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Full text of "Architectural education at IIT, 1938-1978"

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ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION AT IIT 1] 



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ALFRED SWENSON PAO-CHI CHANG 



FROM THE COLLECTION OF 
GEORGE E. DANFORTH 

ILLINOIS INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY 

INSTRUCTOR OF ARCHITECTURE 
1941-1953; 1975-1981 



V 



DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE 
1959-1975 

GRAHAM RESOURCE CENTER 
ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 



GRC NA 2300 .13 A7 cop3 

Architectural education at 
IIT, 1938-1978 



3 061 



VIN LIBflARy .JIT. 



00167 6046 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 



http://www.archive.org/details/architecturaleduOOtext 



ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION AT NT 1938-1978 



ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION AT IIT 1938-1978 



ALFRED SWENSON PAO-CHI CHANG 



ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 



This publication is supported by grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, the Graham 
Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts, and the Illinois Arts Council, a state agency. 



Text and layout © 1980 by Pao-Chi Chang and Alfred Swenson 

All rights reserved. Nothing herein may be reproduced in any 
form without written permission. 



Published by Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 
LC Number: 79-89021 

Layout and typography by Pao-Chi Chang and Alfred Swenson 
Printed in U.S.A. by Printing Arts, Inc., Chicago, Illinois 



Himois i.-^STfTu r.-. u.- ■. -ici-'Nologv 

GRA>^AW RESOURCc CENTER 

S.R. CROy\/N HALL 

3380 S. STATE ST 

CHICAGO, IL 60616 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Foreword 7 
George E. Danforth 

Preface 8 

The NT Department of Architecture and Its Predecessors: 1889-1978 9 

The IIT Undergraduate Curriculum in Architecture 19 

Program for Architectural Education 22 
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 

Chart of the IIT Curriculum 24 

Inaugural Address 26 
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 

The Architecture Curriculum at IIT 29 
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 

Drawing Sequence 31 

Visual Training Sequence 45 

Peterhans' Visual Training Class at IIT 47 
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 

Visual Training 48 
Walter Peterhans 

History Sequence 59 

Architecture and the Times 61 
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 

Architecture and Technology 62 
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 

Science-Engineering Sequence 67 

General Education Program 68 

Construction Sequence 69 



Planning Sequence 101 

The Settlement Unit 103 
Ludwig Hilberseimer 

What Is a Region? 119 
Ludwig Hilberseimer 

Architecture Sequence 120 

The IIT Graduate Program in Architecture 154 

An Art Museum: Daniel Brenner 159 

A School of Art and Architecture: Charles Worley 1 60 

A Steel and Glass House: Jacques Brownson 162 

An Art Museum: Peter Carter 164 

The Replanning of a University Campus: James Ferris 166 

An Office Building: Gunther Rothe 168 

The Tall Building: The Effects of Scale: Myron Goldsmith 1 70 

The Typology of Long-Span and High-Rise Structures 1 72 

A Study of Long-Span Steel Roof Structures: David Sharpe 1 74 

A Study of Long-Span Concrete Roof Structures: Phyllis Lambert 1 76 

A Train Exhibition Hall: Meiji Watanabe 1 78 

A Sports Center: Emmanuel Glyniadakis 180 

A Sports Arena: Peter Doyle 1 82 

A Railway Station: Lawrence Kenny 184 

An Exhibition Hall: Peter Pran 186 

High Rise Building with Exterior Bracing System: Mineo Sasaki 188 

An Ultrahigh-Rise Building in Concrete: Robin Hodgkison 190 

A Form-Stiffened High-Rise Building: Alfonso Rodriguez 192 

A Multi-Use High-Rise Building: Masami Hayashida 194 

A Ninety-Story Concrete Apartment Building: K, G. Menon 196 

Architecture Faculty and City and Regional Planning Faculty 1938-1978 197 

Acknowledgements 198 

Illustration Credits 199 



FOREWORD 

Professor George Edson Danforth 



In the mid-1930's in America, arcliitectural education was at a low ebb. The influence of the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts had waned and architecture generally was wandering about in an atmosphere of historical 
revivalism. The lessons of Chicago School architects such as William Le Baron Jenney, John Root and 
Louis Sullivan were all but ignored. In both practice and education, architecture denied having any rela- 
tionship to or logical outgrowth of the spirit of the Industrial Age. 

How fortuitous were the circumstances which brought Mies van der Rohe to Chicago in 1938, for in his 
work and projects up to that time, and certainly in those which were to follow, there was embodied the 
essence of the Chicago School of Architecture which had lain dormant for so many years. 

It was a deeply felt experience to have been at Armour Institute of Technology at the time Mies and his 
colleagues, Ludwig Hilberseimer and Walter Peterhans were developing the program of study which was 
to make a profound impact on architecture. Fortunately there was a small number of students in the 
school in those early years before World War 11 which enabled these men to evolve the program slowly, 
allowing many things to be tried. Wisely Mies let those students with advanced standing complete the 
curriculum under which they began their studies if they so chose, concentrating his attention on those 
who would be going through the new curriculum. Thus did he have time to clarify in his mind the princi- 
ples underlying the philosophy on which the curriculum was developed. 

Mies firmly believed, and often reiterated in his lectures and writings, that an architectural curriculum is a 
means of training and education, not an end in itself but dependent upon and serving a philosophy. 

The essence of architectural education, he felt, was to develop a method of work, a way of doing, a striv- 
ing towards clarity of thought, a concentration on fundamentals. 

This order of work is evident in the examples of student work and complementary text contained in this 
publication developed by two members of the NT faculty. Professors Pao-Chi Chang and Alfred Swenson, 
and presents for the first time an important documentation of a program which is a major force in twen- 
tieth century architectural education. 



PREFACE 



Ludwig Mies van der Rohe came to Chicago in 1938 as Director of the Department of Architecture at 
Armour Institute of Technology. There he developed a new undergraduate curriculum, which has been 
the basis of architectural education at Illinois Instituteof Technology since its founding in 1940 through 
the merger of the Armour and Lewis Institutes. Mies viewed architecture as embodying many levels of 
value, extending from the entirely functional to the realm of pure art. He also believed, through his inter- 
pretation of history, that the aim of architecture is to truly represent its epoch, and that the architect 
must search out and express the truth of the time. Therefore the curriculum is structured to lead the 
student by a rational method, from the simpler to the more profound aspects of architecture. It also 
seeks to help the students understand the significant facts and ideas of our age, and how they may be 
translated through clear construction to make an architecture worthy of its greatness. 

This book will document the IIT architecture curriculum in detail for the first time. It begins with a brief 
historical account of the IIT Department of Architecture and its predecessors. The philosophy of the 
curriculum is then discussed in relation to the basic documents that guided its development. Next the 
seven course sequences of the undergraduate curriculum are described, with related documents and 
examples of student work. Finally the work of the graduate school is considered, illustrated by a group 
of thesis projects. It was our intention to present the curriculum in a clear, simple manner, and to have 
the material speak for itself as much as possible. 

We wish to express our gratitude to the organizations whose grants made this publication possible, and 
to their officers who were most helpful to us. They include the National Endowment for the Arts and the 
successive Directors of its Architecture Program, Bill N. Lacy and Roy F. Knight: the Graham Founda- 
tion for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts and its Executive Director, Carter H. Manny, Jr.; and the Illinois 
Arts Council, a state agency. We must also thank the Illinois Institute of Technology for the opportunity 
to teach there, and for its permission to publish student work. It is intended that the proceeds of this book 
will go towards the funding of a continuing serial publication to be called the IIT Architectural Review. 

We must give our particular thanks to Professors George E. Danforth and Myron Goldsmith who worked 
with us throughout as an advisory committee. Both of them have been connected with the IIT Depart- 
ment of Architecture over the whole period covered, and their knowledge and insight have been inval- 
uable to us. 

We must also thank a number of people who helped us in various ways, especially Dean Geoffrey Higgins 
and George Overton, as well as Richard Bennett, Professor Daniel Brenner, Professor Carl Condit, John 
Entenza, Dean James Ingo Freed, Dean Sidney Guralnick, Dean Jong-Soung Kimm, Fazlur Khan, Jerrold 
Loebl, William Priestley, Professor David Sharpe, Professor Paul Thomas, John Vinci and our colleagues 
in the Departments of Architecture and of City and Regional Planning. Finally we must express our thanks 
to Professor Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for teaching us the significance of architecture and imparting to 
us his enthusiasm for it. 



Alfred Swenson Pao-Chi Chang 



THE IIT DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE 
AND ITS PREDECESSORS: 1889-1978 



A community of professional arcliitects began to appear in Chicago after the Great Fire of 1871. The 
destruction caused by the fire, together with the continued expansion of the city, created a demand not 
only for new buildings, but ones of growing size and complexity. Among the architects attracted to 
Chicago by the post-fire building boom were such men as William Jenney, Daniel Burnham, John Root, 
William Holabird, Martin Roche, Dankmar Adier and Louis Sullivan. By the 1880's, this group of archi- 
tects had begun to create the magnificent constellation of early skyscrapers that would become known 
to the world as the work of the Chicago School. It seems only natural that such a group would also be 
interested in education. In fact, Jenney had made an unsuccessful effort to start a school of architecture 
at the University of Michigan in 1876.(1) Although the University of Illinois had offered a course in archi- 
tecture since 1 873, it was 1 00 miles away in Urbana. (2) The Chicago architects wanted a school nearby 
to train new people for their growing profession, and in which they could also participate in the educa- 
tional process. 

The IIT Department of Architecture had its origin in a short two-year course in architecture organized at 
the Art Institute of Chicago in 1889. The program was headed by Louis J. Millet, an architect who had 
studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole des Arts Decoratif in Paris. Several other well-known 
Chicago architects including Burnham, Root, Jenney and Irving Pond became interested in the program, 
giving lectures and criticism in the design classes. (3) 

Shortly after, in 1892, the Armour Institute of Technology was founded by the Armour family, which had 
made its fortune in the great Chicago meat-packing industry. Armour Institute's first president, Dr. Frank 
W. Gunsaulus, took the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Technische Hochschule at Char- 
lottenburg-Berlin as his models. Both of these schools had departments of architecture in addition to 
their strong emphasis on engineering education, and Armour followed their example. The first Armour 
architecture students were admitted in 1893.(4) 

The patron-architects of the Art Institute courses soon saw the engineering studies at Armour as a desir- 
able ingredient in their program, and in 1895 the two architecture schools were merged together. The Art 
Institute and Armour Institute made an agreement to jointly operate an architecture program, which was 
called the Chicago School of Architecture. Armour provided science, engineering and general education 
courses, while the drawing and design courses remained at the Art Institute. The students received a 
Bachelor of Science degree in Architecture from Armour after four years. Louis J. Millet was appointed 
the first director of the school. (5) 

Daniel Burnham emerged as a leading patron of the school, and continued in this role until his death in 
1912.(6) Burnham was of course a major promoter of Beaux-Arts eclecticism in American architecture. 
This influence was displayed in the buildings done under his leadership at the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition, which opened in Chicago in 1 893. The success of Burnham's "White City" soon eclipsed the ear- 
lier work of the Chicago School. The classical canons of the Beaux- Arts would dominate American archi- 
tecture and its schools for the next 35 years. 

The Armour curriculum could never completely imitate the Beaux-Arts system, with its ateliers headed by 
practicing professionals. Also the engineering component of the program remained important, reflecting 



a strong vein of pragmatism in the Clnicago architectural world. But the school did belong to the Beaux- 
Arts Institute of Design, giving the problems set by the Institute to the Armour students, and sending their 
work to New York to be judged. Local architects continued to give lectures and criticism in the design 
classes, and serve on juries for some problems. 

Millet retired as Director in 1902, and was followed by Walter Shattuck, who had studied at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. Charles H. Hammond served as Instructor in Elements of Design from 1906 to 1910. Andrew 
Rebori came as Professor of Design in 1910 and was succeeded in 1913 by Edmund Campbell, a grad- 
uate of MIT who had previously taught at Carnegie Institute. Campbell became director of the depart- 
ment in 1914 following Shattuck's resignation, and remained until 1925 when he went to New York to 
become Dean of the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design. Earl H. Reed, who had been appointed Instructor in 
Design in 1915, replaced Campbell as director; it was during histenure that a Master of Science program 
in architecture was introduced in 1 932.(7) 

By the middle of the 1 920's a new generation of Chicago architects had emerged, and with it departures 
from Beaux-Arts classicism began to appear. The new firm of Holabird and Root produced such fine 
examples of Art Deco design as the Palmolive Building, 333 North Michigan Avenue and the Daily News 
Building. Graham, Anderson, Probst and White built the Civic Opera, Merchandise Mart and the Field 
Building in a similar style. Monroe and Irving Bowman, themselves recent graduates of Armour Institute, 
made more radical designs for towers with curtain walls composed of horizontal bands of glass and 
metal. Buckminister Fuller developed his Dymaxion House project in Chicago, exhibiting it at the 
Marshall Field Store in 1929. The second great world's fair held in Chicago, the Century of Progress 
Exposition which opened in 1933, made a marked contrast with Burnham's fair of 40 years before. Most 
of the buildings were done in Art Deco, with a few examples of the International Style which had begun to 
radiate its influence from Europe. The long dominance of the Beaux-Arts in Chicago architecture had 
begun to wane. 

In 1 935 Earl Reed announced his intention to resign as Director of the Armour Architecture Department. 
Henry T. Heald, then Dean of the College of Engineering at Armour, asked John A. Holabird, a distin- 
guished Chicago architect, to head a search committee for a new director. Holabird, the son of Chicago 
School pioneer William Holabird, had studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and had led the introduction 
of the Art Deco skyscraper to Chicago a decade earlier. The other members of the committee were also 
Chicago architects: Alfred Alschuler, Charles Hammond, Jerrold Loebl and Alfred Shaw. Louis Skidmore 
and Loebl served successively as acting directors of the department after Reed's departure in 1 936.(8) 

Oddly enough, it was David Adier who first suggested Ludwig Mies van der Rohe as a candidate for 
Director of the Armour Architecture Department to Holabird and Loebl during a casual meeting in front of 
the Chicago Art Institute in the summer of 1936.(9) AdIer was a well-known Chicago architect who spe- 
cialized in houses for wealthy clients in a wide variety of eclectic styles. Neither Holabird or Loebl had 
ever heard of Mies before; AdIer took them at once to the Burnham Library of the Art Institute where he 
showed them pictures of the Barcelona Pavilion and the Tugendhat House. Holabird was impressed by 
the pictures of Mies' work, and was interested to learn that he was an educator as well, having been the 
Director of the Bauhaus during its last difficult years in Dessau and Berlin. Holabird wrote to Mies, inviting 
him to come to Chicago to discuss the Armour Directorship, but received no reply. (10) 

Some time later, in the summer of 1 937, Mies visited the United States to design a house for Stanley Resor 
at Jackson Hole, Wyoming. On his return from visiting the site, Mies planned to stop in Chicago to visit 
William Priestley, who had been one of his few American students in architecture at the Bauhaus. Priestley 
was then building a house near Chicago, with Holabird and Root as his associated engineers. When 
10 Holabird heard of Mies' impending visit, he asked Priestley to arrange a meeting with Mies to discuss the 














D 

E 



William LeBaron Jenney (1832-1907) A, Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) B, and 
John Wellborn Root (1850-1891) C. were three of the founding patrons of the Archi- 
tecture Program begun at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1889, which merged with 
the Department of Architecture of Armour Institute of Technology in 1895. All three 
were leading pioneers of the Chicago School, Jenney developed the steel frame, ex- 
emplified by his Fair Store D, of 1891. Burnham and Root built the slender Reliance 
Buildmg E, with a height of over 200 ft. during 1890-1895. After Root's death. Burnham 
became a leading proponent of Beaux-Arts eclecticism, as illustrated by the Civic 
Center F, proposed in his Plan for Chicago of 1909. 






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The Art Institute of Chicago 11 (Burnham & Root, 1887; sold to Chicago Club, 1893; 
demolished 1929) A. was the site of the first architecture classes in 1889, The Art 
Institute of Chicago III (Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. 1893) B, and the Main Building 
of Armour Institute of Technology (Patten & Fisher. 1893) C, were the locations of studio 
and academic classes respectively after the merger of 1895. When the I IT Department 
of Architecture studio classes left the Art Institute in 1945, they were briefly housed in 
the Gage Building (Holabird & Roche, facade by Louis Sullivan, 1899) D. In 1947 
the department moved to Alumni Hall at the IIT Campus (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 
Holabird and Root associated, 1946) E. 







David Adier (1883-1949) A, was a Chicago architect who first suggested Ludwig Mies van der 
Rohe as a candidate for Director of the Department of Architecture at Armour in 1936. He made 
his suggestion to John A. Holabird (1886-1945) B, who had been appointed chairman of a search 
committee for a new director by Henry T. Heald (1 904-1 975) C, then President of Armour, 






D 



Ludwig fVlies van der Rohe (1886-1969) D, was appointed Director of the Department of Archi- 
tecture at Armour by Heald in 1938. Ivlies brought with him to Armour two of his former col- 
leagues at the Bauhaus, Ludwig K. Hilberseimer (1885-1967) E, and Walter A. Pelerhans (1897- 
1960) F. After Heald became President of IIT in 1940, he commissioned Ivlies to design a new 
campus for the Institute G 



13 




In 1955 the I IT Department of Architecture 
moved into the newly completed S. R. 
Crown Hall (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe; 
Pace Associates associated, Charles 
Genther, partner in charge; 1955) A. The 
architecture studio classes are held on 
the upper level, which is one large space 
120 ft. by 220 ft, B. 



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Armour Directorship. After Mies arrived in Chicago he met several times with Holabird, Henry Heald, who 
was now president of Armour Institute, and James Cunningham, the Chairman of the Armour Board of 
Trustees. Priestley and the architect Bertrand Goldberg (who had also studied briefly at the Bauhaus) 
acted as interpreters for Mies, who knew little English. At the final meeting, an offer was made to Mies to 
become the Director of The Armour Department of Architecture. He did not accept it at once, saying that 
he would like to change the curriculum, and would need some time to prepare his new program and pre- 
sent it to Heald and Cunningham. If they approved it, he would be willing to come to Armour. (1 1) 

After paying a visit to Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin, Mies returned to New York, where he developed his 
design for the Resor House with the assistance of Priestley and John Rodgers, another of his former Bau- 
haus students. At the same time, Priestley and Rodgers helped Mies to make a chart that would present his 
ideas for the new Armour curriculum. In New York by chance Mies met Walter Peterhans, a former col- 
league at the Bauhaus who had taught photography there. Peterhans was fluent in English, and he helped 
Mies translate his thoughts for the curriculum. The completed chart, entitled A Program for Architectural 
Education, was mailed to Chicago in the Fall of 1937. Heald and Cunningham approved itwithout revision, 
and Mies accepted the position of director. (12) It was also agreed that Peterhans, Rodgers and Ludwig 
Hilberseimer, a German architect who had headed the City Planning Department at the Bauhaus, would 
also be appointed to the Armour architecture faculty. 

Shortly after he arrived in Chicago in the Fall of 1938, Mies delivered an Inaugural Address, in which he 
further clarified his thoughts for the curriculum. He concluded it with these moving words: "Nothing can 
express the aim and meaning of our work better than the profound words of St. Augustine: 'Beauty is the 
splendor of Truth'. "(13) 

Starting from the ideas expressed in the chart and the Inaugural Address, Mies and his colleagues devel- 
oped the new curriculum over the next few years. It evolved as a series of overlapping courses that would 
show the student "what is possible in construction, what is necessary for use, and what is significant as 
art." It was also decided to end the four year Bachelor of Science course in architecture which had been 
in effect since 1895, and offer a five-year program leading to a Bachelor of Architecture Degree. The 
Master of Science graduate program in architecture was continued unchanged. The five-year curriculum 
was first described in the narrative statement and course outline published in the Armour catalog in 
1941.(14) However, due to the drop in enrollment caused by World War II, the five year program was not 
finally inaugurated until 1 947. In that year the program was also accredited by the National Architectural 
Accrediting Board. 

The new curriculum was not the only contribution Mies made to the school. In 1940, Armour merged with 
the Lewis Institute to form the Illinois Institute of Technology, under the presidency of Henry Heald. It was 
decided to combine the facilities of the two schools on a new campus to be built around the existing 
Armour buildings, and Mies, again with the support of John Holabird, was commissioned to design it. 
Mies continued to work on the campus for nearly 20 years, producing a group of world-renowned build- 
ings, which still form the core of the IIT community. 

In 1946, the architecture studio classes left the Art Institute for a temporary home in the Gage Building 
before moving to Mies' newly-completed Alumni Memorial Hall on the IIT campus in 1947. In 1955 the 
department again moved, this time to Crown Hall, which was planned by Mies as the permanent home of 
the architecture classes, and is perhaps the most significant of his buildings in the IIT campus group. 
A gift of the Crown family in memory of S. R. Crown, it houses the Departments of Architecture and 
of City and Regional Planning, and the Institute of Design which teaches photography and product and 
graphic design. The upper level is a single large room, defined by glass walls and a roof plane suspend- 
ed from exposed steel plate girders. In this open flexible space most of the architecture classes are held, 15 



each able to see the work of the other, and thus to clearly comprehend the processes of the curriculum. 

In 1955 a separate Department of City and Regional Planning was created under Professor Hilberseimer. 
He remained its chairman until his death in 1967, when he was succeeded by Professor Paul Thomas. 
The department has remained closely related to architecture, teaching the planning sequence courses of 
the curriculum, while also offering undergraduate and graduate degree programs. 

Mies retired from teaching in 1958, having reached the mandatory retirement age; Professor Reginald 
Malcolmson became acting director. The new director chosen to head the department in 1959 was 
George E. Danforth. He had been one of Mies' first students at Armour, and had joined the department 
\^i{[ faculty in 1946: in 1953 he was appointed the Chairman of the Department of Architecture at Western 
Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, where he introduced a new curriculum modelled on that of NT. 

