ARCHAEOLOGY FOR THE RESTORATION OF
THE McCARTHY-POPE HOUSE
CLINTON, JONES COUNTY, GEORGIA, 1978
APR S 2 1985
John R. Morgan
GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
!5 HISTORIC PRESERVATION SECTION/270 WASHINGTON ST. S.W. ROOM 704/ATLANTA GA. 30334/404-656-2840
Digitized by the Internet Archive
ARCHAEOLOGY FOR THE RESTORATION OF THE McCARTHY-POPE HOUSE
CLINTON, JONES CO., GEORGIA - 1978
John R. Morgan
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
Parks, Recreation and Historic Sites Division
Historic Preservation Section
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Figure 1. The McCarthy-Pope House, Clinton, Jones Co., Georgia, 1978, Looking
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MC CARTHY-POPE HOUSE, 19 78
CLINTON, JONES CO., GEORGIA
Figure 2. Map: McCarthy-Pope House, 1978, Clinton, Jones Co., Georgia.
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In 1978, during the restoration of the McCarthy-Pope House in Clinton,
Jones County, Georgia, archaeology supplemented preceding research. Four
interpretive problems generated by restoration planning were identified by
historical and architectural investigations. Solutions were tenuous, re-
quiring investigation of other sources of information such as archaeologi-
cal ones. Information about a second chimney, the location of a back door
bay, and the contemporaneity of a shed room and front porch with the body
of the house was sought. The problems all had assumed archaeological ex-
pressions. Each was investigated with results aiding the solution of the
problems and the completion of restoration planning. The location and
basal dimensions of a second chimney were ascertained. A stone pad for
the stringer of a step frame was evidential of back door bay location,
confirming architectural indications. A residual ground surface under the
house extended beneath the shed room. No drip line or other features in-
dicative of activities which may have preceded the shed room were found
behind the body of the house. A drip line, in conjunction with other evi-
dence, along the front of the house demonstrated that the front porch was
a later addition.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
1. INTRODUCTION 1
Identification of Problems 1
Theoretical Framework 2
Some Assumptions 3
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5
3. SETTING 7
Natural Environment 7
Cultural Environment 8
4. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 12
Means of Data Recovery 12
5. DATA RECOVERY 15
Problem 1: Second Chimney 15
Problem 2: Back Door Bay Location 19
Problem 3: Shed Room 22
Problem 4: Front Porch 27
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Second Chimney. ...
Back Door Gay Location
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
Problem 1: Second Chimney. . . .
Problem 2: Back Door Bay Location
Problem 3: Shed Room
Problem 4: Front Porch
Second Chimney. ...
Back Door Bay Location
Shed Room ,
Front Porch ,
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LIST OF TABLES
1. Climatic Statistics of Macon, Georgia, By the Month - 1972 ... 9
2. Temperature and Precipitation Data for Baldwin, Jones, and
Putnam Counties 9
3. Number of Risers 33
4. Parameters of Total Run 34
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LIST OF FIGURES
1. The McCarthy-Pope House, Clinton, Jones County, Georgia,
1978, Looking East ii
2. Map: McCarthy-Pope House, 1978, Clinton, Jones County,
3. Unit 1, Showing Excavated Chimney Base in Relation to
House Framing 16
4. McCarthy-Pope House, c. 1940, Showing Pattern of
5. Areas of Excavation and Surface Survey 18
6. Chimney Base Area, Unit 1, Layer 1 20
7. Rear of the McCarthy-Pope House, Looking West 21
8. Search Area for Verification of Door Placement, Unit 2,
Layer 1 23
9. Approaching the Juncture of the House and the Shed Room
from the Rear 25
10. Foundation of the McCarthy-Pope House after the Disassembly
of the Framing 29
11. String Delineating the Juncture of the House and
the Shed Room 37
12. McCarthy-Pope House with Front Porch, c. 1929 38
13. Drip Line Under the Front Porch, Profiles from Unit 3 40
14. Drip Line Search, Northeast Profile of Unit 4 41
15. Different Forms of Attaching a Stair to a Sill 43
16. Distribution of Efflorescence on the Foundation in the
Vicinity of the Front Door Bay 44
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Archaeology plays an important role in historic preservation. But
archaeology is frequently misunderstood by preservationists, and its role
in preservation projects is often less than fully appreciated. By publish-
ing this report on archaeology and historic preservation at the McCarthy-
Pope House in Clinton, Georgia, we hope to foster a better understanding
of archaeology and its relation to historic preservation.
Elizabeth A. Lyon, Chief
Historic Preservation Section
State Historic Preservation Officer
This report of archaeology conducted at the McCarthy-Pope House in
Clinton, Georgia is being published to serve two audiences. The first
audience is the archaeological community. Only through a published report
can the methodology, results, and conclusions of this work be usefully
disseminated. By publication, the archaeology of the McCarthy-Pope House
will become an accessible part of our knowledge of Georgia's history,
and thus an aid to the professional community.
The second audience is composed of citizens who are actively working
to preserve vestiges of Georgia's architectural heritage. As they identify,
interpret, evaluate, and plan restoration of the state's historic buildings,
their success depends in part on the thoroughness of their research. Often,
records and documents are incomplete or missing, informants are unavailable
or unsure, and the structures themselves do not readily succumb to clear,
precise interpretation. Restoration planning in these cases may resort
to well-intentioned guessing, with the aid of analogy, or with the ease
of ignorance. All sources of information are assumed to have been investi-
gated. As this report documents, such thinking limits the potential of
restoration. One remaining source ma> not have been considered - the
Human behavior results in activities which leave material remains
on or in the ground, e.g., building, disposing, interring, demolishing,
etc. These remains, if properly recovered and studied by professional
archaeologists, can supply much information of interest to the preservationist
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However, in order to know which archaeological resources to investigate,
well -identified problems (information needs) must be formulated. This
may be done by previous researchers (historians, architectural historians,
architects) or by the archaeologist. The archaeological resources may then
be evaluated, selected, and investigated in terms of the problems to be
As archaeology at the McCarthy-Pope House illustrates, valuable,
untapped resources exist below the surface of the ground. When appropriately
investigated they aided the planning of restoration of the house by supplying
critical and otherwise unobtainable interpretive information. To all of
the preservationists attempting to accurately interpret Georgia's architectural
heritage, this report hopefully will serve by bringing to you an awareness
of the potential of archaeological resources which your properties may contain.
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Identification of Problems
In 1977, the Old Clinton Historical Society, as a part of its program of
preserving and interpreting historic Clinton, undertook the restoration of the
McCarthy-Pope House, c. 1809 (Figure 1). The Society was awarded a grant-in-
aid from the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (now the National
Park Service) of the U. S. Department of Interior through the State Historic
Preservation Office of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources with which
to contract for restoration plans and specifications. The architect employed
to prepare these documents encountered some interpretive problems during his
work. Investigated historical and architectural resources provided no solu-
tions for these problems, so other sources of information were sought.
Four problems were identified by the architect which required solutions
for completing restoration plans and specifications. They are as follows:
1. The location and basal dimensions of a second chimney, which
had been documented historically and indicated architecturally,
2. A back door bay was indicated architecturally, but due to
structural deterioration its exact location was indetermin-
able and the form of access to the ground was unknown;
3. A shed room on the rear was interpreted as contemporary with
the main body of the house, but structural differences in the
former caused uncertainty about when it was built;
4. A front porch was interpreted as a recent addition, but
evidence was insufficient.
