasure, caused the 
said abbot to be sent for to AVhalley, and, thereupon, after we had 
examined him, and indeed could not perceive that it was possible for us 
to have any othw matter, I the same earl, as before by the advice of 
other of your council, determined to essay him as of myself, whether he 
would be contented to suneader, give and gnnt unto yonr heirs and 
asaigna the said monastety." It was a woice between death and 
surrender. In either case the king would seiie the abbey and all its 
poesessions, and the monks cleared out. Human nature yielded to the 
tempter, and on the 6U1 April, 1687, the unhappy abbot signed the 
surrender. The monks were constrained to follow the example of their 
abbot, and had to quit their peaceful home without pension, only 10a. 
each in their pockets. And ttie abbey and ita poBSeasions worth £800 a 
year clear passed to the king, and the rich church and other buildings to 
the axes and hammers of the desboyera. 

In paaaing on we cannot refrain horn calling attention to the patiietia 
story of the destruction of Wobum Abbey, pp. 191 — 202, which was 
seised under the new interpretation of the Act of Attainder on 20th 
June, 1538, and the abbot hanged before hia own gate, and ot^an 
with him. 

Doubtless this dire calamity fell wiUi much greater severity upon the 
nuns even than upon the monks. Father Gaaquet has described the 
difference veiy clearly. The monks, although many of them from a life- 
long aeduaian, and from age, when turned out of their homes with a few 
ahiUinga in their pockets, or, in many cases penniless, were, at all 
events, better fitted to battle with the world than feeble women. Uany 
of them were priests, and might hope to gain some maintenance, howerec 



•oaty, bom the exerciM of their offio& Hie non't lot^ hovevrav opened 
oat no Midi noepect "Driren from the dinntuitied w>U* (rf her 
eoDTent, end the veilof her ptofeMion etripmd from hei^ the. nan oonld 
not bat taffw the paini *d dulj mir ty idoin in the loo^ Kmoandingi of 
en aDeoageniel wnU." 

\nth legud to the ngnkiitiee uid order which pnreiled in the 
F^"** naaneriM aJt the time ol th«r wtppr— ion, eren Lafton end 
Le^ in their notoiioae eomperta, are abU to Mng bot few ohanee 
aguDit tiuir good name^ and thoae <rf a verr triflini dunotet The 
le^rarte of fiteae "worthy* rauaaaziea of Cnmwell embiaoed aome 
thiTtem eoontii^ and only of 37 nana in all the oonrmta Tinted ooold - 
they qiaak nnfaroambly, and eren <rf theoa all bat ten were tboa^ not 
onworthy of tbeic peonoa ; and they eoold find only two aona oat of all 
the eoiTBDta who woe derinma to be leliered <« tiie natrainta of a 
tdlgioiu Ufa, and tbia enn afta the impoaitiOD of Tezatkma iqanetfona, 
the adEnowUdged ptupoae of iHiioh was to tender the ptaelioe of mU(^ 

In the nbaeqaent lepnta of mixed oommiadma the eharacter giren to 
the eonTenIa ii aniltwmlT &MMt exoellenL Thua the WUte Knaa of 
Grace Dieu, oo. Leie^ the only oonrent of the Order in Knglend, 
(CanneliteeQ are dedered to be " of good and virtoooa oonTonation and 
linng, and dl deeiroai to oootinoe tfaeit religion Uiare," and an account 
ia given of thai diarity and boonty. 

A "**■"" '"E deacription la giTon from John Anbny, the well-known 
Wiltahire antiquary, who waa an eye-wttnees of the hahiti and practice 
of the nuu of a eonveat in that eotiDty. " There," be aays, " the youns 
maida were bron^t ap (not at Halcaejr Sarom Sdioola to leun pride and 
waalouwM, bat) at nonneiiea, when they had ezamplea of piety and 
humility, uid modeaty and obedieoee to imitate and to praetioe.* . . . 
** Thia," h« oondade^ " waa a fine way of breeding ap yoang women, 
who are led more by example than precept ; and a good relirenunt tot 
widowa and gmve auigle women to a dvil, Tirtnooa and holy life." We 
had ma^ed the whole paaaage for exbaet, but apace will not allow it 
(p. 224). 

The king wu rery anxiooa, if poanble, to obtain poaaeanon of the 
[ooperty of the conTenta withoat h^Ting reeonraB to actual anppreadwi, 
and erery kind of preaaure waa need to induce ttie unhappy ladiea to yidd 
«p thdr homea and property to the king, by what waa called a 
"nduntaiy aarrendeti The nuna of Bn^and, howerer, aa a rnle^ 
leaiated in the moat hennc manner all iffomiaea of aabetantial adrantagea 
they would gain by comi^ianea with the king'B deeire, and upon tefiud - 
the thrgat of depriTaticn with a Tety aoanty means of subdateace. The 
commiwmiea write at the end of Uaidi, 1539 : "We yeaterday came 
to Ambubnnr (Wilta), and eoumuned wifli the abbess (Frioreaa) fw 
the aoeomplirbment of the Idng'a oommiaaion in like eort, and dbeit we 
hare used h mtnjr ways with her aa onr poor wita could attain, yet in 
the end we could not by any peraaasiona bring her to any otm^mnity. 
At all times iha reated, and so rsmaineth, in £ese terms : If the king's 
higtiBw command me to go from thia house I will gladly gc^ tJiongh I 
beg my bread ; and aa for pennon I care for none." Ifo doubt ahe kept 
her word and went forth, and aa for peDuon ahe leoeired iion& Such 
■Utementa might be multiplied. Of tiie 50 aonveiits which turviTsd the 


fint dusolation th« mmnden of miu 83 an enrtJled on ths Close 
Bolb. But Uu (aigintl docomente prenr?od in the Beooid Office prove 
tlut, for aoma naaon ot oUier, the ptpeia drawn op in blank form bj 
the oinuninioMn^ in the nugocity of oaaea nnubetuig SB, MTar moeiTod 
the dgnafaiM of Iha nnnt at all Of the nmaining Sto, one, the 
rarmidar of Kiafteabnij, a eonrant (tf 06 mna, and at the diascdotion 
of wfaidi C^oaiwell hinualf aaaiated, ii aiaped otUy hj EUabath Zooche^ 
the abben. A aaontd doooment, that of Tarent, althon^ baring twentf 
■iRiiataie^ ia w«ctUa«, u all an written in the aame hand. Some 
oUtem woa aimpl; narked with ercmea, ao that of the whole nomber of 
' eooveDta only thiee aigned anm&dos eziat 

The next aalgeel dealt with ia the " Fall of the Tiian,' a mendicant 
Olden It ia acueelj Deoeaaijr in theae pages to point ont the dia- 
tinotton between the frian and the monka, neTerthelei^ it may not be 
amiaa to aaj a few worda npoa the anbiaot The mmka, getietaUyi 
lived a eontemplatiTe life, enliielf aeolnded from Ute carea of ttie wodd, 
in Older that uuir livea might be devoted more entjrelj to the dinet 
■erviea of wotahip and praiae. Utej might ace^ donwona from the 
(aithfol oi landa, with the eoveiugn'e lioenae in mMtmun, and gooda ad 
ttMAtm, which thev expended in affording hoepltalitj to attati^an end 
travellraa^ the relief of the poor, and in ottier aeto of mert^ and chari^. 
Their eatatea were managed by certain brethren aelected for the pntpoae^ 
bat the general community wa* not disturbed with mundane aSaiia, 
The friars were inspired by entirely different motives. Their leligioas 
life was an active one, and one of their rows was that of strict and 
abeolnte poverty. They did not possess anything they could call their 
own. Their honaea, were held in trust for the Order, and weie aitoated 
in the worst alums of the worst cities, and here they lived amidst filth, 
misery, and disease upon the alms which they oould collect from day to 
day, devoting thur lives to the poor, to preaching and teaching and in 
the endeavour to influence the people by every means in their power to 
bad honest and religious lives. "The whole history of the church," 
Ur. Gaaqnet writes, " does not present a parallel to the enthosiastic 
teooptitu ^ven by the people to the reforms they pieaohed, and theii 
popularity in Enf^and, almoet down to the day of uieir sappreaaion, ia 
evmoed I7 nnmenms ^fta and testamentanr di^oationi in ^ur favour." 
He tells UB, moreover, that in the uxteentu century the friariea thnorii- 
out the oountry numbered aome SOOl Of these the foUowen of St 
Wancis had 60, the Dominicans about 63, the Austin fiiars 42, and the 
Carmelitea 35. The number of friais in Ikigland is estimated at abont 

Tike poverty of the friars was both a temptation and a anare to th^a ; 
dependuig for their support upon the alms of ttie people they felt iiide- 
peodent of the king's &ivonr, and preached loudly and forcibly against 
hia ptdicy, both on the marriage question and the si^remac^, which 
gave him great offence, lltey ou^t to have fallen with the smaller 
monasteries, but the firiara were very popular witit all dasaes of the 
people^ and, tbMefore, very powerful, consequently until the final snp- 
pression of the northern rebellion the king hesitated to attack them. 
Besides they had neither manors or lands to tempt his cupidity. Their 
buildings also were both plain and poor and were worth but little to him 
save ttie value of the lead with wluch tbey wwe oorend and the bells, 

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and for thii the bniMinga wen wnclnd. Tbe alUr pUte also waa 
gOMiall; worth little, except in a few of the laivei houaea where aonw 
fine piecea wete foonii " All the Teatmenta and otiiec moTablea in tha 
Blackfrian honaa and dinnh at Neweaatla waa add lor Imb than £6 ; 
the Major boocht the tUea <rf the roof and eraiTthing in the dotmitorj 
for 10a. ; two chalieea weighing 38 ooneea wen aent to the tojal tnaaon 
honae, the lead was ntsltod into eighteen foddera, and the tojal viaitor 
went awajr with SOa. aa the price obtained bf all the deaocntUon and 
latbleM deatmctioa he had oommitted." A few diillingi each were giv«i 
to the ctHnmtinitjr and tiiejr ware tamed oat of theii convent in tha 
depth of winter withoat any othar prariaion (p. 272). 

Thocf^ tha frian wen i^riered for a Urn* the Idng kept his eye upon 
tLem, tad Uteir tun came when, apon the final sappnasion of the 
iKKthem inaonedion, the king thooght tiiey wcra attoljr in lus powsc 
Ueanwhile tbey had beoi " hanaMed with manr difiScnltiea haidl; less 
besiaUe than absoloU extinction," A renegade Dominican friar, nanwd 
Ingeworth, became Cromwell'a anaorapaloas and eneigvtio agent in the 
work of sappressing the friaries. In 1637 he was ccmMcrttea B^hop <A 
Dover, and about the aame tinw reeeired two commieriona " to virit and 
Tex " his brother friaia, and right heartily he oanied ont his instraotiona. 
It is said that u eaily as 1631-5, seeing the storm arising, a great part of 
the frian pteachan left the king's dominions, rather than conform, and in 
consequence of the poverty to which they had been reduced. Thoae who 
remained were treated with the utmost cruelty and indignity. Many 
from their helpless poverty, for with the deskuctioa of th« moossteries, 
and the disoiganiiation of Ute times, the spiinga of charity had been 
dried up, coupled with the heavy exactions levied upon them by 
ibt kii^s agents as parcel of their policy, were in a state of the utmost 
penuy. Threatened at the aame time by serere punishment unless they 
c<Hifonned to tha king's wishes many were prevailed npon to yield, but 
many others shewed btiaht exampua of constancy and fortitude, and 
preferred to suffer death in ita most t«rtiUs f<«m raUier tiian violate their 
consciences. Among numoroua other cases is that of Anthony Brown, 
aometime a fiiar obeervant of Greenwich, and " of lata taking upon 
him as a hermit," who, in 1638, was omdemned for his belief in the 
old doctrine of mpal supremacy. The Duke of Norfolk, writing to 
Oomwell, aan: He wrote "out his own confeiaion with his hand," 
which. Bays the Duke, you shall receive with this. The friar waa found 
guil^, giving respite to the sheriff for his execution ten days following ' 
for reaaona which are stated. He was again examined and aigued with 
by the Biihop of Norwich and others, but nothing could move him, and 
so we hftve delivered him, continues Norfolk, to the sheriff to be carried 
to the gaol and there to suffer accoidii^ to his foolish doingi upon 
Friday next " A special meaaenger waa dispatched with great haste to 
Cromvell, in case the king, or Cromwell, wovld widt to ham him 
brought to the Tower there to be more stnighUy examined, and to be 
put to toitore." The Bishop of Norwich tried onoe more to induce the 
friar to change his opinion, hut withoat success, and aa we know nothing 
further concerning hiin, he was, doubtless, exeeuted on Friday, 9th 
August, as appointed. 

There is a very curious, though appalling record of the manner of 
mt to which these poor frian wen sabjeclAd, It leUtae to one 


Friu Sfame, mi Aastin friu of Ctntoibnty. In hia exunination he 
veiy o(Nuaf{MnuIf nuunUined " tliat at all ttmea he had h«Id and atiU 
held and aUI deeirad to die for it, that tha king majr not be head of the 
C%iiidt of fii^and, bat that it most ha a spiritual father appointed bj 
Ood." Upon tbia be waa emdemnad, and the manner of his death may 
be gathered from the f<dlowing doeoment, pieeerred among the ci^ at 
CanteilNin' reenda :— Etat U8S. Comm. 9tli rep. ai^. 16& " A-U 
163^9,— Paid for half a ton of timber to make a pair of gaUaoM 
(gallowa) to hang Esther Stone. For a carpenter for making the earn* 
gallowB and the diaj. For a labourer who digged the btdaa. To four 
men who helped to aet up the gallowa. For drink to them. Forcarriage 
of the timber from stable gate to the dungeon.^ For a hnrdlei. Fw a 
load of wood, and fnr a horse to draw him to the dangeon. For two 
men who set the kettle and parboiled him. To two men who carried 
his quartera to the gats and set them up. For a halter to hang him. 
For two half-pennj halters. For Sandwich coid. For stoaw. To the 
woman that scoured the kettle. To him that did ezeention." (p. 360). 

As to tbe expelled friars onl j one or two individuals were gnmted an^ 
penntm for their auppoii, as a rule a few shillings (on an aveiago 
apparsntlj about fire BhitliDgs) was delivered to each one on being 
tuned out into the world to find his own living as best be might. " ITo 
wonder some were loth to go," writes Father (Jasquet " Then wsa an 
anacree," writes Ingeworth, of Worcester, " with whom I hod not a little 
boainesB to have her to grant to come out ; but out she is." Thit in one 
abort sentence is a fair representation of the spirit in which expulsion of 
the friara was conducted " (p. 273). 

The king had no parlismentii; auUiority to suppress any of the 
greater monasteries. In granting him that power over tbe smaller 
houses the Act sanctioned his taking the possessions of aaj of tbe laiger 
which mi^t be voluntarily eurrendered by the respective conununitiea, 
or otherwise &11 into his bands ; and after the failure of the tbiid 
northern insurrection, many, as we have already noticed, were seized 
under the Aet of Attainder, their rulera and some of the tnethren being 
banged aa traitors, and the remainder expelled. This, however, was too 
■low a process for Henry, and instructionB were given to ttie royal 
aglBata by all means known to them to get the religious willingly to 
consent and agree to their own extinction ; and it was only when they 
fonnd any of the heads of convents so appointed to be dissolved, so 
wilful and obstinate Qiat they would in no wise sgrae to sign and seal 
their own death warrant, that they were authorised to take possession by 
force. At the same time the king instructed bis agents to deny that he 
entertained any intention of a general auppression. It would be im- 
poesible to give any detailed account of the meaenres resorted to. For 
these we must refer to the Author's Chapter on " The Progress of the 
General Baf^nudon," and we have already given sufficient indication of 
the courae pursued. This, upon the whole, bad been so successful that 
1^ the Autumn of 1639 few bouses remained in the possession 
of their religious owners. Among tbeso were the great Benedic- 
tine houses of Glastonbury, Beading, and Colchester. All 
mitred sbbeys, and tbe most wealthy ia the kingdom. These 
oould not by any means be allowed to escape, and no charge of 

I The bill dose to Canterbnir, called Due J(din. 

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misoMidact hid been laooght igunst them, or the oommnnitiea nnder 
their charge. Than abboti were boe to their tnuti, «iid eould not be 
tempted to anrrender. 80 they were prooeedad agunet umm aoiae 
tramped ap charge* of treaoou, generally we belieTe the denial of the 
kin^a aapiemacj, and vpoa eome aeotet inqnintiMi in the tower ooo- 
deiuted. Abbot 'Whiting waa hanged with tba nanal barbanna eoor- 
mitiea abore daaoibed, on Tor Hill, on IJttb NoTember, I(S9 ; and 
Abbot Cook on the mbm day before bia own abb^ gate at Keading. 
AUMt Ibiahall met hia fata at Cdcheater on the let Deeember follow- 
ing. Father Qaaqnet giraa a very inteteating aooosnt of aome ol these 
lereiend and hoi; men and of the preliminanea pnriona to Uteir anffe^ 
ing. We can (mlj aa; that of all the blaek deeda of thia blwk period, 
not OBB exceeded thia in aataaie blaekneaiL 

Jn hia review of the l^maatic Spoila and what became of tbom, the 
antlm gtrea oa aome moat cniiona and Talnable ^j-tArfn-l iufomation, 
bnt any, the alij^teri^ approximation to ttie aotnal money nine ol the 
rich veatmenta, plate and jewaU aMaed by the kin^a agenti^ never wai^ 
and nerer can be known. A very large [Hopoctitm of it, aa mi^t be 
expected, waa ap[«opriated by the rile agentf who bad been emid<i7fld in 
robbing the leUgUHU boDeea. But beaidea ttieae rabberiea by the robbera 
a very luge quantity of plate and jewela and other valnable ecole- 
mwAietl goods was delivend into the eourt of augmentaticHi. The 
sacred bnildinga, consisting of aome of the fairest arabitectaie in th» 
kingdom, togettwr with the acnlptore, the shiines, after they had been 
plundered of the jewels with which they were lariahly adorned, Um 
painted glsM, and metal work of the highest class of art, were reckkaely 
and wantonly destroyed The landa, to a large extent, were bestowed 
upon the enrichment of " new men " who had been the king's nmimnrina 
and acGomplioea in his work of destrnction. 

For farther particulars we mnst refer to Father Gasqnet's bulky 
Tolnmes, which, though of great intereat, are painful reading ; nevetthe- 
less it is wall that the pnblie should be made aoqnainted with tbe true 
hisicay of this great revolntini, tbe mia^ it oecamoned, the teal 
motives of the actoca therein, and the baae means adopted in eanying 
it out The wofk is written throndkout in a moat candid, impartial, and 
dispasBOnaie tone. The calm and judicial qnitt which perradm the 
wo^ cannot bnt cany conviction to every thongbtfnl mind, how much 
ao ever bitheito it baa been duliod by pr^jndiee. It ia to be hoped we 
shall learn more of this dark and disgraceful period ot onrhistoty, tiuni^ 
one feels ashxmed and htmrified at the diaelonirea brongfat to li^t We 
heartily thank FaUier Gasqttet for this valuable contriDntion to En^iah 
history, and trust he will nuke further researchea in the aams field. 

THE BOOK OF SUN-DUU. OoQMted to Has. Auaxo Qtnn. Hnr and 

Balitnd Editktt, editod by H. E. F. <ht(j and SaeuMr Dajd. I«nd«a : 

Bdl and Boi^ 1S8S. 

Some years have passed away since the gifted authoress of " ParaUea 

from Natoie " published her " Book of Sun-diala." In the comfrilation 

of that pictnneqne collection-~first b^un, indeed, by Mrs. Oatty in her 

childhood — she wis Utterly aaaiBted by Miss Uoyd, and now that a new 

and enlarged edition has been called for, it is ^eaaant to recognize tttat 

the graceful 00-operation and the facile penal of Miaa Uoyd have a 


sae<md tim« boon pUoed at the disposal of the editor. The thin book of 
fomier jean bat now deveioped into a itout octavo volame^ with 390 
additional Dial Uottoei, the whole oompriaing a liat of 731 axampleo, 
with 69 iUnatiationa. 

Tlne^" aaya Miaa Gat^ in the opening of her Intzodnotioa, " ia a 
hlask if we cannot mark the atagea of it* progreia,'' and iha addi that 
then haa been implanted in na a deaiie to eoont how, aa it wen, drop 
I7 dnin or grain bj grahi, time and Ufa an paanng awaj : Thiu 

"Ihold wUhlii whnd 
GmliM U Um cokba Mud; 
flow fnr, yat Mr th^ ™*9 
HvooiA 1117 flnfen to Um <ba|i,'' 

How nuDj hare fingend the gtaina on the aea ahon, aad how few have 
iq^ied the moral I 

Cheating of the manner in which time was reokoned in the ancient 
wwld, the opnaaion " the evening and the morning wen the fitat day" 
ia quoted aa " the eatllaat daacription of a period of time wtaoae dntation 
we cannot preciMly estimate." Then we get the day divided into fonr 
puti, a aystem thftt appears to have luted until the Chiiatian era. 
This now gave way to "honn" for the day, the night being divided 
into military " watches," of which the Jewe rooogniied three, and the 
Gneka and Romans four of such divieione, the Jewish night being 
eventually also divided into four watches, aa in St. Mark, xiii, 3fi — even, 
midnight, cock-crowing, and morning. The first mention of the hour as 
a distinct spsce of time ia in the book of Daniel, when the dark tragedy 
overshadowed the master of Babylon. Along with the establishment of 
a settled ealandar came, according to Professor Sayee, the eettied division 
(rf day and ni^t ; this appears to have gradually superseded the simpler 

Fainng mon strictly to our snlgeet it is remarkable that no sun-dials 
of the Egyptian period have been noticed, but that they were early in 
Qse wo know i^tmi the expression " the dial of Ahas," but what form 
that insfanunent, or olyeet took, we know not ; and wheUier it was a 
mechanical eonbivanoe, 01 an arohiteotntal composition, a scientific in- 
ataument, oc a great pillar caating its shadow upon a seriee of " degrees," 
we would as gladly become aware, "aa a servant eamesUy desireth the 

Aaarimander of ICletua ia aaid to have introduced son dials into 
Cbeece about 660 B.CX, but the knowledge of such things may well have 
reached that heaven-bom nation, through the ^ceniciana, two hundred 
yearn before, and " if, 7 remarka Misa Oatty, " as Vitruvius says, Beroeus 
the Chaldgan, who lived in the third century RC, was the inventor of 
the hsmicyde hollowed in a aquaie, and inclined acconling to the 
alimate, there must have been earlier fonne in Greece." A dial of the 
fMtn ascribed to Beroeus, with the honrs marked in Greek letters, ii 
preserved in the British Museum. 

Tlie Romans adopted dials, as they did most of their arts and sciences, 
from the Greeks^ and the first dial set up in the eternal city wss so 
placed by Fapirius Cursor, 293, B.C., at which time the astronomical 
year of twelve months was introduced instead of the old Roman year of 
ten ; before this time noon was prochdmed from the front of the Curia. 

'-'Google j^ 


Some thirty yean after ■ dial was nmoTed from SicOf to Borne, and 
planted near the Koatta, whara, although not boing ealeolatad for die 
latitude of Rome, it wai Buffered to indieite the wntu time to tho 
citiieni foi niaety-Dine jMta, whea it was at last asdsted in ita datisB 
bj a new dda set beaide iL Cicaro pat np a mn-dial at Tnscalam in 
48 B.C., and they appear to hare aoon come into eommon use in Bome 
and in tiie Roman empire, and asnsted, if they did not riral, tha mon 
accurate clepsydns. Ifiaa Oatt j tells as that moat of thoee which hara 
been praaeiTed are the works of Greek artJata. The Towat of the Winds 
at AUiena had • dial in each of its eight aides, and that bronf^t by tjord 
Sgin fnm Athens, with the name of Phfledrua upon it^ has beui asrigned 
to the second of third oentory ; sn engraviog of thia example ii giren. 

Perhaps no particular nsUon «an be signalised as having invented 
clocks, becanta such mechanisms most have gradually grown, like aun- 
dials, with the passage of any nation from daikneaa to light; but the 
AiaUans an eiedited with much eariy knowledge in thia respeot, and it 
is, donbtlnss, owing to them that the dial-makera grew mon exact in 
tbnr apidieation of the scienoe of gnomonics, and that Bon-diaU an ao 
common in Mohammedan oountrie^ But if we had been suddenly 
asked what nation in the world would most favour the sun-dial we 
iliould assuredly have aaid at once the Chinese, for wen they not, 
aecoiding to their own reckoning, acute astronomers befon even 
antiquity began ! Hot much information is, however, forthcoming con- 
ceming the dials of the Celestials, though we gsther from Miss Gatty's 
lemsrka that they are the commonest things possible in Chins, and are 
said to be without mottoes ; small wooden boxes with nlk line gnomons, 
compri^ng sun and moon diala and oompass combined, after the fashion 
of the Nuremberg porlaria, an the usual things, la J^ian they an 
chiefly in l»onu and portable^ like the " poke dkia " with whicli we am 

Quoting from the valuable information that the Bev. D. H. Hugh 
has brought together on the subject. Miss Gatty deals wiUi the different 
^sterns of the Northmen for Uie division of time into eight tides; a 
modificstion of this still obtaioa in "Ultima Thule." The primitive 
system in the fsr north, by which the lapse of time is denoted by the 
diadoiTB of certain rooks, cast sucoessively upon flat stones bearing the 
numemh, appears to be still in nse in remote northern regions. But we 
take leave to doubt very much that npright stones — menhirs — had 
originally anything to do with the reoord of the flight of time. 

It appears that the use of the ootaval system, the decimal, and the 
doodectmal, or ChsldsMn, were each in use in western Snrope daring 
the early caaturiee of the Chriitian en, and probably soon sfter the 
coming of St Aagnstine dials became associated with churches. Many 
dials of the Iste Anglo Saxon period remain, and Miss Oatty gives 
illustrstions snd descriptions of seversl, among which we an ^ad to aee 
the valuable inscribed examples from Yorkshire, as well as some of early 
date from Cumberhmd. The consideretion of these disb brings about 
the description of the nnmeroui large and small ones to be found near 
doorways and windows of churches. Many an certainly earlier even 
than the ancient buildings on which they an found, indicating a re-oae 
of older materials in early times to an extent that architectural students 
have only Istely begun fully to realise ; in others the original divisions 


have been altared ; muij ue not dials at all, but mere compasi marking*) 
or borings of the idle houia of workmen ; and wmB small ones may bo 
impecfectlf worked doorway eonsecra t ion croesea. All these objects ue 
naturally moat nnmeiona in good stone countries, and tliejr become 
pediapa meet pouling in the land of the softer stone, where Uiey could 
be easOy icratGhed with the pocket-knife of any loitaret. These rade 
works <rf ontutoted handi tutd, not only to confuse and bafSe the 
enqnirer by their imperfections and inaccnnoieB, but, from the air of 
antiqni^ which they aoon assume, to lead the stadent entirely astray. 

Setting aside for the moment the probability of a large number of the 
rude wall dials we hare just spoken of being genuine medinvol worb^ 
there is a ranaritable ecardty of such objects, of any consideration, 
between the thirteenth and sizteenUi centuries, and the authoress has 
been assured, we think rightly, that duriag that period " the history of 
gnomonica is a Uank." With the great Revival in the rixteenth century 
dialling again eame forward, and from that time until the present it hu 
never quite lost in ttLiout, thon^ we are eorry to say ws do not recsll 
many instances of the erection of modem ones in the old-fashioned 
gardens here and there comiiig sgain into vogue, such as Bacon 
describes ; strsngely enough the great philosopher does not include this 
picturesque and almost indispensable attribute of " the purest of human 
ideasuies," in hta well known Essay ; — as Bernard Barton says : — 
"I lore in loma atquastarad nook 
Of uliqua gudan to behold 
Tha page of tl>7 nui-lightad txKtk, 
It* toaddng lunnilT muoM." 

The [ullar dial rapidly became very popular in ScoUand, and the most 
ornate and remarkable dials of this period are to be seen in rugged 
Caledonia. In England the "stumping" of the crosses furnished 
countless pillars and bases for dials, but, in spite of the high favour in 
which sun-disis hare been held in less impetuous times than our oivn, it 
must be confessed that now they have nearly had their day, and 
"anperflnons lags the veteran on the stsge." Yet these silent witnesses 
happily linger in many an old garden or churchyard to become a sort of 
trysting point, a thing of the past to handle and wonder at, for children 
to climb and spell out the moss-grown date or motto in the stone, or 
decipher the crest in enduring brass of a house that has gone into dark- 
ness, — these things that Cbulea Lamb thought " more touching than 
tombetones," and, must it be confessed, which have at last become to the 
rude seething spirits of the outer sMfe but flat, stale, and unprofit- 
able I Thns it is almost with a tinge of melanchdy that we do no more 
ttian pass rapidly in review the long list of dials which Miss Qatty 
has brought together — all the wise saws, the trite aphorisma, and 
the far-fetched conceits — and come to the conclusion that the truest 
motto of all is the translation of the well-known " pereunt et impa- 
tantur" which was given in jest to a lady who was being lionised at 
Oxford, — " they perish and are not thought of !" On the oUier hand we 
may not omit to say that Misa Qatty has not approached the matter in 
this spirit. She has produced a charming volume, and ti^eated her 
subject with the taste and feeling that seeme inherent in the accom- 
plished family of which she is a member, and with the seriousness of 
purpose that betokens the realization of the moral that " time is a aacrad 

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act(ni,witha Fnbn brUM OhMMtBgrofCkilfaU. A. Bhum Hm^ OkW^ 

mien the aainUf Owiga Hotiert wrote "C<mw tab a tan, or 
two, ... in the Cboich-jiird,'' he had in hii gentle mind the aoftantng 
infloence which the eontemplation of tMubetoitea imparia. Jn oar day 
w« an lathv apt to oreriooc the ehnnh-jaid and hmtf tbnof^ it for 
the vke o( arang the dittrch. It Ja, theraon, nfraUtqc to meet with 
an anthonaa at her fliat entranoa on " the primraae patbi" ao well 
balanced aa to Teeognise that hiitMj is aa a fltnring ttnun, and Out it 
docs not ceaae wiu oar gnmdfatben ; who aeea tu ralne of inaciCbed 
atonea and giTcs na the inacriptioDB down to onr own day, not only in tha' 
chnich, bat alao in the chorck-yaid, which has bean fortanata enoo^ 
to altiact het attention. 

We nmembei that in 1881 a haidy mani who ngned himealf **a 
Midland Tiear," wrote an astounding letter to the "Timee" annooncinghia 
intention, in a futue " lestoistion " of hia chareh, of clearing away, " as 
a matter of edncation," and " with an vnspaiing hand," the monumental 
tablets " of a vicions and ign«ant age — i.e., the middle of last centniy." 
This Midland Vandal, who was caiuol not to diTulge hia name, was by 
law a gnaidian of the monuments in his church, and that he was a 
^ical example of a protector we call eonutlasa old ehuKhee to witness 
The sagei and ahame we hare felt in riaiting the " restored " fabrics aU 
OTGT the kingdom, to find neariy evetywhere the same wicked destruc- 
iioD or obliteration of monumental inscriptions, to mske way for the 
vulgarities of the "ait manufacturer," may not bo adeqoately expressed 
on paper. Ou the other huid it is eooUung to meet with Kiss 
Fergason's painstaking work of rescue. 

If it is true that the worid does not quite reaUse what the laboun of 
an editor an, it is slso true that no one knows how' heaTy is the w(^ 
of copjing S50 half-oblitented inscnptions so well as he who has made, 
the tnal. To bring tbess into order, and pnpan them for the prea^ no 
leas than to collect them in the ftnt instance, are works so equally 
deserring of credit (aa well aa of imitation) that it would be a ddicate 
matter, in this paiticolar litemry partnerahip, to apportion the amount of 
our oUigation— thon^ we may poanbly hare onr leanings. We cannot, 
of course^ go through the list ; the lives of many of thoee hen registered 
wen ss this path of an snow, immediately closed up and lost ; the 
recorded history <tf othen is comprehended, as Addison says of inscrip- 
tions in Westminster Abbey, in the two circumstanoes common to 
all m>nH"^, and a lane number an imperfect. Bat it is a record for 
whidi the people of (^liisle may well be thankful — a brand snatched 
from the burning. 

It appears that St. Cathbeit's ehnichyaid was dosed fiir burials in 
1856, up to which time the minority of the inscriptions had been 
periodically repainted by the persons interested in them. Since then 
time and UMdect have been at work, and when, about ten yean ago, 
Kr. B. S. Ferguson, assisted bj the Rev. E. W. Ford, made the 
transcript^ great deterioration had come about, and within the last ten 
years damp and frost have caused many to perish entinly. A faculty 
was recenUy granted under the Open Spaces Act (1667), to remove the 


oUltontod •toDM ud chufce tlw pontioa of oth«n. B«fon this wu 
done a, [lui wu reqnind by the Chuioellor to be depontecl, Bhowing the 
axact p(Mitim of ererr tombatone, ud copiM of all the iiucriptuHu that 
eonld M dedpherad. TIm namben within Imuibte, given in the bo(A 
with eadi ineoription, eom^oad with tboee on Uw deporitsd plan, 
■0 that the oxaet podtiMt oooopied bj enj lombelona on be at oaoe 
■BDefteined. Thii u what can be aooompUuwd I7 a vigilant (StanceUor, 
and we an tempted to aak why the Uks ajatam baa not been inaiited 
npon in tb» eaaea of all ehnnhea that have fallen nndar the ban of the 
" matMar," who dailj deronia a|Moe thnnghoat the oonnti; t 

We ooidially endme Uw hop* exptmed by Mr. Cha n cello r Fargoton 
that thia voltune may be followed by the publication (rf the momunental 
inseriptiMU of 8L Maiy'a, and Stanwix ; then will then be a complete 
neciokgy of the Gitot Border City. By this piomiring bc^finning Miia 
FergDscHt has enabled us to " take acquaintanca of thu heap of dnat," 
and local ohroniden to dnw mnch of the history of the Carlii^ 
worthies from the periahing and cold stonea Tinder which they "nat 
till it be time to liae." 


accitiuolasical InteUignice. 

Cauhdu or THi EsooKEfl or thi CoBPOKAnoM OF QiAtronncK. 
BonUIof all the Hoaiu in OIoncealeT in 1<66. Edited \n W. H. 
BtereMon tnd the B«r. W. IIuel«f , — Ths former of theaa documenta 
oKuiita principelly of full ibetncta in Engliah, of the eArl; local deeds 
in tlin poewMon of tits Corpontiou. Thue are neerijr 1300 of theae 
documenti ; 071 ue before 1300, end wme date from the twelfth century. 
Then are man; fine leali of local familiet of earlj dat«, and this Taloable 
collection which has baen hitherto unarailable, ha* now been carefully 
arranged and calendared by Mr. Btevenaon. The Calendar will ba 
printed in demy Sto, at 10a. 6d. The Kantal was drawn up by Kobsrt 
Cole, a Canon of Llanthony Priory, neat Qlonoeater. In a length of 
parchment thirty-three feet long and fifteen inches vide, we have an 
account of every house in the borough, the names of the owner and 
teoanl, his trade, rent, Sco., and in many cuea an abstract of title from 
the time of Henry III. Each of the font main streeta are taken in 
turn, the houses being given in neparata colnmna, the side stoeets and 
lanes being similarly treated. Between the oolumns the spaos repre- 
senting the roadway is occupied by drawings of the churches, chapels, 
friaries, walls, the pillory, &c.. The work is thus at once a snmy, 
directory, and rent roll of the city for li66. It is proposed to print 
this carious record in its full Latin, a translation being also givui, and 
the dmwings reproduced in fao-simile. This volume may alao be sub- 
scribed for at lOs. 6d., the price for the two worics being 1 7b. 6d. Names 
may be sent to Kr. Q. S. Blakeway, Town Clerk, Qlonoeeter. 

Thb Cbdboh Bklu or Suttolk, by the Eev. J. J. Baven, D.D. — 
We hare the pleaauie to announce the forthooming appearance of this 
work, which adds another to the long list of books on Bells. It will be 
fully illastratad, and will oontaia a complete list of the inacriptitHia on 
all the bells in the county, as well as on many that have been r»«ast 
The demy 8to, edition may be lubscribed for at I6&, and a limited 
number in royal 4to. siie at Sfis. Apjdication should be made without 
delay to Messrs. Jarrold, Iforwich, as ttie [«ioe will be raised on the day 
of pnblieation. 

A GcTOE TO PBtmsD Books asd MSB. BiuTDra to Ekousb aitd 
FoREiGir Hexalobt aim OBnaLoar, by O. Oatfield, in daraT 8to, is 
now in hand. — It is unneeeaiary to point out the value of such a work 
as this to the ever iucreaaing number of workers. The author's position 
and opportunities have well fitted him for the task. We need only 
mention that in addition to leferencea to printed books a large uumbn 


of HS8. in {mblic uid privkto libmiM hiTe been consulted and made 
uae of, u mil h worb ralatiog more eipeaUll; to Ireland, ScotUnd, 
Webs, America, Anatria, Belgium, Denmaifc, Fnno^ Qennany, 
Holland, India, Italy, Weat Indieo, Japan, Norway, Pdand, Fortagal, 
Ktuna, Spain, Swedw, Switoeriand. The btxA wUl thna fonn one of 
the Taloable aeriec of gnidea to the oootonta of the KatJonal CSoIlection, 
wbich is awsk a bwm to rtndenta. Names of tubacriben ahoold be ient 
to Ifenta. ICitdhell and Hoghe^ liO, Wardonr Stnet, Ltmdon. 

Mb. Waltbb Bti haa a oonaidenUa woA in hand, " Cnmuc Paat 
and Frannt,* which irill donbtleSB be worthy of hint. It will be well 
iOnstiated, and contaio notea of every Inaeription in Chnioh and 
Chnrch-yaid, and of erarr Foot of Fine ; Befennoea to eTeij Will, and 
tranaeripta <^ ereiy SobaidyBoll talaling to the pariah, and other local 
and mon homely matter. The priee of the work will be — taige paper, 
£3 2&; amall da, 18&, to be raised after the day of publication. 
Namea may be aent to A. H. Oooae, Bampaat Hoiae Ettraet, Nwwich. 

Tn Cbuboh Pu.ti of thk Comm or DoBsn. Edited by J. £. 
Nightingale, F.S.A. — A book on this aul^ect from the hand of one ao 
well qnalified will be ao very welcome that we need only aay that a 
limited number of copies wiU be printed, with fifteen illustrations, at 
6)1., tite cost of the printing. Intending aubacribers should communicat« 
at once with the Author, Wilton, Salisbury. 

KoBTHAVPTOHeHiRK Plaox N&iTBS, With notos, descriptive, histnical, 
and orohsolc^cal of each place, i* now in hand, by the Bev. B. 8. Baker, 
Haigrave, Kimbolton. — Under the heading of Enquiry are Name, Saint, 
Situation of Village, Natural Features, Acreage, Manor, Church, Plate, 
Great Houses, Manor Houses, Customs, Traditions, Antiquities, British, 
Boman, Castles, Beltgious Houses, Crosses, Relics, Sk., the whole being 
verified from personal survey. We shsU call further attention to thia 
work later on. 

Digilizcd by Google 

DiBiiizcdb, Google 

^tcIraeoloflUal Journal. 




Scattered broadcast over all parts of England, and 
found occasionally in parts of Wales and in the low- 
lands of Scotland, are certain earthworks of a peculiar 
character, and which should not be confounded with 
those of British or Koman origin, though occasionally 
superimposed upon them. 

Their chief and most striking characteristic is a circular 
mound, table topped, and surrounded by a deep and 
broad ditch, out of which, where the mound is wholly 
artificial, it has been formed. 

Appended to the mound, outside of, or beyond its 
ditch, are one or two enclosures, abutting upon ^e ditch 
of the mound, and contained within batiks of earth, 
defended by an extensive ditch, commuaicating with the 
ditch of the mound. 

These mounds are of various sizes, ^om 30 to 40 ft. 
high from the general level, and from 50 to 70 ft. from 
the bottom of the ditch, and from 60 to 120 (t. in 
diameter at the top. The appended enclosures range 
from a quarter of an acre to two acres, and in plan, when 
original, they are what, in fortifications, are called 
** lunettes," and are parts of irregular circles. The banks 
are &om 10 to 20 ft. high, and of no great breadth at 
the top. 

Sometimes the mound stands within the circuit of the 
VOL. iLvi (No. 183) 2 


nuun court, sometimes outside of, but toadiing it; bat 
more frequently it is placed so as to fom^ a part of the 
drcuit, with one-third of its drcamference within and 
the rest without the area. 

An earthwork of this description is what is described 
in the Aiu;lo-Saxon Ohronide as a Bnrii, aifd when we 
read that ^ward or Etfaelflede wrought or Qetymbred a 
fiurh, this is what we may expect to find, nnless the 
works hare been levelled or encroached upon, as is often 
the case. 

These Burhs are not, like British earthworks, placed 
on the tops of lulls, nor like Boman stadcms npaa 
main roads ; they were the centoes of large Saxon estates, 
the seats of great landowners, for which reason, wh«i 
these were dispossessed, they were taken possession of by 
the Normans, and gradually their houses and defences 
of timber were replaced by regular masonry, the shell 
keep occupying the mound, and the enceinte wall bdng 
built along the ridge of the earth banks. 

Usually these Burhs are original Saxon works, all the 
parts being of one date ; sometimes, however, they are 
placed upon a Boman station, in which cases the altera- 
tion of the earlier work is evident, and is further shewn 
by the rectangular plan of what remains unaltered. 

This is, or was the case at Wareham, Gloucester, 
Hereford, Tamworth, Castle Acre, Wallin^ord, Cardiff, 
and Tork, and in the two last instances the Boman wall 
has been discovered, forming the core or nucleus of the 
later earthbank. 

When the Saxons proposed to dose the passage of a 
river they threw np a mound on each bank. Such banks 
renuun at York on the lower or exposed side of the city, 
and sadi are known to have existed at Nottin^am, 
Northwich, Buckingham, Stamford, Bedford, and Hert- 
ford, though in these two latter cases one, and in the 
others both, of the mounds have been removed. 

It is still very much the custom to describe these 
Burhs as British, and sometimes as Boman works, though 
a littie attention to those named in the Saxon Chronide, 
or known to be of Saxon origin, would enable the observer 
to appreciate the distinction. 

The list here given is certainly very incomplete, and 


where the j^aces have not been viaited may be incorrect. 
Those local topographers who mention earthworks are 
■ddom carefol to Hwtingnjfph between a mound and a 
bank; others are described indiscriniinately under the 
names of Lows, Barrows or Sepulchral Kounds, Moat or 
Toot-hills. Others are called Castles, othera Forts, but 
these names are applied more or less freely to Btnnan 
and Britii^, as well as Saxon works. Many are omitted 
altogether in the smaller ordnance snrre^, or are 
delineated by some conreational mark, as a circle, when 
they are not really circular. Many mounds hare been 
removed altogether, as at Qloucester, Hereford, Wor- 
cester, Stamford, and Chirbury, though known to hare 
existed. Much confusion is produced from the absence 
of a settled system of nomendature, even m the fiill scale 
ordnance survey, which for topographical accuracy leaves 
nothing to be deured. 

It is hoped that tiie present attempt will induce other 
persons to supply its deficiencies, so that a really com- 
plete list of tliese curious and usually well-defined earth- 
works may be obtained. 


Bedford. — One of tlie two mounds mentioned in the 
Saxon Chromcle has been lowered and surrounded by 
earthbanks, and the sabsequent masonry removed, Fayn 
Beauchamp's castle, temp. : Bufus, was besi^ed by 
Stephen. 1137, and by Henry HI, 1225. The second 
mound on the right bank of the Ouse has long been 

CatnAtM, or Castle hill, in Clophill. A mound. The 
shell keep of B'Albini is gone. 

EcUon-Soam. — Considerable earthworks, but an in- 
ngnificant mound. Here was a Beauchamp castle. 

Puddingbm. — A very fine moated mound. 

Ridgemowii. — On the mound is sud to have stood a 
shdl keep of the Wahulls. 

Rismghoe, in Ooldington. A moated mound on which 
stood a Beauchamp keep. The castle mill remains. 

Temp^ord. — A small earthwork, with a small mound 
at one angle; the whole on the Ouse bank. King 

_ I: Google 


Edward threw up a burh here in 921. There seenia to 
have been a later castle near thio. 

ToddingUm. — A moated moond. The keep of a 
Noiman castle ttandiiig 1224, is now gone, llie mound 
ifl near the chnrch, and called GongerhiU. 

TotttmhM CaslU is described as a moated mound, with 
^ipended earthwork, of rectangular outline. 

Yiddm CofStU. — A large moated mound with franuents 
of masoniT and appends woriu. Castle of the Barons 
l>ally. Ill decay, 1860. 

Berkshire seems to have contained only three moated 
monnds, but they were of the first class for nze and 

Beading.— "Eexe was a large mound thrown up close 
upon the junction of the Keimet with the Thames, and 
just within the Danes ditch. It probably dated from 
871. The Norman castle seems (o have been razed in 
1153. The earthworks were probably levelled when the 
fort was constructed about 1640. 

WaUingford. — Here is a very large moated monnd, 
with encl^ures of the same date, l^e whole occupying 
one comer of a lar^e rectangular, and probably Boman, 
area contained within a bank and ditch. On the monnd 
was the house of the Saxon Wigod and the Norman 
keep of the D'Oyleys. This was the " Caput " of the 
Qreat Honour of Wallingford. 

WvadaoT. — ^The mound has been included within a 
shell keep, originally of Norman date, as shewn by the 
foundsdons laid open by WyattviL The earthworks 
are of the date of uie mound, but certain of the ditclies, 
now filled op, may be of British date. At Old Windsor 
are earthwortu, bnt shewing no definite plan. 


Buckingham. — The two moated mounds thrown up in 
918 are gone, and the present church stands on the site 
of one of them. The other was probably occupied by the 
keep of Earl Oifford's castle. 

.cdb, Google 

libi of uoatbd uoundb ob bdbbb. 201 


BitrwM. — Weat of the chnrch is an oblong mound, 
80 by 50 ft. on Uie top, and moated. Here is a trace of 
the castU built by Stephen, before which GiBoSiey de 
Mandeville was killed. 

Cambridge. — ^The mound is much reduced in size, and 
the banks and ditches about it levelled and concealed by 
a modem prison. Here is a gatehouse of the time of 
Edward UL The whole stands within a Roman camp. 

Efy. — ^A very fine mound, partly artificial, widi 
Impended earthworks. Castle-Hythe Ward presents the 
memory of a castle constructed of timber by Bishop 
mgel, in 1140. Hereward's castle erected in the Fens, 
o( timber, in 1067, was standing in the reign of 

Aldford. — On the right bank of the Dee. A circular 
keep upon a moated mound, called " Blobb Hill." 

6'AMter.— Earthbauks and a trace of a mound. Here 
is a small i-ectangular keep, the whole occnpying one 
comer of the Soman enclosure. 

DoddUsUm. — A moated mound, and some remains of 
the castle of the Boydells. 

Thmham-MaMey. — A shell keep on a moated mound. 
The masonry, now destroyed, was the work of the 
Barons Massey. 

EddMuiy. — ^A burh thrown up by Athelflede in 915. 
ffite known, but tiie mound is gone. 

Hawardm. — A natural mound, crowned by a drcular 

iviruUrUm. — A mound, on and about which was the 
castle of the Barons Yenablea. 

Malpas. — A mound, 40 yds. diameter at the Xoip. 
Here was the shell keep of the Barons Fitz Hugh. 

Mold, — A mound, probably carried the shell keep of 
the Barons de Kontalt. 

iVantotcA.— The seat of Earl Edwin. In the 16 Ed. I, 
called Castrum Wici Ualbani. 

NorthtBich.-^Ki the junction of the Dane with the 
Weaver were two moated mounds, 51 ft. and 90 ft. top 

_ I .Google 


diameter. Here was a caatle temp. Bich. I, but destroyed 
soon afterwards. 

(MdeagUe. — A moated mpondf probably with a shell 

Pi^ord, — A moated mound with appended semi- 
drcolar banks. Here was a castle la masonry, now gone. 
i 1^ Bmeom. — A Saxon borh, and afterwards a castle, 

remored to widen the ziTer. 

S&^p&rmNb.— Probably a monnd. fflte called GasUe 
Hill. A Norman fortress. 

ShodHeaeh. — A moated mound with appended earth- 
works. The Barons Ifalpas seem to have had a shell 
keep here. 

DiUrtford, — ^A monnd and probably a shell keep. 


lliia county contuns many military earthworks, but 
the greater number are of a different character from those 
thrown up in the other parts of England in the ninth and 
tenth centuries. 

CayU CasUe, in Fhillack, seems to have had a moated 

Castle Homede, near Penzance. — A mound. Here the 
Barons Tyea had a castle. 

Hugh Town, in Scilly. — ^Is sud to possess a mound. 

KwtamptOTL — Castle hill, a large moated monnd. 
The seat of the QrenviUes. 

XauncMfon.— Here the mound is natural. On it is a 
circular keep. 

BaiU/rmtL — May be described as a large shell keep 
upon a natural mound. 

TVematon. — Upon a lofty conical hill is an oval shell keep 
96 ft. by 72 ft. The top of the hill may be artifidal. 
Tiie keep is a fine one. 


-A moated mound 150 ft. high. 

—A mound. Joel of Totnes seems to have 

had a casQe 

£amton,— A mound and circular keep iit masonry. 


Plvmpton. — A. mound on which stood a shell keep with 
a wdJ. 

7%wton.— Here was a monnd near the church and a 
Bedvers castle. All swept away. 

Toftut, — A monnd, 80 ft. diameter^ with a shell keep ; 
the latter the work of Joel of Totnes, 


Cranboum. — Castle hill ? 

Dorcheater. — DoubtfiiL 

She^tednmf. — Moated mound and, probably, a shell 

Wareham, — A moated mound and formerly a shell 
keep. The whole occupies one comer of a rectangolar 


Durham. — A fine artificial mound with a shell keep, 
rebuilt on tiie old lines. 

Edm EaJL — South of this is a moated mound ? 

Eltetoick. — At the south end of the village is a moated 
mound. Qy. masonry. 

Salkeadm. — A moated mound and masonry. 

Throston, — A mound and masonry. 

Tunned. — Strong earthwork and a shell keep. Qy. 

The Yoder. — A large moated mound between ^rden 
and Eden Hall. 


Blethebury. — A seat of the AngU>-Saxoa kings. . Banks 
and ditches. Qy. mound. 

M<ntnt-Bure$. — A large moated mound. 

MUttm. — ^Aburh thrown up by Hastings, 893. Qy. gone. 

Maldon.—A. burh by Eadward, 913 and 920. %. 

Chipping-Ongar. — A large moated moiind with earthy 
works inside the town mth masonry, part of Norman 
castle of Bichard de Lucy. 

Ptessy. — A moated mound in a Boman earthwork, and 
traces of the Norman castle of Oeoffry de Mandeville. 

I bv Google 



Shodnay.—A. burh throwa np bj Hastings, 894. Qy. 

WMtium.—A. barii by Eadward, 912. Qy. gon«. 


Btritlejf.—The shell keep includes the mound, and 
the castle buildings seem to follow the line of the old 

St. Briemdt. — ^The moond is nearly levelled, and seenu 
never to hare been high. The castle is tolerably perfect 
There was a Koiman keep. 

Gloucester. — K large moated mound on the river's bank 
with a later castle, all swept away. It seems to hare 
stood near one comer of the Boman enclosure. The <»ty 
ditch, now filled up, was dug by Harold. 

Wincheombe. — A seat of Kenulph of Uercia, near St. 
Peter's Church. Here was a later caatle, all now gone. 


Btuing. — Here is no mound, but a larae and very 
remarkable circular bank with an exterior ditch, closely 
resembling tliat near Penrith, aud very probably of 
English origin. 

CariMfTOoke. — ^A moated mound and appendages, with a 
shell keep. 

Christckurch. — Here the mound \b but small, and upon 
it is a rectangular keep. 

Souihampion. — ^The mound here has been nearly all 
levelled and bnilt over, but a part of it remains, and 
around one side are, or recently were, the arches upon 
which the wall of the shell keep was supported. 

Emae-Harold. — A moated mound abont 120 yds. 
diameter at the base and 80 ft. high, mth appended 
wards. Upon it stood the shell keep of Alured de Marl- 
borot^h. or perhaps of Harold, hia successor, of which 
the foandaUons may be traced. 

Hereford. — Here was a lat^e mound connected with a 
rectangular earthwork of great strength, and probably 
of Boman ori^ with 8azon alterations, probably by 


Edward the Elder, in 909. The mound has been re- 
moved, but most of the earthbaoks remun, with part of 
the exterior ditch. Here was a Normaa castle with some 
later additions, some of which remain. 

Huntington. — A very fine and but little altered speci- 
men of a moated mound, with its appended courts. A 
Norman castle was built upon the earthbank, traces of 
which remun. 

KUptde. — Here is a moated mound with appended 
coorts of large area, and the remiuns of the shell keep 
of the Norman ^pecs. 

BiehanFs CasUe. — A. very large moated mound, wholly 
artifidal, with appended courts. The worlu were 
occupied by Bichara Fitz Scrob, from whom they take 
their name, and who was a Norman attached to the Court 
of the Confessor. There is, however, no masonry here of 
that date, and but little at all of any age. 

Wigmore. — Here are the earthworks and mound thrown 
up by King Edward in 921, and which were attacked by 
the Danish army a few months afterwards, but without 
success. After the Conquest this became the chief seat of 
the House of Mortimer, whose castle stood here, of which 
some parts remain. 


An^,-~k. mound and early castle. The mound was 
the seat of Alward, a contemporary with the Confessor, 

Bennington The seat of Bertulf of Mercia. A council 

was held here in 1850, but the earthworks are imperfect. 

BgrkhampsUad. — Here the mound, appended court, and 
concentric ditches are very perfect, and the foundation 
of the shell keep may be traced. 

Bttry CastU, near Ardeley P 

Hertford. — Here on the opposite banks of the river 
were two burhs, thrown up in 913. One is gone, but 
the other remains, and on it was the shell keep of the 
castle of de Yalognes. 

Kingsbury, near St. Albans. — Was a seat of the Mercian 
Kings. B^ulph, held a council here in 851. Near the 
palace was a monastery and a castle. 

Pw-ton.— Toot hill 

^^ »■" Dili^d by Google 


StantUd Mont-Fiichtt. — A moated' moand. The caitle 
of the MouDtfitchetA is gone. 
Sishop's Stortford, or Waytemore. — Given by Uie Con- 

aaeror to the See of London. The mound remains, but 
le shell keep is gone. 

Huntingdon. — Contains the extensive remuns of a 
moated mound and appended courts, also moated. Here 
was the castle of Countess Judith and of ^e Barb of 


Bmbury. — An excellent example of a plain moated 
mound, upon which masonry has never been erected. 

Brmduey. — Castle hill. A small mound covered with 
a camp. 

CanUrintry Dane John. — Probably a moated mound of 
earlier date than the city bank and ditch. 

Coldred or Ceoldred, near Waldershare. — A large 
mound, probably the work of Ceoldred of Mercia, 
A.D. 915. 

Hejfdon Mount. — Qy. a mound. 

Kenardingbm. — A monnd attributed to tixe Danes 
in 893. 

Nevinion. — A large moated mound. 

Bochester. — Baily hill, a large mound, partly artificial, 
probably a Danish work. 

7%umham. — A moated mound with large area 
appended, near it a rectangular keep. 

Tonbri^e. — A large and well defined moated mound, 
having ditches connected with the Medway. The founda^ 
tion of a shell keep remuns and a part of the enceinte 
wall of the Qares, Earls of Gloucester. 

WodneAorough^ near Sandwich.— A moated mound by 
the church. R-obably the work of Ine in 715. 

Arkholme. — Near the chapel is a moated mound. 
Black Bourton, in Lonsdale. — Contains some large 
earthworks and probably a mound. Here was a Ubwr 


CMtle ffiU^ near Golbome Gates.— Seems to be a Saxon 

Caetition, in Bochdale. — Is, or was, the same. 

Gleasbm, in. Lonsdale. — Here is a moated motmd called 
ibe Moot hilL It is reputed to have been the mte of a 
castle of the Le Flemings. 

^aftm.— The seat of Earl Tosti. The moated mound 
is, as usual, near the church. 

MdUng. — Gallow hill is a large moated mound, near 
the church. It is a reputed Sazon seat 

PenuiortAam or Pmverdant. — Here, on the river's bank 
below Preston, is a large mound. On it was the shell 
keep of an early Norman castle, standing in the time <^ 
Ejng John. 

^>bm Hoodi Butt. — ^At Clapham is a mound, but its 
character is donbtfuL 

Sedburgh. — A moated mound- 

SloneyhurBt — ^Here are two mounds. 

WkaUey. — Near this, on the opposite sides of die rivers, 
are two mounds at the confluence of the Bibble, Hodder, 
and Calder. 


Groby.- — Here is, or was, a moated mound, with which, 
however, great liberties have been taken; if, indeed, it 
has not recently been altogether removed. It was the 
site of the castle of the Lords Fenars of Groby. 

HaUaton.—'Bxre is a moated mound 118 ft. diameter 
at the top, and placed near a Boman camp. 

HwkUy. — Here is a very fine moated mound, upon 
which stood the keep of the Barons Graint-matsnil. 

Leictster. — ^The moated mound here has been somewhat 
lowered. It stands at one angle of the Boman enclosure, 
near the river, and the Church of St. Mary de Castro. 
Some of the Norman mssonry of the hall of the castle of 
the old Karis of Ldcester is still to be seen. 


Bourne or Brun^ called from the spring head close to 
the moated mound, and which fed its ditches, and those 
of the castle of the Lords Wake. The mound is thought 
to mark the seat of £^l Morcar. 

Digilizcd by Google 


Lincoln. — Here ia a very fine moated monnd, which, 
with a banked encloaure, occupies one angle of the 
Roman station, and partly covers up its walls. The 
original Ute Norman shell keep still crowns the mound. 

Sbxa^ord. — 'Bjbxz were two burhs thrown up, one on 
each bank of the river. One was connected with Uie 
later castle^ now swept away, 


Abergaommf. — A moated mound on whidi stood the 
shell keep of &e Barons Braose and Gantelupe. 

CaerUon. — k. fine mound, placed in the Boman station, 
and with traces of a late Norman castle. 

CastUum. — L moand ue&r Newport, much reduced in 
modem times. 

LangaUm. — A moated mound, afterwards a forUfied 
place of the Morgans. 

NetecastUt near Skenfrith. — A moated mound of 
moderate size, witli a court, also moated, appended to 
one side of it. The whole in fair order. No trace of 

Rubina. — A fine moated mound on the high ground 
behind Ruperra. 


Castle-Acre. — A fine moated mound with appendages, 
also banked and moated, the lines of earthwork having 
been taken for the masonry of Earl Warren's castle, of 
which the shell keep occupies the mound. The whole 
covers about one-half of a rectangular Boman camp. 

CasUe Ruing. — Here the earthworks are on a large 
scale, the citadel being an enclosure heavily banked, 
something like Exetor. Within it is a rectangular late 
Norman keep. There is, however, no mound. 

MUehatn. — A large circular work, with banks of very 
moderate height, and a slight wet ditch. In the centre is 
a very low moated mouna, and on, or rather tn it, the 
foundations of a rectangular Norman keep. The norliiem 
end of this work cuts into a rectangular Soman camp. 

Noricick. — Here the mound seems a very moderate 
addition to a natural hill. The ditch is partly filled up. 


The ver}' fioe Norm&ti rectangular keep stands on the 
uioond, most probably founded on the natural soU. 

Thetford. — One of the finest moated mounds in BriUun, 
attributed to the Danes in 865. It coven eleven acres, 
and with its outworks, twenty-four acres. No masonry. 


BarU Barton. — A large mound close to the church. 
Probably a moot hill, and Uie caput of the lazge estate 
owned uter the Conquest by Countess Judith, 

FatTidon, East. — A moot hill, moated, near the chnrch, 
and connected with an earlier camp. 

SUbowyu. — A moated mound with a rectangolar court. 
The character of the whole is very peculiar, and its origin 
obscure. Here was a Norman castle. 

Sockingham. — The renuuns of a shell keep upon a lai^e 
but low moated mound with courts, now occupied by the 
castle buildings. 

Sibbertoft, or Foi Hill.— Possibly the site of an 
adulterine castle. 

Towcester. — A good moated mound on low ground, 
close to the river, and not far from the church. 


A^on. — Near the fortified parsonage are two moaled 
mounds, called Mote hills. 

Wark. — The earthworks, of this very celebrated Border 
fortress, are remarkable, and include a moated mound 
and appended wards. There remain parts of the masonry 
of a keep. 

A mile or two over the Border, near Coldstream, is 
Castle-Law, a very fine example of a moated mound, 
wholly artificial, and of great size. The outworks seem 
to have been ploughed up, and there is no trace of 


BothamsalL — Castle hilL A mound, but the ditch 
seems to have been filled up. 

Egmanton. — Qnddit^ hUl. A moated mound, 40 ft-, 
high and 152 ft, diameter at the top. 

Uignzcd by Google 


Laxton. — A moated mound, 50 ft. high and 142 It. 
upper diameter. The appended courts axe also moated. 

IfoUmgham, — The Trent below the Castle cliff was 
guarded bjr two burlu, one on each bank. Both are 


Aulddi«tt$r^ hj Kcester, — ^The Boinan Alsnna. b the 
statim ii a moand called Castle hill. 

Idbarvt called Daniflh. 

MidMdon Slonai/ f Earthwork near the church. 

Oxford. — ^A good moated mound, on which was a shell 
keep, of which a subterranean chamber remains. 

Belvoir. — ^Here the natural hill is sud to have been 
raised by an artifidal addition, upon which has been 
^aced the shell keep of the Barons d' Albini and Bos. 
However, this may be, the whole forms a very fine 
example of a moated mound. 

Aabm^ three miles south-weat of Ludlow. — Wholly 

Caus Caade. — So named by the Corbet settlers in the 
eleventh century, but they found there a lofty moated 
mound and well, still remaining. 

ChiHiury. — ^The burh thrown up by ^thelflede in 915 
has been removed, but its memory is preserved in the 
terminadon of the name, which is also that of the 
Hundred, and the ute of the burh is known as the castle 

CZuR. — Here is a fine moated mound with extensive and 
strong earUiworks. The rectangular keep of the Eitz 
Alans is built against one side of the mound. 

Ellemnere.—A large artificial moated mound, which 
preceded and has survived the castle of Eoger of Uont- 


Minion. — A small mound near Church Stretton. 

Oldbury, near Bridgenorth. — Is probably the burh 
formed by .^thelflede in 912. Though of moderate 
braght it is well marked, and its ditch, ip preserved. 


OmfMtrj/. — A. moated mooud, though much iojured. 
Upon it are the remains of the keep of the fltz Alans. 

Pulverbatch. — A mound. There was a castle here^ of 
which all remains are now gone. 

Qftatford, — ^A moated monnd^ chiefly ardfidal, with & 
verv canons and perfect welL 

Shreatbury, — Here is a small but lofty mound, on the 
raised bank of the Severn. The remains of the castle of 
B(^r of Montgomery mark the original outline of the 

Shrawardme, Little. — ^A large artificial mound. 

Tenb}iry.—Caati.e tump on the Teme. 

Whitchurch, — An artificial mound with the masonry of 
a keep of the Lords Fitz Alan ; the ditches are intricate, 
and supplied with water. 


Casfftf Batch. — ^A moated mound. 

Castle Carey. — Mound and other earthworks. The 
castle of the Lords Lovel ia destroyed. 

Dunater. — The shell keep of the Mbhuns crowned the 
natural " tor " which, however, is scarped, and a court 
appended below, now indicated by the walls of die castle. 

Montacute. — A natural mound. The keep of the old 
Earls of Cornwall is destroyed. 

Orchard.— Ia reported to have had a moated mound. 

Pen Pits. — Moated mound, 128 ft. top diameter. An 
oval court appended. 

Stoke-Courcy. — A mound and the renuuns of a castle. 

Taunton. — The mound has been removed, but the 
appended earthworks of Ine are tolerably perfect, and 
indicated by the wall and keep of the Norman castle. 

Beavdesert. — A large mound. 

Berry Banks. — A seat of Wulpha, king of Merda. 
Eemuns uncertun. 

Chardeu. — A mound and remains of the castle of 
Bandal, ^rl of Chester. 

Stafford. — Here was a burh thrown up by .^thelflede 
on the banks of the Sow, probably destroyed witii the 
later castte. 

Tutbury. — A small mound with a late keep. 

zed bv Google 



Bungay. — Aa artifidal moated mound, of moderate 
size, but very perfect, with bold and fstenaive earth- 
works attached to it. The moand has been scarped and 
revetted with masonry, and upon it is the lower story 
of a rectaturolar Norman keep. 

Clare. — A. very large artificial mound, moated, with 
attached earthworks on a grand scale. A very late shell 
keep standi on the mound, but most of the other masonry 
of the de Clare castle is gone. 

Ejf€. — A grand moat^ mound and other earthworks. 
This was an important Saxon seat, and the Caput of a 
Nimnan Honour. 

Haiighltjf. — A mound. Here was a later castle. 


FaroKam. — ^Here is an arti&cial mound with earthworks. 
The shell keep of the castle of the Bishops of Winchester 

GuUdford. — Here is a large artificial mound, on one 
ride of the area, and on the top of which is an early 
Norman rectangular keep. The earthworks of the 
attached court are still to be traced. 

Arwidd.-^h. fine example of a moated mound wiUi 
spadons court appended. The shell keep is Norman. 
Tba well is on one side of, but within the mound, as at 

Brtmber. — Here the mound is upon a natural hill, on 
which is a rectangular keep, ao placed as to cover tlie 
approach. The ditches are early and very fine. On the 
same platform, but some way from the keep, is the small 
moated mound, probably the Saxon keep. 

ChichtsUr. — The mound stood within the Boman Beg- 
nnm ; traces of it remain. The castle was destroyed to 
rapply materials for a monastery. 

Knepp. — A good mound, which was turned to account 
as a keep by the Barons Braose. 

Lewes. — A singular instance of twin mounds, not as at 
Cardiff, Hereford, and Ijncoln, mere thickening of the 

zed bv Google 


earthbank at ao angle, bat forming two citadels, apon one 
of which are the renuuns of the shell keep of the Lords 

Pawwy. — Here is an artificial mound with appended 
earUiworiu of its own date, placed within the Sonum 
area. The mound has carried a Ncmnan keep, now in 
niter mia. 


Bromtnc^ (CaaiU). — Themoand remaina. The masonry 
of the later castle is gone. 

BrmJUtno. — A remarkably fine mound, wholly artlfidaL 
The ditches and appended earthworks are ahn perfect. 
There ia no record or trace of any maaoni^. 

FiUorwUy. — Earth banks, At some distance was the 
casUe of Uie Lords Hastings. 

HardreshuU or BartkiU. — A mound on the edge of the 
WatlioK Street, where was the castle of de HardreshulL 

KenUtoorth. — There seems to have been a monnd here, 
now enclosed within the wall of the rectangular keep. 
The earthbanka appended carry the Norman walls. 

Seckmgion. — A moated mound near the church. The 
masoniT of a castle seems to have been removed temp, 
Henry 11. 

