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Safe Harbor Report No. 2 
archaeological section 

Donald A. Cadzow 

Pennsylvania Historical Commission 






C.V. Starr^tt 

Archaeological Studies of the 


Safe Harbor Report No. i 


Donald A. Cadzow 

Pfnnsylvania Historical Commission 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Volume III 






I. ESTER K. Ade, Chair mau 

Mrs. Frank B. Black, Fi;i/ ^/cr Chairman 

Miss Frances Dorrance, Second /'ice (Chairman 

Albert Cook Myers, Secretary 

Ross Pii:k Wright 

Charles Hevrv xMoon 

Trcsiees — F.vOfficio 

George H. Kakle, Governor of the ConnnoniveaJth 
Charles A. Waters, Stale Treasurer 
Frank F. Bai.duix. .htditor General 





Introduction 5 

Foreword 7 

Algonkian Indians 9 

Iroquoian Indians i i 

7 he Susquehannock Indians 15 

Notes on Lancaster County Archaeology 39 

Roberts P'arm Site 39 

Shenk's Ferry Site 43 

Strickler Site 62 

Washington Borough Burial Site 97 

Washington Borough Village Site 135 

Frey Farm Burial Site 153 

Schultz P'arm Site 156 

Ceramic Repository Rep(M-t 188 

Summary and Conclusions 201 

Notes 205 

Index — Petroglyphs, Safe Harbor Report No. i 208 

Index — Safe Harbor Report No. 2 211 

* Tfsreo A^D eecoeoEO 

• Tesreo Foe cultub£ 




SPURRED on by the remark that "less is known of the history 
of the Indians in Pennsylvania than in any other state in 
the Union," the Wyoming Historical and Geological 
Society in 1924 undertook a study of the situation. Members 
started a preliminary survey of the eastern Pennsylvania coun- 
ties by letter and questionnaire. The purpose was to collect 
information on existing artifact collections, manuscript and 
printed accounts, knowledge of sites, trails, and, in fact, any- 
thing relating to the life of the Red Man in our Commonwealth 
where he had played an important role in the pre-history of 
the country, and over whose mountains and wide valleys he 
had gradually been forced westward by the advance of the 
white man's civilization. 

The projected work was presented to the American Anthro- 
pological Association and aoproved, then to the Pennsylvania 
Federation of Historical Societies at their annual meeting in 
January, 1925. President Colonel Henry W. Shoemaker gave 
his hearty endorsement and enthusiastic support in an address 
at the meeting and later as chairman of the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Commission. 

Thousands of questionnaires were mailed and thousands of 
replies were received, bringing in valuable information which 
was filed by counties. Among the data returned was a book of 
photographs of the Indian rocks in the Susquehanna River near 
Safe Harbor, Lancaster County, from David H. Landis, who 
stated that the drawings on the rocks were threatened by the 
projected erection of a power dam at that point on the Susque- 

The returns from the paper survey were so rich that it was 
decided to appeal to the State for aid. The General Assembly 
of 1927 made an appropriation of $10,000 for the survey, plac- 
ing distribution of the fund in the hands of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Commission. This action was ratified by Governor 
Fisher who appointed to that body the Director of the Wyom- 
ing Historical and Geological Society. This made possible the 
extension of the work into a state-wide project. 

The Commission obtained the services of Donald A. Cadzow 
to superintend Its archaeological work. Soon after his appoint- 
ment came the magnificent opportunity to save these Indian 

remains through the cooperation and help of Captain Frederic 
A. Godcharles, at that time State Librarian, and Mr. John 
Walls, of the Safe Harbor Water Power Corporation. The 
outcome of the archaeological work is described in the follow- 
ing report. 

The Commission takes pride in the important results of its 
effort to preserve these evidences of our aboriginal predecessors 
who loved Pennsylvania, the wilderness, as we love Pennsyl- 
vania, the Commonwealth, and whose cooperation with William 
Penn made our early Colonial history the foundation of our 
later growth. 

Frances Dorrance 

Vice-Chairman, Pennsylvania Historical Commission 
President, Society for Pennsylvania Archaeology 
Director, Wyoming Historical and Geological Society 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL research carried on by the Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Commission, along the lower Susque- 
hanna river in 193 1 and 1932, was primarily for the 
purpose of establishing an occupation contemporary with the 
petroglyphs found in the vicinity of Safe Harbor in 1931, and 
described In Safe Harbor Report No. i of this publication 
series. In this search, evidence of a much later aboriginal 
tenure of the region was discov^ered and several archaeological 
sites were explored and recorded. These sites cover a period 
of many hundred years and range from early Algonkian 
Indians to historic and pre-historic Iroquoian Indians. 

The expedition was compelled to work against the time when 
water would be backed against the wall of the new Safe 
Harbor Dam and flood most of the area under investigation. 
Men had to be trained in modern scientific methods of arch- 
aeological excavation and as a result preliminary field work 
proceeded slowly. It was only through the full cooperation of 
the Safe Harbor Water Power Corporation officials and mem- 
bers of the Historical Commission that the tremendous task 
of saving the archaeological records in the area was finally 

Every island and the shore line of the river where it is now 
inundated was explored with test holes and trenches for Indian 
occupation. This work served as training for the men who 
later carried on in more prolific and less disturbed areas on 
the mainland. 

Unfortunately most of the previous archaeological work in 
the region had not been conducted along scientific lines. No 
attempt had been made to record field data and, as a result, 
there was no accurate Information to make comparisons or 
form preliminary opinions. Unsustalned theories advanced by 
local enthusiasts had to be discounted and a new approach made 
to the whole problem. 

Many of the Indian sites investigated have been known for 
years and were partially looted — the objects found either de- 
stroyed or scattered. Allowances had to be made for this dis- 
turbed condition and at first the riddle of identifying culture 
seemed impossible to solve. However, after certain previously 

unknown mortuary customs had been worked out and a tem- 
porary Iroquoian cultural horizon established, the work pro- 
ceeded rapidly. 

The fact that Lancaster County Indian sites were unusually 
rich in artifacts was indicated after a few days of field work, 
and before the expedition returned to Harrisburg more than 
28,000 objects were excavated, recorded and catalogued. 

Donald A. Cadzow, Archaeologist. 
Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Archaeological Studies of the 



WHILE THE principal object of this work is to set be- 
fore the public a brief account of the archaeological 
explorations of the Pennsylvania Historical Commis- 
sion in Lancaster County, it is the writer's aim to present a 
reasonably complete story of the Indians involved, based on 
historical records, archaeological collections, and other avail- 
able sources. 

Algonkian* Indians 

Students have agreed that at one time eastern Pennsylvania 
was inhabited by Indian tribes of the Algonkian linguistic 
family, a group which occupied a more extended area than 
any other in North America. The most important historically 
known confederacy within this group called themselves Lenape. 
They were better known, however, as the Delaware, a name 
given to them by the early English. Their confederacy con- 
sisted of three principal tribes — the Unami or Wonameys, the 
Minsi or Munsee, and the Unalachtigo. Each of these groups 
had its own territory and undoubtedly spoke a slightly different 

According to the traditional history of the Lenape they 
migrated into eastern Pennsylvania or "Sasafras Land" from 
the west. The tribal divisions later received their names be- 
cause of some geographical or other peculiarity that identified 
the region in which they lived. 

The Unami was one of the principal divisions and occupied 
the Delaware valley from the junction of the Lehigh River 
southward to about Newcastle, Delaware. According to 
Brinton their name means "people down the river." (i). 
Their totem was the turtle and they have been called the Turtle 
Tribe by some authorities who also claim they held precedence 
over the other groups in council. 

The Minsi or Munsee originally occupied the headw^iters of 
the Delaware River in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- 

• Algonqulan. 

10 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

vania, as far south as the Lehigh, Their totem was the wolf 
(i). They felt the pressure of Iroquois invasion in Pennsyl- 
vania from the north very early and according to tradition 
were among the first to start the final westward migration. 
Heckwelder claims their territory extended "far beyond the 
Susquehannah." (2). This may have been true previous to 
the arrival of the Iroquois and after they were subjected but 
assuredly not while the Five Nations and the Carantouan were 
at war with them. 

The Unala'tka or Unalachtigo were the southermost group 
of the three main divisions. Their name means "people who 
live near the ocean," and within the known historical era they 
occupied the west bank of the Delaware River in Delaware 
and the east bank which is now in New Jersey. Their totem 
was the turkey and they felt the pressure of southern Iroquois 
invasion along the Susquehanna very early and were forced 
farther eastward into New Jersey and north along the coast. 

The Lenape were recognized by cognate tribes as being 
superior in political rank and were always addressed by the 
title of "grandfather." Contemporary Algonkian groups liv- 
ing both to the north and to the south of them claimed a com- 
mon origin, and according to tradition the central home terri- 
tory from which all these tribes diverged is now occupied by 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

The Lenape migrated into eastern Pennsylvania from the 
west. How long they were here before the advent of white 
men is one of the problems to be solved by archaeological re- 
search. The fact that other Indian groups preceded the 
Lenape as occupants of the territory is conceded and here the 
question arises as to who these other groups were and where 
they went. Only by closely authenticated archaeological records 
will we be able to separate this occupation and record criteria 
with which basic cultural periods can be established. 

In New York State Algonkian criteria have already been 
divided into various periods of development. An attempt 
has also been made to establish a chronology, but so far this 
has not been scientifically successful because of the lack of 
accurate archaeological evidence from the area covered by 

It is evident that scientifically gathered data upon archaeo- 
logical sites in the eastern part of the State is needed. Most 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 11 

of the large collections of Indian artifacts in this region have 
been gathered without any attempt to gain real archaeological 
information. With the exception of the brief summary of 
Warren K. Moorehead and the report of the late Dr. George 
P. Donehoo, published by the Pennsylvania Historical Com- 
mission in 19 1 8, practically no source material is available on 
the archaeology of this vast section. Mr. Max Schrabisch's 
excellent report, published by the Commission in 1930, describes 
some of the problems to be encountered on the upper Delaware. 
Historical records show that the Lenape and other eastern 
Algonkian groups had loose confederacies. A lack of constancy, 
however, seemed to prevent them from organizing with any 
degree of permanence. This trait persisted well into colonial 
times and when they met with superior races it caused their 
final downfall. 

Iroquoian Indians 

It was not the white race that started the decline of the 
eastern Algonkian ascendency. It was the invasion of their 
territory by peoples of Iroquonian stock, so named from its best 
known representatives, the Five Nations. The name this group 
had for themselves as a political body was Ongwano"sionni, 
"we are of the extended lodge." The name Iroquois was given 
to them by the Algonkians and was originally Iri"akhoiw, "real 
adders" or "snakes." Later, the name was used by the French, 
the suffix "ois" added and the name finally corrupted to its 
modern form Iroquois. 

It is now known that successive waves of Iroquoian migra- 
tions moved northeast into Pennsylvania and New York from 
the Middle Mississippi Valley some time before the tenth 
century (28) (see also page 134). They were firmly estab- 
lished in the north before the first white contact and the 
divisions of the stock were found in three separate regions of 
North America. 

In the mountain district, now included in east Tennessee, 
northern Georgia, and western North Carolina were the Chero- 
kees; near the coasts of southern Virginia and northern North 
Carolina, the Tuscaroras and the Nottoways. All the other 
Iroquoian peoples were found entirely surrounded by Algon- 
kians. Near Niagara were the Neutrals, who extended from 

12 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

western New York along the north shore of Lake Erie. North 
of the Neutrals the Tionontati (Tobacco Nation) and the 
Hurons occupied the country between Lakes Ontario and 
Huron. To the southeast along the Susquehanna Valley were 
the Andastes on the upper river, and the Susquehannocks along 
the lower river and Chesapeake Bay. The Eries held the south 
shore of the lake now called by their name. Finally, through 
New York, bounded on the west by the Eries and Neutrals, on 
the south by the Andastes, and southeast, east and north by 
Algonkian tribes, stretched the territory of the Five Nations, 
comprising the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and 

The Five Nations, as an organized group, was second to no 
other Indian people in North America. The power of their 
confederacy on the eastern part of the continent was felt from 
the sub-arctic almost to the Gulf of Mexico. Their motive for 
organizing was peace and welfare among men by the recogni- 
tion and enforcement of their civil government. They were 
imbued with a sincere respect for their own laws, and wars 
with other groups were primarily for the purpose of perpetuat- 
ing their political life and independence. The Hve Nations 
intended to have peace regardless of the fact that they often 
had to annihilate entire tribes in order to obtain it. It is 
interesting to speculate how far this clever warlike group would 
have gone if it had not been for the ascendency of the white 
man with his complex culture in eastern North America. 

The social organization and material culture of the Iroquois 
of New York state and Canada is fairly well known. The 
excellent publications of William M. Beauchamp, Alanson B. 
Skinner, Arthur C. Parker, Mark R. Harrington, and other 
recorders in this field have established criteria with which 
students can work to great advantage. 

It is generally believed that at one time the Cherokee lived 
in Ohio and in western Pennsylvania and that they migrated 
south during the latter part of the fifteenth century. Lenape 
tradition places them on the Ohio and recounts long wars with 
them. These were supposed to have been carried on well 
within historic times or until 1768 when peaceful relations were 
finally established. 

Loskiel writing in 1778 says that about 1698, when the 
whites were settling along the Atlantic Coast, the Delawares 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 13 

came to the Ohio, drove the Cherokee away and settled about 
Beaver Creek. He adds, "at the present time, the Delawares 
call this whole country of the Ohio as far down as the river 
Wabash 'Alligewineugk' meaning 'a land into which they come 
from distant parts.' " (3). 

There always has been some doubt as to the exact definition 
of the name AUigewi (Talligewi) and the group of Indians 
to which it referred. According to tradition they were the 
Cherokee. It may be possible, however, that they were 
northern Iroquoian people instead of southern. General John 
S. Clark in his personal notes says: 

"In regard to the Alligewi tradition of Heckwelder in which 
the Delawares united to make war against the tribes on the 
Ohio, Baldwin believes these were the Cherokees, but in this 
I think he was mistaken as certainly the Massomacks inter- 
vened between the Susquehanna tribes and Cherokee and first 
had to be driven out. The Massomacks were deadly enemies 
of all the Delaware people and probably the latter were aided 
by the Susquehannocks and Andastes in making war against 
them just as described by Heckwelder. Later the Delawares 
became subject to the Five Nations." (4). 

The Five Nations were called Massomacks or Massawo- 
meckes, and Captain John Smith, in 1608, reported them at war 
with the Susquehanna tribes. If it was a group of northern 
Iroquois between the Susquehanna tribes and the Ohio, certain 
historical conclusions based on late Cherokee occupation and 
eventual southern migration will have to be changed. 

After the final defeat of the Eries in 1654, the Five Nations 
claimed the Upper Ohio watershed and occasionally used it as 
a hunting territory. If the Cherokee had been in the area at 
this time they would have been driven southward. Skinner 
believed the Cherokee were forced out of the region originally 
by successive waves of prehistoric Iroquoian people who fol- 
lowed them northward along the Ohio. 

The Cherokee had a typical Iroquoian culture similar in 
many ways to that of the Susquehannock and other northern 
tribes. One of the problems still to be solved by archaeolo- 
gical research is whether the so-called Allegewi were culturally 
northern Iroquois or southern.* 

• Recent archaeological explorations of the Pennsylvania Historical Commis- 
sion in southwestern Pennsylvania on the Youghiogheny River indicate that 
the Upper Ohio prehistoric Troquois culture was northern rather than southern. 

14 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

.Another important Iroquois nation residing in part of what 
is now Pennsylvania was the Erie. They were a populous, 
more or less sedentary people, who were often called in very 
early historical records the Cat Nation (La Nation du Chat), 
or Raccoons, etc. They held the territory to the west of the 
Andastes bordering the southern shore of Lake Erie and north- 
west of the Susquehannock, the group with which this paper 
is primarily interested. Historically, very little is known about 
the Eries outside of contemporary records in the Jesuit Rela- 
tions. Their affiliations were with the Hurons and their ma- 
terial culture was similar. Their power was broken about 
1654 by the Five Nations and they were either assimilated or 

As will be seen later in this paper the Hurons* indirectly 
played their part on the historical and pre-historical stage of 
Pennsylvania. They had a confederation of loosely organized 
tribes, and the name Huron was given to them by the early 
French. Their name for themselves was Ouendat, or Wandat, 
possibly meaning "the islanders." Later it was corrupted to 
Wyandot, and the few survivors of this group are still known 
by this name. They were dispersed and practically extermi- 
nated in 1648 by the Five Nations. Some of the survivors 
moved westward and others were absorbed by the Neuter 
Nation. It is claimed that 10,000 Hurons were destroyed in 
one attack in 1648. 

We will mention the Neuter nation but brleHy here, for to 
the best of our knowledge, they did not enter the Pennsylvania 
picture. Their territory was far to the north in what is now 
Canada. Champlain reported that they could muster 4,000 
warriors in 161 6. Before 1653 the Five Nations had attacked 
them so consistently that they had lost their identity as an in- 
dependent body and were practically destroyed. 

• Prom the French "hure" meaning "bristly." The name Huron frequently 
with an added epithet lilte "vilan," "base," was used in France as early as 
1358 as a name expressive of contempt. 

The Susquehannock Indians 

1606 — 1695 

Of all the native inhabitants of Pennsylvania the least known 
to the ethnographers is the southern division of the northern 
Iroquois. They were called Susquehannock by the Powhatan* 
Indian tribes, later the English adopted the name and it was 
applied to them by the first known white man to meet them, 
Captain John Smith. 

The story of the Susquehannocks is a tragic one. They 
appeared early on the historic stage along the Susquehanna 
watershed, played a leading role and declined into obscurity. 
Through the pages of history they are called a variety of names 
out of which the one applied by Powhatan and Captain John 
Smith seems to be the most appropriate. This name has been 
explained by various authorities as Algonkian and not Iro- 
quoian as we might expect it to be. According to Brinton, 
"the terminal 'K' is the place sign, 'hanna' denotes a flowing 
stream, while the adjectival prefix has been identified by 
Heckwelder with 'schachage,' straight, from the direct course 
of the river near its mouth, and by Mr. Guss with 'woski,' 
new, which he thinks referred to fresh or spring water." (5). 

In the writings of McSherry we find the following Algon- 
kian interpretation — "Saskwe-an-og-Sask means rubbing, sweep- 
ing, grating. 'K' is the sign of prolongation. 'We' in com- 
position means the effect produced by waves. 'Og' is plural 
animate termination. Hence Sas-k-we-an-og means 'those who 
live In a place where water is heard grating (beating) on the 
shore!" (6). 

Miss Gladys Tantaquidgeon interprets the name in Delaware 
as "sak a'n' hanek, river full of islands or projections above 
the water," from sak .i.x^n, "something in plain sight project- 
ing up," and a'n'h a n.e k "running water or streams." The 
people inhabiting the territory along the banks of the river 
would be called han.eyok." (7). 

According to Dr. Frank G. Speck, the term sask^'^han'ne 
"muddy river" appears in a study of the Nanticoke and Conoy 

* POWHATAN — The ruling chief and the founder of the Powhatan confed- 
eracy in Virginia at the period of the first Enghsh settlements. About thirty 
cognate Algonkian tribes were subject to his rule. He was the father of 
Pocahontas and his proper name was Wahunsonaoock. 


16 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Indians. (8) This may also account for Hewetts' interpre- 
tation of the name — "signify roiley river," in his story of the 
Conestoga (9). 

The Cree Indians of northwest Canada interpret the name 
as meaning "water rubbing hard upon something." This inter- 
pretation agrees with McSherry's and we are inclined to accept 
his translation and believe the name is of Algonkian origin as 
the Crees are among the few tribes left where the tongue still 
remains almost pure, and their translation of Susquehannock 
as meaning "people living where water rubs on the shore" 
would be appropriate for a group living along the rapids of 
what is now the Lower Susquehanna River.* 

The early Swedes and Dutch called the Susquehanna 
Iroquois "Minquas" from the Delaware name applied to all 
tribes of this group. These names are corruptions of the 
Algonquian mingwe meaning "stealthy, treacherous." Minquas 
was also used extensively during the late colonial period to 
designate any detached body of Iroquois regardless of where 
they were from. 

To the French and the Five Nations the Susquehanna 
Iroquoian groups were known as Andastes, Andastoghernons, 
Gandastogues, Conestogas, etc., etc. The Indians undoubtedly 
separated the upper and lower river tribes but the white man 
did not do so conclusively in his records of the period. 

In our histories the Iroquois of eastern Pennsylvania have 
been given a variety of misspelled and misinterpreted proper 
names. This jumble is very confusing to a student, and in 
this paper we will call the Susquehanna Iroquoian groups 
Carantouans to distinguish them from the Five Nations. We 
will also divide them into two main groups, the Andaste on 
the upper rivers, and the Susquehannock on the lower river. 
For the lack of a better informed authority we will accept the 
interpretation of General John Clark, in his unpublished notes, 
for the meaning of Carantouan. He believed the term was 
derived from the Iroquois garonta and touan meaning "great 
tree." In this translation he agrees with J. G. Shea of Eliza- 
beth, N. J., a contemporary student of the Iroquois, especially 
through the Jesuit Relations. 

In his early detached notes Clark was inclined to believe 

* Truman Michelson in a recent article discussed certain phases of Algonkian 
languages and in closing wrote : "Summing up, we may say that Powhatan clear- 
ly belongs with the Cree group of Central Algonquian languages." (29). 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 17 

the term might indicate "big horn eminent at the head." In 
this behef he was first influenced by the "Capitanessis" shown 
on the Susquehanna in some of Champlain's early maps. In 
his final analysis, however, he agrees with Shea. 

The Susquehannocks apparently had indirect contact with 
white men before they met Captain Smith. While he was 
visiting the Tockwoghes, a group of Indians on the Chesapeake 
Bay, he recorded the fact that — "Many hatchets, knives, peeces 
of iron, and brasse, we saw amongst them, which they reported 
to have from the Sasquesahanocks, a mightie people and 
mortall enemies of the Massawomeks."* Smith thought this 
contact was with the French who were in touch with the 
northern Iroquois at that time and said, "Many descriptions 
and discourses they made us, of Alquanachuck, Massawomek, I6O6 
and other people, signifying they inhabit upon a great water 
beyond the mountains which we understood to be some great 
lake or river of Canada, and from the French to have their 
hatchets and commodies by trade." 

Indians were no novelty to Captain Smith, and when he 
finally saw the Susquehannocks in 1608 he was impressed by ^^®* 
these people more than by any other Indians he had met. After 
his contact with the Tockwoghes, a name that has survived to 
this day in parts of the south meaning "poor land" or "poor 
people," the Captain could not help being surprised and pleased 
with the clean, independent warlike Iroquois. His record of 
them is undoubtedly exaggerated but is valuable because it is 
one of the few contact descriptions of these people. He said, 
"Sixty of those Sasquesahanocks came to us with Skins, Bowes, 
Arrows, Targets, Beads, Swords and Tobacco-pipes for 
presents. Such great and well proportioned men are seldome 
scene, for they seemed like Giants to the English yea and to 
the neighbours, yet seemed of an honest and simple disposition, 
with much adoe restrained from adoring us as Gods. Those 
are the strangest people of all those Countries, both in language 
and attire; for their language it may well beseeme their pro- 
portions, sounding from them as a voyce in a vault. Their 
attire is the skinnes of Beares, and Woolves, some have 
Cassacks made of Beares heads and skinnes, that a mans head 
goes through the skinnes neck, and the eares of the Beare 
fastened ~to his shoulders, the nose and teeth hanging downe 

• Massawomeks — Five Nations. 

18 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

his breast, another Beares face split behind him, and at the 
end of the Nose hung a Pawe, the halfe sleeves comming to 
the elbows were the neckes of Beares and the armes through 
the mouth with the pawes hanging at their noses. One had 
the head of a Wolfe hanging in a chaine for a Jewell, his 
tobacco pipe three-quarters of a yard long, prettily carved with 
a Bird, a Deere or some such devise at the great end, sufficient 
to beat out ones braines; with Bowes, Arrows and Clubs, suit- 
able to their greatnesse. They are scarce known to Powhatan. 
They can make near 600 able men, and are palisaded in their 
Townes to defend them from the Massawomenkes, their mortal 
enemies. Five of their chief Werowances came aboard us and 
crossed the Bay in our Barge. The picture of the greatest 
of them is signified in the Mappe. The calfe of whose leg 
was three-quarters of a yard about, and all the rest of his 
limbes so answerable to that proportion, that he seemed the 
goddliest man we ever bchcKl. 1 lis hayre, the one side was 
long, the other close with a ridge oxer his crowne like a cocks 
combe. His arrowes were li\ c-(]iiartcrs long, headed with the 
splinters of a white chirstall-likc stone, in form of a heart, an 
inch broad, and an inch and a half or more long. These he 
wore in a Woolves skinne at his backe for his quiver, his bow 
in one hand and his club in the other." (10). 

Although Smith did not visit the villages of the Susque- 
hannock he named them and located them upon his map as 
follows: "Sasquesahanough, Quadroque, Attaock, Tesinigh, 
Utchowig and Cepowig." The accuracy of his map is question- 
able but, later writers have agreed with Smith as to the loca- 
tions of some, of these villages and archaeological evidence 
checks with at least one. The town of "Sasquesahanough" 
measures about 22 miles from the mouth of the river on 
Smith's map. This would bring it to a few miles below Cono- 
wingo near the mouth of the Octararo, in Maryland. The 
distance of 32 miles upriver to "Quadroque" on the Smith 
map would locate this town near the present village of Wash- 
ington Borough on a modern map. This would place "Tesi- 
nigh" at Conewago Falls near Falmouth. 

Apparently in Smith's time, the Susquehannock controlled 
all the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake and to the north of 
South Mountain along the river. The fact that their power 
was felt far to the east will be shown later. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 19 

The second white man to meet Carantouan people and 
record the fact, according to present available records, was 
Etienne Brule, Samuel de Champlain's interpreter. He had 
been sent to the tribes of the Susquehanna because they were 
allies of the Hurons with whom Champlain was closely asso- 
ciated. Brule visited the Andaste in 1616 near where Athens, 
Pennsylvania, now stands. 1 he object of his visit was to ask 
for reinforcements to assist in a proposed attack on Onondaga 
Fort, one of the strongholds of the P'ive Nations in what is 
now New York State. He had to wait for the Andastes to 
prepare themselves and "busied himself in exploring the 
country, visiting nearby lands and nations, and in following 
the course of the river (Susquehanna) which flows in the di- 
rection of Florida." He explored the river to the sea and 
reported in 1618" a large number of people who are of good 1618 
natural disposition, esteeming the French Nation above all 
others." (11). 

Brule was the first white man definitely to record the fact 
that he had set foot upon what is now the soil of the Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania. He brought to the Carantouan Indians 
a renewed alliance with the Huron Tribe that later caused 
their complete downfall. 

In 1616 Captain Hendrickson of New Netherland reported 1616 
meeting "Minquas" at latitude 38° to 40° north, probably 
some place in Delaware Bay. He traded with them and used 
the name Minquas on the map accompanying his report. (12). 

This map is the famous "Carte Figurative," and is the first 
known geographic record of the territory now within New 
York and Pennsylvania, showing the Susquehanna as the outlet 
of Lake Ontario and causing it to flow Into Delaware Bay. 

The region explored by Hendrickson was undoubtedly under 
the domination of the Susquehannock at the time. It is doubt- 
ful, however, If the people he met were Susquehannocks. If 
they had been, they would not call themselves "Minquas."* He 
may have met some Lenfipe who tried to explain to the In- 
quisitive Dutchman that the country to the west was occupied 
by people with this name. 

Apparently between 1620 and 1640 the Carantouans waged 
a relentless war against surrounding Algonkian tribes, especially 
those on the lower Potomac and Delaware River and Bay. De- 

* See page 16. 


20 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Vries met a party of fifty Susquehannocks in the Delaware 
River in 1633. He said they were part of a large party num- 
bering more than six hundred that was in the region to make 
war, A few days later he met Algonkians who reported to 
him that the war party had killed some of their people, burned 
their houses and returned to their own country. 

That the region was eventually conquered and that the Sus- 
quehannocks penetrated well into what is now New Jersey is 
shown by the writings of Cornelius Van Trehoven who says: 
"The district inhabited by a nation called Raritangs is situated 
on a fresh water river (Raritan) * which flows through the low- 
land which the Indians cultivated. This district was abandoned 
because they were unable to resist the Susquehannas so they 
migrated further inland." (13). 

When Lord Calvert founded his colony at St. Marys, on 

1634 fhe Chesapeake in 1634, the Pascatoway Indians (Piscat- 
away)** were deserting their villages and fleeing before the 
Susquehannocks, who at that time claimed as far south as the 
Choptank on the eastern shore and the Patuxtent on the western 

1637 In the Jesuit Relations for 1637 we find a reference to 

the Susquehannock. Apparently during that year, according 
to Le Mercier, disease was rampant along the river. He says, 
"On the 20th we heard from the Anons a new opinion touch- 
ing the disease, that a rumor ran that it had come from the 
Agniehenon (Mohawks) who brought it from the Andastoer- 
honon (Susquehannocks), which is a nation near Virginia." 


In the early Swedish records we find the Susquehannocks 
called by a great variety of names, of which Black Minqua 
seemed to be the favorite. 

The story of New Sweden has been told by many able writers 
and it is sufllcient to say here that it was supposed to lie 39° 
1639 40" on both sides of the Delaware River. It extended in 
length from Cape Henlopen at the entrance of the bay, about 
thirty miles (Swedish) ***to the great falls of the river on the 
northeast (Trenton). 

♦RARITAN (raruwitank), "the stream that overflows." A former small 
division of the Lenape occupying the valley of Raritan River and the left bank 
of the Delaware as far down as the falls at Trenton. 

•* PISCATAWAY. a former Conoy village in Prince George County, Mary- 
land. It was the seat of a Jesuit mission in 1640, but was abandoned in 164" 
through fear of the Susquehannocks. 

•**6% English miles — 1 Swedish mile. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 21 

Thomas Holn has left an excellent account of the Susque- 
hannock. He says: "Besides the Americans there were found 
when the Swedes first came to this country within eighteen 
miles (Swedish) circumference, ten or eleven other Indian 
nations who spoke different languages and had their own 
sachems or chiefs over them. Among these, the Minquas or 
Minckus were the principal and were renowned for their war- 
like character. These Indians lived at the distance of twelve 
miles from New Sweden, where they daily came to trade with 
us. The way to their land was very bad, being stony, full of 
sharp gray stones, with hills and morasses, so that the Swedes, 
when they went to them, which happened, generally, once or 
twice a year, had to walk in the water up to their armpits. 
They went thither with cloth, kettles, axes, hatchets, knives, 
mirrors and coral beads, which they sold to them for beaver 
and other valuable skins, also for black foxes and fisher's 
skins, which is a kind of skin that looks like sable, but with 
longer hair, and silvery hair mixed like some of the best sables, 
with beaver, velvet, black squirrel skins, etc. These precious 
furs are the principal articles which the Minquas have for sale. 

"They live on a high mountain, very steep and difficult to 
climb; there they have a fort or square building surrounded 
M'ith palisades in which they reside. There they have guns, 
and small iron cannon with which they shoot and defend them- 
selves and take with them when they go to war. 

"They are strong and vigorous, both young and old; they 
are a tall people, and not frightful in appearance. When they 
are fighting they do not attempt to fly, but all stand like a 
wall, as long as there is one remaining. They forced the other 
Indians, whom we have before mentioned (Delaware), and 
who are not so warlike as the Minques, to be afraid of them, 
and made them subject and tributary to them ; so they dare not 
stir much less go to war against them but their numbers are 
at present greatly diminished by wars and sickness." (15). 

Vjmp^t mentions them again in 1640 as being numerous 
jsknd more or less sedentary. (Rel. 1640 p. 35). 

Apparently the years between 1640 and 1652 were critical i640 
ones for the Carantouans, as they were pressed by enemies both 
north and south. In 1643 Lord Calvert left his colony in 1643 
Maryland and sailed for- England. A Giles Brent became act- 
ing Governor and he commissioned Cornwallis to lead an 


22 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

expedition against the Susquehannock. The author of Nova 
Albion writes that with fifty-three "raw and tired Mary- 
landers" he met two hundred and fifty Indians and killed 
twenty-nine. (i6). 

On the north the Five Nations had secured fire arms from 
the French and were a decided menace. They were threaten- 
ing the Hurons, and the Jesuits with this tribe were worried. 
In the Relations for 1647 we find the following: "Our father 
with the Hurons informs us that the Indians of Andastone 
whom we believe to be neighbors of Virginia, and who former- 
ly had great aOiance with the Hurons, to the extent that people 
of their (respective) countries are still found in their territory, 
these Indians, I say have given the Huron these few words 
to understand: We hear that you have enemies: you have but 
to say to us raise the tomahawk, and we assure you, that they 
will either make peace or we will make war on them. The 
Hurons greatly rejoiced at these fine offers and have sent an 
embassy to these nations. The chief of this embassy is a 
worthy Christian, accompanied by eight persons, four of whom 
have embraced the faith of Jesus Christ." 

1648 Reagueneau writing from the Huron country in 1648 says: 

"Moreover our Hurons have sent an embassy to the Andas- 
taeronons, nations of New Sweden, their old Allies, to solicit 
them to meditate a complete peace or resume war, which they 
had only a few years ago with the Iroquois Annieronons. A 
great relief for this country is expected from them." 

Reagueneau also describes the region in which the Andas- 
taeronons live, and they are undoubtedly the Susquehannock. 
He says : "Andastoe is a country beyond the Neuter Nation 
distant from the Huron 150 leagues S. E. | from the Hurons, 
that is to say S. inclining a little E. but the road that is neces- 
sary to take to go there is nearly 200 leagues (600 Miles) on 
account of the detours." 

1652 In 1652 six chiefs of the Susquehannock, Sawahegeh, Auro- 

ghtcrgh, Scarhuhadgh, Rutchogah and Nathheldaneh, in the 
presence of a Swedish Commission ceded to Maryland all 
their territory from the Pauxtent River to Palmers Island 
and from the Choptank River to the northeast branch, north 
of the Elk River. This gained the Susquehannocks an im- 
portant white alliance that lasted until 1667. Maryland gave 
them men, ammunition and cannon to prosecute the war against 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 23 

their enemies to the north. That this war was carried on to 
the extent of their ability is shown by contemporary records. 
The front changed from the lower Susquehanna River and 
moved northward toward the homeland of the Five Nations. 
It caused unrest in all the seaboard colonies of the period. 

The Jesuits, who were working among the defeated Huron, 
were worried over the war situation for several years. Their 
sympathy was naturally with the Susquehannocks, as the success- 
ful warriors of the Five Nations apparently made life miser- 
able for the Black Fathers. In their Relations for 1657 we 1557 
find the following notation: "We blamed their youth, we told 
them that these disorders had involved them in war with the 
nations called Mahinganak (Mahican) and with the Andasta- 
honeronons (Susquehannock)." 

In 1660 the Fathers were still concerned about the trouble- iseo 
some times and were beginning to take an interest in the 
histories of the groups involved, and recorded the following 
in their Relations: "Of the five people who compose the whole 
Iroquois nation those whom we call the Agnieronnon, have 
been so many times at the top and bottom of the wheel in 
less than sixty years that we find in history few examples of 
similar revelations. As they are naturally insolent and really 
warlike, they have trouble with all their neighbors; with the 
Abnaquriois who are on the east; with the Andastogehronons, 
toward the south, a people who inhabit the coast of Virginia. 
We cannot go very far back in research of what has occurred 
among them since they have no other libraries than the memory 
of the old men. What we learn from these living books is 
that toward the end of the last century, the Agneronnons were 
reduced so low by the Algonkians, that there appeared scarcely 
any of them on the earth; that nevertheless what few re- 
mained, like a generous germ had so grown In a few years 
that they in turn brought the Algonkians down to the same 
straits they had been in. But this state did not last long for 
the Andastogehronons made so fierce a war for ten years, that 
the nation was almost extinct." 

That the power of the Five Nations was on the wane in 
1663, and that they were being humiliated, is shown by the 
rout of 800 Seneca and Cayuga warriors sent against the Sus- 
quehannocks by the Confederation. Assisted by their allies, 
the Marylanders, the Susquehannock had prepared themselves 

24 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

for defense in one of their forts, supposed to be near where 
the town of Washington Borough now stands in Lancaster 
1663 Jerome Lalemont in the Relations for 1663 (ch. IV, 10) 

says: "The three other Iroquois nations had no better success 
in an expedition which they undertook against the Andastoguer- 
onons, Indians of New Sweden, with whom war has been 
acknowledged for some years back. They make up accord- 
ingly an army of 800 men : they embark on Lake Ontario 
about the beginning of the month of April last, they go to the 
extremity of this fine lake to reach a great river, almost like 
that of our St. Lawrence, which bears them without rapids and 
without falls to the very doors of the town of Andastogue. 
Our warriors arrived there after having sailed more than a 
hundred leagues on this beautiful river.* They encamp in most 
advantageous posts, and prepare for a general assault, think- 
ing to carry off the whole town in their usual way and return 
at once loaded with glory and captives. But they saw that 
this town was defended on one side by the river, on whose 
banks it was situated, on the other by a double line of large 
trees, flanked by two bastions in European style and even 
equipped with some pieces of artillery. The Iroquois surprised 
at these well planned defenses abandoned the idea of an assault 
and after some light skirmishes had recourse to their ordinary 
suppleness, to obtain by trick what they could not take by 
force. They accordingly make an overture of some parleying, 
they offer to go into the besieged placed to the number of 
twenty five men, some to treat of peace, they said, some to 
buy provisions for their return. The gates are opened to 
them : they enter : but at the same time they are siezed and 
without more delay, they are forced to ascend a scaffold, and 
in sight of their own army they are all burnt alive. The An- 
dastogueronons thus declaring the war more furiously than 
ever, give the Iroquois assurance, that this was only the pre- 
lude of what they were going to do in their country, and that 
they had only to return as soon as possible to prepare for a 
siege or at least to see their fields laid waste. The Iroquois 
humbled by this affront, more than can be imagined, disbanded, 

• From Lake Ontario via Cohecton, Chemung and Susquehanna to Shamokin. 
(223 miles) Harrisbure (274 miles) Conewago Falls (288 miles) Columbia 
(303 miles). 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 25 

and come to put themselves on the defensive, they who till 
now had borne their victorious arms through all the countries." 

