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archaeological Znstttute of teat Britain anto $relano, 



Etje (Earls anU IHitJtile 







be understood, that they are not responsible for any statements or opinions expressed 
in the Archaeological Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and communications 
being alone answerable for the same. 



Roman Villa at Hadstock, Essex, discovered "I 

by the Hon. Richard Neville, with No- r- ..'.. . . . 27 

tices by Mr. J. C. BUCKLER . . . J 
Notices of Roman Ornaments connected > 

with the Worship of the Dese Matres, I EDWARD HAWKINS ... 85 

and purchased for the British Museum J 
Unpublished Notices of the Times of"! 

Edward I., and of his Relations with the > T. HUDSON TURNER . . . 45 

Moghul Sovereigns of Persia . . . J 

On certain Ancient Enamels . . . AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS . . . 51 

Remarks on Seals, with Suggestions for"! 

,, . , .,, .. >W. S. W. . . . . . . , 64 

their Classincation . . . . J 

Examples of Mediaeval Seals . . . . ALBERT WAY .... 74 
The Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford THE PRINCIPAL OP BRASENOSE . 125 

On the " Belgic Ditches," and the probable -\ _ 

L EDWIN GUEST, M.A. . . . 143 
Date of Stonehenge J 

Notice of Inscriptions and Antiquities found ] 

at Caerleon, as communicated by JOHN > . . . . . . . 157 

EDWARD LEE, Esq. . . . . J 
Remains of a Roman Chariot, in the Mu- 

WILLIAM BROMET, M.D. . . . 162 
seum at Toulouse . . . . . J 

Additional Observations on the Bulla worn , JA ^ YAT ^ RR g Ig6 

by Roman Boys J 

Anclo-Saxon Remains, found at Little Wil- 1 _ 

, . V ISAIAH DECK 172 

braham, Cambridgeshire . . . . J 

Silchester HENRY MACLAUCHLAN . . . 227 

Remarks on a Great Seal of Edward III., 1 j^. w . GuNNEB> M. A . . , . 2 46 

hitherto unpublished . . . J 
Additional Observations on the same Seal . W. S. WALFORD .... 255 

Remarks on the Rent-roll of Humphrey, i . 

Duke of Buckingham . . . J 


Three Oxfordshire Writers, Geffrey of I AS ^^^^ BART> 281 

Additional Particulars for the Biography of "j 

Three Oxfordshire Writers, Geffrey of I IR THOMAS 

Monmouth, Walter Map, and Alexander I 

de Swerford . . . . . ) 

Knightly Effigies at Sandwich and Ash . J. HEWITT ..... ' 
Examination of Tumuli at Broughton, Lin-j ABTHDK TBOLL OPE . . . . 341 

colnshire . . . J 

The Castle, and the Provisions of Oxford . REV. C. H. HARTSHORNE, M.A. . 354 
TheLines formed round Oxford, 1642 1646 CAPT. GIBBS RIGAUD 

On the late, or debased, Gothic Buildings of l OBLANDO JEWITT . . . .382 

Oxford ....... J 

On a Remarkable Egyptian Object of the I SAMUEL BiROH _ ^ _ 396 

reign of Amenophis III. . . . . J 


Extracts from the Bursars' Accounts preserved amongst the Muniments 

of Winchester College. By the REV. W. GUNNER, M.A. ... 79 

Extracts from the Fermor Accounts, A.D. 1580. By EVELYN PHILIP 
SHIRLEY, ESQ ............ 179 

Testamentary Documents relating to Property at Totnes, Devon. 

By W. S. W ............ 307 

Early Documents relating to Devonshire. By EDWARD SMIRKE . . 411 
Proceedings at the Meetings of the Institute ..... 88,187,313,414 

Annual London Meeting, and Auditors' Report . . . . 214 

Notice of the Annual Meeting, held at Bristol ....... 322 

Collingwood Bruce, p. 104. The Geology of the Tertiary Formations, &c., of 
Sussex (accompanied by various Antiquarian Notices), by Frederic Dixon, 
p. 111. Descriptive Catalogue of Anciquities found in Excavations at the 
Royal Exchange, and preserved in the Museum of the Corporation of London, 
by William Tite, Esq., F.R.S., p. 115. Choice Examples of Art- Workmanship, 
by Philip De la Motte, p. 118. Archaeologia Cambrensis, vols. I. IV, and 
vol. I. New Series, p. 215. Nineveh and Persepolis, by W. S. W. Vaux, M.A., 
p. 337. Seven Periods of English Architecture, by E. Sharpe, M.A., p. 428. 
Transactions of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, vol. I., p. 430. Decora- 
tive Arts of the Middle Ages, by Henry Shaw, F.S.A., p. 431. 
ARCH^OLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE ........ 120, 222, 434 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTICES ........ 123, 225, 340, 436 



1. Ground Plan of a Roman Villa at Hadstock 28 

2. Bath, Villa at Hadstock 31 

3. Section of Drain *32 

4, 5. Arch and Steps into the Bath f 32 

6. Silver Vessel, which contained a Collection of Ornaments lately 

purchased for the British Museum from the Brumell Cabinet . 36 
7 10. Inscribed Handle of the Vessel, and Three Gold Rings found in it . 37 

11, 12. Gold Chain and Armlet . .38 

13 16. Gold Fibula, Pendant Ornament of Chains, found as above. Portion 

of a Gold Armlet, Payne Knight's Collection .... 39 
17, 18. Two Silver Spoons, found in the vessel above-mentioned . . . *40 

19, 20. Gold Cross, from the Debruge Collection .58 

21. Enamel representing St. Paul, Museum of Practical Geology . . *63 
22, 23. Seal of the Deanery of Pawlett. Seal of Hurley Priory ... 74 

24. Seal of Rural Deanery of Hengham *76 

25. Seal preserved at Ewelme Hospital *77 

26 28. Bronze Relic, found in Yorkshire., Bronze Celt, in Mr. Brackstone's 

Collection 88 

2932. Unique Irish Celt, Gouge, and Chisel 91 

33. Bronze Celt, found in Yorkshire, drawn by Mr. Du Noyer . . . *9l 

34. Roman Urns, found at Stone, Bucks f . *95 

35. Sections of a Pit, at Stone, in which Roman Remains were found . *96 

36. Supposed adjustment of the Fibula of the Greeks .... *97 

37. Margaret of Anjou, from a MS. at Jesus College, Oxford . . . *98 

38. Penannular Gold Ring, found at Soberton *100 

39. Vessel of Glazed Ware, found in London *103 

40. St. Mary's, Oxford, Pinnacles as restored by Mr. Buckler . . .125 

41. The Old Congregation House, Southern side . . . . . . 132 

42. St. Mary's, Oxford, Arch on East side of Tower . . . .133 

43. Section of South-east Pier, ibid 133 

44. South-east Pier of Tower 134 

45. St. Mary's, Oxford, Ground Plan 139 

46 48. Old Congregation House, Boss, Piscina, and View of East End . . 140 

* The Illustrations marked thus * are in the letter press. The remainder are to be inserted at the 
pages indicated. 

t For these Illustrations the Institute is again indebted to the liberal patronage of the lion. 
Richard Neville. 



49. St. Mary's, Oxford, Plan of the Porch* ... . . *H2 

50. Map, showing the " Belgic Ditches," and advances of the Belgac in 

South Britain f 143 

51, 52. Two Inscriptions, discovered at Cacrleon 158 

53 58. Antiquities of Bronze, &c., discovered at Caerleon : . . .160 

59 62. Bronze Chariot Wheel, in the Museum at Toulouse . . . . 162 

63. Portion of the Felloe, showing construction of the Chariot Wheel . *163 

64, 65. Golden Bulla, in the possession of Samuel Rogers, Esq. . . .166 

66. Bulla, found at Overborough, Lancashire . . . . . . *168 

67. Bulla, found at Manchester *168 

68. Bulla, from Bronze Statue in the Louvre *169 

69. Bulla, from Statue in the Vatican *170 

70. Antique Glass, British Museum, Figure wearing the Bulla . . . *170 
71 74. Anglo-Saxon Remains, found at Little Wilbraham . . . . 172 

75. Bronze Ornament, found ibid. . . . . . . . . *173 

76. Bronze Ornament, found in Kent . . . . . . . *177 

77- Bronze Implement, Cirencester *188 

78. Anglo-Saxon Fibula, Streetway Hill *195 

79. Lozenge-shaped Object of Flint, from Mr. Brackstone's Museum . . *197 

80. Sepulchral Urn, found in County Kilkenny 200 

81, 82. Crypt, discovered at Doncaster, and Sepulchral Slab . . . . 202 

83 88. Sepulchral Slabs, discovered at Doncaster 203 

89. Bronze Candelabrum, in form of an Elephant || 206 

90. Roman Oculist's Stamp *210 

91. Penannular Gold Ring, Bridgwater *212 

92. Plan of Silchester, by Henry Maclauchlan 1 227 

9396. Antiquities found at Silchester 245 

97, 98. Bronze Stylus and Implement, Silchester *245 

99, 100. Unpublished Great Seal of Edward III 246 

101. Effigy at Sandwich 292 

102, 103. Portions of Assyrian Sculpture *294 

104. Iron Scale, Fragment of Assyrian Armour *295 

105. Egyptian Scale Armour *{J. 

106, 107. Roman Scale Armour, from Catterick *296 

108,109. Portions of Scale Armour, Fourteenth Century *299 

110. Scale Armour, Tower Armory *300 

111. Buff Glove of Scale-work . *301 

112. Effigy at Ash, Kent . . . . 302 

113. Knight wearing Ailettes ..'.... *304 

114. Mould for Impressing Roman Ware .... *313 
115, 116. Metal Cups, found in the County Cork . . . . . ,316 

117. Silver Medallion, by Heinrich Reitz, in Mr. Franks' Collection ** . 317 

118. Ivory Mirror Case, hi the Collection of Hon. Robert Curzon . . . 319 

Several of these Illustrations were kindly contributed by the Rev. the Principal of Brasenose. 
This Map was presented to the Journal by Edwin Guest, Esq. 

t The two Plates of Antiquities at Caerleon were kindly etched by John Edward Lee Esq and 
presented by him to the Journal. 

This Plate was presented by H. C. Pidgeon, Esq. 

|| This Illustration is kindly contributed by Henry Shaw, Esq., F.S.A. 

H The Central Committee desire to acknowledge the kindness 'of Mr. Maclauchlan, in making a 
detailed Survey of Silchester, with the neighbouring earthworks, and executing the drawing, of which 
this plan is a careful reproduction 

This beautiful woodcut is kindly contributed by Mr. Franks. 



119. Incised Slab, Ashington, Somerset 319 

120. Plan, showing Position of Barrows at Broughton, Lincolnshire . . 342 

121. Sepulchral Urn, found at Broughton *343 

122, 123. Arrow-heads of Silex, Broughton *344 

124, 125. Sepulchral Urns, Broughton 345 

126. Fragment of Silex, Broughton *345 

127. Bronze Arrow-head, Broughton *346 

128, 129. Arrow-heads, Broughton *348 

130 132. British and Roman Beads *352 

133. Plan of the Lines round Oxford *380 

134 146. Thirteen Woodcuts, forming Eight pages in illustration of the late 
or debased Gothic Buildings of Oxford. Drawn and Engraved by 

Mr. Orlando Jewitt 382 395 

147, 148. Two Sections of Windows, Wadham College *389 

149. Section of Window, Lincoln College *392 

150. Roof of Chapel, Water Eaton *394 

151 154. Four Illustrations, representing an Egyptian Object presented by 

the late Marquis of Northampton to the British Museum . . 396 

155. Gold Ring, found at Sessa 419 

156. Helmet, t. Richard I., in the Tower Armory 420 

157 159. Two Stone Relics from Alexandria. Stone Maul, from co. Aberdeen 421 

160. Irish Stone Celt, from Mr. Brackstone's Collection . . . . *422 

161. Inscribed Stone, at Stowford, Devon *424 

162. Iron Sword and Spear, found at Nottingham *425 

163. Merchant's Mark, on a Ring found at Nottingham .... *425 

164. Sapling Cup, in Miss Ffarington's possession . . . . . . 427 

Seven Woodcuts, from the "Roman Wall," by the Rev. J. C. Bruce 104 111 

Seven Woodcuts, from the " Geology of Sussex." By F. Dixon, Esq. Ill 115 

Four Woodcuts, from " Choice Examples of Art Workmanship " . 118 119 

Four Woodcuts, from the " Archaologia Cambrensis " . . . 215 222 
Five Woodcuts, from the " Decorative Arts of the Middle Ages." By 

Henry Shaw ... 431433 

Mirror-case of Sculptured Tvory. 

In the Collection of the Hon. Robert Curzon.jun. 
Date, early 14th cent. Orij?. size. 

Cfie grrftaeologual journal. 

MARCH, 1851. 



THE record of the Human Past is not all contained in 
printed books. Man's history has been graven on the rock of 
Egypt, stamped on the brick of Assyria, enshrined in the 
marble of the Parthenon, it rises before us a majestic 
Presence in the piled up arches of the Coliseum, it lurks an 
unsuspected treasure amid the oblivious dust of archives and 
monasteries, it is embodied in all the heir-looms of religions, 
of races, of families, in the relics which affection and grati- 
tude, personal or national, pride of country or pride of lineage, 
have preserved for us, it lingers like an echo on the lips of 
the peasantry, surviving in their songs and traditions, renewed 
in their rude customs with the renewal of Nature's seasons, 
we trace it in the speech, the manners, the type of living 
nations, its associations invest them as with a garb, we dig 
it out from the barrow and the Necropolis, and out of the 
fragments thus found reconstruct in museums of antiquities 
something like an image of the Past, we contemplate this 
image in fairer proportions, in more exact lineaments, as it 
has been transmitted by endless reflections in the broken 
mirror of art. 

Again, the vouchers for Printed History, the title-deeds of 
our great heritage of Printed Literature, are not all preserved 
in printed texts. 

Before there can be Composed History, there must be 
evidences and documents, Tradition Oral and Tradition Monu- 
mental ; before the publication of Printed Literature, there 

VOL. vin. n 


must exist the elements and sources from which such publi- 
cation is made ; before the Printer must come the Paleogra- 
pher; before authoritative edition, scrutiny and authentication. 
Before we can discern the image of a period, or read the 
history of a race in Monuments of Art, we must ascertain to 
what period and to what race these monuments belong ; 
before antiquities become the materials for the history of 
manners, they must be collected and arranged in museums ; 
in other words, if we would authenticate Printed Literature, if 
we would verify and amplify Printed History, if we would not 
ignore all those new elements of thought and memorials of 
the deeds of men which time is for ever disclosing to us, we 
must recognise the purpose and function of Archaeology ; that 
purpose and function being to collect, to classify, and to inter- 
pret all the evidence of man's history not already incorporated 
in Printed Literature. 

This evidence, the subject-matter of Archaeology, has been 
handed down to us, partly in spoken language, in manners, 
and in customs, partly in written documents and manuscript 
literature, partly in remains of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture, and of the subordinate decorative and useful arts. 

Or, to speak more concisely, the subject-matter of Archaeo- 
logy is threefold, the Oral, the "Written, and the Monumental. 

Perhaps it would be more exact to say, that there are but 
two classes of archaeological evidences, the Oral and the 
Monumental, Monuments being either inscribed or Monu- 
ments of art and of handicraft. 

But I shall venture, on this occasion, to waive strict logical 
accuracy for the sake of an arrangement which seems more 
convenient and impressive. 

I shall consider each of the three classes of archaeological 
evidence in succession, taking, first, the Oral, under which 
head I would include not only all that has been handed 
down to us in Language, but all that can be gathered from 
the study of Manners and Customs. 

That spoken language is Archaeological evidence is suffi- 
ciently obvious. Every one is aware that in tracing out the 
history of any language, we must study not only its written 
form, but those archaic words, inflections, and idioms, which 
literature has either rejected or forgotten, which, once general, 
have become provincial, and are retained only in the mother- 
tongue of the peasantry. 


These obsolete and rare forms of speech are to the philolo- 
gist what the extinct Faunas and Floras of the primeval world 
are to the comparative anatomist and the botanist, and, as 
Geology collects and prepares for the physiologist these scat- 
tered elements of the history of nature, so does Archaeology 
glean these vestiges of language, and construct out of them 
glossaries of provincial words, that they may form evidence 
in the great scheme of modern Philology. 

As only a certain portion of the spoken language of a race 
is permanently incorporated in its literature, so its written 
poetry and history only represent a certain portion of the 
national tradition. Every peasantry has its songs and mythic 
legends, its rude oral narrative of real events, blended with 
its superstitions. Archaeology rescues these from oblivion, 
by making them a part of Printed Literature. It is thus 
that Walter Scott has collected the minstrelsy of the Scottish 
border, and Grimm the traditions of Germany. 

Such relics are of peculiar interest to the historian of 
literature, because they contain the germ of Written History 
and Poetry ; before the epic comes the ballad, the first 
chronicle is the sum of many legends. 

But unwritten tradition is not all embodied in language, 
it has been partly preserved to us in manners and customs. 
In a rude, unlettered age, indeed at all times when men are 
too ignorant, hurried, or pre- occupied to be acted upon by 
language alone, the instinct of those who govern the multi- 
tude has suggested other means. 

Symbolic acts and gestures, tokens, forms, ceremonies, 
customs are all either supplementary to or the substitute for 
articulate speech. 

In the processions, military triumphs, coronations, nuptials, 
and funeral ceremonies of all races we see this unwritten, 
inarticulate, symbolic, language in its most fully developed 
and eloquent form. 

Hence it is obviously necessary for the Archaeologist to 
study customs. Addressing the eye by symbols more gene- 
rally and readily understood even than words, they may be 
said to exhibit the utterance of thought in its most primitive 
and elementary form ; the repetition of such utterance be- 
comes record which, however rude and precarious, may still 
rank as a distinct source of historical evidence. 

For the observance of such customs as fall under the 


notice of the Archaeologist, it is for the most part necessary 
that certain acts should be performed, or certain instruments 
employed with or without the recital of a set form of words ; 
the custom may be commemorative or symbolic without re- 
ference to the past ; the event of which it is the memorial 
may be real or mythical ; the doctrine it typifies and embodies 
may be religious, political, or legal ; its observance may be 
occasional, as in the case of a marriage ceremony, or perio- 
dical, as in the case of the great festivals with which most 
nations distinguish the course of the seasons. The Archaeo- 
logist, of course, directs his attention less to those customs 
which form a part of the established religion and legal code 
of a race than to those which, being the result of ideas once 
generally prevalent, still survive among the peasantry in 
remote districts, or of which dim traces may be still discerned 
in the institutions of modern .society. It is thus that, in the 
customs of Calabria, we still trace the relics of the ancient 
heathen worship, and that the customs of Greece and Asia 
Minor remain a living commentary on the text of Homer. 

The peasant's mind reflects what has been rather than 
what is. It revolves in the same circle as the more cultivated 
mind of the nation, but at a much slower rate. On the great 
dial-plate of time, one is the hourhand while the other is the 

When customs are only partially extant, the Archaeologist 
has not only to record and interpret the usage, but to 
preserve the instrument with which that usage was associated. 

It is thus that the horns which once ratified the tenure of 
land, the sword or mace, once instruments of investiture and 
insignia of feudal or official power, vessels once consecrated 
to the service of religion, are gathered in, one by one, into 
national museums, the garners and treasuries of archaeology. 

A custom may be not merely extinct, but buried. In the 
tombs of many races, such as the Celtic or Scandinavian, we 
find nearly all that is known of their sepulchral rites, and 
thus an examination of the places of sepulture of various 
countries enables us, with the aid of philology, to trace out 
many unsuspected national affinities, while at the same time 
it gives us the means of comparing a number of unwritten 
creeds. In an uncivilised age men do not define their re- 
ligious belief in a set form of words, but express it by symbolic 
rites, by acts rather than by statements. 


It is the business of the Archaeologist to read these hiero- 
glyphics, not graven on the rock, but handed down in the 
memory and embodied in the solemn acts of races, to elicit 
these faint rays of historical evidence, latent in the tomb. 

Manners differ from customs, in that they furnish rather 
general evidence of a nation's character than special evidence 
for particular facts ; that they are neither commemorative 
nor symbolic. 

It was the custom of the last century to drink the king's 
health after dinner ; it is part of the general history of 
English manners to know how our ancestors comported 
themselves at their meals, and when they first began to use 

Traces of ancient manners must be sought, as we seek for 
customs, in the secluded life of the peasantry, or we must 
discern them half-obliterated beneath the palimpsest surface 
of modern society, and this palimpsest must be read by a 
diligent collation not only with early literature, but with the 
picture of ancient manners preserved in Monuments of Art. 

Such then is a slight outline of the Oral evidence of 
Archaeology. It is inferior in dignity either to Written or 
to Monumental evidence, because of all the means which 
man possesses for utterance and record, the oral is the most 

We may add that animals are not altogether destitute 
of oral utterance. Though they do not articulate, they com- 
municate their meaning vocally, and by gesticulation ; and 
some of them can imitate articulate speech, action, and music. 

But no animal but man draws or writes, or leaves behind 
him conscious monumental record. 

It is because man can draw, because he possesses the 
distinctive faculty of imitating forms and expressing thoughts 
not only by his own gesticulations, but by and through some 
material external to himself, that he has acquired the 
inestimable power of writing. This general assertion, that all 
writing has its origin in drawing is, perhaps, open to discus- 
sion, but those who have most deeply investigated the ques- 
tion, have been led to this conclusion, by a comparison of 
the most primitive systems of writing now extant. 

It is stated by these authorities that the elements of all 
written character are to be found in the Picture, or Direct 
Representation of some visible object ; that such Pictures 


were subsequently applied as Phonetic symbols, or symbols of 
sounds, and as Emblems, or symbols of ideas ; that these 
three modes of conveying meaning, by Direct Representa- 
tion, by Phonetic symbols, and by Emblems, existed co-ordi- 
nately for a while, and were finally absorbed into, and 
commuted for the one fixed conventional Alphabetic method. 

If we apply this theory to the classification of the systems 
of writing which remain to us, it will be seen that, though 
not of course admitting of arrangement in chronological 
sequence, they exhibit the art in various stages of its 
development. The Mexican will present to us a system in 
which the Pictorial is predominant ; the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics will enable us to trace the gradual extension of the 
Phonetic and Emblematic, the abbreviation of both forms in 
the more cursive Hieratic, and the decay of the Pictorial 
system : the Chinese, and perhaps the Assyrian Cuneiform, 
will bring us one step nearer the purely conventional system ; 
and the perfection of the Alphabetic method will be found 
in the Phoenician, as it has been adapted by the Hellenic 

I will not attempt here to illustrate more fully, or to 
justify more in detail, this theory as to the origin of writing ; 
nor do I ask you, on the present occasion, to admit more 
than the general fact, which the most superficial examination 
of the Egyptian or Mexican hieroglyphics will show, that 
there have been ages and nations when the Alphabetic system 
was as yet undeveloped, and the Pictorial was its substitute, 
and consequently that there was a period when art and writing 
were not divorced as they are at present, but so blended into 
one, that we can best express the union by such a compound 
as Picture-writing. 

This original connection between two arts which we are 
accustomed to consider as opposed, obliges us to regard the 
elements of writing as part of the history of imitative art 
generally. Thus the inscribed monuments of Egypt are 
neither art nor literature, but rather the elements out of 
which both sprang, just as early poetry contains the germ 
both of history and philosophy. 

It is this first stage in the history of writing which pecu- 
liarly claims from the Archaeologist thought and study. The 
art of which he has to trace the progress, as it has, perhaps, 
more contributed to civilisation than any other human inven- 


tion, so has it only been perfected after many centuries of 
experiment and fruitless labour. We, to whom the Alpha- 
betic system has been handed down as the bequest of a 
remote antiquity, find a difficulty in transporting our minds 
backwards to the period when it was yet unknown ; the 
extreme simplicity of the method makes us accept it as a 
matter of course, as an instrument which man has always 
possessed, not as something only wrought out by patient, oft 
repeated trials in the course of ages. Till we study the 
Egyptian hieroglyphics, we are not aware how difficult it 
must have been for the more perfect Phonetic system to 
displace the Pictorial, how long they continued co-ordinate, 
what perplexity of rules this co-ordination engendered, how 
obstinately the routine of habit maintained an old method 
however intricate and inconvenient, against a new principle 
however simple and broad in its application. The history of 
writing, in a word, exhibits to us most impressively a type 
of that great struggle between new inventions and inveterate 
routine, out of which civilisation has been slowly and painfully 

When we pass from the study of imperfect and transition 
systems of writing, such as the Mexican, Egyptian, Cuneiform, 
and Chinese, to the study of perfect alphabets, it is rather 
the tradition of the art from race to race, than the inventive 
genius shown in its development, which forms the subject of 
our inquiries. 

The Phosnician alphabet is the primary source of the 
system of writing we now use. The Greek and Roman 
alphabets, each adapted from the Phoenician with certain 
additions and modifications, were gradually diffused by 
commerce or conquest through the length and breadth of the 
ancient civilised world. On the decay of the Western 
empire of the Romans, their alphabet, like their language, 
law, architecture, and sculpture, became the property of their 
Teutonic conquerors. 

Rude hands now wielded these great instruments of 
civilisation ; strong wills moulded and adapted them to new 
wants and conditions ; and it was thus that the Roman 
alphabet, transferred from marble to parchment, no longer 
graven but written, was gradually transformed into that 
fantastic and complicated character which is popularly called 
black letter, and in which the original simple type is some- 


times as difficult to recognise, as it is to discern at the first 
glance the connection between the stately, clustered pier and 
richly sculptured capital of the Gothic cathedral, and its 
remote archetype, the Greek column. 

The changes which the handwriting of the Western world 
underwent from the commencement of the Middle Ages to 
the revival of the simple Roman character in the first printed 
texts have been most clearly traced out, century by century, 
by means of the vast series of dated specimens of medieval 
writing still extant. 

When we turn from the Palaeography of the Western to 
that of the Eastern world, we find the evidence of the subject 
in a far less accessible state. 

In tracing back the history of Oriental systems of writing, 
as in investigating the sources of Oriental civilisation, we 
cannot, as in the West, recognise in many varieties the same 
original classical type; there is no one paramount influence, no 
one continuous stream of tradition, no one alphabet the 
parent of all the rest ; the chronological basis of the Palaeo- 
graphy rests on much less certain grounds. 

When this branch of the history of writing has been more 
studied, we shall be able to say more positively whether the 
Assyrian Cuneiform is a modification of the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics, whether the Phoenician alphabet was derived from 
the same elements, whether it was the parent not only of the 
Greek and the Roman, but also of the Semitic alphabets 
generally, and we shall probably discover more than one 
other independent source whence some of the Oriental 
alphabets may have been derived. 

This, then, is one point of view in which the Archaeologist 
may regard all written memorials, as evidence either of the 
invention or of the tradition of the alphabetic system ; but 
the history of the art cannot be fully investigated without 
taking into account the nature of the writing materials 
employed. These materials have been very different in 
different ages and countries. Character may be either 
graven on hard materials, such as stone or metal, written on 
pliable materials, such as bark, papyrus, parchment, linen, 
paper, or impressed as the potters' names are on the Samian 
ware, or the legends of coins on a metallic surface. The 
greater part of the writing of the ancient world has been 
preserved on the native rock, hewn stones, metallic tablets, 


or baked clay, as in the case of the Cuneiform character. There 
was a preference for hard unpliable materials in classical 
antiquity just as there was a preference for parchment as a 
writing material all through the Middle Ages, both in Europe 
and Asia. As the harder materials fell into disuse, the cha- 
racter of course became more cursive, writings circulated 
more generally from hand to hand, and were multiplied by 
frequent copies not only to meet an increased demand, but 
because that which is written is more perishable than that 
which is graven ; the stroke of the chisel is a more abiding 
record than the stroke of the pen. 

In consequence of this difference in the writing material, 
the researches of the Palaeographer of classical antiquity 
embrace a far wider field than those of the medieval Paleo- 
grapher. It is in the marble and the granite, in the market- 
places, the temples, and the sepulchres of the ancients that 
we must search for their records ; these were their libraries, 
their muniment rooms, their heralds' college. If Magna 
Charta had been ceded to the Roman plebs, instead of to the 
English nobles, it would not have been called Magna Charta, 
but Magna Tabula, or Magna Columna ; most of the Diplo- 
matic record of the ancients was a Lapidary record. 

I have been as yet considering the written memorials of 
races only as they are evidence of the art of writing itself, 
but Archaeology has not only to study character and writing 
materials, but also to interpret more or less the meaning of 
the words written, and to inquire how far they have an 
historical value. 

Now all written character, all literature, to use this word 
in its original sense, may be divided into two great classes, 
the Composed and the Documentary. 

By Composed Literature I mean history, poetry, oratory, 
philosophy, and such like mental products ; by Documentary 
Literature I mean all writings which have no claim to rank as 
literary composition, such as deeds, charters, registers, calen- 
dars, lists, in a word, all those historical and literary 
materials, some of which are already incorporated in com- 
posed history and composed literature; some of which are 
stored up in national, ecclesiastical, municipal, or private 
archives ; some of which yet remain in situ, associated with 
the architectural monuments and works of art on which they 
are inscribed, and some of which, uncared for or unknown, 



moulder on the surface of untravelled lands, or in the ruins 
of deserted cities. 

Now, in regard to Composed Literature, it is obvious that 
its subject-matter is far too vast for the scope and limits of 
archaeological research ; it is chiefly with its manuscript text 
that the Paleographer has to deal ; his business is to collect, 
decipher, collate, edit. Printing transfers the text from his 
hands to those of the philologer, the historian, and the critic. 

In dealing with the Literature of Documents, the Archaeo- 
logist has to do more than barely edit the text. On him, in 
a great measure, is devolved the task of interpretation and 
classification ; the mere deciphering or printing the docu- 
ments does not at once render them accessible to the general 
reader, nothing but long familiarity, acquired in the course 
of editing, can give dexterity and intelligence in their use. 
It is the business, then, of the Archaeologist to prepare for 
the historian the literature of documents generally, as Gruter 
has edited his great work on Latin inscriptions, or Muratori 
the documents of medieval Italy. 

He must as far as possible ascertain the value of this 
unedited material in reference to what is already incorpo- 
rated with printed literature, how far it suggests new views, 
supplies new facts, illustrates, corroborates, or disproves 
something previously acknowledged or disputed ; whether, in 
a word, it will contribute anything to the great mass of 
human knowledge which printing already embodies. 

Composed Literature should be as far as possible confronted 
with those written documents which are, in reference to it, 
vouchers, commentary, or supplement. Sometimes we possess 
the very materials which the historian used ; sometimes we 
have access to evidence of which he had no knowledge. 

Now, it is needless to insist on the historical value of such 
documents as the inscription of Darius on the rock of 
Behistan, the Rosetta stone, and the many hieroglyphical 
and cuneiform texts which the sagacity and learning of a 
Young, a Champollion, and a Rawlinson have taught the 
nineteenth century to interpret by means of these two 
trilingual keys. 

Such evidence speaks for itself. When in the laboratory 
of the philologer and the historian these documents shall 
have been slowly transmuted into composed narrative, we 
may hope to contemplate the ancient world from a new point 


of view. The narrow boundaries of classical chronology 
may be enlarged by these discoveries as the barriers of 
ancient geography were burst through by the adventurous 
prow of the Genoese navigator ; events, dynasties, and per- 
sonages, which flit before our strained eyes, far away in the 
dim offing of primeval history, shrouded in the fantastic haze 
of Hellenic mythology, may be revealed to us in more defined 
outlines, if not in perfect fulness of detail. 

But it is not merely where there is such immediate pro- 
mise of a great historical result that the Archaeologist must 
study written evidence, nor must he confine his labours to 
the editing what is already complete as a document ; he must 
out of isolated and fragmentary materials construct instru- 
ments for the historian to use. 

Roman coins are not Fasti, nor are Greek coins a treatise 
on ancient geography, yet the labour of numismatists has 
made the one almost the best authority for the chronology 
of the Roman empire, and has found in the other an ines- 
timable commentary on Strabo and Ptolemy. 

The seals, deeds, and sepulchral brasses of the Middle 
Ages are not in themselves pedigrees, but how have they not 
contributed to the legal proof of genealogies ? The countless 
rolls relating to the property of individuals preserved in 
muniment rooms, seem many of them of little historical value ; 
but out of them what a full and minute history of ancient 
tenures has been developed; what directories, and gazetteers, 
and inventories of the past, giving us the names, titles, and 
addresses of those historic personages, whom in reading the 
old chronicles we are perpetually liable to confound. 

The pioneering labour which prepares the Literature of 
Documents will always be appreciated by a great historical 
mind. After a Gruter, an Eckhel, and a Muratori, come a 
Gibbon, a Niebuhr, a Sismondi. 

Before we dismiss this branch of our subject, there is one 
more point to be noted, the use of written documents not 
for the immediate purposes of history, but subordinately, as 
evidence for archaeological classification. It is obviously 
easier to fix the date of an inscribed than of an uninscribed 
work of art, because Paleography has rules of criticism of 
its own, perfectly independent of those by which we judge of 
art or fabric. In arranging the Monumental evidence of 
Archaeology, we cannot dispense with the collateral illustration 


of the Written evidence. Palaeography is the true guide of 
the historian of Art. 

It is this third branch of our whole subject-matter, the 
Monumental, which we have now to consider. 

Monuments are either works of Art or works of Handicraft. 
Art is either Constructive or Imitative ; Handicraft either 
Useful or Decorative. 

I must recall you for a moment to the point from which 
I started in treating of the history of writing. I said 
that man was the only animal that imitated in a material 
external to himself ; who, in other words, practised painting 
and sculpture. To draw and to carve are natural to man ; 
speech, gesture, and music are his transient, sculpture, 
painting, and writing, his permanent means of utterance. 
There is hardly any race that has not produced some rude 
specimens of sculpture and painting ; there are a few only 
who have brought them to perfection. 

Now, there is a point of view in which we may regard the 
imitative art of all races, the most civilised as well as the 
most barbarous in reference, namely, to the power of cor- 
rectly representing animal or vegetable forms such as exist 
in nature. The perfection of such imitation depends not so 
much on the manual dexterity of the artist as on his intelli- 
gence in comprehending the type or essential qualities of the 
form which he desires to represent. One artist may make the 
figure of a man like a jointed doll, because he discerns in 
human structure no more than the general fact of a head, 
trunk, and limbs. Another may perceive in nature and 
indicate in art some traces, however slight, of vital organi- 
sation, of bones and muscles, and of their relation to each 
other as pulleys and levers. A third may represent them in 
their true forms in action and repose. 

This is real, intellectual art, because it represents not 
the forms merely, but the life which animates them. This 
difference between one artist and another in the mode of 
representing organic life is the most essential part of what is 
called style. As the styles of individual artists differ in this 
respect, so it is with the art of races. 

If we compare the representation of a man in Egyptian, 
Assyrian, Greek, Medieval, Chinese, Indian, and Mexican 
sculpture, we shall see that the same bones and muscles, the 
same organisation and general type, have been very diffe- 


rently rendered in different ages and countries ; and that the 
examples I have cited may be ranged in a scale from the 
Greek downward to the Mexican, according to the amount of 
essential truth embodied in these several representations of 
nature. Here then we get a common measure or standard 
of the art of all races and ages, whether it be painting or 
sculpture, whatever be the material in which it is executed ; 
whether the work of which we have to judge be one of the 
statues from the pediment of the Parthenon, or an Otaheitan 
idol ; a fresco of Michael Angelo, or a Dutch picture ; a 
painted window, or a picture on a Greek vase; a coin, 
or the head of Memnon ; the Bayeux tapestry, or the 
cartoons at Hampton Court. 

All these are works of imitative art; some more, some less 
worthy of being so called. 

Now, the artists who executed these works had this in 
common, that they all tried to imitate nature, each according 
to his powers and means, but they differed very widely in 
those powers and means. Some painted, some carved ; some 
worked on a colossal, others on a minute scale. For the 
solution of the problem they had proposed to themselves, a 
very varied choice of means presented itself. Thus by the 
word painting we may mean a fresco painting, or an oil 
painting, or an encaustic painting, or a painted window, or a 
vase picture. Sculpture may be in wood, in ivory, in 
marble, in metal. Each material employed by the sculptor 
or painter imposes on him certain conditions which are the 
law under which he ought to work. He may either turn the 
material he uses to the best account, master its difficulties, 
and atone for its deficiencies, or he may in turn be mastered 
by them. 

The difference between artist and artist, or school and 
school, in this respect, constitutes what has been justly called 
specific style, as opposed to general style. The Archaeologist 
must take cognisance not only of general, but of specific style. 
He must compare the art of different races as much as pos- 
sible in part materid ; he must ascertain as nearly as he 
can the real conditions under which the artist wrought 
before he can appreciate his work ; he must observe how 
similar necessities have in different ages suggested the trial 
of similar technical means ; how far the artist has succeeded 
or failed in the working out these experiments. 


In this, as in every other branch of archaeological research, 
he will be led to remark great original differences between 
races, and certain resemblances, the result of the influence 
of school upon school by tradition or imitation. 

By this study of external characteristics he will obtain 
the true criteria for arranging all art both chronologically 
and ethnographically, and will also be able to form some 
kind of scale of the relative excellence of all that he has to 

Thus far his work is analogous to that of the Palaeographer, 
who acquaints himself with the systems of writing of all 
races, traces their tradition and the changes they undergo, 
and assigns them to their respective periods and countries. 

But, as we have already pointed out, the Palaeographer 
has not only to acquaint himself with the handwriting, but to 
bestow more or less of study on the words written ; and in 
some cases, as in the Egyptian hieroglyphics, the work of 
deciphering and of interpretation compel him to be deeply 
versed in history and philology. 

So it is with the Archaeology of Art. We must not only 
know the mere external characteristics of the style, we must 
know the meaning or motive which pervades it ; we must be 
able to read and to interpret it. 

It is only a knowledge of the meaning or motive of art 
that enables us to appreciate its most essential qualities. 
The highest art is thought embodied and stated to the eye ; 
hence it has been well denned as " mute poetry." 

Now, when we survey all the remains of art of which 
Archaeology has cognisance, we shall perceive that it is only 
a certain portion of these remains that can be said to embody 

It is those works of Imitative Art which embody thought, 
which have the first claim on the attention of the Archaeolo- 
gist, and, above all, those which express religious ideas. 

The most elevated art which the world has yet seen has 
been devoted to the service of Religion. Art has stereotyped 
and developed that Figurative and Symbolic language, of 
which we find the partial and transient expression in the 
Oral Symbolism of rituals. 

When I speak of a Figurative and Symbolic language, I 
include under this general term all idols and visible emblems, 
all productions of the painter and sculptor, which have been 


either themselves objects of worship, or have been associated 
with such objects, have been designed to address religious 
sympathies, to teach religious doctrines, or to record religious 

There is, perhaps, hardly any race, which has not at some 
period of its history possessed some sort of Figurative and 
Symbolic language for religious uses. The utterance of this 
language is feebler, or more emphatic ; its range of expres- 
sion narrower, or more varied, according to the character of 
the religion, and the genius of the race. Some religions are 
pre-eminently sensuous, such, for instance, as the Egyptian, 
the Greek, the Hindoo, in fact, all the great systems of 
polytheistic worship ; in other cases, the nature of the creed 
warrants and requires a much narrower range of Figurative 
and Symbolic language, as in the case of the ancient Persian 
fire-worship, or interdicts the most essential part of it, as 
the Mahommedan interdicts all representation of animal 

Now, as in Philology, we lay the foundation for a general 
comparison of articulate languages by the study of some one 
example more perfect in structure, fuller and richer in com- 
pass than the rest, such a type, for instance, as the Greek 
or the Sanscrit ; so, if we would acquaint ourselves with the 
Figurative and Symbolic language of Art generally, we should 
study it in its finest form. 

When we survey the monuments of all time, we find two 
perfectly developed and highly cultivated forms of utterance, 
the language of Greek Art, and the language of the Art of 
Medieval Christendom ; in almost all other races the expres- 
sion of religious ideas in art seems, in comparison, like a 
rude dialect, not yet fashioned by the poet and the orator. 
Of the idolatrous nations of the ancient world, the Greeks 
were, as far as we know, the first to reduce the colossal 
proportions of the idol, to discard monstrous combinations 
of human and animal forms, and to substitute the image of 
beautiful humanity. The sculptor and the poet shaped 
and moulded the mythic legends; as the Figurative lan- 
guage of Art grew more perfect, as the mastery over form 
enabled the artist to embody thought more poetically and elo- 
quently, the ancient hieratic Symbolism became less and 
less prominent. 

As the Greek myth gradually absorbed into itself the 


earliest theological and philosophical speculations of the 
race, blending religious tradition with the traditions of his- 
tory, personified agencies with the agencies of real personages, 
the record of physical phenomena with poetic allegory, so 
the Figurative Language of Art expanded to express this 
complex development. Mythography, or the expression of 
the Myth in Art, moved on, pari passu, with mythology, or 
the expression of the Myth in Literature : as one has reacted 
on the other, so is one the interpreter of the other. 

It is impossible till we have studied both conjointly, to 
see how completely the religion of the Greeks penetrated 
into their social institutions and daily life. The Myth was 
not only embodied in the sculpture of Phidias on the 
Parthenon, or pourtrayed in the frescoes of Polygnotus in 
the Stoa Poicile ; it was repeated in a more compendious 
and abbreviated form on the fictile vase of the Athenian 
household ; on the coin which circulated in the market- 
place ; on the mirror in which the Aspasia of the day beheld 
her charms. Every domestic implement was made the 
vehicle of Figurative language, or fashioned into a Symbol. 

Now, to us this mother tongue of Mythography, these 
household words, so familiar to the Greeks, are a dead letter, 
except so far as the Archaeologist can explain them by glosses 
and commentaries. His task is one of interpretation he is 
the Scholiast and the Lexicographer of Art. 

The method of interpretation which the classical Archae- 
ologist has applied to Greek Art is well worthy the atten- 
tion of those who undertake the interpretation of Christian 
Medieval Art. 

As the Greeks have bequeathed to us not only a Mytho- 
logy, but a Mythography, so in the painting and sculpture 
of medieval Christendom we find an unwritten Theology, a 
popular, figurative teaching of the sublime truths of Chris- 
tianity, blended with the apocryphal traditions of many 
generations. The frescoes of the great Italian masters, from 
Giotto to Michael Angelo, the ecclesiastical sculpture of 
medieval Europe generally, are the texts in which we should 
study this unwritten theology. 

It is in these continuous compositions, designed by great 
artists, that we can best study the Figurative and Symbolic 
language of Christian Art as a scheme, and seek the key to 
its interpretation. This key once obtained, we learn to read 


not the great texts merely, but the most compendious and 
abbreviated Symbolism, the isolated passages and fragments 
of the greater designs. 

It is then that we recognise the unity of motive and senti- 
ment which runs all through Medieval Art, and see how an 
external unity of style is the result of a deeper spiritual 
unity, as the manners of individuals spring out of their 
whole character and way of life ; it is then that antiquities, 
which to the common observer seem of small account, become 
to us full of meaning. Every object which reflects and 
repeats the greater art of the period, whether it be costume, 
or armour, or household furniture, is of interest to the 

The cross which formed the hilt of the sword of the 
warrior ; the martyrology which was embroidered on the cope 
of the ecclesiastic, or which inlayed the binding of his missal ; 
the repetition of the design of Raffaelle in the Majolica ware ; 
if not in themselves the finest specimens of medieval art, are 
valuable as evidence of the universality of its pervading 
presence, as fragments of a great whole. 

In many cases the interpreter of Christian Art has an 
easier task than his fellow-labourer, the interpreter of Greek 
Art. Christian Iconography is at once more congenial, and 
more familiar to us, than Greek Mythography. Much of 
the religious feeling it embodies still exists in the hearts of 
men ; the works of Christian art themselves afford far 
ampler illustration of their own language. The frescoes of 
Cimabue and Giotto, the great poems of Fra Angelico, 
Raffaelle, and Michael Angelo, have not perished like the 
works of the Greek painters, or been preserved to us in 
fragments, like the sculptures of the Parthenon. The 
fa9ades of the cathedrals of Europe are still rich in statuary ; 
the " dim religious light" still pierces through " the storied 

We possess not only the original designs of the great 
sculptors and painters of the Middle Ages, but endless 
copies and reflections from these designs in the costume, 
armour, coins, seals, pottery, furniture, and other antiquities 
of the contemporary period. We are not compelled to seek 
for Art in what was meant as mere Handicraft, as we study 
the history of Greek painting in vase-pictures ; we have not 
only the Art, but the Handicraft too. 

VOL. vin. D 


But we have not shown as much diligence in applying 
Medieval Literature to the illustration of contemporary 
Medieval Art as the Classical Archaeologist has shown in 
comparing mythology and mythography. 

Christian Iconography and Christian Symbolism must be 
read, as Lord Lindsay has read them, with the illustration 
of the lives of the saints, the theology and the poetry of the 
Middle Ages. We must study the Pisan Campo Santo with 
Dante in our hands. 

In these remarks on the figurative language of Art, I have 
not attempted to lay down for your guidance systems and 
canons of interpretation ; I have rather called your attention 
to the example of classical art in which a particular method 
of study has been long and successfully carried out. 

Nor have I at all alluded to a most essential part of the 
History of Art, the tradition of its Figurative and Symbolic 
language from race to race ; or shown how far the Mythography 
of the Greeks was modified by, and contributed in turn to 
modify, the Oriental and Egyptian Mythographies ; how 
Roman Pantheism gradually absorbed into itself all these 
motley elements ; how the earlier Christian Art, like the 
architecture, law, language and literature of medieval Chris- 
tendom, was full of adapted Paganism ; how, not forgetting 
the power of deep-rooted associations, it borrowed the symbols 
of an extinct idolatry, as medieval literature borrowed the 
imagery of the classical writers ; how long the influence of 
that symbolism and that imagery has survived, affecting, in a 
peculiar manner, the view of physical nature both in art and 
poetry ; and how, lastly, the great features of the landscape 
which ancient sculpture and poetry translated into a peculiar 
figurative language, have been, so to speak, retranslated in 
the painting and the poetry of an age of physical science like 
our own. 

It remains for me to say a few words on other branches of 
Imitative Art. There is an ideal art which is not devoted to 
religion, but purely secular in its subject-matter and purpose, 
just as there is a secular poetry which gradually prevails over 
the religious poetry of an earlier age ; but the portion of this 
secular ideal art of which Archaeology has to take cognisance 
is comparatively small. 

Again, there is Historical art, or that which represents real 
events in history ; and Portraiture, which, taken in its widest 


sense, includes all representation not only of human beings, 
but also of visible objects in nature. Now it is hardly neces- 
sary to insist on the interest either of Historical art or of 
Portraiture as archaeological evidence. 

Historical art can never be as trustworthy a document as 
written history ; its narrative power is far more limited ; but 
how much it illustrates written history, how much it supplies 
where written history is wanting, or is yet undeciphered ? 

The bas-reliefs of Egypt and Assyria are the supplement to 
the hieroglyphic, or cuneiform text ; the type of the Roman 
coin completes the historical record of its legend ; the legend 
explains the type ; the combination presents to us some 
passage in the public life of the emperor of the day. 

Inscribed Historical art is at all times the simplest and 
most popular mode of teaching history ; perhaps in such a 
state of society as that of Egypt or Assyria, the only mode. 

Again, when Historical art is presented to us completely 
detached from the written text, and where the composed 
history of a period is ever so ample, who would not use the 
illustration offered by Historical art ? who would reject such 
a record as the spiral frieze on the column of Trajan, and the 
bas-reliefs on the triumphal arches of the Roman empire ? 
Who would not think the narrative of Herodotus, vivid and 
circumstantial as it is, would acquire fresh interest could 
we see that picture of Darius setting out on his Scythian 
expedition, which Mandrocles caused to be painted ? or the 
representation of Marathon with which Micon and Pansenus 
adorned the Athenian Stoa Poicile 1 

If Historical art contribute to the fuller illustration of com- 
posed history, still more does Portraiture. If the very idea 
of the great dramatis persona, who have successively appeared 
on the stage of universal history, stirs our hearts within us, 
who would not wish to see their bodily likeness ? who would 
not acknowledge that the statues and busts of the Csesars 
are the marginal illustration of the text of Tacitus \ that the 
history of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, rich as 
it is in every kind of document, is incomplete without the 
portraits by Vandyke and Reynolds ? or, to pass from the 
portraits of individuals to the general portraiture of society, 
can we form a just idea of Greek and Roman manners with- 
out the pictures on vases and the pictures of Pompeii I or of 
medieval manners without the illuminations of manuscripts? 


Are not the Nimroud bas-reliefs all that remains to us of 
the social life of the great Assyrian empire ? If costume, 
armour, household furniture and implements, are all part of 
the history of manners, if these relics are in themselves worth 
studying, so too must be those representations which teach 
us how they were applied in daily life. 

Having considered the monuments of Imitative, I will now 
pass on to the monuments of Constructive Art, and the pro- 
ducts of the useful and decorative arts generally, or of Handi- 
craft, from all which may be elicited a kind of latent history, 
rather implied than consciously stated, not transmitted in 
writing, nor even in words. 

Of all monuments of Constructive Art, the most abiding, 
the most impressive and full of meaning, are the archi- 
tectural. The first object of the Archaeologist, in studying a 
building, should be to ascertain its date, the race by whom, 
and the purpose for which it was erected. But his task 
does not end with this primary classification ; he ought to 
indicate the value of Architecture as evidence for the Historian, 
to read and interpret the indirect record it embodies. 

Of many aspects in which we may regard Architecture, 
these three may be especially noted. First, it is an evidence 
of the constructive power of a race, of their knowledge of 
mechanical science. Secondly, being an investment of capital, 
it is a measure of the financial resources of a nation at a 
particular period, a document for their financial history. 
Thirdly, we must consider Architecture as the great law 
which has in all time regulated the growth and affected the 
form of painting and sculpture, till they attain to a certain 
period in their development, and free themselves from its 
influence. I shall say a few words on each of these three 

First of Architecture, as evidence of constructive power : 
In all building operations more or less of the same problems 
have to be solved. 

The purpose of the edifice, the space allotted for the site, 
the quantity and quality of the building material, and the 
law of gravitation, prescribe a certain form. These are the 
external necessities within which the will of the architect is 
free to range. The problems he has to solve may be more 
or less difficult ; the purpose of the building may dictate a 
more or less complicated structure ; the site and building 


materials may be more or less favourable ; the mechanical 
knowledge required may be more or less profound ; it is in 
the solution of these problems that various races have shown 
a greater or less degree of intellectual power ; it is from the 
study of the architectural problems so solved that we obtain 
a common measure of the mind of races perfectly distinct 
from any other standard. 

In a Gothic cathedral the truths of mechanical science are 
stated, not by words, but by deeds ; it is knowledge, not 
written, but enacted. 

The pyramids and temples of Egypt, the Parthenon, the 
ruins of Baalbec, the Duomo at Florence, the railway bridges 
and viaducts of the nineteenth century, are all so many 
chapters in the history of mechanical science, not in them- 
selves treatises, but containing the materials of treatises. 
So much has been recently written on this branch of archi- 
tectural study, that I shah 1 merely allude to it here, especially 
in addressing an audience many of whom have the advantage 
of hearing every year a lecture on structure from the his- 
torian of our cathedrals, Professor Willis. 

Having glanced at Architecture as part of the history of 
science, let us regard it for a moment as part of the history 
of finance. In all Architecture there is an outlay of the 
capital of labour, and of the capital absorbed in the cost of 
materials. The wealth thus permanently invested, if it be 
national wealth, is seldom replaced by any direct financial 
return. In the balance-sheet of nations it is more fre- 
quently entered as capital sunk, than as capital profitably 

When, therefore, we have made an estimate of the pro- 
bable cost of an ancient edifice, grounded partly on the 
evidence of the building itself, partly on our general know- 
ledge of the period to which it belongs, we must next con- 
sider out of what resources it was reared : did the builders 
invest income or capital \ in the hope of profitable return, or 
from what other of the many motives which induce men to 
spend money \ 

Here, then, we find an architectural common measure, not 
only of the wealth of nations at a particular period, but also 
of their taste and judgment in spending that wealth. 

When we survey the architecture of all time in regard to 
its motive, it presents to us under this aspect four principal 


groups. It is either Votive, Commemorative, Military, or 
Commercial. By Votive, I mean all edifices dedicated to 
the service of Religion ; by Commemorative, such struc- 
tures as the triumphal arches of Rome ; all sepulchral 
monuments from the Pyramids downwards ; all buildings, in 
a word, of which the paramount object is national or personal 

The term Military needs no explanation. 

By Commercial, I mean much of what is commonly called 
civil architecture : all such works as bridges, exchanges, 
aqueducts, moles, tunnels, which, however great the original 
outlay, are undertaken by nations, companies, or individuals, 
with the ultimate hope of a profitable return. 

Now, if it be admitted that the religious sentiment, the 
historical instinct, or rather the sense of national greatness, 
its source, the military spirit or necessities, the commercial 
enterprise and resources of a race, severally determine the 
character of its Votive, Commemorative, Military, and Com- 
mercial architecture, such monuments will give us a measure 
of the relative strength and successive predominance of each 
of these great motives of national action. Thus, in the 
chart of universal history, we may more distinctly trace the 
direction and calculate the force of some of the tides and 
currents of public opinion by which society has been variously 

In Egypt, Architecture was pre-eminently Votive and 
Commemorative : in the temples of the Athenian Acropolis, 
the Votive and the Commemorative were blended, the glory 
of the individual was merged in that of the state, the idea 
of the state was inseparable from that of its religion ; the 
practical genius of the Romans was developed in great works 
at once Military and Commercial, roads, bridges, aqueducts, 
moles, tunnels, fortifications ; Votive and Military architec- 
ture absorbed the surplus wealth of the Middle Ages ; in our 
own day, the magnificence of our Commercial architecture, 
of our railway bridges and viaducts, contrasts somewhat 
strangely with the stunted and starveling Gothic of our 
modern churches ; but it is fair to remember that the 
imperious need of an ever increasing population has trans- 
ferred to charity part of the resources of architecture, and 
that we must not seek for the Votive investment of the nine- 
teenth century only in its Religious edifices. 


The study of the motive of architectural investment is 
essential to the Archaeologist for the due comprehension of 
the whole style of the Architecture ; but the tracing out the 
financial sources of that investment is rather the business of 
the Historian. Therefore, I will but remind you here how 
the centralising power of despotism reared with the slave 
labour of captive nations, and the produce of the most 
fertile of soils, the Votive and Commemorative architecture of 
Egypt, how the victories of Marathon and Salamis gained 
for Athens those island and Asiatic dependencies, whose 
tribute built the Parthenon, how Rome gave back to a 
conquered world part of their plundered wealth in the aque- 
ducts, bridges, harbours, and fortifications, which the Empire 
constructed for the provinces, and how, lastly, in most 
parts of Medieval Christendom, as there were but three 
great Landowners, so there were but three great Architects, 
the Sovereign, the Churchman, and the Noble. 

The third aspect in which the Archaeologist must regard 
Architecture, is in its relation to Painting and Sculpture. 
Every one who is the least conversant with the history of Art 
knows that Architecture, Painting, and Sculpture, as they are 
naturally connected, so have in all times been more or less 
associated, and that the divorce by which, in modern times, 
they have been parted, is as exceptional as it is to be 
deplored. In a great age of art, the structure modifies and 
is in turn modified by the painting and sculpture with which 
it is decorated, and it is out of the antagonism of the 
decorative and the structural that a harmonious whole is 
produced. The great compositions of Phidias in the pedi- 
ments of the Parthenon were regulated by the triangular 
space they had to fill, the proportions of the whole building 
itself were again adjusted to the scale of the chryselephantine 
statue of Pallas Athene which it contained ; for in the 
Greek, and the ancient idolatries generally, the temple of 
a god was considered his dwelling-place, his statue in the 
interior, the symbol and more than the symbol of his 
bodily presence. 

Therefore, if the Mythography was colossal, so was the 
Architecture ; if the genius of the religion invested the god 
with a form and character not so much exceeding the 
familiar proportions of humanity, the architecture was 
adjusted to the same standard. This, doubtless, was one 


chief cause of the difference in scale between the Egyptian 
and Greek temple. 

The subject might be pursued much further. It might 
be observed that in Gothic architecture, where the building 
is dedicated to a Being who dwells not in temples made 
with hands, and whose presence there is rather shadowed 
forth by the whole character of the edifice than embodied in 
the tangible form of a statue, the structural necessities are 
supreme ; the painting and sculpture are not, as in Greek 
buildings, works of art set in an architectural frame, but 
subordinate and accessory to the main design. 

I have glanced for a moment at this relation between 
Architecture and Imitative Art, because the principle it in- 
volves is equally applicable to all cases where decoration is 
added to structure. 

The Archaeologist cannot fail to remark how severe, in a 
true age of art, is the observance of this great Architectonic 
law, how its influence pervades all design, how the pic- 
tures on Greek vases, or the richly embossed and chased 
work of the medieval goldsmiths, are all adjusted to the 
form and surface allotted to them by an external necessity. 

Having considered the greatest form of constructive art, 
Architecture, at such length, I have hardly time to do more 
than allude very briefly to the remaining material products 
of man comprised under the general term, Monumental 

To attempt here to classify these miscellaneous antiquities 
would be as difficult as the classification of the various 
objects which may form part of the great Exhibition of 
1851. The task which England has undertaken for 1851 is 
an Exhibition of the Industry of all nations at the present 
day ; the object which Archaeology would achieve if possible, 
is not less than the Exhibition of the Industry of all nations 
for all time. 

Wherever man has left the stamp of mind on brute- 
matter ; whether we designate his work as structure, texture, 
or mixture, mechanical or chymical ; whether the result be a 
house, a ship, a garment, a piece of glass, or a metallic imple- 
ment, these memorials of economy and invention will always 
be worthy of the attention of the Archaeologist. 

Our true motto should be 



To collect the implements, weapons, pottery, costume, and 
furniture of races is to contribute materials not only to the 
history of mining, metallurgy, spinning, weaving, dyeing, 
carpentry, and the like arts, which minister to civilisation, 
but also to illustrate the physical history of the countries 
where these arts were practised. 

The history of an art involves more or less that of its raw 
material ; whether that material is native or imported, has 
been turned to the best account, or misused and squandered, 
are questions ultimately connected with the history of finance, 
agriculture, and commerce, and hardly to be solved without 
constant reference to the Monumental Evidence of Archaeology. 
I will not detain you longer with this part of the subject ; those 
who wish to know why a spear-head or a stone hammer are 
as interesting to an Archaeologist as fossils to the Geologist, 
should visit the museum at Copenhagen, and read M. Worsaae's 
little work on Scandinavian antiquities, its result ; should 
learn how the Etruscan remains in the Museo Gregoriano of 
the Vatican illustrate Homer, and the remains of Pompeii in 
the Museo Borbonico present to us Roman life in the Augus- 
tan age. 

I have endeavoured, in these remarks, to present to you 
an outline, however slight, of the whole subject-matter of 
Archaeology, a sketch of its Oral, Written, and Monumental 

In treating of these three branches, my object has not 
been so much to explain how they may be severally best col- 
lected, classified, and interpreted, as to show by a few 
examples the historical results to which such previous labours, 
duly and conscientiously carried out, will lead ; the relation of 
Archaeology to History, as a ministering and subsidiary study, 
as the key to stores of information inaccessible or unknown 
to the scholar, as an independent witness to the truth of 
Printed Record. 

I have said nothing of the qualifications required of the 
Archaeologist, the conditions under which he works, the 
instruments and appliances on which he depends. He who 
would master the manifold subject-matter of Archaeology, and 
appreciate its whole range and compass, must possess a mind 
in which the reflective and the perceptive faculties are duly 
balanced ; he must combine with the aesthetic culture of the 
Artist, and the trained judgment of the Historian, not a little 



of the learning of the Philologer ; the plodding drudgery 
which gathers together his materials, must not blunt the 
critical acuteness required for their classification and inter- 
pretation, nor should that habitual suspicion which must ever 
attend the scrutiny and precede the warranty of archaeo- 
logical evidence, give too sceptical a bias to his mind. 

The Archaeologist cannot, like the Scholar, carry on his 
researches in his own library, almost independent of outward 

For his work of reference and collation he must travel, 
excavate, collect, arrange, delineate, decipher, transcribe, 
before he can place his whole subject before his mind. 

He cannot do all this single-handed ; in order to have free 
scope for his operations he must perfect the machinery of 
museums and societies. 

A museum of antiquities is to the Archaeologist what a 
botanical garden is to the Botanist ; it presents his subject 
compendiously, synoptically, suggestively, not in the desultory 
and accidental order in which he would otherwise be brought 
in contact with its details. 

An Archaeological Society gives corporate strength to 
efforts singly of little account ; it can discover, preserve, 
register, and publish on a far greater scale, and with more 
system, than any individual, however zealous and energetic. 

A society which would truly administer the ample province 
of British Archaeology should be at once the Historian of 
national art and manners, the Keeper of national record and 
antiquities, the ^Edile of national monuments. 

These are great functions. Let us try, in part at least, to 
fulfil them. But let us not forget that national Archaeology, 
however earnestly and successfully pursued, can only disclose 
to us one stage in the whole scheme of human development 
one chapter in the whole Book of human History can 
supply but a few links in that chain of continuous tradition, 
which connects the civilised nineteenth century with the 
races of the primeval world, which holds together this 
great brotherhood in bonds of attachment more enduring 
than the ties of national consanguinity, more ennobling even 
than the recollections of ancestral glory, which, traversing 
the ruins of empires, unmoved by the shock of revolutions, 
spans the abyss of time, and transmits onward the message 
of the Past. 


Arch, over the 'drain from, the Baths. 

View of Steps into the Bath, North-West angle. 



DURING the autumn of the past year, the unwearied zeal, 
with which Mr. Neville has pursued the investigation of 
British and Roman vestiges in the neighbourhood of Audley 
End, was again crowned with success. His constant kindness 
and liberality have given us the gratification of bringing the 
results before the members of the Institute. 

The discoveries made by Mr. Neville, with which our 
readers are already conversant, through the communications 
given in the Journal, were connected with the neighbourhood 
of the Roman station at Chesterford, on the borders of Cam- 
bridgeshire and Essex. The present notices relate to a 
locality in the county last named, of singular interest, on 
account of its vicinity to the remarkable range of hill- 
sepulchres in the parish of Ash down. The solution by the 
late Mr. Rokewode of the long-mooted question regarding 
the age of the Bartlow Hills, and the purpose with which 
they were raised, must be numbered amongst the most 
interesting discoveries of recent years in England. 1 The 
field in which the villa lately excavated by Mr. Neville is 
situate, lies about half a mile northward of those tumuli, 
which are plainly seen from the spot, and about a mile from 
Hadstock Church. At the lower end of the field runs the 
boundary line between the parishes of Linton, in Cambridge- 
shire, and Hadstock, in Essex. In the summer of 1846 an 
excavation was there commenced by Mr. Neville, and a small 
tessellated pavement, now in his museum at Audley End, was 
found. During the summer of the last year he determined 
to ascertain whether any foundations or further vestiges still 
remained, and he recommenced operations on August 6th, 

During that and the succeeding month, the site of an 
extensive villa was brought to light, with various interesting 

1 See the Memoirs on the Bartlow Hills, Arehteologia, vols. xxv. p. 1 ; xxvi. 
pp. 300, 462 ; xxviii. p. 1. 


details of ancient construction, of which admirable drawings 
and a plan were preserved by Mr. J. C. Buckler, as also a 
valuable descriptive report. Mr. Neville has not only placed 
all these at our disposal, but he has generously presented the 
accompanying illustrations. 

A great part of the foundations had, unfortunately, been 
taken up some years since, for the purpose of repairing the 
highways. There are several persons in the neighbourhood 
who state their recollection that, some twenty years ago, a 
great quantity of stones were obtained from what appeared 
to be very thick and solid walls. The line was indeed 
perceived, during the late operations, where the earth had 
been formerly moved, and the foundations broken up. It 
afforded indications, with the vestiges actually brought to 
light, that this villa must have been unusually extensive. 

The following memorials, by Mr. Buckler, will enable the 
reader to appreciate the interest and importance of these 
remains : 

"At the distance of about 150 yards, in a south-easterly 
direction, from the isolated fragment of a massive wall of 
Roman workmanship, formerly noticed, have recently been 
brought to light the foundations of a villa, with which have 
been preserved a greater variety of interesting features than 
appeared in the remains of other examples of similar buildings 
discovered at Ickleton and Chesterford, and described in the 
Archaeological Journal, Vol. vi., p. 14. In those instances, 
the walls, wherever any portions of them remained, had been 
destroyed, to within about two feet of their foundation ; but, 
in the present instance, the destruction which seems to have 
commenced at one angle, extending even to the uprooting of 
the foundations, was stayed ere the buildings were uniformly 
demolished to the level of the ground or principal floor ; and 
in this example it is evident that the subterranean chambers 
suffered greater injury from the descent of the materials of 
the superincumbent walls, at the time of their overthrow, 
than from violence offered to them in any other way 

"The severity, with which the work of mischief commenced, 
precludes the possibility of knowing either the utmost extent 
or complete figure of the building ; whilst the sparing hand, 
with which the sentence of destruction was finally carried 
out, has left so many intelligible remains in addition to a 
connected series of walls, that a considerable varietv of 



interesting particulars may be gathered therefrom, perhaps 
sufficient to justify the supposition that this had been a resi- 
dence of superior character, indicated by the manner in 
which provision was made for the comfort and even luxury 
of the inhabitants. 

" Spacious apartments, requiring an ample extent in the 
outer walls, were not indispensable, at least there is no 
reason to believe that magnificence was ever contemplated 
in forming the plans of the different villas, of which frequent 
discoveries have been made in this district. 

" The building, in its present condition, exhibits consider- 
able regularity, consisting of two parts, the one of greater 
length extending from north-east to south-west ; the other, 
joining it at right angles, and exceeding it in width, stretches 
towards the south-east, in which direction its termination is 
complete ; but at the north angle, the remains present so 
confused an appearance, owing to the obliteration of some of 
the walls, and the dismemberment of others, that it would seem 
as if their final destruction, which had been commenced, was 
suddenly relinquished for the less laborious employment of 
covering up the remains with earth and rubbish. 

" The site was singularly ill chosen, at least if an opinion 
may be hazarded without knowing the nature and appro- 
priation of the ground around. It was built on a slope, the 
transverse member, containing the baths and superior apart- 
ments, having a considerable ascent from its base, the ground 
descending from the other extremity of the building. The 
serious inconvenience of this choice of position seems to have 
been early felt ; it was provided against by an alteration in 
the baths, and a more ready means of drawing away the 
water, which has never ceased to flow through the trenches, 
and was found in former times to be so seriously detrimental 
to the comfort of the residence, as to lead to changes in- 
volving considerable trouble. The full merit of these altera- 
tions cannot now be appreciated : they may have answered 
the purpose intended, but, judging from the appearances 
presented by the nature of the position and the means 
adopted by art to counteract the defect for which they were 
undertaken, it is not too much to declare that the utmost 
advantage of the site was not taken, and that by directing 
the course of the drains to the south-east, instead of towards 
the south-west, or the lowest level, the channel was deepened 


and widened to its outlet to little purpose. It seems likely 
that, after having been carried a few yards beyond the walls, 
the water dispersed itself underground. 

" The material and the mode of construction are the same 
in this as in the examples before alluded to. The bulk of 
nearly all the walls is brick, but the south-western extremity 
of the building has nothing of the kind ; and flint, with here 
and there an admixture of block-chalk and clunch, has been 
employed. The walls were not all carried up at one and the 
same time, those of stone, at the south-west extremity, having 
been inserted between cross walls, or added in extension of 
others of finished brick-work. There was no tie between the 
materials thus brought together ; the junctions noticed were 
effected by sound workmanship, and were not concealed 
from view on the exterior. In connexion with this part of 
the subject, it may be well to remark that the quoins of 
several of the apertures and other portions of the walls were 
composed of large flanged tiles of a tapering form, and 
notched to fit together as a covering or coping. The abun- 
dance of this kind of material employed in the manner 
shown (see the accompanying illustrations), and also pro- 
miscuously in different parts of the building, besides the 
quantity mingled with the heaps of rubbish, cannot escape 
observation ; neither may the fact that the flue-bricks, another 
description of material at hand for common purposes, were 
employed in the absence of plain tile-bricks ; and in one of 
the drains, the inlet from the room was formed of a brick of 
this kind, as the most ready means of contracting the aperture. 
With these exceptions, there is nothing to remark with re- 
spect to the construction of the walls, or of the materials of 
which they are composed, that has not been noticed and 
described as occurring in other similar remains. 

" The hypocaust was placed in the centre of the building ; 
the baths occupied that portion of the north-east wing con- 
tiguous thereto ; the remainder of this wing, with the entire 
length and breadth of the other member of the house over 
the hypocaust, furnace, and other underground spaces, having 
been occupied by the lodging-rooms. 

"The level of the floors was not the same throughout; those 
over the hypocaust beyond the baths, embracing the greater 
portion of the interior, agree in this respect, as appears by 
the tessellated pavement, and the corresponding height of 

v ,3 


the brick piers ; but the rooms pertaining to the baths, which 
were once separated by solid walls, have their tessellated 
floors more or less sunk in the ground, as best suited the 
range of apartments to which they belonged. The floor of 
the bath-room, at the north-west angle, is 15^ inches above 
the common level of the interior ; the depth of the bath is 
3 feet 9 inches ; there being five steps of brick for descent 
to the same, and the walls of both being finished with a 
skirting of cement upon a core of brick. The floor of each 
is tessellated, formed of a hard white stone in small pieces, 
irregularly shapen, and laid, without attention to regularity 
or neatness, in a durable bed of concrete mortar, similar in 
composition to that with which all the interior walls, and 
also the unpaved floors, were covered. The chief ingredient 
is pulverised brick, overlaid with a thin lime- wash ; and, in 
this instance, the adornment of painting was superadded, but 
it consists of nothing more than diagonal lines in spaces 
formed by vertical lines, a coarse performance by way of 
ornament. But the painted decorations of the walls which 
were destroyed, judging from the numerous well-finished 
fragments selected from among the ruins, must have been of 
a superior description. The colours retain their brilliancy, 
and the designs appear to have been of a highly enriched 

"The plan of one of the baths resembles the letter D ; it is 
9 feet wide, 6 feet 10 inches in length, to the lower step ; 
the entire length, inside, having been 8 feet 5 inches, when 
the wall at the entrance was perfect. The three steps appear 
to have extended from side to side ; these, with the walls, 
exhibit the same neat style of finish with cement already 
observed, the skirting being carried upon the ends of the 
steps up to the level of the floor over. The covering of the 
floor resembles that of the walls ; but the whole was no 
sooner completed, as described, than an alteration in the 
arrangement of this underground part of the house was 
made, which well nigh destroyed its utility ; indeed, it would 
seem to have been superseded by the adjoining bath, which 
encroached 27 inches upon its length, concealing, beneath 
a mass of rubble work, overlaid with a tessellated pave- 
ment, the original figure and dimensions, which were only 
ascertained by the removal of the intruding portion of the 
new bath, in pursuance of Mr. Neville's directions. 


" The two baths, which entered into the arrangement as at 
first designed, are easily distinguishable from the subsequent 
work in this interesting portion of the remains, by their 
depth, and the steps for descent to them, the newer con- 
structions having been raised to the level, or nearly so, of 
the principal floor. The whole of the tessellated work is of 
the same common kind, and perhaps there was not much 
difference of time in the construction, the necessity for 
superseding one of the baths appearing, it may have been, 
before the completion of the house. The provision made 
for the quick riddance of the waste water from the floor of 
the new bath is plainly seen, the greater portion of the floor 
being slightly lower than the rest, and so laid, as to conduct 
the water to the centre on one side, at which appears the 
aperture or drain, with the skirting well-formed and rounded 
off in order to facilitate the passage of the water. As the 
tesseraB would be more susceptible of injury at this place, a 
tile, 8 inches by 7^, was laid in front of the aperture, the 
communication with the drain 
being a flue-brick, 19 inches 
in length, and 4^ inches square 
on the inside ; the drain itself 
being 12^ inches wide, with 
sides, bottom, and cover 
formed of tiles of the common section of drain. 

kind. Against the opposite 

wall, and nearly facing the drain, a stone was inserted in the 
floor, 24 in. by 15^ in., but its use is by no means certain. 

" That the bath first described was superseded by the 
one just noticed, becomes evident by the destruction of the 
drain connected therewith, in order to form the new branch, 
and to unite it with the main line on the outside of the wall, 
as shown in the accompanying plan. This is an excellent 
piece of construction, wholly of brick, and for some reason 
now unknown, instead of being carried in a straight line 
past the corner of the building, was returned at right angles 
just within the end wall, where its width is 23 inches, and 
the outlet 20 inches, the boundary wall being sloped away 
to avoid impediment. At the point, where the drain re- 
enters the building, the wall over was carried upon an arch, 
which is one of the most curious features among the ruins, 
and remains in perfect preservation. 


" A room beyond the baths, measuring between the walls 
14 feet 10 inches by 13 feet, received the heated air in a 
connected line of flue on the four sides, and across the 
centre, in each direction, 1 foot 6 inches in depth from the 
floor, and 12 inches wide, floored and evenly coated on the 
sides with cement, like the walls, in which are formed vertical 
flues, 7f inches wide, and 4^ deep, arranged as if designed to 
contribute heat to adjoining apartments. The means by which 
the supply was communicated from the chamber of the hypo- 
caust do not appear, and the same observation applies to 
the mode in which the water was conducted to the interior. 

It has been remarked that, excepting the baths which 
were sunk in the ground, a level line was observed in the 
floor throughout the house : from the deepest sinking in the 
capacious chamber of the hypocaust, the height is 2 feet 
7 inches, shown by the pillars of brick, the greater number 
of which are still standing ; they are 8 inches square, raised 
in fourteen courses, with basements either of one or two 
courses 11 inches square. The pillars are thickly set, in 
order to sustain the tile floor of the room over, but of this 
only the ruins are to be found at the base. The furnace is 
at the outer end, the aperture between it and the heating 
chamber, passing through a solid wall, is 1 9^ inches in width. 

A more extended description would throw no light upon 
the perfect economy of the interior arrangement. It will be 
noticed on reference to the accompanying plan, that simply 
arranged apartments, in one portion of the building, now 
present a complicated and irregular appearance, owing to 
the exposure of foundations once concealed by tessellated 
floors ; and no account can be given of the extensive wall, 
3 feet 6 inches in thickness, adjoining one of nearly the 
same bulk at the angle of the outermost bath." 

The miscellaneous relics brought to light during the 
examination of the extensive remains described in the fore- 
going narrative, were of a less interesting and valuable 
character than those, which on previous occasions had repaid 
Mr. Neville's well-directed investigation of the sites occu- 
pied by the Roman colonists of ICIANI, and its vicinity. 
Mr. J. Lane Oldham, who has fully participated on such 
occasions in the zealous interest with which these researches 
have been prosecuted by Mr. Neville, and who closely watched 
the progress and details of the late excavation, has supplied 



the following account of the relics and coins found amongst 
the debris of the Hadstock villa. 

Of fictilia, the customary assemblage of fragments of the 
various kinds of ware, " Samian," and Romano-British, were 
disinterred ; two urns were found in a perfect state ; they 
were ollce of dark-coloured ware, and of forms frequently 
occurring amongst remains of the Roman period. One frag- 
ment of the finer ware bore the potter's impress, ROPPVS. 
FE. In the list of marks occurring on "Samian" ware 
found on the site of the Royal Exchange, London, and now 
preserved in the Museum of the Corporation of London, as 
described by Mr. Thompson in his interesting "Descriptive 
Catalogue," two specimens are noticed, marked ROIPVS P. 
and there is also this impress OF RO . . .* The reading 
Roipus may possibly be attributed to the stamp being indis- 
tinctly impressed. Mr. Roach Smith, in his "Collectanea 
Antiqua," has given ROPPVS . FE. from Samian discovered 
in London, as on the fragment at Hadstock. He gives 
likewise ROPVSI . FE. 2 

Several flue-tiles were found, some having square, and 
others circular apertures at the sides for the diffusion of 
heat. Examples with the circular perforation have been 
noticed, found at Kaer Sws, co. Montgomery, 3 and amongst 
Roman remains in East Cheap, London, decribed by the late 
Mr. Kempe. 4 In the last instance there are two such lateral 
apertures on each of the opposite sides of the tile. 

Of objects formed of metal may be enumerated, a plain 
bronze ring, a portion of a chain, a pair of tweezers, or 
wlsettfB, with a ring passed through the end of them, pro- 
bably for the attachment of some other little implements, as 
in another pair, in Mr. Neville's museum, found at Chesterford, 
the same purpose is effected by a loop of small wire. (See 
woodcuts given in the Journal, vol. v., p. 236.) There was 
also found a bronze key, and a large bronze buckle, which, 
although discovered so nearly connected with relics of Roman 
times, may be of questionable date. 

Of iron, the only objects deserving of mention are a 

1 Descriptive Catalogue of Antiquities - Collectanea Antiqua, Vol. I., p. 154. 

found in the Excavations at the New 1848. 

Royal Exchange, preserved in the Museum 3 Camden's Brit. ed. Gough, 1 804, Vol. 

of the Corporation of London. With III., pi. ix., p. 164. 

Introductory Observations by William 4 Archaeologia, Vol. XXIV., pi. xlv. 
Tito, Esq., F.S.A. 8vo. Lond., 1848. 


knife and a key. A comb was found, formed of bone, and 
resembling those previously in Mr. Neville's collection, found 
at Chesterford. Three pins of bone, in a perfect state, and 
several broken pins. A profuse variety of examples of the 
bone acus, of all sizes and fashions, have been repeatedly 
found in the excavations directed by Mr. Neville. 

Numerous fragments of Roman glass were produced. 
The remains of animals were met with, as usually the case 
in such excavations, in large quantities. 

The coins discovered, about twenty in number, comprised 
a third brass of Gallienus (A.D. 253 to 268) Obv. a galeated 
head to the R. GALLIENVS AVG. Rev. a centaur, APPOLINI 
CONS. AVG. In the exergue, z. 

Third brass of Constantino the Great, struck at Treves. 
Rev. Two Victories holding a flag, inscribed VOT. p. R. 
Legend, VICTORIA L^T^E . PRINC . PERP. In the exergue, 
S. T. R. Amongst the others, generally in bad condition, are 
coins of Victorinus, Allectus, Constantino, and Valentinian. 


THE objects to which the following observations relate 
compose a small collection of antiquities discovered, about 
the beginning of this century, in the county of Durham, or 
in some adjoining district. The exact locality was cau- 
tiously concealed, that they might not be claimed from the 
discoverer by the lord of the manor, or perhaps from the 
lord himself by the Lords of the Treasury, under the provi- 
sions of the law of treasure trove. 1 They are said to have 
been hawked about privately, till they were ultimately 
purchased by a silversmith in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who 
unfortunately parted with some portion of them before they 
were seen by Mr. Brumell, who immediately purchased all 
that remained in the silversmith's possession ; and archae- 
ologists are much indebted to that gentleman for keeping 

1 It is stated in Hodgson's Hist, of Northumberland, vol. in., App., p. 4-10, that they 
were found somewhere in that county, N.E. of Backworth, and brought to Newcastle 
iu 1811. 


them all together, and not allowing them to be separated 
when ill health induced him to discontinue collecting, and to 
sell, by public auction, the treasures, the collecting of which 
had long afforded him the highest gratification. 

The find consisted of an elegant silver vessel resembling a 
saucepan, with the objects contained in it, and a small silver 
dish. In the vessel were found five gold rings; one silver 
ring ; two gold chains, with ornaments attached to them ; a 
gold bracelet ; a pair of large silver-gilt fibula? ; three silver 
spoons, two oval and one circular ; about 280 Roman 
denarii ; and two large brass coins of Antoninus Pius. On 
the vessel was found a mirror, which was supposed, but 
erroneously, to be the lid or cover of the pot. Of all these 
objects, the saucepan, the six rings, the gold chains, the 
bracelet, the pair of fibula3, the three spoons, the mirror, and 
one of the denarii, remained in the possession of Mr. Brumell, 
and were, at his sale, purchased for the British Museum. 
The dish had been disposed of before Mr. Brumell saw them. 

The vessel, which resembles a modern saucepan, is of a 
form by no means uncommon amongst the remains of Roman 
metal antiquities. They are generally manufactured with 
great neatness, and sometimes in nests, fitting accurately one 
into another ; their handles perforated, so that several may 
be hung upon one peg, occupying only a small space in the 
culinary territories, and peculiarly well adapted for a tra- 
velling or camp equipage. The bottoms are very neatly 
decorated with turned concentric circles, and being flat, are 
well calculated for heating anything upon the fire. The 
vessel now under consideration varies in some respects from 
this description. It is not so well fitted for placing upon the 
fire, as the bottom is raised by a rim about half an inch high, 
which might in some degree impede the effect of the fire 
upon anything cooked therein, and be itself exposed to injury 
by the fire. It would, however, protect the table from the 
heat of any hot mess served up in the vessel, and the handle 
would in some degree protect the fingers of the person 
carrying it. It might have served for the purpose of pouring 
out libations ; but it is much deeper than the vessels for 
that purpose generally seen in sculptures, nor are such 
furnished with handles. Upon the whole, it may most safely 
be considered as a domestic utensil used in the establishment 
of the persons indicated by the inscription upon the handle. 










Inscribed handle of the silver vessel. 
Length of orix. Jj inches. 

Gold rin& 

Orig. size. 


But who these may be, to what establishment or institution 
they may have been attached, or what office they may have 
held, little or no information is to be derived from ancient 
authors which will enable us to decide. 

The vessel is 4f inches in diameter, and 3j inches high. 
The handle is 4f inches long, broad and flat, very elegantly 
decorated with flowers and foliage, whose forms confer a 
variety and grace to its outline. It expands, where it 
embraces the vessel, to more than one-third of its circum- 
ference, and terminates on each side in the head of a longish- 
beaked bird of a duck-like form. Much of the foliage is very 
tastefully enriched with gold, and the letters of the inscription 
MATR. FAB. DVBIT. consist of inlaid gold. 

Of the rings contained in this vessel, the first to be noticed 
is of gold, weighing 8 dwts. 19 grs. The stud is decorated 
with a raised beaded border, the field within being so deeply 
excavated as to admit the possibility of a crystal having been 
inserted to cover the inscription, which reads MATRVM 
COCOAE. The letters are rudely executed, not engraved,but 
stamped with small blunt chisels. Those of the last word, 
or contractions of words, were originally CVCVAE ; but sub- 
sequently an o has been stamped upon each v, and it now 
reads, as we see it, COCOAE. 

The next ring, of gold, has nothing remarkable about it. 
It is set with an oval stone, on which is engraved a figure 
leaning upon something, but so coarsely executed that it is 
impossible to say whether the figure be a Cupid, a Fortune, a 
Faun, or a mere countryman. It weighs 8 dwts. 8 grs. 

There are two other rings, also of gold, exactly resembling 
each other in form ; each set also with an engraved stone, 
but so coarsely executed that the subjects cannot be ascer- 
tained. One, however, may be supposed to represent two 
ears of corn. The only peculiarity worthy of note is, that to 
each stud is attached four round knobs, assimilating in that 
respect to an object which will be noticed presently, and 
probably indicating a form fashionable at the time. These 
two rings weigh respectively 8 dwts. 8 grs., and 5 dwts. 3^ grs. 

The next ring is of a very elegant form, being a thick wire 
of gold, each end reverted, and terminating in the head of a 
serpent ; and between these, three studs of gold, surrounded 
by smaller studs. These serpents' heads are peculiarly 
formed, having in some positions the appearance of the calyx 


and fruit of some plant, and for such they have actually been 
mistaken. No doubt, however, can remain of their having 
been intended for serpents, if they are compared with the 
elegant ornament of which a representation is given, and 
which formed part of an armlet. It was in the collection of 
Mr. R. P. Knight, and is supposed to have been found in 
England. The treatment of the serpent's head exactly 
corresponds with those upon the ring, and the four gold 
knobs attached to the stud exactly coincide with those 
noticed upon the two rings already described. From these 
coincidences it may probably be inferred that this bracelet 
was contemporaneous with the several objects now under 
consideration, and in some way connected with the worship 
of the Deae Matres. There are two other objects in the col- 
lection of the British Museum which may also perhaps be 
connected with the same subject : these are two gold serpents, 
which have formed bracelets. The heads have the same 
peculiar treatment as those upon the ring. One is much 
larger than the other, and was in the collection of Mr. Knight ; 
having, as supposed, been found with the large fragment. 

The last ring found in the vessel is of silver, exactly 
resembling in form the serpent-ring found with it. It has 
unfortunately been broken, and one of the serpents' heads, 
with some other portions, are lost. It may be observed that 
all the silver objects are very much injured by time and the 
nature of the soil in which they were deposited. 

The next objects to be noticed are two gold chains, to each 
of which is attached a wheel-shaped ornament, having behind 
it a bar, terminating at each end, beyond the circumference 
of the wheel, in a loop ; to one of these, one end of the chain 
is permanently fixed ; to the other, it is fastened by a long 
hook, as occasion might require. These chains are respec- 
tively 2 ft. 4 inches and 2 ft. 8 inches long, and to each, 
about eight inches from the wheel, is suspended a small 
crescent or lunula. A chain, with a lunula attached, and 
one of the wheel-like ornaments, is in the possession of Mr. 
Johnes, of Dolocoutha, near Llandovery, near which place 
they were found. 2 The chain was probably broken by the 
workmen who discovered it, and the object of the ornaments 
has been mistaken ; the wheel having one loop straitened 

: See Archaeological Journal, vol. vii. p. 173. 


S 8 


has been supposed to be a fibula ; the horns of the lunula have 
been more bent onwards, and converted into a loop of the 
chain. A chain with a wheel ornament and attached lunula, 
exactly resembling all these, is figured by Count Caylus, 
Recueil d'Antiquites, Suppl. vol. vii., PL xciv. ; in the two 
following plates are chains and wheel-shaped ornaments, all 
found in Switzerland, and not considered in any other light 
by the Count than merely female ornaments of dress. With 
these was an armlet, terminating at each end in an ornament 
represented as flowers, but indisputably intended for serpents' 
heads ; for, when analysed, all the parts correspond with 
those upon the heads of the serpents already mentioned. 
A pair of silver armlets, resembling this, were found at Castle- 
thorpe, in the county of Bucks, about 1830. All these are 
coarsely executed, chiefly by the hammer and punch, not by 
sculpture. It is evident that the combination of the chain, 
the wheel-like ornament and lunula, and perhaps the serpent, 
was not confined to any locality, but in use in various places, 
and therefore probably not a mere ornament, but connected 
with some religious ceremony or feeling. 

There is another gold chain, probably an armlet, in this 
collection, about seven inches long, to which a wheel-like orna- 
ment is permanently attached at both ends ; there is not any 
lunula attached ; a hollow bead is strung upon each loop. 

The two fibulse found within the vessel are precisely similar 
to each other : there is not anything in their form which, 
had they been found unconnected with any other objects, 
could have led even to a conjecture as to any peculiar appro- 
priation of them to any person or society ; as, however, these 
were found mixed with objects connected with the worship 
of three united divinities, or Genii, the threefold ornament at 
the side may have some symbolical reference to these per- 
sonages. These two objects add another, to many well-known 
instances, of these large fibulae being found in pairs. 

Of the three spoons, forming part of this find, two are 
precisely similar ; the handle of one of them is wholly, or 
partly modern ; the form is oval, and well known to archaeo- 
logists ; the third, having a circular bowl and straight handle, 
is much more rare ; all have a small groove round the inside 
of the bowl, which is not usual, and the object of which is 
not apparent. They are small, too small perhaps for domestic 
purposes, and have generally been considered to have been 
appropriated to sacred purposes, to draw out from the acerra, 


or usual store vessel, such small quantity of precious ointment, 

or frankincense, as might be 
required. (See cuts, orig. size.) 
The mirror is formed of a cir- 
cular plate of silver, decorated 
on one side with concentric 
incised circles, and a leaf-like 
border surrounds the edge, 
which, having been only sol- 
dered on, has in a great de- 
gree been detached and lost. 
The mirror was found upon the 
saucepan, and has been sup- 
posed to be its cover. It may 
have been so, but it appears 
to be much too large for that 
purpose ; it has all the usual 
form of Roman mirrors, and 
seems to have had some alloy 
mixed with the silver to adapt 
it for taking a polish. This has 
perhaps rendered it brittle, and 
it has been broken into several 
pieces ; it has been repaired, 
not in a very graceful manner, 
by attaching to one side of it 
an ill-formed piece of silver. 

One object only remains to 
be noticed, of little value in 
itself, but important as fixing 
the date of the objects with 
which it was found ; it is one 
of the 280 denarii. It is of Antoninus Pius, struck in his 
second consulate, corresponding to the year 139 of our sera ; 
and, as this was the latest coin discovered, it may reasonably 
be concluded that these articles were all deposited in his reign, 
which terminated in 161, twenty- two years after the date of 
the latest discovered coin, or at least before the coins of his suc- 
cessor could have come into general circulation in this country. 
Of the Dese Matres, with whose religious rites and cere- 
monies these objects appear to be connected, nothing is to be 
learned from ancient authors ; it is only from still-existing 
monuments, becoming the subject of investigation by archaeo- 


legists, that any reasonable, though imperfect conclusions 
can be formed as to the place which they held in the mytho- 
logy of our ancestors. These monuments are votive offerings, 
or altars, and have been found chiefly in Spain, France, 
Germany, and England. Where sculptured figures accom- 
pany the inscriptions, three females are represented, and 
they are variously, and perhaps indifferently, denominated as 
Matres, Matronse, Junones, &c. &c. To these titles names 
of places are very frequently added, it may therefore be 
concluded that these personages were the Genii, patron 
saints, presiding divinities over certain localities, whether 
districts, towns, or places of still smaller dimensions or im- 
portance. They may also be considered as beneficent per- 
sonages, more to be approached with prayers for benefits to 
be conferred, or with thanks for blessings already received, 
than with addresses deprecating expected evil, or gratitude 
for evils averted. They are represented holding in their 
hands, or on their laps, fruit, flowers, or baskets of such 
cornucopiae and other symbols of fertility and abundance, 
implying, as usual in mythological figures, the objects offered 
to them in propitiation of their favours, and also those which 
their votaries expected to receive by their mediation. The 
attendants, who are represented occasionally upon these 
monuments, are carrying some of the various objects offered 
to these tutelary divinities ; and these are baskets of fruit or 
flowers, a bottle, evidently to contain some fluid ; a pot to 
contain something less fluid. Now it is well known that 
flowers, fruit, milk, and honey, were the usual grateful 
offerings to rural divinities, and such therefore we may sup- 
pose to be indicated by the baskets, the jug, and the pot. 

The three goddesses are generally represented seated upon 
a long seat, clothed in ample draperies, covering the whole 
person close up to the chin ; and circular fibulae appear to 
have been worn in front of the neck, or upon the shoulders ; 
but the existing sculptures, or the drawings of them, are so 
imperfectly finished, or are so decayed, that the exact forms 
cannot be satisfactorily ascertained. Small chapels are 
said to have been erected to their honour, or for the cele- 
bration of their rites ; and a small chamber re-opened at 
Ellenborough, in Cumberland, in the year 1766, is supposed 
to have been one of these chapels. It contained three niches, 
in which the statues of these divinities were supposed to 



have been placed, not upon one seat, as they appear on 
sculptured monuments. The chapel was below the surface 
of the ground, in some degree corresponding with the 
grottos usually devoted to the service of rural divinities. (See 
Archseologia, vol. ii., p. 58.) For further information respect- 
ing these divinities it will be well to consult the Dissertation 
of the Abbe Banin (Hist, de 1'Acad. Roy. des Inscriptions, 
Vol. vii., p. 34), and a paper by Mr. Roach Smith, in the 
Journal of the Archaeological Association. 

The inscriptions which have been mentioned upon the 
objects in this collection cannot be explained with much 
certainty. All the known inscriptions referring to the Dea? 
Matres have been upon altars or commemorative tablets, and 
are consequently dedicatory, affording little assistance to the 
elucidation of these, which are perhaps the only ones which 
have been made known as attached to objects of ornament 
or utility, which may be dedicatory, or only indicating pro- 
prietorship. The inscription on the handle of the vase is 
MATR. FAB. DVBIT. The name of Dubitatus occurs upon two 
inscriptions recorded by Gruter ; it may read, therefore, 
MATRIBVS FABIVS DVBiTATVS, dedicated to the Deae Matres, or 
to the use of their priestesses, by Fabius Dubitatus, or perhaps 
a female, Fabia Dubitata. Or it may be read, MATRIS FABIAE 
DVBITAT^E, declaring it to be the property of Fabia Dubitata, 
a priestess of the Dea3 Matres. It will be more conformable 
to the general nature of inscriptions to read it in the dedi- 
catory form, and consider it as dedicated to the service of 
the divinities mentioned. 

The inscription upon the ring, MATRVM . COCOAE, presents 
greater difficulties ; COCOAE appears as one word, there is not 
any point, or mark of contraction to separate the letters into 
different words, or to encourage insertion. To no person, 
place, or office, do the indexes of Gruter or other authors 
apply such a name, nor any one sufficiently resembling it, 
to justify the conjectural emendation of a supposed error. 
The only course is to supply the marks of separation or 
contraction which, in ancient inscriptions, are frequently 
omitted, and endeavour to discover some plausible interpre- 
tation. It has been already stated that upon existing monu- 
ments relating to the Dese Matres, the names of places over 
which these divinities presided were frequently inserted ; 
and as these objects now under discussion were found in the 
north of England, it is reasonable to look out for some place 


in that part of the kingdom, whose name may possibly be 
indicated by the letters of the inscription ; Colonia JElia 
has been suggested ; but besides that some of the letters 
would remain unexplained, the name of Newcastle is Pons 
Mlii, not Colonia ^Elia. It has been conjectured that the 
inscription might be read, " Matrum collegii coaedituje," 
(To the joint housekeeper of the college of the priestesses of 
the Deae Matres). There are, however, strong objections to 
such an interpretation ; there is not any authority for such a 
college, or such an office ; and " co " is never the abbreviation 
of collegium. The solution of the enigma must be left to 
some fortunate discovery of an explanatory inscription, or 
to the ingenuity of some happy (Edipus. All that appears 
to be satisfactorily made out is, that these objects are in 
some way connected with the worship of the Dea3 Matres ; 
and it may be reasonably concluded that the other objects 
found with them were also used upon similar occasions. 

It has been already stated that the divinities were ap- 
proached with addresses to propitiate their influence in pro- 
ducing fruitful seasons, and of such influence the moon would 
be considered an appropriate symbol, as beneficial to the 
increase of corn, cattle, and all things living. " Increments 
frugum, et pecudum, omniumque animantium commoda est ; 
augmentis enim ejus, detrimentisque mira quadam provi- 
dentise arte, omne quod gignitur, alitur et crescit." 3 The pre- 
valence of such opinions may have occasioned the introduction 
of lunulae into ornaments worn by votaries of the Deae Matres. 

The moon, however, according to Aristotle, is only a lesser 
sun, and operates only, by a borrowed influence, in conducing 
to the generation and growth of all things. It would not 
be surprising to find the more potent luminary symbolised 
in the objects worn by the same votaries ; and therefore 
those persons may be correct who have supposed the wheel- 
like ornaments attached to these chains as emblems of the 
sun. If this object is more than a mere ornament, if it is a 
symbol also, it may perhaps be more reasonable to suppose 
that it symbolises what it more resembles a wheel. The 
moon was considered a fit emblem of the progress of pros- 
perity, because she was seen gradually to increase in magni- 
tude and glory. " Quod ilia sit mortalium corporum et 
author, et conditrix ; adeo ut nonnulla corpora sub luininis 

3 Clemens Roman, lib. 8. 


ejus accessu patiantur augmenta et huic decrescent! minu- 
antur." 4 The wheel is a similar and appropriate emblem of 
the rise and fall of prosperity ; and though it was not so 
generally figured in ancient sculptures with that view, as it is 
in more modern times, yet the expression of Cicero Rota 
Fortunte shows that it was acknowledged as such. 

The other object discovered, which may also have a sym- 
bolical meaning, is the serpent. The Dese Matres were not 
only invoked for fertile fields and fruitful seasons, but several 
inscriptions prove that they were supposed to exercise a very 
beneficial influence over the health of individuals ; the snake, 
therefore, the invariable companion of the Dea Salus, will be 
very readily admitted to be an appropriate decoration for the 
votaries of the Deae Matres. 

The hitherto known examples of lunulse, wheels, or suns, 
and serpents, have been found under circumstances which 
have not afforded any elucidation of the uses to which they 
were applied, or the purposes for which they were made ; 
nor were any other objects found with them which might 
facilitate conjecture. In this instance they have been found 
with objects clearly connected with the worship of the Des6 
Matres, and an endeavour is made to show that they are sym- 
bols which might reasonably be supposed to appear among the 
paraphernalia of the priestesses and votaries of those divi- 
nities. Let it, however, be remembered that these are only 
conjectures formed upon exceedingly slight grounds, and 
thrown out, upon the present occasion, less with a view to 
illustrate the objects of which representations are given, 
than to induce Archaeologists to examine minutely and accu- 
rately, and to record at the time, faithfully and in detail, all 
the circumstances attending the discovery of any similar 
objects at which they may happily be present ; and, as far 
as they have the power, to prevent the separation of any 
objects, however insignificant they may appear, which have 
been found together, at least till they have been thoroughly 
examined by persons competent to form a sound and correct 
judgment. Isolated objects are of little value ; a collector 
may accumulate a number of amusing and elegant specimens, 
but it is only by combination, concentration, and comparison, 
that an entertaining collection can be converted into an 
instructive museum, and Archaeology erected into a science. 


1 Macrob. lib. i. in Somn. Scipionis, cap. 11. 



IT is well known that as soon as the troubles caused in 
England by what is generally called the Barons' War were 
quieted, Prince Edward, the eldest son and heir-apparent of 
Henry the Third, set out on an expedition to Palestine : and 
it has not escaped the remark of our historical writers that he 
should have selected such a time, when the country was still 
in an unsettled state, and his father's health and mind were 
daily on the decline, for undertaking so distant an expedition. 
Besides devotional motives, Dr. Lingard is inclined to regard 
political reasons as having moved him to this step : " The 
crusades would open an honourable field for the exertions of 
turbulent and adventurous spirits, who might there employ 
against the Saracens those arms which at home they might 
be induced to turn against their own sovereign." In this 
observation there is probably great truth ; at any rate, I am 
in a position to show that the Prince took care to carry 
with, or to engage by pecuniary advances to follow him, 
members of the most powerful families in England. Before 
reciting the roll of knights who covenanted to sail with him, 
it will be convenient to consider how much money was 
thought necessary for such a distant journey, and how it 
was raised. 

In addition to a grant of the tenth part of the church 
revenues for three years, which Henry had obtained from 
the Pope in 1268, the laity in the following year granted 
him a subsidy of one-twentieth of their goods and chatties ; 
and the greater portion of the latter aid was appropriated to 
defray the expenses of the Prince's crusade. It yielded, inclu- 
sive of the necessary charges of collection, 31,488/. 18*. W^d. 
Of this amount, 24,184 marks were either paid to, or sent 
after, the Prince, exclusive of the sums paid to the knights who 
accompanied him ; 561. 10s. were appropriated to redeem 
certain jewels belonging to his father, which had been pawned 
in France, and the balance was absorbed in the cost of 
collecting the subsidy. In addition to this large sum, the 
Prince borrowed of the King of France 70,000 livres Tournois, 


secured upon the revenues of Bourdeaux, to be repaid by 
annual instalments of 10,000 livres ; in this loan were 
included 25,000 livres, which the French sovereign had 
advanced to Gaston, Vicomte de Bearne, who was to accom- 
pany Edward in his expedition. 1 

The English knights who agreed to sail in company with 
the Prince, or to follow him, were : 

1. Henry of Germany, his cousin, and fourteen knights, 
1500 marks. 

2. Roger de Leyburn and nine knights, 1000 marks. 

3. Brian de Brampton and one knight, 200 marks. 

4. Roger de Clifford and nine knights, 1000 marks. 

5. Robert de Mounteny and two knights, 300 marks. 

6. William Fitz-Warin and two knights, 300 marks. 

7. Adam de Gesemuth and five knights, 600 marks. 

8. Thomas de Clare and nine knights, 1000 marks. 

9. Alan de Monte-Alto and one knight, 200 marks. 

10. William de Huntercombe and two knights, 300 marks. 

11. Walter de Percy and three knights, 400 marks. 

12. William de Valence and nineteen knights, 2000 marks. 

13. Richard de la Rokele and two knights, 300 marks. 

14. Payne de Chaworth and five knights, 600 marks. 

15. Robert Tipetot and five knights, 600 marks. 

16. Hamon L'Estrange, who followed the Prince, 1200 

1 7. Edmund, the king's brother, who was to follow like- 
wise, 10,000 marks. 

1 8. Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, who was likewise 
to follow, 1000 marks on loan. 

I am not aware that these names have been before published, 
or that the sources from which the necessary funds for defray- 
ing the cost of the Prince's armament were derived have been 
hitherto indicated by any of our historical writers. It will 
be observed that the above eighteen names include some of 
the most considerable barons and knights who had survived 
the slaughter of the civil war ; and some who, from their late 
complicity with the Earl of Leicester, may be considered to 
have been still suspected persons, whom it was desirable to 
restrain from further plots against the crown. Among them, 
Gilbert de Clare, the ambitious and turbulent Earl of Glou- 

' The amount of the twentieth, and its appropriation, is stated on the Pipe Roll, 
] Edw. I., 2us. rot. comp. For the French loan, see Liber de Antiquis Legibus, p. 11 1. 


cester, was an especial object of fear to Henry and the 
Prince ; and his word was so lightly esteemed that it was 
thought requisite to bind him by oaths and pledges to form 
one of the expedition. He, it will be observed, was the only 
one of the Prince's followers who had not a gift of money ; 
indeed, his vast possessions, which placed him almost on an 
equality with his leader, rendered a gift unnecessary, although 
a loan of a little ready money might be needful after the 
waste his estates had suffered during the late war. 

The sum allotted to each knight was, as it appears from 
the above account, 100 marks, with the exception of Hamon 
L'Estrange, who received the larger sum of 1200 marks, and 
Edmund, the king's brother, who had 10,000 marks. The 
number of knights, one hundred and four, corresponds very 
nearly with the number said to have received the cross from 
the hands of the Legate Ottoboni, at Northampton, in June, 
1269. 2 

The utter failure of this crusade is so well known that I 
shall allude to it further for the purpose only of calling the 
attention of the Institute to a curious negotiation which was, 
in all probability, the only fruit of it. Dr. Lingard, after 
noticing Edward's arrival at Acre in 1271, and the retreat of 
the Sultan of Babylon, who had already prepared to assault 
the city, says, " Abagha, the Tartar Khan of Persia, proposed 
to him an offensive alliance against the common enemy of the 
Moguls and Christians." Under the corrupted form of Abagha, 
we have the name of Abaka-Kaan, son of Hulagu-il-Khan, and 
nephew of Kublai-Khan, the Tartar Emperor of China. The 
Moghuls under Hulagu had captured Bagdad, and put to 
death the last of the Abbassite Khalifs, in the year 1258. 
The Persian sovereigns of the new, or Moghul dynasty, were 
therefore the religious and political foes of all the Moham- 
medan races ; and hence the likelihood that such an offer 
was really made by Abaka to the English prince. Although 
this negotiation led to no result at the time, and Edward was 
compelled to evacuate Acre and return to Europe, the policy 
of concluding an alliance with the sovereigns of England and 
France was not abandoned by the Moghul princes who 
succeeded Abaka on the throne of Persia. On the death of 
his uncle Ahmed-Khan, in 1284, Arghun, the son of Abaka, 
ascended the throne, and he immediately renewed the rela- 

- Wvkes, 85 Rvmer. 


tions of his predecessors with the Frank monarchs, and more 
especially with the court of Rome. He sent ambassadors to 
the Pope, and to the kings of France 3 and England, urging 
them to join him in an attack on the Mohammedans ; and 
his envoys, one of whom was baptised at Rome, held out 
hopes that Arghun and his subjects might be induced to 
embrace the Christian faith. The chief agent employed by 
the Moghul prince in these negotiations was one Buscarelli 
de Gisolfi, a citizen of Genoa. Several of the letters of Pope 
Nicholas IV. to Edward on this subject are still preserved. 
In 1289, the pontiff wrote to say that Biscarellus de Gisulfo, 
envoy of " Argon," king of the Tartars, had presented letters 
to him announcing that the Moghul ruler was prepared to 
invade the Holy Land, at the time of the general crusade 
then contemplated. As this envoy was about to visit England 
he recommends him to Edward's notice. 4 Another Papal 
brief, dated December, 1290, also recommends Bascarellus 
de Gisulfo, and the other ambassadors of Arghun, among 
whom was Zaganus, a Tartar, who had become a convert to 
Christianity, to the protection of the English king. 5 

From the Wardrobe Account of the eighteenth year of 
Edward I., we learn that Buscarelli arrived in London on 
the eve of the Epiphany, January 5, 1290, accompanied by 
three esquires, a cook, eight horses, and six gar$ons ; he 
remained thirteen days at the English court ; and, in all, 
twenty days in England ; his expenses were defrayed by 
Edward ; his Tartar colleagues are not mentioned in the 
account. On the departure of Buscarelli, the king delivered 
to him a letter addressed to Arghun, 6 in which mention is 

3 For the negotiations between the toris Argon' Regi Tartarorum illustri, 
Moghul sovereigns and the kings of salubriter vivereac tronum regium justicia 
France, see " Memoires sur les Relations roborare. Reducentes ad sedule recorda- 
Politiques des Princes Chretiens, et par- cionis examendevocioniseximiepuritatem 
ticulierement des Rois de France avec qua inclitus vir, genitor vester, erga 
les Empereurs Mongols : par M. Abel Christicolas suis fulgebat temporibus, 
Remusat, Paris, 1822," 4 to. Two original attendentesque quod vos, tanquara lauda- 
letters of Arghun are still preserved in bilis imitator ipsius, Christi nominis et 
the Royal Library at Paris ; M. Remusat honoris cupiatis augmentum proinde virtu- 
has given fac-similes of them. tum^ Domino gratias vobisque grates referi- 

4 New Rymer, vol. i. pt. ii., 713. mus multiformes ; glorificetur altissimus 
' Ibid. p. 742. A third papal brief, Dominus dominantium et Rex regum qui 

dated January 1290, introduces Saabedin tarn bonum tamque laudabile propositum 
Archaon,another Tartar envoy, to Edward. inspiravit conceptui mentis vestre, ut 
Ib. p. 743. contra Soldani Babilon' sueque gentis 
6 I am indebted to my friend Mr. T. D. perfidiam exsurgere delectamini in terre 
Hardy, of the Tower, for the communica- sancte subsidium et fidei Christiane, 
tiou of this hitherto unpublished missive : beatum quoque vos dicent omnes genera- 
it is as follows. " In omni nomine Salva- clones si vobis votum perseveret hujus- 


made of the attachment which the father of the latter had 
always shown towards the Christians. Edward compliments 
him on his laudable intention of arming against the Soldan 
of Babylon, in aid of the Holy Land, and of the Christian 
faith ; thanks him for the offer of horses and other necessaries 
for his army, whenever he shall reach the Holy Land ; and 
assures him, that as soon as he can obtain the assent of 
the Roman Pontiff to the passage of himself and his army 
beyond sea, he will take care to certify him thereof through 
his own envoys, by whom he will also send him some ger- 
falcons and " other jewels of our land," as Arghun had 
requested of him. 

Although in this letter Edward expresses his wish to 
undertake another crusade, and it is certain he was under 
a solemn engagement to do so, which Pope Nicholas was now 
constantly urging him to fulfil, 7 it may be doubted if his 
professions were sincere ; but whatever his views in that 
respect, he was suddenly and entirely diverted from them by 
the question which almost immediately arose of the succession 
to the Scottish throne, and the circumstances attending it, 
which offered him a nearer, and long desired, field for the 
employment of his arms and money. 