Stondtigh. — Here ia au artificial mound near the 
church, where the manor courts were held. It ia a 
moot liill, but may have been a military mound. 

Warwick. — Here ia a mound on the enceinte of the old 
enclosure. Upon it stood a shell keep, now replaced hj 
a later tower. 

Sedbergk. — A lofty moated mound, near the church. 
Probably Sedda's burh. 


Casdd Combe. — The earthwork here aeems to be a 
moaled mound, on which was placed the keep of the 
castle of the Lords de Dunstanville. 

2'Atf Devizf$.—ThiB is probably the grandest mound in 
Britain, and its ditches the deepest, [mere are still some 
' remains of tlie Episcopal keep. 




Marlborough. — ^The moated mound stands within, or on 
the edge of, a Norman camp. The masonry of the 
medisBvsl castle is gone. 

Old Sarttm. — ^Here is a grand central monnd with con- 
centric ditches. An nnnsual arrangement The district 
is foil of British and Boman remains, but these earUiworkB 
seem wholly Saxon. 

CatUe Morion, near Upton. — ^Kere is a nAoated monnd, 
50 ft high, near the chnrch. 

The DteWa Spittle FalL—Neax Bewdley. A natural 
hill, fortified. 

Worceater. — The moated monnd, a large one, stood on 
the Severn bank close south of Uie cathedral Upon it 
w&a the keep of Urso d'Abitot. All is now swept away. 


The completion of the Ordnance Surrey to the enlarged 
scale has brought to light a vast number of moated 
mounds hitherto unrecorded. No doubt it is not in every 
case safe to infer their character from the map, but in 
many cases there can be no mistake in the matter. 

Adwick U Street.— QaaiVb hill ? 

AltnoTuUntry. — A reputed Saxon seat The earthworks 
are called Castle MIL 

i4nn/cy.— Giants* hill on the Ayr, near Leeds. 

Amey. — ^A moot hill, near Doncaster. 

Andrew Howe. 

iiyworrt.— Castle Dykes. 

Bwey H31, near Bradford. — A moated mound, 3611, 
across at die top. 

Barvbp Howe. 

Barwiek in Etmet. — The moated mound was tha- seat of 
the Saxon Edwin, whence called Wendell hilL 

Bendey. — A moot hilL 

Bolton-Percy. — Here is a moot hill. 

^t^fidd.—Cia'Os hill, near Bordyke. A moated 

Bromhton. — Castle hill on the Irwell. 

Oattleton. — Castle hill, near Danby. A large moated 


Caifmdb— CuUe hill. 

Conmgabotvugk. — ^A natanl hill, moated artificially, 
and haTing Btrong earthworlu appended. Here also is 
a moothiU. 

Craie. — W»b a BasHi seat, and the mound seems to 
have benn removed in 1650. 

Nvrth IMghttm, Howe ESU. — A moated moond. 

Sgttm, CaaOe HiU. 

FraAorougk^ near Uoorshole. — A high artificial mound. 

GiBmg, near Bichmcmd. — Here seems to have been a 
mound, recently removed. 

.HidiJtfton^— Castle hilL 

Sow* TaMon^ near Barmingham. 

Horbury. — GasUe hilL 

Hudder8fieUi.—0^il» hUL 

Htmmanby. — ^Large moated monad, west of the chun^. 

JlksUm. —Large moated mound, near Kippax. 

Kirk LeoingUm. — ^Lai^ moated mound in the folds of 
the Leven. 

Kirk i5m«aton.— Oastle hill. 

Laughien-enU-Morthen. — A Saxon seat and moated 

Zoutf Hill, Wakefield. — Moated mound and endosore, 
upon a natural hilL 

Lio«r»edge. — Castle hill. 

Loekingt(m.~~A. moot hill. 

Maidens Tower. — South-east of Topdifie. A moated 
mound on the Svale, with large enclosures. 

Mcdxeard or Kirkby Maleisart — ^A large earthwork, 
near the church. 

Me^^orottgh. — Castle hilL A moated mound and en- 
closures, near the church. 

Miekle Hotoe. 

Middleham. — A moated hillock, above the castle. 

Mirfidd. — A moated mound. 

NortKaXUrton.—ThQ Howe. 

Oatointhorpe. — A supposed seat of the Songs of ITorth- 

Penny Howe, near Pickering. 

Pickering. — Here ia a good moated mound with a shell 
keep and extensive courts all round it 

Digilizcd by Google 


Pont^raet Caadt. —A mound at one comer of the area, 
nov induded m&ua a revetment wall. 

iifufrtab— Castle hilL A fine monnd, now levelled. 

JttU2«K2a2«.— Mounds ? 


Saad^—A moated mound with formidable ditches; 
also remains of a keep and other masonry. 

£!il«40rn«.— Caade hilL 

Shetp or Sharp H<no«. 

£S^M«a in ^tdemess. — A lai^e moated mound, called 
CasUe Idll, with a well on its ed^. 

Stang Howe, near Hinderwell. 

SU^nwt.— OaaUe hilL 


Tadcaattr. — ^tloated mound and enclosures. Trace of 
a shell keep, 

7%trsib. — A moated mound, by the river, now levelled. 

Thome on the Tome. — A mound, near the churdi. 
Traces of masonry. 

Thorpe Seslay. — Castle hilL 

T^urn.— Castle hill, near the church. A moated mound. 

J^eihSl. — A very large moated mound with courts and 
de«ii ditches, and traces of shell keep. 

Wmeobank. — ^Moated mound. 

York—Two mounds. Bale hill and the castle. The 
latter very strong with a court and deep wet ditches. 
On it a shell keep. They were intended to guard the 
river, and are placed just below the city. 

South Wales. 
GdUgaer. — A moated monnd of very great size. This 
- is at some distance from the Boman camp, from which 
the parish derives a part of its name. 

Suparra. — IJi the Fark, on a ridge, is a moated mound 
of tolerable size. 

Yatrdd Owen. — Is a moated mound, but hollow in the 
centre. It was evidently used for defence. It stands 
close to the Churchyard. 

NoBTH Wams. 
Bala, Tomen-y-Bala. — A la^e artifidal moated mound 
south-east of the town. 

Digilizcd by Google 


JietttM, Tomm-^-CtutdL—A large moated monnd. 

Gvoydddioen, — A large moated mound. 

HhulovMn. — A large moated moond with moated 

K«dtu>9n. — A moated momid, held by Boger Mortimer 
m 127& 

Kerri. — ^A fine moated mound. 

Moe^Criot near Korthope. — A laz^ artifidal moated 

M(^ Bailej/ Hill. — A fine moated mound, artifidaL 

Bh6a DdiaHfed. — A large moated mound. 

It6«. — A moated mound. 

Tc^oUagrn. — A moated mound, whence the Welsh 
princes dated several charters. 

Tedybont — A fine moated mound, held l^ XJew^yn in 
1275, and visited by Edward the I. 

Tomen-y-Vardra, in Uanarman. — A very lai^e moated 

Tomen-y-Shodwyddf near Tale. — Two Urge moated 

Welshpool. — A moated mound, near the town. 

Digilizcd by Google 


It is wdl known beyond the limited circle which occa- 
pies itaelf with arduBoIt^cal research that Angosta 
TreTeromm contains more Boman remains than any 
other city north of the Alps.* As the sabject presents a 
multitnde of interesting details, so it has exercised for 
many years the learning and ingenuity of savants in 
England, in France, and especially in Germany. Its 
extent may be inferred from the fact that the biblio- 

^lf JuliDS Cmmt. nij cppMr for tlw 

OdL, 1, 17, implorinc hk lid aninrt Iba 
Soari ; M tlu tMam aonownliig Umb 
ii th* UUw nut of Uw wotk «<• mw^ 
Bora dtbrikd tai icaportutt Book T, 
CO. S ud It wotiiDi u aoeoaiit of tba 
di^ata bi4iit« bn ii*al cUib, Indaliiv 
nnM ud CEnntaiz. nAL,«o.66— 68, 
atonldiU* iwamatfanof tb* Tmwl 

m m p ff M itd tj ONMr"! Uttvi 

■ iUm. nil 



iL n «! ', 8. 

h* WM atUrf of tlu ABoliraiM ud im 
•tU«M* ^idMt K. nmMtM, who wu 
fcriid for Ukl-adsainictntiott of hk pro- 
nn, ITKboQiiaa OmiI : Cie. dm Fdo- 

HndMr, L'Art Oanloii on In GhnUi 
tteti* Umm mUaSOm, Part I, p. 41, 

SOn iMMOutn cbM 1m "Mfjiw k 
mtiaOl^ d'MpMt tont nmuD, 
•w b<|» JU <M Ut QBR1UOT8— 

flls d' Indntfllai on lodntiltiiu, t. VL EO, 
Na S (Alt Q«nkM, dn Umpi da Otaar, 
lUdai at Trfriiwi Ulewal ctw tb* 
taBMooin, 'Etodaa Huminudan*^ Tnm 
Oankii on OMv-, AUh.FI 17, Nol tt, 

A^on^ to LakwdTflhap. Ill, «7, 
Indntmiiu ia oolf aaoHMr mm «l lodv- 
tlaiiiAnia,bulthiaaaMBadoab((iiL Ib41, 
oli^i^Ul,p.SS«,baciaIlBatt*ktiant*llw . 
faHawioa «( Otaak vt appamt boHi fa 
obntao andnrctM; th* darioa «a tlw 
lonMr ta a baarilaaa bMd, aad «a tha 
boll bnttiwb m iaOa waO-knowM 

Tat, Vol. 1, p. la aq. LMib, NminBte 
HdligikB, BnrnaaB Onaea, dl lU a^ ; 
but aaa aapaeiaBj tlia LeauUlul M0aT> 
Ins te Cm«UB Nnni Italiaa ntvfa, 
^ pp. H-&8, lUb.CLXV— CLZIX; 
IfTMntam «t fniantMi (ttiptm) nl ipaa 
«Badaa Motoa indioa^ TU. CUIT ; Bm 
indianB caidta looitar il«mt»^ Tib. 
OLXTL Itollin«iFaa>idaDt,CWtak«iia 
d- tma CoUeolioB da lUdaillM da h 
Oauk, p. Sa, No. IH. fMhwioMMvl 
Ttta fanbcrba diadimfe k drotta, ka 
oharaos irtrnuarfi par daniira an 
fotma da diignon. U. GBBKANVS 
INDTTIUL TuuMM oomspHa i 
A*, 1 at t fr. 


graphical list, appended to Leonardy's excellent Omde, 
fills five dosely-printed pages ; and many publications 
relating to Tr^vM have appeared since iSoS* the date 
whmi the fifth edition of thu work was printed. Some 
persons may think it strange that I should select a theme 
which others have already exhausted ; bat as I spoit 
mmre ikaa a week in the dty last autumn studying its 
monuments, and received moat valuable ud from the local 
antiquaries, Dr. Hettner, Director of the Museum, and 
Herr Eeufier^ librarian of the Stadtbibllothek, I hope to 
say something new to some at least of those who may 
favour me with their attention.' 

The recent discoveries at Neumagen (Noviomagus) 
made during the years 1877-86, properly find place in 
any account of the Antiquities of Treves, because the 
objects found have been removed thither.' They far 
surpass all the other results obtained by excavation in the 
countries bordering on the JEthine. 

Among these monuments one of the most interesting 
represents a Toilet-scene. A lady, clothed in a long 
fringed robe, whose folds hang gracefully round her 
limM, is seated in an arm-chair of wicker work. A mud 
standing behind, and wearing a tunic with sleeves, 
arranges her hair in a chignon at the back of the head, 
while another, dressed in the same manner, holds a mirror 

) JSxi^. Uaa Falnata« st Konigr. X 

Barbur daXoDUnlt In tiia IntcDdoatioii EtUiidampriiiiiiB«lBinimoaimioarorii 

to tUr wnk entitled Le IVinr da NoTionupuii, dirl CMtn Inelita Coti- 

Trtnn, pL Tiii, mpnk of M. la riiifiMiiiii atanliiii. 

Kaaflbr aa "la ptua mnpatliiqiie im 8eh«aU'i adltioii, fMmdad on a camfnl 

Cmdita.'' I eaa taatifv Iran penonal eolUtJoiiii(tiiaiiiMcr^ita,^tiawfaifran 

•spariano* that Dr. HetttMr •qnaDj' tba Ddphm, Faifa 1780 : *' 

apithat panllal 

•ad the oriUeal oc 

Noriamagna at Horfatnignm, b tba 

•noi€nt form eonc^oadii^ to Htm* 

w«S«B, Nyutgea, ra the Weal, In 

Htrfland; alio irf Vjdom (DtAdm), and 

Map zQ, uie aua ei jva hht du ilocud^ Nojon betwaen *«iiin« and BoiMOD^ In 

BaMttilehM-Ww^LwiamburgKiaanbalm, Frukoe : Qiteme, Orbia I^tisiM, eder 

opadto p. 870. VcnciolmiM d«r I^triiiiaalMa Bcnen- 

nie Soman Qamo of Uui place waa miDgen da bakaimteatan Stfdt^ MA 

MonooMgna, and Aiuomua caUa it Con- Thetanninatuma^MMemito indicato 

tliat tba towa Ja Aoatod tmr a liTw; 

,. . Gonp. BotanagoM Bonea on tiw Setae 

n 18S3, Juliomagoa Angera on tba Haje&iM : t, 

Tnadmwm oalarem nabnloeo flnmlne Durooort, ou ka lUmoM aooa ki 

Namm {Hah} Bomaina par ten Jean Laeonr^ Obanouw 

Addtte mfratna veteri DonmoMiia VIngo de Notte-Dtme da IWma, 18M, p, 86 •«■ 


..db, Google 


for her mistresa to look at herself in it.* On the left of 
the principal figure we see a third female attendant, who 
wat<»ie8 with interest the process of hair-dreasing. The 
vbcAa group was bounded by pilasters one of which 
still remautfl ; it is oraameated with acanthus leaves, 
loxoriating in the shaft and capitaL As it now exists, the 
monument is composed of four^stones ; probably it formed 
part of a stmcture resemUUig the Column at igel« taper^ 
ug towards the summit like a pyramid or rather an 
obelisk. Such memorials were frequMitly erected in this 
r^(xi — a fact which is attested by the archaeological 
coUections at Arlon (Bel^um) and Metz, as well as at 
"EriiveB. Iliey are thus deecribed by Dr. Hettner in the 
Bheinischea Museum fur Fhilolo^e.' The base is square 
or rectangular, and the height at least three mitres ; the 
front always exhibits the portraits of the deceased, — Ufe- 
slze, greater, or rather less ; the other sides are entirely 
covered with reliefs, whose subjects are generally taken 
from daily life.' 

As on former occasions, I wish to consider antique art 
in its connexion with literature, for thus only can we 
obtain clear and comprehensive views of an ^e remote 
from our own. 

Juvenal in his Sixth Satire, w. 486—507, depicts a 
tdlet-scene : from this passage I quote a few lines : 
Diaponit oimem, looeratu ipsa oapilliB, 
Nnda homero Paecaa inf eliz, nudisqne mMnillU. 
" Altior hio quarA ciiuniuiiu 1" taurea punit 
Omtiiiiio flinri crimm budmuqaQ OApilli. 

> It ibootd b« oUarrad thkt hen Out Dw yaunupoar KimiiOMnta vtn EWi 

niinr b Ud by m lUra, not t» tlM B«U«r. 

priasipd panoo^a ; thi can ta diAraot ■nielMrtasainplali thriat I|d; tta 

Willi BiadnB r^nawUtiaaa aC Trnth, gaaanl appaanno^ and Um datafla of 

witm Umc* ii M •ttandut, m in Oan- atnammitatawi «• wdl abown i> Um 

A •( Paria. I Iwra not foUowinc woriu 

Attartliiuiiar [n Mar and danMi 
Cbadeal ABtiqnilr; it d<Na DOt a^aar UmgalMiinn Mia dv nlBaBh- b a M aJ i an 
auoi^ tha nrtoaa ^nboliiad bf tha nad roamiadua Parioda in nrri TUlaa 
Orwka and Bauana— «ufa aa fidaa, too Friadiieh Qaadmnr, TMar, IttO, 
Fnffieilfa, CoBODidia, libnltta^ ata,— Pla. IX— XU : TIm Stnwnr'a Ottidata 
A, Bbt BOdMlNd (iir HTtbokvi^ tha Boasan AntiqiiiUM at tlia oftr of 
n^vaa, from Iha Oannan d PraMaor 
Jntai Hu^ Wjrttanbaoh, aditad b^ 
Dawaon ^ner, fondoa, IHS : and aq^ 
Daa ritmiai^ Daokmal m Igd tod Pro. 
faaaor Dr. Fiani Kuglar, mit ainar Kop- 
fnUtaL i>», Tnar, lBt9. TIm FUta^ 
whudi fiUa * folio aliae^ dunra tU four 

Digilizcd by Google 

DiBiiizcdb, Google 

DiBiiizcdb, Google 


Qvid Phou odminlt f qiumum eet hie oalpft pnellaa, 
ffi tibi duplioait nuiu tuiu ? 
Fseoaa, ths <slue( with breut and shouldeii ban 
Trambling eaasiden arerj MMired bur ; 
It MQ^ •tnifg^ from hia rank be fimnd, 
A pmsb mtut tor dw mortBl rin oomponnd. 
neoaa u not in fknlt ; bnt in tbe ^^a, 
The dame'i offasd«d ftt her own ill taoe. 
DiTden'a Tnuulation, Wnks edited by Sir Waller SooH^ toL ziii, 
p. 169 (1B08).> 

The poet speabr of two muds u dressing the lady's 
hair, while a third attendant of more advanced age and 
experience presides over the operation and ^ves her 
opinion.* Similarly on the atone, three women wait upon 
the chief personage. V. 495 sq., he says that the hair ia 
rolled up in a cirde (volvit in orbem) ; this arrangement 
appears in a head figured by Montfaucon, Supplement, 
tome iii, chap. 3, where the plaits are fastened with a pin 
or needle : Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities, 8.v. Acus. 
The learned Benedictine describes at length his engraving, 
p. 14, loc. citat., which occupies two pages, showing the 
group of a woman seated with a girl standing by her side, 
and the head of the former, on a large scale, seen from 
different points of view. Comp. Martial, Epigrams it, 66. 

Unas do toto peooaverat orbe oomanun 
Annulns, incerta non bene fixns aou. 

Hoc tacinus lAEage, Bpeoalo quod viderat, ulta eet, 
Et oeoidit Baeris iota Plecnaa oomis. 

Juvenal and the sculptor atNeumagen have chosen the 
same subject, but the poet has treated it as a satirist ; he 
ezhibita a scene of domestic cruelty, which he likens to 
the proverbial tortures inflicted by Sicilian tyrants. The 
misb-eas scolds furiously, and the servant is flogged for an 

> In Uib iMMca Dtrdm's tmodMIaa tU« wonwn had ban m wrwit 

OB Um irtul* pn&nbU ; but l)i« lady's nratho- ; iha wm rataii 

■ipnaioo "fauemOut^M" maf mia- aooonntof bar exptrienoa and dia 

1mm, twMUM «ha ii tnteiior to Iba bUts tbcmglk no loiiK*r Bt for work that ra- 

nuntiiHiad balmr la diracting tba other qnirad foalUnl Tigoar. Come. Um nota 

twoL ofValawii(H.Valoi«)inItapati'aattH«l 

■ V. 497, Kat b oouailio matrona, commanlaiy. MaifOmm ooold hardlj be 

•dmotaoae lama apidiad to a panon vt aarrila oooditMU : 

EmaritiqDM oiant aou. v. HoiDrioh, in loo^ ErkkMnuiK p. S07. 

niii ii tba tait of Euparti, bat it would Var dia w ym a mi maltr/twnKat at 

ba baUer to Mibatilate the nriona taad- araJroaa. EllMb«tacta,aDdiD Rohcatand 

log auilcnM for maftvaa, h Otto Jahn gM u t at a . . . da hat luit Friairgeaohaft 

M* dooa In hla editioa, ISfil, folknring aelbat nidila BMhr au thun. Atfu trinaU*, 

Uw baat mannwript at Jarenal, Codax cf. Hartia], «itcd balow. 
Kthoaaimi. MHtnm would nxan that 


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222 THE ANriQurnES of trevb8 and metz. 

offence that seems quite venial.' On the other hand, we 
see at Treves a genre picture, like a Dutch interior, where 
eveTjone is occupied, without excitement. 
In another place, Satire II, v. 99, Uie words IIU tenet 

rdwn, wbidi allude to Uw Emperor Otho, illustrate 
attitude of the slave who holds the miiror before 
her mistress. It is well known that Uie actdenta did not 
use glasses placed on dressing-tables as we do, but 
metallic hand-mtrrors for the most part ; thou?h we find 
sometimes m^itiou of pier-glasses aibxed to walls (Wand- 
Spiegel), vitreae qnadraturae. The subject is fully- 
discussed by Becker in his GaUiu, Vol. ii, p. 258, sq. 
306 ; Vol. iii, p. 201. As the tpecida were appropriated 
to tl^ dress aud adornment of women, thur employment 
by men incurred Uie reproach of effeminacy .* 

Our bas-relief calls to mind, passages in sacred as well 
as profane writers. A familiar text figuratively and 
beautifully expresses the idea of becoming assimilated to 
the object of devout contemplation. " We all, wit^ open 
face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are 
changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as 
by the Spirit of the Lord." ' 

Klnwllidi gemfabandaH ; ua lernivt Bdiiad Um lidar Um mirda EPKLB 
Or dw Hun, and die Elcictn am Lribe, DANSTE are mittan, whkh an intMV 
'dlibid.,jp. SM. nated aa EtmaoaD fOnoa of Haronlaa, 
eoiopMtdiima aosonnt o( BtTtucan FaKaioa. HfUia of thia dami-god fn- 
^•oDia, Atmi&ti MMcdinc to iub}«ofa^ qneatlr i^pMr In tnciaot art, and hit 
iriU ba fooDd in Deoi^ a CIUm wd aUitadM ue miona. H< b pormrad 
CoiMteMa of Etmiia, fint tditioD, VoL at mo tune npoafng, and at auollNr 
i, luttodiMtioii, ppi IxziT— Izxii, with aoti*eIr angagad— flshtinz with a lioa cr 
notaa containing uaefid lafnanaaa : aea bfdi*. or canTing a wild Doar, Ac. — and 
•lao ibid. VoL il, w. SlS-421, Daaorip- MuetliaM riding in a gvadr^pn, bnt not 
tioaof lliiroiain tM Homo QngoriaiM «laaiirture,aafaTaaIkiiow, onbonelaMk: 
at Boom. Tboa* who darin fOrUMr in- CO. IfttUer, Sandbook of AnhMntogy, 
fonnaiioa tboold oonanlt tin gnat wock biglUi Traoalalioii, fH'Oj 111, pp-BU 
, , _. ..,...,.,._.. . — . .__ , ... » L , -,550^ 

lib. i». 

oqi. 8aq. (Uu citaliaii it inooiTMt^ ^na 

. is Mi tootztote, p. 191, aa lib. iii, cap. 

Thit part of mr P>[Mr waa Oluibatad 108} at 

bj an ■xampio Irom tbe ColIrctiMi of the tha tk __ , . . 

Bar. S. S. Lewi*, deecribed b; tb« lata bona ridden bf Herealea ; but ba q 

Bar. C. W. King in the Cambridga expnaaly U a (baiiot, and u*e« tka 

A "**■!'""»" fTtnnmiTni— *in~_ VoL T, T»«M in the idonl lour timea — t1( U af 

IB8S — 18S3, No. xiii, " On aoma broDM imn t^ M ri* ttpmnt wtpiilm. 

Fill mm iiiiium ■ illi wimmeil lemma," '2Carinlliiani,iii,lS; aothoAatboriaed 

OD. IM — 182, pL ir facing p. lEN}, ct. Venlon, but the rariaMa IiBTa randerad 

ibid. pL T. The npr c ae n tation of Her- the <iTi^;inBl >ar; diBannUj, "We all, 

caiaa hen u let; remarkable, becauie be with unveiled Iae« refleoUng aa a mirror 


Xjet as now turn to another relic of Noviomagus that 
preseuts more detaib than the one we have just been 
considering. I refer to fragments supposed to have been 
part of an enclosing wall round a sepulchral monument — 
blocks of sandstone carved to represent two boats laden 
with wine-casks. One of them is much better preserved 
than the other. As is usual in andent galleys, both ends 
rise conuderabljr above the intermediate dedc, bat the 
stem is still more elevated than the prow. On the ude 
facing the spectator six rowers propel the vensel; by 
some unaccountable mistake they are provided mill 
twenty-two oars I Though, at first sight, in consequence 
of the height of the biUwarks they appear to be seated, 
they are really standing. A man at the bow holds one ot 
the casks with his right hand; the corresponding figure at 
the helm, sitting under a roof, grasps a rudder. In the 
hinder part of the ship, holes, as in the Parthenon frieze, 
are observable, showing that something was formerly 
attached here ; * Br. Hettner thinks it was a statue, but 
I should conjecture it to have been the aplmtre, a fan-shaped 
ornament, often seen on the stem of ancient vessels, and 
sometimes used as an emblem of vo^'ages or maritime 
afiurs. So it appears in the Apotheosis of Homer, with 

tU gkiTj of Iha Lord, an tnoifunnad lhiX«t, Uxnvi : r, Apoc IV, 6 ; XV, 2 ; 

into Iha luns iDuga (rom slorj to gloiT, XXI, 18. 

men aa frum Uia LotA the SpiriL*' It ' The holai in the PuMtfaaiiuo Friaw 

ma; be quHtioosiI irbotlMr tha changa ahow whara tha biidleo of tha bonea 

fruED glau to minor ia deairable in n wara attaobad ; tha; an auppcaed to 

bouh intendad not for echulan, bat for hara baan of gildsd brMUa, and amall 

|«»«al „ - — , -- 

Dr. WatCa «IU them: nee tha Appendix have been fuiiod by Lord Elfia'a forma- 

to bia Lo^ which aoms aditiona do not torL Sir H. BUia, Elgin and Phigalaian 

iodndo. Tha Icarnad difina thtre ei- Ifarblea, VoL i, p. 190 ; oomp^ tha 

pUioa llow ha varied hU etjle, adaptiiw aooampaniw aogiannga of the Pana- 

it to hi* aal^sct and hia andianoa; A tbenaio Friio^ But aea aap. the 

Claadro, Ontor, c zxif- ^i 71, 72, and admirable «oi^ of fro f aaaoc Adolf 

Piderit'a notaa. Miehadia, 1S71, Dar Partbenon, Tort, 

Again, AUbid aaya that itrnnwrptC^ctu, Tafel IX— XIV. Dar Riaa dar Cdla, 

lac eitkt. meani fa> aaa m > aiirrar, and {28. BrownnMalu, p, S2S. Die Kigel 

hia opiniofi m^ be aopportad bjr oom- allar dpr 'caumfrohen Rone' (Aml 

paring 1 Corinthiatu, XIII, 12, 0\i*»tar Pram. ISS) dai nieht Im Karmor 

■/if ^1 ti' itirrmtu if mMytimrt [ia einam au^af tihrt, Bondem « 

dankehi W«tt, Uitbar). and St. Jbom aam Thaila in Hetall. xnm m an imq 

I, S3, oSm Itutm bt/i mrrmrttSm ri lahlrelohan LiidiamTarfalgbar,inweIdketi 

wfinmr rfi ywitti— sirw ir Mrrp^ Broaaeotifta nicht Uoaa Ton Elgina Foi- 

alao ibid. t. 2fi 4 U tuokA^ iit rj|iw mem bainerkt tmrAta nnd {Clarke IVov. 

rMtwr t\w -nit i\Hi«tpUi, where nwa- II, II, 192), K>ndeni aom Thsil nooh 

(ifu, to ibmp attd looL in, probably heuta ateoken (Waatfr- 3 im Widarriat, 

Tcfera to a mirror plaoad on a table or on Nordfr. 109 im FferdemMl), Siidfr. 71 

tha ground. In AV. tha aams word im Sohildranda). 

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reference to the wanderings of Ulysses; and Juvenal gives 
it a place among the spoils and trophies of war, Sat. X, 
T. 135 sq. viclaeque triremis Aplustre.' The boat is 
moving head-foremost to left, which is proved by the 
water bebg calm on this side in front of it, and ^tated 
by waves b^nd it The rowers turn their faces in the 
du«cUon in which they are going, as the boatmen on 
the Bhine and the gondoliers at Venice do at present 

There is an eye on each side of the prow, shaped like 
a fish's head; the former feature is, I think, still con- 
tinued in the Mediterranean. Becker, Cfaaricles, scene 
VIE, The Tiiton, p. Ill, English Translation, note 2, 
quotes the OnomastJcon of F(ulux, I, 86, and Eustatbius 
on the Biad, XIV, 7l7, who says that eyes are painted 
in the projecting part of the prow. lUch, Companion 
to the Latin Dictionary, gives a good illustration from a 
medal, s.v. Proreta^ the man who stood upon the fore- 
castle to keep a look-out* Below the bulwarks, the 
upper part of which forms a kind of ruling, are boards 
placed at an acute angle to the boat's side; they seem 

paouliirij loitad t 

ma ttm hmd or bow of ttw bort ; ami 

Um «nrtom !■ alill ntained in mnm 

, «d; Mtd w* •*« 
bufa whicb pl7 in tba 
harbour of Halts baariDgttM cm oa Ihair 
bowi, [n Uw HUM maniMr aa Iha boats a< 
■iKKQt Egypt. Ibid., Plata tumtf p. 
211, Boat* with ooloiirad adla, ftvm Um 
' ' ' ~ IIL at TiMbN. Tba 

p^liDga Ihat i 

Cbmnt paint tUa dnlea not 
odIj on tha junka whii^ tlisj bava boiK 
thamadraa, but alao on the parddla>boi«a 
of atMiaaa putchaaad treat (onlgMts ; 
for tbeir riTcr-boata cMnp, a book of 
Chinana eolonrad drawinga in tha Sooth 
KaniiogtaD Ituaauiu. 

Hill pTMtioa HDMng barbarooa nationa 
tnar ba LUnatnted ^ tha luadal of a 
canoa from tba North-West ooaat of 
Amariea, in tba EUinogr^ihiBal Oallai^ 
of tba Btiliah Hnaanm, whim tba aya la 
j«Bt«l Twy la.^ : ccm^ O. ^-J^V^ 

From vanqoirii'd Seeta. 

Oilbrd'a TtaMlatlon, adit. 1817, 
VoL il, p. S6. 
BapCfti, M Jaaa^ haa tha toUowinf t 


latum, in qo , 
haenlna («tW>) I . 

(k. a. Entaum a. bada, nwfa, Jb^pa) quo 
motnaTastiindicabatur. naDictinwr; 
et OnA and Soman Antlquitiaa a.T. 
Nm^ p. T87, haa an artkU on UU Mm, 
wUch nKlndaa Um flfAutre, I^Wrat, 
with thraa illoatnrtiaM ; aae alao Rich, 
av. ifkraehu, with woodent fmm Iba 
Vatican ViigiL Ftoahnar, La CcdontM 
Tnj^at, Bns.p. ••; Afbulmat mpim 
da panadw an unoa da qomw da coo ; in 
Iha Plata Vo. SS hong p. B7, a boat ia 

nl MkM^ In* Ml tafcivM , 

i mrtfi^mn. Baatalhlnt, 1.0. *T*y4 *i 
4trw, fnu «( n ifBtJtiul {w^yafaSmu, 
a.TJk. S«ooadO«manaditioaaf Badcca'a 
Charidaa, ISH BiUar allgrieaUMbar 
8itt4 VoL i, Siabanta Soane, Dar ScUff. 
bnteh, Anmarfcong 2, p. 116. 
Um Egjptiana oftn punted an en 

daU' Saw ZaaUndora, PlateXUI., OnMOMllI 
'taada, patddlat, &o. 

mp. Q. 

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intended to protect the rowers {rem the splash caused by 
the oars. 

The size of the moDument deserves notice, the boat 
being 3^ metres long, 1.15 m. high, 0.60 m. broad. 
On we other hand that figured on the tomb-stone of 
Blussus (naata) at Uayence is only about one foot in 
length : T. Mr. Boach Smith's Collectanea Antiqua, vol. 
II, pp. 124 — 126, PI. XXX, showing sculptures and 
inscriptions on both sides of die stone.^ Agun, the 
advantage of seeing an example on so large a scale 
becomes still more apparent, when we contrast it with 
Uie minute and imp^ect representations on gems and 

I beg to invite attention to a third group, widely 
different from those already described. Three youtlu 
stand ronnd a table, on which a heap of gold coins is 
spread, and a basket is placed, also filled with money of 
^e same kind ; the metal intended is shown by the 
yellow colour, which was observed at die time of 
discovery. They wear neck-ties or cravats (focalia), as 
might be expected in a norUiern climate. These articles 
were not part of the ordinary costume of the Bomans, 
but were adopted in iJieir armies when they served in 
cold countries. So we find them on the Trajan Column, 
in accordance with Pliny's account of the severe winter, 
during which that Emperor made war against the 

1 !■ unmg will dwim gmt benefit from aonmiltlilK 

t* in tba the older and larger book* on the 

propoir labjeot; 1m muat not rertmUsBed with 

I bj Baedeker witli as aateriik nndl and modeni oompQatiimi. ELg, 

iDaa Tonugaweiae Baanbtonawerthe iat Windelnunn, HoDumenti Anticfal 

lareh ein StentdMO (*} berroigehoben}. loadili, 1S21, ia om of the beat 

The word Raitfa bm cuiDot moui k authoHtlaa for Micwnt gall^ja : Rvte 

oommoa mlor, which ia endent from the Qoarta, Cu^tolo ZV, Binmat torn. II, 

character of the memorial, and eqwciallf pp. 27! — 281, he ezplaina manj delaila 

from the rii^jr ornamented Sgun of the and Oredc namin for part* of • ah^t, t. 

wife carved apon it ; ■« we apply the folio PUte, No. 207, of ft marUa fomtd at 

tonn aatlor to an admiral and toUicr to a Faleatrina i it ia oojaed on a reduced 

gmeral, ao noala ia hera aaid of a "' '~ "" " "'-■-■ -• •-'!--'■'-- - 

marcfaant : cf. Uoraee, Odsa, Bk. 1,1,11. 
I maj be alloweH tu remu-k tbiit the 
ooUe^ioD of Koman and German 

antiqnitiea in thia dtj pcoaeeaca Rreat vaiaraaux, et lenr dilKreDte forme, pp. 

hiitorieal intereat, which ia enhanced b7 SOS — !9fl ; Pis. C JXXIII— CXLIlt MP- 

an BZceUent claMiGqatioD ; it reflect* CXXXIII, Kostnou 'fiparona, Aidoatre, 

Creat credit oD the teanied director. Dr. though the illuatration* in this woA. do 

L liudcoachmit. not adequate]; oomepond with Um 

* Similarly, the archaeological inquirec erudition ol the twik 

>t onwpicoQ 
at MayoD 

lb, Google 



Daciaos.' One young man flattens the heap of coins, 
apparently with the view of aicertatning better whether 
they are genuine ; the second holds one between his 
finger and thumb to examine it ; the tliird has before him 
a pile of tablets for keeping accounts.' We see three 
elderly men in the back-groand, and one in front : they 
are all bearded, and have a hood (oueuUua) to their outer 
garment, which corresponds with descriptions of Glatlic 
dress by Juvenal and Martial, as well as with sculptures 
found in France.* The old man furthest to the spectator's 
right carries a staff, probably to indicate a journey by 
land : a strap is slung across his right shoulder and 
breast, and doubtless a bag was suspended from it, as is 
done by travellers at present. The expression on these 
countenances shows discontent and the performance of 
an unpleasant duty, viz. the payment of rent or lazes, 
which does not seem to have been more agreeable in 
ancient than in modern times. When we study the 
^rTiting8 of the Greeks and Bomans, or survey their 
mouument.s, the reflection is forced upon us that, in spite 
of external changes and mechanical inventions, human 
nature is still the same as it was two thousand years ago. 

' Id /Malta tbe o i* kmg, ind the 
vnd ii oolj iDother turm i^ /macalim 
bva/auca thaUirMt; M the diphtliolig 
M ii immooDoad o Id EVandL For 
■Timplil o( tin intardangg ie> Prof awor 
En oa«fc« Alchabet, letter O, p. S6, (7- 
Honn mtmki ol nwktiaa u worn by 
d«Iio>U and laxorioD* penoD*, Sitina, 

pnui iDugnU morbi, 
pMciolM, eaUtal, loalik. 
For lU* urtid* of dnM on tiw Tr^an 
Calnmn, Ha FVodmer, op. dttt, p. SS, 

Da J nmuqae notamoimit .... 
DDO Ria flagtM) .... . ; uno 
■Dtre wne U (rmreto (facaU) ratenne 
par daa agrafoi ; ibid., p. 88 ; of- omn, 
p. SS and noto (I). Plinj tbe Tounsar. 
naagjrieai. Cap. !£. An aadeant, qui 

I popalia 

eo ipao tampora; tratA unicbiilnaDi WXia, 
iliMi-nKmiim BObu, cuiD DuiutHua ri|iai 
gala JDDgit, dontiiaque gUcit ingmtia 
teigo bclla tnuuportAt ■ . . ! 

* Tbm clatfca in tbe baa-relief, icrutiniE- 
io^ ttw monaj before thej took it, may 
be ooDtnatad witb the fouis of Uie 
ParaUa wbo biui^t a fiald or oxen, aod 

afterwarda weat to provn Ikem : St. 
Luka, lif, IS— SO. 

'Aa an iUoitntioD of the aunlla* 
and hardoeiteiilha (oloak with a hood) I 
fohibited ao eDAtaTiDg pufaliahed in the 
Himoirai da U SooSU Biatoriqaa at 
Arcb6ol(igiqu« da lAograa, Tone 1, 
Planctw 21 beiog p. HO, flga. I A S— 
Hua6a, Fragmenta Gallo-Roioaiiia. Tim 
oomapondiDK Dnmben in H. Bnxard'i 
Catahi^ are 184 and 185. Sea the 
following Paper* •■ ibid. , pp. 80—61, 
Notiea «ar lea eaatomca d<a Gaaloi* m 
gfnind et dea Lingona ea particulier, i 
propoa da quelqiiea mnDumenli da Vtm 
gallo-romaina, par M. Peohini; pp. 
1S8— 141, Langral.— LoDge-Forto, par 
H. Qimilt de Frangej. Coinp. Ardueol. 
JoDm., Vol. xliii, ff. 103—100, where 
thaalMTe-Dientioned tmna an diaeuwad 
at length, and many relereiiM* an giTeD. 
Ouhl aod Koner, Daa Laban der Qrleefaea 
QDd Rafnar,!Dd edilioD,1804, {96, p. 887, 
flg. 473. Die Tracbt- Eopfbedeckuns 
der Minner. Den Pileui enetEte aber 
■ucb die aUB den nan1IIclieT«n Oegenden, 
mhnclipinlidi niia Gxllieti, OberitalieD 
und DilmatioD nuch Rom gekonuncaa 
Capuie, c HctfUiu odor cncuUio gaDanot, ac. 




Some of the antiquities from Neuinagen are deposited 
in the Museum, and others are left in a temporary shed 
adjoining the Baths. This leads me to remark that the 
most important of recent discoveries at Treves was made 
in the suburb of St. Barbara, south-west of the dty, and 
near the MoselbrUcke. I refer to the excavations con- 
tinued during the years 1877 — 1885, which have brought 
to light the Homan Baths, the largest estabUshment of the 
kind on this side of Uie Alps.' Formerly the Imperial 
Palace, at the south-eastern extremity of Treves, was 
supposed to be the Thernue, but some antiquaries doubted 
the attribution ; however, the question is now set at rest 
completely.* Though the masonry above ground, which 
had remuned even to the second story so late as the 
begianinff of the seventeenth century, has nearly dis- 
appeared, the substructions in many of their details can 

' The Tiutor cannot UH to ba im- Houl ta Trier, KupfwWel 11, a fine 
[OMBsd, *t fint lixbt, with th« great eugnviDK : LeoDHQf, Putonuna tod 
extent of thew mini, which are 172 Tncr und dnaea Umgibiiiuno, ]8M, ii^ 

mitrea long and 107 wide; tha hall '"" - — "^ '-' * - - '"■ 

marked A un ths Plan a S3'73 m. >< 
19'60 tn. In a tew minute*' walk he will 
oome to the Bridge — deaerviag attention . 
became iu piers an atill partlj Roman. 
Hr. & A. Fraaman in the Bribah Quar- 
teri7 Beriew, Jnl;, 1S75, Vol. Iiii, Art, i, 
Attguata Trerer ofu m, pp. 1 8 and £3, aafa 
that Cerealia and Cinlia met in baUJe 
(a.D. 00) upon the Bridge whoae fbunda- 
tionl anpport the modem atrudure. But 
ttia ia vei; doabtful : the bridge where 
thflT fought waa in thia neighbourhood, 
nothing farther ahould be puaitirel; 
aaaert^Kl. It ia mere probaUe that these 
foandationa were laid in tha fourth cen- 
tury when Trfivea reached ths acme of 
her proaperit;, and moat of the buildinga 
were erected whoaa mina aatoniah ua by 
thmr siia and aolidity. Wjtton- 
hach, RoouD Antiquitiea ofTrftrea, Bng. 
Traiulation, p. lOG, aacribea the bridge 
to Agripp^ but hi* onlj naaon is that 
tha minuter of Auguatua had Qaul for 
hii province and planned tha great high- 
way from TriTaa to Cologne. Quednow, 
Bescbnabung dar Alterthiimer in Trier, 
1620, oattiM tha date still further back 
into ttie Gallo-Bdgie period, and twice 
(pp. 14,14) aaarta that this structurs ia 
more than 8000 year* old I Often h* re 
1 bad oocaaion to obasrTO that the 
einggeration, to which local antiquariea 
are ao ^rooe, would land us in glanug 

QuedQow, Op. dtat, Briicke iiber die 

IDO sq,, with woodcut Fiv mintafjr 
opemtious in the country of tba Ttwrmi 
at the beginning of Veapasian'a reign ace 
HeriTsIe, History of the Romans under 
the Empire, Sro. edition. Vol. VI, pp. S17 
— S21, cap. p. 620; and oomp. Tacitua, 
Histories, IV, 71—78, tap. 77, medius 
Uoaellae pons, qui nltirian eoloniae 
adnectit, ab hoatibiu insosaaa. Wytten- 
bach, p 106, hu, I think, Ineomotiy 
interpreted mtduii aa making a eou- 
muoicdtion between the Trerimna and 
the Agrippiniiini (people of Cologne). 
Rjckius. quoted m Rnperti'a Com- 
mentary on Tacitus, givea a better and 
more nmple explanation, inter castra 
( Romans ac) et coloniam Auguslam 
TrcTidvnim. This bridge sj^Msra to be 
the same aa that which, aoeordiug to 
Stnbo, waa conatrueted hi hia own 
time ; lib. IV, cap. Ill, { 4, p. 194, 
Mrri )) Teh Kiiiafiar^utatf mI Tf^iX'vt 
VBfMwevn rkv 'fim' Tp^»iifti, aef afif 
Tinf^Tw rh CivyiM t<ti rwr fm/iMiiir iinvl 
rir ffTfumrfa^i-' tW FtpfianiAr wi^fin. 
* Thia miatake is repeated in Smith'a 
Dictionaiy of Qreek and Roman 
Qeograpby, Art. Augusta TreTiromm, 
where the writer, Mr. Oeorge Long, atatea 
that beautiful arches of the Thermnc still 
remain, which are built entirely of brick. 
He has here copied Wyttanbsch, Antt. of 
Treves, p. 65. The semi-circulBr eon- 
centric VBiilta, characteristic of Ronuis 
arcliitecture are veiy well flgnred in Uiree 
plates, iUd pp. 60 and 64. 

zed bv Google 


foe fiilly anderatood. Dr. Hettner's artide in the West- 
dentache Zeitscbrift for 1882 is accompaQied by a large 
plan, bat I have the pleasure to exhibit a still b«tter one 
wbi(^ the learned author gave me.' The prindpal 
aparbneats, Frigidarium (cold bath), Tq>idarwm (heated* 
chamber), and Caldarium (hot badi), are clearly shown ; 
the best course to take in visiting the ruins is also 
indicated. From the marks on the stones and bricks 
the date of construction may be inferred, and assigned to 
the Constantine period, 1.0., the first half of the fourth 
century after Christ. 

The " Tr^r of Treves •* stands high among the collec- 
Uons of mediseval art preserved in cbarches; it has 
often been described by archaeolo^ts, and recently an 
elaborate work with this title baa been published by 
M. IA)n Palustre and Monseigneur Barbier de Montault, 
4to, with 30 phototype illustrations.' Unquestionably 
the chief object to be seen here is the ivory plaque, whi<^ 
these authors, tike most of their predecessors, suppose to 
portray a translation of relics made at Treves, under 
the auspices of Constantine, and at the request of St. 
Helena.' The moUve is evident enough, but It is not so 

I Utta cf Dr. HattiMr'* 

I foUowi, Dii rfmiMbm 

D in St. BwUn M Tri«r, Bb 

a Plu.n)D 

^-— -1— pi—iAt nit «iMU Pli 
BnS«iiiHi mill Burnt Btjtttrih. 

Vom boniBtmni,bntthb«t 

in Oomanj ; of BiUi), Hoow, Aiueni, 
Bui in It>l7 ; of I^mm, IVojm, Sasa, 
Ik(B^ lfHH7 in Fmwi: Palnttra and 
ButMT d« Hoitaalt, op. dtaL, Intaodno- 
ikm, p. I, who* •om ■aoonnt ii |iTen el 
tbtm CoOMtkna m oonpuad, or ralbcr 
BonfaMtod, with tb» objwu of Ht 


Hndi cvrCoai infonnatioD ralatinr to art 
la tk* Middle A«aa «iU ba found in the Id- 

...... -Lf-.- inj^j — Si^.aoua 


_ , lutboritr. Vida 

> Snuetumm, DoUandiats* aditkn, 
XSUi Aaxnat, Vol 36, torn. III.JIeMfB 

TUUMiHir ; naienaa gaonai 
t opinio, qnaa aaaaHt patciam 
[Jiapannm in Bithynia. Oib)>OB, 
Dd Fall, chap. XIV, adit. Dr. 


Tin. (129E) publU par tm\l» 
Ttau, 18B8. Sm alao tbe 
of Xooar. C. de Linaa. 
rtn and BuUsr de Kcmtwlt 

matre, oommantariaapmaTiiia. f L TTiwimi. 
annoa ao looiia nalaliB. fif. riaiiiiiialiil 
diploma, qoe narinoaaa mU tribvimt 
BaneUa Mtak* ; ttd quo* tlU probaUUiM 

mrlinar* TidMUtur ; " ' 

PnMpIaeat opinio, 
ei fnlaaa Diepannc 
Dedine and Fall, 

Wm.8)iiItfa,V<4.It,tLl09,noUl(L Ufa 
Indeed pKOaUe enough that HelaB*B 
(•th«r kant an inn at Dtajanum. Comp. 
ITouvalleBiograplwQIndral^ a.*. Sainte- 
Heltoa for Tariona coqjeeturta eonoem- 
ing ber «ri(^, bbthplMe aakl maniageL 
She U Mid to bnve niidod at Trttw 
after her no vaa prodajmed Angnatoa. 
Leonard; ragarda the opinion tlut the 
Cathedral waa fonnerlj ber Maoe aa 
qoite lUrtanaUa : PanoraiiM tod IMar, 
p. U, aq. ICr. Fetfuaaoo, Htatay ol 

THE Asmtiurnsa of tbxvbs and mbtz. 


easy to say where the scene is laid ; because Uiere are 
nuuiy cities for which these small and conventional 
representations of buildings would serve equally well.' 

The Unseum contains two Bomati milestones,* in- 
scribed thus : — 

no-X uummimiiimm Mum 





A ■ COL ■ ATO Snt 


KVa ■ PIO - POHT ■ HA 

TB ■ POT ■ Tl ■ COS ■ Tl ■ 

S P ■ P ■ AC ol AV/// TR ■ 
M ■ P ■ IXII • 

AtAltwtnm, Tol. i, p. fi7D, Mja, " Ai ii 
wall kooiTD tba on^jiail Cathadnl at 
Ttirtt wu built by Uie pious Helsua " ; 
but I f«u- that thia mhtUimi miut be 
placed Id the unM category wiUi muy 
lalM alMUt her whidi the BolUndUta 
r^feoL Acta Sanelor, p. MB aq. 

Id the ediSos, walptarad oa the irorj, 
wbaooe tlie proneMJoo iMa«e, Paluatre 
ttid Barbier ^ HoDtaolt aaa the Church 
of Of Holy Sepulchre at Jenualem, 
eomnMooid by St Hdena. aod aom* 
pleted imdar the orden nf Conataatine 
Um <^«at. Comp. Fsrgiuaon, Op. dtat., 
U, 291, and PL 810. Then i« bo Deed 
for me CO deaoHbe thia relk at laogUi, aa 
it haa bean already done In the ab(>Ta> 
nanied Fra&ch aathon, aoa m our own 
lappi^n hj Prptwaor Weatwood, Hotea 
of a Tour in Weatem Qennany, ArchaeoL 
Jmuil, ToL XX, p. MB. 

» Plata II in the " Tr^aor do Trirea " 
t™*'''" two figuraa, " Le Saint Cloa 
•t BOD 'EtoL "nM following remark ii 
■ppandad to a minute aaomnt of the 
fonn and dimenniKu of the Nail, " tToua 
n'aTooa point de doote k iuiettni but Bon 
MithaDtiatt6, «ar il * I'aapect d'nn doD 
romaiD : au mu«£e miroe de Trivea, 
noui luf aTODB trouvi ud aim" 
However, the reaembUnce to J 
naila will onlj proTe that the 

belong to the 

1 at Hem, 
lere b a fragmsat of one in the 
(rf the OaUudial at Tool— a bnild- 

iDg which wM fornMfly adonied with 
many Bt*tii«a outiide, but wa* stripped 
of them at tlie Revolution, bo that, aa 
the Cait remarked to m^ nothing ia left 
but the gnrgoylei. 

' Rumnn mile-stones are mora intereat- 
ing than mideni, becauia Iba latter only 
give plnixa and the distances between 
them, but the former supply lumea of 
Bmpema and sometimee EnpnsBca (t./^ 
Otaoilia SsTsra, wife of Philip the ArafaJMi, 
T. Sacaie, 'Epigraphie de Ludton, p. 8S}, 
and mention ofBoea from which the exact 
• year eat) be sacertained ; huice the^ 
•a«i«t to data approximatriy soulpturea 
or other monuments found in their neigh- 
bouihood. In this respect they oorreapoad 
to ouns whidi form a Biwl baait for 
ohrondoipeal invesUgatioDs. 

* II wUl be obwTTed that the teoond 
insoriptioD eiplain* the first, aa TB(tai- 
rwwn] completes the name of the oitj, 
whioh is desirable, as so Duny [daoes, 
London amongit them, were oalled Au- 
gusta. See AmmianuB 
XXVO, cap. 8, i 7, : 
oppidum, quod Augnstam poateritaa 
ai^aUarit: <£ibid. ZZXVIII, 3, 1. >Id 
the former pasasge EyaeeDhs nit's edition, 
1871, has Landinam, with the note tic 
OnUx Vatiaiiuii, but in the latter Lun- 
dinium. Comp. Notitii Dignitatum 
Gcddentalis, cap. X,p.<S',edit.Bockitig, 
Praepositus Thessurorum AuniBtensium 
inBritanms, and AdDotatio,ibid., p.S5D*: 
Hr, Roach Smith, art. Loodmium in 
Smith's Diet of Qnak and Btmiaa 

d by Google 


Impoatorifl Divi 
Tt^jmni Farthiin 
Filio, Divi Notts 

Tnyano Hadriuio 

Angoato, Pontifloi Maumo, TribnaioU 
PotMtatfl V, Conanli III, Paienti Fattue, 
» ColoDia AognaU {TreToioruiii) Hillia (paamam) 

Impontori Cumri 
JEUo Hadriano Antonino 
Augusto Fio PontifiQi Uaximo 
JHbimiau PoteaUtfl II, Connili II, 
Puwati PatriM, a Cdonia Aogoita TmTBionini 
MiUia puBuum xxn. 


To tbe son of the Emperor the divme Trajan (sum&med) 
Parthicus, grandson of the divine Nerva, Trajan Hadrian 
Augustus, Qiief Pontiff', holding Tribunician power for the 
fifth time, Consul for the third time, Father of his Country, 
22 (Koman) miles from the Colony of Augusta 

To the ^peror JCaesar .^llins Hadrian Antoninus 
Augustus Hus, Chief Pontiff^ holdiug Tribunician power 
for the second time, Consul for the second time, Fa^er of 
his Conntry, 22 (Boman) miles from the Colony of 
Augusta Treverorum.* 

The titles of the Emperors here are the same that we 
observe on arches erected in their honour, e.g. at Ancona, 
and also on the coins which they struck.* Thus tix& 
small and large remains of antiquity illustrate each other. 
We are too much disposed to associate the monuments of 

' In tbeM iiuoT^tioiu I bBTs foUowad saooo roirr. naz. tr. rat. ktih mr. Ym 

tb« tait cf BnmbMh, ISflT, for mnt of 00*. YLn. to. 

■nj batter autliari^ : t. chap, on th* Tha lattan ara (till nabla on tha wall- 

Colunmae "'''■irif m bii Ocirpnl luar. propoctioued laA well-praaarved moau- 

BheniuL, f fi, p. S4fl, Auguiita Trararorum tatnt, for otW aumples of uiailir 

lUnoDugam, Noa. XII IMS, XIII app«lI>tMntf. L-itgadni, ArdiiTriDiitiJi 

1937 ; ba nfoi to EJaln in Bhciniacbea pauiM. In tha cmra of Anoonl hi* two 

Unaiun, toI. XV, p. 190, U, and 491, 4. platca are not aa aatufaotorj aa imial. 

For the aeaoiid inaaipliMi aaa OralU'a bacaon tba arch ia partlj oooeaalad bj » 

Cidlacliaii, ToL I, p. IDS, So. B3B. wall : tha photomptK tiMbit it to 

* Franeka, Zor OaaohiiAta Tiajan^ graatar advantaga. Comp. tba titlaa on 

EnMt und Oaaehnuck, p. 694. ooiiu of Tnjta, Hadrian and tho Aato- 

ur. OAUiU Dm imru. r. xibtab nioea ; Cohan, Hamiaiaa frappia* aoiia 

nuMKO oraxo iva. ouiusia. I'Bmpita nmain, tome 11, Pla. I-XIX. 



Treves ezclusirely wiih the tliird and fourth centuries, 
because at that time it was an Imperial residence ; these 
milestones help to correct the error, and show that the 
Roman system of government and organization were 
developed here in an earlier age ; this evidence agrees with 
the excellent style, observed in many of the reliefs and 
other works of art at Neumagen, which could not have 
been executed when the decline of the Empire was far ad- 

Agun, we may consider these milliary columns in 
connexion with the well-known memorial at Igel, the most 
remarkable of the kind that still exists. The milestones 
indicate a distance on a lioman road ; the sculptures on the 
monument vividly represent travellers and conveywiceof 
merchandise. On the West side of this quadrangular 
structure, in the Attic, alight two-wheeled chaise (cisium)' 
in which two men are seated, drawn by a pair of mules, 
is issuing from the gate of a town, and passing a milestone, 
inscribed with the letters L IIII. They have been 
interpreted by Kugler to mean four miles from Treves, and 
to refer to the village of Igel. But here he contradicts 
himself, for in the beginning of hia Memoir he says that 
the distance between these two places is two leagues (zwei 
Stunden), which I believe to be nearly correct. It should 
also be borne in mind that the Boman mile is about a 
tenthtess than the English, so that four ofthe former would 
be about equal to three and a half of the latter. Moreover, 

' Fmii uoUmt point of now Uum miiit be iiuccuTtn •ouawlura. Qahl 
MulpUirea are intermtiDK ;ve*eldoiii Bod iind KoQ*r, Dh LaMn der Oriediea und 
" MpnHiTaaadBTvupiM Kumer, Zwnte Aaflage, IS<t4, p. S81, 

couaBBDimowvo eiipi^Bm ■aa^'vupa v jvuimr. ^wenv Aaiui(cei lont, p- odi, 

■kilfallT aiTMiged in aneh poor uuktoiudi Uiink that the ouriige fisiirad hara mifciit 

aa aandatone and limartone. Dr. ffettoar, be oallad e—eduM or titiuM (Ct Wy Uen- 

RbeiniaclMa Huaaniaiilr FUlolugic^ Heu« bodi'a nott^ Op. eiUL, p. 1S6, aod quo- 

Folgv, Vol. iixn, p. 485, dctcribiDf the t>tioii tram Auaonina, Bpiitl* 14, t. Jl 

diacovarics at Naanugta aaya, Et kamen Sod daium aut pignim cautoa oonaoande 

eioe groaaa Uenga Qnadem ana Sandatein, Taraadom, 

wia er ao dar Sauer bricUt, und aua Non tibi ait nedM, non UBOr aerii aqiiL 
fainun, golban Kalkatein, wia er aich in Pcroadiu, a rare word, ia aaid to b« 

dar Umgagmd von Heti findet, lam deiiTed from vela and the Gallic rtd» ; 

Vonchan. Coiiip. Fiihrer durch dM t. ilartial, xii, 14 ) zIt, SB}. Ibid., pp. 

PrDviniial— Huaeiim eu Trier. ZvceiUi iSS— 45S, thay give an aeoount U the 

AnBug^ p. 7, by the nune author, Stein- inonumaat at Igel with enuring, and 

.. .... w.....,.™] ».d. tloaeL renurk that itrueturaa liuular in atjia 

'yttenbtch, Eng. and pu^raaa hava been fonod in the part 

II* Heumaaen a.d. tloaeL remark that atrueturaa liuular in atjia 

firing iu Wyttenbtch, Eng. and pu^raaa huTa been fonod in the part 

TiaiuL, p. 143, oofaad fnim Quednow, of Norlhem Africa oallad by the Romaoa 

PI. zii, doaa not quite agraa nitb tba Sjilioa TripoUtaua: t. EmniiEh Bartb, 
large ai>ppaT-plat« appendad Lu Kuglar'a Raoen and BntdMckiuigeii, ToL i, pp, 
ItSmnche Denkmal lu Igel ; heoce tJiere 12fi, ISL 

Digmzcd by Google 


Lia not given aa an abbreviatioQ for lapis in Gerrard's 
Siglarium or Orelli's Inscriptions; though lapta is often 
naed to signify a milestone both by prose-writers and 
poets, «.g., Ovid, Fasti, lib II, v. 682, 

Bacn vidot fieri Hxtas kb orbis lAjda. 

One mi^t explain LIIII as meaning 54. The depar- 
ture from Treves seems to be expressed oy a gate, and so 
the arrival at some place distant from the city may be 
denoted by the milestone.* 

The pedestal on the same nde contains an analogous 
subject, but sufBcientty varied to avoid repetition l^t 
Tould look monotonous and mechanical. Here we have 
a heavy four-wheeled cart, loaded with baggage, which is 
piled up and corded. The sides are not plam boards, but 
rails with large interslices between them ; this vehide is 
drawn by three mules, from whose necks bells are sus- 
pended ; it is going towards the countiy, symbolized by 
a tree. Its general appearance is like what the traveller, 
passing through the village of Igel, may often see even 
now. The frieze on the north side also represents traffic 
by land, but in a different manner. Two towns are con- 
ventionally iudicated, each by a large building ; they are 
separated by a hill, on the top of which is a small house, 
apparently intended for an inn or post-station. One mule 
ascends t^e hill and another descends it; both carry 
pack-saddles. Lastly, in two compartments of the pedestal 
we see trade carried on by water, the designs being very 
similar. The centre of each is occupied by a boat, that 
has bales of goods for a cargo ; the group which is better 
preserved shows two men towing the boat, and behind it 
a river-god, probably the Moselle, in the usual semi- 
recumbent attitude. Mythological figures adorn the 
compoffltion ; above are genii playing with dolphins, and 
below, Tritons contending with hippocamps.* 

' On Taconodning Um inwxiptioa, I utdar WiltlMun road CEJII initni^ ot 

hn« «C(D« to ItM ooDcliuioii Uiat L hsr« LllI (no). The French wend Ueut erl- 

i> •qaiTaktit to Ituifat. Thii mauiin i* dentlj ocmua from teuga, bat lus ft 

H KonMn mile or 1500 p*oca, *o tlut diBerent mcuiii]^ 

four lemga* woald nuke tix Roman niilaa, * Our own eoontijiflbrd* nunicmatla 

which ii nnrlv tha dlataoM brtwsan illuabmtiotu of (faa lut-uontioncd figura ; 

Ttivm utd IkcI. Horaorer Ordli, Op. aea Bnot, AodcDt Brittdi Coina, with 

dUt., Ko. 1019, Vol. i, p. 129, luppliM engnvingl 1^ Fiiriiolt, pp. Sll, !GS 

im[Ja of L H the ftbbrenatioa tor M. nod S51 ; PUUa V, No. 2 ; VIL 

-_-* .ci «. «„a. T-. .; _ „- if^ g_ jd , jm_ jj^ J At p. 269 UiB 
Mttbor uontHMu a wiagnd hippoeunpiu 

DiBiiizcdb, Google 


zed bv Google 



The milestones above mentioned were foand in the year 
1825, on the road from Bitburg to FrUm, in the wood of 
Nattenheim. Bitburg was the first station on the Boman 
Via from Treves to C^k^e, Woughthe £Hel, and in the. 
Antooine Itinerary, p. 372, edit. Wesseling, is marked thus, 
A. Treriru Agnppnam. . . leugaa IJLV I (no)' 
Bada vions ' . len^aa Xll* 

He finest statue at Treves is the torto of an Amazon, 
discovered in 1845, in a semi-circular niche of the facade 
of the Baths at St. Barbara. In this example the left, 
breast is exposed, which agrees with the story that the 
right was taken off in order not to interfere with the use 
of the bow; but the ancient artists did not follow this 
rule invariably. From comparison with other repetitions 
of the subject at Borne and at Berlin, it seems that the 
right arm was raised almost perpendicularly, and bent at 
the elbow so as to rest on the head ; the left arm hung 
down by the side, and the hands grasped the bow by 
the ends, of which the lower atill remains touching the 
quiver.* Pliny relates a contest between five celebrated 

on (he oopper ooiiu at Bjrwiue, and a io kii «icanioii from Trirw : for > mora 

qnadiigm of winglaB hlppomnni oa tba 

feruN otam of Uw PnofecU o[ M. AiOoaj. 

Kn^, RSaibelM Senknul m Tgnl, p. 

S7, gita> tbe foUowing eziduuttMn : Tn- 

taoaa im Eunpfs mit Hippokunpan, dia 

irUda Oawatt dea ElaDMotaa und dia 

OoftliTeo, dia in winetD B«luKaaa ver- 

botg«D dud, uwiidaatai. One of tbeae 

detuled daaeription (rf It t. Laonutlj, 
FanorMW Ton Tntr und davan Dnge- 
bangan, VIL Orilaww At««fliig% f. 181 aq. 
AaotlMrMMl more c inwitou iTOd from 
Tr)T« to Oidogiia ma Gairiad Uuongh 
Coblans, and ia mariwd aa faUow* (wtth 
tbe dnectum rerafaad) in Uw *«fc»j»- 

'Tlie total btre t* inoomct, becMiM 
a doea not agnw with the aum made up 
bf adding the diataDoea between the in- 
liiiiMiiliale atatiana. Numari ooUaoti 
effldnnt LXZVIII, eee the note in Pin- 
dar and Fartiiej'i edition of the Itinenn, 


*Tfali Rocnan road paaaad through 
Bada (BitbDrg), Anaan (Ooa or Brona- 
feU), BgDtlglum (JoMuerad, otbcnriae 
JOnkanth, or Kiitt, orLiiiindorf), Mar- 
eogMfaa(llannuenX Belgica ( Wolaaiflbi, 
«r ^lieh or Balckhuaan), TolUacum 
viona Bopanornm (Ziilpieh^ Bitburg ia 
near Erdorf, a aUtioa on the Bifalbahn 
Von Trier naeli Ea{n: •«• Baedaker'a 
BheiotaDde, edit 18M, Bouta W, p. 308 ; 
in lb« Mme paragraph Flieeeem i* alao 
uotioed, where than are reoiaiia irf • 
Boman villa aod oraarowital moaaio 
pBTamenta. Thii plaoe tatif be vinted 

Colonia Agrippina (Eehi) mpm ZVI 
Bonna (Bonn) . mpm XI 

Antonnaoo (Andanaeh) . mpm XVII 
UonfluentibM (Cobbiu} . mpm Villi 
Vinoo (Blngen) . tnpm ZXVI 

IToTiomago (Nenmagan} . mpm XXXVII 
Trareroa (Trier) . mpm XUI 

Auguala ^wrerornm waa alao oonneo. 
ted bjroeda with DurooMtomm (Beima), 
MagontiMum(Heiiu),DiTiidanim (Heta), 
and Argentoratum (Straaabnig) ; t. ipdax 
and map at the end of Parthay and 
Pindar's editJan of the Itinanrf, and the 
lUula FeutiDgerieila whidi Ot. Konrad 
Killer baa reoenUy pnbliabed with the 
title, Welktaria dea Oaatorina. 

* Dr. Heitoer deaoibea the Tono in 
hie Fiihrer durch daa PnrriniiTal Mninnm 
EuTrier, p.20Bq., O. ll(Q = SBmmlni« 
en). He e»a that the figure ia. the 
Umbildung der poljUotiecbea A 
dfB Beriinv Mueeuma. 

.cdbv Google 



Statuaries, who competed to produce Uie best figure of aa 
Amazou. Folycletus, the famous Argive sculptor, is said 
to have guned the prize over Phidias and the rest. It is 
not unreasonable to connect the torao at Treves with the 
greatest names in Qreek art, and to suppose that we have 
here a copy, though probably with some modifications, of 
a masterpiece executed in the best period.^ Dr. Hettner 
thinks me figure at Treves superior to that in the 
Vatican, because the folds of the drapery are arranged 
with less monotony, while the flesh is more natural and 
animated. A cast of the latter has very properly been 
placed in the Treves Museum for the purpose of com- 

As the example under consideration is fri^mentary, 
we see but a part of the attributes by which Amazons 
are usually distinguished. These are ancaeyridsSj drawers 
or trousers reaching down to the ankles, a two-edged axe 
(Hpetmis), and a small shield (pelta) lunated on one side 
and having a double curve on the other,* So Horace 
speaks of the Amazonia aecuris,* and Virgil, ^ueid I., 
490, describing the queen who came to the assistance of 
the Trojans, says : 


NttDnHi ^riacua, Ub. XXXVI, 
VIII, «Mt IS, f U, VoL T, p. lis, 
BilliK. Vm«re ■ntam rt in < ' 

«au In Untpla Diun* SphwiM dkano- 
tar, pbeait aKgi pw> b i t ii ri m « i B inonim 
nttlmm niiiiK«miiiti« erant judiab, aim 

a aoa aaiiqin Juduwent- lUM mt 
Polfclit^ pmnOM ab at FtildkiLtntii 
OaOM^ qauta Crdonii, quinU Fhnd- 

11 of Amannu ler 
Qme, itmt* da Seulptnn antiqaa at 
Bodann, Phncliaa, SOS-Sll, aap. Um but 
na.; TexU, tona V.p.43ait.,NaB.30Sl, 

a, SOS-Sll, •ni.t 
MSIA; C O. Uutlar, Arddokf^ dar 

Kooat, f 121, Remark i : 
DaDknUo-da* Klaaaiacliaii Altarthnm^ 
m Bud, I.T. Fo); UaibM, pp- IRM-ISSS; 
l^fal XLVUI, and figi. \Vt9-\lXH. Na 
IMS ia a gam oa which an Atouon 
alaaJIt ia caignTed ; it ia preaerrad in 
tha OaUMt dM UMaiUai of tfaa Biblio. 
tUqae Katianile at Paria, and wa* ahown 
to DM bj U. Enmt Babalon, bibliDlli^ 

oaira. V. EliigmaiiD, Dia AmaioiMn in 
attiaohar Uttmitiir and KuDit, Vignatta 
■uS. 1. 