A School of Architecture and Planning was formed in 1965, including the Departments of Architecture 
and City and Regional Planning, with Professor Danforth serving as Director, while also continuing as 
chairman of the department. Under his leadership the department enrollment grew from about 125 stu- 
dents in 1959 to nearly 400 in 1975, when he resigned as chairman of the department and director of the 
school to return to teaching. 

In 1975 the new president of IIT, Dr. Thomas L. Martin Jr., established a separate College of Architecture, 
Planning and Design, comprised of the Departments of Architecture, City and Regional Planning, and the 
Institute of Design. James Ingo Freed, a partner in the New York architectural firm of I. M. Pei and Part- 
ners and a graduate of IIT, was appointed Dean of the College and Professor of Architecture in 1975, 
resigning in 1977. Professor David Sharpe was appointed acting chairman of the department in 1976. 

For nearly 90 years the IIT Department of Architecture and its predecessors have been part of the Chicago 
architectural world. During this period, Chicago has been a well-spring of major architectural ideas and 
achievements; in recent years its architectural tradition has radiated its influence throughout the nation 
and beyond. The IIT curriculum of the past 40 years has made an important contribution to the main- 
stream of this tradition. At the dedication of Crown Hall in 1 956, Mies said: 

Let this building be the home of ideas and adventures. Real ideas, ideas based on reason, ideas 
about facts. Then the building will be of great service to our students and in the end a real contri- 
bution to our civilization. We know that it will not be easy, noble things are never easy. Experience 
teaches us that they are as difficult as they are rare. (1 5) 



1 . Arthur Clason Weatherhead, /^ H/sfOAy 5, Weatherhead, op. cit., p. 58. the authors, 1978. 

of Collegiate Education in Architecture in the 6, Ibid, p. 1 06. 11- Ibid. 

Un/tecf States, Los Angeles, 1941, p. 43. 7. Ibid, p, 105-106. 12, Ibid. 

2 Ibid, p, 36. 8. Macauley, op. cit, p, 63, 13, See p, 28. 

3, Ibid, p, 57 9. Franz Schuize, "How Chicago Got 14. See p. 29. 

4 \rene Macauley, The Heritage of Illinois Mies-And Harvard Didn't", Inland Archi- 15, Quoted in Peter Carter, "Mies van 

Institute of Technology, Chicago, 1978, p. tect, May, 1977, p. 23, der Rohe", Architectural Design (London), 

16 19-20. 10, William Priestley, conversation with March, 1961 , p, 110. 



UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM 



THE NT CURRICULUM IN ARCHITECTURE 



The IIT undergraduate curriculum consists of a carefully structured series of courses, each building upon 
the materia! previously developed, leading the student from the simpler to the more profound aspects of 
architecture. This arrangement is a reflection of Mies' concept of a hierarchical scale of value in architec- 
ture, as he pointed out in his Inaugural Address of 1938: 

In its simplest form architecture is rooted in entirely functional considerations, but it can reach 
up through all degrees of value to the highest sphere of spiritual existence, into the realm of pure 
art. In organizing an architectural education system we must recognize this situation if we are to 
succeed in our efforts. We must fit the system to this reality. Any teaching of architecture must 
explain these relations and interrelations. (1) 

The step-by-step approach of the curriculum is combined with the teaching of a rational method of 
thinking and working. Through this method, it seeks to develop in the student a sense of clarity and 
objectivity, of discipline and professional responsibility. As Mies put it in the Inaugural Address: 

Education must lead us from irresponsible opinion to true responsible judgement. It must lead us 
from chance and arbitrariness to rational clarity and intellectual order. 

Therefore let us guide our students over the road of discipline from materials, through function, 
to creative work. (2) 

The definitive version of the five-year curriculum published in 1941 shows how Mies' aims, expressed in 
the 1937 Program for Architectural Education and the 1938 Inaugural Address, led to a series of seven 
overlapping sequences of courses that would successively teach the student ". . . what is possible in 
construction, what is necessary for use, and what is significant as art. "(3) 

The curriculum begins with the drawing sequence which extends through the first and second years. The 
students first learn line drawing with instruments, and then apply it to the manipulation of space in two- 
dimensional form. They also study free-hand drawing from life. Clear drawing is regarded as a funda- 
mental tool of the architect, which must be mastered before attempting anything else. 

In the first year the history sequence also starts, which continues through the third year. The great build- 
ings of the past are studied in their cultural context, not as objects for imitation, but rather to evoke in the 
student's imagination the possibility of creating buildings of equal value with the means our time affords. 

The science-engineering sequence too, begins in the first year, providing three years of intensive back- 
ground for the student in these areas, which contribute directly to the parallel construction and planning 
sequences. 

Also beginning in the first year, and continuing throughout the five years of the curriculum, the architec- 
ture students participate in the IIT General Education Program, taking a variety of elective courses in 
other disciplines to further broaden their perspective beyond the detailed considerations of their field. 

The second year marks the start of the two-year visual training sequence. In these courses, the students 1 9 



extend the line and spatial studies of tine drawing sequence to a group of abstract problems which sharp- 
en their visual perception in the making and judging of form, space, texture, color and proportion. 

The work done in the drawing and engineering classes prepares the student for the construction se- 
quence in the second and third years. The construction courses introduce the student to such basic 
materials as brick, wood, steel and concrete, and their use in simple buildings. The possibilities and 
limitations of these materials are investigated, and the structural systems and architectural expression 
they imply are explored. In construction, the students encounter the fundamental means for the realiza- 
tion of architecture. 

In the third and fourth years the planning sequence applies the students' knowledge of drawing, visual 
training, engineering and construction to the study of function. Beginning with the study of single-func- 
tion rooms, the planning studies are extended upward in scale to dwellings, community buildings, settle- 
ment units and finally to cities. 

The architecture sequence, extending through the fourth and fifth years, forms the synthesis of all the 
previous work. Drawing, visual training, history, engineering, construction and planning all contribute to 
the following advanced studies: space as an architectural problem, painting and sculpture in relation to 
architecture, structure as an architectural factor, and the expressive value of materials, all of which are 
then applied to specific building projects. Concurrently there is an exploration, in seminars and discus- 
sions, of the compelling and supporting forces of our times, and their influence on architecture and the 
role ofthe architect. As an option, in the fifth year the students may study regional planning in place of the 
architecture sequence courses. 

As mentioned earlier, the curriculum's hierarchical structure, beginning with the simple and proceeding 
toward the profound, reflected Mies' view that such a structure is manifested in architecture itself. He 
spoke of an ascending scale of value, starting with buildings that were "entirely functional" and extend- 
ing upward to those in the "realm of pure art". The curriculum seeks to present to the student the possi- 
bility of making buildings of appropriate character and true value at every level of this scale. But it is in 
the upper range of this scale, which Mies explored mostly with students at the graduate level, that the 
ultimate aim of architecture is realized: the achievement of significance as art. He suggested that this 
significance is related to truth, not only by his concluding quotation from St. Augustine in the Inaugural 
Address, "Beauty is the splendor of Truth", but also by these later remarks: 

In all these years I have learned more and more that architecture is not a play with forms. I have 
come to understand the close relationship between architecture and civilization. I have learned 
that architecture must stem from the sustaining and driving forces of civilization. And that it can 
be, at its best, an expression of the innermost structure of its time. 

The structure of civilization is not simple, being in part the past, in part the present, and in part 
the future. It is difficult to define and to understand. Nothing of the past can be changed, by its 
very nature. The present has to be accepted, and should be mastered. But the future is open — 
open for creative thought and action. 

This is the structure from which architecture emerges. It follows, then, that architecture should be 
related to only the most significant forces in the civilization. Only a relationship which touches the 
essence of the time can be real. This relation I like to call a truth relation. Truth in the sense of 
Thomas Aquinas, as the "Adaequatio rei et intellectus". Or, as a modern philosopher expressed 
it in the language of today: "Truth is the significance of facts". Only such a relationship is able to 
20 embrace the complex nature of civilization. Only so, will architecture be involved in the evolution 



of civilization. And only so, will it express the slow unfolding of its form. (4) 

This definition of truth was also reflected in Mies' interpretation of history. Each epoch has its own set of 
facts, and its own understanding of their significance. He viewed the great buildings of the past as set- 
ting a standard of excellence by their clear expression of the essence of their epoch. Through the clarity 
and quality of refinement of their elements, they achieved a sense of harmony or concordantia, a stand- 
ard we must strive to meet in our own creative efforts. Mies regarded the meaningful ornament of Greek 
temples and Gothic cathedrals as refinements that enhanced and enriched their clear construction and 
clear functional elements. He believed that architecture must honestly use only the medium of its epoch, 
and never clothe its buildings in the forms of the past, whose true spirit can never relate to any time but 
theirown. 

Clearly for Mies, the ideas that shaped the industrial world, and the unique facts of function and con- 
struction they informed, expressed the true significance of our time and were the stuff from which our 
architecture must be made. 

Mies was also clearly aware of the problems raised by industrial technology, and that it was not to be 
used blindly: 

We shall be concerned with genuine problems, problems related to the value and purpose of our 
technology. We shall show that technology not only promises greatness and power, but also in- 
volves dangers; that good and evil apply to it as to all human actions; that it isourtaskto make the 
right decision. (5) 

However, the means, purposes and ideas of our civilization continue to change, as Mies recognized: 

We are not at the end but the beginning of an epoch. An epoch which will be guided by a 
new spirit, which will be driven by new forces, new technological, sociological and economic 
forces. And which will have new tools and new materials. For this reason, we will have a new 
architecture. (6) 

Architecture must certainly evolve to meet these changes; its opportunities and responsibilities are great. 
Mies presented the challenge of the future to architecture in these words: 

Architecture wrote the history of the epochs and gave them their names. 

Architecture is the real battleground of the spirit. (7) 



1, See p, 26. on the Occasion of Receiving the Gold p. 184, 

2. Ibid. Ivledalof the American Institute of Archi- 5. See p. 28. 

3. Seep. 29. tects", 1960. Quoted in Peter Carter, 6, Mies van der Rohe, op, cit. in note 4. 

4, Ludwig Mies van derRohe, "Address Mies van der Rohe at Work, London. ^97 4. 7, See p, 62, ^1 



PROGRAM FOR ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION 

Professor Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1937) 



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This Program for Architectural Education was prepared by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1937, at the request 
of President Henry T. Heald of Armour Institute, to present his thoughts for a new curriculum in architecture. 
This document was developed by Mies with the assistance of Walter A. Peterhans, William T. Priestly and John 
B. Rodgers, It was presented to Heald in the Fall of 1937, and he approved it: Mies then accepted the position 
of Director of the Armour Department of Architect-ure. 



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Culture as Obligatory Task 





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23 



CHART OF THE NT CURRICULUM 



Sequence 



Architecture 



Planning 



Construction 



Visual Training 



Science-Engineering 



History 



Drawing 



General 

Education 

Program 



First Year Second Year 

First Semester Second Semester Third Semester Fourth Semester 





















statics 



Calculus and 
Analytic Geometry I 



Calculus and 
Analytic Geometry II 



History ol 
Architecture I 



History of 
Arctiitecture II 



Life Drawing I 



Lile Drawing II 



Arcfiiteclural Drawing I Arctiitectural Drawing I 



Electives 



Elective 



Life Drawing III 



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Analysis of Art 
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, 










Life Drawing IV 



Computer Science 



24 



This chart shows the courses of the curriculum as they were offered in the 1 977-78 academic year. With minor 
variations, they still reflect the basic intentions of the original five-year curriculum which Mies and his colleagues 
had developed by 1941. The number of bars under each course-name indicates the number of credit-hours 
associated with it. 



Third Year 



Fifth Semester 



Sixth Semester 



■ Housing and 

' Community Buildings I 



Architectural 
Construction I 



Visual Training III 



Housing and 
Community Buildings I 



Arctiitectural 
Construction II 



Visual Training IV 



Structures II — Steel Structures III — Concrete 



; Mectianical Systems Electrical Systems 



, Analysis of Art Analysis of Art 

j and Architecture III and Architecture IV 



Fourth Year 
Seventh Semester Eighth Semester 

Architecture I Architecture II 



Fifth Year 
Ninth Semester Tenth Semester 

Architecture III Architecture IV 



Architectural Practice I Architectural Practice I 



City Planning I 



City Planning II Regional Planning Option Regional Planning Option 

(13 credit hours) 



(13 credit hours) 



Electives 



Electives 



Electives 



Electives 



25 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS 

As Director of the Department of Architecture at Armour Institute of Technology 
Professor Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1938) 



All education must begin with the practical side of life. 

Real education, however, must transcend this to mould the personality. 

The first aim should be to equip the student with the knowledge and skill for practical life. 

The second aim should be to develop his personality and to enable him to make the right use of this 
knowledge and skill. 

Thus true education is concerned not only with practical goals but also with values. 

By our practical aims we are bound to the specific structure of our epoch. Our values, on the other hand, 
are rooted in the spiritual nature of men. 

Our practical aims measure only our material progress. The values we profess reveal the level of our 
culture. 

Different as practical aims and values are, they are nevertheless closely connected. 

For to what else should our values be related if not to our aims in life? 

Human existence is predicated on the two spheres together. Our aims assure us of our material life, our 
values make possible our spiritual life. 

If this is true of all human activity where even the slightest question of value is involved, how especially is 
it true of the sphere of architecture. 

In its simplest form architecture is rooted in entirely functional considerations, but it can reach up through 
all degrees of value to the highest sphere of spiritual existence, into the realm of pure art. 

In organizing an architectural education system we must recognize this situation if we are to succeed in 
our efforts. We must fit the system to this reality. Any teaching of architecture must explain these relations 
and interrelations. 

We must make clear, step by step, what things are possible, necessary and significant. 

If teaching has any purpose, it is to implant true insight and responsibility. 

Education must lead us from irresponsible opinion to true responsible judgement. 

It must lead us from chance and arbitrariness to rational clarity and intellectual order. 

26 Therefore let us guide our students over the road of discipline from materials, through function, to 



creative work. Let us lead them into tlie healthy world of primitive building methods, where there was 
meaning in every stroke of an axe, expression in every bite of a chisel. 

Where can we find greater structural clarity than in the wooden buildings of old? Where else can we find 
such unity of material, construction and form? 

Here the wisdom of whole generations is stored. 

What feeling for material and what power of expression there is in these buildings! 

What warmth and beauty they have! They seem to be echoes of old songs. 

And buildings of stone as well: what natural feeling they express! 

What a clear understanding of the material! How surely it is joined! 

What sense they had of where stone could and could not be used! 

Where do we find such wealth of structure? Where more natural and healthy beauty? 

How easily they laid beamed ceilings on those old stone walls and with what sensitive feeling they cut 
doorways through them! 

What better examples could there be for young architects? Where else could they learn such simple and 
true crafts than from these unknown masters? 

We can also learn from brick. 

How sensible is this small handy shape, so useful for every purpose! What logic in its bonding, pattern 
and texture! 

What richness in the simplest wall surface! But what discipline this material imposes! 

Thus each material has its specific characteristics which we must understand if we want to use it. 

This is no less true of steel and concrete. We must remember that everything depends on how we use a 
material, not on the material itself. 

Also new materials are not necessarily superior. Each material is only what we make it. 

We must be as familiar with the functions of our buildings as with our materials. We must analyze them 
and clarify them. We must learn, for example, what distinguishes a building to live in from other kinds of 
building. 

We must learn what a building can be, what it should be, and also what it must not be. 

We shall examine one by one every function of a building and use it as a basis for form. 

Just as we acquainted ourselves with materials and just as we must understand functions, we must 

become familiar with the psychological and spiritual factors of our day. 27 



No cultural activity is possible otherwise; for we are dependent on the spirit of our time. 

Therefore we must understand the motives and forces of our time and analyze their structure from three 
points of view: the material, the functional and the spiritual. 

We must make clear in what respects our epoch differs from others and in what respects it is similar. 

At this point the problem of technology of construction arises. 

We shall be concerned with genuine problems — problems related to the value and purpose of our 
technology. 

We shall show that technology not only promises greatness and power, but also involves dangers; that 
good and evil apply to it as to all human actions; that it is our task to make the right decision. 

Every decision leads to a special kind of order. 

Therefore we must make clear what principles of order are possible and clarify them. 

Let us recognize that the mechanistic principle of order overemphasizes the materialistic and functional- 
istic factors of life, since it fails to satisfy our feeling that means must be subsidiary to ends and our desire 
fordignity and value. 

The idealistic principle of order, however, with its over-emphasis on the ideal and the formal, satisfies 
neither our interest in simple reality nor our practical sense. 

So we shall emphasize the organic principle of order as a means of achieving the successful relationship 
of the parts to each other and to the whole. 

And here we shall take our stand. 

The long path from material through function to creative work has only a single goal: to create order out 
of the desperate confusion of our time. 

We must have order, allocating to each thing its proper place and giving to each thing its due according 
to its nature. 

We would do this so perfectly that the world of our creations will blossom from within. 

We want no more; we can do no more. 

Nothing can express the aim and meaning of our work better than the profound words of St. Augustine: 
"Beauty is the splendor of Truth." 



28 



THE ARCHITECTURE CURRICULUM AT IIT 

Professor Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1 941 ) 



The institute offers a five-year course leading to tine degree of Bachelor of Architecture. In the fifth year the 
student has the option of majoring in Architecture or City Planning. The curriculum of the Architectural 
Department is designed not only to equip the student with the knowledge and ability required for the pro- 
fessional practice of architecture but also to give him a cultural education to enable him to make the right 
use of this knowledge and ability. 

Architecture in its simplest forms is concerned primarily with the useful. But it extends from the almost 
purely practical until in its highest forms it attains its fullest significance as pure art. This relationship 
leads to a curriculum which makes clear, step by step, what is possible in construction, what is necessary 
for use, and what is significant as art. 

This is accomplished in the curriculum by so interrelating the different fields of instruction that the student 
is always conscious of, and is always working in the whole sphere of architecture in its fullest sense of 
designing a structure for a purpose, ordering it so that it attains significance as art, and working out the 
conception so that it may be realized in the executed building. 

At first, the courses are concentrated on training the student to draw, not only to master this technical 
means of expression, but also to train his eye and hand. Throughout the curriculum the student is given 
training to develop a feeling for the expression of proportion and form as the enduring basis of architec- 
ture, however much its means and purposes may change. Material, texture, color, rhythm, structure, and 
mass are the elements with which the student works. He strives to bring them into a rich translucent rela- 
tionship and balance in space. The method is to work within clear and definite restrictions given with the 
problem, and yet to achieve richness and unity of expression. 

Next, the student will study the materials and construction of simple wood, stone and brick buildings and 
then the structural possibilities of steel and concrete. This work is studied in such a way that the signifi- 
cant relationship between the materials, the construction, and the architectural expression is made ap- 
parent. 

The knowledge of materials and construction leads to a study of function. The functions of the principal 
kinds of buildings are studied on the basis of an exact analysis. This analysis establishes wherein each 
architectural problem is distinguished from every other; wherein the real essence of each problem lies. 
After the essentials of each problem have been clearly established, buildings are designed whose con- 
ception and expression are based on these essentials. 

The study of function is carried beyond individual buildings into groups of buildings and then into com- 
munities in the field of city planning in order to demonstrate the interdependence of all building in relation 
to the city as an organic whole. 

The curriculum leads naturally from the study of the means with which one builds and the purposes for 
which one builds into the sphere of architecture as an art. This is the synthesis of the entire curriculum; 
the fundamentals of the art of architecture; the artistic principles, the means, and their expression in the 
executed building. The student applies the principles in free creative architectural design and works his 29 



designs through in collaboration with the structural design and construction staffs of the department. 

In conjunction with the curriculum there is a clarification of the cultural situation today so that the student 
may learn to recognize the sustaining and compelling forces of his times, and to comprehend the intellec- 
tual and spiritual environment in which he lives. The material, intellectual, and cultural aspects of our era 
are explored to see wherein they are similar to those of former epochs and wherein they differ from them. 
The buildings of the past are studied so that the student will acquire from their significance and greatness 
a sense for genuine architectural values, and because their dependence upon a specific historical situa- 
tion must awaken in him an understanding for the necessity of his own architectural achievement. 



30 



DRAWING SEQUENCE 



The curriculum begins wittn tine drawing sequence. Drawing has long been a fundamental means of 
communicating architectural facts and ideas. The curriculum views drawing as an architectural lan- 
guage, as a basic instrument the student must master for the development of his subsequent knowledge. 
Drawing also relates the working of mind and hand; a clear drawing, crystallized to essential significant 
lines, can only be the result of clear thinking. 

The sequence starts with the study of line as the primary element of drawing. The line forms a common 
element between the language of architecture and the more abstract languages of physics and mathe- 
matics which have shaped the industrial world. The student learns to produce accurate and expressive 
lines, always aware that they are not ends in themselves, but a means toward the realization of archi- 
tecture. 

Using the line to make drawings that are accurately constructed, the students begin to develop a sense 
of discipline, of clarity and precision. But they learn not only to make drawings that are mechanically 
correct, they begin to distinguish their aesthetic qualities as well. The character of the line, its texture, 
gradation and density are carefully studied and controlled. 

Having first developed the line in a clear abstract manner, the sequence goes on to consider how line 
and drawing can be used to define and manipulate space in two-dimensional form. The study of geo- 
metrical projections helps the student toward an intuitive feeling for space. Using drawing to define 
space begins the joint development of mind, hand and eye in a rational process. 

Parallel to this development of precise drawing with instruments, the student also does free-hand draw- 
ing from life. Again line is emphasized, using it to convincingly interpret and record the objects seen. 
This process of perception and abstraction of form further develops the student's spatial sensitivity. 

