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9lrcl[)aeological S^ournaL 




Ef^t archaeological Enstttute of ©teat 13titain antj IrelantJ, 




EJe (lEHarlu anti fHititile Sges. 






The Ckxtkal Committee of the AncnAKoLooicAL Ikstitute desire that it should 
be distinctly understood that they ai'e not responsible for any statements or opinions 
expressed in the Archaeological Journal, the authors of the several memoirs and 
communications being alone answerable for the same. 

i ^ \:r.zi<w 


Notice of a Remarkable Monumental Effigy in the Public Library at Zurich. 

From Facts and Drawings communicated by Dr. Ferdinand Keller, Hon. 

F.S.A., Hon. Foreign Correspondent Arch. Inst ...... 1 

Notices of Collections of Glyptic Art exhibited by the Arch?oological Institute, 

June, 1S61 (The Arundel Collection). By the Rev. C.W.King, M.A. 

(Continued from Vol. XYIU., V- ^^--^ 9,^9 

On a Diminutive EfBgy of a Bishop at Abbey Dore, Herefordshire. By W. S. 
Walford, F.S.A. The accompanying illustration engraved from a draw- 
ing by Mr. Blore has been kindly presented by him to the Institute . . 24 

The History and Charters of Ingulfus considered. By Henry Thomas Riley, 

M.A., Cambridge . . . 32, 114 

Traces of History and Ethnology in the Local Names of Gloucestershire. By 

the Rev. John Earle, M.A. {Continued front FoZ. XVIII., p. 353.) . . 50 

Notice of some Examples of Buff Armour and of Defences formed with Scales 

of Leather or of Plate. By John Hewitt. 93 

On the Effigies and Monumental Remains in Peterborough Cathedral. By 

Matthew Holbeche Bloxam 134 

Noticed of a Jeweled Ornament pi-esented to Queen Elizabeth by Matthew 

Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury. By Albert Way, M. A., F.S.A. . 146 

On the English Conquest of the Severn Valley. By Edwin Guest, LL.D., 
Master of Gonvil and Caius College. Accompanied by a Map kindly pre- 
sented by the author 193 



Ai-chaeological Notea made diuiug a Tour iu Western Germany auJ France. 

By J. O. Westwood, M.A., F.L.S. {Continued f rum Vol. XVllI., p. 225.; 21<> 
The Cathedral, Diocese, and Monasteries of Worcester in the Eighth Ceutuiy. 

By the Kev. William SrcBBS, M.A 236 

Notice of a Die for striking Helvetian or Gaulish Gold Coins; found at 

Aveuches in Sivitzerlaud. By Dr. Ferdinand Kellek, Hon. Corr. Arch. 

I"st 253 

The Royal Councils of Worcester. I'.y the Rev. Chaiu.i:s Heniit Hauts- 

uou.sE, M..\ 303 

Contributions towards the History of Mediaeval Weapons and Military 

Appliances in Europe. By John Hewitt 3H 

On Niello: a Discourse delivered at the Special Exhibition of Works ui 

Niello and Enamel, June, 1SC2. By Edmuxd Wateuton, K.M., K. Cli., 

F.SA 303 

Notes on the Manufacture of Forceluiu at Chelsea. By Augustus W. Franks, 

M.A., Dir. S.A 340 

Original Documents: — 

Extracts from the Pipe Roll of the Exchequer, 27 Edw. 111. relating to 
the early uso of Guns and Gunpowder iu the Euglisli Army. By 
Joseph Burtt, Assistant Keeper of the Public Records ... 08 

The Armour and Arms belonging to Henry Euwet, Archbishop of York, 
deceased iu l'i23; from the Hull of his Executors' Accounts. By 
Albert Wav, M.A., F.S.A 151) 

On the 'i'reatise entitled "Modus teuendi Parliameulum,' witii especial 
Reference to the iiniquo Fnuth Version belonging to the Earl of 
Winchelsea. By Tuu.mas 1Jliki8 Haiujv, Diputy Knicr uf the 

Public Records 2.'jy 

Notices of u Register of the Act'* of Juim de Itutlierwyki', Abbot of 
Clicrtsey iu the Reigns of Edwaid II. and Eilward ill., in pus.session 

of the Lord Clikkoud 350 

i'rorei'Uiigs at Mci-tings of the Arcliicological Institute: — December, 18G1, to 

July, 18C2, iuclujiivo Tli, ltJ7, 275, 357 



Annual London Meeting and Abstract of Accounts audited May 3, 1862 . . 189 
Annual Meeting at Worcester .......... 370 

N0TICE.S OF Arch.i:ological Publications: — 

Isca Silurum, an Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum at Caerleon. By 

John Edward Lee, F.S.A 302 

archieological intelligence 191, 402 



Sepulchral EflBgy at Zurich, as supposed, of Waliher von Altenklingen To fuce 2 

Details of Anaour, from the same. (Two woodcuts.) ... 5 

Dagger, from ditto ....... . . tJ 

Achievement of the Von Klingen Family ........ 7 

Diminutive Effigy of a Bishop at Ahbey Dore. From a drawing by Mr. Blorp, 

by whom this illustration is kindly presented ... To face 24 

Bronze Helmet found in the Tigris ......... 77 

Incised Marking on one of the Stones at Stonehenge . . . 7S 

Ditto ditto 79 

Bronze Weight obtained at Croyland. This woodcut is presented by Deriuh 

Botfield, Esq., SI.P 82 

Stone Hammer-head found near Corwen, Merionethshire. Tiiis illustration is 

contributed by the Rev. C. L. Barnwell ....... 03 

Vambrace of buff Leather 93 

Buff leather Gauntlet, nnd Glove of Scale work. (Two woodcut-*.) . IH 

niuBtrations of Scale Arniour. (Two woodcuts.) 95 

Penny-plate Armour ..... ...... 9'j 

Brigandiue Ann ur. (Two woodoi.t=.) . . . . . . . . 97 

Ditto . 98 

Jeweled OniuiniiL j n.-Luid II. ij.liu Elizabeth by Mattlicw Parker. (Three 

woodcuts.) .......... To face liG 

Diagram, showing form of inscribed Parchment with ditto .151 

Jeweled Ornament or Amulet at Zurich . . . . . I.')7 

Plan and Sections of a Shaft, auppo.'^ed to be Koman, at Lincoln. (Three wood- 
cuts.) ........... To face 171 

Jeweled Ring found in London .172 

Ovoid Urn found in Devon .177 

Diminutive Urn found in Sussex 185 

Pendent Ornamont of Vitrified Paste found ii^BuHJiox . .180 

Map illuh'TAtive of the English Conquest of the Severn Valley. ricHoniod moat 
kindly by Dr. Quotit, the author of the Memoir which it accompanies 

To faco 1 98 ^ 



Part of an Ivory Tablet in the Public Library at Frankfort .... 229 

Sculptured Ivory, Darm.stadt Museum 234 

Die for striking Gaulish Gold Coins. (Three woodcuts.) 255 

Enameled Fibular found at Lincoln. (Three woodcuts.) 278 

Roman Enameled Ornaments found in England. (Seven woodcuts.) To face 279 - 

Enameled Fibula found in Gloucestershire. (Two woodcuts.) . . 279 

Irish Enameled Ornament ........... 280 

Enameled Shrine found in Cheshire ...... To face 282 ^ 

Enameled Ornament with Coats of Arm^. (Two woodcuts.) . . . . 2b7 

Enameled Candlestick, of English work To face 291 / 

Figure of a Soldier with the " Goedeudag." ........ 314 

Sabre with Finger-guard in the Armory at Woolwich To face 318. 

Sabre in an Engraving on the Suit of Henry VIII. Tower Armory. . . 321 

Inscription on a Ring from Sardinia ...,...., 325 

Goldsmith's Work enriched with Niello. (Six woodcuts.) . . To face 326 v^ 
Super-altar, enriched with Niello, in possession of the Very Rev. Canon Rock. 
(Two _woodcuts.) For these and another illustration here given the 

Institute is indebted to the kindnsss of Mr. Parker , . .To face 330 '^ 

Gold Ring enriched with Niello 332 

Ditto ditto 3-36 

Irish Ornament enriched with Niello. This illustration is kindly contributed 

by the Royal Irish Academy, through Mr. E. Clibbron. .... 339 

Chelsea Cream-jug. (Bandinel Collection.) Contributed by Mr. Murray . . 344 

Peculiar Mark of the Chelsea Manufacture ibid. 

Weapons of Bronze and Iron found at Ditton, Sun-ey. (Three woodcuts.) 

To face 364^ 

Urn found at March, Isle of Ely ihid. 


Page 8. The example of an escutcheon affixed to the camail, as representetl on a 
tnonuinental effipy in this country, occurs on one of the sepulchral figures in Ashborne 
Church, Derhvhhire. This sculpture is said to portray Edmund Cockaine, temp. 
Henry IV. It is figured in the Journal of the Brit. Archajol. Association, vol. vii. 
p. 375. We are indebted to ^Ir. Blore for the information that another illustration of 
the fashion of attaching such an escutcheon to the camail is to be seen in the church of 
Penmen in Anglesea. 

Page 24. In the memoir on a diminutive effigy of a bishop at Alihey Dore, we neg- 
lected to express acknowledgment of the renewed mark of Mr. Blore's kind and lil>eral 
encouragement of this Journal. The woodcnt, prepared from Mr. Blore's drawing 
executed on the spot, has been presented by him to the Institute. 

Page 79, line 2, after "January," add "3rd." 

Page 79. See in Gent. Mag., Jan. 1797, p. 75, a detailed account of the fall of one of 
the trilithons at Stonehenge, to which allusion is here made. It was that most westerly 
in the group, and for some time previously the uprights had taken an oblique inclination : 
the fall occurred on Jan. 3, in the year above mentioned, and was supposed to have been 
caused by a rapid thaw .succeeding an unusually severe frost. 

Page 90. The interesting memoir by Capt. Windus, F.S.A., here briefly mentioned, 
has been published subsequently in the Journal of the United Service Institution : an 
abstract of the curious particulars narrated may also be found in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries, Second Series, vol. i. p. 347. 

Page 1 82. The interesting Roman relics found in Leicestershire, as here related, have 
subsequently been descril>ed by Mr. Thompson and figured in the Tran.sactions of th ire Architectural and Archfcologiail Society, vol. i. part i. p. 74. 

Page 282. In the account of an enameled .shrine in possession of Sir Philip de l^falpas 
Grey Kgerton, for "Toddcnshaw II.-ill," read " Iddenshaw." It wa.s found in draining a 
pit which had become filled with water. It is figured in Bouti'll's ^Manu;U of Archaeology. 




Choir (a) . . c. 1200 

B. Traiiflcpt . c. 12'J0 

N.Transoptnnii ) 

Cbaptcrllousoc. 12-10) 

Nnvo . . c. 1250 I 

West Front . o. 1275 

lAtly Chiipcl (u) c. 1300 ) 
rroabyUry (o) c. laasf 

Kig. I. lilaturlcal riuu of Mubflold Cutlicdrul. 


Ef}e ^rcfjaeoloQical Sournal. 

MARCH, 1862. 


From facts communicated br Dr. FERDINAND KELLER, 

President of the Society of Autiquarieis of Zurich. Hou, K.S.A., Hou. Foreigfn Correspoudont 

of the Archaeological lustitute. 

Amongst many noble families whose names occur in the 
chronicles of the middle ages in Thm*govia, now the 
Cantons of Thiirgau and Zurich, one of the most" ancient 
and remarkable is that of the Barons von Klingen.^ At as 
early a period as the tenth century we find St. Wiborada, 
who dwelt many years, as it is stated, in the neighbour- 
hood of St. Gall, as an anchorite or reckise {incliisa), and 
who finally perished by the sword of the Hungarian invader 
in May, a. d. 925 : she appears to have borne the patro- 
nymic of Klingen. The family became numerous and of 
considerable note in the thirteenth centur^^. and was divided 
into several branches ; they enjoyed rich possessions situ- 
ated between Constance and the Black Forest in Aargovia, 
and in the plain of Baar in Swabia, being connected 
by marriage and friendship with the most powerful of 
their neighbours. In the year 1200 Henry von Klingen 
was elected abbot of the great monastery of St. Gall, to 
which history records that he was a benefactor ; he was a 
faithful and valiant partizan of Philip of Swabia, in his con- 
test with Otlio of Brunswick for the crowns of Germany and 

• See in regard to this family Mone'a and the Regesta of the Archives of the 
Journal, vol. i. p. 455; vol. ii. p. 214; Swiss Confederation, vol. ii. Convents of 
Wackernagel, Waltber dc Klingen, 1S45 ; Thurgovia. 



A generation later, to the two ancient residences {Iler- 
rensitze), where the f^imily von KHngcn was seated, namely, 
Altcnkliugen, between Constance and Wyl, a small town in 
the Canton of St. Gall, and the castle of Hohenklingen, 
near Stein, situated on the Rhine at the extremity of the 
Lake of Constance, a third dwelling-place was added. Herr 
Ulrich von Klingen founded, in the year 1240, the castle 
and town of Klingnau on the Aar, having obtained the site 
by exchange Avith the convent of St. Blaise for other lands. 
Ulrich died about 1251, leaving by his wife Ita three sons, 
Ulrich, Walther, and Ulrich-Walther. The three brothers 
united, ^larch 1, 1254, in gi-anting a large extent of land to 
the convent of nuns of the Cistercian order at Fcldbach, 
near Steckborn. The elder son, Walther von Klingen, is 
well known in history as the troubadour {M'uincsdmicr), the 
poet friend of liodolph of Ilapsbourg, lie died in the year 
1285. In 1273 he had founded at Basle the convent of 
nims called Klingenthal. 

In bringing under the notice of English antiquaries the 
remarkable sepulchral portraiture of a knightly personage 
of this noble house, these liistorical details may, I hope, 
not prove unacceptable. There may doubtless be Ibund 
members of the Archaeological Institute amongst numerous 
visitors of the picturesque sites in the Swiss Cantons, — the 
convents and castles fraught Avith stirring memories of 
bygone times and deeds of valor, whose attention may be 
arrested in their summer tours by the vestiges and historical 
traditions associated with one of the most powerful ancient 
families in Thurgovia. 

The efligy — of which a faithful representation, engraved 
from a drawing by llerr Grafter, Avhose pencil has for 
several years been cngageil in the service of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Ziu'ich, accompanies this notice — formerly 
existed in the conventual church of Fcldbach. As an cx- 
am})lc f>f monumental sculpture, and as a vciy^ curious illus- 
tration of militai-y costume, dilVciing in many respects from 
the customary cpiipmcnt of the warlike baron in j^ngland, 
France, or Italy, in the fotutegnth century, this curious 
figure will not prove unwclcoine, it is hoped, to the readers 
of the Archa.'()lo<rical Joiuiial, amon<rst whom nuist, doubt- 
less, be found some who take interest in details of arms and 
armour, and recognise the value of careful comj)arison of 

Sepulchral Effigy, as supposed, of Walther von Alteaklinj^en, date about a.d. 1400. 
Ill tho Wasscrkircbc, now the rublic Library at Ziiricli. 


media3val costume in various countries of Euroi^e, as an 
auxiliary in the investigation of Art. 

The Cistercian convent of Feldbach appears in some 
manner to have been under the patronage of the family von 
Klingen. In the year 12.52 the nuns of Constance, desig- 
nated "de Ponte," removed to that place, ^Yhere they had 
purchased the estate of a certain knight, Cuno von Feldbach, 
vassal of the lords von Klingen, with whose sanction also 
they there established themselves. Thus arose the con- 
ventual house which thenceforward appears to have enjoyed 
the favor of the family. The site is an agreeable one on 
the left shore of the lake of Constance, or rather the 
Unterscc, as the lower part of the lake is termed, on a 
promontory covered with vineyards and cultivation ; the 
convent stood close to the shore, at a short distance from 
the small town of Steckborn. During the lleformation the 
nuns quitted the convent, but they resumed possession after 
the unfortunate issue of the battle of Cappel, in 1.53 J, and 
remained in undisturbed enjoyment until the year 1848, 
when their possessions were sequestrated, and the convent 
was suppressed. The buildings subsequently became ^^rivate 
property, and the society of antiquaries of Zurich, in 1857, 
solicited the authorities of Thurgovia to permit the removal 
to Zurich of the sepulchral memorial which is the subject of 
the present memoir, in order to ensure the preservation of so 
remarkable a sculpture. It may now be seen, placed in an 
erect position, near the entrance door on the ground floor 
of the building appropriated to the Public Library of the city 
of Zurich. 

As no inscription accompanies this efSgy, some difficulty 
occurs in identifying the personage commemorated. The 
tradition Avhicli formerly assigned the tomb to Cuno von 
Feldbach, who lived in the thirteenth century, is obviousl}'- 
erroneous, since the arms upon the shield at the left side of 
the figure are, as hereafter shown, those of Klingen. The 
costume, moreover, would indicate the fourteenth century as 
the date of the memorial ; it may pourtray Walther von 
Altenklingen, whose name occurs on July 20, 1391, in the 
history of the convent of Feldbach, in connexion with certain 
payments to be made by him to the nuns. The conventual 
church consisted of three aisles of nearly equal width, the cen- 
tral aisle having a polygonal prolongation eastward, in which 


the higli altar M-as placed ; the tomb Avas formed in the wall 
which separated the chuir from the south aisle, namely, on 
the left iiaiid in approaching the altar placed at the eastern 
extremity of the aisle. It is possible that the deceased, in 
selecting this as the place of his sepulture, may have founded 
a chantry, or bequeathed some endowment for services for 
the repose of his soul. 

We will now, however, proceed to examine the peculiari- 
ties of military costume by which this effigy, the dimensions 
of which are rather more than life-size, is characterised. 
It is sculptured, somcAvhat rudely, in a coarse-grained sand- 
stone ; the knightly figure measures in height, the lofty- 
peaked helm included, nearly eight feet. The })roportions of 
the figure arc im})erfectly preserved, the neck and shoulders 
especially being exaggerated in size, whilst the lower 
extremities are disproportionately small, as if the sculptor, 
having first elaborated the upper portion, had found the 
block of stone insufficient in dimensions to complete his 
work on the same scale. The gauntletcd hands more par- 
ticularly are of unnatural size, whilst the feet, with long- 
])eaked toes d poula'nics, are proportionabl}- diminutive. 
The figure presents, however, with sufliciont accuracy, 
several curious features of costume, which form its chief 
interest to the antiquary'. The head is protected by a 
large, lofty-peaked, visored bacinet, with a camail ; in order 
to show the features, however, the sculptor has ingeniously 
had recourse to the expedient of representing the visor as 
removed from the bacinet, and placed at the right side of 
the pillow, now in great part cut away, on which the head 
of tlie effigy rests. The form of this curious visor will be 
better understood by the annexed rei)resentation, as it is 
seen in profile, with another, as viewed from above ; in 
these tlie ocff/arinm or aperture for sight, the head of the 
wearer being lowered so as to bring his adversary into view, 
and also the low of small apertures, or breathing-holes, 
l>elow the j)rojecting face-guard, arc distinctly shown. On 
the sides of the bacinet itself may be ])erceived the hinge 
and .staple by wliich the vi.sor was attached to it, and easily 
renjovc'l i)y withdrawing a conne<'ting pin on each side, 
wiicii occasion irquircd. At tlir lower extremity of the 
vi.sor may bo noticeil a sjiiall knoli, which at lirst sight 
migiit ajtpear to be merely an ornauicnt ; it wa.s doubtless 


intended, however, for the purpose of fastening down the 
visor, by means of a httle loop or ring attached to the 
camail on the throat ; bj this contrivance the visor, which 

Visor. Effigy at Zuricli. 

View Iroui above. 

Profile view. 

would otherwise have swung to and fro in the heat of 
action, would be firmly retained in place.^ The camail is of 
padded or gamboised w^ork, but it is possible that chain-mail 
may have been enclosed within the gamhouerie, and a 
vandyked margin of mail is seen appended to it. On the 
bi'east is attached a small armorial escutcheon — a token by 
which, when the visor was lowered, the knight might be 
recognised. Examples of heraldic cognizances thus worn 
are not wantino- • in the ordonnanccs for the Order of the 
Star, instituted by John, King of France, in 1351, the 
knights are directed to wear B.fermail or brooch ornamented 
with a star, " et en I'armeure pour guerre ils porteront le dit 
fremail en Icur camail, ou en leur cote a armer, ou la oil il 
leur plaira, apparemment."^ 

• Compare other forms of the visor, iu 
the curious repiesentation.s of German 
effigies iu Hefner's Trachteu. Occa- 
sionallj' a lappet of mail, furuislied with a 
plate for the uose, was attached to the 
camail at the chin, and when turned up 
it was fixed by a staple and piu upon the 
brow of the bacinet. Sec the figure of 
Gunther of Schwarzburg, 1349, Hefner, 
second division, pi, 27. See also pi. 49, ib. 

and other examples of the visor. A veiy 
fine original bacinet with its visor of the 
most perfect and elaborate kiud is figured 
ibid. pi. 50. Mr. Hewitt's observations 
on the visorcd bacinet with a camail 
give much information on the subject. 
Armour and Weapons, vol. ii. p. 207. 

^ Ilecueil des Ordonuauces, t. ii., cited 
by Mr. Hewitt, Armour and Weapons, 
&c., vol. ii., p. 211. 


In the curious eflSgy before us the body-armour is a 
gainboised garment, paiUled hke the camail in broad longi- 
tudinal ribs ; the sleeves are uide and buttoned at the 
wrists ; this gamboison was probably buttoned from the neck 
downwards, but the buttons are shown only in the skirt ; the 
upper part, however, which is covered by a i^lohnlcW jj/astron 
or breast of plate, may possibly have been laced. In this 
]>late may be noticed an oblong aperture on the right breast 
(nearly five inches in length), in Avhich there appears in the 
original sculpture to be a lance-rest, attached by a hinge, 
anil shown as closed or turned back. Around the hips is a 
ciiK/ulam ^vith massive quatrefuiled 6»-naments, and a large 
buckle on the left side ; the long pendant extremity of this 
girdle is doubled back in a loop, hanging on the left thigh. 
In front is appended a dagger, in a very inconvenient posi- 
tion. There are some indications of a small knife having 
been shown as inserted in the sheath, besides the dagger ; 
this part of the sculpture has sullered some injury ; in a 
drawing of the figure made about sixty years since, the form 
of the dagger is thus shown. (See woodcut.) The vandyked 

margin of a skirt of chain-mail 
is seen below the gamboised 

garment. The legs are pro- 
tected by cuissarts, genouillcres, 
and jambeaux of })latc, the straps and buckles, rivets and 
other details, being indicated with a degree of minuteness 
which leads us to conclude that the sculj)tor Avorked 
from an actual suit of armour. The coverings 4)f the feet, 
with toes a la poulahie of extravagant length, may have 
been of leather ; the sculpture here a])pearing to represent 
some material not of a rigid nature, like plate or cuirbouilli. 
The fashion of the spurs cannot now he ascertained ; they 
were probably roweled. These and other minute details 
now lost may have been indicated by color or gihling : it 
is probable that the efligy was painted, according to the 
fasiiion of the period ; at the j)resent time a small portion 
only of red color may be discerned in the ril)S of the gam- 
boised skirt, near the buckle on []\r left hip. Under the 
feet of the iiginx" are two dogs crouching. 

The gauntlets, it will be observed, are of massive pro- 
portion.s, wide at the wrists, and libhcd on (he backs of the 
liand.s. To each is attached a loop, probably of leather, by 


which they might be suspended when not in use ; occasion- 
ally the gauntlets were carried hanging on the cross-guard 
of the sword, or on the dagger. On the tomb of Albrecht von 
Hohenlohe, who died in 1319, figured by Hefner, Div. ii. pi. 
87, the gauntlets laid at the side of the figure are furnished 
with such loops. See Hefner, Costume du ]Moyen Age, div. ii. 
pi. 165 and 180. The knight's right hand rests upon his 
sword, detached from his side : this weapon is of large dimen- 
sions, as usual at the period in Germany and other European 
countries, and the long handle might almost permit of its 
being wielded with both hands. In front, as if placed over 
the sword, appears the heaulme, with its crest, mantling, 
and lambrequins. The crest is the upper part of a lion 
crowned, executed with spirit, and the sculptor has repre- 
sented the fierce creature as firmly resting its paws against 
the right cuissart of the knight. It has moreover a curious 
heraldic appendage, a sort of embattled fan, semy of 
billets, taken from the coat-armour of the knight. The 
projections, however, giving this embattled appearance, were 
doubtless, as will be seen hereafter, peacocks' feathers 
represented thereon in color. This striking appendage of 
the crest does not appear to have been used commonly in 
England or in France, as in Germany and some other 
countries. The heaulme, it may be noticed, which was worn 
on certain occasions over the bacinet, the visor of the latter 
having been withdrawn, has an ocularium ; the lower part, 
which covered the chin and throat, was apparently move- 
able, and affixed by hinges or staples ; 
the back-straps are shown, by which, 
wdien closed, this portion was kept 
securely in place. 

In the left hand the knight holds 
his shield by the guige, the strap occa- 
sionally jDassed over the neck. On the 
shield are boldly carved the bearings 
of the family von Klingen. In the 
curious emblazoned Roll of Arms pre- 
served in the Public Library at Zurich, 
and published in fac-simile by the 
Society of Antiquaries of that city in 
1860, the arms of " Clingen " occur 
(see taf. vi. no. 138). They are sable 



billety or a lion argent crowned or ; crest on a helm, 
a denii-lion argent crowned or, with a fan or wing- 
shaped appendage at the back of the head and neck, 
sable billety or, and fringed with peacocks' feathers. The 
remarkable record of the heraldic bearings of the principal 
dynastic and noble families of Enrope, by aid of which the 
coat of the von Klingen family' has tlms been satisfactorily 
ascertained, is a roll of the earlier part of the fourteenth 
century. It contiins not less than 559 coats of arms, with 
28 banners, and may be cited as one of the most important 
heraldic authorities in existence. A portion (72 coats) was 
published in 1853, in the Transactions {Mitt/teilnnr/en) of 
the Antiquaries of Zurich, vol. vi., accompanied by a 
memoir from the pen of the learned Dr. Friedrich v. Wyss. 


The curious example of costume, which, through the kindness of our 
learned and valued correspondent, Dr. Keller, we have been enabled to 
bring under the notice of our readers, presents certain features of interest 
in monumental sculpture, to which attention has been invited in the fore- 
going observations. Of these peculiarities, one, which may claim a short 
additional notice, is the armorial escutcheon occurring upon the breast of 
the effigy. Wc are assured by a friend, who has devoted much attention 
to such details, that an example of such heraldic cognizance affixed to the 
camail occurs on an effigy in our own country ; we regret that after many 
inquiries we are unable to point out where it is to be found. In the Nether- 
lands the effigy of Sir Jacob Breidels, who died 1'395, formerly in the 
church of St. Walburge at Bruges, may be cited as showing the escutcheon 
worn upon the camail (Dc Vigne, Vadc Mecum, vol. ii., pi. GG) ; also the 
contemporary figure of Frans von Ilalen, lord of Lillo, at Malines [ihld. 
pi. 48), in which the peculiarity occurs, that the escutcheon affixed to the 
camail is charged, not with his personal bearing, but with the arms of tho 
lordship of Lillo. A good illustration of an escutcheon worn on the breast, but 
not accompanying military equipment, occurs on the robed effigy of Diether, 
count of Katzenelnbogen, K515, now at Wiesbaden. (Hefner, div. ii , ])1. 
1 18). In one instance may be noticed two escutcheons attached to the camail 
(Hefner, ih., ]>!. DO). The escutcheon worn as an appendage to the ci)i(/u- 
han may be seen in De ^'igne'H Vade Mecum, vol. ii., pi. 71 ; also a like 
ornament on the cap, from the Wei.-s Kunig, ili., pi. SG. Numerous illus- 
trations might be cited of its use as the insignia of the herald or pursuivant. 

Mr. Andcrdon has kindly brought under our notice a renuirkablo 
cpculcbcon of copper gilded and admirably enameled, dis|ilaying the hear- 
ing of the Guelphic Confederation of Florence, or an eagle (/«. seizing in 
ilH cluw.s ft dragon vert, over the head oC tho eagle a lleur-de-lys of tho 
Hccoiid. 'I'hiH object, a work of the fourteenth century, had doubtless been 
intended to be worn upon the drcsa or armour, and it is prcci.''cly suited to 
bo UMcd nil n cognizanre upon tho cninail, in like manner as een on the 
rcuiarkablc cfligy at Zurich, communicated by Dr. Keller. 


BY THE REV. CHARLES W. KING, M.A., Senior Fellow of Triu. Coll., Cambridge. 
{Continued from Arch. Journ. vol. xviii. p. 324.) 


I AM compelled here to describe the most note-worthy 
gems according to the order in wliich they stand at present 
in the cases, without reference (for the most part) to the 
numbering of the Catalogue, which has been entirely super- 
seded durino* some later re-arrano;ement. The orjoinal 
classification appears to have been made according to the 
subjects, commencing with the Egyptian. 

Case I. — [Containinrf seventeen rings in each roic). 

\st Roio. — Gorgon's Head, a Roman cameo in flat relief, the face in pure 
white, the hair and attributes transparent : a singular work in this style. 

Bust of Venus, recognised by the cestus falling across her breast, and 
her locks partly twisted about her head, partly flowing down her neck ; an 
intaglio worked out with the diamond-point in a peculiar style (later 
Greek ?), of which I have not observed another instance, on a large jacinth 
i inch high. 

A splendid intaglio in the perfect Greek style, Ilermei? walking as he 
tunes his lyre, on a most beautiful sard, but unmercifully repolished, even 
to the eftacing of the drapery, which at first sight gives a suspicious look 
to the surface of the gem. But upon examination the work of the intaglio 
e.xhibits every mark of the finest antique hand. Of this there is a modern 
copy on amethyst in the same collection. 

Diana, a head with Egyptian profile, in shallow intaglio, on a large, 
brown sard. A remarkable work, exceeded in point of antiquity by few 
amongst our gems. 

Most graceful, and in the rarely found early style, is the cameo of the 
seated Cupid playing the lyre, in opaque white upon black. 

2nd Roic. — A seated Achilles contemplating a helmet held up in his 
right hand. A charming old Greek intaglio, within a border, on a bright 
yellow sard. 

Apollo Agyieus standing and holding forth an arrow with his right (in 
sign of amity), in his left hand a strung bow. llis hair is bound by a fillet. 
A finely finished work in the old Greek style, and interesting as much for 
its remote antiquity, as for its perfect execution. 

The Infant Bacchus riding upon a panther which seems to exult under 
its divine burden. Greek cameo of first-rate execution, the relief in 
opaque Avhite upon black. None of the camei in this case exceed the 
size of ring-stones, as which they are all set. The extreme rarity of camei 
of such small dimensions (more especially those anterior to the Imperial 


epoch) 1ms been alreach' remarked. Certain it is that in recently formed 
collections no other class of gems is so uncommon. 

A Greek group, somewhat more recent in manner, hut perhaps 
Buperior in point of art to the " Priam before Achilles," deserii)od 
above (Bcsborough Coll. IGO). The subject is Chiron instructing the young 
Achilles on the lyre ; the Centaur reclines, his pupil stands before him, a 
Cupid behind stands in a listening attitude. A dcoply-cut intaglio, grandly 
treated, and displaying much of the maimer of Phidias ; one of the choicest 
gems of the whole cabinet. The sard also magnificent in colour. 

3rd liorc. — This well-known " Semiramis " is a ridiculous misnomer, 
being most unmistakably a bust of Clio holding the historic papyrus-roll : 
a large and noble Greek intaglio in shallow cutting upon sard. The treat- 
ment of the hair, upon which the exclusive use of the diamond is plainly 
discernible, and the entire mcchanique of the work is identical with that of 
a head of ^Melpomene, known to me, indicating the same engraver for botli. 

Priestess hastening onwards, holding aloft the ci.<ta mystica, a flambeau 
in the field, in allusion to the Dioiiysiac nocturnal rites, is a spirited design 
upon a good guarnaccino. 

This subject, described as " Antiloehns announcing the deatli of Patroclus 
to Achilles," appears rather, from the unconcerned attitude of the persons, 
to represent two warriors in amicable conversation, one leaning on his 
spear, the other seated — more probably Pylades and Orestes. A fine 
lioman intaijlio, the figures very well designed. Sard. 

Cameo in a fine early style ; two Fauns attempting to raise up the 
drunken Silenus, in white on black ; the head of Silcnus destroyed. 

The famous Hercules Bibax, by '* AAMLON," ' of bold drawing 
and squat, massy limbs, wielding a club, or rather rough-hewn tree-trunk, 
of most exaggerated proportions. A work equal to its reputation ; on a 
dull sard, somewhat en cahochon. This intaglio differs mucli in manner 
from the numerous copies, even from those apparently of Roman date. 

This so-called " Sappho" is merely a portrait of some lady in the IGth 
century, as the hair-dress and the plaited under-tunic plainly demonstrate. 
It is cut in high relief upon a ruby-coloured sard, presenting naturally a 
curious white patch, which has been taken advantage of for the face, or else 
this ])art has been artificially blanched to produce the strong contrast. 

Ath Ron;. — Sol standing, a full Icngtli figure ; a fine Roman intaqlio 
upon a brilliant Venus hair stone, a crystal full of long filaments of 
titaiiiutn. - 

Apollo walking ami tuning his lyre, originally an admirable Greek work 
in very shallow intcujlio, but rcpolishcd to its ruin. The sard of tbo 
finest quality, to exliibit wliich was the evident motive of this suicidi.l 

A Nymph, running and blowing the double flute, a hound by her side ; 

' TliU name, being cut in sucli lingo Alike ilivino, and wonderful each one : 

anrl obtniHive lettering, Dr. Hrunn tiikoH lu ciicli embodied Sol's bright rays ap- 
away from the ru'tist to wiioni it has pear, 

been ho long fixHJgiied, to restore it to Hanged in straight lines like his far 
the owner of the siguet, and with justice. streaming hair : 

' Kxactly anBwcring to the dcBcription Diflercnt their hues ; one like the crystal 
In Orpheiifl :— bright ; 

"Two geniH, they teach, are Bacred to The other verges on the chrysolite. 

tho iuii, But for the rays, u chrysolite it wore." 


chiefly remarkable for the stone itself, a spinel or else an ainiandine of 
uncouunon brilliancy. 

Cameo of the highest merit : an Amazon raising her companion, 
wounded and fallen from her horse, which stands by as if sympathising ; a 
group of miraculous perfection. The helmet of the first figure is made 
out in a transparent sard, the bodies in the purest white relieved upon 

Amulet against the colic, as prescribed by Alexander of Tralles, a red 
jasper engraved witli TTcrculcs strangling the lion : on the reverse 7^ and 
the legend eWBAPPABPYAPYHGG. K >| 

Bacchic scene, where Hercules, reclined on a spread pard-skin, blows the 
flute, to the sound of which dances a thyrsus-bearing Cupid ; a seated nymph 
behind beats time with her hands. A deeply-cut Greek intaglio of vast 
spirit, within a granulated border. A singular exception to the shallow sink- 
ing of intaglio work universally obtaining in this style. A most important 
piece, and in my estimation the chief intaglio of the collection, thou"-h 
only the larger portion of a gem of unusual extent, apparently somewhat 
more than the half of the original, but fortunately preserving the more 
important portions of the design. 

A half-figure of the youthful Bacchus reclining with his arm around the 
neck of Ariadne, both seen in front face ; a Cupid's head appears below, as 
if supporting the god. A work beyond all praise for its vigour of outline, 
as well as for the softness of moulding in the bodies, the expression of which 
in this piece I have rarely seen equalled. The intaglio is sunk to an 
unusual depth. In the field is the name YAAOY, a genuine antique 
artist's signature in minute carelessly cut letters. Doubtless a work of the 
best times of the empire, and on a most beautiful sard.^ 

Mercury standing, a front figure ; upon an altar at his side is a crab — 
Cancer, the Sign, Mercury in Cancer being a most fortunate horoscope. 
Roman on fine ruby sard. 

Early Greek intaglio of unusual size for this class of signet stones : 
Bacchus seated, and holding forth his cantharus ; at his knee appears a 
fiont face of the pard ; inclosed within a guilloche border. An admirable 
and rare example of the archaic style. Sard partially blanched by fire. 

The " Priapus Etruscus" is rather a drunken Silenus, the thyrsus over 
his shoulder, balancing himself as best he may, and pulling up his robe in 
a very natural but somewhat rarely represented attitude. Minute old 
Greek work within a border, on a small tri-coloured agate. This holds a 
high place amongst the best geu)s of the collection. 

A most perfect composition, and of the highest finish ; the subject, a 
fallen archer extracting the arrow from his side (Paris shot by Philoctetes ?), 
a warrior armed with spear and sword appears hastening to his defence. 
The intaglio of slight depth on a clear prase. 

Hercules wrestling with Antajus, cut on a wonderfully fine lapis lazuli ; 
but the engraving itself of ordinary Roman work. Wortliy of special notice 
is the elegant ring which bears i\xo Jleur-de-hjs enameled in white on the 
inside. The arabesques in black, of entwined vine branches (in the same 
style as the jewel of Clement VII.), which cover the whole ring, would 

3 This gem is not known to Dr. Erunn, Tiiton (not in the collection), 
who quotes instead of it a Nym^jh and 


lead mo to nttributo this oriiauient to some one of tlic Valois kings as the 
original pussessor. 

Faun's head in profile, a bunch of ivy leaves behind the ear, a most 
vigorous work ; the face full of a bold, rude vitality ; executed in the 
graudest Greek manner, and apparently of Alexander's age. Upon a dark 
auiethvst. This is the best of the numerous repetitions of the same idea 
in this collection, or, indeed, of any others within my knowledge. 

A singular design : Theseus resting on his club contemplates the slain 
Minotaur, who is seen half failing through an arch of the labyrinth. A 
modern work of very considerable merit ; a copy of the gem signed Phile- 
mon, in the Vienna Collection. 

ijth lioic. — A beautifully finished head of the young Aureliu?, as Mercury ; 
the stone, a curiously mottled sard. 

Mercury leaning against a column, holds his caduceus downwards ; in 
the field is the Sign Scorpio.^ Extraordinary fine work, on a brilliant sard. 
Another astrological device of unusual merit. 

A small cameo, most minutely finished (but probably modern), gives 
a sacrifice to the Ik-arded Bacchus, a terminal figure. In this group of 
four Cupids, one holds the goat, another crowns the goblet jilaced on the 
ground, a third beats the timbrel, and the fourth sings. The prettiest 
amongst these minute works. 

Cupid riding on a pard-marine ; the god is most graceful in pose, and 
equally so the fantastic composition of the monster he bestrides. The 
sardonyx, of five layers, has been most skilfully employed in this cameo, tiie 
ditferent tints coming in with wonderful apprujiriateness for the flesh of the 
Cupid, the spotted hide and fishy termination of the sea monster. 

The best indujfio in sapphire that 1 have ever met with, and of the purest 
Greek style : a Medusa's head, in front face, the treatment of the features 
and the curling snaky tresses spirited to a degree, and every part most highly 
finished. The engraving, if on the conunonest stone, would have attracted 
attention by its artistic excellence ; but this, coupled with the extreme 
rarity of the material on which it appears, renders it one of the most pre- 
cious intagli in existence. This sapphire is of a fine sky-blue shade, and 
set in one of those enameled Cinque Cento rings before alluded to, the sign 
of Venus $ is repeated twice under the head. The usual arabesques ia 
black, twining vine foliage, cover the shank. 

A small Canopus, delicately worked: v/ith the owner's name, <I)| Al H HOY. 
A brown and white onyx, en cahothun, much rejiolished. 

A most perfect antique cameo, admiiable in design, cxqui.'-itc in finish, 
a bearded Greek warrior in a luga. Victory holding the reins, another 
Victory, but wingless (symbolising her pernumenee), crowns him. The 
Catalogue absurdly calls this (though so much too pure in style for the age) 
" The Triumph of Antoninus I'ius."" The figures are in flat relief in white 
upon the richest sard. The name AAIHOZ is cut in intaglio letters in 
the exergue, but yet to all a|q)earance is antique tli(jugh later. 

Ilk Jloir. — Hust of I'allas, very minute work, in the scratchy style of 
L. SSiricH, the probable author, upon yellow sard, let into a moulded frame 

* The )ioro«copo of one (IcHtiniid to bo and jiniines tlio nnlii|uo beauty of tho 

|inn<Uoiuc, fuud uf droHM, and libunil, Hiiyt) work, but iiiniiitiiiiiH tlio legend to bo a 

Kiriiiicu*. nioikrn addition, in wliich lio is ibtubt- 

•• IJolttr known an llio " Triutnph of a Icmh piirtly riK'l't; tbo k-ltiTM buinj^ iiicinod 

lUrbarittu King." Evuu Kiihlcr aduiitH aro " duinuing eviduuco" in thouibclvoH. 


of white onyx, a customary addition of his, intended to augment the curi- 
osity of the materiah 

Four Cupids, one with a lyre, another with Pan's pipes, the third with a 
large conch-shell, the fourth clapping his hands ; arranged around the 
convex face of a cameo, in white on a grey ground : a singular and 
antique work. 

Sol standing ; on the reverse C€M€C€IAAM. The only instance 
I have met with of this epithet applied to the Roman deity, in contra- 
distinction to his Alexandrian equivalent, Chnuphis, or Abraxas. Yellow 
jasper, late Roman, 

Bacchus, seen in front, leaTiing upon his thyrsus and holding out the 
cantharus ; fine work on blue beryl, or pale sapphire. 

Silenus stooping regards intently the earth, on which a young faun, 
hearing a thyrsus, is pouring out a libation from a pitcher ; a matchless 
example of old Greek work, enclosed in a border, the stone a dark red sard, 
black on the surface. 

Female face of great beauty, wearing a helmet composed of two most 
spirited Silenus masks. The finest of such caprices that has ever come under 
my notice. Sard, large and of extraordinary lustre, like a carbuncle. 

Nemesis (wrongly called Psvchc), in the archaic manner, with the curious 
inscription TO AU) PON NYNCHN. Sard slightly burnt. 

Sth Row. — Cameo, a fragment of a large group, Silenus, three-quarters 
of his figure preserved, is pushed along by a Faun : both figures full of 
spirit. A Greek work in very flat relief, in opaque white on rich sard- 
colour ; the surface much worn. 

A Seated Faun meditating, a double flute by his side, inscribed in Roman 
letters with the owner's name, NICOlNAC "Kicomachus." From a good 
Roman work, but a modern paste. (There is another paste from the same 
mold also in dark blue glass in Case VII. I cannot ascertain where the 
original now exists.'' 

Serapis enthroned between Isis and Pallas ; the group in the centre of 
the Zodiac, which is supported by Atlas. Curious late Roman or Renais- 
sance. Calccdony. 

9<A Row. — Head of Libera (Ariadne), ivy-crowned ; a noble Greek work, 
deeply cut on sard. A work of uncommon merit, perhaps the fiist in the 
class of female heads. 

Apollo MusagGtes, an excellent early Greek work in shallow intaglio ; 
but much damaged by the repolishing. Sard. 

Nymph in flowing robes, advancing with rapid steps (Spring), in front is 
a smaller female figure ; behind, appears a tree in full leaf, evidently intro- 
duced as an explanatory symbol. The picture of Lucretius, " It ver et 
Venus," seems illustrated by this gem, which is most graceful, especially 
in the treatment of the drapery. Sard. 

Pan seated on a rock contemplating a comic mask ; a perfect Greek work. 
Wonderfully well drawn are the head and the mask, and most skilful the 
treatment of the half-human divinity's shaggy goat's legs. Deep cut on 
brownish sard. 

A Kneeling Warrior, the cognizance of his buckler is a Gorgon's head ; 

* There is good reason to suspect tbafc parent (an origin assigned by Kijhler to 
this proceeded direct frotii tbe fabrique many of bis signed gems) and is the 
of Baron Stoscb, without any autiiiuo . actual one quoted by Clarac. 


probably the woundoil Achilles. Arcliaie work, very still", but in singiilaily 
deep intapJio. Sard. 

Bust of AbunJantia, intaglio on magnet, unusually good work for this 
material, and in the style of the Early Empire. 

Case I!. 

\st Jioir. — Melpomene holding out a mask, in the field a falchion, which 
attributes have absurdly induced the catalogue-maker to explain it as Queen 
Tomyris contemplating the head of Cyrus. Plasma. 

Homer, a head in a grand Greek style, especially to be praised in the 
beard and hair. The earliest portrait of the poet I have seen. Sard. 

Mask, a full face of the Beanied Bacchus, most benignant in expression, 
with ivv-berries in the hair, the board sj)read out like a fan : fine Greek 
in the early style. Tlie head so treated as to fill a circular sard. 

Hannibal (called, most erroneously, *' Pyrrhus "), a helmetod head in 
three-quarter face, deeply cut in a grand nuinncr, apjiarently Sicilian work 
of his own age, on a beautiful sard. 

Augustus, a profile head, a most spirited portrait of him, perhaps the best 
of all in the collection. Ruby sard. 

A large oblong sard (1^ X g inch), engraved with Alexander and 
Bucephalus ; the hero, a nude helmeted figure, of excellent design and 
beautiful finish, standing by the side of the horse, which, however, is very 
incorrect in drawing. Worked in shallow intaglio. Later Greek. 

M. Agrippa, an excellent, deeply-cut, contemporary portrait. Yellow sard. 

Majcenas, a deeply-cut, vigorous portrait, agreeing exactly with that b> 
Solon ; a gem of .singular interest for suljoct and style. Splendid rub^ 
sard, somewhat broken. 

I'lato, a magnificent Greek head, the cuuntcrjiart of the one facing 
Socrates on the liesborough almandine. Brown sard. 

Horse of spirited design ; on the off-side stands a youth (the groom). 
Archaic Greek ; a very shallow intaglio within a border, on a ruby sard tra- 
versed across its width by an exact heraldic chevron in opaipio white. An 
unique variety of the stone, and doubtless highly ap[»reciated therefore in 

2n<l Ilow. — Two Infants rolling along the ground, by means of strings 
two large balls or disks {ruzzuoli, the modern Italian toy ?). Pretlj 
Roman style and unitpic subject. Nicolo. 

Throe masks of various characters, or else heads of Hercules, Apollo 
and Bacchus, arranged side by side, a j>cJum beneath. Splendid sard 
Perlia[>9 symbolising the tragic, comic, ami satyric drama, it may havi 
been the signet of an actor distinguished in all three. Fine Roman. 

Hunter, with game slung on a stick over his shoulder, hares behind, 
coekti and other birds before (Winter?), as in the type of " t^uattuor Tem- 
pora " on eoinri. Neiil Uoinan work, di'cply cut on nicolo. 

7 Such a confijfuration of tlio layorH ill cquoKtiinn ; in my nwii colloctii.n is li 
a winl hcernn l'> liavo been re(,'iirilt'<l hy SagittiiiiiiH, in <ho suiuc curly utyK-, on a 
tlio Cirvcks (m bearing upon niutturd Hiuiiiur ninteriiil. 


This " Pompey " seems rather the head of his younger sou, but is evi- 
deutly a work of his times, somewhat rude, but bold and full of character. 

Rcgulus, a helmeted head in three-quarter face, inscribed M. RE. ATI., 
seems a Renaissance work, and from the same hand as the " Marias," a 
profile head, with the legend COS. VII., both in a scratchy style on sard.* 

A Discobolus, au elongated Roman figure, set in a seal elaborately ena- 
melcd in blue in the Rococo style, with fleur-de-lys on the sides ; a relic of 
some Bourbon prince. 

3rd Jtoic. — Girl's head, her hair dressed in the fashion of Faustina 
Mater, facing a boy's (infant), with long flowing locks ; perhaps Lucilla 
and Annius Verus. Prettily cut on red jasper. 

Galba, calcedony in one of the massy enameled rings of Cinque Cento 
design before noticed. A good likeness, and very rare. 

Henri IV., well executed in flat relief on sapphire ; a contemporary 

" The dying Epaminondas, supported by two warriors " (as the Catalogue 
hath it), is certainly not that historical scene, but with better reason may 
be regarded as the busts of the Tliree Iloratii. They are given in full face 
and three quarter lengths, in deeply-sunk and careful Roman work. On 
the shield of the ])rincipal figure is the device, a gryphon devouring a 
stag. The manner of this intaglio resembles that of the Eneas and Anchises 
in this Collection. Sard.* 

Two busts, conjugated, certainly an imperial pair of the lower Empire, 
on a small yellow sard, seem intended for Ma.ximin and Paulina, but have 
little individuality to guide us to a precise identification. Interesting for 
the setting, a mediajval ring of a quaint but elegant form. 

4:th Row. A most rare and interesting intaglio : two busts facing each 
other; the female one unmistakeably that of Anuia Faustina ; the male, 
bloated and beardless, probably Elagabalus, though (it must be confessed) 
somewhat too elderly in aspect. These heads are marked by wonderful 
individuality, and are very carefully executed in somewhat shallow intaglio 
on a large brownish sard, nearly square. So singular is the merit of this 
work, if we take into account the lateness of its date, that it may be justly 
supposed an express commission given to the best engraver then surviving, 
on the occasion of the marriage, and designed to be worn by the emperor 

Fine bust, intaglio in amethyst, called Crispina, but in an earlier style, 
and moreover a prettier profile, than owned by the harsh features of that 

Augustus or Caligula, fine work in beryl or pale sapphire : set in a 
massy mediaeval ring with an extremely bossy head, 

Hadrian, a fine head in garnet. 

A curious antique cameo, a seated poodle,'' preserving to us the rare 
breed of the Roman lap-dog. 

3 These are apparently due to the ^ In the Impronte Gemmarie is a cast 

taste stimulated by F. Ursinus, late in from an antique paste of this identical 

the Cinque Couto, of collecting "Virorutn subject, but the fio;are3 full length, there 

lUnstriuiii Imagines ;" a large supply of numbered amongst the Roman historical, 

such in gems being manufactured to perhaps the famed Triplet, the Horatii. 
supply the demand of the uncritical '" The Cania Meliteusis. 

learned of the age. 



5th Bow. A most singular intaglio, the " Ilead of a LoMibanl king." 
repre^entcil in full face and wearing a crown, ornamenteil apparently with 
three fleur-de-lys : deeply cut in a fine spinel-ruby nearly square, |^ inch 
hii^h. This head is without character, very gothic in design, and strongly 
resembling tlie usual conventional portraits of WiUiani the Conqueror. It 
possibly may be what it is described, and the work of some Byzantine 
engraver. Set in a massy gold ring, ribbed and engraved witli flowers in 
the taste that prevailed after the middle of the loth century, or the latest 
niedij\}val period. Around the bizzel is the motto (reversed), tfl * il ♦ JlfSt. 
The valuable setting makes it questional)le in my mind whether the 
intagho itself be not of the same date, one of earliest essays of the Quattio- 
Cento in the art,' and the likeness of some French prince (Charles VIII. ?) 
The fleur-de-lys ornamenting the crown n)ark a medi;eval origin, for the 
Gothic and Loml)ard kings of Italy retained the plain circlet, imitated from 
the late Roman diadem." This ruby, therefore, presents a most dithcult 
problem in the history of gem-engraving. 

Socrates, a matchless liead in the finest Roman style : by far the best 
of this philosopher's portraits that 1 have met with. A broad, somewhat 
shallow intaglio. Black jasper. 

Bull butting, a sard of Roman date, of merely fair execution, but mounted 
in a massy ring of most elegant design, the shank formed out of two vine- 
stems tied together, in the taste of the last century'. 

Proserpine, a head distinguished by the wheat-ears over the brow ; a 
pretty sard. This is set the same style of ring, enameled with black 
arabesques, as the many others already noted : but this is distinguished by 
the letters'* D. I. H- S. under the setting of the stone. These initials 
may supply a clue to discover the original collection whence came this set 
of rings which, though much varied in shape, yet have all the same general 
form and character, ami clearly were all made by the same jeweler. 

G</i Jlmr. Two horses, one drinking from a troui;h ; worked out in 
precisely the same style and material as the grouj) by Alpheus above 
described : and equally to be signaled out fur its rare perfection. 

Claudius, a head in flat relief, a wonderful gem, and far distinguished 
bv its spirit above the general mediocrity of these small imperial portrait- 
camei : in a massy enanuded ring as before. 

An aged emperor standing between two females, to the right a trophy, to 
tlie left a youth sacrificing upon an altar ; a truly ancient cameo of minutn 
work in white upon black, the onyx only 3 inch wide. Tliis also is mounted 
in the UBual stvle of massy enanieli'(l ring. 

" Gcrn en^^raving Ih Hiipposfd to liavo cultivated el«cwlicre for flomo time pr«- 

l)eon revived in Itily by tlie fugitive vionxlj- ; in fact Vasni-i Hpeiikw of the first 

Orcftk nrtiMtM from Coiinljiiiliiioplo, .iftcr Ht<'pn towardH iinproveiiu'ut, kik-1i as ap- 

itH fall ill 1-153, but nothing in known to )>ciii'iiig in tliu tinics of Martin V. nnd 

cxift litlier in cameo or intaglio tliat I'unl II. (HIT and ll(jl), and hence, it 

can with certainty be referred to nn niay l>e infnrn'<l, at /tamr. 
enrlior date than the da3'H of Loren/.o <li ' Our S.ixon kint^H, however (Kdgar), 

M«dici, and thoHe oxcliioively oainei. Oio. ai)])car with thJH i>roci(>o crown, for which 

Helle ('arniolo in the oariieHt recorded the/ miiMt have had a continental prece- 

Itnliati Kisui Kiiymvrr, hut Vuxari men- dent. 

tiorm that ho learned the art from " Tho flacred monogram leads mo to 

" ma*it''r»( of (liffi-renl countrieM," Hiim- mixpoct that tho I'roKorpino of tho gem 

inon«-d to Floronco hy lioren/oand I'iero had heon iiiterpri'lod aa a Madonna by 

(lei .Medici. Hence it mmit liavo been the piety of tho owner. 


7th Row. The lower half of a female bust, known as the " Julia Titi," 
but more probably that of a Ptolemaic queen, to judge from the full chin 
anil form of the neck, with a long necklace'^ falling over the throat. 
The fragment is in a very grand manner, and certainly not Roman, above all 

not that of Domitian's age. In the field is the signatm-e ehoIEi" 
in minute letters, cut in with bold, careless, strokes, and, beyond all 
suspicion, genuine. The stone, either a jacinth extremely deep in tint, or 
an uncommonly rich brown sard,' somewhat convex, was, before the 
fracture, 1 ^ incii in height, an oval ; the missing portion has been restored 
in gold after the portraits of the Julia, to whom it is now assigned, in 
defiance of the earlier style of the work, and it is difficult to imagine upon 
what grounds. - 

Head, with curly locks, a barbarous piece of work, perhaps early in the 
Revival, and the portrait of the wearer. It is, however, on the finest 
sardonyx of blue and brown layers, and set in a more than commonly 
massive ring of the often-mentioned pattern, a circumstance that supports 
the suspicion of its being a contemporary work. 

Sth Itoio. Caius Cffisar (Augusti nepos), a life-like head in very flat relief 
upon a ruby-sard; the fiiiest cameo in this set of small portraits, and more 
smgular from the material chosen. 

Charles V. (the Emperor), a carefully worked cameo, displaying much 
taste and skill. 

Case III. — {Of Camei exclusively). 

279. Commodus (" Aelius "), a good but stiff bust in flat relief, enclosed 
in a rim reserved in the upper stratum of a superb sardonyx of black, 
bluish white, and brown, 2\ inches high. On the reverse the figure of lao- 
Abraxas most rudely worked out in shallow intaglio, in order to convert the 
stone into an amulet at a much later period. Aiound runs in large letters, 


280. A magnificent gem : Antonia, a head laureated, executed in flat 
relief and a broad style, but perfectly finished, and to be reckoned amongst 
the best imperial portraits. The flesh in opaque white, the ground a rich 
brown, in which last colour too the wreath is rendered. The stone 1^ inch Ariadne, a bust, a splendid modern work, in Marchant's style ; the 
flesh given in white, the garland of vine leaves around the head, and the 
ground in lake colour : the onyx itself furnishing this remarkable contrast. 

282. Ceres seated holding a large cornucopia, Triptolemus (or I3onu3 
Eventus), standing before her, proffers to her a bunch of wheat-ears, and 
leans upon his two-pronged mattock (bidens'^). In the midst is a column 
supporting an urn. Livia and Germanicus being frequently represented 

^ A single row of large pearls, auJ censures upon the work, which apply 

diflering much from that worn by the indeed to the restored portion, but cer- 

Julia of Evodus. taiuly not to the antique, than which we 

' The species has greatly puzzled all have scarcely anything iu a grander 

dcscribers, some calling it an amethyst, manner. 

Bome a hyacinth. ^ Or " rutnim," a symbol, says Festus, 

- Dr. Bruuu, having had merely the that marked the figure of Bonus Eventus. 
cast to go by, bestows very undeserved 


under these characters, it is possible that tliis cameo (in the style of their 
times) may, from the introduction of the sepulchral monument, contain by an 
elegant tiattery an allusion to the deification of the latter lamented prince. 
Tiie figures are in mezzo relievo, white ou a brown ground and of very 
good work : the stone 1 1 inch high. 

253. Livia, her bust as Ceres, veiled and in front face ; a bold design 
in very high relief ; opaque white upon a sard field, 15 inch high. 

254. Bust with long flowing hair crowned with bay, called an Agrippina 
Mater, but seems rather an Apollo. The execution is of the highest beauty ; 
the stone fine, composed of white, and a dark sard, in which latter is given 
the robe and tlie garland : but the relief appears to have been entirely re- 
touched upon an antique original, of which traces may here and there bo 
Btill detected. 

288. This may be pronounced without hesitation the finest cameo of the 
entire collection, and perhaps the finest in existence. The subject, a Victory 
in a biga, executed in the highest relief : the goddess and the near horse 
being nearly in full relief, the oft' horse in half. Incomparable is the spirit 
of these horses, one of which actually appears bounding forth from the field 
of the gem. The boldness of the drawing, coupled with the minute execu- 
tion of the details especially remarkable in the heads of Victory and of her 
fiteeds, in the manes, and the folds of the drapery, are beyond all praise. 
The steeds appear to fly along ; the near one rearing up, turns his head 
to the spectator, which has, owing to its excessive projection, been destroyed, 
an irreparable loss in such a masterpiece of Greek art. Singularly enough 
an irrefragable proof of the genuine antiquity of the work (did its true 
Greek spirit require any correlative testimony) is to be found in the bronze 
stud introduced to represent the nave of the wheel. This, though unques- 
tionably the first cameo for beauty, is far from being such in dimeui^ions, 
•which measure but li x 1^^ inch. The relief in opaque wiiite upon a yellow 
eard ground. It is worthy of remark that camei anterior to the Augustan 
nf'e, like this, apjtear invariably to have been executed in stones of but two 
layers (the onyx of Tlicophrastus). 

201. This " Livia," or rather a portrait of some lady of the sixteenth 
century as a Venus, of small size, is only reniarkaldc for the frame, made 
out of a thick garland of innumerable flowers, tulip?*, roses, <kc., bound up 
into a massy wreath and enameled in the natural colours. This chef 
d'dsHvrc of the art is perfectly executed in s|iiti.' of almost insui>erablc 
diliiculties presented by the nature of the operatiijn. 

29-1. This " Poppoia," or rather Cores crowned with jioppies and veiled, 
is a magnificent work in the highcot relief, and in a manner far beyond 
that of the Ncronian age. The hair is rendered in an opaque brown layer ; 
the flesh in pearly white : evidently of the Greek school, and apparently 

'2'J.'>. \n incomparable examjile of the best Roman jieriod. a head of 
Augustus, radiated ; the likeness taiien at the close of his life, and ox(>- 
ruted, as the crown shows, after his deification. This may be judged the 
first amongst the numerous heads of this emperor. In low reliif, opa(|ue 
white upon rich brown sard on an oval stone 2/, inches high. Mounted in 
n narrow frame of the niost elaborate Cin(|iie Cento chisehng, enriched with 
i-nnmel of highly finished work, but (diielly thrown away upon lhi> back of 
the hetting, where it most ingeniously represents a chain with dill'erent 
colored liuks. 


297. A wonderful ffcm, the profile head of Ma3cenas, in half-relief in 
brownish white upon black. The expression of the features, most life-like 
and of the finest antique work. Tiie mounting, a richly chiseled frame in 
a pure Renaissance style, set with table rubies, bears in itself testimony to 
tlie genuine antiquity of the stone, for its style is totally dissimilar to that 
of the Cinque Cento camei : though that of the imitators of the antique in 
tlie last century approaches closely to it. This is certainly the most 
valuable cameo-portrait that any cabinet can boast of, for the drawing agrees 
exactly with that of the famous intaglio by Solon, and probably this also is 
one of his works. 

301. Bust of Claudius as Jove, oak-crowned, with sDgis coverino- the 
shoulders ; worked out in a flat lifeless manner showing a great fallinrr off 
from that of the Augustan school. A noble sardonyx, 2^ inches high, of 
two shades of brown and pearly white. In each of the first are given the 
wreath and the ground, the bust itself in the latter. The very elaborate 
Renaissance frame has a back of open work enameled, in which the design 
appears to be a Jieur-de-lys within a spreading M. (the Florentine gi<jlio, 
and initial of the Medici ?). 

302. This " Lombard King," a small, rude cameo of the Lower Empire, 
more probably gives us the bust of some petty Syrian or Armenian ])rince 
of those times (Vabalathus ?). He has curly hair, a radiated crown and 
ear-rings : the design utterly barbarous and in very flat relief. The stone, 
however, is unique in quality, exhibiting layers of black, flesh colour, brown 
and transparent. 

303. Galba, the head only (fragment of a large cameo), done with un- 
usual spirit in white upon brown : for execution as well as rarity of subject, 
a priceless gem. It far excels any of the portraits, numerous as they are, 
of his two predecessors. 

306. A master-piece of Cinque Cento work, Horatius Codes defendin"- 
the bridge against Porscnna ; Mars hovering above him in the sky, with 
numerous figures, assailants, Romans breaking down the arch, the river- 
god Tiber. Of microscopic accuracy, all within an oval of one inch wide. 
This piece rivals in exact drawing and surpasses in complexity, the " Sacri- 
fice to Bacchus " above described, in the same miniature style (Besborou<'h 
Coll. 196). 

307. Elagabalus, a young head, rudely cut, but an unmistakeable like- 
ness, on a small calcedony of two shades of blue. 

309. A Council of the Gods met upon Mount Olympus, remarkable for 
the complexity of the grouping (so rare in antique compositions), as well as 
the excellence of the work. Jove reclining on his eagle converses with 
Neptune seated upon a rock, Diana standing behind lifts iier bow. In the 
centre stands Apollo striking the lyre. At his right another group, Venus 
standing with Cupid at her knee, holds sweet converse with the seated Mars, 
whilst Mercury in the back-ground looks on, thus forming a balance to the 
group of Jove, Neptune and Diana on the other side. The fi"-ures in 
white on a black ground : a small stone. 

311. Antonia the Elder ; another master-piece of the Augustan afje, in 
■which both work and material claim equal admiration. The face, full of 
expression, is rendered in the bluish-white, the hair looped up on the neck 
(as in lier medals) in a rich dark brown, the ground black. The relief of 
the whole has been kept somewhat flat to take advantage of the appropriate 
colour of the strata. This perfect sardonyx, 1| inch high, is mounted in a 



Renaissance locket, euauiclcil ia black with elegant arabesques in a inannor 
wurtliv of the gem. 

313. Another superb saiilonyx, 2 inches in diameter (and of the same 
quality as 311). bears the head of a deitied aged princess of the Lower 
Empire, but with more than usual absurdity desigiuUed a " Livia " in the 
Catalogue. The head is veiled, and she holds a sceptre, the profile mean, 
nose and long upper lip (Julia Mcesa ?) all worked out in the flattest relief 
within a reserved rim of the upper stratum. 

31 J. Most unaccountably styled " Dionysius," is a head of Ariadne ivy- 
crowned, but the indiviiluulity of the features bespeaks the personification 
of some Grecian queen under this disguise. This head is very carefully 
treated in a somewliat archaic maimer, particularly observable in the vast 
circular convulutioiis of the hair, whilst the relief is extremely flat. Tiie 
lieud is inclosed within a rim reserved in the san)e pale yellow layer as the 
wreath, the flesh is white upon a yellow ground. It deserves a careful study 
on account of its numerous peculiarities; one of whieh. the enclosing rim, wo 
could not expect to And in a wurk so early in its manner. The whole 
surface seems to have been slightly and carefully repolished, but without 
impairing the original relief. 

31G. Another bust of Claudius, oak-crowned, but done in a still more 
spiritless manner than 301 ; on an oval sardonyx 2 inches high. Here 
the head has been left in a transparent patch passing through the two 
brown strata which furnish the wreath and the ground. 

317. This magnificent bust of Pallas, in high relief of the deepest brown 
upon white, is betrayed by its treatment, especially in the grotesipio 
character of the helmet, to be a choice jtroduction of the best times of the 

But tliere is in Case VI. a work that before all others arrests the 
passing glance, both from its enormous magnitude and the beauty of the 
material employed, the grand cameo known as the "busts of Didius Julianua 
and Manlia Scantilla," one of the most important monuments extant of 
Ifoman glyi>tic art. The attribution to the names engraved upon the 
mounting Is evidently wrong ; the male head is quite youthful, with but a 
nascent beard, certainly not that of the ambitious sexagenarian Didius, who 
appears on his medals with a beard ample and philosophic, but rather that 
of Commodus at the commencement of his reign, the features bearing a 
btrong resemblance also to his father's, when yet only Ciesar. The lady 
Bcems to be the Eujpress Crispina. in the character of Juno, as her husband 
bimilarlv is figured as Jove.* The two busts are legardant, sculptured in 
u bold 'manner, with little attempt at linish, yet highly etlective. Tiie 
hurface of the relief is kept quite flat, because the strata are so. Tiio 
artist has most skilfully availed him.-,elf of their rich colors to 

* It iH fur from certain what deities 
are intcudoJ iu tlioHO perMouitlcntioiia. 
iliH lieiul in encircled by the ouk wreiitli 
of tlio lJo<l<iHfiin Jove, Ijiit ho iiIho Iiiim 
tlie horn of Ainiiion Hj>nu(^in>,' from the 
tetuph'H : whilHt the en)|iruMi'H wreath in 
formed of the wmie oak leiif intermixed 
with wheat-earn, poppy litU'ln, and a 
found fiuit, altributeH of I'ldhm and 
CVro«. Are iUvy mippoMcd to combine 
rmpoclivuly the cLuruclvru of two buuu- 

ficent, civirming divinitios in one person ; 
or (bjuH the horn ullu<le to Iho character 
of HuccliUH lui another form of the huh- 
god ? Uacchus, (^'ylielo, Libera, and Cored 
aro the characters u-iiially aHHiinied in 
thoHO iftonumenlH by imperial perhon- 
ugeH. In my own ColU'Ction iH an adnd- 
rablc head of ConiuioibiM wearing tJio 
layH of rh(ubuM, the niodiiiM of .Sonipitj, 
and tiie horn of Anuauu. 


give effect to tlie design. Tlie female bust is superior to tlie other 
both in drawing and execution, but both are equal to tlie best of the 
caniei posterior to the Augustan age in these respects. But the artistic 
value of this work, great though it be, is insignificant compared with that 
of the substance on which it is sculptured, a sardonyx of the finest quality, 
an oi)long somewhat curved above the heads, and of the extraordinary 
dimensions of eight inclies wide by six in height ; thus in point of size it 
ranks next to the " Gemma Augustea " at Vienna, and hence in this respect 
is the fourth of any in Europe ; moreover, in beauty of strata it surpasses 
that famous cameo ■' (of only two strata). Amongst the shades is a purple 
which I have never before observed in a sardimyx. The slab has been 
broken across its depth, but carefully restored so as to comnlete the tegis 
and bust of" the emperor. Whence obtained for this Collection, or by 
Avhom, there is no record preserved in the Catalogue, it seems to have passed 
from the Fontesian into Lord Arundel's hands. 

339. The most charming composition ever embodied upon the onyx is the 
well-known " Marriage of Cupid and Psyche." It is indeed superior to its 
reputation, such inimitable grace is there in the design, such softness in 
the treatment of the rounded infantine limbs of the little deities, led in 
bonds by Hymen and his attendant genii, Anteros and the other who places on 
their heads the vannus mystica. The perfect accuracy of the finish observ- 
able in every part, and the unimpaired polish of the field, inspires at first 
that creature of suspicions, the gem amateur, with some uneasy feelings as to 
the antiquity of the work, augmented by that evident forgery, so conspi- 
cuously thrust before the eye, TPY<I>(jON EflOIEI, the letters cut in 
iutaglio, in itself a conclusive proof of being suppositious. But our con- 
tidence returns on contemplating the truly anticpie character of the whole, 
the softness of the modeling in the figures, and the dead opacity of the 
cacholong forming the relief. No artist of the Renaissance could have 
conceived such a group, or treated it in that style.'^ The imitators of the 
antique in the last century could have come nearer to these points, but 
fortunately the ascertained history of the stone (traceable much further 
back) entirely excludes such a theory as to its origin. It was first pub- 
lished, says t)r. Brunn, by Pirro Ligorio, i. e. early in the Cinque Cento. Dr. 
Brunn, after highly lauding the beauty of the composition, points out sundry 
anachronisms in it, such as the figures moving in two parallel lines, the veil 
over the faces of the pair, the bond tying them together, the dove clasped to 
the bosom, the absence of the indispensable symbol from the vannus, and he 
attributes the design to Ratfaelle, or some one of his school. The objection 
raised against its antiquity on the score of the story of Cupid and Psyche has, 
when louked into, no weight whatever ; it certaiidy was a fatal one when this 
cameo was regarded as the actual work of Tryphon, the contemporary of the 

* Yet Rudolph IL purchased that The country of these '• Duces Sann"- 

for 12,000 ducats (6000/.), more on ac- sii" \» a pritblem to nie. but the " Fon- 

couut of its mineralogical than artistic tesian " cabinet 8uggest.s " Fuentes" as 

value. the name of the amateur, who has thu^ 

^ It is framed in a massy border and recorded the acqui.-itiou of this crownint:- 

back of silver gilt, the hitter occupied by piece to his aspirations ; pro'nably some 

this inscription in large raised letters, Spanish or NeapolitJin grandee of two 

" lugens anaglypliicum opus olim San- 'centuries back, to juiige from the orna- 

nesiorum Ducum nunc vero pretio acqui- mentation of the frame, 

situm in Fontesianocimelioasservatum." ' The mechanical part of the work 


Ptolemies, but falls entirely to the ground if we assume it to be the proiluc- 
tion of the luxurious age of art, that of llaJrian,** when every branch of the 
art of eugraviiig flourished in its acme, as far as Rome was concerned, and 
the fable here depicted was the most popular in llie spiritualising mythology 
of the times. Apuleius, in his charming story, did no more than put togctlior 
and embellish allegories long before existing;'' we see a proof of this in the 
fresco at Pompeii, where Cupids and Psyches are engaged in weaving 
garlands. The same age produced the innumerable intagli where Cupid 
and his bride figured in every variety of group, embodying the ideas of 
separation, torture, penance, reunion, beatification, all alluding to the same 
constant allegory, The relief is in opaque white (like the head of 
Maecenas, 297), upon a ground of the richest brown sard, which probably, 
after the never sufficiently to be reprobated practice of the last century, 
has been repolished. This small cameo is mounted in a very broad Rococo 
frame of open work, set with several large table garnets, which by their 
obtrusive lustre greatly mar the efi'oct of the relief. 

The famous and gonuine work of Aulus (of whose signature here no sus- 
picions can arise, so unmistakeable is the antiquity of the lettering) gives 
us a Cupid most admirably depicted in his eti'orts to sustain in an upright 
position a huge cornucopia, much taller tiian himself, planted upon tlio 
earth. An unique idea. Intaglio in a crystal of some magnitude, and of a 
pale yellow colour. 

The Mercury of Dioscorides is also authentic in the same degree. It is a 
gem of which the history can be traced back to an unusual distance, being 
first made known by Moiitjosieu, in 1589. in his " Gallus Roma) Ilospes," 
and then belonging to Fulvius Ursinus. It afterwards came into the hands 
of Siosch, who sold it to Lord Ilolderness, the father-in-law of the Duke of 
Leeds, who, as a note in the MS. Catalogue tells us, bequeathed it to the 
present cabinet, in itself a truly ducal legacy, for in the last century its 
value may have been estimated at £1000. F. Ursinus is known to have 
paid 1 00 zecchins for the Diana of Apollonius, and Lauthier 200 for the signet 
of Michael Angelo ; larger sums than this, taking into account the value 
of money in their respective centuries. Mercury here appears as a traveller 
standing with the chlamys hanging down over his aru), the figure in front 
face ; the actual execution very peculiar, especially in the drapery, which 
is entirely scratched in with the diamond. An intaglio worthy of its 
re{)Utution, but which has suffered from the improving liand of some 
"thrice-double ass" (only Shakspere can supply an ejiithet of sufficient 
force for such absurdity), who to display the beauty df the sard has re- 
polished the surface nearly to the obliteration of the signature, cut in 
fiomewhat large, slight, characters. This suicidal proceeding has however 
supplied a convincing proof of the antiquity of the inscription, showing that 

diffepH altogothor from the overpolishcd a ciist iu tlio Iniprouto Geminarie, taken 

bowy relief of tlie lionaiHsaiice urtiBts ; fnnn a liir^o iiitii^ho iu tlio most jierfoct 

ill the curling tertiiiiiiitiuiiti uf tlio wingx Greek .stylo, iiiid long anterior tt> any- 

luoru uHpociully ia tlio true autiquo tuucli tiling Koiiiiiii in tliu (ilyiitie art, wlioro 

COU8|jicUMUii. iVycl^e, au UHUally depietud, is tteated 

* lluiaku ridiuuleH tlio idea of AddaeuH luider a true with tlin litllo Cupid sleep- 
being the contemporary of King I'oleiiio, ing on her lap. The early date of thJH 
and even mIh him down among the gem is evident ; bexiduit the woudcirul 
Jlyutntino epigraiiiinatutUi. purity of tho outliiioH, it i» Hurronnded 

* Thii ia, placed beyond all doubt by by a neatly cxocu'.ud Etruacau border. 


it still existed there after tlie original surface had been destroyed by time 
and rouoh usage. Had it been a forger}' it would have been placed upon 
the newly polished surface to enhance its value. 

The youthful head of some Greek prince, a cameo in flat relief, and a 
pure elegant style, is highly interesting both as an example of a very early 
cameo, and still more so for its material, a fine blue turquois, which displays 
every mark of antiipiity, and is much corroded on the reverse. Perhaps 
the first authentic instance that has come under my notice of ancient work 
in the true turquois " de la Vielle Roche." 

A singular relic of Greco-Egyptian art, an Intaglio in execution only 
second to the Ptolemy of the Hertz Collection, wiiich however it far surpasses 
ill historical interest, and multiplicity of details, is the profile portrait 
of Cleopatra, with the head attire, the skin and feathers of the Sacred 
Vulture, and other ornaments of an ancient Egyptian queen, the profile 
exactly agreeing with that upon her coins, being of an exaggerated Jewish 
type. Though Egyptian pure and unmixed, of the ancient monumental 
character in its design, yet the Greek hand shows itself in the vigour and 
precision with which it is sunk into the stone, an opaque sap-green 
jasper,' a rare variety on which I have oidy met with one other engraving, 
and that the head of a Cyrenaic king, crowned with usual Chinese-looking 
hat'- (in the Bale Collection). On the reverse of the stone is the bust of a 
female deity full-faced, her hair in two huge folds over the shoulders, within 
a shrine, perhaps the hieratic representation of her patroness and proto- 
type Isis, a stroke of flattery couched in tliis juxtaposition, sunk to a still 
greater depth in the jasper. A work unique of its kind, and figured in 
Plate I. of Tassie's Catalogue. 

But amongst the modern gems in the whole series, nothing can be com- 
pared to the Head of Ganymede (with the eagle in front), by Burch, than 
which ancient or modern times have produced nothing finer, perhaps 
nothing equal in beauty or in execution. The sardonyx in which this 
intaglio is engraved is, for vividness of colour, and clearness of strata, as 
much a miracle of nature as the work that ennobles it is of art. It 
must have been an antique stone from which the engraving has been 
eS'aced to make way for the present. 

The Rape of the Palladium, the celebrated work of Felix, upon a thin 
piece of sard (dark coloured), is a most singular gem. Diomede, with 
one foot raised upon the plinth, contemplates the Palladium elevated on 
a column. On the latter is the inscription, <t>HAIE CflOICI • in the 
field above KAAFIOYRNIOY C60YHP0Y, the owner's name. 
The intaglio is in very shallow cutting, but of most careful execution. 
Dr. Brunn is probably correct in terming this a copy by Sirletti; lie points 
out that in the original the entire legend is in the exergue. 

' Only found in India noiv, and pro- in the " Silphium Merchants," upon the 

bably iu her times also imported from famous vase from Vulci (Welcker's Alte 

that country. Deukmaler). 

- Which Arcesilaus is fisrured wearing 

( To he continued.) 



Ox the -western bank of the Dore, Herefordshire, about 
three miles from its confluence with the Monow, a few miles 
above Monmouth, stands the church of Abbey Dore. The 
abbey, which was of the Cistercian order, was founded in the 
twelfth century by Ivobert Ewyas, who derived his surname 
from the adjoining parish or lordship so called, where he had 
a castle, of which no other traces than some mounds now 
remain. The church was a spacious Early English building, 
and several distinguished people of the neighbourhood were 
buried there. It has long ago lost its nave, and now the 
transepts and chancel form the parish church of Dore or 
Abbey Dore. A brief notice of it was published in 1727, in a 
small quarto, intitled " A View of the ancient and present 
state of the Churches of Door, Home-Lacy, and Hemp- 
sted, ... by Matthew Gibson, M.A., Rector of Door." The 
other monastic buildings have all disappeared. In a 
recess in the north wall of the north aisle of the 
chancel of this church lies a small effigy of a bishop, 
in stone, 15^ inches long, by 9f inches at the head, and 
9:5: inches at the feet, as the slab slightly tapers. It is 
evidently out of its proper place, the recess being lai-gc 
enough for an cfhgy of the ordinary size. Of this cfligy a 
woodcut is given from a drawing by the faithful pencil of 
^Ir. lilore. Some years ago the late Dean of Hereford, Dr. 
]\Ierewether, presented a cast of it to the Institute. Tlie 
figure is very much defaced. It appears, however, to have 
rej)resented a bisiioj) in eucliaristic vestments with his mitre 
on his head ; his crosier lay on his left side, ap})arently 
under the arm and over the shouldi'i-. The hands arc gone, 
and it is not clear what was their position. They may 
have held a heart ; ami most probably there \vas some 
animal at the feet. An inscription on the uj)per surface of 
the slab, at the sides of the cHigy, is defective. The 

Diminutive oliJgy oi a Bishop at Abbey Dore, Herefordshire. 




author of the work above mentioned, after quoting from 
Lcland's Itinerary ^ that John Bruton, Knight, and his wife, 
father to John Bruton, Bishop of Hereford, were buried at 
Dore, adds " and that the heart of this John Bruton, or Breton, 
or Briton, tlie famous Enghsh lawyer, was buried here, I 
conjecture from a httle hewn stone a foot long and nine 
inches broad, with the defaced figure of a bishop in his robes ; 
and only this inscription remaining legible upon it, viz. : — 



These words, in what are called Lombnrdic characters, 
still remain entire, except that the R in cor has beea broken 
off, and also the s and part of the latter i of loiiis, the con- 
tracted form of the last word. Before pontificis may also 
be read, the letters da, as if they were the last syllable of the 
preceding word. The portions of the inscription quoted by 
Gibson might be the terminations of two hexameters ; but 
the space on the slab shows there could never have been 
more than one hexameter. Though the stone may have been 
shortened a trifle at the feet, there is no reason to think there 
were ever any words at the head or feet of the effigy. The 
word XPISTE makes it evident that the line was a prayer or 
invocation, and could hardly have been, as Gibson and others 
have supposed, a record of the interment of the bishop's 
heart. Some years ago, after I had seen the cast, I suggested 
that the missing words were probably Munda, and Breton 
in some one of its various spellings ; which words would 
exactly fill the respective spaces, and make the entire line 
read as follows : — 

Munda Pontificis cor Breton, Christe, Johannis. 

After a careful re-examination of the cast I am a little doubt- 
ful as to Breton. The space that word is supposed to have 
occupied would admit six full-sized letters of the kind used in 
the inscription ; and about the middle of this space are faint 
traces of parts of two, probably the third and fourth letters, 
which are only visible in a very favorable light. Of these 
the former may have been an e, and the latter ma}'' have 
been a t, though it has also some resemblance to the upper 
part of a Lombardic u or c. The name Breton was accus- 
tomed to be spelt in so many different ways that it is not 

' Vol. viii. fo. 84 b. - Pp. 22, 23. 


easy to conjecture wliicli of tlicm may liave been there used. 
Assuming, as I think avc safely may, that the missing word 
was a surname, it is remarkable that the intornicnt indicated 
by this inscription is not in any ^Yay noticed by Lehnid. 
The ^Yord, liowever, may have been Breton, but illegible in 
his day ; in which case it is most likely he would have 
passed over an inscription commemorative of an unknown 
bishop. The names of John Breton's father and his wife 
Leland probably learned from some inscription that was 
then existing in Dore church ; for man}- of his notices of 
interments read as if they were taken from monuments. 

A prayer on a sepulchral monument, to the effect of the 
line when completed as I have suggested, was not unknown 
in medieval usage, though such language seems more appro- 
priate for the living than the dead. On a brass representing 
a monk, in St. Alban's Abbey Church, a list issues from the 
mouth, upon which are the words Cor mundam crca in me 

Though the inscription does not record an interment of a 
heart, it is not improbable that the stone ma}' have covered 
the heart of a bishop of Hereford, and that he may have' 
been John Breton, who died in 1275. The size of the stone 
makes it hardly credible that it was ever designed to bo 
placed over an entire body." Even the supposition of a boy- 
bishop would not account for so small an efligy^ as this. It 
is more likely to have covered a small portion only of a 
body ; and though the bowels w^ere sometimes buried sepa- 
rately, this more frequently fell to the lot of hearts. In the 
neighbourhood of Abbey L)orc heart interments should seem 
not to have been rare about the period to which this effigy 
may be referred. i\rargaret, widow of Walter de Clifford, 
by a deed dated in 12(ju, directed her heart to be buried in 
the priory church of Aconbury.^ Her husband's family 
liad been benefactoi's to that ])riory and also to Abbey Dore. 
A very remarkable instance of such an intci-mont was lately 
discovered in the church of ]*iWyas Harold, an adjoining 
parish to Dore ; wliere there is an clligy of a lady, nearly 
life size, liolding between the hands, which rest on the 
breast, such a vessel as might "be supposed to contain 

'• The «ul.joct of Dlinimitivo KfTi^'ios ji. 231. 
yuM uoticcd in vol. iii, of Uiijt Juunml, ^ Mou. Aug. vi. i>. lliu. 


a heart. Its date appears to be about 1300 or a little later. 
On opening this tomb in October, 1861, in the presence of 
the vicar, tlie Rev. W. C. Fowle, and others, there was 
found, under the hands ond only a few inches below the 
effigy, a flat stone covered by an intervening flat stone of 
larger size, on which lay some rubble and then the effigy ; 
and in the lower of these two stones was a hemisi)licrical 
cavity, about 5 inches in diameter, in which were fragments 
of a metal vessel, that seemed to have been lined with a 
woven fabric and probably had contained a heart. Imme- 
diately over this cavity, on the under side of the stone that 
covered it, was painted in white the form of a vessel suitable 
for inclosing a heart, and such as might have been, and pro- 
bably was, deposited in the cavity."* No trace was discovered 
of the body : that most likely was interred elsewhere. It is 
not known who the lady was, but there is some reason to 
suppose she was Clarice, the elder daughter of John de 
Tregoz, who held by barony the castle at Ewyas Harold, 
and (lied about 1300. 81ie died a short time before or after 
him, having married Roger de la Warr, by whom she left a 
son, who became one of her father's co-heirs, her sister Sibyl, 
wife of William de Grandison, having been the other.^ This 
Sibyl and her husband were, according to Leland,^ buried 
at Abbey Dore ; but the place of Clarice's interment is, I 
believe, unknown. The l3e la Warr family was of Sussex 
and Gloucestershire. The son of Clarice, John de la Warr, 
succeeded his grandfather at Ewyas Harold, and it would 
have been in accordance with the usage of the age, if her 
heart were there buried and he erected that monument to 
her memory. At Abergavenny, only a few miles distant, is 
an effigy of a lady holding a heart between her hands. It 
may be referred to the time of Edward I. Who this lady 
was is not quite clear, but, judging by a shield of arms (3 fleurs 
de lis) represented as lying on the body, she was either by 
birth, or by marriage a Cantilupe, and not improbably Eva, 
one of the co-heiresses of Braose, that married William de 
Cantilupe, who became in her right Lord of Abergavenny. 
There are two effigies of John Breton's immediate prede- 
cessor, Peter be Aigueblanche (or Aiguebelle), who died 

■• I am indebted for this information lislied by the Society of Antiquaries, 
to the Rev. W. C. Fowle. A particular ^ See Dugd. Bar. i. p. 616, ii. p. 15. 

account of the discovery will be pub- ^ Itinerary, viii. fo. 84 b. 


bisliop of Hereford in 12GS ; one at Hereford, the other in a 
Collegiate church founded by him at Aiguebelle, in Savoy, 
uherc he ^vas born ; tliese are both of life size. In Godwin' 
it is stated, on the authority of the inscription upon the latter 
monument, that his heart Avas buried there ; Avhich seemed 
not improbable, as he died in England. But tlie late Mr. 
Kerrich published in the Archa3ologia^ a description of that 
efhgy, and also a copy of the inscription, which, so far from 
showing that the bishop's heart was buried there, commences 
thus : — '' Hie jacet venerabilis Pater Dominus Petrus Here- 
fordcnsis quondam Episcopus, Fundator, Structor, et Dotator 
hujus Ecclesiic," &c., as if his body was interred beneath the 
clHgy. If this monument, which is of bronze and was cast 
Ijy Henry of Cologne (de Colonia), were prepared in the 
bishop's lifetime with the intention of his body being taken 
to Aiguebelle, the inscription was completed after his death ; 
for the day of his decease is stated. Though the small 
elHgy which covered a heart sometimes holds a heart in the 
hands, as at Cuberley, Gloucestershire, the absence of such 
an indication of the design of the monument is not conclu- 
sive that a heart was not deposited under a diminutive 

It the small effigy at Abbey Dore commemorated any 
Bishop of Ilereforil, it was most likely John lireton ; for he 
was the only John that died bishop of that see till the death 
of John Trillcck in 1300 ; to whose memory thei-e remains a 
fine brass in the Cathedral. We have seen that, according 
to Leland, who probably obtained his information from some 
monument in the church, John Bi-eton's fathei", if not his 
iiiotlier also, was buried at Abbey Doi'e. This might account 
I'll- lii.s heart having been deposited there, though his body 
was buried in his cathedral. Of his family very little is 
known. He is generally l)elievcd to have been a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas before he was a bishop. According 
to ]\rr. Foss, he was the son of AVilHani le Breton or Ihito, a 
justice in eyre ; '■' but the reconl he (piotes as his authoi'ity 
for this does not state, or give us any suHicicnt rc-ison to 
i)(.'lieve, that the .lohn l)rel(»n there mentione<l was either a 
judge or a l^isliop. The name ui" iireton was not uncommon 

7 De TrtcHulibuH, UiclinnlHOo'ii cdilion, " Vol. xviii. p. 189. 

p. 480. " FoHH, Ju.lgoM ii. p. 2r,<X 


in the tliirtccntli century, and there were at tliat time 
several with the christian name of John. One of this name 
was sheriff of Herefordshire, and also custos of the manor of 
Abergavenny and the three castles,' meaning doubtless White 
Castle, Sccnfreth, and Grosmont. He appears to have witnessed 
a grant to Abbey Dore by Roger de Clifford who died in 48 
Henry HI. (12G4).^ Lcland assumes this to have been the 
bishop ; but he is more likely to have been the father. The 
bishop does not appear to have been a judge before 1266 ; 
and until he was appointed to the see of Hereford, which 
was in December, 126 8, he was not of any importance in 
the county. There was a John le Breton who, in August, 
1268 (52 Henry III.), was associated with several bishops 
and barons as envoys of the king to treat of a peace between 
him and Llewell}^ Prince of Wales."* This may have been 
the John Breton in question while he was one of the judges. 
Whether the bishop was the author of the well-known law 
treatise that goes by the name of " Britton," has been much 
discussed, but by no means satisfactoril}^ settled. That he 
was a common lawyer and one of the judges, has been 
more readily admitted ; and it seems highly probable, since 
John Breton, the judge, disappears from the records when 
the bishop of that name was consecrated. That the bishop 
M^as the author of the treatise, is stated in Flares Historia- 
rinn, under the year 1275, the writer of which was most 
likely living in 1307, when that chronicle terminates. This 
statement was generally credited till Selden"* called it in 
question. His objection is that two statutes are quoted in 
the work, which were not passed till after the su2)posed 
author's death. The statutes are the 6th Edw. I., and the 
13th Edw. I. In order to give validity to this objection we 
must assume that the}'^ were referred to in the MS. as he left 
it : whereas I believe we have no copy of the work earlier 
than the fourteenth century. It is not improbable that some 
additions were made to the original after his decease, and 
that it is only with those additions any copies have come 
down to us. The treatise commences with the style of 
King Edward, like a charter or letters patent, and runs in 
the name of the king throughout ; and Prisot, a judge under 

' Leland's Itin. viii. fo. 87 h. ^ Rymer, i. p. 477. 

* Mod. Ang. v. p. 505; Dugd. Bar. i. * Notes to Hengham ; Ad Flctam dis- 

pp. 33G, 337. sertatio, c. 2. 

VOL. SIX. 1? 


Heniy VI., speaks of a book that was written by the order 
of Edward I. (most probably this treatise), and publislied in 
the fifth year of his reign ; ^ which ^Yas two years after Jolin 
Breton's death. In tlie sixth and thirteenth 3'ears of that 
king some very important statutes were enacted, and it is 
not unreasonable to suppose that in the subsequent copies of 
the treatise reference was made to these amendments of the 
lavf. Sclden^ adduces a record in 51 Henry III., to show 
that John Breton was then one of the judges. Doubtless 
he was; but this was in 1267, more than twelve months 
before the bishop was appointed to his see. Mr. Foss ' has 
noticed this (piestioii of authorship in his memoir of tho 
judge, and has adopted the objection of Seldcn, and also 
an opinion which is mentioned by him and by lleeve,'^ 
that the treatise is little more than an abridgment of 
Bracton (another law treatise of the thirteenth century), 
with the addition of the subsequent alterations of the law ; 
the probability of which Mr. Foss says " acquires greater 
weight when it is remembered that Bracton's name was 
sometimes written Britton or Ih'cttoii.'' The lc<2;al reader will 
remember that Henry Bracton and John Bi'cton were contem- 
poraries. That these surnames should have been occasionally 
confounded is not sur})rising ; since, though the similarity in 
sound is not great, by misreading, as so frequently liap})ens, 
t for c or c for /, Bracton becomes Bratton, or Bretton 
becomes Brecton. But it appears strange that any one at 
all conversant with the contents of the two books should have 
taken Britton for an abridgment of Bracton's worlc. l'\)r 
though, as both are general treatises on the laws of Knghmd, 
they (jf necessity have much in conniion. they diller not only 
ill language, one being in Latin and the other in l^'rencli, 
Init also materially in tlieir arrangement and in the mode of 
treating the subject. No mere abridgment of Bracton would 
be like Britton ; for, besides the diversities just mentioned, 
Biracton is not written in the king's name, but like works of 
llic kind in general, without any roval sanction ap]»earing. 

It is (|uite consistent with wliat we know dl' iho life (»f 
Jcjhn Breton the bishoj), that the work in (picstioii may have 
been written by him at the request or by the order of the 

\ ...II l;.i..k, ;;.. H.n. vi. fo. 42. " NotcH to Hcnuliiun ; IJccvc'd Histuiy 

" NoUjd to ll.rii^'hmu. of Kugliili Law, ii., p. 'Jf<0. 

' Vol. ji, jj. 200. 


kino; after lils retirement to his sec of Hereford. Tliouo-li 
that was remote from the court, he was most h'kelj occa- 
sionally in attendance on the king, especially as he appears 
to have held the office of Keeper of tlie Wardrobe ; which 
fact Lcland mentions^ w^ien speaking of his interment, as if 
that office had been held by him while bishop, if not at his 

It may be well to add, that there w^as another bishop 
named John, whose parents were buried at Abbey Dore, viz., 
John de Grandison, Bishop of Exeter from 1327 to 1369, who 
w^is the son of the above-mentioned William de Grandison and 
Sibyl de Tregoz ; but, besides that his will ^ gives no reason 
to suppose his body or any portion of it was there interred, the 
space in the inscription, which I suggest w^as occupied by the 
word Breton, would not admit the word Grandison ; and its 
shorter form, Granson, w^ould not accord with the existing 
remains of letters ; to say nothing of the probable date of the 



9 Itinerary, viii. fo. 86 b. words descriptive of it were published iu 

' Printed in Appendix to Oliver's the Journal of the Brit. Arch. Associa- 

Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, p. 444. tion, vol ii. p. 361. 
- A woodcut of this effigy, and a few 


By henry THOMAS RILEV, M.A., CambridjiO. 
rART I. 

It is a singular coincidence, that the tloul»t and mystery 
■which liavc prevailed fur the last one hundred and seventy 
years in reference to the origin of the Historij and Cliai'ters 
of Ingulfus, have been added to, in no small degree, by the 
misfortunes Avhich, in the last two centuries, have befallen 
such few early manuscripts of the work as have been known 
to exist. 

The ]\ranuscripts of the Ilidorij of Ingulfus, which we fmd 
mentioned by previous writers, are five in number : — 

I. The so-called " Autograph" of Abbot Ingulfus, men- 
tioned by Selden in his Notes to Eadmcr (U)23) as then 
existing at Croyland (or Crowland), in Lincolnshire. He 
Lad endeavoured, he tells us, to gain a sight of it, but iu 
vain. Sir Henry Spelman, more fortunate in this respect, 
did obtain permission to consult the "Autograph"; and 
from it he has extracted five Chapters of the Laws of 
"William tlie Conqueror, inserted in Vol. I., p. G23, of his 
Co)icilia (1G30J. This manuscript he speaks of as being 
" very ancient," and preserved by the churchwardens, under 
three keys, in the church there. It seems to have disap- 
peared about the middle of the seventeenth century, and all 
traces of it arc lost. 

II. A ^lanuscript from which Selden extracted the coj>y 
of the Laws of the Concjueroi', given in his Notes to /iV/^/;y/r;-; 
and which he speaks of as then (a. J). 1G23) being appa- 
rently two centuries old. It is identical ])r(ibably with the 
manuscii])t mentioned l^y Camden, in the Dedicatory ]<i])istle 
to his re])rint of Asser (1003), as containing the whole work 

' Cotntnuiiicatcd to tlie IFiHtorical Sec- 0|)iiiioii«, liowover, there st.itnl am to tlio 

tlon nt tlio mentiiig of the IiiHtituto in |io8««il>ilily of Honut portioimof the lliMtoiy 

rct^frboroDgh, July, IHCl. The iircMciit of In^^'iiIfiiH hi-iiiK' Kt'ii"''i«, mo. <>'• » 

I'niMT in foiiii<li«l, to Homo oxtnit, on un chiNcr oxiiuiinulioii, ny longer conaklcrcd 

nrtirlo hy tho Muniu hiiml in tho (Jnitl,- ttuahlo. 
fitun'i Mii'jazinr. for Ajiril, lb57. Th» 


of Iiigulfus and the Continuation of Peter of Blois ; and is 
generally supposed to have been the Cottonian Manuscript 
of Ingulfus, which was totally destroyed in the fire of 1731. 

III. A Manuscript formerly belonging to >Sir John Mars- 
ham ; and from which Fulman j^rinted his edition of the 
History of Ingulfus, in Vol. I. of the Rerum Am/licarum 
Scriptores Vetcres, Oxford, 1684. In a Letter of Bishop 
Gibson, preserved in the Ballard Collection in the Bodleian, 
it is asserted that this manuscript had been borrowed from 
Sir John Marsham by Obadiah Walker, the Roman Catholic 
Master of University College, Oxford, and never returned. 
Be this as it may, it is now neither in the Library 
of University College nor in the hands of the represen- 
tatives of Sir J. Marsham ; and ■what has become of it 
seems to be unknown. It could not have been identical 
with the so-called "Autograph ;" as there are no less than 
thirty-four variations between its text and that of the 
Autograph, in the five short Chapters of the Laws of the 
Conqueror which Spehnan has given in the Concilia. 

IV. The Manuscript from which Sir Henry Savile printed 
the First Edition of the History of Ingulfus, in his Scriptores 
post Bedam (1596). No information is given by Savile in 
reference to this manuscript, and what has become of it is 
unknown. It was imperfect however, breaking off immedi- 
ately before the Laws of the Conqueror, and omitting the 
latter portion of the History. 

V. The Arundel Manuscript, No. 178, in the British 
Museum ; wa-itten in a hand of the latter part of the six- 
teenth century. It breaks oft" at the same point as the 
manuscript used by Sir Henry Savile, but differs considerably 
from his text in the spelling of the proper names. 

This last — which, as an authority, is of course worthless — 
is the only manuscript of the History of Ingulfus now known 
to exist. 

For several a^es the f>:cnuineness of tlie Charters contained 
in the History of Ingulfus seems to have been unsuspected; 
and from the Second Continuation (also printed in Fulman's 
volume) we learn that on one occasion they were received 
as evidences of title, — a fact which, under the peculiar circum- 
stances of the case, ^vill be not undeserving of our future con- 
sideration. In Cough's Second Apjicndix to his History of 
Croyland we find a short account of the place, intituled 


" Croj//(inirs Chronicle, collected and compiled by Sir John 
Harrington, Knight, a learned law^-er and antiquary, Steward 
of Croyland, and nephew to the Reverend Father PhiHp 
Everard, Abbot there in the time of Iving Henry VH. and 
King Henry VKI." This writer makes free use ^f the 
Charters as found in Ingulfs Ilistorij, and, though in all 
probability he may have seen some at least of the so-called 
originals, seems to have entertained as little doubt as to their 
genuineness as liis predecessors, both lawyers and laymen, 
had during the preceding centur}-- and a half. Dr. Caius, in 
liis learned work upon IVte AntiquHii of tlie Univcrsitij of 
Camhridgc (lo(J8), is the first probably who has quoted 
Ingulfs History as an authority ; \Yhich he does unsuspect- 
ingly, and without reserve. 

For many years after the opinions of the learned upon 
these Charters had been more strongly challenged by the 
publication of the Histori/ of Ingulfus, there seems to have 
been no expression of a suspicion that either the work itself, 
or the so-called Charters inserted in it, were not, what they 
respectively rei^rcscnted themselves to be, memorials of 
Auiilo-Saxon and Aufrlo-Norman times. Sir Henry Savilc 
and Fulman, the editors, do not appear to have entertained 
any doubts on the subject; and these Charters, as well as the 
Ingulfan version of the Lairs of William the Conqueror, arc 
unliesitatingly quoted as genuine by Sir Henry Spelman iu 
his Concilia, and by Sir William Dugdale in the Monasticon. 
Archbisliop Nicolson suggests no doubts in his British 
Historical Lihrary, and Selden and Stillingileet rely upon 
the authority of the work with confidence. At the close 
even of the last century, Gough, the anticpiary, though aware 
of the doubts that were then entertained as to the Charters, 
does not ap})ear to have shared in them, and, in the Second 
Appendix to his Historj/ of Croijlaiid, inserts them all as 
genuine documents ; thougii, somcwliat singularl}', and. as 
tli()UL:;h doubting his own jiidgnient, whihj he \q»holds the 
gonuiiieiiess o\ Ingulfs Jli.storj/, he is ready to admit that 
Ingulf himself may have been sufliciently unscrupulous to bo 
capable of forging the Chartei's ; — " ibr Ingulf," he says, 
" does not hesitate to tell us what artifice he used in the 
return of (lie j)roperty (jf his house to the surveyors of 
l)niins<Jni/, — and Ingulf probably, like many others of his 
rank, produced forgcij ch.-irters (o support his claims. ' 


Among tliG first, if indeed not tlie very first, to express a 
doubt on tlic genuineness of these documents, "was the in- 
defatigable Henry Wharton. In his Latin History of the 
Bisho])S and Deans of London and Si. Asaph (London, 
1G95), he speaks of the Charters of Ethelbakl (a.d. 71 G), 
Wichtlaf (a.d. 833), Bertulph (a.d. 851), and Beorred (a.d. 
8G8), as almost satisfactorily proved to be fictitious, by cer- 
tain anachronisms \Yhich his research had detected in the 
respective attestations thereof. He finds, for example, that 
the Charter of Ethelbakl is attested by Wynfrid and Aldwin, 
Bishops of ]\Iercia and Lichfield ; that of Wichtlaf by Godwin, 
Bishop of Rochester ; that of Bertulph by the same Godwin; 
and that of Beorred by Alcwin, Bishop of Winchester, at 
times when none of those prelates ^Yere filling the sees respec- 
tively assigned to them. 

From Humphrey Wanle3% the antiquary, we learn that 
doubts were extensively entertained in his time — the earlier 
part of the eighteenth centur}^ — as to the genuinene^ of 
these documents. Among the Harleian ]\ISS. there is a 
letter written b}^ him to Lord Oxford, in which he says — 
" As to Ingulfus, I humbly beg leave to observe that some 
leai-ned men do not think the History bearing his name, or 
at least a great part of it, to be his ; and many Charters 
cited in that book are vehemently suspected to be spurious. 
One I can particularly mention, the Foundation Charter of 
Cro^dand Abbey ; which was, or seems to have been, taken 
fi'om one in being, and not much older, if any at all, than 
Henr}'^ the Second's time/' 

The so-called original, it ma}^ be hei-e remarked, of this 
alleged Foundation Charter was, according to Dean Hickes, 
in 1 70.5, in the possession of Dr. Thomas Guidot, a ph^^sician 
at Bath ; and would a])pear to have been the same document 
tliat is mentioned by Gough (Preface, p. viii.), as being in 
1734 the propert}^ of llobert Hunter, Esq., lord of the manor 
of Croyland ; in which year it was exhibited before the 
Society of Antiquaries. It seems not improbable, how- 
ever, that there was at least one duplicate of this Charter; 
which, we arc told, was kept in a box at Croyland during 
the seventeenth century, but was afterwards ""- lost. The 

" It f<eems quite possible, Lowcver, that these two documeuts may have been 


spurious character of this document, formerly known to the 
learned as the *' Golden Charter," Avill be the sul)ject of 
further notice. 

In the passage above quoted, it is not improbable that 
"Wanley alludes to the opinions strongly entertained on this 
subject by his friend, the learned llickes. In the First 
Volume of that writer's Thesaurus Lhujuarum Septentriona- 
Hum, he has devoted a considerable i)ortion of the PreHicc 
and of his Disscrtatio Eplstolaris to the proof, that these 
Charters bear strong internal evidence of an oi-igin posterior 
to the times of our Saxon kings. In p. G2 of the latter 
treatise, he points out the use in Ethelbald's Charter, a.d. 716 
(pp. '1 — 4 of Fulman's Edition) of the word leuca, "a league" 
(or rather, measure of 1.500 paces), it having in reality been 
introduced, some centuries later, by the Normans. He also 
instances such suspicious words as chirographo patenti, " chi- 
rograph patent;" seivera, "drain;" seisonis, "seasons;" 
and* /ihras legalis inonetce, "pounds of lawful money ;" ex- 
pressions betraying most undoubtedly a Korman, or Gallic, 
origin. He further remarks upon the mention of the Bene- 
dictines as Nigri Monachi, " Black ]\Ionks," a name by which 
it is generally supposed they were not then known, in this 
country at least ; and in support of his position refers to the 
enactments of the Synod of Cloveshoe, a.d. 743, some time 
after the reign of Ethelbald, in reference to the monastic 
dress. In the same work, he has given a facsimile of a por- 
tion of the Golden Charter of EthelbaM, and has called 
attention to the lateness of the character in which it is 
written, and the fantastic shapes and elaborate gilding of the 
crosses, the latter in especial not being in accordance with the 
Saxon usage. To his list of objections, we may parentheti- 
cally remark, llickes might have added the emi)loyment of 
the phrase srpara/is piscaria, " several fishery," a purely legal 
term bebjnging to a date some centuries later than the reign 
of Ethelbald. The fanciful and varying subscriptions, too, of 
the attesting witnesses to tliis cliarter arc such as are never 
found in charters of so earl}-' a date, but only in documents 
of the early part of the tenth century and upwards. The 
fiame renKuk will alsoa})j)ly to the attestations ol" the Charters 
attributed to OfTa, A.D. 703 (p. (1), ;nid ((» Keiuilf, King 
of .Mercia, a.d. SOfl (pp. G, 7) ; which latter is also bleiiiished 
with such anachronisms as passat/iuni, " pas.sago," or " escu- 


age," a feudal term ; and miles mcus, " my kniglit," also an 
expression of feudal times. 

Though not remarked by Hickes, the Charter of Wichtlaf, 
King of Mercia, a.d. 833 (pp. 8 — 11), bears equal marks of 
spuriousness. Like that of Kenulph, it makes mention of 
Langtoft, Aswyktoft, Badby, Holbecke, and Pyncebek, many 
years before the terminations " toft," " by," and " beck," had 
been introduced by Danish settlers into that part of England, 
(unless indeed we are ready to give our assent to the unsup- 
ported assertion of Gaimar, the Trouvere, that the Danes were 
established and ruling in this country in tiie reign immediately 
succeeding King Arthur's day). The words, too, ballivus, "a 
baihff," and advocatio, "an advowson," found in this Charter, 
are anachronisms ; and while the mention in it of Jews in 
England, dealing in money, at so early a date, is exceedingly 
suspicious, the varying subscriptions of the attesting witnesses 
would alone suffice to condemn it. Earl Algar's Charter too, 
A.D. 810 (p. 95), is proved by the attestations to be fictitious. 

In his Preface to the Thesaurus, Hickes expresses himself 
as fully assured that the Charter of Bertulph, a.d. 851 (pp. 
12 — 15), is equall}'' spurious with that of Ethelbald. He 
objects to the mention in it of " knights," at a time when 
knighthood did not exist here ; al feudi, " fees " or " feuds," 
long before the feudal system was introduced ; and to the 
use of such words as quarentena, a lineal measure, a 
term of purely Norman origin ; and feria, as meaning a 
da}'^ of the week, a sense in which, in the Saxon Charters, 
it is but very rarely to be found. By the extravagance, 
too, of its varying attestations, this Charter is additionally 

The Charter of Beorred (or Burghred), King of Mercia, 
A.D. 868 (pp. 18 — 20), is equall}" proved to be fictitious ; as 
well by the attestations as by the anachronisms involved in 
the mention of miles mens, "my knight"; manerium, "a 
manor," a term first introduced with the feudal S3'stem ; feo- 
dum, "a feud" or " fee," and advocatio, " an advowson." Of 
the spurious character of that of Edred (pp. 32 — 36) we 
may, with Hickes, feel equally assured. He calls attention 
to the mention in it of grant of " waif and stray," a purely 
Norman right ; maneria, " manors " ; secta in sc/u/ris, " suit 
of court of shires," a right claimed under the feudal system ; 
advocatio ecclesice, "advowson of a church"; affidare suos 



7iativos, "to claim on oath one's natives," or "serfs," an ex- 
pression connected with feudal usa<i;es ; and cafal/is, " with 
tlieir chattels," a term introduced by the Normans. 

Tlie fictitious character of Edgar's Charter (pp. 42 — 44) 
is equally apparent. Ilickes has noticed such expressions as 
com nt ((nam p(ist((ra', '" common of pasture," and tcncntcs suos, 
" their tenants ; " to which, " waif and stray/' and separalis 
piscaria, " several piscai-y,' may be added. The mention, 
too, of the " Triangular Bridge," at Croyland, in the Charters 
ofEdred and Edgar, documents professing to belong to the 
tenth century, is at least suspicious ; as, at the earliest, it 
•was a century later before the pointed arch was introduced 
into England ; and the triangular bridge as it now stands, 
with its arches of that form, is not of earlier construction than 
the thirteenth century. It is just possible, however, that a 
bridge of somewhat similar conformation, as to triangularity, 
may have preceded it. In these two Charters, also, it deserves 
remark that Edred and Edgar are styled "kings," not "of the 
whole of Britain," as in genuine charters of those sovereigns, 
but "of Great Britain"; many centuries before that title 
was heard of 

Tiie Ecclesiastical Censure (p. 44), professing to have 
been composed by Archbishops ])uiistan and Oskctul, a.d. 
966, to ensure the future possession of the lands and ])ropcrty 
of the Abbey of Croyland, is condemned as fictitious by the 
mention in it of " archdeacons " and " archidiaconal rights," 
110 years before their introduction into this country by 
Archbishop Lanfranc. 

Cnut's short Charter of Confirmation (p. 58) is equally 
fictitious. The word rrsfaxrator, "a restorer " is in reality 
not to be found in use, until probably some centuries later ; 
and goes far toward proving that this Charter, as well as 
that of Edward the Confessor (p. 64), is a forgery. 

In the Charter of Thorold, a.d. 1051 (pp. 86, 87), Hickes 
remarks upon several words C)f Norman origin which had led 
liim to consider it e(jually fictitious with the others ; and ho 
decidedly objects to a gift by a Saxon olllci.ii. in Saxon times, 
i)i lihcram (deomosiputm, "'\\\ fraiikalmoigiic," a term intro- 
duced by the Normans. The common people, too, at tliis 
date, had no double names, such being a usage of Norman 
introductioji ; and w(! mtist regard Thontld's dependants, 
" (juntcr Liniet," " Outy Clrimkelson," " Turstan Dubbe/ 


'' Gouse Gamelson," and " ]3esi Tuk," as tlie creatures of an 
iiiventiv^c imagination, and no more. 

The deeds alleged to have been executed by Abbot Ingulf 
to Oger the Priest, Simon of Baston, William the Miller, and 
others (pp. 101 — 103), are equally spurious ; witness the 
expressions manerium, " a manor ; " infeudo and in feudum, 
"in fee ; " hcBredihm et assignatis, "to his heirs and assigns;" 
and scivera, " a drain," all belonging to a later date. 

From the Charters we now turn to the History of Ingulfus 
itself, which Ilickes, and several other writers who have con- 
demned the Charters, have been by no means equally ready 
to condemn as having no pretensions to be considered 
genuine. We will deal first with the internal evidences which 
it seems to afford of its spuriousness. 

The contents of p. 16 are founded solely upon the peculiar 
language of the ridiculous subscriptions by the attesting 
witnesses to Bertulph's Charter ; and if those subscriptions 
fall to the ground as forgeries, which they assuredly must, 
this attempted explanation of them must of necessity fall to 
the ground as well. 

We shall have occasion to shew in the sequel that this 
History is based, in all probability, upon certain passages in 
the Fourth Book of the Ecclesiastical History of Ordericus 
Vitalis, who paid a visit to Croyland in the early part of the 
twelfth century. Vitalis mentions Kenulf, the first Abbot, 
and then is silent as to any intervening Abbots to the time of 
Turketul, a distance of about two hundred and thirty ^^ears. 
To fill up this hiatus, four Abbots are named by the comjDilers 
of the History, three of whose names are introduced into 
the fictitious Charters as well ; and to the rule of these first 
five Abbots (Kenulf included) a period is allotted of no less 
than two hundred and thirty-two 3^ears. The rule of the 
next nine Abbots, on the other hand, who are all mentioned 
by Ordericus Vitalis, occupies but one hundred and sixty- 
one years, a comparatively rational space of time. Of the 
first five Abbots, the names of Theodore and Godric are pro- 
bably borrowed from the Chronicle of John of Peterborough, 
compiled in the fourteenth century. 

The story of the Sempects, or five senior monks, d^-ing in 
the time of King Edgar at the respective ages of 1G8, 142, 
115, and (probably) 120 years, is evidently an account of a 
coincidence too marvellous not to be fabulous. Vitalis says 


that the Abbey was laid waste by Iiigiiar. Gutliruiu, an J otlier 
Danish chiefs, and that its possessions fell into the hands of 
laymen ; implying also that it remained in this state of ruin 
and desolation mitil tlie days of King Edred, a period of 
nearly eighty years. These live venerable personages there- 
fore, there can be little doubt, are an invention of the com- 
pilers for the purpose of tiding over the dark }>eriod between 
the ruin of tlie Abbey by the Danes and the election of 
Abbot Turketul, a.d. 1)48 ; <a period as to which, we 
may conclude from the narrative of .Vitalis, there were no 
historical abbe}' memorials in existence. To meet this well- 
known difficulty, as well as the obvious circumstance that no 
other memorials were likely to exist, relative to the Abbe}', 
between the time of its foundation by Ethelbald, a.d. 71b*, 
and its destruction by the Danes, A.D. 870, the writers have 
created these long-lived Sempects with the express object ot 
j)lacing upon them (pp. 48, 50, and D)7), the responsibility 
of the narrative from the time of the lirst foundation, until 
the desolation of the Abbey by the Danes, as is stated in one 
place (p. 107) ; or until the fourteenth year of King Edgar, 
as they say, somewhat seriously contradicting themselves, in 
another (p. 48). 

The Abbey of Croyland is represented (p. 130) as having 
had the name Curteys, " courteous," given to it by reason of 
the courtesy shown by its inmates to Turketul in the days of 
l\ing Edred. From other sources, ^\e know that at a later 
period this monastery really had — in consequence, probably, 
of its great wealth and its unbounded hospitality — the com- 
jilimcntary epithet of '• Courteous Croyland" bestowed upon 
it : but we leave it to the inventors of tiiis clumsy explanation 
to shew why it should have received a purely l"'rench njtpcl- 
lation in j)urely JSaxon times. 

Turketul, tlic King's Chancellor, is represented (p. 'M')) as 
being the agent through whose advice seven Dishoj)rics were 
conferred on one day ; whereas, in reality, the ^synod at 
wliich these prelacies were conferred Avas held a.d. D05, two 
years bef(M"e the date at which, according to Tiigulfs own 
narrative (p. 5:2), Turketul was boiji. Dynewulf too, who is 
represented as the ]iishop of A\in< hester at wliosc death 
I'urketid refuse'] tlie see (p. 3(j), in reahty died when Tur- 
ketul was three years of age. Again, Frithestan, who is 
styled (p. :3G) Turketul's fo.ster-brother (rol/actancua), is 


immediately after made to succeed to the sec of Winchester 
at a period which was two years before the alleged date of 
Turketul's birth ; though in reality he succeeded a.d. 910, 
three years after the year in which Turketul is here 
represented to have been born. 

Otho I., Emperor of Germany, married Eadgyth, Athel- 
stau's sister, a.d. 924 ; so that this marriage could not, as 
represented in the History (p. 37), have been consequent 
upon the fame gained by Athelstan at the battle of Brunen- 
burgh, A.D. 937 ; nor could the^ Emperor Henry I., as there 
represented, have sent an embassy to Athelstan after that 
battle, seeing that he died the year before. The statement 
also (pp. 29, 37) that Constantino, King of Scotland, was 
slain in the battle of Brunenburgh, is erroneous ; it being his 
son who lost his life there, Constantino himself embracing a 
monastic life seven years later. 

Again, Hugh,'* " King of the Franks," is named (pp. 3S 
and 51) as existing a.d. 937. There was no such personage 
then in existence. Hugh Capet was not crowned until a.d. 
987 ; and the compilers may possibly have been led into 
the error by mistaking the numerals of the one date for the 

The alleged exaction of 2000 marks by Kino; Swevn, 
within three months, from the Monastery of Croyland (p. bQ) 
is undoubtedly a fable. The amount itself is beyond all 
belief, as on the same occasion a sum of no more than 
48,000 pounds was exacted from the whole of England, 
The story is founded, there seems reason for supposing, upon 
the account given by Florence of Worcester of the martyrdom 
of Archbishop Elphege, by the Danes, upon his refusal to pay 
an exorbitant sum by way of ransom. 

In page 57 we read of a demise of the manor of Baddeby, 
A.D. 1013 (a period, be it I'emarked, when manors did not 
exist in England), for a term of 100 years, at a j'earl}' rent 
of one peppercorn ; the fact being, that a demise for a term 

3 [The Histoiy styles him " Emperor but he does not commit the additional 

of Germany " and " Emperor of the error into which the HUtory has fallen, 

Romans," the latter being a title to of saying that King Hugh sent for 

wliich in reality he had no claim. Wil- Athelstan's sister (Eadhild) for the pur- 

liam of Malmesbury (Hist. ^126) calls pose of giving her in marriage to his son ; 

him " Emperor of Germany."] wliereas. in realitj% Hui^h " Duiie of tiie 

* [William of Malmesburj-, it has been Franks," married her himself, and that, 

remarked, since the above was written, eleven years before the battle of Bruueu- 

makes the same mistake (Hist. § 135); burgh was fought.] 


of 3'ears was unknown in England before tlie Conquest, 
and a reservation of a peppercorn rent a thing equally 
mdiearJ of. Another singular circumstance, too, is the asser- 
tion (p. 57) that through the agency of Earl Leofric, the 
manor of Baddeby had come into the hands of the Abbey of 
Evesham, " and is still retained b}-- it, thouijh the term has 
eu'pired " ; the fact being, that the Ili.stonj pm-ports to have 
been written a.d. 1091, 2, or 3 ; and that Abbot Ingulf died 
AD. 1109, four years before a.d. 1113, the end of the term 
of 100 years. On the other hand again, in page 85 we find 
it stated that there are still twentij years of the lease to run, 
and an attempt is made to explain why the manor is described 
in Domesday as still being in the actual possession of the 
iiuinks of Croyland. In the so-called First Continuation of 
Ingulfs Histori/, attributed to Peter of Blois, we find an 
account of the unsuccessful attempts made by Abbot Geoffrey, 
Ingulfs successor, to recover the manor of Baddeby shortly 
after the expiration of the 100 years. The purpose may 
perhaps be divined for which these clums}'- forgeries about 
this locality were fabricated, but the real facts of the case 
will probably remain for ever unknown. 