In the absence of substantive historical and architectural evidence, these
problems were recognized as having archaeological components from which
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pertinent information might be recovered. The data potential of these com-
ponents, however, was assumed as no previous archaeology at the McCarthy-Pope
House had been reported.
The purpose of conducting archaeology at the McCarthy-Pope House was to
aid the planning of restoration by supplementing interpretation. Funds and
time were limited; therefore, only a small amount of archaeology could be
done. The focus and direction of archaeology were sharpened and guided by
three factors which permitted a minimum expenditure of effort for a maximum
return of data.
1. The frame and foundation of the house were extant giving focus.
2. Preceding research had generated some evidence giving direction.
3. Architectural documents provided a record of the structure, ob-
served present and interpreted past, on which to formulate and
implement strategies and tactics for data recovery.
These factors reduced the need of much planning and preparatory research,
maximizing funding and time. In conjunction with well-defined problems, they
enabled archaeology to begin with clear, specific objectives.
No elaborate discussion of theory follows. The intent here is to offer
some insight to the theoretical perspective of this author. Desirable in
anthropological archaeology is the formulation of problems which result in
solutions elucidating processes of cultural behavior. These processes may
be inferred by means of well-formulated problems which focus on spatial,
temporal, and contextual relationships of material remains comprising the
archaeological record. For archaeology, the problem is one of discovering
patterns of relationships among those remains; that is, the products of
human behavior. Any inferred process, of course, must be substantiated by
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archaeologically retrieved evidence in addition to support from preparatory
and comparative research.
Archaeology at the McCarthy-Pope House was conducted with an anthro-
pological orientation. Its objective, however, falls short of discerning
processes of cultural behavior through the identification of patterns of re-
lationships of behavioral products comprising the archaeological record.
Archaeology reported here meets the interpretive needs of planning restora-
tion of the McCarthy-Pope House. A withdrawal from the bank of archaeologi-
cal knowledge is made, but no return in the form of a deposit follows (see
South 1977:308-13). The account, nevertheless, remains open. A brief state-
ment of assumptions on which this work was based is made.
Archaeology is a formal method with a set of techniques for recover-
ing information from resources beneath the surface of the ground.
Resources of information to which archaeology is applicable are those
products of past cultural behavior surviving in the ground.
Segments of past cultural behavior are preserved in products of that
behavior and their contexts.
The investigation of surviving products of cultural behavior by means
of archaeology uses concepts and theory of anthropology.
The anthropological approach was an evolutionary one based on the goal
of understanding cultural processes inferred from demonstrated patterns and
laws derived archaeologically.
Behavioral processes active in the past are still active today.
Some human behavior is patterned.
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The next section of this report addresses the natural and cultural en-
vironments of the McCarthy-Pope House. This is followed by a review of
pertinent literature providing a research context for the archaeology.
Methods and techniques of archaeology used to recover information at the
house are discussed next. The recovery of data for each problem is then
presented, followed by sections on analysis, results and conclusions, and
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Reported historic archaeology on the Georgia piedmont is not volumi-
nous. Early reports are similar to this work in orientation; that is, they
supplement other forms of investigation (see DeBaillou 1954). Even much
recent work, in spite of South's admonition (1974) that historic archaeology
must do more than serve other forms of inquiry, is supplementary in thrust
(see Morgan 1981, Table 1). This role, however, developed as archaeology
began addressing research in a secondary posture at historic sites. Histor-
ic archaeology was brought in to deal with problems which had been generated
by historical and architectural research and unsuccessfully treated. Un-
solved problems, or unanswered questions, required that other kinds of
resources be investigated, namely, archaeological ones. The supplementary
role of archaeology in historic site research continues today, as this
As historic archaeology has developed, some have argued that the dis-
cipline must do more. It must contribute to our understanding of the
behavioral patterns of the people responsible for creating the archaeolog-
ical record. It must allow us to make explanatory interpretations relating
to the cultural processes fundamental to those behavioral patterns (South
As suggested, the supplementary role of historic archaeology has
grown in spite of South's plea for a new direction. This project is
another example of that growth, part of which is a consequence of certain
funding programs. One such program providing preservation funding calls
for survey and planning at the first level of work, including appropriate
background research. When interpretive problems arise for which architect-
ural or historical research lines of investigation are unproductive of
solutions, archaeology may be called upon, usually in a supplementary role
(see Garrow 1979, 1980; Kelso 1971; Mistovitch and Blair 1979; Wood, W.
1979a; Wood, K. 1980). Seldom are funds sufficient to permit research be-
yond the scope of the project which usually has been cast in architectural
or historical objectives. This situation does not appear to be diminishing.
For the McCarthy-Pope House, no previous archaeology has been reported.
A single instance of archaeology in Clinton involved the widening of highway
U. S. 129 (Anderson 1977). For Jones County, a number of small scale
resource-management projects have been reported (Ferguson and Schneider
1977a, 1977b, 1977c; Schneider 1977; Wood, W. 1979b), all of which occurred
outside of the Clinton-Gray area. Of reported historic archaeology which
was reviewed, none treats a site similar to the McCarthy-Pope House. Houses
of this type, single-family dwellings on the Georgia piedmont frontier,
have not been the subject of archaeology in Georgia. In this case, there
is little with which to compare this site or from which to glean insight
for preparing a plan of investigation. Direction, however, was provided by
the data needs of problems identified by preceding architectural and
historical investigations conducted at the house.
As the McCarthy-Pope House is a relatively recent (c. 1809) structure,
no elaborate discussion of the history of the natural environment was under-
taken. Although the vegetative context of the house has been altered by
Euro-American settlement (Brender 1974), other environmental factors are
assumed to have been insignificantly affected.
Jones County is physiographically located in the Washington Slope Dis-
trict of the Southern Piedmont. The district is characterized by gently
undulating surfaces descending from about the 700-foot (238 m. ) elevation
on the north to the 500-foot (170 m. ) elevation on the south. Relief in
most of the district is 50 to 100 feet (17 to 34 m.)> except near the Ocmul-
gee River, which flows in a valley 100 to 200 feet (34 to 68 m. ) below ad-
jacent land surfaces. Streams drain broad, shallow valleys separated by
broad, rounded divides with moderate slopes (preceding information from
Clark and Zisa 1976).
Geology is treated on a broad scale. The Georgia piedmont consists of
deeply weathered bedrock which is composed of ancient sediments. These
are intruded by granites and related basic and ultrabasic rock. Once shales
and sandstones, they are now quartzites, schists, and slate (Hunt 1967)
This generally applies to Jones County.
The soil around the McCarthy-Pope House is classified as a Davidson
clay loam with 6% to 10% slopes which are eroded. Erosion may be severe
unless the surface is protected. The soil has a plow zone of dusky-red
clay composed mainly of subsoil material. Much of the original surface
layer has been eroded away. From the base of the plow zone to a depth of
about 60 inches (1.6 m. ) is a dark-red clay (preceding information from
Payne 1976:15). Present soil varies, but on the whole it consists of
material weathered from igneous and metamorphic rock (Payne 1976:67).
No climatic data pertaining directly to Clinton was readily available.
A weather-recording station is located at Macon, eleven miles southwest of
Clinton. Table 1 gives some climatic data for Macon by the month in 1972
(Sanders and Hudgins 1974:128). On a broader scale for Baldwin, Jones,
and Putnam counties, the climate may be described as temperate with warm
summers and moderately cold winters. Table 2 gives temperature and pre-
cipitation data for this larger area, which includes Clinton (Payne 1976:70)
Given the small scale of this projsct and its purpose, no further discuss-
ion of the natural environment is warranted.