The exercises of the drawing sequence begin in the first semester with the study of straight pencil lines. 
An example of a beginning problem is an array of parallel lines alternating in three different lengths. The 
student concentrates on making lines of uniform weight, with precise terminations. Another early exer- 
cise includes twelve arrays of lines in four different spacings and three different weights. This intro- 
duces control of spacing and density to give proper tonal value to each array. A further problem is com- 
prised of four rectangular arrays of lines, one of horizontal and vertical lines, and the other three of dif- 
ferent combinations of horizontal and diagonal lines. This requires precision in the control of line weights, 
spacing and intersections. Then curved lines are developed in several exercises. One example includes 
a series of nested circles of diminishing size, all tangent to each other at one point, developing precise 
control of the compass. Others involve the construction of equiangular or logarithmic spirals, a problem 
in the accurate joining of arcs of different radii. Once these problems in straight and curved lines have 
been done in pencil, they are repeated again in ink so the student masters this medium. Another problem 
done exclusively in ink involves parallel arrays of lines of varying width, arranged to form a uniform pro- 
gression in size. There is also some limited use of colored inks. 

After this initial preparation in the second semester, the line is then applied to the study of spatial quali- 
ties. The student starts with exercises in descriptive geometry. The initial problem is to define the 31 



position of a line in space, by projection on to various reference planes. Groups of lines in different 
orientations are described in further exercises. The various forms of axonometric projection are then 
studied. Each type of projection is applied to a different problem of describing a three-dimensional 
object such as a spiral staircase, a contour map, or the penetration of sunlight into a room. Finally, 
perspective is studied, beginning with a set of illustrative problems showing the construction of one-, 
two- and three-point views. The concluding exercise is to make a detailed perspective of the interior or 
exterior of an actual building, conveying clearly the quality of space it defines. 

The problems of the life drawing portion of the drawing sequence are used to illustrate a wide variety of 
techniques; pencil, pen, pastel and brush are used. The subjects include studio drawings of still lifes 
and live models, and field sketches of plants, animals, landscapes and buildings. Again the concern is 
the development of line, together with form, and their use to perceive and define space. 

In conclusion, the sequence seeks to develop drawing not only as a useful tool, but also as a creative 
means of stimulating and expressing the student's architectural imagination. 



32 




>< XX ><XX>', ■ |- ■ 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ 


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Arrays of straight lines in vertical, diagonal 
and horizontal orientations. Pencil on 
strathmore paper, 20 in, by 30 in., first 
semester. 



33 



34 



Arrays of straight lines of varying spacing 
and weight. Pencil on strathmore paper, 
20 in. by 30 in., first semester. 



Array of straight lines of three different 
lengths. Ink on strathmore paper, 20 in, 
by 30 in., first semester. 



35 



36 



Symmetrical array of lines of diminishing 
width and spacing. Ink on strathmore 
paper, 20 in. by 30 in,, first semester 




Line of increasing width in the form of a 
logarithmic spiral. Ink on strathmore paper, 
20 in, by 30 in,, first semester. 



37 




38 



Line in the form of an equiangular spiral. 
Ink on strathmore paper, 20 in, by 30 in., 
first semester. 



k 




Two series of reversed tangent half-circles. 
Ink on stratfimore paper, 20 in. by 30 in., 
first semester. 



39 




40 



Isometric projection showing the orthog- 
onal projections on two reference planes 
of two triangular planes in space. Ink and 
collage on strathmore paper, 20 in, by 
30 in,, second semester. 




Isometric proiection of a spiral staircase. 
Ink on strathmore paper, 20 in, by 30 in., 
"econd semester. 



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42 



Plan, section and isometric proiection of 
a contour map. Ink on strathmore paper, 
20 in, by 30 in,, second semester. 




Perspective view, House for Berlin Build- 
ing Exposition (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 
1931), Pencil on strathmore paper, 20 In, 
by 30 in., second semester. 



43 




44 



Life drawing, lnl< on paper, 20 in, by 30 in,, 
second semester 



VISUAL TRAINING SEQUENCE 



Visual perception plays a major role in experiencing and creating architecture. Not only is it important in 
the literal sense of seeing, but in the way it can intuitively inform the architect's intellectual insight and 
judgement of aesthetic value. 

The visual training sequence further refines and intensifies the student's visual faculties, a process 
already begun in the drawing sequence. It continues the mutual development of mind, hand and eye, 
applying visual perception to the making of rational aesthetic judgement. It seel<s to develop this critical 
capacity by the isolation and analysis of various aesthetic qualities, and the achievement of aesthetic 
harmony under restrictive conditions. The work of the sequence consists of a series of abstract exercises 
in the making and judging of proportion, form, rhythm, texture, color, mass and space. Each exercise is 
a controlled experiment with well-defined limitations in which the student, by a comparative method, 
explores a particular visual quality in depth, and seeks an expression of aesthetic unity within the given 
variables of the problem. 

The method of study in the visual training sequence involves the comparison of different versions of each 
problem, adjusting the problem variables one at a time, and analyzing the visual changes that occur. It 
soon becomes apparent that serious visual judgements can be made only with precisely executed visual 
elements. Through this process the student contemplates, evaluates and absorbs the visual experiences 
evoked by adjusting the problem elements, seeking to fuse the elements into a harmonious whole. Of 
course there are many possible levels of refinement in these exercises. Ideally the end result should be 
a dynamically balanced, visually coherent relationship of elements, an aesthetic unity to which nothing 
can be added or subtracted. At the same time all evidence of technique should have disappeared, leav- 
ing a composition that appears natural and unstrained. 

The problems of the visual training sequence are executed on standard mass-produced 20 in. by 30 in. 
white illustration board; it forms a common element in all the exercises. In the third semester where the 
sequence begins, three problems are devoted to the study of proportion using black and white elements. 
The fourth semester covers three problems involving form and proportion, which also evoke a three- 
dimensional spatial quality in their representation on the white board. Two dimensional black and white 
texture problems are studied in the fifth semester. The sequence concludes in the sixth semester with 
two exercises in the use of color and texture. 

The initial problem in the third semester involves the placement of two black lines on the board, one 
vertical and one horizontal, dividing the board into four rectangles of different proportion. The variables 
are the widths of the lines and their location. The student seeks to reach a balance in which ail the ele- 
ments, the lines and the rectangles, have a harmonious relationship to each other and to the board 
itself. In the next problem, three arrays of thin black lines are placed vertically on the board in three 
horizontal bands; three rows of white rectangles are thus defined between the lines. The variables are 
the height, number and proportion of the rectangles in each row, and the thickness of the lines. Here 
a visual unity is sought in the interrelations of the varying proportions of the rectangles and their overall 
relation to the board. The third problem consists of one row of black rectangles placed on the board, 
which in turn define white rectangles between them. The aim of this exercise is to clearly define all 
the rectangles, both white and black, harmonizing their proportions and rhythmic structure in relation 45 



to each other and to the surrounding board. 

The fourth semester begins with an exercise in which a black curve that continuously changes width and 
direction is placed on the board, suggesting that it is hovering in a white space viewed through the out- 
line of the board. The variables here are the rate of change, direction and movement of the curve, and 
the volumes and spaces it implies, which the student seeks to balance with the board's defining edge. 
The second problem is a composition of straight pencil lines, connected between generating lines, which 
define warped surfaces suspended in a space seen through the perimeter of the board. The problem is 
similar to that of the curve in space, involving the visual integration of the location, rate of change and 
sense of movement of the warped surfaces with the spaces they evoke and their overall relation to the 
board that contains them. In the concluding problem involving the third dimension, colored papers are 
cut and arranged on the board to suggest a group of planes in space. The planes may be represented as 
opaque or transparent. The aim here is to define and animate the white space of the board, while main- 
taining a precise, coherent relationship among the planes themselves and the boundaries of the board 

Two problems in visual texture, both done in black and white, are studied in the fifth semester. In the 
first a texture pattern is built up with repeated elements of black watercolor, applied to the board with 
strokes of a brush. The element must grow out of the nature of the medium, clearly expressing it, allowing 
the color applied by the brush to be balanced and lighted by the white spaces that show through between 
it and neighboring elements. The overall structure of the texture, its rhythm, density and variations should 
be uniquely derived from the chosen element, and carefully controlled to achieve an aesthetic whole. 
The second problem has a similar aim, only the color is applied with some instrument other than a brush. 

In the sixth semester the student explores color and texture in two final problems. The first involves the 
placement of twelve quadrilaterals of colored, textured materials in a three by four array on the board. 
Paper is the most frequently used material, but fabrics, wood veneer and sheet metals are also utilized. 
In selecting and testing many combinations of materials, the student seeks a harmonious ensemble of 
color and texture, further interrelated by the shapes of the quadrilaterals and the white spaces between 
them. The last exercise consists of free-formed shapes of textured color, created by placing drops of 
watercolor or ink on a wet board. Often the shapes take the form of ellipses, generated by the outward 
diffusion of color particles through the wet fibers of the paper. Other elements are formed by the liquid 
flow of color over the board's surface. In this very complex exercise, the achievement of visual unity is 
sought in the relationship of color, texture, form and fluid movement within the defining rectangle of 
the board. 

Although the finished plates are the end result of the students' work, the most important aspect of the 
visual training sequence is the enhancement of the students' visual perception, developing their sense 
of quality and precision, their mental discipline and critical capacity. 



The ten types of visual training exercises shown on pages 49-58 were originally developed by Professor 
46 Walter Peterhans. 



PETERHANS' VISUAL TRAINING COURSE AT IIT 

Professor Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1 965) 



When friends and students of Walter Peterlians decided to publish a selection of plates from the Visual 
Training Course he developed at Illinois Institute of Technology, I was asked to write an introduction to 
the publication because of the part i had played at the inception of the course. 

In 1 930 when I took over the Bauhaus in Dessau, Walter Peterhans was head of the Department of Photog- 
raphy. There I became acquainted with his painstaking work with the students, and the great discipline he 
taught and demanded of them. Not only was he a photographer second to none, but a strong personality 
with a broad education in many fields, notably in mathematics, history and philosophy. 

When I came later to Chicago to head the Department of Architecture at Illinois Institute of Technology, I 
asked Ludwig Hilberseimer, a leading theoretician in City Planning, and Walter Peterhans to become 
members of the faculty and to work closely with me in initiating our own curriculum for training and edu- 
cating young architects. 

Confronted with the problem of changing a school containing students at different levels, from freshmen 
to graduates, it was obvious that the only possible starting point was at the freshman level. As properly 
trained freshmen progressed from level to level, a curriculum conforming to our ideas and consonant with 
our aims could gradually be evolved. 

It was my conviction that any freshman, given the right exercises and guidance, could become a good 
draftsman in one year. I asked Peterhans to set up a course to this end, so that at the upper level we would 
have students to our liking. He succeeded admirably, and in the course he organized a foundation was 
laid for clean, clear, exact work — the basic prerequisite for what was to follow. 

Somewhat later I made the startling discovery that although the students appeared to understand what I 
said about the importance of proportion, they did not demonstrate the slightest sense for it in their exer- 
cises. I realized that their eyes simply could not see proportion. This problem was discussed with 
Peterhans and we decided to introduce a new course, especially designed for training the eyes and 
forming and maturing a sensitivity for proportion. It was to be a continuation of the basic freshman course, 
but starting at the sophomore level. To achieve this end, Peterhans developed the course he called Visual 
Training. The effect of the Visual Training course was a radical change in the whole mental attitude of the 
students. All fussiness and sloppiness disappeared from their work; they learned to discard any line that 
did not fulfill a purpose, and a real understanding of proportion emerged. Although specially gifted stu- 
dents sometimes produced plates that would have enriched the collection of a museum, the purpose of 
the course was never to produce works of art, but to train the eyes. 



47 



VISUAL TRAINING 

Professor Walter Peterhans 



'Visual Training' is a course which serves to train the eye and sense of design and to foster aesthetic 
appreciation in the world of proportions, forms, colors, textures and spaces. 

It comprises exercises which are on the one hand sufficiently abstract to show visual qualities in isola- 
tion from one another — in crystallized form as it were — disentangled from the complexities in which they 
occur in architecture, in industrial forms and in the fine arts, and yet at the same time concrete enough 
to allow these and variations to be tied to specific technical media and prescribed conditions. And 
finally copious and flexible enough to exist entirely in their own right in that they are pure representations 
of visual qualities and relationships, intensified to the maximum, aspiring to maturity and fullness, so that 
they are, as of their own accord, consummated in free harmony and ultimately allow technical media and 
conditions to be forgotten. By nature visual training is one of the bases for the specialized work of the 
architect and the industrial and graphic designer. It is no substitute for their work but stimulates, perme- 
ates and controls it in exercises which can be repeated from time to time when the need for them is felt. 
They put things in perspective and allow them to be approached again at a deeper level. The course 
affords access to the common sources from which the formal values of the fine arts and architecture 
take their rise, and likewise the ideas and concepts which are indispensable for the analysis and criti- 
cism of a work of art. 

We attach incomparably more importance to visual training than freehand drawing or drawing from the 
nude. Sketching is indispensable as a means of recording an idea, clarifying it and communicating it 
to others; but as a means of fostering insight and stimulating ideas visual training has quickly shown 
itself to be a greatly superior method since it begins at a deeper level in training the eye for architectural 
conception and quality and for formal creation in the widest sense. (It has therefore had an important 
influence on perspective, representation, and model building in the architectural department and has in 
turn embodied valuable suggestions made in that quarter.) 

We have studiously avoided arbitrariness in the name of personal freedom of expression. We do not 
mould clay with our elbows, nor do we entertain any illusions about the significance of giant wheels 
made of folded paper. We make experiments but we deliberately refrain from making all possible exper- 
iments. Even in practical physics experiments are directed, otherwise we should never have progressed 
beyond the Magdeburg hemispheres and patterns of iron filings in a magnetic field. Nevertheless we have 
made radical changes in traditional methods and at the same time we have subjected them to a per- 
manent check on their utility. We endeavor to isolate aesthetic qualities from one another and to display 
them in an intensified form. We then combine them in a quite different whole in which they are transcend- 
ed — say, in a space which is generated out of themselves. This calls for the strictest mental discipline 
and critical acumen — characteristics which are much rarer in students than the desire to indulge in free 
experimentation, and which must therefore be all the more deliberately fostered. This combination of a 
sense of quality with mental discipline and critical acumen is what we are really anxious to cultivate in 
the student and what determines our working method. 



48 



I 



Two black lines of differing width divide 
tfie board into four rectangles of different 
proportions Balance is sougtit between 
tfie lines, tfie rectangles and the board 
itself. Black paper on strathmore board, 
20 in. by 30 in,, third semester. 



49 



50 



Thin black lines define three rows of white 
rectangles. Visual unity dependent on 
the flowing interrelation of the various 
proportions of the rectangles and the 
board. Black paper on strathmore board, 
20 in. by 30 in., third semester. 



This exercise defines a row of black and 
wlilte rectangles, relating their proportion 
and rhythmic structure to the surrounding 
board and to each other. Black paper on 
strathmore board, 20 in. by 30 in., third 
semester. 



51 




52 



Black curves, which continuously change 
direction and width, hover in a white space 
viewed through the outline of the board. 
Black paper on strathmore board, 20 in. 
by 30 in., fourth semester. 




A composition of straight lines, defining 
an interconnected series of warped sur- 
faces suspended in a space seen tfirough 
the perimeter of the board- Pencil on strath- 
more board. 20 in, by 30 in, fourth semester. 



53 




54 



Opaque and transparent colored planes 
animatethewhite space of the board, main- 
taining a coherent relationship between 
themselves and the board's boundaries^ 
Colored paper on strathmore board, 20 in, 
by 30 in,, fourth semester. 





;/ 




Twelve various materials chosen to form 
a harmonious ensemble of color and tex- 
ture are further interrelated by their quadri- 
lateral shapes and the white spaces be- 
tween them. Collage of wood and paper 
on strathmore board, 20 m. by 30 in., 
sixth semester. 



55 




56 



Visual texture in black and white, built up 
witti repeated elements formed by strokes 
of a brush. The texture is lighted and bal- 
anced by the white spaces that show 
through it. Black watercoloronstrathmore 
board, 20 in. by 30 in,, fifth semester. 



mmm\ 







Visual texture in gradations of black and 
white, similar to page 56 but hiere the 
color is applied with some instrument 
other than a brush. Black watercolor on 
sirathmore board, 20 in. by 30 in., fifth 
semester. 



57 




..,m' 




\ 



V 



•,.^^ 



^.j«*5«*rt>io^^ 



58 



Free-form shapes of textured color, cre- 
ated by placing drops of watercolor on a 
wet board. A complex exercise seeking 
visual unity in thie relationship of color, 
texture, form and fluid movement. Water- 
color on strathmore board, 20 in. by 30 
in,, sixth semester. 



HISTORY SEQUENCE 



The study of history in architecture, as in any field, seel<s to develop an understanding of the possibilities 
of the present and the future through analysis of the achievements of the past. 

Mies suggested in his Inaugural Address of 1938 that his aims for the curriculum, and indeed for the 
making of architecture in general, were derived in part from a study of architectural history, and his 
interpretation of it. This was a theme that he had addressed before in his essay "Architecture and the 
Times" of 1924, and would return to again in his statement on "Architecture and Technology" in 1950. 

In 1924, he said: 

Greek temples, Roman basilicas and medieval cathedrals are significant to us as creations of a 
whole epoch rather than as works of individual architects. . . . They are pure expressions of their 
time. Their true meaning is that they are symbols of their epoch. 

Architecture is the will of the epoch translated into space. ... It must be understood that all 
architecture is bound up with its own time, that it can only be manifested in living tasks and in 
the medium of its epoch. In no age has it been otherwise. 

It is hopeless to try and use the forms of the past in our architecture. Even the strongest artistic 
talent must fail in this attempt. (1 ) 

In his Inaugural Address, he further expanded on this relation of architecture to its time: 

Just as we acquainted ourselves with materials and just as we must understand functions, we 
must become familiar with the psychological and spiritual factors of our day. 

No cultural activity is possible otherwise; for we are dependent on the spirit of our time. 

Therefore we must understand the motives and forces of our time and analyze their structure 
from three points of view: the material, the functional and the spiritual. 

We must make clear in what respect our epoch differs from others and in what respects it is 
similar.(2) 

And in 1950 he spoke of a major force that influences our time: 

Technology is rooted in the past. It dominates the present and tends into the future. It is a real 
historical movement — one of the great movements which shape and represent their epoch. It can 
be compared only with the classic discovery of man as a person, the Roman will to power, and 
the religious movement of the Middle Ages. Technology is far more than a method, it is a world 
in itself. . . 

Architecture depends on its time. It is the crystallization of its inner structure, the slow unfolding 

of its form. (3) 59 



The history sequence explores the great architecture of the past in relation to its epoch, to the cultural 
context and civilization in which it was embedded. Employing the rational method of the curriculum as a 
whole, it first considers the architectural technology of an epoch: how did they build? what methods and 
materials did they have available? Next it considers what was built, what functions and needs did they 
serve, what building types did they evolve? Finally one considers how the great buildings of an epoch 
achieved significance as art. How did they express the dominant ideas of their time, and how did they 
harmonize these ideas with the enduring aspects of clear construction, proportion, refinement and spa- 
tial quality. How did they become "symbols of their epoch" by a process of objective development, 
not by whimsical or fortuitous design. 

The history sequence begins with a course in the first and second semester giving a general survey of 
architectural history from earliest times to the present. The emphasis on subject matter can vary from 
year to year. One may concentrate on the major building types of certain epochs, such as the Greek 
temple or the Gothic cathedral. Or one may study the development of a particular structural type (the 
dome, for example) through many different epochs, seeing how it was affected by changing materials, 
functions and ideas. The lectures are often supplemented by each student making a drawing of a differ- 
ent building studied, all done at the same scale. The drawings are then exhibited together, giving a 
comprehensive view of the semester's work. A year-long course in the history of painting and sculpture 
follows, with particular emphasis on their relationship to architecture. The sequence is concluded with a 
course concentrating on the architecture of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 

In addition to the formal courses of the history sequence itself, continual references are made to history 
in other sequences, particularly construction, planning and architecture. In construction for example, 
medieval half-timber buildings may be studied to help clarify the development of structural systems in 
wood. The evolution of earlier city plans is reviewed to show how contemporary problems in the planning 
sequence may be approached. In the architecture sequence, major emphasis is placed on the under- 
standing of our epoch's place in history, and how this shapes our buildings. 

The history sequence seeks to impress on the student the importance of making buildings of true value 
in materials, function and significance, by the example of the great buildings of the past. It helps to arouse 
their enthusiasm for architecture as a serious and profound activity, and to give them a better under- 
standing of its true nature. As Mies said in 1 941 : 

The buildings of the past are studied so that the student will acquire from their significance and 
greatness a sense for genuine architectural values, and because their dependence upon a 
specific historical situation must awaken in him an understanding for the necessity of his own 
architectural achievement. (4) 



1 Seep 61. 

2. See p. 27, 

3 Seep 62 

60 4 Seep, 30, 



ARCHITECTURE AND THE TIMES 

Professor Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1 924) 



Greek temples, Roman Basilicas and medieval cathedrals are significant to us as creations of a whole 
epoch rather than as works of individual architects. Who asks for the names of these builders? Of what 
significance are the fortuitous personalities of their creators? Such buildings are impersonal by their very 
nature. They are pure expressions of their time. Their true meaning is that they are symbols of their epoch. 

Architecture is the will of the epoch translated into space. Until this simple truth is clearly recognized, the 
new architecture will be uncertain and tentative. Until then it must remain a chaos of undirected forces. 
The question as to the nature of architecture is of decisive importance. It must be understood that all 
architecture is bound up with its own time, that it can only be manifested in living tasks and in the medium 
of its epoch. In no age has it been otherwise. 