Between 1660 and 1667 the Susquehannock reached the 1660 
height of their power. Had they taken full advantage of their ^^^^ 
strength they might have changed our early history consider- 
ably. As a result of their rise the warlike activities of the 
Five Nations were curtailed. 

That the Black Fathers in the north were pleased with the 
situation and wished that the haughty F'ive Nations would be 
humbled is shown by the tone of their Relations during this 
period. Rafeix in 1672 tells how sixty Susquehannock boys 
between fifteen and sixteen years of age surprised and killed 
two northern warriors, and following up their advantage pur- 
sued the rest of the war party in canoes and killed fourteen 
more and wounded many others. The priest ends his note 
with : "God preserves the i\ndastoguen who have only three 
hundred warriors and favors their army to humble the Iroquois 
and preserve us peace and our Missions." 

During the year of 1670 the Susquehannock sent an em- jg-^Q 
bassador to the Five Nations with three wampum belts to treat 
for peace. They kept him until the spring of 1671. Then, i67i 
after a successful raid to the south, where they captured some 
prisoners, they proceeded to tomahawk him and burn his body 
together with that of his nephew who accompanied him. 

In 1672 what was left of the ambassador's body was dis- 1672 
interred and buried on the war trail to the south. This was 
done by the sachems at the request of a medicine man. A few 
days later two women were killed within fifty paces of the 
Cayuga palisades by Susquehannocks. 

The Susquehannocks, weakened by the loss of their white 
Maryland allies, were now on the decline. They raided into 
the north, but became weaker as the Five Nations grew 

A brief description of how some of the Susquehannock 
prisoners taken by the Five Nations were treated is given by 
John de Lamberville who was stationed at Onondaga in 1672. 
He says : 

"Two Andastoguez taken by the Iroquois have been happier: 
they received baptism immediately before the hot irons were 
applied. One of whom having been burnt during the night 
from his feet to his knees in a cabin, still prayed to God with 

26 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

me the next day, being fastened to a stake in the square of 
the town. I do not repeat here what is ah-eady known that 
the torments they compel prisoners of war to endure are hor- 
rible. The patience of their poor victims is admirable, but 
it is impossible to behold without horror their flesh roasting 
and men who make a vile meal of them like hungry dogs. 

"Passing one day near the spot where they were cutting to 
pieces the body of an Andastoguez, I could not refrain from 
approaching and declaiming against this brutality. I saw one 
of these man eaters who was asking for a knife to cut off an 
arm. I opposed it and threatened him, that if he did not 
desist, God would know how to punish him sooner or later. 
He told me as a reason that he had been invited to a dream 
feast where nothing was to be eaten but human flesh brought 
by the very persons who were invited to the banquet. Two 
days later God permitted that his wife fell into the hands of 
thq Andastoguez who avenged on her person the cruelty of 
her husband." (Relations 1672-73, p. 96). 

The Susquehannock undoubtedly treated their captives in 
a similar manner for stories of their cruel practices are found 
in the pages of history. 

The decline of the Susquehannock power was well under- 

1674 way by 1674. This was not from the arms of their enemies, 
but primarily from disease, probably brought to them by white 
men. This, together with famine and the lack of numbers to 
watch their diminishing frontiers, so reduced their strength 
that they were finally subdued by the Five Nations. 

Unfortunately we have no details as to the conquering forces 
or to the time or manner of their defeat. They were apparent- 
ly too proud to yield to those with whom they had fought as 
equals and refused to submit to holding their land by sufferance, 
yet they were too weak to withstand their enemies. Those 
who were not captured left the river bearing their name, and 
took up a position in western Maryland near Piscataway below 
present Washington, supposed to be their ancient home. 

The date of the final submission of the Susquehannock is 
verified by the following entry in the Relations for the year 

1675 1675: "In fact since they (Five Nations) have entirely de- 
feated the Andastogues who were their most redoubtable 
enemies, their insolence knows no bounds." 

Nichols Perrot, Moeurs et Coutumes, explains how the cap- 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 27 

tives of this final campaign were disposed of in a Relation for 
the same year: "The Iroquois being unable to longer make 
war on his neighbors, the force of arms having compelled him 
to put an end to all his cruelties; he went to seek to do so 
among the Andastes whom he defeated in several engagements 
and by whom he increased his strength considerably, by the 
great number of children and other prisoners to whom he 
granted life. The Andastes were entirely defeated and those 
that remained surrendered with a mutual consent, they were 
received, and are at present among the Tsonontonans." (Prob- 
ably the Seneca) . 

With this final paragraph the Susquehannock disappear 
from the Relations, the most authentic contemporary record? 
of those troublesome times from 1650 to 1675, 

For a few years they appear again in Maryland and the 
best account of their stand against overwhelming odds and 
misunderstanding is given by S. F. Streeter in the Historical 
Magazine for March 1857 (17). 

It is believed that war parties from the Five Nations, with 
the trail into Maryland and Virginia unprotected by their 
ancient enemies, took advantage of the opportunity and raided 
far to the south of their usual territory. Their atrocities were 
blamed on the Susquehannocks and we cannot improve upon 
Mr. Streeter's description of the latter's final end: 

The presence of the Susquehannock tribe on their western 
borders had already excited dissatisfaction among the 
people of Maryland, especially those whose plantations 
were situated near the Piscataway: and efforts had been 
made, but in vain, to induce them to leave the position they 
had taken. This was on the north side of the Piscataway, in 
a strong fort, which had either originally belonged to the 
Piscataway tribe, or was one built by the province a year 
previous*, for the protection of the frontier settlements, 
and perhaps left unoccupied during the time of peace 
which had preceded these occurrences. From its strength 
and construction the latter supposition seems the more 

The walls of the fort were high banks of earth, having 
flankers well provided with loop-holes, and encompassed 

* In 1644 an Act was passed "to enable the governor to establish and sup- 
port a garrison at Piscataway." — ^Bacon's Laws. 

28 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

by a ditch. Without this, was a row of tall trees, from 
five to eight inches in diameter, set three feet in the earth 
and six inches apart, and wattled in such a manner as at 
the same time to protect those within and afford holes for 
shooting through.* These defenses were ingenious and 
strong, and enabled the occupants to set at defiance any 
ordinary beseiging force, unless provided with cannon, or 
prepared to starve its defenders into a surrender. Here 
the Susquehannocks, to the number of nearly one hundred, 
with their old men, women, and children, established 
themselves, and here they were determined to remain. 

Remembering only the deeds of violence that had been 
done, and taking counsel of their apprehensions, forget- 
ful, as it would seem, of the outrage which had stung the 
savages into a revengeful mood, the Marylanders deter- 
mined to organize an expedition against them, in order to 
punish their presumed misdeeds, and drive them from the 

Doubting, however, their ability to carry out promptly 
and effectually their designs, and aware that the Virginians, 
like themselves, had of late suffered from midnight attacks 
and murders, which, from their share in the recent un- 
fortunate assault on the Susquehannocks, they were dis- 
posed to attribute to them acts of revenge, the Mary- 
landers proposed to the Virginians a union of forces and 
a joint expedition, for the purpose of subduing their com- 
mon enemy. 

The proposition was readily accepted, and the two 
provinces raised a force of one thousand men, to march 
against the Susquehannocks. The Virginia troops were 
under the command of Colonel John Washington,** the 
great-grandfather of General George Washington; those 
of Maryland under Major Thomas Truman. 

On the morning of Sunday, the 26th of September, the 
Maryland forces appeared before the fort; the Virginians 
probably a little later. In obedience to his instructions 
from his government, to settle matters with the Susque- 
hannocks by negotiation, if possible. Major Truman sent 

* Bacon's Rebellion, by T. M., p. 10. 
** .John Washington was employed against the Indians in Maryland, and as 
a reward for his services, was made a colonel." — Washington's Letter to Sir 
Isaac Heard. Spark's Biog., Vol. 1, p. 5 47. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 29 

two messengers to the fort, one of whom was well 
acquainted with the Indian language, to invite Harignera, 
one of their principal chiefs, to a conference. Having 
ascertained that Harignera was dead, they requested that 
other chiefs might be sent in his stead; whereupon six* 
of their leaders came forth, and met the commander of 
the Marylanders, in the presence of his principal officers 
and several Indians belonging to neighboring tribes. Upon 
their demanding the reason of all that hostile array. Major 
Truman informed them, through the interpreter, that 
grievous outrages had been perpetrated, both In Maryland 
and Virginia, and that he had come to ascertain who had 
committed them. They replied, it was the Senecas. The 
major then inquired if they would furnish some of their 
young men as guides In pursuit, as several of the other 
tribes had already done; but they replied, the Senecas had 
been gone four days, and by that time, must be near the 
head of the Patapsco. To this it was answered, that the 
horses of the white men were fleet, and the Indian runners 
swift, and both might easily overtake the Senecas. They 
then consented to furnish the guides. 

During this conversation, Col. Washington and Col. 
Mason came over from the Virginia encampment, and 
charged the chiefs with the murders that had been com- 
mitted on the south side of the Potomac; but they posi- 
tively denied that any of their tribe were guilty. The 
Virginians, however, far from being convinced by this 
denial, insisted that three of the Susquehannocks had been 
positively identified as participants in the outrages which 
had taken place. 

The chiefs then presented to Major Truman a paper 
and a silver medal, with a black and yellow ribbon 
attached, which they said had been given to them by 
former governors of Maryland,** as a pledge of protec- 
tion and friendship, as long as the sun and moon should 

* Some accounts say three or four ; but this is the number set down in the 
impeachment of Major Truman. 

** This medal is now exceedingly rare. It is of siver, about the size and half 
the thickness of a crown piece, with a knob on the edge, and for insertion of 
a cord or ribbon, so that it may be suspended from the neck. On one side it 
bears a fine cavalier head, with full flowing locks, and the neck and shoulders 
covered with armor. Around is the inscription, "DMS, CAECILIVS. BARO. 
the reverse is the beautiful head and bust of a lady, with full ringlets, band 
and necklace, encircled with the inscription, "DNA ANNA, ARVNDELIA. 

30 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

endure. These tokens were received by Major Truman 
with assurances that he was satisfied the Senecas had been 
the aggressors In the late outrages, and they need feel no 
apprehension for the safety of themselves, their wives, or 
their children. The officers, as it was near evening, then 
returned to their respective encampments, and the Indians 
went back to the fort. 

Early the next morning, Capt. John Allen, a well-known 
leader of rangers. In the Maryland service, was ordered 
to proceed with a file of men to the house of Randolph 
Hanson, one of the victims of the recent outrages, to 
ascertain if it had been plundered by the Indians, and to 
bring away any ammunition that might have been left on 
the premises. Capt. Allen promptly discharged this duty, 
and returned, bringing with him the bodies of those 
murdered at Hanson's house. 

During his absence the Susquehannock chiefs had again 
come out of the fort, probably by appointment on the pre- 
ceding evening, for the purpose of renewing their con- 
ference with the Maryland and Virginia officers. They 
were again charged by the latter, even more vehemently 
than before, with having been concerned In the outrages 
In Virginia; but the accusation was again met with an 
absolute and Indignant denial. Upon this, the chiefs were 
placed In the custody of Maryland and Virginia troops, 
and the officers retired to another part of the field to de- 
liberate, and decide what course to pursue. 

Unfortunately for the prisoners, In the midst of this de- 
liberation Capt. Allen and his detachment made their 
appearance, bearing with them the mangled bodies, the 
bloody evidences of savage barbarity and hate. The 
whole camp was aroused; Marylanders and Virginians 
alike burned with indignation and thirsted for revenge; 
the council of officers was broken up; and the feeling 
which had been stirred up by the sight of their murdered 
countrymen found vent In an almost unanimous demand 
for the death of those now in their hands, who were 
strongly suspected of being guilty parties in this case, and 
who had been so strenuously denounced by the Virginians 
as the known murderers of their people. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 31 

Before, they might have listened to the voice of reason 
and justice; now, they thought only of the injuries that 
had been inflicted by a savage hand, and loudly called for 
vengeance on those unfortunate representativ^es of the race, 
whose confidence in the efficacy of past tokens and the 
sanctity of present pledges had placed them in their power. 
They forgot that these men had responded to a professed- 
ly peaceful summons; that they had come out with the 
emblems of friendship in their hands; that they had re- 
ceived assurances of confidence and promises of protection; 
and, hurried away by the fury of the moment, committed 
a deed, which, as it violated the laws of God and man, 
brought upon them the condemnation of their contempo- 
raries, as it must have done of their own consciences. In 
after moments of coolness and reflection. 

Major Truman struggled against the excitement and 
pleaded for delay, but in vain; the Virginia officers, con- 
fident of getting immediate possession of the fort, and 
professing to believe that they were only by a few hours 
anticipating the fate of the prisoners, and perhaps de- 
pending in part on the effect of so terrible a blow, insisted 
on the immediate execution of the chiefs. Only one of 
them, for what reason we are not apprised, was spared; 
the remainder, five in number, were bound, led forth from 
the place of their detention, and, to use the plain phrase 
of our authority, "knocked on the head." So died the 
chiefs of the Susquehannocks; not with arms, but with the 
pledges of the white man's protection in their hands; not 
on the open field and in fair fight, but entrapped by 
treachery, and encompassed by their enemies; not the 
death of warriors, but of dumb cattle! They died an 
ignominious death, yet their executioners, by their act, 
covered themselves with a thousand-fold deeper disgrace 
and shame. 

It is but just to the rank and file of the Maryland troops 
to say, that, though one authority speaks of the "unani- 
mous consent ot the \'irginians and the eager impetuosity 
of the whole field, Marylanders as well as Virginians, 
upon the sight of the Christians murdered at Hanson's;"* 
another, alluding to this unhappy act, states that "Tru- 

Record of Lower Hoiusp. June 2d. 1676, Maryland. 

32 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

man's first commands for the killing of those Indians were 
not obeyed; and he had some difficulty to get his men to 
obey him therein; and, after they were put to death, not 
a man would own to have had a hand in it, but rather 
seemed to abhor the act."* 

If the Virginians were moved to their determination to 
take the lives of these chiefs by the expectation that it 
would hasten the surrender of the fort, they greatly mis- 
calculated. When those who had remained behind learned 
what had been done, hate and desperation contended for 
the mastery in their hearts; the blood of their slaughtered 
leaders called for revenge; the proved faithlessness of 
those who threatened their stronghold, forbade them to 
hope; they shut themselves up within their palisades, 
strengthened their defences, and prepared for a desperate 
resistance. Whenever and wherever the besiegers pre- 
pared or attempted an assault, they were ready to meet 
them; whenever a proposal was made for a conference or 
surrender, their reply was, "Where are our chiefs?" 

The Susquehannocks had been too suddenly attacked to 
allow them to lay in supplies to stand a long sieg?, even 
if their mode of warfare had encouraged or their resources 
had allowed such a proceeding; and, as the besieging 
forces cut them off from the surrounding country, they 
soon suffered from a want of provisions. Not daunted by 
the prospect of starvation, they made frequent and fierce 
sallies, to the severe annoyance and loss of the besiegers; 
and, at last, in their extremity, resorted to the expedient 
of capturing and feeding upon the horses which belonged 
to their assailants. These do not appear to have acted 
with much vigor, either because the first rash step had 
dampened the ardor of the men, or because it was rather 
the policy of the commanders to starve than to force the 
Indians into a surrender. The fort also was too strong 
to be stormed; Its situation on low ground precluded the 
possibility of undermining the palisades, even if the watch- 
fulness of the besieged would have permitted their 
approach; and they had no cannon with which to batter 
it; so that they were compelled, in fact, to await the time 

•Record of Upper House, June 2d, 1676, Maryland. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 33 

when famine would have so weakened the enemy as to 
render them an easy prey. 

But the Susquehannocks had no idea of such a termina- 
tion to their struggle. After six weeks of heroic defence, 
during which they had inflicted much injury on their 
enemies, with but little loss to themselves, they yielded, not 
to the prowess of their besiegers, but to the want of food, 
and prepared, not to surrender, but to evacuate the fort. 

It certainly gives a strong color of probability to the 
charge of neglect of duty on the part of the investing 
troops, that the Susquehannocks, after destroying every- 
thing within the fort that could be of use to the assailants, 
and leaving behind only a few decrepit old men, marched 
out under cover of the night, seventy-rive in number, with 
their women and children, passed undiscovered through 
the lines of the besieging forces and, in their way, killed 
ten of the guards, whom they found asleep,* 

The next morning, the united forces, discovering that 
the prey had escaped, followed in pursuit; but either could 
not, or, as our authority significantly hints, "would not 
overtake these desperate fugitives, for fear of am- 
buscades." Both detachments, it would seem, were 
heartily tired of the enterprise, from which neither ofl'icers 
nor men were likely to derive honor or profit. We may, 
therefore, infer that both parties readily relinquished the 
pursuit; and, after detailing a sufficient force to occupy 
the fort and range through the adjacent country, returned 
to their respective provinces, not merely willing, but de- 
sirous, that their exploits during this expedition should 
pass into oblivion. 

Not so the Susquehannocks. They left the last place of 
their refuge in the soil of Maryland, with a stinging sense 
of injury, a recollection of solemn obligations slighted and 
of wrongs yet unavenged. 

The voices of their slaughtered chiefs called upon them 
for the sacrifice of blood; and, as they took their leave of 
the territory of their enemies, and, crossing the Potomac, 
directed their route over the heads of the Rappahannock, 

♦Another account (which seems rather improbable) states that "They 
marched out in the moonlig'ht with their women and eliildren, and passed tlie 
guards without opposition, hollooing' and firing at them as they went." — Bacon'.s 
Rebellion; Force's Tracts, p. 10. 

34 Pennsyi.vama Historical Commission 

York, and James Kixers, the tomahawk fell upon settler 
after settler, until sixty victims were sacrificed, to atone for 
the slaughter of the heads of their tribe. 

One of the sufferers, at the head of James River, was 
a valued overseer on the plantation of Nathaniel Bacon; 
and it was the murder of this man, in connection with the 
disturbed state of the counti-y, which caused Bacon's appli- 
cation for a commission to go against the Indians, a part 
of whom were Susquehannocks, his subsequent difficulties 
with Governor Berkeley, his rebellion, and his untimely 
death, the details of which are familiar to the readers of 
the colonial history of \'irginia. 

The Susquehannocks, belie\'ing that they have now sac- 
rificed victims enough to redeem their own honor and to 
appease the angry spirits of their murdered chiefs, are 
willing to negotiate with the V'irginians. Ihey send to 
the governor a remonstrance, drawn up by an English in- 
terpreter, to the following effect: 

"First: They ask why he, a professed friend, has taken 
up arms in behalf of the Marylanders, their avowed 

"Secondly: They express their regrets to find that the 
Virginians, from friends, have become such violent enemies 
as to pursue them e\en into another pro\ince. 

"Thirdly: They complain that their chiefs, sent out to 
treat for peace, were not only murdered, but the act was 
countenanced by the goxernor. 

"Fourthly: They declare, that, seeing no other way of 
obtaining satisfaction, they ha\e killed ten of the common 
English for each one of their chiefs, to make up for the 
disproportion arising from the difference of rank. 

"Finally: They propose, if the Virginians will make 
them compensation for the damages sustained by the attack 
upon them, and withhold all aid from the Marylanders, 
to renew the ancient league of friendship otherwise, they, 
and those in league with them, will continue the war, so 
unfairly begun, and fight it out, to the last man." 

This message to (loxernor Berkeley, notwithstanding its 
lofty tone, made no impression, and elicited no reply; and 
the Susquehannocks were left to fulfill their terrible threat, 
which they did to the letter. They succeeded in enlisting 

Sai'i: ilAKiioK l\i:i'()Kr Xo. 1 35 

in their cause sexeral of the tribes, before frieiully to the 
\'irginians, aiul then addressed theniseKes, with sa\age 
earnestness, to their bloodv work. So sudden \\ere their 
attacks and so awful the inhumanities of which they were 
guilty, that the frontier phmtations were deserted, and it 
would seem that e\en Jamestown itself was not safe from 
their attack. 

.\ line of forts was established along the fi-ontiers, to 
prexent their mcm'sions; but, like most similar attempts of 
the colonies, owing to their distance from each other and 
the want of sufficient garrisons, they failed entirely to 
afford protection. Bands of saxage marauders watched 
their opportimity, passed between the forts, effected their 
nun-derous objects, repassed the lines, and x\eie bevond 
pursuit, before the garrisons could be alarmed or dis- 
patched to the point assailetl. 

Yet these were, after all, but the last desperate efforts 
of a despairing people. I^ew in numbers themseKes, and 
leagued with tribes feeble indeed in comparison with those 
against whom their tierce assaults were directeil, the\' could 
only hope to inflict the utmost injurN' upon their ad\'er- 
saries, with the certainty of finally perishing, as indi\ iduals 
and as a people, in the contest. 1 lad not \ irginia herself 
been crippled by a ci\il contro\ersy, the\' would have been 
crushed at once; but, e\en as it was, in the midst of all his ' 
distractions and his difficulties with the go\ ernment. Bacon 
found time to axenge those of his friends and of the 
proN'ince who had fallen beneath their assaults, atul re- 
assure the desponding colonists. He swept the country 
of the tribes with whom the Susquehannocks hatl leagued 
themseKes, burned their towns, |)ut a large number of 
them to the sword, and dispersed the remaiiuler. "The 
Indians e\-er\where Hed before him; se\eral tribes entirely 
perished and those who sui-\i\ed xxere so retluced as 
ne\er afterwards to be able to make am firm stand against 
the whites." 

Among those who were nuule to feel the a\ enging arm 
of Bacon was the homeless i-emnant of the Susijuehannocks. 
His residence was on the Iai7ies Rixer, at a point called 
"Curies," in Henrico Count\ ; and, as has been mentionetl, 
his faxorite overseer had been murderetl b\' the saxages. 

36 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

The confidence of the frontier settlers in his courage and 
ability made them anxious to obtain him as their leader 
against the enemy. He was willing to take the command 
of an expedition, but had no commission from the gov- 
ernor for raising a military force. After many difficulties, 
a commission was promised him, and he commenced his 
preparations; but, in the midst of them, ascertained 
that the governor had acted the part of a hypocrite, 
and did not intend to fulfill his promise. 

Roused by this discourteous and distrustful procedure. 
Bacon at once armed his servants, and called together the 
frontier settlers, and, placing himself at their head, 
marched into the forest, to pursue and punish the Susque- 
hannocks. Advancing to a village occupied by a tribe of 
Occonegies, he was received by them in a friendly manner, 
and informed in regard to the place where the Susque- 
hannocks had fortified themselves, and prepared for a 
desperate resistance, in case of an attack. He pushed for- 
ward without delay, and found them strongly posted in a 
rude fort; but this did not deter him. He led his men to 
the assault, and, after a fierce struggle, succeeded in forc- 
ing his way within the fort, and put seventy of its de- 
fenders to the sword.* A few of the original tribe may 
have survived, but the information we possess, relative to 
the diminished number of the tribe at that period, justifies 
the conclusion that this severe blow completed their ex- 

So disappear the stout Susquehannocks from the page 
of aboriginal history. They met the first white man who 
set foot on their soil, with a firm and unyielding front; 
they resisted for years his attempts at negotiation or en- 
croachments on their territory; hard pressed at last by 
powerful enemies of their own race, they yielded to neces- 
sity and accepted his proffered friendship; for a quarter 
of a century they held the sacred pledges of Lord Balti- 
more, and kept the peace; during which time, driven by 
the Senecas from their homes, they were forced into a 
position which brought upon them the hostility of the 
people of iMaryland; they accepted proposals for negotia- 
tions, only to find their leaders entrapped and put to 

"Slr;inK»- .N«-\vs fiorn X'iiK'inia, etc.. etc.. London, 1677. 

Safk Hakhor ]<i:roRT Xo. 1 37 

death; they defended thenisel\es hraxely in their strong- 
hold, and, rather than surrender, retreated to another ter- 
ritory; and there, after tendering to the authorities, with 
a proud and unbroken spirit, the choice between the hand 
of friendship and the tomahawk, accepted the latter alter- 
native, as that alone was left to them. Then came the 
deadly struggle, in the course of which, though in- 
dividuals sur\'i\ed and were incorporated into other tribes, 
as a distinct people they perished, in a manner most 
glorious to their saxage conceptions, surrounded with the 
victims of their vengeance, in the blaze of the burning 
mansion, the ruin of cultix'ated estates, with the shriek 
and the supplication of the nun-dered white man ringing 
in their ears, anci their hands red with human blood. 

Although apparently "exterminated to the last man," a 
remnant of the Susquehannock or Andaste tribe appears to 
have found its way to the west end of Lake Krie on the south 
shore and are indicated on La Hontan's maps of about the 
period of 1681^. They were probably the same ones referred 1685 
to in 1695 by the Dutch prisoner from Orange who reported 1695 
that "one hundred Iroquois warriors had been sent against the 
Andastes" (Col. Hist. X. Y. IX 601). 

These references could be extended but no additional force 
would be gained by increasing the number. That some of the 
Susquehannock occupied the West Branch of the Susquehanna 
River after abandoning their position near Washington 
Borough appears almost certain; the affirmatixe exidence as 
to the approximate position is abundant and conclusixe. 

The Conestogas ( Kanastoge — "at the place of the immersed 
pole") xvere survivors of the once mighty Susquehannock xvho 
returned to their homeland on the Susquehanna Rixer in Lan- 
caster County. According to Colden they were the captixes 
who had been carried northxvard by the victorious Five Nations 
in 1675. He claims they remained among the Oneida until 
they lost their language and xvere finally alloxved to return to 
Conestoga, their ancient toxvn (iS). Other authorities claim 
they were surxixors of the Maryland refugees xvho rinallv 
managed to get back to their homeland. Wherever thev came 
from they xvere a sad remnant of a once mighty race. Pressed 
on all sides by xvhite settlers and groups of Indians, they once 

38 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

held in contempt, they slowly degenerated until at the close of 
the year 1763 they numbered only twenty souls. At that time 
rioters inflamed by accounts of the Indian war raging along 
the Pennsylvania frontier, massacred this small band where 
they had taken shelter in the jail yard in the city of Lancaster. 
On that day the last known group of Susquehannocks passed 
out of existence. 

Notes on Lancaster County 

PRELIMINARY reconnaissance of the Pennsylvania Historical 
Commission's expedition in the area to be covered by 
water in the basin of the new Safe Harbor Dam revealed 
that authentic archaeological data could not be recorded in 
territory reached by the Susquehanna River since Indian occupa- 
tion. Floods and heavy changing deposits of sediment had 
eradicated human stratum in situ. The first few test holes 
in the area revealed this condition but it was important for 
the expedition to verify this fact without question so exery 
island was thoroughly examined without establishing any 
authentic archaeological criteria. 

This paper will consider first of all brief field accounts of the 
archaeological explorations in Lancaster County during the 
years of 1930-31, in the order in which Indian sites were in- 
vestigated. The work on each, station will be described to- 
gether with the type specimens gathered, and the facts that 
may be derived from them. 

Roberts Farm Site 


The first site archaeologically investigated after the work 
in the area to be covered by water was finished was exactly 





Pexxsvi.vama Historical Commission 

three miles aboxe the mouth of Conestoga Creek on J. C. 
Roberts farm (pi. i). Excavations were started here and 
continued for fl\e days. The Indian occupational surface indi- 
cations, consisting of numerous fragments of white quartz, 
Hint chips and broken artifacts extended across a hollow north 
to a knoll running out into the Conestoga Valley on the 
Knepp farm. Walnut Hollow spring still famous for its pure 
water, lay exactly in the center of the site and was probably 
responsible for its Indian occupation. 

I wo pits were exca\ated and recorded on the site and in 



these were located the first indications of an Iroquoian archae- 
ological cultural horizon for the region (pi. 2). 

HII' \(). 1 

L sing a \crv large white {]uartz boulder on the southeast 
edge of the Roberts field as a bench mark, Pit. No. i was 
located exactly North (magnetic) 241 ft. I'hc disturbance 
in the earth was well indicated from the surface to its greatest 
depth of 3 ft. 9 in. The pit was almost round and averaged 
4 ft. 7 in. in diameter at the top, tapering to 3 ft. 8 in. at 
the bottom. Fhe walls were smooth and the bottom round 
and Icxcl. 

Safe Harbor Report Xo. 2 


On the Hoor of this storage pit, resting against the north 
wall, was an iron hoe. Fragments of several pottery vessels, 
made of a hard and brittle ware with shell filler, were scattered 
throughout the disturbance. One broken stone celt, a bear 
jaw bone, with teeth well preserved, and innumerable frag- 
ments of animal bone, charred corn, beans and a fragmentary 
flat smoothing stone were recovered (pi. 3). 

PIT NO. 2 

This disturbance was unquestionably a fire pit and may have 
been located inside a dwelling. It was unusually large, measur- 



ing 9 ft. 6 in. by g ft. in diameter and its depth varied from 
I ft. lo in. to 2 ft. At various levels in the pit were mussel 
shells and broken animal bones. Below the i ft. 2 in. level, 
covering the floor and approximately 5 in. thick, was a layer 
of wood ashes and charcoal containing calcined bones, charred 
nuts and fragments of pottery. Resting on the floor in the 
northern end was a box turtle shell (Cistudo Carolina). 

Conclusions. The objects recovered from this site indi- 
cated a minor, late historic Troquoian Indian occupation. It 













^ 1 



X 1 


tv >; 


!0 5 






Safk Harbor Report No. 2 


may have been used as a camping place during the Conestoga 
period. The iron hoe showed white contact, and the friable 
shell tempered pottery was similar to that found on late, historic 
Susquehannock sites to be described later. 

Shenk's Ferry Site 


Chart 1 

This Indian site, one-half mile below Shenk's Perry on the 

Susquehanna Ri\er, was on a heighth of land between two 

branches of a small stream known as Grubb Creek (pi. 4). 




It was approximately three-quarters of a mile from the mouth 
and on the old David Eishelman property. Chart i. 

Surface indications of aboriginal occupation were chipped 
quartz, pottery fragments and occasional arrowpoints. Using 
a magnetic north-south base line the south stake of the site was 
located 165"^ 94 ft. from the southeast side of a very large 
poplar tree on the edge of the east branch, exactly 300 yds. 
from the fork. Almost directly south of this tree on the east 
side of the stream is the electrical transmission line leading to 
Holtwood. The property is owned by the Pennsylvania Water 
Power Corporation at the present time. 

Test holes and trenches were started on the south edge of 
a knoll and carried across the field. Ihe sandy soil was packed 
hard and contained a scattering of mica to a depth of approxi- 


Pkxnsvlvaxia Historical CoMMissio."i; 

mately 15 in., where a hard black mica shale was encountered, 
this averaged 18 in. in depth to the hardpan (pi. 5). 



Width of disturbance 3 ft. «; in. by 4 ft. 2 in. 

Depth to skull I ft. 4I -J in. 

The first burial found was that of an old female. It was 

extended lying partially on its right side facing north. The 



femur, fibula and tibia were slightly flexed to the right. The 
right arm was extended at the side and the hand contained an 
earthenware pipe. 1 he left arm crossed the body at the 
lumbar vertebrae and the hand rested upon the right pelvis. 
Between the left clavicle and the partially crushed temporal 
bone a turtle shell was found containing two earthenware pipes 
and some white quartz chips. One of these pipes was a crude 
tubular type and the other slightly bent at the stem near the 
bowl (pi. 6) . 

Many of the bones of this burial were broken and decom- 
posed, and the skull was crushed so that even restoration would 
not have made it of value for anatomical measurements. 


At a depth of 2 ft. 6 in. a previously disturbed burial of a 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


young person lying on right side was exposed. The knees 
were flexed and the left patella touched the proximal end of 
the right ulna. 


At a depth of i ft. 9'o in. a previously disturbed grave 
which contained disintegrated human bones was recorded. The 
occupit and body bones indicated an aged person. A triangular 
arrowpoint was found beneath the undisturbed fourth cervical 
vertebrae, and a section of the upper femur was about 6 in. 
above the pelvis. 




At a depth of 2 ft. iqI/. in. the remains of a young female 
was found. She was lying on her back with head twisted to 
the left side, legs flexed to the left and arms at side with the 
hands resting on the pelvis. The skull was in very poor con- 
dition, and no artifacts were found (pi. 7). 


At a depth of 3 ft. 5V-j in. a middle aged male was found 
lying on his back with head turned to the right. The ulnas 




Sai'I". Hakmor Ri:i'()H'1' No. 2 47 

and radii of both sides were bent back with hands resting on 
clavicle. The right leg was extended and left leg slightly 
flexed. A triangular arrowpoint was on the hardpan between 
the left peKis and the Boating rib; another was with the bones 
of the left foot. Pottery fragments were recorded 3 in. from 
the right radius. 

This burial was in excellent condition. Ihe red soil in 
which it was found had stained the bones, which although 
light in weight, were hard and solid. Nearly every bone in 
the body was secured (pi. 8). 

A very careful inspection was gi\en to all the bones to detect 
salient morphological characters and an anthrc., ometric study 
was made on the skull by Mr. William Richie, Rochester 
Museum of Arts and Sciences. 

Crania N()tal'io)is — Burial iXo. 5 
Length, max. 17.9 cms. 
Breadth, max. 14.0 
Height, basion-bregma 14.8 
Capacity 1400 c.c. 
Cranial module 15.5 

Circumference, max. (abo\e supraorbital ridges) 50.4 
Nasion-opisthion arc 37.1 
Length, total (chin-nasion) 10.6 
Length, upper (prosthion-nasion) 6.7 
Breadth (dia. bizyg., max.) 14.0 
Diameter frontal 9.1 

H. 1 ^ Nose 

eight 5.25 

Breadth 2.4 

Basion-prosthion line 9.2 

Basion-subnasal point 8.7 

Basion-nasion 10.5 

Prosthion-nasion height 6.7 

Prosthion-subnasal point height 1.7 

, , . , Orbits 

Height 3.2 

Breadth 4.25 , . ... , 

^ -" A I an di hie 

Height at syphysis 3.1 

Thickness at 2nd left molar 1.35 (alveolus atrophied ) 

Diameter bigonial 

Breadth of ramus, min. 2-3 

48 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Foramen Magnum 
Diameter, mean 3,5 

Length 4.5 

Breadth 4.0 


CephaHc 7.82 Mesaticephalic 

Height-length 82.5 Hyslcephalic 

Height-breadth 105.7 

Facial, total 75.7 Chamaeprosopic 

Facial, upper 47.8 

Orbital 75.2 Microseme 

Nasal 45.7 Leptorrhine 

Facial angle 8 1 ° Orthognathous 

Alvolar angle 65° 

Palatal 88.8 

All sutures were simple; occlusion beginning on exterior 
above lambda. Second bicuspids and all but third molars lost 
from mandible. In the upper jaw all right and left M^ and 
M^ missing. Advanced degree of wear on all teeth. Perfora- 
tion into antrum through socket of right M'^ (dia. 5.5 m.m.), 
due to infection. 


At a depth of 2 ft. 1 1 in. human remains were uncovered. 
The sex was indeterminate. The body was flexed on the left 
side facing north with the top of the head to the west. The 
right arm rested on the vertebrae with hand on the seventh 
cervical. The right and left legs were flexed. The skull was 
partially crushed and the inferior maxillary missing. The gen- 
eral condition was very poor; no deformations were noted, and 
no artifacts found. 

Crania Notations — Burial No. 6 
Mesocephalic — probably a very old man. The skull was 
thick, heavy and solid with sutures extremely tight and almost 
indistinct. The left temporal was solid with the parietal, and 
the right decayed and fragmentary. The sagittal and lamboid 
sutures were flexible and only traces of the coronal appeared. 
The nasal bones were intact. The globella and connecting 
bones, usually decomposed, were also intact. All molars were 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 49 

extremely prominent, and the superior maxillary exhibited the 
loss of two on left side and all on the right side some time 
prior to death. Only the roots of canine incisors remained and 
the bicuspids on right side were partially decayed. The in- 
ferior maxillary had three molars missing on left side prior 
to death, and all remaining teeth were badly worn and decayed. 
On the left side next to the sagittal suture was evidence of 
an injury inflicted a long period before death, evidently caused 
by a blow from some pointed implement. It penetrated nearly 
through the skull. To the right of this ^ in. and extended 
1% in. diagonally across the frontal toward the supraorbital 
ridge of the left side was a mark showing an injury, apparently 
a deep cut. Directly above the globella was a depressio.n y^ 
in. in diameter and i/i6 in. deep. To the right of this i/o in. 
were two more small depressions, these appeared to have been 
caused by a blow from a small blunt instrument. None of 
these injuries appeared to have caused death. 


At a depth of 2 ft. 8 in. the remains of an old man were 
encountered. Field measurements indicated a dolichocephalic 
index for the skull. The body was extended lying on back 
with top of head to the east and facing south. The right arm 
was extended at side with hand resting on left pelvis. The 
left arm was bent underneath the body. Near the top of the 
head on the left side a small hole entered the skull, evidently 
made some time before death. Below this hole on the frontal, 
was a cut also inflicted prior to death. In the frontal bone 
directly in the center 1I/2 i"- above the eye socket was a dent 
ys in. deep and I/2 i^i- ^^ diameter. Teeth were worn down 
and showed partial decay. All molars but one were missing. 

Red paint was found scattered through the soil in the grave 
and the bones were resting upon a bed of wood ash. Removal 
of vertebrae showed indication of arthritis. 


At a depth of 2 ft. 4 in. a previously opened and rifled grave 
was recorded. The skull and most bones were missing. The 
left femur was deformed, and one small potsherd was above 
the remains. 

50 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


The remains of a middle aged female were recorded at a 
depth of 2 ft. 4 in. Field measurements on the skull proved 
it to be dolichocephalic. The body was extended lying on 
back with top of head to south facing east. The right and 
left arms were extended by side close to body. The right leg 
was flexed, and the left leg extended. The skull was thin and 
crushed on the right side. The upper jaw was in good condi- 
tion, and the inferior maxillary was well formed and showed 
but little wear. Indications of decomposition in several molars 
were noted. The general condition of the bones was very poor. 
No deformations were recorded. 

Near the top of the head was a box turtle shell rattle con- 
taining seventeen white quartz pebbles. On the top of the 
rattle was a crudely decorated earthenware pipe. 


