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Full text of "The Architectural Antiquities Of Western India"

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THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 
OF WESTERN INDIA 



THE ARCHITECTURAL 

ANTIQUITIES 
OF WESTERN INDIA 



BY 



HENRY COUSENS, M.R.A.S. 

LATE OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 




THE INDIA SOCIETY 

3, VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, S.W. i 
1926 



PRINTED IN GREAT KKITATN 



CONTENTS 

EARLY ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS - 

STUPAS OR CINERARY MOUNDS - 

EARLY STRUCTURAL TEMPLES - 

LATER CHALUKYAN TEMPLES - - - - - - ' 2 7 

TEMPLES IN NORTH KANARA - - - - - - 34 

THK SOLANKI TEMPLES OF GUJARAT AND KATHIAWAD - - 35 

TEMPLES IN THE DAK HAN - - - - - -5* 

MUHAMMADAN BUILDINGS AIIMADA13AD AND GUJARAT - - 58 

ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS AT 13IJAPUR - - - - ?"> 

MUHAMMADAN BUILDINGS IN S1ND - - - - -82 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

P % late. 

1. The Great Cave at Karli 

2. Interior of the Great Cave at Karli 

Cave at Nasik showing Wooden Construction 

3. Chaitya Cave at Ajanta 

4. Front of Vihara Cave at Ajanta 
Interior of the Tin Tal Cave at Elura 

5. Exterior of the Tin Tal Cave at Elura 

6. The Great Monolithic Temple of Kailasa at Elura 

7. Nagaraja and Nagadevi at Ajanta 
Colossal Buddha at the Kanheri Caves 

8. Pillar in the Indra Sabha Cave at Elura 
Pillar in the Jagannatha Sabha Cave at Elura 

9. Capital of Broken Column at Ajanta 
Structural Buddhist Chaitya at Ter 

10. The Thul Mir Rukan in Sind 

n. Stupa Mound at Mirpur-Khas in Sind, before excavation 
Stupa at Mirpur-Khas, after excavation 

12. Terra-cottas and Moulded Bricks from Stupas in Sind 

13. More Terra-cottas and Moulded Bricks from Sfttpas in Sind 

14. Head of a Buddha from the Mirpur-Khas S/upa 
Image from the Mirpur-Khas Stupa 

15. Old Temple at Gop in Kathiawad 

16. Old Temple at Bilesvara 

Old Temple of Surya at Sutrapada 

17. The Temple of Meguti at Aihole 
Two Styles of Towers at Pattadakal 

18. Interior of Lad Khan's Temple at Aihole 
Interior of the Temple of Virupaksha at Pattadakal 

19. The Durga Temple at Aihole 

20. The Temple of Virupaksha at Pattadakal 

21. The Temple of Papanatha at Pattadakal 

22. The Temple of Kasivisvesvara at Lakkundi 

23. Doorway Mouldings of the Temple of Kasivisvesvara 



viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate. 

24. Sculpture on the Walls of a Temple at Halabid, Maisur 

*$. The Temple of Mahadeva at Ittagi 

26. Shrine Walls of the Temple at Ittagi 

Corner Slab of Ceiling of Hall of Temple at Ittagi 

27. Hoysala Sculpture from Balagamve 
Interior of Temple at Annavatti 

28. Sculpture at Base of Tower of Temple at Balagamve 
Window in a Temple at Narsapur 

29. Bracket Figure from a Temple at Kuruvatti 
Image from Narayanapur, in Haidarabad Territory 

30. The Temple of Dodda Basappa at Dambal 
The Walls of the Temple at Dambal 

31. Pillar in the Temple of Sarasvati at Gadag 
Another Pillar in the Temple of Sarasvati at Gadag 

32. Gateway of the Town of DaMioi, in Gujarat 
Pillars of the Rudramala at Siddhapur 

33 The Temple of Somanatha at Somanatha-Pattan, in Kathiawad 

34. The Temple of Navalakha at Ghumli 
The Temple of Navalakha at Sejakpur 

35. Inter ioi of Vimala Sha's Temple at Abu 

30. Ceiling in Vimala Sha's Temple at Abu 

Central Pendant of Ceiling of Tejahpala's Temple at Abu 

37. Ceiling Panel from Temple at Abu 
Another Ceiling Panel from Temple at Abu 

38. Temple of the Sun at Mudhera : closed Hall 

39. Temple of the Sun at Mudhera : open Hall 

40. Interior of the Temple of the Sun at Mudhera 

41. Kirttistambha at Vadnagar 

42. Southern Peak of Satrunjaya Hill 
Torana from Temple at Abu 

43. The Temple of Ambarnatha 

44. The Temple of Govindesvara at Sinnar 

45. Architrave in Temple of Aesvara at Sinnar 

46. Temple at Balsane 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate. 

47. Central Portion of Facade of Jami Masjiil at Ahmadubad 
Mosque in Mirzapur Quarter at Ahmadabad 

48. Window in Sidi Sayyid's Mosque at Ahmadabad 
Ruins of Haram at Sarkhej 

49. Queens' Tombs at Ahmadabad 

Ceiling Panel from the Jami Masjid at Chrmpanir 

50. The Jami Masjid at Bijapur 
Interior of the Jami Masjid at Bijapur 

51. The Ibrahim Rauza at Bijapur 
Window in the Ibrahim Rauza at Bijapur 

52. Walls of the Tomb of the Ibrahim Rauza 

53. The Mehtar-i-Mahal at Bijapur 

54. The Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur 

55. Coloured Tiles in the Walls or the Jami Masjid at Thatha 

56. Surface Carving on a Mihrab at Thatha 

57. The Tomb of Jam Ninou at Thatha 

Diagram showing Relative Sizes and Heights of St. I'aul'.s . 1 the Gol 
Gumbaz at Bijapur 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

FOR complete information on the subjects dealt with in this mojjo- 
graph consult the following works : 

Report on the First Season's Operations in the Belgarn and Kalaclgi Districts. 

(Burgess : 1874.) 

Report on the Antiquities of Kathiawad ami Kachh. (Burgess : 1876.) 
Report on the Antiquities of the Bidar and Aurangahad Districts. (Burgess : 

1878-) 

Report on the Buddhist Cave Temples and their Inscriptions. (Burgess : i88.v) 
Report on the Klura Cave Temples and the Brahmanical and Jain Caves in 

Western India. (Burgess : 1883.) 

The Antiquities of the Town of Dabhoi in Gujarat. (Burgess and Cousens : 1888.) 
On the Muhammadan Architecture of Bharoch, Camhay, Dholka, Champanir and 

Mahmuclabad in Gujarat. (Burgess : 1896). 

The Muhammadan Architecture of Ahmadahad. (Burgess : Part I., 1900.) 
The Muhammadan Architecture of Ahmadahad. (Burgess: Part II., 1905.) 
The Architectural Antiquities of Northern Gujarat. (Burgess and Cousens : 1903.) 
Portfolio of Illustrations of Sind Tiles. (Cousens : 1906.) 

Bijapur and its Architectural Remains, with Historical Outline. (Cousens :iQi6.) 
The Antiquities of Sind, with Historical Outline. (Cousens : in the Press.) 
The Chalukyan Architecture of the Kanarcse Districts. (Cousens : in the Press.) 
Somanatha and Other Medieval Temples in Kathiawad. (Cousens : in the Press.) 
The Medieval Temples of the Dakhan. (Con- ens : in the Press.) 



THE 

ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 
OF WESTERN INDIA 

EARLY ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS 

ARCHITECTURAL remains in Western India, so far as at 
present known, begin with the Buddhist period. There are 
found, in small numbers, rude stone monuments, such as 
dolmens and cromlechs, of uncertain age; but, though they may be 
considered buildings of sorts, they cannot be classed as architecture. 
Relics of very great antiquity have, recently, been brought to light 
in Sind, but it is doubtful whether anything in the shape of archi- 
tecture, of the same period, will be found in connection with them. 
Apart from Sind, which is a most promising field for the spade and 
pick, and Gujarat, the rest of Western India gives but little hope of 
buried remains of any extent, since the rock comes so near the surface 
that there is seldom earth enough upon it to bury anything but small 
and recent objects. Much of what was left upon the surface from 
early times has been removed by the people as suitable material for 
building their village homes; and, in this respect, old brick buildings 
of all ages, when once abandoned, owing to dilapidation or desecration, 
have suffered badly, the old bricks being more easily handled than 
stone. Railways, roads, and canals have taken their toll of both brick 
and stone as ballast, road metal, and building material. The hand of 
the vandal has been very heavy. 

In the following account, Western India will include, in addition 
to the Bombay Presidency with Sind, districts immediately contiguous, 
since territorial boundaries do not coincide with those of the various 
styles of architecture that will be noticed. Thus it will be necessary 
to overstep those boundaries into the Baroda State, the Nizam's 



2 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

dominions, Maisur, and the Madras Presidency to pick up some oyt- 
lying examples of the styles described. 

Scattered throughout the length of Western India, from the 
northern frontiers of Sind to the River Savitri, dropping suddenly 
in one great cascade, 830 feet, into the Konkan, and separating the 
Bombay Presidency from Maisur, is found as great and varied a 
collection of ancient monuments as are to be met with in any other 
part of India of equal extent; indeed, nine-tenths of the rock-cut 
temples of the Buddhists are to be found within this area, Buddhist, 
Jain, Hindu, Muhammadan, with the later Portuguese, Dutch, 
Armenian, and English remains, help to make up a goodly assort- 
ment. Stupas, cave and structural temples, mosques, tombs, palaces, 
forts, churches, convents, and graveyards are all represented, often 
quite near one another, succeeding each other from one end of the 
country to the other. Just as varied as these relics of the mason's craft 
are the peoples, languages, and religious beliefs which gave rise to them. 

Apart from Muhammadan and European, there are practically no 
remains of civil architecture to be found. Wells and tanks there are, 
but these partake more of a religious character, it being a particularly 
meritorious action to construct them as ensuring a happier state in the 
hereafter. Hinduism was Hinduism, all over the country, and such 
was the case with other religions, so that all people respected the 
temples of their gods to whatever state they paid allegiance; they were 
spared during invasion and raids, and, generally, the persons of their 
priests were sacred. Not so with civil buildings, such as palaces, which 
an enemy showed no hesitation in demolishing. Hence the construc- 
tion of buildings of that nature was a bad speculation, and they were 
run up cheaply, though, perhaps, of gaudy materials. They have all 
gone the way of those who built them, but we get some idea of what 
they were like from sculpture and painting, such as may be seen in the 
sculptures at the Sanchi tope and the frescoes at the Ajanta caves. 
Once a temple was desecrated it was abandoned, however costly a 
structure it may originally have been; it then fell a prey to the vandal 
for the sake of its material, or it was put to the basest of uses, from 
a cattle shelter to a village latrine. Many of the earliest temples. 



OF WESTERN INDIA 3 

following those of wooden construction, were of brick firstly, brick 
with wooden door-frames, pillars, and beams, and then brick with stone 
door-frames, pillars, and beams. Of military architecture there f 
very little beyond the ruins of an occasional fort or town defences, until 
Muhammadan times. 

Commencing, then, with Buddhist remains, in the absence of 
anything of Hindu origin claiming priority, the cave-temples stand 
first in Western India. Perhaps the predilection for cutting temples 
in the rock is to be found in the great desire for lasting merit, which 
the solid rock offers over a structural edifice; the merit gained by the 
act would last as long as the work. These rock-temples, and the 
monasteries and nunneries which generally accompanied them, are to 
be found, mostly, in the lonely defiles and ravines of the Western 
Ghats, but, in some cases, in or near ancient passes and communications 
leading up from the seaboard to the Dakhan above. Some, again, are 
found farther inland, cut in the sides of isolated hills and ranges. 
They were, thus, secluded from the busy centres of population, where 
the monks could, free from all distractions, concentrate their minds 
upon their studies and worship amidst the silence of the hills and 
forests. In these sequestered retreats they fashioned, in the bowels of 
the mountain, columned temples and halls, finished, to the minutest 
detail and ornament, with the utmost care. With wild beasts prowling 
around, they chanted their evening services, and then barred and 
bolted themselves in for the night. It must not be imagined that the 
cave-cutters chose natural caverns to facilitate their work, and enlarged 
and fashioned them to their requirements; a natural cavern means 
rotten rock, where fragments may drop at any time, and so make 
living within them very dangerous. They rather selected cliffs where 
the rock was solid and free from cracks and fissures, and the commence- 
ment of a cave, subsequently abandoned on account of hidden flaws 
showing themselves, may still be seen. The driving in of the shafts 
was all carried out by manual labour, no such thing as blasting helped 
them, nor would it have been allowed, for it would have loosened the 
rock overhead and have made it unsafe. From markings upon the 
surface in unfinished excavations it appears that a tool in the shape of 



4 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

a heavy pickaxe was used for roughing out, and chisels for the finish- 
ing. The rock, in most cases, has been the Dakhan trap, no easy 
material to work in. Many of the caves, like the great cathedral at 
Karli (Plate i), were built by subscription. We learn this from 
inscriptions, where we are told that such and such a man provided a 
pillar; in other words, as much money as would suffice to cut and 
finish one. 

A close examination of these rock-temples shows that they follow 
wooden prototypes, and this may be seen in the Nasik caves, where 
not only are the beams and joists faithfully copied, but the wooden 
pins in the ends are not even omitted (Plate 2). In the earliest chaityas, 
which are vaulted chapels, wooden ribs exist to the present day, which 
were evidently added in imitation of the arched bamboos that supported 
the original thatch, and such primitive erections are still put up by the 
Todas of the Nilgiris. When the cave-cutters gained confidence in the 
stability of the rock, they ceased to use the wooden ribs and simply 
imitated them in the stone in the later examples. Since these temples 
were cut in the rock they have, with the exception of Kailasa at Elura, 
no exteriors beyond the fa$ade; and that one does not help us to recon- 
struct those of the earlier caves, as that is a comparative late excavation 
whose exterior is just a copy of a Dravidian temple still existing. There 
is, however, an early chatty a, built in brick, at Ter, whose exterior gives 
us some idea of what the earlier ones were like, and is unmistakably 
derived from a thatched original (Plate 9). What the exterior of the 
flat-roofed temples or monasteries was like we cannot very well judge; 
they were, possibly, mud roofs on wooden beams and joists. 

The great chaitya, or cathedral cave, at Karli, between Bombay and 
Poona, on the old line of communication between the Konkan and the 
Dakhan, by way of the Bhor Ghat, is the finest of its class (Plates i 
and 2). The outside has suffered badly by the fall of much of the 
rock face, which has carried away the greater part of the facade and 
court before the entrance. This might, in great measure, have been 
spared had the excavators properly drained the slope of the hill im- 
mediately above the facade. The inner fa$ade is fairly well preserved, 
and is typical of most others of this class. It is a wall of rock closing 



OF WESTERN INDIA 5 

the front of the cave, and is pierced, below, with three doorways giving 
access to the nave and two side aisles respectively, and with a great 
horse-shoe archway above, which admits a flood of light and air into 
the interior. The light through this arch illumines the dagoba, the 
object of worship, which stands under the apse at the end of this 
basilica. In this bright lighting of the dagoba the chaitya is the 
complete antithesis of the Hindu temple, where the object of worship 
is engulfed in the gloom of an inner shrine, and where a lamp is always 
necessary to make it visible. Wood occurs, again, in the ornamental 
lattice in the top of the archway. Immediately below this, and above 
the doorways, is the music gallery, which must have been reached by 
a ladder, since no other means of access exist. Passing within, we find 
ourselves in a great cathedral-like nave, 45 feet high, with vaulted 
roof, supported upon two rows of columns, which continue round, and 
meet behind, the dagoba, and these are encircled, again, by narrow 
side aisles also meeting behind them. Owing to the columns being 
set very close together the side aisles are very dark. In the apsidal 
end of the nave, the ribs, in the roof, radiate from a centre above the 
dagoba. The length of the cave is 124 feet, and width, 45 feet 6 inches. 
The earliest chaityas are very plain, as a rule, but this one is freely 
adorned with figure sculpture and a kind of basket-work ornament very 
common in caves of this age. Above the columns, and under the 
architrave, are groups of persons upon elephants, all well carved. 
These face inwards to the central nave; but, facing into the side aisles, 
are men upon horses, and the latter seem relegated to this position, in 
the dark, since the horses were failures compared with the elephants. 
The pot bases and capitals of the columns are very characteristic of 
this period about the beginning of the Christian era. The dagoba is 
a representation of a stupa or burial mound; in this case, the stupas 
built over the Buddha's ashes. It was the first, and only object of 
worship, in the early caves : subsequently the image of the Buddha was 
introduced. Surmounting the dagoba is the Tee, over which, again, is a 
wooden umbrella, which, constructed of boards, dips on two sides only 
and not all around. This is carved on the underside, but the smoke 
and dirt that have accumulated upon it prevent it being seen from below. 



6 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

In the top of the Tee, under the umbrella, is a deep square hole, which', 
when we opened it, probably for the first time since the cave was 
atandoned by the priests, was found to be full of ancient sawdust in 
which, very likely, some relic had been deposited, and secured by the 
close fitting stone lid. The outside of the facade had, originally, a 
number of large inscriptions, some of which have been cut into, at 
a later time, when pairs of erotic figures were sculptured. In the 
north and south ends of the forecourt are sculptured life-sized 
elephants, standing forward in half relief from the walls, and, above 
them, are other pairs of figures, but which are of better proportions 
than those below, and may be original. Just in advance of the outer 
facade screen, which has mostly fallen away, is a tall pillar surmounted 
by a lion, on the shaft of which are inscriptions. Although these give 
no date, the style of the letters, and the architecture of the cave, would 
put the chaitya at about the beginning of the first century before Christ. 

Other chaityas of note are found at Bhaja and Bedsa, in the range 
of hills opposite Karli, Elura, Ajanta, Nasik, Junnar, Kondani, and 
Pitalkhora. They vary in details from the plainest at Junnar to the 
ornate ones at Ajanta (Plate 3). The outer fa9ades of many of these, 
like that at Karli, have been destroyed. The Visvakarma cave at Elura 
is about the most perfect. 

The flat-roofed caves were the residences of the monks, and their 
refectories. Around the central hall are little cells, each with a stone 
bench, against one wall, to sleep upon. The cells, in some cases, had 
doors fitted to them, and, as very little air could enter the cave by the 
main door, and, perhaps, a window, or two, one can imagine what the 
interior must have been like when these were shut up for the night. 
Some of the later viharas, for they go by this name, had, in addition 
to the sleeping cells, a larger one off the back wall, which served as 
a shrine for a colossal Buddha a private chapel, in fact. In addition 
to the caves, rock-cut cisterns were always provided, which were sup- 
plied by springs and by water running down the hill face and guided 
to them by surface channels. In a refectory cave at Kanheri, near 
Bombay, there are long, low stone tables running down the length of 
the room, along each side of which the monks sat on the floor. 



OF WESTERN INDIA 7 

There are some interesting caves in a range of hills just outside 
the town of Aurangabad not the famous Elura caves, which are much 
farther away. They are Buddhist, in three groups, about three quarters 
of a mile apart. The largest cave, in the first group, is very much like 
the larger viharas at Ajanta, with the same type of pillars (Plate 4). 
On entering the shrine, in which is a colossal Buddha, and after getting 
accustomed to the gloom, groups of life-sized figures, to the right and 
left, kneeling out upon the floor, loom up out of the darkness and are 
rather startling; it requires a second look to know that they are not 
really living beings. There are thirteen figures altogether. They 
are remarkable for their head-dresses, which are full wigs, in horizontal 
and vertical curls, and their features are very Egyptian in outline. Such 
wigged images are found in old temples of the sixth and seventh 
centuries, and one was found in the stupa which was excavated at 
Mirpur-Khas in Sind (Plate 14). 

In the second group of caves is one which, judging from the images 
upon it, was possibly a nunnery. Nearly all the images, and those the 
principal ones, are of females, whose head-dresses surpass those of the 
worshippers, in the cave in the first group, in gorgeousness. Those of 
the chief ladies remind one much of the bearskins of the Guards inter- 
woven with strings of jewels and flowers. 

Another piece of sculpture in this last cave is worthy of notice, as 
it is rather rare, and this is a good example. It represents Avalokites- 
vara or Padmapani, of colossal proportions, standing full to the front, 
with eight little groups, four up each side of him. This represents the 
Buddhist litany. The top group shows two persons kneeling, and 
beseeching him to save them from fire which rises in a mass of flames 
behind them. The second asks for protection from the sword; the next, 
from captivity; the lowest, from shipwreck. The top, on his left, desire 
to be protected from lions; the next, from serpents; the next, from 
wild elephants; while the lowest shows disease and death in the shape of 
an old hag. 

There are remains of painting upon the ceiling of one of these caves, 
where the Greek fret or key pattern is seen. 