It appears, however, that Edward kept his word, and 
actually sent envoys to the Moghul sovereign soon after the 
departure of Buscarelli ; they joined the latter at Genoa, and 
travelled thence with him, his nephew Conrad, and Percival 
de Gisolfi to the Persian court ; the name of the English 
ambassador was Geoffrey de Langley, who was attended by 
two esquires, one of whom was Nicholas de Chartres. I 
write with extracts before me from the original roll of their 
Itinerary, kindly communicated by my friend, Mr. Burtt, of 
the Chapter-house, Westminster. 

modi, et ea que dictus vester mincius ex tarn disponemus nostros gressus, adjutorio 

parte vestra nobis exposuit efficaciter Jhesu Christi, quod faciendi habemus 

perstuderitis adimplere. Ceterum pro utique magnum velle, quamcito possimus; 

equitatura et aliis exercitui nostro neces- et hoc vobis faciemus constare per nostros 

sariia, que per eundem vestrum nuncium, proprios nuncios, per quos vobis mittemus 

cum DOS agredi contigerit terrain sanctam, de nostris Girofalcis et aliis jocalibus 

nobis liberaliter fecistis offerri, non nullas nostre terre, prout inde nos requisivit 

vobis grates referimus iterato, vos ignorare vestra regia celsitudo. In predicto lauda- 

nolentes quod quamcicius poterimus sane- bill vestro proposito vos conservet gratie 

tissiini in Christo patris sancte Romane summus dator." Rot Glaus. 18 Edw. I. 

ecclesie summi pontificis super nostro m. 6. in dorso. 

nostrique excercitus transitu ultra mare ' New Rymer, vol. i. pt. ii., pp. "44, et 

optinere consensum, vos inde reddere seq. 
curabimus cerciores, et ad terrain predic- 



It is not a little curious that at the very time these ambas- 
sadors from the English sovereign were making their way 
from Genoa to the Moghul court, that ever-to-be-beloved old 
traveller Marco Polo was bringing a Tartar bride to Arghun, 
by sea from China. 8 Marco and his charge found him 
deceased, that event having occurred in 1291 ; and he 
probably died before the English embassy could reach his 
presence. The death of Arghun did not, however, wholly 
interrupt the relations between the Moghul and English 
courts. As late as the year 1303, we find a letter from 
Edward to Casan, or Gazan, who, after a short interval, 
succeeded Arghun, acknowledging the receipt of the letter 
he had sent by " Buscarelli de Giussurfa," apparently the 
same Italian envoy, and informing him that he was prevented 
from attending to the affairs of the Holy Land, by the political 
embarrassments and wars of Europe. 9 

When the embassy started from Genoa, the Moghul court 
was supposed to be at Cassaria, the ancient Caesarea, in 
Armenia ; but it was probably constantly on the move, and 
therefore the route of the envoys was as frequently changed. 
We find them at Sebaste, or Sebastopolis, in Cappadocia; 
Tabriz (Taurisium), in Kurdistan; Meredin, in Mesopatamia; 
Erzeroum, in Armenia ; at Coya, the ancient Iconium ; at 
Papertum, the Castle of Baiburt, in Armenia ; and they went 
as far in search of the Moghul sovereign as Sarakana, or 
Saraij, near the ancient Astracan, on the eastern arm of the 
Wolga. On the present occasion, however, it is not my 
intention to give the whole Itinerary. I would rather pro- 
ceed to some illustrations of the times, which are to be 
derived from the expenditure of the envoys, and reserve the 
Itinerary for another communication. 

In the first place, the account of monies is made out in 
aspers, except in some few instances. 

At Genoa, the ambassadors, to whom the various climates 
they were about to encounter must have been well known, 
bought furs, cloths, armour, carpets, silver plate, fur pelisses ; 
and there one of the attendant squires fell sick, and had 
3 1/. 3s. Id. allowed to pay his expenses back to England. 
The silver plate which they bought cost altogether the large 

8 See Marsden's edition of the Travels is supposed to have landed his charge at 
of Marco Polo ; the lady had the eupho- the port of Ormuz. 
nious name of Kogatin ; " p. 27. Marco New Rymer, vol i., pt. ii., p. 949. 


sum of 193/. 12s. *7d. currency (English) of that time; so 
that it may be safely said ambassadors' outfits are of very 
old date. Their carpets, fifteen in number, which would 
have to serve as beds, cost 15/. 15*. 6d. The armour, 
including seven iron plates, eleven basinets, &c., cost 44/. 5*. 

When they were fairly landed in Asia Minor, we find that 
they employed the Saracens as porters to carry their luggage, 
and perform other servile offices, so strong appears to have 
been the Moghul rule. At Trebisond, the climate proving 
rather warm, Master Buscarelli, the chief envoy, was obliged 
to buy a parasole (sic), an item not without interest to 
those who have sought to trace the introduction, or early 
uses, of the umbrella in England. The Emperor, or Sultan, 
of Trebisond's cook seems to have suited their tastes, for 
they made him a gift of 100 aspers. The weather still grew 
warmer, and another parasol was bought at Tabriz, in Kur- 
distan. These were, including two shillings'- worth of paper, 
their most remarkable purchases. 

On returning home to England, they brought with them a 
leopard in a gabea or cage (gadbia), which was fed on sheep 
throughout the journey ; several being put on board the 
galley for its use while at Constantinum Nobilem, as it pleased 
the scribe to write Constantinople. 

As this document is perhaps the earliest extant relating 
to an English mission to such very remote parts, it appeared 
to me worthy of being brought under the notice of the 
Institute. In a succeeding paper I hope to complete the 



FEW of the decorative arts of past ages have excited more 
interest than that of enamelling on metals. This doubtless 
has been due in no small degree to the beauty and brilliancy 
of the colours exhibited by the objects so ornamented, and 
the difficulty and ingenuity of the manipulation employed in 
the process itself. The attention, on the present occasion, 
will be directed to a class of enamels peculiarly interesting, 


as well from their antiquity as from the splendour and variety 
of their colours, and the material on which they have been 
generally executed. 

Any preliminary account of the origin of the art of 
enamelling on metal, or of the composition of the enamel, 
would be unnecessary after Mr. Way's excellent paper upon 
the subject in the Second volume of the Journal. It will be 
sufficient for my purpose to notice, that from the commence- 
ment of the Christian era to about the thirteenth century, 
the enamelled work was formed exclusively by embedding 
the enamel in the metal, the metal divisions forming the 
general outlines of the pattern. In the thirteenth century 
appear plates of metal, generally silver or gold, covered 
with a delicate chiselling in bas-relief, and clothed with 
colour by means of a coating of various transparent enamels 
through which the pattern is seen. And, lastly, in the 
fifteenth century, we find plates of metal, gold or copper, 
coated with a thick covering of enamel, on which the design 
is painted. 1 In these successive processes, we perceive a 
tendency to the concealment and subordination of the metal 
that forms the groundwork of the enamel. At first the 
metal appears on the surface forming the principal lines of 
the pattern ; next we see it through a coloured medium ; 
and, lastly, it disappears altogether. This varied relation of 
the enamel to the metal on which it is fused, seems to 
supply distinctions available for the classification of the 
various products of the art. We hereby obtain the general 
divisions of them, into embedded enamel, enamel transparent 
on bas-relief, and painted enamel? An accurate and scientific 
classification of the results of human ingenuity, is necessarily 
impossible, owing to the constant occurrence of combinations 
of various processes, and other exceptions to any rule. 

In the first of these divisions, where the enamel is embedded 
in the metal, considerable differences will be observed in the 
mode of working the metal itself. In some, the divisions are 
formed out of the solid metal, by tooling out the portions to 
be enamelled, so that the enamel is what may be termed 

1 I do not mean by this that one pro- division, incruste, when translated into 
cess ceased to be exercised when the other English, would apply equally to all ena- 
began, but simply to mark the period of mels. The name I have employed for the 
their commencement. second class is naturally suggested by the 

2 The classification employed by French term used by Cellini for this work, in 
antiquaries corresponds with that here which he excelled, opera di basso-rilievo. 
suggested ; but their name for the first 


embedded in the solid; in others, the divisions are narrow 
strips of metal set on edge, and slightly attached to the plate 
at the back, so as to form a kind of filagree in which the 
enamel is laid. 3 It is to the examples of the latter class, 
to those embedded in filagree, that the following observations 
relate, in which I shall endeavour to explain the manner of 
their execution, and briefly notice the few examples that 
have survived destruction. 

Theophilus the monk, humilis presbyter, as he calls him- 
self, and with respect to whose country and the age in which 
he lived, so many different opinions have been entertained, 4 
has left us, in his Diversarum artium schedula, an elaborate 
and detailed treatise on most of the arts practised in his 
time. He has given instructions of considerable extent for 
making church plate, devoting no less than six chapters of 
his work to the construction of the chalice alone. His chalice 
was to be of a large size, with a wide bowl and two handles ; 
the material, gold, ornamented with jewels, pearls, and 
electra? He gives directions for making these electra, from 
which it appears, undoubtedly, that they are enamels of the 
kind we are examining, that is to say, enamels embedded in 
filagree. Having made the vase and its handles, he proceeds 
to say, 6 " take a thin piece of gold and join it to the upper 
rim of the vase, and measure it out from one handle to the 
other, which piece of gold must be as broad as the stones 
which you wish to place upon it ; and in arranging them, 
dispose them in this way, first, let there be a stone with 
four pearls, one at each angle, then an electrum, next to 
which a stone with pearls, and again an electrum, and you 
will so arrange them that the stones may always be next 'to 
the handles ; the settings and grounds of the stones, and the 

3 The French terms for these two sub- has been published by Hendrie, Loud, 
divisions are ckamplevb and cloisonn6, or 1847. 

rather a cloisons mobiles. The first word 5 The chalice when made must greatly 

does not seem to convey a good idea of have resembled that of S. Gozlin, engraved 

the process. The latter is good, but it is in De Caumont's Abe'ce'daire d'Arche'o- 

difficult to find an English equivalent. I logie, Paris, 1850. 

have used embedded in filagree," for 6 Book iii., Chap, liv., De Electro. In 

want of a better. the following translation I have left the 

4 The most probable theory seems to word electrum untranslated ; it evidently 
be, that Theophilus, or Rugerus, as he is means enamel, or rather the enamelled 
called in some MSS., was a Lombard, and object. Escalopier has translated the word 
lived in the twelfth century at the latest ; very erroneously cdbochon ; this is a 
vide the Introduction to Escalopier's edi- tallow cut stone, and cannot apply to these 
tion of his works, Paris, 1843. A more electra. Hendrie has called them some- 
complete text, with an English translation, times glass gems, at others enamcln. 


settings in which the clectra are to be placed, you will put 
together and solder in the order above-mentioned. Then in 
all the settings in which electro, are to be placed, you will fit 
thin pieces of gold, and when fitted take them out, and with 
a measure and rule you will cut a fillet of gold, which must 
be somewhat thicker, and you will bend it round the edge of 
each piece twice so that a small space may be left between 
the fillets, which space is called the border (limbus) of the 
electrum. 1 Then with the same measure and rule you cut 
small fillets of very thin gold, which you will fashion into any 
work that you may wish to make in enamel, whether circles, 
or knots, or little flowers, or birds, or beasts, or figures, and 
you will arrange the small pieces delicately and carefully, 
each in its place, and will fasten them with moistened flour 
over the coals ; and when you have filled one portion, you 
will solder it with great care, so that the slender and thin 
gold may not be disjointed or melted, and you must do so two 
or three times till the separate pieces somewhat adhere. 

" Having thus put together all the electra, and soldered 
them in this manner, take all kinds of glass which you 
had prepared for this work, and breaking a particle from 
each lay all the fragments upon a piece of copper, each 
fragment by itself, and placing it in the fire, arrange the 
coals around and over it, and blowing carefully you will see 
whether all the pieces melt equally : if so make use of them 
all. Should, however, any particle be harder than the rest, 
put it aside by itself, and taking separate pieces of the glass 
which you have tried, place them in the fire one by one, and 
when each has become white with heat throw it into a copper 
vessel in which there is water, and it will immediately fly 
into small particles, which you will proceed to break up 
with a round hammer until they are made quite fine, and 
you will then wash them and place them in a clean shell and 
cover them with a linen cloth. 8 Thus you will prepare each 
colour. This done, take one of the pieces of gold which have 
been soldered together and fasten it with wax to a smooth 
table in two places, then take a goose quill and cut it to a 
point as if for writing, but with a longer beak and not split ; 
with it you will take out one of the coloured glasses, [which 

7 This narrow border, enclosed in a 8 The Codex Guelph, which has been 

double line, is not a necessary part of the followed by Escalopier, gives here laneo 

process, and is to be found in few of the (woollen), for lineo (linen), 
remaining specimens. 


must be moist, and with a long copper instrument, slender 
and fine at the point, scrape the glass gently from the 
beak of the quill, and fill any flower you wish, 9 ] replace 
the remainder in its little vessel and cover it up, and so 
do with each colour until one piece (of the goldwork) is 
filled ; take it off the wax to which it had stuck and place 
it upon a thin piece of iron with a short handle, cover it with 
another piece of iron, which must be concave like a cup 1 and 
perforated all over so that the holes may be smooth and wide 
inside, but smaller and rough outside so as to keep out any 
ashes which may fall upon it. This done, put together great 
and long pieces of charcoal, making them burn up well ; in 
the middle of which make a hole and level it with a wooden 
mallet, into which raise the iron by the handle with a pair of 
tongs ; so place it carefully covered, and arrange the fuel 
round and above it on every side, and taking a pair of bellows 
you will blow it well in every direction till the coals burn 
equally. You may have also a wing of a goose, or other large 
bird, which is stretched and tied to a stick, with which you 
will fan and blow strongly till you see amongst the coals that 
the perforations in the iron are white with heat ; then cease 
blowing, and waiting about half-an-hour, uncover it by degrees 
till you have removed all the coals ; then wait again till the 
holes in the iron appear black inside, and so take up the iron 
by the handle, and place it covered at the back of the furnace 
in a corner till it is quite cold : and opening it, take out the 
electrum and wash it, and again fill it, and melt it as before, 
till it is all equally fused and quite full. This done, take a 
piece of wax about half a thumb's length and fit the electrum 
into it, so that the wax may be all round it, by which wax 
you will hold it. [And you will diligently rub the electrum 
upon a smooth sandy stone with water, till the gold appears 
equally everywhere.] Then rub it for a long time on a smooth 
and hard hone till it acquires some brightness ; and also 
upon the same hone, moistened with saliva, you will rub a 
piece of pottery, such as is found broken from ancient vases, 2 
till the saliva has become thick and red ; this you spread 

9 This passage is from the Codex Guelph. enamels of Limoges, vide Blancourt, His- 

It is omitted in the Harl. MS. ; but seems toire de la Verrerie. 

uecessary to the sense. 2 Is this the red sealed ware of the 

1 This greatly resembles the form of Romans, which is commonly, but iuaecu- 

the muffle commonly used. For an en- rately, termed " Sauiiaii " ? 
graving of the one employed in the painted 


upon a smooth leaden tablet till the colours become trans- 
lucid and clear, and you again rub the piece of pottery upon 
the hone with saliva, and spread it upon a goat's skin 
smoothly fixed upon a wooden table ; upon this you polish 
the electrum until it shine perfectly, so that if one-half be 
made wet, and the other remain dry, no one should be able 
to distinguish which is the wet part and which the dry." 

Such is the mode of making these enamels, as described by 
Theophilus. With regard to the coloured glasses employed, 
we learn from the Twelfth chapter of the Second book, " De 
diversis coloribus vitri, non translucidis" " Different kinds 
of glass found in Mosaic work, in the ancient edifices of the 
Pagans, namely, white, black, green, yellow (croceum), sapphire, 
red, and purple, and they are not clear but opaque like 
marble, and they resemble square stones, of which are made 
electro, in gold, silver, and copper, of which we will speak 
fully in their place. Divers small vessels are also found of 
the same colours, which the French, very skillful in this 
work, collect, and the blue they melt in their furnaces, adding 
a little clear white glass, and they make plates of sapphire of 
great value, and very useful in windows. They make the 
like also of the purple and green." It appears then that it 
is to the ancient mosaics that the enameller of this period 
went for his store of coloured glass. Almost the only trans- 
parent colours to be found in remaining specimens are the 
blue, purple, and green, which supports the statement of 
Theophilus. The perfect preservation of the gold fillets, and 
the crystalline appearance of some of the transparent enamels, 
would lead one to suppose that the glasses were easily fusible, 
and that the objects were not exposed to a very high tem- 
perature ; this is borne out by the presence of an opaque 
red enamel, in a specimen in the Museum of Practical Geology, 
which owes its colours to an oxide of iron, and at a high 
temperature would turn black. 3 

The metals which were used for the groundwork of these 
enamels appear, from the passage of Theophilus quoted 
above, to have been, gold, silver, and copper, the only pure 
metals which were ever enamelled. Of these, gold, from its 
superior ductility and beauty, was doubtless most commonly 

3 I am indebted for this information to which he has allowed me free access to 
Sir Henry De la Beche, and take this op- the interesting series of enamels in the 
portunity ot recording the kindness with Museum of Practical Geology. 


used. We accordingly find that almost all the remaining 
specimens of European workmanship are executed in this 
precious material. T have never heard of any examples in 
silver, and only one in copper. 

It has been supposed that it is to the Greek goldsmiths of 
Byzantium that we are indebted for this process of enamelling. 
At any rate, whether it originated with them, or was bor- 
rowed from some more Eastern nation, they most probably 
introduced this particular process into Europe. The most 
important remains of the kind are all of undoubted Greek 
workmanship ; and a considerable Byzantine influence may 
be traced in the greater part of those which seem to have 
been executed in other countries ; added to which, we know 
of no other kind of enamelling being practised by the Greek 
artists of early times. 4 This is probably owing to their more 
usually enamelling on the precious metals. Had they em- 
ployed copper more frequently, they would no doubt have 
soon had recourse to the very similar process of embedding 
the enamel in the solid metal. 

We have no trace of the existence of this art in Constan- 
tinople before the ninth century. The Iconoclastic fury raging 
in the East during the eighth century probably caused the 
destruction of most works of the kind, and prevented others 
being undertaken. The first notice we have relates to Basil, 
the Macedonian (A.D. 868 886), who built in his palace at 
Constantinople, an oratory, which he ornamented with gems 
and other rich ornaments ; amongst which were crucifixes, 
which are considered, from the expression used, to have been 
in enamel. 5 Constantine Porphyrogenitus in 949, sent 
ambassadors to the Caliph Abd-ur-rahman, at Cordova, with 
a letter " enclosed in a bag of silver cloth, over which was 
a case of gold, with a portrait of King Constantine admirably 

4 There are in the Louvre at Paris specimens we are noticing. Two of them 

three small medallions of silver, repre- have been engraved, and described by 

senting saints, that have much the ap- M. Longperier in the Cabinet de 1'Ama- 

pearance of Greek art, in which the teur et 1'Antiquaire, vol. i., p. 152. 

enamelled portions are embedded in the * Life of Basil by Constantine Porphyro- 

solid metal. The colours employed are a genitus : tv Kara iroAA& juP*7 *< ^ 

vermilion red, light blue, and light green. OfavSptK^j rov xvplov jtop<^ /j.(ra xvpevvfus 

The faces are in silver. The enamels are titTerim-caroi. Published in the ffvufwcra 

very poor, and being unaccompanied by of Leo Allatius. Cologna, 1625, p. 150. 

Greek inscriptions, they may have been For a dissertation on the word x^M flw > 

worked elsewhere. If Greek, they must see Labarte's Introduction to the Debruge- 

belong to a date more recent than the Dumenil Collection. 



executed on stained glass." 6 This is far more likely to be 
enamel than glass. 

It is, however, from the existing remains of this art that 
we must seek evidence of the skill of the Greek artists. It 
may be as well, then, to notice such specimens as are still 
preserved, in the chronological order to which they seem to 

1 . One of the most interesting, and at the same time most 
ancient, existing examples is represented in the engraving 
opposite. It is a cross, which formed part of the Debruge- 
Dumenil collection (No. 661 of the Catalogue), and is now in 
the collection of A. J. B. Hope, Esq., to whose kindness I am 
indebted for permission to exhibit it to the Institute, and to 
have the accompanying engraving made. This cross consists 
of two cruciform plates of gold, enamelled, and set in silver 
gilt ; thus forming a kind of box or reliquary. The setting, 
as it now exists, is very plain, and appears more recent than 
the enamels themselves. It has, therefore, been omitted in 
the engraving here given. On one side is represented the 
Saviour on the cross, clothed in a long tunic of various 
colours, the feet separately fixed to the suppeditaneum, or 
wooden tablet ; over the head is the monogram 1C. XC. 7 
The presence of the Father is considered to be indicated by 
the letter n (the initial of Tranjp) at the top of the cross, 
occupying the position of the more usual symbol, a hand in 
benediction. At the foot of the cross appears the skull of 
Adam, in whose tomb the cross was supposed to have been 
fixed at Golgotha. On the Saviour's right is the Blessed 
Virgin, in a deep transparent blue robe ; on the left St. John, 
beardless, and with short black hair. They are accompanied 
by the abbreviated inscriptions, IAEOTC AOTIMHPC, I6e 6 
THOS crov Ibov rj ^rrjp aov, the Saviour's address to them from 
the cross. On the other side there is a full-length figure of 
the Blessed Virgin. Above whom appears St. John Baptist, 
with long hair and beard, and the inscription 1XLANHC ; below, 
St. Paul, riATAOC ; on the right and left, St. Peter, IIETPOC, 

6 Quoted from Ibnu Hayyan, by Ahmed period. The Arabic word has probably 

Ibn Mohammed Al-Makkari, in his His- been misunderstood by the translator, 

tory of Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, ^ The X, it will be seen, is very irre- 

translated by Gayangos, Lond., 1843, vol. gular, and resembles a K. If it is the 

ii.,p. 141. Mrs. Merrifield has quoted this latter letter, it may be the contraction for 

passage as an authority for the practice of Kvpios. 
the art of xtaining glass at so early a 


Gold cross, from the Debruges Collection. 

In the possession of Alexander J. Beresford Hope, Esq., M.I'. 


and St. Andrew, ANAPEAC. The inscriptions, it will be seen, 
are very irregular, partly owing no doubt to the difficulty of 
shaping the gold fillets, of which they, as well as the outlines, 
are formed. These fillets, to which it has been scarcely 
possible to do justice in the engraving, are very thin bands of 
gold, one ninth of an inch broad, very slightly attached by 
their edges to the plate at the back. The colours of the 
enamels employed are numerous, amounting in all to thirteen. 
Three of these are transparent ; blue, purple, and green : 
dark, and very brilliant. The remainder are opaque, consisting 
of two whites, one bluish, the other yellowish ; three blues, 
light, full, and greenish ; light yellow, flesh colour, light 
green, red, and black. The ground to the figures and inscrip- 
tions is of the transparent green ; the glories yellow, the 
hair black or bluish white. 

This interesting object was probably worn as a pectoral 
cross, and contained a relic. A hole has been barbarously 
broken through the centre of one of the sides, by a devotee, 
it is said, of the last century. The rudeness of some of the 
outlines, the very unusual symbol employed for the first 
Person of the Trinity, and more especially the absence of the 
ayios, or any contraction for it, before the name of the 
Apostles, all seem to carry back the date of this relic to an 
early period. M. Labarte considers the date of it to be not 
later than the tenth century ; it may well be earlier. It is 
greatly to be regretted that so interesting and rare a speci- 
men of ancient workmanship should not have been secured 
for the national collection. 

2. In the Library at Munich is the cover of a Book of 
Gospels, executed by order of the Emperor, Henry the 
Second, for the Cathedral of Bamberg, about 1004. On 
one side of this book-cover is an ivory tablet, exquisitely 
sculptured in relief, and surrounded by a border of gold, 
ornamented with pearls and enamels. At the corners are 
enamelled medallions, representing the symbols of the Evan- 
gelists. Between them are placed twelve other medallions, 
representing half figures of our Lord and eleven Apostles. 
These medallions are all executed by the filagree process. 
The names of the Apostles are given in Greek, and are 
executed by fillets of gold on a coloured ground, as in the 
specimens last described. The date of the cover is placed 


beyond a doubt by the inscription it bears, recording its 
being made by order of the Emperor. 8 

3. The specimen next to be noticed is the largest and most 
interesting example remaining of the enameller's art, namely, 
the Pala d'Oro, at St. Mark's, Venice. This splendid altar- 
piece is composed of two portions, united by hinges, and 
placed one above the other, the lower one being twice the 
height of the upper. The centre of this lower division is 
occupied by a large square composition, consisting of enamelled 
medallions representing our Lord, the four Evangelists, and 
several other saints. Under this are five compartments, 
containing figures of the Blessed Virgin, Doge Faliero, and 
the Empress Irene, and some inscriptions. On either side of 
the centre compartment, are three rows of figures, six in 
each row ; the lowest row contains prophets, some with 
Greek, others with Latin, inscriptions. The middle row is one 
of apostles, and the upper one of archangels, with Greek 
inscriptions. Along the top of the whole lower division of 
the altarpiece is a series of seventeen panels, eleven of them 
representing scenes from the life of Christ ; the other six, 
diaconal saints. On each side of the division are five subjects 
from the life of St. Mark ; they all have Latin inscriptions. 
The upper division of the altarpiece contains, at its centre, a 
large medallion representing St. Michael, with his name in 
Greek, surrounded by many small medallions of saints ; on 
each side of this centre, are three large plates representing 
scenes from the life of Christ (with Greek inscriptions), 
measuring no less than 12| by 12^ inches. All the enamelled 
medallions of the altarpiece are set in silver-gilt, and sur- 
rounded with gems. The silver ornaments consist of friezes 
and canopies very Gothic in their details ; among them are 
scattered small square medallions of enamel, representing 

The early history of this curious relic is rather confused ; 
there seems to be no doubt that in 976, Pietro Orseolo L, 
Doge of Venice, " commanded an altarpiece for the church of 
St. Mark, to be made at Constantinople, of wonderful work- 
manship in gold and silver/' Sansovino informs us, that 
owing to many accidents, it was not brought to Venice from 

8 This description is partly taken from Labarte's Introduction to the Debruge 
Catalogue, p. 120; vide also Lord Lindsay's Christian Art, vol. i. 


Constantinople till the Dogeship of Ordelafo Faliero, in 1105. 
Cicognara not believing it possible that the work should be 
so long in progress, comes to the conclusion that the Pala 
must have been sent to Venice soon after it was ordered, and 
was only altered and reconstructed with additions by Faliero. 
At any rate the inscription on the Pala itself records, that in 
1105, under the Doge Ordelafo, it was made new (nova facia 
fuit) ; that it was renewed under the Doge Pietro Ziani, in 
1209, and that it was ultimately restored and enriched with 
gems by the Doge Andrea Dandolo, in 1345. 9 

On examining carefully the engravings given by Cicognara 
and Du Sommerard of the altarpiece, and some of its details, 
I feel convinced that the six large subjects at the top, the 
Archangel Michael, the twelve archangels, and four of the 
prophets, which all have Greek inscriptions, are of the same 
date and workmanship as the figures of the Empress Irene 
and the Doge Faliero. They must, therefore, have been 
made about 1105, and at Constantinople. The remainder of 
the enamelled medallions, amongst which occur repetitions 
of the subjects enumerated above, though in a different style, 
and which are accompanied by Latin inscriptions, must there- 
fore belong to the alteration made by Pietro Ziani, in 1209, 
and may have been made either by native artists, or Byzantine 
workmen residing at Venice. Lastly, the setting and silver 
work of the whole, which is very Gothic in its details, and 
contains some beautiful heads of saints in silver, belong to 
the renewals of Andrea Dandolo, in 1345. We learn from 
an inscription which has come to light during recent repairs, 
that Giambattista Bonesegna was employed in their execu- 
tion in 1342. The general effect of this altarpiece is very 
gorgeous ; the art displayed in it is necessarily somewhat 
limited, owing to the unmanageable nature of the materials. 1 

9 These inscriptions are as follows : Ecclesiam Marci venerandam jure beati 

" Anno milleno centeno jungito quinto De Lauredanis Marco Frescoque Quirino 

TuncOrdelaphusFaledrusinurbeducabat Tune vetus hzwc pala gemmis pretiosa 

H sec nova factafuitgemmis ditissimapala, novatur." 

Quce renovata fuit te,Petre,ducante Ziani * Lord Lindsay, in speaking of tlie 

EtprocurabattuncAngelusactaFaledrus Byzantine art of the tenth and eleventh 

Anno milleno bis centeno que noveno centuries, characterises the Pala d'Oro 

Post quadrageuo quinto post ruille tre- as " an accumulation of sculpture and 

centos painting of the most wretched descrip- 

Dandolus Andrea preclarus honore du- tion," and compares it, much to it dis- 

cabat paragement, with the ivory carvings on 

Nobilibusque viris tune procurantibus the Bamberg missals noticed above. Now, 

almam the only sculpture in the Pala is some 


4. In the Royal Museum at Copenhagen, is preserved a 
curious little pectoral cross, of the same kind as that already 
engraved, but smaller. It consists of two portions united by 
hinges ; on one side is represented the Saviour on the cross, 
with the usual monogram ; on the other are represented five 
circles containing half-figures. In the centre, is the Saviour 
blessing ; on his right, V. Mary ; on his left, St. John ; above 
is St. Basil ; below, St. George : the inscriptions are in 
Greek. Before the names of the saints occurs the contrac- 
tion for ayios. The ground to all the figures is enamel. 

This cross is peculiarly interesting from its having been 
found in the tomb of Queen Dagmar, at Eingsted. This 
lady, whose real name was Margaret, was daughter of Otto- 
car, king of Bohemia. She was born in 1186, and, in 1205, 
married Valdemar II., king of Denmark. She died in 1213, 
and was buried at Ringsted. It is not improbable that she 
brought the cross with her from Bohemia. 2 

5. In the Convent of Notre Dame, at Namur, is preserved a 
silver-gilt cross, once belonging to the Monastery of Ognies. 
This interesting object has double arms, and is of the shape 
usually called patriarchal, a very common form in Greek 
crosses, and generally intended to contain a fragment of the 
Holy Cross. The front is ornamented with seven enamelled 
medallions. The medallion at top contains the favourite 
Greek subject, eroi/xao-ia, the preparation. The others repre- 
sent SS. John, Matthew, Mark, Peter, and Panteleemon, and 
the Archangel Gabriel. The figures are all executed in 
various colours, on a gold ground, in which the inscriptions 
are engraved. The names of the saints are preceded by 
the contraction for the word a/to?. They exactly resemble, 
in workmanship and design, the small medallion which 
will be next noticed, but are round instead of square. 
The spaces between the medallions are filled with filagree 
ornaments and stones. The colours employed in the 
enamels are opaque, with the exception of the flesh colour 
and the green ; the flesh colours appear slightly shaded 
in the faces. The cross rests on a foot of copper gilt, 

silver work of the fourteenth century, the enamels surrounding the Bamberg 

and the enamelled plates can scarcely carvings, he would have found that they 

be reckoned painting. In considering were no better than those on the Pala 

merits of works of this kind, allowances d'Oro. 

should be made for the difficulties of 2 Engraved in Memoires de la Societe 

execution. Had Lord Lindsay examined des Antiquaires du Nord, 1840-43, pi. x. 


consisting of a triangular base and knop composed of 
foliage, intermingled with lions and griffins ; on the knop 
appear the evangelistic symbols. This foot is evidently 
not Oriental ; it exactly resembles the work of Limoges, at 
the commencement of the thirteenth century, and has been 
added to the original cross. This strongly confirms the 
account that the cross was brought from the East by Jacobus 
de Vitry, Bishop of Ptolemais and Cardinal, who retired to 
the Monastery of Ognies, where he died in 1244. 3 

6. In the Museum of Practical Geology is a small gold 
enamelled plate represented in the accompanying woodcut. 
On it appears the bust of St. Paul, ac- 
companied by the inscription AriOC 
I1AYAOC. The figure and inscription 
are in enamel, on a gold background, 
and are executed in a manner slightly 
different from that described by Theo- 
philus. The portions intended to be 
enamelled are sunk in the plain plate of 
gold, forming a kind of case, in the shape 
of the outline of the object to be represented. The fillets are 
then arranged in this case, and the enamels filled in as usual. 
The colours employed in this specimen are seven in number, 
all opaque. The hands and face are flesh colour, so managed 
as to give the appearance of shading ; the hair and inscription 
are black ; the glory and ornaments on the book greenish 
blue ; the book itself red, with yellow edges. 

This specimen greatly resembles in workmanship the 
medallions on the cross last described. It came from a sale 
of duplicates of the Debruges collection, some time since, 
and is said to have formed part of the Pala d'Oro. If so, it 
belongs to a third set of enamels on that monument, as it 
differs in style from both the sets already noticed. 

The examples hitherto described are all executed in gold. 
We have seen from Theophilus that copper was occasionally 
employed for this kind of enamelling ; and the specimen 
next to be described is on that metal, being the only one I 
have met with of Greek workmanship. 

7. This interesting object is a portion of a book-cover in 
the collection of Count Pourtales-Gorgier, at Paris, and once 

3 A description and engraving of this cross will be found in the Annales Arche- 
ologiques, torn v., p. 31 9. 


belonged to the Duke of Modena. On it is represented 
St. George in armour, standing, and piercing a dragon at his 
feet. On his right is his charger ; at the side of the head is 
an inscription in Greek. A few of the principal outlines of 
the figures are represented by very broad bands of metal, 
which appear to be part of the solid background. The re- 
mainder of the lines are very fine fillets of copper, set on 
edge, and gilt. The enamels are opaque. A portion of the 
border of gilt metal remains, representing scrolls and figures 
of saints and angels, with Greek inscriptions. 

These are the only specimens of this kind of enamel which 
appear to be undoubtedly of Greek workmanship. I shall 
reserve for a future occasion such specimens as seem to have 
been executed by artists of the Byzantine school in other 
countries, or by the native artists themselves. 



SEALS, in some of their various kinds, have now, for a con- 
siderable time, deservedly held a distinguished place in the 
estimation of those who have been engaged in antiquarian 
researches. They present a wide field for investigation and 
speculation. The reader, who may be curious to learn 
something of its extent, or of their history, may consult 
with advantage the treatise contained in the fourth volume 
of the Nouveau Traite de Diplomatique. The medieval use 
of them, originally in the form of rings, so convenient for 
an unlettered age and race, may be traced to an early 
period of the Frankish and Germanic history. But among 
the Anglo-Saxons the general practice of authenticating 
writings, even the most formal and important, was by sign- 
ing them with a cross. Edward the Confessor, however, 
had a seal, and other instances of Anglo-Saxon seals have 
been alleged, which some antiquaries have regarded with 
suspicion ; and it is foreign to the present purpose to enter 
upon the question of their authenticity. Certainly seals did 


not come into general use in this country till a few years 
after the Conquest : from which time, for upwards of three 
centuries, they were the peculiar means of authenticating 
written instruments of every sort among all classes of 
society. Beside their legal character and importance, the 
valuable information which they imparted to the histo- 
rian, antiquary, genealogist, and herald, has contributed 
to the regard in which they have been held far more than 
their curiosity as remains of medieval art, or the interest 
naturally belonging to them as indications of individual 
taste, and the means whereby a large portion of the ordinary 
business of life was transacted, and of the intercourse of 
society was carried on, until they were by degrees in a great 
measure superseded by the autographs and personal signa- 
tures of modern times, and left for legal purposes as a 
formality involving no longer the necessity of their being 
identified as the particular seals of those who used them. 1 

On the revival of letters, the novelty and intrinsic excel- 
lence of the ancient classical literature to a great extent 
engrossed the attention of men of studious habits, till the 
inherent charm which there is in the history of a man's own 
country began to reassert its influence ; and as minds thus 
better disciplined were brought to the subject, historical 
evidence was more correctly appreciated, and more diligently 
sought for. The charters of the intervening ages were 
examined, their credit tested, and their seals scrutinised and 
compared. Traces of this begin to appear in the sixteenth 
century, yet chiefly on the continent ; but in the next 
century seals were very generally adduced and appealed to 
as proofs for divers purposes ; and since that time they 
have ever been regarded with interest, and had a place 
assigned them among the contributories to our knowledge of 
bygone times. The notices of them by Selden, Dugdale, 

1 This remark is not intended to apply of old deeds being sealed with coats of 

to such modern seals as are used without arms not borne by the grantors. The 

any signature to identify them. Nor would advantage of the deed being sealed with 

I be understood to mean, that at any time the grantor's own seal was, that when 

it was absolutely necessary that a charter there was no witness, or when the wit- 

or deed of a private individual should have nesses, were all dead, the seal could be 

had his own seal attached to it. Even in proved to have been his ; which might 

the reign of Henry III., as appears from have been done by comparing it with 

Bracton, it was sufficient if the grantor, other impressions that were known or 

before witnesses, sealed the deed or other- proved to be authentic. Hence, seals 

wise recognised the seal as his, though it with the arms of other persons than the 

were in reality another's. This, probably, grantors, are less likely to occur when 

accounts for many anomalous instances there are no witnesses mentioned. 



Spelman, Sandford, Madox, and other English writers their 
contemporaries, and the Treatises of Mabillon, Heineccius, 
and the Benedictine authors of the Nouveau Traite de 
Diplomatique, show the value and importance that have been 
attached to them by competent judges in the earlier stages 
of archaeological science. 

In a critical acquaintance with this interesting subject 
has been found one of the most efficient means of deter- 
mining the genuineness of charters and the like, of identifying 
the persons by whom they were granted with their respective 
families, of appropriating the documents to the proper 
individuals when there were several of the same name, and 
of ascertaining the dates of undated instruments. In many 
cases they have added materially to the information contained 
in the writings to which they were appended ; as by 
supplying or explaining a name, or mentioning an office 
which an individual held, or showing some particular relation 
in which he stood to others. For, since the execution of the 
seal was rarely contemporaneous with the sealing of the 
instrument, they are virtually two independent documents 
brought together, relating to the same person, and serving 
to explain and elucidate each other. 

Apart, however, from written documents, and as detached 
impressions, seals, or the matrices themselves, are also 
fruitful sources of information. They not only supply what 
is deficient in impressions elsewhere found attached, but 
contribute to our knowledge in various ways that might not 
at first be anticipated. Official seals, and seals of ecclesiastics, 
bring to light sometimes the names of those who have filled 
offices, and enjoyed dignities, and been forgotten ; and 
sometimes revive the knowledge of the existence of offices 
which had themselves fallen into oblivion. In like manner 
common seals occasionally attest the existence of communi- 
ties of which all remembrance had ceased ; while personal 
seals restore to family trees grafts and scions which had 
dropped away, and would otherwise have remained wholly 
unknown. On heraldry, which has proved so serviceable in 
the investigation of medieval antiquities, they afford most 
valuable information ; since from them we learn the earliest 
examples of the art, with few exceptions, and much of the 
subsequent usages and practice of it until the modern 
system prevailed. Analogous to brasses and other sepul- 


chral memorials, they furnish evidence of the state, not only 
of the art by which they were executed, but likewise of 
those of ornamentation and design in general, and also illus- 
trate the costumes of different classes of society at various 
periods ; and in their legends they exemplify the peculiar 
kinds of letters, and divers unusual modes of abbreviation 
and forms of expression that were from time to time in use. 
In addition to which, a large variety of personal seals, 
remarkable for their allusive and facetious legends and 
devices, reflect the taste, fancy, humour, and occasionally 
the superstitions of the age, as well as of the individuals. 
In an historical point of view, it is not too much to say 
that seals bear the same relation to subjects, both as indi- 
viduals and communities, that coins and medals (on whose 
historical value it is needless to dwell) do to sovereigns and 
states ; while royal and municipal seals may in this respect 
rank with coins and medals themselves. Accordingly 
Peiresc, who had diligently studied these things both in 
France and this country, and corresponded with Camden, 
was accustomed to say (as Chifflet writes), " Sigilla, numis- 
mata, aliaque id genus, testes esse antiquitatis incorruptos, 
quodque ex iis addiscerentur, quse frustra requireret quis ex 
historiographis omnibus." Anastas. Childeric. cap. vii., 
p. 113. 

In Germany and France, where diplomatics, or the art of 
deciphering charters and the like, and of discriminating the 
genuine from the false, have for many years been regarded 
as a science, the subject of seals, which constitutes so 
important a branch of it, has received a corresponding share 
of attention, and their history and characteristics have been 
discussed in a manner unparalleled in this country. 2 But 
the seals which have been studied by the foreign diplomatists 
have been chiefly those of sovereigns and the higher orders 
of the nobility and clergy ; while comparatively little con- 
sideration has been bestowed on the personal seals of the 
inferior nobles and ecclesiastics, and of the humbler classes 
of the people ; which may be partly owing to the greater 
importance belonging to other seals, and partly to the fact 
of personal seals having been much less extensively used in 

2 I must here mention, as an eminent paper on the Great Seals of England, 

exception to the general manner in which by Professor Willis, in the second volume 

such subjects have been treated by Eng- of this Journal, 
lish writers, the very able and instructive 


those countries than in England. There frequent recourse 
was had to notaries for the attestation of transactions, and 
the authentication of instruments ; whereas here, so great 
was the credit given to personal seals, that notaries were 
rarely employed except in ecclesiastical matters ; and the 
use of seals prevailed among all grades and classes of 
persons, male and female, ecclesiastic and lay, whether 
secular or regular, bond or free. For every one who had 
occasion to execute a deed, whether in a transaction relating 
to land or otherwise, though it were a mere agreement, or a 
release from a previous agreement, or an acquittance, had 
need of a seal. And deeds were then used for the most 
trifling purposes, not being the formidable looking things 
they are now, but generally little larger than a bank note, 
and occasionally not containing many more words than a 
modern receipt. It is sometimes stated that every man who 
was liable to be sworn on an inquest was required to have 
a seal, whether he were a bondman or freeman ; but the 
record which has been referred to as an authority for this, 
namely, the so-called statute of 14. Edw. I., or Statutum 
Exonia (which in fact was not an Act of Parliament, nor 
is the alleged date of it to be relied on), does not go to that 
extent. It is confined to those who were to be sworn on 
certain inquests for inquiring into the conduct of coroners 
on that particular occasion. It shows, nevertheless, that 
seals were sometimes used by bondmen ; for, failing a proper 
number of freemen, there were to be bondmen sworn, and 
all were to have seals and affix them to the presentment. 
A very large number of personal seals of the thirteenth, 
fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, have come down to us ; 
and of their varieties, I cannot give the reader a better 
notion than by referring him to the very interesting Paper 
by Mr. Hudson Turner on the subject in the fifth volume of 
this Journal. 

Beside the personal seals of the laity, there were a large 
number of official seals and common seals of communities, 
both lay and ecclesiastic ; and the seals of the clergy indi- 
vidually were also very numerous. For it may be justly 
supposed that they were no less necessary for persons in 
office and bodies corporate than for private individuals ; and 
all the dignities and preferments in the church bore more or 
less the character of offices, even when they were not strictly 


speaking official. Indeed, the seals of ecclesiastics constitute 
a remarkable division of the subject. In the year 1237, 
when heraldic seals were becoming general among the 
nobility, Cardinal Otto, the Papal legate in this country, 
thought it expedient to have some regulations made respect- 
ing them ; and, accordingly, among divers other constitutions 
or canons passed at a synod held in London, over which he 
presided, was one whereby, after mentioning that, since the 
use of notaries did not prevail in this kingdom, it was the 
more necessary to have recourse to authentic seals, in order 
that there might be a sufficiency of them the synod decreed 
that not only archbishops and bishops, but likewise their 
officials, and also abbots, priors, deans, archdeacons, and 
their officials, and also rural deans, and the chapters of 
cathedral churches, and other colleges and convents, either 
together with their rectors (or heads) or separately, according 
to their usage or statutes, should have seals ; and that, for 
the sake of distinction, every one of them should have his 
or their own proper seal, on which should be engraved in 
plain characters the name of the dignity, office, or college, 
and also the name of the person who enjoyed any per- 
manent dignity or office, and that such seals should be 
deemed authentic ; and those respectively who undertook 
any tempprary office, as rural deans and officials, should, 
at the termination of their office, resign their seal to him 
by whom they were appointed, and which seal should 
have engraved on it only the name of the office. Some 
directions then follow as to the custody of common seals of 
ecclesiastical bodies, and the dating of instruments, which, 
however, do not concern my present purpose. 3 I do not find 
any general canon of the Church to the like effect, and from 
the manner in which this constitution is mentioned by 
Heineccius and the Benedictines, I infer that there is none, 
though the seals of foreign ecclesiastics in regard to their 
legends are very similar to those of this country. 

After all that has been said respecting these remains of 
medieval times, it is hardly possible to appreciate the interest 
which attends the prosecution of the subject, or the assistance 
in other branches of knowledge which is to be derived from 
it, without inspecting and comparing a considerable number 
of examples of various kinds ; nor without such means at 

* See Math. Paris de anno, 1237; and Wilkin's Concilia, I., pp. 647, 655. 


hand, can the study be advantageously pursued. It is to be 
regretted that there is no extensive and well-arranged col- 
lection to which ready access might be had for the purpose. 
Fortunately there is something so attractive about them, 
that some individuals have taken pleasure in bringing many 
of them together even without regard to any ulterior use to 
be made of them. The collector of seals may be assured 
that he renders no inconsiderable service to the cause of 
archaeology, though he may be prompted solely by the 
gratification of a natural curiosity ; for there will, I doubt 
not, be found those who can turn his stores to good account ; 
and since it is now practicable to multiply examples by 
means of gutta percha, the more curious and instructive may 
be placed in their hands without any detriment to the col- 
lector. Amidst the great diversity and number of the seals 
which he acquires, he must soon be sensible of the want of 
some system of classification, if he would observe anything 
like an orderly arrangement ; and he probably tries several 
methods without being able to satisfy himself. Should he 
seek assistance from any publication on seals, he finds the 
distribution of the subject, however well adapted for a 
treatise, does not answer his requirements. The author and 
collector have very different ends in view. The author may 
class them according to the various descriptions of persons 
by whom they were used, or the different purposes for which 
they were employed ; and treat specifically only of such as 
he can bring within those several heads. He is not bound 
to find a fitting place for every seal that may occur. This 
the methodical collector wishes to do ; but the most expe- 
rienced, however discriminating, must often be ignorant alike 
of those who used the seals which he meets with, and of the 
particular purposes for which they were employed. A mere 
chronological arrangement is impracticable ; for to many no 
date could be assigned with sufficient certainty to determine 
their places. Various modes of classification might be sug- 
gested, each presenting some advantage ; but most persons 
who well consider the subject will, I think, be convinced that 
no scheme will be found really practicable, however specious, 
that does not depend on such distinctions as appear on the 
seals themselves. This may at first seem to lead to a very 
artificial and unusual distribution, yet, in reality, such is by 
no means extensively the case ; and a little singularity is 


well compensated for, if practicability be attained. There is 
a character about ecclesiastical seals which makes them 
readily recognisable. Most of them, in accordance with the 
constitution of Cardinal Otto, have on them the distinctions 
prescribed by it ; and even the private personal seals of 
ecclesiastics have generally some figure, device, or legend 
which serves to distinguish them. The seals of the laity are 
less easily referable to the different classes who used them, 
since the titles or other designations of the respective indi- 
viduals less frequently present themselves ; beside which, the 
several classes of the laity were not so clearly defined as 
those of the clergy, and such lay distinctions as existed in 
one country, or at one period, would not be found applicable 
to those of another. However, the seals of sovereigns and 
of their issue to some extent, and their respective consorts, 
which can be identified by the legends and heraldry upon 
them (and such is the case with most of them), might be 
arranged in classes apart from the rest ; and, in like manner, 
official seals, and the seals of corporations and similar bodies, 
appearing to be such on the face of them (as nearly all of 
them do), may form other classes. But the great mass of 
lay seals would still remain to be disposed of ; and they are 
far too numerous to be comprised under one head. For 
these, a method of distribution must be devised, irrespective 
of rank, sex, station, or use ; and such as shall be easy of 
application, and according to distinctions apparent on the 
seals themselves. 

In classification of any kind it is of course of the first 
importance that the classes should be well defined ; but the 
great difficulty commonly is, to divide the subject in such a 
way that the several parts of it taken together shall com- 
prise the whole ; and so, in like manner, on every sub-division ; 
a difficulty which is greatly increased when the subject can- 
not be exhausted, but newly discovered genera and species 
are continually claiming places. For practical purposes, 
and it is with them only that we are concerned, this object 
is best effected by always making the last of any number of 
heads, into which any class is divided, such as will comprise 
all of that class which are not comprised in the previous 
heads : so that in every case the last head (whether on the 
primary division or on any subdivision) will be residuary 
and miscellaneous. 


The preceding observations will, it is hoped, render more 
readily intelligible the following Scheme, which has been pre- 
pared according to the principles of classification that have 
been suggested, and has been found to answer its purpose as 
far as it has been hitherto tried. It is capable of being 
adapted to the size and nature of the collection, existing or 
contemplated ; for when that is small, the sub-division of 
some of the classes may be omitted ; and when large or 
indefinite, further sub-divisions may be made, taking care 
that the distinctions appear on the seals themselves, and that 
in every case the last of any number of heads into which 
any class be sub-divided, comprises all of that class which are 
not comprehended in the others. 


i. Bulls and other seals of individuals referring to their dignities, 
offices, or preferments. 

1. Popes. 

2. Cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops. 

3. Abbots, abbesses, and other heads of houses. 4 

4. Other ecclesiastics, secular or regular. 

n. Common Seals, secreta, <fec., of bodies corporate and the like. 

1. Chapters of cathedral or collegiate churches, with or 

without the head. 

2. Religious communities professed, with or without the 


3. Other bodies or communities. 

in. Official Seals, without name of any individual officer, or with 

name of officer not an ecclesiastic, 
iv. Seals purely personal. 

1. With name. 

2. Without name. 

v. Seals unascertained, &c. i. e., miscellaneous ecclesiastical seals 

not comprised under any of the above heads. 
1 1. LAY, comprising all that do not appear to be Ecclesiastical. 
i. Seals of sovereigns. 

II. Seals of consorts and daughters of sovereigns, 
ui. Seals of male issue of sovereigns, and consorts and daughters of 

such issue, 
iv. Official Seals. 

1. In the sovereign's name. 

2. With name of officer. 

3. Without name of sovereign or officer. 

4 The word "houses" is here intended friars, but also houses or colleges of secu- 
to comprise, not only regular communi- lar priests or canons, and the like, though 
ties, such as those of monks, nuns, and notthose of cathedral or collegiate churches. 


v - Common Seals, secreta, <kc., of corporations and the like. 

1. Cities, and towns. 

2. Universities, and colleges therein. 

3. Guilds, companies, and similar societies. 

4. Schools, hospitals, and other communities. 

vi. Personal Seals, except those of sovereigns and their male issue, 
and of their respective consorts and daughters, appearing to 
be such. 

1. With effigies seated, equestrian, or standing, with or 

without heraldry. 

2. With heraldry of any kind, but no effigy. 

3. With merchants' marks or initials as principal subjects. 

4. With devices of other kinds, and names. 

5. Ditto, . . . but no name. 

6. With names, but no device. 

7. With legends or mottoes, but neither device nor name. 

8. Miscellaneous personal seals. 

vn. Seals unascertained, <bc. L e., miscellaneous lay seals not 
comprised under any of the above heads. 

After what has been said by way of introduction to the 
preceding Scheme, I have little to add in explanation of it. 
In regard to official seals, in every case it is the office, whether 
ecclesiastical or lay, and not the officer, that is to determine 
the place of the seal. In like manner our universities and 
colleges for education are to be considered lay corporations, 
as in fact they are. See Blackst. Comm. L, p. 471. By 
device is intended such as constitutes the principal subject, 
and not mere ornament or accessories. It will be obvious, 
and it is unavoidable, that a seal difficult to decipher or 
interpret may sometimes require to be placed under a 
different head when more completely understood : and though 
the seals themselves are to furnish the distinctions, yet what 
is found on them will sometimes need explanation ; and 
hence in those cases it may happen, without any inconsis- 
tency, that we ascertain, by additional information from 
other sources, such important facts, for example, as whether 
an office or community was lay or ecclesiastical, secular or 
monastic. It is not easy to define precisely certain terms : 
as, for instance, who is a sovereign, but in the great majority 
of examples there will be no difficulty ; and in the very few 
doubtful cases it is not of any great consequence should the 
seal be placed under some head to which, if not a sovereign's, 
it would belong, until the doubt is removed : and so in 



similar cases. If the designation of any head should, from 
its brevity, seem obscure, probably such obscurity will be 
dissipated on calling to mind, that no head is intended to 
comprise what is clearly comprehended under any other 
which is numbered in the same series. For a purpose of 
this kind, it is not unreasonable, and has been found most 
convenient, to assume all seals to be lay which do not show 
themselves to be otherwise ; and therefore the term " lay 
seals" has been made to comprise all seals that do not 
appear to be ecclesiastical ; and in this sense these words 
must be understood in the last division of that class. 

w. s. w. 


IT has been proposed to bring together, from time to time, 
notices of the numerous impressions and matrices of seals 
communicated at the meetings of the Institute. Such col- 
lections towards the History of Seals, occasionally illustrated 
by woodcuts, will, it is hoped, be more acceptable to the 
readers of the Journal than the incidental mention of them 
in the Reports of the meetings. They will form a suitable 
sequel to the foregoing scheme for their classification, the 
want of which has long been felt by the collector. 

1. Common seal of the Benedictine Priory of St. Mary of Hurley, Berks, 
founded in the reign of the Conqueror by Geoffrey de Magna- villa. The con- 
ventual church, of which a portion, the western door, with chevrony mouldings, 
still exists, is said to have been dedicated by Osmond, Bishop of Salisbury, 
A.D. 1086. The Priory was a cell to the Abbey of Westminster. 

The impression, from which the accompanying illustration has been taken, 
is appended to a deed whereby Prior Alexander and the convent granted their 
manor in Harefield, Middlesex, to Richard Weltekart of Louth (de Luda), 
Thomas his son, and Florence the wife of the same Thomas, to hold to them 
and the heirs of Thomas, of the chief lords of the fee, by the accustomed 
services, for ever. It was found by Mr. William F. Vernon amongst the 
evidences pertaining to his estate at Harefield, and communicated, by his 
kind permission, to the Institute. The deed is without date, but it may be 
assigned to the reign of the first or second Edward. The principal device 
is the Annunciation ; between the angel Gabriel and the Virgin there is a 
vase with a lily, placed upon the apex of a pointed arch, which forms a 
compartment in the lower part of the seal ; within this is a kneeling 


Seal of the Deanery of Pawlett. 
Matrix found near Winchester. 

Seal cf Hurley Priory, Berkshire. 
From an Impression appended to a Deed in the possession of William F. Vernon, Esq. 


figure of the Prior, holding a crosier, his eyes upraised towards the Virgin. 
On one side of this figure there is a mullet of six points, and on the other a 
flower of as many petals, the angemme of the French heralds. 1 The legend 
is as follows >|< s' CONMVNE . CA(PITVLI.) PRIORAT' . HVBLEY. It is un- 
usual to see a Prior represented bearing a crosier. On the seal of Lewes 
Priory, St. Pancras is introduced, seemingly habited as a Cluniac Prior, 
and bearing a crosier. (Sussex Archseol. Coll. vol. ii. p. 20.) 

Madox, in his " Formulare," p. 250, noticed two seals of Hurley priory 
appended to a grant by Prior Ralph de Arundel, promoted to Westminster, 
A.D. 1200. This document was "in arch. S. Petri Westmon." One of 
the seals bore the head of the Virgin, around it >I< AVE MARIA GRA* 
PLENA, and was inscribed <%< SIGILL' RAD' DE ARVNDEL PRIORIS HERL'. On 
the reverse a counter-seal impressed with a lion I< ECCE VICIT LEO DE 
TRIBV JVDA. The other seal was inscribed <%* SIGILLVM ECCL'IE SC'E DEI 
GENETRICIS DE HERLEiE. Madox does not describe its device. 

In the Duchy of Lancaster Office there is a document, dated 34 Edw. I., 
to which is appended the seal of Alexander de Newport, Prior of Hurley 
probably the same Prior who is named in Mr. Vernon's deed. 

2. Seal of the Rural Deanery of Poulet, or Pawlett, Somersetshire, in 
the Archdeaconry of Wells. According to the present ecclesiastical divisions, 
this Deanery comprises the rectories of Bawdrip, Cossington, Greiuton, and 
Huntspill, with the vicarages of Pawlett and Woollavington, with Puriton. 

These benefices are found, under the head " Decanatus de Poulet," in the 
Taxation of Pope Nicholas IV. circa 1291, (pp. 198, 202). Under another 
head, " Decanatus de Poulet, seu Jurisdictio Glaston'," are enumerated 
certain benefices, with the pensiones therein, appertaining to the Abbot of 
Glastonbury and the Sacrist. 

The device of this official seal is a figure of St. Paul, holding a sword 
in his right hand, and a book in the left ; the legend, * &t(rtHutn tiecanatug 
tic iJottltt. It is unusual to find a star, in lieu of a cross, at the commence- 
ment of the legend, on an ecclesiastical seal. 

There appears evidently to be some connexion between the name of the 
Apostle and that of the place. The patron saint, however, of the church 
of Pawlett, according to the obliging information of the vicar, the Rev. 
J. D. Crosse, is St. John the Baptist, not St. Paul. The Deanery 
probably derived its name from the principal place within its jurisdiction ; 
but Pawlett has no necessary connexion with the office of Rural Dean. It 
is actually held by the Rector of Huntspill. 

This matrix was found near Winchester, and presented, in Dec. 1849, 
to Dr. Mantell, by whom it was communicated to the Society. It is of 
yellow mixed-metal ; there is a ridge at the back, pierced in the middle for 
suspension. Its date appears to be the earlier part of the fifteenth 

Dr. Pegge stated, in his remarks on the existence of so many matrices of 
conventual seals, that "several rural deans' seals are extant."' Mr. 
Dansey has described those which had fallen under his notice in his chapter 
on the "Authentic Seal " of the Dean rural, which, in Bishop Kennett's 

1 On the seal of Perehore Abbey, appa- flower of six petals, &c. A curious example 

rently of the same period as that of Hurley, of the use of such foliated ornaments 

the crescent appears on one side of the appears on the round seal of Westminster 

Virgin, with the star on the other ; and in Abbey, 
other parts are introduced a quatrefoil, & 2 Archseologia, vol. v., p. 353. 



opinion, constituted his investiture, by its formal receipt from the diocesan. 3 
To the small number, of which Mr. Dansey gives representations, the seal 
of Pawlett forms an interesting addition. 

3. Seal of the Deanery of Hengham. The device is singular, a saltire, 
or St. Andrew's cross, raguly. J-NcjiUu . fcrconatus : Ue . tycncjljam. In the 

Taxation of Pope Nicholas IV. is found an 
ecclesiastical division in the Diocese of Lon- 
don, entitled " Decanatus de Hengham," 
or Hedingham, comprising Toppesfield, Sible 
Hedingham, (written Hengham,) and many 
other parishes in Essex. 4 This is now in 
the Archdeaconry of Colchester, in the 
Diocese of Rochester. The rural deanery, 
to which this seal appertained, was doubt- 
less the " Decanatus de Hengham," in the 
Diocese of Norwich, which receives its name 
from the town of Hingham, and comprised 
forty-three parishes. 5 The church was dedi- 
cated to St. Andrew, and this accounts for 
the device upon the seal. Blomefield gives 
Silver seal. Deanery of Hengham. a list of deans during the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. This interesting relic is 

formed of silver, and it is now preserved in the choice cabinet of Norfolk 
relics, in the possession of Mr. Robert Fitch, of Norwich. 

4. Seal of Henry, Abbot of Revesby, Lincolnshire. This is of pointed 
oval form, measuring 2} inches by 1J inch. The device is the Virgin and 
infant Saviour ; she is seated under a richly crocketed canopy ; a sceptre 
in her hand, a crown of stars, or of flowers, upon her head. The inscrip- 
tion is ,25'SMum . fymrtci abb'ig . mon'Stmt tie . rttmftg. The execu- 
tion is not very artistic ; the date may be the latter part of the fifteenth 
century. The Cluniac Abbey of Revesby was dedicated to St. Mary and 
St. Lawrence. No abbot named Henry is found in the list given in the 
new edition of the " Monasticon," (vol. v, p. 453). There is, however, a 
total hiatus during the fifteenth century. 

The matrix was found on the site of Ewenny Priory, Glamorganshire, 
a cell to Gloucester, and it is in the possession of Colonel Turberville. An 
impression was produced, with the following seal, by Mr. Franks. 

5. Common seal of the Fraternity of the Holy Trinity, Cardiff. A 
circular seal, of rude execution diameter, 1|- inch. The device is the 
conventional representation of the Trinity, the Supreme Being seated, and 
holding a crucifix between his knees. The holy dove descends upon the 
Saviour's head. ) Fn3 trimtatte tJe havtrif in galia. It was found at 
Llantwit Major, Glamorganshire, and is in the possession of John Nicholl 
Carne, Esq., LL.D. Date, fifteenth century. 

6. Seal of pointed-oval form, probably the personal seal of an eccle- 
siastic ; the device is the Virgin seated, and holding the infant Jesus. 
Legend *AVE MARIA GRACIA PLEN. Date, fourteenth century. , The matrix 
was found amongst the ruins of Reading Abbey, in digging the foundations 
for the new county prison. It was presented to the Rev. J. Kingrose by the 
clerk of the works, but was subsequently claimed by the sheriff, and given up. 

3 Horse Decanicse Rurales, vol. i., p. 387. 

4 Taxatio Eccles., pp. 16, 18, 20. 

5 Ibid., pp. 85, 107 ; Blomefield's Hist, 
of Norfolk, vol. ii., p. 422. 



Impression sent by Miss Julia R. Bockett, of Reading. 

7. Personal Seal, with an heraldic device. It is circular ; diameter, nearly 
1 inch. The centre is occupied by an escutcheon, a fess, with a demi-lion 
in chief ^< SECRETVM . MEVM . MICHI . Date, fourteenth century. The matrix 
is in the possession of the Rev. James Lee Warner, and was found near 
Walsingham, in 1847. The arms may be those of Esme, or Esmey. 

8. Seal of John Bysshe. Circular seal ; diameter, 1 T ^- inch ; in the 
centre an escutcheon of the arms of Bysshe, a chevron between three 
cinqfoils (or roses) ; a single-headed eagle displayed seems to support the 
shield, and on each side of it is an initial, J. and B. j^ttrillum tohaniuo 
bt)>(J)e atnujj'. Matrix formerly in the possession of the late Mr. Douce. 
Date, early in the fifteenth century. Edward Bysshe, in his Notes on 
Upton, p. 53, remarks that the elder branch of the De la Bisse family, 
descended from Baldwin de Clare, bore the arms of Clare, 3 chevronels, 
differenced by a label of five points. But, about t. Rich. II,, on account 
of an alliance with the Staffords, the arms, borne by himself, were adopted, 
a chevron between 3 roses, as seen on the seal of , 

Sir Thomas Bysshe, 5 Rich. II. It appears from 
Manning and Bray's Hist, of Surrey, vol. ii., p. 286, 
that there was a John de Byshe living t. Edward III., 
also another John, t. Hen. VI., whose son bore the 
same name. 

9. Seal of Hugh of Bourdeaux. Fourteenth cen- 
tury. A small circular seal ; diameter, f inch. The 
matrix was found at Winchester, in 1849, in the fol- 
lowing singular position. The bark of an old tree 
having accidentally been struck off by a blow, the seal 
was discovered underneath the bark. The device is 
the Holy Lamb. The cross surmounting the banner- 
staff forms likewise the initial of the legend s' HVGONIS 
DE BVBDEVS. Communicated by Mr. Hawkins. 

10. Personal Seal, with device and motto, of the 
time of Henry VI. This interesting Signet, of which 
by the kindness of Dr. Kidd, Regius Professor of 
Medicine at Oxford, a representation is given, is one 

of three small seals appended to a letter of attorney, dated 1433, amongst 
the curious documents preserved in the charter-chest of Ewelme Hospital, 
of which the Regius Professor is ex officio the Master. The seal is pro- 
bably the impress of a ring ; it is of red wax. The device is apparently 
a dove, holding in her mouth a scroll inscribed nmtn. The rush twisted 
around the impression to preserve it from being defaced, and seemingly in 
the form of two interlaced squares, is a peculiarity of interest. 6 The three 
impressions are made upon separate slips, cut horizontally at the lower 
margin of the little deed, of which they form part, in lieu of the more 
customary dependent labels of a separate slip, passed through a slit in the 
parchment. The uppermost seal of the three bears as a device the stock 
of a tree, with two boughs; the second, a pelican in piety. The lowest slip 
bears the little impress here shown. It may be the seal of Andrew 
Sperlynge, the third named in the instrument. The bird may be a sparrow, 
with an allusion to his name. 

6 Compare the fashion of squares interlaced, as on Mr. Hamper's curious seal, 
Gent. Mag., No. xcv., Pt. ii., pi. 11. 


Sir Francis Palgrave observes, in regard to the mass of ancient corre- 
spondence in the Treasury of the Exchequer, that in the fourteenth 
century the wax was left uncovered : in the fifteenth it became the practice 
to cover it by a wrapper of paper ; this protected the seal, but necessarily 
injured the sharpness of the impression. When the seal was not thus 
covered, other devices were adopted to preserve the fragile wax. A rush 
ring surrounding the impression was not unfrequently used. Sometimes 
neat bands of plaited paper were employed for this purpose ; leaves of trees 
the beech, the bay, and the oak were also placed over the seals to keep 
them from injury. 7 The example given by Sir Francis, in the plates of 
Illustrations, is of rather late date. It occurs on a letter (written upon 
paper) from James IV. of Scotland to Henry VII., dated July 12, 1502. 
The seal is encircled by a twist of rush, like the torse of a crest. 8 

This peculiar usage commenced possibly rather earlier than has been stated 
by the eminent antiquary above cited. Specimens are not wanting from about 
1380 to the reign of Henry VIII. It prevailed chiefly during the reign of 
Henry IV. and the two succeeding sovereigns. Several curious examples 
are given in the plates accompanying the Paston Letters ; for instance, 
the seals of John, Lord Lovell, t. Henry VI., of Richard Neville, Earl of 
Warwick, and of William Yelverton, about 1450. 9 

Another specimen is pointed out by Sir Frederic Madden. It occurs on 
a warrant signed by Edward V., and countersigned by the Duke of Glou- 
cester as Protector. It is dated 1483. The impression is unfortunately 
lost, but the torse of rush remains which had encircled it. 1 

It has been observed, that seals protected by this " fender" of rush, to 
prevent the wax being flattened by pressure, are of more frequent occur- 
rence affixed to a plain surface, such as a sheet of paper, than as appended 
seals, such as that here represented. It is probable that the practice 
originated with the use of seals thus applied, and their liability to injury by 

The document which has supplied this interesting example was commu- 
nicated by Dr. Kidd, through the kindness of the President of Trinity 
College, the Rev. J. Wilson. It is a letter of attorney from John Hampdene, 
of Hampdene, Richard Restwolde, and Andrew Sperlynge, to John Uptone 
and John Whytynge, to receive seisin of the manors of Nortone (Somerset), 
Connoke (Wilts), and Ramrugge (Hants), according to the form and effect 
of a certain writing from William de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, to them, 
John Hampdene, Richard and Andrew. Dated Aug. 6th, 11 Hen. VI. 

11. The following seals were communicated by MR. MAJENDIE. A brass 
matrix, of the fourteenth century, recently found at Great Yeldham, Essex, 
the device a hare blowing a hunting-horn, and mounted on a hound: 
*SOHOV ROBIN. Date about 1320. 

12. Seal found at East Bourne ; it bears an escutcheon, semy of cross 
crosslets, fitchy, a lion rampant, the arms of the Sussex family named 
Levett. Inscription, * SIG'. IOHANNIS- LIVET. The owner of this 
seal, as Mr. Walford has suggested, was probably the John Livet, certified 
Lord of the township of Firle, Sussex, in 13l6. (Parl. Writs, vol. ii., 
pt. ii., p. 335). A. W. 

7 Kalendars of Exch., Introd., vol. i., p. cxxxvii. ' Ibid., pi. iv. 

8 Paston Letters, orig. edit., vol. ii., pi. xiv. 

9 Archseologia, vol. xxx., p. 545, pi. xxiii. 

Original Bocununts. 


THE rolls of accounts of the household expenditure of the nobles, and of 
Monastic and other institutions of the middle ages, which have come down 
to us, contain most valuable information relating to the mode of the daily 
life, and habits, and customs of our forefathers. Uninteresting and for- 
bidding as they may at first appear to be, the Archaeologist, who wishes to 
become acquainted with the inner and more private life of the times which 
fall within the scope of his inquiry, should by no means neglect them ; and 
if undeterred by their forbidding aspect, he will have patience to proceed, 
he may find much to interest him and to reward his labour. My attention 
was first drawn to the very valuable series of Bursarial Rolls, preserved 
among the Muniments of Winchester College, by the Rev. Dr. Rock, who 
requested me to verify a quotation made from one of them by the learned 
Thomas Warton, in his " History of English Poetry." In searching for 
the extract in question, I jotted down in my note book many things which 
excited my interest ; and was led on to continue my investigation, which 
has now extended from the seventeenth of Richard II., to the eleventh of 
Henry VI., during which period the series, with a few exceptions, is tolerably 

The expenditure is arranged under the heads of the cost of the various 
departments, such as the Chapel, Hall, Library, Kitchen, Stable, Legal 
Proceedings, Gifts, Forinsec Expenses, <fec., and the cost of the commons 
of all the members of the house arranged in weeks. 

The following extracts are taken incidentally from various rolls, and 
selected as touching upon subjects of more general interest. The first 
extract which I shall cite, is the one quoted by Thomas Warton, and is 
taken from the earliest of these rolls, which is thus endorsed, Collegium 
beatae Marise prope Winton, anno vni vo ab iuceptione operis. Computus 
primus post ingressum in idem Collegium, anno reg. Ric. 2 ndi post con- 
questum xvn. It is interesting, as showing that the practice of writing 
on waxen tablets was not wholly disused even at a period comparatively late. 

Et in i. tabula ceranda cum viridi cera pro intitulatione capellanorum et 
clericorum capellse, ad missas et alia psallenda viii d . 

The following extracts are selected, as showing the cost of making books 
for the services of the chapel : 

19, 20 Ric. II. 

Item computat pro quatuor doseyn septem pellibus de velym 
emptis pro uno gradual! inde facto, quod incipit secundo folio, " et 
dicatur," continent! septem et viginti quaternos cum custodiis, 1 
pretium doseyn de velym, v a , pret. pellis, v d 

Et in scriptura ejusdem gradualis . xv . 1 . 1 .... d 

Et in notatione ejusdem . xul " 1U1 ' 

i The fly-leaves, probably, or as might Visit, of Treas. St. Paul's, London, in 1295. 
now be said, the guards. Custodia is used (Dugdale.) 
in this sense in a description of Books in 


Et in Hluminatione et ligatione ejusdem . . xiii s iiii d 

Item in n dozeyn, n pellibus de velym eraptis pro i. col- 
lectario, quod incipit secundo folio, " Vicio," continent! xin 
quaternos, pretium doseyn, iiii 8 , pretium pellis, iiii d . . viii s viii d 

Et in scriptura notatione, illuminatione et ligatione ejusdem xxi 8 
Item in xi dozeyn, mi pellibus empt. pro legenda integra, 
quae incipit sec. folio, " quia dixerunt," continent! xxxni 
quaternos, pretium dozeyn, iiii 8 vi d , pret' pellis. iiii d , ob. . li s 
Et in scriptura ejusdem legendae . . . Ixxii 8 

Et in ilium, et ligat. ejusdem .... xxx s 
Item in sex dozeyn de velym emptis pro factura sex proces- 
sionalium, quorum quodlibet continet xv quaternos, pretium 
dozeyn, iiii 8 vi d . . . . . xxvii 8 

Etin scriptura notatione, illuminatione, et ligatione eorumdem xxxiii s 
Item in vn pellibus cervinis emptis pro libris praedictis 
cooperiendis . ' . . . . . xiii 8 iiii 

The following are specimens of the cost of other books for 
the use of the library and school. 

10, 11 Henry IV. 

In I libro grammaticali voc' " Papiae " 2 empto hoc anno de Magistro 
Joanni Melton 3 in festo Sc'e Katerinae et A.D. MCCCCIX, xxxiii 8 iii d 

In dicto libro et i altero libro voc. " Hugonis" 4 pelle vitulina cooperiendis 
cum clapsula ad idem, xx d . 

1 Henry V. 

In soluto cuidam scriptori de Abbatia Sc'e Marie pro scriptura n qua- 
ternorum de libro Moralium abbreviate per Magistrum Joannem Elmer : * 
capienti pro scriptura cujuslibet quaterni, ii s iiii d . 

In soluto eidem scriptori pro scriptura xvi quaternorum et dimidii de 
libro prsedicto Moralium et al' : qui capit pro quolibet quaterno, ii s ; 
simul cum v 8 , pro ix quaternis pergameni ab eodem emptis pro dictis 
libris, xxxviii 8 . 

The date of the roll, from which the following extracts on the same 
subject are taken, is obliterated ; but it belongs to the reign of Henry V. 

In soluto dno Joanni Smyth pro duobus partibus de Lira 6 abbreviatis per 
magistrum Job. Elmer, ix 1 vi s viii d . In una alia parte de Lira super 
quatuor evangelistas non abbreviata : emp. Iiii 8 iiii d . In uno libro decre- 

2 This was probably the " Elementarium attend to. He was also one of the execu- 
doctrinse, sive vocabularium " of Papias tors of the Bishop's Will. 

the Grammarian, a native of Lombardy, 6 Nicholas de Lira, born at Lire, in the 

called Vocabulista, from this work. He diocese of Evreux, of Jewish parents, 

flourished about the middle of the llth On his conversion to Christianity, he 

century. assumed the habit of the Minorites in the 

3 John Melton was the first Head convent of Verneuil. He was afterwards 
Master of the School. appointed a Professor of Theology in the 

4 Probably a work of Hugo de Sancto University of Paris, where be delivered 
Victore. lectures on the Holy Scriptures, in the 

John Elmer was deputed, together with Franciscan convent, and afterwards pub- 

Dr. Nicholas Wykeham, A.D. 1402 3, to lished two commentaries, one on the text 

administer the affairs of the See of Win- of Scripture; the other, practical. He was 

chester, which the age and infirmities of selected as one of the executors of Joan of 

Wm. of Wykeham rendered him unable to France. He died A.D. 1 340. Cave. Hist. Lit. 


talium emp. hoc anno xxxiii 8 iiii d . In uno alio libro voc. " Innocens cum 
duobus doctoribus," xiii 8 iiii d . In uno libro vocato " Magister Senten- 
tiarum," cum I quaterno continent! " Speculum penitentiae," 7 xxiii 8 iiii d . 
In uno alio libro voc. " Soliloquium ;" 8 cum altero Hbello vocato " Dialogus, " 
vii s . In uno libro 9 de sex verbis Dni in cruce empt. vi s x d . In uno missali 
empt. apud Seinte Cros Juxta Wynton, xxx 8 . In uno manual! empt. quod 
liberatur ad ecclesiam de Titteley, xi s iiii d . In soluto pro scriptura 
xiii quaternorum de libris moralium abbreviatis per magistrum Johannem 
Elmer, xxvi s . In soluto pro scriptura vii quaternorum et dimidii unius 
libri vocati, " Angelicus super Joannem " abbreviati per dictum Mag. Job. 
Elmer una cum xv pellibus vituiinis empt. ab eodem, xvii 8 vii d ob. In 
soluto pro notatione cujusdam manualis simul cum crucifixo in eodem 
faciendo, iii 8 . 

The next extracts which I shall give, relate to the costs incurred in 
providing materials for, and in the sculpture, painting, <kc., of a set of 
images for the rood loft of the chapel, in the 3 <k 4 Henry IV. 

In soluto pro sculptura imaginum Crucifixi B. Marise et Sci Joannis una 
cum meremio empt. pro eisdem London,' quse stare debent in Capella, 
Ixviii 8 iiii d . 

Et pro factura patibuli Crucifixi, et pro meremio empt. pro eodem, xxii 8 . 

Et pro pictura imaginum et patibuli sive crucis prsedictaB, iiii l x s iiii d . 

Et pro portatione prsedictarum imaginum et crucis ad maims artificum 
ad di versa loca London,' una cum expensis unius hominis pro dictis 
operibus, vii 8 . 

Et pro una domo conducta ad conservandas dictas imagines post 
depictionem, xii d . 

Et in tribus cases factis de tabulis ad imponendas dictas imagines cum 
clavis pro eisdem empt. et pro panno lineo pro eisdem involvendis pro 
eorum (sic) indempnitate tempore cariagii, xiiii 8 ii d . 

Et pro cariagio praedictarum imaginum et crucis a London' usque 
Wynton, xvi a iiii d . 

Et in soluto Will'mo Ikenham pro factura trium bases ligneorum pro 
dicta cruce et prsedictis imaginibus ponendis, una cum positione earundem 
super dictas bases, xx 8 . 

I shall confine the extracts from the Custus Capellse to one or two items 
relating to a few matters required for the services ; after noticing one 
which satisfactorily fixes the date of a portion of the buildings of the 
College, which, on very insufficient grounds, have sometimes been assigned 
to a later period, and other benefactors than the sole and munificent Founder 
of the two St. Mary Winton Colleges. It runs thus : 

18, 19 Ric. II. 

In expensis suffraganei dm Episcopi Wynton', existentis in Collegio cum 

7 This may have been a tract written were once in the Library of New College, 

under this title by William de Monte, or Pitseus, p. 285. 

Montibus, a native of Leicester, Professor 8 Two treatises under these titles, once 

of Theology at Oxford, and Canon and assigned to St. Augustine, were rejected 

Chancellor of Lincoln, where he died, as spurious by the Benedictine editors, 

and was buried in the cathedral, Reg. and placed by them in the Appendix of 

Joh. He seems to have been a voluminous the 6th Vol. of his Works, 
writer. A work of his called " Summa 9 Arnold Abbat of Bonneval, diocese 

brevis," and another called " Summa of Chartres, wrote a tract under this title, 

numerorum," in twelve books in MS., Flourished A.D. 1162. Care. Hixt. Lit. 


familia et equis suis per quinque dies tempore consecratiouis Capellse et 
Cimiterii et Claustri Collegii Winton, die Sabbati in festo Sc'i Kenelmi 
(July 17, 1396); una cum expensis aliorum extraneorum supervenientium 
per vices, et pro die principal! confectionis specialiter invitatis, una cum 
don is datis diversis de familia prsedicti suffraganei, xlix s v d ob. 

The suffragan, to whom William of Wykeham gave his commission to 
consecrate the Chapel, Cloister, and Cemetery of his newly finished College 
at Winchester, was Simon, bishop of Aghadoe, in Ireland. The late 
Bishop Milner, Vicar-Apostolical, in his History of Winchester, as also the 
anonymous author of an older history, have supposed that the Cloisters of 
Winchester College were not the work of Wykeham, and have assigned 
them to Fromond, the founder of the Chantry Chapel, which stands within 
them : they were probably misled by the terms of the commission issued 
to the bishop of Aghadoe, a copy of which is preserved in Wykeham 's 
Register, and the original itself in the muniment room of the College. In 
this no mention is made of the Cloisters, and the Cemetery is spoken of as 
"locus in Cimiterium destinatus." They inferred from this that the 
Cloisters had not yet been built. The extract given above, with many 
others in these rolls, relating to repairs done to the Cloisters anterior to the 
time of Fromond's building, prove beyond a doubt that the Cloisters are 
the work of Wykeham himself. 

The following charge occurs in the roll of 12, 13 Henry IV. 

In rewardo dato Joanni Berton pro scriptura historise Corporis Christi, 
et See' Anne, et pro duplicatione eorumdem, una cum ympnis, et aliis 
correctionibus factis per eundem in diversis libris, iii 8 iiii d . 

In the 2 & 3 Henry V., we meet with the cost of some beautiful frontels 
for the high, and the two inferior altars of the Chapel. 

In soluto Joanni Halle Mercier, London' pro duobus frontellis de albo 
fustian pro summo altari' operatis in medio imagine Crucifixi, Marie et 
Joannis, et pulverizatis cum rosis rubris ; ac quatuor frontellis de eodem 
panno simili modo operatis et pulverizatis, pro altaribus inferioribus, Ixv s . 

In the 4 Henry VI., the following charges occur under this head. 

In cordulis et splintris emp. pro sepulchro Dfiico, vi d . 

In solut. pro factura quatuor amiciarum, cum iiii a datis clerico Prioris 
Sci' Swithini temp, benedictionis earumdem, vi d . 

In solut. pro I cressant de argento deaurato pro eucharistia supportanda 
in pixide de crystal, habente in pondere, xiii d , cum viii d pro factura, xxii d . 

In solut. Thomse Smyth pro xxm pynnes ferreis pro cruce triangulari 
ordinat. pro candelis infigendis tribus noctibus ante Pascha, xii d . 

The charges under the head of the Cost of the Hall contain nothing 
that need be cited, except the following, which occurs twice in the 8 and 9 of 
Henry IV., and 3 of Henry VI. 

In viridibus candelis et ramis arborum empt' erga festum Nat' Sc'i 
Joannis Baptist* xiii d . 

I have not met with anything that throws light upon the practice of 
burning green candles on this festival. 

Amongst the charges, which occur under the head of Gifts, are many 
items, constantly recurring, for presents given to the officers of justice, 
and administrators of the law, in order to secure their friendship and good- 
will in matters affecting the interests of the College. The recipients of 
these gifts are generally the sheriff, or his deputy, or the jury ; but some- 
times offerings are made to persons far higher than they. The Admiral of 


England, the King's justices, and even, in one instance, the Archbishop of 
Canterbury himself, deigned to accept gifts offered to secure their good 
offices. It may be observed that these gifts are certainly not mere fees of 
office, for they are generally not sums of money, but gloves, wine, fruit, 
fish, or other delicacies ; and they are always entered as given to such and 
such a person " ut favorabilis esset," or " pro amicitia suahabenda." The 
Admiral accepted vi 8 viii d as his douceur. The undersheriff of Berkshire 
on one occasion seems to have been very hard to buy. In the 6 and 7 
Henry IV., in a matter concerning the Manor of Shawe, then the property 
of the College, he received first a pair of gloves, price viii d , " ut favorabilis 
esset;" a little after, vi 8 viii d was paid him, " pro amicitia sua h abend a ; " 
again he received the same sum, " ut favorabilior esset;" then another 
pair of gloves and wine, which cost xii d , " pro amicitia sua ; " and yet again 
vi 8 viii d for the same object. The favour and friendship of this officer had 
to be purchased at the cost of a mark and a half in money, a large sum for 
those days. But the friendship and favour of the Archbishop of Canterbury 
was rated at a much higher value. I will quote the item, which is as follows : 

In quodam dono dat. Dfio Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi pro bona adjuvatione 
sua habenda de exoneratione decimse concessse Diio Regi per clerum in 
convocatione celebrata London' dec' oct' die Nov. una cum x a dat' 
cuidam clerico die' Dili Archiepiscopi pro sollicitatione sua habenda ad 
prffldictum Diim Archiep'm, ex 8 . (4 Henry V.) 

This was Archbishop Chichele, himself a son of Wykeham, and an 
imitator of his munificent example. We can scarcely suppose that it was 
necessary to secure by a bribe the friendship and influence of one who had 
been himself a recipient of Wykeham's bounty, in a matter affecting the 
interests of one of his colleges. We must rather believe that it would have 
been thought discourteous to refuse, what was offered as a compliment. 
Nor, indeed, ought we to judge of these gifts in general, according to our 
modern notions of what is becoming to the character of public officers. It 
is well, indeed, that such practices have been done away ; but it is probable 
that, when they were in vogue, they did not much interfere with the due 
course of justice. Gifts, no doubt, were offered by both sides in a suit, and 
were considered rather as matters of courtesy and compliment, than us 
likely to bias the minds of jrablic officers ; though, at the same time, it 
would probably have been very impolitic in either party to withhold them. 

The gifts charged under the various items of this head are of a very 
miscellaneous character. There are frequent payments made to minstrels, 
dancers, and players, for entertaining (solaciantibus) the members of the col- 
lege on some of the great festivals of the Church. Sometimes these persons 
are described as the minstrels, or players of the city of Winchester, and other 
places; sometimes they appear as attached to the suite of some great person 
visiting Winchester, for instance, 4 Henry V., occurs the following : 

In dato im ministrallis Diii Humfredi ducis Gloucestrie ven' ad Col- 
legium xiiii 10 die Feb., iii s iiii d . 

The minstrels of the Lord Cardinal Beaufort, and of his sister, the 
Countess of Westmoreland, were hired in the same manner. The feast of 
the holy Innocents was usually enlivened in this way; on which occasion the 
boys of the school took part in the entertainment, under their Boy Bishop. 
As an instance of this, the following item occurs, in the time of Henry V. : - 

In dato diversis hominibus de Ropley, in festo Sc'or' Innocentium tri- 
pidiantibus, et cantantibus cantilenas in Aula coram Episcopo Scolarium xx d . 


The Bishop of Winchester was a frequent recipient of presents from the 
College. Possibly the countenance and protection of so powerful a prelate 
as Henry Beaufort was of great service to the foundation of his munificent 
predecessor ; and he seems to have felt an extraordinary degree of interest 
in its welfare, and to have befriended and supported it with all his influence. 
It is clear that he maintained the most friendly intercourse with the College, 
which was acknowledged by liberal presents. Charges very frequently 
occur for the purchase of dainties for the Bishop's table while he sojourned 
at Wolvesey. Fish, salted and fresh, meat, fowls, fruits, and preserves, 
all procured at a great expense by means of special messengers from the 
markets which were in best repute for any particular article ;' while the 
most sedulous attention seems to have been given to ascertain what delicacies 
would be most acceptable to the Bishop. Occasionally his cook, John 
Rymayn, is consulted on this point, and he has a fee for his advice. On 
one occasion the Bishop is presented with hunting gear, the cost of which is 
found in the undated roll of t. Henry V. The items are as follows : 

In xn arcubus empt. apud London, mense Maio pro dno Epo' Wynton, 
et familia sua, ad dandum inter eosdem temp, venationis in diversis parcis 
suis comitatus Suthamptonise, xxii s viii d . In vi duodenis sagittarum 
pennis pavonum et aliarum volucrum pennatis, emptis eodein tempore pro 
dno Epo', xviii s ii d . In vi duodenis capitum barbillatorum, emptorum 
pro dictis sagittis eodem tempore, viii 8 viii d . In uno Wardebras argenteo 
et deaurato, pendente duas uncias, unum quartron : una cum factura et 
deauratione ejusdem, xi 8 vi d . In uno lase serico viridis coloris cum uno 
knapp de goldwyr, iiii d . In xn huyres emptis ibidem ad dandum inter 
clericos suos ibidem eodem tempore, viii s vi d . In cistis et coffyns empt. 
pro dictis donis emptis London, imponendis et cariandis de London' usque 
Wynton, xxiii d . 

Mention occurs elsewhere of arrows feathered with peacock's plumage, 
probably esteemed as more choice than common feathers. John Palman, 
in 1436, bequeaths to his son " j. arcum optimum cum j. sheef arrowys de 
pecok." Wills and Invent. Surtees Soc. vol. 1, p. 87. Amongst the 
stores of Bp. Waynflete, at Farnham Castle, 1471, were " sagittae magnae 
barbatse cum pennis pavouum." Lydgate mentions such arrows, Chron. 
of Troy, B. iii., c. 22. The green silk lace, with a knop of gold wire, 
was possibly the " arrow girdle," by which arrows were carried at the 
left side. The Bishop's silver-gilt " wardebras," the gardebras, or bracer, 
to protect the left arm, was of singularly costly material. Its form is 
well shown by a drawing in the Louterell Psalter, copied in Vetusta Monum. 
vol. vi., pi. 24. These items recall Chaucer's description of the Squire's 
" Yeman :" 

" A shefe of peacock arwes bright and kene, 
Under his belt he bare ful thriftily ; 
Upon his arme he bare a gaie bracer." 

Prologue, Canterbury Tales, v. 104. 

The prelate's clerici received some kind of cap as a gratification on this 
occasion. The term " huyre " is of uncommon occurrence. A Petition 
of the Commons, 22 Edw. IV., 1482, may be found in the Rolls of 

1 salted lampreys, and salmon, Salisbury. Horses for the use of the 
were procured from Gloucester ; perch College were purchased at the fair of 
and tench from Oxford ; crabs from Amesbury. 


Parliament, respecting the deterioration of the quality of " Huers, bonettes 
and cappes," alleged to have arisen from the use of fulling mills. 2 A 
cap, or a livery hood, it will be remembered, was a customary present at 
the period, a little gratuity or annual retaining gift, as appears by the 
various Statutes against Maintenance. 

Proofs are found in these rolls of the excitement, in which the country 
bordering on the sea coast of the south of England was kept by alarms of 
attacks from the French, during the wars of Henry V. The College was 
often obliged to incur the expense of sending men-at-arms to assist in the 
defence of the country, in their Manor of Hamble, now known as Hamble- 
le-Rice, situate at the mouth of the Southampton Water. I may cite as an 
instance the following, which occurs in the 4th of Henry V. : 

In expensis dni Willelmi Hayne, Walteri Harley, Magistri Will'mi 
Grover, et aliorum de Collegio equitantium et peditantium ad Hamele in 
le Rys, et ibidem existentium per mi dies pro defensione patriae contra 
iniinicos diii Regis et regni sui et totius patriae, una cum expensis Walteri 
Wallyngford et aliorum hominum secum peditantium ad Hamele praedictam 
pro simili causa, alia vice, et ultra expcasas factas et solutas per Rob. 
Tichfeld firmarium ibidem, x s ix d ob. In cordulis et capitibus sagittarum 
empt. eod. temp, xii d . In dato ill tenentibus de Roppele existent, apud 
Hamele praedicta, per unum diem et unam noctem post recessum hostium, 
pro majore securitate, <kc., xii d . 

In the same year, the following liberal gratuity was given to the mes- 
senger, who brought to the College the tidings of the glorious victory of 
Agincourt. It will be observed that the terms, in which the entry is made, 
show the astonishment excited in England at the vast number of prisoners 
taken in that battle. It is as follows : 

In dato Joanni Coudray, filioEdw. Coudray, armigero Dni Epo' Wynton: 
deferenti novos rumores ad Collegium de ultra mare, de ducibus, comitibus, 
baronibus, militibus et aliis generosis de Francia captis per Dnm Regem 
nostrum nunc Angliae, in quodam bello facto apud Agyncourt in Picardia 
in festo Sc'orum Crispin! et Crispiniani, anno regni sui 3 tl0 et usque in 
Angliam postea cum dicto Dno Rege ductis, vi s viii d . 

I shall conclude with a few extracts taken from a roll, headed, Expensa 
ultra onera consueta ah anno Regni Ric. 2 ndi , xviii usque annum Regni Hen. 
4 ti . 4 tum . The first item which I shall cite is the cost of a pair of Organs : 

In I pari organorum emptorum anno Reg. Hen. 4 to cum cariagio a 
London, vi Ub iii s iiii d . 

There is nothing in the cost of such organs to put them out of the reach 
of many a church, and religious house. Yet it would seem that such 
instruments in those days were either not to be met with everywhere ; or that 
there must have been something peculiarly good in the College organs, for 
they were frequently borrowed by the Bishop of Winchester, and sent to 
him at his residence at Waltham, and even so far as Farnham and High 
Clere. In the 8th of Henry IV., the following charge occurs in the 
Bursar's roll : In expensis vi scolarium deferentium organa de Collegio 
usque hospitium dni Epi' de Waltham, ix d ob. In 2nd of Hen. V. they 
had been sent to the Bishop at Farnham, as appears by the following : 

In expensis clericorum et puerorum Collegii cariantium organa Collegii 

2 Parl. Rolls, vol. vi., p. 223. TheProinp- and purses bought at London for presents, 

torium Parvulorum gives " Huwyr (al. is the item " In vi. huyres cappes empt', 

Hurwyr,) Tena." In the Bursar's Roll, pro donis dandis, iiii'." 
12, 13 Hen. IV., above cited, with gloves 


de Farnham usque Collegium Wynton, ii 8 iiii d . The followiiig extract, 
from the undated roll of Henry V., shows us how they were carried, and 
protected during the carriage : 

In panno lineo empto pro organis Collegii cooperiendis cariandis usque 
Clere xx d . In dicto panno incerando xx d . In II baculis fraxine'is pro 
eisdem organis portandis viii d . 

The following extracts from this roll of extraordinary expenses would be 
of considerable value, if the churches, to which they refer, had not sub- 
sequently undergone, as I fear is the case with most of them, very consider- 
able alterations, and in some cases total destruction. In order to explain 
how these charges occur among the expenses of Winchester College, I 
may observe that the Founder, when he transferred to his Colleges the 
rectories and manors, which he had purchased of certain foreign abbeys, 
with a view to their endowment, required of them that they should put the 
chancels of the churches into thorough repair, and even rebuild them if 
necessary. This was accordingly done at Harmondsworth, Isleworth, 
Heston, Hampton, and Twickenham, in Middlesex ; and at Hamble and 
Hound in Hampshire. The five first mentioned places ceased to be the 
property of the College in the time of Henry VIII., who took them in 
exchange for other properties, which had belonged to suppressed monas- 
teries : 

In soluto pro operibus novi (sic) cancelli (sic) ecclesise de Harmondsworth 
factis annis praedictis, (scil. 20, 21, Ric. II.) una cum vitriatione mi 
fenestrarum, et cum expensis dedicationis ejusdem cancelli Ixviii u 
iii 8 ob. 

Item solut' pro operibus cancellarum (sic) novarum (sic) de Heston et 
Iselworth cum vitriatione nn fenestrarum et dedications earumdem, prseter 
c 8 receptos de Cotfre dni, ut patet in compute de annis xxii do et xxiii tio 
iiii xx xiiii K . 

Item solut' pro operibus murorum cancelli novi (sic) factis apud Hampton 
in Com' Middlesex' una cum expensis factis pro materia providenda 
pro cancello de Twickenham ut patet, <fcc. (1, 2, Hen. IV.), lxvi h . 

nil 8 vn 


Item in nova constructione tecti ejusdem cancelli de Hampton et 
vitriatione v fenestrarum ejusdem (3, 4, Hen. IV.), xii u : xiii 8 : vi d . 

Item in nova constructione cancelli de Twickenham prseter vitriationem 
fenestrarum, quse adhuc non est facta, ut patet, &c., xxxii a : xii s : vii d . 

Item solut' pro operibus factis in Ecclesia de Hamele, et in nova con- 
structione tecti ecclesise ibidem, ut patet in compute de annis reg' Hen. 
3 et 4 prseter expensas novi columbarii ibidem facti, quod computatur 
inter opera dni, xvii u vii s i d . 

The charges of the repairs of this church, with its dependent chapels 
of Hound, Bursledon, and Letley, hodie Netley, extend over several 
years, and are accounted for by the Bursar among the ordinary expenses. 
In 12 and 13 of Hen. IV., there is a charge of xiii s , paid to the suffragan 
of the Bishop of Winchester for the consecration of the altars of the 
chapel of Bursledon, and Letley ; and a similar charge in the undated roll 
of Henry V. for the consecration of altars at Hound and Bursledon. 

In the same year the bell tower of the church of Hamble-le-Rice 
underwent very considerable repairs, if, indeed, it was not entirely rebuilt, 
the materials for which were provided at the following cost: 

In in duodenis de bordes, et tribus plankes emp' per Will m Ikenham 


apud Allyngton pro campanili de Hamele xiii 8 , cum cariagio. In soluto 
Waltero Leeche de Wathe pro batillagio xxv ponderum dolii de Greneston 
de Wathe prsedicto usque caiam 3 de Hamele pro campanili ibidem, continen- 
tium CXXXVIH pecia, quae continent de pedibus ccc pedes, pretium pedis 
quadrati ii d , ultra xxvi 8 viii d receptos per Will' Mason de Roberto 
Tichefeld anno proximo prseterito, xliii 8 . 

The bells for this tower had been provided before, in the 1st of 
Henry V., as appears by the following : In denariis liberatis Ric' Brasier 
de Wykeham pro tribus novis campanis factis pro ecclesia de Hamele, ultra 
tres veteres campanas, ut in partem solut', xl *. 



Inventory taken about the year 1455. 

The following document may not inappropriately be appended to the 
interesting extracts for which the Society is indebted to Mr. Gunner. It 
is found in a Register amongst the College Muniments, containing lists of 
the Wardens, inventories of books, sacred ornaments, furniture, <fcc. These 
were taken a few years after the decease of Robert Thurnberne, Warden 
from 1413 to 1450. The following list occurs after household effects : 


Item, xlvj. de Basnettes et Palettes cum xxxiij. Ventall'. Item, ij.par' 
de Plates integ' coopert' cum blod' velvett', quorum j. cum Frenge de 
serico. Item, vij. Brestplates cum iiij. Pusiones. Item, viij. par' Rere- 
brases et ij. pro j. arm'. Item, viij. vambrases, cum iiij. par' de leg barneys 
et j. leg' cum Cusshu. Item, ij. par' de Sabaturez cum vj. par' cirothe- 
carum. Item, xv. lorice, cum xiij. Pollaxes, unde xij. de una et eadein 
secta. Item, xij. archus (sic) novi. Item, iij. shefes sagittarum. Item, 
j. Gesarme, et j. Barelle pro loricis purgandis. 

It would be curious to ascertain what had at any period been the number 
of men for whom equipment was kept in the armory. We find a dispro- 
portionate number of head-pieces, not fewer than forty-six, and a slender 
supply of body-armour, with few weapons ; a dozen new bows had been 
provided, with a modicum of arrows. It is clear that there was slight fear 
of hostile aggressions at that time. 

There occur here some terms of military costume, which will be 
interesting to some of our readers. We find Palettes, not, as Sir Samuel 
Meyrick somewhat hastily surmised, round plates for the shoulder-joint, like 
a painter's palette, but head-pieces ; the pelluris, galea ex toreo et pelle, 
a defence, no doubt, of cuir bouilli. There were pusiones, or Pisans, not 
made at Pisa, but defences, as Mr. Hudson Turner well observes, for the 
pis, or breast. For the thighs of the collegiate guard there was small 
protection, the harness for one leg only having a quisshew, or cuissart. 
Hauberks there were fifteen, with a barrel in which they were cleansed from 
rust by rolling, the customary expedient, of which mention is made in other 
documents. A. W. 

3 Kaia, or Caia, Sax. cseg, a quay (Spelman). Hamble is situate near the mouth of 
a small sestuary, 011 the N. side of the Southampton Water. 

at tfy Jfflectings of tfje ^rdjaeologfeal Institute. 

JANUARY 3, 1851. 
FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq., F.S.A., in the Chair. 

MR. T. HUDSON TURNER communicated a memoir entitled " Unpublished 
Notices relating to the Times of Edward I." It will be found in this 
volume, p. 45. 

The REV. E. L. CUTTS gave a detailed account of an ancient mansion 
near Farnborough, in Kent, called Franks ; and he submitted to the 
meeting numerous drawings, plans and elevations, illustrative of that inte- 
resting example of the domestic architecture of the sixteenth century. 

DR. THURNAM brought before the society a remarkable object of bronze, 
(see woodcut,) of a type hitherto known only by one other example ; and 
which, as far as can be ascertained, does not occur in any continental col- 
lection. He gave the following particulars relative to its discovery : 

" The bronze object now exhibited was obtained from a labourer in 
Farndale, Yorkshire, N.R., by whom it had been found in the year 1849, 
whilst engaged in removing the stones from a cairn on the high moorland 
to the west of that dale. He stated that it was found near the bottom of 
the cairn, concealed in the cavity of a hollowed stone, which again was 
covered by a flat stone. Whether these stones and the object which they 
concealed had been placed near the centre or the exterior of the cairn did 
not appear. When found, it was stated to have contained ' nothing but a 
sort of ashes like decayed paper.' No other object, it was stated, has yet 
been found in this cairn ; which, however, has probably been only in part 
removed. Like an adjacent remarkable cairn, known by the name of 
' Hobthrush, or Hobtrush Rook,' which was examined several years since 
by some members of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, it had probably 
been erected over a stone cist, which may, as in that instance, have been 
surrounded by two concentric circles of stones. Rook, in the local dialect, 
signifies a heap of any kind. 

" The probable conclusion is, that this curious object had been deposited 
in the place where it was found merely for the purpose of concealment, and 
that the cairn is of an earlier date. 

"In the year 1837, in an ancient stone-quarry at Thorngrafton, near 
Hexham, in Northumberland, an object of the same kind was discovered. 
This has been figured by Mr. Akerman, in his ' Roman Coins relating to 
Britain,' and again by Mr. Bruce in his recent work on ' The Roman Wall.' 
Mr. Bruce describes it as a skiff-shaped vessel, or receptacle, about six inches 
long, with a circular handle. Like that from Farndale, it has a lid with a 
hinge at one end, and fastens with a spring at the other. In the Farndale 
example the spring or bolt has been lost, but the adjustment connected with 
it. and the hole into which the fastenings may have closed, are to be seen. 

" In that from Thorngrafton were sixty-five Roman gold and silver coins, 
chiefly of the emperors, from Claudius to Hadrian. There can, I conceive, 
be little doubt that we here have examples of a species of Roman purse, 


Bronze relic, found in a cairn, in Yorkshire. 

Bronze celt, in the possession of Mr. Brackstone. 
(See p. 91.) 


a marsupium or crumena, of a description apparently unknown before the 
discovery of the specimens under consideration. To borrow a name from 
mediaeval costume, we may perhaps term it a Roman-British gypsere. The 
exact mode in which such a receptacle was used is not very evident ; it 
appears but ill-adapted for being worn about the person, either as attached 
to the girdle or in any other way." 

The dimensions of this very curious object are as follow : greatest 
diameter, measured across the handle, 4i in. ; greatest breadth of the 
lower part, or receptacle, measured across its cover, 2 T 6 ff in. ; breadth of the 
cover itself, 2 in. ; diameter, from top of the handle to the lowest edge, or 
keel, of the receptacle, 4 in. All the inside edges of the handle are 
smoothly rounded off, and apparently worn by use ; it seems possible that 
it might have been worn passed over the arm, and by this means the oper- 
culum would be kept securely in place, without risk of the monies falling 
out. No indication, however, of any such purse having been formerly in 
use has been discovered. The only objects bearing any resemblance to 
these bronze marsupia, noticed hitherto, are the little coffers (if they may 
be regarded as such) with one handle, carried in the left hand, as seen on 
several Gaulish sepulchral sculptures found in Burgundy or Lorraine. This 
has been usually explained by French antiquaries to be a little bucket 
(seau), possibly because the other hand usually holds a kind of cup. They 
are occasionally rectangular, and appear much more like a casket for pre- 
cious objects than a seau. One of them, communicated by Calmet to 
Montfaucon, resembles a small basket ; and, with the exception that the 
bottom is flat, has considerable analogy with the objects under consideration. 1 

MB. W. H. CLARKE communicated a notice, accompanied by a drawing, 
relative to a small effigy of stone, supposed to represent one of the Vavasour 
family, which was placed in a niche in one of the buttresses at the east end 
of York Minster, being that nearest the north-east angle of the fabric. An 
escutcheon of the arms of Vavasour (a fesse dancetty) was affixed to the 
side of the niche, as shown in Britton's view of the east end, in his History 
of York Cathedral, Plate XI., and described at p. 45. Of this escutcheon, 
a drawing was sent by Mr. Clarke. The figure had been taken down, 
about November last, the restoration of the east end, now for several years 
in progress, having reached that part. It is intended to restore it by as 
exact a copy as can be produced. The effigy measures about 6 feet in 
height and 20 inches across the body ; it had been repaired with cement, 
and is in a very defaced condition. The right hand rests upon the hilt of 
the sword. The Presbytery appears to have been erected between 1361 
and 1370, and the choir from 1380 to 1400 ; the great eastern window- 
being glazed in 1405. The frequent benefactions of the family of Vavasour, 
of Hazelwood Hall, near Tadcaster, appear by various statements in 
Browne's valuable History of the Minster ; and it is stated especially that 
on several occasions they gave stone for the fabric from the quarries of 
Thevesdale, situate on the Vavasour estates. About 1225, Robert le 
Vavasour granted free passage for that purpose, as often as there should bo 
occasion to repair or enlarge the church; 2 and about 1302 and 1311, 
Sir William le Vavasour gave ample license for the supply of stone for 

1 See Mongez, Recueil d'Antiquites, The grant of Robert de Percy, conceding 
pi. 303 ; Montfaucon, t. iii., pi. 48; t. v., free passage for the transport of the stone 
pi. 36 ; and Supp., t. iii., liv. i., c. 9. from Tadcaster, may be found, ibid., 

2 Mon. Angl., vol. iii., p. 162, orig. edit. p. 163. 



various works. The liberality of the family was entitled to some conspi- 
cuous memorial, 3 and, accordingly, over the great western door is found an 
effigy with the arms of Vavasour, placed with the statues of Archbishop 
Melton and of Robert de Percy. In the hands of the first is seen a rough 
block of ashlar, commemorative of the especial benefaction already men- 
tioned. These effigies on the west front had been restored by Michael 
Taylor, a sculptor of York, during the renovation of that end of the 
Minster, carried out from about 1802 to 1816. At the east end, were 
likewise figures commemorative of the liberality of these families, one with 
the arms of Percy being at the south-east angle. 

MB. WATERHOUSE, of Dublin, communicated a notice of an unique fibula, 
discovered near Drogheda. He had most kindly brought the original to 
the apartments of the Institute, that members of the Society might have 
the gratification of examining this precious relic ; but, being under the 
necessity of returning forthwith to Ireland, he had left for exhibition at this 
meeting an elaborate drawing, which he also presented to the Society. 
Dr. Petrie, in a Report to the Royal Irish Academy, had assigned this 
brooch to the eleventh, or early part of the twelfth, century. The material 
he considered to be "white bronze," a compound of copper and tin, 
resembling silver ; and the enrichments are of the most elaborate variety, 
comprising examples of enamelled work and of niello ; interlacements and 
designs of most intricate character, of which not less than seventy-six 
varieties occur ; and there are small human heads, cut or cast, with mar- 
vellous delicacy, the material amber-coloured, and supposed to be glass. 
This type of fibula, consisting of a ring, highly enriched with ornament, 
upon which the acus moves freely, is known by examples already published 
by Col. Vallancey and other antiquaries. 4 It has been admirably illustrated 
by Mr. Fairholt, in a memoir on Irish fibulae, in the Transactions of the 
Archaeological Association, at their Gloucester Congress. Dr. Petrie 
considers this type to be peculiarly Irish, but common to Scotland, as also, 
it has been stated, to the Moorish tribes of Africa. A peculiarity of the 
noble specimen in Mr. Waterhouse's possession consists in its having a 
silver chain attached, of the construction usually known as " Trichinopoly 
work," which is supposed to have served as a guard to keep the acus in its 
proper position, and ensure the safety of this rich ornament. This chain 
is unfortunately broken ; it is conjectured that a pipe or socket was attached 
to its extremity to receive the point of the long acus. 

Lord TALBOT DE MALAHIDE observed that he had been assured that there 
is a mixture of metals in this remarkable fibula : it is not wholly of white 
bronze ; portions are of lead, upon which the exquisite filagree work was 
attached. It had been called in Ireland the " Royal Tara Brooch," but 
there is, in fact, no evidence as to the place of its discovery. It had been 
brought by a poor woman into Drogheda, and sold for a few shillings to a 
silversmith : every attempt to ascertain where it had been found proved 

M. PCLSKI remarked that he recognised this form of brooch as occasion- 

* A singular tradition, it is stated, * Some specimens of analogous type, 

exists in Yorkshire, that of certain pri- but less richly ornamented than those 

vileges belonging to the chief of the found in Ireland, have occurred in Eng- 

Vavasour family, of Hazelwood : one is land. See one figured in this Journal, 

this, that he may ride on horseback into vol. vi., p. 70. 
York Minster. See Notes and Queries, 
vol. ii., p. 326. 


No. 1. Unique bronze celt. No. '2. Bronze chiael. (Both in Mus. R. I. Acad.) 
No. 3 Bronze chisel, in collection of Mr. W. F. Wakeman, Dublin. 

All oforig. size. 



ally found amongst the rich ornaments of the Etruscans. He believed that 
some of very similar character are preserved in the collection of the Prince 
of Canino. 

&nttqwtto$ airtf 

of art CFrfitbttrtf. 

By MR. G. Du NOYER. Representations of two remarkable bronze celts, 
of types which he regarded as unique ; one of them (see the woodcuts) was 
found in Yorkshire, the blade is solid (dia- 
meter at the edge 2^ in.), the other extremity 
is a hollow socket to receive the haft. The 
length of this curious specimen is 6 inches. 
The second, in the Museum of the Royal 
Irish Academy, is of very peculiar form ; it 
is ornamented with engraved zigzag lines, 
and fretted work ; it presents, as Mr. Du 
Noyer observed, the combination of two fea- 
tures which he had never before seen united, 
namely, the lateral " stop-ridge," and the 
loops, to aid in fastening the implement to 
the haft. It is a valuable example, as showing 
the progressive development of ingenuity in 
the construction of these interesting objects. 
He produced, also, sketches of bronze imple- 
ments, various kinds of chisels, one of them 
socketed, in the possession of Mr. W. F. 
Wakeman ; the other, with a tang, for inser- 
tion into the handle, like a modern chisel. 
(See woodcuts.) This is in the Museum of 
the R. I. Academy. Similar bronze chisels 
were found in the hoard of celts, implements 
and broken metal, at Carlton Rode, Norfolk, 
in 1844. s 

By MR. BRACKSTONE. A bronze celt of 
very unusual type. (See the annexed repre- 
sentation.) A specimen of similar form, found 
in Norfolk, was exhibited in the Museum of 
the Institute, during the Norwich meeting, by 
Mr. Goddard Johnson. Another celt, pro- 
duced by Mr. Brackstone, was ornamented 
elaborately with engraved chevrony patterns. 