At a depth of 3 ft. the remains of an adult male were found, 
extended with the top of the head to south facing east. The 
right arm was extended with hand near the pelvis. The left 
arm and legs were also extended. General condition was fair 
with the exception of skull. The left tibia was deformed and 
attached to the tibia by a solid fusion of bone 3 inches from 
tarsal surface. This fusion may have been due to an injury 
while the person was young as the two bones had apparently 
been forced against each other and remained until a solid 
growth formed. No artifacts were recorded. 


At a depth of i ft. 6 in. fragmentary human remains were 
recorded. The skull indexed dolichocephalic. The posture 
was full flexed, heading east and facing north. The right arm 
was flexed and hand rested in front of jaw. The left arm 
was flexed with hand resting on the distal end of the right 
humerus. The general condition of all bones was very poor 
with the exception of the skull. 

This burial was underneath a fire pit, and the ashes and 
animal bone extended to within 6 inches of the remains. At 
the right scapula fragmentary remains of a turtle shell cup were 

Safe Harhor Kkport No. 2 


lURlAJ. NO. 12 
A male was found at a depth of 2 ft. 8 in., extended on 
back with top of head to east facing up and slightly to the 
north. The skull indexed brachycephalic. I'he right and left 
arms were extended down the sides to the pelvis. Vht right 
leg was extended with the foot resting o\er left astragalus. 
The phalanges of the hands and feet were missing together 
with portions of the ulna. The tips of the right scapula and 
vertebrae were also missing together with portions of pelvic 
bones. The bin^ial was underneath a fire pit and lying at the 
side of the head was a coil ear ornament made of brass and 
some small shell beads (pi. 9). 

Craiiid N oldtions — Burial No. 12 
The skull had an imusually large and prominent zygomatic 





Pennsylvania Historical Commissioi 

arch. Two sets of pre-molars were fully developed in the 
inferior maxillary directly opposite each other. The gonion 
and ganathion were unusually heavy and the basilaris plane of 
the Inferior maxillary was 4.^ ^^ in. Several molars were miss- 
ing, evidently prior to death. Many teeth showed decay and 
all were worn. 


A middle aged female was found at a depth of 2 ft. 8 in. 
with dolichocephalic index. The remains extended full length 
with top of head to the east and facing north. The right arm 
was flexed at the side and bent back at the elbow so that the 
hand rested beneath the inferior maxillary. 1 he left arm was 
extended down the side turning up at the elbow and crossing 
the sternum with the hand resting on the right elbow. The 
right and left legs were extended. A laboratory examination 
showed enamel of molars completely worn away. The gen- 
eral condition of the bones was very poor. 

Associated Articles. One foot above the bones in the 
side of the wall was a well worn grinding stone. The remains 
were covered by a very large flat rock 16 in. from the surface, 
and a smaller slab rested directly over the skull. 


A total of forty-three pits were explored on this site .and 
a wide variety of objects was recovered from them. These pits 
were of the usual type found on Algonkian and Iroquoian 
sites in the east and were used for storage and fireplaces, the 
latter being indicated by shallowness and an abundance of 
wood ash and charcoal. All were carefully located and ex- 
plored. I^levations and positions of artifacts recovered were 
taken and are considered in the final analysis of the site. A 
brief tabular description of each pit with its cultural horizon, 
size, depth, use and contents follows : 

Descriphon of Pits Found on Siienk's Ferry Site 

Pit No. 





3 ft. 5 in. by 

4 ft. 2 in. 

1 ft. 3 in. to 

2 ft. 7 in. 



2 ft. 4 in. by 
3 ft. 8 in. 

1 ft. 7 in. 






Sherds near surface, 
charcoal, animal 
bone. A pointed 
bottom pottery ves- 

Charcoal, sherds, 
quartz chips. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Pit No. 







3 ft. 9 in. by 
4 ft. 1 in. 

3 ft. 4 in. 



Charred beans 
(about 3 qts.) 


2 ft. 10 in. by 
3 ft. 9 in. 

1ft. 9 in. 





Sherds, animal bone, 
black flint chips, 
turtle shell, burned 
mica, 7 small frag- 
ments of clay pipes. 


2 ft. 10 in. by 
3 ft. 8 in. 

1 ft. 10 in. 


Charcoal, sherds 
quartz chips, 1 un- 
finished arrow- 


4 ft. 5 in. by 
6 ft. 3 in. 

2 ft. 51/2 in. 


Sherds, 1 fragment 
of a hammerstone, 1 
fragment of a celt 
1 fragment of an 
axe, 2 triangular 
arrow-points, frag- 
mentary turtle 
shell, 2 pipe stems. 


2 ft. 5 in. by 
3 ft. 2 in. 

1 ft. 8 in. 



Animal bone, 1 bone 
awl worked turkey 
leg bone. 


3 ft. 8 in. by 
6 ft. 




Sherds, 1 bone bead, 
9 crude triangular 
a r r w-p i n t s, 2 
fragments of a 
pitted hammerstone, 
1 decorated earth- 
enware pipe burned 
bone, 1 quartz 


3 ft. by 3 ft. 

3 ft. 




At 2 ft. along the 
south wall a stone 
pestle, 1 broken celt, 
2 grain mullers. 
animal bone and 
worked turkey 


2 ft. by 2 ft. 

2 ft. 4 in. 


Sherds at 18 in. ani- 
mal and bird bone, 
quartz fragments. 


2 ft. 4 in. by 
2 ft. 6 in. 

11 in. 


Charcoal, sherds, 1 
quartz ash. 


2 ft. 4 in. by 
2 ft. 10 in. 

12 in. 



Charcoal, burned 
clay, ash, 5 sherds, 
deer bones. 



Pit No. 







2 ft. 4 in. by 
3 ft. 1 in. 

2 ft. 10 in. 



Burned clay, sherds, 
animal bones, fish 
bones, bird bones, 
1 bone awl, worked 
antler, 1 smoothing 
stone, 1 muller, 1 
triangular q u artz 
a r r w-p o i n t, 
cracked firestones. 


1 ft. 8 in. by 
1 ft. 10 in. 

2 ft. 



Ash charcoal, sherds, 
animal bone, 1 piece 


3 ft. 11 in. by 
4 ft. 1 in. 

2 ft. 3 in. 



Worked turkey bone, 
sherds, animal bone. 


3 ft. 2 in. by 
3 ft. 

2 ft. 3 in. 



Unusually dark 
earth, large deer 
bones 1 turtle shell, 
sherds, 1 pipe bowl, 
1 pipe stem, quartz 
fragments, deer ant- 


4 ft. 8 in. by 
4 ft. 10 in. 

1 ft. 11 in. 



Charcoal animal 
bone, sherds, quartz 
flakes, ash. 


4 ft. by 4 ft. 

2 ft. 2 in. 



Animal bone, char- 
coal ash. 


3 ft. by 
2 ft. 7 in. 

I ft. 10 in. 



Animal bone, sherds, 


3 ft. 7 in. by 

4 ft. 4 in. 

1 ft. 7 in. 



Sherds, firestones, 
animal bone 1 ham- 


2 ft. 6 in. by 
2 ft. 8 in. 

2 ft. 7 in. 



Charcoal, sherds, 1 
pipe stem, bone, 
flint chips. 


5 ft. 4 in. by 
6 ft. 10 in. 

2 ft. 2 in. 



Charcoal 1 pipe 
bowl fragment, part 
of small pottery 
vessel, sherds, ani- 
mal bone, 1 large 
pottery vessel 
(broken) . 


3 ft. 4 in. by 
3 ft. 11 in. 

1 ft. 10 in. by 
1ft. 10 in. 

1 ft. 2 in. 


Ash animal bone, 
quartz and fire- 


2 ft. 11 in. 



Charcoal, animal 
bone, sherds, 1 bone 
awl, ash. 


3 ft. 6 in. by 
3 ft. 8 in. 

1 ft. 3 in. 



Charcoal sherds (2), 
deer bone, ash. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Pit No. 







3 ft. 4 in. by 
3 ft. 2 in. 

1 ft. 4 in. 



Deer skull, charcoal, 
shell, pottery deer 
teeth, chipped 


3 ft. 2 in. by 
3 ft. 10 in. 



Charcoal, pottery, 
firestones deer 
bone, antler. 


4 ft. 8 in. by 
4 ft. 6 in. 

1 ft. 3 in. 



Charcoal, sherds, 
fragment of pipe 
stem, ash. 


3 ft. 4 in. by 
3 ft. 

1ft. 6 in. 



Charcoal turtle shell 
fragments, antler, 
sherds, quartz. 


2 ft. 7 in. by 
2 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 1 in. 



Charcoal, sherds, ani- 
mal bone, 1 awl, 1 
bone bead, worked 


3 ft. 7 in. by 
5 ft. 1 in. 

I ft. 8 in. 



Charcoal, sherds, 
pipe stem fish hook 


2 ft. 2 ft. 

1 ft. 4 in. 



Animal bone, 2 snail 
shells, bird bone, 
sherds (2 vessels) , 
antler (deer) . 


3 ft. 7 in. by 
3 ft. 7 in. 

3 ft. 1 in. 



Charcoal stones 
(chipped), animal 
bone, ash. 


2 ft. 10 in. by 
4 ft. 

3 ft. 3 in. 



1 stone pestle, 1 
hammerstone, 1 pot 
bottom 1 pipe stem, 
1 comb, human effi- 
gies, on back, 
worked antler, nuts 
red ochre, charred 
beans, corn cobs, 
sherds, animal bone, 
1 turtle shell cup, 
6 triangular arrow- 


4 ft. 2 in at 
top and 3 
ft. 4 in. at 

4 ft. 8 in. 

Fire and 


Wood ash, animal 
bone, 1 pestle, 1 
muller blue clay, 
sherds, 1 bone awl. 



Historical Commission 


Pit No. 







4 ft. 2 in. by 

4 ft. 2 in. 

4 ft. 11 in. 



Sherds, 1 hammer- 
stone, 3 triangular 
arrowpoints, 10 pipe 
stems, 3 bone beads, 
1 copper bead (4 in. 
below surface) , 
squirrel skull, fish 
bones, charred 
wood, 1 deer antler 
(complete). 2 pieces 


4 ft. 7 in. by 
4 ft. 5 in. 

3 ft. 4 in. 


Sherds, ash, char- 


5 ft. 2 in. by 
5 ft. 5 in. 

2 ft. 4 in. 



Sherds, animal 
bones, fish bones, 1 
turtle shell cup 
fragment, 3 bone 
beads, 2 pottery 


3 ft. by 3 ft. 

1 ft. 6 in. 


Sherds (1 vessel), 
turtle shell, bone 


6 ft. by 

1 ft. 8 in. 



Charcoal ashes, 

8 ft. 3 in. 


sherds, 1 bird bone 
awl, 3 triangular 
arrowpoints, 1 pipe 
stem, 1 bone awl 
(carbonized) , quartz 
fragments, 4 shells, 
celt (fragmentary) . 


2 ft. 6 in. by 
2 ft. 6 in. 

1 ft. 3 in. 


Sherds, charcoal ash. 


3 ft. by 3 ft. 

1 ft. 8 in. 



Charcoal, sherds. 


deer bone. 


5 ft. 2 in. by 

3 ft. 9 in. 



Charcoal, sherds 

5 ft. 4 in. 


animal bones, ash. 


Bone and Antler Objects — On most pre-historic Algon- 
kian sites worked bone objects occur although in no great 
numbers. Three types of bone awls were recorded at Shenk's 
Ferry. Those with natural joints as handles predominated, 
and a wide variation of length and size in this form was noted 
(pi. lo, figs. A-D). A few fortuitous splinter types were 
found and one smoothly finished spatulate. Turkey wing bones 
were favored for awl making. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Beads — Three bird bone beads were in Pit 38, which had 
an Iroquoian horizon; they are exceedingly rare on pure 
Algonkian sites. Two hollowed bone tubes, one from a deer 
and the other from a bird, were recorded in pits with doubt- 
ful horizons, and showed the use of crude reaming tools. The 
bird bone was probably intended for future use in bead making. 




Turtle Shell — Several turtle shells that had been used 
as containers were in the pits and one in grave. A well pre- 
served shell, with the plastron in place, had sixteen small quartz 
pebbles inside and was undoubtedly used as a rattle. A small 
fragment of a plastron was iK)tched on one edge, and beveled 
and pointed on another. It was probably a combined pottery 
smoother and decorator (pi. 10, F). 

Antler — Several large pieces of deer antler cached in the 
pits showed that this material was utilized, probably for im- 
plement making. One small fragment of a cone shaped piece 
suggests its possible use as a projectal point. The tips of antler 
tines were often cut off and hollowed out to make conical 
arrowheads; they are found occasionally on Algonkian sites. 



Combs — A small fragment of a handsome back comb, with 
two human figures on it, was in Pit 34, which had an Iroquoian 
horizon. Many similar combs were recorded from definite 
Iroquoian sites and will be described in detail later in this paper. 

Smell — A large shell bead from I^it 34 and sexeral smaller 
ones from Burial 12 were recovered. \o worked shell arti- 
facts were found in the purely Algonkian part of the site, 
although fresh water mussels were plentiful in many of the pits. 




PiPKS — l^he earthenware pipes recovered from the pits and 
burials on the Shenk's Ferry site were of the monolithic elbow 
type, with the exception of the crude tubular pipe found with 
Burial i. The average angle of the elbows was about 35. 
All the pipes were short and one had a squared stem near 
the bowl (pi. 11). With the exception of the archaic tubular 
pipe, which had a roughly made bowl, still showing that the 
clay had been baked around a small corncob, the five pipes 
recovered conform to established advanced Algonkian types. 

Ston'KWORK — Pitted hammerstones of a common variety 
were plentiful on this site. POur rudely shaped implements 
recovered from the pits may have been blanks for celts or used 
as crude hoes (pi. 12 a-b). A single fragment of a grooved 
axe made of a water-worn ri\er pebble, several rough mullers 
and crude broken pestles show that these people did not excel 
in the art of stone working. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Arrowpolnts were plentiful in the pits with Iroquoian hori- 
zons. Those recovered with the burials were chipped triangular 
types and may have had an Iroquoian origin (pi. 12 e-i). 
Only the crude white quartz points, rudely triangular in shape, 
can be classified as Algonkian (j-1). 

On most transitional Algonkian sites of this period the 
triangular point is less common than the notched types. When 
found they are usually heavier and broader compared with 




the delicate Iroquoian forms. A crude quartz scraper from Pit 
8 was the only one recorded (pi. 12, m). 

Trade Articles — The only objects found which indicated 
contact with white men were with the intrusive late burial No. 
12, near the surface of the ground, or in pits with an Iroquoian 
horizon. A coil of rolled brass with the burial was an ear 
ornament, and two pieces of brass were recorded in Pit 36 
which had a mixed cultural horizon. 

Food — A few charred cobs of maize and charred beans 
were in several of the fire pits. About three quarts of the latter 
were recorded in bulk in Pit 3. 

PoTiERV — The archaic form of pointed bottom Algonkian 
pottery, similar to that recovered and restored from this site, 
has been traced by archaeological research from known his- 

60 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

toric stations, with F'uropean contact, back to prehistoric sta- 
tions on which all contact is lacking (pi. 13-a, b). There are, 
of course, variants of this form but they are unusual. The 
Shenk's Ferry pottery ran true to established bottom Algonkian 
type but showed indications of intrusive designs. The necks 
of several of the N-essels found were crudely incised with 
chevron and herring bone patterns, and cord wrapped stick 


Figures A and B are True Algcnkian Types (Height of A, 13'/2 inches; B, 5^4 inches) 

and cob rolled designs were common. Iroquoian contact was 
shown by heax-y collars, punctate design and restricted necks 
on some of the \-essels. The notched rim was absent, and 
collar construction and decoration crudely done, indicating a 
minor influence (pi. 13, c). The vessels, with few exceptions, 
were large and the ware, brittle. All filler was crushed stone 
and as near as could be determined the coil construction method 
was used. 

It is unusual to find pottery with Algonkian burials in the 
northeastern area, and as the few shreds with Burial 12 were 
from different vessels, they may not ha\e had any particular 
mortuary significance, or may have been intrusive from the 
fire pit on the top of this burial. 

Many characteristic .Algonkian objects, usually recorded, 
were missing at Shenk's Ferry. As a general rule stone artifacts 
preponderate over those of bone and antler on a site of this 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 61 


The Shenk's Ferry site was occupied by Indians with a late 
prehistoric Algonkian culture influenced by a minor Iroquoian 
contact. Out of the thirteen burials found only seven skulls 
could be field indexed with any degree of accuracy. Out of 
the seven, four indexed dolichocephalic, two mesocephalic and 
one brachycephalic. The latter was Burial 12 which had un- 
questionably some white contact. The type variance in the 
seven skulls may indicate an admixture but no definite valid 
conclusions concerning the physical type of this group of people 
can be determined from field observations, and the few com- 
plete skulls recovered. The fact that four fall into a dolichoce- 
phalic index presents a puzzling problem. The material cul- 
ture of the site is preponderantly Algonkian and the physical 
horizon dolichocephalic, usually associated with Iroquoian cul- 
tures. The one skull that was brachycephalic was from the 
only burial on the site that had definite white contact. There 
is a tendency toward roundheadness among most prehistoric 
Algonkian groups but the old belief that all Iroquois were 
brachycephalic has been questioned by modern physical an- 

The artifacts recovered indicated an Algonkian culture 
merging into one influenced by Iroquois contact. As there 
are no definitely established archaeological criteria in this region 
we will have to assign the site, culturally, to an indefinite 
late pre-contact period corresponding to the Third Period 
Algonkian in New York State, with the exception of Burial 
I, with its crude tubular pipe which belongs to a more archaic 

The Shenk's Ferry site is the only one that has been ex- 
plored and recorded near Big and Little Indian rocks. It may 
be possible that its transient occupants had something to do 
with the carvings left on the rocks. The present village of 
Pequea is on the main river a short distance below Shenk's 
Ferry and informants claim that it covers a large Indian site. 
If this is true, and there is no way of determining whether it 
is or not, the people who lived there would have been the 
logical ones to have left their records on the rocks. The Shenk's 
Ferry site was a very small village and probably used as a 
hide-away when it was dangerous to live on the main river. 

Strickler Site 


Chart 2 
From the aboriginal point of view the region around Wash- 
ington Borough, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, must have 
been unusually attractive as a place of habitation. Located 
above the swift water between what is now Safe Harbor and 
Turkey Hill, the Susquehanna River furnished tish in abund- 
ance, and also constituted not only a natural migration route 
but a highway for ready transportation and trade between the 
Indian tribes which at different times settled along its banks. 
The fertile bottom land along the river still yields abundant 
crops of corn and tobacco to modern farmers as it undoubtedly 




did to their Indian predecessors, and the once plentiful supply 
of game in this region commenced to disappear only within 
the memories of men now li\ing. That the Indians appre- 
ciated these natural adxantages is exident from the number 
of sites indicating ancient occupancy found scattered along the 
banks of the river between Turkey Hill and the village of 
Washington Bf)rough. 


Safk JTarisor Jvkport No. 2 


For many years this region has been the "happy hunting 
ground" of amateur archaeologists. I'ramping up and down 
the shores of the river, it was possible for them to pick up 
innumerable objects illustrating early Indian life. Unfortun- 
ately, many of these relic hunters, not satisfied with the arti- 
facts found on the surface, started to dig. As a result, many 
of the sites were disturbed and much of the prehistory of the 
ancient people who li\'ed in this area destroyed. 

Archaeological work was started in the Washington Bor- 
ough area in May 1931. The first site explored was on a 



knoll near the ri\er on what is known as the Strickler Farm, 
located about three-quarters of a mile up river from Creswell 
Railroad Station (pi. 14). It had been reported by Mr. Gerald 
FensteiTnaker of Lancaster that burials could be found near 
a barn on this property. Testing revealed the fact that the 
knoll did contain burials, and a permanent bench mark was 
established bv drilling a 3 inch hole in the outcrop rock, south 
of the old tobacco shed on the high bank of a small stream. 
The south stake was located 6ij " K. (magnetic) 17 ft. 4 in. 
from the bench mark. From this stake a north and south line 
100 feet long \Vas carried across the Held. Fhe site was staked 
out in I (J ft. squares and all locations were triangulated from 
both north and south stakes (pi. 19). Chart 2. 

64 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

The first ten burials found on the site caused confusion in 
the field notes as it was believed that they had been thoroughly 
looted by relic hunters. Observations made later, however, 
proved that this apparently disturbed condition was partially 
caused by the mortuary customs of the Susquehannock Indians. 

Field Record 

A loo foot trench was started on the southeast side of the 
knoll. The first discovery in situ, however, was made by test- 
ing on the southwest side, and this point is marked Location 
I in Square 37 on the chart. It was the bottom of a brass 
kettle underneath which rested several perfectly preserved 
pumpkin seeds. Other objects associated with this kettle had 
been dragged to the surface and destroyed by soil cultivation. 

Directly east of Location i and in "'Square 38 a fragment 
of a human skull was found. The only objects associated with 
this fragment were an iron knife and a small brass kettle, 
underneath which a piece of skin with short fine hair, together 
with two fragmentary bits of woven trade cloth, were preserved. 

The working trench was carried toward the north and Lo- 
cation 3 in Square 1 1 was made to a brass kettle near the re- 
mains of an old farm horse. In digging the grave of the horse, 
at least two burials were destroyed. The kettle was recorded 
at a depth of 30 inches and no artifacts accompanied it. 

Location 4 in Square 10 was to a human humerus. The 
bones of this burial were badly disintegrated and all articular 
surfaces destroyed. On the top of a fragmentary piece of the 
right tibia a small brass kettle was found underneath which 
a small piece of a wooden bowl had been preserved. The 
broken and weathered condition of the human remains in this 
burial indicated a previous disturbance or a secondary handling 
of the bones. 

Location 5 in Square 22 was apparently a storage pit as 
no evidence of human remains were found. It was recorded 
on the outer edge of the knoll and within a few feet of the 
buried horse. The triangulation was made to the center of the 
disturbed area which was 2 ft. 10 in. deep and 4 ft. wide. 
On the hardpan, in the northwestern part of the pit, a Bellar- 
mine stoneware wine jug in perfect condition was found. With- 
in 8 inches and east of the jug were a number of animal teeth, 
and on the northeastern side of the pit, also on the hardpan, 










0° 1""" 
o 1 




1 i '^^ 


c c 

O^ j //7 

° 1.^ 

o o i; 

o o 1^ 

o i: 






iH [ ise 

\ 1 


— i — «. 

■ J '" 








IO o - 


O (; 


o o o 









1 1 /j« 

no " 







„ u 



1 1 153 








- ' 40 




V_y /« 




, '' '0 














o ^^ 




|l. . ■ ' ' 1 






' — 



o 7» 


3 1 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 65 

was a plain terra cotta smoking pipe, a bullet mould, a black 
twisted glass bead 5 inches long, and a pair of scissors. In the 
center of the disturbance and lying upon the bottom several 
bracelets made of iron wire were discovered, and near the 
eastern edge, in order, were two iron axes, a jew's-harp, an 
iron knife blade, a small pendant made of lignite, a pottery 
vessel, a lump of red ochre, white clay and glass seed beads. 

Location 6 in Square 20 was to a fragment of a human tibia 
in the central part of an unusually large disturbance, or pos- 
sibly two, running into each other. The larger one was un- 
questionably a badly disintegrated bundle burial, and it is pos- 
sible that it had been partially looted. The smaller disturbance 
entering into the burial from the northwest may have been dug 
for the purpose of holding an offering consisting of a medium 
sized pottery vessel, covered with red paint, together with a 
brass kettle and a very small pottery vessel. On the north- 
east side of the grave, 16 in. from the human bone fragments 
and on the same level, two small pottery vessels were nested. 
Directly west on the extreme edge of the disturbance a small 
cup shaped pottery vessel had been placed. 

Location 7 in Square 22 was to a fragmentary human skull 
on the hardpan, facing east, at a depth of 2 ft. 8 in. In the 
center of the grave one humerus and two tibias, badly disin- 
tegrated and without articular surfaces, were found. Scattered 
through the disturbed soil above the human remains were a 
number of small glass beads. Between the fragmentary skull 
and the long bones, resting upon the hardpan, was an iron 
hoe. Directly east from the skull, 2 ft. 6 in., a terra cotta pipe 
bowl rested underneath a large brass kettle containing a va- 
riety of seeds. Southeast of the long bones a number of shell 
beads were scattered on the same level. East of the skull, 
5 ft. 8 in., and on the edge of the grave two small pottery 
vessels were recovered. At the side of the vessels was a small 
brass kettle containing three black walnut shells, two bear 
teeth and a quartz crystal. Northeast of the skull 5 ft. the 
blade of an iron axe was recorded. 

Location 8 in Square 22 was a small pit 3 ft. long, i ft, 
wide and 18 in. deep. In the eastern end, resting upon the 
hardpan, were two small pottery vessels, and scattered through 
the western end from the surface to the bottom a number of 
glass beads. 

66 Pex\i\svlvanja Historical Commissio:«j 

Location 9 in Square 23 was to a fragmentary piece of 
human skull in the northeast a^d of the gra\e, 2 ft. 10 in. 
below the surface and resting upon the hardpan. In the south- 
east end, on the same level with the skull, several fragmentary 
pieces of human humerus and tibia bones were found. Asso- 
ciated with them was a medium sized pottery vessel, typically 
Iroquoian. Southeast of the skull bones 3 ft. was a small brass 
kettle containing preserved seeds and fish bones. At 1 10'' 2 ft. 
a snuff box made of brass was found over which a number 
of small glass beads had been scattered. 

Location 10 in Square 10 was to a fragmentary human 
skull in a typical bundle ■'.urial containing long bones. Mingled 
with the latter and on tne eastern side of the grave were two 
lots of iron wire bracelets inside of which were fragmentary 
pieces of the distal ends of radius bones. North of the burial, 
13 In., and on the same level was a green glass square face 
rum bottle and a large piece of white clay, over which had 
been scattered a number of small glass beads. Entering the 
grave on the south was a small disturbance i ft. wide and 3 ft. 
long. The extreme southern end of this disturbance contained 
one small pottery vessel, and near the point where It entered 
the grave, an iron axe and a brass kettle rested. Lying in order 
about the kettle was a small iron cup, a trigger guard for a 
flint-lock rifle, two fragmentary flint-locks, a brass guide for 
a ramrod and three pieces of a wooden gun stock. Glass beads 
were scattered throughout the earth from the surface to 
the floor. 

Location i i In Squares 44, 34 and 20 was to a pottery 
vessel at a depth of 2 ft. 8 In. resting against the northwest 
wall on the hardpan. Against the southeast wall on the same 
level as the pot was a brass kettle. This was an Indeterminate 
disturbance and may have been a storage or offering pit. 

Location 12 in Square 13 was to a fragmentary skull at 
a depth of 2 ft. 8 in. It was a bundle burial and two pottery 
vessels were found on each side of the badly disintegrated 
long bones. 

Location 13 in Square 24 was to a fragmentary skull, at a 
depth of I ft. 9 in. In the northeast part of the disturbance 
12 in. below the surface a fragmentary pottery vessel was 
recorded. On the same level and 13 in. west of the broken 
vessel was a small cup-shaped pot. Glass beads were scattered 

Safe Hakhok Report Xo. 2 67 

through the grave, and one iron knife blade rested upon the 
hardpan on the southwest side. This disturbance was unusually 
small measuring 3 ft. by 4 ft. in diameter, and the fact that it 
contained fragmentary human bones suggested secondary hand- 
ling of remains, possibly from a platform. 

Location 14 in Square 44 was to a fragmentary skull at a 
depth of I ft. 10 in. Broken long bones had been placed 
about the skull which rested upon the hardpan. Directly north 
of the remains 1 1 in. was a long metal object, possibly a chisel. 
At 20° 14 in. an iron axe was recovered, along side of which 
was an iron knife blade. At 450' 8 in. was a fragmentary terra 
cotta pipe bowl and two iron discs. 

Location 15 in Square 44 was to an unusually large smoking 
pipe with an owl effigy on the bowl found at a depth of 2 ft. 
8 In. This disturbance was yJ- ft. long by 5I/. ft. wide and 
it may have been associated with Burial 14, as no human re- 
mains were found. At 340° 6 in. from the pipe a very small 
pottery vessel rested upon the same level. At 270° 3 ft. 6 in. 
and 2 ft. 8 in. deep a large decorated pottery vessel of what 
is generally known as Iroquois collar type was found. On the 
same angle and level 4 ft. was a small cup shaped vessel. 

Location 16 in Square 42 was to the center of a small storage 
pit which contained, at a depth of 7 inches, one fragmentary 
pottery vessel. 

Location 17 in Square 44 was also to the center of a pit. 
This disturbance averaged 2 ft. by 3 ft. in diameter and was 
I ft. 7 in. deep. Scattered from the surface to the bottom 
were several tubular glass beads, and all the fragments of one 
small pottery vessel. Upon the hardpan, in the southeast end, 
was a worked porcelain disc together with a large striped bead. 

Location 18 in Square 42 was to the center of a pit 3 ft. 
by 2 ft. and i ft. deep. On the bottom it contained a small 
brass box underneath which a fragment of a trade blanket was 
preserved by the copper verdigris. 

Location 19 in Square 43 was to the center of a pit 3 ft. 
by 2 ft. and 2 ft. 10 in. deep. In the southeast corner upon the 
hardpan was a large, broken, pottery vessel, under which two 
smaller ones were nested together with five brass thimbles, 
two hawk-bells and a number of trade beads. 

Location 20 in Square 43 was to a fragmentary skull 2 feet 
deep at the northwest end of the grave. At the extreme south- 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

west end on location level were the fragments of a human 
patella and metatarsus bones. Associated with the latter were 
fifty-six perforated elk teeth. At 300*^ 6 in. was a broken 
pottery vessel. Directly north 1 1 inches was a fragment of 
an iron knife and a small pottery vessel with part of the rim 
missing. At 140° 20 in. was a fragmentary pottery vessel to- 
gether with large lumps of red paint and several iron wire 
bracelets. At 180° 2 ft. 6 in. was an inverted brass snuff box 
and at the same angle 1 1 inches a small inverted brass kettle. 






Location 21 in Square 53 was to a fragmentary skull at a 
depth of 3 ft. 5 in. At 100^ 2 ft. 4 in. was a large brass 
kettle containing a smaller kettle in which a number of walnut 
shells and seeds were recorded. At 140"^ 6 ft. on the skull 
level were a number of strip beads made of fragments of brass. 

Location 22 in Squares 41 and 42 (pi. 16) was to a frag- 
mentary piece of skull at a depth of 2 ft, 9 in. found under- 
neath some iron mail, probably a breast plate. At 130° 2 ft. 
several pieces of radius bones were preserved by brass brace- 
lets. At 90'' I ft. 2 in. was a green glass rum bottle, on the 
top of which rested a brass kettle, a sword blade, and a long 
rifle barrel bent to conform with the disturbance to 140^ 6 ft., 
at which point a broken pottery vessel, a pair of scissors, a 
brass snuff box, a small pottery vessel and an iron axe were 
recorded. At 80° 2 ft. was another rum bottle made of black 
glass. At 230° 8 in. was a small metal snuff box. 

All objects recovered with the exception of the rifle were on 
the skull level and resting upon the hardpan. Glass beads 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


were scattered throughout the earth and the fact that they were 
especially thick near the sides and upon the hardpan may indi- 
cate the grave had been lined with cloth or skin upon which 
these beads were sewn. 

Location 23 in Square 54. This burial as excavated by a 
local enthusiast and contents and depth of the objects in the 


PLATES (UPPER) 20. 21, (LOWER) 18, 19 

Plates IS and 19 show the first offering pits recorded 

70 Pknnsylvania Historical Commission 

earth were not obtained. The disturbance contained one rifle 
barrel, one small brass kettle, one cap box, two gun flints, 
twelv^e lead bullets, a bullet mold and a long metal pipe with 
an efligy on the bowl. 

Location 24 in Square 76 was to human teeth found at a 
depth of 2 ft. 6 in. in an unusually small disturbance measuring 
2 ft. 10 in. by i ft. 7 in. The teeth were scattered around 
a small pottery vessel on the western side. 

Location 25 in Square 76 was to a small pit measuring 

I ft. 10 in. by 2 ft., containing white quartz chips, fragments 
of charred wood and indeterminate calcined bones. These 
objects were in the bottom of the pit at a depth of 3 ft. 

Location 26 (pi. 17) in Square 76 was to a fragment of a 
human skull at a depth of 3 ft. At 135^ 2 ft. were frag- 
mentary pieces of human fibula and tibia bones. At 320° 7 in. 
and resting upon the hardpan was the trigger guard of a rifle. 
On the same level 140° i ft. 2 in. a typical Iroquoian terra 
cotta pipe with a broken stem was found. At 92° 2 ft. 7 in. 
were two indeterminate pieces of iron, a pipe stem or bead 
made of lead, five lead rifle balls, two gun flints and one stone 
drill. Resting against the wall at 92'^ was an iron knife. 

Location 27 (pi. 18) in Square 85 was to a skull fragment 
In the extreme northwest end of a well-marked disturbance at 
a depth of 2 ft. 6 in. Two pieces of human fibula and a femur 
rested on the hardpan at 120° 4 ft. No artifacts were found 
with these remains but in a connecting pit at the extreme south- 
east end measuring i ft. 6 in. by i ft. 8 in. and 3 ft. deep, 
a lump of red ochre and three large paint stones were re- 
covered. This was a looted burial, and the connecting dis- 
turbance may have been an offering pit. 

Location 28 (pi. 19) in Square 85 and 86 was to a skull 
fragment in the extreme northwest corner at a depth of 2 ft. 

II in. Leaning against the southwest waH at 150° i ft. 8 in. 
were two human tibia bones and one fibula bone. At 65° 9 in. 
upon the hardpan was a shell gorget and a quantity of red 
ochre. An offering pit i ft. 7 in. long by i ft. 2 in. wide 
and ly.^ ft. deep intercepted this burial on the southern wall. 
Triagulating from the skull and at 170° 3 ft. i in. were frag- 
mentary bits of a large pottery vessel under which rested five 
long black tubular beads with white stripes. 

The human bones placed against the wall near the inter- 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


cepting pit may have had some significance. This was the 
third verification of a new Iroquois mortuary custom of digging 
an offering pit in connection with the main burial. 

Location 29 in Square 88 was to a large pottery vessel in 
the bottom of a pit measuring 3 ft. by 2 ft. and 2V2 ft- deep. 
At 330° 9 in. and on location level was a small pottery vessel 
beside which were two iron and two copper danglers. 

Location 30 (pi. 20) in Square 86 was to an isolated skull 
3 ft. 4 in. deep in the northwestern part of a grave, measur- 
ing 5 ft. by 3 ft. 3 in. At 140'' 2 ft. fragmentary pieces of 
long bones were found upon location level. Directly above the 
skull and at a depth of 1 ft. 3 in. was a perfect brass kettle 
with a loop handle. At 143° i ft. and also on location level 
was a broken terra cotta pipe, below which a number of small 
quartz crystals and mica flakes were found. At 125° 2 ft. 
was a mass of rusted iron and broken stone. 

Location 31 (pi. 21) in Square 75 was to a fragmentary 
skull 2 ft. 10 in. deep in the northwest end of a grave, measur- 
ing 4 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. 2 in. Directly on the top of the skull 
a terra cotta pipe, a triangular arrowpoint and an indeterminate 
piece of iron were found. .At 14';'' 2 ft. 8 in. several human 



^ — w- 


72 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

long bones were found leaning against the wall. At 145° 2 ft. 

5 In. was a large iron axe. 

Location 32 (pi. 22) in Square 75 was a double burial. 
Trlangulations were made to fragmentary skull (A) i ft. 6 in. 
deep in the south central part of the disturbance. The second 
broken skull (B) rested upon the hardpan at 340° i ft. 3 in. 
At 180° I ft. on location level were tibia and fibula bones 
which apparently belonged to skull (A). At 320° i ft. 4 in. 
were tibia and femur bones apparently from skull (B). At 
280° I ft. 9 in. was a small brass kettle. At 240° i ft. 7 in. 
an indeterminate iron rod leaned against the wall. At 220° 
10 in. a terra cotta pipe with two running deer etched upon 
the sides was recorded. At 100° 24 in. was another terra cotta 
pipe with a bowl modeled to represent a wolf. At 210° i ft. 

6 in. were four gun flints and a small pottery vessel. 

At 320° 4 ft. an offering pit 3 ft. in diameter Intercepted 
the main disturbance on location level. Upon the hardpan at 
the bottom of this pit was a polishing stone, a perforated stone 
pendant, a medium sized pottery vessel, flint chips and a terra 
cotta smoking pipe. Scattered throughout the entire disturbance 
were fragmentary pieces of iron. 

Location 33 in Square 86 was to a broken skull at a depth 
of I ft. 8 in. in the north end of the disturbance, which was 

2 ft. 2 in. wide and 5 ft. 8 in. long. At 140° 2 ft. 8 in. on 
location level were some disintegrated long bones leaning against 
the wall. At 130° i ft. 2 in. was a terra cotta pipe, at 120° 

1 ft. a round metal snuff box, at 140° i ft. 5 In. an iron axe, 
at 130° I ft. 8 In. a small Inverted brass kettle, 140° 3 ft, 
4 in. a large brass kettle, at 30° 3 In. a long rifle barrel, 240° 

3 In. a long rifle barrel with trigger guard and flint lock, 130° 

2 ft. 2 in. red ochre and flint chips, 140° 3 ft. 10 In. a frag- 
ment of wooden rifle butt and red, white and blue glass beads. 

This was a scattered bundle burial, and bone measurements 
were Impossible. All the objects recorded with the exception 
of the rifle barrels were found upon the hardpan. The large 
brass kettle contained fish bones, animal bones and seeds. An 
intrusive flint spear head was found above the remains In the 
general digging. 

Location 34 in Square 42 and 55 was to a fragmentary skull 
facing east at a depth of 18 In. In the north end of the grave. 
The following objects were recorded on location level: 55° 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 73 

14 In. fragmentary pieces of bark, 90° 4 ft. a coin dated 1621, 
120° 3 ft. a perforated elk tooth and at the same angle 4 ft. 
two iron knives, 110° from i ft. to 3 ft. scattered glass beads 
and a Jew's harp, 140° 2 ft. a fragment of cloth, 180° 2 ft. 
6 in. a small piece of buckskin and at the same angle 4 ft. a 
jews-harp, 200° 3 ft. 6 In. two iron nails, 315° i ft. 6 in. one 
iron nail. Brass bands, possibly bracelets, were found over the 
top of the skull and beside them was a brass spoon containing 
fragments of a bone spoon and two seeds. 