"STUPAS" OR CINERARY MOUNDS 




S were, originally, great mounds of earth raised over the 
ashes of a chief or religious leader, and surrounded by wooden 
rails to protect them. Later they were built in brick or stone with 
an earthen core, a stone railing taking the place of a wooden one. 
Later on, again, the hemispherical mound was raised upon a dwarf 
cylindrical drum, leaving a passage round the dome for circumambula- 
tion in connection with funeral rites. Such is the general shape of the 
early stupas built over the relics or ashes of the Buddha and important 
priests; but, by degrees, the height of the basement increased until the 
shape as seen in the stupa known as Thul Mir Rukan was reached 
(Plate 10). This is, more or less, the shape of the rock-cut dagobas, 
or imitation stupas, found in the cave temples. Decoration was lavishly 
applied to the exterior, on both stone and brick, the ornamental details 
being worked out in the brick as delicately as in the stone. The 
stupas that have, up to the present, been found or uncovered in Western 
India are of brick. The great Boria stupa, discovered and excavated 
in Kathiwad, had a solid burnt brick core, but the find of a few 
sculptured marble slabs showed that some stone work existed, prob- 
ably as railing and crowning umbrella. In the Bombay Presidency 
proper we have discovered three stupas, or rather the remains of 
them namely, that in the jungles near Junagadh, already referred 
to; one near the village of Supara, 33 miles north of Bombay, 
supposed to be the Ophir of King Solomon's time; and one at 
Kolhapur, in the Southern Maratha country. None of these gives 
us any clue as to their original shape, so ruined are they. In Sind, 
however, from a study of that of Mir Rukan and the remains of the 
one unearthed at Mirpur-Khas (Plate n), it is possible to recon- 
struct such as were built in that province. From the top of a high 
square basement rose a cylindrical tower, finishing off in a dome, on 

8 



ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 9 

the top of which was, probably, a Tee and umbrella in stone or wood. 
The sides of the tower had a slight slant, as may be seen in the photo- 
graph of Thul Mir Rukan. The square basement of that stupa J|is 
been destroyed, but the broken brickwork of the lower part of the 
tower shows where it surrounded it. The core of these stupas was 
generally built of sun-dried bricks, while the exterior casing was of 
burnt brick, so well made that much of it, especially the decorative 
parts, might be termed terra-cotta. 

The general scheme of decoration consisted of rows of flat pilasters, 
in tiers one above the other in the towers, standing upon a deep 
moulded base, with niches between the pilasters containing images of 
the Buddha. Highly decorative string courses further adorned the 
walls. Much of the ornament, especially the quasi-Corinthian capitals 
of the pilasters, has a classic look, and some details are almost line 
for line copies. Around these stupas there appear to have been other 
religious buildings, judging from the number of foundations found 
around that of Mirpur-Khas. These were, no doubt, monasteries for 
the monks, who lived upon the offerings of the faithful. Amongst the 
ruins have been found portions of small votive stupas , and quantities 
of clay tablets such as Chach found the samani making at the monastery 
near Brahmanabad when he visited him. 

Buried within the cinerary stupas were the ashes and other relics, 
together with a miscellaneous collection of offerings, a small burnt 
brick chamber receiving them. In the stupa which was unearthed at 
Mirpur-Khas, in Sind, was found a roughly dressed block of stone, in 
the flat top of which was a cup-shaped depression in which was a small 
rock crystal bottle, within which, again, was a small silver case about 
the size round of a lead pencil, within which was still another case, of 
gold, containing a small particle about the size of a pin's head. That 
this was the relic there seems to be no doubt, since the silver case was 
wrapped round with gold leaf that had not been disturbed, and was 
fresh and untarnished. In the crystal bottle, beneath, but not in the 
gold and silver cases, was a quantity about an egg-spoonful of ash, 
apparently bone ash. Another block of stone, with a corresponding 
cup-shaped hollow, but shallower, capped the first stone, and the space 



io THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

around the crystal bottle was filled with sand, in which were a quantity 
of seed-pearls, coral and crystal beads, a copper ring, a small gold ring, 
aiVi some copper coins.* 

In the stupa at Supara was found a more elaborate stone receptacle, 
which had been carefully moulded and turned with a proper lid, and, 
within this, the relic was found enclosed within several small reliquaries, 
one within the other, surrounded by eight bronze images. The stupa, 
of brick, was almost entirely destroyed.! In the great Boria stupa y 
in the jungles near Junagadh, in Kathiawad, the burnt brick seemed 
to have been used throughout the building, and the relics were found 
embedded in this at a considerable distance above ground level. As 
at Mirpur-Khas, the little caskets containing them were in a cup-shaped 
hollow in the top of a roughly dressed block of stone. The caskets 
were of stone, copper, silver, and gold, one within the other. The 
relic was a small chip as big as one's small finger nail and about an 
eighth of an inch thick.J 

Other stupas that have been found in Sind are that near Tando 
Muhammad Khan, one at Depar Ghangro, near Brahmanabad, and one 
at Mohen-jo-dhado, north of Sehwan. These link up with others in 
the Panjab which join those in the Kasmir valleys and neighbourhood. 

Besides the cinerary stupas^ others were built to commemorate 
places where the Buddha is supposed to have halted when in Sind. The 
Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen Tsiang, in the seventh century, wrote : " When 
Tathagata was in the world, he frequently passed through this country, 
therefore Asoka-raja has founded several tens of stupas in places where 
the sacred traces of his presence were found. Upagupta, the great 
Arhat, sojourned in this kingdom, explaining the law and convincing 
and guiding men. The places where he stopped and the traces he 
left are all commemorated by the building of sangharamas and the 
erection of stupas. These buildings are seen everywhere. 35 He also 

* These are all described in full in my volume upon the " Antiquities of Sind," 
now in the Press. 

t Described in the "Journal Bombay Branch R.A.S.," XV, 273. 

t A further account of this stupa will be found in the "Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal," LX, Part I, No. 2, 1891 (Misc.). 



OF WESTERN INDIA 11 

tells us that, in his day, there were several hundred sangharamas in Sind, 
occupied by about 10,000 priests, and that they studied the Little 
Vehicle. The thul Mir Rukan was possibly one of these commemorf- 
tive stupaS) no relics having been found when it was examined many 
years ago; but I am not satisfied on this point. 



EARLY STRUCTURAL TEMPLES 

THE earliest structural temple in Western India is, as far as 
we know, without doubt, the Buddhist brick chaitya at Ter, 
in H.E.H. the Nizam's dominions, and about 30 miles 
east of Barsi (Plate 9). The late Dr. Fleet identified this place with 
the long-sought site of the ancient city of Tagara of the early Greek 
geographers, and an examination of the place, made subsequently, 
shows that an ancient city did occupy this position. Heavy brick 
foundations are seen, from which the villagers still dig out the bricks. 
It was, evidently, a place of some importance, first with the Buddhists, 
and then with the Hindus and Jains, and the place has its traditions 
and legends, though the latter do not help us in the identification. 
Most important, among the remains, is the old brick chaitya, standing 
in the village and facing east, which has been appropriated by the 
Vaishnavas for the worship of one of Vishnu's avataras, or incarna- 
tions, Trivikrama. The image now occupies the position of the dagoba, 
portions of which were found lying about. The building consists of 
the vaulted chaitya with a flat-roofed hall before it. The former 
measures 31 feet long by 33 feet high. It is just a plain copy, in 
brick, of the rock-cut chaitya, whose waggon-vaulted roof rises to a 
ridge on the outside, and is completed with an apsidal end. The 
facade, above the hall roof, is a rough counterpart of that of the 
rock-cut Visvakarma cave at Elura, excepting, perhaps, the little 
niche holding a Hindu image, which is, probably, a later addition. 
There was, in all likelihood, a small window here to let light into the 
interior. Heavy mouldings, around the base of the walls and the 
eaves, with slender pilasters between them, are the only decoration on 
the outside walls, over which was a coating of plaster. There are no 
pillars within the chaitya, its small size not requiring them. The 
lotus ornament upon some of the sculptured stone fragments, is very 

12 



ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 13 

similar to what is found upon the Sanchi stupa and that which stood 
at Amravati, near Bezvada. 

There were also found at Ter several old brick temples in the 
early Dravidian style such as are found in stone at Pattadakal and 
neighbourhood, with all their decorative details reproduced in moulded 
brick. They are of the same style and age as the old ones at Kukkanur, 
in the Nizam's dominions, and may not be later than the seventh or 
eighth centuries, but perhaps older. The doors, beams, and ceilings 
are of wood, richly carved, stone being used nowhere. In this respect 
they differ from the old brick temples at Sirpur, in the Central 
Provinces, of the seventh and eighth centuries, where stone has been 
used for these parts. It was not because stone was unprocurable, for 
the country is all trap rock, in which cave temples have been cut at 
Dharasena (now Osmanabad), 12 miles south-west of Ter. The 
woodwork here is reminiscent of similar old work found upon very 
old temples in the Chamba Valley in the Himalayas. They are dedi- 
cated, as they always have been, to the older Vaishnava worship. 
Outside the village, on the south ind west, are great mounds from 
which the bricks are taken. The original city overflowed to the 
opposite side of the river on the east, where huge mounds of debris 
still exist. No exploration has yet been undertaken at Ter. 

For other very early temples we must turn to Kathiawad and the 
Bijapur district of the Bombay Presidency. Along the southern shore 
of Kathiawad are found a few old shrines which bear a striking resem- 
blance to those very early ones in Kasmir. The best and oldest 
example is that at Gop, in the Barda Hills (Plate 15). Of this 
particular temple, which is considered the oldest in Kathiawad, little 
remains the interior walls and roof of the cella. It is so remarkably 
Kasmirian in style that there can be little doubt of its place of origin. 
The stepped-out pyramidal roof, with its prominent window-like arched 
niches, and the trefoil arches around its basement, are marked features 
of the northern style. There are, however, considerable modifications 
of these in the next older temples found along this coast, due, no 
doubt, to the descendants of the builders of the Gop temple, settled 
in Kathiawad, losing touch with those of the north, and introducing 



i 4 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

modified and new features of their own invention. This is seen in 
the temples at Kadvar, Bilesvara, Sutrapada (Plate 16), and a few other 
jJaces along the coast line, which, without the Gop example, might 
have suggested an indigenous origin. The little arched niches, upon 
the tower, with, sometimes, little heads in them, are but miniature 
imitations of the great arched facades of the cave chatty as of the 
Buddhists, such as is seen in the photograph on Plate 3. In the 
Buddhist caves they are also found as a small ornament, placed at 
short intervals along the larger heavy mouldings, and are frequently 
shown with heads in them. They also occur in the old brick temples 
at Ter, and are continued, more or less modified, in the medieval 
Solanki and Chalukyan shrines, as will be seen farther on. 

Passing to the southern end of the Presidency, old temples of 
about the same age that is, between the sixth and eighth centuries 
are found in many respects strangely like these old temples in 
Kathiawad; but these, instead of travelling down from the north, had 
their origin in the old Dravidian or Pallava buildings of the south of 
India. They are found chiefly in the villages of Aihole and Pattadakal, 
in the Bijapur district, and the immediate neighbourhood. The 
Kathiawad temples have, in their sikharas or towers, the same stepped- 
out pyramidal arrangement, heavy mouldings, quarter round in section, 
and the same comparatively plain walls, decorated, when decorated at 
all, with shallow pilasters at intervals, so very unlike the much cut up 
and highly decorated surfaces of the later Solanki period. The plans, 
too, in their simple designs, are much alike; indeed, the older Dravidian 
or early Chalukyan, since this style was followed by the early Chalukyan 
builders, corresponds to the northern examples, not only in the contrast 
of styles as compared with the later work, but even in their dates. The 
Chalukyas, like their kinsmen the Solankis, were great temple builders; 
but, as the latter did not come into power until the end of the tenth 
century, the former had several hundred years' start of them. The 
oldest dated building of the early Chalukyas that we know of is the 
temple of Meguti at Aihole a purely Dravidian one (Plate 17). 
Here there is a definite date to start from, for an inscription upon 
a large slab, built into its eastern wall, tells us it was built by the 



OF WESTERN INDIA 15 

Western Chalukyan King Pulikesin II. in the Saka year 556 (A.D. 
634-5). It gives no information of the origin of the Chalukyas, but 
they are said to have come from Ayodhya in Northern India. They 
lived under the guardianship of the Seven Mothers, or Saptamatri, and 
their favourite deity was Kartikeya, the god of war, while the god 
Narayana presented them with the boar standard. The early Chalukyas 
followed the Vaishnava cult, but, later on, they were equally attached 
to the Saiva. The country, over which they eventually held sway, 
embraced the southern portion of the Bombay Presidency with part 
of the Nizam's dominions adjoining, the northern part of Maisur, and 
portions of the Konkan. The extent of their possessions varied con- 
siderably at different periods, according to their fortunes of war with 
their neighbours. 

Unfortunately, this temple of Meguti is not complete, having 
suffered badly at the hands of Time and the vandal. It is possible 
that it was never completed, the lower stage of the tower being left 
as we find it. The interior is very dark, due, in some measure, to 
the sides of the hall having been walled up, and dwarf rubble walls 
added to its roof, with pot tiles through them for shooting through, 
at some late period when the temple was used as a place of defence. 
Windows in Hindu temples are purely ornamental, the interstices in 
the trellis and arabesque designs admit but a very little amount of 
light, and only make the gloom between them all the more dense; 
and one has to be careful not to stumble over a dethroned deity or 
drop into hollows from which the paving stones have been taken. 
The windows in Meguti are no exception to the rule. Peering through 
this semi-darkness, where the oil lamp has long ceased to burn, is 
seen a colossal Jin seated upon his throne, too large to have been 
brought in through the doorway. It was probably placed in position 
before the walls were raised. There is nothing to show which 
tirthankara it is intended to represent. Lying in the passage around 
the shrine is a great slab bearing an image of a devi, which seems to 
represent Ambadevi or Ambaji, a favourite goddess with the Jains, 
whose two children are held by attendants, one on either side. The 
walls of the shrine run up through the roof and form the sides of the 



1 6 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

first story of the tower, which frequently contains an upper shrine in- 
Jain temples. 

The outer walls are very plain, being relieved by alternate square 
projections and recesses. It was intended to embellish the exterior 
with sculpture, for the faces of some of the panels have been left 
rough for this purpose, and intermediate ones are sunk to receive 
loose images, some of which were found lying about. A band of 
small figures in panels, with some arabesque, runs round the plinth. 

Just below the brow of the hill upon which Meguti stands, and 
not far from it, is a curious two-storied temple which is partly 
structural and partly excavated in the rock. It consists of two long 
verandahs, one above the other, with a frontage of four heavy square 
pillars and two pilasters. Off the verandah of the upper story are 
a long room and three shrines, cut in the rock, and off the lower is 
the beginning of a shrine. In relief, upon the centre of the upper 
verandah ceiling, in front of the shrine door, is a figure of a small, 
seated, clothed (Swetambara) Jina, with a triple umbrella above him. 

Older, perhaps, than Meguti is the temple of Lad Khan in the 
middle of the village (Plate 18). There is an inscription upon the 
front wall, in characters of the eighth or ninth century, recording a 
grant, but, as it has no reference to the temple, the latter was only 
a convenient and permanent place to record it. There is no temple 
that impresses one so much with its cave-like character. Its general 
massiveness, its unnecessarily heavy columns, the simplicity of its 
construction, and its plan and details have much more in common 
with cave architecture than later temples have and with cave archi- 
tecture not of the latest. The wooden forms, from which cave 
architecture sprang, are seen throughout. The pillars are the most 
characteristic feature, being remarkable for their great massiveness, 
and are more suited to support the heavy rock roof in a cave than 
the lighter one of a structural temple. The rock cutters, when they 
built this, had not then learnt much concerning the relative strength 
of materials, and so transferred their cave-cutting proportions to this 
building. A comparison may be made between this and the interior 
of the Tin Tal cave at Elura (Plate 4). The walls are not walls in 



OF WESTERN INDIA 17 

the ordinary sense of stone masonry, being composed of posts, at 
intervals, joined up by stone screens containing lattice windows, just 
as might be expected in wooden framing. Sometimes these lattio? 
windows, in early buildings, are carved in imitation of reticulated 
bamboo work. The flat roof, and its want of elevation, are cave-like 
characteristics; but, more than anything else, the massive pillars, with 
their roll bracket-capitals, evince a simpler and more dignified style 
than many of those decorated ones in Cave III. at Badami, a few miles 
away, which was excavated about A.D. 578 by Mangalesvara, the pre- 
decessor of Pulikesi II., and have certainly an air of greater age than 
that cave. 

The very unusual position of the shrine, which is placed within 
the great hall and against the back wall, has a very primitive look. 
At first sight, it would seem that the building had been intended as 
a simple hall or matha in which, by an afterthought, a shrine was 
clumsily inserted to convert it into a temple. But this was not so, 
as is clearly shown by the fact that, in the similar temples of the 
Kont-Gudi group in the village, the beam from pillar to pillar, before 
the shrine, has been placed on a higher level in the original construc- 
tion, in order to admit of the lofty doorway being seen to its full 
height, and lion brackets project beneath the beams, one on each 
side, to further decorate the entrance to the shrine. The panel of the 
wall of the hall, at the back, is blank, whereas those on either side of 
it are perforated with windows. In the cave-temples we find shrines 
within the main hall, notably at the Dumar Lena at Elura and at 
Elephanta, and in structural temples in the north, such as that of Biles- 
vara, in Kathiawad. The temple of Lad Khan was Vaishnava, but, at 
present, it contains the linga and Siva's bull. On the block, above 
the shrine door, which is the safest indication of the original dedication 
of the temple, is Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu. 

Though the decorative details on this temple are spare, they are 
vigorous and expressive; they are suited to their positions, and are not 
so crowded and meaningless as they are in many later buildings. The 
windows around the building are, as in Meguti, of perforated slabs 
in various patterns; but the most decorated part of the temple is the 



1 8 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

front porch, the pillars of which have life-sized images upon them in 
bold relief. The water-pot ornament, which is seen here, is a very 
''favourite device in the decorative details of many of these old temples, 
and it occurs much elaborated with foliage in the caves. It is found, 
again, but conventionalised, in the later medieval temples of North 
Gujarat as part of the design of many of the pillars. 

Another temple at this village, remarkable in its great likeness to 
the chatty a caves, is that called the Durga temple, not on account of 
its dedication to the goddess of that name, durga also meaning a 
" fort," and it being within its precincts. Its plan is practically the same 
as the Buddhist cathedral caves. As in these and the old chaitya at 
Ter, the end of the temple is round or apsidal, and it has a central 
nave and side aisles separated by rows of pillars. But, in the place 
where the dagoba would be, is a shrine for an image. It was not so 
easy, here, to imitate the vaulted roof of the chaitya as it was at Ter 
in brick, so the nearest approach to it is the lofty central roof with 
a lower sloping roof of slabs over the aisles. Above the shrine, 
however, rises a sikhara, or tower, which the Buddhists do not appear 
to have had. This tower, in what has been called the northern style, 
is similar to those of about the same age in Orissa. Unfortunately, 
the upper part has fallen, but a more complete example is that of the 
temple known as Huchchimalli-Gudi outside the village.* Surround- 
ing the temple, outside, is a pillared verandah, which broadens out 
in front to form an open pillared hall, or porch. The pillars are not 
quite so massive as those in Lad Khan, but still preserve the same 
simplicity of design, being square blocks, without bases, surmounted 
by very plain bracket-capitals. Those in the front porch are adorned 
with pairs of human figures in full relief, and some are further 
enriched with bands and medallions of arabesque. 

The images in the niches around the walls, outside, are an impartial 
mixture of Saiva and Vaishnava deities; for in those early days there 
was not that sharp division between the two cults that crept in in 
later times, especially with the rise of the Lingaits. There is no doubt 

* These sikharas are described in Fergusson's "Indian and Eastern Architecture," 
Vol. II, pp. 96 and 98. 



OF WESTERN INDIA 19 

tBat the temple was originally Vaishnava, like that of Lad Khan, for, 
over the shrine door, Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu, presides. In 
each hand he grasps the tail of a Naga which continues down each 
side to the upturned body. The doorway is much after the style of 
those of the viharas at Ajanta. The central niche, at the back of the 
temple, which generally gives a clue to the deity originally occupying 
the shrine, has been removed; and the absence of this image from other 
old temples would lead one to believe that it was intentional, the 
removal having been due to some other sect who had subsequently 
appropriated the temple to their own form of worship. It is quite 
possible that the Durga temple was dedicated to the Sun-god, Surya. 

It is interesting to find, not only here but also at Pattadakal, a 
few miles away, examples of the northern type of tower side by side 
with others of the Dravidian, making this district a kind of meeting- 
ground of the two. It is from the blending of these two that the 
later Chalukyan style was evolved, though it eventually became a 
separate local style of its own (Plate 17). 

The temple of Huchchimalli, in the fields a short distance away, 
is possibly older than the Durga one, which might be considered 
contemporary with Cave III. at Badami. Its general style and heavier 
cyclopean masonry give it a more ancient appearance, and it is 
certainly older than Meguti. Here, again, the shrine is contained 
within the hall, being placed towards the east end so that a passage, 
or pradakshina path, is left around it. As already mentioned, this 
temple has a spire in the northern style, but its details are more archaic- 
looking than in that of the Durga temple. It is interesting to compare 
it with the temple of Parasuramesvara at Bhuvanesvara, in Orissa,* 
when it will be seen how strikingly alike they are. Fergusson, in his 
first edition of his " History of Indian and Eastern Architecture," was 
inclined to place the tower of the latter temple, with its cella, at about 
A.D. 450, the mandapa, or hall, a little later. In the revised edition, 
Dr. Burgess has brought the date down to the seventh or eighth 
century, but this is, probably, too late an estimate. The outline of 

* Fergusson's <4 History of Indian and Eastern Architecture," Vol. II, p. 96. 