By THE HON. RICHARD NEVILLE. A small brass coin, recently found in 
the parish of Saffron Walden, Essex. The impression is not very distinct, 
but it is evidently the rare British coin attributed to Cunobeline, figured, 
from the specimen now preserved in the British Museum, in " Ruding's 
British Coins," Plate V., fig. 31. Obv. CVNO. Pegasus. Rev. TASCI. 
A winged figure apparently in the act of stabbing an ox. 

By MR. PHILIP DELAMOTTE. A gold pectoral cross, found at Witton, in 
Norfolk. In the centre is a medallion, apparently a cast, or imitative coin 
of the Emperor Heraclius I., with Heraclius Constantinus, his son. On 
the obverse appear two busts, full-faced ; on the reverse, a cross. Heraclius, 

* See a chisel of this kind figured in Bateman's Vestiges," Introd., p. 8. 

Bronze celt, found in Yorkshire. 
Length of orig. 6 inches. 


after causing Phocas to be beheaded, A.D. 610, was proclaimed Emperor of 
the East, and died A.D. 641. The limbs of the cross are of equal length, 
slightly dilated, and are enriched with pieces of bright red-coloured glass, 
forming a sort of mosaic, in the style of certain precious objects of the 
Carlovingian age. This is the second ornament, thus decorated, which has 
been found in Norfolk. A pendant medallion, set with a cast from a coin 
of the Emperor Mauricius, was discovered on the shore near Mundesley, 
and was presented by Miss Gurney to the British Museum. It is figured 
in the Archseologia, vol. xxxii, pi. vii. A representation of the cross will 
be given in the Transactions of the Norfolk Archaeological Society. 

By MR. FRANKS. A small enamelled plate of twelfth century champleve 
work, representing the Passover. One Israelite holding a basin filled with 
blood, inscribes a T (or tau) with a pen over a door, under which lies an 
animal recently slaughtered. Two other Israelites are in the act of eating 
the passover ; they hold clubs, and appear to be already on their march. 
Above appear the letters PHASE. Dimensions, 3 in. by 2 in. 

By MR. HENRY G. TOMKINS. Drawings, representing some curious 
sculptures, of the Norman period, at Bishop's Teignton church, Devon. 
One of them is now inserted in the south wall : it consists of four figures, 
in a small arcade of as many arches, and between each was originally a 
slender shaft, as shown by the capitals and bases which remain. A frag- 
ment of one of the shafts remains, and it is spirally moulded. The figures 
represent a female seated, seen in full-face ; three persons in long robes, 
the two first, wearing a kind of mitre, are viewed in profile, as if approaching 
to pay her homage. This sculpture appears to have been destined to fill 
the tympanum of a round-headed doorway. The arch-mouldings of a 
western door, at the same church, are very curious : they consist of 
grotesque heads twined with foliage, and cones of the pine, from which a bird, 
with the mandibles much curved, is pecking out the seeds. Under its feet 
is another cone. It may probably represent the cross-bill ; and Mr. Tomkins 
observed, that this bird was possibly introduced in decorations of a sacred 
nature, on account of the notion, of which he had hitherto only been able 
to discover a trace in the translation from the German " the Legend 
of the cross-bill," to be found in Longfellow's Poems. It would appear 
that a popular tradition attributed the curved bill and red-stained plumage 
of that bird, to its having attempted to relieve the Saviour's agony by 
wrenching out a nail from the cross, so that the wings were spotted with 
his blood. If this legend were anciently known in England, it is probable 
that representations of this bird may be found in the symbolical sculptures 
and decorations of other churches. The cross-bill, it should be observed, 
lives in the pine-forests of Germany, and greedily extracts the seeds from 
the cones. 

By M. PPLSKI. A collection of beautiful drawings, representing ancient 
relics and objects of art, chiefly preserved in the Fejervary Cabinet, in Hun- 
gary. M. Pulski observed, that the inspection of the interesting exhibition 
of Ancient and Mediaeval Art, formed during the previous season at the 
Adelphi, and to which the members of the Institute largely contributed, 
had induced him to lay before the Society a selection of drawings of objects 
of similar nature existing in foreign countries. They comprised a series of 
examples of sculpture in ivory, beginning with a diptych, designed with 
singular grace and feeling, equal to the finest works of the sixteenth 
century ; but, possibly, of as early date as the fourth or fifth century. 


Amongst the numerous examples of later times, one drawing claimed the 
special attention of the English antiquary ; it was a tablet of ivory, a work 
of the fifteenth century, on which is sculptured a regal figure, with an 
escutcheon of the arms of France and England, quarterly, on each side, 
two attendants or pages near him. Above is inscribed, fljcnrtrus' fcet gra' 
continued thus, at the foot, Sing, et fra. fcotm' Ijtbmt'. This may 
have been intended to portray Henry VI. It was purchased at Venice. 
The latest specimen of these interesting works in ivory was a tankard, on 
which is sculptured in high relief a subject after one of the finest paintings 
by Rubens, stated to be in the Lichtenstein Gallery. M. Pulski produced, 
also, some exquisite drawings, representing vessels of fine mixed metal, 
chased and engraved with figures of men and animals, and enriched with 
gold and silver, and black enamel. They have excited much interest on 
the Continent, and various conjectures regarding their age and origin had 
been advanced : the Prince de Luynes had published a very curious example 
in the " Revue Archeologique. " M. Pulski supposed that some of these 
ancient vessels, with Cufic inscriptions and human figures, <fec., introduced 
in their decoration, are of Persian fabrication. Several very curious 
vases of metal, of similar workmanship, had been exhibited by Mr. Rohde 
Hawkins, at a previous meeting. 6 

By MR. YATES. A bronze object of unknown use, apparently a kind of 
double-edged axe ; it measures 12^ inches in length, the ends are sharpened, 
and measure 2|- inches in breadth, and the central part, which is perforated 
to receive a handle, is much narrower. M. Pulski stated that similar 
objects had been found in Hungary, but of smaller size ; he conceived that 
they had served as a kind of weapon. 

MR. YATES presented to the society, on the part of Mr. Wetherell, of 
Highgate, twelve of the curious " pipes," found at Whetstone, the use of 
which had been explained at the previous meeting. (See Journal, vol. vii. 
p. 397.) Mr. Yates stated that he had subsequently obtained four of these 
relics from another locality ; they had been found in Crutched Friars. He 
was inclined to think that some of these " pipes " might be as ancient as 
the times of Elizabeth and the days of Shakspere, to whom periwigs were 
not unknown, and who probably himself wore such disguises to aid the 
illusion of the stage. The expression, " periwig-pated fellow," used by 
Shakspere in reference to actors, would not be forgotten. 7 

By LORD TALBOT DE MALAHIDE. A little Manual of Prayers, enclosed 
in a binding of silver filagree work, enamelled with much elegance. 

By MR. N. T. WETHERELL. A hexagonal table-clock, of the latter part 
of the reign of Elizabeth, the works formed of brass. 

By MR. BERNHARD SMITH. A singular little hatchet, for "brittling," 
or cutting up, the deer. On one side is seen the stag at bay, speared by 
a hunter. On the other side are a gentleman and lady in converse, with a 
German inscription, and the date 1675. Erasmus, in his Praise of Folly, 
makes quaint allusion to the barbarous eagerness with which gentlemen 
devoted to the chase would fall upon the game to break it up, and take 
singular pride in skilfully dissecting it ; for this purpose various implements 
were carried in the equipment for the chase. Two handsome rapiers, and 

6 See Journal, vol. vi., p. 296. 

7 Hamlet, Act iii., Sc. 2. Periwigs are mentioned also in Two Gentlemen of 
Verona, Act iv., Sc. 4 ; Comedy of Errors, Act ii., Sc. 2. 


two hangers : one of them has the blade beautifully etched and inlaid with 
gold ; the other has the initial G., possibly of the time of George I. 

By MR. CHARLES TUCKER. Impression from the sepulchral brass of 
Sir John Arundel, at Stratton, Cornwall. The family had considerable 
possessions in that parish : the manor of Efford, or Ebbingford, passed by 
the heiress of the Durants to the Arundels of Trerice. The knight is 
represented in armour, his helmet on his head, and placed between his two 
wives. Their children, three sons (all now remaining) and seven daughters, 
are seen beneath. The inscription is as follows " Here lyeth buried Syr 
Joh'n Arundell Trerise knyght, who praysed be god Dyed in the lorde the 
xxv Daye of November, in the year of oure Lorde god a M. CCCCC Ixj. and 
in the iij** and vij. yeare of hys age. Whose Soule now Resteth wyth the 
faythfull Chrystians in our Lorde." There are two escutcheons of arms : 
on the first are, 1st. Sa. a wolf (?) between 6 swallows, ar. (Arundell). 
2d. Sa. 3 chevronels, ar. (Trerice). 3d. Ar. a bend engrailed, on a chief 
3 mullets or. 4th. Ar. a chevron between 3 stags. 5th. Ar. a lion ram- 
pant, debruised by a fess. 6th. A chevron or (?) between 3 bezants. On 
the second escutcheon are the same quarterings impaling three rests, or 
sufflues. (Grenville.) 

Sir John Arundell, of Lanherne, t. Edw. III., bore on his seal " a lion 
passant between 6 swallows." (Lysons* Cornw., p. cxx.) The Trerice 
family seem to have been descendants from him. 

FEBRUARY 7, 1851. 

Previously to commencing the ordinary proceedings of the meeting, the 
Chairman observed that he could not refrain from expressing his deep 
feeling, in which all present would participate, of the severe loss which they 
had experienced, since the last meeting of the Institute, by the sudden 
and melancholy decease of their President, the Marquis of Northampton. 
That sad event must fill the thoughts of many with heartfelt sorrow ; and 
it would long be felt, that by the removal of one so justly beloved for his 
virtues and his kindness, society at large had sustained no ordinary loss. Sir 
Charles remarked that he could bear his heartfelt testimony to the value of 
those services which that lamented nobleman had rendered to science, 
literature, and the arts, to the promotion of every intelligent and bene- 
volent purpose for the furtherance of the public welfare, which had fallen 
within his influence. Sir Charles had on repeated occasions witnessed the 
cordial encouragement and interest with which their late President had for 
several years promoted the successful progress of the Institute. He must 
especially bear in remembrance the gratifying occasion when the Institute 
had visited the county of Lincoln, and the kindly consideration towards all 
around him, with which Lord Northampton had participated in their 
proceedings, and given to them a fresh life and interest by his unwearied 
zeal and intelligence in all pursuits of archaeology. 

The Central Committee had, as Sir Charles was informed, addressed to 
the present Marquis the expression of their condolence, and of the feelings of 
sorrow and deep respect for the memory of their late President, in which 
lie was persuaded that every member of the Institute would unite with the 


heartiest sympathy. The Committee had had the honour of receiving 
from Lord Northampton a very gratifying acknowledgment. 

SIR CHARLES ANDERSON observed, that having been called upon to take 
the chair on this occasion, he saw with much satisfaction upon the table the 
volume of their Transactions at the Lincoln meeting, now completed for 
delivery to the members ; and he had the pleasure to announce that the 
volume devoted to the history and antiquities of his own county would 
shortly be followed by the delivery of their Transactions at Norwich. 

MR. HAWKINS communicated a memoir on the gold ornaments and various 
ancient relics of the Roman age recently purchased from Mr. Brumell's 
cabinet for the British Museum. It is given in this volume (see p. 35). 

MR. G. D. BRANDON gave an account of the discovery of Roman remains 
in Buckinghamshire, at Stone, a village situated three miles from Aylesbury, 
while excavating for the foundations of the County Lunatic Asylum, now 
in progress of erection. Urns of various forms, of no uncommon occurrence 
amongst Romano-British remains, had been found ; and a pit containing 
debris of fictile vessels of the same age, seemingly a fresh example of the 
singular receptacles, of which many have now been noticed near sites of 
Roman occupation. The form of this ancient well, orfavissa, is shown by 
the annexed sections. It was sunk through strata of rock and yellow sand 
alternately, and was cleared out to the depth of about 30 feet, when the 
work was stopped by the water. 

Roman urns, found at Stone, co. Bucks. 

Two of the urns here represented were found in the pit, at a depth of about 
30 feet from the surface of the ground. Two others lay at a distance of 
about 250 feet to the east of the pit, at a depth of 2 feet from the surface ; 
and others were found in a sand-hill, about a quarter of a mile from the spot 
last named. The two urns found near the surface of the ground contained 
bones, which had been subjected to cremation, and some coins, of which 
two were obtained from the workmen engaged in making the excavations. 
One of them appears to be of the reign of Domitian, the other of Vespasian. 

In clearing out the pit before alluded to, numerous fragments of pottery 
were found, of various colours, black, white, red, and some unbaked 
pottery ; also fragments of bones of large and small animals, promiscuously 



distributed. Near to the bottom of the pit, besides the various fragments of 
pottery, a portion of an ancient shoe and a bucket were found. The whole 
of these remains were discovered between the 18th of July and the 4th of 
September, 1850. The pit was sunk as deep as could be accomplished 
without the aid of pumps, the men having been kept at work until it became 
unsafe for them to continue their work. Two transverse sections of the pit, 
showing the description of the strata passed through, are here given. 

North to South. 

East to West. 


Sections of a cavity containing Roman remains, found at Stone, co. Bucks. 

A saucer-shaped Saxon brooch, found in the vicarage orchard about 1840, 
was also exhibited by the Rev. J. B. Reade, Vicar of Stone, remarkable 
on account of its size, its diameter being nearly 3 inches ; and it bears the 
symbol of the cross, with chased lines apparently intended to represent a 
nimbus. This remarkable type of fibula may have been derived, as 
Mr. Akerman has suggested, from the nummi scyphati, or cup-shaped 
money, common after the reign of Basilius II. An engraving of it is given 
in the Archaeologia, vol. xxx., p. 546. Mr. Reade sent with this an iron 
spear-head and knife, and the skull of a skeleton with which they were 
found, near Stone, about two years since. The umbo of the shield was 
found, but had been lost. At the feet was a small urn of dark black ware, 
sent for examination. These relics appeared to be Saxon. 

Several specimens of this kind of fibula have been brought before the 
Institute, especially those now in Mr. Neville's museum, figured in the 
Journal of the Archaeological Association, vol. v., p. 113, 8 and one exhibited 
by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Journal, vol. vi., p. 71. 

MR. YATES, in reference to some conversation at the previous meeting 
regarding the adjustment of fibulae, and the use of some kind of tube, 
called by the Greeks av\os, to receive the acus, made the following observa- 

8 Exhibited at the Meeting of the Institute, March 1, 1850. Journal, vol.vii., p. 87. 


tions : " In the description of the splendid garb of Ulysses, the wrapper, 
called xXmi/a, Icena (Odyss., xix., 225), the fibula (n f povr)), is said to have 
been provided with two^ small tubes (av\mo-iv di&J/ioiow), probably for 
admitting the acus, a contrivance which would secure the woollen cloth 
from being torn. The Scholiast explains this expression as signifying 
straight rods, into which the pins are locked : pa/38oi eMeiai, r 5s Kara- 

K\(ioi>Tai at -rrepovai. The Scholiast, published by Mai, explains it thus: 

'AvaruTtoi Svol, two extensions before the wrapper; enavaGtv T^S Tropes 

(fruevovs^ that is, sewed above the brooch. The meaning of this is 

obscure." Mr. Yates supposes that the fibula must have been used with 

two small metal plates formed 

with tubes, and sewed on to 

the two edges of the garment, 

at the part where they were 

to be brought together ; so 

that the acus might be passed through them without risk of injury to the 

texture. The annexed woodcut will illustrate the mode in which Mr. Yates 

suggests that this adjustment might be effected. 

DR. THURNAM offered some observations on a collection of Norwegian 
relics in his possession, which were laid before the meeting on this occasion. 
These objects were obtained by Dr. Thurnam in the course of a visit to 
Norway during the autumn of last year. They were all reported to have 
been taken from tumuli in the south east division of that country ; some of 
them being presented by peasant proprietors, who had themselves dug 
them out of tumuli on their own farms. Others were the gift of a distin- 
guished archaeologist at Christiana. They consist of a remarkably fine 
sword, an axe, spear-head, knives, umbo of a shield, and a spur of iron ; 
a large and fine tortoise-shaped fibula, 9 in two portions, with fragments of 
other ornaments, of bronze ; a few glass beads, fragments of peculiarly 
ornamented pottery, and the tooth of a bear. 

Dr. Thurnam gave also the following account of several interesting 
objects (of which drawings were exhibited) from a large Anglo-Saxon 
tumular cemetery near Driffield, E.R. Yorkshire. " This tumulus, previously 
in part examined, was more fully explored by the Yorkshire Antiquarian 
Club, in the summer of 1849. The objects found consist of spear-heads, 
knives of various sizes, scissors, umbones, handles, and other parts of the 
tire of shields, with other articles of unknown use ; iron fibulae, of 
cruciform and circular shape, and other ornaments of bronze ; pendants of 
crystal and beads of amber, glass, and vitrified paste, some of the latter of 
curious and beautiful manufacture. Remains of fictile vases were also 
found. This entire collection of Anglo-Saxon remains, hitherto so rarely 
found within the limits of the Northumbrian kingdom, is deposited in the 
Museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, at York." 

MR. T. HUDSON TURNER read the first portion of his researches relative 
to the Order of Knights Templars, comprising some new facts and obser- 
vations on their history and establishment in England. 

The REV. WILLIAM GUNNER gave a selection of curious extracts from the 
Bursarial Rolls of Winchester College. (See p. 79 in this volume.) 

The REV. WILLIAM DYKE communicated a parchment roll of Prayers to 

9 Compare the fine fibula of this type, communicated by Mr. W. Hylton Longstaffe, 
Arch. Journal, vol. v., p. 220. 




the Virgin, preserved in the library of Jesus College, Oxford. It appears 
to have belonged to Margaret of Anjou, whose portrait and armorial bearings 
are introduced amongst the illuminated enrichments of this interesting 
specimen of calligraphy. The entire roll measures 5 ft. 7 in. by 9 in. wide, 
a considerable portion being left blank. It does not appear by what means 
it was deposited amongst the MSS. of Jesus College ; it bears the numbers 
93 and 2114 93, with this endorsement, in the writing of Antony a Wood, 
" The picture within drawne was made for Margaret of Anjou, wife of 
Hen. 6th of England, as it appeares by the armes joyning to it. 1681. 
A. Bosco." At the upper end is the sacred monogram, I.H.S. elaborately 
illuminated and flourished ; beneath this is a sort of wheel, in the centre of 
which is portrayed the Virgin and child ; thence proceed seven radiations, each 
formed by a line of writing in gold, a salutation or ejaculation to the Virgin, 
so arranged, that the initial of each forms also the initial of one of seven 
sentences composing the circumference of the wheel. Immediately below 
this, the queen is portrayed kneeling at a prayer-stool, covered with cloth 
of gold, and supporting an open book and her sceptre. (See woodcut.) 

Margaret of Anjou. From a MS. at Jesus College, Oxford. 

Her gown is blue, her mantle purple with white fur. Her hair auburn, and 
dishevelled : she kneels on a pavement of green Flanders' tiles. Before 
her appear two kneeling angels in red garments, their blue and scarlet 
wings upraised: they are the supporters of an escutcheon of the royal achieve- 
ment France and England, quarterly, impaling these six quarterings 
1, Hungary; 2, Naples; 3, Jerusalem ; 4, Anjou; 5, Bar; 6, Lorrain. 1 
There is no crown above the shield. It may deserve notice that the queen 
wears two rings on each finger except the least, placed on the middle as 

1 An interesting example of the arms of Margaret is seen in the Book of 
Romances, presented to her by Talbot. (Roy. MS., 15 E. VI.) They are thereon 
a banner, held by an antelope. 


well as the third joint of the fingers ; a fashion possibly introduced by 
her, and shown in the curious portrait of this queen on the tapestry at 
Coventry, given by Mr. Shaw, in his beautiful " Dresses and Decorations," 
from an excellent drawing executed by the late Mr. Bradley. 

The arms of Margaret appear in the windows at Ockwells House, sup- 
ported by an antelope and a golden eagle, the latter being taken from 
the achievement of her father, Rene, Duke of Anjou, who used as sup- 
porters two golden eagles ; and the arms upon her great seal, described in 
Harl. MS., 1178, f. 29, as cited in Willement's Regal Heraldry, had the 
antelope and eagle as supporters. In the great hall at Croydon Palace 
there was a royal achievement attributed to the times of Henry VI., having 
two angels as supporters ; 2 and they occur likewise on the lower part of the 
gateway at Eton College. 

Menestrier, in his Treatise entitled " Usage des Armoiries," (Paris, 1673, 
p. 216,) remarks, that it had been erroneously supposed that it was the 
privilege of the kings of France and personages of the blood royal only, 
unless by their special concession to certain favoured persons, to introduce 
angels as the supporters of their arms. He observes, that a great number 
of examples may be cited of the general use of such supporters " particu- 
lierement dans les eglises, ou la piete des fideles, laissant des monumens de 
ses bienfaits accompagnez de ses armoiries, pour en conserver le souvenir, a 
fait scrupule assez long-temps d'y mettre des animaux, des sauvages, et 
des figures fabuleuses ou monstrueuses. Ainsi on verra souvent qu'une 
mesme maison qui a des lions, des aigles, des dragons ou des sauvages pour 
supports, a des anges dans les eglises." These remarks may serve to illus- 
trate the substitution of angels for the usual supporters which appear with 
the arms of Margaret ; it may be attributed to their being here found in 
connexion with an object of a sacred character. 

MR. ASHUBST MAJENDIE laid before the Society the project of restoration 
of the Round Church at Little Maplestead, Essex, observing that the late 
Marquis of Northampton had taken great interest in the undertaking, and 
that to his valuable suggestions the Committee of Management had been 
much indebted in preparing a modified plan of restoration on a more 
moderate scale than had been originally contemplated. He hoped that the 
proposed efforts for the preservation of this interesting fabric would be 
regarded with approbation by all those who take interest in Architectural 

airtf ESfarfoS of 8rt ji)t6itrtf. 

BY MR. BRACKSTONE. Three bronze celts in perfect preservation, found in 
June, 1849, between Towton and Ulleskelf, in Yorkshire, at a depth of about 
5 ft. One of them is a good example of the type with a stop-ridge and 
lateral loop. (Compare fig. H. in Mr. Du Noyer's Classification, Archaeol. 
Journ., vol. iv., p. 5.) Another is a socketed celt with the loop. (Ibid. 
page 6.) 

By M. PULSKI. A selection of exquisite drawings representing anti- 
quities of various classes, especially rings and antique various ornaments 
of gold, and oriental bronzes. Amongst the objects designated as fibulae 
he produced a remarkable type, formed of a long bronze wire closely 
coiled up in a flat spiral form, and resembling, seemingly, a bronze 

2 See DucarePs Croydon, pi. v., p. 66 ; Willement's Regal Heraldry, p. 35. 


spiral object exhibited in the Museum of the Institute at the Oxford 
Meeting. This is now amongst the collections at the Tower Armory. 
M. Pulski remarked that relics of this fashion are of frequent occurrence 
in Hungary. He observed that Indian antiquities had not yet received 
the notice which they deserve, in an artistic point of view, and he was 
desirous to call the attention of English antiquaries to the subject. 
The best and most interesting assemblage of examples was probably 
that in the possession of the Prince Louis, at Munich ; and a very remark- 
able collection exists at Leyden. Sir Stamford Raffles had published some 
remarkable objects connected with the idolatrous worship of Java. The 
impression seemed to prevail, however, that Indian antiquities possess no 
artistic merit, a notion which may have arisen from the circumstance that 
the more fantastic specimens of Indian workmanship seem chiefly to have 
been brought to Europe ; but M. Pulski affirmed that there exist examples 
of a character scarcely inferior to that of Greek art. The numerous subjects, 
now submitted to the Society, were chiefly selected from the collection of 
ancient art, formed in Hungary, from which he had on previous occasions 
produced examples of mediaeval antiquities, and they would be found to 
comprise works of the artists of India in former times, evincing much 
knowledge of design and grace of execution. He pointed out several 
remarkable bronzes, discovered in excavations made in Java ; also Burmese 
antiquities ; sculptures representing animals, executed in China, with some 
sculptured vases from the same country. 

By the REV. W. GUNNER. Three ancient bronze candlesticks, found in 
digging a grave at Winchester. They are formed with the spike, or priket, 
to receive the candle, instead of a socket : one of them, which had been 
partly formed of iron, now much decayed, appeared of early date, possibly 
of the twelfth century. 

By MR. HAWKINS. Two gold rings, found with a hoard of 259 silver 
coins, consisting of 78 of Edward the Confessor (Hawkins, Type 223), 159 
of Harold (Hawkins, Type 231 ), and 22 of William 
the Conqueror (first coinage, Hawkins, Type 233). 
They were found in a field near Wick ham Lodge, 
Soberton, Hants, in a vessel of dingy red ware, 
which was immediately broken, or crumbled to 
pieces. One of the gold ornaments is a tore ring, 
resembling that in Mr. Whincopp's Museum, stated 
to have been found in Suffolk (Journal, vol. vi., 
p. 58, No. 14). Its weight is 238 grains. The 
G soiwrto'n f0 Hante ear otner is a penannular ring, of which a representa- 
tion is here given ; it is punched with small circles, 

and weighs 258 grains. This discovery is very interesting as an evidence 
of the period to which ornaments of this kind may be assigned. 

By the REV. C. BINGHAM. Drawings of several fragments of painted 
glass date, the earlier half of the fifteenth century existing in the church 
of Bingham's Melcombe, Dorset. They consist of the head of a regal 
personage, nimbed, and holding a sceptre : the crown richly foliated. A 
scutcheon held by a demi-angel, in the east window of the chancel, as 
noticed in Hutchins's " History of Dorset." The arms are those of Turges, 
azure, a chevron between three cross crosslets fitchy, in a bordure engrailed, 
or. This family was possessed of a moiety of the manor of Melcombe, by 
marriage with Dionysia, heiress of one of the De Cernes, the ancient lords, 


ns stated by Leland (Itin. vol. iii., p. 47). The last of the race, Richard 
Turges, died 20 Henry VII. The bordure of their coat does not here 
appear at first sight to be engrailed, the edge being concealed by the 
leading of the glass : in the windows of Mapowder Church, it was 
formerly to be seen with the engrailed bordure, as given by Hutchins. 
The other fragments consist of a broken figure of the Saviour, with the 
cruciform nimb, his right hand upraised in benediction, a mound with a 
cross on his left. Also a small fish, the body traversed by a hook (?), 
probably a device or rebus. The name of Herring occurs in connection 
with the property held by the De Cernes. 

By MR. WESTWOOD. A rubbing from a cross fleury, recently found 
under the flooring, at Newborough Church, in Anglesea. The head of the 
cross is very elegantly designed, forming a wheel, and the sides are enriched 
with flowing foliage. An inscription runs down the centre of the shaft, 
which has been read thus, ^ HIC IACET EDD' BARKER CV AI'E 

Also a rubbing of the singular inscription around the top of a font at 
Brecknock, of which no explanation has hitherto been suggested. 

By MR. FORREST. An ivory hunting-horn, curiously carved with sub- 
jects, in which a singular mixture of European and Oriental character is 
seen, so that it is difficult to determine the country or period to which 
objects of this peculiar workmanship may be assigned. This horn measures 
22 ^ inches in length, the mouth-piece issues from the jaws of a monstrous 
head, bearing on the brow a cross, with limbs of equal length ; at the 
other, or widest end, is twice introduced a blundered achievement of the 
arms of Portugal. Two figures, of very Indian aspect, with a castle 
between them, hold aloft an escutcheon in an inverted position, resembling 
the coat of Portugal, but the castles on the bordure are carved as little 
square ornaments enclosing quatrefoils. An intention to imitate the heraldic 
design is evident, but in a manner which seems to prove that the sculptor 
was ignorant of European usages. The other carvings represent subjects 
of the chace, and bowmen aiming very long shafts at various animals. 
Amongst the ornaments is found a winged scaly monster, with two legs, a 
kind of wyvern, resembling the supporters and crest of the arms of Portugal, 
explained to be the fiery serpents which assailed the Israelites. Bands of 
interlaced work appear, presenting a style of design which may have led 
some antiquaries to ascribe a Scandinavian origin to these sculptures. 

M. PULSKI laid before the meeting a beautiful drawing of a horn of this 
class, preserved in the collection before-mentioned. The ornaments and 
style were almost identical with those by which Mr. Forrest's horn is 
characterised. 3 He observed, that ivory horns of this description are 
preserved in Hungary, and have been regarded as objects sculptured in the 
North of Europe. One specimen, which he had examined, had been attri- 
buted to an Hungarian chief of the tenth century. 

An exceedingly curious covered cup, of the same class of carvings, was 
formerly in the Allan Collection, and is now preserved in the Museum of 
the Antiquaries of Newcastle : a representation is given in Mr. Fox's 
Synopsis of the Allan Museum, p. 183. It presents the same strange 
mixture of Oriental design, with subjects evidently Christian the Virgin 

3 The arms are different : one coat lias have the bordure imitating that of thu 
a crowned eagle in the centre of the shield, arms of Portugal, 
another has a saltire. Both, however, 


and child, aud the cross, with monstrous animals, and a blundered imitation 
of the arms of Portugal, inverted. A Latin inscription, on parchment, is 
attached to it, no longer legible. 

Two other horns, of precisely similar workmanship, deserve to be men- 
tioned in connection with these singular objects. One is given by Olaus 
Wormius, lib. v., p. 435, " Danicorum Monumentorum " Hafnise, 1643. It 
was at Florence, in the possession of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and 
exhibited the hunting of stags and lions, the Portuguese arms, and a cross 
pate'e: around the mouth, was inscribed, DOM LVIS : IMFAMTE. The 
learned Dane supposed this to be the second son of Emanuel, King of 
Portugal (1495 1521), and brother of John III. Don Luis never suc- 
ceeded to the throne, but was always styled " Infant," and Prince Antonio, 
his natural son, was one of the claimants of the throne in 1578. 

The other ivory horn referred to, was in the Museum at the Jesuits' 
College, at Rome, and is given by Bonanni in the " Museum Kircherianum " 
(Roma, 1709, pi. 299, p. 281). It bears much resemblance to Mr. Forrest's 
horn, and is sculptured with hunting subjects, the arms of Portugal, very 
incorrectly given, and the cross patee appears near the mouth. 

It has been conjectured that these objects were produced in some of the 
Portuguese settlements in Africa or the East, during the fifteenth or 
sixteenth century ; a supposition which would account for the marked 
Asiatic character of some details of the design. The occurrence of a horn 
bearing the name of the Infant of Portugal, Don Luis, may serve to cor- 
roborate this supposition. It was in the reign of Emanuel, his father, 
that the spirit of enterprise had received a fresh impulse, and establish- 
ments for the extension of commerce were made both in Africa and the 
Indies. A viceroy was sent out to India in 1506 ; and in 1508, Goa was 
taken by the Portuguese, and became their chief settlement and seat of 
government. On the Malabar coast, where it is situated, elephants 
abounded, as also in Ceylon, then in the possession of the Portuguese ; and 
it seems highly probable that these horns were carved in the East, in imita- 
tion of Portuguese models, and are not more ancient than the early part of 
the sixteenth century. 

MR. FORREST exhibited also a large processional cross, chiefly ornamented 
with repousse work, and having enamelled plates of the Evangelistic 
symbols. Date, about 1400. Two chalices, one of them with a paten ; 
the centre of the latter ornamented with transparent enamel, the subject 
being the Saviour seated on the rainbow, and surrounded by the emblems 
of the passion. A monstrance, of silver parcel-gilt ; height, 18 inches. 
On one side is an image of the Virgin and Child ; on the other, St. Denis. 
Above is inscribed, 1541. ROGNOS. The goldsmith's marks are I. L. 
and AQVIS, under a fleur-de-lys. A cup, formed of a carbuncle of great 
size, the foot and mounting elaborately enriched with filigree and enamelled 
ornaments of many colours. It has a single handle, projecting from one 
side of the rim. This costly cup is of oval form, the greater diameter 
being about 3 inches, the lesser 2 inches. A faldistory, or folding seat of 
state, formed of steel, wrought in open work of most elegant design, and 
inlaid with gold. At the back is a trophy of flags, weapons, drums, cannon, 
<fcc., arranged around an oval compartment, with this impresa, a bird 
flying, three flowers, or ears of wheat beneath it. Over this device is an 
arched crown. The history of this remarkable throne has not been 
ascertained. An Oriental dish of fine mixed yellow metal, diameter, 



7^ inches, entirely covered with inscriptions, arranged so as to form orna- 
mental designs ; on the underside are the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and 
inscriptions introduced in like manner over the whole surface. 

By the REV. E. WILTON. Drawings of some relics lately found in 
Wiltshire, accompanied hy the following notice : " On Charlton Down, of 
which Sir Richard Colt Hoare says, that traces of a British village may 
there he perceived, continuing to the declivity of the hill, facing Wed- 
hampton Wells, some labourers were employed in digging a pond during 
the last summer. At a depth of 1 8 inches, they found several objects of 
iron (represented in the drawings), five Roman coins, the skeleton of an 
infant, and a large quantity of rude pottery." The iron relics comprise 
knives and implements, with no character sufficing to fix their age ; one 
of the former resembling one found in a tumulus in Kent, by Douglas. 
(Nenia, pi. vi.) At a short distance from the spot above-named was found 
a globular " Bellarmine," or grey-beard, of glazed ware, with the usual 
bearded head at the neck, and medallions surrounded by foliage. 

By Miss JULIA R. BOCKETT. A Thaler of Sigismund, Archduke of 
Austria, born in 1427 ; died, 1496. This is generally regarded as the 
most ancient of the series of the Austrian silver coinage, and it was struck 
in the Tyrol, at the time of the discovery of the silver mines in that 
country. On one side is seen a standing figure of Sigismund, with 
heraldic ornaments ; on the other, he is galloping on a charger : beneath 
is the date, 1486. This fine coin had been gilt, and a metal ring attached 
to it for suspension to a collar. See representations in " Der Cooplieden 
Handbouxkin," Ghend, 1544 ; Catal. of the " Cabinet Imperial," p. 187. 
By the REV. JOSEPH HUNTER,. A small enamelled triptych, of the kind 
used by members of the Greek 

Church, as portable altar-pieces, 

and always carried on a journey as 

an object indispensable for their 

devotions. It was recently pur- 

chased in Germany. A specimen 

of this kind of folding altar, of 

unusual size, and with five leaves, 

may be seen in the Museum of 

Practical Geology. It was formerly 

at Strawberry Hill. Another very 

curious example is in the posses- 

sion of Mr. Hooper, of Manning- 

tree, Essex. It was found, about 

17'JO. under the cliffs at Harwich. 

By MR. HARDWICK. Three _ 

curious specimens of mediaeval glazed ware, found during recent excavations 

at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The glaze of mottled green colour ; one of 

the vessels was very curiously scaled like the surface of a pine apple. 

(See woodcut.) Date about the fourteenth century. 

- hei ht - 7 * in - 

Notices of &rrf)fltoloojcal publications. 

extending from the Tyne to the Solway, deduced from numerous personal Surveys. 
By the Rev. JOHN COLLINGWOOD BRUCE, M. A. London and Newcastle, 1851. 
4to. and 8vo. 

IN the History of Nations, through the succession of ages since the hand of 
man first was raised against his fellow, amongst the continual changes to 
which power, wealth, dominion, have been subjected, through the ambition 
or cupidity of some one great family of the human race, aroused against 
another, there appears no problem so inexplicable as Britain under the 
sway of Rome. Whether we regard the Empire in the extended range of 
her greatness, the fair and prosperous lands of her wide dominion, the 
refinements of arts and luxury, the perfection of public and social institutions, 
pervading all countries subjected to her rule ; or we glance at the cheerless 
aspect of these remote Islands of the North, how may we understand the 
policy of Rome in her occupation of Britain ? 

These considerations irresistibly arrest the thoughts in contemplating 
that vast monument of bold determination to which the researches of Mr. 
Bruce relate. The barrier betwixt the Northern Sea and the Solway may 
rank unequalled amongst the achievements of Roman industry and skill : 
we seek naturally to comprehend the strong inducement which rendered 
possession of these remote savage countries an object of such importance. 
The thirst for victory and military glory seems scarce sufficient, in a 
struggle with such barbarous tribes : the baser motive of avarice appears 
inadequate, although Tacitus wrote of the gold and silver, and even the 
pearls of the British seas, as the " pretium Victorias." The degree of 
attention bestowed upon a territory, trifling in extent, difficult to retain, 
scarce included in the limits of the habitable earth, appears in the frequent 
presence of armies and auxiliaries, and the resort hither of wealthy colonists, 
the vestiges of whose luxurious villas are so frequently disinterred ; but 
more strikingly in the fact that many of the emperors came to Britain, 
engaged personally in the lengthened struggle for mastery, dwelt even in 
our island, as if it were a territory of their predilection. 

The Roman Wall, too little known, we believe, to the archaeologists of 
southern counties, has supplied a theme to several writers of note in anti- 
quarian literature. Their treatises are, however, beyond the reach of 
general readers, being given in voluminous works, costly and of uncommon 
occurrence. The account related by Horsley, in the " Britannia Romana," 
describes this great Northern Bulwark as it existed upwards of a century 
since. His statements have been appropriated by Warburton, who, how- 
ever, made personally a detailed inspection of these remarkable remains. 
A later author, of high attainments in topographical research, the historian 
of Northumberland, has left a detailed dissertation, rich in results of long 
and careful enquiry, for which his residence at Newcastle afforded him 


The ^Erarium at Cheaters, CILVRNVM. 

Crypt of St. Wilfrid a church, at Hexham. 


unequalled facilities. The account of the Wall, to which we allude, pre- 
pared by the Rev. John Hodgson, was unfortunately produced without his 
personal care or final revision ; it is replete with interesting details, and 
evinces a singular degree of patient and acute inquiry. 

Following the impulse of a fresh interest in remains of the Roman age 
recently excited amongst English archaeologists, Mr. Bruce has now sup- 
plied a desideratum in antiquarian literature by producing a treatise, in 
which he has happily combined much of the information gathered by pre- 
vious writers, with a mass of original and personal observations. The 
enthusiasm with which he prosecutes his subject, has invested it with a 
charm to which few readers can be insensible. 

The volume commences with an excellent epitome of the History of 
Roman Occupation in Britain, from the arrival of Caesar to the eventual 
abandonment of the island. The evidence of ancient writers, as our readers 
well know, lies in a narrow compass, but the tale, decies repetita, here 
assumes a fresh interest by the ability with which the author makes all 
these statements bear upon the one great feature of Roman policy which is 
his theme. We must, moreover, advert to the skill with which here, as in 
other portions of his work, the incontrovertible evidence derived from coins 
has been introduced, and the importance of numismatic science is most 
strikingly evinced in a period of which the written annals are so deficient. 

A general description of the line of the Wall is then presented to the 
reader, with all the aid that a distinct map of its course, plans of its more 
striking details, and sections of the various works, can supply. This great 
barrier, it must be observed, although commonly designated as the Wall, 
the gual Sever of the Britons, comprises not only the construction of 
masonry, strengthened by a ditch on its northern side, but also a turf wall, 
or vallum, to the south of the Wall proper ; and consisting of three ramparts 
and a fosse. These lines pursue their straightforward course from sea to 
sea, for the most part in close companionship, swerving from the direct 
line only to take in the highest elevations, sinking precipitately into the 
gaps or ravines, to ascend boldly the opposite acclivity. To these striking 
features of construction is that imposing and picturesque variety to be attri- 
buted, which can only be appreciated by actual pilgrimage along this mar- 
vellous work. We must refer to the details of Mr. Bruce 's minute descrip- 
tions for many curious observations upon these particulars, and especially 
as regards the evidence which may be adduced as to the original proportions 
of the works, and the engineering skill with which they were achieved. 
Between the stone wall and the earthen rampart ran a military way ; at 
intervals were formed stations, castles, and towers, affording protection to a 
considerable population, along the entire line ; and their excavated sites 
have supplied many of the most valuable antiquities of their period existing 
in Britain. These stations, eighteen in number, according to Horsley, were 
not at all times mere military posts : traces are not wanting to show that 
Roman arts and luxury prevailed in these fortresses and their extensive 
suburbs, a striking contrast to the ignorance and barbarity around them. 
The list given in the Notitia, showing the distribution of various cohorts of 
auxiliaries, compared with the local evidence of inscriptions found at the 
various sites, has enabled antiquaries satisfactorily to ascertain, for the 
most part, the ancient designations of the stations. Mr. Bruce gives several 
interesting illustrations of the value of inscribed stones in this respect : he 
states candidly that a remarkable want of resemblance between the 

VOL. vm. P 


ancient and modern names appears on comparison ; but this may be 
attributed to the total subversion by Pict, and Saxon, and Dane, of the 
Roman domination in the North, so that the very names have perished. 
The general examination of the barrier concludes with some valuable obser- 
vations on the construction, the quarries whence materials were obtained, 
the employment of native labourers, the durability of the work, the time 
required for its completion. Mr. Bruce adverts to certain barriers of an 
analogous nature, 1 one of them the Antonine Wall, or Graham's Dike, by 
which the upper isthmus of Great Britain was fortified, possibly to be 
regarded as an advanced work of the more important southern line. The 
other is a continental entrenchment, a vallum and stone wall, extending 
from Ratisbon nearly 200 miles towards the sources of the Danube, and 
bearing much resemblance to that under consideration. It is known as 
" the Devil's Wall," and a detailed examination of its construction would 
be highly interesting to the archaeologist. 3 

We must leave our readers to follow their enthusiastic guide in a 
pilgrimage "per lineam valli;" the limits of the present notice allow only 
a passing mention of his interesting chapter on the " Local Description," 
commencing from the Eastern Terminus at Wallsend. We are pleased to 
see that the relics found many years since at Tynemouth Castle, long con- 
demned to be again buried in the vaults at Somerset House, have, as well 
as other curious inscribed stones in the possession of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, been rescued from their unworthy concealment, and accurate 
representations for the first time given. These remains should be restored 
to their true depository, and placed with the valuable series in the Norman 
keep-tower at Newcastle. A profusion of plans and sections, and pleasing 
illustrations, aid our progress, in advancing from station to station, or in 
loitering at the mile-castle, where now the shepherd often seeks shelter for 
his charge. No site is more interesting, nor has been developed with more 
intelligent care, than CILVRNVM. Fortunate is the pilgrim who may 
find a welcome at the Northumbrian Pompeii, and enjoy not only the 
hospitalities, but the enthusiasm of kindred tastes, with which the possessor 
of Chesters delights to set forth the striking features of this site. The 
area contains six acres, and has yielded many remarkable relics, which 
Mr. Clayton preserves upon the spot. Amongst the vestiges recently 
exposed to view, the remains of a structure of considerable importance 
deserve especial notice : it may, perhaps, have been the dwelling of the 
Prefect of the Astures, here stationed ; and the thermal arrangements, 
shown in Mr. Bruce 's plan, remind us how needful must have been such 
expedients to reconcile the Spaniard to a residence in these wintry climes. 
There are indications of the imposing architectural character of the 
buildings at Cilurnum, and of their accessory ornaments. The recumbent 
river-god, possibly the impersonation of the North Tyne, rude as it may be 
in execution and material, claims mention on account of the great rarity of 
Roman sculptures, of large dimension, in England. A more interesting 
and remarkable figure has also been found : it is rather above life-size, 
and has been supposed to represent Cybele. Mr. Bruce gives a faithful 

1 See on this subject the valuable and which an extract will be found in the 
more extended notices by Hodgson, Hist. Archaeologia ^Eliana, vol. i. A brief 
of Northumb. vol. iii., p. 149. notice is given in Murray's South Ger- 

2 Professor Buchner has published a many, pp. 84, 96. 
pamphlet regarding the German Wall, of 


notion of this statue. (See his woodcut, p. 189.) It is less correctly 
figured in Mr. Hodgson's work (p. 181) ; but we there learn that the bull, 
on which the Mother of the 
Gods stands, trampled ap- 
parently on a serpent. The 
curious fragment supposed 
to have been the pedestal is 
not noticed by Mr. Bruce. 
With these sculptured re- 
lics may be noticed the fine 
capital of a column, given 
at the close of this notice. 
Several interesting sepul- 
chral tablets were found on 
the site of the cemetery of 

- Statue of sandstone, found at Chesters. 

the station, and of two of 

these, now preserved in the " British Museum," formed by the Duke of 
Northumberland at Alnwick Castle, his Grace has kindly presented 
engravings, given in the volume before us. One of them represents a 
horseman of the ala Secunda Asturum. 

Amongst the remains at Cilurnum there is one of singular interest : it 
is a vaulted chamber, or rather the roof is formed of three ribs, the intervals 
being, in technical language, " stepped over." The stones of each course are 
made to project inwards a little, until at length one laid on the top com- 
pletes the junction. This curious specimen of Roman masonry, of which 
Mr. Bruce has kindly enabled us to give, with several other subjects, the 
accompanying representation, has been called the ^Erarium of the station. 
Several counterfeit denarii were found in it. It is highly curious : and 
we are pleased to be enabled to submit to our readers another early 
example of vaulting, existing near the Roman Wall, and by some regarded 
as actually of Roman workmanship. We allude to the ancient crypt at 
Hexham, (see woodcuts,) in the construction of which there are certainly 
many fragments of Roman workmanship, as also inscriptions. They may 
have been brought from Corbridge, when St. Wilfrid built a church at 
Hexham, more Romano, about the year 673. The view of the crypt will 
be the more acceptable to our readers, since the subject of these curious 
remains has already been brought under their notice in the Journal, 
through an obliging communication from Mr. Fairless, of Hexham. 
(Archaeol. Journ., vol. ii., p. 239.) 

We have alluded somewhat in detail to the various striking remains 
presented to the archaeologist at Cilurnum, because it is doubtless one of 
the most interesting sites, as also that which has been examined with the 
most intelligent taste for antiquarian investigations. It may not, indeed, 
be cited as a normal type of the stations on the Wall, but it illustrates 
strikingly the character of these fortress-settlements. Borcovicus may not 
be so important a field of enquiry, but we fully anticipate that Mr. Clay- 
ton's keen spirit of research, now addressed to that fresh and interesting 
station, will be repaid by a rich harvest of curious information. Already 
may be seen in its gateways, recently excavated, the ruts worn on the 
threshold-stone by the wheels of the bigce, the guard-chambers, strewed 
with remains of animals on which their occupants had fed, and supplied 
with flues for artificial heat, a precaution which natives of southern climes, 


however inured to the hardships of war, must have found indispensable on 
these inclement heights. Here it was, that, in 1822, the remarkable dis- 
covery of Mithraic antiquities occurred, of which a full account may be 
found in the " ArchaeologiaJE liana," and in " Hodgson's History," vol.iii., 
p. 190. 

In accompanying our author along the course of the barrier, we are 
struck with the curious lingering traditions which he has gleaned in his 
progress. The strange tale, that the Romans held up their broad feet as 
a protection against the rain, may possibly have gained credence from 
seeing some vestige or impress of the wide soles of the military caligce ; 
but it may fairly be conjectured, that the ludicrous tale of the sciopodce, 
related by Pliny, and one of the favourite marvels of medieval times, had 
reached even this distant frontier. 

We must cordially claim for Mr. Bruce, in a track where several able 
writers on antiquity had preceded him, the merit of contributing much 
fresh information, which has repaid his assiduous personal examination of 
the minutest details. Amongst the most important discoveries due to his 
acuteness in research, may be specially mentioned the conduit by which 
water was supplied to the station of jEsica, an ingenious work, which had 
escaped the notice of previous authors. Of this achievement of Roman 
engineering a full report and elaborate plan is given. The length of this 
curious water-course is about six miles. It is an extraordinary feature of 
its construction that this aqueduct was on the northern or enemy's side of 
the barrier. This single fact may tend to show that the country beyond 
the wall was, for some distance, held in subjection under the influence of 
that cordon of well-appointed fortresses. Many are the points of interest 
as we look onwards towards the Solway, or scale the Walltown crags and 
" Nine Nicks of Thirlwall," where we would gladly linger a moment under 

Nine Nicks of Thirlwall. 

our author's agreeable guidance, or diverge with him to the " supporting 
stations of the Wall," to which the third section of the work is devoted. 
In these last, perhaps, the admirable military skill and forethought of the 


Romans is evinced, not less than in the greater achievements of their 
industry. On these sites also have been discovered many most valuable 
remains and inscriptions, which throw important light upon Roman affairs 
in Britain. We must refer our readers to the mass of curious information 
collected by Mr. Bruce, and to the numerous graphic illustrations by which 
this relation is accompanied. 

From these details of facts relating to the actual condition of the Wall, 
and its accessory outworks, the author proceeds to discuss the difficult 
question By whom was it constructed ? "Is the barrier the work of one 
master-mind, or are its several parts the productions of different periods 
and of different persons ? " Upon this inquiry the evidence of ancient 
writers is meagre and unsatisfactory. Tacitus informs us that Agricola 
fortified both the Lower and Upper Isthmus. Hence some have con- 
ceived that the northern rampart of the vallum might be the work of 
Agricola. But to this theory the parallelism of the lines is considered 
fatal ; for it is highly improbable, as Mr. Bruce affirms, that two engineers 
at different periods should construct independent works, without crossing 
each other's ramparts. But, setting aside the notion in regard to Agricola, 
the inquiry is confined to the relative claims of Hadrian and Severus. The 
author's argument tends to demonstrate that the vallum and the wall are 
not independent works ; that the opinion is without foundation which 
ascribes the former to Hadrian, and the latter to Severus. " If Severus 
(Mr. Bruce observes), finding that -the earthworks of Hadrian had fallen 
into decay, or were no longer sufficient to wall out the Caledonians, had 
determined to erect a more formidable barrier, would he not have mapped 
out its track without any reference to the former ruinous and inefficient erec- 
tion ? Had he done so, we should find the lines taking independent courses, 
sometimes contiguous, occasionally crossing each other ; sometimes 
widely separated, seldom pursuing for any distance a parallel course ; but 
the Wall, as the latest built, uniformly seizing the strongest points, whether 
previously occupied by the vallum or not. This, however, is not the case ; 
the Wall and vallum, in crossing the island, pursue precisely the same track 
from sea to sea ; for the most part they are in close companionship, and in 
no instance does the Wall cut in upon the trenches of the vallum." (p. 371.) 
The merits of this argument, it must be premised, cannot, as we are 
persuaded, be duly appreciated without actual minute inspection, pursued 
throughout various portions of the works, and careful consideration of the 
local conditions by which they were influenced. The question is one of no 
ordinary interest to the antiquary ; and although he will not lightly reject 
the conclusions of Horsley and others, who have regarded the Wall as the 
work of Severus, to strengthen Hadrian's barrier, the reasoning advanced 
by Mr. Bruce, after weighing the conflicting evidence gleaned from ancient 
writers, and the more positive evidence of existing inscriptions, will, as we 
believe, lead most readers to the conviction that the whole is one design, 
the production of one period, and that the credit of this grand conception 
must be truly assigned to Hadrian. 

The closing section of our author's interesting labours relate to miscel- 
laneous antiquities found in the line of the Wall. Of these the greater pro- 
portion are now happily preserved together in the Museum of the Antiquaries 
of Newcastle. The numerous representations of such remains, of which 
original and accurate drawings have been obtained, add most essentially to 
the value of the work. From these Mr. Bruce has kindly permitted us to 



select several interesting subjects. The relics connected with the intro- 
duction of the Roman cultus, and the worship of local deities, Viteres and 
Hamia, unknown to Rome's Pantheon, are numerous. Mention has already 
been made of the discovery of objects connected with Mithraic worship ; 
and those which relate to the Dece Matres are not less curious. Remarkable 
examples of both are preserved in the museum at Alnwick Castle. Of 
numerous altars dedicated to Jupiter, we present to our readers a fine 
example from Chesterholm, dedicated by a Prefect of the Gauls, a native of 
Brescia, and remarkable as associating with Jupiter not only all the immortal 
gods, but the Genius of the Pretorium. The storks, sculptured on both 
sides of this altar, are symbols of uncertain import. Mr. Bruce suggests 
that they may have been emblems of Victory. Usually they import Piety, 
signifying veneration of the gods, love, and good-will to man. 3 Petronius 
terms the stork, pietati-cultrix. 

Another altar, dedicated to the Father of the Gods by the tribune of the 
first Spanish Cohort, is also here represented (see woodcuts). It is chosen 
as an example of singularly graceful proportion, and was found at Maryport, 
in Cumberland, one of the stations described by our author as subsidiary to 
the great northern barrier. 

Capital, centurial stones, and earthen pipe, found at Cilurnum. 

It is a singular fact, that amongst all these vestiges of an age when 
Christianity was certainly spread extensively throughout the world, not a 
trace of any Christian memorial has occurred. Brand conceived that the 
cross might be discerned upon an altar from Rutchester, now in the New- 

3 See the series of symbols of Divinities, Montf. torn. i. p. 351. 


castle Museum ; but this is extremely questionable. A fragment of 
" Samian," found at Cataractonium, and in Sir William Lawson's posses- 
sion, has been given in the Journal as a solitary relic apparently ornamented 
with the Christian symbol. 4 

We must now take leave of this interesting subject, cordially commending 
to the attention of our readers the attractive volume presented to them by 
Mr. Bruce. Many points, obscure and open to discussion, may be found, 
which will provoke a variance of opinion regarding conclusions here advanced. 
Such questions may be deferred for discussion on some future occasion. We 
are content now to accept gratefully the guidance proffered in these pages, 
desiring to seize an impulse from the enthusiasm with which their author 
has prosecuted his labours, and hoping that the fresh interest thus aroused 
in the earlier history of our country may encourage the anticipation that 
the archaeologists of the Northern Marches will achieve that much-desired 
work, which they are best prepared to carry out, the production of an 
extended "Britannia Romana." 

1850. 4to. 

IT may doubtless strike the readers of an Archaeological Journal with 
surprise to find in its pages a notice of a publication devoted apparently to 
the illustration of natural science. There is much, indeed, that might be 
regarded as partaking of a kindred feeling in the pursuits of the geologist 
and the antiquary : one addresses himself to what may truly be designated 
as primeval antiquity ; he seeks to comprehend the structure of the earth, 
and the manifold orders of animal creation by which it has been filled ; 
the other carries the investigations onwards into historic times, collecting, 
in scientific order, all those vestiges which distinguish the periods of busy 
life, amongst a higher order of beings, by whom that earth has been 
successively occupied. In bringing, however, before our readers a work 
seemingly unconnected with their ordinary tastes and pursuits, the excuse 
might be pleaded that it were no intrusion to commend the labours of one, 
now no more, once known to us not less by his keen appreciation of 
archaeological researches than by his high attainments in natural science. 
All who have participated in the agreeable assemblies of the archaeologists 
of Sussex during the last four years, or perused the Transactions which 
have recorded their results, know well that the lamented author of the 
volume under consideration ranked amongst the foremost in promoting an 
intelligent estimation of ancient vestiges of every class. 

These notices may fall into the hands of some whose love of antiquity, like 
the late Mr. Dixon's, takes a wide range, into periods far beyond the pale of 
history ; and to them the mention of so valuable a monograph of the organic 
remains of an interesting locality, and of the admirable illustrations by which 

4 Archaeol. Journ., vol. vi. p. 81. 


it is accompanied, may not be unwelcome. 1 But in the unassuming title of 
this volume it is not announced that its pages comprise matter specially 
interesting to the antiquary, and that herein are preserved memorials of 
archaeological observations of which Mr. Dixon has left no other record. 
Had his life been spared, he would doubtless have brought together all the re- 
sults of his researches of this nature at various times, and would have supplied 
a valuable contribution to the memorials of the British and Roman periods. 

One of the most interesting discoveries in Sussex, connected with the 
early occupants of these islands, has been related by Mr. Dixon in the 
" Collections," published by the Archaeological Society of that county 
(vol. i., p. 55). We allude to the excavation, conducted under his direction, 
on Storrington Downs, near Petworth, which produced a remarkable urn, 
measuring not less than 21 inches in height, and 13 in breadth. This 
striking relic of a rude age excited the admiration of the late Sir Richard 
Colt Hoare, who pronounced the urn to be one of the finest known to him. 
No particulars regarding this discovery are found in the volume before us ; 
and we must refer our readers to the brief account in the interesting 
Transactions above cited. They may also find therein curious notices of 
objects of the "Bronze Period," some of them unique, and wholly col- 
lected in Sussex. 2 

The locality in which Mr. Dixon's observations commence is one 
interesting alike for its ancient recollections and the features of its geological 
formation. Selsey, the most southerly point of the county, and visited 
doubtless in very early times by the inhabitants of the opposite coast, or 
even by navigators from more remote shores, was occupied by the Romans, 
and became the site of an ancient Saxon establishment. Few vestiges 
now remain of those times. The district christianised by St. Wilfrid in 
the seventh century, and the site of the episcopal see from his days, until 
its removal to Chichester, not long previously to the Conquest, has been 
ravaged by the encroachments of the sea, which have progressed rapidly 
ever since the days when Camden wrote thus of Selsey : " Antiquae 
urbeculae, in qua Episcopi sederunt, cadaver solummodo jacet, aquis 
intectum quoties ex alto marls aestus intuinescit, cum vero residet, apertum, 
et conspicuum." 3 From these shores various interesting relics were 
obtained ; and by the kindness of Mrs. Dixon, we are enabled to lay before 
our readers the accompanying representations, A relic of especial interest 
is the penannular ring of pure gold. It is of the type frequently described 
by Irish archaeologists as " ring-money," but of great rarity in England. 
Two specimens, however, found in Dorsetshire, are described in Mr. Way's 
memoir on ancient ornaments of gold (Journal, vol. vi., p. 56) ; and it is 
stated that a fourth has been discovered near Bridgewater. The ring here 
represented, weighing 104 grains, was found on the shore of Bracklesham 
Bay, to the north-west of Selsey, on which are often discovered particles of 
pure gold, some of them impressed with patterns ; occasionally also sea-worn 
British coins, and relics of a Roman age. The blade of a bronze weapon, pro- 

1 This volume contains forty plates, of culation. Copies may be obtained by 

remarkably skilful execution, the utmost application to Mrs. Dixon, Worthing, 

care having been taken to insure minute 2 Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 

accuracy. It was not completed at the ii., p. 260. 

time of Mr. Dixon's decease, and has only 3 Britannia, p. 220, ed. 1607. Two 

recently been produced, under the care of coffin-lids, described as " Saxon," remain 

Professor Owen. It was " printed for the at Selsey Church, 
author," who contemplated a limited cir- 


bably a dagger (see woodcut), was found at Bracklesham, with a bronze celt, 
in a bed noted amongst geologists as containing abundance of a large bivalve 
shell in a fossil state. The blade measures 7^ inches in length, and it is 
coated with a black patina of tin. " The countryman who found it (as 
Mr. Dixon relates) told me, with much simplicity, that he thought he had 
discovered the knife by which the former blockaders opened those large 
cockles with, as them fish must have been very good to eat." 

To the eastward of Selsey, between Pagham and Bognor, discoveries 
were also made from time to time ; and the zealous geologist enriched the 
choice numismatic series, which from his earliest years he had delighted to 
collect, with British or Gaulish types and Roman coins. Representations 
of several are given (pp. 32, 80) : some of them were described in the 
Proceedings of the Numismatic Society for 1841 ; a large brass of Agrippina 
senior, with the rare reverse of the carpentum, deserves mention. This 
was found, in 1842, close to the shore, west of Bognor. The notices of 
this coast, on all parts of which inroads of the sea have taken place, are 
full of curious observations : coins of pale gold, of the debased charioteer 
type, have been found, introduced doubtless from Gaul. A representation 
of an ancient boat, described as British, is given (see p. 36) : it was found 
in 1842, after a storm, and lay in the mud about 200 yards from the 
beach, opposite Heene Lane, near Worthing. This primitive vessel was 
formed from the trunk of an oak, without any metal fastening, and it 
measured 18 feet by 3 feet in width. A boat of similar construction, 

British Boat, found in 1842, near Worthing. 

found at North Stoke, Sussex, in 1834, was conveyed to the British 

In the neighbourhood of Worthing, several discoveries of Roman remains 
are recorded to have taken place. Urns, with coins of Diocletian and 
Constantine, were found in 1826 and 1828. The chief discovery, how- 
ever, related by Mr. Dixon, occurred during the progress of the railway 
cuttings, in August, 1845. The spot is in the parish of Broad water, a 
little west of Ham Bridge. At about 15 inches beneath the surface, which 
was not more raised than in other places, 25 or 30 urns and funereal 
vessels were found, five of them containing burnt bones ; several of the 
vessels were bottle-shaped, the neck being much contracted ; also some 
fragments of " Samian," and a beautiful little cylix of the embossed ware, 
supposed to have been fabricated at Castor, Northamptonshire. This 
interesting cup was of a bluish-grey colour ; on one side appeared a stag, 
resembling a red deer, and on the other a large hound. These figures are 
in relief. Portions of rings, possibly armillce, of wood or shale, were 
found ; and more than 200 short iron nails, which appeared to have been 
fixed in a circle of 8 or 10 inches in an object much decayed, supposed to 
have been a buckler. In regard to the mode of interment, it is stated : 
" These funereal relics were deposited in irregular order, 3 or 4 feet apart, 

VOL. vm. ft 


and appeared as if placed on different occasions : they ordinarily consisted 
of a bottle-shaped vase, a Saraian dish, and two or three other pieces of 
pottery placed around the urn containing the bones, which was always 
uppermost and upright. There were no remains of ashes nor anything to 
mark that the body was burnt near the spot." (p. 45.) 

Well-preserved specimens of this curious embossed ware are rare and 
highly to be esteemed : Mr. Neville possesses some, found at Chesterford, 
which have been represented in the Journal (vol. vi., p. 19). A very 
spirited example of the stag-hunt, thus portrayed, will be found in 
Mr. Artis' " Durobrivse," plate 28 ; but incomparably the finest piece of 
this ware is the large vase, found at Bedford Purlieus, Northamptonshire, 
given amongst the illustrations of Mr. Hartshorne's Memoir in the Arch 03- 
ologia (vol. xxxii., plate 3). The height of this vase, on which appear 
human figures with the stag and hound, is 15 inches. 

A further discovery of Roman remains took place near Ham Bridge, 
Aug. 29, 1845, of which the following particulars are related by Mr. Dixon. 
He obtained, on this occasion, five perfect funereal vessels, and three which 
were broken ; but the fractures were not recent. " This appeared to have 
been another grave, about 4 feet from the last ; the contents consisted of 
two urns one, 8 inches high, G inches at top, 3^ inches at bottom, in- 
creasing to 8 inches in the centre, containing burnt human bones ; the 
other, 9 inches high, 3 inches at bottom, 7 inches in the middle, 5 inches 
at top, containing the bones of a bird, the size of a crow ; and burnt human 
bones, five or six nails, <fcc. ; near this urn was a small bottle. Surrounding 
the other, were two vessels like drinking cups, two black saucer-shaped pieces 
of pottery, and one beautiful specimen of glass, quite perfect, of a trans- 
parent green colour, 2 inches high, with handles, and very similar to one 
in the museum at Boulogne. A small fragment of glass was also found 
with the human bones in the large urn : the urns containing the calcined 
bones were, in every instance, nearest the surface. At the bottom of this 
tomb was a flat metallic substance, 8 or 10 inches in length and breadth, 
much broken, having a few iron nails near it, but not more than eight or 
ten, and larger than those in the prior discovery. Iron is also the principal 
ingredient of this vessel or shield, but it is not oxidised like the nails, and 
was originally broken, for I found pieces of it, with two or three nails, in 
the urn containing the bird's bones, <kc., which must have been placed 
there at the interment." (pp. 45, 46.) 

These details are interesting : the little glass diota probably served to 
contain perfumes ; specimens precisely similar may be seen in Montfaucon, 
tome in., pi. 79, p. 146, and Dorow (Die Denkmale Romischer Zeit, in den 
Rheinisch-Wesfalischen Provinzen, Tab. xi., Stuttgart, 1823). 

Perfect specimens of glass funereal vessels are, as Mr. Dixon remarks, 
rare in England : he describes two, discovered at Avisford, near Arundel, 
in 1817, one of them something similar to those just noticed. He had 
also seen portions of a very fine glass vase found at Warburton, near 
Arundel, containing burnt bones, with a coin of Vespasian. We hear with 
satisfaction that Mr. Figg and Mr. Mark Antony Lower are engaged in 
collecting all vestiges relative to Roman occupation of this part of Britain, 
and we hope that all such particulars will be duly detailed, and representa- 
tions given of these antique remains, for which a suitable place of perma- 
nent deposit will at length, we trust, be found, through the well-directed 
energies of Sussex archaeologists, in the venerable castle of Lewes. 

The valuable assemblage of organic remains, described in the work thus 


briefly noticed, have happily heen recently purchased for the British 
Museum, and will form an important complement to the Mantell collection. 
The well-chosen cabinet of Roman large brass and English coins, the result 
of Mr. Dixon's assiduous research, almost from boyish years, may, as we 
believe, be purchased ; and as an instructive series on a moderate scale, it 
would form a very desirable acquisition. The British and Gaulish 
coins are of singular interest. 

Museum of the Corporation of London. Preceded by an Introduction, with 
particulars relating to Roman London. By WILLIAM TITE, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Printed for the use of Members of the Corporation. 8vo. 

DURING the extensive works of embellishment which have been carried 
out in recent years, in almost every quarter of the ancient metropolis, many 
have been the disclosures which have told, more impressively than ancient 
chronicle, of the eventful history of that great city. It is much to be 
regretted that works of this nature, mostly conducted by contractors, and 
with the utmost expedition, are found singularly disadvantageous, as regards 
the careful observation of such discoveries. There is, however, a growing 
interest in ancient remains, which has extended to almost all classes of 
society, and no slight thanks are due to those, who, residing in the remote 
and busy haunts of old London, have availed themselves of their opportu- 
nities, and assiduously watched the results of public works around them, 
or have collected and classified the multiplicity of relics, which every exca- 
vation brings to view. 

The preservation of such remains, the tangible evidences of what this 
important city has been, and of the steps by which she has attained to her 
present high position, is not merely a laudable object of individual gratifi- 
cation, but a matter of public interest and instruction. They have been 
recognised as such by the citizens of our metropolis ; amidst the rapid 
advances of Archaeological Science, and the establishment of public 
collections in many great towns throughout the kingdom, it is gratifying 
to find that the corporation of London has regarded the antiquities dis- 
covered in the execution of civic public improvements, as worthy even of 
a depository near the chief seat of municipal administration. 

The occasion when a work of no ordinary magnitude was contemplated, 
in the erection of a New Royal Exchange, obviously promised unusual 
advantages for the commencement of such collections, and the civic 
authorities were not unmindful of this object. In the specification for the 
works, in 1840, all possible precaution was taken to secure for the Gresham 
Committee every object of interest which might be disinterred, and remune- 
ration was promised to the finders of such ancient remains, of which a large 
portion were in consequence faithfully delivered up. It was by this means 
that the interesting collection was formed, of which the little volume under 
consideration supplies a classified and descriptive inventory. Without such 
a guide, a museum is comparatively of slight utility : and the task of 
arranging and illustrating these antiquities was undertaken, and ably 
carried out, by Mr. Thomson, one of the librarians of the London 

To this Catalogue an appropriate Introduction has been prefixed, from 


the pen of the distinguished architect of the New Royal Exchange, Mr. Tite. 
It is calculated to stimulate his fellow citizens to appreciate more justly the 
interest of these ancient remains, and to take a more active care for their 
preservation. What an attractive Museum, illustrative of ancient arts and 
manufactures, might that now established at the Guildhall be rendered, 
even were its contents limited to such discoveries as occur within the 
precincts of the ancient Londinium, if the liberality of private collectors 
were found ready to second the endeavours of the civic authorities, to 
encourage and give furtherance to this public object. 

The collection, at present existing, comprises almost exclusively remains 
of the Roman period, and to this the introductory remarks of Mr. Tite are 
accordingly devoted. He commences his sketch of Londinium, from the 
notice of it by Tacitus, as the peaceful resort of merchants, and noted as a 
mart of commerce, but not dignified with the name of a colony. The city 
appears long to have retained this character, and hence it would consist 
rather, as Mr. Tite remarks, of extensive warehouses than of palaces or 
temples ; and the improvement of the port, the formation of which has been 
traditionally attributed to Belinus, would be the care of the inhabitants 
rather than the erection of stately streets. Some antiquaries indeed, have 
traced indications of the importance of the port in the course of the principal 
highway, leading in a direct line from Belingsgate. No vestiges of such 
stately architectural remains, as those brought to light in other localities 
occupied by the Romans, are found in London : this may probably be 
attributed to the disastrous results of two great catastrophes, the con- 
flagration in the twelfth century, and the great fire of 1666 ; and it is 
remarkable, that although most careful observations were made, during the 
works under the direction of Sir Christopher Wren, as recorded in a very 
interesting section of the " Parentalia," no evidence of any important 
Roman edifice could be adduced. 

The author proceeds to state the discoveries made at various times, 
indicating the care and skill anciently employed upon the haven, and in 
the construction of quays ; the importance of the ancient navigable rivers, 
the Fleet, and the Wall-brook, of which scarcely a trace now exists, 
besides the names ; the ancient soil and ground of London, as developed 
in the course of excavations, especially on the northern side, and curiously 
illustrating the nature of the original site. From these results of practical 
observation, during the progress of various public works, Mr. Tite turns to 
the consideration of the first collections of London antiquities, and the 
ample evidence supplied by the numerous specimens of Roman arts and 
manufactures, during the last two centuries, as proving that almost all the 
conveniences and elegancies of Rome had been introduced. " These relics," 
he well remarks, " must always possess a considerable intrinsic value as 
illustrations of society and manners, and also a peculiar local interest as 
indicating the condition of the place and people where they were found." 
The Tradescants appear entitled to be regarded as the earliest collectors of 
natural and artificial curiosities in England. After the great fire, and the 
discovery probably of numerous remains during the rebuilding of the city, 
the importance of procuring such relics seems to have begun to be rightly 
perceived ; and one of the most zealous collectors was Mr. Coniers, an 
apothecary, whose assemblage of Roman vessels and articles of every kind 
passed into the Museum of Dr. Woodward. 1 Dr. Harwood, Bagford and 

1 A brief account of Comer's collection is given in Stow's Survey of London, 
edit 1 720, vol. ii. p. 22. 


Kemp, may be added to the list of London collectors of the last century. 
The notices of their efforts are not without interest, as compared with the 
rapid advance of antiquarian pursuits in later times, and the formation of 
many public as well as private collections. One of these, the existence 
of which may hitherto have been unknown to many readers of the Journal, 
is "the Museum (as described by Mr. Tite) established in connection with 
the Corporation Library at Guildhall, for the reception of antiquities relating 
to London, especially such as may be discovered in the execution of civic 
public improvements, which it is certain cannot rightly belong to any other 
depository. Many such interesting remains have been accordingly placed 
at Guildhall by the Commissioners of Sewers, and also by various donors ; 
a descriptive list of which, to the year 1840, is printed at the end of the 
last edition of the Library Catalogue." (Introd. p. xxxvii.) 

The chief source, however, from which this civic museum has been 
enriched, was the great work, before mentioned, the erection of the New 
Royal Exchange. On that occasion a large receptacle was found and 
cleared out, one of those singular favissce, or rubbish-holes, frequently 
noticed of late near Roman sites. In the mass of hardened mud with 
which this pit was filled, lay an heterogeneous assemblage of objects, of 
the Roman period, with numerous imperial coins, from Augustus to 

The Catalogue of these antiquities has been prepared with great care by 
Mr. Thomson, and supplies much valuable information. In the arrange- 
ment of the numerous fictile objects he has availed himself, for the first 
time, as we believe, in any extensive public collection in England, of the 
classification adopted by M. Brongniart, in his " Traite des Arts 
Ceramiques." The fragments of " S ami an " occurred in great variety, 
amounting to some thousands ; from these an useful list of potters' marks 
has been compiled, which will be highly acceptable to antiquaries interested 
in the history of that beautiful manufacture. One impressed mark occurs 
on the handle of an amphora, as far as we are aware unique in this country. 
It is EVALER TROPH, explained to designate the weak wine, called trophin, 
mentioned by Martial as used in the baths. It is curious to trace these 
little evidences of the introduction of all the usages of daily life, and even 
trivial habits amongst the Romans, and to note how completely the customs 

and manners of ancient Italy were preserved even in the most remote 

, . j, ., . J r 

colonies of the empire. 

The other sections of the catalogue relate to the relics of metal, writing 
implements, glass, articles of domestic use, with an extraordinary collection 
of soles and sandals, crepidce, and calcei, and various leathern remains, 
discovered in excellent preservation in the singular rubbish-pit before 

We fear that this useful catalogue has not, as yet, been generally 
circulated ; but the corporation will, doubtless, soon feel that a more 
general publication of such a work must tend to stimulate the interest of 
their brother-citizens, and augment the stores of the Museum, through 
the donations of collectors. The collection itself is very satisfactorily 
arranged for exhibition ; the description of every object is found, placed in 
the case by its side. This practice, which adds so materially to the 
gratification and instruction to be derived by visitors to a Museum, should 
be invariably adopted in all Public Depositories. 



CHOICE EXAMPLES OF ART WORKMANSHIP, selected from the Exhibition 
of Ancient and Medieval Art, at the Society of Arts. Drawn and engraved under 
the superintendence of Philip De la Motte. London : Cundall and Addey, 1851. 

THE interest excited by the tem- 
porary museums formed during 
successive years in the cities 
visited by the Institute, and the 
readiness with which precious 
relics of ancient Art had been 
contributed, naturally gave rise to 
the desire that a more extended 
collection should be submitted to 
public inspection in the metropolis. 
The proposition, originated by one 
of the most zealous members of 
the Institute, to whom also the 
Society had been indebted for the 
first impulse in producing those 
local museums at their annual 
meetings, was suggested to the 
Society of Arts, and met with 
cordial encouragement. The 
powerful influence which the dis- 
play of such a series was calculated 
to produce upon the taste and 
manufactures of present times was 
cordially recognised. It is need- 
less to remind our readers how 
successful was the result ; that the 
design was honoured with the 
encouragement of Her most Gra- 
cious Majesty, and carried out 
under the auspices of the Prince 
Consort, with the distinguished 
committee of management, over 
which he consented to preside. 

The volume, to which we would 
invite notice, comprises a selection 
of examples from that rich series. 
It will ever be a cause of regret 
that so important an opportunity 
was not rendered available for the 
production of a memorial of the 
collection, which might have pre- 
sented, not so much an inventory 
of its contents, as a manual of 
the interesting Art-processes of 
medieval times, illustrated by ex- 
amples existing in our own coun- 

the Cabinet of ^ The valuable volume by M. 

alt. supposed gift of the Foundress, Christ's College, Cambridge 


A candlestick, in the collection of Sir Anthony Rothschild, Bart 



Labarte, relating to the Debruge-Dumesnil Cabinet, might have formed an 
admirable model. 

In default of such desirable addition to archaeological literature, our 
thanks are due to Mr. De la Motte, and to the spirited publisher of the 
" Choice Examples," for the speedy production of a volume which must 
conduce to confirm the impression produced by the Exhibition of the past 
year, before it may be effaced by a more imposing display of art and 
industry. By many, we are assured, such a memorial, at a cost which must 
i render it extensively acceptable, will be welcome as recalling one of the 
most attractive exhibitions ever produced in England. 

Mr. De la Motte has placed at our disposal specimens 
of the interesting subjects reproduced by his pencil. 
Amongst the ancient English plate, drawn forth on 
this occasion from the stores of colleges and corporate 
companies, was the curious covered salt, of which a 
representation accompanies this notice. It is preserved 
at Christ's College, Cambridge, as one of the gifts of 
the Foundress. A more elegant production of an 
earlier period, but of continental workmanship, is the 
charming turricula, from Mr. Magniac'srich collection. 
(See woodcut.) It is described as having been destined 
to receive chrism. This adaptation of architectural 
forms to objects wholly of a different character was 
employed with the happiest effect by the medieval 
artificers. Similar attempts, in modern times, have 
been rarely if ever successful. There is, for the most 
part, a graceful originality in the design of these 
ancient objects, even in those of ordinary or trivial 
uses. See, for instance, the little key of wrought steel, 
here represented. 

The Exhibition was singularly rich in Damascened work, especially dis- 
played on the magnificent shield, sent by Her Majesty's gracious permission 
from Windsor ; in enamels, also, and sculptured ivories, of which last, 
with some earlier specimens, Mr. De la Motte gives the graceful pro- 
ductions of Fiamingo, of which Mr. Vulliamy is the possessor. The 
exquisite glass of Murano, and the curious fictile chefs-d'oeuvre of the 
sixteenth century have supplied several subjects, the more interesting 
because fabrications of this nature have been very little known in England, 
and their history claims special notice in connexion with the growth, from 
that period, of a taste for elegant, and even artistic, productions of fictile 
manufacture. The candlestick of " Faience fine du temps d' Henri //.," 
of which a representation accompanies these notices, is one of the choicest 
examples of Italian design, introduced by Francis I. It is striking to 
observe how totally all Gothic elements of decoration had vanished : a 
slightly Moresque character may even be traced in the interlacements. 1 

Works such as that under consideration must exert an influence, not 
only in encouraging the prevalent taste for relics of the olden time, but 
as a valuable aid to Schools of Design, in promoting a refinement of the 
forms and ornamentation of all our National Manufactures. 

1 See Bronguiart's interesting account of this choice fictile fabrication, Traite" des Arts 
CVrum, vol. ii., p. 175. 

Archaeological Intelligence, 

HARDWICK, V.P., in the Chair. 

After the announcement of numerous presents, comprising the Transac- 
tions of various kindred societies, attention was directed to an interesting 
specimen of the Bronze period, recently found at Mildenhall, and added 
to the Museum of the society by purchase. It is a weapon, which had been 
broken previously to its deposit in the grave. In other respects it had 
suffered scarcely any injury. It seems evident, from other interments, that 
although not an invariable practice, the usage existed of breaking the 
sword or other weapon before casting it into the earth, in token, doubtless, 
that the career of its owner was ended. This blade measured 12| in. in 

Mr. BABINGTON offered some observations on the local tokens, of which 
the Society possesses a considerable collection, now carefully arranged. He 
pointed out the information which such objects supply. The series of 
tokens, issued in Cambridge during the latter years of the Commonwealth 
and the reign of Charles II., comprises forty-one pieces, including three not 
recorded in the list formed by the late Mr. Bowtell. The total number 
known is fifty-seven ; and the Society will thankfully receive any additions, 
to render their collection complete. Mr. Babington observed, that many 
names occur identical with those of inhabitants of Cambridge at the present 
time, of whose ancestors these tokens are a record, as also of the occupa- 
tions followed by them. On the token of Sandis Peyton, the arms of that 
family appear in an unusual form, possibly to distinguish a junior branch. 
It bears on the reverse, on a cross engrailed, a mullet, surrounded by a 
bordure. The arms of the Peytons of Cambridgeshire, are, a cross 
engrailed, with a mullet in the second quarter. 

March 17, 1851. The REV. C. HARDWICK, V.P., gave an account of a 
black-letter volume, probably unique, in the library of Jesus College, con- 
taining a metrical " Life of St. Rhadegunde." It was printed by Pynson, 
rather earlier, as supposed, than 1520. This rare book, exhibited to the 
members by the kindness of their President, the Master of Jesus College, 
had been given to the library by Dr. Farmer. The author of this life was 
Henry Bradshaw, a native of Chester, educated at Gloucester College, 
Oxford, and subsequently a Benedictine Monk at St. Werburgh's, Chester. 
His metrical " Life of St. Werburge " has been edited by Mr. Hawkins 
for the Chetham Society. The substance of this Life of St. Rhadegunde 
is derived from the " Summa Historialis " of Antonius, Bishop of Florence. 
She was daughter of Berthaire, King of Thuringia, was taken captive by 
the Franks, and became the wife of Clothaire, from whom she separated, 
and followed an ascetic life in Poitou. Bradshaw makes her of African 
origin. Mr. Babington read an interesting communication from the Rev. 
J. J. Smith on " Church and Parochial Libraries," with a view to the 
examination of many old collections still existing in churches, and their 
better preservation. Presents of coins and various antiquities were received 


from Mr. Deck. The Rev. John Power presented a collection of pennies 
of Henry III., found, wrapped in lead, at Framlingham Castle. The Rev. 
C. Bennet exhibited a curious Roman lamp of iron, 10 inches in length, 
found in a tumulus near Rougham, called " Eastlowe Hill." 

The volume of Anglo-Saxon Legends will speedily he ready for distribu- 
tion to the members. 

Meeting, March 13. The report of the Committee announced an increase 
in the list of members, now amounting to 226. The meetings of the past 
year had been attended with gratifying results, both in regard to works of 
restoration, and the stimulus given to archaeological researches. The report 
adverted to the able restorations of Cheveley Church, and the production 
of a series of plates illustrative of its architectural details ; the excavations 
on the site of Cheveley castle, of which the cost had been defrayed by the 
Duke of Rutland, under the direction of Mr. Fairlie ; and the proposed 
publication of a History of Sudbury, by the Rev. C. Badham. In the 
ensuing year it was proposed to hold meetings at Mildenhall in June, and 
at Stowmarket in September. A visit to the. cathedral church of Ely is 
also in course of arrangement. The influence of the Society had already 
aroused such lively interest in matters of antiquity, that the Committee 
proposed to address an invitation to the Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain, to make choice of the ancient town of Bury St. Edmund's as the 
place of one of their annual meetings. The Fourth part of the "Proceedings " 
had been issued, and a Fifth is nearly ready. Various antiquities and 
rubbings of brasses were produced ; and the following communications 
were read. Notices of Burgate Church, by the Rev. C. Manning ; Notes 
on the Medical and Surgical Archaeology of Suffolk, by the Rev. A. Hol- 
lingsworth ; and on the ancient seal of Kilkenny, bearing the arms of the 
de Clare family, by the Rev. J. Graves. 

KILKENNY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The second annual meeting was 
held on January 8, the Mayor, V.P., ex officio, presiding. Numerous 
members were admitted. The report for the previous year was read by the 
Rev. James Graves, Hon. Sec. It set forth the satisfactory evidences of 
the advance of public interest in the proceedings of this society ; the growth 
of their library and collections ; the establishment of friendly intercourse 
with other societies ; and the satisfaction with which the publication of the 
first portion of the " Transactions " had been received. The committee 
had circulated freely an illustrated pamphlet, intended to promote the study 
and preservation of antiquities ; and the good results to be anticipated from 
this measure had already been evinced by numerous local Reports, received 
in answer to the queries thus issued. 

It was determined that the publication of the Transactions of 1850 
should be carried out, in like manner as those of the previous year. 

Amongst presents received may be noticed, a curioufl deed, sent by the 
Marquis of Ormonde, the President, to which is appended for confirma- 
tion the ancient privy seal of the commonalty of Kilkenny, supposed to be 
of the fourteenth century. The device is an escutcheon, charged with three 
towers. Dr. Ross presented an ancient specimen of metal casting, an iron 
vessel, found at a considerable depth in a turf-bog ; and a lump of " bog 
butter," found in a wooden can, cut out of the solid wood of the sallow, 
with two ears and a lid. The Rev. Philip Moore contributed a curious 
document relating to the estates of the Fitzgeralds of Brownsford, accom- 



panied by notices of their history. A memoir was read by Mr. Robertson, 
illustrated by numerous drawings, representing the remains of St. John's 
Abbey, Kilkenny, the earliest religious establishment in that town, founded 
by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, about 1220. The tower is 
described, in 1780, as an object of beautiful and picturesque character: it 
was undermined and fell during the building of the barracks. The east 
window of the Abbey Church, with great part of the choir, remained, and 
possessed features of considerable interest ; but the greater portion of these 
ruins had been demolished. The late William Robertson, Esq., had fortu- 
nately employed artists to make drawings of every building of antiquarian 
interest in the county, and thus preserved the memorials exhibited to the 
meeting. During the destruction of the remains, various sculptured orna- 
ments were found, glazed decorative tiles, tombs, and a bulla of Pope 
Sixtus IV. Mr. Ferguson, of the Record Department, Four Courts, Dublin, 
gave an interesting account of a mass of legal documents lately brought to 
light by the Chief Remembrancer and Commissioners of Inquiry into the 
Public Records. They had been deposited in damp vaults, totally neglected, 
and comprised many valuable evidences, commencing with the reign of 
Henry III. Mr. Ferguson sent some curious extracts relating to the com- 
mission, for the purpose of enforcing the Ecclesiastical laws in the times of 
Elizabeth. A communication was also read from Mr. Prendergast, regarding 
the proceedings of the assembly of Confederate Catholics in Kilkenny, 
which, for ten years, from November, 1642, performed the part of a Parlia- 
ment, raising taxes, making laws, and, in short, exercised sovereign power. 
Mr. Graves reported the result of his inquiries in quest of the records of 
their acts, believed to be still extant. Mr. Prim gave some curious illus- 
trations of ancient manners, being sumptuary enactments in the bye-laws of 
the Corporation of Kilkenny, regarding feastings, especially at christenings, 
civic repasts, <kc. An account of antiquities in the Piltown district was 
sent by Mr. Blackett, comprising raths, stones of memorial, a remarkable 
cromleac, the curious sculptured crosses and ruined church at Kilkieran. 

At the March Meeting, the Right Hon. W. F. Tighe, Patron of the 
Society, took the chair. Lord Charles Butler presented a number of coins, 
and relics, found in the grounds of Kilkenny Castle. Various antiquities 
of stone and bronze, celts, the impression of a seal of the thirteenth century, 
found at Roscrea, being that of Galfr. Cornwall, and other curious objects, 
were given to the museum. 

MB. GRAVES read a notice of a supposed Pelasgic Inscription, on a cromleac- 
shaped monument at Tory Hill, Co. Kilkenny, first noticed by the late 
Mr. Tighe, in his statistical work on that district, and taken by Vallancey 
and other writers as their sole basis of theories regarding the Phoenician 
origin of the early colonists of Ireland. Mr. Windele had called the atten- 
tion of the Society to this supposed altar of Baal, at a previous meeting ; 
and the Right Hon. W. Tighe, then presiding, had proposed a careful 
examination of the original stone, existing in his garden at Woodstock. 
Mr. Graves now stated, that having visited the spot, in company with his 
brother secretary, they felt convinced that the supposed Pelasgic characters 
are of recent date. He read a letter from Professor 'Donovan, which 
conclusively destroys the theories of the Vallancey school, showing the 
inscription to be merely the name of a well-known mill-stone cutter, named 
Emond Conic, and the true reading to be E . CONIC . 1731. This 
" Phcenician " relic, copied by Gough in his edition of the Britannia, is still 


cited by some persons as genuine, and it is important to show the total 
fallacy of the argument. 

DR. CANE read a memoir on " ring-money," and produced three specimens 
found in the Co. Kilkenny or on its borders. These rings weighed 77 grs., 
100 grs., and 214 grs. respectively. He gave an interesting summary of 
the remarks of Sir William Betham, Mr. Lindsay, and Dr. Petrie, on this 
vexata qucestio. Sir William had first advanced the notion that these rings 
are the money of the Celts, and are all graduated in weight, so as to be mul- 
tiples of 12 grs. or ^ dwt. ; and he sought to corroborate this opinion by 
statements regarding the use of gold and iron rings, as money, in Nubia and 
other parts of Africa. Dr. Cane read the authorities cited by the writers 
above-mentioned, showing the frequent presents of rings in early times ; and 
that payments of ransom, rent, or fines, were estimated by weight of gold 
or silver. Dr. Petrie shows that the precious metals were used thus as a 
circulating medium, sometimes as ingots, more frequently as rings ; and this 
appears more distinctly in the " Book of Rights," translated by O'Donovan. 
Dr. Cane gave also some illustrations of this curious subject from the Sagas, 
showing the frequent mention of gold rings among the Northmen as marks 
of distinction and a kingly largess, but not viewed as mere money. He 
inclined to regard the Irish " ring-money" as having been used in like 
manner, and to question its having served as a circulating medium for 
ordinary purposes of traffic or exchange. 

^Miscellaneous Notices. 

IT is proposed to publish a new edition of the MYVYRIAN ARCHAIOLOGY 
of Wales, with English translations, under the auspices of the Welsh MSS. 
Society. In the original edition, now rarely to be purchased, no transla- 
tions were given. Nearly the whole of the historical portion, consisting of 
the Genealogies of the British Saints, the Historical Triads, and various 
British chronicles, is ready for the press, having been prepared for the late 
Record Commission, and since placed at the disposal of the society by the 
Master of the Rolls. The publication will commence, under the direction of 
Ven. Archdeacon of Cardigan, as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers 
is obtained to meet the expense. The work will form four or five volumes, 
to be issued at intervals of about twelve months. Persons who are willing 
to encourage this important undertaking, which has already received the 
Royal sanction, should send their names to the publisher, Mr. Rees, 

Messrs. Brooke, of Lincoln, have announced the publication of an exact 
copy of all the monumental inscriptions in Lincoln Cathedral, as they stood 
in 1641 ; collected by Robert Sanderson, afterwards Bishop of Lincoln, and 
corrected by Sir W. Dugdale's MS. Survey, now in Lord Winchilsea's 
Library, at Hartwell, Kent. A transcript of that survey was presented by 
the Archdeacon of Lincoln to the Chapter Library, with copies of the 
interesting sketches of monuments and the numerous sepulchral brasses, of 
which none now remain in the Minster. 


A work of great utility to antiquaries and genealogists has been prepared 
for publication by Mr. John Papworth, entitled " A General Ordinary of 
British Armorials," in alphabetical arrangement by the charges. The 
very ingenious plan devised by the author affords singular facility of refer- 
ence : it will afford the long-desired means of finding at a glance the 
family by whom any coat has been borne, or to whom it has been attributed. 
Besides the coats given in Burke's valuable " Armory," of which 
Mr. Papworth's volume will be the converse, Glover's " Ordinary," all 
rolls of arms, and accessible authorities have been rendered available : 
seals, sepulchral brasses, <kc. have supplied their share of information. 
The work is prepared for press, and waits only for sufficient encouragement 
on the part of subscribers, to meet the cost of the undertaking. Any 
information will be thankfully received by Mr. Papworth, addressed to 
1 4 A, Great Marlborough Street, London. 

The Rev. H. C. Cherrie, Rector of Burghfield, Berks, announces a 
Genealogical and Heraldic work on the Families of Berkshire, to be pub- 
lished by subscription, in parts. It will comprise every particular recorded 
in the six Visitations of that county, and be illustrated by copies of the 
trickings of arms in Ashmole's MSS., or from other authorities. It is 
limited to families whose connexion with Berkshire occurred previously to 
1700. Subscribers' names are received by Mr Russell Smith, 4, Old 
Compton Street, Soho. 

In the Notice of Mr. Freeman's "Remarks on Llandaff Cathedral," in 
the last volume of the Journal, p. 406, an erroneous impression was inad- 
vertently given in regard to the age of some parts of the fabric. The 
author regards the side doorways of the nave, the rich character of which 
was shown by one of the Illustrations, as considerably later than the time 
of Urban (12th cent.) The west doorway, of which also an interesting 
representation was given, he considers as a pure Early English addition. 
It has nothing Romanesque, except the lingering vestige of the round arch. 
The Dean of Llandaff, however, would attribute it to the time of Bishop 
Saltmarsh (about 1190). 

The question whether certain ornamental details, as compared in 
various districts, were simultaneously adopted, is of considerable interest, 
especially as connected with the true age of the sculptured crosses of 
Wales. We would refer our readers to Mr. Freeman's volume for further 

The author's coadjutor in preparing the promised History of St. David's, 
is the Rev. W. Basil Jones, one of the secretaries of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Association, an antiquary well prepared to render efficient 
aid iL that interesting undertaking. 

The Fifth Annual Meeting of the Cambrian Archaeological Association 
will be held at Tenby, in August, 1851. President, the Earl of Cawdor. 

The ANNUAL MEETING of the INSTITUTE, for the year 1851, to be held in 
the city of BRISTOL, will commence on Tuesday, July 29. All persons 
who propose to communicate memoirs are requested to intimate their 
intention to the Secretaries. 


Pinnacles of the Tower: as restored by Mr. J. C Buckler. 

Cfu 8rc6arol0ffft*I journal* 

JUNE, 1851. 


THE few historical notices of St. Mary's Church which are 
to be produced on the present occasion have no claim to the 
credit of originality. They are principally derived from 
sources of information which are universally accessible, and 
scarcely deserve to occupy your time, except so far as they 
may serve for an appropriate introduction to some observa- 
tions on the fabric, for which I am indebted to the kindness 
of the accomplished architect 1 now employed in effecting the 
restoration of the Tower and Spire. 

The original foundation of St. Mary's Church has been 
referred by an ancient and certainly not incredible tradition 
to the great King Alfred. 

It is alleged that when, on the resuscitation of the Uni- 
versity after its devastation by the Danes in the ninth 
century, that prince erected Schools of Grammar, of Arts, 
and of Theology within the walls of Oxford, the place of 
conferring degrees, and celebrating other public acts of the 
University, was transferred from its former situation, where 
St. Giles's Church now stands, to the Church of St. Mary the 
iVirgin ;* so called, as the learned President of Trinity 
'College has observed, in contradistinction to the still earlier 
foundation of St. Frideswide's, which in the most ancient 
idocuments is denominated, not St. Frideswide's, but St. 
Mary's " prope Tamesin." 3 

John Rous, or Ross, a Chantry Priest of Guy's Cliff in 
'the county of Warwick, who wrote about the middle of the 

j ' J. C. Buckler, Esq. 2 Peshall, 55. 3 Memorials of Oxford, vol. iii. 



fifteenth century, under the name of "Johannes Rossus," 
states that, " In prima dictsD Universitatis fundatione ipse 
nobilis Rex Aluredus infra Urbis Oxoniae moenia Doctores 
in Gramraatica, Artibus et Theologia tribus locis in nomine 
Sanctae Trinitatis ex suis sumptibus instituit ;" and else- 
where observes that " Ecclesia Sancti Egidii, sub nomine 
cujusdam alterius sancti dedicata, erat locus creationis Gra- 
duatorum, sicut modo est Ecclesia Sanctae Mariae infra 
muros." 4 

In like manner, also, Brian Twyne, Fellow of Corpus 
Christi College, in his work published in 1608, under the 
title of " Antiquitatis Academiae Oxoniensis Apologia," 
quotes from the Chronicles of Hyde Abbey : " Quse Univer- 
sitas Oxoniae quondam erat extra portam Borealem ejusdem 
urbis. et erat principalis Ecclesia totius cleri Ecclesia Sancti 
Egidii extra eandem portam : modo vero est Ecclesia princi- 
palis cleri Ecclesia Sanctae Mariae infra eandem urbem." " Sic 
(he proceeds) Hydense Chronicon, quod cum Rosso turn 
Burlseo multo antiquius est." 5 The Burlseus alluded to 
being Walter Burley, a Fellow of Merton College, in 1305, 
described by Twyne as "Edwardi Regis tertii praeceptor 
longe doctissimus," 6 and so highly esteemed by the Parisian 
schoolmen as to have been honourably designated by them 
as " Doctor planus et perspicuus." 7 

Whatever be the truth of the popular tradition which 
ascribes the foundation of St. Mary's Church to Alfred, the 
earliest authentic recognition of its existence is found in the 
Domesday Survey. In that record it is stated that, " Ad 
terras quas tenet Albericus Comes, pertinet una Ecclesia et 
tres mansiones ; harum duae jacent ad Ecclesiam Sanctse 
Marias, reddentes xxviii. d " 

Mention is frequently made of this Church in ancient 
writings as belonging to the king. 

In a charter of the early part of the reign of King John 
an annual payment of xxxii d . out of its lands was confirmed 
to the Church of St. Mary, the rector thereof, and his 

In an inquisition in the 1 3th of Edward I., the Church of 
St. Mary is stated to be in the gift of the king, and of the 
annual value of thirty marks. 

4 Hist. Angl., p. 77. s Twyne, 122. Ibid, 121. 

7 Wood. Annals, i., 213. 


At one time it appears to have been styled a Deanery ; 
John of Oxford, the well-known partisan of King Henry II. in 
his contest with Becket, and subsequently Dean of Salisbury 
and Bishop of Norwich, being reported to have held it under 
that title. It remained in the patronage of the Crown until 
King Edward II., on April 26, 1326, appropriated it to his 
new College of Oriel. At that time a Vicar was appointed 
with an annual stipend of 104 shillings, subsequently aug- 
mented by Henry Burwash, or de Burghersh, Bishop of 
Lincoln, to 110 shillings. 8 

But though the patronage of this church pertained to the 
ting from the earliest times of which we have any account, 
he ancient tradition that it has also always been the prin- 
cipal church of the university " principals Ecclesia totius 
cleri Oxoniensis " is supported by the authority of many 
ancient records. A bond for 200/. granted by the Chan- 
cellor and Masters of the University of Oxford, under their 
common seal, to the Prior and convent of St. Frideswide, as 
security against the exercise of jurisdiction by the former 
over the latter, bears date " at Oxford, in our House of 
[/ongregatiori, on the Feast of St. James the Apostle 
2 5 th July) in the year of our Lord one thousand two 
mndred and one, the third year of King John." This docu- 
ment Twyne supposes to have been given in the House of 
Congregation in or by St. Mary's Church, and adds that 
ihere are many instances of acts passed and decreed by the 
Masters of the University in the same church during the 
succeding reign of Henry III. 9 

On the 30th December, 1274, the third year of King 
Mward L, Letters Patent were granted for the appointment 
of a Chaplain in the Church of St. Mary. It is there said, 
' Cum igitur dilecti et fideles nostri Cancellarius et Univer- 
sitas Villae nostrse Oxonii (ubi suum posuerunt Trivium et 
Quadrivium fundamenta, ubi fons scaturit Theologicse facul- 
;atis, ac ubi nudse animse filiorum hominum, venientium de 
onginquis, philosophise vestibus induuntur) in Ecclesia Beatse 
Virginis, dicti loci, Capellaniam quandam deliberatione sancta 
Quper et provida duxerint statuendam, &c." l The expression 
" philosophise vestibus induuntur," appears to allude to the 
investiture of Graduates with the proper habits of their 
several degrees, and confirms the statement quoted above 

8 I'eshall, 56. 9 Twyne, 234, 235. ' Rymer, ii., 43. 


from John Rous, that " Ecclesia Sanctae Maria? infra muros 
erat locus Creationis Graduatorum." 

The termination of the controversy which took place in 
the fifth or sixth year of King Edward II. with the preaching 
friars concerning theological degrees, indicates the same 
conclusion. The disputations termed Vespers, and other 
scholastic exercises, which the friars had claimed the privilege 
of performing in their own houses, were then peremptorily 
transferred to the Church of St. Mary as the place of per- 
forming them for all academical persons. And to this it may 
be added that in a composition between the Chancellor, 
Proctors, and Masters of the University, and the Provost and 
Fellows of Oriel College, in the year 1409, it is rehearsed 
that the building called the Old Congregation House, on the 
north side of the chancel, belonged to the University before 
the appropriation of the Church to Oriel College, and even 
before the memory of man ; " necnon per tempus et tempora 
cujus contrarii memoria non existit ; " and that the Congre- 
gation of Masters had been solemnly held there from all 
antiquity. 2 

The right and interest of the University in the Church of 
St. Mary has also been exhibited on several occasions when 
they have taken upon themselves the charge of repairing the 1 
fabric. The most signal example of this kind took place in 
the early part of the reign of Henry VII., when, after it had 
been for some time in a ruinous condition, the whole edifice, 
except the tower and spire, a small portion eastward of the 
tower, and some portions of the chapel to the westward of 
the tower, commonly called Adam de Brome's Chapel, was ' 
entirely rebuilt, as it now stands, by means of funds supplied 
by themselves, or obtained by the assistance of their friends. 3 

In a MS. volume preserved in the University archives, 
endorsed, " Registrum continens diversas Epistolas, &c., ab 
anno Domini, 1422, ad annum 1508," upwards of fifty 
letters are recorded, which were addressed to the king, and 
to various prelates and other persons, whose assistance was 
solicited during the prosecution of this work, from the year 
1486 to the year 1490. 

The series commences with the appointment of one 
Stephen Browne (who, if we may judge from the compli- 
ments paid him, was a person held in great esteem) to be 

2 Ex orig. Arch. Univ. Peshall, 56. 


the Proctor of the University, for the purpose of making 
application to those who were likely to become contributors, 
and of collecting their benefactions. 

As this letter is not a long one, I will here introduce it as 
a specimen of a correspondence which at least had the merit 
of producing considerable influence upon those to whom it 
was addressed; for the appeal was answered with a libe- 
rality which provided sufficient funds for the erection of the 
noble nave and aisles of the present Church, the reconstruc- 
tion of the Chapel of St. Mary, commonly called Adam de 
Brome's Chapel, and for repairing and altering the building 
eastward of the tower, comprising the old Congregation 
House and present Law School. 

The nature and objects of Stephen Browne's commission 
are thus expressed : 

" Universis Sanctae Matris Ecclesiae filiis ad quos presentes 
literae pervenerint, Johannes permissione divina Lincolniensis 
Episcopus, 4 Universitatis Oxoniensis Cancellarius, ccetusque 
Regentium uni versus in eadem, Salutem in Omnium Salva- 
tore. Cum nos, Cancellarius et Regentes ante dicti in nostrae 
Congregations Domo nuperrime congregati, constructionem 
Ecclesiae Sanctse Marise, ubi antiquitus [actus nostri] solennes 
et jam indies per nos celebrantur, sedulo curaremus ; cum 
que etiam nostrae facultates ad ea perficienda opera minus 
sufficerent ; dilectum nobis in Christo Stephanum Browne 
nostrum procuratorem constituimus per prassentes, ad interce- 
dendum et interpellandum nostros benefactores, petendum et 
recipiendum pro nobis et in nomine nostro quicquid nostri 
benefactores ad idem opus elargiri dignabuntur. Vobis 
igitur humillime supplicamus, quatenus nostrae paupertati 
compatieutes, ipsum ad nostrorum negotiorum declarationem 
admittere, nobisque in tantis negotiis succurrere dignemini 
intuitu caritatis. Dat. Oxon. in nostrae Congregationis 
Domo sub sigillo nostro Communi A. Dni M. CCCC" 10 octo- 
gesimo sexto, die mensis Februarii Vicesimo Sexto." 

The letters which follow, and with the delivery of which 
it would appear that Stephen Browne was entrusted (for he 
is shortly afterwards again written to, thanked for his past 
services in this behalf, and requested to continue them), are 
addressed to a great variety of persons : such as King 

4 John Russell, the first perpetual Chancellor of the University, was translated from 
the See of Rochester in 1480, aud died in 1494. 


Henry VII. ; John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury ; the 
Bishops of Ely, Winchester, Exeter, Llandaff, Hereford, 
Rochester, Norwich, and St. David's, and the Executors of 
the Bishop of Coventry ; 5 the Deans of Lichfield and Here- 
ford ; the Archdeacons of Hereford and St. Paul's ; the 
Abbots of Glastonbury, Fountains, Evesham, Gloucester, 
Bury, Hayles, St. Alban's, and Tewkesbury; the Priors of 
Merton and Coventry ; several ecclesiastics of inferior rank 
to the dignitaries here enumerated, and numerous private 
individuals of whom nothing is recorded but their names. 
But the circulation of these letters probably extended far 
beyond those whose names are specifically mentioned, and 
much exceeded the number of the copies recorded in the 
before named Register ; for not only does it appear that the 
same letters were sent to several persons, whose names are 
set against them (such, for example, as one and the same to 
the Abbots of Evesham, Gloucester, and Bury ; one in like 
manner to the Abbots of Hayles, St. Alban's, and Tewkes- 
bury, and one to the Vicar of Ilminster, " cum duobus 
aliis"); but others have no superscription, the person being 
addressed as, " Honorande Rector," " Vir humanissime," or 
" Dilecte Confrater ; " compellations which, it may be hoped, 
would suit so many persons, that the letters which bear 
them, as well as some others which have no address either 
within or without, may reasonably be supposed to have been 
circulars, sent, according to the practice (though without the 
facilities) of the present day, to all those whose connection 
with the University was such as to furnish a presumption of 
their interest in the promotion of the work. 

Though the nature of such letters does not admit of much 
variety, no two of them are precisely similar. In all, however, 
stress is laid upon the ancient interest of the University in 
St. Mary's Church, as the place where its public acts had 
been honourably celebrated from time immemorial. 

The ruinous condition of the fabric is described in many 
different particulars. In one of the letters it is represented 
that " the leaden plates of the roof had become so thin that 
it would cost no small sum to replace them, and that if any 
one could only see it, during rain, he would be quite distressed 
at being utterly unable to find in it any place that would 
afford him shelter." 6 

5 Lichfield and Coventry. No. 338. 


The king is told that " without the supplies of timber, for 
which their thanks were due to him, and the assistance that 
had been derived from other quarters, no place would have 
long remained for the respectable celebration of any 
Scholastic Acts." 7 

Another correspondent is told that the Church of 
St. Mary is so near destruction that " it must shortly fall to 
the ground, if the hands of artisans be not employed in 
counteracting the effects of its decay ; " 8 and to another it is 
described to be in such a state, "ut ruinae potius quam 
statui merito dici judicarique possit." 9 

To John Alcock, Bishop of Ely, it is urged, that, "if 
Scholastic Acts are for the future to be celebrated in this 
church, " non modo in aliqua ejus parte extruere, verum totam 
ipsam Ecclesiam (lapideos tantummodo muros excipimus) de 
novo a3dificare necesse erit." 1 And in like manner the 
Bishop of Winchester is, in the letter addressed to him, 
informed, that " the church is so seriously affected by the 
great age of its beams, and of all other things, which no 
buildings can be firm or durable without, that it would often 
be enough to frighten any who might chance to enter it, 
during a storm." 2 

All alike complain of the deficiency of the necessary funds 
for effecting the desired restoration. To the king it is 
represented, " that the means of the petitioners were insuffi- 
cient to meet charges of such magnitude, and that if they 
were to lay out far more than they possessed on so large an 
edifice, they could scarcely hope to carry even the smallest 
portion of it to completion." 3 

The archbishop is informed, that " the pecuniary means 
of the University were much reduced, as well from the 
recent erection of the New Divinity School at a very great 
expence, as from the paucity of distinguished persons who 
might replenish the academical coffers on their admission to 
degrees ; " and it is also alleged, that " the parishioners 
being ' multum tenues ' ' tarn exiles et jejuni, ut ab aliis 
opes exigere quam ad hoc sedificium aliquas suas conferre 
malint,' unless the petitioners would depart from the practice 
of their predecessors, they could not for the honour and 
credit of the University decline to undertake the burthen of 
rebuilding the Church." 4 

" No. 352. 8 No. 351. 9 No. 357. l No. 361. ' No. 362. 

3 No. 351. 4 No. 360. 


These letters, on which I fear that I have already dwelt 
too long, are of great interest and importance, not only 
because they exhibit the methods employed by our ancestors 
in the fifteenth century for the purpose of raising money for 
a public work of piety, but because they clearly illustrate the 
connection between the University and the Church of 
St. Mary, and confirm the proofs already advanced in order 
to show the great antiquity of that connection. Not only do 
they recognise the church as the place where Academical 
Acts were wont to be performed, but assume throughout that 
such acts had been there solemnised from remote antiquity, 
and that, in desiring to undertake the reconstruction of the 
ruined fabric, the University were only treading in the steps 
of their predecessors in all previous time. 

Let it be hoped that the University may ever be animated 
by the same spirit of attachment to the noble monument of 
piety and zeal which their forefathers have bequeathed to 
them. The scholastic acts of the University are indeed no 
longer carried on within its walls ; but let us trust that the 
University of the nineteenth century, which the providence 
of God has blessed with more ample means than were in the 
possession of the University of the fifteenth century, will be 
no less ready to acknowledge the obligation of bestowing as 
much of them as may be required (so long, at least, as we 
are permitted to enjoy the use of our own) in maintaining 
the integrity, if we cannot increase the splendour, of an 
edifice commended to our admiration by its rare beauty, and 
to our affections by a long train of deeply interesting 

Of the five chapels formerly existing in this Church, 
respectively dedicated in honour of St. Mary, St. Catherine, 
St. Anne, St. Thomas, and St. Nicholas, all, except the first, 
which stands on the north side of the Church, and is com- 
monly known by the name of Adam de Brome's Chapel, 
were swept away at the rebuilding of the Church. It is, 
therefore, scarcely worth while to detain you with any par- 
ticular account of them, and I will proceed at once to mention 
the ancient structure to the north of the present chancel, 
called the Old Congregation House. 