Location 35 in Square 53 and 76 was to the central part 
of a distance which was 3 ft. 6 In. deep and 4 ft. 6 in. wide. 
At 180° near the wall were small fragments of bone, possibly 
human. At 20° 2 ft. was a brass bracelet between 120° and 
165° 2 ft. 3 In. was an iron receptacle, a thimble, a looking 
glass, a terra cotta smoking pipe and four human teeth. 
Scattered over these objects were numerous glass beads. At 
230° resting against the edge of the pit was a large brass kettle 
containing a pottery vessel. At 310° resting against the wall 
was a terra cotta smoking pipe. 

The beads in the extreme southwest end of the pit were 
from a belt or girdle. The Iron receptacle contained a long 
twisted green glass bead and nearby was a mass of potter's 
clay and glazed white crockery. Scattered throughout the pit 
were ten pieces of galena. The brass kettle was lying upon 
bark, and the pottery vessel Inside of it contained remnants 
of food. Between the brass and the pottery vessel were rem- 
nants of a bark or wooden receptacle. Intermixed with the 
soil in various places throughout the grave were pieces of 
yellow limonite. 

Location 36 in Squares 159 and 160 was to the center of a 
disturbance 2 ft. 7 In. deep and 5 ft. 6 in. in diameter. This 
was an unusually large Isolated pit recorded on the extreme 
northwestern side of the site. It was perfectly round and 
scattered throughout the soil were fragmentary pieces of 
chipped white quartz and animal bones. 

Bone and Antler Objects 

The Strickler Site did not produce a complete artifact made 
of bone or antler. At one time it may have contained objects 
of this material, but chemicals used in fertilizer and in the 
earth seemed to have been particularly active upon bone. This 

74 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

action was quite noticeable on the fragmentary human remains 
observed in the excavations. 

Teeth — The two canine teeth of a black bear, recorded 
in a white man's kettle with Burial 7, were preserved by chem- 
icals from the brass. A total of 118 elk teeth, perforated for 
suspension on the proximal ends, were recovered (pi. 23). 


9^f 9|l#tll«l 

*| It ttil«|§ § 

9 vi • iet|i I 


Fifty-six were with Burial 20 and had formed a necklace at 
one time. 

Pottery' — The pottery on this site was in excellent condi- 
tion and thirty-two complete vessels were recovered. The ware 
was dark brown and yellow with a reddish tinge, the natural 
tints of fired clay without artificial coloring. The smooth inner 
surfaces of most of the vessels retained the black water-proof- 
ing placed there by their Indian owners, probably by burning 
crushed corncobs inside shortly after firing. The clay was shell 
and sand tempered and contained minute specks of mica. The 
surface of the ware was pitted but in texture fine and inclined 
to scale upon exposure. In thickness it varied from one-eighth 
to one-quarter of an inch with an average of one-quarter. With 
the exception of two smoothly finished vessels, all showed that 
they had been combed before baking, probably with a cord 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 



PLATES (DOWN) 24. 25. 26, 27 


76 Pennsylvaxia Historical Commission 

wrapped stick or a corncob. The depth and precision of the in- 
cised lines on some of the vessels indicated that an implement 
similar to the bone combs found on nearby sites, with a similar 
Iroquoian horizon, were used in finishing the surface of some 

Form Classification — Six pot forms were represented on 
this site. All vessels were round bottomed, and the largest 
would not hold more than two quarts. 

The predominating form was typically Iroquoian with upper 
projections on an overhanging rim. Some of the projections 
were notched, others rounded and plain; many vessels had two 
and some four. The constricted necks and flaring rims had no 
decoration. The smallest vessel in this group would hold about 
one-half pint and the largest, about three pints (pi. 24). 

The second form was globular, with a plain rim and punc- 
tate decoration evenly spaced below the lip. The flare was 
not so prominent as in type one, and one of the larger vessels 
had three incised lines encircling it just below the rim (pi. 25). 

The third was a semi-globular form with a wide bulging 
collar forming the neck and rim. fhis form had several va- 
riants; some of the collars were cylindrical (pi. 26, B) others 
had small overhanging rims (pi. 26, B). One especially fine 
vessel had four perpendicular notched ridges evenly spaced 
around its collar for decoration (pi. 26, A). This type of collar 
was unusual and noted only on the Strickler and Schultz sites. 
Dr. Arthur Parker claims it is an archaic Iroquoian type in the 
New York area. 

The fourth form was semi-globular and had a narrow, flat 
collar with punctate design evenly spaced on its lower edge 
(pi. 27, figs. B, C). 

The fifth form had a heavy flaring rim with an incised collar 
encircling its lower edge together with a noded ridge. The 
rims were decorated with two triangular conventional human 
faces, and the ware was lighter than average. This form was 
probably a survival from a more archaic type (pi. 28, fig. A). 

The sixth form was similar to the fifth with the nodes be- 
low the collar missing. The conventional human face was not 
present; the collar had a decided flare and the ware was deli- 
cate (pi. 28, figs. B, C). 

Three small bowls were recovered from this site; two were 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


plain (pi. 29, A, C) and the other had three Incised lines 
encircling the outside of the rim (pi. 29, B). 

Use — The pottery recovered from the Strickler Site was un- 
doubtedly used for cooking and other utilitarian purposes. The 
small bowls and vessels were probably for serving food and 

Pipes — The earthenware smoking pipe from this site showed 
a wide range of forms. The common variety, of which thirteen 


PLATES (DOWN) 28. 29 

(Heights: Plate 28, A — 4% in. Plate 29, A — 2/4 in.) 

were recovered, was a slender, graceful type made of terra 
cotta. Contrary to most pipes of this sort, found on Iroquoian 
sites, these had plain cylindrical bowls, the average angle of 
which was about 90°. Figures A to F (pi. 30), were excellent 
examples of perfect pipes of this type with stems approximately 
6 inches long and nicely rounded. In Figures G and H the 
proximal ends of the stems had been broken and a new mouth- 
piece carved out. 

An unusually large effigy pipe was found on Location 15 (pi. 
31, fig. B). It was II inches long and made of fine clay, fired 
to a dark yellowish red. The bowl represented an owl facing 


Pkxnsvlvama Historical Commission 

toward the user and encircling the top were shallow, uneven, 
round, punctate decorations. The orifice for tobacco was in 
the center of the back of the ow\. This specimen might be 
called a verification of Captain John Smith's observations on 
the Susquehannock Indians. He claimed they carried pipes 
large enough to be used as weapons. 

Figure D (pi. 31), is an excellent example of the so-called 
"coronet" pipe with an unusually wide rim. The polished 




earthenware was dark and poorly tempered. The stem was 
4 inches long with a bulge at the proximal end of the mouth- 
piece. The decoration on the bowl had punctate horizontal, 
obtuse and acute indented lines. The pipe was a type usually 
associated with the Seneca region of New York. The bulge 
at the mouthpiece on the stem is unusual for this region but 
common to the south especially among the Cherokee. 

Figure A (pi. 31), was a very unusual pipe. The bowl 
represented either a wolf or a dog facing up on an angle of 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


about 40°. The ears and head of the animal were modeled 
in relief and the nose and upper jaw formed part of the bowl. 
The stem was 4I/2 in. long and perfectly round. The ware was 
dark in color and well baked. 

One of the finest examples of the Iroquoian pipe maker's 
art is represented in (pi. 31, fig. C). This graceful earthen- 
ware pipe was 4 in. long with a tapering bowl upon which 
two figures of a running deer were etched. The ware was 




thin, dark, smooth and polished, and the etching had been 
done with delicate precision. A shallow incised line encircled 
the bowl near the rim. Decorated smoking pipes of this type 
are almost unknown from Iroquoian sites. As a general rule 
forms are modeled in relief as bowl embellishments and in- 
cising is used for straight line design. 

Several fragmentary pieces of pipes were recorded. The 
bowl of an unusually large one had deep incised lines running 
around it about halfway down the side, and shallow, round, 
punctate decorations evenly spaced just below the rim (pi. 
32, fig. C). Stems and fragments of the plain common terra 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

cotta types were plentiful and almost every complete pipe was 
found associated with human remains. 

A trade pipe 2 ft. long and of the "church warden" "type 
was recovered on Location 23. The soft metal out of which 
the pipe was made had disintegrated and the effigy on the out- 
side of the bowl could not be determined. 



Fig. B has two human faces and two animal heads on the rim of the bowl 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 81 

This late historic Susquehannock site contained the finest 
examples of pipes recovered by the expedition. Apparently the 
art of fashioning stone pipes had been lost or was not being 
practiced at the time of occupation. All the pipes recovered 
were earthenware and monolithic. The forms show northern 
Iroquois influence and the effigy types may indicate Huron or 
Seneca contact. 

Stone Objects — Very few stone objects survived to the 
period of this site. A perforated celt-shaped pendant in the 
offering pit of Location 32 was a crude affair, and lacked the 
polish and workmanship of more archaic Iroquoian stone- 
work. The suspension hole was cone-shaped and deep scratches 



on the sides indicated that it probably served as a hone as well 
as a pendant. A small triangular piece of worked lignite was 
recorded — it was grooved at the small end and used as a pend- 
ant. Five small flat stones partially worked and polished were 
probably used as pottery smoothers. 

An interesting unfinished winged bannerstone was found on 
the surface of the site and was unquestionably Intrusive. A 
single grooved stone axe, also recorded near the surface of 
the ground in the general digging, belonged to an earlier period 
and can be classed with the bannerstone. 

One arrowpoint was recovered in situ. It was a triangular 
shaped piece of chipped flint with Burial 32, and a type usually 
classed as early Iroquoian. A stemmed spear or knife blade 
was found in Squire 86, and was a form generally found on 
sites with an Algonklan horizon. Gun flints of several vari- 
eties of hard stone were scattered throughout the digging. 
Many of them were in place on rifle parts found in the graves. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

As a whole there was not enough character to the stone arti- 
facts recovered on this site to assign them to any definite cul- 
tural period. The intrusive objects were similar to those found 
scattered on the surrounding fields in this long occupied area. 

Shell Articles — The most interesting of all the shell 
artifacts on the site were the beads (pi. 33). The long tubular 
types with Burial 7 were made of conch shells, and were asso- 
ciated with eight graduated white discoidals which formed 
part of a necklace. Several lots of blue and white wampum 
type beads in a variety of sizes were parts of belts that sur- 




Figure A, represents part of a wampum belt, preserved by chemicals soon after it 
was found In the earth; 8, a section of reed matting; and C, a fragment of bearskin 

vived the powerful chemical action in the soil. Many disin- 
tegrated before preservatives could be applied (pi. 34, fig. A). 
An unusually fine gorget made out of a flat portion of a 
conch shell was recovered almost intact. A projecting edge 
had been drilled for suspension and evenly spaced dot decora- 
tion embellished the scalloped edge (pi. 35, fig. C). An 
oyster shell gorget in fragmentary condition was with Burial 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


28 and on its disintegrated smooth inner surface evidence of 
an elaborate dot decoration was noted (fig. B). 

Innumerable fresh water shells were scattered over the site. 
Many of these were probably utilized for various domestic pur- 
poses. A large, fragmentary conch shell showing where a 
round core had been taken from a heavy projecting edge in- 
dicated how raw material for bead making was secured (pi. 
35^ % A). 



Figure A, represents a conch shell from which beads have been made. Fiflures B, C 
and D are ornaments made of shell 

The long tubular bead was not unknown to northern Iroquois, 
its general use, however, was more southern. The gorgets 
made of conch sells were distinctly southern and several 
similar types have been found associated with Cherokee remains 
on the Upper Tennessee River by M. R. Harrington (19). 

Paints — The Susquehannocks who lived on the Strickler 
site used paints extensively. This fact was verified by the 

84 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 







Safe Harbor Report No. 2 85 

variety of colors recovered. Large lumps of red ochre were 
plentiful in many of the graves together with several pieces 
of pure white clay (pi. 2^)- ^^^^ latter mixed with soot 
formed a black pigment of which many pieces were found. 
The fact that white and black colors were the favorites for per- 
sonal adornment is shown by early historic records in which 
the Susquehannocks were called the "Black and the White 

Wooden Objects — It is unusual to find objects made of 
wood preserved on an archaeological site, for as a general rule 
it disintegrates rapidly after being placed in the earth. All 
the wooden objects recovered on the Strickler Site were asso- 
ciated with trade brass, and the chemicals from this metal 
seeping into the wood acted as a preservative.* 

A fragment of a bowl was found on Location 4 inside of 
a small brass kettle. The piece was large enough to determine 
that the woden vessel had a diameter of 6li in. and was 21/0 
in. deep. It had been made from a tree knot, and was ^ of 
an inch thick on the bottom and tapered to a sharp edge on 
the sides (pi. 37, fig. B). 

On Location 1 1 another brass kettle was found which con- 
tained a fragment of a small wooden bowl with a diameter of 
4 in. and an average depth of i % in. Thickness could not be 
determined exactly but the edge was similar to that on the frag- 
ment from Location 4. This bowl had apparently been wrapped 
in trade cloth as a few pieces stained green by the brass still 
adhered to the edges (pi. 37, fig. B). In the same kettle part 
of a finely wrought wooden spoon, 3 inches wide, was re- 
covered. At a point ii/j in. from the distal end this piece was 
a little over an eighth of an inch in thickness (fig. D). 

A section of a rifle stock had been saved by the chemicals 
from the brass stop on the arm butt. Other fragments of the 
wooden parts of rifles were also preserved in a similar manner 
(fig. C). 

Trade Articles — An abundance of early trade material 
was found on the Stickler Site. Outstanding in this group 

* An analysis of two samples showed that the green chemical was verdigris 
(basic copper carbonate or copper subcarbonate — Cu CO^Cu (OH)^)-. Copper 
exposed to moist air containing carbon dioxide (COJ is acted upon in this 
way. One sample showed a slight trace of zinc which could be considered an 
impurity in the copper or may have been used as an alloy. Zinc was used in 
alloys similar to bronze in early times but were made by smelting copper ores 
which contained zinc. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 



These vessels were brought to the eastern Indians by early white traders 




Safe Harbor Report No. 2 S7 

were the brass trade kettles, ranging in size from i8 in. in 
diameter and 9V2 in. deep to 5 in. in diameter and 2 in. deep. 
These vessels were brought to the eastern Indians by the very 
early traders. All the vessels, large and small, had a round 
iron hoop for a rim around which the brass was wrapped. 
Beneath the rim a half round iron handle was riveted (pi. 38). 
Many of the larger specimens showed evidence of crude 
attempts at repair work. 

These brass kettles were important because they preserved 
definite Susquehannock mortuary customs of depositing food 


Figure B has a fragment of deerskin attached 

with the dead. They contained the bones of deer, fish and 
other undetermined food particles and seeds. 

A number of articles were made by the Indians from sheet 
brass (pi. 39) such as rolled jinglers, tubular beads (figs. A- 
F), flat and rolled bracelets and spring shaped ear ornaments 
(pi. 39, fig. H, finger rings, fig. D, etc.). 

Many pendants made of sheet brass perforated for suspen- 
sion, together with minature gorgets in imitation of the conch 
shell types, were found (pi. 40, fig. AD). A complete neck- 
lace of brass ornaments is represented (fig. E). 

Partially preserved by narrow strips of brass attached to 
its edges a fragment of a hide belt was recovered (pi. 41). 

Trade objects of brass such as spoons (pi. 42, figs. B, C), 
hawk and open bells (pi. 43, figs. C, E), thimbles, Jew's harps 
(fig. A), snuff box covers and cups were recorded (pi. 44, figs. 
A, B, D). 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Fabric and Matting — Several pieces of coarse trade 
cloth, probably blankets, had been preserved by brass in and 
near the larger kettles. Fragments of a black bear hide and 
a small section of reed matting were also noted (pi. 34, fig. 
B, C). 

Lead — A few flat pieces of lead and musket balls of vary- 
ing sizes can be classed as trade material (pi. 45, fig. C). Only 
one small piece of native lead was found and that may have 
been used as a grey paint. 


PLATE 4 3 



Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Iron — The most Interesting object made of Iron was a 
large piece of armor, probably a gorget (pi. 46). It was 
knobbed and ribbed, and its origin, like the swords found on 
the site Is doubtful (pi. 47, fig. C). 

Several pistols and rifle barrels recorded in the graves desig- 
nated this site as late colonial. One long rifle barrel was bent 


PL ATES (DOWN) 44 , 42 




to conform with the excavation Into which It had been placed. 
A number of flint-locks, some of them with the flints in place, 
date the site definitely after 1625, the year this gun mechanism 
superceded the match-lock (pi. 48, fig. A, B). 

Innumerable hatchets, hoes (pi. 45, figs. D, F), and several 
indeterminate celt-shaped pieces of Iron (figs. E. G) show that 
the colonial blacksmiths played an Important part in the trade 


PLATES (DOWN) 43, 47. 48 


Plate 48. Figures A, B, represent flint-locks used with long rifles. Figure C, is a 
hatchet, and D, a hoe 

Plate 47, Figure A, presents the blade cf a rapier. B, a section of a long rifle and 
Figure C, a sword. 

Plate 45, Figures A, B, represent bullet moulds, C. lead bullets and D, E, F, 
G, are iron objects. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


with the Susquehannocks. Bullet moulds (figs. A, B) and Iron 
snuff boxes with brass tops were common (pi. 44, figs. A, C, 
D, F). One of the brass boxes contained several acorns and 
pumpkin seeds perfectly preserved (fig. B). 

Crockery, Stoneware, Glass — The only objects found 
which might have been used for games were two round pieces 
of colonial crockery. These had been carefully worked into 
discs and may have been counters in a dice game played by 
both northern and southern Iroquois. 

The wine jug recorded on Location 5, according to Mr. 
Arthur Woodward, is a Bellarmine (pi. 49, fig. A). These 
stoneware wine jugs were exported in great quantities into 
England by Dutch merchants during the sixteenth and seven- 




teenth centuries. Later they were imitated in P^ngland, 
especially at Fulham. The majority of the German jugs were 
made at the towns of Cologne, Raeren, and Frechen. x\t one 
time they were called "Bellarmines" after an unpopular Italian 
Cardinal of that name who was detested in the Low Countries 
about 1570-76. The greatest number of these jugs seems to 
have been imported into England about 1677. Imitations soon 
appeared and were first manufactured by John Dwight of 
Fulham between 167 1-1684. They usually have a bearded 
mask on the neck of the jug and at one time this was supposed 
to be a caricature of the Cardinal. Generally, the mask is 
accompanied by a rosette, coat of arms, etc. 

The Bellarmine recovered on the Strickler farm was probably 
of German origin, and could have found its way into the 

92 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Susquehannock country through either the Dutch or English. 
The latter called them "greybeards" and their German name 
was "Bartmann." It probably came in from the south and 
through the early Marylanders. PVagments of similar Bellar- 
mines have been recovered at Williamsburg, Virginia. 

Two square face, green and black glass rum bottles with the 
burials were contemporaneous with the Bellarmine, and may 
have been carried to the Susquehannocks from the south (pi. 
49, fig. B, C). 

Glass Beads — The glass beads on the Strickler Site dated 
from the middle of the 17th century to early in the i8th 
century. The colors were of almost unlimited range, and forms 
from the bugle to the delicate seed types were found. Most 
of them were of early Venetian manufacture and could have 
reached the region from almost any of the contacted whites. 
A greater variety and similar types and forms were found on 
the Washington Borough Site and will be described later. 

The unusual form's on this site were long twisted black and 
blue bugle beads and small globular ones with green streaks. 
This type is listed in some of the early French inventories and 
may have come into the country through the Huron-Susque- 
hannock alliance. 

In 1607 the first industrial enterprise in the territory of 
the United States was established in Virginia. It was a glass 
bottle factory. In 1622 another factory was erected near 
Jamestown to manufacture glass beads for trade with the 
Indians. Nothing is definitely known about the Jamestown 
beads outside of the fact that some of them were supposed to 
be colored blue. An unusual number of blue beads were found 
on the site. They did not have the fine finish of the true Vene- 
tian beads and may have been made in Virginia. 

Summary and Conclusions 

The objects found on the Strickler Site show that the Indians 
who used it for a burying ground had an Iroquoian material 

Not a single physical measurement could be made with any 
degree of accuracy as all osseous specimens were badly disin- 
tegrated. Every burial showed a secondary handling of the 
remains, and two mortuary customs were recorded; the known 
"bundle" and a new "placed bone" type. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 93 

This band of Susquehannocks undoubtedly used a platform 
to hold their dead sometime before placing them into the 
ground. This was the usual procedure among the early 
Iroquois tribes. The finest account of their mortuary customs 
is recorded in General Clark's unpublished notes. His sources 
are indefinite but he was a careful, cautious student and we 
believe the following account is accurate. 

"The most ancient mode of burial by the Iroquois was first 
to place the corpse upon a scaffold some eight feet high, made 
by setting crotches and laying poles across, attached or near 
to one corner of the cabin of the nearest friend of the deceased. 
There the body was left exposed till the flesh had completely 
fallen off. After this the skeleton was buried, placing the 
feet first, crowning the pile with the skull. 

"The practice pursued by Iroquois at the close of the last 
century was to dress the corpse (if a man) in a shirt, a coat 
and leggings, sometimes made of skins, at other times of cloth, 
as was most convenient. A pair of deer skin moccasins covered 
the feet and a cap of fur the head. The corpse was then ready 
for burial. The graves were dug about three feet deep. Barks 
were cut and peeled the length of the grave. Pieces were fitted 
for the bottom, sides and ends and then placed in the grave. 
A single broad piece was fitted for a covering. The corpse was 
then brought to the grave on poles bound together for a bier. 
He was then lowered into his bark coffin, when an Indian 
woman approached with a kettle of provisions, a pair of 
moccasins, with pieces of deer skin and with sinews of the deer 
to sew the patches in the moccasins, which it was supposed the 
deceased would wear out on his journey to the land of the 
Spirits. These were carefully deposited in the bark coffin. 
Then came an Indian with bows and arrows (or sometimes if 
a distinguished person a rifle), a tomahawk and knife. These 
they ceremoniously laid in the coffin and they were considered 
indispensible to a prosperous and happy journey in procuring 
provisions in his way to the blissful regions of Ha-wak-ne-u. 
After these things were deposited the final covering was care- 
fully placed over the whole and the grave closed with earth. 
This done the Indian women kneeled down around the grave 
and wept. The men for a time were silent but after a while 
they set up a doleful cry, chanted the death dirge and all silently 
retired to their homes. 


"When anyone dies In the Time of Hunting they expose his 
body in a very high scaffold and it remains there until the De- 
parture of the Troop, who carry it with them to the village. 
There are some nations who practice the same with regard to 
all their dead and I have seen it practiced by the Missisagues 
of Detroit. The bodies of those who die in war are burnt and 
their ashes brought back to be laid in the burying place of their 
fathers. These burying places among the most settled nations 
arc placed like our church yards, near the village. Others bury 
their dead in the woods at the foot of a tree; or dry them and 
keep them in chests till the festival of the dead which I shall 
presently describe: But in some places they observe an odd 
ceremony for those that are drowned, or are frozen to death. 
They have a notion that those who die by a violent death, 
even though it is in war and for the service of their country, 
have souls in the Spirit world that can hold no communication 
with others; and on this principle they burn them or bury them 
directly, sometimes even before they expire. They never lay 
them in the common burying place and they give them no part 
in the great ceremony which is renewed every eight years among 
some nations, and every ten years among the Iroquois. They 
call It the Festival of the Dead or the Feast of the Souls. And 
here follows what I could collect that was most uniform and 
remarkable concerning this ceremony, which is the most singular 
and the most celebrated of the religion of the savages. They 
begin by fixing a place for the Assembly to meet in : Then 
they chuse the King of the Feast, whose duty It Is to give 
orders for every thing, and to Invite the neighboring villagers. 
The day appointed being come, all the savages assemble and 
go in procession two and two to the burying place. There 
everyone labours to uncover the bodies: then they continue 
some time contemplating in silence a spectacle so capable of 
exciting the most serious reflections. The women first interrupt 
this religious silence by sending forth mournful cries which in- 
crease the horror with which everyone Is filled. 

"The first act being ended they take up the carcasses and 
pick up the dry and separated bones and put them in parcels; 
and those who are ordered to carry them take them on their 
shoulders. If there are any bodies not entirely decayed they 
wash them, they clean away the corrupted flesh and all the filth 
and wrap them in new robes of beaver skins, then they return 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 95 

in the same order as they came; and when the procession is 
come into the village, everyone lays in his cabin the burden 
he was charged with. During the march the women continue 
their lamentations and the men show the same signs of grief 
as they did on the Day of the Death of those whose remains 
they have been taking up and this second act is followed by a 
feast in each cabin in honor of the dead of the family. 

"The following days they make public feasts; and they are 
accompanied as on the day of the funeral with dances, games 
and combats for which there are also prizes proposed. From 
time to time they make certain cries which they call the Cries 
of the Souls. They make presents to strangers, among whom 
there are sometimes some who come an hundred and fifty 
leagues and they receive presents from them. They also take 
advantage of these opportunities to treat of common affairs 
for the election of a chief. Everything passes with a great 
deal of order, decency and modesty; and everyone appears to 
entertain sentiments suitable to the principal action. Every- 
thing, even in the dances and the songs, carries an air of sadness 
and mourning; and one can see in all hearts pierced with the 
sharpest sorrow. The most insensible would be affected at 
the sight of this spectacle. After some days are past, they go 
again in procession to a great council room built for the pur- 
pose: They hang up against the walls the bones and carcasses 
in the same condition they took them from the burying place 
and they lay forth the presents designed for the dead. If 
among these sad remains there happens to be those of a chief, 
his successor gives a great feast in his name and sings his song. 
In many places the bones are carried from village to village, 
are received everywhere with great demonstrations of grief and 
tenderness and everywhere they make them presents : Lastly, 
they carry them to the place where they are to remain always. 
But I forgot to tell you, that all these marches are made to 
the sound of instruments accompanied with their best voices, and 
that everyone in these marches keeps time to the music." (4). 

George Alsop writing in 1666 about the burial customs of 
the Susquehannock apparently did not think much of Mary- 
land's former allies to the north. His cpntact with them was 
made shortly before the break between the Chesepeake English 

96 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

and the Susquehannock. His account Is interesting because it 
might apply to a site near the Strickler farm. It is as follows : 

"When any among them depart this life, they give him no 
other Intomb than to set him upright upon his breech in a hole 
dug In the Earth some five foot long, and three foot deep, 
covered over with the Bark of Trees Arch-wise, with his face 
Du-West, only leaving a hole half a foot square open. They 
dress him in the same Equipage and Gallantry that he used 
to be trim'd In which he was alive, and so bury him (if a 
Soldier) with his Bows, Arrows, and Target, together with 
all the rest of his implements and weapons of War, with a 
Kettle of Broth, and Corn standing before him, lest he should 
meet with bad quarters in his way. His Kinred and Relations 
follow him to the Grave, sheath'd In Bear skins for close 
mourning, with the tayl droyling on the ground. In imitation 
of our English Solemners, that think there's nothing like a 
tayl a Degree In length, to follow the dead Corpse to the Grave 
with. They bury all within the wall or Palllsado'd Impalement 
of their City, or Connadago as they call it. Their houses are 
low and long, built with the Bark of Trees Arch-wise, standing 
thick and confusedly together. They are situated a hundred 
and odd miles distant from the Christian Plantations of Mary- 
Land, at the head of a River that runs into the Bay of Choesa- 
pike, called by their own name the Susquehannock River, where 
they remain and Inhabit most part of the Summer time, and 
seldom remove far from it, unless It be to subdue any Forreign 
Rebellion." (21). 

The unusual Iroquolan custom of making an offering pit in 
connection with the main burial observed on this site is an 
interesting new and important discovery in eastern archaeology. 

The pottery recovered Indicates some southern Influence 
probably Cherokee. The earthenware pipes had both northern 
and southern characteristics. The Susquehannocks were known 
to have a northern contact with the Huron but the direct 
southern influence was unknown. It may Indicate a later north- 
western migration than that of the main body of the Iroquois. 

Algonklan groups on the upper Chesapeake undoubtedly 
made some cultural impression on the Susquehannocks but this 
is hard to determine on such a late site so much influenced by 
white contact. We can safely assign the site to a period be- 
tween 1629 and 1675. 

Washington Borough Burial Site 

Charts 3, -'i, 5 

The town of Washington Borough, Manor 1 ownship, Lan- 
caster County, is built on the top of one of the most important 
archaeological sites partially explored by the Commission expe- 
dition (Chart 3). Students of early Pennsyh'ania history hav^e 
agreed that in or near it a palisaded stronghold of the Susque- 
hannock Indians once stood, and the fertile fields surrounding 
the town are still black from the prehistoric camps of hundreds 
of warriors and their families. 

The boatman of the expedition was Mr. John Funk, who 
had lived for many years in Washington Borough. He in- 
formed us that w(M-kmen excavating for a cellar on the property 
of a Mr. John Keller in, the center of the town had found 
Indian remains. Following up this lead, we discovered the 
site apparently had been thoroughly dug over by local men 
hunting for glass beads to sell for relics. Not satisfied with 
looting the graves on the Keller property, these men had started 
to excavate luider- an abandoned logging road adjoining on the 
west before they were stopped by officials. Fhis intervention 
saved a narrow strip about twenty feet wide and 100 feet long 
of the burial site of the ancient village. 

The burgess of the town ga\e the expedition permission to 
excavate under the road and the results were ama/.ing for the 
small area explored. Sexenty-nine locations were recorded and 
all evidence indicated that hundreds of burials on the adjoining 
property had been looted and all archaeological evidence de- 

A careful surxey was made of the locality and the site was 
located to permanent landmarks ( Charts 4 and 5). Ihe south 
stake was placed in the center of the abandoned road and the 
north stake on the high bank of Staman's Creek. All angles 
were triangulated from both stakes and checked with five foot 

A trench 2(j ft. wide was started at the south stake and 
drifted along the hardpan in a northerly direction. This 
carried it through Squares 2 and 3 where nothing of import- 
ance was recorded. 

The first isolated burial was located in Square 6 and it may 
have been a white man. The bones were in a fragmentary 


Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


condition and it was impossible to measure tiiem or index the 
skull. There was not a single object of Indian manufacture 
in the grave. A sword lying with its hilt to the east near 
the feet was of sixteenth century Italian type. A long gun 
barrel rested beside the sword with an iron bullet mold, some 
lead bullets, and a fragment of a flint-lock. It was not a true 
Susquehannock type burial such as was found later on this site 
and may have been the remains of an early white trader. 

No. I was separated from the other remains in the roadway 
by more than 15 ft. The earth in the intervening space be- 
tween Squares 5, 6, 7, 8 and 17, 18, 19 and 20 had not been 
disturbed. North and west of the latter squares to the edge 
of the high bank of the stream was located the rest of the un- 
disturbed burials. We will not record the square locations 
here as they can be see^ on the charts. The depths of the 
numbered and recorded stations varied between i ft. 5 in. and 
2 ft. 6 in. The earth north of Square 23 had been disturbed 
several times by the Indians and it was a difficult problem to 
segregate overlapping interments. 

A complete description of each grave here would take too 
much space and involve repetition. All records are in the files 
of the Commission and available to anyone interested. Most 
of the human bones were in fragmentary condition and the 
same kind of mortuary customs were recorded as on the 
Strickler Site. All burials were bundle and placed bone types 
with the exception of Nos. 5, 2'8 and 38 in which the torsos 
and crushed skulls were in place (pi. 50). Wherever it was 


PLATES 50, 54 














«sj X- 


















o -" 













O lU 

CO h 

I- < o 

l£J - -1 ■ 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


possible, the triangulations were made to human remains, and 
from the seventy-nine locations recorded in the field notes seven 
hundred and twelve specimens were noted and catalogued. 

The mortuary offerings in the graves were usually near the 
heads. The pottery xessels were deposited along the sides with 
the bundle interments (pi. 51), and in the center between the 
skull and long bones with the placed bone burials (pi. 52). 

The most unusual mortuary custom was noted at location 
No. 43 (pi. ^3). This was a placed bone burial over which 
a very large earthenware \'essel had been crushed. A fragment 


PLATES (DOWN) 51, 53. 56 

PLATES (DOWN) 52, 55, 57 


102 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

of the skull projected from underneath the broken pottery on 
the west and two tibias were crosswise on the eastern side. A 
separate fragment of the large vessel was east of the tibias 
together with a small pot that would hold about a quart. Di- 
rectly on the top of the large vessel, in about the center, two 
very small earthenware pots were resting. The large vessel 
had apparently been placed on its side over the remains and 
pressure brought to bear until it was broken, after which the 
two small complete pots were arranged on top and the grave 
filled in. 

Burial 49 was placed bone type with a fragmentary human 
skull and disintegrated long bones. A crushed pottery vessel 
was 8 inches north of the skull alongside of a disintegrated 
human humerus and an indeterminate piece of iron. The jaw 
bones and part of the cranium of a deer rested upon another 
fragmentary human humerus northeast of the skull. Spaced 
carefully around the latter were folded flat pieces of brass, 
3 inches square, apparently part of a necklace or belt. The 
leather between the folds had been perfectly preserved, and at 
one point where the bone was touched by the metal some human 
hair had survived. 

No. 64 was an excellent example of a bundle burial, recorded 
at a depth of i ft. The skull, a right and left femur, and 
other indeterminate long bones were crushed on top of a flat 
stone. Part of a jaw bone had fallen out of the bundle and 
was found 7 inches to the west upon the rock. Directly east 
of the skull, 8 inches below, and against the rock, human toe 
bones and two calcaneums of another burial rested. Scattered 
through the soil near these later bones were glass beads and 
14 inches to the southwest, probably associated, was a crude 
stone pestle. 

No. 66 was of particular interest because of the excellent 
condition of the four complete pottery vessels found at this 
location (pi. 57). The fragmentary interment had been made 
between two large boulders. The location was to a fragment 
of human skull and part of a femur. Directly south of the 
former, 10 inches, and on its side, a perfectly preserved vessel 
was recorded. In a half circle, also south of the skull, 16 
inches, three more complete pots with their mouths inverted 
rested in the center of the grave. Exactly 9 inches east of 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 103 

location and on the hardpan, six fragments of a rolled brass 
necklace were found. 

No. 7 1 was one of the most productive locations excavated 
as it contained a wide variety of trade and native objects. The 
disturbance was 3 ft. 3 in. by 4 ft. 7 in. and 3 ft. deep. The 
crushed skull rested upon the hardpan in the western part of 
the grave, and touching It on the east was an iron axe, and on 
the west a pottery vessel. Directly east of the skull, 2 ft. 3 
in., was a fragment of deerskin, underneath which was recorded 
a piece of a wo\-en rush mat. At 120^ 2 ft. was a small 
pottery vessel; at 1 10'^ 4 ft. fragments of a large vessel; at 
90° 2 ft. was an unusual urn-shaped vessel. Scattereci between 
60° and 80° were fifteen triangular chipped stone arrowpolnts. 
Directly south of station 8 in. was a brass kettle containing 
seeds, fish and animal bone. Against the wall, on the hardpan, 
in the eastern part of the gra\^e was a large lump of potter's 
clay. Standing upright against the south wall were several 
indeterminate long bones, indicating this was a placed bone 
burial. Scattered through the whole disturbance were hundreds 
of glass beads of several varieties and colors. 

No. 77 was a bundle burial without a skull. 7 he grave was 
4 ft. long, 2 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep. The fragmentary long 
bones rested against the south wall, and a broken human femur 
was laid flat on the hardpan on the extreme southern end. A 
sword blade, two metal rods and an earthenware pipe were 
mixed with the latter bones. Directly east of them, 6 in., was 
a stone pipe pendant. Tn the center of the grave were two 
large brass jinglers with attached buckskin cords, and a furled 
brass smoking pipe. 


With this very brief description, from our field notes, of 
seven typical burials on the Washington Borough Site, we will 
turn to a study of our collection. We find that it shows an 
incomplete series of the products of Susquehannock industry, 
together with many objects obtained from the early Indian 
traders. It also gives us some idea as to the degree of advance- 
ment reached by this almost unknown group of Iroquois about 
whom accurate historical accounts are so pitifully meager. If 
by our study we can lift the veil of the past a little further 
and obtain a more thorough knowledge of their material 
culture, our efforts will not have been in vain. 


Pennsylvania Historical Coi\^mission 

The most interesting of all the objects recovered by the 
expedition on this site was the pottery. A total of two hundred 
fourteen \essels was found and they ranged in size from 2 14 
in. to 37 in. in height. More than sixteen round bottom forms, 
with innumerable variants of design, are represented in this 
group. We are safe in saying it is to date the largest number 
of restorable A'essels ever reco\'ered from an Iroquois site. 






































'50 /, 









■ !<^ 





















36 >' 

105 '' 







h 41 

61 X 












104 64<,y 









X }} 

« X 












63 X 





84 93 











!.>« -^/ 













Washington Borough 

BueiAL SiTt 

Plot "2 

The Susquehannock Indians probably made pottery in the 
same manner as other tribes of the east and southeast. The 
method is known as coiling and the best early record we have 
of this is by Butel Dumont who wrote about the American 
potter's art in 1753. His description could be applied to the 
Washington Borough pottery even to the use of shell for 
tempering. He says : 

"After ha\ing secured the proper kind of clay for this work 
and having cleaned it well, thev take shells, which they grind, 
reducing them to loose powder, very fine; they mix this very 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 105 

fine powder with clay of which they have made provision, and 
wetting the whole with a little water, they knead it with hands 
and feet to make a paste, from which they fashion rolls, six 
or seven feet long, of whatever thickness they find convenient. 
Do they wish to make a plate or vase? They take one of the 
rolls by the end, and establishing with the left hand the center 
of the piece thev have in view, they wind the roll about this 
center with admirable speed and dexterity, describing a spiral; 
from time to time they dip their fingers in water which they 
have always by them ; and with the right hand they smooth 
the inside and outside of the vase they are planning to make, 
which without this attention becomes corrugated. By this 
method they make all sorts of earthen utensils. The firing of 
this pottery does not cost them much trouble. After drying it 
in the shade they light a great fire, and when they have as 
much embers as thev need, they clean a place in the middle, 
and there arrange their vessels, and cover them with charcoal. 
It is thus that they give them the burning they require, after 
which they can be used on the fire, and have the same texture 
as ours. There is no doubt that their durability can be 
attributed to the powdered shells mixed with the clay they use." 