The account of Abbot Turketul (attributed to Abbot 
Egelric the Younger in page 107, but apparently to the 
Sempects in page 48) bears abundant marks of a ftmciful 
and spurious origin. It is founded, there can be little doubt, 
on the conqmratively meagre narrative of Vitalis, who men- 
tions Turketul as merely a clerk, and of the royal race. In 
the present narrative, however, he is expanded into King 
Edi-ecl's Chancellor ; an officer who, as the late Sir Francis 
Palgrave lias remarked (vol. xxxiv., of the Quarterly Review^, 
'' if lie did exist amon<r the other officers of the Anglo-Saxon 
Court, was nothing more than a notary or scribe, entirely 
destitute of the liigh authority which Ingulf bestows upon 
liim." With the same writer, we must of necessity agree in 
rejecting the puei-ile account (p. 37) of Tuiketurs prowess 
at the Battle of JlniiirnlMiiL;]!. A story, whicli relates how 
that he penetratt'cl the lioslilc ranks, struck d(jwn the enemy 
rigiit and left, and, aniiil torrents of blood, reached the king 
of the Scots; and ih( n innnediately stultifies itself by telling 
us, that in aftei'-liincs, when ho had nssumed the monastic 
gail), lie " esteemed hiniscif haj)py and loi'tunate in thai he never sl.iin a m.m, nor even wounded one," surely 


cannot have been penned by a person wlio really knew an}'- 
tliing about Turketul, and is evidently deserving of no serious 
attention from any one in possession of his senses. The 
whole story of the birth, education, promotion, fortunes, and 
deeds of Abbot Ingulf, tliei-e can be little doubt, with the 
exception of the slight foundation afforded by the pages of 
Vitalis, is as unsubstantial and fictitious as the narrative in 
reference to Turketul. " The passage respecting the educa- 
tion of Ingulfus (at Oxford)," remarks »Sir F. Palgrave, " long 
since roused the suspicion of Gibbon, and it still remains to 
be proved that Aristotle formed part of the course of educa- 
tion at the University of Oxford at a time when his works 
were studied in no part of Christendom." It seems not 
improbable that this story of Ingulfs education at Oxford 
owes its existence to the fact, of the History having been 
compiled at a period when the scholastic dispute began to 
run high in reference to the comparative antiquity of the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 

In narrating the ])articulars of his journey to the East, 
Ingulf tells us that he first visited the court of Alexius, 
Emperor of Constantinople, and immediately afterwai'ds 
was welcomed by Sophi'onius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem 
(p. 74). These assertions are quite irreconcileable ; for 
Sophronius died a.d. 1059, and the first Emperor named 
"Alexius" did not ascend the throne until a.d. 1081. 

Radulph, or llalph. Earl of Hereford, was the son of Goda, 
sister of Edward the Confessor ; whereas the compilers of 
the present narrative (p. ^1) represent him as being her 
husband, a mistake which a contemjoorary certainl}'' would 
not have made. 

The stories told (pp. 70, 98) as to the Saxon mode of 
signing charters with golden crosses, and decorating them 
with paintings of a splendid and costly description, is utterly 
inifounded ; and there can be little doubt that, in the real 
ignorance of the forgers as to the Saxon usage, the}' were 
penned with the view of supporting the Croyland Charters 
when the so-called originals should come to be proflfered in 
court. The remarks of Sir F. Palgrave on this subject are 
much to the purpose : " It is familiarly known," he says, 
" that the Anglo-Saxons confirmed their deeds by subscribing 
the sign of the Cross, and that the Charters themselves are 
fairly, but plainly, engrossed on parchment. But instead of 


iniitatino; tliese unostentatious instruments, the elaborate 
forgers often endeavoured to obtain respect for their fabrica- 
tions by investing them with as much splendour as possible ; 
and those grand crosses of vermilion and azure which 
dazzled the eyes and deceived the judgment of the Court 
when produced before a bench of simple and unsuspecting 
lawyers, now reveal the secret fraud to the lynx-eyed anti- 
quar3\ The Charter of Ethelbald, called the ' Golden 
Charter' bears the impress of falsity." 

Vitalis tells us that Abbot Ingulf ruled the monaster}'- 
twenty-four years, and that his successor GeoftVcy was 
appointed a.d. 1109; thus making the year of Ingulfs 
nomination to l)e a.d. 10S5. In the present narrative, on 
the other hand, Ingulf makes himself to have been appointed 
Abbot immediately on the deposition of Abbot Wulketul ; 
an event which took place a.d. 1075 (pp. 73, 79, 94), ten 
years in fact before the date given by \"italis. The earlier 
date, however, is assigned to Ingulfs nomination in the 
Peterborough Chronicle, already mentioned. A very sus- 
picious fact, too, is the assertion that, on his deposition in 
107 J, Abbot Wulketul was placed in the custody (p. 73) of 
Thurstan, the Norman "Al)bot of Glastonbury;" while in 
rcalitv, as we learn from "William of.AIalmesbury's A?ifi(/f(ilics 
of Glastonburi/, Thurstan (or Turstin) did not receive that 
appointment until a.d. 1081. 

The alleged sitting (p. 77) of the "King's Justiciars" at 
Stamford a.d. 1075, for the trial of causes, is an anachronism. 
Such a thing was unheard of until about a century later, at 
the earliest. 

The a.ssertion is risked (pp. 79, 80) that King Alfred had 
compiled a roll, very similar to Dn^nrsdny, the whole country 
being marked out in it by counties, hundreds, and tithiiigs. 
In reference to this passage Sir Henry MHis has remarked 
((irnrrdl Jiifrod. to Dontrsdaj/, vol. i. j). 1, cd. 1833), that 
the formation of such a survey in the time of Alfred may 
be more than doubted, as we have not a solitary authority 
for its existence ; and the most diligent investigation has not 
been able to discover, among the records either of Saxon or 
of later times, the slightest indication that such a survey 
was cvc^r known. The separation into counties is also known 
to have taken place hjng befoi-e the days of Alfri'd. Had 
tlic writer too of Ingulfs llistorij really been a Norman 


monk, he woul J never have fallen into the error of asserting 
(p. 82) that the French leuca at the time of the Conquest 
was equal to two English miles ; the fact being that it only 
contained twelve furlongs, or one English mile and a half 

As to the assertion risked also (p. 83} that "Philip" was 
a very common name in France in the eleventh century, Du 
Cange has remarked {Glossarij, s. v. Philippi) that, so far 
from such being the case, the name is scarcely ever to be 
found before the time of Henry I. of France, who was 
contemporary with Ingulf 

Mention is again made (p. 95) of the " King's Justices in 
the County," meaning, to all appearance, sitting in Eyre ; 
and this al)out a century, as already noticed, before the 
sittings in Eyre were instituted. 

In p. 104 we find the double names, " Harald Gower" 
and "Holler Quater," represented as belonging to dependents 
of the convent ; at a period, in fact, when as yet double 
names were not given to persons of that class. 

The vicarius, or " vicar," of Wedlongburc, is mentioned a.d. 
1091 (p. 105) ; whereas, in reality, vicars of churches were 
unknown here until about a century after that date. 

Another and most convincing proof of the spurious 
character of this History, is afforded through the agency of 
the copy of the Laws of William the Conqueror which it 
professes to give. Selden, in his Notes to Eadmer (published 
A.D. 1623), has printed a transcript of these Laws from a 
manuscript of Ingulfus, which appeared to him at that date 
to be about two centuries old, and which, not improbably, 
was identical with the Cottonian copy, now lost ; while, at 
the same time, he informs us that he had attempted, but in 
vain, to get a sight of the (so-called) "Autograph" of Ingulfus. 
Another copy of these Laws, also in French, is printed by 
Fulman, in his edition (pp. 88 — 91), from Sir John 
Marsham's manuscript of Ingulfus, which seems to have been 
neither the Cottonian MS. nor the Autograph. Sir Henry 
Spelman, in his Concilia (published a.d. 1639), remarks 
(vol. i. p. 623) upon the comparative incorrectness of 
Selden's version, and, after informing us that he himself 
had gained access to the original {archeti/pum), then pre- 
served, "under three keys," in the church at Croyland, 
gives five Chapters of these Laws, most carefully transcribed 
by himself from the original, by way of specimen. Now, of 



course, if this manuscript had really been of Abbot Ingulfs 
time, and penned in 1091, 2, or 3, the laws Avould have 
been found to be Avritten in the Korman language of that 
period. So far, however, from this being the fact, on ex- 
amination of this specimen, and minute comparison of it 
with the text of the Ilolkham ]\Ianuscript, of about the 
thirteenth century, from which ]\[r. Thoi-p has printed these 
Laws in pp. 201 — 210 of his Ancient Laws and Institutes of 
Enfihnid.wQ find that the French of the so-called '-Autograph," 
satisfactory though it may have been to Sir Henry Spelman, 
is greatly more corrupt and more unlike pure Norman than 
that of the manuscript of the thirteenth centuiy. In proof 
of this, on close inspection — the results of which arc given 
in detail in the note '" annexed — we find no less than four- 

^ sont (arc) Autogr. — sunt, Ilolkliani. sont, is PicarJ ami Burguiuliaii ; 
sunt, is pure Norman. 

graiintat (granted) Autogr. — grantad, Ilolkliam. grauntat, is a Picard 
and Burgundian furni ; grantad, Norman. 

conquest {con(\\\QS,\.) Autogr. — cunqucst, Ilolkliam. conquest, is Picard and 
Burgundian ; eunqucst, Norman. 

le reis (the king) Autogr. — U rcis, Ilolkham. le, is late Picard ; It, is 

son (his, lirxcc,) Autogr. — sxm, Ilolkham. son, is Picard and Burgundian ; 
sun, Norman. 

C05m (kinsman) Autogr. — c?<5m, Ilolkham. co.'^iH, is Picard and Burgun- 
dian ; cusin, Norman. 

savcir (to know) Autogr. — saver, Ilolkham. saveir, is a form that helongs 
to the mi.xed dialects ; saver, is pure Norman. (But see hdow.) 

saint (holv) Autogr. — seinte, Ilolkham. saint, is a Picard and Burgun- 
dian form ; sc'inte, Norman. 

yglise (church, five times) Autogr. — igJlsc, Ilolkham. yglise, is a late 
form, Anglo-Norman, and perhaps Picard ; iglise, is the early form. 

for/ait (offence) Autogr. — forfeit, Ilolkham. forfait, is a Picard and 
Burgundian form ; forfeit, Norman. 

se (if) Autogr. — si, llttlkham. se, is a late gonoral form, after the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century ; si, is the early general form. 

religion (religion) Autogr. — rcligiun, llnlkliam. religion, is Picard and 
Burgundian ; rcligiun, Norman. 

enfraint (hreak.s) Autogr. — cnfreint, Ilolkham. cnfraint, i.s a Picard and 
Burgundian forni ; cnfreint, Norman. 

per (hy) Autogr. — par, Ilolkham. per, is the Burgundian furm ; par, is 
Norniun and Picard. 

home (man, three times) Autogr. — hume, llnlUiam. Iimne, in a form of 
the nii.\ed dialects ; hume, is early Niinnan. 

escondire (to exculpate, twice) Autogr. — escun<lirr, csenndire, 
\n Picard and Burgundian ; e^eunilire, the Norman form. 

tavoir {io knowj Autogr. — sareir, Ilolkham. sarrir, helongs to the mi-\ed 
dialects ; savoir, to P»urgundy ami the south of Picardy. 


mid-tliii'fcy instances in wliicli, in lieu of pure Norman, late 
Ano-lo-Norinan forms of words are to be found in tliis small 
but valuable sample of the asserted Autograph ; convincingly 
proving that, instead of having been penned in the days of 
William Kufus, it had been written by careless and ignorant 
scribes, whose only acquaintance with the French language 
was in the corrupt form which it had assumed in this 
country, in the fourteenth and early part of the fifteenth 
centuries, as a mixture of the Picard, Norman, Burgundian, 
and Walloon dialects, and who, in transcribing from an earlier 
copy of these Laws, had inadvertently given their transcript a 
tinge of their own period. The Laws of the Conqueror, we 
may therefore conclude, though even there incorrectly 
transcribed to some extent, are to be read in a state much 
more closely approaching their original purity, in the 
Ilolkham M8., of a date two centuries posterior to the daj^s 
of the Conqueror, than they would have been m the so-called 
" Autograph " of his contemporary, Abbot Ligulf, had it for- 
tunately survived to our times. 

Another somewhat suspicious circumstance which remains 
to be noticed, with reference alike to the Charters and the 
Hidory of Ligulfus, is the fact that the names of all localities 
around, or in any way connected with, Croyland, are there 
to be found spelt, in the eighth, ninth, tenth, and eleventh 
centuries, almost exactly the same as, from pp. 502 — 512 of 
the Second Continuation, w^e know they were at the beginning 
of the fifteenth centur}"- : a lapse of 700 years seems to have 
made the very smallest diiference in this respect. 

forfaiture (penalty) Autogr. — forfeiture, Holkliam. forfaiture, is a 
Picard and Burgundian form ; forfeiture, Norman. 

lui (" the," sing, nom.) Autogr. — li, llolkliain. lui, is probably a Walloon 
form ; li, is Norman, Picard, and Burgundian. 

le (" the," sing, nom.) Autog. — li, Holkham. le, is Picard ; li, Picard, 
Burgundian, or Norman. 

haron (baron) Autogr. — harun, Ilolkham. baron, is a form of the mixed 
dialects ; harun, is Norman. 

doner (to give) Autogr. — duner, Ilolkham. doner, is Picard and Bur- 
gundian ; duner, Norman. 

demaine (demesne) Autogr. — demeine, Holkham. dcmaine, is a Picard 
and Burgundian form ; demeine, Norman. 
Three other instances are omitted. On the other hand, there are 

but six instances in the so-called " Autograph," in which forms are found 

that have the appearance of being purer Norman than the corresponding 

words in the Ilolkham Manuscript. Into the question of the genuineness 

of these " Laws of the Conqueror " we do not profess to enter. 


We propose to conclude this branch of our enquiry by 
subjecting- the llidonj of InguH'us to the same test to \vhich 
the Charters have been ah-eady subjected : the detection of 
errors and anachronisms in the use of words and expressions, 
im]»hed to liave been used at a time wlien in reahty they 
^-ere unknown. The hst. however, might probably be very 
considerabh' extended. 

Vadiivi, "waste;" cataJIa, "chattels;" latomus, "a mason;" 
and argenti trecentas libras, "three hundred pounds of 
silver" (p. 4), are expressions that were never used, as 
asserted, by a poet of the eighth century, we may safely 
say. Loqiiutorium, "a parlour" of a convent (p. 23), is a 
susjticious term in an account of the ravages of the Danes, 
puri)urting to have been penned in the tenth century. 
Pinqitusima 'prcubcnda, " a very fat prebend " (p. 30), is an 
ex|iression savouring of a much later age than that of the 
Sempects or the Younger Egelric, who are represented as 
livin": in the tenth century. Theoricum vo'bum,"' the word 
of God," is a phiase probably not to be found before the 
time of John of Genoa, whose Glossary was written in the 
thirteenth century, liickcs has remarked that the Ordi- 
nances of Abbot Tuiketul are di-awn up too much in 
accordance with Norman notions to be genuine; and instances 
such words as rjarcio, " servant," pitantiarius, " pittancer," 
and froccus, " frock," Avhich are there to be found, as being 
of purely Gallic origin. Arjni(jcr, *' an cs(piire " (p. 40), is 
another word too, not very likely to be met with in a code 
of regulations made by a Saxon Abbot in the tenth century. 
Indrittura, "indented list," a word employed (p. .01) in the 
account of the disposition of his property by Abbot Turketul, 
is in reality not to be found in use until the icign of King 
John or Henry 111. 

Caviare, "to carry" (p. .02), and brf/c/fiaw, "a brewery" 
(p. .03), are words which, there can be little doubt, belong to 
a period some two centuries later than the time of Ingulf; 
a remark which also ajtplies to the use of sccfa, as meaning 
"a suit of clothes," in |). .04. J\/i/es, "a knight," and 
manrriuiu, "a manor" (p. G3), are ecpially out of ]>lace ; 
and the employnicnt of the word jiislifidrliis^ "a justiciar" 
(p. ^3), is a signal anachi-onism — once or twice repealed in 
tlio work^ — that woid being nowhere else to be foimd until 
about the middle ol' the eleventh century. " Jashlia" is 


the term universally employed to signify a "justice," or 
"judge," by writers contemporary Avitli William the Con- 
queror. Panis secundarius, "second bread" (p. GQ), is an 
expression of later date than the days of the Conqueror by 
probably two or three centuries ; and we certainly cannot 
but be taken by surprise at the mention (p. 68) of corhim 
cnctum, "boiled leather," or cuir houilli, being used for 
defensive armour by the troops of Earl Harold, in the days 
of Edward the Confessor 1 

In p. 78 we meet with the legal word separalis, " several," 
or " separate," which, although introduced also into the 
fictitious Charters of Edred and Edgar, is not to be met 
with probably before the beginning of the thirteenth century ; 
and the expression in the following page, ejus venerabilem 
personam, " his venerable person," has the appearance of 
belonging to a still more recent date. Portiforium, "a 
breviary " (p. 79), is a word not to be found elsewhere till 
the close of the thirteenth century ; copia, " a copy " (p. 92), 
"was not so early in use probably by two centuries ; and 
ijuindena, "a quinzaine," or "fortnight" (p. 95), is probably 
nowhere else to be found until near a century and a half 
after IngulPs day. 

Concjiiassare, "to crush" (p. 97), is a word first found in 
use probably some two centuries later ; so too is the form 
corrodiarius, "a corodier," or "pensioner" (pp. 97, 98) ; 
while the word carcosiiim, " a carcase," it is presumed, is not 
to be met with elsewhere before the thirteenth century. 
Nativiis, as meaning "a serf" or "bondman" (p. 101), 
belongs probabl}^ to the thirteenth century ; and campanile, 
"a belfry," is not a word of Ingulfs age. Scrjantia, "a 
serjeanty" (pp. 103, 104), and publicum parliamentum, "a 
public parliament" or "sitting" (pp. 103, 131), are ex- 
pressions not to be found elsewhere until nearly one hundred 
years later ; Avhile such appellations as scrvicns cissor and 
serviens 5z</or, " serjeant-tailor " and "serjeant-shoemaker " 
(p. 103), belong to the fourteenth or fifteenth century. 
The phrase too, i7i tahulis, "in boards" (p. 104), as applied 
to the sides of a book, hardl}^ seems to belong to the da3's ot 
William the Conqueror or his son. Seicera, " a drain," in 
the closing page (107), is undoubtedly a word unknown till 
a century or more after that date. 

{To be continued.) 


By the rev. JOHX EARLE. M.A., 
Late Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the University of Oxford. 

In the early part of tlic Saxon period, previous to the 
com})relieiisive dominion of Wessex, the poHtical relations of 
this district appear very precarious, and subject to the 
vicissitudes incidental to border-lands. 

If the valley of the Severn was overrun by Wessex in the 
sixth century, it was not a permanent conquest, for in the 
course of the ensuing- century this district fell under the 
growing power of Mercia. From the latter end of the 
seventh century we begin to have some details of Ilwiccia, 
as the bid of the Severn was then called ; and it constantly 
appears as subordinate to Mercia. It had a king of its own, 
but he is spoken of as a dependent king, under aEthelred of 
Mercia. " Ilwicciorum subregulus Oslierus, vir multuni 
laudabilis, Hwicciam, cui dignitate prcesidebat regia, &c." 
(Fl(jrence Chron., Appendix, v. Hwiccia.) 

IlwicciA was one of the five jyarochice, or dioceses, into 
which Mercia was divided in the time of Archbishop Theo- 
dore, A.D, 680. Tlie see of this diocese was fixed at Wor- 
cester, as the ancient capital of Ilwiccia and ]\ragesitania, the 
one in the lower, and the other in the upper Severn-biet. 
Thus we get a rough definition of ancient Ilwiccia ; viz., the 
southern iialf of the old diocese of Worcester. Tiiis will 
correspond to a large extent with the ])resent county of 
Gloucestershire. A i)assago in Florence, nnuo 871^ describes 
Cii'encester as being situate " in mciidiana parte Wic- 

Certainly Ilwiccia fornie<l jiaii of the (huninions of the 
Jlercinn Knig Ofla. — the " rex lurniidolosus 011a "^wlio lilLs 

' Of UiiN Memoir, communicntcd nt porlion lion bcnii givcu in tliiii, 
Uio AiiniiJtl MueliiiK of the Inittituto iit vol. xviii. p. 'ii'l. 
UluucoiUir, July, liiOO, tho iircceding 


the view nearly tliroiighoiit the second lialf of the eiglith cen- 
tury. In liis time there is no question who sways Hwiccia ; 
the debateable land is transferred to the other bank of the 
Severn. It is the country between the Severn and the Wye 
which is now in a state of agitation, and we can hardly doubt 
that under Ofta it was finally annexed to the English territory. 
This land bears manifest traces of having been settled by the 
English in early times, and the reign of Offa will agree well 
with all the data. The Welsh chronicles, somewhat indis- 
tinctly, represent a conquest by Offa, secured by his Dyke, but 
afterwards partially lost again ; the Welsh having desti'oyed 
his first Dyke, and having compelled him to be satisfied with 
a less ambitious boundary line."^ The Gloucestershire 
portion of Offa's Dyke has been studiously investigated by 
Dr. Ormerod, of Sedbury Park, and the results are printed 
in his " Strigulensia," pp. 50 — .59. 

Florence notices the succession of Hwiccian bishops with 
a marked regularity. He was a monk of Worcester, and had 
the catalogue at hand. 

Hwiccia is a name to rouse curiosit}^ what its origin may 
have been. Rudder associates it with another problematical 
word, viz., " wich." He supposes that Hwiccia was so called 
from the " many brin}^ Avells, which the ancient English in 
their language called 'wiches,' whence with Httle trouble 
they made salt." 

Another query which might interest us about this name, 
is whether, being itself extinct, it has left any derivatives 
behind it 1 The names of districts are apt to reproduce 
themselves in two opposite directions. The first and most 
obvious is, at the capital city. The chief towns of France 
offer a familiar illustration of this propagation of the name of 
an ancient tribe or district. Thus the ancient nation of the 
Treviri is still represented in the name of Treves ; that of 
Bitiiriges in Bourfies ; of the Rcdoncs in Rennes ; and that 
of the Parisii in Paris. This has not been so much the case 
in our island. Here the district name has reproduced itself 
more generall}" on the confines. For instance, on the western 
boundary line of Gloucestershire, which is also the line 
of division between England and Wales, we have the names 
of England and Wales reproduced adjcctively in " English 

2 Ai'chaeologia Cambrensis for 1856, p. 152. 


Bicknoi" niul " AVelsli Bickiior." It m'ouUI not be unpre- 
cedented if the names of England and Wales were to pass 
into oblivion, Avliilo "■ English Bicknor " and " AVelsli Bick- 
nor " — one or both — retained their position on the map. 
The antiquarian of the remote future, retracing the limits of 
England and Wales, would hail \vith a cry of joy these 
village names, \Nhich would be to him as a beacon. 
Similarly, I venture to greet the name of Wychwood, as 
a relic of ancient Hwiccia. " Wychwood Forest" is in 
Oxfordshii-e, but it extends within a short distance of the 
borders of Gloucestershire, occupying the watershed between 
Severn and Thames, the presumed verge of Hwiccia ; and 
in a document bearing the date of Christmas-day, a. d. 841, 
it is spelt " Ilwiccewudu."^ All this points to the conclu- 
sion that in this name we have a memorial of the ancient 
lluiccas. The fair which is, or was, annuall}' held in Wych- 
wood Forest, may contain a tradition of the time when 
stranger-nations met there, as on a neutral territory, to 
exchange their respective commodities. Further noi'tli, 
near the confines of three counties, — Gloucestershire, Ox- 
fordshire, Warwickshire, — we have another possible offset of 
Hwiccia, in the name Whichford. 

One thing is plain. It was in the times when " Hwiccia" 
was a living designation that the bulk of the Gloucester- 
shire names were formed, and this must be my excuse for 
dwelling so long upon it. This name retained its activity 
down to the ninth century, and there arc few names on 
the map of Gloucestershire which had nut come into 
existence by that date. 

The usual Saxon names occur in this county, but the (ons 
are vastly in the majority. Wicks and icortlis are compara- 
tively numerous, but the tons are to either of these as ten to 
one. This throws Gloucestershire into the same category 
with the country west of the Barrett, especially Devonshire, 
and indicates (probably) that there was an active influx of 
West Saxon settlers in the ninth century. 

That remarkalili' line t'T kings which hcgiiis with the acces- 
sion of Ecgbei-Jit, in the y.iv 8<)U, was ancinicil with its 
natural consequence, that the jiopulatinn <il' Wcsscx over- 
llowed its ancient Ixjundarics, an<l swarnnd foith in search 

3 Kciulilc, Cod. Dij.!. No. 217. 


of new settlements. The AValas had to retire be3'ond the 
Taniar, or be content to have the Saxon for a neiglibour and 
a lord. The same causes may have led to an infusion of 
fresh Saxon blood into the Anglian (or mostly Anglian) 
Hwiccia. The prevalence of a i Wessex strain of names, 
interspersed with occasional peculiarities of the Anglian, 
invites this supposition. But I dare not advance the pre- 
tension of being able to distinguish Anglian names from 
Saxon, with a certainty strong enough to sustain the weight 
of an historical deduction. It is not only on observation of 
the names that I rest the opinion of such an influx from 
Wessex. The records contain, not indeed an explicit state- 
ment to this effect, but a very stimulating suggestion of its 
probability. The 3^ear 800 is marked by the event which 
after-times recognized as highly important, the accession of 
Ecoberht. But before time had unfolded all that was in- 
volved in that event, the year and the day of Ecgberht's 
accession received its lustre from a propitious incident which 
happened on the border. On that very day the Hwiccian 
commandant made a foray over the border, i.e., over the 
Thames, into AViltshire. The commandant of Wiltshire 
promptly met the invader ; the parties engaged, both leaders 
fell, but the prowess of the men of Wiltshire secured victory 
for Wessex. Can we suppose — does history allow us any 
opening to imagine, even if we were so inclined — that the 
warlike Ecgberht let this insult pass without further notice. 
If such had been the case, I believe it wouhl never have 
figured in the Annals at all. Our annals at that early date 
are very meagre, but perhaps they contain more than has 
yet been extracted. They are contemporary in one sense, 
and 3^et not in the rigid sense of having been penned journal- 
wise, year by year. The selection of recorded events is not 
so arbitrary or accidental as it seems. In short, I believe 
that this raid of Ecgberht's accession day was well remem- 
bered, and, before that generation passed away, securely 
scored in the annal, just because it was fruitful in conse- 
quences, and because it was well revenged. Add to this the 
consideration, that either by fear or favour, Hwiccia must 
have been pacified towards Wessex before Ecgberht set out 
on his Northumbrian expedition, and I think we have 
data enough to warrant the acceptance of the probable 
inference, that by Ecgberht, Hwiccia was thrown open to 

VOL. XIX. 1 


emigrants and adventurers from the swarming bccdiive of 

If the above reasoning has smoothed the way for a Saxon 
immigration into Hwiccia in the ninth century, we have an 
explanation of the preponderance of fn?is and the large pro- 
portion of hamptonn, and generally, of the Sawon complexion 
of the naming of Gloucestershire. But here I imagine an 
objection occurring to the reader. If we accept the con- 
struction which Dr. Guest has put on certain notices of the 
sixth century, this brings the Saxon triumphantly up the 
Severn, and would seem to offer a deeper ground for any 
Saxonisms observal)le in the nomenclature of Gloucestershire. 
But to this there is a double answer. First, from histor3^ 
It has been shown above that if Ilwiccia was conquered by 
"Wessex arms in the sixth century, it did not continue 
permanently subject to the throne of Wessex. We have 
glanced at two hundred years of Mercian, — i.e., Anglian, — 
dominion over Ilwiccia. Even if the Wessex success was 
ever consolidated as a conquest, which has not been made 
to appear, and if there was a Saxon colony or colonies 
settled in the district (which is still less likely), they must 
have been soon absorbed in the Anglian population ; and, 
isolated from Wessex, they must have lost all their distinctive 
Saxon character. This is the first answer to the supposed 
objection, taken from a view of the histor3\ The second 
answer arises from the philological view. We find tangible 
marks of Anglian dialect in such a name, for instance, as 
" Yate," which I interpret as the Anglian form of the Saxon 
" Gate." But on this point of the Anglian complexion of 
ancient Gloucestershire, we may gather evidence from a 
term which has been noticed as a curiosity in ])omesday, 
and which is found (with one single exception) only in the 
Severn district.' This is the /{(tdclteinstrcs, sumelinics called 
JifKhitfuis. They are mentioned three times in Gloucester- 
sliiro, viz., at Jjcrchelai, Teodechesberie, Derheste ; three 
times in Ilerefordsliire, twice in Worcestershire, and through 
all the other counties only once, viz., at Gosei (Jierks). They 
arc understood to have ])een froemon wlio ])err(jrmcd certain 
miht.'iiT S(.'rvices on horschack. 'i'lic Kad-man, so clumsily 
jduralilierl into li.'ul-mans, is simply a " liding-man." A}»pa- 

* Sir II. EUiB, " lotroduotioD to DomcBlay," vol. i., \k ~i1. 


rentlj they were needed as a kind of mounted constabulary 
in the neighbourhood of the Welsh border. 

But the strange word Rad-c/ienifitres demands a little 
attention. This is one of the cases in which the Xornian 
education of the surveyors is of use to us. As they were 
unacquainted with the literary forms of the Saxon hmguage, 
we get from their hand, not a conventional, but a iohonetic 
spelHng. This chenistres is just wdiat would have been sj)clt 
by the Saxon who could write — cnihtas, and corresponds 
etymologically to our knights, or the German kiiechte; mean- 
ing, at the time we speak of, simply sermng-men, and hardly 
so much as soldiers. Now there is a great difference between 
the word chenistres and the word cnihtas, and it is a 
difference wdiich is capable of specification under three 
heads. First, there is the " che-" instead of the " c-," i.e., 
k-sound ; secondly, there is the sibilant " s " in place of the 
dry guttural "h;" and, thirdly, there is the insertion of an 
" r " in the syllable wdiich is formative of the plural. The 
two latter were probabl}'^ features of the Anglian dialect, as 
well as the Y for G which has been noticed above. We 
may bracket the two cases together by a comparison with a 
German patois. In some parts of Germany the peasants, 
instead of Guten Morgcn — wo gehen sie hin ? say, Yuten 
Moryen — wo yehen sie hin ? and, at the same time, instead 
of welcher they say ivelsher. Very like this are the 
peculiarities which w^e here attribute to the Anglian. Nearly 
a century later we have an opportunity of comparing how 
they spelt this C7iiht at Winchester. In the Liher Winton, 
of which the date is 1148, we find at fol. 531 b, the following 
entry : " Et ibi de justa {-near) fuit Chenictehalla, ubi 
chenictes potabant Gildam suam, et cam libere tenebant de 
rege Edwardo." And again at 533 a., " Chenictes tenebant 
la chenictahalla libere de Rege Edwardo." Here, in the 
centre of Saxondom, though we find the CH-, yet there is 
no S in the middle, nor any R in the termination. This R 
must be Anglian. We are famihar with one instance in 
which the letter R enters into the formation of a plural, 
in tlic case of, singular, child ; plural, children. But in the 
Danish language this is the letter (as S with us) which is 
formative of the plural. In Danish, " king " is ko7ig, and 
" kings " is kojigcr. The Anglian was a nearer neighbour 
to the Scandinavian languages (in the original continental 


settlements), and it appears to have been permanently 
atiected by tliem. 

A few other peculiar forms which are found in this county 
I venture to attribute to Anglicism, There are three 
parishes of the name of Sodbury, a simple name, meaning 
" South burv," and yet not occurrinii; an v where else. There 
are in various parts of England names in which the word 
"South" appears in the form of vSud —, Sudborne, Sudbury 
(Suffolk), Suilborough (Xorthants), Sudbrook (Line), Sud- 
bury (Derby) ; but these are confined to the Anglian or 
Danish parts, and I find none in Saxondom Proper, Glou- 
cestershire adds to the list Sudeley-Manor, near AVinchcombc, 
It is well known that the Anglians ditiered markedly from 
the Saxon by using D for D, and vice versa. 

Coaley (near Dursley) is a singular name, apparently an 
Anglicism for the famihar Saxon " Cowley." 

The Anglians appear to have shared with the Danes a 
tendency to ignore the initial W in such words as " wool," 
" ^Yolf," " wood," " week," &c. Accordingly I would explain 
the sino-ular name of " Olveston" as beino- " wolf-stone," like 
'• "Woltstein " in Bavai'ia, Probably the name " Owlpen " 
belongs to the same set. I do not find any name elsewhere 
that begins with " Owl," — but in the Anglo-Danish districts 
there are three places of the name of Oulton. I suppose 
the first syllables in these two cases to have one origin, 
namely, the Anglian form of the word which wc call irool, 
but which tliey sounded without tlie W, 

13ut distinctions between Anglian and Saxon are rather 
too minute and uncertain for us to build much ujion them. 
I will merely notice one or two more forms which belong to 
this period, ami llini jiass on tn (he Danes. A fniin which 
licars a local stainj) is l(ulr or lode. Wa find St. .Mary Lode, 
Abload, JOvenlode, Fi-amilode, Cricklade, Lechlade. 

This word lode or lade (A.S. (jilad), signifies the passage 
or course of a journey ])y land or by sea, but in these names 
it is eniploye<l Ibr a passage or Ici'iy across a river. lA'chlado 
is the pjts.sagc over tlie Thames at the mouth ol" the liver 
Leacli. Cricklade is the passage ^^vcr the Thames at the 
Hj)oL known either by a remarkable stone (ernnj), or, what 
i.s more pnjbable, by its jiaved or slnnv character; so that 
tliis word is eipiivalent to Stamford, both lueaning "stony- 
ford." This name Cricklaile lias figured both in political 


and in literary history. It held a prominent position in 
Saxon times, as one of the chief gates of connection between 
Wessex and Mercia. In the Chronicles, anno 905, it is 
distinctly so recognised. The Danish army ravaged Mercia 
till they came to Cricklade (oS hie comon to Creccagelade), 
whence they crossed into Wessex. Reversely, in 1016, 
Cnut crossed over the Thames into Mercia at Cricklade 
(ofer Temese into M^^rcan a3t CraBcilade). We perceive 
that the lapse of years between 905 and 1016 had told upon 
the form of Creccagelad, and reduced it to a convenient 
shape for the etymological experiments that were to be 
practised upon it. Brompton, towards the close of the 
fourteenth century, writes thus : " Secundum quosdam 
fuerunt duo studia in Anglia, unum de Latino, et aliud de 
Grajco, quorum unum Grteci posnerunt apud Greglade, quie 
modo dicitur Kirkelade, et ibidem linguam Grrecam pro 
tempore docuerunt, &c." Lechlade was the other school, 
which was devoted to Latin studies. It should be observed 
that Brompton lived in Yorkshire, and may be excused for 
misrepresenting the name, as he does, by spelling it Greglade, 
unless he did it to enhance the plausibility of his etymon. 
Whether it was ever called Kirkelade or not, there is no 
inherent improbability in it, as we find it written " Crike- 
lade " and " Criklade," and a slight metathesis would have 
transformed it into Kirkelade. But Gibson (A.D. 1692) 
cannot tolerate such ignorance on the part of Brompton. — 
" Yerum commentum istud merito tribuunt alii eorum im- 
peritite, utpote qui ne linguam quidem vernaculam suam in- 
tellexerint." And having thus spoken, the indignant scholar 
proceeds to clear it up for present and future generations. 
" Crecca enim Saxoniceest amnis, torreus in major em Jluvi urn 
labens, et ladian, purgare, exonerare ; undo non dubium est 
quin vocabulum profluxit ; cum eo loci in fluvium Tamcsin 
sese aquse exonerant." The Abbot of Jervaux Abbey is 

The name of " Yate " has been noticed above. It is a 
dialectic form of " gate," and this place is written as "Giete " 
in Domesday. There seems to be some local partiality for 
names in -gate. Two of the Hundreds are called Rapsgate 
and Kiftsoate. The old meaning; of this word was not as 
now, an opening to pass through, or the moveable barrier 
which closes such opening, but a road, way, or means ol going. 


for it springs from the verb to go. Aiul this may, pcrliaps, 
have been the sense of the word in the street-names in 
Gloucester — Northgate, Soutligate, Eastgate, Westgate. 

Descending in historical order, we next come to the Danes. 
It will have been seen above that I have attributed to Anglian 
idiom several forms which might have been pressed into this 
part. But it does not appear to me that history favours the 
idea of colonies of Danes settling in Gloucestershire. If, 
however, this difficulty could be removed, it would not be 
impossible to collect a respectable little list of names in con- 
nection with them. Besides much of what has been called 
Anglian, others might be found of a Danish complexion, one 
or two ending in -trap or -f/trop, as Addlestrop, Southrop, but 
es{)ecially the former. For this modiliod form of the more 
usual " -thorpe," (German, " Dorf,") approaches closely to 
the form "-trup" with which the map of Denmark is thickly 
stuilded. And it is by no means impossible that a few 
Danish hamlets may have been formed in Gloucestershire, 
but these few scattered data do not warrant us in concluding 
so, unless we are sure that the i)resencc of the Anglian 
element is insufficient to account for them. It has been 
shown that " Dean " Forest is not to be associated with the 
Danes. There is, however, another name in the county 
which seems to challenge such an association, and that is 
the name " Daneway," near Stroud. This name obtains 
increased inn)ortance from the fact that the Danes diil on 
one recc/i'ded occasion ascend the Thames, and from the 
Upper Thames cross over into the Severn. In such a 
transit, Daneway, near Stroud, might seem to fall in 
very well with the line required. And if, as is likely, the 
])anes effected this movement not once only, but had esta- 
blished a track between the Thames and Severn, to comj)letc 
the comnumication between the two great estuaries which 
tln'V haunted, such a relic as the name of Daneway might 
well survive upon that track. Yet, with all this amount of 
probability, I am notsanguinc that the n;i me has so historical 
an origin. 1 can only judge of the ground hy the Ordnance 
.Maj), but that seems to countenance the humbler inter- 
j)retation of "low or hollow way." Moreover, it may he 
doubted whether the pirates would choose so northerly ji 
course. There is another (|U<'sti<jn of topography, wliich, il" 
it could be determined, wouI-1 help in this iiKjuii-y. At the 


time of the transit referred to, viz., A.D. 894, the Danes are 
followed to Buttington, on the Severn, and are there be- 
sieged by the Saxons. Now there are two Buttingtons on 
the Severn, one in Gloucestershire, the other in Montgomery- 
shire. Tlie latter has generally been identified with the 
events of 894, chiefly because the text states that on 
arriving at the Severn the Danes went up the Severn to 
Buttington. Now, although this w^ould seem to apply more 
readily to the Buttington in Montgomeryshire, yet it is not 
impossible that the course of the Danes from the Thames 
might have taken so southward a bearing as to bring them to 
the Severn below Buttington near Chepstow. Dr. Ormerod, 
who lives in that neighbourhood, is strongly in favour of 
this view. Much may be said on either side ; but if the 
laurels of Buttino-ton be o-iven to Gloucestershire, it makes an 
ai'gument against the connection of Daneway with the 

We must now^ pass on to the Domesday Survey. From the 
list of Gloucestershire names which that record exhibits, we 
see how early the spots of human habitation were fixed 
upon, and how completely their j)resent names belong to a 
by-gone era of our language. 

The following lists are arranged according to the Hundreds 
as they were in 1066. In the present day there are 28 
Hundreds, but in 1066 there appears to have been 42. 

I am indebted for many of the identifications to my friend 
and colleague the Rev. Athelstan Corbet, whose keen and 
acute research I have much pleasure in acknowdedging. 



Acton e • 
Torteword . 

. Iron Acton 
. . Toriworth 

Wichen . 

. ? Wichioar 
. . Charjicld 





lid (Berkeley 



Alniintune . 
Dersilege . 
Couelege . 

. Hill 
. . Elmirtyton 

. Uinton Home 

. Cam 

. Oossington Hall 
. . Durslcy 

. Coalcij 




Siniondoshale . 



Osleuuorde . 

. . Uley 

. Nimpsfield 
. . Mootton-uncler-EJge 

. Si/mond's Hall 

. Kingscote 

. Beverstone 
. , Ozlewoi-th 










. Almoudihury 

. Horn-Id 
. . Kiii'i'i Wci'on 

. EU.trtnn 

. t'riiinhall 

. Avhnykam 
. . AihUwoiih 


Crombal . . . CromltaU 


Claviihangare . 


Neuetou . 


Sharp Ness Point 


Bernintone . 




Wen lie 


AcLelie . 




• • 



. Wfgthnnj 


. Bristol 


. . U'lihuiy 


. A KSt 


. Il'duick 


. Compton 


. . Stok-c Oifford 

Icetuao . 

. Stone 


. Yate 





. . Bisky 


\Vest(jue . 

Tedoham . 


. . Tlirovgliam or Drujj'- Saplctorne . 

. Salperlon 


Wiche . 

. Paiiiswich 



Egeaworde . 

. . Edywortk 


. Winston 

Staiihus . 
Fran tone 


Slanliy, Kiw/i 


Frctheitu Said 



BLITESLAV II'i (Blidesloe II^) 



Lf.'deno . 
Tetiiiton . 




Liudenee . 




'l (BuTLOE 




Tit lint on 

Jiirrr Ltddon 




Hmauni-lial . 

Tdiliirl on 

CniHowcl . 


Kvdcfoid . 


IX!CCC' . 

Cnlbcilcgo . 

BRADKl-HCiE 11'' CR«'\'"-J;v II-') 

North Leach 





S.'il|iroti(n<! . 
Tcucoido . 


Slll/ll ilnit 

\\ uikIdh 
H addon 



BRISTOLDESBERG lid (Brightwell's Barrow Hd) 

Fareforde . 

Lecce . 

. East Leach, Martin 


. Coin, St. Akhom's 

Leccladc . 

. Leachlade 


. East Leach, Twvill 


. Kcmpford 


. Ilalherop 

Etherope . 

. Ilethrope 





Pebeworde . 

Lower Pebworth 

Hidicote . 

. Hilcote 


. Long Marston 

Merestone . 

Marston Sicca 

Qveniutoue . 

Lower Quinton 



Westone . 

Weston- on-Avon 






Westone . 

Wenitone . 


Norton Hause 

Cloptvne . 


Dorsintvne . . . 


Langeberge . 

CHEFTESIHAT lid (Kiftsgate Hd) 




CILTENIIAM Hd (Cheltenham Hd) 

. Swindon 
. Prestbury 
. Winchcomb 




Cirecestre . 

. Cirencester 


. Kimmerton 



Teodekchesberie . 

. Tewkesbury 

Aldiitoue . 

. Aldei-ton 


Tvninge . 

Trotintune . 

, Tredington 



. Fiddiiiglon 

Dvustesborne . 

Dtmstborne A bbot 

Pamintonie . 

. Pemington 

Renneberie . 

. Rinbury 


. Norton 

Nortcote . 







Duntesborne . 

Duntsborne Rouse 






Svditone . 

Sydington St. Peti 

Limentone . 

Torentvne . 



Acbelie . 


Tvrsherie . . . 

Stanlege . 

Stanley Pontlarge 

Benwedene . . . 



Sydington St. Mai 



Clifort . . . 

Prestitvne . . . 

Essetone . 



(Deerhdrst lid) 

Derheste . 




Herdeuuic . . . 


Telinge . 

Bortone . 

Wiefeld . . . 


Teodeham . . . 

Tateham . 

Sudtuue . 

Botingtone . . . 






Giuingtono . 

H.-isfelde . 



Starueutoa . 




Coin St. Dennis 

Contone . 



Olsoudoue . 




Pirston-on-Sto ur 

DVDESTAX II'i (Dddstone and King's Bakton IF) 

Herscfel . 

Hersecome . 
Brostorp . 
BertTue . 

/fares ndd 
J I at her ley 


Bcrneuude . 
Mereuuent . 
Beiewrde . 
Bovvrue . 




Vtone . 





Bertone . . . 

Dodiutouo . . . 


Bristov . 



Manegodesfelle . . 



Omenel . 



Ampney Crncis 


Haiitone . 


Down Ampney 


A mpney St. Peter 

Omenio . 

Ainpncy Knowl 

DiifcUe . 





Omeiiie . 

A mpney Riding 

Onieiiie . 

A mpney St. Mary 



South Ctrney 










A Idcrton 

Charlton Abbots 


Hvilo . 



Litutvuo . 



Child's Wiclham. 


GRIMBOLDESTOWKS 11'' (Guomiuld's Ash Il'ij 

Dirham . 
H<«vcdono . 












. Oldhunj-on-lhe //ill 
, Badminton 




SnawesiIIe . 
Kawelle . 
Fernecote . 
Getinge . 

. . Snowshill 
. Rowell 

. Vpp. Guiting 
. . CasUelt 

Getinge . 
Getiuge . 
Piguocsine . 

. Lower Guiting 
. . Hawling 




Morcote . 



(Langley and Swineshead H'') 

Herdicote , 

. . Alveston 
. Tliornbury 

. . Erthcolt 
. Olveston 

Itochemptoue . 

. Littleton 
. Rockhampton 
. . Fruinpton Cotterell 


Tochintune . 

LANGETREV II^ (Loxgtree 



Vdecestre . 
Hautoue . 
Lesseberge . 
Sciptone . 

. Avening 
. . Woodchester 

. . Horseley 

. Rodmarton 
. . Lasboro 

Westone . 
Vptone . 
Cvlcortorne . 
Scipetone . 

. Weston Birt 

. . Tttbury 

. Upton Grove 
. . Ctdkerton 

. Cherington 
. . Shipton Moyne 



• • 

Hiwoldestone . 

Lega . 


Stoche . 


PVLCRECERCE TL^ (Pucklechurch H'') 

. Siston 

. Doddington 
. . Wapley 












RESPIGET 11^ (Rapsgate W^) 

Chedworth Bavdintone 


Colesboume Rindecome 


Pun telle . 

Cowley Cbitiford 

Bniiipsfield Hege . 

Dautesborue . 

North Cerney 



L>untslomc Abbots 

Duntubome Route 




n-l (SLACGniER II'l) 

Sclostre . . . 


Ailewrde . 


! Westcote 

Iccurabe . . . 


Chistone . . . 

Risedvne . 

Jiisiivjton Wick 





Chingestune . . 


Svelle . 

Lower Swell 

Otmtone . 



Gr. Riisiuglon 

Condicote . 


Risendvne . 

Little Riiington 



Niwetone . 

Bladinton . . . 



Malgeresberie . 


Hviford . 

Tedestrop . 

A ddlestrop 


Bortvne . 


Aiforde • 

Ay ford 

Bradewelle . . . 


Leclietone . 

Svelle . 

Upper Swell 


Callicote . 

S VI Nil EVE II-i 

(Laxgley and Swinesiiead II'') 



^^'apelei . 

. Wapletj 




Sudlege ''^ 


Todiutvn . 






Becceford . 

. Beckford 




Godriutou . 

Clivo . 

Stoclies . 


Surham . 


. UnUon-on-the-G 


Tedenham . . . Tidctiham 


Hamme . 




. Alvei'ston, Olventon 
or Alvealon 


. Tiddenham 


Scipetone • 
Hnj;epine . 
Widiiidvue . 

• • 



Jl'' (WlOSTULllY 


Ilnmniu . 
11. -po 


. . Morton Vidancc 
. Loiigfiojie 

. Newnluiin, 

IJicanofro . 
Uodtlo . 

. Milchd Dean 
. Itnlln, 

. Huddle 

BocbeUmdo . 





Condicote . 

. . Condicut 

Stoch . 

. . Stole 

Contone . 

. Compton Abdale 


, , 




. Campden 


Langeberge . 






, Dowdswell 

Bristeatvne . 

Peclesurde . 



. Notgrove 


Estone . 

. . Aston Subedge 

Cheisecote . 

SvvcUe . 

. Sivcll 



. . Wilier sey 

Beceshore . 

Westvne . 

. Weston Subedge 

Cheisnecot . 



II'i (Whitston 


Stanedis . 

Mortvne . 

Hersefeld . 

. . 



The comparison of tlie ancient with the modern forms 
suggests lines of reflection which space forbids us to follow 
out at present. I shall close this paper with a few special 
remarks on particular names. 

Marsh FIELD. — The line between Gloucestershire and 
Somersetshire is a very ancient line of demarcation, or rather, 
perhaps, an open neutral border land. The name of " Marsh- 
field " seems to be due to this circumstance. It has nothino; 
to do with Marsh, palus, but rather with March, in the sense 
of border land, quasi Marchfield. So, at Moreton-in-the- 
Marsh, there is no marsh, but the confines of the counties of 
Oxfordshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire. The word 
"March" was an adjectival formation from the old tech- 
nical " mere," a boundary ; and this is a word which is found 
as a local name on borders of counties, as " Mere," on the south 
verge of Somersetshire, and also on the south verge of 

Omexie is a form found in Domesday, but it no longer 
exists in this form as a local name. The name of the 
place has been modified to Ampney, but the earlier form 
had been adopted as a family name, and is preserved in 
comparative purity in the form of Ommanney. And here 
we have a curious example of the way in which local 
names travel and reproduce themselves on other parts of 
tlie globe. From being a family name, the form Om- 
manney has passed into a second stage of local existence 
in the name of Cape Ommanney in Russian America, at 
the entrance to Chatham Sound. 


Standish {Sf(Vi/ii(s D.) is an exceptional name, ^Yhicll lias 
been made classical by Longfellow. In the last century it was 
used as a common noun, in the signification of ink-stand. 

Gloucestershire is rich in names which invite special 
attention. Besides the ordinary classifiable names in -bury, 
-ton, -worth, -wick, &c., tliere are a number of anoma- 
lous forms which defy classification, unless anomaly con- 
stitutes a irround for classification. Such arc the fol- 


lowing : — 


Coates. Miserdiue. Stanley Poutlarge. Guiting Power. 

Hailes. Roel. Swell. We>tou Birt. 

Himpnett. Saul. Syde. Wiudrosli. 

Haitpuiy. Slaughter. Temple Guiting 

Uigiiuam. Staudisb. and 


Awre. Cam. Dymock. Aust. 

In this class of names lies the greatest amount of etymo- 
lo"ical difficultv which the philoloi>;cr has to contend with, 
in treating the local names of a district. Classification is a 
main step towards elucidation, and words that cannot be 
classified can seldom be ex])lained. But this fact docs not 
render them philologically useless. They exhibit the ex- 
tremest form of local alteration or modification, and in this 
way they help to suggest what has been the nature of the 
local modifying influence. In these more obstinate cases, no 
less than in those which are easy of solution, the change has 
taken ])lace according to certain definite laws. If we cannot 
trace the pedigree of those forms in a manner consistent with 
liistory and science, we had better abandon the attempt. 
Philological speculation is no longer a province of the imagi- 
nation. The steed of the ])hilologer is no longer a winged 
Pegasus, l)Ut a ])lodding roadster. His journc}'^ is now so 
rciiular and monotonous that it is a relief if a bird fly across 
his path. With a fascinated eye he follows the capricious 
movements of the happy creature, and reverts in thought 
to his own buoyant youth, when his neck had not felt the 
yoke, and his movements were not confined to a thoroughfiire. 

It is not often that a genial thougiit crosses the dusty 
j».'itli of tlie ])hilologer. Yet it docs sometimes liaj)pi'ri 
that those who are tracing the action of law, meet with 
objecta stimulating to the fancy. >Such an object i find in 


iliQ 0^ La7i(//iopc. I have not seen the ground, but, 
to judge by the name, it should be a long, crane-like, 
expectant neck of a promontor}^, running off high ground, 
and gradually losing itself in the plain. ^ Such an idea 
was anciently conveyed in the word hope, which has since 
been promoted to represent the most consolatory of our 
mental emotions. Its physical sense is now dead, and is 
preserved only in local names. 

^ In the discussion which followed, Mr. Lee Warner confirmed, from 
his late inspection, this presumed conformation of Langhope. 

©rifjinal Documents, 


One of the Assistant Keepers of the Public Records. 

In a memoir communicated to the Society of Antiquaries in 1848, and 
entitled " Proofs of the early use of Gunpowder in England" (Archaiologia, 
vol. xx.xii., p. 379), the late Mr. Hunter showed conclusively, from some 
records in .i department of the Exchequer, not only that persons called 
gunners {gimnarii), and engines of war called guns, Averc certainly used in 
the campaign of Cressy, but also that gunpowder was supplied for them. 
At the present day it seems a work of supererogation to attempt to prove 
that gunpowder was used for the propulsion of heavy substances, in the 
place of tliose machines of various degrees of strength that were worked by 
torsion and the lever. But it was not so in the fourteenth century. There 
were then many circumstances which rendered the use of gunpowder, as it 
has been since applied, almost impossible ; and it was not for a consider- 
able period of time that it was considered superior to other means of 
destruction, even in sieges. 

The most probable etymology of the word gun seems to be from 
manr/ona, and may in early writings have referred to engines for casting 
stones by means of slings and weights. So also the word cannon, derived 
from canna, may have first designated the tube by which the Greek fire 
was directed. What were called cannon by the French were called 
" gonncs " by the English. 

In the memoir by Mr. Hunter to which I have referred it was shown 
that a supply of saltpetre and quick sulphur {.sitljjhur vivimi) was inchulod 
among tlic munitions of. war furnished to the army of Edward 111., in 
134G, when he commenced the cam])aign in France, terminated by the 
captine of Calais, and in which the great battle of Cressy was fought. 

No evidence has ever been adduced of the use of guns in English warfare 
before tlie expedition of 131G, although there are several notices of their 
earlier use on the Continent. The documents which furnished Mr. Hunter 
with his materials describe the circumstances relating to the articles sup- 
plic<l with great j)articularity, and they certainly do not sliow beyond 
dis-jtute that the powder then furnished was an explosive powder. Salt- 
jiclre and hulphur alone are mentioned, with the exception of one entry of 
" jntlvis pro ingciiiis." This, however, is not said to have been for the 
guns, and iw HCj)arated from the entries relating to the ingredients which I 
have named. It need ecnrcely be snid that witbout rhnrcdal, saltpetre and 
buljihur would jiot make gunpowder, us we now undeistand it ; that is, aa 


explosive compound powerful cnouj^h to propel heavy substances. The 
objection that it was a weapon wliicli could be used alike by the vreak and 
the strong, and therefore opposed to the true spirit of chivalry, had been 
urged against the cross-bow, and was soon to be urged with still greater 
force against guns. 

The difficulty of ascertaining with precision the period of the introduction 
of engines from which missiles were propelled by means of gunpowder 
arises chiefly from the circumstance that the term gun was doubtless used 
to designate some kind of warlike engine, long before the use of gun- 
powder. Mr. Douce, in a curious note on Kyng Alisaunder, line 3268, 
where, as he observes, the earliest mention occurs of "gonnes," remarks 
that it must not be concluded that they were used with gunpowder ; they 
may originally have been engines of the catapult kind. See Weber, Metr. 
Rom. notes in vol. iii., p. 306. The same observation applies to the 
passage, where we read that King Aragus, besieged in his castle, — 

" Ordeyned hym ful well 

Witli gonnes, and grete stones rounds 
Were turowen downe to the grounde." 

Syr Tryamoure, v. 955. 

In the "Avowynge of Kyng Arther " a " gunne " is mentioned, the effect of 
which is compared to lightning ; but still it may be questioned whetlier 
the term implies a projectile impelled by any explosive compound, or merely 
filled therewith ; — 

" there came fliand a gunne, 

And lemet as the leuyn." — Ed. by Mr. Robson, st 65. 

It may be conjectured that the missile here intended was a tube filled with 
some of the marvellous compounds known as Greek fire, wild-fire, or fcii. 
volant. The nature and composition of these appliances of ancient war- 
fare, regarded with such dire apprehension, may be found detailed in the 
treatise Dii Feu Gregeois, by MM. Reinaud and Fave, and the essay on the 
same subject by M. Lalanne. The most complete dissertation, however, on 
the invention and prototypes of gunpowder and of artillery is to be found 
in the remarkable work by H. M. the Emperor of the French, entitled 
Etudes sur le passe et Vavenir de V Artillerie. 

Before we dismiss the curious subject of investigation to which we have 
thus briefly adverted, we may invite attention to the curious evidence sup- 
plied by an English author, whose writings are contemporary, or nearly so, 
with the subjoined documents. John Arderne, a skilful surgeon in the 
time of Edward III., gives us, in his Practica, various directions for com- 
pounding *'■ fev:es Grrgois," and " fewe volant," the latter being a sort of 
oleaginous mixture with which a pipe being filled, and ignited by a match, 
would fly in any direction. A marginal representation of such a missile is 
given. In the following passage he describes another kind of ''/ewe 
volant,^' being in fact gunpowder, and apparently intended to be used as in 
our own times. His recipe is as follows : — " Pernez j. lib. de soufre vif, 
de charbones de saux {?'. weloghe) ij. lib., de salpetrc vj. lib. Si les fetez 
bien et sotelment moudre sur un piere de marbre, puis bultez le poudre 
parmy un sotille coverchief. Cest poudre vault a gottcre pelotes de fer, ou 

vol,. XIX. L 


de ploni, ou darcvnp, ove uu Instrument qe leni appclle gonne." See 
Sloane MSS. 335.' 795.' 

It may be questioned to what extent, and until how late a period, even 
subsequently to the invention of gunpowder, any of tlie compounds desig- 
nated Greek fire, or wild-fire, were used in European warfare. Certain it 
is that as late as the siege of Breteuil, ten years after the battle of Cressy, 
the besieged, as we learn from Froissart, were provided with " canons 
jctant Jeu,'' and it is said " Le feu, qui ctoit grcgois, se prit au toit de ce 

To return to the campaign of Cressy. In the previously published docu- 
ments there is nothing to show the provision of any peculiar kind of missile 
in connection with the guns, — another doubtful circumstance as to the ex- 
plosive character of the powder supplied. 

The documents which have been already noticed in the Archa^ologia 
(vol. xxxii. p. 380 — 3S7) could, however, have been but a small portion of 
the vouchers relating to the great war which were furnished to the Ex- 
chequer. They are full of minute particulars, but do not extend over the 
■whole period. Wliile engaged upon another object of inquiry I have very 
recently met with entries which seem to furnish a complete but condensed 
account of the supplies for the campaign of 13-iG. This compotus does not 
Beem to have been rendered till eight years afterwards, a circumstance 
which may account for its having hitherto escaped notice. It is entered 
upon that valuable and complete series of rolls which are the earliest of any 
known class of public documents, the Pipe Rolls of the Exchequer; and it 
recites that by virtue of a writ under the Great Seal directed to the barons 
of the Exchequer, 28 Jan. anno rcgni 27 (a. d. 1353), Robert de Milden- 
liale, keeper of the king's wardrobe, had furnished his account of all his 
receipts and expenses between the 17th Oct. anno regni 18 (a. d. 1344) and 
29 Sept. anno regni 25 (a.d. 1351). It gives the summary of the documents 
first noticed by Mr. Hunter, and of others relating to similar supj)lies of 
Btores for the king's war in France, the originals of which do not now 
exist. In these entries I think that we obtain two very important connect- 
ing links in the chain of evideiicc, which appears to have been all but 
complete. We meet with entries for the rej)air and supply of arms and 
munitions of various kinds, " Gunnis cum sdgiltis et pcUolis " included, 
barrels for packing them ; in another place, " Gnnnis cum pclutis et 
pnhere jiro cisdcm gunnis ;" also " x. gunnis cum telnr'^ (ra""^ \y\l]\ 
tillers or handles) ; rj. pecie plunihi, v. harelli pulveris, et c. viagn pelot' 
jyhnnhi pro cisdein gunnis." 

It may be noticed also that of the ton guns two were large, — " undc ij. 
gross'," and after the entry of the saltpetre and sulphur occurs " <•< alio 
pulrere pro dirtis gunnis," which may have been the complete compound, 
puch as would now be termed gunpowder, or ]nilveriscd charcoal, possibly, 
for niixing with the other materials. 

These entrif's aftpcar most conclusive that the powder used must liavo 
been explosive, and that shot or pellets were discharged by it. In another 
entry of the Btores supplied arc ".rl. qnnrtcr carbon" — 10 quarters of 
charcoal, llic other ingredient required to complete the manufacture of tho 
jiowder proper. Tliis, however, appears t(i have been |>roviii((l for the smiths. 

' .Sec Mr. All>ort Wnj'n nntcH, in th" p. •Jl'^, mid on " \Vvylii<» fyyr, S^,aitH$, 
rroinploriuiii rurvulonin, on the word iy»ii.< I'e/asi/iu vcl Greciu," p. 627. 
" Guutie, Pciruria, inan;j',nalc, 'junna," 


I would also, in conclusion, call attention to the word " telar\" wliich 
repeatedly occurs in the following accounts, in connection hoth with cross- 
bows and with guns. This soniewliat obscure teini has been noticed in a 
former volume of this Journal, iu the Accounts of the Constables of Dover 
Castle, t. Edw. III., in which are found, amongst armour and arms, " xxiv. 
arc de corn saunz toilers ;" in another account, " xxiv. arcus pro balistis sine 
tellur." Arch. Journ. vol. xi., p. 385. In connection with the guns, as 
we find the term in the following document, this word probably signifies 
stocks of wood to which they were doubtless attached, from a very early 
period of their use, for convenience in handling them ; hence, possibly, we 
find such appliances of war designated by Monstrelet and by other ancient 
writers bastons a pouldre, or a feu. 

Towards the close of the following documents will be found an extract re- 
lating to very ditferent matters, whicli, however, I have thouglit of sufficient 
interest to be placed before our readers. Under the head of the Ornaments 
of the King's Cliapel, amongst vestments, <fcc , we here find mention of a 
number of books of diverse romances, delivered by the keeper of tlie ward- 
robe, by order of the king, to John de Padbm-y, to be distributed in the 
manner directed by the king himself. It is much to be regretted that the 
subjects of these books of romance are not stated. There is also mention 
of xxvj. quaterni of various writings, and of four bags containing rolls and 
memoranda of accounts, remaining with certain books of romance in the 
custody of the keeper of the wardrobe. 

It sliould be observed that tlie following extracts comprise only a small 
portion of the entry upon the Roll. 

Among the Records in the custody of the Master of the Rolls, deposited 
iu the Public Record OflSce, to wit, Pipe Roll, indorsed — " Mag. Rot. 27 
Edw. III.," it is thus contained : — 

Compotus Roberti de Mildenhale custodis garderobe Regis infra Turrim 
London' dereceptis, misis et expensis' en)pcion' et liberat' divorsarum rerum 

per ipsuni in officio suo ejusdem garderobe factis per breve Regis 

et per aliud breve Regis de predicto [magno] sigillo directum Thesaurario 
et Baronibus hujus scaccarii, datum xxviij. die Januarii anno xxvij'"°, per 
quod Rex mandavit eisdem Thesaurario et Baronibus quod cum eodeni 
Roberto, tarn de omnibus pecuniarum summis per ipsum ad receptam 
scaccarii predicti et alibi a predicto decimo septimo die Octobris, anno 
xviijo, usque xxix™° diem Septembris, anno xxv'°, de prestito receptis, quam 
de empcione arcuuni, sagittarum, cordarum pro arcubus, et omnium aliorum 
Dccessariorum per ipsum ad opus Regis provisorum, et liberacione 
eorundem, necnon de armatiuis et omnibus aliis rebus Regis que in cus- 
toJia ejusdem Roberti iu Turri predicta medio tempore extitcrunt, una 
cum aliis custubus et expensis super custodiam prcmi.^sorum omnium per 
ipsum factis, computarent, et super compotum suum predictum debitas 
allocaciones, juxta vim et eflcctum mandatorum Kegis, tam sub private 
et secreto sigiU' Kegis quam sub sigillo de Griffon' ' ei directorum, fieri 

* We are not aware that any impres- Rymer's Fcedera, vol. ii. p. 1076, edit, 
sion of tlie seal of tho griffiu, used by Caley, a document is given from Close 
Edward III., has been described. In Roll 13 Edw. IIL 133D — •' de litteris sub 



Et ill ij. inciulibiis, ij. paribus Ruffocalium, viij. niartclHs grossis et 
minutis, ij. bicorn', j. gryiiston cum le wynche, ij. touyrnes,- mm. libris ferri, 
sx. garbis asseris, et xl. quartcriis carbonum pro officio et operacionibua 
fabrurum, xl. lignis vocatis cost' pro balistis iiule faeieiidis. xl. lignis pro 
telar'-' balistaruin. xij. libris nervorum, xx. libris visci, xx. libria grossi fili, 
xl. paribus stirop' et clav' pro balistis prcilictis, 1. nockes pro telar', xij. 
paribus banioruin, firmaculorum, et anulorum pro baudric', exx. clavis vocatis 
somernailes pro telar', iiij. libris vernisli, j. corio equino, c. coniubus pro 
dictis balistis, iiij'"' libris cere et cod',' c. boces pro telar', iij. peciis balon', 
ij. pateliis eueis pro visco calefaciendo, 1. skynons, dc. parvis clavis et 
takett', vj. paribus passuum de coruu cervorum pro telar', ij pellibus 
vocatis hundefliisskymies, ere pro braeles telar', pergameno pro balistis. et 
ij. cibtis pro officio et opere balistariorum einptis per dictum tempus luijus 
computus, — XX. li. XV. s. iiij. d., per breve Regis de sigillo Griffon' datum 
X" die Junii, auno xix", per quod Ilex mandavit eidcm custodi quod de illis 
XX. 11. xiiij. s. per ipsum dc Waltcro de Wotewangc receptis instrumenta 
pro fabris et balistariis pro passagio Regis ordinata emi, et eadem instru- 
menta pro fabris Jobanni Lygbtfot, et pro balistariis magistro Roberto 
Lalblast' et Siinoni Vernyngliowe, per indenturam liberarc facerct. De 
qiiibus instrumentis ct rebus prescriptis respondet infra, sieut coiitinetur 

ibidem Et in dcfectubus arcuum, balistarum, sagittarum, et 

((uarell' reparandis et emendandis per vices, una cum cera, vcriiish, 
copo, coriuibus, nockes, liundfi.ssliskynnes, liainis, cordis, carbonibus, alls 
aucarum, et aliis diversis rebus pro rcparacione jircdicta, uecnon barcllis 
]iro armaturis fraiaudis, clavis ferri, oleo, furfure, coreo, diversis ctdoribus 
pro reparacione et cmendacione divcrsorum armorum, baudric', firmaculis 

eecreto sigillo Regi^^, vocato Griffoun, 
factis, a<l sc-accariuni allociindis," wliereby 
the king directa tlie treasurer and barons 
of the Exchequer to recognise "litL-rasj 
de secreto sigillo no.stro vocato Griffoun," 
as of force and effect in regard to dcli- 
vericB or payments made in virtue thereof 
by Btcwardn, receivers, or bailiils, &c., of 
nianorn, land.s, and tenement*, "ad ca- 
iijunini nostrum reHervatonini." Tho 
like will bo fovuid repeated in 11341, ihid. 
p. 1152. We hope to give on hoiho futuro 
occasion a full notice of the variuuH [irivy 
Deals and xccnta used by Edward III. 

'^ Probably tcwel irons, or tewel», tho 
tfchnical name for a Biiiall iron tiiijo at 
tho Ijack of a forge, tiirowgh which tho 
wind from tho bcUowB i« conveyed to tho 

' Tho telar , OH iiax been ob»ierved jiro- 
viounly, wcr« piobably htockn for crons- 
bowH or guiiH ; tim term occurs also in 
onolh'.T part of this acc<nuit in connec- 
tion with till! hitter; hero we tin<l uails, 
Monieniail», bucet, l/raeleii, with variouH 
otiier ihingM reiiuired for tlio (dor', ihu 
UKCN of which wo aro unable to explain. 
TL« uuckH to rucoivo tho curdu of tho 

crossbow when in a state of tension are 
likewine described as appertaining to the 
telar' ; the baudric' were probably some 
portions of the apparatus for bending the 
bow, which was done by aid of a stirrup- 
shaped iron attached to the end of the 
stock, as shown in Skidton's Illustrations 
of the Goodrich Court Armoury, pi. xciv. 
The haini, iiooks, here mentioned with 
other articles, were foi- drawing tho cord, 
as shown in the apparatus there figured. 
"Tiller" i)roperly Kignilied tho stock, but 
Bonietimes tho entire crossbow. Naros 
gives " Tiller, a steel bow or crossbow." 
Tho long handle of a ruilder, which ln-ara 
a certain analogy of form, is likewise 
called a tiller, and in Sullolk, according 
to .Moor's Glossary, the liandle of a farm 
shovel, iVc, is so termed. 

* Code is exi)lained in tho I'ronijito- 
rinm I'arvulorum to bo coblei'is wax. 
'' ('ojlo, sowti:rs wex ; Corrsiua." It may 
have been used for waxing tho bow- 
strings. In a receipt foragooii "entreol," 
or plaster for wotinds, in Sloano MS. lOO, 
f. 17, " Spayniffch code" occurs with 
rusiu, grease, and other substancea. 


ferr' pro eisdem, meremio pro telar' balistarum, bordis pro coffris faciendis 
aJ arcus, et doleis ad balistas, sagittas, cordas, et arniatnras imponendas et 
trussandas ad traducendura versus parte(s) Franoie pro guerra Regis, simul 
cum stipendiis diversorum operariorum premissa reparaiicium, ac eoiam 
batellagio, cariagio, et portagio rerum earundein per diversas vices et 
diversa tempora, infra predietum tenipus luijus compotua, — xxxiij. li. xiij. 
s. X. d., per predietum breve Regis annotatum supra in titulo bujus 
compotus, et per aliud breve Regis de prcdicto sigillo Griffon' datum primo 
die Februarii, anno xix", per quod Rex niandavit eidem custodi quod 
omnes arcus, sagittas, balistas, baudic' (sic) quarell', baucepes, arniaturas, 
gunnis cum sagittis et pellotis, reparare, et eoffras (et) dolia pro eis imponendis 
et trussandis providere et emere, et ea in manibus pro passagio Regis 

eskippare faceret, sicut continetur ibidem Et in centum niinutis 

ingeniis vocatis , Ribald',^ pro passagio Regis versus Normanniam et alias 
partes transmarinas, faciendis, bordis et alio meremio, rotis, axibus, 
cluvis, lanceis' ferr' ascerat', cordis et aliis minutis necessariis pro 
eisdem eniptis, una cum cariagio dictarum bordarum, rotarnm, et aliarum 
rerum premissarum de diversis locis ubi empta fuerunt et provisa usque 
prcdictam Turrim Regis, ac eciam stipendiis carpentariurum iiigenia 
ilia faciencium, per diversas vices dicto anno xix^. — cxviij. li. ix. s. iij. d. ob., 
per breve Regis de predicto sigillo datum primo die Octobris dicto anno 
xix°., per quod Rex mandavit eidem custodi quod centum Ribald'pro gtierra 
Regi(s) fieri faceret, sicut continetur ibidem. De quibus Ribald'respondet 
infra. Et in defectiibus xxxij. pavillonum Regis majorum et minoruni 
reparandis et eraendaiidis, pannis de Worstcde et Card' de Lumbardia, filo 
diversi coloris, corda grossa et minuta, coreis bovinis taniiatis, meremio pro 
post'et caviir,'' pannis cilioiiiis, et saccis, ollis, et clavis ferri, et aliis minutis 
necessariis pro reparacione et emendacione dictortim pavillonum emptis, et 
in eisdem reparacione et emendacione expensis, pretcr card', linum, telani, 
filum et cordam recepta de Jobanne Coke, uiide respondet infra, una cum 
vadiis et stipendiis quorundam pavillonarioium et aliorum operariorum circa 
reparacionem et eniendacionem piedictas existencium, necnon cariagio 
eorum pavillonum de predicta Tuni Regis London, usque ad pratum extra 
Bermoundesey ad erigendum et siccandum, et de pratis illis usque predictam 
Turrim, et aliis minutis expensis circa premissa factis per diversas vices et 
tempora diversa predicto anno xx™"., — x.\j. li. ij. s. ij. d., per breve Regis de 
sigillo predicto datum iiij. die Marcii eodem anno, per quod Rex mandavit 
eidem custodi quod onines pavillones, arcus, sagittas, balistas, baudiic', 
bausepes,'' armaturas, gunnis [sic) cum pelotis et pulvere pro eisdem gunnis, 
et omnes alias res Regis garderobam suam tangentes, tam in custodia ejusdem 
custodis quam in custodia Tbome de Roldcston clerici Regis exi.stentes, 
pro passagio ipsius Regis ordinatas, reparari et emendari, et pavillones, 
arcus, sagittas, armaturas, et alias res prcmissas eskippari et prefato 

' Ribaiuiequin, in Latin Rihaudequimis engines were worked. 

(Ducange), an engine of war, being a little " Cavil/a, or cavi/e, a peg or f>in either 

platform souietinies on wLeels carrying of wood or of iron, according to Ducauge, 

a powerful bow which tiirew javelins five in v. ; in French cluvUk. 

or six feet in length with great force. ' Ilaussepkd f probably the pied de 

See Koquefort's Glossary, and Felix De chevre, or lever for bending the crossbow. 

Vigne'sVade Mccumdu Peintre, vol. See Skelton's Illustrations of the Good- 

A. p. 41 . The name has been derived from rich Court Armoury, jl. xciv. The word 

the Eibauds, the soldiery by whom these occur.s before, written haucepcs. 


Thome pro predlcfo passagio Regis liherare facoret, et per quod breve Rex 
vult ([uoil de vadii?, luisis, et expeiisis aliis circa pronii^sa per i[>^iun 
custodem faotis, idem custos debitam babeat alKtcacionem, i^icut cominetur 

ibidem Et in niagno ingenio in predicta Turri disjuiigendo et 

eodem simul cum aliis ij. iiiu;eniis ibidem tractando us(|ue le AVater<jate ad 
jij. shout' '"^ ibidem provis' pro iiigeuiis illis ducoiidis ad naves Regis in la 
Pole et apud Grenewyeh, pro eisdem et aliis rebus infrasciiptis ducendia 
u?c|ue Caltis ad Regem provisas, et eciam pnitagio x. gunn' cum lelar*. ix. 
cotiVarum cum armaturis, vj. jieciarum plumbi, v. barellorum jmlveris, et c. 
niagnorum pelot' plumbi pro eisdem gunn' usque diet' shout', iiij. bord' pro 
j. cotiV ad cavillas prediclorum ingeniorum imponendas inde facienda, 
clavis ferri pro eodem, et ij. cabul' pro dictis ingeniis emjttis, una cum 
conduccione predict' iij. shout', et vadiis et stipendiis caipoiitarioruin et 
portitorum diversorum circa premissa laborancium, per diversas vices — 
Aiiij. li. iiij. s. xj. d., per breve Regis de privato sigillo datum primo die 
Septembris predicto anno xi°. per quod Rex mandavit eidem custodi quod 
onmia ingcnia et gunn' cum eorum apparatu in Turri Regis predicta. et 
alia diversa, scilicet mereniium, bord' de Estriche, clavos, cabul', pcllcs 
equinos et bovinos, pellot', bareilus, et salpetre, et pulver', et oinnimodas 
res alias ad ingenia et gunn' illis (sic) spectantes eskippari et ij. cabul' nav' 
pro navi Regis vocato la Rodecog', et dolia et cotiVas pro arcubus, sagiltia 
et cordis trussandis emi, necnon omnes arcus et cordas sagitt' in custodia 
jpsius custodis existentes trussatos similiter eskipjtari, et ea omnia Waltero 
de Westone et Thome de Copham clericis Regis adducenda ad Regem 
apud Calesiam liberari faceret, sicut continctur ibidem. 


Idem eomputat liberatos Jolianni de Padbury x. libros de 

divertis romanc' ad faciendam inde voluntatem Regis, et modo quo Rex 
jpsuni assignavit per breve Regis de sigillo Gritl'on' datum xv" die Sep- 
tembiis, anno xix°, per quod Rex mandavit eidoni custodi quod ipse x. 
libros diversarum romanc' prefato Johanni ad faciendum inde voluntatem 
ipsius Regis, modo quo ij)se Rex eundem Johannem assignavit ; et Johanni 
de Lovedale duos libros romanc", Thome de Colleye j. librum romanc', do 
dono Regis, liberare faceret, sicut continetur ibidem ; et Johanni de Lovedalo 
duos libros de romanc', et Thome de Colleye j. librum de romanc', de dono 
Jiegis, per idem breve Regis, sicut continetur ibidem. Et remanent iij. 
euperpellicia, v. libri de romanc', xxvj. quaterni de diversis scriptis, et 
iiij. bag' cum rotulis et memorandis de diversis coniputibus 

Ingenia et Ln-stiiumenta FAnuoitrM et nAi.isTAUiouuM. 

Idrin reddit compi'tuiu de ij. ingeniis cum apparatu, x. guiinis cum telar' 

" A Klioute, a boat, Sc/myt in FlcmiHh for tlio liiro of a boat — '' mm navicula 

aii'i I)utcli, iH II term not uncommonly vocatii hhouto." So uIho wo find in I'lirl. 

ui«-<l by oUl writer/i, and in oonio of the ]{i>lln, vol. iv. |>. 34r), in the yonr 1'129, 

feu di«trietH : a flat-bottoniod boat iiHod niciition of " nii'ielianiHliKe carried on 

in diick-i-h'iotnif? in htill called a Hbout. tlio.Sovciii aw far a« Salop in trowcH, 

In the coiiijiotiu of Williuiii do K. llu.scy, buti-H. <oIi1«-h, uikI nlmti-H." 'i'lio navy in 

CU-rk of tiio Ifojid WoikH, '2 Kdw. 1. wliich Hiiliard 1. i-onvcyed Imh army to 

anionxit miftcclliineoiiH recurdH of Iho l'nlt;Htine in dt-Hcribcd iw onuistiii^ of 

Qunim'it Homendininixr, art! I'uymt'ntH for '• co^^ch and (hunioundtM, many galeyo, 

connlructinx thcr wooden In id^;e at Went- bcrm-H. KchoiitoM, tiayncn felo," lUoLard 

uiiutttcr, aueuginwto drive pilvH, Sic, uud Coor do Liuu, v. 47i)£. 


unde ij. gross', v. parvis barellis cum salpetre, sulpliure vivo ot alio pulvere 
pro dictis gunnis, Ixxiij. pellot' pliuiibi grossis, xxxj. parvis pellot', vj. peciis 
plumlji, ij, incudibus, viij. martellis, vj. paribus tenellarum, x. garbis 
asceris, dc. libris ferri Ispann', ij. paribus euffocaliuni, ij. bicorn', et ij. 
tou3'rnes, simul receptis de prodicto Thoraa de Hattefeld in garderoba 
predicta per divcrsas vices infra dictum tempus liujus compotus, sicut 

continetur in dicto rotulo de particulis Et missis Regi usque 

Calesiam, inter alias armaturas et res Regis ibidem missas per Clcmentem 
Atte Merke valettuni camere sue, ij. ingeniis cum apparatu, x. gunnu {sic) 
cum telar', quorum ij. gross', v. parvis barellis cui-.i salpetre et sulpliure 
vivo, Ixxiij. peilot'plunibi grossis, xxxj. parvis pellot', et vj. peciis plunibi 
pro gunnis predictis, per duo brevia Regis, quorum j. datum primo die 
Septembris, et aliud secundo die Septembris, anno xx°, allocatis supra in 
particula liberacionum armaturarum et indentura predicti dementis alloc' 
ibidem de receptis, sicut continetur ibidem. De quibus idem Clemens debet 
respondere, et respondet infra. Et eq.^ 

8 In printing the foregoing document tion elsewhere in the record, as in the 

the coutractious have been extended, ex- expression " iij. shout," with a hne over 

cept iu numerous cases where some doubt the t, we conclude that "gunnis " is the 

occurred as to the correct reading. We plural of the English word gun. Mr. 

may remark in particular, as regards the Hunter, in a document of the same 

word "gunnis," that it is invariably period, given iu the Arehseologia, vol. 

written thus, or "gunn," with a hori- xxxii., p. 38G, has printed, " — xxix. gunn' 

zontal line over the last letter; with one ferr', — iij. gunner' ferr', j. gunner' de 

exception only "gunnu," with a line over laton." 
the u. As we find this mode of contrac- 

|)rorrrtiintj5 at fHfctintjs of tijc ^rrljarolocjtcal Institute, 

December G, 18G1. 
OcTAVlCS MoRGAX, Esq., M.P., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

At tlio commonccmont of the proceedings of another session Afr. Morgan 
offoreil some remarks on tlie encouraging ]irogress of the Institute during 
the 3'ear, alluding especially to the gratiKcatiou which had been ati'ordcd by 
occasional exhibitions of works of ancient art at the meetings in the previous 
season in London, and to the agreeable meeting held at reterborough. 
For the ensuing year a great display of mediicval art had been ])roposed at 
the South Kensington Museum, on occasion of the International Exhibition. 
The Central Committee of the Institute contemplated the formation, of one 
Bpecial exhibition only in the coming year, to be arranged for the monthly 
meeting of the Society in June ; the subjects selected being Enamel and 
Kiello, with the view of presenting a more complete illustration, than here- 
tofore attempted, of the history and progress of those remarkable Decora- 
tive Arts, in all countries, and especially in England, from the earliest 
periods. Mr. Morgan alluded to the cheering prospects of the Annual 
^Meeting, which had been fixed for the ensuing year at Worcester, where 
the Institute had found very cordial encouragement ; a very pleasant and 
instructive gathering would doubtless take jdace in a locality so full of 
interesting objects. 

A copy of the recent publication by Mr. Ilayley Mason, of Chichester, 
was brought before the meeting, consisting of the Architectural History of 
Chichester Cathedral, by Professor Willis, accompanied by an essay on the 
recent fall of the sjiire ; also memoirs, on Boxgrove Priory, by the Rev. 
J. L. Petit, and on Shoreham Church, by Edmund Shurj)e, Esq., read at 
the Meeting of the Institute at Chichester in ISo3. 

^fr. M. IIuLiiKf'iiK Bi.o.VAM conmiunicated an account of a Greek helmet, 
found in the Kiver Tigris, and which he kindly sent for examination. 
This valuable object had been exhibited at a j)revious meeting, in April, 
18.00, as noticed in this Journal, vol. xiii. p. 273. We are indebted to 
Mr. Bhjxam's kindness for the folhjwing ])arlieular8 relating to this very 
interesting discovery, as detailed by him at a Meeting of the Northampton 
Architectural Society, in October, 185G. In June, 1 8.54, Mr. Hiehard 
liunner Oakeley, of Oswaldkirk Hall, Yorkshire, by whom the helmet was 
prcBcntcd to Mr. Dloxam, being on a tour in the East, visited Trcbizond, 
and proceeded to Diabekcr on the Tigris, Here he obtained a laft, the 
UHual mode of transit down the river, to convey him to Mosid ; on arriving 
below the town of Til, the j)oint where the river Sert, the ancient Ceiitritos, 
joiiiH lh(3 'I'igris, the raft was drifting near the shore into shallow water, 
wlicn one of tlu; men pushed his boat-hook into the stream to thrust the 
raft olf from thu shore, and on lifting it out of the water the brunzu helmet 


was hronglit up by tlic hook. Mr. Oakley purcViased it for a few piastres, 
about a shilling sterling. The spot where it was found is one of in- 
terest, it n»ay be remeiubered, in connexion with the history of the Ten 
Thousand Greeks, who, after tlie defeat and death of Cyrus the Younger at 
Cunaxa, b.c, 401, refusing to enter the service of Artaxerxes his successor, 
commenced the memorable retreat recorded by Xenophon. After several 
conflicts with the tribes bordering on the Tigris, they arriv.ed at last at the 
Centrites, one of its principal tributaries, a stream 200 ft. in breadth, and 
here found a large force drawn up on the opposite shore to oppose their 
j)assage. Guides, however, and a ford were found; the enemy were thrown 
off their guard by a manoeuvre, and the Greeks succeeded in crossing the 
river with small loss, at a spot, as it is supposed, about two miles distant 
from its junction with the Tigris, where the town of Til is situated, and 
where the remarkable helmet now in Mr. Bloxam's possession was recovered 
from the bed of the river by the singular chance above stated. Thence the 
Ten Thousand continued their retreat by Trebizond and the Southern shore 
of the Euxine. 

Tiic helmet, although, as will be seen by the accompanying woodcut, 
diffeiing materially in form from the Greek type occurring in sculpture, or on 
antique vases and coins, «fcc., and also from numerous existing specimens, is 
neither an Assyrian nor a Persian head-piece, and may be regarded as one 

of t1ie brazen casques mentioned by Xenophon in his account of the accou- 
trements of the Greek stipendiaries in the army of Cyrus. The bronze 
helmets with which we are most familiar are cither skull caps, or of the 
usual nasal type. An example, bearing considerable similarity to this 
lielmet occurs on a scarce coin of one of the Greco-Bactrian monarchs, 
Eucratides II., who succeeded B.C. 140. ^Yhiist, from the circumstances 
above stated, there appear strong grounds for the supposition that the 
lielmet here represented had been lost in the retreat of the Ten Thousand, 
it must be admitted that possibly it may have belonged to one of the soldiers 
of Alexander the Great, who, about 330 B.C., traversed the countries 
bordering on the Euphrates and the Tigris, and comprised in his conquest 
the kingdom of Bactria. In either case it must be regarded as a relic of 
remarkable interest. 

The following notice of an incised marking or symbol recently observed 
on one of the stones of Stouehenge, was then communicated by Dr. Geouge 



R, Tate,M.P. "Roval Artillery.—" On February IGtli ISGl, I visltcil Stone- 
benL,'e, one of my prineipal olijects being to seareh for inseri[»ti()ns or 
sculpturing on the stones of wliioli that monument is formeil. 1 had 
repeatedly examined the very singular incised markings on the rocks at 


riout'in Linn, GUI Bewick, and Dodilington ifoors in Northumberland, and 
I had been informed that some incised syml)ol or concentric circles of a 
similar character liad been found on Long Meg in Cumberland.' 1 there- 
fore hoped to discover some sculpturing of a like kind at Stonehcngo. 
After Ion"- examination, both of the standing and the fallen stones, I was 
delighted to catch a glimpse of some symbol or character on the under 
surface of the fallen impost of one of the great triliths of the inner circle. 
One of the stones of this trilith is still standing, but the other and the 
impost fell about one hundred years ago. The inscription is on the under 
Bur.'"ace of the in)j)Ost, and occupies a ])osition midway between the mortices. 
It is about 9 in. in length, and is incised, but, being encrusted with lichens, 
and weather-worn, it must be viewed in a jiarticular light to trace its form, 
•which, however, under favorable circumstances, is distinct enough to an 
eye accustomed to read water-worn sculpturings. Its form is here shown 
(see woodcut). About 3 in. from it is a hollow ^ of an inch in diameter, 
similar to those which are seen associated with the remarkable markings on 
rocks in Northumberland. '-' 

I believe this incised cliaracter to be arcliaic, probably coeval with tlio 
erection of tlie Htom-henge circle ; it has the same weather-worn appearance 
ns the Northumberland sculpturings, which doubtless were the work of 
ancient British people. 15eyond generally expressing an opinion as to tho 
nntiijuity of the curious mark or synilxil now iirst noticed at Stonehengc, 
1 do not attempt to hpecnlato on its origin or meaning." 

On comparing the sketches, for which we arc indebted to Dr. Tate's 
kindncsfl, with the groundplan and views of Stonehengo given by Sir 

' It U roprcMcntofl amon^^t tho illuH- " Sonio of thoHo have boon figiu-ed in 

trmtioiiH of Sir (JanlncT WilkinHoii's mo- Sir (iunliior WilkinHoii'M Memoir, ut 

iDoir on I'ritiHli roinikiriH, Journal lirit. Bujtra, plato 10. 
Arcb. Amoc. 1»GU, p. 11». 



Richard Colt Iloare in his Ancient Wilts, vol. i., pp. 14.5, 153, it appears 
that the impost in question is not that of the trilitlion which fell on January, 
1797, a catastrophe of which an account, accompanied hy two views, was 
communicated to the Society of Antiquaries hy Mr. Maton, and published 
in the Archscologia, vol. xiii., p. 103. That trilitlKjn is marked E. in the 
plan given hy Sir R. C. Iloare, from a careful survey taken in 1810. Its 
impost (E. 3), now lies near the verge of the outer circle, on the N. W. side 
of the group. The impost to which Dr. Tate's curious communication 
relates, appears to be nearly in the centre of the circle, being that marked 
D 3, in the ground plan, and it lies across the so-called altar stone, de- 
scribed in Ancient Wilts, id supra, p. 149. The precise period when this 
trilitlion fell does not seem to have been recorded ; it was prostrate at the 
time when Stukelcy's views were taken in 1722. Attention having been 
excited by Dr. Tate's discovery, the impost bearing the incised marking 
was subsequently examined by an Archajologist resident in Wiltshire, Dr. 
Thurnam, of whose skill and accuracy in the investigation of ancient 
remains we have had frequent experience ; the interest of the subject 
renders it desirable to place his independent testimony before our readers. 
— " The markings (Dr. Thurnam states) are comparatively sharply cut. 

Incised mark, Stonehcnge. — Scale, one-fourth oiigmal length. 

but, though now covered with lichens and time-stains, may I believe have 
been made in modern times since the fall of the stone about 1620. I was 
curious to ascertain whether there are any similar markings in a corre- 
sponding position on the under surface of the impost of the adjoining trilith, 
which fell in 1797, but there is nothing of the kind. The markings do not 
exactly correspond with Dr. Tate's drawing; that which I send is I believe 
accurate, (See woodcut). The Roman V is very distinct, and the L only 
slightly less so. I should suppose the whole to have been the work of some 
casual visitor to the spot, possibly soon after the fall of the stone ; by 
whatever hand the markings were made, considerable time must have been 
spent in the operation. They are very nearly in the centre of the stone 
and mid-way between the two mortices." Having thus given the various 
readings of these remarkable characters or symbols, the question must be 
left to further investigation ; it is scarcely needful to point out how strong 


an argument in favor of the more remote nntiquity of the markings 
may, as we appreheml, be drawn not less from their having become so 
thickly cncrusteil with hchen as to have escaped the notice of many 
keen observers, but also from the improbability that characters could 
have been thus carefully incised on so bard a material by any *' casual 

The following report of the progress of the excavations at Urioconiuni 
was received from Henry Johnson, Esq., M.D., Secretary of the E.xcava- 
tions Committee at Shrewsbury, accompanied by a ])hotograph of an 
inscribed monument recently brought to light.—-" About tlie middle of 
September last wo began to dig in the cemetery just outside the city walls 
on the East, and adjacent to the Watling Street. Very shortly a massive 
inscribed stone was found, on the upper part of which were remains of a 
sculptured figure, to wbich it had apparently served as a base, but the feet 
only of the figure remain. The inscription has not hitherto been satisfac- 
torily deciphered." AVe have trenched all over the field called the cemetery, 
or at least that part, in which, being near the Watling Street, it was thought 
that probably, some remains might be brought to light, and nunierous 
cinerary urns of various sizes and forms have been found, some of theiu 
quite entire. The largest, unfortunately broken, had measured about 24 
inches in diameter. Some of the urns are of the usual fashion of sepul- 
chral oihe fovnid in England, and these generally contain burnt human 
bones, but by no means the whole of the skeleton. There are also vases 
with a neck, or earthen bottles. With the fragments of bone we have found 
several small flask -shaped phials of green glass, of the kind usually called 
lachrymatories, but probably used to contain perfume or unguent, and, in 
the sand with which they are mostly filled, I have noticed occasionally some 
admixture of carbonaceous matter, which may be the result of the action of 
file upon some resinous or oleaginous substance which they originally con- 
tained. Some have evidently been exposed to such a degree of heat that 
the glass has been softened or partially fused. The fragments of two glass 
bowls, objects of much greater rarity, liave also been disinterred. Two 
small fictile lamps have been found, one of them marked with the pottcr'.s 
name modes, on the underside. Both the lamps and glass bottles have been 
found either within the urns or very near them. In one or two places wc 
liave noticed a stratum of charcoal, possibly the site of the funereal fire. No 
hones of animals have occurred, as so commonly found in the previous 
diggings, and no human or other bones luiburnt. Some rude foundations 
were uncovered in one part of the field, possibly remains of a tomb ; a 
modern land-drain had been carried through them, and no signs of interment 
a|»[iearfd. Two coins only have been met with in the cemclery; one of them 
1 believe has been identified as a coin of C'ommodus. The examination (d' 
the cemetery having been cumpleted the workmen were employed on garden 
ground at Norton, on the North bitle of the city, possibly part of the ancient 
nrrrojiolis of Urioconiuni ; at a depth of three fei't in clay a large cinerary 
urn wns found, broken in jiieces ; it had been placed on two tiles cemented 
t(»g«;ther, with a second brass coin of Trnjiwi ind)edded in the cement. The 
d«;poHit was Burruunded by traces of cremation. Wo now propose to com- 
mence operations on the other side (the North) of the Watling Street. I 

' It hoN b«'cii fij^urftcl, with otiior K<«nuin rolicH lately fnuid nl Wroxotor, 
Qcnt Mng. Ai.iil, 18ti2, \>. 401. 


liavc very lately recovered a bronze statuette of Mercury formerly found at 
Wroxeter, and purchased for linlf-a-crown by a young man, assistant to a 
chemist at Slircwsbury. He bad emigrated to Africa, and the Ivoman lar 
was, as I feared, for ever lost to our country; but within the last few days he 
returned, and has given it to the Museum, where 1 hope soon to see another 
like relic, a statuette of Diana, now in the possession of a farmer near 
Wroxeter. The right leg of the goddess has unfortunately been broken 
off.^ Antique sculptures and images, it is believed, were frequently muti- 
lated through a certain superstitious notion, to destroy their supposed 
physical or magical power," 

Mr. Hillary Davies, who had kindly presented to the Institute a 
copy of his accurate Survey of the previous excavations at Wroxeter, now 
sent a detailed plan of the Roman cemetery, with indications of the spots 
■whore the relics noticed by Dr. Johnson had occurred. A special vote of 
thanks was passed to Mr. Davies, for this interesting memorial of the late 
investigations. It is hoped that the friendly contributions of those wiio give 
attention to Roman remains in this country will speedily enable the Com- 
mittee at Siirewsbury to extend their field of operation. 

A memoir by Mr. George Petrie, of Kirkwall, Corresponding Member 
of the Institute, was read, describing the recent excavation of the tumulus 
in Orkney, known as Maes-IIow. (Published in this Journal, vol. xviii., 
p. 353.) Lord Talbot de MALAniDE,who came to the meeting, on arriving 
from Ireland, shortly after the proceedings had commenced, called attention 
to the remarkable analogy which appears between that curious chambered 
tumulus and certain ancient remains of the same class in the sister 
kingdom, especially New Grange. He pointed out that the singularly 
contracted dimensions of the entrance passage precluded tlie possibility 
that such structures could have served, as had been conjectured, as 

Mr. Hewitt gave a notice of a gauntlet of buff leather lately added to 
the Tower Collection, and also of some rare kinds of armour formed of 
scales and small round plates. 

Mr. Robert Fitch communicated a short account of a beautiful mural 
painting lately brought to light at the west end of the north aisle in St. 
Gregory's Church, Norwicli. He exhibited an admirable drawing of this 
curious relic of art, executed with great care by Mr. Winter, of Norwich. 
The costume and armour, and details of architecture, are very curious ; the 
date of the painting may be assigned to about 1450. Mr. Fitch's descrip- 
tion was as follows : — " During the progress of the restoration of St. 
Gregory's Church, Norwich, in July last, the workmen discovered a remark- 
ably fine mural painting, representing St. George and the Dragon ; the 
portions which time and the original obliterator have left, are as fresh in 
color and as distinct as if they had been executed only a few years since. 
The figures of the horse and St. George, who was tutelar saint of the city, 
are as large as life, and not only is the combat represented, but evidently 
the story attendant on the encounter has been figured in the back ground. 
The dragon is on the ground, a portion of the spear appears within its open 
jaws, but the weapon seems to have been broken, for between the hind 
legs of the horse and the tail of the dragon is seen the broken spear, lead- 
ing to the conclusion that St. George had failed in overcoming the monster 

3 This statuette is figured, Gent. Mng. April, 1SG2, p. 401. 



with his lance ; tliis view is borne out by the circumstance that tlic champion 
is represented as haviii*^ drawn his sword, and he is preparing to deal a 
heavy blow with it. The ornamentation is profuse, the rod cross of St. 
George glows on the breast of the saint, and a series of small shields with 
the same device are apparent. The Libyan Princess Cleodolinda kneels 
on a ruck to the right holding a lamb by a ribbon. In a cavern under- 
neath her are seen the progeny of tiie scaly monster, issuing forth as if 
eagerly looking for its return with the expected prey. At the top of the 
picture appear the King and (Jueen of Selene, her jtarents, as if looking 
out from a tower within the city. The upper part 0/ the picture is more 
perfect than the lower. The battlements and roofs of the houses witiiiu 
the walls have lost little of their early colouring. Beneath the painting is 

part of an inscription, — Pray for the soul of which may have recorded 

the death of the donor, but it is to be regretted that the name is now irre- 
coverably lost ; a member probably of the far-famed St. "George's Company, 
and one who regarded the saint with the highest veneration. I had for- 
gotten to mention that the painting was discovered on the removal of the 
organ, which occupied the west end of the north aisle, for the purpose of 
cleaning the walls. I may add that it is not a fresco but an oil painting. 
The extreme height is 17 ft. and the width 9 ft. 9i in. This rcnuirkablo 
e.\am[ile of ancient art will be ])rescrvcd, but I regret to state that the 
])ari.-«h autliorities have thought tit to oil and "restore" it by repainting 
some portions." 

gntt'quitir^ anil iUnrli^ of 'Srt evljtliitflr. 

By Col. Lefuoy, II. A., through Mr. Hewitt. — A singular little relic of 

bronze, stated to have been found in railway 
excavations between Basingstoke and And- 
over. It appears to represent a htbntm, such 
as were used by the ancients in their baths. 
It is a diminutive, shallow, circular basin, 
about 2i in. in diameter, with a low seat all 
iiiiind within, upon which are seated snu\ll 
ii^urcs, about I] in. in heiglit, apparently 
representing naked boys, or bathers dis- 
porting themselves in the water. In the 
centre of the basin is a small circular i)ode8- 
tal upon whicli some object has been allixed, 
probably a statuette, the jet of a fountain 
throwing water into the labruin, or the like. 
This curious object is supposed to bo of tho 
Konian jieriod. 

By Bkui.mi BoTriiM.i), b'sq., M.P. — A 
bronze weight obtained in July last at Croy- 
land, on occasion of the vi>it of the Institute 
to that phico during the annual meeting at 
Peterborough. It wa.s stiiteil to have been 
I " liiund in or in ar the site <if the monastery. 

W'e are indebted to Mr. Bollield's kindness 

\ for tlio accompanying woodcuts. it will 

be Hccn that U is in form of an cHeutcluion, 

Hr<rtiw) woIkIiI found at Croyluii.i. charged with tho arms of England, possibly 


denoting that it was a standard weight, or at least adjusted hy tlie 
pondus Regis. It weighs 4 oz., or a quarter of a pound ; the date may 
be as early as the fourteenth century. A bronze weight of similar form, 
and of later date, has been figured in this Journal, vol. xvii., p. 165, with 
notices of other examples, in which, however, the perforation, intended 
probably for facility of conveyance or of suspension, is towards the 
lower extremity of the shield. A leaden heater-shaped weight with 
the royal arms is in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries; 
around the edge is the Angelic Salutation — Ave Maria. It was found 
with another like weight in Wharfedale, Yorkshire, as stated in the 
Catalogue of the Society's Collection, p. 24. 

By Mr. W. .1. Beunhaud Smith. — Three powdcr-flaslvs or touch-hoxos, 
date the sixteenth century, one of them of steel, with engraved ornaments, 
German work ; another of wood inlaid with ivory, representing a stag-hunt ; 
the third of wood, inlaid with bone, &c., and brass studs arranged in 
concentric and interlacing circles ; the mounting of steel. The various 
fasliions of objects of this class are well shown in Skclton's Illustrations 
of the Goodrich Court Armoury, vol. ii. plates 123 — I2G. 

By Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P. — A Chinese personal seal, of agate, 
engraved with an inscription in the ancient characters which occur on 
Chinese seals of metal, crystal, wood, he, and also on the small seals of 
white porcelain found frequently in Ireland, to which the specimen exhibited 
is somewhat similar in fashion. 

By Miss Ffauington. — A collection of ancient documents, seals, and 
family memorials ; also several specimens of embroidery, a portion of the 
orfray of a vestment, displaying figures of saints; date sixteenth century; 
and a curious representation of Floi-a, surrounded by animals, flowers, &c., 
worked in gold and silver. 

By Dr. Keller, President of the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich. — A 
photograph of a singular object in the museum of the Society, being a 
hollow dodecahedron of hronze, with a ball attached to each of the angles. 
Each of the pentagonal sides is piei'ced with a circular opening, and no two 
of these perforations are of equal diameter. A similar relic, found near St. 
Peter's Church, Carmarthen, is in the Museum of the Society of Anti- 
quaries. See Catalogue, p. 2i, where other examples are noticed. 

By Mr. Daniel Gurney, F.S.A. — Two interesting portraits, date sixteenth 
century, one of them supposed to represent Prince Arthur, elder brother of 
Henry YIII. It may be, however, an early portrait of that sovereign, 
being apparently that of a person in more advanced years than Prince 
Arthur, who died in 1502, aged only sixteen. This portrait is on panel, 
representing a young man in the prime of life, three quarters to the right ; 
■without beard or moustaches ; the hair short; a flat bonnet with the brim 
turned up and fastened with an enseigne or medallion over the right brow. 
He wears a furred crimson gown, a rich pendant jewel, collar of pearls and 
gems, and holds in his right hand a red and Avhite rose. This curious 
])ainting bears much resemblance to that at Windsor, formerly in possession 
of Charles I., and considered by Mr. Scharf to portray Prince Arthur. 
The second portrait is inscribed Ilenricus Domimis Darnley, Hex Scotorion, 
1562 ; it is a painting of his time, on panel, presenting features of stroiK*- 
similarity to the supposed portraits of the Consort of Mary Stuart. In his 
left hand he holds an hour-'glass, inscribed, Cogita muri — Anno 1562. 
The hair, beard and moustaches, are light brown ; the general aspect is 


tliat of a yo'.inj^ man of twonty-five to thirty. It may be remeinl>eroil tliat 
t«o vears siibseqiieiitly to the date oocuiiing on tliis portrait. Sir James 
Melville, in iiis aocoiint of his memorable interview wiih Elizabetli, de- 
Beribes Darnlev, whose age at that time (in li)(>4) was only eighteen, as 
"liker ft woman than a man, for he was lovely, beardless, and lady-faced." 
The inscription giving Darnley's name is probably a recent addition, and 
Melville's account seems to prove that the painting cannot be received as a 
portrait of that prince. 

Jannary 10, 1SG2. 
William Titk, Esq., M.P., F.S.A., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

PuEViocsLY to commencing the ordinary proceedings of the meeting Mr. 
Tite observed, that since they had last assembled togetlier an event luxd 
taken place which had tilled all hearts with the deepest sorrow. In the 
absence of their President, Lord Talbot de Malahide, the painful duty had 
devolved upon him (.Mr. Tite) to express, on this their first meeting of the 
new year, the sense of deep regret with which the Institute, in common 
with all classes of Her Majesty's loyal subjects, must regard the lamentable 
bereavement which she had recently sustained in the untimely decease of 
the Prince Consort. Every member of the Society, Mr. Tito felt assured, 
would share in heartfelt sorrow at such a national calamity ; all must 
deplore the loss of the enlightened and beneficent Patron who had for somo 
years graciously favored the Society with his encouragement, and by his 
personal participation in their proceedings. The Prince had with most 
kind condescension repeatedly e-xertcd his influence in obtaining the gracious 
permission of the Queen, by which objects of very choice and j)reciou3 
character, preserved in the royal collections, had been entrusted to the 
Soeiitv, to which he had so generously extended his jjatronage. Mr. Tite 
could not refrain from bearing his heartfelt tribute, not only to the conde- 
scension of the Prince on many occasions, but to his high attainments, and 
to the constant devotion of his time and thoughts to the j)romotion of 
the Arts, and of all the iiiterests (tf National advancement or cultivation. 
The loss of so beneficent and accomplished a Patron must be a cause of 
sailness and most heartfelt condolence, not only to all members of the In- 
stitute, but to all who had experienced with them that kindly encourage- 
nicnt with which the lamented Prince had constantly fostered every effort 
afts<jeiated with the progress of Xatitmal refinement and intelligence, lie 
(Mr. Tite) would venture to express the hope, that their gracious Queen, 
in this her great trial and extremity of sorrow, might find in the deep 
Bvm|)athv of her loyal subjects some slight balm of consolation. 

The following address of loyal condolence was then riiul, which had been 
hiid before Her Majestv by the President, on behalf of the Institute, as an 
hundjle expreaflion of deep sorrow and sympathy in so great a calan»ity : — 

The Humble Address of the Members of the .\rchaeological Institute 
of Great Pritain and Ireland : — 

May it please your Majesty, 

We bog leave to approach your prcBoncc In order to express our sorrow 
for the hud bereavement which your Majesty has sustained in the death of 
your Uoyal (/'(jiisort. In common with all your subjects, we feel the iilow 
which huH fallen un a family -the chief ornament and |iride of our (Mtuntry. 

A» one of the many Societies in tin; land, wliuse ol ji els are the investi- 


gation of its National Monuments, and the promotion of the Fine Arts, we 
lament the loss of one who spent his life and used his exalted position not 
only in tiie advancement of all the Arts of Peace, and in the foundation of 
one of the most dislini,ruished Schools of Art, but in the improvement of 
the condition of the pour and the afflicted, and in the solution of the great 
social problems of the day. 

And we also ask leave to express to your Majesty our more particular 
sorrow at the loss of our kind Patron, who honored our meetings with his 
presence; who aided us with his enliglitened counsel; and who obtained for 
us your Majesty's permission on several occasions to exliibit choice speci- 
mens of Art in the possession of the Crown. 

Words cannot express what we feel on this occasion. May God, in His 
niorcy, vouchsafe to your Majesty the necessary strength to bear up under 
tliis your heavy affliction, and preserve you for many years to your affection- 
ate people. 

lu the name of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 
(Signed) Talbot de Malahide. 

Mr. George Petrie, of Kirkwall, Corresponding Member of the Insti- 
tute, communicated an account, with illustrative drawings, of the I'emains 
of a circular church at Orphir in Orkney (printed in this Journal, vol. xviii. 
p. 227.) This, as it is believed, is the only example in North Britain of a 
tvpe which occurs not unfrequently in some parts of Northern Europe. Mr. 
Tite observed that he had recently visited one of the most interesting spe- 
cimens of this class of churches existing in England, the Round Church at 
Northampton, which had suffered much from neglect and decay; it was 
proposed to connect its restoration, now entrusted to Mr. Gilbert Scott, 
with the purpose of a memorial to the late Marquis of Northampton, for- 
merly President of the Institute, whose kind and generous encouragement 
was doubtless gratefully remembered by many present. 

A memoir was then read, addressed by one of the foreign Honorary 
Corresponding Members of the Institute, the Count Constantine Tysz- 
kiewicz, a distinguished arch geologist, brother of the President of the 
Society of Antiquaries at Wilna. His communication was illustrated by 
numerous careful ground plans and representations of entrenclied works, 
hill-fortresses, and other remains of early antiquity in Lithuania, presenting 
apparently features of analogy with vestiges of a like description in Great 
Britain. In common with other parts of Northern Europe, he observed, 
Lithuania presents none of those traces of Roman occupation which occur 
in other localities. The country had been traversed by the various nations 
who had migrated from Asia, probably, to the Southward and Westward 
regions of Europe. The traces are chiefly tumuli and entrenchments. 
The Count proposed to divide these renuiins into four classes; — forts con- 
structed at the meeting of streams, or on the banks of rivers; — entrenched 
places of worship, usually on the summits of isolated hills; on these sites 
are frequently noticed small cavities full of aslies with traces of cremation, 
indicating, as it is supposed, places of sacrifice; — the third class consisting 
of large enclosed spaces, designed, as believed, for holding councils or for 
the administration of justice; — and, lastly, the numerous tumuli, called in 
Polish kurliany. Tliese last the Count ])roposed to distinguish by the uses 
for which they appear to have been raised. Some seem to have been posts 
of observation raised around camps; others may have marked the lines of 



migration of ancient races; others, again, are sepulchral, containing objects 
of stone, bronze, anil iron, similar, for the most part, to those of the same 
period found in England and in Europe generally. Ornaments of female 
attire have been found also in abundance, such as objects of glass and stone, 
and. near the coast, ornan)ents made of amber. 

Mr. E. Li.OYD delivered an elaborate disijuisition on the landing of Julius 
Caisar in Britain. His views do nut concur with those of the Astronomer 
Roval, or of Mr. Lewin. Mr, Lloyd stated that, availing himself of faci- 
lities of observation during a prolonged residence at Kamsgate, he had 
devoted much time to exploring the localities in question, lie had arrived 
at the conclusion that Caisar had set forth on his iirst voyage to Britain 
from Wissant; he liad landed in Candum, a. name which Mr. Lloyd main- 
tained belonged to that jiortion of Kent now called the Isle of Thanet; 
it might have extended to Dover and Canterbury, but there appears to bo 
no ground for tlie sujiposition that it applied to the district as far to the 
westward as Komney Marsh, or to the coast west of Dover, where, accord- 
ing to some authorities, Ciesar's landing had taken ])lace. Mr. Lloyd, from 
careful examination of the coast, was inclined to bflieve that ShonKlon, be- 
liind Deal, may have been the spot where Ciesar landed; and he stated some 
conjecturts on the state of the tide at the time of his arrival, in confirmation 
of that opinion. He moreover alluded to the discovery of certain flat- 
bottomed boats of great antiquity at a spot where, as he thought possible, 
Ciesar's fleet may have been drawn np on the shore for security. Referring 
to the fact that, at that period, Eutupife was an island, he called attention 
to the great changes which had taken place on the coast, and especially to 
that which had left dry the estuary by which the Isle of Thanet had been 
formerly divided from the mainland. These changes Mr. Lloyd is disposed 
to attribute to the gradual deepening of the channel in the straits of 

Mr. Wn.Li.\M Cl.wtox communicated a photograph of the base or 
ground-work of a very curious relic of Roman occupation at Dover, accom- 
panied by some notices of the discovery, during the last summer, of these 
remains, supposed to mark the sight of a pharos ui)on the Western Heights, 
and formerly known as the Bredenstone. It is believed that the earliest 
mention of this vestige of some Ilunuin structure in that position occurs in 
Lambarde's rerambulation of Kent, published in 1.5'JG, wiiero it is stated, 
p. 158, — " there standeth yet uppon the high clilfe betweene the towne and 
the peere (as it were) not farre from that which was the house of the 
Templars, soujc remaine of a tower, now called Bredenstone." This 
portion of ancient masonry, and also the ruins of the circular cliurch of 
the Templars, doubtless tlie scene of the memorable interview between 
King John and the legate from the Holy See, are repre.sented, it has 
been HU|q)()sed, in the curious view of Dover, as it ap)ieared in the time of 
Henry VIII., preserved amongst the Colt. MSS. in the British Museum, 
and of which a reduced copy was published a few years ago at Dover. 
The Bredenstone was doubtless the object mentioned by Montfaucon, 
Antiqu. Expl. Supp. torn. iv. p. 137, as a "grand nionceau do nnxzures 
de pii-rrcH et do chaux, (pi'on voit aupres d(7 Douvre, quo les gens du pays 
ivppellunt lu guutte du Diable," regarded, it is observed, by some persons 
ait the remains of a Roman pharos, but distinct from the welLknown 
pharoH-towur at the Castle, of which Montfaucon (//;((/. p. fj\) gives a good 
rcprcMcntation from a drawing sent to him in I 71' I by the Archbishop of 


Canterbury (Wake). In tlie History of Dover Castle by Darell, chaplain 
to Queen bllizabetli, and publislied in 178G, the Biedonstone or " the Devil's 
Drop," called by him " Ara Co^saris," is given as a vignette headpiece. 
At that time it seems to have been a shapeless mass of masonry, about 
ten feet in height. It may be supposed that the popular name originated 
in a notion, of which many other instances occur, that the huge mass had 
been dropped on the heights by supernatural agency ; but the word was 
inadvertently rendered by the learned French antiquary, above cited, as if 
it had signified a liquid drop — " goutte du Diable." In 1693, Lord 
Sydney, on his appointment as Lord Warden, summoned the Grand Court 
of Shepway to meet upon " Braidenstone Hill," where he had been told 
that three of his predecessors were sworn into office. The Historian of 
Kent, Hasted, mentions Bredenstone Hill on the S.W. side of Dover, 
opposite to the Castle, and that there the ancient court of Shepway " is 
now kept," and the Lords Warden sworn in. Again, he observes that the 
hill on the S.W. of the town, called Bredenstone Hill, on which the ruin 
of the ancient Roman pharos remained, is within the lordship of Bredon, 
in the liberty of Dover, and that it once belonged to the Commander}' of 
Swynfield, <tc. The site of the Templars' church mentioned by Leland 
and other writers, and already noticed as situated on the same Heights, was 
brought to light by the sap[)ers in 1806 ; it was cleared from debris and 
again exposed to view in 1854 by Col. Fitzherbert Grant. In the course 
of the works at the period first named, when the Heights were strongly 
fortified, the Bredenstone had been buried under an accumulation of chalk 
and soil thrown out of a trench then cut near the spot, but, in digging 
foundations for barracks last summer the platform, described as hexagonal, 
on which the structure had been erected was laid open, and the Koman 
character of the masonry distinctly recognised. The remains were about 
20 feet in length, as shown in the photograph sent by Mr. Clayton ; they 
consisted of ordinary Roman walling, with a few plain tiles, and presented 
the appearance of a rough nniss of conglomerate. A cavity full of 
charred wood and ashes was noticed, supposed to be a vestige of the 
original purpose for which the erection had been designed, as a pharos on 
the Western side of the harbour of the ancient Duhris. The remains 
were forthwith in part removed, and a portion has been so preserved in the 
construction of the barrack-wall that it remains visible, projecting a few 
inches from the face of tiie wall, and marking the site where an object of 
so much interest to the Cinque Ports stood. A detailed description of the 
masonry, and of the circumstances of its discovery, is given by Mr. 
Knocker, Town Clerk of Dover, <fc;c., in his •' Account of the Grand Court 
of Shepway, holden on the Bredenstone Hill, for the Installation of the 
Viscount Falmerston as Warden of the Cinque Ports, <tc., August 2d:, 
1861." In that interesting volume a conjectural representation of Duhris 
with its two multangular light-towers is given, and also a copy of the view 
of Darell's " Ara Ccesaris," as it appeared Avheu his History was 
published, towards the close of the last century. 

Mr. JuSEi'ii BuRTT presented to the Institute the Catalogue of their 
Library, prepared by him in accordance with a plan approved by the 
Central Committee. The inconvenience arising from the want of a syste- 
matic Catalogue had long, Mr. Burtt observed, been a cause of complaint ; 
the library, although deficient in general works of reference, contained 
a rare and valuable series of transactions of Archaeological and Historical 


Societies, especially on the Continent ; for this the Iiistitntc liad been 
chiftlv indebted to the exertions of their lamented friend Mr. Keinble. 
It also included numerous monographs and memoirs, topograpliical and 
nnti([uarian, of comparatively rare occurrence. He (.\lr. IJurtt) had 
pleasure in now ottering to the Society the result of his endeavors to 
contribute to their satisfaction, and to enhance the utility of the Library. 

A special vote of thanks to Mr. Burtt for so valuable a service, at no 
slight sacrifice of time, was very cordially carried. Mr. Tite alluded to 
the circumstance that the Society of Antiquaries were likewise on the point 
of issuing a List of their Library. Of that extensive collection of books, 
liowcvcr, a Catalogue, although incomplete, was previously in the hands of 
the Fellows ; Mr. Burtt had with great kindness undertaken the task of 
supplying, for the first time, a deficiency long felt by the members of the 

'HntiqutttrS autr iHLIoiItii dC ?at evbibitrtf. 

By Miss FFARRiXGToy. — A celt or axe-head of cherty flint, streaked 
with brown, found in 1859 in a field near lloniton, Devon. It is a good 
example of an ordinary type, with a cutting edge at one extremity onl}'. 