■Ilia vaaaa In the Kiliah Haaanm 
anpfdy abiuidaiit onunplM of tlie dnaa 
and aMoutreniaata of AmaEoiw: Cata- 
loKoa^ H;thcdogiaal Index, a.T. K-t-, 
Ttk. II, p. 74, aq., Na ISU lljiiim ; p. 
87, Vo. iS93 Amphon. "Tha Amuon 
haa loDg hair hanging down her naok 
behind, and woan nFhiTgiau oap, a ti^t 
fitting jorkin, and atta^ritUt, both vuiii* 
of a apott«d ikio, and a atriped and 
bord<red Mlim irhidi reaidiaa to tlie 
kneea and ia girt round the waiat" Ibid. 
Ho. lasi. Comp, Ridi'a meOaatry, 
Bipenniter, Kpenoia, Pdia, Faltaata, 
miata, and moatraUooa. Tbo laaof Uw 
bow indioata* the Eaalera oiipn of thia 
fabled raoa, end correaponda with the 
frequent mention of it in the Old 
Taatament : Pnim XXXVIl, U. The 
wieksd have drawn out the inrord, and 
hare bmt th«r bow. ibid. XLIV, 9, etc. 

■HoraoB, Oum. lib. IV, i, Dmn 
Uud(ia,T. 20;«fibtd.v. 57, 
Durii nt ilez t< 

I bv Google 


Dncdt AnuutMudnm loiutu agminA peltia 
PaathenW farens, mediiaqTie ia mifiibna axixA, 
AwM sabneotens exaertae ciii^ala nummM 
Bell&fanx, aodetqae idrifl oononzrare Tirgo.^ 

Our own London gives us the best opportunities for 
stodying these mythical women— s subject interesting for 
otiier reasons, and because it was so often treated l^ tiie 
ancient scolptors. The friezes of the Temple at Phigaleia 
in Arcadia and of the Mansoleum at Halicamasans show 
contests of Greeks with Amazona in every variety of 
atUtnde, and with considerable differences of style, the 
first belonging to the age of Fhidias, and the second to 
the later Attic School in which Scopas and Fnudteles 

> XaM, XI, «fl-«U. Prmrtitw, 
«!. F^. Jaoob. IV, 10, 18-16 [111.11]. 
Adm bras ab aquo qaondam oppugatn 

UmboOm DHUum Puthedlea nlaa ; 
Anna eui poatqnun nudivit cu«id» 

VIdt ncturam oiDdida (omu Timm. 

Oori, Huaeum Flormtinum (Qemnua 
Antiqau). Vol. II, pp- 77— 7S, TabuU 
XXJul, AmuonuDt id Trojam pugna ; 
Tab XXXIII, G«i I,II,ni, Achilla 

Qia*£aa du fvu Banm ' 
TnMtaMClaaaa, IlTthdogie I 
& S7S aq.. Ho. 272, Pito antiqaa ; 
Furtlunlaa aupportad b; Acliill««, wUdi 

Tamrle of Ju^tor OhmDliia at Elia, 
CataJogna of Bngravad Qama in tha 

, 1688, «*p. Hat* D. 
Biaral»-Ai«balQ, No. S81, PuUr Co^ 
■ " - - 02; Me ako 1 

•ltd 311, «i«raTfaga Ksa. 12— tt, bM- 
reliA in (be MeM of tb« Tampb of 
ApoUo Epicuriuaat Baane,naarPliigalaih 
In yo. 18 tfaa An^Km weata tnoaan ; 
an Atbaoian ia Tanoring bar ootpaa (ram 
UiB boras thai baa fallcai vndcr bcr. "Dm 
■oalpturea, lww«TM', ara batta- asM in 
the Anoieat Harblca puUiatwd bj (he 
Traateaa of the Britirit Huaeam, 4lo., 
1S20. The text ia written bj Taylor 
Combs, and the illuatrationa are executed 
bj H. Corboald Id a auparior atria : t. 
p. 31, aq., Plate XVIIL 

Sir C. T. Newton, Hiatoty of Ua- 
ooTsriea at Haliarnaaana, Ciuda* and 
Branehidae, Text, 0«tMnl Index, Ama- 
z.oj, (tisM l e p ii j aa uti ng tfaeir eombala 
with tbe Oraeka found in the KaoBtdaiim, 
pp. 100, 2S1— 7, 230 at aaqq. ; arma and 
^«M, 2SS, ke. "On one dab onlj the 
flgnraa wear a dUtra with (laevw and 
S96! AUm of PlatM 

r Colleo- 

1417-1425, 2282,2294. Tbk nnpratend- 
Ing UMe wrak will prore rtrj naaful to 
the atoden^ beaanae It oontaioa mtudi 
ouioaa iaformation wbleh eeald otfacr- 
■ onlj be proonrad with difficulty, by 

- ■■^-- ire puUicatioDS in 

, uften not readily 

nte Britiah Ifuaanm ^ 
•liong in ocfna and weak iu genu, but 
rinoa the BUoaa Collection haa been 
added (1867), in ths latter department 
it baa been eaaUed to auitain oompariaon 
with the DaetyUalkaae of the EurapMQ 
CkfiitalB : T. Catalogue, Introduction, 
p. 8. 

*SirJB. Ellis, Elgin and Phigaleian 
HaiUea, VoL ii, pp. 17S— 181, 1S4 aq. 

Tempio 1 

PL 8J, Dotea 229— 2S9, yp. 107, eg., en. 
p. 88, Lon^ oabom, caarpridw, le 
aeandona flnn a' malleoli, i [M nndi 
lanianda OasIl-FMi, Unter- Italian nud 
fficilion, p. M9, Dis AmaaoM . . . tiigt 
on kunos, doppslt anQiaMlinttrtaa O^ 
wand, nnd einen MaUioh geaohnfirten 
^nier, mit gfe aa a r S«(gW dnrchge- 
fiihrt; ala Bogeaaobiitn ist ale mit 
phiygiaohar HiitM und an Beineu nnd 
Armen eng anliegeadw a«WMidung bsk- 
leidet: sis tiift Sehwert, Hchild und 
Strdtazt J. Orarbeok, QesoUobto dor 
Orieahiaohen Plaatak, toL i, p. 4N, Ig; 


236 THE AurnQomss of tobvbs and hbtz. 

Last September, when I visited Trfevea, the Prorincial 
Museum was lodged in the same building with the Town 
Idbraiy (Stadtbibliothek), very near the Trierischer Hof, 
one (^ the principal Hotels. The antiquities were 
crowded ti^ether, and in many instances there was not 
light enoagh to enable one to examine them satisfactoTily, 
But an extensive edifice is now in course of erection, 
which, I doubt not, will remedy these defidencies — at 
least we may expect such results will be attuned, as far 
as the learmng and energy of the Director can secure 

The great Mosaic atNennig ranks next in importance 
to the column at Igel (thou^ some may deem it even 
more interesting) unong the monuments to be visited by 
the traveller who fixes his headquarters at Treves. And I 
may remark, by the way, that if he Is an inmate of the 
Bothes Hau9 — itself worthy of notice as having been 
formerly the town-hall, built in 1450 — he will not only 
meet with every comfort the outer man can require, but 
also intelligent sympathy and assistance in arcluDological 
inveatigations.' Nennig is distant forty kilometres, or 
twenty-five English miles, from the city, but very 
accessible by railway, being a station on the line to Thion- 

M, Zwii dw jingiUn Matapm Toa ' Th* Botb«i Hiuu w.imm at Um mo«t 

fliihiiiil O. Dioiu^ HuidbDok for |datunaquabaildiiigiiatlwiBufcat'pbM 

Siair (Hnm*), 1864, p. 87, Pilamtn— t,i Tiiim, u>d ita front U omaiiMiiUd 

Uohnilli— U«toM Ena SeUaiu, N«. witli (Utun. An idditum (Anbui) wn 

X, HwonlM ud HIppol;ta ; CiliM w>d mttds In tlw BauMHuioa itf Is of Um 

Ccnatarin U Etnrtk, 3rd ad., 1883, MTatwaUi omtrnj ; lun w« i«m1 Um 

ToL m, n K-lOi^ Tha Amuon BmM- fcdlowing inaoi^tloa, 

p. lis, b>tU* td Qrttkt with Amttorm, RMm r unutA *aix nTATn.AMBic 
umM « « f «w« >n w, *.g. ArirtoptutiM*, I:y- Tbia tU^»» Maplrt alladM to tb* 

dAM* tn-t; asd T. Indaz. BwdM^ fibaloufcnuidation<if7ViVMfaj''neb«t«, 

Lcdsta Bd SamMiiam, ■.*. Amuon, rtap-soa of tha Aa^riMa Qoaen Sainiia- 

Tom. I, fait 1, aofamma SOI — 510. mi^ who aooording to tLs CbrnBidxt* 

On tha waat»n ade of Uia PHthaoon waa oontamiKnanaoua with tha patriank 

aDbjaat at IIm Ihtofiat ta probably Abrahaml Laooardr, Op. dtat., pp. 1 A 

"■ " ' "v tUni^ Mma 39. Tre<riiia in tlw fliat liaa laUw 

wiitoa KplaB than otharwiac : a«e tadiaaral MondnatlTe aingiilar; inCIaa- 

Ad. MidiaaK D" Arthanoo, Taat, Til seal Latimi^ it wonld ba Datira or 

EiUbni^ im Tafaln, Ta/«1 V. Waat- AbUtira plural. For axamplaa of thia 

melopan, pp. 1*8-151; n>taa,T>f. V, oama in tha I^aoda of onna aee [Ha 

Noa. I— XIV; notiM of AmMtma aa ni<riadMaHiinBtn,Chn>no(ogiacliBeatd- 

flgorad daewhera , p^ 149. Jahrtmoh dw u«t nvd beadujeboi dureh J. J. BaU, 

Coblaoi, 1823. Tbe lama aothor p«b- 
VBm, 1B8& Alt by Ad. llidiaalia, liahad a aariaa of Rata*, which ia aoma- 
Aiaamiaoatatttaii, ppt 14 — IT, with en- timta bound up with tbs preoediiur woifc 

Kriog* in tha taxt, and Ha. 1—5 at — Abbildongan dar Triariaolian lUnaao, 
and. Hannorar, 1837: r. PL 1, No. 1, TBB- 


ville (Diedenhofen) and Uetz. As the trains start and 
return at convenient hours, the ezcoruon may be 
completed in the morning, with ample time for inspecting 
not only the tessellated pavement, but aU that remuns ch 
the TUla. Here, aa in many oUier localities that I have 
colored, we may combine the enjoyment of nature with 
the study of art and antiquity. A delightful view is 
always ezpandii^ before ns, while the route closely 
follows the winmng Mosel, and one may also catch a 
gUmpse of the valley of its affluent^ the Saar, which 
the riulway crosses.^ 

The first feature that strikes the observer in the Nennig 
mosuc is its extent, viz., fifteen metres long and ten 
broad, so that the dimensions approach those of a umilar 
one in the lAteran at Bome, eighteen by 10-6 metres. 
However, the beauty of execution is much more remark- 
able ; and we are at a loss whether we should bestow our 
admiration on the general arrangement and distribution of 
parts, the elaboration of details, or the harmonious colour- 
ing of the figures. Another merit deserves to be pointed 
out. The subject is gladiatorial fights, with which we 
naturally associate painful ideas — degradatiouj cruelty 
and daughter ; but the mosaicist has not forgotten that 
the province of art is to please and refine, not to excite by 
an extravagant sensationalism ; accordingly he has ^ther 
avoided or soilened any part of his theme that would 
cause disgust — obeying the Horatian maxim, 

Ne coram populo pueros Medea tmcidet.' 

yiBIS ; No, 8, TRBVEIRIS. L«le««l Uialea mit dcr p»iiw «iB « t M d Ma Aiunoht 

He alto qnotca Aoaonlia, wbo naidad at 
niiv«% H p rwtori an prmot of Qanl ; d. 
Ill aqa. ; AOaa, TMn CfancxdagiqM ibid, p. 6. 

SIX. Type da Trtvei, Planoha xk, Hoa. HoaaUi (XVin) t, 25, jl 88, adit. 

1—9 i aooM tBgnitiaf are b1k> inter. Sdianld : — 

s, OloaaaiT, Amnk odotifm jnga rflaa ooDiite 

oodeadaa monata* natitait Ludoricua Condta gmniiwa amnia Tiiidiaiiiie 

Ban. ann. 9M fte. lipMl 

For the namaa of Triv«« oomp. Ordo urUnm aoUlinii (ivUU) nil, 

Britiah Qoartorir Bertew, Jnlr 1, 187S, 0, ib, p. BB :— 

p. 10 aq., Artiole b; Mr. K A. Fntaan, Lanua banqaQlo pndaUfaiT anme 

fironat, Su^IfaiMot an Haoud da U- Sfoadla. 

bnira. Diet da CUoKrapUa aoo. et mod., * Aia Poetica^ r. 186. 

riatiea UMading 'naririi. Let not Uedea, with annatiml ngt, 

EUaughter hw mmgU^ inlanta on the 


FrtfieUi Tmnliitiim, 

DiBiiizcdb, Google 


He has abo adhered to the traditioiu of ancient 
sculptore and pain^g : in the group of Niobe and her 
children at Florence, maternal love aheltering her off- 
spring ftom angry deities is more prominent than the 
snffenngs of sons and daughters ; and Timanthes, when he 
portrayed the sacrifice of Iphigenia, voled Agameraoon's 
face, that the spectator mignt not be distressed by the con- 
templation of a father's agony.' 

A square compartment, octagonal medallions and 
lozenges between them compose the mosaic. The former 
are arranged in two groups, four round a marble basin and 
four round the principal subject ; but as one is common to 
both groups, there are in all only seven : with a single 
exception they are complete, and represent incidents in 
the celebration of the public games. Of the latter, four 
occupy the comers, and two the intervals between 
medulioDa : in the centre of each we see a rose framed, as 
it were, in nueandera, with an outer border of a cable 
pattern, the whole being mounted on a cross whose arms 
are decorated with triangles. The remaining space is 
filled by arabesques, rhomboids, and endless knots, like 
those with which our Bomano-British pavements have 
made us familiar. Lastly, the composition is enclosed all 
round by a simple geometrical pattern, black and white, 
consisting of squares subdivided into triuigles, and 
forming a good background for the complicated designs 
and varied colours within.* 

I Virioni •zplaailaom tuiTs bMB pro. tbsnfors notblng ahould be don* Uiat 
nond to MBonnt for Uiii itroks of mt. ooiild nuka him too prouibMat, and 
n* maamU eritioi Mid that Ttnunthw divart Uw qMotalor'i *ttaitioii from ttm 
had ralMDil«(l U* nMotoM in paiattng principal Mbjeet, I^iInoU : Fowiri 
Uw odHT flfort^ and wm nnaUe to Ltotnn*, qootsd En Smith'a DUkmur 
■'- ' ^ * ' '- of GrMk and BnnaD fikp«|ibj. Ait. 

BMt CSan, Ontor, eu. ZX, t7t, 
S deniaiM tdetor Hie ndit , . . 

[ deniqiM ptaor Hie ndit ... * Uiii moaaio hia baaa (ally diacribed 

'~ ~a capot AgtmnoBoah mw, and iUn«tntad in a magniflcant woifc, 

imam Qlam luobuu pM^llo entitled Die RSmiMlia VtUa au Kmui% 

t. EiUinDde Indioaa nnd Ihr Hoaaik slantvt Tod Dora. 

i], edit PidoiL QtiintiUai) 

capitular tod Wilmoinkf ; I, ICt da 
fiberaiehtalafel dea Hoaukfumbodani it 

adiL Bnrmaim, C<mmmptia amotibnai StaUaUofa ; 11, Hit adit Tafaln ii 

DOD T^Mrieni quo digne mode patria bendruok. The FUta at tha and of Uie 

TDltnm poaaat expHmere, Tslant ejua ftmiar part gins a genanl riaw of the 

Of nt, at «ao ouique aoima dadit aaati- oompoaitioa ; it ia on a Urse aoala, 

mtnilfim FGny, Hiat Nat. XXXV, 10, aoeapTing two f<4ia pagaa. I eiaaiinad 

a. sa ft : SiUis, Uatalosua Aitifloain, pp. tlilB worii of art cwrefnlly, but I have 

U7—9 and Dotfc PerliBpa the aitbt dariTed from Wilmowaky aoma of Oie 

'a head, bacauae tliia paTtioalara mantiiHied in the text. 

For the Sonl otnamanta, kiMti, ata^ 

d by Google 


Ita excellent preservation g^ves the mosaic at Nemug 
the advantage over many others. Per example, the 
beantifiil picture at Coriniam of Orpheus subdung wild 
antmala by the power of mnsic baa been displaced bj the 
spreading roots of a tree; and at Beims the tessellB 
are injured by rain falling Uirongh the roof, thoughtless 
visitOTB, and still more mischievous gamina} On the 
contrary, the work of art now nnder consideration has 
been cwefully protected, a solid honse has been bailt over 
it, and a gallery erected from which alone it may be seen, 
so that every possibility of injury is averted. 

The subjects here depicted are — 1, tiger and wild ass ; 
2, lion and keeper ; 3, bear and three combatants ; 4, 
panther and javelin-man ; 5, combatants, with staff and 
whip ; 6, gladiators and truner ; 7, hydraulic organ and 
great hfflu. 

It would -be impossible to describe at present all these 
medallions, though they are replete with interest; but 
the last two may be selected on account of their special 
importance. No. 6 is evidently marked out as the 
principal {HauptbUd) by its size and central position. 
Two fighters are engaged in strife, superintended by 
the trainer (lanista)} At once we observe great variety 

Mmp. a BoMh StBith, Illiutntioni of Vm IUt. S. 0. Lawii'i CoDaotiMi. nippUw 

Bonun Loodon, 1869. Pb. Til— XII, • good iUiutralian. " Two Orask joqtlu 

BMiU7 DubHiTad, diowii^ iMwllitad aigiged in Um w*t>v^-'t i-t- *• eomU- 

DMoBMnti diMorend at tha Eioiaa nation of wnatUng and bozil^ oftoD 

OBIa^ Braad S(i««t ; under tha Fmich oalafaratad bj Pindar ; Uic ampirfi holdi 

Prataatant Church, TfanadneedlBStnet; up hi* hand and itaff to itop tha «on- 

and fa) Leadaahill tttraat : thaf an t«at" St Paul majbaTa baao tbinUng 

daaeiibadpp. IS— fi>, with Tcferaicea to of aaeh a fo«ti«, when he wrote the wordi 

Uoaakn in other pboea, t. Indaz, p. 109. Kid 4 «Mv* r«l XfwnS Mntn. Ik 

■ Ch. LoiMMt, MoMiquM tmiT^ea h nut miftima t^, CdoM. Ill, IG, iritioli 

Baima, IMS, XVIII FlaDdiea. Fl. IV ii St, ChiTaoatoin asplaina with ratamM* 

eehmr*d : Pk. V— XVII are lithagrapha to a emnbat and a prin ; bnt AUord im 

of madallioaa ; PL XTIII, facing p. MB, feo> aeMM u> follow the Aathotaed 

wfaaaapU the whole Moaue U the Tatiion which IwBahi t ei /IH''* ii>"nila," 

FMBaaade in it* prMMt oondltioo, the and ha pai^hiaac* it thui. "A utnnir& 

pwta AtHbnjtA or bamt bdnE oarefollT be anfliTOiwd ai d«dd« of amrthii^'' 

Indkatad : my Paparon the OaUo-BoiiMa qooting Demoe th f a a and Polybint to 

tDonmnnliaf th&dtT,AtdmeoLJo«n., miipart hii [irt«nTatetioii. Ibare la « 

Vtd. xli.. pp. 112—131. parallel paaauo m tha BpUfe to the 

■WOiunnkr, Tafal VI, Die Oladia- PUHppiBna IV, 7, with m ^fllant meU- 

loron mit dam Laniata. whioh ha calla phor, howerer. Xd 4 *V4nt ra* Iwi 4 

den Olanqmnkt daa Oanien ; cf. Text, (mtatx'"'' trdmi Mir f^ ai pjrai rlt 

pp. 8—10. The poatUoii of the I^niita kuKbi tfiAr ; (he Ttcb f ^ wffa (A.V. 

hare mrronionda with Uut of tha um- "keep") hai a ipetUe meaniDg, to 

■ire {fifm fi iii, later ftfrnfinr^t, cf. Horaoe, gvutC aa with a ganiaon. Snebmiiia 

bum. Ill, 80, 11, Arbiter pognM) in tha aa^c^Karo, brafaetitanuB ntoiwinatadio 

Oraeian game*. A lai^ Panathenaie hnmi MitiiwM, «. U. 
VaM, iriiidi b a eon^icuoua object in 




here in couDtenance, dresa and deportment. The laniata 
seenii to be a Boman, as the hiur is cut short after the 
manner of that nation ; he wears a white mantle which 
leaves the nedc and anns bare, and extendv down to the 
calf of the leg ; he gives some ngnal with his right hand, 
and holds a staff in bis left. Altogether, the attitude is 
that of one who directs and controls with authori^. 
On the other hand, there can be little doubt that the 

?;Udiator8 are barbarians ; the long hair of one of them 
ailing down on his shoulders probably indicates a 
German. We have ha« a retiartua contending with a 
Mcutor, or mirmUlo according to Wilmowsky,' bat I 
doubt whether his interpretation is correct, because the 
fish {ftop/ivXof), from which the name is siud to come, 
does not appear plainly. Both figures are nude, but 
wear a cloth round the loins. A rettaritu, with his net 
and harpoon, resembles a fisherman ;* hence we should 
expect him to be very lightly clad, as in the Ooepel, 
" when Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he girt 
his fisher's coat unto him (for he was naked)," where of 
course the last word is not to be taken literally.* In 

'Z«iwM^n|pnuUv and Kcutvr occur ID Htrioc bv adding nuuif qmIiiI n 

Jamnl, bat not nUariia (net-flghbar} boUi in &» Laxiooo and in tb* 

wUch on aoeoiuit at tba matn i> lioon which ii nnw bting pnbliahad. 

Baiwtl proparly In- __For(heaabiectof tliiamadallioB 

a br 

r, Ml U, 149 ami.; VIII, 1B9- 
Xartialnaaatkawofd: Pntaoa to 
• aiioaad book «( hi* ^iigi«ina ; htn, 

', b* i* writiDf prao : Denique 

._ ._ > •-,1^ ooatan ndariuin 
1 in aoa, qui 

. _j daa Piima ffiirtaa da 

fen Banm da Stoaoh (M naao StoaAlMo), 
m. 471—476, -87. CbmolMc Gata. 
logiie of Oana in tha Britidi Hnaaom, 
Vo. 877 Bioa aa ntiwiu*, «£. Koi. 18M4 


ifrmiJb, tat mirmia*, 1* Um fcni 
adopUd far 01*0 Jahn in hii odition gf 
Jttncal, 1S61, and aama pnfanbla, aa 
th* Codas FUhoranna hia Sat VI, 81 
mrnniliaoim ; VIU, SOO mnmiUaniB. 
nia word ia oanallj dariNd bum 
i u if ,t f n ft awfUh, which toA tiia place of 
»cnttaith*habMt. StaphaniBiaaaiinia 

■ WHmowikj, Op. dtat, p. >, Ua 

itaran (Bstiaiii) acliiiDMt tnapfia^ieh 

Fiaohfai^ gaiibta Kiiatanbnro&Mr 

Ing down 

vacant Omiaoaa, Haliantica I, lOa 
D* Til onfan to eonnect mw rmlU a with 
tha MTTuidooa. aoMim of AobOlM^ or 
with iJfi m f, nifiut (lonma), booMiaa 
thoM dadiaton woot tlowlj lik« anti I 
E^uolofj wM not Ili0 atronc point of 
FcnalUni, no mora i* it of hia raomt 
adHcr ; but tha Utttr haa dona good 

KSWMM >n am. Comp. i 

SahenMO in the BntiA U 

dMit KatUM. nrt z, p. M H, I1M* 
xxTiii, "hkbMljr ia«Mihad{BBaqaaM 

tha knaa, ibid., p. M aq., 
Ii onlTokithiiv mmM* nfm 
k Aoti, daMODdlng baU 
w» down t]M thig^'* Sir H. EUb, 
TOTmlm OalW;, V^ i, pp. £11—228, 
SSS. Tbaaa flgnraa waar oookal c^a 
(pUtatt), lika UijMea who wandand orer 
Uie aaa, OiUL «l Oaua, Brit Una, 
1442— G. Hie ahmt drtaa naemUo* 
that of the rMJarin in Winekalman^ 
Plato, Na 1>7, towar part. 

> at. Jidm XZI, 7, Xl/wr*frniiy*f, 
lutfra >n t KtfUt tnm, rfe < a w*fey 

.cd by Google 


our example hu right hand holds a toident and his left a 
dagger, bat the net is absent; the left arm is protected 
bj a wrapper tied closelr round it, and the shoulder by 
a kind of epaulette and guard, otherwise the body is 
exposed to the adversary's attack. The latter has for 
armour a great oblong shield (scutum) and a helmet that 
covers his head and the nape of hu neck ; his right 
shoulder and arm are defended by the same means as 
his opponent's left, but without the guard. Our artist 
has chosen the most exciting moment ; already the 
retiariua has pierced with bis tndent the wcutor'a shield ; 
in the succeeding instant his weapon may transfix the 
opponent, or it may break, and leave him, naked as he 
is, with no other help than his short da^er. 

But the Medallion No. 7, the lowest m the Uosaic, is 
the most interesting, because it represents a rare subject, 
and that too more completely than any other ancient 
monnment with which I am acquainted. In fact we may 
regard it as almost unique. The water-organ consisted 
of three parts : — 1, the area or chest, in form like an 
altar, resting on a polygonal (in this instance hexagonal) 
or ronnd pedestal, and containing receptacles for air and 
water ; on ei^er side were pumps with iron levers to 
supply the bellows; they are visible for the first time, 
says Wilmoweky, in this example. 2, the keys, stops, and 
ur^tubes, which do not appear. 3, the pipes, arranged 
vertically and increasing gradually in height, connected 
by a broad band, and, like the other portions of the instru- 
ment, made of bronze, which was probably ^t, as we 
may infer from the green and reddish-brown colour of 
the shadows. Behind the organ stands the performer, 
his bust rising above it. Hia feet are not seen, but it may 
be supposed that they are engaged in working the pumps ; 
his attitude and earnest look mdicate a musician enthn- 

tfC^v^^, fr yif yuiiwii. 71m word hkTiog all the dotliM omllj woni, 

" Saher'i," improparlf iniartad in Uu Hitinikriy uot h«nM hb mutfa^ nte 

AutliDriMtl Vtnioi), a omittsd hj the Ittin mri iukIm <rftaa hu the nine 

Rnkan; at lidddland Scott, hwi^t, meuuag, m TiT§^ nja, Oeoisio* I, S0O — 
% tania wora orw uiother. Campbell yudui an, ana nudn* ; bMnii [gnava 

M Um Foot Ooapelf, Tranalated wiUi cnloiw. 

pRlimiMiy DIaaw la t i nn a aod Ifotea, Plough and aow iritii your eoat oC 

edit 18S>, Vcd. ii, pp. 44S, 64! aq. " Oirt For other T^aroMM aae nvUgtr^ not* 

«a hia iippar garmant." rvpi*4i, not in teea. 

), Google 


dastic in his art.* The hydratdea ifl accompanied by a 
trumpeter who plajs a great carved horn, t^e cro8&~|uece 
of which is sapported by hia shoulder, jliere is nothing 
remarkable in its form, and it occurs sereral times m 
Tarions scenes on the Trajan column.* 

FcophjriuB wrote a very cnrious poem entitled **0r- 
ganoD," and belonging to the class of figured MyUs^ so 
called because the verses are arranged to represent the 
object described.' Accordingly, this Idyll was divided 
into three parts, corresponding with the musical instru- 
ment. The first consists of twenty-siz Iambic lines for 
the area or chest ; the second is a smgle hexameter verse, 
taking the place of the key-board (kqwmv)*; the third 
contains twenty-nx verses, also hexameters, and stands 
for the pipes, the number of letters in each line increasing 

> In tha DietioiiHT of ^tiqllitHi^ W. Fmluwr, BndiMtoT, pp. TS, 78, H, 

■.T. HTdnub, it k tUted Uutaaantor- 104, 111, 138, with uoompanTi^gpUtw, 

■d»la oon ot Hvo Bhom ut oikui wHIi ■ «^ {>, 78, temiatn dt tor. , . . Laor 

tptig tt iMird OD on* nda, ud > man initnunsnt U butUxt («anMt da bouTier} 

itanHipt on tht other. IbM omparor'i «it nn gnnd oor droulure, dont U 

mmiMl taat« u* ■» wall known tlut 1 ooarbora at nffiwiniB par una Ini^ae 

DMd not anlaiBa npon tlMU h«n ; but bamornfad'uncToiaaaDt. BucuM,<(naa 

It mw ba wDMile to quota the p«w»gw in aomet aorao oinula flaotibor (Tanliaa, 

wbm Soatonio* mm&ina hla pndilao. Ill, 6, 84, edit Cw. Ung.). FUmtIi, 

tkn for th« oina : la Marowh «. 41, Ia CoLwna TiajanL Tbt. T, Ko. 84. 

« — ._ . -SZLji Lj. A ^ 57, 

Wllmowaky qnotaa OrariMok'* Pompeii 
8,148,ag. lie, but tn Um end edition 

_. , _ tlto rofa""" ia wd. i, p. ItS, tg. 188, 

Airit ; 4^ In pnmnndi axpaditifitM QemUde an dar Brn«taii|MMuar (podi- 

'■■..'. ^^^^ ^^ 1,,^^ aa wen aa tha lian< 

Uowar at Msful^. In dar Uitta dw 

, . ^ nroditunim Kunpfordner, mit langem Staba dea 

MpartaafktoriaahldHetaambTdnnlani, Kreia dee Eampfea baaaUuHiid, raditl 
M dwtaolam, «t atnonlarium. V. edit. ein QUdiator, der halb ggrttatat daatabt 
Barmann, Vol S, p. 189, Cuoll Patini . . . gogmubsr tin ebonfalla balb- 
nolaa in Smmtm, oap. XLI, Tib. ZXV, gerflatotar, do- daa Sdilaolitliorn Uiat 
N. & Onama k pi rai dic a: Ulormn Bg- ■ TUa writar'a name ia givan in hi] 
i_..„i_v : t. !_, Wemadort Poetoe U&d Itburm, 

tiUMcMatM r^tim «mm 
iqoam diet partem par a 

Appeodii, Tomi II. fp. 886-418, PnUitii 

t^ cf aiooatiaD : onmp- Hidi a , , __ 

tionan*! *■''■ HjdTaului ; be deaoibee a equal in length and funning % Sgura lik« 
rinularmadalMValeDtinlui.ia which Uie an altar ; tbe aeoond ii oalr SHmq Udm, 
t M tn iiDftii>eeowpaniedtTtw»8gima, atob bring ahnftar than Ila imoMdiata 
one on cath aide, who aaem to pump the predeoeeaor ; for the Omnoa lae pp. 
wat« wfaidi woita iL Eckh^ Docb 394-418, Frefao, Text and AoDotntiona. 
Hnm. Vet., toL viii, p< 803 aq., under the * Tbe rene owrmponding to the key- 
heading Paeadomoneta (not in circulation board ia 

m mtaq) i Qiap. on CMtomiitea, f It, AVovno ticiou IW&t Uta UDBm 
Beanin. ' toea. 

* Ia OnlanM TrajoiM dtolte pkr 

,., Google; 

THB AmnguiTiBS of tbevbs anb hbtz. 


1^ one from twenty-five to fifty, bo that the lengths of the 
pipee are Beverally reprodnced. 

It ifl worthy of notice that for the laat-mentioned part 
the poet and the mosudst have chosen almost the same 
number, as the latter gives us twenty-seven. Forphyrius 
composed this poem to celebrate the Vicennalia of Coa- 
stantine the Great, a.d. 826 ; and it procured from the 
Emperor the author's return from banishment. > 

"niough we cannot enter into all the details of the 
mosfuc, one or two features may be noticed. No. 3 shows 
us a bear who has prostrated one combatant, and is 
assailed by two others with whips. This animal is rare 
in ancient art, I presume on account of his ugliness ; but 
he may be seen occasionally, 0j/. on a tomb at Pompeii, 
in the Lycian frieze at the British Kuseum, and on the 
coins of Urso, south-west of Corduba (Cordova).* Again, 

' Hu* f««U*«l ia hoDoar of tfaa omm, banuM Imv lagiooi, kod both of 
tWMiUeUi umiTemrj i>f the Emneror^ Rome, happened to ba quutarad (Im* 
MOaMon haA been pnviauilj oelebnted at the tame time," nb ■ 
}q Diooletiaa, a.ix 303. Lactaatiua, d» aaemi to ba dariTad from k 
mnrtjb. penecutor. c, 17, Diocletianua 
pemuiit etatitn Roman, at illio noen- 
naliani diem oalebrarat, edit. Le Brun 
and Dnfraanoj. Oibbon, chap, XIII, 
mHI Dr. Wm. Smith, VoL ll p. i». 
Bckbel plaeea the l^oonatia referred to 
•boT« in tba year j..i>. SZfi, when the 
>Ik«MCom>eir«Mbald: but the; were 
twatUd at Bome in the followuig year, 
BdJbel DooL Ham. Vet, VIII, 7S : of. 
l«Bdaoa wiM^ibid p. n,VOT. V-Z- 
ITALIOB. aOtboa, dap, XVIII, ediL 
Smith, VoL it p- US. Ibid., uote 14, he 
iliaiaiiteiliiM the pantgTrJo of Porpbjriiu 
•a written aocomog to the taite of the 
age in vile aorMtiea. Thia author uaca 
■IMiwu for neanalit, Pauag. ad. Oon- 
■tantin., Cann. 10, U, 

Virtutam maritia vioennia praecipe 
Tota, quoted t? D« Vit. 

■0m {• called bj Bbtin Uteao; Ui« 
modara name ia Oeauna or Oauna ; it la 
dUant 84 kilomMrea Bouth-EMt from 
Senile. H<fai. "Dmiriptiaa QkainU dea 
Monnaiia Ant^aet de rEapagne, pp. 
SlS-SaO, Honnajagia dea TurdStana da 
•onTiDtaa Aatieitumt II, VB80 Pit. 
XLVI, XLVn, Noa. 1 -S. At p. S18 aq. 
he gina a akelch of the UatoiT of Uiao, 
pre&ed to the aooount at tba ooina, 
AmoDgat tham are No. 1, Rev. Oura 
h drrata, aaoa et teoatit una palma ; No. 
2, Be*. Dura deboot tenant une oooronne 
et une palme. Ford, Handbook for 
8p»in, p. 898, edit 1878, aaja "the 
Banana eaOad tha phw* Oenina Drban- 

ofPUnf'itext,lib. III,oap.l,fS,p 
by Antonio Agoatino, Aiiihbtahop of 
Tarragona, "intw aaaigati XVI dootoa 
HiipanM (adla prinoepa," In the 8th of 
Ua Uialogoa de iaa HedaUaa, In«)>ipe(<meB 

probeblT ao ci 
had been inecrponlad with it (oomp, oar 
mUitaij term "^ linked battelion "]: Diet 
of ClawJMl Antignitiai, ■.¥. BienUn^ p. 
493, and tabular lilt on preoadinc page ; 
KoUid, Op. dtat. VoL h, dl m aq. ; 
OrtilL Index to hk •£(*•■ of nwitoa, 
p. GH, a.T. LagioBM Bomaoae. 

and of the toIudm 

I ha*B alieadj noiaikad that ra^ta- 
aentatioiii of the bear w«e not fraqtUatt 
in antiqnitr : ArehaeoL Joan., 1878, 
VoL xzxT., p. 408, aq. Hm BlitiA 
Muaaum poaaaaaea moro thaa two 
tfaouaand gemt, but oat; three beara 
appear amoDgat them, via, Noa> 898, 
899, IBM ; and af theie In one cm* tbe 
anthentidtf ia doubtfoL Hie aaljeet ot 
No. 898 ia two Brotea nlannv wftk * 
bear leatad tori^t 


244 THE ANnQumss op iRSVBa and hetz, 

the gre&t variety of scenes is very striking. We have 
here the Venatio— wild beasts contendiog with each other 
or with hnman beiugs ; the Interlude — men fighting who 
have whips or staves for weapons, a lighter entertunment 
that exhibits dezteri^ only, and comes between the 
exdting stru^le> of severer contests; and lastly, the 
^adiatorial strife that may be continued even onto death, 
^milarly, in the arabesques, scroU-work and other acces- 
sories, recurrence of the same designs is avoided, as 
anyone who examines the illustrations at the foot of 
Wilmowsky's coloured plates will soon find out for 

Digilizcd by Google I 


Bj Uw Sot. a R lUNHINQ, ILA.,- Fja.1. 

I propose, in tiie few remarks with which I desire to 
open the Section of Antiquities at this meeting (regret- 
ing th&t a more worthy and competent person has not 
been called upon to occupy the place of President), to 
refer to some points of advance which have been made 
in antiquarian knowledge since the time when the 
Axchteological Institute honoured the city of Norwich 
and the county of Norfolk with a visit forty-two years ago. 
It must be, however, in a very restricted sphere that I 
endeavour to do this ; Umiting the term " antiquarian 
knowledge " to matters of almost local interest. I am not 
about, nor have I the power and learning, to apeak of the 
progress that has been made in the wide fields of Oriental 
or dassical antiquity, of E^ypt and Assyria, and the 
Hittites ; or of the investigations of Continental savans ; 
or to take you into the fascmating realms of literature and 
philology ; or even to intrude upon the ground to be 
occupied to much better purpose at this meeting in the 
Section of History. But as the Institute approaches 
towards the year of its jubilee, it may be well to cast a 
look back and observe a few places where firm ground 
seems to rise up, and steps of clear prepress have been 
made. It is no disparagement to the memory of the 
eminoit names of those irom among us who have passed 
away, to do this. It was their own object, and the object 
of all such societies as ours, to accumulate the facts 
which may elucidate the truth, and it. is indeed owing to 
the researches and persevering study of such men that 
any satisfactory results have been reached, any long 



Stoning errors dispelled, and any difficulties and 

Eroblenu solved. In fact, there were giants among as 
ere in 1847, with whom we should not ventnre to 
compare many of onrselres. 'Hie Institnte was in the full 
vigonr of its youth, and atu-acted to itself, as it has con- 
tinued to do, the best talent of the country in its own line ; 
and the kindred societies, now so numeroos, were only 
beginning to be stirred by the force of its current. In 
looking at the list of the General Oommittee of that 
Norwich Ueeting of 1847, I feel awed and impressed by 
the remembrance of those with whom I had the privilege 
to associate on that occasion, and in whose sodety at 
many meeUngs in succeeding years so much enjoyment 
and instruction was found. There appear the names of 
the then Uarquess of Northampton, President of this 
Section, Bishop Stanley, Dr. Whewell, Professor Willis, 
Professor Sedgwick, Dr. Quest, Henry HalUm, John 
Jtitehell Kemble, Albert Way, Joseph Hunter, Matthew 
Holbeche Bloxam, John Henry Parker, and, of more local 
distinction. Sir John fioileau, Hudson Qurney, Dawson 
Turner, Henry Harrod, and G. A. Carthew, of whom none 
are now sarviving. These and many aubsequent and 
surviving members of the Royal Arclueolt^cal Institute, 
and of its annual committees, have helped to make it what 
it is, and what it has been ; and it is only by having sat at 
their feet that I can presume to record any brief summary 
today of the advances which in some points we may hope 
to have made. 

In prehistoric antiquities I may almost say that a new 
science has sprung up within the Ume to which I refer, 
and an endre literature has been the result. It is only 
thirty years since the discoveries by M, Boucher de 
Perthes in the valley of the Somme(I859),at first doubted 
and ridiculed, attracted the attention of scientific men, 
and the existence of flint implements, of vast antiquity, 
from the drift or river gravels, was accepted as the work 
of mau. Observation of such worked fiints had already 
been made in this part of England by a communication 
from Mr. Frere, of Boydon, to the Society of Antiquaries, 
of examples found at Hozne, in 1797, but the subject 
lay dormant for half a-century, and I think it was Sir 
John Lubbock who first classified these implements into 

-Goov^Ic I 


the PalsQolithic and Neolithic periods, denoting those 
fashioned hy chipping onlj, and those that are ground or 
polished. In 1868 an important Congress was held at 
Norwich — an IntemaUonal Oongress of Frehistorio 
Archsaolc^, attended by many of the moat eminent 
antii^aaries and geologists of Great Britain and the 
Continent ; when oar member. Dr. John Evans, P.ILS., 
now President of the Society of Antiquaries, contributed 
a highly valuable paper on stone implements, which has 
since been incorporated in his well-known work on that 
subject, published in 1872. A corresponding volume of 
the most interesting and exhaustive character, on bronze 
implements, was issued by him a few years later. An 
extensive and accurate knowledge of the stone and bronze 
period was thus, and by many oiher works treating on 
the same subject, made accessible to all, constituting a 
great advance on the crude and uncertain information of 
thirty years before. At about the same time, in 1870, an 
investigation took place in this county which was very 
helpful to the same class of studies, and has marked an 
epoch in ils pursuit — the exploration of the large collec- 
tion of pits, known as " Grimes' Glraves," in the pariah of 
Weeting, near Brandon, by the skill and energy, and 
chiefly at the expense, of Canon Qreenwell, of Durham. 
The purpose of these deep excavations, lying side by side 
on many acres of ground, was fully established, not to be 
British dwellings, as had been supposed by myself and 
others, but mines for obtaining a very hard and service- 
able clans of flints for the manufacture of polished, at 
Neolithic, implements. It appeared that the method 
Adopted by the ancient miners was to sink a cdrcular 
shaft in the sand and chalk, gradually narrowing to the 
average depth of abont forty feet, and when the bed of 
the b&st flint was reached, to excavate side galleries just 
large enongh for a man to work with his pick, made of 
the antler of the red deer. I shall never foi^et the 
impressive moment, among many pleasant hours spent on 
that occasion, when one of the low galleries was found 
blocked by fallen chalk, on removing which were found 
two picks laid down, their handles towards the mouth of 
the gallery, as tliey had been left when the ciialk fell in ; 
" a sight (says Canon Qreenwell) never to be forgotten ; to 


look, after a lapse, it mar be of three thousand jeun, 
npon a piece of work unfinished, with the tools of the 
workmen still lying where th^ had been left so many 
centories ago." The day's work over, the men had la^ 
down each his pick ready for the next day's work; 
meanwhile dte roof bad fallen in, and they were not 
removed nntil thus unearthed by the explorers of the 
nineteenUi centnry. Beyond this satisfactory advance, 
and the opening of some tumuli, and the finding occanon- 
ally of coins and pottery and articles of penKMial use, 
there is little to record ; sod our knowledge of the British 

Sriod in Sast Anglia is still but dim. We have no lof^ 
Is on which deTensive works of that age are to be 
looked for, and, from the absence of stone, there are no 
m^alithic monnments or cromlechs (now no longer 
miscalled " Druidlcal"). A vague tradition of a stone 
circle having existed at Qorleston has no corroborative 
evidence to support it. There eeems room for enquiry as 
to the depopulation of the Celtic inhabitants of these 
districts. Traces of them occur apparently in the names 
of some natural features, as the rivers, otherwise the 
record outside of the historians is a blank. Were the 
Xceni a purely British stock, or had they already a 
mixture of Teutonic or Northern elements ? Considering 
that this part of Britain would be one of the first to be 
reached hj the invader from the Continent, on his west- 
ward march, may the scarcity of the signs of a previous 
population be owing to the very early date at which they 
were cUspossessed P An opinion is held by some, Mr. 
Walter Bye among the number, that there was a Danish 
invasion and settiement in Norfolk previous to tiie Boman 
Conquest; founded on the large number of instances in. 
whi<^ place-names have Daniw or Norse terminations.. 
Even if these are not so many as Mr. Bye supposes — for I 
am not willing to accept " ham " as a corruption of 
" holm," — still it certainly seems incredible that tiie 
historical invasion of Danes and their subjugation of the 
country in the ninth century, would give time enough for 
the entire obliteration of the Saxon place-names, which 
must have been in use before over half a county and in 
lincolnshire, &c., where the Danish or Norwegian names 
prevail now. Earlier pre>Boman settlements of long con- 


tinnance would solTe this difficulty. It may, however, be 
thought that this is a question more properly belonging 
to the Historical Section. 

I should come now, in the order of subjects, to the 
Boman period in Britain. The advance here, in general 
knowledge, is considerable. Many Toluraes and essays 
and contributions to periodicals have seen the light, help- 
ing forward the more exact knowledge of the Roman 
occupation ; such as Br. Bruce's '* Homan Wall," Mr. 
Coote's " Bomans of Britain,'' and Mr. Scarth's " Boman 
Britain ;" and from these alone the ordinary student may 
obtain a fair knowledge of the subject. A valuable 
dictionary of Boman corns, by the late Mr. Stevenmn, of 
this (Uty, has also been recently published. But as far as 
our own locality is concerned I am not able to report any 
very important accession of information within the linut 
of time that I am treating of. Not much exploration has 
taken place in out local camps, but some considerable 
finds of Boman coins, as at Baconsthorpe, and of pottery, 
bronze ornaments, &c., have been recorded, and additions 
have thus been made to the cabinets of collectors, and 
are available for comparison. Some remarkable wells or 
shafts, of considerable depth, constructed of wood, and 
square in shape, were found in making the railway at 
Ashill, and have been described by the late Mr. Thomas 
Barton. They contuned pottery in regular layers, and 
do not appear to have been merely for waste and refuse. 
Similar contrivances have been found on the cliS at 
Felixstowe, in Kent, and elsewhere. The subject of 
Boman roads and other early trackways will, I believe, 
be brought before this meeting, in a separate paper, by 
Mr. Beloe. It may be worth mentioning that where the 
great road from Suffolk and Essex enters Norfolk at 
Scole, the orig^al blocks of paving-stone were recently 
seen in the river Waveney, when Uie stream was being 
cleared of the accumulation of soil and weeds. It is to be 
hoped that no agricultural operations will be allowed to 
obliterate ancient landmarks of this class, and that 
antiquities found will be treated with care. The labourer's 
pick, or spade, has only too often instantly demolished 
anything suspected of being a *' pot of money." There is 
so much educational interest connected wiUi the Bomao: 


period in Britain, as illustrated by coins and exiflting 
remains, that schoolmaBtera and teachers would do w^ 
to acquaint thenuelves more with it, and infuse a spirit of 
inquiry into it, and eren of the joys of the collector, 
among their scholars. I will not, however, pursue this 
branraa of my sunmiary of progress further, partly 
because I have no competent knowledge of it, and also 
becanse it is to form the theme of a contribnUon in tiie 
able hands of Hr. G. E. Fox. 

As regards the settlement in ^tain, after the depar- 
ture of the Boman garrisons, of the Saxon and other 
tribes from the northern part of the Continent, espedally 
as to their systems of land tenure and village communities, 
the effects of which prevul down to our own day, a large 
and interes^g field has been explored, Before 1847 the 
works of Lappenburg and other foreign authors had 
brought the subject more to the front ; and afterwards 
those of Ton Maurer, Kemble, Sir Henry Main, and others 
were more especially devoted to it ; and, later still, 
Mr. Oomme and Mr. Seebohm have very fully investigated 
it. There is still much to be done ; and the publication 
of early records, now so eagerly pursued, and tiie 
examination of existing tenures and customs, will, no 
doubt, eventually clear up mudi of its nncertunty and 

I may here mention the valuable service that has been 
rendered towards staying the destruction of ancient 
monuments, by the appointment of an inspector under the 
Act of Parliament, in the person of General Fitt-Bivers ; 
and we may be assured that his aid will not be invoked 
in vain if occasion should arise for its exercise. The 
Society of Antiquaries has also issued a forcible appeal to 
lords of manors and the custodians of court rolls and 
other documents, to urge their careful preservation ; and 
suggesting that when no longer needed, they might well 
be deposited in some public department, or in the library 
of some society. For the purposes of future progress it 
is also recommended that the large-scale ordnance maps 
be procured by the local societies, and that aU antiquities 
existing or found in their respective counties be noted 
down upon them. 

One very important branch of antiquities has made « ^ ^ J . 


dedded advance in precision in our time — the earthworks 
of our andent caatles, and the parposefi of the stone 
buildings placed within them. The better knowledge of 
diis subject is dae to Messrs. Viollet le Due, in Friuice, 
and our accomplished member, Mr. G. T. CJark, whose 
admiraUe vivd voce descriptioas of the castles which this 
institute has visited from time to time have instructed 
and delighted his audiences for ao many years, and whose 
absence at this meeting, from advancing age, is deeply 
to b^ regretted. No one who had the advantage of 
hearing him at Arundel, Caerphilly, Dover, Kenilworth, 
Framlingham, lincoln, Ludlow, iJewes, Pevensey, York 
and many other places, and where I was not present, can 
fail to be grateful, or to lament that the author of 
" Mediieval Military Architecture " will not be with us to- 
morrow at Castleacre. Much confusion prevailed in tlie 
ideas, even of recent antiquaries, on this subject. Almost 
all earthworks that were not rectangular were supposed 
to be JJritiflh. The British or Celtic earthworks which we 
know of in hilly districts, as in Wiltshire and Somerset, 
and the marches of Wales, are fortified hill-tops, suited to 
the protection of a large body or tribe of people ; and I 
see no reason to suppose that there is a single example 
of an earthwork of that period in East Anglia. Norwich 
and Colchester (or Lexden), were, no doubt, occupied by 
Britons at one time, but there is nothing in the existing 
remuns that can be supposed to be unaltered. The term 
" castle " is so associated in the modem mind with 
a building of stone, that persons in general have a 
cUfficulty m realking that the castles of pre-Norman date 
were conical earthen mounds, with their surrounding 
indosures chiefly of horseshoe shape, surmounted by a 
wooden dwelling, and defended by timber palisades. The 
castles of our English or pre-Norman forefathers were not 
tribal fortresses, but fortified donieetic dwellings, suited for 
the long residence of a chief lord and his family and 
retinae, who held a little court, and dispensed justice 
and hospitality, with no unfrequent recourse to his 
" gallows hill " for the unfortunate thief or manslayer. 
Such an earthen or wooden castle became the " caput " 
of an honour, under the manorial system, and wherever 
Bach was the case, we shall find the renuuns of the 

252 ' OFKffiDTO ADD&B8S. 

oonieal monnd and basecourta of an English castie. We 
do not look for snch mounds at a Boman camp that never 
became an English castle, as at Caister by Enrich, nor 
within the moati of a fortified manor-honse of Flan- 
tagenet days, as at Caister by Yannonth, but at places 
like Oastleacre which were first Boman, then EngUA, _ 
■then Korman, we find the earth and stone workii 
of all three periods combined. The laraest and finest 
conical mounds in Norfolk are thcMe of Norwich and 
Thetford; their great size is due to the importance of 
their ancient owners. They were both the seats, not of 
CNrdinary lords of an honour or manor, but of the kings of 
the East Aisles. Norwich was probably constructed by 
ITfia in 575, on the site, possibly, of a British stronghold ; 
it was certunly the castle of King Anna in 642. 
Thetford, one of the Urgent monads in the kingdom, and 
whidi I regret that the Institute does not visit, was 
probably also the work of UiTa. It is remarkable as never 
having had Nonnan stone buildings erected upon it, for 
the simple reason that it was not the seat of a great family 
after the Norman conquest, and there had been no East 
Anglian kings for many years to occupy it. The mound 
has been supposed to be Danish, from the same ignorance 
of the term "castle." Although Thetford was burnt by 
the Danes in 870 and 1004, they were the wooden build- 
ings that were destroyed, while the earthworks are much 
older. The absurdity of considering these conical moonda 
as British will be evident by observing that their pointed 
tops could only hold a few persons at a time, and would 
be no refuge for a tribe. In fact, their bare summits 
were not exposed as they are now, but extensively covered 
and overhung by timber halls and chambers. When the 
Norman Conquest took place, and Knglish lords were 
dispossessed, stone castles, in the Norman fashion, began 
to prevail, and were very frequently placed upon or 
within the earher earthworks. But that the mounds 
themselves are not Norman is evident from the fact that 
a newly-erected mound would not bear the weight of a 
stone castle. Besides Norwich and Thetford, Norfolk 
has castles with the conical mound at Castleacre, Mile- 
ham, Eorsford, Hiddleton, and Worm^ay; and Suffolk 
has them at Bungay, Clare, Eye, Framlingham, and 


Hanghley. Buckenham and Castle 'Bisme have lai^ 
stUTOua^g earthworks, but no mound, and this circnm- 
atance may be accounted for by the fact that these are 
two castles of the great D'Albini family, erected after 
the Norman Conquest, when the mound was no longer a 
necessary feature. There are some very remarkable 
earthworks, ^rithout a mound, or any later stone build- 
^8, and where tiiere was no chief seat of a lordship, at 
Warham, near the sea, on the north coast of Norfolk, 
only a few miles from Binham, but which the Institute 
had not arranged to visiL They are supposed to bo 
Danish, and they certunly appear to belong to a class 
distinct from the common type ; and, possibly, the great 
works at Castle lUsiDg may have a similar ongin, and be 
eu'lier than the Norman buildings within them. Our 
advance in the knowledge of these structures is thus con- 
siderable and satisfactory, and further information of 
particular local examples may be found in the pages of 
Mr. Harrod, or the papers of the Norfolk and Norwich 

Of church architecture before the Norman Conquest 
there are very numerous remuns in Norfolk, and the 
subject was treated of at the meeting in 1847 by a 
veteran member of our local society, Mr. Gunn, who is, 
happily, still with us. The examples at Qreat Dunham 
and Weyborne are weU known, and several have been 
noticed since, as Framingham Earl and Houghton-on-the- 
EGll. I have ascribed the date of these churches, mostly 
small, and much altered in later times, to about the year 
1020, and not earlier. After the dreaded millennium, the 
year A.D. 1000, had passed, and the world still remained, 
activity in church budding made rapid progress, and we 
are told that an order was made by Cnut, after his con- 
version, that the churches (no doubt generally wooden) 
which he and his father Sweyn had burnt, should be 
rebuilt of stone and lime. I believe that a very large 
proportion of the small Norman churches in our villages 
have walls really of pre-Norman date. The double- 
splayed circular window Is very often found when the 
extremely thick walls are scraped, fitted with a circular 
wooden frame in the wall, from which cords or canvas 
was strung through eyelet holes, instead of glass. Pieces... ,i,. 
TOLZLn 2 a uu^lL 

254 OPEinNO ADDBB88. 

of "long and short" work remain at angles, an at 
Houghton and Scole ; the flints in the masonry are very 
uniform in size and regular in course, especiaUy at the 
bottom of the walls ; while the upper part of the nave 
walls are oilen fonnd reduced in Uitckneas, to accommo- 
date later windows and roofs, so as to give a sloping 
appearance inside. I think also that, except wnere 
there were central towers,' almost every small diurch 
of early date had its round tower at the west end, 
owing to the scarcity of building stone in these districts ; 
and that wherever tiiere is now no round tower it is only 
because a wealthy patron or merchant has rebuilt it in 
the prevtuling style of his own day. Our knowledge on 
these points is thus much improved, and the crude 
notions held formerly about Sa^on and Norman archi- 
tecture are quite exploded, I remember Bishop Stanley, 
at the meeting of 1847, referring to the si^e opinion, 
actually held by some, that these round towers were 
once antediluvian wells, from which the earth, by geo- 
logical convulaions, had been denuded, and left them 
exposed, to be turned into bell towers ! This is not much 
worse than the mental calibre of a writer, within the 
present century, who undertakes to describe a fine four- 
teenth century church in these terms: — "It was so the 
cnstom to unite difTerent orders of architecture, that it is 
almost presumption to pronounce in which order this 
building should be classed. The low doors and lolly 
windows of Danish construction ; the acute forms of 
Saxon architecture in the arches of the windows ; and the 
numerous Saracenic buttresses, cause no hesitation on tJie 
whole, in pronouncing it to be a Gothic building 1" 

Having come to the Norman period in my gluice at the 
tast, I must mention the very conclusive evidence made 
■jiovm through the pages of our local sodety in 1877, as 
to the menning of the name and the birthplace of the first 
bishop of Norwich and founder of the Cathedral, Herbert 
de Lozinga. He was not so termed because, as old 
writers said, he was a liar and a flatterer ; nor because he 
came from Oxford, nor Orford, nor Hoxne, nor Lothing- 
land. His father was Bobert Lozinga, or Ix>tharin^us, 
who came from Lotharingia, or Lorrune, and Herbert 
was bom at Exme^ in the Fagua Ozimenns, in Nor- 



m&ndy. Proofs of this are fullj stated by Ur. E. M. 
Beloe, of King's Lynn, in the Norfolk Socie^s ^hth 
volame. There were many Lotharing^ans in EngUnd, 
brought over by the Kormaa kings, in the elereuth 
century, and another Bishop, Bobert, Bishop of Hereford, 
was named Lozinga. 

The religious houses of England, the arrangement of 
Omat buildings, their statutes, niles, and ritual, accor^ng 
to tiieir orders, of monks, nuns, friars, or canons, regular 
and secular, lead to a most interesting subject of enquiry, 
and much progress has been made in it. We all know 
Professor Willis's labours. The late eminent architect, 
Mr. Edmund Sharpe, one of oar members, was foremost 
in the investigation of the plans of Cistercian houses ; and 
the foundations and structural peculiarities of many 
important buildings have since been carefully examined, 
with most instructive results. Tlie ignorance shown in 
many otherwise valuable topc^raphical works of older 
antiquaries on these points, has almost entirely passed 
away, and no local historian can expect to gain a hearing 
if he is behindhand in such information. We hope that 
one good effect of our present meeting will be the excavar 
tion and fuller understanding of the ruins of the Cluniac 
Priory at Castleacre, under the very able hands of Mr. St. 
John Hope. Where some of these buildings are what 
have been termed " double churches," i.e., both con- 
ventual and parochial, the arrangement is also now much 
better understood. The celebrated Amndel case, so well 
explained in the journal of t^e Institute by Mr. E. A. 
Freeman, and in many of his mvd voce addresses, as at 
Dunster, have made the public familiar with Uie true 
state of the case. There are several examples of this in 
Norfolk ; and also where the parishioners were allowed to 
retain the use of the nave at the Keformation, which has 
consequently been preserved, while the choir and other 
buildings, granted to a private owner, have been left to 
go to ruin, as at Binham, Weyboum, and Wymondham. 

The fine parochial churches, and domestic buildings 
also, that abound in Norfolk, of the fifleenth century or 
later, are owing to the wealth of tJiis district, when it 
was the chief manufacturing county of England. Noble 
patrons and rich merchants vied with each oiker in 


rebuildiD}! their parish churches and halls; and on the 
north coast harbours were open which are now closed 
and silted up, where trade wiUi the Continent flourished, 
and caused such beautiful structures as we shall see at 
Cley and Blakenej, Ball and Cawston, to be built In 
the absence of stone quarries, the flints of ^e chalk or 
gravel were turned to admirable account, and wood was 
profusely used in the screens for which the county is 
famous, enriched by painUnga, probably in many cases 
the work of English artists, and that are not unworthy 
of the schools of the Van Eyks and Albert Durer. The 
better knowledge which prevails now of the arrangement 
and contents of parish churches, and of the services and 
ritual for which they were adapted, is a hopeful pledge 
of mctf'e intelligent restoration, when needed, and of the 
more careful preservation and protection of every andent 
feature, and of even the smallest link in its history of 
the past. Mural piuntings have been found on t^e walls 
of very many churches, and are now either jealously 
preserved, or have had proper drawings made of them. 
Some are early and of much interest, as those In the 
Cathedral, treasured and explained by Dean G^ulbum ; 
some are interesting witnesses to the religious sentiments 
and prevailing cultua of the people at the time to which 
th^ belong, and some are consecration crosses and 
tasteful ornaments, Oreater attention is now paid, and 
better superintendence on the part of archdeacons, clergy, 
and churchwardens, to church goods, as the panui 
registers, so valuable for the pedigrees of families that 
have attained higher position, whether in this country or 
in America and elsewhere, several of which have been. 
printed tn exUnao ; tiie churchwardens' accounts and other 
ancient writings ; and the Church plate. 

In this last subject great advance in our knowled^ 
has been made. The valuable labours of the late lb*. 
Octavius Morgan, Mr. Chafiers, and Mr. Wilfrid Oipps, 
C.B., and more recently by ISi. St. John Hope and Mr. 
Fallow have recorded umost all the ancient plate remain- 
ing in England, and have contributed to great accuracy 
in classifymg and dating them. Old wills and inventories 
show that there must have been an immense store of 
exquisite plate in the country before it was sacrificed to 


the zAal of the Reformation, the rapadty of the Tudors 
and their favourites, and, later, to the ezigendea of the 
dvil wars. Our loss in these, and a thousand other 
classes of ecclesiastical and pnsonal use, is incalculable. 
There are some well-known examples of pre-Beformatiou 
chalices in England, numbering about 40, but not one has 
been found in Norfolk. Of patens of the same age, there 
are about double this number, and of these there hare 
been noticed in Norfolk, by Uie help of the archdeacons, 
as many as thirty-three, which have all been phot(»raphed 
for the Norfolk and Norwich Society. It is ^fficult to 
account for the large proportion of these patens remuning 
in Norfolk, especially as only one is known to exist in 
Suffolk. Edward VI.'s Commission of January, 1658, 
was iraned for the seizure of all Church goods not abso- 
lutely required for service, except one chalice and paten 
for each parish, or two for large populations. Probably 
the existing patens are those which were then allowed to 
remain, and the reason that there are so few early ones 
among them, but that they nearly all date shortly before 
or after 1500, maybe that the Commissionera took care to 
leave the most recent and least valuable ones. Alter 
Mary's reign, and as soon as Bishop Farkhurst came to 
the see, further changes took place, and the " profane 
chalices " of Archbishop Parker's Visitation Articles were 
melted down, and the ** decent Communion cuppe," wiUi 
its cover, took their place. Hence we find a very Urge 
number of such cups and patens, mostly of Norwich 
make, in the diocese, and almost all of the years 1564 to 
1570. A great many more have disappeared since throu^ 
the carelessness of parochial authorities, or have been 
injudiciously ezchan^d for more fashionable articles. 
The improved attention given to the subject will, it is 
hoped, prevent further loss and illegal sales. 

As regards other contents of churches, and especially 
sepulchral monuments in brass or stone, Mr. Herbert 
Haine^s " Manual of Monumental Brasses " had not been 
published in 1847, and from that and many other volumes 
and papers on the subject, our knowledge of costume, 
armour, and ecclesiastical vestments has much improved, 
and the public taste in memorials of the dead shows an 
influence for the better in every churchyard wid cemetetyi^o le 


Tmer principlea guide the architect, the artist, and the 
■cnlptor in wood, stone, or metal, in every deputaient of 
design, and this advance is greatly owing to tae study of 
andent examples, began, by Pugin and Garter, and Uie 
Oambrid^ Ounden Smuety, and carried on by tbe London 
and provudal bodies tbat have sprung into ezist«ice all 
over the conntry. Each locali^ has been indnstrioosly 
worked to reveal its arcluBoI<^cal treasures, its MS. 
evidences searched among the public records, in the 
^tish Mnsenm, or the Probate Offices, and many papers 
of great valne have been enabled to be pnblished, not 
only at the local expense, but also by the more ext^ided 
resources, and with the wider publicity of the venerable 
Sodety of Antiquaries of London, the British Archno- 
logical Association, and our own Ardueolocical Institute. 
The county of Norfolk has been more fortunate than 
many in the literary productions that have contributed to 
illustrate it, in various departments, in recent years ; and 
it is very gratifying to be able to record such works as 
the following, that, with many others, have enriched onr 
libraries, and have become indispensable for reference. 
Besides the volumes issued by the local society, and its 
other occasional pablication. of the " Screens of Norfolk^" 
the " Ghites of Norwich," and their edition of Husenbeth's 
" Emblems of Sunts," and a first volume of *' Norfolk 
Becords," I may mention in Topography, Ur. Wslter Bye's 
valuable " Index to Norfolk Topography," published by 
the Index Society, on a plan which might be usefnlly 
supplemented by a companion volume, recording not only 
the more public sources of information, but such as might 
be supplied from private and MS. authority, and from 
person^ observation. In Z/Ocal History, Carthew's 
** Hundred of Launditch " and " History of Bradenham ; " 
Palmer's " Ferlustration of Gh^at Yarmouth ; " Mr. Bye's 
" History of Norfolk," and his ** Antiquarian Miscellany ; " 
Mason's unfinished history of the county ; Dr. Jessopp's 
"Visitations of Beligious Houses," published by the 
Camden Society ; and several parochial histories, such as 
Mr. Blyth's " Kncham," Mr. Eller's " West Winch," and 
others. In Etymology, Mr. Muuford's " Local Names of 
Norfolk." In Church Architet^re and appUauces, Dean I 

Goidbum's " Ancient Sculptures of Norwich Cathedral ; ' ■ , 


L'Estrange'B " Church Bella of Norfolk " (to which may 
be added Dr. Baren'a forthcoming " Bella of Suffolk ") ; 
Williiia' '* Qnunt old Norwich," Mr. Uark Kai^ts' 
" Highways and Byeways," flic, hi Seraldty, the Bev. 
Edmnnd Farrer'a ezcelleat " Church Heraldry of Norfolk," 
in course of publication ; Mr. Bye's " Three Norfolk 
Armories," and Mr. SHvin's valuable recent work on the 
sabject. In Cftnealogy and Family Hiatory, Mr. Bye's 
"Feet of fines for Norfolk," Harvey's "visitation of 
Norfolk of 1563," edited, with lai^e additiona, by the 
late Mr. Dashwood and Mr. Carthew, and still in con- 
tinuation by General W. E. G. Lytton Bulwer ; Dr. 
Jesaopp's Memoirs of the Walpolea and the Norths, and 
several privately-printed family memoriala. 

In bringing my " Points of Local and General Archwo- 
logical ProgreBs" — incomplete as they are— to a con- 
clusion, Imuatnot omit to mention the beneficial influence 
which such societies as we represent have exercised in 
preventing the destruction of antiquities and historical 
remtuDS, and staj'ing the hand of the ignorant " restorer," 
or the ruthless speculator. The local society of this 
county has happily been tlie means, with the help of higher 
authorities, of saving, by timely protests, the Tolhouse of 
Great Yarmouth, and the choir of the Black Friars of 
Norwich, and prevented the invasion of the Cathedral 
precincts by a railway. Perhaps nothing shows the force 
of the pn^ess that has been made in tiie true spirit of 
the archfeologist more than the hearty and intelligent 
support which the newspaper press has so readily given 
on these occasions, and in fully reporting the proceedings 
of meetings. 