No elaborate preparatory research regarding the history of Jones
County, Clinton, or the McCarthy-Pope House was undertaken for the
CLIMATIC STATISTICS OF MACON, GEORGIA BY THE MONTH - 1972
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Average temp. 51.9 47.9 56.5 65 69.6 75.5 79.4 80.5 77.3 65.8 54.5 55.1
temperature 62.8 53 69.6 78.9 81.1 87.6 90.5 92.3 91.1 79.3 65.7 65.9
temperature 40.9 31 43.3 51 58.1 63.4 68.2 68.6 63.4 52.3 43.2 44.2
temperature 75 78 82 91 87 98 96 98 99 89 85 82
temperature 14 25 31 34 49 46 58 61 50 39 26 21
7.5 4.3 2.7 .5 2.1 6.2 3.2 3.5 1.
9 3.7 10.4
tive humidity 76 70 65 67 75 62 74 76 73 73 75 78
(from Sanders and Hudgins 1974:128)
TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION DATA FOR BALDWIN, JONES, AND PUTNAM COUNTIES
Two years in 10 will have
at least 4 days with—
temp. = to or
temp. = to
One year in 10 will
July 90.5 69.0
Year 75.1 50.3
(from Payne 1976:70)
archaeological phase of this project. These subjects have been addressed by
others more qualified to deal with them (Abbott 1977; Old Clinton Historical
Society 1975; U. S. Department of Interior 1974; Williams 1957). These
sources should be consulted for detailed information. For our purpose, a
brief background sketch will suffice as a historical -contextual setting.
The McCarthy-Pope House is located in Clinton, Jones County, Georgia
(Figure 2). The present area of the county was a part of the 1805 Creek
cession (Kappler 1904:85-6). In 1807, from Baldwin County, Jones and three
other counties were created by the state legislature (Bryant 1977:58).
Through the nineteenth century, the original boundary changed a number of
times (Bryant 1977:58-9). Despite these changes, a centrally located town
was chosen as the county seat and was referred to in early county records as
Albany (Old Clinton Historical Society 1975:1). The General Assembly, in
1808, clarified the situation by legislating "that the site of public build-
ing in and for the county of Jones, shall be in the town called and known
by the name of Clinton. .. "(Prince 1837:953). By 1809, Clinton became an
In this community of eighty-five residents, the McCarthy-Pope House
was built between 1809 and 1810. Roger McCarthy was probably the builder
of this small, frame structure. Subsequent residents included the Pope
sisters. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, they operated the
town's post office in the house. While not elaborate, the house is a good
example of the simple frame dwell inns constructed across the Georaia pied-
mont in the eighteen-hundreds . Little is known about these structures or
their builders (Glassie 1977:29). It is one of the few original buildings
of Old Clinton which remains.
The McCarthy-Pope House was acquired in 1975 by the Old Clinton
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Historical Society. The objective of acquisition is to restore the house
as a museum, visitor center, and headquarters for the Society. When the
Society employed an architect to prepare restoration plans and specifica-
tions, interpretive problems were identified which brought archaeology into
the restoration of the house.
METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
As the purpose of archaeology at the McCarthy-Pope House was generated
by preceding architectural and historical research, methods and techniques
of recovering data were to address non-archaeological research problems.
These problems were givens, a product of the preceding research at the house
The subject of investigation, the house, was also a given, a consequence of
restoration planning. Selection of methods and techniques, therefore, was
a matter of addressing previously identified problems at the site of their
origin. With limited funds and time because of restoration priorities,
only resources assessed as having a high potential for data return were
investigated. Appropriate methods and techniques were selected and used.
When this process of selection began, the frame of the house was still
standing -- at least some of it (see Figures 1 and 7). The extant struc-
ture aided selection by reducing the scale of surveying and testing. Areas
of high data potential were obvious when the house was assessed in the
context of the identified problems under investigation. The collapsing
framing, however, did pose a hazard to health. This, in turn, affected
the selection of methods and techniques as well as areas to be investigated.
Means of Data Recovery
The means of data recovery were those of standard archaeological prac-
tice. Some elaboration of them follows. To objectively control space, two
means were used. First, an assumed datum of zero was established away from
the deteriorating house on a large cut stone to the northeast. All refer-
ences to vertical space (elevation) at the site were so many inches, feet,
etc. , above or below this point (use of the U.S. Customary System of mea-
surement maintained consistency with preceding work at the site). Second,
no grid was imposed on the site for controlling horizontal space. Units of
excavation were consecutively numbered as each was opened. References to
horizontal space were tied to the house itself. Within a unit of investi-
gation, the walls of excavated units were the bounds of horizontal reference.
For the control of time, all units opened were excavated according to
observable stratigraphy. As a layer of soil was removed, it was assumed to
have been more recently deposited than the one beneath it. Elevations of
layers of soil and their contents were referenced to the assumed datum.
The placement of units of excavation was judgmental and depended on two
sources of information. One, preceding researchers (Greene 1977; U.S. De-
partment of Interior 1974) had investigated the site and identified problems.
This research gave direction to archaeological strategy, that is, knowing
what information was needed. Two, with an extant structure, the selection
of areas with highest potential for data recovery was expedited. The element
of search and discover was reduced, saving time and money, while increasing
the efficiency of data recovery.
All units were excavated manually with shovel, spade, trowel, or other
tool which permitted the appropriate scale of recovery. Unit size was
judgmental, based on needs of data recovery, on architectural parameters
imposed by the extant structure, and on personal convenience. All artifacts
were collected and features recorded according to the layer of soil and unit
of investigation to which they pertained.
All artifacts, photographs, plats, maps, and other records are curated
at the Laboratory of Archaeology, West Georgia College, Carroll ton.
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The problems identified in the introduction to this report were arch-
aeological ly investigated at the McCarthy-Pope House. This section treats
the recovery of data with regards to each problem. The order of present-
ation of problems is the same as in the introduction and will remain as such
throughout the report. Analysis of the recovered data is presented in the £
Problem 1 : Second Chimney
The location of a second chimney, which had been removed at some unknown
time prior to this project, was indicated by three sources. One, a pile of
bricks adjacent to the house had no other apparent source than a former
chimney. Two, floor framing on the side of the house near the brick pile
was of such a form to have once incorporated a chimney (Figure 3, notice the
partial sill extending to the left from the top of the brick pier on the
right-hand side). Three, a photograph of the house (c. 1940) shows a pattern
of weatherboarding which indicated a chimney had a least been planned for, if
not built and removed later (Figure 4). Based on these indications, a unit
of excavation, designated #1, was placed and bounded (Figure 5) after the
ground had been probed with a quarter-inch-diameter metal rod. The purpose
of probing was to detect and locate brick or other materials beneath the
surface of the ground. A concentration of objects was detected in the
area indicated by previously mentioned sources to be the location of a
Figure 4. McCarthy-Pope House, c. 1940, Showing Pattern of Weatherboarding
(Original print in the collection of Mary Callaway Jones, Wash-
ington Memorial Library, Macon, Georgia).
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AREAS of EXCAVATION and SURFACE SURVEY
MCCARTHY-POPE HOUSE, 1978
Clinton, Jones Co., Georgia x,'?*
Figure 5. Areas of Excavation and Surface Survey,
second chimney. The bounds of the unit were established to encompass these
detections in conjunction with the previously identified indicators. The
sod was removed by spade and trowel. Subsoil was not screened as the tools of
excavation were of a scale to permit recovery appropriate to the data needs.
Just beneath the sod, the detected concentration of objects--bricks--was
uncovered. It did not appear to be the result of disposal or demolition.