It is hopeless to try to use the forms of the past in our architecture. Even the strongest artistic talent must 
fail in this attempt. Again and again we see talented architects who fall short because their work is not in 
tune with their age. In the last analysis, in spite of their great gifts, they are dilettantes; for it makes no dif- 
ference how enthusiastically they do the wrong thing. It is a question of essentials. It is not possible to 
move forward and look backwards; he who lives in the past cannot advance. 

The whole trend of our time is toward the secular. The endeavors of the mystics will be remembered as 
mere episodes. Despite our greater understanding of life, we shall build no cathedrals. Nor do the brave 
gestures of the Romantics mean anything to us, for behind them we detect their empty form. Ours is not an 
age of pathos; we do not respect flights of the spirit as much as we value reason and realism. 

The demand of our time for realism and functionalism must be met. Only then will our buildings express 
the potential greatness of our time; and only a fool can say that it has no greatness. 

We are concerned today with questions of a general nature. The individual is losing significance; his des- 
tiny is no longer what interests us. The decisive achievements in all fields are impersonal and their authors 
are for the most part unknown. They are part of the trend of our time toward anonymity. Our engineering 
structures are examples. Gigantic dams, great industrial installations and huge bridges are built as a mat- 
ter of course, with no designer's name attached to them. They point to the technology of the future. 

If we compare the mammoth heaviness of Roman aqueducts with the web-like lightness of modern 
cranes or massive vaulting with thin reinforced concrete construction, we realize how much our archi- 
tecture differs from that of the past in form and expression. Modern industrial methods have had a great 
influence on this development. It is meaningless to object that modern buildings are only utilitarian. 

If we discard all romantic conceptions, we can recognize the stone structures of the Greeks, the brick 
and concrete construction of the Romans and the medieval cathedrals all as bold engineering achieve- 
ments. It can be taken for granted that the first Gothic buildings were viewed as intruders in their Roman- 
esque surroundings. 

Our utilitarian buildings can become worthy of the name of architecture only if they truly interpret their 

time by their perfect functional expression. 61 



ARCHITECTURE AND TECHNOLOGY 

Professor Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1950) 



Technology is rooted in tine past. 
It dominates the present and tends into the future. 
It is a real historical movement — 

one of the great movements which shape and represent their epoch. 
It can be compared only with the Classic 
discovery of man as a person, 
the Roman will to power, 
and the religious movement of the Middle Ages. 
Technology is far more than a method, 
it is a world in itself. 

As a method it is superior in almost every respect. 
But only where it is left to itself as in 
gigantic structures of engineering, there 
technology reveals its true nature. 
There it is evident that it is not only a useful means, 
that it is something, something in itself, 
something that has a meaning and a powerful form — 
so powerful in fact, that it is not easy to name it. 
Is that still technology or is it architecture? 
And that may be the reason why some people 
are convinced that architecture will be outmoded 
and replaced by technology. 
Such a conviction is not based on clear thinking. 
The opposite happens. 

Wherever technology reaches its real fulfillment, 
it transcends into architecture. 
It is true that architecture depends on facts, 
but its real field of activity is in the realm of significance. 
I hope you will understand that architecture 
has nothing to do with the inventions of forms. 
It is not a playground for children, young or old. 
Architecture is the real battleground of the spirit. 
Architecture wrote the history of the epochs 
and gave them their names. 
Architecture depends on its time. 
It is the crystallization of its inner structure, 
the slow unfolding of its form. 
That is the reason why technology and architecture 
are so closely related. 
Our real hope is that they grow together, 
that someday the one be the expression of the other. 
Only then will we have an architecture worthy of its name: 
62 Architecture as a true symbol of our time. 







Plan A and transverse section B of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Pans (1 163-1235) and plan C and transverse section D of 
Amiens Cathedral (1220-1288). These draw/ings were made as a part of series studying the development of cathedrals and 
other medieval building types in the first-year history of architecture course. Ink on strathmore board, second semester. 



63 




;:;?3=^^Tg=p_ 



:^>A^m:a:mi 








64 



Part of a series of drawings made in thie first-year tiistory of arctiifecture course forming a study of tfie development of the 
dome through various epochs, Shov^^n are sections of the Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae (c,1400 BC) A; the Pantheon, Rome 
(120-202) B, Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus, 532-537) C; Pazzi Chapel, Florence 










-S I 1 1 1 r I' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 riTTTT 



fl™^ 



(Filippo Brunelleschi, 1420) D; the Cathedral, Aix-la-Chapelle (Odo of Metz, c.800) E; Church of the Sorbonne, Paris (Lemercier, 
1635-1659) F; Palazzetto del Sport, Rome (Pier Luigi Nervi, 1960) G; American Pavilion at Expo 67, Montreal (Buckminister 
Fuller, 1967) H; and Palazzo del Sport, Rome (Pier Luigi Nervi, 1960) J. Ink on strathmore board, second semester. 



65 










1. 1 A 



f-C"' "T"-- I 






':!^?F" 



r "i 












iMMl II! m 

l;^|ffl[yyjii| 




66 



An example ol the study o( history within 
the construction sequence. The structural 
system of English half-timber construc- 
tion. Pencil on strathmore board, 30 in. by 
40 In., third semester. 



SCIENCE-ENGINEERING SEQUENCE 



An understanding of science and engineering is essential for arclnitects, not only so they may master the 
technology of our time, but also to comprehend the significant role these disciplines play in our indus- 
trial civilization. A clear grasp of physical principles permits the architect to understand the behavior of 
structural and mechanical systems, to responsibly judge and select them, and to integrate them with 
the building as a whole. 

The science-engineering sequence begins in the first semester with a course in calculus and analytic 
geometry. This develops the abstract tools needed to explain physical concepts, and to manipulate them 
on paper. A later course in computer science develops further methods for solving complex engineering 
problems. 

The study of physics presents to the student such fundamental concepts of nature as space, time, gravity, 
statics, conservation of energy, thermodynamics, light, color, electricity and atomic structure, all having 
a profound relevance to architecture. 

The engineering portion of the sequence begins with courses in statics and strength of materials, which 
bring the generalized studies of physics to focus on the behavior of structures, developing in a general 
way the ideas of force, moments, stress, stiffness, elasticity and deformation. These are followed by a 
series of three courses in which the students develop the separate engineering treatments of wood, 
steel and concrete, parallel to their study of the possibilities and limitations of these materials in the con- 
struction sequence. 

Finally, there is another series of courses, one in mechanical engineering and one in electrical engineer- 
ing, also in parallel with the construction sequence. The functions and types of various mechanical and 
electrical systems for buildings are studied in relation to human comfort, energy consumption, capital 
costs, and their interrelation with other building components. 

The aim of the science-engineering sequence is to provide the students with a background of funda- 
mental knowledge to help them evaluate and choose appropriate structural and mechanical systems, 
which forPTi major parts of the buildings of our age. It also seeks to show how the architect can work in 
creative interaction with related engineering disciplines in the making of the built environment. Through 
its clarification of basic physical principles, it further suggests to the student that the structural and 
mechanical systems that our time has created may be raised above the level of mere technology, and 
become elements of architectural concepts. 



67 



GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAM 



The architecture students also participate in the General Education Program of Illinois Institute of Tech- 
nology. This program is designed to provide all undergraduates with a basic education in humanities, 
social sciences and natural sciences. This objective is achieved through a series of approved courses 
which deal substantively with specific subjects in various disciplines. At the same time, the program 
provides an opportunity for the student to explore and choose according to their individual interests. 
The courses are distributed in all five years of the curriculum. The program includes courses in four com- 
ponent categories: Mathematics and Computer Science (three courses). Natural Sciences or Engineering 
(three courses), Humanities (four courses) and Social Science (four courses). 

The course requirements in the first two categories are fulfilled by the Science-Engineering Sequence. 
The courses of the Humanities component consist of four three-hour courses in English, history, linguis- 
tics, philosophy or foreign languages. The Social Science component includes four three-hour courses 
in anthropology, economics, political science, psychology or sociology. In these two components, two 
courses must be in the same field, and at least one course must be taken in a second field — a student 
may not take all four courses in one field or four courses in separate fields. 

In addition, the students must also take four additional three-hour elective courses in any field of their 
choice. 



68 



CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE 



The industrial age brought new materials and methods to construction. The use of mass-produced ele- 
ments has gradually replaced much of traditional craftsmanship in building. It is only natural that these 
new materials and methods would pose a challenge to architects to master their uses and develop their 
architectural expression. 

However, the great buildings of earlier times, made with traditional materials and techniques, exemplify 
true values of quality and spirit in building. Their expression often derives from the clear logic of their 
construction. They set the standard that our construction must meet with the new means of our time. 

Providing a building with a sound structure and enclosure against the weather is a basic responsibility of 
the architect. Therefore, architects must deal with construction directly. One cannot have an arbitrary 
vision of a building and then attempt to glue it together. Construction by its nature is objective; it is the 
rational development of a whole time, and a true expression of its spirit. Clear construction can become 
the basis of architecture itself. 

In this sequence, the students learn the possibilities and limitations of construction. They are concerned 
not only with its quality and durability, but its aesthetic value. They learn not merely how to build, but 
how to build well. 

The studies begin with the materials of construction, how they obey the laws of physics, and how their 
behavior can be analyzed and manipulated on paper through engineering. Their visual qualities of color 
and texture are also studied. Next one considers how technology is applied to these materials, how they 
are fabricated into components and assembled into finished buildings. The industrial age has gradually 
and objectively developed structural systems for a number of materials. The systems evolved for brick 
and wood are studied first and then those for steel and concrete, using them to make elementary build- 
ings. Every aspect of these buildings is carefully worked out by the students, using full-size drawings 
and examining actual materials to bring a sense of reality to the development process. The students 
analyze and refine the role of every construction element in these systems from three points of view: the 
physical function of the element, the construction method used in placing it, and its contribution to the 
building's visual character. The intent of these studies is to clearly understand the material and the sys- 
tem, and to make the architectural expression of the building reflect their spirit. 

The sequence presents clear principles of construction, not specific solutions to set problems. If the 
students can grasp these principles through the examples of the materials and technologies they study; 
they can apply them to master any new material or technology they may meet in the future. 

It is in the construction sequence that the students have their first direct encounter with architectural 
problems, and that the rational method of the curriculum becomes an integral part of their work. The 
method emphasizes a process of development, the reasoned unfolding of built form. The word design 
is avoided, since it often implies arbitrary or whimsical judgement. The application of this method to 
construction begins with a clear statement of the problem itself. What material and what system are to 
be used? What physical, technical and visual criteria do this material and system imply? Each part of 
the elementary building can then be developed by starting from the known facts and proceeding through 69 



a trial solution, applying the general construction principles that the sequence develops. The trial solu- 
tion is then criticized in terms of the problem description. Are physical criteria met, such as waterproof- 
ness, structural strength and thermal expansion? Are technical criteria such as construction tolerance 
and ease of fabrication satisfied? Are visual criteria met — does it clearly express the character of mate- 
rials and system used? The process of trial solution and criticism is repeated, each time improving with 
added experience, gradually converging to a satisfactory conclusion. The aim is to solve the problem as 
completely as possible, and to reduce the solution to the simplest possible terms. 

In the first course of the construction sequence in the third semester, brick masonry is studied. First the 
properties of brick and mortar are considered, and their compressive, bearing character established. 
Then the bonding of walls is investigated, how to terminate walls, to turn corners and make intersections 
with them, all within the discipline imposed by the bonding system. The walls developed in the bonding 
studies are then used to begin to make a simple building. A roof is added to the bearing walls, introduc- 
ing the problems of beams, slabs and waterproofing. Next, openings are cut in the walls, and doors 
and windows developed. Then foundations and a chimney are studied. Finally interior partitions and 
cabinet work are added. All the parts of the building are studied with full-size drawings and the actual 
materials whenever practical, always relating them to the whole. The project is then summarized in a set 
of drawings on illustration board, showing key full-size details and overall views in plan, section and per- 
spective. The aim is to produce a building illustrating clear construction in brick, one whose architec- 
tural expression grows out of the nature of the material itself. 

Construction in wood and stone is the subject of the fourth semester. As with brick, the properties and 
character of wood are studied first. The different types of trees from which wood is derived, its micro- 
scopic structure, and how it behaves under different stress and moisture conditions are investigated. 
The cutting, shaping and various methods of joining wood are discussed. Concurrently stone is also 
studied; the properties and uses of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rock are introduced. The 
various structural systems using wood are then presented, starting with heavy timber and extending to 
the light balloon frame. One of these systems is then developed in an elementary building, in combina- 
tion with stone foundation walls. Again, roof and walls, doors and windows are evolved through full-size 
drawings and the study of actual materials, carefully integrating them with the overall building concept. 
The resulting building seeks to demonstrate the character of wood and stone through the clarity and 
quality of its construction. Gradually the students perceive how architecture begins to emerge from the 
facts of construction itself. 

Steel and concrete are introduced in the fifth semester's work. As with wood and brick, the properties of 
the materials are discussed first. Their chemical composition, elastic behavior, ultimate strength, man- 
ufacture, shaping, quality control and other important attributes are described. Simple structural systems 
using them are studied next. The basic idea of the structural skeleton composed of beams, girders and 
columns is explored. Then the systems are applied to small buildings: as before, all their elements are 
developed, not only with drawings but also with the use of models. The final presentation usually includes 
both drawings and a finished model. As with the traditional materials studied previously, the unique 
characteristics of steel and concrete form the basis of architectural expression in these problems. 

The sixth semester explores larger-scale structures in steel and concrete. The skeleton is extended 
upward to form high-rise towers, introducing the problem of lateral bracing against wind and seismic 
forces. The hierarchy of long-span structures is also studied. The overlapping ranges of different struc- 
tural types are developed, starting with simple beams and continuing through rigid frames, plate gird- 
ers, trusses, vaults, two-way grids, spaceframes, domes and suspension systems. Models are an impor- 
tant tool in these studies, supplementing drawings throughout. The remarkable range of structural types 
70 evolved by our industrial age presents the student with manifold possibilities for future development. 




Brick bearing wall house; exterior perspec- 
tive view with garden walls^ Pencil on strath- 
rnore board, 20 in, by 30 in , third semester. 



71 




72 



Brick bearing wail house; transverse sec- 
tion througti cliimney witti interior perspec- 
tive view. Reinforced brick roof slabs are 
supported by steel beams resting on 1 2 in. 
Englisti cross-bond walls. Pencil on strath- 
more board, 30 in. by 40 in .tfiird semester 









aumim im 







Brick bearing wall house, longitudinal sec- 
iion and plan. Pencil on sirathmore board, 
'iO in. by 40 in., third semester. 



73 



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74 



Weekend house in brick on a lake; exterior 
perspective view. Pencil on strathmore 
board, 30 in, by 40 in,, third semester. 



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Weekend house in brick; plan showing 
garden court and lakeside terraces with 
walerstair. Pencil on strathmore board, 30 
in. by 40 in , third semester. 



75 




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76 



Weekend house in brick; longitudinal sec- 
tion through garden court with perspective 
view. Hollow precast concrete roof slabs 
are supported on a reinforced brick perim- 
eter beam which rests on 1 in. brick cavity 
walls. Pencil on strathmore board, 30 in. by 
40 In., third semester. 




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Weekend house in brick: roof and floor 
slab details. Heating is provided by a perim- 
eter duct under tfne floor slab. Pencil on 
strathmore board, 30 in. by 40 in., third se- 
mester. 



11 




78 



House with two courts in brick; partial per- 
spective view. Reinforced brick roof slabs 
are supported on steel beams wfiicfi reston 
Interior steel columns and 16 In. English 
bond court walls. Pencil on strathmore 
board, 30 In. by 40 In., third semester. 




ClL] 



Two-story row house in brick, longitudinal 
section with interior perspective view. Re- 
inforced brick roof and floor slabs are 
supported on steel beams resting on 12 
in. reinforced brick bearing walls. Exterior 
is enclosed with 12 in. brick cavity walls. 
Pencil on strathmore board, 30 in. by 40 
in., third semester. 



79 




80 



Two-level house in wood and stone on 
a sloping site; exterior perspective view 
Pencil on strathimore board, 20 in. by 30 
in., fourth semester. 



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I 




Two-level house in wood and stone; roof 
detail. Hip roof drams to a copper gutter. 
Balloon frame construction is enclosed 
with natural wood siding on both interior 
and exterior surfaces. Pencil on strath- 
more board. 30 in by 40 in., fourth se- 
mester. 



81 




82 



Two-level house in wood and stone, ex- 
terior perspective view showing framing^ 
Balloon frame is supported on 1 8 in. stone 
walls. Pencil on strathmore board, 30 in. 
by 40 in., fourth semester. 




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T'wo level house in wood and stone; door 
and window details in wood. Pencil on 
suathmore board, 30 in. by 40 in,, fourth 
semester. 



83 




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Country house in wood and stone on a 
hillside View of upper living level with 
light wood roof and floor trusses span- 
ning between balloon frame walls, which 
are cantilevered from stone retaining 
walls; the bedroom level beneath opens 
on to the lower level terrace A. View 
showing garage entrance and stone stair- 
way leading to upper level terrace; both 
upper living level and lower bedroom 
level overlook the valley below B. Photo- 
graphs of model, fourth semester. 










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Country house in wood and stone: upper 
level plan showing terraces and connec- 
ting stairways. Pencil on strathmore board, 
30 in. by 40 in,, fourth semester. 



85 





86 



Country house in wood and stone; longi- 
tudinal section. Clerestory windows light 
sleeping area at interior of lower level: 
exposed tubularductwork running through 
trusses distributes conditioned air. Pencil 
on strathmore board. 30 in. by 40 in., 
fourth semester. 




Country house in wood and stone; ver- 
tical sections showing roof, floor and 
window details. Wood trusses are fabri- 
cated from 2 in. by 4 in. members; walls 
are framed with 2 in. by 6 in. studs; 
openings are double-glazed with clere- 
story hopper windows for natural venti- 
lation Pencil on strathmore board, 30 
in. by 40 in., fourth semester. 



87 







88 



Vacation house in steel over a ravine. Canti- 
lever fascia girders resting on columns 33 
ft. apart support roof and floor beams. 
Photograpti of model, fifth semester. 




Vacation house In concrete over a ravine. 
Root and floor slabs rest on beams and 
girders, which cantilever in tvi/o directions 
from interior columns. Photograph of model, 
fifth semester. 



89 




90 



Vacation house in steel over a ravine 
Roof and floor are supported by steel 
beams, wtiich are carried on full-heigfit 
trusses with tension rod diagonals. Photo- 
graph of model, fifth semester. 




Vacation house in aluminum over a ravine. 
Roof and floor consist of stressed-skin 
panels cantilevered from cruciform col- 
umns. Pfnotograpfi of model, fiftfi semester 



91 




92 



Elementary school in steel. View of court- 
yard between classroom wings with multi- 
purpose room in background; a glass- 
enclosed corridor links the three elements 
A View of multi-purpose room with two- 
way steel grid roof supported on perimeter 
columns B. Photographs of model, sixth 
semester. 




Elementary school classroom wing in bricl< 
and concrete, perspective view showing 
construction elements. One-way concrete 
roof slab is supported on 16 in. english 
bond cross walls; the south wall of the 
typical classroom has full-height rolling 
glass doors; a corridor lighted by clere- 
story windows extends along the north 
wall. Pencil on strathmore board. 30 in. 
by 40 in., sixth semester. 



93 




94 



Elementary school classroom wing in con- 
crete; transverse section with perspective 
view. Beams spanning 24 It. are supported 
on cantilever girders carried on columns 
24 It, apart; enclosure consists of glass 
and brick walls. Pencil on strathmore 
board, 30 in. by 40 in,, sixth semester. 




I 



Elementary school classroom wing in 
steel; transverse section with interior per- 
spective view. Deep metal roof deck span- 
ning 24 ft. IS supported by canlilevered 
beams carried on columns 24 ft. apart; 
enclosure consists of glass and insulated 
metal wall panels. Pencil on strathmore 
board. 30 in. by 40 in., sixth semester. 



95 




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steel skeleton construction 1 6-story struc- 
ture with 24 ft, square bays A. Concrete 
skeleton construction. 16-story structure 
with flat slab floors supported by columns 
24 ft. apart B Photographs of models, 
sixth semester. 



Long-span steel structure. 225 ft. square 
roof supported by two-way warren trusses 
at 45 ft. centers, cantilevered from fc^ ir 
interior columns C. Long-span steel struc- 
ture. 225 ft. square roof supported ijy 
two-way vierendeel trusses at 1 5 ft. cente; 5, 
cantilevered from four interior columns D. 
Photographs of models, sixth semester. 





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The structures of various magnitudes 
shown in the photographs of models on 
these and the following three pages were 
developed under the direction of Profes- 
sor Alfred Caldwell in his third-year con- 
struction course. Professor Caldwell 
taught these and other construction 
classes for over fifteen years with great 
understanding and intensity 




Steel skeleton construction. Hexagonal 
structure 32 ft, on each side with walls 
and roof made up of steel bar joists A. 
Photograph of model, sixth semester. 



Steel skeleton construction, 40 ft, square 
roof supported by two-way steel beams 
at 8 ft, centers, each carried by a perim- 
eter column B, Photograph of model, 
sixth semester. 




Steel skeleton construction. A group of 
nine 40 ft, square units shown in B are 
joined together by 40 ft. vierendeel trusses 
to form a 200 ft. square structure C. Photo- 
graph of model, sixth semester. 






Long-span steel structure^ Triangular grid 
barrel vault spanning 300 ft. supported 
by concrete piers; grid members are 
trusses bolted together with forged steel 
connectors. Ground level view A, plan 
view B, structural detail C. Photographs 
of models, sixth semester. 





Long-span steel structure. Triangular net- 
worl< of catenary cables forming a hex- 
agon, supported by vertical stay cables 
carried over inclined struts F, Photograph 
of model, sixth semester. 