It is qoite obvious that there is nothing Uut can 
interest ns, or help in the ela<udation of its history, in the 
exterior of Norwich Cnstle. We are, therefore, con- 
strained to do what we do not usaallj, namely, inspect 
the Castle from the ioside alone. Here, at least, if we 
have nothing else, we have plenty of room, for I suppose 
there are few keeps of this magnitude which are so 
singularly clean swept of all the internal walls. We will 
presently see what these main walla have to tell us, but 
before doing this we must touch a little upon the earlier 
history, and first deal with certain fictions that have so 
long hung about and haunted the Castle that they almost 
seemed to become part of its veritable histoiy. It is to 
be hoped that these fancies are now finally given up. 
But it mnst be remembered tiiat there is nothing so 
difficult to eradicate as misleading statements that have 
long been in print, and especially if they have a tinge of 
romance, and the case becomes more charged witii 
difficult when the statements to which I shall refer have 
been made omeeming this Castle in works of considerar 
ion like Blomefield's History, and the Archaologia in its 
less learned days, (1796)' and emphasized by plans of 
admirable execution. 

I am fortunately not called upon to reconcile the con- 
fliclinff opinions as to the site o^Venta Icenorum ; there 
must be very few who now think it was Norwich. We 
are primarily here not to speculate about the Boman, but 
to inspect the Nurman Castle and I need only say, on the 
first count, that Boman coins and urns have been found in 
Norwich, and perhaps some day we may have furdier 

>BMd at ITofWidi QaMa, Aug. Stlt, 18B9. / - [ J 


evidence for a Roman station of some kind on ■ this very 
spot The importance of holding such a position was 
hardly likely to escape the eye of the Boman lookiDg out 
from his stronghold at Caister. On the other haiid it is 
desirable that we should first consider the place and then 
see how Korwich Castle has grown up, as most castles 
strictly so-called have, from rude b^nnings, and, finally, 
make a closer examination of the details that have been 
spared of the present building. 

Whatever there may have been here in Boman time is 
now quite out of sight and in its place we have a late Saxon 
mound surrounded by a single ditch. On the south side 
is a semi-circular enclosure approached by a bridge over 
the ditch known as Castle Fee, and on the east a horse- 
shoe shaped enclosure called the Castle Meadow. Both 
. areas are comprised within earthworks which rest upon 
those of the inner ditch, and, although now nearly 
destroyed, portions can still be traced, and it should be 
noted that the course of these ancient earthworks is still 
represented by the lines of the streets and buiklings. 
This was the Saxon burh, — a moated mound— the hill of 
the burh — with one or more oval or horse-shoe courts 
attached to it. There is nothing unusual in the plan. 
We have it with variations at scores of places, and always 
with the same dominant idea of protection and shelter for 
cattle and garrison. In this particular instance the 
mound is placed at the side of the entire work in 
order that its power as an exterior defence may best be 
brought into play. 

Now, one can only be surprised, with the knowledge 
we have at the present day, that the extraordinary plan 
which Wilkins (led astray by Blomefield) published in the 
ArchcBologia, in 1795, should have been accepted as 
correct until as late as 1858. Mr. Harrod then grappled 
with the difficulty and came to the rescue. He cleared 
away the two banks and three ditches which Wilkins had 
constructed from such slight evidences and quite irrespec- 
tive of the lines of the streets, which in such a case would 
be the surest test of truth, and from the same material 
evidence, backed by the irrefragable testimony of a vast 
quantity of origintd documents, Kr.Harrod built up the 
new plan, or raUier re-discovered the old one, which i 
TOL.XLVI 2i. ■ OO^ie 


appears in his admirable account of Norwich Caslle &'ul 
wluch carries conTiction upon ils face. 

It would be difficult now to go minutely into the detuls 
of these two plaiu; they are here exhibited to a lai^ 
scale and speax best for themselTeii. But it U interesting 
to compare them, and quite possible, without explanation, 
to realize how the outer circles of Wiikins may, in the 
hands of a man not exactly knowing what he was looking 
for, have grown up out of the remnants here and there of 
the real semi-circular and horse-shoe enclosures. It will 
be borne in mind that there has been a great deal of fiUing 
np and levelling of the earthworks and in fact ** we 
cannot see the town becaase of the houses/' 

Having now established ourselves on the ground the 
first question that arises is — what is the date of the 
mound, the hill of the burh, on which we are standing? 
We can only obtain this information relatively. From its 
nature the mound varies but little through a long coarse, 
and for the same reason it is a nice question to date any 
that are not mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as 
are, for instance, those at Oambridge and Thetford, of the 
9th and 10th centuries. The hill of the burh, as was 
often the case, is here partly natural and partly artificial, 
and it seems to have been artificially raised, and fortified 
with its ditches and enclosures in the 9th or 10th 
century. Upon this mound there must, then, have been 
a castle or strong place of wood, with a palisade, or hedge, 
or both, on the banks of the two enclosures. The ancient 
church at Qreensted gives an idea what these wooden 
buildings were like, and the Anglo Saxon Chronicle shows 
bow the military events of the 9th and lOt^ centuries led 
to the erection of a multitude of these English earth- 
works and how rapidly the " geweorc '' was successively 
wrought, attacked, stormed, burnt, aud restored. 
Possibly in the middle of the 9th century the Norwich 
bur!i received its finishing works for that was a busy and 
eve::tful time in East Anglia. It may, iudeed, have been 
first thrown up in the middle of the 7th century, and iu 
connection with this period it is recorded that certain 
lands granted by Etheldreda to her monastery at Ely were 
charged with the service of Castle Guard to Norwich 




We have uo further evidence that there iras a castle here 
requiring guard in the 7th century or any o^er example 
of military service so early. But I see nothing extra- 
ordinary in it. The syatem which was common in the 
lOth may easily have originated in the 7th century and, 
indeed, I see no reason why military' service in some form 
should not be as old as warfare itself, for it savours 
in its nature of prehistoric and primitive times. 

For the history of the Castle until the Conquest we 
have no certun information, but it is said to have been 
utterly destroyed by the Danes under Sweyne in 1004. 
Thu implies that the wood and stone caatle on the mound 
was burnt and the encircling paUsades and possibly atone 
walls thrown down. It is improbable at this time that, 
with the example of the Boman so near, and numerous 
stone churches with their carpenter-like details arising, 
the military works were still entirely of the more perifjh- 
able material. The science of construction was advancing 
and castles were not likely to be behind churches in this 
respect ; moreover, the mounds and earthworks were 
solidifying and were ready to receive the stronger stone 
castles, the keeps, with their concentrated weight, and the 
walls of the Norman, which were already springing up in 

We now emerge into the light of day and we find it 
stated that the Conqueror built a castle at Norwich. 
This means not necessarily that a new castle Uke the 
Tower of London was constructed, but ratlier that the 
Norman strengthened himself within the old enclosures by 
palisading and probably also walling the eartliworks and 
setting up a shell keep of masonry on the mound. This 
was the usual policy of the Conqueror for securing himself 
ill his new possessionit, and it will} be remembered that 
the castles of his time were of two kinds — the old strong- 
holds hastily strengthened by timber and stone work, wiUi 
occasionally a shell keep on the mound, — and the neiH 
rectangular keeps slowly and scienUfically reared upon 
new sites. The transition from one style to the other waa 
very gradual and not more than a dozen castles exhibit 
masonry of the 1 1th century. It was the natural result 
of circumstances. 

Balph de Guader, Earl of Norfolk, waa made Cooatablej 


of the reinforced Castle of Norwich. It must have been a 
strong place, but strong with a different kind of strength 
to the Castle which came later, because it stood a sl^ of 
thrpe months on the revolt of Guader in 1074. With scant 
gallantry Guader fled, and left his wife the valiant OoUntess 
Emma, — of whom we hear so much and know so litUe,. — 
to defend the Castle. It was assaulted by all kinds of 
military engines, and when it surrendered to famine — for 
it was not beaten down* — it was at once fit for the occupa- 
tion of a garrison of 800 men-at-arms, lorteati^ i.e., men 
in mail hauberks, cross^bowmen, and engineers. On the 
death of the Conqueror in 1087 Eoger Bigod espoused 
the cause of Bobert Courthose ; he seized Norwich Castle 
and held it against Bufns to whom he subsequently 
submitted. In 1120 Hugh Bigod succeeded Boger, and 
in 1135 was holding the castle and only surrendered it to 
the new King In person. 

The exigencies of the military and political situation, — 
the war between Stephen and Matilda, — seem to have at 
once placed Hugh again in the castle to hold it for the 
King, and, perhaps in order to propitiate a restless and 
powerful noble, Stephen created him Earl of Norfolk, as, 
with the same views, Alberic de Vere was made first Earl 
of the long line oi Oxford, and scrnie other leading men 
similarly forwarded for the same reason. 

With the death of Stephen's son Eustace in 1153 the 
way was prepared for a settlement and Henry, sou of 
Matilda and Oeofirey Flantagenet, was acknowledged as 
Stephen's successor. Towards Uie end of his reign 
Stephen sdzed the castles of Norwich and ^ing and 
gave them to his son, William Earl of Mortaigne, together 
with OasUe Acre, Lewes, Bungay, and others, and in the 
last year of his reign, in 1154, at the Conference of 
Dunstable, it was agreed that the multitude of unlicensed 
or adulterine castles that had arisen since the death of 
Henry L f'1100)the evil buildings of lesser barons, should 
be destroyed. At least 140 were so dealt with m 1155. 
In the general submission to Henry II. Afortaigne's castles 
were included and thus the larger stroogholas regained 
their importance and value. That Norwich was very 
important we may judge from a solitary entry on the Pipe 
Bolls for 1157. that £51 128. Od. was paid by Uie Shenff i . 


for wages of the soldiers who kept the Einff*B Castle of 
Norwich — a sum equal to at least £1,100 of our money. 

The above is a sketch in the fewest possible words of 
the early history of Norwich Castle, and it would not be 
easy even in a full account, to disentangle it from the 
mazy labyrinth of rapid events and transactions of the 
first half of the 12th century. As to the building itself 
authorities have not shrunk from putting a date to it 
ranging from the time of Knut downwards. I am not so 
bold as GKirdon, King, Blomefield, Wilkins, or Woodward. 
Like the earthworks the case of the castle has been 
prejudiced by wild imaginations. Now, we have the 
building before us, and I think it speaks plainly for itself, 
and I claim no earlier date for what I can see than 1120 
and no later one than 1140. There may well be work of 
the 1 1th century hidden by the deep rubbish in the base- 
ment and I hope it wiU be looked for. At present we 
cannot perceive it and are not concerned with it. 

In giving Norwich Castle this date I compare it only 
with three other castles of the same period — Hedingham 
built by Alberic de Vere in the first quarter of the eleventh 
century ; Rochester, built by William de Corbeuil, 
between 1126 and 1139, as was conclusively proved by 
my father at the Meeting at Rochester in 1863, and Castle 
Rising built by William de Albini who died in 1176. No 
one who has seen these three great towers can doubt that 
they are of the same period. Hedingham is, if anything, a 
trifle earlier than Norwich, Rochester is of exactly the same 
time, and Castle Rising is immediately after, and is no 
doubt, the work of the same architect or " ingeuiator " as 
Norwich, The keep of Norwich Castle is therefore the 
work of Hugh Bigod, and the conduct of the man no less 
than the style of the architecture leads us to the same 

We have now arrived at the period of the building of 
Norwich keep, and with its later ancient history I do not 
propose to deal. It will suffice to say that its turbulent 
builder took part in the rebellion of 1173, when Prince 
Henry confederated with the king of France. His strong 
hold of Framlingham — built by himself and the chief of 
his castles — and Bungay Castle, gave him much power 
and influence, and with Flemish mercenaries he attacked 


Norwich in 1174. Bat the tide tamed in the king's 
bvonr and Bigod surrendered his castles ; his pover was 
broken, we take leave of the great oastle-building period, 
and we hear no more of him. 

In i ts sab segqent historr Norwich Oastle was held for 
Loais VIU against King John, bat sorr^idered to Henir 
ni in 1217. It played no part m the Barons' Wars, an^ 
though kept to a certain extent in rapur as a royal castle, 
it seems to have been already a state prison in 1220. As 
the dty became enclosed with walls, which were b^un 
in 1294, the castle gradually ceased to be its principal 

There are entries from time to time on the ^pe BoUs 
coacemin^ the state and repa irs of the Castle until the end 
of the reign of Edward lU, from which period it slowly 
sank into the condition of a county gaoL In order to 
better &t it for this purpose, the keep was gutted at the 
end of the last century and filled with brick buildings for 
the safe keeping of the evil doera of East Anglia. In 1805 
Oeorge IH gave the Oastle to the county; in 1824 large 
buildings were added on the East side; in 1825 Wilkins 
'* restored " the fore-building, and in 1834 the keep was 
faced as we see it at present. By the new Prisons' Act the 
Castle came into the hands of Uie Government, who, on 
die building of the aew prison, sold the ancient fortress 
to the city. It has again been cleared, and we have now 
to see, as I said in the outset, what the dishonoured walla 
have to tell us. 

And first as to what we expect to find in a keep of this 
period and size. There are some features that are 
constant; such are: — The Weil; the Oratory or Chapd 
the Kitchen, often difficult to identify ; the principal stair 
the main Entrance, usually covered by a Fore-buHdity 
the Hail, and the Garderohea. All these are the necessary 
attributes of a rectangular keep, not meant primarily for 
a residence, but to retire into during a siege or blockade, 
the spare room ia the basement being reserved, not for 
prisoners bat for stores; the strength of the building alone 
formed its defence. It was not a place to make sorties 
from, it was a place of refuge unlil relief or starvation 
came. Such a building the keep of Norwich strictly was. 

Of features not constant, but varying according to the 
nature of the building are : — ^The means for defending the 


entrance; the character of the openings for light; the 
passages threading the walls ; the stairs leading from floor 
to floor and down to the basement ; the maral chambers 
and the fireplaces. As to the arrangement of a Norman 
keep, speaking generally, it consisted of a basement, 
always for stores, and two or three floors, of which the 
first usually contained the principal rooms, sach as the 
Hall and ChapeL The entire area was divided by a cross 
wall, ascending to the second or third floor, according to 
the number of such floors in one or the other space, 
pierced with arcades, arches or doors, and carrying the 
two high pitched roofs which, at Norwich, ran east and 
west within the parapet. 

At Norwich the basement is said to have been vaulted. 
It is very improbable that such wide spaces as thirty-two 
feet were originally vaulted in stone before 1150. They 
were not, indeed, required for protection ; but perhaps 
certain small areas were so treated, as at Castle Bising, 
and further vaulting inserted later — a common practice. 
It is said that there was no direct outer communication 
with the basement. This seems most unlikely inasmuch 
as, with such an arrangement, all the stores must have 
been taken up through the fore-building to the first floor 
and then passed below. 

More particularly as to the constant features:— the 
Well: King tells us that this was in the partition wall itself; 
it is so placed at Rochester and Bising communicating with 
each floor. In the late excavations this well has not been 
found, and King's statement is accordingly disputed. He 
existing well is clear of the wall and seems to be modern. 
The custom in Norman keeps was either to protect the 
access to and keep open the communication with the well, 
by forming the shiut or tunnel in the thickness of the 
cross wall, with openings at each floor, or to enshrine it in 
a side wall, as at Kenilworth. The well was of course of 
the first importance, and the same care for it obtained in 
France, as for instance, at Coucy, Boquetaillade, Chateau 
d'Arques, Blanquefort and Fargues. In later and concen- 
tric castles in both countries, when the keep ceased to be 
the actual citadel, the well was safe in the inner ward, 
which was, in fact, the expansion of the earlier keep. The 
Chapel: — This was no doubt in the south-east comer,' 
in connection with what is called the oratory. The 


chftpel at Simpff is in the Mine poeition. Then we h&Te 
a long room wiub a fire-place on the aouth side, perhaps 
the lodgine of the constable ; there is the same uiing at 
Bising. 'Hie Kiiehen : — As I have said, is often difficult 
to identify, but here it must have been in the north west 
comer, again afl at lUsing. There has been a curious and 
interesting change of plan at this poiot, not quite easy to 
explain. It appean that the north-west newel stair from 
die level of the first floor was converted into a fireplace, 
the chimney of which takes the place of the stair, and 
starting in the form of a groined cone is drawn into a 
triple flue and so passes up. It is a curious and uuusual 
piece of construction. I have at present no explanati<m 
to ofier of the work that some partial excavation has 
revealed in this comer at the existing basement level. 
l^e principal entrance, the ForebuUding, was so much 
restored by Wilkina, that there only remains as original 
work, the groining beneath the upper lauding. The HaU 
occupied as at Rising, the whole of the space on the norUi 
side of the cross wall, and the Garderobes, much altered, 
aud DOW called the Archery, are placed, once more as at 
Ksing, on the west front. 

I think it is due to my bearers to say that my 
opportunities for studying this keep have been of the very, 
slightest, and it is quite possible that I have, as a stranger, 
omitted many important points. But any notes upon a 
casde in England would surely be incomplete without a 
cordial acknowledgment to Ur. Clark, for, although he has 
not particularly described Norwich Castle, I need hardly 
say that it would have been difficult for me to have even 
attempted it, without the general and special information 
he has brought together upon such buildings. 

Norwich Castie is now, for the first time in its long 
history, in the hands of the citizens of Norwich, and I am 
glad indeed to know that Norwich men recognize that the 
best way of showing their appreciation of it is to put it to 
some harmless, rational, use. To roof it and fit it — not in 
sham Nonnan — but in a simple unpretending way, for the 
purposes of a museum, — as has been done at Colchester and 
Taunton, — would at once preserve its grave, solid, and 
majestic character, and maintain in security these vener- 
able and histoiic walls for the contemplation and study oi 
antiquaries of the future. 

B7 Uia Rct. a. JESSOPP, D.I>. 

It 19 almost exactly forty-two years since the Hoyal 
Archfeological Institute paid its first visit to the city of 
Norwich. It was on the 29th July, 1847, that Bishop 
Stanley presided in St. Andrew's-hall at the inaugural 
meeting, which was held to welcome the coming of this 
sodety, and to initiate its proceedings. Charles, third 
Marquis of Northampton, was President of the Anti- 
quarian Section, Dr. Peacock, Bean of Ely, was President 
of the Architectural Section, and in the ffistorical Section 
the chair was taken hy one of the most profound and 
philosophic historians whom England has ever produced 
— Henry Hallam. 

There were giants in the earth in those days. Dr. 
Whewell, the Master of Trinity, was amongst tliem, and 
so were John Mitchell Kemble and Professor Sedgwick, 
whom some of us remember, and Professor Willis, whose 
nephew, J. W. Clark, represents him among us to-day, 
men who were born to be leaders, and will not cease to 
be remembered as the founders of scientific archeeology 
in England. We are but followers of them. What they 
b^an others have carried on, and the work that they set 
on foot two generations ago ha^ never stopt, and shows 
no sign of ceasing and no lack of labonrers^intelligent 
labourers unsparing of themselves, labourers animated 
by the same thirst for knowledge, the same enthusiasm, 
and the same earnest desire to buy the truth and sell i: 
not, of which our founders presented in their lives such a 
noble example. 

Per myself, standing here to-day in the place which so 

■ Bold at tiiB AflBoat HMting of Um lutitut*, *t Norwieh, Angoit 8th, 1B89, 



great a man aa Hallam occapied when the Lutitnte last 
assembled in thu dty, I am far less inclined to ba lifted 
np with pride than humbled by the depressing sense of 
inferiority which comes upon meul b^n to address you. . ^ 
One of the gods of Olympus was your preudent here in ,^:'. 

1847. WeU mi^t it be asked, with some wonder, '* Who 
is he — Uie man of common clay — ^who dares to rit in the 
same seat of honour in 1889 P 

In 1847 arclueology was quite a new study in East 
Anglia — the Norfolk and Norwich ArcluBoI<^(»l tiociety 
had only been started two years — and the new subject 
was by no means the fashion. There was a general 
impression that an imtiquarian must needs be an old man 
— a musty, fusty old man. Dominie Sampson was accepted 
as the type of a class, and there was a wide-spread belief 
that old men, as a mle, had two absurd vices, one was 
saving money with none to gather it, and the other was 
grubbing into the secrets of the past with nobody to 
interpret them ! It is not to be wondered at, therefore, 
if of all those forty-three gentlemen who at its first start- 
ing constituted the governing body of our society, only a 
single one survives, the veteran Mr. John Gunn, whose 
name appears Btill on the list of our vice-presidents 

Of the rest, some have not left themselves without 
witness. Among them Sir John Boileau, F.B.S., bearer 
of an illustrious name — who for more than twenty years 
presided over onr society, and on whose son, Sir Francis 
Boileau, his father's mantle has fallen. While deploring 
Sir Francis' absence from among us to-day, and regretting 
the cause, we may hope that the illness which keeps him 
from bdng with us may leave no serious effects behind it, 
and we look forward with confidence to some years of 
research and vigorous work for our society under the 
presidency of the son — such work as shall not be unworthy 
of what wns achieved under the presidency of his father. 

I will venture this morning to put your patience to the 
test by endeavouring briefly to remind you how very 
different is the standing-point which archseologists in 
England take np to-day from that which they occupied 
when the Institute first came among us in 1847. But I 
must needs confine myself to our own limited field of I 



research, for to travel beyond it would carry me a great 
deal too far. 

In the first place, it must be remembered that forty 
reaiB ago the momentous question of the Andqnity of 
Man, as it is called, had hardly been thought o£ I have 
a perfect recollecUon of reading a long letter in Thi Times 
newspaper duiing the summer of 1846, in which the 
writer, adopting a timidly apologetic tone, pleaded for 
toleration of his errors — if they were errors — and piteously 
argued that it really was possible, or, at any rate, it was 
conceivable, that a man might remain a Chnstiao and yet 
believe Uiat the world was more than 6,000 years old. 
In those days it was held to be an article of faith — a sort 
of 40th article, to be tacked on to the other 39 —that the 
period anterior to the coming of oar Lord had been 
accurately measured by a kind of chronological two-foot 
rule, and had been found to carry us back exactly 4004 
years — so many and no more. In those days the geologists 
were a mere handful, and many of them seemed afraid of 
thdr own discoveries, at any rate were afriud of pro- 
claiming them too loudly, ^at 4004 years superstition 
hung like an albatross round the neck of the man of 
science ; he trembled to throw it off, and yet as long as it 
hung there he was hopelessly hampered in all his move- 
ments. He could not look behind him, it was impious to 
imagine an immemorial past, a too audacious p:^ng into 
which might dash all hopes of a celestial future. His- 
torians took their stand upon what was admitted by all to 
be a basis of absolute certtunty. Into the r^on of 
cloudland, as it was assumed to be, only dreamers would 
think it worth their while to wander. The muse of history, 
it was said, was a stern and severe goddess, who set her 
face against speculation and inference — which were only 
other names for idle guesswork. What was found written 
in a book was evidence ; everything else must be distrusted, 
and at the best must be received with the utmost caution, 
not to say suspicion. Accordingly, English history, it 
was insisted on, began in the year 55 B.C., when Julius 
Ciesar landed on our island. There was the terminus a quo 
which, by common consent, historians and archseologists 
adopted forty years ago, and which at that time hardly 
anyone ever thought of getting to the back of. 



And yet ibere was no ^puting the fact that the 
Greeks and Bomaiu had heard of this Britua of ours, 
and knew something about it, too, centuries b«^ore the 
Christian era. As early as Uie time of Alexander the 
QreaX, Pytheas of Maasilia wrote an account of his 
joumey to Britain, and professed to have b'&relled 
ihroagh the island. It is true that Folybius, about lOO 
years after, assures us that he could have done nothing 
of the sort, for he was too poor a man lo have made such 
a costly voyase. It is true also that Strabo, 150 years or 
so after Folybius, though quoting Pytheas and making 
use of his works, pronounces him to have been a great 
liar. But agun, that has been found to be a very 
cheap accusation, often thrown at travellers in ancient 
and modem times, and yet proved in the long run to have 
been undeserved. Against Folybius and Strabo we may 
set the authority of ^atosthenes of Cyrene, in the third 
century B.a, and of Hipparchus of Bithynia, who lived 
about 100 years later. Each of these men was the most 
eminent mathematician and astronomer of his time. 
Neither of them was a man likely to be led astray by 
fictitious narratives. Both beleived in Pytheas, and 
both appear to have made use of hia travels. Travellers, 
we are assured, tell strange tales, but a man may be a 
har and yet be a traveller. Be it as it may, even at the 
worst here is a traveller, who asserted that he had 
visited an island, knowing it to have been an island, 300 
years or so B.C., and who got credit for imformation which 
he published, information which a generation or two after 
bis death the great teachers of the world were reading, 
discussing, criticising, and using. As time went on, 
Strabo, who hardly deserves to be called a great man in 
any sense, viciously protests that this traveller told 
lies. Uight not the same be said of our old friend, 
Sir John Mandeville? Yet who doubts that he went 
where he said he went, even thongh he tells us some 
things which he could hardly have seen with his own 

But fifty years ago hardly anyone among us thought it 
worth while to oestow criticism upon Pytheas, or 
Poseidonius, or even Strabo. To archseolo^ts the old 
gec^aphers were almost quite unknown. Not that 


those archfeologiats were idle, or wantiDg in Bi^acUy, 
Very far from this; they gave themselves no rest, and 
their labours were not fruitless. A school of enquirers 
(who I will veotare to call the Utomanist school) rose up 
about tlus time, and their enthusiasm and success gave, 
as it could not but give, a great impetus to research. 
Boman Britain became the fashion, and well that it did 
so. Year by year and month by month we were startled 
by some brilUant discovery of '* Boman remuns," and 
surprise succeeding surprise compelled us to draw 
inferences, while they let in fresh light upon us all. 
But they were always Roman remains. The villas, the 
theatres, the baths, the luxury, the splendour, were all 
Boman. Nobody seems to have remembered t^at sneer 
of Tacitus {Tac. Agricola, c. 21), in which he super- 
ciliously mocks at the furs the Britons gave themselves 
in adopting the customs of their conquerors; much in 
the same tone that a London tailor might sneer at a 
country-made dress-coat, or a pert journalist might 
point his ridicule at a farmer's daughter presuming to 
play the paino. In fact, no one seems to have seen 
clearly what the real question was which arclueologists 
should set before themselves — archseologtsts who hoped 
to get behind the line of certainty which historians had 
somewhat arbitrarily Iwd down. The miun question 
really was not what did the Eomans do in Britain, but 
what did they Jind? Or, perhaps, the question wUch 
pressed for answer, and which still pressed, might be 
stated thus — 

" "What was there in this Britain of ours which made it 
worth while for the Romans to invade it in the century 
before Christ— which compelled them to leave it un- 
attacked for another 100 years (though agun and again 
during that century they bragged of what they were 
going to do in the way of subduing it), which forced them 
at last to carry out their threats in 44 A.D., and which 
induced them, after that to keep their hold of the island 
for 400 years, repaying them in some shape or other for 
an expenditure wliich fairly bewilders us when we try to 
estimate its magnitude ?" I do not think that archieolo- 
gbts have ever set that problem before themselves with 
a clear conception of the issues involved in its solution, 


or with sn intelligent detenniiuUion to graj^U with U. 
It is not difficult to acoonat for this. The truth \a that 
the wonderful ditcoveriei umonnced Bimidtaneoualy bj 
•rcluBok^fte from all parts of tlie world, about 25 ye«Y 
ago, and which in their cumulative force oonatituted a 
body <rf evidence absolutely overwhdiming ; discoveries 
which allowed us no longer to hesitate in our conviction 
that man had been living and toiling, fighting and slaying, 
making his tools and uvandng in the arts of civilised 
life, far, far back, even into the glacial period (and how 
much earlier none dared to guess), these discoveries dazzled 
us all. Everybody went groping about for flint im[^- 
menta. and everybody who ^ped long enough found 
them. Archflool^ in Englai^ for a while went half mad 
upon the antiquity of man. The Bomanists found them- 
selves at a discount. The paheolithic and neolithic periods, 
the intense eagerness to add something to what h&d been 
established by Mr. Prestwich, Mr. Evans, Sir J. Lubbock, 
or Mr. Pengelly among ourselves ; or the desire to illus- 
trate the splendid discoveries of Boucher de Perthes, 
Lartet, Nilson, and others abroad, called away the field — 
if I may so express it — from hunting the Boraan fox. 
An archjeologic^ red herring was drawn across the scent, 
and &e hounds started off m full cry and took another 
line. These things will happen often enough in a long 
run — at any rate it used to be so when I was young ; 
we came to a check, but we made a fresh start, and the 
chase b^an agun as hotly as ever. Unluckily, however, 
in this instance the thing did not end there. By one of 
those curious and not uncommon popular delusions which 
grow np, one knows not how, in times of excitement — ■ 
religions, political, or intellectual — it came to pass that a 
persuasion amounting to a conviction took possession of 
a very large section even of the more intelligent portion 
of the community — who might have been supposed to 
know better — that the prehistoric discoverers who bad 
found out so much about the men of tJie age of the 
mammoth and the cave bear had somehow been dealing 
with the same ancient Britons whom Ceesar fought with 
and failed to subdue. Was not he, this ancient Briton, a 
prehistoric man P For had not history begun in b.c. 55, 
and did not the Briton exist before this grand terminuB a ■ ^ 


tfuof If it were so the Bonuui occupation could only 
faave been a military occnpation, and it was idle to sap- 
pose that anything could be discovered about the half- 
savage subject people that was worth knowing. 

In addressing an assembly like this, I am anxious to 
avoid truisms, and yet it is necessary to remind you that 
there are still too many in the outer world who require 
to be told that the period of time which separates tia 
from the men who fought with Csesar, and beat him back, 
is but as a span long compared with that immeasurably 
vaster period which separates those ancient Britons from 
the men of the caves and the elevated river gravels, who 
hunted the mammoth and the woolly rhinoceros with 
bone harpoons and dint spears uid arrows. Between 
those earlier inhabitants of Albion and the Britons who 
faced the Boman legions, so enormouB a lapse of ages 
intervened that in the interval not only had the whole 
animal life of Britain changed, not only had the old fauna 
disappeared fix>m our island, but from every part of the 
habitable globe. 

And yet it is hardly too much to say that, thanks to 
the wonderful sagacity and the untiring and the trium- 
phant researches of the prehistoric arcbEeoIogista, we 
know almost as much about the life and the habits of the 
men of that vastly remote past as wc clo about the 
dvilisalion of those later inhabitants of this island who, 
in comparison with the others, are but the men of yester- 
day. Surely we ought to have got to know more about 
those men of yesterday by this time. Some things regard- 
ing those British progenitors of otirs are well enough 
established. They had been trading in copper and tin 
for centuries ; they worked the lead mines of the Uendips 
and the ironstone of Sussex ; the first ground of quarrel 
with them which the Romans had, was because they had 
allied themselves with the Veueti, who fought that famous 
sea-fight with Csesar the year before he invaded us, and 
the Veneti, we are told, astonished Ceeaar by letting down 
their anchors with chain cables. Clearly, too, those 
Britons had a formidable mercantile marine ; twenty 
years after Gesar's coming they monopolised the carrying 
trade of the Channel, and the export and import duties 
which they pud constituted an' appreciable item in the ■ 


Bonun revenue (Strabo IV., c. t.) The southem part of 
our island, too, we hear was thickly studded with build- ■ 
ingi (creberrima edificia Omsar B.G. W., 13.) Agricul- 
ture was carried on on a laive scale, especumy to the 
north of the Thames ; th^ had a currency, even a 
coinage ; they had an extensive network of roads ; before 
long Britain became a com growing country, and the 
epicures of Borne appreciated very highly the oysters of 
ffichborough. I suspect that the Boman coachbuilders 
introduced improvements in their fashionable carria^ea 
from our side of the Channel. The sentiment of aationahty 
was strong among them; Cassivelaunus ruled over a 
kingdom uiat was firmly consolidated, with a splendidly 
organized army, and such a mighty cavalry force as 
Bome had never encountered since the days when 
Hannibal's Numidian horsemen swept over the plains of 
Italy. When at last Cassivelaunus came to terms, he still 
had 4,000 chariots that he could bring into the field. Of 
the Druid hierarchy we unhappily know but little, but 
this we do know, that they were a highly educated class 
and the educators of the people, that they had some 
knowledge of geography and astronomy, and clearly a 
very elaborate ritual. As to the nonsense wliich Cnsar 
talks about their filling colossal clothes-baskets with 
human victims and making bonfires of ihem, we must 
take such stories for what they are worth. Bat reflect 
upon all the evidence that has come down to us, and give 
it only the weight it deserves, and remember that London 
was confessedly a great emporium long before Caasar's 
landing, and continued to be so without a break in its 
prosperity down to the outburst of that dreadful rebellion 
of the subject people who had been driven to madness by 
Boman tax gatherers, Roman money lendert, and Boman 
ruffianism of all sorts ;'and then consider whether it can 
be quite so absolutely certain as has been assumed that 
all those villas and pavements, those roads and baths, 
those vestiges of a vanished art and a vanished culture, 
are strictly what we understand by B.oman remains, that 
is, the work of foreign hands, designed by foreign 
ingenuity, constructed exclusively for Boman officials, 
who hved outside of the life of a race held in subjection 
for all those four centuries. Can thia people have been 


K> barbarous at starting, and so incapable of assimilating 
the new ideas, the new civilisation, of their conquerors, 
that, when the aliens left them to defend themselves, they 
(the Britons) became the prey of the new invaders, not 
becatise they were mastered by overwhelming miUtitades 
from outside, but because they were incapable of doing 
any^iing in tiieir own defence as soon as they were 
deprived of the guidance and command of ^ose very 
Boman leaders who had themselves run away from any 
further contest with the hordes of irresistible marauders ? 
Is all this so certain as the majority among us has quietly 
aasumed it to be ? I ask as a mere enquirer. I throw 
out a suggestion. I presume to do no more. 

Be it as it may, this m quite certain, that we have not 
yet collected all the evidence that can be gathered, and 
that our only hope of arriving at clear views on the con- 
dition of this island and its inhabitants, say during the 
four centuries before Cresar's coming and during the four 
centuries after his landing, lies in carefully and exhaus- 
lively mapping out the discoveries that have been and 
that remain to be made. The suggestion of the congress 
that assembled at Burlington-house last year must be 
carried out systematically, scientifically, and every local 
archfeological society must set itself to construct an 
archaeological map of its own county or district, ih which 
the site of every " find " may be accurately set down, and 
the ugnificance of every vestige of the handiwork of our - 
progenitors be estimated by correlating it with others 
that may have been tabulated. 

It may be almost said to be a reproach upon our Nor- 
folk archEBologists that no one among us has a^ yet 
attempted examination of the Pedders' Way, the Devil's 
Dyke, or of the old trackways which certainly did serve 
their purpose as lines of communication between distant 
points in byegone ages. Mr. Wame, in his magnificent 
work on Ancient Dorset, gave us the results of his re- 
searches in this line of enquiry nearly twenty years ago ; 
but no Norfolk archsologist up to this moment has taken 
the hint or followed Mr. Wame's lead, though it ia 
obvious that only a local antiquary can carry on resear^ 
of this kiud with much hope of arriving at satufactory 


results. A man moat start on snch research furnished 
with the necessary requisite of local knowledge. He 
must be in touch not only with the ground he treads, but 
with the people who are sons of the soil 

So far^ we in Korfolk hare come on no traces of th^ stage 
in the development of civliisation which the lake dwellii]gB_ 
of Switzerlai^ afford. We have not come up(Ni them 
because we have not sought for them. But clear and 
unmiatakeable traces of such remiuns were detected by 
ICr. Harry Jones at Barton Mere, in the n«ghbQurhood of 
Bury St. Edmund's, twenty years ttgo ; and, though a 
mao should never prophesy unless he is sure, standing in 
this place to-day I venture to predict tJiat before the 
institute viuts Norfolk again, remains- of the PkaMbautm 
will be found in that district in. the middle of the county 
of Norfolk which now serves as the watershed of the Tare 
and the Stoke river, where once half-a-dozen or so of 
lakes were to be found, of which the South mere at 
Hingham and the meres of Saham and Scoultou are but 
the shrunken remains. 

But archsology does by no means conQoe her scrutiny 
of the past to such remains as are exclusively pre- 
historical, nor, indeed, does she end her researches where 
written testimony of ancient records begins. There is an 
enormous mass of raw material which the archaeologists 
will have to work up and interpret for the his- 
torian, which consist of actual documentary evidence 
hitherto neglected or very imperfectly examined. Quite 
new fields of enquiry hive been opened out to arch- 
leology during the last few years since men of learning 
and patient research have begun to busy themselves with 
the history of early institutions, and with speculations 
upon the origin of society, the tenure of property in land, 
and many other kindred questions of the profoundest 
importance. We have here, in this county, I suspect, 
many more instances of divided ownership of land than is 
generally known. No part of England can furnish so 
many auomaloua instances of strange tenures bindiug on 
the teuauts of a manor, or more unexplained customs 
whose origin points to a very distant past. Few parts of 
England are so rich in what are called family papers — i.6., 

d by Google I 


chests of documents of unknown antiquity which remaia 
to be explored — and already the enlightened jurists of 
our time have begun to see clesrly that the lustory of 
early law in England, and the history of a great deal 
else, will have to be re-written, and that the records 
to be examined and laborioudy studied are to be 
found Dot exclusively, and perhape not mainly, in 
the great public muniments of tJie national colleo- 

It would occupy far too much time to-day if 
I were to attempt to lay before you anydiing like a 
comprehensive account of the great problem which is 
now exercising ^e minds of students, and which mar be 
briefly epitomized as the question of the origin of the 
Manorial System in England. Did the manor spring out 
of a village community of freemen — a co-operative society 
~ where aU. were equal in status and all were equally 
owners of a certain area which they tilled in common for 
the behoof of all. Or did it originate in a settlement 
planted by a chieftain with hig dependents who won the 
land and culdvated it for the lord at his bidding. And 
again, are we to look upon the manor as an institution 
which is a survival of the fioman domination or was it 
Teutonic in its origin? So again with regard to the 
jurisdiction and procedure and authority of the local 
courts, the courts baron and courts leet, aiid the rest. 
The accepted views of the great lawyers of the seventeenth 
century are in process of being severely cross-examined. 
Only during the last few months have we been startled by 
the announcement made by no less a man than Professor 
Mutland, of Cambridge, to the efTect that he strongly sus- 
pects that the very word cna-t leet is East Anglian, and 
that the thing itself ts to be found before the twelfth cen- 
tury in Suffolk and Norfolk exclusively. I am fully persuaded 
that the constitutional history of England, in some of its 
earlier chapters, offers riddles for solution which can only 
find their answers in our private collections of origintd 
documents. What is wanted is for these treasures 
to be collected into Provincial centres, guarded by 
responsible custodians, and gradually examined, arranged, 
and calendared. Not till this is done will archieologists 
(the pioneers of historical research) have fair play, or 


history have a chance of winning solid conquests from 
the dark places of the past. How much may be done by 
ringle students adequately furniahed for the work of 
research, working alone among tiie archives of a single 
aty ; how much such a schoUr may achieve if tlie sources 
of history are made readily accessible to his enquiries, 
how much light he may Uirow upon the history of the 
development of municipal institutions in England, in a 
comparatiTely short time, when the documentary evidence 
is made ready to his hand — all this I am prepared to hear 
this monuDg. 

In antidpation of many a lesson which I am eager to 
recdve, and you too are, I doubt not, curious to listen to, 
I forbear from intruding any longer upon you. I have 
<mly one word to add. I believe that no study — no branch 
of literature I may say — has presented to the cultured 
classes in this country during the laat few years more 
fascinating attraction, or is becoming more and more 
extensively popular, i.e., is engaging the attention of 
more eager and intelligent votaries — than the study of the 
life of the past in our own land. The progress we have 
made durin» the last forty yeara in our knowledge of the 
civil, the rehgious, the constitutional, and economic history 
of England has brought about a revolution in our opinions 
and our sentiments on a hundred different questions about 
which OUT grandfathers never troubled themselves at all, 
but which have forced themselves upon us. The advance 
in our knowledge of man and of his doings cannot but go 
on. History will not continue to be the random medley 
of ballad and legend, of gossip and guess work that it 
was only a little while ago. Such history can serve no 
better purpose than the song of the scald or the trouba^ 
dour, sometimes rousing our passsions, sometimes beguiling 
an i^ hour. The more clearly we know the truth about 
the ages that are behind us, the better shall we be able to 
understand the present, and to shape our course in pre- 
paration for that future which some day we, or those that 
come after us, may hope to forecast more intelligently 
and more confidently than our present ignorance wiU 
admit of. For the light that gleams from the dimness of 
one horizon flashes too upon the dimness of the oUier, and 



if it be tme, u it is, that the boy is father of the man, not 
less true is it that the growth and development of onr race 
must needs proceed according to some great laws of pro- 
gress. !nie annnmbered generations or those that were, 
each of whom added something, to t^e aggr^ate of human 
experience, were all, consdouoly or nntwnscioiisly, acting . 
their parts in that great drama Triiich tiie cluldren of 
men are destined to play out npon this little world of 

Digilizcd by Google 


Castle Acre, so called in distincfioii from West and 
South Acre, contiKaous paruhefl in the north-eastem 
parts of Norfolk, is beat . known to antiquaries as the 
Caput of the 140 Lordships held by Earl Warren, at 
Domesday, in that county, bnt the earthworks to which 
parish and manor owe their prefix claim a much earlier 
history, not, indeed, written upon parchment, nor 
engrossed upon the records of the realm, but not less 
audientic, nor less legible to an instructed eye. 

The Nar, the rivulet of the district, on its way from its 
not distant sources to its name-children of Narford and 
Narborough, here winds sluggishly across a level bottom, 
now a w^-ordered water-meadow, but in ancient times 
a broad and impracticable morass. Taking advantage of 
BO convenient a front a large camp has been formed on 
the rising ground to the norUi or right bank of the river. 
It is in plan a paralellogram about 280 yds. north and 
south, by 380 yds. east and west, or in strictness nordi- 
north-west and south-souUi-east. The defence was a 
single earth-bank, ranging from 6 ft. to 12 ft. in height, 
and protected externally by a deep ditch, the two 
covering together a breadth of about 30 yds. The 
northern front runs parallel and on the side of the 
village street, and is m consequence indistinct, though 
traceable. The western and most perfect front passing 
from the street straight towards the river, has the Parish 
Church of St. James a few yards to its west or outside 
it, while about 300 yds. to the south-west is what remains 
of the Clnniac Friory of St. Mary, St. Peter, and St. Paul. 

The south or river front, having the morass for its 
defence, seems to have had a slighter bank, of which 


only parts renuuu. What should be the angle at the 
juDClion of the two sides is rounded off in ue Bonum 
manner, and is tolerably perfect, and the only angle 
that is 80. 

Although the eastern half of the camp has been 
materially altered, enough remuns to shew that this was 
a regular Homan fortification, having two entrances, in 
tiie centre of the northern and southern or longer sides, 
of which the latter opened upon the morass, here about 
100 yds. broad, and trarersra by a causeway leading 
to a bridge across the river; and the former was 
approached by a long straight road, probably of the 
date of the camp, running north-north-east, and known 
as Peddar way. 

The Bazon invaders who founded and inhabited the 
villages hereabouts were minded to take advantage of 
earthworks, the position of which was so well chosen, 
and which admitted of being altered to suit their notions 
of defence. The area, however, was too spacious for 
their wants, and the earthworks by no means of what 
they considered necessary strength. They therefore took 
possession of the eastern half of the work and converted 
it into the Burh in use among them in the ninth century, 
and of which so many examples are found in various 

Sarts of England, and among their distant kinnnan in 

In the north-east quarter of the camp they threw up 
a conical mound about 25 or 30 ft. high, and having a 
flat top 40 yds. in diameter. This they surrounded with 
the ditch out of which, in fact, it was in great measure 
formed, and appended to it on the north-east and south 
sides were two courts, also embanked and moated by 
ditches which communicated with the ditch of the mound. 
The smaller of these courts, or wards, that to the north-east, 
somewhat lunated in form, had an area of about SO yds. 
by 40yds. The larger was about 130 yds. from north to 
south, and in breadth aboat 100 yds. To complete this 
court a bank was thrown up across the old camp from 
north to south. The house and offices of the chief, of 
timber, occupied the table top of the mound, and a Une 
of stout palisades ran along the crest of the earthbanks, 
and possibly along the counterscarp of their ditches. 

284 0A8ILI AOBK. 

^ere is also some reason to think that the palisades were 
continaed along the untouched Boman bank, so as to 
coavert the remainder or western half of the camp into 
an additional place of safety for the adjacent husbandmen 
and their catUe. A work such as that above described 
ponessed connderable passire strength, and in the hands 
of a small but resolnte garrison might defy an army for 
a few days, «s the Barh at Towcester is recorded in the 
Saxon chronicle to have done. Such was, no doubt, . 
the stronghold that Earl Warren found ready to his 
hands, not nnlike what he had already become possessed 
<^ at Lewes, and such as his fellow Normans found at 
Arundel and Tonbridge, and were famiUar with on their 
own estates in Normandy. 

The use of masonry in fortifications was then a novel^ 
in Normandy, and probably had not been introduced 
into England, where, with the exception of a fragment 
of wall at Corfe, no military masonry of the Saxon age 
has been discovered. The rectangular keep, then the form 
of masonry most in favour, was only constructed on level 
ground, as in London and MaUiug, or where a nattural 
hill formed a solid platform, as in the later structures 
at Dover, Bramber, or Norwich. The ordinary Saxon 
stron^iolds, of which there were very many, contained 
an artificial mound, upon which a lofty tower was un- 
necessary, and could not safely have been constructed. 
In such places the new structure took the form of &e 
polygonu or shell keep, such as may be seen at Arundel 
or Cardiff, and of which the foundations remun at Berk- 
hampstead and Tonbridge. Such a shell was erected at 
Castle Acre, and in part remuns. It is composed of a 
wall 6 ft. thick, an irregular polygon in figure, 120 h. 
diameter. Externally the angles are capped by broad 
flat pilasters in ashlar; internally the hollow angles are 
rounded. The wall in of chalk with thick facings of 
flint rubble. Outside, Uie lower part is built against the 
mound as a reUuning wall, internally it seems to have 
been about 12 ft. high. Several fragments remain, some 
of their full height, with traces of a parapet about 4 fL 
high. What resembles the pointed vault of a aewer is 
to be seen, bo that probably the work is late Norman, 
aa with such ke^ was usual 

:, zed by Google 

0A8TLB AORB: 285 

Hie central part of the area u hollow, as though there 
had been a well, bnt the whole surface al<n>ea towards 
the south-east very considerably, and the fragments of 
wall show that this was so whan the ke^ was buUt, so 
that the top of the wall was not intended to be leveL 
The slope coincides generally wiUi the lay of Uie ground 
outside, which is remarkable, sedng that the monnd 
evidently is in part artificial. 

The main or southern ward was walled in. and tile 
wall, of which two fragments, 180 ft and 80 ft. long, 
remain, was built upon the crest of the earthbank, and 
seems of the date and material of the keep. Each end o£ 
the cnrbun was brought up to the edge of the keep moat, 
and there carried across the ditch and up the bank, so 
as to join the wall of tiie keep. The space below the 
two walls indudes about one^Mrd of the circuit of the 
keep, which thus stands partly within and partly without 
the ward, which is a usual arrangement, as at Arundel, 
Tonbridge, and Lincoln. The north-east ward may have 
been walled in, but this is not probable; the ditch is 
crossed by a low wall, but it is of no great strength, and 
scarcely meant for defence. In ike centre of ihe main 
ward are traces of foundations, probably of domestic 

The entrance to this ward was on its west side, very 
near to the counterscarp of the ditch of the keep, and 
a wall seems to have been carried across the ditch and 
up the mound from it to the keep, A sketch by 1&. 
Kerrich in 1787 shews the gate-house tolerably perfect, 
and its renuuns are still to be seen. The main ditch in 
front of thia gatehouse is now crossed by a r^ular 
causeway, replacing the former drawbridge. 

The outer gate, of later date, stands near the centre of 
the Boman earthwork, on the north front, in the present 
village, but the Normans did not think it necessary to wall 
in the whole area of the camp. It seems probable, how- 
ever, that they enclosed it with some kmd of defence, 
possibly a palisade. 

ofiftcd by Google 

9iocr(bfnffS at ffUttbngii oC ^t Stosal 9rcftaeoloj[ica( 

April 4, 1889. 
G D. K. Fomnw, £>«., IT.S.A., Hon. ^fls-Fnndflnt, in Uw Chair. 

Vr. J. Badi lead a papor on *■ Tho Caitia of Fongiraa and Ua Lofda," 
which u priotod at p. 130. 

TbA Iter. Prkiibtoh Vktablb acnt a papor on " T\m Opening of 
th« Tooib of Buhop Oliver Satton, in Lincoln Hinater, and the Dia- 
coTerj of a Chalice, Paten, and Episcopal Ring ;" thia waa read bj Ifr. 
Qonelin, and ia printed at p. 111. 

The Chaibmav oallod attention to the large sias of the ring, anch a* 
are found ia epiaoopal gntrea on the continent, whence he thought tliia 
exampla had been obtained. 

llr. MiczijrHWAiTE and Iifr. Hopi added aomo general obacrvationa 
leapecting the chalice and paten, and their earlj tjpe; 

VotM of tLanka were paaaed to Mr. Bain and to Precentor Yenablei. 

jUttgtttttt* mil WtadtM at JUt SxhibiUb. 

B; the Bir. Pbboiktob TnuBun. — Drawing! and [dtotographa of 
the Clialioe, Paten, Ring, and ^atoral SUIT, found in tlia gtarA of 
Biahop OliTer Sutton. 

Bj Ur. Habtbhosnk, — A coat of mail, formed cf twenty-fcur nx-inoh 
aqoaiea of mail, each complete in itself, and roaghlj joined together with 
iron wire into the semblanoe of a garment The remaricable feature of 
the null ia the unique manner in which the linka are joined together. 
The conatmctioa of the linka i^ indeed, the same aa tlut for ordinary 
rivetted mail, np to a certain stage. The fiattened ends are then — 
instead of hong punched for the reception of tho rireto — ^nicked on the 
outer aide, a ttun wire ia whipped round them, twiated up into a ahwt 
head, and cut or twisted off. The whole aqoare of mail was tiien 
heavily tinned. It ia obvious that this never was a coat of mall, but 
has been made up into the coat form for the pnrpoee of sale, 'Wha^ 
then, was tike purpose of the aquarea t This seems to be explained by 
some entries in the inventory of 6ir John Faleto^ who died in 1459. 
" 1 jakke of blakke linen clothe staffed with mayle ; 1 jakke of blake 
clothe lined with canvaa mayled ;" the meaning of the word jakke, aa 
applied to any defensive garment bein^ aa Mr. Burgea has explained, 
such as were formed of two folds of leather or linen, with something 
iMtween them. Unfortunately no jack haa eome down to us, but it may 


Im tftkm that the Bqnans of mail in qoestiou were tinned in order, for 
inMitioD between linen, and to prevent nut, aa waa the case with the 
^Jjnta of a brigandine, and, probaMj, they wen naed in the ahonldera 
<rf jacks, for which theitaifo ia well anited. The ooat in qneation haa been 
known to Mr. F. Weekea tor aome tine, and wu in the odlactim of n 
dealer in Bond Street twenty jeara i^ 

May 2, 1889. 
The Rkt. F. SFunnnu. in the chair. 

Mr. J. L. AnDtii read a paper " on Ritualistic Eceled<dogy in NtvUi- 
Eaat Norfolk." Tonching first npim the examjdea of eomUned monastjo 
and parochial churches as shown at Weybonme, ha eommented on and 
explained the great width of the Dave in aome of the amaller aialelesa 
churches. The aingnlai feature irf a cbapel raised one atoiy above the 
floor of the eollegiste chnrch of In^iam, Uie relie chamber of the east 
end of Tnnstead church, snd the rHnarkable airangemmt at Btdlealy fot 
the anpport of a cftonr under which a diseased person might rit in order 
for his healing were then apoken of. Passing on to the eonndeiation of 
the enrichment of western doorways, and parrises over pcoche^ he 
treated of stoops, altan, piscinas, low aide windows, and sculptured fonts 
and Ihoir canopies sucoeseiToly. At Bamiugham Northwood a " wheel 
of fortune " mariced in the floor in brick and stone, fi ft in diameter, 
and popularly known aa the memorial of a coachman, was describod. 
The Norfolk niod-BcreenB snd their magnificent and varied decorations 
formed a large item in Mr. Andre's paper, and a careful snalysia of the 
difierent arrangements of the saints, prophets, and other holy persons 
upon these ornate bsiriers brought seeming cbaos into order. Further 
remarks wen added upon bell solars^ rond-1^ stain, consecntion crosses, 
stone seats, painted glan, alma boxes, and chamol dutpels. 

A vote of thsuks was passed to Mr. Andr^ whose paper is printed at 
p. 136. 

^Rtti}uiKe0 anil WRotVa ot Jltt Cxhibitti. 

By the Bev. Ghbvillb I. Chestxr. — The following Eariy Greek 
Scanbceoid gems : A Bee, in white chalcedony, from Tatauta An Ibex, 
in pale blue chalcedony, from Sparta. A Lion, in rock cmtaJ, and a 
Dog, in sgalc, from the Greek Islandp. A Bull, iu sapphirine, from 
Smyrna ; and a Persian Archer, in burnt chalcedony, tmm Peloponeeus. 

Mr. Chxbtxr bIso exhibited : — Implements of unknown use, made of 
a bird'a bill, from Koumeh, Thebes; an amber necklace, from Selmeyeb, 
Upper Egypt; snd a bronze Thurible, from Southern Italy. 

Mb. Cbkstxb infoimed the meeting that he had discovered at Tel-el- 
Amsma, a papyrus of a portion of the twenty-third and twenty-fourth 
books of Homei, believed to be of the first centuiy. 

By Mr. a. Olivxil — A pewter pot with a hinged lid ornamented with 
a fleur-de-lis, the name of the owner "Priest" is on the lid and rim, the 
latter bearing also a portcullis. Thia object was found while digging for 
the foundations of the Victoria Tower; an incense burner from the site 
of McBSTs. Rimmel's factory, Beaufort building an earthenwan pot 
from Nottingham Court, Bt Giles, a Dutch {^ass bottle, and a pan of , 

^oticis . st jUdueolagtotl ^nblicxtiira*. 

eoMMwwxd by Um Ut« San WnuAM SmunMi, F.RA. ; i ii h iJ fat part b* 
a Rmob 8am, P.8.A ; Md ooanUtad br Pw^tio W. Kabobi, M.B.AA. 
{Oi^ B«U md SoimC London, IW».) 

The um and abject of thia woric *n eletri; eet out in the " original 
proepectiu," whidi u given Kftec the pcefMe of Uie FabUduta. It 
purporta to explain the priDcipal types, ajmbola and derieee, which 
appear on coina irith Latin trends and iaacriptioM minted nnder the 
ffoTeinnieat of ancient Boidp, both coctular and imperial, to >n[^7 
biogtaidiiGal, chronological, and monetal Teferaooea to the Emperota, 
Empreaaea and CKiara, from /uliue Csmc to UanriciuB Xiberiaa ; and 
alio to elucidate corioua and rare obToraee and reveraes bj mythological, 
historical, and geographical nolicea. Anyone at all oonvenant will 
graap at once the magnitude uf such an undertaking, and it ia verj 
evident after but a cursory glance at the work before oo^ that ita <xm- 
pilation has extended orer a very long period. In hct, it ia the task of 
more than the life-time of one individnal ; and Mr. 8eth StereaaoD, 
who ondettook it aingle^aoded, unfortunately found thia to be tiw ease. 
Hia ori^nal idea was that the vork abould form one volume of about 
1,000 pagea, printed nnifwmly with the Dictionariea of "Greek and 
Soman Antiqnitiea," and of "Greek and Bonisn Bic^raphy and 
Hythok^," and that it ihould be Uliutrated throughout wiOx nnmerooa 
woodcota. The work has appeared aa Ifr. Stevenson propoeed, but, 
nnfortonately, he did not live to see ita completion. As now iseiied it 
otmrisii of S^ cloaely printed pages, Ur. Stevenson's labours extmding 
as bt aa page 629 ; from this point the servieee of Mr. Madden have 
been lemiaitioned, and on him has fallen the dnty of bringing the woik 
to eranpletion. Mr. Madden haa long been known oa an authority oa 
this paiticalar branch of numismatics, and it ia fortunate that the pro* 
ptietots wen able to obtain his valuaUe oo-opeiation. 

Roman nnmiamatica may be divided into two luge series, via., that 
of the Bepnblie and that of the Empire. The coins of the former ale 
chiefly in silver, a comperatJTely small portion being in gold struck 
mainly after B.a 49, whilst the copper coins are of an earlier date and 
cease about &a 80. Those of the Imperial times are of gold, silver and 
M^fper, being iwued in large numbers in each of the three meta]& The 
main chuacteriatica of the two series are however very distinet Down 
to the death of Julius Cieear in kc. 44, the types of the coins refer to 
|Mat events and supply a long series of illustration^ which teooid 
the great deeds of Einnaa heroea in the past, the mythological and 



histoncKl tnditiona of.tbo natioa •Dd.muif importutt pnbtic «Tante 
Fram Uta dmUi of Juliu Onr, cMttenponn tmata an nooidad, ud 
thia ii the dtiot cbanetor of tbo a^umgt uav^baat impeiUl times, 

Vben it ii nndentoOd that the ^^m of Om two acnes taken togsther 
oomber mbm tboiuand^ it ia gImi' tlut tboM vaa ample ni^«xial for a 
laige woik, and if we add to thoM^ tha 'anplanatwo'; cf the kfpnda •■ 
well aa muneioiu Uam^hical rafai sn o^ its nu^toda ia atul mi»s 
patonL' Towaida the dacidation' of theae nomaiou tjpea,'nnioh west 
am bean aeeomplialwd dnriag th« Urt twentj yean, eyen mote than had 
been effected down to that data . The nriona wocka cf Cohen, 
Uommaan and Babelon hare ontiielj i»-oiganised the anlyeot, and 
then anthon have brought to light Veer moeh matter pcenonalr 
snlcnown to eariier numimatiata. Unfortanatdy all tbeaa prodno 
tions are poatanor to tbo chief pntion of the " Dictionarr," and 
tbo onl; moat mliable infonnation that iii. Staveuon had aooeaa 
to waa that aopplied bj EokheL It ia on thia aoeonat that the 
" DietianarT' " ia not ao to aay up to date : yvt in Kute of thia 
•erioaa ahoiteoming then ta to be fotmd in it a gn»t deal <« information 
that ia moat oaefnl not only to the nnmiamatist but alao to the -'Bmri-al 
aehobt and the hiatotian. The eritieal eje of the numiamatiat will find 
beades not infteqoant errwa old tbeoriee propounded which have long 
been abandoned. Thia moat have been dear to thoee who aaw the 
** Dictirauuj " to ita finiah, and thoDgh thay may not have been able to 
mako the work abreaat of the time, yet we ttiink they ought not to have 
peaaed over thia imperfection in complete silenca H ia, however, 
for better that the wotk ahoold hare been piodnced aa it now atand^ 
than tiiat it ahonid not have appeared at all The researches made in 
Boman namianiKttea in lats yean bare done mnch to elucidate tbo 
so-called Conaular or Bepublioan aeriea, not only as re^aids the arrange- 
ment of the coina but auo in reference to the explanation of the vaiiona 
typea The fiiat iaane of the early copper cdns known as the libtal 
serial^ which was formally attiibnted to the time of Bervins Tolliaa, ia 
now brought down aa late aa the middle of the fourth centary B.a, and 
the snppMed reduction of the oi from the pound-weight to the half-pound 
(aemi librsl) and the quartarpound (quadrantal) is a theory no I<mger 
tenable : and these have been disphwad by a one third reduction called 
the TrientaL Also by a aystem of careful examination of all the 
principal finds of coina, the whole aeriea haa been arranged in ehrono- 
logicaf order, so tiiat aocording to Mommsan we have no difficulty 
in daaaifytug the iasoea of theae coina if not year by year yet by 
peiiods. The Ute Count de Balia quite independently of Mommaen'a 
rasearchea went still one step further; He not only arranged the coins in 
the British Museum chrondogieally but also geogmphically ao that the 
series affords of itself a hiatory ot the gradual growth of tiie power of 
Bmne. In the Imperial series alao much new light haa been tiirown on its 
clasaification and on the history of the mint, and the various d^rada- 
tiona of the coinage have been explained and eoncloaively accounted for. 
The reforms of Caracalla, Anrelian, and Diocletian before imperfectly 
undentood are now matteia of hiatoiy. As theae pointa are chiefly aome 
of the reanlta of recent study they will not be found recorded in the 
" Kctionaiy," and, consequently, in consulting the woric the student will 


have to exaidse a eerUm amonnt of cuttion ; bnt he will not eir fu- if 
he nedj Uw " DicUouu; " in coqjvnetion with the wotfci of Hommaen 
and Babelon. That Hr. Stevaoion haa done good aerrioe to the tfaidy 
of Btnutt nnmi«Daliea no ono will heaiUte to nj, and wa can itioni^T 
noommend hia work aa a atandud boiA of nfncnoe on Om mA^teL 
In eaiiTing oat Uh complotioii of the " Dicttonatr " Mr. KMm taOa 
na, at paga 830, that he )am nnde eonetdeiaUa nee (rf tha wotka of 
If o mnn an, Cohan, Sabatisr, Lenoraunt and otben, ao that bom Mm 
pout tha diortcamittgt of the eariier portion are not to be fovnd. Tbe 
tUutiatioo^ in which the work abonnda, ware foi the tnoat part 
executed b^ the kto Ur. Fairfaol^ who wa* a ekiiful and conadentvma 
nomisinatie angiaTer, but who h« not been quite eocceeafal in repco- 
dncing andcnt portnita. Tbia haa been a common failing with moat 
woiki on Bonnn nnmiamatici, and in recent yean hu led to the 
adoiMioQ of wkma photogmphui prooeaaea, which hare anawend 
admiraU; when a nnmber of piaoaa an npnaented on idatea, but when 
it iM needed to inaert tbe illnatiationfl in ttie text, aa waa tbe eaae with 
the " Dictionuy," thej are not ao ntiafaotorf. When this difficulty ia 
overcome we iludl have illneb^tiona aa perfect aa the coina Uiemaelvea. 

POPE H1CH0LA3 IT., AD. 1ZD1 <DtOCESB OF EXETER), b; tlw Bsv. 
F. C. HnoMTOH-IUiivoLra, Prabsodwy of Ezatar, ind Runl Dmil (Londoo; 
QtcKjIt Bdl and Boni). 

lliree yeata ago^ we t«viowed Hr. Hinffeaton-Bandolpb'a ezcelleat 
index and abatnct of the npaier of Eamnnd 6taft<m, Bioht^ <d 
Exeter. He now propoeea to make that one irf a aeriea of wiam it 
will be the fifth volnme, and the new book now before na the first 
Thia indndea the eariiest renateta extant, and if it be in aome re^Mot 
of leaa gencanl interest, and more of a dry liat of namea than the 
former one, it ia oertiunly no fault cd the Editor, for every page 
provea tbe labour wbieh he baa spent upon tbe work, and hia oaze to 
make it aa complete and accurate aa pooaible. Aa a store <it facta 
relating to the Gonnties of Devon and Oomwall, during Uie latter half 
of the Dnrteenth century, it ia invaluable. Bat theae eariiar regiaten 
are leaa ridi than tbe later one in thoae illustrationa <d the ideaa and 
mannen of the times, which have a more than local interest. The 
new bo(A, with about the same number of pagea, extends over a 
period twice aa long as that covered by the former one. 

ill. Bandolph ceeps to the method he adopted with Bishop 
Stafford's register, and conld scarcely bare a better. Few, perh&pa, 
will read tbe book all through as we hare done ; but any in seaiob of 
infonnation about a place or a person oonneotod with ihe diocese at 
that time will hare no difficulty in fimJing here all that the registers 
have to tell about them, and often something beaidee. 

Bishop Bronesoombe'a register is perfect and well kept. He 
ragned twen^-three years, and was on octire ruler, aa is ahewn 

> ToL sliE, p. 190. 



woo&gat other thiuga by tlu fact that he oooMcrated ao leaa than 
aif^ttT-eigM ohtudkw in nine jaan, and tirai^-one of th«n within 
Uuzty days. Anjooe who knowa yrbxt the old oonaecntion semoe 
waa will anmoute the phjrioal kbowr of thia almfl^ withont 
reebming the naoeaMu; tnvelltag, and the ngoUr dioeoaan work 
oarried on et the aametuae. 

lluee many ocmaeontiona should not be taken to imply thet the 
ohondiM wan new cmea, or that all <k them had lately been re-built ; 
thoB^ the time wma one in whiidt men were aealona ohordi bmldere. 
latere wwe aneaia to bo made i^ tor we lean from the oooatitations 
publiahed in the leeantine Tiritation of Otho in 1236, that the oonae- 
oration of dkorohaa nad beat much neglected in Bnglmid, and it was 
flunin ordered that all (dd choitdiee not then ooniMieted ahonld be 
BO within two yeiusi and all new ones within thet period from the 
eOB^etion oi their hbrioa. It ii oertain that many, and meet likely 
that all the churches Bishop Broneeoombe oonseorated, were of olid 
fi>undati<M>, though some had been lately re-fanilt We hare an 
inetanoe in the book ot the union of two old psrishea, but none of the 
oreatiaa of a new pariah. Like many anothw, the Bishop strore 
agamst the abuses of his time. But the system of dispmsations 
nnlMed most medisral attonpta at reform. The Church is even 
now but joat freeing itaeU from aome of the erils against which they 
fonght— as, for instance, pluralities and the non-residenee of inoum- 
bents — and still suffers from the appropriation of rectories in which 
the good bishop saw so little harm that he appropriated one to endow 
his own chantiy. The monasteries were great deronrers of chorohee 
in this way, and many a parish still suffers^ because the mimks 
appropriated to their own use the endowment whidi is now sorely 

Bishop Qniril's reKister ts imperfect and less cerefnlly kept than 
his preaiBoesera^B, and has snfteed badly from the xecklsas use of 
gallfl at the hands of some reader who shoold have known better. 
Me. Ztandolph has done the best he oould with it, and has supple- 
mented it from other sources. No register o{ Bishop Bvtton exists, 
but in like manner an attempt is made to snprily the blank. 

After Um came Bish(^ Walter de Stapledon, upon whose register 
" *" ' * h is now at work, and he expeots to naTO it ready next 
e he will hare a long list m subscribers. The price is 
er can only pay for the printing, eren It they do tha^ 

d all the good useful won of the Editor wiU be giren to uiem. 

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acctraeoUgical Journal. 