The bricks were fully exposed in order to determine the origin of their
disposition (Figure 6). All data and artifacts collected were recorded and
bagged as associated with unit 1.
Additional probing outside of the bounds of unit 1 detected bricks on
the northeast side. To incorporate them, the unit was expanded (Figure 6).
A corresponding area on the north end of unit 1 lay inaccessibly beneath the
framing (Figure 3). Bricks, detected here by probing, were assumed to
mirror the pattern exposed in the expansion of unit 1.
Numerous objects, assumed to be bricks and brick fragments, were de-
tected by probing around unit 1, but no attempt was made to identify them or
their origin. They were assumed to be building debris. Excavation revealed
an uneven ground surface around the exposed bricks which was probably the
result of preparing the area for constructing the chimney. This is unsub-
stantiated. The objective of locating and exposing the base of a second
chimney was achieved. Figure 6 is a plat of the archaeologically exposed
bricks of unit 1 .
Problem 2: Back Door Bay Location
The exact location of a door bay on the back of the house was indeter-
minable due to structural deterioration (Figure 7). Architectural analysis,
nonetheless, discerned some features which approximated the location. On a
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DATUM (assumed)-- 0.00
Point of Elevation: x
0~ "30Cm. Excavation Unit
CHIMNEY BASE AREA, Unit/, Layer /.
MCCARTHY-POPE HOUSE, 1978
C I i nton, Jones Co., Georgia^ a
Figure 6. Chimney Base Area, Unit 1, Layer 1.
- 20 -
header sill across the rear of the house, the spacing of mortises and the
presence of notching were thought to indicate door bay location (Greene 1977:
Sheets 3 and 10). A collapsing house, unfortunately, had distorted the
original positions of framing members critical to interpretation, generating
uncertainty. Based on these architectural indications, in conjunction with
extant foundation piers (assuming more support at a focus of pedestrian traf-
fic), a unit of excavation was placed.
In addition to the problem of locating the door bay was the lack of
information regarding the means of reaching a doorway 3.5 feet above the
ground. No means existed at the time of this project, and no information
about any had been found. Steps, perhaps with a stoop or porch, were assum-
ed, but their form and dimensions were unknown.
A unit of excavation, designated #2, was bounded (60 in. x 57.2 in.)
and aligned with the notched sill and the foundation piers (Figures 5 and 8)
The objective was to recover evidence about back door bay location and access
to the house. Unit 2 was excavated to the top of red-clay subsoil. Numerous
bricks, brickbats, stones and pieces of board were exposed (Figure 8). An
apparent pattern was discerned which provided information about these pro-
blems and will be discussed in the section of analysis. Some probing was
conducted around the margins of the unit for the purpose of detecting other
Problem 3: Shed Room
The architect during his investigation recorded structural differences
between the main body of the house and the shed room on the rear (Greene
1977: Sheet 3). These differences indicated that the house and the shed
room may not have been products of the same phase of construction. For
K Door Boy Location as Indicated by Mortises— H
-Extent of Notching on Header Sill Above-
DATUM (assumed): 0.00
Point of Elevation; x
Excavation Unit —
SEARCH AREA for VERIFICATION
of DOOR PLACEMENT, UNIT 2, LAYER I.
■ 5,6 ft. x
* -5.2 ft.
MC CARTHY-POPE HOUSE
Clinton, Jones Co., Georgia ^n
Figure 8. Search Area for Verification of Door Bay Placement, Unit 2, Layer 1.
- 23 -
planning restoration, these differences raised an interpretive problem. If
the shed room was not contemporaneous with the house, then perhaps it
should not be restored. In the architect's opinion, however, the shed
room and the house were built during tne same phase. By means of archaeol-
ogy, other sources of evidence besides architecture and history were sought
and investigated. If the house predates the shed room then activities in
the area of the latter may have left features about which archaeology could
be informative. This work was conducted in two phases. The first phase
was undertaken with the frame of the house in place. The second phase be-
gan after the frame had been disassembled and removed from the site. Both
phases will be discussed.
With the framing standing, access to the ground at the juncture of the
shed room and house was obstructed. Much of the ground was covered with
collapsed flooring and other debris (Figure 7). In some areas, regardless
of ground exposure, the unstable framing seemed dangerous. In lieu of this
area, the first attempt to investigate the juncture was from outside of the
foundation of the house.
On the northeast side of the house, some bricks of the foundation were
removed in the vicinity of the juncture. Access to the area, however, was
of insufficient size to permit the recovery of needed information, Another
option was to cautiously approach the juncture from the rear of the house
(Figure 9), seeking exposed ground surface. Two such areas were reached
and examined, each providing about six square feet of ground-surface
coverage. After removing debris, the surface of the ground of each area was
swept with a whisk broom. The moisture content of the ground beneath the
structure was high makinq the soil soft, as the ground had been sheltered
from the drying effects of sun and wind. The assumption was made that if
- 24 -
certain kinds of features existed, they could be detected because of differ-
ential compaction of the soil. Assumed, also, was the fact that the shed
room would have aided the preservation of such features by sheltering them
from subsequent destructive activities.
Brisk sweeping of the surface of the ground might define features such
as drip lines or postholes which contained softer, secondary deposits of
soils. These secondary deposits would be less consolidated than the pri-
mary ones surrounding them and, therefore, more subject to removal. No
features were discerned by sweeping, nor were artifacts recovered during
this first phase. Unfortunately, test excavation in these areas was im-
possible as a follow-up due to restricted space and hazardous conditions
imposed by unstable framinq.
The second phase was carried out three months later after the frame of
the house had been disassembled (Figure 10). Correlating the architect's
drawinas of the house and shed room (Greene 1977) with the extant foundations,
the juncture was delineated. A zone about four feet wide along the line of
the juncture as defined by a string was investigated (Figure 11). This zone
was swept with a whisk broom, then the surface of the ground was examined
for evidence of other uses of the area beneath the shed room as might be
indicated by surface anomalies. Undulations or other variables might be
the result of previous activities behind the main body of the house. None,
however, were discerned. A more intense sweeping of the zone was conducted
with the same results. Observed, nevertheless, extending from beneath the
area sheltered by the main body of the house was what appeared to be a
residual ground surface. It will be discussed in the section on analysis.
Giver the absence of any discernible evidence of activities behind the house
and other needs of the project, a decision was made not to excavate a test unit,
- 26 -
Problem 4: Front Porch
A deteriorating porch extended across the entire front of the house when
the architect began his work (Figure 12). His interpretation was that the
porch was a recent addition, probably post-1900. As with the shed room, a
question arose of whether the front porch should be restored. In the absence
of substantive historical and architectural evidence, other sources of inform-
ation were investigated. The purpose of archaeology was to recover data
pertaining to the event of the porch being added. As the house did not
presently have gutters, and the architectural interpretation did not indicate
them in the past, drip lines (Fairbanks 1974:69) and landscaping features
might be present along the front of the body of the house. Units of excava-
tion were opened in searcn of features which might assist the interpretation
of whether the porch was an original component of the house or a subsequent
addition. In the absence of gutters and the porch, the probability o f the
occurrence of features along the front of the house was felt to be high.
Under present conditions, a drip line would have formed, given the manner in
which the roof was gabled (see Figure 12; Greene 1977). Two units of ex-
cavation were opened along the front foundation.