It might be added to Butel Dumont's description that vessels 
were often started in fragmentary pot bottoms or a gourd of 
the proper shape, several bottoms that may have been used as 
pottery starters were found on both the Strickler and Wash- 
ington Borough Sites. Tn addition to using charcoal dried 
dung was often employed in baking. 

Several masses of kneaded potter's clay were found in pits on 
the Washington Borough Village Site and one large lump with 
Burial 71.* 

Uses of Pottery — Most of the vessels recovered had been 
used over an open fire for cooking. Tike those on the Strickler 
Site all of them had been waterproofed on the inside and 
many showed signs of long use as they were chipped and worn 
from placing them upon stone supports. 

Several vessels had apparently not been used over a fire. 
Most of these were delicate, beautifully modeled, and may 
have been for ceremonial purposes. The very small pots 

* The village site will be described later as the Frey farm. 

106 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

recorded were probably soup containers, cups, or children's 
toys. No bowls were recovered on this site. 

The common form of vessel noted at Washington Borough 
had a spheroidal shaped body, topped by a wide, slightly bulg- 
ing neck or collar. The smallest would hold about one-half 
pint and the largest about three quarts. The ware averaged 
three-eighths of an inch in thickness from collar to bottom 
(pi. 59). The collars varied in size but averaged one-third 
the height of the vessels. Their designs consisted of horizontal 
rounded grooved lines interrupted by regular perpendicular 
grooves. The upper projection had short obtuse or acute 


(Height — left — 9 In.) 

grooved lines running to the horizontal pattern. All the vessels 
had two elevated notched angles opposite each other on the rim 
with a molded human face upon them. The faces were tri- 
angular shaped and the nose and chin protruded out from the 
vessel. Most of them had a grooved, triangular line running 
around the face; a few had two lines and one had a punctate 
pattern. On all the vessels, except one, the face had been 
molded in when they were made. The exception was one of 
the large vessels for which the faces had been molded sepa- 
rately and laid on the rim before baking. They had apparently 
become detached and were not found. 

According to William M. Beauchamp, a group of Iroquois 
living on Montreal Island, Canada, had an ingenious contriv- 
ance for hanging pots over the fire. He says : 

"They have no doubt found by experience that when an 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


earthenware pot was hung over the fire by strings or withes 
tied to the outside, the flames would sometimes reach the perish- 
able means of suspension, burn it and allow the pot to fall, 
and its contents to be lost. Hence they contrived a mode of 
fastening the cord within the throat of the vessel where the 
fire could not reach it. This hook for suspension was made 
in the shape of a human head and neck, the hole for the cord 
being left behind the neck. Many of these heads were found 
detached, and their use was not known till the fragment 
illustrated was found." (23). 

Masks used for ceremonial purposes were, and still are, 
common among Iroquoian groups. On many sites in both Penn- 
sylvania and New York small masks and figurines made of 




Figures A, B, and F, were recovered by Gerald B. Fenstermacher, of Lancaster, Pa. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATES (DOWN) 62, 6L 63, 64 


(Helflhts: Plale 62, lefl 10 in; Plate 61, left 61/2 in.; Plate 63, left 7/2 in. 
Plate 64, left 7 In.) 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 109 

stone and earthenware have been found (pi. 6u). Those 
molded in the pottery, however, may not have had any par- 
ticular religious significance and probably served principally as 
hand grips or for suspension. 

The second form found on this site represented some of the 
finest examples of the Iroquois potter's art and ranged in size 
from one-fourth pint to gallon containers. It was a globular 
type vessel with restricted neck and an overhanging collar slop- 
ing into the rim. The patterns were slightly rounded, grooved, 
horizontal lines below short oblique indentations. This pattern 
was reversed on sexeral vessels and a few had horizontal, 
vertical and diagonal grooves. Several had four upper projec- 
tions but most of them the usual two (pi. 6i). The average 
thickness of the ware on these vessels was three-eighths of an 
inch except on the lower parts of the collars where large pro- 
jecting nodes were evenly spaced all around. Many had collar 
patterns similar to Form i , a few had two human faces on 
upper projections but the majority lacked this embellishment. 
One large vessel had three deep notches in the rim above the 
faces (pi. 62). 

Several variants of this form were recovered. Two had 
three grooves converging below the face on the collar, which 
were intended to represent a body, and the horizontal grooves 
ran around the top of the collar, and diagonal ones below. The 
latter were intercepted at the bottom by short perpendicular 
grooves. The second variant, of which there were also two 
vessels, had the regular pattern with spaced, inward, sloping, 
indented nodes below the collar (pi. 62). 

Vessels similar to this second form have been found on 
Andaste sites near Athens, Pennsylvania (24). 

The third form was also similar to Form i, without the 
human face on the rim. The average thickness of the ware 
was three-eighths of an inch on the collars and two-eighths in 
the bodies of the vessels, as a result most of this type were 
found in fragmentary condition. The outward flare of the 
collars was pronounced and a series of cheveron grooved 
patterns instead of the perpendicular grooves was used as 

Four little vessels in this group proved to be exceptions as 
far as the ware was concerned. The smallest would hold 
about one-fourth pint and the largest about one-half pint, and 

110 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

the ware was heavy at the bottom of the pot and thinned to 
a sharp edge on the rim. 

Form 4 was also similar in many respects to Forms i and 3 
but had an added design at the base of the collar in the shape 
of evenly spaced finger indentations. Both the horizontal 
groove and cheveron patterns were found on the collars, and 
in triangles between the latter, horizontal, straight line and 
punctate decoration was used. Short perpendicular or oblique 
lines below the rim usually formed the top edge of the design 
around the collar (pi. 63). 


(Height: B— 8 in.) 

In Group 5 the ware was heavier than in Group 4 and in- 
stead of finger decoration at the base of the collar, a half 
round punctate and elliptic design was used. 

We could describe many variations of the punctate and 
grooved designs on the various forms, as each individual potter 
had, apparently, worked out a method for identifying the 
vessels he made. This was done by adding an extra bit of 
flare to the collar or leaving out or adding a pattern. No two 
of the vessels were exactly alike and it was clear that the 
Susquehannocks were not all clever potters (pi. 64). 

Two forms were undoubtedly made by the real experts of 
the tribe (pi. 65). These vessels are both oustanding examples 
of American ceramics. Fig. A we will have to classify as a 
vase. The design and form of the vessel was tastefully and 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 111 

skillfully worked out and show considerable progress in the 
potter's art on the part of its maker. Its base was semi- 
globular running into a long conical neck surmounted by a 
broad flaring collar decorated with grooved lines and four 
human figures. These figures had their arms at their sides 
and projected slightly out from the rest of the collar. The 
heads were near the rim and above them were notched angles. 
The ware was reddish brown in color and slightly less than 
two-eighths of an inch in thickness. This particular vessel was 
found in perfect condition. 



One of the finest examples of the Iroquoian potter's art re- 
covered is represented in fig. B (pi. 65). The vessel was 
eight inches high with a semi-globular base surmounted by a 
3!/^ in. collar. The rim was decorated with sloping, grooved 
lines beneath which horizontal grooves ran around the vessel. 
This design was repeated to the base of the collar except where 
it was intercepted below the two upper projections of the rim 
by cheveron patterns, which outlined the torso of two human 
figures with triangular faces. Two thin cylindrical pieces of 
earthenware had been squeezed together in the center, sepa- 
rated at the ends, and placed on the vessel to form the knees 


PLATES (DOWN) 68, 69 AND 67 



Safe Harbor Report No. 2 113 

of the figures. Ihesc were not strong enough to be practical 
handles and were purely decorative. 

An unusual vessel with no upper projections and a narrow 
plain rim is represented in (pi. 66). It was a semi-globular urn 
form with a narrow neck surmounted by a projecting rim 
with spaced indentations on its lower edge. The ware aver- 
aged three-eighths of an inch in thickness, was reddish brown 
in color and pitted. 

In (pi. 67), left, the usual pattern is represented with tri- 
angular human faces below which two projecting nodes were 
molded to represent the paws of an animal, one the hands of 
a human. 




(Height: left 10 in.) 

One large complete vessel, already described with Burial 43 
and fragments of two other large ones were found (pis. 68, 
69). These had semi-globular bottoms surmounted by a 
conical collar with straight line, incised and punctate patterns. 

The vessels represented in (pi. 70) were of particular interest 
because of their urn-like forms. Their bottoms were rounded 
and surmounted by cylindrical bodies converging into wide 
bulging collars. Two forms had three projections on the rim 
and crude decorations on the bodies which were worn and 
chipped from use. 

Pottery vessels are still being made by Indian tribes for 
ceremonial use, and those represented in (pi. 71) may have been 
for this purpose. They were elaborate affairs and showed 
very little use over an open fire. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Only two vessels of the Strickler Form 3 were recorded. 
These all had the large plain, bulging collar, a combed body 
and a thin rim edge. 

Several small vessels are represented in (pis. 72 and 73). 
They had a variety of forms and patterns too numerous to 
describe in detail here. 

We have discussed the pottery of the Susquehannock as 


PLATES (DOWN) 74, 70, 73 AND 72 


found on two of their burial sites. That the potter's art de- 
teriorated with white contact is shown by the difference in the 
ware and forms recovered. The vessels with the pre-historic 
burials at Washington Borough were of finer quality than those 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


on the late contact Strickler Site. It was only natural that 
upon obtaining more durable containers of metal from white 
men the Indians would use them in preference to the fragile 
earthenware. The fact that so much pottery was found with 
the burials indicates a transitional period. 

Smoking Pipes — Unlike the Strickler Site, pipes were rare 
on the part of the Washington Borough Site worked by the 


PLATE 7 5 


Figure A, shews hew a pipe is made. B, was drilled for suspansion and D, a smoothly 

finished pipe from the Fenstermacher collection in the State Museum 

expedition. Two of those recovered were made of stone; one, 
of earthenware; and one, of brass. 

An Interesting unfinished stone pipe with Burial 23 is rep- 
resented in fig. A, (pi. 75 ) . It had been roughed out of a piece 
of steatite and its maker undoubtedly intended to place an 
effigy on the front of the bowl. The chipped stone showed 
just how the rough preliminary work of making a pipe was 
done. The fact that its owner had white contact was indicated 
by a contemporaneous coiled brass ear ornament. 

The earthenware smoking pipe together with one made of 
stone and another of sheet brass was recorded with Burial 77. 
The first was a trumpet type, the second triangular shaped 
with a perforated projecting lug beneath the bowl, probably 

115 Pennsylvania Historical CoMMrssiox 

for secondary use as a pendant (pi. 75' ^^- ^) ■ ^^^^e third 
was a crude affair and may represent an experiment on the part 
of some progressive Indian or trader. 

Stonework— Most interesting in the chipped stone prod- 
ucts of the Susquehannock were their arrowpoints (pi. 76). 
With few exceptions they were triangular and made of jasper, 

PLATES (DOWN) 76, 79 



Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


chert, rhyollte and Avhite quartz. The tangs on all the points 
were longer than on most ot the New York State Iroquolan 
triangular types, and were probably so made to facilitate at- 
tachment. Se^ eral groups of from five to eight points were 
found together and their positions indicated that they had been 
attached to shafts when placed in the graves. 


PLATES 77, 78 


Plate 77, (left) represents a section of an in- 
trusive bannerstone. Figures D, E, on Plate 7S 
are made of lignite 


118 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

The exception was a crude stemmed fishtail type rhyoHte 
point found at Burial 47 and a stemmed quartzite point at 65. 
Both of these burials were unquestionably those of Susquehan- 
nocks living in the historic period. Sixty-five had in addition 
to the stemmed quartzite point a fragment of a winged banner- 
stone of Algonklan origin (pi. 77). Like white men of today 
the Indians found these ancient objects of their predecessors 
and brought them home as curiosities. 

With Burial 62 a number of flint-chips for arrowhead mak- 
ing were found carefully piled on the northwest edge of the 
grave together with some jaspllite chips. 

Three interesting stone objects are represented in (pi. 78). 
Fig. A was chipped on the sides to form a celt shaped arti- 
fact. Fig. B was similar in form and notched on opposite sides. 
Fig. C was used for spreading or crushing paint, as one end was 
covered with red pigment. 

Several so-called hammerstones were found, and fig. A, (pi. 
79), represents an unusually fine example which shows second- 
ary use as a pottery smoother. It had been worked on the 
edges, and on one side had a flat smooth surface. Fig. B is 






Figures A, and B, represent human forms. Figure C, may represent a turtle and D, is 
half of a delicately carved comb representing a bird 




Figures A, and B, are human forms; Figures C, and D, may represent the "horned 
devils" described by Captain John Smith 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 121 

commonly called a sinew stone. It had the customary grooves 
rubbed into it, probably from sharpening smooth edged tools, 
instead of rubbing sinew for threads. Fig. C is a crude, sharp 
edged celt. 

The fact that the Susquehannock occasionally used or found 
fragments of steatite containers was established by a small 
piece of a heavy vessel made of this material recovered with 
Burial 54. 

That lignite was prized for ornamental rather than utilita- 
rian use was shown by two carefully worked and polished pieces 
of this material found with Burials 13 and 27 (pi. 78, figs. D, 


Paints — Hematite was utilized for obtaining pigments for 
painting, and a considerable quantity was recovered with the 
burials. It was mixed with clay to obtain various shades of red. 
Many lumps of natural white clay were found together with 
yellow and black pigments (pi. 80). 

Bone and Antler — Outstanding among the few bone and 
antler objects from this site were fragmentary pieces of carved 
combs. These are known to have been used by many Iroquoian 
groups from prehistoric times well into the colonial period. 
Many beautiful specimens have been found on New York 
State sites but the combs from Washington Borough are among 
the first recorded from Pennsylvania. 

There is a wide variety of forms and types of combs in the 
collection and they show that the Susquehannock Indian bone 
and antler workers advanced along with the artistic potters of 
the tribe. Many of the combs recovered could have been used 
for practical utilitarian purposes. 1 hey were primarily, how- 
ever, symbolic and decorative, and were probably worn by 
women. If the warriors practiced the usual Iroquoian custom of 
roaching their hair from the forehead to the back of the neck 
in a narrow strip, aiid cutting if off close from their ears up 
to the roach, they could not have had much use for a hair comb. 

Seven fragmentary combs were found on the burial site (pi. 
8 I ) and eight complete ones on Washington Borough village 
sites (pis. 82, 83). As there was no particular difference in 
their types we will describe all of them here. 

Objects illustrating the various steps in the construction of a 
comb out of bone and antler were also found on the two sites 
and are represented in (pi. 84). Fig. A was a roughly worked 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

piece of antler probably intended for a comb; B. was a 
smoothed piece of bone roughed into the shape of a comb; C. 
was antler smoothly worked and ready to be carved; D. was a 
partially carved comb. 

The most interesting of the bone combs from the burial site 
is represented in Fig. C (pi. 8i). It had three elaborately 
carved human figures on the top with their arms crossed and 
hands on their own shoulders. The teeth were delicate and it 
had contained approximately fourteen. 




The position of the hands of the various figures on the combs 
together with the types of hairdressing represented could lead 
one more familiar with ancient Iroquoian and Algonkian cus- 
toms and ceremonies well into the realm of fact and fancy, as 
several skeletons found by the expedition on the Shenk's Ferry 
site had their hands placed in death in positions like those on 
the combs at Washington Borough. 

Fig. F. (pi. 8i), represents half of one of the few plain 
combs found by the expedition. The teeth were very delicate and 
the complete comb had contained about twenty-five. Fig. A was 
the heaviest comb recovered. It was made of antler and at the 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 123 

top had been perforated for suspension. It had seven coarse 
heavy teeth and may have had secondary use as a pot comb. 
Fig. D, (pi. 82), was half of a handsome bone comb with two 
birds facing each other on its top. It had ten rather heavy 
teeth and the eyes of the bird were represented by round holes 
halfway through the bone in which a black pigment had been 
placed. Fig. C represents a turtle with a large head. It was 
made of bone and is an unusually fine example of carving. 

Among Iroquoian groups the clan descent is still matriarchal 
and the clan once played a very important part in the social 
organization of the tribe. The lineal descent, always through 
the female line, gave certain hereditary rights to public office 
and trust. The clans usually took their names from some ani- 
mal, bird, reptile or other object that may have been regarded 
as a guardian deity. At Washington Borough the forms of 
turtles and birds carved into combs were found. The Wolf, the 
Turtle, and Bird clans still survive among existing Iroquois. 

The "horned devils," Captain John Smith described among 
these people, were found carved upon their combs and were 
probably clan deities. These figures are represented in figs. C, 
D, (pi. 83) and fig. E, (pi. 81). The latter was a beautiful and 
nearly perfect bone comb. Several of the delicate teeth were 
missing and the elaborately carved back was partially decorated 
with an incised cheveron des'gn. The horned head had three 
shallow holes to represent eyes and nose, and two mouths, one 
in each cheek. Figs. E and D, (pi. 83), represent a pair of 
horned beings male and female. On the former only the upper 
part of the body had been carved out but on the latter two 
full figures were standing on the comb above the teeth. 

It is unfortunate that Captain Smith did not tell us more 
about the so-called "devils" among the Susquehannock. Who- 
ever these horned deities were in the pantheon of the tribe we 
know they were of both sexes. 

George Alsop writing about the Susquehannock Indians in 
1666 refers to the "devil" as being one of their deities. With- 
out going into the matter thoroughly he probably took it for 
gi-anted that the horned figure represented his satanic majesty. 
He says : 

"As for their Religion, together with their Rites and Cere- 
monies, they are so absurd and ridiculous, that it is almost a sin 
to name them. They own no other Deity than the Devil, 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

(solid or profound) but with a kind of a wild imaginary con- 
jecture, they suppose from their groundless conceits, that the 
World had a Maker, but where he is that made it, or whether 
he be living to this day, they know not. The Devil, as I said 
before, is all the God they own or worship; and that more out 
of a slavish fear than any real Reverence to his Infernal or 




Figure A, is a wrapped section of human hair which verified the method of hairdress 

indicated by Figures A, and B, (Plate 82). Figures B, C, D, and E, represent bear, 

deer, and beaver hides 

Diabolical greatness, he forcing them to their Obedience by his 
rough and rigid dealing with them, often appearing visibly 
among them to their terrour, bastinadoing them (with cruel 
menaces) even unto death, and burning their Fields of Corn 
and houses, that the relation thereof makes them tremble them- 
selves when they tell it. 

"Once in four years they Sacrifice a Childe to him, in an 
acknowledgement of their fi^rm obedience to all his Devillish 
powers, and Hellish commands. The Priests to whom they 
apply themselves in matters of importance and greatest dis- 
tress, are like those that attended upon the Oracle at Delphos, 
who bv their Magic-speels could command a pro or con from 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


the Devil when they pleas'd. These Indians oft-times raise 
great Tempests when they have any weighty matter or design 
in hand, and by blustering storms inquire of their Infernal God 
(the Devil) How matters shall go with them either in publick 
or private." (21 ) 

Fig. B, (pi. 83), represents an antler comb, with an effigy of 
a man carved at the top. The teeth were heavier than usual for 
this type and the features of the figure were in profile. Figs. 



Recovered by Gerald B. Fenstermacher, Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

A and B (pi. 82) were of particular interest because they show 
the styles of headdress used by the Susquehannock. The cus- 
tom of piling the hair on the top of the head and wrapping it 
with cords to hold it upright as indicated in A. was verified by 
finding a large roll of wrapped hair preserved by contact with 
a brass kettle (pi. 85, fig. A). 

Some of the combs found on the burial site may have been 
fashioned with steel tools furnished by white men, but those 
from the village site, found in the refuse, were made with 
native tools before the contact. Most of them show marks 
where they were suspended probably from the neck or on a 

126 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

girdle worn around the waist. Those found with the burials 
were all near the waist and associated with trade or shell beads. 

A disintegrated bird bone awl, 4 inches long, was recovered 
with Burial 40. 

Animal teeth, especially those of the elk, were common. 
Most of them were drilled at the roots for suspension. Burial 
20 had an unusually fine set of elk teeth that had formed a 
necklace. Every tooth had been polished and several were 
stained green from contact with brass. 




'"^i '•■'- ■--( 






Trade Articles — Among the trade objects recorded were 
many made of brass. They included the usual jew's-harps and 
jinglers, both of corrugated brass and plain — several contain- 
ing bits of preserved leather. Hawk bells in various sizes were 
common, and many flat pieces of folded brass had preserved 
bits of leather and fragments of thongs which at one time 
had formed girdles and parts of necklaces (pi. 87). Arm 
bands or bracelets made of corrugated brass and containing 
fragments of human bone were also common. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


The most interesting brass objects were the pendants of 
which many sizes and shapes, perforated for suspension, were 
found. One complete necklace with a large pendant repre- 
senting a human face was of unusual interest. It had been 
buried against a piece of beaver hair which it had preserved 
(pi. 88). 




Obji.cts Preserved by Brass — One of the most interest- 
ing objects preserved by the chromic acid which seeped out of 
the brass was a small fragment of worked cane, indicating that 
the Susquehannock were basket makers. A large fragment of 
a black bear skin and the hair of other undetermined animals 
were recovered (pi. 85, figs. C, D, E). A large lump of hu- 
man hair wrapped with leather which had strips of brass on it 
was perfectly preserved (fig. A). It indicated the style of 
hairdress among these people as previously described with the 
combs. Many small pieces of fabric both coarse and fine were 
recovered. One fragment of a shell wampum belt stained 
green and preserved by brass was with Burial 10. 

Wood — Several parts of wooden bowls and two wooden 
spoons were recorded in the brass kettles — one fragmentary 
and one complete. The spoons were typically Iroquoian and 
the one represented in (pi. 37, fig. A) was an unusually fine 
specimen of a type still being used by Iroquoian peoples. 

Bark — Many large fragments of bark, used to line the 
graves, were recorded, and a leaf had been perfectly preserved 
in the bottom of a small brass kettle. 

Skkds — Seeds of several varieties together with corncobs 
had been preserved and stained green by brass. According to 

128 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Mr. G. N. Collins of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C, these were zia-maize, pumpkin, 
squash and beans (pi. 89). 


m • mm^^ 

f ft • f! 

^» 49 #^ -4P ^ 

m /<» Am 

mm m ^m 


* * « « « 

m 4m ^^ ^ ^ 


m mm mm 


mm m ^ m 

f 9 • f « 

Left, pumpkin. Center, corncobs. Right, zia-nfiaize 

Ikon — Iron objects were not as plentiful on this site as on 
the Strlckler farm. Axes predominated and se\eral different 
types and sizes were represented (pi. 90). I'he most inter- 
esting of the iron objects was a series of pike ends (Hg. K) and 
a crude gaff hook (fig. F). 

Beads — It would take a separate volume to describe all the 
beads recovered on the Washington Borough burial site. 
Thousands of them in many sizes, types and colors were repre- 
sented in the collection. A number of them are already de- 
scribed in Mr. William Orchard's excellent book "Beadwork 
of the American Indians." (26). 

rhe beads of particular interest were of shell and ranged 
from a tubular type one inch long to discoidals of all sizes, 
down to small seed forms not much larger than a pin head. A 
flattened, round bead in graded sizes seemed to be the favorite 
These were found with fragments of large perforated shell 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Mr. Arthur Woodward, curator of the Los Angeles Mu- 
seum, Los Angeles, California, is an authority on early Indian 
trade goods. He has studied glass beads extensively and after 
examining those from Washington Borough submitted the fol- 
lowing report: 

"I notice in 44 W. B. two distinct types of beads, one the 
brick red with the translucent green interior is a form of the 



Figures A, B, C, and D are axes. Figures E, and F, probably pike ends and a gaff-hook 

130 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

'Cornaline 4' Aleppo' bead which continued in vogue in dif- 
ferent forms from the earhest times to the present. However, 
I believe, after comparing some of the later late i8th and early 
19th century beads, found in graves in California, that the 
forms changed somewhat from the cylindrical to the more 
spheroid shape. The outer covering of these beads is generally 
red but the interior core changes from green to opaque white 
and lemon yellow. Likewise in the latter beads, the outer red 
covering changes from the dull brick red to a more cheerful, 
crimson and generally translucent, save in some instances when 
the original combination of colors have been preserved. I have 
some of the later 'Cornaline d'Aleppo' beads found in an In- 
dian cemetery near Chico, California. Included in the lot how- 
ever are some of the same color as that found at 44 W. B. but 
the shape is different. 

"The white bead, from 44 W. B. the short opaque cylinder, 
in my estimation is one of the imitation wampum beads of the 
'iddle 17th century. These type beads began to crop out in 
-,ew Netherland and continued in vogue for many years. As 
early as 1650 the Dutch passed laws prohibiting the use of 
these imitation wampum beads in wampum strings among the 
inhabitants of New Amsterdam. 

"The tubular white and blue beads from No. 29 W. B. are 
likewise this imitation wampum, so is the same type bead in 10 
W. B. I rather imagine, judging from the Dutch regulations 
that these beads came into being about 1640- 1650 and were in- 
troduced as a hope of certain of the traders to supplant the 
real shell wampum, save the expense of manufacture, stringing, 
etc., and thereby create a greater profit. The use of this type 
bead was forbidden however in an edict of 1650 by Director 
Peter Stuyvesant and his council, but I have no doubt the same 
beads went out into the hinterland as trade objects and were 
used as ornaments by certain of the tribesmen who made them 
into strings, bracelets, head bands, belts, etc., and wore them as 
ornaments, saving their regular shell wampum for more serious 
business. Naturally this type of bead had to conform to the 
general standards of thickness and length of the genuine stuff, 
that is 1/8 to 3/16 in. in diameter and 1/8 to 7/16 in. in 
length. These glass beads check in 1/8 in. in diameter and 
about 1/2 in. in length and ranging in between. They would 
pass in a string of wampum unless a practised eye detected the 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 131 

deceit The white beads especially might pass; the blue ones 
would be caught. 

"The polychrome bead in 27 W. B. known as the 'star' or 
'chevron beads' seem to be old. According to Orchard these 
were made at Murano, a suburb of Venice from very early 
times. Schoolcraft also pictures these beads, considerably en- 
larged and it would seem that they also had been passed out by 
French traders. The FVench operated in the western area 
earlier than the English and were in contact with the tribes of 
the Ohio river region earlier than the English. They have 
been made in recent years and exported to the Congo, they 
range from the tiny ones to two inches. 

"One blue bead from 39 W. B. and another from 28 same 
site, show evidences of iridescence brought about by long im- 
mersion in the soil. The same iridescence is found also on old 
Roman glass taken from the tombs. This coloration is due 
to a breakdown of the chemical elements of the glass and is not 
artificial in the sense of having been deliberately colored in that 
manner. Another bead of the same type and color as those 
found in 39, 28 and 69 W. B. does not bear this iridescent 
coloring. Therefore, it would seem that either Burials 28 and 
39 are older than 69 or that the condition of the soil in that 
particular section of the ground differed from the remainder of 
the earth in that area. I imagine Burial 69 was a trifle later, 
or that the beads having been handed down were not buried 
during the sanfie generation." 

Mr. Wrlliam C. Orchard after examining Washington Bor- 
ough hez^i submitted the following report : 

"The Chevron (sometimes called the star) bead was manu- 
factured at an early date at Murano, near Venice, for trade 
through northern Africa and western Asia. Among other 
types of beads in your W. B. collection this was brought to the 
southwest by the Spaniards about 1540. Several specimens 
were found in ruins of Hawikuh, X. M. It has also been 
found in numerous parts of the Lnited States and Canada, 
particularly in the east where some much larger specimens have 
come to light, ranging up to two inches in length. Parts of 
the blue surfaces of many of these found in the east, have been 
ground off, exposing the red central core and edges of the inter- 
mediate layers, giving the beads an entirely different appearance 
(see page 84, PL XII of Beads and Beadwork of the Amer- 

]32 Pennsylvaxia Historical Commission 

ican Indians). Sexeral ot this type are on yom' strings from 
Washington Borough. 

The fiat circular beads, red in color, with blue and white 
stripes are an uncommon type which are said to have been made 
by the people at i\Iurano. The discoidal beads of shell and 
the small tubular shell beads are common, as you know, to the 
United States. Ihere are two shell disc beads that are stained 
black possibly from animal matter or charring near a tire. I'he 
large globular black beads with stripes on them are Venetian 
beads of the seventeenth century. The light blue globular 
glass beads and the small A'aricolored beads are Venetian beads 
of early date. 

"The tubular glass beads commonly called bugle beads, came 
to the United States much later than the spherical type, prob- 
ably about the time that the importance of wampum was recog- 
nized. There are some fnjm \V. B., that is the white ones, 
which mav have been made in imitation of wampimi. 

"The small metal tubular beads were made of sheet brass by 
the natives, perhaps from a piece of a brass kettle." 

The trade goods sold to the Susquehannock were obtained 
from \-arious sources but the Dutch, English and French prob- 
ably supplied most of the traders. The bulk of the trade ma- 
terial was made by these nations in the i 7th centin-y and well 
into the i Sth. Beads came principally from one source, \'enice, 
with later French cut beads and still later Bohemia, now 
CzechosloN'akia up to today, r'rench traders used smuggled 
English goods because they were better and cheaper than 
French products. England sub-let trade contracts to the con- 
tinent during certain periods so that a general mixup of trade 
goods ensued; howexer, most of them can be traced to common 
sources by experts. 


The chief \Mlue of archaeological excaxations on an Indian 
site of the Washington Borough type is to obtain detailed com- 
parative material which mav shed light on the origin and pos- 
sible migratory route of its occupants. If the part of the site 
dexastated by xaiulals had been examineil by competent ob- 
serxers. considerable additional data bearing upon the customs, 

Safk Harbor Report No. 2 133 

religion and history of the group who lived there, might have 
been gathered. 

It is well known that groups of Carantouans from the Sus- 
quehanna were colonized by the Five Nations. Archaeological 
work in the Cayuga territory of New York State verified this 
more than twelve years ago by pottery forms (25). 

Of the other aboriginal utensils and implements of the 
Washington Borough site, outside of pottery, we can say only 
that with few exceptions they differ little from what we might 
expect to find on a large proportion of Iroquois sites of early 
and late colonial period. The objects recovered had certain 
tribal and regional features that can be used in establishing 
authentic Susquehannock criteria. 

T^he artifacts found on the Washington Borough site, outsloe 
of the trade objects, were of Iroquoian manufacture. Accept- 
ing the site as typical Susquehannock we have a fair cultural 
horizon for a late prehistoric period leading into an early white 
contact. The fact that the site was older than the Strlckler Site 
was established by the more archaic and delicate ceramics. 
Less trade material was found and a few of the burials were 

The mortuary customs at Washington Borough were similar 
to those of the Strlckler Site hut the separate excavation beside 
the grave for containing offerings was missing. This indicates 
that this custom may have been practiced only after long white 

7'here was a paucity of many objects such as pipes, maskettes, 
runtees, etc.. usually associated with sites of this period. How- 
ever, as only a vnry small part of the original cemetery was 
excavated, these objects may ha\-e been destroyed by the van- 

Very little northern influence was noted and the southern 
influence suggested Cherokee more than Algonklan, especially 
in the pipes. The unusually large vessel was similar to se\eral 
found on the prehistoric village site nearby. 

The predominant material culture was, roughly speaking, 
clay emphasized by the unusual number of xessels recovered. 

The forms of the arrowheads were Iroquoian and more like 
Cherokee than those found In the north. We belie\e the site 
was occupied between the latter part of the T6th centurv up to 
about ] 640, 

134 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


Basing our theories on the general belief that there was an 
Iroquoian migration from the Middle Mississippi Valley be- 
tween the loth and i6th centuries, we can proceed to picture the 
Susquehannock migrating with the main body up through the 
Ohio Valley. After spending some time in what is now western 
Pennsylvania they moved eastward up the Youghiogheny River 
through the Pennsylvania mountains and then down through 
the Potomac Valley and across to Chesapeake Bay. Being es- 
sentially an inland, fresh water people, they moved up the larg- 
est convenient river, the Susquehanna, and established them- 
selves in the rich fertile country we know now as Lancaster and 
York counties. Before doing this, however, they had to drive 
the Algonkian occupants out of the region. It may have been 
the Lenape who were forced eastward and again it might have 
been other groups who were exterminated. 

The Susquehanna Iroquois culture must have been effected 
to a certain extent by Algonkian contact and conquest. It is 
surprising, however, to observe by a comparative study how 
well they held on to their material culture and customs, regard- 
less of their isolation from large groups of their own people. 
They had been separated from the main bodies of Iroquois so 
long that upon contact through the Andastes, with the Five 
Nations on the upper Susquehanna River, mutual interests of 
blood kin had been lost. Both groups, naturally aggressive, 
soon conflicted, and once kindled the fire burned until the 
Carantouan were exterminated. 

Washington Borough Village Site 

Chart 6 

The village site in Washington Borough explored by the 
expedition was N. 6^° E (magnetic) 1336 ft. from the S. 
stake (El. 256.4) of the burial site on the same side of 
Staman's Creek at El. 271.1. The property belonged to Mr. 
Heast Frey who very kindly gave his permission to excavate 
after a tobacco crop had been removed. 

Near an old log house, known locally as the trading post, 
seventeen large pits were excavated and recorded. All these 
pits were more or less round averaging between 2 ft. 6 in. and 
4 ft. 9 in. in diameter. Four were between 2 ft. and 3 ft. 3 in. 
in depth; eight, between 4 ft. and 4 ft. 11 in.; and the balance 
between 5 ft. and 5 ft. 7 in, deep. The walls of the pits were 
straight and the bottoms averaged about the same size as the 
tops except in 6-7- 13- 14 where they were 2 to 6 in. smaller. 

The pits were primarily for storage with secondary use as 
fireplaces. A brief description of a few of them is all we can 
present here. Their contents were similar except those which 
contained a limited amount of fragmentary brass and iron. 

Pit No. i — From the ground level to a depth of 7 in. humus 
mixed with shell was encountered; below this, 6 to 8 in. thick, 
was a hard packed layer of mussel shells; and to the bottom 
charcoal and ashes. Resting on the hardpan were three pieces 
of the shell of a box tortoise. 

Pit No. 2 — From the surface to a depth of 8 in. was the 
usual humus, below to the 2 ft. 4 in. level was charcoal and 
humus, a 2 in. layer of wood ash and then charcoal and mixed 
earth to bottom 5 ft. 4 in. down. At i ft. from the surface, a 
hammerstone was recorded and in the ash layer another. Near 
the bottom were three bone awls and a small fragment of 

Pit No. 3 — This pit was covered by 8 in. of top soil under- 
neath which mixed earth and charcoal was found to the 2 ft. 
level. A bed of wood ashes averaging 9 in. in thickness was 
below, and mixed charcoal, earth and mussel shells containing 
scattered animal bone, fragmentary pieces of pottery and bits 
of brass were recorded to the hardpan 5 ft. from the surface. 
The walls of the pit were fire burned to a pinkish color above 
the ash layer. 


Safe Harbor Report No. 2 137 

Pit No. 6 — Below the surface soil this pit contained mixed 
earth and charcoal to the bottom, 2 ft. 8 in, down. At the 9 in. 
level ten waterworn white quartz stones were found in a 
pile, and scattered below were fragments of animal, bird bones 
and pottery. On the southwest side, the wall had an offset 
which was 2 ft. 4 in. in diameter and 2 ft. deep. This con- 
tained mixed earth, charcoal, animal bone, one fortuitous bone 
awl and a few fragments of pottery. 

Pit No. 14 — From the surface to the 2 ft. level mixed soil 
and charcoal was recorded, below was a 4 in. layer of wood 
ash and mixed earth containing charcoal to the bottom 3 ft. 
8 in. down. Pottery fragments were scattered from the sur- 
face to the hardpan. One small piece of hematite was in the 
ashes, and a large piece of prepared pottery clay containing 
pounded shell rested on the bottom on the southwest side. 

Midden — The kitchen midden or refuse dump of this site 
was N. 115° 460 ft. from the south stake of the village site. 
It covered a considerable area and averaged 4 ft. in depth 
over the edge of the knoll and thinned to 8 in. at the top. It 
contained, at various levels, innumerable objects of bone, antler, 
stone earthenware and shell. It was contemporaneous with 
the precontact pits recorded. 


Pottery — Most of the pottery vessel forms on the Wash- 
ington Borough village site were similar to those found on the 
burial site. An assortment of sherds and restored vessels from 
each pit was selected for comparative examination and an in- 
teresting discovery was made about the mortuary customs of 
the Susquehannock. With the exception of what at the time 
was considered an unusually large vessel with B. 43, most 
of the pots recovered on the burial site were comparatively 
small. On the village site, both in the pits and refuse, the 
vessels were between 9 in. and 16 in. in diameter at the mouth, 
and 14 in. to 22 in. in depth, averaging from two to five times 
the size of the usual burial pots. There is no question but 
that the village site was contemporaneous with at least part 
of the burial site, and that large vessels were seldom buried 
with the dead. An archaeological exploration of the burial 
site alone would lead an investigator to believe large vessels 
were not used to a great extent by the Susquehannock. 

138 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 




Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


The ware on the large vessels was between 3/8 and 1/4 
in. in thickness and tempered with shell. The collar designs 
noted were half round, grooved lines, elliptic indentations, 
punctate and occasional incised lines. Because of the difference 
in size, designs on the large vessels were bolder, and the human 
faces and notches larger than on the smaller vessels recovered 
on the burial site (pi. 91). 

Laboratory Study of Shp:rds 

The following is a laboratory study made of a few sherds 
from this site by Mr. James Griffin at the Ceramic Repository 
for the Eastern United States, Ann Arbor, Michigan: 

No. 5795-1 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 

No. 5795-3 


Medium fine 
2 to 2.5 

Light brownish grey exterior — slightly smoke 
blackened interior over a grey. 

Tooled with a cord-wrapped paddle and sub- 
sequently smoothed. 

Face formed by adding small piece of 
clay. A series of r. to 1. slanting, 
closely spaced incised lines just below 
lip. Then 6 med. wide and shallow, 
horizontal incised lines around rim. 
Then another series of short c'.osely- 
spaced lines as above. Then a series 
of 1. to r. slanting, longer, med. wide, 
shallow lines with a slant to end of 

Straight and high — raised over face 
Narrowed and rounded — notched over face 

Lip .5 cm; rim .7 cm; shoulder .5 cm. 