20 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

the tower has an older look than the Aihole one, though, in its detaifs, 
the latter is simpler and heavier looking. But, in judging the age of 
'these temples, local peculiarities have to be taken into account. 

The interior of the temple is perfectly plain, excepting the shrine 
doorway, which follows the style of some of the cave doorways. It 
will be noticed that there are no pilasters in the walls opposite the 
pillars as found in later temples. The interior of the shrine has been 
totally wrecked, most likely by treasure hunters, and the paving of 
the floor is in great disorder. Unlike the last two temples we have 
considered, which face east, this one faces the west. Meguti, being 
a Jain temple, and not bound to any particular direction, faces the 
north. In the porch ceiling is a representation of Kartikeya, the god 
of war, from which it is evident that the original dedication was Saiva. 
Upon the front of the temple is an old Kanarese inscription which 
records a grant of oil to the priest of the temple by the king, Vijaya- 
ditya, in A.D. 708. 

It is necessary to pass briefly over other temples in the village, of 
which there are many, and all of more or less interest. The temple 
known as the Kont-Gudi, which is of the same style as Lad Khan, 
and, like it and most of the other temples in the village, in disuse 
and neglected, is another Vaishnava shrine which faces the west. In 
the hall, the shrine stands against the back wall and is more clumsily 
placed than in Lad Khan. The central ceiling has an ashtadikpala 
slab such as is frequently found in later temples. It is divided into 
nine compartments, in the centre of which is Brahma, while the other 
eight contain the eight regents of the points of the compass. Garuda 
presides above the shrine doorway. Beside this temple there are 
others, one being still embedded within the walls of the adjoining 
houses and used as a dwelling. 

Another interesting temple is in the fields to the south of the 
village. This is in the same heavy massive style, but, in this case, 
it is an advance upon the others in that it has a separate shrine in 
continuation of the hall, with an almost complete tower of the northern 
type. It has also image niches round the outside of the shrine walls. 
In the central aisle, above the pillars, are some vigorous and well-carved 



OF WESTERN INDIA 21 

bands of dwarf-like figures and arabesque, while spanning the 
architrave are great ceiling slabs, or rather were, for three, upon which 
are representations of various deities, had been carried away many 
years ago. Upon the dedicatory block we again find Garuda. The 
shrine, which has been badly upset, has part of the seat of the image 
within it. Upon the front of the tower is a large slab bearing the 
tandava, or dance, of Siva, but this, and a similar one upon Huch- 
chimalli-Gudi, both loose, were probably placed there at a later time. 
Upon the south side of the temple is an inscription, in letters of the 
seventh or eighth century, which seem to record the name of an 
architect. It runs thus: "Hail! There has not been, and there 
shall not be, in Jambudvipa, any wise man, proficient in (the art of 
building) houses and temples equal to Narasobba." This may be the 
name of the man who had charge of the reconversion to Saiva use. 

The method of roofing the halls of these temples is worthy of 
notice. The nave is covered over with great flat slabs lying across 
from one architrave to the other, and the side aisles are covered 
by similar slabs which slope downwards to the outer walls. As the 
stones are not so accurately dressed as to make them watertight, 
the joints are covered by long narrow stones, grooved on their under- 
sides, and fitting into channels, cut down each side of the joint, in 
the slabs. The one thus lies over and fits into the lower, much like 
the half-pot tiles in ordinary native roofing. 

Pattadakal, or, as it was known in ancient times, Pattada-Kisuvolal, 
is now an insignificant little village, tucked away in rather an out-of- 
the-way corner of the Badami district; but it must have been at one 
time a great centre of religious activity, and, with Aihole and Badami, 
an important spot in the kingdom of the early Chalukyas. When 
approaching the village, one notices the many old temple towers which 
rise above the roofs of the mud-walled houses (Plate 17). There are 
old shrines, both in the Dravidian and northern styles, standing side 
by side. Among the former are the three largest and most interesting, 
since their inscriptions leave us in no doubt as to their origin. 

It will be sufficient to describe two or three. The first and most 
important, and one that appears to have been in uninterrupted use all 



22 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

down through the ages by the Saiva community is that of Virupaksha 
(Plate 20). While others have lost their original names, this one has 
^retained that of the deity to whicb it was at first dedicated. Though 
much later than those at Aihole, it has much of their cyclopean style 
of masonry. It is, however, a far larger building, and is a great 
deal more imposing. An inscription tells us that it was built for 
Lokamahadevi, the Queen-Consort of King Vikramaditya II., a 
descendant of Pulikesi, who erected Meguti at Aihole, in commemora- 
tion of his having thrice conquered the Pallavas of Kanchi (Con- 
jeveram). He reigned in the middle of the eighth century. In the 
temple of Rajasimhesvara, at Conjeveram, he left an inscription, which 
tells that he did not confiscate the property of the temple, but returned 
it to the god. Again, the Vakkaleri copper-plate grant of his son 
Kirtivarman tells us that, after Vikramaditya's conquest of Kanchi, 
he made gifts to the Rajasimhesvara temple, and was so impressed 
with the images and the other sculpture that he saw there, that *he 
had them overlaid with gold. There is so much in common between 
that temple and Virupaksha that there can be no doubt that he brought 
away architects and masons to build another like it at his own capital. 
And this seems to be confirmed in one of the inscriptions at Pattadakal 
which speaks of the builder of Lokesvara (Virupaksha) as the most 
eminent sutradhari (architect) of the southern country. Upon the 
temple of Papanatha, a short distance to the south of Virupaksha, is 
an inscription in praise of a certain Chattara-Revadi-Ovajja, who is 
said to have "made the southern country" that is, was the builder 
of the temples of the southern country, and hence, by inference, the 
builder of this one. He belonged to the same guild, the Sar- 
vasiddhiacharyas, as the builder of Virupaksha. The monolithic 
temple of Kailasa, at Elura, already mentioned, is, to all intents and 
purposes, a copy of this temple, although cut out of the solid rock, not 
as a cave, but as a complete structural temple. In the reign of 
Vikramaditya's son, Dantidurga, of the Dakhan, led a Rashtrakuta 
army against the Chalukyas and took possession of the bulk of their 
territories. At this time Dantidurga was cutting caves at Elura, so 
that it is more than probable that he was so impressed with Virupaksha 



OF WESTERN INDIA 23 

fhat he had it copied in the rock by his cave-cutters. The line of 
small elephants around the base of Virupaksha was represented in 
Kailasa by almost life-sized ones, since it was necessary to raise th^ 
temple somewhat out of the pit in which it is cut. It is the most 
northern example of Dravidian work (Plate 6). 

The temple of Virupaksha consists of the sanctum containing 
the great linga, or phallus, the spacious pillared hall with its porches, 
the Nandi pavilion before it, sheltering the bull of Siva, and the 
eastern and western courtyard gateways, linked up by the engirdling 
walls. Over all, it measures 250 feet, of which the main building 
occupies a length of 120 feet. Within the hall are eighteen heavy 
square pillars supporting the roof, being arranged in four rows from 
east to west, the two central rows having five pillars in each. The 
pillars are all of one pattern, only the sculptures upon them differing; 
and the very deep architraves above them divide the whole ceiling 
into parallel aisles running east and west. This arrangement is 
different to that usually followed in later temples, where the pillars 
are arranged around a central square, the compartments of the ceiling 
corresponding. Like those in Lad Khan's temple at Aihole, these 
pillars have no bases; a roll bracket capital spreads the bearing under 
the beam above. Upon the pillars are broad bands of bas-reliefs 
representing scenes from the Mahabharata and Ramayana. 

The exterior of the temple is a mass of heavy mouldings and 
sculpture. The former run round the high basement and are very 
vigorous and effective. They also follow the eaves of the main walls 
as well as those of the stories of the tower. The sculptures, unlike 
the stiff conventional forms of later Chalukyan work, are natural and 
forcible, and they need no labels to assist in interpreting them. The 
beautiful perforated scroll-patterned windows form one of the finest 
features of the building. 

We are informed by the inscriptions that the junior queen of 
Vikramaditya, Trailokyamahadevi, a sister of Lokamahadevi, also built 
a temple to the north of Lokesvara, which is easily identified with that 
now known as Mallikarjuna, whose courtyard touches that of Viru- 
paksha at its north-west corner. The inscription which gives us this 



24 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

information also says that Virupaksha or Lokesvara was built to tht 
south of the temple of Vijayesvara, which was erected by Vijayaditya- 
gatyasraya (A.D. 696-733). This temple, too, exists, though neglected, 
in the position described, under the name of Sangamesvara. It is a 
very plain, simple, and massive building, but its hall has been badly 
damaged. An inscription upon a large slab, which has been placed 
inside the temple for safety, records a grant to the temple of the god 
Vijayesvara. The name occurs several times in short inscriptions upon 
the pillars. 

The temple of Trailokyesvara, or Mallikarjuna, standing between 
the other two, is of the same general plan and design as that of Viru- 
paksha; the interiors, save for a slight increase in the width of the 
latter, being exactly the same, even to the two little shrines, one on 
either side of the entrance to the main shrine. It has not, however, 
been completed, some of the shadowy forms of the sculpture, in 
places, only just emerging from the rough. A comparison of the 
towers of the two temples, Trailokyesvara and Lokesvara, shows that 
they are alike in all respects save for the crowning member which, in 
the former, is round instead of square. There is no doubt that the 
square form of Virupaksha is more in keeping with the rest of the 
tower. At Kailasa this member is octagonal. Garuda presides over 
the shrine door, and thus indicates that this temple was dedicated to 
Vaishnava worship. 

The temple of Papanatha, in the south of the village, strikes quite 
a new note (Plate 21). Its tower, which is fairly complete, is in the 
northern style. Like the others, it faces east. It was built originally 
for Vaishnava use, and was possibly dedicated to Surya-Narayana, or 
the Sun-god; for, though Papanatha is a name of Siva, and was possibly 
given to it by the Lingaits in later times, Garuda, the vehicle of 
Vishnu, is found above the shrine doorway and that of the inner hall. 
In the niche, at the back of the shrine, in the pradakshina, or circum- 
ambulatory passage round it, is an image of Surya. Instead of an 
image, a buckle-like ornament occupies the dedicatory block over the 
outer or main doorway. The temple is in disuse as such, but is used 
as a byre, cattle being tethered within, and along its walls without. 



OF WESTERN INDIA 25 

This is probably an older temple than that of Virupaksha, though 
the pillars within, with their bases and cushion capitals, might suggest 
a later date. They are, however, clumsy, and are not so well designed 
as those of a somewhat similar pattern in the caves of Ajanta. Though, 
at first sight, it looks very unlike Virupaksha, it will be found that 
the difference is almost confined to the tower. Its plan is but a 
modification of its neighbour; in fact, it is a nearer approach to that 
of Kailasanatha at Conjeveram than to Virupaksha. The outer walls 
are practically the same as those of the latter, a variation in the arrange- 
ment of the sculptured panels alone being made. These temples, with 
northern spires, are not a class by themselves apart, architecturally, from 
those bearing Dravidian spires, save for these differences. 

In the front porch are two massive pillars, without bases, upon 
which are sculptures after the fashion of those in the porch of the 
Durga temple at Aihole. One of them represents a warrior in his 
war chariot, drawing his bow against his enemies who crowd around 
him. Some of the many sculptures, upon the outside walls, show 
scenes from the Ramayana, many of which are labelled in characters 
which may be as old as the sixth century. The beams between the 
ceiling panels of the larger hall for there are two halls are most 
exquisitely carved and decorated in hanging arabesque, it being some 
of the richest work of its kind in Western India. A continuous frieze 
of little figures, bearing up the loops of a running festoon, such as is 
frequently seen in early Buddhist ornament, trails along the top of the 
walls of the hall. 

As at Aihole, the village here is full of old temples, each one of 
which has some feature peculiar to itself, either in design or sculpture. 
In a Jain shrine, west of the village, are some very fine makaras y or 
conventional monsters, with florid tails of arabesque, and life-sized 
elephants flanking the shrine doorways. 

In this corner of the Bijapur district are many other interesting 
remains, notably at Badami and Mahakutesvara. Badami was an 
early capital of the Chalukyan dynasty, when it was known under the 
name of Vatapi, the old form of its present name; indeed, it is safe 
to assume that it was in the hands of the Pallavas of the south before 



26 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

it came into those of the Chalukyas. There is an inscription on one 
of the rocks here which mentions Vatapi and speaks of the Pallava as 
the foremost of kings. This inscription, judging by the script, is 
possibly earlier than that in Cave III., which is dated A.D. 578. The 
town occupies a very picturesque position between the horns of the 
rugged hills, which embrace it, with the pretty lake behind. The 
crags and boulders, covered with wild cactus and jungle the ever- 
green tints contrasting with and enhancing the ruddy hues of the red 
sandstone leave but a few boulder-strewn passages up through the 
gorges and rents, between the detached masses, to the ruined forts above. 
Perched upon an overhanging rock, on the north of the village, is the 
temple of Malegitti, or the female garland-maker. It is a small but 
compact temple, complete in all its parts, but now in disuse. It is 
in the same heavy style as those we have been considering. The name, 
as given in the inscription Malegitti-Sivalaya indicates clearly its 
original dedication. There is an inscription on one of the pillars of 
the porch of the time of the Vijayanagar king, Sadasivaraya, dated 
in A.D. 1543, which records the construction of a bastion, which is 
probably the one just above the temple. A similar inscription, of the 
same date, in Cave III., records the construction of a bastion on the 
southern fort, above the cave. Upon the hill, above the temple, is 
another in ruins, while, upon the farther margin of the lake, is the 
picturesque group of Bhutanatha of somewhat later date, making a 
very attractive picture with its reflections among the reeds of the lake. 
The temple and group of the Mahakutesvara shrines lie in a secluded 
glen, with its trickling water and screw pines, between Pattadakal 
and Badami, and are reached by a rough path across an intervening 
tableland. 



LATER CHALUKYAN TEMPLES 

BETWEEN the earlier and the later Chalukyan temples there 
appear to be no transitional examples to bridge over the gap, 
excepting, perhaps, Kallesvara at Kukkanur, and the old Jain 
temple at Lakkundi in the Dharwar district. About the middle of the 
eighth century the Rashtrakutas of the north, whom we have already 
seen cutting rock-temples at Elura, swept down upon the Chalukyas, 
took possession of their dominions, and held them until about A.D. 973, 
when a descendant of a side branch of the Chalukyan family regained 
possession of their ancestral lands. This may account for the absence 
of buildings during the period the country was in the hands of 
strangers. Not only in style is there a great difference between the 
earlier and the later work, but the material used has changed from the 
rougher grained sandstone to the more compact, tractable, and finer 
grained black stone known as chloritic schist, which dresses down to 
a much finer surface, and has enabled the sculptors to produce so much 
of that beautiful, delicate, lace-like tracery which characterises the later 
work, and which it would have been difficult to produce in the coarser 
material. With it the circular shafts of the pillars have been brought 
to a very high state of polish (Plate 27). 

Lakkundi, the ancient Lokkigundi, now rather a deserted-looking 
village in the Dharwar district, full of the ruins of old temples 
enclosed within the old fort walls, was once a place of considerable 
importance. We learn that in A.D. 1191, the Hoysala king, Ballala II., 
made Lokkigundi his headquarters after finally extinguishing the 
Chalukyan family and annexing their territory to his own in the 
south. 

The old Jain temple in the west end of the village is, probably, 
the oldest temple here. We have far fewer temple inscriptions to 
help us in dating these later temples, though the country is full of 
inscribed tablets recording miscellaneous grants. A grant to a temple 

27 



28 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

may not give us any clue to the date of its construction, yet we can 
gather from it the simple fact that the temple is not later than the 
inscription. This Jain temple is not far removed from the temple of 
Kallesvara at Kukkanur, which we may take as an intermediate example 
between the earlier and the later style. In both the size of the 
masonry has diminished, and we no longer find the heavy cyclopean 
blocks as used in the former. They are yet sufficiently heavy enough 
to be piled up without any cementing material, and, practically, no 
through or bond stones. In fact, all through the period of the older 
and medieval stone temples, here and elsewhere, no mortar or cementing 
material was used. The masons depended upon flat horizontal beds 
with the weight of the superstructure to retain all in place. When 
their buildings did give way, through unequal settlement of the 
foundations, or cracking of beams or supports, the masonry generally 
rolled down like a house of cards. Their foundations were poor, and 
of hardly any depth; many buildings were raised upon a layer of* 
great undressed boulders spread upon the surface of the ground, and 
this not for want of funds, since they lavished an abundance of ex- 
pensive decoration upon the superstructure (see Plate 22). Over 
most of the Dakhan the soil is firm, and the rock rises to or very 
near the surface. In Northern Gujarat, where the soil is very sandy, 
most of the more important stone temples rested upon a substantial 
brick foundation. 

The dedicatory block, above the doorway, which has frequently 
been alluded to, is a small, square, projecting panel on the middle of 
the lintel, upon which is generally carved an image of the deity to 
whom the temple is dedicated, or of some member of his train; and, 
thus, should the image in the shrine be missing, it is not difficult to 
say what deity occupied it. An apparent exception to this rule is the 
image of Gaja-Lakshmi, or Lakshmi with her elephants, frequently 
found upon the outer doorways of Jain temples in the Chalukyan 
districts, but never upon the shrine doors. This, in the past, has led 
to many mistakes, for she is found upon the outer doors of nearly 
all Brahmanical temples in this district as well. Because she was 
seen in old photographs over Jain doorways, it was taken for granted 



OF WESTERN INDIA 29 

that all temples having her in the same position were Jain; but the 
great majority of temples in the Chalukyan country are Brahmanical. 
Lakshmi, here, was a favourite with both communities. Around *he 
shrine walls of a temple are, usually, three principal images, one on 
each side and one at the back. The one at the back gives another 
clue to the original dedication of a temple, for it has some immediate 
connection with the image in the shrine. Jain shrines have, as a rule, 
less figure sculpture upon them, and what there is is a repetition of 
the Jina which is seated in the shrine. A Jain image always presides 
upon the dedicatory block over the shrine door of a Jain temple. 

In Hindu temples the object of worship within the shrines of 
the Saiva or Lingait cults is the linga, or phallus, of Siva, except in 
temples to goddesses, which have an image of the appropriate deity. 
In Vaishnava temples there is installed an image of Vishnu or of some 
avatara or incarnation of him, as well as such allied deities as Surya- 
Narayana. In Jain shrines is always found an image of one of their 
twenty-four jinas, or tirthankaras (teachers), selected by the donor of 
the particular temple as his special favourite. These are either clothed 
or nude, according as the donor belonged to the swetambara (white 
robed) or digambara (nude, sky-clad) sect, and are found either sitting 
or standing with the arms hanging by the side in the latter case. The 
digambara images are nude to the waist, and in this particular they 
differ from Buddhist statues, which are shown with but one arm and 
shoulder bare, or fully clothed. 

Passing on to the more elaborately decorated temples of the tenth 
to the thirteenth centuries, we may take that of Kasivisvesvara at 
Lakkundi as a fair example. Plate 22 shows the south side of the 
same. In this will be seen the storied arrangement of the tower, still 
discernible, though much masked by the superabundance of ornament; 
and it will also be seen how the vertical bands of the northern tower 
are simulated by the arrangement of the trefoil niches, ranged, in line, 
one above the other. As a purely decorative detail, the miniature 
sikhara, or tower, of the northern type is often introduced into niches 
around the temple walls. The rich lace-like work, for which these 
temples are noted, is seen in the mouldings around the doorways, much 



30 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

of it being so thoroughly undercut as to have the appearance of the 
finest fretwork, standing away from the stone, and held to it by but 
a lew tiny struts beneath (Plate 23). The village is full of these old 
shrines, which are, now, nearly all deserted or used for other purposes. 

Even more elaborate is much of the carved work in the old 
temple of Mahadeva at Ittagi, 6 miles away across the border 
(Plate 25). This is a much larger building than that of Kasivisves- 
vara, it having what the other does not possess, a large open pillared 
hall. An inscription gives its date as Saka 1034 (A.D. 1112), and 
styles the temple a devalana-chakravarti, a very emperor among 
temples, a title it, no doubt, fully deserved, as being probably the 
finest temple in the Kanarese districts after that of Halabid in Maisur 
(Plate 24). 

The tower, as it now stands, rises in three tiers, or stories, with 
a few of the lower courses of the masonry of the fourth which carried 
the finial. These stages are quite distinct, and are not so cut up and 
masked by decorative details as in Kasivisvesvara and others of the 
same class. The little cusped niches, which adorn the middle of each 
story, rising one above the other, are very handsome; and the delicate 
work is further enhanced by the rich dark shadows in the niches. Some 
eighteen to twenty-four inches of the basement is still covered up with 
the silt of ages, the lowest mouldings being hidden. 

The triangular corner slabs of the central ceiling of the outer 
pillared hall are marvels of fretted stone (Plate 26). The great slabs 
have been worked into a rich heavy mass of hanging arabesque foliage 
and makaras, which emerge from the jaws of a kirttimukha y or 
grotesque face. The spirited convolutions of the design, with their 
circling excrescences and bewildering whorls, form, altogether, as rich 
a piece of work as will be found amongst these temples. What adds 
to the effect is the remarkably deep undercutting, so that the whole 
of this petrified mass of foliage hangs from the ceiling by a forest of 
little struts, hidden in the dark shadows behind it, and connecting it 
with the main body of the slab. Similar deep carving may be seen 
upon one of the Hoysala temples at Balagamve, just over the Maisur 
border (Plates 27 and 28). 