Long-span steel stucture for zoo aviary. 
Triangular grid dome supported by radial 
concrete piers, grid members are trusses 
bolted together witti forged steel connec- 
tors Plan view D. ground level view sfiow- 
ing entrance E Ptiotograpfis of model, 
sixtfi semester 




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Long-span steel structure. Two-way grids 
of pratt trusses are hung from catenary 
cables spaced 285 ft. apart, forming a 
clear-span roof 2000 ft, square, the cables 
are supported on masts 480 ft. high. 
Overall view A, detail view of corner B. 
Photographs of model, sixth semester 




ill '•■'" 

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M' 



PLANNING SEQUENCE 



Most buildings are constructed to serve a function. Each age determines the functions of its buildings 
according to its interpretations of human and social needs. Planning is the aspect of architecture that 
analyzes and understands those needs, and shapes the building to meet them. But functional considera- 
tions have a wide range of application in the built environment. They begin with the arrangement of fur- 
niture in a simple room and extend upward in scale to buildings and building groups, to neighborhoods 
and cities, and finally to regions. Although the architect is usually concerned with a single building or 
possibly a group, a knowledge of city and regional planning is also vital to him, for it gives an under- 
standing of the larger physical context in which his work is embedded. 

The planning sequence of the curriculum was developed by Professor Ludwig Hilberseimer, who had 
been Director of the Department of City Planning at the Bauhaus, and who came to Armour with Mies in 
1938. Hilberseimer shared Mies' rational approach to architecture and planning, based on the develop- 
ment of clear principles. He also shared Mies' exemplary view of history; the great planning works of the 
past should serve as an inspiration to us to realize resultsof similar quality with the means of our own time. 

Hilberseimer's concern in planning was the development of principles that could bring order and har- 
mony to the functions of the buildings, cities and regions of our industrial age. He perceived that the 
industrial world had created certain conflicts with the natural world, and he sought to reconcile them 
through the planning process. He wrote: 

Planning is an application of principles. Principles, which grow out of the order of things, lead 
to a method and theory of planning, based on an investigation of facts and requirements as well 
as on a concept of life. Following such a principle-based theory, we can develop each part of 
a city or a region according to its function and we can also determine for each part of our plan 
its rightful place in the whole. (1) 

Concerning his interest in the integration of the works of man with the patterns of nature, he wrote: 

Man may act according to the laws of nature, in harmony with them, or against them. . . When 
man obeys the laws of nature, he will find abundance; when he disobeys them, he will meet want 
and poverty. (2) 

Some of the planning principles that Hilberseimer developed were these. Winter sunlight should be re- 
quired in every room of a dwelling. It not only offers space heating and physical and psychological ben- 
efit for the occupants, but it also becomes a means of controlling population density by limiting the 
spacing of dwellings to permit sun penetration. All the inhabitants of a city should be within easy walking 
distance of schools, industrial work places, shopping and natural parks for recreation. This will re-inte- 
grate the segregated functions of the giant industrial city into settlement units of human scale. It will also 
reduce dependence on mechanical transportation and traffic congestion. The landscape should pene- 
trate the city everywhere, providing pleasant traffic-free walkways for the pedestrian and natural recrea- 
tion areas. It will also allow the city dweller to practice small-scale agriculture, and enrich the quality of 
urban life with the visual enjoyment of nature. Regions should be developed through the careful use of 
natural resources and the preservation of ecological balance. This can permit balanced development of 101 



agriculture and industry, providing an economically stable diversity of employment in farms, workshops 
and factories. It will also maintain the visual quality of the cultivated and natural landscapes. 

The planning sequence involves the study of function and the development of principles at successively 
increasing scales, applying the knowledge developed at each level to the next. The studies begin with 
single rooms and extend upward to dwellings, community buildings, settlement units, cities and regions. 
At all levels the problems are approached by the rational method introduced in the construction se- 
quence; first a clear statement of the problem, then the application of principles through a number of 
trial solutions which gradually converge to a satisfactory result. 

The first course in the planning sequence is concerned with housing and community buildings. The stu- 
dents start with the investigation of single-function rooms, the smallest planning element for human use. 
Minimum and optimum solutions are developed for such spaces as bedrooms, bathrooms and kitchens. 
The room studies are then used for the development of dwellings. Detached houses are studied first, 
starting with minimum versions, and proceeding to optimums. Consideration is given to the functional 
arrangement of rooms, circulation patterns, and integration of plan with structure. Winter sunlight is 
provided in all major spaces, and summer cooling helped by planting, overhangs and natural cross- 
ventilation. The organic relationship of the house to its site is also developed, opening it to landscaped 
spaces for recreation and productive gardens. Other dwelling forms such as rowhouses, walk-up apart- 
ments and high-rise towers are developed by the same principles. Then simple community buildings 
such as schools and commercial and industrial buildings are studied. Finally all these building types 
are combined to form a settlement unit, a planning element developed by Hilberseimer to function as a 
self-contained community with housing, schools, recreation, commercial facilities and industry, lacking 
only those services that must be provided at larger urban and regional scales. The overall size of the 
unit is determined by easy walking distances, introducing a human scale to its visual and social dimen- 
sions. The circulation network separates pedestrians and vehicles in an interlocking finger pattern. The 
community is surrounded and penetrated by the landscape, providing parks for recreation and gardens, 
and a visually pleasant environment for its inhabitants. 

The second course in the planning sequence in the seventh and eighth semesters considers city plan- 
ning. The historical development of cities in the past, and the economic and social forces that shaped 
them are studied. Then the industrial cities of our time are reviewed; their basic elements and the con- 
flicts they have created are analyzed. A number of planning studies are then made, each based on a 
particular urban problem. These studies lead to the organic development of the city based on aggre- 
gates of settlement units, carefully ordering all its functional elements, and integrating the urban fabric 
with the countryside. Then the principles which have been developed are applied to the re-planning of 
an actual city. Extensive information is gathered and analyzed to form a basis for planning decisions. 
Then several possible schemes are made for the city's renewal and future development. 

As an option in the fifth year, students may take two semesters of work in regional planning in place of 
the last two semesters of the architecture sequence. The course begins with the definition of a region as 
a self-contained organic unit, based on natural features. The development of regional planning policies 
is explored in a series of exercises and discussions, with particular emphasis on increased self-suffi- 
ciency, diversity of employment for economic stability and preservation of ecological balance. After these 
introductory studies, an actual region is chosen for redevelopment. First a detailed survey is made to 
describe and analyze the region's population, topography, soils, climate, natural resources, existing 
infrastructure, and historical growth, with these data being recorded in drawings and reports. Then a 
set of appropriate planning policies is formulated, and a new regional plan developed to implement them. 



102 



THE SETTLEMENT UNIT 

Professor Ludwig Hilberseimer (From The Human Environment: The Development of a Planning Idea, 
1963) 



The structure of this unit offers a general solution for all the different parts of the city, and their relation to 
each other. It allows a free and unhindered growth, and provides a framework for a healthy community 
life, and contains all the essentials for it. The problem was to develop in such a unit residential, working 
and recreational areas, according to their functions; to give each its proper place, to relate them to each 
other and to the whole in such a way that no area has an adverse influence on another. To avoid local 
traffic as much as possible, the areas are within walking distance of each other. The shape of the unit is 
a rectangle of such proportions that it reduces to a minimum the street area required. Its street system 
is differentiated according to function, from the lanes which connect the houses with the streets to the 
local and main highways. Each house can be reached by car, and by making all residential streets 
closed-end streets(l), through traffic within the residential area is avoided. 

On one side of the local traffic artery lies the industrial area; on the other are the commercial and admin- 
istration buildings within a green belt. Then follows the residential area, surrounded by a park. In this 
park are schools, playgrounds, and other community buildings. The park can be reached without cross- 
ing a traffic street. Gardens and farms, meadows and forest adjoin the park area, which connects the 
unit with the open countryside. 

The population of such a unit is determined by the kind of work to be performed, industrial as well as 
clerical. There are, however, other considerations which will influence the size of the population. The 
unit should be large enough to meet the social and personal requirements of the individual, to provide 
variety in work and life, and to be able to support the necessary commercial, cultural and hygienic insti- 
tutions. The population should, at the same time, be small enough to preserve an organic community life, 
so that democracy could prevail, and each individual participate in community activities. Consequently, 
the density within such a unit may vary, but in general it should be as low as possible. 

The buildings within the unit are varied and could be of great diversity. There are family houses of differ- 
ent sizes, as well as apartment buildings. The houses have vegetable gardens. To secure the proper ori- 
entation for the dwellings, the units themselves could be located at the proper angle, and the streets 
arranged accordingly, or better still, the lanes leading from the houses to the streets. If necessary, each 
house could have its own garage. If this is the case, then pedestrian walks, which do not cross traffic 
streets, should be provided, in order to give safe access to the park. Another solution would be to have 
community or group garages. 

The settlement units we proposed as well as their manifold derivations, are flexible in themselves. They 
can meet any requirement which arises, and are adaptable to any topographical feature. No matter how 
many units are combined, the favorable conditions within each unit would always remain the same. The 
schools in the units gain a new significance. They become small community centers. Their auditoriums 
are available for meetings, concerts, and plays, their libraries may offer books for adults as well as for 
children, while their halls provide space for exhibitions and social gatherings. 

Units can be combined into rows along a traffic artery. The industries located opposite the residential 
area, close to the traffic artery, could be expanded if necessary. If no expansion is required, then the 
industries and their respective residential areas could be placed on both sides of the traffic artery. The 103 



second row of units could also be replaced by units of small farms for part-time workers in these indus- 
tries. Units could also be combined into communities — larger and smaller ones — all would provide 
working areas witli space for industry and commerce, as well as space for parking. The units also offer 
the opportunity for expansion of these communities. If necessary, new units could be added to the exist- 
ing ones, or new communities could be formed, which could begin with a single unit. 



1 . Closed-end streets and the particular like pattern. It was introduced into con- Frank Lloyd Wright, Hans Ludwig Sierks 

tree-like pattern of the street system go temporary planning by Raymond Unwin and Peter Friedrich it was also used, 

back to ancient times, Selinus, a Greek for a small housing project, and first Because it is economical it is used more 

city in Sicily, and Corcula, a medieval used at Radburn, New Jersey byClarence and more. 

104 city in Dalmatia are based on this tree- Stein and Henry Wright. In projects by 







Room studies. Horizontal sections with 
interior perspective view showing vari- 
ations in the size of master bedroom suites. 
Ink on strathmore board. 20 in, by 30 in,, 
fifth semester. 



105 





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106 



Dwelling studies. Plans showing theeffect 
of varying proportion on a single-family 
dwelling of given floor area, ink and pen- 
cil on stratfimore board, 20 in, by 30 in,, 
fifth semester. 







Dwelling studies Plans and perspective 
view of a three-story walk-up apartment 
building with efficiency, one-, two-, and 
three-bedroom units. Ink on stralhmore 
board, 20 in, by 30 in., fifth semester. 



107 




108 



Density studies Site plan stiowing place- 
ment of single-family fiouses at a density 
of six dwelling units per acre, witfi separa- 
tion of pedestrian and vetiicie circulation 
and integration witfi the landscape. Ink 
on illustration board, 20 in by 30 in., filtti 
semester. 



Setllement unit. Plan showing integration 
of functional elements for increased self- 
sufficiency, separation of pedestrian and 
vehicular traffic, penetration of the city by 
the landscape. A: industry, B: limited ac- 
cess highway, C: local highway, D: com- 
mercial center, E: single-family dwellings, 
F: high-rise apartments, G: schools Ink on 
strathmore board, 30 in. by 40 in. 



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109 



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Settlement units, placed along a river. View 
showing roads along ridges, landscaped 
pedestrian walks in ravines and schools 
in a park at the river's edge. Photograph 
of model A, sixth semester. Settlement 
units, near a lake. View showing widely 
spaced high-rise apartments located in 
a park on the lakeshore, with other ele- 
ments placed further inland. Photograph 
of model B. eighth semester 



110 



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Aggregates of settlement units. Aerial per- 
spective view of a proposed replanning 
of Ctiicago based on groups of settlement 
units dispersed in the landscape. Ink on 
llustration board, 30 in. by 40 in. 



111 



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Replanning of existing cities. Plans of 
possible stages in the replanning of Elk- 
fiorn, Wisconsin on tfie principles of tfie 
settlement unit. Ink and printed tone film 
on strattimore board, 20 in, by 30 in., 
seventfi semester. 



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Replanning of existing cities Plans of 
ttie central area of St. Paul, Minnesota 
showing top: existing commercial area 
(dark tone), middle: provision of new park- 
ing area (light tone), bottom: possible 
linear replanning of commercial and park- 
ing areas. Ink and printed tone film on 
strathmore board. 20 in by 30 in , seventh 
semester. 



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114 




Replanning of existing cities. Plans of 
Indianapolis, Indiana showing three stages 
in the city's historical development A and 
possible first stage of redevelopment B. 
Ink on strathmore board, 30 in by 40 in., 
eighth semester. 





Replanning of existing cities. Plans of 
Indianapolis, Indiana sfiowing two pos- 
sible end stages of the redevelopment pro- 
cess A and B, Ink on strathmore board, 30 
in by 40 in, eighth semester 



115 



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Regional planning. Redevelopment of the 
Wabastn River Valley. Part of a series ol 
maps forming a survey of existing environ- 
mental conditions including Topograpliy 
A, Resources B, Soils C. and Occupations 
D, Inkandairbrushed watercoloron strath- 
more board, 30 in by 40 in., ninth and tenth 
semesters. 



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DETilL OF POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT 




WABASH RIVER VALLEY 

POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT 



Regional planning. Redevelopment of 
the Wabash River Valley, Map of possible 
replanning showing reforestation of flood 
plains and development of dispersed 
new towns to achieve better balance of 
employment in industry and agriculture A. 
Detail of area outlined in red in A, Hilly 
areas and flood plains are developed as 
forest, and small dams built to create 
reservoirs for flood control and recreation. 
Dispersed settlement units with light in- 
dustry and workshops among the fields 
are introduced to give diversity and bal- 
ance to the local economy B. Ink and air- 
brushed watercolor on strathmore board, 
30 in. by 40 in., ninth and tenth semesters. 



117 




Regional planning. Redevelopment ol 
the Rock River Valley. Possible replan- 
ning of the central portion of the valley 
from Rockford, Illinois (bottom) to Janes- 
ville, Wisconsin (top). Photograph of 
model, eighth semester. 



WHAT IS A REGION? 

Professor Ludwig Hilberseimer (From The New Regional Pattern, 1949) 



What, then, is a "region"? There is no easy answer to that question. The determination of a region will 
always be difficult and even controversial. Some consider the city with its environments a region. Some 
think that the state, or a division of a nation according to administrative necessities, comprises a region. 
A geographical unit — a river valley or a plain — has also been taken as a region's essential feature. Cli- 
mate, soil and resources have been regarded as determining factors, also certain kinds of production, 
agricultural and industrial. We speak of agricultural or industrial regions. A region might also be defined 
in terms of its living standard, its cultural expression, or its industrial function. Administrative boundaries 
are man-made, more or less artificial in scope and readily changeable, whereas the other mentioned 
factors are more or less organic. They may thus be regarded as determining factors for a sound regional 
development. 

For we may define a region as an organic entity, an organism in which the whole is related to the parts, 
as the parts are related to the whole. A region, then, is something which can exist, something which can 
live and support life. A region is an interrelated part of a country, a natural unit, self-containing by reasons 
of geographical advantages, natural resources, and soil conditions, natural and man-made transporta- 
tion routes, developed and used by its population. 

Within a region, thus defined, there could be balanced production, based on diversified agriculture, and 
an industry devoted to processing the native raw materials. Each community of the region would be an 
interrelated part of the whole. Each community and each individual would have an equitable share in the 
region. Everything would be planned for the benefit of the individual as well as for society as a whole. 
Thus, an organic regional life could be created, an economic, social, and cultural entity. . . 

Ecology, the branch of biology which deals with the relation of organisms to their environments, has 
taught us that the landscape, with all its vital force, man the animal included, is an integrated whole, 
based on a natural cooperation, on a comprehensive symbiosis. Man, however, unlike plant or animal, 
is not bound to the landscape. To a certain extent he is free to choose his environment. However, when 
he chooses he becomes part of his chosen landscape, depending on it as do all other creatures. Al- 
though he is dependent, he has freedom to act. He may act according to the laws of nature, in harmony 
with them, or against them. Whatever he does, will influence the landscape, and thereby influence his 
own existence. 

As a whole, the landscape is an organism. The better the general care it receives, the better its condition 
and endurance. Interference with the laws of nature may result in a disease of a part. And inevitably, be- 
cause the landscape is an organism, disease of a part becomes a disease of the whole. When man obeys 
the laws of nature, he will find abundance; when he disobeys them, he will meet want and poverty. 



119 



ARCHITECTURE SEQUENCE 



The architecture sequence, extending through the fourth and fifth years, brings together all of the stu- 
dent's previous work in drawing, visual training, engineering, history, construction and planning. It be- 
gins with two groups of exercises that consider painting and sculpture in their relationship to architecture, 
and space as an architectural problem. With this final preparation, a synthesis of all previous studies 
becomes possible. The students are now ready for free creative work within the discipline established 
by the educational process. In several independent projects they proceed to consider architecture as 
the art of building, to seek a higher degree of clarity of construction, function and space. The ultimate 
aim of the art of building is to achieve a sense of harmony in a work — only then can it transcend into 
architecture. 

Concurrently the sequence investigates the role of architecture in our civilization. It seeks to clarify the 
compelling and supporting forces of our times, and how they shape our buildings. From this analysis 
the student may better comprehend the potentialities of our architecture, with the understanding that it 
depends on the epoch. 

The first group of problems in the seventh semester explores painting and sculpture in their relationship 
to architecture. In our time, painting and sculpture have become independent personal statements of the 
artist. In the past, direct integration of sculpture and painting with architecture was possible, because 
their creators shared a common viewpoint and aims; today such integration is very difficult. A good 
alternative appears to be for the architect to select an existing painting or sculpture, either contemporary 
or from the past, and to position it within a space in such a way that both the object and the space are 
enhanced and intensified by their mutual interrelationship. One example of a problem used in exploring 
this approach is a collage study, in which appropriately scaled photographs of paintings and sculp- 
tures are placed in a drawing of a given spatial context. Some examples of this type of problem include 
a painting and a shelf placed on a wall, two paintings placed on a wall, a painting on a wall and a sculp- 
ture nearby, and two sculptures related to a free-standing wall. The student considers many possible 
choices of objects by comparing two study-versions of the collage, gradually converging to a good 
solution, which is recorded in a finished plate. 

Together with the abstract problems in painting and sculpture, space as an architectural problem is 
explored in two related exercises. In them the scale model is the essential means for the study of space. 
With the models the students investigate the new visual possibilities of space created by the industrial 
age. Large glass areas make possible the mingling of interior spaces with the landscape. Skeleton con- 
struction eliminates interior bearing walls, dissolving the compartmented room and permitting an open, 
flowing continuum of space, divided or rather modulated by elements placed in it. Indeed it can almost 
be said that the space itself is evoked by the positions of these modulating elements — one thinks of 
Liebniz' definition: "Space is nothing more than the relationship between objects". 

The study of space is introduced by a problem involving a small bearing wall building with a simple 
function such as a weekend house or a private studio. The students concentrate their attention on the 
bounded interior space defined by the bearing walls. Working with a study model, they divide the inte- 
rior with a few carefully placed planar partitions, setting up a flowing sequence of spaces which are 
120 related to the landscape by openings cut in the walls. The size and placement of the openings and par- 



titions is carefully controlled to maintain the character of bearing wall construction with a clear relation- 
ship of supporting and supported elements. The students present their solutions with drawings and with 
collages derived from the painting and sculpture problems. 

In the next problem the bounded space of the bearing wall building is expanded by pushing out one or 
two of its walls to form walled courtyards. In the resulting court house the enclosed space is now under 
a roof plane, partially supported by interior columns, its openings infilled with glass. The spatial differ- 
ences revealed in the court house, with its visual mingling of interior and exterior areas, at once suggest 
a whole new range of spatial possibilities and functional implications to be explored. Working abstractly 
at first, the student divides the enclosed area under the roof plane with freely placed partitions, again 
using a model. Many possible relationships between partition planes, the roof plane and its supporting 
columns and the adjoining courtyards are tried, seeking visually coherent configurations of these 
elements. 

Following these abstract studies of the court house space, the student explores its relationship to func- 
tion by developing a residence or some other simple use within it. At the same time the student considers 
how this function and its spatial context can emerge from the facts of construction. Planning elements 
that require enclosed rooms such as kitchens or toilets are treated as "cores" formed of aggregates of 
straight or curved walls. Other areas may be defined by low screen-like elements or panels of drapery. 
This phase of the court house problem also includes the study of the placement of paintings and sculp- 
tures to define and enrich both interior and exterior spaces, the selection of finish materials and colors, 
and the choice and arrangement of furniture. The final version of the court house is presented with draw- 
ings, collages and a finished model. In this problem the collage is further developed as a means for the 
study of space. By inserting photographs of paintings, sculpture or landscapes, and even actual mate- 
rials such as wood or fabric into collage projections of the building's interior, further insight is gained 
on the role these elements play in the evocation of spatial qualities. 

After these introductory studies, the eighth semester is spent on a problem consisting of the complete 
development of a small building with a given program and site, using a skeleton structure in steel or con- 
crete. The student now begins to explore architecture as the art of building, bringing together all previous 
studies into an integrated method of thinking and working. 

