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Full text of "Architectural and historical survey of High Springs, Florida"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/architecturalhisOOprep 



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ALACHUA CD. UBRAHY DISTRICT 

TECTURAL AND HISTORICAL SURVEY 



OF 



HIGH SPRINGS 
FLORIDA 




MURRAY D. LAURIE 
h 9 9 



"OWAMU.OOAUH* . 



SQ 



ARCHITECTURAL AND HISTORICAL SURVEY 

OF 
HIGH SPRINGS, FLORIDA 



PREPARED FOR THE CITY OF HIGH SPRINGS 

BY 

MURRAY D. LAURIE 

SEPTEMBER, 199 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This project was made possible by a $3,500 Survey and Planning 
Grant from the Florida Department of State, Division of Historical 
Resources, Bureau of Historic Preservation, awarded by the Florida 
Preservation Advisory Council to the City of High Springs. The 
City of High Springs matched the grant with a like amount in 
additional funds and in-kind services. 



City of High Springs 

Mayors: Eldridge Wright, L. M. "Bud" Register 

City Commissioners: Georgean Roberts i 

Marcus Hunt 

Freddie Hickman 
Bobby Summers 

Project Supervisor: Leonard Withey, City Manager, High Springs 

Participating Organizations: 

High Springs Area Historical Society: President, Nan McDowell 
High Springs Chamber of Commerce: President, Charlie Pults 

Project Consultant: Murray D. Laurie 

Photography: Bob Sharkey, High Springs Herald 

The following citizens of High Springs contributed time and 
valuable documentation to the survey of the historical and 
architectural resources of High Springs, which could not have been 
completed without their gracious participation. Many others also 
gave helpful insights and information about High Springs and its 
history, and their help is gratefully acknowledged. 

Al Audette Sunshine Berry Murray Crews 

Barbara Dorsey Betty Downing Patricia Garretson 

Essie Gassett Geneva George Holly Harden 

Hattie Hill Johnny Jordan Mai Neel Kahlich 

Otto Kahlich Nan McDowell Eunice McLeod 

Bud Register Georgean Roberts Martha Roberts 

Bob Sharkey Lottie Summers Janie Underwood 
Lucille Westmoreland 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 1 

Funding 2 

Methodology 3 

Historiography "-,.. ... 3 

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF HIGH SPRINGS 5 

Physical Setting 5 

History and Development of High Springs '. . 7 

Pre-History and First European Contacts 7 

Territorial Period: 1820s-l840s 7 

The Railroad Era Begins: 1880s . 9 

The Railroad Center 10 

The Great Storm of 1896 11 

The Boom Years: 1920s 15 

The Great Depression: 1930s 18 

After World War II 22 

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT OF HIGH SPRINGS 2 3 

Early Architectural Influences 2 3 

Commercial Buildings 2 3 

Residential Buildings 28 

The Churches of High Springs 4 

SURVEY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 50 

Further Recommendations 52 

Conclusion 52 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 

SITE MAP 59 

LIST OF SITES 60 



INTRODUCTION 



The National Historic Preservation Act was passed by the 
United States Congress in 1966, an indication of the nation's 
emerging recognition of the value and importance of historically- 
significant sites. The Act established the National Register of 
Historic Places and provided for the designation of a State 
Historic Preservation Officer within each state who would be 
responsible for the identification of statewide historic, 
architectural, archaeological, and cultural resources. Review 
Boards were created by each state and charged with "reviewing 
National Register nominations. In Florida the Division of 
Historic Preservation in the Department of State serves as staff 
for the State Historic Preservation Officer, administers the 
National Register program, distributes federal and state grants- 
in-aid for preservation projects, and performs other duties 
associated with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 
and subsequent supplementary federal and state preservation 
legislation. 

In order to evaluate potential National Register sites and 
to plan for their preservation, the Division of Historic 
Preservation has developed the Florida Master Site File. The 
File is a compilation of historical and graphic data relevant to 
sites in Florida. It is used as a planning tool for the 
assessment of sites affected by state and federally funded 
projects over which DHP has powers of review. The File is also a 
local planning tool in that designated sites may be included in 
the preservation element of comprehensive and growth management 
plans. 

The City of High Springs recognizes that preserving the 
cultural resources of the community is important. The City has 
determined that a professionally compiled and documented 
inventory of cultural and historical resources is necessary if 
preservation decisions are to be based on reliable data. At 
present, no comprehensive inventory exists of historic, 
architectural, and archaeological sites in High Springs. These 
sites should not be selected on the basis of arbitrary decisions, 
but on established criteria and documentation. Those responsible 
for long-range planning activities may utilize the inventory to 
identify sites and/or districts requiring protection from future 
threats. 




Funding 

The City of High Springs received a preservation planning 
grant-in-aid from the Division of Historic Preservation, 
Department of State, in 1990 to conduct an architectural and 
historical survey of High Springs and to prepare a historic 
district nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. 
The City chose a historic preservation consultant with a graduate 
degree in history to conduct the survey and to prepare the 
nomination. Members of the High Springs Historical Society and 
the Chamber of Commerce volunteered to assist the consultant in 
compiling historical background, recording architectural 
information, and photographing sites. 

The application for the planning and survey grant-in-aid 
noted that the City of High Springs was an important regional 
center for the railroad industry in the late nineteenth century 
and the early decades of the twentieth century. The Plant System 
built a major shop in the 1890s, and these facilities were 
expanded in the 1920s by the Atlantic Coast Line railroad. Most 
of the townspeople were associated with the railroad in some 
fashion, either as employees or beneficiaries of the income 
generated by railroad activities. It was estimated that as many 
as 250 structures built between 1895 and 1940, the period of 
historical significance associated with the railroad's importance 
in High Springs, still remain, relatively unchanged over time. 

Matching funds for the grant-in-aid were provided by the 
City of High Springs. In addition to recognizing the importance 
of preserving the unique built environment of High Springs for 
cultural, historical, and aesthetic reasons, the City Commission 
also wished to promote economic development. By encouraging 
building owners to retain and restore the original appearance of 
their properties, the unique character of this diversified small 
community is emphasized. Existing housing is affordable and 
should be viewed as a valuable asset deserving primary care and 
preservation. Revitalization of the turn-of-the-century downtown 
district is a high priority; it is becoming a center for antique 
shoppers and outdoor recreation enthusiasts. Visitors and 
tourists who appreciate these attractions are also drawn to 
authentic historic districts and landscapes. High Springs plans 
to build its future by preserving its small town values and its 
historical heritage as an important railroad center. 




Methodology 

The survey began in March and continued over a period of 
five months. The consultant compiled a bibliography of materials 
pertaining to the history of High Springs by researching the 
collections of libraries in High Springs, in Gainesville, and at 
the University of Florida. Residents of High Springs helped 
locate other materials and provided important background 
information in oral interviews. A chronology of events was 
prepared, and individuals significant in the history of High 
Springs were identified. A preliminary narrative was prepared to 
support the field study and to provide a context for evaluating 
the significance of individual properties. 

Volunteers assisted the consultant with a block-by-block 
identification of sites thought to have potential significance. 
Although the survey was concentrated within the City of High 
Springs, several sites in the adjacent area were also 
inventoried. , 

Workshops were held to discuss architectural styles and 
features and to share historical information on individual 
structures. As a general rule, only buildings constructed before 
1940 were considered to be significant. The survey recorded all 
structures within the proposed district, contributing and 
noncontributing, but Florida Master Site File forms were prepared 
only for those which contributed historical and/or architectural 
significance. The consultant prepared the forms, attaching a 
photograph and a map to each. 

Approximately 280 sites were recorded on FMSF forms, most of 
them buildings. Not all will be included in the historic 
district. The amount of information available for each site 
varied considerably. In some cases, documentation suffered from 
a lack of specific historical background; in other cases, a great 
deal of information was located. 




Historiography 

One of the most valuable resources is the High Springs: A 
Photo Album , a compilation of historic photographs with 
commentary prepared by Joel Glenn in 1984. Although not an in- 
depth history of High Springs, it nevertheless contains much 
information which was helpful in the survey. Only a few issues 



of early copies of the High Springs newspapers have been located, 
but the High Springs Herald , which began publication in 1952, 
occasionally printed interviews with pioneer residents and 
special features on local history. Brief descriptions of High 
Springs were found in various publications about Alachua County. 
Some records were available in the High Springs City Hall, 
including minutes of early city council meetings, ordinances, and 
the like. Records of building permits for the structures 
considered in the survey were not available, but 1913 and 1926 
Sanborn maps of High Springs confirmed tentative dates of 
construction for many buildings. 

General sources on Florida history and the impact of 
railroads on the state were consulted. Lack of access to records 
of the Plant System, absorbed into the Seaboard Air.. Line Railroad 
and later into the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad (now CSX) , 
necessitated use of many secondary sources which were somewhat 
fragmentary. Gainesville newspapers and miscellaneous 
periodicals provided some background on this important aspect of 
the history of High Springs. 




HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF HIGH SPRINGS 



Physical Setting 

High Springs is located in the northwest corner of Alachua 
County, twenty-two miles from Gainesville, the county seat. The 
surrounding countryside is characterized by low, rolling hills, 
and the city is situated close to a bend in the Santa Fe River. 
[See Figure 1] There are a number of natural springs in the 
vicinity and sinkholes abound within the city limits.. The spring 
that gives High Springs its name is located at the top of a hill 
a mile northeast of the current center of town, in what is now a 
pleasant residential suburb. Its steady flow of water attracted 
settlers in the latter part of the nineteenth century and the 
first group of buildings — a school, a few stores, and several 
homes — was built here. The railroad tapped this spring and 
diverted its flow, via a long pipe, to the site chosen for the 
railroad shops. The settlement soon shifted down the hill to 
cluster around the railroad yards and tracks. 

Springs attracted prehistoric peoples also, and evidence of 
their settlements has been found. The major springs located on 
the Santa Fe River, notably Poe Springs and Columbia Springs, 
became the focus of recreational, social, and real estate 
development activities as High Springs grew. These springs and 
the Santa Fe River are still important assets to the community 
and attract many visitors. 

High Springs is surrounded by fertile farm lands and is an 
important agricultural center. Cotton, peanuts, and tobacco, as 
well as general farming and stock raising, have been important 
aspects of the local economy. 

Mineral resources are also abundant in the vicinity. When 
the Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad laid track to the area 
in the 1880s, the first product shipped to Jacksonville was stone 
used to build jetties at the mouth of the St. Johns River. 
Shortly afterwards, phosphate was discovered, and a number of 
mines were established in the surrounding countryside. The rock, 
which was processed into fertilizer, was shipped to the port in 
Jacksonville. This continued as an important industry until 
World War I intervened and cut off the most important customer, 
Germany. Rock is still mined in the area, mostly for 
roadbuilding . 









U City of High Springs 






Figure 1. Location of Survey Area 



A few warehouses and a plastic pipe manufacturing plant are 
on the outskirts of High Springs. Within the city, commercial, 
business, and retail zones are concentrated along three major 
thoroughfares: Santa Fe Boulevard (US 441) , Main Street (County 
Road 236) and 1st Avenue (County Road 20) . Four residential 
segments in the city were considered in this survey, the largest 
being in the northwest. Because the town is laid out in 
reference to the railroad tracks, the numbered streets and 
avenues do not run north and south, east and west, but rather on 
a diagonal to the compass coordinates. [see Figures 1 & 2] 




History and Development of High Springs * 

Pre-historv and First European Contacts 

There is conclusive evidence that, long before the first 
European contacts in the sixteenth century, hunting and gathering 
Indians roamed the vicinity and had substantial settlements in 
the area. Archaeological investigations of the Hornsby Springs 
site uncovered indications of lithic workshops, and many stone 
artifacts have been found by collectors. 1 Spanish explorers 
passed near the present site of High Springs in 1539, and after 
the establishment of St. Augustine in 1565, missions were built. 
Fransciscan friars converted the inhabitants of an Indian village 
not far from the present site of High Springs, built a church, 
and supervised the raising of crops and cattle during the 
seventeenth century. 2 

Territorial Period: 1820s-1840s 

When Florida became a territory of the United States in the 
1820s, the Bellamy Road linking St. Augustine and Pensacola 
passed just north of High Springs, crossing over the Santa Fe 
River at the natural land bridge (now within the O'Leno State 
Park) . This early transportation corridor opened the area to 
American settlers in the 1830s. 3 

However, Indian raids discouraged these newcomers. When the 
Seminole Wars were over and the Armed Occupation Act passed in 
1842, settlers flocked in to claim and work the rich agricultural 
land, particularly cotton planters and farmers from Georgia and 
South Carolina. They registered their claims at nearby 
Newnansville, the seat of Alachua County until the 18 50s, when 
the courthouse was shifted twenty miles southeast to the new town 



ZL 



*>-/ y/c 




T TT r.A.e^-tiilmCl»rK. 




Figure 2. 

Plat Maps prior to the 
name of High Springs 

top: G.E.Foster property in 

Fairmount, 1885 
bottom: Mrs. C.E. Moore's property in 

Santa Fe , 1 8 55 



of Gainesville when the cross-Florida railroad was routed 
there. 4 

The Underwoods are believed to be the earliest settlers in 
the High Springs area. The 184 census enumerated Fernando 
Arrodondo Underwood of South Carolina, his wife Mary, their 
children and four slaves. Although the earliest records date the 
Underwoods' purchase of land at Crockett Springs just north of 
what is now High Springs as 1847, they must have arrived several 
years earlier. Builders as well as farmers, the Underwood 
family has made, and continues to make, significant contributions 
to the growth and improvement of the community. 5 

High Springs had several names, which causes confusion when 
consulting nineteenth century descriptions, maps, and 
gazetteers. According to Post Office records the first "name that 
appears is Santaffey, sometimes spelled Santa Fe, but in 1885, 
according to a plat recorded in the Alachua County Courthouse, it 
was renamed Fairmount. [see Figure 2] It was known as Orion for 
a few years, but officially became High Springs in 1886, named 
for the free-flowing spring on the hill just north of the present 
city. It was incorporated in 1892. 6 

By 1883 a few homes and stores had been built on the hill, 
and that year the Baptists built the first church, a small 
windowless structure which was replaced by a larger one four 
years later. Ashley wrote in 1888 that Orion had a population 
of 150 with four general stores, a cotton gin, two churches, a 
school and a hotel. 7 



The Railroad Era Begins: 1880s 

However, it was the expansion of railroads into this section 
of Florida that set off the real population explosion which would 
project High Springs into the position of number two city in 
Alachua County, second only to the county seat of Gainesville in 
population by 1898. 




Three main factors made the extension of rail lines to this 
part of Florida inevitable: phosphate was discovered in the area 
in 1889, there were tremendous timber resources to be exploited 
in the virgin pine lands and cypress swamps, and High Springs was 
on a direct line with the proposed route of the Plant System 
which would come to dominate transportation in the western part 
of the peninsula. 



By 1898 there were nearly fifty phosphate mines in Alachua 
County, most of them between Newberry, sixteen miles to the 
south, and High Springs. Hundreds of thousands of tons of 
phosphate were dug (much of it in backbreaking pick-and-shovel 
work by convict labor) , crushed and washed, and loaded on 
railroad cars bound for the port in Jacksonville. Even before 
phosphate was discovered to be a valuable mineral when used as a 
fertilizer, short railroad lines were laid out to the quarries to 
mine rock to build jetties in Jacksonville, Fernandina, and 
Savannah 



8 



The Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad was the first 
line to reach High Springs in 1884, but several other lines soon 
converged at this site. High Springs became an important 
junction for the Plant System. The town's immediate future was 
assured when it was chosen as division headquarters in 1895. By 
1898 the population had risen to 2,000, and High Springs was 
regarded as an important commercial center, flourishing, as one 
newspaper article expressed it, "like the green bay tree." 9 



The newly incorporated town wrestled with a "lawless 
element" which was variously described as a nuisance and as a 
menace. The reputation of High Springs as a rough, crime-ridden 
town persisted for decades, supported by newspaper articles (the 
local press supported temperance and targeted the saloons for 
their "corrupting influence"). 10 In spite of this, business was 
brisk for High Springs merchants, and many built substantial 
establishments, some of brick. The reliable railroad payrolls," 
$8,000 monthly, formed a solid economic base for the commercial 
growth of High Springs. In addition to several general stores, 
opera houses, hotels and boarding houses, saloons and 
restaurants, grocery and butcher shops, bakeries, and drug stores 
flourished. 1 



The Railroad Center 

Ground was broken in 1896 for the Plant System shops, 
roundhouse, offices, and district hospital which were to make 
High Springs a leading railroad service center. The South 
Florida tracks were extended into the town and hundreds of 
workers converged on High Springs. In the shops steam engines 
and cars were inspected and cleaned, overhauled and repaired. 
The two-story frame hospital was described as "large and 
commodious and . . . fitted up with all the equipment of modern 
hospitals." A contemporary report estimated that the Plant 
System spent over $150,000 between 1896 and 1898 on these 
i improvements . 12 




11 



Naturally, with all this commercial and industrial 
development, residential real estate grew apace. The city was 
platted in the 188 0s, aligning the streets and avenues on a grid 
diagonal to the normal north-south orientation to accommodate the 
railroad tracks which sliced through the town. 13 With sawmills 
in steady operation, houses of heart pine were built, most of 
modest size and simple style, but some of more elaborate 
design. 14 

Like most towns, the commercial district of High Springs 
experienced several fires that destroyed wood frame stores which 
tended to cluster together and to contain incendiary materials of 
all kinds. 15 Fire fighting consisted of bucket brigades, and 
flames quickly leaped from one pine building to the next (whereas 
house fires were usually confined to the cookhouse or to the 
detached frame home) . These fires were blessings in disguise as 
the stores were rebuilt in fireproof brick. These are the 
commercial buildings that have survived in High Springs, and many 
of them were already built by the turn of the century. 16 
Whereas most of the scattered frame nonresidential structures 
that show on early maps were moved, burned or demolished, the 
brick stores remain on Main Street and near the depot on NW 9th 
Street, to form business districts which are clearly distinct 
from the residential neighborhoods. 17 