OF WESTERN INDIA 31 

The great open hall, at the east end, was originally supported upon 
sixty-eight pillars, of a totally different style from those of the earlier 
temples. By this time the masons had learnt something about t4ie 
strength of materials, and that a much lighter pillar was sufficient. 
Twenty-six of these are large ones standing upon the floor and forming 
the main support of the roof; the rest, which were dwarf pillars, stood 
upon the surrounding bench, or scdile, and carried the sloping eaves. 
The larger columns are of different patterns, but are arranged 
symmetrically with regard to their designs. The four central ones 
are of the most complicated design, and are similar to those in the 
porch of the temple of Dodda Basappa at Dambal. There are also 
round and square shafted pillars as in Kasivisvesvara at Lakkundi, the 
round sections, as usual in this type of pillar, having been turned in 
the lathe. It must not be supposed that they were turned in a hori- 
zontal position, for that would have been impossible. They were 
turned in a vertical position, and the fixed tool was brought up against 
the roughly dressed shaft as it revolved. On many pillars the fine 
grooves of the sharp-pointed tool are left, but, in the more finished 
examples, the surface has been polished almost as smoothly as glass. 
This may be seen in the interior view of the temple at Annavatti on 
Plate 27. 

Other highly decorated temples, of about the same period, are 
found in many places within the old Chalukyan boundaries, and there 
is hardly a village that has not some remains, either as the ruins of 
an ancient shrine or inscribed slabs. The more notable remains are 
found at Gadag, Haveri, Hangal, Bankapur, Kuruvatti, across the river, 
Dambal, Chaudadampur, Niralgi, Harahalli, Galagnatha, Harihara, 
Rattihalli, Balagamve, across the border in Maisur, Unkal, Degamve, 
and Belgaum. The little temple of Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, 
at Gadag has some elaborately designed pillars, and there are no others 
that are equal to these for the crowded abundance of minute detail 
which covers their surfaces (Plate 31). It consists, chiefly, of repeti- 
tions of miniature shrines, tiny pilasters, panels containing Lilliputian 
deities and attendants, rampant lions, and a host of other detail. The 
little images are adorned with necklaces, bracelets, anklets, and a 



32 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

profusion of other jewellery, each bead and jewel being fashioned 
with the most careful and delicate touch. Other pillars in this shrine 
arc decorated with a beautiful diaper pattern around their shafts, of 
which there is just sufficient to make us wish for more. At Kuruvatti 
some of the flying figure brackets are still to be seen (Plate 29). These 
existed in most of the temples, but nearly all have been removed or 
destroyed. The evidences of the religious zeal of the iconoclasts of 
Islam are everywhere apparent among these shrines. At Dambal we 
come across a temple built upon a totally different plan from those 
generally met with at least, so far as the exterior is concerned 
(Plate 30). The star-shaped plan, occasionally indulged in, was 
obtained by revolving a square about its centre that is, the inter- 
section of its diagonals. The angles of the square will thus travel 
round upon a circle, and, if the angles are stopped at points equi- 
distant from one another, they will form the periphery of the plan 
of the proposed building, all the angles of which are right angles. The' 
hall follows the same plan, though larger, the two giving an outline 
of a serrated 8. But, less frequently, temples have been found where 
the angles were not all right angles. A circular plan is not found, 
the nearest approach being a circular corridor, containing images, sur- 
rounding an ordinarily planned temple at the Marble Rocks, near 
Jabalpur. The Hangal temple is noted for its very large domical 
ceiling in the main hall, which rises, like some of those in North 
Gujarat, in concentric circles of cusped mouldings, and then, at the 
apex, falling again in a great rosette or pendant. 

There is no part of Western India so full of inscribed tablets 
and memorial stones as the Karanese districts that is, the country of 
the Chalukyas. There is scarcely a village that does not possess one 
or more; possessions that the people do not, in the least, appreciate, 
where they do not lend themselves to some base use as a culvert slab 
or a washing stone. Very few of these are now found standing upright 
in their original positions; for the most part they lie about half buried 
in the mud of fields; some are set up outside the village where the 
kine can have a last rub before being turned in at night. Many have 
perished. It is mainly from these lithic grants and deeds, often 



OF WESTERN INDIA 33 

demanding infinite patience in their decipherment, that the knowledge 
we have of the dynasties who, with their feudatory chiefs, ruled over 
these districts has been gleaned. These records are divided into two 
classes those that record grants of land, money, or periodical pay- 
ments in kind to temples, communities, or private persons; and those 
that are memorials of deceased persons. The former have little 
sculpture upon them beyond the sun and moon, indicating that the 
grant is to last as long as those two luminaries, and the linga, or other 
symbol, showing the religious sect to which the donor belonged, the 
remainder of the stone being occupied with laudatory accounts of the 
donor and his ancestors, the grant coming in as an afterthought at 
the end. The memorial stones are more elaborately sculptured in 
bands or panels, showing the manner of the hero's death, his ascent to 
the heaven of his god, and the symbols of his faith. 

Other remains of those times are columns, which were, as a rule, 
set up before temples. There is one bearing a very important inscrip- 
tion at Mahakutesvara. A curious one stands in the village of Bala- 
gamve which has on the top a human statue with two birds 5 heads, 
known as ganda-bherunda, the great enemy of elephants, set up here 
to scare them away from the village crops. It is over 30 feet high, 
and was erected in A.D. 1047. Before Jain temples they held images, 
such as the chaumukha, and before Brahmanical shrines either images 
or a brazier for a light. Such columns were even copied in the mono- 
lithic temple of Kailasa at Elura, upon the top of which is the sacred 
tnsula^ an emblem of Siva. 



TEMPLES IN NORTH KANAKA 

ADNG the seaboard, below the Ghats, in North Kanara, are 
found some stone temples of curious construction, but very 
much later than the Chalukyan, just described, having very 
little in common with that style. Although this district was within 
the old Chalukyan limits, comparatively little temple building in stone 
was carried out at that period. The method of building, above the 
Ghats, where the rainfall was very much less than in the Konkan, was 
not so suitable there, where it is excessive, for such buildings, without 
mortar joints, would be but sieves. It was left to the masons, under 
the Vijayanagar kings, to devise a method of roofing that would meet 
requirements. Similar buildings are also found in South Kanarar at 
Mudabidri. 

The most notable features in these temples, then, are the plain, 
sloping roofs of flat, overlapping slabs, and the peculiar arrangement 
of stone screens which enclose the sides. There is a great likeness 
between these and similar ones, built in wood for the most part, in 
Nepal, which has led some writers to wonder whether there could have 
been any connection between the two. Perhaps the only connection is 
that the same conditions produced the same result. These roofs may 
be seen repeated in the thatched cottages in Bhatkal, where such temples 
occur, even to the double story; and the like is seen in the Jami Masjid, 
a modern construction in wood, which is, perhaps, more like the 
Nepalese buildings than the stone temples. The barred screens, which 
enclose and protect the sides, have their prototype in the large coarse 
screens hung around the verandahs of the houses in the village, after the 
fashion of Venetian blinds, where they are made of battens or slats 
from the split stems of the supari palm, strung together with rope. 
They are very reminiscent of the Buddhist rail. There is nothing of 
much note within these temples the sculpture is very coarse and the 
pillars are squat and ugly. 

34 



THE SOLANKI TEMPLES OF GUJARAT 
AND KATHIAWAD 

K TURNING to Kathiawad and Northern Gujarat, we find a 
large class of medieval temples which are closely akin to those 
of the Chalukyan districts. After the fall of Valabhinagar, the 
ancient capital of the Valabhi kings, a new power arose in North 
Gujarat with Anhillavada-Pattan as its centre. The founder of this 
new dynasty was Wan Raj, of the Chavada family, whose members 
are reputed by some to have been Sun-worshippers. During the reign 
of one of his successors, bonds of matrimony joined up the families 
of Anhillavada and Kalyana, and a Solanki (Chalukya) became King of 
Anhillavada in the tenth century under the title of Mul Raj. With 
this chief's accession began the building of those temples, the ruins of 
which are now scattered about the country, and which reached its 
greatest height during the reign of Siddha Raj and Kumarapala during 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Indeed, Siddha Raj has been 
credited with so many buildings that, at the present day, if a villager 
be asked who the builder of any old ruin was, he promptly replies, 
"Siddha Raj." The descendants of the old salats still exist in this 
part of the country and follow their calling on the traditions of their 
forefathers, but in such modified style as less wealth and less zeal have 
developed. They still possess some of their old Sanskrit books, which 
they profess to follow, but it is doubtful whether many of them can 
understand them intelligently, since they are written in slokas, or verse, 
which are often obscure in their meaning. It was these men who were 
pressed into the service of the Muhammadans, when they gained the 
ascendancy in Gujarat, and who built the mosques and tombs of the 
conquerors; and this is the reason why we find these buildings so 
Hindu in feeling, the only limitation imposed being the rigid exclu- 
sion of figures upon their walls. 

35 



36 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

The largest and most elaborate temple of which we find remains 
in Gujarat was, no doubt, the Rudramala, at Siddhapur, the city called 
after Siddha Raj; of which just sufficient remains, together with the 
help of more fortunate examples, to enable us to reconstruct it with 
tolerable exactness. Siddhapur is upon the Sarasvati River, 64 miles 
north of Ahmadabad, and it was originally called Sristhala, or Sristha- 
laka. Mulraj, towards the end of his reign, about the middle of the 
tenth century, wandering about the country in search of ease for a 
troubled conscience, settled down at this holy place and commenced 
to build a temple to his gods, but he does not appear to have com- 
pleted it. It was reserved for the great Siddharaj, two centuries later, 
to take in hand the unfinished and now ruined fane, and, in its place, 
to raise such a temple as had not been seen in the land before the 
famous Rudramala (the garland of Rudra or of the eleven Rudras), 
or Rudramahalaya (the abode of Rudra or Siva), the scanty, but 
colossal, ruins of which now remain embedded amongst the houses *of 
the town, near the river bank (Plate 32). These remains consist of 
five columns of the front or eastern porch, with their beams above 
them; four columns in two stories of the northern porch; four greater 
columns, also in two stories, which stood on the west side of the hall 
and before the shrine; and one kirttistambha, or arch of fame, the 
only one of a pair, in the courtyard at the north-east corner of the 
temple. In addition to these are fragments of some small subsidiary 
shrines at the back of the temple, which have been converted into a 
Muhammadan masjid. 

It was with the help of a salat from Pattan that the writer was 
able to reconstruct the plan of this great building from the few 
portions left and an intimate knowledge of the style. It was, no 
doubt, the largest, or, at least, the second largest, in Gujarat, measuring 
about 145 feet by 103 feet, rising in, at least, three stories. Another 
temple, which stood at Vadnagar, 20 miles to the south-east, may 
have been still larger, judging from the size of two kirttistambhas now 
left, which are larger 35 feet 6 inches high than that at this temple 
(Plate 41). Such magnificent piles were not likely to escape the 
attention of the Muhammadans in their first onslaughts upon Hinduism , 



OF WESTERN INDIA 37 

in this province; and in proportion to their grandeur was the complete 
destruction that overwhelmed them. Between the front, or east, porch 
and the flight of steps, or ghat, leading down to the river, stood the 
Nandi pavilion, and, perhaps, before this again, a third kirttistambha. 

These kirttistambhas were favourite additions to temples in this 
part of the country; they seem to serve no definite purpose other than 
ornament, but they serve that purpose well. There are, as a rule, 
three in connection with a temple, one flanking each of the forward 
corners of the building, and one in front of the entrance, facing the 
river, as in the present case, or the flight of steps leading down into 
an ornamental tank, as in the case of the temple of Surya at Mudhera. 
They are not, however, equally graceful in outline, those at Vadnagar 
being finer in every respect than the one at the Rudramala. It will 
be seen that they are simply composed of two columns, of a larger 
size, as we find in the halls of the temples, supporting a deep orna- 
mental entablature and pediment. The squareness between the vertical 
columns and the straight soffit of the cross beam is broken by the 
light cusped torana, or flying arch, thrown across between them. This 
torana, again, as will be seen in the Abu temples, was also a pet device, 
whose convolutions are like some beautiful creeper running wild 
between pillar and pillar in cusps and curves. Where a kirttistambha 
is found singly beside an ornamental tank, as at Kapadvanj, it is, 
probably, the only remnant of an old temple which has disappeared. 
Among Chalukyan temples they are also found, but so much smaller 
and more insignificant that they hardly catch the attention. In the 
case of a number of these they served a special purpose, and were 
erected in the courtyards of temples where, in olden times, a great 
pair of scales was slung to the cross beam, on those rare occasions 
when a king, in fulfilment of a vow, had himself weighed against gold, 
which was distributed in charity. 

A most imposing ruin is that of the temple of Surya at Mudhera, 
a village about 28 miles south by west from Siddhapur (Plates 38 
and 39). Around the great temple of the Sun, which stands upon 
high ground and looks eastwards, over the village, to the rising sun, 
the ground shows signs, in extensive brick foundations, of a former 



38 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

town of much more consequence than the present little mud-walled 
village. The temple, which is complete in all its parts, save for the 
tower and the roofs of the halls, which have disappeared, consists of 
the shrine and great closed hall, forming, together, one block, and 
the detached open pillared hall in advance of these. In continuation, 
eastwards, of the last is the ornamental Surya kunda, or tank, with 
the two pillars of a small kirttistambha between them, at the head of 
the steps leading down into the tank. Colonel Monier Williams, when 
Surveyor-General, visited this temple at the beginning of last century, 
and wrote of it : " There is one of the finest specimens of ancient 
Hindu architecture at Mundera I ever saw. It is a pagoda very similar 
in structure to those of the present day, but ornamented so profusely 
that it is very evident the founder was determined to make it the 
most finished piece of work that it was possible for the compass of 
human art to effect. . . . All the upper part of it is supported on 
pillars, which are of an order the most elegant, and enriched with 
carved work of exquisite beauty, and which would be considered in 
this refined age as the conception of a correct taste, and the execution 
of a masterly hand. ... I do not recollect observing in any building 
that I have seen in India such marks of the sheer effects of time as 
many of the stones about this pagoda and tank display. We spent 
some time every day in inspecting the place; but such is the variety 
of its beauties that it would have taken a much longer time than we 
had to spare to have discerned them all, or have gained a faint idea 
of the general design." 

The plan of Kumarapala's temple of Somanatha at Somanatha- 
Pattan is practically the same as this one, except that in the former there 
are no signs above ground of an outer pillared hall or tank. It is 
likely that, that temple being dedicated to Siva, these adjuncts of the 
Mudhera temple were replaced by the Nandi pavilion. The floor of 
the shrine has been destroyed blown up by gunpowder, it is said, 
by the Muhammadans. Beneath the original floor is an underground 
shrine where, beneath the fallen debris from the tower and upper 
floor, was found the seat of the Sun god with his seven horses upon 
the front of it, but there was no trace of the image; that may be found 



OF WESTERN INDIA 39 

buried, upside down, in the pavement in front of some mosque. But 
Surya is displayed in all the prominent niches around the walls, and 
up and down the sides of the doorways. The shrine doorway has been 
badly damaged. 

The pillars are of the same pattern as are found in the temple of 
Vimala Sha at Abu, with the graceful fretted toranas arching over 
the span from pillar to pillar, and softening the otherwise rigid effect 
of the straight square beam (Plate 40). The outside of the wall is 
a mass of delicate detail, all carried out in the red sandstone so 
universally used in this province. It is very doubtful whether marble 
would have had any better appearance, except for sheltered interiors 
such as at Abu; for where it has been used for exteriors, as in the old 
Jain temple at Sarotra in the north-west of the Pahlanpur State, it has 
mostly weathered to a dirty-looking, smoky black which does not show 
the details to advantage. 

The open hall is a magnificent pile of pillared splendour, even as 
it stands in ruins; and with these old temples it is questionable whether 
they looked better fresh from the builders' hands than they do now 
with all the mellowing effects of the ages that have passed over them, 
and when all the rawness of new masonry has vanished. 

Anhillavada-Pattan, the old capital, has little to show in the way 
of architectural remains, the reason for which is that, being a large 
town, old material has been used up in later work, and we find many 
an old sculpture or pillar in the walls of the town. In the country 
around there are numbers of old ruins of interest which overflow into 
Kachh and the borders of Sind. Pattan became a quarry from which 
the kings of Ahmadabad and others carted away the material for 
building their own palaces, mosques, and reservoirs. This, in the 
old buildings, they got ready to hand, and, consequently, the only 
remains now of the Solankis and Waghelas are but fragments. The 
present town does not occupy the site of the old city, but is to the 
east of it. Outside the western gate, stretching far across the fields, 
are mounds, fallen walls, and other indications of the position of old 
Pattan. On this side is the ruin of the great Sahasara-linga talav, or 
tank, around which have gathered old legends of the time of Siddha- 



40 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

raja. Most of the stone of its embankment has been taken away for 
building purposes. Near this are the remains of the Rani's van), or 
well, and, judging from the portions that remain, it must have been 
second to none in Gujarat in size and splendour. Beyond this, on an 
island in the river, is Sheikh Farid's tomb, partly a converted temple; 
and, lying in the courtyard of the same, is a huge detached ceiling 
panel of magnificent winding foliage. This great scroll, executed, 
unfortunately, in friable sandstone, occupied the space in the ceiling 
over the east porch, which has fallen into the river, but it has been 
salvaged and placed in its present position. It is, certainly, the finest 
piece of scroll work yet found in Gujarat. A copy, on a much smaller 
scale, and not so delicately chiselled, is seen in one of the marble 
ceilings at Abu. In a Jain temple in the town is the reputed image 
of Wanraj, the founder of Pattan. There is some very fine work in 
marble in many of the Jaina temples, but it is not, as a rule, very old. 
In the adjoining province of Kathiawad, and also in Kachh, afe 
many more of these temples, built by the same men, under the same 
rulers and their tributaries, or local chiefs in the south with whom 
the Solankis were frequently at war. One of the most notable of 
these is the well-known and famous shrine of Somanatha at Somanatha- 
Pattan (Plate 33). The present ruin is a rebuilding by Kumarapala 
of that which was attacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in A.D. 1025. The 
temple was then desecrated, but was not destroyed; its destruction was 
carried out by the lieutenant whom he left behind him to govern the 
country. Bhimadeva of Anhillavada, who had been hovering about 
on the heels of Mahmud, appears to have retaken the town on his 
departure and to have rebuilt the shrine of Somanatha; and it was in 
consequence of it being again sacked, or of having fallen into ruin, 
that Kumarapala undertook its reconstruction. Subsequently, the 
building has been attacked on more than one occasion by the Muham- 
madans, and has been converted into a masjid^ when two little minars 
were set up above the main entrance and a new dome was put over 
the main hall. It is now quite deserted, and near it lie scores of 
old images from its walls and collected from various old buildings 
in the town. 



OF WESTERN INDIA 41 

The plan of the temple probably followed that of the Rudramala 
at Siddhapur, and was of nearly the same dimensions, being in length 
some 140 feet over all. Though these two buildings were remank- 
able for their size, compared with others of the same class, they were 
by no means imposing when compared with sacred edifices in Europe. 
St. Paul's Cathedral could contain, comfortably, three such buildings 
within its walls. That there were larger temples than these in other 
parts of India may be gathered from the size of the shrine of a colossal 
temple all that remains of it at Bhojapur in the Bhopal territory, 
where the shrine door measures about 30 feet in height by 1 5 broad 
or about three times the measurements of that of Somanatha. 

The temple, which faces the cast, consisted, when entire, of a large 
closed hall, with three entrances, each protected by a deep and lofty 
porch, and the shrine, which stood upon the west side of the hall, 
having a broad circumambulatory passage around it, between the 
inner and outer walls. This passage was lighted by a large balconied 
window in each of its three sides, and these formed a very pleasant 
feature in the general appearance of the building. It is quite possible 
that, like the temple of Surya at Mudhera, this had an open pillared hall 
in advance of the present main entrance, but there is no sign of it, now, 
above ground. Of the original pillars and pilasters in the hall, which 
are much like some of those in the temple of Tejahpala at Mount Abu 
(A.D. 1232), only a few now remain, and these are in a very bad state 
of decay owing to the corroding effect of the moist sea air and spray. 
The interior of the shrine has shared in the general wreckage, but 
retains most of its domical ceiling. The shrine door has been removed 
and has been replaced by a roughly built one. 

The sculpture, upon the exterior of the temple, has been so 
effectually effaced by the despoiler that it is almost impossible to 
identify the few images that remain. The general workmanship shows 
it to be rather later than that of the best period that is, the eleventh 
century, when the temples of Surya at Mudhera, Ambernatha near 
Kalyan, the Rudramala at Siddhapur, and Vimala Sha on Mount Abu 
were raised. 