L — The general cii'cumstances oft/te City. 
^^^^^ ^ The early history of Munidpal Xnstitatlonfl 

BumSeiiwi in England ia confessedly a field of research 
^^^°^''"°* which needs much working, and there are few 
ways in which local arclueolt^ can render 
more useful serrice than in helping on die work in its 
own locality. This is all the more necessaary, because 
every municipality has had its own history. The same 
general turns and aspirations after freedom may have 
animated the inhabitants of different burghs. They may 
have had the same ideas of self government, and the same 
theories with respect to the regulation of trade and 
commerce ; bnt, of necessity, each bui^h was compelled 
to adapt its aims and theories to the particular circum- 
stances, often not a little complicated, by which it was 
surrounded. Uunicipal institutions in early times were 
not, as now, the result of a permissive act of a central 
autiiority setting forth a fixed model, which any com- 
munity might copy if it pleased. They were the outcome 
of a stru^le between various rival influences, and the 
result was modified in different cases, according as one or 
other of these Influences was more thim usually in the 

Norwidi u I think I may fairly claim for the city with 
lupartuit which I have now the hononr of dealing, that 
^' it presents in this respect a specially proniiaing 
and important field for investigation. It was in Uie twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries that Sie burghs of England chiefly 
obtained their right of self-government from the kings, 

> BwhI In tlte Hiitorieal Section at the AnntuI Ueeting of tlia Imtitato, ti 
Nonridi, Augoit 9tli, 1889. 

TOL. XLVI (No. 184.) 2 P 


wh^, either from need or policy, continued to grant th«n 
increanng powers, till Ed ward L, by summoning th^r 
representatives to bu Parliaments, recognized them as 
imi'ortant members of the body politic Daring this time, 
Korwich occupied a position scarcely second to any other 
borongh in the kingdom. 80 far back as the time of 
Sir.g Edward the ComeMor it was almost unsurpassed in - 
the number of its burgesses, 1820. Though it suffered 
some drawbacks, the worst being through the rebellion 
of Earl Balph agunst William the Conqueror, not long 
before the Domeaday Survey was made, yet it soon r»- 
corered itself. Even m the troublous da^ of Bong Stephen, 
when he handed it over to his son William, it could boast 
of about fiileen hundred. How greatly it prospered after 
that time until it became in the reign of Edwara m. the 
prindpal seat of the woollen manufacture, is a matter of 
histoTT. Its early importance is indisputable. 
„.-._* I would further observe that, during this 

critical period of its history, it practically bad 
but one person to deal with, viz., the king. 
From the earliest times Norwich had been part of the 
king's demesne. Even the modified alienation of lordship 
which had been granted to the Karls of East Anglia, as 
recorded in the Domesday Survey, ceased at the Conquest, 
when, by the death of Harold, who held the earldom, the 
whole jurisdiction of the city passed into the hands of the 

TbaPrinriDd ^^ ^^7 ^ " ^^^ ^r^ to clcar away a mis- 
monk* DO rni Conception, which some writers have fallen into. 
'•^°'*™™- Because Norwich was the seat of a llishoprick, 
with a wealthy monastery attached to the cathedra] havit^ 
an independent jnrisdiction of its own, and because frequent 
disputes, and at times violent collbions, took place between 
the monks and the citizens, it has been assumed that the 
citizens had to fight for their rights against the encroach- 
ments of the monks. It was certainly not so. The landa 
over which the Prior claimed jurisdiction' were not 
originally (with one small exception) part of the burgh at 
all, but belonged to the adjoining hundreds of Blofield, 
Taverham, and Humbleyard. The aggressors were un- 
doubtedly the citizens, and all the Prior and monks ever 
succeeded in doing was to hold their own. In the end 



they had to give up even that. At all times they were 
powerless to hmder the political developmeal of the city. 
North* The ooe great hindrance which the citizais 
*'***'*■ might have had to combat would have been 
the presence of a powerful noble in the caaUe, Here 
again fortune favoured them. The chances 4^ collisioa 
between the citizens and the holder of the castle were 
never great, either when it was held by an earl or by a 
constable in the king's name. On the one hand« &e city 
was unfortified aiid not in a position to provoke a conflict ; 
and on the other hand, neither king, earl, or constable had 
any occasion to inteifere with the natural commercial 
growth of the city. When its career of self-government 
began at tiie close of the twelfth century, the castle had 
ceased to be a danger. The king did not want it for 
defensive purposes ; he did not care to commit it to a 
powerful subject, who might hold it against him. It 
would have fallen into decay altogether had it not been 
converted during the thirteendi century into a gaol, which 
it continued to be till a few years aga 

Norwich, therefore, had always been spedaUy free 
from externa] interference, and when it received 
the privilege of self-government it was practically 
unfettered, except by the ancient lordship of the king. 
It scarcely needs saying that a king at a Stance chie^ 
concerned himself in matters which afiected the royal 
exchequer, and, saving these, had no other interest than 
to promote the growth of a valuable source of income. 
iThu b I desire to lay as much stress as possible on 

p«"t Vy this feature of the municipal history of Nor- 
niiis''Sb«rtiM wich. because it must greatly afiect onr view 
MLMtdoa." of that history in one important aspect The 
charter of 5th Bichard I., its first real charter of self- 
government as I think, grants to the citizens of Norwich 
the " same liberties and free customs as the dtizens of 
London have." Many writers have assumed that this or 
similar laogut^e used in charters to other boroughs implies 
that thenceforward those boroughs set themselves to 
assimilate not only their customs and liberties but their 
municipal organization to those of the City of London. 
From this point of view, it seems strange that Norwich with 
all its advantages of wealth and local importance* should 


have been governed by bailifis and not by a mayor and 
aldenaen till the beginnii^ of the fifteenth century. This 
view ii thus expressed by Blomefield. When the city wu 
finally provided with a mayor, aldermen, and common 
council in 1417, and had exchanged its old "tolhoTue" 
for a new ''gnildhall.'* Blomefield obeerves:-^** Thus thed^ * 
was now peacably settled, having greater authority, and its 
state fixed in a mnch grander manner than ever it had. . 
been before, b«Dg exactly the same as to its gotemment 
and ordinances as the City of London then was, which waa 
what thig dtyfrom iisjirst charter ahoaya aimed at." 
M«nta I feel sure that thin view is not correct. 

King lUchard's charter meant what it spoke of, 
" customB and liberties, " not the special form 
^'"'^^ of government. The citizens of Norwich were 
confirmed in the enjoyment of their privileges to the same 
extent that those of London were in theirs. These customs 
and liberties were called " the same," because substantially 
they were so. Most of them were the common inheritance 
of the two cities. In some valuable chapters of " Laws and 
Customs anciently in use in the City of Norwich," preserved 
in the " Book of Pleas," and dating back certainly to the 
thirteenth century, perhaps some of them still earlier, the 
custom of the City of London is only occasionally appealed 
to. In genersl, things are said to be done " accorung to 
the custom of the dty of Norwich." 

Not ■ With respect to the form of municipal 

•rii7 (nrm «< government, it seems unreasonable to suppose 
*°'"'°'*" that, if the constitution of the London muni- 
cipality had from the first been regarded as the aim of 
other boroughs, Norwich with its chartered right to 
assimilate itself to Ijondon should have taken two hundred 
years to attain its end. Two other instances make this 
clearer. Oxford, like Norwich, was authorized by charter 
to imitate London, and it obtained a mayor in 1229 ; 
whereas Lynn, which was authorized to follow Oxford, 
had a mayor as early as 1204. The only explanation of 
Norwich retaining its older constitution two centuries 
later than Lynn, must have been that until towards the 
dose of the fourteenth century the citizens had no desire 
to make the change. If this explanation is correct, it 
makes it all the more interesting to search as closely into 


Uie character of the older organization as our existing 

reoordfl enable us to do. 

luiwd a( I propose rapidly to work back fix>m the 

faTtMigatiuB. present time to tite point where it becomes 

necessary to appeal to hitherto unworked sources of 


n. — 7%e modem Corporation. 

The {wesent corporation of the Oity of Norwich derives 
its aathority from the Uunicipal Beform Act of 1835, 
which, like most similar modem legislation, effected some 
salutaiy changes at the cost of destroying in some ways 
the continuity of the present with the past. 

At the present time the city, which is also a comity, is 
governed by a mayor, sheriff, sixteen aldermen, and forty- 
eight town coonollors. It is divided into eight wards, 
numbered from one to eight ; two aldermen and six 
councillors represent each ward. The official title of the 
corporation is " the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citkens," a title 
which I need not attempt to explain. I would only draw 
attention to the fact of the " aldermen " being denoted as 
a separate estate, though they are not reidly so. The 
previous history will shew how this arose. 
m.—TTu medtmoal Corporation. 

This modem constitution of the municipal assembly is a 
mutilated relic of that which existed bdbre the passing 
of Uie Municipal Beform Act, which was as follows : — 
a mayor, two sheriSs, twenty-four aldermen, and sixty 

j^,„p,^ There were four great wards, Conesford, 

wtnu, tw«iTe Mancroft, Wymer, and the Northern or Ward 
nuu mids. ^^gj. ^i^g \^ater. Each of the four great wards 
was subdivided into three small wards, which also bore 
distinctive names. Conesford great ward was divided 
into South Conesford, North Conesford, and Ber Street ; 
Mancroft great ward, into Mancroft, St. Stephen's and 
St. Giles ; Wymer great ward, into East Wymer, Middle 
Wymer, and West Wymer ; and the great ward over 
the Water, into Fybridge, Colegate, and Ooslany. 
BepT«Mni«d Each of these twelve small wards was 
Jt*^J2L_, represented by two aldermen elected for life. 
Md rixt7 The common councillors represented the four 
JJ^^j^ great wards, but in unequal proportions. 


Conesford having twelve, Kancroft uzteen, Wymer twenty, 
and Om Ward over the Water twelve. 

S(xne important officials, such as tiie town cleric, 
recorder, chamberlain, and others, I pass over, because 
they do not represent any prindple of self-government, 
but are merely administrative omcers. Qoe deserves 
somewhat more prominent notice. There is now one 
Conner fw the citj : before the Beform Act there were 
two. To have a coroner was one of the earliest symbols 
of exempt jurisdiction. I do not, however, find that in 
Norwich the eoroaen ever took much part in the general 
government of the dty, ap they did in some places, and 
Uierdbre they hardly fall within ^e scope of my present 

8^«(tha The fall title of this corporate body was the 
?|T^2?TL nwyw, ahar^^ citUerUf and eommonaUy. If 
■mming this title was simply intended to describe the 
'^f- governing body (as I believe it was), and not 

the whole number of those in whose name they acted, 
then l^ the expression " citizens " must hare been meant 
the twenty-four aldermen; by the *' commonalty " the 
six^ common councillors. As we go further back we 
shall find support for this interpretation and some traces 
of the way in which these distinctions arose. It must be 
remembo^ in any case that this governing body did not 
pretend to represent the whole body of inhabitants, but 
the much more limited body of "freemen," who ex- 
dunvely possessed the power of electing their rulers. 

The organization in existence at the passing of the 
Uuniapal Beform Act was legally supponed to be derived 
from a charter of 15th Charles IL But practically it 
dated from the be^nning of the fifteenth century, when 
some very important changes took place. 
m,^^^ ^ These changes were not efiected all at once. 

They were the result of four distinct steps :— 

SJ^^ (\\ a royal charter of Henry IV., in 1403 ; 
U|««ta«dUi (2), an ordinance of the assembly, in 1404 ; 
'**'*^" (3), a com|)oaition between two dissentient 
parties in the community in 1415 ; (4), a royal charter 
of Henry V.j in 1417. It is necessary to state these 
changes with precbion, in order to understand clearly 
what HoA new constitution took the place of. / - ,,,.,. T,. 


Charter (rf 1- In 1403, the city obtained a charter, by 

a'ta'L^k which it was completely separated from the 

•ovn^. Ftw County of Norfolk and made a county of itself, 

jJl^C", «nd its mnnicipal organization was settled 

n^or and thoS :— 

twodMritt. j^j rpijg headship was to be vested in a 
mayor and two sheriflfs. These were to take the place of 
the fonr bailiffs, who had previously held the headship of 
the community. Stated more precisely, while the mayor 
took the place of the bailiffs as chief magistrate of ike 
city, he alHo added to this a new authority, wtuch they 
•n^fonytir ^^ °^^ possessed. He was the king's 
the king-a escheator. This was the chief difference be- 
*■*"•*"' tween him and the bailiffs, and the chief aspect 
which his office assumed from the king's point of view. 
Accordingly, he is not looked upon as taking the place 
Tbeiberiffi ^^ ^^^ bailiffs, but as holding a new office. 
JMtmdof The office of the bailiffs, who (to the king) 
were simply the stewards of the king as lonl 
of the city, was now transferred to two sheriffs, who 
acted as the king's officers, and who were the persons 
resi>onsibIe to tlie king for the future, as the bailiffs had 
been before, for the payment of the fee-farm rent of the 
city. In strict accordance with this view we find that 
the first mayor was elected on May Ist, 1403, soon after 
the receipt of the charter ; but the bailiffs finished out 
their year of office till Michaelmas, when two of them 
were chosen to be the first sheriffs. 

{b) Besides the mayor and two sheriffs the municipal 
body is only describeid generally in this charter as thu 
cUizeru and commonalty, and the same expression is used 
of their predecessors. The new rulers have confirmed to 
them the same authority which ** the bailiffs, citizens and 
commonalty, their predecessors, had, used, and enjoyed," 
before this alteration. 

(,,,y,„^^ 2. In the following year an important 
a«<iDbi7iD ordinance was made by the assembly, with 
^*'^ respect to the election of the two sheriffs. 

Eighty persons were to be elected yearly, who should be 
at all common assemblies by themselves. They were to 
nominate three persons for the office of sheriff, and 
present the names to the mayor and "probi homines," 


meaning, u will appear presently, twenty-four elected 
dtizena, a body uready in existence, and then the 
mayor was to name one sheriff, and the * proln homines " 
the other. Tbme eighty appear to be the first fonn of 
the fntore common conncil; and we may here obeerre 
for the first time m onr invesUgation a divei^euce of 
sympathy between two portions of the mimicipal body, 
what we may call the oligarchical and the popular 

Q^^^i^y^ 8. This airangemmt lasted only a few 
MdaktwMn years, and led to disputes, which were the 
taT£a'" sabject of a Compontion on February l4th^ 
1415. In this Composition the constituent 
portions of the municipal .body are called by new names. 
The " probi homines " are called " the twenty-four " or 
" the twenty-four conci^ens " or " the twenty-four of the 
mayor's conncil." The eighty now become sixty, and are 
TiMMMnm called "the commoa coundl" or "the com- 
"~~°- mona." They are to be elected from the four 

great divisions of the city, which now for the first time 
are called '* wards," having previously been called " Uets." 
The electors of the great wards are to choose a certain 
number for each of the sub-divisions of their own great 

iniiattoQ ti ThroRghout this Composition it is observaUe 
iMtAm. l]lf^^ constant reference is made to the con- 
stitution and practice of the CSty of London. The 
twenty-fonr '' shall stand in Norwich as they do in 
London." The mayor shall have the same authority to 
challenge or restrain one of the twenty-four " as the 
meyr of London hath." .The common council shall have 
the same power '* as the common council of London." 
ciu(Ur«< 4. This Composition did not settle the 

H-iyv. disputes between the mayor, sherifls, and 
twenty-four on the one hand, and the commons on the 
other. The settlement was finally made by a new charter 
of 5th Henry V. (1417). The chief point of the settle- 
ment had r^erence to the election of the sherifis, which 
had been the main subject in dispute. For the future, 
one sheriff was to be chosen by the mayor and twenty- 
four ; the other by the commons. An important change 
twm^-imu however is made with regard to the twenty- 
lUtnamt. four. For the first time thay are now calle^ioQlc 
** aidermm " ; and they are to hold oflSce for life, ^ 


The electors are described as " omnes cives habitantea 
et hospicia sua per se teaentes," all citizens who are 
rendent and have separate households. 

Various ordinances were made about the same time for 
the processions of the trade companies, and especially of 
the Guild of St Qeorge, and the new munidp^ building 
which was now erected was called " the guildhall " instead 
of the *' tolhouse," as the former one had been called. 

The sum total of these various changes and 
thfflr rationale seem to be as follows : — (a), the 
""""■^ mayor was new both in office and in name ; 
(b), the two sheriffs were new as to their name, but not as 
to their office. Instead, however, of representing the four 
cUvisions of the city as the four bulifis bad done, they 
represented two parts of the municipal body, which were 
not quite in sympathy with each other ; (c), the twen^- 
four citizens elected to form a council for the mayor, were 
not new in respect to their office, but they now assumed 
a new name, that of " aldermen," and entirely ceased to 
be representative by holding their office for life ; (d), the 
common council was a new body, and had a new title, 
except so far as it inherited the old appellation of t^e 
" commonalty." 

Copied tram It appears to me that the rationale of these 
^*''**- changes ia to be found in a desire not previously 

felt, to imitate the municipal conatitutjon of London. I 
have pointed out bow this is distinctly stated at one stage 
of ihe proceedings. It is still more apparent in the change 
of nomenclature, even when the substance remained the 
same. No other reason can be assigned for the introduc- 
tion of the term " aldermen " for the twenty-four citizens. 
The word had been in use in the city to describe the 
warden of a trade guild, and one citizen had been called 
the " alderman of the city hanse." But it is quite plain 
that the aldermen of tbe assembly were not wardens of 
trade guilds. They were in theory intended to represent 
the leading citizens, the " probi homines " of older times. 
The name was simply copied from Xjondon. 

The same explanation is to be given of the substitution 
of the term " wards " for the divisions of the city, in place 
of the earlier and more significant word " leets," and of 
VOL. riivi. 2a ->'.)Q Ic 

802 DETSLOPUBNT OP uhnicipal oboantzatioh. 

*'gaiIdhaU"for "tolhouse." The new building liad no 
more special oonDection with guildii than the old. The 
mayor of Londcm held his court in a " gaildhaU." It was 
thought becoming to the dignity of the mayor of Norwich 

IT.-^rAtf Old«r ConatUuiion. 
It win DOW become my bnsiueu to enter upon the more 
interefting subject of the older constitution which was 
thus replied. We have already seen that in Henry IV.'a 
charter, by wUch it was altered, it was described as the 
*' bailiffs, citizens, and comtiu>nalty" and we have seen who 
the ** dtizens " were, the twenty-four assessors first of the 
bulifis and then of the mayor, who became the " aldw- 
men." Even at that time, however, the term *' citizens " 
was usnally omitted, and at a slightly earlier time the title 
exclusively used was the " bailiffs andeommonaliy" " ballivi 
et conununitas." This was the earliest and simplest form of 
the municipal organization of Norwich, and it will be my 
endeavour to explain its origin and its character. 
Thne (t«p« td The propositions I hope to substantiate, or 
dar^powBi. at least to give good reasons for, are these ^— 

(a) The external framework c^ the oi^anization, viz., 
the four great divisions of the city, with which was con- 
nected the number of four bailifb, and also the sub- 
divisions of the four great divisions into twelve smaller 
ones, which ultimately became the twelve small wards of the 
city, arose out of the leet organization, governed by the 
requirements of the frankpledge system, 

(b) The "communitas' ori^nally meant the whole 
body of equal citizens. By degrees it came to be used 
for the community in its acting capacity for that 
portion which habitually acted on behalf of the rest 

(e) As a matter of public convenience this acting portion 
traiuferred its obligations, and in so doing transferred its 
power to a few, the elected twenty-four. The result was 
the formadon of an oligarchical spirit, which led to an 
alienation of interest between one class and another, and 
manifested itself, as we have seen, in the more complicated 
but less healthy course of municipal development which 
we have already traced. 

These three propositions can be conveniently b«ated 


under t,he three heads of {a) the BaiUfifl ; {b) the Com 
alty ; (c) the Twenty four elected CStizemi. 
niM ohBM ■^' *^® greater part of what I have to say is 
^BTig inri based upon unpublished documeati, I may here 
***""**^ mention three clasaea of documents, from which 
my opioioos have been chiefly fonned. 

(1) The most important is a series of Leet Bolls, in the 
posaession of the corporation of Norwich. They are seven 
m number, and their datea are, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19Ui, 
2l8t, 24th, and 28th Edward L (irom 1288-1299). 

(2) The next is a aeries of chapters of " Laws and 
Customs anciently used in the city of Norwich." These 
are preserved in the " Book of Fleas," a bound volume of 
special intereat in itself from certain peculiariUea of its 
structure. It was written in the time of King Henry YL, 
or somewhat later, and contains a valuable collection of 
Charters and Fleas relating to the public affairs of the 
city, the latter beginning with the Iter of 34th Henry III. 
The customs I have referred to appear frt>m internal 
evidence to have been reduced to " capitula " towards the 
middle of the fourteenth century. On the one hand, the 
mention of freedom from " murder finea " and " present- 
ment of Englishry," both of which were abolished in 1340, 
would place them before that date ; on the other hand, 
the *' twenty-four citizens " mentioned in two of the later 
chapters can hardly refer to a much earlier period. They 
resemble in general those of London, published in the 
L^er ABnis and Ltiter Cuslumarum, and tiiose of Ipswich 
in the second volume of t^e Black Book of the AdmiraU^t 
both of which are referred to the thirteenth century. 
The Norwich customs have a special value for my present 
purpose in the language they use with respect to citizen- 

(3) The third set of documents are the Enrolments of 
Deeds of Conveyance in the City Court, which waa a Court 
of Becord and answered in substance (and occasionally in 
name) to the Husting Court of London. The enrolments 
begin in the year 1285, and between that date 
and 1300 there are more than 1000 enrolments, the greater 
number of which run parallel with the Leet Rolls of the 
same period. The two together throw much light qbUm 
condition of the city at that time. ioOQlc 


IVa. — 17u Baiiiffs and the early Organization. 

TkoOetrf The Bai^f. I will begin with the Bailifia. 
■•'''* The word in its common use implies subor^nar 

tion to a superior lord, and there is no reason to doubt 
that it does so in ^ case of a boroogL At Norwich, at 
all events, tlie bulifis were "baUivi domini re^" tlie- 
representatives of the king's seignorial rights over the 
city. They were personally responsible to him for the 
payment of the fee farm renL It is not, however, from 
this point of view that we have now to consider them, 
but as the chief ma^trates of the city. They were the 
executive officers of a self-governing community. In this 
respect, their authority in the thirteenth century must 
have been very great, for till the following century there 
does not seem to have been any dejinite coundl to limit 
Uieir action. Into the details of how this authority was 
exercised in the administration of laws and customs and 
privileges I cannot pretend to enter. The three sets oi 
documents I have mentioned are full of interesting matter 
with respect to legal proceedings, but they require a legal 
truning to appreciate their significance, and they do not 
belong to my subject, which is the development of 
municipal organization, not of rights and privileges. 

I have stated that the expression " bailiffs and 
commooalty " describes the earliest form of municipal 
organization in this city. It might be more - correct to 
say it is the earliest form in which we can recognize any 
organization. The office of bailiff was first instituted in 
Norwich in 7th Henrjr m. (1223). For thirty years 
previooaly, the headship of the city had been in the 
iiMOpM- liandB of a provost (prepositus), elected by the 
v^*^" citizens fix)m among their own number. This 
privily was granted in 5th ^chard L (1194). 
Dit< Mhm There is some little difficulty in deciding at 
nu^goToii- what exact time the burgesses of Norwich 
•""""S"- acquired the right of Belf-govemment The 
first charter in existence is undated, but about the 29th 
Henry 11. (1182). It is couched in general terms, 
confirming the "customs, privileges, and acquittances'* 
enjoyed in the time of his grandfather, Heniy I. This 
has been held by BlomefieEd and others to imply that 


HvtMtte* Hetu-y L had previoiuly granted a charter. 
^BmMjL Blomefield ajoagoB a date for it, 1122; and 
specifies that from that time forward the ci^ was 
governed by a prspositns chosen hj the king, who 
accounted to htm annually for " the fee-fann or annual 
profits." He admits that no sach charter was known, but 
repeats on sereral rabseqaent occauoiu the same atateroent 
about the proTOSt accounting for the fee-fann of the tatj. 
I cannot find that he refers to any reliable eridence, ai^ 
if by " fee-farm," he means the consideration paid for the 
enjoyment of self-gorenmient, the atatement is not in 
TU cUfana accordancc with the clum of the dtizens them- 
mrOmiOm selvcs. In pleading against the commonalty 
J^JJ. of Yarmouth in 6th Edward IIL, after a wild 
BMjtL assertion that Norwich was a " villa mercatoria 
gj*^""^ et civitas regni Anglie" before Yarmouth was 
inhabited, they come to more definite history, 
and 3^ " Afterwards, before the time of memory, a cer- 
tain King of England, Henry son of the Empress [Heniy 
n.}, granted to the citizens the city with all liberties, &c., 
rendering therefor annually £108," whichsum is immedi- 
ately afterwards spoken of as the " firma civitatis." 
TiMOMMbwT Against this statement must be set another, 
by RidMrd L originating with the monks of the cathedral 
priory. In the document (undated, but not earlier than 
Bichard II.) called "Historia Fnndationis Ecclesie Cathe- 
dralis Norwicensis," inserted in full by Dugdale and also in 
the city " Book of Fleas," (fol. 59) occurs this 
passage — ^"Afterwards, in the 17th year of the r^gn of 
Stephen, which was the year of the Lord 1152, the com- 
monalty of Norwich made a fine and agreed, as it says, 
with the aforesaid king for having coroners and buli& of 
themselves ; but concerning this they have no charter, 
nor did they produce one in time of need, because never 
before the Conquest nor after for one hundred years and 
more did they have coroners or bailiffs of themselves, but 
only one bailifi*, who in the name of the king held courts 
and collected amercements, as it was in Beccles ot in 
Bongey or in other places where merchandize is sold. 
And afterwards, when Bichard I. was reigning, the afore- 
said Commonalty of Norwich took to farm, from the hand 
of the said King Bichard I., the City of Norwich with its 


francliiKfl and all its profits, as both the king himself had 
to that time held Uiem in his own hand, and as the 
Gharter <tf the aforesaid Elng Bichard testifies, the date 
<tf i^ioh is CMi the 6th day of Hot, in the 5th year of his 
rdgn, irtwA was the year of the Lord 1 194." 

^lese two statements agree in assigning the comm«ice- 
ment of monioipal independence in Norwidi to the dose 
of the twelfth ceotnry, and only difier as to time by an 
internl of twelve years. 

iM«Urh ^° balance of evidence seems in favour of 
EikBUMdL the statement of the monks on this particnlar 
point, for Henry's charter makes no mention of any grant 
of the city at fee-farm, whereas ffichard's does. Tlie Hpe 
Boll of 6th Kchard L also states, " the Gttzens of Nor- 
wich render accomit of two hundred mu-ks for having 
confirmatbn of the liberties of their city by charter of the 
Lord King Bichard, and for having their city in their hand, 
so that they should answer for the farm due at the 

"FmpiMitiit" By Bichard's charter they were allowed to 
ft "UffiTOi." choose a pnepositns from among themselves, 
subject to the king's approval, for their executive officer. 
This they continued to do till 1223, when Henry IE. 
allowed them to Bubatitute four bailiffs for the prsepositus. 
What advance of self-government was denoted by this 
change there is no direct evidence to show. Possibly it 
may have meant a real extension of jurisdiction in this 
manner : — " PrsBpositus " or " reeve " was the ordinary 
name for the head man of a " villa " or township, and ' 
•* ballivus " was certainly used, amongst other ways, for 
the presiding official in a hundred court. I find, for 
instance, in ue History of the Foundation of the Cathe- 
dral just referred to, that the monks complain that when 
license was granted to the citizens in 37th Henry III. to 
enclose the city with a foss, among other unwarrantable 
encroachments theye nclosed a place " where the bailiff 
of the Hundred of Taverham holds his courts until the 
present day." Possibly, therefore, the appointment of a 
*' pnepositns" marks the time when the free control of the 
burgh court and of " btuli& " when that of the hundred 
court was granted to the citizens. I will ezpltun this 
more fuUy when I speak of the leet jurisdiction with 


which the bailiffs were aflsodated, and which belonged to 
the business of the hundred court. 

Wh^ bar For my present purpose the most interesting 

t**"''^ feature in the appointment of bailifis ia the 

number fonr ; for it constitutes the first trace of what I 
have called the framework of the municipal organization, 
which continued unaltered till the passmg of tibe Uiini- 
cipal Beform Act in 16S5. 

OiMiwwtod The earliest existing evidence as to the mode 

*^^ of election of bwliffs, is in an Assembly Roll of 
^Tu^^iiM 39th Edward III. (1365). There was then one 
■■iwte.' bailiff elected for each of the four great 
divisions of the city, which were still called "leets." 
But at the much earlier date of 1288, we find the courta 
of these leets pre^ded over by the four bailiffs with an 
elaborate organization of sub-divisions subordinate to the 
four great divisions or leets. Although, therefore, the 
actual proof is not forthcoming, it seems impossible to 
doubt that from the very firet the four bailins and the 
four leets were intimately connected with each other. I 
will endeavour to shew briefly what these leets were. 
Msuungof tiu The subject has recently had some valuable 
""^ "Toet." light thrown upon it by Professor Maitiand of 
Cambridge, in the introduction to a yolume edited by him 
this year for the Selden Society, and entitled Sdect Pleas 
m Manorial Courts. To begin with ; a note on the ety- 
mology of the word " leet," has a bearing on its use in 
the case of these four divbions so called in Norwich. In 
that note the authority of Professor Skeat is quoted for 
the statement that "Leet" must be derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon hetan, to let or permit, referring to the 
jurisdiction permitted within a certun district. In some 
of the earliest instances, however, of its use quoted by 
Professor Maitiand, its meaning seems to be rather that 
of the geographical district than of the jurisdiction exer- 
cised within it. A similar sense is found in one of the 
" chapters of Norwich customs." The serjeant of the 
bailiffs is directed to serve summonses to attend meetings 
on certain leading citizens of each leet, twelve, ten, or 
Tba four ^ig^t, " pro quantitate lete," according to the 
keti of size of the leet. I mention this because the 

'*™'^ four original leets in Norwich were not m< 



8rbitm-|r ^vinoiu made for conTemence, bnt were topo- 
ffi^hically distinct portioiu of the city. In the earliest 
Leet Bolls they were, as they always remuned either under 
tbA name of leets or wards; (1), Conesford; (2), Man- 
oroft; (3), Wymer or Westwyk; (4), Over-the- Water. 
The first, third, and foar^ of these constituted the 
** ba^ni " of t^ Domnday Survey (T. B, E.), and must 
eren then have been distinguished from each other by 
thdrnatoralpontion. Coneaford was cut oB from Westwic^ 
by the Castle Hill and its enclosing earthworks, and boUi 
were separated by the riTer from the part on the northern 
nde. ^uie second, Mancroft, had a distinct origin. It 
was the " new burgh " added to the rest at the time of 
the Conquest I do not mean to assert that before the 
establishment of leet organization, these divisions were 
definitely separated for administrative purposes. It may 
have been so. I should rather surest that the organiza- 
tion was adapted to local drcumstancea, and was formed 
on the basis of four divisions, because there were four 
suitable natural divisions ready to hand. 
•ibtwah. '^^ origin of the sub-dwigiona of the four 

diTMioM Df leets can be somewhat more clearly traced, 
*^ '****' especially by the light of Mr. Maitland's con- 
elusions. Let me first briefly explain what these sub- 
divisions were : — The earliest existing Leet Boll is a roll 
of presentments of 16th Edward L (Lent, 1288.) It 
b^ms with the " Leet of Cunesford," in which die present- 
ments are made by three sets of capital pledges, the third 
bdng specified as for '* Berstrete." Then follows the 
** Leet of Manecrolt." The presentments are here made 
by only two sets of capital pledges, one for the parish of 
St. Stephen, the other for St. Peter de Manecroft. It is to 
be noted, however, that whereas in other cases the number 
of capital pledges is twelve, or one or two more, in Uane- 
croft twenty-three are sworn, so that it may be taken as 
counting for a double sub-divisiou. The name of the 
Leet of West^ck is omitted in this roll, no doubt by 
inadvertence. The presentments in it are divided amongst 
four sets of capital pledges, representing certain groups of 
parishes from St. Giles on the west to SL Martin before 
the Qate of the Bishop on the east. The Leet over the 
Water is divided between two sets of capital plo^ea, ■ 


oae set answering for four pariahes, the other for ten. In 
, the third of these rolU, which only contairu the present- 
ments for the Leet of Conesford, two of the three sab- 
divisions of that leet are given more precisely. The first 
set of Bwom presentors answers for six parishes, occapying 
^e southern half of Conesford Street ; the second for 
four parishes at the northern end of the street as far aA 
Tombland. Berstrete and the rest of the dty are missing. 
Twdntiia The numbcr of sub-divisions thus specified 

iMi iiaiiii»r. ig eleven, but if we count Mancroft with iti 
double number of presentors for two, we have twelve, 
which became the permanent number. The only altera^ 
tion subsequently made was by a slight re-arrangement. 
In the time of lUchard [I., according to a list in the dty 
Domesday of tenements chargeable with the payment of 
landgable, St. Giles had been transferred to the Mancroft 
leet ; and ultimately when the four leets became the " four 
great wards " of the revised municipality, eacli great ward 
was sub-divided into three smaller ones. To effect this 
the divisions of the ward of Westwick or Wymer were 
reduced from four to three, and those of the Ward over 
the Water were increased from two to three. 'ITiese 
re -arrangements were doubtless arbitrary and done for 
the sake of symmetry, the whole municipal organization 
of aldermen and common councillors being based upon 
origis of tiia them, as we have seen. But the original sub- 
■ab-dhinoDi. divislons Were not arbitrarily made, but arose 
out of the requirements of the system of frankpledge. 

The Leet organization of Norwich in the thirteenth 
century seems fully to confirm Professor Maitland's con- 
clusions, and those conclusions help to explain our 
munidpal development His conclusions are Uiese. He 
points out that the term " court leet " is of comparatively 
late use. Originally, to claim a Uet was equivalent to 
claiming view of fra-nkpUdge. Now, by the la'vs of Henry 
Mizton of L, the shenfi* was bonnd to hold a f:iU hundred 
ft^jTwrn" '^'"^ ** ^® ^^^ ^ were in frankpledge, i.«., 
■nd erimtiwi that all males of twelve years old and upwards 
prawDtouuiu. ^^th certain permitted exceptions) were en- 
rolled in tithings or associations of ten or twelve for 
mutaal pledge or responsibility. Either the reeve and 
four men of the township, or in other cases the capital 

■ vol. XI.TI. 8 ft 


pledges, i.g., the diief men of the tithings, were bound to 
appear at the handred court to answer to this enquiry. 
At a later time King Henry XL, by the Assize of Qareodon 
in 1166, orduued that in eveiy county and every handred 
dther the justices or the shenfs should make enquiry by 
twelve lawftd men of tJie hundred and four of every 
township concerning robbers and other offenders. Some- 
what 1j^ the more serious offences, as homicide, w«« 
reserved fw the judgment of the crown, bat the present- 
ments before the sheriff were allowed to include encroach- 
ments, nnisances, and such offences. Mr. Mutland's theory 
is that to this Assize is to be referred the origin of the 
" sheriff's team," where sach offences were tried, and that 
the two jansdictions of the sheriff thus became mingled 
together. The capital pledges, or fonr men of the town- 
ship, who came to cerafy to the carrying out of the law 
of frankpledge were utilized as the most suitable persons 
to make the presentments of offences required by the 
Assize of Clarendon. He thinks, further, that the lords 
of private jurisdictions who claimed to hold the view of 
frankpledge proceeded to imitate the practice of the 
sheriff, and receive from the capital {hedges of th^ 
tithings presentments of offences similar to those pre- 
sented to the sheriff at his toum. It was to these private 
coorts that the term ** leet " came to be applied, and it is 
interesting in this city to observe that he states that the 
word apparently had its origin in East Anglia, and in the 
tiiirteraiui century was scarcely used elsewhere. 
Twoeautoin "^^ thcoiy accounts very well for the in- 
KorwkL stitution of bailiffs in Norwich in the early 
TiMdtjeaarb ^^^ ^^ jj^^ thirteenth century. There were 
towards its close, and no doubt long had been, two courts 
in Norwich. There was the city court called " curia 
theobnii " because it was held in the tolhouse or tolbooth. 
linn was, I suppose, the "huating" mentioned in the 
charter of Bichard I. This court may have been presided 
over in the twdfth century, as the monks affirmed, by Uie 
one bailiff who in the name of the king held courts and 
collected amercements. I have suggested that under the 
charter of Eichard L the control and profits of this court 
were granted to the citizens under a provost of th^ 
own ekctiou. 



ni.Bii«iffi '^^ other court was the sheriflTa court, or 
cr ooDBty county court, called ** curia comitatus," a&d 
^"^ situated inside the enclosnre of the castle. 

Here the sheriff would suuunon the hundred court for the 
view of frankpledge, and here afterwards he would hold 
his toum, and the presentments ordered by tilie Asmze of 
Clarendon would be made. 

I would suggest then that the appointment 
j^fJ^JtaiLt **^ bailiffs meant this — that the hnnared court 
arblai& busine-ss, the view of frankpledge and the pre- 
^"^^^^^"^ sentments, was now placed under the control 
of the dtizens and transferred to their own 
court. The four bailiffs took the place of the 
sheriff of the the twosherins afterwards 
UDifi^ crnut. took the place of the four bsdliffs. The citizens 
were allowed to hold their own leet, try their 
own offenders under their own officials, and place the 
amercements in their own common chest towards paying 
the king's fee-farm rent. I should conclude that the. 
division of the city into four leets took place at that time. 
I should rest this conclusion on the fact that there were 
four bailiffs, and as I have pointed out there were four 
natural divisions of the city. It must be observed how- 
ever, that though the business not only of each leet but 
of each sub-division of a leet was conducted on different 
days, the four bailiffs unitedly presided over the whole. 

b^irij— "^^ sub-divisions are accounted for by the 
mdndod mixture of criminal jurisdiction with the 
^^^ law of frankpledge. The presentments were 
made by the capital pledges of the tithings. 
But the law of the land as inteipreted by the Itinerant 
Justices required that there should m every case be not less 
than twelve presenters. If a lord could not produce 
twelve capital pledges, his clum to hold a " leet " was 
disallowed. Hence, when the four city leets were «ub- 
cUvided to bring the business within manageable limits, it 
was necessary to group together at least as many parishes 
as would contain twelve tithings, and could therefore 
produce twelve capital pledges. 

The sub-division of the leets was therefore to some 
extent dependent originally on the density of the popula- 
tion in different parts of the city. It must not be supposed, 


howerer, that the population was just Bufficient to produce 
twelve sets of capital pledges, represeoting 144 tithings. 
At the Leetof 1288 the total number of capital pledges 
making presentments was 160 besides 12othen who were 
apparently present though not swom. Kor did the tlthii^ 
contain just 10 or 12 persons. There is in existence a roll 
(Leet Boll No. 9) containing the names of all persons 
enrolied in tithings in the Leet of Mancroft about the year 
1307. The tithings are there of most unequal size, 
some of them very large. Probably from the first the 
number of separate courts of presentment was intentionally 
limited to twelve, each of which fulfilled the condition of 
iaclading at least twelve tithings. As I have observed, 
the unit of association was the parish. Adjoming parishes 
were grouped together in larger or smaller numbers, 
accorduig to the number of tithings they contained. 

TVb. — The Commonalty and Citizenship. 
Tha "oom. Tlu Communxtaa. Having thus endeavoured 

muBitM." to throw some light on the origin of the 
earUest executive officers of the community, and the 
frame trork of the system they were elected to administer, 
I have next to see what traces can be found of the origin 
and early history of the communita»y in whose name they 
were supposed to act. The question of the original sig- 
nificance of the expression is rendered the more difficult 
at least here in Norwich (and I think the same is true else- 
where), because by the time it appears in eziBting 
documents It already has two diflerent meanings. Some- 
times it is u»ed in what, no doubt, must have been ita 
original sense of " the common body of dtizens," between 
whom no distiactlons are as yet recognised. But side by 
side with this general meaning is plainly a more restricted 
one, according to which it means that particular portion 
of Uie body which at the time was acting for the rest. 
There is not indeed, as yet, the deliberate election of a 
small number to represent the rest, which did not take place 
in Norwich till towards the middle of the fourteenth century. 
By that time a decided distinction between two classes of 
citizens, the higher and the lower, had developed itself and 
thenceforward took a permanent form, and the expression 
" communitas," which in its first change was restricted to 
the higher class became finally attached to the lower. 


itabnwitr ^ ^® ^^^^ **" *'^* **'' *'^° °^ ^'^ earliest 

mnniDg^ occurreQces of the word, we shall see how the 
-k^uhHm meaning WW in its first stage of tranrntion. In 

a deed of conveyance, for instance, of 13th 
Edward L, a piece of land in St. l^eter Mancroft was 
granted by John Page to John de Bonhale, It abutted 
on the weU-known stream called " the Cokeye," and leave 
was granted to John the grantee to bnild over the Cockey, 
preserving its due course, according to the tenor of a deed 
which John the grantor held " ez commnnitate civinm 
Norwici." Here the "coramunitas civium" would 
natorally mean " the general body of the citizens." The 
same must be ike meaning when the "communitas" is 
sud to have a seal In Novembu*, 1285, letters patent 
of a person acting in Norwich as attorney for one at 
Leicester are sealed "sigillo communitatis Norwici" in 
witness of his seat In June, 1286, an agreement between 
*' the bailifls and other citizens " of Norwich and some 
foreign woad merchants is sealed " sigillo communitatis 
Norwici." In the same roll of deeds is a specially interest- 
ing memorandum of 9th March, 1290, recording how 
Roger de Tndenham delivered " to the conununitas " all 
the charters and other valuable public documents then 
preserved among the city archives (all specified by name). 
And the same day he delivered to the communitas 
" sigiUum suum sue communitatis " their seal of their 
commonalty. And all these above written were by t^e 
assent of the *' communitas " delivered to James Nade and 
three others. In all these cases " communitas " can mean 
nothing short of the whole body of citizens. There was 
no limited portion of them which could possibly be sud 
to have a seal 
, But, when we turn to another early entry we 

find this meaning must be modified. In the 
.««.. Assize Holl of 14th Edward I. is an account of 

a certun Walter £^he, who had been hung, 
but, on being taken to be buried, was found alive. He is 
stated to have been indicted at the leet of the city, and 
afterwards charged with theft — " coram Ballivis et tota 
commnnitate totius civitatis in Tolboth." It appears, by 
the 4th chapter of Customs, that thieves caught with 
stolen goods were to be judged " in Curia Civitatis coram ■ 


Ooron&tcHibai et BaUivia." Tim ttffceea with the above 
deflcripUon, **tota commaniute totiiu dvitaUs," whidi 
would mean Halt, whereas at the laetM the bodiuia of the 
dty was subdivided into elevMi aecticnts, the penona who 
were ordered to be arrested were brousht before a court 
at the iriwle city. But plainly, in thu caee, the " tota 
oommnaitas " can oalj mean those persons who dther 
chose to ocHne or were spedallj summoned. Hie 
"tolbooth" or "tolhouse" was a small building wfaidi 
preceded the present guildhall, and no great number of 
citizens could have been present in it at one time. It 
will be noticed that the ezpresuon is not " commonitas 
dvium," but " commonitas civitatis." 
Q^,. Beyond, however, the evidence of merely 

•rahrtfan ci isolated expiesslons, there are, I believe, in the 
J*?^**^ three classes of documents I have alluded to 
(the chapters of Ancient Customs, the Leet 
Bolls, and theBoUa of Deeds), valuable traces to be found 
of the way in which a distinct governing body, in addition 
to the executive ofBcers, evolved itself by a natural pro- 
cess from the general body of citizens, and finally became 
entirely separate from them. 

„ In the first place there was the natural 

heaJaSlr teadenCT to leave the adminbtraUon of afiairs 
2^jJ^ in the hands of the few who were able and 
willing to bear the burden. Moreover, as self- 
government embraced a more extended sphere of action it 
mvolved more pecuniary responsibility to the Crown. 
The more substantial merchants and dtizens therefore 
naturally formed the administrative class. They were the 
" probi homines," so often mentioned in early documents ; 
the men whose integrity and financial credit marked them 
as best fitted to lead their fellow-citizens, and to be dealt 
with by the king or merchants of other communities. 
The distinction thus naturally created was emphasized l^ 
the Law of Frankpledge. That law was not imposed upon 
every one. Its object was to retain ahold on an offender. 
Li the case of clerks (perhaps only those in ecclesiastical 
orders) this responsibility was transferred to their 
stm hrthBT ecclesiastical superiors. There was also another 
br bw of ' privileged class of persons of indefinite char- 
^•'*''*^ acter, whom Bracton and other autiiorities call 


** magnates." The theory was that these persoiu were so 
publicly known that there was no occaaion for others to 
answer for them. There are traces of sach a class in 
Korwiuh in the thirteenth century, though it iscUfficolt to 
forniah any very definite proof of their existence. Some 
such trace may be found in the early Leet Bolls which 
seem to cUsdose the presence in Court of persons who 
were independent of and apparently saperior to the 
capital pledges. It may, indeed, be shewn by a comparison 
with the contemporary Conreyance BoUa that as a rule the 
capital pledges did not belong to the highest class. With 
some exceptions they were not among t£ose who hdd the 
office of bailiff, or possessed a large amount of proper^ in 
tiie city. The way in which the names of several leading 
dtjzens occur in the leet rolls is curious and suggestiTe. 
Frequently, when a person is amerced for some 
offence, a marginal note says " condonatur ad instantiam 
A. B. or C. D.," the names of the persons who 
exercised thb privilege being tiiose of the best 
known substantial citizens. They were not of equal 
authority with the bailiffs, for when the bailiffs pardoned 
anyone the entry is " condonatur per ballivos." But they 
appear to occupy a position between the bailitft and the 
sworn presentora. 

aumpMor "^^ process of the natural selecUonof the 

Um pnxwM few to do the work belonging to tbe whole is 
"""^ .^ actually illustrated for us in the 45th chapter 
of customs. A complaint is made that when occasion 
arose to hold an assembly for the common good of the city 
and the coantiy, the " coucives civitatis," although sum- 
moned, did not take the trouble (non curant) to come, to 
the great hindrance of public business. It was therefore 
ordained that for calling tc^tber the commonalty (con- 
vocando communitatem) the sworn seijeant of the bailiffs 
should serve summonses for particular days on ** meli- 
oribus et discretioribus " of each leet. The setjeant of 
the leet was to come with a panel prepared, and read out 
the names of those summoned to appear for that day. 
Absentees were to be cited to appear " coram ballivis et 
aliis bonis viris decivitatc ad hoc intendentibus " to purge 
their default. If they had no sufficient excuse to offer, 

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they were to be fined tvo ahillings, one to go to the 
baiUfiji, '* pro eorum labore," and the other to the " ccmiu 
munitaa." From thii syttem. of spedal anmnumies to the 
annual election of a few reprenntativea from each leet 
was only a reasonable procesa of development. 
onwA <d Meanwhile, another influence had been n^- 

^Sy^ ^^7 working in the same cUrecUoo. ^Diere 
^p[to had grown np a change of idea with r^ard to 
dOiadL^ dtizouhtp. This is apparent by a comparison 
of the language used in the thne sets of records I am 
now quoting binm. 

Atw—iin Although in this respect the Leet Bolls 
tkiLMtBoib repreamt the intermediate stage between the 
*i2J*«^ other two, I will take them first, for they 
require Uttle explanaUon. In the Leet Itolfs 
the " dvis " or " concivis" is a privileged trader. A. man 
is presented and fined, " quia emit et vendit tanquam 
concivis nee est de libertate nee unqnam fecit introitum," 
because he buys and sells as a fellow-citizen, and is not of 
the freedom, and has never made bis entrance, i.e., has 
never paid his admission fee. The " freedom " here is 
freedom to make money by trading, to the exclusion of 
others who are not members of the privileged community. 
This is the ordinary notion of citizenship, which expressed 
itself afterwards in the technical term " freeman." 

If now we turn to the chapters of Customs 
"aMtoB*" 'We find some most valuable traces of an earlier 
2j^^^ stage of thought and feeling. In those cus- 
toms, besides the words " civis " and *' con- 
<avis," a citizen is frequently called a " par civitatis." 
In chapter zxvii. a " par civitatis " is distinguished from 
a '* fonnsecus." In chapter xxidx. it is ordered that a 
servant should not be allowed to trade as partner with 
his master, nutil be has made his entrance solemnly sod 
become a "par civitatis." The word occurs in several 
other chapters, but by far the most important is 
chapter xxxvi, the title of which is "De Introilibos 
ad Farem Civitatis," where the word " par " seems 
to be used for "equality" and to answer to the 
" Ilbertas " of the Leet UoUa. No one, it saya, who has 
become a resident in the city, is to merchandize in it 

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unleBS he u at lot and scot of the city, and contoibntes to 
ltd common aids. And, forasmnch as all who are received 
" in parem civitatis " are free^ and not tht stnanta of 
any one, "non servi alicnjiu," they are to make their 
entrance in solemn form in the presence of those who are 
assigned for that porpose by the whole " commmutas," 
tw^e of whom mast be present or the admission will not 
be valid. In qnisition on oath is to be made with respect to 
the candidate's property. If he has not been an apprentice 
he is to pay at least twenty shillings ; if an apprentice, 
one mark, and produce a testimonial from his master and 
his neighbonra. The new citizen " ille novus par civitatia " 
shall give security that he will within a year of his recep- 
tion "in parem, provide himself with a fixed dwelling- 
place for himself and his household, if he has not got one 
already ; otherwise, when the year is complete, he is to be 
reckoned as an " extraneus " as he was before. 

l^e view of citizenship here expressed has something of 
the same spirit of excluxiveness which appears in the Leet 
Bolls, but It is not the prominent feature. A citizen is one 
who takes his common share in the common burdens of 
freedom. And the " freedom " is distinctly defined as 
freedom from feudal servitude. This must certainly be 
the meaning of " liber et non servus alicujus." We may 
observe in passing, that here is apparent the origin of the. 

rlification of municipal electors given in Henry Y.'s 
rter, "omnea cives habitantea et hospicia per se 
tenentes." To have a house did not give a man a claim to 
citizenship, but every citizen was required to have a house 
as a security that the " communitas could distrain npon 
him in case of default. 

With respect to the use of this expression " par civita- 
tis," it mast, of course, have been of Norman introduction, 
but I have no doubt it is to be assigned to a date antece- 
dent to that of our existing documents, i.«.,. to the very 
earliest times of self-government. It was certdnly not in 
common use at the close of the thirteenth century or later. 
It is found two or three times in the Ipswich Domesday 
{Black Book of the AdminUty, vol. ii. ; Introduction xxiii. 
and p. 136 n.j, and Sir Travers Twisa, the editor, remarks 
on its use in that town as equivalent to citizen. Its trans- 
lation in other cases as *' peer " has led to the supposition , 


that it meant a *' m^nate " of the citr, but its ase in 
Norwich as the equivalent of "cins is even more 
nnqocetionablB than at Ipswich, It is possible it may 
have been used in some form of admission to the freedom 
oi the dfrf, and so have lingered on long after it was 
disused else^ere. So late » 19th Edward DX it was 
found by an inqniution that Richard Baa and Henry Btok 
were "dves et pares," dvitatii Norwid through thdr 
parents who had been admitted long before (Old Free Jiook, 
fol xii). 

Thai in the Chapters of Customs and the Leet Bolls we 
may trace the citizen exchanging his first simple sense of 
freedom from the burden of feudal service for the trade 
exduuvenesB, which not only then but long afterwards 
was reckoned the only safe road to prosperity, 
inthaaonii ^ ^^^ third cUsB of documents, the E^irol- 
BMDttaroam- ments of Deeds, there is still another stage of 
l^^dMi. development to be traced. If I am not mis- 
taken the term "civis" is beginning to be 
ezdusively applied to a limited oligarchy, from which the 
rulers of the city are taken, or, to reverse the proposiUoa, 
the limited body of substantiiU dtizens into whose hands 
the public business naturally drifted, areseen falling into the 
position of an oligarchy and appropriating to themsdves 
ezdusivdy the title of "civis. The evidence for this 
statement is as foUows : — ^In these enrolments the entries 
mostly run thus — " Be it observed that on such a day, A. 
B., merchant, draper, tanner, fishmonger, baker, &c., (as 
the case might be,) came into the full court of Norwich, 
and acknomedged that he had granted to C. D. (sinularly 
described as of some trade) a piece of land, or honse, or 
^p, &C.'' Now, as we have seen in the Customs 
that none but citizens were allowed to trade, and in 
ti>e Leet Bolls that persons were fined for trading without 
being dtizens, it seems necessarily to follow that all these 
traders who passed or received various pieces of property 
must, according to the language of those documents, have 
been "citizens." But in the Conveyance Bolls we find 
the titie " Civis Norwici " used in a peculiar manner. 
Sometimes, both the grantorand grantee wiU be so des- 
cribed in addition to their occupation, as "merchant, 
dtizen of Norwich," or " tann^*, dtizen of Norwich," and 


BO on. Sometimes one has the addition and the oUier not ; 
sometimes neither has it. Moreover, on further invesUgar 
tioD, it appears tiiat there are certain persons comitantlj 
occurring, who are scarcely ever mentioned without this 
addition. Again, in a consideirable number of cases 
" dtizen of Norwich " stands alone, certain persons being 
halHtually so described without any trade or occupation 
being given. 

After consulting any large number of deeds, an im- 
pression is left on the mind that the title is intended to 
mark some distinction between those to whom it is given 
and osiers. Thu is confirmed by a systematic examina- 
tion of the' cases in which the title is used. An index of 
several hundred names, occurring in about 900 enrolled 
deeds between 1285 and 1298, gives the following results 
on this point. Bather more man 150 persons have this 
title — *' citizen of Norwich " — attached to their names : 
of these, about one-third are not otherwise described. 
Of the remainder, numbering about one hundred, no 
less than thirty-two are described as " merchants," and 
twenty-four as drapers and lyndrapera. Possibly some of 
these latter may be included among the " merchants." 
It is not quite clear what is meant by a " merchant." 
Probably th^ were the persons who travelled about to 
the various fairs, which were the great centres of ex- 
change, and who would naturally be the wealthiest 
traders in the city. The rest of those called *' citizens of 
Norwich " are distributed mnong a great variety of occu- 
pations, but very few among the lower and unskilled 
handicrafts. From another point of view a still more 
suggestive result is obtained. Of forty-nine " merchants," 
at least thirty-two are described as " citizens of Norwich"; 
^rteen out of nineteen '* lyndrapers " ; eleven out of 
fourteen " drapers," On the other hand, out of fourteen 
*• fabera " not one is so described ; out of twenty-eight 
*' pistors " or bakers, only five ; out of thirteen butchers, 
four. Once more : during this period twenty-seven per- 
sons held the office of bailiff, and of these, seventeen are 
found among the number of those described as " citizens." 

I think these facts are sufficient to warrant theconclusion 
that in these Conveyance Itolls a political idea of citizen- 
ship as specially belonging to the ruling dass is e^ressed. 


In one instance Uie word seenu to be thus applied to the 
class. In an enrolled deed of 19th Edwud L (1290) 
license to bnild a stall is granted by the " Oommonitaa 
Norwid et ^ves ejoBi^m C^Titatis." The explanation of 
the differ^ice on this point between them and the oast- 
temporary Leet BoUs is that the Leet was the popular 
ooortf and naed the popular language ; while die enrot 
ments, which were in the hands of me sworn clerk of the 
bailifis, were exprased according to the sentiments of 
that upper sodal stratum which had appropriated to itself 
the name of citizen. 

lVc.--Bouf the "Commonalty" beeanu **Citiem» and 


The tioenty-four citizens. The social and 
burnpr*^' political development already traced resulted 
"g^** m the course of the fourteendi century in the 
definite establishment of a small representative 
body, representing nominally the whole of the citizens, 
but practically omy the upper class. By this further 
development the term " commnnitaa," which had orif^nally 
meant the whole body of citizens, and then had come to 
be restricted — though only informally aod in the ex- 
pression of official acts — to that portion which habitually 
acted for the rest, assumed a new phaK. It became parted 
into two. Instead of " communitas " it became '* cives et 
communitas." And with this new expression the same pro- 
cess took place as before. For a time it is merely informal, 
the ** cives " being the class from whose ranks the admin- 
istrators are habitually drawn, the ** communitas " the rest 
of the community of citizens. But as a permanent repre- 
sentative body becomesa definitely realized instltntioninthe 
city, the term *' cives " becomes restricted to the twenty- 
four elected citizens, who at a not much later period 
become an entirely distinct estate of the municipality, the 
court of twenty-four aldermen. 

Meanwhile the "communitas," thus cut off from its 
leading members, rapidly passes through a similar process 
itself. It evolves out of its own body a second set of 
representatives, the common council, apparently a aaiaa- ■ , 


what sudden mtJx>dnction into the city of the practice of 
IxmdoiL Tiua second set of representativee, like the first, 
was c^cially denoted by the name of the body it 
lepresented, the " commanitu " ; and the official Utle of 
the revised mtmicipal organisation became " mayor, 
Bherifibj citizens, and oonunonal^." 
n«ir;n)b- ^^ whai precise time twenty-four citizens 

•u^dmuof were first annually elected to form a council of 
***"■ assessors to the baliifis by way of representation 

of the "CSommunitas " is not easy to determine. Blome- 
field gives a definite statement on this subject. He 
saya :—*' In 1368, at an assembly held in Vndtsnn-week, 
it was ordained, by universal consent of the dty, that the 
bailifis should be yearly chosen at Michaelmas by thebon- 
gentz, or the commons of the city, who shall also then 
choose twenty-four out of themselvea as common council 
to represent themselves in all assemblies .... and no 
common seal shall be set to anything without the twenty- 
four consenting and tiie chief of the commons." Unfor- 
tunately, the book from which he quotes is the Cuatomt 
Book, and no such book is now in the posaesaion of the 
corporation. The statement reads like an authoritative one, 
but it is necessary to reconcile it with other evidence. 
At the commencement of tiie Old Free Book, foL 5, at 
Michaehnafl, 18th Edward IIL (1344), aHer the names of 
the four buliOs come the " names of the twenty -four in 
the same year elected and ordained by the whole commu- 
nitas, in the presence of whom, or of the greater part of 
them if all cannot be present, the business of the cilr 
touching the communitas " deducerentur in actis." I think 
this last expression means " miebt be enrolled,'' for in the 
first Conveyance Boll each deed is said to be "inactitata," 
for which is afterwards substituted *' irrotulata," enrolled. 
These twenty-four are made up of six from each laet of 
the city, Coniesford, Mancroft, Wymer, and Ultra Aquam, 
Li the following year (fol. 12) the twenty-four are said to 
be elected " de civitate Norwici, pro conununitate et 
uegotiis eiusdem ordinandia et custodiendis per idem 
tempus." These entries certtunly se«n to refer to a 
representative body elected for a whole year. 

This would agree with references to the " twenty-four " 
in two of the chapters of Customs. In chapter xlvi. it is 
ordained that for tiie prevention of fraud in trades there 


Bhonld be chosen from each trade two, Uiree, or four 
anpervifon, according to the importance of ^e trade. 
ThieM rapervison are to be choeen "per baUivoB et 
vi^ti qnatnor de dntate oommuniter electoa," and they 
are gmxn to make a visitation of each teade four times a 
year, and report every case of fiwid to the twen^-^nr. 
If' the Buperrisors fidled in their dnty it was the bnoness 
of the twenty-fbor to depose them as consentients to the 
frand. I may remark thiU this ntting to receive reports 
of frand is exactly what the court of twenty fonr aldermen 
weredcnng in 1492, as rectn'ded in a book ralJber miscalled 
the Fint Book of Wontead Wtavert ; and I suspect that 
this was one of tiie ways in which the *' twenty-four," at 
first naturally and aiterwards tatentionally, alMorbed by 
d^ees the judical authority of the earlier and popular 
** Leet " Courts. The following chapter (zlvii.) ndates to 
the just assessment and collection of tallages and other 
costs as between rich and poor, and orders that the collec- 
tors and receivers and the chamberlun of the city should 
render an account annually on thn Feast of the Nativity 
of the Virgin Uaiy and at oUier times if thought requisite 
** in the presence of the twenty-four, or the greater part 
of them who should be in the city." Here again we have 
the ** twenty-four " as an organized body, and perhws at j 

even an earlier date than the entries in Ute Old jFre$ Botk. 
On the other hand there is also evidence which seems 
to pmnt to a later origin. The earliest " Assembly Bt^ " 
is ^ 39lh Kdward m. (1365) and there are several others 
of a few years later. They contain minutes <^ proceed- 
inm at Assemblies. Most of the meetings are called 
" Communis Congrc^atio," but that held in ^ptember for 
the election of buMs is called "Magna Congr^atio." 
Listead of the commons electing the bailiffi, and thm 
also choosing twen^-four to represent themselves in all 
assemblies, as in the statement quoted by Blomefield, 
all these early Asnembly Bolls ^ee in recording the 
first business of this great assembly as being the election 
by the " communitas " of twenty-fonr persons (six from 
each leet) for the special purpose of chosing baiMs. The 
six of each leet appear to have chosen a bailiff for th«r 
own leet. The names of the twenty-four are always given, 
but there is no record of their acting for any other pu5t)n|(> 



pose. In 2nd lUchard II. (1878) the citizens of Norwich 
petititmed parliament, that, by reason of " many defaults 
and mischief," and because ** of late many of the. com- 
m<malty had been very contrarious," they mi^^ht have a 
charter, granting to the bailiffs and twenty-four citizens 
to be elected yearly by the comm<HiaIty " power to make 
or amend ordinances for the common profit of the people." 
A charter to that effect was granted the same year. 
vbtLffobA' The conclusion I ahonld arrive at from all 
lutdd^of ''^^ evidence is that the annual election of a 
theiaortMatii representative body of twenty-foor citizens 
**"*"^- came into existence by an informal practice 
of the city before the middle of the fourteenth century ; 
that in 1368, as quoted by Blomefield, it was more formally 
recf^nised as an established institution, and finally on the 
accession <^ lUchard II. it was confirmed by royal charter, 
the confirmation evidently at that time being sought for 
by the " Gives " or upper class of citizens, as agiunst the 
" Communitas " or lower class. 

From that time the style of the municipal body became 
" Ballivi, Cives, et Communitas," by which style it is des- 
cribed as we have seen in the charter of Henry IV. in 
1403, the *' cives " being the twenty-four and the " com- 
munitas " the whole body of citizens, who retained rights 
of election and probably of presence at some of the 
assemblies, though they had little or no power of govern- 
ment. That this is the right interpretation of " cives " in 
this expression as used in the Charter I take to be proved 
by the consideration that, however much the upper class 
might have appropriated to themselves the name of 
" citizen," and however true it may be that the " twenty- ' 
four " practically represented only the substantial citizens 
or " probi homines," snch a distinction between one class 
of citizens and another was unknown to the royal author- 
ity which granted charters. In the official langaage of a 
charter the " cives " represented the " communitas," and 
the only distinction the royal authority or parliament 
would recognize was that " twenty-four citizens " were 
set apart from the rest and added to the bailifis as a part 
of the executive. The "ballivi et cives" theoretically 
administered the afiairs of the city in the name of the 
"communitas." r~^ t 


How the " twenty-four" became nnder the 
chazten of Henry IV. and V. the '* twen^-foar 
^^^g of tha mayor's council " and then the " twenty- 
four aldermen " ; and how the " communitas " 
obtained a more direct share in t^e government of the 
city by the annual election of six^ common councillors, 
I utve already related in speaking of the revision which 
the mnoicipal oonititution underwent at the commence- 
ment of the fifteenth century, when it assumed substan- 
tially the same form which it held until the Befonn Act, 
and I have thus completed the line of my historical 

7. — Wa$ Ae dmdopmmU ivjkunetd by a Merekatd-GwUd} 
or by CrafUGuSds t 

Such an investigation would, however, be in- 
complete without some inquiry into an important 
*■"* — question, — Was the early municipal develop- 
ment of ike City of Norwich influenced by any mercantile 
guild organization, such as existed in some other places, 
and which some writers have thought to be the foundaUon 
of all munidpal organization T If by a Merchant Guild 
is meant an organization of traders for the conb-ol of 
trade, independent of what is more strictly called muni- 
cipal orgamzation for the management of the general 
business of a community, the answer must be, — it was 
not What may have been the case before munidpal 
self-government and written records begin, we do not 
know. No doubt many of the " liberties and privileges " 
confirmed by Henry II had reference to trade and com- 
merce and imply some internal organization. But 
so far back as recorded evidence goes, there is 
no trace of any divided jurisdiction. All the evidence 
points in the other direction. From first to last the whole 
control of trade in all its details has in Norwich been in 
the hands of the civic rulers of the city, the executive of 
the municipal constitution whose history I have endeavour^ 
ed to trace. 