This building appears to have been consigned to the 
University, though not in its present state, at a very early 
period. The chirograph, or bond between the University 


Southern side of the Old Congregation House. 


Arch on the East side of the Tower, 

Showing the ipringing of the groining of the Old Congregation House, and the mass of masonry which covers 
the entrance to the Staircase. 



land the Convent of St. Frideswide, executed in 1201, is 

3 supposed to have been dated from this place, under the 

I name of " Domus nostrae Congregationis," and, as has been 

I observed, it was claimed in 1409, as having belonged to 

I the University for an indefinite period before the founda- 

I tion of Oriel College, and the appropriation of the Church to 

I that Society. It consists of two apartments, one above the 

I other, of which the lower one is divided into four bays vaulted 

] and groined in stone ; the easternmost bay being distinguished 

I by a transverse rib of a similar section to that of the mullions 

of the spire windows, and having an ogee-headed piscina in 

the usual position, near the east end of the south wall. The 

date of its erection cannot be accurately ascertained. Some 

peculiarities in its construction, however, indicate a strong 

probability that it was not completed upon the same plan as 

that on which it was originally designed. 5 Its architectural 

features closely correspond with those of the Tower, to the 

east side of which it was, as it appears, originally to have 

been attached. The water-table on the east wall of the 

Tower indicates the height to 

which it was intended to carry ^ 

p the roof. But the roof of the 
ibuilding, as it was completed, is 
f considerably greater eleva- 
ion than the water-tabling, and 
f a different pitch. It is also 
'bservable that there are traces 
of the commencement of a 

Section of South-east Pier of the 

Tower, showing the earlier and 

later work. 

lorth-eastern buttress of the 

lower, and apparently designed to lead to the outside of the 
roof. This staircase not only was not finished, but its entrance 
was walled up, and a solid piece of masonry carried up in 

5 The following note by the able archi- 
ct now engaged on the restorations, Mr. 
J. C. Buckler, will serve to explain the 
curious combination of the later with the 
older work, as shown in the cut above : 

' I have completed .the sketch I 
promised to forward to you. (See wood- 
cut next page.) 

"It represents the dilapidated masonry 
of the south-east pier of the Tower of St. 
Mary's Church, and I have endeavoured 
to express by a tint of lighter shading 
the portion which, for the sake of the 
'ining, was inserted in the somewhat 
vol.. VIIT. 

older work, with which it was so cleverly 
combined. You will readily observe 
the havoc of columns aud bases, which 
was made in order to prepare the way 
for the springer of the arched and vaulted 

"The hollow moulding A originally 
corresponded with B, but only a portion 
of it remains. The column in the angle 
between A and B was removed, but, as 
you will observe, the base was left, as 
were also other bases, one of which formed 
a sure foundation for the slender pillar of 
the groining." 



the angle to the level of the capital of the piers, supporting 
the Tower arch. (See the accompanying illustration.) 

The departure from the original plan, of which these 
particulars afford a very strong presumption, may be easily 
accounted for. About the year 1320, Thomas Cobham, 
Bishop of Worcester, is related by Anthony Wood to have 

begun to build (or at least to 
make some preparations for 
building) a Library over the 
old Congregation House ill 
the churchyard of St. Mary's. 
The style of its architecture 
proves that the building now 
under consideration was re- 
constructed from the ground 
about, or not long before that 
time; and the preparations 
ascribed to Bishop Cobham 
may well have consisted in 
the adaptation of the building, 
completed soon after his 
death in 1327, for the recep- 
tion of the "Solarium," or 
upper story, in which his 
books were afterwards de-^ 
posited, on the conclusion 
of the controversy concerning 
the title to this edifice be- 
tween the University and 
Oriel College in 1409. The 
ancient entrance to the upper 
story is still visible in a broad 
pier on the south side. Th 
aperture is walled up, and by what means its elevated sill was 
approached must be left to conjecture, the steps or platform 
having been destroyed when the alteration which produced 
the present chancel was made. 

The ancient approach at the western extremity is not very! 
easily made out ; but access appears to have been gained 
from the rood-loft by an ante-room, built subsequently to the 
Church, within the court between the Congregation House 
and chancel, with a connecting passage on the west side o; 

South-east Pier of the Tower, showing the 
insertion of the vaulting rib into the 
older work, which is here shown of a 
darker colour. 


I the Turret staircase, which at this position ascends from the 
ground to the roof over the nave. 

This building has been sometimes called the Chapel of St. 
I Catherine, probably from the proximity of St. Catherine's 
I altar, which is said by Wood to have been situated " at the 
I bottom of the stairs leading from St. Mary's Church up to 
Ithe said Library, and at which a priest was appointed to 
celebrate in every quarter of a year three masses of the 
I Holy Ghost, and as many 'de Requie/ for the good estate 
1 of all those, living or dead, who were contributors thereto/' 6 
But without attempting any more minute investigation of 
its history, it may be enough to state, that in the composition 
between the University and Oriel College above referred to, 
|it is described as "Domus quaedam in cimiterio Ecclesise 
Beatae Mariae Virginis Oxoniensis, ex parte Boreali Cancelli 
jituata Ecclesiaa supradictae, Domus Con^regationis Univer- 
jitatis Oxoniensis vulgariter nuncupata, per quendam ab 
Jniversitatis quondam antiquo Scolarem, licentia prima 
egitima omnium quorum intersint (sic) in hac parte elimosi- 
mrie sedificata fuit et constructa per dictarnque Universi- 
;atem, Cancellarium videlicet et Scolares, antequam dicta 
Scclesia Beatae Mariae nobis et domui nostrae supradictae 
tierat appropriata, unita quomodolibet vel annexa, habita, 
5ossessa, in dispositioneque libera Universitatis ante dictae, 
inte, citra, et continue in hunc diem recognitione praasen- 
ium, tarn in parte inferior! quam superiori, cum omnibus 
suis pertinentiis, una cum libero et perpetuo ingressu et 
jgressu ad easdem cum potestate etiam libera aliam sive 
lovam domum ibi, si voluerint et cum voluerint seu quis- 
sunque alius, seu quicunque alii, Universitatis intuitu voluerit 
el voluerint, Cancellarius videlicet et Scolares antedicti 
sonstruendi," 7 &c. 

On the conclusion of this composition, when the upper 
;hamber received the collections of books presented to the 
Jniversity by Bishop Cobham and other benefactors, the 
ower chamber was still employed as the House of Congre- 
gation. About the year 1480, the books were transferred 
o the new library, called after the name of its chief founder, 
lumphry, Duke of Gloucester, and the upper chamber was 
ised by the University as another Congregation House, the 
wo being distinguished as the Upper and the Lower House 

6 Wood, iii., 913. " Ex orig. Arch. Univ. 


of Congregation. To this use both, and especially the upper 
chamber, were applied, until the completion of the present 
House of Convocation in the year 1640. The upper apart- 
ment was, about a century afterwards, converted into a 
Lecture-room for the Vinerian Professor. The lower one 
was from that time disused and neglected ; and notwith- 
standing its attractions as one of the most perfect and most 
interesting specimens of mediseval architecture in the Uni- 
versity, it has long since served no more honourable purpo 
than that of an engine-house, and a receptacle for lumber. 

In dismissing this part of the subject it may be proper to 
observe, that the members of Congregation were far too 
numerous to be accommodated within the narrow limits of 
this building. The ordinary meetings of Regents and non- 
Regents, which we now term Convocation, were held in the 
chancel of the Church ; and at a Public Act, or " Generalis 
Inceptio," (whence the term "commencement," employed 
by the sister University,) the assembly was distributed, 
according to ancient custom, over six portions of the build- 
ing ; the non-Regents in the chancel ; the Theologists in. 
the Congregation House ; the Decretists in St. Anne's 
Chapel ; the Physicians in St. Catherine's ; the Jurists in 
St. Thomas's ; and the Proctors with the Regents in the 
Chapel of St. Mary. 8 

The rebuilding of the Church was completed in 1492 ; 
the chancel having been erected some years earlier by (or 
at least at the cost of) Walter Lyhert, or Hart, Provost of 
Oriel, and afterwards Bishop of Norwich, who died in 1472. 

Of the architect of the nave and aisles I know not thai 
we may speak with certainty. The President of Trinit 
believes that Sir Reginald Bray, who was High Steward of 
the University from 1494 to 1509, was the author of this 
work. It may have been so, but the only evidence advanced 
for it is, that he is known to have given forty marks towards 
the rebuilding of the Church, and that his arms with all his 
quarterings, impaled with those of his wife, once ornamented 
one of its windows. Something may also be ascribed to 
the well-known reputation of Sir Reginald Bray for skill in 
architecture ; and whether the erection of the present Church 
be rightly referred to him or not, we may at least say that 
the credit of the work would detract nothing from the fame 

8 Memorials, 3. 


which he has justly acquired by the splendid memorials of 
his taste and skill, to be seen at Great Malvern and at 
Windsor. 9 

But whoever the architect of the new buildings may have 
been, the Church has not come down to our times in the 
state in which he left it. A few years after its completion 
in 1492, it suffered severely from a storm, the effects of 
which have never yet been fully repaired. All the allusions 
to this event that I have been able to discover, are little 
more than repetitions of a note by Leland, who in his 
Itinerary remarks, that " The University Church in Oxford, 
alias St. Mary's, was begun to be re-edified in the time of 
Dr. Fitz James, after Byshope of London. He procuryd 
much mony towards the buyldinge of it. The embatylments 
of it were full of Pinnacles ; but in a tempestious wethar 
most part of them were thrown down in one night." l 

Leland began his Itinerary about the year 1538, and 
continued it for five or six years. As he does not say 
anything to indicate that the injuries which he describes 
were of recent occurrence, it may be presumed that they 
had taken place some time before he noted them. In the 
collections under the name of Holingshed, the last edition 
of whose Chronicles, during the author's life, was published 
in 1586, the same account is repeated almost word for 
word, with the additional circumstance, that the occurrence 
happened soon after the restoration of the edifice. "That 
of Oxford " he says, (meaning the University Church,) " also 
was repared in the time of Edward the Fourth and Henry 
the Seventh, when Dr. Fitzjames, a great helper in that 
work, was Warden of Merton College, 2 but yer long after 
it was finished, one tempest in a night so defaced the same 
that it left but few Pinnacles standing about the Church 
and Steeple, which since that time have never been 
repared." 3 

The time at which the reparation of these injuries was 
attempted, may be fixed with greater certainty. Dr. Plot, 
in his " Natural History of Oxfordshire," first published in 
1677, observes that "there are many lofty spires about the 
country as well as city, built all of freestone, and of exquisite 
workmanship, such as those of Bampton, Witney, Burford, 

9 Memorials, 3. ' Itinerary, v. viii., fo. 113 b. 

2 Dr. Fitzjames was Warden of Merton from 1482 to 1507. 

3 Holingshed, cap. v., p. 149. 


Bloxliam, Spilsbury, Kidlington, &c. But that which excels 
all the rest is the spire of St. Mary's, in Oxford, the Uni- 
versity Church, the battlements whereof were repaired, and 
thus set thick with pinnacles, as it now stands, by Dr. King, 
then Dean of Christ Church, and Vice Chancellor of the 
University, afterwards Bishop of London." 4 

Dr. King was Vice-Chancellor of the University from 
1607 to 1610, and the architectural style of the pinnacles 
now standing on the body and chancel of the Church, as 
well as of those which have been recently removed from the 
base of the spire, corresponds so closely with the undoubted 
work of that period, as to leave no difficulty in the way of 
accepting Dr. Plot's representation. 

The material employed for the construction of the pinnacles 
put up in the time of Dr. King, being the perishable stone 
found in the neighbourhood of Oxford, they have become 
much decayed in the course of the two centuries and a half 
which have elapsed since their erection. This, in addition 
to many serious defects in the masonry of the upper portion 
of the tower, having rendered extensive repairs absolutely 
necessary, the charge of executing the required operations 
has, as of old, been undertaken by the University, and it is 
hoped that in a few months the whole will be completed. 

The general admiration which this magnificent Church 
commands, and the familiarity with its general character of 
almost all whom I have the honour to address, forbid any 
attempt of mine to describe them. A few remarks, how- 
ever, upon its chief architectural peculiarities, which I 
advance with greater confidence, because they are chiefly 

4 The following extract from Hearne'a but excepting here and there a letter, 

Diary is deserving of notice : defaced, yet so as perhaps with paines 

" On Tuesday last, being the 9th of the traces mi g ht be explained. 

May, St. Mary's (Oxford) weather Cock " * am told the repairs of the steeple 

fell down, as the great Bell was ringing cost about 53 lib8 - 

at 9 o'clock in the morning for a Congre- " Between 20 and 30 years since, I 

gation. It had been loose for some time. think nearer 30 years agoe, the said 

The Cock fell upon the Church, the tail Steeple was new pointed by a man who 

into the Churchyard. Upon this tail was in man y P arts of England on the 

was fastened a piece of Lead, on which B&me account. He at that time took down 

was this Inscription : the Weather Cock, and 'twas mended, and 

afterwards he fixed it again. 

DMAS BOWMAN CHOBCHWARDBH8 I afterwards heard, that that man was 

THOMAS ADAMS killed from some Steeple he was pointing, 

GEORGE WEST ELECT CHURCHWAKDEN the rope breaking which drew him up in 

THIS STEEPLE WAS REPAIRED &* ft?"\E ?*? S?*^ f r _ him - 

. nnv lfifi o "The oldest Church Rate for St. 

AW. LJUJl. lUUif __ .,<.,! i *nf\ rr 

Maries is of the year 1509. ' Hearnes 
Upon the Cock was also an Inscription, Diary, 1734, 142, 78, 79. 



due to the accurate observation and practised judgment of 
the gentleman whose kind assistance I have already acknow- 
ledged, will not inappropriately close this communication. 

It is evident that the present Church, with its noble 
dimensions and symmetrical design, owes its existence to 
the necessity of rebuilding the ancient structure. 

The progress of enlargement by partial re-edification may 
be traced with considerable distinctness ; the tower and 
spire presenting architecture of more early date than is 
attributable to any other portion of the edifice. 

The plan of the ancient structure, which preceded the 
present Church, cannot now be ascertained, but the remains 
of large windows on the east and west sides of the Tower 
evidently show that this conspicuous feature was originally 
intended to stand clear on three out of its four sides. 

On the south side of the Tower, the condition of the 
buttresses proves that at a certain elevation they were 
formed upon walls extending southward to a distance now 
uncertain. When the old Church was pulled down to make 
way for the present structure, these walls, which had belonged 
to a part of the interior not admissible in the new plan, were 
removed ; such portions only being left as were required for 
the basement of the massive buttresses which rise to the 
parapet of the Tower. The steep pitch of the gabled roof 
of this member is shown by the water-table descending 
from its apex on the sloping sill of the belfry window on 
each side to the outer face of the walls or buttresses. 

The altitude and width of this building lead to the 
supposition that its length was considerable ; but as nothing 
is known of the figure or extent of the earlier Church, it is 
impossible to conjecture the manner in which this transverse 
portion, in union with the Tower, was connected with it. 

It is doubtful whether the original design of the Tower 
included a north door. The present entrance on that side 
is of very late date, and in a debased style. It is evident, 
that in order to its insertion, a portion of the ancient wall 
was taken out and rebuilt, and that the large window above 
it was considerably reduced in height, and its design materi- 
ally impaired by the operation. 

The present walls of the old Congregation House, and of 
the chapel westward of the Tower, both built in the reign of 
Edward the Second, are of the original construction ; but 


the windows on their north sides were inserted when the 
Church was rebuilt, and pinnacles were then added to their 
buttresses, in order to harmonise their design with that of 
the rest of the building. 

Another most remarkable alteration, for the sake of 
obtaining uniformity, occurs in the old Congregation House. 
That building (as we have seen) is groined in stone, with a 
room of the same extent above it ; thus rendering windows 
in two tiers necessary. These still remain on the south 
side, where they owe their preservation to the obscurity of 
their situation ; they are also indicated in the lower room on 
the north side, but in order to destroy this character on 
the exterior, windows of large dimensions, with tracery, have 
been inserted, which are pierced for light in the upper room, 
but blanked between the mullions in the lower part to the 
exclusion of light from the apartment forming the lower 
story. On the south side the windows of the lower chamber 
are walled up. Those of the room above have sustained 
scarcely any injury ; but two of the number at the east end 
were destroyed in the fifteenth century, in order to the 
insertion of a bay window, which has since been rendered 
useless by the erection of the present sacristy. 

The gradual development of a more extended plan, con> 
menced in the earliest part of the fourteenth century, is 
very observable. But the intervals in carrying on the work 
allowed time for various changes in the styles of the architec- 
ture. Nearly two centuries elapsed from the erection of 
the Tower to the rebuilding of the chancel, of which the 
uncommon grandeur of proportion and studied simplicity 
have procured very general admiration, and have placed the 
genius which produced it in favourable comparison with that 
which a few years later designed and constructed the nave 
and aisles as they now stand. From east to west the low 
leaden roofs are concealed by parapets. The parapet of 
the chancel retains its original form ; that of the clerestory 
of the nave was enriched with panel work, of which some 
traces are still visible, but was neither embattled nor pierced. 
The buttresses are all terminated with pinnacles ; not one 
of which, however, is a specimen of original workmanship. 
Portions of several may be distinguished, and there is no 
difficulty in detecting those which were restored after the 
havoc made by the storm in the end of the fifteenth, or 


Boss, in the Old Congregation House. 


East End of the Old Congregation House. 
(In this view the upper window has been opened, and the lower part of the lower window restored.) 


beginning of the sixteenth century, and others of more 
modern and less laudable design. 

The windows in the five bays on each side of the chancel 
ascend from an elevated basement to the parapet in two 
tiers of triple compartments, divided by a transom. Inter- 
nally, the wall below the uppermost window on the north 
side is recessed, and decorated with panelling which termi- 
nates upon a stone bench at the height of three feet from 
the present floor. 

The east window is in seven compartments of one height, 
above an uniform series of niches forming the reredos. 

The sedilia, occupying their usual position in the south 
wall, retain enough of their ancient enrichments to show 
that they were of equal excellence both in design and 
execution. Whether the south wall contains a piscina or an 
ambry to the east of the sedilia, cannot be ascertained 
without removing the modern wooden panelling by which it 
is at present concealed. 

On the north side, a plain chamfered doorway communi- 
cates with a sacristy, which appears to have been introduced 
at a comparatively late period between the chancel and the 
old Congregation House. It is now disused and desecrated. 5 

The nave is of six bays, with aisles of equal width ; a 
construction which in the west front exhibits an elevation of 
commanding character, and an admirable combination of 
appropriate architecture. But notwithstanding the admira- 
tion which has been justly bestowed upon this portion of the 
fabric, it must be admitted that, when compared with the 
chancel, it presents in the depression of the arches, in the 
management of the tracery in the clerestory windows, and 
in the treatment of some of the mouldings, some indications 
of that departure from the leading principles of the earlier 
styles which mark the progressive decline of mediaeval 

The porch which covers the principal entrance to the 
south aisle, no longer presents an exterior with any claims 
to admiration. It was erected in 1637, at the cost of 
Dr. Morgan Owen, chaplain to Archbishop Laud. The 
expense of its construction was 200/., principally employed in 
producing ornaments, which do not contrast favourably with 

5 It is understood to be the intention of the parishioners to repair aud restore 
this structure to its ancient use. 



the delicate fan groining of its roof. It cannot be positively 
stated that this fan groining is of the same age as the part 
of the Church to which it is attached, but there are indica- 
tions of contrivance in its adaptation to the present walls of 
the porch, which serve to show that it was once a portion of 
an earlier structure, and has been re-applied to the position 
which it now occupies. 

Flan of the Porch, showing the adaptation of the groining. 

Notwithstanding some variations in design, there does not 
appear to be any great difference in point of age between 
the several roofs of the various parts of the Church. Those 
of the nave and chancel are constructed with arched timbers, 
and that in the room over the old Congregation House has 
been finished in a superior style with moulded ribs and 
carved bosses. 

The ancient monumental remains of interest in the chancel 
are now limited to some slabs bearing inscriptions in Loin- 
bardic characters, the numerous gravestones having, with 
one exception, been entirely stripped of their brasses. 

But in St. Mary's Chapel there is an altar tomb which will 
never be passed without notice, by those who believe it to 

cover the honoured remains of Adam de Brome. 

R. H. 

OXFORD, June 18, 1850. 

The Central Committee would gratefully acknowledge the kind liberality 
of the Author of the foregoing Memoir, in presenting several of the 
Illustrations by which it is accompanied. 



THE lines of ancient earth-work, which in various parts of 
England intersect the country, seem to admit of a division 
into three classes, British roads, Roman roads, and Boundary 
lines. When tolerably well preserved, these different kinds 
of earth-work may, in most cases, be distinguished from 
each other without much difficulty, and the British road 
appears as a ditch, with a low mound on each side of it, 
the Roman road as a mound simply, and the Boundary-line 
as a ditch, with a mound on one side only. As we have no 
reason to believe that the Britons constructed artificial roads 
before the arrival of the Romans, and as we know from 
Caesar that the country was densely peopled, we might 
expect to find their lines of communication worn into hollows. 
The accumulations of filth and refuse, which would neces- 
sarily result from a large traffic, when thrown aside for the 
greater convenience of passage, would soon form continuous 
mounds, and. perhaps the more readily, inasmuch as such 
mounds might, in certain localities, be usefully employed as 
fences. There are many bye-ways in the west of England, 
which, if turfed over, would be no unfair representatives of 
the British roads that still exist upon the downs of Wiltshire. 

Our ancient boundary-lines seem also to admit of a three- 
fold division. There are, first, the boundary-lines, which 
defined the territories of the British tribes before the Roman 
Conquest ; secondly, those which were made by the Romanised 
Britons ; and thirdly, the march-dikes thrown up by our 
ancestors, after the English colonisation of the island. The 
last of these three classes has sometimes attracted the atten- 
tion of the historian ; but the second, though for several 
reasons particularly interesting, has not, I believe, been 
hitherto noticed ; and, if we except the speculations of 
Stukeley and Warton with respect to the " Belgic ditches," 
I am not aware that even the ancient British boundary-lines 
have as yet been made the subject of critical investigation. 

According to Stukeley, the Belgae, as they gradually expelled 
the British tribes, who preceded them, constructed four 


successive lines of defence l Combe-bank, Bokerly-ditch, 
the ditch immediately north of Old Sarum, and Wansditch. 
Warton supposes there were no less than seven of these 
ditches. He does not enumerate them, but he probably 
added to Stukeley's four, the Grims-ditch south of Salis- 
bury, the ditches on Gussage Cow-down, which really apper- 
tained to the British post of Vindo-gladia, and the ditch 
which runs over Salisbury plain to the north of Heytesbury. 
Neither Warton nor Stukeley point out the districts which 
they suppose to have been marked out by means of these 
boundary-lines, and the proximity of the lines to each other, 
is adduced as a proof of the desperate resistance which the 
Belgse had to surmount before they could effect their con- 
quest. The resistance must have been desperate indeed, 
which contested the possession of a few miles of worthless 
down-land ; and the love of property equally strong, which 
could think such an acquisition worthy of being secured at 
the expense of so much labour. There can be little doubt, 
that the number of these boundary-lines has been exaggerated 
not only by Warton, but even by Stukeley. 

It may be asked, what right have we to assume that the 
Belgae overspread the south of Britain, in successive waves of 
conquest, such as are pre-supposed in the hypothesis we ar6 
considering ? The only ground for such a hypothesis that 
I am aware of, is contained in Cesar's statement, " maritima 
pars ab iis (incolitur) qui pra^dse ac belli causlt ex Belgio 
transierunt, qui omnes fere iis nominibus civitatum adpel- 
lantur quibus orti ex civitatibus eo pervenerunt, et bello 
inlato ibi remanserunt atque agros colere cceperunt." B. G. 
1. 4. It may, perhaps, be inferred from this passage, t 
there was a succession of predatory inroads, some of whi 
were followed by Belgic settlements ; and when, in the 
trict which we know to have been colonised by the Bel 
we find successive lines of boundary evidently made by 
people inhabiting the sea-board, to separate themselves from 
the tribes of the interior, it may, I think, be admitted that the 

1 That these ditches might occasionally would require an organised body of men 

throw impediments in the way of a party to guard them, and the maintenance of 

of freebooters is very possible, but that such a force would be beyond the means 

they were military lines of defence, like of races only imperfectly civilised. The 

the Roman Walls in North Britain, or proper character of these ditches is clearly 

the Great Wall of China, is to the last that of boundary-lines. 
degree improbable. Such lines of defence 


hypothesis advanced by Stukeley, and accepted by Warton, 
is, to say the least, not an unreasonable one. 

If we attempt to trace the progress of Belgic conquest by 
the light of Welsh tradition, we shall be disappointed. The 
all but utter silence of the Triads, with respect to a people 
who fill such a place in history, is one of the most puzzling 
circumstances connected with these mysterious records. The 
Triad, which mentions the three " refuge-seeking tribes," tells 
us, that the first of these tribes came from Galedin, and had 
lands allotted to them in the Isle of Wight. Welsh scholars 
consider Galedin to mean the Netherlands ; 2 and, perhaps, 
we may conclude, that, according to Welsh tradition, the 
Belgae came as refugees to this country, and were first located 
in the Isle of Wight driven, it may be, from their own 
country by some inundation of the sea, an accident which 
appears to have been the moving cause of several of those 
great migrations we read of in Roman history. It is clear 
from Ciesar, that for some centuries before Christ, the Belgse 
were the most energetic and powerful and among half- 
civilised races, this means the most aggressive of the Gaulish 
tribes ; and we can have little difficulty in supposing, that 
the fugitive Belga?, with the aid probably of their continental 
brethren, might soon change their character of refugees into 
that of assailants. Of the inlets, opposite the Isle of Wight, 
by which the mainland could be assailed, Tweon-ea (now 
Christchurch), at the mouth of the Stour and Avon, appears 
to have been one of the most important in the earlier periods 
of our history. Here, it would seem, the Belga3 landed. The 
uplands in the neighbourhood are barren, but the vallies rich, 
and the Belga3, we may presume, were soon in possession of 
the pastures along the Stour as far as the neighbourhood of 
Blandford. This town lies in a kind of defile, over which, at 
that period, the woodlands of Cranbourne Chase in all 
probability extended. At this wooded gorge the Britons 
seem to have held their own, and the course of Belgic con- 
quest to have been diverted in the direction afterwards 
followed by the Roman road and the modern railway into 
the vallies of the Piddle and the Frome. We may now ask, 

' This hypothesis would receive strong a dictum of " Richard of Cirencester," 

confirmation if we were justified in giving and I will not insult the reader by quoting 

to the Belgic settlers of the south-east of a patent forgery. I allude to Bertram's 

Dorsetshire the name of Morini. But I clever fabrication, merely to show the 

believe our only authority for so doing is reader that I have not overlooked it. 


whether there be any earthworks, which might serve as 
boundaries to the district we have thus marked out. In the 
first place, we observe between Holt-Forest and Cranbourne 
Chase, the well-known earthwork, called Bokerly-ditch, 
shutting in from the northward the rich valley drained by 
the Wymburne-brook. From Bokerly-ditch the boundary 
may have followed the outline of Cranbourne Chase, have 
crossed the Stour south of Blandford, and then run to the 
north-westward along Combe-bank. There was also, some 
years back, " in the road from Bindon to Weymouth, a 
great ditch, like Wansdike, for several miles." Hutch hi* 
Dorset, i., 217. No such ditch is now visible on this line of 
road, but after a long day's search, I succeeded by an acci- 
dent in finding 3 its -mutilated remains between the Frome 
and Owre-brook. The bank was to the eastward, and I have 
little hesitation in regarding this dike as a portion of the 
western boundary of the first Belgic conquest. What course 
it took to join Combe-bank is, at present, only matter for 
conjecture ; but there are reasons for believing, that frag- 
ments of it still exist in the neighbourhood of the Piddle 
river and its tributaries. 

The second Belgic conquest may have included the downs 
of Hants and South Wiltshire. The narrow valleys that 
intersect the latter meet in the neighbourhood of Old Sarum 
(Sorbiodunum), which must always have been, what in mili- 
tary language might be termed, the key of the district. The 
Hampshire downs appear to have been called by the Britons 
the Gwent, or champaign. No natural frontier separates these 
two tracts of down, but their northern boundary is indented, 

3 The dike ran nearly parallel to, and As these boundary-lines are often diffi- 
about one or two hundred yards west of cult to find, it may save future investi- 
" the bounds " which separated Owre from gators trouble, and prevent mistakes, to 
Galton. For nearly a mile it had been learn that there are some other curious 
fashioned into shape, and formed a clay- earth- works a little to the westward, round 
fence some eight feet thick. A wide Woodford Castle. The agger runs from 
stretch of arable land succeeded, on which the Frome due south for about a mile, then 
it had been levelled within the last two turns at right angles, and after running 
years by an improving landlord. Its half-a-mile eastwards,returns to the river, 
traces, however, were sufficiently obvious, The agger was thrown outwards from the 
and by following them, and clambering ditch. I suppose this work to have been 
over some terrible fences, I again lighted the boundary of a very ancient park. A 
on the object of my search, and found it slight fence on the top of the mound, 
running over the common for nearly a with the aid of the interior ditch, would 
quarter of a mile, in very fair preserva- have effectually prevented the deer from 
tion. It terminated before it again reached escaping. I have seen instances of similar 
cultivated land. I presume there must earth-works in Berkshire and elsewhere, 
formerly have been a tract of woodland which seem to admit of the same expla- 
in the neighbourhood. nation. 


as it were, by the highlands around " Scots Poor," from which 
the greater part of their extent is visible. To this point the 
country rises from the east and south, and also, though more 
slowly, from the west. On the southern and eastern slopes 
we still find large masses of woodland Collingbourn-wood, 

O O * 

Dole-wood, &c. and there can be little doubt that these 
high and barren downs were once encircled with a belt of 
forest. This description may serve to show the importance 
.of these heights as a landmark, and in some measure to 
explain the fact, that at the present day three counties, and 
some seven or eight parishes, meet in the neighbourhood. 

During a fortnight of rather inclement weather, I examined 
the country lying between Westbury and Ludgershall, and 
succeeded in finding most of the ditches described in the 
" Ancient Wiltshire." It is to be regretted, that Sir R. 
C. Hoare was not more alive to the importance of distin- 
guishing between the trackway and the boundary-dike. His 
usual phrase " a bank and a ditch," more than once made 
me waste a day in searching for what proved, on examination, 
to be a mere drift-road. North of Heytesbury, however, I 
found an ancient boundary-line one clearly of British origin, 
and perhaps anterior 4 to the Roman conquest. I traced it 
from the west of " Knock Castle " to within a couple of miles 
of Tilshead, when it gradually died away in cultivated land. 
Ancient roads occasionally entered its ditch, more particu- 
larly at the salient angles, 5 and its mound was broken and 
pierced in all directions by the trackways leading to the two 
British villages north of Knock Castle ; but still, amid all the 
changes of two thousand years, its crest was seen stretching 
over the plain, and could be followed without the chance of a 
mistake. The next day I found " the Tilshead ditch," within 
little more than a mile from the spot where I had lost the 

4 There are the sites of two British Coins of Arcadius have been dug up 

villages near the boundary line ; and in a among the ruins, but, I believe, no Saxon 

straggling portion of one of them, which remains. We may conclude that the 

lies beyond the dike, and which, therefore, villages were burnt by the Saxon invaders, 

must have been built after the boundary- and never afterwards inhabited, 

line was slighted (to use a phrase of & It may be worth observing that, just 

Cromwell's time), Sir R. C. Hoare found at the angle where the boundary line turns 

a stone-celt beside a skeleton. It is not suddenly to the eastward, there lay a large 

probable that a primitive utensil like this stone on the top of the agger. I had not 

was used after the arrival of the Romans ; time to examine it minutely, nor even to 

but the grave may have been there before chip off a fragment to ascertain the nature 

the village extended itself beyond the of the stone, 


former one. 6 It was a ditch with two mounds, and these 
gradually became lower as I traced it to the eastward, a mile 
or two beyond Tilshead. If this ditch be a continuation of 
the former one, I cannot satisfactorily account for its change 
of character. 

I could find no remains of this Belgic boundary if we 
may venture to give it such a title north of Beacon Hill. 
Even " the unmutilated remains of a bank and a ditch/' on 
Wick-down, turned out to be merely a deep ditch with a low . 
mound on each side of it. But south of the hill, the Ames- 
bury bounds presented appearances which strongly resembled 
those of an ancient earth-work, and we may be allowed to 
conjecture that they were once connected with the " Devils 
Ditch," east of Andover, and with the boundary-line, a 
fragment of which still remains to the south of Walbury. 

According to these speculations, the second Belgic boundary 
must have included the valleys of South Wiltshire, and then 
have swept round, so as to separate the downs of Hampshire 
from the woodlands which encircled Scots Poor. The hypo- 
thesis does not seem an unreasonable one, and I know of no 
other which can satisfactorily account either for the boundary- 
line to the north of Heytesbury, or for the lines which are 
found in the neighbourhood of Walbury and Andover. 7 

It will be seen that the writer differs from Stukeley in 
considering the first and second of his ditches as forming 
parts of one continuous boundary ; and in denying alto- 
gether to the ditch which runs immediately north of Old 
Sarum, the character of a Belgic earthwork. 8 Were this last 

6 When these mounds approach the whenever they speak of the Belgic Pro- 
" Long Barrow," which lies about a mile vince, treat it as a whole. 

from Tilshead, they turn at right angles, It may be observed, that there are 

and after having half enclosed the mound, some ditches near Chisborough, which 

pursue their former course. Our best have not been inserted in the map. There 

chance of explaining anomalies like these, can be little doubt that four distinct lines 

would be a really critical edition of the of boundary passed near that fortress, 

" Gromatici veteres." and to have noticed the remains of all these 

7 It may, perhaps, be said, that the boundaries would have answered no good 
lines near Walbury and Andover might purpose, and would have made the plan 
have been the boundaries of a Belgic much too complicated. 

settlement, whose capital was Winchester; 8 The period at which, and the purpose 

and which was united to its western for which, this earth- work was constructed, 

neighbour before British geography was were sufficiently discussed at Salisbury, 

known to the Romans. But there is Those who feel an interest in the matter 

reason to believe that the State of the may see what are the writer's views on 

Southern Belgte was not merely a poli- this subject, by consulting the paper he 

tical, but an ethnographical unity. The has written for the Salisbury Volume on 

other Belgic districts, though politically the " Early English Settlements ia South 

united, are always spoken of as peopled by Britain." 
different races ; but the classical writers, 


ditch made by the Belgse, we must suppose, that although 
the invaders were strong enough to capture such a fortress 
as Old Sarum, they were not powerful enough to possess 
themselves of the valleys which it commanded an inference 
which at once shows us the falseness of the premiss that led 
to it. With respect to the connection supposed to have 
existed between Combe-bank and Bokerly-ditch, it may be 
right to state, that I have not examined the course of 
Bokerly-ditch west of the Roman Road, and only cursorily 
the line of country which intervenes between the two earth- 
works. Combe-bank still crosses the down, in fine preser- 
vation, from the neighbourhood of Winterbourne Clenstone 
to Col-wood. For some distance it forms the boundary of 
this wood, and then enters it and disappears. My guide 9 
professed to trace the bank to the north of Mapperton, but I 
must confess that to my eyes it was invisible. Its course, 
however, when I last recognised it, pointed eastward in the 
direction of Badbury, which was full in sight, and about four 
miles distant. I felt a strong conviction that the information 
given to Leland (according to which it went to Lytchet 
Maltravers) was erroneous. It seemed to me clearly in- 
tended as a boundary to separate the Winterbourne valley 
from the bleak and swelling downs to the north-eastward, 
and to be as clearly connected with the great fortress, which 
lifted itself aloft on the other side of the Stour directly in our 
front. As Badbury commands the valley, where lay Vindo- 
gladia which existing remains, as well as the Itineraries, 
point out as the capital of the district and as Bokerly-ditch 

as obviously intended as the northern boundary of this 
valley, it seems difficult to escape the conclusion that both 
Combe-bank and Bokerly-ditch were constructed as parts of 
>ne design, by the same people, and at the same, or nearly the 
e period. That people we may conjecture to be the 

Iga3, and the period five or four, or, it may be, only three 

nturies before the Christian era. 

The general consent of our antiquaries has fixed upon the 
Wansdike as the last of the Belgic boundaries. Were it 
.ed the last frontier of the Belgic province understanding 

9 His testimony must not be altogether proclamations duly made on this ancient 

ejected, as he has for years " cried the earth-work, the courts are held in the 

Jourts " at the bank, and, therefore, may valley at an old manor house, which lies 

!be considered as familiar with all the some two miles from the bank, 
rcumstances connected with it. After 


hat phrase the district which the Roman geographers 
signed to the Belgse proper I should be little disposed to 
arrel with the conclusion they have come to. Nor would 
venture summarily to dismiss even the suggestion of 
Stukeley, that it was Divitiacus who here fixed the limits of 
the Belgic dominion, though I may smile at the etymological 
trifling by which he endeavours to support his hypothesis, 
his Divitiacus, Caesar tells us, had been King of the 
Suessones, and even in his time (nostra etiain memoria) the 
most powerful chief in all Gaul. He tells us also that 
Divitiacus had obtained a supremacy not only over a great 
portion of Belgic Gaul, but also over a great part of Britain 
" qui quum magnaB partis harum regionum turn etiam Bri- 
tannia imperium obtinuerit." By what steps he obtained 
this supremacy we are not told, but we may surmise that it 
was with his aid that the Belgae pushed their conquests 
into the interior of the island, and that the imperium natur- 
ally followed conquests so extensive and important. The 
question remains, what was the locality and the real extent 
of these latter Belgic conquests. If, as is probable, the 
British king who opposed Ca3sar belonged to the intrusive 
race, then the Belga3 must have obtained possession of the 
vale of Aylesbury, and the plains of Hertfordshire previous 
to the year 55, B.C. ; and we may infer that they acquired 
these districts under the leadership of Divitiacus, for we do 
not learn that Verulam had fallen into the hands of Cassive- 
launus by any recent act of conquest. There still exist some 
interesting lines of earthwork, which seem to have been made 
with a view to separate the new conquests from the country 
of the Trinobantes. They have been as yet only partially 
examined, and with very little intelligence ; but as they are 
mixed up with another system of boundary-lines, it would 
require a more lengthened notice than our present limits 
will admit of to discuss this question satisfactorily. 

It is possible that the same monarch who settled the 
boundaries of the Catyeuchlani I give the word as it is 
usually written, without vouching for its correctness may 
also have pushed forward the Belgic frontier to the Wans- 
dike. There are, however, difficulties in the way of such 
a conclusion which are calculated to shake our faith in the 
soundness of Stukeley's hypothesis. Every critical reader 
will, I think, admit that the Roman geographers and historians 


looked upon the Belgic province as an organic whole, which 
might indeed have developed itself at successive periods, but 
was not a mere aggregation of separate and independent 
parts. With respect to the states lying north of the Audred 
i. e., of the great forest which spread over the wealds of 
Kent and Sussex the case was different. The Cantii, the 
Attrebates, the Catyeuchlani were probably all three Belgic 
races ; and indeed, as regards the Attrebates, we are able to * 
make this assertion positively. All three seem to have been" 
subject to the imperium of Cassivelaunus, but there is nothing 
to lead us to the inference that the Southern Belgse acknow- 
ledged his supremacy. As so few years separated the reign 
of this prince from that of Divitiacus, it is a reasonable pre- 
sumption that he was, if not a descendant, at least a successor 
of the Gaulish monarch, and consequently that the limits of 
his dominion denned the British imperium of his great pre- 
decessor. If so, the course of conquest which Divitiacus 
traced out must have nearly coincided with that followed by 
later invaders by CaBsar, by Plautius, and by the Norman 
William ; and consequently this celebrated Belgic chief could 
not have been the conqueror who reared the Wansdike. 

This magnificent earthwork reached from the woodlands 
of Berkshire to the British Channel. Its remains have been 
carefully surveyed by Sir R. C. Hoare. The conquests it was 
intended to include, seem to have been, first, the Vale of 
Pewsey ; secondly, the mineral district of the Mendip Hills ; 
and, thirdly, the country lying between this range and the 
marshes of the Parret. Ptolemy gives us Winchester, Bath, 1 
and Ilchester, as the three principal towns of the Belgic 
province. If we run a line along the Wansdike from Berk- 
shire to the Channel, then along the coast to the Parret, then 
up that river eastward till we strike the southern borders of 
Wiltshire, and then follow the first Belgic boundary across 
Dorsetshire to the sea, we shall have defined, with tolerable 
accuracy, the northern and western boundaries, which Roman 
geographers assigned to the Belga3 proper. 

1 Bath is just without the Belgic bouu- to believe that London had a suburb 

dary, and, therefore, could not have been south of the river, even in the Roman 

a Belgic town. Ptolemy has, in other times ; and the Belgic fortress on the 

instances, assigned towns situated near a Wansdike, which lay immediately above 

frontier to the wrong people ; thus he the hot baths, may very probably have 

gives London to the Cantii. There are led the geographer into making the mis- 

generally circumstances connected with statement that has given rise to the 

the towns thus misplaced, which help us present note, 
to explain the blunder ; we have reason 


It will be seen that the Wansdike bends to the south, as if 
to avoid Avebury, and approaches close to, but does not 
include, Bath. It seems reasonable to infer, that when the 
line of demarcation was drawn, the Dobuni insisted on the 
retention of their ancient temple, and of then' hot baths ; and 
if this inference be a just one, another and a more important 
one seems naturally to follow. Assuming that the Belgse 
were thus excluded from Avebury, is it not likely that they 
would provide a " locus consecratus " at some central point 
within their own border a place for their judicial assemblies, 
like the Gaulish temple, " in finibus Carnutum, 2 qua3 regio 
totius Gallic media habetur ? " May not Stonehenge have 
been the substitute so provided? 

There seem to be two opinions prevalent with respect to 
the date of this mysterious monument. There are antiquaries 
who maintain that it was built before the Christian era. at 
some period of great and undefined antiquity ; and others, 
who would postpone its erection to a period subsequent to 
the Roman occupation of the island. 

The first of these opinions is generally supported on the 
authority of a passage in Diodorus Siculus, which appears to 
have been taken from Hecata3us of Abdera, who flourished 
about three centuries before the Christian era. According 
to this authority, there was among the Hyperboreans a 
round temple dedicated to Apollo, and situated in an island 
" opposite Celtica." Our English antiquaries assume, that 
the word Celtica, in this passage, was used with the same 
meaning as by Strabo and his contemporaries, or, in other 
words, that it signified Gaul, and they conclude that the 
island was Britain, and the round temple Stonehenge, or 
Avebury, or the Rolrich circle, according to the particular 
hypothesis they are interested in supporting. Swedish anti- 
quaries give to Celtica a wider meaning, and as the ancients 
considered Scandinavia to be an island, they boldly claim 
the round temple of the Hyperboreans as Swedish property. 
Wesseling, in a sensible note, examines these different hypo- 

2 Cees. B. G. 6. Does not the name of the great monastery which was after- 

Carnutes mean the people of Car-nut, in wards built in its neighbourhood, were 

modern Welsh, Caer nawdd, the City of known as the nawdd, or sanctuary, and 

the Sanctuary ? In the discourse, which the that it was from this Welsh word that 

writer delivered at Salisbury, on "the the Anglo-Saxons got their Nat-e, and 

Enrly English Settlements in South also the title by which they designated 

liritain," one of the points he contended Ambrosius, viz., Natan hod. 
for was thi?, that both Stonehenge and 


theses, and, for reasons which appear satisfactory, rejects 
them. He is inclined to fix the round temple far more to 
the eastward, than would suit the views either of our own or 
of the Swedish antiquaries ; and whether we agree with him 
or not, the criticism which identifies Stonehenge with this 
temple of the Hyperboreans, rests, I think, on grounds much 
too questionable to secure the assent of any cautious inquirer. 
The opinion which assigns to Stonehenge, and indeed to 
all our Druidical structures, a date posterior to the Roman 
conquest, is the one most generally entertained at the present 
day. It has been elaborately maintained by Mr. J. Rickman. 3 
He objects to an earlier date for Avebury, because it adjoins 
to a Roman road ; because it resembles a Roman amphi- 
theatre ; because its dimensions seem to be adjusted to the 
measure of a Roman mile ; and lastly, because the engineer, 
who made the Roman road, did not avail himself of the deep 
ditch round Silbury, to lessen the steepness of the ascent ; 
whence we may conclude that such ditch was not in existence 
when the road was made. His attempts to support the 
second and third 4 of these positions appear to the writer to 
be most unsatisfactory ; and with respect to the first, it 
might be answered, that the Roman road from Silchester to 
Bath was, in all probability, preceded by a British trackway, 
and that the point where the Ickneld road crossed such 
trackway, was well suited for the site of a great national 
temple ; while the fact that the Roman engineers did not 
avail themselves of the lower level afforded them by the 
ditch, might be owing to their unwillingness to wound the 
national prejudices by violating unnecessarily a national 
monument. Rickman maintains, that tools of mixed metal, 
such as are found in the barrows of the early Britons, would 
have been unequal to the " respectable workmanship," which 
he observed on the tenons and mortices of the Stonehenge 

3 Archceologia, Vol. 28. the measurement correct, how could the 

4 The avenue which stretched south-east symmetry of the structure be anyway 
from the main temple, was intersected by dependent on the distance of Silbury from 
the Roman road, and, according to Rick- the point, where the road cut through the 
man, the distance of Silbury both from avenue ? The proper inference seems to 
the point of intersection and from the be, that the Romans would not allow a 
centre of the Avebury circle, was a Roman great public road to be diverted out of its 
mile. I can only say, that according to my course, in order to spare the mere adjuncts 
measurement, Silbury hill is distant from of a building, whose hold upon the respect 
the centre of the circle more than a Romau and reverence of the people had probably 
mile, and from the point of intersection been for some tune declining. 

very considerably less. But even were 


trilithons ; and that stone so hard could only have been 
worked after the introduction of steel tools. As we know 
that "the maritime states" produced iron in the time of 
Caesar, it is clear that any hypothesis which does not carry 
back the origin of Stonehenge more than a century or two 
before the Christian era, will not be affected by the difficulty 
here suggested. 

Mr. Herbert's theory may be considered, in one point of 
view, as a modification of Rickman's. He supposes that 
Stonehenge, Avebury, and our other " megalithic monuments" 
were erected after the Romans had left the island ; and he 
has exhibited no small acuteness and learning, in support of 
this startling hypothesis. According to his theory, the bards 
and other favourers of the old superstition returned from 
Ireland, whither they had been driven by the influence of 
Roman civilisation, and of Christianity ; heathenism, for a 
while, regained its ascendancy, and the enthusiasm awakened 
by the return to old habits and feelings, and by a sense of 
recovered independence, led to the erection of these mighty 
structures. Mr. Herbert skilfully avails himself of Rickman's 
arguments, and presses upon us the additional one, that the 
so-called Druidical temples, and other similar erections, are 
only to be found in Britain, or in countries closely connected 
with it, as Brittany ; and therefore must have been the 
results of causes operating partially, and not the general 
expression the necessary outward manifestation of a 
religion so widely diffused as the Druidical. Every candid 
reader will admit, that there is considerable weight in the 
argument last referred to. Do the following considerations 
supply us with a sufficient answer to it ? 

We know from Ca3sar, that Britain was looked upon by 
the Gauls, both as the great centre of Druidism, and as the 
country in which its peculiar doctrines originated ; " disciplina 
in Britannia reperta, atque inde in Galliam translata esse exis- 
timatur ; et nunc qui diligentius earn rem cognoscere volunt, 
plerumque illo discendi causa proficiscuntur." B. G. 16. 
We might therefore expect to find in Britain, and such 
countries as were intimately connected with it, more marked 
traces of the peculiar structures which characterised this 
system, than are to be met with elsewhere. It seems also to 
be a fact, that, with the exception of Stonehenge, to which I 
shall shortly advert more particularly, all the larger Druidical 


temples are situated in places where the blocks of stone, 
commonly called Sarsen stones, abound, or, at least, are 
known at one time to have abounded ; and that the geological 
conditions which distinguish such localities, occur more fre- 
quently in England than in the interior of France. I think, 
therefore, we may account for the unfrequent occurrence of 
these structures in such parts of Gaul as are remote from its 
western coast, without being driven to the conclusion which 
Mr. Herbert would bring us to. 

There is one argument against the theory, which assigns 
to Stonehenge, and the other Druidical structures, a date 
subsequent to the Koman occupation of the island, which the 
members of an Archaeological society are peculiarly fitted to 
appreciate. We all know the principles on which our 
" Gothic buildings " were so long constructed, sufficiently 
teach us how difficult it is for an architect to compose in a 
new style of architecture, and at the same time to keep his 
mind unswayed by the forms to which he has been long 
accustomed. Now I do not forget, that Inigo Jones started 
the hypothesis, that Stonehenge was " a hypa3thral temple ;" 
but in his day the fundamental principles, which distinguish 
the different systems of architectural construction, had been 
but little studied, and the researches of modern times have 
placed us on a vantage-ground that enables us to estimate at 
its proper value, a theory, which, coming from a man so 
eminent, might otherwise occasion us some difficulty. After 
thus much of preface, I would ask the archaeological reader, 
whether he thinks it comes within the limits of a reasonable 
probability, that men who had, for centuries, been familiarised 
with the forms of Roman architecture, could have built 
Stonehenge ? 

If we suppose Stonehenge to have been erected after the 
Southern Belgse had pushed their frontier to the Wansdike, 
and not long before Divitiacus obtained his imperium over 
the other Belgic races, every difficulty vanishes. The 
manufacture of iron was probably known in Britain at that 
period, though it seems to have been only lately introduced, 
as Caesar tells us, not many years afterwards, that the 
metal was not abundant, 5 " ejus exigua est copia ; " and 

5 Iron appears to have been scarce, at necks with this metal (i. e. I suppose, 

least in the remoter parts of Britain, as made their tores of iron, and covered 

late as the beginning of the third century. their girdles with it), and esteemed it not 

Herodian informs us, that the tribes who only as an ornament but also as a proof of 

opposed Severus decked their loins and wenlth. 


we are accordingly able to account for "the respectable 
workmanship," which Rickman observed at Stonehenge, and 
which certainly presents difficulties in the way of the 
hypothesis, that assigns to Stonehenge the remote antiquity 
sometimes given to it. Again, our geologists seem to be 
agreed, that the huge blocks of sandstone, which form the 
trilithons at Stonehenge, must have come from the neighbour- 
hood of the Vale of Pewsey. Now the amount of physical 
power equal to the transport of such large masses, would 
exhaust the whole resources of the district ; and we may 
safely . conclude that the builders of Stonehenge, whoever 
they were, must also have been lords of the fertile vale, so 
celebrated in the annals of agriculture. If the Belgse were 
the builders, it follows necessarily that this temple was 
erected after the vale became Belgic territory, or as we may 
otherwise phrase it, after the Wansdike had been raised. 
That Stonehenge had some peculiar relation to the Belgic 
province, may be inferred from its central position within it. 
The capital towns of the Celtic races were often on the 
confines of their territories ; as Winchester and Ilchester, 
near the borders of the BelgSB ; and Silchester near those of 
the Attrebates. The facilities which such positions afforded 
for the defence of the frontier, may have been the reasons 
why they were selected. But we may gather from the 
passage already quoted, relative to the Gaulish temple, that 
a central situation was thought most suitable for the " locus 
consecratus," where justice was administered, and the 
national assemblies held. That Stonehenge was such " locus 
consecratus " is admitted by all, who regard it as a Celtic 
structure ; and the enormous labour which was expended 
in transporting the materials to the spot, proves that the 
spot on which it stands was thought peculiarly eligible. I 
can point to no circumstances which could have made it so, 
save those which have been suggested. 

The peculiarities which distinguish the structure of Stone- 
henge, seem to afford us additional arguments in support of 
the conclusions we have come to. Most of our Celtic temples 
are surrounded by a circular ditch. Now at Avebury, and 
in other cases, the mound or agger is on the outside of the 
ditch, while at Stonehenge it is within it. This new arrange- 
ment seems to indicate the usages of a new people ; while 
the general style of the building, the more artistic plan, the 


use of imposts, the well-executed tenons and mortices, and 
the worked surfaces of the uprights, all seem to point to a 
later age, and a more advanced civilisation. I think there- 
fore we may fairly conclude, that Stonehenge is of later 
date than Avebury and the other structures of unwrought 
stone ; that it could not have been built much later than the 
year 100, B.C., and in all probability was not built more than 
!a century or two earlier. As to the antiquity of Avebury > 
I dare offer no conjecture. If the reader be more venture- 
some, and should fix its erection some eight or ten centuries 
before our era, it would be difficult to advance any critical 
reasons against his .hypothesis. 

NOTICE TO THE READER. Portions of the map which is attached to 
this paper are coloured yellow. They are intended to represent the dis- 
trict, that were retained by the Britons after the conclusion of the treaty 
of the Mons Badonicus, A.D. 520. The boundary lines, which, in certain 
localities, mark out the frontier, .are supposed to have been constructed or, 
it may be, in some cases, adopted by the Britons upon that occasion. 



NUMEROUS are the vestiges of interest, connected with the 
history of Roman occupation in the ancient district of the 
Silures, which have repaid the researches of archaeologists 
in that part 'of the kingdom. Some of the discoveries 
'recently made at Caerleon are not unknown to the readers 
of the Journal, whose attention may have been invited to the 
memorials of the antiquities and of an extensive villa there 
brought to light, noticed in previous volumes. 1 The publica- 
tions to which we refer will show the variety of these remains, 
and especially the value of the accession to the history of 
|Roman times in Britain, as illustrated by inscribed monu- 
iments, derived from investigations of late years at Isca 
\Silhrum. Upwards of twenty inedited inscriptions have 

1 See Notices of " Roman Antiquities entitled, " Description of a Roman 

found at Caerleon," by John Edward building discovered at Caerleon." Arch. 

|Lee, Esq., 1848, and of his recent work, Journal, vol. ii. p. 417 ; vol. vii. p. 97. 
VOL. VIII. * . 


been represented in these two publications. Several of these 
contributions to the " Britannia Romana " are of essential 
value and interest. 

It will afford gratification to every lover of Archaeological 
science to be assured that the zeal of the antiquaries of 
Monmouthshire has not been limited to the exciting pursuit 
of explorations : the stimulus caused by the successful 
operations of the spade has produced a permanent and satis- 
factory result, the establishment of a suitable Museum, in 
which all these vestiges will be collected, and assume a far 
higher interest when preserved in their proper locality, and 
on the actual spot, of whose early history they form so 
invaluable a memorial. 

The accompanying plates supply representations of some 
of the most recent discoveries on the site of the ancient Isca? 

The first comprises two curious additions to the series of 
inscribed monuments, one of them dedicated to Fortune, 
a goddess much esteemed and worshipped in Britain, as 
Horsley observes, in the times of Roman dominion, a great 
number of altars being found inscribed to her. 3 The singular 
appropriation of the fragment of a stone conduit-pipe to 
such a purpose will not escape observation. Did we not 
perceive that it had been dedicated by an important officer, 
the prcefectus castrorum, the quarter-master of the legion, 
whose functions as we learn from Vegetius concerned tl 
formation of the camp, and its internal economy, the humbl 
character of this tablet might lead to the supposition that \\ 
had been inscribed by some ignoble hand, or rural settl< 
We are reminded of the lines of Horace, regarding 
popular cultus of Fortune, 

" Te pauper ambit sollicita prece 
Ruris colonus." 

The second inscription in the plate is of even greater value 
to the antiquary, as a fresh illustration of the prevalence of 
the worship of Mithras, even in these remote parts of the 
Roman world. The stone which bears this inscription seems 

2 For these interesting plates the Society sion of inspecting these curious remains, 

is indebted to Mr. Lee, who has liberally 3 Britannia Romana, p. 233. See in 

prepared and presented them to the that work several Notices of Altars to 

Journal. This kindness is doubly wel- Fortune. Mr. Bruce, in his valuable 

come, when the researches of the archae- volume on the Roman Wall, represents ft 

ologista in South Wales must assume a remarkable example from Risingham, 

fresh interest, as the coming visit of the now in the Museum of the Antiquaries of 

Institute to Bristol will afford the occa- Newcastle, p. 403. 




to have formed part of a column ; it measures in height, 3 feet 
8^ inches; diameter of shaft, 18 inches and two thirds ; 
diameter of the widest part of the capital, 23 inches. The 
fragment of a pipe, first described, measures 27 inches by 
9 inches, and its thickness is 6^ inches. Both are of oolitic 
stone, probably taken from the inferior oolite of the opposite 
side of the channel, in the neighbourhood of Dundry, or 
some adjacent locality. 

During the approaching visit of the Institute to Bristol, 
those members who are versed in the study of Romano- 
British vestiges will, doubtless, be attracted by the assemblage 
of ancient relics lately brought to light at Isca, They will 
thus have occasion to examine the remains now submitted to 
the notice of the society ; and for the present, all endeavour 
to offer any reading of these inscriptions may be deferred. 
Several important traces of the worship of Mithras have 
been discovered in other parts of Britain, the most memorable 
being those deposited in a cave or cell, near the station of 
Borcomcus, on the Roman wall, and similar relics have been 
found in Cumberland. 4 The usual formula, INVICTO MITHRAE, 
seems to be discernible on the Caerleon column. 

The first relic represented in the plate of miscellaneous 
Roman antiquities is a fragment of a fictile vessel, of singular 
construction. It is of the common red ware, and the colour 
is unusually good. Small bottles of earthenware of a globular 
form, short-necked, and with one handle, are of ordinary 
occurrence amongst Roman remains ; they may possibly be 
designated by the name laguncula. The peculiarity in this 
example consists in the partition which divided the vessel 
into two cells, probably for the reception of distinct condi- 
ments, like certain twin cruets of glass, well- known to 
travellers in Italy, with a medial partition and two necks, 
serving to contain both vinegar and oil in one vessel. 
Unfortunately the fragment found at Caerleon affords no 
evidence in regard to the general form of the vessel, in its 
{ complete state : the representation here given is of the original 
isize. Small earthen vessels, not very unlike the modern salt- 
jcellar, with a partition, have been found in Germany ; 5 and 

4 Of the sculptures found at House- Northumb., vol. iii. p. 190; Bruce's Roman 

Isteads, Borcovicits, see the valuable Memoir Wall, p. 407. 

in Mr. Hodgson, in the Archseologia ^Eli- 5 They occur with two, and with three 

jana, vol. ii., p. 263; Hodgson's Hist, of cells. Wagener, Handbuch, fig. 1070. 


Brongniart gives a jar with two ears, and divided by a 
" cloison longitudinale" found in Lusace, and another with 
three cells, from Saxony. These vessels, however, are not 
adapted for pouring liquids. 

Fig. 2 represents a glass bead, of a dark orange colour 
when held in a strong light, but so opalescent by age, that 
the colour cannot otherwise be seen. It had four drops on 
the surface : the three here shown are of a light-coloured or 
nearly clear glass. Several varieties of these beautiful relics 
of ancient manufacture, found at Caerleon, have been figured 
in the " Delineations of Antiquities" there discovered, pi. xvi. 
An interesting memoir on this subject has recently been 
given by Mr. Akerman, in the "Archaeologia," illustrated from 
the beautiful drawings of Mr. B. Nightingale. 

Fig 3. An object believed to be unique amongst lloman 
antiquities found in Britain. It is a foot-rule of bronze ; the 
hinged joint is so fixed by rust that the rule cannot be opened 
to its full length, but the half measures a little more than 
5 inches and eight- tenths, so that when extended the rule 
would exactly correspond with the lloman foot of 11,604 
inches. There is a stay at the back, turning on a pivot, with 
two notches on the edge, to receive two studs on the opposite 
limb, so as to render the rule stiff, and prevent its closing' 
when extended for use. An original bronze regula, precisely 
similar to this, was found in a mason's shop at Pompeii ; one 
side was graduated in 12, the other in 16 parts. Graduated 
rules appear on certain sepulchral tablets, represented with 
the compasses, chisels, and other tools. 7 

Fig. 4. A small bronze spoon, commonly designated by 
the name ligula, of a form not unfrequently found with 
Romano-British relics. It appears suited to answer the 
purposes of a surgical probe. 8 Some antiquaries have sup- 
posed them intended to collect the tears of mourners, and 
drop them into the lachrymatory. See one represented in 
the Cabinet de Ste Genevieve, pi. ii. 

Fig. 5. A small bronze fibula, of oval form ; the central 
portion presents a wry-mouthed visage, not very artistically 
chiselled : the little circles attached to the rim are orna- 

6 Trait^ des Arts Ceramiques, pi. 27, 229. Another, Corp. Jnsc. t. i. p. 11, p. 

figs. 20, 23. 644. 

1 See one found at Rome, graduated in 8 See specimens found at Richborough 

sixteen parts, amongst the Instrumenta and Lymne, " Antiqu. of Richborough," 

fabrorum tignariorum. Gruter, 1. c. p. bv Mr. Roach Smith, pp. 103, 261. 





merited in the centre with vitreous paste or enamel, of a lead 
colour, or light dull blue, much decayed by time. Several 
enamelled fibulae of beautiful workmanship have been dis- 
covered at Caerleon ; some of these are represented in the 
" Delineations," before cited, plates xv., xvi. 9 Amongst the 
numberless varieties of fibula, several resembling this in 
fashion have been found in England, but the central visage is 
a novelty. The acus was of iron. 

All these relics have been brought to light on the site of 
the extensive villa at Isca, discovered recently on the property 
of John Jenkins, Esq. 

Fig. 6. A bronze fibula, of an unusual type, found some 
years since at Caerleon. It was bought by Mr. W. D. Evans, 
of Newport ; but happily, like other relics from Isca, it has 
been restored to the locality where it is doubly interesting, 
and is now in the Museum lately established at that place. A 
rectangular fibula of metal, of similar pierced work, was found 
in the remarkable deposit in Kelco Cave, near Settle, York- 
shire. 1 Fibulae of different type, ornamented with somewhat 
similar triforiated work, have repeatedly been noticed amongst 
Romano -British antiquities. The unique silver ornaments 
found during the construction of the Ely and Peterborough 
railway, appear to have been wrought with pierced patterns 
of this kind. (Archaeol. Journal, vol. v., p. 219.) The same 
peculiar motive of ornament appeared on two bow-shaped 
fibulae, found near Horsham, and in the collection of the late 
Frederick Dixon, Esq. Similar fibulae, found with an inter- 
ment at Sutton Courtney, were exhibited by Mr. Jesse King, 
in the Museum of the Institute, during the Oxford meeting. 2 
The peculiar type of decorative design, here seen, formed by 
a zigzag line, with intervening compartments, having an 
embattled appearance, deserves notice, as partaking of an 
Oriental character ; but more especially on account of its 
conformity with a conventional ornament of the borders in 
illuminated MSS. of the eighth and subsequent century, 
produced by the school of designers, which may be designated 

9 Several of these fibulae, which may ] Collect. Antiqu. by Mr. C. R. Smith, 

be classed with the best examples of vol. i., pi. 26, p. 71. 

Roman enamelled ornaments of this kind, 2 Amongst other examples may be cited 

were exhibited in the Museum of the one in Mr. Roach Smith's Antiqu. of 

Institute at the Lincoln Meeting, through Richborough, p. 81, fig. 2 ; and another 

the kindness of Mr. Jenkins, on whose found near Shome. Journal Archaeol. 

estate at Caerleon so many curious relics Assoc., vol. iv. p. 406. 
havebeen disinterred, and by Mr. Lee. Ed. 


as the Hiberno-Saxon. The borders of the " Durham Book," 
date about 700, may suffice as an example. The like orna- 
ment occurs in early Irish sculpture, as also probably in 

The relics of Roman occupation in South Wales, thus 
briefly noticed in the foregoing remarks, may suffice to show 
how varied is the character of the vestiges of that remarkable 
people in this part of Britain, and how desirable an object 
has been contemplated, in supplying a permanent place of 
deposit for all antiquities which may be brought to light in 
a district rich in Historical and Archaeological recollections. 

The two plates accompanying the foregoing notices have 
been very kindly prepared by Mr. Lee, and presented to the 
Institute, for the gratification of the readers of the Journal. 
They have been etched by himself, and faithfully pourtray 
some of the curious relics which have repaid his recent 
explorations at Isca. The Central Committee desire to 
express their thanks, in acknowledgment of this kindness on 
the part of an archaeologist who has achieved so much for 
the illustration of the antiquities of his country, and to whose 
laudable exertions is mainly due the establishment in that 
place of a very interesting local Museum. 



I DO not know that any detailed account has as yet been 
published of the remains of an ancient car, stated to have 
been discovered by Sir W. Lawson, in a tumulus upon his 
property in Yorkshire. The restored bronze car in the 
Vatican, the dissevered portions of another found by Lucien 
Bonaparte, at Canino (now in possession of his widow, and 
for sale), and a few fragments of one found in 1813, at 
Perugia, of which some are in the museum there, and some 
were in the collection of Mr. Dodwell, are the only real monu- 
ments of this kind now extant (unless, indeed, there be some 
fragments in the British Museum, and a wheel stated to exist 


Diam. of Wheel, 22 in. 
From the Originals in the Muse ana of Toulouse. 


at Berlin). I have accordingly thought that a description of 
two wheels, together with a pole-end, and a portion of the 
rim of a bronze car, all in the condition of their discovery, 
and now in the museum at Toulouse, may possibly be useful 
for comparison with such remains of antique chariots as may 
hereafter be brought to light. 

The wheels here selected for description are not more than 
22 inches in diameter ; each has five spokes now hollow 
which spring from the middle of the nave, and at right 
angles with it. The nave is of the disproportionate length of 
more than 14 inches, of which that half that projected to- 
wards the body of the car is plain, while the other half pro- 
jecting outwards is encircled with fillets, as are also the 
springings of the spokes. The passage through the nave for 
the axle is, at its ends, 3 inches in diameter ; but it gradually 
becomes wider towards its centre, so that, except at its ends, 
there is a large space between the circumference of the axle 
and the walls of this passage. And here I would remark that 
this space, which was evidently meant for the access of air, 
and thereby the prevention of such heat as a more extensive 
contact and friction might have elicited, proves, perhaps, that 
the car to which this wheel belonged had been made for real 
use, and not (as supposed of the Vatican and Perugian cars) 
for merely votive purpose. 

The felloe, now hollow, is 3 inches broad. Its edge, of 
1 inch in diameter, has in its centre a cleft three-quarters of 
an inch wide, through which, I presume, the 
felloe was filled with wood, and the cleft then 
closed with an iron tyer, such tyers having been 
found with the Vatican car, and, in abundance, 
at Pompei, although no bronze remains of cars 
have been there discovered. I also presume that 
the hollows of the spokes were filled with wood passed through 
the said cleft ; and, likewise, that the nave ends of these 
wooden spokes rested on the outer walls of the bronze nave, 
while their other ends were fastened to the bronze felloe by 
transverse rivets, which at the same time connected the two 
faces of the felloe with each other, and as evinced by the 
position of five of the ten rivet holes remaining. 

The pole-end is 16 inches long, 14 of which are hollow 
for the reception of the pole of wood, while the extremity, 
or point, is solid and plain. 


The other portion of this Toulouse car seems to have 
belonged to the hinder rim of the body, being rounded at 
top, and having a deep cleft at its under side, apparently 
for placing it thereon. It is 17 inches long, and terminated 
with a bas-relief representing a man on horseback attacked 
by a lioness. This part, being of knobbed form, was pro- 
bably a handle whereby to mount into the car. 

The car of the Vatican has been figured by Visconti, at 
the end of the 5th folio volume of the Museo Pio-Cleinen- 
tino ; its original and restored parts are carefully distin- 
guished in the explanatory text of that magnificent work. 
The fragments of the Canino car have never, I believe, been 
properly put together ; but a restoration drawing of it was 
exhibited to the Scientific Congress at Genoa, and a descrip- 
tion of it published in the " Transactions " of that congress. 1 
The portions of the Perugian car have been described by 
Vermiglioli, and after him, with comments, by Inghirami, in 
the third volume of his work upon Etruscan Antiquities. 

I shall not speak of the cars and their appurtenances 
depicted on what are called Etruscan vases, most of these 
having met with a sufficiently full description ; but since 
such has not yet been published in regard to the cars repre- 
sented on some terra-cotta bas-reliefs, in the collection of 
the Chevalier Campana, at Rome, I will here transcribe a 
page from nry note-book respecting them. 

The first that I shall notice has a body of the common 
curved form, but with a railing around its front, for the 
better security of the driver, who seems to be a female. The 
wheels have only four spokes each, and are not higher than 
a man's leg. There is no appearance of traces to the horses, 
whence we may infer (provided always that these bas-reliefs 
give a faithful portraiture of real objects) that each outside 
horse drew only by a single trace, which passing between 
him and his central companion, and thus hidden from our 
view, was attached to the axle-tree ; the two central horses 
drawing by a yoke, as oxen do. The bitts are not in the 
horses' mouths, but are placed over their ncses, like the 
cavessons still used in Italy, and all the reins are passed 
through one ring. 

The second on my list has a quadrangular body, with 
straight top, and four eight-spoked wheels, and was meant 

1 Edit, in quarto form. 


probably to represent a public conveyance, as it contains 
several persons of both sexes, apparently on a pleasure- 

The third has also a quadrangular body, but with two- 
six-spoked and higher wheels, and contains a man and 
woman who seem to be culprits, each being bound about the 
neck and wrists with cords held by persons walking at their 

The fourth has remarkably low wheels, and its combat- 
ant has one foot on the ground. 

The fifth has its horses restrained by both hands of the 
driver, who is apparently a female, and also by one hand 
of her male companion. 

The sixth is a racing chariot, with wheels of eight spokes, 
in the act of arriving at the metce of a circus. 

The seventh, another racing chariot, has its driver swathed 
about his chest and legs with thick, wide bandages, as if for 
(protecting him from injury in case of being overturned. 

In conclusion, I may remark that most of the racing 
| cars thus represented in the Campana collection are very low, 
and have wheels of only four spokes, and that the horses 
[are all hog-maned and of slender make. 


The foregoing communication was prepared for transmission to the 
(institute by the late Dr. Bromet, as an evidence of his continued interest 
in the proceedings of the Society, in which for some years previously he 
had actively participated. It was written during his last continental tour, 
not long previously to his decease ; and it was included among the memoirs 
brought before the Section of Early and Medieval Antiquities, at the 
Oxford Meeting. Towards the close of that meeting the intelligence reached 
j the Institute, that the zealous researches of one of their earliest friends 
and coadjutors had been brought to a close by his untimely death in a 
distant country. 

VOL. vin. 



I OFFER these remarks as a supplement to my " Account of 
a Roman sepulchre at Geldestone, Norfolk," published in the 
Fifth Volume of the Archaeological Journal. Having in 
illustration of my subject described the golden bulla, which 
was brought to England by Dr. Conyers Middleton, I 
concluded my notice of it in these words : " Probably this 
fine relic is in England at the present time, but in whose 
possession I cannot tell/' Not long afterwards Lady Fellows 
communicated to me the gratifying intelligence, that it was 
in her possession, and by her kind permission I am now 
enabled to exhibit it to the Archaeological Institute. At the 
sale of the effects of Dr. Middleton, it was purchased by 
Horace Walpole, Lord Orford, for his splendid collection at 
Strawberry Hill. There it remained until the sale in 1842, 
when it was purchased by William Knight, Esq., by whose 
decease it came into the possession of his widow, the present 

Probably no finer specimen of an ancient bulla has yet 
been discovered than that belonging to Samuel Rogers, Esq., 
by whose great kindness and liberality I am enabled to 
exhibit this precious relic. 

It was discovered among ashes and burnt bones in an urn 
of red earth by some labourers in a vineyard about twelve 
miles from Rome, on the way to Albano. From its first 
discovery in the year 1794, it remained in the possession of 
Signor Antonio Bellotti till 1821, when it was bought by 
Mr. Rogers. 

As the Chigi Bulla has upon it the name CATULUS, 
which, as I formerly observed, " is supposed to have been the 
name of the wearer," so Mr. Rogers's is marked with the 
letters HOST. HOS. These admit of being read in two ways, 
HOSTUS HOSTILIUS, or HOSTiLius HOSTiLiANUs. In either case 
we must suppose the boy, referred to in the inscription, to 
have belonged to the Hostilia Gens, Hostilius being his 
nomen gentilitium. We have then the alternative, either to 
take HOSTUS for the prcenomen, or HOSTILIANUS for the 
cognomen. But we are informed, that the prsDnomen was 

Golden Bulla, found in 1794, near Rome. 
In the possession of Samuel Rogers, Esq. 


far more commonly used than the cognomen ; that the 
former was almost an indispensable prefix to the nomen, and 
was given to boys on the ninth day after their birth, whereas 
the addition of the cognomen was arbitrary and uncertain * 
Hence it appears to me, that we may with confidence read 
the inscription HOSTUS HOSTILITJS, and it is remarkable, that 
this was the designation of the first man of the Hostilian 
name at Rome. 2 It was therefore likely to have been 
resumed by his descendants. 

I now beg leave to enter into a somewhat more detailed 
comparison and description of the four largest known bullas, 
viz., the Chigi Bulla at Rome, and the three in London, and 
I shall subjoin a brief notice of two smaller ones found in 

Each of the four large bullas consists of two circular plates 
of pure gold, devoid of ornament, but beaten into the form of 
a watch-glass or meniscus. The edges of these circular 
plates are in close apposition, but without any perceptible 
means of joining them together, so as to contain securely 
objects placed within them. By their apposition they assume 
the exact form of a lentil, so as to agree with the remark 
of Plutarch, who describes the bulla as lentil-shaped. 3 The 
two plates are united on one side by a third plate of the 
same material, which is embossed, bent double, and ri vetted 
in three points to the two circular plates. In the bulla now 
preserved in the British Museum (which belonged to Sir 
William Hamilton's collection), and in Lady Fellows's bulla, 
the gold wire remains for suspending the object from the 
boy's neck. In the British Museum specimen the embossed 
plate has a style of ornament peculiar to itself. 4 But in the 
three others, viz., those belonging to Cardinal Chigi, Lady 
Fellows, and Mr. Rogers, the ornament is very similar, 
consisting of long sprigs of bay or myrtle with oval festoons ; 
and in both of those, which are inscribed with the name of 
the boy, it is placed longitudinally in the middle of the 
embossed plate. These circumstances are shown in the 
annexed woodcuts, of which the one figure represents 
Mr. Rogers's bulla as seen in front, and the other shows the 

1 Smith's Diet, of Greek and Roman 3 *a*coS^s. Plutarch. Qvcest. Rom. 
Ant., Art. Nomen, p. 640. 514., ed. H. Steph. Par. 1572. 

2 Smith's Diet, of Greek and Roman 4 See woodcut in Arch. Journal, Vol. VI. 
Biography. Art. Hostilim. p. 113. 



embossed plate as it would appear, if it were detached, and 

In all these specimens the gold plates are very thin. 
Mr. Rogers's is formed of much thicker plates than the other 
two, but is nevertheless extremely delicate. Their compara- 
tive strength will appear from their weights, which are as 
follows : 

British Museum, including the wire, 271 grains. 
Lady Fellows's, including the wire, 271 grains. 
Mr. Rogers's .... 363 grains. 

From their tenderness and fragility, as well as from the 
absence of any method of fastening the edges of the circular 
plates together, it appears evident that these four bullas were 
never intended to be worn, but were probably made as 
sepulchral ornaments, to be buried with the burnt bones of 
the deceased children, and indicative of their high birth. 
Those, which were worn by them, must have been much 
stronger, and were in many cases of a less precious material. 
The two Lancashire bullas were probably intended to be 
worn. They are of gold. One of them was found by a lady 

Bulla, found at Overborough. 

Orig. size. 

Golden bulla, found at Manchester. 
Orig. size. 

(Miss Fenwick) near the Pra3torium at Overborough, 5 and 
shows the bulla in its simplest form, small and without the 
bent plate. (See the annexed woodcut.) The other was 
found A.D. 1772, in gravel on the banks of the river Irwell at 
Manchester. It has the form of a crescent (see woodcuts), 
and, instead of the bent plate, a pipe, which corresponds to 
the concave of the crescent, and through which the suspend- 

5 See Rauthmell's Antiquitates remetonacenses, London, 174 6., p. 99. Plate V. Fig. 6. 



ing cord passes. The front, instead of being plain as in all 
the five bullas already mentioned, is tastefully engraved with 
curved and zig-zag ornaments. In this specimen the two 
plates of gold were joined without an opening between them. 6 

Taking it for granted that the Lancashire bullas are still 
in England, I venture to ask where they are now deposited, 
hoping that my inquiry may lead to the same gratifying 
result as in the case of Lady Fellows's bulla. 7 

In my description of the Geldestone sepulchre I have men- 
tioned the modes of representing the bulla in ancient monu- 
ments. These were monuments of boys, and either sculp- 
tures, pictures, or terra cottas. 

Of the sculptures none probably is more perfect and 
beautiful than the bronze statue of a boy, which may now be 
seen in the Louvre at Paris. The boy wears a tunic and 
pallium. He holds a spherical object, perhaps a fruit, in his 
right hand, and a dove in his left. The statue belonged to 
the late M. E. Durarid, whose collection was sold in 1836. 
Through the kindness 
of M. De Longperier, A 
the Conservator of the 
Museum, I am enabled 
to lay before the Insti- 
tute a drawing of the 
bulla, which is repre- 
sented upon the breast 
of the boy. This bulla 
bears some resemblance 
in its form and orna- 
ment to that found at 
Manchester. 8 

There are at Rome 
three marble statues, 
which exhibit the bulla on the breast of the wearer, viz. 
two in the Villa Borghese, 9 and one in the Vatican. 1 The 

6 Hist, of Manchester, by the Rev. John 
Whi taker, Second Edition, London*, 1773. 
Voll.,p. 81. Baines's Hist, of Lancashire, 
Vol. 1 1. p. 155. 

7 Whitaker says, that the Manchester 
bulla was deposited in Sir Ashton Lever's 
Museum ; but I have searched the cata- 
logue of the Leverian Museum for it in 

s The small bronze figures of Horus 
or Harpocrates, sometimes represent him 

wearing the bulla. See Spon, Misc. Erud. 
Ant. p. 18. Cuperi Harpocrates, in Poleni 
Supplem. T. II. p. 425, 428. It may be 
presumed, that this addition to his attri- 
butes or emblems was made after tlie 
establishment of the Roman dominion in 

9 Sculture del Palazzo della villa Borghese, 
Roma,\796. Vol. II., p. 24. 

1 Mus. Pio Clementino, Tom. III. tav. 
21. Romce, 1790, folio. 



more remarkable of these in the Villa Borghese has been 

called Britannicus. The statue in 
the Vatican Museum was found at 
Otricoli ; the annexed woodcut 
shows its bulla. 

The pictures, which exhibit the I 
bulla, are etchings executed in a 
peculiar style, and with exquisite de- 
licacy, upon circular plates of glass, j 
which are partially coated with I 

One of these is now in the British 
Museum. The glass has the usual 
appearance of decay and opalescence. j 
It is double, the under fold being merely a protection to the 
upper. The figure is that of a boy dressed in the tunic and 
pallium, with the bulla suspended from his neck. Mr. Birch 
thinks that the attire indicates the period of the Gordians. 
The figure is in gold, very delicately shaded with black lines, 
which are etched in the gold on the under surface of the upper 
fold of glass, so as to be seen on looking down upon the 
upper surface. Another very interesting circumstance is, that 
the name of the boy, M. CECILIVS, is placed by his side in gold 
letters, and presents a remarkable confirmation of the con- 
clusion, at which I before arrived . 
in explaining the name on 
Mr. Rogers's bulla. For here ' 
we have M. for MARCUS, which 
is the prcenomen, prefixed to 
CECILIVS, the nomen gentili- 

Another specimen of the 
same kind was obtained by 
Ficoroni from the ruins of 
Tivoli 2 ,and afterwards belonged 
to Dr. Conyers Middleton, who 
represents it in the same en- 
graving with the bulla, its companion. This portrait was 
likewise purchased by Horace Walpole for his collection at 
Strawberry Hill. In 1842 it was bought by C. Wentworth 
Dilke, Esq., and, by the kindness of that gentleman, I have 

J See Ficoroni, tit supra, p. 1 2. 

Antique Glass, British Museum. Orig. size. 


now the singular felicity of producing it for inspection. It 
represents a lady with the boy, who wears the bulla, in her 
arms. Ficoroni thought that it belonged to the age of 
Alexander Severus ; Middleton (p. 36,) contends for a yet 
higher antiquity. The boy's dress is exactly the same as in 
the etching already mentioned, which is in the British 
Museum. We observe also the two layers of glass cemented 
together ; and the circular border of the glass is entire, so 
that it does not appear to have been the bottom of a patera, 
as has been supposed, but to be complete in itself. 3 The 
lower piece of glass is throughout of a deep blue colour. The 
upper layer is of the same deep blue, except where we ob- 
serve a circle of gold near the border and the figures of the 
mother and child. These portions appear to consist of 
colourless glass. Thus the figures painted on the under 
surface of this upper layer are seen as we look down upon it, 
and the under layer of glass has preserved the painting from 
injury, so that it is probably as fresh now as when it came 
more than 1600 years ago from the hands of the artist. The 
method of fixing the gold to the glass, and of joining the 
blue glass, called " sapphire," to the white colourless glass, 
was by placing the composition in a furnace, by the heat of 
which the glass was partially melted. 4 

To these examples of pictures on glass may apparently 
be added one of much larger size, which is engraved by 
Leichius, 5 and which, as he states, was preserved in the 
Library at Leipzig. It represents a Roman family, consisting 
of a boy, who wears the bulla, with his father and mother. 
Another, formerly at Strawberry Hill, is in the possession of 
the llev. Dr. Bliss, of Oxford. 6 

It remains to mention the representations of boys with the 
>ulla in terra cottas. M. Seroux d'Agincourt has engraved 

ree of these. 7 One represents a naked boy standing with 
the bulla suspended from his neck. Another exhibits a 
boy with the bulla in like manner hanging from his neck, but 
clothed and seated on a chair with a tablet on his knees. 
The third is still more remarkable, the bulla representing 
three figures, one of which is Mercury. 

3 Middleton, ut supra, p. 45. De Dlp/ychis Veterum. Lips. 1743, 

* See Theophilus Presbyter, Div. Art. p. 15. 

Sc!ttilula,JI.'28' t and Inquiry into the style 6 Proceedings of Arch. Institute at M'//i- 

of ancient glass pa!ntinga f by C.W. Oxford, cheater, p. xxxix., Museum Catal. 
1847,;>/>. 19.28.337. 7 Recueil de Fragment d Sculpture en 

tcrre cuite, PL XIV. Figs. 1, 3, 5. 




IN the line of the direct Roman road forming part of the 
Ickling Street-way from Royston to Caistor, and passing 
through the well-known Devil's Dyke on Newmarket Heath, 
is a considerable elevation formed by the chinch or lower 
chalk marl. This is in the parish of Little Wilbraham, about 
six miles from Cambridge, and is well known to the villagers 
by the Anglo-Roman name of " Streetway-hill." The whole 
line abounds with tumuli, as may be observed on the map of 
the Ordnance Survey, marking the places of sepulture of the 
honoured dead of the warlike Iceni, the Romans and the 
Anglo-Saxons, as appears by the explorations made ; and at 
various periods the plough and the spade have turned up 
numerous interesting relics, showing the successive occupation 
of the spot by these different races. 

About four years since several remarkable fibulae, armillae, 
amulets, coins, and beads, some of which were exhibited at 
the Oxford Meeting of the Institute, were found, and suc- 
cessive operations have brought to light many other relics 
and numerous human remains. Early in the last year (1850), 
the summit of the hill was lowered, and, in effecting this, an 
escarpment of the chalk marl cut through exhibited the 
difference of soil that had upon former occasions suggested 
the probability of a deposit, and which, in many instances, 
proved to be correct. Upon carefully removing this soil, 
which was easily effected by the section made in sloping 
down the cutting, there was found a rectangular grave, 
6 ft. 4 in. long, by 2 ft. 8 in. wide, in which was deposited, 
with much apparent care, a human skeleton of great stature. 
From the comparative measurement of the femur and tiftici, 
the tenant of this tomb must have exceeded by some inclit's 
the height of six feet. The body was laid with the face 
downwards, and with the feet towards the east. 

Partly upon the occipital portion of the cranium, and the 
cervicular vertebrae, was placed a curious and apparently 
unique object, the form of which is shown by the accom- 
panying representation. This, I am disposed to regard as a 
headpiece or kind of crown, intended as a mark of honour 

Antiquities discovered at Little "Wilbraham , 

Triangular Ornament of thin bronze plate. 
Orig. size. 


to the illustrious dead. It is composed of a frame-work of 
wood, surrounded and kept together by three circlets of fine 
bronze metal, l in. wide, the lower rim skilfully turned up 
at the edge and well finished. These are held in their places 
by four uprights, of the same metal, placed at equal distances, 
ornamented at intervals by recurved horn-shaped pieces of 

metal, with curious grotesque 
terminations, and rivetted in a 
workman-like manner to the 
upright parts. The lower rim 
was surrounded by stamped 
metal of thin bronze, 2^ in. 
high, terminating in a series of 
decorative triangular plates of 
thin bronze, as seen in the 
plate ; the whole forming an 
ellipsis of 8f in. by 7, and 8 in. 
high. Under the breast was 
found a spear-head of iron, not 
differing in form from those of 

e period to which these remains have been attributed ; and 
n the right side the small iron knife or dagger (see Plate) 
often found to be characteristic of this mode of sepulture, 
pon the tibia lay an iron umbo, or boss, the only remnant 
f the shield. This, with the peculiar markings of the bronze 
rnaments, led to the conclusion that this interesting relic 

of early Saxon date. 

The cranium, of which the whole portion, from the occi- 
pital to the frontal bone, is entire, presents a remarkable 
conformation, and has excited the attention of the members 
of the medical profession to whom it has been submitted. 
The measurement from each extremity is largely out of pro- 
portion, forming an elongated oval of extraordinary dimen- 
pions ; this curious relic of mortality will, with three others 
of similar malformation, which have been found in Cambridge- 
shire within the last ten years, form a subject of interesting- 
investigation. They have been submitted to Dr. Thurnam, 
who is about to favour us with the result of his discriminating 
observations upon these and other distortions of the human 

That this bronze ornament was intended as the insignia 
of honour as a crown to the illustrious dead, I have no 
doubt ; although this assertion is in opposition to the ideas 

VOL. vm. 


of several archaeologists, for whose opinions I entertain high 
respect, and who consider it to have been a vessel in the form of 
a bucket or situla, similar to one which was found at Hexham, 
and is now deposited in the British Museum, 1 or to that 
found at Northfleet, in 1847. 2 My objections to this opinion 
are, that in this instance this object was deposited on a portion 
of the body where it would obviously be placed as a mark of 
honour. As a situla, the position in which it was found was 
an inverted one, whereas, if intended as a crown, it was in 
its proper direction. If it had served as a vessel, such as 
has been supposed, it must have had a bottom ; but the 
most accurate search failed in discovering the slightest trace 
of such an adjunct, although the decayed portions of the 
upright staves were collected ; and, lastly, it is not probable 
that it would have been deposited empty, as those in the 
instances already cited were filled with relics, that found at 
Hexham containing some thousands of Anglo-Saxon coins, 
and it may be presumed that, had this contained any object, 
some vestiges of its contents must have been discovered. 

It is probable that a tumulus once crowned the summit 
of this sepulchral deposit, although no such tradition is 
handed down ; but, as it is a highly cultivated part of the 
country, the successive operations of the husbandman have I 
no doubt reduced it to its present level. The site is one] 
worthy of those suitably selected for the tomb of a warrior 
its elevation commanding a complete panoramic view of! 
the whole surrounding country, forming an important military 
station either for attack or defence ; the traces of the out- : 
works, with the warlike relics constantly found, determine it 
to have been a position of considerable importance, as well as 
the scene of many successive military operations. 

These relics will be deposited in the British Museum in 
the " British Room," recently completed where they may 
supply an important link in the chain of historical vestiges 
about to be chronologically arranged in the new department, 
so desirably appropriated to the exclusive illustration of 
British antiquities. 

In April of the present year (1851), some labourers 
employed in digging chalk on Streetway Hill, within a few 
feet of the spot where the above-noticed discovery took 
place, came upon an extensive deposit of human remains, 

1 See Archeeologia, vol. xxv., p. 279. 

- Journal of the Archaeol. Assoc., vol. iii., p. 235. 


numerous iron spear-heads, several fine iron bosses, perfect 
even to the bronze rivets which fastened them to the shield ; 
all of similar type to those found with the skeleton and 
crown ; some of these are in my possession, and form addi- 
tional proof of the occupation and importance of this position 
during the Anglo-Saxon period. 

The ridge of chalk marl in which all these relics have 
been discovered is being gradually carted away by the 
occupier of the neighbouring soil, as he requires it for agri- 
cultural purposes ; above twenty yards are as yet undis- 
turbed, and as these probably contain many equally interesting 
remains, it is much to be desired that an excavation should 
take place, under the superintendence of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society, or some other Archaeological authority, 
ere the ruthless spade of the labourer entirely removes the 
last portion of this remarkable ridge. 

i. D. 


IT is highly gratifying to be enabled to assure our readers, that tho 
remarkable relics of antiquity, described in the foregoing memoir, have 
been presented by Mr. Deck to the Collection, long desired, and now in 
course of arrangement in the " British Room." His Grace, the DUKE OF 
NORTHUMBERLAND, had given a noble precedent, by the donation of an 
unique assemblage of antiquities discovered upon his estates at Stanwick, 
and deposited by him at the British Museum, through the intervention of 
the Archaeological Institute, in pursuance of his purpose to encourage the 
formation of a NATIONAL SERIES. All who feel an interest in such an 
object will give their heartiest acknowledgment to the antiquary, who, like 
Mr. Deck, is amongst the very foremost to follow the generous example to 
which we have alluded. 

The curious question of the true appropriation of the object, by some 
designated as a kind of situla, occasionally discovered with interments of 
the Anglo-Saxon age, may be determined by future researches. Mr. Deck 
has submitted to our readers the results of his consideration of the subject ; 
and, although his views may not meet with general acceptance, it must be 
remembered that they received confirmation from actual inspection of the 
condition and minute details, connected with these relics, in situ an ad- 
vantage which all will appreciate. 

A few notices of analogous discoveries may serve to throw light upon this 
enquiry. The curious vessel of bronze, to which Mr. Deck has alluded, the 
receptacle in which a hoard of stycas of the ninth century was brought to 
light in " Campey Hill," at Hexham, although varied in form from the 
object found at Little Wilbraham, and some others of a similar class, may 
perhaps properly be compared with them, and especially in the characteristic 
Vandyked decoration around the rim. (See Archaeologia, vol. xxv., pi. 33.) 
This vessel, however, was of different form, being considerably wider at the 


base than at the upper margin. The bronze hoops and handle of a situla 
of similar form were found in a Saxon tumulus at Bourne Park, Kent, by 
Lord Londesborough, with an umbo, bridle-bit of iron, and a flat bowl of 
gilt metal. (Archaeol. Journal, vol. i., p. 255.) In other discoveries 
assigned to the Anglo-Saxon age, a situla has been noticed, found with the 
iron umbo, axe-head, and other relics usually found in graves of that period. 
One of the best examples probably, although of small size, is that disco- 
vered in the burial place at Ash, near the high road thence to Canterbury, 
in 1771. It is represented in the Appendix to Boys' " History of Sand- 
wich," (p. 868,) and in Douglas' Nenia, (pi. 12, p. 51). It is described 
as a vessel in the shape of a pail, 8 inches in diam., and 7i in height. It 
had, as it is stated, a handle like a modern pail, and was formed of wood, 
either of the ash or plane tree, strengthened by upright plates, and three 
flat hoops ; to the upper hoop was attached a row of triangular plates of 
thin bronze, (their points downwards) with impressed markings, forming a 
Vandyked ornament around the pail. It must be stated, that no record 
was made of any bottom having been found, but it was supposed that it had 
been of wood, and had perished. A shallow basin and a patera of bronze, 
a touchstone, portions of a pair of scales, and some Roman coins, which 
had served as weights, were found with this deposit. The iron axe may 
appear to indicate that it was not the sepulture of a female. There were 
found also a stone celt and a crystal ball, with other objects. 

In the neighbourhood of Marlborough a remarkable situla, or drum-shaped 
vessel, employed for a sepulchral purpose, was found, as recorded by the 
late Sir Richard Colt Hoare (" Ancient Wilts," vol. ii., p. 34, pi. vi.). It 
was formed of substantial oak, plated with thin brass, ribbed with iron 
hoops, had two iron handles, one at each side, and a hollow bar of iron 
placed across the mouth, and affixed to two pieces projecting above tha 
upper rim of the vessel. The surface was curiously ornamented with gro- 
tesque human heads, animals, <fec., embossed in the metal plating. The 
dimensions of this curious vessel were, height 21 inches, diam. 24 inches. 
The sides, like those of the hooped wooden vessel found in Cambridgeshire, 
were upright. It contained a deposit of burned human bones. 

Amongst some highly interesting remains of the Anglo-Saxon period, 
found at Northfleet, Kent, and described by Mr. Roach Smith in the 
Journal of the British Archaeological Association (vol. iii., p. 236), was 
found the remains of a wooden pail, with bronze hoops and a bi-cornute 
ornament of the same metal, riveted on, closely similar to those on the 
upright bands of the object from Little Wilbraham. With this deposit were 
also found an iron umbo, terminating in a flat button, and an iron spear, 
precisely similar to those found in Cambridgeshire, a spear-head of longer 
proportion, a long iron ferrule for the shaft of the spear, an iron sword, and 
pottery. The account of this remarkable discovery has been appended by 
Mr. Alfred Dunkin to his " Memoranda of Springhead " (p. 150). 

In a tumulus on Roundway Down, near Devizes, a collection of highly 
curious ornaments was brought to light about 1843, on the property of 
Mr. E. Colston. The corpse lay north and south, in a wooden chest, bound 
with iron. Near the neck were found several ornaments, composing a 
necklace ; garnets set in gold, in fashion like the Roman bulla, seemed to 
have been arranged alternately with barrel-shaped beads of gold wire. 
There were also two gold pins, set with garnets, united by a chain, in the 
centre of which was a circular ornament, bearing a cruciform device en- 
graved upon its setting. At.the feet lay the remains of a bronze-bound 


object, apparently identical with those found at Ash and at Northfleet. It fell 
to pieces on admission of the air, and the remains consisted of curved plates 
of thin bronze, which doubtless had formed the hoops, and about twenty 
triangular plates, which appeared to have been attached by rivets over one 
of the hoops, and had probably formed a Vandyked ornament, as noticed in 
the other examples. These thin plates were simply ornamented with rows of 
dots, hammered up in the metal. Some minor objects of bronze were also 
noticed, seemingly parts of a kind of fastening or padlock ; and remains of 
two earthen cups. In this discovery, it was conjectured that these remains 
had formed part of a helmet ; but, whilst the thin fabric of the metal plate 
was wholly unsuited to such a purpose, the discovery of so rich a necklace 
and other ornaments with the corpse, justify the conclusion that the re- 
mains were those of a female ; for whose choice appliances and ornaments 
this bronze-bound capsa had probably served as a receptacle. 

Mr. J. Y. AKERMAN, who laid these interesting relics before the Society 
of Antiquaries, considered the interment to be of the VI. or VII. century. 3 

To Mr. FRANKS we are indebted for pointing out an interesting fragment 
lately found by him amongst the disjecta membra of British antiquity, the 
arrangement of which is now in progress at the British Museum. It is a 
thin ornamental plate of bronze, of triangular 
form, found between Sandgate and Dover, doubt- 
less a portion of the metal mountings of an object 
similar to those already described. 

As these ancient relics of the Anglo-Saxon 
age have conjecturally been regarded as connected 
with some kind of helmet, it may not be irrelevant 
to advert to the remains of certain Saxon objects 
of a different class, hooped or bound with a frame- 
work of thin metal, which do appear to have 
composed some kind of head-piece, during that 
period. Of this description appears to have been 
the curious frame of bronze found on the skull 
in an interment discovered on Leckhampton Hill, 
near Cheltenham. (Archaeol. Journ., vol. i., p. 
387 ; figured in vol. iii., p. 352.) Another, 
found at Souldern, Oxfordshire, on the Portway, 
found, as described by Sir Henry Dryden, about 
the head of the deceased. Fragments of leather 
were to be seen between the thin brass plates/ 
Another remarkable example is described by Mr. 
BATEMAN, found in a Saxon tumulus in Derbyshire. (Journal of Archaeol. 
Assoc., vol. iv., p. 278.) This head-piece was regarded by the late Sir 
Samuel Meyrick as the British " Penfestyn." 

It is highly interesting to compare with these discoveries in our own 
country, the assemblage of relics of the same age found in 1740, on the 
banks of the Meuse, near Verdun. They are represented in the " Museum 
Schcepflinum," (Argentorati, 1773, tab. xvi.) Oberlin, who describes this 
deposit, conceived it to have been the sepulchre of some great prince, 
possibly King Theodebert, or Theodebald, in the sixth century. There 
were found a shallow vessel of bronze, an umbo and an axe-head of iron 

3 See a Notice in the Minutes of the Mr. Bateman, near Buxton. Vestiges, p. 94. 
Society of Antiquaries, vol. i., p. 12. A 4 Antiquities of Steeple Aston, by Wil- 

similar necklace, pins, &c., were found by liam Wing, p. 73. 

Plate of br 


(similar to those disinterred at Ash). The umbo had been attached to the 
shield by silver-headed nails. There was part of an iron sword-blade, a 
bronze spear-head, and a long iron ferrule, or the head of a framed, pos- 
sibly such as was found at Springhead. The most curious feature of this 
discovery was a richly ornamented broad hoop of gilt bronze, with a handle, 
moveable precisely like the handle of a pail, and attached to the hoop by 
singular recurved ornaments, in some degree analogous to the cornute plates 
upon the Cambridgeshire relic. This was regarded by Oberlin as the 
metal mounting of the head-piece, or crown ; and he compared it with 
those of Tiberius and Maurice, on their coins. 5 Traces of hard leather 
were visible between the laminae of bronze forming this supposed crown, 
naturally suggestive of the notion that it had been a pileum, or leathern 
head-gear ; but, whilst the adjustment of the handle with a transverse 
movement like that of a pail seems wholly adverse to the conjecture that 
it had been the decoration of a cap or crown, the appearance of the leather 
may induce the supposition that the object was not a crown, but a leathern, 
bronze-bound crumena, in which some precious possessions of the deceased 
were deposited with his ashes in the grave. The use of leather in construct- 
ing vessels such as this may have been, or in closing either of their ends, 
will sufficiently account for the absence of any indications of a bottom, as 
stated in Mr. Deck's notice, and the recital of the discoveries at Ash, given 
by Douglas. We may feel less hesitation in presuming to controvert the 
conclusion of the learned Oberlin that the studded hoop found near Verdun 
was the frame of a crown, since he was equally satisfied that the iron umbo 
(of the ordinary and undeniable fashion of our Saxon period 6 ) was an 
helmet. At the same time, some analogy must be recognised between this 
decorated hoop and the examples of the supposed leathern Penfestyn, bound 
with brass, previously described. 

The form of a supposed repository for objects of value, which appears in 
these examples, is closely analogous to that of the capsa of a remoter age, a 
deep, circular, wooden box, in which writings or other valuables were preserved 
or transported, and to which straps were attached. In the capsce under 
consideration, the handle was of a more rigid fashion. The bronze scrinium 
of similar form, but minor dimension, found in a tumulus at Sibbertswold, 
Kent, deserves examination. It contained thread, and was probably an 
appliance of female use. 7 

The antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Period are highly interesting and 
varied in their form and decoration. The formation of a classified series 
in the National Repository must tend to dispel the obscurity which, in many 
instances, still exists regarding their use or origin. In a previous page 
reference has been made to certain objects represented on several Gaulish 
sepulchral sculptures, a sort of little bucket, or coffer, with a handle like 
a situla, carried in the hand. 8 Some resemblance appears to exist between 
these and the brass-bound receptacles found in Saxon interments. It is, 
moreover, remarkable that the examples in question are exclusively on 
tablets of a sepulchral nature. With these may be compared an interesting 
group of the parents with their two children, who carry objects of the like 
form as those on the Gaulish tombs in Lorraine. This sculpture, attributed 
to the Roman age, was found in Bavaria. 9 A. W. 

5 See Ducange, in fara. Byzant. 7 Douglas, Nenia, pi. xviii. 

6 Admirably shown by Douglas, pi. 1, * See Note 1, p. 89, ante. 

an example with the terminal button and 9 Wagener, Handbuch, fig. 1014. 
studs silvered. 

Original Bocumrnis, 



THE following extracts relate to the executorship accounts, on the death of 
lomas Fermor, of Somerton, in the county of Oxford, who died August 8, 
580. He was a younger brother of Sir John Fermor, ancestor of the 
Carls of Pomfret, and progenitor of a family long seated at Somerton, and 
" erwards at Tusmore, in the same county, extinct, I believe, on the death 

William Fermor, of Tusmore, in 1828. 

In the " Gentleman's Magazine," 1827, (vol. xcvii., part 1, p. 113,) will 
i found an account of Somerton, and of this family ; and also in " Baker's 
Northamptonshire," under Croughton (vol. i., page 599), is a pedigree of 
the Fermors of Tusmore. 

Thomas Fermor, by his will, dated June 15, 1580, appointed George 
Shirley, Esq., afterwards Sir George Shirley, of Staunton Harold, Baronet, 
whom he calls "his loving kinsman and friend," 1 his principal executor ; 
and among many other particular directions enjoined as follows : 

" I will that my executors shall, as soon as conveniently may be after 
my death, provide at my charge six fair large paper books, in every of 
which shall be written by Francis Capp, now my apprentice, if he be living, 
and at convenient leasure, and in his absence by Richard Jackson, my 
apprentice, and if they both die or be absent, by some person hired yearly 
for 20s. at my charges, the true copy of this my last will and testament, 
and a true and perfect rentall of all my lands, tenements, and heredita- 
ments, and of all my leases ; and also a true and perfect inventory of all 
such jewels, plate, money, bedding, napery, brass, pewter, utensils of 
house, horses, beasts, sheep, and other goods, lands, cattels, whatsoever 
I shall have at the time of my death, and also all my debts due to me, or 
by me : and in every of the said six books, my executors shall yearly cause 
to be written particularly the sole contents and effect of their audit, and 
that is, how much money they do receive, of whom, and for what cause, 
and what they did disburse, to whom, and for what cause ; of the which 
six books my will is, that every of my five executors shall have one in his 
own custody, and that the sixth shall remain in my house at Somerton, in 
the custody of the forenamed James Smith, to the use of my heir, by the 
which ho knowing what I leave, and what is spent, he may call for that 

" And I will that every of my executors shall, at the end of the same 
audit, set his name yearly to the foot of their account in every of the six 
books, and I bequeath to every of my executors coming to the said audit, 
serving and taking the same account, and setting his hand to every of the 
six books, five pounds yearly, of lawful English money, over and above the 
charge to be bestowed in or at the said audit, [which] with all things 
thereto incident, my will is, shall be defrayed at my only costs ; and I will 
that if any executor shall not come to the said audit, or do not hear or take 
the account, and set his hand to every of the said six books, that then, 
that year wherein he fails, he shall have just nothing." 

1 He was his great nephew. 


From one of the " six large paper books," now in my possession, and 
which formerly belonged to Sir George Shirley, the extracts which follow 
have been made. The book commences, in conformity with the above- 
recited regulations, with the will of Mr. Fermor ; then follows a rental of 
his estates, and then an inventory of his effects, " taken the first of Sep- 
tember, 1580." The account taken at the audit at Somerton, on the 6th 
of December, 1580, succeeds, which is followed by a regular annual state- 
ment of accounts, until the last audit held on the 3rd of December, 1595. 

The book concludes with certain copies of releases, and other deeds, 
executed in 1596 and 1597, on the coming of age of Richard, son and 
heir of Thomas Fermor ; by which it appears that Mary, mentioned in 
her father's will, was the only surviving daughter of Thomas Fermor, and 
had married [in 1590] Francis Plowden, of Plowden, in the county of 
Salop, Esq. 

It would appear also that Richard was about five years old at his father's 
death in 1580 ; and was until his seventeenth year brought up at home, 
under a private tutor, who was paid 40s. per annum. In 1592, he was 
entered of the Inner Temple, and at the same time put upon an allowance 
of SOL per annum. 

The annual value of the estates is estimated at 22 II. 9s. 6d, 

Extracts from the " accoumpts taken at the audit begone at Somerton, 
in the county of Oxford, the vi day of December, in the xxiij yere of the 
reigne of o r Sou'eigne Lady Quene Elizabeth, by George Shirley, esquier, 
Nicholas Farmor and Benett Wynchcombe, gentlemen, Wyll'm Mercer 
& James Smyth, yeomen, executors of the last will and testament of 
Thomas Farmor, esquyer, deceased. 1580." 

Relating to the means taken to obtain the wardship of Richard Fermor, 
son and heir of Thomas Fermor, Esq. 


Payments : 
It. for horsemeate when he went to deale w th the L. Conipton for R. Farmor iiii 8 viii d 


It. paid to Mr. Pulton for his travell about the obtaynynge the wardshipp, 
drawyng both the offyces and the rates, and sytting uppoa the same 
offyces v 1 ' xvi 


It. geven to S r Christopher Hattous man for wrytinge a 1're to my L. 

Treasurer ........... x ! 

It. geven M r Bradshawe, w ch first moved my Lady to deale in yt . x 1 ' 

It. p'mysed M r Medlie v 1 ', & p d him iii u ; geven to M r Barnard, one of my L. 

Secretary's iii' 1 ........... vi 1 ' 

It. geven to sped my Ladies chamberlain iii" 

It. for wrytinge ii letters to my Lady Bourley xii d 

It. geven to my Lady Bourley for obtayning the wardship . . . ccl" 


Anno 1580. 
It. p d to John Warter & Francis Brampton, for 158 yards & half of blacke 

cloth, for the buryall of my uncle ....... Ixxxxv 1 ' viii s x d 

It. p d for a mournynge clocke for my self . . . . ... iii 1 ' 

- Ferdinando Pulton, of Boreton, in the county of Buckingham, one of the most cele- 
brated lawyers of the day. 


It. p d for ii dossen Scutchins of all sorts, xlviii' ; and allowed Capp his 

chargs taryeng for them, vi 8 vi j liii 8 vi d 

It. to John Horskep' for rosen, wax, and spice xi 8 

It. to the barher for bowelinge my m r . . . . . v* 

It. to the husbandman to buy wax at Banbery . . . . . x* 

It. for veale at the funerall day ......... xix" vi d 

It. geven the precher .......... x 

It. to Lacy for spice .......... ii 8 

It. to Pollard for making the boyes clothes, and the poore mens gownes . iii' viii d 

It. for cloth for the hearse ......... xxii d 

It. to the joyner for a monethe's work . . . . . . . xi 9 vi d 


It. geven to poore folke to praye for M r Fermor ii 1 vi d 



It. that he laid out for the testator's tombe xx" 

It. his man's charg's going about the same ....... iii 1 

It. to the waynman that brought the tombe ...... iiii u 

It. for the waynman's chargs & theire cattels . ..... iii 8 viij d 

It to the mason for making the foundat'ou of the tombe .... vii* 

It. for the foundat'on of the tombe more then is before sett downe . . xv d 


It. for hindgs and a lock for the grate w ch standeth before the tombe . . xviii d 
It. for Gabryll Royl's 3 bord before the audytt began, for fortnyght & iij days, 

& for his man's bord for iij weiks, in making the tombe . . . xii 8 vi d 

It. for Gabryll Royl's bord and his men's for iij weicks after the audytt . xv" 

It. for his horse meat v weeks & 4 days ....... v* 

It. to Thomas Row for making the grate, and teasterne over the tombe . . xv s 
It. to the p'son for ii oken planks towards making of the grate befor the 

tombe ............ v 

It. to Hawis, of Goddington, for paynting the tombe ... . . iiij" 

It. paid the tombe maker more then his bargaine was for making the same . xl s 


Anno 1580. 