The well-known story in connection with the sack of Somanatha, 



42 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

of Mahmud carrying away the gate or doors, is a myth, but may have 
some foundation in fact. It is almost certain that, if the doors had 
bien overlaid with silver embossed work, as was a common practice, 
he stripped the silver off and appropriated it. The door brought back 
from Ghazni, with so much ostentation, and which is now at Agra, 
is an original door of Mahmud's tomb, the workmanship and propor- 
tions of which are not Hindu. Learning by bitter experience, at the 
hands of the Muhammadans, the Hindus, in their last rebuilding of 
the temple, in the town, constructed a subterranean shrine in which 
the linga was placed for safety, a hidden passage leading to it; another 
linga was placed in the shrine above for ordinary use. 

The ruins of another fine temple of this class are found at Ghumli, 
in the Barda Hills, the seat of the Jethwas from the tenth to the 
fourteenth centuries (Plate 34). Though not so large as Somanatha, 
being less than two-thirds the length and breadth, it supplies some of 
the missing parts of that temple. The tower has mostly fallen, but 
there is sufficient left in the miniature sikharas, in the base of the 
tower, to show what the whole tower was like, both here and at 
Somanatha. A large, open, two-storied hall takes the place of the 
closed hall of Somanatha. This temple, known as Navalakha, may, 
possibly, be somewhat older than the other. 

Of the same class, a very ornamental temple stands, in ruins, at 
Sejakpur, about 6 miles to the south-east of Dolia Railway Station 
(Plate 34). It, too, goes by the name of Navalakha, or nine lakhs 
a favourite name for temples as well as palaces. It is not known what 
the "nine lakhs" refer to; it may possibly be intended to convey the 
idea that the building cost that amount of the current coin to build 
it, or that the number of images upon it were so many that they were 
past counting. It became but a high-sounding name for such build- 
ings, like the thousand-pillared hails of Southern India, which never 
contained anything like that number. 

Though the temple is in a very ruinous condition, the crispness of 
the carving upon it is almost as fresh and sharp as when it left the 
sculptor's hand; and, being in a reddish-yellow sandstone of uniform 
tint, the appearance of the work, under a brilliant sun, is very pleasing. 



OF WESTERN INDIA 43 

As usual, the plan of the building is designed with a number of 
projections and recesses, and these, again, are further nicked out into 
smaller ones in the basement mouldings, which is in striking contmst 
with the simple plans of the very early temples. Unlike the star- 
shaped plan of the Chalukyan district, this is worked out upon fixed 
squares. By dividing a square into 121 smaller ones, 1 1 on each side, 
and discarding 10 squares in each corner, by a zigzag line across the 
corner, the approximate shape of the periphery of the shrine or hall 
is obtained. The domical ceiling of the hall is constructed, not with 
regular radiating voussoirs, but with horizontal rings, with the indi- 
vidual stones lying upon flat beds, each ring being corbelled inwards 
above that below, until they meet near the crown, where the curve 
reverses in a central hanging rosette or pendant. The weight of the 
masonry of the roof, packed around the dome, holds the whole together 
without any cementing material. They are thus similar in construction 
to those in the Chalukyan temples of the same age. Two very fine 
examples are found in the temples of Vimala Sha and Tejahpala at 
Mount Abu. The pillars are of the same type as those at Mudhera, the 
dwarf ones around the margin having the conventional water-pot and 
foliage decoration so common throughout Gujarat and adjacent districts 
of that period. The filigree fretwork, covering the surface of the 
tower, is as rich as the best found elsewhere. The whole temple is 
built upon a high, solid, brick foundation. 

Gujarat, Rajputana, and Kathiawad have been plentifully supplied 
with wells, many of which, especially the step-wells, are not much 
behind the temples in architectural pretensions. The descent to the 
water-level is by a series of flights of steps with landings at intervals, 
and a superstructure of pillars and architraves repeated in stories up 
to the ground-level. As the steps descend, these stories increase in 
number over the various landings. At the far end from the entrance 
is the deep, circular well, with an arrangement at the top, on the 
ground-level, for hoisting water for irrigation purposes. The advan- 
tage of the step-well over the ordinary kind is that the water can 
always be reached as it sinks from step to step : the disadvantage is 
that, being so accessible, it is easily fouled. There is a fine example 



44 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

at Ahmadabad, known as Dada Hariris, and an even finer one at 
Adalaj, north of that place, and Wadhwan possesses two good ones. 

^ Much attention was paid to the architectural appearance of city 
walls and gates. Most old towns of any consequence were provided 
with these, properly built in stone, in contrast to the mud walls of 
ordinary villages. Among the most entire, still existing, are those of 
Dabhoi, near Baroda (Plate 32). The walls are built of great blocks 
of sandstone with heavy bastions at intervals, in which will frequently 
be seen odd stones and sculptures from older ruined temples. Of 
the gates, by far the finest is the Eastern, or Hira, Gate (Gate of 
Diamonds). It was covered with handsome carvings representing 
groups of warriors, animals, birds, and serpents, some of which 
remain; but the gate has been, for the most part, rebuilt in Muham- 
madan style. Upon this gate is a representation of a camel, an animal 
not found in earlier sculptures. 

From this account of the old architectural monuments of Western 
India we cannot omit mention of the Jain temples on Mount Satrun- 
jaya in the south-east corner of Kathiawad, though, with the excep- 
tion of one or two, the buildings cannot be classed as ancient or even 
medieval. But Satrunjaya is a place apart from all others, its position 
being unique. Rising gently from the plain to twin summits, 2,000 
feet above sea-level, linked together by a saddle, or shallow valley, 
its top is crowded with hundreds of temples, all walled in, in separate 
enclosures, with a total absence of dwellings of any kind (Plate 42). 
The shrine of Adinatha dominates the southern summit, while a great 
chaumukha temple surmounts the northern. This is one of the five 
great tirthas of the Jains, the others being Samet Sikhara, or Mount 
Parsvanatha, in Bihar, Mount Arbuda, or Abu, in Sirohi, Girnar in 
Kathiawad, and Chandragiri in the Himalayas. This hill is sacred to 
Adinatha, or Adishvara Bhagavan, the first of the twenty-four 
tirthankaras, or great teachers, who were born into the world, at 
different periods, to reform it, after it had fallen from grace. 
Although great antiquity is claimed for many of the shrines, more 
especially for that of Adishvara, the rebuilding and repairing of the 
older ones have left but little, if anything, of the original work in 



OF WESTERN INDIA 45 

evidence anywhere. Inscriptions and mutilated images and simhasanas, 
or image seats, built in, in fragments, in modern cells and shrines, do 
not go back beyond the twelfth century. Among the oldest temples 
may be reckoned the Panch Pandava, and, perhaps, that ascribed to 
Kumarapala in the Vimalavasi tuk, or enclosure. The rest are later 
erections, and the building of shrines still goes on apace, since the 
building of a temple or the setting up of an image ensures to the donor 
a percentage of the merit that accrues to those who worship, merit 
being the royal road to salvation, or nirvana. 

Forbes, in his " Ras Mala," describing Mount Satrunjaya, writes : 
" There is hardly a city in India, through its length and breadth, from 
the river of Sindh to the sacred Ganges, from Himala's diadem of ice 
peaks, to the throne of his virgin daughter, Roodra's destined bride, 
that has not supplied at one time or other contributions of wealth 
to the edifices which crown the hill of Paleetana; street after street, 
and square after square, extend these shrines of the Jain faith, with 
their stately enclosures, half palace, half fortress, raised, in marble 
magnificence upon the lonely and majestic mountain, and like the 
mansions of another world, far removed in upper air from the ordinary 
tread of mortals. In the dark recesses of each temple one image or 
more of Adeenath, of Ujeet, or of some other of the tirthankaras is 
seated, whose alabaster features, wearing an expression of listless repose, 
are rendered dimly visible by the faint light shed from silver lamps; 
incense perfumes the air, and barefooted with noiseless tread, upon 
the polished floors, the female votaries, glittering in scarlet and gold, 
move round and round in circles, chanting forth their monotonous, 
but not unmelodious, hymns. Shutroonjye indeed might fitly repre- 
sent one of the fancied hills of Eastern romance, the inhabitants of 
which have been instantaneously changed into marble, but which fay 
hands are ever employed upon, burning perfumes, and keeping all 
clean and brilliant, while fay voices haunt the air in these voluptuous 
praises of the Devs." Satrunjaya has a mahatmya, or legend, sup- 
posed to have been composed by Danesvara at Valabhi, by command 
of Siladitya, King of Surashtra, extending to about 8,700 lines in 
Sanskrit verse, and containing 108 names for the hill. 



4 6 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

The Jain shrines upon Mount Abu, an isolated hill within the 
southern confines of Rajputana, are better known to tourists than 
th*se upon Satrunjaya, being more accessible. But, here, only a small 
portion of the top of the hill is occupied by them, the rest being 
partly occupied by bungalows and barracks, perched among the crags 
and boulders, as a hot weather resort. The plateau extends some 
14 miles from north to south, while its breadth varies from 2 to 4 miles. 
A hundred years ago, Colonel Tod was the first European to tread this 
delightful resort, 4,000 feet above sea-level, and to thread his way 
through the tangled lanes, hedged in with wild dog-rose, to look upon 
the lovely pink blossom of its wild peach-trees, and to gaze upon the 
fantastic forms of the Toad and the Nun Rock the black-robed sister 
who is ever on her knees. 

About a mile north of the civil station lie the Dilvada temples, 
which take their name from the adjacent village, and the village from 
the temples Devalvada, or Temple-hamlet. Another 7 miles north is 
Guru Sikhara, the highest point, rising to 5,653 feet, and, about 4 miles 
north-east of the station, is the old fort of the Paramara chiefs of Abu, 
Achilgarh, beneath whose shattered battlements is the famous shrine 
and sacred tank of Achalesvara. The Dilvada group consists of four 
principal temples, each, with its subsidiary shrines and corridors, 
contained within its own enclosed quadrangle, as is the usual arrange- 
ment with the Jains. The principal temples are those of Vimala Sha 
and Tejahpala, whose marble halls were added about A.D. 1032 and 
1232 respectively (Plates 35-37 and 42). They are constructed, almost 
entirely, of white marble, quarried in the plains to the north, and hauled 
up miles of rugged hillside by some means that we are now altogether 
ignorant of. Age and the weather have exercised their mellowing 
influence upon the stone under cover, giving it a soft, creamy tint which 
is very pleasing. 

The amount of beautiful ornamental detail spread over these 
temples in the minutely carved decoration of ceilings, pillars, door- 
ways, panels, and niches is simply marvellous; the crisp, thin, trans- 
lucent, shell-like treatment of the marble surpasses anything seen 
elsewhere, and some of the designs are veritable dreams of beauty. The 



OF WESTERN INDIA 47 

work is so delicate that ordinary chiselling would have been disastrous. 
It is said that much of it was produced by scraping the marble away, 
and that the masons were paid by the amount of marble dust $o 
removed. Amongst all this display of the sculptors' skill, the two 
great domical ceilings of the halls of Vimala Sha and Tejahpala attract 
most notice, and receive most praise. That of Vimala Sha is carried 
out in the same style as those in other temples of the same period, 
that in Tejahpala's is even more elaborate, the great central pendant 
being a magnificent piece of work. How the weight of this hanging 
mass of fretted marble is supported is a mystery. In the older temple, 
that of Vimala Sha, the pillars of the hall are of the same type as 
those in the halls of the temple of Surya at Mudhera and that of 
Ambarnatha, and are all of a uniform pattern; but in the temple of 
Tejahpala the architects had lost the early vigour of well established 
forms, and had allowed themselves a freer fancy in rather nondescript 
and whimsical designs. The general plan of this temple has been 
copied from the older one. 

Though the detail work of these temples is exquisite, and the 
designs are not only novel in their treatment but extremely pleasing 
to the eye, yet the setting of the work is at fault. The general out- 
lines of the buildings are not in the best proportions. Such large 
domes are set too squat; they require greater height. The corridor 
ceilings, especially, are much too low, and the unnecessarily heavy, 
massive beams, which separate them, are the antithesis of the fairy 
lightness of the sculpture and gossamer tracery. The latter is literally 
boxed up in deep compartments. As it is but a few feet above one's 
head, it is hardly possible to see more than one bay at a time, and 
only by straining the neck to view it. Had half the depth of the 
beams been buried in the masonry of the roof, and the bald squareness 
of their soffits been chamfered, the effect would have been improved, 
and the panels and beams would have merged into one general ceiling. 

In Jain temples there is a great sameness in the images, especially 
of the tirthankaras. They are all of one pattern and one stereotyped 
cast of features, and it is only by their symbols, or chihna, shown 
beneath them, that we know the one from the other. Parsvanatha, 



48 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

alone, differs from the rest in that he always has the serpent's multi- 
cephalous hood above him. The long ranges of corridor cell-shrines, 
winch surround the court of the temple, form galleries of sculpture 
where the statues are all replicas of one another. Goggle eyes peer 
out at one from every cell, in a stony vacant stare, from images that 
ever sit in a calm and listless repose. Badly proportioned, straight- 
limbed, and muscleless, they are but poor attempts to delineate the 
human form. All Hindu and other Jain statuary, of this period, is, 
as a rule, more or less characterised by these faults, and the figures 
are often found in the most strained and unnatural attitudes. The 
difference between male and female is indicated, chiefly, by the magni- 
fied hips and breasts of the latter, the dressing of the hair occasionally 
helping to distinguish them. This is the more remarkable since the 
sculptors reduced their drapery to a minimum, apparently with the 
express purpose of displaying the limbs *he better. 

These two temples were each, originally, a small black stone shrine, 
to which the marble halls and corridors were added, and were, no 
doubt, in existence long before Vimala Sha's time. The present 
image of Rishabhadeva, in the main shrine of Vimala Sha, is not the 
original one, but is the second, or, perhaps, the third, in succession. 
The earlier image or images were smashed by the Muhammadans, and 
the curly-haired head of a colossal Jina, in black stone, was found 
lying in an underground room under the south corridor. Going the 
round of the corridor cells, it is found that nearly all the projecting 
mouldings of the image seats have been broken away in the middle 
by the falling of the images when thrown down. Many, in these 
cells, are not the original ones, which were destroyed; the old inscrip- 
tions upon the vseats record the setting up of different tirthankaras 
from those now occupying them, as may be seen by their chihnas. 
There is a story of one of the sultans of Mandu having made the 
people eat their images by converting them into lime, the pan-supari^ 
in India, being always eaten with lime. 

Jain temples are, generally, well supplied with inscriptions, and 
these show that, in Vimala Sha's temple, the building of the corridor 
does not appear to be quite coeval with the building of the great hall. 



OF WESTERN INDIA 49 

In the cells the earliest date is 1063, and there is only one of that date. 
The next one is of 1 144, one of 1 145, five of 1 146, two of 1 150, six 
of 1 156, one of 1 170, and one of 1 1 8 1. Soon after this last date there 
would appear to have been special activity in the setting up of corridor 
images, for there are twenty-five inscriptions dated in 1189, seve n i 
which are over doorways. North Gujarat and Rajputana were overrun 
by Mahmud of Ghazni, the idol-breaker, in his march upon Somanatha, 
'via Ajmir and Anhillavada-Pattan; it is more than likely that his 
troopers discovered the shrines of Abu, and wreaked their vengeance 
upon them. So we find Vimala Sha, of Pattan, in 10/52, restoring and 
improving the shrines of his fathers. Later on, again, North Gujarat 
was invaded by the Muhammadans, still as keen as ever upon their 
favourite pastime of idol smashing, under Qutb-ud-din and Muham- 
mad Ghori in 1194 and 1195, and no images were set up during 
those troublous times. In 1216 and 1217 some grants were made to 
the temple, and two inscribed stones were set up to record it; but it 
was not until more peaceful times returned, and the tide of Muham- 
madan invasion had again receded, that, in 1232, the rich banker 
brothers, Tejahpala and Vastupala of Anhillavada, turned their attention 
to the desecrated shrines, and, copying Vimala Sha's work to a great 
extent, added the beautiful marble halls and corridors to the old shrine 
of Neminatha. Other temples of less pretentious workmanship were 
added in later times to form the present group. Earthquakes, such as 
occurred in 1825, 1849 or 1850, and 1875, have, no doubt, with 
previous ones not recorded, been responsible for a great deal of damage, 
especially to beams and pillars. An inscription upon an iron pillar, 
at the temple of Achilesvara, records the utter rout of a Muhammadan 
attacking party by a swarm of bees that chased them down the hill. 

Another Jain tirtha is Taranga, about 26 miles to the east-north- 
east of Siddhapur, which is a celebrated place of pilgrimage. It is 
situated in a wild and picturesque spot high up in the hills. After 
a long and weary ascent, on the western side of the range, through deep, 
sloping sand, where for two steps gained one is lost, and up a lovely 
glen shaded with great trees, down which ripples a stream of clear, cool 
water, the pathway leads to a great gateway at the crest of the hill. 

4 



50 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

The way then winds, by a very gentle descent, into a great natural 
amphitheatre in the hills, in the arena of which, surrounded by an 
''extensive courtyard, stands the temple of Ajitnatha, built by Kumara- 
pala (i 143-1 174). On several of the higher peaks around are perched 
little canopies, like little watch-towers. The temple is one of the 
largest Jain temples in Gujarat. On one of the doorposts an inscrip- 
tion records the visit of Akbar and the names of those who entertained 
him. 



TEMPLES IN THE DAKHAN 

BETWEEN the Solanki temples in the north and the Chalukyan 
in the south are the so-called " Hemadpanti " temples which, 
though not so numerous or handsome, yet cover quite as much, 
if not more, ground. There is really no definite boundary, nor is the 
class itself very different from its northern or southern neighbours, 
with whom they are contemporaneous. They were mostly erected 
during the reigns of the Yadava chiefs and local governors under them 
in that part of the country between the Narmada and Krishna Rivers. 
The Rashtrakutas, who preceded the Yadavas, busied themselves more 
in cave cutting than in temple building, and we possess nothing in the 
structural line that we can definitely ascribe to their period of rule. 
Indeed, these " Hemadpanti " temples have no tradition and very few 
inscriptions to connect them with any particular reign. Hemadpant, 
or Ilemadri, was the famous minister of the Yadava king, Ramchan- 
dradeva, about the second half of the thirteenth century, who, in his 
leisure, found time to compose several literary works and to build 
many temples, which tradition numbers at some three hundred. 
Having been in a position to command the requisite funds it is 
probable that, like the brothers Tejahpala and Vastupala of Gujarat, 
he caused numbers of temples to be built, and started a revival in 
building which was followed by others. The earlier or more 
decorated temples in the Dakhan, however, were built long before 
his time, but the villagers, in their ignorance, ascribe all old temples 
to him. The true " Hemadpanti " temples are characterised by heavi- 
ness, inclining to clumsiness, with severely plain exteriors. Very few 
temples of this class exhibited image sculptures on the outside walls, 
which would have invited the attention of Muhammadan iconoclasts, 
who were at this time making their presence felt in other parts of 
the country. 

The earlier buildings are now in a very shaky condition, and in 

5* 



52 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

a more or less dilapidated state, chiefly due to the material used in 
their construction the amygdaloidal trap of the country, quarried, as 
-a rule, upon the spot. Though a hard, tough stone, it is full of flaws 
and minute cracks, which render it very unsuitable for such parts as 
beams supporting heavy masses of masonry. Inadequate foundations 
helped to bring about disaster. For reasons of economy or lightness 
brick has now and then been used for the towers and superstructure 
above the cornice, which, when plastered and moulded, and discoloured 
by age, can hardly be distinguished from the stonework below. The 
stone walls, which were of variable thickness, and far heavier than 
would be built at present, were run up in two shells an outer and 
an inner the space between being filled up with loose boulders or 
dry rubble. There is a conspicuous absence of " through " or bonding 
stones or clamps, and no cement or mortar was used. Thus, in many 
cases, where the outer shell has fallen away, the inner has remained 
standing intact and supporting the superstructure. 

The plans of these temples are either rectangular or star-shaped 
in their general outline, and revel in a great multiplicity of angles, 
which are carried up through the walls and the towers. These, again, 
are cut up by numerous horizontal mouldings into a bewildering 
mass of projections and recesses, with their sparkling lights and deep 
shadows. The star-shaped plan is not so common as the others. 

The temple of Ambarnatha, though not in the Dakhan, strictly 
speaking, is, from its solitary position, more conveniently taken with 
the Dakhan temple group. The little village of Ambarnatha is 
situated about 4 miles south-east of Kalyan, the junction of the 
north-eastern and south-eastern branches of the railway near Bombay. 
Beside a small stream, to the east of the village, stands the venerable 
pile of the ruined temple of Ambarnatha (Plate 43). It is built in 
black stone, and is now in disuse, save for the attention of a solitary 
pujari who, once or twice daily, strews flowers upon the deserted 
linga. Upon a beam over the north door, inside, is an inscription 
which tells us that in Saka 982 (A.D. 1060) this temple was built 
(possibly upon the site of an older one) during the reign of the 
Silahara chief Mummuni, or Mamvani. It is thus of the same age as 



OF WESTERN INDIA 53 

the temple of the Sun at Mudhera and that of Vimala Sha at Abu, 
and was just fresh from the builders 5 hands when William of Normandy 
set foot upon British soil. It measures 89 feet by 73^ feet. It is 
closer, in style, to those of the same age in Gujarat than to those in 
the Dakhan above. 