The first of these units, designated #3, was placed near the northeast
corner of the house (Figure 5). Initially, Unit 3 was 2 ft. x 1 ft. 8 in.,
but later, the longer axis was extended to 3 ft. 4 in. The objective was to
recover data regarding drip lines which might be exposed in the profiles
of the unit. All artifacts and data were collected with the proveniences of
"Surface of Unit 3" and "Unit 3." In the northeast profile evidence of a
drip line was observed and recorded (Figure 13). The stratigraphy exposed
in the profiles of the unit was simple, consisting of an "A" horizon of
tan-gray sand loam with Cecil clay just a few inches below. The southwest
- 27 -
profile was less informative regarding the apparent drip line. No discern-
ible undulation of ground surface comparable to that observed on the north-
east side of the unit was visible (Figure 13). The unit was extended away
from the house, but nothing more about the absence of the drip line was
learned. With conflicting data, opening another unit was deemed necessary.
The second unit, designated #4, was opened on the other side of the
front door bay (Figure 5). It was 2 ft. x 3 ft., with the long axis per-
pendicular to the front of the house. As the objective was the recovery of
profile data, all artifacts were collected and recorded with the provenience
of only unit 4. Due to extreme dryness of the soil, a manual sprayer was
used to dowse the profiles to enhance color separation. This technique
aided in distinguishing subtle color differences of soils.
Because of this problem of distinguishing colors and, thus, soil hori-
zons, unit 4 was extended to obtain additional stratigraphic data. The
three-foot axis was lengthened to a total of 8.2 feet. Provenience of
artifacts and data from the expansion remained that of unit 4. Stratigraph-
ically, the profiles of the long axis of the unit mirrored each other;
therefore, only the northeast one was recorded (Figure 14). No other units
were opened for the purpose of recovering data about the front porch.
Most of the data required to solve the interpretive problems identified
by the architect were recoverable by excavation, observation, and recorda-
tion. Each of the problems will be presented and discussed in the order
given in the introduction.
Problem 1 : Second Chimney
Little discussion of analysis is required for this problem. Excava-
tion of unit 1 exposed an assemblage of brick, the pattern of which is inter-
preted as the bottom course of a masonry feature. This feature is identified
as the base of a chimney by its characteristic form, chimney jambs (Moxon
1703:265, Plate 4). The pattern of bricks aligns with a remnant architect-
ural feature. An outer edge of a jamb lies directly beneath the end of a
sill (Figure 3). This sill would have been partial only if interrupted by
some other structural feature such as a chimney (Stoddard 1946:120-1).
Also, the pile of brick mentioned previously was located about a yard from
the chimney base. Form, location, and association, therefore, were the
basis for the interpretation of this feature as the bottom course of brick
of a second chimney.
Problem 2: Back Door Bay Location
Analysis of recovered data pertaining to the location of the back door
bay is more complex than that of the chimney base. Excavation of unit 2
uncovered brick, stone (cut and uncut), boards, and roots. Lookinq at the
plat of this unit, no obvious pattern of the exposed materials is discern-
able (Figure 8). However, the question has to be asked again. What is ex-
pected as we have no idea of the exact form by which access to the door bay
was gained? No postholes or post molds were encountered during excavation.
This absence of evidence of supporting members for a porch or stoop indicates
that access may have been by other means, perhaps a set of steps. If this
was the situation, then nothing more than pads on which stringers of a set
of steps rested may remain. Some historical and contemporary literature about
steps and stairs was consulted for the purpose of developing some expecta-
tions. These were then applied to the archaeological data in an attempt to
identify a pattern indicative of the form of access to the back door bay.
Enough of the house remained standing from which to recover accurately
the distance from tne qround to the floor served by the steps. This pro-
vided a starting point (Ball 1977:114). The total rise, 3.5 feet (vertical
distance from the ground to the floor served by the steps), was measured in
the area thought by the architect to be the site of the back door bay
(Greene 1977; Figure 8). The problem, then, was to figure out how far
from the house a set of steps would meet the ground. Information was needed
about dimensions of steps, so that some expectations could be formulated.
An early builders' guide gave these dimensions for the components of
steps, risers and treads. "The first and second pair of stairs the steps
shall be about 7-1/3 inches high [riser], and 9-1/2 inches broad [tread]"
(Moxon 1703:144). Contemporary literature is less specific. For example,
Ball states that treads are seldom made less than nine inches or more than
twelve inches wide (1977:112-3). Badzinski states that a unit of rise
should be between 6-5/8 inches and 7-3/4 inches (1976:13). Another source
- 31 -
asserts that a unit of rise for stairs is about 7 inches (U.S. Navy 1970:
365). Finally, Durbahn says that the maximum heiqht of a riser is 8 inches
and the maximum tread width (also called run) is 9 inches (1973:473-4).
Obviously, some latitude regarding the dimensions of risers and treads
exists. In addition to the specified latitudes, some guidelines have been
A number of rules have been set down which consider the problem of riser
and tread dimensions more generally. Some of these are as follows:
1. A unit of rise plus a unit of tread equals 17 to 18 inches
(Badzinski 1976:13; Durbahn 1973:473; Lair 1953:179; U.S. Navy
1970:365; Wilson and Werner 1973:34);
2. Two units of rise plus a unit of tread equals 24 to 25 inches
(Badzinski 1976:13; Ball 1977:112; Lair 1953:179; Wilson and
3. A unit of rise multiplied by a unit of tread equals 72 to 75
inches (Badzinski 1976:13; Ball 1977:112; Lair 1953:179).
Again, there are no absolutes, but some well-defined parameters for dimen-
sions of risers and treads.
Some of these rules were applied to the known total rise of 3.5 feet of
the McCarthy-Pope House. The objective was to find out how far from the
house stringers supporting steps would extend to meet the ground. At the
point of contact, one might expect to find some evidence of steps, perhaps,
some pads on which stringers rested. The problem was to approximate the
total run; that is, the number of steps needed to get to the ground from the
floor of the house.
With a known total rise (42 inches), an examination of the literature
for information about a unit of rise is necessary. Table 3 summarizes the
results of this effort. After rounding off the fractions, the results
totaled 5.8, which was rounded off to 6. For a total rise of 3.5 feet, a
Number of Risers
Unit of Rise
Moxon (1703:144) 42"
Ball (1977:112) 42"
Badzinski (1976:13) 42"
Durbahn (1973:474) 42"
Kidder & Parker (1956:2060) 42"
Lair (1953:177) 42"
U. S. Navy (1970:365) 42"
7-1/3 = 5.7(6) D
7 to 7-1/2 (7-l/4) a = 5.7(6) b
6-5/8 to 7-3/4 (7-l/4) a = 5.7(6) b
8 (maximum) = 5.2(5) b
7 to 7-1/2 (7-l/4) a = 5.7(6) b
7 to 8 (7-l/2)a = 5.6(6) b
a The average of the parameter figures was used as the divisor.
The dividend was rounded off to the nearest whole number as risers must be
even in height.
stair ought to have six risers, each 7 inches in height (42" t 7" = 6").
To find the total run of a stair (horizontal distance from the face of the
house to the end of the stringer contacting the ground) is more subjective.
The only material exposed in unit 2 which may indicate the dimension of the
total run was a cut stone. This stone aligns with remnant architectural
features in the sill the architect identified as indicative of door bay
placement (Greene 1977; Figure 8). Measured from the face of the house, the
distal edge of the cut stone is 49 inches. This dimension must be compared
to those normally obtained for a stair with a 3.5-foot total rise.
To approximate where a stringer may have contacted the ground, or a pad
such as a cut stone, the total number of treads must be calculated. A table
similar to the one for risers summarizes the information regarding treads
(Table 4). The figures of Table 4 are informative but still inconclusive.