By Air. Fncn. — Two bronze torque rings, found during the previous 
month in a chalk pit near Norwich. They are encrusted with bright 
green patina, and measure, in diameter, about 1} inch. The extremities 
are disunited, so that the rings might be termed penannular, but the ends 
may have been originally soldered together. These relics are supposed to 
be of Anglo-Saxon date ; a specimen precisely similar in fashion and size 
was found bv Mr. Wylie at the Anglo-Saxon cemetery investigated by him 
in Gloucestershire ; it is figured, Fairford Graves, pi. IX. At tlie spot 
where the rings sent by Mr. Fitch were found, a leaden coffin was brought 
to light on Dec. 2, ult., it had been enclosed in a coffin of v,-ood, and 
contained portions of a human skeleton. This interment lay at a depth of 
about 4 ft. in a bank of sand and brick clay, adjoining the chalk pits at 
Stone Hills ; the locality was formerly known as Ileigham Heath. The 
coffin, which has been considered Roman, is without ornament, of simple 
construction, formed of a sheet of lead cut to the desired shape and then 
doubled over at the ends and sides, the cover being also formed in like 
manner ; no solder apparently had been used. The dimensions are, length 
50 in., width, at the liead 14 in., at the feet l."» in., dipth 10 "in. Ivenuiins 
of mortar-like cement were noticed near the coiliu. A full accoimt of the 
discovery will be given in the rublications of the Norfolk Archjoological 

By Sh. Weiih. — A remarkable ivory casket, sculptured with mythologi- 
cal subjects, foliage, and ornamentation of early classical character. On 
the lid is a singular representation of Europa ; a group of Cretans in very 
spirited action appear to im[)edo her landing on their shores, by throwing 
BtoncB. At one end of the cotfcr i.i sculplined young Bacchus in a car 
drawn by leopards, at the other a num mounted on a triton ; there are also 
curious liacchanalian subjects, centaurs, a jigure playing on a lyre, «te. 
Tbi-* line example was recently obtained fmni the Treasury of the Cathedral 
of Veroli in the I'ontifical States. Dimensions, 15Jj in. by (\[ in. ; height 
4i in. 

By Mr. R. M. Mll.I.s. — A diminutive ivory devotional folding tablet, 
Btatcd to have been found, in ISUL', in a Icailcn eotlin at Chichester Culhc- 


ilral. It came to the present possessor from Mr. F. Danioll, of Knowle 
House, Devon. The dimensions of each leaf of tiiis little tablet are about 
1-| in. in each direction ; upon one leaf is a sculptured fii;ure of the B. V. 
Mary with the infant Saviour, standiiif^ between St. Peter and St. Paul ; 
on the other appear St. John the J[3aj)tist, St. James the Less, and 
St. Catharine. The figures are placed under crockcted canopies. Date, 
early tifteentli century. 

By Mr. W. J. Bkknhaud Smith. — A conical helmet of Oriental charac- 
ter, with a sliding nasal-bar ; at the side of the face, on the left side, is a 
small tube, which may have been intended to receive a plume. The lofty 
conical peak terminates in a small knob. This curious head-piece is from 
the Arsenal at Constantinople, and is stamped with the curious Cufic mark 
or n)onogram occurring on various objects thence obtained. — Also a pair of 
shoes covered with chain-mail, from the same Arsenal ; the soles are of 
leather, with short brass peaks at the toes. — Two portions of russet- 
armour engraved with foliage, trophies, <kc., and partly gilded ; probably 
of Spanish work, sixteenth century. ^One of them appears to be the back 
of a war-saddle. 

By the llev. C. Y. Cuawi.ey. — A drawing of the sumptuous golden 
chalice and salver, at Matson Church, Gloucestershire ; the former 
measures, in height, 9 in., the salver, used as a paten, 9 in. in diameter. 
On a scroll around the base of the chalice is the following inscription, — 
" Taken out of a church at the Havana by the Earl of Albemarle, and 
given to George Augustus Selwyn, Esquire, by whom it was given to the 
chuich of Matson." George, third Earl of Albemarle, aide-de-camp to the 
Duke of Cumberland at Fontenoy, was commander-in-chief at the reduction 
of the Havana in 1762. 

By Mr. W. Parker IIamond. — A French jeton found at Croydon ; on 
one side is Henry IV. on horseback, on the other the arms of France and 
Navarre. The counters struck at Nuremberg by Hans Krauwinckel and 
Wolfgang Laufer, for use in France, are numerous, and some of the types 
have an historical interest. E.xamples, of the time of Henry IV., are '^iveu 
by Suelling, J. de Fontenay, and other writers on jetong. 

February 7, 1862. 

Professor Donaldson in the Chair. 

A very interesting account was given by Professor Westwood of his 
visit to Treves during the previous summer, with notices of objects in the 
museum and library at that place, especially a very remaikablc sculpture in 
ivory representing, as supposed, St. Helena, to whom the foundatibn of the 
cathedral is attriliuted, and who is represented receiving a solemn proces- 
sion, on the airival probably of some holy relics at Treves. It will he oivou 
with the continuation of Professor Westwood's Architulooical Notes on 
the Continent, of which the first portion has already appeared in this ' 

Mr. Franks observed that the highly valuiible example of sculpture in 
ivory, to which Professor Westwood had called attention, may probably be 
assigned to the time of Charlemagne. 

Captain Windus, of the Indian Navy, read a memoir on a carrack or 
war-galley, fitted out by the Knights of St. John, as related by Bosio, the 
historian of the Order, and remarkable not less on account of its great size 


and cqui{tmcnt, than ns liaving been sheatlieil with loail for defence atjainst 
artillery. The vessel was built at Nice, in 1530, and formed part of the 
great squadron dispatched by the Emperor Charles V. in 153.") against 
Tunis, to aid the dethroned Muley Hassan against Barbarossa. The fleet 
consisted of about 500 vessels, chit-fly Genoese, under the command of the 
celebrated Andrea Doria. The carrack, named the Sa/tta Anna, took a 
prominent part in the conflict, and in a few days Tunis was captured. 
The huge ship was the wonder of the age ; she had six decks, with eou- 
leuvrines and numerous heavy artillery ; the crew consisted of 30() men ; 
she had a spacious chapel, hall of reception, and an armoury for ccjuipping 
500 men ; on the poop were planted trees ; it is recorded that she was pro- 
vided with ovens and a baker, who supplied fresh bread daily in abuiulauce. 
But the singular feature of her construction was the leaden shealliiiig, 
attached with brass bolts, a precaution to which Bosio attributes perfect 
security against shot, so that although often engaged she had never been 
pierced below the bulwarks. Captain Windus, having pointed out various 
points of advancement in technical. skill shown in the construction of this 
remarkable carrack, observed how remarkable is the fact, that whilst the 
merits of plated ships and invulnerable rams are so keenly canvassed in 
this and other countries, and the question of iron verms wood is the grand 
topic of interest in connexion with naval warfare, a vessel of huge dimen- 
sions should have existed more than three centuries ago, not only provided 
with appliances usually regarded as inventions of much later times, but 
have been actually in advance of modern ingenuity, in being secured against 
cannon-shot by a metal sheathing, as etiectual |)rubably against the projec- 
tiles of the period as it is believed that " La Cloire," or the " Warrior " 
mav prove against more powerful artillery. The use of brass bolts, Captain 
AViiidus rcnnirked, shows a singular advance in technical details. When 
metal sheathing was introduced in this country 2j0 years later, it was 
atliied by iron bolls, and the advantage of using copper fastenings was only 
reco"iiiscd at a com[»aratively recent time. The *' Santa Anna " probably 
resembled the celebrated " llenri GrAce de Dieu," of 1000 tons, built at 
Erith, periiaps on an Italian model, in the reign of Henry VUl. There 
exists, however, it is believed, in the Refectory of the palace of the Order 
of St. John at lunne a painting of the carrack, which may supply a precise 
notion of its curious details and proportions. Cai)tain Windus concluded hy 
observing that to the Knights of St. John the merit must ho given of 
liaving constructed the first metal-plated vessel of war upon record.* 
Captain Windus alluded to some experiments which he had recently made 
in regard to the value of lead as a protection again->t ritle-shot ; the results 
have bhown, however, that it is of no avail against modern artillery. 

Air. W. Bi'liuKS then read a notice of the interesting HC|iulchral 
memorial and efhgy of the Bailly of Amerigo, of Narbonne, which he had 
latelv noticed in the cloister of Sta. Maiia dell' Aniionziata at Florence. 
'I his warlike personage is portrayed on horseback ; he fell at the fight of 
Campalilino in 108'J ; Dante was engaged on that occasion. .Mr. Burges 
Iia>i promised a full account aiid accuuitc re|>rcsentations of tiiis 
very curious example of military costume. The efligy is figured in Mr. 

* Mr. Wntflflon lion BubHcquently in- nt llie I'alnzzo di Midtii at Romn ; and 
formed tin tliat th'To Ih n niodel of tliu nini) n |)nintin)< in tliu Mouse uf tlio I'riory 
Stnta Anna, aa tiu bcdiovcM, in a gallery on tlio Avutitiiio. 


Hewitt's Manual of Arms and Armour in Europe, vol. i. p. 2ii, from 
a drawing by the late Mr. Kerricli. 

Mr. R. G. P. MiNTY, of Petersficld, called the attention of the Institute 
to the neglected condition of two tombs of the Caryll family at llarting 
Cliurch, Sussex, formerly .in a monumental chapel adjacent to the south 
side of the chancel. The church bad undergone restoration in 1853, under 
the care of Mr. Gilbert Scott, and at tlie expense of Lady Fetherston ; 
in 1854 the restoration of the cliancel was entrusted by the Vicar to Mr. 
Ferrey ; a new east window was given by Lady Fetherston in 1858; and, 
in 18G0, the chapel which had contained the monuments in question, being 
somewbat out of repair, was removed, so as to open to view a window oa 
the south side of the chancel. Mr. Minty exhibited photographs of the 
church before and after the demolition of the Caryll Cbapel, and also of the 
monuments and effigies, apparently well sculptured ; they are now exposed 
to the weather and mischievous injuries. These tombs commemorated Sir 
Edward Caryll, of Ilarting, who died 1609, and Sir Richard Caryll, his 
third son, who died 1616. Mr. Minty stated that one of the monuments 
is of stone, the other of marble ; the canopies had been destroyed, and 
the figures arc now in damaged condition. The Caryll family, resi<lent 
formerly at West Grinstead, and at Ladyliolt Park, Sussex, now the pro- 
perty of Lady Fetherston, were of note in the county, and allied with 
some of the chief families. They were loyal adherents to Charles L, and 
suffered in the Revolution. Dallaway in his Ili.story of Sussex gives their 
pedigree, and the inscriptions on the tombs. Mr. Minty expressed reoret 
that these memorials should not be suitably protected from further deca\'. 
He exhibited also drawings of mural paintings of the fourteenth century, 
formerly to be seen in Harting Church, but now concealed. They repre- 
sented apparently St. Helena, St. Anne, and St. Lawrence. 

Mr. E. W. GoDWix communicated a short notice of the tower of St. 
Philip's Church, Bristol, which presents some interesting architectural 
features ; date thirteenth century. It is now in very neglected and 
damaged condition. Drawings of the lower portion of tlie structure were 
sent for examination. Some interest had been excited about seven years 
ago, and contributions collected for its conservation, but nothing had been 
effected. It now serves as a place of deposit for lumber. 

^ntiquittciS niilr SjISorii^ a( Qrt ey\)ihittts. 

By Mr. Franks. — A fine bronze sword, length 27i inches, presenting 
this unusual peculiarity, that beyond the end of the hilt there projects a 
flat tang, about 1 inch in length, and | inch in breadth, possibly pro- 
duced by the neck or orifice of the mould, and not cut off after the 
casting was made. This weapon was found in the lower part of the 
river Lea, in Herts. — Also a small bronze swan found in the Thames ; 
it had probably been an accompaniment of a statuette of Leda. — A flat 
circular /6h?«, originally enameled, and ornamented with concentric circles 
at intervals. 

By Mr. W. J. Berxiiard Smith. — A bronze blade of comparatively 
uncommon type, found in Lincolnshire ; length 161 inches. The hilt was 
of more simple adjustment than is usual in bronze swords, and formed with 
four rivets only. — Three Oriental weapons, a fine sword with hilt and scab- 
bard-mounts of solid silver, chased and engraved with entwined serpents ; 



anil two daggers of tlie form called Jtimhca — one of tlieni lias the silver 
mounts of its sheatli of delicately pierced work, representing flowers. 

By the Rev. G. B. MELLort, through Dr. Kendrick of Warrington. — 
Three stone celts of unusual fashion lately found in the North of Ireland. 
They are rudely wrought, without regularity of form, and very obtusely 
rounded at their extremities. One of them, 9 inches in length, lay about 
3 feet deep in a bog ; there are numerous cairns and ancient vestiges in 
the locality, and querns, wooden *' mothers, " iron weapons, «kc., occur there, 
indicating extensive occupation of the spot in ancient times. 

l?y the Rev. C. L. Baunwell. — An uniciue stone hammer or maul-head, 
found at Maesmore near Corwen, Merionethshire, about 1840, in grubbing 
up a wood. This remarkable object was made known through the advan- 
tageous influence of local Arcluuological meetings, having come into the 
possession of Mr. Barnwell not Imig previously to the Cambrian Congress 
at Bangor, where it was shown by liim in ISGO."^ The mateiial has been 
described as dusky white chalcedony, so hard that a steel point jtroduces 
no elfect on the surface. The weight is lOr'i nz. The accompanying 
woodcut is of the same size as the original. The reticulated ornamentation 
is worked with great precision, and must have cost great labor ; the per- 
foration for the haft is formed with singular symmetry and perfection ; the 
lozengy grooved decoration covering the entire surface is remarkably sym- 

Mntricaj and hkilfullv (inishrd. It is diliicull to comprchond by what means 
thereKultH ho admirably produced upon Hurh a hard material could liave lircn 
effecied. We are much indc-bleil to Mr. Barnwell for the use of tbe wo<mI- 
cnl, which uccuraldy represenls this very curious ol)jecl of which he ii 
now the puKHCHHor. 

* Journal Cmi;l>. Arcii. Ahh .c. tliird Bcricb, vol. vi. pp. 807, ^70. 

STfje ^rcfjaeoloQical SournaL 

JUNE, 1862. 



I HAVE great pleasure in bringing under the notice of 
those archaeologists \vho take interest in warhke defences 
and costume a very rare example of horseman's armour of the 
time of Charles I., a vambrace of buff-leather used as a 
defence for the bridle-arm. I recently noticed this interest- 
ing relic in the Rotunda at Woolwich, and it has now been 
deposited in the Tower Armory. Beneath the outer 
covering of scales is a padding, formed of six sheets of 



Vambrace of bufif leather, t. Charles I. Tower Armory. 

soft paper overlying each other, not pasted together so as 
to form a hard substance, but lying loosely, so as to deaden 

VOL. XIX. o 



the blow of an adversary's weapon. The whole has a lining 
of soft leather. 

A soniewliat similar example is figured by Grose in Plate 
39 of his *• Ancient Armour." In that, the defence of scale- 
work is continued over the back of the hand, and a buff 
glove is attached to it. In the example before us there is 
some appearance of a similar hand-defence having once 
existed. The gauntlet in Grose (here figured) is described 
as ''a buff covering for the left arm, contrived to answer the 
purpose of a shield, being composed of three skins of leather, 

Buff-lcathcr gauutlet, from B.ilborough Hall, Derbyehiro. Length 25 iuches. 

with one of cartoon or paste-board." He further tells us 
that it was part of a defence "worn in the time of Charles I. 
by Sir Francis Rhodes, Bart., of Balborouuh Hall, Derbyshire." 
It is now in the collection at Goodrich Court' (See Skelton's 


UuflTgluvu ofMcalu-work, (cjrdiurly in llic Hryii y pVH cullcotioli. Tower AniiMiy. 

Illustrations, vol. ii, j)l. 7D). In the 'Tower there is a buff 
gauntlet of .scale-work (here figin-ed) ; this, however, is for the 
ri/j/if liaiiij. i jtuiclia,sc(l it from tlie collection at 13ryn-y-pys 

' Sue Mcyrick'n C'lit. Eii'jn. vol. iii. p. 87, iioto. 



in North "Wales, but have since transferred it to the Tower. 
It has been described in the eighth volume of this Journal, 
p. 301. 

Armour of scale-work made of steel was also used at this 
time. The suit in the Tower, called the armour of Count 
Hector Oddi, of Padua, has a culet of this fashion ; a portion 
of til is rich suit, of which the scales are decorated with 
the double-headed eagle crowned, is here figured. Each 

Portion of scale-armour, from the suit of Count Oddi, Tower Armory. (Original size.) 

scale is fastened by two rivets to a foundation of canvas and 
leather, the canvas next the metal. The woodcut annexed 
gives a view of the reverse of one of the scales, showing the 

rivets passing through the lining. The scales, it will be 
observed, overlap from below, so that the pointed weapon of 


an enemy might glance off, instead of finding its way between 
the interstices ot" the metal. Ivecently I was fortunate 
enough to procure for the Tower collection another example 
of a culct of steel scale-M'ork. In both specimens, each scale 
is engraved \Yitli an heraldic device. 

In lieu of scales, discs of metal were sometimes employed 
for defensive equipment at this period. A portion of such 
a fabric, called " penny-plate armour," is here represented. 

In the Tower is a culet of this description, formerly shown 
as " part of a horse armour." The plates are about the size 
of a penny-piece (old coinage), and are fixed upon leather. 

There is a specimen of similar armour at AVarwick Castle, 
in better preservation. The term, by which defences of this 
description are designated, occurs in an inventory of the 
effects of the Earl of Shrewsbury at Grafton, "Worcestershire, 
in 1570, 12 Eliz., including, " corselettes, alnion ryvettes 
&c., one old peny platt cotte." Likewise, in an inventory of 
the armour, &c. of Edward Littleton, of Longford, Salop, 
1.0.01, 34 Eliz. (orig. roll. Library of Soc. of Anticpi.), 
".My armorie, blacke armor of proufe ; item ij. pcnye 
platt coates, and ij. privy e coates ; item iiij. jackes, and ij, 
privie coates to weare under armorc ; item, a sieve layilo 
with male and a jiayrc of hose layde witli male." Pos- 
sibly, as it has been conjocLurcd, the " pyne doublet" or 
"secret," of which we read in tin- narrative of Gowrie's con- 
spiracy, was identical with ihc "peny ])latt cotte." (See 
Jamieson's Dictionary, under Tyne doublet.) 

^riic Ijiidle-arm defence was also, at a sojuowhat later 
\>(:v\ui\ in the seventeenth century, formed of" contiimous 
plate. Many specimens of tin; so-called "' long armed gaunt- 
lets" are to be found in the Tower. The poition beyond 
the wrists was made of scales, and a bull' glove was fixed 



under the finger-strips of steel. Grose has engraved one of 
these vambraces in his 2Gth Plate, but has inadvertently 
shown it as a defence for the rujJit liand. 

An analogous armour is that figured by Grose in his 35tli 
plate, also of the Stuart period, and described by him as " a 
covering for the left arm, curiously stuff"ed and quilted, 
intended to answer the use of a shield. It is covered with a 
cinnamon-coloured silk." And, in the suit of John Sobieski, 
King of Poland, engraved by lieibisch, from the Dresden 
Collection, we have the same form of vambrace for both 
arms, the material being steel plate. Other portions of 
Sobieski's armour are formed of steel scale-work ; and in 
this case, as in those already noticed, every scale is engraved 
with an emblem. The emblem here is a golden cross. 

The various kinds of flexible armour, formed with plates or 
scale of metal, are well deserving of attention ; their dis- 
tinctive character does not appear to have been accurately 
defined. In the richest kind of brigandine the plates were 
nailed together, the gilt nail-heads appearing on the external 
surface of a velvet covering, by which the overlapping scales 
were concealed. A fine example is preserved in the museum 
of the Duke of Darmstadt (Hefner, Trachten, div. ii,, pi. 62 ; 
Armour and Arms in Europe, p. 551 ; see also Grose, ph 30; 
and Skelton's Illust. Goodrich Court Armory, pi. 16). 

An interesting portion of scale-armour of this description 
is here figured (orig. size). The overlapping plates of iron 
are riveted on two thicknesses of canvas. Date sixteenth 




cent. In another variety of brigandine, the plates were stitched 
or quilted into the garment, the plates being perforated; and 
the small cords used in the operation are seen in straight 
and diagonal lines knotted at their intersections on the out- 

___^ side. One of the i3erforated iron 

plates, as thick as a sixpence, for 
lining the foot-soldier's biigandinc, 
date sixteenth century, is here re- 
presented (original size). These 
plates are slightly convex. A very 
curious brigandine head-piece, found 
at Davington Priory, Kent, has been 

_ figured in a former volume of this 

Journal (vol. xiv., p. 345). An ex- 
ample of the brigandine jacket is in the Goodrich Court 
Armory (Skelton, pi. xxxiv.) ; another, in very perfect 
preservation, is in the possession of Mr. W. B. Johnstone, 
Treasurer of the Royal Scottish Academy. In scale-armour 
pi'oper, the laminated plates appear upon the surface, as shown 
in the reniaikablc suit from Padua, 2)reviously noticed. 

Note. — Wc may take this occasion to point out that defences designated 
Jazcrant were doubtless of mail, and notof scalos; from Ital. Ghiazerino, as 
Meyrick says, from " its resemblance to a clinker-built boat." Crit. Enqu. 
Glossary, in v. Skelton's lllustr. pi. 16. The evidence of the Romances, 
InvcMitories, «tc., appears conclusive. We read of "auborc jascrant, qui ot 
lemaillc bhinche et sierre et tirant." — Rom. d'Ali.xandre. Amongst mailed 
defences in the armour of Louis X. in 131G, occur " un pans ct uns bras do 
jazcran d'acier: — colcrctcs Fizaines i]c jazcran d'acicr : — une couverturo do 
jazeran dc for." Ducange v. ArmaHna. The liurse-armour [coiivcrturc) 
must at least have been of mail ; wc never see it formed of scales. We read 
in Cuvelicr, " chascun ot cheval couvcrt i^Q jazcrant." Nicot (Thresor do 
la langue Franc.) explains " Jascran — une sorte d'habillement de guerre 
fait dc grosses et larges mailles de fer lasct'es ct joinctes cstroitement de 
conche ensemble: — on pent jugcr que le Jascran soil le mesnic habillcnicnt 
de guerre qu'on nomme ii present Jaques dc Maille ; " adding that a chain 
of gold or ftilvcr, "qui est de grosses mailles," is likewise called Jazcran. 
Sec Roquefort in v. So also in Spanish, Jaccrina signifies mail. The 
French anti<|uario8 use the term as designating mail, not scalc-arniour. 
See Catal. Mus. dc I'Artill. Paris, p. 35. 


BY THE REV. CHARLES W. KING, M.;!., Senior FeUow of Trin. CoU., Cambridge. 

THE ARUNDEL COLLECTION {continued from i>. 2?j). 
Case IV. — (Of Camei exclusively). 

320. Bust of an Ecclesiastic, the head tonsured ; a life-like portrait in 
the best manner of the Cinque Cento (greatly in J. da Trezzo's style). 
The relief somewhat flat, in white upon light brown. Can this be the 
famous Ippolito dei Medici? 

322. An admirable Bacchic scene, perhaps the finest example which the 
Cinque Cento, in this, its favourite department, ever produced. A group 
of three figures ; the centre a nymph reclining on a panther's skin, 
another, seated motioidess, holds a tambourine ; a faun bends forward, 
supported on his crook, as if conversing with her, thus balancing the com- 
position on the opposite side ; on the ground lie scattered various drinking 
vessels. The grouping is that of a ])erfect picture ; the drawing of the 
bodies and rounded softness of the limbs have rarely been equalled. The 
relief somewhat flat, in a beautiful material of porcelain white upon sard, 
a reserved rim inclosing the whole. 

325. Julia Titi, neatly finished flat work, in brown on white ; an early 
Cinque Cento copy. The work done with the diamond point, and witliiii a rim, 
a finish usually marking the first productions of the Florentine school. 

326. Head of Bacchus, a grand antique, most efi'ective in its bold, 
slightly finished treatment. High relief on an exquisite sardonyx, giving 
the ivy wreath in dark brown, the flesh in bluish-white, the ground 
sard, of the same quality as the Antonia (311), showing a large perfora- 
tion through the axis, Pliny's criterion of the true Indian stone. 

330. The escape of -£neas from Diomede, a cameo copy of the intaglio 
(Besborough, 149), same size as the original, signed YAPOY: the sole 
cameo of Natter's that I have seen, the work bossy, exactly that of the 
middle Cinque Cento. Clever use has been made of the strongly con- 
trasting shades of the sardonyx, to give a picture-like coloring to the 
actors and the accessories, in red, white, and black. 

332. Another of the miniature battle scenes, in which the Cinque Cento 
engravers delighted to exhibit their microscopic skill, done with much 
spirit but less delicacy than some in the same line noticed above. Probably 
the Battle of Pharsalia, as one of the banners bears " S.P. Q.R.," the other 
an elephant, the cognizance of Julius Cajsar, and the rebus (in Punic) 
of his name, and therefore the most frequent device upon his denarii. 

333. Fragments of a Bacchic scene, a finished antique work, whereof a 
Faun only is left assisting to carry the reclined and drunken Silonus, whilst 
a Maned, seen in front, stands clashing the cymbals, and quite absorbed in 
their melody. The drawing excellent, and the finish of every part to match, 
especially as regards the expression shewn on the visage of the drunken 
old demigod, and the rapt attitude of the motionless Bacchante. This 


piece, fractured in every direction, must have belonged to one of large 
extent, probably a panel of a cista mvstica in gold. As in all these early 
works the relief is quite flat, and in very opaque white on sard ground. 

335. Bust of a veiled negress, admirably finished in the early Cinque Cento 
manner, entirely diamond-point work, within a rim, on a dark brown layer 
of a large onyx. I have noticed before the connexion of the sable beauty 
with the Medici family that brought these negress' heads into vogue. 

336. Veiled female bust (Cleopatra), perhaps a Ceres, in almost full 
relief, in amethyst. A noble work, grand in its treatment, and to be 
placed first amongst similar relics here ; in fact I have never met with a 
statuette bust in this material or manner, that can be compared to this in 
its grandiose treatment, which seems far beyond the Roman, even of the 
Augustan school ; but greatly mutilated, the nose struck otf, and the 
check splintered. So peculiar is the polish, where unimpaired, that the 
entire piece feels as if cast in purple glass, not cut out of a hard stone. 

337. Julia Domna, a noble work in flat relief, in white upon a dappled 
sard ground, an oval onyx, 3i inches high. A most important cameo this, 
buing beyond all suspicion contemporary with that empress, and though 
worked out with great care in a laborious manner, stitf and almost mediaival 
in the outline. Few imperial portraits surpass this in dimensions. 

341. Caligula, in flat relief in white upon sard, done in the same 
stitf, lifeless manner as those of Claudius already noticed. A very im- 
portant gem for the size of the onyx, an oval, 3 inches high, 

342. Fragment, a small relic remaining from the centre of a large and 
perfect Augustan historic monument. It preserves no more than a portion 
of a quadriga, whence hangs a trophy of the huge, oblong shields, peculiar 
to the Germans.^ A trumpeter precedes the car ; on the ground is seated 
a weeping female tearing her hair (Germauia personified). The attributes, 
as well as the excellent style of the relief (which is quite flat), almost 
prove that this piece commemorated, when entire, the famous triumph 
of Drusus the Elder (9 B.C.) over the Germans, after having sulijugated that 
region up to the Elbe, whence the surname of his son, whoso victories 
are similarly immortalised in the Paris cameo. 

34.5. Ilarpocrates seated, holding a cornucopia. A charming antique 
work in the highest relief, the altitude full of infantine gracefulness, tho 
roundness of the body and limbs fully equal the best ivory carvings in tho 
same style by Fiammingo. The softness of tiie treatment emulates tho 
finest modelling in white wax, which this upper stratum of tho nmterial 
grcatlv resendjlcfl in surface. Set in an enamel stud of early pattern, a 
testimony in itself to the genuineness of the relief, the stylo of which is 
besides too free for that of the Renaissance ; and if not antique, could only 
liave been produced by the school of Fielder. 

347. SilenuH, a full-faced mask, ivy-crownod, a most vigorous example ; 
perhaps superior to any of the same subject in the collection, in semi-relief 
and intu'ilio combined, but on a vile material — brown flint, which 1 have 
never seen employed for ancient work but in this instance. 

3.Ti. .Iiipitt-'r Anxur, or a full length figiyo of the heardless Jove, as ho 
iitaiid.4 with his Jcgis wrapped round his loins, resting on his sceptre ; tho 
eagle at his feet : worked out very low, in consequence of the extreme 

* A liitc Uoiflan inlnglioof D>y own reprcRcntB a woiimlod CJcrnian cavalier thuB 


tenuity of the strata furnished by this sardonyx, and within a rim, in a 
beautiful sardonyx of brown, bluish-white, and black, 2 inches high. A 
nianiiificent early imperial monument, careful in details/ 

353. Magnificent bust, in nearly full relief (not Cleopatra, but a Juno), 
in the purest calcedony, of considerable dimensions ; a modern perform- 
ance of unusual merit. A singularity is the decoration of the diadem with 
real pearls let into the stone. 

354. A fine imperial bust, with a;gis on the breast — perhaps Trajan, 
but not very like his usual portraits ; the Gorgoneion on the cuirass proves 
decidedly (according to the usual rule of acceptation) that this represents 
an imperial personage, otherwise I should have taken it for a portrait of 
some contemporary general ; in light brown, and flat relief. 

355. Said to be a replica of the famous Phocion of Alessandro II Greco, 
signed Pyrgoteles, now in the Florence Cabinet, pronounced by M. Angelo 
to be the ne plus ultra of the art, and certainly a wonderful performance 
from the life and energy that fill its strongly marked features. Why 
termed Phocion, is a question beyond my powers. Any antique bust of 
that Athenian worthy that could have come under Cesatis's eyes, must 
have been bearded after the universal fashion of his day ; this, on the 
contrary, is closely shaven, and has all the appearance of the likeness 
of a living person. This is done in a peculiar flat manner, in a light 
brown opaque layer on a transparent base. The setting demands par- 
ticular notice as a masterpiece of Italian goldsmiths' work ; a kind of 
open garland of considerable width surmounted by a vase of flowers ia 
enamel ; other flowers, amongst which a daisy,^ at the bottom, is con- 
spicuous, are placed at intervals upon the frame. 

357. Bust, the head laureated, seen in front face ; not Nerva, but 
certainly a Julius Cajsar. A magnificent but probably a Renaissance 
piece, in nearly full relief, entirely in rich golden sard, somewhat hol- 
lowed out behind the relief to give lustre to the stone. As far as the 
execution is concerned, this noble little sculpture might well belong to 
the times of Augustus, only the surface does not exhibit the necessary 
impression of so many centuries upon its polish, 

358. Perseus leaning against a column, regards the reflection of the 
Gorgon's head, held aloft in bis right, in a steel buckler lying at his feet. 
Apparently a production of the age of Lorenzo dei Medici, being executed 
(mechanically) quite as the antique examples, and kept flat within a 
reserved rim ; a beautiful sardonyx. The subject in itself directs us 
towards the true date of the work, somewhat rare in antique examples, 
but an especial favorite with the artists of the Revival in every branch. 

Case V. — {Larger Intagli and Camei set as Medallions, <fcc.) 

360. An entire ring with polygonal shank, cut out of one huge pale 
sapphire, and lined with a massive flat hoop of gold, enameled on the 

* This nearly agrees with the famous conspicuously would warrant a conjee- 
Orleans intaglio signed Nisus, which re- tare that this medallion was destined to 
presents the young Augustus under the be a present to Marguerite de Valoia, 
figure of the juvenile divinity. that flower being her rebus. 

* If really a daisy, its introduction so 

VOL. XIX. r 


edge. An extraonlinary example of labour in so hard a substance, and 
in the opinion of an eminent mineralogist, such as could only have been 
done in India. On the signet part, a modern Italian hand has cut wiih 
much elegance a head of Faustina the Elder. There can be little doubt 
that the original device, a Persian legend, has been ground out to make way 
for this intaglio, a fraudulent substitution intended to convert the wholo 
into an unique relic of antiquity ; a trick of which other examples, iu the 
common oriental calcedony rings, have occurred to me. 

361. Large intaglio on sard, 1;V inch long. Very deeply cut and pro- 
bably Roman, though somewhat late, as the entire work lacks finish, though 
vigorously sketched out. A faun seated before a Priapus — llerme is pour- 
ing wine into a scyphus out of a wine skin, a panther's head and skin spread 
out on the ground form his couch. Opposite to him stands a vast crater on 
the other side of the Priapus, as a balance to his figure in the group. The 
stone, of fine qualitv, is obscured by the backing ; being mounted in a box- 
Betting most delicately enan)elod with tulips, having two flat loops attached 
through which a band jiassing connected it with several others in this col- 
lection 80 as to form a bracelet, which shall be noticed as they occur. 

36-i. Lion passant, a grand antique cameo, in dark tawny upon white, 
■with the surfiice so treated as to give the effect of the hairy skin. The 
finest miimal amongst all the camei iu the collection. Set in exactly the 
same style as 3G2, the two forming a pair of most massy jewels: fastenings 
for a sword belt ? 

3GG. Philip IL ; his bust in half relief upon a large yellow crystal of 
remarkable purity and lustre, a perfectly finished ami most life-like portrait 
of the monarch in early manhood ; a chef d'oeiivre amongst the Cincpie Cento 
portrait camei, and worthy of the fame of his own engraver, J. da Trezzo. 
Tiie youthful appearance may perhaps induce those better acquainted 
with historical portraits than myself, to assign the likeness with more pro- 
bability to his son Don Carlos, who also was a jiatrun of this engraver. 

3G8. Julius Ciesar, a large, coarse Cinque Cento intaglio, displaving the 
usual exaggeration of the period in the rendering of the harsh features 
of the Dictator, utterly differing from the noble treatment of the same head 
in 3.'37, which, though perhaps not antique, has all the spirit of some 
antique original.'' 

3G9. Another of the subjects in which the painful industry of the Renais- 
sance Italians revelled, the "Triumph of Bacchus," riding victoriously 
in a car drawn by oxen, a composition of 30 figures, besides various 
Dionysiac animals and attributes most artistically grouped, upon a snuiU 
oval shell. 

371. The Madonna of the Assumption, surroundeil by cherubs, in the 
bossy manner of the midille of the sixteentii century. Tiie frame alone 
deserves notice, the setting of the cameo being encircled by two bare branches 
on which are stuck vine Icuves at close intervals, probal)Iy the armorial cog- 
nizance of the wearer. The ornamentation is certaitdy not mere fancy- 
work, from the very conspicuous way in which it is employed. The wholo 
in fine gold, designed for a pendant mcdalliort. 

372. The celebrated " Pliryno," a lightly draped female figure, a three- 
quarter length intuglio of slight dej)th, on a magnificent dark brown sard, 

* It i« a curiouM fiict that antique (.'orn ran-, .i ntraiiKo C'iiitifi«t with tlio fro- 
jiortraiu of tbo Dictator uro oxlrcmuly qucuiy of tUouo of liLa succoHbor. 


shaded in waves, 21 inches high. The face full of individuality, and having 
strongly marked, by no means regular, features, is indubitably a portrait of 
some lady in the age of Hadrian, the grand epoch of Roman art. The 
spear placed so conspicuously in front, added to the somewhat Amazonian 
character of the outline, both of profile and bust, proves that she here 
figures as a Venus Victrix, the spear being the distinctive attribute of the 
goddess under that title. Had this been remarked in the last century, then 
coupled with Dio's record as to Ciesar's taking such a figure of his ances- 
tral goddess for his own signet, this gem would surely have been celebrated 
as the identical seal of the Dictator. It is an inexplicable enigma to me 
for what reason the name of " Phr^'ne " should have been given to this por- 
trait. If an attribution might be ventured, Marcia suggests herself with 
infinitely greater plausibility ; Spartian recording that her portrait (e» 
amazone) was the favourite seal of her lover Commodus, and his age was still 
capable of executing such a gem. There is wonderful freedom in the 
treatment of the short unkempt locks of this masculine head, and of the 
lucidity manifesting the thin texture of the light robe, partly veiling her 
bust. The surface has been repolished, but without damage to the work, 
though at first sight giving to the whole a somewhat susj)iciously recent 
appearance ; but the antiquity of the intaglio will bear the closest scrutiny. 

373. A noble and large antique cameo, the head of an Empress, having 
the abundant hair arranged in the fashion prevailing about the beginning of 
the third century, certainly not a "Livia," but perhaps Mamma^a or Soemias, 
though unfortunately the artist has infused but little character into the pro- 
file whereby to identify it. His chief care has been given to the rendering 
naturally the massy folds of the flowing locks (in which he has been most 
successful) in the upper layer of the onyx, a perfect jet, opaque and lus- 
trous, as is ajgo the ground of the stone. 

374. Intaglio in the grandest Sicilian style, in a sard of unusual dimen- 
sions for that early date ; the bust of a Bacchante with head, ivy crowned, 
displaying in every part a singular union of boldness of design with the most 
careful finish. Mounted in a manner worthy of the gem in the enameled 
backing above described, but with the addition of a border set with nume- 
rous perfect turquois, de la vielle roche, which mark this gem as selected, 
with justice, to form the centre of the entire suite when arranged for 

375. A most singular specimen of the inscription cameo (the keepsake) 
of the fourth century. A hand, with long atteimated fingers in the true 
Byzantine style, pinches an ear, the seat of memory, as the ancients held, 
*' Cynthius aurem vellit, et admonuit." Over this, in a curve, hangs an 
inexplicable symbol, somewhat like a double thong, tied at intervals into 
four knots (nodus amicitiaj ?) " lacs d'amour ;'' perhaps, indeed, the first 
and simple form of the true love's knot, for the thong is evidently double. 
Or can it be the " Herculeus nodus," symbol of safe custody. Around runs 
the fixed formula that always accompanies this primitive " Forget-me-not," 
in large letters, very neatlv cut, MNHMON€Y€ MOV THC 
KAAHC H'YXHC EYTYXI CU)<t>PONI—'« Remember me, your 
pretty life ^ (darling) ; prosperity to you Soplironius ! " all kept down very- 
flat in the greenish layer of an onyx H inch high. 

7 ypvxn, common term of endearment, " Zwtj koj ^vxVt" '' modo sub lodice relictis." 
— Juv. 


37G. A noble Greek Intaglio of the af::e of Alexander, in a pure and 
graml stvle, pale sard, 1 V inch liigh. The head, not " Pallas," but of a 
youthful liero, perhaps Mars, eovered by an Attic helm of the simplest 
form. Its unusual dimensions render an intaglio of this early class an 
almost unique raiity. The setting appears antique, though much more 
recent than the stone ; the intaglio being held in a simple collet, clipped 
round bv a corded edge, formed by twisting a thin wire round another of 
considerable substance, and so soldered on to the border. It has a ring for 
suspension. Its rudeness proves it a bit of jewelry of the Lower Empire, 
and designed for an amulet: perhaps the head then passed for Alexanders, 
a charm at that period in the highe:?t repute. 

37S. A square, green jasper amulet, presenting a singular union of the 
Mithraic and Abraxas worship, the sole instance of such a combination tliat 
has ever fallen in my way. The obverse shows Mithras slaughtering the 
bull, surrounded by variuus sacred animals : the reverse has the well-known 
fio-ure of the serpent-legged Abraxas. This intaglio is infinitely superior 
to the generality of these talismans, and is certainly of the time of Basilides 
(reign of Hadrian) when the lao religion began to invade the territories of 
the before universal Mithraic worship. 

380. Helmed head of Alexander, a bold but rude cameo of late Roman 
•work, perhaps of the times of his admirer, Alexander Severus, who is said, 
bv Trebellius Pollio, to have greatly multiplied portraits of his namesake. 
This sardonyx, of large extent and circular, is remarkable for its beauty; 
the helmet being in fine brown, tlie flesh porcelain while, the ground dark 
sard. A modern hand has enriclieii the helmet with a most enigmatical 
composition, where a youth in a car drawn by gryphons, seizes by the hair 
and is about to decapitate an aged bearded figure (Ap<»llo combating tho 
Giants?). The execution of this embellishment, s])irited '\m design and 
delicately worked out, singularly contrasts with the bold rudeness of the 
original relief, proving it to be an addition of the Revival, to which some 
clever hand was tempted by the beautiful material. 

381. A Cupid's head in full relief in the most lustrous calcedony 
imaginable, a charming work of some Cinque Cento master, in imitation of 
the ruder antique heads similar (so frequent under the Lower Empire as 
])halerac-ornament3 or buttons). It, however, is not improbable tliat tliis 
head, originally presenting such a design, though in the accustomed barba- 
rous style, has been carefully retouched and corrected by some skillul 
Italian attracted by the unusual lustre of the girasol, for the orii^inal per- 
foration traversing its substance is still appannt. 15y the addition of n 
pair of folded wings in gold, and an elegant open-work border, tliis baa 
been fashioned into the most tasteful |>«ndant, converted into a cherub's 
head, that ever adorned the neck of a Medicean princess. 

382. A singular conversion of u huge cats-eye, 1 I inch high, into a 
lion's head in full relief, of magnificent work. Tho play of colours impart to 
this gritn mask a vivid appearance of life and fury, rendering it, doublhss, 
n most successful achievement in the age, tho Cinque Cento, tliat produced 
it, whoHo taste, ever tinctured by tlie love of the grotesque, deligbti d in tho 
rarcMl monstrohilieH. 

383. Supposed to be the likeness of Alalliea Talliot,** wife of Lord 

• IlTotMiinc'l frmn IIm rciintnlilnnru to HCftiiH iniu'li in tho stylo i>f CliarluH the 
a I'Orlrait of that ludy ; tlio coutuuiu l''iral'it rcigii. 


Arundel. Her bust, in high relief, much undercut, and well done, especially 
as to the hair and the drapery, both rendered in different shades of lake. 
The costume seems half a century earlier, however, than the times of 
Charles II., so the Lord Arundel, her husband, could not have been the 
collector of this cabinet ; probably the medallion came to hitn as an heir- 
loom. This onyx is rich in colours; besides the lakes, it affords a white for 
the flesh, and for the ground an opaque black. In the setting are placed, 
equidistantly, ten clasped hands (called by the Italians, /e<:^/), cut in relief 
upon garnet, showing that this medallion was designed for a betrothal pre- 
sent, to hang from the neck chain of the accepted suitor. On the back is 
enameled in azure the tressure of the family of Maltravers. 

384. A nude male figure of Herculean proportions, advancing with one 
arm extended, the other raised to his head ; called " an Athlete moving to 
the attack," and no better explanation than this unsatisfactory one occurs 
to me. This intaglio, an excellent Greek work, has been nearly polished 
out, in the giving a new surface to the sardonyx, and which shows two 
strata of extraordinary beauty ; the top a bright sard, the lower a true 
girasol calcedony. Set iu tulip-enameled back as part of the bracelet 
above mentioned. 

386. A Cinque Cento reproduction of that horoscope, so often repeated 
even in ancient times. It certainly represents a nativity of the highest 
destiny, perhaps that of Rome ; for cities, like men, had their proper 
nativities. Tliat of Rome had been cast by Tarrutius, Varro's friend. The 
original of this is jirobably the one described by Raspe as in the Paris 
Cabinet. A(lmiral)ly cut on a large, circular sard are figures of Jove 
between Mars and Mercury, the former enthroned upon an arch under which 
Neptune appears half rising from his waves. The circle of the zodiac forms 
a frame to the whole. The setting, a splendid piece of Florentine chasing, 
is enriched with large table diamonds and spinels. On the backing is 
enameled in azure a pelican, the cognizance of the original owner. 

387. A most interesting work of some artist patronised at the Yalois 
court. Obverse, a bust of Diana of Poitiers in cameo, scraped out in flat 
relief in the antique manner. She appears in the elaborate costume of the 
age, but a quiver upon her shoulder sufficiently indicates the person 
intended. The reverse gives an intaglio of Venus and Cupid ; a pretty 
group, the cutting finished off with the excess of polish that marks the 
intagli of this school. Stone, a sard of two shades, the more opaque of 
whicli furnishes a stratum of sufficient density to make the cameo cut in it 
contrast as required with the transparent ground. 

388. A lovely Greek group of three Cupids disporting with a dolphin 
bestridden by the centre figure. In white, somewhat raised, upon black. 
Their perfectly rounded limbs and infantine grace strongly remind one of 
the style of " Tryphon." But the value of the antique gem is altogether 
eclipsed by the unique magnificence of its broad border, perhaps the most 
beautiful, certainly the most elaborate, performance of the kind ever pro- 
duced in the Florentine atelier. Of considerable relative width and com- 
posed of intricate festoons in bold carved work, it encloses spirited figurines 
almost microscopic, of Cupids mounted on sea-horses, all exquisitely 
enameled, and struggling upwards to the top of the frame, where Neptune 
and Amphitrite sit enthroned beneath the suspending loop. At intervals 
are set square table rubies in elevated collets. 

397. Antique cameo, unique iu subject : an elephant, represented with 


much viijour, presses down with one knee and gores with his tusks a 
monstrous fish, much resenibhng a shark, upon which he stands. Does 
this depict the mortal combat between the elephant and the giant-eels 
of the Indian rivers, described by the veracious Ctesias ? — or with the 
dratifon ? — the result of which, says Pliny, is dragon's blood, the drug. 
There is oreat truth both in the figure and action of the beast, Avhich is 
cut in yellowifeh-white upon a transparent ground. This cameo perhaps 
formed a part of a Bacchic series; the elephant figures conspicuously in 
the Indian triumphs of Bacchus. 

389. Intaglio ; for merit as well as dimensions the first in this collection, 
if not in any, certainly surpassing any head that I have met with elsewhere. 
The bust of Antinous, as Achilles, the personification indicated by the 
spear across his shuulJer, sunk deeply in the stone with indescribable 
vi'Tour, yet finished with miraculous softness. The portion of the legend 
ANTI remains ; for the gem, a dark sard, has been fractured in every 
direction, yet is still two inches wide. Fortunately the important portions 
of the design have escaped all damage. 

392. A glorious antique cameo, of the best times : the bust of a 
Bacchante, in high relief, on a perfect sardonyx, much resembling in treatment 
that noticed above. But here the shades of the gem being yet brighter 
and more contrasted have permitted a most effective employment of the 
colours, the ivy leaves of the garland being in black, the ficsh in porcelain 
white, and the ground of the deepest sard. 

393. A magnificent Greek intaglio on a sard, Ih inches high. 
The subject, worked out in the shallow manner peculiar to the best 
period of Greek engraving, is of doubtful interpretation. A female 
is seated on a rack, by the side of a stream, in converse with a youth 
who stands before her with a slight drapery over one shoulder, and 
lioldinf a pedum ; the sole accessary to the scene that can atl'ord any clue 
to its sif'nificance.'^ From this pastoral emblem we may venture to dis- 
cover here a scene in the loves of the most famous shepherd of Greek 
fable, Paris and the nyuipli (Enone, the status of the latter indicated by 
the rocks and fount, 

" Pafasis (Enone Phrygiis celeberrima sylvis. " 
39G. Large intaqlio on sard: a full-faced mask bald-headed and with 
huge streaming beard, with an exaggerated expression of grotesque fury 
in every feature ; a cord fastening some bunches of ivy leaves cro.sses the 
forehead. The face at first suggests the favourite t^ilenus, though the 
violence of the gesture, coupled with the absence of one eye, proves that 
we liavc here a genuine likeness of the "pastor Cyclop.^," such as Horace 
used to see him dancing upon the stage, ami whicli his ill-favoured 
travelling companion, Mes-sius Cicirrus, was (pialifiod by nature to \w\: 
Bonate without aid of a mask. The brutal vigour and life embodied in 
this intofjlio is absolutely miraculous. 

398. A cavalier charging at full speed ; a glorious large intafjUo of the 
best period, and interesting from the exact details it affords of the managc- 

• The ciitiilogiic flcrigiiatcH tlic ropy of iiti<lo, tlioii^h llowiiij,' dnqxTy forms hor 

thU by Niiltcr an " Siij-i'lio ami I'liaon," hint ; S:i|ii.lio, on the (•< iilnuy, in iilwiiys 

hut iiolliiiig iiiiirkH tlio jKictcHH, ami d<iiicl<il in iinciont nioiiiimoiitH in tho 

riiaoii y,a» c<-itainly anytliing but a full rol)»'H of a Miihc, ami nover without 

hht-ijlitrd. Tlio fcuialc tiguro hero ia Ler Lesbian iyro. 


ment of the lance and round buckler. On a circular brown and white 
onjx. Surface, as usual, repolislied. 

399, An unique Asiatic-Greek intaglio in a very bold style, on a large 
yellow crystal. Venus winged, and androgynous (probably the deity ao 
represented at Amathus under the masculine appellation of Aphroditus), 
stands in the centre, on one side flanked by Vulcan, a smaller figure, at his 
anvil, on the other by Cupid. The work deep cut, vigorous, but without 
any finish. 

401. A splendid and large pyrope, on which an Italian artist of the 
same period has skilfully depicted the modern embodiment of tlie oriental 
idea, the Mithraic Combat of the Two Principles, representing in the most 
spirited manner " JMichaelem in virtute conterentem Zabulum." 

403. Vulcan's forge, with numerous figures, in the usual exaggerated 
Italian manner. Tbe last of the set mounted in tulip-enamel. Intaglio on a 
fine sard. I suspect that the date of this intaglio exactly coincides with 
that of the setting. The enameling of various flowers, but principally 
tulips, is very peculiar, and the petals are penciled with uncommon delicacy. 
The style appears to me (though quite ignorant of the history of this art) 
as being later than the 16th century. 

Case VI. — [Containing small gems, with the grand cameo of Didius 
Julianus and Manlia Scantilla placed in the centre.) 

2. Aged Mask, and boar's head conjoined, and facing opposite ways, 
inscribed ©IE, perhaps intended for the Greek numerals 9, 10, 5 : a legend 
as enigmatical as the device itself. Red jasper. 

8. A good late Egyptian representation of Horus, seated upon the 
lotus in the sacred boat of the Nile, adored by Anubis. Boldly cut in red 

9. Cameo, legend in two lines €YTVXI-BEPONIKH, interesting 
from the spelling of the name, thus Latinised into Veronica. 

10. A large rude sard intaglio in the exaggerated manner of the Renais- 
sance, a nymph performing her devotions upon the symbol of the horti- 
cultural god of fecundity, whilst a Satyr accompanies the ceremony upon 
his pipes. 

11. A subject of most difficult explanation. A man seated on a throne, 
half draped, holds, slanting downwards from his mouth a slender rod, 
somewhat wavy (like a vine-shoot), and terminating in small knobs at each 
end. Had this wand been curved, the figure would pass well for an augur 
taking the auspices ; but the actual form leaves the true significance 
dubious. Boldly cut in an early Roman manner upon dark sard. 

12. Spirited heads of a goat, horse, and boar conjoined ; perhaps the 
united attributes of Bacchus, Neptune, aud Hercules. Sard. 

13. Leda and the Swan ; an exquisite intaglio, but treated with all 
the luxuriance of modern art, widely difi"ering from the modest reticence 
distinguishing all truly antique representations of this subject. 

2nd Row. — 2. A Ram ; the intaglio iuternally burnt, to represent the 
fleece. A singular example of such treatment in a genuine antique stone. 

4. A microscopic picture, intaglio, on yellow sard. A warrior and 
female joining hands in a landscape : in the exergue L. S. Hence the work 
of Louis Siries, a Frenchman estaWished at Florence about 1740, and 


praised wltliout reason by Marlettc for his predilection for similar difficiJes 
niu/ie, " liis endeavours to achieve the impossible in his art," which have 
no merit whatever, tlie design being necessarily a mere series of rongh 
scratches. The small circular sard is let into a frame of neatly moulded 
•white agate, like the minute Pallas head noted above, probably due to 
the same hand. I have met with another cxaniple of a minute ])oitrait 
thus encirck-d. It would seem that such a border is a necessary adjunct 
to all the performances of this microscopic artist. 

3rd How. — 2. Mercury Criophorus resting against a cippus ; a perfect 
figure, though of extreme minuteness, of the best Roman age. Sard. 

4. A singular and early cameo, n, lion pulling down a bull ; tlie former 
"worked out on the brown, the latter in the porcelain white, of an Indiau 
eardunyx perforated through the axis, and having a hole also drilled through 
the tield. The bull is admirably designed, and scraped out in the flattest 
relief, atfording a most instructive illustration of the antique process. 

5. Antinous ; a noble liead, though of much smaller dimensions than 
389, executed with incredible force, and which would pass for an Apollo 
])ut for the legend, ANTINOOC cut at the side in letters evidently coeval 
with the intaglio. On the reverse, in large coarse letters of a later ago, 
in two lines, AAI-AIA, " Lsclia," some female worshipper of the divine 
beauty on the other side. The stone a sard of unique excellence, carbuncle- 
coloured, shaded with yellow. 

4th Ihnr — 2. Young female bust, surrounded by the legend, EVflOPI 
Al€l nCOTIA, " Ever prosper, Potia ;" a new year's gift to a lady. 

o. A Bacchante bending down before a Priapus llerme ; a figure good in 
the drawing and with much elegance in the attitude, a work in the early 
Koinan style strongly contrasting in its treatment with the coarse version 
of the same idea just noticed. 

bill Roii\ — Youth, nude, bearing a cornucopia and holding forth an 
Ibis, symbol of the Moon, seems an Egyptian work (perhaps the I>eus Lunus ; 
Thoth, besides his character of Hermes, sometimes assumes that of the 
Moon, a male deity with the Egyptians), of the age of Hadrian. Fairly done 
in the heavy manner of the Alexandrian engravers. 

2. Hand grasping a wheat-ear; done with great precision, tlic fingers 
long and attenuated. A rare material, the finest bloodstone, the Helio- 
tropium so potent in magic, and which duly prepared conferred the gift of 

4. Head of Proserpine covered by the mitra ; a perfect Greek intaglio of 
indescribable merit on a bluish ber^l ; the profile remarkable for its fine 
outline, and the execution of the whole extremely careful. 

(jth Row. — 2. Hippocamj)US ; a glorious intaglio on a large bervl, ]>alo 
blue, but more lustrous than any sapphire, the Jler^llus 1 lyacinthizon of 
the ancients. 

.3. Sfiirit("d head of some young prince of the Augustine family (pro- 
bably Maruellus). n nascent beard on tlur cheek. This head much resembles 
the elegant MarctlluH by Marchant, closing this list. Sard. 

llh lion;. — 2. The fore-quarters of a Pegasus ; liuving the wings 
rfprcHcnted aH curling backwards to the head in a dunipy curve, as in tlio 
iN-gaBus upon the nKjst ancient Corinthian jncdalfi, and doubtless contem- 
porary with them. Hence a gem that supplies a fixed i)oint for the 
c!«-t<rmination of the period exhibiting this styli' in its intagli. A singular 
and archaic Greek intaglio .ilightly sunk. Jacinth. 


4. A romarkable cameo of the very earliest period, a liead of Diana, 
recof;iiisa])le by tlic knotted curls on the top of head (the KpwfivXos), the liair 
in black, face in opaque white. The relief kept quite Hat, and as much as 
possible in one plane. 

8t/i Row. — 4. Cameo (Italian), representing a marmoset monkey in the 
natural colours of black, white, and grey, curiously and exactly rendering 
the colours of the pet's whiskers and bushy tail. 

5. Julia Titi, a small head on a most choice plasma, almost an emerald ; 
the work mediocre and perhaps contemporary with her. 

9th J{oio. — 2, A Medusa's head in profile ; a noble cameo in the purest 
Greek taste, the relief appearing as if modeled by the fingers in some 
plastic substance, so softly rounded is it, in the dull opaque white upon 

4. Head of a Roman (called C. Antius Rcstio), somewhat advanced In 
years; deeply cut in sard, inscril)ed with the artist's name, CKYAAKO,' 
but neither gem nor legend antique ; perhaps one of Natter's copies. Or 
can the Italian name, Del Cane, lie hid under the puppy's-skin of Scylax ? 

5. Few portraits in the collection equal this in historic interest or rarity: 
a life-like portrait of M. Antony, cut by some skilful Greek hand of his 
times, perhaps during his residence in Egypt. The intaglio somewhat 
deep sunk in a beautiful golden sard ; evidently the Triumvir's own 

7. A winged genius, or Death, slumbering on a spread out drapery upon 
clouds : under his head lies a crushed butterfly, or life extinct. An elegant 
Roman intaglio on sapphirine. 

8. Ulysses in his usual costume, skull-cap and mantle, seated upon a 
round object (the bag of /Eolus ?), which having been njistaken for a cask by 
some later possessor, he has cut round the figure in later (but still antique) 
letters the name of the famed tidt-inhabitant AIOTHNCC, curiously mis- 
placing the two last vowels. Good Roman work on nicolo : small. 

11. Cigala perched upon the caducous (union of the attributes of Apollo 
and Hermes), the appropriate signet of a man of letters. Extremely neat 
work, probably Greek, on a clear jacinth (or cinnamon-stone). 

13. Fortuna, a stiff late Roman intaglio, or a large and exquisite sar- 
donyx, the finest specimen of the stone anywhere to be seen. 

14, A singular coincidence both in subject, " Athlete advancing," and 
in material, with 384, the sole difference being the lesser size of this. 
The sardonyx, though much roughened by wear, exhibits the same fine 
quality as the former. 

Lying loose are two extraordinary treasures, one of antique, the other 
of Italian art. The first, the principal half of an intaglio on a brown sard, 
2 inches wide, and originally 3 high, a head of Augustus in profile, a 
slightly sunk intaglio in the purest Greek style, and admirably finished 
in every detail : a caducous in the field insinuates a flattering comparison 
between him and Hermes the giver of prosperit}'^ to men (epiovt los Kp/ijjy). 
Certain marks in the stone, probably natural, suggest at first sigiit the idea 
of an inscription afterwards erased. This is noted in the catalogue as once 
the property of Winckelmann. The other, a Medusa full face, a good Roman 
cameo, is honoured with the most elaborate setting as a ring ever designed, 

' Quoted as genuine in all catalogues of ancient artists' names. 


by the curious ingenuity of the Florentine orcfccc, for Metliccan DulvC or 
Cariliiial. It is extremely massy, the sides and shoulders carved out in 
intricate scrolls and strnp-work, from amidst which glare two savage masks 
upon the sliouldors, and two lions' heads upon the sides of the sotting. These 
minute masks are in their way master-pieces of sculpture. The design is 
relieved by touches of enamel. 

Case VII. — [Of small gems, and the addit'tons of (he last eoUector.) 

1st. Eow. Alexander, a beautiful cameo signed niXAEP, which might 
be taken for antique ; as well as its fine sardonyx, which is of the true 
ancient quality, and probably had borne some ruder antitpie cameo trans- 
fornied by Pichler into the present : by far the best of his camei that I 
have met with. 

2. The same signature claims for this great artist this Minerva Promachos, 
an owl in brown upon her shield ; but here the design betrays the taste of 
his own age. 

5. A singular signet if antique. A medallion, the conjugated heads of 
Augustus anil Livia with the same incuse on its reverse, revolves on an axis 
within a guld bizzel, neatly granulated and moulded, set upon an iron finger- 
ring, the shoulders also decorated with three-cornered foliage chased in 
gold. The pattern of the last leads me to pronounce the medallion a cast 
made in Renaissance times, and with its gold frame superadded to an 
antique ring of iron, to augment the colour of antiquity. The medallion 
shows upon the incuse part that it was produced by casting : the relief has 
been neatly tooled up. 

10. Isis seated on a throne .'ruckling Ilorus (the exact !Madonnaand Cliild 
of the Trecentisti), a microscopic intaglio of the second century, cut on the 
narrow field of a splendid sardonyx, which is beveled off nearly to a point 
to display its shades of rich brown, blue, and black. Set in a ring of 
elcirant pattern, the bizzel surrounded by an open work scolloped border : a 
novelty in the style : made in the last century. 

1 1. JSilenua-mask, full-face, a bold early cameo of great merit ; Hat work 
in opaque white. 

2nd How. A Bacchante dancing to the sound of the cymbals she clashes. 
S[>iriled antique on a fine coloured plasma, rivalling an Oriental emerald, 
and repolishcd ; a testimony to the geniiineness of the engraving. 

3. A full-faced tragic mask, itself well done, but notahle more for the 
quality of the stono, a hemis|>hcrical tricolourcil agate, the highest division 
whereof is a true jacinth in lustre. The .splendid example of this stone 

5. Gryllus, giving the outline of an Ibis, carrying a myrtle branch in its 
beak. This is a tine work pr(^scnting some peculiarities ; the usual Silenus- 
mask forming the breast being here replaced hy a head of Jove, and the 
fttonc a beryl instead of the accustomed red jasper. It seems as to execution 
conhiderably earlier than the generality of the«j caprices : perhaps has an 
astrological import, combining as it does .lupiter and Aries in one body, 
and exhibiting the symbol of Venus over all. 

7. I'Myche, a lovely hunt, the character defim-d by the butterfly so perched 
on lior bo.iom that the wings a|>jieiir part of herself. 'I'he careless wkeleton 
drawing of the rained hand, one of tho^e singidar negligences that mark tho 
truo anliquc, and bo diilicult to account for, is bullicient testimony of tho 


genuineness of the intaglio : perhaps the most truly graceful, and pleasing 
of all the idealised heads here treasured. 

8. Deities of evil omen, and rarely figured, save on objects connected 
with the tomb. Pluto seated on his massy throne of iron, holding his ebon 
sceptre, and conversing with Proserpine (recognised by the wheat-car in her 
hair), who stands before him. Bold and early work, the technique of 
which exhibits much that is peculiar (Sicilian ?) deeply sunk in a fine 
golden sard. 

9. The " Bellerophon watering Pegasus," quoted by Clarac: falsely 
ascribed to Sostratus ; but (as far as the legend guides us) the work of 
some freedman rejoicing in tlie " comfortable " and Reman name, Otiatus. 
Altogether of dubious authenticity, both intaglio and material — perhaps 
early Florentine, and copied from the bas-relief of the Villa Spada. 

3rd How. — 3. Jupiter, a head, forcible in expression, cut in hoBmatite, 
all repolislied internally as well as on both surfaces, if actually antique ; as 
the work would indicate. The second instance in this collection (and 
quite a surprise to me) of a good intaglio upon this base material, usually 
reserved for the amulets of the East. 

4. A most extraordinary sard, equal in richness of colour to the pyrope, 
cut in relief as a bald-headed comic mask, of most irate mien, apt 
personification of some churlish father of the New Comedy, the very stone 
looking irascible, the face slightly turned to one side. Perfect in execution. 

6. Apollo, a head of the finest old Greek work, surpassed by none 
here: havinjr all the hair fallins: in long spiral curls, and confined by a 
fillet: dark sard. This intaglio is deeper cut than usual in this style, and 
probably is coeval with Phidias ; although the hair retains the archaic 
arrangement still regarded as essential to the type of the deity, the face is 
full of expression and truly divine. 

7. Still more remarkable for rarity (and of equal perfection) is this most 
early cameo, a head of Ganymede, covered by the Phrygian bonnet; 
molded, as it were, in the pure opaque Avhite of an agate-onyx. A work 
of the best period of Greek sculpture. The relief kept low and entirely 
in one plane. 

Ath Roxo. — Mercury standing, holds forth the Infant Bacchus on his 
outstretched hand, in the other wields his caduceus. Or the minute figure 
may represent the disembodied soul, and Hermes here stand in his capacity 
of Psychoporapus. The design of the principal figure, in its slight and 
elegant proportions, and the attitude full of grace, strikingly resembles 
those given to this deity in the acknowledged works of Dioscorides: points 
which, on examination, furnish almost sufficient grounds for assigning to 
him this masterly intaglio, by no means unworthy of his reputation. The 
stone is a quite unique material, lucid and jet black, either jsflwk quartz or 
obsidian, the latter we know, from Pliny's remark, first catiie into fashion 
at Rome for ring stones in the Augustan age. The sombre colour probably 
chosen as analogous to the subject (a circumstance in favour of the second 
interpretation of the intention) as representing a deity whose oflace lay in 
the shades. 

3. Clasped hands, in relief upon what is either a large occidental 
turquois, or more likely ivory recently stained to that colour, as the osseous 
structure is plainly visible. A note informs us that " it was purchased of 
Mr. L'Avocal shortly before his death very cheap;" doubtless, therefore, 
for a genuine piece " de la vicllc roche;" but actually of no value whatever. 


whether a recent or a fossil fragment of ivory saturated witli sulphate of 
copper. A brilliant is set iu the centre, eviilently a betrothal ring, 

5. An admirable head of a youthful Ca;sar, (MarccUus ?) a speaking 
face, and in every part worthy of the highest commendation. The ex([uisito 
delicacy of the technique, as well as the intact polish, prove it beyond a 
doubt due to one of the tirst masters of the last century, perhaps Pichlor, 
for it displays too much boldness of treatment to be given to 2saiter. Tiie 
material also greatly enhances its efleet; the relief, very high, being iu an 
opacjue drab colour, most suitably backed by the slate-coloured ground. 

5th liuw. — 2. Hercules restoring Alcestis to her husband, a large 
intaglio on sard, the most important of .Marchant's signed works. On tlie 
reverse is cut ^KI^X'E^S SAXONIAE DONI ME.UOII, an inscription 
explained by a note in the Catalogue that this intaglio was an express 
commission from tho Elector of Saxony to the artist at Rome, in order to 
be given to the Duke iu return for a presentation-copy of his " Gems." A 
princely acknowledgment of the gift, considering Marchant's reputation 
then, and the large amount that was deemed the equivalent for his labours. 
I have seen a work of his of far less importance, a group of only two 
figures, for which he was paid two hundred guineas. 

Fragment of a large cameo, a Medusa's Head, belonging to the very 
earliest times of Greek anaglyphic art. The profile which, though wretch- 
edly mutilated, still retains much of its original severe beauty, is given iu 
opaijue white, the hair in two shades of brown, and with great effect. Au 
important relic of a very rare class. Original diameter nearly two inches. 

7. Ilebe, a most graceful figure, inttujlio in jacinth ; " a co]»y by Mar- 
chant, from an Etruscan bas-relief in the British ^Mu-seum." 

5. Ganymede borne aloft by the eagle (after the bronze of Leochares), 
signed KOINOY, an excellent inku/Uo on a singular variety of opaipie 
Bard, of fine dark red, slightly translucent. Probably by Natter, who 
often, according to his own confession, adopted the above signature. 

7th Itoio. — Matidia (not Sabina), an intaglio never surjjasscd in excel- 
lence, in a large jacinth-like sard. " Copy by liurch," from an aiitiijue. 

8. Antiiious, signed " Marchant " ; a copy from the bas relief of tho 
Villa Albani — the head so often seen on Roman shell camei — on a largo 
brown sard. 

9. A head of similar character, deeply cut in a ruby sard ; " copy by 
Marchant, from the Genius of Hadrian's Villa." 

IJ. Murccllus, an e.vciuisite iitt<ig/iu on a jacinth of inconiparablo beauty. 
" A copy by Marchant, of the Marcellus," i.e. the large cameo abovo 

A wretched modern paste," from an etpuiUy vile Cinque Cento gem, 
representing the Triumph of an Emperor. In tln> excririK' a legend of 
iiiatchleas impudence, ludicrous in its audacity, TPY<l>nN EH O I El. The 
udmission of thiH i)iece amongst such treasures is (|uite an enigma. 

Jiriedy to record certain observatiitus tliat» have occurred to nie in my 
pleasant pilgrimago through this Aladdin's Garden, whose fruits are 
precious stones, and of slili higher rarity than any of the mere natine'a 
IreaHurcH that attracted his admiration. (,'ertaiu clas-ses of engraved 
feloucH, bo abundant in collections of our day, have not in this a single 

TliU in (]iiot«'l by Clunic, ami jir'ivoH 'J'ryplion'H nnmo, on tbo hint eiippliod 
how cftiljf tlio ludiiiu fwrgoiii uaurpcd by tLo AulLolufy. 


representative, there not being amongst the wliole number one scarabeus of 
either Egyptian or Etruscan origin, nor an oriental cylinder, nor a Sassanian 
seal or ring stone, and only two or three out of the countless liost of 
Mithraic or Gnostic talismans. Beauty alone, either of the art or of the 
material, was the sole object kept in view by the several contributors to 
this magnificent monumeut of the taste of the three last centuries, and 
hence works of mere erudition do not encounter us here. But, fortunately, 
as their great desideratum and historical interest are so frequently com- 
bined in the same relic, we meet here with the numerous incomparable 
productions of the Greeks in every age of the arts, and of the Romans in 
the best times, pointed out in the preceding notices. In these particular 
departments the Collection stands very high on the list of those existing in 
Europe, as far, at least, as my own knowledge of them extends, not 
excepting those formed under royal auspices. Thus it surpasses the Far- 
nese of the Neapolitan Bourbons, the Berlin, and that of the Hague, in 
the importance of the intagli it contains, and the two latter in the 
article of camei also, although necessarily falling short of the extent and 
value of those at Vienna, Paris, and Florence. But none can compare 
with it in the variety and rarity of the specimens of Keuaissance gold- 
smiths '-work, which form one of its most distinguishing features. I 
cannot conclude without expressing my gratitude to the noble owner 
■who, with the greatest liberality, in the view of promoting the study of 
my favorite art, by placing at the command of all similarly interested, 
the fresh, almost unlimited, resources contained in this collection, had 
made arrangements whereby the opportunity was afforded to me of carefully 
examining it under the most favorable conditions, and of making notes, 
without any limitation as to time, upon the entire extent of the collec- 
tion. To such opportunities I have been far from able to do justice ; but 
the above rough sketch will suffice to give the experienced amateur some 
notion of the value of this famous, hitherto inaccessible treasure, to describe 
which duly would require volumes, as the mineralogist would find here as 
wide a field for his labours as the artist or the antiquary. 


By henry THOMAS KILEY, M.A. Cambridge. 
Takt II.' 

Enougit, it is presumed, lias now been stated to sliew 
tliat neither the Charters nor the Iliston/ of Ingulfus have 
any fair pretensions to be considered what they profess 
to be ; but that, on the contrary, they are forgeries of a 
]>eriod mucli more recent than the close of the eleventh 
century. The question then remains to be solved, at what 
date these compilations were fabricated, for what purpose, and 
by whom 1 — points of some interest, and in reference to which 
(so far, more especially, as the Charters are concerned) 
there have been conflicting opinions among the learned. 

Speaking of the (Jokbui Charter of King luhelbald, to 
which allusion has previously been made, liickes (p. ^^ of 
the Dissertatio Episfolaris) states it as his opinion, that 
'' the Convent of Croyland found it necessary to forge this 
Charter, in order that they might preserve the lands which 
liad been given to them without deed, or of which the 
deeds had been lost, from the Normans, who would hardly 
allow the monasteries any just right of holding lands, except 
by deed;" and asserts that he is "almost compelled either 
to believe that Ingulf was the forger and corru])ter of these 
Charters, or else that the Convent of Croyland, in an 
unlearned age, jiahned oil' the ///.sYor// uj»on the world under 
the authority of his name." In another passage of the 
JJis.scrtfifio ho says, — "I have given a portion of the Charter 
of Kthelliald, the founder of Croyland, which I have so often 
Jiad occasion to condemn. In the original it ajtpears re- 
splendent witli gold, the manufacture of some Croylandian 
forgf-r, ])('rhaps Ingulf himself. This Charter, by nutans of 
which that knave cajoK-d iving WilHam, is sulliciently ])roved 
to have been fictitious." 

>Mr. Ilolditch, in his ///^fori/ nf Croi/ftn/d .U>/"//, im\A\^]\vd 

' Cuiitiiiiiuil from imgo i'J. 


in 1816, suggests that after the fire at Croyland in 1091, 
" Ingulph may have borne the principal part of the Charters 
sufficiently in mind to set down their contents as we see : 
they run in a form which assists the memory, and their 
separate particulars are few. Copies of these Charters were 
made under the direction of Ingulph, and replaced in their 
archives : even these might be afterwards destroyed, wdien 
the Abbey was burnt again, not quite sixty ^^ears afterwards, 
and they might be reproduced in a similar manner. Tliere 
were violent disputes in the time of Ingulph, between him 
and Tailbois, a relation of the Conqueror, who was lord of 
Hoyland, and resident at Spalding ; and it was feared that 
the burning of the Charters would be fatal to the issue of 
these suits, on the part of the Croylanders. On this account, 
Ingulph made haste to replace them. In a word, the 
Charters contain intei'nal evidence of their modern date, and 
it is even probable that some of them have been made in 
times still later." 

We have already seen that Gougli was quite willing to 
believe that, if there w\as forgery in the case. Ingulf was the 
forger. Sir Francis Palgrave again, while considering the 
Charters to be palpable forgeries, expresses strong doubts 
whether the compilation (both History and Charters) is of 
much older date than the age of the manuscript said, in the 
early part of the seventeenth century, to have been the 
Autograph of Ingulfus ; that is to say, the end, in his opinion, 
of the thirteenth or first half of the fourteenth century. 

A close examination of the First and Second Continuations 
of the History of Croyland, also printed in Fulman's volume, 
will perhaps afford some clue to a solution of this question, 
by suggesting for what purpose, and consequently, at what 
period, it is probable that at least the greater part of these 
Charters were compiled ; and so tend to remove the obloquy 
which, from the time of Hickes, has been somewhat un- 
sparingly thrown upon the name and memory of Abbot 

The fact seems not to have attracted the notice of pre- 
vious w^ritcrs on this subject, but it nevertheless is the fiict, 
that neither in the History of Croyland, as contained in 
Fulman's volume, nor indeed in any other account of 
Croyland, is any mention made, or the slightest hint given, 
of the then existence of any one of these Mercian and Saxon 


Charters during the period between a.d. 1093 and a.d. 
1413, a space of 320 years. Two of them, as will be seen 
in tlie sequel, are mentioned elsewhere at a somewhat earlier 
date than the end of the 14th century. 

In the Charter granted by Henry I., mention certainly is 
made of a Charter of Edred ; but only by way of reference, 
it having been mentioned in a previous Charter of Williani 
the Conqueror, of which that of Henry is a confirmation. 
In 1114, admittedly for want of these very Charters, we 
find the Convent submitting to the loss of the manor of 
r»addeby, and, nearly at the same time, of its cell at Spalding. 
In 11. j3. King Stephen grants another Charter of Confirma- 
tion, but no allusion is made in it, or in that of Henry II., 
to those of the ^Icrcian or Saxon kings. In 1189, Abbot 
Kol^ert de Redinoes is engaged in a suit with the Prior of 
Spalding, and in a case drawn up by him, probably for legal 
purposes, he says (p. 4.')3) : "The Abbey of Croyland is of 
the i)roper alms of the Kings of England, having been granted 
by their especial donation from the ancient times of tlic 
English, when it was so founded by King Ethelbald, who 
gave the marsh in which it is situate, as ice find in the 'Life 
of Saint Gutldac' which was formerly written.'' Had the 
(iohbm Cliartrr of Ethelbald, or the Charters of the other 
]\Iercian and Sa.xon kings, been then known to be in 
existence, tliere can be little doubt that the Abbot would 
liave been at least as likely to refer to them in support of 
his title, as to the meagre ''Life of Saint Giithlnc^' written 
by Felix. The same Abbot, when before the King's Justiciars, 
shews them the Charter of King Henry II., "which sets 
fijith by name the boundaries of the marsh ;" but not a 
word does he say about the Saxon Charters, which, if the 
same as those in Ingulfs History, would have been found 
to set tliem fi)rtli much more fully and distinctly than that 
granted l)y King Henry. 

In 1191, Abbot Henry de Longchamp produces the 
Charter of Richard I. before the King's Justiciars, as his 
best evidence of the limits of his marshes, b\it no mention is 
made of the Saxon Charters, and he is finally adjudgcMJ, ou 
a legal f[uiijble, to lose sei.sin of a marsh. Withdut delay, 
the Abbot proceeds to wait uj)on King Richard, then a 
prisonnr at Spires in Cermany, lays before him his coju- 
plaints, and j)roduces in support of his claim, not tiie lengthy 


and circumstantial grants made by the Saxon kings, but the 
comparatively concise Charter that had been granted by 
King Henry, his father. So again, in the Charter of King 
John, granted in 1202, no allu^sion is made to any grants of 
the Mercian or Saxon kings. 

Proceeding with the narrative, we next find the Abbot 
of Croyland defeated in his claims to the soil of the 
marsh of Aldcrland, and forced to make such concessions as 
he surely would never have been called upon to make, if the 
Chartei'S, as set forth in Ingulfs History, had been among 
the archives of his house. In the Charter of Henry III., 
granted in 122G, no mention is made, and no hint given, of 
the existence of Charters dating before the Conquest. 

AVe are now somewhat interruj)ted in our enquiry by the 
mutilated state of the Second Continuation; but in 1327 we 
catch a glimpse of Sir Thomas Wake claiming demesne rights 
against the Convent of Croyland in the marsh of Goggisland, 
or Gowksland, and of Abbot Henry de Caswyk manfully 
opposing him ; but w^e do not find the Abbot relying upon 
any alleged Saxon Charters as his weapons ; though, had 
they been in existence, he would most probably, like his 
successors eighty-eight years later, have availed himself of 
their assistance. 

In volumes xliii. and xliv. of the Cole MSS. in the 
British Museum, there are to be found nearly two hundred 
closely written folio pages, filled with abstracts from the 
Registers of Croyland, of lawsuits carried on b}' the Convent 
(the inmates of wdiicli seem to have lived in quite an 
atmosphere of litigation), grants of corodies to the King's 
servants, fines, conveyances, and other memoranda relative 
to the community. Careful search has been made in these 
pages, in the few extracts of Registers among the Harlcian 
J\1'SS., in the documents connected with Croyland that are 
printed in Cough's First and Second Appendix, as also in 
most of those referred to in Tanner's Notitia JMonadica, 
but not a syllable is there to be found to lead us to believe 
that between the periods above-mentioned these so-called 
Charters (with the two exceptions before alluded to) were 
in existence. In p. 76 of vol. xliv. of the Cole j\lSS. we 
find a plaint made by Thomas Wake, that Abbot Henry and 
three of his monks had been fishing at East Dcpyng, and 
that vi ct arm is they had broken down his dyke, or embank- 

VOL. XIX. 11 


ment. To this the Abbot makes ansNver, not basing his right 
upon anv irrants of the Mercian and Saxon kinirs, and oflerin^c 
to produce liis deeds in su}>port of that right, but merely to 
tlie eflect that — " of all the waters of the Welland he and 
all his predecessors have been seised time out of mind, as 
also of free piscary therein, and that the place mentioned is 
Avithin the precincts of their manor/' Again, on another 
occasion, in p. 105, we find the Abbot making yyro/l'r^ of the 
Charters of King John, Henry 111., and Kdward I., when 
those of the Mercian and Saxon kings, had they existed, 
^Yould certainly, as evidences, have materially jnnmoted the 
success of his suit. In a plaint made to Edward 111. (vol. 
xliv. p. .53), the monks of Croyland allege that the Abbey 
had been founded by King Ethelbald 500 years before the 
Conquest. This they would have hardl}-^ dared to assert, if 
they had had at that moment among their archives such a 
deed as the Foundation Charter given in Ingulfs Ilhtury, 
shewing that Ethelbald founded the Abbey a.d. 71b', exactly 
350 years before the Conquest, and no more. In fact, it is 
pretty clear, as Cole has added in a Note, that in those days 
they did not in reality know when their Abbey was founded. 

For a moment "sve must now step out of the History of 
Croyland, as given in the Second Continuation in Fulman's 

The 7th of July, 13.03, is the earliest date at which we 
can trace the existence, in the hands of the Convent of 
Croyland, of any of the Charters contained in the History 
of Ingulfus ; for at that date, as wc learn from the Patent 
Rolls now preserved in the Public Record Office, a Charter of 
Inspcximus aiid Confirmation was granted by the unsus})ecting 
officials of King Richard II., reciting the Charters of Ethel- 
\)'d\i\ and Edred in exactly the same terms that are set forth 
in that History, No Insj)eximus of a prior sovereign is 
tlierc mentioned ; and at that moment, and with the 
object of obtaining that (••iiiriniia(i(-ii, (wo Charters 
were fabricated, there can hardly be a doubt. I'or what 
innnediate purpose this step was tijni taken will |)i()hably 
remain for ever unknown ; as the fact of this Inspexiinus 
being then granted is not taken the slightest notice of in 
tlie Svrond Continiidlion ; no record of the transaction, 
fur obvious reasons, having been kept. It was left perhaps 
for these so-'-alh'd Charters to bear their very ])rolitable 


fruits some twenty years later, and not before ; for then 
it is that, for the first time, we hear of them being applied 
to any practical use, and then, not improbably, with the 
exception of the two just mentioned, the Charters and the 
History of Ingulfus were called into existence. 

To return to the narrative of the Second Cotitinuation. 
We learn that during the latter years of Abbot Thomas 
Overton, who w^as afflicted w^ith blindness, Prior Richard 
Upton had the management of the Convent. In 1413, 
being at a loss (p. 501) how to prevent the encroach- 
ments of the people of Spalding and Multon (to which, 
we may remark, the Croylanders had had to submit very 
often before), he determined "to unsheathe against them 
the sword of ecclesiastical censure, which had been specially 
gi'anted by the most holy father Dunstan," and had been 
" laid up with singular care among the treasures of the 
place;" in conformity with which resolution, "he publicly and 
solemnly fulminated sentence of excommunication, at the 
doors of the church, against all persons who should infringe 
the liberties of the Church of Saint Guthlac." Perhaps it is 
not an unwarranted assumption to believe, that if the Con- 
vent had had this " sivord " of Saint Dunstan for so many 
centuries in its possession, it would not have been now 
unsheathed for the first time. 

Not content with thus brandishing the sword of excom- 
munication, and responsible to no one but the bedridden 
Abbot, Prior Richard seems to have employed his energies in 
forging still other and sharper swords for the people of 
Multon and Spalding; for (p. 501) "he resorted to the 
temporal arm and the laws of the realm, and, taking with 
him the muniments of the illustrious Kings, Ethelbald, 
Edred, and Edgar, hastened to London, to prosecute his 
cause against both parties ; " this being the first time, be it 
remarked, that the fact of the existence of these Charters is 
noticed, in the Annals of Croyland, for a period of three 
hundred and twenty years. 

From the Second Continuation of the History (pp. 501, 
502), which, there seems every reason to believe, is a faithful 
and trustworthy chronicle of events connected with the 
Abbey of Croyland in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fif- 
teenth centuries, we learn that on his arrival in London 
Prior Richard was detained there "nearly two years before he 


could hrinc] matters to the desired conclusion,^' or, in otlier 
•worils, make arrang-ements for coming to trial. The blame 
of this delay is certainly laiil (p. 501) npon the shouKlers 
of the Dnke of Lancaster, the alleged suppoi-ter of the 
Spalding people, and the lords of the vills of ]\Iulton and 
AVcston. Unfortunately, however, for the accuracy of the 
story which Prior Richard seems to have told to tiie outer 
world who were not in his confidence, there happened to be at 
that time no " Duke of Lancaster" in existence, and it seems 
anything but improbable tliat these two years (or there- 
abouts) were, in reality, very profitably expended npon 
completing the fabrication of the long list of C barters which 
were so essentially to minister to the discomfiture of his 
anta2:onists at ^lulton and Spalding, and in compiling the 
original manuscript of the Jlistori/ of Ingulfus, afterwards 
known at Croyland as the " Autograph,"' in support of them. 
This explanation too will sufficiently account for the singularly 
large outlay upon these law proceedings of no less a sum 
than "500 pounds" (p. 513), equal in value to many thousands 
of our day ; for compilers and scribes, clever enough to fabri- 
cate a circumstantial abbey history, and to concoct a series 
of Charters thickly spread over 350 years or more, would at 
any time rerpiire to be handsomely paid for their labours, 
an<l be not unlikely, upon such an occasion as this more 
especially, to make their own terms in the way of remune- 
ration. The forgery of ecclesiastical and other documents, 
there .seems rea.son to believe, had, in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, become an established trade in the metro- 
j)olis ; and it was only a few years after this period — namely, 
A.i). 1430 — that the Prior of Jiarnwell, in Cambridgeshire, 
acting as delegate for Pope ]\lartin the Fifth, through the 
agency of a skilful notary-public whose name has come down 
to u.s, admitted as valid (and with a guilty knowledge, it 
lias been surmised), tlic fbrgcil r.ulls of Popes llonorius I. 
and Seririus 1., which rcnnain still insc-ribctl on the Creat 
K«'gister of the University of" Cambridge 

Upon this supposition, and knowing what efl'ects a guilty 
conscience, the iear of failure, and the dread of detecti(»n, are 
not unlikclv to produce, we anr not surpi'iseil to learn from 
tlio Serii/id ('i>iil'niinil'i(»i (p. 50l), that '" Prior Itichard, 
Kffing that his husiness now lay at the mercy of the cast of 
a die, and that it wa.s far from being likely to j)rospcr 


according to his wishes, but daily looked worse and worse, 
fell into so deplorable a state of ill health, that the physi- 
cians even dcs[)aircd of his recovery ; his stomach, in its 
indignation, refusing to retain anything that was offered 
to it." 

The most singular part of this stor}^ however, remains to 
be told. The Prior would seem not to have been the sole 
contriver of this plan for defeating the enemy ; but to have 
had a partner alike in his schemes and in the disquietude 
which they entailed. To continue, in the words of the nar- 
rative (p. 502) — " A certain Serjeant-at-law, who was of 
counsel for the Prior, William Ludyngton by name, acted as 
his agent in this business, and as his most trusty advocate. 
While he was in bed one night, kept awake by extreme 
sadness and disquietude, and revolving many matters in his 
mind, he found himself unable to sleep. Suddenly, however, 
a gentle slumber seeming to steal upon him, he had reposed 
for a short time, when behold ! a venerable personage, arrayed 
in the garb of an anchorite, stood near and uttered words to 
this effect : — ' Why, amid the fluctuations of thy mind, art 
thou in fear as to the prosecution of thy suit, and why pass 
the night in sleeplessness, as thoughts crowd upon thee from 
every side "? Come now, rest a wjiile, and relax thy limbs in 
repose ; for to-morrow morning everything shall succeed to 
thy utmost wish, and the matters which have hitherto seemed 
to thee to wear an adverse aspect, will benignly smile upon 
thee at th}' will and pleasure.' So sa^-ing, the vision dis- 
appeared. Rising early in the morning, and his mind restored 
to tranquillity by tlie oracle which had undoubtedly been 
revealed to him from heaven through Saint Guthlac, he at 
once began to entertain better hopes. Accordingly, he im- 
mediately hastened to the Court, and after holding a short 
conference on the subject with those who were of counsel for 
the other parties, at last brought the whole matter to this 
issue ; that each party at once agreed readily and willingly, 
putting an end to trouble and expense, that arbitrators should 
be chosen for coming to a righteous decision upon the matter 
in dispute. As for the Prior, who was still there, as already 
mentioned, lying on a bed of sickness, upon hearing that an 
outlet was about to be found to this most intricate labvrintli 
of agonizing toil, and that such an expensive source of litio-a- 
tion was about to be soon set at rest, he was greatly rejoiced 


thereat ; and now, breathing more freely, returned abundant 
thanksgiving to God for the divine consohition which had been 
o;ranted to him from above/' 

The sequel is soon told. This consolatory vision must have 
been vouchsafed bv Saint Gutlilac to Serjeant Ludyngton, 
the Prior's more than ordinary counsel, in the first halt" of 
the 3'ear 1415 ; for in June of that year, as we learn from 
other sources, he was created a Justiciar of the Court of 
Common Pleas ; a piece of promotion wliich, under the 
peculiar circumstances of the case, must have gladdened 
Prior Richard's heart as much, or even more, than Saint 
Gutlilac's oji|)ortune appearance in the worth}'' Serjeant's 
dream. In the latter half of the same year, arbitrators were 
a])puinted in the suit between the Abbot of Croyland and 
the people of ^lulton and Weston, and in that between the 
Abbot and the people of Spalding. In the first suit two 
um})ires were chosen as well ; and, strange to say, one of 
them, no other than the self-same judge, William Ludyngton, 
who a few months before had been the Prior's agent and 
adviser, and the symj)athizing sharer of his woes. In the 
second suit again, that witli tlie Spalding people, but one 
assessor, or umpire, was chosen, a character in which we find 
Judire Ludvntrton once more i)resentinir himself After such 
clever management on the part of the Convent as this, there 
couhl of course be little doubt as to its uUimate success. To 
the entice satisfaction of botli umi)ires and arbitrators, the 
spuriuns Charters of Ethelhald and Edred were produced in 
Court, as well as the genuine ones of the Koinian and early 
Pl;intagcnet Ivings, and the Iiisj)exinuis recently obtained 
under the (xreat Seal of Richard 11. 

hiiiiK'iliately ujion the jtroduciion of this to them most 
novel and unlooked-lor evidence, endorsed too by the appro- 
bation of the leai'iied and dignified uni|)ires, tlu^ people of 
!Miilt(in and Sjialding .'i]ijie,'ir to have heen j>;inic-stricken, 
and not t<^ have had a w<trd more to say in their respective 
behalves ; wh(;reupon, both arbitratois and umj)ires pro- 
nounced their decisions entirely in I'avour (»f the Convent of 
Crovland, and awarding it rights and j)rivik'i;'es almost com- 
incnsin-ato with the fullest scope of the so-called Mercian 
and .Saxon Cliai-ters : and thus did (Ik; monks of Croyland, 
the fu'sL time apparently Ibi' centuries, ^aiii a coniplele legal 
victory over their troublesome neighbours of iMultun, Weston, 
and S])alding. 


William Ludyngton (or Lodington, as the name is now 
spelt), ^ve may add, the counsel and judge who acted so con- 
spicuous a part in this suspicious transaction, died a.d. 1419, 
and lies buried at Gunby, in Lincolnshire, where a brass to 
his memory still exists. If Lodington in Northamptonshire 
was the place of his birth, as seems not improbable, we 
may the more readily account for his evident participation in 
the most secret counsels of his near neighbours at Croyland, 
and the interest that he appears to have manifested per fas 
et nefas in the support of their claims. 

Vague and meagre as w^ere the genuine title-deeds of the 
Abbey, and limited perhaps to the Charters of the Norman 
and early Plantagenet kings, we can fully understand why 
the ten or twelve lines of the History of Vitalis (B. iv., c. 17), 
in which he states that King Ethelbald founded the Abbey of 
Croyland, made a grant to it of lands, and conferred upon it 
a Charter, signed by him in pi-esence of his bisho]3s and great 
men, were with avidity made available for the purposes of 
the Inspeximus of 1393, and amplified into the circumstantial 
details of the Golden Charter ; why such care was taken, in 
almost every succeeding fabrication down to the so-called 
Charters of Edred and Edgar, to make especial reference 
to the original grant of Ethelbald ; these last tw'O Charters 
being carefully ratified by name in equally fictitious Charters 
of Cnut and Edw^ard the Confessor ; why the reader is so 
particularly informed in the Hhtori/ (p. 22), that upon the 
destruction of the Monastery a.d. 870, "the Charter of Founda- 
tion of King Ethelbald, and the Confirmations thereof by other 
kings," were saved from the ravages of the eneni}^ ; wh}'^ we 
are so circumstantially (p. 85) made acquainted with the fact 
that Abbot Ingulf took with him to London the Charters of 
Ethelbald and the other Mercian Kings, as well as those of 
Edred and Edgar, and that the same " were publicl}^ read and 
carefully examined in presence of the renowned King William 
and his Council, and adjudged b}^ all, with acclamation, to 
be most worthy of the royal confirmation ; " why these 
Charters are filled ad nauseam with fulminations of wrath, 
censure, and excommunication, against all who should dare to 
question them, or to subti'act from the possessions, privileges, 
or immunities, of the Abbey of Croyland ; why the hint of 
Vitalis was ingeniously improved upon, and the Ecclesiastical 
Censure of Archbishops Dunstau and Osketul was ftibricated; 


and wliy, too, the story of tlic wicked Asford ^Yas devised 
(pp. 7t), 77), who, as a judgineut for withhuldiiii;- from the 
jyionastery the ]\Iaiior of lleheston, fell from his horse, ^Yhile 
riding to meet the King's Justiciars at Stamford, and broke 
Lis neck, " and so was sent to hell the soid of him ^Yho was 
going in his pride to oppose the Lord." 

Even the i»assage inserted in the Miston/ (p. 70), to the 
effect that the surveyors for Donu'sday " shewed a kind 
and benevolent feeling towards the Monastery, and did 
Hot value it at its true revenue, nor yet at its exact extent ; 
and so, compassionately took due precautions against future 
royal exactions and other burdens, and with the most atten- 
tive kindliness made provision lor its welfare," — tliere can be 
little doubt was fabricated to serve a purj)ose. The forgers 
knew that it was (|uite within the limits of possibility that 
their fictitious Charters, with their outrageous pretensions to 
circumstantiality as to the extent of the Abbey lands, might 
come to be placed before a judicial tribunal in juxtaposition 
with the pages of Domesday : and the present passage, it is 
far from improbable, was inserted with the view of meeting 
any objections to discrepancies that might possibly arise. 

That they themselves resorted to the Book of Domesday, 
then i)reserved in the Exchecpicr, there can be no doubt ; 
and hence the copious extracts in the lllstovij which Abbot 
Ingulf is represented as having made during his sojoui-n in 
London, on his visit to the Court of William the Con(jueror. 
The transcribers, lunvever, in their ignorance, have executed 
their in a manner that Abbot Ligulf himself would never 
have toleivited. For examjile, they were not awai'e that 
*' Elloi' (properly ' Lllohe ') irn/fp" signifies " the Wapentake 
of Elloe," but have absunlly converted it into '" Ellowarp " 
(j). <S0), as the name (»f a place. In the same manner too, 
tiie WapentaUe of ivirketon (Chirchetone) is represented as 
*' A irh'tona Warp.'' Other material misstatements are made ; 
in addition to which, tin; Doiiti'sday contraction for modo, 
"now," is almost unihjrmly lengthened into m<ni<'U(\ "of 
money " ; the word canicata, " carucjite," or " j)loughland," is 
som<,'timcs c<)nfounde<l with airtn-fi, " plough " ; and, in one 
instance, " V\" standing loi" (jiiimjiif, " Jive," is intei'preted 
as riio, " but." 

^riie f.'ibj-icators too oi the History, finding a passage in 
JJomcaday to the elfect that, '" from the time of King Ethel- 


red, tlie seat of the abbacy has been quit and free of all 
secular services," have laboured (p. 84) to make it inciden- 
tally subservient to their design, Ethelred the Unready, son 
of Edgar, is no doubt the sovereign meant ; but they "would 
suggest that it is just as probable that Ethelred, King of 
Mercia, and afterwards Abbot of Bardeney in Lincolnsliire, 
is the personage alluded to ; di'awing attention, at the same 
time, to the fact that his name is subscribed as an attesting 
witness to Ethelbald's Charter; a locality in which the Abbey 
authorities who had shortly before obtained the Inspeximus 
and Confirmation of Richard IL, themselves had taken care 
to have it jilaced. 

Another suspicious circumstance calls for remark. Vitalis 
says that, in the days of Abbot Ingulf, part of the Abbey 
Church of Croyland, with the sacristy, books, and many other 
articles, was suddenly consumed by fire. This was too 
tempting a statement not to be made capital of by the 
forgers : availing themselves of it with skill, they would be 
armed against every contingency in reference to their Saxon 
and Mercian Charters in a court of law. We are accordingly 
told (p. 98) that the flames reaching their cartaria, or mu- 
niment-room, all their muniments, charters, and privileges 
granted by the Mercian Kings, both great and small, nearly 
400 in number, were destroyed. Then again, we are informed 
(p. 98) that Abbot Ingulf had, some years before, taken from 
the muniment-roora many Charters written in Saxon charac- 
ters ; and that, having duplicates of them, and in some 
instances triplicates, he had put them in the hands of the 
pnecentor, to instruct the juniors therefrom in a knowledge 
of the Saxon characters, which had then become neglected 
and nearly obsolete. These, the History tells us, being kept 
in the cloisters, were saved, " and now form our principal and 
especial muniments." Again, in another place (p. 86), Ingulf 
is represented as saying that, in spite of the grant by deed of 
the vill of Spalding, A.D. 1051, by Sheriff Tliorold, he was 
deprived thereof through the enmity of Ivo Tailbois ; at the 
same time advising his successors, when desirous to regain 
the same, especially to rely on the Charter of Thorold, " the 
other Charters being ybr certain reasons concealed," he having 
learned from the law^-ers that ///fl'^ C/mr^^r would prove much 
more efficacious for the assertion of their rights than the rest. 
At a later period again, and after the destruction of the 

VOL. XIX. s 


Mon.osterjby fire in a.d. 1091, Abbot Ingulf is made to say 
(p. 107), that though Tailbois imaii,inotl that r//^ their Cliarters 
Avere destroyed, he showed liiai in Court that such ^vas not 
the case ; but, on the contrary, produced by the hands of 
Brotlier Trig, liis proctor, tlie Cliartcrs of Sheriff Thorold and 
the Earls Algar, "whole and unburnt. This trial concludeel, 
Abbot Ingulf further says (p. 107) — "I took our Charters 
and placed them in such safe custody that, so long as my life 
lasts, neither fire shall consume nor adversary steal them ; 
our Lord Jesus Christ and our blessed patron, the most holy 
Guthlac, sho\Ying themselves propitious, and, as I firmly 
believe, extending their protection to their servants." 

Again, it "vnms by the same hands, there can be little doubt, 
that the statement was inserted in the so-called " Conf in nation 
hy Ft'tcr of Blois " (part, at least, of which is certainly quite 
as spurious as the Ilisforij of Ingulfus, and equally founded 
on the narrative of Vitalis), that (p. 124) "although the 
original Charters of the Abbey liad been burnt, and Abbot 
GeoRrey (Ingulfs successor) urns at a loss to Kiioic in what 
place EdrciVs Charter of Restoration had been deposited by his 
predecessor. Abbot Ingulf," still he "proceeded to Evcsliam, 
and produced there a copi/ of the Charter of Restoration (or 
Hefoundation) of his Abbey ; " but, for ^Yant of the oi-iginal, 
failed in the object of his mission. 

Though, at first sight, these contradictions may seem 
puzzling, yet, upon consideration, the reasons for the insertion 
of them in the pretended History Avould seem to be pretty 
obvious. It would of course occur to the authorities at 
Croyland, that the people of Multon, Weston, and Spalding, 
might ver}' possibly question the genuineness of the Chartei.s 
now j)roil"orL'd by them in evidence, for the first time. If 
tliey themselves should be able to convince the Court that 
they were genuine, of course all would be well and good, 
and their junjKxse would be answered. Should, however, 
on the other hand, ihcii' .spuriuus character be detected 
upon a close scrutiny by the Court, it would then be in their 
power to produce in their own excuJj)ation Ingulfs J/istorj/, 
penned more than three centuries before, to show that 
the original Charters really had been burnt, that contem- 
porary duplicates hail been saved, and (hat, if these were not 
tlie identical copies mcntioni il ly Ingulf, it was no fiiult of 
theirs ; that they liad j^rollered them just as they had dc- 


scended into their hands from their predecessors ; and that, if 
forgeries they really were, they must have been forged by 
some of those predecessors — who alone were the guilty parties 
— for the purpose of tallying with the narrative of the 

Again, it would be not unlikely that inquiry would be made, 
liow it was that these Charters had never been proffered in 
Court during the repeated litigations of the preceding three 
hundred years. The stor}" of the safe concealment of them 
by Abbot Ingulf was accordingly invented, in order that an 
excuse might be afforded, in case one should be needed, for 
the sudden and unexpected appearance of them after so long 
a lapse of time, during which the fact of their existence had 
been unknown. 

In reference to the so-called " Charter of Restoration " of 
King Edred, it deserves remark that a Charter of privileges 
granted by that King is mentioned in the Charter of William 
the Conqueror (p. 8G), and that Charters both of Edred and 
of William are referred to in that of Henry L, dated a.d. 
1114, and inserted (p. 121) in the so-called Continuation of 
Peter of Blois. The Charter of William — which, as is usual 
"with the fabricated Saxon Charters, forbids "that any person 
under his rule shall presume rashly to molest the monks of 
Croyland, lest he perish by the sword of excommunication, 
and, for such violation of ecclesiastical rights, suffer the tor- 
ments of hell " — is probably as fictitious as its predecessors ; 
but as that of Henry I., which mentions Charters of Edred and 
William, has apparently some fair pretensions to be considered 
genuine, it seems not improbable that Charters of Edred and 
William once did exist : and, perhaps, equally within the 
limits of probability, that a copy of Edred's Charter, falling 
into the hands of the compilers of the History, served as a 
basis for the enlarged Charter of Edred as there set forth. 

The more effectually, to all appearance, to disarm suspicion, 
the compilers have placed in juxtaposition with the Charters 
of Edred and Edgar, though it has nothing whatever to do 
with the context, that of Edgar to the Abbey of Medcsham- 
sted, or Peterborough ; a document which we laioio for 
certain to have been subjected to the self-same treatment 
which we have just suggested that a genuine Charter of 
Edred may possibly have undergone. This Charter, as it 
appears in Ingulfs History, and in one of the Peterborough 


Chronicles, is so replete Avitli allusions and expressions pecu- 
liar to the feudal limes, that the learned Ilickes {Thesaurus, 
Pref., p. xxix.) is inclined to condemn it as fictitious ; and, 
therefore, — a thing we should hardly expect in his case, of 
all men, — must have been unaware of the fact that the nucleus 
of it is preserved in the Sitd'on Chroiiidc (pp. 392, 303, 
Mo)tumcnta Histor. Brit.) ; genuine, no doubt, but divested 
of its grandiloquent recitals, and its allusions to usages of a 
later age. The mentiun in it of " Courts Cliristian," and of 
" parsons," and the fact that the sovereign is, in no less than 
six instances, made to speak in the plui-al number (a mode 
of expression not to be found before the time of Ivichard 
I.), indicate clearly enough that it has been tampered 
with ; thttugh probably by other hands than the fabricators 
of the Charters and History of Jngulfus. The first eleven 
attestations given in the llistnri/ of Ingulfus correspond with 
those in the Sajon Chronicle ; the additional nineteen, to all 
appearance, are spurious. 

It now only remains for us to inquire, what are the sources 
from which such portions of Ingulfs JJisfor?/, as bear any 
marks of borrowed authenticity, are compiled 1 a question 
which, without the expenditure of an amount of reseai-ch 
which it would hardly seem to deserve, it would be impos- 
sible to answer satisfactorily in eveiy respect. 

The basis of the Histor i/ of I)H)ulfus througliout, there can 
be little doubt, is Chapter 17 of the Fourth Book of the 
Ecclesiastical Ilistori/ of Ordericus Vitalis ; not a line hardly 
of whoso narrative — the result of a visit paid by him to the 
Abbey of Croyhmd early in the twelfth century — has not been 
carefully made avaihdjle by the fabricators ; and, in condti- 
nation therewith, the Chro)iicli' o{ Floi-cnce of Worcester. To 
these sources may be a<Mr,j. in all |irobabili(y, the Jjife of 
Saint O'u/h/ar, by the ^lonk i''flix ; William of jMalmcsbuiy's 
J/i.sfort/ (if l/ir /\'i//(js ; the Li/r of h't/ward the Conf-ssor, by 
Ailred of Kievaux ; the Chronicle of JSimeon of hiiiliaiii ; 
tlitj Ilistori/ of the Knijlish, by Henry of lluntin^ilon ; the 
Chroiiicoii Aniiliff of J(jhn nf l'etcrborouL;h ; Doinesday 
Jiool,- ; au'l, poHsibl}', the Cc.sia Ih rnrardi. 1'lie minute 
details of abbey lile and desci'iptions ol conventual buildings 
and usages, wilii which tin; work aboinnis, ai-e pidbably 
derived from the Rules <f Saint lUniedirt. and tli"se olddier 
rcligicua Orders; while, for several of iheii- nioie nnci'ninion 


Tvords, the compilers seem to have been indebted to the 
Catholicon of John of Genoa, an important Glossary of the 
latter part of the thirteenth century. 

To descend, howevei", to somewhat of detail ; so far as our 
restricted hmits, and a comparatively cursory examination of 
Ingulfs narrative, will permit. — 

The Prooimium (p. 1) is of course the composition of the 
compilers, the remainder of the page being occupied by a 
summary from the early chroniclers. The story of Ethelbald 
and JSaint Guthlac is an anipliiication of the narrative of 
Vitalis, and perhaps of the Life of Saint Guthlac, by Felix. 
The poetry in page 4 is evidently of the average execution 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; the latter part of the 
page, in reference to the derivation of the name Croyland, 
or Crowland, Avhicli Hickes {Thesaurus, Pref., p. viii.) has 
somewhat singularly suggested to be spurious, being borrowed 
almost verbatim from Vitalis. The Charter of Ethelbald, as 
already mentioned, was in all probability suggested by the 
narrative of Vitalis. The immediately succeeding pages, 
when not occupied by the Charters, are, no doubt, a compila- 
tion from the chronicles ; the compilers taking good care 
(as indeed is asserted in page 20) that their context should 
be able to receive confirmation therefrom. Accordinolv, -we 
find the mention (pp. 18, 19) of King Burghred being at 
Nottingham in a.d. 868 (where he is represented as signing 
his Charter to Croyland), confirtned by the Saxon Chronicle, 
by Simeon of Durham, and by Florence of Worcester. 

The basis of the story of the Danish ravages at Croyland, 
A.D. 870 (pp. 20 — 24), is probably to be found in the account 
of the destruction of the Monastery of Medeshamsted, given in 
the Chronicle nttributed by Sparke to Abbot John of Peter- 
borough ; considerable additions being made, the inventions, 
in all probability, of the compilers. Among these additions is 
the mention of the body and scourge of Saint Guthlac as 
being saved ; also, the saving of the gifts of King Wichtlaf, 
and, most important of all, of the Charters of ]"'thclbald and 
the other Kings ; together with all the minute particulars of 
the destruction of Croyland by the Danes — nearly every word, 
in fact, of page 22. Brother Turgar, who, in Ingulfs History, 
is made to be an inmate of Cro^dand and a child ten years 
of age, and is then reserved to figure as one of the Sempects 
and to die at the age of 115 years, is in reality a monk of 


Medeshamstcd, as shown by a passage in the Peterborough 
Chronicle, which the Croyland compilers liave thought pro- 
per to omit. A considerable portion of pages 23, 24, also 
giving an account of the barbarities inflicted upon certain of 
the Croyland monks, b}' name, is equally a fiction, invented 
by the compilers, no doubt, and interpolated by them in the 
extract thus borrowed from the Peterborough Chronicle. 

For the story of Saint Cuthbert's appearance to Alfred, 
tlie compilers, to all appearance, are indebted to AVilliam of 
3Ialmesbury ; the same too with reference to the account of 
Alfred's visit to the Danish camp in disguise ; which is toki 
by Malmesbury alike of Alfred and (§ 131) of Olaf's visit to 
Athelstan's tent, in a minstrel's garb. 

Turketul is made to be a kinsman not only of King Edred 
(p. 30), but of Osketul, Archbishop of York (p. 41) ; both 
in conformity with the account of Vitalis. The names of the 
six manors given by Turketul to CroyLand are the same as 
those mentioned by Vitalis : who also drawls attention to 
Edgar's Charter of Confirmation (p. 42), and the fact of 
JJunstan having denounced those who should deprive the 
Church of Croyland of its possessions. 

Eilward, or Ethelward (pp. 30, 3G), brother of Edward 
the Elder, is adopted by the compilers as the father of 
Turketul. lie is mentioned b}" Florence of Worcester, and 
\vi)\\\ him probably the name is borrowed : In's relationship 
to Turketul is a fabrication, no d(tul)t. The account of the 
Battle of Brunford (p. 37), or Brunenburgh, from the striking 
resemblance in magniloquence of style, is aj)}»arently an 
amplification of the narrative of Henry of IIunting(hDn, who 
equally expatiates upon the prowess of the men of aMercia 
and of Wessex. 

The great intimacy (p. 41) that existed between Dun- 
stan and TurkrLul, is also menLioiicd in the narrative of 

The of the out-oC-dic-w.-iy word " So/i/ircf//'' (p. •!!)), 
as ajiplied to a monk of the Convent when past the iiftielh 
year of his profession, w;i.s in all pi'obahility suggested to the 
compilers by tlic occurrrncr of il in the Jlistort/ of Vitalis 
(B. viii., c. 11) ; though in what sense, it seems diflicult 
exactly to determine. Jt is also to be found, under the form 
" spipa'dn," as aj)plied to a class of monks, in the liiih's of 
Saint lirnidirt ; and an early use of il, though appai-cntly in 


another sense, is to be met witli in the Lausiac History of 
the Eastern Sohtaries, bj Palladius, a Christian Bishop. 

The succession of the Elder Egelric (p. 52), on the death 
of Turketul, and his relationship to the deceased Abbot (pp. 
32, 51), are mentioned by Vitalis. The same too with the 
succession of the Younger Egelric (p. 53), and his relation- 
ship (p. 40) to the Elder Egelric, his predecessor. 

The story of the removal of the relics of Saint Neot to 
Croyland (p. 55) from Elnophesbyry (or Eynesbur}^), in 
Huntingdonshire, is also related by Vitalis ; though the 
compilers have added the fact, that the body had been 
exposed there to the ravages of the Danes. 

The successions of Abbots Osketul (p. 54) and Godric 
(p. b^^ are probably borrowed from Vitalis ; and the story 
of the atrocities committed by Swejai, father of Cnut (p. b^), 
is, to all appearance, closely copied from the narrative of 
Florence of Worcester. 

The mention (p. 57) of Norman, brother of Earl Leofric, 
as the "greatest of the satellites" of Duke Edric Streona, 
there can be little doubt is suggested by the pages of Flo- 
rence, who implies as much ; though the assertion that 
Edric's body was thrown into the Thames is borrowed from 
another source — William of Maluiesbury, or, possibly, Roger 
of AVendover. 

The story also (p. 57) of Leofric having replaced his 
brother Norman, and of his being in high favour with Cnut, 
is probably borrowed from Florence of W^orcester ; the men- 
tion of him being inserted merely for the purpose of showing, 
why the Manor of Baddeby was not in the possession of the 
Abbey of Croyland at the time of the compilation of Domes- 
day (pp. 57, 85). 

The succession of Abbot Brithmer (p. 58) is apparently 
derived fi'om Vitalis ; and in the next page the compilers 
have followed the Saxon Chronicle, Florence of Worcester, 
and others of our early chroniclers, in erroneously placing the 
visit of Cnut to Home in a.d. 1031, instead of 1027, as cor- 
rectly stated by Wippo. Cnut's Letter to the Prelates and 
People of England (pp. 5.9 — 61) is probably copied from the 
pages of Florence. 

The account (p. 61) of Cnut's landing at Sandwich, a.d. 
1032, on his return from Rome, is a fiction evidently ; and 
equally so, no doubt, is the story of Abbot Brithmer has- 


tening thither to present liini \vith tlircc palfreys. The 
fiction is apparently based upon the narrative of the Sdd'on 
C/iro/iicle, ^vhich iiNplies that Cnut landed at Sandwich, A.D. 
1029 ; upon which occasion he bestowed certain privileges 
upon Christ Church at Canterbury. 

The succession of Wulgat (pp. 62, 013), Abbot of Pegeland, 
to the Abbacy of Croyland, on the death of Brithmer, and 
the story of his sufferings, ai-e apparently a fanciful amplifi- 
cation of the narrative of Vitalis. 

Tlie mention (p. G4) of the earthquake in 1048 is derived 
probably from tSimeon of Durham, or from Floi'ence of 
Worcester ; but a clerical error has been committed in sub- 
stituting the '' Calends of March," for the " Calends of May." 

The attesting witnesses to Edward the Confessor's spurious 
Charter of Confirmation (p. 64) are Archbishops E<lsy and 
Alfric, and Earls Godwin, Leofric, and Siward. The whole 
of these five identical personages, and no others, are named 
together by Simeon of Durham and Florence of Worcester, 
s. (I. 1U43. 

The succession of Wulkctul, a monk of Peterborough, to 
the Abbacy of Croyland (p. 65), is i)rubably derived from 

The words (p. GQ) ^' per vim suum Comitatum rectipcravit,'' 
in reference to Earl Algar's outlawry and return, are identical 
with those given in their account <»t" the same transaction by 
Simeon of ])inli,-iin and Florence of Worcester. 

The Latin Leonine lines (p. GS), on the Comet that 
appeared a.d. lOGG, are probably borrowed from Simeon of 
Durham or Henry of Huntingdon ; as they are not to be 
found in Floi-ence of Woirester. The account of the liattlo 
of Hastings (p. (j[)), on the otlicr hand, would seem to be 
abbreviated from Florence of Worcester, or Simeon of Dur- 

The account of Eail ^\^•llllM'of's execution (j). 7:2), though 
expanded, closely follows th.ii of \'italis ; who also mentions 
liis gift to the Abbey, here noticed, of the vill of I'arnack, 
in ^('orthamptonsliirc. 

The story of the deprivation of Abbot Wulkdul, a.d. loT^) 
(pp. 7'i, 7f>), is probably borrowed from Vitalis ; who nu'rely 
Htate.s, however, that he was <leposed. and confuied at Clas- 
toiibury. Tin.' iiiiprovenient uikiii his narrative, in reference 
to Abbot ThiUhtan, has been alicaily noticed. 


The notion of the pilgrimage of Ingulf to Jerusalem 
(p. 74) is probabl}^ borrowed from the account of that of 
Theodoric, first Abbot of 8aint Evroult, in the Ilhtory of 
Vitalis (B. iii., c. 4); the "Bishop of Mayence," whom In- 
gulf is represented as accompanying, representing the 
" Chief Bishop of the Bavarians," in whose train Theodoric 

The story of Ingulf exercising his influence with King 
William in behalf of Wulketul (pp. 78, 79), is probably 
amplified from the account of Vitalis, who briefly states to 
the same effect. The narratives vary, however, as to the 
day of the month on which Wulketul died. 

,The account (p. 102) of the translation of the body of 
Earl Waltheof from the Chapter-house to the Church of 
Croyland is related, to a considerable extent, in the very 
words that are used by Vitalis in narrating the same trans- 

As already mentioned, these enquiries might probably be 
considerably extended, with equally satisfactory results, in 
proof that, as a compilation of a comparatively late period, 
the History of Ingulfus has no pretensions to genuineness or 
authenticity whatever. Enough, however, has perhaps been, 
said to leave little room for doubt, in the minds even of the 
most credulous, that such is the fact. 

Had the object of this "pious fraud" been really a harm- 
less one, other in fact than it undoubtedly was, the com- 
pilers might have deserved some, perhaps considerable, 
commendation for the research and inventiveness displayed 
in the fabrication of their romance, and for the skill which, 
in the days of typography even, for at least a century suc- 
ceeded in hoodwinking the eyes of the learned. There is 
too abundant proof, however, that under the transparent veil 
of promoting the cause of religion, their purpose was selfish, 
and their conduct, oppressive and mendacious. Stripped of 
its pretensions, their plausible and by no means uninteresting 
compilation must be content to take its humble place among 
the items of our later medieval literatui'c, as nothing more 
than the " Story of the Pseudo-Ingulf." 




The ancient conventual clmrch of Pcterborougli, now tlic 
Cathedral, was never i-cinarkable either for the number or 
statelincss of the sepulchral monuments it contained. 

The sculptured memorials of this class now existing ai-e 
confined, with one exception, to a few ancient recumbent 
effigies of abbots, not one of which, it is believed, occupies its 
original position, nor are there inscriptions to inform us, 
with certainty, of what particular abbots we have the repre- 
sentations. We are lelt to appropriate these effigies as we 
best may ; and in a conjectural appropriation there is 
doubtless much room for diversity of oj>inion. It is, under 
these circumstances, that I would endeavour to describe, and 
to assign, according to my own opinion, with all deference to 
that of others conversant with monumental remains, that 
series of ancient sepulchral effigies, six in number, contained 
■within those hallowed walls, which have been preserved 
from the destruction to which other monuments have been 

Five of these effigies are of dark-colored marble, a mate- 
rial in which many early monumental effigies— for instance, 
those in tiie Temple church, London — are sculptured, and in 
relief more or less bold. The most ancient of these I should 
a.scribe to the latter part of the twelCth century, the other four 
to dillerent j)eriods in the thirteenth century. ^J'he sixth 
effigy, sculptured in chnich or chalk-stone, is, I think tliat I 
shall be aide to sIkjw, (if ilio eai'ly ])ai-t of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. J''n»in the material, however, in which it is sculj)tured, 
it is far mon- mutilated tlian any of the earlier effigies. 

Akhough not (lUe oj" thesf- iiMniiinifiits (icciipics llieposi- 

' f'ommiinicfitj'l to tlio Soction r.f Autiiiuititu ut tho Aimuul Meeting of the 
■limttluto at I'utcrborough, July, IbGl. 


tion ill which it was originally placed, but each appears to 
have been removed, some, as we are told by Guiiton, from 
the Chapter-house, one probably from the Lady Chapol, and 
they are not arranged in chi'onological order, I shall com- 
mence with that which I consider the earliest, and so 
describe them, not as they are now placed, but in order of 
supposed date. 

In the retro-choir, at the back of the high altar, or to 
speak more in accordance with our own church discipline, 
the holy table, on a coffin-shaped slab of dark-coh)red 
marble, is tlie effigy, in somewhat low relief, of one of the 
abbots. He is represented as bareheaded, with the face close 
shaven, vested in an alb, (the long linen garment with close 
sleeves, reaching to the feet), and chasuble. The chasuble 
is ornamented with the orphrey, attached to it in front, in 
form resembling tlie archicpiscopal pall. Beneath the lower 
part of the chasuble appear the extremities of the stole, which 
coming over each shoulder crossed the breast in front, and 
w\as then passed under the girdle of the alb, over which 
it was worn, the two extremities falling perpendicularly 
downwards. The amice is represented about the neck. The 
pastoral staff is placed in a diagonal position across the body, 
and is held in the right hand, the crook, which is simply 
curved and turned outwards, appears on the right side of 
the head ; the ferule of the staff, on the left. side of the left 
foot, is thrust into the jaws of a two-headed dragon, the 
winged serpent of fabulous tradition, sculptured at the feet of 
the effigy, which, as it is also represented at the feet of other 
early sepulchral effigies of ecclesiastics, seems allusive to that 
verse in the Psalms, — " Thou shalt tread upon the lion and 
adder, the young lion and dragon shalt thou trample under 
foot." The left hand is represented holding a book. Over 
the head of the effigy is a flat canopy, consisting of a plain 
semicircular trefoil, surmounted by the representation of a 
Norman arcaded building, finished with a conical roof 
such as we find on towers of the twelfth century, represented 
in illuminated manuscripts and on seals. This, which I 
consider to be the most ancient of the sepulchral effigies, 
may, I think, be attributed either to Abbot l^enedict, who 
died in 1193, or to Abbot Andrew, who died in 1199. As 
the former is said to have built the nave of the church, I am 
rather inclined to assiirn this monument to him. It is 


enoraved in Gougli's Sepulchral ^[onumeiits, but lie docs not 
-venture an opinion as to ^vllose effigy it was suppose*! 
to be. 