The problem begins with the definition of the building's function by a precise program of user require- 
ments and floor areas. From the program the student develops a functional solution of planning elements, 
seeking to clearly understand their interrelations. The functional solution begins to establish the build- 
ing's character, its relation to its site, and how its planning elements may be ordered, according to axial 
symmetry or an asymmetrical free plan. It also begins to suggest how the building may be realized in 
construction. Starting from a sure and sensitive command of construction, the structure is evolved, 
choosing the material and system appropriate to the building's character. The plan influences the mod- 
ule and bay size, the scale of span and height suggests the system and its constituent material. One 
must also consider the quality of space the structure creates, allowing it to reflect and enhance the 
building's character. Then the enclosure, with its disposition of opaque and transparent elements, must 
be developed in an organic relationship to structure and plan. 

The development of an appropriate plan, structure and enclosure, this is the first level that the student 
must achieve. Only then can the process of clarification begin. The plan must be clarified to give a smooth 
flowing relationship of elements and satisfying proportions to all its rooms and spaces. The structure 
must be clarified by careful study of its basic configuration, the proportions of its members and its details 
to give an elegant but unobtrusive articulation of its parts and their functions. The enclosure must also 
be clarified by the proper selection of proportions, materials and details. Both interior and exterior can 121 



be further enriched by the honest expression of the natural color, texture and pattern of materials, the 
controlled composition of mass-produced elements, and the careful placement of a few well-chosen 
paintings and sculptures. It must be emphasized that the process of clarification does not involve dec- 
orative application, but is the evocation of expressive and aesthetic qualities from the basic facts of 
function and construction. 

These are some of the considerations involved as the students develop their solutions to the skeleton 
problem, finally presenting the finished building project with a model, drawings and collages. The archi- 
tecture sequence presents the art of building above all as a rational process. It seeks to show that archi- 
tecture can be made using reason and responsible judgement instead of uninformed opinion and per- 
sonal whim. The aim of the art of building is to take the given characteristics of function and construc- 
tion and by a process of clarification make them into a harmonious whole, expressive not only of their 
true natures, but of the significance of our age as well. 

In the ninth semester, the student again does several exercises. One of these can be a more abstract 
study of building enclosures, exploring their visual possibilities, often using a skeleton building with an 
exposed steel or concrete frame. Different possibilities are tried in simple block study-model, with the 
enclosure elements indicated by colored papers applied to the elevations. Within the given structural 
frame many variations in proportion and placement of glazed and opaque infill elements are studied, 
always relating them to construction. After a solution is reached in the study-model, it is recorded in a 
collage of the building elevations. 

Another type of exercise involves the study of several of the archetypal buildings of the industrial age, 
such as the high-rise office or apartment building. Using the method developed in the skeleton prob- 
lem, solutions are evolved giving careful attention to structure, core elements, flexibility of interior space, 
and the relationship of the building to an urban setting. The enclosure is also studied, using a wide range 
of opaque and transparent materials, including clear, tinted and reflective glass, brick, marble, granite 
and various kinds of metals. The solutions are presented with drawings and collages. 

In the ninth and tenth semesters the students also take a course in architectural practice, studying codes, 
contracts, specifications and other legal and technical aspects of the profession. 

In the tenth semester, the students do a final project. It is usually one of larger scale and complexity, 
often set in an existing urban context. The site and character of the problem vary from year to year. 
Starting from a program which they help to define, the students, often working in teams, go on to develop 
their architectural solutions to it. The methods embodying the art of building introduced earlier are again 
applied, with greater depth, producing completed projects that are presented with drawings and models. 

Throughout the architecture sequence, in a series of seminars and informal discussions, the student 
considers the role of his profession in our society and culture. Architecture, like all human activities, is 
inextricably embedded in the civilization from which it grows. As our civilization evolves, each epoch 
adds its unique significant ideas to the main stream. The architect must be aware of the great ideas and 
forces that have influenced the past, and seek out those of the present that seem equally significant. The 
architect must draw upon these complex truth-relations of our civilization, shaping his buildings to 
respond to the future they will serve. One must also be aware of the levels of significance within civili- 
zations. Every building has its position in these strata, and not every building is a temple or a cathedral. 
In our time, the industrial idea has been dominant, establishing new building types and technologies 
which the architect must master. With the means our time affords, the architect must seek to realize 
his art, bringing forth its essential harmony. 



122 





Painting and sculpture studies One paint- 
ing and a shelf on a wall A, two paintings 
and a shelf on a wall B, painting on a wall 
and a sculpture nearby C, and two sculp- 
tures related to a wall D Ink and collage 
on grey illustration board, 1 5 in by 20 in., 
seventh semester. 





123 



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Bearing wall space study Small house in 
brick, plan, elevations, sections and per- 
spective view. Pencil on strathmore board. 
30 in by 40 in,, seventh semester. 








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in brick, plan and elevations. Pencil and 
collage on strathmore board, 30 in. by 
40 in., seventh semester. 



125 






126 



Bearing wall space study House in stone; 
interior view. Collageon illustration board, 
30 in. by 60 in , seventh semester. 





Court house space study Row of attached 
court houses; plan and perspective view 
of court. Pencil on strathmore board, 30 
In, by 40 in,, seventh semester. 



127 





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128 



Court house space study Free-standing 
court tiouse; plan. Pencil on strathmore 
board, 30 in. by 40 in,, seventh semester. 



Court house space study. Free-standing 
court house; perspective view from large 
court. Pencil on strathmore board, 30 in. 
by 40 in., seventh semester. 



129 




Courthouse space study. House with three 
courts. View from large court A and aerial 
view with roof removed B. Photographs of 
model, seventh semester. 





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Court house space study. A residence, 
plan. Ink and collage on grey illustration 
board. 30 in. by 40 in., seventh semester. 



131 





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132 



Court house space study. Interior view. 
Collage on strathmore board, 30 in, by 
40 in,, seventh semester 






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Court house space study. Interior view. 
Collage on strathmore board, 30 in by 
40 in., seventh semester. 



133 



Building with steel skeleton. Branch li- 
brary. View of elevation A and view of en- 
trance with reference area beyond B. 
Photographs of model, eighth semester. 




134 



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Building with steel skeleton Art museum; 
view of interior with wall removed A, view 
of entrance B. Photographs of model, 
eighth semester. 




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135 





Building with steel sl<eleton. College exhi- 
bition center. Interior view A, collage on 
illustration board, 30 in. by 40 in.; exterior 
view looking into auditorium B, photo- 
graph of model; eighth semester. 




^•ullding with steel skeleton. Art museum; 
lew of interior witti wall removed A, view 
'il entrance B. Ptiotograptis of model, 
?ighth semester. 




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138 



Building with steel skeleton. Library. 
Photograph ot model, eighth semester. 




Building with steel skeleton. Elementary 
school. Photographs of model, eighth se- 
mester. 



139 




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140 



Enclosure study. Low-rise concrete frame 
building with brick and glass infill walls; 
elevations, Collage and ink on strattimore 
board, 30 in. by 40 in., nintti semester. 



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ing with brick and glass infill walls; eleva- 
tions. Collage and ink on strattimore board, 
30 in. by 40 in., nintfi semester. 



141 






142 



Enclosure study. High-rise concrete frame 
building with brick and glass infill walls; 
elevations. Collage and ink on strath- 
more board, 30 in, by 40 in., ninth semester. 






Enclosure study. High-rise steel frame 
building with brick and glass infill walls; 
elevations. Collage and ink on strathmore 
board, 30 in. by 40 in., ninth semester. 



143 




144 



Proiect A university campus, perspective 
view. Pencil on strathmore board, 30 In by 
40 In,, tenth semester. 




Project. A residential development with row 
tiouses and hiigh-rise apartment buildings; 
perspective view Pencil on strathmore 
board, 30 in, by 40 in., tenth semester. 



145 



View from Columbus Drive showing the 
stairway leading to the commercial build- 
ing; its lobby opens on to the plaza be- 
yond, which is flanked by the office and 
apartment buildings A 





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View from the river with the apartment 
tower In the foreground, the otfice build- 
ing on the far side of the raised plaza, 
and a commercial arcade at the river's 
edge B 



Project Mixed use development with of- 
fices, apartments and commercial facil- 
ities located on the north bank of the 
Chicago River at Columbus Drive, Chicago, 
Illinois Photographs of model, tenth se- 
mester. 



147 



Proiect Mixed use development with of- 
fices, apartments and commercial facil- 
ities located on the north bank of the 
Chicago RiveratColumbus Drive, Chicago, 
Illinois. Photographs of model, tenth se- 
mester 



Proiect. Mixed use development with of- 
fices, apartments and commercial facilities 
located on the north bank of the Chicago 
River between State and Dearborn Streets. 
Photographs of model, tenth semester 



View facing south with the office building 
in the foreground rising from a three-story 
commercial structure, with the apartment 
building beyond, all on a raised podium 



View from the river with the apartment 
building and some commercial spaces 
facing a riverfront park; the office building 
and commercial structure are in the back- 
ground B. 



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Proiect, Mixed use deveiopment with of- 
fices, apartments and commercial facil- 
ities located on thie nortfi bank of thie 
Cfiicago River between State and Dear- 
born Streets. Pfiotographs of model, tentfi 
semester. 



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and nortfiwest B, sfiowing tfne office tower 
rising at lUe north end of the site, with two 
low-rise apartment buildings flanking a 
three-level plaza which steps down towards 
the river. Commercial space is located be- 
neath the plaza and is lighted by a skylight 
in the middle plaza level, and a glass prom- 
enade at the water's edge. 










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View facing southeast showing the office 
building at the northeast corner of the site 
and the lower apartment tower at the river's 
edge: the two low structures house parking 
and commercial space. 



152 



Project. [Mixed use development with of- 
fices, apartments and commercial facil- 
ities located on the north bank of the 
Chicago River between State and Dear- 
born Streets, Photographs of model, tenth 
semester. 



GRADUATE PROGRAM 



THE IIT GRADUATE PROGRAM IN ARCHITECTURE 



A master's degree program in architecture was introduced at Armour Institute of Technology in 1932. 
The students were required to complete a number of graduate level courses and prepare a thesis. The 
program attracted few students in its early years during the great depression. 

After Mies came to Armour in 1 938 he continued the master's degree program, acting himself as adviser 
to most of the students. He later added a number of preparatory courses for non-IIT students, to intro- 
duce them to the rational method of the undergraduate curriculum before starting on their theses. Stu- 
dents coming from the IIT undergraduate program could start on their thesis projects at once. 

In the thesis projects done under his direction, Mies followed a way of work similar to that of the under- 
graduate architecture sequence. Here the students began by developing a clear perception of the re- 
quirements of their building type. This understanding led to a definite program for the project, and a 
functional solution of its components. Simultaneously the appropriate structure was developed in l<eep- 
ing with the scale and character of the building. Although a clear structure was an essential require- 
ment, the architectural emphasis of it could vary from bold to subtle. Structure and function were inter- 
related and refined by the extended study of proportion, spatial quality, materials and details, using 
drawings and models. At the graduate level this process of refinement was pursued in much greater 
depth and with greater intensity, seeking to realize through clear construction that vital sense of harmony 
or concordantia and to clearly express the spirit of the age. 

The building types chosen for theses covered a wide range: they included the office building, the uni- 
versity campus, the public museum, and the great halls for concerts, exhibitions and conventions. They 
represented functions created by the industrial age to meet its unique needs and aspirations. Mies said, 
"Architecture is the will of the epoch translated into space". He believed that this range of building types 
was a part of the challenge to the architecture of our time, it must acknowledge the different levels of 
value our society assigns to different functions, yet have a sense of enduring quality and unity throughout. 

In their thesis projects Mies' graduate students also examined the technology of the industrial age and 
its implications for architecture. The materials the industrial world produced, not only new ones such 
as steel, aluminum and concrete but older ones such as brick and glass, were carefully considered. 
Their properties and uses must be understood and accepted, their expressive qualities must be explored. 
The structural systems made possible by these new materials have permitted longer spans with fewer 
supports, suggesting a new freeness in spatial arrangement. These systems have also made the tall 
building possible. Skeleton construction in steel or concrete allowed buildings to be clad in light enclo- 
sures, with transparent and opaque areas freely placed anywhere on their surfaces. The realization of 
the potentialities of our construction was another part of the challenge posed to the architecture of 
our time. 

Ultimately Mies was seeking an architecture that would express the truth of our time, in the sense of 
"Truth is the significance of facts". How could the functional types and structures of our buildings be 
clarified by the elimination of superfluous parts and by the process of refinement? And how could all the 
elements of a building be fused together to form a limpid definition of the significance of our epoch, and 
154 thus worthily reflect its greatness? It was questions such as these that he sought to explore in the 



graduate school over a period of twenty years. 

When Mies retired from teaching in 1958, his position in the graduate school was briefly held by his col- 
league A. James Speyer, who had been his first graduate student at Armour. 

In 1961 Myron Goldsmith, a partner at Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, came to NT as a Professor of 
Architecture and was appointed by Professor George Danforth to head the graduate program. Gold- 
smith had been one of Mies' early undergraduate students at Armour; he later worked in his office and 
took a master's degree with him. Goldsmith continued the basic graduate course established by Mies, 
which included an introductory year for non-IIT students before starting on their theses. He also brought 
Fazlur Khan, a noted structural engineer and partner at Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, to NT in 1 963 as an 
Adjunct Professor of Architecture; Khan acted as co-advisor with him on many thesis projects. In addi- 
tion to Goldsmith and Khan there were a number of other faculty members who acted as independent 
thesis advisers. 

In 1953, Goldsmith had completed a master's thesis with Mies entitled "The Tall Building: The Effects 
of Scale". This thesis was an independent project, and in it Goldsmith announced a major theme that 
he would later pursue with his graduate students. The thesis presented the idea that in architecture, as 
the function of a building requires a larger span or greater height, the scale of span or height has a 
decisive effect on the structural system chosen, and the whole architectural character of the building. A 
structural system that can be used at a small scale cannot be indefinitely enlarged or made spatially 
more flexible to serve new functions. For each structural system and its constituent material, there is an 
optimal range for its efficient and economical use. Goldsmith pointed out that this idea of the effects of 
scale had a long tradition in other fields, having first been set forth by Galileo in his Tvjo New Sciences 
of 1 638, and its implications in biology extensively explored by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson in his great 
work on Growth and Form, but had not been applied in architecture. Goldsmith suggested that there is 
an overlapping succession of structural systems that in turn become appropriate solutions as the magni- 
tude of the height or span of a building increased. Each of the systems in this succession presents dif- 
ferent possibilities for functional application and architectural expression. 

Goldsmith believed that the optimal systems for buildings of shorter span and lower height were already 
well-defined. In the thesis projects done under his direction, he therefore encouraged his students to 
explore larger scale buildings using existing structural systems, or even developing new systems, find- 
ing their practical limits and studying their architectural expression. He believed that a clear and rea- 
sonable structure with the greatest economy of means for its scale would also be capable of architec- 
tural refinement in the proper application. The development of such a building of larger scale involved 
a process of careful consideration and judgement to arrive at a solution that was functionally and vis- 
ually appropriate. The end result must not only meet rigorous criteria of practicality and economy, but 
produce an elegant architectural statement as well. 

Goldsmith and Khan first turned their attention to long-span building types which were investigated in 
several surveys of existing structural systems and their range of size in both steel and concrete. Then 
they extended their studies to longer spans starting with early projects using two-way grids and contin- 
uing to tension structures in catenary and cable-stayed systems. 

They also began to consider new possibilities for high-rise structures. Khan contributed an important 
concept that was applied in many of the theses in this area: the tall building with no structural premium 
for height due to lateral loads. An important new class of structures emerged in part from these studies: 
the tube systems. The framed tube, diagonally braced tube and finally the bundled tube were all examined 
in a series of thesis projects. This investigation of high-rise building structures was also accompanied 155 



by the study of related vertical transportation methods, including sky-lobby express elevator systems 
and double-deck cab elevators. Other examples of systems with no premium for height that were devel- 
oped included form-stiffened buildings and belt-truss structures. 

Goldsmith and Khan's exploration of the effects of scale on structural systems and their architectural 
expression at larger magnitudes of height and span proved to be a fruitful one. A number of these proj- 
ects served as prototypes for significant buildings of recent years, and may point the way to others in 
the future. 



156 




Museum for a small city. View of interior 
facing toward outer courtyard. George E, 
Danfortli. Ludwig fvlies van der Rofie, 
adviser. Collage on stralfimore board. 30 
in, by 40 In., first year graduate study, 1942. 



157 




158 



Concert hall. Study of the interrelation of 
space and finish materials, after a collage 
by IVIies van der Rohe. Daniel Brenner; 
Ludwig IVIies van der Rohe, adviser. Col- 
lage on photograph, 15 in. by 29 in., first 
year graduate study, 1946, 



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AN ART MUSEUM 

Daniel Brenner, M. S. Thesis, 1949. Adviser: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 



A small museum, to be located in a park site in Madison, Wisconsin. The collections were to be housed in a two- 
story building, overlooking a garden enclosed by granite walls. A steel canopy supported on slender columns 
extended across the garden, marking the entrances, and dividing it into two areas for the display of sculpture. 
The main building was 144 ft. square in plan, with a steel structure having columns spaced at 48 ft. centers. The 
columns were of a flanged cruciform shape, made of two I-beams welded together. Both the columns and the 
exposed steel fascias were to have a spray-metallized coating of bronze. The ground floor of the building would 
accommodate travelling exhibitions, and serve as a lecture hall when required. The permanent collection was 
housed in the second floor gallery space. This space was lighted by a square court occupying the center bay, 
and a full glass wall on the north facade, which faced the garden; the other walls were of opaque black glass. 
A luminous ceiling provided additional lighting. A small mezzanine suspended in the upper gallery level over- 
looking the inner court contained staff offices. Workshops, storage rooms, and a lounge area were located below 
grade. All exhibition material was to be displayed on free-standing panels, supported from sleeves set in the floor 
on a three ft. grid, giving complete flexibility to show a wide range of works of art. 



Photographs of models showing the building with adioinlng enclosed garden and its canopied entrances A, detail of meeting of 
corner cruciform column and roof fascia beams B, and oblique view of building showing north facade of clear glass and courtyard 
in center bay, with enclosed garden in foreground C. 





A SCHOOL OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE 

Charles Worley, M. S. Thesis, 1941 , Adviser: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 



After having considered a number of possible functional solutions for this school of art and architecture, it was 
decided to combine all the studio spaces in one large open hall, so all the students could see the work of the other 
classes and benefit by these informal contacts as well as their formal instruction. Only spaces that required 
visual or acoustical privacy would be enclosed. The building took the form of a glass-walled pavilion with a steel- 
framed roof plate enclosed in plaster, supported by exposed steel star columns spaced at 48 ft. centers in a five 
by five bay configuration. The edges of the roof plate cantilevered twelve ft. beyond the perimeter columns, and 
also cantilevered around the edge of a glass-enclosed court which lighted the building interior. A brick chimney 
block rose through the inner court, and low brick walls enclosed two courtyards on either side of the pavilion. 
The interior space contained two fixed elements; a life-drawing studio enclosed with splayed and curved walls 
and lighted by a circular skylight in the roof above, and a mezzaninefor faculty offices. The remaining space was 
to be divided by freely placed low partitions. The building was entered beneath the mezzanine, and the space 
under it could also be used for exhibitions. A stairway led to a lower level containing a large lecture hall and 
service facilities. 















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configurations A, entrance elevation B, 
plan C, and perspective view D 




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A GLASS AND STEEL HOUSE 

Jacques C^ Brownson, M. S. Thesis, 1954. Advisers: Ludwig Mies van der Roine and Ludwig Hilberseimer 



162 



TInis house was actually constructed on a wooded site in Geneva, Illinois. The steel structure consists of a root 
plane, 32 ft. by 88 ft., suspended from four steel rigid frames spaced 24 ft. apart. At the west end, three bedrooms 
face a garden court enclosed by brick walls. Except for a free-standing core element containing the kitchen and 
mechanical room, the remainder is one flowing space, with glass walls open to the surrounding woodland. At 
the east end, the glass wall is recessed under the roof to form a porch. The author writes of living in the house: 
"The inherent beauty of a flowering crabapple branch, the moonlit shadows of trees on the fallen snow, the 
rivulets of early spring ram on the glass, all are enhanced by the subtlety of the architecture. In a glass 
pavilion the spectacle of nature is always before you." 



Transverse section showing typical rigid 
steel frame and underfloor hot-air heating 
system using hollow clay tiles for ductwork 
C. and plan D. 




Photographs of completed house show- 
ing roof plane cantilevered over porch A, 
and view through living room set in the sur- 
rounding woodland B. 





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AN ART MUSEUM 

Peter Carter, M. S. Thesis, 1 958. Adviser: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 



This museum took the form of a 1 20 ft. square pavilion for the display of sculpture, set in a public park. The roof 
of the pavilion consisted of a two-way grid of steel beams spaced twelve ft. apart, supported at the perimeter 
by eight columns 24 ft. high. The walls were of glass, hung in tension from the roof by concealed clamps, and 
supported against lateral forces by glass mullions at six ft. centers. A free-standing interior core element clad in 
marble brought air from the roof to the mechanical room below. A stairway led to the lower level, which con- 
tained a gallery for the exhibition of paintings, as well as a lecture space, offices and service facilities. The 
pavilion was surrounded by paved terraces adjoining a pool, and was partially enclosed in low granite walls. 



Photographs of model showing view of 
sculpture pavilion In its setting on a paved 
terrace bordered by low granite walls A, 
two views along approaching walks from 
the surrounding park B, D and perspective 
drawing of the pavilion structure C. 