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-: ^. Some of the evidence bearing on this point 

Um oMirai u hu already come before ns. We have seen 
J]JJ^J5ii» ^*» *" ^^ fourteenth century, the supervision 
of each trade was placed in the hands of certain 
persons chosen by the bailifls and twenty-four elected 
citixens, to whom all cases of fraudnlent work were to be 
Tep(»ted. In the thirteenth centnty violations of trade 
regulations were among the presentments made at the 
leets, at which courts the bailifis acted as the presidents, 
and the amercements were made by " aSeerers " chosen by 
the capital pledges. Perhaps the moat important piece of 
evidence is a document entered in the City Domesday, fol. 
77. It is a (»mnuss;QD, in the name of the bailiffs and 
goaboUM citizens of Norwich, dated 13tb Edward T. 
"Burnt." (1285), appointing Adam de Toftes Alderman 
of the Hanse. It recites that, among the liberties and 
customs granted to the ancestors of the Citizens of Nor- 
wich and confirmed to them by the king then reigning 
was one which had been in use for a long time, viz. , " that 
the Citizens of Norwich should elect one of themselves 
Alderman of their Hanse, to execute that office in the 
fairs of St. Botolph, Lenn, and Jememuth and in other 
divers fairs and markets established in divers places." 
The former Alderman Symon called Palmer having become 
incapa(»tated, they have removed him, " et dilectum con- 
civem nostrum Adam de Toftes Aldermannum hansie 
predicte fecimus et loco noatro constitaimus." They 
therefore pray those whom it concerns that when the said 
Adam should come into their parts to execute his office 
they would receive him favourably. To tlus writing they 
set their common seal. The importance of this document 
consists in the fact that, so far as I know, it is the only 
one till far down into the fourteenth century in which any 
word implying the existence of a merchant guild is osed, 
and it here has reference solely to dealinga with other 
communities in fairs and markets. In the second volume 
of the Selden Society's publications, already referred to, 
are some pleas held at the Fair of St. Ives, which may 
illustrate the exercise of Adam's office. In the Intro- 
duction, p. 134 , Professor Kaitland points out how it was 
the custom to make all the members of the same com- 
mnnitas liable for the debts of anyone. A case in point 



actoallf occarred there in reference to some Norwidi 
traders. Id Maj, 1275, Sobert de Donwich, Btu^jen of 
Norwich, was raed for debt, and it wai ordered that he 
Rhotdd be attached if he be foand, and if not, that the 
vfacde " commmiitas " of Norwich should be distrained, 
nweapon, goods wore distruned beloiu^Dg to Walter le 
Troner, Bcgiiuld do Wreningham, ana Eaterine de Nor- 
we^. At a later court Walter and Re^nald were sued 
as " pares et participes et commnnarea {tie)," »'.«, members 
of this same eommanitaa with Bobert, and it comes ont 
that the debt had been incurred at Boston in 1373, and 
Uiat the a^vriered creditor had already endeavoured in 
vain to get his money both at Boston and at Norwich. 
I suppose the office of Alderman of the Hanse at fain 
was to protect the interest of his fellow-citizens and to 
deal and be dealt with as their rect^ized leader. The 
word " hanse " would seem to mean the " communitaa " 
in its foreigD mercantile dealings. In any case, its control 
clearly rested in the hands not of the merchants but of 
the municipal authorities. The same conclusion is to be 
drawn from one other mention of the " hanse." It is of 
much later date — 42nd £dward III. (1369) — in an early 
Assembly Boll. At a congregation held in the Tolhoase 
on the feast of St. Matthew it was discussed " that the 
bailififl should follow out the business touchipg the hanse 
(' le bans ') at the cost of the communitas." The subse- 
quent connection of the Guild of St. Geoi^e with the 
corporation has no bearing upon this question, for it was 
a religious and not a mercantde guild. 
Euifatit Though there was certainly no mochants' 

fiiii^ pnx guild, there were craft guilds at an early period, 
"""'^ and they may eventaaUy have led to me medi- 

eval ides of a "freeman," viz., one whose admission to 
the freedom of the city is obtained through admission to 
a certain trade. The early history of these craft guilds, 
however, only further proves that the whole control of 
trade was in the hands of the civic authorities. They 
were, in fact, prohibited as contrary to the well-being 
of the city. This meant that they tended to 
deprive the city chest of some of its fees and dues. 
At the Leet of Wymer in I6th Edward L, the juron 
" say that the tanners have a guild among themselves, so ■ , 


that if aay of the " (»nfratrea " forfeits to anothw he 
shoold complain to the alderman, by which the bailifls, 
&c. {i.e., amittunt custamano)." A^ain at the Leet of 
Wymer and Westwyk, 19th Edward I. a large number of 
tannera are amerced, the first entir running thus : — " of 
lUchard de Stalham, because he does fradnlentlT in his 
work in tanning Ms hides with bark of ash, and it is called 
Btalsitelether, and because they have a guild hurtful to 
our lord the king in buying hides ; and because they 
correct transgressious which ought to be pleaded before 
tiie bailiffs, one mark." Two years later, m the I^eet of 
Conesford, the sutors (coblers) are fined twenty shillinga, 
because " ihey have a guild contrary to the prohibition of 
our lord the king, so that they take of thdr apprentices 
two shillings, and of those who exercise their business by 
themselves, they give (sic) ten shillings to the aforesud 
guild." The saddlers are also fined one mark, *' because 
Uiey likewise have a guild hurtful to our lord the kmg " ; 
and the fullers, half a mark " for the same." The last 
B Chuter ^^^ o^ ^^^ ^^^^ '^U ^8 the amercement of 
forty tanners (two shillings each) for the same 
offence. The " prohibition of our lord the king " can only, 
I think, refer to a clause in a charter of 40 th Henry lU. 
(1256), which grants " that no guild shall for the future 
be held in the aforesaid city to the detriment of the stud 
city." On this clause Merewether in his English Borought, 
p. 437, remarks *' an irresistible proof that guilds [mean- 
ing merchant guilds] were separate from the citizens." 
The quotations from the leet rolls show that it was private 
guilds of separate trades which were prohibited as being 
to the damage of the common interests of the citizens. 
CoDiinued iD ^ ^P^"* °^ *'^» liowever, these trade-guilds 
qiiia M «iM- must have continued to exist, for in chapter 
'°"^*''*''*°*^ xlvii. of Ancient Customs it is ordiuned that 
" tallages and costs should only be imposed by the more 
discreet of each trade practised in the city, specially 
dected by common consent and sworn, and not by others 
except in default of them." This implies some organizar 
tion and later on, when the great changes took place in 
the time of Henry IV. and Bfenry V., we find them fully 
organized. Still they were never chartered like those of 
London, and their influence on the municipal coDStltutioa , 


Awl mn tiM Bolely conslfltfl ia their being, u I suppose, t^e 
^fv» <* „ ongin of the class of " freemen " in its techni- 
" '"•■'"■ cal sense. I have already expressed an opimon 
that the earliest sense of the word " liber," as wplied 
to the condition of a citizen, meant freedom from feudal 
servitude. A ciUzen, however, was never described as 
" liber " or " Uber homo. " At a l^er time, at the close of the 
thirteenth century and onwards, a citizen was described 
as heang "de Ubertate," of the freedom, — the freedom 
referring to the trade privil^es and to the freedom from 
restraints by which others were bound. There was as yet^ 
however, no distinction of trades in this matter. There is 
nothing to shew that a man need have been a trader at all in 
order to be admitted into dtizenship, even in the fourteenth 
century. The earliest Usts of citizens be^nning 
in the reign of Edward II. in the Old Free Book 
are not entered with trades. The order to do this 
is first mentioned in the Composition between the 
two dissentient portions of the community made in 1415, 
and seems to be part of the movement of the conmionB 
against the twenty-four citizens. It runs thus — ^"It is 
accorded .... that all manner of men now citizens of the 
dty shall be enrolled of what craA. he be of, within a 
twelvemonth and a day, upon pun of forfeiture of his 
franchise, paying a penny for Uie entry: and that all 
manner of men tbat shall be enfranchised from this time 
forth shall be enrolled under a craft and by assent of a 
craft, that, is for to say the m&atera of the same craft that 
he shall be enrolled of shall come to the chamber and 
witness that it is iJieir will that he shall be made freeman 
o{ their craft, paying to the craft there t^at he shall be 
enrolled under nid., and paying to the chamber at least 
xxs. and more after the quantity of his goods, as he may 
accorde with the chamberlain; and six men shall be 
chosen for to be of counsel with the chamberlains in 
receiving of bui^esses." The earlier practice had 
been that half the admission fee should go to the bailifis 
and half to the commonalty. 

EVom 1415, every name of a newly admitted dtizen is 
followed by a trade or craft. It was not however till the 
mayoralty of Hiomas Aleyn in 1450, that the trades were 
separated and all of one trade entered together. It was . 


some Ume later than this before a citizen thus duly 
qnalified and admitted was called a " freeman." 

VI . — Condudinff Summartf. 

I have thus endeavoured to trace with as mudi ao- 
cnrat^ as possibly the municipal history of die CSty of 
Korwich in its earliest stages of development 

The story begins at jnst the time to which legal memory 
is said to extend. Before that period the burgesses of 
Norwich were no doubt in the enjoyment of those liberties 
and customs (whatever they were) which they possessed 
in the time of Henry L, and probably long before, and 
which were confirmed to them by Henry EC., but they 
were after all only feudal servants of the Icing, wlu> 
appointed their governors, took the profits of their court, 
and looked upon the (»ty as a private possession of his 

From Sichard L, as I have shown reason to tlunk, they 
received their first charted of independence. Their first 
step in self-government was to have the free control of 
their old borough court, under the presidency of a provost 
of their own chosing. 

The next step was a still more important one, when 
Henry HL gave them bailifis and with them, as I have 
suggested, thecontrol of their Hundred Court independently 
of ms sheriff, the two jurisdictions wlien combined together 
including nearly aU social, commercial, and criminal 
a0alra. This change was accompanied by the formation 
of those divisions and sub-divisions of the city which 
formed the basis of ite administration almost to the present 

Perhaps Uiis form of municipal organization, a simple 
executive of four persons presiding over the dc^berations 
and carrying out the resolutions of a community of free 
and equal citizens, was at its best at the dose of the 
thirteenth centiuy, when our records for a time are un- 
nsually voluminous. But it could not wit^tand the 
tendency of various influences. Aided by a combinatiou 
of several causes, — the leading position naturally assumed 
by the fittest, the working of the Law of Fruikpledge, 
the selfishness of saocessful trade, — there was gradai^y 


formed durinff the fourteenth century an oligarchical 
party, which aimed at monopolizing the adminiatratioti of 
mumcipil afiun, and probably brought about the dvic 
revolntion of the begmning of the fifteenth century, 
when the older constitution was remodelled aAer the 
fiuhion of London. 

At fint they appeared likely to succeed alto- 
gether. The twenty-four **probi homines" were l^ 
Henry IT.'i charter to be the practical rulen of the 
city, with the mayor and the two Bheiifia as thdr 
nominees. A sharp stru^e between the two parties 
ended in a compromise. The commonalty obtained the 
choice of one Bheriff and what was much more important 
a representatiTe body of their own, the sixty common 
councillors. On the other hand, the ol^archical party 
secured no sUght advantage in the formation of the Court 
of Aldermen, who not only inherited such administrative 
authority as had belonged to their predecessors, the 
twenty-four elected citizens or " probi homines," but 
received in addiUou a permanent judicial power, being 
appointed for life, and when once they had served the 
tmce of mayor being invested with all the extensive 
powers which belonged in former time to a city ma^trate. 

The changes which took place after the time of Henry 
y. were rather matters of detail than of principle, and 
cannot be said to belong to the subject of early develop- 
ment. Uy desire has been to throw light, where it la 
most wanted, npon the origin and influendng causes of 
t^e municipal development of this one city of Norwich, 
and to confine myself strictly to it, without attempting to 
compare it with other municipa^tiea. My hope is that I 
may have added a small contribution to the stock of 
materials accnmulating in vaiious quarters for the use of 
some future historian of the municipal institutions of oar 

■ Digilizcd by Google 


Nowhere in Britun u the task of discoTering the traces 
of the Boman occupation and colonisation of our Island 
more difficult than in East Anglia, and especially in iti 
northern portion, and nowhere is that task one of such 
peculiar interest. 

The method by which the conquest of the native Celts 
was achieved is made plain by the disposition of the 
camps posted here and there throughout the district, and 
the means by which, after some two centuries and a half 
of occupation, the conquered and colonised territory was 
defended against a restless and savage race of incoming 
barbarians, are clearly enough to be seen in the ruins of 
the walled stations which looked out over the Northern 
Sea, or closed all access to the fertile districts watered by 
the larger rivers. But where the difficulties of the task 
become apparent is when we turn from the works of war 
to those of peace, and endeavour to make out the signs of 
habitation and civilised life. Certainly no Boman town is 
known to have existed within the limits of the county, not 
even a village, and I can point to only three or four 
indications of dwellings whose very ruins have now 

That the homesteads of the Homan colonists and 
Bomanised Celts were spread, though thinly, over the 
more fertile portion of the county, we can have little 
doubt. The reason for the paucity of th^r remains must 
be looked for perhaps in the methods of construction 
adopted. Norfolk produces but little good building stone, 
and in some parts of the county, to this day, cottages and 

1 HflBtins of lh« IiU|titaKX!|)\3[c 


banu are bailt mib. walb composed of blocks of lan-dried 
clay on a low foandation of flint rabble maapi^. Wood, 
however, must have been plentiful enough, and tracei 
luTe beMi found in Essex, Uke Korfolk a stoneless district, 
of buildings of half timb^vd constmction of Bomaa date, 
we may suely assume that such was the metiiod of build- 
ing in Norfolk also. The better houses, therefore, were 
probably half-Umbered erections, easily destructible and 
likely to leave but little trace, with foundations of flint 
and mortar and ynth. floors of cement, for no mosaic 
pavements have yet been discovered. The thorough cuU 
tivaUon of the soil which has made Norfolk famous, has 
had its influence also in destroying the traces of the dwell- 
ings of the earlier race of farmers, who tilled the soil and 
reaped the harvest here, 1700 years ago. Many a mass 
of old flint and mortar foundation, it may be, has been 
rooted up and carried away by the cartload, and nothing 
has been recorded of t^e matter. It is scarcely likely that 
the farmer on whose lands the hindrance to cultivation 
was found, would feel much interest in the dificovery, and 
BO the last trace of the homestead of his Bomano-Britiah 
predecessor went the way of all things and utterly 

Perhaps a funt indication of one of these homesteads 
may have been found in the parish of Fring, near the 
Feddars Way. " On the west side of this road " I quote 
from Gough's Camden, " some labourers in ditching broke 
np the remains of a pavement apparently Boman, which 
the countjT-people, the discovery happening during &» 
time of a fiur in the village, broke up, and carried away 
great part of it. The owner of the ground, Mr. Gkiodwin, 
as soon as he received information of it, ordered the 
spot to be carefully covered up for the ftiture inspection 
of antiquaries." Evidently tne owner was a man in 
advance of his age! This happened late in the last 

Of another discovery we have a fuller account. This 
was made in the year 1882 in the parish of Methwold, on 
a spot rinng four feet only above the level of the marshes, 
for Methwold lies on the border of the fenland. 

The Rev. C. Denny Gtedge, vicar of Methwold, commnn- 
icated the following details respecting the site and its 


remaitu to the British Archsological Assodatioa.' He 
says, " the actual locality is one of the Holmes, (called little 
Holme) of which a string extends down either side of a 
small natnral stream called the String Dylte " — " For years 
large numbers of iiles have been turned np on the mound 
of which this little Holm ia composed, the level of the 
pavement of the house being within reach of the plough- 
share. The tenant had supposed that some brick kiln 
must have existed here, tilt the turning up of certain 
pieces of fine grained Korthamptonshire sandstone induced 
him to search further. The foundations which are placed 
immediately on the subsoil of sand, are so far aa we 
traced iJiem of great hardness and solidity and built in 
alternate bands of dint rubble and the grey flagstone 
before mentioned." Ho far Kr. Gedge. AJn examination 
of the plan which accompanied his communication shows 
three small chambers each from seven to eight feet 
square. The first had a flooring of cement, a portion of 
which flooring remained, lined diagonally as if to repre- 
sent tiles. The next to this appears to have been a little 
yard having in its eastern wall the furnace opening to a 
channelled hypocaust which warmed the third chamber. 
Fragments of flue and roof tiles were found in this latter 
chamber. We have here a small fragment of what was 
perhaps only a small house. Whether continued explor- 
aUon would liave brought its entire plan to light is 
conjectural. NoUiing further was attempted. 

Travelling in an eastward direction from Methwold, 
we find in the parish of Asbill, a singular spot, lying on 
high ground, called by the name of " Bobin Hood's 
Garden." This is a large field of ten acres, enclosed by 
a ditch 14 ft. wide by 7 ft. 6 ins. deep. The enclosed area 
is an almost perfect square, wiUi rounded comers. With- 
in this area is a second one, formed by another ditch 
11 ft. wide by 7 ft. deep, also with round^ comers. The 
inner square is not placed symetrically with the outer 
one'; on its east, west, and south sides the space between 
the inner and outer ditches measures 100 ft. in breadth, 
whilst on the northern side the two ditches are only 60 or 
;0 ft. apart. There seems to be no sign of a bank linmg 

Ion.- I 


the inside of either ditch. At the north-eut corner, 
between the two ditches, the renuins of fonnda^ns 
former]7 existed. These hi&ve long nnce been rooted up, 
and in 1870 but scanty vestiges of the dykes remuned 
which formed the above-mentioned enclosures. It is prft- 
sumedf with some show of reason, that the ditches sur- 
rounded land belonging to a Soman house, ritaated where 
the foundations in the north-east comer indicated the 
former existence of buildings. The Roman villa at 
Hartlip, in Kent, is said to be surrounded by just such a 
ditch as we find at Ashill, and another at Tracey Park, 
near Bath, bad a boundary in the shape of an earthoi 
rampart forming a parallelogram with rounded angles, 
the house itself occupying only one of the angles of the 
enclosed area, as seems to have been the case here. 

When the railway from Watton to Swaffham was in 
course of formation, a cutting was made quite through 
the middle of the singular enclosures just mentioned, and 
the picks of tixe navvies brought to light a strange piece 
of construction. This was a well or shaft fonn^ of 
timber framing, 3 ft. (> ins. square, and 40 ft. deep. The 
contents made up a perfect museum of Romano-British 
Antiquities. From the top to a depth of 19 ft it was 
filled with a heterogeneous heap of rubbish, amongst which 
occurred a fragment of Roman wall plaster. From this 
point (19 ft. down) until the bottom was reached there 
was an evidence of intention in the deposits, which had 
not been the case so far. The contents consisted prind- 
pally of urns of various shapes, placed in regular layers 
and bedded in leaves of the oak and hazel. The bottom 
of the shaft was paved with flints, and the woodwork 
held in its place by four willow stakes. 

Another similar shaft, but only 22 ft. deep was also 
found. This, it ia supposed, had been abandoned from 
some fault of construction. An ordinary rubbinh pit of 
Roman times completed the tale of these discoveries. 

What purpose could these singular shafts be intended 
to serve ? It was clear that they were not sepulchral 
for no deposit of cinerary urns occurred in them, and it 
was very evident that whatever they were first con- 
structed for, they were used at a much later time as 
rubbish pits by the inhabitants of the aeighboorhood, 



whose house or houses must have stood in the near 

It may be couudered a matter for r^ret that so large 
a collection of objects of the Bomano-Bridsh period, as 
this discovered at Ashill, could not have been preserved 
intact and placed in some museum for purposes of study 
and reference. The pottery alone, (" one hundred and 
twenty Boman uma were found, and of these upwards of 
6ity were exhumed entire" says the late Mr. Barton) 
would have aflforded valuable information as to the state 
of the potter's art in Norfolk in the Boman period. Some 
few of these urns presented by the late Mr. Barton are in 
die Norwich Museum, the rest, together with the many 
otJtier objects discovered, are scattered in private coUeo- 
tioDs and unavailable for study and comparison. 

Some few sites besides those already named show signs 
that habitations existed near them by the shards of house- 
hold pottery they produce. In the fields near Threton 
House fragments of Mortaria and other vessels are 
occasionally turned up. At Eaton, near Norwich, on the 
site of the late Mr. Ewing's nursery gardens, fragments of 
Mortaria and pieces of Samian ware have been found. 
These are in the Norwich Museum, as are other specimens 
from Coltlshall, from the Woodward collection. At 
Baconathorpe, among the ruins of the Manor House there, 
shards of pottery and fragments of querns are occasion- 
ally turned up. Potteiy has been discovered, it is said 
at Great Dunham, and in the parish of Diss, especially 
on the Qawdy Hall estate, vessels of Samian ware have 
been dug up. 

Occasionally also the presence of Roman tile in the 
fabric of churches, more especially those of the primitive 
Bomanesque time, indicate that neighbouring construc- 
tions of the Roman period served as a quarry at the date 
of their erection. This fact may perha[» be observed in 
the church of Great Dunham, in that of Howe certainly, 
and possibly in those of Melton Magna, Framingham 
Figot, Coltishall, and of Bickerston, which is in ruins. 

' other dmilar liufti hava been found See hii " Bomuu in Brilieii," p. 71 and 

in diain«ot localitiea noUUj' at Beko- p. 102, tt teq. For an aooount of tbeae 

bourne, in Kent, and Mrbape alio at diaooTeiiM at Aahill, aee Norf. Arohj. 

FeUzat«w, in SnSblk. Hr. Coote con- nd. viii, 1879, pL 224 tt mq., foor platM 

Metered tham ItMuaa Surnyor'a maika. aad leotioai in text. 


Next in importwice to the remains of thdr dwellings 
are the spots chosen as the last resting places of the 
inhabitants of the soil, either where the cinerary unu, 
grouped in considerable numbers tend to show a settle- 
ment of numeroiis families, or where in snuUler muxbers, 
but in greater variety^ they point to the private burial 
gnrand of some detailed country house. Here we are 
met by another of these difficulties which render a search 
into the antiquities of the Romano-British period in 
Norfolk so puzzling. Sepulchral urns have been dis- 
covered in great numbers throughout the county, and* 
unUl a comparativel]r late date they have all been classed 
as Boman. But the development of the study of such 
remuns, has shown tiiiat this classification was an- 
erroneous one. The heathen tribes of the Angles, when 
in the fifth century they possessed themselves of this part 
of Britain, had the custom of burning their dead and 
burying the ashes in nms of mde earthenware, in- 
cemeteries whose arrangements were not unlike those of 
the Homano-Britons. The earlier writers, Spelman, Sir 
Thomas Browne, and later, Blomefield, and others later 
still, in their accounts of discoveries, not being aware of 
tliis fact, frequently, I may say constantly, confounded 
Boman with Tentooic interments and the consequence has 
been a confusion, not easy, often not possible, to clear up. 
It may safely be said ^t as far as we know at present, 
the traces of the Teutonic invaders, in this respect, far 
exceed Uiose of the Bomanised people they conquered 
and enslaved. 

Very few and far between are the interments I can point 
to as being, certunly, of the Boman period. Bur T. Browne 
indicates the probable existence of a cemetery of this time 
at Buxton near Brampton. An instance of a cinerary urn 
contaimng a coin, perhaps of Sevems, accompanied by 
the usual funeral pottery, among which was a sm^ 
candlestick, taking the place of the accustomed lamp, was 
discovered in 1844 at Felmingbam. On a headland pro- 
jecting into the valley of the Ant near Wayford bridge 
the late Mr. Samuel Woodward notes the existence of a 
cemetery, and as he mentions' that the urns fonnd 
there were turned in a lathe we may be justified, perhaps, 
in classing them under the Boman period. The tumofus , 



known aa Greenboron^ Hill near Salthonse contained 
fragments of Boman Pottery probably sepulchral. At 
BessiDgham there appears to have been a deposit of 
Boman cinerary urns. At Norwich, nms holding ashes, 
U^ether with a coin of Diocletian, were found in 1852 
under Messrs, Chamberlin's premises in the market place. 
At Thorpe near Norwich in the grounds of the Bev, W. 
Frost in 1863 (?) what appeared to be a Boman interment 
had been much disturbed by a sabaequent Anglian one. 
Some Anglian Warrior in full panoply with spear and 
shield, had been laid to rest displacing the funeral nm of 
a former proprietor of the soil, a wdl-to-do colonist we 
may judge as he could afford the luxury of a lamp of 
bronze, found among the debris, to light hun to the gloomy 
passage of the Styx. A single dnerary urn, found on a 
floor of tilea about 4 ft. square was dug up at Threzton in 
1857, in a spot appropriately called ** the Dark Lane." 
It contuned a coin of ^toninus among the ashes. Other 
urns perhaps Boman, have been found at Shadwell, near 
Thetford. At Hempnall, in an Anglian cemeteiy dis- 
covered in 1854, traces of Eomano-British urns were found, 
the remans of previous interments. A deposit of ciner- 
ary urns occurred at Hedenham, and another at Ditching- 
hfun, the former discovered in 1858 the latter in 1862. 
But, the moat characteristic of all the interments, more so 
than any I have yet mentioned, was that dug up at 
G^deston in 1849. In a spot near the banks of the 
Waveney a rude cist of oak boards, 31 ins. by 14 iuB. had 
been buried 4 or 5 ft. below the present surface of the 
soil. Within this cist lay a fine glass vessel of unusual 
shape, nearly a foot high. It contained the burnt bones 
of a diild and at tiie bottom of the urn lay a second brass 
coin of the Empress Sabina wife of the Emperor Hadrian. 
With the glass vaae was an earthenware cup with a cover, 
two or three potsherds and a fragment of thin bronze 
plate, gilt, conjectured to have been the upper part of a 
bulla. All the cases I have cited as yet have been urn 
burials, but two instances occur in which the bodies were 
' interred entire. In a chalk pit, at a spot called Stone 
Hills in tiie parish of Heigham, near Norwich, a plain 
leaden coffin was discovered in 1861. Tliis had been 
enclosed in a 'wooden shell. It contained the bones of a . 


skeleton presumed to be that of a female^ and two torque 
like bracelets of bronze which are thought to have slipped 
from the coffin when it was opened, came from the same 
site. Near the coffin lay the bones of another skeleton 
with fragments of a sort of cement, possibly lime, in 
which the body had been endosed. These burials were 
probafah^ late ones in the Koman period. 

Another indication of the existence of the dwelling- 
places of the inhabitants, though not bo snre a one, is the 
discoTOT of hoards of coin. If not plunder buried by a 
road nde or in some solitary place, they are likely to 
prove that a habitation was not far off. Who does not 
remember the story told in Fepys' Diary (Fepys was from 
a naghbourinff county, Cambridgeshire), of how his 
father without due precauti<m buried a considerable sum 
in gold in the middle of his garden ? 

So in like measure, in disturbed times, the Bomano- 
Britiah farmer would do as Mr. Fepys, seur. did with his 
son's money, but perhaps with more discretion ; and if l^ 
unlucky chance he perished by the hands of robbers, or 
left bis home to take the losing side in some of the in- 
ternal difsensions of the period, his hoarded wealth 
remfdned perdu, to be turned up by some hedger and 
ditcher of the nineteenth century. 

Hoards of coin buried in urns have been discovered at 
Caston, where money deposited in rolls was also found, in 
1816 and 1820. At Beachamwell in 1846, fifty silver 
pieces deposited in a vase of Samiau ware, were turned 
u^ by the plough. In 1847, at Feltwell, 300 coins of the 
middle Empire were ploughed up, and at Morley, and at 
Carlton, treasure has also been brought to light. Other 
but less important finds have been made at Brandon, East 
Budham, and at Ditchlingham. The most curious, how- 
ever, was that made at Baconsthorpe, where a large jrat, 
containing, it is estimated, not leas than 17000 coins was 
unearthed in 1884. They were of brass and billon, tinned 
and rilvered, and ranged as far as could be ascertained 
(for many had disappeared before attention was drawn to 
the find) from Nerva to Aurelian. Such a hoard is 
scarcely likely to have been a private one, and conjecture 
is at fault as to the cause of its deposit. 

In connection with the subject of hoards must be mm- ■ 


tioned t^e most interesting discovery yet made in Korfolk. 
At Felmingham in 1844, at no great distance from the 
sepulchral depont I have previously mentioned as 
occurring there, was dug up a fine vase of unusual shape 
with ring handles. It had been covered by another which 
was destroyed by the labourer's spades, and conttuned a 
great number of bronze fragments of all Idnds, amongst 
them a head of Minerva, another of Serapia, ai^ one fine 
bearded head 6 ins. high, hollow, with the eyes pierced 
through and the scalp made moveable. But what ren< 
dered the find so valuable, was that it contuned a 
beautiful little bronze figure Sins, high, of excellent 
workmanship, representing a youth with short and loosely- 
girt tunic, with buskined feet, and laurel crowned hair, 
holding aloft; in his right hand a horn from which he 
poured wine into a patem held in his outstretched 
left. There could be no mistake in identifying this figure 
with one of the hoiiaehold gods of the Bomaus, one of 
the familiar Larea, the humble and serviceable little deities, 
whose effigies, not in bronze, but painted, look out from 
the walls of almost every house in Pompeii, and whose 
worship formed so intimate a part of Koman life and 
methods of thought, that for well-nigh a century after 
the establishment of Christianity as the religion of the 
State, lights still burned in their honour, and incense was 
atill oEfered on their altars.' An indication of the period 
of the hiding away of the vase and its contents, whidi had 
nothing sepulchral about them, was given by a coin found 
among the bronzes, of the date of Gidlienus, aud the pro- 
bability is that the deposit was buried plunder which the 
robber had no subsequent chance of carrying away. 

ThxLB far I have noted the principal traces of the inhab- 
itants of this district. Had I time I might speak of the 
potters and their kilns, from which the settlers were 
supplied with the earthenware required for their house- 
holds ; of the rude smelting works possibly of the Boman 
period discovered near the coast at Beeston ; of the pigs 
of lead found in Saham Wood in 1819 and lost at some 

* ThtM •iitiqniliea, together with the ingi of Uie ▼arimu objacte of the Utter 

pottery from the intermetit tt Felmine- End, > Laotuie od th« AntiqnitiM vi Hof- 

bam, prariotul; mentioDed, are now m folk by the Ber. Richard Hart, 1U4, ta« 

km of J. FoatiB, Eaq., of platra, ■ 

Htll, Nm-folk. See for etoh< ^^'^^R 1^' 

840 B01U.N NORFOLK. 

early date on their way from tha Derl^ihire minei. I 
might dilate upon the fine silver Lanx, or diih, from the 
Oner Carr at UilehjUD, or the equally cnrioui pewter one 
dug up at Welney, in the fenland, ia Mther ease part (^ 
the table fiimitiue of lome well-to-do inhabitant, showing 
that Norfdk then as now was famous for good dieer; I 
mi^t describe many a fibula, bracelet, or other object of 
feminine adonmienl^ but in this slight sketch there is no 
room to dwell on minor details, howerer vividly they 
mi^it bring to one's view the life and manuerB of the 
lUoumo-BnUsh population.* 

From the civil I now turn to the military division of 
my subject and I will attempt to show by what means the 
territory of the northern Iceni was g«ned, and when 
ginned, was held in later times against external enemies. 

After the great uprising of the Celtic tribes had been 
suppressed, in which the colony of Claudius perished, the 
Bomans took in hand the task of making an end of all 
resistance and finally colonising the territory of the Iceni. 
How they achieved this may be seen by their camps 
scattered over the face of the district. With their action 
in the southern portion of the Icenian territory I have 
nothing here to do. Their advance into the northern 
part was, in all probability made by way of Bungay, at 
which town the lines of an entrendunent of some size may 
stiU be partially traced, an entrenchment afterwards 
utilised both by Anglian and Norman conquerors. 

From that point, crossing the Wavenev, they passed 
north westward and fixed their principal station among 
the northern Iceni in t^e valley of the little river Tas 
some three miles south of the present city of Norwich. 
This camp came to be known as the Yenta of the Iceni. 

Beferring to the works of the late Dr. Guest with 
respect to. this name, I find that he takes the word Yenta 

■ Poltan' Idlii* luTB bun foond t batter oonieotoM." HkoMCald wilk 

Rfabr Cuwi Hadaahun, Baliua Tooj, mon eMifldenaa oonaidtn it k (uitlj 

WajbooiiMt Curtai UMr Norwldi. utd Hpaldtra I Ha«{H «f pobdurdi ud 

Cakte imr Twmoath, ud in Uw Po«t- nowidi of wood uha tonaerijr to bt 

honoH Work* a< Sir T. Brown* mration found >l Potter HdKbun *ro aappoMd 

it nada of a dfaoorcrj ol am* atraoture to hava jirottA tiia oslataooe ot PottoiH 

at Boxton nMT Bnunptoo, wUoh can at tluit jilaoa in the Booun pariod. fte 

acaredr be anTtliing elaa but • kOn. Uii* Ma Anfanologia, Vol zziii, p. S73. 

Tb* lonied Doctor a*]ra, "Wlut walk For the pit* tor ai«ltii« iraa on ae* 

tlm waa m matt *■ fH naam ttBta AndutoL Joom., ToL sL, ISSS, p. 2U. 


to be a Latinized form of the Celtic Gwmt, a champaign, 
an open district. 

I cannot do better than qaote his own words. He says, 
" There seems to have been several of these Gwents in 
Britain ; and the Homans obtained th^ name for the 
capital towns by turning Gwent into a feminine substantive 
and then adding the name of the race which inhabited the 
particular district, aa Yenta Belgamm, Yenta Icenorum, 
Yenta Silurum, Slc." ' If therefore this interpretation be 
accepted, the true meaning of Yenta Icenorum would be 
the open land, (the Gwent) of the Iceni, and I venture to 
think that anyone acquainted with the district of which 
the site of Norwich forms part, especially that portion 
lying near Caister would quite understand the applicability 
of ue description, certainly with respect to that line of 
sweeping upland lying along the valley of the Tare from 
Harford Bridges onwards. The Boroans made out of the 
term for a district, as Dr. Guest indicates, a place name. 
Perhaps when they first heard the word they took it for a 
place name. 

Be this as it may, the establishment of the camp at 
Caiater had another object besides the subjugation of the 
Celts inhabiting the open land, the Gwent to the north 
and west of it. 

The entrenchments of Tasburgh,* four miles south of 
Custer are of too irregular a form to be considered the 
work of Roman hands, and they lie on elevated ground 
above the tiny stream of the Tas. In them we may see one, 
possibly the only one now remaining in Norfolk, of the 
strongholds of the native race. Even if abandoned, audi 
a position would still require watching for a time at least 
to prevent any attempt at revolt or occupation by hostile 
bands. And here we have a further motive for the 
establishment of the station at Caister. Some hundreds of 
years later than the founding of Yenta, an Anglian chief 
settled himself and his following withm the lines of .the 
Celtic oppidum, and it thus obtained the name it is now 
known by, Tasburgh, the burh by the Tas. 

'Origbin CelticM I^ Edwin QuMt, lattwliokwa down upon tbt atnunof 

LL.D., Ac, Tid. il, p. 168. tlw Tu, whioh Uie former w not. Could 

■ Tbi) eunp bu iMen called tlie " Ad Venta Icenonun bvre i«oaiv*d a leowul 

Tallin" of the PealiDgenui Table*, a name (Ad l^um) during UieeoaiM (4 iti 

name which might with more proprietor occupatton I 
b«giTen to theitatioo at Caiater, aatho \m-iiiIi> 


After the establishment of the great station in the 
shallow river Tallej, the Bomans seem to have poshed 
their forces westwu^ and we mxy probably find a trace 
of this movement in the entrenchments of Ovington (which, 
if Soman works^ could only have been Uirown up for a 
temporary purpose), in those of Mileham, and certainly in 
those of Oastleacre,^ a spot one of the most notable in 
Norfolk for the signs it shows of three conquests, the 
Boman, the Anglian and the Norman, They may even at 
this period have extended their line of camps as far as 
Brancaster, a station having the square form of the earlier 
Boman entrenchments. 

Perhaps another camp, of which only the name remains, 
Custer l^ Yarmouth, might be clumed for this early 
period. The position can oe fairly guessed to have been 
in the near neighbourhood of the church of the above 
named village, and it was probably intended in the earlier 
Ume to keep in check t^e inhabitants of the marshlands 
to the north of the Bure. Just as the camps on the 
western side of the county would secure the settlers in the 
fertile lands behind them from the attacks of the Celts 
who had been driven to take refuge in the western fen- 
land, so, a strong garrison at Custer near Yarmouth 
might keep in order the broken bandH who had sought 
shuter in the eastern awampa of the district of the Broads, 
for marsh and fen are the natural retreats of a disorgan- 
ised tribe fighting against successful invaders. 

But to return to venta Icenorum and what is to be 
fonad there. 

The form of the station which lies low in the watery 
meadom is that of a paralellogram, (being rather longer 
than it is broad), of which three of the sides are straight 
and the fourth slightly curved outwards to the river 
Bowing near by. "Hie space enclosed by the encompass- 
ing mounds which hide the remnants of its walls, is 
according to King, " 1320 ft. in length from west to east, 
and 1108 ft. firom north to south," white Wilkins estimates 
the contents of the area, including the Vallum to be about 

■ The moandi ud fcawi ot North Blomafiald'i dncripUan at Um Sndi in 
ESmbiin hBTa bcoa daiaiad l^ Wood- tiie Uttw, woaM indioU AngHiM Mtbw 
wud M Rmiws, and iIm etmatarj Uun Uun Roiup inttraMOta. 
'nl UUihood. 

by Google 


35 acres, a space snfficieat, ^ng observes, for the eiic«9p- 
ment of a L^ioa with half its complement of Allies, 
amoanting to 6480 men. 

I believe that originally the ataUon was not walled. 
Its huge fosses on the east, north, and south sides, the 
marsh and stream on its west side, tt^elher with the 
mighty palisaded mounds lining the foaaes and ironting 
the stream, sufficed for its protection. 

Bat in course of time its garrison being reduced in 
strength, the Boman engineers were called upon to 
sup^fy with brick and mortar the want of soldiers within. 
I thmk it will be found that they did not level the mounds 
of the original camp but built their walls agunst them, as 
huge retaining walls, so that on the exterior, the perpen- 
dicular face of the wall was seen from its parapet nearly 
to the bottom of the ditch, whilst in the interior the 
mounds formed a broad platform lining the internal face 
of the mighty mass of masonry. This great endrcling 
barrier, in course of ages, has been well nigh destroyed ; 
and the earthworks, no longer upheld by it, have wUen 
forward and buried in their fall nearly all that time or 
man have left of its massive fragments. 

The Boman cemetery attached to this station has yet to 
be found, for the discoveries made on the neighbouring 
hill at Markshall revealed an Anglian burial place and the 
deposit of urns in the meadows to the north of the camp 
appears to have belonged to the same people. Near this 
last deposit were the remains of a kiln containing Boman 
vessels. From indications afforded by excavations made 
by the late Sir J. P. Boileau in the garden of Caister Hall, 
about 200 yards north-east of the camp, it appears most 
likely that the Boman cemetery lay by the side of a road 
which, starting from the eastern gate, seemed to point' in 
the direction of Garianonum.' 

It is said that within the entrenchments of the station, 
foundations of buildings may be traced by the colour of 

* Us mbjaet of tha roodt which ooa- A Ikl <d Mtoal reauioa of niadi msf 

■iMt«d tha ■UUoni, or lerrBd ai ■ nuuii be tnada out from Woodmid'ipuMr on 

of eommuDicitioD Uirougfaoat tha dk. Ituaun Norfolk fn Arduidoglft ToL xiiiL 

tiiot M too large if not too obmam to be 1891, p. SH et teq. In tlie M^ wlikfa 

•T«o touched upon in thia way. Tha •oaompftnlM hb PAper tlwt writer indi- 

nme nuif be aaid, alao with reapeot to catei > nambir of Boman ra«da in Not. 

tlie tncea of Out Roman embankmenta, folk, which are, howerer, laid down for 

BO pnnniiMnt a [eaUue in the tenlanda the moct put aa ooajeetuiaL . 

<rf Um werton aid* of the county. I )Qg [Q 


the growing crops. Excavations carefully conducted may 
lead to important results in relation to the history of the 
site, but they have never been uadertaken and the know- 
led^ which such explorations might a&brd still lies 
boned within the ramparts of the greatest of the Boman 
fortresses of East j&jigua. 

Pasnng from the consideration of the means by which 
the Iceoi were bronght to lubjecdon, I have now to speak 
of those by which Uxe conquered territory, in subsequent 
centuriea, was defended against the sea rovers of Teutonic 
race, who infested the eastern and southern shores of 

We know that towards the end of the third century of 
our era, if not earlier, a iEU>man fleet was maintained for 
the defence of the coasts above mentioned, and we know 
also from later evidence (from the Notitia) the names of 
the stations, the second Une of defence, along those shores. 
The two northernmost of these stations, Brancaster and 
Oarianonum have been identified with Brancaster in 
Korfolk, and Burgh Castle,' near Tarmouth, in Suffolk, 
and the Notitia tells us that both stations were garrisoned 
by horse, the wide heaths of the north and the fiat shores 
and level lands of the east coast being specially favourable 
for the use of cavalry. 

To understand the reason for the position of these 
stations and the scheme of defence adopted, it is necessary 
to consider the character of the coast line of Ko^olk and 
the state of the river valleys, in the Boman period. 

A. considerable portion of the northern coast line going 
from west to east contusta of far extending sands heaped 
up in high banks, often held together by the Marram 
grass. Behind this barrier to the sea, is a belt more or 
less broad of marsh land and flit meadow occasionally 
subject to inundation. Where the ground begins to rise, 
open heaths formerly lined for miles the belt of marsh 
and sand, though now these heaths have been brought in 
great measure under cultivation. In the district of the 
Broads on the eastern side of tiie county, fens and fresh- 

* Bdt^ or Bmgh Cud* (OwCMMnnia] iatpaTtut % put of th« 6»haott of tiw 

■t tha mMtii of tiM WaTOHj whora It riMr vallqv of Norfolk it eaniiot U 

bU* into Brardon Watar, li aotaillT in omittad &an toy dtaoriptim tA tiHia 

8«A)lk, b>t ai thi* ttetwn fomed m datawM, 


water pools take the place of the heaths of the more 
northern region. Such with a certtun exception' are 
the characteristics of the Norfolk coast and such they 
were with little doubt only more strongly marked in 
Boman times. 

It will be clearly understood that such a coast as this 
offered few facilities for a successful landing to the 
piratical Angles and Saxons. What they sought for were 
creeks and nvers giving them a way into the interior of 
the country. On the north coast these were only to be 
found at such places as Blakeney, or Wells, or Burnham, 
or at Brancaster itself, where a long inlet of the sea, 
between the sand banks of the coast ana the rising ground 
formed, and still forms, a couTenient harbour. Here, at 
the head of this harbour, for the purpose of watching the 
neighbouring inlets, the Romans established themselves 
and built a station, and the name they gave their camp, 
Brauodunum, seems to indicate an earlier Celtic occupa- 
tion of the spot. A force called the Dalmatian Horse, 
kept guard within its walls, ready to ride out over the 
heath lands to repel any raiders from the sea who might 
have effected a landing from the creeks not far away. 
We may even imagine that some vessels of the Boman 
fleet stationed in the little harbonr would be employed 
also to prevent a landing, or fuling that to intercept the 
pirate ships as they put to sea with their booty. 

Of the station at Brancaster, originally a square of 
570 feet, not one stone remains upon another, though its 
walls were lift, thick and faced with white sandstone 
and with the ironstone now quarried in the neighbourhood 
of Snettisham. AU Uie material has been earned away to 
build bams and cottages, more especially a hugh malt- 
house, now pulled down, of which Parkin the continuator 
of Blomefield expresses his admiration. 

The relics of earliest date found upon this site are a 
silver coin showing a head of Janus Bifons on the obverse, 
on the reverse what seemed a trophy,* — and a coin of 

* nw ja mm t oout fine from Wbj< uid dow not rapnMot tha oout Hue at 

boanM to Hundaaler where the Ht oomat Bonuu tiaua. 

doM to cliCb and high Und. But Uiia 'See Blomsfleld, Hittol Koit Vol X, 

portiiMiirf the ooMtltM been aabjootod 18W, p. 2W. C '^-.,a<iL. 

for igM to the oivKOwlunenti of Uw ae* _ i : A.ili)C)*:^IL 


Qftudiai, — the latest, a sold ring bearing engraved upon 
it two rude heads with toe sentence tita (b) in dbo.' 

Bat if it was necessaiT to guard the creeks and inlets 
of the northern coast with so much care how much more 
was this the case wi& the months of snch rivers as the 
Tare, the Wavenej and the Bnre. These rivers, as is 
well known, join to form the long lake of brackish water 
called Breydon which is blocked from the sea by the broad 
sandbank on. which the town of Yarmouth stands. The 
outlet of the united waters is now by a long passage 
running aonth from the lagoon of Breydon and parallel 
with the coast, until at a distance of about two-and-arbalf 
miles from the town, a bend of the stream eastward carries 
the waters to the sea. In Boman times the outlet of the 
rivers from Breydon appears to have been north of the 
present site of Yarmouth, and between it and the Boman 
station of Caister, still further northward, at a spot known 
in after times as Grubbs Haven. Whether the present 
southward passage to the sea was in existence in the 
early period treated of^ is doubtful. We do not hear of 
it until, in the middle ages, the one at Grubbs Haven 
becomes blocked with the shifling sands. 

To defend this large water way to the inland districta, 
three posts were deemed necessary, viz. Custer near Yar< 
mouth just mentioned, Reedbam, and Burgh (Garianonum). 

A theory, arising perhaps in the 17tii century and 
repeated by various writers frvm that time to this, turns 
the vall^ of the Yare and the Waveney into great arms 
of the sea, and converts a part of the eastern coast line of 
Norfolk into an archipelago, on the larger islands of which 
it places the stations of Burgh (Qarianonmn), and Caister 
near Yarmouth, It is difficult to understand, according to 
this view, how tbe cavalry garrison of Garianonum, (for 
that station was held by the Stablesian Horse), placed on 
an island separated from the mainland by a channel more. 
than a mile wide, could have served for the protection of 
the neighbouring country. And this same rise in the level 
of the waters would have flooded the camp at Yenta, 
which stands low in the valley of the Tas. 

The finding of sepulchral deposits, at low levels, near 

> Fm u iUoit of Oat ring «aa Jmini. KiL AnhMoL Am. vol. uxri, 1880, p. 

T^oog e 


the baokfl of the Tare and WaTeney, and above all, the 
proof of the existence of a west wall to the station at 
Borgh {(Garianonom), in the low ground near the Waveney 
are sufficient to show that the levd of the waters in the 
Roman period differed little from what it is now, and that 
the aspect of the country, except that the marshes were 
less druned, and there were fewer signs of cultivation, has 
not materially altered since Roman times. The tide also, 
less impeded then, on account of the more direct passage 
of the rivers to the sea, may have penetrated ^rUier up 
the rivers and its rise and fall been more visible at a 
greater distance up the country. 

Taking this latter view, it will be seen that the station of 
Caister, near Yarmouth, served for the defence of tiie 
line of the Bure, and of the passage from the sea into 
Breydon water, with the help we may reasonably suppose 
of some vessels of the fleet, — that the post on the high 
ground at Reedham, on the north bank of the Yare closed 
that river, — and that the station at Burgh, (Oarianonum) 
barred all access to the Waveney, The latter station is 
cut ofl from the line of the Yare by marshes, and by the 
Waveney itself, but it is in full sight of Reedham, and 
communication with this post by signal, as also with 
Caister, by Yarmouth might easily be carried on. The 
cavalry from Burgh would scour the coast to the soutii, 
and by the scheme here indicated, the sea rovers could be 
effectually debarred from their favourite plan of operations, 
viz. ascending the rivers to plunder the inner country. 

Of the three stations juat mentioned two have utterly 
disappeared. 'Jhe very ground which was covered by 
the earthworks at Reedham has been carted away for 
gravel, though such earthworks, and perhaps a signal 
tower once existed there. Of the one at Caister near 
Yarmouth only the site is known, and that but vaguely. 
If it was ever walled, its walls were destroyed centuries 
ago ; a part of its site seems to have been known in Sir 
Thomas Browne's day by the name of "East Bloody Borough 
Furlong," an indication perhaps of some long forgotten 
legend of a day of slaughter such as that which befell 
ill fated Anderida, a sister fortress of the Saxon Shore, 
or of that disastrous night when Uriconium perished in 
flames kindled by barbarian hands. ^ GcioqIc 


Happily through the patriotic oare of Uie late Sir S. F. 
Boileao, toe third vtation on tha list, Burgh Caatle, Gap 
riaBmum, Btill rears its shattered walls on the edge of the 
low table land just above the point when the Waven^ 
falls into Breydon water, and overlooks a wide extent (h 
rivCT and marshland beneath it. The lines of its drcom- 
vallatioa mdose a space roughly speaking, of 400fL in 
width fay 670ft. in length. The towers which flank the 
gates and support the rounded angles of the walls, are of 
peculiar shape, having sranething of a pear shaped section 
on plan. Iliey are solid, and for a height of 6 or 7ft. 
from the present level of the ground are not bonded into 
the wall ; above that height they are fiilly bonded with it 
Walls and towers are evidently of the same period and 
carried up at the same time, which may very well have 
been about the latter half of the third century, the proper^ 
tions of the camp indicating a comparatively late date. 
An internal facing shews tliat the wall, which is I'ft thick, 
has not been built againut earlier earthworks as at Yenta 
Icenomm. The flackiog walls found by the late Mr. 
Harrod on each side of the east gate were not retaining 
walla to the earthworks as supposed by him, but in all 
probability the masonry of the guard chambers flanking 

!Ine conjecture seems probable enough that the holes in 
the top of the towers (2ft. square and 2ft. deep) may have 
served for the purpose of mounting balistte on their plat- 
forms ; but the diameter of the towers is only 14it. Gin. 
which, if deduction be made for the width of the parapet, 
would have given no very great space for the working of 
any machine. 

The north and south walls descended the hill, here 
rather steep, to join the river wall. They no doubt 
had stepped parapets and the rampart walk was carried 
down in a broad sturway. Of the river wall nothing 
remuns, but those who would know what has become of 
its mat^ials, may find a portion of them at least, in the 
fabric of the church at Heedham, which, there is litUe 
room to doubt, was partly built out of its fragments. 

Alany important details respecting this station, and the 
discovery of its river wall, may be found in the paper 
read by Mr. Harrod before the Sodety of Antiqo&nes in 



1855, and published in the fifUi voluine of Norfolk 
Archieology, recording the excavationa made by him 
under the auspices of ^ J. F. Boileao. The pap^r is an 
important one, and deserves to be more widely known 
tiian it appears to be. 

The aabseqnent history of Garianonum is worthy of 
note. After the withdrawal of the Boman ganiaon, it 
does not long remain a ** waste cheater," for if we are. to 
see in it the Cnobheresburg of Bede, it ia soou occupied by 
a chief of the incoming barbarians. Ckiobhere, like the 
other chief of his race at Pevensey, took np his dwelling 
viUiin the Boman walla, and from his early possession of 
the spot, the site is known to this day, not as a Caister, 
a prosidium of the Koman, but aa a Burhj a camp of the. 

I have ibxu endeavoured to show, though imperfecdy; 
and with many omissions, first the traces of the Boman 
colonists or Bomanised Celts in this northern portion of 
Icenia, faint and scanty indeed, and then, by an exami- 
nation of the positions of their camps, how the conquest 
of the district was achieved by the Bomans, and how in 
after ages it was defended against the Teutonic invaders. 
We have in Norfolk bat few vestiges of the Boman age ; 
time and wanton destruction have sadly diminished them. 
Yet, by means of the pick and spade important results 
might still be obtained, and the thorough exploration o^ 
andi sites as Burgh Castle near Yarmontb, and above all 
of Caister near Norwich, would be a service to archnology 
of great importance and might aid in extending - &e 
knowledge of a period, too much neglected, whose 
remuna are gradni^y but surely vanishing. 

Thb disooveriea meatumed by Sir Thomu Brovne in liu " Hjrdrio- 
b^hia," u m&de at Old WalamglLaiii in hii tame, wiD not be found 
noorded in this list for the foUowioff rsMOn. I3ie nnu he describes aa 
found diere, were probably part of the oontettts of a large Atigliwn 
oemeteiT, aa may hare been those dog up at Soath Oi«ake. The 
iUiutrfttioiui given at the head of his " Diaoonrse " shoir Anglian 

Again, in the fields lying between Bnun^ton and Bvzton, thete 

Menu, in the aoconnt afiorded by his BoBthunona Works, to be a 

TOU JtLTl. • -ax ■ ■■ 

piingliiig of Bomaao-Btituli and *«e'**" imtannoito. Hie ananaj 
am, eagMTal in dils Mcooat, u wo *"£<"» Hie kiln near us 
•ito, if it wu a kiln, which ha ao minut^ deaoribea, oould only be 


piinni liiiff (tf Bomano-Btituh and * «igit*ii iota 

am, eagiaTal in diis aocooat, ii aCo *wgi"» Hie kiln near Hia 
• ^^ ' "^ '1 only ^- 

ci the ohjedi diaooramd by^im in the ftdlowing rnnda : — " Sane nUR, 
■p"—'"*— *■> *'■* *'—*f JT "f thiirr ^tnt . . . mi^BOiniairi> 
iriMthar aU theae ana (ouid anunc aa an prapnij Bonan nlii% oc 
•one not baliulaf anto oar Britiin, Saxon, or JDaaidi loratathan." 

linABk>ni«flald;ewiTtt«iaeittier Roman or Pritiih. Hedaaoribee 
in aona detail the large oameteiT fonnd in the Broou C9oa«t near 
Norttt '"'"''■'■j die eoateota ot vhitJi, tram hia npMt, appear to be 
Anglian, widi no admiztaioitfBomaa remains. Woodward, following 
Uomafiald, nakea North Hmhani a Soman nta, and aaoribea the 
aarthwwka dure to the Boman period. Thoae^ how«v«r, have tax 
mote the diantetflr at an Anajiaa borii than of a Boman eaiu. 
Soow Bonaa coina have been bund at North ^Q"**'*'", which will be 
noted in die toUowinB lilt 

The nma mid Ij BlameA^ te hare been das ap at lindlofd, were, 
in all probatnlity, Awg«M, ud thia mar have been the oaae with the 
wnt» and other objeota found at Harford, mentvmed inQoogh'i edition 
(rf Gamden'a "Britantiia." The arnuniT and akeletons foimd at 
Narboroogh, mentioned bj Ooogfa, may probably date tron a period 
later than the BMnan. 

The cemeterr on the hill at IfarkahaU, north of die Boman camp at 
Gwter, near Norwioh, which ii aurked in the Ordnanoe Survey as 
Boman, can aoaioelT be oonndered ao, lor though a stone dst, which is 
said to hsTe been fonnd there, would probably be of that period, the 
nma dug ap on Markihall hill are anqneatiaiably Anglian in date and 
charaoter. Some qteoimens of theee are in the Norwich Museum. 
The ana, ranged in linei^ foond near the Boman kiln, about a quarter 
of a mile fromthe north-irast oonter ot this camp at Caiater.are, perfa^a, 
ol the same period as those from MariuhaU. 

At the end of die tdlowing list are girm notea on the Boman 
station at Bnrrii, in Sofltdk, biU whiu, by its aitnatitm, belongs 
more to Notfulc, than to die f(»mer oounfy, and is therefwa 
added to this list. Ires, in hia " Gaiianonum," epeaka of die 
field oataide the east nte of this station, as the ute of the B<Hnaa 
eemetery, but the on^ illustrations he girea, show Anglian oms. 
He also speak of urns and aihes disoorered in gieat abundance in 
die rising gnrand within the walla of the oamp, towards ita south- 
r, which oould not be T 

Hanrod ooBsidered the euthworks at Osatle Basing to be British, 
modified ly the Bomana, and held the same oinniim with reapect to the 
iiragular mounda of Oastleaore and Mileham, on which the Nonnan 
Imds built di«r cartlee. "Bm quadrangular endoenre at old Bucken- 
ham, he oaUs a small Boman eamp, and the mounds and enclosures of 
New Buckenham, British. He also looked on the earthworks at 
Norwich as Brituh. Sinoe the produotion of hia book, however, 
(" The Castlee and Conventa of No^olk"), the able and long continued 
researches of Mr. O. T. GUrk into the military architecture of the 
Middle Ages hare shown, that all eatthworke, similar in cbaractar to 
those above cited, most be asoribed rather to a leutonio, than to a 
Celtic origm* 


The ah«ete of the Oidunoe Sorv^ will be loand tueful in deter- 
tmning the Bpota t.t which wioua relujs have been disconred, bat 
mai^ omiaeioiM oocnr in theou, and the peiioda Mcsibed to sUee, and 
to ODJeotfl, are not alwoTS to be depended upon. 

No nferenoee will be foond in the following liit to tho vaxioiu 
theories reapecting Uie mte of Yenta ^eooraiB, or to thoee wm- 
oecning the Boman roads in Norftdk. Aa fkx as poaaUs it it 
reatrioted to the task of pcHnting out acinal diaooreiiea. H(V can it 
pretend to be abaolntely complete ; the nooartain aooonnbi id early 
writers, and the nnreoorded, (»■ but partially zeoorded, disooreiiea ex 
more recent times, rendering avch oompIetenGea impomUe. 

LIST or uaaXTUXvan. 

Oamd., ed. hj Qovgh. — ^Britannia, hj William Oamden, edited hj 
Sioh'. Oongh, 3 vds., 17K9. 

SpeL, loenia.— " loenia." In flw T!"gi''F^' works oi Kr Heniy 
Bpebnan, ed. 1728. 

Browne, Hjrdriotaphia. — " Hirdriotaphia." In the works of Bir 
Thomas Browne^ ed. 1686. 

Browne, Post. Worka.^>n nms found in Brampton field, Noift^. 
In Fosthomoua works of Sir Thomas Browne, ed. 1712, 

Dagd&le, Hist of Imbank. — The History of Imbanking and 
Drainmg, &a., by Bir William Dogdale, ed. 1772. 

Bl. Norf.— Blomefield's History of Norfolk, 11 -rols., 1810. 

Ives. Oariaa. — ^Ivee Oarianonum of the Bomans, 1803. 

King, Kun. Ant. — ^Uvnimenta Antiijua, by EdV. King, 3 vole., 

Watson, Wisbech. — An Historical Aoconnt of Wisbeoh, fto., by 
WilL Watson. 

Hart, Ants, of Noil — ^The Antiquities of Korftdk. A leotare by 
the Bot'. Bioh'. Hart, 1844. 

HaiTod, Casties, &o. — Qleaninn among the Oastles and OonrentB 
of Ntnjolk, I7 Henry Hanod, RS.A., 1857. 

Carthew, Hnnd. of Lannditch. — ^The Hundred of lAwlditoh, ftc, 
by G. A. Carthew, F.8.A., 1877. 

The Fenland, Skertdily.— The Fenland past and present, by 8. E- 
HUIw and 8. B. J. ekertohly, 1878. 

East An. — ^East Anglian. Notes and Queries, Ac. 

Gmit. Usf. — Gentlnnan's Magazine. 

Ania. — ^The Aiolueol(^ta of the Sode^ of Antiquaries. 

Frooeed. Soo. of Ante. — nraoeedings. Sodety of Antiqnariea. 

Aiolueol. Joum. — Journal of the AzduMdog^oal Institote. 

Joom. Brit. Ardueol. Ass. — Journal of tiie British AzshiooL 

Norf. Arohy. — Norfolk Axclueology. Original papers of the Nor- 
folk and Norwich Arclueol. Society. 

Kerrich M88, — Drawings and plaiu, by the Eot*. Thomas 
Kerrich. British Uaseum Add. USS. 

D. T. coll. B. U. — Drawings, &c., collected by Damon Turner to 
illiistrate Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk. British Museum Add. MSS. 
23,024 to 23,062. 

Ord. Snr. — Sheets of the Ordnance Survey to scale of 6 in. io a 
mile, unless otherwise mentioned. , OoOqIc 


AsBiu^ — Squra utelomn of ten aem with foundBd uigl«a, fonied 
bf s ditch, having within it ft aaoosd snolorarB alao fonned by k ditch. 
Batwna (be Int uid Motmd oMloMin oo tha «ut, weet, Kiid wm*^ 
ndM, ii « ipwa 100ft. wida; on th« north nde the ■paeo ii betwwn 
Kxtf and aanatj faot vida. In tho nortii-«Mt eomor, batwMB Am 
two dttdiM^ bmnarij «siitad tmoM «l tovndatiotM. 'V^hinAoinnw 
oadoe ai o win found in U70 dnring the oonatnwtioB ot dia Wttton 
ud Swaffltam nSway, « boaidad abaft tft. Sin. afiuM aad 40ft. doap^ 
a aarand, 3SfL doapt whldi appaand to havo men abaadonad ma 
haTinc bnlgod in oonatnutioB and a rnblriah pit about Aft. deqk 

Cmtanta tA fint abaft. From top o( woodworic, 8ft. nndar tha 
amfaea, to depth at IHt, TWr ■tiMaDanMoa. Near •utfaee, a ban 
dhi^ad fibula. Al 4ft., pottaij, pieoea o{ ohanoal, bonaa of ox and 
daer, bukat <d wiokn work. At 8ft., firagmonta of pottaay and 

. Baauaa wara, bona* al ox, daar, and awina, jart <d aaititaa ooundac. 
At 10ft., mof« Samian wan with tha fdtowing pottor*! maika — 
uoDrrsF. — X. iniLn. — ^nBTsvt. — or.iiooA.0. — or. i . . . na. — 
▼KiLu., a pioM of atamped wall plaater, an iron knifa with aookoted 
handle^ a wbatatona. At Iftft., brokon pottaiy, atavea of an oak 
bodkat, bono* of awiaa and deer, ojatflr and miuaal ahalla, fonr won 
aandala. At 19ft., nmi ^aoed in a ejiiietrioal maniLar and cxntiniuDg 
to be Ihiu placed down to the bottom, bronce bow-ah^>ed fibula, iron 
iai^ement, probably key to onteaten tbe bolt of a lar^ door. At S4 
and 2Sft, uru BTmetrit^r pUoed aa before, the lower lajan bedded 
in oak and haMl laane. At soft, unu aa before, a boai'a (oak, 
piecea of aawn dear'a honi. At 5Sft, uioUier layer of nma with 
leaTea and large atonaa orer them. At 33ft., Samian ware^ a bai^et 
tan indiea high, with inn handle and deata, naok of an an^hom, 
part ot a qaem atona, email atone ponnder, part oi a leather girdle. 
At 31ft., nnu ; orer them attmee, iriuohehowedtiaoeaoffii*. 8mm of 
the una had banda of aedge lonnd tbem aa if to loww tham 1^, aoma 
ware cased in baakat wo^ and otheia had atring witb alip knota. At 
40ft, the banned bona of a deer waa found, and Aa bottom ottba abaft 
waa reaohed. It oonaiated of flinte. 11m woodwoi^ vt tha abaft 
beret waa maintained in plaoa by four willow atakaa. Tbe aeoond 

' ahkft,- 22ft deep, waa lined wiOnmd like tha fitat, but only for a fow 
foet It oontamad a bottle^ two nma, two amooth etonea, a aknll <A 
boa hngifrona, and aoma antlsn of i«d daer. Tbe bottom waa Iwmed 
like tbe fira^ of flinta. Tbe rubbiflb bola, 6ft deep, contained only 
fragmeota of pottery, akull of a goat^ bonea of awine^ ox, pig, and 
In tbe railway cutting not far aouth of tha pita, waafoundaabaUow 

' tffonae pateQa five incbea in diameter, with a Bat handle. It ia in the 
poaa e aa io p trf ICr. Jomaa Wyatt, d Bedford. No buman ranaina 

' ware fonnd anywhere nor any dnarary uina. Tbe number <d eartbea- 
ware veeeela amounted to 120, and upwards fd Hkf wars reoovared 

Borne of tbe uma are meerved in the ooUeotion of tba lata T. 
Barton, Eaq., of Tbmton Honse. Alao the lat^ iron key, a amall 
saw with long round handle (not mentioned in tha above liet) and tha 
knife and fibula mentioaed above. 

Uany fragments of uma and some perfeoi ones from this i^t^ M» ia ■ 
the pooeeasion of tbe Bov. T. Jonee, F.S.A., of Sporle. _ i GoOQIc 


Li die Norwidi Huaeom areseveannislRnatiusnte^pMMBtodbr 
the Iat« T. Barton, Esq. For recwid of diacoTWiM aso SotL Anb/n 
viii, 1879, 324 et teq foar plates and aaotitu in tozL AraluaoL Joan., 
zxxU, 1878, n>8-9, Joom, Brib AsebmoL Aas^ xx ", 167C, 46»-70. 

Old. StUT. ShaeU Ix, Kir. and Ixui, h.w., 
_ BiODnTHoiPz. — Hoard of ooins found in Uig« enrtimt pot Hio 
Ust (rf tbem rangea from Nrara to Tetriona, aiM tlia find oontained 
manj thonaaada of eoina. 

Boman bridca, sharda, and fragmenta el qoenu fannd on dte of 
ICaaor Honoe liere» and abont Baoouathorp* generally. Kort. AnhT 
ix., 1884, 26 »t Mj. Aiclueol. JoanL, zzzriiL, IBBl, 483-34. Old. 
But., Sheet xriii, h.>. 

BucmiicwxLi. — A plain Samian-waze oi^ (oorered by aaoOier), 
oontuning aboard of liftj or moEflailTeretMna ; found 1B46. Amongat 
them, one of the Antoola family. The rest ranged from Te^aman to 
Oommodufl. The oorering oop, alao Samian ware^ had a pottar'a mark 
Ml &e bottom, aoawDC NorL Ardq^. viL 187S, 138 «& wf., -gL of 
TMe, 139. Jonzn. BriL AichsoL Aaa., ii, 1847, 88. 

Bkeror. — OnbiUtopaout^ofBeestondinioh. Fits for smelting iron 
ore (bond on the neignbouriag beadL Fragments of ooarse pcSterj, 
and aome Boman pottery found among the dnderg and slag. Btone 

Jnenu, moetty of Boman type, found in the neighbourhood. Arehaol. 
mm. zl, 1883, 286, plan 282. 

BBsmniHui. — ^Boman pottery, and some hnman bones found 1670, 
(Boman interment t). In the neighbourhood, half of a quern found. 
Fzooeed. Soc of Anta. T. 2"* ser. 1873, 32, 33. Norl Arohy. vii. 
1872, 372. 

BicKZKSTom or Sixlmt. — Boman bricks in soudi-eaat angle of ruined 
ehuroh, near "Rftmtin™ bridge. East. An. 1, 1864, 339. 

BuKPTOH. — ^Two tiagmentB of Boman pottery, one, of a vase with 
ribbed and indented eidea, the other a p<»1iiHL of the nprigbt side of a 
Samion patera, showing a mask, the mouth of i^di la perforated to 
aerre an a spout. D. T. colL B. M. Add. M88. 23,026. 199. 

FragmenU of Samian ware. ArolueoL Joum., Norwioh YoL 1847, 
p. xznii, cat of tomp. mns. 

Bmnan lamp of bronee found, 1849, in field on tlie boundair of 
Brampton and Bqxton, oonunonly called "the Boman field." QiTen 
to Norwich Uuseum, 1B53. D. T. wO. B. iL Add. UBS. 38,063, 
f. 193. 

SmaQ bnmae figures of Uinerva and Jopiter found in a field ctnn- 
monly called " Sir Thomas' field." Idem 23,063 f. 193. 

B&AircASTXB. — ^Walled station. For desoriptions sea Oamd. ed. by 
Gouf^ ii, 97, 114.— SpeL loenia, p. 147 H aeq—BL Norf., z, 1809, 
398-9.— Aroha., zii, 1809, note m., p. 134.— Idon, zxiii, 1831, 861.— 
ArohnoL Jonm., Norwich vol, 1847, p. 9, rt tj^ 4 ^ans and 
sections in text. 

Two little bronze Taaea and some ooina reoorded to have been 
found, bv Sir H. Bpelman. — ^A silrer ocun, on the obran^ head of 
James Bifnms, on the reverse possibly a tropl^. — A bxoue ocnn of 
Clanditts.— BL Norf., x, 1809, 298-99. 

Youthful nude male figure, 3 in. high. Mcnnuy (?) Three oiriM— 
Antoninus Fins, Caraueius and Oonatantius— J>. T. ooU. B. U. Add. 
UBS. 23,026, t 104. tKiglc 


OoU ring wHh two hMtda bxing, and l«g«nd TirA(«) n dso, fimid 
1839 (u poMMCton of B. Ktoh, Esq., FT&A.)— Andu^ sdii, lUl, 
MI.— 4oatm. Brib AidueoL Am^ xzzri, 1880, 116, illnit. in taxb 

Bad* ribw lin^ « knife, niu of Itotj and brauB, fngnuati of 
fllr— . •tan honu, ojwtm thdli, mmw of ramter wittt tilM of MOii- 
^lindrieu fonn, graotad floor, and Inindalioiia of aqnan duunbw 
ngainat {oB«r nwtb-Mat angja oi wall <rf atation, a pmotad nad 
MMng thioagh aaat gate and tnoaabla lor 130 jda. m a woitMly 
Sinotiai. AidusoL Joun^ NonriAnL, 1847,p. », ofas;. 

Ob}aeti Iton this Italian in KnwiA ICnaeam. 

Tisgrnaoti of nnu and Bamiaa wara^ piw. by B. H.St Qaintin, 

Bom pina, iliagmauta ol gliM, iron ring, fto., pna. 1^ Uw Bar. 
JantM Lee Wanwr. 

Fbr aiU OM Oid. Sorr. ShMta, ii, a.w, and vii, v.w., 6 in. to a 
mile ; and Shaeta ii, 18 uid vii, 1 39 in. to a niil& 

Buxsov. — Frafurionlun od Bronse. Brit. Una., Bcmano-Britiib 

BaxmKAit.— Ooin of Teapaaian and una, ooa of rod eaxth. BL 
Nort, i, 441. 