The second monumental cfligy, taking them in chronolo- 
gical order, is that now placed second from the west end of 
the south aisle of the choir, and probably one of those 
three which Gunton tells us were removed from the chapter 
house on the suppression of the monastery. Tiiis, with the 
coffin-shaped slab on which it rests, is sculptured out of one 
block of dark-colored Purbcck or Forest marble. It is the 
effigy of an abbot in bold but somewhat low relief; the head 
is represented as bare, reposing on a lozenge-shaped pillow, 
within an Early English circular trcfoiled arch, springing from 
two lateral shafts, with sculptured foliage on the cajMtals, and 
surmounted by a kind of architectural design. This effigy 
is somewhat abraded on the surface, but the chin of the face 
appears to have been covered with a beard. The abbot is 
represented with the amice about his neck, vested in the alb 
and chasuble, between which appear the extremities of the 
stole. The feet do not rest against any animal. The pas- 
toral staff is held in the right hand, whilst in the left appears 
a book. This is evidently a monument of the early part of 
the thirteenth century, and, as the architectural details agree 
with those of the west front of the Cathedral, I am not 
perhaps fai- from being correct when I assign this memorial 
to Abbot llobert de Lyndeseye, who is said to have erected 
the west front, and to have died in 1222. This effigy is 
engraved in Gougli's Sepulchral ^lonuments, and assigned 
to Abbot Martin de Vecti, who died in 1155. It is figured, 
from a drawing by Mr. Ijlorc, in liritton's Petcrborougli 
Cathedral, ])late xii. 

The third monumental effigy in chronological order is also 
the third from the west end, and was j)roijably one of tiie 
three said to liavc been removed IVom tlie chapter-house. 
Like tlic two efligies I liavc described, thi.s, together with tlie 
coffin-shaped slab on which it lies, is sculj)tuivd out of one 
block (jf dar-k-colored marble. Tlio abbot, of whom this is 
th<; edigy, is represente<l barcluadctl, with a curled be.-U"d 
reaching from to ear. lie .'ippears vested in the alb, 
with an oiiiMinented parure oi" aitpai<'l in front at the feet ; 
OV(,T the alh is worn thf; tuiili-. ;iiid oNcr that the ehasiibh;. 
The j)a.^toraI stall' is hea<le(l with a simple crook, turned 


inwards towards the effigy, and is held in the right hand. In 
the left hand appears a book. The maniple is suspended 
over the left wrist. The feet rest against a dragon, into the 
jaws of which the ferule of the pastoral staff is thrust. This 
effigy is in low relief, but unmutilated. Over the head 
appears a pointed cinquefoiled canopy or arch, springing from 
lateral shafts, witli capitals, sculptured with foliage. The 
arch is surmounted by the representation of a building. This 
monument appears in date to be of about the middle of the 
thirteentli century, and I am inclined to ascribe it either to 
Abbot Walter de St. Edmund, who died in 124.5, or to Abbot 
William do Hotot, his successor, who died in 1249, shortly 
after he had resigned the rule of this monastery, and was 
buried in this conventual church before the altar of St. Bene- 
dict. This effigy is ascribed by Gough to John of Salisbury, 
who died in 1125, but it is not of so early a date. (Figured 
in Britten's Peterborough Cathedral, plate xii.) 

The fourth effigy, in chronological order, is that disposed 
first at the west end of the south aisle of the choir. This, 
like the three effigies already described, is, with the coffin- 
shaped slab on which the effigy appears, sculptured in some- 
what bold relief out of a block of black or dark-colored 
English marble. The effigy of the abbot is represented with 
the face closely shaven, and the body vested in the alb, the 
parure or apparel of which in front at the feet is richly 
worked. Over the alb is worn the tunic, or dalmatic, and 
over that the chasuble, the folds of the latter comino- down 
to a point in front, heater-shaped. This chasuble is richly 
ornamented with foliage. On the right side is tlie pastoral 
staff, the head or crook of which is gone, but the ferule of 
the staff is inserted into the jaws of a dragon, sculptured 
beneath the feet of the effigy. In the left hand, somewhat 
upraised on the breast, is a book. The amice, like a hood, 
partly covers the head, which is supported by the mutilated 
figures of two angels. This monument, which is assigned by 
Gough, in whose work it is engraved, to Abbot Andrew, 
who died in 1199, may, I think, more properly be ascribed 
to Abbot John de Caloto, who died in 1 2G2, and was buried 
in the south aisle of the choir of this conventual church. 

The fifth recumbent effigy, in chronological order, is the 
most eastward of the series, lying under or adjoining to the 
south wall of the south aisle of the choir. Unlike the effigies 



already described, the sepulchral effigy of the abbot hero 
represented, is placed on a raised tomb of black marble, the 
north side of which has been divided by plain cylindrical 
shafts, with bases and capitals, into four compartments, 
each containing a plain quatrefuiled circle ; at the lower end 
is a single compartment similarly iillcd with a quatrefoilcd 
circle. The shape of the tomb at the head is semi-hexagonal. 
This tomb appears to have been removed from some other 
place and is not altogether perfect ; the lower part is broken, 
and one-half of a quatrefoilcd circle is gone. It is, therefore, 
in its present state somewhat shorter than it was originall3^ 
On this tomb, sculptured in the same kind of marble, lies 
the recumbent effigy of an abbot, the head apparently that 
of an aged man, with the face bcanled from car to ear, but 
the feet are gone, probably destroyed with the lower portion 
of the tomb beneath. The vestments wdiich are visible 
consist of the alb, over the skirt of which appear the ex- 
tremities of the stole, above this is the chasuble, and about 
the neck is worn the amice. The pastoral staff is gone, but 
a book is held in the left hand. Over the head is a canopy, 
consisting of a pointed trefoil, enriched above with Early 
English foliage stilHy designed, and much abraded, perhaps 
from violence. This monument is, I thiidv, of a later date 
than the four previously described ; the workmanship is 
better and of a more advanced period in art. There is also 
a greater attempt at freedom in the arrangement of the 
drapery. Gough assigns this monument, as he has desciibed 
another, to j\fa)-tin de \^ecti, who died in 115.3; I should, 
however, consider it to be that of Abbot Richard de London, 
who died in 120.5, at the advanced age of 82 years. This 
woultl a(,'cord not only with the architectural details of the 
t'-iiib and style of the sculptured foli.age, but also with the 
lace of the eiligy, which is tliat of an agod man.^ 

These efliL^ics diiVcr from eai-ly episcopal S('i)ulcliial cfligics 
ill tliat til'' I.I tier are gfuei-ally rej)resented with the right 
liand iij)iais<'d, with certain of the fingers extended, in tlic 
act of Ijcncdiction, wiiich is not the^ case with any one of 

' Since tlii« p(»i)cr wan, I liuvc (('Hiii wils nn oblong ]>ioco of Icini four 

(Uiccrtiiiiiccl that tliJH iiioniinieiit. witliin inciioH l(>i)|{, witli tlio wiinls Aiiiiah 

whi'-h iH a Ntoiie oofliii contiiinin^ the Ai.kxand' inHcrihed upon it. Thiti 

r«Hi!iiiiH of iiij ttbhut, wiw nniovr.l to itrt iihJMit Alexiiii'lfr <lii-<l in \'1'2C. Tho 

1>rf»«»t podition in tin; yciir 1<').''.0, wIhmi <lill'<Tcnco of dufc, murly novonty yciWH, 

t wa* diifcovcrutl on tho north niiio of mIiowh how fur I wiw wrong in my uou- 

tlio choir. Willi the rcuiainH in tho jccturul ancripliuu. 


these, and also in the absence of the mitre, tlie Avearing of 
which had not as yet been granted to the abbot of this 
monastery. But these form perhaps tlie most interesting 
series of recumbent effigies of ecclesiastics of aljbatical rank 
anywhere to be found in this country. 

The sixth and last of the sepulchral effigies of the abbots 
is that placed on the floor of the south aisle of the choir, 
near the east end, but on the north side of the aisle. It lias 
evidently been removed thither from the place it originally 
occupied, and was formerly, probably, elevated on a raised 
tomb. It is much mutilated, far more so than the earlier 
effigies I have noticed, from the matei'ial being of clunch or 
chalk stone, not of marble. It is also undoubtedly of a nmch 
later period than the other effigies. The abbot, here repre- 
sented in a recumbent position, appears vested in the alb 
with its apparels, tunic, dalmatic, stole, and chasuble, with 
the amice about the neck ; and on the head is w^orn, though 
now much mutilated, the mitre, mitra prdiosa. The head 
reposes on a double cushion supported by two angels, which 
are much defaced. There is no appearance of any j^astoral 

This effigy is neither engraved by Gough nor assigned to 
any particular abbot, but as it is that of a mitred abbot, 
there are only tw^o to wdiom it can be ascribed. William 
Genge, the 40th abbot, elected in 139G, is said by Gunton to 
have been the fii-st mitred abbot of this monastery. The 
same wTiter states, that this abbot had a brass for his mo- 
nument. This disappeared in the general devastation by the 
parhamentary troops in 1643. John Deeping, the 41st 
abbot, elected in 1408, had also, as Gunton informs us, a 
brass for his monument, which fared as the former in 1643. 
Richard Ashton, the 42nd abbot, surrendered his office in 
1471. William Ramsey, the 43rd abbot, was elected in 
1471, and having been abbot for 25 ^^ears died, and was 
buried at the upper end of the body of the church, " under 
(says Gunton) a fair marble which of late was plentifully 
adorned with brass, but disrobed thereof with the rest." 

Robert Kirton, the 44th abbot, elected in 1496, built 
much, says Gunton, especially "that goodly building at the 
east end of the church." " He also set up the gate leading 
to the deanry, which is yet standing, and retaineth the 
memory of the builder in his hieroglyphick of a crosier with 


tlie letter K, and a chiiirh or kirk })k\ced upon a tun, Avliich 
iiuist be construed with the aUusion thus, Abbot Robert 
lurk Tun, and so Kir-ton." Thus far Gunton, and when, as 
that Avritor informs us, he, Robert Kirton, had been abbot 
32 3'ears (that is in 1528), he was buried in the Lady Chapel 
or Cha)>el of St. !^^ary, now demolished, which he had con- 
tributed to beautify. " His moiuunent was in the year 1G51 
levelled with the ground, above which it was erected some 
four foot and placed upon an hollow arch, whei-e his body 
lav, and at the head thereof was a fair stone lying even with 
the pavement, which covered a pair of stairs going down into 
the sepulchre." 

To Abbot Robert Kirton, then, the last who died abbot of 
this monastery, 1 am inclined to assign this cflSgy, evidently 
removed from a tomb in some other part of the church. 

I must not omit to state, however, that John Chambers, 
the 45th and last abbot, elected in 1528, was in 1541 nomi- 
nated and consecrated the first bishop of this now Cathedral 
church. He continued bishop about the space of 15 years, 
to the year 1556, and he had, Gunton tells us, two monu- 
ments in the church, one "made of white chalk stone with 
his statue excellently carved lying on the top, which was 
demolished in 1 (M:3." Some may tliink tliat this eftigy 
represented liisliop Chambers, but I am inclined to attiibute 
it to Abbot Kirton. The style of workmanship is i-ather 
that of his period than of his successor, in whose time, at least 
during the reign of Edward the Sixth, a change had occurred 
in the episcopal vestments, and, although in the reign of 
^lary tli(.' old ecclesiastical habits had been reverted to, he 
wo\iid ])robably have been ivju'escnted, like Bishop Goldwell 
at Norwich, in the coj)e rather than the chasuble. I also 
doubt whether this bisho}) had two nionunienls in this church, 
as state<l by Gunton. 

The only nKHiumcnt of a bishop worthy of notice appears 
to have been thai ol' Uislmp l)(i\c, who died in 1G30, and 
was buried in tlienoilh transcjjt. (iunton states that "over 
liis body was ei'ected a vei'V comely monument of a long 
<piadrangular form, having foni- coiner jiilastcrs sup])orting a 
fair table of black marble, ami, within, llie pourhaiture of the 
bisiiop lying in his ('pi,scoj)al haliit." That would consist of 
the rochet with the chiinere worn over it. Hut (liis nioim- 
ijient was, in the yar !'! I."., le\eled with (lie L'roun<l. 


111 the same year all the iiih-iid effigies of brass of persons 
of any distinction, buried Aivithin this church, including 
those of the abbots Gengc, Deeping, and Ramsey, were torn 
a^Yay from the slabs by the parliamentary troops. Some of 
the sepulchral slabs, thus despoiled, may yet be seen forming 
part of the pavement in the vestibule or porch at the west 
end of the Cathedral. From the matrices of these, one ap- 
pears to have borne a cross fleury, with a shield on the 
middle of the stem ; another bore the effigy of a person in the 
habit of a layman, with his wife, being apparently of the 
fifteenth century ; a third bore the effigy of a knight or 
esquire clad in armour, with his wife, of the latter part of 
the fifteenth century, and a fourth, that of a layman and his 
wife, with a group of children beneath them. 

I can find only one sculptured monument, worthy of notice, 
placed in the Cathedral since the devastation committed 
in the middle of the seventeenth century. This is the 
monument, in the retro-choir, of Thomas Deacon, Esquire, 
some time sherift' of the county of Northampton, who died 
in 1721, aged 70 years. This consists of a high tomb 
of white and variegated marble of common-place design, 
having an inscribed tablet, and surmounted by a divided 
segmental pediment springing from fluted pilasters of the 
Corinthian order. Between the two portions of the pedi- 
ment is an escutcheon, and on each portion is an urn. 
Above the inscribed tablet are heads of cherubs, issuing 
from clouds on marble representing drapery. 

On the tomb thus described is the sculptured effigy, in 
white marble, of Thomas Deacon. He is represented as 
reclining on his left side, his left elbow being supported by a 
cushion, and his left hand resting on a skull ; his right arm 
and hand are stretched out. He appears habited in the 
costume of his time ; on his head is a long flowing wig, a 
falling cravat is tied about his neck, and he wears a single- 
breasted coat. A mass of loose drapery envelopes the lower 
limbs down to the feet, on which are high-heeled square-toed 
shoes. This effigy is fairly executed : it is one of a class of 
monumental effigies not uncommon in the early part of the 
eighteenth century, in which the ordinary costume of the 
day is adhered to, whilst in some of the monumental effigies 
then executed the persons commemorated are represented in 
the costume of Roman warriors, or in an imaginary garb. 



On this monument tlio sculptor has recorded his name, — 
" liobertus Taylor, civis Londincnsis, fecit ct cxculpsit." 

It may appear strange that I have not noticed earlier the 
ridged and sculptured monument in the retro-choir, the most 
remarkable relic of ancient sculpture, doubtless, now to be 
seen in reterborough Cathedral. It measures 3 ft. G in. in 
length, 2 ft. 4 in. in height, and 12 inches in Avidtli; it is plain 
at both ends, but tlic sides are covered with arcades of six 
arches each, beneath which are figures sculptured in relief, 
twelve in all, with a ninib round the head of each. Whether 
this relic is sepulchral or otherwise is a question for con- 

The Saxon Chronicle states, sii^^ a. d. 870, "This year 
the army '' (/. c. the heathen army or that of the Danes) "rode 
across ^fercia into East Anglia, and took up their winter 
quarters at Thetford, and the same winter King Edmund 
fought against them, and the Danes got the victory and slew 
the king, and subdued all the land, and destro3'ed all the 
minsters which the}'' came to. The names of their chiefs 
who slew the king were Hingwair and Ilubba. At that time 
they came to ]\redeshamstedc, and burnt and beat it down, 
slew abbat and monks, and all that they found there. And 
that place which before Mas full rich they reduced to 

In the work known as the History of Ingulf, said to have 
been written by Ingulf, abbot of Croyland, who died a.d. 
1100, a longer and more pai'ticular accomit is given of tlie 
destruction by the Danes in 870 of the church and monastery 
of ]\Iedeshamsted, Avhen " the venerable father, lord Ilcdda, 
the abbot, as well as all his monks, and the whole of their 
countrymen, were put to the sword." The writer of tin's 
work, whoever he was, then goes on to infoini us that 
"Godric, abbot of Croyland, which monastery had also been 
<Ievastated, went to Mcdeshamsted to commit to Christian 
burial tlio of tlie abbot Iledda and his l)rethren, 
wliich were still lying \nd)Ui'ied, and, after all the corpses of 
the monks of the said monastei'y h:u\ with great labour been 
carried into the midst of the cemetery of the said monastery, 
lie bin"icd them there over against that which Avas formerly 
the cast front of the clnu'ch, in one very lai-ge tomb prepared 
for the purpose, on the festival of tlio virgin St. Cecilia. 
Over the ijody of tlie abbot, ulio lay in (lie centre of liis 


sons, Godric placed a joyramidal stone, three feet in height, 
three in length, and one in breadth, having the images of 
the abbot with his monks standing round engraved upon it. 
This, in memory of the monastery which had been destroyed, 
he commanded thenceforth to be called Medcshamstead, and 
every year, so long as he lived, he paid a visit to the place, 
and, pitching his tent over the stone, he, with a constant 
devotion for two days, celebrated mass for the souls of those 
who were buried there." 

This account would seem to be a decided answer to any 
question as to the appropriation of this ancient scul])ture, 
but the authenticity of the History of the pseudo Ingulf, as 
to its having been the work of Abbot Ingulf, or indeed of 
his period, that is of the latter part of the eleventh and early 
part of the twelfth century, has been much questioned. No 
early MS. of this history is known to exist, and the not 
unreasonable supposition has been advanced, that it is a 
production of the fourteenth century, a work of fiction rather 
than an history. 

On carefully examining this sculptured stone w^e can 
hardly attribute the date of its execution to so early a period 
as the History of the pseudo Ingulf would, if true, lead us to 
assign to it. ]\Iy own opinion is that it is at least two 
centuries later than the time, a.d. 870, at which the abbot 
and monks are said to have been massacred. For I think 
that the sculpture and details are of a far more advanced 
period, not executed hastily, but with care, and that the 
ligures on the sides do not represent monks, but Our Lord 
and eleven of the Apostles. The sculptured work rather 
ao-rees with that on the curious Norman monument in 
Wirksworth church, Derbyshire, and that at Conisborough 
church, Yorkshire, figured in this Journal, vol. I., p. 354, 
than with the ruder Saxon monuments at Dcwsbury, York- 
shire (with which this has been compared) ; Ileysham in 
Lancashire, and Hexham in Northumberland ; or with a 
monument discovered in the foundations of the old church 
of St. Alkmund at Derby, when it was demolished prepa- 
ratory to the erection of a new church. 

I may observe that in the spandrels formed by the arches 
of the arcades on the sides of this ancient sculpture is a 
double foliation issuing from a stem. We hardly look for 
this carefully worked detail in Anglo-Saxon sculpture. The 


ridge or roof is divided on each side into fonr compartments 
containing interlaced knot-work much abraded on the sur- 
face, as it" from exposure to the weather. There is a \Yood- 
cut of this monument in Britten's Picturesque Antiquities of 
the Enghsli Cities, p. 22. See also Carter's Ancient Sculp- 
ture and Painting, second edit, pi. xliv,, p. 108. 

Dismissing then the account of the pseudo Ingulf, to what 
period may we assign this work, and to what purpose was 
it appi'opriated ? With deference to the opinion of others, I 
am inclined to assign the date of this interesting sculpture to 
the close of the eleventh or to the early part of the twelfth 
century, and I would moreover suggest that it was not what we 
generally understand to be a mere sepulchral memorial, but 
that it Mas, or formed part of, some ancient Norman shrine. 
Now Gunton tells us that in the time of Elsinus, the tenth 
abbot, who died a.d. 1055, having been elected fifty years 
before, the bodies of St. Kyneburga and St. Kyneswitha 
were translated from the church of Castre, and the body 
of St. Tibba from Rihale, to Peterborough. The pseudo 
Ingulf speaks of them indeed as being there, and trampled 
under foot in the devastation committed by the ])anes, 
A.D. 870. 

The abbot Elsinus is said also to have eni-iched this 
monastery with a large number of relics, of which Gunton 
gives us the enumeration. (Hist, of Peterb. p. 13). Over 
some or all of these it is not improbable that this sculptured 
rnomnncnt may have been placed. 

1 would not be too positive on the matter ; the antiquity 
and original destination of this stone may be leit to iurther 
investigation. I shouM, however, mention that at Elettou 
church, about a mile fioni I'eterborough, inserted in tho 
wall of the Norman chancel, are two sculi)tured bas-reliefs 
of single figures with nind»s round the licads, and somo 
interlaced knot-work wiih ollior sculpturtNl details, precisely 
.similar to, and executed I ha\c no doubt by the s:inie 
haml as, tiiis sculptured rchc al reterborouLih. 

Thus far of the monuments in tlie C,;ithe(hal, whieh contains 
wo aichitectural or sculptured sepulchral menioiial ol' eillier 
of tljo two (Queens, Catherine of Aragoii, and Mary Stuai't, 
(^ueen of Scots, or ol" either of the Archbislio|>s of ^'ork, 
KUVicus and Kynsius, who ilicil in I In- middle of the eleventh 
contiirv, and were buiit-d ;U relrrhoi-oujli. 


In a niche of the gateway of the bishop's palace, south- 
west of the Cathedral, is the statue of a monk in the costume 
of the Benedictine order, well worthy of attention, for all the 
effigies of the abbots which I have noticed above, represent 
them as vested for the mass, not in monastic costume. This 
effigy, which was probabl}' intended to represent the founder 
of the order, St. Benedict, ajopears in a long loose garment 
with the caputium or hood partly drawn over the head. As 
a specimen of sculpture of the thirteenth century, it is treated 
with great simplicity and breadth. It is noticed in Flax- 
man's lectures on sculpture, where an engraving of it appears. 
A cast of it is in the Crystal Palace at S^'^denham : why it 
should there bear the name of St. Luke I know not. 

It is remarkable that very few sepulchral effigies in mo- 
nastic costume exist in our churches. Those few are mostly 
Avell known. They consist of the recumbent effigy of a 
Benedictine in Hexham church, Northumberland ; the recum- 
bent effigy of, as I conceive it to be, a monk of the Cistercian 
order, at Orton-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire ; and the recum- 
bent effigy of an abbess of the Benedictine order, in Poles- 
worth church, Warwickshire. The recumbent effigy of a 
knight with a friar's weed, that of a Franciscan, the cappa 
manicata, girt with a knotted cord, and worn over a hooded 
hawberk of mail, may be seen in Conington church, Hunting- 
donshire, and has been described in the Archtcological Jour- 
nal, vol. v., p. 146, where also mention is made of an incised 
brass in Sawtry All Saints church, Huntingdonshire, near 
Conington, where the dcmi-figure of a friar is represented in 
the cappa manicata or sleeved garment, with the caputium 
or hood drawn over the head, and holding in the hands a whip 
wutli knotted cords. In Standish church, Lancashire, is 
said to be an effigy in the garb of a Fi-anciscan, of late date. 
These, with the brass of an abbess in Elstow church, Bedford- 
shire, represented in a long gown with wide sleeves, mantle, 
veil, and wimple or gorget, and that of Agnes Jordan, abbess 
of Syon, in Denham church, Bucks, are (exclusive of minor 
effigies on the sides of tombs) all that I recall in simple 
monastic costume, the sepulchral effigies of abbots and 
priors, of Avhich there are several, being sculptured in the 
mass vestments. 


In the investigation of usages and manners in olden times, 
and of details of daily life -wliicli, however apparently trivial, 
ma}' contribute in no slight degree to illustrate the feeling 
and spirit of the age, our readers must have had occasion to 
observe the elaborate variety, the quaint designs, the curiously 
mingled character of the personal appliances and decorations 
of the sixteenth century. Many relics of earlier mediaeval 
taste have been preserved, in Avhicli "sve cannot fail to admire 
a very high degree of artistic perfection, — for example in 
metal-work, in enamels, and in sculptures in ivory or wood. 
Amongst productions of a later time, however, in the Tudor 
Period, or the Elizabethan, \vhen the tasteful influence of 
the cinque-cento period had become diffused even to the 
remote countries of Europe, numerous highly interesting 
objects are to be found, more especially interestirig Avhen 
they may be associated with names of personages dis- 
tinguished in the eventful history of the times. 

JJuring the reign of Henry VIII. a taste for costly objects 
of luxury, personal ornaments, sumptuous costume, curious 
plate or jewelry, with numerous other precious accessories 
of daily life, became raj»idly developed. It continued in a 
remarkable degree, during the prosperity and the exteiulcd 
intercourse with distant lands, which accompanied the sway 
of Ehzabeth. Tlie precious oljects of these periods, whicli 
have been preserved to our times, are comparatively few, 
but chronicles ainl inventories sujiply abundant evidence of 
tlieir costly variety, miequaled ])eihaps in any subsequent 
reign. The curious lists of gifts j)resented by the courtiers 
of tiio Maiden (^uccn, at the commencement of each New 
Year, and also of the marks of royal favor bestowed by her 
in return, may be cited as illustrating, in a very remarkable 
degree, the ai"ls .ind m.-mncis of llu' .'igc. 




Jeweled Ornament presented to Queen Elizateth "by IvTatthe-w Parker, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

(Original size.) 


It is obvious that we can rarely expect to meet with costly 
ornaments, — objects of small dimension and considerable 
intrinsic value, even of times comparatively so recent as the 
sixteenth century, preserved in their intact originality. The 
relic, therefore, which is the subject of the present notice, 
must be regarded with no slight interest, having unquestion- 
ably been in the possession of Elizabeth, from whose times it 
has happily been handed down, apparently without change 
or injur}^ This remarkable personal ornament, exemplifying 
in a sti'iking degree the peculiar and quaint sentiment of the 
age, lias been preserved at Hardwicke Court, Gloucestershire, 
the residence of T. Lloyd Barwick Baker, Esq. It is not pre- 
cisely known at what period, or by what means, it came into 
the possession of his family. It was sent amongst objects of 
value liberally contributed to the Temporary Museum formed 
during the meeting of the Institute at Gloucester, in July, 
1860, and it has been briefly noticed in the Catalogue of 
that collection.^ By the kindness of Mrs. Barwick Baker, I 
have now been permitted to place before our readers the 
accompanying representations of this unique Elizabethan 

The ornament under consideration, specially deserving of 
notice as having been presented to the Queen by Matthew 
Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, is an oval pendant, 
formed of an intaglio on jasper agate, set in a slight 
corded rim of metal, to which is attached a loop for sus- 
pension, so that the gem might conveniently be worn on the 
neck, appended by a riband or a chain. The gem is convex 
on both sides, as shown in the profile view (see woodcuts, of 
the same dimensions as the original), one side only beino- 
engraved. The subject is Vulcan seated at his anvil, and 
engaged in fashioning a helmet ; in the background is seen 
Venus standing ; in front of the goddess is Cupid holding a 
torch, towards which she extends one of her hands, and in 
the other, upraised, she holds the bow and quiver which she 
appears to have taken away from the God of Love. This 
intaglio is of cinque-cento work ; the design is, however, 
possibly taken from an antique gem. The subject has been 
frequentl}' repeated, with some slight variations, and it has 

' Gloucester and Gloucestershire An- &c. Gloucester, Lea, Westgate Street, 
tiquities; a Catalogue of tbe Museum, p. 28. 



been explained as representing Venus obtaining from Vulcan 
armour for ^Encas. 

A remarkable example of this subject occurs in tlie Arundel 
Collection, liberally submitted to our examination by the Duke 
of !Marlborougii in June, 1861. This is described by Mr. King, 
in his notices of the collections then exhibited, as an unique 
Asiatic-Greek intaglio, in a very bold style, on a large yellow 
crystal ; Venus in this instance is ^^■inged and androgynous, 
possibly the deity so represented under the masculine appel- 
lation of Aphroditus. Vulcan appears at his anvil on one 
side, on the other is seen Cupid.^ 

Mariette has engraved an intaglio with the same subject, 
on red jasper, in the celebrated " Cabinet du Roi ; " the 
group in that instance is differently treated, Venus is seated, 
and the figure of Cupid is concealed behind the anvil.^ 
Several other examples might be cited ; it was a favorite 
subject amongst the artists of the cinque-cento and sei-cento 
periods. It occurs likewise upon a Majolica ])late in the 
choice Collection formed by Mr. Henderson ; this specimen 
of Italian pottery bears the date 1538 on the reverse. 

I am indebted to the kindness of our accomplished guide 
in the difficult study of Anticpie Gems, Mr. King,* for the 
following observations on the remarkable example of art 
now for the first time published: — "Little can be ascer- 
tained as to the date and subject of this noble intaglio. 
The design is purely in the taste of the cinque-cento, for in 
the antique it is Minerva, not Venus, who assists Vulcan 
with her advice in the operations of his forge, a partnership 
of which Stosch's Catalogue gives four exanq)les, whilst of 
this group he has not one, for his No. GOT, where the centre 
group is somewhat similar, except that here Cuj)id blows the 
fire, has all the other gods assembled arnuml ; and, from the 
remark of Winckelman as to its large size, it is probably a 
renaissance work, lience it seems apparent that there can 
be no antifpie prototype for the intaglio in ((ucstion. Thdi'e 

' S«o Mr. King'« Notices of Colloctions iiio-.t vulimblo inaimnl, \>y wliidi tlio iu- 

of Oljiilio Art, io thw voluuio, ante, p. vi!Hiiniili<>n of (jl_v|itic Art Iuim n-ofivoil a 

107. froHli iiii|iiilHO. HJH work, .\iiti(iiu' Oi'tiix, 

* Marii^tto, Trnit<5 doH PierroB Orav«<eii, tiitir Origin, Uhbh, and Valiio an Iiuit- 
iotnc- li, ]il 21. S<!V<Tiil othiT j;<!iiiH witli jirc-tcrM of Aticioiit lliMtory (lyondoti, 
tliiM Mul>j<-(:t, Viiriidinly tri-ulrd, iiro do- Murruy, l.'^Od, 8vu.) riiiikH uiiiongKt tlio 
Mc-ribed in ItiMpu'it C'utulogue of TiuMtiuH tnohl irii|iortniit uccesaiutia to our urcLio- 
CMtii. vol. L p. Wi. ologicul lituniture. 

♦ W« aro iiidvbtod to Mr. King for a 


can be little doubt tliat Vulcan is supposed to be at work on 
the arms of iEneas (in fact he has a helmet upon the anvil), 
for Virgil or Ovid exclusively furnished subjects to those 
early Italian engravers, when not employed upon Scriptural 
pieces. It is, however, difficult to imagine on what errand 
Venus is despatching Cupid with the flaming torch, or what 
bearing it is intended to have upon the main design. The 
treatment of the body of Vulcan reminds me much of a 
Hercules of the same period, and of some of the signed 
works of Giovanni del Castel Bolognese. The great masters 
of this period, the first half of the sixteenth century, gene- 
rally signed, or at least put their initials upon their more 
important Avorks, and it would be an unw^arranted assump- 
tion to assign this gem to that skilful artist merely on the 
evidence of the style, which doubtless was to a great extent 
common to all the good intagli of that epoch," 

The opinion of so distinguished an authority in questions 
of gl3'ptic art is decisive as regards the period to which the 
intaglio preserved at Hardwicke Court should be assigned, 
and the school of art in which it was produced ; I may, 
however, add that my friend Mr. Rhodes, the tasteful pos- 
sessor of the Praun Collection,'^ concurs with Mr, King, and 
observes that the subject may be Venus restraining Cupid 
from carrying out some mischievous project, laying her hand 
upon him and depriving him of his arms, wdiilst Vulcan is 
busily engaged in his vocation. It is possibly taken (as 
suggested by Mr. Rhodes) from Lucian's Di;ilogue between 
Venus and Diana, Avhere Venus tells Diana that more than 
once she had threatened to break Cupid's bow, and to 
chasten him for his tricks. 

I will now, however, proceed to notice the very curious 
accessories by which the gift of the Primate to Queen Eliza- 
beth is accompanied. It has been preserved in a beautiful 
ivory box, supposed to be of English workmanship, and 
doubtless the original receptacle in which this singular token 
of the Archbishop's homage was oflered to his sovei'cign. 
Upon the hd of this box, an exquisite masterpiece of skill in 
turning, is an expanded rose, the delicate deeply-cut petals of 

* See a short notice of the Praun, or informs me that he possessed a cameo 

Merteus-Schaaf haiisun Collection, in this the subject of which was nearly the same 

Journal, vol. xviii. p. 302, and also ia Mr. as that of Mr. Barwick Baker's gem, but 

King's Antique Goms, p. liii. Mr. Rhodes that he does not know any rej^lica of it. 



Trhicli, closely resembling the natural forms, are produced 
by the lathe alone. On the bottom of the box is wrought 
another rose in much less prominent relief; the box itself 
being admirably fashioned by the lathe so as to represent 
open basket-work, finished with most perfect precision. It 
measures, externally, about 2 inches in diameter. Within, 
accompanying the jicndant ornament, there is a piece of fine 
parchment, consisting of nine circles, a small portion of the 
parchment being left between the circles, so that the whole 
may be folded up, fitting exactly into the box. Upon these 
circles, the arrangement of which is shown by the annexed 
diairram on a reduced scale, the diameter of each circle in 
the original being about if in., are inscriptions explanatory 
of the virtues of the gift, wliicli was manifestly regarded as 

cnduoil wiiji certain taH.snianic or ])liylacU'ii(' itropciMics ; 
a miniature figure of St. George within a garter is painted 
on tin,' central circle, .'iml, on tliat iuiin('(h'a((ly licncath. 


is seen pourtrayed an exquisite little miniature of the Queen 
in profile to the left. 

The insci'iptions are admirable specimens of calligrnphy, 
the writing being moreover curiously varied in the different 
circles. The arrangement is as follows. Upon the three 
upper circles (Nos. 1, 2, 3, in the diagram) are these words, 
Flinuis — De Acathe — Dioscorides, respectively. In these 
circles is written a curious account of the stone called acathe, 
the localities wdience it is derived, and the propei'ties 
ascribed to it by Pliny, Isidore, and Dioscorides. This 
account, which is in French, as follows, commences imme- 
diately under the heading Plinius, in circle No. 1. 

Acathe est une rierre noire, qui a en soy blanches veines. Et est 
appelle Acatlie pource quelle fut primier trouuee en vne riuiere de Ceeile 
qui est nommee Acathe, si conime (lit Isidore. Mais on la trouue niainte- 
nant en plusieurs autres Regions si comme est lisle de Crete ou on le3 
trouue ct ont couleur de fer. Et en Inde ou elles ont plusieurs cou- (here 
the writing is carried on to circle No. 2) leurs, et si ont goutes rouges 
parmy ainsi coninie de sang. Le primiere de ces pierres vault aux en- 
chaunteurs qui usent de niauuaise art car per {sic) ceste pierre ils csnieuuent 
les tempestcs et arrestent les riuieres, si comme dit Dioscorides, et si 
vault a entendre les choses que on voit en songes. Les Acathes (here 
carried on to circle No. 3) de Crete valent a escheuer les peryles et font la 
personne qui la porte agreable, et plaisante, et bien parlante, et si lui 
donne force, ct celles qui sont trouuees en Inde comfortent a la veue, et 
ostentla soif et valent centre le venin, et quand on la met au feu elle donne 
moult bonne odeur, si comme dit Dioscorides. 

Many of the magical and medicinal virtues attributed to 
the agate in ancient times, as here detailed, are to be found 
in Pliny's Natural History, from which they have been 
copied by old writers.^ In circles Nos. 4, 6, 7, and 9, we 
find the following inscriptions, partly citations, somewhat 
modified, of Pliny's own words : 

(Circle No. 4.) Achates giittis aurcis sapphiri modo distincta quails 
copiossissima in Creta sacra appellatur. Putant earn contra araneoruui et 
Scorpionimi ictus prodesse. Spectasse etiam prodest oculis, sitiinque sedat. 

(Circle No. 6.) Maximum in rebus liumanis inter gcmmas protiuin liabet 
Adamas, et eidem inter genimas primum locum authoritatis altril)uit Plinius. 
Martialis post Adamantcm ponit Achate m, sub specie albi coluris, et hoc 
quia licet sit lapis niger niaxime tamen quidam probaut si haboat viueani 

^ Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. xxxvii. c. 10; sape relating to Acbate;?, s. 2. 
Dr. Holland's Translation, vol. ii. p. 623. " Compare Pliny, ibid, c. i, Holland's 

See also Marbodei de gemmis, in tlie pas- Translation, p. 609. 


(Circle No. 7.) TiiAHiTrii Achates a groca voce (t\of ./. ciira aninii, 
aceibitas, sidlicitiulo, qiUHl sollicitmlo (teste Servio) semper reguiu sit 
comes. Fuit etiani pnipiium nomen tiilelis comitis ^Euea?.'* 

(Ciiele No. 9.) Iiisignem Acliatem Pyrrus Kpirotaruin Rex qui versus 
Romaiios bellum gessit liabuisse traciitur, in qua nouom musa) et Apollo 
ciilianiin teiiens spectaltatur, noii arte setl nature solertia, ita discurreutibiis 
luaculis ut musis quuque singulis sua rcdilerentur insignia.'^ 

I now proceed to tlio most interesting features of this 
curious relic, namely the illuminated miniature portrait of 
Queen Elizabeth, introduced in the lower circle, No. 8, and 
the figure of St. George, in the central circle. No. 5, accom- 
panied by an inscription showing that the precious gift had 
been presented to that Queen by the Primate, Matthew 
Pai-ker. The portrait, a diminutive oval medallion painted 
in blue (jvhaille, represents Elizabeth, a}))»arcntly in early 
life, seen in profile to the left ; around this miniature are 
the following inscriptions, in three concentric circles, com- 
mencing at the tup of the circle, h Avdiens satiens 


"which is drawn a dexter hand, the forefinger pointing to the 
following word, commencing the third and interior circle of 
this inscription, hNuN hahet iiic stabiles inviolata 


On the central circle (No. .j) there is a delicate limning, 
St. George, colored in (jrhaillc on a blight blue ground, 
within tlie garter inscribed with the usual motto. Around 
the margin of the circle is the following distich, — 

-I-Regni UX05 Ei>izai5i:tiia gerit o^I.vttilevs aciiaten 


which may be thus rendei-ctl, — l^liz.'d)cth boars the cares of 
the state : Matthew (Archl)isliop) ol" Ganterbm-y, her i'aitlil'ul 
Achates so long as life may cnduri.', presents to her this 
agate. The (piaint play on the words A<-//ti/r.s\ the precious 
stone, and Achates, the name of the laiihliil follower of 
JEudiH, is sufiiciently obvious. No one, 1 apprehend, can 
question the probaliilit}' of the conclusion that the beautifid 

" Tlio oliHcrvatioii of Sorviim, vKii. I. Greek, iw (<iveii above. 

▼ . 17h, .'}!*!, r<luit;H, not to tbu MlonccMllcd " I'liiiy, ut tiiimi, c. i. Ilollaml, p. COL 

Acl)alvH, )>ut to tlio iiiiriio of tlio com- ' Provurbn, cb. i. v. 0, 
pAuiou of yKiii.-nfi, no ciillud from tbo 


pendant ornament or talisman, accompanied by the exquisite 
relic of calligraphy explanatory of the virtues of the gift, and 
recording the homage of the giver, was presented to the 
Virgin Queen by the learned prelate on one of the frequent 
occasions when he was honored with a royal visitation. 

I regret that hitherto I have been unable to ascertain at 
■what special season the agate now preserved at Hardwicke 
Court, without any tradition of its previous history, may 
have been received by Elizabeth. Several lists have been 
found of the costly New Year's gifts of the courtiers, and 
of the valuable presents received from the Queen by them in 
return. One of these curious rolls was in Astle's possession, 
and may now exist with the Stowe M.SS. in Lord Ashburn- 
ham's library ; another was in the hands of Mr. Herrick, of 
Beaumanor, Leicestershire ; a third is amongst the Sloane 
MSS. From these records ample extracts have been given in 
Nichols' Progresses of EHzabcth, but I have failed to find the 
gift of this agate intaglio by Matthew Parker. His presents 
on occasion of the New Year were frequently in money. In 
the fourth year of her reign, he offered a red silk purse con- 
taining, in " dimy soveraigns," 40/. ; the Archbishop of York 
giving on the same occasion specie to the amount of 30/. ; 
each of the bishops 20/. or 10/., &c. The primate received in 
return a covered cup, gilt, weighing 40 oz. There were, 
however, many occasions on which, according to the custom 
of the period, such a gift as that under consideration may 
have been offered. In March, 1573, for instance, Elizabeth 
honored the Piimate with a visit at Lambeth, during tw^o 
days, and in September of the same year she conferred upon 
her " fidus Achates " the somewhat onerous distinction of a 
visit at Canterbury. Sir Henry Ellis has printed, in his 
valuable collection of Original Letters illustrative of Eno-- 
lish History, the Archbishop's letter to Bui-ghley, written 
in August of that 3'ear, in anxious anticipation of the 
royal favor.^ The thought had struck the good primate 
that he might make the Queen's visit subservient to the 
promotion of the Protestant religion. In a contemporary 
narrative, given in some copies of the Latin hfe of M. 
Parker, the following description is found of his sumptuous 
gift to the Queen at the banquet given on the occasion. — ■ 

- Ellis' Grig. Letters, Fir.-t Sorie--, vol. ii. p. 2o7. 


" Atqiie, pra3ter lioc mngnificiim ac siimptuosuin convivium, 
arcliicj)isc()pus insignia qua^dam dona lu'gina) dcdit, ea]s;iiium 
videlicet, ex auro affabre factum ; in ejus coopertorio achates 
gemma, divum Georgium draconcm tnicidantcm, cum Gallicis 
versibus in Regis insigniis consuetis, continens, intexitur ; in 
orl)e autem sive concavio cjusdem alter achates includebatur, 
in quo vera llegina? imago in albo achate incisa fuit, in 
coopertorii autem summo aurea navicula adaniantem ob- 
longum tenuit."^ However inappropi-iatc ^vc may now con- 
sider the intaglio of Venus and Vulcan, as a token of the 
homage of a grave and pious prelate to his sovereign, it 
must be remembered that at that period objects of such 
dcj^cription had recently, through the introduction of the arts 
from Italy and France, and the taste for the elaborate pro- 
ductions of antique or renaissance M'orkmanship, become 
highly esteemed and eagerly sought after. We find many 
such precious objects amongst royal gifts at this period. In 
1576, Lady Burghley presented to Elizabeth "a juell of 
golde, being an agathe of Neptune " set with lubys, dia- 
monds, and pearls. Mrs. Blanche Parry offered " a juell 
being a cristall in gold, \\\t\\ twoe storyes appcering on bothe 
sides," namely, as we may suppose, two subjects, being his- 
torical or allegorical devices, h\ 1578, Sir Henry Sydney, 
lord-Deputy of Ireland, presented a fair jewel of gold, with 
Diana, fully garnished with diamonds, rubys, and pearls. 
About the same time, in Christmas week, some of the 
courtiers, disguised as maskers, gave to the Queen " a flower 
of golde gainished with sparcks of diamonds, rubyes, and 
ophales, with an agathe of her Majestis phisnamy and a 
pcilc pendante, with devices painted in it." It is remark- 
able tiiat we so frequently iind the Queen's own portrait 
selected as an offering acceptable to lur ; in this last in- 
stance we might almost conjecture that amongst the dis- 
guised Cliristmas maskers nii^lit have been the bold as])irant 
for royal favor, the l*l;ni of Leicester ; and (hat the costly 
jeweled flower was eiiiiclied with that inestimable " phis- 
namy " of the (^ueen, tin; cameo-jiortrait attributed to Col- 
dore, which, hv tin; kindness (»f the Duke of Devonshire, the 

* Kicliolh' I'rogri-Hdt'n i)f F,li/,iil)oUi, vol. willi jjoMo witli a cover liiiviii^; in tli(> top 

i. p. 'i.'iO. Ill tliii IJHt of k>"h rcufivi-il a ({iilliu.iii t!:(i lai'ldlc lli'M-iM)f iH It l(i/.iiti^rc(l 

during I'rogn.'MH tirno in that year wn find (li.iiiion(l(!. Cioveii liy tli' Arclibiblioi) of 

•— " IUjDI, one Rault of ng'tli garniHlicd Ciiiiutcrbvric. xi i>v.. >jiia." 


members of the Institute had the gratification of inspecting 
at the exliibition of Glyptic Art in June, 1861. The "devices 
painted in it," according to the description above cited, may 
have included the concealed portrait of the Earl by Ililliard, 
still to be seen in that remarkable ornament of the diadem, 
part of the celebrated Granville parnrc. 

It was not oidy to win or to retain the smiles of the 
capricious Elizabeth, at the New Year or on other seasonable 
occasions, that such presents were offered by her courtiers 
at the shrine of royal favor. In a letter, singularly charac- 
teristic of the manners of the period, John Harrington, father 
of the celebrated Sir John Harrington, writing confidentially 
of a certain suit then pending for the recovery of an estate, 
says, " I will venture to give her Majesty five hundred 
pounds in money, and some pretty Jewell or garment as you 
shall advyse, onlie praying her Majestic to further my 
suite with some of her lernede Counsel." And he pro- 
ceeds to observe, " This some hold as a dangerous ad- 
venture, but five and twcntie manors do well warrant my 
trying it." ^ 

Allusion has been made to the medicinal or phylacteric 
virtues attributed to the agate, and also to other precious 
stones, and the belief in such efficacy was still rife in the 
sixteenth century. Stow relates that on an occasion when 
Elizabeth went to hear a sermon at Paul's Cross, she received 
a present of a " crapon or toadstone '' set in gold. This Avas 
a jewel held, according to popular credence, to which Sliaks- 
peare has made allusion, as of singular virtue ; we are in- 
formed that some toads that breed in Italy and about Naples 
have in their heads a stone called a crapo, formerly " much 
worn, and used in ringes, as the forewarning against venime."^ 
In a remai'kable portrait of Queen Elizabeth formerly in the 
late Lord Northwick's collection, and exhibited by the kind- 
ness of ]\rr. Graves in the Temporary Museum foi-med in 
18G1, during the meeting of the Institute at Peterborough, 
the Queen appears wearing a plain translucent oval gem, in 
form and dimensions precisely similar to that given to lier 
by Matthew Parker, and suspended by a small black riband 
round her neck. The setting is perfectly plain ; there is no 

* Progresses of Elizab. vol. ii. p. 261. also Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare, 
'" Bartholomaeus de propr. rerum ; see As You Like it, act ii. sc. i. 



appearance of intaglio work npon the stone, ^vllicll very 
})robably, its simple character being nuieli at variance Avith 
the splendor of her costume, was an object worn rather as 
an amulet supposed to possess certain physical virtues, than 
merely as an ornament. 

In concluding these notices of the interesting relic of the 
Elizabethan age kindly entrusted to us by Mrs. Barwick 
Baker, it may be observed, that although, from the great 
convexity of the surface on which the intaglio occurs, it is 
improbable that this gem was actually intended to be used 
for sealing, it may perhaps be properly classed with certain 
personal seals, of which numerous examples have fallen 
under our observation. Tlie sphragistic relics in question, 
used in ancient times in this country as secretn or privy 
seals, consist of antique or later intagli, mounted in 
media)val settings invariably formed, as in the case of 
^latthew Parker's gift to Elizabeth, with a loop for suspen- 
sion, so that they might conveniently be worn about the 
person. The settings are of silver, with the exception of 
one fine specimen found in Ireland, which is of gold ; they 
bear some motto or inscription, for the most part allusive to 
their being intended to serve as privy seals. {Several sccreta 
of this description have been noticed in this Journal,^ and 
impi-essions of a large series of examples have been figured 
by iMr. Uoach Smith m his Collectanea Antiqua.' It is well 
known that in mediaeval times various })hysical or phylac- 
teric propei'ties were ascribed to ancient gems ; a code or 
inventory of such qualities, as indicated by the various sub- 
jects engraved upon them, has been given by ^Ir. Tiiomas 
Wright in the Archieologia, from a MS. in the Ihitish 
^luscum.^ It is probable that antique gems mounted in 
inscribed rims or setting.'^ of metal as above described, with 
loops for suspension, may oi-iginally have been thus adapted 

* Sec Uio dcHCriiition of Bovcral sjieci- Frederick Mucltlon in Uiiri Juiiinal, vol. 

tnoi:R. Arch. Jonrn. vol. iii. p. 7*5. xi. ji. 20(3, Cluirlinmgno occiihiDimily 

'' Vol. iv. p. C'l ; Jourii. J»rit. Arcli. umcmI na a Bi:iil a gfin cngmvod wilii tlio 

Aw! vol. iii. p. 330, kc. It in Hcarcoly luml of Jiii>iter Sinipis, ami lVi>iii lo 

iiucdful to ri'iniiid tliono rcjuliTM wlio liri-f "h Hcal oxliihitH tlio Imliaii Huoi'liiiH. 

take iiitcrtht in KphraKiHtic art tliut the An inijirehhion of tlio Hcal of CliarlcH lo 

pr«tolypfH of tlio peculiar privy hcuIm in Grow, a. I). ><8l, xIicwh tlio in<lint of a 

(|U«nlion inny poxHJlily he KOUKlit in tlio littlu ring nt llio upper niai(;in for nua- 

>««U of tho Carlovin^ian and early ini- ]ienKi<>n ; tliiu cxaniplu iu not cnricLod 

periiil aerioii, diHplii)in^ anticpiu lienda witli a ){i'tn. 
nnd other md-j'-ct", aa dcKcribcd l>y Sir " Archojologia, vol. .xxx. p. 119. 


SO as to be -worn as amulets. Subsequently the intaglio tlius 
habitually used as a personal ornament may have been con- 
veniently employed as a secretum or counterseal. Amongst 
early examples of gems thus used in this country may be men- 
tioned one found on the obverse of impressions of the great 
seal of King John ; it is a small antique head with the legend 
+ SECRETVM lOHANNis.^ An earlier and remarkable illustra- 
tion of the use of the looped secretum is supplied in Mr. 
Laing's valuable Catalogue of Scottish Seals. This is the 
earliest seal of the Stuart family, namely, that of Walter 
Fitzalan, appended to one of the Melrose charters dated 
1170. The counterseal is an antique, a warrior leaning 
against a column, his horse prancing at his side.^ 

I have received from our friendly correspondent at 
Zurich, Dr. Ferdinand Keller, the President of the Society 
of Antiquaries in that city, a curious illustration of the 
class of objects under consideration. It is here figured from 
a drawing (of the same dimensions as the original) executed 
by Herr Gra3ter, to whose skilful pencil we have repeat- 
edly been indebted. It will be seen that this little object, 
which bears much general resemblance in form to the 
secreta so frequently occurring in this country, is adapted to 


be worn as a personal ornament or amulet, but, from its ex- 
tremely convex form, almost conical, it could scarcely serve as 
a seal. It is set -with a small green-colored gem, engraved 
probably with a lion, now indistinct. On the silver setting 

9 Figured in Sandford's Geneal. Hist. Lain?. 18;"0, p. 126, plate iii. A Supple- 

p. 55. A very curious example of the merit to this interesting volume is ready 

use of antique intagli on seals is given in for the press, when sufScient encourage- 

the notes on Upton de Stud. Mil. p. 68, meiit may have been obtained by Messrs. 

being the seal of Stephen Fitzhanion, on Edmonston, Edinburgh, by whom sub- 

which three small gems are introduced. scribers' names are received. 

' Catal. of Scottish Seals, by Houry 


is an inscription, ■which it will be observed is to be read 
from the outside ; this I presume was intended for Ira 
re(jia, etc., being the ])urport of part of the twelfth verse of 
Proverbs, c. xix., thus rendered in the Vulgate — "Sicut 
fremitus leonis ita et regis ira.' The legend may i^robably 
have been taken from an earlier version. 

It may be observed, in connexion with this singular httle or- 
nament, that the symbol of a lion appears to have been in much 
repute in mediaeval times ; some mysterious significance orphy- 
hicteric virtue, probably as a zodiacal sign, was ascribed to it 
whetlier used as a personal ornament, or as the device of a seal. 
In the curious "Livre Tccliel dcs philosophes et des Indois, 
dit estre des enfans d'Israel,"' from which we learn the reputed 
virtues and properties of precious stones, it is said — " en quel- 
(|ue maniere de pierre que tu trouveras cntaille a 1 ymaige du 
mouton, ou du Ij/on, ou du sagittaire, cllcs sont consacrces du 
signe du ciel. Elles sont tres vertueuses, car elles rendent 
I'omme amyable et graciculx a tons ; elles rcsistent aux fievres 
cothidianes, quartaines, et autres de froide nature. Elles gue- 
rissent les ydropiques ct les palatiques, et aguisent I'engin, 
et rendent beau pai'lcr, et font estre scur en tous lieux, et 
acroist honneur a celluy qui la porte, espccialement ryniagc 
du li/on."'^ The mystic notions relating to this animal may 
be seen in "Le Bestiaire Divin," edited by M. IIipj)eau in the 
Memoirs of the Anticpiaries of Normandy. An intaglio of a 
hon with liis paw on a bull's head occurs on <a looped seal 
foimd at Luddesdown, Kent ; the silver setting is thus in- 

Some mysterious import doubtless is also concealed under 
tlie strange device fre(jucntly found on small ])ersi)nal seals 
of the fourteenth century, a lion couching under a tree, with 
the legend — wake me no man. Occasionally we find this 
a.ssociated with a symbol of the Precursor, the ellicacy of 
whose intercession was most highly esteemed against epilepsy 
and (filler disorders. The head of St. John the Baptist in a 
cliarger, a very favoi-ite device, and doubtless jtliilacteric, 
occurs accompanied by that of the sleeping li(^n which 1 have 
dcHcriljed. According to me<iia'val lia(hliniis ihe king of the 
forests when asieej) n(;ver closed his eyes ; as stated in the 
Bestiaire — "quant il dort, li oil li veille." 

Ai.iu:i(T Way. 

' I^ I>npiiIairo on Finiicnin, par Momiiro liiiicy, livrn dcH L«>geiideH, cited by Mr. 
Jehan •!« Mamlovillo ; 800 L't Uemx d«» T. Wright , Archroologia, vol. xxx. i>. 45 1. 

©ricjiual Documents. 


The voluminous Roll of Accounts of the executors of Henry Bowet, 
Archbishop of York in tlie reigns of Henry IV. and Henry V., comprises a 
minute Inventory of the valuable effects in every department of his establish- 
ment, and shows, in a most striking manner, the princely state with which 
all the appointments of his household were ordered. This enumeration of 
costly possessions of every description presents a singular contrast to the 
liumility which marks the expressions of his will, made two years previously 
to his decease, with the directions that his funeral should be performed with 
the least possible pomp, consistent with decency.' The whole of this re- 
markable Computus, measuring many yards in length, and preserved at 
York in the Registry of the Dean and Chapter, well deserves to be printed. 
It is replete with illustrations of manners and customs, of language and 
local dialect ; the curious picture of domestic magnificence which it presents 
is fully in accordance with the stately order for the " Service to the Baron- 
bishop within the close of Yorke," preserved by Hearne.- 

Much interesting information regarding sacred usages might be gained 
from the long description of precious objects, under the head Capella. An 
item occurring in this section deserves mention. The executors accounted 
" pro pare de spectakeles de argento, et deaurat'," valued at twenty 
shillings. I am not aware that any earlier occurrence of the term has been 
noticed. Ducange cites various passages in ancient writers under the word 
BeriUus, — conspiciliwn, in French, beside, in which, however, it may be 
doubtful whether the optical appliances now designated spectacles were in- 
tended, or rather some object used in divination and mysterious arts. In 
the first Latin-English dictionary, — the Ortus Vocahuloriim, we find the 
word — " BcriUus, speculum presbyteriorum." Herman says, in his curious 
VuJgaria, 1519, " They that be hooke-noscd have this advantage, that 
theyr spectacles {conspiciUa) shall not lightly fal fro them." William Bee, 
clerk and brother of the priory of Mountgrace in Cleveland, bequeathed in 
1551 to the Prior of that house " two pare of Spektacles of syluer." — 
Wills and Inventories, Surtees Soc. Publ., part i., p. 136. 

The most curious portion, however, of the document, perhaps, is the in- 
ventory of the archiepiscopal Armory, occurring under the head Garderoha. 
Such detailed descriptions are of rare occurrence. 

It need not be regarded as surprising that such an assemblage of muni- 

1 It is dated Sept. 9, 1421, and was Surtees Society, Testam. Ebor. i. 399. 
proved Oct. 2(3, 1423. Piiuted by tlie - Lelaud's Coll. Append, vol. vi. p. 7. 


tions of war should have hccn fouml in tlio palace of the deecapcil prolate. 
It may be supposeil, iiuloeil, that many, if not the whole of tlie objects here 
enumerated, and described as inultuni dthilcs, may liave been banded down 
from the times of his predecessors in the sec, since they appear to be of 
tlie fashions of a period considerably prior to the reign of Henry IV., when 
Henry Bowet was translated, in October, 1407, from the see of Bath and 
Wells to that of York. 

The terms relating to armour and arms enumerated in the following ex- 
tract present points of interest to those who investigate the details of 
military costume ; and a few explanatory notes ma}' not be unacceptable. 
The first object in the list, a "jake detience," was a military garment, as 
we are informed by Mr. Hewitt in his useful Manual of Ancient Armour and 
Weapons in Europe (vol. i., p. liU), of four kinds ; viz., it was a quilted 
coat, or it was pourpointed of leather and canvas in many fohls, or it was 
formed of mail, or of small plates like brigandine armour. In the document 
before us it appears to have been of red camlet, and provided with three 
gilt straps, by which doubtless it was fastened at the back or side. I have 
collected numerous particulars in a note on the word — " jakke of defence" 
(jak of fence, in one MS.), in the Promptorium Parvulorum, p. 256, from 
which the nature of this garment may be understood. Occasionally it had 
a more costly covering ; in 1391, Margery, widow of Sir William de Alde- 
burgh, bequeaths to her son " unum jak defciicionis opertum nigro velveto." 
— Testam. Ebor. vol. i. p. 150. 

The articles next enuinerated consist of various defences of mail ; amongst 
these may particularly be noticed " qwysschewes," namely c//isscs, armour 
for the thighs ; also a "pauncc," with other objects described as " de 
mavle rotundo," of round mail. This appears to designate a distinct pecu- 
liarity in the form of the rings of which such defences were composed ; the 
rings may have been occcasionally of elliptical or other form. In the 
Inventory of the Armour of Louis X., King of France, in 131G, we find — 
'• uns pans et uns bras de roondes mailles de haute cloiieure : Item uns 
pans et uns bras d'acier plus fons do mailles rondos de haute cloiieure : — 
Item une couverture de mailles rondes demy cloees : Item une tcstiere do 
haute cloiieure de maille roiule." — See Ducange Gloss, r. Armatura. At 
an earlier period the legs and thighs had been protected wholly by chatisscs 
of interlaced mail, but, after the use of jacked leather or iron plate for the 
defence of the knees ami shins, chaussoiis or cinssots of mail were still 
retained for the thighs, which were occasionally encased in cuir bouilli or in 
metal plate. We find in the document under consideration a pair of 
** nnyHschewcs do plate, de antiipia fotiiui ; " and, amongst the armour of 
Kog(,T Mortimer, in I.'{31, occur three pair ** de quisseu.x de qnir boile." 
Kal. of the Exch., vol. iii., p. 105. These articles were sometimes of gam- 
boised work ; the list of armour of Louis X., before cited, includes ** un 
cuinniaux ganiboisez." Of this nature, probably, were the defences often 
ficen in nepulcbrnl brasses of the fourteenth century, representing the 
armour of the thighs as powdered with quatcefoils or small bezanty orna- 

We find mention of a small " jDiunce,' ' described as in feeble condition 

* Mr. Mnwitt mi^^'K'^Hf'' tl"kt tbo "iiaun- nrmotir thoy wore, tlio paunco or panznr. 
rcnam," in tlio Iloll of tlio Army iM-foio Auc. Armour, ii. VJiJ. 
(JftlaU In 1340, w«t<) ho rmtiH'd from tlio 


and valued only at 20(1. ; it was formed like the hauljcrk, aventaille, and 
other armour liere enumerated, of round mail. Tlie paunee Avas doubtless a 
defence for the abdomen ; called panzicra b}' the Italians, Panzer bv the 
(iermans ; — tlie armour for the panda, in French, panse, the paunch. — 
See Ducange v. Pancerea, Panseria, Panzeria, &,c. It was either of mail 
or of plate. In a French and Latin vocabulary with English glosses, 
Harl. MS. 229, f. 151, occur — " Peitryne, a brestplate. Pesse de mael, 
a paunee." So also in the Inventory of armour of Sir Simon Burley, 
beheaded 1388 (MS. in possession of Sir Thomas Pliillipps, at Middle Hill) 
occur — "j. pancher de mayl covere de drap noir : j. doublet blanc stuffe 
de un herbregone." Edward Duke of York, grandson of Edward III., be- 
queaths his " petite cote de maille ; le piece de ])late que Mons' seignour le 
l^ince ma donna apelle brest-plate ; le pance qe fuist a mon seignour mon 
piere, qe Dieu assoill." ISichols' Royal Wills, p. 221. This piece of armour, 
wlien formed of polisiied steel, was probably the " paunee de alwite " (white 
or bright ^) mentioned amongst the " armature de optimo " belonging to Wil- 
liam Bowes, a merchant of York, 1439. — Coll. Top., vol. ii.,p. 150. In a 
curious alliterative Poem, for which we are indebted to the editorial care of 
Sir Frederick Madden, Syr Gawayn, written about the time of Richard II., 
the following description occurs of the knight equipping himself for the 

"Fyrst he clad liym in his clothez the-colde for to were, 
And sytlien his other harnays that holdely watz keped, 
Bothe hi.s pauiice and his platez piked ful clene, 
The ryuges rokked of the roust of his riche bruuy." — v. 2015. 

Amongst the armour in the roll of Archbishop Bowet's effects we find 
three ventayles, or aventaillcs, which in this instance were of round mail ; 
they are described as pro gaU\ possibly, as has been suggested, implying 
pro galea, or galeis, for the helm. I am not aware that evidence has pre- 
viously been found of the use of mail for any of these appendages serving 
for the protection of the face. A " bordoure" jagiied with latten, or 
brass, may have been a variety of the camail, or of the collar called at a 
later period a standard of mail, the margin of which was frequently van- 
dyked with a fringe of rings of yellow metal, forming an ornamental 
contrast to the steel. A specimen thus decorated, found in London, is 
figured by Mr. Roach Smith in the Catalogue of his Collection of Anti(jui- 
ties now in the British iluseum ; see p. 150. The term " bordour" occurs, 
Romance of Golagros and Gawane, v. 938, 977. 

The item which follows relates to a pair of " schynbaldes, alias vam- 
plattes, pro tebiis virorum," namely, defences for the legs, below the knee, 
greaves or "jambeux," possibly as designated by Chaucer ; some, how- 
ever, have made a distinction between greaves covering the front of the 
leg (thence, it may be supposed, here called vamplates), and defences of the 
whole leg, properly called " peires de jambers." In the Indenture relating 
to stores in Dover Castle, 35 Edw. III., 13GI, we find, with body-armour 
of mail and plate, gauntlets, «tc., " j. brustplate pour justes, deux atant- 
platcs," <tc. — Arch. Journ., vol. xi., p. 384. " Schynbalde " is a term of 
rare occurrence, which I have found only in the Awntyrs of Arthure, xxxi., 
5, where it is written " scliynbawdes," printed by Pinkerton " schynban- 
dcs ; " and also in the alliterative Morte Arthur, where the effects of a 

'' So iu the Tourney Book of Rene d'Anjou, — '" haruoys blanc." 


wound are described, by which the blood, running down on tlie knight's 
shank, " schewcd one his scliwnhawde tliat was schire burneste.'' — See 
Sir F. Madden's Glossary, Syr Gawayn, in v. 

We may next notice a " pectorah', alias brestplate, in ij. partibus, cum 
ij. wynglies," with buckles and pendants, and " barres" of silver gilt, namely 
the transverse metal ornaments of a strap or belt, sometimes richly chased, 
and through which the tongue of the buckle usually passed. We are 
scarcely justified in the conjecture that the " wynghes" may have been of 
the nature of tho>e singular appendages designated ailettes, attached by 
laces to the shoulders, a fashion of a much earlier period, introduced 
towards the close of the thirteenth century, and much in vogue during the 
reign of Edward III.* It may, however, deserve notice, if the possibility 
that ailettes are intended can be admitted, that the armour described in 
the curious Inventory before us is, for the most part, such as had been in 
use long before the date of the document (a.d. 1421). The pair of plates, 
of which mention is made by Chaucer, had come into use about 1350 ; the 
term continued long in use to designate body-armour composed of two 
portions, breast and back ; and, although the defence described in the 
inventory may seem limited to the former, yet the expression '* in ij. 
partibus " suggests the probability that it was a pair of plates in the 
usual sense of the term/' The wings nu\y have been ornamental roundels 
or epaulettes, which succeeded the ailettes and occur in a great variety of 
forms during the latter part of the fourteenth century. The item following 
gives us the rest of the defences for the arm, namely, the vambraces, for 
the fore-arm, and the rerebraces, extending from the elbow to the 

The palet is comparatively of rare occurrence in lists of the numerous 
defences for the head used during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
I have cited, in my luAcs in the Promptorium Parvulurum, p. 378, the 
principal instances of the use of this term by mediaeval writers, and iu 
inventories, (tc. In that curious Dictionary it occurs thus: — "Palet, 
armowre for the heed ; PeUiris, Galcrus." It was properly a head-piece 
of leather or cuir-bouilli, and thence its name was doubtless derived ; — 
"galea ex coreo ot pelle," as pcUiris is explained iti the Catholieon. The 
term, however, was occasionally extended to analogous defences formed of 
metal.^ In the present instance we find the palet described as " closs' 
cum j. umberelle," and a good bordure of nuiil. The latter has been 
already noticed ; from the term close (claiiso), it may be supposed that 
this headpitee was so formed as to protrct the face, whilst it was provided 
with an " umljerellf," which may have been a projecting brim, such as is 
Keen in one of the figures on the brass of Sir John de Hastings at Elsing, 
Norfolk, 1347."' In the Dover Inventory in 13(11, however, Archieol. 
.lournal, vol. xi. p. 381, bacinets occurred " ove ninhrcs," probably visors. 
In the Prom[)t()riuni Parvuhtrum, p. 375, we find — " Owmbrer of bacenet ; 
L'lnbraculum ;" and, iu Palsgrave's " Kclaircis.sement de la Languo 

* Sco Mr. Hcwitt'M d<taile(l noticoH of brcaHt witli the addition of a placcato 
ailvtU'H, Armour and WenpouH iu Kii- uvorl^iiig it. 

rope, vol. i. p. '2«5; vol. ii. p. 175. Tlio • ? ibid. vol. ii. 222. 

laUwt oxniiiplcH occur about I3!i0. " Cotiiiuij'H .Sop. HraftHCH, vol. i. pi. i. 

* Iliid. vol. ii. p. IIU. The pectoral Soo notieoH of tiio wi<h -riininod licad- 
ID two I'ArtH may doubtloim havu been a picco, IIuwitl'H Armour, v<^l. ii. p. 213. 


Frangoysc," 1530, " Unibrell of an liccd pecc, vmcre.'' I have tlioiight 
the term, comparatively of rare occurrence, deserving of notice, cspeciallj 
as it is not clear in what respect the umber and uinberelle differed from the 
visor. In the relation given by Stowe of the combat before Henry VI., in 
1442, between John de Astley and a knight of Aragon, it is eaid that the 
latter struck his adversary on his bacinet, " brast up his urabar three 
times," and would fain have smitten him in the face with his dagger. In 
the narrative of this affair in Stowe's Survey of London this word is 
printed erroneously "uniber." 

A pair of gauntlets is described in the next item, of ancient fashion, and 
•with brass knuckles {condoUs de latone). Examples are not wanting of 
representations of gauntlets thus ornamented in monumental portraitures, 
such as the effigy of John de Montacute in Salisbury Cathedral ; he died 
in 1388.^ In a Computus of the Treasurer of the Dauphin, in 1333, a 
payment occurs for " guautis lattunatis;" — for a pair '* de caligis de 
latono," «kc. These may, however, have been gauntlets wholly of brass, 
such as those still suspended over the tomb of the Black Prince in Canter- 
bury Cathedral. 

In the Inventory of munitions at Dover Castle, in 1344, we noticed 
formerly the item — "j. barelle pro armaturis rollandis" (Arch. Journ. vol. 
xi. pp. 382, 386), and pointed out some other evidences of the practice of 
cleaning mail-armour by rolling it in a barrel, probably with sand. Here 
we find 20 d. " pro j. barelle cum suis pertinentiis ad purgandas loricas et 
alia arma de mayle." In the passage from Syr Gawayn above cited the 
hauberk is said to have been cleaned of rust by being " rokked." Frois- 
sart, in 1372, describes the soldiers hastening to furbish their armour, " a 
rouler leurs cottes de fer," So a^ain we find, amongst efi'eets at Win- 
Chester College after the death of Warden Thurnberne, 4 Hen. V., 
*'j. barelle pro loricis purgandis." In the Howard Household Book a 
payment of 9d. is found, in 1467, " to an Armerer at Pawles Cheyne for 
an barneys barelle." (Domestic Expen. in Eng. p. 416.) A notice of such a 
process occurs as late as 1603, in the Inventory of the Armory at Hen- 
grave — " Item, one barrel to make clean the shirt of maile and gorgetts," 
a single shirt of mail being found there, and 22 gorgets. The leathern 
sacks mentioned in the roll of Ministers' Accounts, 23 and 24 Edw. I. 
(Duchy of Lane), were possibly for a like purpose. The entry is as 
follows — "in XX. s. xj. d. in duobus saccis de coreo pro armatura Comitis." 
Mr. Burtt, in his interesting notices of the first use of guns and gun- 
powder in the English army, during the campaign of Edward III. in which 
the memorable battle of Cressy was fought, a.d. 1346, has lately brought 
before us certain entries relating to the stocks for guns at that early 
period ; — the telar or tiller, to which the tube termed a "gonue" was 
affixed. (See pp. 71, 72, note, ante.) Amongst the warlike munitions 
in the Gardcroha of Archbishop Bowet we here find, with old lances and 
battle-axes, two "stokgunnes de ferro,'' much decayed, valued at 135. 4t7. 
These may have been some of the earliest hand-guns known in the northern 

It is remarkable that in the curious list of ancient warlike appliances to 
which I have been desirous to invite attention, as a sample of the evi- 
dences of this description preserved in the Treasury at York, we find 

» Stothard'd Mouumcutal EfiBgics. 


cliiefly objects of a much earlier period tlian the date of the document, and 
described also as vcteres, viaxii/ic, or inuUum dchilcs, or de antiqua forma. 
They iuclude items which those who are versed in military costume might 
be disposed to ascribe to times a century previous to the decease of the 
Archbishop, and to be regarded possibly as the ancient munitions of the 
stately archiopiscopal palace at Cawood Castle, of that at 15i>hu]tthorpe, or 
of the maguiticeut residence formerly existing in the Cathedral Close at 

Archbishop Bowet died at Cawood, Oct. 20, 1423 ; his will, dated 
Sept. 9, 1421, and proved Oct. 26, 1423, has been published for the 
Surtees Society in the Testamenta Eboraccnsia, Part I., p. 398, under 
the editorial care of the late liev. James Kaine. The executors, consti- 
tuted by his will, were Henry Bowet, Archdeacon of Richmond, Thomas 
Wvot, sitccciitor of the church of York, Henry Soulhy and Robert Pen- 
reth, domiccUi, probably domestic attendants in the household of the 
deceased prelate.' The Archbishop's Register is preserved at Yurk ; his 
tomb, with its lofty, graceful canopy, may be seen in the Minster near 
the cast end ; this remarkable example of its period has been figured in 
Britton's History of the Cathedral, PI. xxvi. Our readers need not 
be reminded of the valuable services rendered by my lamented friend, the 
historian of Durham, to the cause of archa3ology and topography in the 
North ; the completion of purposes long cherished by him has fallen 
into the bands of a son worthy to succeed such a father. Mr. Raine, now 
resident at York, and by whom the Fabric Rolls of tho Minster have 
recently been edited for the Surtees Society, has in preparation detailed 
memoirs of the prelates and dignitaries of that see, from tlic rich store of 
evidence there preserved in the Treasury. In his forthcoming work I 
liope that the valuable illustrations of ancient manners to be derived from 
documents of the class to which it has been my object, in the following 
short extract, to invite attention, will be brought as they deserve under 
the notice of those who study our national history and antiquities. 


Extract from the Computus Roll of the Executors op Henry Bowet, 
AuciLBisiioi' 01" York, deceased Oct. 20, 1423. 


Respondent cxccutores — de xx. s. receptis pro j. jakc deffence do 
chamlet rubco, cum iij. Icgulis dcauratis. Et de iij. s. iiij. d. receptis pro 
uno pare de qwysschewea de maylo rotund' jtro dcfencione cruruni. Et de 
iij. H. iiij. d. reccjjtis jiro una lorica debili do mayle rotund'. Et de 
vj. 8. viij. d. receptis pro una lorica vetero de mayle rotund*. Et de .xx. d. 
receptiB pro uno parvo pauncc, maximc debili, do maylo rotunil.' Et do 
XX. d. pro uno parvo vcntaylo vetere de mayle rotund'. Et de ij. d. 
recc-ptis pro uno vcntaylo vetero pro gall' do mayle rotund'. Et do vj. d. 
receptis pro uno vcntaylo vetere et valdo dwliuli (sic) pro gall' do mavio 
roliUMl.' I'll de vj. d. receptis pro altcre vcnta^le vetere et niultum doliili 
pro gall' de nui)le rottnid'. Et de vj. d. n'ci'|»tis pro uno bordoure do nniylo 
rotund' j'lggyde cum latone pro gall'. J'^t de ij. h. receptis pro uno pare 
do hcliyubaldutt al' vauipluttes, pro tcbiis (sic) virorum. Et de iij. b. iiij. d. 

' Soo DucuDgc, in v. 


receptis pro imo pare de qwysschewcs de plate, de antlqua forma. Et de 
xvj. s. receptis pro uno pectorali alias brestplate in ij. partilms, cum ij. 
wynghcs, cum iij. bokeles, ct quinque pendandes cum x. barres do argeuto et 
deaurat'. Et de iij. s. iiij. d. receptis pro uno pare de vambrace et rerebrace, 
in quatuor peciis. Et de xiij, s. iiij. d. receptis pro uno palet closs' cum j. 
umberelle, cum j. bono bordoure do mayle. Et de ij. s. receptis pro uno pare 
cirotbecarum cum condolis de latone, de antiqua forma. Et de Ixxiiij. 8. 
receptis pro omnibus aliis armis existentibus in garderoba, simul sic appre- 
ciatis. Et de xx. d. receptis pro j. barelle cum suis pertinentiis, ad pur- 
gandas loricas et alia arma de mayle. Et de xx. d. receptis pro una cista 
vetere in qua ponuntur omnia arma predicta custodiendum. Et de x. s. 
receptis pro viij. lanciis veteribus, cum sex capitibus de antiqua forma, et 
ij. scbaftet'- pro baner' et pcnsil.' Et de xiij. s, iiij. d. receptis pro 

ij. stokgunnes de ferro multum debilibus. Et de ij. s. iiij. d. receptis pro 
quatuor batelle axe multum debilibus. 

^ The contraction should probably be bad heads of the old fashion, it appears 

read schaftetes, or schaftetis. A question probable that the term iu question 

might occur whether this word signifies describes the heads of the remaiuing 

Bhafts, or shaft-heads with some cou- pair. 

trivance for the attachment of the banner •* This word is somewhat indistinct in 

and pcnoncel. As, however, of the eight the MS. Roll, 
lances enumerated six appear to have 

^jJrocfctiiucjS at fHrrtings of t!)f ^^Irdjacolocjical Institutf. 

March 7, 18G2. 
OcTAVirs McncAK, Esq., M,P., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

In opening the proceedings Mr. MouoAX observed, that since their last 
niontlily meeting a valuable addition had been made to Archajological 
literature, which the members of the Institute could not fail to regard with 
special satisfaction as the production of one who for many years had taken 
so active and friendly a part in their proceedings. lie alluded to the 
important work by Mr. C'lu^rlcs Newton, on the Antiquities of llalicar- 
nassus and the Tomb of Mausolus, just published. Their noble rresident, 
Lord Talbot, had kindly united with a few members of the Institute, who 
were desirous to contribute a copy of Mr. Newton's pid)lication to the 
library of the Society. Mr. Morgan wished, on their behalf, to present 
this interesting record of the researches and excavations carried out by 
Mr. Newton, whose efficient co-operation as their Honorary Secretary in 
former years had materially aided the establishment of the Institute. lie 
recalled also with gratification the kindness of Mr. Newton, who shortly 
after his return hud taken the earliest occasion to bring before the Society 
the results of his discoveries, and had delivered at their Meeting at 
Carlisle two discourses of great interest.' Mr. Morgan invited attention 
also to a cast, now exhibited, of the bust of a statue of Ceres, a produc- 
tion of a very high class of ancient Art, brought to light by Mr. Newton 
on the site of the Temenos, or temple of that goddess at ('nidus. 

Professor Do.n'aldsoN; having olfered some rennuks on the value of the 
services rendered to archajology by their talented friend Mr. Newton, now 
liolding a distinguished position in the Department of Anticpiities at the 
British Museum, proposed thanks to Lord Talbot and the members of the 
Institute, by whom the library had been enriched with so desirable an 
accession to the literature of ancient Art. 

Dr. Macoowa.s, who has resided many years in China, and, through his 
intimate knowledge of the language and usages of that country, has 
enjoyed unusuiil advantages in exploring localities almost inaccessihlo to 
Kuropeans, then gave an account of an ancient inscribed slab of basalt at 
Si-gan-Kou, the capital of the Province Chen-Si, described as commemo- 
rating Yu, called Tu-Yu, or the (ireat, the founder of one of the early 
dynasties in Chiiui, about n.c. 2200. The Chinese, Dr. Macgowau 
obHorvcd, arc remarkably partial to antitpiarian researches, and delight to 
collect relics of olden times ; many learned scholars amongst them devote 
hpcciul attention to archa;oI(jgy, and voluminous treatises exist on ancient 

' Sco Arch. Juuni. vol. xvi. JH'. L'7*', libO. 


vases of bronze, on porcelain, early inscriptions, (kc. lie exhibited a fac- 
simile, or rubbing, of the slab supposed to record the great deeds of Yu, 
and now for the first time brought to Europe. A copy or drawing of the 
inscription by some native artist had been obtained in France, and it was 
published in Paris in 1802, by a German Orientalist, Joseph Ilager, with 
an interpretation.- Considerable doubt had, however, been entertained in 
regard to the authenticity or antiquity of the memorial ; the slab in 
question being in fact an ancient copy of the original inscription, believed 
to have been engraved on certain rocks in a remote district of China, and 
accidentally brought to light by a land-slip, which exposed the inscribed 
surface. The copy, of which a fac-simile was shown, is in archaic cha- 
racters, now quite obsolete ; an interpretation or interlinear gloss in the 
ordinary letters had long since been inscribed by some Chinese scholar, 
with a statement of the circumstances which caused the discovery. The 
interpretation, first published by the learned Jesuit, Pere Amiot, sets forth 
that Yu had attained to great renown by his skill as an engineer, having 
been commissioned by the Emperor to check the devastation caused by a 
deluge, which during nine years covered the face of the country. Yu 
devised means to remedy the evil, of which this ancient record describes 
the ravages, his arduous exertions, and the success of his skilful manage- 
ment. He ultimately was elevated to the imperial sway, which continued 
in his family for 439 years. Dr. Macgowan had been the first to ascertain 
the existence of his tomb, which is in the custody of his descendants of the 
hundred and eighty-third generation, by whom annual offerings are made 
to his memory in their ancestral temple. The family had been recognised 
by all successive dynasties as deriving their origin from Ta-Yu, but the 
preservation of his sepulchre was not hitherto known. The great antiquity 
attributed by the Chinese to the inscription exhibited on this occasion may 
doubtless be questioned ; it bears much analogy to the account of Yu 
given in the Collections of Confucius ; it is only a copy, although made at 
a remote period, of the writing on the rock at Heug-Chan, one of the 
mountains on which the emperors offered annual sacrifices to the Supreme 
Being, to which no European, it is believed, has had access. It has, how- 
ever, always been recognised by Chinese scholars as an historical monument 
of important character, amongst the numerous inscriptions of great antiquity 
preserved in the country. Of these, one, comparatively well known to 
European antiquaries, is the remarkable memorial of the mission of the 
Nestorian Christians in China in the seventh century. Dr. Macgowan 
remarked that he had been desirous to avail himself of the opportunity to 
invite the attention of English archa;ologists to the interest of ancient 
monuments and vestiges in China, heretofore unapproachable, but which 
recent events had rendered comparatively easy of access, and he expressed 
very kindly his readiness to render, on his return to the East, any assistance 
to those who might desire to prosecute inquiries regarding the arts and 
manners, and the History of that remarkable country. 

An account of the recent discoveries on the site of Chertsey Abbey was 
then read by Mr. M. Shcrlock. He described the successive excavations 

2 Monument de Yu ou la plus ancienne Hager had found the inscription in a 

Inscription de la Chine; Ruivie do trcnte- work printed in Japan, and also in a 

deux formes d'aucienscaractereschinois; MS. in the Pore Amiot's collections in 

par Joseph Hager. Paris, an. x. folio. the Imperial Librai-y. 


by which the plan of the conventual church, with the chapter-house, and the 
chapel of the infirmary had been traced. The first rescarclios were made 
in 1855 ; a notice of these was communicated to the Institute by Mr. 
Westwood. See Arch. Journ., vol. xii., pp. 96, 199. A detailed notice 
of the discoveries of curious interments also, the remains of beautiful deco- 
rative pavements, <te., was given by Mr. Pocock and Mr. Shurlock, at the 
meeting of the Surrey Archaeological Society at Chertsey, in April, 1855. 
It is i>riiited with groundplans and other illustrations in the Surrey Archaeo- 
logical Collections, published by the Society, vol. i. pp. 107, 121. The 
floor tiles, which display singular beauty of design, have been skilfully 
reproduced in colors by Mr. Henry Shaw, F.S.A., in his Specimens of Tile 
Pavements drawn from existing authorities. Increasing interest having 
been aroused in the exploration of the remains, the site was purchased by 
Mr. T. Bartrop, lion. Sec at Chertsey of the Surrey Society, and extensive 
excavations were carried out under direction of Mr. S. Angell, an architect 
resident within the ancient precincts of the monastery. The aid of the 
Surrey Society was readily given, and also that of the authorities of the 
South Ken.-ington Museum, whore great part of the beautiful pavement 
tiles, exhibited through their kindness on the present occasion, have been 
deposited. The requisite funds were supplied by various persons interested 
in the undertaking, and especially by Mr. Henderson, whose family 
formerly possessed the estate, and also by a contribution from the Society 
of Anticjuarios, On October 5, nJt., a gathering of the Surrey archajologists 
and their friends took ])lace at Chertsey, to inspect the discoveries now 
described by Mr. Shurlock. He exhibited a large ground-plan of the 
church, from careful measurements by Mr. Angell, and a series of interest- 
ing drawings executed by that gentleman and by Mr. R. Druce, illustrative 
of the architectural fragments, richly sculptured capitals of Purbcck marble, 
the curious interments, also miscellaneous relics, painted glass, considered 
by Mr. Winston to be of t. Edward I., and a metal chalice and paten found 
in a stone coffin containing the body, as supposed, of one of the abbots ; 
they were deposited near the left shoulder. Amongst the tiles he pointed 
out numerous small examples, each bearing a letter, and intended to form 
inscriptions in the pavement ; also some very sjiiritcd rei)resentations of 
ttio signs of the zodiac, the occupations of the seasons, with subjects also 
of Romance, in which the name of Tristram repeatedly occurs ; numerous 
details arc to be noticed on these tiles, which sujtply artistic illustrations of 
armour and costume in the twelfth century. A cordial expression of thanks 
having been offered to Mr. Shurlock and Mr. Angell by Mr. Morgan, they 
courteously invited the members of the Institute to visit the excavations, 
with the kind promise to take the part of ciceroni on any future occasion.' 

Dr. Wilkins, P.G.S., of Newport, Isle of ^\'ight, coinnuniicatcd 
home notes on Roman remains lately found near that town. In the forma- 
tion of the railway a cutting was re<|uirud through an elevated piece of 
meadow land, on tlio north of Newport, towards the Honey Hill toUgate ; 
it is the highest ground in that direction, aiul forms a eonsiderablo hill 
above the level of the Medina, by which it is partly surrounded. The first 
di'icovery took place in excavating on its southern slope, three or four 

' Mr. A 11(^011 liafl rocotill}' puMiHhod tlio filihoy church. It. wan rend jit n 
nn inl<jroiitiiiK iiu-iiioir on tlio Isxcava- mnetinn "t (.hurtHoy. .lumiary lHt!2, and 
i'loan, ttcconij'aiiifjd by n ground j.laii of priiitud thiro by K. Liiikiii. 8vo. 


Roman urns of coarse browiiisli-rcd ware being disinterred ; they were 
unfortunately destroyed before Dr. Wilkins received information of the 
discovery, but he was assured that they were entire when found ; he was 
unable to ascertain that they contained any burned bones. As the cutting 
advanced northward a series of lines of deposits of Roman pottery was dis- 
closed, which appeared to indicate a succession of trenches in which the 
remains had been deposited. There were five of these trenches, at intervals 
of from twelve to sixteen paces, in which the ware occurred in greatest 
abundance, whilst between these principal trenches others intervened con- 
taining pottery in much smaller quantities, and occasionally their course 
was indicated only by black wood-ashes. These trenches were in the 
direction from E. to W. and were cut through obliquely by the railway ; 
the examination of their contents extended only to the width of the cutting, 
or about nine yards. The pottery consisted chiefly of sepulchral urns and 
amphorae ; the former were a dark colored ware, almost black, and were 
deposited at intervals in the trenches. They contained burned human 
bones, with wood-ashes in abundance, both amongst the bones and sur- 
rounding the deposits. Some of these urns resembled those first discovered, 
but for the most part they were of a thinner ware. In one instance the clay 
on which the urn lay was burnt harder even than brick, and Dr. Wilkins sup- 
posed that the vase was baked on the spot, the ashes still remaining with it. 
Wood-ashes abounded throughout the excavation. Not a single perfect urn 
■was obtained. The fragments of amphorce were in remarkable abundance. 
These were of the usual form, of coarse ware, with two handles, and termi- 
nating at bottom in a point ; they had been capable of holding about 9 
gallons, and measured about 38 inches in height, diameter at the widest 
part 30 inches, diameter of the neck, 5i inches ; greatest thickness at the 
sides 1 inch. These amphorae appeared to have been of two kinds of 
ware, dingy cream-colored, and pale red, the latter being the most abun- 
dant. In form these amphora; resemble those found at Chesterford, figured 
Arch. Journ., vol. xvii,, p. 126, but tlie apex at the bottom is much more 
pointed. The collection of pottery found in the excavations, and presented 
by Dr. Wilkins to the Newport Museum, includes not less than sixteen of 
the pointed terminations of such amphor£e, also necks and handles in 
abundance. Of urns there may have been twenty or upwards ; also some 
fragments of Samian, and of paterae of black ware. Dr. Wilkins observed 
that the bones and teeth of the horse, ox, hog, kc, were met with ; many 
of the metacarpal bones of the ox, anciently used as skates ; also portions 
of a bridle-bit and of a horse-shoe, and oyster shells in large quantities. In 
regard to vestiges of Roman occupation in the Isle of Wight, of which his 
notice afl'ords fresh evidence. Dr. Wilkins observed that further investiga- 
tions made by Mr. W. Stratton at Newbarn, Calhourn, mentioned in Dr. Wil- 
kins's Topography and Antiquities of the Isle of Wight, p. 59, have proved 
that the site was once occupied by Roman buildings. 

Mr. Artiicr Tuollope sent a short account of a singtdar shaft at Lin- 
coln, supposed to be of Roman construction. An extensive tract of land at 
the upper part of the city has been undermined in excavations for obtaininor 
stone, either, as some suppose, during the period of the Roman colony at 
Lindum, or possibly in mediajval times. The galleries here run in various 
directions, as it is believed, for many miles, but the passages have been 
mostly choked up by the fall of stones and by debris. Persons, however, had 
assured Mr. Trollope that formerly they had penetrated into these galleries 













t: o i3 


5 ,f - 


!4 s a 

y o 


■° a 











to a loiif? distance, aiul that although usually of narrow dimensions they 
occasionally open into chambers or spacious caverns. He had recently 
explored a shaft which had been found in the garden of Mr. Dudding's 
house, now occupied L}' J. W. Danhy, Esq., on tiie north side of East Gate, 
and adjoining Mr. Trollope's residence. This shaft is four-sided, regularly 
steened or lined with ashlar ; at the bottom there are arches on three of 
the sides ; on the fourth, the arch having been broken down, the superin- 
cumbent wall is supported by a large lintel-stone. The shaft, which 
measures 3 feet 1 inch by 3 feet 9 inches, appears to lead down to the 
natural rock, as far as can be ascertained, the bottom of the pit being now 
filled up with mould ; the depth, from the springing of the larger arches 
shown in the annexed section, to the surface of the garden above, is 14 feet 
6 inches. Mr. Trollope supposes it to have been an approach to subterra- 
nean quarries ; this, however, can only be proved by clearing the pit and 
passage leading from it apparently on the east side only. On the other three 
sides the masonry is perfect, but neither of the arches seems to have opened 
into any passage or gallery beyond, the natural stone-marl, apparently un- 
disturbed, forming the back of each of these three arched recesses. The 
intention of this singular shaft and of the cavity, which at first view sug- 
gested the notion that it might have been a sepulchral columharhini, must 
be left for further investigation. The general character of the masonry is 
considered to be Roman. In the numerous shafts (not steened) formerly 
examined by Mr. Trollope in the high ground on the north-east side of 
Lincoln, Roman pottery and relics of every description were found in 
abundance. In the accompanying diagrams the plan of the shaft is given 
at the springing of the large arches, showing the soffits of the arch-stones. 
The sections show the masonry cf the shaft, the upper portion of which 
passes through made earth, or the surface mould ; the lower and arched 
part appears to be formed in the natural stone-marl which overlies the 

Antiquities aiiir 22JorSS al ^rt eyIyiUttiS. 

By Professor Donaldson. — Two sepulchral urns from the catacombs 
lately brought to light in forming a railway near Alexandria ; also a diagram 
and plan of the chambers and columbaria, received with the urns from Mr. 
n. T. Rouse, the engineer by whom the works are directed. One of the 
urns is a hiidria, height 19 inches, of black ware with ornaments painted 
in white and partly modeled in relief ; the other is of pale red ware, 13 
inches in height, this urn is still closed with cement, and the incinerated 
contents have not been disturbed. 

By Mr. S. P. Freeman. — Three gold medallions with Bacchanalian 
subjects, personal ornaments obtained near Athens. They are formed of 
thin plates, hammered up and finished with the tool ; on the reverse are 
loops probably for attachment to the dress. On one is represented a female, 
dancing and playing on the double pipe ; her floating drapery is designed 
with much spirit and grace ; before her is a canistnim, from which issues a 
serpent. On the second appears Pan, or a faun, leaping in Bacchanalian 
frenzy, and vigorously blowing into the syriux ; below is seen a, pedum. 
The third medallion represents young Bacchus standing on one foot, and 
raising aloft a serpent in his right hand, a panther leaping up at his 

vol. XIX. A A 


siJe. These chasings, apparently of h\te Greek worlinianship, accoitrmc!,- 
to the opinion of the skilful artist, Signor Castellani, are of beautiful 
design, in low relief, and hiijlily finished. Diameter 2f inches. 

!>)■ Mr. William Tite, },l.V., F.S.A. — A suuiU bronze box in form of 
the head of a faun, bald, with a small beard and moustaches ; there are 
Eeveral warty excrescences on the forehead and cheeks, and the entire 
eurface is much patinated. The under side presents an oblong opening, 
closed by a sliding lid. This little Roman relic is of sj)irited design : it 
was found in excavations in the City of London. Dimensions, about 17, inch 
by \h inch. An object of the like fashion, but representing a feniale head, 
is preserved in the British Museum. — Four finger-rings of gold, likewise 
found in the City ; two of them are Roman, of these one is set with an 
oval intaglio on nicolo, a f/ryJlus or monster, the head and upper part of 
the figure human with a lyre in the hands ; the body is formed of a ram's 
head, and has a tail like that of an ostrich, the legs being also those of a bird. 
This is a very small ring, the hoop eight-sided, including the facet. The 
second ring, considered to be of Roman work, is formed with nine little bosses 
set with uncut gems, emeralds, garnets, and a sap- 
phire ; one only, supposed to be a blue spinel, is cut 
in pyramidal fashion. — The other two are rings of 
the seventeenth century, one of them is a lady's ring 
with this posy inscribed within the hoop, — Let reason 
rule affection ; — the other is a mourning ring, inscribed 
within, — la ■inemorii cf A. II. obijt 7 Sep. 64. 

By T. .J. RoBAKTES, Esq., M.P., through the Right Hon. Sir Edmund 
Head, Bart. — A singular, rudely fashioned image, sujjposed to be of tin, 
but ajiparently of some white mixed-metal ; it was found, about 1850, on 
Bodwcn Moor, in the parish of Lanlivery, Cornwall ; it lay 7 or 8 feet 
below the surface, near one of the ancient sites of metallurgical operations, 
known in that county as " Jews' Houses," the provincial name for a ]»lacc 
where tin was anciently cleaned. This extraordinary object measures about 
6 inches in height ; it a|ipears to represent, very rudely, a regal figure 
seated on a throne ; on the head are projections like horns, which seem to 
represent a crown, one of these is broken oil", and the design is so imjier- 
fectly detailed that the object is not less enigmatical whether we seek to 
fix its date or its intention. Upon the breast are impressed, or cut, three 
lleljrew letters arranged in a triangle — Nun, llcsh, and Shin ; upon the 
left side of tlie figure is an incised mark of like description, but not to bo 
identified a« a letter, and upon tlie right side is the ilebrew Mem. This 
grotesque figure seems to be seated in a high-backed elbow chair, the hands 
resting upon the knees. The workniansliip is extremely rude, yet imt 
archaic ; tlie characters have been exainineil with critical care by n learned 
Hebraist, Mr. Zedner, but we hope; for some more conclusive sugneslion than 
has been hitherto oU'ered, through the Congress for the investigation of 
Cornish anli<juilies to bu held at Truro, when doublh'ss this extranrdiiiary 
relic will 1)0 Hubmitted to the learned vi.Mtors. It has been conjecture<l 
that it may havo been a figure cast for some ma;;ical pnr|>osc, in connect ion 
wiih the niyMtcM-ioiiH necromantic practices of llio i\lidille Ages, in which 
HeliraiHuiH wero always mixed up in no ulight degree. 

By .Mr. S. W'y.UA'ir, through .Mr. VV. S. Vaux. -A Saxon situld of wood 
hooptul with bronze;, found near Louth in Lincolnshir(^ Numerinis examples 
of tlieso curioui Saxon vessels are figured in the late Lord I'.r.iybrooke's 


work on Saxon Obsequies, and good specimens maybe seen in the illustrations 
of a memoir by liim in tliis Journal, vol. xi., p. 9G. 

By Mr. W. Bdiigks. — An iron spear-liead fuund in tlie river Lea, at 
Bow Bridge, Essex, probably Saxon ; also several niediajval weapons, 
daggers, knives, spurs, <kc., found in tlie Thames, near Westminster 
Bridge, in forming tlic foundations of the Houses of Parliament. 

By Mr. W. J. Berxiiaud Smith. — A singular steel mask or visor, sup- 
posed to be Spanish, date sixteenth century. — A powder-measure, of russet 
steel inlaid with foliated ornaments in silver. It was purchased at Jaffa, 
but is possibly of Italian workmanship. — Two spanners for turning the 
wheel-lock ; one of them combined with a powder-measure, date sixteenth 
century. — A plug bayonet, the haft of liorn, with a bone knop and brass 
mounting. See examples of the siceyne's feder and bayonet, Skelton's 
Illustr. of tlie Goodrich Court Armory, pi. cxv. 

By Mr. Edml'XD Waterto.v, F.S.A. — A lock for a coffer, probably of 
Nuremberg work, most intiicate in construction and skilfully executed, 
with its beautiful steel key. — An ancient dagger, and a pistol barrel, found 
in the lake at Walton Hall, Yorkshire. 

By Mr. Henry C. Boiix. — An oval silver medallion of !Mary Queen of 
Scots, in low relief, three-quarters to the left ; repousse work finished with 
the graver. Around the margin of the oval, measuring, in its largest 
diameter, ten inches, is twined a wreath of laurel with thistles at the 
bottom. There is also the inscription maria queen of scots. 1580. It 
is a work, probably, of the last century ; the type of portraiture bears 
resemblance to that of the painting formerly at St. James' Palace, London, 
and engraved by Vertue in 1735, representing the Queen of Scots in 
1580, Sit. 38. It is also very similar, in details of costume and general 
character, to the portrait now at Hampton Court Palace (No. 667), bearing 
the same date, a type frequently reproduced, and which appears to 
have been much in favor with those who sought for portraitures of the 
ill-fated queen. This possibly supplied the authority from which the 
Bodleian portrait, as it appeared previously to the removal of the work by 
the second hand, may have been taken, with certain modifications. 

Impression of Seals. — By Mr. J. H, Mathews. — Seal of Thomas, 
Bishop of Man, possibly Thomas Burton, who died March, 1457-8. He 
was succeeded by Thomas, Abbot of Vale Royal, Cheshire, who died 1480. 
Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, vol. iii., p. 326. It is of pointed-oval form, measur- 
ing 2| in. by If. Under a canopy of tabernacle work appears a figure of a 
bishop in pontificals, with a crosier in his left hand, the right upraised in 
benediction. There is no nimbus; the figure may, however, be intended as a 
representation of St. Germanus, ordained Bishop of Man by St. Patiick, 
and honored as the apostle of the island. In a small panel beneath is a 
demi-figure of a bishop, his hands joined as if in prayer, a crosier under 
his left arm. Legend — ^ \ tl)omc : titi : gracia I rpisicopi I manncniSig. — 
Seal of the Abbey of Louth Park, Lincolnshire, of circular form, diameter 
nearly 1| in. Under a trefoiled canopy is seen a figure of the B. V. Mary, 
with the infant Saviour in her arms; flowers are introduced in the back- 
ground, and leafy stems at the sides of the central subject. Legend, — 
PARCO . LVDE . Date xiv. cent. It is figured in Carlisle's Grammar 
Schools, vol. i., p, 835, but it is not stated where the matrix was preserved. 
Another seal, that of the Abbot of Louth Park, is appended toHarl. Charter, 


44, n. 49. — Seal of Sir William Eure, of circular form, tliara. 1^ in. It 
liears an esciUelieoii, — quarterly on a bend three escallops. Legend, — 
* ^igillfi • Itlill'mt. tlruic * mtUliS. The work is unusually well cut and 
in very perfect preservatiun. This was probably the seal of Sir William 
Eure, who married Maude, d. of ilenry Lord Fitzhugh; his sou Sir Kalph 
Eure fell at Towton, 1 Edw. IV. 

By Mr. U. T. PiUTcniiTT, F.S.A. — A panel of painted glass, 
from the Cernal collection ; in the centre are two escutcheons, — or a double- 
headed eagle sa. and arf/. a cross sa. with a chief ^h. The dexter sujtpurtcr 
is a bishop wiih a crosier, and vested in a cope ; a covered cup in his left 
liand ; sinister supporter, a secular figure in a furred gown, holding a sword 
in one liand, in the other a palm branch ; both supporters have nimbs. In 
the surrounding bordure are introduced curious rei)resentations of marks- 
men shootinfr with matchlock-guns, attendants twisting the match, clennini; 
the barrels, kc, with the date 152G. — A six-sided plate of iron, of great 
strength, ornamented with the royal arms of Portugal, ensigned with a 
crown. These are chased upon the centre of the plate, which is somewhat 
concave in fcirm, pierced with two perforations for bolts, by which it may 
have been affixed to a war-saddle. — A fine specimen of Gernuin ironwork, 
a lock of complicated construction, with its key. — A steel key, of French 
workmanship, disj)laying the monograms of Ilenry II. king of France, with 
the date 1547. — The mount of an auhitoii'tcrc, of steel exqui.sitely chased 
in relief in the style of the period of Cellini ; on medallions introduced at 
intervals ajipear ^linerva, Mars, «tc., with other mythological subjects. — 
Two rapiers with elaborately pierced and chased cup-guards ; on the 

of one of them is inscribed, on each side ^-s • a • ii • a • Q • v • M • +, ou 

the blade of the other 1- clemkxs • iioiiN • -|- • me • fecit solingom. 4-. 

Also two Spanish left-handed stilettos, with broad recurved guard-plates 
and very long cross-guards. The guard does not cover the hilt, as in the 
specimen of later date at Goodrich Court, Skelton, pi. cxiii., fig. 17. but 
curves in the other direction, over the blade. On one of these guards is 
chased in high relief a double-headed eagle displayed and ensigned with 
a crown, on its breast is a lozenge-shaped compartmont charged with the 
cross of St. James. — Four specimens of the j)lug-bayonet ; viz., one with the 
blade serrated on one side, the cross-guard inlaid with gold ; another, 
brass-hiltod, the blade inscribed, — God save King William and C^hioiii 
Mary ; the third, hafted with horn, is elaborately ornamented, the blade 
j)ierccd ; amongst various moiu)grams and inscriptions upon it is seen the 
mune of I'hilip V. King of Spain, with the date 1706; also the sacred 
monograms iiis, and a dial or clock-face, with an arrow pointing to tho 
xii. ; the fourth is even more richly decorated, the handle is of ivory j>f(^u<? 
with silver, the crosn-gnard of brass, terminating in little statuettes. 

J{y the Rev. J. Fli,i,i:u Kisski.i., F.S. A.— " Arnobii Afri Commentarii 
in I'halmoH, per Erasujuni Koterod. proditi. Argent, jed. do. Knoblouchii, 
J. 022." 'i'llis cojiy itt in the contemporary stamped binding, upon oak 
iiourds, di.Hplaying on one side the arm.s of Ilenry VIII., France and 
Knglund (|uarterly with the tlragon and grc'yhound as supporters ; above 
are CHCutcheons charged with St. (Jeorge's (!rohs, and the arms of the City 
of London ; on the other side i.s a Tudor rose with flcrolls — Jhc rosa, «ke., 
BH jJcHciibed in this J(jurnal, vol. xviii., p. 287. Tho binder's or artist's 
mark Ih introducctl below, with the initials — I— N. 

i'jf Sir liOlfEiiifK Ml'HCIU.'io.n. — Three German miners' a.\es, probably 


used on occasions of parade, or as the insignia of guilds, in the seventeenth 
century. The specimens exhibited were from the Museum of Economic 
Geology ; two similar axes are to be seen in the Tower Armory, and several 
others exist in private collections. The liead is in all these examples of 
peculiar form ; the handle is composed mostly of pieces of hone, elaborately 
engraved, the subjects being partly of a religious character, such as the 
crucifixion, saints, «kc., and partly representations of mining operations, 
very curious in detail ; also the arms of the Elector of Saxony, two sworda 
in saltire, impaling those of Hungary (?) barry of nine. Amongst the 
quaint devices on these axes occur the dates 1684, 1G86, and 1725, re- 
spectively. The miners appear in curious garments with wide skirts of 
leather (?) ; some holding axes similar to those exhibited, others hold lamps, 
a forked divining rod, «tc. Axes of the like form appear in the sculptures 
of the so-called miners' pulpit in Freiberg cathedral, as represented by Hefner 
(Costumes du Moyen Age, 11. Div. pi. 57) ; the date of the sculptures is 
1546. Hefner observes that the axe there seen is one of parade still in use. 
Through Mr, Bernhard Smith's exertions six examples, which had been ex- 
ported to New York and sent back to London, have been obtained for the 
Museum of Economic Geology ; three others have also been added to that col- 
lection, ranging in date from 1679 to 1749. It is stated that they are used 
in Germany, especially at Freiberg in Saxony ; such an axe is termed Steiger- 
hacke, — the Master-miner's hatchet. We are indebted to Mr. Trenham 
Eeeks for bringing these curious objects under our notice; he has also 
mentioned the following circumstance, stated by a friend who had occasion 
to visit Dresden on a metallurgical exploration. The British Minister ex- 
pressed his surprise at seeing the King conversing on some state occasion with 
a personage in black and silver uniform hearing such a hatchet. He 
conjectured that he might he the Chief Executioner, but found out that 
he was a distinguished official, the Oberberg Hauptman, or Chief of the 

By Mr. W. J. Berxhard Smith. — Another like miner's axe ; the haft 
is engraved with curious representations of metallurgical operations, and 
bears the date 1749. 

April 4, 1862. 
OcTATlcs Morgan, Esq., M.P., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Morgan commenced the proceedings by inviting attention to the 
Architectural History of Chichester Cathedral, by Professor Willis, com- 
bined with memoirs by the Rev. J. L. Petit and Mr. Sharpe, on Boxgrove 
Priory Church, Shoreham Church, with other architectural examples in 
Sussex. A copy of the long expected volume announced for [jublication at 
Chichester by Mr. Hayley Mason, and comprising the principal architec- 
tural memoirs read at the meeting of the Institute at Chichester in 1853, 
was now presented to their library. Professor Willis had added to his 
discourse on the Cathedral a report replete with curious details, relating to 
the recent destruction of the spire, and the beautiful volume now at length 
delivered to the subscribers would prove, Mr. Morgan observed, highly 
acceptable to the student of mediaeval architecture. 

Mr. Edml'nd Waterton, F.S.A., then read a short dissertation on the 
art of Niello, with the intention of calling attention to its general features 


and the most remarkable existing examples, prelimiiiarv to tlic cxliibition 
announced by the Institute for the June meeting. 

Mr. JuSEni BuKTT read a notice of the early use of guns and gunpowder. 
Printed in this volume, p. G8, ayite. 

Sir Fkedkuic Maddex, K.H., gave a discourse of unusual interest on 
a charter, formerly supposed to be one of those niven to the Monks of West- 
minster by Edward the Confessor, and to which is appended a genuine 
impression of the seal of that king, in a bag of rich silken tissue. This 
document, which had been found by Dugdale in the Ilatton Library, now at 
Eastwell Park, Kent, was printed in the Monasticon in IG40, it had never 
subsequently been submitted to critical examination. It was exliibited on 
the present occasion by the kindness of the Earl of Winchilsea. Sir Frederic 
Btated that its authenticity bad long since been questioned ; it is well known 
that nunierous spurious charters exist amongst monastic evidences, some of 
them fabricated at a very early period, and jirobably in many cases pro- 
duced by the monks to supply the place of lost documents, or to assert in 
more ample terms the inmuinities and privileges which the monasteries 
actually enjoyed. Those who are familiar wiih Mr. Kemble's Codex Di- 
]>lonu\ticus are well aware of the existence of spurious Saxon documents, 
amongst those relating to reterborough, Worcester, Croyland, ttc, but 
the monks of Westminster appear to have been singularl}' addicted to the 
fabrication of such insti-uments, and, besides that entrusted for exhibition by 
the liberality of the Earl of \\ incbilsca, there exist several in the treasury at 
\Vestminster, which are undoubtedly ancient forgeries. Sir Frederic indeed 
considered that of monastic charters prior to the reign of Henry I. few, if 
any, are wholly free from suspicion. He entered into a critical investiga- 
tion of that now exhibited, pointing out tlic simple character and pecu- 
liarities of expression in grants by the Saxon princes, and explaining the 
points of internal evidence by wliich the spurious nature of the charter 
under consideration seems proved beyond question. It was jtrobably exe- 
cuteil not long after the Conquest, in order to secure certain immunities 
and privileges, especially in regard to coronations, and to the right of 
fianctuary, which appears to rest solely on the iictitious authority of these 
spurious charters. It is very remarkable that the seal which is attached 
by silken cords, a mode of sealing unusual in the earlier'times, when seals 
were appended by parchment labels,' is undoubtedly genuine, and the im- 
pression was ma(le at the time when the charter was written ; from circum- 
Blances which Sir Frederic pointed out, it could not have been an impression 
transferred from some other document executed in the lifetime of the 
Confessor. This curious fact suggests tliat the matrix of the seal had 
remained in possession of the monks, and another spmious grant which Sir 
Freilerie had been jtermitted to examine amongst the Westminster muni- 
mentH lias likewise a genuine hi al. It is dated on the same day as that in 
the Ilatton collection, and both appear to be the work of the same scribe. 

Mr. U(Jiir,UT Fkuoi'son gave an account of the discovery, during tho 
previous week, of a fragment of lionuui sculpture at Carlisle. It was 

' Tlio P.pnofliclincH, in tlie Trnite do known to tliom. Tlio carlifBt oxmnple 

Dipl., ii|><-iik of tho iicc of tlio hilk Iik-ch of n hciiI ho uttaclx'd wliicli lind fiilifn 

ID apptMidin^ hcuIh, lui (-iirly iih tlio tiiiicn under Sir Krcderic'H olihorvatiuu, ia 

of the C«iiife«iior ; hut it iiiiiHt ho i.hHorvod timt of Iltnry I. in tho your 1 101», 
that tbono K|iiiriouM chiirtcrH only wero 



disinterred in a stratum of black mould, about 300 yards from the town, 
in tlie level pasture through which the river Caldew takes its course. It 
consists of the upper portion of a male figure, the head broken off at the 
neck, which is apparently encircled by a torque or a rope, to which a 
crescent-shaped ornament is appended. The left shoulder and hand remain, 
the latter grasping a stafl^, and in the right hand appears part of the handle, 
possibly, of a sword or dagger terminating in a bird's head. In front of 
the body is an object which recalls the little basket-like receptacle occa- 
sionally seen in Itoman monumental sculpture. The drapery is rudely 
represented in narrow parallel folds ; the figure, about two- thirds of life 
size, is in low flat relief ; the back of the fragment is smooth with an iroa 
cramp, by which it had been aftixed to a wall or other flat surface. Mr. 
Franks observed that this relic seems to be portion of a sepulchral monument, 
possil)ly that of a soldier of one of the auxiliary cohorts quartered per 
lineam valll. A large urn containing ashes, and also a bronze ring of 
common form lay near this relic, which is coarsely sculptured, and its 
present fractured state seems to be owing to reckless violence, rather than 
decay of time. 

Mr. LlvocK communicated a memoir on ancient horticulture, and the 
decorations of gardens, illustrated by a very curious piece of French 
tapestry which he exhibited, representing the history of Perseus and 
Andromeda, date about 15G0 ; the costumes, details of domestic archi- 
tecture, gardens with berceaux and topiary work, »kc., were most picturesque 
and accurately detailed. 

^ntiquiticii mti 'max^i of ITrt ey^ifittclf. 

By Mr. Charles Tucker, F.S.A. — A drawing of an ovoid vase, said to 
have been found near Crediton, Devon, 
where numerous Roman remains have 
been brought to light. It is of coarse 
gritty ware of dingy white color, and 
measures nearly 14 inches in height, 
the circumference of the largest part 
being 28 i inches ; the diameter of the 
mouth, 3 inches. This vessel was 
formerly in the possession of the Rev. 
Sanmel Rowe, Vicar of Crediton, 
author of the " Perambulation of the 
Ancient Forest of Dartmoor," and 
well-known by his investigations of 
antiquities in the West of England. 
It came from him to Mr. Ilolden, of 
Exeter, b}- whom it was given to Mr. 
Tucker. An ovoid vessel of similar 
description, found at Lincoln, is now 
in the Duke of Nortluunberland's 
Museum at Alnwick Castle. It had 
been ascribed to the Roman period 

whilst in the collection of its previous i 1 _:_ 

possessor, Mr. E. J. Willson, the 6 Inchts. 

antiquary of Lindum. Another like vase, described by the Comte de 


Cavlns as of Iioman oriiijin, is preserved in the ^luseuin of Antiquities at 
tlie Imperial Library in Paris. 

By Mr. W. W. E. Wynne, M.P. — A devotional folding tablet, seulptnred 
in ivory ; on one leaf is the crucifixion, on the other the coronation of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. It is probably of English art, fourteenth century, 
and is believed to have belonged to Vale Crucis Abbey. It was in the 
possession of the late Mr. Vanghan of RhCig, Merionethshire, by whom it 
was given to Mr. Wynne. 

By Professor Westmacott, R.A. — Two cases containing a selection of 
Papal medals. We are indebted to his kindness for the following descrip- 
tion of these valuable examples of art. " The specimens exhibited were 
chosen rather as illustrations of medallic art, of different periods, than for 
their historical interest, thoujfh some of them deserve attention on grounds dis- 
tinct from their artistic merits. Of this class one large medallion, about 3 in. 
in diameter, of Pope Paul II. (14G4) presiding over a Council or Consistory, 
with the inscription .SACKL'.\i. rfULiccM. ArosTOLici'M. consistouil'.m. pacll'S. 
VENETLS r. p. II., is both curious and rare. The reverse has a represen- 
tation of the last judgment. It is the work of T. Bartolomeo. A smaller 
bronze medal gives a characteristic portrait of this pontiff 

The medals were not arranged in order of date. Tlic earliest in the 
series is one of Eugenius IV. (1431), before wL/u period there are no 
authentic medallic portraits of the Popes. It is even thouglit that this 
commencement can only safely be dated from the time of Paul II., and that 
those of pontiffs prior to that date have been added at a later time by their 
successors. This of Engenius IV. may, therefore, be open to doubt. The 
reverse of one of liis medals bears the curious inscription qi'km. creant. 
ADOUANT. Among the earlier examples to be noticed is one of Si.xtus IV., 
in tiara and pluvial. The date of this pontitf was from 1171 to 1-181, and 
the great medallist of the time was a certain Pollajuolo. The reverse of this 
medal shows a finely designed female figure, and its execution is attributed 
to this celebrated artist. A very fine reverse was shown of a medal of 
Innocent VIII. (1484), exhibiting three female figures draped, with the 
inscription justicia. pax. copia. The style of this work is very grand, and 
the workmanship worthy the liigh reputation of Pollajuolo, who is said to 
liavc executed it. This medal evidently was held in much esteem at the 
time, and when the tomb of Innocent was opened, for its removal to anotlier 
site in lOOG, a medal precisely similar to this was found in it. A medal of 
Alexander W. (Borgia) 140li, claims notice for the large and bold character 
of its execution. It is in bronze, and bears the inscription ji'.st. pacisq. 
CVLTOK. : a title not very consistent with the well-known expression of tlio 
Boujans * that the lOmperors taught tyranny, but the liorgias ])ractised it.' 
The two next meilals deserving of partiiidar notice are of Julius II. (l/)03). 
The reverses only of these were shown. One of them is a rennukably 
Btriking com[iosition, representing St. Paul struck from his horse, with other 
figures, and bearing the in8crij)tion contra . STlMUl.r.\i . NE . calcituas. 
It is dfsigiK'd in the true sjiirit of Greek sculptiire, and is attributed to the 
celebrated iiaifaelle d'Urbino. The execution of the medal was carried out 
by CarndosHo, an eminent artist and a fellow-workman of B. Ci-llini. Tho 
oiImt reverse shows a female figure with a cornucopia, and is inscribed 
AN.NONA. prni.lCA. Three medals of Leo. X. [Medici] loi."<, are next to bo 
noticed. Two of thene exhibit very high art (pialitics. One has a victor 
in II chariot drawn by fi)ur ^jiitilcd horses ; a gcninn, or Vict"iy, bearing a 


crown, floats in the upper part of the composition, and below are small pieces 
of armour, &c. This beautiful work closely resembles the well-known 
silver Sicilian medallions so highly esteemed by collectors of ancient coins. 
It is said to be the work of Valorio Valentino, and is a fine example 
of the art of the time. The second medal referred to, said to have been 
executed by the same artist, represents three female figures, slightly 
draped, with the motto fiat. pax. in. viutute. tva. The design of this 
medal was furnished by Giulio Romano. A fine and rare silver medal, 
with twisted rim, of Clement VII. (Medici), in excellent preservation, and 
exhibiting a characteristic head of that Pope, deserves notice. Another 
of the same with the reverse representing Moses striking the rock, with the 
motto UT. BIBAT. POPULVs. shows a full composition well treated. It is 
a work of the celebrated Benvenuto Cellini. Two fine medals, one gilt, the 
other in bronze, are to be noticed of Paul III. (Farnese) 1534, The first, 
exhibiting a portrait of the pontiff, is rather scarce ; the specimen is in 
excellent preservation. Under the title paulus hi. pon't. max. a. xii., is 
the name of the medallist AAESANAP02 • EnoiEl • in small letters. This 
refers to Alessandro Cesati, called il Greco. A smaller bronze medal is 
believed by some to be by B. Cellini, but it is probably a work of il Greco. 
It represents a youth, naked, carrying a water-pot, with a motto *EPNH • 
ZHN02 • EYPAINEI. It is an exquisite example of art. The legend is, no 
doubt, a pun upon the name of this Pope, who was of the house of Farnese ; 
<^(pvTi Zrjvos would read Fernesinos, easily rendered Farnesinus. A large 
medal of Paul IV., bareheaded, and in the pluvial, and two of Gregory XIII. : 
one, small, gilt, another, of large size, in bronze, deserve notice. The 
latter has round the portrait colleg. soc. jesu. omnium, natioxum. gratia. 
FUNDATO. DE. KELiG. ET. LIT. OPT. MER. This medal has also a fine reverse. 
Another of this Pontiff has on the reverse the remarkable legend ugoko- 
TORUM. STRAGES, in commemoration of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. 
A medal, gilt, of Sixtus V. (1585), deserves attention for its character as 
a portrait and its execution as a work of art. Those of Paul V., Alexander 
VII., Innocent XL, and Alexander VIII., are also well worthy of notice, 
for the expression and individuality of the portraits, and, generally, for 
the style of execution. It is to be regreted that only one side of the 
medals could be shown, as in many instances both the obverses and 
reverses have equal claim to admiration. The two reverses shown of 
those of Alexander VII. and VIII., one representing the monumental tomb 
of the Pope, and the other a bird's-eye view of the Piazza of St. Peter's, 
with FUNDAMENTA. EJUS. IX. MONTiBUS. SACRis., exhibit great merit, of its 
kind, in the medallic treatment of architectural subjects. It is curious that 
in the latter design is shown a block of building between the extremities of 
the two colonnades, as if the original design had contemplated that addition. 
One large bronze medal of Innocent XI. may be noticed especially. It 
contains four heads on the obverse ; namely, ixxocext xi. leop. i. imp. 
JO. III. rex. po. m.a. jus. ve. dux. The relief of the first head is very bold, 
the others recede till that of the Doge is in quite low relief. This curious 
medal commemorates the treaty entered into by the four potentates after 
raising the siege of Vienna in 1683. Five remarkably fine medals, two very 
large, silver and gilt, and three smaller in silver, of Innocent XII., deserve 
especial attention for the bold and grand character of treatment exhibited in 
them. One of these medals is attributed to Beatrice Ilamerami, of a German 
family celebrated for their talent in this branch of art. A large gilt medal 



of BcneJict XIII. (172-i) is a good example of tlie skill of the portrait 
lucilaliists of the time. The reverse of this medal is a spirited composition, 
finely executed, of St. Luke paintini]^. Two of Clement XII., large, iu 
bronze, one showing the head of the Pope crowned with the tiara, the other, 
a reverse, with the section of a chnpel, inscribed sacello. in. lateuanen. 
«kc. with date, are good examples of medallic art towards the middle of the 
eighteenth century. An expressive portrait of Benedict XIV., gilt, and 
another iu silver, showing the reverse, a female figure well designed, with 
the motto vectigaliuvs. hemissis., of the same poutitf merit remark. 
Some valuable examples, both iu portraits and reverses, of the pontificate 
of Clement XIII., exhibit the satisfactory condition of the art from 17G1) 
to 1774. A large and fine medal of its kind, of Gregory XVI., is inte- 
resting from its exhibiting on its reverse, iu a view of Kipa Grande in 
Kome, a steamboat with other craft. The first appearance of such an 
invention on a Papal medal is worthy of notice. Several of the following 
medals were exhibited chiefly to show the condition of art during the last 
fifty years, rather than from any particular merit or interest in their 
designs. Two of Pius VII., with the head of that pontift', and a reverse 
with the Colosseum, have, however, considerable merit. The portraits of the 
later Popes are not of remarkable excellence. Two or three only were shown 
as specimens. The designs on the reverses of medals of Pius VI., Pius VII. 
Leo XII., Gregory XVI. and Pius IX. are not without interest, and some 
of them exhibit considerable artistical power iu their respective authors. 