It. a pillion, a cloth, and other furniture for my cozen Mary . . . xlvii 8 
P* 1 for xii weickes bord for Mr. Richard Farmer and his man, at vii 8 the 

weicke ............ iiij 11 iiij" 

allowed to pay the scholemaster . . . . . . . . x 8 

It. for a clocke, clothe, and other apparell' and necessary things for 

M rca Mary ........... xlvii' i d 

It. a caule of bewgle for Mary Farmer, and a lyninge to yt . . . . v 8 viii d 

It. paid M r Farmer, that he paid for makinge the children's mournyng 

apparell ........... ix' viii d 

It. a yard of ffreasadowe 4 for M res Mary, vii 8 vi d ; half yard durance, xviii d ; 
a bugle, call, and a lyniynge, iiii" viii d ; an ell' bone lace, xviii d ; iiij 
calles, xvi d ; an ell cameryck, x 8 ; an ell holland, iiii 8 ; half ell hoi- 
land, iiii 8 xxxiiii 1 vi d 

'GabryelRoyleorRoyleywassonof Richard mata Shirleiana," p. 60. Here, however, 

Roy ley, both well-known " tomb-makers" at an effigy of a lady was to be also contracted 

Burton-upon-Trent. They were the par- for. This agreement will be found appended 

ties who, about this time, also erected a to these extracts from the Fermor accounts, 

tomb for John Shirley, father of George, (See p. 185.) 

still remaining in the church of Bredon-on- * Freasadowe, Ital. frisada, which, ac- 

the-Hill, in the county of Leicester. The cording to Florio, signifies " the stuffe called 

neighbourhood of Burton is celebrated for frizado," probably a finer kind of frize or 

alabaster. At the end of the executorship rugg-cloth. He gives also, " Frisetta, fine 

accounts is a copy of the indenture between frize, cotton, bayes, or penystone ; also fine 

Mr. Shirley and the Royleys for the erection frizado." Ital. Diet., 1611. Durance was 

of the tomb. It is worded in a very similar possibly the same tissue which was termed 

manner to that for John Shirley, before " cloth of lasting." 
referred to, and which is printed in " Stem- 




It. an ounce of blacke silke, xxii d ; to the caryer for bringing downe these 

things, ii d ijjj* 

It. for a pare of shewes for M re " Mary vn 

Anno 1581. 

It. p d for a payre of knitt hose for M' e * Mary Farmer ... . ' 
It. p d for a payre of shuse . 

It. for a payre of gloves .... ^ 

It. for vi dozen of basket lace . . . . ' ' *.. 

It. for silk rybband j'J 

It. for pyns ..... ] 

It. for v yards & half of duble morkadoe* for a petticot^ .... ix ii' 

It. for ij ownces & half de q' of partynnet lace, 6 at ii 8 p' ownce . . . V iii d 

It. for a q r of murrey sarsnet . . x y 

It. for an ownce of statut lace ..... xiin 

It. for eys and clasps ...' 

It. for iij p r of yelow taffita for sleives for her silke gowne . . . . vii viii d 

It. for mockadoe for a worke-day gowne ..... xii'^ 

It. to the taylor for making ii gownes and a petticoate X !"J.*. 

It. for vi yards of cloth for smocks vi iii d 

It. for an ell of holland to make sleives, gorgets, and coyfs . . . . vii' 

It. for ij cales, parcell silver, and gylt xiij' 

It. for a cale and shadoe 7 . . . ... . . inj" 

It. delyvered Mrs. Mary, when she went to my L. garracTs [Gerrards] . iiij' 

It. to her that loked to her when she was sicke iij' iiii 1 ' 

It. geven Doctor Smith for going to my cosine Mary . . . . x" 

It. for a greine cote, a halt, and a vellet girdell for Mr. Richard Fermor . xvi' x d 

It. to the scowlemaster for his whole yere's payns, from Christmas last till 

Christmas next, for Mr. Richard Fermor xl' 

It. for the horde of Mr. Richard Fermor and James his s'vnte, for one 

whole yere, at viii 8 the weke, viz. from Christmas last to Christmas next xx 1 ' xvi" 

It. for suger-candie to avoyde fleme, his mouthe and throte being sore . ii d 

It. for a dozen of poynts 8 for hym to playe w th iii d 

It. for ij litle boxes to kepe his poynts and counters in .... iiii d 

It. for fy:ggs to victor w th in lent, at dyv's times [?] . vi d 

It. Mr. Richard Fermor gave awaye at New-yere's tide . . . . vi d 

It. for pynnes for hym to play w th at Christmas . . . . . ii d 

It. for a silke string to tie his new knife . . . . . . i d 

It. for claspes for his shert-bands ........ i d 

It. for a penner and inckehorne . . . . . v* 1 

It. for iij elnes and a qua'r of hollande to make hym shertes, at xxi d th'elne vii v d 

6 " Morkadoc, mockado, a stuff made in 
imitation of velvet, and sometimes called 
mock velvet." Nares. 

6 Lace of four kinds is here named, bone, 
partyrmet, basket, and statute lace. Randal 
Holme, in the Academy of Armory, 1688, 
(B. iii., c. 3,) gives many terms connected 
with the fabrication of lace, and divides the 
craft, seemingly, betwixt the two principal 
classes of " bone lace and parchment lace- 
makers." The former has been defined as 
made of flaxen thread, and named from the 
use of bobbins of bone in the process of 
its manufacture. Parchemyne, passemyne, 
or passamaine lace, a term not noticed 
by Nares, has been explained as so termed 
from the parchment upon which it was 
worked, either as a pattern or for greater 
facility in the fabrication. (See Miss Strick- 
land's note in her Life of Queen Mary, 
p. 235.) Cotgrave gives " Passament, a 
lace;" and Florio (Ital. Diet., 1598,) " Pas- 

samano, any kind of lace ; also bordering 
or garding for garments. Passamano (Taccia t 
statute lace, crewcll lace." (See further, 
Sir Fr. Madden's Privy Purse Expenses of 
the Princess Mary, pp. 97, 143, 253.) In 
Harl. MS., 1376, in a list of effects of Ed- 
ward VI., is mentioned "passemyne lace;" 
as also in Harl. MS. 1419, and in the Cus- 
tom-house Rates of Mary, printed 1582. 
Some confusion of terms seems to have been 
made between passement and parchment. 

7 Cale and shadoe, a cawl and bongrace, or 
projecting hat. The former was occasionally 
set with pearls or bugles. " Bonne-grace, 
th' uppermost flap of the down-hanging taile 
of a French hood, whence belike our Boon- 
grace." Cotgrave. " Velar egli, bonegraces, 
shadowes, vailes, or launes, that women use 
to weare on their foreheads for the sunne." 
Florio. (See Coles, Philips, Nares, c.) 

8 Poynts and pynnes, the ancient skittles 
and nine-pins. 


for iij yards of cotton to make hym an under petticote for winter . ii 8 vi d 

for a bowngrace for Mrs. Marie vii' vi d 


for canvas and bombast 9 for the bodyes & to ware under his cote . . xii d 

for garteryng and a stryng to his myttens vi d 

It. for a pare of pattens viii d 


It. for a knyffe sheath w th a silke strynge ....... iiii d 

It. for a brushe to make cleane his coote ...... ii d 

It. to James Alwood for a clock for his leuery . . . . . . xxv" 

It. for wodden sooles for his pattents ii d 

It. for a saddle and furnyture for him ....... xix* 


It. for an ell and d. of Lankishire cloth to make whit lynyngs for his apparell ii' 

t. for syrops, oynttnents, and other medcionable things for him in his sickness iii x d 

It. for his losse in play at Hilsden ........ vi d 

It. his token to a scholefelowe . . . . . . . . . vi d 

It. his offeryng w th a poor maryed cople xii d 

It. for lethryngs & nales for his pattens iiii d 


It. for a ell half of brod taffaty to make him a dublet and venytyons 1 . . xii* 

It. for ij pound of bombast for ij dubletts ...... iii" 

It. geven by him to the horskep' at Astwell 2 vi d 

It. for a yeard of gold lace to edg his falling bands ii 

It. for an ell and a lialfe and halfe a q'ter of popingiaye taffata to make hym 

a dublett and Venetians, at xiii* the ell xxi" ii d 

It. for an ell and halfe and halfe a q'ter of yellowe sarcenet to lay under the 

same . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii" viii d 

It. for an ewe bowl .......... xii d 

It. for ij paier of cut finger gloves ........ vi d 

It. for a shooting glove ........... iiii d 

It. for tethering and bedding of vi arrowes . . . . . . . vi d 

It. delyvered to M r Fermo r when he went to a marriadge . . . v" 

It. gyven in his purse when he went to Astwell ii 8 vi d 


It. for a stone bow for my master 3 . . . . . . . . viii" 


It. to the smyth of Barford for mending M r Farmor's burding pecc . . iii* viii d 


It. for iij pare of shoes and a pare of pantables 4 ..... iiij* viii d 

It. to his scolemaster at Islyngton . . . . . . . . x 8 

It. to the barbar for trymmyng of him ....... vi d 

It. for pampilion for the hose 5 . . . . . . . . . xii d 

It. delyvered my m' at Nocke, 6 at the wedding v" 

9 Bombast, originally cotton, from bombax, able colours for seruauntes ; slight rugge or 

low Latin; or bombace, Italian; or baum- pampilion." Pampee, according to Roquefort, 

bast, German, all signifying cotton. was the name of a flowered tissue (pampe, 

Nares. fleurori). May not pampilion, a shaggy cloth, 

1 Venytyons, Venetians, a particular be a name derivable from pannus pilosus ? 
fashion of hose, or breeches, originally im- 6 Nocke, i.e. Noke, in the hundred of 
ported from Venice. Nares. Ploiighley, ahd county of Oxford. (See the 

2 Astwell, in Northamptonshire, the eat Guide to the Architectural Antiquities in the 
of Mr. Shirley. Neighbourhood of Oxford, p. 201.) Here was 

3 Stone-bow, a bow from which stones the residence of Joan Bradshaw, grandmother 
might be shot ; a cross-bow. Nares. of Mr. Richard Fermor, and here his sister 

4 Pantables, pantable, a sort of high shoe was married to Mr. Plowden. Joan Bradshaw 
or slipper ; perhaps corrupted from pantofle. died in 1598, and was here buried. Here 
Nares. also was buried Benct or Benedict Winrh- 

5 Pampilion. Hollyband, in his " Trea- combe, in 1623, one of the executors of Mr. 
surie of the French Tongue," 1 580, renders Fermor. 

" habillement de bureau, a coate of chaunge- 


v iii d 

xxv' x d 

It. d d him more at the same time ........ 

It. delivered James Alwood, xxvii Maii, to buy his m r a Giceke grammer, 
a Sallust, a penner, a inckhorne, pap' and a satchel! to carrie his books 


It. half yard of hare colored vellett, xi* ; 4 silver compast bottons for the 
boot hose toppes, ii* vi d ; a pare of hare coloured stockings, vi' vi d ; a 
pare of Sypres ' garters, v* x d . 
paid M r Blunt for a yere's scolinge ........ vi 11 


Anno 1580. 
It. spent in caryeng M r Richard Farmor ....... iii* vi d 

It. paid for the chargs at Oxford in fetchinge S r John Fetiplace's mony, 

beying vii of us . . . . . . . . . . xvi* viii d 

It. my dyett and my man's in London, From the xx th of October untill the 

xxix of November, beying 38 days ....... vi u xiiii' 

It. for fyer and drinck duryng that tyme ....... vii 1 

It. for my horse meate duryng that tyme, w' 11 shewyng and mending my 

saddle iii 11 

It. paid for boote hier goyng to the courte & once from London, iiii* ; for 

feryeng twise ov 1 at Fullam, w th o r horses goynge to the courte, and 

divers tymes to Westm r , iii* vi d . . . . . . . . 

It. for washing my shirts durynge the tyme I laye at London . . . 
It. o r chargs at London, on Wensday, at the Bell in Holbome . . . 
It. goyng to Ottlands, our supper and horse meat ther .... 

It. o r diners and suppers on Saterday, w th ii of my lord tresurer's men 8 . xi* 
It. John Birtwesell's chardgs goynge into Hatfordshire to my lord chaun- 

cillor's, 9 to have the comyssions sealed ..... . xvi* viii d 


Anno 1580. 
It. p d to S r Thomas Lucy for his legacye ....... 

It. to the coocke for his quarter's wages, and that w ch was geven him . 
It. paid Agnes the bruer her half yere's wags, x* ; and geven her in recom- 
pence of her service, iiii* ; allowed her for x u of hoppes, v* x d ; and for 
spigotts, ii d . . . ... . . . . . 

It. allowed her for her ly very 1 ......... 

It. to Thomas Roudd the miller for his half yere's wags .... 

It. to Mathewe the shepperd for his quarter's wags . .... 

It. geven him ........... 

It. for iiii bushell of maslyn, 2 at ii* ii d . . . . . . . 

It. to the prest for his wags dew at Midsom' ...... 

It. geven a poore prest .......... 

It. to Symon that he spent in upping 3 the swanes ..... 

It. for vi great pap' bookes and for bringing them downe .... 

Anno 1581. 
It. for drawing a scutching of armes ....... 

It. for a catechism and a psalter for M r Richard Fermor . . . . 

It. for the armes of my m r and old m, and setting upp the same 

Item, p d a carier for bringing upp 100" and a capcase of writings . . . 

It. p d to my L. Treasurer for the lease of the lande ..... 

It. bestowed a breakfast uppon some of my lord's men . .... 

It. to the glacyer for setting up the armes in the church .... 

vii* vi d 
ii* vi d 
ix* vi d 




vi* viii d 
iii* iiii d 
viu* viii d 

x 8 viii 


vii" vi d 
iii vi d 

cccvi 1 ' xvii s 
ix* vi d 

" Sypres, Cyprus, or crape garters. 

8 Lord Treasurer : William Cecil, Lord 

9 Lord Chancellor : Sir Thomas Bromley 
was Lord Chancellor at this period. 

1 Lyuery, livery, delivery, here in the 
sense of board wages. 

2 Maslyn, mastlin, or muslin, anything 

compounded of mixed materials. Here used 
for mixed grain, such as rye and wheat. 

3 Upping the swans, now corruptly called 
flopping, i. e. marking them. (See Trans- 
actions of the Archaeological Institute at 
Lincoln, p. 310.) 


for payling about the windowes in the church yard . . . . viii d 

to the cutler of Banbery for making clene the ii hand sword . . . iiii d 

for a pynt of sallet oyle to oyle the armor ...... x d 

to the armorer for himself and his man, for wags, meat, & drincke . . xii 1 


It. paid John Hobcroft and Rich. Adams, of Fretwell, the 7 of December, 
1595, in full recompence of ther demande for a chalice and cover ; the 
sayd Adams d my uncle, Tho. Fermor, when the churchwardens of 
Fretwell were comaunded to p'vide a communion cuppe, at w ch tyme 
he dd' them uppon the chalice xl 8 , & dd' a bill of his hand for the 
receyt of the same, w ch as they say weyed 14 oz., valued by them at 
4 8 d ev'y oz. : so paid them more then the xl 8 they furst rec. . . xxv" iiijd 

Anno 1580. 
receved at Sorn'ton at my goynge to London, w ch was in my uncle's 

caskett the x th of August, 1580 xv" 

rec. of S r John Fetiplace uppon an obligac'on the v th of October . . Ixxv" xiii" iiii d 
rec. of S r John Danver uppon an obligac'on the 29 October . . . cccccxxxviii 1 ' 
rec. of old gold, one staw ryall, 4 a duckett, half a ducket, a crusadowe, 5 
half an angell, vi s in silver . . . . . . . . liiii" vi d 


eyved of Thorn's Mountagne for a bloudshed 6 made by his wife on Edward 
Bollis, iii s iiij d ; and for a rescue by his wife made on Alexander 
Hamond, v* . . . . . . . . .-..-. vii* iiij d 

The rarity of evidences relating to monumental art and the sculptors by 
whom sepulchral memorials were executed, must render the following 
document, although comparatively of a late period, highly interesting to 
many readers. The tomb and effigies still exist at Somerton. See 
Notices of the family memorials there, with a pedigree, and a view of the 
church, Gent. Mag. vol. xcvii. pt. 1, p. 113. See also Collins' Peerage, 
ed. 1812, vol. iv. p. 200. 

THIS Indenture, made y* twentyth day of September in y e three and twentith yeare of y e 
Raignc of our Sou'aigne Ladye Elizabeth, by y e grace of God of England Fraunce and Ireland 
Queen, Defender of y e Faithe, &c. Between George Shirley of Staunton Harrolde in y e 
county of Leic* esquier, one of y e execut' of y e testament and last will of Thomas Fermor of 
Sommerton in y e county of OxeS. esquier deceassed, ofy'one p'ty. And Richard Roiley of 
Burton uppo Trente in y e county of Stafford Tuinbe maker, and Gabriell Roiley of Burton 
nppo Trente afforesaid Tumbe maker, sonne of y e said Richard Roiley, of ye other p'ty. 
Witnesseth, y' it is by these pnts graunted covenaunted codiscended and agreed uppo for, by 
and between, y e said p'ties for them selves, and all and singular y e heires execut' and assignes 
of all, and any, of y e said plies, and of every of them, for, uppo, and cocerninge, all and singular 
y e grannies, articles, devises, covenauntes, agreem", matters, and thinges, herafter in these puts 
mentioned or cotained, whereon y e said Richard and Gabriell Roiley, for, and in cusideratio of 
y e somines of money herafter in these pates mentioned, Do bargaine, covenaunt, and agree, for 
them, and every of them, and for th'eires execut' and admiuistrat's, of either of them, and 
every of them, to and with y e said George Shirley his execut' and assignes and every of them, 
by these p'ntes, artyficially cunningly decenlly and subslancially to devise, worke, sett up, 
and p'fectly and fully finish at Somerton afforesaid in ye said county of Oxenford, before the 
Feaste of Pentecoste commonly called Witsontide next ensewinge y e date herof, at or neare 
y e grave of y e said Thomas Fermor there, a very faire Tumbe of very good faire well 
chosen and durable Alabaster stone, containeinge in lengthe six foole and a halfe by y e standard, 
and of y* breadlh of fower Feete by the standard, and of y e height of five Foote by y e standard, 
w th two endes and one (two erased) utlermost syde all throughe out adwrought adorned gilded 
engraved portraited and sett fortbe all as herafter ensewelh ; That is to saie, ye said Richard 
and Gabriell Roiley their execut' assignes or some one of them, shall and will worke, make, 

4 Star-ryal, properly spur-royal, a gold coin of the value of 15*. 

5 Crusador or cruzado, a Portuguese coin of uncertain value. 

6 Bloodshed, bloodwit, the fine imposed for shedding blood. Coicel. 


laye, and place, artificially substantially durably and decently in or on y e uppermost p'te of y e 
said Tumbe, and on ye South side of y e churche of Somerton afforesaid, a very faire decent 
and well p'portioned picture or portrature of a gentleman representing y e said Thomas Fermor 
w th furniture and oruamentes in armour, and about his necke a double cheyne of gold w th 
creste and helmette under his head, w th sword and dagger by his side, and a lion at his fecte 
and in or on the uttermoste parte of the uppermost parte of the said Tumbe a decent and p'fect 
picture or portraiture of a faire gentlewoman w th a Frenchehood, edge and abilliment, w th all 
other apparell furniture Jewells omamentes and thinges in all respectes usuall, decent, and 
semely, for a gentlewoman. And y l they y e said Richard and Gabriell Roiley their execut' 
or assignes or some one of them shall and will devise worke and sett upp artificially in or on 
y e uttermost syde of y e said Tombe decent and usuall pictures of, or for, one sonne or (sic) 
two daughters of y e said Thomas Fermor w th their severall names of Baptism over or under y' 
said pictures, severally and orderly w th scutcheons in their handes, wherof y e said sonnc to h 
pictured in armour and as liveinge, and y e one of y e said daughters to be pictured in decent 
order and as liveinge, and y e other daughter to be pictured as dieinge in y e cradle or swathes, 
and y* they y e said Richard and Gabriell Roiley their execut' or assignes or some of them 
shall devise, engrave, worke and sett up artificially durably and substantially in, on, or about 
y e said Tombe fower sheildes or escutcheons, y e one thereof to conteyne and represent y e 
very trewe armes of ye said Thomas Fermor onely, the second y e trew arrucs of y e said 
Thomas Fermor w th the trewe armes of Fraunces y e firste wiffe of y e said Thomas, the third 
they trewe armes of y e said Thomas and Bridget his second wife, and the fouerth y e trewe 
aruies of yc said Bridgette onely. And y e same to be done in such places of y e said Tumbe 
as moste male serve for y e shewe and settinge forth of y e same Tombe ; and Further y' they 
y e said Richard and Gabriell their execut' or assignes or some of them, shall and will as well 
worke make ingrave and sett out w th good and convenable oiles golde and colours round about 
y e edge and creste of y e said Tumbe w th or in one rowe of great and faire gilte engraven 
letters, ye epitaph and sentence hereafter ensueing. That is to saie : 

Thomae Fermor armigero, viro animi magnitudine contra hostes, benificentia erga doctos, 
dementia et bonitate erga sues pietate erga omnes admirabili Domino huius territorii benignis- 
simo et novae scolae Fundatori optimo in p'petu' sui suaeq' coniugis Brigittae Feminse letissimse 
memoriam ex testamento executores sui hoc monumentum Rentes erexerunt. Obiit vero anno 
domini millesimo quingentesimo octogesimo, die augusti octavo. 

As also all y e and all manner of y e devisinge coloringe gildinge garnishinge workmanshippe 
cariage conveyinge settinge up and full finishinge of y e said Tumbe, and all other thinges 
whatsoever concerninge y e said Tumbe, shall bee all throughley at or by th'only perill paines 
travell costes and charges of y e said Richard and Gabriell their execut' admiuistrats' and 
assignes in all thinges and respectes, (Savinge and excepted) That y e said George Shirley his 
execut' and assignes w th in one month next after request to them or any of them to bee made 1 
by y e said Richard and Gabriell or either of them or the executs' or assignes of either of J 
them shall appointe find and send to Burton aflforesaid convenable and sufficient waines cartes I 
and cattle to drawe leade carye and bring all ye peeces and p'tes of y e said Tumbe and all < 
thinges therunto belongeinge and necessarie, to y e church of Sommerton afForcsaid, and also to J 
cause y e foundacion of y c said Tumbe to be made by a masonne, at y e costes and charges of y* jj 
said George Shirley his execut' and assignes. And the said George Shirley covenaunteth and '] 
graunteth for him his heires executs' administrats' and assignes and every of them, to and I 
with y e said Richard Roiley and Gabriell Roiley and either of them, and y e executs' and ] 
assignes of either of them, by these p'ntes, that he y e said George his execut' or assignes, for I 
and in consideration of all and singulery 6 former covenauntes grauntes and agreementes,by y* ] 
said Richard and Gabriell made as afforesaid by these p'nts, and for the said Tumbe to be well .1 
made and fully finished accordinge to y e trewe intente of these p'nts, shall and will well and 'j 
truly paie or cause to be paid to ye said Richard and Gabriell Roiley or to one of them, j 
or to y e executs' or assignes of either of them, y e full somme of Forty poundes of lawefull mony 
of England in manner and forme followinge. That is to saie, Five poundes w th iu eight dales 1 
next after th'ensealinge herof, other Five poundes w th in twenty dales then next after, tenne 
poundes at or before y e Feast daie of y e nativity of our Lord God next cominge after y e date 
herof, other at or before y e Feast of Ester there next after followinge, and other 
bein y e rest and residue of y e said Forty poundes at such tyme and when y e said Tumbe 
shalbe made and fully Finished accordinge to y e trewe entent of these p'nts. In Witnes '' 
wherof they p'ties First above named to these Indentures Interchaungeably and ether to ether 
have put their handes and scales, y daye and yeare First above written. 

Sealed and Delivered by y e w th in named Richard Roiley unto Thomas 
Poole to y e use of y e w th in named George Sherley y e xxvii daye of 
October in y e presence of Will'm Tortone and John Toplines and 
Thomas Nodine. 

at tfce J^Uetfngs of ifje Archaeological Institute. 

MARCH 7, 185.1. 
SIR JOHN BOILEAU, BART., Vice President, in the Chair. 

Mr. YATES read some Additional Remarks on the Roman Sulla, supple- 
mentary to his memoir on the discovery at Geldestone, Norfolk, given in a 
previous volume of the Journal. 1 He laid before the meeting, by the kind 
permission of Lady Fellows, the remarkable golden bulla, in her posses- 
sion, brought to this country by Dr. Middleton ; also another specimen of 
great interest, found near the road from Rome to Albano, and now belong- 
ing to Mr. Rogers. He produced also a rare specimen of antique glass, in 
the possession of Mr. Dilke, in which are pourtrayed a mother with her 
son, the latter wearing the bulla. 2 Mr. Yates' observations will be found 
in this volume. (See p. 166.) 

Professor BDCKMAN gave the following account of the results of recent 
excavations at Cirencester ; and exhibited an assemblage of curious relics 
there discovered. 

" During the last winter excavations have been made in that part of 
Corinium, known as Watermoor, during which many objects of interest 
have been brought to light, and I take the opportunity of laying before the 
Institute a portion of the relics in question, comprising those formed of 
metal. At the same time I wish to offer a few remarks upon the site, 
as well as some notes upon the specimens now exhibited. The excavation 
in question was made in constructing cellars for six new houses, now 
building, and as nearly as I can now state, it was of the following 
proportions. The length, about 100 feet width, 25 feet depth, 10 feet. 
On clearing away the earth for this space, it was found to consist entirely 
of shifted matter ; occasionally, however, a wall was found to traverse in 
Borne direction, made up of the usual materials of walls of Roman dwellings: 
these walls were too imperfect to enable us to make out any regular plan. 
The made ground was full of portions of fictilia, urns, amphorae (in abun- 
dance), ' Samiaii ' in great quantities, and many small earthen vessels, 
besides bricks, mostly flanged : all the pottery was much broken, but as 
the collection presented a great variety of form, and some remarkably fine 
specimens, which I have been enabled partially to repair, I purpose 
sending an account of these, when I can finish the necessary drawings. 
The pottery was intermixed with large quantities of oyster shells, and, with 
these, the shells of the mussel and whelk were occasionally found. Heaps 
of bones of the ox, deer, sheep, goat and boar, were also found at various 
parts of the diggings, whilst fragments of metal, pieces of metallic dross 
and slags, possibly from glass-making, formed a curious feature among 
these mingled materials. These were copiously interspersed with coins, of 
which I have nearly two hundred specimens, the descriptive details of 
which I shall hope to forward at another time. 

1 Archaeol. Journal, vol. vi. p. 10.0. formed at Winchester, during the Meeting 

2 This curious relic was exhibited by of the Institute in 1845. See Museum 
Mr. Dilke's kindness, in the Museum Catalogue, p. xxxix. 


" The more elaborate objects, now laid before tbe Institute, were exhumed I 

from the same spot, having been preserved from day to day as the men I 

proceeded with their work. Amongst these, one relic appears to be a I 

portion of a spear-head, and it is interesting from the paucity of remains of I 

a warlike description found at Corinium. I have also sent some other I 

examples of objects in iron, the purpose of which it is very difficult to p 

determine ; these, and nails in great variety, are all the specimens herq I 

discovered of that material. I would call attention to a group of five forms | 

of Armillce, of bronze, which are of interest as being found amidst such I 

mixed objects ; 3 those represented in the ' Remains of Roman Art ' were I 

obtained from the burial-ground of the Romans, beyond the western wall I 

of the Castrum. (See the Notice of that volume, Archaeological Journal, | 

vol. vii, p. 410.) Amongst the Fibulce occur some of well-known forms, I 

with others of less common type, one of them a specimen of the rare fashion, I 

well illustrated by that found at St. Albans. (Archaeol. Journal, vol. vii, I 

p. 399.) Another, of the bow-shaped type, is elegantly formed with three f 

distinct curved ribs. One, somewhat similar, with two ribs only, found on I 

the site of the Roman baths at York, was exhibited at a meeting of the I 

Institute by Mr. Whincopp. One of these ornaments is still quite perfect, I 

and might be employed for that same purpose for which it was originally ' 
formed, some centuries ago. Other objects appear to belong to the class 

of articles for the toilet, one of them probably an instrument for cleaning y 

the nails, in which the neat style of ornament and the stone of a green > 

colour, bearing some resemblance to malachite, on the top, aiford a good I 

example of the general care bestowed by the Romans in the construction of I 

minor objects and implements of this description. Amongst I 

the rings discovered, some are plain, and were perhaps I 

not finger rings ; one of those exhibited, however, was I 

undoubtedly for the finger, and probably was set with an I 

intaglio or gem of some kind. Another is ' penannular,' the 1 

tapered extremities being crossed, but not united, a mode of I 

construction which admitted of the expansion of the ornament I 

to fit any finger. There is also a Sulla or pendant of the I 

same character as that discovered at Reculver, and figured j 

by Battely (Antiq. Rutupinae, p. 129), noticed also and I 

copied by Mr. R. Smith, in the ' Antiquities of Richborougb,' ] 

pi. vii. p. 207. 4 The specimen now produced presents the I 

heart-shaped form, but it does not contain any cavity in 1 
which perfume or relics could be deposited. Its style of 

ornamentation is curious ; not being produced by engraving, j 
but by cutting away portions of the metal, which perhaps 
exposed the colour of the material to which it was fastened ; 
this indeed might have been the receptacle or reliquary, as 
Bronze implement. tnere ap p ear indications that this little object was originally 
of considerable thickness. There is an example of the ligula, 
of the usual form of Roman spoons with the pointed handle. In this 
example a small impressed ornament of concentric circles at intervals 
around the margin in the bowl of the spoon must not be overlooked, 

3 These armUlce bear much resemblance to those found in the rubbish-pit at Cadbury 
Camp, Devon. Archaeol. Journal, vol. v., p. 193. 

4 Compare other specimens. Montf. Antiq. t. iii., pi. 37. 


as it shows the attention bestowed by Roman artificers to prevent the 
appearance of baldness and poverty. 

" The same kind of ornament will be found on other objects here discovered, 
and is significant as showing that those specimens, so like the modern 
escutcheon with which key-holes are concealed, are in reality Roman, and 
may in all probability have been used for a like purpose by the Ancients, 
though as far as I am aware nothing of the kind has been noticed before. 
We cannot appeal to any examples of these objects in situ, so that the 
original intention remains a question of considerable obscurity. There 
have been found various other relics of bronze, fragments of ornaments, <fec., 
and with these a ring of lead ; other pieces of this metal were found, but 
what was their design or date we have no means of ascertaining. 

" Amongst the objects not formed of metal, there was one so peculiar, 
that I send it on the present occasion with those of a dissimilar kind. It. 
was brought by a workman who assured me that the orifice of the centre 
had a metal pin in it, which he foolishly was at great pains to remove ; it 
might possibly have been some kind of knob or handle. 

' Another singular relic, a large ring, is sent with this, though found with 
another of a similar kind in some other part of the camp, simply because 
it is made of a like substance. As to the nature of the material, I am at a 
loss to determine : it does not seem to be wood, as I had at first imagined ; 
it is perhaps a composition of vegetable and earthy matter, modelled some- 
what after the manner of certain objects of papier mache. I have not yet 
made an analysis of this, which I hope to do soon ; in the mean time I 
shall be glad of any notes as to the uses and composition of these articles. 
This ring is massive ; one side rather thicker than the other : its diameter 
3i inches ; it may have served as an armlet, or fastening of the 
mantle. 5 

. " With respect to the place were these relics were found, it may be 
further remarked, that the excavation into which the mixed Roman rubbish 
was scattered, appears to have been first used by the Romans as a place 
from whence to obtain gravel, since gravel of a fine quality occurred there 
for some depth, and a quantity had been evidently removed at some former 
period. The remains of walls may have been those of dwellings of an 
early kind, which afterwards became disused, and the space waa then made 
use of as a laystall or rubbish heap. This is confirmed by the position of 
the pottery, as although no article was found entire, yet diligent search 
enabled us to find most of the fragments, just as though a partially broken 
crock had been thrown away, and had become still more damaged by 
the fall. 

" We may thus account for the heterogeneous mass of Roman matters, in 
which the articles of domestic use and those of personal adornment had 
been swept away by negligence. The coins may have met the same fate, 
and as these are mostly the smaller brass (no silver ones having been found) 
this circumstance tends much to confirm this view of the subject. 

" At all events, the finding of so many curious relics in so circumscribed a 
space should give us great encouragement in following out the excavations 
we hope soon to be enabled to recommence. To this end the Institute should 
be made aware that we have permission to break ground and to carry on 

* A ring, precisely similar in fashion and size, found at Lincoln, and formed of 
shale, apparently, or jet of coarse quality, is in Mr. Trollope's Museum. 



extensive examinations, which will be done so soon as the small requisite fund 
we are collecting for the purpose shall have been sufficiently augmented, to 
enable us to carry out these interesting researches with effect." 

We hope on a future occasion to give representations of some other 
varied relics of antiquity lately brought to light at Cirencester, through 
Professor Buckman's well directed researches. 

MB. GREVILLE J. CHESTER communicated the discovery of several curious 
bronze relics, of the Roman period, some of which were exhibited to the 
meeting. They were recently found at Sutton Courtney, in Berkshire, 
near Abingdon, and consist of a bronze strigil, a small bronze bell, and 
fragments of bronze chain, composed of links of various sizes. This part 
of the county of Berkshire has produced a remarkable variety of ancient 
remains at different periods, and many of these relics have been collected 
by Mr. Jesse King, of Appleford, who kindly contributed a large series of 
objects of antiquity, British and Roman, exhibited in the museum formed 
during the meeting of the Institute at Oxford. The strigil is formed of 
very thin metal, coated with a patina of fine colour, but unfortunately the 
extremity of the hollow part of this implement has been broken off, the 
metal being excessively fragile, and it is impossible to say positively what 
might have been its form in its complete state. It is of very good work- 
manship, and some incised ornament*, designed with elegance, appear upon 
the handle, although much encrusted witn terugo. 6 

There are several examples of the form of the strigil in the British 
Museum, but it does not appear to have been frequently found in our 
country with Roman remains. This may indeed be mentioned as a singular 
circumstance, since so many discoveries of Roman baths and sudatories 
have been made in various parts of England. Battely, in describing one 
found at Reculver, in Kent, of which a representation may be seen in his 
44 Antiquitates Rutupina3," p. 115, speaks of it as the only one discovered, 
to his knowledge, in Britain. 7 A pair of bronze strigils formed part of the 
remarkable collection of objects of bronze, glass and pottery, one of the 
most interesting discoveries of Roman relics ever made in our country, 
namely, the sepulchral deposit brought to light in 1835 by the late 
Mr. Gage Rokewode, in one of the Bartlow Hills, Cambridgeshire. It is 
feared that these strigils perished in the conflagration of Lord Maynard's 
house in Essex : they were found deposited with a frame of a folding chair, 
of iron, probably a seat destined for use in the bath, and a little vessel of 
earthenware, or unguentary. These two strigils, of which representations 
are given in Mr. Rokewode 's Memoir in the " Archseologia," vol. xxvi., were 
precisely similar, in size and form ; and it might be conjectured from this 
that strigils were used, like brushes for the bath, in pairs ; the handles 
were formed, as those of some continental specimens, with a very narrow 
opening, too contracted for the fingers to be passed through it, but as if 
intended to receive a band, the use of which, Mr. Rokewode observes, might 
be to suspend the strigil to the wrist, when not actually in use. It is seen 
thus suspended on one of the Cauino vases. The strigil exhibited to the 
Society by Mr. Chester is so much damaged that it is not possible to assert 
that the ligula, or hollowed part, was recurved, usually its form ; it pro- 

The fragment, as now seen, measures in length, about Cj in. 
7 This strigil may now be seen in the Library, at Trinity College, Cambridge, with a 
few relics from Reculver. 


bably was so, as appears by comparison with one formerly preserved at the 
Library of St. Genevieve, at Paris. 8 

With the strigil were found, as already stated, several fragments of 
bronze chain, formed of links of various sizes, and to the smallest are 
apj>ended little pellets, forming a sort of tassel. It is to be regretted that 
these remains are in so fragmentary a state ; enough remains to show that 
they composed one of those scourges, called plunibatce tribulatce, or 
mammillatce, not often found in England. There is, however, in the 
Hon. Richard Neville's museum, one found at Chesterford, with Roman 
coins. A representation of it was given in the Journal in 1849. Another 
is figured in the " Archseologia," but it is not described as found in this 
country. These cruel scourges were used for the punishment of slaves, 
and by the Theodosian Code it was forbidden to punish a free-born person 
with the plumbatce. They were used in gladiatoral conflicts, in the worship 
of Cybele, and in the torture of Christian martyrs : sometimes small bones 
were attached to the chains, or dentated rings of bronze, to make the 
punishment more severe. 

In the fragments exhibited, found in Berkshire, it may be observed that 
the edges of the rings are sharp, and they are combined in pairs, giving 
greater flexibility, and rendering the lash more severe. It may deserve 
remark, that in a bas-relief published by Muratori, Cybele is seen striking 
a kind of drum or tambourine with a scourge of this kind. 9 

With these curious relics from Sutton, Mr. Chester exhibited two other 
ancient objects of bronze found in Norfolk, and laid before the Society by 
permission of Mr. Plowright, of Swaffham. One of these is a celt, deserving 
notice as being ornamented with engraved lines ; examples of celts thus 
ornamented have been of rather uncommon occurrence in England until 
lately, although frequently found in Ireland ; some very curious engraved 
celts have, however, been brought before the Institute by Mr. Brackstone 
and Mr. Dunoyer, found in Yorkshire and other parts of the North of 
England. 1 Mr. Plowright sent also a bronze hook, or falx, found in 
Norfolk. Implements of this kind are not uncommon in Ireland : they 
have sometimes been called reaping-hooks, although wholly unsuited for 
such a purpose. By other antiquaries it has been conjectured that they 
are the golden sickles with which the Druids, as supposed, used to cut 
mistletoe. Whatever may have been their use, it is worth remark that the 
active research of later years has brought to light in England many of the 
types of ancient remains, heretofore regarded as exclusively Irish. This 
is the second bronze falx communicated to the Institute within the last 
few months : the first was found in Cambridgeshire, and was exhibited by 
the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 2 It was unique in the peculiarity of 
being edged on one side, the inner side only that now shown resembled 
the ordinary form of the Irish implement of this description, and is sharpened 
on both edges. These hooked instruments do not appear to be known to 
the antiquaries of Northern Europe, nor are they to be found, as far as 
we are aware, in the remarkable museum at Copenhagen. 

M. PULSKI remarked that he had seen similar chains, but of larger size, 

8 Du Molinet, Cabinet de la Bibl. de S. de 5. Genev., p. 4, with pendants resem- 
Genevieve, p. 26. There is a strigil in the bling those of the Berkshire example. 
Museum of the Corporation of London, * See p. 91, ill this volume. 

found on the site of the Royal Exchange. 7 Archaeol. Journ., vol. vii. p , 302. 

9 See a specimen of the Plumbata, Cab. 


with pendant tags, found in Hungary, and that they had usually been con- 
sidered by archaeologists, in that part of Europe, as appendages of horse- 

MR. FREDERICK MANNING sent a notice of an ancient vessel of large size, 
discovered in May, 1848, deeply imbedded in the mud at Southampton. 
From peculiarities of construction, and other circumstances, it was affirmed 
by persons who examined the remains, that this vessel was of very ancient 
build, and the conjecture obtained credence, that it possibly had been 
a Roman galley. The station of Clausentum was not far distant ; some 
antiquaries, indeed, have placed the site at Southampton. 

Ma. WILLIAM F. VERNON, of Hilton Park, Staffordshire, gave the fol- 
lowing particulars relating to a curious bronze image, connected with the 
ancient manorial customs of his paternal property at that place, and still 
there preserved. This singular figure, which has been regarded by some 
antiquaries as an image of the German deity, Busterichus, was exhibited. 

" The earliest mention that I can find of Jack of Hilton, in the deeds at 
Hilton, is in a bill, entitled A Bill in the Court of Wards ' Petition to 
the R l Hou ble Lord Burghleigh, Lord highe Tresorer of England, M r of her 
M. highness' court of Ward and Lyveries. Gilbert Wakering, versus 
Townshend <fc others.' Sir Gilbert Wakering, it should be observed, was 
appointed by the Queen guardian of Margaret Vernon, 39 Eliz., 1596-7. 
Lord Burleigh died 1598. The age of this document may thus be very 
nearly ascertained. 

" This bill, after many complaints against the defendant, goes on to say 
" ' And whereas there hath beene belonginge to the cheafe capital mesuage 
of the manner of Hilton, aforesaid, being parcell of the warde's inheritance, 
tyme whereoff the memorie of man is not to the contrarie, an ancient 
statue, image, instrumente, or heir loome of brasse, of the fashion, pro- 
portion, and likeness of a boy, comonly called Jack of Hylton, which evrie 
yeare in the Cristmas tyme was accustomed to be placed in the hall of the 
manor house at Hilton aforesaid, where & when the teuante of the same 
manuor did and used to doe certayne servyces for the better retayninge of 
the same <k their tenures in memorie ; and the same statue, image, instru- 
ment, or heir loome, the said Henrie Vernon at the tyme of his diceace 
(21 June, 1592) did leave in the saide capitall mesuage of Hilton, meaning 
& intending that the same should come <k be unto his heirs and to the 
lawful owners of the said manner house of Hilton, yet so it is that the 
said Henrie Townshend and th 'other parties aforesaid, or some of them, or 
some other person by their or some one of their meanes, direction, or 
privitie, hath lately embezeled and deforced, and keepeth and detayneth 
the same statue, image, instrumente or heire loome, in a place farre 
distante from the said mannor of Hilton, and doe withholde the same from 
her Maj ties said warde, to the discontinuance of the services of the teuante of 
the said mannor of Hilton, and to the danger of the loss <fc utter extinguish- 
ment of the same services, contrarie to the meaning of the said lleurie 
Vernon, and against right, &c.' 

" I also find another petition in the Court of Wards from John Vernon, 
the ward's uncle, against Henry Townshend, dated 1598, and directed 
' To the right hon ble S r Robert Cyrell Deverax, of the most noble order of 
the Garter, knight, Earl of Essex &, Ewe, and M r of her Maj ties Court of 
Warde <fe Lyveries.' 

" ' In most humble manner shewetli, <tc., <fec., inter alia, that whereas 


there hath beene belonginge to the said manner of Hilton, tyme whereof 
the memorie of man is not to the contrarie, an ancient statue, image, 
instrument or heir loome, of brass, in proportion and lykness of a boy, 
comonly called Jack of Hylton, which comonly evrie yeare in the Christmas 
tyme was placed in the hall of the mannor house of Hilton, where the 
tenante that did holde of the said mannor did repaire and doe certain 
service for better contineuinge in memorie theire tenure & service belonging 
to the said mannor of Hilton, this statue & image Mr. Townshend since 
his intermarriage hath ymbezelled or deforced, to the great hindrance of the 
services appertaininge to the said mannor in tyme to come, whereby it 
seemeth the said Walter Heveningham <fc Henrie Townshend do all that 
in them is to spoyle, deface, <fc prejudice the said mannor of Hilton, &c., 
and your said orator humbly desireth, that it would please your honor to 
give order, that the said Henrie Townshend and Walter Heveningham be 
compelled to bringe and restore to the said mannor house of Hilton, the 
said statue, or image of brass, to be employed and used as heretofore, 
accordinge to the tenure of such tenants as hold of the said mannor, <fcc.' 

44 It thus appears, that the custody of Margaret Vernon was granted to 
Sir Henry Townshend, 41 Eliz., 1598-9. Sir Henry Townshend had 
married the ward's mother, the widow of Henry Vernon, in 1594. 

" The next account I find of Jack of Hilton, or rather of the service of 
the Goose, is from a Record in the Tower of London, headed a ' Bill of 
Reviver, Vernon <fe Uxor, versus Danie Eliz. Wakering, Jan. 1616. To 
the R l Hou ble Thomas Lord Ellesmere, <fcc.' From this I will give the 
following extract : 

" ' Sir Gilbert Wakering having purchased divers messuages, lands, and 
tenements, lying within the aforsaid manuor of Essington, in the said 
county of Stafford, certain of which said messuages, lands, and tenements, 
within the said mannor of Essington, were held of your said orator, as of 
the said manor of Essington, by fealty suit of court, and two shillings and 
seven pence yearlie rent, and by drivinge a goose, with three heads of 
garlicke about her neck, in the tyme of Christmas everie year round about 
the fyer in the hall of the mannor house of Hilton aforesaid, &c., &c.' 

" We now come to the only detailed account of Jack of Hilton and the 
service of the Goose, which is to be found in Plot's History of Staffordshire, 
published in 1680, page 433. He there says, 

44 4 There are many old customs in use within memorie, of whose originals 
I could find no tolerable account, such as the service due from the Lord of 
Essington to the Lord of Hilton, about a mile distant, viz., that the lord of 
the mannor of Essington, now one St. John, Esq., late Sir Gilbert Wake- 
ring, shall bring a goose every New Year's day, and drive it round the 
fire in the hall at Hilton, at least 3 times (wTiich he is bound to do as mean 
lord), whilst Jack of Hilton is blowing the fire. Now Jack of Hilton is a 
little hollow image of brass, of about 12 inches high, 3 kneeling upon his 
left knee, and holding his right hand upon his head, and his left upon his 
pego or his veretrum erected, having a little hole in the place of a mouth 
about the bigness of a great pin's head, and another in the back about 
f of an inch diameter, at which last hole it is filled with water, it holding 
about 4 pints and a quarter, which when set to a strong fire evaporates 
after the same manner as an seolipile, and vents itself at the smaller hole 

3 The weight of this figure is 8 Ib. 14 oz. 


at the mouth in a constant blast, blowing the fire so strongly that it is very 
audible, and makes a sensible impression in that part of the fire where the 
blast lights, so I found by experience, May 26, 1680. After the Lord of 
Essington or his deputy or bailiff has driven the goose round the fire at 
least 3 times, whilst the image blows it, he carries it into the kitchen of 
Hilton hall, and delivers it to the cook, who having dressed it, the Lord of 
Essington, or his bailiff, by way of further service, brings it to the table 
of the Lord paramount of Hilton and Essington, and receives a dish of meat 
from the said Lord of Hilton's table for his own mess. Which service was 
performed, about 50 years since (1630), by James Wilkinson, the bayliff of 
Sir Gilbert Wakering, the Lady Townshend being lady of the manor of 
Hilton, Thos. a Stokes <k John a Stokes, brothers, both living, having 
been present. ' 4 

" From 1635 (being the year of the death of Lady Townshend), I find by 
the court rolls at Hilton that this service was commuted for 8d. annually ; 
and this Sd. was regularly paid till 1704, when the whole of the land 
became the property of H. Vernon, Esq., of Hilton. The little image is 
now in possession of the lord of the manors of Hilton and Essington. 

"A bronze aeolipile, almost precisely similar, found near Basingstoke about 
1790, is now in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries. A represen- 
tation is given of it in the ' Archaeologia,' vol. xiii., pi. 27. A metal 
figure, almost precisely similar in fashion, was formerly preserved in a 
fortress of the Counts of Schwartzenberg, called Sender shausen, and is cited 
by Henninius, in his Notes on the Epistles of Tollius, as representing Bus- 
terichus. The resemblance is striking, the right hand is raised to the 
head, the right knee on the ground, the left hand resting on the thigh. 
This image had been kept at the ancient castle of Rottembourg.* A more 
accurate representation is given by Wagener ('Handbuch der Alterthiimer,' 
fig. 1138, text, p. 624). He describes it as the deity 'Pustrich,' and as 
found at Kelbra ; it is actually deposited in the Cabinet of Antiquities at 
Sondershausen in Upper Saxony." 

Whitaker, Mr. Vernon remarked, had considered that Jack of Hilton 
might represent the god Poust, the Priapus of the ancient Germans. 
M. PULSKI stated, that there was a similar idol known amongst the Scla- 
vonic tribes. The word " piist " signified puffing, or making a blowing 
noise with the mouth, a circumstance deserving consideration in connexion 
with the functions of Jack of Hilton. 8 

MR. NESBITT gave an account of a magnificent Sepulchral Brass, hitherto 
undescribed, existing in the cathedral of Cracow. It is the memorial of 
Frederic, son of Casimir, King of Poland, and Bishop of Cracow, 1488 
1503. An admirable rubbing of this grand example of early engraving 
was exhibited. 

Sntiguittaf antt SSatorltf 0f 

By M. PULSKI. A selection of drawings representing antique bronzes, 
of the classical period, preserved in the museum of his relative, M. Fejer- 
vary, in Hungary, which had already supplied so many interesting subjects 
of various periods, produced at previous meetings of the Institute. 

* This account is cited iu Blount's 6 Compare Pausten, busten, sufflarc, 

Jocular Tenures, p. 449. inflare buccas, paust, turgidus. buecis, 

6 See also Monti'. Antiq. Expl. t. ii. p\ist,follis. Wachter. 
p. 110, pt. 184. 


By MR. DECK, of Cambridge. A singular circular convex jibufa, of 
mixed metal, the face apparently silvered : the fastening of the acus, which 
was of iron, appears at the back. This curious specimen, here represented, 
was found at Streetway Hill, Little Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire : the form 
may have been suggested by that of the cetra, or small round target of 

Bronze fibula, found in Cambridgeshire. 
Orig. size. 

some barbarous nations. The fashion in which it is ornamented is very 
singular, the metal is pierced with four apertures, in form resembling 
short-handled hammers, and a single incised zigzag line runs round the 
margin. This ornament has been regarded as belonging to the Anglo- 
Saxon period. 

MR. HAWKINS exhibited, by the kind permission of WILLIAM WELLS, Esq., 
of Holme Lodge, Hunts, a remarkable collection of ancient plate and fictile 
vessels, found in the operations now in progress for draining Whittlesea Mere. 
They consisted of a beautiful silver thurible, with its chains, and the elaborate 
embattled, and crocketed ornaments in perfect preservation : its date may be 
fixed as circa 1350, weight about 50 oz. This unique specimen of English 
church-plate has supplied a subject for an admirable plate in Mr. Shaw's 
" Decorative Arts of the Middle Ages," recently completed. A silver 
navicula, or ship for incense, standing on a raised foot ; date, about the 
close of the fourteenth century. The two extremities of this boat-shaped 
receptacle are fashioned with rams' heads, issuing from an undee ornament, 
denoting the sea, and forming, possibly, a kind of rebus of the name 
Ramsey. It has been supposed, with much probability, that this plate had 
belonged to Ramsey Abbey, and was thrown into the Mere for concealment, 
at the Dissolution. The armorial bearing assigned to that monastery was 
Or, on a bend azure, three rams' heads couped, argent ; and Peck states, 
that one of the abbots took as the canting device of his seal, a ram in the 
sea. With these sacred vessels were also found some chargers and plates 
of pewter, stamped with a ram's head, and apparently of considerable age. 
The fictile vessels are remarkable for their perfect preservation, and the 
grotesque character of the ornaments. One of them, a vessel nearly 


globular, with one handle, and resembling a demijean, is of remarkable 
size, its height being 14 inches ; its circumference, 43 inches. About the 
neck are some traces of green glaze ; it is ornamented with patterns stamped 
in relief, fleurs-de-lys, cinque-foils, dragons, two birds picking at a 
branch, <fec. The date may be as early as 1280 1300. The others are 
large jugs, one of them well coated with green glaze, ornamented most 
grotesquely with human heads, having peaked beards ; the other with mottly 
glaze, the ornament consisting only of lines, or striae, lengthwise. The 
height of these remarkable specimens of medieval English pottery is 10i 
inches, and Hi inches respectively. The former vessel was rendered more 
curious by the occurrence of numerous small fresh-water shells (the Dreis- 
sena polymorpha) appended by their byssus to the surface of the ware. 
That species, it is stated, was introduced with timber, from the Volga, into 
some of the docks or harbours of the East coast, about twenty-five years 
since. It had made its way into several rivers, amongst others into the 
Nene, in Northamptonshire, and thence must have effected the transit to 
Whittlesea Mere. (See Turton's British Shells, ed. Gray, p. 301.) 

By the REV. C. R. MANNING. An enamelled pyx of the work of Limoges, 
ornamented with figures of angels and flowers, and surmounted by a cross. 
Date, twelfth century. A rosary, formed of twenty-four berries, of uniform 
size (diameter, f inch), precisely resembling the paternosters seen on 
sepulchral brasses, appended to the girdle of a merchant or civilian. Each 
berry is ornamented with a pattern of concentric circles. Date, probably 
the fifteenth century. 

By MR. FRANKS. A deep dish of Italian ware, of the kind known as 
Mezza- Majolica. The portrait of an abbot is delineated upon it. The 
design is carefully executed in blue and yellow, the latter colour having a 
splendid mother-o'-pearl lustre. On the reverse is hastily sketched a 
flower-pot, probably the mark of the artist. This interesting example 
appears to have been fabricated at Pesaro, during the latter half of the 
fifteenth century. Also, four tiles, portions of the pavement of the Chateau 
d'Ecouen, near Paris, made by Bernard Palissy for the Constable Anne de 
Montmoreucy. The history of this decoration has not been accurately ascer- 
tained ; some would question the supposition that it was the work of that 
remarkable artist, who styled himself, " ouvrier de terre, inventeur de 
rustiques figulines du roi et monseigneur le due de Montmorency." They 
were originally, in great part, mural revetements, and suffered much at 
various times. Considerable remains may still be seen in the chapel and 
one of the great halls at Ecouen, displaying singular elegance of design. 

Mr. Franks laid also before the meeting some fragments of stone, coated 
with a vitrified crust of considerable thickness, found in a field, called the 
Abbot's Moor-field, near Ellesmere, Salop. 

By MR. WEBB. A magnificent example of the enamelled pictures pro- 
duced by the artists of Limoges, in the latter half of the sixteenth century. 
This plate is of unusual dimensions, and the subject, representing the 
Crucifixion, exhibits great pictorial effect and skilful grouping. It has 
subsequently been purchased for the series in course of formation at the 
British Museum. 

By MR. OCTAVIUS MORGAN, M.P. A double-salt of silver, parcel-gilt, of 
curious fashion, in three portions or stages ; the lowest, supported on three 
balls, has a small basin or cavity, as usual in ancient salts. Upon this a 
second portion fits as a cover, at the top of which is a similar cavity of 


smaller size ; and this again is covered by a semi-globular lid, upon which 
is screwed a gilt ball, as a finial, pierced with holes like the top of a caster. 
There is no opening, however, from the lower part into this ball. The 
height of the whole is 1\ inches. It appears probable that this pyramidal 
arrangement was intended to receive several kinds of condiment. The date 
of fabrication, as Mr. Morgan stated, appears to be 1598 ; the year mark 
is the florid capital A. The other stamps are the lion passant leopard's 
head crowned and two crescents, one within the other. The exterior is 
ornamented with bands and foliated patterns engraved. This piece of plate 
appears to be identical with the object bequeathed, in 1596, by John 
Stafford, described as a " double salt, with a pepper-box at the end." 7 A 
similar salt, found concealed in the earth at Woodhouse, near Ashton, 
Lancashire, was exhibited in the museum of the Institute at the York 
meeting ; and a third, in their museum at the Norwich Meeting. A similar 
piece of plate is described, Gent. Mag. vol. xxiii., p. 136. 

By MR. BRACKSTONE. A numerous 
collection of arrow-heads of silex, 
found in Ireland, chiefly near Armagh, 
with one having very long barbs, 
described as of basalt, found in the 
county of Antrim. This selection 
served admirably as an illustration of 
the progressive varieties in form, pre- 
sented by these primeval weapons, as 
set forth in Mr. Dunoyer's remarks 
on their classification. 8 The chief 
variations in type were one of lozenge 
brm, from Armagh (compare Dunoyer, 
ig. 9), much broader and less elon- 
gated in proportion than that there 
ijivcn ; and a remarkable rectangular Lozenge-shaped object, ofsiiex, found in Ireland. 
specimen, of which a representation Orig.size. 

is here given ; this, as far as we are aware, is unique. One side, as 
usually the case in objects of this nature, is much flatter than the other ; 
it is most skilfully fabricated of horn-coloured silcx. Also, a remarkable 
issemblage of bronze celts, of various rare types ; one of them elaborately 
3ngraved with herring-bone and zig-zag ornaments ; another with the sides 
liagonally grooved. These curious specimens had been recently obtained 
n Ireland. 

By MR. BERNHARD SMITH. A bronze spear-head, formed with a socket 
X) receive the haft, to which it was affixed by a lateral rivet. It was found, 
tfith a considerable deposit of broken weapons of bronze, in 1835, on the 
louth-east side of the Wrekin, Shropshire, near some sepulchral mounds at 
he Willow Farm, on the road from Wellington to Little Wenlock. A 
ingle celt, and a few whetstones, lay wHh the heap. The various forms of 
hese spear-heads are shosvn in Mr. Hartshorne's " Salopia Antiqua," p. 96. 
[4io example exhibited measured nearly 8 inches in length, the greatest 
>readth of the blade being 1^ inch. Also, a fine sword of Spanish work- 
uanship, the hilt and pomel of which is chased most elaborately, out of the 

7 Coll. Top. and Geneal., vol. i. p. 144. s Archaeol. Journal, vol. vii., p. 283. 



solid steel, representing numerous figures of mounted warriors, <kc., grouped I 
together, in high relief. 

By SIB JOHN BOILEAU, Bart. An interesting brace of Highland fire- | 
lock tacks, the butts precisely similar to those of a specimen of the time of 
George II., in the Goodrich Court Armory. (Skelton's Illustrations, vol. ii., 
pi. 122, fig. 3.) The stocks and barrels are elaborately inlaid with silver. I 
These arms appear to have belonged to John, the great Duke of Argyll, so 
distinguished by his military services under the Duke of Marl borough, and 
general of the forces in Scotland, in 1712. He died in 1743. On the 
lock is inscribed John Campbell. On one side the arms of Campbell, 
quarterly with the galley of Lorn, within the garter. The duke was 
invested with that order in 1710. On the other side appear St. Andrew's 
cross and the thistle. On the barrels is introduced the crest, the boar's 
head, within a garter, inscribed Nemo me impune lacessit ; and, above, the 
Campbell motto, Ne Obliviscaris. 

APRIL 4, 1851. 
SIB JOHN BOILEAU, Bart., Vice President, in the Chair. 

A short memoir was read, which had been prepared by the late 
DB. BROMET, during his tour on the Continent shortly previous to his 
decease. It related to antique chariot-wheels, of bronze, preserved in the 
museum at Toulouse. (See page 163.) 

M. PULSKI stated that he had seen two pair of antique chariot-wheels 
of bronze, in the course of his researches. One of these is no\v in tho 
museum of the Prince Esterhazy, in Transylvania ; each wheel has four 
spokes, which are hollow. The others, discovered in Hungary, are now at 
Pesth ; these last are of great weight, too ponderous for use on any ordinary 
roads : each wheel has four massive spokes. Those in the Vatican, like- 
wise, are of solid bronze and great weight. It may seem probable that 
these are the remains of votive chariots, or of chariots placed amongst the 
decorations of a trophy or triumphal arch, and are not to be regarded as 
portions of any car actually used in ancient times. 

MR. W. SIDNEY GIBSON, local secretary at Newcastle, communicated the 
results of his recent correspondence with Mr. Kearney, the proprietor of the 
Roman station of Lanchester, county of Durham, supposed by Horsley to be 
the Glanoventa of the Itinerary, 9 relating to the reported demolition of 
certain remains at that place. Mr. Gibson deemed it advisable to address 
a courteous remonstrance, having received information that a great portion 
of the rampart had lately been removed, and the materials employed in the 
construction of farm buildings. He took occasion to appeal, on behalf of 
the Institute and of antiquaries in general, against any injury to remains 
regarded by many with great interest, as monuments of a national character, 
To his arguments so suitably advanced, Mr. Kearney had, with much good 
feeling, replied, giving this gratifying and satisfactory assurance of his 
conservative intentions : 

" I beg to thank you for the politeness and delicacy with which you allude 
to my removing some stones from the Roman station. It is true, that 
having a great deal of building at the ' the Ford,' I had some cart loads of 

9 See Britannia Romana, p. 450. 


-etones taken from the old wall, the interior of which only remained, the 
facings having been long since removed. I took particular care that 
nothing should be disturbed which seemed to me to be of the slightest 
interest. I have opened a quarry since then, at very great expense, which 
I might have avoided had I been as regardless of those monuments as I fear 
I may get credit for. I assure you that not one stone shall be ever removed 
during my occupancy ; and I very much regret having touched any of the 
old walls, if, by doing so, I have rendered them lees interesting to yourself, 
or to the members of the Institute." 

MR. JOSEPH MOORE, of Lincoln, communicated the following notice of the 
examination of a supposed tumulus, in Lincolnshire, which he had under- 
taken, in order to ascertain whether it were of a sepulchral character : 
" Broughton, a parish in the north part of the division of Lindsey, is known 
to archseologists as connected with the singular custom of the Gad Whip, 
an account of which will be found in the Journal of the Institute, vol. vi., 
p. 239. It is a large parish, situate on the Roman way extending from 
I Lincoln to the Humber, at the distance of about nine miles from the latter, 
and twenty-two miles from the former. Horsley considers it to have been 
the Praetorium, mentioned in the first Iter of Antonine, and the Presidium 
of the Notitia. 

" Mr. De la Pryme, in describing this way (Philos. Trans., No. 203), 
i refers to a hill close to the town of Broughton, which he supposed to be a 
Barrow, and from which he conjectured the name to have been originally 
Barrow-ton. In Domesday it is written Bertone, and in Pope Nicolas's 
Taxation (1291) Berghton. In later times the name is written Braughton, 
which agrees with the present pronunciation, and appears to support 
Mr. De la Pryme's conjecture. 

" The desire to certify the real nature of the tumulus, and the circumstance 
that it is called by the country people, ' the Barrow Hill,' suggesting the 
probability of its containing some Roman or other remains, led me to direct 
an excavation to be made, with the view of ascertaining its structure or 
[contents ; this operation, from the size of the hill, was attended with con- 
Isiderable trouble. It may seem desirable to place on record the result of 
[this investigation, although of a negative character, since the total absence 
[of antiquities or relics of any kind has deprived this hill of the interest its 
[appearance and situation was calculated to excite, and refuted the popular 
aotion of its artificial character, to which antiquaries had sometimes been 
rilling to give credence. We are reluctantly obliged to consider it as a 
lere sand hill. There being, as Stukeley observes, ' at Broughton, a 
sin of deep sand well planted with conies.' 1 There is a tradition among 
jthe old inhabitants, that the hill was formed for the purposes of war ; but, 
used as what Horsley calls an ' exploratory mount, ' some vestiges would 
lost probably have been found during the recent excavation, tending to 
show that it had served such a purpose. The term Barrow, from which it 
has been supposed that the town was named, must therefore, if that deriva- 
tion is accepted, be considered as signifying merely a hill." 

It does not appear that any other barrows or tumuli were known or 
supposed to exist in Broughton, with the exception of the one alluded to, 

1 Camden says : " At Broughton are The Roman remains, fossil fish, and petri- 
loman remains, with fossil fish, and near fying spring no longer exist, 
lis a petrifying spring and a barrow." 


until Mr. Joseph Moore, being the owner of an estate in that parish, drew 
the attention of Mr. Trollope to several mounds lying at the distance of about 
half a mile eastward of the Roman way. Of their subsequent researches, 
and the excavations carried out through Mr. Moore's liberal desire to 
throw light upon the early remains in this district, a detailed account will 
be given on a future occasion. 

The REV. JAMES GRAVES communicated the following notice of a little 
earthen vessel, found in Ireland, differing from the smaller British fictilia 
of the earlier period, in the pointed form of its base, which is so fashioned 
that, like the rhytium of the classical period, or the foxes '-head drinking cups 
of modern times, these cups could not stand erect. A similar fashion 
appears in certain glass drinking vessels attributed to the Anglo Saxon 
period. 2 

" The Urn, of which I forward a drawing, and which is at present 
deposited in the museum of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, was 
found in the year 1850 on the lands of Mayhora, near Castlecomer, in the 
county of Kilkenny, by some workmen employed in quarrying stones. On 
clearing off the superincumbent earth, they laid open a small circular cist 
built of dry stones resting on a flag about two feet square ; another flag 
covered the cist at top, on removing which, there appeared an earthen 
cylinder without a bottom ; within this the small and curiously moulded 
urn, represented in the drawing, rested on its mouth. Around it, and 
within the cylinder were many small calcined fragments of bones ; a 
quantity of these was also found outside the cist. On removing the larger 
vessel it was unfortunately broken, and only one of the fragments preserved ; 
this, which I have represented with the urn, exhibits a rudely indented 
chevron ornament. The smaller urn is composed of hard grey or ash- 
coloured ware, and exhibits considerable elegance of mould. This peculiar 
type, tapering so much toward the bottom, seems peculiar to Ireland, The 
urn in question bears a cluse resemblance, Jboth in size and shape, to the 
small urn found near Bagnalstown, county of Carlow, and figured in the 
proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. (Vol. iv., p. 36.) Urns of 
this form seem intended to have been placed inverted, perhaps over the 
ashes of the heart, and within larger vessels containing the other relics 
of the body. The fragment of the larger and outer urn is of red imper- 
fectly-baked ware, and very rude manufacture. The bones found within 
it comprised fragments of the rib of an adult, with the phalangial bones of 
a child, and had all been subjected to cremation. The accompanying 
representations are of the full size of the originals." 

MR. T. HUDSON TURNER communicated some additional observations, on 
the subject of the negotiations between Edward I. and the Moghul 
Sovereign of Persia (see p. 45, in this volume). He observed that when 
he read the memoir, at a previous meeting, he was not aware that any 
other researches had been instituted, in relation to that interesting 
historical incident. His attention had since been called to the fact that 
Mr. Meadows, in an article in the Chinese Repertory, had pointed out the 
existence of two original letters in the Mongolian language, in the National 
Library at Paris, addressed by Arghun to the King of France, at the same 
time that he was corresponding with the King of England. 3 These 
letters, translated by Mr. Meadows, prove very satisfactorily that it was 

2 Douglas, Nenia, pi. 4, 10, 16, 17. 3 See note, ante, p. 48. 


the desire of the Moghul ruler that the French, and by inference the 
English Prince should unite with him in a general attack upon the 

MR. NESBITT read a further notice of sepulchral brasses on the continent, 
hitherto undescribed, and produced rubbings of some splendid memorials 
existing in the cathedral of Breslau, one of them representing Peter, second 
Bishop of Breslau, of that name ; he died in 1456. Another brass, of 
great beauty of execution, commemorates Bishop Rudolph, who died 
in 1482. 

MB. EDWARD RICHARDSON gave the following notice of the restoration 
of a statue which fell from its niche at Wells Cathedral, in August, 

" Having been in communication with Mr. Markland, of Bath, as to the 
practicability of putting together the fallen statue, the opinion being strongly 
against the attempt, 1 proceeded to Wells, examined the various fragments, 
and considered the course to be pursued. 

"The statue is in Daulting- stone, 8 feet 6 inches high, in a sitting 
attitude ; it is of the time of John or early Henry III., and finely executed. 

" To render it lighter for raising, it had been cored out from behind ; this 
had so weakened the lower part of the statue, that, assisted by natural 
decay, it divided there, and the whole upper part was thrust outwards, and 
falling from the height of about 60 feet, was broken into numerous frag- 
ments. The head, which is full of fine character, had originally been 
fractured, and bolted together with lead ; these massive bolts running from 
the forehead to the back of the neck were torn asunder by the fall ; a 
third fragment with part of the beard was afterwards recovered from the 
niche, with remains of the plinth. 

" Great difficulty was found in fitting the pieces of the statue together, and 
in several instances the intervening piece was wanting ; as any two pieces 
were found to fit they were bedded together, and cramped or bolted. 
After a time the prostrate statue resolved itself into three parts ; the 
head ; part of the nose, and points of the crown alone being wanting ; the 
trunk, to the waist-girdle ; the left shoulder, arms from elbow, hands, and 
centre drapery wanting ; and the lower part, consisting chiefly of the thigh 
and leg pieces, finely draped ; the centre part, with feet and whole of 
plinth being wanting. These various parts were modelled, and afterwards 
carved in Daulting-stone and attached with cement, cramped and bolted, 
and a new plinth substituted of sufficient extent to serve also as a stay for 
the limbs and back support. The minor fractures were made good in a 
durable stone-cement. From 50 to 100 cramps and bolts were required. 
The new parts were turned down and left cross-dragged. The new base 
enables the statue to stand erect without support, so that when replaced, 
cramping will scarcely be necessary. As in the putting together, the 
figure grew as it were in two nearly equal parts, it was thought safer for 
raising to leave them detached, and the joint being at the waist-belt will 
be unseen when fixed. The weight of the lower piece is upwards of half 
a ton ; the tipper piece about a quarter. 

" Carter, who has but slightly illustrated the whole of the beautiful series 
of statues of the west front, represents the statue with arms and other parts 
wanting. A deed or charter as I suppose depended from the right knee 
on which the right hand rests ; the left holds the mantle-fastening. There 
appear to be two under-garments, the outer one sleeved to the elbow, and 


girded by the waist-belt and buckle. The figure sits in a chair or throne, 
and has the left foot raised on a stool, giving a pleasing and natural variety 
of line to the lower part of the composition. It has less energy but more 
solemn grandeur than its companion figure on the opposite pier. 

" With the exception of the apostles these two statues are larger than any 
others on the building. Tradition or modern conjecture suppose it to repre- 
sent Edward the Saxon, son of Alfred. That it represented a royal 
benefactor to the church thei-e can be no doubt. The greatest interest was 
evinced, and every kind attention shown during the work by the Bishop, 
the Dean, Archdeacon Brymer, and other authorities. For the restoration of 
the statue we are indebted to Mr. Markland, who, when the restoration 
seemed hopeless, offered funds for the attempt, and was nobly supported 
by the Archdeacon, who kindly furnished labour and materials. It is 
much to be regretted that accurate drawings to scale have not been made 
from these fine statues ; every year adds to the risk of similar accidents to 
that above recorded, and many are the statues and subjects in relief which 
have already disappeared. In character and detail they are as fine and as 
carefully executed as any of our early monumental effigies." 

The REV. EDWARD CUTTS exhibited an interesting series of drawings, 
accompanied by the following letter : 

" Through the kindness of the Rev. James Bell, of Doncaster, I have 
the pleasure of sending some drawings, which I think may be interesting 
to the Society : 

" A few weeks ago a crypt was opened under one of the side chapels of 
Doncaster church, the interior of this crypt is represented in the drawing : 
the vault is about 18 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 9 feet high. On removing 
the paving-stones at the entrance to the church-door, a round well or shaft 
is disclosed, which must be descended by a ladder, and then a few steps 
lead to the door of the crypt, which is seen on the left side of the drawing. 
At the end of the vault is a trefoil headed window, which appears to have 
opened into the churchyard, before the ground was raised so as to conceal 
it. Beyond the second rib is an opening in the roof, which appears to 
have been constructed for the purpose of throwing down the bones which 
now lie in the vault. 

" The vaulting rests on moulded ribs ; and one very interesting feature 
of the discovery is, that several fragments of ancient grave stones are 
worked up in the vaulting. 

" The style of this crypt is clearly early in the Early English period ; 
the moulding of one of the vaulting ribs very much resembles in character 
a moulding at Glee church, Lincolnshire a church which has a dedication 
stone, giving us its date, 1192, A.D. This then may probably be about the 
date of this crypt ; and therefore none of the monumental stones used in 
the vaulting can be of later date. It is not unusual to find monumental 
stones thus used up in the fabric of churches, for instance at Bakewell, in 
many of the churches of Jersey, kc. The series here disclosed presents 
several very beautiful designs, but only one novel one, viz., a ship (see 
woodcuts). I should think that none of the slabs, two only excepted, which 
may be rather more ancient, are much earlier than our limiting date, 1192 ; 
indeed I should have been inclined to think some of them of even a later 

" On one, in addition to a very beautiful cross, we have the very 
common emblem of the shears, whose meaning appears yet undetermined. 


Sepulchral Slab, representing a Ship. 

Crypt, discovered under one 01 the side chapels. 




It has been suggested 4 that the broad-pointed shears, which we often find, 
were probably the symbols of a wool-stapler, while the sharp-pointed ones, 
like the present example, may have been the symbol of a woman. I may 
mention, in correction of the first part of this idea, that in the Add. MS., 
10,293, Brit. Mus., of the fourteenth cent, at f. 5, is a representation of 
an abbess cutting off the hair of a queen with broad-pointed shears ; and 
they occur again at f. 261. I may mention too, regarding shears, that in 
the Royal MS., 16. G. 6., Brit. Mus., date 1270, scissors of the ordinary 
modern shape appear at f. 157, and again at f. 158 ; and that scissors of 
similar shape appear, as a symbol, on an incised cross slab, at Bilbrough, 
Notts. On one of the Doncaster slabs we find what appears to be the head 
of a staff, possibly a pilgrim's staff, though, in such case, one would expect 
the scrip to accompany it. A pilgrim's staff of similar form appears on 
a slab at Haltwhistle, Northumberland. In the MS. before mentioned 
(Royal, 16. G. 6) at f. 172, is a palmer whose staff is shaped with a knob at 
the upper end, and another knob somewhat lower down (like the handle of a 
whip). On another of the fragments we find what appears to be a mechanic's 
implement (see cut), probably the symbol of a carpenter or a mason." 

Ma. HENRY SHAW gave the following account of a remarkable object of 
sacred use, exhibited to the Meeting : 

" By the kind permission of Mr. Magniac (to whom it now belongs) I 
have the pleasure of sending you, for the Society's exhibition to-day, a very 
beautiful relic, which has proved an enigma to many learned antiquaries. It 
was bought by Mr. Webb at the recent sale of the choice and valuable 
collection of Mons. Dugue, in Paris. 

" In the sale catalogue it is called a double episcopal crozier. This, 
however, appears to be a mistake, though a very natural one ; as this 
specimen, if not unique, is certainly a very rare example of its particular 
class. On sending a tracing of it to the Rev. Dr. Rock (whose authority 
in such matters is entitled to the highest respect) he informs me it is not 
the pastoral staff of a bishop, but what is termed ' the ruler of the choir's 
staff,' which is thus described in his recent work, The Church of our 
Fathers, as seen in Saint Osmond's rito for the Cathedral of Salisbury. 

' The ruler of the choir's staff quite differed from the true pastoral 
staff, both with regard to shape and emblematic signification. The 
' rectores chori,' or rulers of the choir, who were few or many, according 
to the solemnity of the festival, but always arrayed in alb and cope, and 
often having the precentor at their head, directed the singing of the choir 
all through the many parts of the divine service at Matins, at Mass, at 
Even-song. As they arose from their stools, or went down from their stalls 
to cluster around the large brazen eagle, upon the outstretched wings of which 
lay open the heavy Grail, or widely- spreading Antiphoner from the noted 
and illuminated leaves of which they were chanting ; or as they walked to 
and fro, giving out to each high canon in his turn the anthem to be sung, 
these rulers of the choir bore in their hand a staff, sometimes beauti- 
fully adorned and made of silver, ending, not with a crook, but a short 
cross-beam, which carried some enrichment, elaborately wrought and richly 

" Dr. Rock adds, in a note, ' The enamelling, the imagery, the lace- 
like tabernacle work, bestowed especially upon the head of the English 

4 In the Manual for the Study of Sepulchral Crosses, &c. 


staff, for the rector of the choir, may be almost seen from the description 
of the ' Baculi pro chori regentibus,' set down in the list of plunder carried 
off by Henry VIII. from Lincoln Cathedral. Imprimis, a staff covered with 
silver and gilt, with one image of our lady graven in silver at one end, and 
an image of St. Hugh on the other end ; and having a boss, six-squared, 
with twelve images enamelled, having six buttresses, wanting one pinnacle 
and two tops. Item, two other staves, covered with silver and gilt, having 
an image of our lady, and a chanon kneeling before her at every end, with 
this scripture, ' Pro nobis ora,' &c. ; having also one knop, with six but- 
tresses, and six windows in the midst, one of them wanting a pinnacle, with 
this scripture about the staff, ' Benedictus Deus in donis suis.' Item, two 
other staves, covered with silver parcel gilt, having a knop in the midst, 
having six buttresses, and six windows in every staff, gilt, wanting one 
round silver plate of one crouches end. (Dugdale, Mon. Anglic, t. viii., 
p. 1281.) From these, and other descriptions, it would appear that the 
head of the staff was made like St. Anthony's cross, or the capital letter, "]" 
Upon the top of this were set the images.' 

" In the Dugue Catalogue the figure on the top of this beautiful staff is 
called St. Michael. This appears to be a mistake, as the head is clearly 
that of a female. It is, most probably, St. Margaret, one of the saints 
whose symbol was a dragon, and bore a spear and cross. The figures in 
the volutes are St. Valeria, virgin and martyr, A.D. 250, who is said to 
have brought her head to St. Martial while he was saying mass. 

" From the general character of the design, the date of this interesting 
relic may, I presume, be placed about the end of the twelfth century." 

A representation of this very curious staff has since been given by 
Mr. Shaw, in his beautiful work, recently completed, " The Decorative 
Arts of the Middle Ages." MR. NESBITT observed that there is one of 
similar form in the Treasury of Cologne Cathedral. 

MB. AUGUSTUS FRANKS read the following interesting document, hitherto 
unpublished, in relation to the early manufacture of porcelain at Stratford- 
le-Bow, in Essex. In classifying the miscellaneous collections at the British 
Museum, with a view to their more suitable arrangement in the " British 
room," now completed, Mr. Franks had found a curious bowl, richly decorated, 
a chef d'oeuvre of the fabrication of Stratford-le-Bow, as appeared by the 
following memorial, affixed in the box in which it had been preserved. 5 

" This Bowl was made at Bow China Manufactory, at Stratford le-Bow, 
in the County of Essex, about the year 1760, and painted there by [me] 
Thomas Craft, my Cypher is in the Bottom ; it is painted in what we used 
to call the old Japan Taste, a taste at that time much esteemed by the 
then Duke of Argyle ; there is nearly 2 penny weight of gold : about 15 s . 
I had it in hand at different times about three months, about 2 weeks time 
was bestowed upon it, it could not have been manufactured, <kc. for less 
than 4c. There is not its similitude ; I took it in a box to Kentish town, 
and had it burned there in Mr. Gyles' kiln ; cost me 3 s . ; it was cracked 
the first time of using it ; Miss Nancy sha, (sic) a Daughter of the late 
S r . Patrick Blake, was christened with it, I never use it but in particular 
respect to my Compan}', and I desire my Legatee (as mentioned in my will) 
may do the same. Perhaps it may [be] thought I have said too much about 
this trifling Toy ; a reflection steals in upon my Mind, that this said Bowl 

5 This bowl measures, in diam. 8| in. 


may meet with the same fate that the Manufactory where it was made has 
done ; and like the famous Cities of Troy, Carthage, &c. and similar to 
Shakspear's Cloud-cap't Towers <fec. The above Manufactory was carried 
on many years, under the firm of Mes rs Crowther and Weatherby, whose 
names were known almost over the World ; they employed 300 Persons ; 
about 90 Painters (of whom I was one), and about 200 Turners, Throwers 
<fcc. were employed under one Roof : the Model of the Building was taken 
from that at Canton in China ; the whole was heated by 2 Stoves on the 
outside of the Building, and conveyed through Flews or Pipes and warmed 
the whole, sometimes to an intense heat, unbarable in Winter ; it now 
wears a miserable aspect, being a Manufactory for Turpentine, and small 
Tenements and like Shakespear's Baseless Fabric of a Vision, <kc. Mr. 
Weatherby has been dead many years. Mr. Crowther is in Morden College, 
Blackheath, and I am the only Person of all those employed there who 
annually visit him. T. Craft, 1790." 

antiquities atrtr a2S0rfctf at <8vt eyfiflntrtf. 

By MR. FRANKS. Fragments of " Samian " ware, found at Bittern, 
Hampshire, near Southampton, the supposed site of Clausentum. They 
have subsequently been presented to the British Museum. The ornaments 
in relief are of unusually good design. Two marks occur OP . si . . . 
( Officina Nigri, a mark commonly found in London) and MANN the latter 
in large letters upon a little compartment in relief. On the former is a 
figure of a panther, identical with that on a Samian fragment, found in 
one of the Roman shafts at Ewell. Numerous Roman remains have been 
discovered at Bittern, of which an account was given by Sir H. Englefield, 
in his " Walk through Southampton." 6 

By MR. J. Y. AKERMAN, Seer. Soc. Ant A Daguerrotype representation 
of two Roman urns and a wooden situla, found in the rubbish-pit at Stone, 
co. Bucks (see ante, p. 95). A more full report of the discoveries there 
made has been given by Mr. Akerman in the Archaeologia, vol. xxxiv. 

By the REV. W. COPPARD. A facsimile of the inscription and interlaced 
ribbon ornament existing upon a sculptured stone at St. Cleer, in Cornwall, 
of which a representation is given by Borlase (Antiqu. of Cornw., pi. 36, 
p. 396), with a dissertation at some length. It has been supposed to bear 
the name of Doniert, or Dungerth, King of Cornwall, who was drowned 
about the year 872. The inscription was thus read by Mr. Westwood, 
who considered the characters as early, possibly, as the seventh century 
DONIERT ROGAUIT PRO ANIMA. This ancient monument is noticed by Lysons. 
(Hist, of Cornw. p. ccxxii.) It is described as lying upon a tumulus, near 
the base of an ancient cross, called " the other half-stone," from a notion 
that it was part of an inscribed stone, which lies by the road between 
Fowey and Lostwithiel. 7 

By the HON. RICHARD NEVILLE. Several relics of gold and silver, dis- 
covered in Ireland, recently acquired at the sale of the Collections of the 
Rev. Dr. Neligan, of co. Cork. They consisted of a penannular tore-ring, 
found at Cove, New Queenstown, co. Cork. It closely resembles the 
African ring, presented to the museum of the Numismatic Society by 

6 Republished, with additions by Mr. nients here noticed were presented to the 

Bullar, in the Edition of 1841. See also Brit. Mus. by Mrs. Stewart M'Naughten. 

Mr. Roach Smith's Memoir, Trans. Arch. 7 A notice of the stone bearing the name 

Assoc. at Winchester, p. 161. The frag- of Doniert was given in Gent. Mag. Ifi07. 



Mr. Dickinson, figured in -the Archaeol. Journal, vol. vi., p. 58, no. 10. 
It is rather more massive, and weighs 7 dwt. 10 grs. An armilla of gold, 
weighing 10 dwt. 22\ grs. found at Kanturk, co. Cork. It is a plain band, 
about a sixth of an inch wide, witli the extremities looped. The silver 
ornaments consisted of an armilla, or bangle, a rudely hammered flat bar ; 
and another, ingeniously formed so as to expand readily for the convenience 
of the wearer ; each extremity terminates in a spiral twist, through which 
the other extremity is passed. This was found at Macroom Castle. 

By M. PCLSKI. A massive object of gold, found in Hungary, in form 
resembling the head of an axe, and apparently intended to be affixed to a 
haft. Several similar relics of unknown date have been found in that 
country. Weight, about 39 oz. 

By MR. OCTAVIUS MORGAN, M.P. A papal ring and four massive epis- 
copal rings ; the latter display armorial bearings, which have not hitherto 
been appropriated. A steel shuttle, for ladies' work, very elegantly 
damascened with silver and gold ; and another curious specimen of metal- 
work, a folding knife and fork in an etui of engraved steel. An interesting 
production of turnery, consisting of three separate rings, loosely inter- 
twisted with one another, turned out of one solid piece of ivory, without 
join. Persons of the highest skill in the use of modern improved machinery 
declare their inability to produce such a work, or explain by what sort of 
engine it was made. Mr. Morgan gave the following particulars, in identi- 
fication of the history of this interesting object : " It is well known that 
skill in turnery, and other ingenious arts, was much appreciated in the 
seventeenth century in Germany, and was even fashionable that is, prac- 
tised by persons of distinction. Works of great skill were therefore highly 
esteemed. Nuremberg was celebrated for its artists in the different handi- 
craft arts, and their skill is commemorated in a curious volume by Doppcl- 
mayer, who wrote their history. 8 Amongst them is mentioned Stephan 
Zick, born in 1639, son of Lorenz Zick, a skilful turner, who was even 
surpassed by his son. ' This (remarks his biographer) is proved by the 
trinity rings, which, with great pains, he turned out of a single piece. 
Of these, he turned only three, in size like the figure in the engraving. 
Of these, two are in the museums of Vienna and Dresden, and the third 
fell to the lot of an amateur collector of curiosities in Nuremberg, as a 
precious work of art.' Stephan Zick died in 1715. The rings are unde- 
niably identified by Doppelmayer's engraving. They are enclosed in a box 
of lignum vitae of the same date, probably about 1680. The third of the 
trinity rings, thus described, is, probably, the same now laid before the 
Institute." Mr. Morgan exhibited also a singular box of white mixed 
metal, of Oriental workmanship, combining numerous cells for the reception, 
probably, either of spices or of drugs. 

By MR. WEBB. Two bronze candlesticks of very remarkable character, 
figured and described in the " Melanges d'Arche'ologie, par MM. Gainer et 
Martin." One of them represents a wyvern, from whose back springs 
foliage, and a flower terminating in a pryket for the candle. The other 
is very curious, but of less elegant design, It is a figure of an elephant, 
bearing a tower of two stories on its back, surmounted by an embattled 
stage and Gothic nozzle. Early xm. cent. The enamelled cover of a book, 

' Hietorische Nachricht von der Num- von Julian G. Doppelmayer. Nilrnberg, 
bergischen Mathematicis und Kiinatlern : 1730. Fol. 

Bronze candelabrum, in form of an Elephant, bearing a aeries of turrets. 

Date, early iu Xlllth. Cent. 
(See " Decorative Arts of the Middle Ages," by Henry Shaw.) 


probably a Textus, Limoges work, early xiu. cent. The central subject is 
the crucifix between the Virgin Mary and St. John. Above, are two denii- 
angels holding books. The figures are in relief ; the field enriched with 
engraved ornament. The border set with gems en cabochon. A curious 
vessel of bronze, probably intended as an ewer, in the form of a lion, the 
spout issuing from its jaws ; a naked human figure seated upon its back, 
with a wyvern seizing him from behind, and forming the handle of this 
strange example of medieval caprice. These singular vessels of bronze 
occur in several collections : this has subsequently been deposited in the 
British Museum. They seem closely analogous in fashion and purpose 
to the vessel of green-glazed ware found at Lewes, communicated to the 
Institute by Mr. Figg. (See a representation, Arch. Journal, vol. iv. , p. 79.) 
By some antiquaries these vessels are regarded as seolipiles. 

By MR. JAMES P. POLLARD. A " puzzle mug," formed with a concealed 
syphon, of red ware, well glazed, and ornamented with yellow and dark 
brown laid on in a thick slip or encrustation. Possibly of English manu- 
facture, about the year 1600. These mugs were used as posset-cups. 

By Mil ROHDE HAWKINS. A bowl of mixed metal, inlaid with silver 
and black paste, of Oriental workmanship ; the engraved ornaments in 
imitation of Cufic inscriptions. Also an elegant Persian incense burner, of 
gilt metal. 

By MB. HAILSTONE. A long narrow plaque of enamelled metal, of 
champleve work, twelfth century ; portion of the ornament either of a Book 
of the Gospels or of a shrine. In rectangular compartments appear busts 
of two Evangelists, St. Mark, accompanied by a winged lion holding a 
tablet, inscribed with the first words of the Gospel Sicut scriptum est; 
and St. John, with the eagle and words In principle. 9 There are also 
busts of Peter, Andrew, John, James, Bartholomew, and Judas. The 
other evangelists and apostles were doubtless pourtrayed on the corres- 
ponding piece on the opposite side. The figure of Jacobus is curious ; he 
wears a white dress, probably the pilgrim's sclaveyne, with a hood of the 
same drawn over his head, fastened over the throat by an oblong plate, like 
the rationale. The nimbus is pure turquoise blue. An elegant priket 
candlestick, from the Dugue Collection. The base is a truncated cone, 
from which springs the long spike to receive the candle. It is richly 
enamelled, exhibiting four armorial decorations, the bearings introduced on 
lozenge-shaped scutcheons, whilst the field of the base is deep blue, with 
fleurs-de-lys. The arms are (alternately) chequy or and azure, a quarter 
argent, a bordure gules, Dreux (the ermine on the canton possibly 
omitted, owing to the difficulty of showing it in so small a space). 
The other two lozenges display Gules, two fish (bars adossez) between 
three trefoils slipped or. This is possibly Clermont, although the fish and 
trefoils are or instead of argent. Date, thirteenth century. Raoul de 
Clermont, Constable of France, 1287, married Alix de Dreux, Vicomtesse 
de Chateaudun, and died in 1302. Their third daughter, Beatrix, married 
Aymer de Valence. This interesting example of enamelled art may have 
belonged to Alix, or to her elder daughter, of the same name, previously 
to her marriage with William of Flanders. Another priket of like fashion, 
with enamelled heraldic ornaments of the lozenge form, is figured 

9 This mode of designating the Evan- the conventional rule of the Greek artists, 
gelists is curious, being in accordance with SeeDuranil,Maiiuel<l'Icon<>graphie,p. 300. 


in Mr. Shaw's " Decorative Arts of the Middle Ages." Two very siu- 
gular specimens of cuir-bouilli work, probably Italian, of the fifteenth 
century. They are cases for knives and other appliances for the table, 
intended to be appended to the girdle, or worn by a baldric, and probably 
served as the etui of the trencheator, the official carver, or the sewer. The 
ornaments are impressed and curiously pounced. On one is a scutcheon, 
charged with a lion rampant, and the motto, fftdtg . esfto . ttn'o. Two 
lozenge-shaped medallions of alabaster, sculptured in low relief, and 
enriched with gilding ; they represent a warrior and a lady, and are framed 
so as to hinge together as a diptych. On the outside is an armorial 
atchievement, apparently of Flemish design argent, a lion rampant, the 
crest a demi-gryphon. Sixteenth century. 

By Sia JOHN BOILEAU, Bart. An enamelled coffer or shrine, of Limoges 
work, thirteenth century, ornamented with figures of angels and apostles. 
Also a cabinet, probably of Italian workmanship, the covering of purple 
velvet, the interior furnished with numerous small drawers, ornamented 
with engraved metal, partly gilt, in imitation of the damascened and inlaid 
metal-work of the sixteenth century. 

By MR. FORREST. A sepulchral brass and inscribed plate, a small figure 
of a priest, formerly in the church of St. Nicholas, Warwick : fttc jatet 
Bob'tiiS UatUartJScp $rtm' btcan' isti' rccl'ie qui obt'jt jttj tfte men*' 
marctj anno fc'nt JMtll'o CCC vvmi Cut' a'tt p'pmetnr fceu$. Sine. 
The church was anciently appropriated to the collegiate church of Warwick, 
but, in consequence of some neglect, the portions due to the priests, by 
whom it should have been served, were withheld ; and, in 1401, Tydeman, 
Bishop of Worcester, ordained a vicarage there, the first vicar being 
Robert Willardsey. On his death, in 1424, he was succeeded by Simon 
Oldenhale, the first in Dugdale's list. The church having been rebuilt 
some years since, this memorial remained a long time loose in the vestry : 
and at length was "borrowed" by an artist in the neighbourhood, on 
whose death it may be presumed that it was sold, the circumstances con- 
nected with it being forgotten. In the list given in the "Manual of 
Sepulchral Brasses," Oxford, 1848, p. 15, this memorial is described as 
" formerly in the lady-chapel, St. Mary's, Warwick." 

By MR. THOMAS HART, of Reigate. A small oval miniature, the portrait 
of Robert Car, the favourite of James I., created Viscount Rochester in 
1611, and Earl of Somerset in 1613.' He became prime minister of that 
sovereign on the death of the Earl of Salisbury in 1612, and lord -chamber- 
lain in 1614. His influence declined when Sir George Villiers supplanted 
him in the royal favour ; and he was tried and condemned in 1616, for the 
murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, by poison, whilst a prisoner in the Tower. 
He died in 1645. The Earl is represented in a black close-fitting dress, 
with a very large ruff, his hair and beard of a light sandy colour, the back- 
ground bright blue. This interesting miniature appears to be one of the 
undescribed works of Isaac Oliver. 

By MR. ROBERT FITCH, A small ivory bottle, curiously sculptured, in 
the form of a small calibash. Date, about 1625. It may have been a 
kind of pouncet-box, or receptacle for perfume ; or, not improbably, the 
earliest form of the tabatiere, when the fashion of snuffing rappee first 
came into vogue. 

1 The most curious engraved portrait M. Vandergucht, and one by Houbraken, 
of the Earl of Somerset is that by Simon in Birch's Illus. Heads, vol. ii. p. 19. 
Passe. There is a portrait of him by 


MAY 2, 1851. 
The LORD TALBOT DE MALAHIDE, President, in the Chair. 

LORD TALBOT, on taking the chair on the first occasion since he had been 
chosen President of the Institute, desired to express his gratification in 
acknowledging the compliment paid to himself, and the painful recollections 
with which he entered upon the functions of the office conferred upon him. 
Every member of the Institute must cordially unite with him, in the heart- 
felt sorrow and deep sense of the loss they had sustained, by the decease 
of the Marquis of Northampton. Lord Talbot regretted that his present 
occupations in Ireland had hitherto prevented his participation in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Society, since the melancholy event which had deprived 
them of their most valued friend and patron. He was highly gratified now 
to perceive the abundant evidence of the vitality and cordial spirit which 
continued to pervade the meetings of the Institute. He rejoiced to mark 
their advantageous effects, in bringing to view so freely numerous treasures 
of antiquity and art : and affording opportunities for comparison of the 
productions of various periods. These meetings, moreover, tended essen- 
tially to advance the scientific character of Archaeology, by promoting an 
intelligent discussion and appreciation of the varied vestiges of all ages, 
brought under review on these occasions ; and they appeared, with each 
succeeding session, to stimulate an increasing interest in the investigation 
of all those subjects to which the attention of the society was properly 

Lord Talbot then adverted to some information of an Archaeological 
nature, which had lately come under his notice in the sister kingdom. 
As an evidence of what had been achieved in later times in Ireland, not- 
withstanding the recent suffering and calamities which had affected all 
classes, he had brought for presentation to the library of the Institute, a 
complete series of the publications of the Irish Archaeological Society. 
Never had there been a time of greater active interest in the investigation 
of national history and antiquities, than in the late sad times of popular 
distress ; and these publications formed a memorable proof of the successful 
struggle against difficulties in adverse times, and of the determination of 
the Irish Society to give to their publications the highest possible character. 
He alluded to the profusion of ancient relics daily brought to light in 
Ireland ; and especially to some which of late had attracted the notice of 
many antiquaries the seals of Oriental porcelain, frequently discovered in 
that country. Great difficulty has been found in assigning a period to their 
introduction : the character inscribed upon them is certainly of an archaic 
nature, but, like black-letter in our own country, the ancient Chinese 
character had certainly continued to be used for a long period, and its 
occurrence cannot be regarded as a sufficient indication of any particular 
age. This curious subject had, however, received considerable light from 
the recent publication of Mr. Getty, of Belfast. One of these porcelain 
seals had recently come into Lord Talbot's possession ; it was found in a 
pasture in the parish of Kinsaly, with, or near, spears and other relics of 
bronze. He had made a visit to the spot, and made careful inquiries, which 
had confirmed the belief that this specimen had actually been found near 
the field of a memorable conflict between the Irish and the Danes, of which 


the bronze weapons were probably vestiges. If this were so, this seal 
might seem to be associated with the remains of the Danish period. 

Lord Talbot remarked that Mr. Yates had recently brought before the 
Society some singular relics of a minor description, rollers of clay, to which 
the name of " pipes " had beeu assigned, and which were supposed to have 
served in the manufacture of false hair. He had ascertained that large 
quantities of these objects had been found in Ireland, precisely identical in 
form, but rather smaller than those which had been submitted to the 
Institute and to the Society of Antiquaries. 2 In the neighbourhood of 
Dublin, especially, they had been discovered in such abundance, that it 
might be supposed there had been a manufactory of them at the spot. 

MR. OCTAVIUS MORGAN rose to express the gratification, in which he felt 
assured the meeting must heartily participate, caused by the address of 
their noble President, and the kind liberality with which he had augmented 
the rapidly advancing collections in their library. He proposed a vote of 
acknowledgment, to which the meeting gave most cordial assent. 

The PRESIDENT stated, in reply to an inquiry, that a variety of the 
porcelain seals exists with the base oval instead of a cube. The specimens 
hitherto known are now in the possession of the Duke of Northumberland. 
They were not accompanied by any tradition of discovery in Ireland, as in 
most other cases, but were met with in an extensive collection of Oriental 
porcelain, which had remained, he was assured, for upwards of two centuries 
in the possession of a family in Ireland. 

MR. BIRCH communicated the addition of a fresh example to the list of 
" Oculists' Stamps," several of which had been noticed in the Journal 
(vol. vi., p. 354). The attention of antiquaries in England had recently 
been called to this class of inscribed Roman remains, through the able 
Dissertations of Professor Simpson, of Edinburgh. 
The inedited specimen, of which impressions were 
produced, had been found amongst the Collections 
of the late Rev. Trafford Leigh. He had been 
unable to discover the place where it was found. The collyrium indicated 
upon it is the Stactum, or liquid medicament to be dropped into the eye. 3 

MR. EDWARD RICHARDSON reported the discovery of some medieval 
remains of the Abbey Church of Vaudey, or de Valle Dei, in Grimsthorp 
Park, Lincolnshire. " Twenty years since, in making a private road 
through Swinstead, some fragments of moulded stones were discovered. 
Nothing, however, was then further investigated. Last autumn, Swinstt-ad 
Church being under repair, the incumbent received permission from the 
noble proprietor of Grimsthorp to use any old stone from the same spot. 
Gradually a broad and massive base presented itself, some feet below the 
present surface ; it presented the vestige of a rich cluster of columns, 
11 ft. in diameter. This was carefully cleaned, and covered over during 
the winter. A few weeks since, the Rev. Wm. Emmerson Chapman, 
incumbent of Edenham, adjoining Grimsthorp, received the permission of 
Lord Willoughby de Eresby to excavate further, and two more of the 
central bases have been brought to light, also part of a large Norman 
capital, some plain tile pavement, and several pieces of thick glass, both 
plain and decorated, of a deep tone of colour. 

" The workmanship and state of preservation of these broad bases is 

2 Archaeol. Journ. vol. vi. p. 398. 

3 Monthly Medical Journal, January and March, 1851. 


excellent. The mouldings and splay rather flat, though hold. The centre 
shafts have been ribbed ; several stones present traces of fire. The mag- 
nitude of these bases gives some idea of the extent and grandeur of the 
Church, independent of the monastic buildings. The site of the fourth 
base is actually being explored ; and Mr. Chapman has kindly promised to 
forward an account of any further discoveries. This Cistercian Abbey, it 
is stated by some writers, was founded by Gilbert de Gaunt, Earl of 
Lincoln, in Stephen's reign, or rather, by William, Earl of Albemarle, 
about 1147. The monks selected here, as usual, a beautiful spot, in a 
wooded dell, close to a trout stream. White, in the history of Lincoln- 
shire, mentions the site as situated in Grimsthorp Park, about a mile from 
the Castle, and states that three or four sculptured stones alone remained 
to be seen. Visiting the spot two years since, I hinted my suspicions that 
remains probably existed on the same site, not, however, knowing it at 
that time to be the site of the Abbey." 

MR. JOHN J. ROGERS communicated notices, the result of the examina- 
tion of a group of churches near the Lizard Point, Cornwall, namely, 
Mawgan, Grade, Cury, Landewednack, and Wendron ; illustrating especially 
the obscure subject of the intention of " Lychnoscopes," or low-side 
windows. They will be given in a future Journal. 

The REV. JOSEPH HUNTER observed that he had noticed a curious 
example of this curious feature in church architecture at Crewkerne Church, 

MR. WESTWOOD read an account of recent excavations on the site of the 
Abbey of Eynshaui, or Egnesham, Oxfordshire, which he had received 
from Mr. Shurlock, of that place. The site is actually a nursery-ground, 
in which a considerable extent of flooring, formed of decorative tiles, has 
been exposed to view. Mr. Shurlock has sent drawings of two patterns, 
one representing a mounted knight brandishing his sword ; a small shield on 
his arm bears a chevron ; the trappings of the horse are very long. Date 

about 1300. The other tile presents the sacred monogram I Vi r 

in bold character, yellow on a red quarrel. He had found 
eighteen other perfect designs, the eagle displayed, lion rampant, <fec. 
Mr. Shurlock stated that the occupant of the ground, Mr. Day, had already 
sold three cartloads of decorative tiles, for the repairs of the parish roads. 
A chamber had been discovered, supposed to be a bath-room, indications 
still appearing of the mode by which water had been conveyed : the floor 
was likewise of decorated tiles. Mr. Shurlock sent a section of a respond 
of Early-English character. A stone cofiin and other remains had been 
brought to light. These vestiges of an important monastery, which dates 
from times prior to the Normans, had been wholly unheeded : no one but 
himself in Eynsham, Mr. Shurlock observed, cared to take the trouble to 
go and inspect them, or took the slightest interest in their investigation. 
There exists a drawing, taken about 1657, in one of Anthony Wood's 
MSS. (in Mus. Ashm. No. 8505), representing the west end, with its 
towers and a large window, as also some piers of the Conventual Church, 
and parts of the cloisters 

Mr. Westwood expressed his surprise that, within a few miles of Oxford, 
and within the immediate influence of an Architectural Society of so 
prominent a character as that instituted in the University, such heedless 
neglect and destruction of the remains of a monastery of such note could 
have occurred. 


MR. ASHUBST MAJENDIE produced a very interesting volume, the Survey, 
or Terrier, of the Honor of Hedingham, Essex, made by Israel Armyne, in 
1592, by the orders of Burleigh. He pointed out the actual value of this 
document, not merely in an antiquarian point of view, but from the 
accuracy with which copyhold lands are marked out, so as to render it of 
frequent utility as an authority in any disputed question. There are also 
numerous plans, including one of the Castle and adjacent buildings, which 
are carefully detailed. He pointed out an evidence of the early cultiva- 
tion of hops in Essex, a plot near the castle being designated as the lord's 
hop-ground. It is generally stated that they were introduced into England 
from Artois, about 1524 ; and Edward VI., in 1552, granted privileges to 
hop-grounds. A more detailed notice of this MS. will be given hereafter. 

MR. BCRTT communicated a transcript of a letter from Babington, pray- 
ing mercy from Elizabeth, in consideration of his wife and children. He 
had lately found this copy amongst papers at the Chapter House, supposed 
to have been the Collections of Sir W. Cecill, Master of the Court of Wards 
and Liveries. 

8nttcrutto airtr SXHtarftji of & 

By MB. STBADLING, of Roseville, Bridgwater. A singular metallic ring, 
supposed to be of tin, one of a considerable number found by the late 
Samuel Hasell, Esq., deposited in a rudely-fashioned urn, of which a frag- 
ment was kindly sent for examination. Sir Richard Colt Hoare, as Mr. 
Stradling observed, had considered the tumulus upon the hill known as 
" Dundon Beacon," in the parish of Compton Dundon, near Somerton, to 
have been mereJy a mound raised to support a beacon. Mr. Hasell, who 
resided in that parish, where he discovered the interesting Roman Villa, 
at Littleton, determined to investigate the real character of the tumulus ; 
and beneath its base he found a cist of the rudest construction, enclosing 
the bones of a skeleton deposited in a kneeling posture, the body thrown 
backwards, and the head forward. When first exposed, the skeleton was 
in perfect preservation, and the position had been preserved by a mass of 
small stones in the cist, in which also was found the urn containing the 
rings, which had been regarded as of the nature of " ring money," formed 
of tin. The metal is now much oxidated : the ring massive, and penan- 
nular, diam. rather more than three quarters of an inch, bearing close 
resemblance in dimension to the small type of golden ring-money often 
found in Ireland, and occasionally in this country. Mr. Stradling con- 
sidered these remarkable rings of white metal to have been the circu- 
lating medium in very early times. 

MB. WILLIAM BAKEB, of Bridgwater, Secretary of the Somersetshire 
Archaeological Society, communicated a sketch of another interesting relic 
of the same class. It is a penannular gold ring, (see wood- 
cut) found in 1848, in digging brick-clay at Hamp, in the 
parish of Bridgwater, about 6 feet from the surface, and 
resting in the firm alluvial deposit. Its weight is 120 grs., 
(a precise multiple of six). This curious relic is in the 
possession of John Brown, Esq., of Bridgwater, on whose 
property it was discovered. Mr. Baker stated that a specimen of ancient 
pottery, rudely ornamented, had been brought to light, some feet deeper in 
the clay than the spot where the ring was found. 

iteresting relic 



By the REV. EDWIN JARVIS, of Hackthorn, Lincoln. Several ring- 
fibulae of bronze, of the Saxon period, found in Lincolnshire : presenting 
varieties from the flat ring, impressed with a border of lines or punctured 
marks, to the type formed of a rounded bar, grooved around, as if in imita- 
tion of a cord. The acus was invariably of iron. The dimensions of 
these ornaments varied from 1 to 2 inches. Fibulae of similar form, from 
Careby, were exhibited at a former meeting by the Rev. Hugh Maclean. 

By ME. JOHN NICHOLL, F.S.A. Three ancient relics, consisting of a 
mazer, diam. about 6 inches, mounted with silver ; a silver salt, parcel 
gilt, and a standing cup formed of a cocoa-nut harnessed with silver gilt. 
They are part of the ancient plate of the Ironmongers' Company. A pair 
of mazers remain in their possession, formed of wood, apparently of the 
maple : in the centre of each, on the inner side, is a flat boss of metal, to 
which is affixed an enamelled roundel of the arms of the company Arg. on 
a chevron gules, three swivels or between three steel gads azure. 4 These 
enamelled plates have been renewed in recent years. The rim of one 
mazer is plain, the other bears the inscription Sue . man'a . cjra'. plena . 
tfns tecum . b'irtJtcta . tu . i . muliertbj . t . beneBtetutf . fructu3. These 
mazers are not raised upon feet : it has been customary to display them 
upon the buffet of the Company by raising them on two silver salts, in form 
resembling an hour-glass, of which one was exhibited. These last appear 
to be of the early part of the sixteenth century. No notice of these bowls 
appears in the inventories of the Ironmongers' Company ; this is accounted 
for, Mr. Nicholl observed, by their having formerly belonged to the 
Yeomanry, whose records being unimportant have not been preserved. 
The form of the mazers is very similar to that of one in the possession of 
Mr. Evelyn Shirley, represented in Archaeol. Journal, vol. ii., p. 263. 

MR. JOSEPH CLARKE sent for exhibition another flat mazer, mounted 
with a silver-gilt rim, and having a silver roundel within the bowl, on 
which is engraved a figure of the Virgin and Child, surrounded by rays. 
The material seems to be the wood of the maple ; and the grain is mottled 
and curiously curled, appearing to show that it was formed from the bulging 
knot or knurle of the tree. This bowl has been preserved at the charitable 
Institution at Saffron Walden, Essex, now designated as Edward Vlth's 
Almshouses. The present rules for its government were drawn up in 
his reign, in 1550 ; but the foundation is much earlier, and the following 
record occurs in one of the registers : "In the year 1400, the most wor- 
shipful men and parishioners of Walden, by the help of the commonaltie 
of the said town, ordained and made a house of charitie in Daniel's lane, 
in honour of God, and the sustentacion of xiij. poore men." In the 
oldest books of the charity mention is thus made of a mazer : " Yt ys 
wrytyn and set in mende and memorye, how that in y e ferste founda- 
cyon and begynnyng of this dede of charyte, a worschipful man, naymed 
Mayster Rogere Waldene, at that tyme Erchbyschop of Cauntyrberry," <kc. 
gave certain benefactions ; as also did others, and a list ensues, with value 
of each item, including " a mazer, price of xl.s. the wheche mazer 
Margaret Breychman gaf to serve in the foreseyd house perpetual, for the 
soules of her and Stephen Breychman, and all her friends." Roger Walden, 
a native of the town, was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury in 1398, 

4 These arms are said to have been the silver mounting of the mazer is the 
granted in 1455. The company was in- florid Roman capital A. 
corporated in 1462. The jear mark on 



when Archbishop Arundel was charged with treason and left the realm : 
on the accession of Henry IV., in 1399, Roger was removed as an intruder. 

The mazer is thus mentioned hy Pepys, in his Diary, 1659 60, when 
he passed hy Walden, and visited Audley End. " In our going, my land- 
lord carried us through a very old hospital or almshouse where forty poor 
people were maintained ; a very old foundation ; and over the chimney- 
piece was an inscription in brass, Orate pro . anima Thomce Bird, <kc. 
They brought me a draft of their drink in a brown bowl tipt with silver, 
which I drank off, and at the bottom was a picture of the Virgin with the 
child in her arms, done in silver." This ancient drinking vessel may 
possibly be the same which was bequeathed by Margaret Breychman ; the 
silver rim (circulus) is quite plain, and bears the year-mark ft., appearing 
to indicate the year 1507 as the date when this ornament was attached. 

ME. OCTAVIUS MORGAN and MB. FRANKS mentioned several other mazers, 
preserved in the collegiate treasuries at Oxford, and in private collections. 
Mr. DAVIES mentioned the fine specimen existing in the Sacristy at York 
Minster, and known as " Archbishop Scrope's Indulgence Cup." He had 
given a dissertation upon this curious bowl in the volume of Transactions of 
the Institute at the York Meeting. It deserves mention that in an ancient 
inventory, that "ciphus magnus de murro," which is of remarkable size, is 
valued at the same price as the mazer at Walden, namely, 40s. 