THE REPLANNING OF A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS 

James D. Ferris, M. S. Thesis, 1951 . Advisers: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Ludwig Hilberseimer 



The University of Wisconsin at Madison provided the site and program for this campus project. The buildings 
were grouped together to clearly define the various colleges, residence areas and other elements and yet have 
a smooth, flowing relationship, all within easy walking distance of each other. The buildings were all further 
related by standard structural bay sizes that varied from 24 ft. by 24 ft. to 24 ft. by 72 ft. The central area contained 
the low academic buildings, freely placed around terraces facing the lake shore. The students were housed 
Immediately to the west in four tall dormitory towers close to the dining hall and union, giving each room fine 
views of the surrounding landscape. Athletic facilities Including a stadium and a large domed field house for 
indoor sports were nearby. To the east of the academic area were faculty houses and high-rise buildings for 
faculty apartments and the university hospital. The asymmetrical but carefully considered composition of 
buildings sought not only functional and spatial clarity, but to enhance the natural beauty of the rolling wooded 
site overlooking Lake Mendota. The university was set apart from the city in Its park-like environment, yet 
remained closely related to it. 








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AN OFFICE BUILDING 

Gunther Rothe, M. S. Thesis, 1957. Advisers: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and A. James Speyer 



The site chosen for this office and commercial development was a full block on Chicago's near north side. 
The office space was housed in a 31 -story tower. The typical office floor was four by seven bays in plan, each 
bay being 27 ft. square and divided into four ft. six in. modules. Elevators, stairs and other service elements were 
concentrated in a core at the center of the building. The tower was enclosed in a curtain wall with vertical mul- 
lions in natural aluminum spaced four ft. six in. apart. The occupied floors had spandrel panels of green and 
white veined marble and windows of green-tinted glass; the mechanical floor at the roof was defined by alu- 
minum louvers. At the ground floor, a wall of clear glass set back from the aluminum-clad columns enclosed 
the entrance lobby, A paved plaza with a group of trees was partly enclosed and defined by the tower and a low 
commercial building. This three-story structure for shops had large clear glass windows at ground level and a 
curtain wall above in the same green glass and marble as the office building, but with different proportions. 
Behind the commercial building was a third element; a one-story structure clad in glass and marble enclosing 
the vehicle ramp entrances leading to the parking and receiving areas below the plaza. 







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Photographs of model showing view from 
southwest with parking entrance flanked 
by commercial structure and office tower 
A, aerial view of plaza B. view of plaza at 
street level C, view from northwest showing 
commercial structure and office tower de- 
fining the plaza D and site plan E, 




uniiiiniHii 







THE TALL BUILDING: THE EFFECTS OF SCALE 

Myron Goldsmith, M. S. Thesis, 1953. Adviser: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 



This thesis explored the effects of scale on tall building structures and their architectural expression. First a 
number of examples of existing structural types were given to illustrate this principle. Then several new structural 
types were developed for tall buildings in both steel and concrete. One example worked out in detail was an 
office building with a concrete structure 80 stories high; the height was limited by contemporary elevator systems. 
Gravity loads were carried to the ground by a massive superstructure, in which eight columns forming three 180 ft. 
by 140 ft. bays supported six horizontal orthotropic plate platforms spaced fifteen stories apart. From each plat- 
form seven occupied floors were suspended below and seven were supported above, leaving the floor midway 
between platforms free of columns. The superstructure gave a building of this scale its necessary rigidity against 
lateral deflection. In visual terms, the interplay of superstructure and substructures presented new opportunities 
for architectural expression. Also, three new possibilities were presented for tall steel buildings, each 60 stories 
high. Their floors were clear spans with no interior columns: all loads were carried on the perimeter walls which 
were stiffened against lateral movement by three different systems of diagonal bracing. 



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An 80-story office building in concrete. View of ttie tower on a waterfront site A, transverse section stnowing superstructure columns 
and platforms withi suspended and supported substructures for occupied floors B, plans of typical lower floor C, typical intermediate 
floor D and typical upper floor E. Tfiree sketcti proposals for 60-story office buildings in steel witti no interior columns and 
varying configurations of diagonal bracing for lateral stability End and side elevations F, G, H, 











171 



TYPOLOGIES OF SCALE IN HIGH-RISE AND LONG-SPAN STRUCTURES 



One illustration of the effect of scale in long-span structures was thie diagram, shown on the opposite page, 
which was developed by Myron Goldsmith for his thesis of 1953. It shows a comparison of the span ranges of six 
types of bridge structures, starting with the plate girder with a 600 ft. maximum span and continuing through the 
catenary suspension system with a longest span of 4200 ft. In the theses done under Goldsmith's direction, he 
sought to explore the implications of the effect of scale, particularly in the upper ranges of building height and 
span, seeking structures with the greatest economy of means for their size, and developing and clarifying their 
architectural expression. 

Fazlur Khan collaborated in this search, making many significant contributions. One of the most important of 
these was the concept of the tall building with no structural premium for height due to the effect of wind or other 
lateral loads. In his work with Goldsmith on the thesis projects and in practice, he developed a series of high-rise 
structural types of increasing height which were designed for gravity load alone, and yet had proper lateral stability. 
These types began with the conventional rigid frame an'd shear truss braced frame, and continued upwards 
through the belt truss, framed tube, truss-tube with interior columns, bundled tube and truss-tube without interior 
columns. In addition he further developed the criteria for the lateral stability of tall buildings, extending them 
beyond simple considerations of overturning and static deflection to the dynamic effects of harmonic periods 
and human perception of acceleration. 



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172 





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Theeffectsof scale in bridge Structures; schematic diagram showing the Span ranges of six different Steel bridge types C.I 953 A. The 
effects of scale in high-rise structures; graph B showing the unit weight of steel versus height in stories for a normal rigid frame 
system for (b) the effect of gravity load alone and (a) the effect of gravity and wind loads combined, schematic diagram C showing the 
maximum heights of different high-rise structural systems which closely approximate the lower curve (b) with no premium for height 
showninthegraph B. 



173 



A STUDY OF LONG-SPAN STEEL ROOF STRUCTURES 

David C, Sharpe. M, S. Thesis, 1963, Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



This analysis of 166 long-span structures in steel classified them according to structural type, span and weight 
of steel per sq. ft. Altogether eleven different structural types were investigated: rigid frames, trusses, canti- 
levers, vertical trusses on four columns, three-hinged arches, schwedler domes, two-hinged arches, space 
frames, lamella arches, geodesic domes and lamella domes. On the opposite page are shown the individual 
graphs of span versus lb. per sq. ft. of steel for two of these types, cantilevers and rigid frames, together with 
drawings of some of the examples of each type. Below on this page is shown a composite graph giving the 
characteristic curve of each structural type. The composite graph shows that for the lower range the curves tend 
to coincide and that it does not matter very much which structural type is used. However, in higher span ranges, 
the curves diverged radically, with only the lamella dome extending beyond 450 ft. Recent structures tended 
to be lighter due to the use of welding, tubular compression members and high-strength steel. 




300 3S0 400 

SPAN IN FEET 



174 



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Composite graph showing steel quantity versus span for different types of structures A. Graph showing steel quantity versus span 
for cantilever structures B, drawings of some of the cantilever structures used in the graph data C. Graph showing steel quantity 
versus span for rigid frame structures D, drawings of some of the rigid frame structures used in the graph data E. 






175 



A STUDY OF LONG-SPAN ROOF STRUCTURES IN CONCRETE 

Phyllis B. Lambert, M. S. Thesis, 1963. Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



This study paralleled the previous thesis' work in steel root structures, analyzing 175 reintorced concrete roof 
structures according to structural type, span, steel and concrete quantity per sq. ft. of projected area, and cost 
per sq. ft. in constant dollars. Nine different structural types were studied, including flat spans, folded plates, 
long barrels, short barrels, hyperbolic paraboloids, domes, intersecting barrels, suspension systems and 
cantilevers. On the opposite page are shown the individual graphs of the parameters for domes, with draw- 
ings of two examples used in the data. Below on this page, as with steel, are two composite graphs showing the 
characteristic curves for each structural type studied. The composite graphs showed that the types divided into 
two distinct categories, with a break at a span range of about 1 00-1 20 ft. The intersecting barrel predominated 
beyond 250 ft. 




MO 400 440 

SPAN IN FEET 
STEEL QUANTITY 



RC — REINFORCED CONCRETE 
PC— PBE3THE93E0 CONCflETE 
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176 







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A TRAIN EXHIBITION HALL 

Meiji Watanabe, M. S. Thesis, 1962. Adviser: Myron Goldsmith 



178 



The possibilities of a cantilevered diagrid structure were explored in this project for an exhibition hall to house 
the locomotive and railroad collection of the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry. A diagonal grid of steel 
plate girders eight ft, deep and spaced 35 ft. apart spanned the 300 ft. square roof, connected at the perimeter to 
a steel box-girder. The perimeter girders were supported at their midpoints by hinged connections placed atop 
built-up steel H-columns,with seven ft. web plates and three ft. wide flanges. The webs of the girders and columns 
were reinforced against buckling with stiffeners, which also gave them a common visual cadence. The structure 
was enclosed with walls of clear glass, set just inside the columns. A minimum of elements were placed within 
the 45 ft. high clear-span hall; an access stairway leading to services facilities on the lower level, and a duct shaft 
to bring air to and from ventilation equipment located below grade. All the other elements were to be movable to 
accommodate changes in exhibitions. 




Photographs of models showing view of 
building entrance with adjoining column 
A, view of full facade B, view of model with 
roof removed showing diagonal grid struc- 
ture C, and view of site model showing re- 
lation of new structure to existing museum D, 




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A SPORTS CENTER 

Emmanuel Glyniadakis, M. S. Thesis, 1964, Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



180 



A wide range of public sports facilities were combined in this project, housed in a single building. They included 
an arena seating up to 13,000 spectators for hockey, basketball or boxing; a running track and field event area 
with seating for 1,000; a swimming pool with 2,000 seats, and a large flexible area for other sports. On a lower 
level were placed dressing rooms, service facilities, mechanical equipment, and parking for 1,500 cars. The 
building was 81 ft. square, with a two-way grid roof structure supported on nine columns, forming four 405 ft, 
square bays. The roof grid was made up of seventeen ft, deep steel plate girders spaced 45 ft, apart with their 
webs reinforced by vertical stiffeners; horizontal stiffeners resisted the heavy shear near the central columns, 
A secondary grid of rolled steel beams spanning the cells between the girders supported the glass roof; the 
walls were also of glass. Steel cruciform columns nine ft, wide carried the roof grid 87 ft. above the floor. 




Photographs of model showing view 
through window wall facirng arena A, 
oblique view of building facade B. view of 
interior elements with structure removed C, 
and overall view showing roof grid struc- 
ture from above D. 






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Plan A, photographs of model showing 
view through structure with concrete bents 
and concrete-encased catenary cables B, 
end elevation C, and view into interior with 
end wall removed D 




A SPORTS ARENA 

Peter J, Doyle, M. S Thesis, 1965. Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



This enclosed stadium provided seating for 65,000 spectators for football and other sports events. The roof 
spanned an area 650 ft, wide by 900 ft. long with bundled catenary steel suspension cables, spaced 50 ft. apart. 
The cables were grouted with in precast concrete cladding, and then post-tensioned to give the roof added vertical 
stiffness. Precast prestressed concrete beams were set 27 ft. apart between the catenary beams, and the spaces 
between them filled with glass. The space between the last two catenary beams at each end also had diagonal 
brace beams to give lateral stability to the roof. The catenary beams were supported by inverted Y-shaped bents 
1 25 ft. high, which also supported the upper tier of seats; a glazed pedestrian concourse was created between the 
legs of each row of bents. The remaining seating was recessed into the ground in the form of a rectangular bowl 
with rounded corners The walls of the arena were enclosed in glass A diagonal tension member connected the 
top of each bent with the ground to absorb the inward thrust of the catenary beams. 



183 






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A RAILWAY STATION FOR CHICAGO 

Lawrence Kenny, M. S. Thesis, 1968. Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



184 



This thesis proiect proposed combining all the passenger tram traffic for Chicago in a single glass-enclosed 
hail, 600 ft. wide, 900 ft. long and 65 ft. high. Passengers would enter the station on all sides at street level: the 
trains would be reached from a wide waiting concourse spanning the middle of the station from which escala- 
tors led down to the boarding platforms and tracks, lighted by large open wells cut in the floor. The cable-stayed 
roof structure was supported on tubular steel masts, spaced 150 ft. apart, and rising 25 ft. above the roof. From 
the top of each mast, 36 cables radiated downward to support the intersections of a two-way grid of steel beams 
spaced 30 ft. apart. The 30 ft. square cells of the grid were infilled by a secondary grid, supporting ten ft. square 
plexiglas domes. From a second node on each mast 25 ft. below roof level, twenty additional cables radiated 
upward to the edge intersections of the 150 ft. grid to restrain it against lateral motion. The walls of the structure 
were of tinted glass. 



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Photographs of model showing interior with tram boarding platforms at track level and cable-stayed roof structure above A, and over- 
all exterior view B- Roof plan C, street level plan D, transverse section E, and longitudinal section F, 




AN EXHIBITION HALL WITH A SUSPENDED ROOF STRUCTURE 

Peter Pran. M. S. Thesis, 1969, Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



The roof of this large exhibition hall, with a clear span of 1 ,000 ft., was supported by a system of catenary cables 
similar to those used in suspension bridges.The thirteen mam cables were spaced 167 ft. apart along the 2000 ft. 
length of the building. Each cable was slung between two cast steel saddles placed atop steel columns 240 ft. 
high; the cables are extended diagonally downwards from the columns and anchored below grade. A single 
stay cable connected the tops of each row of columns, restraining them against lateral motion. The roof itself 
was made of steel trusses eight ft. deep, hung from the mam cables by suspender cables spaced 20 ft. apart. 
The interior of the hall is 100 ft, high, and lighted by a glazed roof and full-height glass walls. The roof structure 
was cambered upward, and would rise and fall about one ft. due to the thermal expansion and contraction of the 
cables; there was a sliding joint at the top of the glass walls to allow for this movement. A more general inves- 
tigation was made of the possibilities of this roof system. It was found that in terms of material, this system was 
the most economical of all types, including domes, for roof spans in steel beyond 700 ft. 






Photographs of model showing view from 
above of catenary cables supporting roof 
structure A, and view through structure at 
ground level B. End elevation C. side ele- 
vation D, and roof plan E. 




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187 



A TALL OFFICE BUILDING 

Mikio Sasaki, M, S, Thesis, 1962, Adviser; Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



This proiect investigated a structural system for a 700 ft, high office tower subjected to the severe wind and 
seismic forces found in Tokyo, Japan. A steel structure was developed for a building with a square plan 168 ft, 
by 168 ft,, with columns spaced 28 ft, apart around the perimeter. The floors spanned 56 ft, to a group of col- 
umns located within the seni/ice core. To resist lateral deflection, diagonal members were introduced at the 
perimeter wall. Each face of the tower was divided horizontally into three panels eighteen stories high, with 
intersecting cross braces running from corner to corner of each panel. The bracing was connected at each 
intersection with a beam or column, making the perimeter of the tower into a braced tube, which provided the 
necessary stiffness to resist wind and seismic loading. When compared to a standard moment resisting frame 
structure, the braced tube proved to be more economical, requiring ten lb, per sq, ft, less steel than the frame. 
The braced tube structure was clearly expressed on the facades; the structural members were enclosed in 
painted steel cladding, with windows of bronze-tinted glass set between them. Mechanical equipment was 
located at the top floor and at the 27th floor where there were four bays of louvers on each elevation. The 
entrance lobby at the ground floor had walls of clear glass recessed behind the structure. 




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Photographs of model showing view of 
plaza and entrance lobby A, and overall 
view B. Plans of typical floorC and ground 
floor D. 




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AN ULTRA HIGH RISE CONCRETE OFFICE BUILDING 

Robin Hodgkison, M. S. Thesis. 1968. Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



190 



The concrete structure of this 11 6-story office building combined a number of elements to form a system provid- 
ing excellent resistance to lateral deflection, w/hile being designed for gravity loads alone. The perimeter of the 
220 ft, square tow/er was formed by a tubular array of columns spaced nine ft. four in. apart, rigidly connected to 
the floor structure, which spanned 45 ft. to the bearing walls of the tubular core elements. The exterior tube was 
braced by diagonal members, created by infilling windows between columns. Where the diagonals met the 
corners of the tube, they were connected by heavy horizontal tie beams. This system permitted an economical 
structure for a tower of this height with a width to height ratio of 1 :6.5. The braced tube structure determined the 
architectural character of the building, with the members expressed by precast concrete cladding. The build- 
ing was served by a system of large express elevators, travelling from the ground floor to four sky lobbies located 
at the floors below the tie beams. From the sky lobbies, banks of local elevators carried passengers to the next 
22 floors above. The sky lobby floors also contained mechanical equipment. Air conditioning ductwork was 
distributed vertically in shafts and horizontally through standardized openings in the floor beams. Altogether 
the building would house 25,000 people in 5,600,000 sq. ft. A possible location for three such buildings was 
studied on the south bank of the Chicago River, together with a group of Y-shaped apartment towers. 







Photographs of model showing overall view of three similar towers with adjoining apartment buildings A, and view of office towers 
in relation to existing buildings on proposed site on the south bank of the Chicago River B. Structural details showing intersections 
of diagonal members C, Plans of ground floor D, floor 26 E. floor 70 F, and floor 1 1 4 G, 






A FORM-STIFFENED HIGH-RISE APARTMENT BUILDING 

Alfonso M Rodriguez, M S Thesis. 1970 Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



The possibility of utilizing tangent conoidal forms to stiffen a building against lateral forces was explored in this 
project for a 60-story apartment building. In plan, duplex apartments are reached by single-loaded corridors at 
every second floor. The building was 34 ft, wide at every point; a straight prismatic building of this width would be 
limited in height to about 30 stories. By warping the building into a series of tangent conoidal surfaces, varying 
the plan shapes from a serpentine composed of quarter-circles at ground level to straight at the top, a greater 
effective depth was created at ground level to resist deflection caused by lateral loads. This permitted the height 
to be increased to 60 stories. The elevators and stairs were located at the tangent lines of the conoids, which form 
true verticals. The concrete structure consisted of columns spaced about twelve ft, apart on both facades support- 
ing a clear span floor slab; shear walls for additional lateral stability occurred at every fourth column. This project 
was started in the architecture department at the Cooper Union in New York, and completed as master's thesis at I IT. 




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Photograph of model showing aerial view 
A, trarisverse section B, photograph of 
model showing view of undulating facade 
from ground level C, plans of floor 60 D, 
floor 59 E, floor 4 F, and floor 3 G, 



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Photograph ol model showing end eleva- 
tion with belt trusses at each ot the tube ter- 
minations A. Plans of floors 5-1 4 B, floors 
1 9-31 C, floors 32-44 D, and floors 49-68 E. 
Photograph of model showing aerial view 
of building facade and plaza F, site plan G, 
and photograph of model in an oblique 
view H. 



A MULTI-USE HIGH RISE BUILDING 

Masami Hayashida, M, S^ Thesis, 1974. Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



This multi-use complex combined a bank, rental office space and a 1000-room hotel in an 88-story bundled 
tube structure in steel. There were six rectangular framed tubes, each 60 ft. by 120 ft. in plan, with columns spaced 
fifteen ft, apart around their perimeters, forming an overall floor plan of 180 ft. by 240 ft. at ground level. All six 
tubes rose to the fifteenth floor, providing large floor areas for the bank. Above this level, two tubes were terminated. 
This left a four-tube floor plan of 1 20 ft, by 240 ft, which housed the rental office space, and was continued up 
to the 46th floor. Here another two tubes were ended, with the two remaining central tubes containing the hotel 
extending up to the 88th floor, giving the building a total height of 1 058 ft, A system of express elevators brought 
passengers to the sky lobbies on floors 15 and 46 where local elevators served the office area and hotel re- 
spectively: the banking floors were served by local elevators from the ground floor lobby. At each termination 
of the tubes, a belt truss joined them together to permit effective transfer of lateral loads. The space behind the 
trusses was a floor housing mechanical equipment. The structure was clearly expressed on the building facades 
by painted steel cladding, covering the perimeter columns, spandrels and truss members. The reflective glass 
windows were set flush with the cladding. The tower faced an open plaza, enriched with sculpture and plant- 
ing, and pierced by two courts, which led to a shopping concourse below. 






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A NINETY-STORY APARTMENT BUILDING 

A. G. K. Menon, M. S. Thesis, 1966. Adviser: Myron Goldsmith, 
Co-Adviser: Fazlur Khan 



This slender apartment tower rose 812 ft., supported by a 
framed tube structure. The upper half of the building had 
eight large apartments per floor, and the lower half had six- 
teen apartments of various sizes on each floor; each section 
was served by a bank of three elevators. The concrete flat 
slab floors were supported on the interior by columns 
spaced eighteen ft. apart, and at the perimeter by columns six ft. 
apart linked together to form a tube by the upturned spandrel 
beams. The exterior tube was further stiffened by two transverse 
shear walls running the full 90 ft. depth of the building; they in 
effect divided it into three bundled tubes. The shear walls and 
the perpendicular rows of columns acted together in a web and 
flange configuration to resist lateral deflection. The exterior 
columns diminished in size from nineteen in. by 21 in. at ground 
level to twelve in. by twelve in. at the roof; the spandrel beams 
diminished with the columns in a constant 1:1.4 ratio. Both 
beams and columns had an exterior cladding of marble, set 
flush with the windows between them. 



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Photograph of model A, plan of typical lower floor B, and plan of typical 
upper floor C. 