The building faces the west, and is made up of the sanctum and 
mandapa, or hall, the latter being provided with three entrances, each 
with its own porch. The central ceiling of the hall is supported by 
four pillars, and these, with six others in the three porches, are all 
the free standing ones found in the temple. These pillars, which are 
alike, are similar in style to those in Vimala Sha's temple at Abu. 
The general plan is peculiar, being, apparently, made up of two squares 
set diagonally to one another, touching corner to corner the smaller 
being the shrine and the larger the hall; but, in reality, it is formed 
of two squares touching side to side, whose sides have been whittled 
down to narrow central panels by the deep recessing of the corners 
and by a line of angles running straight between the diminished sides. 

The floor of the shrine is sunk below the outside ground-level, 
and some eight feet lower than that of the hall. It is approached by 
a flight of steps, space for which is obtained by sacrificing nearly the 
whole depth of the usual antechamber, thus bringing the shrine door 
considerably forward. There seems to be little doubt that the original 
shrine was on about the same level as the hall, but that the fall of 
the top of the tower crushed down through the floor and destroyed it. 
The temple of Surya at Mudhera, as we have seen, was also provided 
with an upper and a lower shrine, the upper one having been blown 
up by the Muhammadans. We have also noticed the sunk shrines 
of Pattan-Somanatha and Ahmadabad. The Hnga, in this lower shrine, 
is a projection, through the floor, of the natural rock, and, probably, 
for this reason was considered of more account than that which 
occupied the shrine above. A rock linga^ like this, is found in the 
temple of Omkara at Mandhata, in the Narmada, in the Central 
Provinces. 

The ceiling panels, within the hall, are very richly decorated in 
the prevalent style of the best work of the eleventh century. The 



54 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES * 

central dome, owing to its small size, the black stone, and the badly 
lighted interior, does not show to advantage. In these black stone 
temples, with closed halls, the interior decorations are hardly seen 
until one's eyes get accustomed to the gloom. 

A noticeable feature in the basement mouldings, on the outside, 
is the torus or half round moulding as found in very old temples. 
It will hardly be found again in later work, where it changes to a 
knife-edged moulding, somewhat wedge-shaped in section, as in the 
temples at Balsane in Khandesh. 

The Mummuni of the inscription was one of the Silahara maha- 
mandalesvaras of the Northern Konkan, whose capital was at Puri, 
which was, possibly, situated on Salsette Island. These Silaharas were 
tributary to the Rashtrakutas and the later Chalukyas of Kalyana in 
the Dakhan. Mummuni was thus, in all probability, a feudatory of 
the Chalukya king Somesvara I. 

The finest group of temples in the Dakhan, but of later date than 
the last, is that of Gondesvara at Sinnar, 20 miles to the south of 
Nasik (Plate 44). The town, in old records, goes under the names of 
Sindinagara, Seunapura, and Sindinera. In A.D. 1025, Bhillama III., 
of the Yadava family, was ruling at his capital of Sindinagara as a 
feudatory of the Chalukyan king Jayasimha II. It is also recorded, 
in a grant of 1069, that Seunachandra I. founded the town of Seuna- 
pura. According to tradition, however, Sinnar was founded by a 
Gavali (Yadava) chief, Rao Shinguni, about seven or eight hundred 
years ago, and his son, Rao Govind, is supposed to have built the 
great temple of Gondesvara, or Govindesvara. It is possible it may 
have been named after Govindaraja, one of the Yadava princes, who 
ruled about the beginning of the twelfth century. 

This temple is the largest and most complete in the Dakhan. It 
is a panchayatana group that is, it consists of the central temple 
with four other small ones arranged as satellites around it, thus making 
the five that the name implies. The main temple, containing the 
linga, is dedicated to Siva, whereas the smaller ones probably con- 
tained images of Vishnu, Ganapati, Surya, and Parvati, the consort 
of Siva. Before the main entrance of the temple stands the Nandi 



OF WESTERN INDIA 55 

pavilion, m which is Siva's sacred bull, and, around the whole, was 
a wall, enclosing a great courtyard, with two entrance gates. It is 
all built of the amygdaloidal trap, most likely from the quarry, no^ 
filled with water, on the east side of the group. The masonry has, 
therefore, not weathered well, the disintegrating action of the wind 
and rain having left the exposed portions of the finer work rather 
honeycombed. 

The plan and general arrangements are much the same as in the 
temple of Ambarnatha, the length over all being 78 feet. The style 
and disposition of the mouldings of the basement and walls are 
similar, except that the latter has a greater display of images, which, 
to a great extent, are here replaced by lozenge-shaped ornament. The 
figure sculpture is chiefly confined to small images around the porches, 
and these are very poorly carved; but there is a particularly fine piece 
of carving in the gargoyle through which the waste water from the 
shrine passes out on the north side. It is in the shape of the con- 
ventional makara, which is seen in the fine architrave over the shrine 
entrance in the little temple of Aesvara, to the north-west of the town. 
The tower and the roof of the hall are practically the same as in 
Ambarnatha, but more complete. The crowning member, however, 
as seen in the photograph, is not original; it is the villagers' idea of 
restoration a Muhammadan dome on a Hindu temple. 

The little temple of Aesvara is in the Chalukyan style, and so 
does not belong to the class of work found generally in the Dakhan, 
and it is the most northerly example of that class. There are some 
details that appear to have been borrowed from northern temples, 
such as the kichaka, or small squat bracket figure under, and support- 
ing, the beams at the capitals of the pillars, which is not found in 
Chalukyan work. A very favourite Chalukyan ceiling is found here, 
representing the ashtadikpalas, or guardians of the eight points of the 
compass. Above the shrine door, which is fairly well decorated, is a 
line of images representing the saptamatris, or seven mothers, another 
sculpture peculiar to Chalukyan work, and on the dedicatory block 
above the doorway is found the Chalukyan Gaja-Lakshmi, instead of 
Ganapati, which is usual above Dakhan doorways. 



56 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

A most superb piece of carving overarches the entrance to the 
antechamber, which, in three bands, rises from the jaws of two makaras, 
/)ne on either side, with the most wonderful tails of flowing arabesque, 
which turn up over their backs, and forward, on to the arched bands. 
The central semicircular panel is occupied by a representation of Siva 
dancing the tandava (Plate 45). 

The village of Balsane, in Khandesh, possesses a group of nine old 
temples of about the same date and style as that of Ambarnatha, but 
they are in ruins and uncared for save by the Archaeological Depart- 
ment. In a field, just above the bank of the stream, are three. The 
largest one, which has three shrines around a common hall, is most 
elaborately and profusely sculptured, but has suffered badly from the 
weather (Plate 45). Parts of the sikharas, or towers, of two of the 
shrines remain, but that of the third has fallen. Triple-shrined temples 
are not uncommon, and are found, also, among Chalukyan and Solanki 
temples, but they do not always contain the same deities. What may 
be called the main shrine, that facing the west and the entrance to 
the temple, is dedicated to Siva, and contains his linga and bull. The 
other two shrines are now empty, but, judging from the images on 
the outside, the south one contained a Vaishnava image. The north 
one has two images of goddesses, so it is uncertain what the presiding 
deity was. The outer walls are more richly encrusted with ornamental 
detail even than those of Ambarnatha; in fact, we have here the style 
in its fullest development, crystallised into its richest details, and 
sparkling with light and shade from basement to summit. 

On the east of the village is a temple with a single shrine and 
a hall with three porches, facing east. Like the last, it is in ruins, and 
the shrine has mostly disappeared; it can be seen that it was of the 
star-shaped plan, but the corners have sides at different angles with one 
another. Unlike the temple at Dambal, which has both shrine and 
hall on a star-shaped plan, it is confined in this to the shrine only. 

With regard to the orientation of temples, it may be stated that 
Saiva shrines only face east or west, Vaishnava ones may also face the 
north, especially those to Krishna. Temples to Ganapati face the 
south, those to goddesses the north. Jain shrines are found in 



OF WESTERN INDIA 57 

all directions. Muhammadan mosques face the east that is, the 
worshipper, with his face towards the mihrab, is facing Makka. 

In the group to the east of the village of Balsane is one of * 
very different plan. Around the sides of the large closed hall is 
a series of ten small shrines in addition to the main shrine at the 
back. It is evidently a Vaishnava temple, the small shrines having con- 
tained images of the ten avataras, or incarnations, of Vishnu. In the 
main shrine, which probably held an image of Vishnu, is now placed 
the image of a horseman, which may possibly be that of the Kalki 
avatara, taken from one of the side shrines, and which escaped the 
profane hands of the idol-breakers. 

Other old shrines are found scattered about through the Dakhan, 
both of the class we have just been considering as well as the later 
" Hemadpanti," especially at Pedgaon and Kokamthan in the Ahmad- 
nagar district, Malsiras and Velapur in the Sholapur district, Anjaneri, 
Devalana, and Jhodga in the Nasik district, and at Vaghli and the 
deserted city of Patan in Khandesh. 



MUHAMMADAN BUILDINGS 

AHMADABAD AND GUJARAT 

FOLLOWING close upon the period of the later medieval Hindu 
remains come the mosques, tombs, and palaces of the Muham- 
madans. The advent of the uncompromising followers of the 
Prophet checked the further development of temple building for a 
time, and what little was carried out, with very few exceptions, was 
in keeping with the chastened mood of the Hindu builders. Money 
spent upon raising such piles as those we have been considering would 
have been a risky investment, and the salats and builders of the temples 
found more certain employment in raising the mosques and tombs, 
palaces and public works of their new masters. On temples con- 
structed under the new conditions the builders were careful to show 
as few images upon the outside as possible, so as not to excite the 
puritanical feelings of the idol-breakers. In addition to the secret 
underground shrines, in which they might hide their images, we find 
the Jains, at Satrunjaya, building miniature idgahs, or Muhammadan 
places for prayer, upon the roofs of their temples, knowing that the 
Muhammadans will not willingly destroy a mosque, or idgah, when 
once built, and the temple could not be demolished without the idgah 
being involved. 

When the Muhammadans began to settle down in the districts 
they had raided, they made it an almost universal practice to build 
their first mosques out of the material of the demolished shrines, 
and often upon their very sites. In many cases they were content 
to adapt, with a few alterations and the mutilation of images, the 
temples as they stood, as was the case with the temple of Somanatha 
in Kathiawad, and the temple in the fort at Bankapur in the Dharwar 
district. In the latter, ignoring the shrine, they built a wall across 
the west side of the hall and converted it into a masjid. This was 

53 



ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 59 

the quickest and readiest way of meeting their immediate needs; and 
they followed this up with more pretentious buildings, such as the 
Jami Masjid, at Somanatha-Pattan, constructed wholly, or largely, out 
of temple materials, but on their own plans. The Hindus, unlike 
the Muhammadans, did not hold their own temple material too sacred 
to be used again for any other purpose. The Muhammadan, on the 
other hand, looks upon every stone of his mosque, even when the 
latter is totally ruined, as having been consecrated to God's use, and it 
is a desecration to use it in any other way. When several great slabs, 
bearing long Sanskrit inscriptions, were discovered built into the wall, 
with their faces inwards, in the mosque known as Raja Bhoja's school 
at Dhar, in Central India, though they allowed them to be replaced 
by others, they absolutely refused to let the old slabs leave the mosque, 
and so they have been framed and left there. 

The principal centres of Muhammadan building activity in 
Western India, during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth cen- 
turies, were Ahmadabad and its surrounding districts, Champanir, 
Broach, Cambay, Bijapur, and Sind; and there are many isolated 
notable buildings in other places. Those of Ahmadabad, North 
Gujarat, and Kathiawad were mostly erected during the period when 
the Ahmad Shahi family ruled this part of the country, after its first 
king had thrown off his allegiance to Delhi, and before Akbar again re- 
conquered it some hundred and sixty years. Ahmadabad is said to 
have been founded by Ahmad Shah, the grandson of Muzaffar Shah, 
who had asserted his independence in A.D. 1412. During his reign 
were raised some of the finest buildings in the city his own private 
mosque in the Bhadr, or citadel, the Jami Masjid, the people's mosque, 
Rani Sipri's mosque and tomb, Haibat Khan's mosque, Sayyid Alam's 
mosque, the Tin Darwaza, or triple gateway, which spans the principal 
street of the city, Sidi Sayyid's mosque, which has two noted windows, 
most superb specimens of the sculptor's art, and his own tomb, with 
that of his queens. In the suburbs was erected Malik Alam's mosque, 
about 2 miles to the south of the city. 

Muhammad Shah, who succeeded him, in 1443, appears to have 
done very little during his short reign; Qutb Shah, however, added 



60 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

to the embellishment of the city by building his own mosque in the 
Mirzapur quarter. During his time were completed the mosque and 
tomb of Sheikh Ahmad Khuttu Ganj Bakhsh at Sarkhej, the Kankaria 
tank, Dharya Khan's tomb, and the Batwa and Usmanpur mosques. 

Mahmud Bigarah, following, in 1459, added many more buildings 
to the city during his long reign. He was the most famous of the 
kings of Ahmadabad, and it is said of him that " his personal strength, 
courage, and military skill are as conspicuous as his religious bigotry 
and his stern but far-sighted statesmanship. His love for architecture 
is attested by the cities of Mustafabad and Mahmudabad, near Kheda, 
as also by the numerous and elaborate additions which his nobles, 
following his taste, made to Ahmadabad and its environs." During 
his reign were built the mosque and tomb of Sayyid Usman, on the 
west bank of the Sabarmati, Miyan Khan Chisti's mosque, Muhafiz 
Khan's mosque, Achyut Bibi's mosque and tomb, Dastur Khan's 
mosque, Dada Harir's well, and the Shah Alam group, 3 miles to the 
south of the city. 

Five other rulers succeeded Mahmud Bigarah until 1572, when 
Akbar reduced the province, and left a governor to carry on its affairs. 
The Marathas made their appearance about the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, and carried their plundering raids into Gujarat. 
The viceroys, much enfeebled by the absence of aid from either Delhi 
or surrounding chiefs, could not cope with these new enemies, and, 
"in A.D. 1755 the Muhammadan power in Gujarat was finally ex- 
tinguished, and the Marathas, though divided among themselves, 
took their place. They burnt and plundered the property of friend 
and foe with almost equal energy and spared neither mosque nor temple 
which it suited them to destroy. Innumerable are the architectural 
monuments which have thus suffered from their wantonness and 
malice, and the interesting ruins of which the very materials have 
been carried away for building purposes. Ahmadabad, in particular, 
felt so heavily the effects of their internal feuds and grinding rule, 
combined with the natural decay of the Muhammadan population, 
that its suburbs almost disappeared, large quarters within the walls 
became desolate, many splendid buildings were destroyed. . . . Fortu- 



OF WESTERN INDIA 61 

nately the tide of anarchy was arrested ere it had wrought even more 
disastrous results by the supervention of the British power." 

The earliest mosque in the city is that of Ahmad Shah in tfc 
Bhadr (circa A.D. 1414). The pillars, throughout the mosque, have 
been rifled from one or more Hindu temples, and on one of them is 
a Devanagari inscription dated Samvat 1307 (A.D. 1251). The fafade 
of the mosque, with its archways, is purely in the Muhammadan style, 
which is very common among the earliest buildings; but some have 
no such fafade, the pillared interior not being enclosed. Hindu 
temple pillars are not very lofty, their height generally being governed 
by the length of the stone blocks which it is possible to get from the 
quarries for the shafts, from the capital to the base, this part being 
always a single stone, and not built of two or more. Hence, the 
Muhammadans, finding them too low for their more lofty ideas, super- 
imposed one upon the other in order to get the height necessary, and so 
we find them used in this mosque. The minars, at either end of the 
building, with staircases winding up through them to the various 
galleries encircling their shafts, are, of course, purely Muhammadan 
features, and were used as elevated positions from which the muezzins 
called the faithful to prayer. In this, as in many of the northern 
mosques, there is a raised and screened enclosure in the north end 
which was intended for women worshippers; and, to make it quite 
private, a separate entrance leads into it from the outside of the 
mosque. In the mosque of the Kaabah at Makka is a similar en- 
closure for the same purpose. Some mosques, such as the Jami 
Masjid at Mandu, in Central India, have an enclosure at both ends, 
in which case one is probably a dummy built to preserve the symmetry 
of the design of the building. The domical ceilings are richly carved 
and have, probably, like the pillars, been taken wholly from despoiled 
Hindu temples, any images upon them having been mutilated before 
being used in the mosque. 

The essentials of a mosque are the mihrab, or direction niche, 
towards which the worshippers turn in prayer, so that they may be 
facing Makka; a pulpit from which the leader addresses the congrega- 
tion; a covered apartment for shelter, and a small tank, or reservoir, 



62 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

of water, or other means by which they can wash their feet before 
entering the body of the mosque. Other desiderata are minarets from 
\^hich to call to prayer, a courtyard to enclose the mosque and separate 
it from outside dust and dirt, and certain sanitary arrangements, usually 
in one corner of the courtyard. The plan of a mosque is very simple. 
The building is a square or oblong hall, the roof of which is closed 
in with one or more domes supported by pillars or arches, and the 
wall round the three or four sides. In the back, or west wall, is one 
or more arched recesses, or mihrabs. When the front is enclosed by 
a wall, the latter is pierced by one or more arched openings, according 
to the size of the mosque, and the mihrabs in the back wall are 
generally opposite these openings. When minarets are added, they 
are either placed one on each side of the great central arch, or one at 
each extreme end of the facade. The dome, over the central bay of the 
mosque, is, as a rule, a very large one, while the others, if more than 
one, are smaller and lower. Visitors leave their shoes either outside 
the entrance to the courtyard or just inside the doorway. It is the 
neglect to do this that causes friction between European visitors and 
the mosque custodians. They may wear their hats all through the 
building, but not their shoes, which are likely to carry in some defile- 
ment upon them from the streets. The Hindu's objection to shoes in 
their temples is that they are of leather from the sacred cow. In many 
cases they object to a camera, even when used by a Hindu, because 
of its leather bellows and gelatine coated plates. 

The largest and most important mosque in the city is the Jami, 
or public, mosque, the mosque of the assembly, or the Juma (Friday), 
as it is sometimes called, Friday being the Muhammadan Sabbath, 
when the people present themselves there for worship (Plate 47). 
Most of the other mosques in the city have been built by rulers or 
private individuals for the use of themselves and their families, and are 
often an accessory to the tomb of some member of the family. But 
many of these have, long ago, passed out of private hands into those of 
the local communities and are now, to all intents and purposes, public. 

Fergusson wrote of this mosque : " Though not remarkable for its 
size, it is one of the most beautiful mosques in the East." With its 



OF WESTERN INDIA 63 

courtyard, it covers 382 feet by 228 feet, the prayer chamber being 
210 feet by 95 feet. Within it are 252 pillars and 76 pilasters, sup- 
porting 1 5 domes symmetrically arranged, the centre 3 being somewhat 
larger, and considerably higher than the others. The very tall, 
graceful minarets, which flanked the great central arch of the facade, 
once famous as the " shaking minarets of Ahmadabad," were thrown 
down by the earthquake of 1819. In connection with these, it may 
be of interest to repeat a note from the writer's Progress Report 
for 1904-5: "The following extract from Grindlay's 'Scenery and 
Costumes and Architecture of Western India ' refers to them : c But the 
most remarkable circumstance attached to this building is the vibration 
which is produced in the minarets, or towers, rising from the centre 
of the building, by a slight exertion of force at the arch in the upper 
gallery. Many theories have been suggested to account for this, but 
they all fail in affording a satisfactory explanation of this architectural 
phenomenon; which is still further involved in doubt by the circum- 
stance of one minaret partaking of the motion of the other, although 
there is no perceptible agitation of the part connecting the two on 
the roof of the building. 5 Colonel Monier-Williams, then Surveyor- 
General, gives, in his journal, the results of his personal observations 
on the subject: <3ist May, 1809. We found on examination to-day 
that the minarets of the Jumma Musjid shook just as much, or even 
more, than any of the others, and that one communicated the motion 
to the other fully to as great a degree as those of the Bee-bee Sahib's. 
Indeed, we tried the experiment upon every perfect pair of stone 
minarets within and about the town, to-day, and the effect was just 
the same with them all. As the motion that one of them receives 
from the shaking of the other might be supposed to be communicated 
to the whole intermediate building, I lay down on the terrace roof, 
equidistant between the two minarets, while people were above shaking 
them; but I was not sensible of the smallest motion or agitation what- 
ever in the building under me.' 

"When at Ahmadabad, on the 3ist May last, nearly a hundred 
years after Colonel Monier-Williams made his experiment, my atten- 
tion was called to the fact that Siddi Basir's minarets, near the railway 



64 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

station, possessed the same peculiarity. I ascended to the topmost 
balcony of one while two or three men ascended the other. Putting 
their hands together against their minaret they began to throw their 
weight upon it. For a few seconds I felt nothing on mine; but, as 
I was about to put the thing down to imagination, it began to swing 
with a soft, noiseless, and resilient motion, which gradually increased 
until I was, perforce, obliged to call out to them to stop it." All that 
remains of Sidi Basir's mosque are these two minarets and the arch 
masonry connecting them below. 