Medium fine 

2 to 2.5 

Dark grey — smoke colored interior 

Surface Finish; 



Pexxsylvania Historical Commission 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 

No. 5795-4 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 
No. 5795-17 


Surface Finish: 
Decoration: technique 

Triangular face, added piece of clay. 
Narrow shallow, r. to 1., closely spaced, 
incised lines just below lip. Then a 
series of 11 med. wide and med. deep 
horizontal incised lines which reach 
to bottom of rim. Lower part of rim 
has widely spaced, very deep, wide, 
2.5 cm. long gashes. This has produced 
a very noticeable cameo on the in- 

Slightly convex outwards. Raised above face 
Flattened and rounded. Notched above face 

Lip .5 cm; rim .5 cm; shoulder .5 cm. 


Medium fine to fine 


Smoke blackened interior — smoke discolored 


Triangular face. Line of r. to 1. slanting, 
narrow, shallow, closely spaced lines. 
Then 5 med. wide, shallow, horizontal 
lines. Then another series of short, 
closely spaced, but med. wide and med. 
deep, r. to 1. slanting lines. Below 
this to the edge of rim is a series of 
ever enlarging triangles with open 
base and point downward. 
Slightly convex outward — raised over face 
Flattened and rounded — notched over face 
Very short neck forming collar 
Lip .5 cm.; rim .5 cm; shoulder .3 cm. 


Medium fine 

2 to 2.5 

Smoke blackened interior — partially on the 
exterior — otherwise a very light brown. 

Smoothed over cord-wrapped tooling 

A series of r. to 1. slanting, slightly 
curved, narrow and shallow incised 
lines. Then 2 med. wide, shallow, 
horizontal lines. A series of 11 rned. 
wide, very shallow, perpendicular 
lines. A series of 1. to r. slanting lines 
from the corner of the perpendicular 
and horizontal lines to the corner of 
the rim and the next series of perpen- 
dicular lines. The intervening space 
is filled with r. to 1. slanting incisions 
that look like thumbnail marks. At 
base of rim are triangular impressions. 

Safe Harbor ]\kport No. 2 


Form: rim 


No. 5795-18 


. Color 

Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 

No. 5795-3 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 




No. 5795-8 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Straight — high — suggestion of collar 

Narrow rounded 


Lip .4 cm.: rim .65 cm.; upper body .4 cm. 


Medium fine 

2 to 2.5 

Light brown or sand color — smoke blackened 

Smoothed over cord wrapped paddle mark- 
Med. wide shallow, closely spaced, r. to 
1. slanting lines that end at base of rim. 
Rim edge is notched with narrow 
shallow, closely spaced notches. 
Straight — suggestion of collar 

Rim .3 cm: body .45 cm. 

Shell — considerably hole tempered 
Medium fine 

2 to 2.5 almost 2. The softest sherds of the 
group light brown 

Smoothed — considerably weathered 

Incised lines 

.6 to .8 cm. 


Medium fine 


Light brownish grey 


The r. to 1. slanting lines are deeper and 
wider at the slightly everted lip area. 
Then a series of fine med. wide, shal- 
low, horizontal lines. A slightly im- 
pressed band below this has the r. to 
1. lines. Then a series of 7 horizontal 
lines similar to the first group. Series 
of widely spaced, med. wide and deep 
perpendicular grooves cross the last 
horizontal line. The middle impressed 
band and the grooves leave a cameo 
on the interior. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Form: rim 


No. 5795-29 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 

No. 5795-5 

Straight— high 

Flattened and rounded; thickened on exterior 

? slight neck 
lip .55 cm.; rim .5 cm; neck .2 cm. 

Grit — very few pieces 


2 to 2.5 

Very faint brickish red 

Roughly smoothed 


narrowed and rounded 


Lip .5 cm; body 1 cm. 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 


Medium fine 

2.5 to 3 

Smoke blackened interior and exterior 

Tooled with cord-wrapped paddle and subse- 
quently smoothed. 

Narrow, shallow r. to 1. slanting lines 
just below lip. Then a group of 8 
horizontal, med. wide and med. deep 
lines. Then in a depressed band is 
another series of r. to 1. slanting lines 
as above. Below this another series of 
horizontal lines. Crossing this last 
group, at wide intervals is a wide, 
deep, perpendicular gash. The de- 
pressed band and the gash form cameos 
on the interior. 

Straight — high 

Flattened and rounded — cord-marked 


Lip .55 cm.; rim .65 cm. 

No. 5795-6 



Shell — occasional pieces of grit (quartz) 

Medium fine 

2 to 2.5 

Light brown exterior 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 

No. 5795-10 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 




No. 5795-11 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Rim smoothed. Some tooling marks on body. 

Very short, r. to 1. lines at lip — narrow 
and shallow. 2 med. wide, shallow hori- 
zontal lines. Most of rim has a series 
of med. wide, shallow perpendicular 
lines flanked by a series of similar but 
1. to r. slanting lines. At base of rim 
is another series of slanting lines 
similar to those below lip. Also some 
of this type on rim below the 1. to r. 
slanting lines. 

Straight — one part raised 
Narrowed and rounded 

Lip .3 cm.; rim .5 cm.; shoulder .4 cm. 


Medium fine 


Smoke discolored grey 


Just below lip the narrow, shallow, r. to 
1. closely spaced diagonal lines. Then 
three med. wide and med. deep hori- 
zontal encircling lines. Below that 
series are 1. to r. slanting narrow, shal- 
low, quite closely spaced incised lines. 

Straight — but slightly everted at lip 

Lip .6 cm.; rim .5 cm. 

Medium fine 

Heavily smoke blackened interior — partially 
on the exterior — otherwise chocolate grey. 

Smoothed over cord-wrapped paddling 

A series of closely spaced r. to 1. slanting, 
short incised lines, med. wide and med. 
deep, at the upper part they quickly 
become narrow and shallow. A series 
of 15 med. wide, shallow, horizontal 
lines are terminated by a group of 9 
(visible) med. wide, deeply impressed, 
perpendicular lines. In the angle be- 
tween these two sets of lines is a group 
of med. wide, shallow, imprints that 
appear as though they had been 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Form: rim 

No. 5795-13 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 


No. 5795-14 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 

No. 5795-16 


Flattened and rounded 


Lip .45 cm.; rim .55 cm. 


Med. fine 

2 to 2.5 

Tan or light brown exterior 

Smoothed over cord-wrapped tooling 

Just below lip are remnants of r. to 1. 
slanting lines which have been 
smoothed over. Then 2 med. wide, 
shallow, crudely incised, horizontal 
lines. Then a group of horizontal, or 
slightly diagonal, med. wide to narrow, 
shallow lines. These are terminated by 
a series of narrow, med. deep perpen- 
dicular lines. The workmanship on 
this vessel is none too good. 

Straight high 
Rounded — slightly 

flattened very slightly 

Lip .4 cm., rim .6 cm. 


Medium fine 


Smoke blackened interior 


A series of med. wide, shallow horizon- 
tal lines is terminated by a series of 8 
r. to 1. slanting narrow, shallow lines. 
This group is terminated by a perpen- 
dicular series of shallow, narrow lines. 

Straight — high — suggestion of collar 
Flattened and rounded 

Lip .6 cm.; rim .6 cm.; shoulder .35 cm. 




Medium fine to fine 
2 to 2.5 

Light brownish grey— smoke blackened up- 
per interior 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 




No. 5795-22 



Surface Finish: 

Decoration: technique 

Form: rim 




Tooled with a cord-wrapped paddle and sub- 
sequently smoothed 

Upper portion of rim is broken. A series 
of short, perpendicular med. wide and 
med. deep incised lines reach to end 
of rim. This group of 26 lines is ter- 
minated by a group of diagonal, 1. to r. 
slanting med. wide, deeply incised 

Straight— collared 

Globular bottom, short neck 

Rim .6 cm.; shoulder .3 cm.; body .5 cm. 


Medium fine 

2 to 2.5 

Light brickish red 


6.5 horizontal lines, med. wide to narrow 
and med. deep. At base of overhang- 
ing rim are deeply incised, wide gashes 
which set apart knobs of clay. 

Straight — collared 

narrowed and rounded 

Lip .35 cm.; base of rim 1.1 cm. 

Bone and Antler Objects 

In addition to the beautifully carved combs, already de- 
scribed, the refuse and pits on this site produced many 
utilitarian bone objects of interest — among these were several 
types of bone awls. The fortuitous splinter type predominated 
and twenty-nine specimens were recovered (pi. 92, fig. C). 
Next in number were smoothly finished awls ranging between 
5 in. and 8 in. in length (figs. A, E). Several awls with the 
natural joints as handles were also recovered (fig. D), to- 
gether with three unusual types made from heavy bone (figs. 
F, G, H). Four delicately pointed bird bone awls (figs. 
I, J, K), and innumerable types in process of construction 
were recorded. 

Worked Phalangeal Bones — A number of worked pha- 
langeal bones of deer were noted in the pits (pi. 92, fig. L). 
These are not unusual on Iroquois sites and were used either 
as jinglers or as units in the cup and pin game in which several 

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Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


were drilled lengthwise and hollowed on the proximal end, 
were strung together, tossed into the air and an attempt made 
to catch the hollowed part on a bone pin. A careful count was 
kept and the winner announced after a certain number had 
tried to catch the bones. (See Games) (27). 

Several pieces of partially worked fragments of both bone 
and antler, showing the use of native cuttings tools, were re- 
corded (pi. 92, fig. M). 




Antler — The fact that the Susquehannock used antler pro- 
jectile points was well established on this village site as several 
arrowheads in situ .were recorded. They averaged between 
Ij4 in- and 2^2 in- in length and were beautifully smoothed 
and pointed. At the proximal end they had one notched and 
pointed tang and were hollowed out conically so the shaft of 
the arrow could be inserted (pi. 93, figs. A, C, D). 

Three "bunt" arrowheads, made of antler, were found (pi. 
93, figs. B, D, F). They had two, four and six short pointed 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

projections on the distal end, pointed on proximal end, and 
were probably stunning arrows for taking small game, or the 
property of children learning to use weapons. This type of 
antler point is still employed by Indians in the sub-Arctic. 

Animal Tketh — Canine teeth of bears were plentiful on 
the site and may have been used for decoration. Beaver incisors 
were common and several showed signs of use as implements, 
probably gouges. 




Pipes — F>agmentary pieces of smoking pipes had apparently 
been tossed into the pits and refuse dumps by their owners. 
Twenty-three stems and five broken bowls were found and 
all were Iroquoian types. Ihe most interesting was a large 
bowl with four human faces molded on the outside of the rim 
so that two faced the smoker and two forward (pi. 32, fig. B). 

One very fine finished antler pipe and two in preparation 
showed a use of this material for smoking pipes as a custom 
hitherto unrecorded on Iroquoian sites (pi. 94). 

Paints — Pigments similar to those found on the burial site 
were recorded — black, red and white colors were noted. 

Stone Objects 

Arrowpoints — Only triangular arrowpoints made of white 
quartz were recorded in the pits and refuse (pi. 95, figs. D, 
E, F). 

Scrapers — Scrapers made of white quartz and probably 
used for cleaning hides or roughing out wood were plentiful 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


on the site. Thev were larger than the average Iroquoian Im- 
plement of this type and crudely made (pi. 95, figs. A, B, C). 
Net Sinkers — Fourteen net sinkers of varying sizes were 
found. Thev were the usual flat stones notched on two sides. 
It is possible that these objects were also used, attached to 
thongs, as bolas stones for taking birds (pi. 96). 




The two upper figures are unfinished and the lower smoothed and polished with a 
deep charred orifice 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATES (DOWN) 97, 9S AND 96 


Plate 97 represents axes both grooved and celt forms. Plate 95 arrow-points and 
scrapers made of white quartz. Plate 96 notched stones used as sinkers or bolas 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 151 

"Pot Covers" — Nine so-called "stone pot covers" made of 
thin slate were of unusual interest. They varied in size from 
1 1/2 in. to 4 in. in diameter and were round and notched on 
opposite sides. These objects are still in the problematical class 
and are called "covers" because Mr. Alanson Skinner recorded 
one in a grave near Athens, Pennsylvania, "set over the mouth 
of a pottery jar." (p. 104) (25). The large specimens may 
have been used for "covers" but the very small ones found on 
this site would not be practical for this purpose and their 
use is unknown. 

Hammerstones — Several pitted hammerstones in various 
sizes were noted. A few had pits on both sides and others only 
one. Four showed chipping at the edges and may have had 
a secondary use m a game as they resemble the discoidal stones 
used for this purpose by the prehistoric Cherokee (see Chunky 
Frey Site). 

Axes and Celts — Three fragmentary celts were recorded 
on this site indicating these implements were still being used 
by the Susquehannock of the period. They were the usual 
flat type popular among most Iroquois groups, rectangular in 
shape and with elliptical section (pi. 97, fig. A, C, D). The 
material used in their construction was a hard, fine grained 
stone. One small fragment of a grooved axe suggested that 
this type of cutting implements was also being utilized (fig. B). 

Miscellaneous Stone Objects — A half of a winged 
bannerstone, a small round perforated bead and a smoothly 
polished pendant made up the balance of stone artifacts from 
the village site. The bannerstone fragment was intrusive and 
the stone beads may have been, as they are rare on Iroquoian 
sites. The pendant was 2 in. long, 1/2 in. wide, rounded on 
the edges and polished. It was drilled on one end and from 
the side, the two holes met 1/2 in. from the end and formed 
a V through which a cord was probably passed with which 
it was suspended. 

Trade Objects — Eight fragmentary sections of sheet brass 
from the pits revealed that some contact had been established 
with white men while this site was occupied. Two slender 
iron awls were also recovered. 

152 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Summary and Conclusions 

On this village site the aboriginal artifacts outnumbered 
the contact objects by more than loo to i. Implements made 
of stone were more numerous than on the late historic sites. 
The art of bone working with native tools was emphasized, 
and at the period of occupation the Susquehannock had reached 
the height of their artistic ability in ceramics. The large 
pottery vessels were masterpieces of the potter's art and in- 
dicated a long sedentary occupation. 

The pits and refuse dump explored by the expedition were 
only a very small part of the enormous village that at one 
time existed here. A thorough archaeological exploration of 
the area between the Strickler farm and Washington Borough 
would probably reveal many village sites and burying grounds, 
ranging from prehistoric times well into the historic period. 

At the time this part of Conojohla was occupied the Indians 
apparently did not have a direct white contact. Their material 
culture was still aboriginal, and a few trade objects recovered 
indicated the date of the site was late in the i6th century or 
very early in the 17th. 

Three important discoveries were made here. In the order 
of their importance they are: (i) the use of large pottery 
vessels with rounded bottoms by prehistoric Iroquois; (2) the 
development of the bone and antler comb with its elaborate 
and smoothly finished effigies before steel tools were intro- 
duced; (3) the use of antler for monolithic smoking pipes 
by prehistoric Iroquois. 

Frey Farm Burial Site 

Chart J 

Mr. Heast Frey also owned the property across Staman's 
Run from the Washington Borough burial site already de- 
scribed (pi. 98). He gave the expedition permission to do 
a limited amount of excavating on this land and two interest- 
ing burials were recorded. 

Burial No. i was in excellent condition exactly 2 ft. below 
the surface. It was extended on its back facing up and head- 
ing northeast (pi. 99). On the manubrium rested a round 
shell pendant and ten short tubular shell beads in graduated 
sizes. From the xiphoid appendage of the sternum to the 
calcaneum, 480 bone beads, also in graiiuated si/es, were re- 
corded (pi. 100). The beads apparently formed part of a 
girdle to which a bone comb was attached. Near the left 

FLATZS (DOWN) 98, 99 


PLATES (DOWN) lOl. 100 




154 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

radius was a small pottery vessel of an unusual type for this 
area (pi. 73, fig. A). 

The friable nature of the bones had caused some damage 
especially to the vertebrae. They were carefully studied by 
Mr. William Richie of the Rochester Museum of Arts and 
Sciences and following is his report on the skull : 

Length, max. 17.1 

Breadth, max, 14.3 

Height, basion-bregma 14. i 

Capacity 13 10 c.c. 

Cranial Module 15.1 

Circumference, max. (above supraorbital ridges) 50.1 

Nasion-opisthion arc 36.1 

Length, total (chin-nasion) 11.2 

Length, upper (prosthion nasion) 6.7 

Breadth (dia. bizyg., max.) 13.2 (right defective) 

Diameter frontal 

Height 4.9 
Breadth 2.7 

Basion-prosthion line 9.5 
Basion-subnasal point 8.5 
Basion-nasion lo.o 
Prosthion-nasion height 6.7 
Prosthion-subnasal point height 2.0 

Breadth 4.0 
Height 3.5 

Height at syphysis 3.2 
Thickness at 2nd left molar 1.5 
Diameter bigonial 9.75 
Breadth of ramus, min. 2.9 

Foramen Magnum 
Diameter, mean 3.35 

Length 4.8 
Breadth 3.7 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 







Indices : 

Cephalic 83.6 

Height-length 82.3 

Height-breadth 98.5 

F'acial, total 84.8 

Facial, upper 50.7 

Orbital 87.5 

Nasal 55.1 

Facial angle 74° 

Alveolar angle 56° 

Palatal 77.0 

Sutures very simple. Right M^ and left Mo lost in life 
from mandible; M.-, not erupted. No teeth lost in life from 
upper jaw; M,, only present. Mild degree of wear. 

Burial No. 2 had no artifacts. It was extended on its back 
with head twisted to the left and facing the proximal end of 
the left humerus. The carpus, metacarpus and phalangeal bones 
were missing from both hands. Following is a study of the 

Length, max. 


Breadth, max. 


Height, basion-bregma 


Capacity 1220 c.c. 

Cranial module 


hi dices : 









Sutures simple. Process of occulusion beginning on exterior 
of vault. 

Neither of the skulls confqrm with the typical Iroquois 
with a high vault, broad nose and long head. Burial No. i 
was brachcephalic indicating a round headed Algonkian 
physical horizon. 

Burial No. 2 was dolichocephalic indicating an Iroquoian 
physical horizon. 

The variance of the two skulls may indicate admixture. But, 
regardless, of the suggestion it is impossible to form valid 
conclusions, concerning a physical type, from a skull, or two. 
Individual characteristics may occur and only a tentative re- 
liance may be placed on evidence of admixture. 

156 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

ScHULTZ Farm Site 

Chart 7, yA 

One of the most important sites explored by the expedition 
was on the farm of lulward \. Schult/, in Manor Township, 
Lancaster County. It was locatetl on an elevation with a central 
station ot 64.61; o\erlooking the river directly south of Wit- 
mer's Run between Blue Rock and Turkey Hill. At one time 
the property was owned by the Witmer familv. 

Mr. Schultz \ery kindly ga\e his permission to excaxate 
and one of the largest archaeological x'illage sites in the east 
was thoroughlv explored. It contained two hundred se\enty- 
two pits of N'arious sizes aiul shapes and thirteen burials. 

,\s this site was too large to chart bv methods used on 
smaller more concentrated ones, a central bench mark was es- 
tablished (No. 5-L64.65) and all stations were located by 
chaining compass bearings from this point. Ihe ele\ations 
surrounding the site were recorded and a base line established 
from the river, a profile of which can be seen on Chart 7 A. The 
object of this close study of elevations was to establish, if 
possible, that this was the location of one of the important 
early Susquehannock Indian forts. Our findings will be dis- 
cussed in the summary on this site. 

A complete description of the work done on the Schultz 
farm would take up a large \()lume. Se\eral thousand speci- 
mens were found and information recorded in detail that is 
a\-ailable in the field notes in the files of the PennsyKania His- 
torical Commission, but cannot be presented here. 

All the burials were in fragmentary condition and it was 
impossible to secure accurate physical data. Most of them 
were shallow and se\eral had been partially destroyed by cul- 
ti\ation as manv bones were aboxe the six inch plow Ie\el. 
rhey were probably intriisixe on this \illage site, the burying 
ground of which could not be explored. 

BlKIAL No. 1 

Skull depth from surface 6 iiL 
Width of disturbed area 2 ft. 6 in. 

Length of disturbed area 4 ft. 6 in. 

Posture — extended — facing 3 \o' 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 157 

Sex male — approximate age — young 
Cephalic notations — crushed skull 
Position: Right arm down side with hand on sacrum 

Left arm at side 

Right leg extended slightly flexed 

Left leg extended 

Trunk lying on back, \ertebrae on hardpan, beneath 
lumbar \'ertebrae was a small stone. 
Teeth — good condition 
Deformations — none 
Articles in soi^ abo\'e remauis — 2 potsherds 

A girdle containing 1^20 bone beads, 47^ perfect, was around 
the loins. A small bone pendant under the right peKis. A 
large diamond shaped shell, perforated at one end and in the 
center, and three conical bone beads were associated with the 
pendant. Beneath the skull wei^e two matched tubular shell 
beads, i in. long. 

Burial \o. 2 

Skull depth from surface i i in. 

Diameter of disturbed area i ft. lo in. by 6 ft. 8 in. 
Posture — extended — facing 34^5 
Head — east — sex — indeterminate. 
Age — indeterminate adult. 
Position — Right arm down, hand f)n pel\-is. 
Left arm down, hand on pelvis. 
Right leg extended. 
Left leg extended. 
Trunk — on back. 
Many bones missing — general condition poor. 

\ear the top of the crushed skull was a small steatite dish, 
and a Hat piece of steatite partially worked. At the distal 
end of the left humerus rested a small steatite dish 4 in. long, 
I -yi in. wide and 2 ><[ in. deep. At 6 in. from the right pelvis 
and 2 in. from the femur was a small earthenware pipe, with- 
out decoration. Xear the west wall on location le\'el was a 
small triangular arrowpoint made of white quart/.. I'wo pot- 
sherds in the earth abo\e the pipe may have been intrusive 
in the grave. 

The bones with BiKiAL \(). 3 were in such fragmentary 
condition that nothing could be gained by gi\ing detailed data 

158 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

here. Only a small portion of the parietal remained with a 
section of the inferior maxillary, and the upper trunk was 
completely destroyed. Sections of the femurs and tibias in place 
indicated an extended burial. 

Burial No. 4 was in fragmentary condition 16 in. below 
the surface. It was of particular interest because it had been 
flexed on the right side. The grave contained no artifacts. 

Burial No. 5 — This burial was located at a depth of 16 
in. It was in very poor condition and extended with its head 
to the east. The bones appeared to be those of a young adult 
lying on back, face up. 

Burial No. 6 — Skull depth from surface 16 in. 

Disturbed area i ft. 8 in. by 6 ft. 3 in. 

Posture — Extended on back, head to east, 

facing west. 

Age — Young adult. 

Position — Right and left arms down sides, 

hands on pelvis. 

Right and left legs extended. 
Trunk on back. 

Many disintegrated bones. 

General condition very bad. 

Objects above remains — At an elevation of 
3 in. above left tibia was a bone awl 
and one triangular arrowpoint made 
of white quartz. 

The inferior maxillary contained two badly decayed teeth 
and the skull was crushed so that measurements were impos- 
sible. Six elk teeth, perforated for suspension, were found 
below the skull, and probably formed part of a necklace. 
Objects other than the elk teeth may not have belonged with 
the burial as the surrounding soil within a radius of 10 ft. 
and to a depth of between 14 in. and 16 in. was black, in- 
dicating a house occupation, or midden. 

Burial No. 7 — This disturbed burial was that of a young 
child. It was extended with the top of the head to the east. 
Burial No. 8 — Skull depth from surface 8 in. 

Disturbed area 2 ft. by 5 ft. 3 in. 

Posture — Extended. 

Sex — Male — Young adult. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 159 

Position — Right and left arms extended, 
hands on pelvis. 

Right and left legs extended — 
femurs and tibias broken. 
Condition — Very poor, disturbed by soil 
No artifacts. Pelvis in good 

Skull crushed. 

Burial No. 9 — Skull recorded at a depth of 7 in. The 
remains had been disturbed by soil cultivation and were ap- 
parently those of a child about eight years of age. No arti- 
facts were noted and a small fire pit was found near the head. 

Burial No. 10 — Skull depth 12 in. 

Disturbed area i ft. 8 in. by 5 ft, 6 in. 
Posture — Extended. 
Sex — Indeterminate, probably male. 
Head — East — Facing north. 
Position — Right arm on side, hand on 
Left arm extended ulna and 

radius missing. 
Right and left leg slighdy flexed 
inward at the distal ends of 
the femurs. 
Trunk — On back. 
Many bones missing — general condition 
very bad. 
On the right side of the skull was a small Iroquoian type 
pottery vessel. No other artifacts were recorded. 
Burial No. 11 — Skull depth 131/0 in. 

Disturbed area 2 ft. by 6 ft. 6 in. 
Posture — extended. 
Sex — indeterminate. 

Position — Right and left arm at sides 
with hands pn pelvis. 
Right and left legs extended. 

Many bones were missing and the general condition was 
very bad. A small Iroquoian type pottery vessel was found on 
the top of the crushed skull. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Burial No. 12 — A disturbed extended burial in such poor 
condition that exact physical measurements could not be made. 
It headed east and contained no associated artifacts. 

Burial No. 13 — An extended burial with a crushed skull 
and disintegrated long bones. Like the other burials on this 
site the skull was thin and the long bones delicate. 


Two hundred and seventy-two pits were noted on this site. 
Each one was carefully investigated, and elevations of artifacts 
and strata recorded. A separate study was made of each pit 
and an attempt made to ascertain its cultural horizon. Most 
of them were of the regular Iroquoian types used for storage, 
fires and house posts. Several storage pits were "bell shaped" 
with a small opening at the surface (pi. loi). The sloping 
walls allowed natural drainage, and were practical because only 
a small opening had to be covered and hidden when the owner 
was away. Many pits showed evidence of having been lined 
with bark, and several had secondary use as fireplaces. 

It is impossible to present a detailed record of all the pits 
here as it would involve endless repetition. A very brief de- 
scription of the first seventy-five explored gives a fair idea of 
their size and contents. In the final analysis of the site all the 
pits have been taken into consideration. 

Pit No. 



Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 

1 ft. 6 in. 

3 ft. 7 in. 

3 ft. 

4 ft. 

Dark earth with 
charcoal and 

Charcoal and clay 
mixed with ash. 

20 potsherds, 2 pieces of worked 
quartzite, 1 hammerstone, 1 
animal vertebrae (possibly 
deer) . Storage. 

Large potsherds from 10 in. be- 
low the surface scattered to 
within 10 in. of the bottom, 5 
fragments of charred corncob 
with corn still on some of 
them, 1 bone awl (large) , 1 
section of a bone fishhook, 2 
triangular quartz arrowpoints, 
1 beaver tooth, bones of bear, 
deer, beaver, raccoon and tur- 
key; also, fish scales and clam 
shells, 1 lump of blue pottery 
clay. Storage. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Pit No. 



Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 


4 ft. 7 in. 

3 ft. 
2 in. 

4 ft. 
6 in. 

2 ft. 

6 in. 
2 ft. 

2 ft. 
6 in. 

3 ft. 

Charcoal and ash 

1 small piece of iron at a depth 
of 1 ft. 1 in. in east side of pit, 

1 small bone implement 1 ft. 
4 in. deep, 1 unfinished awl at 

2 ft. 3 in., 1 partly disinte- 
grated bone awl lying on the 
floor of the pit, 1 worked 
beaver tusk at 3 ft., 1 stone 
metate, 2 large and 2 small net 
sinkers, 1 muller, potsherds 
and several triangular quartz 
points, animal and bird bones, 
fire burned stones. Storage- 
Fire. This pit was originally 
used for storage and later filled 
to a depth of 3 ft. 6 in. and 
then used as a firepit. It had 
a 4 in. bed of charcoal and ash, 

3 ft. from the surface, on the 
top of which was a layer of 
fish bones. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

Black filled with 
charcoal and 

Bottom lined with large stones, 
several covered with ash and 
charcoal. Fire. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

Black sandy loam 
mixed with 

3 potsherds, 1 bear tooth, deer 
antler, 1 piece of vertebrae, 1 
piece of femur, 1 net sinker, 1 
pitted stone. Storage. 


2 ft. 

Black mixed with 
yellow sandy 
loam, no char- 

1 fragment of deer bone. Post- 


2 ft. 

4 fire burned stones, 1 small 
lump of blue pottery clay, 
mussel shells lying in the 
southwest side 1 ft. 6 in. deep. 
The fire burned stones were 
lying 1 ft. 6 in. from the top 
of pit. Storage and Fire. 


3 ft. 10 in. 

Sandy loam, char- 
coal with ash. 

6 bone awls, 1 discoidal shell 
bead, 1 split beaver tusk; 
beaver, raccoon, muskrat, deer, 
elk, bear, fish and wild turkey 
bones. Pottery scattered 
throughout. One small stone 
pestle, showing use on one end, 
3 triangular quartz arrow- 
points and fire burned stones. 
1 large section of deer antler 
with worked point, 1 large 
mortar. Storage. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Pit No. 

Contents and Use 


3 ft. 5 in. 

3 ft. 

2 in. 

2 ft. 

2 ft. 

6 in. 

Dark earth, char- 
coal and ash. 

Small clam shells, deer, elk, 
beaver, bear, small mammal 
bones, 1 fishhook blank, 2 bone 
punches, 4 antler points, pot- 
sherds, 1 bone awl point, 1 deer 
toe bone (worked), 1 elk 
tooth, 2 beaver incisors 
(worked), 1 piece, of deer ant- 
ler (worked). Storage. 


2 ft. 10 in. 

Dark earth mixed 
with charcoal. 

N'one. Fire. 


2 ft. 

1 piece of pottery. Posthole. 


1 ft. 4 in. 

Dark, very little 

9 potsherds (red), deer bones. 


1 ft. 9 in. 

4 ft. 

2 ft. 
4 in. 

A typical house fire pit with 
large stones scattered in the 
disturbed area. White ash layer 
approximately 14 in. thick. 
Lying in center of pit was a 
bed of charred sticks ranging 
in thickness from Va in. to Va 
in., charred corncobs and corn 
husk. The husk was part of a 
mat. On the top of the mat- 
ting was a very small piece of 
woven, grass like fiber. Be- 
neath the mat the ash layer 
extended to the floor of the 
pit. Deer, raccoon and wild 
goose bones. 1 pitted hammer- 
stone, pottery fragments^ 1 
bone awl. Storage and Fire. 


1 ft. 3 in. 

Dark mixed with 
charcoal and 
mussel shells. 

1 beaver tooth, 1 bone awl, 1 
piece of pottery, 1 pottery disc, 
large quantity of mussel shells, 
deer bones. Storage. 


2 ft. 8 in. 

3 ft. 

Dark with ash 
and charcoal. 

1 turkey leg bone, worked on 
one end, 1 bone awl. Fire. 


2 ft. 5 in. 

2 ft. 

2 ft. 
9 in. 

Dark, no charcoal 

None. Posthole. 


3 ft. 6 in. 

Dark earth and 

1 small ball of blue pottery clay, 
1 bone awl (double pointed), 
upper jaw of beaver, 2 pieces 
of pipe stem, 1 section of elk 
jaw, 1 pottery vessel, 1 rac- 
coon bone, 1 long bone awl, 2 
fragments of awl. Potsherds 
scattered throughout (red 
ware). On the bottom on the 
east side a hUman patella, 1 
worked goose bone, worked 
duck bones. Fire and Storage. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Pit No. Depth 


Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 


1 ft. 10 in. 

3 ft. 

Dark with light 
ash deposit. 

None. Posthole. 


2 ft. 4 in. 

2 ft. 
1 in. 

Ash and clay. 

1 iron axe, 16 in. from surface, 1 
bone punch, 1 piece split bone, 
1 raccoon bone, 1 split beaver 
tusk, 3 small potsherds, white 
quartz chips. Storage and 


2 ft. 4 in. 

2 ft. 

1 in. 

2 ft. 

3 in. 

2 ft. 

8 ft. 

9 in 


3 in. 

2 ft. 
8 in. 

2 ft. 
8 in. 

Ash and clay. 

1 iron axe, 1 bone punch, 1 bear 
tusk, raccoon bones, sherds and 
quartz chips. Storage. 


3 ft. 4 in. 

A'sh and clay. 

1 ft. 5 in. from surface in ash 
deposit 25 white quartz chips 
in one pile. 3 in. below this 
a well used hammerstone. On 
south side of pit next to wall 
flat sharpen,ed split bone, prob- 
ably a pottery marker. 3 ft. 4 
in. from surface on bottom 
pointed butt celt, edge frac- 
tured on one side. Beaver 
tooth, piece of clay pipe stem, 
2 wolf teeth, potsherds in ash, 
fragments of deer and bear 
bones scattered throughout 
pit, clam shells. Storage. 


4 ft. 6 in. 

Mixed ash and 

Potsherds (scattered), 1 muller 
and hammerstone near center, 
1 hammerstone, 6 triangular 
quartz arrowpoints at various 
depths, 1 large jasper triangu- 
lar arrowpoint, 2 flint triangu- 
lar arrowpoints, 2 bird bone 
aw's, 1 split bone awl, 2 small 
discoidal .shell beads, clam 
shells, animal bone. Storage. 


2 ft. 

Mixed charcoal 
and ash. 

None. Posthole. 


2 ft. 4 in. 

Charcoal ash. 

1 Potsherd. Fire. 


1 ft. 10 in. 

Layer of fresh water, clam shells 
6 in. below the surface. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Pit No. 



Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 


2 ft. 6 in. 

3 ft. 

2 in. 

4 ft. 

Charcoal and ash. 

Scattered through the ash and 
near the surface were several 
stones approximately 6 in. in 
diameter. Animal bones were 
scattered through the mass 
from the surface soil to the 
bottom. 5 bone awls, 1 piece 
of antler, shaped for a handle, 
gouged out in the center, evi- 
dently used for hafting. Tibia 
of a deer showing use as a 
scraper. 1 split bone, sherds 
varying in types of decoration. 
On the north side penetrating 
the wall 4 in. is the south wall 
of Burial No. 3. The pit had 
been made sometime after the 
burial had taken place. Stor- 


3 ft. 

Dark earth with 
ash and char- 

1 notched arrowpoint (argelite), 
1 bone punch, sherds. Storage 
and Fire. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 

3 ft. 

4 ft. 

None. Fire. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

None. Pesthole. 


1ft. 4 in 

Dark earth, char- 
coal, no ash. 

Clam shells in the surface soil 
on west side to within 8 in. of 
bottom, 1 small piece of pot- 


1 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 

Dark earth and 

Potsherds, 1 deer bone fragment. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

6 ft. 

3 ft. 
9 in. 


Dark earth. 

I pottery vessel (large). Stor- 


3 ft. 9 in. 

Charcoal, dark 
earth and ash. 

Layer of yellow clay SVz in. 
thick and running from a 
depth of 1 ft. 6 in. in the west 
to 2 ft. 4 in. on the east side. 
Potsherds, bear, raccoon, elk, 
fish and bird bones, 1 bone 
punch, 3 in. long, 3 lumps of 
blue pottery clay with broken 
clam shells mixed into it, 1 
bone awl, 1 elk scapula, 2 deer 
antlers, 1 stone digging imple- 
ment. Storage and Fire. 


1 ft. 8 in. 

Dark earth and 

4 potsherds, animal bone, 1 
triangular arrowpoint. Storage 
and Fire. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Pit No. 


Size Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 


1 ft. 10 in. 

4 in. 

Dark earth. 

11 in. from the surface a ball of 
blue pottery clay, bone and 
clam shells. Storage. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 
9 in. 

3 ft. 

4 in. 

3 ft. 
9 in 

2 ft. 

4 in. 
2 ft. 
6 in. 

2 ft. 
8 in. 

3 ft. 

4 in. 

Charcoal, dark 
earth and wood 

Animal bone. Posthole. 


3 ft. 7 in. 

Ash and clay. 

Iroquoian type potsherd, 14 in. 
from surface. Heavy layer of 
wood ash extended withi-n 8 
in. of bottom. Pit perfectly 
flat on bottom contained mixed 
clay, ash and charcoal. Bone 
punch, small flat pebble with 
perforation in center, femur of 
rodent, 1 bone awl, stone me- 
tate, pottery clay. Storage. 


3 ft. 3 in. 

Charcoal, dark 
earth and ash. 

Sherds, 1 large stone metate, 1 
small celt, bones of deer, bear, 
beaver and fish, 1 crude bone 
awl, clam shells, 1 metal knife 
blade, 2 pieces of brass wire, 
i small triangular piece of 
brass. Storage — Historic. 


Dark earth and 

None. Posthole. 


2 ft. 7 in. 

Ash and charcoal. 

Layer of fire cracked stones just 
below surface soil, animal 
bone, 2 sherds, 1 small pestle, 
1 hammerstone. Fire. 


2 ft. 3 in. 

Ash and clay. 

Pit on slope near lower end of 
knoll. 3 in. layer small mussel 
shells covered entire area. Just 
below .surface soil large fire 
cracked stone layer extended 
through mass of ash and clay 
to bottom of pit. Animal bone 
charred, potsherds, 1 elk in- 
cisor, worked, evidently for 
hafting, 1 bear tooth, 1 chipped 
bone, incomplete implement, 1 
triangular bone arrowpoint, 
all on 19 in. level. Storage 
and Fire. 


2 ft. 5 in. 

3 ft. 
3 in. 

Ash and clay. 

Animal bone, 10 in. layer of ash, 
8 in. from bottom of pit, 1 ft. 
5 in. from surface perfect bone 
fishhook on west side 10 in. 
from wall, 1 small bone awl, 
potsherds. Fire and Storage. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Pit No. 


Size Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 






2 ft. to 

5 ft. 4 in. 

4 ft. 4 in. 

3 ft. 10 in. 

2 ft. 

3 ft. Clay, very little 
1 in. ash. 

3 ft. 

4 in. 

3 ft. 
9 in. 

4 ft. 
6 in 

2 ft. 

Ash, gravel and 

Sand, ash and 

Clay and ash. 

2 brass jinglers, 1 triangular 
arrowpoint, fish, deer and elk 
bones, potsherds (light color). 