Parameters of Total Run
Minimum Tread Run
Maximum Tread Run
Kidder & Parker (1956)
U. S. Navy (1970)
N/G = None given
Some of the rules are of more help than the specific dimensions previously
Taking the dimensions of an average unit of rise, 7 inches, and plug-
ging it into identified rules (see Badzinski 1976:2; Ball 1977:112; Durbahn
1973:474-75; Kidder and Parker 1956:2060-61; Lair 1953:179; U. S. Navy
1970:365; and Wilson and Werner 1973:9), some range of tread run is derived.
1. 7" (unit of rise) + (unit of tread) = 17" to 18"
7" + 10" = 17"
7" + 11" = 18"
2. 14" (two units of rise) + (unit of tread) = 24" to 25"
14" + 10" = 24"
14" + 11" = 25"
3. 7" (unit of rise} x " (unit of tread) = 72" to 75"
7" x 10.3" = 72"
7" x 10.7" = 75"
The results give a range of 10 to 11 inches for a unit of tread.
Even with this range, the point at which a stringer contacts the ground
has another variable to be considered. The point also depends on how the
stair is attached to the house. The form of attaching the stringers to a
sill determines the number of units of tread run (Figure 15), affecting the
length of the total run.
Notice that in Part A (Figure 15), there are only five units of tread
on the stringer (A-E). With a range of 10 to 11 inches per unit of tread,
the total run would range from 50 to 55 inches (5 x 10 = 50; 5x11= 55).
For Part C (Figure 15), the stringer has six full units of tread (A-F).
Using the same procedure, the total run would range from 60 to 66 inches
(6 x 10 = 60; 6 x 11 = 66). Part B (Figure 15) depicts a partial tread at
the top (F) as a form of attachment for which the dimension is a continu-
ous variable. The dimension of this tread (F) may vary, depending on the
carpenter and the setting. The dimension of the total run then varies
between the forms of attachment illustrated in parts A and C.
For the cut stone discussed earlier, the results of these calculations
are informative. The distal end of the stone is between 49 and 50 inches
from the face of the house. The minimum total run based on five units of
10-inch tread is 50 inches (Figure 15, part A). The cut stone falls within
the minimal range of the distance from the house a stringer pad could be
placed, according to common building practices. If the stone were a pad,
the treads were narrow, the steps steep, and there was no tread at the top
as illustrated in Figure 15, part A.
Problem 3: Shed Room
As mentioned previously, this problem was investigated at two differ-
ent times. The first was while the house was still standing--to some
degree. The second was after the framing had been disassembled, but the
foundation remained in place. During the first investigation, only two
exposures of the ground beneath the juncture of the house and shed room
were attained. After the framing was disassembled, a second investigation
of the area of ground beneath the juncture was undertaken. These investi-
gations will be discussed in some detail.
Due to hazardous conditions resulting from the collapsing framing,
the ground beneath the juncture of the house and shed room was not tested by
excavation. The surface of the ground was cleared of fallen framing debris
in two areas and examined. Evidence which might indicate the shed room was
a later addition such as unusual surface changes, foundations, walkways,
posts, etc. were sought. Anything indicative of other functions in the
area behind the house would suggest the shed room was added at a later date.
The surface of the ground in both exposures was swept with a whisk
broom. An assumption of differential soil compaction was made. If features
such as drip lines, etc., existed, then sweeping might remove less compact
soil from them, demarking their presence and form. No evidence, however,
was found of such features which would indicate the area covered by the shed
room had served functions other than the location of this appendage.
Later, when the framing had been disassembled, the area of juncture was
readily accessible. Using the architect's drawings of the house in conjunc-
tion with the extant foundations, a string marking the point of juncture was
placed across the site (Figures 10 and 11). The ground was examined, then
- 36 -
Figure 11. String Delineating the Juncture of the House and the Shed Room.
Figure 12. McCarthy-Pope House with Front Porch, c. 1929
swept lightly with a whisk broom in an attempt to discern features as before.
No features were identified. The area was swept more intensively a second
time, still no features were detected. However, a feature indicating the
house and shed room were coterminous was observed. The original ground sur-
face beneath the house extended under the shed room (see foreground in Figure
11). Given the absence of features indicating other functions behind the
house and the presence of a feature indicating the contemporaneity of the
house and shed room, no subsurface testing was done.
Problem 4: Front Porch
Evidence was recovered from the excavation of units 3 and 4, which indi-
cated the front porch was not contemporaneous with the house. A date for the
porch could not be derived due to the lack of diagnostic archaeological mater-
ials. However, evidence of an erosional pattern indicative of drip lines was
observed in the profiles of both units. Regrettably, the original position
of the eave of the house was unknown because of structural distortion of the
collapsing frame. Nevertheless, based on observations made at the site in
conjunction with the architectural drawings, the original position of the
eave was approximated. The approximation correlated well with the erosional
pattern of surface undulations exposed in units of excavation (Figures 13 and
14). The erosional pattern is interpreted as a product of eaves directing
the flow of rain from the roof to the ground creating drip lines. No other
archaeological information pertinent to this problem was recovered. An obser-
vation made sometime later substantiated the results of this analysis.
After the framing of the house had been disassembled, an observation was
made. On the exterior of the front foundation, two discolorations occurred
beneath the margins of the front door bay (Figure 16). These discolorations
- 39 -
Cross Sections of [Front of House
■i h T
North east Profile
Relation of Profiles to the House, Eave Line, a Front Porch.
\y sy A r-£-
• • •••••••••••••• • • •• • • • • *"■■»<*.■ • • • • •:• • •v^v?*-*^ >^A v -i ?■
B ' * "*'' Bf
SCAi F I Ft.
Profile Enlargements: Southwest A- A; Northeast B- B'.
LEGEND' DATUM (assumed):
Tan/Gray Sandy Loam £w] OOO
Brick-red (Cecil) Clay Q
Outline of Former Porch I--1
ZWP Z.//VF UNDER the FRONT PORCH,
PROF I L ES from UNI T 3.
X lUNIT 3
Clinton, Jones Co. t Georgia^
Figure 13. Drip Line Under the Front Porch, Profiles from Unit 3.
- 40 -
■•-••:■:•.; '••;/ ^
c; ^ ^
»» £ V. V.
h (£ K
-* -* —
« O o
'»- i_ o
oo cd cc
J CD «,
X^ — a>
were a consequence of efflorescence, the crystallization of soluable salts on
the surface of the brick (Phillips 1974:26; Thomas 1975). These salts may
exist in the brick, the mortar, the ground, or the atmosphere. They may be
transported within the masonry in water solution and precipitated as crystals
when evaporation occurs (Phillips 1974:26). As the efflorescence, in this
instance, is localized beneath the margins of the front door bay somethinq
appears to have altered the flow of moisture in the foundation. As the sur-
face of brick directly under the door bay is void of efflorescence , the dis-
tribution indicated that some feature, such as a stoop or steps, had shedded
or directed the flow of moisture to the margins of the door bay. At the same
time, the surface of the foundation directly below the door bay seems to have
been protected from the concentrated flow of moisture as no efflorescence
- 42 -
No tread at top
Part ial tread at top
Full tread at top
Leve I >•
Figure 15. Different Forms of Attaching a Stair to a Sill.
- 43 -
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
The results of the investigations of each problem addressed by arch-
aeology at the McCarthy-Pope House are presented and discussed. This is
followed by conclusions drawn from the results and some discussion of them.