By MR. WILLIAM LEVESON GOWER, of Titsey Park, Surrey. Two rings, 
one of silver, parcel gilt, found in the ancient burial-ground of the parish 
of Titsey, and seemingly a betrothal ring, the hoop bearing the inscrip- 
tion, J< tf)C ttajaten. tex., with conjoined hands. Date about XlVth 
cent. The other is a most interesting relic, the betrothal or marriage 
ring of Sir Thomas Gresham, an exquisite specimen of enamelled gold- 
smith's work, long preserved at Weston Hall, Suffolk, in the possession of 
the Thruston family. The miniature coffer in which it was kept was 
likewise shown by Mr. Gower. A more detailed notice of this ring will 
be given hereafter. 

By the REV. C. R. MANNING. Impression from a seal recently found at 
East Rudham, Norfolk. The device is two peacocks. >J< LE SEEL PASKER 


By MR. FITCH. A signet ring of mixed metal, found at Grundis- 
burgh, Suffolk, date XVth cent., the device a rebus, the letters in, over a 
hart couchant. 

By MR. HEWITT. Impressions from the monumental brasses of Ralph de 
Knevyntone, 1370, at Aveley, Essex (probably of Flemish execution) ; 
Sir Ingelram Bruyii, 1400, at South Ockendon, Essex, singular in having 
his name inscribed on the breast of his jupon ; and an interesting effigy of 
a lady ; her mantle displays on either side a rampant lion, its shoulder 
vulned in three places : she wears a Tau cross. This memorial lies in the 
church of Great St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. 

Annual Hotrtion 

MAY STH, 1851. 

The Annual London Meeting for receiving the Auditors' Report was 
held on this day, according to announcement, WILLIAM H. BLAAUW, Esq., 
in the Chair. 

The Auditors submitted their Report, which, having been unanimously 
adopted, was ordered to be printed in the Journal, in accordance with 
prescribed usage, and is here annexed. 

Notices of gtrcfmeological publications. 

ARCH^EOLOGIA CAMBRENSIS : a Record of the Antiquities of Wales and its 
Marches, and the Journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Association. New 
Series, No. VI., April, 1851. Published Quarterly. Vols. I., II., III., IV.; and 
Vol. I., New Series. 

THE kindred Society, under whose auspices this journal is produced, may 
well claim the friendly interest and favour of members of the Archaeological 
Institute. Its origin, towards the close of the year 1846, may be wholly 
traced to the beneficial stimulus caused by that publication, now in turn 
adopted by the Society as its recognised and official organ, and the record 
of its transactions. This Society has speedily evinced a striking degree of 
activity, scarcely surpassed by other institutions of maturer growth, and 
greater resources. 

Placed in that quarter of Britain, regarded, whether rightfully or other- 
wise Archaeology perhaps alone can demonstrate, as the refuge of our 
ancient religion, customs and races, whose antiquaries had hitherto 
passed almost as a byword for exaggeration bordering upon romance, 
among their Anglican brethren, the Cambrian Archaeological Association 
has in its sphere already done much to bring to light the unwritten and 
written annals of the past, and has sent forth into the fastnesses of Wales 
an industrious little native band, whose love of country, though undi- 
minished, is tempered with more sober judgment, and alive to a more 
stubborn perception of facts. On the other hand, by offering the hand of 
fellowship and association to all those Englishmen by whom Welsh anti- 
quities are appreciated as they deserve, it has secured an interchange of 
ideas and opinions, which cannot fail to inspire confidence and to remove 

The present number commences with " Remarks on Querns," by 
Dr. Hume, of Liverpool, in which he suggests what were the different 
contrivances for grinding food, which eventually introduced the quern ; 
subsequently giving a derivation of the word "quern, "an account of its 
"structure," its history, locality, mode of use, and the laws and customs 
relating to it. These remarks are followed by the first of a series 
of contributions " On Architectural Antiquities in Monmouthshire," by 
Mr. Freeman, in which he compares the churches of that county with 
those of Pembrokeshire and Gower, and discusses the date of the churches, 
their outline and ground plan, towers, and other leading and architectural 
features. With the exception of Chepstow Priory Church, and St. Wollos, 
at Newport, which exhibit the Norman style on a grand scale, Mr. Freeman 
finds in the Principality but little Romanesque ; of Early English there is 
much deserving notice ; of Decorated, a most perfect example in Tintern 
Abbey Church ; while, in the greater proportion, Perpendicular prevails. 
He promises a future notice of the peculiar plans of St. Wollos and Christ 
Church, and he remarks upon the superiority of the Monmouthshire churches 
over those already compared with them, as being especially manifested in 
their chancel arches, which are well turned, pointed, and chamfered, 
differing little from what would be found in any ordinary English church of 
the like scale and period, and in their doorways. This paper, illustrated 


by an engraving, giving the elevations of the churches of Magor, Roggiett, 
Gwernesney, Caldicott, Caerwent, and Llangwm, is well arranged, and 
must prove interesting and instructive to students of church architecture. 
The medieval historian will find much to interest him in the second portion 
of Mr. Morgan's " Historical and Traditional Notices of Owain Glyndwr ;" 
while, at the same time, the value of this communication is considerably 
diminished by the almost total absence of reference to the authorities from 
whence it is culled. The vexata qucestio of " the site of the last battle of 
Caractacus " is next introduced, for the perusal of those who desire to 
verify early British history ; and the Breidden Hill, between Shrewsbury 
and Welch Pool, is assigned as the most probable spot. In the " Corre- 
spondence," at the close of the number, is inserted a letter relative to a 
tumulus called Bane Benisel, near Kidwelly, in Caermarthenshire, in which 
a gigantic human skeleton, deposited in a somewhat peculiar cist, was 
discovered. The cranium was depressed or flat in front, which led the 
writer to conclude that this tumulus was the grave of Sawyl Benisel, said 
to have been an early British king, Benisel meaning "flat-headed." 

The Correspondence is preceded by an important communication from 
the learned author of "the Literature of the Kymry," relative to some 
early Welsh poems, with respect to which he announces a change of 
opinion since writing that work, and identifies Cocholyn, a hero mentioned 
in a poem, entitled " Marwnad Corroy ab Dairy," which he considers as 
old as the time of Taliesin, with Cuichelm Quichelm, or Kichelm, mentioned 
in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A.D. 614. Some valuable observations on 
early inscribed and carved stones in Wales, by the indefatigable and able 
antiquary, Mr. Westwood, illustrated by two engravings, one of the stone 
of Brancuf, the other of the cross of Grutne, completes the number, which 
affords a good sample of the publications of this Society. They have already 
commenced their sixth volume (the second of the New Series), now in the 
course of publication. Their other five volumes furnish abundant evidence 
of their industry and success, and contain very valuable historical and 
antiquarian matter. We may notice especially the " Observations on the 
stone of St. Cad van, at Towyn," as not by any means the least important, 
the joint production of Mr. J. 0. Westwood and the Rev. John Williams, 
of Llanymowddwy. (Vol. i., New Series, p. 90.) 

" The stone of St. Cadvan " has been engraved both by Bishop Gibson 
and Pennant, but so inaccurately, that it is not to be wondered at that it 
has never yet been deciphered. At the meeting of the Cambrian Archaeo- 
logical Association, held in 1848, at Caernarvon, casts of the four 
sides of this stone were presented to the museum by W. W. E. Wynne, 
Esq. These have enabled Mr. Westwood to present the readers of 
this journal with representations of the inscriptions, which have been 
reduced from the originals with the greatest care, by means of the camera 
lucida. The stone itself is about seven feet long, and about ten inches 
wide, on the two widest sides, the other two sides being considerably 

This paper is accompanied by an engraving, showing the inscriptions on 
the four sides of the stone. On the side marked A in the engraving, 
Mr. Westwood deciphers 1- CUNGEN CELEn X (See Woodcuts.) 

On that marked B \. tengrug c (?) i malte (d) gu 

adgan m 

a ? . . . tr (or a) 



The Stone of St Cadvan, in Towyn Church. Drawn by Mr. Westwood. 
[Length 7 ft., Rreatest width 10 in.) 


The third side, marked C, he reads an ? teruuc dubut marciau. 
The fourth, marked D, he thinks must be read thus 
molt tricet 


tuar nitanam 

He considers the inscription to belong to the seventh or eighth century. He 
remarks, that " supposing the stone to be standing erect (it is now how- 
ever lying flat on the floor of Towyu Church), the inscription on the side, 
marked A, is to be read from the ground upwards, so also the side, B. 
The third side, C, which like A is one of the narrow sides of the stone, is 
to be read downwards towards the ground ; and the fourth side, D, has 
the inscription arranged downwards in the same manner. Mr. Williams, 
an eminent Welsh scholar, undertakes the interpretation of this inscrip- 
tion. He decides the inscription to be in the Welsh language, and reading 
the side A and its opposite, C, together, he interprets them thus : " The 
body of Cyngen is on the side between where the marks will be." 

The expression, " the marks " (marciau the c pronounced hard), he 
says, must " evidently refer to certain monuments, placed to mark the 
spot where the deceased lay interred ; probably stones, which according 
to the Welsh laws, were used as marks for various purposes. Such, no 
doubt, was the stone found in the Isle of Bardsey, bearing the inscription 
MARC VELIO. There might have been a stone, a maen hir, at each end 
of the grave, as was the case with the grave of Beli, ap Benlli Gawr (see 
Hanes, p. 35), and thus the body of Cyngen would in truth be 
between the marks." The sides B and D he likewise reads together, and 
thus translates the inscriptions : " Beneath a similar mound is extended 
Cadvan, sad that it should enclose the praise of the earth : may he rest 
without blemish." The last sentence of this inscription, Mr. Williams says 
is " an expression equivalent to the Latin requiescat in pace, or rest his 
soul, which pious ejaculation assumes various shapes in the elegiac com- 
positions of the bards." In interpreting this inscription, he enters into a very 
learned philological discussion upon ancient and modern Welsh, citing 
examples in support of his views from early Welsh writings this we must 
leave to Welsh scholars. In reference to this monument it only remains to 
notice the valuable information respecting the individuals whom it com- 
memorates, furnished by Mr. Wakeman (p. 205), and drawn " from Gregory 
of Tours ; Eginard, contemporary of Charlemagne ; the fragment of a 
chronicle, by Ingomar, of uncertain date ; the chronicles of the churches 
of Nantes and Mount St. Michael ; and the lives of some of the Breton 
saints, by contemporaries ; and some other historians and chroniclers." 
Mr. Wakeman refutes the common story, that St. Cadvan was the grandson 
of Emyr Llydaw, one of the princes of Armorica, and shows that Eniyr 
Llydaw is not a name, but merely a title, signifying " Prince of Llydaw," 
possibly a contraction of Emmerawd, or Emperor, hence that " son of" (in 
Welsh ap) " Emyr Llydaw," means nothing more than son of a Prince of 
Llydaw. Cadvan he seems to regard as the grandson of an Emyr Llydaw, 
and nephew of Howel ap Emyr Llydaw, who ruled Armorica in the 
early part of the sixth century, and was murdered in the year 524. On his 
death his dominions were divided among his sons, who, in the year 546, going 
to war with each other, occasioned the immigration of the families of 
the princes who were slain to Britain. This was the second immigration 
from Armorica since the commencement of this century. About this time 



St. Cadwin came over to Britain, most probably with this second immigration. 
Cyngen, he agrees with Mr. Williams (pp. 100, 212), was very probably 
Cyngen ap Cadell, prince of Powis, whose era is pretty well established 
by the recorded death of his son Brochmael, early in the seventh century ; 
he concludes by suggesting that this monument to St. Cadvan belongs 
to the end of the sixth century. A suggestion historically deduced, which 
pretty nearly coincides with the age to which Mr. Westwood, judging from 
its characteristics, assigns this interesting and venerable relic. It is need- 
less to insist upon the value of investigations such as these. In a country 
where there is now such a dearth of early written records, these carved 
stones may truly be regarded as " the only unimpeachable proofs of the 
extent to which religion, literature, and science was cultivated " by our 
British forefathers, and there is no part of the country where they are so 
plentiful as in Wales. They cannot therefore be too highly valued, closely 
examined, and carefully preserved. Well may the Cambrian Association 
feel indebted to those members, who have been the first to decipher the 
stone of St. Cadvan, nor less so to Mr. Stephens, who has offered an 
interpretation somewhat differing from that of Mr. Williams, and many 
critical observations upon the subject (N. S. vol. ii., p. 58), which should 
be read in conjunction with the original paper. 

Such a highly curious specimen of British Palaeography has appeared 
deserving of this detailed notice, on account of the great rarity of similar 
remains in other parts of the kingdom, and the important bearing of such 
, evidences, hitherto very imperfectly understood, upon historical inquiries. 

In addition to this early inscription, we find, on looking through the 
other volumes, numerous other inscriptions on early monumental stones, 
carefully deciphered and recorded as that of " Wledermat Odeleu," the 
founder (as the inscription mentions) of this church in the time " Ewini 
Regis," on a stone in the churchyard of Llanfihangel y Traethau. (Vol. iii., 
p. 224.) Another at Llangian, Caernarvonshire MELI MEDICI FILI 
MARTINI, considered to be not later than the fifth century. Some at 
Llannor, Caernarvonshire (vol. ii., p. 201) ; the tombstone of Brochmael, 
said to be earlier than the ninth century (ibid. p. 30) ; of Turpilius, in 
Brecknockshire (ibid. p. 25) ; with those of Porius (vol. i., p. 424) ; and 
Catamanus (ibid. 165) (the former near Dolgelley, Merionethshire, the 
latter in Anglesea) ; and an incidental notice of the pillar of Eliseg (ibid. 
pp. 17, 32). Several of these have been noticed by Camden, and others, 
but few, if any, so clearly deciphered, as they now have been by the keen 
investigations of the members of this association. Nor have they been 
less attentive to earlier British antiquities. Among the papers on these 
antiquities, we may notice, under a title, " Castra Clwydiana," a full 
account of an examination of three out of six ancient camps on the Clwydian 
Hills, on the confines of Denbighshire and Flintshire, accompanied by four 
plates containing plans of each camp (vol. i., New Series, 81, 174: and 
Mr. Longueville Jones's interesting account, illustrated with engravings 
British remains in the neighbourhood of Conway and Aber (vol. i., p. 70). 

Roman remains are rather scanty in Wales, but at the more important 
stations some discoveries have been made. At Caerleon, a villa was exca- 
vated in the garden of J. Jenkins, Esq., of which an account will be found 
in vol. iv., p. 73, illustrated by nine plates. Among the relics then found, 
was a bronze ornament, recognised by the Rev. C. W. King as the precise 
pattern of ear-rings at present in common use in Tuscany, and portions of 



Glass vessel found at Caerleon. 

Saraian ware, bearing the potters' marks MERCATOR and COTTO, 
both well known to antiquaries, as found in London, and GATTIVS 
MANSINVS, the impress of which was reversed. In North Wales we are 
told, that numerous discoveries have been made at Segontium (Caernarvon), 
consisting of a Roman hypocaust and baths (engraved vol. i., p. 177), and 
four other bildings (ibid. p. 285), with a considerable list of coins ; 
which, with tiles, a curious inscribed piece 
of slate, and other relics, are deposited 
in the interesting museum established 
at Caernarvon. Some good specimens of 
Roman glass, found in a railway cutting 
near Caerleon, are deserving of notice. 
(Vol. iii., p. 187.) Two were deposited in 
stone coffins, with human remains. " Sa- 
miau " and other Roman ware, a bronze 
lamp, and other relics were found near the 
spot. Of the most uncommon type a re- 
presentation is here given. Another, with 
one handle, was of square form, not unlike 
those found in the Bartlow Hills, &c. The 
third was cylindrical, with one handle. 
A very singular little relic, described as a 
" British amulet," is figured (Vol. iii., p. 
97), and we gladly avail ourselves of the 
obliging permission of the publisher to lay before our readers the annexed 
representation, (orig. size.) hoping that its date or intention may be explained. 
It was found in Merionethshire, and is of a dingy 
green compound metal. It has been attributed 
to the age of British primitive Christianity. 

Of Welsh Ecclesiastical and Medieval anti- 
quities, the volumes before us contain a store of 
information, not to be met with elsewhere. 
Among the former, relating to existing cathe- 
drals, Mr. Freeman gives " Some remarks on 
the Architecture of the Cathedral of Llandaff," 
accompanied by a ground plan, showing the dif- 
ferent styles which are found in the building. 
The outline and plan of the building he considers 
is its most remarkable point. Its most marked 
peculiarity is the absence " not only of a central 
tower, but of transepts in any form. In this respect it is unique among the 
cathedrals of South Britain, and has but few parallels among churches of 
equal size, even when not designed as episcopal sees." (Vol i., New Series. 

109.) We learn from a " Memoir on the History and Architecture of 
the Cathedral of Llandaff " (ibid. p. 24), by the Dean, that the original 
foundation of the see is ascribed to the influence of St. Germanus and 
Lupus, on their deputation from the council held at Troyes, in the middle 
of the fifth century ; and that Urban, the earliest bishop of this district 
after the Norman conquest, found there a primitive cathedral, founded by 
Dubritius, its first bishop, which " consisted rather of a small chapel than 
a church, its length being only 28 feet, its breadth 15 feet, and height 
20 feet. Two small aisles, however, are also mentioned, as also a circular 


porch (by which a semicircular apse is probably meant) having a radius of 
12 feet ; this would,therefore, extend the entire length to 40 feet. On April 14, 
A.D. 1120, Urban commenced his great work of erecting a suitable cathedral 
in this ancient see." Of this church, Mr. Freeman thinks the choir, " of 
which no trace remains, occupied the site of the present Lady Chapel, and 
that the fragments of early Norman work, retained in the present presbytery, 
are portions of his nave." The original Norman cathedral must have been 
a structure of comparatively small size, though, as its remains attest, of a 
very considerable degree of ornament. It " probably consisted only of a 
nave and choir." (Ibid. pp. 113, 114.) 

" The enlargement of the building began while Romanesque architecture 
was still not quite extinct, and was concluded (for a time) in the earliest 
day of the pure Lancet style." The western front, in which this style 
appears "in its perfection," and the arcades, he attributes "to a date 
about 1220. The character of the Early English part of the church is 
singularly good ; besides its excellent proportions, it combines, in a most 
remarkable degree, a great lack of ornament, with not only the utmost 
excellence of detail, but a considerable effect of richness. The internal 
treatment of the west end is especially excellent, and deserves the more 
attention, as the mean appearance of a western portal is often a marked 
blot upon churches of great magnificence. The nave was manifestly 
intended to be covered by a flat ceiling. This is shown by the roof shafts, 
which are continued up to the summit of the masonry." 

After noticing the division of nave and choir, south aisle of presbytery, 
and chapter-house, he introduces the Lady Chapel, under the section of 
" Decorated repairs," which he regards as an example of Early English 
gradually sinking into Decorated. " It was a complete erection from the 
ground, and retains no trace of Romanesque work, except the grand arch 
opening into it from the presbytery." The north-west tower he considers 
a fine example of Perpendicular. The present fabric, as it now stands, 
consists of two low western towers, a nave, choir, presbytery, and Lady 
Chapel the last without aisles. (See plan, ibid. p. 100.) Of the interesting 
ruined abbeys of the Principality, we find full particulars of Cwmhir, Rad- 
norshire (vol. iv., p. 233), with a plate ; of Strata Florida, Cardiganshire 
(vol. iii., pp. 110, 191) ; Rhuddlan, Flintshire (ibid. p. 46 ; vol. ii., p. 250); 
Cymmer, Merionethshire (vol. i., p. 445 ; vol.ii., p. 327) ; Llanthony Priory, 
Monmouthshire (vol. i., p. 201) ; Basingwerk, Flintshire (ibid. pp. 97, 
334, 408) ; and Valle Crucis (ibid. pp. 17, 151, 279). Of these, Cwmhir 
appears to have been the longest building of its class in Wales. It derives 
its name from being situated in a long (bir) dingle (cwm), and was founded 
by a daughter of Blanchland, in the year 1143 ; or, according to Leland, 
by Caswallon ap Madoc, then sovereign lord of the district : it seems, how- 
ever, never to have been finished. The actual length of the nave, within 
the walls, from careful measurement, appears to be 242 feet. Little 
more now remains of the edifice than ruinated walls, and traces of founda- 
tions. In the notice of Strata Florida, a well executed engraving is given 
of the west door-way of the nave, which, perhaps, has not a counterpart 
in the kingdom. It is a round-headed arch, consisting, as the writer 
describes it, of " co-ordinate arches," five in number, which make up th< 
whole, and are bound together " by three crosiers on either side." 

In the series of papers, entitled " Mona Mediseva " (beginning in vol. i., 
p. 61), and " Arvona Mediaeva (beginning in vol. ii., p. 53), will be found 


a tolerably complete record of the most remarkable of the architectural 
antiquities of the counties of Anglesea and Caernarvon ; accompanying the 
former are plates of several fonts, interesting on account of singularity or 
elegance of design, and of ancient monuments, as well as many vignettes 
of architectural details ; to the latter are appended, also, a number of well- 
engraved illustrations, including one of a tine rood screen at Llanengan 
church ; and two others of the collegiate church of Clyunog Fawr, with the 
chapel of St. Beuno attached. 

We might notice several valuable contributions of Monastic History, and 
documentary evidences, as also a few ancient seals. Amongst these 
medieval relics the seal of the Abbot of 
Strata Florida is an example of unusually 
good execution. (See woodcut.) The name 
of the Abbot to whom it originally belonged 
appears to have been cut out, affording a sin- 
gular instance of a personal seal converted 
into an official one. 

Among the numerous contributions of Mr. 
Westwood, we must not omit to notice his 
very interesting and valuable series of papers 
" On certain peculiarities observable in some 
of the early Monumental Effigies in Wales," 
which evince great research, and contain a 
mass of information on this subject, culled 
from continental sources, in addition to those 
afforded by our own country. (Vols. ii., pp. 
233, 314 ; iii., p. 35.) The same may be 
said of his still more curious, and we may add 
unique, papers upon " The ancient portable 
Hand-bells of the British and Irish Churches." 
We believe that no other publication contains 
any such detailed information on this sin- 
gular subject. (Vols. iii., pp. 230, 301 ; iv., 
pp. 13, 167.) 

The notices of monumental effigies, by Mr. Westwood, comprise one of 
singular interest to the English archaeologist, the sculptured tomb of the 
Princess Joan, daughter of King John, and consort of Llewelyn, Prince of 
North Wales. The bust only is shown on this curious slab, with foliage 
of elegant design. Its date is about 1240. 

The investigation of castles and their history must necessarily often 
arrest the attention of archaeologists in Cambria : of memoirs of this class, 
that relating to Caerphilly, 1 a valuable example, which will doubtless attract 
many visitors on the occasion of the approaching meeting of the Institute 
at Bristol, affords a good specimen. For this highly interesting memoir, 
we are indebted to a writer whose ability in this division of archaeological 
inquiries is already known to the readers of the Journal. We allude to 
Mr. G. T. Clark, whose' contribution to the first volume of our publication, 
supplied so useful an outline of the subject of " Military Architecture." 2 
" This castle is reputed to cover, with its outworks and earthworks, about 
thirty acres, and owes its celebrity to its great extent, and to the peculiar 
manner in which one of its towers has been thrown out of the perpendicular, 

1 Vol. i , New Series, p. 251. 

2 Archaeological Journal, vol. i., p. 93. 


by the forces employed for its destruction. It possesses few associations 
with historical events. 

" Generally, its series of concentric defences, and the general disposition 
of its constituent parts, resemble those of Conway, Harlech, Beaumaris, and 
other structures known to have been erected in the reigns of the first or 
second Edward. Nor is the style of architecture employed at Caerphilly 
less decisive. The drop arch, the perfectly plain rib, the general absence 
of decorations and armorial bearings, and plain battlements, and the 
absence of machicolation, indicate generally the same period. The columns 
of the hall doorway, the concave moulding of their pedestals, the triple 
cluster of columns forming the corbels of the roof, their bell capitals, and 
light cap moulding, are due to the Early English style, from 1189 to 
1307. On the other hand, the pomegranate mouldings, the rich, though 
somewhat stiff, canopies of the door and windows, the little pilasters in 
the windows with the pentagonal capitals, the ogee arches, and the plain 
fillet running up the columnar corbels of the roof, are marks all belonging 
to the Decorated style which prevailed from 1307 to 1377." 

He then instances other examples of the mixture of these two styles, in 
Bristol Cathedral, and Keynsham Church, and proceeds thus: 

" The internal evidence of the building, which would place its date about 
the end of the reign of Henry III., agrees with the evidence of records 
cited hereafter, in which the castle is referred to, in the year 1272, as 
having been lately erected by Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and 

This paper is illustrated by a ground plan which, though not strictly 
accurate in all its minute details, may be considered, we believe, generally 
correct, and a view of the restored elevation of the castle. 3 

From the above notices and extracts, our readers may form a notion of 
the practical working and success of this Association in the examination of 
the British, Roman, ecclesiastical and medieval antiquities of Wales ; and 
while some of its members are thus active in the field, those who remain at 
home are not idle. Hence we find throughout these volumes documents, 
charters, and other ancient evidences with some historical essays. Among 
the former, we may notice the valuable collections contributed by W. W. E. 
Wynne, Esq., relating to Harlech (vol. i., 246 ; vol. iii., 49) and the Bulkeley 
MSS., published by permission of Sir Richard Williams Bulkeley, relating 
to the civil war, consisting chiefly of letters addressed by active leaders on 
either side, to various correspondents ; but principally to the representative 
of the Bulkeley family then living (vol. i., 326, 385) ; the proceedings before 
the Commissioners appointed by the lords of the lordship of Bromfield and 
Yale, and statutes and ordinances made at the great court of that lordship 
holden at Castle Lleon, An 7 Edward IV., 1467 (beginning vol. ii., p. 147). 
Among the latter we notice Mr. Hartshorne's contributions, entitled "Councils 
and Parliaments of Shrewsbury," 

In conclusion, we congratulate the Association on the result of their 
labours. There is still a wide field for exertion ; and we trust that the 
value of such a society may every year be more and more appreciated by 
those who desire to become acquainted with national antiquities and history 
in every part of the realm ; and that, with the rapid growth of public interest 
in such inquiries, the Society will increase in influence and energy, and 
receive that support and sympathy both in Wales and the kingdom at large, 
which it so well merits. 

3 This interesting illustration is given also in Archaeological Journal, vol. i., p. 103. 

&rrijaeologfcal Intelligence. 

A VERY interesting Fasciculus has just been produced, in pursuance of a 
plan which presents great advantages, by the permanent record and 
circulation of the transactions of several local societies. The present 
portion, to which we hope to devote a more extended notice hereafter, 
comprises the Reports and papers read at the meetings of the Architectural 
Societies of the Archdeaconry of Northampton, the counties of York and 
Lincoln, and of the Architectural and Archaeological Societies of Bedford- 
shire and St. Albans, during the year 1850. A limited number of copies 
are reserved for general sale. We cordially commend to our readers this 
highly useful publication, which brings within their reach the investigations 
of so many societies, established for a kindred purpose to our own. 

communications received, with the variety of ancient relics presented to the 
society, or brought for inspection, afford gratifying evidence of the value 
of such local Institutions. The Proceedings are full of promise, as en- 
couraging sound and intelligent principles of Archaeological investigation, 
through occasions afforded for friendly discussion, and by drawing forth the 
stores of curious information, with which Ireland appears to abound. The 
classification and preservation of such evidences, which without the aid of 
such a society would be scattered and lost, must conduce to disperse the 
obscurity which still surrounds various questions of Irish Archaeology. On 
the present occasion, Dr. Graves, of Trinity College, Dublin, in presenting 
a copy of his valuable dissertation on the Ogham Inscriptions, gave a 
detailed and critical examination of one, found at Burnfort, near Mallow, 
and brought under the notice of the society by Mr. Windele. He discussed 
with friendly candour the views adopted by that antiquary. The question 
of the period to which these characters are to be assigned, is one of singular 
moment in regard to Irish antiquities, and it has become also of essential 
interest in our own country, since examples of the Ogham have been dis- 
covered in Wales, which are to be found in the " Archseologia Cambrensis," 
and similar characters have, we believe, been noticed in Cornwall. The 
question at issue is this, Mr. Windele, with other Irish Archaeologists, 
insists upon the remote age of the Ogham Alphabet, that it was in use 
amongst the Irish Druids, long previous to the Christian era ; and was 
related to the cuneiform characters of the East. Dr. Graves, on the other 
hand, has shown grounds for believing it to have been constructed, in 
comparatively recent times, by persons acquainted with the Roman and 
Runic alphabets. These conclusions are supported by the testimony of the 
Burnfort inscription, and Dr. Graves' argument has the strongest claims to 
consideration. His memoir will, doubtless, appear in the Transactions of 
the Kilkenny Society. The Rev. James Mease read a valuable paper on 
Military Architecture, in Ireland, and the usual construction and arrangements 
of castles, noticing in detail some characteristic examples. These remains 
are very numerous in that country, and eleven ancient castles were pointed 
out within a circuit of twenty miles, to which Mr. Mease limited his present 
notices. The Dean of Waterford sent an account of the exploration of a 


crypt, beneath the Deanery House, with sketches of the architectural 
details. It is of considerable extent, the arch of the vault is semicircular, 
whilst the door-ways have pointed arches. The ruins of the Franciscan 
Abbey are adjacent to the Deanery, and amongst these are some curious 
sepulchral memorials, which the Dean has endeavoured to rescue from 
further injuries. On several of the tombs are the sigles, I.M.K.A., the 
import of which he had been unable to ascertain. Mr. Prim contributed 
an enquiry regarding certain missing municipal records of Kilkenny, which 
had passed out of the town clerk's custody in 1747. One of these volumes 
had been presented many years since to Sir William Betham, in whose 
possession it remains ; and it is hoped that the remainder may yet be 
found in other collections. Mr. Windele sent notices of silver ring-money, 
and of the curious variations in form which the rings of that metal present. 
One specimen only had hitherto been found with the cup-shaped extremities, 
resembling those of the gold rings. Mr. Ferguson communicated further 
extracts from records deposited in Master Lyle's Offices, in Dublin, recently 
rescued from oblivion. Mr. Cooke gave an account of a sepulchral cross- 
slab, at the Franciscan monastery, Athlone, with a short inscription in the 
Irish character. He stated the grounds of his supposition that it was the 
memorial of Thorpaith, father of Blathmac, Abbot of Clonmacnoise, in the 
eleventh century ; his curious tomb exists there, and is given by Mr. Petrie, 
in his Treatise on the Round Towers of Ireland, (p. 321.) A description 
of several primeval remains in the Mullinavat district was read by Mr. Cody, 
comprising " rath-souterreins," or cists formed under cairns, each containing 
an urn, covered by a slab ; especially the cairn of Ballynoony, in which 
three such deposits were found : a large erect flag-stone stood near it. 
About 120 feet distant was a Rath, levelled some years since, when a great 
number of rectangular laminae were found, of a substance resembling ivory. 
Near to this, are the remains of a " Leaba," an oblong structure, formed of 
flags, set edge-wise, in three rows, and covered by large flat stones. This 
curious group of vestiges of an early period appear to claim careful examina- 
tion. Mr. Cody sent also plans and accounts of two singular caverns, 
comprising numerous chambers, and connected with those circular entrench- 
ments called Raths. They had been as yet only imperfectly explored. 

YORKSHIRE ANTIQUARIAN CLUB. This society was formed in June, 1849, 
for the very laudable object of promoting research, especially in the 
examination of the remarkable barrows and earth-works, so abundant in the 
northern counties. It comprised many active and " working archaeolo- 
gists," as they are designated in their Annual Report, whose names must 
be held in honourable remembrance by our society, especially by those 
members of the Institute who participated in the interesting Meeting at 
York, in 1846. Their labours have been already productive of valuable 
results, and some of these, for instance, the explorations of sepulchral 
remains, attributed to the Danish period, have been brought before the 
Institute by Dr. Thurnam. 

An important feature of the purpose of this club, consists in its being of 
auxiliary character to the valuable Institution at York, the " Philosophical 
Society," the fruits of all investigations are deposited in their Museum, 
already one of the most instructive and important of our local collections. 
We are gratified by the assurance that the Rev. C. Wcllbeloved, actually 
the president of the " Antiquarian Club," has been engaged in compiling 
the catalogue of that curious assemblage of antiquities ; and his memorials 


of the facts connected with their discovery will form a highly valuable 
complement to his " Eburacum." The club contemplates the further 
investigation of the sepulchral antiquities which have already afforded such 
curious information regarding the various races, the early occupiers of 
Britain; and their efforts may justly claim the sympathy and assistance of 
archaeologists, those especially who have any connexion with the interesting 
districts adjacent to the Northern Marches. Any communication may be 
addressed to W. Procter, Esq., the Secretary of the Society at York. 

A very interesting congress of the Warwickshire Archaeological Society 
and the Architectural Society of Northampton, commenced on May 21st, in 
St. Mary's Hall, at Coventry. The chair was taken by C. H. BBACEBBIDGE, 
Esq. Mr. BLOXAM, whose intimate acquaintance with the ancient vestiges of 
his county is well known to our readers, read a memoir on Ancient-British, 
Roman, and Saxon Remains, not hitherto noticed, especially in reference 
to discoveries on the property of the Earl Craven, at Coombe Abbey ; 
and the curious collection of relics found at Newton, and now in the 
possession of Mr. Goodacre, at Lutterworth. 

The REV. W. STAUNTON gave notices of the Cathedral and Priory of 
St. Mary, at Coventry ; the basement of one of the western towers of the 
cathedral remains, an interesting evidence of its site. The REV. G. A. 
POOLE followed up these memorials with observations on the Churches 
of Coventry. 

The second day was devoted to an excursion to Kenilworth and Warwick 
Castles, and a discourse was delivered at the former by the REV. C. HARTS- 
HORNE, whose - extensive researches and knowledge of the characteristic 
features of Military Architecture in England contributed also materially 
to the gratification of the numerous visitors, by his observations on the 
noble fortress of the Beauchamps, to every part of which access was most 
kindly permitted by the Earl of Warwick. 

jjtttscdlaneous Notices. 

SEVERAL important archaeological publications have recently appeared, 
which we regret to be unable to notice fully in the present Journal. The 
valuable work by Mr. WILSON, Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, entitled " The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," 
claims especial mention, and the interest connected with this beautiful 
volume is not limited to that part of the kingdom to which it is chiefly 
devoted ; it will be consulted with advantage and gratification by all who 
have a regard for National Antiquities, and for the advancement of Scien- 
tific Archaeology. 

Mr. HENRY SHAW has completed a fresh series of his incomparable 
reproductions of the relics of Medieval Times, in which so strong an interest 
is now aroused. He has happily availed himself of opportunities recently 
afforded by the dispersion of several precious continental collections, chiefly 
brought to our own country. This beautiful volume " The Decorative 
Arts of the Middle Ages, Ecclesiastical and Civil," has brought within the 
reach of all a well-chosen series of examples, highly valuable for reference, 



and designed with the most scrupulous fidelity. Amongst these productions 
of Mr. Shaw's skilful pencil, will be noticed with pleasure several subjects 
which, by the liberality of their possessors, have been displayed at the 
meetings of the Institute ; for example, the remarkable silver thurible 
recently rescued from Whittlesea Mere, and exhibited by Mr. Wells at the 
meeting in March (see page 195). We hope to revert to Mr. Shaw's 
interesting and artistic labours on a future occasion. 

We would cordially invite the attention of our readers to the important 
periodical of which we formerly announced the establishment, 1 "The 
Museum of Classical Antiquities." Three quarterly numbers of this work 
are completed : they comprise memoirs of much interest, accompanied by 
illustrations which have rarely been equalled in any archaeological publica- 
tion. The representations of the remarkable paintings at Delphi, by 
Polygnotus, deserve especial commendation ; but independently of these 
attractions, the periodical has that sterling character, and must prove of 
such essential utility in promoting a taste for the higher branches of 
archaeology, that we desire it may meet with extensive encouragement. 
The notices of publications, English and Continental, form a very accept- 
able feature of the work. 

In the favourite department of architectural research, the valuable 
labours of Mr. HUDSON TURNER, in his beautiful volume produced by Mr. 
Parker, " Domestic Architecture in England," claim especial attention. 
Mr. SHARPE'S " Seven Periods of English Architecture," with Mr. FREE- 
MAN'S Essay on Window Tracery, are works of more than ordinary interest. 
A desideratum in this branch of Archaeology has at length been supplied 
by the establishment of an " Architectural Quarterly Review," just com- 
menced by Mr. Bell. 

A curious display of ancient municipal pageantry has been produced by 
Mr. Muskett, of Norwich, entitled " Notices and Illustrations of the Costume, 
Processions, Pageants, <fec., formerly displayed by the Corporation of 
Norwich." Many readers will remember the curious exhibition of the last 
relic of old civic state, the " Whifflers," who appeared for their entertain- 
ment at the meeting of the Institute in that city, and whose performances 
figure in this unique volume. 

The Antiquaries of Wales are progressing with much activity : Mr. Free- 
man and the Rev. W. Basil Jones have finally arranged the publication 
of their " History of St. David's ; " and Mr. Morgan's " Memoirs of Owain 
Glyndwr," are announced ; both to be published by Mr. Mason, of Tenby, 
by whom and by Mr. Pickering subscribers' names are received. The 
Anniversary of the CAMBRIAN ASSOCIATION at Tenby will commence on 
August 20. President, the Earl of Cawdor. 

In the interesting extracts from the Bursar's Accounts, at Winchester 
College, communicated by the Rev. William Gunner (see page 82), it was 
inadvertently stated that Wykeham gave commission to Simon, Bishop of 
Aghadoe, to consecrate the College Chapel. The suffragan who officiated 
on this occasion was the Bishop of Achonry, " episcopus Accadensis," in 
Ireland. He is named in Dr. Cotton's valuable Fasti, Connaught, p. 100. 

1 Archaeol. Journal, vol. vii.. p. 215. subscriber to the four Quarterly Parts ; 
Mr. J. W. Parker is the publisher, West or by post, 1 1. 3s. per annum. 
Strand. One guinea annually entitles the 



WE, the Auditors appointed to audit the Accounts of the 
" Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland," do 
report that the Treasurer has exhibited to us an Account 
of the Receipts and Expenditure of the Institute from the 
1st January to the 31st December, 1850 ; and that we have 
examined the said account, with the vouchers in support 
thereof, and find the same to be correct ; and we further 
report that the following is an Abstract of the Receipts and 
Expenditure of the Institute, during the period aforesaid. 



s. d. 

Balance, as per last Audit ...... 107 13 4 

Annual Subscriptions, including arrears . .... 557 1 

Entrance Fees 48 6 

Life Compositions . . . . . . . . 72 9 

Receipts, by sale of Books, Maps, &c. . . , 24 8 8 

Donations for Illustrations of Journal . . . . 8110 

Net receipts at Oxford, as per Rev. Edward Hill's account . 390 7 

1208 16 





House Expenses, viz : 



House Rent ...... 


Secretary's Salary, three-quarters of year . 

112 10 


29 3 

Stationery . . . . . 

9 4 


Advertising . . . . 

1 14 

312 11 


Publication accounts, viz. : 

Printing . .' , : ' . . . . 

331 11 

Lithographs and Maps .... 

114 19 


Artists and Engravers . . . . 

246 11 


fiQI 9 

Library account, viz. : 

U uO A 

Purchase of Books, and Binding 

19 15 


Miscellaneous Expenditure per Petty Cash : 

Housekeeper's Wages 

25 16 


Messenger's ditto . . . . 

18 8 


Postage . ;''>;.: ., 

9 2 


Stationery .... . . 

5 9 


Advertising ...... 

6 18 


Gratuities ... ... 

1 4 

Booking Parcels 

2 19 


Post Office Orders . , . . . 

1 3 


Lighting, Gas, Carpenter for packing-cases 

for objects exhibited, &c., Duty on Foreign 

books, and small Office-Expenses . 

15 4 


Petty Cash in hand, December 31st, 1850 

3 12 




Balance at Bank, December, 31st, 1850 

81 16 


Ditto in hand of Secretary . 

11 10 

93 6 


1208 16 

AND we, the Auditors, further report, that the Arrears of 
Subscriptions for former years have been much reduced, and 
that the order regarding the issue of the Journal works 
well in causing the Subscriptions of the Members to be paid 
up with greater regularity ; and that a large addition of new 
Members, among whom are men of eminence, have joined 
the Institute during the past year. 

Audited and approved, the 8tk day of May, 1851. 








IN the following observations concerning Silchester, des- 
tined to accompany the plan of that interesting site, it is not 
proposed to announce any discovery, much less to settle 
disputed points regarding its ancient name and former 
inhabitants ; but merely to explain the sketch which has 
been taken of its present state. 

In pursuing this intention I shall proceed, in the first 
place, to notice the outline of the earthworks, as it is con- 
jectured they may have existed originally. I shall next 
endeavour to indicate such additions as we may suppose to 
have been added by the Romans, or under their superin- 
tendence, particularly their roads as distinguished from lines 
of earthwork. And, lastly, to add some observations on 
certain detached lines of intrenchment in the neighbourhood. 

There is scarcely any Roman station, probably, in Britain 
at which so many remains have been discovered, as at Sil- 
chester, and yet antiquaries are not unanimous as to the 
place it holds in the Itineraries, or the Saxon warrior by 
whom it was destroyed. 1 

Nennius, who wrote about the eighth century, calls Sil- 
chester, Caer Segeint ; and a stone dug out of the ruins, 
containing an inscription with the word Saegon on it, has 

1 " Silchester is supposed to have been authority of Henry of Huntingdon, that 

destroyed near the end of the third cen- Caer Segon was destroyed, and that all its 

tury, when Asclepiodatus came over to inhabitants were put to the sword, about 

Britain to suppress the usurpation of A.D. 493, by the Saxon chief Ella, in his 

Allectus ; and it is probable enough that march from Sussex, where he landed, 

the town then suffered a siege, being on to Bath." (United Serv. Journ., p. 38. 

or near the line of march for the oppos- Jan. 1836.) 
ing armies. It is also stated, on the 




been interpreted to signify that the Segontiaci inhabited 
Silchester, and that it was their chief town. This tribe is 
mentioned by Csssar as one that submitted to his arms, 
and is placed by him after the Cenimagni, and before the 
Ancalites. 2 

The great difficulty lies with the Itineraries ; as to whether 
it was the Vindomis, or the Calleva Atrebatum, of Antoninus, 
and Richard of Cirencester. 3 

It is now, however, generally admitted, that, according to 
the explanation of Dr. Horsley, it must be considered the 
Calleva Atrebatum. 4 After an examination of the distances 
between the stations, as given in the Itinerary, with the 
actual distances between the stations known, he thus accounts 
for the place being the residence of both the Segontiaci 
and the Atrebates : 

" The Segontiaci are not mentioned at all by Ptolemy ; 
and possibly in his time, and also when the Itinerary was 
written, might be joined to the Atrebates, and looked upon 

2 Caesar, De Bello Gall., v. 21. 

3 Mr. Kempe says, " Nennius tells us it 
was also called Mwrimintum ; an appella- 
tion which we must consider had allusion 
to its wall, which, even to this day, is so 
strikingly characteristic of its site. The 
term Galleva, or Calleva, of the Roman 
Itineraries, appears to have had the same 
source, and was but a softened form of 
the British Gual Vawr, or the Great Wall." 
(Appendix to Archseologia, vol. xxvii., 
page 416.) There certainly seems a pro- 
bability that the city was divided originally 
between two tribes, if not more. 

Dr. Beeke says, " Now it is certain 
that Calleva was in the direct road from 
London to Bath, and consequently must 
.have been in or near Reading, because 
the nature of the country has caused, that 
the straightest is at the same time the 
most convenient line between those cities, 
and that line passes through Reading." 
(Archeeologia, vol. xv., page 186. 

4 Sir R. C. Hoare observes, " we find 
that Camden, Stukeley, and Dr. Beeke, 
place Vindomis at Silchester ; Horsley, 
at Farnham ; and Mr. Reynolds at the 
Vine ; whilst Dr. Stukeley places Calleva 
at Farnham ; Horsley at Silchester ; Mr. 
Reynolds at Reading ; Dr. Beeke at the 
same place ; and Dr. Milner, the historian 
of Winchester, at Wallingford. To these 
I must add some other opinions, which 
coincide with those of the intelligent in- 
vestigator of Roman antiquities, Horsley, 
and which, I think, rest upon better 

grounds than those of the writers on this 
disputed subject. Among the first I shall 
mention the name of Mr. Lethieullier, a 
gentleman of Hampshire, who collected 
notes of Roman antiquities both at home 
and abroad. In his MS. papers he says, 
that Mr. Horsley has very judiciously 
proved Silchester to be the Calleva Atre- 
batum of the Itineraries. Of the same 
opinion are my learned friends, the Rev. 
Thomas Leman, of Bath, and the Rev. 
Archdeacon Coxe, of Salisbury, from 
whose joint information and notes the 
improved edition of Richard of Ciren- 
cester was published in the year 1809. 
The recent survey of these rival stations, 
and the discovery of a new station on 
Finkley Farm, induce me to agree with 
them in placing Calleva at Silchester." 
(Anc. Wilts., vol. ii., p. 54.) Of this 
" new station on Finkley Farm," Sir 
Richard observes, " the resident farmer 
at Finkley showed us a tile with indented 
marks on it, which we immediately pro- 
claimed to be of Roman manufacture. 
We picked up several fragments of pot- 
tery, and observed marks of old inclosures 
in the corn fields." (Anc. Wilts., vol. ii., 
p. 49.) A more recent anonymous writer 
observes, " the word Segontium remains to 
destroy the possibility of its ever having 
been the Atrebatian Calleva, if it does 
not afford us any light as to Vindomis." 
(Observations upon certain Roman roads 
and towns in the South of Britain, A.D. 
1836, p. 32.) 


only as a part of that people ; so that what was before a city 
of the Segontiaci, might then justly be termed a city of the 
Atrebates." (Brit. Romana, page 442.) 

A writer in the " United Service Journal " (Jan. 1836) ob- 
serves, " The designation Atrebatum is given by Antoninus 
to Calleva, and an inscription on a stone, which was dug up at 
Silchester, appears to have expressed a dedication to Hercules 
of the Segontiaci ; it seems, therefore, that the town was at 
different times subject to those different tribes ; but as the 
boundaries of the Atrebates, the Segontiaci, and Bibroci, appear 
to have coincided in the neighbourhood, and as the Belgse 
from Gaul subsequently gained possession of the same part 
of the country, it is easy to conceive that the place may have 
been considered as belonging to any, or all, of the four 
people." (Page 38.) 

These opinions may receive some support on examination 
of the boundary dividing the counties of Berks and Hants, 
which, taken as a general line, runs from the eastward 
directly towards the middle of Silchester, and continues on 
the opposite side of the station in a similar direction, nearly 
due east and west. The only deviation is at Silchester, 
where Hampshire includes a part of the parish of Mortimer, 
called Mortimer-west-end ; which part was, probably, added 
to the ancient manor of Silchester at an early period, though 
originally belonging to the tribe that occupied the Berkshire 
side of the boundary line. 

The earliest map of Silchester, published by Dr. Stukeley, 5 
makes the form of the place quadrangular. The next was 
an actual survey of the walls by Mr. Wright, the original of 
which is in the King's library, in the British Museum. In 
this the exterior line of defence is omitted. On this map 
were drawn the principal streets, as traced by Mr. Stair 
from time to time, and published, with a description, in the 
Philosophical Transactions, in 1748, by Mr. Ward, Gresham 
Professor. 6 

Although these streets are still visible, a little before 
harvest, in the stunted and discoloured crops where the 
streets ran, the observation that " two of the streets wider 
than the others lead to the four gates of the city, one from 
north to south, the other from east to west," is not correct. 

5 Itinerarium Curiosura. by Mr. A. J. Kempe, in the Appendix to 

6 Philosophical Transactions, No. 490. the 27th vol. of the Archaeologist, Plate 
AD. 1 748. See also a " Plan of Silchester," 32, p. 4 1 9. 


For though the one from north to south runs directly from 
one gate to the other, as drawn in the plan, the other does 
not run directly from east to west, as is stated ; and if it 
did, the streets could none of them be at right angles to 
each other, which in fact they are ; the eastern street being 
a continuation of the Roman way from the eastward, through 
the eastern gate to the forum, or centre building ; and the 
western street running in the direction of the south-east 
angle of the work, and passing on continuously by the north 
end of the centre building. 

It would be necessary to examine these streets year after 
year, as the crops come on successively, in the way Mr. Stair 
did, to be able to make out the whole of them ; but they 
have been sufficiently examined to show that the principal 
streets were towards the true cardinal points, and conse- 
quently at right angles to each other. 7 Such as have been 
observed on the ground are introduced on the map in dotted 

A minute account of the wall will be found in the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions," No. 490, A.D. 1748. It appears to 
have been about 13 feet high, and about 8 feet thick at the 
bottom, composed of layers of flat stones about 30 inches 
apart, with flints between them, set in very strong mortar. 8 
The circuit of the wall is about a mile and a half, and the 
area inclosed is about 102 acres. 

The exterior line of defence, which is at an irregular 
distance, averaging 170 yards from the wall, consists of a 
rampart and outside ditch, which, when complete, may have 
been continuous all round, but at present there is no reason to 
suppose it to have been carried round on the south-east side. 9 
The height of the rampart of this exterior line seems 

7 " The interior has long been subject every direction, that at the earnest re- 

to the action of the plough ; but to the quest of the tenant, the proprietor desired 

eyes of an antiquary the directions of the that the foundations should be covered in. 

ancient streets, at right angles to each See the position of the bath, as laid down 

other, are yet perceptible, by a difference in Mr. A. J. Kempe's Map. (Archseologia, 

in the height of the corn growing on them vol. xxvii., p. 419. Plate xxxii. Ap- 

when compared with its general surface." pendix.) 

(United Service Journal, January, 1836, 8 We could not see the part of the wall 

P- 38.) where, it is stated, the Hat courses were 

The position of the bath has been fixed six in number ; Jive seems the most corn- 
on the map by the concurrent testimony mon number of horizontal courses, making 
of three persons residing at Silchester, about 13 feet. 

who saw the excavation open. Though the 9 The value of the ground, and its 

rector had carefully fenced in a way to southern aspect, may perhaps account for 

the remains, so as to protect the farmer's the more complete destruction of the 

crops, such was the destruction coin- outer entrenchment on the southern side, 
mitted by persons crossing the fields in 


to have been about 15 feet above the interior ; the ditch 
about 60 feet wide, and the bottom of it about 20 feet below 
the top of the rampart. Though this exterior line conforms 
to the shape of the ground in some measure, it does not 
seem to have done so altogether, and, from its irregular 
outline, it seems probable that it existed before the wall was 
built ; and, from its general conformity, that there was a 
rampart where the wall now is before the latter was built. 

If we compare the whole work with some of the ancient 
camps in Cornwall, which are supposed to be British, such as 
Burydown, near Lanreath, and Castle-an-Dinas, near St. 
Columb Major, both of circular form, we might suppose that 
the original outline of Silchester was British also. This may 
receive some confirmation from the three large dikes which 
diverge from it. 1 One from the north gate, points towards 
Pangbourne on the Thames ; one from the south gate, 
apparently, though not exactly, continuous with the northern 
dyke, leads towards "Winchester, and is called by Gough, in 
his additions to Camden, 2 as also by Stukeley, Longbank and 

Another, in the direction from Andover and Old Sarum, 
which comes up close to the ditch of the outer rampart when 
it swells out to the south-west projection, which, it should be 
observed, is not opposite either of the gates in the wall, and 
is therefore probably anterior to its formation, if we suppose 
that at this point there was originally an entrance. 4 Each 
of these lines of entrenchment consists of a rampart and 
ditch the ditch being on the south-east in the two southern 
lines, and on the west in the northern one. 

1 One of these dikes as it leaves the 2 Gough's Camden, vol. i., p. 142. (Per- 

rampart, and the rampart itself, are haps, from Grim, an elf, & hag, witch. 

drawn in Sir R. C. Hoare's Map, in the Bosworth's Diet.) 

2nd vol. of his Ancient Wilts ; but the 3 " Farther on I crossed a great Roman 

rampart is not continued on the eastern road coming from Winchester ; they call 

side, where the traces are sufficiently it Long bank, and Grime's dike." (Page 

strong to introduce it ; and which leads 1 69, Stukeley.) 

Mr. Albert Way to suppose, that the 4 The only way we can suppose this 
amphitheatre was originally within the line to have entered the gate in the wall, 
lines of defence. He says, " an argument either the west or south gate, would have 
in favour of the original continuity of the been by a traverse in the outer en trench- 
exterior line of entrenchment around the incut, near each gate ; for the rampart is 
whole of Silchester, may be gathered, perfect and continuous where the line 
as it strikes me, from the position of the approaches the outer rampart. To this 
amphitheatre, slightly beyond, or, at all supposition the present appearance of the 
events, in a parallel line with the face of ruins offers no difficulty, except that the 
the inner work, on the side where the outer ditch could not have been filled with 
outer work is now wanting." (MS. Notes, water. 
Nov. 1849 ) 


These dykes are not so straight as the lines of Roman 
road, but are curved more or less in several places ; this 
is the more necessary to observe, because from what Gough, 
in his additions to Camden, says, " A military road called 
Longbank and Grimesdyke, pitched with flints, runs from the 
south gate of the town to the north gate of Winchester," 
it would be supposed that this bank was in some part pitched 
with flints, which there is no reason to believe it ever was, as 
it runs half a mile on the west of Latchmore Green, where 
the pitched way has been opened, and where it may be seen 
now, it is presumed, if the surface be removed. Others, fol- 
lowing the above writers, have said the same thing ; but, if 
the matter be examined, it will most likely be found that the 
Roman roads were straight, paved with flints, and bedded in 

The entrenched line, which leaves the outer rampart 
between the west gate and the south gate, at the projection 
before mentioned, runs about 200 yards in a southerly 
direction, and then turns towards the westward, 5 but is not 
to be seen beyond the road from Silchester Common to 
Latchmore Green. 

That which leaves the south gate of the outer rampart is 
scarcely to be seen in the copse for about 200 yards, but, on 
emerging from it, the traces are seen in the fence which has 
been formed on it, being a broad bank raised about two feet or 
more, with a ditch on the south-east side ; it crosses a small 
rill, where it is obscure, and thence serves as a field-way as 
far as the road from Silchester Common to Latchmore Green, 
where a pond in the road seems to have been formed in the 
ditch of the entrenchment ; crossing the road, it forms the 
south side of the lane, called the Old-house Road, for about 
150 yards ; thence, bending to the south, it is large and well 
defined as it runs towards the brook, on each side of which, 
for a short distance, it is not traceable, but appears again in 
a broad fence as it proceeds to form the east side of the 
wood, on the boundary of Silchester parish. Crossing the 
parish boundary it continues straight as it enters the wood 
in the parish of Pamber, and continues to form the east 
boundary of the wood till we come to Frog Lane. At this 

s In the Map of Silchester, given in the road from Old Sarum, and a branch is 
2nd vol. of " Ancient Wilts.," this turn continued, which we failed to notice, as a 
above-mentioned is described as a " Roman " Roman road from Winchester." 


spot it makes a slight bend to the south, and may be traced, 
but very obscurely, close on the west of the farm buildings, 
and at about 150 yards distance disappears altogether ; this 
last direction, which is south-west by west, would lead near 
to the hamlet called Little London, considerably to the west 
of where the supposed Roman road had been ploughed up by 
a person named William Morrell, in Long Ayliffs Field. 

The third entrenched line, which, as we have already 
stated, points northward, cannot be seen for 330 yards after 
it has left the outer entrenchment. As we enter Ford's 
Copse, the traces are very evident, and continue to within a 
short distance of the brook, where it is lost, but appears 
again, with the ditch on the west side, (which seems to be 
partly natural and partly artificial) as we ascend the hill. 
In the meadow, west of the farm house, it is totally lost ; 
and though it is probable that it followed the course of the 
road, close to the pound and the pond, the traces are scarcely 
sufficient to be considered a continuation of it, though beyond 
the cross road, on the west of the fence, in the same con- 
tinuous right line, a bank and ditch look very like its course ; 
but beyond this nothing has been traced of either the rampart 
or the ditch. 

These three entrenched lines are very similar, but there is 
no reason to suppose that they are of Roman construction ; 
for they are not straight, have not been found to have been 
paved, and the low ground, or ditch, is only on one side. 6 

Having thus examined what there is left of the entrenched 
lines, we will now proceed to examine what traces may be 
discerned of the Roman ways. And, first, we may observe, 
that since the neighbourhood of Silchester consists of the 
rolled flints and sands of Bagshot Heath, or of the plastic 
clay formation, it is not at all probable that any of the large 
unrolled flints of the chalk would be found near the surface 
of the ground. The only large stones found about the place 

6 If we presume these three lines of angles to this principal street ; also, that 

entrenchment, with the outer rampart the street from the west gate was made 

and ditch, as well as an inner rampart to conform with an ancient entrance, and 

and ditch on which the present wall that they broke through the rampart to 

stands, to have existed before the Romans form an entrance on the east for their own 

visited the island, it is possible, that Roman way ; for had they constructed 

finding the present north and south gate- the work anew, there was nothing in the 

way in existence, they made their prin- ground to have made them deviate from 

cipal street between them, and drew the the usual method of rectangular construc- 

rest some parallel, and others at right tion of the walls. 


are those sandstones called grey wethers, or sarsen stones, 
which Dr. Buckland supposed to be " the wreck of the harder 
portion of the sandy strata of the contiguous London and 
New Forest basins. 7 

These stones appear to have been used pretty freely in the 
formation of the wall of Silchester, together with oolitic rocks, 
probably from the north-west of Oxford. As these large 
flints are uncommon about the fields in the neighbourhood, 
it is not to be wondered at that, when a plough comes in 
contact with a bed of them, however narrow, it should be 
noticed ; and indeed, when there are so few building stones 
in the immediate neighbourhood, it would not be remarkable 
if they were sought after and dug up whenever the plough 
touched on them. From examination of places near Sil- 
chester where these flints have been found, which generally 
are about two feet below the present surface, and further 
westward on the chalk, where the line has not sunk so much, 
or become covered by deposition, there is reason to think 
that the line was never raised to a great height above the 
surface, and that the fall was the same on each side of the 

The most easily recognised line of Roman way is that 
known as the Devil's Causeway at Bagshot Heath ; it passes 
about 200 yards on the north of Finchamstead church, 
crosses near Thatcher's Ford (where it is the south boundary 
of an isolated part of the county of Wilts), and seems, under 
the present name of Park Lane, to have originally given name 
to Turgis, Saye, and Mortimer, Stratfield? tj 

Having come from the eastward, with a direction due 
west, where it arrives at the cross road (at the west end of 
Park Lane), it makes the smallest possible bend, one scarcely 
perceptible, and runs the last mile and three quarters due 
west into the east gate of Silchester. 

7 Trans. Geo. Soc., No. 12, p. 126. them extremity of the park, and passes 
This paper was an important step in through a ford near the junction of the 
advance of the geological knowledge of Blackwater and Whitewater rivers, about 
the day when it was written. (Read Feb. 8, two miles from the place where the united 
1825.) streams fall into the Loddon ; but the 

8 " The road issues from the town at traces of its course are much interrupted 
the eastern gate, where the present church by cultivation till we come to West Court 
of Silchester is situated, and proceeds hi House, the seat of the Rev. H. E. St. John, 
a rectilinear direction through Strathfield- built, according to tradition, upon the road 
saye, along what is now called Park Lane, itself, the direction of which is marked by 
which is scarcely passable hi the whiter the avenue to the mansion." (United Ser- 
season. The line of its direction crosses vice Journal, Jan. 1836 : Part 1, p. 39.) 
the Loddon, near the bridge, at the nor- 


Though there can be little doubt that this is the true 
Roman line, we find no ditch on either side, or any embank- 
ment, nor any flints on the surface ; but when we find that 
this last direction of the line leads through the east gate, and 
coincides, in continuation, with a street as traced within the 
ancient town, we cannot refuse to admit that we are on the 

Beyond this, however, we may observe, that though the 
course of the present road terminates 1000 yards before it 
arrives at the gate, and the line of the fence forward can 
scarcely be relied on, a recent breaking up of a meadow, 
called Mouse-hill Meadow, which liad been grass-land beyond 
the memory of man, disclosed the bed of flints embedded 
in gravel cemented with ferruginous clay, precisely in the 
line towards the gate, about a foot or 18 inches below the 
surface, and I saw them carted away as an obstruction to 
cultivation. This field is the second from the gate, and the 
third from the cross-road. 

The next important line of Roman road from Silchester 
was towards Winchester. 9 This also is presumed to have 
been straight, at least as far as Rook's Down, near Basing- 
stoke, over which it appears to have gone, there being a 
tradition that a part of it was formerly dug up, the present 
general appearances also of the road confirming this. 

This road does not appear to have departed straight in 
continuation from the south gate of the wall ; but the north 
and the south gate being truly so of each other, the street 
connecting them was continued, it is presumed, in each 
instance, on to the outer rampart, and the road commenced 
its direction through the town from that outer gate. 

Presuming this to have been the direction of the south 
road, to which the present line generally conforms for a con- 
siderable distance, we find it to be bearing S. W. to S 2 S., 
and, following this course, at Latchmore Green we find that 
remains have been dug up in two gardens, 1 and a small 
meadow 2 on the west of the present road, and that other 
remains have been ploughed up on Moor's Farm, in a field 
called Long AylifFs. 3 

9 " There is one of these (military ways) sawpit at the back of Moor's Farm ; and, 

yet visible, that leads towards Winchester." in (Jigging down, came upon a bed of 

(Horsley, p. 459.) large flints like a road. A. Ham heard his 

1 Statement of John and Ambrose father speak of the same flints. 

Ham. James Simpson, a sawyer, at Sil- - Stated by David Norris. 

Chester, ninety years of age, made a 3 By William Morrell, of Moor's Farm. 



On a survey of the direction and bearing of these places 
pointed out, and on an examination of the flints, we find that 
each place coincides with the general line and with the parti- 
cular bearing, whence we conclude that such is the true 
course of the road, and that it crosses Rook's Down and the 
turnpike road from Basingstoke to Andover, at Worting, two 
miles on the west of Basingstoke. 4 

The next line we shall notice is that from Old Sarum 
(Sorbioduno) to Silchester. 

Though the general bearing of this line (N. E. by E. 6 E.) 
runs straight upon Silchester, no trace of it can be seen on 
the east of Foscot, which is six miles from the place. At 
this distance it is not easy to say which gate it entered at, 
but the probability is that it was on the south. 5 Several 
places were examined where the stunted corn showed the 
existence of solid materials below ; but as it is common for 
the gravel, of which the country is composed, to be consoli- 
dated by the percolation of water through it, containing a 
portion of iron and clay, there is no confidence to be placed 
in these indications alone, particularly as the flints were 

A line of this sort was pointed out, by the gamekeeper in 
Pamber Forest, 6 where, from the undisturbed state of the 
surface, some indications would be expected ; but, though 
vestiges are near the line, they contain no flints, and there- 
fore cannot be depended on : supposing them to be real 
traces, the line would have run about 50 yards north of the 
bridge which divides the parishes of Pamber and Tadley, on 1 
the road from Basingstoke to Aldermaston. 

Pushing on to the westward, to catch the true bearing of 
the line, we came up to it at about a mile north-west of 
Hannington, where an old farmer pointed it out across 
several fields : about this place it is clearly drawn on the ] 
Ordnance map. The Portway, which is the name it still 

4 " The road from Silchester to Win- porary junction with the Winchester and 

Chester falls into this " (Popham Lane) Silchester road, somewhere about Rook's 

" near Kempshot turnpike-gate, at an Down, along the escarpment of the chalk, 
angle of incidence of about 40." (Auony- 6 A person, named Joseph Watson, to " 

mous Obs. on Rom. Roads, &c., p. 29.) some trouble to point out to me where 

6 It is possible, as this course is not thought the line passed ; through Fra^ 

followed in any of the lines given in the Green Copse, and Bentley-Green Coj 

Itineraries, that it was never completed across a drain, diagonally through 

through the forest of Pamber ; but that cottage meadows, under his barn, and i 

the way from Foscot may have taken the continuing westward acroes the road, abon 

course of the upper ground as a tern- fifty yards north of the bridge. 


bears, passes Hannington about a mile on the north, and 
crosses the field- way leading to Plantation Farm, near Wool- 
verton, about 240 yards north of the cross road ; thence it 
follows the fence nearly, which is a very thick one, for some 
distance, and then falls obliquely into the valley where the 
farmer still points out the mark of it in his corn at particular 
seasons ; but it is exceedingly obscure, except where it passes 
the road and has caused a slight bend in its line ; thence it 
passes the cross road about 90 yards on the south of it ; it 
crosses the lane called Pit Lane, about 260 yards east of the 
cross road above mentioned, and is fairly visible as it ascends 
the hill to cross the road from Woolverton to Ewhurst. 

Beyond this there is not the least vestige, in an easterly 
direction, to be depended on ; and even what has been de- 
scribed above could not have been traced but from a projection 
of the straight line. Still the slight bend in the old Reading 
Road seems to mark where the ancient way passed, and the 
line carried forward falls on the old cottage called Foss Cot, 
which derived its name probably from being situated in the 
fosse, or on the dyke of the Roman way. The farm buildings 
are more recent in appearance than the cottage, hence the 
name of Foscot Farm has probably been derived from the 
Cot. A little on the west of these buildings, on the side 
of the old road, is a farm which was once a public house, 
called the " Brazen Head." As this line was straight, there 
could have been no choice of ground between Old Sarum and 
Silchester ; but no present road descends the chalk range of 
hills with less sudden declivity than this old line called the 

No attempts we made to carry the line forward to the 
eastward were successful ; and though there can be no doubt 
that it ran a little on the south of Tadley Place, the resident 
farmer has never heard of it, though he has resided there 
for many years. 7 

The next road we can only suppose to have existed, for 
there are no remains to be seen of it. As there is a west 
gate, there must have been a road branching from it, and 
the present county boundary between Hampshire and Berk- 
shire, as a general line, seems probably to have been the course 
of it towards Newbury (Spina)). The general line of this 

7 Some ancient painted glass exists in one of the windows at Tadley Place, winch 
is not undeserving of notice. 



boundary runs towards a large tumulus, which, at a distance 
of four miles from JSilchester, forms the meeting point of the 
parishes of Brimpton, Wasing, Aldermaston, and Baughurst, 
as we understood ; Tadley, at one time, we are told, ran up 
to it also ; but, in some dispute with the parish of Baug- 
hurst, a part of the common was lost. 

Those who have examined cases where the boundary over 
unenclosed commons has been disputed, will be prepared to 
learn that the county line is not straight, and, though the 
general line is tolerably so, there are several bends in it ; 
still it seems probable that this county line of boundary to 
the west of Silchester was as much a line of road as the 
similar line on the east. 

It has been observed before, that taking the course of this 
west line as compared with that on the east, by Park Lane, 
it seems probable that Mortimer-west-end was once within 
the boundary of Berkshire, and that it was in ancient times 
taken within the Hundred of Holdshot to enlarge the manor 
of Silchester. 8 

The present county boundary was made at , the general 
enclosure, and an old resident on Tadley Common, who 
assisted in making the fence, contended that previously there 
was no fence over the common between the counties ; we 
may, therefore, borrow a little from each side, and presume 
that the original line, the ancient division of the tribes, ran 
straight to the large tumulus 9 on Baughurst Common, fand 
perhaps was the line of the Roman way as far as the tumulus, 
and that thence towards Newbury (Spinse) the Roman road 
took another direction. Be this as it may, there is not even 
a flint in the way side to lead to a supposition that the road 
was ever there, 1 

8 At a little more than a mile from die 
West Gate on this line of boundary is an 
ancient stone, called Nymph Stone. Some 
suppose the word may have been Imp, and 
thus have been placed by the Romans ; 
but as it forms the boundary stone of 
parishes, as well as counties, at that spot, 
it seems more likely to have been placed 
where it is, when Mortimer West End is 
presumed to have been added to Holdshot 
Hundred. I think I was indebted for the 
above suggestion regarding Mortimer 
West End to the Rev. Mr. Coles, the rector 
of Silchester, whose permission to examine 
the parish map, and even to dig for re- 
mains within the glebe lands, 1 am desirous 
to acknowledge, with thanks. 

9 This tumulus is the most easterly of 
three, near to each other, near the Lodge 
Gate, at the entrance leading to Wasing. 
It is surrounded by a ditch of GO yards 
in diameter ; and though a great quantity 
has been carried away, it still stands a 
remarkable monument of former times. 
These tumuli are called Baughurst bar- 
rows ; they are about 560 feet above the 
sea level, and about 460 feet below the 
chalk range. 

1 Dr. Beeke observes, " no traces remain 
of any regularly drawn road from Silchester 
to Newbury, wherefore I think that the 
western communication with the road 
from London to Bath was at Thatcliaiu.'! 
(Archtcologia, vol. xv., p. 184.) 


The last line we shall examine is that diverging from the 
north gate ; and if we take the line of entrenchment in 
Ford's Copse for it, leading, as it does, towards Pangbourne, 
we must do so on the appearance and course of the en- 
trenchment alone, and not from any other evidence of 
flints or embedded gravel. It must be observed, however, 
that each of these road-like entrenchments, the one pointing- 
tow ards Winchester, that towards Old Sarum, and this to- 
wards Pangbourne, branch off from this place at a projection 
in the exterior line of defence, and in two instances at a 
Roman gateway. This does not prove them to have been 
roads, but may lead to the supposition that they were co- 
eval with the Roman work, if not made before it. On the 
other hand, it seems unlikely that works of the kind would 
have remained even so perfect as they are, during the long- 
period which elapsed from the building of the wall to the 
destruction of the place, occupied as the place must have 
been by a numerous population. 

Such are the principal works connected with Silchester. 
We will now, lastly, proceed to add some observations on 
two other lines of entrenchment in the neighbourhood, which, 
though unconnected with Silchester, or with each other, may 
deserve a notice. 

The first we may describe is situated on Mortimer Heath, 
about a mile and a half from Silchester, in a N. by E. 
direction. 2 

The length of the entrenchment, which consists of a 
rampart, and ditch on the north side, is about 380 yards, its 
west end resting on the Reading road at about 450 yards 
after it leaves the Mortimer and Aldermaston road ; its 
course is E.N.E. On the opposite side of the road, to the 
west end of this entrenchment, at a distance of about 180 
yards in a west direction, and near a deep ravine which has 
been artificially made into a pond, is an oval space, of about 
40 by 60 yards in extent, having the appearance of, and 

2 " At the distance of about a mile and according to a tradition current among 

a half from Silchester, towards the north- the country people, at one time entirely 

west, there still exists a long embankment surrounded the city. This last work must 

of earth with its ditch, which, after being have constituted an external fortification, 

interrupted for about two miles, appears strengthening the place ; the former is, 

again in a spot situated due north of the probably, a remnant of some entrench- 

town, near the village of Mortimer ; and inent which had been raised for the pro- 

iu the immediate vicinity of the walls, near tection of an army acting on the defensive, 

the north gate, are the remains of another and covering the town on that side." 

embankment of the same kind, which, (United Service Journal, Jan. 1836, p. 38.) 


traditionally said to have been, a camp ; but so very little 
remains of either rampart or ditch, that it is difficult to 
say what it has been ; still, when considered in connection 
with the entrenchment so near it, and which seems once to 
have extended towards it, we may accept- the tradition as 

About 500 yards on the north of this camp, on the north 
side of the road from Mortimer, and close to it, are three 
tumuli ; the centre one is the largest, being about 40 yards 
in diameter, the other two about 25 yards each. 

It is impossible to speculate on the purpose of these works, 
but a notice of the position of the ditch of the entrenchment 
will be made hereafter. 

The second entrenchment which we have to describe is 
that in Aldermaston Park, about two miles N. W. by W. 
of Silchester, and a mile and a half from Aldermaston ; this 
consists, like the former, of a rampart and deep ditch on 
the north-west side, and at a short distance from the front 
were once some tumuli, but they are now nearly destroyed. 
This entrenchment is nearly a mile in length, running in a 
N.E. by N. direction ; it may have been connected with some 
camp, as the Mortimer Heath one is, and something of the 
sort is mentioned in "Chandler's History of Silchester," 
(page 39), but we could neither see nor hear of the re- 
mains in question. 3 

The south end of this Aldermaston entrenchment is turned 
by the ditch, as if it were never carried further ; and, as this 
end approaches the termination of a ravine, as well as the 
north end, it is probable that it may have been cast up as a 
breast- work before a defensive position ; the tumuli are found 
also on the ditch side, or front, in this case as well as in that 
at Mortimer Heath, so that it is possible they may both 
have been thrown up for the same purpose. 

The great signal post of this district must always have 
been Beacon Hill, about a mile from Burghclere (which 
perhaps took its name from the fortified post), and about 
twelve miles S. 4S. of Silchester ; it is visible also from 

3 Dr. Beeke remarks, " There is a re- Padworth, and Aldermaston, excepting 

markable fosse about a mile and a half where interrupted in two or three places 

from Silchester, o'n the N. W., which by boggy valleys of very small extent, 

begins about a quarter of a mile to the The ditch is on the side of the mound 

south of Uftoii Church, and runs straight most distant from Silchester." (Archseo- 

tlirough the whole of the parishes of Ufton, logia, vol. xv., p 1H5.) 


Lowbury, near Compton, on the north, and from Egbury on 
the south. 

EGBUKY CAMP (Vindomis f) 

A learned commentator on Richard of Cirencester's Itinerary, 
remarks respecting the situation of Vindomis " Of the next 
station we can merely offer a conjecture. As the country 
of the Atrebates and their capital Catteva, or Silchester, is by 
our author described as lying near the Thames, in distinction 
from that of the Segontiaci, whose capital, Vindomis, was 
further distant from that river, and nearer the Kennet, one 
point only appears to suit the distances, which bears the 
proper relation to the neighbouring stations, and at the same 
time falls at the intersection of two known Roman Roads. 
This is in the neighbourhood of St. Mary Bourne, and affords 
reason for considering Egbury camp, or some spot near it, as 
the capital of the Segontiaci." 4 

On examination of the neighbourhood of St. Mary Bourne, 
we find no remains of any buildings to lead to the supposition 
that a station so remarkable as the Vindomis of the Romans 
was ever placed there. 

Egbury camp, or castle, is situated one mile and a half 
east of St. Mary Bourne, and about the same height above 
the sea as Silchester. 

The castle, as the entrenchment is called, is in the form of 
an irregular pentagon, and may originally have enclosed about 
twelve acres ; but a great part of the rampart has been de- 
stroyed, and the whole of the ditch has been filled in. There 
is but one entrance visible, which is on the west, though there 
are slight vestiges of one on the east, with faint traces of a 
road communicating with the ancient way from Newbury to 
Winchester ; which way seems to have touched, if not actually 
entered the south-east angle of the camp, and thence have 
taken a new direction towards Winchester. 

The rampart is about nine feet high in one part, towards 
the north-west angle, at which angle there may have been a 
signal post. 

Though the vestiges of the ditch are scarcely to be seen, 
its depth was considerable, as the farmer adjoining found 
when he dug on the east side for a pond ; this excavation 

4 See the late Mr. Leman's observa- See also Sir R. C. Hoare's Anc. Wilts., 
tions, appended to Mr. Hatcher 'sedition vol. ii. 
of Richuvd of Cirencester, 1809, p. 156. 


failed for the purpose of containing water, the bottom being 
composed of rubbish, rich manure, and broken pottery. 
Scarcely any of the relics found seem to have been pre- 
served; two Roman coins, apparently of Gallienus and Claudius 
Gothicus, picked up here, are now in the possession of 
Mrs. Vincent at the farm-house adjoining. These, however, 
are not sufficient to prove that Egbury was the Vindomis of 
the Itineraries. 

With respect to the distances of the camp from the Port- 
way, the farmer pointed out clearly where it ran, 5 despairing 
of being ever able to reduce the stony line to the fertility of 
the surrounding soil ; its bearing proves the correctness 
of his observation, though the uncertainty of its appearance 
has been the cause of its not being continued just here in the 
Ordnance map. The distance from Silchester would agree 
with the Itinerary, being nearly fifteen miles ; but that from 
Winchester can scarcely be re<;onciled with the distance of 
Vindomis from. Venta Belgarum, being stated in the Itinerary, 
both of Antoninus and Richard, to be twenty-one miles. 

If we follow the straight line in one case, it would be 
but consistent to do so in another, and even with the short 
miles of D'Anville 6 we cannot make more than sixteen 
miles between Winchester and St. Mary Bourne. Haci 
this been the Vindomis, it is presumed that some distance 
from Speen (Spinis) would also have appeared in one of the 

The Portway is traceable from the certainty of its having 
followed a straight line : it must have crossed the St. Mary 
Bourne stream about 250 yards south of the church, where 
there is still a ford and foot-bridge into Chorley Meadow 
this ford may possibly have been continued from the 
Roman age. Proceeding to the west, its traces appear at 
the south-east corner of Butt Close, and ascending that field, 
in which a few of the enormous flints are still found, it is 
visible as a slight ridge through Deny-down Copse, and 
thence forms the ancient pathway to Flesh, or Fleych Stile, 
where it becomes visible as the common road to Middlewick 
Farm. About half a mile beyond the farm it descends to 
lower ground, and passes the end of a deep entrenchment 

5 About 770 yards S.W. of Mr. Vincent's Chron., p. 475. " From these results 
house. D'Anville estimates the Roman mile at 755 

6 Bohn's Antiq. Lib , Six Old Eng. toises, or 1593 yards, English measure." 


called the Devil's Ditch, or Dike. 7 In its general bearing 
this work runs south. 8 It is not quite straight, but conforms 
to the shape of the valley for some distance from the road, 
about a quarter of a mile perhaps, and distinguished beyond 
that by a plantation of fir trees, where it is said to form the 
boundary of the parish of St. Mary Bourne. There it is well 
preserved, and may be examined to advantage, particularly 
at its south end, where the railway has cut through it and 
exposed a section, from which it would appear that the 
ditch was about eight feet below the ground, and the rampart 
the same above it, with the ditch on the west. From the 
railway it ascends a rising ground called Tinker's Hill, and 
sweeps round the west edge of the summit in a manner to 
present its ditch to the westward, thus commanding a view 
of the declivity, and, at the same time, forming a defence to 
the top of the hill. It does not appear to have been carried 
beyond this hill, and terminates about 350 yards to the 
south of the old road called the Oxen-drove. Though there 
is a tradition that the entrenchment extended beyond the 
Portway on the north, we could not ascertain, nor see any 
proofs of the story ; but about 800 yards north-west of the 
point of junction we find two tumuli, on a rising ground, a 
little on the west of Trendley Copse. These tumuli are 
situated, it may be observed, on the ditch-side of the 
entrenchment. Devil's Ditch may have been an ancient way, 
or a boundary, of which the Portway may havo been its 
connecting way or side. 


The various relics of Roman times which have been 
disinterred from time to time at Silchester, are very 
numerous. Gough, in his additions to Camden's Britannia 
(vol. i., p. 204, edit. 1806), has enumerated many, now, it 

7 It is near to this ancient dike that with Mr. Leman, in placing Vindomia 
Sir 11. C. Hoare has placed Vindomw, on near Andover, on the way to Salisbury, 
Finkley Farm, about 600 yards on the only because it lies wide of Winchester, 
south of the Portway, and 200 yards to but because there is every reason to be- 
the west of the dike. lieve that the Port-way, or Salisbury 

The distance of this spot, from Sil- road, was not at that period in existence, 

Chester, is about seventeen English miles ; for the Itineraries uniformly make the 

and that to Winchester about thirteen, in road to Salisbury pass through Win- 

a straight line. (Anc. Wilts., voL ii., Chester." (Anonymous Obs. Rom. Roads, 

p. 49 ; fol. ed.) &c., p. 30.) 

8 " Neither can I bring myself to agree 



may be feared, irrecoverably dispersed. Three inscriptions 
only appear to have been found ; one given by Camden, 
the sepulchral memorial of Flavia Victorina, seen by him in 
Lord Burghley's garden, in London, and subsequently noticed 
by Horsley as preserved at Conington. (Brit. Rom., pi. 75, 
p. 332.) It does not appear to have been removed thence, 
with other inscriptions, now at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
The second referred to in the foregoing observations, the 
dedication of a Temple, as supposed, to Hercules, was found 
about 1744, and formed the subject of a memoir by Professor 
Ward, in the Philosophical Transactions (vol. xliii., p. 200). 
A bronze frame, in which this tablet had been affixed, was 
subsequently brought to light, and both of these interesting 
relics came into the possession of Dr. Mead ; they afterwards 
passed into the collection of Mr. Foote, Rector of Yoxal, 
and thence into that of Mr. Duane. In the " Monumenta 
Historica," this inscription is given (No. 121 a.), but it is 
not stated where the tablet is now preserved. The third, 
described by Gough (as above, p. 205,) and stated, on the 
authority of Mr. Ward, to exist at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
was found in 1732 ; it is supposed to refer either to Julia 
Domna, wife of Severus, or to Julia Mammea. (See also 
Archreol., vol. xxvii., pi. 32, p. 417.) 

Mr. Barton, the present occupant of the site of Silchester, 
and who resides at the Manor House, within the area of 
the city, has, with very praiseworthy care, preserved a 
considerable collection of coins and ancient relics of various 
kinds, there brought to light. They were, by his kindness, 
submitted to the examination of the members of the Insti- 
tute, who were received by him in the most obliging manner, 
on the occasion of their visit to Silchester, June 22, 1850, 
during the Oxford Meeting. We have to acknowledge our 
obligations to Mr. D. J. Maclauchlan for the communication 
of several drawings, representing ancient objects of the 
Roman period, now in Mr. Barton's possession, as also for 
the enumeration of his coins, discovered at Silchester. The 
list comprises Vespasian, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, 
Antoninus Pius, Faustina, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus, 
Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, Valerian, Gallienus, Salonina, 
Tetricus, father and son, Carausius (several, one with Rev. 
ROMA AETER.), Allectus, Licinius, Valens, Constantino, 
Magnentius, and Honorius, (A.D. 395 423.) A few Roman 


In the possession of Mr. Barton. (Orig. 



gold coins have occurred at Silchester. An aureus of Valens 
is in Mr. Barton's cabinet. One of Arcadius was found 
in 1791, and is figured Gent. Mag., June, 
1 792, p. 529. A rare aureus of Allectus, and 
one of Valentinian, have also been found. 

We do not find in Mr. Barton's interest- 
ing little museum any ancient relics formed 
of the precious metals, such as the curious 
gold ring, found in ploughing at Silchester 
in 1785, bearing an antique head, inscribed 
IINDE (sic) Archaeol., viii., p. 449. Objects 
of such intrinsic value are rare, but he is 
in possession of several fibulae, armlets, and 
other ornaments of bronze of various kinds. 
By Mr. D. Maclauchlan's kindness, we are 
enabled to give representations of a few 
of them. They comprise a bronze stylus, 
and a ligula or probe, similar to that figured 
in Mr. Lee's representation of Roman relics 
from Caerleon, in this Journal (ante, p. 160). 
Also a bronze key, adjusted so as to be 
worn as a finger-ring ; a variety of the 
clams Laconica. Such rings have repeatedly 
been found on Roman sites. Van Rymsdyk 
has given one, found at Verulam, in his 
" Museum Britannicum," tab. vii. ; and a 
good specimen, disinterred at Chesterford 
in 1847, is in the Hon. Richard Neville's 
Museum at Audley End. Another may be 
seen figured in the "Museum Kircherianum," 
tab. liv. The accompanying woodcuts re- 
present a fibula of unusually slender fashion, 
a small bell, a curious little object in the 
form of an axe (securicula), possibly a child's 
toy, and a singular relic, like a miniature 
gridiron, with three diminutive projections, 
or feet on one side ; it appears to have 
been adjusted to a handle, of wood possibly, 
or bone, but its use has not been ascertained. 
All these are of bronze, and the representations are of the 
same size as the originals. It may deserve notice that the 


double axe occurs amongst the various crepundia attached 
to a band worn over the shoulder on a statue in the Museo 
Pio Clementino, as shown by Mr. Rich in his useful " Illus- 
trated Companion to the Latin Dictionary," p. 214. This 
is in accordance with the observation of Plautus, " Porro 
crepundia solebant esse annuli, ensiculi, securiculte, maniculse, 
bullse, siculse," &c. There are also in Mr. Barton's cabinet 
miniature figures of a lion, a wolf, (?) and an eagle with 
its wings displayed ; the last measuring about two inches 
in length. An eagle, described as of steel, was dug up at 
Silchester about 1788, and exhibited to the Society of Anti- 
quaries. (Archseol., ix., p. 370.) It was supposed to have 
been a military ensign. 

Amongst the relics of which Mr. D. Maclauchlan has 
kindly communicated sketches, must also be noticed the base 
of a column (diam. and height 22 in., diam. of base-mould- 
ings 28 in.), a fragment of a shaft (height 45 in., diam. 14 
in.), and the upper portion of a capital, with bold foliated 
ornaments, but much defaced. Its greatest width, at top, 
measures 3 ft. 5 in. This is probably the same fragment 
"of the Corinthian order" noticed by Dr. Beeke in 1804 
(Archseol., vol. xv., p. 184), and it is interesting as the 
indication that some architectural monument, of no ordinary 

importance, existed at Calleva. 

A. w. 



THE reign of Edward III. is a period of great importance, 
both in an historical, and artistic point of view, as regards 
the annals of the great seal of England. It is historically 
important because some of the principal events in the French 
wars of that monarch were followed by an alteration in the 
design of his great seal. On this point we refer our readers 
to the very able and lucid notice of the great seals of 
England, and especially those of Edward III., by the learned 
Professor Willis, in the Second Vol. of this Journal. It is 
there stated that Edward III., at various periods of his reign, 


Preserved among the Muniments, Winchester College. 


Preserved among the Muniments, Winchester College. 


used not less than seven different great seals, which for 
facility of reference are designated by the letters, A, B, c, D, 
E, F, G. It is not a little remarkable that impressions of the 
whole series of the known great seals of our Monarchs have 
been preserved, with the single exception of one of the most 
important of those used by this king. It is the one designa- 
ted by Professor Willis by the letter E ; and is a seal of 
absence, 1 i. e, a seal left in England by the king during his 
absence abroad, " pro regimine regni Anglie." We have 
now the pleasure of laying before our readers an engraving 
of a great seal of Edward III., which has never been 
published, and which we hope to show can be no other than 
the desired seal. The drawing has been made from two 
impressions, each partly imperfect, found in the muniment 
room of Winchester College. We take this opportunity of 
expressing our great obligations to the Warden of that 
society for the ready kindness, with which he permitted 
these documents to be laid before the Institute, and for many 
other favours of the same kind. They are both pardons 
granted, one to John Makehayt, the other to Agnes, widow 
of Simon le Peke, for acquiring land in Meonstoke, 2 Hants, 
without the royal license previously obtained. They are 
both attested by Prince Lionel, then guardian of the realm, 
and dated at Worcester, October 5th, An. Reg. Ang. 21 mo, 
Fran. 8vo, A.D. 1347. 

On comparing this engraving with seal F (see Rymer, 
vol. iii. p. 596), it will be found to be almost identical in 
general design. The principal points of difference are, 1st. 
that in seal F, the platform on which the throne is placed 
is extended from pillar to pillar, affording room for the lions 
also to stand on it, whilst in this seal, it is only large enough 
to receive the throne, and the lions appear to stand on the 
base of the arcade behind the throne ; 2nd. instead of the 
nondescript figures which surmount the canopies on which the 
shields are suspended in seal F, there are two small figures 
of men at arms, standing on the battlements, in which the 
canopies terminate. 

We have now to show that the seal here engraved is the 
seal E ; and in doing so, we shall, though at the risk of 

1 For the distinction between the seal the king in capitc, by the service of two 

of absence and seal of presence, the knights' fees. It is now the property of 

reader is referred to Prof. Willis's paper. Winchester College. 

* The uiauor of Meoustoke was held of 


being somewhat tedious, trace the history of this seal through 
all the notices relating to it to be found in Rymer, up to the 
date of these documents ; for it is a matter of the first 
importance, in elucidating the claim of this seal to be the 
seal E, to fix dates accurately. The history of the first 
four seals, A, B, c, D, of Edward III., is concisely stated in 
Professor Willis's account. We begin then with the seals E 
and F. The first of these, as mentioned above, was the seal 
of absence, used for the government of England, while the 
king was abroad ; the latter was the seal of presence, which 
always accompanied him in his peregrinations ; and on his 
return to England, was delivered to the chancellor, and the 
seal E, was taken from him, a.nd sealed up, and deposited in 
the treasury, or committed to such other custody as the 
king thought fit. It first makes its appearance on the 20th 
June, 1340 ; when the Archbishop of Canterbury, on retiring 
from the Chancellorship, resigned its predecessor (D) into 
the hands of the king, who caused it to be immediately 
broken ; and delivered a new seal to John de St. Paul, to 
be kept by him, until the coming of Robert, Bishop of 
Chichester, who had been appointed Chancellor, and to 
whom it was transferred on the 12th July ; 3 the king having 
in the meantime gone abroad. 4 He returned on the 30th 
November ; and on the 1st December, within the Tower 
of London, received from the Chancellor the great seal for 
the rule of England during his absence, and committed it to 
William de Kildesby, keeper of the Privy Seal, who carried 
it on the next Saturday, with another great seal (F), which 
the king had brought with him from abroad, to the church 
of All Hallows, Barking, and there sealed certain writs, 
dated before the king's return, with the seal which had been 
given up by the Chancellor ; and two royal charters, which 
had been made abroad, with the seal which the king had 
brought with him. Both seals were then carried back to the 
king, in the Tower, who ordered that the seal, which he had 
brought with him from abroad, should henceforth be used in 
England. 5 

In 1342 the king again went abroad, and appointed his 
son Edward, then Duke of Cornwall, to be guardian of the 
realm. Just before his departure, Sir Robert Parnyng, who 
had been appointed Chancellor October 28th, 1341, delivered 

3 Ryiner,vol. ii., p. 1129. * Ibid. * Ibid. 1141. 


up the great seal (F) which was committed to the custody of 
John de Offord, Keeper of the Privy Seal ; and received in 
exchange the seal, " pro regimine regni Anglia? ipso Rege 
extra idem regnum existente ordinatum." 6 The king 
returned March 2nd, 1343, and two days after, the usual 
exchange of seals was made. 7 

In July, 1345, the king went to Flanders, having appointed 
his son Prince Lionel, guardian of the realm, and returned 
after a very short absence ; on both which occasions the 
usual exchange is recorded. 8 In the following year, Lionel 
was again appointed guardian of the realm, by an instrument 
dated at Portche'ster Castle, June 25th ; and on Sunday, 
July 2nd, the king being then in the Isle of Wight prepara- 
tory to his departure, John de Offord, Dean of Lincoln, then 
Chancellor, delivered the great seal F, by command of the 
king, into the hands of John de Thoresby, Keeper of the 
Privy Seal, in the chancel of the church of Fareham before 
the high altar ; and received from him in exchange the 
seal E, which he carried with him to the place where he was 
then sojourning, the house which had been Godfrey de 
Raunvill's, near Southwick. 9 

We have now traced the seal E into the hands of the 
Chancellor, John de Offord, with Prince Lionel as guardian 
of the realm. It is obvious then that any document, sealed 
with the great seal, and attested by Prince Lionel, within 
the period of the king's departure in July 1346, and his 
subsequent return, must have been sealed with the seal E. 
The documents, to which these impressions are appended, 
correspond to these conditions, since they are so attested, 
and are dated October 5th, 1347. On that day the king- 
was still in France, having just completed that glorious 
campaign, in which Crecy was won, and Calais captured. 
Instruments were sealed by the king himself, with his seal 
of presence (F) at Calais, on the 3rd, 5th, and 8th of October. 1 
He left France, and landed at Sandwich on Friday, October 
12th, and arrived in London on Sunday the 14th, and on 
the following day John de Offord brought to him the seal, 
which had been used in England during his absence ; and 
delivered it to the Bishop of Winchester, the Treasurer, to 
be kept in the Treasury. 2 

6 Rymer, vol. ii. 1212. ? Ibid. 1220. 8 Ibid. voL iii., pp. 50, 53. 

9 Ibid. 85. > Ibid. 138. 2 Ibid. 139. 


We have been thus minute in pointing out the periods in 
which the seals in question were respectively in use, up to 
the date of these documents, because, besides the main object 
of these remarks, it seemed desirable to draw the attention 
of those, who may have access to depositories of ancient 
records, to the times in which the seal E was used in England, 
in the hope that other impressions of it may yet be brought 
to light ; a thing much to be wished, in confirmation of the 
claim of this seal to be the missing seal E. 3 For, although 
according to the dates we have given, there would seem to 
be no doubt on the point, there is a difficulty in the way, 
which remains now to be considered. During the long 
period that elapsed between October 1347, and the treaty 
of Bretigny in May 1360, the usual exchanges of the great 
seals took place four times ; for though the king appears to 
have gone abroad only once in that interval, viz., in 1359, 
he had at the end of October, 1348, made all necessary 
arrangements and was on the point of embarking at Sandwich, 
but did not quit England ; 4 and on none of those occasions 
does any new great seal appear to have been used ; 5 but it 
is remarkable that between the 4th and 15th November, 
1348, while the king was at Sandwich, both E and F were 
in use. Pursuant to the terms of that treaty, Edward laid 
aside the title of king of France, and had accordingly a new 
great seal made, which was shortly after employed, and has 
been designated G, by Professor Willis, and on it the word 

3 With this object we have placed at 
the end of these remarks a tabular view 
of the dates at which this seal was used, 
as far as it can be traced in Rymer, 
rather than weary the reader with any 
further repetition of the exchanges of 
the seals, which is not necessary for our 

4 Rymer, iii. pp. 176, 177. 

6 In the memorandum of the exchange 
on the king's going abroad in Oct., 1359 
(Rymer, iii., p. 452), a great Seal was 
ordered to be delivered to the Chancellor, 
which was described as " Magnum Sigil- 
lum pro regimine Officii Cancellarii in 
absentia ipsius Regis deputatum," and it 
was delivered to him in a bag sealed with 
the Seal of John de Offord, formerly 
Chancellor, but who was then dead ; yet 
on examining the previous memoranda, 
no good reason is found for believing this 
to have been any other than the Great 
Seal " pro regimine dicti regni Anglie in 
absentia Domini Regis deputatum," viz., 

F, which had been deposited in the Trea- 
sury by John de Offord on the 17th of 
Nov., 22 Edw. III., 1348 (Rymer, iii., 
p. 177), and had continued there till taken 
out in Oct., 1359. The same Seal, in the 
memorandum of exchange made in May, 
1360, on the king's return, is called 
" Magnum Sigillum in absentia dicti 
Domini Regis pro consignatione brevium 
usitatum," and was delivered to the Trea- 
surer, and one of the king's chamberlains, 
to be kept in the Treasury (Rymer, iii., 
p. 494), and where, for aught that appears, 
it remained till the transaction in 1369, 
which is about to be mentioned. Froissart 
(ch. 149, Johnes' Translation) has a story 
replete with romantic incidents, of Edward 
and the Black Prince having gone over 
privately to Calais in Dec., 1348, to assist 
in encountering a party of French whom 
the Governor had engaged to admit into 
the place ; but no trace of this visit has 
been discovered in Rymer. 


"Francie" did not occur, the circumscription being "Edwardus 
Dei gracia Rex Anglic Dominus Hibernie et Aquitannie." 

"In 1369, the treaty of Bretigny," says Professor Willis, 
was set aside, and the king resumed the title and arms of 
King of France. 6 A memorandum in Rymer (Vol. iii., p. 
868) sets this forth ; and adds, that the king of England and 
France caused to be brought to him at Westminster on the 
llth of June, all those seals which were kept in his treasury, 
the circumscription of which had the words " Edwardus Rex 
Anglie et Francie/' or "Francie et Anglie ;" that is to say, as 
well the seals for the rule of the kingdom of England, as 
those for the Benches, and for the Exchequer, and for the office 
of the Privy Seal Of these he delivered to the Venerable 
William, Bishop of Winchester, his Chancellor, two great 
seals, each in two pieces, one of which, E, contained the 
words " Rex Anglie et Francie," and on the other, r, "Rex 
Francie et Anglie." Now this would seem fatal to the 
claim of the seal we have engraved to be the seal E, which, 
according to this interpretation of Rymer, should read, " Rex 
Anglie et Francie," instead of " Francie et Anglie." Yet if 
this were so, it would show that we must add an eighth to 
the list of great seals used by Edward III. ; and this would 
be a seal, of which the existence has never been before even 

But the truth is, that the meaning of the memorandum in 
Rymer, referred to by Professor Willis, is, in regard to the 
great seals noticed in it, so obscure, that it can hardly be 
deemed sufficient to overthrow the clear evidence on which 
the claim of our seal is founded. It appearing probable that 
some error might have been committed in transcribing that 
portion of it for the press, the roll itself has been consulted 
in the hope of clearing away this difficulty ; but it has been 
found to correspond with the printed copy, except in a few 
trifling instances. In order that the reader may form his 
own opinion as to the meaning of the memorandum, it is 
expedient to set out that part of it which relates to the seals. 
The previous portion states a resolution of parliament on 
the 3rd of June, 1369, that the king should resume the name 
and title of King of England and France, and then in Cayley 

6 The arms of France had not been in the first and fourth quarters, with those 
laid aside ; they were quartered as usual, of England, on the Seal G. 



and Holbroke's edition of Rymer, Vol. in., p. 868, it proceeds 
thus : 

Per quod jam Rex Anglie et Francie in cancellaria sua omnia sigilla 
tarn pro regimine Anglie quam pro placeis de utroque Banco et de Scac- 
cario et pro officio privati sigilli in quorum circumscriptione Edwardus 
Rex Anglie et Francie sive Francie et Anglie imprimitur in thesau- 
raria ipsius Regis existentia per Willielmuiu de Mulsho et Johannem de 
Newenham Catnerarios Scaccarii ipsius Regis Anglie et Francie apud 
Westmonasterium die Lune in festo Sancti Barnabe apostoli, viz. un- 
decimo die Junii anno presenti venire fecit ; 

Unde Venerabilis pater Willielmus Episcopus Wyntoniensis Cancella- 
rius ipsius Regis duo magna sigilla utrumque eorundem de duabus peciis 
in quorum uno imprimitur Rex Anglie et Francie et in altero Rex 
Francie et Anglie consignandi. 7 

Et luiurn sigillum de duabus peciis Johanni Knyvet Capital! Justi- 
ciario de Banco domini Regis pro brevibus ejusdem placee ; 

Et unum aliud sigillum de duabus peciis Roberto de Tborp Capitali 
Justiciario s de Communi Banco pro brevibus ejusdem placee ; 

Et tertium sigillum de duabus peciis Magistro Willielmo de Askeby 
Archidiacono Northamptonie cancellario Scaccarii Regis pro brevibus de 
eodem Scaccario consignandis ; 9 

Et unum aliud sigillum de una pecia pro officio privati sigilli ordinatum 
Petro de Lacy clerico privati sigilli liberavit ; 

Et illud magnum sigillum de duabus peciis in quo Edwardus Rex 
Anglie Dominus Hibernie et Aquitanie imprimitur et quod juxta pacem 
praedictam pro regimine Anglie ordinatum fuit, et quatuor alia sigilla 
pro placeis de bancis, scaccario et pro officio de private sigillo praedictis 
de stilo Regis Anglie Domini Hibernie et Acquitanie, quibus post pacem 
prsedictam semper hactenus utebatur, prsefatis camerariis retradidit in 
Thesauraria prsedicta custodienda. 

Now, the words in the first paragraph, which speak of the ; 
circumscriptions of the seals, apply to all the seals alike, and j 
do not necessarily imply that the two great seals differed in I 
their legends ; but may mean that the seals of the Benches | 
differed from each other in that respect, or both of them 
from that of the Exchequer, and so forth. The next clause, 
" Unde venerabilis pater," &c., is positively unintelligible ; 
and, although the only words in it, which have any meaning 
at all, seem to intimate that there was a difference in the 
circumscriptions of the two great seals, if the whole passage 
could be amended, the result might be very different. It 
can hardly, as it stands, be taken to contradict the dire 
evidence of the seal we have engraved. The entry of the 
transaction on the Rolls of Parliament affords us little, if) 

7 This on the Roll is " consignand'." 9 This also is " consignand' " on the 

8 " Justiciario " is not on the Roll. Roll. 


any, assistance for clearing up the obscurity. There, after 
stating that the bishops and prelates had advised that the 
king, for the reasons shown, could of right, and with good 
conscience, resume and use the name of King of France, and 
mentioning that the parliament concurred, the record is as 
follows : " Quele noun de Roi de France, le Roi reprist, et le 
xj jour de Juyn le grant seal le Roi, quel il usa a devant, 
mys en garde, et un autre seal emprente de noun de France 
repris, et furent chartres, patentes, et briefs ensealez, et toutz 
les autres sealx en les autres places le Roi en mesme la 
manere chaungez le dit jour." 1 It will be observed that this 
speaks of only one seal with the name of France on it 
having been taken into use again ; which must be under- 
stood of a great seal, for the other seals were changed in the 
same manner ; but it is evidently a very brief notice of the 
matter, not purporting to give the particulars of what took 
place. There is, however, a memorandum occurring later in 
Rymer, which may help to solve the difficulty, and would 
seem to afford strong proof that the seal E did not differ 
in its circumscription from F. The latter having been 
always used in England during the presence of the king, 
there can be little reason for doubting that it was this seal 
(F) which was taken again into use when Edward resumed 
the title of King of France. The seal G, on which the words 
" et Francie " did not occur, was on that occasion deposited, 
as we have seen, in the Treasury, where the seal E still was ; 
or, at least, there is no record of its having been at that 
time removed thence, unless the memorandum of 1369 be 
such, though we shall presently find that both G and E were 
not long after in the custody of the Bishop of Winchester, 
Now, on Monday, the 24th 2 March, 1371, the bishop 
having resigned the office of Chancellor, delivered the great 
seal to the king, and Sir Robert de Thorpe having been 
appointed his successor, the great seal was on the 26th 
given to him, who, in due form, sealed certain writs with it, 
and on the 28th of the same month the bishop delivered 
to the king two great seals which the king had lately used, 

1 Rolls of Parl., ii., p. 300. same Memorandum has, and no doubt 

2 Prof. Willis says the 14th (follow- correctly, "die Lune, viz. vicesimo quarto." 
ing Rymer, iii., p. 911), where the words Hence it appears tlie Seals given up on 
are, " die Lune, viz. decirao quarto ;" the 28th of March had not been retained 
but the 14th of March that year was on so long as hitherto supposed. 

Friday. An examined MS. copy of the 


and which had remained in the custody of the bishop ; the 
circumscription of one of which was " Edwardus Dei gratia 
Rex Francie et Anglie et Dominus Hibernie," and on the 
other, " Edwardus Dei gratia Rex Anglie, Dominus Hibernie 
et Aquitanie." This latter was certainly G, which had been 
deposited in the Treasury in 1369, and the former must 
surely have been E, which we think has been shown to have 
been left in the Treasury at the same time ; a conclusion 
which is strengthened by the fact that F was certainly used 
as a seal of presence in 1369, 1371, and 1372, as Professor 
Willis mentions having discovered impressions of it in those 
years in Pembroke College. 

After a careful examination of the memoranda in Rymer, 
we believe this transaction of the 28th March, 1371, to 
have been the last occasion on which the seal E is noticed. 
Of its final suppression there is no record ; but we infer that 
it was destroyed not long afterwards, unless the king took a 
great seal with him during his short absence in 1372 ; for it 
is remarkable that on the king going abroad, at the end of 
August in that year, he appointed his grandson, Prince 
Richard, guardian of the realm ; and the seal which, on the 
change of great seals, was delivered to the chancellor and 
ordered to be used during the king's absence, was not E, as 
theretofore, but G, which the circumscription on it, given by 
Rymer, makes evident, 3 although on that seal, as has been 
mentioned, the words " et Francie " did not occur ; and, 
therefore, it was not likely to be used had there been existing 
another seal with those words upon it. If, however, the seal 

3 Rymer iii., p. 962. As this Memo- quoddam magnum sigillum ipsius domini 
randum is unnoticed by Prof. Willis, Regis pro regimine regni Anglie dum 
and is referred to in the Additional Ob- idem Rex infra idem regnum fuerit depu- 
servations by Mr. Walford, which are tatum ; Quod quidem sigillum idem 
subjoined to these remarks, it is here set Dominus Rex in quadam bursa inclusum 
out, so far as relates to the change of the sigillo suo de signeto consignavit et 
Seals, with the exception only of the sigillum illud prsefato Thesaurario liber- 
witnesses' names. 46 Edw. Ill (1372). avit in thesauraria usque red itum ipsius 
" Memorandum quod Johannes Knyvet Regis in Angliara custodiendum. Et 
Cancellarius domini Regis die Lune, statim idem Dominus Rex liberavit 
viz. tricesimo die Augusti anno prsesenti praefato Cancellario quoddam aliud mag- 
eirca horam nonam in portu de Sandwico num sigillum cujus circumscriptio est 
in quadam uavi ipsius Domini Regis vocata talis, viz. Edwardus Dei gratia Rex 
La Grace de Dieu in aula ipsius Regis Anglie dominus Hibernie et Aquitanie, 
in navi prsedicta in presentia Johauuis prsecipiens eidem cancellario ut ea quse 
Regis Castelle [and several others, among ad officium suum in dicto regno pertinent 
whom was Richard Le Scrop, the Trea- usque reditum ipsius Regis in Angliam 
surer] liberavit eidem Domino Regi faceret et exerceret." 
super viagio suo supra mare tune existenti 


E were then existing, it was either taken abroad by the king 
or deposited in the Treasury. 


A.D. A.R. A.D. A.R. 

From June 22 to Dec. 1 1340 14 From July 2 . . . 1346 20 

From Oct. 4. . . . 1342 16 to Oct. 15 . . . 1347 21 

to March 4 . . . 1343 17 From Oct. 29 to Nov. 17 1348 22 

From July 3 to July 30 1345 19 From Oct. 14 . . . 1359 33 

to May 19 ... 1360 34 

*#* When the subject of this unpublished' great seal 
of Edward III. was brought before the monthly meeting 
of the Institute in London, it attracted the attention of 
W. S. Walford, Esq., who felt that he was obliged to differ 
from me in some of the conclusions to which, after a careful 
perusal of the documents relating to it in Rymer, I had 
arrived. My only object being the elucidation of facts, I 
requested him to write a statement of his view of the matter, 
which he readily and courteously consented to do. As that 
gentleman's knowledge of the subject entitles his opinion to 
every possible respect, I expressed a wish that he would 
allow his remarks to be published, and, by his kind per- 
mission, they are here submitted to the readers of the 
Journal. I also desire to take this opportunity of acknow- 
ledging my obligations to him for some valuable assistance 

in my own investigations. 

w. H. G. 


IN investigating the claims of the newly discovered great seal of 
King Edward III., to be the missing seal E, the memorandum in 
Rymer, (Hi., p. 868,) of what took place respecting the seals on the 
llth June, 1369, is certainly an important document, unless the 
incompleteness of the second paragraph must be regarded as destruc- 
tive of its credit. Since the examination of the record itself has 
verified the printed copy, it is evident some words were accidentally 
omitted by the clerk who entered the memorandum on the roll ; and the 
correction of it by any higher authority is now hopeless. Still, after a 
careful study of the entire document as it stands, I can but credit it so far 
as to believe that two great seals were at that time taken out of the 
treasury, and that their legends differed as there stated. The version of 
it by Professor Willis does not indicate any defect or obscurity in the 
original. He, I presume, was content to give what he considered its 


import ; for he could not have ovarlooked that the sentence was incomplete. 
Rex in cancellaria sua, was one of the modes of designating the Court of 
Chancery, and did not imply the actual presence of the king ; and I would 
suggest that the omitted words should have followed the word consignand* 
at the end of the second paragraph, which should have terminated thus 
" consignandi gratia brevia et alia de cursu cancellarice sibi accepit," or 
with words to the like effect. If such words be supplied, the whole 
becomes intelligible and consistent ; and the general purport of it as 
regards the seals is, that the Chancellor, sitting officially, caused all the 
seals in the treasury with either " Anglie et Fraucie," or " Fraucie et 
Anglic " upon them to be brought to him ; whereof he took two great 
seals, with the legends specified, and delivered other seals to the chiefs of 
the courts of K.B., C.P., and Exchequer, and another to the Clerk of the 
Privy Seal : and the seals which had been in use since the Peace of 
Bretigny he sent back to the treasury. The division of the memorandum 
into paragraphs in the printed copy has added somewhat to the obscurity 
of it. However, the view I take of the matter does not require any words 
to be supplied ; for I think, defective as the document is, it suffices to 
show that two great seals were then taken out of the treasury with 
" Anglie et Francie " and " Francie et Anglie " upon them respectively, 
whatever may have been done with them ; and my only object, in sug- 
gesting words to complete the sense, is to point out where the omission 
occurs, and how little need be supplied. 