The Jami Masjid was built by Ahmad Shah in 1423, as we are 
informed by an inscription above the central mihrab. Save for the 
pavement, which is constructed of a coarse kind of white marble, the 
whole building is of fine sandstone. The domes are of the usual 
Hindu style, richly carved in concentric circles. The forward central 
dome, just within the great arched entrance, rises to a height of 44 feet 
from the pavement, or floor, in three stories; flanking this, on either 
side, the next domes rise to 37 feet in two stories, while the domes 
in the ends of the building rise to 26 feet in a single story. The 
second and third stories admit light and air into the building between 
their pillars and through the interstices of the perforated screens. A 
little dome in the entrance porch to the zanana gallery has the unusual 
design of a spiral; it is met with, once or twice, in the Dilvada temples 
on Mount Abu. The pillars, though cut purposely for the mosque, 
have followed, in their general design, the stilted Hindu pillars in 
Ahmad Shah's mosque in the Bhadr; but their shafts, being unen- 
cumbered with the many mouldings and image niches upon the Hindu 
ones, are far more graceful. A purely Hindu feature, the torana, or 
flying arch, has been introduced, with much success, between the 
central pair of pillars in the entrance. A black marble slab seen in 
the pavement, in front of the entrance, and said to be the inverted 
part of a Jain image of Parsvanatha, reminds one of the similar use 
to which Mahmud of Ghazni put a fragment of the linga which he 
carried away from Somanatha-Pattan. 

A door in the east colonnade of the courtyard leads into the court 
of the tomb of Ahmad Shah. This is a great domed mausoleum, in the 



OF WESTERN INDIA 65 

central hall of which are three richly carved tombstones, and at each 
corner of this hall is a smaller one, while the intermediate spaces are 
open pillared halls. 

Beyond this, again, across a street, are the tombs of the queens, 
which, standing in the open air, are surrounded by a shallow pillared 
corridor (Plate 49). The tombstones fill the enclosed space and are 
elaborately carved in white and black marble with the remains of some 
fine inlay work of mother-of-pearl. 

Sidi Sayyid's mosque, at the north-east corner of the Bhadr, is 
noted for the two magnificent perforated windows which it possesses 
(Plate 48). The actual perforated work measures TO feet wide by 
6 feet high, and is cut in fine sandstone, but is deserving of a better 
material. The windows are pointed lunettes, and, though the general 
appearance of both are alike, the designs differ. In the one, it is of 
a single tree whose pliant stem and many sinuous branches twine and 
intertwine among themselves. Rising up the middle is a palm whose 
stem is embraced by that of the other tree. In the other window 
there are three trees and four palms which go through similar con- 
volutions. The windows are made up of four rows of thin slabs, set 
edge to edge, one on the top of the other. In this mosque we find 
the minarets placed at the extreme ends of the fa?ade. 

A mosque of distinction is that known as the Queen's, or Rani 
Rupwanti's, in the Mirzapur quarter (Plate 47). It is a very sub- 
stantial building, heavily loaded with decorative detail, the bases of 
the fallen minarets, on the front of the mosque, being filled with 
exquisite designs in stone tracery. It measures 103 feet by 46 feet, 
and has three domes standing upon twelve pillars each. The building 
and tomb belonging to it are now in the hands of the butcher com- 
munity. 

Rani Sipari's, or Rani Asni's, mosque and tomb (A.D. 1574), near 
the Astodia gate, is " the most exquisite gem at Ahmadabad, both in 
plan and detail. It is without arches (except a small one over a side 
doorway) and every part is such as only a Hindu queen could order, 
and only Hindu artists could carve." It is one of the smallest in 
the city, measuring 48 feet by 19^ feet. The balcony windows, in the 

5 



66 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

end, are elaborately wrought, and the mihrabs are of marble and carved 
with much care, though not so richly as in some of the other mosques. 
r As it is so small, it would have been impossible to provide it with 
minarets containing staircases, so very slender solid ones were 
substituted, more after the prevailing style of those at Bijapur. 

Muhafiz Khan's mosque, in the north of the city, though not a 
large building, is a well-proportioned one, and has its minarets intact. 
It was built, as its inscription tells us, by Jamal-ud-din Muhafiz Khan, 
governor of the city under Sultan Mahmud Bigarah, in A.D. 1492. It 
is distinguished for the exquisite character of its details; the galleries 
around the minarets, and the brackets which support them, display 
great richness of decoration. The carving is very Hindu in character, 
the under-cutting of the arabesque being so complete as almost to 
separate it from the block on which it is wrought. The mihrabs are 
about the finest in Ahmadabad, and are minutely and elaborately 
carved. The facade of the building has the minarets at the extreme 
ends, and has three small arched entrances instead of one large one. 

There are many other first-class buildings, both in and around 
the city, but space will not permit us to take up more than these few 
specimens. Among the civil buildings may be mentioned the palace 
of Azam Khan, used as public offices, on the east side of the Bhadr. 
Not far from it, and spanning the principal street of the city, is the 
Tin Darwaza, or triple gateway, built by Ahmad Shah. The Moti 
Shahi Bagh, a palace built in the reign of Shah Jahan, and now the 
residence of the Commissioner, is a fine imposing building, built upon 
the high banks of the Sabarmati, about 3 miles north of the city. 
The Kankaria tank, south-east of the Rayapur gate of the city, is an 
ornamental expanse of water of no mean pretensions, entirely sur- 
rounded by tiers of cut-stone steps, and with an island and pavilion in 
the centre. 

About 3 miles to the south of the city is the tomb and mosque 
of Shah Alam, which, with their subsidiary buildings, form quite an 
important group. This tomb is notable for the amount of perforated 
marble and brass screen work. The interior of the dome is inlaid 
with mother-of-pearl, and painted work adds to the general em- 



OF WESTERN INDIA 67 

bellishment. The minarets of the mosque are two of the loftiest in 
or around the city, and rather dwarf the main body of the building, 
which has an open fa?ade of seven arches and six pillars. Though it ( 
may seem daring to say so, in the face of public opinion generally, 
I consider these minarets of Ahmadabad finer than those bald erections 
standing around the Taj Mahal at Agra; they are, probably, the finest 
in India. 

At the village of Sarkhej, 5 miles to the south-west of Ahmadabad, 
is an important cluster of Muhammadan buildings of the fifteenth 
century, among which is the tomb of Sheikh Ahmad Khattu Ganj 
Bakhsh of Anhillavada-Pattan, which was built between 1445 and 
1451. The tomb-chamber is enclosed by screens of perforated brass in 
beautiful patterns, and the exterior walls are filled with windows of 
perforated stone tracery. To light the interior of the dome, which, 
otherwise, would have been in perpetual gloom, the very unusual 
expedient has been resorted to of four tracery windows in the dome 
itself. Near by is the mosque, carried out entirely in the pillar and 
lintel style. Fergusson says : " This mosque is the perfection of 
elegant simplicity, and is an improvement on the plan of the Jami 
Masjid. Except the Moti Masjid at Agra, there is no mosque in 
India more remarkable for simple elegance than this." 

Notwithstanding the elaborate work lavished upon these buildings, 
and the great variety of detail, they begin, to some extent, to weary 
the eye by their sameness of design. A mosque, with its rigid require- 
ments to which the building must conform, does not lend itself well 
to any originality of design, so that we get a few stock plans which, in 
the main, are repeated over and over again. The design is too 
geometrically balanced about its centre a complete plan to which 
nothing can be added and from which nothing can be taken away. 
There is no chance of stumbling upon some unexpected adjunct or 
pleasant variation : this is because they were built once for all, and did 
not grow gradually like the great cathedrals of Christendom. 

Another centre of old Muhammadan buildings is Champanir, or, 
properly, Mahmudabad, near that old Hindu site. It lies 30 miles 
north-east of Baroda, and about 72 miles to the south-east of Ahmad- 



68 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

abad. The city was founded by Mahmud Bigarah of Ahmadabad, in 
A.D. 1484; but, beyond the mosques and tombs, there is little sign of 
its having been a city of any account. It began as a fortified camp 
when Mahmud, with his army, took up his position here until he 
reduced the old fort of Pavagadh, whose beetling cliffs and defiant 
towers overhang and dominate the place. The old Hindu town of 
Champanir, whose ruins lie at the foot of the fort, is said to have been 
founded by Champa, a merchant and companion of Wan Raj of 
Anhillapur-Pattan, and was also known as Champakadurga and Champa- 
kamera, which names, probably, referred more to the fort above. 
Ruins of small Hindu temples are found upon the site as well as on 
the fort. Mahmud's siege lasted, on and off, some twelve years before 
the fort fell into his hands, and even then it fell only by treachery. 
Therefore, in order to show the enemy that it was not his intention to 
abandon it, he started to build in sight of the fort a new city, which 
he called after himself; and this is not the only town of that name that 
he founded during his warlike excursions abroad. Scattered over the 
site, and shut in by the jungle that has overgrown the site, are a number 
of very fine mosques and tombs, all in a ruinous condition, save for the 
little attention the Archaeological Department has been able to give 
them : the bat and the owl now hold their midnight court there. 

The principal building is the Jami Masjid, which is one of the finest 
mosques in Gujarat. Here the minarets, which are fairly complete, 
rise from the centre of the fafade, one on either side of the great 
arched entrance, as in the earlier examples in Ahmadabad. The mosque, 
within, measures 1 69 feet by 8 1 feet. The roof contains eleven large 
domes, the central one rising through three stories to a height of 
57 feet above the floor. On the first and second floors a carved 
balcony runs round the octagon, under the dome, which is decorated 
by deep carved ribs, of which there are sixteen. There is some very 
beautifully carved work in the ceilings (Plate 49). 

Among the many remains at Mahmudabad is a beautifully decor- 
ated small tomb, the dome of which has fallen. "The pilasters at 
the corners and jambs of the doorways are carved in patterns of the 
richest floral designs. Except the two famous windows in Sidi 



OF WESTERN INDIA 69 

Sayyid's mosque at Ahmadabad there is hardly anything elsewhere to 
match these twelve pillars in richness and variety of decoration." What 
adds to the beauty of the design is the plain flat surfaces, two upon 
each of its four walls, which serve as an admirable foil to the rich work 
around. Another mosque of note is the Nagina Masjid, which is upon 
the same general plan as that of the Jami Masjid. It has some fine 
carving, in panels, on the bases of the minarets. Out before it stands 
a pillared tomb, graceful but much ruined. 

Mahmudabad-Champanir became the favourite residence of Mah- 
mud Bigarah, and continued to be so for the rest of his days; and it is 
said to have been the political capital of Gujarat until the death of 
Bahadur Shah, in 1536. 

Another Mahmudabad, or, as it is more generally spelt, Mehmud- 
abad, founded by Mahmud Bigarah, lies about 17 miles south-east 
from Ahmadabad. He is said to have formed, beside it, a large 
deer park, at each corner of which he built a pleasure house with 
gilded walls and roof. About a mile and a half to the east of the town 
is the tomb of Mubarak Sayyid, one of Mahmud Bigarah's ministers, 
erected in 1484. It is a finely proportioned, massive building, though 
simple in its design. Of this building Fergusson writes: "The most 
beautiful, however, of these provincial examples is the tomb at 
Mahmudabad, of its class one of the most beautiful in India. . . . 
Though small it is only 94 feet square, exclusive of the porch 
there is a simplicity about its plan, a solidity and balance of parts in 
the design, which is not always found in these tombs, and has rarely, 
if ever, been surpassed in any tomb in India. The details, too, are 
all elegant and appropriate, so that it only wants somewhat increased 
dimensions to rank among the very first of its class. Its constructive 
arrangements, too, are so perfect that no alterations in them would 
have been required, if the scale had been very much increased." 

Other centres of Muhammadan work in Gujarat are Cambay, 
Dholka, and Broach, at all of which places are buildings of consider- 
able note. 



ARCHITECTURAL REMAINS AT BIJAPUR 

UPON the breaking up of the Bahmani Kingdom of the Dakhan, 
towards the end of the fifteenth century, the local governors 
of the provinces threw off their allegiance to their suzerain 
and set up petty kingdoms for themselves. One of these was Yusuf 
Khan, who was in charge of the Bijapur division, and who assumed 
independent power under the title of Yusuf Adil Shah, in 1489. He 
is said to have been a son of Murad, Sultan of Turkey, who, on the 
death of the latter, was smuggled out of the country by his mother, 
to escape the fate of younger sons on the death of a sultan. After 
many adventures he arrived at Bidar and took service under the 
Bahmani king, where he rose to high posts in the State, and was finally 
appointed to the governorship of Bijapur. Hence we find all the 
principal buildings in that city surmounted with the Crescent, the 
Turkish national symbol. He had been succeeded by eight rulers of 
the Adil Shahi dynasty, when Sikandar Adil Shah surrendered the city 
to Aurangzib, in 1686, and it became a district under Delhi. During 
its two hundred years of independence, which seems to have been made 
up mostly of troublous times wars without and insurrections within 
the city was enclosed with lofty masonry walls, some 7 miles in circum- 
ference, and was adorned with many beautiful buildings mosques 
and tombs, palaces and reservoirs. In the middle of the city is the 
walled citadel, or arkilla, within which were the king's palaces, courts, 
and assembly hall, the ruins of several of these buildings having been 
converted into dwellings and offices for the local authorities when 
Bijapur was made the headquarters of the Collectorate in supersession 
of Kaladgi. The walls of the Gagan, or assembly hall, still stand gaunt 
and bare with its great arch, 60 feet 9 inches in width, spanning the 
front, but the roof has gone. It was on the greensward, before this 
building, that tournaments, trials of strength, and military displays 
took place before the king and his nobles assembled in the Darbar 

70 



ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 7* 

hall. Thus it was necessary that the facade arch should be of sufficient 
span to offer no obstruction to the view. Behind this is the Sat Manjli, 
or "Seven-Storied Palace," with a neat little water pavilion before it^ 
Other buildings, which were converted, are the Adaulat Mahal, the 
Anand Mahal, the Arash Mahal all now dwellings and the Chini 
Mahal housing the general offices. The little Makka Masjid, built for 
the ladies of the court, is enclosed, as one would expect, by a lofty 
wall. It has no mimbar, or pulpit, since no man could enter to address 
them. The earliest mosque in Bijapur, that of Karim-ud-Din, built of 
materials from a desecrated Hindu temple, stands not far from the 
south-eastern gateway of the citadel. 

Amongst those buildings which stand out most conspicuously in 
the city and its environs are the Jami Masjid, the earliest and most 
dignified building, the tomb and mosque of Ibrahim II., the most 
lavishly decorated, and the great Gol Gumbaz, or tomb of Sultan 
Muhammad, a contrast to the rest by its massiveness and simple 
exterior. The Jami Masjid is, as its name implies, the principal 
public mosque in the city, and, in it, we have the style, which is so 
peculiar to Bijapur, in its full development, in its purest and best 
form. It is evidently not the work of local builders, for there could 
have been no indigenous craftsmen, at that time, capable of attempting 
anything approaching it. Not only its style, but its architect and 
builders must have been imported; and their descendants, no doubt, 
raised the subsequent buildings in the city. No later building is equal 
to this for its perfect proportions or sublimity of effect. 

The domes of Bijapur were built for external display : internally, 
they are lost in their own gloom, running up very high compared 
with their diameter, and, generally, having no clerestory lights to 
show them to advantage, some rising from the general roof-level, 
almost as hollow towers. These are unlike the domes of the Ahmad- 
abad buildings, which are raised upon disengaged pillars, as a rule, 
with plenty of light and air entering them from open galleries around 
the springing levels. The obvious corrective for this is double doming, 
the inner, or lower, dome forming a ceiling sufficiently lighted from 
below. But this device is met with nowhere save in the Ibrahim 



72 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

Rauza tomb, which, in this case, produces a second story entered by 
stairs through the thickness of the walls. But, as this is a flat ceiling, 
goved around the margins, it can hardly be called a dome. 

The arches are, mostly, two-centered, the curves being carried up 
from the springing to a point whence they are continued as tangents 
to the crown. This is the prevailing form of arch, but others are in 
use, such as those in the tomb of Ali Adil Shah II, , which are purely 
Gothic, the ogee arch, in one case the segmental, and an almost flat 
arch. They are often ornamented with richly moulded cusps, as in 
Ali Shahid Pir's mosque, where they look particularly well. 

A prominent feature in the Bijapur buildings are the graceful 
minarets that flank the mosque facades, and, sometimes, rise above 
the tombs. These are purely ornamental, being too slender to contain 
a spiral staircase within them, as is the case with the Ahmadabad ones. 
The great clumsy brick and plaster minarets standing before the 
Makka Masjid have stairs winding up them, but they are parts of 
some very early mosque which has disappeared. 

Except in the case of the two converted temples in the citadel 
and the guardroom at the gateway, there is no other example of the 
pillar and lintel style which is so common in Gujarat, and these are 
not finished specimens, but rough and ready conversions to serve the 
purpose of the first invaders, whose prolonged stay in the place was 
problematical. The mosque of Malik Karim-ud-Din is wholly made 
up of pillars, beams, cornices, and other portions from old, dismantled 
Hindu shrines, the porch being a part of a temple in situ the hall, 
or mandapa, with its pillars and niches, but wanting its roof. The 
shrine, which was on the west of this, was cleared away to give through 
access to the mosque courtyard beyond it. Across the whole west 
side of the courtyard is the mosque, or prayer chamber, made up of 
pillars, of all patterns and heights, brought to one uniform level with 
odd blocks; and, over these, are laid cross beams and slabs forming the 
roof. Like the Ahmadabad mosques, the central portion of the roof 
of this one is raised by pillars placed one upon the other, thus admitting 
light and air into the body of the building. An inscription within 
tells us that Malik Karim-ud-Din erected the upper part of the mosque 



OF WESTERN INDIA 73 

in A.D. 1320, and a builder, Revoya, of Salhaodage, carried out the 
work. This Karim-ud-Din was the son of Malik Kafur, the general 
of Ala-ud-Din, who conducted several successful campaigns against th^ 
Hindu kingdoms of the south. 

The great Jami Masjid, with its courtyard, embraced the largest 
area of any building in the city about 91,000 square feet, which, with 
a later extension of the courtyard on the east, amounts to 1 16,000 feet 
in all (Plate 50). The main building, the mosque proper, stretches 
across the west side of the courtyard, and the latter is closed in, for 
the most part, with side arcades or corridors. Plate 50 gives a good 
idea of the interior of this noble building. The great dome, over the 
central bay, follows more, in its outline, the shape of western domes, 
being practically segmental. Most of those in Bijapur are bulbous, 
being curved in at the springing, a very good example of which, 
though not extreme, being that over the tomb of Ain-ul-Mulk, to the 
east of the town, and another is that of Khawas Khan, one of the " Two 
Sisters." 

As may be seen in the photograph, the interior of the mosque, save 
the decorated mihrab, or prayer niche, is severely plain. There is an 
air of quiet simplicity about it which adds much to the impressive 
solemnity of the place. The whole front and recess of the mihrab is 
covered with rich gilding, whereon are representations of tombs and 
minarets, censers and chains, niches with books in them, and vases 
with flowers, while the whole is interspersed with bands and medal- 
lions bearing inscriptions. From these we learn that Malik Yaqut 
completed the mosque, or, in other words, put the finishing touch to 
it in these decorations, under the orders of Sultan Muhammad Adil 
Shah in A.H. 1045 ( A - D - I ^3^)- The mosque was commenced, how- 
ever, by Ali Adil Shah I. (A.D. 1557-1580), and was, no doubt, 
practically completed by him. Sultan Muhammad was very partial 
to painted decoration, and he adorned the walls of the Asar Mahal, 
where the sacred relic of the Prophet is enshrined, and the little water 
pavilion at Kumatgi, 10 miles to the east of the city, with mural 
paintings, in which were introduced human figures and groups in 
defiance of the religious prohibition against it. He also gilded and 



74 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

decorated the walls of the Sat Manjli, the palace of his favourite 
mistress, Rhumba. The fanatic Aurangzib, when he captured the 
$ity, had all these mutilated wherever the human form was portrayed. 
The floor of the Jami Masjid was divided by him into over 2,250 
spaces, or pews as it were, by thin black lines upon the plastered and 
polished surface, each ample for a worshipper to kneel in when at 
prayer. 

The Ibrahim Rauza, or tomb and mosque of King Ibrahim II., 
stands in the open, a short distance to the west of the city, beyond the 
Makka gate. Upon a high platform, within a great square enclosure, 
which was a royal garden at one time, are two imposing buildings 
facing one another, with a reservoir or fountain between them 
(Plates 51 and 52). The building standing upon the east side of 
the platform is the king's mausoleum, in which are also interred his 
queen, Taj Sultana, and four other members of his family, namely, 
his mother, two sons, and daughter Zorah, the men's tombs being 
distinguished by a long arched ridge-stone upon the top of the 
tombstone. The sepulchral chamber, which is 39 feet 10 inches 
square, contains the six tombs in a row, from east to west, each lying 
north and south. In the middle of each of the four sides of the 
room is a doorway, with richly carved wooden doors, whose orna- 
mental iron bosses were once gilded, while extracts from the Quran, 
in raised Persian letters, fill the panels. On either side of each of 
these doors is a large fanlight-shaped window, they being beautiful 
specimens of perforated stone work. Each window is filled with inter- 
laced Arabic letters, forming extracts from the Quran, the letters 
being so interwoven as to be difficult of decipherment by any but an 
expert. The lights are the perforated blank spaces dispersed between 
the letters. These remind one of the perforated windows in Sidi 
Sayyid's mosque at Ahmadabad, already described, the pattern of the 
latter being in tree forms instead of letters. 