Problem 1 : Second Chimney
The results of the effort to locate a second chimney at the house were
obvious. Excavation of unit 1 (Figure 5) exposed brick which met expect-
ations of location, association, and form. Architectural and historical
evidence indicated the location of a second chimney, quidinq the placement
of the excavation unit. Proximity of a brick pile suggested a source such
as a former chimney. The arrangement of the brick in unit 1 was a pattern
typical of a chimney base (Figure 6; Moxon 1 70J : 265 , Plate 4). Given
these results, the conclusion is that the bricks exposed in unit 1 comprise
the base of a second chimney at the McCarthy-Pope House.
Problem 2: Back Door Bay Location
Architectural analysis of the rear sill of the McCarthy-Pope House re-
covered evidence of the location of the back door bay. Collapsing framing,
however, had distorted the original position of framing members. Unit 2
(Figure 5) was opened in search of features which might confirm location or
indicate the means of access to the house. Archaeoloaical evidence of a
porch or stoop was sought. The result was the exposure of brick, uncut and
- 45 -
cut stone, boards and roots, but nothing evidential of a porch or stoop was
recovered, not a posthole or post mold. Noted, nonetheless, was the align-
ment of a cut stone with a previously identified architectural feature (see
Figure 8). The problem became one of substantiating an apparent correspond-
ence between architectural and archaeological evidence.
In the absence of evidence of a porch or stoop, perhaps, access to the
rear of the house was by means of a set of steps. The cut stone may have
functioned as a pad on which rested a stringer of a stair to the back door
bay. Historical and current carpentry literature was examined for informa-
tion about the dimensions of such of set of steps. The distance of the cut
stone from the rear face of the house may indicate whether the stone could
have served as a pad.
With the elevation of the floor of the house above the ground a known
(42 inches), the problem was to determine how far a stair might extend from
the house. Numerous prescriptions for constructing stairs were studied for
the purpose of deriving this dimension. Even knowing the elevation of the
floor served by the stair, the distance from the house where the stair rested
on the ground could not be precisely determined. Latitude in the dimensions
of the height (rise) and depth (tread) of steps made the distance from the
house to the point of contacting the ground (total run) a continuous variable.
Deriving some parameters was possible.
The distal edge of the cut stone from the rear face of the house was
about 49 inches. A minimum total run of a set of steps comprised of five
treads of 10 inches and six risers of 7 inches each is fifty inches. This
minimal parameter was derived from carpentry manuals studied for this
research. Based on evidence obtained by the literature search, architect-
ural evidence of door bay location, and archaeological evidence of pad
- 46 -
location, the conclusion is that the cut stone functioned as a pad on which
a stringer of a set of steps rested, serving the back door bay.
Obviously, such a set of steps had two stringers. Based on architect-
ural and archaeological evidence, the other stringer would have rested on
the ground, or a pad, outside of unit 2. The margins of the unit were
probed with a metal rod, including the area to the southwest. The object-
ive here was to detect a pad for the stringer which would have met the ground
in this area. The result was that no stone or other object was detected.
This, however, was not a surprise as pads often rest on the surface of the
ground. Once a supported stair has been removed, such a pad could be easily
relocated or removed.
Problem 3: Shed Room
Architectural analysis demonstrated structural differences between the
main body of the McCarthy-Pope House and the attached shed room on the rear.
The contemporaneity of the shed room with the house appeared uncertain. For
restoration, the question arose as to whether this shed room should be re-
stored if it were a later addition. The architect, however, interpreted the
differences as insignificant to the issue of contemporaneity. He argued
that the shed room was built during the same phase of construction as the
main body of the house (Greene 1977). Additional evidence regarding this
interpretation was sought from the investigation of archaeological resources
behind the main body of the house.
The ground beneath the juncture of the house and the shed room was
examined (Figure 5). From the area beneath the shed room, evidence of
activities which predated the room was sought. Perhaps a porch or stoop,
even another room, had been removed prior to the construction of the shed
- 47 -
room. Other features as well, such as a drip line, a walkway, a well, or an
outbuilding, may have occurred in this area.
The result was that archaeology recovered no evidence of features which
predated the construction of the shed room. In fact, the opposite occurred.
Evidence was recovered which indicated the shed room was constructed in the
same phase as the main body of the house. Beneath the house, a portion of
the ground surface was at a higher elevation than the ground surface sur-
rounding the house. This residual surface (Noel Hume 1969:132) survived due
to the protection offered by the house. The erosive consequences of rain,
wind, treadware, etc., were deterred by the house from this surface, while
the ground surface surrounding the house remained subject to them. The un-
sheltered surface eroded at a faster rate than the one beneath the house,
leaving the latter surface elevated above the former. At the McCarthy-Pope
House, this residual ground surface is significant for interpreting the shed
This elevated ground surface extended from beneath the main body of the
house to the area under the shed room (Figure 11). No interruptions of this
residual surface were observed as it extended from beneath the house under
the shed room. In the absence of archaeological evidence of activities di-
rectly behind the juncture of the house and the shed room, and the dis-
covery of this residual surface, the conclusion is that the shed room is
contemporaneous with the house. No evidence was recovered which could be
interpreted as indicating the house and the shed room were built in differ-
ent phases of construction.
Problem 4: Front Porch
The McCarthy-Pope House had remnants of a front porch when architectural
- 48 -
investigation began. This porch was interpreted as a recent addition
(post-1900) with a recommendation that it not be restored. Archaeology was
conducted to recover evidence pertaining to this recommendation.
As the house apparently had no gutters, features such as drip lines,
etc., were sought along the front of the house by opening units 3 and 4
(Figure 5). The results in both units were observations of erosional
patterns on buried ground surfaces near the house's front (Figures 13 and
14). The location of these patterns led to the conclusion that they were
a consequence of rain running off the eave; that is, a drip line. The
presence of this feature indicates the porch was added to the house later
in time. Unfortunately, neither excavated unit yielded diagnostic artifacts
which permitted dating the construction of the porch.
A subsequent observation provided additional evidence concerning the
front porch. Upon returning to the site one morning, two areas of discolor-
ation on the exterior of the remianing brick foundation were noticed
(Figure 16). The source of this discoloration appeared to be some form of
efflorescence. Besides its presence, the distribution of the discoloration
was significant. Using the architect's elevation drawing of the front of
the house, the front door bay was found to have been situated just above
and between the two areas of discoloration. Something had apparently
shielded a portion of the foundation between the discolorations, while
altering the conditions affecting the foundation in the areas of efflores-
cence. As the living floor served by the front door is about 36 inches
above the ground, some means of climbing to this elevation must have existed.
Given that the areas of efflorescence are on the margins of the location of
the front door bay, a stoop or steps must have provided access to the front
door. If the porch had been original to the house, the entire foundation
- 49 -
across this side of the house would have been protected from the source
causing the efflorescence. Under such conditions, the occurrence and dis-
tribution of the efflorescence would have been most unlikely. From this
evidence, and the presence of a drip line, the conclusion is drawn that
the front door bay of the McCarthy-Pope House was originally served by
another means of access prior to the front porch, which was subsequently
Based on the results, interpretations, and conclusions of the arch-
aeological research, the following recommendations are offered for the in-
vestigated problems. The previous order of presentation continues.
Problem 1 : Second Chimney
Elaborate recommendations for the problem of chimney location are un-
necessary. The base of the chimney was located intact, providing evidence
of form and horizontal dimensions. Given the location of the exposed brick
in relation to the house and a partial sill, this pattern has to be the
base of the second chimney which was sought.
Problem 2: Back Door Bay Location
The results of the search for evidence regarding the location of the
back door bay were less conclusive than those for the second chimney. An
archaeological ly exposed feature, a cut stone, aligned with an architectural
feature identified as being indicative of door bay placement (Greene 1977).