A third frame contained medals in gold and silver of St. Luke's 
Academy in Kome, and of the Academy of the Grand Duke in Florence ; 
also a fine reverse of the celebrated Torso of the Belvedere, a silver 
medal of the Royal Academy of London." 

By Mr. Edmund WArr-UTON, F.S.A. — An iron prick spur. — A fine gold 
ring set with a pointed ruby, and inscribed, — lEXVS. avtem. transiens. 
r£U. MEDIVM ILLOUL'.M. — between the words are cinqfuils ; date, late xiv. 
cent. — An enameled cross of Maltese work, and a gold ring, device, on a 
shield couchc, with helm and crest, two bars in chief three roundels and a 
label; legend — pueam d' A.noAitT ; or imicamd' a.uoaut. (?) The rii may 
indicate a name or title. — The steel guard of a sword, of the time of 
Elizabeth, wrouglit as if formed of cord. 

By Mr. Hewitt. — A lease of land at Brading, in the Isle of Wight, to 
John Grime, dated 10 April, 11 James I., 1G13, witli the oflicial seal of 
the Captain of the Lshiiul appended. Tliis recently noticed seal, of which 
no other imjiression has been found, is of circular f.irm, the devise being 
the bust of a queen issuing from a rose. Legend, (last word eilaced) — 
sKJIM,v.\i. oriicii. INSVLAE. (vKCTls ?) Tlie document, now in the hands 
of Mr. George llillier, author of the Ilistory of the Isle of Wight in courao 
of publication, declares that " the kinge to one part of the said indenturca 
has caused tlie seal of the office of iho saido Isle to be afrixed." It is thus 
indorsed, — *'Tlii.s was the awntient scale of y Island, by and wliith which 
all leases were sealed by the commander." The lease is signed by Henry 
J'!arl of Southampton. 

By Mr. \V. J. r.KiiNM.MM) Smith. — A Si)anisli rapii-r of uuii-ual length 
ami weight, with a barrcil hilt ornamented with j)erforate(l .shell-guards. 
iJiito lato xvi, cent. — A long rapier with a guard formed in imil,,lion of 
twisted cord, in lilu; fa.Hliion as that above noticed e.\hihil«Ml by .Mr. Wuter- 
ton. Sco Skelton, Gooilrich Court Armory, pi. l(Ji{, lig. l.'i. 


By ^Ir. A. W. Franks, Dir.S.A — A portion of a bamboo walking-stafT, 
or possibly the handle of a fan or some like object, very curiously engraved 
with subjects of Scripture history, the Prodigal Son, <fcc., in medallions. 
At the top is a heart-shaped compartment enclosing a male and a female 
bust, with the date 1612. At the bottom appear Adam and Eve, with the 

inscription — Omnes dexendimiir (sic). — I)o7i Petrns me fecit in 

eclario hieronimi ; also the motto — Nohilitas sine virtute cilescit. 

By Mr. W. Figge, through Mr. Blaauw. — A delicately finished oval 
miniature drawn with a plummet on vellum, signed — /. (or T.) Forster delin. 
It has been supposed to be a portrait of the Duke of Marlborough ; it re- 
presents a gentleman in full-bottomed wig, and long falling band. It was 
formerly in possession of ihe Paine family, of Ringmere, Sussex, and had 
belonged, as stated, to Sir Henry Guillim, of Staplefield Common, whose 
daughter married one of the Paines. Some miniatures in like style by 
the same artist have been contributed to the Loan Exhibition recently formed 
at South Kensington, Catal., Nos. 2122, 2558. No artist of the name is 
mentioned by Walpole, Pilkington, or Bryan. Mr. Dallaway, Introd. to 
Walpole's Arts in England, vol. v. p. v., gives Ingham Foster amongst the 
collectors of engraved British Portraits. 

By the Rev. James Beck. — Two ancient Iron rushlight-holders, used in 
Sussex for suspending rushes dipped in tallow, a rural substitute fur candles, 
retained until comparatively recent times in that county. A specimen of 
such appliances is figured, Arch. Journal, vol xiii. p. 193. 

By the Rev. Gregory Rhodes. — A silver watch, the movement of which 
has a regulating-spring, and is believed to have been made under the di- 
rection of Dr. Ilooke, the celebrated mathematician, to whom the invention 
of the pendulum spring is attributed. The first idea originated in 1G58, 
but in IGGO the invention was improved, and towards the latter part of the 
Eeventcenth century it was skilfully carried out by Thomas Tompion under 
Dr. Hooke's superintendence. The watch exhibited has been preserved with 
the family tradition that it was presented by Charles II. to Capt. Nicholas 
Tatterscll, through whose loyalty the king was conveyed to France after 
the defeat at Worcester in l65l. He was rewarded with a pension con- 
tinued for three generations ; a slab in the old churchyard at Brighton 
records his death in 1674. Mr. Morgan, who, in his Observations on 
Watchmaking, Archasologia, vol. xxxiii. p. 93, describes Dr. Ilooke's 
improvements, is of opinion that this watch was made not earlier than 
1675, but probably towards the close of the century. 

Matrices of seals. — By Mr. Edmund Waterton, F.S.A. — ^Litrix of the 
seal of Thomas de Rokeby ; of silver ; circular, diam. 1 inch ; device an 
escutcheon of the arms of Rokeby, a chevron between three rooks ; legend 
(in black letter) — Sigillum : Thome : de Rokeby. This may have been the 
seal of Sir Thomas de Rokebj', of Rokeby and Mortham, Yorkshire, t. 
Edw. 111. ; he was distinguished at the battle of Neville's Cross, in 1346. 

The seal of Simon Covellt ; circular, diam. l-j^in., device an escutcheon 
couchc, charged with 3 crescents and a mullet in nombril point, and 
ensigned with a helm ; crest a crescent ; legend on a scroll (in black letter) 
S : Simonis Covellt. The design appears to be Flemish, of the later part 
of the fifteenth centurv. 


May 2, 1882. 
Xoiil Talbot de Malaiiide, F.S.A., Pres'ulent, iu tlic Chair. 

Lonl Talbot expressed regret tliat his engagements in Ireland had for 
some time prevented his taking part in the meetings of the Institute ; ho 
had noticed with gratitication tlie interest of the communications received, 
and the constant Hberality witli whicli vahiablo ohjccts of antiquity and 
historical value were entrusted for exhibition. On the present occasion it 
was with high satisfaction that he was enabled to announce the concession 
of facilities of access, so long desired, to the depositories of ancient wills. 
A memorial having been addressed to the Lords Commissioners of Ilcr 
Majesty's Treasury, signed by the Earl Stanhope, President of the Society 
of Anti(iuarics. and by influential members of that body, and also of the 
Institute, their Lordships had recently intimated that they had approved of 
a proposal submitted to them by the Judge of the Court of Probate to carry 
out arrangements for the inspection of ancient wills in the registry at 
Doctors' Commons, under proper restriction and for literary purposes oidy. 
Lord Talbot desired also to invite attention to the kind liberality of the 
I'larl of Winchilsea, and to propose a vote of special acknowledgment to 
the noble possessor of the Ilatton collections. At the previous meeting 
Lord Winchilsea had entrusted for examination a remarkable document 
preserved at Eastwell Park, and from the same rich depository of historical 
and archaeological evidence he had now brought for the gratification of the 
Institute the valuable collection of drawings of effigies, painted glass, and 
examples of monumental art, in cathedral and other churches, which had 
been formed by Sir W. Dugdale for Lord Ilatton, about 1G40 ; also two 
sumptuous volumes, one of them comprising transcripts of charters, the 
other relating to the ancient ceremonials of chivalry. With these, more- 
over. Lord \\'inchilsea had most kindly submitted to their examination a 
roll of the early jiart of the fifteenth century, which Lord Talbot regarded 
with umisual interest, being a Norman-French version of the ^fodns tenendi 
I'arliamcntum, of which no other copy is known to exist. Tiie formula, 
long in use in England, as shown in Mr. Duft'us Hardy's valuable disserta- 
ti(jn, was transmitted to the sister kingdom for the regulation of the two 
Houses, and the roll now exhibited may have been the identical document 
used in the Lish Parliament. A curious petition is found endorsed upon it, 
nddresHod by Kichard, Archbishop of Cashel, to Thomas of Lancaster, son 
of Henry IV., and Lieutenant of Ireland early in the fiftecntli century, the 
jicriod to which this uniipie document may be assigiird. 

Mr. C. Si-ui'XOKL GiucAVKs, (^.C, ollered some remarks on the iniport- 
nnce of facilities fcjr consulting ancient wills, and the advantages whii li 
would thence accrue to the historical student and the arclueologist. Ho 
hopfd that the promised jirivilcge n)ight be extended in a large and liberal 
ineaHure, and proposed n vote, which was seconded by Mr. Octavius Morgan, 
iNLP., recognising tlu; great value of the concession which had now been 
uMuounced by liord Tali»ot. 

'Ihc Key. J, IL Hill, Kector of Cranoe, Leiceslerf-hire, then gave a 
►horl account of the recent discovery of Koman relics near that place, on 
the line of Koman road, which enters the county near Mcdbourn, where a 
liomnti pavement and other vestigeH exist, and crosses the l'"<iss at Leicester. 
The depo«it lay Udl far from Lunl r.erner'u residence, Kc^ llidipi' Hull, and 


about a quarter of a mile from tlic spot wlicre the Saxon remains, des- 
cribed Arch. Journ., vol. xviii. p. 7G, were found in May, 1860. Some 
workmen engaged in draining struck upon a bronze skillet or trulla, the 
handle of which was pierced with a trefoil ; witli this were diainterred some 
finely patinated fragments of a bronze prefcrlculiim, namely, the trefoil- 
eliapcd mouth and the liandlc, the latter ornamented with a figure of a 
dancing genius, of spirited design ; also the straight spout of a bronze 
patera, terminating in the head of a ram (compare those found in one of 
the Bartlow Hills, Archreologia, vol. xxv. pi. II, fig. 11 ; vol. 33). 
The spot where the discovery occurred is at the bottom of a hill known as 
"Ram's Head," and the object last noticed, Mr. Hill observed, had been 
regarded by the finders with particular curiosity, from a supposed associa- 
tion with the familiar name of the locality. The coincidence, he remarked, 
although accidental, is certaitdy singular. With the bronze relics above 
noticed were fragments of a glass dish, ribbed and formed in a mould ; the 
upper portion of a long-necked bottle of rich deep blue colored glass, with 
one handle ; when perfect this remarkable specimen of antique glass had 
measured about 1:^ inches in height (compare one found in the Ustrimim at 
Litlington, Archajologia, vol. xxvi. pi. 45, fig. 7) ; also four glass ungucn- 
taria, resembling those found with the remarkable interment in the Bartlow 
Hills. These relics, unfortunately in very fragmentary condition, had been 
deposited with a Roman interment, probably in a wooden chest, portions of 
decayed oak having been noticed. They lay at a depth of about 30 inches. 
The general features of the interesting discovery described by Mr. Hill 
correspond closely with those of like sepulchral deposits of the Roman 
period in other localities, such as the tomb at Shefford, Bedfordshire, the 
curious contents of which are figured in the Publications of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society (4to series), with a descriptive notice by Sir Henry 
Dryden, Bart. In that deposit a ribbed dish or saucer of glass, a bronze 
vessel in perfect state, with a spout terminating in a ram's head, a bronze 
prefericuhim with trefoil-shaped mouth, and the handle ornamented with a 
female figure of fine design, also vases of blue glass, and a bronze skillet 
were disinterred. Mr. Hill stated that some curious remains had lately 
been brought to light at St. Martin's, Leicester, of which he promised to 
give a notice on a future occasion. 

Mr. George Tate, F.G.S., of Alnwick, communicated an account of the 
examination of ancient remains in Northumberland, in the valley of the 
Breamish, especially the site of an old town near Linhope, known as 
Greaves Ash, which Mr. Tate considers to be a vestige of the " Celtic " 
or ancient British race in Northumberland prior to the Roman invasion. 
The excavations, of which he described the results, illustrated by a ground- 
plan from a survey by Mr. "Wightman, of Wooler, and diagrams, wei'e carried 
out during the summer of 18G1, preliminary to the Annual Meeting of the 
Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, through the liberal assistance and encou- 
ragement of the Duke of Northumberland, ever foremost in promoting 
researches through Avhich the history and antiquities of the county may be 
elucidated. The work was ])laced under the superintendence of the veteran 
explorer, Mr. W. Coulson, of Corbridge, to whose intelligent and zealous 
direction the extensive excavations made by his Grace's orders at JJre- 
vicniuin in Redesdale, in 1852, had been confided. Greaves Ash is an 
elevated platform on the southern slope of Greenshaw Hill, far up in the 
Cheviot range ; the old town, with the adjoining detached strongholds, 


occupy an area of about 20 acres ; the ruins consist cliicfly of sites of 
circular dwellings, surrounded by walls or ramparts, the whole formed of 
dry masonry, the materials employed being blocks of the porphyry of the 
district, with some water-worn stuncs obtained from the Breaniish or other 
streams. The outer ramjiart of the principal work, or town, measures 
10 to 12 feet in width, the inner one from 5 to 7 feet. In some places the 
excavation exposed three or four courses of rude masonry. The area 
appears to have been occupied by circular huts and a few larger enclosures. 
The foundations of eiirhtecn huts are visible, the diameter being from 11 to 
27 feet ; each has a regular entrance, generally towards the east or south- 
east. The fire-place appeared to have been in the centre. The liut-circles 
liaving been cleared, the floors appeared to have been neatly flagged with 
slabs of porphyry ; some portions of pottery were noticed, also part of an 
arndet of glass. Some curious observations on constructive peculiarities 
were the result of these explorations ; the investigation extended to the 
adjacent forts or dwellings, connected with the principal cluster of hut- 
circles by an ancient way. A detailed account of this remarkable site, 
and also of camp and hut-circles on the neighbouring heights along the 
course of the river Breaini^h, is given by Mr. Tate in the Transactions of 
the Berwickshire Natuialists' Club, vol. iv. p. 293. The relics discovered 
supply no conclusive evidence in regard to the period when those dwellings 
were occupied ; besides the fragment of an arndet already mentioned, re- 
sembling certain ornaments which have occurred in Scotland and elsewhere, 
they comprise some rudely-shaped objects of flint, a material not found in 
Northumberland, also hand-mills formed of syenite and sandstone, and 
broken pottery presenting no distinctive features. In the fortress known 
as Brough-law camp, an iron blade was found, resembling the knifo 
usually accompanying interments of the Saxon period. Mr. Tate cited the 
principal examples of similar hut-circles and vestiges of ancient towns in 
Cornwall, Somerset, Scotland, and other localities ; he oll'ered some curious 
suggestions in reference to the period and the iiriinitivc race, ignorant 
apparently of the use of metals, to which ho is of o]tinion that these 
remarkable remains may be assigned. The further and careful explora- 
tion of similar works in the Northern Marclics, where, from the nature of 
the country and their inaccessible position, such vestiges are found compa- 
ratively well preserved, may, it is hoped, throw light on tlic obscure 
ethnological questions connected with these very interesting prehistoric 

Mr. Li,i;wKi,i,VN Jkwitt, F.S.A., of Derby, then read a notice of speci- 
mens of mediieval vessels, and of jjottery-works lately found between Derby 
ami Duflicld, on the estates of Lord Scarsdale, by whom Mr. Jcwitt's 
attention had been called to the discovery. Of two mounds, apparently 
the sites of ancient works, (jnly one had bei'H examined : Mr. .lewitt hoped 
to bring the subject more fully before the Society hereafter. He exhibited 
drawings of the curious vessels, some of which are ornamented with horse- 
hIiocb in relief, and also with ring-brooches or fcnnaih, devices as ho 
believed of the Ferrers family, who from the Concpiest possessed the lands 
where this discovery occurred. He lias published subsc(|ucntly a memoir 
with rejircficntations of the vases described, in his interesting periodical 
chiefly relating to Derbyshire archa.'ology, entitled the Heli<|uary ; see 
vol. ii. p. 210. The vcshcIh, Mr. Jewitt remarked, are sucli as were 
cracked in the kiln, or had f.illen out of Khnpe ; they arc partially glazed; 



the ornaments were forniod in "slip," and affixed to tlic surface after the 
vessel was fashioned on the lathe. lie considered their date to be about tlie 
time of Henry III. He promised a furtlier communication on the subject of 
lictile manufactures in Derbyshire ; a variety of other early specimens liad 
been found at Tickenall, on the site, as he believed, of anotlier ancient 
manufacture of pottery, and Mr. Jewitt anticipated that he should be en- 
abled to show a continuous series of the products of local industry of this 
class from the Norman period to tlie time of the porcelain manufacture at 
Derby, towards the close of the last century, on the cessation of the works 
at Chelsea. 

Mr. MoRGAX, in expressing the thanks of the meeting for this curious 
communication, adverted to the interest with wliich, having long devoted 
attention to the fictile arts in this country, he had welcomed the valuable 
Memoirs lately given by Mr. Jewitt in the Art Journal. The history of 
j)ottery and porcelain had been until recent times a sealed book ; Mr. 
Morgan rejoiced to perceive that so active and intelligent a fellow-labourer 
in this special subject of research had been enabled to afford that accurate 
and detailed information, which would be found in tlie Monographs by Mr. 
Jewitt, to which he was desirous to invite attention. 

^ntiqxiititS mits miar'ixi of ^rt evl)tl)ttcir. 

By Mr. Albert Wat. — Drawings of two remarkable relics found some 
years since in Sussex, on the South Downs, probably accompanying an 
interment, but the circumstances relating to the discovery have not been 
recorded. It took place on Clayton Hill, about seven miles north of 
Drighton. One of these objects is the diminutive specimen of ancient 
pottery here figured on a reduced scale. The original, preserved in the 
collection of Mrs. Weeks, Hurst Pierpoint, measured 21 in. in height, 3j in. 
in diameter. It is of the curious class of urns designated by the late Sir 
R. Colt Iloare "thuribles," the second division of Celtic pottery in the 
arrangement proposed by the late Mr. Bateman. See his Ten Years' 

Diininutivo perforated Um found on Cliytoii Hill, Susses. Diam. of ori;-. 3; in. 

Diggings, p. 282, and the notice of tliat work in this Journal, vol. xviii. 
p. 414, where several examples are enumerated. The lower part of this 
specimen is formed with diagonal slits ; the upper part and inner mar<'in 



of the rim being ruilely ornamented with imprcsseil cortlod lines, forming a 
trelliseil pattern. The intention of these small perforated vessels is a 
question well deserving attention in the very limited series of relics of their 
period. Occasionally they have two small perforations at the side, as if 
for suspension. They mostly occur enclosed within larger urns, and in 
interments apparently not of the earliest class. Some examples seem 
fashioned after a basket-work type ; sec a curious little urn formed with 
open work, found on Stanton Moor, DL'ibyshire, Archoiologia, 1. 


The second object (see woodcut, orig. size), is a little pendant ornament 
of lifht blue vitrified paste. It was found within the little vessel above 
figured. Tlie material appears almost identical with that of which certain 
Eoyptian relics are formed. Two similar objects have been found with 
early interments in Sussex, on the downs near Brighton ; one of these is 
ti'^ured in Ilorsfield's History of Lewes, p. 44, pi. 3, and is now amongst 
the late Dr. Mantell's collections in the British Museum. These curious 
relics may have been imported with the glass beads which occur with early 
British reujains. 

By Mr. FiiKDKRiCK Potts, of Chester. — Photographs of Roman inscrip- 
tions recently found in that city ; tlicy have been described and accurately 
fif'ured in Mr. Roach Smith's Collectanea Antiqua, vol. vi. p. 20. Also 
the folbjwing relics found at Chester. — Portion of a statuette of Venus, in 
tine white clay, formed in two moulds, and the moieties united together and 
]. laced on u pedestal. See sjiccimens in Mr. Roach Smith's Roman Lon- 
don, p. 100, and similar types found near Moulins, figured in his Col- 
lectanea, vol. vi. p. 52. It was found on St. Mary's Hill, Cliestcr. — 
Portion of a tile bearing the impression of the solo of a calitja thickly set 
with nail-heads, and also the stamp of the twentieth legion, styled Valeria 
and VicU-ix, — LKo. X.\ v. — A rude leaden stamp with letters in relief, in tv/o 
lines, the letters inverted, so as to give an impress in their right direction. 
Mr. Potts proposes the reading cl avo. vie, ])rcccded by the centurial sign. 
— An iron spear-head, ornamented with gilding, found in ISGl. — Mediieval 
ornaments, car-rings, <kc., ono of them set with an emerald. 

i'y the Eaul ok Winciiilska. — Three largo volumes, from the Ilatton 
Library, now preserved at Eastwcll Park, Kent. — 1. A collection of colored 
drawings of nionuMieiitH, painted glass, inscriptions, heraldic achievements, 
«tc., exihting in eatbedral and other cliurebes, about IGIO. Sir t'liristopber, 
afterwards Lord Ilatton, appreliending, as it liils been st.nted, the dreadful 
devahtiilion tlireati;iied by the civil war, despatched Dugdale, at that time 
Jilaneh-lioi) pursuivant, and who liad heen re<'oii]mended to him by Spelinan, 
to take, with tli<? aHHi«tance of William Sedgewiek, I)wg(bile'n .servant, a skilful 
annn painter, ilrawings of such memorials as they jntlged most worthy of 
allt-nliou. The»c, corcfully tricked by Sedgewiek, were deposited in the 


library formed at Kirby in Northamptonsbire by their tasteful and judicious 
employer. Amongst the curious contents of this sumptuous volume may be 
cited drawings of heraldry, monuments, etc., in the cathedral churches of St. 
Paul's, London, Lichfield, Ely, Lincoln, and Peterborough, of the pall and 
heraldic achievements which were placed on the tomb of Katharine of 
Aragon, in the latter, and of the funereal achievement marking the spot 
•where the remains of Mary queen of Scots had there first been deposited. 
Also of monuments and painted glass, at Selby, Hull, Fotheringhay, 
Newark, Southwell, Bottesford, Sandon, Tamworth, (fee, and the very curious 
painted glass in St. George's church, Stamford, representing Edward IIL 
and twenty-four knights kneeling in their armorial surcoats. Also curious 
subjects from the legend of St. George, and the portraitures of Sir William 
Bnigges, Garter, with his wife and daughters : this remarkable painted 
glass was placed there by him in the reign of Henry VL Of numerous 
drawings of sepulchral memorials now destroyed may be cited that of a 
brass of a knight in the cross-legged attitude, in St. Mary's church, 
Chester. The costume presented the rare feature of ailettes, charged with 
a plain cross ; the bearing on the shield being billety with a label. — 2. An 
extensive collection of copies of ancient documents in possession of Henry 
St. George, Garter t. Charles L, John Philipot, Somerset Herald in the 
same reign, and others. Numerous carefully colored drawings are given 
of the seals appended. — 3. An elaborately illuminated copy of the ceremonies 
used in creating knights of the Bath. These curious subjects are engraved 
in the Notes on Upton de Stud, Mil. p. 20, from a MS. in Will. Le Neve's 
library ; also in Dugdale's Warw. p. 531, orig. edit. — 4. The roll before 
mentioned, entitled " La manere de tenire parlement," — 5. A facsimile of the 
grant by Edward the Confessor to Westminster, exhibited by Lord Winchilsea 
at the previous meeting (see p. 176, ante). This exact copy may have been 
made by the same hand and at the same time as the transcripts of documents 
comprised in the folio volume above mentioned. Sir Christopher Ilatton, 
a descendant of the Lord Chancellor, t. Eliz., w^as a zealous royalist, and 
was created Baron Ilatton, of Kirby, by Charles I. in 16-43, His grand- 
daughter espoused the sixth Earl of Winchilsea, and the bulk of the Ilatton 
estates eventually devolved upon their son. 

By Mr. Joiix Caur, of Skipton. — Two original portraits, of which one 
represents Jane Seymour, painted, probably, before her marriage in 1536. 
]n general character and costume it bears much resemblance to the portrait 
of that queen in possession of the Duke of Bedford. In both paintings 
necklaces and jewelry appear in rich variety ; in that at Woburn there is 
a pendant ornament with pearls, which seems to be the sacred monogram 
of Our Lord's name ; in this instance a like pendant is seen, formed of the 
letters ab, conjoined, and with pearls appended. It has been suggested 
that this may have been a token of affection given to Jane Seymour by 
Anne Boleyn. Thoy had been together at the French court in 1514 as 
maids of honor to Mary, daughter of Henry VIL, and consort of Louis XII., 
and their full length portraits, it is stated, are to be seen in the gallery of 
portraits at Versailles. It may have been partly due to early friendship at 
that period that Anne Boleyn, on becoming queen in 1532, made choice of 
Jane Seymour as one of lier own ladies of honor, a distinction attended 
with such fatal consequences. This portrait is on panel ; probably much 
retouched. Pendant ornaments composed of letters were much in vogue at 
the period. A beautiful example — ii. e — from a drawing by Holbein, is 

VOL. XIX. c c 


given by Mr. Sliaw in his Handbook of Alphabets and Devices, and it may 
be seen in this Journal, vol. x. p. SO. — The second paintinfj sent by Mr. 
Carr represented the eminent reformer Hans Znini;lius, of Ziirich, probably 
one of the numerous copies of the portrait by Hans Asper, a painter of 
considerable merit in tliat city. He was a contemporary and imitator of 
Holbein, and died in 1571. His orininal portraits of Zuinglius and his 
wife are preserved in the library of the city at Ziirich. That exhibited 
is on a somewhat reduced scale, on panel, profile to the left, and probably 
of the period. 

By Sir Thomas Rokewope Gage, Bart., through the Very Rev. Canon 
Rock. — A fine pectoral cross of solid gold, with the figure of our Lord 
enameled, and bearing over the head a very peculiar nimbus showing the 
points of the cross darting out beyond the circle of the nimbus itself. 
From the shape of the letters l. N. u. l. on the titii/us, and other indications, 
it would seem that this cross was wrought about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, very probably by an English hand. Dr. Rock conjectures that it 
may have been given by Queen Mary, or some other wealihy friend, to the 
Lady Abbess of Syon Monastery, Isleworth, on the restoration of that 
house at the beginning of Clary's reign. This cross was ])rcscntcd to Sir 
Thomas Gage's uncle, that able antiquary, the late John Gage Rokewodc, 
Esq., by the nuns of Syon, as a token of acknowledgment of benefits received 
through his exertions when thoy took refuge in England from Lisbon, after 
the seizure of Portugal by the French. The cross had formed a portion of the 
curious relics of their English home, borne about with them by the Syon nuns 
during their various changes of residence ; and the Superioress, from whom 
Mr. Gage Rokcwode received this mark of their gratitude, assured him that 
it had belonged to the sisterhood before they were compelled a second time 
to leave Syon, under Elizabeth, and quitted England. Within the last few 
months they have again come back to this country, and are now settled at 
their new Syon house, Speti^bury, Dorsctiihire, never having been broken 
up entirely as a religious body, since their establi.-hment by Henry V. Sir 
Thomas Gage exhibited also a precious little book bound in green velvet, 
worked on both sides with the I'rinco of Wales's plume in silver, amidst 
diapering of Bced-pearls wrought after a very artistic maimer. Tlie hook 
itself is a sort of small jieerage, with the shields and crests of sixty-four 
members of the House of Lords, nicely tricked in their proper colors and 
metals, by the skilful hand of Esther Inglis, who ollered this ex(|ui8ite 
little work as a new year's gift to Henry, Prince of Wales, eldest son of 
James L On the first leaf, within a fieur-dc-lys, powdered with little gilt dots, 
is this iiiscri])tion, — "A Book of the Armes of England doone by me Esther 
Inglis, Januar the first, IGO'J." Within n heart formed by a wreath of 
green leaves and red and gold flowers, surmounted by a hand lioiding a 
golihm pen, is written the dedication ; — " To Tin; .must E.\c'i;m,i;nt I'iilnck 

Hknkv, I'kinck ok Wales. Sm as your llignes sees heir the figure of 

a hi;art and liand,euen so the liiiely heart and hand of hir who formed it, bo 
King as 1 hreatii, ar vowed to your most Excellent llighnes seruice. lleceauo 
the t^ir in good pairt this litle myttc doone b/ your most humble seruand 
Khiku I.soi.lM." After thirt folioWH the skill iiily limned portraiture of Ivsiher 
Iiiglin drcitscd in black, with the wide-spreailing rnlfof the time rouml her 
neek, niid a jaunty little high-peaked hat overtopping her yellow hair. On 
a fly leaf, nl the beginning of this little volume is llie following inscription ; — 
•' Tliiu book belonged to tin; Frinces of Ingland, Louisa Stiuirt. Given 


by my uncle EJmund Stils to Mama and by her to me Lncy Kniglit; " and, 
on a fly leaf at the end is written: — "Lucy Knii^ht to whom tiiis book 
beloni^ed, was daughter and heiress of Wm. Knight, of Kingerby in Lin- 
colnshire, Esquire, and married in 174G, Sir Tliomas Kookwood Gage, V"" 
Bart, of Ilengrave iu Sutiblk. Lucy Lady Gage died Sept^ 3"* 17bl, and 
is interred in Hengrave Church. Her mother was Miss Jennings, 1"' the 
wife of Col. Styles attached to the court at St. Germain, and afterwards 
married Wm. Knight, Esqr., of Kingerby." 

By His Eminence Cardinal Wiseman. — Two remarkable rings ; one of 
them of silver, date xv. cent., set with a " crapon," or toadstone, formerly 
much esteemed as an amulet against poison, as noticed in this volume, p. 
lo5, where mention is made of one presented to Queen Elizabeth. The 
other, date xvi. cent, is set with an intaglio, a head of our Lord, on blood- 

By Mr. J. H. Le Kecx. — A dish of Wedgwood's ware, with white me- 
dallions on a light blue ground; it is a choice example, and of interest as 
having been in use at Longwood, during the time of the captivity of the 
Emperor Napoleon I. in St. Helena, 

By Mr. R. G. P. Minty. — A silver ring found in the sand at Tenby, Pem- 
brokeshire. The hoop wreathed, its shoulders formed like heads of lions at 
the sides of the besel, which is engraved with a crowned L Date xv. cent. 

By Mr. Edmund Waterton, F.S.A. — A leaden object or perforated 
weight (?) marked with pellets and radiating lines, a specimen of the 
curious class of objects noticed Arch. Journ., vol. xvii. pp. 164, 2G7. It 
was found early in the present year in the garden of the College of Mount 
St. Mary's, Derbyshire. — Portrait, probably of the Old Chevalier, worked 
in tent-stitch, a bust in armour, surrounded by a garland, with crowns and 
thistles at the corners. Behind the bust is seen Britannia ; above is an 
angel holding a crown ; and around is inscribed 1 Sam, xvi. 62 — " Arise, 
anoint him for this is he." — " Touch not mine anointed." This relic of 
loyal attachment to the Stuart family has been preserved at Walton Ilall. 

By the Rev. Walter Sneyd. — A pair of gloves of fine white leather, 
sewn with gold thread ; the gauntlet cufts embroidered with flowers, the pink, 
columbine, fritillary, (fee. Date, about 1580. — An Oriental nautilus-shell 
mounted iu silver, and curiously engraved, ornamented also with Diello. 
Date about 1600. — Some interesting embroideries of the sixteenth ceutury. 


May 3, 1862. 

The customary Annual Meeting to receive the report of the Auditors of 
the previous year, with the statement of Receipts and Expenditure during 
that period, took place at the Rooms of the Institute on Saturday, May 3. 
In the absence of the President the chair was taken by Charles Sprengel 
Greaves, Esq., Q.C. 

The Balance-sheet, duly signed by the Auditors for the year 1861, was 
submitted and approved. 

Frederic Ouvry, Esq., Treasurer of the Society of Antiquaries, and Robert 
Taylor Pritchett, Esq., F.S.A., were didy proposed and elected Auditors 
for the current year. 

The following abstract of Cash Accounts was ordered to be printed iu 
the Jourrial. 


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^rdjacolocjtcal IntcUi^ntce, 

A quarterly puLlication has been announced which will doubtless bo 
welconjcd by many of our readers, to be entitled the Hekald and Genealo- 
gist, and devoted to the antiquities of Heraldry, and to those branches of 
local and family history to which heraldry lends material aid. It has been 
truly observed, in the announcement of this new serial miscellany, that 
notwithstanding the frequent appearance of valuable works on family 
history, genealogy, and heraldry, as now understood, the archa5olo<vy of 
the heraldic art is much in arrear of tlie advance of antiquarian science. 
That comparative analysis and chronological arrangement, which have 
recently brought our notions in regard to architecture in this country from 
confusion into system and order, may, it is hoped, be apj)lied to heraldry 
with similar success. Communications should be addressed to Mr. John 
Gough Nichols, F.S.A., 25, Parliament Street. The first number (price 
two shillings and sixpence) is in the press. This and ensuing numbers will 
contain enquiries concerning the earliest writers on armory ; — a list of 
Heralds' Visitations of counties ; — notices of royal mottoes ; — of Gerard 
Lcgh's accedens of Armory, with his portrait as Panther Herald ; — and 
some notice of the rolls, pedigrees, and heraldic MSS, collected for 
exhibition by the Society of Antiquaries in May, 18G2, with other co"-nate 
matter acceptable to all who take interest in such researches. 

Mr. Papworth has just issued Part IX. of his Dictionary of Arms 
belonging to families in Great Britain and Ireland. We are glad to see 
this truly important work steadily proceeding without any diminution of 
the care which has distinguished the earlier Parts ; though we can but 
regret that the public encouragement has not been such as to accelerate its 
issue. A work of this kind stands alone, and must long be without a rival. 
It will, when complete, be indispensable to every library which makes any 
pretence to furnish heraldic, genealogical, or archaeological information. 
For such a volume we ought to be al)le to wait patiently awhile, that it may 
be well done throughout ; though the portion already issued is so extremely 
useful as to make us wish for the remainder. We may remind those of 
our readers who are not yet subscribers, that it ditl'ers materially from all 
other dictionaries and ordinaries of arms in its arrangemerit: while others 
enable us to find what arms certain persons have borne, this is adapted to 
supply the great desideratum and enable us to find what persons have 
borne certain arms, in short, to answer the frequently recurring question 
" Whose arms arc these ? " It is remarkable that four-fifths of the 
heraldic charges, taken alphabetically, fall under the first six letters, A to F 
inclusive. We are well pleased therefore to see that Part IX. brini>-s us 
far into " Chevron." All the coats having beasts or birds for the first charge 


are already publishcil. As tlie work is printed for subscribers, and will not 
be for sale to the public for some years after its completiou at less than 
double the subse:i|itio:i price, archajulogical and literary societies, and. 
the possessors of valuable libraries, as well as those persons who take a 
peculiar interest in the subject of the publication, will do well to become 
subscribers. The terms may be learned on application to Mr. J. W. Pap- 
worth, 1-iA, Great Marlborough Street, W. 

Wc have pleasure iu inviting attention to the recent publication of a 
beautiful volume, — Isca iSiluritiii, an Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum 
of Antiquities at Caerleon ; by John E. Lee, F.S.A., lion. Sec. of the 
Monmouthshire and Caerleon Antiiiuarian Association. We hope on an 
early occasion to bring before our readers the series of works produced 
under the auspices of that Society, and especially to advert more fully to 
this valuable Catalogue by Mr. Lee, whose former works on Roman 
vestiges in the same locality have been noticed in this Joiniial, vol. ii. p. 
417 ; vol. vii. p. 97. His account of inscri|>tions and relics found at 
Caerleon, will also be found, ibiiJ., vol. viii. p. 157. The Museum there 
formed, chicHy tlirough his exertions and intelligence, comprises an assem- 
blage of inscribed lioman memorials, unequaled in interest by any in the 
Bouthern parts of the kingdom. The advantages which acL-rue from local 
museums, such as those at York, Shrewsbury, Bath, Colchester, <kc., are 
comparatively slight, unless aided by the indispensable accompaniment of a 
good Catalogue. The utility of the desirable volume before us is enhanced 
by copious illustrations, consisting of fifty-two plates e.xccutod by the author. 
It nuiy be obtained from Messrs. Longman. 

An e.xtemled edition of the Parochial Antiquities of Devonshire, by the 
late Iiev. Dr. Oliver, author of the Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, and of 
the Ili.->tory of that city, recently puiilishcd, has been announced by Mr. 
Pollard, Exeter (by subscription. One Guinea). It will form a desirable 
supplement t(j the author's valuable works relating to the Ecclesiastical 
and Monastic Antii[uiiies of the Western Counties. 

The learned editor of the Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, the 
raost valuable publication perhaps of the late liecord Commission, and 
to whom we have recently been indebted for a carefully revised te.xt of the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, published in the series, under direction of the 
Master of the Rolls, has intimated the intention of publishing (by subscrip- 
tion, in one vol. 8vo,) an important collection of documents from the reign 
of .lEthelbert of Kent, A.n. GO.'}, to the Jsorman Con(|ucst. It will com- 
prise every charter connected with our j)re-Nornuin history to be found in 
the late Mr. Kemltle's Cudex Diploniaticus, together with many not con- 
tained in that collection. All those in Anglo-Saxon will be accompanied 
by a translation. ancient historical monuments will be classed 
under mi.Hcellaneous charters, not simple grants of land ; wills, almost 
exclusively in Saxon ; articles of constitution of .Anglo-Saxon guilds ; and 
ccrtiKcatcs of manumission of Herfs. Mr. Thorpe pro[)o,sca to send this 
volume to press an soon an a HutKcicnt number of Hubseribers shall have 
been obtained to defray the cost of printing. A 'Jjlossary, local index, and 
Homo fac-HimilcH will be given. Sub.'^cribers' names are received by Messrs. 
Tnvlor, Red Lion Court, E.C. 


E^t ^vrfjacolosical Journal. 



By EDWIN GUEST, LL.D., Master of Gonvil and Cuius College. 

Pkeviously to the battle of Deorham, the whole basin 
of the Severn and a large portion of the Cotswokl, that is 
of the high upland drained by the Thames, were in the 
possession of the Welshmen. Their great fortress to the 
eastward was Cirencester, and some of the later battles 
between them and their English neighbours had been fought 
on the line of country which lies between that town and 
Winchester. The marches separating the two races in this 
part of Britain, though they had been subjected to several 
changes, still remained on the whole much as they had been 
settled half a century before. But there is reason to believe 
that about the year 571 the kings of Wessex received an 
accession of strength, that enabled them to carry the war 
into the very heart of the Welsh territory. I do not stop 
to inquire whence came this increase of strength, but 
thereby they were enabled in the year last-mentioned to 
push their inroads as far north as Bedford, and six years 
afterwards to lead an army into the rich and beautiful valley, 
the conquest of which forms the subject of the present 

The nature of the country and the circumstances of 
the times enable us to point out with much probability 
the direction which the expeditionary force must have 
taken. It must have advanced along the Roman Road 
leading from Winchester to Cirencester, and then skirtino- 
the borders of Braden forest have reached the Fosse. 
Down this great highway they passed, ravaging or in the 



language of the times, liamjimj the country right and left, 
"West of the Fosse, and on a chain of hills which commands 
magnificent views of the Severu-vallcy, lies the village of 
Deorham. Near it is an ancient earthwork, where as we 
may conjecture the men of the neighbourhood had retreated 
with their cattle and other valual»lcs, and where our ances- 
tors were preparing to attack them, when the AYelshmeii 
came to the rescue, and the battle of Deorham was the 
result. It is thus commemorated in the Chronicle. 

A. 571. Now Cuthwine and Ceawlin fouoht with the 
Brits, an<l three kings they slew, Comraagil and Condidan 
and Farinmagil in the place that is called Deorham, and 
they took three cities, Gleawan coaster and Ciren coaster and 
Bathan coaster. 

Various conjectures have been hazarded with respect to 
the three kings, whose deaths are here recorded. Sharon 
Turner and Villemarquo consider Condidan to be the 
same person as the Kyndylan whose death is bewailed 
in an old "Welsh manvnad, or elegy, which we shall shortly 
have occasion to notice more particularly. But it appears 
clearly enough from the elegy that Kyndylan was slain 
near Shrewsbury, and therefore could not possibly be 
the Condidan who according to the Chronicle was slain at 
Deorham in Gloucestershire. Equally unsatisfactory arc 
the attempts which have been made to identify the other 
two princes Commagil and Farinmagil. But there is one 
conjecture with respect to these princes which seems to 
merit attention, though I do not remember to have seen it 
noticed elsewhere. When we read that three kings were 
slain at Deorham, ami that the three cities of Gloucester, 
Cirencester and Ijath snneiiilcrcd, it is a natural inference, 
that the three Welsh j»rinces were lords of the three cities, 
an<l that it was toirether with the men of these cities and of 
the dependent districts tluy ioiiglit and lost the battle of 
Deorham. It is matter of some liitle interest to know, that 
in all likelihood the last Wel.^lnnan who bore rule in 
Gloucester was named Connnairil. or — to lh'vo (ho name 
its latnnsed form, which may have been to lilni the inost 
familiar — Cunoniagulus. 

The conquest of Gloucester, Cirencester, and Hath must 
have made the w]ioIe valley of the Severn, east of lli(> river 
and .'jouth of Anlen, I'^nglish ground. It is clear fioni exist- 


ing remains tliat during the lioman period Bath ^vas a 
Avealt]!}' and flourishing town ; Gloucester, as ue know botli 
from Ilavennas and from an inscription found at Bath, was a 
Roman colony ; and with respect to Cirencester, there was 
j^robably no town at that time in Britain — York, London, and 
Colchester excepted — which in importance cither civil or 
military could rank before it. These towns must have 
represented the district. With tlie exception of some insig- 
nificant road-side stations between Bath and the Severn- 
feny, there is hardly another place in this part of Britain, 
Avhose Roman name has come down to us. It is just possi- 
ble that one of the Alamuc and one of the Salina) mentioned 
hj Ravennas may have been intended for our modern 
Alchester and Droitwich, but they must have been places of 
little note, and c[uite unequal to stem the flood of invasion 
that had set in upon them. There was no spot M'here the 
poor Welshman could find a shelter till he reached the great 
forest-district \\'hich spread over the modern counties of 
Warwick and Worcester. 

The southern limits of the new conquests may, I think, be 
defined with much 2:)recision,^ but in the north the limits can 
only be determined, and that vaguely, by a consideration of 
the topography and physical conditions of the country. 
Where there are so many elements of uncertainty it would 
be idle to discuss the reasons Avhich led me to laj^ down the 
boundaries as they appear in the map. But I am well 
acquainted with the district, and reasons more or less satis- 
factory can be given for all the apparently strange wander- 
ings of the pencil. They were not the result of mere acci- 
dent or caprice. 

The possession of Gloucester would naturally tempt our 
ancestors to cross the river. If we may trust Welsh legend, 
they carried their inroads, even at the early period of which 
we are treating, as far westward as the Wye. But the his- 
tory of the English conquests west of the Severn involves 
questions of great difficulty, and cannot be discussed inci- 
dentally. To avoid premature discussion I have in the map 
marked all the country west of the river as Welsh territory. 

Seven years after their first settlement in the Severn- 
valley our ancestors made another inroad upon the Wel.-sh- 

' Vid. Jour, of Aicb. last., vol. svi. p. lOJ. 


men. Tliis inroad aiiJ tlic battle it led to forms the subject 
of the following entry. 

A. .jS-A. Kow Ceawlin and Ciitha fought with the Brits 
in the place that is called FdJuui Icag, and there Cutha was 
slain, and Ceawlin took many towns and countless booty, 
and angry he turned him thence to his own country {to his 

In their accounts of this battle Ethelwcrd, Florence, and 
^lalmsbury merely copy the Chronicle. Huntingdon tells us 
that Cuthwine (the Cutha of the Chronicle) fell overpowered 
with numbers, and that the English were defeated and took 
to flight ; but that Ceawlin again brought the army into 
order, and inspiring them with a stern determination, at 
length came off the conqucror.- 

I know not whence Huntingdon obtained his knowledge of 
these particulars, but there is so much that is probable in 
liis story, that I would willingly receive it as true. Fordun 
labours hard to mix up Aidan King of Scots in all the 
leading events of this period. He makes him the ally of 
IMaclgwn King of Gwynneth at the battle of Fethan leag,^ 
and the ally of Cadwallon at the battle of AVodensburgh,'* 
when Ceawlin was defeated. Unfortunately for the zealous 
♦Scotchman, Maelgwn died ''' nearly forty years before the 
battle of Fethan leag, and Cadwallon flourished in the 
seventh instead of the sixth century. According to Fordim*'* 
tlic battle of Fethan leag was fought at Stanemore in West- 
moreland. The motive which led liim to fix on this locality 
is an obvious one. On Stanemore is " the Rie Cross," which 
certain Scotch writers maintain to be the ancient and proper 
limes'^ between Scotland and England. It was accordingly 
.selected as a suitable place for a meeting between a Scottish 

— nirfiUH roparato cxercitu cum fu- more. Aiit. c. 14. Clialinore, wlio.oo 

j^am 8ui abjura«Hent, tamlem prtclio vie- ^reat o1>jcct \a to bring his Scotchmen aa 

torcjj vi'.it. IliHt. Ang. 2. far fioiith as jiOBsiblo, tell.s us tliat " com- 

' .Scoticlirou. iii. 2."*. ing to tlio ui'i of the C' HritonB, 

* lb. iii. 2'i. Aidan ilcfeuted tlio Saxons at IVtlianlcn, 

* A-D. 517. Ann. Cambrirc. at Stancmoro in .^.'^1, " ami lie givoR an 

* .Scotichron. iii. 28. liis authority, not iiis countryman For- 
" lliihcr, wlifiHO great demerit w the dun, but 'Saxon Chron. p. 22, Ufther'a 

deference be occoHionally HhowH to our I'rinr., pp. STO, 11)7, which (piotcB the 

hiiitorical romancom, after dewcribinR the l'.nf?liHli Ohnmich^M." Vid. Caledonia, i. 

incident* of the batll<! of Fothnn leag a^ 2.S2. Krauds of tho flamo kind may bo 

hn found them in tlio Chronido and fouml in every thinl or fourth piigo of 

HuotingdoD, quotcH Fordun an bin an- Chalmers' History. 
thority for fixing tho locolity at Stane- 


king and the invading Southron. But it wouM be waste of 
time to dwell longer on these fobles. 

Henry and Hume represent Somerset and Devon as the 
scene of Ceawlin's conquests, and therefore I presume "would 
locate Fethan leag in one or other of these counties ; while 
our later historians,^ almost to a man, identify Fethan leag 
with Fretherne near Gloucester. I know of no reason for 
fixing on this locality, except the resemblance supposed to 
exist between the words Fretherne and Fethan. But who can 
point out any known process of corruption by which Fethan 
could be transformed into Fretherne ? .Moreover, if we sup- 
pose Fretherne to be the place of the battle, where can we find 
room for the " man}^ towns and countless booty " that were 
taken after the victory ? W'^hat significance can we give to 
the statement that " after the battle Ceawlin turned him 
thence to his own country V Frithern was situated in the 
very heart of the district conquered by the English seven 
years previously. It lay in the midst of the triangle domi- 
nated by the three great fortresses of Gloucester, Bath, 
and Cirencester, and when they fell must necessarily have 
fallen with them. 

Where then must we look for the place which has given 
rise to so much conflicting statement '? Before we answer 
the question, it will be necessary to notice a law, which 
23revails very widel}' in English topograpli}^ and to which I 
have already on more than one occasion called tlie attention 
of the reader. Anglo-Saxon names of places are, almost 
universally, feminine nouns ending in e and forming 
the genitive case in an. AMien connected with other words, 
they generally appear as genitives, but sometimes combine 
with these words and form simple compounds. Thus the 
Welsh Glou^ which in Roman geography takes the form of 
Glev-um, was converted by our ancestors, according to the 
genius of their language into Glew-e, and they called the 
town sometimes Glewan ceastcr, that is, the Chester or city 
of Glew-e, and sometimes Glewe-ceaster, of which Gloucester is 

s Sh. Turner, H. of Anglo-Saxons, 1, 3, Thorpe, who hesitates about " Deorham 

5; Lin gar d, H. of A. Saxons, 12; Lap- in Gloucestershire?" has no difficulty 

penburg, Anglo-Saxon Kings ; B. Thorpe, about Fretherne ; ''the place of the battle 

Flor. Vigoru. 8, n ; Mou. Hist. Brit. Sax. was Fretherne in Gloucestershire." 
Chron., p. 304, &c. I should mention ^ Kair. Glou., id est, Gloueceastria. H. 

that the editors of the last mentioned Hunt. lib. i. 
work append a query — '" Fritherue V Mr. 


tliC corruption. Xuw, in Anglo-Saxon topograph}', the ge- 
nitival form ^vas used in the great majority of instances, but 
in modern usage the simple compound })revails almost to its 
entire exclusion. There are indeed a few names of places 
"\vliich still retain the genitive. Thus Cheltenham is cei-tainly 
a corruption of Celtan hmn, the hamlet of the Celt-e — Celt-c 
bein>'- no doubt the Anglo-Saxon name for the Chelt, the 
river, or rather brook, Avhich flows through Cheltenham. 
Instances, however, of these genitival forms are now ex- 
tremely rare. They have in almost all cases given way to 
the simple compounds. 

The reader will now have little hesitation in recognising 
a genitive case in the hrst element of the name Fethan Icag, 
and, in considering such name as equivalent to The lea of 
Fetli-e. If we suppose the place still to retain its ancient 
appellation, the name would according to analogy take the 
form of a simple compound, Fethe-ley. In certain of our 
dialects th in the middle of a word is often represented by 
d ; thus, in the North of England, for ya^^'.'r, mother, another, 
kc, they very commonly s^y fader, madder, anudder, &c. If 
the place we are in search of were situated in one of these dis- 
tricts, we might expect to find its name modified accordingly. 

Now, just within the borders of Cheshire, at the entrance 
of the Vale Royal, and some three miles west of Namptwich, 
is a village called Faddiley. In the neighbourhood of this 
village I believe the battle of Fethan leag was fought. 

Of course identity of name does not necessarily prove 
identity of place. Let us, then, inquire how far the selection 
of Faddiley, as the place of this ])attle will meet the re- 
<juircments of the story, as they may be gathered from the 

If the Imttlc were fuught at I'addik'V, Ceawlin nnist liavo 
advanced up the Severn valley, and entered Shropshire 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of Areley Magna. Thence 
he nmst have marched to the Tern, and up the valley of 
that river to the borders of Cheshire ; and crossing the line 
of watershed, he would, a few miles lurther on, find himself 
at Faddiley. Such was the most direct route to Faddiley 
from the Vale of Gloucester, and such I believe to have been 
the only practicable route at the time in (piestion. Now 
the valley of the Tern is the very lieart of Shi-oj)shire, a 
di.stri'jt lull of licli pastures and i^eopled village's, and 


abouuding in ancient remains, both Roman and British, 
which show tliat its advantages were as highly appreciated 
in the sixth as tlicy are in the nineteenth century. Here, 
then, we have a country, wliicli might readily furnish the 
"many towns and countless booty" mentioned in the 
Chronicle ; and as Faddiley is some ninety miles distant 
from Gloucester, the statement that after the battle Ceawlin 
" turned him thence to his own country," has an appropriate 
meaning. Even the strange statement that he returned in 
anger, seems to admit of explanation, on the hypothesis that 
has been started. If we suppose that in the ardour of 
success some of his officers pushed on unbidden into the 
Vale E,oyal, and so exposed themselves to an attack from 
Chester, we can understand the anger which Ceawlin must 
liave felt at an act of imprudence, that led to the loss of a 
brother, and might, but for the energy with which he 
hurried to the rescue, have led to the destruction of an 

Let us now see how far the conclusions we have arrived 
at agree with the revelations which are furnished us by the 
light of Welsh tradition. Unsubstantial forms they are, but 
they may nevertheless be the shadows of real and sub- 
stantial history. 

There is extant an old Welsh onarwnad, or elegy, which 
bewails the death of a certain Welsh prince named Kyn- 
dylan. The poem is generally ascribed to Llywarch Hen, 
who is said to have lived in the sixth centur}-. It was 
edited by Owen Pugh, chiefly it would seem from the Ked 
Book of Herghest, a J\IS. of the fourteenth century, now the 
property of Jesus College,^ Oxford ; and was published by 
him, first, in the j\Iyvyrian Archaeology, and secondly, with 
a translation in a separate volume, which contains a col- 
lection of Llywarch Hen's poems. It was afterwards edited 
likewise with a translation by Villemarque, in his "Bardes 
Bretons," professedly - from the Black Book of Carmarthen, 

' The courtesy with which this society of the Hengwrt MSS. This celebrated 

have at all times made it available for collection, which formerly belonged to 

the purposes of literature, is too well the Vaughau family, is now the property 

known, to need any eulogy from me. of Mr. Wynne of Peuiarth, M.P. for Me- 

- Comme les autres pieces dc Liwarc'h rionethshire. It is matter of public in- 

celle-ci est tiree du Livre noir de Hen- tcrest to know that these precious relics 

gurt, confronto avec le Livre rouge de are now in the possession of a gentleman, 

Herghest. Bardcs Bretons, p. 124. The who most thoroughly appreciates their 

Black Book, generally known as the Black value. 
Book of Carmarthen, is the most valuable 


a MS. of the twelftli century. The first editor modernised 
tlie orthography, and frequently akercd the ^vording of his 
MS. ; and as one-third of his translation is open to question, 
these are liberties "which a critical reader will bo slow to 
pardon. But if the reader be dissatisfied with Owen Pugh's 
edition, the edition of Yilleniarque is little likely to secure 
his confidence. The pectiliarities of the language jnust^ I 
sliould think, arrest the attention of every one that has 
studied the comparative grammar of the Celtic dialects ; 
and the perplexities the}" occasioned me were so great, that 
I was at last driven to take a journey into ^Merionethshire, 
with the view of comparing the printed text with its sup- 
posed original. I Avent over the Black Book, page by page, 
but could find in it no trace ichatcvcr of the Elegy on Kyn- 
d3'lan. There were three poems in the ]\IS. with which the 
name of Llywarch Hen was connected, but only in occa- 
sional stanzas did they exhibit any correspondence with 
the poems that appear in Villemarque's volume. I mention 
the fact, but offer no explanation of it. When I add, that 
Owen Pugh in his edition of the ^larwnad frequently gives 
us various readings, taken professedly from the Black Book 
(Llyfyr du), the reader will probably agree with me in 
thinking, that any attempt to unravel these difficulties had 
better be postponed to a more fitting opportunity. 

As the copy of the poem in the Red Book is the oldest 
I am acquainted with, I have taken it for my text ; and in 
so doing, have been anxious to give a transcript of the MS., 
which shall be correct, not merely to the letter, but also 
as regards the junction of words, and the punctuation, 
blundered though it may be. The only liberty I have taken 
has been in ranging the lines rhythmically, whereas the MS. 
lias the lines in each triplet written continuou.sly. 

^ly translation is intended to be literal. In the versions 
of Owen Pugh and Villemarque we frequently have the 
second person instead of the third, verbs inserted ad libitum, 
and the rendering in very many cases so loose, that it is 
impo.ssible to say what construction they have put upon the 
original. We arc sometimes at a loss to know what is tlio 
meaning tlir-y to convey Ity their translation, and even 
when tiio meaning of a triidet taken by itself is tolerably 
clear, it is often difiicult to <liscover its relevancy, or its 
connection Nsith the triph t preceding or succeeding. Somo 


of these difficulties may be inherent in the poem itself, as it 
has come down to us. We know from Gyraldus Cambrensis, 
and it might be easily shown from existing MSS., that many 
of these old Welsh poems were subjected to great altera- 
tions at the hands of successive transcribers. Triplets were 
transposed and interpolated, and it is quite possible that 
Ll^'warch Hen would only occasionally recognise his own 
handywork in the poem before us. Still, however, the 
transcriber of the fourteenth century must have seen a 
certain coherency between the several portions of the poem 
he was copying ; and one part of the duty of a translator 
will be to point out such coherency as far as he is able. I 
trust that the present translation, literal though it be, will 
present to the reader a more intelligible and connected 
story than can be gathered from the preceding ones. 

The poem is written in what is termed the triUui milwr, 
or soldier's triplet, that is, in the oldest know^n form of 
Welsh versification. Its style is essentially lyrical. One of 
its peculiarities distinguishes all the poems of Llywarch Hen, 
or rather I w^ould say distinguishes that school of poetry of 
which Llywarch Hen was the type — I mean the custom of 
beginning several consecutive stanzas or triplets, sometimes 
to the number of ten or more, wdth the same ejaculatory 
phrase, which forms as it were the key-note of the stanza. 
The same images often recur, and the same thought is often 
presented in slightly varying forms in these consecutive 
triplets, and owing to such parallelism, we may not un- 
frequently discover the meaning of a line, which might 
otherwise occasion us much difficulty. Sometimes the 
sentence proceeds in the second person, " Kyndylan, thou 
w^ert, &c. ; " but more frequently in the third, " Kyndylan, he 
was, &c." In many cases no verb wdiatever can be dis- 
covered, and the triplet is made up of mere ejaculations. 

I have appended to my translation copious notes explaining 
the grounds on which it rests, and affording the i^eader the 
means of correcting it Avhen erroneous. A translation of 
one of these old poems without such accompaniment has 
always seemed to me to be little better than a fraud upon 
the reader. 

In the opening stanzas the aged poet imagines himself 
escaping with the females of his family from the scene of 
carnage. He has reached some eminence, and rests awhile 



to contemplate the ruin of his country. The mangled body 
of his slaughtered chieftain first rises to his view ; but he 
shrinks from the image he has conjured up, and chooses 
rather to picture him at the head of his Welshmen watching 
the invaders from the mountain's slope, it may be from the 
sides of the "Wrekin, till goaded by the cries and taunts of 
his injured countrymen, the fiery chief rushes down upon 
our ancestors, and meets his death at their hands upon the 

Sffvcb allanvorynaiou-' asyllvch wcrydrc 

gyndylau : 
Uys benn gvern neut tande : 
gvae ieueinc '* aeidua brotre. 

Vnprenn agouit * arnav 

odieinc" ys odit : 

ac auynno'* duv dcrffit. 

Kynndylau callon iaen gaeaf : 
awant tvrch trvy y bciin : 
tu '" arodeist yr cvrrvf trcun. 

Kynndylan callon godeitb wauuwyii. 
ogyflo " yn amgyuyeitb.'' 
yn amwyu treu tref diffeitb. 

Kyndylan befyrbost kywlat. 
kadvynavc '* kit '^ dymiyavc cat. 
aiuucsei '■* treii tref y dat. 

1 St;\nd forth, maiden?, and survey the land 

of Kyndylan, 
Pengweru's palace, is it not in flames ? 
Woe to the youth that longs for good 

fellowship ! 

2 One tree ' with the tendril on it 
Is escaping it may be — 

But what God shall have willed, let it 
come ! 

3 Kyndylan, with heart like the ice of 

With thrust of wild boai'^ through his 

head — 
Thou " hast disponscd the ale of Tren ! 

•1 Kyndylan, with heart like the fire '- of 

By the common oatli, in the midst of tlie 

common speech,'^ 
Defending Treu that wasted town ! 

5 Kyndylan, bright pillar of his country. 
Chain-bearer, obstinate in fight, 
Protected Tren his father's town ! 

' Afonci/n, \V. ion pi. The frequent ab- 
sorption of the w is a markeil feature in 
the language of this poem. Vid. a>uua>i.i, 
8t. 5, iv, Bt. !.''>, &c. 

■• Botii 0. Pugh and Villcmarqu<5 make 
thiB a plural noun. But tlie plural form 
seems occasionally to have been used 
with a singular meaning. Vid. Yoiionc, 
Norriti' Corn. Voc. The verb is certainly 

' That is, himself and family. As 
Sbroiishiro was an ayyocd, or woodland, 
these Hiriiiles arc cliaractcristic and ap- 
[iropriate, Vid. ht. 10, 45. 

'' O. Pugh, without auliiority, sub.sti- 
tuted for tliis word tjuyddvid tlic wood 
bine, and in bo doing is followed by Vil- 
iemarqud. I take the ayllablo of i?o- 
hU to bo the same os the last nyilnblu of 
f/wyldvtd, and '/o to bo the iliuiinutivu 
prefix wi: find in 'jo-liant, 'jijvrun, !ci\ 

^ ilnnic, W. The Breton o jircfixcd to 
iDfitiiiivcH givi-H tliotu a participial mean- 
inK liko the Welsh ;/ii. 

• myn-K, W., 2ud future, 3rd pcm. sing. 

' That is the English enemy. 0. Pugh 
makes Tvrch a proper name I 

"' This word is not clearly written in 
the MS. 0. Pugh reads (I, but without 
authority. Vid. jicithuac, st. 28. 

Rhodd-i, W. 

" The change from the third to the 
second person is remarkable. It seems to 
intiuiatc a sudden change of feeling on the 
part of the poet. 

'•' The ijoddailh, or fire kindled in 
spring to consume the dried gorse, was 
subjected to many rcgxilntions by tho 
Welsh laws. " ajllw, W. 

" That Ih, in tliomidstofliia Welshmen. 

'^ f/uthfith, W. 1 liavo endeavoured to 
give tlio force of the prefix uin. 

''"' cadtci/nuu;/, W. 

'^ The prefix cyd ; in modern Welsh 
the Compound wouMtakc the form of c.i/n- 
(li/ncHir;/. 'J'liis form actually occurs in 
the next stanza. 

'" amwiff/-(ni<, W., to wrap round, to 
shroud. The «• i^ abnorbod, vid. st. 1. 
note *•, and the letters fj arc transposed. 


Kyndylan beuyibvyll ' ovri." 
kadvynavc kynndyunyavc llu : 
amucsei treu hyt truvu. 

Kyndylan callon milgi 

pan disgynnei ^ ygkymelri * cat : 

calaned ^ aladei.* 

Kyndylan callon hebavc. 
buteir' enuwir gynndeiryavc* 
kcneu kyndrvyu kyndynyavc. 

Kyndylan callon gvythhwch 
pan disgynnei ympriffvch* cat. 
kalaned yndeudrvch. 

Kyndylan gulhvcli " gynnificat llcv. 

blei dilin '- disgynniat : 

nyt atuer '^ tvrch tref y '* dat. 

Kyndylan hyt tra attat yd adei. 
y gallon moi- wylat t"* 
gantav '^ mal y gvrvf '^ y cat. 

Kyndylan powis borffor wych yt : 
kell esbyt bywyt ior :" 
keneu kyndrvyu kvyuitor. 

Kyndylan wynn uab kyndrvyn : 
ny mat-" wise baraf am y drvyn ; 
gvr ny bo gvell no m orwyn. 

6 Kyndylan, bright intelligence departed, 
Chain-bearer, obstinate in the Lost, 
Protected Tren as long as be waa living. 

7 Kyndylan 'vvith heart of greyhound, 
When he descended to the turmoil of 

A carnage ho cai-ved out. 

8 Kyndylan with heart of hawk, 
Waa the true enraged 

Cub of Kyndruyn, the stubboni one. 

Kyndylan with heart of wild-boar, 
"When he descended to the onset of 

There was carnage in two heaps.'^ 

10 Kyndylan, hungry boar, ravager, lion, 
"Wolf fast-holding of descent — 

The wild boar will not give back liia 
father's town ! '^ 

11 Kyndylan ! while towards thee fled 
His heart, 'twas a great festival 
With him, like the press of the battle ! 

12 Kyndylan of the Powis purple gallar.t 

is he ! 
The strangers' refuge, their life's anchor. 
Son of Kyndruyn, the much to bo 

lamented ! 

13 Kyndylan, fair son of Kyndruyn,-' 

Ko fitting garb is the beard about the 

nose — 
Will a man be no better than a maid ? 

^ P^fyi', W. pwyll, W. 

- ohry, W, 

' discyn-u, W. 

■• cymheln, "W. The g " eclipses " the 
k in gkymdri, as it does the c in Qcallon, 
st. 17. In like manner we have the t 
ecUpsed by ii in ntauavt, st. 46. This 
orthographical expedient, though now 
confined to the Irish, was at one time 
very generally used in other languages. 
Vid. the author's paper on Orthogr. Ex- 
pedients, Phil. Trans, vol. iii. p. 1. Be- 
fore a guttural, yn appears to lose its final 

'2 ; y-'j^yj^^ciri, st. 7, y-yoet, st. 35, &c. 

Before a labial, 7jn becomes ym ; vid. 
ympriffvch, st. 9, ymhed, st, 22, ymhronn, 
St. 52, &c. 

* celanedd, W. 

« ladd, W. 

' byddtti 'r, W. 

** cynddtinau-g, W. 

'■> priffvch, the first push, the onset ; 
hwcli, W,, a push. 

'" That is, I suppose, right and left. 
trwch, W., means a cut, a thickness, a 
depth. Perhaps a better rendering would 
be, in two sualhcs. 

" goulo, Bret, empty; gul may be a 
cvaneetea w-ni. 

'- I consider this word to be the root 

of dylyn-u, to cleave to, just as glyn, ad- 
herent, is the root of glyn-u. 

'3 advtr-u, W. 

" One difficulty in translating the 
poems in the Red Book arises from the 
different words represented by this letter. 
Hei'e it evidently represents the Welsh 

'5 Stanzas 7, 8, 9 describe, it would 
seem, Kyndylan's rush down the moun- 
tain. From St. 10 wo learn the result : 
the wild-boar, i.e. the English enemy, will 
not give back, &c. 

16 fjwylad, W. 

17 gant, Bret. 
IS gicryf, W. 

" eor, Bret, heor, W, 

-" mad, Bret. 

-' In stanzas 11, 12, the poet describes 
the large heart and noble sympathies of 
his chieftain. The two following stanzas, 
according to my rendering, contain the 
taunts which Lly warch addressed to Kyn- 
dylan, in order to induce him to rush 
down to his rescue. In stanzas 15, 16, 
Llyw;irch's better nature gets the upper 
hand, and he bids his chief watch for 
the general welfare, and leave him to Lis 
fate. Throughout the poem Lly warch re- 
presents himself as the cause of his chief- 


Kyndylan kymvyat ' vyt : 1 4 Kyudylau I a cause of grief thou art — 

ar mcithyd- ua bydy Ivyt :■> Set forward will not be the array, 

amdrebv'U ■• tvU * dv ysgvyt. Around the pressure of the covert of thy 

shield ! 

Kynddylan kaedi yriv. 15 Ivyudylan, keep thou the slope, 

yuydav * lloegyrwys hediw : Till the Loegyrwys come to-day, — 

amgelcd am vu uydiv.' Anxiety on account of one is not fitting. 

Kyndylan kaedi ynenn. lo Kyndylan, keep thou the top -'' 

ynydav lloci:yr\\ ys drvy dren : Till the Loegyrwys come through Tren — 

ny elwir coet o vn prenu. Tis not called a wood for one tree ! 

Can vy gcallon • i • mor dru.^ 1 7 My heart has great misery 

kyssylltu ystyllot '" du : In joining together the black boards — 

gvynn gnavt kindylan kyngi-au " canllu. Fair is the flesh of Kyndylan, the common 

grief of a hundred hosts ! 

Peiigwern, as is \vcll known, Avas tlic old AVclsh name for 
Shrewsbury, and accordingly at >Slirewsbury wo must fix the 
Lh/s Fengiccni. The attempt to identify tlie town of Tren 
will raise questions more difficult to answer, and which had 
better be deferred till we come to consider what is meant 
by " the White Town,"' of which we shall find mention made 
further on in the poem. Llocfiyr is the "Welsh name for 
England, and that Lloc()i/r-u'i/s meant the men of England, 
or in otlier words our own ancestors, seems clear enough, 
though even on this point Owen Pugh has contrived to raise 
a difficulty. In his dictionary he tells us '• the English or 
the inhabitants of modern Llocgyr are always called Saeson 
and never Lloegyrwys after the name of the country." It 
would be easy to disprove this assertion from other poems 
which Owen Pugh has edited ; but in truth there arc always 
abundant means at hand of settiuij; Owen Pugh at issue with 
himself In the preface to his edition of this very poem, 
he describes the Lloegyrwys as " probably Saxons and Roman 
IJritons united ; " and Villemarque, following Ins lead, calls 
them '• Ics forces combin(^es des Saxons et des Logriens." 
Neither of these writers advances a single argument to show 

tain'H death. Vid. et. 40, 57, Ac. The ' VninUl W. 

OHHociation which conncctH tlio .stanzas ' Irojjui/ll, W. 

13, 14, witli the two preceding ones is ' tudl, W. 

not very easily traced. 'J he mention of " </««', W. 3rd pers. sing. fut. of 

Kyndylfin'n genero.iity Hccnis to havo daw-ed. The BubHt. nggr. lloefiyruys 

rcuiiuded the pott of tlio circuinfltanccii HcoinH hero to bo put iu agreement witli 

under wliich ho Ia<tt claimed that piince'rt a verb Bingtilar. Vid. j). '210, n. '", 

aid ; and tb*' ]ia«t comeH before him with " yniw, W. Vid. p. 204, n. •'' 

all the vividiicHH of j)reHcnt reality. "• That is, keep your jioHt on the 

' n/mhxri/atl, W. mountain till tlio incniy attacks you. 

- J have (onhtrupil nr mrithyd an if it '^ tlioii</, lirct. 

wore a dcriv.itivo of ar/ac//i. Thih latter '"<••(/.•//, \V. 

word in coDipouudcd of ar and maeth. " f/racn, \S . 


there really was any such combination of forces, and I can 
see no good reason why the Llocgyrwys who invaded Shrop- 
shire, might not have been as free from AVelsh admixture, as 
their ancestors who landed ninety years before in South- 
ampton water. 

The triplets which follow those we have quoted furnish us 
with the sequel of the tragedy. They bring successively 
before us the ruined hall, the eagles sailing over the field of 
battle, the rescue of the body, and the secret burial. 

8tauoll gyndylan ystyvvyll heuo 

hcb dan heb wely : 

wylaf • wers,- tawaf wedy. 

Stauell gyndylan ystywyll beno. 

heb dan heb gannwyll : 

uamyn duv pvy ■* am dyry ^ pvyll. 

Stauell gyndylan ystywyll bono, 
beb dan heb oleuat :® 
elit " amdav amdanat. 

Stauell gj-ndylun ystywyll y ncnn. 
gvedy gven gy weitbyd : ^ 
gvae nywna '■' da aedyuyd.'" 

Stauell gyndylan neut athwy t " hebwed, 

mae imbed '-' dy yscvyt : 

hyt tra uu '^ ny bu doll '^glvyt.'^ 

Stauell gyndylan ys dygaryat"' beno. 

gwedy yr neb pieuat '^ 

'^ a augheu" byrr ymgat.-'^ 

Stauell gyndylan nyt esmvyth bono. 

arben carrec hytwyth : 

heb uer. heb niuer heb amvyth.-- 

18 Kyndylan'a Hall is dark to-night, 
Without fire, without bed ! 

I'll weep awhile, afterwards I shall be 

19 Kyndylan's Hall is dark to-night, 
Without fire, without candle ! 

God except,*who will give me patience ! 

20 Kyndylan's Hall is dark to night, 
Without fire, without light — • 

Let there come spreading silence around 

21 Kj'ndylan's Hall ! dark is its roof 
After the fair assemblage ! 

Alas, it makes not well its end ! 

22 Kyndylan'a Hall, art thou not bereft of 

seemliness ? 
In the grave is thy shield ! 
As long as he was living, there was no 

break in the shingle. 

23 Kyndylan's Hall is forlorn to night, 
Since there has been no one owning it— 
ah ! death will not leave me long ! 

24 Kyndylan's Hall is not pleasant to-night, 
On the top of Carrec Hytwyth-' — 
Without Lord, without company, without 

feast ! 

* gicyl-aw, W. 
- gictrs, W. 

3 taw, W. tav. Bret., silence. The 
rerh seems to be now obsolete in both 

■• pwn, W. 

* di/ro-i, W. 

•"' ffoleuad, W. 

'' el-u, W. ; imp. mooj. 

" q/wcil/ii/dd, W. 

^ gxcn-a, W. 
J" d>ifc(h, W. 
" d(h-u, \\. 

'- imbed. Vid. p. 204, n. ■*. 
'^ This must be read r«. or in Welsh 
orthograpliy, fu. Generally the I's in 

this MS., are to be pronounced as u'i, 
and the ti's as vs. 

1* taid, ^^'. 

15 clawd, \V. 

"> digariaJ, W. 

'" jnau, W, 

i"" I cannot well make this word out. 
Villemarque quotes the Ecd Book as 
reading v:i. The word may possibly be 

" anion. Bret. -" ymgad-u, W. 

-' This .seems to have been the old 
Welsh name of the Castle-Hill at Shrews- 

" ammwyth, \V. 


Stauell gyndylau ystywyll heno. 
heb duu Leb gerdcu : ' 
dygystud - deurud ^ dagreu. 

Stauell g}-ndylan ystywyll heno. 

* heb deulu. 

hedyl men yt gyunu.^ 

Stauell gyndylan atugvau'' y gvelvt 

heb doet ' heb dau : 

luarv vygly v.^ buv '■' muhunan.'^ 

tjtauell gyudylan ys peithuac " Leao. 
g:^•edy ketwyr '- uodavc : '^ 
cluau kyndylau kacavc. 

Stauell gyndylan ys oergrei '^ heno. 

gvedy y parch ambuci :'* 

heb wyr Leb wi-.iged ''' ao catwei. 

Stauell gyndylan ys ai-af heno. 

gvedy colli y hinaf : 

y mavr drugauc duv pawnaf.''' 

Stauell gyndylan ystywyll y nenn. 
gvedy dyua oloegyrwys : 
kyndylan ac eluau powys. 

Stauell gyndylan ystywyll heno. 
oblaat kyndrwyu : 
kynon agviavn agvyn. 

Stauell gyndylan amcrwan," pobawr 
.,'vedy mavr ynigynyrdau."* 
aweleia av dy beutan. 

iirjT cli ban ylef-- 

llewsoei-^ gvyr Uynn : 

creu Gallon kyndylan wynn. 

2j Kyudylan's Hall is gloomy to-night 
Without fire, without songs — 
Tears are the ti"ouble of my cheeks ! 

26 Kyndylaii's Hall is gloomy to-night 
■• witliout family — 

'17 Kyudylau's Hall pierces me to see it, 

Without roof, without tire 

Dead is my chief, myself alive ! 

2S Kyndylan's Hall lies waste to-night, 
After warrior's contented — 
Elvan, Kyndylan, Kaeauc ! 

29 Kyndylan's Hall is piercing cold to-night, 
After the liouor that befell me — 
Without the men, without the women it 

Blieltered ! 

30 Kyndylan's Hall is still to-night. 
After the losing of its Elder — 

The great '" God ! what shall I do .' 

31 Kindylau's Hall ! gloomy is its roof, 
Since the destruction by the LoegjTwys 
Of Kyndylan and Elvan of Powis. 

32 Kyndylan's Hall is gloomy to-night 
Oi^accouut of the children of Kyndruy u — 
Kynon, and Gwiaun and Gwyn. 

33 Kyndylan's Hall pierces mc every hour — 
After the great gathering din at the fire 
Which I saw at thy "-' fire-hearth ! 

34 Eli'fl eagle, loud his cry, 

He has swallowed fresh drink, 
Heart-blood of Kyndylan fair ! 

> cerdd, W. PI. ccrddl. Vid. n. ". 
- dygystiidd, W, 
' deurudd, W. 

* Some words have been evidently 
omitted in the MS. 

' I cannot con-strue this line. 
' tjwan-u, W. 

7 toad, W. 

8 glyw, W. 

9 bijw, W. 

" myhunan, W. 

" peilhiawf/, W. u Bccms occa.sion- 
ally to take the place of one of the 
narrow vowels, i, y, &c. Vid midiunan, 
Ht. 27 ; tu for ti, st. 3 ; ryverin for tt 
fjwerin, Bt. 51, &c. 

'• cadwr, W. ccdtcyr, pi, 

'i hoddaw'j. W. 

'• ocrgrai, W. 

'^ 6uai, W. The pluporfocb tenso 
KeoniK to haro boon uMod occaHionally 
witli tho HOQHC of the perfect. Vid. llcwaici, 
Ht. 34. 

'* jwraiy, W. tjicitiyrdil, pi. 

*" Owen Pugh reads drugaraug, but I 
do not know on wliat authority; and 
Villemarqui', following him, has tntgarol: 
Tliese words of course represent tho 
Welsh, (rugaraicg, merciful. I cannot 
construe drugauc. 

'^ gv;na, W. 

'^ ei'wan-u, W. 

•" 0. Pugh translates this word l>y "re- 
echoing clamour," Villoniaripie by "tu- 
multe." /^ynr means a din; ami supposing 
this woid comiiouiuh'd with cy tho d 
Would bi! changed to v, and wo might 
account iov the two middle syllables of 
y>'tgy^'y>'d(tn : the prefix yin would further 
give ufl ymgynyi; a surrounding din. 
Tiio lant sylhiblo is I supposo tho Welsh 
tun. If HO it should lie written ns a 
distinct word. 

•' Tho change of person <locs not ad- 
mit of an oany oxplanati.ju. 

»-' llrf, W. 

^ lliii'u, W. ; pill pcrfi<'t. "i sing. Vid. 
luci, Ht. 2'J. 


Eryr eli gorelwi ' lieno 

y 2 gvaet gvyr gvynu novi :^ 

ef ygoet ■• trviu hoot ymi. 

Eryr cli aglywaf* heno. 
creulyt yv nys beidyaf.' 
ef ygoet tvrvm ^ lioct arnaf. 

Eryr cli gorthrymet '" hcno. 
dyflVyut meissir niygedavc : 
dir brochuael liir rigodet.'-* 

Eryr eli cclieidv '^ myr. 
nythreid ''' pypcavt "* ynobyr. 
gelvit "* gvellt " owaet gwyr. 

Eryr eli goryiiKla coot. 

kyuore kinyaua :-*• 

ae llavch-' llvydit- ydraba.-^ 

Eryr penngvern penngarn llvyt. 
aruchel yatles."' 
cidic anigic. 

Eryr penngvern penngarn llvrt. 

aruchel y euan."" 

eidic amgic -" kyndylan. 

Eryr pengvern pengarn llvyt. 
aruchel y adaf -'* 
eidic amgic agaraf. 

Eryr pengvern pell galwavt -^ bono. 

arwaetgvyr gvylat : ^ 

ry gelwir trenn tref difavt.*' 

35 Eli's eagle screams aloud to-night, 

In the blood of fair men he wallows ! 
lie is in the wool'* — a heavy' grief to 
me ! 

36 Eli's eagle I hear to-night- 
Bloody is he— I defy not '' — 

He is in the wood, a heavy grief to me ! 

37 Eli's eagle let him afflict to-night 
Meissir's " vale illustrious — 
Brochmael's '- land .'—long let him affront 


S3 Eli'a eagle keeps the seas ; 

He will not course the fish in the river's 

mouth '7 — 
Let him call — let him look out for the 
blood of men ! 

39 Eli's eagle traverses the wood 
At dawn to feast 

His greed — may his boldness prosper it! 

40 Pengwern's eagle with the grey horn* 

Very loud his echoing voice 
Eager for the flesh, &c.'-'' 

n Pengwern's eagle with the grey horn-beak, 
Very loud his call of defiance 
Eager for Kyndylau's flesh ! 

42 Pengwern's eagle with the grey horn-beak, 
Very loud his clamour. 
Eager for the flesh of him I love ! 

io Pengwern's eagle ! from afar is his call to 
night — 
For the blood of men is his look out — 
Truly -will Tren be called the ruined 
town ! 

' goralw, \\'. 3 sing, old form. 

• Vid. yijhijmdri, st. 7. 

•* nojl-aw ; 3 sing, old form. 

^ Vid. yghjmelri, st. 7. 

■'• i.e. in his coffin. 

•"' clyiu-ed, W. 

7 heiddiaw, "\V. 

^ This and the 12 following triplets 
contain, as I construe them, a mere out- 
pouring of despair. In his prostration, 
the poet bids welcome to the evils that 
are overwhelming him. 

' I take this to be the same word as 
trvni in st. 35, though with a different 

^'^ gorthrijm-ii, W. ; imp. m. 3 sing. 

" Meissir, as we gather from the latter 
part of the poem, was Kyndylau's sister. 

'- This must be the celebrated Broch- 
mael Ysgythrawg, King of Powis. 

'•' rhigoddi, \y.; imp. m, 3 sing. 

^ cadiu, \\. 

'■' trcidiaw, W. 

""• pysgod, W. 

'* The meaning seems to be, usually he 
keeps the seas, now he does not chase 
the fish, but looks out for the blood of 

'^ galw, W. 

'^ gyliaw, AV. 

-" ciniava, W. 

-> Uawg, AV. 

-'- llwyddraw, W. 

=•* trdha, W. 

-^ adlais, W. 

-^ Some words are here evidently 
omitted in the M.S. 

-^ I have construed this word as if it 
were a derivative of Ihew. O. Pugh, in 
his edition spells it ieuan. There is an 
adjective ieuin, clamox'ous. 

'■^ cig, W. 

-"• aedd, AV., a din; adaf mtij he a de- 

-■' A derivative o{ galw. 

•*' A derivative oigwel-cd. 

^' difoed, W. 


Evyr penngvem pell gelwit heno. 

arwaet gvyr gvelit : 

rj gfhvir treuu tref lethrit.' 

Eglvysseu bassa yorffvvvys - beuo. 
ydiweild ^ ymgynnvys.'' 
cledyr -■ kat callou arijoetwis. 

Eglvysseu bassa ynt faeth heuo. 
vyntauavt " ae gvuaeth : " 
i'ud ynt vy rwy vy hiraeth. 

Eglvysseu bassa ynt yng heno. 

yetiued kyndrvyii : 

tir mablau kyudylan wynn. 

Eglvysseu bassa ynt tirion heuo. 
ygvuaeth eu meillyou : '" 
lud ynt vy. rvy vyngcallon " 

Eglvysseu bassa colUisaut cu brcint.'- 
L^vedy y dyua o locgyrwys : 
kyndylau ac eluan powys. 

Eglvysseu bassa ynt diua heuo. 
ychfctwyr '^ uy phaia.'^ 
gvyr awyr ami yiua. 

Eglvisseu ynt baruar '■' heuo. 

iiininneu wyf dyar: 

iiid ynt vy rvy vyggalar.''" 

Y dref weuu ymbronn y coet. 
ysef y V yhefras '" eiryoot : 

ar wyneb y gvcllt y gvaet. 

Y dref wen ynythymyr '-' 
y hefraa yglas vyuyr : '-' 

y gwaet adan dract y gvyr. 

41 Pengwern's eagle! from afar let him call 
to night — 
For the blood of men let him look out — 
Truly will Trcn be called the town of 
tlamo I 

•15 Bassa's Churches ! there rests to night — 
There ends — there shrinks within him- 
lie, that was the Shelter iu battle — 
Heart of the men of Argoet ! '' 

40 Bassa's churches are euriched to-night — 
My tongue hath done it ! 
Ruddy '•' are thoy, overflowing my grief ! 

4 7 Bassa's churches are close neighbouring 
To the heir of Kyndruyu — 
Grave-yard of Kyndylau fair ! 

4S Biissa's churches are lovely to-night — 
Their clover hath ma'le them so — 
lluddy are they, overllowing my heart ! 

49 Bassa's churches have lost their privilege 
Since the destruction by tlie Loegyrwys 
Of Kyudylan and Elvan of Powys. 

50 Bassa' .s churches are to make an end to 

The warriors are not to continue — 
He knows who knoweth all things, aud I 

here know. 

51 Bassa's churches arc still to-night — 
And I am to cry! 

'lhc>f ""' are not — overflowing is my lament. 

52 The White Town in the bosom of the 

wood ! 
There has ever been of its lustyhood, 
On the surface of the grass, the blood ! 

53 The White Town iu the country-side ! 
Its lustyhood — its grey thoiightfuln ess — '" 
The blood under the feet of its warriors ! 

' lUtfni,f, W. 

* yorffuwi/s, \V. 
^ diwcdd-u, W. 

* ymgynmnisan; W. 
'•' cltdwr, \V. 

'' The Welsh seem to have given to 
Shropshire the name uf Argoed, or 

? tafaw'l, W. Tlio t ia hero eclipsed 
by tlic »i, 

* ywn, W. ; firct. 

' Tliat in, willi blood, 
'o mcllion, W.jBubst. aggr. Vid. hI. 15, 
'' Here ;i</ ocliiiHon the cof callou. 
>» braint, \W. 

" eadicr. W. : rrdwtjv, y], 
'* para, \'. . 

" paruar, W. 

"• That is, the warriors mentioned in 
the preceding stanza. 

'? ffalar, W. 

'*• cinui, W., nieans plump : and in hiu 
Dictionary 0. Pugh makes tlio word a 
HubRtantivo on tlie autiiority of the pas- 
sago in the text. Ho there dcfinoH it 
tlio "plunipncHH of youth." Villemarque 
reads i/nTuf, but I believe without any 

'•' lytiiliitr, W., properly means one's 
native di«trict. 

*" Tluit i», its groylieaded seniors. O. 
Pugh construes " its blue somh of con- 
tciuplaliun;" and HupposcB that the bards 
nru meant 1 


Y drcf wcii ynj'clj^ffvynt 

llbawen yvydeir ' vrth gyvanrud -kat : 
vgverin ' neurderyut. 

Y dref weun rvng trenn athrodwyd. 
Oed gnodach ysgwyt tonn : 
yndyuot o gat nogyt ych yechwyd. 

Y dref wenn rvng trenn athraual. 

Oed giiodacb y gauet : ^ 

Ar wyneb gvcUt uoc eredic brynar/ 

Gvynn yvyt " freuer mor y v dihciut.'* 

gvedy colli keuueint :•' 
oauffavt '" vyntauavt " yt lesseint. 

51 Tbo Wbite Town in tbe valley ! 

Joyful its troop with tbe common spoil 

of battle — 
Its people are tbcy not gone? 

5'> Tbe Wbitc Town between Tren and 
Trodwyd ! 
More common was tbe broken shield 
Coming from battle, than the evening 
ox. ■» 

'iG The White Town between Tren and 

Traval ! 
More common was the blood 
On the surface of tlie grass, than^the 

ploughed fallow ! 

57 Alas ! Freur ! how sad is it, to-night 
After the loss of kindred ! 
By the mishap of my tongue were they 
slain ! &c. 

Freur, as ^Ye learn from the latter part of the poem, was 
KjMidylan's sister. I do not, however, intend to trace out 
the various members of this chieftain's family ; nor shall I 
speculate as to the rank or power they possessed among their 
countrymen. All that we can know on these matters must 
be gathered from the poem ; and, as we have no means of 
comparison, we have no sure ground whereon to base any 
critical inference. Such inquiries moreover would throw but 
little light on the subject immediately before us. Indeed 
the latter part of the poem contains so little that is of histo- 
rical interest, that it would hardly repa}^ us for the time and 
trouble which must be spent in unravelling its difficulties. 
I shall not therefore proceed further with my translation. 

Bassa's Churches were no doubt a group of small churches, 
such as we find at Glendalough and other places in Ireland. 
The hallowed spot where the last Welsh Lord of Pengwern 
received a hurried and a blood-stained burial, may probably 
be recognised in Baschurch, a small town or, rather, village 
]yiiig some seven miles north of Shrewsbury. Names of 
places on the Welsh border appear to be in many cases little 
more than loose translations of the Welsh names that pre- 

' byddaii; W. 

- anrJtaclh, W., spoil ; cyfanrhaeth, 
common or public spoil. 0. Pugh and 
Villemarqu(5 give us cyvamug, but I do 
not know on what authority. 

■* V seems to be the same word as is 
generally found spelled y in the MS. 

* That is, returning from pasture. 

* This is evidently the same word as 


is elsewhere spelt gwaet or Qvaet. 

" braenar, AV. 

^ (jicyn ei fyd is still used as an adver- 
bial expression in Welsh. 

** dihawnt, W. 

' cyfnai, W. ; c'/fneiaint, pi. 

'« anffawd, W. 

'^ iafaud, W. ; the t is eclipsed by 
the n. 

F F 


ceded tliciii, and IJaschurcli renders ^Yitll sufficient precision 
tlie Welsh phrase Eghvysau Bassa. 

It may help us to fix the locality of the '" "White Town," if 
ue first ascertain -svliat meaning was generally given to the 
]ihrase in the early times of Avhich avc are noNV treating, 
AVhithorn in Galloway, Avhere St. Ninia the Welsh apostle of 
the Southern Picts fixed his episcopal seat in the fourth 
century, was by our Saxon ancestors termed hwit cern or 
White Cell. Bede tells us that the place was commonly 
called " Ad candidani casam," because Ninia had there 
" built a church of stone after a fashion new to the Britons." 
— Hist. Ecc, c. iv. From this passage it seems probable that 
the church was called Candida casa as early as the fourth 
century, when Ninia built it ; and it is clear it was so called 
when 13edc wrote, that is, a little more than a century after 
Ceawlin's inroad. We may infer that in the sixth and seventh 
centuries the term white was applied to buildings of hewn 
stone, in contradistinction to houses built of timber or mere 
dry walling. Now Shropshire w\as an Argoed,^ or woodland, 
and the vast number of wooden houses still to be seen in its 
towns and villages shows the kind of material which must 
always have been the most available for constructive pur- 
poses. Its ancient towns were no doubt mainly built of 
timber. There is but one place in the district which we 
know, or with any show of pi-obability can suppose, to have 
been built after the Koman fashion ; and I believe Uriconium 
to be the " White Town," whence issued the bands of war- 
riors whose prowess is dwelt upon with such mingled pride 
and sadness by the poet. 

That an ancient highway — cither a paved road or a drift- 
way — ran alongside the Severn and entered AVorcestershire, 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of Areley !Magna, is almost 
certain : and equally so is it, that such highway crossed the 
Tern and passed through Uriconium. Through the same town 
ran the Watling Street. A traveller therefore from Pengwern, 
or from the upper part of the valley of the Tern, would pass 
that river immediately ])efore reaching Uriconium ; and when 
he reached the town might, as his occasions led him, either pro- 
ceed furtlicr south, or pass eastward along the Watling Street. 
It was probal)ly with reference to the two routes thus oj^eii 

' Vid. ft. ^s. 


to the traveller that the poet uses tlie i-)hrases, " The White 
Town between Trcii and Trodwyd," ''The White Town between 
Tren and Traval." Traval and Trodwyd may have been noted 
places on the other side of Uriconium, on the line of these 
two higlnvays — Trodwyd ^ being probably some forest-defile. 
That the poet considered Tren to be the name of a river as 
■well as of a town aj^pears from a trij^-let in the latter part of 
the poem, which speaks of the confluence of the Tren and the 
Tridonwy, that is, as I take it, of the Tern and the Roden. 

If the ri\'er Tren was our modern Tern, we must look for 
the town of Tren somewhere in the neighbourhood of this 
river. In the topography of every country, towns and 
villages readily take the name of the stream that flows past 
them ; and the reader will easily call to mind some brook 
that gives its name to more than one village on its banks — 
epithets such as great, little, wet, dry, &c., being used for dis- 
tinction's sake. On this very river we have a village called 
Tern ; but it certainly has no pretensions to represent the 
town of Tren we are now in search of. It is clear that 
Kyndylan of Shrewsbury must have been lord of the whole 
surrounding country. His usual place of abode may have 
been on Carrec Hytwyth, but the great town, " his fathers' 
town," which figures so largely in the poem under the name 
of "Jren, must have been the capital of his district. There 
was .but one place which in Roman times had any pretensions 
to be so considered, and I believe that Tren and the " White 
Town " alike represent the Roman Uriconium. 

It may be asked, if Tren and Uriconium be the same 
l)lace, how can we account for the difference of name ? The 
objection is a very reasonable one, and requires on our part 
a ver}^ careful answer. 

Most of our Roman towns have in their neighbourhood 
earthworks, supposed to be the remains of the more ancient 
British towns which they supplanted ; Colchester has the 
earthworks at Lexden, Dorchester, the Maiden Camp, 
Chichester the Brill, and so forth. We are generally told 
that these Roman towns grew out of the camps which were 
constructed during the siege of the neighbouring stronghold. 
I believe this to be a mistake. Temporary camps may some- 

Ovoydd, ^W-)> trees; trawd (W.), a journey, a passage; hence it would seem 
Trodwydd, the wooded pass. 


times be traced near these strongholds, and that they ^Yere 
constructed by the besiegers is ver}^ probable. But such 
camps ditVcr both in their character and in the circumstances 
of their position from the towns, ^vllOse origin ^Ye arc now 
investigating. Tlie latter are mostly situated in the valley 
near the river, and often two or three miles from the scarped 
heights, M-hich generally represent the British fortress ; Avhile 
the temporary camps, at least such as have fallen under my 
notice, lie only just beyond flight-shot from the fortress, and 
were evidently constructed more for the annoyance of the 
besieged, than with any view to the convenience of the 
besiegers. The towns ^Yere prol)ably erected as the different 
provinces, one after another, bent the neck to the yoke, and 
consented to receive the " pnTsidia castellaque," ^ ^Yhicll the 
Proprjutor for the time being might think necessary to secure 
their obedience. 

For one of these garrison-towns Uriconium seems to haAc 
been originally intended ; though it was probably inha- 
bited in the sixth century by a .population consisting for the 
most part of Romanised Britons. It lay about a third of a 
mile from the Tern, near its junction with the Severn, and 
about three miles from the Wrekin, on or near to which we 
have reason to believe was a native town, the old British 
capital of the district. This native town there can be iittle 
doubt continued to exist beside the lloman town, till the 
inroad of Ceawlin involved both in one common ruin. 

We must not suppose that the British earthworks or 
" camps," as they are sometimes called, necessarily included 
within their circuit the whole of a British settlement. There 
arc instances in which only scanty traces of habitation are 
found within the ramparts, while outside of them extend 
lines of hut-circles for a mile or more — showing clearly that 
the fortiess was only used when the presence of an enemy 
made it necessary. Th(> remains of an earthwork may still 
be traced on the A\'i(kin, ;iiid ilicy reju-esent no doubt the 
f/??ile ivrecon or stronghold of the Wrekin of which mention 
is made in the latter part of the ])oem. Jt is i»rol)able, how- 
ever, that the greater jiart of the British town lay at the 
foot of the hill to the westward, and that tlie space between 
it and (he Koman town on the banks of the Tern was more 

' Tuc. AkiIc. 20. 


•or less thickly covered with buildings, cemeteiics, tileries, 
&c., such as we find traces of near other lloman stations, 
Caister for example. The Avhole of this space, the Roman 
town included, seems to have taken the name of the British 
town, and to have been called Uriconium. But no doubt the 
people of the neighbourhood made nicer distinctions. As the 
Londoner distinguishes between London and Westminster, so 
would they distinguish between the di?ile ivrecon and the 
Koman town, to which they seem to have given the name of 
the river beside which it stood. In the Lritish town was no 
doubt much of the old British rudeness, and much of Italian 
refinement in its lloman neighbour. The relations between 
the two may have been very similar to those that exist 
between the " Irish town" and the " English town" in some 
of our Irisli cities. 

A like case of confusion between the general and the 
special name occurs in the Itinerar}'. The 5th iter, which 
]:)roceeds northwards from London, gives the distance between 
CcTsaromagus and Colonia as twenty-four miles ; the 9th 
iter, which proceeds to London southwards, and according to 
our ablest antiquaries traverses the same ground as the 5th 
iter, gives us the distance from Camulodunum to Canonium 
as eight miles, and from Canonium to C?esaromagus as twelve 
' — in all twenty miles. That Colchester represents the Colonia 
of the 5th iter seems to be generally admitted ; and that it 
represents the Camulodunum of Tacitus and of the 9th iter 
is maintained by writers of so much weight and by argu- 
ments so convincing, as to leave little room for doubt upon the 
subject. To account for the discrepancy of name we must sup- 
pose, that the lloman town was specially called Colonia * — 
ilie Colony — because it was the first and the most important 
colony founded by the llomans in the island ; and that the 
entire settlement took the name of Camulodunum from the 
British town at Lexden, to ^Yhich it owed its origin. Some 
t)f the difficulties connected with this iter remain to be 
explained, but the principal ones, and among them we must 
rank the difference in the distances, may be accounted for on 
this hypothesis. 

^ If we might suppose that Colouia of Uricouium. But on this suppositiou, 

took its uame from the river on which it I should expect, from analogy, that the 

stood (the Colne), the case of Caraulo- town would be called Colonium, or 

dunum would be exactly parallel to that Colinium. 


"Pengweni's engle'" must have been a denizen of tlie 
^yoo^.ls, wliicli, \\c may reasonably suppose, at one time 
covered the banks of the Severn near h^hrewsbury. But the 
harbourage of " Eh's eagle " is not so readily discovered. 
Villemarqu^ goes in search of it as far as Ireland, but we may, 
I think, seek for it nearer home Avith better hopes of success. 
Bede tells us, that Alcluyth, the old name for Dunbarton, 
meant the rock of the Clyde. Hist. Ecc. xii. ; Helvellen, 
there is little doubt, meant the yellow mountain, as Ivhiw- 
velen, that name so common in Welsh topography, meant the 
yellow slope — the diflerent localities deriving their respective 
names from the yellow bloom of the gorze that covered them. 
It would seem then that A I or JIcI wan used in ancient 
British topography to denote a rocky height. Now, some 
twelve miles uj) the valley of the Tern there is a high and 
very remarkable ridge of rocks called Ilawkstone. It runs 
towards the river, but dies away at Hodnet, shortly before 
reaching it. If this ridge -were called^ the IJ el or El, the 
.strong British fortress in front of ,it Avhich goes by the name 
of Bury Walls, might very well, according to analogy,^ take 
the name of Elig, and as the final fj is dropt in Welsh almost 
as freely as in English, wc at once get the name of Eli. Here 
then we have two British strongholds, one in the valley of the 
Severn at Pengwern, some five miles from Uriconium, the 
other twelve miles distant up the valley of the Tern ; and the 
picture of the two eagles each sailing down his valley to the 
battle-field seems to me to be no less true to nature, than it 
is striking as a piece of poetry. 

In triplet 37 Kyndylan's country is styled tlie land of 
Brochmael. I think we may conclude that at the time 
when the events took place which the poem refers to, a 

* Tliero is some slight evidcuco that niorry town— Welsh scholara nro not 

fluch was actually tho case. Near to agreed as to tlio ctyinoloj^^y — but the 

Jloduct is a )iUlo called Holshaw. We itDportant jioint ia that tlio town is often 

may Buiiui.fc liiat of acvcral bliawa in tho called Antwiilhi;/, witliout tho Bubstan- 

neighbourhoo'l tiie one which aiiiiroaclicd tifo, Piiil. 'I'raiiH. i. No. C. Avariciun 

nearest to HawkNloiio took from it its (IJoingcs) lay on the river Avar-a, and 

uamo, and was called tiio Hel-shaw. Autriciun (ChartreK) on tho river wliich 

" Elig would really bo an adjective, wan called Autura. Walekeiiaer, i. 39D. 

and wouhl higuify belongiuf,' to tho K(. Tho eonnection between llio nanioH of 

IJul adjifttivcM of thii cIhm!) arc con- tho towns and tho names of (ho rivora ih 

' ■' " ' ' th in Woihh and in obviouH, and is noticed by Wulckenner, 

. mtivcM denoliu;^ place. tiiouf;h he does not attcmjjt to cxjilain 

) i -.-lii Shrowsbury is calli-d il.M nature. 
Tref Amuyt/ii'j, tho moat«a, or tho 


prince named Broclimael held the suzcreinty in that part 
of Britain. There is reason to suppose that he Avas the 
same person as the prince of that name who, according 
to Bede, was present at the Battle of Chester.^ This 
celebrated battle was fought, according to the Saxon Chro- 
nicle, in 607, but according both to the Annales Cambria) 
and to Tighernac, in 613, which is probabl}- the true date. 
If we follow this calculation, thirty-six years must have elapsed 
between the date of Ceawlin's inroad and Ethelfrith's advance 
upon Chester ; and, though this interval might well be com- 
prised within the reign of one prince, yet it is long enough 
to make some explanation desirable. The circumstances of 
the case readily furnish it. The Annales Cambria) inform 
us that Selim, son of Cynan, fell in tlie battle of Chester. 
Now Cynan is always represented as the son of Brochmael, 
and accordingly it would appear that the grandson of 
Brochmael was engaged in the battle. It is clear, therefore, 
that the Welsh kino- must at that time have been a man in 
advanced life, a circumstance which explains the fact men- 
tioned by Bede, that he took his station with the monks of 
Bangor, who had come to pray for the success of their 
countrymen. Brochmael, therefore, may very well have 
been King of Powis when Ceawlin attacked Uriconium ; and 
it was probably under the leadership of this Welsh king that 
the Britons succeeded in arresting the further progress of 
the invaders at the battle of Faddiley. 

I trust I have now advanced arguments sufficient to con- 
vince the critical reader that it was CeawHn, King of Wessex, 
who destroyed Uriconium. He appears to have wasted the 
Avliole valley of the Tern, and perhaps we may say the whole 
of the district to which we now give the name of Shropshire. 
But the Britons were still powerful enough to prevent his 
penetrating either into the valley of the Weaver, or into that 
of the Dee. For thirty-five years after Ceawlin's inroad, the 
King of Powis kept his hold of Chester, till in the year 613 
he suffered at the hands of Ethelfrith the terrible defeat 
which Bede has commemorated. From that date the 
marches between North Wales and England have remained, 
with occasional variations, much as we find them at the 
present day. 

7 Hist. Eccl. 2. 


Here it was my iiitentioii to have brought this paper to a 
close. But it has been suggested to me that I ought not to 
pass over Avitliout remark certain specuhitions ^Yhich have 
lately obtained a good deal of public notice, and ^Yhich, it 
must be confessed, are altogether at variance Avith the con- 
clusions Avhich I have been endeavouring to establish in 
the present essay. These speculations were first brought 
forward by Mv. Thomas Wright, in a paper which appeared 
in the Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire 
and Cheshire (vol. viii. p. 141), and have since been main- 
tained in other papers published in the Archa}ologia 
Cambrensis. His views have already met with formidable 
opponents in 3Ir. Basil Jones and others, and therefore my 
present notice of them may be the shorter. 

According to Mr. AVright, '• the popular story that the 
people who resisted the Saxons was the ancient Celtic 
population of the island, is a mere fiction." The scanty 
remains of that population were the serfs who cultivated the 
land. The " Britons "' who resisted our ancestors were " a 
mixture of races foi'eign to the island, and lived congregated 
in towns." After the open country was overrun by the 
invaders, the towns lying in that part of Britain which is now 
called England, for the most part yielded '• on composition,'' 
and still exist as English towns or cities. But in the west 
of Britain it was otherwise. " The strong town of Deva or 
Chester held its ground on the north, and Glevnm or Glou- 
cester survived, and a Roman town on the site of Worcester 
may also have been preserved, but the line of strong towns 
between Gloucester and Chester — Ariconium, ^Magna, Bravi- 
nium, Uriconium, &c.," w^itli the other Roman towns in Wales, 
were " utterly destroyed." Who then were the people who 
wrought all this fearful luin in ilio West of Britain i 

Mr. Wright, in answer U) tliis ([uestion, tells us, that 
Armorica ''was never completely Rojnanised." Its Celtic 
population, holding " fiercely to their own nationality, were 
accustomed to navigation and piracy," — were indeed "no less 
piratical than the Saxons themselves." At the beginning of 
the fiftli century they " resumed their ancient barbarism," 
and " wore the heart and nerve of that formidable l)agau(leric 
which thi-eatencd the safety of the Roman govenuncnt in 
Gaul." When yl^^tius to a certain extent re-asserted Roman 
doniinion in Ai-moricn, they flcfl ])eforc him, ninl inv.-nlol 


the western coasts of liritain. It was "a fiercer invasion 
and conquest of tlie countr}^ and much more destructive 
than the invasion of the Angles, Jutes, and Saxons in the 
other parts of the island." The new barbarians exterminated 
the Romanised inhabitants of the land, destroyed Uriconium, 
&c,, and settling down in the desert they had made, became 
the ancestors of the modern Welsh — the old story, that the 
Britons fled to the continent and gave name to Brittany, 
being of course a fiction. 

No authorities are quoted in support of these statements. 
They are only assertions and inferences, and may be treated 
accordingly. As far then as our knowledge goes, the people 
of Armorica had nothing to do with the brnjauderie — if by 
this Mr. Wright means the insurrection of the hagaadcB or 
peasants, of which Aurelius Victor and Eutro|)ius make 
mention ; and just as little had they to do Avitli piracy. 
They exhibited a spirit of turbulence in their relations with 
the Roman government ; but their country was intersected in 
all directions with Roman roads, and, as we have every reason 
to believe, was as thoroughly Romanised as the average of 
the Gallic provinces ^ — certainly as much so as the western 
parts of Britain. As to the alleged disappearance of the 
Celtic element from among the British population, I will 
only remark, that every Briton who is mentioned either by 
Bede or by the writers in the Chronicle, as an opponent of our 
ancestors, bears a name of Celtic origin; and though some of 
them may have been of Roman descent, yet it is clear from 
the signiticancy of certain of the names, that the nationality 
with which they identified themselves was Celtic both in 
origin and in feelino;. Of the circumstances under which 
the British towns came into possession of our ancestors we 
know but little. That little, however, directly contradicts 
Mr. Wright's statements. We know that they wasted 
many of these towns — Pevensey, Silchestcr, Verulam, Cam- 
bridge, Chester,^ &c. — and good reasons may be given for 
the belief that even London itself for awhile lay desolate and 
uninhabited. The towns in the west of Britain which bore 

' By this phrase I mean the provinces before distinguished by their adoption of 

inhabited by the people, to whom Cajsar l^oman mauneis and customs, 

more especially gives tiie name of Gulli. » According to Mr. Wri;'.ht, Chester 

The inhabitants of Aquitaine, and of the was one of the British towns that were 

valley of the Rhone, had been long " preserved." 

VciL.Xl.K. G G 


the first brunt of licatlien fierceness, Tvere for the most part 
sacked and burnt ; those Avliidi lav more to the westward 
and wlneli our ancestors reached at a later period— 
:Mandunum, Venta, 8e,o-ontiuni, c«tc.— lono- continued to be 
peopled cities. According to Mr. Wright these last-mentioned 
towns should have been the first destroyed. 

I hope that enough has now been advanced on this subject 
to shew, that Mr. Wright's settlement of its difficulties has 
made a re-opening of the question neither superfluous nor 
uncalled for. 


By J. 0. WESTWOOD, M.A., F.L.S., &c. 

Cologne possesses numerous pre-gotliic objects of interest 
to the antiquary, \Yhicli would amply repay him, even if the 
attractions of its wonderful cathedral did not add their claims 
to his attention. The famous shrine of the three kino-s is 


perhaps the grandest of a class of monuments of the 
twelfth century, upon which all the art of the period was 
lavished, and for the decoration of which antique gems and 
cameos were introduced, which merit more careful exami- 
nation than has been bestowed upon them. On the Cologne 
reliquary I noticed a cameo of early date and considerable 
size, with the head of Christ ; it is fixed near the right hand 
corner of the end of the shrine towards the choir {i. e. the 
west end). Two others, Leda, and Cupid and Psyche, are 
of smaller size, but appear deserving of examination. 

Two of the figures at the east end of the shrine represent 
St. Gereon and St. Maurice, the patron saints of Cologne, 
in mail-armour, close over the head, and reaching to the 
feet ; they bear kite-shaped shields. The lower row of the 
figures is apparently less ancient than the rest of the shrine. 

In the treasury of the cathedral are preserved many 
beautiful objects of the Gothic period, of wliich I omit 
the description. A Limoges enameled archiepiscopal cross 
of the twelfth or thirteenth century, and a staff for the 
leader of the choir, merit especial attention : the latter is 
ornamented, near the top, with a small globe of crystal ; from 
this rise three divergent branches, surmounted by a flat cross- 
bar, above which is placed a group of small statues repre- 
senting the Virgin and Child, "with the three kings, the first 
of whom kneels before the Saviour, the other two stand 
behind. Here are also preserved a series of ten elaborate 
carvings in ivory, but of a comparatively modern (renais- 
sance) date. There are two MSS. preserved in the sacristy 

! Continueil from vol. xviii. p. '225. 


bound in embossed gilt covers, also of the renaissance 

I was much struck with the inscription — Quod non vides, 
firniat fides — over the altar of the Ursuline church to the 
north of the cathedral. 

St. Cunibert's church, the ancient cathedral of Cologne, 
situated to the north of the cathedral, on the bank of the 
Rhine, has recently been carefully restored and decorated in 
polychrome with great elfect. The semicircular apse has been 
painted in imitation of tapestry, with a grand figure of the 
Saviour in the upper part. The stained glass in tliis church 
is considered to be the oldest in this part of Germany. 

The church of St. Maria in Capitolio merits a careful 
examination on account of its many architectural peculiari- 
ties. The crypt under the east end of the church may 
possibl}'' be a portion of the church erected in the eighth 
century by Queen Plectrudis, wife of Pepin of Herstal, but 
the upper part dates from about a.d. 1000. The roof of the 
crypt has been decorated with, paintings, amongst which I 
noticed the Baptism of the Savioui", the Annunciation, and the 
]3urial of the Virgin, all treated in the formal Byzantine style, 
which was so long prevalent in the east. A figure of Plectrutlis, 
a sculpture in high relief, probably of the eleventh centur}^ 
is built into the outside of the wall of the apse of the church, 
at a considerable heiglit from the ground ; it is larger than 
life, the head small, with the wimple drawn close over it, 
surrounded by an ornamental nimbus like a cockle shell ; 
the right hand open and raised in front of the breast, and the 
left Jiand holding a scroll inscriljcd in Roman capitals — 
DOMINI: DiLEXi DECORE.M DOMVS TVE. — Arouud tho figure, 
which is placed in a rather deeply sunk oblong area, is a 
}»lain raised border inscribed above the head of the figure — 
s. ri.ECTUVDis REGIXA — wliicli is again sun-ounded by a 
foliated border similar to that which is commonly observed 
Kuri'oimding eai'ly (German sculptured ivories.'^ The entrance 
to this curious church is at tho norlh-cast angle of the nave, 
at the extremity ol' an eh-vatcd cloister, and through a largo 
oaken door ol" tii(! early part of the twcllth ccntui-y, elal)0- 
rately carved with scenes of the liile of Christ; these 
8cul]>tures arc of great interest as conip.-iicd wilJi tho 

' Figured byH..iM(K>r<5o,Doiikiii. t. 8,aiul Otte.Hiin.Ui. ■!. Kirclil. KuiiHt. Arcii. p. 184. 


representations of the same subjects upon tlie bronze doors 
at Hildeslieira, Gnesen, &c. Each wing of the door is di- 
vided into three large transverse, and ten small square com- 
partments, separated from each other by raised interlaced 
riband patterns of a very Anglo-Saxon character. In the six 
large compartments the following subjects are figured : — 
1, the Salutation and the Annunciation ; — 2, the Angel 
appearing to Joseph and the Fhglit into Egypt ; — 3, the 
Pi'esentation of Christ in the Temple and the Baptism of 
Christ ; the Saviour is here represented standing on a dra- 
gon — not in water, as usual ; the Holy Dove rests upon his 
head ; the Baptist marks his forehead, whilst an Angel on 
the other side holds his clothing ; — 4, the Entry into Jeru- 
salem, with Zaccheus in the Tree ; — 5, the Last Supper ; only 
nine of the Apostles are here present ; — 6, the Descent of 
the Holy Ghost ; no dove is here represented, only tongues 
of fire rest on the heads of the twelve Apostles ; the Blessed 
Virgin stands on a stool in the midst of them. In the scene 
of the Agony in the garden of Gethscmane /owr apostles 
are asleep. In the scene of the Crucifixion, the Saviour is 
draped round the loins, the head destitute of nimbus, 
the feet apart ; only Longinus and the sponge-bearer 
appear at the sides of the cross. In the visit of the Holy 
Women to the Tomb of Christ which is represented like a 
temple with a flattened cupola, only tico Marys are figured ; 
one of them holds a censer like a huge lanthorn. The two 
soldiers occupy the upper angles of the compartment above 
the I'oof of the tomb. The lower compartment is divided 
into four portions, and contains figures of various saints. An 
excellent representation of the door is given by Wcerth.^ 

In a chapel, which in a most unusual manner occupies the 
west end of the church, are preserved twelve early coSin-lids 
of stone much defaced ; some of them are marked with 
crosses, others with chalices, and on one are figured two 
pastoral staves. The shrine of Plectrudis is here placed 
opposite to the recumbent efiigy of an abbess, but both are 
comparatively of a late date. 

Around the church are the remains apparently of large 
conventual buildings, and a gateway on the south side is 
inscribed — Lichof. 

3 Kunst-denltmaler dcs Chrlstlichen Mittelalters iu deu Rhoiulanden. 


St. Ursula's cliiircli, with its strange assemblage of skulls 
and bones, the reputed relics of the 11,000 virgins, may claim 
to be mentioned, several interesting objects of ancient art being 
preserved in the sacristy. One of these is an ivory cofler of 
the fourteenth or fifteenth century, ^vitli love-scenes of the 
kind common on mirror cases, caskets, &c. Tliis coffer is 
nsed as the receptacle of the foot of St. Ursula ; the remain- 
der of her bones repose in a coffin behind the high altar. A 
tall vase of Egyptian alabaster is also preserved here, reputed 
as one of the vessels ^Yhich held the water turned into wine 
at the marriage feast of Cana. Of such vessels there are 
several preserved in various churches in Germany and France; 
and some interesting notices on the subject will be found in 
recent volumes of Didron's Annales Archeologiqucs. A 
curious series of figures of the Apostles, painted on slate in 
the early part of the thirteenth century, also merit attention 
at the church of St. Ursula. 