In addition to the burgeoning phosphate, lumbering, and 
railroad enterprises, cotton continued to be an important crop, 
and a cotton gin and a brick cotton repository were built near 
the tracks. As a cotton market, High Springs processed over 500 
bales in 1898. 18 



The Great Storm of 1896 

A natural disaster occurred in 1896 which is still remarked 
on today. A tornado with very high winds virtually blew the town 
down on September 29, demolishing many stores, homes, and 
churches. 1 ' It is a tribute to the optimism and hardy spirits of 
the townspeople (and probably to the money already invested by 
the railroad company) that the town was rebuilt immediately. 
Today people can still date certain buildings as having survived 
the storm or as having been built to replace one that was 
destroyed. [see Figure 3] 

A two-story brick school with an impressive bell tower was 
built in the heart of town in 1902, replacing the original frame 
one which opened in 1886 on High Springs Hill. This fine school 
was taken down when a larger high school was erected in 1917 (the 
football team was called the Sandspurs) . 20 This school closed 



12 





Figure 3. top: 220 NE 1st St., built before 1896 storm 

bottom: High Springs Elementary School (1924) 



13 

in the 1950s when Santa Fe High School was built near Alachua. 
The current building, used until recently as an elementary 
school, was built in the 1928, and the 1917 school building was 
demolished. High Springs Elementary School, now abandoned on its 
lot behind the City Hall, was replaced by a new facility north of 
town, [see Figure 3] 




As a railroad center, High Springs had many of the 
advantages of a larger city. In addition to good schools, fine 
churches, and a hospital, the Opera House regularly booked 
touring theatrical companies who played to full houses. In 1902 
the Plant System became the Atlantic Coast Line, securely 
established by Henry B. Plant as one of Florida's most successful 
and stable railroads. A glance at census records reveals that 
most of the men were employed at railroad related work. 21 

Astute local investors organized the High Springs Electrical 
Ice Manufacturing Company in 1903 to supply ice to preserve 
fruits and vegetable for shipment, and the Bank of High Springs 
was organized in the same year. The cotton repository lent 
$10,000 on stored cotton." [see Figure 4] 

Other businesses that flourished in the early twentieth 
century included a furniture manufacturer, a millinery 
establishment, a jewelry store (the watchmaker kept the 
timepieces of the railroad men in good working order) , the High 
Springs Hotel with fifteen nicely furnished rooms, a newspaper, 
and a number of brick and frame general stores. Opportunities in 
real estate were not lacking: several businessmen advertised 
lots and farmland for sale, and offered to construct homes and 
businesses for sale or rent. In 1913 the city council voted to 
build a water and electric plant and to grade and pave some of 
the streets. 23 



The railroad provided job opportunities for African- 
Americans, and many who had originally been farmers and phosphate 
workers moved to town to work for the railroad. The first 
families settled in the southeast part of High Springs. Although 
the railroad provided some housing and commissaries for the 
section hands and shop workers, a number of African-American 
k:arpenters built homes in the area. The red brick African 



14 




v- ' ~&&tr*-^''*Z& 




Figure 4. top: Barnett Bank, formerly High Springs Bank 
(1903) 
bottom: Atlantic Ice Plant (ca 1925) replaced 
original ice plant 



Methodist Episcopal Allen Chapel and the rusticated block Mt. 
Olive Missionary Baptist Church were built early in the century 
and stand today as a testament to the stability and quality of 
the community. Douglass High School, now demolished, was an 
important institution, and there were many business 
establishments in this area. Later, African-Americans also 
settled in the far northwest area, closer to the shops and depot, 
and established churches, homes, and businesses. 24 [see Figures 
5 & 6] 

The phosphate boom slowed and completely ended when World 
War I blocked shipments to Germany, the primary customer for the 
mineral. However, railroad jobs remained a steady source of 
income, despite several strikes in the 1920s. The ACL shops 
were the life and heart of the town in the 1920s, occupying over 
fifty acres of ground, including the various tracks leading to 
and from High Springs. The payroll had grown by 1925 to $65,000 
and 3 00-4 00 men were employed. 5 




The Boom Years: 1920s 

Tourism, animated by booming land sales all over Florida and 
two new highways built through High Springs (Tamiami Trail 
leading south, and Dixie Highway swinging to the east) , became a 
new economic factor in the 1920s. The natural, scenic 
attractions and the beautiful springs that feed the Santa Fe 
River became more than just pleasant places for local folk to 
picnic and relax. The Riverview Hotel was built on the river 
across from Columbia Springs, and efforts were made to encourage 
some the thousands of motorists passing through from northern 
states and the eastern seaboard to stay longer and perhaps 
purchase a few lots in the new Hamilton Estates north of the 
city. 26 

Highways of asphalt and crushed stone replaced sandy, dusty 
roads, and a bridge was built over the Santa Fe River to Columbia 
County. Garages, machine shops, and filling stations catered to 
the motoring public, and several soda bottling plants were set 
up. The Telephone Exchange was the pride of the town, and each 
merchant mentioned his telephone number rather than his address 
in advertisements. Stores made home deliveries, and goods and 
services were only a phone call away. 27 

As the railroad expanded its operations after World War I 
and added more workers, many new homes appeared in the 
residential areas of High Springs, adding the up-to-date 
Icalifornia styling of the bungalow to the pleasant, shaded 



16 





:f^iillB^§s5S 



Figure 5. top: Allen Chapel A.H.E. (1902) 

bottom: Mt. Olive Missionary Baptist Church 
(1922) 







— r * -T* *- N ' 



^l _i«^--^ .-»-*.* 




Figure 6. top: 615 SE Railroad Avenue (1897) 

bottom: Mt. Carmel United Methodist Church 
(1933) 



13 

streets. The Women's Club built a handsome new clubhouse in 
1925 on land donated by James Paul, a railroad executive, who 
also gave the city land for a park, [see figure 7] Businesses 
flourished near the passenger and freight depots at the foot of 
tfW 9th Street, and new stores and shops were built on Main 
Street, [see Figure 8] 

In 1928 a new roundhouse was installed at a cost of 
$200,000, and the ACL shop was modernized to handle even more 
rolling stock. High Springs was a coaling station, where the 
benders that accompanied each engine were loaded with coal and 
rfater. Water, piped down to the yards from the spring on the 
lill north of town at first, later pumped from a well dug on 
site, was stored in massive cedar water tanks. 28 




jThe Great Depression: 1930s 

The Depression slowed the economy in High Springs as 
slsewhere in the 1930s, but the railroad shops remained open, and 
the community was not heavily involved in the real estate boom 
and bust cycle which so devastated other sections of Florida. 
High Spring's population remained more or less constant, around 
2,000. The Alabama Hotel and the New Florida catered to 
travelers and railroad people in the 1930s, and the Priest and 
Capital theater showed the latest films. A sawmill, cotton gin, 
and grist mill continued to operate, for High Springs was an 
important agricultural center where the seed and feed store was 
as vital as the filling station and car dealer, [see Figure 9] 

The importance of the railroad to High Springs dwindled as 
diesel engines replaced steam engines. The shops in High Springs 
were designed to repair and service steam locomotives, and many 
more steam locomotives were needed, sometimes as many as three to 
haul a long line of cars. One diesel could do the work of 
several steam engines and needed far less maintenance. By the end 
of World War II diesel engines had all but supplanted steam. 
Although the High Springs yards and shops did not close 
overnight, the work they did and the number of men they employed 
steadily declined. 29 Gradually all of the railroad buildings, 
with the exception of two small depots, were removed or torn down 
by the company, leaving a vast open field still crossed with 
"racks on which spare freight cars are stored. 



19 




«d!<*S£S6~< - 




Figure 7. top: New Century Women's Club (1925) 
bottom: City Park 



20 





Figure 8. top: ACL passenger depot (ca 1900) 
bottom: ACL freight depot (ca 1900) 



21 








Figure 9. top^New Florida Hotel, 835 NW 1st Avenue (ca 
bottom: Priest Theater, 15 NW 1st street (1929) 



A peanut shelling plant was constructed in High Springs in 
the mid-1930s, and tobacco warehouses were built in the 1950s to 
take advantage of the agricultural products in the area, but 
these enterprises did not replace the number of jobs that had 
been available at the train shops. 

After World War II 

High Springs enjoyed a mild period of expansion after World 
War II when US 441 was built north of the center of town. 
Motels catered to motorists, and businesses and stores expanded 
on this new commercial corridor. 30 Because of this, the 
original downtown and residential areas were shielded from the 
impact of heavy traffic, the intrusion of buildings out of scale 
and character with the existing structures, and pressure to widen 
the tree-shaded streets and avenues. [see Figure 10] 

The business district of High Springs was spared further 
traffic, much to the dismay of merchants, when Interstate 75 was 
built about six miles to the east in the 1960s, drawing , 
southbound tourists away from the city. High Springs remained a 
quiet, well-mannered, church-going residential community, 
evolving in the past decade into a center for antique collectors 
and outdoor enthusiasts. 




THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT OF HIGH SPRINGS 

Although High Springs has several buildings that could be 
termed "high style, " most are honest vernacular expressions of 
traditional forms which changed gradually over time. An 
alternative to architectural labeling such as Queen Anne, 
Colonial, or Victorian, is to look at the shape of the buildings, 
their massing, and roof line, rather than surface details, and to 
group the various types of buildings under the general headings 
of residences, commercial buildings, and churches. Only three 
structures within the survey area could be termed industrial: the 
peanut mill, the ice plant, and the old oil depot, all no longer 
in use. Two small frame depots at the foot of NE 9th Street are 
all that survive of the extensive railroad complex, [see Figure 
8] Noncontributing buildings, those constructed after 1940 or 
greatly altered, are similar in scale, massing, and placement to 
the 275 contributing buildings in the survey area. 

Early Architectural Influences 

Although early settlers must have first erected log cabins, 
none of these have survived. The survey area was settled after 
1890, so all structures are the product of building technology 
spread by the railroads. 31 Most physical evidence is of wood 
framing and siding produced of the local yellow pine in the 
sawmills, such as those established on the banks of the Santa Fe 
River by Abner Dunagan in 1895. 32 At least two houses in town 
(the Lamb and McLeod houses) were built on High Springs Hill, 
site of the original settlement, and later moved into the new 
town, [see Figure 11] One or two others may have been built 
before milled lumber was available and may have handhewn timbers, 
but this cannot be verified. None of the original stores or 
churches have survived. 



Commercial Buildings 

It has been pointed out that fires destroyed many of the 
earlier frame stores and businesses. The commercial 
establishments built late in the nineteenth century and early in 
the twentieth century that have survived are remarkably similar. 
They consist of one- or two-story brick or concrete buildings 
with flat roofs, long and rectilinear, often sharing a party 
wall. They line either side of Main Street and one side of NW 1st 
Avenue north of Main street, with a half-block section on Nw 1st 
Avenue at 9th Street, [see Figures 12 & 13] Some, such as the 

23 





Figure 10. top: NW 1st Avenue shops between Main and 1st Street 
bottom: typical residential street 



25 




Figure 11. top: Lamb House, 310 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1898) 

bottom: McLeod House, 20 NE 1st Avenue (ca 1898) 





Figure 12. 



top: east side of North Main Street stores 
bottom: west side of North Main Street stores 



27 





Figure 13. top: stores on NW 1st Avenue at 9th Street 

bottom: stores on NW 1st Avenue at 1st Street 



Dpera House, bear very close resemblance to their original 
appearance; 33 others have had extensive alterations to the 
front facade. Sanborn maps drawn in 1913 and 192 6 show the 
continuity of use and configuration for most of the buildings in 
the main business district. 

Brickwork on the oldest stores is most elaborate, such as 
the fine Romanesque arches on the Opera House, for the taste of 
the late Victorian era approved of variety and ornamentation. 
Buildings added in the 1920s and 1930s are similar in shape and 
function, but simpler and more streamlined as to surface 
Bmbellishment. An interesting feature of Main Street is the 
availability of parking in front of the stores, a cherished 
convenience made possible by the width of the street. Early 
nerchants recognized the importance of taking the transportation 
needs of their patrons into consideration: a well and an ample 
supply of hitching posts can be seen in historic photos. 35 

A twentieth-century innovation was the filling station, [see 
Figure 14] The first gasoline pump was installed in front of the 
Dpera House, 36 but this proved to be impractical, if not highly 
Jangerous. Four of the filling stations built in the 1920s and 
L930s have survived, but no longer serve their original function. 
Jnlike the stores, they stand alone surrounded by aprons of 
concrete. The convenience store of today has gone back to the 
original concept and combined shopping with dispensing gasoline. 

Residential Buildings 

Although High Springs is a "company town," it appears that the 
railroad did not set out to build homes or facilities for its 
employees on any extensive scale, as was done in some mining and 
nill towns. 37 Local contractors built many small homes to rent 
cr sell, and a number of apartment houses and boarding houses 
accommodated railroad men, such as the Renfro Apartments, The New 
Florida Hotel, and the Rimes boarding house. There was a housing 
shortage during World War I, and a resultant flurry of building 
In the 1920s as the shops expanded, [see Figure 15] 




29 




Fi9ure 14 - top LSueT=^ 9 ^r ion ' ~ »• m *« - 1« 



30 








Figure 15. top: Rimes House, 63 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1898) 
bottom: Renfro Apartments, 115 S. Main Street 
(ca, 1898) 



31 

Homes face the street, usually aligned along a fairly common 
setback, most sited in the center of the lot. The original plats 
of High Springs divided blocks into four or six lots, and this 
arrangement has determined the traditional spacing in most 
neighborhoods . 

According to historic photographs, the first houses were 
roofed with cypress shingles, most likely produced by Dunagan's 
shingle mill. These have been replaced by more durable, fire 
resistant sheet metal roofing, asbestos shingles, or composition 
shingles. Like wood frame houses throughout the South, those in 
iigh Springs were built up on brick piers, many of which are 
still in place. Balloon framing with horizontal drop siding was 
che more prevalent construction approach, with an occasional use 
of board and batten siding. Asbestos shingles have been .applied 
Dver the original siding in almost half of the older homes. 

Turn-of-the-century homes, all of which are wood frame in 
-ligh Springs, tend to be irregularly massed dwellings, T-shaped, 
L-shaped, or crossplan, or a composite, [see Figure 16] 
Approximately half of the houses surveyed fall within this 
general category. Gable roofs are most prevalent, but a few hip 
roofs or combination of hip and gable are seen. Advances in 
nilling and wood working machinery vastly increased the 
availability and variety of mass-produced building supplies. 39 
rhe more elaborate homes such as the Godwin, Pfifer, Easterlin, 
and Cole houses exhibit the most freedom of expression, [see 
Figures 17 & 18] There was a great movement throughout the 
country in the late nineteenth century in favor of highly 
individualized, picturesque dwellings, in contrast to the more 
formal, symmetrical plans of the colonial era in New England and 
bhe classic revival forms prevalent in the southern states. 40 
Some of these earlier forms can be seen in High Springs in the 
Stroble house on SE 3rd Street and the Markey house on SE 1st 
Street, [see Figure 19] 

The middle class had a wide range of plans to choose from, 
and builders could offer an endless variety of porches, 
oalconies, towers, window treatments, and the like. Fancy cut 
shingles were applied to gable ends, and rambling porches became 
status symbols with lavish turned and sawcut railings and posts, 
rhe interior of these homes also expressed a change in lifestyle, 
tfith flowing arrangement of space; more room for leisure 
activities; large windows to admit light and air; and the 
innovations of central heating, indoor plumbing, and modern 
kitchen equipment. 41 Most in High Springs are one-story; less 
than twenty two-story houses remain. 




32 





Figure 16. top: 720 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1897) 

bottom: 210 NW 4th Street (ca 1899) 



33 




fcfey 




Figure 17. top: Godwin House, 30 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1899) 

bottom: Cole House, 525 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1898) 



34 





gSS£5l£s228^ 



Figure 18. top: Easterlin House, 410 NW 1st Avenue (ca 
1897) 
bottom: Phifer House, 215 S. Main Street (ca 
1900 



35 




■Ml 







Figure 19. top: Markey House, 105 SE 1st Street (ca 1895 
bottom: Stroble House, 215 SE 3rd Street fca ' 
1880) v 



36 

Older homes were modified and enlarged with wings and 
extensions, and many a simple single or double pen cottage has 
been completely enveloped with additions, not only to accommodate 
a growing family, but to express what some would call a revolt 
against the monotony of the square colonial box. 42 There are 
many transitional vernacular homes in High Springs which 
exemplify these national patterns. 




The years before and after World War I saw a noticeable 
change in perceptions of housing, as the low-slung, easy to 
build, and enormously popular bungalow style swept the country. 
Once a term applied to vacation cottages in India, the bungalow 
became the favored middle class dwelling in the United States. 
The bungalow was characterized by its large, simple roof, which 
often covered the broad porch as well as the house, and was 
usually one-story, with an informal and convenient interior 
layout. It was efficient and economical, and particularly 
widespread in warmer climates such as California and Florida/ 3 
There are over sixty bungalows in High Springs, some with fine 
detailing such as the Tyre and O'Steen houses, [see Figure 20 & 
21] The low silhouette, with extended eaves, expressed a modern 
look in the 1920s, a marked contrast to the older homes with 
steep and irregular roof lines. The massive porch columns of the 
bungalow were distinctively different from the slender, shapely 
porch railings, columns, and gingerbread trim of the Victorian 
era, as can be seen on NW 1st Avenue in the Hester Apartments, 
the only two-story bungalow-style building in High Springs, and 
the adjacent Easterlin house built in 1896. [see Figures 18 & 22] 
Some older homes were "modernized" by adding bungalow-style 
porches with heavy tapered columns set on square pedestals. 