Based on calculations derived from carpentry manuals, this cut stone was
found to be within the range of a set of steps serving this door bay. The
cut stone may have served as a pad on which the stringer of a set of steps
rested. Assuming this Interpretation of the stone is correct, this recom-
mendation is made.
The interpretation of notching on the header sill identified as
- bl -
indicating the location of steps (Greene 1977: Sheets 4 and 10) is supported
by the occurrence and location of a cut stone. This stone functioned as a
pad for a stringer of a set of steps. The door bay is assumed to be located
at the top of the steps. Based on this correspondence of data, a simple set
: steps is recommended as the form of access to the back door bay. No evi-
dence of a porch or stoop was recovered.
Problem 3: Shed Room
For the problem of whether the shed room was built in the same phase of
construction as the house, no evidence was recovered which indicated other-
wise. The area just behind the main body of the house located beneath the
shed room contained no features or other evidence of previously occurring
cultural activities. In fact, a residual ground surface demonstrated that
the shed room was of the same phase of construction as the house. It ex-
tended from under the house uninterrupted to beneath the shed room. The
shed room, therefore, is recommended for restoration as an integral part of
the McCarthy-Pope House.
Problem 4: Front Porch
Evidence regarding the lack of contemporaneity of the front porch with
the house came from two sources. First, archaeology recovered evidence of a
drip line along the front of the main body of the house. This feature demon-
strated that the porch had been added some time after the house was built.
Second, an examination of the exterior of the front foundation noted an in-
formatively distributed discoloration. The brick beneath the margins of the
ront door bay were discolored by efflorescence, soluable salts deposited on
the surface of the brick (Thomas 1975). Its distribution indicated that some
- 52 -
feature had shedded or directed the flow of moisture to the foundation
directly below the margins of the door bay. The form of this feature,
which altered the flow of moisture, perhaps a stoop or steps, is unknown.
Evidence was recovered of features which could not have occurred if the
porch had been an original component of the house. Based on this evidence,
the porch is not recommended for restoration.
- 53 -
Abbott, Frank M.
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Unlimited, Macon, Ga.
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the Historic Preservation Section, Georgia Department of Natural Resources
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1976 Stair Layout. Chicago: American Technical Society.
Ball, John E.
1977 Carpenters and Builders Library: Millwork, Power Tools, Painting.
Vol. 4. Theodore Audel and Co., Indianapolis: Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc.
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974 Impact of past land use of the lower piedmont forest. Journal of
Forestry 72(1 ) :34-36.
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eral Department, Office of the Secretary of State. State Printing Office,
Clark, William Z. , Jr. and Arnold C. Zisa
1976 Physiographic Map of Georgia. (1:2,000,000) The Geologic and Water
Resources Division, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta.
De Baillou, Clemens
1954 The White House in Augusta. Early Georgia 1(3) : 1 0- 12.
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1973 Fundamentals of Carpentry. Vol. 2. 4th Edition. Chicago: American
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1974 The Kingsley slave cabins in Duval County, Florida. The Conference on
Historic Site Archaeology Papers 1972 7:62-96. Stanley South, editor.
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1977a Cultural resource survey: Union Hill Road, number 1040-C, compartment
127, Jones County, Georgia. Files of the Historic Preservation Section,
Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta.
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Ferguson, Terry A. and Kent A. Schneider
1977b Cultural resource survey: Union Hill Road, number 1040-C, compartment
127. Jones County, Georgia. Files of the Historic Preservation Section,
Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta.
1977c Cultural resource survey: Forest Service Road, number 1042, compart-
ment 137, Putnam and Jones Counties, Georgia. Files of the Historic
Preservation Section, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta.
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1979 Archaeological considerations. In The Rock House, McDuffie County,
Georgia , Norman Askins, pp. 19-33. The Wrightsboro Quaker Community
Foundation, Inc., Thomson, Georgia.
1980 Archaeological Investigations of the Elisha Winn House, Gwinnett
County, Georgia 7 Soil Systems, Inc., Marietta, Georgia.
1977 Archaeology and folklore: common anxieties, common hopes. In Histori-
cal Archaeology and the Importance of Material Things , edited by Leland
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Hunt, Charles B.
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D. C. : U. S. Government Printing Office.
Kelso, Wi 11 iam M.
1971 Historical archaeology in Georgia, 1968: two nineteenth century sites.
In The Conference on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 1969 , Vol. 4,
pp. 16-25. Stanley South, editor.
Kidder, Frank E. and Harry Parker
1956 Architects' and Builders' Handbook. 18th Edition. New York: John
Wi ley and Sons , Inc.
Lair, E. A.
1953 Carpentry for the Building Trades. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.
Mistovich, Timothy and Roy Blair, Jr.
1979 Archaeological Investigations at Overlook Mansion, Macon, Georgia.
Cultural Resource Services, Inc., Marietta, Georgia.
Morgan, John R.
1981 A Report of Archaeology at the Robert Toombs House Historic Site,
Washington, Georgia - 1976. Historic Preservation Section, Georgia Depart-
ment of Natural Resources, Atlanta.
1970 (1703) Mechanick Exercises. New York: Praeger Publishers.
- 55 -
Noel Hume, Ivor
1969 Historical Archaeology. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Old Clinton Historical Society
1975 Clinton, Georgia, An Early Nineteenth Century County Seat.
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1976 Soil Survey of Baldwin, Jones, and Putnam Counties, Georgia. Soil Con-
servation Service and Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture and
College of Agriculture Experiment Stations, University of Georgia. Washing-
ton, D. C.
Phillips, Morgan W.
1974 SPNEA - APT Conference on mortar, Boston, March 15-16, 1973. Bulletin of
the Association for Preservation Technology , Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 9-39.
Prince, Oliver Hi 11 house
1837 A Digest of the Laws of the State of Georgia. 2nd Edition. Athens:
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Schneider, Kent A.
1977 Cultural resources survey: mechanical site preparation project, solicit-
ation number R8- 3-77-3, Oconee Ranger District. Files of Historic Preserva-
tion Section, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Atlanta.
1974 Historical archaeology reports: a plea for a new direction. The Confer-
ence on Historic Site Archaeology Papers 1972 7:151-156. Stanley South,
1977 Method and Theory in Historical Archaeology. New York: Academic Press.
Stoddard, Ralph P.
1946 Brick Structures. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.
Thomas, James Cheston
1975 Restoring brick and stone: some dos and don'ts. Technical Leaflet 81,
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History, Nashville, Tennessee.
U. S. Department of Interior
1974 Clinton, Georgia Historic District, National Register of Historic Places
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ment of Natural Resources, Atlanta.
U. S. Department of the Navy
1970 Builder 2 & 3. Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, D. C.
- 56 -
Williams, Carolyn (White)
1957 History of Jones County, Georgia, for One Hundred Years, Specifically
1807-1907. Macon: J. W. Burke Co.
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1973 Simplified Stair Layout. Albany, N. Y. : Delmar Publishers.
Wood, Karen G.
1980 Archaeological Investigations at the Crawford W. Long House, Daniels-
vine, Georgia. Southeastern Wildlife Services , Inc., Athens, Georgia.
Wood, W. Dean
1979a Archaeological Investigations at the Historic Site of Twin Oaks, Meri-
wether County, Georgia. Southeastern Wildlife Services, Inc., Athens,
1979b An Archaeological Survey of the Jones County, Georgia, Water System
Improvement. Southeastern Wildlife Services, Inc., Athens, Georgia.
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