Heavy deposit of wood ash to 
bottom, bear bones 3 ft. from 
surface and scattered to bot- 
tom of pit with those of elk, 
wild duck, goose, turkey, fish, 
crane, raccoon, and other un- 
identified animals. Potsherds, 
raccoon bone awl, 4 split bone 
awls, 1 bone pottery marker, 
4 antler punches, 1 antler im- 
plement, unfinished. On bot- 
tom, 1 beaver tusk, 1 worked 
bear tusk, 1 round gaming 
stone, 2 bone awls, 3 ft. 3 in. 
from surface a piece of iron 7 
in. long, ^2 in. diameter, 2 ft. 
from surface 1 long flattened 
sectional antler perforated on 
end. Storage — Bell type. 

Sherds, 1 earthenware pipe stem. 

Bones of ducks, geese and sma^l 
unidentified animals. pot- 
sherds, clam shells, fish bone<;, 
east side of pit composed al- 
most entirely of clay and 
gravel. Small hearth encoun- 
tered just below surface soil. 
2 bone punches or flakers, 2 
small bone awls, 1 pottery 
marker Cbone), 1 stone pot 
cover, % large clay pipe bowl, 
1 stone pestle. Storage — Bell 

Bones of deer, elk, bear, raccoon 
and fish. Clam shells just be- 
low surface soil, potsherds 
from surface soil to bottom of 
pit, bone awl, quartz chips, 
potsherds and about one-half 
of a large pot. Storage. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Pit No. 



Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 


3 ft. 11 in. 

4 ft. 
2 in. 

Black earth, ashes 
and yellow clay. 

Bones of elk, deer, bear, raccoon, 
goose, turkey, duck. Scales of 
large fish, clam shells, pot- 
sherds (one large pot), 1 mul- 
ler and hammerstone below 
surface soil, 1 unfinished celt, 
1 pottery graver, 1 split antler 
10 in. long partially decorated 
on end, notched at butt, 2 rac- 
coon bones, 1 worked, 2 bone 
punches, 2 split beaver tusks, 
1 bone pottery marker, 3 split 
bone awls, 1 bone pottery 
marker, 1 small pot, 10 in. 
from bottom in ash bed, 1 
small unbaked flat pottery 
dish. Several layers of pot- 
sherds on bottom of pit. Stor- 
age — Bell type. 


1 ft. 9 in. 

3 ft. 

2 in. 

Charcoal, ash. 

Potsherds, 1 antler perforated, 1 
bone bead, 1 unfinished trian- 
gular quartz point, 1 bone im- 
plement, use unknown, burned 
stone, animal bone. Storage 


4 ft. 

4 ft. 
2 in. 

2 ft. 
10 in 

Flint core, 1 pot lying on clay 
8 in. from bottom, N. W. cor- 
ner, small iron celt 14 in. from 
surface. Storage Bell. 


2 ft. 7 in. 

6 in. layer very dark and com- 
pact ash and soil on bottom. 
Fire stones, 1 bone awl, 1 tri- 
angular arrowpoint. Fire. 


1 ft. 7 in. 
4 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 
4 in. 

3 ft. 
6 in. 

3 ft. 

Charcoal, ash, 
black dirt. 

2 small potsherds just below sur- 
face soil. Balance of pit solid 
white ash on burned clay. 


Ash and clay. 

Animal bones, potsherds, fire 
stone, 2 triangular arrowpoints, 
blue pottery clay. Storage — 


1 ft. 2 in. 

Ash, burned 
stone, clay. 

1 bone punch, 10 in. below sur- 
face, animal bones and clam 
shells, 4 small potsherds in 
bottom of pit. Fire. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Pit No. 



Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 


3 ft. 4 in. 

4 ft. 
11 ir 

Clay and clam 

From surface to 10 in. from bot- 
tom clay containing dark soil, 
burned bone, small potsherds 
and charcoal. On bottom a 
solid mass of small clam shells 
containing bear bones. 2 un- 
finished bone implements. 
Storage and Fire. 


4 ft. 1 in. 

3 ft. 

3 ft. 
8 in. 

4 ft. 

Dark earth, char- 
coal and ash. 

Pottery fragments, several 
sherds of a large pot, 1 bone 
awl, 5 in. long, 1 bone awl, 2\^ 
in. long, 1 bone awl, 1% in. 
long, 1 Isone awl, 3Vi in. long, 
partly charred on the end, 1 
split bone awl, 4% in. long, 
1 split bone awl, 2% in. long, 
1 triangular arrowpoint, bones 
of deer, elk, bear, fish and tur- 
key. Storage. 


3 ft. 11 in. 

Charcoal, ash and 
stained earth. 

Fragments of one large pot, 1 
bone awl, 3% in. long, 2 bear 
tusks, 1 triangular arrowpoint, 
fire burned stones, bones of 
deer, bear and raccoon, 1 frag- 
ment of beaver tooth worked. 
Storage and Fire. 


4 ft. 3 in. 

Ash and clay. 

Animal bones, clam shells, pot- 
sherds. Fire. 


3 ft. 10 in. 

3 ft. 

2 ft. 
6 in. 


3 in. 

Dark earth. 

Ash from the bottom of the sur- 
face soil to the floor of pit. 
Sherds from 4 pots, 1 deer ant- 
ler, 1 goose bone, 1 deer 
scapula, 1 charred hickory nut, 
1 (pot cover), fire burned 
stones. Storage, Fire and Bell. 


2 ft. 5 in. 

Dark earth with 
charcoal and 

Animal bone, clam shells. 


2 ft. 6 in. 

Charcoal and ash. 

Potsherds, 3 triangular arrow- 
points, bones of deer, elk bear 
and fish, mussel shells. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


Pit No. Depth 

Size Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 


2 ft. 10 in. 

3 ft. 

Dark, mixed with 
wood ash. 

Potsherds, bones of deer, bear, 
fish and fowl, clam shells. At 
a depth of 18 in. on south side 
embedded in the wall an ant- 
ler comb with a human efiigy 
with arms folded and hands 
on breast. On the 18 in. level 
an incomplete bone effigy of a 
bird, 2 large net sinkers of 
mica shist, 1 bone punch. 
Storage and Fire. 


3 ft. 6 in. 

4 ft. 

Black mixed with 
wood ash. 

Clam shell below surface soil, 
layer of clay and ash 15 in. 
containing deer bones, layer of 
ash 10 in. in depth containing 
potsherds. Antler perforator, 
phalangel bone, bone punch, 
beaver tooth, fish bone awl, 
fire stone, 1 small bone awl. 
Storage and Fire. 


4 ft. 4 in. 

4 ft. 

4 ft. 

Clay and ash. 

Stone pestle on bottom, with 
unfinished piece of flattened 
antler. Fire. 


4 ft. 7 in. 

Dark with char- 
coal and ash. 

Potsherds (one vessel), 1 bowl 
of a trumpet type pipe, 1 un- 
finished fish hook, 2 bone awls. 
The upper portion of a deer 
skull. 3 fragmentary pieces of 
deer antler, fire burned stones. 
Storage — Fire. 


2 ft. 10 in. 

3 ft. 
10 in 

Charcoal and ash 
mixed in the 
dark soil. 

Potsherds scattered, bones of 
deer, elk, bear, raccoon, squir- 
rel, turtle and fish. 1 pottery 
disc, 2 bone awls, 1 straight 
shanked arrowpoint of black 
flint, 1 notched arrowpoint, 2 
triangular quartz arrowpoints, 
2 broken points of bone 
punches. Storage. 


1 ft. 2 in. 

2 ft. 
9 in. 

7 in. 

Clam shells and 

Clam shells, potsherds, animal 
bones. Storage. 


1 ft. 10 in. 

Charcoal and ash. 

At a depth of 8 in. there was a 
solid layer of ash approxi- 
mately 6 in. deep. Pottery 
fragments, animal bone. Fire. 



7 ft. 

Dark earth. 

Small bones of bear and deer, 
scattered, 1 antler punch. Fire. 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Pit No. 



Disturbed Area 

Contents and Use 


4 ft. 1 in. 

3 ft. 
10 ir 

Potsherds, 3 bone awls, 3% in. 
5% in. and 6% in. long. 1 split 
bone awl, 5 in. long. 1 bear 
tusk, worked, bones of deer, 
elk, bear, raccoon and fish. 


3 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 
6 in. 

Charcoal and ash. 

At a depth of 2 ft. 8 in. was a 
small piece of brass, 2 ham- 
merstones, 1 deer femur 
worked at both ends, split 
lengthwise and chipped along 
the sides. 1 bear tooth 
(drilled), 1 bone awl, 4% in. 
long, 1 bone fish hook blank, 1 
beaver tooth, 1 turtle shell, 
sherds, large rocks on floor. 
Fire and Storage. 


2 ft. 6 in. 

3 ft 

Dark mixed with 
yellow clay. 

1 stone celt, 6% in. long and 
2% in. at the blade, potsherds, 
large stones, animal bones. 


4 ft. 9 in. 

4 ft. 

Clay and ash. 

Animal bone, clam shell, 1 split 
bone awl, 1 antler perforator, 
potsherds, artifacts in ash layer 
1 ft. 4 in. from bottom. Fire 
and Storage. 


4 ft. 2 in. 

3 ft. 
3 in. 

Dark earth, char- 
coal and ash. 

Potsherds, 1 shell bead discoidal, 
1 deer phalange (drilled). 


3 ft. 4 in. 

3 ft. 
2 in. 

? fragments of pottery, animal 
bone, 12 fire burned stones 8 
in. from the bottom. Fire. 

Bone and Antler Objects 

The pre-contact Susquehannock were superior workers in 
bone. Their preference for its use in a wide variety of imple- 
ments is attested by the rich finds in the deep pits on the 
Schultz Site. 

Awls — Of all the artifacts of bone recovered, awls and 
awl-like implements were the most numerous. They were 
fashioned from bones of various animals, birds, and fish. In 
size they varied from ii/^ in. to 8 14 •"• i" length. They can 
be grossly classified as follows: 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


'56 Splinter types 



— Length 11/2 in. to 5!/^ 
in., pi. 102. 
38 Bird radii, fish— Length 21/2 in. to 5 
bones in., pi- 103. 

12 Natural joints — Length 3 in. to 71/2 
(modified) in., pi. 104. 

13 Hollow bird bones — Length 2 in. to 61/0 
(delicate) in., pi- 105. 

12 Spatulates —Length 21/2 in. to 6 

in., pi. 106. 

3 Double points 

5 Raccoon bones 

— Length 2 in. to 4 in., 

pi. 107, figs. A, B, 

— Length 2 in. to 3y2 

in., pi. 107, figs. D. 

E, F. 

14 Punches (blunt, — Length 4 in. to 9 in., 
smoothly finished) pi- 108, figs. A, C, 

D, E. 
4 Punches (blunt, — Length 6 in. to 81/2 
, natural joint) in., pi. 108, figs. B, 

Awl-like 1 F. 

Implements ^ Chisels — Length 3 1/2 in. to 7 1/2 

in., pi. 109, fig. A. 
I — 2 = 116 Broken and 
intermediate types. 

Although generally termed awls by archaeologists, these use- 
ful implements were employed for many purposes. Their points 
varied considerably, some were sharp, others blunt and many 
chisel and gouge shaped. The limb bones of small mammals 
and the wing bones of birds, some retaining the natural articular 
end were favored. The bird radii and fishbones required very 
little sharpening and were probably employed also as pins. 
The natural joints of small animals and birds were also cut 
off and used for awl handles. One with an iron awl in place 
was recovered (pi. no). 

The examples illustrated represent only a very small selec- 
tion of outstanding types. Several variations were noted which 
expressed individual workmanship and taste. 

172 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATE 102 



PLATE 103 


Safe Harbor Report No. 2 



PLATE 104 



PLATE 107 


Figures A, B, and C, represent double pointed Implements. Figures D, C, and F, are 
made from raccoon bones 

174 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATES 105 AND 106 


Safe Harbor Report No. 2 



PLATE 108 



Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATE 109 


Safe Harbor Report No. 2 



PLATE 111 


Gravers — Three unusually interesting implements were 
found in Pits 2 1 and 46 (pi. 1 1 1 ) . They were spatulate shaped 
bones, beveled at the distal end, and probably used to scrape 
or engrave pottery. Fig. A had a rounded blade and fitted 
perfectly into many of the grooves on the pottery vessels. 

Tubes and Beads — Tubes of hollow bone were found in 
varying sizes, and were neatly cut on both ends (pi. 112, 
figs. A, B, C). In length they varied from 2i/^ in. to 5 In., 
and In diameter from 1/8 In. to 3/4 in. The bones were usually 
the femur, ulna or radius of birds or small animals. Their 
use is problematical although some of them may have been 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATES (DOWN) 110, 113, 112 


Safe Harbor Report No. 2 179 

employed as whistles or calls, and others Intended for bead 
making. Among various groups of living Indians similar tubes 
are still employed by medicine men to suck poison from cuts, 
and under certain conditions women have to use them for 

Beads — Bone beads In varying sizes and lengths were 
common (pi. 113). The process of making them was simple. 
It consisted of merely scoring and severing any hollow bone 
the desired length, and rubbing the ends smooth. They were 
used in girdles worn around the waist and In necklaces or waist 

Harpoons — It has always been a question to what extent 
the prehistoric Iroquois used the harpoon. Certain objects have 
been designated by archaeologists as harpoons, but there has 
always been some element of doubt about their authenticity. 
The bone and antler harpoon points recovered from the pits 
on the Schultz Site prove conclusively that these people had 
advanced knowledge of the use of barbed harpoons )pl. 114, 
figs. C, D). In type they are similar to those used by sub- 
Arctic Indians and the Eskimo and were probably used on 
the end of a pole for taking fish. 

Hollowed Phalangeal Bones — These objects have been 
illustrated and described from the Washington Borough village 
site. They were made from the toe bones of deer and used as 
ornaments as well as In games. 

Miscellaneous Objects of Bone — Innumerable frag- 
ments of bone combs were recorded. One fragment was carved 
to represent a bear and apparently two of these figures were 
rampant on the back of the comb (pi. 115, fig. B). 

An unusually fine bird efligy comb with its delicate head 
missing had wings etched on the sides (pi. 115, fig. C). 

Two unusually Interesting objects of bone are represented 
in (pi. 115, fig. A) an efl^gy of a female with her left hand 
on her right breast, and right hand on abdomen. The head 
is missing above a large drill hole in the neck from which this 
charm was probably suspended. 

Fig. D, pi. 115, represents a delicate, highly polished 
piece of rabbit bone notched on four sides and perforated 
at one end for suspension. The notching may have been purely 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATES (DOWN) 114, 115 


Fiflure A, (Plate 114), represents a notched antler knife handle. B, a broken harpoon 

head; C, and D. finished antler harpoon heads 
Figure A, (Plate 115) represents a human figure made of bone. B is probably a bear 
and C, is part of a comb the upper half representing the body of a bird. Figure D, is 
a notched rabbit bone, possibly a talley 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


decorative or it is possible that it was a tally for recording 
events or for keeping count of objects its owner possessed. 

FiSH-HooKS — Fish-hooks and blanks were plentiful, usually 
in fragmentary condition. They were more delicate than those 
from Washington Borough. A small knob had been left on 
the proximal end of most of them to facilitate the attach- 
ment of a line (pi. ii6). 


PLATE 116 



182 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Antler Objects — Worked pieces of antler were abundant 
and hundreds of objects made of this material were recovered. 
The most interesting were seventy-four polished, blunt pointed 
plugs or pins. There were three forms and they ranged in 
size from 2 in. to 5 in. in length. The most common type, 
of which there were thirty-five specimens, was plain elongated 
and cylindrical-shaped with slightly beveled and rounded ends 
(pi. 117). This was followed by twenty-one of a round. 



tapering, elongated, cone type (pi. ii8, group B), and six- 
teen with a definitely worked head on one end (group C). 

Mr. M. R. Harrington recovered similar objects on 
Cherokee sites on the Upper Tennessee River and describes 
them as follows : 

"No implements with which weaving was done appeared 
during our excavations, or at least, if found, were not recog- 
nized as such, but the highly polished bone 'pin' shown in PI. 
LXXVIII, A, and some of the implements seen in PI. LXXV. 
classed as awls and bodkins, may have had some such use." 


The fact that the Susquehannock did a certain amount of 
weaving has been verified, and it is possible that these objects 
were used for that purpose. However, the writer is inclined 
to believe they were employed as counters in some unknown 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


game of the Indians. This theory is substantiated by the 
red paint which still remains on the one represented at the 
extreme right of Group C, (pi. ii8), and also the fact that 
similar objects are still in use by various tribes in the Canadian 
northwest as counters, each type representing a certain number. 

Arrowpoints — The fact that the Susquehannock used antler 
arrowpoints was well established on the Washington Borough 


PLATE 118 

These Implements may have been used for weaving or as counters In games 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATES (DOWN) 119. 120. 121 


Objects of antler which may have been used as wrist guards 

Animal teeth used for a variety of purposes. Figure A, represents bear teeth; 

B, beaver teeth; C, dog or wolf teeth; D, elk teeth 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 185 

village site. It was substantiated on this site where eight com- 
plete hollowed points were found (pi. 119). Fig. A was 
the only tanged point recovered. B, C and D were typical 
killing points and E and F were "bunts," or stunning arrows. 
Many points in the process of construction were also recorded 
together with hundreds of partially worked pieces of antler. 

Guards — Most Indian tribes had some method of protect- 
ing their wrists from their bow-strings. Figs. A and B in (pi. 
120) suggest the possible use of antler tablets for this pur- 
pose by the Susquehannock. 

Pipes — A verification of the use of antler in making smok- 
ing pipes was recorded as one unusually fine blank and a frag- 
mentary piece of a stem were found. 

The distal end of a much used antler skin scraper is rep- 
resented in (pi. 120, fig. C). We still find this type in use 
among most primitive Indian groups and it serves a variety of 
purposes besides that of scraping skin. 

Animal Teeth — The teeth of various animals were em- 
ployed for utilitarian purposes as well as for decoration. Seven- 
teen beaver incisors were found and probably used with handles 
as small chisels. Eighteen canine teeth of bears were recorded. 
One was perforated for suspension and another worked flat 
on the proximal end (fig. A, pi. 121). Perforated elk 
teeth, used in necklaces, were common, as well as the canine 
teeth of dogs and other undetermined animals (figs. B, C, D). 

Shell — A small fragment of a smoothly finished turtle shell 
bowl was recovered from Pit 12 in Plot 2, and shows excellent 
workmanship in this material. 

Ornaments, Beads — Contrary to most Iroquois archaeo- 
logical sites, very few beads made of (Olivella mutica) were 
found. Most of the shell beads were beautifully worked and 
ranged from small disc-beads less than ys in. in diameter to 
I/O in. Discoidal types ranged from y^ in. to i/^ in. in diameter 
and the tubular beads from ^ in. to i in. in length. All the 
beads were of white shell and none of the so-called "wampum" 
type were found, (see pi. 33). 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


The pottery recovered from the Schultz Site was mostly 
fragmentary and in a wide variety of sizes. Several thousand 
sherds and a few unbroken vessels were recorded. The former 
were kept isolated according to pits and designs, and an attempt 


PLATE 124 

(Haight: 19|/2 in.) 

is now being made at the State Museum to restore them. Many 
vessels will probably result from this work. As it will take 
some time to complete the restoration it is manifestly impos- 
sible to hold this report to obtain photographs and study types 
of completed vessels. A thorough laboratory study has been 
made of all the sherds and the conclusion reached that most 


Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


of the forms from the site were similar to those found at 
Washington Borough. Large effigy vessels with bold grooved 
designs were common. One small bowl had the molded 
figures of two bears' heads on notched opposite projections of 


PLATES (UPPER) 125, (LOWER) 126, 127 


Fragments of the Favorite Types of Vessels Found on this Site 

Figure A (Plate 126), represents a small pottery vessel constructed around a corncob 

Figure B, a small vessel about the size of a thimble. Figure C, a V-shaped object of 

clay with a fingerprint upon it 

Smoking pipes of earthenvi/are similar to Cherokee forms recorded from the 
Tennessee Valley 

the rim. The figures faced the inside of the bowl, and the 
ware was light pink, shell tempered, and unusually heavy aver- 
aging from 14 in- to ■% in. in thickness. 

The favorite type of large vessel, on this site, had a deep 
semi-globular collar, with a notched rim and a horizontal and 

188 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

obtuse alternating groove and punctate design (pi. 124). 
The notched rim was prevalent and four upper rim projections 
were preferred (pi. 125). 

One small, crude vessel had been constructed around a large 
corncob and the marks of the corn can be clearly seen on the 
inside (pi. 126, fig. A). 

A small Y-shaped object of earthenware may have been in- 
tended to represent a human figure. The whorls of its maker's 
finger prints were clearly indicated on the red baked clay (pi. 
126, fig. C). 

Ceramic Rlpository of the Eastern United States 
reporr on sherds froaf sites near safe harbor, pa. 

The group of sherds in the Ceramic Repository are from 
three different locations, the Schultz Refuse Pit, Pit 200-201, 
ST. 2, and Pit 202 S J\ 2. However, since they appear struc- 
turally to be a unit, they will be discussed in that light. 
Although there are a few pieces which stand out from the 
group, this collection is quite homogeneous. There are too 
few sherds present to warrant any general conclusions as to 
the nature of the entire pottery collection found at these sites, 
or to determine the position of the collection with reference to 
related groups. 

The tem.pering material in all but one sherd is finely crushed 
shell. Most of the sherds have about equal amounts of clay 
and shell used in their construction. There are a few pieces 
of grit or sand in the paste, but in general the clay is free from 
such material. Ihe texture is predominantly medium fine. 
The hardness of the exterior surface has been measured by the 
geological scale of hardness (i) and is between 2 and 2.5. 
Only two sherds were a trifle harder than 2.5. There is a 
considerable range of surface color, but the predominating 
shade is a light sandy brown. The interior surface is often 
blackened by smoke and sometimes appears to have a thin 
crust of organic material. The color of the paste is a dark 
grey. 1 he exterior surface is m.ore deeply oxydized than is 
the interior, as is revealed in the cross-section. 

Most of the sherds are rim pieces and the exterior surface 
finish is so obscured by decoration that it is difficult to deter- 
mine the method of treatment. Many of the rim surfaces 
appear to have been smoothed after they had been tooled with 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 189 

a cord-wrapped paddle. In the few body sherds present, this 
treatment was quite plain. The interior surface is uniformly 

The designs are made up of combinations of straight, 
parallel lines. There is not a curved line on any of the sherds. 
The area occupied by the design is exclusively the outer rim. 
Four of the sherds bear human faces which were made from 
a small piece of clay that was added to the vessel after it had 
been shaped. The face is located just below the lip. The lip 
in each case bears a small notch above the face. A diagonal 
line on the left and right side of the face differentiates it from 
the rest of the design. The nose is rather prominent and the 
eyes and mouth area are created by means of horizontal incised 

The typical design is made up of a series of closely spaced, 
narrow and shallow, short, right to left slanting, incised lines 
that are located just below the lip. Immediately below this 
is a series of horizontal, medium wide, and either shallow or 
medium deep, incised lines. The rest of the rim is devoted 
to groups of slanting, horizontal or perpendicular lines 
arranged in many patterns. The lower edge of the rim is 
usually incised or impressed with short, perpendicular, or right 
to left slanting lines. 

One small rim sherd with no lip has medium wide and 
medium deep, widely spaced incised lines. The latter character 
makes this sherd stand out from the rest. Another unusual 
sherd has a series of wide, medium deep, incised lines. In 
each groove at regular intervals, there Is a low, transverse 
ridge. The lines were probably made by an implement with 
a rounded point, with the stroke being made in short jerks. 

The rims are straight and high and bear the designs. The 
rim edges are raised above the faces and in some cases where 
faces are not present on the sherds, the rim area is set off 
from the body by the decoration, and a slight collaring. Only 
on two sherds is a collar well-developed. The shape of the 
lip varies considerably. It may be narrowed and rounded, 
flattened with rounded edges, or merely rounded. Although 
no complete vessels were studied, the body probably has a 
rounded base. The lip of most of the sherds is thinner than 
the rim section, and varies from 3 mm. to 9 mm. with the 
usual width 5 mm. The rim thickness ranges from 5 to 9 mm. 

190 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

with the usual width 6 to 7 mm. Where the shoulder is 
present, it is usually noticeably narrower than the rim and is 
usually about 4 mm. in width. 

Three rim sherds differ from the group in having what has 
been called "hole tempering." In these sherds the shell par- 
ticles on the exterior surfaces have disintegrated. This was 
due perhaps to firing, burial in a particular type of soil, or the 
influence of both factors. The sherds are similar in all other 
characteristics to those already discussed. 

The affinities of this collection of sherds are with the 
Iroquoian area to the north. It can, however, be readily dif- 
ferentiated from that group on the basis of general shape. 
There are a number of vessels figured by Wren which typo- 
logically would be classed with this group. Such vessels are 
No. 2, PI. IV, found in Carbon County in a rock shelter; No. 
I, PI. VIII, found at Sunbury; No. i, PI. X, found on the 
west branch of the Susquehanna in Clearfield County; No. 2, 
PI.. XIII, from the banks of the Susquehanna as Sheshequin, 
in Bradford County; No. 2, PI. XVIII, location not given; and 
No. 2, PI: XX, from Carbon County. W. H. Holmes' (third 
reference -3) figures on PI. CXLIV, a group of sherds from 
Bainbridge, Lancaster County, appear very similar to the group 
in the Ceramic Repository. Skinner in his Notes on Iroquois 
Archaeology, figures two vessels classified as Andaste that are 
very similar to those from near Safe Harbor. Other similar 
pottery groups might be mentioned, but the above cited refer- 
ences seem to have the closest connection with the sherds that 
are the subject of this report. — James B. Griffin. 


Pipes were rare on this site and only two complete earthen- 
ware specimens were found (pi. 127). These were small 
for Susquehannock pipes and had many southern characteristics. 
Fig. B resembles Cherokee forms recorded by M. R. Harring- 
ton from the Tennessee Valley. It had a bulge at the base of 
the bowl and indications of an overhanging lip were on the 
top edge where it had been pounded to empty tobacco. Fig. 
C had four upper projections on the rim of the bowl and con- 
tained the tobacco heel left there by its owner. 

Thirty fragmentary pipes showed a wide range in style and 
workmanship. Large broken pipes with crude stems and 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 



PLATES 128, 129 

"CHUNKEY" (See text) 



Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATES 130. 131 

I 5' ' 


Figures D, and E, (Plate 131), represent the secondary form of celt recorded on this site 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 193 

smaller more delicate terra cotta forms were recorded. No 
stone pipes were found and those made of earthenware were 
tempered with shell and sand. 


The Susquehannocks may have had a game similar to the 
"chunkey" or hoop-and-pole games played by southern 
Iroquois. Thirteen round flat stones, the largest with a 
diameter of 5^^ in. and the smallest of 4 in., showed evidence 
of having been rolled upon their edges. They were thinner 
than the gaming stones described by Harrington from Tennessee 
(19) and discus shaped (pi. 128). 

The "chunkey" game was played by the Cherokee Indians 
with a stone disc and a pole about 10 ft. long with a crook 
at one end. The stone was rolled by hand and the object was 
to slide the pole after the stone in such a way that it would 
catch it in the crook. The pole was marked and counts were 
recorded according to where the disc stopped on these marks. 

Mooney claims the game was played upon a piece of ground 
especially prepared for the purpose and called by the early 
traders a "chunkey yard." (27). 

Fourteen flat disc shaped pieces of earthenware in sizes from 
•>4 in- to 2i/> in. in diameter may have been used as game 
counters (pi, 129). It is well known that the Iroquois had 
dice games which were played with marked fruit pits or stones. 

Stonp: Objects 

Axes — The celt form of stone cutting implement was the 
favorite of the ancient Susquehannocks. Fourteen polished 
celts, in three types, were recorded, the largest was loi/o in. 
long and the smallest 4 in. The popular form of which there 
were six is represented in (pi. 130, figs. A, B, C and D). The 
material used was a variety of hard fine grained stone of a 
greenish blue cast similar to local trap-rock. The second form 
had a rounded proximal end with an elliptical section (pi. 130, 
figs. E, F, G). The third and smallest form was flat with a 
rectangular section (pi. 131, figs. D, E). 

The celt-type of axe was probably hafted by inserting it with- 
in a cone shaped hole on the end of a stout stick. It is a typical 



Iroquoian artifact and all forms found were similar to others 
recorded through their territory. 

MuLLERS — Mullers in a wide variety of sizes were exca- 
vated together with mortars showing long use in grinding (pi. 


Crude pestles were common and all were small indicating 
that the wooden mortar and pestle were in use at the period 
(pi. 133). Dozens of round pitted hammerstones in manv 
sizes were found (pi. 133). 


PLATE 132 


ForiKKV Smooiiif.ks — Pottery smoothers made of coarse 
stone and others of finer grain were recorded (pi. 134. figs. 
A and E). One so-called "sinew stone with serrated edges 
(fig. D) and a fragment of a round slate disc upon which 
small squares had been faintly etched on one side and a 
V-shaped figure on the other were found in the pits (fig. C). 

Several stone objects showed use possibly as gravers ( pi. 
131). The edges of A and B were polished and fitted into 
the grooves of some of the large pottery vessels. C was worked 
on the distal end and could have been employed to make 
punctate designs upon earthenware. 

Fleven so-called "pot covers" of a type already discussed 

Safk Harbor Report Xo. 2 


were recuNcred. 1 hey ranged in size troni 2 in. to 6 in. in 
diameter and had the customary niches on the sides (pi. 135). 

\i:r SiN'KKKS — \et sinkers or "holas stones" in sizes from 
2 in. to 4 in. in length were common (pi. 136). They were 
similar to those found on the Frey Site. Many crudely chipped 


PLATES (DOWN) 133. 134 


Figures A. and E. are stcne objects probably used as pottery smoothers. D, is a so- 
called sinew-stone. Figure C, is made of slate with etching on cne side 


Pennsylvania Historical Commission 


PLATES (DOWN) 135. 136 



Safe Harbor Report No. 2 


stone objects like the five represented in pi. 137 were probably 
implement blanks or net sinkers. 

Paint — Paint recovered on this site was the same as from 
Washington Borough. This was often found associated with 
large lumps of prepared pottery clay. 

Steatite — The only objects made of this material were 
with Burial No. 2 and the two small dishes are perhaps the 
most interesting (pi. 138, figs. A, B). Figure C may have 


PLATE 137 




A, and B, represent small dishes. C, and D, were probably pendants. 



been intended for an effigy figure of a bird, and D and E were 
conical shaped pendants. 

Sc RAPEKS — The scrapers made of white quartz were of two 
types and in a variety of sizes (pi. 139). The common form 
was triangular shaped and rounded at the distal end. They 


PLATE 139 


were probably attached to handles and used for cleaning hides. 
The round type is unusual and may ha\e been experimental or 
used for some unknown purpose. 

Akkow'POIX'I'S — I, ike their linguistic relati\es to the north 
and south the Susquehannocks faxored the triangular stone 
arrow-point. The stemmed type was also used and sexeral 

Safe Hakbor Report No. 2 


made of white quartz were recorded in situ (pi. 140). An 
unusually heavy triangular form was noted but the popular 
arrowpoint was carefully chipped and delicate. 

A variety of friable stone such as white quartz, jasper, 
basanite, chert, argillite and rhyolite was used for arrowheads 
with white quartz predominating (pi. 141). 

7 KADE Objects: — Twenty-five objects indicating contact 
with white men were recorded. These consisted of one trade 


PLATE 140 



PLATE 141 



axe. twenty fragments of iron, a knife blade, a brass jingler, 
a brass pendant and a tubular bead. 

Food — A quantity of charred zia maize, beans and many 
nut shells were found in the deep pits. Meat and fish food 
was represented in a large collection of animal and fish bones. 
These bones have been identified by Dr. Edwin H. Colbert, 
Assistant Curator of Verte-brate Paleontologv of the American 
Nfuseum of Natural History as follows: 

200 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

Odocoileus virginianus (whitetailed deer) — Cranium 
Cervus canadensis (wapiti) — Cranium of male 

Cranium of female 

mandibular rami 



Proximal end of right tibia 

Left scapula 

Distal end right femur 
Euarctos amerlcanus (black bear) — Right mandibular rami 

Proximal end of humerus 
Procyon Lotor (raccoon) — teeth 
Canis famlliarls (domestic dog) — jaw- 
Castor canadensis (beaver) — teeth 

Summary and Conclusions 

THE SCHULTZ SITE was partially contemporaneous with 
the Washington Borough village site, much larger and in 
parts older. 

Summarizing the results of the explorations, we find the arti- 
facts and field notes indicate a long prehistoric Susquehannock 
occupation followed by a brief contact with white men. 

Physical remains recovered in the village layer were intru- 
sive and so widely scattered and broken by cultivation that 
metrical study was not practical. All the bones were delicate 
and some of them may antedate the village. 

A numerical analysis of artifacts showed an equal plurality 
of pottery, stone and bone objects over those of European 
manufacture. The prcuence of worked steatite with Burial No. 
2, and no place else on the site, emphasizes the burial intrusion. 

Artifacts from the pits, lodge floors and general refuse 
showed no distinctive type or technique outside of that already 
described. It was not possible to establish cultural elevation 
strata and the objects recovered were from all levels. 

The use of "bell-shaped" pits is not new in eastern archae- 
ology but it was emphasized on this site. 

Susquehannock material culture at the period of occupation 
was clay, bone and stone. 

The location plan of the Schultz Site revealed several con- 
necting areas in which no pits or post-holes were observed. 
( Chart 7 ) . This may indicate a town square or central plaza 
in which public ceremonies were performed. The fact that a 
fort or pallisaded village once stood on the spot was fairly well 
established by the excavations and is partially verified by known 
historical records. 

When Lord Baltimore first ran the northern boundary of 
Maryland along what he believed was the 40th parallel, he 
marked the line from the mouth of the Octoraro Creek below 
Conowingo eastward to the Delaware. Later he established 
another line well north of this point on the west side of the 
river above Columbia. This line appears on Herrman's map 
published in 1672. The legend describes the site as "The 
Present Susquehannock Indian Fort" and It was on what they 
thought at the time was the 40th parallel crossing the Dela- 
ware River above Philadelphia. In the controversy that fol- 


202 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

lowed between the Penns and Baltimore depositions were taken 
of Indian traders and other white men affirming that no forts 
were known above the Octoraro, and the ancient fort of the 
Susquehannock was located at this point. It still remains for 
archaeologists to verify the location and approximate age of 
this fort. 

Undoubtedly the Susquehannocks had several forts along the 
river. The one on the Schultz site was prehistoric just merg- 
ing into the historic period and was probably the one upon 
which the Marylanders should have based their claim in the 
boundary dispute as it was very close to the real 40th parallel. 

In a letter to General John Clark from Mr. Galbraith, dated 
York, Pennsylvania, 1886, we find the following chapter: 

"Six miles north of Conestoga, was still another very ancient 
stockaded fort which stood upon what is now John W. 
Witmers land, about midway between Witmers Mill and 
Strickler's Run, at the foot of Turkey Hill. This was large 
enough to not only protect the six hundred warriors but the 
whole population also, bastions were subsequently erected at 
each of the four corners where small cannon were placed to 
protect and rake the sides. It is probable that the fort at first 
was a plain parallelogram, and that the bastions were added 
after implements of civilized warfare were introduced by the 
Dutch, Swedes and the Marylanders. 

"We have no indications, or records of there ever having 
been a stronghold one mile north of Wrightsville on the west 
side of the river, or do we think such to be the case, for the 
reason of our having, during the summers of 1884 and 1885, 
carefully examined the grounds in question and obtained no 
evidences of its having ever been occupied any length of time 
by the aborigines, in fact our find was less here than at any 
point above or below." 

Del Isle placed the fort in 17 18 under the name of "Canoge, 
P'ort des Indians Andastes ou Susquehannocks," on the York 
side of the river between Conewago and Codorus Creeks. 
Archaeological evidence indicates an historic fort directly across 
the river from Washington Borough on the property of Mr. 
Oscar Lephart. This may have been the true position of the 
Herman fort. The objects recorded from this site are late 
historic, contemporaneous with the Strickler Site, with the ex- 
ception that the former site contained Jesuit rings and other 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 203 

objects showing contact with the "Black Fathers" and the latter 
did not. 

In General Clark's notes, published by the Society for Penn- 
sylvania Archaeology, we find the following notation: 

"Connadago. Alsops Maryland, 1665. 

"This name is assigned to an Indian village site on the east 
bank of the Susquehanna about four miles below Columbia and 
fifteen miles below the supposed site of Canoage as indicated on 
the Herrman map. It is known locally as Indian town and 
assigned erroneously to the period of 1 680-1 700 when the 
Conestogas resided in that locality. The character of the relics 
render it barely possible that it was the site of the Susque- 
hannas village in 1660- 1663 when aided by the Maryland 
people with soldiers and cannon. As Herrman in 1670 located 
the fort on the opposite side and about fifteen miles further 
up, it is possible that this Connadago may have been an earlier 
location. The finding of cannon balls, some of iron and others 
of stone, indicate the use of cannon, even as early as the time 
of Campanius and the Swedes. The boundary line run in 1685, 
of which the diagram is found in the papers of the land office 
at Harrisburg, shows that at that date was found a "Fort 
Demolished' on this site."* 

Further verification of the location of a fort on the Schultz 
Site is found on page 128 of the same publication. 

"In the Land Office at Harrisburg in Book No. 14, entitled 
'Old Surveys and Registers of Land Warrants' is a diagram 
of a survey made in 1685 by Benjamin Chambers pursuant to 
an order of Thomas Holmes, President of the Council, of a 
grant made by Shakahoppok, Secaming, Malehore, Tangoras, 
Indian Kings, and five Sacha makers, of lands lying between 
Pennapecka, now called Dublin Creek and Upland Creek and 
backward to Chesapeake Bay and Susquehanna two days 
journey. Archives I, 93. 

"On this map a direct line is indicated from Philadelphia 
to a point on the Susquehanna about three miles above the 
mouth of 'Conestoga' near a spot marked 'Fort Demolished' 
appears to be the ancient Susquehanna Fort known generally as 
Indian Town, on Witmers Run about four miles below 
Columbia, and is also known as 'The Blue Rock.' " 

• Murray, L. W. Clark Manuscripts, Aboriginal History of the Susquelianna 
— pp. 62. Atiiens, 1931. 