After carefully perusing Professor Willis's paper, and the various 
documents in Rymer which I could find bearing on the subject, and the 
additional information for which we are indebted to Mr. Gunner, a view 
of the question, whether the newly discovered seal be E or not, occurred 
to me, consistent, I think, with all the evidence ; and this I will now 
proceed to state, distinguishing the Winchester seal as W for facility of 

My hypothesis, or I hope I may say inference from all the evidence, is, 
that between the 20th of June, 1340, and the Peace of Bretigny in May, 
1360 (the period during which Professor Willis has assumed there was 
but one great seal of absence used, viz. E), either there were two great 
seals of absence, viz., W, till October, 1347, and probably later, and 
afterwards E ; or there was only one great seal of absence, viz., originally 
W; but which between ]347 and 1360 was converted into E by the 
inscription being altered from " Francie et Anglie " into " Anglie et 
Francie." For the fact of W having been a seal of absence in 1347, 
Mr. Gunner has proved beyond question ; and that sometime before May, 
1360, there was a great seal of absence with the inscription, " Anglie et 
Francie," is, I think, also proved, though less conclusively, by the document 
in Rymer, (iii., p. 868,) seeing that F was certainly a seal of presence. 

Of these two alternatives the latter, viz., that there was only one seal 
(i. e. matrix), the inscription of which was altered between 1347 and 1360, 
seems to me the more probable for the following reasons: 1. Such 
alterations were not uncommon, as Professor Willis's paper shows, and an 
alteration would satisfy all that the evidence requires to make it consistent. 
2. If it were found expedient to make the difference between F and W 
more manifest, an alteration like that supposed was well adapted for the 
purpose. 3. There is no account of any new great seal having been made 
or delivered to the Chancellor during the period. I at first thought the 


payment of 31. to W. Moreton in 1356, for making a certain seal for the 
king's use (Prof. Willis's paper, p. 23, note) might have been for a new great 
seal ; but the sum is perhaps too small, and, supposing it an instalment, 
I apprehend a great seal would not have been so designated. 4. An 
alteration of the inscription only was less likely to be noticed in any 
document than the making of a new seal ; and as the payment for it 
would be trifling, it may have formed part of some item in which it was 
not specified. I find no good reason to think that such an alteration 
would lead to a transposition of the arms, so as to place those of England 
before those of France. 5. In August, 1372, the king went abroad again 
(Rymer, iii., p, 962), and from his return in October, 1347, till that time, 
there is no indication of the destruction or loss of any great seal, or of the 
coexistence of two great seals of absence ; and the memorandum on that 
occasion (which was after G had been made, and before it was altered,) 
goes very far to show that there were then three great seals, viz., E, F, 
and G, and no more ; and that W and E are to be referred to the same 
matrix, with different legends. For as the king, whose absence was 
shorter than he had reason to expect, no doubt took with him one great 
seal, and most likely F, the seal which was given up by the Chancellor 
and deposited in the treasury must, I conceive, have been E ; and the 
seal delivered to him for use in the king's absence we know was G. Had 
E and W been distinct matrices, there would have been four seals, and 
either E or W would in all probability have been left with the Chancellor 
rather than G, which was singularly inappropriate, since the word 
" Francie " was not upon it. This will more clearly appear on referring 
to the memorandum, which is given by Mr. Gunner, p. 254, n. 3. 

Whether the seal delivered to Thorpe, Chancellor, on the 26th March, 
1371, was E or F, is not clear ; for supposing W and E were two distinct 
matrices, then W may have been the great seal with " Francie et Anglie " 
upon it, which was delivered up to the king on the 28th March, 1371, and 
F the seal which had been committed to Thorpe on the 26th of the same 
month. But the reasons above advanced to show that W and E were one 
matrix, incline me to coincide with Professor Willis in thinking that E 
was delivered to Thorpe, and not F ; and this anomaly, as it appears, may 
seem less if we advert to another circumstance not a little singular. In 
the often mentioned document in Rymer, (iii., p. 868,) we find on the llth 
June, 1369, two great seals were taken by or delivered to the Chancellor 
when we should have expected he would have had only one, and that F. 
Now'as the king did not then contemplate leaving England, I would suggest, 
by way of explanation of this, that one seal was intended for English, and 
the other for foreign affairs, which were then likely to require its use ; a 
practice probably then commencing in consequence of the improbability of 
the king having to go abroad again ; ' and that as F was the seal known 
abroad, it was best adapted for foreign affairs, and thus E would become 
a seal for the rule of England even when the king was present. That 
some change in the use of the seals had taken place is, I think, shown by 

1 Edward was then barely fifty-seven, any, apprehension was entertained of the 

but he had no reason to anticipate the malady proving incurable ; and his bro- 

reverse of fortune which rapidly ensued. thers John and Edmund, influenced by 

The Black Prince was in the zenith of his example, had shown no want of ability 

his glory, and though his health was im- in military affairs, 
paired by his Spanish campaign, little, if 


the necessity there was of substituting G for E in August, 1372 ; when, 
owing to the king having to go abroad again, an emergency arose in 
regard to them for which he was not prepared. Such alteration in the 
employment of the seals may explain why E was delivered to Thorpe, and 
also why F (together with the great seal G, and two privy seals,) had been 
in the hands of and was retained by the late Chancellor for awhile " ex 
commissione Regis," and was then redelivered to the king ; and it was 
committed by him to the treasury probably because there was then no 
immediate occasion for it. However if F only were used for foreign affairs, 
it was not confined to them ; for Professor Willis (p. 26, note) mentions 
impressions of it at Pembroke College, under the dates of 1369, 137J, and 
1372, as if both E and F may have been used, though perhaps not indis- 
criminately, for English affairs ; but there is nothing to lead us to think 
that any other than F was used for foreign affairs from June, 1369, till G 
was altered. I am fully aware that, taken by themselves, these Pembroke 
impressions are primd facie evidence of F having been the great seal 
delivered to Thorpe on the 26th March, 1371 ; and I regret Professor 
Willis has not mentioned the exact dates, and the nature of the instruments 
to which they are appended ; for the use of F on those occasions might 
have been capable of explanation. In 1372, the year in which Thorpe 
died, Wailly says that F occurs to a document in the French archives, so 
that it had been taken out of the treasury again if it had been deposited 
there in March, 1371. That document may possibly have been one sent 
by the king when he went abroad in August, 1372. These are the 
circumstances which make me feel not altogether satisfied as to which 
seal was delivered to Thorpe on the 26th March, 1371. Whether that 
seal were E or F is, according to my view of the subject, unimportant, 
except as regards the inquiry whether W and E represent two matrices or 
one ; for if F were delivered to Thorpe at that time, W and E must in all 
probability have been two matrices ; while on the other hand, if they 
represent one matrix in different states, that matrix, with the E legend on 
it, was, we may with equal confidence conclude, the seal delivered to 
Thorpe, because the legend on one of the two great seals retained by the 
late Chancellor was like that of W and F ; while the legend on the other 
shows it to have been G, which, on some occasion and for some purpose 
not easily explained, had been placed in his hands. 

According to the conclusion at which I have arrived, the seal E, with 
" Anglie et Francie " upon it, did not come into use before the 29th 
October, 1348, if so early ; and the chances of an impression being dis- 
covered are less than they have hitherto appeared ; though it is by no 
means to be despaired of, as it seems to have been in use for three years 
after June, 1369. 

Since the foregoing observations were written, another impression of the 
undescribed seal of Edward III., to which they relate, has been noticed 
amongst the muniments of the city of Bristol, which were displayed for the 
gratification of the members of the Institute, at the recent meeting of the 
society. The charter, to which it is appended, bears date A.D. 1347, in 
the absence of Edward from the realm, during the long siege of Calais, and 
whilst Lionel, Duke of Clarence, was Guardian of England. It concludes 
as follows ; " Teste Leonello filio nostro carissimo, Custode Anglie, apud 
Redynges, vicesimo quarto die Aprilis, Anno regni nostri Anglie xxj., 
Francie octavo". The seal is partly imperfect. 


26 & 27 HEN. VI., 1447, 1448. 



THE accompanying Roll, preserved amongst the Archives 
at Longleat, was obligingly placed by the Marquis of Bath 
in my hands for examination. It contains in fifty-six feet of 
parchment the Rent Roll of Humphrey, Duke of Bucking- 
ham, taken in the 26th and 27th years of the reign of 
Henry VI. (1447, 1448.) 

A document of this kind must necessarily be far less 
interesting than a Household Book, or entries of expenses, 
but as this Roll shows us the Rental of one of our most 
powerful noblemen, four centuries ago, and conveys other 
information, a statement of its contents, with some few 
comments, may not be wholly valueless. 

In the pages of English History, from the Conquest down 
to the reign of Henry VIII., the House of Stafford is 
conspicuous ; their long unbroken descent, their splendid 
alliances, and their vast possessions, naturally imparted to 
them great power and influence, and placed them amongst 
the very foremost of English nobles. At the Conquest they 
possessed no fewer than eighty-one Lordships in Staffordshire 
alone, twenty-six in Warwickshire, and twenty in Leicester- 
shire. By successive alliances with the heiresses of illustrious 
houses, these possessions swelled to the extent of the Rental 
before us, and they were again increased one-seventh in 
amount in the life- time of Henry, the second Duke. 

The contemptuous reflection on Wolsey, which Shakspeare 

has put into the mouth of Edward, the third Duke, styled 

by Johnson " one of the ancient unlettered martial nobility" 

may be well understood, considering how different was 

the origin of these two distinguished persons : 

" A beggar's Book 
Outworths a noble's blood." 


At the same time, to this House how closely does the 
Psalmist's awful language apply ! 

" Thou dost set them in slippery places ; thou easiest them down and destroyest 

Oh ! how suddenly do they consume, perish, and come to a fearful end." 

Psalm Ixxiii. 18, 19. 

To the Staffords', "their birth and state" proved, as we 
shall see, "shadows not substantial things" with them 
" the paths of glory" literally " led to the grave." In 
those days, as Southey remarks, " to die in peace at a good 
old age was indeed a rare fortune for men in high station." 
To fall in battle, or to receive the honours of political 
martyrdom, was the fate of too many members of our chief 
families. Two of this family were secretly murdered three 
forfeited their lives on the scaffold three fell in the field, 
not whilst defending their country against foreign enemies, 
but in the intestine factions of York and Lancaster. In 
three instances the father followed his expectant heir to the 

This melancholy catalogue may be closed by the name of 
the accomplished Surrey, who, in his thirtieth year, shared 
the fate of his grandfather and great grandfather, the 
second and third Dukes of Buckingham, and whose untimely 
end must ever be a subject of regret amidst these walls. 
Had his life been spared, England might, perhaps, from his 
encouragement and example, have advanced earlier to that 
high rank in learning and in literature, which, through her 
Universities, she still so happily maintains. 

One of the fatal events, to which I have referred, Froissart 
narrates in his own unrivalled manner. When Richard II. 
was on his route to Scotland, an archer of Sir Richard 
(Ralph 1) Stafford's, the son of Hugh, Earl of Stafford, pierced 
with his arrow an esquire of Sir John Holland's, the king's 

" Tidynges anone was brought to Sir Johan of Holande, that an archer 
of Sir Richard e Stafforde's had slayne a squyer of his, y e man that he 

loued best in all the world. Whan Sir Johan of Holande was well 

enfourmed of this aduenture, he was ryght sore displeased, <fc sayd, I 
shall neur eate nor drinke tyll it be reuenged, than he lepte on his horse, 
&, toke certayne of his men with him, and departed fro hts owne lodgyng, 

it was as than right late, <k so rode into the fieldes. And as he and his 

men rode up <fe downe amonge the hedges and busshes, in a straite waye 
he mett at aduenture, with Sir Richarde Stafforde, <fc because it was night. 


he demanded who was there, I am quod he Richarde Stafforde ; <fe I am 
Hollande quod the other, <fe I seke for the ; one of thy seruauntes hath 
slayne my best beloued squyer ; &, therwith drew out his sworde, <fc strake 
Richarde Stafforde so that he sle\ve him, <fc fell downe deed, whiche was 
great pytie, so he passed forthe <k knewe not well what he had done ; but 
he sawe well one falle to the grounde. Sir Richarde Stafforde's men were 
sore dismayed when they sawe their maister deed, than they cryed A Holande, 
Holande ye haue slayne the sonne of therle of Stafforde, this will be heuy 
tydynges to the father whane he knowethe therof. Some of Sir Johan 
of Holande 's seruauantes herde well these wordes <fe sayde to their Master, 
Sir, ye haue slayne Sir Richarde Stafforde ; well quod Sir Johan Hollande, 
what than ? I had leauer have slayne him than a worse ; the better haue 
I revenged the dethe of my squyer. Than Sir Johan of Holande went 
streyght to Saint Johan's of Beuerley k tooke the fraunchesse of the 
towne, and abode there styll, for he knew well there wolde be moche ado in 
the hooste for the dethe of that knight, and he wist not what the kynge 
would saye or do in the matter, so to eschue all parylles, he tooke sentuary 
in the towne of Saint Johan's of Beuerley. 

" Tidynges anon came to the erle of Stafforde, how his sonne was slayne 
by yuell aduenture ; thane the erle demaunded who had slayne him, <fc 
suche as were by him, when he was slayne, sayd, Sir, the kynges brother, 
Sir Johan of Holande dyd slee him ; and shewed hym the cause why <fc 
bowe it was. Ye maye well knowe that he loued entierly his sonne, <fc had 
no mo but hym, <fc was a fayre yonge knyght, <fc a couragyeous, was 
maruelously sore dyspleased, and sent incontynent for all his friends, to 
haue their counsayle, how he shulde vse hymselfe, in the reuengynge of 
his dethe ; the moost wisest man of his counsayle sayd, Sir, to-morrowe in 
the mornynge, shewe all the matter to the kyng, & desyre hym to haue 
lawe and iustyce. Thus they suaged somewhat his yre, <fc so passed that 
night ; <k y e nexte mornynge Richarde Stafforde was buryed in the church 
of the vyllage therhy, and at his buryeng were all those of his lynage, barons 
knyghts and squyers that were in that armye. And the obsequy done the 
erle of Stafforde, <fc a threescore of his lynage mounted on their horses, <fe 
so came to the kynge, who was well enformed of that yeull aduenture ; 
<fc so the erle found the kynge and his vncles toguyder, and a great nombre 
of knightes with them. Whan the erle came before the kyng he kneled 
downe, & all wepynge sayde with a soroufull harte, Sir, ye are kyng of 
Englande, <fc haue solemnly sworn to kepe Englade in all ryght, and to do 
justice ; Sir, ye know how your brother, wout any tytell of reason, hath 
slayne my sonne and ayre. Sir, I requyre you do me right <k iustyce, or 
els ye shall haue no worse enemy than 1 will be, and Sir, I wyll ye know 
the dethe of my sonne toucheth me so nere, that <fc it were nat for 
brekynge of this voyage that we be in, I shulde bring the hoste into suche 
trouble, that with honour it should be amended, and so couterueenged, 
that it shoulde be spoken of a hudred yeres hereafter in Englande : but as 
now I wyll cease tyll this voyage into Scotlande be done, for our ennemyes 
shall not reioyse of the trouble of the erle of Stafforde. The kynge 
answered, knowe for trouthe, that I shall do you justyce &> reason, as far 
forth as all my barones wyll iudge : I shall not fayle thereof for no brother 
that I haue than they of the erle's lynage said, Sir, ye have said well, 
we thank you therof. Thus the lynage of Sir Richard Stafforde was 
appeased, and so helde on their journey into Scotlande, <k all the Journey 


the erle of Stafforde made no semblant of the dethe of his sonnc, wherein 
all the barons reputed hym right sage." ' 

The alliance between the Staffords and the blood royal of 
England, which will be presently noticed, was a circumstance 
on which the family placed a due value ; the royal arms 
formed the first quarter of their coat-armour. But this 
connexion, by placing them too prominently as rivals of the 
crown, led, in great measure, both the second and third 
Dukes to the scaffold. 

There can be little question that these noblemen aimed at 
sovereign power, and Richard III. held the throne by far 
too questionable a title to tolerate the existence of so for- 
midable a rival as Henry, the second Duke. 

Humphrey, the sixth Earl of Stafford, whose rental is 
before us was the son of Edward, or Edmond, the fifth 
Earl of Stafford, slain at Shrewsbury in 1403, by Anne, 
daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, the 
youngest son of Edward III., and who himself bore for 
awhile the title of Buckingham, afterwards conferred upon 
his grandson. 

In these two descents we may mark how rapidly a family 
may gain strength and power by its alliances. The Duke 
of Gloucester married Eleanor, the eldest daughter and 
co -heir of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, Essex, 
and Northampton, constable of England. The Duke's 
daughter, the before-named Lady Anne, became heiress to 
her brother Humphrey, who died of the plague, childless. 
She inherited also her mother's moiety of the large estates 
of the Bohuns, and in her will, doubtless conscious of her 
dignities, styles herself " Countess of Stafford, Buckingham, 
Hereford, and Northampton, and Lady of Brecknock." 

We possess but little information as to the first Duke. In 
the 2nd of Henry VI. he did homage and had livery of his 
lands, as also of those which had descended to him by the 
death of his uncle, Hugh, Lord Bourchier, S.P. In the 9th 
of Henry VI. he attended the king at Paris, where in the 
following year Henry was crowned. Two years afterwards 
he was appointed Captain of the Town and Marches of 
Calais. In an indenture, (22nd Hen. VI.) 1443, he is 
styled " the Right Mighty Prince Humphrey, Earl of Buck- 

1 Froissart's Chronicles, translated by Lord Berners, vol. ii. p. 24. 


ingham, Hereford, Stafford, Northampton, and Perch, Lord 
of Brecknock and of Holderness, and Captain of the Town of 
Calais." 2 In 1444, he was created Duke of Buckingham, 
and made Constable of Dover Castle. 

He married the Lady Anne Neville, daughter of Ralph, 
Earl of Westmoreland, by whom he had issue Humphrey, 
Earl of Stafford, who was killed at St. Alban's in his father's 
life-time, 1455. The Duke's second son, Lord Henry 
Stafford, married Margaret Beaufort, so well known to us as 
the Countess of Richmond and Derby, the mother of Henry 
VII. The third, and youngest son, was John, Earl of 
Wiltshire. The Duke had also two daughters ; the eldest, 
Anne, married Aubrey de Vere, eldest son and heir of John, 
Earl of Oxford. On this occasion Bishop Kennett tells us 
that the Duke received a customary aid from his feodatory 
tenants : a receipt given to one of them is as follows : 

" This Bille endentyd the 13 day of August (24 H. 6) bereth witnesse 
that Rob*. Power feodary of my Lorde the Duke of Bockyngham hath 
reseyved of Edward Rede Squyere 25s. for a relif, and 5s. for a tenable 
eyde to the mariage of the heldyst daughter of my seyde lord for the fourth 
part of a knyght's fee in Adyngrave, in the shire of Buckingham." 3 

We thus see how a marriage portion could be raised at 
this period. 

Among the Paston Letters there is one from the Duke to 
the Viscount Beaumont, who is addressed as his " right 
entirely beloved Brother," both these peers being Knights 
of the Garter. 4 The letter which is said to be "perhaps 
the only original Letter extant of this great Peer" is with- 
out date, but was written probably between 1444 and 1445. 
It presents a curious picture of his ways and means ; 
for, notwithstanding his large possessions, it relates to an 
unsatisfied debt owing by him to the Viscount. He says, 

" I perceive by the tenor of your letter your good desire of a certain debt 
that I owe unto you. In good faith, Brother, it is so with me at this time 
that I have but easy stuff of money within me, for so much as the season 
of the year is not yet grown, so that I may not please your said good 
brotherhood, as God knoweth my will and intent were to do, and if I 
had it." 

2 Allen's History of Yorkshire, ii., 392. tune, copartners both in peace and war, 

3 . Kennett's Parochial Anliq., vol. ii. assistant to one another in all serious and 

p. 372. dangerous transactions, and through the 

4 Whose institution directs that the whole course of their lives, faithful and 

knights companions should be "fellows friendly one towards another." 

and brethren, united in all chances of for- 


He sends by his son Stafford an obligation, partly 

" The residue of which I pray you to receive, and that I may have an 
acquittance thereof, and to give credence unto my said son in such 
thing as he should say unto your good brotherhood on my behalf." 4 

The Duke dates his letter from the castle of Maxstoke, 
situated to the east of Coleshill, in Warwickshire. It was 
visited by Pennant in 1780, who speaks of the fine gateway, 
and the gates, covered with plates of iron by the Duke, with 
his arms impaling those of Nevil, and with the supporters, 
two antelopes, derived from his mother, " the burning nave 
or knot the cognizance of his own ancestors." Pennant 
speaks also of a great vault ribbed with stone, of the 
old chapel and kitchen, and the noble old hall, and a great 
dining-room, with a most curious carved door and chimney, 
as then in use. Some portions of this building, I understand, 
still exist. 

An ancestor of our noble president, Sir William Compton, 
was the favoured grantee of this estate when forfeited in the 
reign of Henry VIII. 

One circumstance in the Duke's life must not be passed 
over, as being characteristic of this chivalrous age, and 
showing the jealousy with which honours were defended. 

The nobleman, who may be regarded as the Duke's most 
powerful rival, was Henry Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, 
born 1424. From his father he inherited large estates, valued 
(12th Henry VI.) at 8606 marks; he was created Duke oJ 
Warwick in the same year (1444) that Buckingham gained 
that rank ; and on this accession of title, while he was, in 
the scale of precedence, to follow the Duke of Norfolk, he 
was placed before Buckingham. This proof of royal favour 
gave great umbrage to the latter (who happened to be the 
Duke of Warwick's godfather), and in order to prevent con- 
tention and strife the matter of precedence betwixt these 
peers was thus settled by Parliament 

" That one of the said dukes shall have the pre-eminence for one whole 
year, and then the other have pre-eminence for the next year, and so 
alternately, as long as they shall live, and on their deaths, whichever shall 
first have livery of his lands to have the perpetual precedence." 

b Pastern Letters, by Ramsay (1840), vol. i. p. 9. 


Well might the Lord Mayor, in Shakspeare's Henry VI. 

" That nobles should such Stomachs bear ! " 

Whether Buckingham's feelings were soothed by this 
middle course of proceeding or not may be doubted ; but all 
ealousy was soon set at rest. Dugdale tells us that, on the 
death of Warwick, about two years after, without issue male, 
Buckingham obtained a special grant giving to himself and 
lis heirs precedence above all dukes whatever, excepting 
such as were of the blood royal. Dugdale also states that 

" In consideration of his vast expences, in attending the King in those 
;urbulent times, against his adversaries, then in arms, he obtained a grant 
38 Hen. VI.) of all those fines which Walter Devereux, William Hastings, 
and Walter Hopton were to make to the King for their transgressions." 6 

Here was a fresh augmentation of wealth. 

The Duke was slain in the battle of Northampton (28th 
July, 38 Hen. VI.), and was buried either there or in the 
monastery of Delapre. His will is given by Dugdale and by 
Nicolas. It contains some bequests for religious and 
charitable uses, and one provision deserves notice. In an 
age when the funeral solemnities of noblemen were performed 
with extraordinary splendour, and at a lavish expense, the 
Duke wisely directs, that his own should be solemnised 
' without any sumptuous costs or charge." 

To revert to the roll. It contains the rental of estates in 
twenty-seven counties. The largest of these possessions 
appears to have been the castle, manor, and dominion of 
Brecknock, Huntingdon, and Talgarth, in Herefordshire, and 
the Marches of Wales, yielding 1183/. per annum. The 
estates in Holderness, producing the gross rental of 949/., 
were also of immense extent, comprising the seigniory, liberty, 
and manor of Holderness, and lands or other property in 
twenty-eight parishes. These the Duke inherited through 
his mother. 

The property in this county (Oxfordshire) was small (viz., 
37/. ISs. 3^d. per annum), consisting only of the manor of 
Stratton Audley. 

The gross rental is 63001., a sum then of vast amount. 
To show this the more accurately, I had bestowed some 
labour, in order to arrive, if possible, at the sum which it 
would represent in our own days. But to enter into the 

6 Dugdale's Baronage, p. 1 65. 


details necessary, in order to lead us to a correct conclusion 
as to this point, would compel me to trespass upon your time 
far longer than would be acceptable. 

Those who may feel interested in the subject may consult 
1. Bishop Fleetwood's Chronicon Preciosum ; 2. The 
History of England, by Dr. Henry ; 3. The Tables, drawn 
up with so much care, by Rear-Admiral Rainier, in 
1833, 7 and 4. Mr. Hallam's Work on the Middle Ages, 
where some very judicious observations on this subject 
will be found. Still our endeavours to adjust a multiplier for 
expressing the real value of a sum in the days of Henry VI. 
in terms of our present money, or its equivalent value, in 
commanding commodities in the present day, are attended 
with difficulties 1. From the difference of opinion which 
prevails amongst writers on the subject ; 2. From the great 
variations in the price of wheat, taken as a criterion ; and 
3. In the shifting value of money. In order, therefore, to prove 
the magnitude of the Duke of Buckingham's income, I would 
endeavour to show how very much could be effected in 
different ways at that period with sums of far less amount. 

It may be remarked that this income exceeded that of the 
powerful peer before alluded to, the Duke of Warwick, by 
some hundreds per annum, and we may compare it with the 
revenues of the greatest religious houses at the Dissolution. 

Whilst thus engaged, we must never fail to bear in mind 
Johnson's judicious remark, that "custom, or the different 
needs of artificial life, make that revenue little at one time 
which is great at another. Men are rich and poor, not only 
in proportion to what they have, but what they want." 1 
Ascham's pension of 10/., granted him by Henry VIIL, 
reckoning the wants he could supply, and those from which < 
he was exempt, Johnson (seventy years ago) computed at 
more than 100/. a year. 

Although a great nobleman at this period had, as we shall I 
presently see, many heavy calls upon his purse, yet people 
had few imaginary wants. Our habits, in this age of luxury, 
when contrasted with the severe simplicity of ancient times, 
must differ almost as widely, in some respects, as did those 
of the inhabitants of the Friendly Islands with the English, 
when the former were visited by Captain Cook. 

7 Obligingly lent by the Earl of Chichester, at the instance of my friend R. W. 
Blencowe, Esq. 


True it is, that we find, in old inventories, vast quantities 
of plate the property of individuals Sir John Fastolfe, for 
instance, one of the heroes of Agincourt, possessed not less 
than 13,400 ounces of silver in flagons and other massive 
articles, and the bed-rooms at Caister were furnished with 
luxuries which would then, perhaps, be regarded as effemi- 
nate ; 8 still, ordinarily, great simplicity prevailed. Carpets 
were used only as coverings for tables and sideboards ; some- 
;imes for chairs. Hay and rushes served for floors. A few 
oaken benches and tables, raised on strong tressells, and a 
oair of andirons or dogs, generally formed the whole inventory 
of the best furnished apartment. 

In the reign of Edward L, says Mr. Hallam 

" An income of 101. or 201. was reckoned a competent estate for a 
gentleman ; at least the lord of a single manor would seldom have enjoyed 
more. A knight who possessed 1501. per annum passed for extremely 
rich." 9 

His income was comparatively free from taxation, and its 
expenditure was lightened by the services of his villeins. 
Sir John Fortescue speaks of 5l. a year as " a fair living for 

yeoman," a class whose importance he is not at all 
nclined to diminish. 1 

Dr. Henry, eighty years ago, observed : 

" It seems to be abundantly evident, that inferior clergymen, yeomen, 
respectable tradesmen, and others in the middle ranks of life, could have 
ived as plentifully, in the fifteenth century, on an income of 51. a year, of 
the money of that age, as those of the same rank can live on ten times 
that nominal, or five times that real income, that is, on 501. a year, at 

" The precious metals of gold and silver," he continues, " have indeed 
greatly increased in Britain since those times ; but we must not therefore 
magine, that we are so much richer than our ancestors ; because as these 
metals increased in quantity, they decreased in value and efficacy." 2 

To proceed with our illustrations. We have particulars of 
the pay of Edward the Third's army in the twentieth year of 
lis reign. That of the Black Prince was 20s. per diem. 
The sum total is 12,720/., for which, says Barrington, 3 an 
army and fleet of 31,294 men were to be paid and subsisted 
for sixteen months. 

In the expedition made by John Duke of Norfolk (then 

8 Archaeol. vol. xxi. p. 234. ' 2 Henry's Hist Eng., vol. x. p. 273. 

9 Hallam's Middle Ages, vol. iii. p. 451. 3 Observations oil the Statutes, p. 267. 
1 Ibid. 



Lord Howard) to Scotland, as Lieutenant and Captain of 
Edward IV., in 1481, with 3000 landmen and mariners, for 
sixteen weeks, the payment to each man by the week is 
computed at xv d . for his wages, and for his vitels xii d . The 
sum total in " money wages and vitels for sixteen weeks being 
VM% V c . li." 4 At this time it appears that an ox could be 
bought for 20s. and a load of hay for 5s. 4>d. 

In the reign of Henry VII., 120/. was held sufficient to 
found a fellowship. 5 

The whole revenues of the estate given by Margaret, 
Countess of Richmond, for the foundation of Saint John's 
College, Cambridge, amounted to 400/. per annum only, 
which was shamefully lessened by Henry VIII. On the 
fabric of that house were expended 4000/. to 5000/., " a 
round sum in that age," as it is termed, small as it will 
strike us for collegiate buildings of great extent. At this 
time I2d. per week was allowed in common to a fellow, 
and *7d. to a scholar. 6 

The largest sum ever paid in one year at the shrine of 
Thomas a Beckett, by as many as 100,000 pilgrims (1420), 
did not reach one-sixth part of the Duke's income, being 
only 954:1. 6s. 3d. 

In 1482, a grocer's shop in Cheapside, then, as now, a 
main artery of the > Metropolis, "with a place above it," 
(perhaps a warehouse or store for goods), was let by Lord 
Howard for 4/. 6s. 8d. per annum. 7 Lord Howard seems to 
have taken out the rent, in whole or in part, in groceries. 

The vast estates of the Cliffords, in the time of the first 
Earl of Cumberland (temp. Henry VIII.), in the rich vales 
of Yorkshire, produced only 1719/. per annum. 8 

From marriage settlements we may also gather what 
were regarded as adequate allowances for members of 
illustrious families. Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, on his marriage 
with the Lady Anne, the youngest daughter of Edward 
IV., settled on the lady, "for sustentation and convenient 
diet in meat and drink," 20s. per week. Also a sum of 
5 ll. Us. Sd. was to be paid for the wages, diet, and 
clothing of the following persons viz., two women, a woman- 

4 Howard Household Books, edited by 6 Sermon ut supra, preface, p. xlv. 

J. P. Collier, Esq. Preface, p. iv., and p. 9. ' Howard Household Books, preface, 

5 Bishop Fisher's Funeral Sermon on p. xxv. and p. 351. 

the Countess of Richmond and Derby. 8 Whitaker's Craven, p. 262. 

Preface, p. xlv. 


child, a gentleman, a yeoman and three grooms ; seven horses 
were to be kept at 47s. for each horse. The Queen was to 
find the lady in clothes, and to allow 120/. yearly for a 
certain period. 9 

The second wife of the Shepherd Lord Clifford, who was 
the daughter of Sir Henry Pudsay, of Bolton, married three 
times 1st, to Sir Thomas Talbot ; 2ndly, Lord Clifford ; 
Srdly, Richard, third son of Thomas, Marquis of Dorset. 
Her first jointure, with the Knight, was 10 marks ; this was 
very largely exceeded when she married the Baron, who 
settled upon her no less than 150/. per annum. 

The mother of Henry, Lord Surrey (the Lady Elizabeth 
Stafford), the daughter of the last Duke of Buckingham, on 
her marriage with the before-named Thomas, Duke of Nor- 
folk, received from her father a fortune of 2000 marks ; the 
jointure settled upon her by her husband's father was 
500 marks per annum. 1 

To the talents of this lady, Dr. Nott pays this high tribute 
of praise " She was one of the most accomplished persons of 
the times ; the friend of scholars, and the patron of literature." 2 

On the marriage of the Earl of Surrey, his father, the 
Duke of Norfolk, settled upon him lands yielding 300/. per 
annum. His lady, Lady Frances Vere, brought a fortune of 
4000 marks, 200 to be paid on the day of marriage, and 
the remainder by half-yearly payments of 100 marks. The 
Duke was to be at the charge of Lord Surrey's clothes, 
Lord Oxford of those for the Lady Frances. 3 

But we shall probably form the most accurate idea how 
very much might be effected with a rental of 6000/. in the 
reign of Henry VI., by seeing how far any sum in round 
numbers (1000/. for instance) would go in housekeeping, 
both in those days and somewhat later. 

Take the monastery of Glastonbury, well entitled, both 
from its splendour and its possessions, to stand foremost, as 
it does, in Dugdale's Monasticon. Its head had precedence 
of all the abbots in England until 1154, when that distinction 
was transferred to Saint Alban's. At the Dissolution, the 
revenues of this monastery were estimated at 3508/. ; and 
what was its state and condition at that period I It was not 
only a religious house and an asylum for poverty, but it 

9 Nott's Surrey and Wyatt, vol. i.p. vi. - Nott's Surrey, Preface, p. viii. 
1 Nott, ut supra, p. viii. 3 Nott, id supra, p. xxiii. 


presented the pleasing picture of a well-disciplined court, 
where the sons of noblemen and gentlemen were educated. 
Whiting, the last abbot, whose cruel treatment his murder 
we may call it was equalled only by the bloody deeds of 
Judge Jefferies in the same part of England in a later age, 
had himself bred up nearly 300 young men of good birth in 
the short space of fifteen years, besides others of inferior 
degree, who were fitted for the Universities. He sometimes 
entertained 500 persons of rank at one time. On Wednesdays 
and Fridays all the poor in the neighbourhood were relieved, 
and when he went abroad he was attended by upwards of 
100 persons. Yet this vast household, and this extensive 
hospitality, with the expenses attached to a great monastic 
establishment, the due performance of Divine service, the 
maintenance of buildings, and countless other outgoings, were 
sustained, as we see, for about 3508/. per annum. 

To another monastery we will refer, as we have the 
accounts before us. About 1533 the sum expended at 
Whalley Abbey, in Lancashire, upon animal food alone was 
143^. 18s. 2c?., which multiplied by ten would be equivalent 
to 1400/. of our money, and giving so many pounds of meat 
to each person (when animal food formed a much larger 
proportion of diet than at present) would have fed 162 
persons daily at the Abbot's table. 

Other large monasteries or religious houses were valued at 
the Dissolution, at the following sums : 

Westminster at 3977Z. (Speed) 3471 1 (Dugdale). 

Saint Alban's at 25 101. 

Tewkesbury at 15981. 

Sion, the best endowed Nunnery in the kingdom, at 1994J. 4 

The vast quantities of food which were furnished from the 
estates of noblemen and of religious houses, would, of course, 
materially reduce the cost of maintaining their immense 

Let us next take a review of the expenses of the household 
of a powerful and wealthy nobleman. By the Northumber- 
land Household Book, it appears that, in 1512 (65 years 
after the date of this rental), 1000/. was annually assigned 
for keeping the Earl's house. The number of the household 
was not less than 166 persons; the weekly sum to each 

4 Taylor's Index Monasticus, Diocese of Norwich, p. viii. 


person being 2s. 3^d., or 61. Os. 5%d. per annum. Bishop 
Percy computes this sum (taking wheat at 5s. 8d. per 
quarter in 1512, against 5s. per bushel in his own time) at 
44/. 1 7*. 6d. for each individual, which, amounting to nearly 
70 001. per annum, would express to us clearly the abundance 
and the liberality of the general scale of the Earl's 

But large as were the sums actually paid at this period, 
in a vast establishment, for provisions for mere eating and 
drinking they formed but one item of expenditure. 

As additional outgoings we may enumerate : 

1. The wardrobe of persons of rank, including the jewel- 
lery, furs, chains, velvets, cloth of gold and embroidery. So 
magnificent and expensive were these, that it has been said, 
many of the nobles " carried their castles, woods, and farms 
on their backs." 5 The velvet for a nobleman's robe in the 
17 Hen. VIII. is estimated at I/. 11s. Sd. the yard, the dress 
amounting to 261. 2s. 6d., nearly 200/. of our money. Black 
satin at 8s. per yard. 

The parson's livery at this time cost one mark 13s. 4e?. 

2. The wages paid and liveries furnished to a very numerous 

3. The armoury, horses, and harness, and the carriages 
required for the removal of the contents of one castle to 
another. This was a singular feature in the manners of the 
times, the owners of castles removing from one to another, 
furnishing each, as it was from time to time required, for 
their reception. 

4. The keeping in repair the castles and dwellings, and 
the restoration of churches and chapels. 

5. Donations in money, or in money's worth, towards the 
building, rebuilding, or restoration of many of our cathedrals 
and churches. These were oftentimes granted with a libe- 
rality befitting the object. We must gladly advert to the 
spirit the large and generous spirit of ancient days, when 
fortunes were cast into the offerings to God ; when one 
person would accomplish what, with some splendid exceptions, 
we now require a society, a town, or parish to undertake. 
In the twelfth century, on the rebuilding the abbey and 
church of Croyland, a knight laid one stone, and placed 
on it 20/. ; another knight 10 marks ; his wife and sister 

5 Henry's Hist. Eng., vol. ii. 135. 


provided each a stone-cutter to work at their expense for two 
years ; a neighbouring abbot 1 0/. ; a baron, with his lady, 
their eldest son and daughter, placed the four next stones, 
offering on them the title-deeds of the advowsons of four 
neighbouring churches. The proceedings at that festival 
furnish an excellent example for us at the present day. 6 We 
may add, under this head, the tapestry and other furniture 
required in a chapel, the lights, altar-cloths, richly em- 
broidered copes, gifts of plate and vestments, and other 
articles for the services of the church. Also the offerings 
made to images, and at shrines and tombs. 

6. Expenses attending the chase and out-door amuse- 
ments ; payments to huntsmen, falconers, and watermen. 
" The mystery of woods, and the mystery of rivers," were 
necessary occupations for furnishing the tables, as well as 
daily sources of amusement. 7 

7. Rewards and costly presents, including the offerings at | 
festivals before spoken of ; the payments to silversmiths for 
presents, often appear in household books as disbursements of 
very large amount. 

8. Payments to theatrical servants, " Associations of I 
Players," as they were sometimes called, kept by the aris- ' 
tocracy, or for occasional performances. 

Lastly, let us not omit private charities. From the 
Howard Household Books, printed by the Roxburghe Club, 
and ably edited by Mr. Payne Collier, already referred to, I 
extending from 1481 to 1483, we find that the private 
charities of Lord Howard, the first Duke of Norfolk, and his 
family, were both general and extensive. Few pages, says 
Mr. Collier, occur in which alms are not recorded, apparently 
as a necessary part of the household expenditure. 8 

In a subsequent age this good practice continued. Anne, I 
Countess of Pembroke, during her residence at each of her 
castles, every Monday morning caused 10s. to be distributed 
amongst 20 poor householders of the place, besides the daily 
alms which she gave at her gates to all that came. 9 A 
nobleman, as in the case of Lord Howard, often expended no 
trifling sums in the maintenance of youths at the Universities, 

6 Berington's Literary Hist, of the Middle Ages, p. 216. 

7 Ellis's Specimens of the Early English Poets, vol. i. p. 335. 
9 Household Books, ut supra, p. xxv. 

9 Southey's Colloquies, ii. 1 37. 


sometimes paying the whole sum required, sometimes allowing 
the parents to pay a part of the cost of education, and con- 
tributing the rest himself. We may suppose that boys of 
promising abilities were selected, whose friends were little 
able to make any allowance or exhibition, and we must agree 
with Mr. Collier in regarding this as " most beneficial and 
enlightened liberality." 1 

There is an indorsement on this Roll, which must not be 
passed over ; it is entitled annuitates, a list of payments 
annually made to eighty-four persons, amounting altogether 
to the sum of 585/. 9s. Id. It commences with an allowance 
of 100/. to the Duchess Anne, which, if pin money, must 
have been a liberal allowance. This payment is followed by 
others to ten knights, varying from 40 marks to 20/. To 
twenty-seven esquires, 10/., 10 marks, and 5l. 

To Garter King at Arms, 40*. 

To Buckingham the Pursuivant, 4/. 

To 4 females, Elisabeth Drury and 3 others, annuities of 
20/., 5/., and 5 marks. 

To 4 trumpeters, and 15 other persons, annuities of 40*., 
5 marks, 4 marks, and 20*. 

One entry may be noticed, " Thome Tyler, Tegulatori," as 
a plain proof of the origin of a surname from a trade or 

Amongst the knights and esquires are members of several 
distinguished families ; the larger proportion of them are of 
Cheshire blood, viz., Mainwaring, Warburton, Hanford, 
Egerton, Devonport,Venables, Grosvenour, and Donne (Done). 
This fact I have not been able to account for. The mere 
possession of Macclesfield Castle could not have led to so 
intimate a connexion between the Duke and the families of 
that county. The net revenue received from it is exceedingly 
small, only 4/. 6*. 

From the border county of Staffordshire the revenue was 
large, and some few names of ancient families belonging to 
it are found in the list ; Curzon and Basset, for example. 

Many of these knights and esquires, if not all, may have 
been pages or members of the Duke's household. 

In the expenses of Whalley Abbey there are gifts to Lord 
Stanley (61. 13*. 4d.), and also to knights, esquires, and 
gentlemen. For what services, in days of tranquillity, these 

1 Household Books, ut supra, p. xxvi. 


pensions to gentry could have been conferred, Whitaker 
remarks, it is not easy to conceive, unless for past services, 
or that they are given to them in the character of retainers, 
when those services should be required in a military or civil 

Henry, Earl of Northumberland, in the reign of Henry 
VII., addressed a brief notice to Sir Randall Pygot, Sir 
William Stapleton, and five other knights and esquires, " to be 
ready upon an ower warning" These were the Earl's fee'd- 
men, receiving his wages. When the king made his progress 
in the north, the Earl met him a little beyond Robin Hood's 
Stone, with thirty-three knights of his fee'd-men, besides 
esquires and yeomen. 2 

No feature is more pleasing than the practice which then 
prevailed, of the English nobility and gentry placing their 
children as pages in the households of distinguished indi- 
viduals. In the Lives of the Lindsays, Lord Lindsay has 
grouped the society at one of the Castles of his ancestors 
in the fifteenth century, as consisting of the Earl and his 
immediate family, guests, ladies attendant upon the wife 
and daughter, pages of noble or gentle birth these last 
are described as gentleman-cadets (generally the younger 
branches of the family, who were attached to its head as 
servitors or feudal followers) the Earl's own domestic 
officers, being gentlemen of quality, chaplains and secretary- 
chamberlain, marischall and armour-bearer. 3 

Ben Jonson, in his play, " The New Inn," has perhaps 
given us the best idea of this judicious regulation, when 
every house became an academy of honour, and tended to 
supply the existing want of Eton and Westminster, then, 
perhaps, almost entirely devoted to the education of 
ecclesiastics : 

Call you that desperate, which, by a line 
Of institution, from our ancestors, 
Hath been derived down to us, and received 
In a succession, for the noblest way 
Of breeding up our youth, in letters, arms, 
Fair mien, discourses, civil exercise, 
And all the blazon of a Gentleman ! 
Where can he learn to vault, to ride, to fence, 
To move his body gracefuller, to speak 
His language purer, or to tune his mind, 
Or manners, more to the harmony of nature, 
Than in these nurseries of nobility ! " BEN JONSON. 

New Inn, Act i., Scene 1. 

2 Plumpton Correspondence, p. 53. Lives of the Lindsays, vol. i. p. 1 1 4. 


If the disguised Lord Frampul, in this comedy, gives an 
accurate picture of Jonson's own days, it would seem that 
this institution had greatly degenerated, "that the age of 
Chivalry was gone/' and that pages then occupied themselves 
in low and degrading pursuits. 

I pass over any detailed statements regarding other 
members of this house ; but we must shortly notice Henry, 
the second duke, "high-reaching Buckingham," or, as 
Richard is pleased to call him, " the petty rebel, dull- 
brain'd Buckingham." 

A dialogue between the King and this dangerous subject, 
in Shakespeare's Richard III., has erroneously led to the 
belief that the moiety of the estates of the Earl of Hereford, 
claimed by Buckingham (who possessed the other part 
as the descendant of Anne Bohun), was withheld from him. 
Dugdale, on the contrary, gives us an abstract of the Bill 
founded on letters patent, " 1st of Richard III., for livery 
of all those lands to the Duke, whereunto he pretended a 
right by descent from Humphrey de Bohun, sometime Earl 
of Hereford and Constable of England," together with a 
schedule of the castles and manors that was affixed to it, 
the annual value being 1084/. Is. 9d. 

In thi bill Richard says, that " his beloved cosyn, Henry, 
Duke of Buckingham, is the rightful inheritor of such inhe- 
ritances as were of the same earl." 

Here therefore was a clear gift; Richard (says Holinshed) 
promised " golden hills and silver rivers " to Buckingham, 4 
and he apparently fulfilled his promise, but the Duke, 
perhaps, never enjoyed these estates, as his life was forfeited 
in the following year. 

It is to be observed that Shakespeare does not make the 
Duke ask for lands, but for the earldom of Hereford and the 
promised " moveables" 

Now what is meant by this last word may be gathered 
from various authorities, especially from inventories. There 
is a most comprehensive list of jewels, apparel and moveables, 
late belonging to the Duke of Norfolk and his accomplished 
son, given by Mr. Nott from the originals in the Land 
Revenue Office, of which it is stated that the Protector 
Somerset, after the death of Henry VIII., retained for himself 
the lion's share. 5 These must have been of immense value, 

4 Lives of the Lindsays, vol. iii, 416. 6 Nott's Surrey, vol. i., appendix ex. 



and the Duke of Buckingham doubtless felt that though he 
obtained honours, castles and manors, yet if the moveables of 
the Earl of Hereford were kept back, he was still defrauded 
of his just rights. 

Sad as was his fate, we cannot lament it, as this Duke was 
the accomplice of some of the blackest crimes committed by 
Richard III. ; and though he was the chief instrument of 
that monarch's ambition, yet his son himself admits, in the 
language of Shakespeare, that his noble father, Henry of 
Buckingham, actually "first rais'd head against usurping 

From one most serious charge I am anxious to vindicate 
this nobleman, as it must be admitted to rest on very doubtful 
authority. Carte tells us that the Duke hoped to have been 
admitted into Richard's presence at Salisbury, designing, as 
his son afterwards said, to have stabbed him with a knife, 
provided secretly for the purpose. 6 Carte quotes Lord 
Herbert as his authority. The latter refers to the articles 
exhibited against the last Duke of Buckingham, grounded on 
the evidence of his discarded steward or surveyor, Knevet. 
That base dependant asserted to Wolsey that the Duke would 
have played the part towards Henry VIII., which his father 
intended to have put in practice against Richard III. at 
Salisbury. The Scene in Shakespeare's Henry VIIL, (Act. 
L, Scene 2) with the dignified rebuke of Queen Katherine to 
Knevet, when accusing his late master, will immediately 
recur to my readers. 

The whole charge, therefore, appears to rest upon the tes- 
timony of one who betrayed his master, and who only received 
the report second-hand, and Lord Herbert adds, " how far 
these particulars were proved, and in what sort, my authors 
deliver not." 7 

The reasons that prompted Duke Henry to take arms 
against his former friend and ally are not clearly stated. 
Richard and the Duke separated at Gloucester, More says, 
" in the most loving and trusty manner," and the Duke went 
to Brecknock " loaded with rich gifts and high behests." Sir 
James Macintosh is mistaken in his conjecture that no share 
in the spoils followed a share in the guilty; for though he 
obtained not all that he required, yet riches and honours, as 

6 Carte's Hist. Eng., vol ii. p. 814 ; vol. iii. p. 40. 

" See Buck's Rich. III. ; Kennett's Hist. Eng., vol. i. p. 530. 


we have seen, were showered upon the head of Buckingham 
by Richard in no sparing measure. 8 Possibly Richard may 
have waded further into blood than the Duke expected ; or, 
as a descendant of Edward III., Buckingham might have 
wished to hurl Richard from a throne stained with the blood 
of his brother's children. Friendship, if it ever existed 
between these two men, was turned to hate. As regarded 
Buckingham, discontent and envy ripened into conspiracy 
and rebellion. More says, " He was an high-minded 
man, and could ill bear the glory of another." 9 Shakespeare 
gives him, in his last hours, an accusing conscience 

" let me think on Hastings," 

in whose destruction he had concurred. 

The last days of the Duke's life will remind us of the 
many similar incidents which occurred to another peer of 
later days the Duke of Monmouth. Both had been dis- 
tinguished by the Royal favour in a more than common 
measure. Both were weak, vain, and ambitious men. In 
the rebellions they raised, they were received favourably by 
the people. Both assumed the title of king. Large rewards 
in money were in both cases offered for their apprehension ; l 
but whether both were betrayed, is, as respects Monmouth, not 
very clear. The same privations and necessities were expe- 
rienced by both, the once powerful Buckingham being, when 
captured, disguised as a countryman digging in a grove, and 
the Duke of Monmouth being found concealed in furze 
bushes. The Duke of Buckingham was hurried to the 
scaffold without the form of trial ; the Duke of Monmouth 
suffered by virtue of his previous attainder, and without any 
formal trial by his brother peers. 2 

To carry on the parallel one step further the two 
monarchs, against whom these peers had combined, were 
severally hurled from their thrones soon after their subjects 
had paid the penalty of their own misdeeds. 

Lord Bagot has, in the 25th Vol. of the Archseologia, 
given an interesting record connected with Edward the third 
and last duke, in whom it may be remembered the post of 
Lord High Constable of England, for several ages hereditary 
in the family of the Bohuns, became extinct. 

8 Kennett's Hist. Eng., vol. ii. p. 41. 1 1000 for Buckingham, Carte, ii, 814. 

9 Turner's Hist. Eng., vol. iii. p. 500. : Rapin, vol. iii. p. 749. 


The Household Book in his lordship's possession extends 
over seven months of one year (27th Hen. VII.), and shows 
the Duke's expenditure in London, at Thornbury, and on 
journeys to and from London and Gloucestershire; every- 
thing is stated with wonderful exactness as to the price of 
every article of consumption for man and beast, and the 
quantities of each article consumed. 

In this year (1507) was celebrated the Feast of the Epiphany 
at Thornbury Castle by a party of 459, of whom 134 were 
gentry. The religious services of the day were rendered 
more impressive by the presence of the Abbot of Kings- 
wood, and the choir consisted of eighteen men and nine 
boys. 3 

The actual amount of the income of this nobleman, Lord 
Bagot informs me, he has never yet been able to discover 
throughout the Stafford MSS. This valuable collection, com- 
prised in 13 folio volumes, is now safely deposited amongst 
his lordship's archives. The MSS. are of various ages and 
descriptions. Two cartularies contain copies of deeds, 
creations of nobility, and other matters of moment. 

The eldest son of this last-named duke was Henry 
Stafford, who was restored in blood, but admitted only to 
the barony of Stafford in 1547. The great estates, says 
Camden, writing in 1607, which the Staffords had gained 
by their honourable marriages, are all fled and scattered, in 
lieu whereof they enjoy a happy security. 

A small provision was granted to this baron out of these 
immense estates which had been forfeited. Afterwards a 
grant was made to him of Stafford Castle, but the whole 
property yielded only the small yearly sum of 317/. 13*. Id. 
These were all the possessions which he and his wife had 
to live upon. He could not sing or say with the good 
Countess of Pembroke, in her mis-metred lines 

" From many noble Progenitors I hold 
Transmitted lands, castles, and honours which they swayed of old." 

Wood speaks of him as a man of great " virtue, learning, am 
piety," who, in a calm and innocent retirement, endes 
voured to avert his mind from his misfortunes by a clost 
application to literature, and in assisting others who were 
busied in similar employments. At his suggestion, the well- 

3 Archseologia, vol. xxv. p. 323. 


known metrical chronicle, " The Mirror for Magistrates," 
was undertaken, and, through his influence, it was 
licensed. 4 

Like the Shepherd Lord Clifford, he might have been the 
happiest of his race, and falling upon quiet times, was 
enabled, like him, to indulge the peaceful and thoughtful 
disposition which his early fortunes had produced. 

In 1556, Lord Stafford appears to have compiled a cata- 
logue of books remaining in Stafford Castle. In ten years 
afterwards a very different list of such books as remained was 
made out a touching fact, as many of them had doubtless 
been parted with from necessity. Lord Bagot says, that 
about this time " the great house of Stafford was fast approach- 
ing its end, reduced from powerful princes to the most 
distressed and needy individuals." The peer whose father, as 
we have seen, had entertained four hundred and fifty-nine 
persons at his board, was obliged to part even with his silver 
spoons to procure actual subsistence. His grandson, Roger 
Stafford, Sir Harris Nicolas observes, was actually denied the 
dignity of baron, which he claimed on the death of Henry, 
the fifth baron, a bachelor, on the ground of his poverty, and 
as he had become the brother-in-law of a joiner, and the 
uncle of a shoemaker, it would have been a mockery to have 
encircled his brows with a coronet. Truly 

" The bows of the mighty men were broken." 

This nobleman, Henry, Baron Stafford, standing, as it 
were, amidst the ruins which the ambition of his ancestors 
had caused to be scattered around him, when " considering 
the days of old, and the years that were past," might yet be 
thankful that he enjoyed the "happy security" of which 
Camden speaks, and that, although deprived of the vast 
wealth, and of the almost unlimited power possessed by his 
forefathers, his humble and peaceful lot altogether exempted 
him from the fearful vicissitudes to which they had been 

Had he, indeed, repined at his fate ; had he sighed for 
what Johnson enumerates 

" The golden canopy, the glittering plate, 
The regal palace, the luxurious board, 
The liv'ried army, and the menial lord," 

4 Athen. Oxon., I. 264. 



the same great man and real poet might, if living, have thus 
addressed him, and, when we regard his circumstances and 
his place of residence, not inaptly 

" Speak thou whose thoughts at humble peace repine, 
Shall Wolsey's wealth, with Wolsey's end be thine ! 
Or liv'st thou now, with safer pride content, 
The wisest justice on the banks of Trent ? 
For, why did Wolsey near the steeps of fate, 
On weak foundations raise th' enormous weight ! 
Why but to sink beneath misfortune's blow, 
With louder ruin to the gulphs below ? " 

The Vanity of Human Wishes. 

It may be interesting to some readers to have a specimen of the Valor, or 
Rent-Roll ; the following portion of it has therefore been selected, comprising 
the estates in Holderness, in the county of York, referred to at p. 265. 


Preston, Lelley et Dyke, Spratley, Estanwyk, Burton Pidse, Skeeling, 
Bondbristwyk, Kayngham, Outhorn, Withornese, Kilnese, Esyngton, Skeft- 
ling, Barowe, Skipse-maner, Pauleflete, Skipse-burgus, Hedon, Cleton, 
Lanuath, Moys, Tainstall, Dunceley, Helpston, Holdernes, Kayngham Mersk, 
Littel Humbr, Brustwick, Berneston, l 

Somma Totalis valoris omnium dominiorum, maneriorum, terrarum et tenementorum 
dictorum infra domiuium predictum, sicut supra continetur, 949 J. 11s. 4d. unde de 

Redd ' et firm ' 
Exit ' Husbond ' 
Annual ' Casual.' 
Perquis' Cur.' 
Somma Total ' deduction : 
182. Os. 9d. unde de 

548 15 
267 6 
86 8 


predict ' ibidem hoc anno, sicut supra continetur, 

Redd ' resolut ' ...... 

Relaxac ' redd ' cum decas redd ' et firm ' . . 

Feod,' vad ' et stipend ' ministrorum 

Expen' senescalli cum necessariis . . . 

Reparacion ' hoc anno 

Cust ' Husbond ' cum stipend ' Prepos ' et 
Famulor ' ejusdem, reparacion ' dom,' maner,' 
Husbond,' cum emcione bladi et stauri . . 

Amerc,' et al ' casual ' posit ' in respect ' 

Decima Herbag ' solut.' 

s. d. 
13 10 
24 16 83 
9 14 


7 11 


55 18 
1 13 

Et valet ultra hoc anno. 831Z. 10s. Id. Inde Deduct ' in Feod ' et vad ' diversor' 

1 I am indebted to the kindness of 
Sir Charles Anderson, Bart., who, on 
comparison of this list with the names of 
places in Holderness, as given in Poulson's 
History, remarks that the existing names 
closely correspond with the above, with 
some slight variations, such as Sproutley, 
Elstanwick, Burstwick, &c. Moys is now 
written Meaux. Barrowe may be Barrow 

on Humber, in Lincolnshire. In a MS. 
at Burton Constable, in the possession of 
Sir Clifford Constable, Lord Paramount 
of Holderness, Sir Charles finds Bond, 
Burstwick, Lambthorpe, Hildeston, and 
Marisc, possibly identical with Lanwath, 
Helpston, and Mersk, in the list above 
given. Dunceley in that record may be 
Nun-keeling, and Cleton may be Carleton. 


Officiar,' cum salario cappellani, et in expens ' senesc,* Rec ' et Aud ' allocat ' in 
compoto Receptoris ibidem, hujus anno, ut patet ibidem, 462. 4s. 7^d. 

Et valet ultra onera anual ' hoc anno, 7852. 7s. 1 1 .V. Inde Deduct' in annuitat' 
Johannis Constable, armigeri, 102., Roberti Danby 11., et Thome Berston 10 marc , 
eisdem per dominum concess,' ut patet per comp ' Receptoris predictum, 1 51. 6s. 8d. 

Et valet ultra hoc anno 7692. 19s. 3Je2. Inde Deduct ' in reparacion ' ibidem hoc 
anno fact,' et in dicto compoto recept' allocat' (141. 3s. Id.) et respectuat ' 
(151. 16s. 8cZ.) cumexpens' for' et necessariis (6s. 8d.) ut patet in eodem compoto. 
322. 12s. Id. 

Et valet ultra hoc anno clare 7372. 7s. 2Jc2. qui faciunt in marc' 1106 marc' 
6 $d. 





MANY who, in past ages, made themselves conspicuous either 
by their actions or their writings, lay under great disad- 
vantage, because their deeds before the invention of printing, 
were mentioned in few books, sometimes probably only in 
one, and therefore the knowledge of them was liable to be 
destroyed by a single accident. 

Moreover, their exploits or works having been recorded 
in characters which have grown obsolete with the lapse of 
time, the knowledge of their reputation was confined to those 
only who were capable of reading those characters. 

Therefore, all the events, which can throw additional light 
upon their history, should be collected together, and made 
accessible to the public by printing ; it becomes even a duty 
in those, who discover such facts, to make them known. 
With this persuasion, the following memorials of the lives 
of three celebrated writers connected with Oxfordshire, 
collected from the Godstow Cartulary, are presented to the 
Archaeological Institute. 

Their names are, Geffrey Artur, generally called Geffrey 
of Monmouth, author of the " Historia Britonum : " Walter 
Map, author of " Lampoons against the Cistercians," a new 
monastic order which had sprung up a little before his time ; 
and Alexander de Swerford, supposed to be the author of 
the work entitled " De Scaccario." 

Geffrey Artur stands first in priority of time; partly 


cotemporary "with him lived Walter Map ; and Alexander de 
Swerford follows in the reign of Henry III. 

We meet with the mention of Geffrey Artur in the Godstow 
Cartulary, in two charters granted to that monastery by 
Walter de Wallingford, Archdeacon of Oxford, from A.D. 1104 
to 1151. They are given at pages 286, 287. 

I will make observations upon two points in Geffrey's 
History. He says Walter gave him a " very old " (vetus- 
tissimum) book. Having, as I trust, proved that the book 
was given to Geffrey before the year 1152, it is not 
likely that Geffrey would have called a book written since 
the Conquest by the Normans a very old book ; and yet in 
the latter part of the work he speaks of the entry of the 
Normans into England. This can only be accounted for by 
his additions to the original translation in a second edition. 
It would, therefore, be very desirable to have the text of 
his translation as it was before he made these interpolations. 

Where Geffrey de Monmouth was born is, I believe, not 
positively known. It is said at Monmouth, but I have met 
with no decisive evidence of that fact. My reason for making 
this query is, that a family surnamed, of Monmouth, existed 
for many generations at or near Long Marston, in Glouces- 
tershire, and several of this family were named Galfridus, as 
appears by ancient charters. The inquiry might arise, 
therefore, did this family spring from the same origin as the 
celebrated historian, or may his descent be traced to the 
family in question \ 

Mr. Wright, in the Preface to his edition of Walter Map's 
poems, has industriously collected together such particulars 
of the Archdeacon's history as were then known to him. 

Mr. Wright observes that the greater portion of our 
information relating to Walter Map, or Mapes, is contained in 
the " Speculum Ecclesia?," an inedited work of Giraldus 
Cambrensis, his intimate friend, who states that Walter was 
a favourite of Henry II., and was esteemed by that king for 
his extensive learning and his courtly manners. He obtained 
by the king's favour various ecclesiastical dignities, being 
Canon of Salisbury and St. Paul's, Precentor of Lincoln, 
incumbent of Westbury in Co. Gloucester ; and in 1197, he 
was made Archdeacon of Oxford. 1 He visited Rome between 
1193 and 1205. 

1 Latin Poems attributed to Walter p. v. Le Neve, in his " Fasti," says, he 
Mapes; edit. Camd. Soc. 1841. Pref. became Archdeacon of Oxford in 1196. 


Mr. Wright doubts his having written the poem, " de 
Palpone," because he does not find that Walter lived at or 
near Wimborne ; but it is not unlikely, for, as Wimborne was 
in the Diocese of Sarum, he may have been a chaplain, or 
the incumbent there, prior to his becoming a Canon of 

With regard to the origin of Walter Map, I am inclined to 
believe Map is a Welsh name, and, if so, it is probable 
that Walter was a Welshman. Hence may have arisen 
the friendship between this triad of illustrious writers, 
namely, Walter, Giraldus Cambrensis, and Geffrey of Mon- 
mouth. Walter Map took the trouble to convert Giraldus's 
account of Wales into a poem in that doggerel species of 
Latin verse, peculiar to himself, thereby showing that he felt 
a strong interest in the history of that country. 

Walter Map had a nephew living between 1183 and 1197, 
named Philip Map, and the name existed about 200 years 
since, in the person of Leonard Mapes, whose Will, dated 
1620, is in the Prerogative Office, and the name may 
possibly exist still, under that mode of spelling it. 

Leland, Bale, and Pits, are said to state that Walter Map 
was the Archdeacon, who gave the ancient Welsh MS. of 
the " Historia Britonum" to Geffrey of Monmouth. The 
statement, however, that he received it from Walter, Arch- 
deacon of Oxford, (cf. Pits, p. 217,) cannot relate to Walter 
Map, for by the following remarks it will be shown that it 
was not possible he should have been the donor. 

Walter Map was made Archdeacon of Oxford in 1196 or 

Geffrey says, " While I fell into a train of thought on the 
History of the King of Britain, (wondering that Gildas and Bede 
had said nothing of those kings which inhabited Britain before 
the birth of Christ, nothing even of Arthur, nor of many 
others since that time, although their actions are worthy of 
eternal praise, and were traditionally handed down among 
the people,) Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, offered me a 
very old book in the Welsh language, giving the history of 
Britain from the time of Brutus to the reign of Cadwallader 
ap Cadwallon." It would be clear from this, that the book 
was not translated by Geffrey until after 1197, if, as I 
said before, this Walter, Archdeacon, should be Walter Map. 

Henry of Huntingdon dedicates his work to Alexander, 


Bishop of Lincoln, who died, 1147. From this it is evident, 
that the additional Preface to Henry of Huntingdon (which 
is only found in some MSS.), where Henry speaks of Geffrey's 
work, must be either an interpolation, or Henry of Huntingdon 
must have lived fifty years after he had finished his own 
history, if Walter Map gave the MS. This reckoning by 
the common age of man, would produce this result, that 
Henry must have finished his history between the age of 
twenty and twenty-five, an age much too young to have 
executed such a work. 

William of Newburgh, who was born in the first year of 
Stephen, A. 1135, writes against Geffrey, and says his His- 
tory is a fiction altogether. William of Newburgh ends his 
History in 1197, in the same year, or the year after that, in 
which Walter Map was made archdeacon. If we are to sup- 
pose that William of Newburgh uttered this invective in the 
year 1197, as soon as he had finished his own work, we must j 
give Geffrey great credit for industry, in translating the work 
so expeditiously. 

In one of the charters which are now brought forward, we 
find a Walter the Archdeacon called "de Godestow," but 
this seems to be another Walter, Archdeacon, not mentioned 
by Le Neve in his " Fasti," for he appears to have been arch- 
deacon in the time of Henry II., which was not the case with 
Walter Map. It would appear probable, then, that this was 
Walter de Constantiis, afterwards Bishop of Lincoln. Ralph 
de Monemuta and Magister Galfridus Arturus were witnesses 
to his charter. 

But to one of these charters, which Geffrey Artur wit- 
nessed, Robert, Bishop of Exeter, was a witness. Now the 
last bishop of that name, prior to Walter Map, was Robert 
Warlewast, who died 1159, before Walter de Constantiis was 
made archdeacon ; therefore this Walter de Constantiis could 
not be Walter the Archdeacon, who gave the book to Geffrey. 
We must have recourse then to a third Walter : and we 
find another Walter in whom these several points unite. 
This was Walter de Wallingford, who, according to Le Neve, 
lived in 1151, within the episcopate of Robert Warlewast 
In these charters we find as witnesses William, Abbot 
Eynesham, who lived in 1138 ; Godfrey, Prior of Eyneshar 
probably the same who was afterwards Abbot in the time of 
Stephen; Robert, Prior of St. Frideswid, 1141; and Reginald, 
Abbot of Evesham, who died 1149. 


Moreover, Geffrey dedicates his work to Robert Fitz Roy, 
Earl of Gloucester, who died about 1146, another proof that 
Walter Map could not be the donor of the MS. 

From all these dates uniting in Walter de Wallingford, we 
are compelled to come to the conclusion that the Walter, 
Archdeacon of Oxford, who gave Geffrey the celebrated 
Welsh History, was not Walter Map, but Walter de Walling- 

If the Magister Galfridus Arturus, mentioned in the 
charter, was Geffrey of Monmouth, his being Magister and a 
witness would show him to be at least twenty-one. In both 
deeds he is coupled as a witness with Robert de Monemuta. 
The last date of Walter de Wallingford which Le Neve gives 
is 1151, which would make Geffrey a young man when he 
translated this work, supposing him to have lived also in 

We must now put the query, who was the Walter whose 
malady is so feelingly deplored by Henry of Huntingdon 
in his Treatise de Contemptu Mundi, and of whom he gives 
this high praise : 

" Walter*?, quondam decuB juvenum ! quondam delicise rerum ! " 

This could not be Walter Map, for although this work was 
written in Henry's old age, yet, as Henry must have been 
born about 1090, to suppose him lamenting Walter Map, 
who lived in 1205, would be absurd. I conjecture, then, that 
the person in question was Walter de Wallingford. 

That Henry must have been born about 1090 is proved 
by his own words, in which he states that he saw Robert 
Bloet, Bishop of Lincoln, when he (Henry) was a little boy, a 
youth, a young man. As Robert Bloet was made bishop in 
1093, and died in 1123, his episcopate would comprise those 
three periods of Henry of Huntingdon's life, which he here 
indicates. Having thus established the probable age of 
Henry, I think it is clear, from this also, that the Walter, 
to whom he alludes in this eulogy, could not be Walter 

The necessity, which all should feel, of correcting erroneous 
impressions on points of history will, I trust, plead my excuse 
for entering so much at length into this discussion. 

The proofs of the above argument are the following : 


REMEMBRANCER, (Carlton Ride Office,) fol. 5. 

"Walterus, Oxinefordensis Archidiaconus, omnibus fidelibus Sancte 
Ecclesie salutem. Notifico caritati vestre, quod concessi conventui de 
Godestowe, et monialibus ibidem Deo servientibus, omnem libertatein quam 
Archidiaconus concedere potest, scilicet, ut ab omni Archidiaconali exac- 
cione, sive aggravacione, ut in hospiciis exigendis, aut capellanis implacitandis, 
ceterisve ministris in causam ducendis, libera sit predicta Ecclesia et 
prorsus quieta. Oleum quoque crisma et sanctum et infirmorum sine 
exaccione habeat. Abbatissa eciam capellanos suos ponat, et habeat, ita ut 
ipsa voluerit, ad sinodos sive ad capitula non eant, nee [Archidiacono nee] 3 
Decano aut eorumdem ministris, nisi voluntarie, respondeant. Capellani 
quoque sui, si perverse egerint, convocet abbatissa ad ecclesiam suam, 
vicinos suos elegerit presbiteros, quorum judicio aut corrigat eos, aut eiciat. 
Curam etiam monialium suarum, absque scitacione alicujus archidiaconi sive 
decani, habeat. Hujus libertatis si quis temerario ausu violator aut destructor 
extiterit, perpetui anathematis sentencie subjaceat, nisi resipuerit, et con- 
dignam satisfaccionem egerit. Hujus rei existunt Testes, Rodbertus, 
Exoniensis Episcopus ; 4 Ricardus, Abbas Elemosiue ; 5 Reginaldus, Abbas 
Eveshamie, 6 Walterus, Abbas Egenesham. Ra,dulphus de Monem', 
Magister Gaufridus Arturus, Rodbertus, Prior Oxinefordensis, Rodbertus 
capellanus, Ansket' presbiter, Willelmus Capellanus, Reginaldus filius 
Comitis et filii sui, Willelmus de Keisur, Humfridus Clericus, Andreas 
Clericus, Hugo de Keisur, Willelmus filius Walteri, Simon de Gerard' 
Molend', Nichol' Basset, Nigell' del Broc, Radulphus de Broc, Willelmus 
filius Godefridi, Willelmus Luvel. 

2 The dedication of the church of Walton, North of Oxford, a name now 
Godstow took place in the reign of Stephen, preserved in that of Walton Place, near 
in the presence of the King and Queen, Worcester College, the church of St. Giles 
Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, the was situated, erected by Alwiu, or " El- 
Bishops of Sarum, Worcester, Exeter, wiuus, filius Godegosii," as Rous states, 
Bath, and Constance, on the Vigil of about the time of the Conquest. He 
Easter, A.D. 1138. (April 2.) See the appears, however, amongst the donors in 
dedication charter of Alexander, Bishop the Dedication Charter of the church of 
of Lincoln, reciting the benefactions made Godstow, in 1 1 38, and in that of King 
on that occasion, amongst which it is re- Richard I., he is specially named as the 
corded " Galterus, Archidiaconus Oxine- Founder of St. Giles's church. This 
fordie, dedit decimam dominii sui de charter of Archdeacon Walter may pro- 
Cudeslaua." Mon. Angl., new edit., vol. bably be assigned to that date, circa 1138. 
iv., p. 362 ; ex Regist. in Scacc. ex parte Edit. 

Remem. Reg. An English version is also 4 Robert Chichester, Bishop of Exeter, 

found in the English Register, among the 1128 or 1138. Ob. 1150. 

MSS. Rawlinson, in Bodley. 5 Eleemosyna, le petit Citeaux, a Cis- 

3 These words, apparently requisite to tercian abbey founded in 1121, situate 
complete the sense of this clause, had between Chartres and Blois. Richard 
probably been omitted by the writer of the occurs Abbot of this house hi 1147, till 
Cartulary. King Stephen, as appears by about 1156. Gallia Christ., torn. viii. 
his Charter in the Register in the Remem- 1 397. Waverley and Tintern were offsets 
brancer of the Exchequer's office, gave to from this abbey. 

the church of Godstow " De meo proprio 6 Reginald was Abbot of Evesliaiu ; 
dominio c. solidatas in vico qui dicitur ob. 1149. 
Waltona." In the ancient manor of 



Universis Sancte Matris Ecclesie filiis, ad quos presentes litere pervene- 
rint, Walterus de Godstowe, Oxoneford' Archidiaconus, Salutem in Christo. 
Notum esse volumus, nos ex officio Archidiaconatus nostri, ad presenta- 
cionem et concessionem domini Regis Anglie, Henrici filii Matildis Impera- 
tricis, donassc, et present! carta mea confirmasse, sanctimonialibus de 
Godestow Ecclesiam de Bloxam, cum suis pertinenciis, salvo jure Lincolni- 
ensis Ecclesie et nostro. Instituimus autem prenominatas sanctimoniales 
in personatum prefate ecclesie, salvo jure Rogeri de Clifforde, qui nomine 
earuni eandem Ecclesiam in vita sua est habiturus, pensione unius bizantii 
prescriptis monialibus annuatim reddeudo ad pascham. Testibus hiis, 
Magistro Winemero, Johanne de Const', Magistro Radulpho de Const', 
Matheo et Rogero Cappellanis, Stephano, David, clericis. 


Walterus, Oxin' Archidiaconus, omnibus sancte Ecclesie fidelibus salutem. 
Notum vobis facio me dedisse in elemosinam Ecclesie Beati Johannis de 
Godestowe decimam terre mee in dominio meo de Cudeslawe, 7 ipsamque 
posuisse super altare, in dedicacione ecclesie coram Alexandro Lincolniensi 
Episcopo 8 et ceteris Episcopis qui dedicaverunt Ecclesiam. Valete. 


Walterus, Oxinefordensis Archidiaconus, omnibus fidelibus sancte ecclesie 
Salutem. Notum v^bis facio quod rustici mei de Waltona, in dedicacione 
ecclesie sancti Egidii, que est extra portam de Northe Oxiueford, dederunt 
decimas suas eidem ecclesie, asaensu et voluntate mea, quod concede et 
volo, et ex parte Dei sic esse precipio. Teste Willelrno, Abbate de 
Egnesham, 9 Rodberto, Priore S. Frethesuide, 1 Godefrido, Priore de 
Egnesham, 2 Magistro Galfrido Arteour, Radulpho de Monumuta, Willelmo 
Capellano, Nigello Presbitero, Jocelino Clerico, Petro del Bar, Jord' 
Radulpho de Melverna, cum multis aliis. Valete. 

The third author to whose history I wish to call attention 
is Alexander de Swerford, Treasurer of St. Paul's, who, there 
can be little doubt, was either born at Swerford, in the County 
of Oxford, or was a descendant of the family who were lords 
of that manor, and took their name from it. 

Of this Alexander we have four charters in the Godstow 
Cartulary, while he was treasurer, to which office he was ap- 
pointed in 1231, and died 1246. They are the following : 

7 Cutslow, about three miles north of 9 William, Abbot of Eynsham, A.D. 
Oxford. 1138. 

8 Alexander, Archdeacon of Sarum, J Robert deCricklade, or Canutus, Prior 
nominated Bishop of Lincoln, 15th of April, of Oxford, area 1130, or 1141 to 1157. 
1123 ; Lord Chancellor, ob. 1147. The Mon. Aug., new edit., vol. ii., p. 135. 
Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, who - Possibly the same Godfrey, who occurs 
granted these tithes, must therefore have as Abbot of Eynsham, t. Stephen. Mon. 
been Walter de Wallingford, Archdeacon, Aug., new edit, vol. ill, p. 2. 



CABTDL. GODSTOW, fol. 80. 

Omnibus presens scriptum visuris vel audituris Alexander de Suereford, 
thesaurarius Sancti Pauli Lond' salutem in Domino. Noverit universitas 
vestra me dedisse, concessisse, et hac present! carta confirmasse Johanni 
de Wottone filio et heredi Radulfi de Wottone, consanguineo meo, et 
Juliane filie Willelmi de S. Audoeno uxori prefati Johannis, totam terram 
meam de Kersintone, cum omnibus pertinenciis suis, quam ibidem habui et 
tenui de dono et concessione predicti Radulfi ; et similiter omnes terras et 
omnia tenementa que habui et tenui in eadem villa, de perquisite meo, sicut 
in cartis illorum de quibus terras et tenementa ilia habui, quas predictis 
Johanni et Juliane liberavi, plenius continetur ; habenda et tenenda eisdem 
Johanni et Juliane et heredibus eorum, de me et heredibus meis sive assig- 
natis quibuscumque,libere, quiete,integre et plenarie imperpetuum ; reddendo 
inde singulis annis michi et heredibus meis sive assignatis meis quibuscumque 
apud London ' in domo mea unum spervarium sorum, ad festum beati Petri 
ad Vincula, pro ornni servicio et exaccione, et faciendo inde servicia domiuis 
feodorum et tenementorum ipsorum que terre ille facere debent, et consueve- 
runt, pro me et heredibus meis sive assignatis meis imperpetuum. Et ego et 
heredes mei sive assignati mei warantizabimus eisdem Johanni et Juliane, et 
heredibus eorum, omnes predictas terras et tenementa cum omnibus perti- 
nenciis suis, per predictum servicium unius spervarii sori per annum, sicut 
predictum est, contra omnes gentes imperpetuum. Et ut hec mea donacio, 
concessio, hujus carte confirmacio, et warantizacio perpetue firmitatis robur 
optineant, presens scriptum sigilli mei munimine duxi roborandum. Hiis 
testibus, domino Willelmo de Haverhulle, canonico S. Pauli Lond', 
Ricardo persona de Haueberewe, 3 Johanne de Aula, Andrea Caperun, 
Roberto Turnur, Willelmo filio Petri, Johanne filio Amisii de Kersintone, 
Radulfo filio clerici, Hugone Brune de Haneberewe, Rogero de Haverhulle, 
Petro de Haverhulle, Willelmo persona de Wickwane, Ricardo de Here- 
forde, clerico, Willelmo de Alneto, Willelmo de Pres, Waltero Marescallo, 
et aliis. 


Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego, Ricardus Blundus de Karsintone 
dedi, concessi, et hac presenti carta confirmavi domino Alexandro Thesau- 
rario Sancti Pauli Lond ' iv. acras terre mee in Karsinton, quaruni ij. acre 
jacent in insula que vocatur Sornheyte, in particulis per viij. virgas, quarum 
i. virga jacet in eadem insula inter terram Willelmi Sywarde, extendens se 
versus aquam de Bladene ; et secunda, juxta terram Petri de Wyvelcote 
extendendo se in Tamisiam ; tertia virga jacet ibidem inter terram Walteri 
Morel et Ricardi Hunche ; et quarta virga jacet ibidem juxta terram 
Johannis Chyke, junioris : quiuta, juxta hidam subtus Scoteslake : et sexta 
verga et septima jacent inter terram Theodulphi de Plummere et terram 
Walteri Sapiere : octava, inter terram Thome filii Hawyse et terram meam. 
Due autem acre jacent in campis ejusdem ville aquilonaribus, quarum 
dimidia acra jacet juxta terram Simonis filii Prepositi, et abuttat super 
cainpum qui vocatur Vithele et dimidia acra inter terram Walteri Morel et 
Walteri le Sapiere, in predicto campo de Vithele ; et dimidia acra jacet 
in Wythibedde, inter terram ThomeCapellani et Willelmi Smewe ; et 

3 Handborough, a parish in Oxfordshire. 


dimidia acra jacet in campo qui vocatur Harestane inter terram Walteri 
Sapiere et terram Robert! Duscepere. Dedi etc. eidem Alexandro dimidiam 
acram prati in eadem villa, que jacet in prato quod vocatur Barbecroft, 
habend' eidem Alexandro et heredibus suis, etc.* inperpetuum. Et ex 
convencione inter me et dictum Alexandrum fa eta, dictas quatuor acras etc. 
per alias terras nostras inter Karsintone warantizabimus etc. Et pro hac 
donacione etc. dedit mihi predictus Alexander xx.s. sterlingorum premani- 
bus in gersumam et de xxj. s. me versus vivos fil ' Sapin, Judeum Oxon', 
in quibus ei tenebar, die quo confecta fuit hec carta, viz. die Lune proxima 
ante festum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, anno M.CC.XLIV. planarie acquieta- 
vit. Et, ut presens scriptum perpetue firmitatis robur obtineat, illud sigillo 
meo roboravi. Hiis Testibus, Nicholao le Fraunceys de Somerford, Wil- 
]elmo de Parys, Simone Punchard', Roberto Punchard', Simone Anglico, 
Petro de Wyvelcote, Willelmo filio Petri, Ricardo de Botteley, Theodulpho 
le Plummere et multis aliis. 


Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Johannes, filius Radulpbi de Wottone, 
dedi etc. Willelmo de Sancto Audoeno totam terram et tenementum que habui 
de dono Alexandri de Swerford, quondam Thesaurarii Sancti Pauli London' 
viz. de terris que idem Alexander habuit tarn de dono dicti Radulpbi, 
patris mei, quam de perquisitis suis, in Karsintone, sine ullo retenernento 
mihi vel heredibus meis habend,' etc. Reddendo inde annuatim capital! 
domino feodi, scilicet Willelmo filio Petri de Kersintone, vj. d. et j. par 
albarum cyrotecarum ue precio j. ob. ad Pasca. Et Abbatisse de Godstowe 
v.s. ad duos anni terminos, etc. Et heredibus dicti Alexandri de Swerford 
j. spervarium sorum 4 ad festum beati Petri ad Vincula. Et mihi et here- 
dibus meis unum denarium ad Pentecost, etc. Pro hac autem donacione 
etc. dedit mihi Willelmus x. marcas. Preterea idem Willelmus et heredes 
sui in tota vita mea mihi dabuntannuatim j. calciamentum de precio ij. s. 
etc. Et ego, et heredes mei, etc. warrantizabimus, etc. Et ut hec mea 
donacio, etc. huic presenti scripto sigillum meum apposui. Hiis Testibus 
Willelmo de Parys, Radulpho Iveans, (?) Philippe Pady, Johanne de Aula 
de Haneberge, Radulpho filio Clerici de Eyneshain, Andrea Caperun, 
Roberto le Tumour, et Willelmo le Parker de Wodestok, Nicholao le 
Franceys de Somerforde, Symone Punchard', Symone Anglico, et aliis. 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod Ego Willelmus de Sancto Audoeno dedi 
Willelmo filio meo et heredi, et Colette uxori sue totam terram meam de 
Kersintone, etc. quam ibidem habui, et tenui de dono Johannis filii 
Radulphi, imperpetuum, etc. quam quidem terram dictus Johannes filius 
Radulphi habuit de dono Alexandri de Swerford, quondam Thesaurarii 
Sancti Pauli London' [etc., ut in ultima carta.] Pro hac autem donacione 
etc. dederunt mihi Willelmus filius meus et Coletta uxor ejus xx. marcas in 
gersummam, etc. Sciendum est etiam quod sic convenit inter Willelmum de 
Sancto Audoeno pro filio meo Willelmo, ex una parte, et Johannam de 
Merdene, pro Coletta sorore sua, ex altera, quod si dicta Coletta conceperit 
de dicto Willelmo filio Willelmi sponso suo, et prolem in lucem produxerit, 
ipsa proles totam predictam terram etc.possideat, in perpetuum, jure heredi- 
tario. Si vero dictus Willelmus, etc. ante suscitatam prolem de dicta 

4 A hawk of the first year, (" a soar sor " de couleur jaune, blond rous- 
hawk," Cotgrave,) having its first plumage satre." See Ducange, v. Saurus. 
of the light brown colour called in French, 


Coletta uxore sua, obierit, habebit dictam terram etc. dicta Coletta ad totam 
vitara suam ; et si dicta Coletta ante WilJelmum filiura Willelmi maritum 
suum, in fata sine liberis decesserit post ejus vitara predictua Johannes, 
frater Colette, vel sui assiguati predictam terram etc. habebunt pro x. 
aniiis, ad denarios dicto Willelmo de Sancto Audoeno pacatos plene plene 
levandos absque disturbacione dicti Willelmi vel aiicujus nomine suo ; et 
post x. amios completes redibit dicta terra etc. ad dictum Willelmum vel 
heredes suos etc. Si vero contingat quod ego Willelmus de Sancto Audoeno 
dictis Willelmo filio meo et Colette warantizare non potero, faciam eis suf- 
ficiens excambium de aliis terris meis cum manso competenti in Villa de 
Haneborowe, secundum visum legalium hominum. In cujus rei testimonium, 
etc. Sigillum meum apposui. Hiis Testibus, Dominis Nicbolao de Henrede, 
tune Vice comite Oxon.' Bardulpho de Cestertone, militibus ; Johanne de 
Dunhall, Petro de Lega, Rogero de Has tall, Henrico Parker, Willelmo 
filio Petri de Kersintone, persona de Drifeld. 

By these charters we discover some of his kindred, and that 
he had property at Carsington, in the County of Oxford. For 
by them he grants to his cousin John, son and heir of Ralph 
de Wotton, and to Juliana his wife, daughter of William de St. 
Ouen, all his land in Carsington, which he had by the gift of 
the said Ralph, and all the lands which he, (Alexander him- 
self,) had purchased in Carsington ; to be held by the said 
John and Juliana, on the yearly payment of a sparrow-hawk, 
at his, (Alexander's), house in London. 

As Madox, in his " History of the Exchequer," has fully 
treated of all the claims of Alexander de Swerford to the 
authorship of the work de Scaccario, I will content myself with 
bringing forward the facts in his life which are contained in 
these charters. As these were drawn from the Cartulary of 
Godstow, I cannot conclude my observations without begging 
to press earnestly upon the attention of the Institute the very 
great importance of printing the Cartularies of this kingdom, 
a noble example being set us by Scotland, and followed by 
Lancashire and France. For these documents contain innu- 
merable anecdotes relative to the biography of the inha- 
bitants of this country in former times, all of whom were 
either our direct ancestors, or of their kindred ; and I beg 
leave to propose a commencement with this county, and to 
suggest a subscription of a moderate sum, annually, for the 
purpose of bringing out the Cartularies of Oxfordshire. 6 

6 The valuable Cartulary, from which 1420. A note is inscribed at the 

the documents here given have been ex- mencement, as follows, " Monasteriu 

tracted, is preserved amongst the Records de Godstowe. Liberatur in Cur' Sea 

of the Queen's Remembrancer, now in carii undecimo die Februarii, anno xxvij 

the custody of the Master of the Rolls. per manus Ricardi Browne, generosi, pr 

It appears to have been written about commodo Regine." 


THERE are few spots in all England more interesting to 
the historian and the archaeologist than Sandwich and its 
neighbourhood. On one side is Richborough, the Roman 
gate of Britain, even now magnificent in its extensive 
remains. On another side are found the monuments of 
Anglo-Saxon occupation : graves, arms, domestic utensils, 
and articles of personal adornment. The churches of Ash 
and Sandwich are rich in the sculptured effigies of medieval 
knighthood. Sandwich itself is most curious as a landmark 
of passing centuries, a " Bauta-stone," set up by Time, to 
record how seaport after seaport has been destroyed by the 
" aboundance of the light sande driven in by the sea." The 
narrow, tortuous streets, have clearly not changed their 
groundplan since the days when Edward the Third assem- 
bled at this spot his army of "3000 lances and 10,000 
archers, with a fleet of 400 sail," and when Edward the 
Black Prince landed here with the King of France as his 
prisoner. In the quaint old houses of post-and-pane, we 
see the very homes of the refugee Flemings, settled here 
with their weaving arts in the sixteenth century ; and 
amongst these buildings probably yet remains the very 
mansion occupied by Queen Elizabeth in her stately pro- 
gress to the renowned cinqueport : " Mr. Manwood's house, 
wherein she lodged, a house wherein Kinge Henry the VHIth 
had been lodged twyce before ;" where she was presented with 
" a cupp of gold of a hundredth pounds, and a New Testa- 
ment in Greeke, which she thankfully accepted;" and where, 
on "a scaffold made uppon the wall of the scole house 
yarde," were seen divers " Englishe and Dutche, to the 
number of Cth or VI score, all spynning of fyne baye yarne, 
a thing well lyked both of her Majestic, and of the Nobilitie 
and ladies." 1 And not least interesting and instructive to 
the archaeologist and the historian is the rare collection of 

1 One cannot help comparing and curi- Victoria at the Crystal Palace examin- 
ously considering the very similar scene ing the Department of " Machinery in 
which has been enacted under our own motion." 
eyes within this passing month Queen 



Roman and Anglo-Saxon antiquities, formed at Sandwich 
by D. Rolfe, Esq. ; a collection which, in itself of the highest 
interest, becomes a source of gratification from the courtesy 
with which it is exhibited by its possessor. 

Among the knightly effigies of Sandwich and Ash, are 
two which are especially curious ; one from the armour 
being composed in part of scale-work, and the other from 
offering an example, among the very few in monumental 
sculpture, of " ailettes" attached to the warrior's equipment. 
The Sandwich figure is preserved in the Church of St. Peter, 
at the west end of the nave. Though clearly of the first 
half of the fourteenth century, it has been traditionally 
assigned to Sir John Grove, who lived in the middle of the 
fifteenth. The statue originally reposed on an altar-tomb 
in the south aisle ; on the demolition of that aisle by the 
falling of the steeple in 1661, it was exposed to every 
manner of depredation, whether from the assaults of the 
weather, or " the trampling of boys," and subsequently, 
at the instigation of the historian of Sandwich, it was 
brought within the body of the Church and placed in the 
situation it now occupies. The outer (or left) side of the 
figure having been much injured, says Boys in his History,, 
" I have reversed its position and brought to view the other 
parts, where the sculpture is remarkably sharp." Search 
was at the same time made for the remains of the knight, 
but none being found, it was concluded that they were 
removed into the interior of the Church at the demolition of 
the aisle. In Le Neve's Church Notes, (begun in 1603,) 
the tomb is described as that of Sir John Grove, and 
on the tomb-side appear the arms of Grove, Septvans, 
St. Leger, Hilparton, Isaac and Sandwich, while the arms 
of Grove are repeated on the shield. (Add. MS. in Brit. 
Mus., No. 5479, f. 89.) As these arms were in paint only, 
their evidence is of no great value. From the effigy itself 


all trace of pictorial decoration has disappeared. 

The size of the remaining fragment is 4^ feet ; the mate- 
rial Caen stone. The art is somewhat rude, but the details 
are made out with great care. The figure does not seem to 
have suffered in the slightest degree since the time of 
Mr. Boys, and it is now kept with the greatest care. The 
knight wears the quilted gambeson ; over that a hauberk of 
chain-mail ; then a defence of scale-work ; and above that 

Effigy in St Peter's Church, Sandwich. 


the fringed sleeveless surcoat, girt at the waist with a 
narrow belt, which serves also to sustain the dagger. The 
particular object of placing a third " coat of fence " between 
the hauberk and surcoat is not altogether clear to our 
modern perceptions, but the usage is sufficiently frequent to 
show that it met the approval of those who were best 
qualified to pronounce upon its merits. In the effigies of 
John of Eltham, of Sir Oliver Ingham, and of Sir Humfrey 
Littlebury, (Stothard's Monuments, Plates 55, 66, and 75,) 
we find a bezanted garment between the hauberk and surcoat. 
The brass of Sir John D'Aubernoun, (Stothard, PL 60,) and 
that of De Creke, (Waller, Pt. 8,) exhibit a studded pour- 
point in the same position. The effigy in Ash Church 
(Stothard, PI. 61) has a quilted gambeson thus worn. The 
statue of a Pembridge (Hollis, Pt. 5) has a garment simi- 
larly placed ; and in the figure of Albrecht von Hohenlohe, 
(Hefner's Trachten, Pt. 2, PL 87) we observe at the shoulders 
a defence of scale-work interposed between the surcoat 
and the hauberk of chain-mail. 

On the arm of our knight is seen a portion of the 
gambeson, and over that the loose sleeve of the hauberk, 
furnished with rondelles at the elbow and shoulder. These 
rondelles were frequently attached to the hauberk with 
points. Instances occur in the brass of Sir John D'Aubernoun, 
(Stothard, PL 60,) in the marble effigy of an Italian knight 
at Naples, (Hefner, Pt. 2, PL 33,) in the brass of William 
Wenemaer at Ghent, (Arch. Journal, vol. vii., p. 287,) and in 
some of the illuminations of Roy. MS., 16, G. VI. The 
gauntlets have received too much injury for their construc- 
tion to be detected : they were probably of leather, armed 
with strips of steel. The " bassinet rond," with its pendents 
and ornaments in relief, bears a close resemblance to the 
neighbouring example at Ash, figured by Stothard, PL 61. 
The pendents here are ridged : .therefore probably of metal 
or cuir-bouilli. Compare also the effigy at Ifield (Stothard, 
PL 59). The camail of chain-mail offers no peculiar feature. 
The knightly belt and the cross-belt (q. the guige ?) are 
richly ornamented with studs and rosettes. The mamel- 
lieres have the form of lion's heads : the chain from the 
right one appears of inconvenient length to be attached to 
the lower part of the helm, though such was its usual 
purpose. The dagger hilt is secured by a chain, while a 



cord suspends the sheath : the guard is formed by two 
knobs, though now nearly obliterated by damages of time 
and wantonness. The leg defences are no longer to be 
defined, and the shield (observed by Le Neve) has totally 
disappeared. The action of the figure appears to be that of 
sheathing the sword. The slab beneath the effigy is of the 
coped form. 

The scales, which form the most remarkable part of this 
harness, are ridged ; therefore they were probably of metal 
or cuir-bouilli. Though occurring in comparative infrequency 
on the monuments of the middle ages, examples of scale- 
armour are not wanting in all times, from the epoch of the 
Nimroud sculptures to that of our own commonwealth ; and 
indeed later, for the Asiatic contributions to the "Great 
Exhibition" show us that even to this day, the " lorica 
squamata" is occasionally worn in the east. 

The Assyrian sculptures in the British Museum offer 

numerous examples of 
scale-armour. The two 
figures here given arc 
from Layard's large 
work on these monu-, 
ments, Pis. 1 7, and 1 8. 
It will be remarked 
that the arcs of the 
scales are not set in, 
the same direction in 
both cases : the figure 
with the staff is also 
curious in the addition of a chin-band, which seems to fasten 
his helmet over the gorget. In the second figure one cannot 
fail to be struck with the curiously close resemblance of the 
defences to the camailed bassinet of the European knight of 
the fourteenth century. Mr. Layard considers these scales to 
have been " fastened to bands of iron or copper." (Nineveh 
and its Remains, ii. 336.) Several of the real scales were 
discovered, and are deposited in the British Museum. The 
one here given has been carefully drawn from the original. 
It is of iron, three inches in length; the ridge, which is 
raised in front, is hollow behind ; the apertures for fastening 
appear to have been obliterated by the oxidation of the 
metal. Some of the scales were inlaid with copper, and these, 



Mr. Layard suggests, " were probably fastened to a shirt of 
felt or coarse linen." (Nineveh, ii. 335.) 

Of the scale-armour worn by the Egyptians a remnant 
has been found, and is preserved at Cairo, in the collection 
of Dr. Abbott. It has been figured in the superb work of 
Prisse d' Avennes (PL 46), and again in the Revue Archeo- 
logique (ii. 735). Our cut is from the plate in the former 

In the latter, it is described as "un fragment de cuirasse 
formee d'e'cailles de bronze superposees et cousues sur du 
cuir, et tout-a-fait sernblables a celles qui sont peintes dans 
une des petites salles du tombeau de Ramses-Meiamoun et 
dans d'autres hypogees. Chacune de ces e*cailles, qui a 
environ 35 millimetres de hauteur sur 20 de largeur, est 



repousse'e vers le milieu de maniere a presenter 1'aspect 
d'une rivure. Mais ce qui ajoute beaucoup de prix a ce 
morceau deja si curieux, c'est le cartouche de Scheschonk, 
le Sesak de la Bible, grave" sur une de ces e'cailles. Cette 
cuirasse a e'te trouve'e dans un hypoge'e de la haute Egypte." 
Examples of scale-armour during the classic period are 
of too frequent occurrence in the sculptures, the paintings 
and other monuments of this time, to need a particular 
enumeration. The plates of Hope's Costumes furnish many 
beautiful instances, and in the British Museum the charming 
bronze statue of Mars, found in the Falterona lake, should 
not be overlooked. See also a second statuette of Mars, 
figured in the useful Handbook to the Antiquities of the 
Museum, lately published by Mr. Vaux. Specimens of scale- 
armour of this age are of the greatest rarity. A fragment 
unquestionably of Roman manufacture claims especial notice, 
as having been found in England. It was discovered with 
various objects of the Roman age, fibulae, and ornaments 
of bronze, fragments of " Samian " ware, and other relics 
undoubtedly assignable to that period, disinterred in the 
course of excavations recently directed by Sir William 
Lawson, Bart., at the site of the station of Cataractonium, 

in Yorkshire, on the southern bank of 
the Swale, at Catterick bridge. 

The material is bronze : each scale 
is attached to its fellow by a little 
bronze ring, a contrivance which 
appears to secure flexibility to the 
garment without greatly impairing its 
compactness. The apertures in the 
upper part of the scales are clearly 
for the purpose of lacing them to the 
basis of leather or other material 
which held the whole together. We 
are indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
Albert Way, for the accompanying 
sketch of this interesting relic, to 

Fragment of bronze scale-armour, . , . . - , 

found near Catterick, Yorkshire, whom alSO WC OWC that it haS DCen 

brought into notice, and assigned to 

its proper class among the vestiges of Roman Britain. It is 
interesting to compare this little relic with the curious scaled 
defence, of which a fragment was found at Pompeii, and is 


represented in Mr. Rich's excellent manual, the " Illustrated 
Companion to the Latin Dictionary," p. 392, (v. Lorica). 
The material in that example is, however, bone, the plates 
being united by metallic rings. 

One is strongly tempted to believe that this is the very 
armour described by various Roman writers, in passages 
which have hitherto greatly puzzled the commentators ; by 
Silius Italicus, for instance, who, in his fifth book, thus 
describes a coat of scaly-mail : 

" Loricam induitur tortos huic nexilis hamos 
Ferro squama rudi, permistoque asperat auro." 

And by Claudian, who, in his second book, has : 

" Flexilis inductis hamatur lamina membris, 
Horribilis visu. " 

And again by Virgil, who, in the third book of ^Eneid, 
writes : 

" Loricam consertam hamis, auroque trilicem." 

Among the northern nations, armour of scale-work was 
probably worn by leaders ; but the descriptions of the 
Sagas and other writings are so vague, that it seems impos- 
sible to derive any satisfactory conclusion from their testi- 
mony. And, unluckily, existing remains do not offer their 
aid to clear the mystery. " Among the most usual weapons 
of defence," writes Mr. Worsaae, in his Primeval Antiquities 
of Denmark, " the ancient Sagas mention helmets, coats of 
mail, armour, and shields. The fact that of the three first- 
named objects scarcely any relics at all have reached us, is 
by no means difficult to explain. The helmets were pro- 
bably in most cases only the skins of the heads of animals, 
drawn over a framework of wood or leather, as the coat of 
mail was usually of strong quilted linen, or thick woven 
cloth. Lastly, the armour which covered the breast w^as 
formed, it is true, of metal, either in iron rings attached to 
each other, or of plates fastened on each other like scales ; 
but it certainly was only a few individuals who had the 
means and opportunity of obtaining such expensive objects." 
The numerous Anglo-Saxon illuminations exactly confirm 
this view ; in them we see clearly that it was the chiefs 
only who had the benefit of the Brunne, but the rude- 
ness of the delineation still leaves us in doubt as to the 


construction of the armour. In the twelfth century, how- 
ever, we find the Emperor Henry V. clothing a body of his 
troops in an impenetrable scale-armour of horn (das Horn- 
schuppenwamms). "So trug im Jahre 1115 eine Schaar 
im Heere Heinrichs V. undurchdringliche Harnische von 
Horn." (Raumer's Hohenstauf. in Von Leber's Wien's 
Kaiserliches Zeughaus, p. 507.) And in the poem of 
" Wigalois," written about 1212, we have a most curious 
description of this horn-mail worn over the hauberk, and 
richly adorned with gold and precious stones : 

" Ein brunne het er an geleit 
Uber einen wizzen halsperch. 
Daz was heidenischez werch 
Von breiten blechen hurnin; 
Mit golde waren geleit dar in 
. Rubin, und manec edel stein 
Der glast da wider eiuander schein 
Saffire und berillen. " 

It has been usual to describe the seal of William Rufus 
as exhibiting scale armour ; and in the new Foedera these 
scales have been rendered in the most emphatic manner. 
The armour on the seal itself is distinctly of rings, and 
probably is meant to represent the perfect fabric of chain- 
mail so familiar to us throughout the succeeding centuries. 
Many seals of this time are in the same predicament. la 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the scale defences 
are of occasional appearance, and the Cotton MS., Claudius, 
D. II., at fol. 30, furnishes us with a curious example of 
this period, a soldier armed with a " tunicle of scale," which 
extends from his shoulders to his waist, lying loosely over 
him like a modern cape or tippet. 

In the knightly harness of this time scale-work appears 
to have been used for parts only of the defences ; as the 
gloves, the sleeves, the sabatyns, or the skirt of the cuirass. 
Drawings, indeed, occur in which scale-like forms cover the 
whole person, as in the Louterell Psalter, but it is not 
unlikely that this is only a conventional mode of depicting 
chain-mail. The three examples subjoined are from monu- 
mental brasses ; in each case the knightly panoply has no 
other portion of scale than what is here exhibited. ' The 
gauntlets are from the effigy of a De Buslingthorpe, at 
Buslingthorpe, Lincolnshire, c. 1280 (Waller, Pt. 10). The 
vambrace of ridged scale, overlaid by a loose sleeve of 



banded mail, is from the well-known brass at Minster, Isle 
of Sheppey, c. 1337 (Stothard, PI. 54). The sabatyns 
appear on the brass of Sir Wm. Cheyne, A.D. 1375 (Waller, 

Pt. 8). Similar scale boots are seen on an effigy figured 
in Hyett's Northamptonshire Monuments, and on that 
of a De Vere, at Earl's Colne, given in Powell's Essex 
Collections (British Mus., Add .MS., 17,460). "Petticotes" 
of scale occur in the illuminations of the " Roman du roy 
Meliadus," c. 1375 (Add. MS. 15,228, if. 274, 275) ; in 
two German monumental sculptures given by Hefner, dated 
1407 and 1421 (Trachten, Pt. 2, Plates 92 and 110) ; and 
in the picture of a mounted knight on folio 161 of Harl. 
MS., 4374, a work of the second half of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. In the sixteenth century, scale appears in the 
Ehrenpforte of the Emperor Maximilian I., forming head- 
pieces and " bases " of the soldiery ; and in Hans Schefielein's 
cuts to the romance-poem of Tewrdannckh, similar skull- 
caps are seen. In the picture of the Battle of the Spurs, at 
Hampton Court, there is the figure of a horse wearing a 
defence of scale-work over his- neck. Later, .we have the 
costly suit, in the Tower, of Count Hector Oddi, of Padua, 
of which we give a portion in its natural size. (See next page.) 
The armour is a demi-suit, the culet alone being of scale- 
work. Each scale is fastened by two rivets to a basis of 


S 8 



canvas and leather, the canvas next the metal. This example 
of real armour curiously illustrates those representations in 
the Nimroud sculptures where the scales are seen to overlap 
from below, an arrangement which appears to have been 

adopted in order that the pointed weapon of an assailant 
might glance off, instead of finding its way between the 
folds of the steel. A portion of scale-armour preserved in 
the " Bronze Room " of the British Museum, seems to be of 
this period ; its structure is the same, steel rivetted on 
canvas and leather. Scale-work, of which the material is 
stout buff leather, is occasionally met with at this time./ 
In Grose's Ancient Armour, PI. 39, is figured "a buff 
covering for the left arm, contrived to answer the purpose 
of a shield, being composed of three skins of leather, with 
one of cartoon or pasteboard. To it is fixed a buff glove." 
It appears on the same plate with the buff coat, sword, &c. 
" worn in the time of Charles I., by Sir Francis Rodes, Bart., 
of Balbrough Hall, Derbyshire/' A buff glove of scale-work 
is in the collection at Goodrich Court ; 2 and another, in the 
possession of the writer, is here engraved. 

This example came from the Bryn-y-Pys collection, and>j 
was not improbably an ancestral relic. The buff scales are a 
quarter of an inch thick, extremely tough, and seem 

2 By a note (since observed) in Meyrick's Crit. Inq., vol iii., p. 87, it appears that 
the example at Goodrich Court is the very one figured by Grose. 


thoroughly proof against a sabre-cut. The portion that 
covers the hand itself (defended in fight by the basket-hilt 
of the sword of that day) is of the ordinary flexible leather. 
In the Dresden collection is a curious example of scale 
harness, the " Schuppenpanzer " of John Sobieski, king of 

Poland, 16.96. It consists of a coat with short sleeves, to 
which are added vambraces of plate. The helmet, which 
has a sliding nasal, and the gorget, are also of scale-work. 
The scales of the body are ensigned each with a gold 
cross, except a row in front, which has lions' heads in gold ; 
all the rest are of plain steel. This singular armour is given 
in colours in Reibisch's Dresden " Rustkammer," PL 9, 
fig. 28. The modern Asiatic scale-coat in the Indian 
department of the Great Nations-Exhibition, resembles the 
above in its form (a body-dress with short sleeves), but all 
the scales are of plain steel. In the Tower may be seen 
another oriental example ; a head-piece of steel scales, 
strengthened with bars of the same metal, which overlie 
the scales, and unite at the top. And at Goodrich Court 
is another ; a Sikh armour, consisting of breast-guard and 
head-piece, the scales of which are formed of semi-trans- 
parent buffalo hide. It would not be difficult to multiply 
these examples, but our object has rather been to trace 
rapidly the persistence of this fashion of scale-arming from 
the earliest to the latest times, than to accumulate notices of 
specimens, or distinguish varieties of arrangement. 

The curious effigy in the church of " Ash-by-Sandwich," to 
which we have already alluded, as affording one of the very 
few examples in monumental sculpture of the addition of 


ailettes to the knightly suit, occupies an altar-tomb between 
the chancel and the north chantry. The figure forming the 
subject of Stothard's 61st Plate, lies to the east of it. 
Weever notices these two cross-legged knights : " In this 
church are many ancient monuments of worthy gentlemen, 
namely, Sir ... Goshalls, Sir ... Leuericks, who lye crosse- 
legged, as knights of Jerusalem." Hasted, in attempting to 
distinguish them, seems to mistake the one for the other. 
" In the north wall," he writes (Hist, of Kent, vol. iii., p. 692, 
note), " near the upper end, is a monument for one of the 
family of Leverick, with his effigies in armour, lying cross- 
legged on it ; and in the same wall, westward, is another 
like monument for Sir John Goshall, with his effigies on it, 
in like manner." As Laverick was at the siege of Carla- 
verock, and Goshall " was residing in Ash, in Edward the 
Third's reign," it seems most likely (admitting the effigies to 
be those of the personages named) that our knight is the 
Laverick, and the other the Goshall. Several influential 
families, however, were fixed hereabout at this period, 
particularly the De Leyburnes, an heiress of whose house was 
styled, from her large possessions, "the Infanta of Kent." 
And " in the windows of the church of Ash were formerly 
painted several coats of arms, and among others, of Septvans, 
alias Harflete, Notbeame, who married Constance, widow of 
John Septvans ; Brooke, Ellis, Clitherow, Oldcastle, Keriell, 
and Hougham ; and the figures of St. Nicholas, Keriell, and 
Hougham, kneeling, in their respective surcoats of arms ; all 
which have been long since demolished." (Hasted, vol. iii., 
p. 693.) 

The effigy of our knight is of life-size, the material, 
free-stone ; the mail having been expressed in stucco. The 
sculpture is in moderately good condition, but the stucco 
has disappeared from all the exposed parts. The figure 
reposes on a flat slab, of which the edges are chamfered 
off. The first garment in view is the gambeson, quilted in 
vertical stripes ; over that is the hauberk of chain-mail, 
which has been painted of a red-brown colour. The hands 
are bare, and appear to have held a heart, as in other 
examples of this period. The chausses are of chain-mail, 
painted as the hauberk. The genouilleres, ornamented with 
a cusped trefoil enclosing a three-leaved flower, retain traces 
of former gilding. The hoop-like form seen above the knee- 

Effigy in Ash Church, Kent. 


pieces appears to be part of the chausson. The spurs, of a 
single goad, with two straps, have been gilt. At the feet is 
a lion. The sleeveless surcoat is of great length, outcut in 
front for convenience of riding, and gathered in at the waist 
by a plain narrow belt ; on its surface may be traced portions 
of black and gold, but in quantities too small to give any 
notion of the original heraldic decoration. Overlying the 
surcoat is the round-topped chain-mail hood, bound with a 
gilt fillet. The pillows beneath have been ornamented with 
a fret in purple and gold. The sword, much broken, is 
sustained by a broad belt, on which may be traced the faint 
outlines of a circular ornament. The cord attached to the 
waistbelt has borne a dagger, of which scarcely a fragment 
remains. The shield has nearly disappeared ; it seems to 
have been triangular in form, and of moderate dimensions : 
it is attached by the usual guige. The ailettes appear behind 
the shoulders, rising from the slab beneath about the eighth 
of an inch : they have been quadrangular, though the outer 
corners are now broken off ; they show no sign of fastening 
and no trace of colour. 