These windows, with their very small interstices, admit, with the 
doorways, when open, but a very subdued light into the chamber, 
just enough to reveal a most remarkable flat stone ceiling. Most of the 
buildings in Bijapur have something peculiar to themselves, either in 



OF WESTERN INDIA 75 

construction or decoration. This ceiling appears to have been the 
chef d'ceuvre of the architect who designed this building. It is simply 
a hanging ceiling, with another room above it, under the great dom*. 
The whole span is the breadth of the room, namely, 39 feet 10 inches, 
of which a margin 7 feet 7 inches broad, all around, curves upwards and 
inwards to a perfectly flat square in the centre, 24 feet square. Upon 
closely examining this, it is found to be composed of slabs of stone, 
like an inverted pavement, with, apparently, no support. There are, 
certainly, two deep ribs, running across each way, but these are purely 
decorative and are made up of separate stones, which do not, in any 
way, support the slabs in the nine bays into which they divide the 
ceiling. This has been a daring piece of work, carried out in defiance 
of all ordinary rules and regulations governing the construction of 
buildings. But the architect not only foresaw exactly what he wanted, 
and knew how to accomplish it, but he had the thorough confidence 
in his materials, in this case, chiefly, superb mortar, which caused him 
no hesitation. 7'hat it has stood to the present day, three hundred 
years, is sufficient answer to any carping critic. The buildings have 
deteriorated considerably externally, but this has been due, in great 
part, not to the want of skill on the part of the builders, but to the 
stone used. When the Dakhan was divided up into small States, as it 
was then, each jealous of the other, and more often at war than other- 
wise, suitable building material could only be sought for within the 
narrow limits of the State; the amygdaloidal trap of the Dakhan, 
found in this area, was far from being the best that could be desired, 
with its many flaws and cracks, some so fine as hardly to be noticed 
when freshly quarried, but which in time worked mischief. Hence 
the deplorable condition of the brackets and slabs of some of the fine 
cornices, notably that of the great Gol Gumbaz, to repair which our 
Public Works Department had to go further afield in search of better 
material. 

The whole secret of the durability of the masonry of those days 
lay in the great strength and tenacity of the mortar, and this those 
builders knew how to make. Perhaps, too, there were fewer con- 
tractors or middlemen. This, then, is the secret of this ceiling : it is, 



76 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

in fact, a solid concrete ceiling to which the stone slabs are merely 
stuck by its own adhesiveness. Partly destroyed domes, constructed 
i* this manner, may be seen with their lining of stone slabs still 
adhering. There was, of course, the danger of individual stones 
falling out, but this was provided against by rabbetting the edges, and, 
in some cases, fastening adjacent stones with iron clamps. The ceilings 
of the corridors are constructed in the same way. 

Around the sepulchral chamber, outside, runs a mezzanine gallery 
supported, outwardly, upon pillars which are very Hindu-like in style. 
The exterior walls of the chamber, between and above the windows 
and doors, are elaborately decorated with shallow surface tracery in 
stone of arabesque and beautifully interlaced verses from the Quran. 
The effect had been further enhanced by colour and gilding, which 
has weathered badly (Plate 52). An inscription on one of the doorways 
says: 

"Heaven stood astonished at the elevation of this building, and it might be said, 
when its head rose from the earth, that another heaven was erected. The garden of 
Paradise has borrowed its beauty from this garden, and every column here is graceful 
as the Cyprus tree in the garden of purity. An angel from heaven announced the 
date of the structure by saying, * This building, which makes the heart glad, is the 
memorial of Taj Sultana/" 

The last sentence gives the date A.H. 1036 (A.D. 1626). From the 
inscription it would appear that the mausoleum was built as Taj 
Sultana's tomb, but Ibrahim, dying before her, was buried in it. 

Both the tomb and the mosque opposite are noted for their deep 
rich cornices and graceful minarets, which, as we have already seen, 
are purely decorative. The amount of labour expended upon these 
features has been unstinted. Under the cornice of the mosque may be 
seen, hanging, the remnants of heavy chains with pendants, each of 
which has been carved out of a single block of stone. Some beautiful 
specimens of these may be seen at the tomb of a saint at Rauza, near 
Aurangabad, and also on the Kala Masjid at Lakshmesvara, in the 
Dharwar district, where they are still made. The perforated parapets, 
round the skyline of the buildings, look, from a distance, like a fringe 
of petrified lace, and the grouping of the miniature minars, round the 
bases of the corner minarets, is very pleasing. An inscription, near 



OF WESTERN INDIA 77 

the south door of the tomb, tells us that Malik Sandal, Bijapur's most 
noted architect, expended 150,000 huns on the building. Carried out, 
on the same lines of construction and decoration, are several othefr 
buildings in the city, amongst them being the beautiful little mosque 
of Jahan Begam, with its well-proportioned cornice, rich facade, and 
graceful minarets, said to have been built by Ibrahim II. in honour 
of his daughter, whose name it bears; and the Mehtar-i-Mahal with 
its elegant balconied windows supported upon delicately carved stone 
brackets which look more like fine wood-work (Plate 53). 

In marked contrast to the buildings just noticed is the great Gol 
Gumbaz at the other end of the town. Ibrahim II. had carried his 
decorative style to its utmost limits, and had thus left to his son, 
Muhammad, no chance of surpassing him in the same line. Since the 
Ibrahim Rauza represented the last word in decorated effort and 
graceful effeminacy in stone, he resolved to strike out in a more virile 
and broad-shouldered style, which would, by mere mass, overwhelm 
the work of his father. How far he succeeded may be gathered from 
a reference to the photograph of his own mausoleum (Plate 54). No 
doubt there was great rivalry in the building of the royal tombs, and 
Ali II., his successor, started his own tomb upon so ambitious a scale 
that he died before he had done more than raise the arcade of Gothic 
arches which were to have surrounded the death chamber. Sultan 
Muhammad certainly succeeded in raising the most conspicuous mass 
of masonry in the Dakhan : indeed, one of the greatest in the world. 

The general contour of the building follows that of a great cube 
surmounted by a huge hemispherical dome, with an octagonal tower 
running up each of its four corners, crowned by a smaller dome. 
Between these towers the only prominent feature upon the face of the 
building is the great, deep, overhanging stone cornice, the rest of the 
masonry, except for the door and window-frames, being rubble and 
plaster. The comparatively small doorways and windows, dwarfed by 
the immense expanse of wall surface around them, by no means assert 
themselves, and, from a short distance, are hardly noticeable. The 
monotony of the plastered masonry of the four sides is relieved by 
the corner towers, which are riddled from base to summit with arched 



7 8 THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

openings, pigeon-hole fashion seven in each of the seven stories into 
which the towers are divided. 

* The interior of the building is very impressive. Upon entering 
this vast chamber, which is 135 feet 5 inches square, rising to the 
apex of the dome, 178 feet overhead, the visitor's ears are assailed, 
on all sides, by uncanny sounds and echoes which, rebounding from 
wall to wall, roll round the great dome, whence they are returned 
in a multiplicity of weird reverberations. Through the gloom, 
109 feet above the floor, a gallery may be seen, looking more like 
a cornice, running round the base of the dome. In reality, the gallery 
hangs out 1 1 feet from the walls, and is reached by long, spiral stairs, 
in each corner of the building, which, also, give access, as they ascend, 
to each story of the towers. The uninterrupted floor space is the 
greatest area of any single apartment known among ancient buildings, 
measuring 18,337 square feet. The interior diameter of the dome 
is 124 feet 6 inches, while its exterior measurement is 144 feet. The 
total height, outside, above the platform upon which it stands, is 
198 feet 6 inches, exclusive of the pole at the top, which originally 
carried the metal finial, and would add another 8 feet to the total. 

Upon a high platform, in the centre of the chamber, are the 
tombstones, but not the graves, of the grandson of Muhammad; his 
younger wife, Arus Bibi; the Sultan himself; his favourite mistress, 
Rhumba; his daughter; and his older wife, in this order from east to 
west. The real graves, where the bodies lie, are, as is usual, in the 
vault immediately below these, the entrance to which is by a stair 
under the western entrance. Over Muhammad's tomb is erected a 
wooden canopy. 

The method, used so successfully at Bijapur, of working up to 
the dome from the sides of the square room below, by means of 
pendentives, or squinches, in the corners, is here seen at its best. 
Theoretically, there is no limit to the size of the building that could 
be raised or covered on this principle; but, with the material the 
Bijapur builders had to deal with, it is very doubtful whether they 
could have exceeded the dimensions reached in this case without great 
risk of accident. The building being planted upon virgin rock, they 



OF WESTERN INDIA 79 

had no trouble with the foundations. The dome, in spite of its great 
size, was probably constructed, with the exception, perhaps, of a small 
portion at the crown, without centering support. It is TO feet thick* 
at the springing, and appears to have been built of solid brick and 
mortar in flat rings of masonry, not radiating, as with voussoirs, each 
ring being corbelled inwards to the curve and locking itself. Con- 
sidering the size of the brick in comparison with the mass, the dome 
is a rigid brick concrete shell which might have stood upon a few 
separate supports, like the shell of an egg, without breaking away, 
provided the concrete was perfectly homogeneous throughout. 

A remarkable feature in this building is its whispering gallery, 
already alluded to. The sounds that assail one on entering the 
chamber below are much intensified upon stepping into the gallery, 
by a passage through the dome, when the footfall of a single person 
is enough to awaken the echoes of the tread of a company. Strange 
weird sounds and mocking whispers emanate from the walls around. 
Loud laughter is answered by a score of fiends hidden behind the 
plaster. The slightest whisper is heard across from one side to the 
other, the ticking of a watch being quite audible, while a single loud 
clap is echoed over ten times distinctly. 

Over the south doorway, within, is a large displayed inscription, 
boldly cut in three compartments. Each of these sections is a com- 
plete sentence in itself, and each, on computing the numerical value 
of the Persian letters, gives the date A.H. 1067 (A.D. 1656) as that of 
Muhammad's death. The sentences read : 

The end of Muhammad has become laudable. 
Muhammad Sultan whose abode is in Paradise. 
The abode of peace became Muhammad Shah. 

The portion added to the back, or north side, of the mausoleum 
is said to have been intended to afford a resting-place for Jahan Begum, 
the wife of Muhammad Shah, but it was never finished. She evidently 
refused to be so treated, and is supposed to have been buried at 
a spot some distance to the east of the city, where a mausoleum was 
commenced upon the same plan and scale as the Col Gumbaz, with 
the same arrangement of corner towers. But the dome, in this case, 



8o THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 

would have been much smaller, as it would have been carried by four 
inner walls enclosing the sepulchral chamber. It is quite possible 
,tfiat this was intended as the last resting-place of the mother of 
Sultan Muhammad. 

Upon the west side of the Gol Gumbaz is its mosque, which is 
a fine building in itself, and worthy of notice, but it has been com- 
pletely dwarfed by the great tomb beside it. On the south side is the 
Nagarkhana, or gallery for musicians, with the entrance gateway to 
the enclosure beneath it. 

Not content with the capital of his fathers, Ibrahim II. was 
possessed with the mad idea of constructing another, to be called 
Nauraspur, upon a site but 4 miles off to the west. He summoned 
masons and 20,000 workmen from all quarters, and put the task 
under the superintendence of Nawab Shavaz Khan. His nobles and 
ministers, as well as the more wealthy merchants, were pressed into this 
work, and were prevailed upon to add their quota to the buildingsr 
rising upon the new site. What now remains of this ambitious under- 
taking are the ruins of the outer wall, enclosing more than half 
of the site, which, if completed, would have been as large again as 
Bijapur, or some 9 miles in circumference; the ruins of the Nauras, 
or Sangat Mahal, the Nari Mahal, and the Tagani Mahal, as well 
as mosques and tombs and other buildings of sorts are embedded 
in cactus and jungle. The Sangat Mahal was a duplicate, on a rather 
smaller scale, of the Gagan Mahal in Bijapur. Trouble with Nizam 
Shah of Ahmadnagar brought that State's troops down upon the un- 
finished works, which were completely wrecked, and all further con- 
struction was abandoned. 

Bijapur depended for its water supply chiefly upon two sources, 
both without the city walls, which, when the city was invested by an 
enemy, was cut off; but provision to some extent was provided against 
this contingency by the number of reservoirs, or tanks, and wells, 
which, once filled, served the town for some time. The Begam 
Talao, to the south of the town, was one of these sources, from which 
place it was brought in through earthen pipes, embedded in concrete, 
with relieving towers at frequent intervals. The water, entering these 



OF WESTERN INDIA 81 

at a low level, was drawn off again at a high level, so as to leave 
its sediment behind, which was cleaned out at times, steps leading up 
the sides to give access, the top of the tower being open. This 
aqueduct led to distributing towers and tanks within the walls, whence 
smaller pipes, some of copper, connected up with the principal buildings 
and gardens. The other source was from Torweh, the site of Nau- 
raspur, 4 miles out to the west. The water was brought in from here 
through a subterranean tunnel, which was lined with masonry on one 
side, the other side being the natural murum wall. As the strata, 
through which it is cut, slope athwart the direction of the tunnel, 
the subsoil water trickling from the one side was caught, while the 
masonry on the other side prevented leakage. What was thus caught 
formed a valuable addition to the flow from the head source. Among 
the principal reservoirs in the city are the Taj Bauri and the Chand 
Bauri, both important works. 

There are many notable mosques, scattered about, singly, in different 
parts of the country, one of the most ornate being the Kala Masjid 
at Lakshmesvara, in the Dharwar district. It is in the same style of 
work as the Ibrahim Rauza at Bijapur. Its stone chains, hanging 
from the minarets and cornice, which are now sadly damaged, together 
with its beautiful tracery in perforated stone, make it one of the 
most elegant little mosques in Western India. The gateway to the 
courtyard is almost as grand as the mosque itself. These stone chains 
are still made at this town as souvenirs, many being intricately 
fashioned with double links, all loose and independent, and hollow 
fretted pendants with one or more loose, small, stone balls caged 
within them. Each chain and pendant is cut from a single stone. The 
town is full of the remains of old decorated Hindu and Jain temples. 



MUHAMMADAN BUILDINGS IN SIND 

OF Hindu remains in Sind, little is to be found, even in ruins, 
owing to the havoc wrought by the Arab conquerors. That 
such buildings did exist is plain from the great temple at Deval, 
which they destroyed, and the fragments built into the tomb of Jam 
Nindo at Thatha (Plate 57). A very interesting discovery was made, a 
few years ago, in a field near Mirpur-Khas, of a half-life-size bronze 
image of Brahma. When the Muhammadans began to settle in the 
land as rulers, they started building their tombs and mosques, but 
they displayed poor taste in their architectural endeavours. They 
sought to make up for their shortcomings in that respect by lavish 
decoration, occasionally in surface carving in stone, but more frequently 
in the application of coloured tile work, introduced from Persia, with 
which they literally covered their buildings (Plate 55). In the earlier 
tile-work there are some very beautiful designs, and, in many cases, 
good taste has been shown in the harmonious grouping of the few 
colours they used two blues, cream, and white. Later on, when 
they added other colours, such as the various shades of green, brown, 
yellow, and even a dirty red, their work became garish, and would 
supply suitable patterns for cheap linoleum. The tombs of the 
Talpurs, at Haidarabad, are good examples of this. 

Sind being pre-eminently a brick country, most of the buildings, 
particularly those covered with enamelled tiles, were built in that 
material, with stone foundations to save the brickwork from destruc- 
tion by the kalar, or saltpetre, rising in the walls and pulverising 
them. With the exception of the tomb of Isa Khan, at Thatha, these 
mausolea are rather heavy and clumsy looking in outline, and, to 
some extent, are only saved by their elegant finials, and, in a few 
cases, by the very pleasing innovation and effective finish to the 
dome, the ornamental lantern, a very rare feature in India. These 
tombs are, as a rule, great cubical blocks of masonry surmounted 

82 



ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES 83 



with heavy hemispherical domes. Save for the decorated facades, the 
walls are often bald plastered areas, which are relieved only by rows 
of shallow panels. There is but one door to most of them, and tha 
,too small in proportion to the heavy mass of walling above and around 
it; and there is seldom a porch, or any advanced shelter, to give a 
sense of dignity to the entrance. Yet, notwithstanding these defects, 
the mere mass makes them, to some extent, imposing; and, in their 
more or less neglected state, mellowed by age, they look better than 
they did when newly built. Of a more pleasing type are the few 
stone pillared buildings, decorated with surface fretwork after the 
manner of Fathipur-Sikri, the best example of which is the mausoleum 
of Isa Khan, already noticed (Plate 56). Marble is but sparingly used 
in Sind, and then only upon grave slabs and railings within the 
buildings. 



INDEX OF PLACE-NAMES 



(Roman figures refer to the Plates.) 

A. j Brahmanabad, 10 

ABU, 37, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44,1 Broach > 6 9 
49, 53, 64, XXXV, XXXVI, 
XXXVII, XLII 

Adalaj, 44 
Agra, 67 



Ahmadabad, 44, 53, 58-69, 74, 
XLVII, XLVIII, XLIX 

Aihole, 14, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 
XVII, XVIII, XIX 

Ajanta, 2, 6, 7, 19, III, IV, VII, 
IX 

Ambarnatha, 52, XLIII 

Amravati, 13 

Anhillavada-Pattan, 35, 39 

Anjaneri, 57 

Annavatti, 31, XXVII 

Aurangabad, 7 

Ayodhya, 15 

B. 

Badami, 17, 19, 21, 25, 26 
Balagamve, 30, 31, 33, XXVII, 

XXVIII 

Balsane, 54, 56, XLVI 
Bankapur, 31, 58 
Bedsa, 6 
Belgaum, 31 
Bezvada, 13 
Bhadr, The, 61, 64, 65 
Bhaja, 6 
Bhatkal, 34 
Bhojapur, 41 
Bhuvanesvara, 19 
Bijapur, 71, 8 1, L-LIV, LVII 
Bilesvara, 17, XVI 
Boria stupa, 8 



c. 

Cambay, 69 
Chamba Valley, 13 



Champanir, 67, 68, XLIX 
Chandragiri, 44 
Chaudadampur, 31 
Conjeveram, 22, 25 

D. 

Dabhoi, 44, XXXII 

Dambal, 31, 32, 56, XXX 

Degamve, 31 

Depar Ghangro, 10 

Deval, 82 

Devalada, 46, XXXV-XXXVII, 

XLII 

Devalana, 57 
Dhalka, 69 
Dhar, 59 
Dharasena, 13 

E. 

Elephanta, 17 

Elura, 4, 6, 12, 16, 17, 22, 33, 
IV, V, VI, VIII 

F. 

Fathipur-Sikri, 83 

G. 

Gadag, 31, XXXI 

j Galagnatha, ^ i 

I Ghumli, 42, XXXIV 



84 



INDEX 



Girnar, "42 
Gop, I3 , XV 



H. 



Haidarabad, 82 
Halabid, XXIV 
Hangal, 31, 32 
Harahalli, 3 1 
Harihara, 31 
Haveri, 31 

I. 
Ittagi, 30, XXV, XXVI 

J- 

Jabalpur, 32 

Jhodga, 57 
Junagadh, 8, 10 
Junnar, 6 

K. 

Kadvar, 14 
Kanheri, 6, VII 
Kapadvanj, 37 
Karli, 4, I, II 
Kolhapur, 8 
Kondani, 6 
Kukkanur, 13, 27, 28 
Kumalgi, 73 
Kuruvatti, 31, 32, XXIX 

L. 

Lakkundi, 27, 29, 31, 

XXIII 
Lakshmesvara, 76, 8 1 

M. 

Mahakutesvara, 25, 33 
Mahmudabad, 60, 67^ 68, 
Mandhata, 53 



XXII 5 



69 



Mandu, 61 

Mirpur-Khas, 7, 8, 9, 10, 82, XI, 

XIV 

Mohen-jo-dhado, 10 
Mudabidri, 34 
Mudhera, 37, 41, 43, 53, 

XXXVIII, XXXIX, XL 
Mustafabad, 60 

N. 

Narsapur, XXVIII 
Nasik, 4, 6, II 
Nauraspur, 80 
Niralgi, 31 

o. 

Osmanabad, 13 

P. 

Parsvanatha, Mount, 44 
Pattadakal, 13, 14, 19, 2 1, 22, 26, 

XVII, XVIII, XX, XXI 
Pattan (see also Somanatha Pattan), 

35>39)40, 57 
Pedgaon, 57 
Pitalkhora, 6 

R. 

Rattihalli, 31 
Rauza, 76 

S. 

Sanchi, 2, 13 
Sarkhej, 67, XLVIII 
Sarotra, 39 

Satrimjaya, 44, 58, XLII 
Sehwan, TO 

Sejakpur, 42, XXXIV 
Siddhapur, 36, 37, 41, XXXII 
Sinnar, 54, XLIV, XLV 
Sirpur, 13 



86 INDEX 

Somanatha Pattan, 38, 40, 41, 53, 



58, 59, XXXIII 
Supara, 8, 10 
Sutrapada, 14, XVI 

T. 

Tando, 10 

Taranga, 49 

Ter, 4, 12, 13, 14, 18, IX 

Thatha, 82, LV-LVII 

Thul Mir Rukan, 8, 9, u,X 



Unkal, 31 



U. 



V. 



Vadnagar, 36, 37, XLI 
Vaghli, 57 
Velapur, 57 



W. 



Wadhwan, 44 



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