204 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

All evidence appears to warrant the conclusion that the Sus- 
quehannocks had at least four Forts on the lower Susquehanna 
River in what is now Pennsylvania ; one on the York County 
side, one at the present village of Washington Borough, a pos- 
sible one at Falmouth and an ancient one at Blue Rock on the 
Schultz farm. The Baltimore, Penn dispute can still be settled 
by exploring the fort sites in Pennsylvania, and at the mouth 
of the Octoraro Creek in Maryland. The oldest site with the 
least evidence of white contact would indicate what was in- 
tended to be the true line. 

General Conclusion 

The remains found on the archaeological sites examined in 
Lancaster County show the region was inhabited at one time 
by two groups of Indians — Algonkians and Iroquois. 

One small Algonkian site was explored at Shenk's Ferry and 
the objects recovered conform with established eastern pre- 
historic criteria especially in pottery and pipe forms. The fact 
that this group had contacted people of an Iroquoian culture 
was indicated by Algonkian pottery with stone filler, pointed 
bottoms and crude Iroquoian type collars. 

Five Susquehannock sites were investigated. The oldest was 
on the Schultz farm and the most recent on the Strickler prop- 
erty. The material culture of the Susquehannock previous to 
their contact with white men, and well after, possessed many 
features in common with that of the Southern and Northern 

There is no question but what the Algonkians made a 
cultural impression on the Susquehannocks before they reached 
Pennsylvania and after they settled on the river. To what 
extent their somatology was effected by contact with certain 
Algonkians is still to be determined. The well known fact 
that many :aptives were adopted into Iroquoian tribes would 
further a fusion of the two physical types. The early contact 
of the Susquehannocks with white men was the beginning of a 
transitional period into which they were well advanced on the 
Strickler site. This was less marked on the Washington 
Borough sites and negligible on the Schultz site. 

On the late sites the artifacts, such as the terra cotta pipe 
forms, showed northern Iroquois influence. The earlier sites 
upon which were found "chunkey" stones, pot covers, white 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 205 

quartz arrowpoints, rim lip pipes and celts suggested Cherokee 
influence, and indicated a closer contact with the southern Iro- 
quois in this epoch. 

The geographical position of the Susquehannock would 
facilitate the relationship with their blood kin to the south. 
Their invasion of what is now the soil of Pennsylvania and 
their battles with their relatives to the north resulted in their 
final extermination. 


( I ) BRINTON, D. G. 

The Lenape and Their Legends. Philadelphia, 1885. 


The Indian Nations, Philadelphia, 1876. 


History of the Mission of the United Brethren Among 
the Indians of North America. London, 1794. 


Personal Notes, Auburn Theological Seminary Li- 
brary. Auburn, New York. 

(5) PARKER, A. C. 

Archaeological History of New York. Albany, 1920. 


Relations Itineris in Marylandiam, Narrative of a 
Voyage of Maryland. 1 799-1 839. 

(7) MURRAY, L. W. 

Selected Manuscripts of General John S. Clark, Re- 
lating to the Aboriginal History of the Susquehanna. 
Athens, Pa., 1931. 

(8) SPECK, F. G. 

Papers of Historical Society of Delaware, p. 75, 


Bulletin 30 B. A. E., p. 336. 

206 Pennsylvania Historical Commission 

( 10) SMITH, JOHN 

The True Travels, Adventures and Observations of 
Captalne John Smith. Vol. I, Richmond 1819. 


Voyages de la Nouvelle PVance, 161 5, 1632. Prince 
Society, Boston, 1878-82, 

I, 14, 1854 

1650, IV 22 

(14) JESUIT RELATIONS, I 637, p. I 5 8. 


Description of the Province of New Sweden, now 
called by the English, Pennsylvania, in America. 
Philadelphia, 1834. 


(17) STREETER, S. F. 

The Fall of the Susquehannocks, Historical Magazine, 
March, 1857. 


The History of the Five Nations of Canada. London, 



Cherokee and Earlier Remains on the Upper Ten- 
nessee River. Museum American Indian, New York, 


Description de la Louisiane nouvellement de couverte 
au soneluest de la Nouvelle France. Paris, 1683. 


A Character of the Province of Maryland. London, 

(22) Butel-Dumont, Georges Maru 

Memories historiques sur la Louisiane. Tom II, 1753. 

Safe Harbor Report No. 2 207 


Earthenware of the New York Aborigines. Albany, 


A Study of North Appalachian Indian Pottery. 
Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Wilkes- 
Barre, 19 13. 

(25) SKINNER, A. B. 

Notes on Iroquois Archaeology. Museum American 
Indian, Heye Foundation. New York, 1921, Plate X. 


Beads and Bcadwork of the American Indians. 
Museum American Indian, Heye Foundation. New 
York, 1929. 

(27) HODGE, F. W. 

Handbook of American Indians. Bulletin 20, Bureau 
of American Ethnology. 

(28) BUSHNELL, D. I. 

Tribal Migrations East of the Mississippi. Vol. 89, 
No. 12, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. Washington — 


The Linguistic Classification of Powhatan, Amer. 
Anthrop., Vol. 35, No. 3, July-August. 1933. 

Index I 

Safe Harbor Report No. I 
Petroglyphs in the Susquehanna River Near Safe Harbor 

Aldred, J. E., 7. 
Alphabetic Symbols, 17. 
Ancient Writings, 16. 
Animals, 39, 47. 

Archaeological Survey Map, 
Plate I. 

Authorities consulted: 

American Anthropological 
Journal, 47. 

American Antiquarian, 53. 

American Indian Series, 53. 

Animal Figures in American 
Art, 53. 

Annual Report Bureau Eth- 
nology, 52. 

Anthropological Institute, 53. 

Armstrong, P. A., 53. 

Basser, H. T., 53. • 

Boas, Franz, 53. 

Brinton, D. G., 52. 

Bruff, J. G., 53. 

Bushnell, David I., Jr., 53. 

Cadzow, Donald A., 52. 

Chinese Scholars, 18, 28. 

Clodd, Edward, 53, 

Collins, Henry R., Jr., 54. 

Copway, 54. 

Davis, Robert H., 54. 

Delaharre, Edmund Burke, 

Emerson, Ellen Russell, 54. 

Engerrand, G., 54. 

English, Tom, 54. 

Fascinating Symbolisms of 
Beads, 54. 

Final Report Ohio Centen- 
nial, 53. 

Free, E. E., 54. 

Gardner, G. A., 54. 

Gloucester Co. Hist. Society, 

Green, Edward, 54. 

Grotefend, 17. 

Harrington, M. R., 53, 55. 

Hatt, Gudmund, 55. 

Heckewelder, Rev. John, 52. 

Hodge, Zahrah Preble, 55. 

Hoffman, Walter James, 35, 
55, 52. 

Holden, Edward Singleton, 55. 

Holmes, William H., 55. 

Jomard, 55. 

Keane, A. H., 55. 

Kingsborough, 55. 

Krickeberg, Walter, 55. 

Lenormant, 56. 

Lewis, Theodore Hayes, 56. 

Loskiel, G. H., 52, 

Maccurdy, George Grant, 56. 

Mallery, Garrick, 34, 35, 52. 

Mason, William A., 56. 

Mercer, Henry Chapman, 56. 

Museum Journal, 56. 

Olbrechts, Frans M., 56. 

Parker, Dr. Arthur C, 34. 

Parry, Francis, 57. 

Petroglyphs, 55. 

Pictographs, 57. 

Putnam, F. W., 57. 

School Arts Magazine, 57. 

School Craft, 57. 

Smith, Harlan I., 57, 29. 

Smith, Victor J., 57. 

Speck, Frank G., 58. 

Starr, Frederick, 58. 

Stewart, F. H., 58. 

Strong and Egbert, 58. 

Symbolism and Totem Sys- 
tem, 58. 

Talmadge, James B., 58. 

Thevenin, Rene and Coze, 
Paul, 58. 

Tooker, William Wallace, 58. 

Traditional Art of the Amer- 
ican Indian, 58. 

Utzinger, Rudolf, 58. 

Wardle, H. Newell, 58. 

Westlake, Inez B., 59. 

Winchell, N. H., 59. 

Wright, William, 53. 


Andree, Dr. Richard, 6. 
Beatty, 40. 
Fisher, George, 50. 
Frazer, Jr., P., 9, 37. 
Grotefend, 17. 
Harrington, M. R., 47. 
Heckewelder, Rev. John, 39, 

Hoffman, Dr. W. J., 9, 35, 50. 

Landis, David, 10. 
Lewis, Clifford M., 50. 




Loskiel, 36. 

Mallery, Garrick, 34, 35, 52. 
Parker, Dr. Arthur C, 34. 
Porter, Prof., 41. 
Raffinesque-Schmaltz, C. S., 

Salsbury, Dr. J., 47. 
Smith, H. I., 29. 
Stewart, Julian H., 28, 52. 
Tannah, 40. 
Walton, Dr. J., 47. 


Bortner, Roland, 7. 
Burns, S., 7. 


Charting Pictoglyphs, Plate VII. 

Clarke, Charles E., 7. 

Coal Deposits, 12. 

Conestoga Creek, 10. 

Conowingo, 7. 

Creswell Rock, 15, 28, 29. 

Station, 15. 

Writings, 29. 
Cypriote, Art, 17. 


Deisher, Henry K., 11. 
Dorrance, Frances, 7, 10. 
Drawings of Porters Petro- 

graphs, 42. 
Drilling Rocks, 14. 
Duncan, Linneaus G., 11, 12, 

Plate VIII. 

Foreword, 5. 
Francis Farm, 46, 51. 
Funk, John, 11, 13. 


Gardner, Eugene M., 11. 
Godcharles, Frederic A. G., 7. 


Herr, Elvin, 14. 
Holtwood, 7, 13. 
Horns, 40. 
House, William, 14. 
Human Head, 40, 

Ideograms, 16, 39. 

Indian Motor Company, 12. 


Algonkian, 7, 9, 11, 33, 34, 35, 
36, 41, 44, 45, 46, 47, 50, 51. 
American, 6. 

Arikara, 18. 

Bunji, 39, 40, 46. 

Chippewa, 46, 50, 51. 

Delaware, 36, 46. 

Hidatsa, 18. 

Iroquois, 33, 35, 44, 45, 47. 

Lenape, 36, 39, 44, 46, 47 51. 

Mandan, 18. 

Mingoes, 46. 

Ojibway, 18, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41. 

Pueblo, 7, 37. 

Salish, 29. 

Shawnos, 46. 

Siouan, 7. 

Turkey, 39. 

Turtle, 39. 

Unalachtigo, 39, 46. 

Unami, 46, 47. 

Wolf, 39, 40, 41. 

Wyandots, 47. 

Interpretations: of symbols: 
Animal groups, 39. 
Animals, 39, 47. 
Bear, 38, 39, 40, 47. 
Beggar, 38. 
Bird, 41, 47. 
Buffalo, 39, 40. 
Cache, 38. 

Composite Groups, 40. 
Concentric Circles, 38. 
Deer, 39. 
Dish, 38. 
Dog, 16, 39, 40. 
Dove of Peace, 43. 
Eagle, 41. 
Earth Mother, 40. 
Elk, 39. 
Food, 40. 
Footmark, 39. 
Great Spirit, 38. 
Hermit, 38. 
Horned Being, 40. 
Human, 38, 40, 42. 
Hunter, 40, 42. 
Latin Characters, 16. 
Medicine, 40. 
Mighty Hunter, 40, 41. 
Monster, 51. 

Otter, 39, Plate XVII, 51. 
Panther, 39, Plate XVII, 51. 
Reptile, 41, 42, 47. 
Snake, 41, 42, 47. 
Spiritual Animals, 51. 
Totem, 39. 
Thunderbird, 38, 41, 47, 50. 



Tracks, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 

47, 51. 
Turtle, 42, 47. 

Big, 12. 

House, 12, Landis, David H., 

7, 10. 
Neff, 10. 
Walnut, 10, Plate II, III, 12; 

Plate V, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 28; Plate X, XI, 44. 


Johnson, Sir William, 33. 


Landis, David H., 7, 10. 
Linnaean Society, 41. 


Midewin Society, 6, 36, 50. 
Monaghan, E. J., 7. 
Musser, John, 10.- 
Museum, State, 11, 13, 14. 


Oriental Writings, 44. 


Parker, Dr. Arthur C, 7, 11, 35. 
Pennypacker, Samuel, 7. 
Petroglyphs Plates II, IV, VII. 
Phonograms, 16. 
Picture Rocks, C, Plates XVI, 

Picture Writing, 6, 9. 
Plaster Molds Plate A, 12. 



Big Indian, 9, 10, Plate II, 13, 
15, 18, 32, 33, 34, 35, 46, 47. 

Creswell, 28, 29. 

Indian God, 48, 49, 50. 

Little Indian, 9, 10, Plate III, 
VII, 13, 15, 18, 30, 34, 35, 38, 
42, 46, 47. 


Safe Harbor, 7, Plate I, 9, 10, 11, 
12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 35, 37, 45. 
Scale Model, Plate VIII. 
Settar, George, 7. 
Shaman, 40. 
Shenk's Ferry, 35. 
Siebert, Frank Thomas, 7. 
State Museum, 11, 13, 14. 
Sugar Grove, Plates XVIII, XIX. 
Steinmetz, R. C, 7. 
Stoudt, John Joseph, 7. 

Treaty, Indian, 33. 

Vandalism, 9, 43. 

Wall, J. S., 50. 
Walls, John A., 7. 
Walum, Qlam, 36, 47. 
Washington Borough, 7, 11, 12. 
Whitney, H. E., 7. 


York County, 12. 

Zoomorphic Characters, 16, 34, 

Index II 

Archaeological Studies of the Susquehannock Indians of 

Safe Harbor Report No. i 

Abnaquriois, 23. 

Acid, chromic, 127. 

Adornment, color, 85. 
Africa, 131. 
Agneronnons, 23. 
Agniehenon (Mohawks), 20. 
Algonkian, culture, 61. 
Algonkian, groups, 96. 
Algonkian, horizon, 81. 
Algonkian, sites, 52. 
Algonkian tribes, 12, 19. 
Allen, Capt. John, 29, 
Alligewi (Talligewi), 13. 
Alquanachuck, 17. 
Alsop, George, 95, 123, 203. 
American Anthropological Asso- 
ciation, 5. 
Andaste, appearance of, 37. 
Andastes, 12, 13, 14, 16, 19, 27, 

109 134, 190, 202. 
Andastoe, 22. 
Andastoerhonon, 20. 
Andastoghernons, 16. 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, 139. 
Anons, 20. 

Anthropometric, study, 47. 

Antler, objects, description of, 
73, 145, 170. 

Antler, use of, 57, 182. 

Antler, workers, 121. 

Argillite, 199. 

Armor, gorget, 89. 

Arrowhead, making, 118. 

Arrowheads, antler, 57, 147. 

Arrowheads, bunt, 147. 

Arrowpoint, location of, 45, 47. 

Arrowpoints, 43, 59, 71, 81, 133, 
148, 157, 205. 

Arrowpoints, description of, 
183, 198. 

Arrowpoints, in pits, 54-56. 

Arrows, 96. 

Arrows, stunning, 148, 185. 

Art, bone working, 152. 

Art, potters, 104, 114. 

Art, stone working, 58. 
Asia, trade, 131. 
Athens, 19, 109, 151, 203. 
Atlantic Coast, 12. 
Attaock, 18. 
Auroghtergh, 22. 

Awls, bone, 135. 

Awls, classification, 171. 
Awls, description of, 170. 
Awls, iron, 151, 171. 
Axe, iron, 65, 66, 68, 72, 103, 

Axe, stone, 81. 
Axes, stone, description of, 

151, 193. 


Bacon, Nathaniel, 34, 35. 
Bainbridge, 190. 
Baldwin, 13. 

Balls, rifle, 70. 
Baltimore, 202, 204. 
Baltimore, Lord, 36, 201. 

Bands, bead, 130. 

Bannerstone, intrusive, 81, 118, 

Bark, 73, 127, 160. 

Bark, pieces of, 73. 
Bartmann, 92. 

Basanite, 199. 

Basket, makers, 127. 

Bastions, 202. 

Bead, Cornaline d'Aleppo, 130. 

Bead, glass, 65, 66, 67, 73, 92, 
97, 103. 

Bead, making, 83. 

Bead, star, 131. 

Beads, 68. 

Beads, bone, 179. 

Beads, bugle, 132. 

Beads, cheveron, 131. 

Beads, description of, 57, 128, 
177, 185. 

Beads, metal, 132, 

Beads, shell, 51, 58. 65. 

Beads, tubular, 83, 87, 199. 

Beads, types, 129. 

Beads, Venice, 132. 

Beans, 128, 199. 

Beans, charred, 59. 

Beans, in pits, 54-56. 
Beauchamp, William M., 12, 106. 
Beaver Creek, 13. 
Bellermine, Cardinal, 91. 
Bellermine, jug, 64. 
Bellermines, 92. 

Bells, brass, 126. 

Bells, hawk, 67. 

Belt, hide, 87. 

Belts, wampum, 25. 




Bench mark, location of, 156. 
Berkley, Governor, 34. 

Birds, effigies, 123. 

Birds, taking of, 149. 

Blanket, trade, 67. 
Blue Rock, 156, 203, 204. 

Bodkins, 182. 
Bohemia, 132. 

Bolas, stones, 195. 

Bone, 201. 

Bone, animal, 41. 

Bone, description of, 145, 170. 

Bone, objects, description of, 

Bones, calcined, 41. 

Bones, fish, 72. 

Bottles, rum, 66, 92. 

Bowl, wood, 64. 

Bowls, 77, 106, 127. 

Bows, 96. 

Box, cap, 70. 

Box, metal, 72. 

Box, snuff, 87. 

Bracelets, 65. 

Bracelets, bead, 130. 

Bracelets, iron, 68. 

Bracelets, rolled, 87. 

Bracelets, wire, 66. 

Brachycephalic, 61. 

Brachy cephalic, index, 51. 
Bradford County, 190. 

Brass, 59, 101, 126, 127, 135, 151. 

Brass, necklace, 103. 

Brass, ornament, 115. 
Brent, 21. 
Brinton, 9, 15. 
Brule, Etienne, 19. 

Buckskin, 73. 

Bullet, mold, 99. 

Bullets, 70. 

Bullets, lead, 99. 

Burial, bundle, 66, 99, 101, 103. 

Burials, description of, 44. 

California, 130. 

Calvert, Lord, 20. 

Campanius, 203. 

Canada, 12, 14, 16, 17, 131, 183. 

Cannon, 21, 32, 202, 203. 
Canoge 202, 203. 
Capitanessis, 17. 

Captives, 24. 
Carantouan, 10, 16, 19, 21, 133. 
Carantouan, extermination of, 

Carbon County, 190. 
Carolina, North, 11. 
Carte Figurative, 19. 
Cat-Nation, 14. 
Cayuga, 12, 23, 25, 133. 
Cepowig, 18. 

Celt, form, 193. 

Celt, stone, 118, 121. 

Celts, 41, 205. 

Celts, description of, 151. 

Celts, in pits, 54-56. 
Ceramic Laboratory, 190. 
Ceramic Repository, 139. 
Ceramic Repository, report of, 

Ceramics, 152. 

Ceremonial, 105. 

Ceremonial, pottery, 1!3. 

Ceremonies, 123, 201. 

Ceremony, death, 94. 
Chambers, Benjamin, 203. 
Champlain, 14, 17, 19. 

Charm, 179. 

Chemicals, in fertilizer, 73. 
Chemung (footnote), 24. 
Cherokees, 11, 12, 13, 78, 83, 96, 
133, 151, 182, 190, 193, 205. 

Chert, use of, 117, 199. 
Chesapeake Bay, 12, 17, 18, 20, 

96, 134, 203. 
Chiefs, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33. 

Chiefs, murder of, 34. 

Children, 148. 

Chips, flint, 118. 

Chips, flint, occurrence of, 40. 

Chisels, 67, 185. 
Choesapike, Chesapeake, 96. 

Chunky, 151, 193, 204. 
Choptank River, 20, 22. 
Clark, General John S., 13, 16, 
93, 202, 203. 

Clay, 65, 73, 85, 121, 105, 133. 
188, 197, 201. 
Clearfield County, 190. 

Cloth, 69, 73. 
Cocheeton (footnote), 24. 
Codorus Creek, 202. 

Coil, construction, 60. 

Coiling, 104. 

Coin, 73. 
Colbert, Edwin H., 199. 
Colden, captives, 37. 
Collins, G. N., 128. 

Coloring, pottery, 74. 

Colors, 85. 
Cologne, 91. 
Colonies, Seaboard, 23. 
Columbia, 24, 201, 203. 

Comb, antler, 122, 152. 

Comb, pot, 123. 

Combs, 58, 76, 121, 127, 145, 179. 

Conceptions, savage, 37. 
Confederacy, 18. 
Confederation, 14, 23. 
Conestoga, 16, 202, 203. 
Conestoga Creek, 40. 
Conestogas, Kanastoge, 37. 
Conestoga Township, 43. 



Conestoga Valley, 40. 

Conewago, 18, 24, 202. 

Connadago, 96, 203. 

Congo, beads exported to, 131. 

Conojohla, 152. 

Conowingo, 18, 201. 

Conoy, 15, 20. 

Copper, 71. 

Copper, carbonate, 85. 

Copper, subcarbonate, 85. 

Copper, verdigris, 67. 

Corn, 62, 96. 
Cornwallis. 21. 

Counters, 182, 183. - 

Cultivation, 159. 
Cultural periods, 10. 
Culture, material, 12. 

Cud, iron, 66. 

Cup, pottery, 65. 

Cup, turtle shell, 50. 

Cups, 106. 
Curies, Bacon's residence, 35. 
Cree Indians, 16. 
Creswell, station, 63. 

Criteria, authentic, 39. 

Crockery, 73, 91. 
Czechoslovakia, beads from, 132. 


Dances, 95. 

Decoration, pipe, 157 

Decoration, pottery, 60, 76, 113. 

Decoration, shell, 82. 

Deer, bones, in pits, 54-56. 

Deformations, noted, 48, 49, 50 
De Isle, 202. 

Deity, 123. 

deLamberville, John, 25. 
Delaware, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16 

21, 201. 
Delaware Bay, 19. 
Delaware River, 9, 10, 20, 201. 
Delaware Valley, 9. 
Delphos, Oracle, 124. 
Department, agriculture, 128. 
Detroit, 94. 

Devil, 124, 125. 

Devils, horned, 123. 
De-Vries, 19. 

Design, 139. 

Design, comb, 123. 

Design, pottery, 104, 110, 186, 
188, 189. 

Discs, 67. 

Dolichocephalic, index. 49, 50 
52, 61, 155. 

Dog, pipe, 78. 
Donehoo, Dr. George P., 11 
Dublin Creek, 203. 
Dutch, 16, 91, 92, 132. 
Dutch, prisoner, 37. 
Dumont, Butel, 104, 105. 

Dwelling, 41. 
Dwight, John, 91. 

Earthenware, pipes, 81. 
Effigv, 67, 77, 115, 125, 152, 179, 
Eishelman, David, property of 

Elk River, 22. 
Embassy, 22. 
England, 91. 
English, 9, 15, 17, 21, 34, 92, 95 

96, 131, 132. 
Erie, Lake, 12, 14, 37. 
Eskimo, 179. 
European, 60, 201. 

Expedition, Bacon's, 36. 

Fabric, 88, 127. 

Factes, human. 111. 

Factory, 92. 
Falmouth, 18. 

Family, dead, 95. 

Famine. 26. 

Farmers, 62. 
Fathers, Black, 23, 25. 

Feasts, 26, 95. 
Federation of Historical Societies, 

Fenstermacher, Gerald, 63. 

Figures, human, xll, 122. 

Figurines, 107. 
Fisher, Governor, 5. 

Fish-hooks, description of, 181. 

Fish-hooks, in pits, 54-56. 

Fireplaces, 160. 

Firestones, in pits, 54-56. 
Five Nations, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16 
19, 22, 23, 25, 26, 37, 133, 134* 

Flint, gun, 70, 72, 81. 

Floods, Susquehanna River, 39. 
Florida, 19. 
Fort, 21, 24, 27, 29, 33, 35. 36, 156 

201, 202, 204. 
Fort Demolished, 203. 

Food, meat, fish, 199. 
French, 11, 16, 17. 19, 22, 131, 

French, inventories, 92. 
Frey, Heast, 135, 153. 
Frechen, 91. 
Frontiers, 26. 

Fugitives, 33. 
Fulham, 91. 
Funk, Mr. John, 97. 

Galbrith, Mr., 202. 
Galena, 73. 



Games, description of, 95, 145, 
179, 193. 
Gandastogues, 16. 

Garrisons, 35 
General Assembly, 5. 
Georgia, 11. 
German, 91, 92. 

Girdle, 73, 126, 157. 

Glass, description of, 68, 91. 

Glass, Roman, 131. 
Godcharles, Captain Frederic A., 

Gods, 17, 124, 125. 

Gorget, armor, 89. 

Gorget, shell, 82. 

Gouges, 148. 

Gourd, 105. 

Gravers, description of, 177, 
Griffin, Mr. James, 139. 
Grubb Creek, 43. 
Guss, Mr., 15 

Guard, trigger, 70. 

Guards, 33. 

Guards, bowstring, 185. 

Gun, barrel, 99. 

Gun, stock, 66. 


Hair, 125. 

Hair, beaver, 127. 

Hairdressing, 122. 

Hammerstone, 58, 118, 135, 151, 
Hanson, Randolph, 29. 
Hanson, murder of, 31. 
Harignera, Chief, 28. 

Harpoons, barbed, 179. 
Harrington, Mark R., 12, 83, 182, 

190, 193. 
Harrisburg, 8, 203. 
Harrisburg (footnote), 24. 

Hatchet, 89. 
Hawakneu, 93. 

Headdress, 125. 
Heckwelder, 10, 13, 15. 

Hematite, 121, 137. 
Hendrickson, Captain, 19. 
Henlopen, Cape, 20. 
Herrman, A., map, 201, 203. 
Hewetts', 16. 

History, aboriginal, 36. 

History, early, 25. 
Historical Magazine (q), 27. 

Hoe, iron, 43, 65. 

Hoes, 58, 89. 
Holmes, Thomas, 203. 
Holmes, W. H., 190. 
Holn, Thomas, 21. 
Holtwood, 43. 
Hone, 81. 

Hook, gaff, 128. 
Horses, 32. 
Hunting, 94. 
Hurons, 12, 14, 19, 22, 23, 96. 


Incising, pipes, 79. 

Iron, 70, 71, 101, 128, 135, 199. 

Iron, celt shaped, 89. 


Jamestown, 35, i2. 
James, river, 34, 35. 

Jasper, use of, 116, 199. 

Jaspilite, chips, 118. 
Jesuit Mission (footnote), 20. 
Jesuit, Relations, 14, 16, 20. 
Jesuit, rings, 202. 
Jesuits, 22, 23. 

Jinglers, 87, 103, 126, 145. 


Keller, Mr. John, 97. 

Kettle, brass, 64, 66, 68, 70, 71, 
72, 73, 85, 87. 
Knepp, farm of, 40. 

Knife, 64, 93. 

Knife, iron, 65, 67, 68, 70, 73. 


La Hontan, maps, 37. 
Lalemont, Jerome, 24. 
Lancaster County, 8, 24. 
Landis, David H., 5. 
Land Office, 203. 

Laws, 12. 

Lead, 88. 

Leaders, entrapped, 36. 
Leniipe, 9, 10, 11, 19, 20, 134. 
Lehigh River, 9, 10. 
Lephart, Oscar, 202. 
LeMercier, 20. 

Lignite, ornament, 65, 121. 

Lignite, piece of, 81. 

Limonite, 73. 
London, 36. 
Loskiel, 12. 


McSherry, 15, 16. 
Mahinganak (Mahican), 23. 

Maize, 59, 128, 199. 

Majic, 124. 

Man eaters, 26. 

Man, medicine, 25. 
Manor Township, 39. 

Marauders, 35. 
Maryland, 18, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 
29, 31, 33, 34, 92, 96, 201, 
202, 204. 



Maryland allies, 25, 95. 
Maryland (footnote), 20. 
Maryland, refugees, 37 

Masks, 107. 
Maryland, negotiations, 36. 
Mason, Col., 28. 
Massawomeks, 17, 18. 
Massomacks, 13. 
Match-lock, 89. 
Mat, rush, 103. 
Matting, description of, 88. 
Matting, reed, 88. 
Medal, 28. 

Measurements, anatomical, 44. 
Mesocephalic, index, 48 61 
Metal, objects, 67. 
Metal, pipe, 80. 
Mica, found, 43, 74. 
Mica shale, 44. 
Mill, Witmer's, 202. 
Minckus, 21. 
Mingwe, 16. 

Minquas, 16, 19, 20, 21, 85 
Minsi, 9. 
Missions, 25. 
Missisagues, Indians, 94. 
Mississippi Valley, 11, 134. 
Mohawk, 12. 

Monolithic, pipes, 81. 
Montreal Island, Canada, 106. 
Mooney, 193. 

Moorhead, Warren K., 11. 
Mortar, wood, 194. 
Mortuary, customs, 60, 64, 71, 

87, 99, 101, 133, 137. 
Mould, 70. 

Mould, bullet, 65, 91. 
Mourning, 95. 
Mullers, 58. 

Mullers, description of, 194. 
Munsee, 9. 
Murano, 131, 132. 
Murray, L. W., 203. 
Museum, Los Angeles, 129. 
Museum, Natural History, 199. 
Museum, Rochester, N. Y 47 

Museum, State, 186. 


Nanticoke, 15. 
Natheldaneh, 22. 

Necklace, 74, 82, 87. 101 126 
127, 185. 
Neuter nation, 14, 22 
Neutrals, 11, 12. 
New Amsterdam, 130. 
Newcastle, Delaware, 9. 
New Jersey, 9, 10, 20. 
New Netherland, 19, 130 
New York, 9, 10, 12, 19, 61 76 
78, 107, 117, 121, 133, ' 

Niagara, 11. 
Nottoways, 11. 
Nova Albion, 22. 


Occonegies, tribe, 36. 

Ochre, 65, 70, 72. 
Octoraro Creek, 18, 201, 202 204 

Officers, 33. 
Ohio, 12, 13. 
Ohio, tribes of, 131 
Ohio Valley, 134. 
Oneida, 12. 
Onondaga, 12, 19, 25. 
Ontario, Lake, 12, 19, 24 
Orchard, William C, 128, 131 

Ornament, ear, 51. 

Ornaments, 59, 130, 185. 

Ornaments, metal, 87, 115 
Ouendat, 14. 

Paint, grey, 88. 
Paint, red, 49, 65, 68, 118 121 
197. , . , i, 

Paint, stones, 70. 
Paints, description of, 148 
Paints, used, 83. 
Paleontology, vertebrate, 199 

Palisades, 32. 
Palmers Island, 22. 

Pantheon, 123. 
Parker, Dr. Arthur, 12, 76. 
Pascatoway Indians, 20. 
Patapsco, 28. 

Patterns, pottery, 60, 109, 111, 
Pauxtent River, 20, 22 

Pendant, 72, 81, 116, 127 151 
157, 198. ' 

Pendant, lignite, 65. 
Pendant, pipe, 103. 
Pendants, shell, 128 
Penn, William, 6, 202. 
Pennsylvania Water Power 

Corp., 43. 
Pequa, town of, 61. 
Perrot, Nichols, 26. 
Pestle, stone, 101 
Pestles, 194. 
Pestles, in pits, 54-56 
Philadelphia, 201, 203. 
Pigment, found, 85. 
Pike, iron, 128. 
Pin, bone, 147, 171. 
Pipe, metal, smoking, 70, 115 
Pipe, terra cotta, 65, 67, 70 71 

Pipes, 44, 58, 65, 72, 78, 81, 96 
103, 115, 133, 152, 185, 190i 



Pipes, antler, 148. 
Pipes, in pits, 54-56. 
Piscataway, 20, 26, 27. 

Pistol, 89. 
Plantations, frontier, 35. 
Plate, 105. 
Plug, pin, 182. 

Pot covers, description ot, IDI, 
Potomac, 19, 28, 33. 
Potomac, valley, 134. 
Potter, 110. 

Pottery, description ot, ijy. 
Pottery, laboratory study, 139- 
Powhatan, 15. 18. 
Priests, 124. 

Prints, finger on clay, 18o. 
Prisoners, 26, 31. 
Prizes, 95. 
Pumpkin. 128. 


Quadroque, 18. ^ ,,„ ,or. 

Quartz, 39. 40, 59, 65, 117, 137, 

Quartzite. 118. 


Raccoons, 14. 

Raccoon, bones, in pits. t)4-Db. 
Raeren, 91. 
Rafeix, 25. 
Rappahannock, 33. 
Raritan (footnote), 20. 
Raritangs, 20. 
Rattle. 57. 

Rattle, turtle shell, 50. 
Reagueneau, 22. 
Rebellion. 96. 
Records, archaeological, 10. 
Relations. 22, 25, 27. 

Religion, 123. 
Report. Ceramic Repository, 14b 
Rhyolite, use of, 117, 118. 199 
Richie. William, 47, 154. 
Rifle, parts, 81. 
Rings, metal, 87. 
Roach, 121. 
Roberts, J. C, 39, 40. 
Rutchogah. 22. 


Scarhuhadgh, 22. 
Schrabisch, Max, 11. 
Schoolcraft, 131. 
Schultz, Edward N., 156. 
Scissors, 65, 68. 
Scrapers, 148, 185, 198. 
Scrapers, in pits, 54-56. 
Seeds, 64, 65, 68, 72, 87, 91, 103, 
Seneca," 12, 23, 27, 28, 29, 36, 78. 

Settlers, white, 37. 
Shamokin (footnote), 24. 
Shea J G., 16, 17. 

Shell 41, 58, 68, 82, 83, 135, 

139, 157, 188. 
Shell, conch us3 of. 82, 83, 87. 
Shell, turtle, 41, 57. 
Shells, tempering, ti, 104. 
Shells, nut, 199. 
Sheshequin, 190. 
Shoemaker, Colonel Henry W., 5. 

Siege, 32. 
Sinkers, net, description of, 149 
Skinner, Alanson B., 12, 13, 151. 
Skin, bear, 127. 
Skins, beaver, 94. ,, ,^ ,„ 
Smith, Captain John, 13, 15, i<, 
18, 78. ^, ,.- 

Smoothers, pottery, 81, li», 

Snakes, 11. 
Society, Pennsylvania Archae- 
ology, 203. 
South Mountain, 18. 
Spaniards, trade, 131. 
Spear, head, 72. 
Spear, stemmed, 81. 
Speck, Dr. Frank G., 15. 
Spoon, 73, 127. 
Squash, 128. 
Staman's Run. 97, 135 153 
Steatite, 121, 157, 197, 201. 
Stone objects, description ot, 

58. 81. 
Stones, bolas, 149. 
Stoneware, jug, 64, 91. 
Streeter, S. F., 27. 

Stronghold, surrender ot, 61. 
Stuyvesant, Peter. 130. 
Sunbury, 190. 
Survey, paper, 5. 
Sweden, Nev;, 20, 22, 24. 
Swedes, 16, 20, 21, 203. 
Swedish Commission, 22. 
Sword, 68, 99, 103. 

Sacrifice, 33, 124. 
St. Marys. 20. 
Safe Harbor Dam, 7, 39. 
Safe Harbor Water Power Cor- 
poration, 6, 7. 
Sasafras Land, 9. 
Sawahegeh, 22. 

Tantaquidgeon, Miss Gladys, 15. 
Target, 96. 

Teeth, 185. . , 

Teeth, animal, description of, 
64. 148. 



Teeth, bear, 74. 

Teeth, comb, 122, 123, 125. 

Teeth, elk, 68, 126, 158. 

Teeth, human, 70. 

Tempering, pottery, 190, 193. 
Tennessee, 11. 
Tennessee River, 83, 182. 
Tesinigh, 18. 

Thimble, 73, 87. 
Tionontati, 12. 

Tobacco, 62, 78, 135. 
Tockwoghes, 17. 

Tomahawk, 34, 37, 93. 

Tools, bone antler, 147. 

Tools, steel, 125, 152. 

Totem, 10. 

Trade, articles, description of, 
59, 85. 

Trade, 62, 68, 103, 126, 129, 151, 

Trade, cloth, 64, 88. 

Trade, lead, 88. 

Trade, pipe, 80. 

Traders, 116, 103, 130, 132. 

Trader, white, 99. 
Trehoven, Cornelius Van, 20. 

Trenches, start of, 43, 64. 
Trenton, 20. 

Tribes, perished, 35. 

Troops, Virginia, 28. 
Truman, Major Thomas, 28, 29, 

Tsonontonans, 27. 

Tubes, bone, 57. 

Tubes, description of, 177. 

Turkey, bones, in pits, 54-56. 
Turkey Hill, 62, 156, 202. 

Turtle, effigy, 123. 
Turtle Tribe, 9. 
Tuscaroras, 11. 


Unalachtigo, 6, 10. 
Unala-tka, 10. 
Unami, 9. 
Upland Creek, 203. 
Utchowig, 18. 

Venetian, 92. 
Venice, 131. 

Vimont, 21. 

Virginia, 11, 20, 22, 23, 27, 28 

32, 35, 92. 
Virginia, history of, 34. 
Virginia, news from, 36. 
Virginia, officers, 31. 


Wabash, 13. 
Walls, John, 6. 

Wampum, 130. 

Wampum belt, 127. 

Wampum, so-called, 185. 
Wandat, 14. 

War, 24, 34, 96. 

War, Pennsylvania frontier, 38. 

Ware, 74, 111, 113. 

Warriors, Iroquois, 37. 
Washington Borough, 18, 24, 62. 
Washington, D. C, 26, 128. 
Washington, Gen. George, 28. 
Washington, Col. John, 28. 

Weapons, pipes used as, 78. 

Weaving, 182. 
Werowances, 18. 

Whistles, 179. 
Williamsburg, Virginia, 92. 

Wire, iron, 65. 
Witmer, John W., 202. 
Witmer's Run, 156, 203. 
Wonameys, 9. 

Wood, charred, 70. 

Wood, description of, 127. 

Wooden objects, description of, 
Woodward, Arthur, 91, 129. 

Wolf, 123. 

Wolf, pipe, 78. 
Wrightsville, 202. 

Wrongs, 33. 
Wyandot, 14. 

Wyoming Historical and Geo- 
logical Society, 5. 

Yard, chunkey, 193. 
York, river, 34. 
Youghiogheny, river, 134. 

Zinc, analysis, 85. 



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