While most of the bungalows in High Springs are wood frame, 
fifteen are of concrete block. This popular building material, 
composed of a mixture of water, sand, fine stone and Portland 
cement, was promoted in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly for the 
owner-builder, who could buy the equipment and mold blocks with 
any texture and design he wished right in his own back yard. 
Rough cut stone is the most common pattern seen in High Springs, 
but a few homes are built of a smooth pebble face, and 
occasionally a paneled face is seen. 44 [see Figures 21 & 22] 
Several churches are also of molded concrete blocks, Mt. Olive 
and Mt. Carmel, made by the members of the congregation, [see 
Figures 5 & 6] 



37 





Figure 20. top: Tyre House, 120 S. Main Street (ca 1930) 
bottom: O'Steen House, 805 NW 1st Avenue (ca 
1914) 



38 








Figure 21. top: 320 NW 9th Street (ca 1924) 

bottom: 23 NW 2nd Avenue (ca 1923) 



39 





Figure 22. top: 215 NW 8th Street (ca 1923) 

bottom: Hester Apartments, 42 NW 1st Avenue (ca 
1922) 



40 

In the 1930s the picturesque Revival styles became popular, 
with Gothic, Early American, Tudor, and Greek Revival elements 
applied, often in startling combinations, to the basic house 
plans of earlier periods. Only a handful of new homes built in 
High Springs were influenced by the Revival fashion, but examples 
can be seen at 606 NW 4th Avenue and 140 NW 2nd Street, [see 
Figure 23] Much more common was the remodeling and enlarging of 
existing houses as modern kitchens and bathrooms were added, 
porches were screened and enclosed, dormers opened up attic 
space, and wings extended to the sides and rear, [see Figure 2 4 & 
25] ; 

No one section or neighborhood in High Springs contains a 
concentration of any one type of house. More of the larger homes 
face the main streets, perhaps because those lots were once 
considered more desirable and thus were owned by more affluent 
families. Although stores and filling stations alternate with 
residences on some blocks on Main Street and 1st Avenue, most 
neighborhoods are composed of single family, detached houses set 
back from tree-shaded streets on fairly large lots. 
Noncontributing houses are similar in scale, massing, and site 
placing, [see Figure 26] 

The Churches of High Springs 

Church membership has played an important role in High 
Springs since its founding. One of the first buildings to be 
'erected was the Baptist church.'' 5 Other denominations soon 
followed, each constructing a proper church for its growing 
congregation . 

The eleven churches included in the survey were all built 
after the great storm of Setember 1896, which demolished all the 
churches as well as other buildings in High Springs. St. 
Bartholomew's Episcopal Church was rebuilt soon after by railroad 
men on their free time, reportedly of pine struck down during the 
storm. The Carpenter Gothic style resembles many in Florida 
based on the designs of New York architect Richard Upjohn, who 
popularized this style. It may be that the men, many of whom had 
previously been stationed in Palatka where two Carpenter Gothic 
Episcopal churches had been built, brought the plans with them 
for the elegantly simple board and batten church with its slender 
Gothic windows. St. Madeleine Catholic Church built in 1924 is 
also based on the front gable plan with lancet windows on either 
side. It has been moved from its former location within the town 
to the new church site on US 441. The simplest expression of the 
gable front church is the former Sanctified Church on NW 1st 
Avenue and 16th Street, now the Church of God by Faith, [see 
Figures 27 & 28] 

The Presbyterian church on North Main Street was rebuilt 
after the storm of 1896 and is characterized by rounded 
jRomanesque windows and a stately bell tower and entry porch set 



41 








Figure 23. top: 605 NW 4th Avenue (ca 1937) 

bottom: 14 NW 2nd Street (ca 1935) 



42 





Figure 24. top: 25 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1897) 

bottom: 20 NW 4th Avenue (ca 1923) 



43 





*rf**Sr^ 



Figure 25. top: 110 SW 4th Street (ca 1920) 

bottom: 45 SW 3rd Avenue (ca 19 28) 





-MH^5^im'? 






Figure 26 



top: noncontributing residence 
bottom: noncontributing residence 



45 





Figure 27. top: St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church (1896) 
bottom: St. Madeleine Catholic Church (1925) 



at a diagonal to the gable front. The original wo 
been faced with light colored brick. The Methodi 
1st Avenue was also rebuilt after the storm, a fro 
church with a corner bell tower. After a fire in 
was rebuilt again of red brick with handsome Gothi 
stained glass. It is now the Seventh Day Adventist 
the street the Nazarene church, built in the 1930s 
same pattern of gable front with a square tower to 
with simple rectangular windows. It is now the Ma 
faced with red brick, [see Figures 28 & 29] 



od siding has 
st church on NW 
nt gable frame 
the 1930s it 
c windows of 

Church. Down 
, followed the 

the side, but 
sonic Temple, 



The first brick church in High Springs was the Allen Chapel, 
African Methodist Episcopal, built in 1902. This handsome church 
with its Gothic windows and square bell tower is in the heart of 
the oldest black community. To the east is the Mt. Olive 
Missionary Baptist Church, built in 1922 by church members who 
molded the block and built the cross-gable church with its inset 
square bell tower and entry porch. The stained glass windows 
framed in graceful flattened Gothic arches are an outstanding 
feature of this religious landmark. [see Figure 5] Also built 
by the congregation of molded block in 1933 is the Mt. Carmel 
United Methodist Church on NW 1st Avenue. Here the sanctuary is 
raised above the fellowship hall on the ground level, [see Figure 
6] 

The Classic Revival style was chosen by the Baptists when 
they built their new brick church in 1924 on SW 2nd Avenue. It 
is distinguished by the handsome proportions of its massive 
portico supported by four Doric columns. The original stained 
glass windows were removed when the congregation sold the church 
to the First Christian Fellowship. When the Church of Christ 
built on NE 1st Avenue in 1941, they chose the same style, but 
used concrete block and rounded windows, [see Figure 30] 





Figure 28. top: High Springs Presbyterian Church (1897) 
bottom: Church of God by Faith (former 
Sanctified Church, ca 193 0) 



43 





Figure 29: top: Masonic Hall (former Nazarine Church, ca 
1930) 
bottom: Seventh Day Adventist Church (former 
Methodist Church, ca 1898) 



49 





Figure 30: top: Faith Christian Fellowship (former First 
Baptist Church, ca 192 6) 
bottom: Truth Pentacostal Church (former Church 
of God, 1942) 



SURVEY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 



The architectural and historical survey of High Springs 
confirmed that an integrated and cohesive district exists which 
should be nominated to the National Register of Historic Places 
as the High Springs Historic District. Most of the buildings in 
High Springs which contribute to the district were built by and 
for people who worked for the railroad or those who depended on 
the business generated by the railroad employees and their 
families. For High Springs is unigue in this respect — it is a 
railroad community. It is comfortable with the tracks running 
through town and misses the clamor and hustle of the shops which 
sprawled over many acres within the city limits. Trains weren't 
there to bring tourists in or just to take produce and citrus to 
market. They were a way of life in themselves, known, 
understood, valued, and admired for their special gualities. 
This way of life has vanished, but it should be appreciated and 
understood as the most important influence on the history of High 
Springs. 

The completion of this survey and report is only a 
preliminary step to protecting the architectural and historical 
character of the City of High Springs. The protection offered a 
historic site at federal and state levels is limited. Under no 
circumstance can federal or state governments forbid or restrict 
a private owner from altering or destroying a historic building, 
even one in a certified historic district, unless federal funds 
or permits are involved, and then only after thorough review. In 
Florida, zoning and code regulations are vested in local 
government. Consequently, specific restrictions and controls 
directed at preserving the integrity of cultural resources remain 
the responsibility of local government. 

As a further step the City of High Springs should develop a 
historic preservation plan, one outlining the community's 
policies and goals for dealing with its cultural resources and 
methods for accomplishing these goals. The plan should identify 
ways to integrate the preservation of historic resources with 
other planning activities. It may include plans and designs to 
conserve or enhance particular areas. It may be published as a 
reference tool to provide the basis for making the inventory a 
part of the local comprehensive plan. A preservation plan will 
also encourage other agencies such as public works, highway and 
park departments, as well as private groups, to consider 
preservation goals as they make decisions. 



50 



The next step in the preservation program should be the 
definition of the character of the City of High Springs. This 
inventory of sites and report can be used as tools in the 
identification of additional architectural and historical 
elements which contribute to High Springs's unique qualities. 
Careful analysis of the surveyed sites and the generalizations of 
this report can provide a summary of the similarities and 
disparities of the design features found in the city. This 
document and the accompanying inventory and site map can serve 
as a framework on which to base the identification of the 
defining and unifying elements in the community. 







I inn:: a ~ : i 
^- - 1 



Other aspects of the community conservation program should 
provide a mechanism to maintain the integrity of individual 
sites, provide the necessary legal and financial tools and 
assistance on the local level to realize preservation goals, and 
promote widespread public interest in all aspects of the 
preservation process. 