Coiiia of Nerra, Kmjan, B. Berenu, Oannnaa, Aleotns, faoiilr of 
Conatantiiia, fibula, Ac Ait)h»oL Jonm., It, 1847, 353. 

Coins of Hadrian and Auralina, and oolkotion of omna from thia 
> rite. ArdueoL Jontn., Norwibh toL 1847, p. liii, oat. of temp. mna. 
A Ford hara <d the Feddan War. — Keys, fibuljD, rings, found. — 
AiclueoL JouRL, xxri, 1869, 401. Temp. mna. at Bury Bt. Edmunds. 

Bbutthali.. — Behind th« Bnindall Station of the railway from 
Norwich to Yannoath, on the ride of the slope called the upper and 
lower Chapel fields, where formeriy stood a Ch^el, acme nms con- 
taining ashes, wen disoorered in 1830. The rite waa Wrelled at that 
date and a gtareyaid, apparently attaidied to the ohi^el, was dia- 
eorwed. Tba ana (Bomanf) were dog up in or near Uus Rareyaid. 
Bmne wen preetfred in the garden of Bimon Peter Bonu, Esq., in 
Ote nri^booriiood, but an not now to be found. £aat An., i, 
1864, 184. 

In the grounds of Hicbael Bereriey, Eaq., M .D., near the same station, 
was found, in a depression of the hill side, at about 20 ft. shore the lerel 
of the t».«whlMu), s faasin-shsped unking. It wss about 100 fL hmg (its 
braadth was not asoartuned), and its gnatest depth lift. It was com- 
jdelely filled with inegulsr lumps of day, such fragments as have been 
preaerred ranging fnsn the sin of the fist to pieces 13 in. long and as 
many bcoad. These lumps seem kneaded, or mixed with frsgments of 
(^teoal, some large enough to show the fibre of the wood. Amcmgst 
them, towards the upper end of the hollow, wen found three or four ineces 
of wood, periiaps osk, completely earbouised, and from 6 to 6 ft. long; and 
9 in. square, baring ttie remains of iron naila in them. Both wood and 
nsils feU to piecea on being moved. The only objects found among Uw 
day lump* wen, an iron knife 3^ in. koft with a socketted handle, and 
s blade cf inn 0^ in. long The hollow containing the msas of eUy was 
not lined in any way, but simply dug out of the natural ground. BuiniDg 
down to this hollow from the side of the hill, to the North-nortti-wert, 
were two drains, about 1 2 yards apart, formed of roof and other tiles, and 
the quantity of msteriri removed, filled a tumbril. These drains wen 
not followed up, but the length of each carted away, amounted to 10ft> 


At K distance of 200 jAt. dna irwt, on the bill abore thii enaTetJon, 
wen fonnd a nnall heap of nubnmt clay brieka, with a quantity fd ohipa 
of pottery, togethw witli two fiagmenta of imall raseat distorted ia the 
bakiii^ One of the brida, whi<£ baa been pFeaened, meaantea 8 in. in 
len^, ia roughly 31- aqaara at tiie base, «i^ tapen towaida a bluntly 
pointed end. On the hilt, neet the road bounding the gronsda, and about 
30 yda. eaat of the excavation, latge flat building tilea wen tuned up, 
together with a fngment of a flue tile, a pieoe of the upper atone of a qnem 
of conglomenta, 11 in. in diameter, and part of tiie rim of a mortarium of 
bnff-oolouFed wan, with the potter's stamp on each side the spout It 
reads bscab ■ L The quern lay 2 fL 10 in. beneath the surface of the 

Some fragments of Bamian ware, all plun, one^ the baae rf a ressel 
with the potter's stamp on it, reading tiki . . . om, wen in the 

Scattered shards of pottery continue to be found in these grounds, 
especially towards the west end. Many pieces, both of coane and fine gnj ■ 
eartlienwaie, mosUy rims of Tcssels, have been preserved, some slignUy 
oraaniented vith lines and geometric patterns. Amongst them an frag* 
nieiits of bufT-cotoured ware, a mortarium of grey ware, and part of a 
litrge funnel, and oraongst thepieccsof Saniianiaa portion of a mortarinm, 
aad of a flanged bowL 

A perfect roof tile, with the nail hole in it, and the piece of flue tile 
mentioned Etbove, are amongat the objects preserreil. The above dia- 
CDvcrics were made at intervals between 1882 and 1887. (Notes from 
information ohtnined on the spot 0. K F.) 

Bnnan (near Ai^sham). — Small vessel Sf inches high with wide 
mouth, buff-coloured ware, dug up in a field in this parish. D. T. 
ColL B. H. Add. MSS. 23,026, f. 151. 

BnxTON. — Cinerary urns found in great variety. Saniian warn and 
apparently the rims of Mottoris. On one piece of Samian, the letters 
OBAOVKA. r. On the rims of some of the mortsria nvoh. Fiom one uro 
came a silver coin of Fnustina, and coins of Posthumus and Tetricus wen 
found ; also pieces of bronie of different shapes, and in one am a nail two 
inefaee long. 

Ifear this eitc was discovered what, from the description given of it, 
appears to have been a potter's kiln. Browne, Post. Works, p. 2 to IS. 
Ifeck and mouth of a vase of coarse buff-coloured earthenware, with alight 
annulets round the neck, and the broad lip at top, of a pinched and 
indented pattern. Fonnd October 81st, 1816. D. T. ColL B. U. Add. 
MSS. 23,026, f. 219. 

Caistbb [near Norwidi). — Walled station. For descriptions and plans 
see Camd, edited by Gough, ii, 94, 105-106. Bl. Korf. v, 433 et teq. 
King. Mun. Ant ii-49, 80, 61, H6-U7, pL xxviii and pL ^— Arch*, 
xii, 1809, 13A, et aeq. pL xsi.— Idem xxiii, 1831, 366, 368.— Old. Surr. 
Sheeta Ixxv k.k and Ixxv s.B. six inches to a mile. — Idem Sheets 7 and 
11, Ixxv, 25 inches to a mile. 

Bronze lamp in form of a Satjrr. — Bronie lamp in form of a sandalled 
foot — Camd. ed. by Gough, ii, 106-6. 

Pottery kiln in meadow about a quarter of a mile north-west of the 
camp, eontaining vessels, found 1823. Archa. zzii, 1829, 112 ef leq., 1 
|d. to scale pL xxxvL 


FvaaiMtiMm of ft nnall building aboot BOO ytrdj (mm nortii-fiHt 
eomac <rf ounp^ tp(«naUj Aoond with ona indi btiok tesMna, and tha 
walla plaatared innde ; (periiapa andoaara of a tomb). Ona fn^mant of 
Samiait waia found iiaar it, with tha poUat** «IWQp . . . r rann. 
and a rada mItct ring which hid loat ttia atoM witti which it had boan 
aat. A tfaoa of a niad nwniDg in tha diraction of Gariaaoanm, Haman 
lonaa with thoaa of animab found about thia apot, Soptanbar, ISU. 
AiclusoL Joun^ ir, 1847, TS, 73, pL of foondationa of building, in 


Two ingmaoU of Bamian wara with pottat*! atampi^ DV^tn. w. and 
ivonKD w (1), AnkmoL Joum. Norwich Vol, 1847, p. xxviii, eai c< 

GMd ringtat withasonjx,withanintaf^of aViotoij. InpoNOMioa 
td tha Bar. 8. Bloia Tnrner. AidueoL Jonrn., Noiwich Vol., 1S47, 
p. xzix, eat. of tamp, mua. 

Fcagmant of tem-cotU, araall head in nlitt, tit Dtaiia, foaud n«at the 
fonndiAioBa ot the baildinx named abore. In poawaaion of R. Fitch, 
Eiq.. FJBX Atehaol. Jonin. vi, 1S49. 180. Norf. Anh. ir, 1859, 
SU, fL H. Mma page, 

Riwun lamp with flgun of a gladiator upon it. In poawMon of ICi. 
C EUioU. Joara. Brit. Archnol. Aaa.,x, 1896, 106. 

Small bnmta boat, youthful head crowned with laarel, found in field 
nMT the RaetoiT (Fitch ColL). Norf. Archy. iv, 188JS, 232, pi, I. same 
pa«. AiebBo). Jonrn. x, 1S53. p]., p. 378. 

Sroall relief in bronia 2J in. bi{[h, a geniua holding a banch of grapea. 
Norf. Aichy. t. 1859, 199 et.ioj, illuat. in Uxt, 200. 

An iron key H in. in Ieng.h, a bead of green glaaa, an amulet, a amall 
Sgan of a exk, portion* of a bow aluiped fibula, and a harp^haped ona, 
two tags, endi of ■ belt, model of a hatchat, all aeven objeeta in bronie, 
the cock and the hatchet probably children'a toy*. Fibula of broue 
with, pethapa, inlaid tinea of white metal, repieaentlng two animals 
fi^tia^ found in the camp. Idem p. SOI illoat. in l«xt, and ArshsoL 
Joun. xiT, 1867, 176 (Fitch coll.) 

Bnnie specnlom f*. 1857. ArchnoL Joum. xir., 18S7, 287-8. Nor£ 
Anhy. T, 1869, &7I, pi. p. 271 (Fitch eoll). 

Small bnnu fignn. Nraf. Archy. vii, 1872, 873 (Fifadi ooO.) 

Chain, fibula, ead^ pierced roundel of lead (Boman 1). Iforf . Anhy. 
Il, 1864, 363 (Fit<£ ootl). 

Olijecta from thii atation to the poeaeaaion of Sir Francis O. IC 
Boilaan, BaiL, F.8.A. 

FkagiMaita of figond Samian ware, one showing engine toraed oni»r 
ment. Othsia irfun. Under the foot of one patera a potter's maA. 
BcnKBt Small vaae, 2 in, high, black ware with diagonal scorings 
and baaes irf vaaea with copper coloured glaae, peifaapa Caator ware. 
Fragments of coana potloiy. One fragment of pale buff ware, showing 
a bead in relief (about lia high), of a youthful genius or eupid. 
Found Aug. 17th, 1846(t) Plain silver ring, originally art with a 
atone. Found 1836. Portion of roof tile found 1864. 
Tbt following objects from tbie aits are in the If orwidi Kusenm : — 

Small nn ot Unish grey earth, pTsaented by the Rot. H. Daahwood. 
Small urn, red aaith, containing a quantity of burnt wheat. Wood- 



Tlinediinmative bionsa enps, joui«d togetlw, piMentad by Q,' joliDWMi, 

Bronss lUtara, piese&tod b^ J. Gooding, Eiq. 

Put of a fln« tila^ praaeatod bf H, flumd, Em 

Two pieoM of teateUted pavcoMnt feint boitding named above, near 
the camp. 

Fra^ent of a Uoitarium, preaeatod bj CapL H. W. FieldoL 

For liati of eoins &and in and about thu eamp, aee 6L Ifoil, 
ii5^-.Nmt. Aichjr, IT, 18S6, 331, et mq.—Utm, t, lBfi9, 20S, et a 
The eariieat eoin recorded to hare been fonnd on this site ia one of 
Angnatoi, the latest, Talentinian. ForgoldeoinofKerofoandontheaita 
flee Anheot. Jonni. Norwich YoL, 1647, p. 16. 

tUram (mot TartMuth). — Roman atatitm. For doacriptiona and 
[dana, &c., aee Camd. ed. by Gongh, ii, 91!, 96. — Spd. loania, p. 
16(i. — Ireai Oarian, ^ 5-4.— For anppoaed nte, aee Ord. Snrr. Sheet, 


SOver and copper coin* found in a field called Eaat Bloody Borongh 
Furlong. Browne. Hydriotaphta, ehm. ii, note to p. S. 

In a field, a few handled yarda nortti>weet of the paridi ehnrch (Holy 
Trinity), by the aide of the Norwich roed, wae found, in 1837, a bricked 
pit, 11 ft by 7 ft. at bottom, 12fL by 8ft. at top, the depth may hare 
been i ft. at least There were no traces of a paved floor, and the aides 
were constructed of roof tiles, the width of the tile making the thickneaa 
of the wall. At the same time, a small Tsse of black oaithenware, 
bones of ox and pig, oyster shells, atones, and fragments of Roman 
pottery were turned up, sad many skeletone were discovered, lying in 
various directions, and most of them buried only 2 ft. deep. Coins of 
CoDstantine were found all over the field. At a spot a quartor-of-a-mile 
eastwaid from this pit, two cinerary uma, each covered with a tile, 
were disinterred, one from a depth of 3 ft., the other from a depth of 
6 or 7 ft, the latter being bedded in wood ashes. 

In sinking a well beside the Yarmouth load, at a depth of 20 ft - 
below the present surface of the marsh, a piece of plank was found 
apparently the p4ank of a ahipL 

About sixteen yeara previona to the diseoveries here recorded, some 
Roman uma were dug up in another pert of thia pariah, in a aouth-weat 
direetion from the pit above mentioned, in a apot bordering upon tiie 
marahes. Oent Mag., 1887. Ft II. p. 618-521, 

In the field before i^ken of, north-west of the chnrcb, foundationa of 
hnildings are said to have been observed. 

An um covertd witii a tile, containing calcined bonea, together with 
bnmt wood, and fragments of wood with iron nails, and nnbumt human 
bone^ were fomid in a clay pit near the mill north-east of the chureh ; 
also a fragment of Samian ware showing a hare hunt. ArchsaoL Joum., 
iii, 1846, 251.— Joum. Brit. ArchnoL Ass. xxxri, 1860, 206. For nm see 
U. T. CoIL B. M. Add. M88. 23,027, 1 132. 

Small bottle^ehaped earthen vase with very large lip on which are three 
male heads in slight relief found 1851. D. T. Coll. R M. Add. H8S. 
23,054. t 42. 

Kiln, with ums snd an iron stand found in it, diacovered in a sand 

C't, in 1851, on Mr. Daniel'a farm, south side of parish church and 
itween it and the marshes, a few hundred yards fiom the church. Norf. • . 
TOT- xvn. 2 r 


Aichy^ ir, 1665, S8S— Jottn. Brit. Anhaol. Ak^ uxti, 1880, 306 

On the ^ of the nMrroir of the Tirmoath Wftterworiu eoaBtntcted 
in 1861, wan finiid qoiBlitiee of brakea pottery, ■ome of MBmon, 
•one id Seaiiu wui, a mall ImniM bead of a fraa, a btooie pio, 
MnMnne ooine, and ^it«c ehelb and booee. The spot ptobaUf the aite of 
a rabbidi pit A hiomm wtAl wa* alao Mid to have been fonud in 
makiiig the teearrjii aborc named. Mod Axdij. vii, I8T3, S06 (Fitch 
ColL). ForiaiUiNt.ofit eeeD.T.OolLB.lLAdd.HSS.23,018,t 
.86, when it ia itated to have beenfooitdat WltaataenBui!rii,inl813(n 

The litt of eoini fonnd ahowi a range from abont i.o. W to a.D. 870, 
and manj of the claM eaOed ICnimi an tamed ap. List of eoinB, 
Fram Antoniniu Pioa to Gntinn, Hocf. Arehy., vii, 187S, 11, et mj. 

In the garden of the netoiy wen found tnoee of a rabble floor, Sin. 
tUek, iMiwatb i^ undiatorbed nitd. Alao a bailment of pottery with 
Mpreaentation of a dock ; tnd a mbbieh pit. The otnoa found hen ranged 
frmn the Second to the Fifth Oeatarf. Jonm. Brit. ArehsoL Am. 
zzxTi, 1880, 89. 

Ofajeeta from thii itatioi) preaetrod in the Norwich Kmeam : — 

In» itand found in potter's kiln, fragmenti of another kiln, and 
fmgmenta of nnu diitorted in the baking, fonnd in the kiln. Freaented by 
J, Gnnn, Eeq. 

Fortiou of nmi of a Mae ohy foond near the above kiln. Prennted by 
the Rer. E. 8. Taylor. 

Cablbiox — Urn of dark wan, with wary Hnei of white, conteining 
(out gold, and ten ailver eoini^ found in 1807. Tbt gold, of Oratitn, 
Haximoa, and Honorini; the silrer, of Julian, Valentioiitn, Gntiaa, 
Ibximu, Aicadiui and Honorini. ArclueoL Jonm., Norwich Vol. 18 17, 
pp. nrii, and liii, eat. of tempi mus. Norf. Archy. ir, 1855, 316. For 
•ite of diworery, we Ord. Burr Sheet, Ixxvi, b.e. 

CiCTUAOU. — Unwalled camp. For deacriptione and plans see Camd. 
•d. by Gongh ii, 117. Kerrich M88. B. U. Add. USS. 6735, 72 
and 6753, IE 97, 100. BL Norf. viii, 376-7. Archa. xxiii, 1831,371. 
Hanod CaatUs, &e., p. 103 et m^., plan to scale in text p. 100. Joum. 
Brit. ArchaoL Aai. ziv, 1858, 205 et teq., plan p. 205. Ord. Surr. 
Sheets xlrii, ir.w., and xlvii aw., Sin. to a mile, and Idem aheets 6 and 
10, xlrii, 25 in. to a mile. 

Yar the Peddar's Way, which runs through or near this camp, see all the 
authorities cited abore, and the ahoets of tiie Ord. Butt. 60, 65, 66, 69. 
1 in. to a mile. 

Coins of Vespasian and Constsntine. A eomelian ring with radiated 
head, fonnd in Arundel Close. Bl Noil riii, 877. 
. Roman pottery discovered in nuking excaTStions in drcolar work, 
north and west of keep. Qarrod, Caatles Ac, p. 106. 

One perfect and some broken fibolm, bronie, harp-shaped, and coina 
One, third braaa Tetricos ; six, seeond brass Diocletian ; eight, second 
brass Usximianna, Hercules ; one, third braaa Allectua ; fonr, Constantiiu 
CStlorua. All in posaeaaiqu of the Ber. T. Jones, FjS.A., of Sporle. 

CASII.K Rnnro. — Some Boman coins found here, one of Cktnstantine 
seen by Sir H. Bpebnan. BL Norf. iz, 49. 

CasTON. — Hoard of 300 sjlver and brooie coina deposited in rolla 
S^me aa early as Marc Antony, aome later than Marcus Auielius. With 


them, ft fhaa •flrer ring, found 1820. In asms Tillage, a plain am cod- 
taining coins of Thaodoaoa L, Aroadiiu, and Honorins, found 1816. 
Aroha. xx, 1824. 677-8. 

Cawros.— Bron» coin of Faoatina foand in I788i. SL Nort vf, 368. 

CooKLBT OuT.-^ Uiird btaM coin of Coutantino. Nod. Axchj. iii, 
1602, 421. 

CoLTBHAUi.— Fibala^ on« tmrnic^ one diver plated, potten', coin of 
Constantino, be., sknll and other bonai (Boman interment^ Araha., 
xxii. leSd, 433. 

Ibnjr bftfEmenta of potteiy, fiboln, and eoins, vase of red wwlazad 
•tth and npper part of lai^ amphora. Areha., xxiil, 1B31, 364-6. 
Qocnna and heiring bone work of Boman shaped brick in windowa of 

dinndL TTmi aapmMed to be Boman. Arohsol. Jonm., vi, 1849, note 
pi 963. 

Obgecta &om tbis alte in the Nonrioh Hnsenm. Small mn of red 
earth, flanged patera nf black ware, two bronse fibolie. Woodward ColL 

Cbowntbobpx. — Boman thumb ring set with an onyx, with Hnall figare 
in intaglio. Jonm. Brik Archsol. Am., viii, 18SS, 169, and idem, 
idem, zi, 1896, 79, fig on plate 6. 

DxtnncB. — Boman road ranniDg in the direction of Peterboroogh, oat 
through at one mile from Salter's Lode aloice, pariah of Denver. N<ffl 
Archy., iii, 1863, 43&.— Dugdale, Hiat. of Imbank, p. 174. 

Small rude brooEO fignre of Mara. Brit. Mus. Bomano-British room. 

Diss. — Um of black ware found north of railway station, and coins, on 
the glebe. Morf. Archy., ir, 1866, note to p. 313. 

DnoHUfOHAM. — Small am filled with minimi. Noit. Archy., ir, ISSd, 

Urns found (a funeral deposit t) Norf. Archy, vi, 1864, 186, et se^., 
pL of anis p. 187.— Archeol Jonm., zx, 1863, 179. 

Ord. Surr. Sheet xcviii, U.K. ITorfolk and viii U.K. Bnffolk. 

DovimAx. — In M^uoeum at Norwich from this site. Coin of Constan- 
tine and two small gbtsa beeda Found on Downhsm ECeath. Fres. by 
W. Bqnire, Eki. 

DuiTBAK (Oreai). — Pottery (Bomui I) and Boman coins found in the 
pariah, Norf. Archy., i, 1847, 360. 

' In the walla of the church tower are to be seen fmgmenta of Bonuq 
l«ick (1689). 

DuxHAK (Litf /e), — Circular enamelled bronre fibula. Ardueol-' 
Jonm., Norwich vol., 1847, p. xlii. Cat of temp. mu& illust, pL p^ 

Einnr (near Noneich). — Fragments of Amphone and Hortarit, frag- 
ments of a Somian patera and other Boman pottery. Eaton Nursery. 
Norf. Archy., ir, 1855, 362. 

Objects from site in Norwich Uusenm. 

StDAll am of dark blue clay, — fragments of Mottarium of coarse grey 
earth, — idem of Amphone, Ifortaria, &c. — idem, bottom of a patera of 
Samian wore, with potter's stamo fatiil All presented byW. C.Ewing,- 

EooLBS.— Boman coins. Arch^eol. Joum., iii, 1846, 260. 

Edikgthorfz. — Two ums containing ashes (Boman t) found in 18S6, 
on hill between Becton and Edingthorpe heath. Norf. Archy., Ui, 
1862i 427. 



iNorth).--^jOuu foand "in puos of gioond kboat two 
furioBgi nuth of TiUi^e, is Um mad to Eut D«tgbMB, wbora old w<Us 
■nd foandAtioM trf booMo «m to be aeeu." Tbo foUowinib of bUtv 
WOK ' fowKl j-'Vcspuian, DotDitiaoi FmsUiw, LoulU, Oooatentiw. 
Abo k nine liiw; on it tn wsU utd thnndartralt. BL Mocf^ iz, 

- FajuwAif.— A >ugB TIM of 7eUo*iih baS euthnwat^ with indo 
lioM in blown painUd on it, and with ring bnndlat. It rartod on two 
lika. It waa S^in. daap and lO^in. diaowtor iMide, at tha top, its 
•tar. It had boon ooTotad by anothar, which waa hnkm 
I gatting it out, and oontainad nanjr olgMta in bnmia, of whidt iha 
foUowin^ tilt givM tha pEincipal :— Two bowla placed ona on Iha vOmt, 
each 1} in. dMp and 4} in. in diantetor, cnch pianad in tha aentn with 
a amall hole. Ihaj memblod the acaltM of a babnoe.— Handle of a 
Biiin]r-~a diee-like wheel, with an iton axle — two baaea, fi» atatnettaa — 
thiea &bah^ or bucklaa, onuunented with bearded heada— aooM baMla 
<tf btoose, paihipa part of a oitcnlai CMket — a pooriy modeUed head of 
llinerra, 6 in. high, part of a atatnette- a head of SerapU^ 2 in. hi^ — 
a fine beaided head, S io. high, h<dlow, ihe ejea piereed thnai^ but 
originally filled with bone or glaai, and the aoalp moTaabU From a 
hol« in tfw neck, it woold appear to have been attached to aome olgecL 
It baa, perbapa, been gilt — A atatnette of good workmanahip, S^in. hi^ 
« Toothful mala fignra, draaaed in a short looaa tunic, and with tmakined 
feet, and hair crgwood with laurel, holding in hia left hand a patera, 
and in hii opraiicd right, a horn. It belong! to the claaa of fignrea 
sailed LareK All the nbjeota mentioned above are of bronae. The 
um contained beaidea, a coin of bronae, on the obverae of which waa a 
youthful head, with ndiated crown, and inauiptioti TALnxuHra oao. on 
the teret««, the infant Jnpitar on the goat Aiaalthea, with the in- 
aaiptioa ion OBBCUin. ifeat thia find, whieh waa made in ISU, a 
coin of Vcapaaian waa tnmad up, bnt did not appear to belong to ii, — 
Vor illutrationB of tha abora objecU aee Hart. Ante, of Noif., 184i, 
3 phtea not to acale.— AiohnoL Joum., Kwwich toL, IU7> pL p. 
xxrii, C^ ri temp mua.— Arch«oL Joum., i, 1845, 981-2, tot aoeotint of 

Kear the aame apot acTmtaan vaaaela of various forma, all aaithanwaM, 
were found, amonpt them, a dnerary nm, containing a eoin, pOMibly of 
Severui^ bnt the inaeriptioB was much nibbed. Amoogat the p<rttery, an 
earthenware candlertiek. Nails alao found. ArohnoL Joum. iii, 1846, 
246-7. Uluatrations of this find at head of paper, and i^. showing the 
Tsmala,' p. 848. Ord Surr. Sheet, zxviii, i.x. for site id both diaooreriea. 

The whole of the olgeota from both sitae, ate in the poaaeaaion of 
J. Poati^ £aq., Smallbnigh HalL 

EkLTWHik—WO Boman Denarii of early middle period, turned up in 
ploq^ung. Joum. Brib Arobaol Asa., zzxvi, 1880, 104. 

FcraHiiL— Boman coioa. Nod Archy. vii, 1872, 359. 

FniioMdHUi FiooT.— Quoina of doobla apjayed ¥rindowa in church, of 
Bomao-ahiped tiles. ArdfuBol. Joum., vi, 18l9, 3GS. 

Fbirikbam. — ^liacea of a road tm Frettenham Common, running to 
Bnigh, and ao acioas the Bore at Oxnead E«idge, through the parish of 
Tnttington and along Stow Heath. Aroha., "iii , 1831, 372. 

FUFo.— Roman pavement (1) Camd., ad. by Oongb, ii, 117. Anht. , 

xxiii, 1831, 370. _ i rTiIlO^ I 


GnSBROir.— Wooden oiit, coDUining k glua Tue of pecolur slutpe, 
MiilMB namHa, and « fnpnent of l»(mw, porhapt part of a bulla. A 
noond biui coin of StAina ma with lbs a^ua in the vaae. Arctueol. 
Jovrn. vi, 1649, 109 el m^., plan of depodt in text p. 109, pL of vase 
p.llO,aodbalUintextpi lis. K(»f. Anhf. ir, 1855, S14. The Yaae, 
BOW in Uu Iforwich IfOMom. 

Fngmant of tun (anppoaed Bonan) from valla of eharab, found vhen 
ohmdi wMmbnilt. AiduaoL JonnLi xzir, 1667, 72-75, illusU in text p. 
78. Pmoeed. Soc ot AntL, iv, aeeond aer. 1870, l&a Old Burr. 
I^teeti xeix. ir.v., Noflolk.and Sheet Ix, a.w. Suffolk. 

QtujaoBiM, — A. deoarioa of Alex. SeTBnia. £forL Archy, ir, I8S6, 

Hatitiobd. — Small broiue figure, a Cupid. Sort Aichjr. i, 1847, 
86$. Joum. BriL Arohmd. Au. ii, 1867, 346, illuat. in test. ArehaoL 
jonrn. Norwich ToL, 1847, p. xxrii, oat of temp. mua. ArchaoL Journ., 
xi, 1164, 8& Now in the Brit Ifoaeam. Bomaoo-Britiah room. 

HntDTHAX. — ^Boman kiln, and cinerary nms. Proceed. Soo. of Anto., 
IT, 1889. SOI. AtduBoL Joom., xviii, 1861, 374. Norl Aichj., yi, 
1864. 149, e« Mg., pL of kOn 149, pL of am, illiut. in text, 156 Ord. 
SuTT. Sheet, xcriii, m.w, 

Hborah (mar Normeh). — ^Diminative nm found at StonehiUa, 
Dereham Boad, 1868. Is. Uiuenm, Norwich. Pree. by Ux. C. Harpley. 
Plain leaden coffin, and two bronze ringa, torque fashioned, perhapa 
depoaited in coffin, which contained a female skeleton, — and a ^eleton 
wu found near it, with fragmanta of a kind of cement. Found 1861, in 
a chalk pit, Stonehills, pariah of Hcigham. Nort Archy., vi, 1864, 
213, ti leq., two illuat. in text, of faronise rings, 315. ArtJuaoL Journ., 
xix, 1862, 66. 

Second tvasa coin of Faustina the elder from same spot. Norf. Archy., 
Ti, 1864, 886. 

HzKFirAU. — Anglian cometery (f) with tiaeea of preriouf Boman 
interments (cinerary nma). Nort Archy., r, 1859, 49, tt te^., pi, to 

Traces of Roman road in parish. Aicha., xxiii, 1831, 368L Ord. 
Sorr. Sheet, Ixxxvii, 8.Z. 

' Hetbibbitt. — Trace of Roman road on a farm called Flainard^ 
Archa., zxiii, 1831, 369. Tnoes of this road are still to be found 
(September, 1689), in the quantity of atonee picked from the line of it, 
where it passes through the Gelds. 

Bronie figure, 7ina. high, youthful Hercules^ nude, the left arm ex- 
tended with the lion's skin hanging over iL The left hand appears to 
have held some object Found in the parish of Hetheraett, in Uie spring 
of 1689. (Note from penonal inspection, August, 1689, Q.E.F). 

HoBKERGTon. — Pait of a causeway, which appeara to have been 
z^iularly paved, and ie 15 ft wide by 4 or 6 ft h^. It can be traced 
certainly a quartei-of-a-mile, and appeals to proceed much further, 
running past the earthworks here, and beside the road for 70 yds., and 
then, going off in an easterly direction towards North Elmham. 
Carthew. Hund. of Lannditch, Ft iii, p. 241. Roman (t) nm, found 
187C, in a gravel pit near village, thre»quarte»^f-a-mile from, the 
earthwod:*. Ord. Surr. Sheet, xxxvi, it.b. 

HoBBR. — Small nm, and neat it a second braoa coin of Ve^aaian, 


i Qnenu. Norf. Aiehy, iv, IBfffi, 3SS, illiui of am, pi. p. 951.— Oid. 
8ntT. ShMl^ tlii, B.W. 

HowK— Chuch of Hovfli Nomoroos ttagtmrntt, Kpptrentljr of 
KcHttui bri^ MOM witli flugM nmuning, wutsd into tlw mHa, A 
gold etin of Nero, fonad in the parish. ArdUBoL Jaara., t, 1863, 6S. 

loUDBOB^—" (^ ths mod toKuds Bnij wu k Um millian, Utelj 
to bo Nen."— BL Norf., ii, SSS. 

Bmaao ntiu (I) found in pltnt«tioii ■ontii.flftrt of "Bwh PiB^tl^* in 
ISM.— Ord. Surer Sh^ Luziii, aw. 

iMOOLDKBomL— Bonuut coiniL A nlTor om of Nera BL Noil,, 

KuanuT. — Bronn fibnU. Harp tbaped, H in. long; In Nonrich 
Mul., ptetenled by J. H. Bantaid, Ea^. 

KiUT Caitx.— Potlar'a kila (I) bm fngtnanls of pottoj. Korf. 
Aich7, IT, 1856, Rll 

Ltko. — Roman pottery and laiga bronie coin, powibly of Ihjan. 
Norf Anby, ri, 1864, 381. 

MiBSHAH. — Cap foand in gaidea adjoining Ri[^n HaU. OUmtb 
dmilai found at Maishim. 

Boman road croaaing the Ayleaham tnmpike at Hanbam, and 
runniDg toward* Brampton. Umi (Boman I) found on each aide of ib 
Jforf Archy., ni, 1852, il8. 

In Norwich IJaaeum. Small am of Uuiab grey aartii, with indented 
pattern, found at Uarsham, near AyUham. Woodward coll. 

Meliox ^Iaoha. — Quoins of doabl&«played windows of ruined chnreh, 
of Roman shaped tiles. — Arehnol, Joum., Ti, 1819, 36S. For doorway 
of same church see D. T. coll., K M. Add. USS., 23,06d, 1 170. 
Pot containing coins, oil silver, of wbieh nineteen wem preserved, ranging 
from ^tns to Marcus Aurelius, found on the estate of the Bev. H. 
Erans Lombe, of Helton Hall, in 1887. — (Ntrtea of diaeovery from Ed. 
ETana Lombe, Esq.) 

UiTBWOLD. — ^Foundationa of a house, a channelled hypooanat and 
cement fioon. Fragment of an Amphora. — Journal, ^t. Aiehml. 
Ass., zxxviii, 1882, 110, HI, 1 pi. of iUuat— Norf. Archy., iz, 1884, 
386.— Ord. Surv. Sheet, Ixrrii, M.w. 

Unzttjui. — TTnwalled camp. For description and plan sea Nott 
Aichy., Tiii, 1878, 10 tt §eq. plan. Ord. Burr. Sheet, xxzri, B.W., 
6 in. to mile, and idem, sheet 14, xxxri, 35 in. to a mQe. 

Square lilTer dish, found u 1839 in field ealled the Second Alder Carr. 
Archa. zxix, 1812, 389, ef »eq., pL xlii of dish. Fioceed. Soc. of Ante., 
ir, 1859, 295. Now in Brit. Museum, Bomano-British room. 

MoBLET (St. Botolph). — Roman coins, brass, mostly of Constantino. 
Found in rery black earth, (a hoard T), in pariah of Moiley. NorL Anhy. 
ii, 1869, 397. 

Norwich. — Lamp of bronce, In shape of a frog, found in dig^ng in • 
Close, near St Augustine's Gates. Csmd. ed. by Gougb, ii, 106. 

Romancineiary urns, and coinof Diocletian, from Mcasr8.Chamberiin'B 
premises, Karket Place, found 1862. Noi£ Archy. iv, 1856, 360. 

Two Tases (apparently Roman) found in digging foundations of bonse 
in London street, belonging to Messrs. Caley. Norf. Archy,, ti, 1664, 

Objects from site in Norwich Uaaeom, GoOQ Ic 


Sopokhnl nm ftrand, in 1852, undet Meaen. Oluiiib«rlm*a w«»- 
hoiue, Uufcst PUea, vith some Boman coin*, one of Dioeletian, mo ftbore, 
pnmtad hj Sobeit Ohunboriin, St^. 

Small Mfwlehial ntn found Mine tiine, idem. 

OmranHL — ^UnwallMl cunp (Bonuni), qoadnogahT eaieloMua The 
ditch namins oaI; ob (he noitii-wert and part of the north-eaat aidea, 
the vallum hai been levelled eTerjwhere. Ibi ezutenoe ia mentioned in 
AiohL, xxiii, 1831, 86d, and iu partial deitraction in 1868 ia noted in 
Koif. Anhj. iL, 1819, 404, see alwJoorn. Brit. ArehnoL Aaa., xir, 
1858, 208, ^u p. 206, pi. U. For aite see OnL Sarr. Bheet, Ixxii, 
V.W., 6 in. to a mile, and idem sheet 6, bcxii. 25 in. to a mil& Boman 
tiTRa found in the pariah. Norl Anhr-. vil, 1872, 869. 

OzBiTBaH. — Coins found. Camd., ed. by Googh, ii, IIG. Twoooina 
of Coniiaatine found. BL Norl, ti, 168. 

Oxinj,D. — In Oxnead Parle, near Brampton Field, fragmenta of pots, 
one having "the figure of a well-made face " upon it. Also sheep's 
bones, some oyster ahdls, and a coin of the Emperor Voluaianua. 
firowne, Post. Woriu. On urns found in Brampton field, Norfolk, p. 10 
to IG. 

PomHOLAXD. — Gold Uinmb ring ius, ootrsTANi noEH found 1820 near 
the stone street, Poringland heath, two miles from the Boman station of 
Caister near Norwich. In Norwich Museum. Prea, bj H, Bolingbroke, 
Esq. — Arclia., xxi, 1827, 547, illusL in text 

PoTTBR Hkiobaii. — Great quantitiee of pottery and mounds of wood 
ashes formerly found in thu parish. Arcba., xxiii, 1831, 378. 

PuDDiNo NoRTOK.— Smnll brooxe figure (Roman I). Proceed. Soc. 
of AnU. iv, 1859, 292. 

Qdidekhau. — Bronze coin of Antoninus fouod in lime pit 1723. BL 
Norf.. 1,337. 

BiDKHHALi. — In this parish, on the Gawdy Hall estate, Boman pottery 
found, especially some bowls and patem of Samiau ware. Nort Archy,, 
iv, 1866,318. 

BsKiBAH. — Foundations of tower on high ground a little east of the 
"Low atreeL" Coins found on this spot mostly of Marcos Anrelius, 
Tngao, &c A bronie lion's head and ftsgmenta of pottery. Archa., 
xxiii, 1831,361. 

Earthworks on hUl now carried away for the sake of the earth and 
day. Coina of Vespasian, Hadrian, Antoninua Pius, Faustina the 
younger, and GordJanus. Norf. Archy., iv, 1865, 314-15. 

Much Boman material in walls of Church (1(^89). 

Saham TotTT. — Three pigs of lead found in removing Saham wood in 
1819. Traces of a Boman toad in this parish. Ai^., xxiii, 1831, 
369. ArchffioL Joum., xvi, 1859, 87. Bomano-BHbish ma. Norf. 
Archy., ii, 1849, 403. ArchnoL Joum., Norwich voL, 1847, p. xxix. 
Cat of tempi mas. 

"Boman flue," Norf. Archy., vii, 1872, 349. (From information 
given by Mr. Barton, of Threxton, this appears to have been a potter's 
kihL {a.£.F., 1889.) 

Ol^eets from this site in the fTorwich Museum : — 

Bmsll urn of dark brown clay above mentioned. Presented by -the 
Bev. W. Origson. 

Fragments of Samian wan, one piece with the potter's stamp siLTjmi ' 


Idem. Uaa. m fw lUiuL of tbcM D. T. ooa, K M. Add. HSa, 
tifiii, g. U. 79. 
Btamovn. — Qntntituc of bagnmia of Bovan pottay oa lUa ol 

TtannlM, aSltd OrarabofMgh Hill, when tsmntai in 186B, wm 
foand tooooUin Boaaa poUafjand hridci, utd cnwaidanibla tnoM of 
fin. N«l JuAy., it, 18B>, SU.— Otd; San. Sberf, x, i.w. 
Sons. — ^Bonaa eoiiHi Noel Anhr, It, 16611, noU to jk SIS. 
Bop u bo iK j— A BoBHii Utdtfc rnddaa eontaiBiiig bnkoB piooea of 
pottoqr of Tariona qoaUtiea, aod tha bead of an on aimOar to oaa %*. 
m Nmf. Anbj^ iii. 415. A fow fragmenta of Samian wan, ob« with 
tba pottcr'a atamp uvTAUn. Bonai : and taatb of tha hotw^ fig, 
Atto or gaa^ and ox (Boa bwrmV Thia middaa wai fonnd SBO jda. 
north tart of Cianmea Hall in 1881. — (Nota fiont Sir I«wmneo Jona^ 
Bait,o<Cnnm«rHaU.Bapt 1689:) 

Sbadwill. ~ Cinataiy mna IvaaA. naor aneanpnw^ Mppooad 
Koman. — Coiu foond in ploogbod land, mot Shadwell Park. Th^ an 
ficqnenUjr found in tha naif^bonihood. AiduaoL Joain,, Kofwieh 
Tt^, 1617, pp. xxviii and liL Cat. of ianp. mna. 

Black am of fine earth, 6^ in. high, in poaoaaaioB of tba Bar. J. 
OnoriUoCbeatar.— D.T. eolL, B. M. Add. USR, 33,060, 1 68. 

SXALHAV. — TeMola of earthonware, of different abspea and eoloan, 
all anall, found in a fiald at Btalhnm, in 1630. (In poiicwrioa of J. 
Webb, &q., Blalbam, in 1639).— D. T. wHl, B, H. Add. U8S., 
23,060, ft 162-3^.— Two amall earthen Tcasela, found 1654, in a 
field tndltionally called "the bloody fi«ld."_Idem, idem, 23.060, 
f. 165. 

SrunoK {Long). — ^Boman onu (t), tonnd in 1773. Ord Burr. Bheet. 
xcrii, M.w. Bomao road ranning northwarda fn»n Soole throogfa the 
Stnttona, and paat Caiiler, near Notwioh. Bao Old Snrr. Shaefa^ 50, 
66, 1 inch to a mile. 

SwAfraAM.— Oral jawdlad fibuU Norl Ankj., ▼, 1659, 36i, H mq^ 
pL aame page. Bronie fibula. Jonm, Brib Aiehsol. An., ii, 1847, 
346. AiduwLJoun.,iT, 1657, 387. 

Baipabaped fibula ol bionn, found on Swaftham baatL CtdL of Mr. 
W. C Floinight, Swaflbani. 

Bnwa handle of vaae. BriL Mnaann, Bomano-Britiah loom. 
ttMBnOB. — ^A eoin of one of the Antoninn, found aoon yean ago in 
the pidon of tbo ^canga, within the limit* of the cama Information 
neaiTed fnmt tha Bot. T, Preeton, of Taabuigb. Ord. Burr. Sheet, 
Ixxzrii, I.W., 6 in. to a mile and idem 9 and 10, Izzxni, 35 in. to a 

T^amwD. — Cnna ranging from Hadrian to Talena found here. 
Kown, H7diiotq>hiB, chap, ii, p. 6. 

Four cranio bnn, out <« a number found bwa, dted by Blomefield, of 
Clandiaa, T^ian, and the Antoninea. BL Korf. ii, 11-13. 

Soman lamp of earthenwan^ diacovared in 1827 in a mound called 
" the Bed Hound," depoiitod in Norwich Mna. D. T. eoU. B. U. Add. 
U.83. 23, 061, f. 24. 

TsMPi (naor MfrwuA).— loige uraa (fragmenta of), pioe«a of an 
amphoia, iron epear heada, bronia edge of ahield (I), riDg-ahapod fibula, 
aaeond biaa* eoina of Kan, Soman bniiM lamp, and iron bit. Found in i: ^ 



fiudw of Uie Bev, W. Frwt (ril«, ths top of k hill) in l^orpe hamlet, 
1663 (t). Norf. Atchj., vi, 1864, 385.— Amphon (broken) found on 
Mine rite w above in 1863 (1), and near the spot of preriona diHorery. 
The amphora, empty and dean. In the ■umoDdiiig ground mudi 
chaiooal and caloinM flinti. Noif. Aiohj. rii, 1873, 349. Foe ute >ee 
Ord. Sorr. Sheet, Iziii, 8 ■. — Oourd-ahapad faottie, oap^ and fragments 
of largo- pottery ,' found in gronnda of F. BanMMi, Eoq., Ifonaahold, 
SaA Aicby. vUi, 187fl, 334. 

- iHRunnr. — Bomao etnas, a cornelian vith int^lio of head of IGnem, 
aitd a ssoall onyx, the snbjeot on it indistinet. Arohnol, Joom., ir, 1 847, 
262. O. T. col). B. M. Add. M.8S. 23,061, f. 44.~Twa fibnln, 
braue, one hsip^haped, the other in the form of a- fish. — Idem, idem 
33,061, L 41.— Aims of Uortaria with potier'a stampe, ^Vb^ and 
ioAB<t\ Joom. Brit Arehieol. Asa., iv, 1849, 382.— TTnoot gem, found 
in a bairow. Norf. Archy., iii, 1832, 422. 

The following olyecta are in the eollection at Threxton House, formed 
by the Ute T. Barton, Esq. 
Small nm of plain grey earth. It contained burnt bones nnd a 
' coin of Antooinni^ and was found standing on a pavement of red 
tilea, 4 ft. sqnaie. It was dng up, in 1867, in a lane called "the 
Dark lane," on the borders of Threxton and Saham Tony parishes. 
Piece of Samian wxre, with group of Hercules slaying the Hytlia, and 
another, showing dogs and scroUa. A Iar];e bowl, embossed, mndi worn, 
and mended with lead Kveti in the Roman period. Fragments of 
Ifortaria with potter's stamps ; tJicge are not uncommonly found in the 
fields near tJie river WLuey, on this estate. Heads of amphora, all in buff- 
coloured ware. Bronze key of late type and unusual form. For this 
latter see aiust. in Proceed. Soc of Ante., 2nd ser, xii, 1869, 406. Some 
of the vessels found at Ashill are in this collection. 

Tbubtok. — Coins of Gallienos, Victorians, Tetrioue, and Qnintillns; 
found 1707. Camd., ed. by Oough, ii, 105. Bl. Norfolk, x, 161. Norf. 
Aichy., iv, 1856, 316. For site of difcovery see Ord. Snrv. Sheet, 
Ixxvi, 8.E. 

WjjfOLB.— T-Boman bricks and aqueduct of earthen pipes, 26 in all, 
close to the sea bank. Camd., ed. by Gough, ii, 116. For the Roman 
banks (so called), in Marshland, see Sheets of Ord. Sory., 65, 69, 1 in. 
to a mile. 

Wanofobd. —Roman pottery, found near Waogford . mills on the 
Waveney. Nort Archy., v, 1859, 362. 

- W^TTOBn. — A little south of Wayford bridge in field called "Chapel 
field " gica.t number of uma fonnd, of blue clay, turned in a lathe. " The 
.spot is a headland projecting into the valley." Aicha., xxiii, 1831, 373. 
Wklmev. — Many Roman coins dug up about 1718. Watson, Wi«- 
bech, 653. 

Three pewter or leaden veaseb, bowl shaped, llins. in diameter aooss 
top, dug up in a field in the parish in 1843, one in posaessimi of the 
Rev. Q. T. Haddleslou of OutwelL Three, idem, of the same material, 
but smaller, and with wido fiat rima (diameter across top-Sins.) dug up at 
some time. One, in (xiEScBsion of the gentleman above named. (Roman t) 
D. T. CoIL Add M6S. 23,046, ff. 186-7. 

Roman Lanx of pewter found in the fen. Archseol. Jontn., xxvii, 
WO, 9B,_et itq. Proceed. Soc of. Ante., iv, 2nd set., 1870, 425. Iho 
Fenlaud, Skertchtey, p. 474, withplate. DOqIc 




WiLLB. — A gntt Dnmber of Bomui coins (nwnf of Haximiuitw, kom 
of CouUntiTC), found on th« wa Aon. Norf. Anhjr., iii, 18S3, 431. 

Wnn»r.-~-Urn oooUintng 800 Britidi «nd tvo Bomut oouu ol ttw 
Anton* ud Cmu fuiOiea. Notf. Aidif., ir, 1806, p. S57. For «to 
qS dmeentj mt Oid. Sniv. Shoot, 1, ii.w. 

WcTMHrnm.— Pottat'a kiln in puith of Woyboonu. Not£ Acdty^ 
T, IMS, 3(14, viow and phuu to aealo. Old. Snrr. Shoot, z, ».■. 
Potto7 foand at WejbonnM Hopo in 1868. Ord. Sorv. ShMt, z, «.w. 

Wtmmw.— Komu oofan toond in •ntnnohraMt towud* WaUnf- 
bam. (EatnoehsHBt not Banan.) BL Nod, ix, S06, Oid. &aT. 
Shoet, viii, 8.1. 

Wood Valuko. — On a fum, in oeenpation of Mr. FbIdm*^ at botttm 
of a pit in uoo of the fialda, hnman ramaina wora foutd in a ooffin focmod 
at oak planko. With tha oo&i, fngmenta of nnia of ooarao aailhaawaia, 
a patara of Samian war* with pottu'a ataiap unLV^ (I) and a Qmcb of 
faneda. Atonnd and abora thia intamwnt w«r» a groat qoantity of 
bonoi id oxen and iheep, and aotna of goala, tha ihuik btmaa ol tba 
abeep and goata being amnged in bnndlaB. Gent Ma^ New aei. 14, 
1840, 2iid pt, p. 643. — A drawing of tha patera ia given in D. T. oolL, 
R U. Add. USa, 33,049, f. 36, where the potter's name ia given aa 
UTIBTS. The patoia la 71 in. in diani. 

BtmoK Castli r&(f0tt),--Walled itatiMi. For deaeriptionB and 
plana, Ac., aae Cama. «]. by Oough, ii, 9S, 96. — SpeL leenia, p^ 165, 
Ivei Uarian.— King. Mun. Ant., ii, 62 to 66, 116, et mq., pi- xxviii, 
fig. 2 and ^ fig. 6.— Archa. xxiii, IS3I, 363-4. Proceed. Soc of 
Ants., iii, 1866, 227, et Mq„ plan to scale and aect of ireat walL— 
Norf. Archj., v., 1669, 146 et teq^ 3 plates of views, plan to scale, and 
7 elevationi^ and sections in text. (The fbnadationB of the lost west 
wall, the river wall, are shown in these). 

Pecnliir section and plan of tha Towen, and details of eonatmetion 
of walls, Stc, shown in paper on Hiat and Aiobitectoie of Poi«heat«r 
CasUe, by the Bev. G. U. Haitahome in Arofaaol. Joom., Wnoheatot 
TOL, 1846, 10«(se^., plan and sect; in text, 11, 12. 

For aita aae Ord. Sorv. Sheet, ii, h.w., BoSolk, 6 in, to mile, and 
6 and 9, Izzriii, NorfoDc, 36 in. to mile. 

Silver spoon, fonnd in mount within aonth-west angle of station. — ^A 
fibula, brmta, fonnd in Said outside east gate. Ivea. Oaiian, 36, and 
for fibula pi., p. 34. — Coins found in station not oariiar than Domitian, 
idem, p. SO. 

Smdl vase of Castor ware, fonnd 1861, between tha Btati<n and the I 

ehntd, and amall plain um found near the station. Norf. Anhy., iii, 
1862, 416-6, must, of Tase same pag& Froooed. Soc id Ants., ii, 186^ 
171. For iUust. of vase of Castor ware na also D. T. eolL B. M. Add. 
M.SS. 28.062. f. 96. 

Ob}eeta from this station in the Norwich Muaenm : — 

Fragmente of a vase found at Btirgh Castle, 1862. Freaeutedby O. J. ' 

Chester, Esq. 

Fragments of bronze bnddes and other amall objects. A bone hairinn, 
Preaented by W. Squire, Esq. 

In Brit. Moo, Bomano-Biitiah room. — Bronae bell, and small hollow 
cylinder of same metaL 

In the possession of Sir Franms 0. M. Boileau, Bart.. F.B.A., 1689 >^ 


Fngmanti of iion naila, om ■howing a flit tqatn hnd with 4 in. of 
ttw uuik ramaimng, togethw with pieoet <if flat iron bandii. Found 
wilhin tho Mst gmte, 1847. Small flat aquare of bronze, with malo bead 
apoa it in low nlief, within a eiide (otnament of a oaiket t). Harp* 
waped fibula of biouet 14 in. lon^ with remaina of Uoe onamel about 
Uio head, and on the baad and end a nnking for the letting of atonea, 
foond 1847. Veir nnall fiigment of thin glaas Tuaael, found b; the 
lata Sit J. P. Boiuaa, Bart Samian wan ; one fragment with white 
painted onameat on it, found 185(^ oUier pieoea, all plain, including 
one ahowing a flanged rim. Small {^obnlat bt^tle of buiT-eoloured 
ware^ 3 in. high, with Ter; email neck. One perfect vm and fiagmenla 
of another, of coaiae giej ware, found 1843. Pan of the aama eoam 
ware. Fieeea of flue and roof tilea. Homa of deer with portiooa aawn 
olT. The coioa in thia ecdlectiiHi range from Oallienua to Arcadina, of 
whom there ia one in nlTer. The reat are of bronu. 

On poaition of atation, and coina found in it^ see Proceed. Bury and 
Weit Sufi'oD: Archaol. Inat., 6, 1888, 346, et mj., 1 ^. 

Digilizcd by Google 



Many have been led by geological researches to vUIt 
the veiy iaterestiag country of Auvergne, so well-known 
for its volcanic craters, and for the remains of irruptions 
from them, that have now wholly ceased. These have 
long attracted geological investigation — also the isolation 
of ue Pay de Dime, and the height of its summit 4842 
feet above the sea level — have led to barometrical 
observations, and these have now caused the placing an 
observatory on the very summit.* The building of this 
observatory led to the examination of a vast pile of ruins 
just below the summit, whicli had long invited investiga- 
tion. This had been suggested and written aliout as early 
as the commencement of the present century, but no effort 
had been made to ezamiue what was under the coating of 
coarse turf and brush wood which covered the rums. 
Attention had been drawn to them by M. Vimont, librarian 
of the town of Cleremont, distant about eight miles from 
the mountun, and by M. Mathieu, a member of the 
Academy of Cleremont, in 1867,whohadiQdicated that this 
was probably the site of the Temple of the Gallic Mercury 
mentioned by Pliny ; and further attention was afterwards 
called to the remains in 1869. It was not, however, until 
later that t^e work of excavation was taken up seriously. 

> Re^ in Um ArohUacfainl Stetiau dilTaraat puti of tba ninimit in 

at Um Atinail Maaling of the Inttitute, Bapt«aibar, ISU. 

at Nonri(lk,Aaga*t 81ii, ISBS. Tha obanTatorr on Um P117 da DOma 

* On tba Paj da DAma Uia azHti* ma openad in Augoat 1876. 

meota OD tlia waigfat cf tka atmoapbare Lower down on tlieSoath akUarstha 

b7 ToiKalli WR* laooaMfoUf tded b; ruiiu id tha oliapal dedicatod to Bt, 

PaacaliVboaawlarlfadaiiMFnierTeaidgd BamalMi, to which pilgriniagea wan 

at Chrtmont. Her huaband made tha — ■*- " — -jj — 1 .-■ 

eiparinwota hj eairjiu a tuba of 
mtoarj, bermetkanr aealed, to the top 
oftlMDMantaiii. Th* •iparimant waa 
tapeatad Gra or bi timea uuder diffBrent 

uuHiD LfuuD ■ /«r, m imoueTai uoHa. 
Hera alao iD tba lath caotutj " Wihdiea' 
Sabbatlii," waie held, and a woima 
named Joummi Bordean wu tmnted fw 
aorcarj in 1 6 1 4, Af tw oonbadng dx oriiDa 


This had been stimulated by an address from If. Allaard 
before the Commisaioti appointed for the cooBtruction of 
the observatory, who spoke of the " debris of a Roman 
Temple of large size very near to the observatory, which, 
if the site could be explored, would ofler to aatiquaries 
some curious documents." 

The construction of the observatory had brought some 
facts to light, and the matter was at length taken in hand 
by the Academy of Cleremont^Ferrand appointing a 
Commission in 1873, when researches were begun in the 
month of July. 

It was not long before the work of uncovering revealed 
the npper portion of a large edifice which had been over- 
thrown with much violence, and large blocks of black 
basalt, cut into cubical forms, and some having orna^ 
mental work upon them, were found heaped in confusion 
on the floors of the first platform over which the Temple 
stood. The great stair leading to this was uncovered, and 
the facade laid open. The size of the blocks of basalt, 
and the careful way in which these are cut and moused, 
and the junction of the worked blocks by means of iron 
clamps, shew the time and labour that must have been 
bestowed upon the work. 

Excavations were resumed in 1874, and continued until 
the autumn, These liud open still further detuls. The 
great staircase of the facade made it evident that it led to 
a further building ; alater^ stair was also found, and a 
series of stairs mounting upwards. Upright pillars and 
doorways were also uncovered, and the back and side 
walls of a large hall or chamber. The walls are built in 
the Boman maflonry, called " opus quadratum," and remun 
as perfect as when first erectM. 

Fragments of varieties of marble which had once 
covered the walls were found, and specimens of -theas 
(amounting to fifty-two) of different varieties, are now 
placed in the cases of the Museum of Antiquities at 

The lower portion of the Temple cont^ns a crypt or 
undercroft, adapted to the slope of the hill 

The hall is six French metres and twenty centimetres 
(twenty English feet) in length, by five metres eighty 

.c J b, Google 


centiffldtreB in breadth (aeventeen EogUsh feet) ; the walb 
an the opua quadratum^ in good preserratjon. FraKmenti 
of c^itali and portions of has reliefs were fotmd m this 
hall, also different Boman coins, and medals of tunnze, 
and a Totive inscripUou* hereafter to be desoibed. 

Encouraged by these disooveries the work of nncover^ 
bg was contanned with energy. A stair had apparently 
been carried aloi^ the waU of the hall, and led to the 
level of the entrance of the upper portion of Uie Temple, 
which had been totally demolished, and the debris of 
which had filled the lower portions. 

The entrance to the upper building was through a 
doorway by which a hall of similar construction to the 
lower one was entered. 

The condition of the ruins, as seen at present, make it 
Tery difficult to realize the exact arrangements of the 
whole, and more architectural knowledge than I can claim, 
to re-arrange the principal parts. The space of ground 
covered is veiy considerable. It seemed to me nearly an 
acre or more, and that the Temple was in stages suited to 
the form of die hilL Passages and water-courses hare 
been found, and what may have been a cistern to snpply 
water to the Temple, — which mnst have been stored for 
use, as there is no spring, — (see Report of Kzcavations). 

On the summit of the mountain, or it may be on the 
wex of the bnildiog itself, stood the famons Statue of the 
Gallic Mercury, recorded by Pliny,' and stated by him to 
have been the work of Zenodorus, who afterwards made 
the colossal Statue of the Emperor Nero, for his Gblden 
House at Borne. 

How and when this Temple was destroyed remains a 
mystery — it can only hare been by great force, and with 
mechanical i^pliances. It is not me work of time and 
gradual decay, but of violence of no ordinary kind. 

tii fled«fiNU Dlhu PriiufFii. 

-.- -- futn^ProrbiMMViUaATHoftwidMit^ 

GalHoB Aitwnli par ibdo* dM«n HJ9, 0h£^^1hm> •fiuenlo 4]m pnmtori 

CCCO Hu^ntio. ma QwtMDlaiia Ommr ■dunala ddoa- j 

FMtaDMn ntii Ibi uton qipRtba- T«n>t nmnlatDi wt nt fis nUa diflbnntift ! 

Tvat, Rttntm meetfat wt Nwom nU MMt utk muntoqiw iiM|«r In boodora 

ilMtiimwui illiiupriiioipia HiinnU»na pnntuUa fait tanta BMMJi dmnbmli 

OAMwm fadt Cfgtd uM kBgihidiiw, Krii ofaUUmtio pot«t 

J zcdbyGoOgk 

ON TEOE PUT DB d6hB. 371 

yOnly remnants of inscribed stones have been found 
among the mins, which have been most carefully searched. 
Only one perfect inscription exists and this is the small 
^ronze tablet already mentioned, not above 8 indies long, 
'by an inch and a half in breadth. It is a votive dedication 
' to the Divinity of the Emperor, and the ChiUic Mercary. 




D D 

" To the Divinity of the Augustus (or of the Emperors) 
(as the word is contracted), and to the god Mercury 
Dumiatus, Matutinius ^ctorinus dedicates this," or has 
dedicated this. 

We learn from this Tablet happily preserved, the title 
of Mercury, viz., "Dumiataa," that is, the local divinity or 
" Mercury of the Dome," as it is now called. 

The title of Mercury " Dumiatus " seems to be taken 
from the thicket or forest which must have belted the 
mountfun in former ages, and wMch still remains to a 
considerable extent, and through which you pass in 
ascending the lower portion of the mountain. 

The finding of this " plaque " or tablet, helps us to in- 
terpret the only other inscription which has been found, a 
few letters or endings of words only remaining. It is as 
follows :— 




which has been thus coujecturaUy supplied 




To the Auvemian Mercury, Citizens, Merchants. 

Ciesar in the 6th Book of the Commentaries speaking 
of the Gaula, says : — 

Deum Mazime Mercurium coluDt, hujus sunt piTuima 
simulacra, hunc omnium inventorem artium fenmt, hunc 
Vianmt atque Itinerum ducem, hunc ad qutestus pucuniie 
mercaturaaque habere vim mazimam arbitranter." 

It is very probable therefore that this was a dedication 
to Mercniy, and that the two letters of the first line sen 
the ending of his TiUe Avemw. a>OQlc 


The letters of the lut line form no donbt part of die 
word NEOOTIA^TOBES, and seem to shew that the 
mercbanti on their way to Cleremont, the ancient 
Aiign8t<Hiemetuiii, stopped to make ^eir oierings to the 
god under whose supervision th«r calling was espedally 
placed. Ovid in the 5th Book of the Fasti says : — 

" T« qniounma* mum proAtanfnr renden mmott 
Thvn 4»to, tribvM ui nbi Iiunt rogaat, 

H«io tenit incmetu tanioun meroator, et mna, 
Purua lufflta, qnain fast, hftorit aqium, 
TTdA fit hino Utoroi, Uuio nMr^eDtur «b nda 
Omnia, qws dominoa nint ubitaim noroa." 

The same custom which prevuled in Home, no doubt 
prevailed in a province which had become completely 
Bomanized, and adopted Roman manners and customs. 
Many articles of manufacture in bronze and iron have been 
found, which are carefully preserved at Cleremont, aa the 
heads of lances or javelins, the iron head of a pic-aze, 
portions of an iron chain, fragments of wall-plaster, and of 
mosaic patterns in red and green porphyry of Numidia. 
Six me^ls, more or less injured, have been found, one a 
large bronze of Marcus Aurelius, another large bronze, 
endosed in a vessel of green malachite, a Consular, 
denarius of the Porcian fs^iily, and some others. That 
of Marcus Aurelius seems to be the latest date. 

Fragments of pottery f^r duly use have been found, 
and also of vases of the red lustrous ware, and fragments 
of a votive metallic vase, the cover of which has upon it 
graffiti, in which can be traced the letters R and N. 

Fragments of leaden aheett, with which the Temple 
seems to have been covered, have also been found, which 
serve to verify the statement of Gregory of Tours. 

It would be tedious to attempt to describe the artidea 
which are now to be seen in _ the cases of the Museum of 
Cleremont, but a small fragment of white Carara marble, 
having on it part of the word h...cvbio, must not be 

E>assea over. The complete destruction of nearly every 
ettered fragment leads to the idea that this was inlentioniU, 
and the name of the Temple and its presiding Divinity 
intended to be blotted out. When did this come to pass, 
and by whom was it effected ? v ~ i 


ON THE ptry DB d6hb. 373 

The histoiy of the Franks by Gregory of Tears, is, as 
far as I know, oar only available source for information, 
but before entering upon this su^ect, something ought to 
be said about the statue of the Gallic Mercury made by 
£enodonu for " (Sty of the Arvemian Ganls." This was 
in the reign of the Emperor Nero, who having heard of 
the fame of this celebrated statue, sent for. Zenodorus to 
Borne,' who there executed the colossal statue of that 
prince, which was placed in his Golden House. This 
statue was after the death of Nero dedicated to the Sun, 
and in Pliny's time was an object of wonlup. The height 
was 110 feet. 

The one executed by the sculptor Zenodoms for the 
Auvemian Temple of Uercnry, is stated to have cost 
400,000 sesterces, or 85,000 French francs, or about 
£3,400 English, and is said to have occupied him ten 
years in completion. (See Pliny's N.H.) Zenodorus 
must have be^ in Rome sometime between A.D. 54 and 
68, and therefore the Gallic Mercury was executed 
previous to A.D. 54. As an artist Zenodorus is declared 
by Pliny not to have been inferior to the best Greek 

Prom Gregory of Tours * we learn that Wasso or VasMf 
was the name of the Gaulish Mercury, and worshipped by 
the G(auls under that name, and, he tells us that the 
destruction of his temple was the work of Chrocus, King 
of Uie Vandals, about the reign of Valerian and Oallienus. 

*' At that time (he says) or about that epoch the King 
of the Allemanui over^ran Gaul at the head, of an army. 
He was a man of extreme daring, and influenced by the 

* Bztnet from 8. Qngor : Bpii : Tom- IniqtuB, «olI«citam, (nt diximtu) AL 

iMoA Hbfania Wmnoonim, IJb: 1; ux. ornmgiDiitemuniTanMOilIiMptmf^tir 

[Printed at Lototia pMirianim Canctuqna JEdm qiXB uliqnita* Ub- 

— ^___^ _!..._ .. . _ (unJaniBntii labrertit 

hj Frandnoa UwMt] 
" - 'boo, Valwii 

ricata fawvat a 

"^gMiiiio B«pt* tooo, Valarianua st 
OalllMiii Bom. Imparinm aoot adapd, 

atd gnvem oootra CbrittiaiMi ponaca- oom opars *"*■"" fnlt atqna flrautoiD, 

taonmnio tempore eommoTerant. Tuno ooJim pari* daptewat, ab'-' *— 

Bonan ComeUiu, Cyprianna Oaitlui- d« iniaata lapid^ k fbna v 
giMmMidBaiigiiinaOaataaniiit. Honun aoulptii fabiMatiim (uH. Habuit tabn. 
tantpore • at Chnwaa ill* Atamumoruni — =— •'"- ——■*->'"-" "-J— t^™-*. 
lo «Mrdt« Oalliaa parwgwrtt 

I ant ,_. 

•tratnm, diaupw 1 

plumbo taetuQi.* 
lenU f dIhU takllio 

*Clirod iiTuptioDam alU Stfenli qnliiU takllio ooBiigiuut .Of^olc 



coanseb of Iiu mother, who was of a fierce and cmel 
nature. He over-ran Gaul and destroyed every-where, 
even to their foandations, the noble baifdings wUch had 
been the work of preceding ages, Oeremont did not 
eecuw, bung burned by him and the Temple of the 
Gauls dedicated to Wasso, a moaoment of wonderful 
solidity was overthrown." Gr^ory says the walls were of 
two lands of masonry, the interior being constructed of 
small stones, and the exterior of blocKS of lai^ uze, 
squared and well cut. This is what is now fonnd in the 
mins that remain. Also marbles and mosaics — Chregory 
tells OS — covered the interior walls. Plenty of fragments 
of these are founil. The pavement was of marble, and 
the roof was covered with lead.' (See Gr^ory of Tours 
Sec. 1, chap iii). 

* Saportof Cstnnibaloii to the Coundl 
OM«ml Uthal^jiM Dftnw. 

' la JoIt, 187), at tlw Snt unntiani 
tliCT bond that «11 tb* apptr ptrt of tba 
wSAcm bitd bOMt tbrown orer, Uis raim of 
wtiicfa oonnd tiM gtrauHL Tha gnBd 
•taImM ol tb« prindple b^e, appaued 

r fooDd undar tlia olaaiinp, a 

taot at tb« adiSea, thMj daarad th« 
fafada iiiimifUfil of baaatiful out atMM 
garifnllj wvriud, ohh mmontj intai^ 

1% Bxbmdad in« M mctna, (ia-124 
BMift)n laacth, bot at that dfaUnoa 
ItbdiiMd lOllitlj hnmda Um north- 
wMt; aadtlM^lMmd In tb« niadtaof 
tba bnnlar mbalnMttoii*, wUeh tiMV 
laOawadmr a iNgtfc of na«ri; SO BMtna 
(SS-fllB BariUi laat}-bnBii« Fn>t">>'7 
^«ltbad^«nJtfaao<th>boi Mi iir ■ 
aod thtM aumpha^ ooa at wuol) 
ma !■ fltat. Soma baantlful koDoirad 
cr acoopad ont t ia wt nca , I nd loatad tbqr 
wvaon tlM ooadnH af Iba neat daUni, 
amBiaiyadjoBetol aoedUeatiketl^ 
eoMtraetad on a mo«Bt«ln eomplalelr 
dnrivad of qnng wktar; bat time 
faiUd todtaBOTartbaata^BBd tha arriTal 
of tba bad leaaoD eanaed " 

alaba of laige atone*, rangad in order 
along tbe Utenl fafadoL 

l^aaa atopa thaj found led to a 
wlndoir, the right hand atMilea of whidi 
ware in iihee, and vety wall praaerrad. 