The other monumental statues in England exhibiting the 
ailette, are those of a Pembridge in Clehongre church, Here- 
fordshire (figured, with details, in Hollis's Monuments), and 
the so-called Crusader at Great Tew, Oxfordshire. 3 The 
Clehongre figure is especially curious as showing the ailette 
fastened by a point, which appears on the outside. In 
Switzerland there is the statue of Rudolph von Thierstein, 
at Basle : the ailettes here are square, and fixed on the side 
of the figure. (Hefner's Trachten, Pt. 2, plate 41.) The 
examples offered by English monumental brasses are suffi- 
ciently familiar ; those of Septvans, Trumpington, and 
Buslingthorpe, are figured by Hollis, and the Gorleston brass 
by Stothard. The curious painted windows at Tewkesbury, 
given in full by Carter, and in part by Shaw (Dresses 
and Decorations), afford the best illustration contributed by 
pictured glass. In ivory-carving, and in seals, the ailette is 
of frequent occurrence. The seals of Edward the Third, as 
Duke and as King, are well-known instances. Illuminated 

3 The Rev. Mr. Layton, of Sandwich, general, observes that in English examples 

who, to an exact knowledge of the remains the presence of ailettes is almost entirely 

in his own locality, adds a critical ac- confined to the reign of Edward the 

quaintance with medieval monuments in Second. 


manuscripts offer abundant examples ; see, for instance, 
El. MSS., 14, E. III., and 2, B. VII. The Louterell Psalter 
affords a fine specimen, copied in Carter's Sculpture and 
Painting, and in the Vetusta Monumenta. French monu- 
mental examples, we learn from M. Allou, are very scarce : 
" L'accessoire qui nous occupe est fort rare dans les monu- 
ments fran9ais. Nous en trouvons des exemples dans les 
dessins qui nous ont e'te' communiques par M. Achille 
Deville, des pierres sepulchrales de Robert Duplessis, 1322, 
de Robert d'Estouteville, 1331, et de Jean de Lorraine, Due 
de Brabant, 1341." (M6m. de la Soc. des Antiq. de France, 
vol. xiii., p. 339.) 

The forms of the ailette are various : the most frequent 
is the square. The round occurs on the ivory casket 
engraved in the fourth volume of the Journal of the Archaeo- 
logical Association; see also Plates , 113 and 114 of 

Carter's Sculpture and Paint- 
ing : the pentagonal is seen in 
an illumination of Sloane MS, 
3983, engraved as the frontis- 
piece to Strutt's Dress and 
Habits : the cruciform, in that 
curious figure of a kneeling knight 
in EL MS. 2, A. XXIL,fol. 219, 
figured by Strutt and by Shaw : 
and on fol 94 b of EL MS., 14, 
E. III., is an example, the only 
one ever observed by the writer, 
of a lozenge-formed ailette. (See 
cut.) It is clear, from the cross on 
the shield having the same posi- 
tion as the other, that the ailette is not a square one worn 

The size of this appendage differs greatly in different 
monuments : in the round example of the ivory casket, cited 
above, it is scarcely larger than the palm of the hand ; while 
in an illumination of EL MS., 20, D. 1 (fol. 18 b ), it is nearly 
as large as the ordinary shield of the period. Its position is 
generally behind the shoulder or at the side of it, sometimes 
in front ; but too strict an interpretation must not be given 
to the rude memorials of these times. 


The use of this "accessoire" has somewhat puzzled anti- 
quarian writers. In the present day the French archaeologists 
confess that it is " difficile d'en expliquer 1'usage." (Annales 
Archeol., vol. iv., 212.) Some writers have considered it as 
a simply defensive provision ; others look upon it as an 
ensign, to indicate to his followers the place of a leader in 
the field. Against the notion that it was merely armorial, 
may be urged that in many cases it has no heraldic bearing 
at all : sometimes it has a cross only, sometimes a diaper 
pattern, and sometimes it is quite blank. In vellum-paintings 
it is often seen worn by knights in the tilt ; where the 
heraldic bearings already exhibited on the shield, crest, and 
surcoat of the rider and the caparisons of the horse, would 
to no useful purpose be repeated on the ailette. In the case 
of the Clehongre example quoted above, the outside fastening 
of the point does not seem consistent with the idea of armorial 
display on the wing beneath. Italian writers, however, 
continue to call these adjuncts Bandiere (Cibrario, Sigilli de' 
Principi di Savoia). But in Germany they are called Tar- 
tschen (Hefner : Trachteii), and their purpose of shields seems 
most in accordance with the numerous ancient evidences in 
which they appear. The knights of the middle ages, indeed, 
not content with their panoply of steel, seem to have fortified 
themselves with a complete outwork of shields. Thus we 
have the ailettes, the shield proper, the garde-bras or elbow- 
shield, the shoulder-shield, the Beinschiene or shield for the 
legs, the vamplate on the lance, and the steel front of the 
saddle, which was in fact but another shield for the defence 
of the knight's body. The close analogy of the ailettes 
(considered as defences) with those curious upright pieces 
of steel on the shoulders, so frequent in the suits of 
Henry YHIth's time, will at once be recognised. Hefner 
has observed that the introduction of the ailette must be 
attributed to the French, from the name, "aisles," or 
" aislettes," under which they appear in contemporary 
records. Should we not rather say to a nation using the 
French language \ Both the French and Latin names have 
been preserved to us in documents of their own time. In 
1313, the Inventory of the effects of Piers Gaveston (New 
Foadera, vol. ii., pt. I., p. 203) has : 

" Item, autres divers garnementz des armes le dit Pieres, 
ovek les alettes garni z et frettez de perles." 



The Inventory of the goods of Umfrey de Bohun, 1322, 
printed by Mr. Hudson Turner in the second volume of this 
work, affords another example : " iiij. peire de alettes des 
armes le Counte de Hereford." 

The Latin name, aletta, appears in the roll in the Tower, 
containing the account of articles purchased for the tournament 
in Windsor Park, 6 of Ed. L, (1278) printed in Archaeologia, 
vol. 17 : "j. par' alett'" (alettarum). And, again : 

"It' p' xxxviij par' alett' s' p' q' par' di' uln' card, s' 
xix uln'." 

These nineteen ells of car da (a kind of cloth), were to 
cover the leather which formed their substance. Twelve 
dozen silk cords were provided to attach the ailettes to the 
shoulders. Sir Roger de Trumpington was one of the knights 
furnished with ailettes at the Windsor Tournament, and he 
still wears them in his effigies in Cambridgeshire, though in 
this case ensigned with the armorial bearings of his house. 


rfafnal Dotuments. 


AMONGST the miscellaneous evidences connected with the early history 
and descent of property in the ancient town of Totnes, preserved with family 
deeds in the possession of John Ayshford Wise, Esq., of Clayton Hall, 
Staffordshire, the following Wills have been selected as well deserving of a 
place in the Journal. 


" In Dei nomine, amen. Die veneris in festo Decollacionis sancti 
Johannis Baptiste, Anno domini Millesimo ccc mo Nonogesimo tercio, Ego, 
Johannes Hempstone de Totteneys, sanno (sic) memor' condo testamentum 
meum in hunc modum. In primis, lego anirnam meam Deo, et corpus 
meum sacre sepulture. Item, lego priori de Totteneys, pro decimis oblitis, 
xl d . Item, lego fabrice beate Marie Totton' xl d , solvendum xl. vicibus 
pro summa venie. Item, lego ponti Totton' xij d . Item, lego fratribus leprosis 
beate Magdalene Totton' xij d .' Item, lego vicario Totton' xij d ad orandum 
pro anima mea. Item, lego Tho/ue Cressalle et Johanni Schrobysbiry 
monachis inter se xij d . Item, lego fratri de Warlonde vj d . Item, lego 
Henrico Bastarde Capellano vi d . Item, lego Ricardo Rondelle Capellano 
vj d . Item, lego Isolde uxori mee totum illud tenementum meum cum 
pertinenciis in magna Totton' infra portas, quod est scituatum inter tene- 
mentum Ricardi Ballond in parte orient', et tenementum Willelmi Mede- 
rose in parte Occident', habendum et tenendum predicte Isolde uxori mee 
ad terminum vite sue, reddendo inde annuatim capitalibus dominis feodi 
redditus et servicia inde debita, et de jure consueta. Et post decessum 
predicte Isolde uxoris mee, lego et concede totum predictum tenementum 
cum omnibus suis pertinenciis Johanni filio meo, habendum et tenendum 
totum predictum tenementum cum omnibus suis pertinenciis, prefato Johanni 
filio meo et heredibus de corpore suo legitime procreatis, reddendo inde 
annuatim capitalibus dominis feodi redditus et servicia inde debita et de 
jure consueta. Et, si contingat, quod absit, prefatum Johannem filium 
meum sine heredibus de corpore suo legitime procreatis obire, extunc volo 
et concedo quod totum predictum tenementum cum omnibus suis pertinenciis 
vendatur per executores meos, si supervixerint prefatum Johannem filium 
meum et heredes suos de corpore suo legitime procreates, vel per executores 
prefati Johannis filii mei, si executores mei prefatum Johannem filium 
mettm et heredes de corpore suo legitime procreates non supervixerint ; et 
quod pecunia inde recepta disponatur pro anima mea, et pro animabus Isolde 
uxoris mee, Johannis filii mei, et Johannis fratris mei, et omnium ante- 
cessorum meorum et omnium fidelium defunctorum. Residuum vero omnium 
bonorum meorum non legatorum lego Isolde uxori mee et Johanni filio meo, 
et ipsos ordino, facio et constituo executores meos, ut ipsi, deum pre oculis 
suis habentes, disponant pro salute anime mee, prout ipsis melius viderit 

(Seal of red wax, of pointed oval form, a moiety remaining, affixed on a 

See Dr. Oliver's Monast. Exon. p. 241. 


slip at the lower margin of the document, cut half across the parchment. 
The device is a hand holding a covered pyx, resembling a standing cup. 
At the side of the pyx, above, are two keys. Legend defaced, commencing 
" Sigillum . . . ." A second narrower slip, cut below the other, served 
to tie up the will.) 

Original endorsement : " Hoc est testamentum Johannis Hempstone de 

In a much later hand : " The wyll of John Hempston, by which he 
devysed one Tenement in Totnes after the decease of his wyfe to John his 
sonne in taile, and after that to be solde. Dat. Anno domini, M.iij c .lxxxxiij." 


" In Dei nomine, Amen. Anno domini M.cccc.lxxxiij, xxv die mensis 
Februarii. Ego, Ambrosius Franke, de parochia Totton', videns michi 
mortis periculum subire, tamen compos mentis, condo testamentum meurn 
in hunc modum. In prim is, lego animara meam deo omnipotent!, beate 
Marie et omnibus sanctis ejus, corpus que meum sacre sepulture in mea 
ecclesiastica sepultura beate Marie Totton'. Item, lego Johanne filie mee, 
uxori Ricardi Peletone, sex cocliaria de argento, et uuam crateram flat de 
argento, et unam parvam Murrain ligatam cum argento. Item, dimid' 
pake panni lanei. Item, lego ad Missam de Jh'u xl d . Item, lego rectori 
pro decimis oblitis xx d . Item, lego instauro sancti Jacobi xij d . Item, 
lego instauro beati Marie xij d . Item, lego instauro sancte Marie Magda- 
lene xij d . Item, lego instauro sancti Petri vj d . Item, lego Ambrosio 
servo meo et filio spiritual! ultra convencionem suam servicio suo completo 
vj s viij d , et unam togam meam. Item, lego ad sustentacionem Capelle 
sancti Edmundi regis et martiris xl d . 2 Item, lego Oringe uxori mee meum 
tenementum in quo modo inhabito, durante termino michi consesso (sic) ; 
et, si ipsa infra terminum mihi concessum obierit, tune volo quod dictum 
tenementum remaneat Johanne filie mee et heredibus de corpore suo 
ligittime procreatis, durante termino mihi' concesso ; et, si dicta Johanna 
filia mea infra terminum mihi concessum obierit, sine heredibus de corpore 
suo ligittime procreatis, tune volo quod dictum tenementum meum, in quo 
modo inhabito, durante termino mihi concesso remaneat ad sustentacionem 
Misse de Jh'u. Item, do et lego Oringe uxori mee unum tenementum in 
vico vocato lychwyl-strete, juxta tenementum Jacobi Lucas, dum ipsa 
viverit ; et, post decessum ejus, volo quod dictum tenementum remaneat 
Johanne filie mee et heredibus de corpore suo ligittime procreatis ; et 
si contingat predictam Johannam obire sine heredibus de corpore suo.i 
ligittime procreatis, tune volo quod dictum tenementum remaneat capelle 
sancte Marie Magdalene, imperpetuum, ad orandum, et c'. Item, lego 
Oringe uxori mee unum tenementum meum jacens in harperyswylstrete, 
inter tenementum Johannis Holman et tenementum quod Willelmus 
Wyke ibidem tenet, dum ipsa viverit ; et post ejus decessum volo 
quod remaneat Johanne filie mee et heredibus de corpore suo ligittime 
procreatis ; et si contingat dictam Johannam sine heredibus obire, tune volo 
quod illud tenementum remaneat ad sustentacionem Misse de Jh'u, imper- 
petuum. Item, lego Ricardo Stephyne iij 8 iiij d et unam togam. Item, 
volo et constituo quod post decessum meum unus idoneus sacerdos celebrabit 
in ecclesia sancte Marie Totton', coram nova cruce, per unum annum, ad 
orandum pro anima mea, parentum et benefactorum meorum. Residuum 

2 This was the Chantry, "ad fincm ponds de Totton". Dr. Oliver's Monast. Exon. p. 240.8 


vero omnium bonorum meorum non legatorum lego et do executrici mee, ut 
ipsa faciat et disponat prout viderit deo bene placere, et saluti anime mee 
ruelius expedire, et ad istud testamentum fideliter exequendum Oringeam 
uxorem meam ordino executricem facio et constituo ; supervisoremque 
ordino dorapnum Johannem Kynge, Abbatem de Bukfast. 3 Datum apud 
Totton', Anno, die et loco supradictis. " 

(Seal of red wax, much broken, affixed in like manner, and impressed by 
the same matrix, as the former.) 

Original endorsement : " Testamentum Ambrosii Frauncke nuper de 
Totton' M." (Magna?) 

In a later hand : " The testament of Ambrose Francke, by which he 
deviseth vnto Oringe his wyfe for terme of her lyfe, and after her decease 
to Joane his dawghter in taile, and for default of such to uses forbydden, 
two Tenements, of which thone lyeth in Lychwel strete, and thother in 
Harpiswill street, in Totnes." 

It is remarkable that these two wills, which differ in date no less than 
ninety years, and do not purport to have been sealed by any one, should 
have attached to them one and the same seal, which, though very much 
broken, is evidently of an ecclesiastical character, but does not appear to 
be the seal of any ecclesiastical court, or of an officer of any such court. 
Yet, except so far as any surmise to the contrary may arise from the 
identity of the seal, there is nothing to indicate that either of them is not 
the original will of the testator. The contemporaneous indorsements, 
" Testamentum," and " Hoc est testamentum," certainly import rather 
that they are originals than copies. In addition to which, seeing that they 
so closely resemble each other, that if either of them be original, in all 
probability they both are, and that in the later of them a blank seems to 
have been left for the name of the supervisor, which was afterwards filled 
up apparently in a different hand and with different ink (a circumstance 
hardly reconcileable with the supposition of its being a copy), I confidently 
conclude they are both originals. In neither case is there any reason to 
suppose the seal was intended for the testator's ; and had it been that of 
any ecclesiastical court in which the wills were proved, or of an officer of 
any such court, it is almost certain the fact of their having been proved 
would have been stated on them. 

In Madox's Form. Angl., pp. 423 and 424, two instances occur of 
original wills of very early date, having respectively three and four seals 
appended to them, and there is no reason to think that any one of them 
was the seal of the testator, or of any ecclesiastical court or officer. Each 
of the documents under consideration had a second slip of parchment, and 
one of them retains it ; yet it has not the appearance of having been the 
label of a second seal. 

These anomalies are sufficiently rare to merit an attempt to explain 
them ; and if, for this purpose, we glance at the manner in which wills 
were in those days made, authenticated, and disposed of, it may serve at 
the same time to extend our acquaintance with the peculiarities of ancient 
writings of a testamentary kind. 

During the period within which these documents respectively bear date, 

3 This document supplies the name of an Abbott of Buckfastleigh not before ascertained. 
In Dr. Oliver's list (Monast. Exou. p. 372) John Matthcr occurs in 1451 followed by John 
licde in 14!)!i. 


and for many years previously, all property that comes under the deno- 
mination of personalty might have been disposed of by a will which 
was neither signed nor sealed by any one, nor indeed even reduced to 
writing in the lifetime of the testator. The more formal wills were in 
writing, and sealed with the testator's seal ; but it was no uncommon 
practice for some one to write down the testator's wishes from his dictation 
or instructions ; and the writing was then read over to, and approved by, 
him before witnesses ; and thereupon it became his will. Witnesses were 
not necessary, if the writing could be otherwise proved, to the satisfaction 
of the proper ecclesiastical court, to have been the testator's will ; and 
when there were witnesses, their names were often not mentioned either in 
the document or upon it. 

Neither such wills, nor any others however made, were in general 
effectual for the disposal of land or other property of that kind; but in some 
ancient boroughs, where Anglo-Saxon customs lingered (and it is not 
improbable that Totnes may have been one), houses and land might have 
been so disposed of ; and by means of the intervention of trustees, com- 
monly designated " feoffees to uses," the beneficial interest in land and 
in whatever is termed real estate was capable of being devised by any 
will that sufficed for the disposition of personalty. 

After the death of the testator the will was proved in some ecclesiastical 
court ; and a copy of it was made out with a certificate thereon of the fact 
of probate ; and this was authenticated by the seal of the court or its 
officer, and delivered to the executors as evidence of their authority. The 
original will was not then retained by the court as it is at the present day. 
Occasionally, perhaps, the certificate of probate may have been written on 
it, and authenticated as before mentioned; in which case it would have 
been delivered to the executors in the place of a copy. Where this was not 
done, and the will comprised real as well as personal estate, in all pro- 
bability it was delivered to some of those to whom the real estate was given, 
and accompanied the title-deeds : for original wills of early date are not 
unfrequently found among ancient muniments of title ; and in all cases, 
after the duties of the executorship were fulfilled, there was no other use 
for them. 

The ecclesiastical courts began to preserve and register copies of wills 
long before they took into their custody the originals. According to returns 
made about twenty years ago, the practice of preserving copies might be 
traced back, in some few courts, to the time of Edward II. ; but no original 
wills were found in any of them earlier than 1 500, except, perhaps, a few 
in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 

It was considered the duty of the parochial clergy to see that people 
made proper wills ; nor was this confined to those made in sickness. 4 One 
of the constitutions of Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1236, forbade 
laymen to make their wills without the presence of the parish priest. The 
general canon law is even said to have required that the minister of the 
parish should be present as one of the witnesses. His presence, however, 
was not, in this country, essential to the validity of a will, nor do these 
directions appear to have been very generally observed, except, as Lynd- 
wode 5 states, in certain places where such had become the custom ; yet 
traces of their influence may be found after the reformation, as, for 

4 Gibson's Codex, p. 462, edit. 1761. 5 Lyndwode, p. 127, edit. 1525. 


example, in the 84th canon, which directs the clergy from time to time, 
especially when men make their testaments, to exhort their neighbours to 
give to the alms-chest in the church ; and in the rubric of the office for the 
visitation of the sick, which directs the minister to admonish the sick man 
respecting his will. One reason, perhaps, why the parish priest less fre- 
quently appears among the witnesses, when any are named, may be that 
he generally took some benefit under it to say masses for the testator's 

From the foregoing observations it is manifest, that we have no cause to 
question the originality of an ancient will because it does not come out of an 
ecclesiastical court, or to be surprised that a will has not the testator's seal 
to it, or any mention in it of its having been sealed, or of there having been 
any witnesses. In general, when a will is found with several seals, it is a 
probate copy, and there appear on it certificates of the will having been 
proved in several courts, the testator having left property in different juris- 
dictions. Some examples of such documents are to be found in Madox's 
Form. Angl. But how are we to account for a will having a seal or several 
seals attached to it, which yet does not purport to have been either sealed 
or proved ? In explanation of this, after having sought in vain for some- 
thing decisive on the subject, I would offer the following suggestion. 
Though witnesses to a will were not necessary, it was almost the invariable 
practice to have not less than two or three, and generally more. At a time 
when few could write, much less recognise the handwriting of others, if a 
will were made before witnesses, and not sealed with the testator's seal, 
especially if he were then in health, it must have been expedient to have 
some mode of identifying the writing as that which they had heard read 
over to him ; -and what method was more likely to have been resorted to 
than that some seal, which could be easily recognised, should be attached 
to it ? In the two instances above referred to in Madox's Form. Angl., where 
there were respectively three and four seals, I conceive them to have been 
the seals of witnesses themselves ; as no means of identification could be 
more satisfactory to them than appending their own seals. Those wills 
are in the past tense and third person, as if memoranda of what took place ; 
but are too long to have been nuncupative wills i. e., wills not put into 
writing while the testators were alive, or at least at the time they made 
them. In other cases of less importance, probably, the witnesses would 
be content with some well-known seal being affixed ; and if the parish 
priest, in compliance with the constitution of 1236, was in the habit of 
being present, no single seal was likely to have been more generally approved 
than his ; and such a practice may have easily led to the use of a particular 
seal by the priest on such occasions, which would on that account, in some 
cases, be handed down from one to another through a succession of incum- 
bents, and become well known. I am, therefore, disposed to think the seal 
in question was the seal of the parish priest of Totnes for these purposes, 
and had passed from one to another during the interval that occurred 
between the dates of the two wills. This appears to me more probable 
than that it should have been the seal adopted by some notary, even sup- 
posing it had in like manner been transmitted through a succession of such 
functionaries ; because he would have been more likely, from his habits of 
business, to affix his notarial signature or seal. The silence of the books 
on such a practice of identifying the writing, aud the rarity of the examples 
of seals so employed, may be accounted for by the fact of the testator's seal 


being always recommended by legal writers, and commonly affixed, and 
that alone would suffice. Then, as to the second slip, this is much smaller 
than that on which the seal is, and appears to have been used to bind round 
the will after it had been folded, so as to conceal the contents ; and it is 
highly probable it was so employed, and then made fast with a seal to 
exclude curiosity, just as a modern will is usually sealed up in an envelope 
before it is put aside by the testator ; for, upon the back of one of these 
wills (the same on which the second slip remains), where the slip would 
have been fastened after having been passed round the middle of it, there 
are portions of a seal left, which had apparently been affixed to make it 
secure. It may be observed that the seal made use of for that object would 
not have served the purpose of the witnesses in regard to identifying the 
writing ; for, beside that it would often be affixed in their absence, it would 
commonly have been broken before they were called upon to give evidence 
in support of the will. 

It is not improbable that Totnes may have been one of the places 
alluded to by Lyndwode, in which a custom existed of the parish priest 
attending when any of his parishioners made their wills. However, before 
adopting such an opinion, it would be desirable to know something more 
of the wills of the inhabitants of that ancient borough in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. 

If we suppose the seal to have been the official seal of some court, and 
appended to the original wills to show they had been proved, the absence 
of the certificates of probate is singular, and no good reason can be assigned 
for the slips with which they were fastened up, unless they had been 
originally so used to close the wills, and when each will was proved the 
second slip was cut, and the seal affixed. But such an explanation of the 
matter appears to me highly improbable, especially when we remember the 
instances in which three or four seals are found to the same will. 

W. S. W. 






at tfje JWeettncjs of ifje &rc&aeologfcal Institute. 

JUNE 6, 1851. 
The HON. RICHARD NEVILLE, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

MR. BIRCH made some observations in reference to certain interesting 
relics of Roman times, of very rare occurrence, namely, moulds and stamps 
of terra cotta, used in the fabrication of fictile wares, those especially 
usually designated as " Samian." He produced three examples from the 
collections of Mr. B. Hertz, one of them being a portion of a stamp for 
impressing the mould for ware of that kind, bearing the potter's mark, 
OFFI . LIBERI . . . : it is a small naked figure, found at Mayence. Also part 
of a mould for a Samian dish, described as found at Rheinzabern, in Alsatia. 
On another (see cut) appears a circular buckler, inscribed. Mr. Birch 
remarked that a few specimens of this description 
may be seen in the Musee Ceramique at Sevres ; they 
are figured by M. Brongniart in his Traite, pi. xxx. 
They comprise a stamp marked AVSTRI. OF. with 
other fragments found at Lezoux, in Auvergne ; one for 
impressing the figure of a boar, found at Rheinzabern ; 
and a fragment discovered at Arezzo. Some curious 
portions of moulds for " Samian," found at St. Nicholas, 
near Nancy, may be seen figured in the " Antiquites Gauloises et Romaines," 
by Grivaud de la Vincelle, pi. xvii. No relic of this nature has hitherto 
been noticed, as discovered in England 

The PRESIDENT of TRINITY COLLEGE communicated the following account 
of recent discoveries of Roman remains in Oxfordshire, near the residence 
of Lady Croke ; and, by her kind permission, he laid before the meeting 
fragments of Roman wares there disinterred, comprising a remarkable 
variety of fictile fabrication, from the finest " Samian " to the coarsest 
productions of the Romano-British potteries. The particulars of the late 
examinations were thus stated : 

" At Horton, Oxfordshire, on the borders of Buckinghamshire, is a large 
tract of wood-land, between one hundred and two hundred acres in extent, 
now known by the name of Studley New Wood, and formerly by that of 
Horton Wood. In July, 1839, the late Sir Alexander Croke, the proprietor, 
in causing a trench to be made, in order to drain a particular part of it, 
found a quantity of stones, and, on digging deeper, a pitched pathway was 
found, and some fragments of pottery were turned up. The result, on 
making further search, was that many pieces of Roman ware, and some 
embossed ' Samian,' of great beauty, were discovered. The excavation 
was not then continued ; and, in consequence of the growth of the under- 
wood, it had never been renewed until March last, when, by the kind 
permission of Lady Croke, further search having been made, a great 
quantity of pottery of various patterns, some glass, portions of pudding- 
stone for querns, and other relics, all of Roman date, have been brought to 
light, indicating either the site of a Roman villa, or that the spot had been 
in some other manner occupied by the Romans. The precise site may be 


described as on the slope, and below the brow of the hill, looking towards 
Woodperry and the S. W. ; its furthest point examined is about 97 yards 
from the outside of the wood, on the north side, being that next to 
the mansion of Studley Priory. Upon opening the ground the workmen 
found, at different depths, from 1 foot to 18 inches, a sort of pitching of 
rough stones set edgewise, about 2\ feet in width. This they were directed 
to follow, in the hope that it might guide them to the discovery of the main 
building ; but, after tracing it for about 76 feet in one direction (from 
NN. W. to SS. E.), to a point from which the pitching diverged, nearly at 
right angles, (direction B. by N.) no building or termination was brought 
to light. A considerable quantity of the same kind of stones were found 
dispersed around, all of them appearing to have been worn by use, and to 
have undergone the action of water, which oozed freely from the ground as 
it was moved. The pottery and other relics were found in part upon, or 
near, this pitching, but principally in a line of black mould adjacent to it 
(on the eastern side), which seemed to afford clear indication of former 
occupation of the site, and it was accordingly searched with care. The 
diggings were not discontinued until this ceased, and remains were no 
longer found ; but the investigation, although it produced some interesting 
remains, which are sent for examination, afforded no sufficient ground for 
conjecture as to what had been the precise nature of the Roman occupation 
here indicated. The pitching was left undisturbed for the benefit of future 
antiquaries ; the pottery and other relics are in the possession of Lady 
Croke ; and, as the ordinary timber of the wood consists of oak, the spot 
examined was marked by a spruce fir and three elm trees, planted by the 
proprietor for the purpose of indicating it. 

" The ' Samian ' ware here found appeared of superior quality to that 
discovered on the opposite hill at Woodperry, 1 and at the villa at Wheatley, 
examined by Dr. Buckland ; 2 nor do the remains found at Headington 
Wick and Elsfield, at Drunshill, or on the hill above Islip, the old Common, 3 
offer anything which can be compared with it." 

HENRY NORUIS, Esq., of South Petherton, Somerset, sent a detailed 
notice of discoveries of Roman coins in Somersetshire, at various periods, 
which is reserved for a future occasion. 

W. W. E. WYNNE, Esq., gave an account of excavations prosecuted under 
his directions in Wales, and he exhibited several iron arrow heads, knives 
of different sizes, one of them with the wooden handle still attached to it ; 
also a portion of a curious comb, of bone, and other objects found during the 
autumn of 1 850, in excavating within the ruins of Castell y Bere, in the county 
Merioneth. This castle is supposed to have been erected by one of the 
Norman Earls of Chester when he held Griffith ap Cynan, the Welsh 
Prince, a prisoner at Chester, and there is good reason to believe that it 
has never been occupied, excepting perhaps a portion of it, during the 
Wars of the Roses, since the close of the reign of Edward I., who passed 
a week at the castle in 1284, and in that year granted a charter to the 
ville of Bere. Nothing could be more unpromising than the appearance 
of the ruin, prior to the commencement of the excavations. A few frag- 
ments of walling, and traces of foundations, with one or two rude arches, 
were all that was visible amongst the thick brushwood with which the castle 
rock and area of the building are covered ; not a fragment of moulding, 

1 See Archseol. Journal, vol. iii., p. 116. 2 Ibid., vol. ii., p. 350. 

3 See Hussey's Roman Roads. 


not even a bevelled edge, was to be seen. In a few days, however, it 
became evident tbat the spot was one of much archaeological interest. 

Besides the objects above enumerated, architectural fragments of the 
purest Early English period, including dog-tooth and other mouldings, and 
the capitals of columns, one of which is not surpassed by any at York or 
Westminster, have been dug up ; also many fragments of medieval 
pottery, a small piece of chain armour, and two querns. Only a small 
portion of the interior has been cleared, but, it is evident that this almost 
unknown fortress has been one of the largest (it is more than 400 feet 
long, and in one part nearly 100 in width) and, in its architectural details, 
by far the most beautiful of all the North Wales castles. 

From the great quantity of charred wood, and other burnt matter dug 
up in most part of the ruins, and many arrow heads found scattered 
about, in digging within the court-yard, it would seem that the castle was 
burnt down immediately after sustaining the attack of an enemy. May we 
not conclude that if, as would appear, the building has been untenanted 
with the single exception referred to since the reign of Edward I., the 
siege took place prior to the final termination of the struggle between that 
monarch and the Welsh. If so, these arrow heads, it is presumed, are 
unique. None of that date are in the collection at Goodrich Court, nor, 
it is believed, are there any in the Tower, or elsewhere. In Leland's Collec- 
tanea, (vol. i., p. 178) the taking of this fortress, during the wars of 
Edward I. with the Welsh, is thus recorded, " Anno 1224, comes 
Penbrochise castrum de Bere, quod erat Leolini principis, cepit. Hoc 
factum est ante pontem confectum super Meney." 4 

MR. WYNNE also laid before the meeting some specimens of the external 
vitrified facing of the walls at Gatacre House, Shropshire, a very ancient 
residence of the Gatacre family. He stated that the material employed in 
that structure is chiefly red sand-stone, and that the heat applied to the 
exterior, by which, for some unknown purpose, the face of the work had 
been covered with a coarse vitrified crust, had been of sufficient intensity to 
fill up the joints of the masonry with this singular molten substance. 

Ma. FRANKS observed that this curious fact, noticed by Mr. Wynne, might 
throw some light upon the discovery of the singular fragments of stone, 
coated with vitrified crust, found in the Abbot's Moor Field, near Elles- 
mere, and exhibited at the previous meeting. (See p. 196.) A very 
curious instance of the use of such superficial coating, doubtless to preserve 
the face of the work from the action of the air, had been described by Major 
Rawlinson on the sculptured rock of Behistun ; the engraved tablets there 
found being coated with a remarkable siliceous varnish. 5 

MR. EDWARD HOARE, Local Secretary at Cork, communicated a notice of 
the discovery of two ancient drinking-vessels of mixed white metal, found 
in February, 1850, about six feet below the surface, near the ruins of 
Kilcoleman Castle, about two miles N. W. of Doneraile, co. Cork. They 
are both preserved in his collection. The spot where these cups were found 
had been, as supposed, an outer vaulted chamber, or passage from the 
castle. Possibly, the burial place of the castle in former times might have 
been near that place. The metal is very hard and sonorous. Kilcoleman 
Castle is a site of considerable interest and note, having been the property 

4 See a Notice of Castell y Bere, commonly known as Caerberllan Castle, and 
a ground plan of the remains, Archseologia Cambrensis, vol. iv., p. 211. 

5 See Vaux's Nineveh, p. 372. 


and the residence of Spenser the poet ; and the place where, as it is 
believed, he composed the "Faery Queene." The ruined remains are 
noticed in Dr. Smith's " Ancient and Present State of the County and City 
of Cork," (Vol. i., p 333.) The poet had attended Lord Grey de Wilton, 
appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1580, in the quality of his secretary, 
and having received a grant from Elizabeth, in 1587, of more than three 
hundred acres in the co. Cork, portion of the forfeited estates of the Earl of 
Desmond, Spenser fixed his residence at the picturesque castle above 
mentioned. There was an original portrait of the poet preserved at Castle 
Saffron, in the neighbourhood. 6 

The curious cups, here represented on a reduced scale, from Mr. Hoare's 
drawings, measure, respectively, in height, 31 in. and 3| in. by 3i in., 
and 3 in. diam. at the mouth ; diam. of the foot at bottom, 1^ in. Mr. 
Hoare supposes that they might have been chalices, but it is more probable 
that they served as drinking cups, and that their date is not prior to the 
sixteenth century. 

ME. HOLMES, referring to the communication made at the previous 
meeting by Mr. Burtt, (see p. 212) regarding the conspirator, Babington, 
and his fruitless appeal to the commiseration of Elizabeth, brought before 
the Society the draft of the proclamation for ensuring his apprehension, 
now preserved amongst the Lansdowne MSS. This document, of which a 
transcript was sent, presents numerous interlineations and additions in the 
hand-writing of Lord Burghley, and amongst them is the curious precaution 
that portraitures of the conspirators should be set forth in public places, to 
prevent the possibility of their escape. 

The REV. J. HAMILTON GRAY remarked that the expedient sagaciously 
devised by Burghley, was not without counterpart in recent times. He 
alluded to the romantic history of Lady Ogilvie, the heroine of the young 
Chevalier's enterprise in 1745. On her flight, portraits of her were 
directed to be sent to the sea-ports, to be taken on board vessels outward 

6 Biogr. Brit., vol. vi., pp. 3807, 3813. was in the possession of Mr. Love, of 
It is stated that this portrait was sub- Castle Saffron. Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxviii., 
sequently removed to Cork. In 1 750 it part i., p. 224. 


bound, so that escape might be impracticable. The tradition, however, 
is preserved in the family, that such lively portraiture was actually 
brought on board the ship in which Lady Ogilvie had taken her passage ; 
when, with singular presence of mind, she observed that the likeness was re- 
markable, and that with such a guide they could not fail to detect the fugitive. 

MR. AUGUSTUS FRANKS read the following Notice of the productions of 
Heinrich Reitz, of Leipsic, and laid before the meeting three specimens of 
the singular skill of that artist. Of one of these, the finest known to exist, 
Mr Franks has kindly enabled us to give the accompanying representation. 

" This large silver medallion is a remarkable specimen of the work of the 
German goldsmiths during the sixteenth century. On the obverse is repre- 
sented the Holy Trinity, with accompanying angels ; round the margin is 
reverse, on a tablet supported by angels, is inscribed a portion of the 
Athanasian Creed, and part of the hymn, " veneranda Unitas adoranda 
Trinitas," <fcc.; round the margin, REGNANTE AVGVSTO D. G. DVCE SAXONIES 
&c. GROSSVM HVNC UPSIDE HR cvDEBAT. Notwithstanding the use of the 
word cudebat, this medallion is not struck but cast 4 It must have been 
cast in a very imperfect state, exhibiting only the portions which are 
least in relief. All the more important accessories have then been soldered 
on ; such as the crucifix, dove, sceptre, and the hair and beard of the 
principal figure, and all the other prominent portions. The whole has been 
then worked over with a tool and finished. 

"The inscription just mentioned furnishes us not only with the place where 
the medallion was made, but also with the name of the artist : the letters 
H R denote Heinrich Reitz of Leipsic, one of the best goldsmiths of his 
day. Nothing is known of this artist's history beyond what his works 
supply. The medallion now under consideration is one of his most famous 
productions. It is greatly valued by collectors in Germany, where it is 
usually known as the Mauritzthaler, the greater number being made under 
the Elector Maurice, in 1544. The present specimen is the only one I 
have ever heard of, which was made under the Elector Augustus. It is not 
known for what purpose they were made : the quantity of silver produced 
by the Saxon mines caused many large works to be executed in this metal. 
The other works produced by Reitz are 1. A medal of Charles V., of 
very beautiful workmanship, which, through the kindness of Mr. Pfister, I 
am able also to exhibit to the Society. On one side is a portrait of the 
Emperor, on the other the imperial eagle and the initials H R. 

" 2. A medal with the bust of the Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg, Arch- 
bishop of Mayence ; on the reverse of this there are represented two alle- 
gorical figures, pourtraying religion and worldly pomp. This is also signed 
with the artist's initials. 3. Another medal of the same person is also sup- 
posed to be by Reitz ; it is of exquisite workmanship, though small. 4. The 
last work I have to mention by this artist is a medal less rare than the 
others, of inferior workmanship : on one side is represented the temptation 
of Adam and Eve, on the other the Crucifixion. At the foot of the cross 
is a monogram formed of the letters II R with the date 1536. Mr. Octavius 
Morgan has kindly exhibited a very fine example of this medal. It appears 
to have been executed by order of John Frederick, Elector of Saxony. 
Another specimen of this medal was recently exhibited to the Society of 
Antiquaries, by Mrs. Ellison, of Sudbrook Holme, Lincoln." 7 

' Sec Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, Jan. 30., 18J1, vol. ii., p. 124. 


The REV. GEORGE OLIVER, D.D., communicated a detailed pedigree of 
the Courteiiay family, the result of careful investigation by himself and 
Mr. PITMAN JONES, of Exeter ; he sent also a transcript of an interesting 
document connected with the history of that nohle house, being the will of 
Katherine of York, seventh daughter of Edward IV., married to William 
Courtenay, Earl of Devon. She died in 1527. The original, bearing her 
signature and dated May 2, 19 Hen. VIII., is in the possession of the Earl 
of Devon, at Powderham Castle. 

Qntiquitieg atrtr ffi2iJ0rfc$ of &rt <fyibitt&. 

By the REV. EDWARD WILTON. A cast from a singular bronze figure, 
in high relief, apparently of late Roman work, representing Minerva, with 
the customary attributes of that goddess. Mr. Wilton stated that the 
original had been brought to him by a shepherd, who said he had found it 
lying on the green sward in one of the " tinings " or enclosed pasturages 
on Salisbury Plain, in the neighbourhood of an ancient encampment. From 
the fractured appearance of one part, the figure seemed to have formed 
portion of a group. Numerous coins and a bronze figure, about 3 in. 
in height, had been found near the spot, which is situate on Charlton Down, 
near Devizes, the property of Lord Normanton. A large tract of the 
Downs at this place seems to have been covered by habitations ; vestiges 
of buildings are clearly to be traced upon it, and careful excavation would 
doubtless bring numerous remains of interest to light. 

By MR. SAMUEL P. PRATT. Two remarkable ancient relics of stone, 
found in excavations near Alexandria. One of them had been supposed to 
be a kind of hatchet. Representations will be given in a future Journal. 

By the HON. ROBERT CURZON, JUN. Several beautiful relics of ancient 
art and goldsmith's work, reliquaries and ornaments of a sacred kind, 
recently added to his choice collections. They comprised a crucifix of the 
enamelled work of Limoges, of the most ancient form ; the figure is 
crowned, draped with long garments to the feet, a girdle around the waist. 
Each foot is attached to the cross by a separate nail. Above is the 
Almighty hand issuing from a cloud. This was described as a copy of the 
Santo volto of Lucca, supposed to be the most ancient crucifix existing ; 
it is said, according to the legend, to have been carved in wood by 
Nicodemus, and brought from the Holy Land to Lucca, A.D. 780. A 
circular brass pyx, diam. 4 in., height 5 in., curiously ornamented with 
Oriental characters, formerly inlaid with silver and a kind of enamel. The 
inscription has been thus read : Al Melik Amr, al ali, al Melud, al Melek 
Daher ; signifying The Prince Amr, the magnificent, the son of the 
Sultan Daher. Al Daher was king of Egypt, A.D. 1021; he was the son 
of Caliph Hakem, founder of the Assassins. It is supposed that this 
box was intended to contain nashish. Circular silver plate (diam. 2^ in.), 
exhibiting the head of the Saviour in profile, in high relief, surrounded by 
a cruciform nimbus. Around the margin is inscribed, VIVA . DEI . FACIES . 
ET . SALVATORIS . IMAGO. The characters are of the twelfth century. A 
small pectoral cross of exquisite Greek workmanship, carved in wood, and 
encased in gold set with gems. The carving is shown through openings 
in the goldsmith's work. On one side is the Crucifixion, the Blessed 
Virgin and St. John, and an angel above : on the other, the Virgin 
and Infant Saviour. The workmanship appears to be of the twelfth 
century. The intervals between the gems are enriched with blue and green 


Portion of an Effigy, in the Chancel, Ashing ton, Somersetshire. 
Date, about 1300. 


enamel ; length, 2 inches. A plate of metal, formerly gilt, exhibiting 
a figure of the Blessed Virgin, in bas-relief. It was obtained from Torcello, 
in the Lagoons of Venice. The inscription, in modern Greek, is as follows: 
Get Kvpif (poi6t]To (TO 8ov\o <J>tAi7ro eiricTKOTio Lord ! strengthen thy servant 
Philip the Bishop. Philippo Balardo, Bishop of Torcello, lived about A.D. 
1377 ; but this bas-relief bears the aspect of greater antiquity, and the 
inscription may refer to some other prelate of the same name, under the 
Greek empire. A reliquary of silver gilt, of the form and size of a finger, 
and placed erect upon an embattled base, around which is inscribed os >J 
DIGITVS : s : THEODERI. The finger-bone is seen through openings pierced 
like little windows, the extremity of the bone being gilt. The base rests 
on three feet, formed of little branches. Entire height, 4 in. Another 
reliquary, a cylinder of crystal containing a finger-bone ; the foot, mountings 
and conical cover, are of silver gilt ; upon the summit is a crucifix : height, 
5 in. A beautiful mirror-case, of sculptured ivory, representing a gentle- 
man and lady playing at chess. (See woodcut.) Date, about 1320. 

By the REV. R. F. MEREDITH. A rubbing from a singular sepulchral 
slab, existing in the chancel at Ashington church, about four miles from 
Yeovil, Somerset. The upper portion of the figure alone remains : it is 
rudely designed, but the costume is very curious, as shown by the accom- 
panying representation. Around the margin of the slab may be traced a 
few letters of the inscription, so imperfect, that they are not here shown : 
they suffice merely to indicate that it was in old French, and that the 
characters used were the large uncial letters commonly found on tombs of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The curious chapel de fer worn 
over the cervelliere of plate, does not occur in any other sepulchral 
portraiture hitherto noticed : the spear held in the right hand is very 
unusual : the coudiere and the curved shield, by which the left shoulder 
is surround, deserve notice. The hand grasping the sword is much 
damaged. The arras, a bend fusily, have been supposed to be those of 
Ralegh, but they were borne by other Somersetshire families. There was, 
however, a connexion between that family and the possessors of Ashington, 
about the time to which this effigy may be assigned. Sir Matthew 
Furneaux, lord of the manor, and sheriff of Somerset, 34 Edward I., 
married Maud, daughter of Sir Warine de Ralegh, of Nettlecombe. The 
basin-shaped helm appears not unfrequently in illuminations of that 
period, for example, in Roy. MS., 2 B. vii. It may be seen also in 
the curious subjects from the Painted Chamber (Vet. Monum., vol. v. 
pi. 30, 32). The singular obtuse projection at the top is unusual. This 
part of the design on the slab is not damaged, and the blunt peak of this 
singular " Mambrino " head-piece seems to have been originally represented 
precisely as here given. 

By MR. G. PERCY ELLIOTT. The head, with its pomel, a circular 
band, and ferrule, of a pastoral staff, of brass, richly gilt, described as 
found about seventy-five or eighty years since in a tomb amongst the ruins 
of Hyde Abbey, near Winchester. The workmanship is very good ; the 
style pure " Early-English," and the date may be assigned to the reign of 
Henry III., circa 1250. A portion of the wooden staff remains fixed in the 
ferrule. These relics are probably the same which are noticed by Dr. Milner 
as found in 1785, when the site of Hyde Abbey was appropriated for the 
erection of a Bridewell, and the ruins recklessly destroyed. Besides 


chalices of pewter, remains of vestments and orfrays, with many other 
relics, he mentions " the crook, rims, and joints of a beautiful crosier, 
double gilt," as found at that time. 8 

MB. ELLIOTT exhibited also a memorial of Sir Francis Drake, an oval 
box of horn, bearing on the cover the arms of that distinguished navigator, 
with a ship ; on the sail is the date 1577, being the year in which he 
sailed on his voyage round the globe. At the bottom is inscribed 
' ' John Obrisset fecit. ' ' 

By MR. HART, of Reigate. A small painting on panel, being a copy 
of an ancient portrait of our Saviour, thus inscribed. " This Semilitude 
of ovr Sauiour Christ lesus was found in Amarat and Sent from y e great 
Turke To Pope Innocent y e 8. to Redeeme his Brother Which was Takep 
Prisoner By y e Romans." The head is turned to the left, and painted on 
a gilt ground. Mr. Hart requested information regarding the origin of 
this legend. The portrait seems to have been in estimation, and repeatedly 
copied. A similar painting is described by Mr. T. Woolston, of Adderbury, 
in 1793, being then in the possession of Mr. J. Barker. 9 The inscription 
is thus slightly varied " This present figure is the similytude of our Lord 
IH'E our Saviour, imprinted in Amirald by the Predesessor of the Great 
Turke," &c. 

DR. CHARLTON laid before the Society, by the obliging permission of 
Cardinal Wiseman, a curious MS. in his possession, being the ceremonial 
observed at the consecration of cramp rings, and at the Healing. At the 
commencement are emblazoned the arms of Philip and Mary ; one of the 
illuminations represents the Queen kneeling, a round charger, containing 
the rings which she is about to consecrate, being placed on each side 
of her. The service is thus entitled. " Certyn prayo r s to be vsed by the 
quenes heignes in the consecration of the crampe rynges." At the close 
of these prayers there is another curious illumination. Mary appears 
kneeling, and placing her hands upon the neck of a diseased person, who 
is presented to her by the clerk ; the chaplain, vested in alb and stole, 
kneels on the other side. This service is entitled " The Ceremonye for 
y e heling of them that be diseased with the kynges Evill." The hallowing 
of rings is mentioned by Andrew Boorde, in his " Introduction to Know- 
ledge ;" "The kynges of Englande doth halowe every yere crampe 
rynges, y e which rynges worne on one's fynger doth helpe them whych 
hath the crampe ;" and again in his "Breviary of Health," 1557, f. 166. 
It is stated by Hospinian that this custom was observed on Good Friday, 
and that it originated from a ring preserved at the Abbey of Westminster, 
supposed to have great virtue against cramp and falling sickness, and 
reported to have been the identical ring given by Edward the Confessor 
to the pilgrim. 1 

By MR. OCTAVIUS MORGAN, M.P. An interesting series of ancient 
dials and horometrical instruments. 1. A boxwood viatorium, or pocket 
horizontal sun-dial ; date, XVI. cent. 2. A viatorium in a case of gilt 
metal, engraved with arabesque patterns and flowers ; XVI. cent. 

8 Milner's Hist, of Winchester, vol. ii., Antiqu. Observations and additional Notes 
p. 238. Carter's Sculpture and Painting, on Good Friday, and on Physical Charms, 
p. 39, new edit. The ceremonial of blessing cramp rings 

9 Gent. Mag., vol. Ixiii., pt. 2, p. 1177. on Good Friday is given in Waldron's 
1 De Orig. Festorum Christ. See " Literary Museum." 

further on this subject in Brand's Popular 


3. Horizontal dial, made by Nicholas Rugendas, a celebrated clocktnaker 
of Augsburg, in XVI. cent. 4. An inclined horizontal and equinoctial 
dial, of the end of XVI. cent. 5. An inclined and equinoctial dial of 
XVII. cent. 6. A nocturnal, or star-dial, and vertical sun-dial ; early 
XVII. cent. 7. An ivory matorium, and general dial ; date 1609. 
8. Another, of smaller size. 9. A silver pocket sun-dial, made at Paris 
at the close of XVII. cent. 10. An astronomical ring-dial, made early 
in XVIII. cent. 

By Miss FFARRINGTON, of Worden, Cheshire. A silver salt with a 
cover, a beautiful relic of former days, preserved in her family. The 
ornaments are elegantly designed and executed in repousse work ; and 
the cover is surmounted by a figure in armour, bearing an escutcheon, 
charged with these arms, a chevron between three leopards' faces. Mr. 
Octavius Morgan observed, that this curious piece of ancient plate appears 
to be of the latter part of the sixteenth century ; in design and workman- 
ship it closely resembles the celebrated salt, preserved at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, given by Archbishop Parker in 1570. The " upper 
part of the cover, in that instance, is formed so as to serve as a pixis pro 
pipere," as designated in an inscription upon the base. A representation 
of that fine piece of goldsmith's work is given amongst the " Specimens 
of College Plate," published by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 

By JOHN E. W. ROLLS, ESQ. A service of silver plate, of very curious 
character and elaborate workmanship ; the designs being groups and 
garlands of flowers hammered up in high relief. This plate was taken by 
General Paroissien from the mint at Lima, on the occasion of the entry of 
General San Martin into that place. It had remained at the mint, as it 
was stated, for upwards of a century, having been deposited there at the 
expulsion of the Jesuits from Peru. It is supposed that these fine salvers, 
which exhibit a style of ornament rather of Spanish than South American 
character, had been manufactured by Indian artificers in the fifteenth 
century, under the direction of Europeans, possibly for use in the establish- 
ment of the Jesuits. Mr. MORGAN called attention to the peculiar marks 
of manufacture upon this plate, one of theui being a complicated monogram ; 
another presents the letters O.R.T., hitherto unexplained. 

Ma. ROLLS exhibited also three fine enamelled plaques, specimens of the 
embedded, or champlevs process of the work of Limoges. 

By MR. W. J. BERNHARD SMITH. An iron dagger, mounted with a 
pomel of brass, and having traces of gold inlaid on the blade. It was 
found in dredging, in the bed of the Thames, near Kingston, with a human 
skull, in which, when discovered, the blade was transfixed. 

By MR. THOMAS BIRD, of Upton-on- Severn. Two specimens of glazed 
white stone ware, ornamented with foliage and flowers in deep blue and 
rich purple-brown colours. One of them is of Dutch fabrication, a large 
globular vessel, exhibiting busts in relief of a King and Queen, probably 
William III. and Queen Mary, with the date 1691, and the lion of the 
United Provinces. The other is a mug of later date, a standard measure, 
possibly of the time of George I. Among the ornaments occur the initials 
G. R. crowned ; near the rim is incised the number 6. 


Annual ^Meeting, 1851. 


THE first annual assembly of the Institute, held in the western parts of 
England, in compliance with the wishes of many members of the Society, 
assembled at Oxford, in the previous year, commenced in the city of Bristol 
on Tuesday, July 29th. The Municipal authorities liberally placed at the 
disposal of the Institute the Council House and Guildhall, with the adjoining 
buildings, commodiously situated for the occasion ; and the proceedings of 
the week were opened with the customary inaugural meeting. 

At twelve o'clock the President, the LORD TALBOT DE MALAHIDE, accom- 
panied by JOHN SCANDRETT HARFORD, Esq. (President elect), with several 
eminent foreign archaeologists and members of the Institute, were received 
by the Mayor, Sir JOHN KERLE HABERFIELD, the Town Clerk, Chamberlain, 
and civic authorities ; and proceeded to the Guildhall. The chair was 
taken by Lord Talbot, who addressed the assembly, observing how highly 
gratified he felt in witnessing the Bordiality with which the Institute had 
been welcomed in that ancient and celebrated city, eminent by the 
leading position it had long sustained as connected with the extension of 
commercial enterprise, and by the leading part which it had taken in those 
great struggles through which had been perfected the constitution of our 
country. His duty, on the present occasion, was to transfer to their future 
President, the authority with which he had been invested since the untimely 
and lamented decease of their late noble friend and patron, the Marquis of 
Northampton. It was impossible that any person should have taken part 
in any of those numerous institutions for the extension of scientific, literary, 
or artistic objects, to which their late President had constantly given 
the most efficient support, without feeling in the most lively manner how 
great was the loss they had sustained. Lord Talbot alluded to his first 
attendance at the meeting of the British Association, when he had met 
Lord Northampton in that very city, and had witnessed the ardour with 
which he engaged in promoting every scientific purpose. He then, in pre- 
senting to the Institute their future President, adverted to the efficiency 
and the zeal with which he had long-time promoted every literary and 
scientific interest in that city ; and especially to the energetic part which 
Mr. Harford had constantly taken in preserving the public monuments and 
works of art which formed some of the most attractive objects there pre- 
sented to the notice of the Society. The active and liberal impulse which 
he had given to the admirable restorations of St. Mary Redcliffe, had fully 
evinced his cordial sympathies with all who desired to preserve national 
antiquities, and to advance the purposes for which the Institute had been 

JOHN SCANDRETT HARFORB, Esq., then took the Chair. He expressed 
the satisfaction which he felt, in common with many distinguished inhabit- 
ants of Bristol, in offering a cordial welcome to a Society devoted to the 
investigation of objects, of which the interest was daily more truly and 
extensively appreciated. He alluded with much feeling to the circum- 
stances under which he had assented to take the position which he now 
occupied, at the especial request of his lamented friend, lately their 



President, the Noble Marquis, whose loss all around him must remember 
with the keenest regret. Mr. Harford continued his address, setting forth 
his views of the proper scope and objects of archaeological studies, and 
he eulogised many antiquaries of recent times who had prosecuted these 
investigations with signal success. He adverted especially to the acute 
intelligence, and persevering skill, by which the mysterious vestiges of 
Egypt, of Etruria, and, in more recent times, the extraordinary remains 
discovered in Assyria, had been expounded, and brought into scientific 
order. Mr. Harford spoke also of the advance made within a few years 
past in arousing a more lively esteem for all national monuments, and the 
desire for their preservation ; and alluded to the importance of the noble 
ecclesiastical structures existing in England, those venerable edifices 
especially, to which the attention of the Institute would be called during 
the meeting now commencing. He would commend to their notice the 
useful summary, indicating the chief objects of interest in Bristol, which 
had been specially prepared for their gratification by a most deserving and 
well-informed antiquary, MR. WILLIAM TYSON, to whose merits he gladly 
paid this tribute on the present occasion. 1 

His Excellency the CHEVALIER BUNSEN rose to propose a vote of thanks 
to their noble President, who had that day vacated his post LORD TALBOT 
DE MALAHIDE. The Society had sustained during the previous year a most 
severe loss, by the untimely decease of a nobleman endeared to all who 
had the honour of knowing him, and whose memory must especially be 
held in veneration by the Archaeological Institute. In the trying occasion 
when that kind and generous patron was suddenly removed from the sphere 
of zealous exertion, in fostering every intelligent purpose for the promotion 
of science or 6f art, Lord Talbot had, with kind readiness, consented to 
supply the place of their lamented President. His attainments, cultivated 
taste, and knowledge of those subjects to which the efforts of the Society 
were devoted, had eminently qualified him for that distinction. The 
Chevalier Bunsen, in most feeling terms, spoke of the friendship which 
had subsisted for thirty years between Lord Northampton and himself ; 
they had been associated in the formation of the Archaeological Institute 
of Rome, of which the late Marquis was one of the first founders, and most 
constant friends. 

The MASTER or TRINITY COLLEGE seconded the motion. He felt high 
gratification in being called upon to express his cordial sympathy in the 
thanks which it was proposed now to offer to their late accomplished 
President. Dr. Whewell observed that he had first become acquainted 
with that nobleman some years since in the University, where he hoped 
men had always learned, and would continue to learn, to have a veneration 
and love for antiquity, whilst their minds became disciplined for the 
fulfilment of the highest duties, social or public, to which they might be 
called. Whilst, however, it was grateful to him to bear testimony to the 
attainments of their late President, he could not refrain from expressing 
also his deep sympathy in the sad tribute paid by that eminent person, 

1 These succinct and useful notices of 
objects of curiosity and antiquarian 
interest in Bristol were drawn up by the 
kind care of Mr. W. Tyson, F.S.A., by 
whose friendly assistance and unwearied 


co-operation the proceedings of the Insti- 
tute at Bristol were greatly promoted. 
The sad intelligence of his untimely death 
reached us whilst these pages were in 
the printer's hands. 


who had just addressed the meeting, to the memory of that lamented 
patron, whose place Lord Talbot had been called upon to fill. 

MR. HARFORD then informed the meeting that a memoir had been 
provided for their gratification on the present occasion, by a gentleman 
well known to many present for his assiduous and able researches regarding 
the antiquities of their city : he regretted that he was not permitted to 
mention him by name. The memoir, relating to the municipal antiquities, 
the high civic offices, and muniments of Bristol, must be highly acceptable, 
especially since, at the close of the present meeting, the regalia and 
charters, with many of those ancient objects to which the observations 
referred, would be submitted to the inspection of the Society, in the 
Council Chamber. 

MR. TUCKER, at the President's request, then read the memoir in 
question. The author observed, that the mayor and civic authorities, fully 
appreciating the honour conferred upon them by the visit of so many 
persons eminent in literature and science, and desirous of promoting the 
object of the Society, had considered that a display of the ancient municipal 
relics, the regalia and muniments of the Corporation, would not fail to 
afford gratification to their visitors. He had thought, accordingly, that 
some introductory observations upon the civic dignities, the charters, ancient 
seals, plate, and insignia of the city, would form the most suitable subject 
for the inaugural meeting of the Institute. He proceeded to give many 
interesting details regarding the chief magistrate, in earlier times styled 
Gustos or Prepositor, the distinguished persons by whom the office had 
been filled, especially William Canynges, the builder of Redcliffe church, 
six times mayor of that ancient city. The office of High Steward had 
always been filled by statesmen and noblemen of the highest distinction ; 
the civic annals comprise many curious particulars regarding their con- 
nexion with Bristol ; and a fine series of their portraits grace the Council 
Chamber, to which the members of the Society would forthwith be invited 
to repair, to view the display prepared for their gratification. The muni- 
ments, now in the custody of the Town Clerk, comprise a series of royal 
charters, commencing from Henry II., with numerous evidences eminently 
interesting to the historian and the antiquary, in excellent preservation, 
having been ever transmitted from generation to generation, as a sacred 
deposit ; and, as justly remarked by an author of note, " their preservation 
is worthy of national example." 

The city and mayoralty seals, seven in number, are of great curiosity, 
and have supplied a frequent subject of discussion to antiquarian writers. 
With the design of the most remarkable of these seals, the members of 
the Institute had already become familiar, since it had appropriately been 
selected as the device of the admission tickets on the present occasion. 
The author proceeded to describe the curious plate and other precious 
objects, the four state-swords, one of which, originally inclosed in a scabbard 
garnished with pearls, was presented in 1431 by a Lord Mayor of London. 
A splendid salver, of the times of Elizabeth, would be viewed with interest, 
not merely as a relic of ancient civic grandeur, but from the circumstance 
of its having been stolen by the rioters in 1831, and cut into 167 pieces, 
which fortunately, with one exception, were recovered, and had been riveted 
together with singular skill. 

LORD TALBOT DE MALAHIDE moved the cordial thanks of the meeting to the 
author of this memoir : he wished that they might have had the satisfaction 


of conveying this acknowledgment to him by name ; but it would be 
sufficiently evident to all who had heard the curious details and quaint 
anecdotes relating to the ancient history of the city, that the writer must 
be a distinguished member of the Corporation, who alone could have access 
to the precious documents referred to, and at the same time must be an 
antiquary of no ordinary attainments in archaeological research. 

The CHEVALIER KESTNER, Vice-President of the Archaeological Institute 
of Rome, seconded the motion. He assured the meeting of the gratification 
he felt in participating in the proceedings of a Society, formed for kindred 
purposes to those which be had long felt the deepest interest in promoting. 
He congratulated them on being assembled in a city so rich in ancient 
recollections, and expressed the hope that the members of the Institute 
might be encouraged to extend their researches to Italy, assuring them of 
a cordial reception at the museum he had formed in Rome. 

A vote of thanks to the PRESIDENT, proposed by MR. MARKLAND, and 
seconded by SIR JOHV BOILEAU, Bart., was carried with acclamation, and 
the meeting adjourned to visit the display, appropriately prepared in the 
Council Chamber. The members were there received with the utmost 
courtesy by the Town Clerk, DANIEL BURGES, Esq., and the Chamberlain, 
THOMAS GARRARD, Esq., F.S.A., whose attention and remarks upon the 
numerous objects displayed, materially enhanced the gratification of the 
visitors. The regalia were disposed with much taste at one end of 
the fine saloon, of which the walls are covered with full-length Royal 
and distinguished portraits. The charters and appendant seals, some of 
great rarity, were admirably shown in glazed cases. A number of inte- 
resting records and autographs were exhibited, and the company withdrew 
highly gratified with this unique display, and demonstration of the cordial 
feeling of the city of Bristol towards the Society on the present occasion. 

The visitors, on quitting the Council House, dispersed to visit various 
objects of interest, the Cathedral, the Churches, and other points of attrac- 
tion, with the aid of concise notices compiled for their use by MR. W. 
TYSON, F.S.A., whose researches, for many years devoted to the investiga- 
tion of the antiquities and recollections of his native city, had been in the 
kindest manner rendered available to promote the objects of the Institute. 
The majority repaired to the " temporary Museum," which by the obliging 
permission of the Lord Bishop of the Diocese, and the council of the 
Institution, had been arranged at the Bishop's College, Park-street. The 
limits of the present notice will not permit of any enumeration of the 
antiquities, and objects illustrating ancient arts or manufactures, there 
brought together. Amongst the attractive features of this collection may 
briefly be mentioned a series, scarcely equalled in variety and extent, of the 
relics of the " Stone Period :" the curious specimens from the Somerset- 
shire Turbaries, contributed by Mr. Stradling, were compared with 
analogous objects from Dorsetshire and other parts of England, a large 
assemblage also of examples from Ireland, brought by Lord Talbot. 2 Mr. 
Brackstone sent an interesting group of Danish relics of the same age 
presented to Dr. Thurnam by Herr Worsaae of Copenhagen. The extensive 
collection of drawings, sent for exhibition by the Royal Irish Academy, and 

2 An unique specimen, a primitive Ireland, was one of the most curious relics 
knife of silex, rudely adjusted with a exhibited by Lord Talbot. 
wrapper of peat-moss, as discovered in 


displaying all the objects in their valuable museum, presented in this, as in 
almost every period of Archaeological classification, a most interesting 
opportunity for the comparison of various types of ancient weapons, orna- 
ments and other remains. In the " Bronze Period," the collections from 
Somersetshire, composed of antiquities contributed from the Museum of the 
Bristol Institution, with the produce of the Turbaries, from that formed by 
Mr. Stradling ; 3 the unique massive tore or collar sent by Mr. Coathupe, 
antiquities from the Polden Hills, brought by Mr. H. Harford, and torques 
of more simple fashion, by Mrs. Phippen, presented a group of singular 
interest, as compared with numerous Irish remains of bronze, from the 
collections before mentioned. Romano-British relics in great variety, 
found in Somerset, and deposited, after the death of the late Rev. John 
Skinner, of Camerton, in the Museum of the Institution, were here 
instructively placed in comparison with numerous remains lately disinterred 
at Corinium, and brought by Professor Buckman. Amongst antiquities 
of the Saxon age, the fibula, enriched with filagree, found near Abingdon, 
claimed especial notice : it was brought by the President of Trinity College. 
A very remarkable cruciform fibula, enriched with coarse enamels, found 
not many days before the meeting, near Warwick, with a large perforated 
crystal and other relics, was produced by the Rev. W. Staunton. The 
works of art, in ivory, chasings in metal, enamels, carvings in wood and 
stone, embroideries, specimens of plate, seals, intaglios and other curious 
objects of the medieval period, were numerous and varied. Mr. Loscombe, 
of Clifton, Mr. Tyson, Mr. Cookson, the Rev. H. Ellacombe, Mr. Jere Hill 
and Mr. Stradling were amongst the chief contributors. The Somerset 
Archaeological Society, and Messrs. Bindon and Clark, of Bristol, exhibited 
an extensive series of the sepulchral brasses of Bristol and Somerset. The 
Hon. Board of Ordnance, Sir John Boileau, Dr. Dalton, Mr. Paget, Mr. H. 
Harford, of Frenchay, and Mr. Hill, sent for exhibition, armour and 
weapons, from the age of mailed defences to the interesting Highland tacks 
used by the great Duke of Argyll, of which Sir John had recently made 
acquisition. The Great Western Railway Company sent an interesting 
contribution, the remains of the tesselated pavement found at Keynsham, 
during the formation of the line ; in this class, however, of ancient art, the 
fac-simile tracings of the mosaics brought to light at Cirencester, and 
exhibited by Professor Buckman, presented the most valuable examples, 
probably, hitherto found in England. A very large assemblage of drawings, 
chiefly representing architectural remains in Bristol and Somerset, were 
contributed by Mr. Britton, Mr. Tovey, Mr. Hansom, Mr. Norton, and 
Mr. Colbrook Stockdale. 

In the evening a meeting took place in the theatre of the Philosophical 
Institution, LOUD TALBOT DE MALAHIDE presiding. A memoir was read by 
EDWARD A. FREEMAN, Esq., M.A., on the preservation of ancient monu- 
ments ; in which he opposed the prevalent practice of " Restoration," or 
renovating architectural structures, unless for some essential purpose of 
practical utility. He strongly advocated, also, the principle of leaving 
ancient remains in their integral condition, in situ, and abstaining from those 
mutilations, and the dispersion of their most precious accessories, by which 
museums were enriched, and specimens accumulated, whilst the deep 

3 See his curious memoir on the Turbaries near Bridgwater : Proceedings of 
Somerset Archaeological Society, p. 48. 


interest associated with such monuments was wholly, and in some instances, 
wantonly, sacrificed. 

An animated conversation ensued, in which Lord Talbot, Mr. Hawkins, 
Mr. Hopkinson and Mr. Nash, of Clifton, discussed the merits of the 
proposed principle in regard to the conservation of ancient monuments of 
architecture and sculpture. LORD TALBOT considered that, whilst all must 
admit the wanton abstraction and disintegration of such vestiges to be 
highly reprehensible, their removal under peculiar circumstances, for 
instance, as regarded the Elgin marbles, or the antiquities brought to light 
by Dr. Layard, was perfectly justifiable and expedient. 

At the close of the discussion refreshments were served, by the kind 
hospitality of the Institution. During the whole meeting the Institute 
received from that Society the most friendly and liberal encouragement ; 
every facility was afforded, with free access to their museum, library and 


This day was devoted to an excursion to Wells, to examine the Cathedral, 
and the various architectural structures at that place. Professor Willis 
had promised to deliver his customary discourse upon the architectural 
history of the Cathedral : and Professor Cockerell, R.A., offered the 
additional inducement of a demonstration, to illustrate the import and 
peculiar character of the sculptures, those especially of the west front. 

With these attractions in view, a numerous party quitted Bristol at an 
early hour to traverse the Mendip hills, a tedious journey of some difficulty : 
that mode of access being, unfortunately, the only means by which the 
desire generally expressed by the members, that Wells should be included 
in the arrangements of the meeting at Bristol, could be gratified. By an 
unforeseen disappointment, this expedition, originally fixed for the following 
Friday, was inevitably transferred to this day ; since the two learned 
Professors, who were prepared to discourse upon the architectural and 
artistic features of the Cathedral, were unexpectedly summoned to present 
themselves on that very day at the entertainment offered by the city of 
Paris to the eminent personages connected with the Great Exhibition. 

The lectures were delivered in the Court House at Wells. A numerous 
party of residents in that place and the neighbourhood having joined the 
visitors from Bristol, Professor Willis delivered one of those masterly 
discourses, which have BO materially enhanced the interest of the Annual 
Proceedings of the Institute, at their successive meetings ; but of which it 
is impracticable to give any notion in a concise report. By facilities, 
kindly afforded to him by the Dean and Chapter in his researches into 
the records, he had elicited facts of signal advantage in prosecuting his 
enquiry ; and his lecture was received with scarcely less satisfaction, than 
was afforded by his subsequent demonstration, and actual inspection of the 
fabric, with the adjacent buildings. 

Professor Cockerell also gave an admirable discourse upon the sculptures, 
to the elucidation of which he had devoted so much attention during some 
years past. The results of this highly interesting investigation have been 
given to the world, since the meeting at Bristol, in the " Iconography of the 
West front of Wells Cathedral," a publication in which our readers will find 


a development of the Professor's views of this curious subject, well deserving 
of their attention. 4 

A large party of the Archaeologists having accepted the hospitalities of 
the Deanery, whilst the remainder of the numerous assembly repaired to 
the Ordinary, at the Judges' lodgings, the Mendip range was again crossed, 
and it was nearly midnight before all the travellers had safely returned to 


The earlier part of this day was appropriated to the meetings of sections. 
At ten o'clock, the Historical section assembled at the Theatre of the 
Institution. The chair having been taken by the President, HENRY 
HALLAM, Esq., he observed, in opening the proceedings, that in regard to 
the subjects usually brought before that division, it had not been customary, 
nor was it perhaps important, to prescribe any strict line. So far as it could 
be drawn, he considered it most advisable to enjoin that all communications 
founded principally upon books or written documents should fall within the 
department of history, whilst those directly relating to material objects 
should be brought under the head of antiquities. The practice of the 
Institute on these occasions had been to give a preference to subjects of 
local interest and importance, but it should be understood that this was by 
no means considered as an invariable rule ; and he particularly mentioned 
this, anticipating that very morning an important communication from an 
eminent archaeologist, who had honoured their meeting at Bristol with his 
attendance ; he alluded to the Chevalier Bunsen, who had prepared a 
discourse on a subject wholly unconnected with the scenes and historical 
recollections by which they were actually surrounded. 

The REV. JAMES LEE WARNER then read a memoir on the first octavo 
edition of Tyndale's New Testament, entering at length into the literary 
and typographical history of that important work, of which the most 
perfect copy, known to him, formerly in the Harleian Library, and now 
submitted to the meeting, is preserved in the city of Bristol, in the 
valuable collection in the library of the Baptists' College. Another, but 
imperfect copy, is in the library of St. Paul's Cathedral. He concluded 
that this rare volume was printed at Worms, in 1525. The history of this 
translation is a matter well deserving attention, and independently of the 
existence of this book, known probably to few persons, in the city where 
the Institute had assembled, it might be remembered as a circumstance of 
local interest that it was, as it has been stated, in the county of Gloucester, 
in the manor-house of Sir John Welch, at Sodbury, a place which some 
present might possibly be induced to visit in the course of the excursions 
of the week, that Tyndale formed his determination to translate and print 
the Scriptures. 

His Excellency, the CHEVALIER BUNSEN, then delivered a most interest- 
ing dissertation upon the Lake Moeris, demonstrating its artificial character, 
and the intention with which it had been formed, for purposes of artificial 
irrigation. Ancient writers as well as modern had been at variance on 
this question ; the lake is noticed both by Herodotus and Strabo, but one 
describes it as a natural lake, whilst the other attributed it to human 

4 Published by J. H. Parker, Oxford, 4to. with Illustrations. 


industry. The CHEVALIER entered into a curious argument to show when 
this vast work was constructed. He believed it to have been the work of 
Mceris, successor of Sesostris, who was the Pharaoh by whom Jacob and 
the Israelites were settled in Goshen. 

At the close of the discussion which ensued, a Meeting of the Section 
of Antiquities commenced, LORD TALBOT DE MALAHIDE presiding, who 
opened the proceedings with observations on the flint weapons of the early 
Irish people, of which many rare and well characterised examples might 
be seen at the Temporary Museum. He called attention, especially, to the 
singular knife of silex, which he had brought for the inspection of the 
Society, having by way of haft some of the fibrous bog-moss wrapped around 
it, so as to be commodiously grasped by the hand. 

PROFESSOR BUCKMAN, F.G.S., of the Royal Agricultural College, 
Cirencester, gave a dissertation on the chemical composition of some 
ancient British and Roman beads of glass, with the view of distinguishing 
those of different periods. He produced numerous specimens found at 
Cirencester and other places, and gave some notices of recent discoveries 
of Roman remains at Corinium, such as coins, relics of bronze, 
pottery, &c. 

The Architectural Section assembled, by the kind permission of the 
Dean and Chapter, in the Chapter House. J. H. MARKLAND, Esq., 
President of the Section, opened the proceedings with an address, pointing 
out the advantages which must accrue from the Meetings of the Institute, 
especially, in encouraging a higher appreciation of Ecclesiastical Archi- 
tecture, and arresting the injuries that have arisen from the debasement of 
public taste in that respect, which characterised the period from the days 
of Elizabeth till recent years. 

A Memoir by JOHN BRITTON, Esq., entitled, Remarks on the Topo- 
graphy and Archaeology of Bristol and its vicinity, was then read by 

MR. EDWARD FREEMAN made some observations upon the church towers 
of Somersetshire and Bristol, and their proper classification, and requested 
information regarding the age or history of those admirable examples of 
architectural skill. 

MR. JOHN NORTON contributed a paper on the proposed restoration of 
the Bristol High Cross, of which he exhibited a model, and explained the 
arrangements now in progress for the erection of the cross in College 

At two o'clock the Sections dispersed, the Annual Service at St. Mary. 
Redcliffe, having been fixed for that hour, commemorating the establish- 
ment of the Canynges Society, instituted for carrying out the restora- 
tions of that church. On this occasion, the sermon was preached by the 
Very Rev. the Dean of Bristol. At the conclusion of the service, a 
Memoir on the history and architectural features of the fabric was read 
by GEORGE GODWIN, Esq., F.R.S., the architect engaged in the restoration ; 
and he accompanied the visitors in an examination of the structure, pointing 
out the progress of the repairs, hitherto carried out in a most satisfactory 
manner, and the extensive works of renewal still requisite, should the 
requisite funds be supplied. 5 

5 A detailed report of Mr. Godwin's interesting observations was given in the 
Builder of August 2. 


The Annual Dinner took place this day at the Victoria Rooms, Clifton, 
and the Members of the Canynges Society joined the Members of the 
Institute in a joint banquet, the Chair being taken by MR. HARFORD, 
President of both Societies. With the customary toasts on these occasions, 
were united several, expressive of sympathy and cordial interest in the 
undertaking promoted by the Canynges Society. Amongst those distin- 
guished guests by whom the company were addressed, may be mentioned 
the Chevalier Bunsen, Lord Talbot, the Bishop of Oxford, the Mayor of 
Bristol, Mr. Alderman Pountney, Mr. Hallam, the Master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, the Principal of Brasenose College, Sir Charles 
Anderson, and the Dean of Bristol. 


The Section of Antiquities assembled at ten, in the Theatre of the 
Institution, LORD TALBOT presiding. A Memoir was read by JAMES 
YATES, Esq., F.R.S., on the statue known as " The Dying Gladiator." 
He considered the person represented to have been of one of the northern 
nations, long engaged in conflict with the Romans : he bore the insignia of 
the tore, a curious ornament of which several remarkable examples found 
in Somersetshire might be seen in the Museum at the Bishop's College. 
He directed attention to the long horn, broken and lying with his sword. 
Such horns were used in fight by the northern nations, and examples are 
preserved in the Museums of Copenhagen and Schwerin, as also several in 
the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, represented in the drawings sent 
for exhibition at the present meeting. 

OCTAVIUS MORGAN, Esq., M.P., offered some interesting remarks upon 
the assay and year marks used by goldsmiths in England, and stated that 
he had been able to carry back the latter to a much more distant period 
than was comprised in the lists of the Goldsmiths' Company, thus affording 
the means of precisely ascertaining the date of fabrication of ancient 
English plate. 

The REV. W. GUNNER read some curious extracts from the Roll of 
household expenses of William of Wykeham, in the year 1394. 

In the Historical Section, Mr. HALLAM presided, and EDWIN GUEST, 
Esq., F.R.S., communicated a dissertation upon the Saxon Conquest of 
West Britain, in continuation of his Memoirs delivered at the previous 
Annual Meetings at Salisbury and Oxford. The first portion of this im- 
portant subject will be found in the Salisbury Transactions, the publication 
of which has just been announced by Mr. Bell ; 6 and the discourse given 
by Mr. Guest, at Oxford, will be found in this volume. (See p. 143.) 

CAPTAIN CHAPMAN, R.E., communicated observations on names of 
places, supposed to be of Celtic origin, and brought before the meeting the 
ancient lists of the citizens of Bath at various periods, preserved in the 
Subsidy Rolls, t. Edw. III. ; the Poll Tax of 2 Rich. II., and the list 
of citizens elected to serve in Parliament, from the year 1298, with 
detailed observations upon the derivation of the surnames occurring in these 

6 This volume, of which the publication Price to Subscribers, 15s. It may be 
had been undertaken by Mr. G. Bell, obtained through all booksellers. 
186, Fleet Street, is now ready for deli very. 


The Architectural Section agaiu met in the Chapter House, and the 
Chair was taken hy Mu. MARKLAND. A notice was read, detailing the 
recent restoration by Mr. E. Richardson, of two sculptured statues, on the 
west front of Wells Cathedral, noticed in the Journal, (see p. 201.) 

The REV. JOHN ECCLES CARTER made some remarks on the Archi- 
tectural History of Bristol Cathedral, and accompanied the visitors in an 
examination of the fabric. 

CHARLES WIKSTON, Esq., gave an account of the painted glass existing 
in the Cathedral and the Mayor's Chapel, at Bristol, as also at Wells, 
Gloucester, and Exeter. 

An interesting memoir was then read by MR. J. A. CLARK, of Bristol, 
describing the sepulchral monuments and brasses in the various churches 
of that city. A large series of facsimiles of the latter had been kindly 
placed by him in the Museum of the Institute. 

At the close of the meeting, the Chamberlain of Bristol, accompanied 
by Mr. Pope, under whose direction the restoration of the Mayor's Chapel 
had been carried out, accompanied the members to that interesting building, 
to examine its architectural features, the curious sepulchral effigies, and 
pavement of decorative Spanish tiles, there preserved. 

In the afternoon, many of the members availed themselves of the 
permission liberally offered by William Miles, Esq., M.P., to visit his 
celebrated gallery of pictures at Leigh Court. Other parties visited 
Berkeley Castle, Bath, with its interesting vestiges of Roman times, or 
Thornbury, where every arrangement for their gratification had been most 
kindly made by MR. HOWARD. 

A conversazione took place in the evening at the Institution. The 
Chair was taken by the HON. W. Fox STRANGWAYS, in the absence of the 

A Memoir was read by MR. D. W. NASH, of Clifton, foreign Secretary 
of the Syro-Egyptian Society, on the Kassiteros of the Greeks, and the 
name Kassiterides applied to the British Islands. 

The next communication was made by MR. J. W. PAPWORTH, relating 
to surnames, with the intention of showing the common origin of many 
families, by the identity, or similarity of their armorial bearings, whilst 
their names are now seemingly quite distinct. The attention of the author 
had been called to this subject, in the course of preparing his " General 
Ordinary of British Armorials," as announced in a former Journal. 7 

A memoir on some public transactions in Bristol, in the reigns of 
Henry VI. and Edward IV. was then read by MR. TYSON, F.S.A., the 
results of his researches amongst the city archives. 


The meetings of sections were resumed this morning. In the Historical 
division the following subjects were brought forward : 

Observations on the connexion of Bristol with the party of De Montfort. 

" This useful work, the converse of publication, and Mr. Papworth only waits 

Burke's " Armory," is so arranged as to for sufficient encouragement from Subscri- 

supply by a simple reference the name to bers. His address is 14 A, Great Marl- 

wliich any coat belongs. It is ready for borough Street, London. 


The Descent of the Earldom of Gloucester, from Robert, natural son of 

In the section of Antiquities, the chair was taken by EDWARD 
HAWKINS, ESQ., and a communication was read, addressed by HENRY 
HARROD, ESQ , of Norwich, and accompanying a series of beautiful illumi- 
nated drawings, sent for exhibition by the kindness of DAWSON TURNER, ESQ. 
They represented ancient stained glass at Martham, near Yarmouth, with 
portions of the series, formerly at that place, which Mr. Harrod had 
succeeded in tracing to the adjacent church of Mulbarton. They had been 
removed by a former incumbent. MR. DAWSON TURNER sent also a drawing 
of a very singular Roman fictile vase, the neck having the form of a female 
head ; it was recently disinterred at Burgh Castle. 

PROFESSOR BUCKMAN gave an account of some very early sculptures, 
discovered at Daglingworth Church, Gloucestershire, and exhibited drawings. 

GEORGE ORMEROD, ESQ., D.C.L., of Sedbury Park, communicated a 
notice of the discovery of Roman remains near Chepstow, and of the 
vestiges of Roman occupation in that locality. He kindly presented to the 
society an altar, found in a tumulus on Tidenham Chase, and sent by him 
for exhibition in the Museum. 

A covered cup of crystal mounted with silver gilt, was exhibited to the 
meeting by Mr. QUICKE, of Bristol, who detailed the singular circumstances 
of its discovery in the cloisters of the church at Hill Court, Gloucestershire. 

MR. E. W. GODWIN gave a notice of a singular and ancient coffin-lid, in 
St. Philip's church, Bristol, ornamented at the side with circular inter- 
secting arches. It was supposed to be of the twelfth century. 

MR. DANIEL PARSONS laid before the meeting a collection of Heraldic 
book-plates, and offered some remarks on their introduction and early use. 

MR. FRANKS read some observations on Heraldic pavement tiles, existing ' 
in churches in Somersetshire, communicated to the Institute by MR. LEWIS 
WAY, and illustrated by numerous drawings. In connection with the same 
subject, Mr. Franks gave a notice of the unique pavement of Spanish tiles, 
properly designated as azuleios, existing in the Mayor's Chapel. They 
are enamelled in various colours, and closely resemble specimens brought 
from the Alcazar, at Seville. They appear to be of the times of the 
Emperor Charles V., and were probably procured by some Bristol merchant 
who traded with Spain. 

In the Architectural section, MR. MARKLAND again presided. MR. POPE 
stated some interesting facts regarding the former state of the Chapter 
House, in which the section was assembled ; he described the discovery of 
many curious interments, and vestiges of ancient date, during the removi 
of the old floor, and the arrangement of the room in its present state, 
gave also an account of certain remains of an earlier Norman nave, base! 
and plinths, brought to light, in the course of works under his direction, on 
the South side, within the walls of the cathedral. 

A memoir was then read by MR. JOHN BINDON, on the destroyed and 
desecrated ecclesiastical buildings in Bristol, as indicated on a map of the 
city which he had prepared, after careful research. He exhibited numerous 
sketches of the remains, which from time to time had been brought to 

MR. CHARLES WICKS, of Leicester, read some remarks on Church towers 
and spires, more especially as illustrated by those in Somersetshire, the 


towers of St. Mary Redcliffe, St. Stephen's, Bristol, with other examples. 
He exhibited a series of admirable drawings in illustration of his subject. 

The members of the Institute were received, in the afternoon, by the 
President, at his seat, at Blaize Castle, adjacent to the ancient fortified 
heights of Henbury. 

In the evening a conversazione was given by the Bristol Society of 
Architects, at their apartments in the curious ancient mansion in Small- 
street, known as " Colson's House." The majority of the members of the 
Institute, still remaining in Bristol, were present. The most friendly and 
gratifying feeling had been evinced by the Society on all occasions through- 
out the proceedings of the week. 


This day was devoted to an excursion to the Roman remains of Isca 
Silurum, the Institute having received a very cordial invitation from the 
Caerleon Antiquarian Association, conveyed by their President, SIR DIGBT 
MACKWOBTH, Bart, to attend their anniversary meeting at that place. A 
steamer conveyed the party to Chepstow, where they visited the Castle and 
Church, and proceeded by railway to Newport. Here they examined the 
curious Church of St. Wollos, a structure presenting several peculiarities. 
The nave is of Norman date, with a fine western door ; west of the nave, 
and uniting it to the Perpendicular tower, is a portion of an ancient structure, 
by some regarded as more ancient than the nave itself. They thence 
proceeded to Caerleon, and were welcomed by the members of the Mon- 
mouthshire Society, who conducted their visitors to the Museum, recently 
completed, in which, through the praiseworthy and indefatigable exertions 
of Mr. Lee, a large assemblage of local antiquities has already been 
arranged, with the happiest effect. The archaeologists then visited the 
Castle Mound and remains of the Roman Villa, discovered in the grounds 
of Mr. Jenkins, of which some notices were formerly given in the Journal 
(vol. vii., p. 97). Of this building great part has unfortunately been 
removed by the proprietor, but numerous objects of interest were brought 
to light during the excavations. They were then invited by Mr. Lee to 
his residence at the Priory, replete with objects of antiquarian interest, and 
where some valuable remarks on Monmouthshire Antiquities were offered 
by the Rev. J. M. Traherne. After examining the other objects of 
archaeological interest at Caerleon, the visitors were guided to the Roman 
Amphitheatre, commonly known as "Arthur's Round Table," in which 
hospitable entertainment had been provided by the members of the Caerleon 
Association. Sir Digby Mackworth took the chair, and the festivities of 
this gratifying reception passed in a manner highly agreeable to all who 
participated in them. Lord Talbot proposed the Health of the President 
and members of the Association, through whose kindness they had witnessed 
the interesting results of the archaeological movement in Monmouthshire. 
He commended warmly the benefits accruing from such local institutions, 
and the valuable efforts of an energetic and able antiquary, Mr. Lee, to 
whom antiquaries were chiefly indebted for the establishment of the Museum 
they had visited, and the preservation of a great number of ancient vestiges, 
of singular local interest, which must otherwise have been dispersed or 
destroyed. Sir Digby acknowledged the compliment, and proposed, 
Prosperity to the Institute, with the health of his noble and distinguished 


guests. Some of the members then visited Christ Church, and some other 
objects of architectural interest in the neighbourhood of Caerleon ; and in 
the evening, the party returned to Chepstow, and were safely landed at 
Bristol, after a day of very agreeable and social enjoyment. 


A meeting again took place at the Institution, LORD TALBOT in the 
Chair, when a paper was received from Mr. Tyson, regarding the ship called 
the " Nicholas of the Tower," mentioned in Hall's Chronicles and in the 
Fasten Letters, in connexion with the murder of the Duke of Suffolk in 
1450. Mr. Tyson believed that this ship belonged to the port of Bristol, 
and was named from the Tower which there stood on the quay fronting 
the river Frome. 

Two curious communications were made by MB. JOSEPH BURTT, regarding 
matters of local interest, detailed in certain documents which he had found in 
the Chapter House, Westminster. One of these related to a singular civic dis- 
sension, on the occasion of the election of a Mayor of Bristol, in the fifteenth 
century, which appeared to have escaped the researches of local historians. 
The other consisted of the petitions of the merchants, drapers, fishmongers, 
&c., of Bristol, in the reign of Henry VIII., against the establishment 
of a fair. From the allegations in these memorials, it appeared that the 
traders regarded this fair as an injurious interference with the regular and 
extensive inland traffic, by which Bristol had been able to disperse through 
the western counties, by the sole agency of the inhabitants, the rich 
produce imported by its merchants, 

CAPT. CHAPMAN, R.E., communicated some suggestions regarding the 
expediency of supplying a Map of British and Roman remains in the district 
surrounding Bath and Bristol. 

A letter was read from SIR THOMAS PHILLIPPS, BART., relating to the 
family of Rowley, and certain persons supposed to be connected with the 
person of that name, associated with the history of Chatterton. 

MR. CROCKER communicated a notice of the recent discovery of two 
stone spear-moulds in Devonshire, of a type hitherto unknown in England. 

At the close of these Proceedings Mr. YATES addressed the meeting, 
being desirous to invite the attention of the Society to the deficiency 
any public collection of casts from antique statues, and other objects 
value to those engaged in archaeological inquiries. He considered th 
the erection of the " Crystal Palace," and the accumulation of large func 
still unappropriated to any public purpose, afforded a most favourabl 
occasion for supplying this defect. Collections of this nature exist it 
most foreign capitals. The want of such a repository has been frequently 
lamented, not only by artists and scholars, whose attention is given to the 
examination of antique remains, but by many classes of manufacturers, 
whom such a series might prove of much practical value. MR. YATES 
suggested, accordingly, that a petition to Parliament, or a memorial, should 
be addressed on behalf of the Institute, in such manner as the Centr 
Committee should deem expedient, and proposed a resolution to authorise 
and request the Central Committee of the Society to use their be 
endeavours to prosecute this desirable object. 

LORD TALBOT DE MALAHIDE, assenting cordially to the suggestions 


made by Mr. Yates, submitted to tbe Meeting the proposed resolution, 
which was unanimously adopted ; and recommended that the subject should 
be referred to the Central Committee, requesting them to prosecute this 
object as they might find favourable occasions arise, for the achievement of 
a purpose so desirable for public gratification and instruction. 

The Architectural Section assembled in the Chapter House, and the 
Chair was taken by EDWARD FREEMAN, ESQ. MR. GEORGE PRTCE read 
a paper relating to the period of the erection of St. Mary Redcliffe church, 
and the persons by whom the various parts were built. He read also a 
memoir on examples of the early use of the pointed arch, in buildings 
existing in Bristol. 

MR. POPE laid before tbe meeting a plan of the vestiges of a Norman 
nave in Bristol Cathedral, the discovery of which had been related by him 
at a previous meeting of the section. 

MR. MOORE called the attention of the Society to the demolition of the 
ancient architectural features of Bridgwater Church, under the pretence of 
"Restorations." Mr. Freeman stated that he had used remonstrance in 
vain on this subject, and regretted to learn that the Somersetshire 
Archaeological Society had interfered, without any effect. 

The concluding meeting took place in the Guildhall at One o'Clock. 
The Chair was taken by the President, J. SCANDRETT HARFORD, ESQ., 
who communicated the letters which he had received from Lord Teignmouth, 
the Archdeacon of Bristol, Sir Thomas Acland, Col. Rawlinson, and other 
persons whose presence had been anticipated during the week, expressing 
their regret at having been unable to take part in the Proceedings. 

The Annual Reports of the Committee and of the Auditors were then 
submitted, and unanimously adopted. 

The following list of members of the Central Committee, retiring in 
usual course, and of members of the Society nominated to fill the 
vacancies, was then proposed to the meeting, and adopted. 

Members selected to retire ; The Earl of Enniskillen, Vice- President ; 
Henry Hallam, Esq. ; T. W. King, Esq. York Herald ; H. B. Lane, Esq. ; 
Rev. S. T. Rigaud ; Edward Smirke, Esq. ; and Sir Richard Westmacott. 
The following gentlemen being elected to supply the vacancies : The 
Lord Talbot de Malahide, Vice-President ; The Hon. W. Fox Strangways, 
M.A. ; W. J. Bernhard Smith, Esq., Barristcr-at-Law ; Joseph Burtt, 
Esq., Record Office, Chapter House, Westminster ; F. C. Penrose, Esq., 
M.A. ; Samuel Peace Pratt, Esq., F.R.S. ; and Anthony Salvin, Esq., 

The following gentlemen were then unanimously elected as Auditors, 
for the year 1851 : Charles Desborough Bedford, Esq., Doctors' 
Commons ; Edmund Oldfield, Esq., British Museum. 

The occasion having now arrived to determine the place of meeting 
for the ensuing year, 

THE PRESIDENT stated, that the Institute had received several very 
cordial invitations from various parts of the Kingdom, especially from 
Lichfield ; from the Archaeological Institute of Suffolk ; and from New- 
castle. The central committee wished to recommend to the Society the 
place last mentioned. It was accordingly resolved, that the meeting of the 
following year should take place at Newcastle ; it was also proposed by 
Lord Talbot, seconded by Mr. Hawkins, and carried by acclamation, that 
His Grace the DDKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND, Patron of the Society of 


Antiquaries of that place, and from whose kindness the Institute had 
repeatedly met with the most gratifying encouragement and support, should 
be requested to honour the Society by officiating as President at their next 

The customary expressions of thanks were then moved, to those distin- 
guished persons and public Institutions, by whose friendly assistance the 
proceedings of the society had been aided and encouraged. 

LORD TALBOT proposed a vote of thanks to the Mayor and Corporation, 
by whose kindness the Guildhall and Council House had been placed at 
the disposal of the Institute ; alluding, likewise, especially to the unusual 
demonstration which had given so much gratification at the commence- 
ment of the week, in the display of all the ancient municipal treasures. 

MB. YATES proposed thanks to the British Philosophical Institution, and 
to Mr. Nash Sanders, for that cordial welcome which had been so liberally 
shown, and essentially promoted the success of their proceedings. 

MB. FREEMAN moved a suitable acknowledgment to the Dean and 
Chapter ; to the Bristol Academy of Fine Arts ; the Bristol Society of 
Architects ; and various local Institutions, by whose kindness the gratifi- 
cation of the society had been enhanced. 

LORD TALBOT proposed a resolution, acknowledging the courtesies and 
hospitality shown to the Institute by the Dean of Wells, by Sir Digby Mack- 
worth and the Caerleon Society, who had most kindly invited the society 
to Monmouthshire, by those noblemen and gentlemen, especially naming 
Mr. Miles, of Leigh Court, whose friendly consideration towards the Society 
claimed their most cordial thanks. 

Similar acknowledgments were also moved, expressive of the feeling 
entertained by the Society for facilities liberally afforded in the arrangement 
of the museum, at the Bishop's College ; and for the kindness shown by the 
numerous contributors to that collection. Thanks were proposed to the 
local committee, and especially to the Town Clerk, Daniel Burges, Esq., 
and the local secretary of the Institute, William Tyson, Esq. 

These votes having been severally proposed from the chair, and most 
cordially carried, LORD TALBOT moved the hearty expression of the thanks 
of the Institute to the President, whose kind efforts and considerate atten- 
tion had ensured the successful voice of the meeting, held under his 
auspices. The vote was seconded by Mr. Hawkins, and carried by 

The following Donations were received, in aid of the expenses of the 
Bristol meeting: J. S. Harford, Esq., President, 101. ; the Mayor of 
Bristol, 51 5s. ; R. P. King, Esq., 21. 2s. ; Frederic Ouvry, Esq., 51. ; 
A. H. Palmer, Esq., II. Is. ; Dr. Symonds, 21. 2s.; William Salt, Esq., 
51. ; Rev. G. M. Traherne, 21. ; W. M. Gore Langton, Esq., 21. 2s. ; 
Robert Bright, Esq., 21. 2s. ; Albert Way, Esq., 21. ; Henry G. Tomkins, 
Esq., 21 2s. 

A strong desire having been expressed by many members of the Institute 
that the series of annual volumes should not be interrupted, it is proposed 
to carry out the publication of the transactions of the Bristol Meeting by a 
separate subscription, as in the case of the Salisbury Volume, now ready 
for delivery. Members who desire to encourage this publication are 
requested to send their names, at their earliest convenience, to the 
Secretary, at the apartments of the Institute, 26, Suffolk-street. 

Notices of Archaeological publications. 

NINEVEH AND PERSEPOLIS : an Historical Sketch of Ancient Assyria and 
Persia : with an Account of the recent Researches in those countries. By 
W. S. W. VAUX, M.A. Third Edition. 

THE attractive little volume produced by Mr. Vaux may, very probably, 
be already known to many readers of the Journal. It has effected much 
towards inviting public attention to the interest of those precious acqui- 
sitions which have been secured for the National Depository. The appre- 
ciation of these remarkable remains has thus been extended ; and, whilst 
more recent discoveries have augmented, in a very important degree, 
the evidences regarding the ancient History of Assyria, rescued from 
oblivion in so remarkable a manner, the useful treatise before us still 
presents, as we believe, the best and most comprehensive guide which we 
can commend to the notice of our readers. 

The object of this work is to lay before those who may have little time 
for deep research, the general results of the labours of several remarkable 
travellers in the East, and more particularly in Western Persia and 
Mesopotamia. With this view the author has separated what seemed to 
bear most directly on the subject from the more elaborate volumes of 
Chardin, Niebuhr, Morier, Ker Porter, and Rich, and has endeavoured to 
bring down the history of the discoveries, and of the discoverers, to the 
time of the publication of volumes lately put forth by M. Botta and 
Mr. Layard, and which contain the narrative of the most important inves- 
tigations of ancient monuments which have taken place in the East. The 
author, however, appears to have felt that, if his compilation was confined 
to a simple account of the travellers themselves, there would still be a 
considerable want unsupplied viz., of a succinct statement of what is 
generally known of the history of those countries previous to the arrival of 
the travellers, to whom modern students are somewhat indebted. He has 
therefore added to his account of the discoveries a concise sketch of the 
history of the countries from which the most curious monuments have been 
brought, or in which they still remain. His object has been, generally, to 
elucidate two main points : first, The History of Assyria and Persia, and, 
as connected with it, that of the Medes, the Jews, and the Chaldees, so far 
as it can be ascertained from the Bible and the works of classified authors ; 
and, secondly, to give the results of those modern inquiries which have 
been carried on by European travellers. In the first part, an outline is 
given of those empires from the earliest notices in the Sacred writings, 
down to the time of their decay at the commencement of the historical and 
classical age ; in this the changes which have taken place are stated, and 
the order in which the different empires succeeded each other, are laid 
before the reader. From the commencement of the classical times some 
account is given of the state of those countries subsequent to the rise of 
Muhammed, and the entire extinction of their ancient records, owing to 
the conduct and peculiar principles of the Mussulman conquerors. The 
author considers that such a sketch may be found of some use, from the 
additional facility which it will give to the student of the later discoveries ; 
at the same time that he hopes, by this means, that such students will 


approach the subjects of their investigation with greater interest as it may 
confidently be anticipated ; while, such an outline may prove not devoid of 
amusement to those who have not time for the more laborious task of 
separate investigation. 

One thing, at all events, the author hopes that he will have succeeded 
in showing the labours with which the travellers have had to contend, 
and the slender aid which they have received from those in their own 
countries, who might naturally have been expected to have co-operated most 
warmly and most readily with them in his own words, he states that " It 
will at least give the reader some idea of the nature of the countries 
themselves, and some insight into the physical difficulties with which the 
travellers have had to contend in their adventurous career. It may serve 
to elevate their labours to a higher place in the estimation of the public, 
and to show that such pursuits may have a value in themselves which well 
deserves the honour they have at all times received from men of science and 
letters. It will, moreover, show with what rare exceptions the results of 
such exertions have been due to anything but individual enterprise and 
exertion, and how seldom the nations, which have reaped the fruit of such 
inquiries, have in any way contributed to their advancement or success." 

In pursuance of his scheme, the author gives, first, a sketch of the early 
history of Assyria, and mentions all that is known about Nimrod from the 
Bible and profane tradition ; showing that there is some ground for 
imagining that he is typified under the Greek name Ninus ; that the legendary 
stories of the latter apply really to the former ; and that we may infer, 
from the prominence given to his name in the brief and scanty historical 
record of Holy Scripture, that he was in his days an illustrious chieftain. 
The position, and probable extent of his empire, are then discussed, and 
the natural reasons for the early celebrity of Babylon, and of the long 
permanence of her name and power, are deduced from the character and 
energy of her people, and her peculiar geological and geographical position. 
Some remarks are, at the same time, offered on the relation of Babylon and 
Nineveh to one another, as regards their size and their importance ; and 
reasons are given why Nineveh, though so great a city, was probably never 
at any time so celebrated, or so mighty as its sister, Babylon. From this 
slight sketch of early Assyrian history our author proceeds to develope 
that of the early Jewish people, and of the trade established in Judea 
during the prosperous reign of Solomon ; and then continues his historical 
narrative through the better-known reigns of Tiglath Pileser, Shalmaneser, 
and Sennacherib, till he comes to the final overthrow of Nineveh, and the 
union of all Mesopotamia, Western Asia, and Syria, under the hand of 
Nebuchadnezzar. Under the reign of Nebuchadnezzar the author makes 
a digression, in order to take in the history of the Chaldeans, ancient and 
modern, and with a view of putting together all that is known about them. 
He appears to have been induced to do so mainly from the interest which has 
been lately laid round them ; first, by Dr. Grant's book on the Nestorians, 
in which he claims the modern inhabitants of the mountains of Kurdistan 
as the descendants of the lost Ten Tribes : and, secondly, by the accounts 
of the visits lately paid to these tribes by Mr. Ainsworth and Mr. Layard. 
Our author differs entirely from Dr. Grant's views, which he considers at 
once hasty and unsupported by any reasonable evidence ; and concludes, 
with the latest travellers, that they are an original race, who, once 
occupying both mountain and plain, have since retreated to their native 


fastnesses, as their only safeguard, and that to a hardly effectual one, against 
the craft of the Persians and the tyranny and bigotry of the Turks. The 
author then proceeds to narrate the different accounts of the taking of 
Babylon ; and, in his remarks on Cyrus, and the curious fact that though 
the most distinguished of the ancient Persians, we have no satisfactory 
account of his ultimate fate ; he points out the real value of early Persian 
history, and how little really satisfactory historical truth can be extracted 
from the mass of fables and legendary tales with which its history is so 
full. With a short notice of Zoroaster, who has been generally supposed to 
have lived during the reign of Darius the son of Hystaspes, our author gives 
a rapid sketch of the chief characters who appear upon the field of Oriental 
history Darius, Xerxes, Alexander the Great, and the Greek Empire 
of the Seleucidse in Syria and Western Asia ; and then, with a passing 
allusion to the Roman invasion of Asia, and the gallant resistance made by 
the Arsacidse, he comes to the rise of the first strictly Oriental Empire, in 
the successes of Ardeshir, the son of Babegan, the founder of the House of 
Sassan. To this portion of the history, no less from its intrinsic interest 
and value, than from the fact, that during the maintenance of power by this 
family many of the finest works of art, still remaining in Persia, were 
executed, our author has been induced to devote a considerable portion of 
his limited time and space. On the decline of the Empire of the Sassanidse, 
we have the rise pointed out of the Mohamedan power, and a sketch is 
given of the history of the principal chieftains and conquerors whose arms 
won for the disciples of Muhammed the empire of central Western Asia 
the conquests of Mahmud of Ghazna and Timur are especially dilated on, 
and the latter is shown to have been much more than the mere ruthless 
destroyer of life and property which he has been too generally, and too 
hastily esteemed. From the death of Timur, the history of Persia and 
indeed of Western Asia, presents few features of any peculiar interest, and 
our author therefore passes almost immediately to the second division of 
his work the account of the travellers themselves who have, in modern 
times, made Eastern lands the subject of their investigations. 

" The commencement of Travels in the East " was, as our author has 
stated " mainly due to the natural wish of Christians to visit scenes which 
had been consecrated by the sufferings and death of their Lord " and 
hence. Pilgrimages to the Holy Sepulchre were the first instances of travels 
properly so called. Hence even in very early times we hear of long 
journeys performed for this holy purpose, and the names of Arculf, Willi- 
bald, Bernard the Wise, and Szewulf, are well known to those who have 
studied the History of Europe before the commencement of the middle 
ages. As time went on, travellers of a different description are met with ; 
and the journeys of Benjamin of Tudela, Marco Polo, and Maundeville, bear 
some resemblance to the more scientific expeditions of late times. From 
the return of the last of these travellers there seems to have been a 
cessation of such journeys, till, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, we hear of 
one John Eldred, an English merchant, who left England for Tripoli in 
1583, and who was one of the earliest, if not the earliest modern, 
who mentions having himself beheld what was called the Tower of Babel. 
Eldred was followed by many others, travellers of more or less note, Pietro 
della Valle, Emanuel de St. Albert, Chardin, Lebrun, and others, till at 
length Niebuhr, the father of the celebrated historian, visited Babylon in 
1765, and has left an excellent description of what be saw there and 



at Persepolis, in his account of his Voyages in Arabia. Finally, Ker 
Porter, Morier, and Rich, investigated Babylon and Persepolis, leaving little 
for subsequent travellers but to confirm their accuracy. While M. Botta, 
at Khorsabad, and Mr. Layard, at Nimroud, and in its neighbourhood, have 
succeeded in making excavations, and bringing monuments of Assyrian art 
and history to light, such as the earlier travellers in those countries had no 
idea still existed under the soil they had trodden unconsciously. 

Our author has drawn from these different sources a complete account of 
three great cities, at Babylon, Nineveh, and Persepolis ; and has endeavoured 
to tell the story of the late discoveries in the very words and language of the 
discoverers themselves. He has appended a full and interesting account of 
the progress which has been made in the discovery of the interpretation of 
the Cuneiform characters, in which the national records of Western Asia 
were kept since the time of Darius Hystaspes, to the establishment of the 
Sassanian empire, in the third century of our era together with consider- 
able extracts from papers written by Major Rawlinson, and published in the 
Journals of the Royal Asiatic and Geographical Societies. He has in this 
way been enabled to lay before the public much of the history of these 
discoveries, which had not hitherto been known beyond the few readers of 
those journals, or the members of those societies ; and has been able 
to show what a deep debt of gratitude the lovers of Eastern literature owe 
to that distinguished scholar, for the indefatigable exertions he has made 
in unravelling the ancient records of the Persian nation. 

jftltscdlaneous Notices. 

We regret to be compelled to defer to a future Journal reports of Pro- 
ceedings of several kindred societies, to which we had hoped to invite 
attention. Several recent publications of importance are also unavoidably 
reserved for notice hereafter. 

It is gratifying to learn that the investigation at Cirencester, where such 
remarkable vestiges of the Roman Period were brought to light, through 
the active researches of Mr. Newmarch and Professor Buckman, have been 
resumed, with the fullest promise of success, under their direction. The 
funds available are inadequate to the undertaking : any contributions in 
aid of the enterprise will be thankfully received. The object deserves the 
liberal co-operation of archaeologists. 

Amongst the sites of Roman occupation, Aldborough (Isurium Bri- 
gantum) has presented a field of singular interest, known doubtless to 
many readers, who may have enriched their collections with the beautiful 
chromo-lithographs produced through the spirited exertions of Mr. Ecroyd 
Smith. He has announced the publication (by subscription) of the " Reli- 
quiae Isurianse," amply illustrated, and which will form a valuable mono- 
graph. Antiquaries desirous of encouraging the undertaking should 
address the author, at 20, Old Bond-street, London. 

The completion of the TRANSACTIONS of the SALISBURY MEETING has 
been announced by the publisher, Mr. Bell, 186, Fleet-street. Members 
of the Institute who desire to continue the series of annual volumes, may 
now obtain this, the Fifth, comprising some highly interesting Memoirs. 
It may be obtained through any bookseller. 

DECEMBER, 1851. 


THE county of Lincoln presents to the antiquary a rich 
field of inquiry in its numerous vestiges of the early 
inhabitants of Britain, not less deserving of careful attention 
than the ancient remains in the southern counties. Whilst, 
however, the tumuli and earthworks of Wiltshire and other 
localities in the south have been examined with scientific 
care, and the remarkable interments of the Saxon period on 
the Kentish Downs are comparatively well known, through 
the investigations and the writings of some of our most 
able antiquaries, scarcely any inquiry has been directed to 
the numerous traces of those primeval tribes, by whom 
the north-eastern parts of our island were occupied, or any 
notice given of such peculiar features and characteristic 
appearances as may serve to throw light upon the most 
obscure period of our history. 

The plough has levelled many tumuli, without affording 
any opportunity for scientific observation, and no record of 
the evidence which might thence have been adduced, has 
been preserved. It is only by tracing the relics of primeval 
manufacture in clay or stone, as well as bronze, throughout 
the various counties of England, and by the careful com- 
parison of the Celtic remains in Wiltshire and Dorset with 
those discovered in the more northern counties, that archae- 
ologists can expect to arrive at any certain classification of 
the vestiges of those tribes by whom these islands were suc- 
cessively inhabited, or in any degree to disperse the obscurity 
in which their history and customs are involved. The 



following notes have been made, during the recent examina- 
tion of an interesting group of barrows in the northern parts 
of the county of Lincoln, in the parish of Broughton, a place 
already known to the readers of the Journal by the curious 
manorial service of the " gad- whip," connected with lands 
there situated, and first brought under the notice of the 
Institute through the kindness of Mr. Joseph Moore, of 
Lincoln. 1 We are again indebted to that gentleman for 
directing the excavations of which the results are here 
recorded, with the hope that his example and lively interest 
in the investigation of local antiquities may encourage others 
to prosecute similar researches. 

If any peculiarities here noticed, differing from details 
hitherto observed in early sepulchral deposits of other 
localities, should be recognised as contributing any fresh