Historic preservation ordinances are widely used to provide 
a variety of services and protections to the local community. 
The ordinance should include the following: 1) Statement of 
purpose, 2) Definitions, 3) Establishment of designation body, 4) 
Survey plans for the identification of historic resources, 5) 
Procedures for designation, 6) Establishment of an architectural 
review board, 7) Procedures for review concerning alterations, 
demolition, relocation, and new construction affecting a 
designated structure, and 8) Appeals. Statutes should also 
include the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for 
Rehabilitation or similar local design criteria as guidelines for 
rehabilitation of historic buildings. Efforts should be made in 
High Springs to inform and educate property owners concerning the 
practical advantages and community benefits involved in locally 
ordinanced design review. 

The protections and benefits afforded to recognized historic 
sites by federal and state legislation are important, but the 
most significant and effective preservation activity occurs at 
the local level. The citizens of High Springs are fortunate that 
their government has identified many of the historic resources in 
the community, and they should insist that their cultural 
heritage be protected by local legislation. 



Further Recommendations 

Further specific recommendations have evolved over the 
course of this survey project as a result of discussions and 
conversations with residents of High Springs. 

(1) Create and make widely available a brochure or booklet 
to acquaint residents and visitors with the historic resources of 
High Springs. This can be in the form of a walking tour with a 
brief historical narrative. It might be expanded to a driving 
and cycling tour guide by extending the scope to include natural 
attractions in the vicinity. 

(2) Secure the two remaining railroad buildings at the foot 
of NW 9th Street to form a center for railroad-oriented tourist 
activities. A museum, information center, restaurant,' gift shop, 
and ticket agency seem to be logical uses to which these 
buildings could be put. 

(3) Explore possible joint private-public venture to make 
an economic and cultural asset of the 1923 High Springs 
Elementary School. 

(4) Encourage continued efforts to restore historic 
structures to their original appearance by initiating an annual 
award for outstanding preservation or rehabilitation projects. 

(5) Create signage to mark the historic district and to 
promote its unique character. 

(6) Initiate a systematic program of interviewing and 
recording the oral history of High Springs. The retired railroad 
employees have vivid stories to tell and experiences to share. 
Efforts should be made to review and make copies of historic 
photographs and documents pertaining to the railroad era, to be 
displayed in the proposed railroad museum. 



Conclusion 

The State of Florida has experienced unparalleled economic 
growth in the last five decades, bringing with it unprecedented 
urbanization and commercial development. Thus far, High Springs 
has remained something of a quiet oasis. This quality is one of 
its most valuable assets, but one that its citizens must guard 
zealously. It is hoped that this survey and report will help 
High Springs appreciate its architectural, cultural, and 
environmental resources and plan wisely for the growth that is 
inevitable. 




Notes 



1. Edward M. Dolan and Glenn T. Allen, Jr. "An Investigation of 
the Darby and Hornsby Springs Sites, Alachua County, Florida." 
Florida Geological Survey #7, 1961, pp. 3, 12, 24. 

2. Charlton W. Tebeau. A History of Florida (Coral Gables, FL: 
University of Miami Press, 1971), pp. 23, 50; Patricia S. 
Garretson. "Early Religious History of the High Springs Area, 
Florida." Unpublished manuscript, p. 1. 

3. Tebeau, p. 140. 

4. Tebeau, p. 168; Garretson, pp. 3-5; 0. A. Myers, ed. Alachua 
County: Her Attractions, Features, and Public Improvements 
(Gainesville, FL: Cannon & McCreary, 1882), p. 10. 

5. United States Census. Sixth Census. Alachua County. 1840. p. 
161; Seventh Census. Alachua County. 1850. p. 30; Eighth Census. 
Alachua County. 1860. P. 51; Fritz W. Buchholz. History of Alachua 
County, Florida: Narrative and Biographical (St. Augustine: The 
Record Co., 1929), p. 184. 

6. Alford G. Bradbury and E. Story Hallock. A Chronology of 
Florida Post Offices (Vero Beach, FL: Florida Federation of Stamp 
Clubs, 1962), pp. 38, 42; Alachua County Office of Records, Plat 
Book A, pp. 4, 6; Buchholz, p. 184; John W. Ashley. Alachua, The 
Garden County of Florida (New York: The South Publishing Co. , 
1888) , p. 39. 

7. Ashley, p. 39. 

8. Arch Fredric Blakey. The Florida Phosphate Industry: A 
History of the Development and Use of a Vital Mineral (Cambridge, 
MA; Harvard University Press, 1973), pp. 15, 20, 22, 27; Writers 
Program. Alachua County , 1936. Collection of P. K. Yonge Library, 
pp. 12, 49; "Profiles of People" (interview with Clyde Richardson) 
High Springs Herald 6 May 1954, p. 3. 

9. George W. Pettengill, Jr. The Story of the Florida Railroads, 
1834-1903 (Boston: The Railway and Locomotive Historical Society, 
1952), p. 93; Robert W. Mann. Rails 'Neath the Palms (Burbank, CA: 
Darwin Publications, 1983), p. 87; Writers Program, pp. 48-52. 

10. High Springs News . 12 August 1897, 6 January 1899. Microfilm 
copies in collection of P. K. Yonge Library, Gainesville; Robert 
Davidsson. "The Mines and Outlaws are Gone." Gainesville Sun . 28 
March 1976, p. 238. 



11. Writers Program, p. 52; Georgia, Alabama, and Florida Business 
and Professional Directory (Washington, DC: State Publishing Co. , 
1903) , p. 960. 

12. Writers Program, pp. 51, 52. 

13. Alachua County Office of Records, Plat Book A, pp. 4, 6. 

14. Joel Glenn, ed. High Springs: A Photo Album (Gainesville, FL: 
North Florida Publishing Co., 1984), pp. 21, 35-39. 

15. Glenn, p. 8. 

16. Glenn, p. 3. 

17. Sanborn Maps. High Springs, 1913, 1926; High Springs, 1907, 
Map in the possession of Otto Kahlich . 



18. Writers Program, p. 52; High Springs Map, 1907; Sanborn Map, 
High Springs, 1913. 

19. Glenn, p. 3, 4; Writers Program, p. 53; High Springs News, 12 
August 1897, 6 January 1898; "Big Windstorm In 1896 Wrecked City," 
High Springs Herald, 11 August I960, p. 17, 18. 

20. Glenn, p. 33. 

21. Murray Laurie. "High Springs Opera House." Unpublished 
manuscript, 1989, p. 8; Pettengill, p. 93; Mann, PP. 67-68; Alachua 
County, The Hub of Florida , "High Springs, The Railroad Center" 
(Gainesville: Alachua County News, 1924) ; United States Census, 
Alachua County, 1900, 1910, 1920. 

22. Alachua County, Florida . (Johnstown, FL: Southern Industry, 
1903) , pp. 18-19. 

23. Ibid.; High Springs City Council minutes, 15 April 1913, 2 
July 1913. 



24. Garretson, p. 12; Interview by author with Johnny Jordan, 15 
March 1990. 



25. Chamber of Commerce. Gainesville, Florida, in Pictures and 
Prose (Gainesville, FL: Chamber of Commerce, 1925), 32-37; Alachua , 
The Hub of Florida (Gainesville, FL: Alachua County News, 1924) , 
n.p. 



26. Chamber of Commerce, p. 32-33; The Great Bowl of Alachua 
(Gainesville, FL: Chamber of Commerce, 1925), High Springs section 
of unpaged booklet in P. K. Yonge Library, Gainesville.; Glenn, pp. 
22-23, 40-45. 

27. Glenn, pp. 17-18, 42; Interview by author with Otto Kahlich, 
28 March, 1990. 

28. Buchholz, p. 185; Marina Blomberg, "After 70 Years, Remnant of 
Steam Era Will Fall," Gainesville Sun , 8 March 1975. 

29. Interview by author with L. W. "Bud" Register, Mayor of High 
Springs, 7 May 1990. 

..i.. 

30. Glenn, p. 23. 

31. Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester. A Field Guide to 
American Houses (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986), p. 89. ' 

32. Glenn, p. 21. 

33. Laurie, p. 7. 

34. Sanborn Maps. High Springs, 1913, 1926. 

35. Glenn, p. 3-7. 

36. Sanborn Map, High Springs, 1926, p. 1. 

37. Southern Pine Association. Homes for Workmen (New Orleans: 
Author, 1919), pp. 11-13. 

38. Glenn, pp. 35-39. 

39. McAlester and McAlester, pp. 50-53. 

40. John A. Jakle, Robert W. Bastian, and Douglas K. Meyer. Common 
Houses in America's Small Towns: The Atlantic Seaboard to the 
Mississippi Valley (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989) , pp. 
163-166. 

41. Jakle et al., pp. 154-156. 

42. Ibid. p. 154. 

43. Ibid., pp. 171-173. 

44. Herbert Gottfried and Jan Jennings. American Vernacular 
Design. 1870-1940: An Illustrated Glossary (New York: Van Nostrand 
Reinhold, 1985). pp. 32-33. 