Tkej Mgan at oaa 

ft) and when denrad awaj abewed that 
thia baU had been a aort of vypt, or 
" hjpMit^' ' Uka inaavadifloaa built npon 
* atop&c gmnd. The hall <na tna. 

:: - : ._^ ,-_ :, i-*t ti 

S m. so o. in iridtb, (abont 1 
paitilliin walk baiag « 
** oma oaadratura " Itf&o 

ipitalai and baa ri 

tha beat eondilioiH, into the interior ( 

The indicaUati of a atilrwaa ImaA at 
tha foot of tha latetal (a^e, abotred 

mtbatikla. UMaaMwhawenfoUewad 


* "niaf fonnd beaidae aome oadal^ end 
fngmenta of baona^ aoMMCat «Aiah a 
aingular TotiTa inaeription, a baaat^ 
eppaph of wUeb m will preaantlj 

"Tbeae dlaooroiae were a great m- 
eoaracauant for tba oontaonation (tf tba 
woA, wbioh waa poraliadao aetiTalj that 
tba cdaeringe w*re earned oS^ end pro- 
eantlrat* were takao to mnAA aotddant^ 
and intora the pceaerratku of Braaioaa 

^A ataireaae had baan carried t« aD 
BApearanoe along tha partition wall <rf 
tba hall wbioh ahould lead to the lerdof 
tbe porch of the upper tampi^ denMliabad 
by tba barbaiiuia, Che mine el wbioh 
eorared tba lower ride. TIm Moa par- 


ON THB PCY DB d6HE. 875 

I have looked m vun to English writers for any account 
of this interesting Temple, on its discoTery in 1873. 
Murray's handbook for travellers in France, part II. 
(1876) makes only this slight mention of it, viz., that in 
preparing the foundations ofthe observatory, " the massive 
remains of a large Oallo-Roman Temple dedicated to 
Uercnry, were discovered " Ur. Freeman in his paper, 
[An^oMogieal Journal, vol. xliv, p. 311.) on "Yalentia 
Segellaunorum," making mention of Gxe tauroboUum 
observes that, " it has not the same kind of interest as the 
CelUc deity whose name, or the name of whose temple 
Gregory of Tours has preserved on the top of the Pay de 
Bdme.' These are the only notices I have fonnd, but the 
subject has had ample attention paid to it by the Fren<^ 
savaos of Cleremont, and a most interesting account, to 
which I have been mnch indebted, has been published by 
M. Tilliou, who has brought together matter of much 
interest in a popular form. It would not be well to quit 
this subject without some mention ofthe observatory, very 
near the ruin, the building of which gave rise to the 
discovery. It is well suited for barometrical observations, 
and it was here that Mons. Paschal, the philosopher and 
experimentalist, a native of Cleremont, made his experi- 
ments, which have produced very important results. 

The walk round the parapet of the circular building, 
gives a wonderful prospect of all the volcanic region of 
the Auvergne, and by the aid of a telescope placed on the 
battlement, you can bring distant objects close to the eye. 
From hence you not only overlook Cleremont and its 
surroundings, but you can see the hill on which stood the 
Gaulish City of Gergovia which was besieged by 
Julius CiBsar, and so nobly defended by Yerdngetoriz, 
and you can almost trace Uie position of OiBsar's forces, 
while besieging the town. 

The gecm-apher Strabo tells ns of the Avemi, that 
their capit^ was Nemossus, which has been supposed to 

) aMta. A looiih 

I lOth Oetobsr, and 

yducorered diraa imjt aftar ft arit 

TiDiteiDent cooaiiting of muij lemi- bcloDgiDK to ■ fiCUi exam. Ttua hall ot 

drcalar apaea eonctruEted id worked anekeurioaa amiigeiDaDtexUndediritb- 

■tooe called in Ilia FrancL Dcmita. out doubt to tha foundation or boMoH 

JL gallaiy projaoted orer tlia lowar mil of the building. 
aimilaitj Eonred with tlte "opuaquad- , — i 

.cdb, Google 


be represented hy the town of Gleremont^ abont ti^ 
miles from the aummlt of the Fuj de Dome, and mentions 
the great power of this people, and their fireqn«at wars 
with the Romans, whni ihssj oonld brin^ as many as 
200,000 men, and even larger numbers mto the field. 
They had Immght an army of 200,000 men against 
Uanmns ^.milianM,and the same nnmberwainstlXmitias 
iEnobarbus. Their battles with Gbsar tool place, one at 
Gei^Tia, abont nx ndles from CSeremont, situated on a 
lofty hill, and the birdi place of th«r Chief Vercin^toriz* 
the other, near to Alesia, a dty of the Handnbii, ^fbo 
border on the Arvemi. The Arremi extended thur 
dominion as far as Narbonne, and the borders of Uars^llea. 
When Gaol became a Koman province, and the inhabitants 
adopted Roman manners and cuntomSf and the resoarces 
of me coantry were increased nnder Roman management, 
the population could hardly have been less than in its 
semi-barbarous state. It was evidently under Roman 
tuition that the Temple of the Gallic Mercury was built, 
and the ruins of this temple and the remaina found there, 
seem to show that the " Galli " were no inapt pupils nndw 
Roman tuition. The Romans had remained masters of 
Qanl for 538 years, and the language of the Galli had been 
entirely modified, and changed by the introduction of 
Latin, which remains to this day a veiy ^'^ in^^redient 
in the modem French. The introdnction of Christianity 
toward t^e end of the third century, eventually led to the 
destruction of Paganism. 8t. Austremoine is said to hare 
been tiia apostle of Auvergne, and converted a senator 
named Casnns, of the town of the Arvemi, and after- 
wards also the Chief Priest of the Temple of Wasso, called 
Tictorinns, which must have been before the destruction 
of the Temple itself. These are the legendary stories 
contained in the history of the Saints of Auvergne. 
It is not easy at this remote date to test their accuracy, 
but a grand and lasting monument of their work 
remuns not only in the noble Lombardic Church of Notre 
Dame da Port, at Cleremont, where Peter the hermit 
preached the first crasade, but in the Grand Cathedral 
whidi crowns so m^estically the City of Cleremont 





Those of my hearers who are old eiiough to remember 
the eaiiier days of the revival of Gothic Arohitecture in 
England, will recollect that the Perpendicular style was 
T^arded with but little &vour, and that almost invariably 
when a church was restored, the Third Pointed 
features were sacrificed with unsparing hand, in order to 
emphasise any earlier details remaining. In justification ' 
of this coarse, it may be advanced that the latest phase 
of our Grothic art is often presented to us in a form which 
has little to recommend it when compared with preced- 
ing styles ; the squareness of outline and detail, the 
coarseness and inelegancy of the mouldings, together with 
the stiff and inartistic treatment of carved work, both in 
figures and foliage, often prodnciag a disagreeable e£Eect 
on the whole, ^ut the characteristice of Perpendicular 
work, which made the earlier disciples of the Gothic 
revival despise that style, are greatly modified in most 
of the churches of East Anglia erected or altered 
during the fifteenth century, some of those finished at 
tbe earlier part of tiiat era being almost as truly 
Decorated aa Perpendicular in their general style and 
many of their details. The church of St. Nicholas, 
Lynn, ccaupleted in 1416, is a good example of the 
mixture of Second and Third Pointed features, some 
of the doorways bong of pure Decorated conception, 
as is also the tracery of the clerestory windows, whilst the 
latter features, as seen at each end of the building, have 
tracery of a thoroughly rectilinear character. This com- 
bination of the two phases of art is a leading bait in 

*Be*d in Um Architoetiul S«ct!<Hi at tha Annvd Ksetiiig d tb« lMlit«t*t ai 
Norwich, AuE«t 7th, 18B9. GoOqIc 


many of the edifices proposed to be risited during the 
present meeting, and I will not therefore cite fiirtiber 
examples tt it, but merelr obserre that it naturally led to 
a free use <^ the mouldmgs of the Deoonted style ; in 
capitals and bases of oolumns, for iostanoe, Uiey aro c^ten 
introduced in preferMioe to the mi»«hapen and bulbous- 
fiffmed membns so frequently mat with elsewhere ; and 
in other cases the vanoua groups of mouldings follow 
the old arrangNDents, and are not so often aepazated 
by the broad shallow oavetto, or hollow; the memben 
composing the combinations are less weak and wiiy in 
effect than is commonly seen in Third Pointed work, 
and the details generally show much less monotony, 
and present a more pleanog mixture of angular and 
curved lines than is usually found in the Perpendicu- 
lar style. In eurly wotk of that date a great preferenoe 
was shown for two centred arches, and those of pointed 
segmental form, also for openings struck from three 
points, and I do not think that the four-centred 
arch (so characteristic of the style) was ever much of 
a fovourite in East Anglia till nearly the cloee of the 
Perpendicular period of art.i Many features occasionally 
met wiUi in Second Pointed examples became leading ones 
in the succeeding stylo ; — thus at North Walsham, the 
aistea are continaed to the extreme east end, and the 
chancel arch is omitted, whilst at Beeston S. Lawrence, 
the late Second Pointed chancel is oovered by a roof of 
Tory alight pitch. 

What developmeoit the Pointed style woold have 
assomed had it not beinc; supplanted by the revived 
Classic, it is periiaps difficult to say, but in all probability, 
a return to earlier forms would have ensued under certam 
modificatjons, as in many Perpendicular examples we find 
traces of such a desire to resume features of the earlier 
styles, a longing which is to be seen in some East An^ian 
church w<»:k of the doung period of GK)thic arc Thus 
at S. Nicholas, Lynn the arch of the western entrance 

n* DMcSDnl iTcliitaola dirided f or the iniMr or uppar MgnMuti on pduta 
Mai linttdnwD fnNn Um 

Uw widthi of tbeirpoioted irclMi into pkoad npmi nrtMallinttdnwD 

•)|aal puts, and itruii tlw im bxm MOtra of the uutw ara. Uanrraodim 

tm <d thcM dhuioiu ; the^ likawiM fenr-oentndwclmlMTabeaitaaiwtmoted 

ionMdlbarfoaroantndopaiii^lnrflttt in oomp1et« ignoniica «t tb» |>apw 

IriM «pBBtlit wntM faf the tp t in gl u g mrtlwd. 

IriMVp - .--.,-., 

or Bde itce, end then finding ttw eMtra ,~. . 


embraoes two doorwajs with a niched tympanum above 
them; a design often found in earlier buildtnfp, but 
almost unique at the Perpendicular period, and in this same 
church there is also a circular headed doorway. At 
Cromer the belfry windows are composed of couplets of 
lancets, wlulst at Salthouse the efiecb of landform open- 
ings is produced by the two long narrow windows inserted 
in each bay of we aisles of that remarkable edifice. 
Elsewhere we perceive the same tendency to revert to 
earlier forms exhibited in planniog, and so we find apsidal 
ends to the chapel of Henry YII at Westminster, and to 
two smallOT ones for private use at Cowdray, and Hurst- 
monceaux in Sussex, in which county there is also a 
sixteenth century church at Twineham whose windows are 
confined to debased, but lancet shaped openings. 

Having made these preltminary remarks I will now 
{>roceed to discuss the leading characteristics of the 
various parte of an East Anglian Perpendicular church 
seriatim and then conclude this address with a few 
observations on the interior fittings of the edifice. 

Beginning at the west end, I must observe that nearly 
every church in Norfolk possesses a tower, and t^is is almost 
invariably placed at the west end of the building at the 
termination of the nave. T allude of course to Perpeu- 
dicular examples only, as eariier ones were often differently 
mtuated, as may be noted in the two great diurches at 
Lynn, also at Dunham, Gillingham and Castle Bising. 
At Sloley the tower stands west of the end of the norut 
msle, and at Harpley similarly as to the south aisle. At 
Terrington S. Clements, the detached campanile is north 
of the western bay of the north aisle, whilst at Beccles, 
Suffolk, the bell tower which, like the three preceding 
examples, is of Third Pointed work, is situated neurly at 
the end of the chancel, south of the building and at some 
distance from it, a position chosen from the nature of the 
ground upon which the edifice is erected, there bung a 
rapid slope immediately west of the nave.' Occafflonally 

> IIm Utile dioich it MettoD lui b It '"^'"g to ■ gallaiy aba comtmetod 

towar the vat well of which fonui pert in tbe well, end ei«b«d onr. At Beat 

of tfa« encloaare of tlie cbnrohynnl, eo Bergholt, SufMk, Um itomp of tlie west 

thet it beiiig inlpoaNbla to heve ■ wiatora tower ii aiiiuleH j pleoed upon Um 

doorwef,lhara ere Dorth end eouth arohee bonndery wall and Uka Hottoo, "rHHta 

end tlie aBtraitee ie formed in the eeat north end aonth aidiea ei doe* elao the 

w^ of the naie ; tltie ie of greet Odc^- tower at Dedham, Bmbx I 

iMH, and hM a ttairout waned witliin *" ci 


very animportaDt churohes had no towers, Blundal has 
odIj a mean double bell-oote, and Bast and West Bedcham 
are entirely destitute of any provinon for b^ls, as they 
appear at present. 

frequently the towers rose high above the nave tw& 
before the beliiy stages were oonunenoed, and this Is fband 
evMi in oompuatively humble structures, as at S. Mar-, 
guret's, Ormesby, end at Sutton. The walls wKoalso 
sometimes carried up some height above the bdfry win-. 
dowB before the parapet bcttan, as at Cromer, and at 
Laveoham, Suffolk. In the bat mentioned diurch the 
tower is exactiy tiiree times the height of the nave and 
clerestory combined. 

The liest towers oomprise at least four stages, and 
occasionally five, in their composition ; in the towest or 
each is an elaborately ornamented but bold basemould, 
traceried or flint panelled, a wide arch usually under a 
square label forming tiie western entrance ; above this 
being the west window in the second stage, then a 
division bearing square traceried sound windows; and 
lastly the belfry, with not more than two openings on 
each foce, the wnole structure being finished with a plain 
parapet or with a rich band of flint tracery and battie- 
ments. Some of tits towers are remarkable fur their 
massive proportions, such as those at Felmingham and 
Ludham in Norfolk, or at Kessingland in Suffolk ; tiie 
heighta of others are noteworthy, t£at of Winterton, now 
a small fishing' village, reaches 132 feet, whilst it is 
nearly t60 at Oromer. Especially beautiftil base-mould- 
ings are found at Barton Turf, Cromer. Hiokling, Hin- 
dcHvestone, and South Kepps, and the space over this 
feature is frequently covered with long cusp-headed flint 
panels as at Ingham. The base mouldings so often 
exhibit the inlaia flint work that it may be best to say a 
few words here on that striking peculiarity in the 
ornamental work of East Anglian eainces, both ecdeeias- 
tical and secular. This so-called flint panelling, or flush 
work, is more properly to be described as a flint inlay, the 
stone being sunk out to the form of the pattern, and of a 
sufficient depth to receive the dressed ninta. In many 
Norfolk churches its use is confined to the embellishment 
of the bases and parapets of ihe towers, whilst in others,, .,.^|„ 


espetaally in larger edifices, it ia body emplov«d throiwli- 

out the fabrics. At Stratford S. l^uiy, Suffolk, inscrip- 
tiona are worked in it round tlie base mouldings, and tne 
poroh and dereetoty at Uelibrd, Suffolk, are similaily 
inscribed. An early example may be seen in 8<Hne 
arcaded work under the east window -of the Second 
Pointed chancel at Beeeton S. lAwrenc& So fond were our 
ancestors in the Eastern Counties of this inlaid work that 
they employed an imitation oi it on some church fittings. 
In this manner the panels of the font at Trunch and of 
ihe pinnacles of the sedilia at Bamingham-Northwood, 
are filled in with black cement; whilst at Knapton the 
foot stands on steps faced with split flints. 

The west doorwuj has often continuous mouldings with- 
out side shafts, a label following the outline of the arch, 
besides which Uiere is a second one forming a square head 
and joining the inner dripstone at its apez and side 
termmations, a peculiarity in East Anglian work; else* 
where the square enclosing label, or a pointed one is alone 
used to one opening. I'be spandrils are filled with oak 
foliage at Hickling ; bear shidds with the fetterlock 
badge of the Felbrigge family, at Felbrigge ; have the 
lamb and eagle, emblems of the two S. Johns at Coltis- 
hall ; and the martyrdoms of S. Lawrence and S. Sebaa* 
tian, at S. Lawrence, Norwich. In the doorhead panels 
of the Eastern counties I think that more variety is found 
than in other parts, and less of the monotonous circle 
and quatrefoil filling in, so usual elsewhere. Frequeutly 
there is no western entrance, as at Burlii^ham S. 
Edmund, Caistor (Yarmouth) Catfield, Hempstead 
(Ecdes), Hemsby, Kelling and Strumpsbaw; even the 
grand towers at Ludham and Winterton, do not posses 
it ; on the other hand WiggenhaU S. Peter has three 
entrances to its campanile : north, west, and south. 

The west window and the doorway beneath it form 
one conception at Hickling and Ingnam, a single aich 
including both in the latter example ; at South Bepps the 
opening is of six transomed lights, and is of large size, 
and a curious late window of five lights is noticeable in 
the parochial tower at Wymondham. Over most west 
windows in other parts of England we generally find a 
lancet, two-light opening, or niche ; but in many places in 


Norfolk and Uie adjacent borders of that county, there is 
very frequeatlj a square window filled with tracery and 
capped bj a horziontal labeL This is quite a localism, and 
tbese MHUid windows as they are termed, o£br a great 
variety of elegant dasiftts; larf^e ones occur in the ruined 
town at North Wauham, but in humbler bell towers 
they are often merely small quartefoiled openings. The 
most degant ones are probably those at Wontead, others 
of nearly equal merit are met with at Coltisludl ; in 
the beautiful but ruined edifice at Orerstrand, thOT take 
Uw form of tracMied oblong, as at Oarlton Colvill^wiffolk, 
where then are two conjomed quartrefoils, eaoh eudoung 
a ahield ; a fine example at 8. George's Norwich, has the 
cross of that sunt in ita centre, aim at West Windi, a 
shield with armorial bearings is introduced in a clever and 
ori^nal manner. 

Belfry windows are of three or a less number of lights 
and there is usually only one on each face of the belfry ; ' 
at South Bepps, the three-light openings are of great 
length, and transomed, and the coupled two-light 
windows at Wymondham, appear to be a Third Pointed 
adaptation of a similar design in Second Pointed work 
at Hawton, Notts; in both cases the couplets are enclosed 
under ogee canopied heads. Flowing tracery is elsewhere 
considered unusual in the uppermost stage of a tower, but 
does not appear to be uncommon in Nor&lk, as examples 
may be met with at Coltishall, Harpler, Hemaby , and 
Ingham. The newel stairs are frequently placed in the 
south west angle. The stepped battlements which are a 
leading characteristic of Norfolk towers, are of a very 
remote origin, and formed a prominent feature in the 
arehitecture of ancient Assyria. The faces of these 
battlemented parapets are often panelled with arcades 
following the contour of the merlons and embrasures ; 
good examples are at Filby, Ingham, Ormesby S. 
Margaret, and South Hepps. Many towers have only 
plain cornices and are devoid of pinnacles, and fdiere 
the later occur they are but small and short, seldom more 

> I know of noo* vUh tiuM windovi ualogoiuiD tlit doabh pJonadM at tKa 

III we find in Samcrwt, *t Aibridge, oonen of Uia towar at Ii^bun. ^la 

Cbeddtr, and Wiitteombe. Th* detiehad pisiwd iton* oorsioa of tnfob ut 

or fljing pfniuclc* lo coiupicuoni in qiutMfoil* act iu diagnnal aqmni, ia 

*oma wntern btUriea, are absent in alao a WMt of EngUnil iMAtm m- 

Jtortolk oua, thuo^ there b aomathing faniilar in tha caat 

db, Google 


than four in number ; but at Strumpshaw there are eight, 
and at Winterton twelve. Instead of the usual pyramidal 
tenmoations they often end with Kated animals or 
statuettes, as at Fithy, Bi^ton Turf, and Ormesby S. 
Maivaret. At Wiggenhall S Peter the emblems of the 
four Evangelists finished the angles of the tower. The 
Ibors of belfries were often groined as at North Walsham, 
and there are preparations for vaulting at the small 
churdi at Runton ; whilst an excellent wooden floor remains 
at Hickting, with moulded girders and curved braces. East 
Anglian tower arches are remarkable for thmr altitude, 
that at Cromer has a clear height of fifty feet, and in moat 
cases the greatest possible (^gnity has oeen imparted to 
this feature; the fine one at ]B«lmingham now reaches high 
above the miserable body that has been tacked on to it ; 
another beautiful arch exists at Kessingland, Suffolk.' 

A few words must be said respecting the noted round 
towers of the East of England and for this reason — ^that 
frequently they had a belfry st^e added to them and 
tower arches pierced through their eastern walling in 
Perpendicular times. In their original state these circular 
erections hud no western doors as is the case with the 
three existing examples in Sussex.' The western 
enUnnce at Mutford, Suffolk is the only instance that I 
have met with where a doorway has been cut through a 
circular tower in mediaeval times, and there it was done 
for the purpose of building a porch in front of it. When 
the small edifices to which these belfries were originally 
attached gave place to others of increased dimensions, it 
became necessary to make the towers larger to corres- 

' Tiun m aumbries within Um towns abon. lluit aranlar tmnn ware ao 

at BaUogh, Coltuliall, and Felbrigga. formad m prefarenoe to aqnare ooaa fram 

' ThMs circular towaca ware doubtleaa an aUegad difflcul^ in procnring atom 

deaignad ot rauad form, ai beat amted appear* to me abnid, and t^ tlirae 

for atrength, for plaoM of rafoga and Su*mx examplM help to diaprore thia 

atotw br raluablaa during teballiona and thaorjr, for uin are bH ntoated on the 

riota ; the anangemeDta in some Muare rinr Ona^ aod have an ezeeDeat nati. 

towaiBpainttotlieBiiiteuBeajthuaat nlhT gtUe water-war from tba aea, whii^ 

tiiaUtaSeooQdP<iintedanehaaanint«nwl whilat It would enable atone to beeanl; 

door to the itaiia turret atroDgtj banded aupplied frtmi Oaan, would on the other 

with iron and aecurtd by atvenpadlocka; haiid, eipoae thraF plaoca to piratical 

atWarbleton,inSn>aei,thaeiianinilBr attacka from the I>yaieh, an ereatuality, 

iron bound door with oomplicatad lock- whidi in after time* frequently took 

wotk, erideatly for m«fci>ig the belfry a place along Uie aoulhem ooaat. 
plaee of Kcuiity, though popularly lup- Tliaae towns are aometimce elliptical, 

poaed to funn part ol an tngine for aa at Bollesb]', which it widar fmn nurtb 

torturing heretieaoowtend in the chamber toaouth, than from «aat to wortk 


pond nith the enlai^ed buUduu;s, and this was edeotad 
by rusbg another stage upon them — generally, but not 
invariably, of an octagonal shape ; whrae tlus was done 
windows WM« placed m each fiuM of the octagon oppoute 
the cardinal points as at Potter fleiriuun, and at liutford 
Suffolk, in both which examples Me other mdes were 
filled with Uank windows of similar pattern to Uie 
" practical " ones. The parapets of these additional stages 
are generally battlemented and have had small an^le 
piniuuilea whidi have usually perished, instanoes of whuh 
occur at both the last-named churches. 

In East Aoglia, as in other parts of England, the 
laiger churches have their naves divided into five bavs ; 
butatTerrington there are no less than seven, Ludham has 
six, and Becdes, in Suffolk, a corresponding numbOT. In 
moderately-sized edifices naves of four bays are of very 
frequent occurrence, about one- fourth of the churches 
in the north-eastern part of Norfolk having them. 

The arcades between the body of a church and its 
aisles are very commonly supported on simple octagonal 
shafts even in such an extensive and noble structure as 
Terrington S. Clement's, and the dignified but smaller 
churches of Hickling, Ludham, and Upten. When 
clustered and moulded pillars occur they are ather 
formed upon a square plan placed dia^naJly, or within a 
lodsenge^baped outline whose greatest diameter is firom 
north to south ; examples of the first system may be 
found at Cromer, Ingtuim, Salthouse, and Upton, and of 
the second at S. Nicholas, Lynn, aai Lavennam, Sufiblk. 
The shafts at Cromer are composed of four half rounds 
separated by a broad wave moulding ; at Salthouse and 
Upton tiiere are four semi-circular shafts divided by a 
hollow between each; at Tunstead the half rounds are 
separated by tiie fiivoutito double ogee moulding, and 
at Ingham by filleted rolls. 

In some cases the arch-mouldings are partly continuous 
and partly borne by the colunms as at S. Nicholas, Lynn. 
At TuDstead, the arcbee spring from imposts above the ' 
capitals which is unusiu^ in Third Pointed work. Plain 
double chamfered arcades are common, flat as at Barton 
Turf, or hollow as at Ludham. At Wiggeuball S. Mary | 

Magdalen, great appeiurance of ridmess is given by I 


elaborately moulded and bold labels being placed above 
the doublv chamfered archea 

Chancel arches are frequently omitted, early instances 
of which are at Nort^ Walaham, sud S. Nicholas, Lynn, 
they are absent also in the smaller diurches -eA, Blundal, 
Caistor (Yarmouth), and Strumpshaw. Often the rood 
screen formed ihe only division between the nave and 
chancel as may be seen at Hemsby. In many cases the 
outer doorways of porches, chancel aud tower arches, and 
occasionally the responds of nave arcading, are formed 
with a central shaft (either round or half octagonal with 
cap and base) flanked by the same continuous mouldings 
on either side, a method, found elsewhere, but I &ncy less 
{requently tluin in the east of England. The porches 
at Felbrigge, Hempstead, Harploy and Nortii Repps have 
this feature as many others ; it occurs in the tower arches 
at Acle, FelminghEmi, and Hickling, and the responds at 
Upton, and Bui^h S. Margaret, 

The noble clerestories of the more important Btnictures 
are so well known that it is unnecessary to say that they 
are a marked feature in the Perpendicular style of 
East Anglia. Nearly every important church had one, 
and it is found in many smaller buildings as at Potter 
H^ham and BacoosUiorpe, in the latter being continued 
to the east end of the structure ; at Letheringsett the 
chancel walls are as high as those of the nave cleres- 
tory, whilst at Terrington S. Clement a late bride 
walled clerestory has been added to the somewhat 
earlier and aisleless chancel The combination of drcular 
aud pointed arched windows, seen in the Second Pointed ' 
example at Cley-next-the-Sea, occurs in a Third Pointed 
one aA Sherringham. Tunstead has a blind storey above 
the nave arcades of its late Decorated or transitional 

* nuragh oocMWtuJIy tin in«clwnl 
boilden dbplared ■ recklesa daring in 
lailduig cooatructioD, it other tinuitliej 

•ctad vrith k oarefuloaa whioh wtxild NiofioUi, Ki^g« L711D, the «eit windoi* 

DOW be gonndareil rapetflnooi, Thua in bmt nio« lia^t> tnuuomed in tlw Miitr* 

Um «■■( of BngUnd whm «ti the eout of the mnlUoiu, wfaQit the wnt one is 

tLa mort (le*tnaoti*« irindi eome from liwr, hu aleran taneatntioiu, and {a 

the north Htd Mat, tb^f made thaaa ddei on^tnnaaoiad at the foot ot the muUiona 

of their <dtiinbn atrraiKer than thoae tnorderto eonneet them Kit'' ^cutopy 

fadng the aoath and mat. Fot thi* of thewettemdoorwn. MCaatle Bidag 

wmaon at Southwold Ute dereetor/ win- the north tide of thi^ cb.'Oidi hw no 

00^ le 



The porches in North Norfolk are generally found in 
the western bay of the nave, espedalfy whMi the latter 
has only four, or a less number of ocMupartments ; examples 
of this position may be mentiMied at Mardiam, Maraham, 
Salle, and TunstMd. In latge structures they are very 
ci^iacious and occasionally of two bays in depth, an early 
instance of whioh is seen in the fine DeconUed pordi at 
Great Yarmouth ; double-bayed Perpoulicqlar ones may 
be noticed at North Walduun, Har|dey, Ingham, and 
Wcttsteod, the last two hare parrises, an addition wantu^ 
at Harpley ; Cromer possebses & western pmch of xi(£ 
Perpendicular work. Parrises are frequNitly met with, 
and occasionally there are two at one church, as at 
Cromer and &LUe; the manner in which the stair 
turrets of these chambers are in the last muned example 
made to form part of the west elevation, is boUi ingenious 
and effective. The floors of these cells are oden carried 
on groining, and the parrise itself is beautifully vaulted 
at Salle, wnere it has been used as a chapeL Sometimes 
the walls rise aa a short tower above the aisle roofs, 
as at Barton-Turf, loffhani, and Sutton. The cliief 
ornamentation of the East Anglian porches is centred 
in their entrance fronts, the sides being nearly 
devoid of enrichment, so at S. Nicholas, Lynn, 
North Walsham, and ax, Gisleham, Suffolk. Side 
windows are generally unD^ased, as at S. Nicholas, 
Lynn, and Terrington S, Clement ; but at Harpley 
tbe rebates for glass remain. At Worstead Uie open- 
ings occur in the outer bay only, leaving tJie inner 
one to act as a solid buttress to the aisle walls. The 
fronts generally show a combination of niches and small 
narrow-light windows, an arrangement found at Acle, 
Gresham, Hempstead (£ccles), Ludham, Martbam, and 
Potter Hei^am. Instead of pinnacles there are seated 
figures at Barton- Turf. Gable crosBea, on porches, 
&c., are not unfrequently met with in Norfolk, and 
many of them are of that peculiar form which has 

iriDdow* «IiatoT«r. On tin touimj, IMd, IfaT«iS«)d,W>tb«Tton, ud TcpUw. 
■Mir tba MHill) coait <rf Englind, wbwa LMtminatervMt town' bu Uia pemlMti^ 
a« wiDd Uon itronnt Iran tfaa if^, ot » ootUi dootiny. «nd tiia WMtcm 
w* ofUn Bud Uie anitb doonc^ omiUed, 
iMtueea id Uih occur in Bunei, at 
Qtjtaa^ Fmufieid, VnMloa, Honluai, 



eigrht arms, thus combininfr a cross and saltire. Good 
crosses remain at Qresham, West Lynn, and Wiggen- 
hall S. Peter; and as I am speaking of gable term!- 
ni^ns it may be permitted to mention that- sancte 
bell cotes exist at West Lynn. Wiggenhall. S. Qerman's, 
and Wiggenhall, S. Maty MagdiJen's, and that in the 
last church the bell itself hung till within the last 
few years. 

Yestries are probably more frequently mat with than in 
other parts of England; they are not always of Third 
Pointed date, an interesting example in the prec>eding style 
is at West Wiach, and has a vaulted roof; at Winterton 
also there is a vestry with very small lancet windows set 
high up in very thick walls. They are nearly alwavB on the 
north side of the church, or b^nd the east wall of the 
chancel ; but at Hindoveatone is one of late date en- 
tered by a doorway in the south wall of the sanctuary 
iimnediately east of the piscina. — northern sacristies are 
at Solthouse and Worstead, others existed at Felbrigge, 
Trunch, and Hsrpley ; in the last case it was vaultea in 
two bays. At S. Nicholas, Lynn tlie eastern compart- 
ments of the chancel aisles are formed into vestries, Uie 
one on the north ude being reserved for the clergy, a rich 
and wide doorway opening from it into the sacranum. At 
Woratead and Castlo Acre tbe revestry is two storied, as 
at Flamstead, Herts, and Horsham, Sussex. The piscinas 
with which they were furnished remain in the Second 
Pointed examples at West Winch and Bouffhton ; in the 
former church there is also one at the high altar. I need 
hardly observe that none of these chambers possess 
orimnal external doorways. 

So much has been said respecting the rich hammer^ 
beam roo& of Norfolk and Suffolk, that the remarks here 
shall be as brief as possible. I would first observe that 
the elaborate cornices which they usually possess, were 
occasioned by the absence of parapets and gutters, the 
roofs even in the largest edifices having generally dripping 
eaves, a peculiarity by which they are conspiciiously dis- 
tinguished from the fine and profusely ornamented churches 
of Somerset, where the pierced parapets and tWr atten- 
dant pinnacles combine to form such striki^^ features. 
The spandrils of these Kast Anglian roo& ai^va c*^^ *^^ ^^ 

888 THi PBBFBn>n:ni:.AB sttlc 

boatdiof about an inch in thicknesB, after the manner of 
fretwork and display a marrellous variety in their 
pattenu, as may be aeen in the roof at Trunch. Quite 
bumUe churcfaiee have in some cases rich hammer beam 
ooTwingB, as at Beeeton B^ris, and Potter Heigham.' 
Another &vourite fonn bf roof in East Anfjia, consistH 
of a framing oompojwd <^ a series of principu uid inter- 
mediate rutere vith wall pieces under them, and to 
whi^ tiiey are united by ourred braoes. As ttiere is 
neither a collar nor a tie beam, the oonstniotion is extreme- 
ly unscientific and weak, and the walls on which such a 
roof has been placed, would in all probability have been 
thrust out long ago, bad they not been preserved by their 
great thickness; examples are at Felbrij:^ and Tunstead, 
tie beams having been inserted in the latier instance for 
the purpose of Keeping the walls upright- 
Many Norfolk roofs were thatched, as may be still seen 
at Coltisball and Potter Heigham ; thatcb was not merely 
applied as a healing to the very smallest churches, but 
was used in those of respectable size and character, not 
being considered a mean or despicable material for such a 
purpose in old times ; and as a roof covering it has much 
to recommend it, being oool in summer, and warm in 
winter, in these respects being the very reverse of lead. 
Frequently the roo& were open to the healing of thatcb 
or tdes, without either bcKirding or plastering between 
the lafteis ; the thatch still shows thus at Burlim^ham S. 
Sdmnnd, ss it did till recently at Fnkefield, Suf^lk, and 
the lead is conspicuous between the rough boarding at 
Felbrigge. Osk was not the only wood used for nx>&, 
that at S. Nicholas, Lynn being the sweet chestnut, a 
material which lasts well, resists the worm, and is one 
which spiders avoid- 
Before concluding this psper with a few observations 
on the internal fittings of a Third Pointed obnrch, it is 
necessary to say somewhat conoeming the details common 

'IViminbar^Higdio flonna Intro- nkbeah) tli* wallitoiigBlff tin "UTely 

-"-' -'-'- "-- ~- — aDlalMii of tiMM *toDM " boilt up into Um fifario <d Um 

Ttij TO- myatio dmidi. Hut I think «m tho 

,h BuSolk, IdMintandnl at 8- mdiolM, IjllD, Mdi 

wwt fir erf priadpoh hMJtWfnllloiigth Intonnadiata nftar lunng two full 

■ngeh attadied to it. FnibMj tbaw lonKth ujg^ whOrt In (1m olarataiT 

fipiMtntrtKiiu w«» intanded dually to wdu are aoine forty nidioi to anihriiw 

nrmboliM Uw haamily lioat, wliilit tho nintly peraoniga*. 
vSfftt if tho Mint* wan toaSnad to 

oog ( 


to tiid entire &brio, and I will first consider doorways and 
doors. Nearly every churdi, however small, had north 
and south entnmces, though the western one was fre- 
quentiT omitted, as Wore noticed. The Urge edifioe of 
o.'Nioholafi, Ljnn has two doorways on each side of the 
nave, and ^ere is also a second south entrance at North 
Walsham, The finest west doorway with which I am 
acquainted is that opening into the tower of the parish 
church at Wymondhajn, where there are no leas than five 
x>rderB of b^utifully grouped mouldings. At Tunstead 
the transitional Second to Third Pointed one has the 
elaborate arch and jamb mouldings most skilfiiUy con- 
nected together. The broad cavetto, or hollow when it 
occurs, is geuemlly studded with shields, either plain 
scutcheons, as at Felmingham, or bearing emblems, 
8S at Kespingland, Suffolk, where they are charged 
with those of the Trinity and Blessed Sacrament ; at 
other places these shallow spaces have foliage or devices, 
as roses and crowns at Burllngham S. Peter, or the 
crowned T. for the Trinity, the M..R. and t^e Ormond (or 
Wake) knot, at Gisleham, Suffolk. 

To the Perpendicular style belong the richly-panelled 
doora with which so many East of England churches are 
adorned, and of which the finest example Is probably at 
S. Nicholas, Lynn ; this is folding and has also a two- 
leaved wicket within it ; although this fine work of art is 
not all cut out of the solid, it is built up so ingeniously 
that the defect is not perceived. Another fine door 
remains at Harpley, single but also with a central wicket 
as at Lynn ; at the base are a lion and a stag and over 
these in panels figures of the four Latin Fathers and the 
four Evangelists. Good panel work is seen on the 
entrances at Filby, Hempstead (Eccles), Hickling, and 
Martham. Man^ doors of Perpendicular work are com- 
posed of a framing covered with feathered or moulded 
boards whose joints are concealed by oroamental fillets ; a 
good one of tms kind is at Ade. 

In the East of England there is a Iare;e number of 
windows respecting iidiich it would be difficult to say 
whether Second or Third Pointed ideas predominated in 
their tracery ; thus at Beeston S. Lawrence there are 
three-light openings, the heads of which kiQ,«e M^right. 


bai8 endoang geometrical and flowing traceried figures. 
In follr devdc^ed Perpendicular the transoms are often 
placed immediately over Uie heads of the lights, whilst in 
other cases the continuity of the horizontal line of a 
transom is broken by acyaoent Ughta having the bar 
placed across them at difierent levels ; ezamplas of the 
former oocor at Felbri^e and ITpton, of the latter at 
Ade and Wiggenhall S. Mary Magdalen. On transoms 
the battlement ornamentation is freely used, sometimea 
both within and witJiout the window, as at the last- 
named diurch. This form of deooratjon is said to be 
peculiar to English Gotluc, and is a marked feature in 
that of Uie Peipendicular period. The east window at 
Lowestoftv Suffolk, is a bonutiful example of the capar 
biHtiea of the style, as the traceiy shows a remai^ble 
amount of ingenuity in the oombination it presents of 
rectilinear and curved lines ; it is also noteworthy for the 
manner in which the design is made to fill nearly the 
whole of the window-w^* ; the east window of the 
adjacent town church at Beccles is veiy similar in con- 
ceptioD, but of seven lights whilst that at Lowestoft is of 

In some edifices the windows are oonspiouous for their 
uniformity of pattern ; at Terrington S. Clement's, for 
instance^ the aisle windows exhibit one unvaried design 
tbroughout, including that of the openings at the west 
ends of each ; and the great west window of five lights 
is but an adaptation of the three light lusle ones. ' In 
some late woric the discharging arches over doors and 
windows have voussoire composed of flint and red brick 
altranat-ely as at Barton Turf and the gateway at Castle 
Acre Prioiy. The transitional windows at Saltiiouse, 
have their sills lowered to form seats, and there being two 
in each bay closely adjoining one another, the efifeot of a 
continuous arcade is produced. kt Hickling eveiy 
window has jamb shafts and at Worstead several of tiiem 
have large brackets in their splays for statuettes. 

Niches bear a conspicuous part in the ornamentation of 
many churches, there are five under the east window at 
Becclea, and at S. Margaret's, Lynn are threa very laxee 
and effective ones in the same position ; they frequently 
flank the west windows, and remarkably fine and delicately 



pinnacled ones are so placed at Ternngton, soiaUer afe 
Went Winch, and at Kessingland, Sum)Ik. Niches of 
lazge size for the ratron saintfi, Peter and Paul, adorn the 
western porch at Cromer, the presence of their emblems 
in panels beneath bearing witness to the &ct At Beooles 
a doorway has several inserted among the mouldings, and 
over porch entrances they are found so often that I will 
only cite one instance, — at S. Nicholas, Lynn. Butttesses, 
as at Cromer, frequently have niches on their fitoes. 

The interior fittings of Perpendicular date are oon- 
spicuous for their beauty and delicacy of treatznent; 
prominent among them appears the font, which in Norfolk 
IS generally placed in the middle passage, and in some 
eases the benches are so arranged as to allow of this 
fevourite position. The Third Pointed bowls are, I 
venture to say, invariably octagon^ in shape, and the 
square basins, such as are occasionally to be found in 
Sussex, and in the west of England, are entirely absent.' 
Of East Anglian font bowls there are certainly fewer in 
which the commonplace quatrefoiled circle, or cusp 
headed panel forms the chief decoration, as it does in Per- 
pendicuW works elsewhere, and a decided preference is 
given to figure subjects and emblems. Concerning the 
representations of the administration of Uie seven sacra- 
ments. I have entered at some length in a previous 
paper, and will only remark here that the Evangelistic 
symbols are probably even more frequently met with. At 
Salthouse they occur alternated with toliaged panels; 
at Aylesham and Burgh S. Ma^aret, they are associated 
wiUi the emblems of the Passion ; at Acle and Wymond- 
ham, and at Bradwell, Suffolk, they are acoompuuied by 
demi-angels, whilst at Eindvestone and Ludnam. they 
are placed in four consecutive panels. Angels and lions 
alternate on the fonts at Corton. Somerleyton. and 
Pakefield in Suffolk, and Carlton Oolville in Norfolk.' 
Sometimes the font stems axe simply pannelled, but 
occasionally bear the figures or emblrans of sunts, thus 

altsmftta figim ol Mated K 

hooMi amballiilt the itan, vriiilrt Uw 

.... , wiyi of the font >t octagonal bowl has dMU-angA and tbe 
HOlingdoD, " A predaely ajmilar one arangellitia ajmbol^ 

.cd by Google 



ang^ with t wer-sticlcB appear on the shaft; at TTpton, and 
nmtlarly at HindolveBtone the eight sides have alter- 
nately a Clowned G. or M. for S. George the Martyr, and 
patron of that church. 

To the Perpendicular style belong the great majority 
ot oar chancel BcreeDB, and perhaps without exception, the 
lofts over them. In the east of Eoglimd both are re- 
markable for th«r beauty as works of joinery and carving, 
and also for the highly instructive painted work and 
gilding which many of them still display. The tracery 
often exhibits extreme delicacy in the cusping, which is 
frequently douUe-feathered and occasionally tnple^usped 
or feathered. The fenestrations sometimes show a plana 
of tracery on each side of the screen, as at Potter Heig- 
ham, and there are even examples of three separate 

E lanes of traceried enrichment (as at Barton Turf ?). At 
ludham the rood-screen, dated 1493, is enriched with 
Uttlo flying buttresses and pinnacles before the dividing 
mouials or uprights, and in many cases the work is little 
suited for rough usage. The lower panels are sometimes 
placed above a band of tracery as at TuDstead, or of 
foliage as at Tnmch ; occasionally an inscription is intro- 
duced, recording the donors of the work, as mav be met 
with at the last named church and Ludham. lUie use of 
gesso was veir common, and is conspicuously so at 
Aylsham. Burlingham S. Andrew, and Worstead ; the 
substanoe is of great hardness and always gilded ovw 
when applied to screen work, and panel paintings. The 
lower panels of the screens are invariably solid, and 
generally punted ; when so decorated each was either red 
and green in alternate couples, or simply alternately. 
Our ancestors were remarkably fond of green as a colour, 
and I have only met with one instance of a departure 
firom the above red and green arrangements ; it is at 
Gillingham, where red and blue are the colours used. 
On toese red and green grounds were either angels, sainta 
and prophets, or simply floral patterns or powderings. 
Occasionally the crowned initizJ of a saint formed the 

rttem as at Salthouse, where the mitred N. stands for 
Nicholas, and at Wiggenhall S. Mary Magdalen there 
is an instance of the Evangelistic emblems being thus 
employed. A beautiful series of devices from the Norfolk 


and Su^lk screeos will be found in Pogin's work on 
Floral Ornament. 

The rood-loft was generally approached by stairs at its 
northern end. These are often contained in turrets 
deverly carried on arched masoniy as at Ajimerton, 
Beeston-B^is, and Trimmingham. At North Walsham 
the loft was approached by stur turrets in both north 
and south aisles, whilst at WiweohaU S. Mair Magdalen 
similar turrets placed north and south of the ^ujtc^ ardi 

faye access to the loft and to the aisle roo& ; the 
rackets on which this gallery rested exist at Caister 
(Yarmouth), and at Wickhampton are corbel heads to 
uphold the rood beam which remains at Potter Heigham. 
Sutton, and Tunstead ; at the first-named church it is 
borne by demi-figures of ang^ in the last by wall pieces 
with curved braces. 

Many East Anglian edifices retain their seating or 
portions of it, and the old benches composing it display 
an infinite variety of design ; especially noteworthy 
examples exist at Harpley and Wi^^nhall S. German's ; 
these and ite generality of Norfolk bench ends are 
finialled and not square-ended as so often elsewhere. 
Such seating is usually much smaller than we employ 
now, and at Koughton, for examjJe, the bench ends ore 
only ten inches wide and the entire height two feet and 
six inches. Bichly worked bench ends remain at West 
Lynn and at Corton, Suffolk. There are fine miserere 
Btalla at S. Margaret's, Lynn, and those formerly at S. 
Nicholas's, in the same town, are now in the South 
Kensington Museum ; others at Trunch stand upon stone 
plinths pierced with traceried fronts for ventilation. 
Perfect sets remain at Ludham and Burlingham S. 
Edmond's. At Ingham there are eight on futher side and 
four returned against the stone screen. Stall ends of 
peculiar outline exist at Beedham and S. Nicholas, Lynn, 
and altar chairs have been formed out of misereres at 
West Lynn, Norfolk, and Colton, Suffolk. 

Many Perpendicu^r churches in Norfolk have merely a 
lowered window-sill to form a seat for t^ose ministering 
at the high altar, and this appears to have been the case 
even in some- lai¥;e churches, as at Trunch. The splays 
of the window, m whose sill the sedile is formed, are 


dfbea corbelled so aa to |pve the bench an oblong fonn and 
whidi maj be considered a locaUam, it occurs at Rough- 
ton and Sheninriiam. Double sedilia are at Bunton aani 
Ajlmerton. Thore have been fine tnmsitional eeoond. 
Pointed sedilia at Felbri^e, and aa frequentlj the case, 
foimed one compoation with the pisana.' 

Smim ^scinas are met with without the usual bowl, 
the drain of one or two holes being plaoed within a very 
aiigfatly sunk sur&ce, this local variataon may be seen at 
Lynn S. NidioUs, Wiggenhall S. Mary Magdalen, and 
Wiggenhall S. Qennan, all adjacent ecufioes. At 
TPigeenhall S. Peter there is a piscina in the soutii wall 
of we nave exactly four feet ttro inches from the east 
wall of the tower, — a remarkable pcution. lAstly an 
extremely pretty earring of the pelican in her piety, whudi 
seems original, is appropriately placed above the piscina 
at Blickling. 

In these remarks I have endeavoured to describe the 
leachi^ characteiistics of the Perpendicular style as 
exhibited in the churches of East Anglia, and more 
especially those in north-east Norfolk. In doing so I feel 
conscious that a bare description of doors, screens, 
windows, ftc., must be dry and wearisome to the hearers 
of a paper on ihem, however interesting to the compiler 
of it, who has a personal acquaintance with the objects 
ha describes, but I feel quite certain that in no put of 
England can there be tound a cluster of churches possess- 
ing greater interest to the artist, antiquary, or 

D tlia *illip dumb t 


DiBiiizcdb, Google 

DiBiiizcdb, Google 



When the InBtitute. met at Chester I was allowed to 
describe the Sculptured Stones of Cheshire at one of 
the evening meeUngs. On that occasion I remarked 
upon the entire absence of Bunes on Cheshire stones, 
and upon a specially interesting set of Sculptured Stones 
at West Kirkby, in the curious district of Cheshire called 
Wirrall, between the Dee and the Mersey. As I have 
within the last week or two seen a Hunic inscription in 
this same district, it seems worth while to communicate 
the facts to the Institute at its present meeting, at which 
I am unfortunately prevented from b«Dg present by 
archEeolo^cal engagements in Scotland. A new and 
considerable Bunic inscription is in itself of sufficient 
-importance to claim speciu mention ; and the one which 
I now bring before Uie Society has another interest, as 
shewing how far from a simple truth we may be led by 
a very small incorrectness in detaiL 

On June 9, 1889, 1 received from the Kev. W. Dallow, 
of Upton, near Birkenhead, a letter describing a sculp- 
tured stone with a Bunic inscription, and enclosing some 
account of it, with an illustration, communicated by Mr. 
Dallow to the periodical called Raearch. This account 
had been sent to Professor Stephens of Copenhagen, who 
had corrected some of the readings, and referred his 
correspondent to me. 

The runes, as printed by Mr. Dallow in JResearch, are 




Professor Stephens altered this, by the light of the 
photographs sent to him, to 



and suggested the insertion of UH after bio, about which 
there can be no doubt, and of in before WID. He in- 
terpreted it as follows : — 

Foletear, the person to whom the memorial was raised. 

Ardon, for Arodon, honoured. 

Beam, a monument ; 
the lost runes in this line ^ving the names of the persona 
who thus honoured Folcwar with a monument. 

Inwid, guile. 

DeaihfoU, death struck. 

Aihe^ oath. 

Amun, for amunan, to call to mind ; 
from which he gathered that Folcwar died a violent death. 

My own feeling was that the rune cutters studied sim- 
plicity and brevity, and that the out-of-the-way character 
of a good deal of this interpretation was, on the face of it, 
a serious objection. But no one can feel otherwise than 
most grateful to Professor Stephens, who, with nothing 
better than a photograph to guide him, will spend any 
quantity of time on an inscription sent out to him, and, in 
his desure to give help, will risk ingenious suggestions - 
when he has really not had the one fair chance which is 
afforded by seeing the stone itself and placing it in various 
lights. I am myself under the deepest obligations to 
Professor Stephens for a personal kindness whidn seems to 
have no limits. 

One of the Bunic inscriptions at Thomhill, near Dews- 
bury, runs — 

IgOtaith ua«nle aeftet Beriitniithe 

bflcnn at betgi gebiddAth thaei nula 
^lanith nuMd in memorj of BerhUnith a 
memorial at the mound. Pnj for the aonL 

It occurred to me at once that the Wirral inscription had 
many of the elements of this, and that small changes would 
assimilate the two closely. Mr. Dallow, however, of whose 
kindness and interest from first to last I cannot speak too 
strongly, reported — correctly, as it proved — that my. 



soggeated emendations were not borne out by the facta. 
Qmlf I felt Uiat at least it came very near to 

Folo uMidun beam 
Kddatb ton Atheunuii 

the araerdon being Br^ Skeat's suggestion, and I went to 
see the stone on July 14, in company with the Dean of 
Oiester. Kr. Webster of Leasowe Bank, about a mile from 
the Bforeton Station, in whose coach-house it lay, received 
us with great hospitality. 

The fragment is a flat stone 20| in. lon^, 5 in. wide at 
one end and wider at the other, and 9 m. thick. The 
surface has been ornamented with raised sculpture, almost 
all of whi<^ has been broken off; enough is left to show 
that the pattern consisted of interlacing work, ending in 
a serpent's head, running parallel with Uie longer edge of 
the atone. The pattern shows that the stone has been 
considerably longer than it now is, and the analogy of 
other flat Anglian stones of a sepulchral character, e.g., 
at Thombill, suggests that it was at least twice as broad as 
the present broadest part, having two serpent patterns 
separated by a rused band down t£e middle of the stone. 

The stone was part of the building materials of an 
nnnghUy little church, built at Upton, near Birkenhead, • 
in 1813, out of the materials of the old churdi of Over- 
church, which fell into ruin about that time. This HtUe 
dmrch was pulled down in 1887, and the materials were 
purchased by Mr. Webster. Seeing some remains of 
sculpture on one of the stones, he had it cleaned, and in 
the process the lime which had filled the runes on the edge 
of the stone came out, and thus the presence of the 
inscription was discovered. 

On the edge at the narrow end of the stone there is 
rudely incised a Bomanesque arch. This is very fortunate, 
for it determines the original position of the stone. It 
was a reenmbent, not a standing stone, with Interlaced 
serpents on the surface, a mde arcade cut on the vertical 
edge at the head, and an inscription in runes cnt on the 
vertical edge at the side. This would be the south side 
if tlie body which it covered was laid facing the east. 
Presumably large stones were laid in the surface of the 
ground, over the grave, on which this body stone was in 

VOL. uTi 3 » oOqIc 



turn laid, so that it should not sink into Uie earth. Even 
so, the vertical edge of a flat stone was not a very 
permanent place for an inscription, and I do not remem- 
ber any other runic inscription in Great Britain in 
that positloo. The Danish inscription in runes on the 
well-known stone in the Guildhall Libraiy in London is in 
the same poddon relatively to the stone, but the stone 
was meant in that case to be in an npright position, with 
the inscription mnning down the edge. 

The Upton inscription is in two lines^ one above tlie 
other, an incised line dividing the two. Both lines are 
broken oS at the right hand, and the two runes at the 
left hand of Uie lower line are defaced. The rest is very 
legible. The rune cutter began with large letters well 
spaced, but when he came to the second line he had to 
squeeze hia letters, getting nineteen into the space 
occupied by fifteen in the upper line. 

The inscription had been in almost all its letters 
correctly read. In three cases I came to the conclusion 
that the marks had been somewhat misinterpreted, and I 
read the second a in araerdon as ae, making araerdon, the 
proper Anglo-Saxon form for " they reared * or " erected,** 
while on toe other hand I read the 04 in leiddcuth as a, 
making widdath, and. this I could not doubt was meant 
for biddatk, the proper Anglo-Saxon form for " pray ye," 
whether with the prefix ge for ^1, for both occur) or not. 
In the same way I read uie a in ath4 as m. One further 
change I made, of which the effect did not strike me for 
two or three days. I read the a in amun as /, and this 
with the correction in the previous syllaUes gives A^hst- 
mun. It can scarcely be doubted that we have here the 
name of the person for whom prayer was to be made 
" Aethelmund." 

The/ote is probably a miacut /ore. There is on one of 
the Thomhill stones aefte for aefler, and when fote is 
written in nines the mistake between it and ae/te a less 
startling than that between it and^^«. Dr. Skeat assures 
me, however, that biddan aefter, " to pray for," is un- 
knonn as a construction and must be rejected, while 
biddan fore is natural. The only other emendation, 
biddatk for widdath^ means a much smaller change in the 
appearance of the rune ; the mistake is one not at all an- 


likely to happen. [It is a satisfaction to find, since this 
was written, that the cast shews clearly what I tried to 
persuade myself was to be seen on the stone itself, namely, 
a part of the lower half of the B. The cast, I think, leaves 
no doabt that the letter was b and not w, ^ not |* . ] 

The two lost rones at the b^innins of the second line 
murht be the un of beam or the gi of gibiddath. 

^ere only remains one difficulty, the letter after /o£t, 
apparently redundant I read it as a«, not w, but a piece 
of the stone was flaked off and I tlunk it posmble that it 
is a spoiled rune which the rune-cutter has left standing. 
What else he was to do, if the stone did chip off as he 
worked* I do not quite know. On the other hand it may 
have been cut redundantly without being noticed by the 
rune-cutter at first as a mistake, and then left. My 
original view was that FoIcsb was a plural of Folc, but 
Dr. Skeat informed me no such plural was known. I 
accept that as conclusive. Professor Stephens, however, 
urges that there were in old Northern English many 
vowel terminations for neuters plural, a among them, and 
I am disposed to believe that we are meant to read the 
word FolcsB, and that we have here a form not hitherto 
noticed ; but it is a matter on which I am not com- 
petent to form an opinion. However this may be, the 
whole .toting fits so exactly into the shape we are familiar 
with that I offer without serious hesitation the reading 
Folc(a«) uaeidoD becon' 
Inddatli fore Aetbelmand (or mmdt) 
The people raised s memorial 
Fn; for ^thelmupd. 

The name Aethelmund does not appear to have been 
common. I do not find it in Bede's History. It occurs in 
the Darbam Liber VUw, in the form Ethilmnnd, standing 
fourteenth in the list of deacons, in the original hand, in 
letters of gold, perhaps of the ninth century. Twenty-ux 
Other deacons follow in the original hand, so that BthU- 
mund is fdrly high up in a very early list It occurs 
also once among the Presbyters in a later hand and once 
among the abbots of the third class who were neither 
Presbyters nor deacons, here again in the later hand. 

Digilizcd by Google 


I para on now to the Antiqnities of Metz, the second 
and less important division of my paper. In the neigh- 
bourhood of this city the aqueduct is the only Boman 
monument that arrests the traveller's attention.^ If he 
arriTes by railway from Nancy and Thionville, he cannot 
ful to notice on both aides of the Moselle the lofty arches 
over which water was conveyed that came from the 
sources at Gk>rze, a vill^e about one and a-half mile 
west of the river. For the rest of the route to Uetz 
subterranean canals were employed, which were con- 
structed of stone, and so spacious that a man storing 
slightly could wiJk through them. Uontfaacon's ^ate. 

Iilrniptloa d« BwtiarM 
diflto pia«W«*. Chroou <do) at AttUt 
It i H«ti M qn'lluk St k Bom* 

SM; Oiw. TuML Hkk lib. i, s. M 
HMq^ tbi£p. lAr;11iniption duM U 
Pan IbMB, dant p^ JoW duB nn« 
L«Un n Steit i' AlUnci, n. tSl. 

For Cncu (Uac of Um ibromni) w« 

■lollMr hiiB Bn«iM, Mttuv* ' *"* 

mat Ertoeai,aUtidMtiMof tlia 

■onHaitoBo (A.S. Bwntaet, Oann. 

Hersog), du : Dr. Wm. Smith • not* in 

hia adition of Gibbon, -nA. 0, f. Ill, 

Und^ tha Bommi Raimi (Dnroeor- 
tMiun)irMtbacapiUl(rf Balgicft Saeunds, 
and ^t*«a of BalgiM Prima in wliieh 


I naarij atod^l 
a (Vvdim), tha aOm 
aireaitoaa thno^ BoHpaBiiB, VdloM 
(TcmU) and Narfwn ; two ta TMtm, oa* 
on tha rigfat aad tha othar oath* Ml 
bank of tha Ilaadla, tha fonaar tfamoch 
Ouannaaa and Itiiiiaaiiiiiii. tha lattar not 
mastlonad faj andant avUHwUHa; and iMa 
to SInwibwK (ArytofotuBB) throofb 
Daoact P»A PMu Sarrla and Trat 
Tabarnaa (J. Aotool tha ApoaDaa, svrffi, 
IB, 1>w* n^^pHr) hodia Sanraa «r 
Zaban. Sa* tha AntoniM IthianiT, 
•dit. Paithar aod Pindv, ddl 111, 17S 
bk, 177; adit Wi— Ui^ n. «0^ HS, 
Stfi bJa, S71 : alao tha oaanil map pra> 
flxad to tha Biatoira da Mats, op. ettat, 
Dcaoriptio ctfitaU* Vadiduatrioarain, &!• 
elndiDg Raima, IVtrw and BliMrtiiug^ 
with a aaotioD of a Roman road al fbo^ 
Soenographia naa mililafia a Dirodiini 
n«TaRM naqna : and tor detaila. ibid., 
pp. 178-1S3, 
abontuaaiaat Ik ] 


DiBiiizcdb, Google 


Antiquity expliqu^, No. cxxxii, tome iv, pt 2, 
chap. X, occapies two p^es, shows all that remuns 
oi thia magnificent stractore, and gives a better idea 
of it than any later engraving or photograph that I have 
met with ; the spectatoir is supposed to be looking south, 
and away from Metz.* The dimensions are 18 mitres 
high and rather more than 1,100 mitres long, so that 
the h^ht, 58^ ft., is about the same as we often see in 
our own railway viaducts. Seven arches still exist a 
litde way above Ars on the left bank, and eleven at Joay 
on the right ; the latter takes its cognomen from the 
aqueduct— Jouy-aux-Arches. The piers, much larger at 
the base than at the summit, are built with great soudity, 
as if they were intended to last for ever ; since they 
taper upwards like buttresses, and are crowned by a 
projecting cornice, we are not wearied by that impression 
of uniformity which the repetition of long and imbroken 
lines would produce. Some fragments of the flood-gate 
are preserved in the Galerie Arch^logique of the 
Museum at Metz. It was composed of large bricks 
coated over with a red cement, made of lime and tiles 
roughly broken up. This stucco, though exposed to 
the weather for more than fifteen centuries, remains to 

I I obtunad at Mat* k good cngnr* indr* qn' 3 j «■) tTitt, dun oatta partia, 

IiK wbioli homfcr «nlf giraa tha aicha* ui laabia danx nn^ poahi 1m ohm tor 

tiMttnrwMtlM Ugh rwid Utrodgh tli* Itaautnihoaamacalleidapairt da Oud 

jQlam<d Jaaj; it u one of thcMriaa — dtiu la lAngoadoa Hirt. da Hate, <nil, 

KiTiroBida If ats, No. 7. DarotnbMS at E,p.l4l: tlik woiIl oontaini a raij alabor- 

a^io, toma I, Pramiteii Putie, p. 8(2, ata aoooant <l< tha acnubuotioii 4rf Uw 

afttrDotioiiig tlia aqoadact at Sagona, aqnaduot, and traoaa all tba T«tim of 

Ih* Post dn Qard, Aqua Alaiandrinn, ita coaraa fr^u Qona to Hate, iUd., pp. 

Unt of tlia Anlo abora Tin^ and tliat ISO-lBl ; d La Oarte Topogi^hiqaa, and 

It Carthan Ecmoloda tha paragraph bj 18 figniaa i& Plata xviii 
laMtibiiig tlw OM 

Bxpraaaca in atraDgtarmi 
of Um loftT bridm that 
id rivov "^ eamad tba 

daMribiiig tlw ana now oitdar ooniidarat* 
Ion: L'Aqnadoo do HaU. «t en Iwiqaaa, 

arao dM ninitiaas pMrotta ; danala _ . 

uiliaa da la TaiUa oA panalaHoadla^laa water Iran one hill to 

area, plm laigaa qae oeaz dea extrtmit^ racmfci that tha axi 

■ont RormotitA d'nn nng d' ana plna ai wall ai at Nlmaa and Sagoria, far mt- 

patila at pliw Dombreux. Hot ana of paa *njUuiisottlMkIodmth««aTiroiM 

thcM nnaUer archea ia now TtdMs, the of Bona item: loo. oitat., p. S02. BasdN 

eantral part of tha aqneduot haTiiig bean thii paitage, be darotaa in hia anpfio- 

duBtiujad long ago ; and tb«r former ex- ment, toma It, line t, tha whda of the 

iitaoca can onlj be c^'eotorad. "Ia aiithehaptar toadamiptiouof thiaaqoe- 

bantenr prodigieuae an' eUea [lea anhea duct, illualnted by a nata repreaanting 

da milim) aaraient afl aToir, b'Q n'j an the arobe* on a laiga icale, ITo. xlir, fao. 

avait au qn' un aeul rang, et la peu ing p. lOS, and coTering two folio pagea. 

d'eapaeo qa' ell<a auraient liiaai pour Is At hia request tha Prior of St. Amoiu at 

WMige d«i eaui, li ellaa avaient 6t6 dana Ueti obtuned aooonUe mautuemanti ot 

In tnimea proportiona qoa oaltea qui tha mooumeot Mid iatoeotlaoa oonten- 

rartant an baa de Jou^ noiu portent k Ing ita detaihu 

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ova own time unaltered. The aqaedact is said to have 
been built l^ Bnuns ; but on what authority tlie state- 
ment rests I know not ; whoever was its builder, it 
certainly stands very high among similar edifices in 
France; undoubtedly inferior to the Font da Chird as 
to beauty of form and preservation, it may, I tUnk, 
fairiv claim to rank next to it. 

These ruins are distant 10 kilometres from Ifetz, but 
the total length of the aqueduct is 24 kilometres. When 
the traveller vints them he is nsoally conducted on his 
way thither over the battle-field of Gravelotte, studded 
with monuments of the dead. If you will pardon the 
reference to my own feelings, I had no wish to see 
scenes and memorials of slaughter ; it would have been 
enough, and more t^an enough, for me to observe a 
fading prosperity, and the traces of a recent defeat sUll 
marked legibly on t^e countenances of a suffering 

The aqueduct calls to mind the ancient name of Metz, 
Divodurum, because the latter part of the word, which is 
Celtic, means water: Here it occurs as a suffix, but it is 
often a prefix, e.g. DurocoTtorum (Reims), and in our 
own country Durolipons (GJodmanchester), Burobriv© 
(Caistor).* We find the same variety of position in 
dwium, the Latinized form of the Celtic dun, a hill; 
e.g. Augustodonum (Autun), Ctesarodunnm (Tours), 

> Korduit, Domain Aaet and An on Dlttik twte, Omk tls, IrMi dfa 

tiMlrftbukafttMMaidU— Jonr.Orij <DuuA iire«i\ Ed^ tirtM^ Utb bfa, 

Aniny, FimoU, Bt Print utd Ibait. bini, taut, M> **, Wx^ NvAmi^ *ww4t : 

tgnj on Um T^t buk ira kMsUtui lidddl and Boott'i Lagoon, ■.▼. AT'a 

win b* loood b tb* toUoinnf dum— bMaoM H«U b ■toatod at Ow con- 

foMiWL Oaid«a Diamant, V«igM, AlHoa flawM* of tba XoaaUa and S«ffls, Uw 

•t AMMMi, adit. IMI, EarimH da Mbnttiy J«(mi« Um Uinr* linr 

Ifa^ a S7I: BaadAar'a Rliainlanda, {uuMdiatxIy bdow the «f tr. Thebtter 

adtt. ina, Mu tr, Dia SeUaditfddar ha* ban idantiSad with Sdia mantioned 

nn Hata^fr Ml; Ua Erii^-Opant- by Vgoantina Fortnnabi^ ifi, IS, fi : m* 

ionan ob kata in Jahta isro. Mua- Smith'a Diot. ot Andant Oiwfbj, a.*. 

•tab : 1 : 50,000^ AnSan 188S, (Boutan DiTodunun andBalia. 

dar BBOL WaMMUtnnc). Mtl* aridantlj comaa from ICnSM, 

* nirodiuiun aaMna to maan two Mattia ; we End the tomua in the 

waten, the fdnur t>*rt ot the word Notitia Dignitattim Oocadaolii, cap. t, 

bttng eqaiTalcot to the CelUo Da ; oomp. Uamrter Feditun PiMsentallt, p. 8S 

Sananit dwau, Oreak Ma Um, Anglo- [13], Friina FUtia Metii ; «£. Annota- 

SiKon utd Scotch twa, fta, i>Aii aapfrate Uona^ p. 256", and t. tabula aynoptiisa 

fbcm of Bu ; Armatrong'a Qaelie Dietioii- [n] p. SS", adit Bading. Prima Fla*ia 

aif ; aea alee ibid. WwgH«h Qaelio Part, waa pvh^a ao called from Conatantina 

•.r. Twa Ent it la worthy of notice thrt the Ore«t> Fortonatoa pniaea Uet^ the 

in nunj cmm tike letter i ocean— capital ot AoatraM u Ir'- " — "