The Romanesque churches of the Apostles and St. Gereon 
are amongst the most interesting erections of that peculiar 
style to be found in Western Europe. Both are well illus- 
trated in Hope's Essay on Architecture. In the sacristy of 
the former church is preserved a huge and curious drawing 
on canvas of the twelfth or thirteenth century, containing 
full-length figures of saints, rudely drawn and much di.s- 
colured. The western entrance and the crypt of St. Gereon's 
church present many objects of interest. The columns of 
the western doorway into the church rest upon crouching 
lions, and over the great door is a very early wall painting 
of the Saviour. Let into the walls of this enclosed western 
court are i)reserved a number of early Uoman Christian in- 
scriljcd tombstones, which mci'it careful e.xamination, being 
very similar to of the catacombs of liome. I had 
only time to make fac-similes of a few of these. One, uj)on a 
slab measuring 10" in. by H in., i-eads thus, — 

]II(; .I.\( r.T VVVAl NO.MEN 

E vaij:.\tiniano liui 
YixiT anno hi i:t ME 

8KS KT •• 1)1 i;s .\VI KT 
I alius CVM I'ACIi 

In the mid«l]e of this slab is an inci.sed circle, witliin which 
in tiic labaritiii, having the cross bar horizontal, and wiUi the 


letters alfha and omccja at its side. Anotlier slab, about a 
foot square, is also incised with a circle, within whicli is the 
monogram — XPI forming the labariim, and with the letters 
M and N at tlie sides ; on each side of the circle a rudelj 
drawn bird is slightly incised, above which is insciibed, — 



In both inscriptions the letters are debased Eoman capitals, 
slightly rustic in shape, the A having the cross bar angulated, 
the M with the tw^o outer strokes slanting, the l tall, and 
•with the bottom stroke extending obliquely below the line, 
the E with the cross bars short and of equal length. Within 
the noble round body of the church are a number of large 
rude stone coffins, of a very early fashion, placed along the 
wall, raised from the ground on short pillars. On one of 
these is inscribed — b. br . mar . v. corpora recondvntyr 
Hic. The chancel is raised very considerably, there are not 
fewer than 32 steps from the body of the church, with three 
altars gradually rising in height ; beneath the chancel is the 
large crypt, which is well lighted ; in two side chapels of the 
crypt are remains of tesselated pavements with altar tombs, 
one with the cross raised saddle-like. The pavement is much 
broken and displaced, but we read — domvm dayid, and parts 
of other words ; portions of figures were also to be seen, one 
being the head of a king, with part of a sceptre in the left 
hand ; also the crossed legs of a knight seated, clad in 
armour ; a large right hand holding a globe, &c. Imbedded 
into the wall on the north side is a very early inscription, — 


At the west end of the cr3^pt is an opening approached by 
a descent of three or four steps, inclosing a very large plain 
oblong stone coffin, said to be that of St. GereoiL "We have 
therefore in this church probably some relics of the Roman 
colony, from which the name of the city is derived. The 
beautiful Baptistery, on the south side of the church, with its 
great marble font, has been recently renovated and decorated 
in polychrome. 


The Cliurcli of the Doniinioans, in ^vllich tlie remains of 
Albeitus 3Iagniis, the alchemist, and Piovincial of the 
Dominicans in Germany, were interred, has been destroyed. 
He died at Cologne in 1280. His chasuble is now ]")reserved 
in a glass case in one of the side cha])els of the Church of 
St. Andreas, in ^Yhich is also to be noticed a curious arcade 
over the inner ^Yestern entrance to the church. 

The museum of Cologne, especially since its removal to 
a new building, merits careful investigation, containing, 
besides the collection of early paintings of the Cologne 
schools, a valuable series of objects ranging from the times of 
Roman occupation. It is under the charge of !M. Ramboux, 
by whom the extremely interesting collection of drawings 
at Dusseldorf, representing the master-pieces of Italian Art 
from the earliest periods, was executed. This museum has 
increased in interest, and comprises Roman remains, early 
Christian inscriptions, enamels, reliquaries, carved ivories, 
illuminations from MSS., coins, &c. One of the small 
tombstones bears the simple word tax ; another has + k'l 
IVXLS OB. — inscribed in a cross. The two leaves of an 
interesting ivory diptych have the four evangelistic s^^mbols 
finely carved, two on each leaf, with ornamental circles, 
in a very unusual manner. Another interesting ivory 
represents the Saviour seated, his feet resting on the earth, 
his hands extended over the heads of St. Victor and 
another saint, each of whom holds a palm branch ; above 
are two angels, and below are eighteen heads, forming two 
rows, nine in each. 

On the ivory verso of a book-cover Christ is represented, 
young and beardless, seated, wiili ilio twelve Apostles at the 
bottom and sides, those at the sides being seated one above 
another in tlie liyzantine fashion. Anothei' book-cover is orna- 
mented with a large gilt figure of Christ, with a border formed 
of ten enamels. A MS. of the Gospel also claims notice ; 
it is illuminated in the style of the jieriod of tlie Kmperor 
Henry II., the title being written in gold letters on a painted 
(n(»t stained) pur})le ground. 

Tliere are two very interesting ivory combs here, one 
large and ornanjente<l nmiIi foliated design, with only one 
row of teeth, the handh.' wide and deeply notched ; the othei" 
contains a representation of the Crncifixion, in the style of 
the Frankish illuminations of the ninth or tenth centni'v. 


Another large piece i*epresents the tliree Mar3's at the 
sepulchre, and the Crucifixion. The Birth of Christ, within a 
■walled city, is represented on another ivory, which, with that 
last mentioned, is evidently by the artist who carved the 
remarkably fine sculpture of the Ascension in Mr, J. Gough 
Nichols' collection, as well as two large ivories in Mr. Webb's 
collection. Two curious ivory boxes are also here, one with 
two oxen harrowing ; the other with birds, fruit, and leaves. 
Some reliquaries of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries de- 
serve attention, as well as a small and very beautiful enameled 
cup. There are also two sets of drawings, apparently executed 
for enamel workers, and copies of the curious fresco-paintings 
at Brauwilder. 

In the small architectural museum recently established 
on the south side of the cathedral, are several interesting 
ecclesiastical objects, including a copy of the Gospels, of the 
eleventh century, from the church of St. Maria, Lyskirchen, 
the front of the cover bearing a curious contemporary ivory 
carving of the Crucifixion, of excellent workmanship and very 
deep relief ; as usual, the figure of Christ is of enlarged size, 
naked, except a cloth tied round the waist. At the foot of 
the cross is a winged dragon with a long tail ; at the sides 
of the cross appear Longinus and his companion, figures of 
small size ; and adjoining them stand the Blessed Virgin and 
St. John. A female figure on each side supports one of the 
arms of the cross, above which are circles containing Sol and 
Lima, personified as w^eeping ; the evangelistic symbols 
occupy the four corners of the piece, which is enclosed within 
a foliated border. The style of the work resembles that of 
Mr. J. Gouoli Nichols' tablet above mentioned, the folds of 
the drapery not being deeply incised, but marked with rows 
of punctures. There appears, indeed, to have been an 
extensive manufactory of carved ivories of this bold class, 
judging from the collections at Darmstadt, Cologne, Berlin, 
and other places. 

Another ivory represents the ]\Iarys at the Sepulchre ; the 
soldiers are seen standing at the sides of a rounded building, 
and rest on their spears. I remarked also a small sculpture 
of the Crucifixion of rather curious design, similar to one in 
the MaskcU collection now in the British Museum. Also 
casts of two of the round ivory pyxes for holding the con- 
secrated wafers, of which several examples occur in the 



lUiiiie district, as at Xaiiteu and Wiesbaden, both ^Yitll Pagan 
and Christian subjects. 

The Puppcn Theatre, in which dolls pei-fonn the characters 
in droll farces, as in Italy, the dialogue being spoken by 
persons beliiml the scenes in the patois of the country, may 
also be archicologically noticeable, as occurring nowhere else 
in Gernianv, and beiuir doubtless a relic of the scenic diver- 
tisements of the middle ages. 

The llonian occupation of the finest part of the Rhino 
country is testilied by the museums established not only 
at Cologne, but also at Bonn, Anderuach, Neuwied, Wies- 
baden, and Mayence. At Reinagcn a curious carved gate- 
way, leading to the Pfarrhof to the church, on which 
are sculptured the signs of the zodiac, executed probably at 
the end of the eleventh century, and some remarkable sculp- 
tures on the south and west sides of the great church at 
Andernach, merit examination. At Mayence the cathedral, 
a structure commenced in the tenth and finished in the 
eleventh century, possesses many objects of interest. Here, 
as at Worms, Spire, and Treves, are two choirs, one at the 
east and one at the west end of the church ; the latter has 
recently undergone careful restoration, and it has been elabo- 
rately painted and gilt. The interior of the church, and also 
the cloisters on its south side, are rich in monuments of early 
ecclesiastics, and perhaps nowhere else is heraldry more ex- 
tensively introduced upon these memorials than in this 
cathedral. The plain monument and inscription to the 
memory of P'astrada, third wife of Charlemagne, (a.d. 793,) 
is to bo noticed, as well as the large but plain brass font, 
executed in 1328, in the eastern lady chapel. The north 
doors of the cathedral are of brass, and bear the inscription — 


I'lilMUS. — Two large lions' heads in high relief support the 
knockers of the doors, which bear an in.scri])tion by JJishop 
Adclbert I. (a.d. 1135) : it records an edict conferring 
important privileges on the city. 

ill tiie sacristy are preserved two ancient clialicos, probably 
of the tenth century ; one, tho gift of Archbishop Willigis, 
is a curious example of Hyzantino art. 

TIk.' .Museum is extremely rich botii in I'cinain.s 
found in the n(.'ighbourhoo(i, and also in r.-igan-Cermanic 
relics obtained (Vom graves. This part of tiie museum, by 


the care of Herr LindenscliiniJt, lias attained a national im- 
portance ; the great mediaival museum of Germany being at 
Kuremberg. Here are, however, two or three very interest- 
ing carved media3val ivories, one of great age, displaying 
scenes of hunting upon a curious semicircular frame, and 
another with a representation of St. George. I observed 
also a cast of a curious circular pyx, now in the Wiesbaden 
Museum, and a large piece for the game of draughts, with 
warriors deeply carved. The extremely valuable series of 
fac-similes of pagan relics, such as fibula3, &c., executed b}- 
Lindenschmidt, and colored in strict imitation of the originals, 
deserves the highest praise. It is much to be wished that a 
series of them should be obtained for our national museum. 

The library at Mayence, as may easily be conceived, is 
very rich in early printed books, but there are no illuminated 
MSS. of the least importance. 

The public library and museum of Frankfort-on-the-Maine 
is not rich in mediieval antiquities. It can, however, boast 
of one of the most remarkable early carved ivories in 
existence. It is 4 ^- in. wdde, and about a foot high, and con- 
tains a representation of a priest, with ten attendants 
officiating at mass ; this fine example is affixed to the cover 
of a tall folio Lectionarium of the thirteenth century. The 
sculptured ivory itself is evidently several centuries earlier, and 
is assigned by the late M. Passavant (Keeper of the Library) 
to the ninth century.* In the centre is the officiating priest, 
a figure of large size, represented full face, as on the consular 
diptychs, and standing in front of an altar covered with an 
ornamental cloth ; his hands are raised, and all the fingers 
stretched out in the act of benediction. On the altar is 
placed, on each side, an ornamented candlestick. In the 
centre is a chalice with two handles, at the side of which is 
a plate with three consecrated wafers of very pecuhar form, 
being flattened rings, or annular discs, produced into an 
angle on the side nearest the priest. A closed book lies on 
the gospel side of the altar, whilst on the epistle side is an 
open volume, thus inscribed in two columns — 





* See Passavant's Memoir iu the Archiv. f. Fraukfort Gcschichte, T. part i. 185S. 







being the commencement of tlie canon of the mass, written 
in letters qnite in the An<i;lo-Saxon (or Irish) uncial character. 
This inscri])tion is so minute as to require a strong magnifying 
glass to decipher it. Passavant has given it correctly, but 
he misreads the letter B in the sixth and seventh lines 
of the second column for r, making the words apcas for 
ahcas or habeas, and pcnedicas for bencdicas. The cover of the 
altar is delicately ornamented with foliated rosettes in small 
square compartments, over the upper part of whicii is placed a 
fine lace cover. Immediately behind the priest are ranged five 
acolytes, seen in full face, each with a small book in his hand ; 
the}' have no stoles, and each of the borders of their hanging 
sleeves is ornamented with three small crosses. Below, with 
their faces towards the altar, and consequently with their 
backs to the spectator, stand five priests, in chasubles of 
the ancient fi^rm, singing. Above the acolytes is seen the 
upper part of a depressed semicircular dome, resting on 
four Corinthian columns and capitals, which I presume is 
intended for the baldaquin, and at the top on the angles are 
two full-length winged angels (spectators of the ceremony) 
with hands outstretched. 

Another Lectionarium of the thirteenth century has also 
ivories on the covers ; that on the front is an early work of 
great merit, containing two full length figures standing, one 
on each side of a tree ; these figures are executed with very 
great spirit, and altliouL^h destitute of nimbs, I think that 
they are probably intended to represent the ^^aviour and St. 
John the Baptist. The former stands in a dignified attitude, 
M'ith the right h.-ind raised, bnt not in the act of benediction, 
and the left holdin;-- a I'oll ; whilst the fi«rure to the U'ft, 
holding a rod with a scioll in one hand, points with his right 
to the feet, or probably sandals, of the other, possibly in 
allusion to his unworthiniiss to unloose the latchets of the 
Saviour's siioes. The attitude of this figure is very spirited. 
'I'Im! whole is Hin-roundrd by .-i fnli.itrd i)order, antl (he date 
cannot be latei- than the LcnLh or eleventh centui-y. Around 



Part of an Ivory Tablet on the Cover oi a MS, in the Public Liibrary, 
Frankfort on the Maine. 

(Date, about the ninth century.) 


the border are arranged nine small scenes of the Nativit}', 
verv coarsely executed. On the reverse of the cover is a 
earvinii- of the Saviour enthroned, with symbols of the four 
Evangelists, of ordinary style and -workmanship. 

In the interior of iSt. Leonard's church are two beauti- 
fully ornamented round arches ; one of these, on the north 
side, is inscribed engi:i,bi:i;tus f. and contains Avithiu the 
tympanum a figure of Our Lord seated, in the middle, with 
St. John anJ the Virgin ]\rary, and two saints, at the sides. 
These arches are not later than the twelfth century, and they 
merit careful examination. 

I may add that it happened to be the great periodical 
fair of Frankfort duiing the time of our visit, and as it lasts 
for three weeks, and is attended from all parts of Germany, 
the archaeologist may find in such an assembly much to 
interest him, in the peculiar dresses of various districts, and 
in objects brought from the more remote parts of the 
countr}', where foreign fashions have not yet superseded the 
national manners and costume. 

The library and museum at Darmstadt contain many 
very important objects of Art of the earlier middle ages. 
The ;M.S. Ko. 1048 is a fine copy of the Gospels, which has 
been ascribed to the ninth centuiy. I prefer, however, to 
place it at the beginning of the eleventh, considering it 
rather to have been executed in the school of St. LTdalrich. 
It contains four miniatures of the Evangelists, in the style of 
the gospels of Charles the Raid's time, such as the Golden 
Gospels in the liritish JMuseum, llarlcian ]\IS., No. 2788, 
but the artist appears rather to have taken these as his 
models. Each of the Evangelists is accompanied by a page 
containing verses allusive to the tenor or contents of his 
gospel ; these I have nowhere else met with. There is also 
a miniature of the Saviour, seated, young and beardless, ^vith 
very long Ihjwing hair reaching tu the breast, the light hand 
elevated in the act of benediction in the Greek maimer, and the 
left hand holding an open book. The throne has two cushions, 
with curtains hanging at the back, looped up on each side. 
This fi<nire is entii'cly surroiuidcfl by a broad ciicnlar frame, 
the ground of which is tesselatcd. Hefner has given a copy 
of this figun; in his Trachten Ihich, divis. I., ])1. 'M, page 4 J), 
but i^y strange misapprehension or oversight has considered 
it as representing an ciiipross, and he has instituted a 


comparison between the costume and that of a female in 
a contemporary manuscript at Heidelberg. There is also 
an interesting miniature of a deacon offering a book to 
St. Peter, who appears seated on a throne (tlie former 
copied by Hefner, plate 32); and a seventh miniature of 
a monk offering a book to a bishop. From the verses 
attached to the miniature of St. Peter it appears that the 
scribe's name was Gerhoo : I have not been able to learn 
that anything is known respecting him. The verses illus- 
tratino* these different miniatures are as follow : — 



Mattlieus ex patribus sumeiis exordia primus 
Scripserat llebraico Christi ' miracula verbo. 
Prinio puerperium, Tria m}stica dona magorum, 
Qualiter infantes oceidere jussit Ilerodes, 
Ut Doniinus buniilis venit ad baptisma Jobannis, 
Phuiina virtutum niemorat niiranda suaruni ; 
Post ba3c sponte sua passus liidibria niulta, 
Affixusque cruei moriens subvenerat orbi. 
Inter tbeologos genealogiis iste quaternos 
In bominis facie siguatur voceproplicta). 


Filius almifiei Marcus baptismate Petri 

Edidit eloqiiio Domini magnalia greco, 

Voce pro[)hetali faciens primordia libri, 

Narrat per plebem celebrare lavacra Johannera. 

Daamonis et fraudes Ibesum devincere scribens, 

Pluribus et siguis divino jure patratis, 

Ut crucis in Gabalo delevit crimina mundo, 

Quern fera mors sepclit, vivum bunc Uix tcrtia reddit, 

Et sedet a dextris Deus et bomo cuncti parentis. 

Formam frendentis tenet iste sopbista Leouis. 


Lucas Sjriacus, Greco sermone peritus, 
Discipulus Pauli, scripsit pra;conia Cbristi. 
Qne de Zacbaria fecit coepisse propbeta 
Commemorat, vero venit ut paranjmpbus ab alto 
Eulogium ictse de patre fereudo Maria;. 
Ut plus omnigenis salvator consulit egris, 
Verbis et factis dilatans signa salutis. 
Postremo passum narrat, triduoque sepultum, 
Discipulis visum, cccli super ardua vcctum. 
Hie Evangelii scriptor nitet ore juveuci. 

' In orig. written xpi. A few other words written with contractions are printed 
here in extemo. 



Ctelitu? iiu-i|)ioiis Bortem .symniista Jolmniies, 
rrincipio verbuin fiiiii patre fuisi>e coatMjumn 
Asscrit, et imiiulum factuin docet esse per ipsuin ; 
Noininat ct hoiniiiem missum veuisse Johanuein, 
Eloiriiiin luoi verbo perhibere fideli, 
Qui t'uit ante aevumtcstatur tempore natiim. 
Gratis et liiiiie ipsiiin eriuiainiiia oorpore passiini, 
Ac cruce suspensuin, fossuiu latus, atque sepultuin, 
Siir^euteiuque suis dare maxima gaiulia earis. 
Ilif u([uilam verbo designat iu alta volando. 


Pro siimma meriti thronus est nccclesia Cliristi, 
Qua residens totum placidus regit undique niunduin. 
Quattuor hacc sulium quaj slant aiiimalia eircum 
Constat niysterium totidom signare virorum, 
Quos evangelicos certum est conscribore libros. 
Ex aquiltc celebrem signo eognosee Joliannem ; 
Per vituli formam debes ugnoseere Lucam ; 
Marcum si quaoris monstratur in ore leonis ; 
Per iiominis vuitum signanter haboto Mattbeuni. 
Ex horuui scriptis aniniatur quisque tidelis. 


Janitor, cell decus, ct lux aurea mundi, 
Princtqis aecclesia) Petrus de nomine petra"*, 
Croditur tcrrigenas cui solvere summa potcstas 
Yilia quioso tui mumiseula suscipo servi. 
Nam furo ([uoil putero, iion quantum debitor exto 
ilunc ad servitium sanxi tiln ferre lil)cllum. 
Hie in lionore tuo maneat (pio tenq)ore cuncto. 
lluie ilium si quis temerarius anlerat liostis, 
Criminis ob eulpam domini euncurrat in iram. 
Janua I'etre tuo i-iuli sit aperla Gerlioo. 

Tlicrc is also in tlic D.-ii-nistadt Library anotlicr ]\rS. 
copy of the Gospels, of the cml of the eleventh or early part 
of the twelfth century, Avitli many miniatiu'cs of inferior 
execution, hut very valuahlo iur the history of the art, and 
ill whirl) iho «-ol(»rs arc nnidi mixed with strong body-white. 
The cover, however, of this vohum' is of hi<;her importance, 
as it contains one leaf of a consular diptych supposed hy 
I'ulszky to he lost. This is the reverse of the diptych of 
J'Mavius Asturius (a.d. 4 11)). The consul is seated on a 
chair of state, holding a scej)tro and a scroll, in front of a 
toniplo supported by four Corinthian eoluuuis and capitals. 
At each side of the principal figm'e is an attendant. The 


inscription across the upper part of the ivory is as follows, — 

MAG. VTRIVSQ. MIL. CONS. OED. [for ORD.] Tllis portioil of 

the diptych is engraved by Gorius ; the other moiety is now 
in the church of St, Jacques at Liege. 

This ivory is let into the centre of the metal cover of the 
MS., which is ornamented with four large precious stones, 
and with the figures of four saints and bishops (thirteenth 
century), slightly incised on the plain sides of the metal 
covers, the upper and lower portion with foliage similarly 
represented. At the angles are four quatre-foiled medaUions, 
cast in metal, with figures of dragons rudely executed. 

The Museum at Darmstadt is rich in mediaeval objects ; 
amongst these is a curious assemblage of early musical 
instruments and enamels. In the collection of ivories is a 
large casket, on which appear scenes of the life of Adam, 
with Greek inscriptions, similar to a piece in Douce Collec- 
tion, figured by Gorius and d'Agincourt ; there is a figure 
of Pluto at one end ; Adam is seen working at a forge, and 
Eve blosvs the fire with singular cylindrical bellows. Here 
are also very fine figures of the evangelistic symbols, each 
with four wings, several smaller sets of the evangelists, &c. 
I may particularly notice a circular reliquary in the form 
of a temple with a cupola, and with statuettes of saints 
along the sides, in the style of those surrounding the large 
casket in the Meyrick collection. Of this class similar 
examples occur elsewhere. There is also a smaller circular 
box of the same character, and a set of oblong pieces, evi- 
dently portions of a casket ; the work is deeply undercut, 
and with pierced overhanging cupolas, with classical scenes, 
of rich Byzantine work. One represents St. George, another 
the triumph of Alexander. I noticed also several other 
boxes, with small figures of saints in very high relief, in 
the style of a curious sculpture in the collection of the Rev. 
Walter Sneyd. There are several pieces containing repre- 
sentations of Christ seated, surrounded by the evangelistic 
symbols ; one is in form of a small temple. There is also 
a small piece containing an interesting representation of 
the baptism of our Lord. Of many of these no casts have 
until now been made, but there are a number of other 
equally interesting subjects of which casts were taken 
by M. Barrot, and these may be obtained from Ilerr Keller, 
the well-known bookseller of the Zeil, in Frankfort. The 




chief of these facsimiles, so vahiable to the student of ancient 
art, are as follows. — The two leaves of a long narrow diptych 
sculptured with full-length figures of Our Lord and St. Peter, 
standing under round arches surmounted by tabernacle work, 
with birds and foliage, and an eleo-ant foliated border. The 
Christ is young and beardless, in the act of blessing in the 
Byzantine manner. Date, probably eleventh century. — A 
somewhat similar diptych, one leaf with Christ seated hold- 
ing a book inscribed — data est mihi omis totestas in celo 
ET IN TKA — and the evangelistic symbols at top and bottom ; 
the other leaf with St. Stephen, (which has been mistaken 
for Job,) holding a scroll inscribed — aspiciens a longe ecce 
VIDEO d'i potenx'Iam (Acts, vii. 55). — Two angels above sup- 
jiort a wreath, within which appears the divine liand. Below 






Hoiilpturvd Ivon,' ii> the Miinciiiii iit Diu-iimtiult. 

is a female suckling an iiilaiit. -A small s<juare ivory, deeply 
cut (date tenth century), witii the miracle of the euro of 
a man pos.sessed with an evil spirit, represented in the form 


of an angel (the head unfortunately broken off') escaping 
out of the mouth of the maniac, who is held back from the 
Saviour by an attendant. The herd of swine is seen at the 
bottom of this curious sculpture, which may be attributed to 
the artist by whom the Fejervary ivory representing the 
woman taken in adultery, and that in the ]\Iaskell collection, 
— the restoration of the widow's son to life by the Saviour, 
now in the British Museum — were doubtless executed. For 
comparison with the treatment of the same subject in the 
nearly contemporary gospels of Archbishop Egbert at Treves,^ 
which will be described in the subsequent part of these notes, 
an engraving is given of this ivory, — A curious piece repre- 
senting the Saviour seated, within a double vesica piscis ; 
the evangelists being introduced in the corners, and their 
four symbols in the middle at the sides. The four cross-bars 
dividing the composition are inscribed — lvx — hex — pax — 
LEX. — A sculpture of excellent execution (eleventh century), 
representing the Crucifixion, of early character, with the 
Virgin and St. John at the sides, and the evangelistic sym- 
bols in the angles. At the foot of the cross is represented 
the grave of Adam, traditionally supposed to have been at 
the spot where the cross was planted ; ' here are also seen 
a dragon and a cup. — Another sculpture of the Crucifixion ; 
the liand of God is seen over the upper part of the Cross, 
a large dragon at its foot ; the sun and moon are per- 
sonified as Phoebus and Diana, very deeply cut, and not 
represented weeping, as usual. — A group of the Virgin and 
Apostles looking upward, evidently part of the scene of the 
Ascension, a very spirited work.^ 

{Tube continued.) 

* The Darmstadt ivory has been as- logical Notes made in Prussia (Journal 

cribed to the year 1500, and described Arch. Inst. vol. xvi. p. 240), merit careful 

as Armeno-Greek work. The date of engraving. 

this very peculiar artist is satisfactorily ^ See Dr. Piper's curious article on 

proved by a piece from his hand figured this subject in his Christian Almanack 

V)y Qorius (vol. iii.), representing the for 1861, where this ivory is engraved. 

crowning of the Emperor Otho and his ** There are about tweuty other pieces 

Consort by the Saviour. Tlie four pieces of which casts may be obtained from 

by the same hand in the Royal Library Herr Keller, but they are chiefly of 

of Berlin, described in my former Archreo- fifteenth and sixteenth century work. 


Bv THE REV. WILLIAM STUBBS, M.A., Vicar of Navestock. and Libnuian to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

In offering the folloT\'ing remarks on the early history of 
tlie Cathedral and Diocese of Worcester, I must premise that 
I do it "with much difhdence, and under correction. The case 
of Worcester differs largely from that of Peterborough : in 
the latter all the materials for liistory, which are known to 
exist, are few in number and need only a little criticism to 
make them still fewer. The materials for Worcester history, 
not onl}' arc abundant, but have from the earliest times 
received a scholarlike and critical treatment. In the first 
place Anglo-Saxon Worcester can boast a series of illustrious 
and holy bishops whose biographies contain much that throws 
incidental light on the subject I have proposed to m3'self : 
sucli arc S. Egwin, Dunstan, Oswald, and Wulfstan. Again, 
b}' tiic fact that the see of AYorccster was frequently held in 
conjunction with York, it gains illustration from the York 
biographies, especially in the lives of Aldulf, Wulfstan the 
llo])robate, and P^lfric. 

In the second place, Worcester was a school of English 
liistory, strongly characterised by sound English feeling. To 
this we owe probably one existing co|)y of the Anglo-Saxon 
chronicle,^ and certainly the invahial)le Chronicon ex Cliro- 
nicis of Florence. In the tliird ])lace, the charters of 
Worcester arc exceeding])- lull, ai"e very httl(> impaired ])y 
forgeries, and were cotHlied soon after the Compiest by 
Hemming. In ihr last place, (lie history of Worcester has 
bef'H handled by ThcMiias and Creen in a sound critical way. 

'^I'he kingdom of tho Ilwiccas at the time of its conversion 
coii(;iiiic(l Worcestershire ;iiid Gloucestcrsliiir witli (ho coriior 

' Cotnmiinicat<^(l to tlio IliHtoricnl Sec- tniiiH many Morciiui notices of tho 8tli 

lion (it till) Annual Mt-otirif^ of lliu InHti- century, and in in one liand down t'l 

Into in WorccMtor, July, lHti2. lOUi : jKiHHilily it owchIIm origin to Uiitliop 

' Tim MS. Ti»>oriu(» H. iv. w called by Wtrcfcrtli. 
Jomwlin, (Jluonicou Wig'Tnim: — it con 


of Somersetshire that is north of tlie Avon. Worcester 
called itself metropolis.^ A great part of this territory had 
been conquered from the Britons by the West Saxon Ceawlin, 
and formed a portion of Wessex from 577 till the date of the 
extension of Mercia under Penda."^ The battle of a.d. G45, 
which drove Ccnwcalh into exile, probably fixed the position 
of this district in Mercia. 

The origin of the family which governed it as tributary to 
the king of Mercia is nnknoAvn to us. Judging, however, 
from the recorded names, we feel inclined to connect it with 
the roj^al houses of Northumbria. The names of Eanfrith, 
Eabba, Oswald, Osric, Oslaf, Osred, are common to both.^ 
Eaba, the wife of Ethelwealh of Sussex, had been baptised in 
the court of her brothers Eanferth and Eanhere of the 
Hwiccas : ® — Eaba, the Abbess of Coldingham, uterine sister 
of Oswald of Northumbria, had a brother Eanferth, who as 
son of Ethelfrith and Acha belongs to the pedigrees of both 
Bernicia and Deira. Without contending that the persons 
designated by these names are identical, the juxtaposition 
of them, in connexion with what I am going to say, points 
to a family relation at least. This is however all "that we 
know of Eanfrith and Eanhere, that they were Christians 
before the year 661, in which Ethelwealh of Sussex was 

The next king of the Hwiccas was Osric. He is men- 
tioned by Bede as king in 690, and the earliest mention of 
him in a charter is in 676. It may be worth while to devote 
a few moments to a consideration of where he came from. 
Ever^'^one who has read the life of S. Wilfrid of Hipon must 
have been puzzled by the way in wdiich his devoted friend 
Alchfrith, the son of Oswiu, and sharer with his father of the 
Northumbrian throne, disappears from history. We know 
that he at least was closel}^ connected with Mercia : Kyne- 
burh, the daughter of Penda, was his wife : Peada, the first 
Christian king of the Middle Angles, and sen of Penda, the 
brother of his wife, the husband of his sister, was brought to 
Christianity chiefly, as Bede tells us, by Alchfrith's persuasion. 

3 Metropolis, CD. 91. ° Eanfrith, Bede, iv. 13, and iii. 1; 

Bath remained a part of Mercia until Eabba, Bede, iv. 13; Oswald, Mon. Anel. 

it was granted by William lliifus to John i. 541 ; Osric, Bede, iv. 23 ; Oslaf, CD. 

of Tours, Bishop of Wells, who removed 34 ; Oered, CD. 90 ; Cbr. S. ad 617. 

his See to Bath in 1088 or 1089. * Bede, iv. 13. 


Ethelred, another son of Penda, also brother-in-law of Alch- 
frith, and the most faithful protector of Wilfrid, \ras king of 
^[ercia from t)75 to 7u4. It is unnecessary for me to enter 
here into the minutiai of the politics of Korthumbria, but it 
seems pretty plain that the family of Oswiu was a very 
divided one, and that one part of it Avas closely allied 
with ^lercia. From Bcde we learn incidentally, that Alch- 
frith rebelled against his father^ : there is no mention of his 
death : but on the death of Oswiu. his son Ecgfrith suc- 
ceeded him, nor does the name of Alchfi-ith aj^pear again in 
Bede. Osric, however, who succeeded to the Northumbrian 
throne in 718, as the last of the house of Oswiu, if we may 
believe Simeon of Dui-ham, was the son of Alchfrith. 
According to the recorded tradition of the Abbey of Glou- 
cester,^ the king of Korthumbria, who died in 729, M'as 
identical with the king of the llwiccas who founded Glou- 
cester and Bath. The Gloucester register adds that he had 
a brother Oswald, the founder of Pershore,^ who governed 
Worcestershire, and a sister C^-neburh, who was the first 
Abbess of Gloucester ; and that the brothers were put in 
authority by king Ethelred.' 

Putting all these together, I conclude that Alchfrith having 
forfeited his share in Oswiu's kingdom by rebellion, had fled 
or sent his childi'cn to the protection of his brother-in-law 
Ethelred, one of whose first acts must have been the elevation 
of Osric. I have dwelt thus on the probable origin of Osric, 
not only because he was the founder of the 8ec of Worcester, 
but because his Northumbrian parentage, if it is a fact, throws 
some light on the history of the Church in this kingdom. 

He was not, however, the converter of Ilwiccia ; tho 
country had been Christianised as early as GGi under E;in- 
frith and Eanhere : the people probably contained a fair 
sprinkling of native Jiritish Ciiristians ; AVorcester itself has 
been claimed as one of the seven suiVragan sees of Caerleon, 

? P.c<le, H. K. iii. H. Abbot. 

" Mom. Aii(,'1. i. 6-J2. Onric tliod 7 Id. ' Kyneburh liius ft grant ot Bradley 

Mftii, 72'J, buried tit Oloucester before tlio from Htlmlbald, ubout 7-3, CD. 71) : lior 

iiltiir of S. I'otroiiilla. Chron. Oloucoater, biicccmhoi-h iil (Jloncestor were, iiccording 

iJoiiiitiiin A. 8. to tlio AnniilHof Wiiicholcoiub an<l Olou- 

• OnwfiM, founder of PerBlioro, for coster in the Cotton MSS. (Mou. Angl. i. 

Mciilar clorkM, Loluiid, Coll. i. 2H.'«. v. i. ; r.41) : 

rcfouiidoil by iliioniotli, tcin. CVnulf ; <lo- Kiidbiirli, wife of Wulfiicro, king of 

•troyed by Adf bore cir. 1>70 ; n-foundod Mi-n-iii hucc. 71li. 

by Kthelwiird W.ida aixl by Oddo in 983, Kafa, for ^3 yearn— mucc. 735-768. 

under Onwald, Ab|i., and Folcbriglit, 


and as a Roman city may have had a bishop as early as 
Gloucester, which is mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth as 
an episcopal cit3\ J\Iore certain it is that Augustine passed 
through the Hwiccas on his way to the meeting with the 
British Bishops on the boundary of Wessex, Hwiccia, and 
Wales ; we may if we please apply the story of his curse on 
the men of Stroud for tying a fish's tail to the back of one 
of his retinue, to the Gloucestershire town of that name ; for 
although it is more commonly given to Strood in Kent, 
Gocelin puts it in Dorsetshire. Gloucestershire might be taken 
as a mean, and probably the story is as true of the one as of 
the other. 

The foundation charter of Bath, in 676, shows us Osric 
as a missionary king and founder.'^ As soon, he says, as the 
evangelic and apostolic dogmas had been communicated to 
him after his baptism, he had made it his first resolution to 
erect an episcopal see and to found monasteries of men and 
women according to the decree of the synod. Here we have 
the germ of the See of Worcester. The synod of Hertford, 
in 673, had by its ninth resolution declared the necessity of 
an enlarged episcopate. At the moment the movement was 
suspended, owing, as it is supposed, to the opposition of 
Winfrith, Bishop of Lichfield. Three years had now elapsed 
and Winfrith, in 675, had been deposed. Osric and Ethelred 
were determined to have a bishop at Worcester, and Tatfrith, 
a monk of Whitby and pupil of S. Hilda, was chosen for the 
ofiice. Herefordshire had just provided itself with a bishop 
in the person of Putta, late of Rochester : but the See of 
Lichfield was not yet divided, and until that was done 
Tatfrith could not be consecrated. The division was com- 
pleted in the council of Hatfield in 680, but by this time 
Tatfrith was dead. Bosel was appointed in his place : he 
was consecrated to be the first Bishop of Worcester in 680, 
by Theodore of Canterbury, and retained his See until 691, 
when he resigned from infirmity. His pontificate coincides 
with the remaining years of Osric, whose last act seems to 
have been a sliare in the appointment of Oftfor, the second 
bishop. Osric disappears from Hwiccia in the same myste- 
rious way in which he appeared there. 

2 C. D. 12, d. Nov. 6, 676, HiU Bathu. bureaaro mentioned in a Mercian Charter 
BerhtanaisAbbess,and itia a Hto»n.s7fr/«m of 681, C. D. 21. 
sanclarinn virginiun, Bemguidi and Folc- 




111 the year 602, ^Ye find Etlielrcd^ granting lands without 
mention of a viceroy, but the next year Oshere appears as 
king. The charters in \vhich Oshere's name occurs, prior to 
this date, are looked on as spurious ; if however they repre- 
sent, as is possible, real grants, we may suppose that Oshere 
may have been a son of Oswald, the brother of Osric, and 
have succeeded to the government of Worcestershire as early 
as 680. He also was a munificent founder ; he granted 
land at Penitanham "* to Earl Cuthberht for a monastery for 
Abbess Cuthswitha ; ^ at Kii)ple for a monastery for Abbot 
Frithowald, and at AVithingtoQ for Abbess Dimna, of whom 
I shall have to speak again. 

Oshere was succeeded by his sons jEtlielric,^Ethellieard, and 
jEthelweard, about 704 ; but these are no longer kings, only 
comites, subrcguli, and duces ; the inheritance of .^Ethclheard 
seems to have fallen to Alhferth, who may probably have 
succeeded to the viceroyalty ; Alhfcrth's daughter, Abbess 
Ethelburga,^ is spoken of by Aldred who w\is viceroy in 777 
in a way that leads me to believe her to have been his 
sister. If she was, then Eanberht, Uhtred, and Aldred^ were 
sons of Alhferth, and held the government conjointl}", and as 
survivors, until 781^, or later.*^ About this time we read of 
Wigferth duke of the Ilwiccas, who with his wife was buried 
under a cross in the Cathedral cemeter3^ In SOO ^Etliel- 
mund appears as Ealdoi'man ; ^Ethelric, his son, does not seem 
to have succeeded him, but to have gone on pilgrimage and 
left his estate to the church. From the contests about his 
inheritance which followed, I conclude that the family was 

' C. D. 32, iEthelred grants Heanburg 
to Oftfor : for S. Petcr'a at Worcester. 

* O.Hhere, Uipi>lo, C. D. 17; Peuituubaua, 
C. 1). :j«. 

* Cuthswitha : grant at Iii^iit from tho 
VJccroyH in 704— 7oy, C. I). 53. 

' Ktinlburga, daugiitt-r of Allifortli, 
C. I). 124 k HO; to bo di.stiuKuiHlit'.l 
froiii Etiiuibiirga, <laug)iter of OU'a, C D. 
1.01, und Alciiiu. Kp. [>'J, Ed. Migua: both 
wore AbbeHHufa. 

^ Aldred loft h\n iiiln-ritanco to Oloii- 
coitcr : an did Ktheliuund curtain liindH, 
M..n. Aug), i. 511. 

" An attempt at a list of the Vicoroyu 
of llwicciu : 

Eanbcri) and Knnfrilli, c. (JO 1 . Ilodo iv. 1 3. 

Onric, 075, O'JU. 

Onwiild, (J81. 

Oshere, 692. 

yEtlieiheard, 704, 718, 73C, and 

^Ctliebcrht, C. 1). r,r,, &.c. 
ylOtholric, 7o4, 718, 730'. 
.'Etludwciird, 70l, 71(5. 

SouH of OHhore. C. D. 83. 
Kiinbi-rlit. 7.07, 751», 757, C. D. 102 
Al.Uv.l, 777. 789. 
Uhtred, 7(i7, 770. 
Alhfi-rtli, 781, 798. 
Wiferth, 781, 798. 
/litheluiiuid, d. 800 — Hon of Inguld, 

C. 1). 117, a comeu of Uhtred iu 


Ingcld had been coiihh to ICtlioI- 

bald. Lapp. i. 2.')1. IJcurahcard JH 

cuiiii'H in C.I). I2.'i. 
.Kihuiric, U. 804. 


now extinct and as I find no more vicero3^s mentioned, it is 
probable that the administration of Hwiccia was now mero-ed 
in that of the sub-kingdom, and at the end of the century in 
the ealdormanship of Mercia. 

And I may as well dismiss in this place the subject of the 
chronology of the bishops. I see no reason to depart from 
Florence's computation except in the trifling matter which I 
liave noted in m}'- book on the General Chronology of En^dish 
Bishoj^s.^ I will now return to the history of the foundation 
of the See and Cathedral church. The Worcester annalist 
who edited the copy of Marianus Scotus, said to be preserved 
in the Library of C. C. C. Oxford,^ has added to the account 
given by Florence of the origin of the See, that Oshere, at 
the foundation of the Cathedral bestowed lands upon it which 
were apportioned partly to the bishop, partly to the canons 
by an act of Archbishop Theodore. This is of course the 
misrepresentation of a later age : the order of canons eo 
nomine did not exist until many years after this date ; it 
may however be worth while to inquire what sort of a society 
it was which constituted the germ of the present chapter. 
The question may seem a trifling one, more especially as the 
grounds on which we are to seek an answer to it are 
extremely scanty ; as, however, it serves to bring out some 
few points of interest, the discussion of it may be taken 

All that we know of the original occupants of the Cathe- 
dral Monastery may be comprised in the two facts that their 
house is called a " monasterium," the Monastery of S. Peter,^ 
and that they were by and by opposed to a society of monks 
called the Monastery of S. Mary, wdiich emerges to light a 
very few 3'ears after our first hearing of the Monastery of 
S. Peter, and to whose occupants the canons of S. Peter's 
were obhged, under Oswald, to give up their property and 
ca])itular character. 

We learn from Bede that the original " families" of the 
English bishops were mixed companies of clerks and monks. 

' Mon. Angl. i. 607. sulatum susccpit." F. Wig. 717. 

^ I may however notice that it was a Wilt'erth: sigua with Milred. CD. 95. 

practice of the early Worcester Bishops ^ ^\\ ^ijg pi-incipal mouasteries iu the 

to retire from the administration of the diocese were dedicated to S. Peter :^ 

See before their death, cj. : Bath, C. D. 193 ; Gloucester, Mon. An") 

Bosel, F. Wig. 691. i. 541 ; Bredon, C. D. 138. 

Egwin : "illo superstite, Wilfridus prac- 



Augustine, the Prior of S. Andrew's at Kome, and first 
Archbishop of Canterbury, was a monk, and agreeably to 
the first answer of S. Gregory to his questions, hvcd 
monastically with his clergy, having all things in common. 

The Irish clergy, to whose agency the north and middle 
of England were indebted for conversion, were most certainly 
monks also ; and the bishops probably shared, in some mea- 
sure, the characteristics of the bishops at home, the principal 
of which was the subordination of the episcopal to the 
monastic jurisdiction in all matters not touching purely 
spiritual functions. Not that such a system ever existed in 
England as it is agreed to have done in Ireland ; but that 
as. ])cde informs us, was the use at Lindisfarne, the bishop 
and his clerks, the abbot and his monks lived together in the 
same monaster}^ and by the necessary consequence of the 
inconvenience of such a divided power, the bishop in some 
churches was not only the head of the clerks but abbot of 
the monks at the same time. Whether or not we accept the 
account of the origin of Osric and his family, we know from 
other sources that the Christianity of ]\Iercia and Hwiccia, 
as included in it, was derived from Northumbria ; but it 
must be remembered that it was not until aflor the consoli- 
dation of the two branches of the Church by Theodore that 
the Cathedral was founded ; whilst, therefore, (i priori, we 
are inclined to believe that there was a monastery at Worcester 
to begin with, in which Bosel and his clerks would be planted, 
we nnist not forget to look at Canterbury, from which 
Theodore would pi'obably take his model for the new cathe- 
drals. What did ho find there'? Was the double system 
devised by Augustine pursued by his successors, or were the 
monks relegated to S. Augustine's i^lonastery and the 
seculars left at Christ Church 'i There is a bull of Pope 
Ponifacc of the year (jl5, which, if it really describes a 
system that continues seventy years latei-, pi'oves that it was 
80 : and such a conclusion agrees with the subsequent 
tradition of Canterbury, whicli jjlaces the extinction of the 
monks alxjut the yi-ar S!];}. The same also may be inl'en-ed 
I'lum the passage of Jiedc quoted above, whose silence is a 
j)risiiniptiv(; ai'gument that the system inlroduccd I)y 
Augustin(j did coiitiniu; in Iiis (iiiic. On thcdthcr hand, the 
firet authentic notice t>\' lln' ( 'li.ijilci- of r;iiit(iliiiiy, about 
813, shows that they were not strictly monks. W'c nuist 


add two further presumptions — Hrst, that as the cliaractcr of 
a monk did not at this time at all involve the taking of holy 
orders, a monastic house, however well qualified to be the 
bishop's familia, could not, as a monastic house, furnish a 
Chapter, which must consist of pi'icsts : secondly, that as no 
rule for priests living in community yet existed, any such 
community would be popularly described as a monastery. 
From the first we understand that all the bishop's advisers 
might be both priests and monks ; and from the second, that 
the term " monastery" does not exclude the occupancy by 
secular priests, even without a monk among them.^ 

Without attempting arbitrarily to decide, we may, I think, 
feel pretty sure that the Cathedral Society, though it may 
not have consisted entirely of monks, must have contained 
considerable monastic elements. Tatfrith, the first person 
elected to the See, was a monk of S. Hilda ; Bosel, tlie 
second, is said to have been the same ; Oftfor, the third, 
certainly was ; S. Egwin, though with no leaven of Scot- 
ticism, was a monk also, probably a regular Benedictine. 

It is, however, begging the question to say that the monks 
were Benedictines. It is questioned whether Augustine and 
his party were so, and it is certain that if they were so, they 
only introduced the rule of Benedict in that lax and degene- 
rate form in which they had received it at home. Into the 
north of England an attempt to introduce Bcnedictinism was 
made by Wilfrid, but Benedict Biscop really brought it from 
Lerins, and that too late to introduce it in all its strictness 
into any existing English foundation. The theory- of the 
true Benedictines was as irreconcileable with an Episcopal 
monastery as the necessity of a secular Chapter was with 
monastic vows. Cassian particularises bishops and w^omen 
as two of the great risks for monks to avoid, and the strict- 
ness of monastic life would be diametrically opposed to the 
true mission work of the ministry. But the exigencies of the 
conversion of Eno-land brought the two together. Wilfrid, 
a thorough Benedictine, was also a bishop, and presided over 
several monasteries at once. So did Egwinc at Worcester 
and Evesham ; S. Aldlielm at Sherborn, J\Ialmsbury, and 
Bradford. It was, in fact, the custom of the land, and was 

' In 610, Boniface IV. in a coiincil at of priest. Hussej's note on Bede, H. E. 
Rome coudemued those who pretended ii. 4, 11. 
that monks could not discharge the office 


carried by Anglo-Saxon missionaries into Germany, the only 
other country in \Yhich monastic cathedrals are known to 
have existed. 

Very early, however, the opposition between episcopal 
rights and monastic claims resulted in the foundation of 
another monastery. As at Canterbury, S. Augustine's rose 
without the walls to rival Christ Church within, as the rival 
minsters stood side by side at Winchester, as in later times 
Westminster was to S. Paul's, S. Ouen at Rouen to the 
Cathedral, S. ^Martin's at Tours to S. Gatian's — so at Wor- 
cester, the Monastery of S. Mary was founded in close 
proximity to the Cathedral."' It is curious that our first notice 
of S. Clary's occurs shortly after the Council of Clovesh o 
in 747, in which the rule of S. Benedict was implicitly en 
forced on all })ropcr monasteries. At the same time Chrode- 
gang instituted the order of Canons, into which the Chapter 
of Worcester, without following the minutia? of his rule, 
shortly threw tlicmselves. I think it, then, extremely pro- 
bable that up to this date, 74 7,. the double system had con- 
tinued, and that from a separation, ensuing from the acts of 
the council, between the bishop's clerks and the monks, the 
origin of the monastic house was derived : in fine, that about 
747 the compound society resolved itself into the Secular 
College of S. Peter and the ]\ronastic Society of S. Mary. 
They were close together under the eye of the bishop, but 
so far as I can see they are kept carefully distinct from about 
77u to OG'l, when S. jMary's swallowed up S. Peter's, or as 
W. !>ralMisbury more poetically expresses it, the claviger 
j)aradisi was forced to give way to the janitrix coeli. 

It appears from a synoihd document of S. Wulstan, tliat the 
Cathedral was, from time immemorial, the})arish church of the 
city of Worcester, the churches of S. Helen and S. Alban being 
vicarages or chapels of ease under it. Tliis fact, however, is 
not at variance with what 1 have said. Worcester stands in 
that class of cathedrals which wo-c loiindcd from the be- 
ginning in large cities; it is, like C;interbiiry itself", an instance 
of a successful missionary establishment attaining its due 
development. It was not in this case as among tlie churches 
founded by the Irish, a bishop setting out with a staff of 
monks already complete, and fixing his residence in a j)lace 

* Ciui. '2i, v. .ViiljilloM, Acta SS. i. xxxiii. 


adapted as much for retreat as for pastoral care. Kor yet, 
as in the case of some of the Latter sees, llamsburj, for in- 
stance, a bishop set down without a cathedral body at all.^ 
It was not a case like the foundations of Henry I. and 
Henry VIII., determined only by the fact that in such and 
such an abbey there were revenues enough to support a 
bishop : here was a church, the parish church of the city, the 
city the metropolis of the kingdom ; to such a churcli a 
bishop was the necessary complement, the clergy of the parish 
became the Chapter of the Cathedral. 

Whether or not at this early period the monks and clerks 
used the same church, it would appear almost certain that a 
new church of S. Mary was built before 770. Possil^ly one 
building served the two bodies, the clerks using the clioir and 
the monks the nave ; and this seems almost probable from the 
fact that the Viceroys Aldred, Ulitred, and Eanberlit, in one 
charter state that their parents were buried in the church- 
yard of S.Mary's, and in another in that of S. Peter's." Both 
charters however bear marks of interpolation ; S. Peter's 
churchyard was the burial place of the Hwiccian dukes. To 
suppose that the two churches stood side by side, so that the 
cemetery belonged to both, is perhaps most reasonable.' The 
distinction between the two remains to the time of Oswald. 
The bishopstool belongs to S. Peter's, the monks served 
God in S. Mary's : under Oswald the bishopstool, though 
dedicated to S. Peter, is placed in the monastery of S. 
Mary ; and yet the church of S. Peter continued to the 
Conquest, for it was repaired in S. Wulstan's time with the 
stone belonging to the tomb and burial- cross of Wigferth, 
Duke of the Hwiccas. 

I have dwelt at this Icno-th on the monastic elements and 
monastic origin of the cathedral, because it serves to illus- 
trate much of the history of the other monastic establish- 
ments in the diocese. In their history as it remains, written 
for us in the authentic Acts of the Worcester Chartulary, we 
have exemplifications of almost every stage of the early 
monastic history of England. The missionar}^ stage may be 
looked on as exemi)lified in the Cathedral Minster. Of 

* Malmesb. G. P. iii. terio beatissinii Apostolorum Principis, 

* C. D. 102, S. Peter'?, spurious; C. ecclesiam eauctae Dei genetricis fecit, 
D. 128, S. Mary's, spurious. quam consecravit arcliiepiscopus Mel- 

7 Bede, H. E. ii. 7, says of King Ead- litus." 
bald of Kent — " Denique et in moniis- 


this cnougli has been said. All the earliest monasteries 
were mission stations. When, about the beginning of the 
eightli century, the niissionar}' field began to narro^Y, and 
the missionary spirit to subside or to seek a new field in Ger- 
many, a stage supervened which is marked by two decidedly 
opposite phases. The devotional spirit which had found 
work in missions now took refuge in an anchoretic asceticism. 
8uch is the origin of Crowland, compared with Peterborough ; 
such, if we ma}^ believe the authenticity of the Evesham 
charters, was Evesham compared with Worcester : such was 
beyond all doubt the monastery of S. ]\rary compared with 
the cathedral of S. Peter. These monasteries or rather the 
best of them followed the example of S. Augustine's at Canter- 
bury, and the Benedictine rule as amplified by Cassiodorus : 
they were not only places of devotion and penitentiaries,^ but 
schools of learning. I think that there can be no doubt that 
this characteristic was owing to Benedictinism — though it 
may not have been peculiar to it. Certainly both St. Augus- 
tine's, the school of the south, and Jarrow and Wearmouth, 
the liome of Bede, the school of the north, were Benedictine 
by this time. What they were in these parts of Eni;land, 
JJredun probably was in Ihviccia : and I shall adduce JJrcdun 
jis a pattern instance of this particular development. 

Jh-cdon was founded by Eanult" of ]\rcrcia, the cousin of 
Ethclbald the king, in the year 710'. The year is fixed by the 
fact that it was done by the permission of Ethelbald who began 
to reign in that year and by the advice of Egwine who died 
the following year. It was a seminary of useful learning 
and produced an Archbishop of Canterbury, Tatwin, witliin 
seventeen years of its foundation. It was dedicated to S. 
Peter, as was also the monastery of Bredon in Gyrvia which 
has been confounded with it. Ofla, who was the grandson 
of the founder, was its great benefactor ; lie gave it lands at 
Evenlode (to revert to it on the death of Itidda, his wife 
Ihicga, and their daughter lleaburge), at Warsctfeld," 
Ceflune and Wi'eddcnhale, at Te<ldington, Codswcll, near tho 
Mons Ilwiccioruni, Washburn and Is'orthtun. It was still 
in being in 848 when Bfiorlitwnll', at the request of Ilum- 

* I'otiitiiuti.irif'M. SciiTlifod.prii'H" I'iMii- WcK'TimcoHtcr," C. D. 34. 

totiUal " yiirmii : r ij. OHlaf, a 'I'hiiiio of '' OiuiiIm to ISroilmi. I''voi)lo(lo, C. D. 

King Klhulr<'<l, "iimio iiiiiiiut ill \h'\ Hor- 120; WuiMidfcld, &c., l.'JS; Tottington, 

viliu iu civiUUs 4Uiu uoNtratiiu dioilur kc, C. D. 11 0. 


berht, prince of the Tonscts, freed it from imposts, and at this 
time it is said to have been held by 400 monks. Eanmund 
is mentioned as being then abbot. Tliis is the last we hear 
of it ; it was probably soon after absorbed into the bishoj)- 
stool, to which it had long belonged as a villa episcopal is 
at the time of the Conquest.^ Eanulf also founded a monastic 
house at Westbury. Of Evesham I shall say nothing — it 
would of course require quite separate treatment, and so 
httle is authentically known of its early history, that it 
would hardly deserve more than a casual mention. 

The other development of monasticism or rather pseudo- 
monasticism is that described by Bcde in the letter to 
Archbishop Ecgberht. Laymen, unexercised in the use of 
monastic life, unendowed with the love of it, give money to 
the kings and buy for themselves, under the 2">retence of 
building monasteries, territories in which they may indulge 
their own licence : they get these grants attested and con- 
firmed by bishops, abbots, and temporal dignities : and there 
they assemble a number of people, not monks, but persons 
expelled from other monasteries, their own satellites, their 
wives and children. Without going so far as to say which 
of the Worcestershire monasteries exactly represents Bede's 
description, we shall see that, in a large number, the provi- 
sion for the family of the founder was a more leading object 
than any devout purpose. I will adduce, in illustration of 
this, the monasteries of Fladbury, Sture in Usmere, that of 
Abbot Headda, and Withington. 

1. Fladbury was one of the earliest foundations : it was 
given to Oftfor by Ethelred, about 691 : ^ — Egwine exchanged 
it with iEthelheard the viceroy for Stratford, and from 
jEthelheard it descended by inheritance to Alfred, and 
Aldred.^ Aldred a'ave it to his kinswoman Abbess Ethel- 
burga as a provision, with reversion to the cathedral : on 
her death it fell in and was confirmed to the bishopstool by 
Kcnulf, in a charter without date."* 

2. Sture in Usmere,^ supposed to be Kidderminster, was 

1 Possibly I am mistaken iti clistin- succession of OfFa, the grandson of Eanulf, 

.giii.-ihiug Uredou from other monasteriea to the crown of Mercia. 
of the ago by the iutcutioii of the fomulor; • C. D. 33. 

it may have owed its protection and ag- ^ C. D. 14G. 

grandisement to the fact that- it became ' C. D. 215. 

a monastery of royal fouudatiou by the * Sture, C. D. SO. 


founded in 73 G by Cyncberlit : he made his son Ceolferth, 
Abbot, who left it with the rest of his estates to the See.*^ 

3. In 759, Eanberht, Uhtred, and Akh-ed," gave an estate 
at Onnanford to Abbot Headda. lie, in the time of his kins- 
man, Bishop Ileathored, left this and the rest of his property 
to AVorccster, under condition, " quod mei liaDredes, in mea 
geuealogia, in ecclesiastico gradu de viriU sexu percipiant, 
quamdiu in mea prosapia tani sapiens et prassciens inveniri 
potest qui rite et monastice ecclesiasticam normam regere 
queat, et nunquam potestati laicorum subdetur." This con- 
dition with all its limitations is very ditlerent in spirit from 
the charge of Benedict Biscop.^ It were better that the 
whole monastery should return to an everlasting wilder- 
ness than that his brother should be made Abbot tliere. 
Beware of choosing an abbot from regard to his family 

4. Withington.^ — This was given by King Oshere to her 
Abbess Dunna and her daughter Bucga, to build a monastery 
on. Dunna at her death left it to her granddaughter Ilrot- 
wari, a minor. Her mother Bucga, although disqualified by 
matrimony, took possession of the monastery as abbess, and 
when llrotwari was old enough to take it, declined to sur- 
render ; the Archbishop of Canterbury and the synod of 
the church were appealed to, Bucga was compelled to 
surrender, and the reversion of the monastery on the death 
of llrotwari was secured to Worcester. It fell in during the 
pontificate of bishop Milred, who gave it for life to Abbess 

The frequent mention of Abbesses in these records leads 
me to speak of this curious transgression of the Benedictine 
rule. For these monasteries were not all nunneries, and seem 
to liave been given to abbots or abbesses as suited family 
ari-angemcnt. I have already mentioned Cassian's rule' that 
tlie monks should j)articularly avoid bishojjs and women. 
JiuLli customs, that of cathedral monks and that of monas- 
teries governed by women, are clearly dcducii^le from Irish 
precedent. Xot to sjiend time upon it — the 1^'rcnch monas- 
teries i)\' the iul«! of Columbanus, and tho English school of 
Hilda, IVuiii which so many bishops ])ro('ceded, are instances 

'• C. D. 127. ' WitliiiiKton, C. D. 82. 124. 

1 Ho:i.i<lii, C. I). \()r>. 109. * CuBBittu, V. GicBolor ii. VJ. 

■ Ucdo, Vitw Abbut. c. V. 


in point. Theodore in his " Penitential " has a provision to the 
effect that it is wrong- for women to have monasteries of 
men and for men to have monasteries of women, but since 
he found the custom existing in tlie country he would not 
abrogate it. The great prevalence of such houses in England 
is a proof of the extent to which the whole church was 
leavened with Scottish discipline. This Ethelburga, the 
daughter of Alfred, has been supposed to be the foundress 
of S. Mary's Abbey, but this is without authority ; she cer- 
tainly had monasteries at Fladbury and Withington.^ These 
family monasteries were not intended to be permanent : they 
were founded plainly for the cheap support of a member of 
the connexion, and the reversion of them to the Mother 
Church in many cases is provided for : possibly it was a con- 
dition on which their immunities were purchased from the 
pious princes, a cheap way of making the best of both worlds. 
All these monasteries, however, whether founded in dev^o- 
tion or in worldly policy, had their relation to the bishopstool. 
Exempt monasteries, in the later sense of the term, were not 
yet introduced into England : at least there is no authority 
for any thing like an exemj)t jurisdiction : the earliest 
grant of exemption is to Chertsey about a.d. 680, and 
next comes the one of Woking, which I brought before the 
Institute last year ;^ these only concern the internal and 
secular concerns of the house, the spiritual supervision still 
belongs to the bishop. The bishop is still the representative 
and head of the whole church in the diocese, has certain 
rights even in the property* of the monasteries, and a rever- 
sion of the property of the extinct is in some cases secured 
to the See by deed, in many others apparently by lapse. 
In the latter part of the century the reversions of the 
houses that had been founded for two or three Uves began 
to fall in, but the cathedral was not suffered to enter on 
them without a struggle. I will instance two or three of 
these cases as illustrating other points as weU. 1. The great 
monastery of Bath was still subject to the bishopstool of the 

^ Another Abbess Eanburga is men- ■• e.f/. Bishop ^Ihun in 849, C. D. 262, 

tioned by Offa, C. D. HI ; the land at gives to King Berhtwulf lands, which 

Homtiin granted to her must have had been given to IJredou by Offa in 780, 

lapsed to Worcester in 781. C. D. 143. some of which had been taken from 

•■' Arch. Journ. vol. xviii. pp. 204, 211. Bishop Heaberht in 840, C. D. 245, and 

The Chertsey privilege has not been restored. Cf. C. D. 1 40, 262. Also Offa 

printed : it occurs in MS. Cotton. Vitellius grants lands to Eanburga on the sole sub- 

A. xiii., probably interpolated. jcction toS. Peter's, Worcester, C. D. 141 



metropolis: but by 7S1 that also had fallen in. Oila laid 
claim to it, but as ho knew the tenacious character of the 
Bishoji Ileathored, lie thought it advisable to lay claim to a 
good deal more ; he asserted that Bath, Stratford, Kidder- 
minster, and lands at Bredon, Homtun, and Stour, belonged 
to him as of the inheritance of King Ethelbald. A synod was 
held at Brentford.^ Olfa comj^elled Ileathored to give up Bath 
on condition of having the remaining lands confirmed to him : 
the comj^romise is signed by all the bishops of England. 

2, Another case is the inheritance of ufEthelric,^ son of 
-£thelmund the ealdorman, and Ceolburga, who was probably 
afterwards Abbess of Berkley. Ethelinund seems to have 
founded a monastery at Deerhurst, and to have been buried 
there : he was killed in 800 at the battle of Kempsford. Ethel- 
ric, his son, went on pilgrimage to Home, having before his 
departure obtained leave of a witenagemot, at Clovesho, to 
mortgage his property to any one he pleased. On his return 
he recovered his lands, and in a synod at Acle devised them, 
some to Deerhurst, some to Gloucester, and some to private 
individuals, with a reversion to Worcester. Among these was 
his mother Ceolburga, to whom he gives forty-three mancntes 
at Westminster, that was in fact a monastery at Westbury, 
that she may have as long as she lives a defence and main- 
tenance against the Berclingas, whoever they wci'e. Ceolburga, 
Abbess of Berkley, died in SOj. Ethelric ap})cars to have 
died before her. In 824, after the death of king Cenwulf, 
the suit emerges. The monastery of Berkley claimed it 
against Ileaberht the bishop. It seems probable that Abbess 
Cyncdritha, the daughter and heiress of Cenwulf, had some 
hand in the business. She was an un|)rincipled woman, liad 
murdered her own brother, and had taken ])ossi'ssion of lai'go 
property belonging to the See of Canterbury which her 
father had confiscated.'^ I imagine that slui must have 
succeeded to the Abbacy of Berkley on the death of Ceol- 
burga, but tliis is not clear. The Berkley family^ were 
obliged to give up their claims, and the bishop proved his 
right by the oaths uf iifty mass priests and ten deacons at 

• C. D. M8. Tilliero, AMmt of Borkloy, waa mado 

• lull, of /Ktliolric, C. D. 186, 218. liiHhop of Wonostoi- in 777. 
' C. D. t'la, 4c. C<'<>ll)m>,'a wim AIiIk'hh in hdj. 

' Uvrkley U an illuHtration of tliu Ktlulhnn.Abbutof liurkluy,waii Bubop 

fotnalo AbbiMiicn. in 015. 


Westminster, and others, a hundred and eighty altogether. 
The monastery of Westminster or Westbury, for which tliis 
contest was carried on, was afterwards repaired by Oswald, 
and became the nursery of the abbey of Ramsey. 

3. The Abbey of Winchelcomb was founded by Cenulf 
about 811, probably for his daughter Cynedritha : many years 
after the extinction of the family a quarrel arose between 
Worcester and Winchelcomb about parts of the inheritance 
of Cenulf^ Cj'nedritha and Ealfleda her successor had made 
grants which were falhng in in 897; in that year duke ^Ethel- 
wulf directed that, in order to make peace betw^een the two 
monasteries, certain lands specified should be adjudged to 
Worcester, "pro renovatione et reconciliatione pacis." This 
is a curious glimpse into the dark : we see the Abbey of 
Winchelcomb, about Avhich nothing else is known, rivalling 
the Cathedral as residuary legatee of the Mercian prince.^ 

The Cathedral of S. Peter grew up, heedless that the 
younger sister by its side was to supersede it and enter 
into its labours. The Abbey of S. Mary, to which I have had 
occasion to refer so often, was founded as I have supposed 
about 747. In 770, the viceroy Uhtred gave it lands at 
Stoke,'^ near Salwarp : about the same time it came in for the 
reversion of Osred,^ one of the royal family of the Hwiccas, 
and was bound thereby to pray for the soul of Jilthelbald ; 
at this time Uttel, Bishop of Hereford in 793, seems to have 
been Abbot. In 777 Aldred the viceroy procured it a grant 
at Secgesbearwe * from Oifa ; and another grant from the 
same king at Ductune,^ bears the same date. Berhtulf ^ in 
the next century and the other sub-kings of Mercia follow 
as benefactors ; in 899 it appears to have had an abbot 
Cynelm ; in 929 the church is called basilica, it was already 
aiming at being the Cathedral : the last grant I find made 
specifically to 8. Peter's is in 930 or 934. From that time 
all grants are made to the bishopstool without specifying 
the dedication of the church, and from 964 to S. j\Iary. 

3 C. D. 323. C. D. 15G, 183. 

• Anothersuit of inheritance called the - C. D. 118. 

inheritance of Hemcle and Duda, at Intan- ' C. D. 90. 

beorp, between Bishop Heathorcd and ' C. D. 131. 

Wulfheard, the son of Cu.ssa,wa8 decided in * C. D. 13J, and there is another grant 

789, at t'elchyth, on condition of it revert- marked ppurious, C D. 142, 145; the 

ing to Worcester on Wulfheiiid's death : monks are mentioned in 779. C. D. 154. 

confirmed by Wulfheard himself to * Beorhtwulf, C. D. 249. 
Bishop Deneberht at Clovesho in 803. 


There are man}' other points of interest which I slioukl 
have been glad to go into, but I have ah'eady exceeded my 
hmits, and I do not wish to go be^'ond the eighth century. I 
must however mention, 1st, tlie synod of Clovesho in 805 ; 
there Bishop Deneberht appeared with six priests ; Hyse- 
berht, abbot ; Thingferth, abbot ; Pa:ga, abbot ; Freo'tho- 
mund, abbot ; Coenferth and Selera}d, priests. Thingferth 
was Abbot of Evesham ; Ilyseberht, as being named, first was 
perhajxs Abbot of 8. Mary's ; Freotliomund seems to have 
been tlie Abbot of Westbury in 825; Pa^ga I cannot identify. 
There were, however, in the diocese at the time the following 
monasteries : ' — 

Berkley, Blockley, Daylesford, Gloucester, Cliffe, S. Michael, 
Fladbury, ]:]vesham, Deerhurst, Ilanbury, Bredon, Bradley, 
Kempsey, Pershore, Stratford, Kidderminster, Bath, Kipplc, 
Penitanham, Twining, Winchelcomb, Worcester, Westbury, 

I will only mention in conclusion that the accusation 
against Oswald of impoverishing the canons of AVorccster 
in order to make way for the monks, drawn from the number 
of grants to laymen executed by him, falls to the ground 
if we examine the rules that he has laid down for the 
tenure of the grants : they are a sort of leaseholds with ample 
provision reserved for the lords and owners. 

7 Bath, uts. p. 250. 

Bredon, uts. C. D. 120, 138, 140, 
248, 2«1. 

Bcrkle}', uts. p. 251. 

Blockley, C. D. 278. 

Bradley, C. D. 70, 156, 183. 

Clifro. S. Michaers Mouasterv, C. D. 
150, 315. 

Davle.sford : grant of six caflfiats by 
.^thelbald to Hcgia to build a 
monastery, in 71 H, C. D. 09, given 
by Ik'orlitulf to ^N'orcestor iu 841, 
C. D. 251. 

Deerhurst, C. D. ISC, 218. 

KvcNham, Gloucester. 

Haubury: reversion left by OfTii to 
WorccKtcr, C D. ItiO ; Hcunburg 
inoDa«tcriuui, C. I). 237 ; and C. 
1). 32. 

Fladbury , utfl. p. 248. 

Kcniim.!y. CVunulf in 799, C. D. 170, 
^runtH hmdH to Hiilthuii, Abbot of 
KtiMipHcy, nt Ilercfonl; UiMli()|) 
Doni^bcilit about 802, ('. 1). ISl, 
gruntn iSenninindeHlca to Itiillhun 
with ruvcritiuu to Worcohtur, liul- 

thun being an old Worcester monk : 
and Doneberlit also grants land at 
Hereford, which may have been 
Balthun's, to Eanswitha. C. D.182 

Kidderminster, uts. p. 248. 

renitanham, uts. p. 241. C. D. 36. 

Pershore : founded 681 ; refounded, 
reg. CoDuwulf. by Boornoth. 

Ripple, uts. p. 241. C. D. 17. 

Twining: given by Duko Alfred to 
Worcester in the time of Heath- 
ored ; hoc C. D. 203 ; suirondored 
by Worcehtor to LVenidf. 

Stratf'inl : given to Worcester by 
IScrhtwulf in 845, C. I). 258; exist- 
ing still in 872, U. D. 303. 

Wiiiciielcomb, uts. p. 252. 

W.stbury, uts. p. 251. C. D. 166. 

Withingtun, uts. j). 249. 

C'hcltenhiim and Heccanfoid, had be- 
longed to Her<'f<>i-d. 'I'ho Council 
of Clovesho, C. I). 184. derided 
tliat the ])rocnrutions be divided 
betwei'U flio liishops of Wcrccster 
and Hereford. 


From communications by Dr. FERUIXAND KELLER, President of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Zurich, IIou. Corr. Member of the Archaeological Institute. 

During the last summer, an object of most curious and 
rare description was found by a peasant at Avenches, 
anciently the chief city of the Helvetii, and situated in a 
part of the Canton de Vaud which lies enclosed by that of 
Fribourg. The site is near the northern extremity of the 
Lake of Neuchatel, and at a short distance from the Lake 
of Morat, memorable in the eventful struggles for Swiss in- 

Avenches, designated by Tacitus " Aventicum gentis 
caput,"^ in his relation of its surrender to Csecina, during the 
disastrous revolutions which ensued on the murder of Galba 
(a.d. 69), is not mentioned by Csesar. He speaks, however, 
of the Tigurini, one of the four Jiehetic pagi, and Aventicum 
originally appears to have been their chief city, Li the time 
of Vespasian it became a Roman colony. Ammianus i\rar- 
cellinus, who wrote towards the later part of the fourth cen- 
tury, mentions " Aventicum, desertam quidem civitatem, sed 
non ignobilem quondam, ut ccdificia semiruta nunc quoque 
demonstrant."^ The ruins of its amphitheatre, its aqueduct, 
and the walls, which may be traced for a circuit of more 
than five miles, still testify the ancient importance of tlie city 
in Roman times. Numerous valuable inscriptions have been 
found there at various times. They have been collected by 
the learned Mommsen, in the Transactions of the Zurich 

The remarkable relic recently brought to hght, to which 
allusion has been made, was speedily sent by M. Gaspari, 
conservator of the j\ruscum at Avenches, for the inspection 
of his friends at Zurich. By his courtesy we are enabled to 

1 Taciti Historiii, lib. i., 68. tbeilnngen d. Antiqu. Gfsell. in Zii- 

' Amm. Marc. Gest., lib. .\v., c. xi. ricb ; vol. x., p. 26. wbere notices of 

3 Inscriptiones Coiifccderatiouis Hel- tbo cai-ly history of AveucLes may bo 

vet. Lat, ed. Tbeod. Moinmseu ; Mit- found. 


call attention to so curious a discovery.'* It is a die for 
striking the obverse of Gaulish or, more correctly speaking, 
Helvetian imitations of the gold stater of Philip II., King of 
^Macedon. This die consists of a cylindrical block of iron, 
measuring about 1 o-q in. in diameter, and |- in. in thickness. 
On one of its faces is inserted a disk of bronze, slightly 
elevated above the iron base ; diameter about l^, in. The 
surface of the bronze is concave, polished, and engraved with 
a head, profile to the left, beardless, the hair in snake-like 
locks, encircled by a chai)lct or diadem. (.See woodcuts.) 
This head, in slight intaglio, appears to have been executed 
with a broad-pointed tool, producing strokes of uniform 
breadth. On the surface of the bronze, although fairly 
polished, may be perceived in the field, aroiuid the head, 
slight .sfrid; indications of a sci'aping or shaving instrument 
employed in producing the concavity of the die. The iron 
portion has been corroded by rust ; the bronze insertion, 
slightly patinated, is so well preserved, that it might now 
serve to produce coins as distinct, probabl3% in impression as 
those originally struck by the Helvetian coiner. The bronze 
is exceedingly hard, indicating doubtless a comparatively 
greater pro})ortion of tin in its composition, and its colour 
is rather lighter than that of ordinary bronze. The thick- 
ness of the disk of bronze cannot be ascertained ; the cavity 
formed in the block of iron to receive it ap2:>ears somewhat 
irregular, not being perfectly circular, and the bronze has 
been firmly fixed therein by hammering around the edge of 
the disk. (Sec woodcuts. The darker shading of the sec- 
tion indicates the bronze of uncertain thickness.) This mode 
of construction is extremely ingenious. It was doubtless 
found that the bronze, when not confuuMl by an iron collar, 
■was subject to expand with use ; Mhilst its being dished had 
the cficct of preventing the ff a as, or pieces of gold ])repai-ed 
f(jr minting, irom slipjiing or rolling out of j)lace. The weight 
of the die is 278 grnmmcs. 

The occurrence of any implement for coining, oven of com- 
paratively recent periods, is very rare, and the coml>ination of 
ijronze wiili iiuu js so singular a constructive feature, that it 
seems desirable to describe so cuiioiis a nnniisin.-itic relic 

* A iiliort notice of tlio dio hj' Dr. Aiip., l.S(5'2, hut not ncronipniiiod by any 
^IV-*"^ ■''"" "PP*"""*-''' '» the Iiidicutoiir rcprcHontiilioti of the ohjr-ct, which ifl 
d'Lliiitoira ct d'Aiitiquitdd Suiwios for now Cguroil for the lirMt time. 

Die, formed of iron and "bronze, for striking Gaulish i^old coins. Found 

at ATenches. in Switzerland. 

Preserved iu the Museum at Aveuches, Canton de Vaud. 
Scale— slightly less than the size of the original. 


'u-itli minuteness of detail which may appear tedious to the 
general reader. No die of so remote a period as that found 
at Avenches has come under our observation.^ There can, 
it is bcheved, be no doubt that the object under consideration 
was destined for the reproduction of the gold coin of Philip 
II., King of ]\racedon, wliich sujiplied, as is well known, the 
prevalent typo of the gold coinage. After the dis- 
astrous invasion of Macedonia by the Gauls, under their 
chieftain Belgius, in tlie reign of Ptolemy Ceraunus, and the 
ignominious death of that king circa B.C. 280, the conqueror 
brought back, it is believed, large quantities of the gold 
staters of Ptolemy's great predecessor, Phihp, son of Amyn- 
tas ; they speedily passed into general currency in Gaul, and 
caused the establishment of various mints, producing imita- 
tions, for the most part of very rude and unskilful execu- 
tion, in which it is often difficult to trace any tradition of 
the Macedonian type, — the head of Apollo, with the biga on 
the reverse. It will be seen by the woodcut that the laure- 
ated head of Apollo, as it ap})ears on the die at Avenches, 
although distinct in all its details, presents no trace of the 
ideal expression or high quality of Greek art which charac- the admirable coinage of Philip.'' The features arc 
devoid of beauty ; the hair is arranged with mechanical 
symmetry, in the conventional style occurring in other types 
of early (Gaulish coinage.' 

It will be observed that the dimensions of this die arc un- 
usually large, as compared with Gaulish coins familiar to the 
archaeologist in other countries. This circumstance is of 
interest in connection with the early gold coinage of the 
llelvctii, and the probability suggested by the discovery of 
the die, that at their chief city, Avrnticum, the mint may have 
been established fidiu Axliidi (he currency of the pagiis was 
su})plied. The Helvetian iniitatiuns of the gold Macedonian 

'" iJr. Killer writcB that ho liJulHought of the Soc. of Ant. Fob. 2, IS.")-!, rroc. 

in vaiu fur any notice of such n diu Soc. Ant. Loud., vol. iii. p. 54. 
known to anticjuarioH in Kn^jlaud, Franco, " See numerous coinH (if^irod in Lam- 

or elHL'whero. Wo aro indebted to the bort'H '' ICwHai 8ur la Nuniitsniutitino Gaii- 

Hkilful ntitniHiiiatiHt, Mr. John I'^vanH, loiso," pi. ii., and in otlii-r workn. Tho 

F.S.A., for tho axHUmnce that, ho far art nearoht approach to tho head on tho 

lio Ih aware, no die of tho kind han Avoncht'H dioappoarHto bo jd. x., f)><. 2!*, 

Iiithorto bi!(;u found; in faot, ancient in LcdoworH AthiH, a typ<'. howovcr, 

dicH are cxlronicly rare. Mr. JCvaim had which he aHMi^'na to tho country of tho 

neon one only, a die for Btrikin^ ti»o re- UedoncH, in IJrittany. 
vor-n! of coinH of Hcrenicc, Queen of ^ Mr. Evium iH diHpuHod to a^hi^ni to 

I'loLrny KuergetoH, cirai u.o. 217. It wart tho die a couii)aralivcly early date, about 

cxLibJl<;d by Mr. Boocko at u meeting D.c. 200. 


stater appear to have been of comparatively large module ; 
in the Museum of the Antiquaries of Ziirich four gold pieces 
are preserved, found in the cantons of Lucerne, Schaffhausen, 
and Berne, identical with the Avenclies die in their large 
dimension, and in the type of the obverse, namel}-, the 
laurcated head of Apollo. Gold coins of similar character 
have been found also repeatedly atBaden [AfjiicB Hdvetiorum), 
12 English miles from Zurich; at Ober Winterthur {Vitu- 
duriim)y and at several other places.^ Some coins found in 
i\\Q northern parts of Switzerland are of elcdrum. 

The assertion sometimes made, that gold coins of this type 
were imported into Helvetia, is obviously erroneous ; no indi- 
cation had previously been noticed of an}"- particular locality 
Avliere a mint may have existed in early times. The suppo- 
sition is not improbable that, amongst Gaulish gold coins of 
other types frequently found in Switzerland, some may have 
been struck at the capital, Avcnticum. Strabo^ asserts that 
the country of the Helvetii was rich in gold ; their cupidity, 
however, being excited by witnessing the great treasure ac- 
cumulated through pillage by the Cimbri, they joined in the 
predatory expeditions of the Northmen. Strabo names es- 
pecially the Tigurini, the tribe before mentioned as named by 
Ca)sar, whose chief city was Aventicum, as having taken 
part with the freebooters. Both the Cimbri and their aux- 
iliaries w^ere reduced to submission by the Romans. Gold is 
found in Switzerland in several localities, and in beds of 
rivers ; the Aar and the Emme still transport portions of the 
precious metal. In the former stream, near Brugg (Ar- 
govia), the peasantry are accustomed to wash the sands 
when the rivers have been swelled by heavy rains, and heaps 
of sand are deposited along the banks ; in these, par- 
ticles of gold occur. The gold-seekers formerly used only 
rough boards, but at the present time frames covered with 
woollen cloth arc cmplo^'-ed ; and a man sometimes earns as 
much as five francs in a day. The sands of the Rhine also 
contain gold, and they are washed for the precious particles 
beneath Basle, in the territory of the Grand Duke of Baden ; 
ducats have there been coined, with inscriptions stating that 

^ A specimen found in a sepulchral are uieutioneil as occurriu.j ia that 

tumulus at Horgen near Ziirich in 1836, locality liy Gessner, Numisui. Regutn 

is described in the Transactions of the Maced. Tiguri, 1738. 

Antiquaries of that city, vol. iii., and •' Lib. iv., c. iii., s. 3, and lib. vii., c. ii., 

these imitations of the coins of Philip e. '2. 

VOL. X'X. M U. 


they are of lUiine gokl.^ It is moreover possible, as lias 
been suggested, that the reputation of the goklen ^vealth 
of the Helvetii, to which Strabo twice alludes, may have re- 
ceived confirmation by the fact, of which evidence has 
now been adduced, that their coins were of much larger 
module than the ordinary gold currency of other Gaulish 
nations. This subject will, however, soon be placed more 
fulh' under the consideration of those who devote attention 
to numismatic researches. A memoir on the Gaulish coins 
found in Switzerland will shortly be given by Dr. Meyer 
in the Transactions of the Antiquaries of Zurich. ]\Iean- 
while it may not be altogether a vain hope, that further 
excavations at Avenches may possibly bring to light the 
counterpart, — the convex moiety of the Gaulish die now 
described, and upon which the well-known Macedonian 
charioteer was doubtless represented. 

Since the foregoing particulars of a discover}' of unusual interest were 
received from our obliging and learned correspondent, Dr. Keller, we have 
been favoured by Mr. Birch with the following observations: — 

Very few ancient dies are known ; the most remarkable are those in 
the Bibliothcque Imperiale, at Paris, described by M. Chabouillet in his 
" Catalogue Gi'ncral des Canices," ic., p. 541. They consist of two dies 
of denarii of Augustus found at Nismes, two of Tiberius, two of Nero, all 
of bronze ; and a pair, obverse and reverse, of iron, united by shanks 
liinged together, figured in Akerman's Roman Coins, pi. 14; these last 
are of an Aureus of Constantius I., for the Antioch jnint. M. Chabouillet 
remarks that some of these dies may have been fabricated by forgers of 
monies in ancient times. The late Mr. Burgon affirmed that lie had seen 
a conical bronze die of the reverse of a coin of a Seleucid king ; it is men- 
tioned by Mr. Toole in his article on Numismatics, l-lncycl. Brit. Tliere 
arc three flat bronze disks in the British Museum, apparently blanks for 
dies, having legends only without any head or subject; these, however, 
arc of rpiestionable antiquity. Coins of tiie Carisia family, having on the 
obverse a head with mondta, have on the reverse an anvil, hnmmer, tongs, 
and a conical object supposed to be a die. (Figured, Akerman, Jiom. Cuius, 
vol. i. p. v.) The cause of the adoption of the type of the .staler of IMiilip by 
the Gauls appears to be this. When i'liilip discovered the rich gold mines ol 
Mount I'angjuum in Macedonia, he issued staters in large quantities, and they 
continued in the reigns of his successors to be the principal gold currency. 
When Brcnnus plundered Greece, ii.c. L'79, it is supposed that he brought 
back a great treasure of these coins, and they became the gold currency of 
Gaul. The type was imitated in later times, and became so degraded as to 
bo with didiculty recognised. Tliere is evidence that gold formerly existe<l 
ill abuiiduiicc in (iaul and Britain, at a period when there were no mines ol 
silver, and gold Hcenis to have been tiic most ancient Gaulish currency. 

' Gold occur« alno occiwionally at the whoro Kiiuvil nuj^'gcts sonioliuitd full from 
foot of Mount Cftlandn, ojipoMito Coin-, the bidca of that mountftin. 

(Drigtnal 13ocumfnt0. 


By THOMAS BUFFUS HARDY, Deputy Keeper of the Public Records. 

The attention of historical and legal scholars cannot be 
directed to a more interesting subject of inquiry than the 
origin and early history of our political constitution. Un- 
fortunately, however, few materials, and those of a very 
meagre character, exist for its elucidation. The page in 
which is recorded the early history of our legislative as- 
semblies is almost blank. The Rolls of Parliament, com- 
mencing in the 18th of Edward I. ; the Petitions during 
the same reign to the king and council in Parliament ; the 
contemporary MS. entitled " Placita Parliamentaria," or 
Pleas in Parliament, during that and the succeeding reign ; 
together with occasional and incidental notices on the Close, 
Patent, and other llolls of the reigns of Henry III., Edward 
I., and Edward II., are absolutely all the authentic materials 
we possess for the purpose. These, it is true, would be 
sufficient did we desire to compile only a parhamentary 
history of the period to which they relate. But something 
more than this is required. The student of constitutional 
history aims at carrying his investigations to an earlier era. 
He aspires to learn the jurisdiction and constitutional parts 
of our legislative assemblies anterior to the time when the 
people of England are said to have been first represented 
therein, and to have formed an integral part of the legisla- 
ture of the realm. 

When Icfial evidence is so scanty, and direct testimony 
altogether wanting, we must of necessity turn our attention 
to other means of information, and welcome any document 
that promises to illustrate the subject of our inquiry. 

It is for this reason — as belonging to the class of corre- 


lative or cognate testimony — that the famous tract " Do 
!Moclo tcnendi Parliamentiim/' regarded by many eminent 
lawyers to be a precedent of a ParHament hoklen before 
the Conquest, is undoubtedly entitled to our consideration. 

A treatise bearing this title naturally excited attention 
when Englishmen began to pursue, Nvith diligence, researches 
concerning the antiquities of the constitution. That great 
legal luminary, Lord Chief Justice Coke, seems to have 
been the first to call public attention to it. In the discus- 
sion on the Fitz-IIerbert case of privilege, he thus announced 
it from the chair of the House of Commons : — "At first the 
two Houses were all one House, and sat together by a 
ju-ecedent, which I have, of a Parliament hoklen before the 
Conquest, by Edward the son of Ethelred. For there were 
Parliaments before the Conquest. This appeareth in a 
]>ook which a grave member of this House delivered unto 
me, which is entitled ' Modus tcnendi Parliamentum.' " 
And, afterwards, in liis Fourth Institute (p. 12), -when 
treating of the history and jurisdiction of the High Court 
of Parliament, he avows his deliberate opinion that " the 
' Modus ' was rehearsed and declared before the Conqueror 
at the time of the Conquest, and by him approved for 
England ; and accordingly the Conqueror, according to 
' Modus,' held a Parliament for England, as it appeareth 
in 21st l-Alward HI., p. GO. After King Henry II. had 
conquered Ireland, he fitted and transcribed this Modus 
into Ireland in a parchment roll for holding of Parliaments 
there, which no doubt Henry II. did by advice of his 
Judges, being a matter of so great weight, and legal." 

For nearly half a century the dictum of this great 
lawyer does not appear to have been questioned. Consti- 
tutional history had not been studied. J\ren cared not to 
know whether the Saxon legislative assembly had an 
established constitution, whether it had a j)opular form, or 
whether it had been (hrived fi-om ancient German Institu- 
tions. And when Cuke, as S]»eaker of the House of 
C'ummons, with his head full of his newly discovered 
" Modus," announced to (^ueen l^lli/abeth, in llie presence 
of licr assembled Peers, that "the High Court of Parliament 
is the greatest and most ancient Court within your i-e;ihn ; 
for before the Conquest, in tin; high ]»!aces of tlic West 
Saxons, we read of a P;irliaiii''nt lioldeii ; and, since the 


Conquest, tliey liavc been holden bj all your noble pro- 
genitors," he was full}^ credited by his Royal and noble 

In the succeeding century, however, questions touching 
the Royal Prerogative had arisen, and the rights and anti- 
quity of Parliament were frequent topics of controversy. 
Selden, Hale, and Prynne entered warmly into the discus- 
sion. More than one of the dicta of Coke were disputed, 
and his 2:)aneg3Tic on the "Modus" was derided. Selden 
and others were content with den3ang the antiquity of the 
treatise, but Prynne, who was its greatest opponent, thought 
no expression too strong, no ridicule too pungent, to be 
employed against it. Relying on a text both corrupt and 
interpolated, Prynne is often contradictory and sometimes 
extremely feeble. His arguments against Coke lose much 
of their weight by reason of the acrimonious spirit he 
exhibited ; but many of them, nevertheless, are decisive 
against the reputed antiquity of the "Modus." He has, 
however, completely failed to estabhsh his own views on 
the subject. The true age of the "Modus'' was indeed 
so doubtful, that on one occasion he supposes it to have 
been compiled between the 27th and 33rd years of the 
reign of Henry VI., and, at another time, thinks it was 
written after the 31st year of Henry VIII. In impeaching 
the authority of the treatise as a true exposition of the 
mode of holding Parliament in the time of the Saxons, he 
has permitted himself to be betrayed into a misconception 
of its true character. He impairs the value of his objec- 
tions to its authority by his endeavours to destroy its authen- 
ticity, not perceiving that a production may be genuine 
and yet utterly' destitute of value as an exponent of facts. 

The deduction of Coke, who was no antiquary, and not 
always a precise logician, as to the age of the treatise, is 
manifestly erroneous. The words of the proeme, from 
which he appears to have derived his opinion of its antiquity, 
clearly prove that it must have been written subsequent 
to the Conqueror's time, inasmuch as it professes to describe 
the manner of holding Parliaments in the reio;n of William 
the First, " and also in those of his successors." There is 
nothing in the words to warrant Coke's unqualified assertion 
that he had found a precedent of a Parhament holden before 
the Conquest. It is no precedent either in the legal or 


logical meaning of the word, but simply a narrative 
describing how certain things therein specilied were done 
at various times past. A scribe writing in the reign of the 
Conqueror would doubtless be able to tell how Parliaments 
were holden in his time, or even liow they had been holden 
in the time of that monarch's predecessors ; but it would 
be impossible for him to anticipate events, and give a de- 
tailed account of the manner in which they would be holden 
by William's successors. The jn-oeme moreover is, in this 
resj-»ect, wholly at variance with tlie body of the treatise, 
thereby showing it is an addition. It ])urports to describe 
how the Parliament used to be holden before the Conquest, 
in the time of the Conqueror, and in that of his successors : 
the " Modus '' itself — how it ought to be holden. 

Since, then, the conclusions of these two eminent law^-ers 
as to the antiquity of the " ]\rodus " are plainly untenable, 
to what age are we to ascribe its production 'i With data 
so few and so indefinite as we possess, it is of course impos- 
sible to pronounce a decision which shall be unimpeachable ; 
but inference, and evidence furnished by the treatise itself, 
will enable us to arrive at an approximation as to the date 
of its composition, sufliciently near as to satisfy us until 
something more decisive can be obtained. 

We may be sure it was not written later than the yeai- 
1404, an«l probably not earlier than tlie year li244. 

It was not written later than 1404, since in that year — 
the sixth, namely, of Jving Henry IV. — a version of it suited 
to Ireland was excm])lified under the Great Seal of that 
Kingdom. Besides, several copies of the reign of Richard II. 
are still extant, and one, at least, of the reign of Edward III. 
— nor wouhl it be impossible to trace it to a still earlier time. 
The variations in the arrangement of sections, and in several 
of the j)hrases emj)lo3'e<l in the text of most of the ]\rSS. 
extant, lead, indeed, to the supposition that thoy have been 
altered or adapted from some common and earlier exemplar. 
It was not written previous to 11^4 4, since the word *' Par- 
liamentum,' used in the treatise, was never applied to a 
legislative assembly in England by any contnnporarj/ writer, 
or can be found in record bcfoi-c that year. With these two 
dates to limit our search, we shall be the better able to ])ro- 
sccutc the im|uiry. The diocesan clergy are described 
in the "Modus" as represented in Convocation by two 


Procurators from each diocese. 'Now, unless tlie passage 
liaving reference to the subject lias been interpolated, the 
text wherein it occurs must have been written after the 
seventh year of the reign of Edward I. ; because it was then 
(a.d. 1279), for the first time, the clergy were so repre- 
sented. Further, it must have been written before the 
eleventh 3'ear of the reign of Edward III., inasmuch as the 
only grades of nobility mentioned therein are Earls and 
Barons ; and there can be no doubt that had the titles of 
" Duke " and " Marquis " been known to the author they 
would have been alluded to by him.^ Lastly, it must have 
been written before the year 1327, as appears from the fact 
that in several MSS., as well as in the version for Ireland, 
the paragraph relating to the Knights of the Shire ends with 
these words, " ultra unam marcam per diem ;" whilst in 
others there is this addition, "at tumc pci' diem octo solidos 
videlicet, pro quolibet eorum quatuor solidos," an explana- 
tion that could not have been made earlier than the year 
mentioned, because it was tlien that the wages of a Knight 
of the Shire for attending Parliament were fixed at four 
shilhngs per diem. 

It is hardly necessary to go further into this question. No 
positive proof of the age of the treatise can now be pro- 
duced ; but, from the facts that have been adduced, w^e may 
safely assume it to have been written either at the close of 
the thirteenth or in the first quarter of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The statement it contains that the Barons of the 
Cinque Ports were paid ten shillings per diem for their at- 
tendance in Parliament, has been strongly urged by Prynne 
against its authenticity, on the ground that the sum was 
immoderate, and higher even than the Barons of London at 
any time received. But his objection falls to the ground — 
as I have shown in the Preface to the " Modus " published 
for the Government, and need not repeat here — since the 
Barons of London in a.d. 1296 — at the time I suppose the 
Avork to have been compiled — received exactly that sum as 
their Parliamentary wages. 

Having spoken of the antiquity of the treatise, it is not 
necessary to enter on the constitutional questions involved 
in its consideration, or to examine the source whence it was 

' The title of Duke was first conferred in the 11th of Ed. IIT. ; that of Manpis 
iu the 0th of Ricli. II. 


derived ; for to discuss these points fully, and in a manner 
worthy of their importance, would far exceed the space 
allotted to these remarks. It remains, ho^Yever, to say a 
few words on the present version. All MSS. of this treatise 
known, are in Latin, with the exception of that belonging to 
the Earl of Winchilsea, and which, by his lordship's kind 
permission, is here printed. This, which is in French, and 
probably unique, is written on a parchment roll, in a hand- 
writing of the early part of the XV. century. It throws 
no new light either on the history or the age of the 
treatise. The text agrees very closely with the Latin,- 
and was probably translated into French for the benefit of 
some one who was not acquainted with the Latin language. 
The Roll is now preserved at Eastwell Park, Kent, with 
luunerous documentary treasures, and with the collections 
formed by Dugdalc for Sir Christopher Hatton, in the reign 
of Charles L, who took warm interest in the preservation 
of all historical evidences. 

Sir Simonds D'Ewes, in his Preface to the "Journals of all 
the Parliaments during the reign of Elizabeth," states that 
he had some help from two transcripts, preserved in the 
Tower of London, of an old treatise entitled '' Dc Modi/ 
tenendi Parliament inii i)i jh/(/Iia tempore Edicardi Jilii Ethel- 
drediy One of these transcripts, he says, was in French, 
the other beino- in Latin. If D'Ewes be correct in his state- 
ment that he saw a French version at the Tower, it is 
certain that it was not a Public Record, or it would not have 
escaped the keen notice of the indefatigable Prynne, who 
was Keeper of those Records, and who had devoted so much 
time to the consideration of the treatise. Lambarde, Ryley, 
and Petyt, each of whom wrote on Parliamentaiy History, 
were also Keepers of the same Records, and could hardly 
have failed to refer to the treatise had it been under their 
care. ^loreover, in none of the ancient Inventories pre- 
served in the Tower (and one of tlicm is as early as the 
time of Richard IT., and another as that of Elizabeth) is 
there any reference to such a treatise, either in Latin or 
French. What then arc we to conclude ? That Sir Simonds 
I/Ewcs did see a I"'rench version is not to be questioned. Is 

- The tlinjdcrH follow tho order of ono iiieiit " nt tlio onil. nml HiibHtantiiilly 
or two M.S.S. which jilnco the cliajitcr ngrco with the bobt JISS. ut present 
'■ Do Icr. (IcgrccH <lc h-H recra do I'arle ki.own. 


it not more than probable that this Frencli version was the 
identical Roll belonging to the Earl of Winchilsea, and was 
shown to him as a great curiosity by Dugdale, when they 
were both engaged together at the Tower in the year 1640. 
Dugdale, we know, was then working under the patronage 
of Sir Christopher Hatton (an ancestor of the Earl of Win- 
chilsea) who possessed a Fi-ench version of the " ^[odus ; " 
at any rate it may be stated, with certainty, that if it were 
not the j\IS., now under consideration, which D'Ewes saw 
at the Tower, no other is at the present day known. 

On the back of the Roll is a petition to Thomas of Lan- 
caster, the King's son, Steward of England and Lieutenant 
of Ireland, from Richard, Archbishop of Casliel, which proves 
the Roll itself to have been written at least as early as be- 
tween the years 1400 and 1412. From this circumstance 
the Roll appears to have had some connection with Ireland, 
though it differs in some respects from the copy which is 
said to have been transmitted thither in the time of 
Henry IV., and exemplified under the Great Seal of that 
Kingdom, in the sixth year of the King's reign, when Sir 
John Talbot of Hallamshire was Lord Lieutenant. That 
treatise, as exemplified, was, we know, in Latin, having been 
expressly adapted for Ireland ; this, on the other hand, is 
in French, and relates wholly to England. There is, how- 
ever, just a possibility that the Roll before us, which 
originally belonged to Sir Christopher Hatton, is that found 
with Sir Christopher Preston when he was arrested at Calne, 
in Ireland,^ and had been by some skilful hand translated 
into French for the use of Sir Christopher Preston, who, like 
most of the laity in his day, may have been unacquainted 
with Latin. This, however, is a mere hypothesis ; but it is 
founded on the fact that the phraseology has all the marks 
of having been translated from the Latin, while in the 
Latin text there is no expression or phrase which would 
lead to the inference that it had been translated from the 

3 See Notes to the " Modus Tenendi phesy of St. Hiklegar J concernipg the 

Pai'liamentum," printed under direction Order of Mendicants, 42 years before its 

of the Commisbioners of Public Records, commencement. This vision may be seen 

1846, p. xxsiv. in Wolfii Lect. Memorab. under the year 

* On the back of the Roll is also 1180. The Roll measures in length 

written, iu a diflferent hand, the pro- 4 ft. 5 in. by Hi in. 



Icy est cscript la maiicre coineut Ic parlemcnt ilo Roy ilenylitcro et scz 
enfTliez estoit teiuiz en temps lo Roy Edward titz Edildrcde le Roy, quele 
niauere estoit lelierce par les pluys sagez du Roialine devauut William due 
do Normaiidie conquerour et Roy deugliterc, mesme le conqiieioui- ceo 
coniaundnnt par luy prove, et en soun temps et auxi en temps dc scz 
ouccessours Roys denglitcrc uses. 

De somoc.ns. 
Le sommouns de purlement dolt proccdrc le primero jour dc parlenicnt 
par xl. juurs. 

Dk Clergie. 
A parlement somoudre et venire devout par rairon de lour tenure toutz 
ct chescounz Erelievcs(jz Evesqz Abbes Prioura et autres grauntcz de 
clergie, queux ttignent par Couutee ou Baronie par reison dc tide manerc 
tcnire, et nuUcz viendrez si uon qc lour presence et venue par autre voie 
qe par lour tenure soit requys, sicome sils soient dc conscil le Roy en ' lour 
presence necessarie ou profitable a parlement soit dit, ct a cux Ic Roi est 
tenuz ministrere lour costagez et despenscz venaunt et derauraunt a lo par- 
lement ; et devaunt tiels meyndrez dccliargic estre somoncz a parlement 
mes soloit envoier sez briefs a tiels sagez, priaunt qils voillont cstre a soun 
parlement. Item le Roi soloit envoyer scz somons as Esclievcsqs Evesqes 
et autres exemptz personez, sicome Abbes Priours Dcanez et aultrcs persons 
de seint esglise qount jurisdiccions par tielx mancrcs excuipcions et privi- 
legez de parties, quils pur chescun deany ct crclicdeany dcnglitore par 
eaux mesmes deancs ct archcdcakncs ferroient cslicr deux sagez covcnables 
procuratours de lour propro archedcakny venire ct cstre a parlement a res- 
poundrc supportcre alowore et t'airc mcsnie ceo qe toutz ct chccunz dcz 
personez dcz deanyez et archedeaknyez ferroient. sils ct lours toutz ot 
chescun person de mesmes Ics dcanyes ct crchcdyaknycz estoient personel- 
ment, et qc tieux procuratours vicndrount ov lour garantz ovesqcz lez sealx 
dc lours soveraigncs dublc cnscalez [ensy] qils custumablemcnt a tiels maners 
procuraties sunt eluz [et] cnvoyez, de quex lettres garentz lune scrra dclivrr 
as clcrs dc parlement a enrollcre, ct lautre dcmurcra devcrs mesmc procura- 
tours ; et ensy de southe ccz deux maners dc sonimons duit tout la clergie 
cstro somoncz a parlement. 

De Lates. 
Item sommonir ct venire dcvount et clioscuu Countez r)aroun8 ct lours 
piers, cestassaver ceux <|ount terrcs ct rcntz a value dune Couutee entiere, 
ccstassaver vint feez dc cliivalicrc, chescun fee accomplez a viut livercz, qc 
fount quatro cenlz livers en tout, ou la value dun Haronye etiticre, ccst- 
assavoir trezc feez ct la teirce partic dun fee dun chivalere, ct chescun fee 
accomptez a vint livers, que formo en tout qatrc ccntcz marcz ; ct nullcz 
racindtcz Icyes no devout cstre sonimoncz nc venire a parlement par rcisoun 
do lour tenure, ai noun que lour presence par autre cause soit profitable ou 
iiccchsaire a parlement, ct dou([C.s dmix doit fait cstro siconic est dite dcz 

* Probably for — on; the corronponding pnK«ngc in tlie Latiu Muliu gives — "vel." 


rneyndicz du clcrgie, quex' par rcisouu de lour tenure ne sount tenu2; do 
venire a parlcmcnt. 

De Barouxs de Cvnk portz. 
Item ley Roy Boloit cnvoicr sez briefs a le gardeyne de lez Cynk portz, 
<lil ferroit cslier de chescun porte par nicsmc le porte deux covenablez et 
bagez barouns a venire a parlement, a respoundre supporter alowere et faire 
inesme ceo qe ferroient lour baronyes [si] touz et cliescune personelment 
illocqes estoient, et qc tielx Barouns viendroieut ove lour garantz dez lez 
communez sealx de lour portez double ensealez, ensy qils soient a ceo 
custumablcment esluz attornez et envoiez par lourz Baronyes ; dez quex 
garantz luue serroit livcre as clerc de le parlement, et lautre a rcmeindre 
<levers mesmez le Barouns dez portz, cyauntz counge do le parlement qant 
ils devont departire ; et douqes solicnt avoir brief de la graunt scale direct 
a Gardeyne de lez Cynk portz qils ferroit tielx Barouns aver reisonablez 
costagez et lour despensez de communalte de lour port, de le primer jour 
qils vers le parlement alerount tanqe le jour qils a lour propre rcviendrount, 
ct qe cxpresse mencioun soit faite en la dite brief de la demurge qils ferroient 
a le parlement, et de lour qils vendroient et avoient conge a retourner ; et 
jadis soloit estre fait mencioun en le brief quant tiels Barouns deveroient 
prendre de tielx communaltcz par le jour, cestassaver ascunz plus ascuns 
nieyndre solonc labilite et lioneste et regarde dez personez ; et ne soloit 
cstre mys pur deux Barouns par le jour aultre xx. s. eant regard a lour 
demourge travaillcz et despensez, et ne soloient tielx despensez estre mys 
on certayne par le court pur ascunz personez ensy esluz et envoiez par lez 
communalteez, si noun lour persones estoient honestez et soy bien eyantz 
en le parlement. 

De chivalers dez Counteez. 
Item le Roy soloit envoier sez briefs a toutz lez viscountez denglitere, 
qils ferroient eslicr cliescune de soun Countee dieux chivalers covenablez 
honestez et sagez, a venire a soun parlement, en mesme la manere qe dit 
est de Barouns de Cynk portz, et de lour grauntez en mesme la manere, 
cinz pur lez despencez de deux chivalers dune Countee ne soloit estre mys 
aultre mie marc le jour, 

De Burgets. 
En mesme la manere soloit et devoit estre envoies as Balllifs ct prodoms 
des Burgois, qils de soy et pur soy eslirent deux covenablez honestez et 
sagez Burgeis, a venire et estre a parlement le Roy en mesme la manere 
qe dit est de citescins ; cins deux Burgeis ne soloient prendre pur lour 
despensez pur un jour oultre x.s., et a ascune temps outre demy marc, et 
ceo soloit estre taxce par le courte solonc la quantite et poor de le Burgoiez 
ct solonc la honestc de persones envoiez. 

De rRiNCiPALX clercz de Parlement. 
Deux clercz principals de le parle {sic) parlement seeroit en le mylieu 
dez Justices, qucux enroUerount communes plees bosoignez de parlement ; et 
fait assaver qe mesmez deux clercz ne sount subigeit a qeconqez Justiccz, 

- The Bcribe has here written— q'utx, but the coutractiou over the initial letter 
may be considered reduudaut. 


ct nest ascune Justice dcngUtcrc en jiarlcment, ct iionit {sic) par soi recorder 
en parleiuent [si] noun novelle poiara caux suit assigne ct done en parlonient 
par le Roy et lez piers du parlenieut, sicome quant ils ovesqos autres 
suiters de parlemcnt sount assignez oier et examiner et terminer ascunez 
peticiouns et querelez en le parlement monstrez. Einz sount mesmez 
deux clercz suunz meisuez subigiz al Roy et soun parlement en commune, 
si noun serroit un Justice on deux asseignes a eux examiner et amendre 
lour enroliementz. quant lez piers de parlement sount asseignez oior et 
examinerc ascunez peticions especialment par soi ; donqc come ils serront 
dune voillaunce et dune acorde en lour jugement a rendre sur tielx peticions 
rehercerount les peti'-iouns et lez proces sur eaux eies [et] teudront lour 
jugement en plein parlement. Et mcsmes les rolles soient eu la trcsorie 
devaunt le parlement soit departies, ensi qen cliescune mauerc mcsme lez 
rollez soient en !a tresorie devaunt processe de parlement ent, salve a 
mesme lez elercz Ic transcript en countrerollement sils le voillent avoir. 
Et mesmez deux clercz, si noun ils soient en autrcz officez ovc le Roy ct 
preignent de luy feez ensi qils [sic) qils purrount ent honestcment vivre, ils 
prendront de Roy par le jour uue marc pur lour despensez, par owelos 
porciouns, si noun ils soient a le table le Roy, ct donqes ils prendront 
oultre lour table forsqc deux marcz par le jour par owelcz porciouns, par 
tout le parlement. 

De ctnk clers de Paule.ment, 
Le Roy doit assignor cynk clers sagez pt approvez, dounc le primer doit 
ministrer et server Evesqes, et le secunde a lez procuratours de elergie, et 
le tierce as Countees et Barouns, le qart as cbivalcrs de Counteez, le quint 
as citeseiiis ct Burgus; et chescun dez ditz clercz, si noun ils soit ovc le 
Roy [et preigne do Uiy tide foe ou tielx gagez »[uil purroit honestement 
vivre, ii prendra de Roy par Ic jour deux souldes, si noun ils soient a le table 
le Roy, et sils sount a le table le Roy donqes prendrount xij. d. i>ar le 
jour ; queux escriverunt Icz dubitaciuuns ct responses qucux yferrouut a 
Roy et le parlement, et serrount a lours conseils en qeijuonqo lieu (|ils eux 
voudrount avoir, et come ils nc sount occupiez aide tout ' lez clercz priucipalez 
a enroUere. 

Des cases et juqementz doutouses. 
Come brige doutc ou dure case de pees ou de guerre aveigne en le 
Rijyalme ou par do liors, eel cas soit dit et reliercc en escript en plein 
parlement, et soit trete et despute illoeqes parentre loz jtiers'du parlement, 
ft fli busoignii .soit enjoigne par le Roy ou depar le Roy, et si nu R(ty y no 
Boit a chescun degree de piers ([e cbescun aleit par soi, et soit eel cas liverc a 
lour clerc en escript, et en eertayne lieu forrount relicrcer devaunt eaux eel 
cas, ensi qils ordcignent et considerent parentre eux en (picle nieillour et juste 
manerc jiroccdel rj purruunt v\i ccli cas, si come par {sic) hi porsoun le Roy et 
lez personez de lour mcHmes et pur bcz* pcrsoncz deux pur <iucllis personez 
eux Bount prescntz, voudront devaunt Dion respoiidro, et lour respounscz et 
uviHcmentz fcrrount reportier en escript, <[c toutcz lours respounsez confieilh-z 
et aviKementz ent oiez solone le nieillour et pluis sain conseillo soitprocedr, 
ct ou notncmcnt la pluis grcyndre partie de parlement bo nccorde, ai come 
il Hoit par discordc parentre le Roy et lez autres graundees, ou parentre 

* .Sc, I'fobably for— oiU rout. * <Sf, for— Icz. 


lez graundeez, la pccz ilu roialine soit enfermes on Ic poplc en le pais, ensi 
quil avys a Roy et a souii coiiscil qe soit en esploit, qe tiele bosoigne soit 
trctee et amende par consideracion de toutz lez piers de soun roialme ; ove si 
par guerre Ic lloj et le Koyalmc soit troublez, ou si dure cas aveio^ne 
devaunt le Cliauncellcr denglitere, ou dure jugeraent soit a rendre dcvaunt 
Justicez, ou a[u]trc cas scmblable, et si par aventure en tiels deliberaciouns 
touz ou nomenicnt la greindre partie acordere ne purrount, donqcs le Couute 
Sencschalle le Counte Constable et le Countc Marescball, ou deux de eux, 
vynt et cynk personez de toutz piers de Roialme, cestassaver deux Evesqes 
et treis procuratours pur tout la clergie, deux Countez et treis Barouns cynk 
chivallers dez counteez cink ceteseius et cynk burgeys, qe fount vynt et 
cynk, purrount eslicr de lour mesmez dusze et condiscciiJre en eaux, et ils 
dusze vj. [et] condescendre en eux, et ils sis unqore treys et condiscendre en 
caux, et ils treys en pluis poy qe lour mesmez ne purrount condiscendre, si 
non par licence du Roy, et si le Roy vorroit consentiro ils treis purrount 
en deux, et de eux deux lune puet en lautre condiscendre, et ensi au 
darreyu estera soun ordenance sur tut le parlement; ct ensi condiscendant 
a, vint et a cynk personez tanqc a une soule pcrsoun, si noun le greindre 
nombre acordere purroit et ordcigner, a darrain une soule persone, si come 
il est dit, pur toutz ordeigneroit, quel Evesqe'' soi mesmez discorder ne purroit; 
salve le Roy et soun conseil qils ticls ordeignementz depuis qils serrout en 
cscritz examiner et amcnder purront [si] faire sclent et voidroient, ensi qe ceo 
soit illoeqes adonqes en plein parlement et ne my derere le parlement. 

De loudre de la liverakce dez bosoignez de Parlement. 
Lez bosoignez pur queux le parlement est devont estre liverez solonc la 
Kalendarie et le parlement, et solonc lordre de peticiouns liveres et affilez, 
nulle regard eaunt a qeconqe persone einz qe premerment ferroit ; en la 
Kalendarie del parlement serrout i-emembres toutz bosoignez de le parlement 
soulz tiel ordre ; le primer jour guerre, si guerre ne soit, et dautrez 
bosoignez lez personez le Roy et Roigne et de lour enfantz touchauntz ; le 
seconde jour communez bosoignez du Royalme, sicome de leis a establere 
cncountre defautz de leis origiuelxct executories dampnis jugeraent rendutz, 
qe lez sount lez pluis communes busoignes ; le tierce jour ferrount remem- 
brer singulers bosoignez, et ceo solonc lordre des filacez dez peticiouns, si 
come il est dite. 

Dez jours et iioures de le Parlement. 
Le parlement ne doit estre tenuz en dymengez eins cliescune autre 
jour, liorspris par tout voie treis jours, cestassaver, le jour de toutz seintz, 
dez almez, et de la Nativite de scint Jolian Baptistre, et puet estre tenuz 
ct doit cbcscun jour commcncer a la my lioure de Pryme, a quel houre le 
Roy est tenuz estre en parlement, [et] toutz les piers du Royalmo, et 
devoient tenire le parlement en lieu appert ; en autres seyntz jours le 
parlement doit commencer al boure de Prime pur divine service. 

De la manere de Parlement. 
En primes monstre la fourme en quel manere et en quel temps chescun 
somouns du parlement doit estre fait, et qi venire devaunt par somons, et 

* The correct reading should probably be — ovesqe — as appears by comparisou 
•with the Latin Modus; "cum se ipsa discordare non potest." 


<ii noun ; secundarie qi soimt qi par reijoun de lour officez venire devaunt 
et estrc soimt tcmiz par tout le parlcnient sanz somouu?, douut il est a 
considerer qe deux principalx clercz de parleinont csluz par Ic Roy et souii 
conseil, et autres clercz secoundaries de qucx et de lour officez serra dit dopuis 
especialment, et le principal criour dcngliterc ovesqc scz south eriours, ct 
le principal huyssher dengliccre, quelx deux offices, cest adirc, loffice du 
oriourc ct huyssher, soloient a uue et niesnie chose appartcnirc ; ceux officer;- 
sount tenuz estrc en le parlcmcnt le primer jour. 

Le Chauncellerc denglitcrrc ct Trcsorer Chaiuberlcyns ct Barouns do 
leschekerc Justicez et toutz clercz et chivallers du Roy aui evesqe* les 
t^crgeauntz de ley quex sount du conseil le Roy sount tenuz estrc en le 
parlcnient le secuude jour, si noun ils eient cxcusacioun reisonablc, et sils 
no purrount y estre donqes devount envoyere bonez excusaciouns. 

La cumessement del Pari-ement. 

Le Roy serra en my lieu de la grcyndrc bank, ct il est tenuz estre 
primernient en le parlcnient le vj'"' jour, et soloient lez Chauncellerc Trc- 
sorer ct Barouns de loschekirc et Justicez recordere dcfautez faitz en Ic 
jiarlenicnt south lordre qensuit ; le primer jour serrount appcllez Burgeys 
ct Cetczeins de tout Englitere, a qel jour si lez Burgeys nc veiendrount le 
Burghe serra amercic a centz niarcz et la Cite a cent livers ; le secundc 
jour serrount appellez lez chivalers dez Countees de tout Englitere, a quel 
jour sils ne viendrount le Countee dc qoy ils sount serra amercic a ceutz 
iivcrcz ; et le tierce jour serront appellez les Barouns de Cynk portz, ct 
depuis autres Baronez, ct depuis Countees ; dount si lez barouns de Cynk 
portz nc vyendrount la Barouie de qoi ils sount serra amercic a centz 
marcz, ct Counte a centz livers, ct en niesmc la nianerc serra fait dez 
qeux sount jiiers as Countcz ct Barouns, cestassavcr, ils qount tcrrez et 
routes a la value dun Countee ou dune Baronic, si come il est avauntdit en 
le title de soniouns ; le qartee jour serrount appellez lez procuratours de 
clergie et sils [nc] viendrount lours Eve-qcs serrount aniercics pur chescun 
Krchcdcakcnic qi fait dcfait a centz niarcz ; le quint jour serrount appellez 
Jjeanez Priours Abbez Evcsqes, et sils ne vicndroiiut chescun Erchcvesqe 
serra amercic a c. li., chescun Evesqe qe tient unc Barounie entierc a c. 
znarcz ; en mesmc la manere des Abbez Priours ct aultrcz. 

Lc primer jour doit estre fiit proclamacioun primermcnt en la sale ou en 
Ic Monstrc ou en autre lieu apicrt ou le parlcmcnt serra tenuz, ct dc puis 
appcrtemcnt en laCitce ou la vile, que toutz ccaux qe pcticiouns ct qucrclle 
<lelivorcr voidrount a le parlcmcnt, qils cux deliverount dc lo j)rinier jour de 
parlcmcnt tanqc en cynk juurs procheinemcnt ensuauntz. 

De la riiEDiCACiorN pel Paiu.ement. 
TJnc Erclicves(|e ou un graunt elcrc sage et de bole parlance csluz par 
lcachevcs<ic dc la provynce en (piele lc parlcmcnt sorra tenuz doit prcchier 
un dc lez cynk primers jours de parlcmcnt et en ])rcscnco do Roy, et ceo 
qaunt lc parlcmcnt surra pur greindrc parlic nssemblez ; ct on eoun 
Bcrmoun cnsuiant amoigncr a tout le parlcmcnt qila ove luy Dieu huniblc- 
mcnt fiupplicnt ct luy honurcnt pur lc i)ec8 et tranquillite du Roy ct del 
Royaliiic, bi come ils serra ditc pliiis especialment en lc title suynnt de la 
prcdicacioun a lc parlcmcnt. 

* Sic, probnbly for— ovcbqo. 



De puis la pretiicacioun doit le Chauncellere dcnglitere ou le chief Justice 
dcnglitere, ccstassaver celuy qi tieut plees devaunt le Roy, ou autre 
Justice coveiiable honest et de beal parlaunce, ou clercz par mcsmcz lez 
Chauncellere et Chief Justice esluz, moustrer lez causez de parlement, et 
primerment en general et en especial esteaunce, et en fait assaver qe toutz 
de parlement qeconqcs ils soient quant ils enparlcrunt esteicrount, hospris 
le Koy, ensi qe toutz de le parlement purrount oier celuy qi parle; et sil dife 
obscurement ou has parle il dirra autrefoitz et parlera pluis en haut, ou un 
autre parlera pur luy. 