45. Ashley, p. 39. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ashley, John W. Alachua, The Garden County of Florida . New York: 
The South Publishing Co., 1888. 

Alachua County, Florida . Johnstown, FL: Southern Industry, 1903. 

Alachua County, The Hub of Florida . Gainesville, FL: Alachua 
County News, 1924. 

Blakey, Arch Fredric. The Florida Phosphate Industry: A History 
of the Development and Use of a Vital Mineral . Cambridge, MA: 
Harvard University Press, 1973. 

Bradbury, Alford G. and E. Story Hallock. A Chronology of the 
Florida Post Offices . Vero Beach, FL: Florida 
Federation of Stamp Clubs, 1962. , 

Buchholz, Fritz W. History of Gainesville, Florida: Narrative -and 
Biographical . St. Augustine, FL: The Record Co., 1929. 

Chamber of Commerce. Gainesville, Florida, in Pictures and Prose . 
Gainesville, FL: Chamber of Commerce, 1925. 

Davis, Jess G. History of Alachua County . Gainesville, FL: Alachua 
County Historical Commission, 1959. 

Dolan, Edward M. and Glenn T. Allen, Jr. "An Investigation of the 
Darby and Hornsby Springs Sites, Alachua County, Florida." 
Florida Geological Survey #7, 1961. 

Garretson, Patricia S. "The Early Religious History of the High 
Springs Area, Florida." Unpublished manuscript. 1990 

Georgia, Alabama, and Florida Business and Professional Directory . 
Washington, DC: State Publishing Co., 1903. 

Glenn, Joel, ed. High Springs: A Photo Album . Gainesville, FL: 
North Florida Publishing Co., 1984. 

Gottfried, Herbert, and Jan Jennings. American Vernacular Design, 
1870-1940: An Illustrated Glossary . New York: Van Mostrand 
Reinhold, 1985. 

"The Great Bowl of Alachua." Gainesville: Alachua County Chamber 
of Commerce, 1925. Collection of the P. K. Yonge Library, 
University of Florida, Gainesville. 

Jakel, John A., Robert W. Bastian, and Douglas K. Meyer. Common 
Houses in America's Small Towns: The Atlantic Seaboard to 
the Mississippi Valley . Athens, GA: University of 
Georgia Press, 1989. 



56 



Laurie, Murray D. "High Springs Opera House." Unpublished 
manuscript, 1989. 

Mann, Robert W. Rails 'Neath the Palms . Burbank, CA: Darwin 
Publications, 1983. 

McAlester, Virginia, and Lee McAlester. A Field Guide to American 
Houses . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986. 

Myers, 0. A., ed. Alachua County: Her Attractions, Features and 
Public Improvements . Gainesville, FL: Cannon and McCreary, 
1882. 

Pettengill, George W. , Jr. The Story of the Florida Railroads: 
1834-1903 . Boston: The Railway and Locomotive Historical 
Society, 1952 . 

Southern Pine Association. Homes for Workmen . New Orleans: 
Author, 1919. 

Tebeau, Charlton W. A History of Florida . Coral Gables, FL: 
University of Miami Press, 1971. 

Writers Program. Alachua County . Scrapbook in the collection 
of the P. K. Yonge Library, University of Florida, 
Gainesville, 1936. 



Maps 

Alachua County. ca 1900. Map #1296. P. K. Yonge Library 
collection. 

Alachua County. 1910. Map #1463. P. K. Yonge Library collection. 

Alachua County Historical Tour Series: Hague, Alachua, Lacrosse, 
Santa Fe, Traxler, High Springs. Alachua County 
Historical Society, 1986. 

High Springs. Sanborn Maps. New York, 1913, 1926 

High Springs. 1907. Hand drawn map belonging to Otto Kahlich. High 
Springs. 



Newspapers 
High Springs Herald . 1952-1967 
High Springs News . 1897-1898, 1900 
Gainesville Sun. 1903-1940 



58 



Official Documents 



Alachua County Courthouse, Office of Records, Plat Book A, pp. 4, 
6, 46, 50, 52. 

High Springs, City Council Minutes, 1913-1940 

High Springs, City Ordinances 

United States Census Records, Alachua County, 1840-1940 

Interviews -; • 

High Springs Mayor L. W."Bud" Register, 7 May 1990 

Mrs. Dondo (Janie) Underwood, 10 May 1990 

Mrs. Murray Crews, 10 May 1990 ' 

Mrs. Richard (Nan) McDowell, 10 May 1990 

Mrs. Geneva George, 28 March 1990 

Mr. Johnny Jordan, 16 March, 1990 

Mr. and Mrs. Otto Kahlich, 28 April 1990 

Mrs. Eunice McLeod, 18 May 1990 

Mrs. Lottie Summers, 18 May 1990 

Mrs. Lucille Westmoreland, 18 May 1990 

Mrs. Hattie Hill, 16 March 1990 

Mrs. Essie Gassett, 20 May 1990 



HIGH SPRINGS SURVEY 
FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILE LIST 



STREET ADDRESS 



5 & 15 N. Main St. 

10 N. Main St. 

20 N. Main St. 

25 N. Main St. 

30 N. Main St. 

35 N. Main St. 

40 & 42 N. Main St. 

35,45, 55 N. Main St, 

50 N. Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 
70 N. Main St. 
75 N. Main St. 
80 N. Main St. 

Main & 1st Ave. 



60 N. 
65 N. 



N 



205 N. Main St. 
215 N. Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 
Main St. 
S. Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St. 

Main St 

Main St. 
120 NE Railroad Ave. 
15 SE Railroad Ave. 
25 SE Railroad Ave. 
225 SE Railroad Ave. 
305 SE Railroad Ave. 
435 SE Railroad Ave, 
445 SE Railroad Ave, 
525 SE Railroad Ave, 
606 SE Railroad Ave. 
615 SE Railroad Ave, 



225 N 

230 N 

505 N 

515 N 

530 N 

5 S 

110 

115 

120 

205 

210 

214 

215 

310 

315 

320 

420 

430 

705 



CONSTRUCTION DATE 
(ca = approximate) 

ca 1906 
ca 1900 
ca 1900 
ca 1905 
ca 1920 
ca 1903 
ca 1922 
ca 1895 
ca 1898 
ca 1895 
ca 1896 
ca 1900 
ca 1905 
ca 1900 

1930 

1897 

1896 

1896 

1897 

1909 
ca 1920 
ca 1900 
ca 1898 
ca 1900 
ca 1898 
ca 1930 
ca 1912 
ca 1920 
ca 1912 
ca 1912 
ca 1897 
ca 1920 
ca 1920 
ca 1920 
ca 1907 
ca 1926 

1914 
ca 1898 
ca 1898 
ca 1900 
ca 1930 
ca 1920 

1902 
ca 1925 

1922 
ca 1897 



SIGNIFICANCE 



architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, 

architecture, 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, 

architecture 

architecture , 

architecture 



commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
commerce 
religion 



commerce 



commerce 
commerce 



religion 
religion 



60 



61 



725 SE Railroad Ave. 
805 SE Railroad Ave. 
905 SE Railroad Ave. 
15 NE 1st Ave. 

2 NE 1st Ave. 
25 NE 1st Ave. 
30 NE 1st Ave. 
130 NE 1st Ave. 
140 NE 1st Ave. 
210 NE 1st Ave. 
230 NE 1st Ave. 
310 NE 1st Ave. 
110 NE 2nd Ave. 
115 NE 2nd Ave. 
215 NE 2nd Ave. 
230 NE 2nd Ave. 
235 NE 2nd Ave. 
120 NE 1st St. 
125 NE 1st St. 
13 NE 1st St. 
215 NE 1st St. 
220 NE 1st St. 
225 NE 1st St. 
5 NW 1st Ave. 
10 NW 1st Ave. 

3 NW 1st Ave. 
35 NW 1st Ave. 

4 5 NW 1st Ave. 
55 NW 1st Ave. 