ARCHITECTURE FACULTY AND CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING FACULTY 1938-1978 

Rank given is 1977-78 rank or lerminal rank, + deceased 



Architecture Faculty 



Ludwig Mies van der Rohe + 

Ludwig Hilberseimer + 

Walter Peterhans + 

John Rodgers 

Stirling Harper 

Alfred Mel! + 

Charles Dornbusch 

William Priestley 

George Danforth 

Edward Duckett 

Elmer Forsberg + 

Alfred Caldwell 

A. James Speyer 

Earl Bluestein + 

James Hofgesang + 

Daniel Brenner + 

Jacques Brownson 

William Dunlap + 

Reginald Malcolmson 

Nelli Bar 

Dorothy Turck 

Paul Wieghardt + 

Klaus Anschuetz 

Howard Dearstyne + 

Paul Thomas 

Robin Walker 

Joseph Krofta + 

Kadanur Subbarayan 

Myron Goldsmith 

R Ogden Hannatord 

Louis Johnson 

David Sharpe 

David Bielenberg 

Norbert Pointer 

Erdmann Schmocker 

Arthur Takeuchi 

Fazlur Khan -f 

Jong-Soung Kimm 

Albert Roupp 

Alfred Swenson 

San Utsunomiya 

William Feier 

Paul Zorr 

David Hovey 

Alice Ulmann 

Denis Adrian 

Richard Ray 

John Wright 

John Heinrich 

John Vinci 

Thomas Beeby 

Pao-Chi Chang 



Professor 

Professor 

Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Instructor 

Associate Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Professor 

Instructor 

Instructor 

Professor 

Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Instructor 

Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Instructor 

Associate Professor 

Instructor 

Assistant Professor 

Instructor 

Instructor 

Associate Professor 

Associate Professor 

Instructor 

Associate Professor 

Instructor 

Professor 

Associate Professor 

Associate Professor 

Associate Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Associate Professor 

Ad|unct Professor 

Associate Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Associate Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Instructor 

Assistant Professor 

Visiting Assistant Professor 

Instructor 

Instructor 

Instructor 

Instructor 

Visiting Assistant Professor 

Instructor 

Assistant Professor 

Assistant Professor 



1938- 

1938- 

1938- 

1938- 

1936- 

1936- 

1937- 

1940- 

1941- 

1943- 

1943- 

1945- 

1946- 

1947- 

1948- 

1949- 

1949- 

1949- 

1949- 

1950- 

1950- 

1950- 

1956- 

1956- 

1956- 

1957- 

1958- 

1959- 

1961- 

1961- 

1962- 

1962- 

1964- 

1965- 

1965- 

1965- 

1966- 

1966- 

1966- 

1966- 

1966- 

1968- 

1969- 

1970 

1970 

1971 

1971- 

1971- 

1972 

1972 

1973 

1973 



1958 

1967 

1960 

1942 

1940 

1944 

1940 

1942 

1942, 1946-1953, 1959- 

1946 

1950 

1961 

1961 . 

1955 

1952 

1977 

1959 

1952 

1964 

1974 

1962 

1970 

1958 

1967 

1970 

1958 

1970 

1960 



1970 
1967 
1970 



1974 

1973 
1971, 1978- 

1977 



197 



Julius Ruecker + 
Henry Hawry 
Gerald Horn 
Chris Karidis 
Leonard Klarich 
Yau-Chun Wong 
Kenneth Carruthers 
James Ferris 
James Ingo Freed 
Corey Postiglione 
John Shubat 
Masami Takayama 
Terry Young 
Jay Carow 
Ronald Krueck 
Kenneth Schiano 



Assistant Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Visiting Assistant Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Visiting Assistant Professor 

Visiting Associate Professor 

Assistant Professor 

Visiting Associate Professor 

Professor 

Instructor 

Instructor 

Assistant Professor 

Instructor 

Visiting Associate Professor 

Instructor 

Assistant Professor 



1973-1976 

1974- 

1974- 

1974- 

1974-1975 

1974-1975, 1978- 

1975- 

1975-1977 

1975-1977 

1975- 

1975-1976 

1975- 

1975- 

1976- 

1976- 

1976-1978 



City and Regional Planning Faculty 



Paul Thomas 
Peter Beltemacchi 
David Bielenberg 
Joseph Krofta -F 
Erdmann Schmocker 
Richard Smits 
Fred Tolson 
Taras Halibey 
Madolia Mills 
James Smith 
Dennis Korchek 
Diane Korling 
Peter Land 



Associate Professor 
Associate Professor 
Associate Professor 
Associate Professor 
Associate Professor 
Assistant Professor 
Instructor 

Assistant Professor 
Assistant Professor 
Assistant Professor 
Assistant Professor 
Assistant Professor 
Associate Professor 



1970- 

1968- 

1970- 

1970-1972 

1970- 

1970-1974 

1973- 

1974- 

1974- 

1974- 

1975- 

1975- 

1976- 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



198 



The translation of "Visual Training" by Walter Peterhans is irom After Mies by Werner B laser, 1977. It is copyrighted by Birkhauser 
Verlag, Basel, 1977, and is reprinted with their permission. 

The translation of "Architecture and the Times" by Mies van der Rohe is from Mies van der Rolie by Philip Johnson, third 
edition, revised, 1978. It is copyrighted by the Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1947, renewed 1975; 1953, 1978, and is re- 
printed by their permission. The article originally appeared \n Der Ouerschnitt in 1924. 

The quotation entitled "What Is a Region?" by Ludwig Hilberseimer is from his book, Tlie New Regional Pattern. 1949. It is copy- 
righted by Paul Theobald, Chicago, 1949, renewed 1977, and is reprinted by their permission. 

We wish to acknowledge the valuable technical assistance given us by Jack Hedrich of Hedrich-Blessing Photographers and 
Edmund Schrelber and Jim Paul of Printing Arts, Inc. 



ILLUSTRATION CREDITS 



Illustration 


Student 


33 


D, Halbin 


34 


J. Fleming 


35 


J, Grogan 


36 


J, Calver 


37 


A, Afshar 


40 


M, Sexton 


41 


V, Dominelli 


42 


J, Fleming 


43 


T. Young 


44 


M, Ryan 


49 


B Lee 


51 


W. Urbanowicz 


52 


J Hoover 


53 


C, Cardno 


54 


J. Zamorski 


55 


D, Cabala 


56 


H. Kamura 


57 




58 


K, Olsen 


63A, B 


W. Chiu 


63C,D 


J McCahon 


64A 


R Chipman 


64B 


W Wagstaff 


64C 


R Yocum 


64D 


J. Banco 


64E 


C. Small 


64F 


M. Maku 


65G 


P. Eckroth 


65H 


T, Steinbrecher 


65J 


3. Walega 


66 


G. Storz 


71 




72 




73 


M Lindblad 


74 


R Poon 


75 


R McFarland 


76 


D. Essinger 


77 


M Messerle 


78 


D Eischen 


79 


M Robinson 


80 


W. Wagner 


81 


J. Breternitz 


82 


D. Anderson • 


83 


M, Young 


84 


G Gorski, J, Pavur, P. Poon 


85 


J. Hollis 


86 


M. Robinson 


87 


L. Sommerfeld 


88 


L Sweeny 


89 


D, Ehas 


90 


C. Bushwaller, G Recht, W, Schmalz 


91 


T, Howell 



Instructor 


Date 


Remarks 


W, Feier 


1968 




D, Sharpe 


1961 




A, Roupp 


1967 




D. Sharpe 


1963 




A. Roupp 


1966 




J.Shubat 


1975 




R. Krueck 


1977 




D. Sharpe 


1961 




A. Roupp 


1968 




N. Bar, P, Weighardt 


1966 




L. Johnson 


1973 




S. Utsunomiya 


1973 




S, Utsunomiya 


1973 




W, Peterhans 


1956 




S, Utsunomiya 


1971 




P, C, Chang 


1975 




P, C.Chang 


1975 




W. Peterhans 






L. Johnson 


1967 




0. Hannaford 


1974 


Special Problem 


0. Hannaford 


1974 


Special Problem 


0, Hannaford 


1973 


Special Problem 


Hannaford 


1974 


Special Problem 


0. Hannaford 


1974 


Special Problem 


Hannaford 


1973 


Special Problem 


Hannaford 


1973 


Special Problem 


0, Hannaford 


1973 


Special Problem 


0. Hannaford 


1973 


Special Problem 


0. Hannaford 


1973 


Special Problem 


0. Hannaford 


1973 


Special Problem 


J. Rodgers 


1940 




Mies van der Rohe 


1940 




0. Hannaford 


1961 




0. Hannaford 


1965 




P. C. Chang 


1975 


Special Problem 


P. C. Chang 


1975 


Special Problem 


P. C. Chang 


1975 


Special Problem 


P.C.Chang 


1975 


Special Problem 


P.C.Chang 


1974 




P. C. Chang 


1977 




IVIies van der Rohe 


1939 




A. Swenson 


1969 




0. Hannaford 


1965 




J, Rodgers 


1939 




P. C, Chang 


1975 


Special Problem 


P. C Chang 


1978 


Special Problem 


P. C. Chang 


1978 


Special Problem 


P. C Chang 


1978 


Special Problem 


A. Swenson 


1966 




A, Swenson 


1966 




A Swenson 


1973 




A. Swenson 


1967 





199 



Illustration Student 



Instructor 



Date 



Remarks 



92 P. Cunha 
93 

94 C^ Karalis 

95 R.Willich 
96A J, Kimm 
96C T. Wagner 

96D H. Noe, A. Swenson 

97A G. Johnson, P. Thrane 

97C J.Vinci 

98 F. Coleman, R, Keilman 

99D, E E. Ternovits 

100 Group Proiect 

105 R. Vari 

106 W.Spaeth 

107 1. Smidchens 

108 P. Lewis 
110A Class Project 

111 A.Caldwell 

112 M. Repeta 
114,115 Class Project 
116,117 Class Project 
118 Class Proiect 
123A W. Kolster 
123B B. Palacios 
123C R. Pinchot 
123D W. Daymo 

124 G.Scott 

125 T. Yamamoto 

126 T. Howell 
127 

128,129 B. Conterato 

130 S. O'Malley 

131 Y. Namkung 

132 R. Krueck 

133 W. Blaisdell 

134 S. O'Malley 

135 A. Kwok 

136 C. Rudolph 

137 D. Mitsingas 

138 W.Christopher 

139 K. Fleming 

140 R. Dannhausen 

141 R. Kuznitsky 

142 G. Bruti 

143 O. Hansen 

144 R. Siegle 

146, 147 S O'Malley, W. Gariano, D. Pajak 

148 C. Rudolph, P. Castillo, K. Kretschmann, C. Small 

149 F. Castelli, D. Bates, D. Pikul, A. Tsakindis 
150, 151 M. Carpio, A. Bonutti, P. Chiu 

152 D. Buenger, A. Mazurek, S. Wojtynek 



A. Swenson 1967 

A. Caldwell 

O. Hannaford 

O. Hannaford 

A. Caldwell 

A. Caldwell 

A. Caldwell 

A. Caldwell 

A. Caldwell 

A. Caldwell 

A. Caldwell 

A. Caldwell 

E. Schmocker 

E. Schmocker 

J. Brownson 

R. Smits 

J. Brownson 

L. Hilberseimer 

J. Krofta 1967 

L. Hilberseimer, P. Thomas 1961 

D. Bielenberg 1968 

J. Kimm 1969 

J. Kimm 1967 

J. Kimm . 1969 

A. Takeuchi 1968 

Mies van der Rohe 1939 

D. Brenner 1958 

A. Takeuchi 1968 

Mies van der Rohe 1939 

J. Speyer 1948 

J. Kimm 1973 

A. Takeuchi 1972 

A. Takeuchi 1968 

J. Kimm 1967 

J. Kimm 1974 

A. Takeuchi 1975 

J. Kimm 1974 

Y.C.Wong 1974 

L Klarich 1975 

A. Takeuchi 1975 

H. Dearstyne 1966 

D. Sharpe 1967 

D. Sharpe 1967 

D. Sharpe 1967 

J. Speyer 1953 

T. Beeby, G. Horn 1975 

T. Beeby, G. Horn 1975 

T. Beeby, D. Sharpe 1974 

T, Beeby, D. Sharpe 1974 

T. Beeby, D. Sharpe 1974 



1962 




1963 




1959 


Special Problem 


1959 


Special Problem 


1958 


Special Problem 


1957 


Special Problem 


1958 


Special Problem 


1958 


Special Problem 


1959 


Special Problem 


1959 


Special Problem 


1970 




1976 




1957 




1971 




1957 





Photography Credits 



200 



Art Institute of Chicago: 1 2B; Chicago Historical Society: 1 1 A, 1 1 B, 1 1 E, 1 2A, 1 2D; Bill Engdahl, Hedrich-Blessing: 1 4, 84, 90: 
Hednch-Blessing: 13G, 186, 187, 190, 192, 193; Illinois Institute of Technology: 12C, 12E, 13C, 13E; Richard Nickel: 88, 89, 
91 , 92, 96, 97, 98, 99, 1 00, 1 84, 1 85, 1 88, 1 89, 1 96; Aaron Siskind: 1 80, 1 81 . 




PROJECT 50>50 HOUSE 1950 - 1951 



ZTA 100 XPONIA AnO TH FENNHZH TOY MIES 



1986 

EkShXcoociq Yia va Ti|jr|oouv ra 100 xpovia tou MIES 



EKOEZEIE 

OePpouapiog Mouoeio Moviepvaq Te/vriQ (MoMA) Nea YopKn. Arthur Drexler 

louviog Crown Hall Ixo^H ApxiTCKTOviKriQ LIT. ZiKayo, George Danforth 

AuyouoToc; Mouoeio IiKdyou (Art Institute), ZiKdyo, John Zukowsl<y 

NoeuPpioc; nivaKo9riKn BepoAivou (Berlin National Gallery), BspoAivo 

HEPIOAEYOYZEZ (DOTOrPAeDIKEI EKOEZEIZ 

riavenioTrinia AuepiKfiq (ApxireKTOviKCc; IxoAeq), M. Bperavia - AovSivo, AuoipaAia - MeAPoupvri, lancovia - Tokuo, 

ApvevTivri " Mnouevoq Aipec; k.q. 

OMIAIEZ 

riapaAAnAa me Tig eKeeoeiQ Sivoviai SiaAe^eiQ ano touq loiopiKOuQ iric; Tex^HQ kqi AKaSrmaiKoug AaoKdAoug: Arthur 

Drexler, George Danforth, Franz Schulze. John Zukowsky, Reyner Banham, Alfred Caldwell, Fritz Neumeyer, Reginald 

Malcomson K.d, 

ANAKATAZKEYH tou FlepinTepou Trjg BapKsAcovrig, BapKeAcbvr|. 



To va apxi^ei Kaveig Sixcog eAniSa, va enifaevei xwpiQ vaxei 
Tr|v avayKri enuuxiag, auTO nioieuco, npenei vavai (3aoiKri 
laag apxn. 

Ith 5iapK8ia [aiag liOKpiag ^wtiq navra npoona9r|oa va 
Siepeuvnoo) to ti sivai apxiT8KT0viKn. 
Ki' oAosva nio noAu nsioiriKa on r\ apxiiSKTOviKr) npenei va 
8K(ppa^si Tig (SaoiKeg anoijjeiQ ing enoxng nag koi oxi Tig 
SsuTcpsuouosg sni6u|aisg Trig. 

H ouoia npsnsi va ox£5ia^8Tai. AuTog sivai o npayfJaTiKog 
oTOxog Trig apxiTSKTOviKtig. 

fia |i8va auTO riTav [aia naKpa 6ia6iKaoia Kai KoSe ti nou 
8Kava rjTav yia va (pwTi^co Tpv ouoia, Phmo npog Pnna. 

Aev unopsig va cpTiaxveig vea apxiTSKTOviKr) «Ka68 AeuTspa 
npcai». Auto sivai oav oKeiyn anAolKO. 

H apxiT8KT0viKri htov navTO koti to noAu oopapo. 
Ovo|iaoaM8 enoxsg Me to 6vo|aa Trig. 
Kai auTO Ga yivsTai navTO. 



MIES VAN DER ROME louAiog 1969 



27.3.1886 - 19.8.1969 



LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROME 



"To epYO Tou - 5i5aoKaAia kqi apxiTeKTOviKii - ennpcaoav xtiv enoxn [ia<;. Movo meyo^eQ i6ee<; 
exouv auTii rri Suvann-" 

Adriva. MapnoQ 1986 



PPOJECT 50«5O HOU^£. 19SO-19S1 



FOR THE HUNDRED YEARS SINCE TUE EJKTH OF MIES 



To begm Lolihout ihe need op hope, to persist 
Miihout Ihe Tieed of success, this, 1 thirik, should 
be oar f ir^t principle 

In my long life 1 have olujays &eo.rchecl for the 
ansLjer to a^hot archL-tectu.re is c\ll about. 

And. Tnore a-nd more I hcxve become convL-ncedl 
that archLtec-ture should e)c press our CLVLkzatlon 
m its furidaTnental aspecls- Not in it'b 
SecoTidarY u^l'^he^. 

The essence should be ujorked out. This 1 see 
is the reoil ta^k orarchLtecture.lt hcx^ been a 
lono' process and everythmcp Ive ever done 1 did 
in order to olarlfy that step by step. 

You cannot invenl a neto architecture every 
Monday morn'ngThat i^ a kttle nQ.lve. 

Architecture has oJujays been ex very serious 
thing. We have named whole epxDchs a^ter It, 
and so L-t uQill reTncLun. 



MIES VAN DER ROHE July 1969 



1986 

Eve-n^s io honor the lOO years of MIE5 



EXHIblTlOHS 

February MuseuTn dv rAodem Ar4 (r-lCMA) H.V , Af^l^u^ Drexler 

Tune CrouTi Hall School of Archifeclure IIT Ch>co.Qo , Geovpe ■Da.-nfbrlh. 

Augfu^l Art Ins+i-l-uie , Chicago . John Zuko^^ky. 

Novernber foerlm Ha+LOTial Gallery/ , berlin 

TRAVELLING PHOTO EXHIBITS 

U.nwersiVie'b m U.5A (. School?, of Archdecture) , Great britam-LonciDTi, Ausx^Tvlia- Melbourne 

Tcxpan- Tokyo , Arpers-tirvcx - boueT\ce> As/re^, e.ic. 

LECTULRE^ 

To be cwen by hA IfLi^tonans qticL AcoiderniclaTi'o ■ Ar+hur DreKler. Geong-e Dcx>0por4-K 

Fvxxv^z. Schuire, John Z.ukowsky , ^e-^/ner Banhcxm. Alfred Caldwell, Fn+-z. Heuvne^r 

•R-eg-i-oald HaloDTneoTi etc 

RCCOMSTR-UCTIOH of the bcx<r.heloTKx Pcxviliori , bcxrchelo^^a 



27 3.1886 - 19 8.1969 



LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROME 

''His work-tcochnw orvJ archi+ecture - mflueticedL our epoch. Only greoA ideo.^ 
hoj/e such powc*- . u 

A^tjerji Hard] 1906 



THE ABOVE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY MIES VAN DER ROME AND SUBMITTED BY HIM IN 1937 TO ARMOUR INSTITUTE AT THE REQUEST OF JOHN 
HOLABIRD ARCHITECT . JAMES CUNNINGHAM, CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES, AND HENRY HEALD, PRESIDENT OF ARMOUR INSTITUTE 

THE PROGRAM WAS APPROVED AS SUBMITTED AND IN SEPTEMBER 1938 MIES CAME TO CHICAGO TO BE DIRECTOR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF 

ARCHITECTURE OF ARMOUR INSTITUTE , AND TO BE ARCHITECT OF THE PROPOSED NEW CAMPUS ARMOUR INSTITUTE SUBSEQUENTLY BECAME PART 
OF THE ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. 



THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED 
COMMISSION IN THE U,S,A, IN 
BEEN STUDENTS OF MIES WHEN 



IN THE NEW YORK OFFICE OF RODGERS AND PRIESTLEY, WHO ASSISTED MIES WITH THE DRAWING OF HIS FIRST 
DEVELOPING THE PROGRAM ABOVE HE WAS ASSISTED BY THEM AND BY HOWARD DEARSTYNE, ALL OF WHOM HAD 
HE WAS DIRECTOR OF THE BAUHAUS IN GERMANY 



WALTER PETERHANS OF THE BAUHAUS FACULTY GAVE GREAT ASSISTANCE, AND DEVELOPED IN DETAIL THE PARTS OF THE PROGRAM DEALING WITH 

VISUAL TRAINING, GRAPHICS, AESTHETIC THEORY, AND HISTORY OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE MIES ALSO DREW UPON THE EXPERIENCE OF LUDWIG 

HILBERSEIMER , WHO CAME TO CHICAGO AND DEVELOPED THE PROGRAM IN CITY PLANNING, AND OF LILLY REICH IN ALL ASPECTS OF THE 

DESIGN OF INTERIORS ALL OF THEM HAD BEEN FACULTY MEMBERS OF THE BAUHAUS AND THE TWO LATTER ASSOCIATED WITH MIES IN 

PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE 



ALL OF THE ABOVE WERE, AT VARIOUS TIMES, 
PREVENTED FROM COMING TO THE USA, 



MEMBERS 



OF THE FACULTY AT l,l,T. EXCEPT LILLY REICH, WHOM PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITIES 



THE ORIGINAL DELINEATION OF THE PROGRAM WAS MADE BY WILLIAM T. PRIESTLEY UNDER THE DIRECTION OF MIES VAN DER ROHE THE 

ORIGINAL WAS LOST THIS PRESENTATION, FOLLOWING THE ORIGINAL LAYOUT , WAS MADE BY FRANK F. AKE , JR . , AN I IT ARCHITECTURE STUDENT, 

IN 1973, UNDER MR PRIESTLEY S DIRECTION 



IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION AT 
NEW DEVELOPMENTS WHICH HAVE OCCURED SINCE 1937 WHILE 

ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION' ,WHICH ARE AS VALID TODAY AS 



LIT. HAS BEEN ABLE TO BE VERY FLEXIBLE IN 

STILL FOLLOWING THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF 

THEY WERE THEN, 



RESPONDING TO 

MIES PROGRAM 



THE 
FOR 



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<C'^^0>J yoUi.'^ 



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V-1(^-r. 



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f-o'^S 



i^-j^j-cx^fO d , 



^Ai /III I IHI^Afv II r 



3 061 



00167 6046