De la parlaunce du Roy apres le promotement. 
Le Roy apres le promotement pur le parlement doit prior clercz et lais 
en nominaunt toutz lours degrecz, ccstassaver Erchevcsqes Evesqcs Abbes 
Priours Erchediakenes procuratours et autres de clergie, Countez Barouns 
Chivalers Citeseius Bu[r]geys et autrez laiez, qils diligentemcnt studiousment 
et curment travaillerunt atretere et deliverer busoignez de parlement, si 
come ceo pluis principalmcnt estre endenderount (sic) et senterount, primer- 
ment a la volunte Dieu, et depuis al a {sic) honour et profit du Roy et lour 

De labsexce dc Roy de le Parlement. 
Le Roy est tenuz par tout voie estre personelment en le parlement, si 
noun il soit detenuz par corporale malease, et donqes il poet tenire sa 
chambre, ensi qil ne gist par de hors la manere ou nomement la ville ou 
parlement est tenuz ; et dounqes doit envoier pur xij. persones dcz greiudres et 
meillours qeux sount somouns (sic) a le parlement, ccstassaver deux Evesqes 
deux Countez deux Barouns deux Chivalers de Countees deux Citeseins et 
deux Burgeis a voier sa personne et a tesmoigner soun estate, et doit ei> 
lour presence committre a lerchevesqe de la lieu le Seneschal et soun chief 
Justice qils ensemble et chescune par soy coraraenserount le paz-lement en 
soun noun, eiauntz en lour commissioun expresse mencioun a ceo de cause 
de labsence, qe chose doit suffir et moustrer lautres grauntz et noblez de 
parlement ovesqe notorie tesmoignez de xij. piers; et la cause est qar 
clamoiu* et murmure soloiet estre en parlement pur labsence le Roy : car il 
est chose perilous et damageouse a tout le communalte de le parlement et 
auxi le Royalme, qaunt le Roy fuist absente du le parlement, et ue se doit 
absentier, ne poet si noun sullement en cace suisditz. 

De lieux et sessiouns en le Parlement. 
Primerment, si come il estdite, se[e]rra le Roy en my lieu de la greindre 
Bank, en sa partic dcxtre seera lerchevesqe de Cauntcrbirs, et en sa partie 
senestre seera lerchevesqe devwik, [sic)' et apres ordcignement Evesqes Abbes 
Priours tout voie par tide lyne parentre lez degrez suisditz et lours lieux, 
ensi qe uuUe seera si noun parentre sez piers, et a ceo veer est tenuz le 
Seneschal dcnglitere, si noun le Roy verroiet un autre a ceo assignor; et a 
pee dextre du Roy seerunt lez Chauuceller dcnglitere et sez compaig- 
nouns et lours clercz, quelx sount de le parlement ; et a soun pee senestre 

<■ Probably fur — devcrwik, /. c. York, the mark of contraction having accidentally 
been omitted. 


seerount lez Tresorcr Chaumberlayns ct Barouns Jc lesclickcr Justice[s] del 
Banke et lour clercz, si ascunz soiei[ii]t do le parlement. 

De li: IIcissnER ek le Parlement. 
Le priucipale huisslier en parlement cstcra de deins le graund huys del 
Monster sale eu"" aultre lieu eu le parlement est tenuz, et gardera le huys 
cnsi qe uulle entrera le parlement si noun celuy qe suyt doit a parlement, 
ou serra appelle pur busoigne quil pursuera en le parlement ; et il est 
busoigne qe celuy iiuissher eit conusauncedez personez qoux entrer devount, 
&i que nuUc soit disturbe de soun entre qi a le parlement estre est tenuz, et 
L-eluy huissher poet ct doit, si busoigne soit, avoir plusours huisshours de 
southc luy. 

De CRiom de Parlement. 
Le crioure del parlement esteera par dehors le buy de parlement, et lo 
l.uissber luy monstera sez clamaciouns, et le Roy soilet envoier sez sergcauntz 
darmez a esteier par graunt espace et par dehors le buys de lo parlement, 
et a garder le buys, ensi qc nulle emprossiouns nc noise serrount faitz en- 
tour le buys, par qoux le parlement purroit estre desturbez, sur peync de 
prise de lour corps ; ear du droit le buys de parlement no doit estre 
close einz par buissbours et lez sergeantz darmez ct gardcz. 

De lez parlauxce qe steierouxt ex Parlement. 
Toutz lez piers de le parlement seierotiut et nul esteira mais quaunt il 
p'arjlera, et si il pfarjlera, ensi que chcscun de parlement luy purra oier ; et 
nul entrera le parlement, si noun par un soul buys, et toutz lez parlauntez 
esteierount a qeconqe temps qils parlerount ascune chose qe duit estre 
delivere par le parlement, et la cause est quils serrount oiez do lez piers; 
car toutz les piers sount Jugez et Justicez. 

Del aide le Rot. 
Lo Roy ne soleit demaundere aide de souu Royalme mais pur guerre 
osteaunt ou pur sez filez a marier, et donqes devcunt tioix aidcz estre 
demaundez en plein parlement et estre deliverez en escript a cbescun degrc 
de lez piers do le parlement soi consenterount et en escript estre respotinez; 
et fait assaver qe a tielx aidez estre grauntez il busoigne qe toutz piers 
de Ic parlement soi consenterount ; et fait a entendre qe deux chivalers qo 
sount venuz a le parlement pur un Cuuntc aient pluis graunt vois en le 
parlement, et en grauntaunt ct countrediauiit, que les pluis grauntz Countecs 
denglitere; et en mesme la nianerc lez procmatours de clergic dun Evesqe 
aient pluis graunt vois en le parlement, sils touz soient accordez, qe levesqe, 
et ceo en touz cbosez qolcx a le parlement devout estre grauntez ou dcniez; 
ct ceo appiert car le Roy puct tenire parlement ovo la connnunalte do souu 
Roialme saunz Evesqes (.'ountcz et Barouns, si ensi soit (jils soient pomouns 
a le parlen)ent, et si nul Evesqe Counte ou Baroun a sez somouns viendra, 
car jadia neatoit Evesqo ne (Jounto nc Baroun, et uiujorc adonqes lez Rois 
tcnurcnt lour parlement cins en autre nianero est'-* en counlre ; car si lez 
communaUez de clergic et laycz estoicnt sumouns a le jiarlemcnt, si come 

' 8ie, but Imrc, ami in tlio context, cu '■' .S"iV, poRsibly for — et. 

•bould probably bu iciid— ou. 


de droit ils deverount, et pur ascunes certeinz causez venire iie voiJroient, 
si come ils discerent qe le Roy eaux ne governeroit com il deveroit, et 
assigneroient espccialment en quoux articlez eux ne governeroit, a donqes le 
parlement serroit pur nul ; et si unqore ensi serroit qe toutz Erclievesqes 
fivesqes Countez et Barouns et touz lez piers on le Roy estoient presentz, et 
pur ceo il est busoigne et toutz chosez qucux devount estre grauntez faitz 
affirmez ou donez par le parlement, qila- soient graunteez par communalte 
de le parlement quele do trois degreez, cestassaver de procuratours de 
clergie chivalers de Countez et Burgeys, quelez representent tout le com- 
munalte denglitere, et ne niye de lez grandez, car cliescun de eux est 
est {sic) pur sa propre persoue en le parlement et ne mye pur chescun autre. 


Le parlement ne doit departire quant ascun peticioun est pendauut nyent 
discusse, ou ameyns a quelle null respounce ne soit determinez ; et si le 
Roy fait le contrarie il est perjurs ; et nuUe soul de touz lez piers de le 
parlement puet ne doit departier de la parlement si noun il est conge de 
Roy et de toutz sez piers, et ceo en plein parlement, et qe de tiel conge 
soit fait remembrance en lez rollez de le parlement ; et si ascunz dez piers 
duraunt le parlement soit a malease, siqa {sic) la parlement venir ne purra, 
adonqes deins le tierce jour envoiera a sez executours a le parlement, a 
quel jour sil ne veindra soient envoies a luy deux de sez piers a veier et 
tesmoiguer sa nialad e, et si ysoit suspeccioun soient sez deux piers jureez 
qils ent dient verite ; et si compiert qil soi feigne soit amercie come pur 
defaute, et sil ne soi feigne a donqes il attornera ascun sufficiant devaunt 
eux a estre pur luy a le parlement sil veroit, car sain ne puct estre excuse 
si soit de sayne memorie. A le departier de le parlement ensi doit estre 
use, primerment doit estre demaunde et crie en apert en le parlement, ou 
de deinz le pallyse de parlement, si soit ascun qi deliveroit peticioun a le 
parlement, a quel peticioun unqore ne soit fait respounce; et si nul recrie il 
est a supposere qa a {sic) chescun est fait medicine, ou nomement solonc ceo 
qe poet estre de droit est responce, et adonqes primerment, cestassaver 
qant nuUc ysoit qi peticioun deveroit, cellui temps ne recrie nous devons 
conge a le parlement. 

De lez transcriptz dez Recordez de Parlement. 
Les clers de le parlement ne deverount a nuUi stranscript {sic) ne pro- 
cesse einz ceo deliverent a cliescun qi ceo demaunde, et prenderount pur 
dys lynez denier,^ pur aventurc yserra fait foy de nounpoar, en quele cas ils 
riens ne prendrount : lez Rollez de parlement entiendrount en largesse 
X. poutz ; et le parlement serra tenuz en qel lieu de le Roialme qil plerra 
a Roy. 

De lez degreez de lez piers de Pa(r)leme>;t. 

Le Roi est chief de parlement commenciounri {sic) - et fyne de mcsme le 

jtarlement, et ensi il ne ad piere en soun degre et de le Roy soul est le primer 

degre; [le secunde degre] est de lez Erclievesqes Evesqes Abbes et Priours 

par Baroun[iejs tcnauutz; le tierce degre est a lez procuratours dc clergie; 

' A word seems here wanting, pes- impotentia," p. 47. 
sibly— sino«» — unless. Compare tlic - Possibly fur — commeucement — corn- 

Latin Modus, — '• nisi forte facta fide dc pare the Latin Modus, p. 25. 



le quart tlegre est de Countez Baroiins et aultrez grauntz gentilez tenauntz 
a la value ilc Countec et Baronic, si come il est avauntdit eu Ic title dez 
laiez; le quint degre est dc Cliivalers dez Countez; le sisme-' lez dietez cynk 
degreys ; aprcs le Roy soit absent et nyntmcynez ils toutz soient par 
resouablez somouns de parlement garniz, nientmcynz le parlement est juggcz 
estre playn. 

The following petition is endorsed in a contemporary hand upon the 
Roll : — 


Seneschal de.ngliterue et liectenauxt dirlande. 

Supplie vostre oratour, Richar par la grace de Dicux Icrchevesqc dc 
Casscllc, qc vous please de vostre tresgraciouse seignurie luy graunter licens 
nostre seignur le Roy pur tretcr et enparlct {sic) ove Irroiez cncmycs nostro 
seignur le Roy, et ove lez Engliez rebelx feloms'^ ouutlagez et autres 
nialfesours deins la terre dirlande, et lez al paes nostre dicte seignur le Roy 
refourmer, et true et salve condut as ditez Irroiez enemies fclouns 
ouutlagez et nialfesours manger boier et autres maneres dez vitaillez, 
durant la dicte true et parlement, doner ; et qe le dicte suppliant hommez, 
si bien [a] chival come apee, si bicn Engliez rebelx come Irroiez enemiez, 
come felouns et ouutlagez kernes larrons et autres nialfesours en le marchez 
dez dietez Counteez en recistantz dez Irroiez enemiez et Engliez rebelx 
felouns outlagcz et autres malfesours, cs dietez pArties et sur lez costagez le 
dicte suppliaunt et scz tenauntz, demesme purra retcnir, et a eux manger 
boier et autres vitaillez drasez Engliez chivalx armour ceel fere et toutz 
vitailez et merchandizis pur lour gagez et rctenue en lez ditz niarchis 
purra doner, nient ob.stantz qe les ditz enemies ct Englisez rebelx felons 
ouutlagez et autres nialfesours soient ouutl(a)gez en lez Counteez nostre 
seignur le Roy ou en ascuno autres Countees, saunz estre eiipechez de 
nostre seignur le Roy scz heirs et ministrez qccon(|es en temps avenire, 
ascunz estatutz ou ordinauncez sez (sic) acontrarie cut faitz nient obstautz ; 
pur Dieu et en courc de charitc. 

^ Some words arc doubtless here omit- Lieutenant and Council to grant an ex- 
ted. Compare the Latin Mudn.% p. 25 : cmption. Mr. Graves tbiuks that the roll 
— " Bextiis de civiljus et burgenRibus ; ct wuh broiigbt over in the time of Tboiua.s 
ita ent I'arliamentinn ex 8ex gradibus." of Lancaiiter's LieutoDancy ; ami, wlieii 

* Tiie Hev. JauiGH Graves has favoured the petition camo bcfi)rt> the Coniuil, it 

UB with the following observatif)iiB :— It waH tcniiiorarily en<lorsed upon it, luitil 

wa8 treasonable by Btatute to parU-y with, it cotdd be regularly enrolled on the 

to buy and Hell, or give aid tu Irinh eiio- Coiiiicil Roll. Many micli peliliouB are 

riiieH or lOnglish rebclri in Ireland. The found on the uniijuo Council Roll, \6 

diocese of CaMhel being at that jieriod in- Rich. II. 

fehted with both claHHCH, the ArchbJMhop ^ >Sic ; there is, however, a line through 

found it noceunarj' to petition the Lord the — 1 — indicating some contraction. 

Proccctiirtss at fHcctinss of tfje ^rcjacolocjical Institute. 

June G, 1882. 

Lord Talbot de Malaiiide, F.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

The special subjects proposed for ilhistration, in the series of occasional 
exhibitions of works of ancient and mediaeval art, were on the present occa- 
sion Enamel and Niello. The President, in opening the proceedings, 
expressed satisfaction that it had proved practicable, through the generous 
support and confidence which the Institute had invariably experienced, to 
bring together a collection so valuable and instructive in its classification 
as that now submitted to inspection. Lord Talbot viewed such a result 
with pleasure and surprise, at a moment when the display of mediaeval and 
renaissance art, lately opened at the South Kensington Museum, had amassed 
such a precious collection of all that the realm could produce most costly 
and recondite in every department of mediaival taste. Whilst it was gratify- 
ing to experience in so marked a manner the liberality with which tlieir 
present purpose had been promoted, it must be beyond measure gratifying 
to all present to perceive, in the assemblage of beautiful oi)jects now before 
them, the renewed proof of Her Majesty's gracious consideration in enrich- 
ing that scries with the Lennox Jewel, one of the most precious objects in 
the royal collection, both as regards its historical and its artistic value 
The Society would recognise with deep gratitude the gracious encourage- 
ment thus conferied on their endeavors, which had been heretofore favored 
witii the patronage of the lamented Prince Consort. 

A memoir on the Art of Niello was then read by Mr. Edmdxd Watertox, 
F.S.A. This valuable monograph will shortly be published in this Journal. 

A general essay on the history of the Art of Enamel, chiefly in expla- 
nation of the extensive series exhibited, was then read by Mr. Albert Way, 
who offered a brief sketch in continuation of the observations given in this 
Journal, vol. IL p. 155. In adverting to the occurrence of any example 
of true enameling amongst the nations of antiquity, and especially the 
Egyptians, he read the following valuable information received a few days 
previously from one who is profoundly and practically versed in all the 
interesting (juestions connected with ancient works in the precious metals, 
Signor Castellani : — "My opinion is that the Greeks and Etruscans did 
decidedly enamel gold jewels occasionally. Irrefutable specimens of ancient 
gold enameled ornaments exist in the collections of Europe; for instance, 
the Greek crown in the Campana collection is enameled. Ear-rings, with 
enameled swans, were found at Vulci. M. B. Rothschild, of Paris, pos- 
sesses an ear-ring with a white enameled cock, of the most archaic Etruscan 


stvle. I lately purcliftseJ a Greek necklace and bracelet found at Alexan- 
dria in Egypt, both of which are enriched with elegant enameled designs. 
These beautiful ornaments are in the Kensington Museum. The prevailing 
colors are pale opaque blue and green, but I have seen frequently em- 
ployed a rich green transparent enamel. These enamels arc all artixcd to 
the metal by heat. M. Labarte, a very competent judge, said, on seeing 
my necklace at Paris a few months ago, that the question whether tlio 
ancients liad known the art of enameling on gold was henceforth undeniably 
decided in the attirmuti^'e. I could mention other examples of existing 
ancient enameled jewels. Generally the Greeks and Romans appear to 
liave used enamels in tillagree cJt>isonnts designs; a circumstance which 
recalls forcibly to my mind the traditional Chinese and Indian practice in 
the art of enameling." 

In a rapid sketch of the transition from the process technically termed 
chamfhtt', or en taiUc d'rpargnc, to which his fi)rmer observations almost 
exclusively related, Mr. Way emleavoured to point out in the scries exhibited, 
the exemplification of the various progressive changes which have been so 
well derined and fharacterised by Mr. Franks, in his preliminary Treatise 
accompanying the Section of Glass and Enamel, in the sumptuous il ustrated 
memorials of the Manchester Exhibition, by Mr. Waring. The classi- 
fication of mediaival enamels, which often present very slight variations in 
the process and manipulation employed, has moreover been greatly elucidated 
by the accomplished Conscrvatciir of the Mediaeval treasures in the Louvre, 
M. De Laborde. His notices of the enamels in the museum at the Louvre, 
and the accompanying Glossary, are invaluable manuals for the student of 
the section of art umler consideration. To Mr. Franks we are indebted for 
inviting attention to the characteristic features which distinguish the earlier 
enamels of Tfermany, produced probably near Cologne, from the works of 
Limoges, with which, until very lately, they had been confounded. The 
most striking German examples in England are the so-called crosier of 
Kagenfroi, bishop of Chartres, now at Goodrich Court, and the covered 
ciborium in possession of Mr. Bruce of Kennet, figured in the Catalogue of 
the Museum formed at the meeting of the Institute in Edinburgh. In the 
thirteenth century, the goldsmiths of Sienna and the north of Italy origi- 
nated the beautiful application of transparent color to chased designs in 
low relief, designated by De Laborde, emaux de basse taillc. Amongst 
painted enamels, those of Venice, of which a charming example from Mr. 
llohde Hawkins' collection was pointed out, may take precedence, whilst 
a few rare examples indicate that the process was a])plied at an early 
period in Italy to works of higher artistic character as pictorial composi- 
tions. It took, however, its chief development at Limoges, towards the 
latter years of the fifteenth century, and it has been suggested with nnich 
probability that the remarkable renewal of the art of Limoges, at that 
time, may have been mainly promoted by the skill with which glass- 
painting was practised there at the period. Mr. Franks has proposed a 
convenient distributiori of the numerous painted enamels of the School of 
LimogcH : — 1. Tho early style, 1475 to 1. 030; the use of small spangles 
or paillettes, glazed over with transparent colors, is mostly prevalent at 
thin period ; the designs are usmilly characterised by a Flemish a|)])earance, 
and roHcmble illuminations. 2. Tho fine stylo, l.l.'JO to l.'nSO, which 
doubtlcHH owed its superiority to tho inllnonco of Italian ort. N'ivid 
colorx and pailleftrs were al),iniIoncd, and the works of this periotl 


are mostly painted in grisaille, with slightly colored tints. The Penicaud 
family, Leonard Limousin, — the greatest of French enamelers, Pierre 
Raymond, Pierre and Jean Courtois, and Jean Court dit Vigier, are 
amongst those who established the European celebrity of the School of 
Limoges. 3. The minute style, to about 1G30, a period of elaborate finish 
and glittering effects, produced by the aid of foil glazed with trans- 
parent hues, as practised by Susanne Court, the artists named Limousin, 
who may have been kinsmen of the great Leonard, and several others 
whose productions are still highly valued. 4. The Decadence, to the 
close of tlie manufactory in the eighteenth century. The well-known 
productions of the Nouailhers and the Laudins rarely rise above medio- 
crity, although occasionally even at this late period may be traced some 
pleasing vestige of that great artistic development, which, during so long 
a time, threw lustre on the town of Limoges. From the latter part of the 
seventeenth century commenced the application of enamel to gold, for the 
enrichment of various personal ornaments, in which Toutin gained so 
much celebrity. To these succeeded productions of much higher artistic 
interest, enameled miniatures and goldsmiths' work decorated with exqui- 
site taste. With the exception of Petitot and Bordier, Dinglinger, Boit, 
and Zincke, our knowledge of the numerous artists of this class is extremely 
imperfect. The eager desire which prevailed throughout Europe early in 
the last century to produce porcelain, w^hicli might compare with that of 
China, originated many ingenious inventions and imitative expedients. To 
that movement probably may be traced the frequent applications of enamel 
to metal, producing, by comparatively easy manipulation, objects which often 
successfully imitated the appearance of porcelain. Thus, possibly, grew 
up the extensive manufacture of enameled wares in Saxony, France, and 
other countries; also that epliemeral branch of art-industry in England, the 
enamels of Batterscaand Liverpool. Of the Battersea work, established by 
Alderman Janssen about 1750, the largest assemblage of specimens hitherto 
brought together was shown on the present occasion. The skilful applica- 
tion of decoration by transfer from copper-plate engravings is, perhaps, the 
most marked feature of interest in the history of this late class of enamels. 
In conclusion Mr. Way directed especial attention to the rich display of 
Chinese enameled vases and ornaments, objects which not many years ago 
were of great rarity in Europe, but, owing to more extended relations with 
the East, and the recent war in China, these enamels have been brought 
abundantly to this country. On no former occasion, however, had so ex- 
tensive or varied a collection been presented to inspection as in the present 
exhibition, through the kind liberality of Mr. Henderson, Mr. Morgan, Mr. 
W. Russell, Mr, Addington, and other collectors, of wliose contributions a 
brief description will be found in subsequent pages. The Chinese enamels 
frequently bear the mark of the period of their manufacture in the Ming 
dynasty, the earliest being of the Siouen-te period, 1426-1435, others of 
theKing-tai period, 1450; specimens of considerable perfection and beauty 
of color also occur, which may be assigned to the Kien-loung period, 1736. 

antiquitir^ auif eAa:0rfe)S of 9rt evl)tl)itclr. 

By Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen. — The Lennox or Darnley jewel. 
This exquisite specimen of enameling on gold is supposed to have been made 
for Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, in memory of her husband, the 



Regent of Scotland, nuirclercd in 1572. It has been minutely described 
by the late Mr. P. Fraser Tytler, iu his Historical Notes of the Lennox 
Jewel, prepared by Iler Majesty's order. A full account of the elaborate 
details may also be found iu the Catalogue of the Museum formed at the 
meeting of the Institute at Edinburgh, p. 103. The jewel was formerly 
in Walpole's possession, and it was purchased for Her Majesty on the dis- 
persion uf the Strawberry Hill collection in 18-12. 

ARussian Book of the Gospels, brought from one of the churches in 
the Crimea after the campaign of ISo-t-oa. From the Library of Her Ma- 
jesty at Windsor Castle. The biiuiing is decorated with ornaments of 
repovssL' metal-worlv, and bosses painted with opaque enamels, interesting 
as examples of late Ru.-so-Greek art. The subjects are, the Ascension of 
Our Lord, and the four Evangelists. 

By Mr. Authl'u Tholloi'E. — Two Roman enameled fibula) found at 
Lincoln in February last, and remarkable as representing animal forms. 
One, found in the parish of St. Peter in Eustgate, is in the form of a cock ; 
the feathers have been elaborately enriched with red and blue colors ; no 
ornament of this precise tyjie has hitherto been noticed: another, found in 
the same part of Lincoln, is iu form of a hare (see woodcuts, orig. size) 

Also a Bniali bronze fibula, of very unusual typo, resembling a padlock; 
it ia here figured. Several cnanielcfl ornanienta of the same period have 
been f(jund amongst the vestiges of the ancient Lituho/i, and two fibula) 
of great beauty, otic of which is now in tho Duke of Northumlterland's 
Muheum at Alnwick CaHtle, arc noticed, Catal. Mus. Liiicuhi Meeting of 
the Inst., ]». G. Seo also another fine Ppecimen, Arch. Journ. vol. 
ivi. p. 2()U. 

By Mr. W. Twopkny. — A ea.Ht of llic Hartlow Vase, claliornlrly painted 
in gold and brilhant colora, jncKiitiiig a fae.siiiiile of llmt uiii«iuo 
ciamplo of Roman cuauiclcd woik, which unfortunately peribhed iu tho 

Fibulu In form of the hippocampu*, found at Maltoa and 
Kirkby Tbore 





Kiikl>v Thoio. 

KIrkby Thoro. 

Fibulu found III ChoHtor. Kimnio'n of rod, gr^ow, 
und yollow u olor. 

Roman Knutnalod Omamonta. Found in England. 



conflagration of Lord ^Mayiiard's scat, Easton Lodge, Essex. This 
precious vase was of bronze, ornamented with blue, red, and green 
enamels in scroll patterns and foliage; diam. 4^ in. It was found in 1835, 
with a Roman sepulchral deposit, in the great tumulus at Bartlow, Essex, 
as described by the late Mr. Gage Rokewode, Arclu-eolocia, vol. xxvi., 
pp. 303, 311, pi. 35; it is figured also in this Journal, vol. xii., p. 418. 
Eight facsimiles, painted by Mr. Herbert Smith with the greatest accuracy, 
were fortunately preserved ; one of these is now deposited in the Museum 
at Alnwick Castle, and others are to be seen at Bowood, Heno-rave Hall 
Audlcy End, and in the Museum at llartlepool. 

By Mr. J. E. Lee, F.S.A., from the Cacrleon Aruseum. — Ei"ht beau- 
tiful Roman enameled ornaments, mostly found at Cacrleon, Monmouth- 
shire, Isca SUurum ; described and figured in Mr. Lee's excellent Catalof'ue 
of the Museum at that place, p. 55, plates 28, 50. They are studs and 
fibulaj ; and are, with one exception, examples of the process termed champ- 
leve, so extensively practised in later mediajval times ; one, diam. nearly 2 
in., is encrusted with a glass mosaic of extreme delicacv, cut in thin slices 
and compacted together by partial fusion. It was found at Usk. Another 
specimen of the same character is figured by Mr. C. Roach Smith, Collect. 
Ant. vol. iii. pi. 35. 

By Sir Roderick Murchison, from the Museum of Practical Geology. 
— A curious specimen of the art of enameling as practised amono-st the 
Romans ; it is a diminutive figure of a mounted warrior, found in 1838 at 
Kirkby There, Westmoreland, with numerous coins, rangino- from Vespasian 
to Alexander Severus, accompanied by fibulae, and various Roman relics. 
The ol)ject exhibited was presented to 
the Museum by Admiral Smyth, and 
it is figured in his Memoir, Archseologia, 
vol. xxxi,, p. 284. Another like relic of 
the same class, a little enameled horse, is 
here figured; it was found in Glouces- 
tershire, and is now in possession of the 
Rev. R. Gordon. The enamels of the 
Roman period found in Britain are of 
such rarity, and they form so remark- 
able a feature of the early history of 
the Art, that the accompanying series 
of specimens, formerly given in various 
earlier volumes of the publications of 
the Institute, cannot fail to be of in- 
terest to our readers in illustration of 
the special collection here described. 

/ O 1 . J., \ Tt :, ^.. . „„l '■ 1 tl i. Kiuimelud fibula, found ;it Faiuswick. 

(See woodcuts.) It is very probable that Oiig. size. 

some of the enameled relics of this period were actually made in Britain. 

By Mr. M. Holbeche Bloxam. — A small stud of bronze enameled, 
found at one of the Stations on the Roman Wall, near llaltwhistle, Nor- 
thumberland. — A small gold ornament of conical form, set with garnets 
or red vitreous paste, resembling the work of the Merovingian period. 
Found at Wibtoft, Leicestershire. 

By Mr. A. W. Franks, Dir.S.A. — Nine ornaments of metal, enriched 
with enamel, found in the neighbourhood of Rome, and precisely similar 
in character to those frequently occurring at Roman sites in this country 

VOL. .\ix. p i- 




and also, but comparatively of greater rarity, in France and Goiinany. It 
hud even been asserted by Italian archa?oli)gist3 that no antique enamels 
have occurred in Italv; exauijiles, liowevor, exist at the Collciiio Romano, 
very similar in workmanship to the Bartlow vase, and the Kudge cup now 
at Alnwick Castle. — A drawing of a remarkable enameled circular plate 
in the ^fuseo profano in the Vatican, diara. o\ in., displaying a head of 
Neptune surrounded by dolphins. There are also at Rome small pastille- 
boxes, a triton shaped fibula, kc, precisely resembling objects found with 
Roman remains in England. The relics of this beautiful class of ancient 
art are noticed by Cavlus as of great rarity; he has given a few specimens, 
Recueil, t. 1, ]>!. 124, 12o, t. iv. pi. 98 ; he supposed that the process was 
only employed in tho colonies of Gaul, in the latter times of the Empire. 
M. Labarte, in his " Rechcrches sur la peinture en email." pp. 49, 92, has 
noticed specimens found in the Western and North- Western parts of 
France. — Drawing of a very remarkable example of enameling in Roman 
times, now preserved in the British !Mu.seum ; it is a two-handled bronze 
vase with a long neck; the entire surface is chased to receive enamel, 
the process of art being precisely similar to the mediicval chuviplcri'. It 
was found in 1S3S at Ambleteuse, on the coast of Normandy, with a 
number of newly struck coins of Tacitus, which would fix its date as 
about A.D. 276. 

By Lord Talbot de Malaiiide, F.S.A. — Two specimens of enameled 
work found in Ireland; one is the dilated penannular head of a small 
brooch, the pin or acus lost (compare ring-brooches in the Museum 
Roy. If. Acad., Wilde's Catal., pp. 5G1, ^05) ; the second is hero 

figured, orig. size. The incrustations iijion this curious relic, which Is 
of mixed metal, appear to be in part of the nature of enamel, and partly 
fine mosaics of blue and white vitreous pastes, afiixcd by fusion in cavities 
chased out of the surface of the metal. This kind of ornament occurs 
on ancient Irish works in metal, clo.-ely resembling the decoration of 
certain Roman relics, of which a good example found at Caerleon was 
exhibited by Mr. Lee. The two Iri.-sh ornaments here noticed were found 
in 1H29, in the rciuaikable depository at Lagore, co. Meatli, described by 
Lord Talljot in this .Journal, vol. vi. p. lO.;. A remarkable specimen of 
early Irish cruunel is preserved in the Museum at St. Cohindjii's t'ollege, 
near Dublin; figured in Mr. Fraidis' Treatise. Art J"]xample3 from tho 
Manchester Exhibition, Glass and Enamels, pi. !•. 

By the Rev. G. \\. Rkadi:. — A snallle bridle-bit of bronze, ornamented 
with enamel; it was found in a bog at Killeevan, near Mminghan; 
and in figured in the .Journal of the Kilkenny Archieol. Soe., N S., vol. I. 
ll in a hpecimen of the first elas.H of bridle-iiits dcHcribed by Mr. Wildc, 
Catalogue of the Muhoum of the Royal Iii.ih Academy, p. (ICi;;, as "tho 


simple riding snaffle or burdoon, witli a strong mouth-piece in two parts, 
having a well-fitted hinge-stud between, and large chceic-rings, which, as well 
as the extremities of the bit, are in many specimens highly ornamented, and 
in some instances jeweled or enameled." See fig. 505. In the example 
exhibited the cheek-rings measure 3^ inches diam., tbe entire bit when 
extended measures nearly 12 inches in length; the rings are flat, breadth 
^ in.; the surface drilled out so as to form casements for the reception of 
enamel, the portions which remain are of rich crimson color. The type 
of ornament on one of the rings is the simple maeander or embattled fret. 
— Annular portion of a ring-brooch of yellow bronze, found in the same 
locality; the pin or ants lost; diam. of the ring 2J- in., its flat upper surface 
is chased in triangular compartments, probably to receive enamel, no trace 
of which is now to be found. These examples of enameling by the 
chani2>Ieve Tproceas are valuable; enamel is comparatively of rare occurrence 
on Irish antiquities not of a sacred or ecclesiastical character. 

By the Sussex Arcii.eglogical Society, through Mr. Figg. — A small 
ornament of bronze enameled, probably the curved portion of a buckle, 
found near Lewes, and preserved in the Society's Museum at the Castle 
at that place. It is of champleve work, and may be of a very early 
period. — A portion of a small Russo-Greek devotional folding-table 
enameled, found at South Mailing, near Lewes. 

From the Museum of Practical Geology, by the kind permission of 
the Director, Sir Roderick Murchisox, F.R.S. — A gold ring, found in 
Ireland, set with a small circular ornament of early inlaid or cloisonne 
enamel, the design bearing some analogy to that termed the triquetra. 
— Small gold plate, formerly in the Debruge collection, and stated to have 
been part of the Pala cV Oro, in St. Mark's, Venice; it cannot be regarded, 
however, as of the original decorations executed at Constantinople, and 
renewed in the time of the Doge Ordelafo Faliero, a.d. 1105. This 
little plate has been minutely desciibed by Mr. Franks in this Journal, 
vol. viii. p. 63. It represents St. Paul, as indicated by his name 
written in Greek characters. Seven colors, all opaque, are here 
employed; the process is cloisonne, with the peculiarity that the portions 
intended to be enameled are sunk, probably by the hammer, in the thin 
plate of gold, and in this casement the metal fillets and the enamels 
are placed. — A small high-ridged shrine, Limoges work xiii. cent, 
a good example set with uncut crystals or imitative gems. — Two pryket 
candlesticks, champleve work, xiii. or xiv. cent., one of them part of a set 
of seven, in progressive sizes, fitting one into another. On the hexagonal 
base are several coats of arms. — A processional or archbishop's cross of 
gilt copper, probably of Florentine work, xiii. cent.; at each extremity of 
the arms of the cross is a quatrefoiled silver plate, originally covered with 
translucent enamel on relief; the subjects being the Assumption of the 
B. V. Mary, St. John the Baptist, St. Peter, St. Paul, and other Saints. 
In the centre, behind the head of the crucifix, is an eight-cusped plate of 
opaque enamel, champleve, representing tlie Pelican in piety; the shaft 
and arms of the cross are ornamented Mith quatrefoils enclosing grotesques, 
birds, <fcc., on a rich blue ground, the intervening spaces red. Although 
in damaged condition, this cross is a very instructive specimen of Italian 
enameling at the period. Height 21 i in., width across the arms 9 in. 
Obtained in 1839 at Florence; it had been brought from Citta di Castello 
in the Pontifical states. — An interesting devotional folding tablet, painted 


iu euamel enriched with paillettes; the figure of the personage for whom 
it was niaJe is introduced, and the arms of Estaiiiville, or a cross luoliue 
guhs a label of three points arijent. — A snuiU portrait by Leonard Limousin, 
jiossibl}- of himself, signed L. L., 1559. It is painted in grisaille on a 
black groiuul, with tiesh tints; three quarters to the left, lie was styled 
enamelor to the king, and his works are very highly esteemed. — An oval 
enamel painting iu colors, representing the occupations of one of the 
seasons; Limoges art, late xvi. cent. 

By the Society of Amiucakies of London. — A chasse or reliquary of 
copper enameled by the champlev& process ; Limoges work, date early 
xiii. cent. Length 8i in., height G in., width Sfj in. The upper part 
is ridged like the roof of a church; on the lower part of the front is 
represented the martyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury ; on the upper 
part is the entombment of the Saint ; at each end is an Ai)OStle. The fiirures 
are in very low relief, cut o«it of the metal, the heails in mgiier relief 
and fixed on separately. Un tne reverse of one of the plates are these words 
rudely engraved A/j/xe Ai ^(ixinffMxico. This remarkable inscription may 
suggest the supposition that (Jreek artists were engaged in the production 
of enamels in Western Euroj>e as late as the xiii. cent., the period to 
which this reliquary may be assigned. The first word may be synony- 
mous with armaria, a chest or cotfer, arcula : the designation of sacrifice 
possibly refers to the martyrdom. This valuable specimen was obtained at 
Naples by Sir W. Hamilton, and presented by him to the Society. Catal. 
Mus. Soc. Ant. p. 23.; Catal. Special Exh. S. Kensington, 1862, p. 74. 
Mr. Franks has given a valuable notice of such c(^rce; see Proc. Soc. Ant., 
N. S. vol. i., p. 150. — Small Greek or Russo-Greek devotional folding 
tablet of brass with figures in low relief representing Our Lord enthroned, 
the B. V. Mary, St. Julin.and other Saints. The back-ground is encrusted 
with blue enamel. This is probably the object brought before the Society 
of Anti(|uaries by Dr. 11. Kawlinson, and described as a "portable pocket 
altar used by the Greek priests in their travels." Catal. Mus. p. 2'S. 

By Sir PiiiLir uf. Mali-a.s Giu:y Egeuton, Bart. — A small shrine, the 
upper part ridged like a roof ; on the front is represented the martyrdom 
ot St. Thomas of Canterbury ; above is the entombment. The liguresaro 
gilt, with heads in relief, the hackground enameled blue. Limoges work, 
xiii. cent. Height 4-^ in., length 5 in. This little chdsse was obtained at 
Toddenshaw Hall, near Tarporley, Cheshire; it had long served the purjtoso 
of a tea-caddy; its origin is unknown. Several other examj)les of the cofru 
Limoviccnsis, or ridged shrine, have been brought before the Institute on 
various occasions ; their fashion and the genenil style of their ornamenta- 
tion is shewn by the accompunying woodcut. — A two-handled cu|i, painted 
in colors, a specimen of the later enamels of Limoges, and attributed to 
one of the Laudin family; xvii. cent. In the centre is seen St. Bruno 
kneeling, on the underside is a landscape, lleiglit 1.', in., diam. in. 

l'>y Mr. Anthony. — A .shrine, .similar in form to that last described, 
decorated with enamel, and with knops of crystal along the crest of the 
roof. — Two oilier cxamjdes of (■h(i7/ij>h't:c enamel, u jiyx, and part of u 
iihrine. — A small vase or ewer with a cover, of oriental enameled work. 

By the llev. J. FuLKKit IUhsell, F.S.A. — A plaque of champlevc 
work, a fine example, date xii. cent. Tiie subject is tho presentation 
in the Temple. Simeon holds the infant Saviour in his hands, wliicli 
arc covered with the folds of his garments ; Jo.seph bears a basket, in 


Enameled shnne, representing the Martyrdom, of St. Thomas ot 

(Limoges work, twelfth centui-y.) 

Found at Tarporley, Cheshire, and now in possession of Sir Philip de Malpas Grey 
Egertou, Bart., M.P. 


which arc a pair of turtlcduvos or pigeons ; on the altar are a veiled chalice, 
a wafer or paten with a cross on it, a pryket candlestick, and a small cross 
standing on a foot. The figures are cliased in very low relief, the relievo 
being wholly below the surface of the placjue ; the broader outlines are 
marked with lines of dots. 

By Mr, Mayer, F.S.A. — Twenty-five specimens of the art of enamel, 
of various periods and schools. Amongst these were plaques of xii, and xiii. 
cent, work, representing the Crucifixion and other sacred subjects ; 
a shrine or cofra of the work of Limoges ; the upper portion of a richly 
enameled thurible, of champlevc work, xiv. cent.; a pyx with a conical 
cover, and another jiyx of unusually large dimensions; several examples 
of the later artists of Limoges, a small tazza painted by Pierre Rey- 
mond with the Judgment of Paris, and signed P.R.; a salt-cellar, and 
other enameled works of curious character. Also several later works, 
French and German ; an enameled gold St. George, set as a brooch ; a 
curious oval tobacco-box with a portrait of Frederick King of Prussia, and 
subjects relating to his Black Hussars, to one of whom this object may have 

By Mr. Slade, F.S.A. — Book cover, in the centre of which is a charn])- 
leve enameled tablet representing the brazen serpent ; German art, xii. cent. 
It has an elaborate border of foliage in silver, with colored pastes and 
gems at intervals, and six small enameled panels, four of them in cloisonne 
work, of same date as the central portion ; the two others and the orna- 
mental border are of the xiv. cent. Dimensions 6./ in. by 8|- in. Fifured 
in Art Treasures at Manchester ; Vitreous Art, pi. 6. — Two circular plates 
finely painted in grisaille ; Limoges art, xvi. cent.; one represents Paris 
and Helen, the other Tarquin. 

By the Rev. C. R. Manning. — A round pyx of gilt metal with a conical 
cover surmounted by a cross. It is ornamented with demi-angels in circular 
compartments. Chamjilevc work, xiii. cent. 

By Mr. M. Holbeciie Bloxam. — An enameled pyx, similar to the last 
in fashion and character of workmanship. 

By Mr. Henderson, F.S.A. — Enameled ornament of foliated open work, 
enameled ; xii. cent.; it may have been one of the ornamental bosses 
of a service book, or affixed to a shrine ; the subject is a conflict be- 
tween a man and a wyvern. — An enameled ornament or rosette of o-ilt 
metal for the head-stall of a bridle, probably Italian work xvi. cent. 
The enamels are black, white and blue, laid on the metal in shallow 
cavities, with arabesques in the intervals of the enan)eled portions which 
radiate from the centre like the divisions of a fan. Diam. 4 in. 

By Mr. John E. W. Rolls. — Three tablets of copper, gilt and enameled 
chawpleve work, German art, xii. cent. The subjects are, Samson, or 
possibly Hercules, slaying the lion ; Alexander in a car drawn by gryphons, 
and a man mounted on a dromedary. Dimensions, 4 in. square. The 
two first are figured in Art Treasures at Manchester, Vitreous Ait, pi. G. 

By Mr. Octavil's Morgan, M. P., F.S.A. — A tablet similar in dimensions 
and style of art to those last described ; the subject is Samson carrvintr 
the gates of Gaza ; the face is represented in gilt metal engraved, the 
dress in very rich coloring. Geruian art, xii. cent. — Two semicircular 
])laques of the same period and work ; one of them represents the set- 
ting a mark of a Tau on the foreheads of the Israelites, for their preser- 
vation from the destroying angel by whom the Egyptians were smitten ; 


the sultject on the other is tlie raising of the brazen serpent by Moses. 
— Two other semicircular plaques, chai/iplcvt enamels, xii. cent. ; the 
Sacrifice of Isaac, and St. John tlie Evaiiiielist. — Two pyxes with conical 
covers ; they are ornanieuteJ with champleve enamel; date xii. and xiii. 

By Mr. TIoiLixcwoRTH ^fAGNiAC. — Two tablets of c-/(a?H;)?t'r<' enameled 
work; the field gilt; on one is represented a man combating a wyvern, on 
the other the zodiacal sign Sagittarius; xii, cent. — The two ends of a large 
high-ridged chasse, the borders ornamented with small plaques of cloi- 
sonne and champleve' cuame\', German work, xii. cent., obtained at Cologne, 
where some enanieled pilasters, originally portions of this remarkable 
phrine, are preserved in the collection of M. Essing. — Ciborium in form 
of a dove standing on a circular plate ; chain phri' enamel, work of 
Limoges, xiii. cent. Figured in Shaw's Decorative Arts. See also Mr. 
Rubiiison's Notice of the Colworth Collection, p. G. — A little casket 
ornamented with champhti' enamel and repous.<e work ; German, xiii, 
cent. — An ornamented tablet representing the Crucifixion, a very 
crowded subject, with numerous figures in rich costumes, painted in 
colors mostly opaque, on a black ground partly diapered with gold stars ; 
many parts are worked up in very low relief. A minute description has 
been given by Mr. Franks, Catal. Special Exhib. S. Kens, p. 378. On a 
panel at the foot of the cross is inscribed— lOANE AMBROSIO DE 
LANDRIANO — the name possibly of the person for whom the enamel was 
executed, not of the artist, but serving to indicate the locality where it was 
jiroduced, mimely, a town midway between Milan and Pavia. Height 14^ in. 
width ll.[ in. — A casket with battle-subjects painted in grisaille, and 
slightly touched with gold; original mounting of silver-gilt ; length C, in., 
width o\ in., height Hh in. Date about 15i0 — 40. On two o? the 
rnamels are the initials I. P., probably the signature of .lean Penicaud, 
junior. Tliis fine specimen was in the Strawberry Hill Collection. Catal. 
Colworth Coll. No. 84, p. 45. — A casket comjio.sed of five enameled plates 
set in wood ; grisaille on a dark ground ; the subjects are combats with 
lions, a unicorn, and other animals, a bull baited by dogs, Hercules and 
(hn]ihale, A:c. These enamels are finely painted and are all niarked with 
tbe initials PL in gold and crowned, which occur on works of certain artists 
of the Penicaud fan)ily. Mr, Franks observes that they may be attributed 
to Jean Penicaud, junior. Catal. Special Exh. S. Kens., p. 150. From 
the l{runet-l)cnon and Delessert collections. — A mazer with an enameled 
roundel set in tlie boss. — A round plate, representing the Adoration of 
the Magi, j)ainted in colors, with paillctfcx. — Another rouiul plate, the 
dauiditcr of llcrodia.s bearing the head of tbe Baptist before Herod. — Two 
plates, attribute<l to Leonard J^inuj.sin, Our J^ord before Pilate, and the 

By Mr. Bkukrfohd Hoit. — Several good examples of rh(nuplrrr'' cmwuc], 
including a cotler, the; litl flat and wet with cahochans of cryf tal, tlie design of 
the enamels rude and of very early character ; two semicircular phupies, 
lii. cent.; a crucifix figure ; and a tripod pryket candlestick, of good 
worknmnHhip. — A plate painted in grisaille, representing I'lnrydico ; 
Limogen art, xvi. cent. — A small gold crucifix, enriched with traufApurent 
cnumelH in the fitylo of the rich Italian jewelry of the tlinc of (''«'llini. 
— A curiouH littlo figure of I'ltlUhincUo, set with pearls iiml enameled ; 
(I work of tbe siinie period as the last. 


By Mr. George Ciiai'max. — Casket of copper gilt and enameled; the top 
and sides decorated with armorial bearings in fretty arrangement; the arms 
being those of England, Angouleme, Valence, Dreux, Duke of Brittany, 
Brabant, Lacy, and a coat which occurs once, azure a lion rampant ^^ttr- 
pufe, which may be an accidental variation of Brabant. The connexion 
between these coats has been thus explained. — Isabella of Angouleme, 
widow of King John and mother of Henry III., married Hugh Count 
de la Marohe, by whom she had William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 
who died 1296, leaving an only surviving son, Aymer de Valence, who 
died 5. p. 1323. Beatrice, daughter of Henry III., and granddaughter of 
Isabella of Angouleme, married, in 1290, John Duke of Brabant, who died 
1312 ; and Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, who died 1312, was con- 
nected with Joan de Monchensi, wife of William de Valence. It thus seems 
probable that the casket was made for some person who was a connecting 
link of all these families, probably William de Valence or his son Aymer. 
Its date may be referred to the period between 1290 and 1305. Length 
7 in. ; width 5i in. ; height 3| in. It is figured in Mr. Shaw's Ancient Furni- 
ture. It has been suggested that this casket may have been the work of 
the same enameler, probably an artist of Limoges, who made the tomb of 
William de Valence in W^estminster Abbey, engraved in Stothard's Monu- 
mental Effigies. The surface of this altar tomb was covered with enameled 
plates, displaying the coats of England and Valence alternately, in fretty 
or lozengy arrangement. They occur also on small escutcheons on the sur- 
coat, and the pillow under the head of the effigy. It deserves notice, that 
amongst the coats formerly on the tomb were those of Angouleme, Dreux, 
and Lacy, as shewn by drawings taken in 1610. (Lansd. MS.) 

By Mr. J. Green Waller. — Two illustrations of the application of 
enamel to the decoration of Sepulchral Brasses, being plates from his beauti- 
ful work on that class of mouumental antiquities. The earliest in date is 
the effigy of Sir John d'Aubernoun, at Stoke Dabernon, Surrey. He died 
1277. The enameled shield on his arm is a separate plate, apparently of 
copper. It is believed that the brass would not bear the heat requisite to 
fuse enamels in use at that period. The other example is the memo- 
rial of Sir John Say (1478) and his wife, at Broxbourn, Herts. The 
costume is enriched with color (heraldically) ; there is, likewise, an 
atchievement of their arms. Some doubt, however, exists whether the 
colors in the latter instance are true enamels; and Mr. Waller states 
that from early times hard colored pastes appear to have been used, which 
possibly may laave differed from enamel in their composition, or have been 
fusible at a comparatively low heat. 

By Mr. Hexry Shaw, F.S.A. — Drawings of several choice examples of 
mediajval enameled work. — A ciborium of copper overlaid with gold, in 
the collection of the Hon. Robert Curzon, jun. It is enriched with 
amethysts, and on the stem are eight nielli, supposed to be of xi. cent., 
and eight small ornaments of glass, in a style of art of which no other 
example has been described. — Covered cup of silver-gilt, in possession of 
the Corporation of Lynn, commonly designated "King John's Cup." It 
is, however, of much later date, and may be assigned to the reign of 
Edward III. It is highly decorated with translucent enamel on relief. See 
Mr. Shaw's Ancient Furniture, plate 67. — Ciosier of silver, richly enameled, 
and a silver covered salt, presented to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, about 
1517, by the founder, Thomas Fox, Bishop of Winchester. Shaw's Ancient 

VOL. XIX. ii (I 


Furniture, pi. 65, 6S. — Riclily jeweleJ morse or clasp for a mantle, dis- 
playing the imperial eagle, surroiimleil by an enanieleil quatrefoiled frame. 
Supposed to have been worn by Charles V. ; date about 1530. From the 
Debruge Collection. Shaw's Dresses, vol. i., pi. 88. — Hour-glass, in a 
stand exquisitely enameled and set with jewels, xvii. cent. From the 
Debruge Collection. Shaw's Dresses and Decorations, vol. ii., pi. 9-i. 
These exquisitely illuminated drawings by Mr. Shaw supplied valuable 
illustrations of the application of enamel to the elaborate goldsmith's work 
of various periods, of which the originals were not attainable. 

By Mr. C. WlssTOX. — Drawing of the enameled casket, supposed to 
have been made for Aymer de Valence, exhibited by Mr. Chapman ; see 
the previous page. Also a drawing of an enameled chasse, Limoges work, 
xiii. cent., formerly in the collection of Mr. S. Cox. 

By Mr. Edward Watekton, F.S.A. — A shallow basin of copper, enameled 
{chaniplen-), with a small spout in form of a lion's head near the rim, for 
pouring water over the hands after a repast. It is ornamented with festive 
subjects, such as musicians playing, ladies dancing and tumbling, a gentle- 
man hawking, <i:e., and bears escutcheons of the arms of Courtenay and of 
Lusignan. Limoges work, xiii. cent. The use of such vessels in mediieval 
times is explained by De Labordc in his Glossary, " Notice des emaux, 
«kc., Musce du Louvre, IL partie," under Bacins ; they were also called 

By Mr. J. n. Anderdok. — An escutcheon of gilt metal, enameled with 
the arms of the Guelphic confederation of Florence, or an eagle displayed 
gules clutching in its claws a dragon vert; over the head of the eagle 
is a fleur-de-lys ^?/?«. The metal tield is elaborately diapered. Date, xiv. 
cent. The face of this object is convex, it appears suited to have been 
affixed to the dress or armour, or it may have been a messenger's badge. 
An example of an escutcheon attached to the camail has been figured in 
this volume of the Journal, p. 2 ; otlu-r illustrations of such a fashion are 
mentioned, ib. p. 8. To these may be added the ethgy of John Cokaine (1373) 
at Ashbourne, Derbyshire, figured Journ. Brit. Arch. Ass. vol. vii. p. 375; 
and that of a knight of the Tudor family in Penmynydd Church, Anglesea. 
A remarkable bowl of gilt copper, obtained at Bologna, ornamented with 
rosettes, enameled white, black, and blue. Date xv. cent. — An early 
painted enamel, a pax, on which are represented the B. V. Mary witli 
the infant Saviour ; the black field was powdered with gold stars. — A 
vase enameled pale blue, with landscapes in compartments, and gilded 
ornaments in relief; possibly of German work, xvii. cent. 

By Mr. Weuh. — Three curious specimens of early champlcve enamel, 
remarkable for the skill shown in the delicately shaded tints of tho enamel 
colors; the subjects are two of the Evangelists, and the Apostle Jude (?) 
disputing with the Greeks. — Several enameled objects of sacred use, two 
Cihoria, two chalices of Italian work, both of which are ornamented with 
translucent cmuncis ; on one is an inscription showing that it belonged 
to the church of St. Paul on the banks of the Arno, at I'isa ; an enameled 
crohicr-hea*!, and a little column of beautiful worknuinship, part of a shrine, 
probul)ly; the shaft enriched with various colors arranged like scales; 
Gcrmun work, (?) xiv. cent. — A silver plate painted with transparent 
onnmcl on ixdief. The B. V. Mary with the infant Siiviom-, the metal 
ground difipcied with fiowcrs; tli(« enamel in very rich coloring (1^ X 3§ in.). 

r.v .Mr. \V. .1. liKUMiAUl) Smiih. — An enameletl badj^c with an armorial 



hearing on each siJe; one of these appears to be tlie arms of Chastillon sur 
Marne, gules two pallets vair a chief or; the other is quarterly, 1 and 4, 
a cross patee gules, 2 and 3, an escallop, the color lost. It is not easy to 
exphxin the intention of this ornament, which is perforated for attachment 

only at one side, as shown by the woodcut (orig. size). — A small Russo- 
Greek devotional folding tablet of brass enameled, with representations of 
sacred subjects. — Three mouth-pieces of Turkish pipes, with ornaments 
richly enameled in bright coloring. 

By the Rev. C. R. Manning. — A circular plate of copper, enameled, 
with an escutcheon of the following arms, a lion rampant, impaling crusuly 
a lion rampant crowned (Brewse); another circular plate originally 
enameled, diam. If in.; a pair of wings conjoined, possibly for Wingfield, 
XV. cent.; an enameled lozenge-shaped ornament of copper adjusted so 
as to revolve like the vane of a weathercock; on one side is a griffin 
arg. armed and winged gu. on the other a lion rampant gic. Length 
2 in., breadth of the lozenge 1^ in. : date xv. cent. — Also an enameled 
plate, diam. 2|- in., displaying the arms of James L, with his initials. 
These circular plates appear to have been intended to ornament dishes, 
mazers, k.c-; they occur affixed in the central bosses of such mediaeval 
objects. Several enameled badges and escutcheons are figured in the Pro- 
ceedings Soc. Ant., Dec. 1854; Journ. Brit. Arch. Ass. vol. v. p. 161. 

By Sir Thomas Rokewode Gage, Bart. — A very remarkable example 
of translucent enamel; a devotional folding tablet of silver, ornamented with 
numerous subjects of sacred character, and scenes of Our Lord's Passion, in 
diminutive compartments both on the outside and within. French art, about 
1350-80. Height 3 inches, width, the leaves being opened, 5i in. The 
process of translucid enamel on relief, of which tliis is an admirable specimen, 
seems to have originated with the Italian artists, the principal work being 
the shrine at Orvicto made in 1338, but it was probably practised in France 
and other parts of Europe at as early a period. The ornaments of the Bruce 
Horn, exhibited by the Marquis of Aylesbury in the Museum of the Insti- 
tute at the Salisbury meeting, are enriched with translucid enamel, and are 
supposed to have been executed in Scotland. 

By Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P. — A circular silver plate, representing • 
the Crucifixion; translucid enamel on relief, probably Italian work, xiv. 
cent. A remarkable example, unfortunately much injured. — A small 
plate painted in colors with paillettes; representing the Ecce Homo, 
Limoges work, xvi. cent. — Ebony folding tablet, with two plaques 


painted by Jean Laudiu, and bearing his initials. — Portrait of an eccle- 
siastic (unknown) signed on the reverse — " P. Noualher csniaillieur a 
Limoge, 1685." — Purse, enclosed within two oval plaques, painted probably 
by one of the latest French enamelers, with portraits of Queen Anne and 
Prince George of Denmark. 

By the Rev. W. Wenxall. — An enameled figure of Our Lord, intended 
to be attached to a crucifix or processional cross ; date xiii. cent. It is of 
very unusual workmanship, being cJunnphvc, in low relief, and the enameled 
colors are modeled so as to follow the contours of the relievo. From Ushaw 
College, Durham. 

By the kind permission of the Master of the Rolls. — The Books of 
Indentvires between Henry VII. and the Abbot of Westminster and others, 
A.D. 1.5'J4, for the performance of services for his welfare, and for his soul 
after his decease. The chapel at the East end of Westminster Abbey was 
built expressly for the performance of these services. — Also the volume 
containing the bonds for the execution of the covenants in the great Inden- 
tures. These documents, already noticed in this Journal, vol. xviii. pp. 
1 82, 278, present interesting specimens of enameled decorations, probably of 
English workmanship, both in the heraldic bosses, itc, on the bindings, and 
the coats of arms on the covers of the silver boxes enclosing the seals of the 
numerous parties to the indentures. The enamels are mostly translucent 
on relief. The volumes exhibited, from the Treasury of the Exchequer, 
were the King's copies. With these, sent in custody of two of the Assistant 
Keepers of Records, the Master of the Rolls was ])leased to favor the Insti- 
tute with the exhibition of the following very ^'aluable documents. — Two 
treaties between Henry VIII. and Francis I., concluded at Amiens, August 
18, 1527 ; one of them bears the signature of Francis, with his portrait and 
coat of arms on the first leaf; the seal is of gold, admirably chased ; it has 
been sometimes attriluited to Cellini, who, however, was at that time in the 
service of Clement VII., and, at the siege of Rome in the very year when 
the treaty was signed, is supposed to have fired the shot by which the 
Constable de Bourbon was slain. The other part of the treaty exhibited 
has the ordinary great seal, and illuminated pages. — Original bidl of Pope 
Clement VII., March 5, 1524, confirming to Henry VIII. the title of 
Defender of the Faith ; the golden bulla appended is in the finest style of 
cinquecento art. — Statutes of the Order of St. Michael, sent by Francis I. 
to Henry VIII. on his being made a Knight of the Order in 1527. The 
initials throughout the volume are richly illuminated ; there is also a fine 
miniature of the first promulgation of the Order by Louis XI. 

By Mr. Roiide Hawki.ns. — A beautiful sjiecimen of Venetian enamel, a 
])late with a deep centre and broad edge ; the colors are o])a(pie green 
with a pattern in gold, white with running scrolls of gold, and small orna- 
ments of This remarkable object is in fine preservation ; the 
elaborate gilding fresh and undamaged. Date xvi. cent. It has been 
more fully described by Mr. Franks, Catal. Special ICxIiib. South Kensington, 
p. 378, where other examples are noticed. 

By Sir E. H. Lecilmeue, Bart. — Upper portion of a large tazza, 
the foot lost; a Bpecimen of the work of Pierre Reymond of Limoges, 
about 1538 — 1581. It is painted in grisaille, with llehh tints, on a black 
jjround ; in the centre is n group of dcilioa, Jupiter sending forth Mercury, 
Voiiun and Cupid, kc. ; around are the higns of the Zodiac, bosses ])ainted 
with bubls, mule and female; Juno leprenenti'd in a car drawn by peacocks; 


Venus in her chariot drawn by cloves ; with other mythological subjects. 
Reverse plain, pjlazed with rich brown-colored enamel. 

By Mr. T. M. Whitehead. — A candlestick in brilliant colors, painted 
by Jean Courtois of Limoges, about 1550. From the Fould Collection. — 
A plaque, painted in grisaille by Jean Penicaud (the second), representing 
the Last Supper, after Raffaelle ; date about 1535. Mounted iu the 
original frame of gilt metal, with engraved ornaments. — Another plaque, 
painted in grisaille by G. Kip, 1530, an artist whose works are of great 
rarity; the subject is the Betrayal of Our Lord. See De Laborde, Emaux 
du Louvre, p. 241, and Mr. Franks' notice of Kip's works, Catal. 
Special Exhib. South Kensington, p. 151. — Plaque painted in colors 
by Pierre Keymond, 1540; from the Soltykoff Collection; the subject is 
The Man of Sorrows. — A plaque painted in colors on a dark ground ; the 
subject is the Crucifixion. A very fine example of the art of Limoges, 
about 1560, not signed. — A small mirror in a silver frame ; painted in 
brilliant opaque and transparent colors by Susanne Courtois, about 1680 ; 
the subject is Meleager and Atalanta. 

By Mr. Keith Stewart Mackenzie. — An enameled tazza and cover, 
painted by one of the artists of Limoges, towards the close of xvi. cent. ; 
the subjects are the labors of Hercules. 

By Mr. Addingtox.— A tazza, from the Uzielli collection, painted by 
Pierre Reymond, in grisaille with flesh tints ; the subject is the Sacrifice of 
Isaac ; on the foot is an escutcheon, gules on a chevron az. between three 
cinqfoils org. three crosslets or, a crescent arg. as a difference. Date 
about 1540. — A pair of hexagonal salt-cellars, of highly-finished execution, 
painted in grisaille on a black ground, with the labors of Hercules ; in 
the bowls are male and female busts. Each of these choice examples is 
signed P. R. ; they were painted by Pierre Reymond, probably about 
1540. (Soltykofl:' Collection, 508.)— The B. V. Mary with the infant 
Saviour; an exquisite example of the painted enamels, enriched with small 
raised disks of foil ca\\ci\. paillettes, glazed with transparent colors ; (Sol- 
tykoff Collection;) attributed to Jean Penicaud the elder. — Around box 
finely painted by Nicholas Laudin, signature X. L. forming a monoo^ram. 
The subjects are Actseon, Pyramus and Thisbe, tkc. — A cup, delicately 
enameled ; German Art, xviii. cent. ; the subjects are Venus with 
Vulcan, Action, and other mythological personages. — Cup and saucer, 
enameled on metal, German art, with scenes in some maritime city (Bernal 
Collection). — A pair of silver candlesticks, enameled with rich turquoise- 
colored blue ; from Aston Hall, Warwickshire. 

By ]\Ir. G. H. Morland. — A triptych richly painted in colors, with 

paillettes. In the centre is the Crucifixion ; the other subjects being the 

Flagellation and the taking down from the Cross. From the Debruge and 

. the Soltykoff Collections. — Two leaves of an enameled triptych of the same 

period as the last, the Nativity and the Presentation. 

By Mr. A. W. Franks, Dir.S.A. — Specimens of enamel of various 
periods and schools of design; also a large series of drawings and colored 
engravings illustrative of the progress and peculiarities of the Art. — Two 
square trenchers, Venetian enamels ; date xvi. cent. ; they are painted 
blue on both sides, the front is ornamented in gold, with small touches of 
red, <kc. ; the edges, which are slightly turned up. are green ; on the back 
of each is a medallion enclosing a merchant's mark, which on one trencher is 
accompanied by a trident. — Circular medallion, by Leonard Limousin ; on 


one side is painted a portrait in grisaille on a Lhie ground, representing a 
young man in rich armour with a tlour-de-lys on the shoulder ; it resembles 
the portraits of the Valois family, and pourtrays either Henry II. as dauphin, 
or his younger brother Cliarles, Duke of Orleans, who died 1545. At one 
side are the initials of the artist L. L., and the date 1539. Tho reverse 
exhibits a bust of Francis I., nearly full face, in gold catnaicu on a black 
ground. Diam. 3^ in. — Several plaques, Limoges painted enamels, school 
of Leonard Limousin, xvi. cent., with sacred subjects. — An enameled gold 
jewel, xvi. cent. 

By Mr. Dl'klaciier. — Five plates painted in grisaille, with flesh tints, 
by Leonard Limousin, one of the most celebrated artists of Limoges (1533 
— 1573); lie was in the service of the king. These choice specimens are 
in tine preservation ; the subjects are representations of Saturn, Venus, 
Mercury, Sol, and Luna. — A plate, painted by Jean Courtois of Limoges, 
a skilful artist, supposed to have been the same person as a glass painter of 
that name, who worked from 1532 to about 15SG. — Five jiieces of enameled 
work, flowers, birds, kc, German art, in high relief, affixed upon wires, 
and probably intended to decorate a frame, or some of tho elaborate gold- 
smith's works of the period, about t. Louis XII. — Several examples of 
painted enamels ; a Holy Family, on gold, French art, t. Louis XI 1. ; the 
Continence of Scipio, French art, t. Louis XV. ; Venus and Cupid, painted 
by Charles Boit, a Native of Sweden, and of considerable celebrity in xviii. 
cent. ; the Toilet of Venus, a Swiss enamel, xviii. cent.; an enamel by 
Boit of the same subject, after the painting by Luca Giordano at Devon- 
shire House, was at Strawberry Hill ; Walpole's Descr., p. 50. 

By Mr. C. S. Balk. — Two ovul ]ila(|ues of the later period of the art at 
Limofos; on one of them is painted a figure on horseback — iosai'iiat hex 
IVDA — and on the other — deks j'allas. — A small enameled pax repre- 
senting the Crucifixion. 

By Mr. Wkiiu. — Painted enamels, chiefly of Limoges work, xvi. cent. 
The cover of a casket, beautifully painted in grisaille, with flesh tints, on a 
black ground, the subjects being scenes from the history of Joseph ; a 
i)lanue representing the B. V. Mary and our Lord, painted in colors and 
with paillettes {S '\n. by C§ in.); a fine production by one of the Peni- 
caud fannly, representing Our Lord surrounded by the Apostles, each of 
whom is in a separate compartment, and holds his appropriate symbol ; 
reverse of the plate without color, stamped with the usual monogram P. 
and L. crowned (5.^ in. by 4 in.). — A singidar little high ridged relicpiary, 
j>aintcd with figures of saints in coarse opacpie enamel; within is inscribed 
tliis disticli — " Thomycn Chousif si me fey Ian mille Gc. trentc trey." 
(Length ?jI in., breadth 2:1 >"-. height 3 in.) 

By Mr. Wilson. — S|iecimcns of the painted enamels of Limoges, xvi. 
and xvii. cent. — A Russo-Greek folding devotiomil tablet of brass, 
partly enameled with sacred subjects; it is of unusually largo dimen- 

HJonB. A plate of metal painted with enamel colors in t!ie same style as 

porcelain of Saxon and otiier German manufactories, tho decorations 
being flowers witli gilding; tho ground brilliant green; also an rcuelle 
with «tan<l and cov«'r, likewise of enameled metal, painted with flowers, 
ground f/ri'ii hh'u ; tlx-se last are signed — ('liristoflic Jitugcr — in gold. 
— A largo oval enameled plat(! of metal (15 in. by 13^ in.), painted in 
bright colorH, and'repreHenting a maiden Hcatod mid playing with a Inmb ; 
near lior !« n voiilh playing on a guitar; in the back ground a mountainous 


Candlestick of J3ras3 enameled^ formerly in possession of the late John 
Beever, Esq.. supposed to be oi English workmanship. 

Height, 10 inches ; the colors are dark blue, light green, and white. Date, xvi. centuiy. 


landscape, and a bridi^c with cattle. It is signed W. Craft. An artist of 
tliat name cxliibited at the Royal Academy in 1774 and 1775. A delicate 
little enamel signed by him has been noticed above, exhibited by Mr. Fischer. 
He may have been a relative of Thomas Craft, enijdoyed as a painter in the 
porcelain works of Messrs. Crowther and Weatlierby, at Bow, as appears 
by his statement which accompanies a richly decorated bowl in tlie British 
Museum, painted by him in the old Japan taste, about 17G0. Mr. Franks 
has published this curious memorial in this Journal, vol. viii. p. 204. 

By the Rev. Edward Duki::. — A pair of handsome enameled fire-dogs, 
which have been preserved at Lake House, near Amesbury. Tiiey are 
specimens of a peculiar coarse kind of enameling, usually on brass, not on 
copper, by tlic champleve process, as practised in England during the reign 
of Elizabeth and in subsequent times. It coTisisted of inlaying enamels, 
fusible probably at a low temperature, in the interstices of a pattern ia 
relief. The enamels, light and dark blue, black and white, do not fill the 
cavities on the metallic surface, the raised outlines of metal are mostly more 
elevated than the enameled surfaces, whilst in the earlier productions of 
the champleve process the enamels and the metal fillets are rubbed down 
uniformly to a smooth face. Several fire-dogs of this work have been pre- 
served, and on some of these are the royal arms. 

By Mr. Albert Way. — Colored drawing by John Carter of a candle- 
stick found at York, similar in fashion to those exhibited by Mr. Rogers. 
It was found in 1740 in repairing the Chapter House at York, and was in 
possession of Lady Salusbury. The decorations were in green and white 
enamel ; flowers, birds pecking at grapes, &c. A beautiful example of 
this class of enamels was exhibited by Mr. Beever in the museum formed 
at the Meeting of the Institute at Winchester ; height 10 inches. 
Another was contributed to the Museum at the Norwich Meeting by Mr. 
John Warner. The character and style of ornamentation of these elegant 
works, probably of English manufacture, is well shown by the specimen 
here figured. (See woodcut.) 

By Mr. J. Joi'E Rogers, M.P. — A pair of handsome candlesticks, of the 
same period, and enameled with blue and white flowers, grapes, ic, in 
the same peculiar manner as the objects last noticed. Height lOj inches. 
Amongst the most interesting examples of this process are the so-called 
candlesticks, formerly in the Bernal collection, bearing the name of Sir 
Thomas More, and dated 1552. (Figured in Sale Catalogue, No. 1305.) 
These are of brass, ornamented with foliage and four-petaled flowers, blue 
and white ; their form suggests that they may have been flower-vases, 
especially as a pair of similar fashion are seen in a of More at 
Hampton Court, each vase containing a flower. 

By Mr. Wilson. — A pair of massive copper candlesticks, of earlier 
character in form than the last, but similar in the style of the enameled 
work ; the colors being, in this instance, deep red, white, and black. 
Date, possibly before the middle of the xvi. cent. 

By Sir Rouert Bcxton, Bart. — A remarkable specimen of the peculiar 
process last described. It is a large shell of some species of Stro/iibus 
from the Indian Ocean, mounted on a stem and foot of metal, gilt and 
enameled ; the designs are in low relief, with dark blue, light blue, black, 
and white coloring, chiefly flowers and scroll patterns, a white, four-petaled 
flower being a conspicuous feature. Height 14 inches. According to tra- 
dition, this object had been brought to Shadwell Park from the seat of the 



Paston family, Norfolk, ami it hail been obtained in Italy by Sir 
Kobert Paston, wlio collectoil muuerous rarities in liis travels ; lie enter- 
tained Charles II. and his Queen, and was created Earl of YarnKuuh in 
1690. This tine object, which is introduced in a portrait of the Earl at 
Shadwell, is, however, probably of English work ; late xvi. cent. 

By the Rev, the Rector of Stonyhl'ust College. — A circular massive 
ornament of gold, chased and richly enameled with translucent and opaque 
colors, in the style of the works of the Italian orcjici of the xvi. cent. It 
appears to have been a pendant, possibly attached to the girdle ; on one 
side is St. George, on the other are the emblems of the Passion ; around the 
edge is the inscription — o • r.vssi • gkavioua • daiut • iiis • qvoqve * fixem. 
It may be opened by removing a screw, and may have contained either a 
relic or a perfumed tablet. This precious ornament, which measures about 
3i inches in diameter, belonged, according to tradition, to Sir Thomas 
More ; it was preserved by his family with his silver seals and other objects, 
and with them bequeatlied, in 1773, to Stonyhurst College by Father 
More, of the Society of Jesus at Liege, the last descendant of the Chan- 
cellor in the male line. 

Examples of working in Niello : — By the Society or Antiquaries. 
— An acus or spinula of mixed metal, partly silvered, one of those 
found in Ely Cathedral with the remains of Wolstan, Archbishop of 
York, and by which, it is believed, the pall was attached to his 
chasuble. Wolstan died at York in 1023, and was buried at Ely, by his 
desire. The tomb having been opened in the twelfth century, the vest- 
ments in which the body had been deposited were found in perfect 
condition, according to the relation in the Liber EUcnsis, which expressly 
mentions " easulam et pallium auratis spinulis affixum." (Lib. ii. c. 87, 
p. 20G.) Pulil. of the Anglia Christiana Soc. This relic was again brought to 
view when Wolstan's remains were removed in 1771. It measures 5,-,y in. 
in length ; the head is flat, lozenge-shaped, and ornamontcd with interlaced 
designs, inlaid apparently in a kind of niello. Catal. Mus. Soc. Ant., p. 21. 

By the Hon. Koueut Cukzon, jun. — Niello on silver, one of a set of the 
labors of Hercules, produced by Antonio Pollaiolo, a celebrated goldsmith 
and artist of Florence, I42G — 98. It is mounted in a beautifully illuminated 
framework. From tlie Cicognara Collection. — Unique impression on vellum, 
from a niello, subject the B. V. Mary, a production of remarkable beauty ; 
no other impres.->ion on vellum of a niello is known to exist. — Two lockets 
or perfume-boxes of .silver, ornamented with niello ; on the reverse of each 
is the sacred monogram IIIS ; citn|ue-cento work; obtained at Naples. — A 
Circassian, from Karadagh ; it is formcil of the tip of the 
horn of some animal unknown, mounted in silver enriched with niello. 

By the Rev. II. Weli.k.hley, D.D. — Three circular silver plates, diameter 
about Jfi less than an inch. They arc described by Duchesne, Essai sur 
Ics Nielles, p. 191 ; sec also p. 19. The subjects are as follows : — 1. The 
B. V. Mary ataniliiig, and extending her mantle over n number of kneeling 
figures, who, with one exce[)tion, wear the dress of penitents, and their 
faces are covered by cowls; lier arms arc supported by angels, one on each 
•lido. — 2. St. Lawrence, hoMing a book in his right hand, in his left a 
gridiron ; and a youthful saint in secular dress, cap, long hair, and long 
uIccvch; in his right hand a palm, in his left a little box resembling a cliris- 
nialory with three ri'ceptaclis for the holy oils ; of this plate, the niello 
Laving scaled olf, iinprchhions on papi-r were obtained by l»i-. WCIJcNlcy at 


i\Iilan in 1825, upon which tlie learned Duchesne gives some interestinfj 
observations. One of tlie impressions was exliibited. — 3. St. Sebastian and 
St. Koch. These three nielli had ornamented the stem of a chalice, upon 
which, as stated, was the date 1437, probably that of the establishment of 
the fraternity of penitents, represented as seeking the protection of the 
Virgin. Duchesne, however, inclined to regard the nielli as of rather later 

By Mr. Felix Slade, F.S.A. — An oval plate, a fine specimen of niello, 
the subject being the head of Medusa, surrounded by arms and armour, 
forming a military trophy. — Six imj)ressions on paper from nielli by Pere- 
grini of Cesio, an artist of distinguished merit, about the close of xv. cent., 
of whom see Bartsch, and Duchesne, pp. 69, 322. Signed with a P crossed 
by an horizontal line. 

By Mr. Shirley, M.P., F.S.A. — Two circular silver plates, nielli ; one 
of them presents a profile head of Philip II., King of Spain, on the other 
is the portraiture of Henry 11., King of France. On the reverses are coats 
of their arms, respectively, encircled by the insignia of the Order of St. 

By Mr, Edmuxd Waterton, F.S.A. — Plate of silver ornamented witli 
niello, representing two heads in profile, Pandolfo and Pandolfino, Signori 
of Rimini in xv. cent. — A silver ring, enriclied with niello, Italian work. — 
Silver-ring brooches, obtained in Italy, bearing talismanic inscriptions in niello. 

By Mr, Colxagiii, — Three impressions of nielli on paper. — Facsimiles 
and copies of remarkable nielli, 28 specimens illustrative of the history of 
the art. — Three cases containing imitative nielli, as supposed, from the 
Cicognara Collection. 

By Mr. Joseph Mayer, F.S.A. — Pax, ornamented with a plate in niello 
representing the Nativity ; xv. cent. 

By Mr. OcTAvius Morgan, M. P. — A baldric of crimson and gold bro- 
cade-velvet, ornamented with rosettes of goldsmiths' work set with enamel ; 
at one end is the buckle of silver parcel-gilt, and enriched with niello ; it 
displays an heraldic escutcheon between the initials L. B. ; at the other end 
is the pendant, also decorated with niello, and having two escutcheons of 
engraved silver, with the bearings of Malatesta of Riniiui, and Ceseua. 
Italian work, xv. cent. 

By Sir Philip de M. Grey Egertox, Bart. — The sword worn by the 
Russian Commandant at Balaclava, surrendered on the capture of the fort 
to Captain Grey Egerton, The scabbard and ornaments of the belt are 
enriched with niello, of the work of Tula. 

Enamels of xvii. and xviii. Centuries ; Miniature Portraits, <fec. 
— By Mr, Octavics Morgan, M,P. — A remarkable series of watches 
exemplifying the application of enamel to the enrichment of that class of 
personal ornaments. They were are as follows: — 1, Watch with case 
ornamented with flowers in opaque and transparent enamels ; date early 
xvii. cent. — 2. Enameled watch case, the work of Jean Toutin, inventor of 
the art of painting in opaque enamels in this style ; date a.d. 1630 to 
1640 ; subjects, nymphs bathing, after Polemberg ; exquisitely finished. — - 
3. Enameled watch, the case finely painted by Henry Toutin, brother of 
Jean ; date 1630 to 1640 ; subject, a series of illustrations of the story of 
Tancred and Clorinda, from Orlando Furioso. — 4. Watch enameled by Henry 
Toutin, goldsmith and enamelcr at Blois ; date 1630 to 1640 ; subject 
Histoire d' Apian. — 5. Enameled watch, the case beautifully ornamented with 


flowers raised in relief and enriched with diamonds ; unique specimen, 
artist not known ; movement by D. Bouquot, who flourished 1630 to 1G40. 
— G. Sn)all watch-case exquisitely painted in brilliant colors ; artist not 
ascertained, probably either Morrure or Vauquer ; date 1G30 to 1G50. 
— 7. Enameled watch with snlijects in illustiation of the birth and early 
life of our Saviour ; the paintiuti is very fine ; the whole case is en- 
riched with turquoises ; tlie artist not known ; date 1G30 to 1G50. — 
8 and 9. Two enameled watches ; the cases exquisitely painted by Jluaxtd 
le Puisne ; date latter half of xvii. cent. — 10. Enameled watch of very 
fine work ; I. L. Durant, pinxt. This artist of the xviii. century is men- 
tioned by Siret, Diet, des Peintres. — 11. Enameled watch of beautiful 
work ; unknown artist ; date latter part of xvii. century ; the chased gold 
case is the work of II. Maiiby, and, together with the movement, later than 
the enamel. — 12 and 13. Two enameled watches, the cases enameled on 
copper ; the work of a French artist, at the end of xvii. or beginning of 
xviii. century, named Mulsund. — 14 and 15. Two watch cases, specimens 
of Battersea enamel ; date about 1750. 

By the Eaul Amherst. — An enameled watch, xvii. cent. ; on one side is 
represented the lloly Family, on the other S. Catharine ; the movement 
bears the name Augit.<te Bretonneau, a Paris. 

By Mr. T. M. Whitehead. — A beautiful cruciform gold watch {viontre 
crat6c55c), elaborately enameled in opaque colors; on the face, \>hich is 
protected by a crystal, is seen the Man of Sorrows, with the emblems of 
the Passion; nt the back, the Crucifixion. German art, late xvii. cent., 
resembling the works of Dinglinger, of Dresden.. The movement bears the 
name, Johannes Van CcuJcn, Ilaga', and has the pendulum s[)riiig, an im- 
provement not known before 1G75. 

By Mr. A. W. Fkanks. — A small enameled watch, painted by lluaud 
the younger, signed — Jfuaud le Puisni' fecit. 

By SiK CllAliLES Andekso.v, Bart. — Circular enameled plate, pr(d)ahly 
for a watch case; it bears the arms of James, fourth Duke of Lenox, K. G., 
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, Hereditary High Admiral of Scotland ; 
be died 1G55. In a bordure aroinid the atchievenient, arc introduced 
anchors, in allusion to Ids ofiicc ; painted in colois on a white ground, 
possibly by Jean Toutin, or one of his pupils. 

By Mr. W. Kussell. — Several snufl-boxes, bonbonnieres, «.te., choice 
Bpccimens of German and French enameling on metal ; also a small oval 
box of yellow metal, decorated with light blue, black and white opaque 
enamels, iidaid in kIuiHow casements. This peculiar work, possessing 
much elegance in design, has been considered Italian ; it is, however, more 
probably Hungarian or Turkish. (?) — A pair of metal vases of great beaut v, 
painted in opaque onamels in Chelsea style; on each side is introduced a 
landsca|)C with buildings, ttc. They may be very choice Chinese copies of 
European porcelain vuhch. — An exquisitely cnameli'd watch, the movement 
by Nicolas Bernard, of Paris. 

By Mr. W. H. Bl.AALW, F.S.A. — An oval gold smiir-box, painted with 
ruby-coloured enamel, and jeweled borders, in the style of the fine jeweled 
poreebiiu of Sevres ; on tlio lid is an enameled miniature of a femulo 
knc'fding before a figure of Cupid. 

By Mr. BoTnKl.I), M.P., F.S.A. — Two oval gold snufi'-hoxoa, exquisitely 
enameled ; French art of the liighest class ; on the lid of each of them is 
a miniature portrait, hitherto not identified. 


By Sir Charles Anderson, Bart. — An oval gold snuffbox, exquisitely 
enameled; it was brouolit from Naples, about 1813, by Major Foljamlie, to 
wliom it was presented by tlie Duke of Itoecaromania, lirnt equerry to Murat. 
— Another enameled box, of rich yellow colour, probably painted at Dresden. 
— A small oval enameled medallion, a female head ; it was found behind 
the wainscot of an old house, of Jacobean character, at Burnley, Yorkshire. 

By Mr. R. T. Pritchett, F.S.A. — A gold pectoral cross, enameled with 
emblems of the Passion ; date about 1520. — Chatelaine enameled with tlie 
initials of Mary of Modena, queen of James II. ; the field is semy with 
fleurs-de-lys azure, possibly taken from the armorial bearing of Ferrara, 
az. 3 fleurs-de-lys or, quartered by the d'Este family. This royal relic 
appears to be of English workmf.nship, date 1G85 — 88. 

Enameled miniature portraits: — 

By Mr. J. P. Fischer A very interesting collection of enamels. 

Portraits of Martha and Theresa Blount, friends and favorites of Pope ; 
painted by Ziucke, and mounted in gold and tortoiseshell, in elcfant 
fashion, in one case. — Four miniatures, by Zincke, of which two are 
portraits of ladies, two of gentlemen ; one of the latter, a man in the 
prime of life, has on the reverse of the case, a cypher composed of the 
letters G. D. R. On the reverse of the other (not mounted) is inscribed 

in enamel, partly obliterated Loid Viscount land. 

C. F. Zincke Fecit, 1727. — Jean Jacques Rousseau, in a white coat ; 
enamel attributed to Nathaniel Hone, R.A. — A small oval enamel on o^old, 
designed from the antique, signed by William Craft, an artist whose name 
is found on a fine enamel now in the possession of Mr. Octavius Morgan. See 
p. 292 supra. — Snnfl'-box, with portrait of a lady on the lid ; also a few 
other choice miniatures painted in enamel, two circular plates for watch- 
cases, <fcc. — Portrait of Selden, by William Bone, after a portrait bv Sir. P. 
Lely. — Henry Bone, R.A., born Feb. 6, 1755, by William Bone, after the 
original by John Jackson, R.A., London, Aug. 1828. — Portrait of George 
Stubbs, the painter, by Henry Buue, 1810, after a portrait in crayons by 
Ozias Humphry, R.A. 

By Mr. John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. — Enameled miniature, by Zincke, 
of Thomas Lumley, K.B., third Earl of Scarborough (1740 — 1752). On 
the reverse of the case is a cypher composed of the initials T — S. 

By Mrs. John Gough Nichols. — Enamel by Zincke, a miniature por- 
trait of Anne, Princess Royal, daughter of George II., married, in 1731, 
William Prince of Orange, elected Stadtholder of the United Provinces, 
1747. She died 1759. — A round covered box, a good example of Chinese 
enameling in bright opaque colours, the field light blue ; it was formerly 
in possession of Mrs. Thrale. 

I3y Mr. Colnaghi. — Enameled miniature of Charles, Earl of Carlisle 
(1692 — 1738), by the artist who used the signature B, 0. — Miniature of 
Charles, Archduke of Austria. — Enameled watch-case, exhibiting the 
portrait of George II. 

By Mr. Shirley, M.P., F.S.A. — Enameled miniatures by Zincke: the 
Hon. George Shirley, son of Robert, Earl Ferrers, by Selina, his second 
wife; born 1707, died 1787. — The Lady Frances Shirley, sister of the 
Hon. George Shirley, and one of the most celebrated beauties of the 
courts of George I. and George II. She was familiarly known as "Fanny 
ever blooming Fair," and to her was addressed the song attributed to the 
Earl of Chesterfield, commencing with those words. 


Bv yir. A. W. FuAXKS, Dir.S.A. — Enameled iniiiiaturc of Aiioiistus the 
Strong, King of Polaiul, painted I))' John Frederick Uinglinger, of Dresden, 
1713. and signed wiili his monogram. 

Bv Mr. S. Addixgtox. — Collection of enameled miniatures, arranged in 
n fine antiijue frame of seuljilurcd ivory. They are as follows : — in the 
centre. Mary Queen of Scots ; on the back is written, " le vrai portrait de 
Marie Stuart, de la collection du Prince Charles de Lorraine," and an 
impression of a seal with the name thus written, " Gillis Norman S. de 
Oxelacre ;" a portrait of Addison, and one of Steele, painted by Zincke ; 
Milton, by II. P. Bone, from a picture in possession of Mr. Dymoke, 
Wells, 1850 ; Vandyck, Spenser, and Dryden, enamels by Bone ; Pope, 
painted by II. P. Bone, in 1850, after a portrait by Kichardson in pos- 
session of Lord Lvttclton ; Madame le Brun, by II. P. Bone, 1851, from 
a portrait bv herself in the collection of the late Lord St. Helens; and the 
Duchess of Kent, by the same, after a miniature by II. Collen. 1829. 

Bv Sir CiiAHLKS A.NDEUSu.v, Bart. — Miniature of Sir Edmund Anderson, 
Bart, (created 16G0); the reverse of the case is beautilully enameled. — 
.Miniature of the Rev. George Anderson, son of Sir William Anderson, 
sixth baronet. 

By the DrKE of Northumberland, K.G. — A full-length miniature 
portrait of the Duke of Buckingham, by Sir Baltazar Gerbier, siLjned, and 
dated 1618. It is in a case, liie back of which is richly ornamented with 
cloisonne translucent blue enamel, the design consisting of flowers and 
foliage; oval, 5-J in. by 3^* in. The Duke is represented on a grey 
chari'er ; the sea and ships appear in the distance ; James I., with his 
courtiers, is seen on the shore. See Arch. Journ. vol. xiv. p. 358. — 
Two remarkable large enan)els by W. Esse.x ; a portrait of the Duke of 
WtHino-ton, after the original by Lawrence, painted in 1843, dimensions, 
7 in. by bi in. ; and The Strawberry Girl, after a ])aiiiting by Sir Joshua 
Revnoids. in the collection of the Marquis of Hertford : this enamel is 
dated 1837 ; it measures 7^ in. by 9;' in. 

By Mr. Charles B. Carkltiieks. — Seven enameled miniatures. They 
portray Ninon de I'Enclos ; a huly, name unknown, a jdeasing suhji-ct, 
painted by Nicholas Ilono, and signed with his monogram, N. II. — 17()<>; 
Ladv William Young, painted by Henry Bone, 1706 ; Benjamin Franklin, 
a hi<'hly finished miniature by De Brca ; the Princesse de Lamballe, by 
Sarrurd ; Madanje Catalani, with her son ; and Mrs. Singleton ; the 
reverse of the last inscribed, London, June, 1814, painted by Henry ]?one, 
R.A., enamel painter in ordinary to II. M.; after the original by Henry 

By Lord iji; Malaiiihe, F.S.A. — l^namdcd miniature of Charh s 
Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury, K.G. (1(594- 171S), in armour; on the 
reverse is inscribed, Lcs/nrcs Jluuutfec. — Miniature in oils of the Duke 
of Tyrconnol, by Petitot. — Portrait of Henry Bone, A.R.A., by himself, 
signed ami dated Jan. 1809, after a i>icture in oil by his son Henry Pierce 
J{„,i(.. — Two small disks beautifully enameled, probably ornaments of the 
highly enrii.hod buttons worn in -xvii. cent. 

I'v Mr. T. M. WillTKIIKAn. — Enameled jiortrait of Lady Dover, painted 
by lieiiry Bone, R.A., after an original by John Jackson, R.A. 

' By .Mr. (I. S. Balk. — Portrait (»f Addison, >AV. .'52, enameled hy Zincke ; 
from the .'^trawbcrry Hill Collectiot). 

Bv .Mr. I»t;i(i,A< iii:r. — Enameled miniature of M. de Seignelly, or pos- 


sibly of Henri Due d'Engliien, painted by Louis de Chatillon (1G39-1734), 
a skilful Frencli artist patronised by Colbert. Signature, I). C. 

Jiy Mr. Wilson. — Miniature portraits, painted in enamel. The Duchess 
of Marlborough ; by Zincke. — William Cliarles, Prince of Orange, K.Gr., 
in early life ; with the insignia of the Garter.— Portrait of a child, enameled 
by Peat. — Luther and Melanchthon, copies of old portraits, by Bone. 

By Mr. IL Cuxliffe. — Enameled miniature portraits by IL Bone and 
H. P. Bone. They are as follows : — Mary Queen of Scots ; Sir Antonio 
More, from the original painting by himself in the Earl Spencer's Col- 
lection (Henry Pierce Bone, June, 1841) ; Spenser, from an original 
portrait in possession of the Eail of Chesterfield (II. P. Bone) ; William 
Seymour, 1st Marquess of Hertford, 1G40 ; Prince Maurice and Prince 

By Mr. J. H. Axrersox. — Miniature of the enameler, Nathaniel Hone, 
by himself ; representing liim in fancy costume, a light olive-colored dress, 
with a puce-colored mantle, and a chain round his neck, to which is 
appended an oval miniature which he holds in his left hand. Oval, 3| in. 
by Sin. Signed — Seipse Nath. Hone Pinxit, set. 31, 1749. At the 
opening of the R. Acad. Exhibition, in 1769, Hone, tlien an Academician, 
exhibited six paintings, one of them a portrait in enamel. — John lliissell, 
crayon painter to George III. and the Prince of Wales, R.A. in 178S ; 
painted by Henry Bone, R.A. 1791. — General Pascal Paoli, painted by 
Henry Pierce Bone, Jan. 1799, after a portrait by Sir W. Beechey, R.A. 

Batteksea and other late enamels : — 

By the Lord Talbot de Malaiiide, F.S.A. — A plate of metal painted 
in enamel, in bright colors, with small dotted incrustations in relief, 
forming a sort of diaper ornament; it displays a portrait of Frederick, 
eldest son of George II., created Prince of Wales in 1728 ; died in 1751 ; 
he wears the blue riband : on the reverse of this enamel, which is painted 
with much skill and has been regarded as an early production of Battersea, 
is the triple plume of feathers. Wulpole mentions a portrait of the Prince 
as one of the examples from that place in his possession. 

By Mr. Octavius Morgan, M.P. — Oval medallion of George III. in 
early life ; Battersea enamel. — Oblong snuff box of Battersea enamel, 
finely painted with flowers in Chelsea style on the lid and sides ; on the 
bottom is a representation of Daphne transformed into a laurel ; this 
last decoration is a transfer from copper-plate printed in light red. — Two 
decanter-labels, Battersea enamels, one for White Port, the other for 
Juranson ; the latter being a transfer from copper-plate. The manufacture 
established about 1750 (?), at York House, Battersea, was promoted, if 
not established, by Stephen Theodore Jansen, lord mayor of London, 
1755, and son of Sir Theodore Jansen, who died about 1754. The 
advertisement of the sale of enameled trinkets produced at York House, and 
dispersed by auction in 1756, on the bankruptcy of the younger Jansen, 
enumerates snuff-boxes of all sizes, portraits of the royal family, iiistorical 
and other subjects, bottle-tickets with chains for all sorts of liquors, watch- 
cases, toothpick-cases, coat-buttons, <fcc., mostly mounted in metal double 
gilt. Walpole, in a letter to R. Bentley, 1755, presents him with "a 
trifling snuff-box only as a sample of the new manufactory at Battersea, 
which is done with copper-plates." — An enameled medal of Frederick, 
King of Prussia, commemorative of the siege of Breslaw, 1757 ; supposed 
to be a specimen of the work of Battersea. — Also, a circular snuff-box of 


Dresden enamel, painted with flowers on a. rich yellow ground ; a snuflf-box 
of German enamel, in form of a liarpsichurd ; a houhomiit-re, in form of a 
parrot's head, well p;iintod, probably German, and a circular box, painted 
with sacred subjects, Dutch art, xvii. cent. 

By Mr. A. W. Franks, Dir. S. A. — Specimens of Battersea and Liver- 
pool enameling and transfer-printing. — Oval medallions, George II. printed 
in gold ; Frederic Prince of Wale;*, printed in red; Augusta of Sa.\e Gotlia, 
wife of Frederic Prince of Wales, printed in purple ; George Prince of 
Wales, afterwards George III., printed in purple; Philip Yorke, first Lord 
Ilardwicke, Lord Chancellor, printed in red ; and a portrait, as supposed, 
of the Duke of Cumberland, printed in purple. — Enameled plaque, very 
conve.t, 5 ir>. by 3i in., a badge or decoration used by the honourabh? 
Society of Bucks, signed — Sadler. Liverpool. — Medallion of Frederick tlie 
Great. King of Prussia, printed in black. Signed J. Sadler. Liverpool. 1756. 
— I'ortrait of Josiah Wedgwocd, the celebrated manufacturer of fctilia ; 
enameled on a ]da([ue of porcelain, and signed — II. K. pinxt'. March 31st, 
lSil."J. — Probably a copy from a portrait executed in the lifetime of Mr. 
Wedgwood, who died in 1795. 

From the Museum of Practical Geology. — Specimens of Battersea 
enamel; plates suited for covers of toilet-boxes, kc, decorated by means of 
transfer printing, over which in one instance, a representation of Danao, 
enamel colors are partially applied ; the other, the subject of which is 
unknown, is printed in purple; it represents a stately personage in Oriental 
dress, accompanied by a lady, who is addressed famiHarly by a mendicant, 
apj)arently just arrived by ship; in the back-grownd isa harbour, 6hip|)ing, 
aiid buihlings. Dimensions 4.1 in, by 3 [ in. It is mounted in a metal 
frame, with a ring at the ton. — Two decanter-labels, enamels on metal — 
iiKiJ I'oRT — and — CYDER — . The edges enameled red, the ground on which 
the black letters are painted is white, with roses in color. 

liy Mr. WiLso.v. — Toilet-box, toothpick-case, scent-bottle, needle-case, 
a small box fitted as an inkstand, <tc., specimens, as supposed of the work 
of B.ittersea. A favorite ground-color is pale rose, with flowers, scrolls, 
and minute dotted ornaments in relief. These objects arc all formed of 
thin metal, painted in opaque colors.' 

By Sir S'ubald D. Scott, Bart. — An oval plate, apparently of opaque 
vitreous paste, slightly convex ; the face displays a singular heraldic 
design transferred by aid of an impression on paper from a copper plate. 
Ditnensions 3^^ in. by nearly 3 in. It is mounted in gilt metal, and has 
a loop at the top for suspension ; the de.-ign, printed in gold, of which 
the lustre has worn olf, is an elaborate atchievement ; on a siiield in the 
centre appears St. George, transfixing the escut<dieon of France, which 
lies under his horse's feet. Above, like a crest, Britannia is seated, sur- 
rounded by baniKMs, and holding an olive-hranch. Dexter supporter, a 
lion ; Kinistor, a dduhle-lieaded eagle. Motti), on a riband below, — Foil 
OUR COU.STRY. — This object has been regarded with interest as an example 
of tliC work, aHhuppo.sed, of ihittcrttea, and also as a memorial of some one of 
the patriotic inHtitutions of llie period ; it nuiy have been one of the honorary 
dirttinclions given as jirizes by the Anligallicans, a Society formed about 

' A ii'iiico of tlio Rnttornca jniiuufuclurc in given I'y Mr. Sycr Cuming, Juurn. 
ht'it. Arch. Ami., Juno, IUDQ. 


1750 for the encouragement in this country of manufactures which at that 
time were chiefly engrossed hy the French, and for otlier patriotic purposes. 
Medals with the Society's arms are stated to have heen given to successful 
competitors. Lord Carpenter was Grand President, and his successor, 
in 1752, was the celebrated Admiral Vernon. 

By ]\Ir. R. W. Binns. — Six metal plates enameled, as supposed, at 
Battersea, and displaying ornamental designs transferred to the enameled 
surface from impressions of copper plates. — George II., profile to right, 
oval ))late printed in gold ; two small oval plates with heads of ladies, in 
the extravagantly high hats and head-dresses in vogue ahout the middle of 
the last century ; two rectangular plates, suited for the covers of toilet- 
hoxes or the like ; on one is seen Daniie, on the other Europa mounted on 
the Bull ; also an oval plate set in a metal rim, possibly a badge or insignia 
of honor given by the Antigallican Society, and similar to that above 

By Mr, Rohde Hawkins. — A specimen, as supposed, of the Battersea 
enamels ; a small oval patch-box with a mirror inside the lid ; it is painted 
with opaque colors, the ground rich blue. 

By Sir Charles Andersox, Bart. — Knife and fork, specimens of a set 
with enameled handles, ornamented with flowers on a white ground, and 
supposed to have been painted at Battersea. 

Chinese and Oriental Enamels : — 

By Mr. Henderson, F.S.A. — A superb collection of vases and remark- 
able examples of the art of enameling as anciently practised in China, 
chiefly by the process of cloisonnagc, the various details of the design being 
outlined by small fillets or bands of metal, twisted into the form desired, and 
affixed to the surface of the vase or other object upon which the opaque 
enamels were then applied by fusion. The colors are strikingly varied, 
fine turquoise blue is very prevalent, especially as the ground; other colors 
of remarkable beauty being combined in the ornamentation, which consists 
chiefly of foliage, flowers, dragons, birds, <kc. In some rare examples 
human figures, landscapes, and scenes of daily life maybe found. Ihe 
most ancient of these sumptuous objects bear the date of the King-Tai 
period (a.d. 1450) ; on some objects of comparatively recent character is 
the dynastic mark of the Kicn-loung period (a.d. 1736). The choice 
specimens of ench period exhibited were almost exclusively obtained at the 
capture of the Summer Palace. They include the following ; — tripod vase, 
on straight logs ; early xv. cent., decorated with black enamel, a rare 
color ; singular vase of metal, richly gilded, supported on trunks of 
elephants ; it bears, on the rim and inside the cover, the mark of the Ming 
dynasty, about 1450 ; a deep round vase and cover, supported on monkeys, 
date same as the last ; a vase with a kylin on the cover, and dragon- 
shaped handles, date probably 1736 ; a flat box and cover, taken from a 
table in the Summer Palace, a specimen of high class, very early xv. 
cent. ; salver with the mark of 1450 on a tablet in the centre ; a small 
bowl of very rich coloring, dated 1736 ; a tripod vase and a joss-stick 
holder, each of them bearing the date 1736. The following specimens, 
not less remarkable for their beauty and workmanship, were not obtained 
from the Palace. A pair of very curious candlesticks ; each is in form of 
a duck with expanded wings, and standing in a patera on a tortoise, which 
rests upon a crimson serpent. — A bowl, decorated with water-plants and 


lilies ; a very choice specimen, xv. cent. — A pair of boxes or cases, of 
annular form, intended to contain, as supposed, certain rings of jade used 
in the Temples in China ; diani. 6J inches. — A figure of a duck, of very 
early work. — Also several beautiful examples of I'ersian enamels, a pair 
of ^ilver plates with floral decoration in translucent enamel ; a pair of 
small silver vases with covers, decorations consisting of birds and Howers ; 
a seal, the stone bearing an inscription by which it appears to have been 
made for the Marcjuis de Clairaut, who. as it is believed, accompanied a 
French embassy to the East ; the mounting is of gold enanuded with vivid 
opaque colors. — An enameled gold zarf, or cup-holder, used iil eastern 
countries in serving cort'ee ; probably of Damascus work. 

By Mr. A. BEitKSFOitD IIoce. — Two Cliinese metal vases, of large 
dimensions, decorated wiih champleve enamel, in which a ricli opacjue blue 

By .Mr. W. Russell. — A large rectangular plaque of cloisoymc enamel, 
measuring nearly 25 in. by 17 in., and reiuarkal)le not only for its large 
dimensions, and the unusual feature that it is enameled on both of its faces, 
but also as representing scenes of daily life, one of them being a music- 
party. Figures are very rarely found on Chinese enamels of this class. 
It probably was used as a screen, mounted in a frame of dark-colored wood. 
The ground on one face is rich smalt colored, on the other turquoise. — Two 
enanieled dishes of large dimension ; a basin, with beautiful turquoise- 
colored ground; enameled vase in form of the fruit called a Kngered citron; 
a cup and saucer, white ground, an example of a rare color ; a long tray of 
singularly rich coloring, with inscriptions in the Seal character ; and a 
Cliinese tripod bowl of metal, covered entirely with rich turquoise-colored 
enamel, without any ornamental designs upon it. 

By Mr. A. W. FiiANKS, Dir. S.A. — A small cup, Chinese vluisomit' 
enamel both inside and out; date xv. cent. — A cslintlrical vessel enameled 
by the like process, and bearing the nate Sieuan-tih, a.d. 1426 — 36. 

By Mr. IIawki.vs, F.S.A. — A one-handled Chinese vase or flagon, with 
two cups, enameled with translucent and opaque colors of great brilliancy, 
amongst which a deep rich blue predominates. 

From the McsEUM OF Practical GEOLOiiV, by permission of Sir Roderick 
Murchison. — An exquisite ornament, from India, an oriental specimen of 
a process emploved in Europe in xiv. cent., designated email de pJiijiw t) 
jour ; works of this kind were translucent cloisi)7i7ic enamels without a 
background, the colored pastes being melted in the compartments of the 
net-work of gold forming the design. — A bracelet of silver, set with gems, 
and enanieleil with blight translucent green. I'robably Persian work. — 
Silver bnjocli enricbed with pale blue enamel and fillagree, commonly 
worn by the Greek peasants in L^cia ; the form ami general design never 
varies, and the type has probably been handed down from classical times. 

liy Mr. OcTAVius IMouoaN, M.P., F.S.A. — A remarkable example of 
Chinese ch<implev4 enamel, a basin of metal richly gilt, of considerable 
Solidity and weight ; it is decorated with rows of inscriptittns in the ^^cal 
churactfrr ; the ground is enameled with rich dark ultramarine blue, 
resembling lapis lazuli. — Large circidar dish, Chinese cloixonur enamel, 
with ail inscripli>)n on the reverse, recording that it was a sacrilicial vessel 
of the Trhiiig family ; jirobably an early example ; it was jiart of the 
plunder during the recent campaign in China. — Chineso standard-orna- 
ment, enriched with doisonnt and 'hamplcvc enamel, in form of an arti 


choke, pfrowing out of a vase, and surmounted by a canopy with drapery ; 
date prohaltly about 1730. 

By Mr. Rohde Hawkins. — Three fine specimens of Chinese cloisonne 
enamel ; one of tliem hears the date of the dynasty, the period of its 
fabrication ; another is a dish of unusually large dimensions, part of the 
phitider of the Summer Palace. 

By Mr. Addincton. — Three choice examples of Chinese c?owo«ne enamel ; 
a lonj^ necked globular bottle with arabesque ornaments in blue and wliite 
enamels, in an unusual style of art: a double gourd-shaped bottle, enameled 
with flowers on a yellow ground, the royal color (Bernal Coll.) : a two- 
liandlcd bottle, enameled with flowers : also a double gourd-shaped bottle 
of porcelain, the ground white and enameled with dragons and elaborate 
ornamentation ; an unique specimen. 

By Mr. G. Roots. — A pair of Chinese sceptres of singular form, with a 
recurved ornament at one extremity; they are known by the name Jo-ee ; 
and are of metal elaborately ornaniented with cloisonne enamel. 

By Mr. C. S. Bale. — An enameled Cliinese metal plate of remarkable 
beauty; the ground brilliant turquoise color; in the ornamentation appear a 
dragon, a bird, <fcc., the design bearing much resemblance to that on a 
specimen exhibited liy Mr. Rohde Hawkins, hut the colorino- is richer. 

By Mr. W, J. Berxiiard .Smith. — A Circassian sabre, with belt, <tc., 
enriched with ornaments of silver gilded and inlaid with work in niello. 

By the Hon. Robkrt Curzox, Jun. — A Persian dagger (khandjar), 
obtained at Erzeroum ; the handle and sheath are exquisitely ornamented 
with translucent enamel. — Another fine weapon of the same description, 
painted in opaque enamel, with flowers brilliantly colored. 

By Mr. Rohde Hawkins. — A small priming-iBask, or touch-box, of pale 
yellow mixed metal, ornamented with peculiar enamels of vividly contrasted 
coloring inlaid in cavities on the surface of the metal. The colors are 
yellow, red, deep and light blue, and green. It is supposed to be of 
Turkish work. A flask, similar in fashion and size, was exhibited in the 
Museum at the meeting of the institute in Oxford, in 1850, by Mr. Joseph 
Clarke ; it was stated to have been found at the Reculvers, Kent, in 
1824. A third was in the possession of the late Mr. Fonnereau. 

By Capt. Caffin, R.N., C.B., Director of Stores, <fcc., by the liberal 

permi.^sion of H. M. Secretary for War. — From the Tower Armory. 

Specimens of Oriental Armour and Arms, illustrating the Arts of Enamel 
and Niello. They consisted of portions of a Persian body-armour of the 
kind called " four mirrors," richly enameled with arai)esque ornaments, 
and thus inscribed in Persian : — " The noble Ghulatii Ali Khan, made bv the 
humble Mohamed Ali of Ispahan, in the month of Sliaban, in the year 1213 " 
(Hegira). Catalogue, No. 506. — Dagger from Hyderabad in Scind, the hilt 
set with enierahls, the sheath enameled with flowers ; purchased from the 
East India Company's collection in the Exhibition of 1851. Tower Catal. 
No. 291. — Waist-dagger, probably Persian, the hilt and sheath enameled 
with flowers. Catal., No. 503. — Scymetar with a hilt of lapis lazuli ; the 
scabbard and mountings elaborately wrought in silver and niello ; probably 
a presentation weapon, and of Russian work. — Circassian daj^o-er of 
watered steel, the hilt of ivoiy, the mountings of silver enriched with niello. 
This kind of weapon, called Kama, is from Daghistaun. For the fureg-oinrr 
particulars, and also for his kind mediation in obtaining these specimens for 
exhibition, the Institute is indebted to the friendly assistance of Mr. Hewitt. 

jS'otiffS of HrrfjafoloQiral ^Jubllfntlons. 

OF ANTIQUITIES AT CAERLEoN. By John Edwaud Lee, F.S.A.. F.Q.S., 
Hon. Sec. of the Monuioiithshiro and Caerleon Antiquarian Association. 
London : Longman & Co., 1862. With fifty -two plates. 

It is with satisfaction that wo apa\n invite attention to the researches of 
our felIow-h\l)ourcrs in the ancient district of the SiJurcs. Nearly twelve 
years have elapsed since wo announced the permanent estahlishnient of a 
suitable Museum at Caerleon, in great measure, wo helieve, surrgested 
throutjh the liherality and good taste of the late Sir Ptighy Mackworth, 
hut achieved mainly through the zeal and well-directed ellorts of Mr. Lee. 
The explorations which lie lias so successfully prosecuted at Isca Silin-inn 
have heen noticed in previous volumes of this Journal (sec vol. ii. p. 417 ; 
vol. vii. p. 97 ; vol. viii. p. 157) ; and many of our readers are doubtless 
familiar with his account of Roman Antiquities found at Caerleon, published 
in 1848. That work comprised an illustrative description of many objects 
highly valuable to the archaiologist ; the contributions to Koman epigraphy 
alone amounting to nearly twenty inedited inscriptions. The volume before us 
is a remarkable proof how much may he etfected in a few years by so vigilant 
an explorer as ilr. Lee. Upwards of thirty inscriptions are here delineated, 
exclusive of sculptured fragments, uninscribed altars, i^'C. The miscellaneous 
objects of metal, glass, ivor}'. Arc, include relics of rare and unusually 
curious character, forming a series unrivalled perhaps by any provincial 
museum, with the exciption only of that formed at York. It were needless 
to insist upon the utility of a carefully comjiilcd and illustrated description 
of such collections ; the antiquary will thankfully appreciate the good 
ficrvico rendered by Mr. Lee, not only in rescuing all these dis^jccta mrmhra 
from dispersion, but in now rendering them available to tlie student of 
antiquity in 60 agreeable a form, with accurate representations drawn by 
the author's own hand. Amongst these may be noticed examples of 
Samian ware decorated with subjects of the chase, niylhological ami other 
curious details ; also other fict'tUa of remarkable character, anfcfixa, 
several lamps, and part of a mould for their fabrication, an object of very 
rare occurrence. A valuable catalogue of coins found at and near Caerleon 
has been supplied by the Rev. C. W. King ; they range from Claudius to 
Aicadius, a pcritjd of nearly fom* centuries of Roman dominion in Ihitain. 
Tlic beautiful ornaments of enameled bronze in tlie museum are known to many 
of our readers thmiigb Mr. IjCc's kindness in bringing them to our exhil)ition 
of cnamelH in .lime lust. (See p. 279, <tntc.) Tlie most remarkable relics, 
however, of ancient art presented in this interesting volume, arc doubtless 
the ivory sculptures, supposed to have been jiortioiis of a rista inysi'ua, or 
sacrificial coffer. No Roman work of similar character has, wc believe, 
occurred elsewhere in this country. There are numerous other rare objects 
hrouj^lit to light in this remote site of Roman occupation ; we hope thot 
the publication of the attrnclive volume thus briefly noticed will encourage 
HOMin (»f our readers to visit n locality the archnM»logy of which Mr. Lee's 
indefatigable exertions have tended so csBcntially to illustrate. 

^fje ^rcfjacological SournaL 

DECEMBER, 1862. 


On" a previous occasion, when the Institute met at Glou- 
cester, I took notice of the custom that prevailed in the 
middle ages, of the monarchs of England wearing theii 
crowns on the great festivals of Christmas, Easter, and 
Whitsuntide. It may be necessary, however, to allude to 
it again ; more particularly as the usage began to decline 
after the first council that was held at Worcester. Our old 
liistorians are very particular in mentioning the places 
where the king kept liis festivities. It was doubtlessly at 
these fixed periods that much of the public business of the 
realm was transacted. The nobility might have been 
summoned to attend the court for these special purposes ; 
thus regal hospitality and their own advice may have become 
united under the most agreeable circumstances. 

The Saxon chronicle informs us that at these particular 
times, all the best persons in the land gave their attendance. 
The king always wore his crown on the occasion. The Con- 
queror lield his court at Christmas at Gloucester, at Easter 
at Winchester, and at Whitsuntide at Westminster. His 
son carried out this practice with great regulaiity, but in 
the next reign, Henry I. in great measure laid it aside. 
Malmesbury complains that in the reign of Stephen these 
ceremonies had become abolished, a fact he imputes to the 
emptiness of the exchequer and the distracted state of the 
country. There can be no doubt that the custom had become 

' Communicated to the Historical Scctiou at the A uuual Meeting of the Institute 
held at Worcester, July, 1862, 



extremely irregular. Therefore, when Henry II. ascended 
the throne, the way was prepared for its complete disuse. 

This monarch was, however, twice crowned at Worcester, 
on the last occasion in the year 115S, \vitli his queen, at 
the festival of Easter. We Tire told that when they came 
to the otlertory, they took oif their crowns, and placed them 
on the altar, vowing before God that they would henceforth 
cease to wear them.'^ 

This is the first time a council is mentioned as being held 
at Worcester, and unfortunately we have no further intima- 
tion afforded as to what else took place. 

When Henry III. ascended the throne, the relations 
betwixt England and AVales were beginning to grow embar- 
rassed and unfriendly. During the two first years of the 
vounir kini!:'s reisin, the disaffected barons sedulously culti- 
vated the friendship of Llewellyn. It is unreasonable to 
regard the Welsh at this period as in a state of rebellion. 
They had a line of indei)cndcnt princes, and a throne 
established by the same natural right as that of the Tlan- 
tagenets. There Avas great disaffection. amongst the English 
themselves. The leading people, therefore, gladly availed 
tliemselves of any means of assistance that they could 
obtain from those neighbours who would help their cause. 
The Welsh had gained strength by their alliance with 
riiilip Augustus of France. Tliey were supported by the 
barons, who, dissatisfied with those omissions in Henry's 
charter that had been obtained from his father, already 
began to waver in their allegiance to the youthful sovereign. 
The French king was, however, expelled from the country 
lie had invaded, and it was soon found that Henry, though a 
minor, had able counsellors around him to guard the interests 
of his crown. 

Gallo, the j)apal legate, had already conveyed to Llewellyn 
a .sentence of exconimunicatiijn. He was (l^'eb. Il2, li2ls) 
summoned to Worcester t<> peiliani his homage, though, 
that nothing nn'ght seem outwardly deficient in respect, an 
honoiu'able escort was ordered to attend him to this city. 
Tlie Bishops of Hereford and Chester, Walter de Lacy, 
Hugh Mortimer, John l''ilz;ilaii, Walter and Koger de 

' IIiiiiri'MiM llox Anglurum coronatuM noc iiltoriud coroniituH ohI. Uftdulf. do 
mt n|iu<l Wigortiniii, pont c<'lobrutii>ui!ia Diuutu, p. 531. Sub Aiiuu 1158. 
(UvtDurum curuiiuui nu{>ur ulturo poMuit, 


Clifford, with otliers of tlic noLility, formed part of the 
prince's suite, and subsequently witnessed his concessions. 
In tlie presence of these magnates, and in that of others 
equally distinguished, Llewellyn swore on the Gospels to 
give up the crown, his castles of Caermarthen and Cardigan, 
as well as to keep them in repair until Ileniy came of age. 
lie, moreover, gave up j\Iallgwyn, the son of Rh)-s ; Rhys, 
the son of Griffith ; Madoc, the son of Griffith ; and 
]\rarenduc, the son of Robert, as hostages for the observance 
of the present treaty. 

In connection with tliis transaction of the second council 
lield at Worcester, it may be observed that the royal 
advisers permitted Llewellyn to hold the custody of those 
lands in North Wales which formerly belonged to Wenwyn- 
wyn, Llewellyn undertaking to provide reasonable sustenance 
for the heirs of Wenwynwyn, and to assign a dower to 
Margaret his widow. 

Owing to the young king being in his minority, the writs 
at this period were tested by William Mareschal, Earl of 
Pembroke. According to the phraseology, " quum sigillum 
non habuimus has literas sigillo fidelis nostri comitis 
Willielmi j\Iarescalli fecimus sigillari." 

It does not appear w^hether Henry was present at the 
negotiations just referred to ; but it is certain he was at 
Worcester on the second Sunday after Ash Wednesday, as 
there is a w^rit on the Clause Rolls addressed to the Pre- 
positi of Worcester, ordering them to pay William St. 
Edward and Robert de Barevill twenty -one pounds for the 
expenses occasioned by his visit when the council was 

Another writ addressed to the Barons of the Exchequer 
directs them to pay Fulke de Breaute twenty pounds for the 
expenses incurred at Worcester in the middle of Lent. 
Thus, the fact of Henry being in the city at this time does 
not admit of a doubt. He was here again Oct. 14, 1222, 
as we learn from writs issued to the Barons of the 
Exchequer, ordering tliein to pay the sheriff of the county 
twenty marks for an outlay made on his wardrobe when 
visiting the citj". A similar notice shows that he was also 
there in 1221. 

Again, on April 22, the same j'^ear, a council was held at 
Worcester, attended by the papal legate, the archbishops, 


prelates, abbots, the chief justiciary, the Earl of Pembroke, 
besides several earls and barons of the realm. In the 
following year most of the preceding magnates again assem- 
bled here, when they declared that no charters or other 
documents should be sealed in perpetuity till the young 
king came of age. Also in the fourth year of the reign 
the state of public affairs was considered at Worcester, when 
Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, agpin attended. 

Joanna, the wife of Prince Llewellyn, was, at a little later 
period, a visitor to the young king at Worcester. She was 
doulitlessly urged to take this journey under the hope of 
obtaining some fresh privilege from Henry. Whatever the 
result of her journey may have been, it is certain that she 
did not incur any expense, as the Barons of the Exchequer 
were ordered to pay her seven pounds seven and four pence, 
being the cost of her journey. 

We have mention made of another charge that was to bo 
defrayed by the Barons of the Exchequer. It is of so 
unusual a kind, that, although not strictly relevant to the 
councils of Worcester, it deserves notice, since it relates to 
the line monument of the king's father, whose interment in 
the cathedral might naturally attract the affections of Henry 
to the place. Several ])ieces of silk had been paid for and 
delivered to William, Earl of Pembroke, out of the royal 
treasury. The use to which they were applied w\as to 
cover, or rather adorn, the tomb of King John, IkMuy's 
father. They were delivered to the Prior of Worcester 
for this purpose. 

Before proceeding any farther, it may be desirable to 
state that as there existed a royal castle at Worcester, it is 
most probable that the early councils or conventions were 
held within its precincts. This is the more likely from the 
fact of these assemblies being confined to tlie transaction of 
purely secular and j)ublic business. There are several 
entries on the Great Uoll of the Pipe, which speak of the 
rej)airs done to this building, as well as of works upon the 
surrounding j)alisades. Jn the reign of John there freijiiently 
occurs the charge of tliree shillings Ibr a liuiiti r ralching 

In the year ]'2'A7, a council met again at Worcester. 
The oltject of tlie meeting was similar to those already 
MHiitioned. Tlie turbulence of the Welsh was a recurring 


cause of anxiety. A truce had been agreed upon when the 
king was at Tewkesbury the preceding year (July 11, 1236). 
Safe conduct was afforded to the Prince of Abbcrfrau and 
his attendants for the meeting at Shrewsbury and Wenlock, 
when its provisions were to be ratified. The king had 
nominated the Bishops of Hereford and Llandaff, with two 
other persons, as commissioners for South Wales, and the 
same number for North Wales, to receive the mutual act of 
ratification and guarantee. Such was the general nature of 
the business the council had to settle at these various con- 
ventions. Worcester lying on the borders, was a place 
naturally suited for entertaining these questions, though 
Gloucester and Shrewsbury ^Yere as frequently chosen as 
places convenient for the discussion of the Welsh difficulties. 