65 & 75 NW 1st Ave. 
85 NW 1st Ave. 
95 NW 1st Ave. 
99 NW 1st Ave. 
23 NW 1st Ave. 
305 NW 1st Ave. 
310 NW 1st Ave. 
330 NW 1st Ave. 
34 NW 1st Ave. 
410 NW 1st Ave. 
420 NW 1st Ave. 
430 NW 1st Ave. 
505 NW 1st Ave. 
510 NW 1st Ave. 
515 NW 1st Ave. 
525 NW 1st Ave. 
610 NW 1st Ave. 
62 NW 1st Ave. 
625 NW 1st Ave. 
630 NW 1st Ave. 
705 NW 1st Ave. 
720 NW 1st Ave. 
725 NW 1st Ave. 
805 NW 1st Ave. 
810 NW 1st Ave. 



ca 1922 

ca 1942 

ca 1925 

ca 1897 

ca 1895 

ca 1897 

ca 1899 

ca 1900 

1942 

ca 1923 

ca 1923 

ca 1915 

1915 

ca 1895 

ca 1928 

1897 

ca 1928 

ca 1910 

ca 1900 

ca 1895 

1924 

ca 1895 

ca 1928 

1925 

1925 

1925 

1925 

1925 

1938 

ca 1920 

ca 1920 

ca 1912 

ca 1900 

ca 1898 

ca 1896 

ca 1888 

1923 

ca 1919 

1896 

1922 

ca 1912 

1898 

ca 1930 

ca 1925 

ca 1898 

ca 1898 

ca 1910 

1897 

1899 

ca 1929 

ca 1897 

ca 1924 

ca 1914 

ca 1900 



architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture , 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture , 

architecture 

architecture, 

architecture 

architecture 



religion 



commerce 

commerce 

social 

commerce 

commerce 

commerce 

commerce 

commerce 

commerce 

commerce 

religion 



religion 



commerce 
commerce 



62 



815 NW 1st Ave. 
82 NW 1st Ave. 
835 NW 1st Ave. 
910-950 NW 1st Ave, 
925 NW 1st Ave. 
935 NW 1st Ave. 
970 NW 1st Ave. 
980 NW 1st Ave. 
1010 NW 1st Ave. 
1015 NW 1st Ave. 
1025 NW 1st Ave. 
1115 NW 1st Ave. 
1120 NW 1st Ave. 
1140 NW 1st Ave. 
1205 NW 1st Ave. 
1235 NW 1st Ave. 
1230 NW 1st Ave. 
1235 NW 1st Ave. 
1315 NW 1st Ave. 
1325 NW 1st Ave. 
1345 NW 1st Ave. 
1350 NW 1st Ave. 
1410 NW 1st Ave. 
1525 NW 1st Ave. 
1535 NW 1st Ave. 
1550 NW 1st Ave. 
1605 NW 1st Ave. 
1625 NW 1st Ave. 
230 NW 2nd Ave. 
310 NW 2nd Ave. 
315 NW 2nd Ave. 
320 NW 2nd Ave. 
330 NW 2nd Ave. 
335 NW 2nd Ave. 
420 NW 2nd Ave. 
425 NW 2nd Ave. 
520 NW 2nd Ave. 
530 Nw 2nd Ave. 
1205 NW 2nd Ave. 
515 NW 3rd Ave. 
620 NW 3rd Ave. 
20 NW 4th Ave. 
220 NW 4th Ave. 
605 NW 4th Ave. 
715 NW 4th Ave. 
730 NW 4th Ave. 
725 NW 4th Ave. 
805 NW 4th Ave. 
810 NW 4th Ave. 
710 NW 5th Ave. 
720 NW 5th Ave. 
15 NW 1st St. 

15 NW 2nd St. 



ca 1900 
ca 1900 
ca 1898 
ca 1922 
ca 1920 
ca 1926 
ca 1900 
ca 1900 
ca 1900 
ca 1925 
ca 1925 
ca 1923 
ca 1920 
ca 1929 
ca 1923 
ca 1920 

1933 
ca 1920 
ca 1920 
ca 1925 
ca 1924 
ca 1924 
ca 1922 
ca 1922 
ca 1922 
ca 1925 
ca 1939 
ca 1915 
ca 1923 
ca 1919 
ca 1920 
ca 1940 
ca 1899 
ca 1924 
ca 1930 
ca 1940 
ca 1928 
ca 1920 
ca 1910 
ca 1930 
ca 1930 
ca 1923 
ca 1923 

1937 
ca 1900 
ca 1928 
ca 1928 
ca 1935 
ca 1915 
ca 1928 
ca 1928 

1929 

ca 1936 



architecture 

architecture 

architecture, commerce 

architecture, commerce 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, religion 

architecture 

architecture, education 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, religion 

architecture, religion 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, 

entertainment 
architecture 



63 



20 NW 2 
105 NW 
130 NW 
140 NW 
230 NW 
305 NW 
-315 NW 
130 NW 
220 NW 
225 NW 
115 NW 
210 NW 
220 NW 
230 NW 
330 NW 
230 NW 
310 NW 
115 NW 
220 NW 
10 NW 7 
115 NW 
120 NW 
2 NW 8 
205 NE 
210 NW 
215 NW 
310 NW 
530 NW 
120 NW 
125 NW 
210 NW 
220 NW 
310 NW 
320 NW 
330 NW 
340 NW 
410 NW 
415 NW 
420 NW 
425 NW 
430 NW 
505 NW 
510 NW 
520 NW 
550 NW 
115 NW 
130 NW 
210 NW 
215 NW 
220 NW 
310 NW 
320 NW 
330 NW 
510 NW 



nd St. 
2nd St. 
2nd St. 
2nd St. 
2nd St. 
2nd St. 
2nd St. 
3rd St. 
3rd St. 
3rd St. 
4th St. 
4th St. 
4th St. 
4th St. 
4th St. 
5th St. 
5th St. 
6th St. 
6th St. 
th St. 
7th St. 
7th St. 
th St. 
8th St. 
8th St. 
8th St. 
8th St. 
8th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
9th St. 
10th St. 
10th St. 
10th St. 
10th St. 
10th St. 
10th St. 
10th St. 
10th St. 
10th St, 



ca 1929 
1896 
ca 1900 
ca 1935 
ca 1912 
ca 1935 
ca 1920 
ca 1925 
ca 1936 
ca 1925 
1922 
ca 1899 
ca 1922 
ca 1922 
ca 1922 
ca 1928 
ca 1920 
ca 1922 
ca 1926 
ca 1925 
ca 1923 
ca 1900 
ca 1930 
1923 
1924 
1923 
ca 1924 
ca 1924 
ca 1924 
ca 1910 
ca 1920 
ca 1915 
ca 1924 
ca 1924 
ca 1924 
ca 1924 
ca 1900 
ca 1900 
ca 1920 
ca 1925 
ca 1915 
ca 1923 
ca 1923 
ca 1920 
ca 1927 
ca 1925 
ca 1920 
ca 1910 
ca 1920 
ca 1925 
ca 1920 
ca 1932 
ca 1932 
ca 1926 



architecture, commerce 

architecture, religion 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture l 

architecture, industry 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 



64 



520 NW 10th St. 
520 NW 10th St. 
5 NW 13th St. 
15 NW 13th St. 
20 NW 13th St. 
30 NW 13th St. 
210 NW 13th St. 
230 NW 13th St. 
310 NW 13th St. 
120 NW 15th St. 
210 NW 15th St. 
230 NW 15th St. 
5 SE 1st Ave. 
310 SE 1st Ave. 
430 SE 1st Ave. 
520 SE 1st Ave. 
530 SE 1st Ave. 
25 SE 2nd Ave. 
105 SE 2nd Ave. 
115 SE 2nd Ave. 
215 SE 2nd Ave. 
15 SE 3rd Ave. 
2 5 SE 3rd Ave. 
30 SE 3rd Ave. 
35 SE 3rd Ave. 
45 SE 3rd Ave. 
10 SE 4th Ave. 
15 SE 4th Ave. 
25 SE 4th- Ave. 
105 SE 1st St. 
110 SE 1st St. 
115 SE 1st St. 
105 SE 3rd St. 
215 SE 3rd St. 
110 SE 4th St. 
10 SE 5th St. 
15 SE 5th St. 
105 SE 5th St. 
15 SW 1st Ave. 
105 SW 1st Ave, 
125 SW 1st Ave, 
225 SW 1st Ave, 
20 SW 2nd Ave. 
105 SW 2nd Ave, 
15 SW 3rd Ave. 
20 SW 3rd Ave. 
115 SW 3rd Ave, 
15 SW 6th Ave. 
10 SW 2nd PI. 
20 SW 1st St. 
4 SW 1st St. 
120 SE 1st St. 
220 SW 1st St. 
320 SW 1st St. 



ca 1930 
ca 1930 
ca 1915 
ca 1926 
ca 1912 
ca 1923 
ca 1938 
ca 1940 
ca 1920 
ca 1925 
ca 1938 
ca 1939 

1945 
ca 1925 

1899 
ca 1900 
ca 1923 
ca 1923 
ca 1923 
ca 1899 
ca 1920 
ca 1920 
ca 1920 
ca 1920 
ca 1925 
ca 1928 

1927 
ca 1922 
ca 1925 

1895 
ca 1899 
ca 1896 
ca 1900 
ca 1880 
ca 1920 
ca 1928 
ca 1928 
ca 1923 
ca 1900 
ca 1925 
ca 1925 
ca 1910 
ca 1889 
ca 1898 
ca 1925 
ca 1919 
ca 1910 
ca 1920 

1935 
ca 1920 
ca 1912 
ca 1912 
ca 1897 
ca 1916 



architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, commerce 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, religion 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture, industry 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 

architecture 



65 



ACL Depot, NW 9th St 19 00 

Freight Station, NW 9th St. 1900 

Elementary School 1928 

Dunagan Mill Site 

Central Park (Sinkhole) 

St. Madeleine Catholic Church 1925 



architecture , 

transportation 
architecture, 

transportation 
architecture , 

education 
industry, settlement 
local, landscape 
architecture, religion 



Alachua County 
Library District 

www.aclib.us