In the 3^ear 1264, business of a more legislative character 
than what had hitherto been transacted, was brought before 
the notice of the king's council at Worcester. In the forty- 
sixth year of his reign, or about two years previously, Henry 
issued a declaration that he would no longer adhere to the 
provisions that the barons had obtained from him at Oxford. 
He recited the absolution from their observance that had 
been granted to him by Popes Alexander and Urban. The 
king of France, who had been called in to mediate between 
Henry and his Barons, declared these provisions, which had 
been a great advance in the cause of popular liberty, to bo 
null and void. He affirmed that the king should have his 
former prerogatives restored. That he should have the 
power of nominating his chief justiciary, chancellor, and 
high officers of state as he pleased, and that aliens should be 
as eligible as natives to fill any official positions. 

This short-sighted and injudicious award provoked a 
contest that was immediately fatal to the royal authority, 
and which led to the king's defeat and capture at Lewes, 

Henry was at Worcester on the 13th of December (1264), 
being then the prisoner of Simon de Montfort. It was on 
this occasion that he issued writs of a most comprehensive 
kind to the various abbots, bishops, and sheriffs throughout 
England, as well as to the barons and burgesses of the 
diflerent towns, that they would assemble on the Octaves 
of St. Hilary, at London, to deliberate upon the honor of 
the crown and the tranquillity of the country. 

Here we may see distinctly sketched the first outline of 


those legislative assemblies we now possess. Though as the 
fortunes of the king experienced a favourable change alter 
the battle of Evesham, on August 4, 12G5, he was subse- 
quently enabled to reassume arbitrary power. Notwith- 
standing the postponement of this important privilege, it 
is abundantly clear from various inferences deducible from 
the business actually performed by the council held at 
AVorcester, from the tenor of the writs, and from the position 
of the people convened, that the j)rinci})le of summoning 
legislative assemblies according to our present custom was 
liere for the iirst time adopted. This appears to me so clear 
and undeniable that it is not a matter of surprise it should 
have engaged the observation of Tyrrell, in his " Bibliotheca 
Politica. " It has however eluded the notice of those M-riters 
who have borrowed so freely from this noble constitutional 
M'ork, without acknowledging their obligations to it for other 
information, on which they mainly founded their reputation. 
The works of Tyrrell, Littleton, Carte, and JMadox may 
indeed be too little read or consulted ; they have fallen into 
comparative oblivion, but their honest and diligent labors 
can never be forgotten whilst industry, independence of 
ojtinion, and a love of truth are deemed higher qualities in 
an historian, than the elegance of style and com- 
position which have rendered two of our writers so popular 
and attractive. 

Up to this time the king had acted by the advice of his 
own especial council. But now temporal and spiritual peers, 
as Lords of l*ai-liament, are summoned to act in a judicial 
rapacity. Other powders are also called together, who, as the 
Commons of the realm, appearing at London (Jamiary 20, 
I2(j5), constituted, under the king, the legislative voice of 
the nation at large. 

There can l)c no doubt that it was on this emergency, 
when the Misc of Lewes had given the barons the ascendancy, 
that they seized the advantages of ])olitical jiower. Yet, 
looking at the manner tiiey used it, it (•.•iiinot j)e said they 
acted like the regicides and usui'jx'rs of l.ihr times, and 
)»r(jfane(l tiie .sacred cause of liberty l)y injustifc and murder. 
On the contrary, the j)erson of the monarch was resj)ected, 
and |)ohtical rights were enlarged without the j)erpetration 
of violen(X' or ( linic. 

It must i)e admitted tli;il. wliilst the transact imis ol" this 


particular period are amongst the most obscure of any in 
our constitutional history, the language of the writs by 
which the barons, knights, and burgesses were summoned, 
being uncertain, the character of the representatives as well 
as their power being undefined and vague, yet the general 
result of the documents, and of the business itself, clearly 
indicates a march in political civilisation. It arose from the 
disasters and subsequent captivity of the king. The light 
broke out for an instant, as it were, and then became hidden 
for nearly half a century. But in the meantime Edward 
was consolidating the laws, as well as improving the con- 
stitutional assemblies of the country. It was not until the 
twenty-sixth year of his reign that Worcester returned 
regularly two burgesses to parliament. 

There was another subject dealt with in the council of 
12G4, which deserves notice. In a parliament held in 
London, on March 11th, 1265, mention is made of certain 
articles made by common consent of the king and magnates 
at Worcester, and transmitted under his seal to every county 
inviolably to be observed for ever. 

These articles, as we learn from a manuscript quoted by 
Tyrrell, from Corpus Christi Library, Cambridge, were those 
celebrated Provisions published in the Statute of Marlborough 
(52 Hen. III.). They have always been received as a portion 
of the law of the land, and are the foundation of many i^arts 
of the existing law, though now appearing only in the Red 
Book of the Exchequer, and in copies preserved in the 
Cottonian and other collections of manuscripts, from which 
they have been printed in the statutes of the realm. They 
were ordered at the time of their enactment at AV^orcester 
to be published in the county courts, hundreds, wapentakes, 
and courts baron, for the advantage of all the community of 

These ordinances were ratified and confirmed when the 
parliament met on the Octaves of St. Hilary in the year 
and month following at London. 

Prince Edward, who had been given up as a hostage to 
Simon de Montfort after the battle of Lewes, effected his 
escape in the month of May in the following 3'ear. Having 
sought for a refuge in the castle of Wigmore, he was joy- 
fully received by Roger de Mortimer. The next day he 
passed onward to Ludlow, where he obtained the assistance 


of the Eails of Clare and Surrey. They presently' marched 
to AVorcester, Avhich the loyal citizens speedily surrendered 
to them. Thus, by one success added to another, the royal 
forces became enabled to take the field aiiainst Simon de 
Montfort, on the 4tli of August, near Evesham. 

Tlie king, says Walter Ilemingford, ■^^•as Avoundcd in the 
shoulder, and \vould have been slain, had he not cried out, 
'* I am Henry of Winchester, 3'our king ; kill me not." 
Whereupon Adam de ^tontalt rushed forward and saved 
him. The prince, who was near, ran to his assistance, but 
could only beg his blessing, leaving him to be protected by 
his knights till the fight was over and the victory com- 

During the "whole of this period, Henry HI., now advancing 
in age, was continually at Worcester or the neighbourhood, 
Ijut it does not appear that he enriched either the city, or 
the religious foundations within it, with any memorial of his 
bounty. The name of this monarch is in vain searched 
for amongst those who were benefactors to the Abbeys 
of Worcester, Evesham, Tewkesbury,* or Persliore. He 
had, it is true, granted the citizens in 1261 a charter, 
by which two bailiffs, two aldermen, two chamberlains, 
and f(jrty-eight assistants, should govern the town, with 
return of writs and ])Ower to hold })leas. His name never 
occurs in the list of donors to the religious houses of those 
places whicli had witnessed the success of his arms, or the 
attachment of his pco})le. 

He had the negative qualities of a good, rather than a 
great, man. Without either the courage or the genius for 
war that characterised his illustrious son, he possessed never- 
theless some of the smaller virtues. These have served to 
shield his name from reproach. His ideas of government 
were merciful, but obstructive to national pi'ogress. The 
reforms introduced into the representative system during 
liis reign, though tliey lasted but for a year or two, and 
were the result of e.xternal press\n-e rather than the sponta- 
neous creations of his own mind, left indeed tiaces behind 
to which we are in<lcbte<i at the present day. If posterity 
li.'LS anything to praise in reviewing liis caiici-, it will be 
found in the taste he introduced into several of the buildings 
erected during his reign ; in tlic jiatronage lie licstowcij on 
the arts of 8cul])ture and p.-iinling ; and in iIm' ((•unli iiancc! 


lie afforded to the execution of a few works of devotional 

Time, no less than, I fear, exhausted patience, forewarns 
me to hasten these remarks to a close. Fortunately there is 
only one other council at Worcester left for description. 
Edward I. visited "Worcester in various years of his rcio-n. 
He was here for three days in 127G : for nine in 1277 : for 
four in 1278 : for one in 1281, when he passed three days 
at Kemsey, and eight at Pershore. Again, for seven da3's in 
1282, and for three at Hartlcbury : for a week in 1283, 
and for five days in 1294, when he went on to Hartlcbury 
and Bridgenorth, thus proceeding, as on the former occa- 
sions, into Wales. It was during his sojourn at Worcester, 
during the month of November in the last year, that he 
held a council touching the state of hl<^ affairs in the prin- 
cipality. Though at this time the Welsh had been over- 
awed by his conquests, and the country partially secured by 
the erection of those noble castles whose ruins still exist at 
Flint, llhuddlan, Conw^ay, and Harlech, the people can 
scarcely be said to have been subdued. The fortress of 
Beaumaris was not yet built, wdiilst that of Caernarvon was 
in the present year destroyed. And where could the king 
more suitably hold a council on the condition of his 
impending war, than in a loyal city like Worcester that lay 
upon the borders. 

If we may judge by the tenor of a document that issued 
from him at this moment at Worcester, Edward must have 
lost his usual confidence at the prospect before him. He 
addressed the body of religious men, and more especially the 
Friars Minors, as the mediators between God and men, to 
pray on his behalf that the impending troubles might be 
taken away, and his kingdom delivered from adversity. 
With deep and holy grief did he pass by that noble 
monument of his grandfather, which still forms the most 
interesting object in Wulstan's pious foundation, and with 
contrite prayer did he bend before the high altar, and 
])rcsent his offering of propitiation to God.^ Nor, with 
whatsoever feelings of admiration we may be actuated in 

' We have not any details given us on de Langeton, Keeper of the Wardrobe, for 

the Rolls respcctiijg Edward's visit, but the expenses of the household, and for 

there is a writ on the Liberate of this certaiu matters to be done in Wales. 

23rd year, addressed to the treasurer. Dated at Worcester, 25th November, 
ordering him to deliver ] 0,000/. to Walter 



beholding the valour of that little kingJom over -whom lie 
sought to cast the fetters of a conqueror, can we suppose 
that these gifts were vain oblations, or his supplications 
unanswered. Like the seven id(,)latrous nations we read of 
in Holy Writ, "he put them out by little and little," till 
their sovereignty and their freedom were extinguished. 
The result of these long-continued contests was the union of 
the ancient sovereignties of Dyved, Gwynedd, and Powis- 
land to P^ngland ; and in Worcester, in Gloucester, in Bristol, 
and in fair .Shrewsburv, the leading councils were held that 
aimed at the dismemberment of Wales. 

Centuries have rolled on since its line of native princes 
have ceased. Their valour and their misfortunes have 
outlived tradition. They are written in the truest 
pages of history. Fresh information may still be added 
to the mass of accumulated facts, for although there are 
not nnj coeval chronicles, there are a large number of 
records relating to the Welsh wars, that will supply 
additional information on the events of that period.* 
These will enable us to divest trutK from fiction. They 
will liberate us from the fair}'' hands that ring the knell 
of Welsh valour, and they will teach us to regard their 
sweet notes as merely poetical delusions.^ Like the 
mountains whom the bard invokes, wc .shall " mourn in vain 
^lodi-ed. the magic of their song," because we shall iruitlessly 
search for any proof of his existence. Nay, if in a real 
desire for " truth severe," the question of the ma.ssacre of 
the bards is considered, it will be found to rest on no con- 
temporary foundation wlintever. In fact, inspiring as nuist 
ever be the genius of jioctr}^ the writer of history should 
studiously remain uninfluenced by its fascination. We may, 
liowever, borrow an idea IVoiii the wrll-known ode that 
lias thus been incidentally alhided to ; and we may insti- 
tute a compai'ison of tlie value of consulting our national 
records, where facts aic coitain, wiili the changes 
the noble stream of the Severn undergoes before it reaches 
Worcester. Its waters roll down from huL2:c IMinlimmon, 

* Tlio rocoiit viilimMo rcHoardioH of IIi« lemarkH tlirnw inucli (idditioiia 

the lIoiiDiirnlila Mr. I'lridKuninii on tlio li;^ht on otir Wdhli JJoriior IliHtoi-y. 
IViri.. . f I'ppor I'owiM, priiitfMl in tlio * Jly fuiiy liiin<l'< thrir knell in lungf, 

' ' Arcliai<olo(;icn, hIiow how Ity fornix niiK(!<>n tlioir (liix*) in Hnn){ : 

;in<l (inthpiitic information Ih 'J'lioir Ilononr mnjos, a pili^'rini K''«yi 

to (■" £-i>iior'(l rt'Lilivo to tliin period. To LIohh tlio turf tliiit wrajiw tlicir cliiy. 


gathering fresh strength from every spring and rivulet they 

unite with on their journey, carrying fcrtihty to the soil 

they wash, and gradually expanding themselves into the 

largest of our English rivers. Thus we are taught, by 

taking a survey over the majestic course of time, to collect 

those evidences which constitute truth, out of the various 

channels through which it flows. It is incumbent upon 

historical writers to sift all those current statements that 

have been too readily accepted by indolent students. The 

more popular they are, perhaps the more doubtful. Always, 

however, drawing the materials from the purest and most 

certain sources, the public records of the kingdom. And 

still, to pursue the metaphor, if we ascend the rugged sides 

of this cloud-topped eminence, and drink of its wells in their 

natural purity, ere they have become polluted by the refuse 

of towns (fatal to health as falsehood is to history), the 

heart will feel refreshed and invigorated by their crystal 

sweetness. So also, on the other hand, if tediously, 

patiently, and dimly striving to decyplier the fliint, the 

incomplete, and nearly illegible archives, where truth alone 

sits sacredly enshrined, the grateful labour will diffuse new 

light, and another page will be added to the annals of our 

common country. 




At a first glance, the weapon before lis would appear to 
belong- to the Early-MiiMle-Agcs of the Sandwich Islanders, 
and it is with no small surprise that, on further inquiry, wc 

find this primitive f<.i-iii (>\' tli(> Cliih <o he Ihe chosen nrm o\ 
the ^reat guilds (jf tlic riclicsl |)riiiccduiii of i^hn-ope, in its 
richest period — of l-'l.-niih'i-s in llic louihculli <-(Mi(ury. The 


figure licre given is one of many, forming an extensive wall- 
painting in an old chapel at Ghent. The men are citizens of 
Ghent, and are represented as marching in procession at one 
of their guild festivals. The picture itself no longer exists, 
but it has been fully and carefully reproduced by M. De 
Vigne in his " Recherches Historiques sur les Costumes des 
Gildes, &c." The citizen-soldier wears the " bacinet rond," 
so often mentioned in documents of the time, with camail of 
banded-mail overlying the surcoat. The sleeve of the 
hauberk is strengthened at the elbow with a roundel of 
plate, charged with a cross : the arms on the surcoat are 
those of his company. The equipment appears to be that 
of the beginning of the fourteenth century. 

But the weapon carried by this warrior (borne also by 
many of his companions) is the most curious part of the 
representation ; and, though we have examined many 
thousand examples of weapons of all ages, pictorially or 
otherwise reproduced, we have neyer before met with the 
singular implement here figured. M. De Vigne, in pro- 
ducing it, claims to have discovered the true form of the 
GOEDEXDAG ; and, in the minute description of that arm 
by Guiart, in the " Branche des Royaux Lignages," there 
are certainly many points of resemblance. The passage to 
which we allude is that recounting the conflict between the 
men of Bruges, led by "Mesire Walepaiele," and the 

" El tens dont ge conte nouvele, 
lert Mesire \Valepaiele, 
Des fiez de Bruges capitainne : 
Cil meut un jour," &c. 

(Ad ann. 1297 ; Ed. Buclion, vol. ii. p. 209.) 

Reaching the enem}^ the Flemings attack them : — 

" A granz hastens pesanz ferrez, 
A un lone fcr agu devant. 
Tie.x bastons qu'il portent en guerre 
Out noni godendac en la terre. 
Goden-dac, c'est Bon-jour a dire, 
Qui eu frangois le veust descrire. 
Cil baston sent lone et traitiz, 
Pour ferir a deuz mainz faitiz. 
Et quant Ten en faut au desccndrc, 
Se oil qui fiert i veust entendre, 
Et il en sache bien ouvrer, 
Tantost puet son cop rccouvrur 


Et ferir, sans saler uioquaiit,' 
Du bout ilevaiit, eii estotjuant 
Son ennenii par le ventre ; 
Et li fers est agiiz qui cntie 
LL-giereuicnt ile jilainne assiete 
Par touz les lieiu oil Ton en giete, 
S'armtures ne le dctieniient. 
Cil qui CCS grauz godcnilaz tienncnt, 
Qu'il out 11 deux poinz eaipoingniez, 
Sout un poi des reus esloingniez, 
De bicn fJrir ne sont pas lasclie. 
E litre les gens le roi en tasche 
Au destriers donnent tiex meriax 
Amunt, parmi les liateriax, 
(>ue des pesanz eops qu'il ourdissent 
En pluseurs liens les cstoiirdissent. 
Si qu'a poi (ju' ;i terre ne cliieent." 

(11ml., vol. ii. p. 210.) 

Tlie gocdenJags of the Flemings are mentioned in many 
otlier places of Guiart's poem, but in none with so much 
detail. Under 1304 (vol. ii. p. 302) we have a passage 
showing that the arm was for thrusting and striking : — 

" Godeudaz Icvez, lances prises, 
S'assaillcnt en divcrses guises : 
Uns cstoqucut, autres rabatcnt." 

At page 31 G \\c find that the weapon was a heavy one: — 

" Ancnns a godendaz pesanz, 
Dont les cops lancent et desrivent, 
.Tusfju'en nji le niuiit les poursivent. 

Sec also pages 240, 24G, 25G, 277, 280, 312 and 44(;, 
where, thou<ch the frodendac is mentioned with honur, no 
new characteristic appears. 

Before })roceeding further, it may i>e as well to call to 
mind that the name (A' Ooedendag has been held to aj)ply to 
the llalbard ; atul I am nut aware that any ancient j»a.ssagc 
lias yet been loimd in which the two words stand in juxta- 
position, so as It) iiidicalr a dinereiice lietwecn the two 

In the account of the battle of (Jourtray in tlu; "(Irandcs 
(Jhroiii(jiies," the goedeinlag again apj>cars as a flemish 

' Quory, " iiiiiiKniiiut ]" 


' " Ceux de Bruges, si comme Ten dit, estudians et cuidans 
mourir pour la justice, liberalite ct franchise du pays, 
portant avec eux cnscment aucunes reliques de Sains, et a 
glaives, a lances, espees bonnes, haclies et goudendars, 
serreement et espesseraent ordones, vindrcnt au champ a 
pie par un pou tons. . . . Et lors adecertes ceux de Bruges 
nulle ame n'espargnierent, mais aux lances agues bien 
ancorues, que Ton appelle bouteshaches et godendars, les 
chevaliers des chevaux faisoient trebuchier ; et ainsi comme 
its cheoient, comme brebis les acraventoient sus la tcrre." — 
Vol. V. p. 139. 

M. Paulin Paris adds a note to the word ancorees : — 
" Terminees en forme d'ancres, a peu pros comme les halle- 
bardes ;" — which, however, does not throw much light on 
the subject. Perhaps the word was originally acerees. 

In the continuation of the Chronicle of Nangis, the 
similar incident of the battle of Courtrai is thus recorded : — 
" Cum lanceis adjunctis et exquisiti generis quod gothendar 
Yulgo appellant." 

The goedendag is not, however, confined to Flanders. In 
an ordinance of King John of France in 13.5.5, for the 
defence of the city of Poitiers, it is commanded " Que toute 
maniere de gens habitans en la ville et suburbez de Poitiers 
seront contrains a eulx armer, chacun selon son estat : c'est 
assavoir, les riches et les puissans de toutes armeures ; les 
moiens de lances, pavois ou godendac et de cote gambezie ; 
et les menus de godendac ou d'espee, si et tellement comme 
ils pourront." — Collect, des Ordonnances, t. iv. p. 169. 

Ducange, who never fails to contribute curious illustration 
to every arclueological inquiry, has several passages from 
Letters Remissory of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
relating to the godendac. His interpretation of the word is 
" Hasta brevior, Flandrensibus familiaris." In a Remissory 
Letter of 1357 we have: " Quemdam baculum ferratum, 
(jodendart Gallice nuncupatum, quem deferebat, sublevavit," 
&c. Again, in 1376 : "En soy defendant, fery ledit Cannaux 
d'un godandart ou pique de Flandres un cop seulement, dont 
mort s'ensuy," And in a third letter of 1417 : "Un baston 
que Ten appelle goudcndart, qui est a la fa^on d'une pique 
de Flandres, combien que le fer est un pou plus longuet." 

We thus find that the goedendag was a " grand baston," 
— " a lone fer agu devant " — pour ferir a deux mainz — pour 


estoquer ct rabattre — pesaute — bieii ancor^e (?) — cxqiiisiti 
geueris — a la fa^oii d'unc pique de Flandies, mais dent le 
fer cstoit iin pou plus longuct." How far these characteristics 
of the goedt'udag, godcndac, godendas, godcndaz, gudendoc, 
godeudart, goudendart, gothendar, godandar, godaiidac, 
godaiidart, godardus, godendus, godaudardus, or goiideiidar- 
duiu, ai>ply to the weapon of jAI. Do Vigne, or Avhether they 
do not rather indicate tlie arm familiar to us under the name 
of halbard, it will be for our readers to determine. At all 
events, the weapon is a very curious one, and one of the 
simplest forms of the " menucs armes " of tlie middle-age 

In conclusion, we may remark that the giving facetious 
names to instruments of warfare, as in the " Good-den " 
before us, has been in vogue through all ages. Thus we 
Ijave the holy-water-sprinkle, the morning-star, the ()(i()nc- 
pain, the swine's-feather, and others. Fire-arms have been 
comi)limcnted with sobriquets taken from the fair sex, as 
jMuns Meg at Edinburgh, and ]\Iad ^Margery at Ghent ; 
while, even in our own day, wc have listened to the energetic 
voice of Brown Bess. 


]>y the kindness of Colonel Lcfroy, I am enabled to place 
before the Archicological Institute a very curious example 
of a sabre with finger-guard, of the commencement of the 
.sixteenth century. I observed it recently in the collection 
at the Rotunda, Woolwich, and learn from Colonel Lefroy, 
w]»o is now zealously engaged in re-arranging this collection, 
that tlie weaj)on in (juestion was found in some obscure 
corner, whei-e it has lain hidden for years, all clue to its 
history liaving been totally l(jst. One good result, howi^-er, 
of its ignominious treatment is, that we have it in all its 
rough integrity of genuineness : it has not been " restored.' 

Tiic chief characteristic of the weapon is the finger-guard, 
a contrivance not seen in mediaeval swords, but coming in 
with the cincpie-cento period. Tiie earliest exaiiiple i have 
noticed of such a guard is the jejtreseiitation in tlie tapestry 

Sabre with finger-^uard, in the Armory at the Rotunda, Woolwich. 
Date, early in the Sixteenth Centtiry. 


of Charles the Bold (or of Berne), figured by M. Jubinal. 
It occurs on Plate 6 of the Berne series in the " Tapisseries 
historiees." Tlie blade in that case is curved, and notched 
at tlie back of the point. Another early authority is the 
"Speculum Conversionis Peccatorum," printed at Alost in 
Flanders, in 1473. The weapon occurs there in several 
places : the fighters who use it are on foot, have full body- 
armour, and carry shields : the blade is formed as in the 
preceding examples. (Engraved in Dibdin's " Bibliotheca 
Spenceriana," vol. iv. p. 554.) In the "Memorare Novissima," 
printed about 1495, we have, in the group of Dives and 
Lazarus, a similar hand-guard, but with a straight, long 
blade attached. (Dibdin, Bib. Spenc. iv. p. 413.) The 
" Tapisserie d'Aulhac," also of the fifteenth century, gives us 
several examples : in plate 4 (Jubinal) we have a classic 
subject, where " Troillus," whose name is written on the 
blade, combats with a scymitar of this fashion. Others 
appear in Plate 5. The tapestry of this period in the 
" Presence Chamber " at Hampton Court offers several 
examples of the finger-guard ; in one case combined with a 
prolonged cross-piece. A scymitar with guard exactly 
resembling the one before us forms the principal beaiing of 
the Sword Cutlers' Guild of Brussels. It is floured in De 
Vigne's "Recherches sur les Costumes des Glides," &c., 
Plate 24 ; and we venture to refer this design to the 
fifteenth century, because the shields-of-arms of the "Corde- 
waniers " and the " Handscoemakere " (savetiers) in the 
same series (pi. 25) give us the long-piked shoe and boot 
of that time. 

In the sixteenth century the fashion of the finger-guard 
unattached to the pommel continued. The sabre preserved 
at Woolwich offers a very curious example. The whole 
length of the arm is 4 feet, the blade measures 3 ft. 3 in. 
It might be used with two hands or with one only. The 
hilts of two-hand swords, it is true, are commonly straight, 
round, and sloping, but instances occur in which the hilt of 
the form here seen is used with both hands, as in a subject 
from a fifteenth-century volume, the " Speculum Humanje 
Salvationis," given by Dibdin in the "Bibliotheca Spen- 
ceriana," vol. iv. p. 12. The swordsman there is an 
executioner, and it has been suggested that the weapon 
before us may have been a heading-sword. But I think 


not, from the engraved figures of saints on tlic blade, one of 
whom is Saint Barbara, the special patroness of soldiers. 
There is a peculiarity in the formation of the hilt. Instead 
of the narrow tang commonly employed, riveting at the 
pommel, a broad piece of iron runs to the end of the grip, 
occupying its entire breadth. This mode of balancing the 
arm, I am informed by a scientific sword-cutler, has been 
lately bronght out by a London weaponer, as a new dis- 
covery. What eftect our Escalibar would have at the 
Patent Oflice, I am unable to say. Touching this question 
of " balance," it must be remembered that the balance of 
mediteval swords had not in view recovery to guard, but 
recovery to strike. • The guarding was done by the body- 
armour and the shieM. A nicely-balanced weapon, there- 
fore, as we now understand the term, was not needed by 
the mediajval warrior. The sword of those old times had 
but two duties to fulfil — to strike and to pierce. Now it 
has three — to cut, to thrust, and to guard. 

The place of manufacture of this weapon is not easy to 
determine. Among the ornaments of. the hand-guard are 
two roses : the bosses on the grip arc rose-formed, and the 
upper of the four armourer's-marks on the blade is also a 
rose. But, curiously enough, the three punch-marks on the 
lower part of the blade arc double-headed eagles. It has 
been suggested that the eagle may have been the mark of a 
German weaponer, while the rose may have been added, to 
indicate the realm for which the sword was fabricated. I 
may add, though not insisting on much weight being 
attached to the remark, that one of the saintly figures on 
the blade is that of 8t. Kathcrine ; and, as the weaj)on is 
of the time, so it may have been of the service of Katharine 
of Arragon. We may note also that one of the weajions 
of the Uoyal Ouard of this jieriod, still preserved at the 
Tower, is engraved with the same figures as those adorning 
the Woolwich sabie ; namely, Saint Kathcrine and Saint 
i'aibara. (Tower Catalogue, Class 7, No. '.V17 : compare 
also No. 3iil.) All that wo can safely ailh-m on this 
question of manufacture is that the Roses arc in a decided 
majority over the K;igles. 

TIic n)ake of the handle is somewhat ciiii<»us. W(mk1 is 
laid on each si<lc of the l)road iron tang .•iinl iivete<l, (he 
rivet.s beinj' flush witli (he two surfaces. iicatlier is (hen 


stretched over all, nnd the rose-formed bosses which we see 
at intervals along the grip, are fixed over the leather. 
The object of these bosses is to roughen the grip, so as to 
give a firmer hold to the combatant. The ornaments on 
the hand-guard consist of the engraved roses already 
noticed, and a flowing pattern of foliage. These have been 

Illustrations of the finger-guard of this type in the first 
half of the sixteenth century are found among the engravings 
on the rich suit of Henry VIII. in the Tower. (Catalogue, 
No. 8 of Class 2.) In one subject it appears in an exe- 
cutioner's sword ; the blade short, broad, curved and notched 
at the point. A similar w^eapon occurs in the Legend of 
St, Agatha, where it is carried by " the Praetor Quintianus.'^ 
In the latter example it is curious to note that the guard 
terminates at one extremity with a snake's head, as in the 
w^eapon before us. 

Sabre in one ot the engravings on the suit of Henry VI IT. Tower Armory. 

It is again found in the AVorks of Holbein by De Mechel ; 
in the Weiss Kunig, plate 176 ; in the du Sommerard 
tapestry (Jubinal, p. 42, pi. 6), with a long, straight blade ; 
in Hefner's "Trachten,^' part 3, pi. 106, where it is carried 
by an unarmed LandsknecJit ; in the sword preserved at 
the Heralds' College, said to be that of James IV. of 
Scotland, from Flodden Field (figured in the Archceologia, 
vol. xxxiii. pi. 14, p. 340) ; in the sword of Francis I. of 
France, engraved by Willemin {Mon. Ined., vol. ii., pi. 
261) ; in the short sabre preserved at Ghent, and figured 
by De Vigne {Vade mecum du Peintrc, vol. ii., pi. 98) ; 
in an example on a carved altar-piece in the Kensington 
Museum ; and in the fencing-book of Camillo AgrijDpa, 
printed at Rome in 1553. 

In the second half of the sixteenth century, we may 
refer to the portrait of the King of Navarre, 1562 (Hefner, 
part 3, pi. 43) ; that of Queen Elizabeth's porter, at 


Hampton Court, by Zucchero, 1 JSO ; the ligures in Jost 
Amman's KunstbucJdein, cuts 18 and 175, the latter an 
unarmed horseman, carrying harquebus, mace, and long, 
straight sword ; the engraving of a City harquebusier, 
given b}' Hefner, \\. 18, a. d. 1598 ; several of the plates 
in .Schrenk von Notsing (see Nos. 18, 50, 88, 119, and 
123) ; some of those in the ^ladrid Armor}'- (vol. 1, pi. 
8, and vol. ii. pi. 22, of the " Armeria Ileal " ) ; the curious 
MS. in the British .Aruseum. Addit. JMS. 18,285, " Helvetire 
Descriptio ;" and the well-known figures of Von Gheyn, 
published in 10"07. 

We thus see that the finger-guard of this type was used 
by many classes of swordsmen— by kings, nobles, armed 
knights, unarmed soldiers, and by executioners. It is 
carried both by cavalry and infantry, but chiefly by the 
latter. It is combined with the long, straight sword, the 
long sabre, the short sabre with plain point, and the short 
sabre with notched back. 

Wo have only to add that, though we have traced this 
fashion down to the seventeenth century, it must not be 
forgotten that guards of a more perfect description were 
also in use from the first half of the sixteenth century ; but 
to note the adoption and varying fashions of these would 
too far extend the limits of the present notice of the 
unique weapon preserved in the collection which Cohniel 
Lcfroy has undertaken with such efficient energy to amjjlify 
and re-arrange. 


A Di;'.course delivered on occaBion of the special Exhibition of Examples of the arts of Niello and 
Knamel, at the Meeting of the Archajological Institute, June 6, 1802.' 


Cicero says tliat, before we begin to discourse upon any 
subject, it would be as well to know something about the 
matter in question. As it has fallen to me to offer some 
observations upon one of the subjects selected for this special 
exhibition, it may be as well to commence by briefly explain- 
ing in what consists the art of niellure. 

Niello is a term used to express a composition of silver, 
lead, copper, sulphur, and borax. At a certain degree of 
heat it fuses, and when allowed to cool becomes hard. The 
process by which tliis composition is made to impart the 
shadows to engravings on metal is called lavoro di niello, or 
niellure, and derives its name from the black color which 
the mixture assumes when melted. 

The Greeks expressed niello by the term fxeXavov."^ 

Du Cange, in his Latin Glossar}', gives the word niellatus, 
which he refers to nigcllum. Nicjellus he explains as " ali- 
quant ulum nig er ;" and he defines nirjellum as "encaustum 
nigrum vol subnigrum, quo cavitas scalpturic repletur." ^ 

The French adopted the word nieller, which Richelet 
explains by " encaustum argento illinire." * 

The application of this alloy to engravings on silver gives 
them the appearance of exquisite pen and ink drawings on a 
light back-ground. This result is obtained b}'' carefully 
washing and cleaning the niello, until it is brought to grains 

' See p. 275, ante. plumbo et argento confectum, quo cavitas 

* This term occurs in an Epistle of scalpturje repletur ; Gloss£evete^e3,iVt3'e^ 

Nicephorus, Patriarch <if Constantinople, lum." 

to Pope Leo IIL See Barouius, ad ami. ^ Gloss, siih voce. 

811, no. 58. Du Cange, Gloss, ad script. •* Dr. Rock has suggested to me, that 

med. et inf. Gincc, says under the word niello may be derived from the Anglo- 

M«'\of, — ''Apud Pictores MfAav dicitur Saxon a«6^a», to melt, 
encaustum nigrum vel subnigrum, c.\ 


like the finest millet seed, when it is spread over the metal 
surface, -which is then heated until the grains are fused. The 
plate is then taken out of the furnace, and when cold it is 
cleaned and polished ; the only portion of the niello which 
is allowed to remain is that embedded in the enirraved desie;n, 
and in the lines hatched to form the back-ground. 

The origin of this art is shrouded in the darkness of 
bygone ages ; it was practised at an early period, and I 
think it not at all imjn-obable that niellure may have owed 
its beginning to inlaying, or tarsia work, in metal. As there 
are several modes by which the process is effected, it 
suflSces here to say that this art consists in expressing a 
design on one metal by the inlaying or incrustation of 
another. This art of embedding metals one upon the other 
is doubtless of very early date. In the Canticle of Canticles 
we read, — " We will make thee chains of gold inlaid with 

The Egyptians, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Romans 
were conversant with the art of tarsia work. The shield of 
Achilles described by Homer was inlaid. Pausanias describes 
the sceptre of Jove, the work of Phidias, who was a torcutes, 
in addition to being a painter, a sculptor, and a brass caster. 
(Miillcr, 81.) Mullcr *" enumerates several existing examples 
of ancient inlaid work ; and, in the time of Scverus, articles 
of furniture of silver inlaid with gold were in vogue. 

Put this process of iidaying was laborious and costly ; it 
is, therefore, by no means unreasonable to suppose that the 
ancients would endeavour to find out a less expensive substi- 
tute for infarsintara in metal. Enamel, as certain antiquaries 
have imagined, was known to some of the nations oi' antiquity 
at an early period, and if they could succeed in discovering 
a metallic substance or alloy n]>plicable by fusion, they would 
obtain this desidei'atum ; this })rocess may liave led to the 
discovery of niello. 

It must, however, be borne in mind tliat there is this 
difference between inlaid anil niello work. The former is the 
embedding of one metal on llic odicr by pressure, as by aid 
of the liammer or the like, into the cavities pr(>jiared, whereas 
the alloy for niello by the atldition of suljihur becomes a 
Kuljihuret, and is applied by fusion caused by the action of 

' Cli. 1, V. 10. " Aiic. Alt iiikI ilH niiiiiiiiH, \<. .'iii'. 


The earliest example of niello with ^vliicli I am acquainted 
is the small Roman military statue of bronze, found near 
Barking Hall in Suffolk, and jDresented by Lord Ashburn- 
liam to the British Museum. It is copiously ornamented with 
niello and intarsiatura in silver.^ 

Proceeding in chronological order,^ the next example that 
presents itself to notice is a small silver ampulla of the fourth 
century, which was found in a silver casket on the Esquiline 
at Rome in 1793. Around the centre appears this inscrip- 
tion — a pleasing formula in vogue at that time — pelegiuna . 
VTERE . FELIX. These letters are in niello. There were also 
found, in the same casket, some little silver plaques with 
siglce or monograms in niello. These have been read thus — 
PROiECTA . TYROL Turcius Sccundus and another of the 
family held high offices in Rome in the fourth centur3^^ 

To about this date I may assign a small gold Roman ring 
in my collection, set with a sapphire en cahocJion ; the hoop 
is curiously nielloed. My dactyliotheca contains likewise two 
other examples of early niello. One is a gold denarius of 
Constantino IV., Pogonatus — a.d. G54-684 — mounted as a 
ring on the hoop of which, in nielloed lettei's, is the inscription, 
+ BARINOTA. The other ring has a circular bezel with the 
bust of a female — possibly intended for our Blessed Lady, — 
with the letters m.a. And in the British j\Iuseum there is 
a Byzantine gold ring from Sardinia, representing on the 
bezel three figures in niello, and below them the letters 
-OMOX-. Around the hoop is the following inscription — 

^^^erG Beo^HAM 

The earliest recipe for niello which I have found occurs in 
the MS. treatise by Eraclius the Roman, which I believe is 
derived from Byzantine sources, and was composed about the 
eighth century : it was transcribed by Le Begue in the fif- 
teenth.^ It runs thus, — " When you wish to make niello, take 
equal parts of quicksilver, copper, and lead, and put them in 

' It is figured in the Vetusta Mouu- p. 12, and Miiller's Ancient Art. 
menta, published by the Society of ' Lib. Job. Le Begue, MS. Bib. du 

Antiquaries, voL iv. pi. 11 — 15. Roy, Paris, 6741, art. 251. The original 

* Agiucourt, Scult. pi. ix. ; also torn. Latin is given by Mrs. Merrifield, Ancient 

V. p. 321, ed. 1828. Practice of Painting, vol. i. p. 242. 

' See Visconti's letter descriptive of it, 



a vessel that they may cook together. Then take of suljihur 
the weight of six denarii and mix them ^Yith it, and stir it. 
Afterwards withdraw it from the fire, and allow it to become 
cold ; place it in a vase, and take atramentuni tempered 
with wine, and draw what you wish upon silver with the 
atramciitum, and immediately overlaying the powder of 
quicksilver, copper, and lead, and then melting it, a beautiful 
niello may be made." 

In the life of Robert King of France we read that in the 
seventh century, Leodebodus, Abbot of St. Aignan at Orleans, 
left to that monastery two little gilt cups from ^larseilles, 
wliich had crosses of niello in the centre.^ In 811, Nice- 
phorus, Tatriarch of Constantinople, sent to Pope Leo III. a 
pectoral cross of gold, of which one side was set with an 
eml.)edtled crystal, and the other ornamented with niello 

By this time doubtless the Anglo-Saxons had become 
acquainted with the art of niellure. When or by whom it 
was introduce*! there is no evidence, but, as it is a matter of 
history that the Saxon jewelers and inclusm-cs gcminnrum 
enjoyed an European reputation and worked in foreign 
countries, it is probable that this art was brought back by 
some of the Saxons on their return from service abroad.* 

Unfortunately, through the lust of plunder which charac- 
terised the Danes, and subsequently also the needy invaders 
led by William the Norman, our country was recklessly 
despoiled of all objects of intrinsic value, without any regard 
to their artistic merits and interest : hence it is, that so few 
examples of the skill of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers in the 
precious metals have been preserved. There exist, however, 
five Saxon nielloed rings of gold ; a nielloed libula is also 
preserved in the British Museum, which, although found ii-i 
Tuscany, has the charactei-istic features of Saxon worianan- 

Of tlicse rinns, three are in the National (Collection. One, 
ruiiipj ill tlic river None, near Peterborough,'' has two cir- 

' " S<;iitclIaH ii. iiiiiioroH MiisHilionHCH * In an al'lo paper road lifforo tlio 

«lwiiinilii«, ciiijf! Imhent in inLMiiu cmmicch Ai-cii<l<Mniii of ljonili)n in .July 1S(U, Dr. 

niiilliitiui," I'luiMivaut, IVintru Oravour, i. Il<ick provcil HatiMfuctorily tliat tlio 

2>i'i.. cek!l)ri\t<'il (lolclcii Allarat Milan wiw tlio 

' narnniiiH ad ann., aud Du Cango aub wcirk of an An);li>-Sax<>n jirliiHi. 

v. Nigolliitn. '* Aroli. .lonni., vol. xiii. \k 87. 


Fig. 1. Gold King found near Pcterljorough.— Brit. :Mu8. 

Fig. 2. Gold Ring found in Lancashire. — Sloano Coll., Brit. 51 us. 

Fig. 3. Gold Ring bearing the name of Ethelwulf. — Brit. JIu?. 

Fig. i. Gold King, now in the Collection of Edmund Watcrton, Esq., F.S.A. 
Found at Llys faen, Caernarvonshire. 


cular bezels ornamented with interlaced trianHes and flowino; 
curvesengraved and inlaid with niello. (Sec woodcut, fig. 1.) 

The second, which is a simple hoop, bears around the 
outside, in niello, an inscription in Anglo-Saxon letters 
mixed with Runes, /Etiir'ed meg aii eanred mec aqroft (see 
woodcut, fig. 2) : i. e., ^thred owns me, Eanred engraved or 
wrought me. It was found in Lancashire, and was first 
noticed by Hickes, Thes. t. i., pracf. p. xiii. 

The third is the celebrated ring bearing the name of 
Ethelwulf, King of Wessex, a.d. 836-838, and father of 
Alfred the Great.® (See w^oodcut, fig. 3.) 

I am the fortunate possessor of the fourth, which is a massive 
gold nielloed ring with the name of Alhstan, who was liishop 
of Sherborne from 823 to 867. (See woodcut, fig. 4.) 

It is not improbable that the two rings last mentioned 
may have been made by the same goldsmith. 

The fifth Saxon nielloed ring was found, in 1754, on 
Bramham Moor in the West Riding of Yorkshire ; and, 
after being exposed for some time for sale at York, and 
offered for its weight in gold, it ultimately found its way to 
the Royal Museum at Copenhagen, wdiere it is preserved 
and valued as it deserves to be.^ 

In addition to these examples, there is another important 
piece of Saxon niellure, unfortunately no longer in our land. 
It is a shrine of silver with figures of several Saxon 
kings in niello around it ; it contains the head of a saint, 
according to tradition that of St. Oswald, but it cannot be 
the head of the sainted Saxon king of that name, since that 
precious relic was buried with the body of St. Cuthbert, 
which still lies safely concealed and undisturbed at Durham 
Cathedral. This valuable shrine is preserved at Hildesheira, 
where there is also a very remarkable specimen of early 
Byzantine niellure, with Greek inscriptions in niello. 

Of Irish niellure there are several examples. In the 
British Museum there are two pastoral staves, ornamented 
both with tarsia work and niello. This combined use of the 

6 The discovery is related in the Drake's Hist, of York, App. p. cii. It 

Archreologia, vol. vii. p. 421. See also was rescued from the crucible by Mr. 

Arch. Journ. vol. ii. p. 163; Shaw's T. Qill, of that city. It appears in 

Dresses and Decorations, and Labarte's Worsaao's valuable illustrations of the 

Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Royal Museum at Copenhagen, Afbild- 

Ages, p. 126. lunger, fig. 342. 

^ It was first noticed and figured in 


two arts seems to be an adaptation peculiarl}' Celtic ; it 
appears again on the celebrated Cross of Cong, which was 
made about the year 1185. 

In the Loan Museum at South Kensington Lord Fitz- 
liardinge exhibited a remarkable gold ring, which is orna- 
mented with niello (Catalogue, No. 7172). It presents the 
same treatment of animals' heads which appeals on the foot 
of the Cross of Cong, and I think that this ring may safely 
be assigned to Irish workmanship. 

The Museum of the lloyal Irish Academy, amongst other 
interesting objects, possesses a pendant hook of bronze 
inlaid with silver and also nielloed.^ The scroll-work of the 
silver, to use the words of the accomplished author of the 
Catalogue, !Mr. Wilde, is of a peculiarly Irish character ; 
the silver is bordered on either side by niello.^ 

I have seen some silver brooches of early date, oi"na- 
mented with niello, in Scotland, and which were found in that 
country, but, from the repetition of the same pattern or de- 
sign fur many ages, on such personal ornaments, it is dillicult 
to assign to any of these examples a. precise date. The 
Dunvegan cup, belonging to ]\IcLeod of McLeod, and which 
bears the date of 1493, is ornamented Avitli niello.^ 

lu Germany, however, we meet with niello of an earlier 
date, and which may be referred to the tenth century. In 
the treasury of the church of the chateau of Quedlinbourg, 
amongst other valuable objects, there is preserved a reli- 
quary, the gift of Otho, the first Emperor of that name 
(I)3(j-i)73), which is ornamented with figures of the Apostles 
in ivory, with some little works in enamel and an antique 
cameo head of Bacchus ; it is enriched also with silver 
pldijncs, on which are represented the bust of Christ and 
those of eighteen saints, in niello.'^ 

Of the same date is a silver paten which is in the church 
of the cnstle at Hanover. It is the work of »St. iirrnward. 
Bishop of llildesheim, who died a.d. 1023. This niello 
represents our Jilessed Lord with his arms extended, seated 
on a i-ainboNV, and surroundeil by the .symbols of the four 

" ThiH Hpociuioii in figured di tlio clone roiimrkahlo cMip l>y Mr. Alexander Ncs- 

of tliin iiii;(iioii'. Itilt, Arch. JtMirniil, vol. xii. )i. 7'.'. It 

• (Jnliilo^^uij (»f tlio MiiHCiim of tlio Ih lij^uroil in Dr. WilaouH rrcLiMtoiic 

IU)y«l Irifh Acadumy, fig. 48;i, ji. LTl. AiiiiuIh, p. (>7't. 

' ti«o tliu (loUilud iioticu of thin ^ I'luiHavaiit, I'uiulro Ui-avour,t. i. p.203. 

ox NIELLO. 829 

Evangelists and of the four Cardinal Virtues. Around is the 
following inscription, — 

" Est corpus in se panis qui frangitur, 

in me vivet in eteruuui qui bene suniit cum." 

And, on the back, on a piece of old parchment, " Ista pa- 
tena (sic) fecit Sanctus Bcrnwardus," • 

The design is Byzantine, but M. Passavant sa3^s that the 
proportions of the figures are good, and the niello of fine 
execution.^ In the treasury of the cathedral of Ilildesheim 
there are several other nielli, the work of St. Bcrnward ; 
amongst them may be mentioned a paten, and a chalice of 
silver gilt.* 

Another interesting example of early German niello is in 
the treasury of the church at Quedlinbourg. It is a reliquary 
made in the time of the Abbess Agnes who died in 1 203 ; 
it bears in letters of niello, on a steel plate, the following 
inscription, — tempore agnetis abbe et oderadis p'pr facta 


At Cluny in France, under St. Odilo, who died in 1048 
at the age of eighty-seven, the columns of the sanctuary of 
the church were plated with silver, and finely ornamented 
with niello.^ 

We may now proceed to some further practical details 
concernino; the art of niello. 

Theophilus the Monk, a German, who wrote that valuable 
treatise on the Arts, the "Diversarum artium schedula," 
about the year 1220, gives not only a recipe for the com- 
position of niello diff'ering somewhat from that of Eraclius, 
but also describes minutely the process to be observed in its 
application to the metal surfaces prepared to receive it. 
Furthermore, he adds that in his time Tuscany was cele- 
brated for its works in niello." 

' Id. 264. ' The reading of some MSS. is Huscla 

* Id. 264. instead of Tuscia, but the latter is that 

^ Id. 264. geucrally received. Theophili Presby- 

^ Texicr, Manuel de rOrfiivrerie, p. teri et Monachi diversarum artium sche- 

1822. A ciborium of gilt mctnl, in the dula, ed. C. de TEscalopier, Paris, 1843, 

collectiou of the Hon. Robert Curzon, prof. p. 8, and note, p. 312; in Mr. Hen- 

jun., is decorated with lozenge-shaped drie's edition, accompanied by au English 

plaques of niello work and enameled translation, Lond. 1S47. this remarkable 

glass pastes, alternately. It is of Italian mention of niellurc as a Tuscan art occurs 

work, thirteenth century. Catal. Loan at prref. p. ,^0. See also Cicogn. Storia 

Exhibition, No. 1020. della Scult., Prato, 1823, t. iii. p. lo8. 


This is his recipe : — 

'• Take pure silver and divide it into two equal weights, 
adding to it a third j^art of pure copper. When you have 
placed these three quantities into a cast metal cup, weigh as 
much lead as half of the copper which you have mixed with. 
the silver weighs, and taking Yellow sulphur break it Yery 
small, and put the le;kd and part of this sulphur upon a small 
copper vessel, and place the rest of the suliihur in another 
cast metal cup. And when you have liquelied the silver 
with the copper, stir it eveidy with charcoal, and instantly 
pour into it the lead and sulphur fi'om the small copper cup, 
and again mix it well together with the charcoal, and with 
quickness pour it into the other molten cup upon the sulphur 
which 3'ou had put into it, and then putting down the small 
Yase with which you have poured out, take that into which 
you have cast it, and place it in the fire until the contents 
liquefy, and again stirring it together pour into the iron 
crucible. Before this cools, beat it a little and wai-m it a 
little, and again beat it and do thus until it is quite thinned. 
For the nature of it niello is such that if struck while cold it 
is inmiediately broken, and flies to pieces, nor should it be 
made so warm as to glow, because it instantly liquefies and 
flows into the ashes." Ch. xxviii., ed. Ilendrie.. p. 237. 

Lril)artc describes a nielloed plaque of the end of the 
twelfth century, which he considers to be of French work. 
The subjects allude to the sacrifice of Christ, and his triumj)h 
over death. One of the compartments represents Abel and 
Melchisedec, the other Jesus on the Ciuss, with an alle- 
gorical figure of the Holy Church, which receives in a chalice 
the blood flowing from Our Lord's wounds. On the other 
side is the Synagogue, ty])iiying the Mosaic, 
with averted head and broken banner. Our Blessed Lady 
and St. John are also delineated.^ 

During the next two centuries we meet wilh many 
examples of niello. Of the thirteenth, the most im])ortant, 
as well as the most interesting specimen of its kind, is a 
super-altar in the pos.session of the Vcr}' llev. Canon Rock. 
Tlic stone of which this ])recious object is formed is 
(ilfispro orirntiib', let into a solid jMcce oi" wood encnsed in 
silver. On the upper surface there is a border, 1 }, in. in 

" Sco Lubiirtc, llaiulljook of Uii' Ailn, p. 98. 


Supcv-altar, of oriental jasper, with sUver-gilt oniameuts enriched with niello.— Date, thirteenth century. 

In the pos.scssion of the Very Rev. Canon Rock, P. D. 

Dimensions, 12 in. by 7J in. Fonncrlj- in the Treasury of the Abboy of Avellaim. 


r-^ ■ 


width, of silver gilt, so placed as to liide the wooden bed in 
"svhich the marble is set. This border is ornamented with 
scrolls, some cut with the graving tool, others filled up 
with niello. At the four corners are figured the elements, 
symbolized by young maidens, each wearing a diadem. In 
the middle of the furthermost border appears a nimbed lamb, 
holding the cross staff, with a bannerol and two transoms, a 
chalice is on the ground before the Agmis, to receive the 
blood which gushes from its breast. To the right is a nimbed 
angel holding a long sceptre ; on the left another nimbed 
angel, with the orb of sovereignty surmounted by a double- 
transomed cross. In the centre of the nearer border a dove, 
nimbed, stands upon an altar. (See woodcuts).^ 

Although niellure was practised in Germany and else- 
where at this time, it was nowhere more commonly employed, 
cither with greater success or more important results, than in 
Italy. The German goldsmiths, according to Passavant,^ filled 
up the engraved plates with a sort of black composition or 
inferior kind of niello, an example of which may be seen on 
a copper plaque of the first half of the fourteenth century, 
representing the Blessed Virgin, and which was formerly 
attached to the west door of the church of Our Lady at 
Halberstadt. Another example occurs on the votive tablets 
of the Abbot Ludwig, in 1477, made by Wolfgang, a skilful 
goldsmith who worked at Augsburg : of these plates some 
impressions were struck off. But in the sixteenth century 
they applied themselves again to niellure, and we frequently 
meet with little plaques and silver objects ornamented with 
niello, destined for personal use. Mr. Octavius Morgan, 
M.P., possesses a baldrick of crimson and gold brocade velvet, 
with nielloed plaques at the ends charged with the armorial 
bearings of the Malatesta family, lords of Rimini and Cesena. 
A fine silver drinking cup with a cover, of Flemish work, 
and of this date, is in the British Museum. 

In France, niello-work was much practised during the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. 
The glossary by M. de Laborde enumerates many examples 
of nielloed objects, dating from 1260 to 1566, including 
book-covers, reUquaries, hanaps, nefs, clasps of gold, cameos 

' Tbi3 fine work is figured in Cico- CalcograSa, &c., aud in Arch. Jouru., vol. 
gnai-a, Mem. Sp.ttauti alia Storia della iv., p. ■HI. ' Page 2'J4. 

332 ox XIELLO. 

set in nielloed gold mountings ; a clialico ; several basins for 
washing in, a cover for a book of the Gospels, a small 
pastoral staff', many rings, and other articles. These quota- 
tions show how general was the use of niello in Trance. 

We must now retrace our steps to Italy. Here a succes- 
sion of celebrated niellists flourished, and, although many of 
their works have perislied, not a few choice examples of 
their skill have been preserved. Dr. Rock possesses a silver- 
gilt chalice, the work of Master Bartholomew Sir-pauli of 
Atri, formerly belonging to the Gaetani family, and supposed 
to have been one of the chalices made for Boniface VIII. 
(1291 — 1303). Around the stem is an inscription in niello, 
.statino; that it was made for Antonius Sabini.- 

In the church of Sta. Maria di Mercato at San Severino, 
there is a reliquary containing the hand of St. Philip the 
Apo.stle. On this capsa there are two nielU in the form of the 
Greek cross, and eight small medallions, whilst on the base 
of the stand is the name " Gcrardus Jacobi Cavalca do 
Bononia I. cam," who executed this work in 1326. And at 
the same place there is also a cross ornamented with nielli 
of the date 1370, the work of Pietro Vanini of Ascoli. 

Of this date there is a ring in my collection 
with the names catarina v uicola, nielloed.'' 

In Cremona, niellure was much practised. 
In the cathedral there is a cross, the work of 
tlio celebrated Beato Facio of Verona, in the 
year 12G2, and the only existing specimen of 
liis proficiency. Mention is made of other niellists at 
Cremona: Tominaso Fodri in 14G5 ; Ambrogio Pozzi and 
Atrostino Sacchi of Milan, in 1478 ; Innocenzo Ih'onzctti 
of Cremona, in 1479 ; Pietro di Campo in 1500 ; and 
Geronimo di I'ratu in ir;.3(). At Cividale, in 1374, Maestro 
Dondino qu'". Brimorio executed, for the church i»f St. 
Donato, tlie bust of that Saint oi'namented with nielli. 
Forzorc, son of Spinello of Arczzo, is cited as excelling in 
niell". He was the scholar of j\laestro Ciono, about 1330. 

In the inventory of Cliarles V. of J'^rance, a curious piece 
of Italian niello-work is thus described, — "uno nef d'argent 
dorce sans couvcscle, semec do ])icces niellees, et do cristaux, 
donn^e au Hoy par Ic Pape Gregoire (1370 — 1378)."'' 

' Joum. Arcli. lunt., vol. .xvii., p. l!On. ' Arcli. Journ., vol. xvi., p. 11*2. 

' L. <\f Labordo, GloB«ary. 


Brunellesclii, the celebrated architect, born in 1377, was 
a goklsmith in early hfe, and ^Yas highly in repute for his 
works in niello. 

A Mk5. of the early part of the fifteenth century, and 
formerly belonging to Cardinal Alberti, is now preserved 
in the Library at Montpelier. It contains notices upon 
the materials and processes used in the arts, and amongst 
other recipes gives one for niello which is the same as, that 
of Eraclius already quoted.'' 

It w^as about the middle of the fifteenth century that 
niellure attained its greatest perfection, and with it arc 
associated the names of many illustrious artists. Francesco 
Francia of Bologna, the master of Marc Antonio, may be 
mentioned ; also Jacopo Porta of Modena, who in 1486 exe- 
cuted a Pax for the cathedral of his native city; and Peregrine 
da Cesena, who nielloed a beautiful little Pax representing 
St. Jerome, now in the British Museum. 

There are, moreover, the two sides of a cover of the 
Gospels which belonged to Pope Paul IL, and wdiich were 
executed during his reign, 1464 — 1471. The designs in 
niello are of extraordinary beauty. One of them was in the 
Manfrini Collection at Venice ; the other, I behove, is in the 
possession of the Duke of Hamilton. 

The Florentine jewelers were distinguished for proficiency 
in niellure. Amongst celebrated niellists at Florence may 
be named Matteo di Giovanni Dei, who, according to Gori, 
executed in 1455 for the church of St. John a Pax repre- 
senting the Crucifixion. He also engraved another with the 
subject of the Conversion of St. Paul ; this was never 
finished, and no niello was applied to it. It is in the 
Uffizi at Florence. Still more distinguished than Matteo 
Dei, was Antonio del Pollajuolo, who was a painter as well 
as a goldsmith. Speaking of him, Cellini says , " fu orefice 
excellentissimo e cotanto valse nell" arte del disegno, die non 
pure gl' altr' orcfici si servirono delle sue invenzioni, ma 
molti Scultori e Pittori di quel tempi, mediante quelli, se 
fecero onore."-*^ 

Contrasted with our modern ideas, this is indeed a curious 
passage, for it shows how, at that time, a jeweler could not 

5 Heiidrie'a Transl. of Thcoi)bilus, p. ^ Arte dcU' Oreficeria : cd. prin. 1, b, 


;334- ox KIELLO. 

j»av liis brother craftsman a greater compliment than by 
adopting his designs and inventions. 

Amongst other works, Pollajuolo executed several Paxes, 
all of \Yhich, with one exception, have ])erished. This is now 
preserved in Florence, and represents the Taking down from 
tlie Cross. I believe it is doubtful whether he executed many 
nielli. The names of other niellists have been recorded. Ameri- 
ghi and Michael Angelo Bandinelli, at Florence ; Francesco 
Furnio, Bartolomeo Gesso, and Geminiano Rossi, at Bologna ; 
Ambrogio Froppa of Pavia, Giacomo Tagliacarnc of Genoa, 
Teucro the son of Antonio, and Giovanni Turino of Sienna, 
one of the pupils of Pollajuolo. In addition to these maybe 
mentioned Antonio Danti, Pietro Dini, Gavardino, and Leo 
Giovanni Battista Alberti. These artists are mentioned, not 
in connection with any great works of art, but as having 
executed objects for church and other purposes, and adorned 
them with nielli. 

We now come to the most important part of the History 
of niello — the discovery of Chalcography. 

We have abundant evidence from old authors, as well as 
from existing examples, that the art of plate-engraving was 
known to the ancients,' but we have no proof that they had 
discovered how to take impressions from the plates. The 
invention of that art was reserved for Italy, and it seems to 
liavc owed its discovery to an accident. 

At the head of all the artists in niello must be placed 
Tommaso, commonly called ]Maso, di Finiguerra. He was 
the scholar of Masaccio, and an admirable workman in niello, 
in which his proficiency has never been surpassed. In 1452, 
when only twenty-four years of age, he was employed l)y the 
merchants of Florence to execute for the Baptistery of St. 
John the celebrated Pax representing the coronation of the 
Blessed \'irgin. It was this Pax which letl to the dis- 
covery of chcdcograj)hy. 

" From this kind of engraving," says Vasari, "was derived 
tiic art of chalc<)grai)]iy, l)y means of which we now sec so 
many prints by Italian and German artists throughout Italy ; 
for, as those wlio worked in silver, before they filled their 

' PliDy onumcrntofl, as cBpocially ex- rolygnotuH, who, ho ndilH, wore nico 
" "p: ill tho nrt of cngmving ou Bilver, inoHt exctlk'nt and renowned pniiitcr.".- 
■ Uit, I'rodoruM, rithodcouH, and 1J1>. 31. 

ox XIELLO. o35 

engravings with niello, took impressions of them with earth, 
over which they poured liquid sulphur, so the printers dis- 
covered the way of taking off impressions from copper plates 
with a press as we sec them do in these days." ^ 

Vasari continues — " The art of copper-plate engraving 
derived its origin from Maso Finiguerra, a Florentine gold- 
smith, about the year 1460. For it w^as the custom of that 
artist, whenever he had engraved any work in silver which 
w^as to be filled with niello, to take an impression or mould of 
it previously with very fine earth ; over this mould he 
poured melted sulphur, from which when cold the earth was 
removed ; the sulphur cast then exhibiting an impression 
corresponding with the engraved plate was, lastly, rubbed 
with soot moistened with oil, until all its cavities were filled 
with black, when the wdiole produced an effect similar to 
that which the niello afterwards gave to the engraving on 
the silver. He also took impressions upon damped paper 
with the same dark tint, pressing a round roller, smooth in 
every part, over the paper, by which means his works became 
printed, the impressions so taken assuming the appearance 
of drawings done with a pen.'^ 

Hence it appears that the impressions which Finiguerra 
was accustomed to take from his engraved silver plates were 
of two kinds. The first was an impression on fine earth 
from which a sulphur cast was taken ; the second was on 
paper, from the plate itself, by means of a roller. The Hon, 
R. Curzon, jun., possesses an unique impression of a niello on 
vellum, an object of the greatest rarity. 

The practice of taking sulphur casts from engraved plates 
before filling the incised lines with niello was customary with 
those who exercised the art. Finio-uerra was followed in 


his invention of taking impressions on paper from engraved 
plates by Baccio Baldini ; afterwards the secret became 
known to ]\Iantegna at Rome, and travelled to Germany and 

It is gratifying to be able to state, that, of the twenty-four 
sulphur casts wdiich are known to exist, eighteen are in the 
British Museum. Of these, there is one which deserves 
special mention. It is the cast of the famous Pax of Maso 

^ I have used Ottley'a translation, tion of the text of Vasari. See Enquiry 
which is preferable to a literal transla- into the origin of Engraving, vol. i., p. 267. 


FiniiTiicrra, now at Florence. Dr. AVaa<rcn says : — '' It is 

• Ok/ 

cliiefly indebted for its celebrity to the circnmstance that 
the Abbot Zani, the finest judge of Italian engraving, disco- 
vered in 1797 an impression of it on paper in the Koyal 
Cabinet of Engravings at Paris, which he conceived to be 
the same, which, accordino; to Vasari s account, led to the 
invention of engraving. Since then, this impression has been 
considered by many judges to be the first and oldest of all 
engravings."^ Doubts exist, however, I believe, whether 
the impression of Finiguerra's Adoration of the ^lagi 
was not earlier than that of the Coronation of the Blessed 

Several of the other sulphur impressions in the British 
^luseum are described by Dr. Waagen. Our National Collec- 
tion is also rich in impressions of nielli on paper. The actual 
nielli in the British ]\ruseum amount to ninety ; and in addi- 
tion may be enumerated one undoubtedly spurious. It is 
indeed very useful, for the sake of study and of comparison, 
to have access to an undoubted forgery. 

We have abundant evidence from existing examples that, 
at this period, niello was employed in the ornamentation 
of many articles of personal use. Knife-handles, weapons, 
girdle-clasps, chalices, crosses, brooches, and rings were often 
decorated in this manner. Several interesting nielli are jire- 
served in the Museum at Kensinirton. In the Loan Collection 
a very remarkable j)air of stirrups wei'c exhibited by Mv. 
Forman. They are of the Arab model but of fine Italian 
work, and profusely ornamentc<I with niello and enamel. A 
gold pectoral cross formerly Itolonging to Sir Thomas ^fore, 
and now preserved at Stonyhurst, has all the instruments of 
the passion represented in niello on the back. 

I may be permitted here to invite at- 
tention to several Florentine nielloed i-iiigs 
in my own collection. Tliey bear on the 
bezel, the head of a female in profile, with 
a flower under the nose. Occasionall}'' such 
Hiivcr u.i.Kni.,,.i.,.-.i will, rings have on the hoop the fr(/r oi- two 
■ Jiands conjoMied. 
With the exception of two in the collection rormcd by ]\[r. 
Isaacs, subsequently the i)r(»perty of tlu; late Lord Loudes- 

« Wung.ii, i, p. 212. 


borougli, and a moJern forgery in a public collection, I know 
of no other rings of this class, neither can I find mention of 
them by any author. They appear to have been unknown 
to Cicognara and Ducliesne. I have given my explanation 
of their object and use in a previous volume of this Journal,^ 
and the theory I then propounded has been confirmed by an 
inscription on a niello in the Bibliotheque Imperiale, de- 
scribed in Duchesne's Essai sur les Nielles, No. 322. 

It is remarkable that an art so much cultivated, and 
attended with such important results in the fifteenth centur}', 
should have fallen into disuse in the early part of the six- 
teenth. It would appear that, by the accidental discovery 
of chalcograj:)hy, Finiguerra gave the death-blow to that art 
in which he excelled every other craftsman. In 1515 
Benvenuto Cellini wrote, that, when he set himself to learn 
the goldsmith's art, niellure was almost entirely laid aside. 
" Hearing continually," says he, " from the old goldsmiths 
how widely diff'used was this art, and especially how JMaso 
Finiguerra excelled in niellure, I with great zeal set myself 
to follow the footsteps of this brave jeweler. I was not 
content with learning only how to engrave the plates, but I 
would become acquainted also with the method of making 
the niello itself."" 

He then gives his recipe for niello, which consists of the 
following proportions : — of silver one ounce, of copper two, 
and of lead three. I am not aware that there exists any 
engraved nielloed plate, the undoubted work of Cellini. 

Towards the end of the sixteenth century niello-work 
seems to have fallen into disuse in Europe except in Russia. 
It is probable, however, that the Russians had learnt the art 
from the Greeks, at an early period, and that it never became 
lost. M. de Laborde mentions that he saw in Dresden a 
massive gold hofcliik, or drinking-cup, with a Sclavonic 
inscription in niello. This cup Avas stated to have belonged 
to John Basilovitch of Russia, 1462 — 1505. For some time 
past, as at the present day, niello has been much used in 
Russia for snuff-boxes and other objects. 

In the early part of this century there were several collec- 
tors of nielli, amongst others, Sir Mark Sykes in England, and 
Count Cicognara in Italy. The latter wrote a treatise upon 

* Arch. Jouru., vo\ xvi. p. 316. - Arte dell' Oreficeria, 11. 

VOL. XIX. 3 A 


the subject, niul ^l. Duchesne has also contributed a veiy 
vahiable work, his "Essai sur les Kiclles," which I have con- 
suhed with no shght advantage. 

The demand for nielli led, as is usual, to a supply of false 
work.s, skilfully prepared in Italy for the unsuspicious virtuoso. 
It is suspected that Cicognara was in some manner concerned 
in these forgeries. I am not competent to oiler an opinion, 
but I may observe that whenever an " unsatisfcictory" niello 
appears, it is generally ascribed to the Cicognara school. 
One of the Cicognara nielli may be seen in the British 
Museum ; and, as I have said before, it is of great advantage 
to have access to an unquestionable forgery. Another, 
which appears to bear the Cicognara stamp, may also be 
seen in one of our public collections. 

I should mention that Cicognara observes^ that by applica- 
tion of potash he succeeded in removing completely the niello 
from a silver plate, thus reducing it to the state in which it 
had left the engraver's hands, and from this he had im- 
pressions struck off. He then states that it is equally possible 
to restore the niello, and that with a httle practice an artist 
would be capable of undertaking a work of the finest de- 
.scription ; — '' scnza tenia di restare in dcfetto.""* And finally 
he admits that he could show some examples of both sorts. 

]\Iany of the imitative nielli, I am informed, were brought 
to Knglanil by a Venetian ; they were quickly regarded 
with suspicion, and he was advised to leave the country with 
his importations. On his way back to Venice, he stojiped in 
Paris, whuie it is understood that he accommodated an 
unwary collector with nielli to the amount of 2000/. ! 

In 1 833, Signor Fortunate Pio Castellani aj)plied himself 
to nielhne, and executed a very beautiful Pa.x, which is now 
preserved in his establishment in Rome, as a specimen of his 
art. He prepared his niello after the recipe of licnvenuto 

J\Ir. Ilardni.'in. of llirminL^liain, has lately sent to the Inter- 
national Kxliiltilion a clialice copiously ornamented with 
niello, which was |)r('par(Ml after the recipe of Thcophilus ; 
Mr. j'uwcll, wln) is the skilful supci'intendent of ihi' metal 
deparlmcnt in Mr. llardman's establishment, told me that it 
is excee<lingly dillicult to apply the niello to a convex 

• Moinorio RpcttiiDli ull;i .Storiii dolla Calcognifia, del Conto Ciooj^imm : Trato. 
1831, y. 38. * Jl>. p. -10. 



surface. Mr. White, of Cockspur Street, lias begun to adapt 
niello to the ornamentation of watch-cases ; and I under- 
stand that Mr. Skidniore, of Coventry, has revived niello- 
work in his establishment. But in none of the recent 
attempts to revive the lost art, so far as I have seen, has the 
dehcacj and fineness of ancient Italian nielli been obtained.^ 

In addition to the examples of ancient goldsmiths' work enriched with 
niello, which have heen noticed in the foregoing memoir, the following 
specimens preserved in our own country may he briefly cited. In the 
British Museum, — the Anglo-Saxon ornaments discovered some years since 
at Ash, in Kent, and figured in Boys' Ilist. of Sandwich ; they were pur- 
chased for the National Collection at the sale of antiquities in possession of 
the late Mr. B. Nightingale. Niello occurs also on the richly decorated 
relics of the same period disinterred in the Isle of Wight, and described 
by Mr. Ilillier in his History of the Island. Niello is to be seen freely 
introduced on the casing of the '* Barnan Cualawn," or Bell of St. Cualawn, 
a remarkable relic formerly in the collection of Mr. Cooke, of Parsonstown, 
Ireland, and now in the British Museum. This curious bell has been 
figured in the Transactions of the Kilkenny Archseological Society. The 
like enrichment is found, more sparingly, upon a bell exhibited in the 
Museum formed during the meeting of the Institute at Worcester. See the 
Museum Catalogue, p. 17. A very interesting specimen of early work in 
niello is presented in the aciis or spinula of mixed metal, partly silvered, 
in the collection of the Society of Antiquaries, one of those found in Ely 
Cathedral with the remains of Wolstan, Archbishop of York, and by which, 
it is believed, the pall was attached to his chasuble. Wolstan died at York 
in 1023, and was buried at Ely. His tomb having been opened in the 
twelfth century the vestments in which the body had been deposited were 
found in perfect condition, accoi-ding to the relation in the Liber Elicnsis, 
which expressly mentions the "casulam et pallium auratis spinulis afBxura.' 
Lib. II., c. 87, p. 206. Publ. of the Anglia Christiana Society. The relic 
measures 5-f^ in. in length ; the flat, lozenge-shaped head is ornamented with 
an interlaced design, inlaid with a kind of niello. Catal. Mus. Soc. Ant., p. 21. 
The example of Irish work in niello, of which, by the kindness of the Royal 
Irish Academy, a cut is here given, has been described in a previous page. 

Bronze Irish oruaiiieut inlaid with Niello. (See p. 328.) 

5 The most pcrft;ct list of nielli wliich 
lias yet ajipeared is t;iven iu the '"Peiutre- 
Graveur," by Dr. J. Passaviint, vol. i. pp. 
250-350, uud wiiicli has been of great 

assi.stanco to the writer on tlie present 
occasioa ; he has also availed himself of 
the works of Duchesne, Ottley, and 



Some antiquaries may perhaps deem the history of modern 
porccLain scarcely ^vithin tlic range of ai"cliajok)gical investi- 
gation. When we consider, however, how much this country 
owes to the industrial arts which have been practised here, 
ail}' investigation into the incunahnla or early history of those 
arts seems not only proper but desirable, such subjects some- 
times require as much research as historical questions of an 
earlier period, and are often shrouded rn greater obscurity. 

Any inquiry of this kind is the more appropriate when 
archaeologists have selected for their place of meeting the city 
of AVorcester, one of the ancient seats of the Ceramic art, 
where it has shone, and continues to shine, with great lustre. 

Every country has been wont to boast of having bccMi the 
first to create or bring to perfection some specific industrial 
art, and the writers on pottery and porcelain have claimed 
indirectly foi' England as early a fabric of porcelain as for 
any country in Europe. The claim of Meissen or Dresden 
to having been the first in Europe to make hard porcelain 
(in the year 170D) remains undisturbed, but it has been 
shown that at St. Cloud, in France, there was a yet earlier 
manufactory of soft porcelain, and it has been further pre- 
sumed that there was a contemporary manufactory of soft 
porcelain in Englan<l. 

Jioth these claims sink into insignificance before the 
uiKjuostionable priority of i'Morcnce,^ where it has been 
n-cf.'Utly ascertained that soft porc^elain was made, under the 
Medici, as early as 1.'375. Still it is desirable to see on what 

' Uea<l at tlio Worccntor Mcotiiifi; of ' Sen .Tiici|ii(>iimit <'t Ln IMuut, llintoiro 

the Arobioulogical Imttiluto, July, 18C2. di' 1 1 I'lircoiuinu, p. (j'^b. 


grounds rested the claim which was formerly put forth on 
behalf of England. 

Mr. ^larryat, in his useful history of Pottery and Porcelain, 
has the following passage :^ — 

" Of the origin of the porcelain manufactory at Chelsea, there does not 
exist any authentic record, though some information as to its early date 
has been incidentally gleaned. Ur. Martin Lister, an English physician 
and eminent naturalist, who travelled in France in 169.5, remarks in his 
account of the ' Potterie of St. Clou,' that the ' gomroon ware' at that time 
made in England was very inferior in quality to the porcelain of St. Cloud. 
He further observes that ' our men' (meaning the workmen employed) * were 
better masters of the art of painting than the Chineses,' alluding no doubt 
to the circumstance of oriental porcelain being painted at Chelsea before 
•the native ware attained its excellence. 

" From the above it may be inferred that there existed at Chelsea pre- 
viously to 1G9S, the date of Lister's account, a manufactory of porcelain 
(little better at first than opaque glass), and also that good painters were 
employed to embellish oriental porcelain, in consequence of its quality bein" 
very superior to that produced at home." 

The passage in Lister's work* to which Mr. Marryat 
alludes is as follows : — 

*• I saw the Potterie of St. Clou, with which I was marvellously well 
pleased, for I confess I could not distinguish betwixt the Pots made there, 
and the finest China Ware I ever saw. It will, I know, be easily granted 
me, that the Paintings may be better designed and finisht, (as indeed it 
was) because our Men are far better Masters in that Art than tlie Chineses ; 
but the Ghxzing came not in the least behind them, not for whiteness nor 
the smoothness of running without Bubles ; again the inward Substance 
and Matter of the Pots was to me the very same, hard and firm as Marble, 
and the self-same grain, on this side vitrification. Farther, the Trans- 
parency of the Pots the very same." 

Now it is quite evident that in this passage Lister under- 
stands by " our men," Europeans, as better skilled in the art 
of painting (not necessarily painting on porcelain) than the 
Chinese, and it is rather too much to rest on so slender a 
foundation the existence of porcelain making in England, or 
even that Chinese porcelain was decorated in this country. 

Further on Lister makes the following observations : — 

" 1 did not expect to have found it in this perfection, but imagined this 

^ History of Pottery and PorceLani by ^ A Journey to Pai-is in the year 1698, 

Joseph Marryat, 2ad Ed. London, 1S57, p. bv Dr. Martin Lister. 2ud Ed. London, 
276. 1099, p. 138. 


might have arrived at the Gomron Ware ; which is, iiuleed, little else 
but a total vitritication ; but I found it far otherwise, and very surprising, 
and which I account part of the felicity of the Age to equal, if uot surpass, 
the Chineses in their finest Art." 

It must be from this passage that Mr. Mariyat derived his 
statement that "the 'gomroon' ware at that time 7?mde iti 
Eit()l(ind was very inferior in quah'ty to the porcelain of St. 
Cloud;" every one must, however, allow that the passage will 
not adniit of this interpretation. 

While on the subject of Gomron, or Gombroon, ware, which 
nas been noticed in the same work in another passage ^ as 
the name given to Chinese porcelain in consequence of the 
East India Company liaving established an entrepot at the 
port of Gumbron in the Persian Gulf, I may perhaps be 
allowed to make a few remarks. It is quite evident from the 
jiassage in Lister that he considers Chinese porcelain and 
Gombroon ware as distinct. lie says he expected the St. 
Cloud to have been equal to Gombroon ware, which he looks 
upf>n as a!i actual vitrification, but he was much surj)riscd to 
find it equal to the best Chinese porcelain, which was only 
partial vitrification. Gombroon ware is, as far as I know, 
mentioned only once elsewhere, viz., in the Strawberry Hill 
Catalogue, ^ where Walpole notices " two basons of most 
ancient Gombroon china, a present from Lord Vere, out 
of the collection of Lady Elizabeth Germaine." Now 
Walpole knew ver}- well what Avas Chinese porcelain, and 
there must liave been some peculiarity about the ware in 
order that he should adopt another name. ]Uit there was a 
ware made in Persia itself, of which 8j)ecimens are to be met 
with occasionally, and which dillcrs from Oriental china in 
I)eiiig of inferior porcelain and more fusible. A specimen, 
which 1 Itelieve to be of this ware, was exhibited at AVoirestcr 
by Sir Edmund Lechmere, liart., and tin re were several 
examples in the Loan Exhibition at South Kensington.' 
SjK'cimens are f)rcservcd in the collections of .Air. Henderson, 
Sir Walter Trevelyan, Mr. iiuth, aii<l myself 

The ware in f|uestion may Ijc divided into two varieties, pos- 
sibly made at dillerent )>]aees ; one consists ehiellv of bowls, 
with a white granular p;iste, and (»nianiente(l w itli liules or slits 

* ''• ''*2. 7 Ciitnlogiio of llio Loan Collection, 

* I.< rd Oifotd'H Worka, 1708, vol. ii. No. 3321—83^1. 
p. iU. 


filled in with glaze ; the decorations are principally a few black 
and blue lines ; the other variety is of a white, very soft, paste 
with ornaments in a copper metallic lustre, sometimes placed 
on ground of an intense blue. 

Having thus disposed of Gombroon ware and Dr. Lister's 
account as evidence of the existence of an English porcelain 
manufactory in the seventeenth century, I may add that he 
expressly mentions^ the manufacture of red stoneware in 
England, probably that of the Elers. 

•' As for the Red Ware of China, that has been, and is done, in England 
to a far greater perfection than in China, we having as good Materials, viz., 
the Soft Haematites, and far better Artists in Pottery. But in this parti- 
cular we are beholden to two Dutchmen, Brothers, who wrouglit in Statford- 
shire (as I have been told), and were not long since at Hammersmith." 

And yet he says nothing of any porcelain having been made 
in England. 

As to the actual date of the manufactory at Chelsea, it is 
probable that it existed before 17-45; about that time a 
French company solicited a patent for establishing a porce- 
lain fabric at Vincennes, in which they are stated to have 
urged the benefit France would derive from counteracting 
the reputation of the German and English fabrics,^ I have, 
however, been unable to find the document in question. 
That the manufactory was in existence before 1752 is shown 
by "a case of the undertaker of the Chelsea manufac- 
ture of porcelain," ^ wiicre it is mentioned that the Duke 
of Orleans (who died in 1752) had tried the Chelsea paste 
in his kilns. The name of the undertaker is not given, 
but we learn from this document that he was " a silversmith 
by profession, who, from a casual acquaintance with a chemist 
who had some knowledge that way, was tempted to make a 
trial," but that at that time " the thing was new." Xow, 
from internal evidence, it is certain that the document was 
written after 1752, and probably before 1759. 

A direct proof, however, of the existence of Chelsea por- 
celain in 1745, is furnished by a specimen in Mr. William 
Russell's collection ; it is a white cream jug which has become 
warped in baking, the design is composed of two goats, and 
in front is a bee in relief, the wings of which are unfortu- 

8 p. 139. > Lansdowne MS. 829; printed iu 

' Manyat, 2ud Ed. p. 277. JIairyat's work. 



natelj broken. It is, in fact, one of tlie Avcll-known cream- 
jugs which have been sold of late years at fabulous prices as 
Bow Jugs, and of which a fine specimen from Dr. Bandinel's 
collection is represented in the accompanying wood-cut.- 


ill,. 1 ('..lU-ciion.) 

Like those jugs it lias at the bottom a ti'iangle scratched in 
the clay ; but below the triangle it has this peculiarity, that 
before baking there had been added " Chelsea, 1745." 



iJeforc IIk' discovery of this jug, which came IVdm Ihe 
collection oi" I)r. WCHcsh-y, and now belongs to -Mr. William 
liussell, the Accountant-Cieneral of (he Coni't of Chancery, 
1 jiad been led to exjiress a vei'v decided opinion that these 
jugs, and other s])ecimens of simil;ir china, were not made 

• Wr nro iiKiubted to llio kindiioHH of .\!r. Miirmv for tlio iiho of tliin cut. 


at Bow ; not only from tlici'c being no evidence of tlie 
triangle being a Bow mark, but from their differing com- 
pletely in paste and style of decoration from the only well 
authenticated specimen of Bow-ware, the bowl in the British 
Museum made by Thomas Craft.^ 

As an additional confirmation that china of this kind was 
made at Chelsea, I may notice that Walpole, in his Descrip- 
tion of Strawberry Hill,"* speaks of " two white salt-cellars, 
with crawfish in relief, of Chelsea china ;" a very uncommon 
design which I have found only once, viz., at the Earl of 
Ilchester's at Mclbur^'-, in Dorsetshire, where are four such 
salt-cellars, all marked with a triangle. 

We may, therefore, characterise the Chelsea of this early 
period as of a creamy paste, not unlike St. Cloud porcelain, 
with a satiny texture, very transparent body, often distorted 
in baking, and frequently left white. 

There is another class of Chelsea-ware which differs 
entirely from this in character ; it has very much the ap- 
pearance of oriental porcelain, is thickly made, but with well 
composed paste, and often decorated with oriental patterns. 
It is marked with an embossed anchor in the jDaste. 

Among the most remarkable specimens of this variety of 
porcelain may be mentioned a figure of a mother suckling 
a cliild,^ copied from Bernard Palissy's Nourrice, and also a 
bust of the Duke of Cumberland, a great patron of the ma- 
nufactory, of which an example is in the Jerm^'u Street 

Shaw, in his history of the Staffordshire Potteries," tells 
us that Aaron Simpson and six other Staffordshire workmen 
went in 1747 to work at the Chelsea china manufactory. 
That they soon ascertained that they were the principal 
workmen on whose exertions all the excellence of the por- 
celain must depend ; when they resolved to commence 
business on their own account at Chelsea, and were in some 
degree successful, but at length, owing to disagreement 
among tliemsclvcs, the}' abandoned it, and returned to Burs- 
lem, intending to commence there the manufacture of china. 
I merely mention this to show the changes and chances to 

3 See Arcli. Joiirn. vol. viii. p. 204. •• It is there described as of Plymoutli 

^ Lord Orford's Works, 1798, vol. ii. manufacture ; and catalogued under No. 

p. 409. Ce. E. 13. I liavc seen several examples 

" One is in my own eollection ; another with tlic raised anchor, 

belongs to the Earl Stanhope; a third to <■ Vlmo. Hanley, 1S29. 
Dr. Turner. 

VOL. XIX. 3 B 


which early manufactories such as this were subject, and how 
much diflcrence and sudden alterations of form and material 
wc may look for in a manufactory so dependent as this on 
the caprices of the workmen. 

Another period of the manufacture is characterised by 
being copied in some degree from Dresden porcelain ; it is 
generally decorated with delicate bunches of ilowers on a 
smooth white ground ; the glaze is very vitreous, the anchor 
mark, commonly in red, is neatly painted and small. The 
date of this mode of decoration seems to be fixed by a small 
smelling bottle in my collection which is in the form of a 
group, being a boy seated and writing a letter, while a girl 
looks on : the letter is inscribed, '• Fc : 1759, Tins is.'' 

There seems about this time to have been a considerable 
number of such little bottles, &c., made, as we learn from an 
advertisement which appeared in the Public Advertiser of 
December 17th, 1754, as well as in other papers, and ran 
as follows : — 

To be Sold by Audion by Mr. FORD, 

At his great Room in St. James's Hay-Maikct^ tliis ami the tour 
following Days, 

ALL the entire Stock of CHELSEA 
PORCELAIN TOYS, brought from the Proprietor's 
Warehoiife in Pall-Mall ; confirting of SnufF Boxes, Smelling 
Bottles, and Trinkets for Watches (mounted in Gold, and un- 
mounted) in various beautiful Siuipes, of an elegant Defign, and 
curioufly painted in Enamel, a large Parcel of Knife Hafts, &c. 

The faid Stock may be view'd till the Time of Sale, which 
will begin each Day at half an Hour after Eleven o'clock. 

Note, Moft of the above Things are in Lots fuitable for 
Jewellers, Golilliniths, Toydiops, China-Shops, Cutlers, and 
Workmen in thofe Branches of Bufinel^. 

Catalogues may be liad at Mr. FOKD's, at Six Pence each, 
which will be allowed to thofe who are Purchafers. 

The kind ofC'liiiia most in vogue at this time i.s illustrated 
by the advertisements i.ssued by various dealers in such 
wares, for instance some of those in.serted in (lie Public 
Advertiser by Mr. Hughes, Ironmonger in Pall jAlall. who, in 
his advertisement of 31ay 2, 1755, 

*' bcgB Icixvc to infunn tlio Noliilily, (icnlrj, nml ollicrs (hat Iio lias iv 
greater Clioicc of the Cliclsca roiccluiii than any i)talcr in London, both 


useful and ornamental ; anil as tliey were bought cheap can be sold more 
reasonable than tlicj can be made at the manufactory. He has compleat 
.services of Plates and Dishes, Tureens, Sauce-boats, <kc., which no one 
else has; several Elegant Epargnes for Dcsarts, and one beautiful one 
bought at the last sale ; several Figures and greatest Choice of Branches 
with the best Flowers, such as were on the Chandelier at the last Sale ; 
and upwards of three thousand of those Flowers to be sold by themselves 
so that Ladies or Gentlemen may n^.ake use of them in Grottos, Branches, 
Epargnes, Flower-pots, &e., agreeable to their own taste." 

The next style may be termed in the French taste, and to 
it belong some of the finest specimens of the manufactory. 
They are chiefly vases, painted somewhat in imitation of the 
Vincennes and early Sevres porcelain, with figures, birds, &c., 
in panels, and with rich grounds, either gros-blcu, turquoise, 
apple-green, or a claret colour, a tint rarely found on other 
porcelain. Many fine specimens of this variety of Chelsea are 
preserved in the collections of English amateurs. Their date 
seems to be fixed by a pair of vases in the British Museum, 
no less than 20 in. high ; they have panels with figures on 
one side and with birds on the other ; the ground is (jvos-hlcu, 
with rich and massive gilding. They were presented 15th 
April, 1763, and are thus noticed in the Donation-book of 
the Museum. 

" Two very fine porcelain jars of the Chelsea manufactory, 
made in the year 1762, under the direction of Mr. Sprimont: 
from a person unknown, through Mr. Empson.'^ 

As this was the same date at which a still finer vase of 
the same porcelain, perhaps the centre piece of the pair in 
the jMuseum, M'as presented to the Foundling Hospital by Dr. 
Garnier, the unknown donor may have been that gentle- 

At any rate, if this date be correct, they fix 1762 as the 
period at which these large and imjoortant specimens were 
being made. 

There is another style to be noticed, consisting of vases, 
&c., which, had they not been marked with an anchor, 
w^e should have been disposed to class among the productions 
of the Derby manufactory."^ They may have been the latest 
productions of Chelsea. They arc characterised by simplicity 
and elegance of forms, with the frequent occurrence of gold 
stripes. Some of the early Derby was made after the same 
models and in the same taste. 

^ See, for instance, Marryat, Qud EJ. (1857); il. iv., Xo. 7. 


The close of the Chelsea porcelain manufactory, which had 
shone so brightly during its short career, has been referred 
to about 17G5, in which 3'ear Mr. Grosle}"" visited England : 
he speaks of the manufactoiy having just fallen; but at any 
rate its eifects were not sold off till 1769, as is shown by the 
following advertisement, which appeared in the Gazetteer, or 
New Daily Advertiser, of May, 17G9. 

At his Auflion room in Charles-ftreet, Berkelcy-lquarc, on 
Wcdnefday the 17th of May, and tlie following days, by 
order of Mr. N'lCHOLAS SPREMOXT, the Proprietor of 
the Chelfea Porcelain Manufaiflory, he having entirely left ofF 
making the fame, 

ALL the curious and truly matchlefs pieces of 
that valuable manufai^tory j confiiting of beautiful vafcs, 
antique urns, perfume pots, table and deflert fervices, tea and 
coffee equipages, compatiers, leaves. Sec, beautiful candlefticks of 
different fliapes; variety of figures, very large and curious groups, 
particularly two groups of the Roman Charity, toilet boxes of 
various forms and fizes, and many other articles, moft highly 
finiOied in the mazarine blue, crimfon, pea-gjeen and gold, finely 
painted in figures, birds, fruit, and flowers, enriched with gold 
and curioufly chafed. 

To be viewed on Monday the 15th, and till the falc. 

N. B. Likewife will be fold all the fine models, mills, kilns, 
prclfes, buildings, and all other articles belonging to this molt 
dirtinguilhed manufactory. For luither particulars apply to the 
faid Sir. Burnfall. 

Before concluding these scanty notes, it may be well to 
call attention to a passage in a work entitled '^ Handmaid to 
the Arts," written, I believe, by Robert Dossie, which ma}^ 
furnish indications useful to future inquirers. The first 
edition a])peared in 1758, in one volume 8vo, and does not 
contain any mention of "China-ware." In the second 
edition, published in two volumes, in 17G4, })art iv. vi' vol. 
2, is devoted to the " nature, composition, glazing, painting, 
and gilding of porcelain or china-ware, &c." In the prcHice 
to vol. 2 the following reason is given for inserting this 
portion : " In the fourth part the nature and manufacture of 
porcelain or china-ware is taught, which will be doubtless 
accf'ptable at this time, when attemi)ts arc making to 
cstabhsh manufactories in our own country." After dc- 
.scribing various compositions of j)aste, etc., the following 
pasangc occurs (vol. 2, j). 30 1) : — 


" There have been several snnilar compositions used for the imitation of 
China-ware in the works set on foot in ditfercnt parts of Europe, and 
among the rest I have seen at one of tliose carried on near London eleven 
mills at work grinding pieces of the Eastern China, in order, Ly the addition 
of some fluxing or vitreous substance which might restore the tenacity, to 
work it over again in the place of new matter. The ware commonly pro- 
duced at this manufactory had the characters correspondent to such a 
mixture, for it was grey, full of flaws and bubbles, and from want of due 
tenacity in the paste wrought in a very heavy clumsy manner, especially 
with regard to those parts that are to support the pieces in drying. A 
very opposite kind is produced in another manufactory in the neighbour- 
hood of London, for it has great wliiteness, and a texture that admits of its 
being modelled or cast in the most delicate manner ; but it is formed of a 
composition so vitrescent as to have almost the texture of glass, and conse- 
quently to break or crack if boiling water be suddenly poured upon it. 
which quality renders it unfit for any uses but the making ornamental 
pieces. A later manufactory at "Worcester has produced, even at very 
cheap prices, pieces that not only work very light, but which have great 
tenacity, and bear hot water without more hazard than the true China 
ware. ' ' 

It is probable that the -writer, ^Yho was, unfortunately, un- 
■willing to mention the manufactories by name, intended to 
speak of Bow and Chelsea. It is, however, possible that 
there were more than two manufactories in the neighbour- 
hood of London, as ma}'- be gathered from a paragraph in the 
London Chronicle of 1755, which is as follows : — 

" Yesterday four persons, well skilled in the making British China, were 
engaged for Scotland, where a new porcelain manufacture is going to be 
established in the manner of that now carried on at Chelsea, Stratford, and 

I feel certain, that if the newspapers of the period, both 
local and metropolitan, were carefully examined, much 
curious matter might be brought together, which would 
throw light on many debated points in the history of por- 
celain.^ In concludino; these remarks, I will venture to sua'- 
gest the importance of collecting together such scattered 
notices, which are far more useful and far more to be de- 
pended upon than the vague opinions formed by collectors, 
resting frequently on hearsay, and on a misconception of 
the true bearing of some fact or document which is not 
given in fuU.^ 

' I am indebted to Mr. Gale, of Holborn, iu preparation by Mr. Llewellyn Jewitt, 

for having given me, some years since, F.S.A., for the Art Journal: lie will no 

two of the advertisements in question. doubt throw much light on a subject 

' An account of Chelsea porcelain is which he is so well quahfied to handle. 

Orirjinal Dorumfuts. 


Ik rossEssiox or the RIGHT HON. LORD CLIFFORD. 

The recent examination of the vestiges of the church anil conventual 
buildinga of Chertscy Abbey, one of the most ancient ami important monas- 
teries in tlie counties adjacent to Loiulon, has excited no slight interest in 
its history and the traces of its former greatness. The members of the 
Institute were indebted not long since to the kindness of Mr. Shurlock, of 
Chertsey, and of Mr. Angell, who has lately fixed his abode within the 
conventual precincts, in bringing before the Society an interesting narration 
of the results of excavations earnestly prosecuted under their direction with 
the encouragement and co-operation of the Surrey Artha;ulogical Society, 
and of the Society of Antiquaries. With the impression of the evidence thus 
l)rought to light fresli in remembrance, demonstrating, as it has done, the 
ancient architectural importance of the fabric, and the remarkable character 
of its accessory decorations, shown by tlic shattered relics recently dis- 
interred and brought for our inspection, the kindness and courtesy of Lord 
ClilFord cannot fail to be the more cordially appreciated, in entrusting for 
examination the valuable Register of Chertsey in times of its greatest 
prosperity. We desire also to acknowledge our obligation to the friendly 
mediation of the Very Rev. Canon Rock, — ever ready to contribute to our 
gratification, — through whose request on our behalf Lord Clillord has con- 
sented to send the its., which has been preserved in his library at Ugbrookc 
Park, Devon.' 

The foundation of the monastery of Chertsey may perliaps be dated 
from Saxon times ; Frithcwnld, suhrcgnhis of Surrey, and Erkenwald, 
afterwards Bishop of Loudon, arc reputed to have been the founders; 
confirmation charters were granted by Olla and JUhclwulf. After ravages 
Ity the Danes in the ninth century, JCthclwnld, Bisliop of Winchester, is 
believed to liave been the '* rcptinttov" of the wasted monastery. Its 
po-BSCSsions were augmented by Edward the Confessor, and on many other 
occa-sions it enjoyed royal favor. At no period, however, it is believed, 
was the prosperity of the convent more amply cstabli.'^hed than in (he times 
of Abbot .John do Ruthcrwyke, during the reigns of Edwanl II. and 
Eilward in. lie was chosen in I.'IO?, and died in 13 IG. Tlic volumo 
under consideration contains a circumstantial record, year by year, of tlio 

' Thm Uo;(iiitor is not noticed in tho Cartularies compiled by Sir Tlioinas 
recent fidifion of Duf^dnlo'n MoniHlicon. I'liillippH, Coll. Top. vol. i., and in Siius' 
Maultou in mo'io of it in tho List «f Mnniml for Gi'UcnlogiHts, <\c., p. 16. 


greater part of his energetic administration ; it justifies the culoo-ies 
expressed elsewhere, regarding this " religiosisslmus pater, prudentissimus 
ct utilissimus dominus," of whom it is said that he was "quasi dicti loci 
secundus fundator, et ominum substantialium honorum reformator, et 
raancriorum substantialis reparator."- In 1341 Edward III. with his 
court had visited Chertsey Abbey, and he appears to have shown special 
favor towards the abbot and the religious community. It will be no 
matter of surprise that minute records were preserved of every transaction 
in the times of an abbot who seems to have ever been on the watch to 
promote the welfare of the monastery. Besides the MS. in Lord Cliflbrd's 
possession, another and somewhat more complete transcript of the acts of John 
dc Rutherwyke is preserved in the British Museum, in Lansdownc MS., No. 
435. It commences from his election as abbot, Aug. 9, 1307, and ends in 
1344. An abstract of some of its contents, which are identical, throughout 
the corresponding years, with those of the Register in Lord Clifford's 
library, may be found in the Monasticon, Calcy's edition, vol. i., p. 424, 
where a few extracts of remarkable miscellaneous entries are also given. 
A curious little figure of the abbot, seated and holding a crosier in his 
right hand, a book in his left, is introduced in the initial letter on the 
first page. 

Some years have elapsed since the MS. before us was submitted to the 
careful examination of our late venerable friend, the Rev. Dr. Oliver, 
whose labors have done so much to illustrate the monastic and ecclesias- 
tical antiquities of the West of England. We avail ourselves with pleasure 
of a note from his pen, prepared for a local periodical to which he was 
frequently a contributor. 

" The folio MS. consists of 153 leaves, and has been fairly preserved. 
Owing to the ignorance of the binder the series of events has been dis- 
united and thrown into some confusion,'' and unfortunately some leaves have 
perished. The principal part of the MS. relates to the acts of John de 
Rutherwyk, who was abbot during the greater part of the reign of Edward 
II., and certainly for 19 years of the reign of his son Edward III. A few 
deeds which belong to his predecessors, Alanus, "William, and Bartholomew, 
are copied into the MS. One cannot sufficiently admire the precision and 
method with which these Chartularies were kept, with what diligence the 
crown grants, and purchases and exchanges were registered, and the yearly 
events of the monastery recorded. The MS. bears intrinsic evidence of 
the zeal and ability which, distinguished the government of John de 
Rutherwyk. He appears to have been unwearied in improving agriculture, 
draining marshes, sowing acorns, inclosing lands, building stone bridges, 
repairing the farm-houses, erecting mills, and adding to the Abbey 

The prudent care of the abbot in purveying fur a growth of oak timber 
is not undeserving of notice ; it might be interesting to some persons 
familiar with the neighbourhood of Chertsey to ascertain whether any 

- Leiger Book of Chertsey, in the ^ The volume, as now disarranged. 
Queen's Remembrancer's Office in the commences with the year 1330, and con- 
Exchequer; this valuable record appears tinues to 1342, after which occur the 
to have been written in 10 Henry VI. acts of 1313 to 1329, inclusive, followed 
Considerable use has been made of this by those of 1344 and 1345, to which are 
record by Mr. Manning, Hist, of Surrey, appended some documents apparently 
vol. iii. p. 210. of a later time and in a different hand. 


venerable tree, the produce of an acorn set by Abbot Jobn in tbc fourteenth 
century, may still be found in one of tlie sites here mentioned. In the 
Lansdowne Kegister it appears that, in 1307, he planted oaks and sowed 
acorns at Ilerdew^'che in Chertsey, and that he planted a wood called South 

Under the year 1331, in Lord Cliflord's Register, the following entry 
occurs (f. 2, vo.) : " Eodem anno seminavit glandias [sic) inter Wynesrude 
et le Calewestoubby." In 1339 also — " Abbas fecit seminare cum glau- 
dibus quandam placeam apud Ilcrdcwych vocatam Calewstobbyrude." 

We may commend to our friends in those parts of Surrey, who take an 
interest in the growth of ancient trees, to pursue the inquiry ; so favor- 
able an occasion, possibly, for fixing the precise age of some ancient oak 
may rarely have occurred. 

The Abbot of Chertsey held lands by knight-service, and appears in the 
Liber Siijcy as owing to the king three kniglits. In 1314, when Edward 
II. mustered the force of his realm against tlie Bruce for the succour of 
Stirling castle, and the English loll in multitudes at the bloody fight of 
IJannockburn, the Abbot appears to have rendered his service by Kaulinus 
do Waltham, possibly of Wliite Waltham, Berks, where the monastery of 
Chertsey had jiossessions ; Raulinus perished in that fatal slaughter under 
the walls of Stirling, as recorded in the following entry, under 7 Edw. II. : 
— " Eodem anno isdem Abbas fecit servicium guerre in Scocia per Rau- 
linum de AValthani, qui ocoubuit apud Stryvclyn, cujus animam Deus 
absolvat ; amen." (f. 51.) 

The following note under the year 1326 may deserve mention : — " Et 
memorandum quod vlcesimo none die Januarii ejusdcm anni dominus 
Edwardus tercius post conqucstum inccpit regnare, quamvis ainuis vicesimus 
patris ejus in multis rotulis Compotorum coutinuatur usque ad fostuni 
sancti Michaclis proxime scquens." The deposition of Edward II. appears 
to have occurred on Jan. 2U, and on Jan. 24 Edward the Third's peace 
was proclainied, stating that Edward II. was deposed; Edward III. 
received the Great Seal on Jan. 28, and the writs to the sheriffs acquaint- 
ing them with his accession were tested on the 29th. 

On f. 129, vo., tlicrc are a few entries by a later and different hand ; 
the following lias been noticed by Dr. Oliver, in his short account of this 
register, above-cited, and al.--o by a subsequent writer on the history of 
the Abbey. It is, however, of such interest as a contemporary record 
regarding the fall of the tower of the conventual church, in loTO, that it 
may here be repeated. 

" liuiiia turris nostrl magnl de Certeseia. — Mcmoraiuluin, quod amio 
ilomini millesimo ccc.'"" l.x.x.""', nonis Julii, viilelicet feria iiij.', in crastino 
dcposicionis Sancti Swithuni Ej>iscoj)i, immediate post capituhun, dum con- 
ventus starct ad iucipiendum parliamentuin, media pars campanilis nostri in 
maccria ruebat ad ymum tcrre, ad danqmum irrecuparabile dicti monas- 
terii nostri." 

In 134.''5 William de Kutherwykc, of I"'i;ham, granted to the Abbot and 
Convent of Chertsey certain lands in ligham, at that lime held by Avicia do 
Kutherwykc for her life. Tiiis transaction is recorded in tlie I'^xchequer 
Lci^^or, us briefly mentioned in Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, vol. 
iii., p. 215. The partien in {(ueslion were doubtless related to the Abbot ; 
William do Kutherwykc had licence f(»r a chapel in his mansion at Eghain, 
12 Juno, 131(5, as ajqtcars by Bi.'jhnp Ivlindons Register at Winchester, 


ami it was renewed in March, 1351. These lands may, it is supposed, have 
been part of the Trottesworth estate ; there are a wood and meadows at IJake- 
liam, in Egham parish, now called Kutherwyks.^ The origin of the family 
is not known; tlicir name may have been taken from Rotherwick in Hamp- 
shire. In the arrangement successfully negotiated by the Abbot with his 
kinsman (as supposed), on this occasion, and fully recorded in the Register 
entrusted to us by Lord Clifford, one remarkable feature is a Corrody, 
granted by the Abbot and Convent to the said William de Rutherwyke and 
Alicia his wife, being a stated allowance of meat, drink, and clothing, &,c. 
to them or the longer liver, in consideration of certain monies paid to the 
said Abbot and Convent. The documents, which are entered in the 
Register (f. 13^, et sequ.), under the year 1345, 19 Edward III., are as 
follows: — 

1. Conveyance by William de Ruthcrwj'ke of all his lands and tenements 
in Egham and Thorp to the Abbot and Convent of Chertsey in fee simple. 
Dated at Egham on Sunday next after the feast of St. Simon and St. Jiide. 
(Oct. 30, 1345.) 

2. Gift of all the goods and chattels of him the said William to the said 
Abbot and Convent. Dated on the same day. 

3. The grant of a Corrody. (Given at length hereafter.) 

4. General release of the same lands and tenements by the said Wil- 
liam to the said Abbot and Convent. Dated at Chertsey on Wednesday 
after the feast of All Saints, 19 Edw. III. (Nov. 2, 1345.) 

5. Lease (in French) by the Abbot and Convent of the same lands and 
tenements to the said William and Alicia, his wife, for their joint lives and 
the life of the longer liver. Dated in the chapter at Chertsey on Sunday 
next after the feast of All Saints, 10 Edw. III. (Nov. 6, 1345.) 

6. Defeasance (in French) of a bond for 601. given by the Abbot and 
Convent to the said William, for securing 40/. to the first-born issue of the 
said William, in case there should be any. Dated at Chertsey on Monday 
after the feast of St. Simon and St. Jude, 19 Edw. III. (Oct. 31, 

7. Inquisition ad quod damnum in order to obtain a license from the 
king for the said William to alien the said lands and tenements to the said 
Abbot and Convent ; namely, three messuages, 120 acres and a half of 
land, 10 acres of meadow, 12 acres of pasture, 20 acres of wood, 12 acres 
of heath [hruere), 3 acres of alder-car (alneti), and 125. 5d. of rent, with 
the appurtenances, in Thorp and Egham ; also one messuage at " La 
Strode " in Egham, held by Avicia atte Strode, sister of the said William, 
for her life with reversion to the said William in fee. Dated at Kingston 
on Saturday after the feast of St. Luke, 19 Edw. III. (Oct. 22, 1345.) 

8. The King's License. Dated at Westminster on Oct. 24, a. r. 19 

The grant of a Corrody presents so curious an illustration of monastic 
usages, that it has appeared of sufficient interest to be given at length ; it will 
he found appended to these notices. We are not aware that any document 
of this description has hitherto been printed, which sets forth in such 
full detail the conditions of such a transaction ; and we have sought in 
vain for any similar instrument in the large collection of charters given by 
Madox in the Fornndare. A Corrody, as may be well known to some of 

' Manning and Bray, vol. iii. p. 255. 
vol.. XIX. 3 c 


our readers, was an allowance of food and clothing for life or for a certain 
period, from an aUbey or other religious house. Corrodies were due to the 
king from religious houses of royal foundation, towards the sustenance of 
such persons as he was pleased to bestow them upon ; of common right 
also, a Corrody was due in like manner to the founder of a monastery, 
provided that the foundation were not in free alms. Corrodies were, how- 
ever, granted to other persons, generally, in consideration of services to be 
rendered or of payments made, as in the case before us ; and it is probable 
that, although such sales or grants of liberationcs were strictly prohibited 
by the Constitutions of the Legate Othoboni, in the reign of Henry III.*, 
these transactions were of connnon occurrence. The Legate sets forth in 
strong terms the evils occasioned by a practice which appears to have 
become, through the cupidity of the heads of conventual establishments, 
inconveniently prevalent in this country. Dugdale gives, in the Monasticon, 
the grant of a Corrody in 1415 by the Abbot and Convent of llagbmon, 
Shropshire, to Robert Lee, at the special instance of Thomas Earl of 
Aruiidel, a descendant of the founder. In that instance the grantee 
appears to have been living in the monastery, as one of the armigeri of 
the abbot, with one groom or garcio, and two horses''. 

Two other examples of grants of the like nature, which occur in the 
Chartulary of Lewes Priory, Cott. MS. Vesp., F. xv., have been cited by 
Mr. Blaauw in his valuable Memoir on the early History of that Monastery; 
Susse.x Arch. Coll. vol. ii., pp. 15, 16. ^Margaret, widow of Robert de 
Glyndele, gave up her dower to the prior about 1280 ; the convent in 
return engaged to give her foo«l and clothing,* with a suitable house, for 
life, namely, every day a loaf of convent bread and one " panem ?uilitum," 
a gallon of beer, a ferculuni from the guests' kitchen, and every second 
year a furred dress, die. In 1307, also, the record is found of a corrody 
surrendered by Sir William de Eciiingham on receipt of £'100 from the 
priory. The privileges which had been conceded in this instance were very 
singular, and doubtless proved extremely onerous to the monks of St. Pancras, 
who, besides allowances of food and clothing, and the maintenance of a 
garcio with a palfrey through the whole year, were charged with two young 
hounds, a youth in the j)rior's kitchen to learn the business of cook, <tc. , 
and, moreover, were bound to receive the knight, his wife, family, and 
liorses, four times every year, for himself and his wife to be blooded, and 
to sojourn three days at the ])riory at the expense of the monks. 

According to the minutely detailed conditions of the suiijuined Corrody, 
tlie Abbot and Convent of Chertsey granted to William de Rnlherwyke 
and Alice his wife for life, and to the longer liver of them, a daily 
allowance of two loaves called *' niiches," '" two called *' knyghtlovcs," 
probably of somewhat better quality and such as were providi'd for the 
armigeri ; two gallons of convent ale ; and two messes from the Abbot's 

' Tit. 18, Quod null! roligioHi veuJaiit tlmt lio tliiit Imtli "niitclios tweiue" 

vol aHMJ^iiiint iiliiri hljc-riitioucH. lives nioro at ciuhc tlian tho ni^jniinl with 

* Mon. Auffl., vol. vi. \t. 110, Cnb'y'H a barn full of f;niin. Tyrwhilt explains 

edit. 'J'lio <liite Ih «'rroiieouhly prinltil tlit; teriii ax Hi^niryin^' fiiiu ^rcad. niaiii'lii^t, 

"di'ciiMo ijniiito " Hour. V., but tliat but it wan probalfly of coiuiuoii ijuaiity, 

'{nod tou yoai"M. In Fi: micfir, jirlil fiain, Ltit. vii/ui. Jn tlio 

1». y!J3, it is [)rintod Proinptorium w<« find " rnyclnkyae, pa*- 

_ I ^ y - - -■■_ *i — --J, 

Kovuruign only reigned tou yoai"M. In Fi\ mic/ir, j>rlU /xiiii, Ltit. vii/in. Jn tlio 
orig. edit., vol. iii. p. 1)33, it is [>rintud 

" ciuinto." tilUt," p. 330. Soo tlio nolo, iOiU. 

' I'Umicor, Uoin. of Rose, v. 6C85, Bayn 


kitchen, citlier flesh or fish, according to the day. They had the option 
of receiving tlic entire week's allowance at one time, instead of from day 
to day. Moreover, to the said William at Christmas a gown of the suit 
or secta of the armifjeri, with sufficient fur for a super-tunic and liood, 
and to his wife at the same season a gown de secta clericorum, with fur 
of " stranlynge," or squirrel,'^ for her super-tunic, and of nienyverc for 
her hood ; also, yearly, two cart-loads of good hay, and one weigli (waga), 
or about 250 lb., of good cheese and undecayed, to be conveyed at the 
cost of the monastery to the residence of the said William and Alice, at 
Rutherwyke, distant from the abbey, as supposed, about three miles ; 
and further, a stirk value G.v., three fat hogs of the value of 10*., and 
16 lb. of candles " de cotone," probably with cotton wicks, at Martinmas, 
yearly. The amount of the sum paid to the abbot and convent by the 
said William and Alice, in consideration of these yearly allowances, is not 
stated ; evidently however this Corrody was part of the general transaction 
between Abbot John de Rutherwyke and his kinsman, regarding the con- 
veyance of bis lands and tenements and the gift of his goods and chattels 
to the Abbot and Convent, as set forth in the various documents above men- 
tioned, by which the following grant of the Corrody is accompanied in the 
MS. Register. 

Albert Way. 


Pateat universis per presentem indenturam quod nos, Johannes Abbas de 
Certeseye et cjusdem loci Conventus, unanimi assensu ct voluntate dedi- 
nius, concessimus, et per presentes pro nobis et successoribus nostris 
confirmavimus Willelmo de Rutherwyke de parochia de Egeham in 
Comitatu Surr' et Alicie uxori ejus pro toto tempore vite eorumdem, et 
eorum alterius diucius viventis, quoddam corrodium capiendum de Abbathia 
nostra predicta, videlicet quolibet die in septiraana duos panes vocatos 
Miches, duos panes vocatos Knyghtloves, duas lagenas cervisie conventualis, 
et duo fercula de coquiua nostri predicti Abbatis, sive carnis sive piscis secun- 
dum die[s] exigenciam,aut quatuordecim panes vocatos Miches, quatuordecim 
panes vocatos Knyghtloves, quatuordecim lagenas dicte cervisie, et quatuor- 
decim fercula carnis sive piscis, secundum quod dies expostulaverit, dcCoquina 
predicta, semel in septimanapro septimanaintegra, secundum voluntatem pre- 
dictorum Willelmi et Alicie ; preterea concessimus pro nobis et successo- 
ribus nostris prefato Willelmo ad totam vitani suam unam robam de secta 
armigeroruni nostrorum cum fururis competcntiltus pro supertunica et capucio 
percipiendam eidem Willelmo quolibet anno ad festum Natalis domini ; et 
unam robam dicte Alicie de secta Clericorum nostrorum cum furura de 
Stranlynge pro supertunica, et de mcnyvere pro capucio, videlicet, tcrciam 
partem unius panni de colore, percipiendam anuuatim eidem Alicie ad 

' This fur is not mentioned in tlie Btranilliiipr was tie fur of the squirrel 

ample lists in Strutt'e Dresses, vol. ii. between Michaelmas and winter. In the 

pp. 11, 101. In the Ordinance of the Ilistoria of Barth. Cotton, edited by Mr. 

Pelterers, Lihcr Custumarum of the City Luard for the scries of Chronicles, &c. 

of London, 26 Edw. I. a price is fixed under direction of the Master of the 

" pro etranglino et polan, ct cujusUbet Kolls, mention occurs of the retinue of 

alterius nigri opcris." Libtr Alliu,^. vol. the Duke of Brabant, in 1290, clad "cum 

ii. p. 94. According to a note in Liber penulis de grisis et stranlingo." 
Horn, Mr. Riley obseivea in Lis Glo.'^sary, 


totam vitam siiam ad festum Natalis domiui supradictum ; conccssinuis 
eciani pro nobis et successoribus nostris prefatis NViUelmo et Alioie ad 
totam vitam corumdem, quolibet anno, diias carectatas botii foni, et unam 
AVavam boni casei et iiicornipti, dc Abbathia nostra prediota capieiulas et 
cariandas sumptilms nostris propriis ad domain eorumdom Willolmi et 
Alicie apud raithorwvke, ad festum sancti Petri ad vincnla ; ^ et insuper 
conccssimus pro nobis et successoribus nostris prefatis Willelmo et Alicie 
ad totam vitam eorumdem, ct eorum alterius diueius viventis, unum 
bovettum precii septcm solidunim, trcs porcos incrassatos precii decern 
eolidorum, pro larder' ipsorum Willelmi et Alicie, simul cum sexdecim libris 
candele de cotone, eisdem Willelmo ct Alicie quolibet anno ad festum 
pancti Martini in ycme de Abbatbia nostra predicta percipiendos ; Pro 
quadam summa pecuuie per prcdictos Willelmum et Aliciani nobis pre 
nianibus soluta, quam in usum ct utilitatem nostram ac dicte domus nostre 
plcnarie ct integre fatenuir fore conversam. Ad quam quidem dicti cor- 
rodii et aliorum proficuorum prcdictorum prefatis Willelmo ct Alicie ad 
totam vitam eorumdem, et eorum alterius diueius viventis, solueionem modo 
predicto fidcliter faciendam, nos prcdicti Abbas ct Conventus obligamus nos 
et successores nostros, et domum nostram antodictam, et omnia bona 
nostra et bona dicte domus nostre mobilia et inimobilia, ecclesiastica et 
niundana, presencia et futura, ubicumque cxistencia. In cujus rei testi- 
monium liuic parti liujus indenture penes dictos Willelmum et Aliciam 
residenti nos prcdicti Abbas et Conventus sigillum nostrum commune 
apposuimus ;' altera vero pars ejusdem penes nos remanet sigillis eorum- 
dem Willelmi et Alicie eigillata. Datum apiid Certeseye die dominica 
])roxima post festum beatorum apostolorum Symonis et Jude, anno rcgni 
Kegis Edwardi tcrcii post Conqucstum decimo nono. (Oct. 30, 1345.) 

'' August 1. Ready, who will supply casts on applica- 

' The conventual seal of Chertsey has tion at tho British Museum. Seals of 

been fif^ired, Tiaus. Surrey Arch. Soc, two of tlie Abbots have been figured 

vol. i. ; Mouafit. Angl., edit. Caley, vol. i. in this Journal, vol. xv. p. 1202 ; ami the 

j>L v., and iu Britton and Brayley's seal of the Prior, erronoously given oa 

Surrey, vol. ii. p. 1S2. A more perfect that of Soutliwick Triory, may be seen 

impresaion, however, than was used for iu vol. iii. p. 222. 
those works, has been found by Mr. 

^i-occctiincjs at iEcetintjs of tje ^rcjncolocjical Cnstitute. 

July 4, 1862. 

Lord Talbot de Malahide, F.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. H. M. Scarth read a short account of discoveries of Roman 
remains at Bath, in preparing the ground for an additional building at the 
Mineral Water Hospital. Amongst the vestiges there brouglit to light 
were, besides the pottery, coins of the Lower Empire, &c., commonly 
found on Koman sites, a portion of plain tesselated pavement, and a 
fragment of an inscri[)tion on white marble, a material of very rare occur- 
rence amongst Roman lapidar}' remains in this country. Mr. Scarth stated, 
however, that he had no doubt of its authenticity ; it was found broken 
into several pieces ; the letters, as shown by a facsimile rubbing which he 
exhibited, are well cut, and are as follows : — 

DEAE • S . . . . 
TI • CL • T ... 
SOLLEX .... 
T . . . . 

Mr. Scarth proposed to supply after deae the name svli or svliminervae, 
being that of a local goddess to whom four altars found at Bath are 
dedicated ; a sepulchral inscription to a priest of that deity has also there 
been found. The letters in the second line he explained as indicating the 
name of the person by whom the slab was dedicated, possibly Ti(BERiys) 
cl(avdivs) with the initial T of the cognomen, which may have been any 
of the Roman names beginning with that letter. In the third line Mr. 
Scarth proposed to read sollexnes, with reference to vows performed to 
the goddess and commemorated by the tablet ; the very imperfect traces 
of letters in the fourth line, cut on a much smaller dimension than the pre- 
ceding, scarcely supply ground for conjecture. It is to be regretted that 
no other fragments were found ; the form of the letters and distinctness 
of the cutting indicate an early period, and the remarkable fact that the 
material is marble may serve to authenticate other inscriptions stated to 
have been found in England, and sometimes regarded as questionable 
owing to the very rare occurrence of any tablet of marble. Thus, Whit- 
aker, the topographer of Yorkshire, describes a " square marble urn, 
which tradition actually asserts to have been found at Rokeby ; nothing, 
however, but the testimony of eye-witnesses can render this assertion 
credible." The Romans, he observes, neither imported marble into 
Britain, nor worked t