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ALACHUA CD. UBRAHY DISTRICT
TECTURAL AND HISTORICAL SURVEY
MURRAY D. LAURIE
h 9 9
ARCHITECTURAL AND HISTORICAL SURVEY
HIGH SPRINGS, FLORIDA
PREPARED FOR THE CITY OF HIGH SPRINGS
MURRAY D. LAURIE
This project was made possible by a $3,500 Survey and Planning
Grant from the Florida Department of State, Division of Historical
Resources, Bureau of Historic Preservation, awarded by the Florida
Preservation Advisory Council to the City of High Springs. The
City of High Springs matched the grant with a like amount in
additional funds and in-kind services.
City of High Springs
Mayors: Eldridge Wright, L. M. "Bud" Register
City Commissioners: Georgean Roberts i
Project Supervisor: Leonard Withey, City Manager, High Springs
High Springs Area Historical Society: President, Nan McDowell
High Springs Chamber of Commerce: President, Charlie Pults
Project Consultant: Murray D. Laurie
Photography: Bob Sharkey, High Springs Herald
The following citizens of High Springs contributed time and
valuable documentation to the survey of the historical and
architectural resources of High Springs, which could not have been
completed without their gracious participation. Many others also
gave helpful insights and information about High Springs and its
history, and their help is gratefully acknowledged.
Al Audette Sunshine Berry Murray Crews
Barbara Dorsey Betty Downing Patricia Garretson
Essie Gassett Geneva George Holly Harden
Hattie Hill Johnny Jordan Mai Neel Kahlich
Otto Kahlich Nan McDowell Eunice McLeod
Bud Register Georgean Roberts Martha Roberts
Bob Sharkey Lottie Summers Janie Underwood
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Historiography "-,.. ... 3
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF HIGH SPRINGS 5
Physical Setting 5
History and Development of High Springs '. . 7
Pre-History and First European Contacts 7
Territorial Period: 1820s-l840s 7
The Railroad Era Begins: 1880s . 9
The Railroad Center 10
The Great Storm of 1896 11
The Boom Years: 1920s 15
The Great Depression: 1930s 18
After World War II 22
THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT OF HIGH SPRINGS 2 3
Early Architectural Influences 2 3
Commercial Buildings 2 3
Residential Buildings 28
The Churches of High Springs 4
SURVEY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 50
Further Recommendations 52
SITE MAP 59
LIST OF SITES 60
The National Historic Preservation Act was passed by the
United States Congress in 1966, an indication of the nation's
emerging recognition of the value and importance of historically-
significant sites. The Act established the National Register of
Historic Places and provided for the designation of a State
Historic Preservation Officer within each state who would be
responsible for the identification of statewide historic,
architectural, archaeological, and cultural resources. Review
Boards were created by each state and charged with "reviewing
National Register nominations. In Florida the Division of
Historic Preservation in the Department of State serves as staff
for the State Historic Preservation Officer, administers the
National Register program, distributes federal and state grants-
in-aid for preservation projects, and performs other duties
associated with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966
and subsequent supplementary federal and state preservation
In order to evaluate potential National Register sites and
to plan for their preservation, the Division of Historic
Preservation has developed the Florida Master Site File. The
File is a compilation of historical and graphic data relevant to
sites in Florida. It is used as a planning tool for the
assessment of sites affected by state and federally funded
projects over which DHP has powers of review. The File is also a
local planning tool in that designated sites may be included in
the preservation element of comprehensive and growth management
The City of High Springs recognizes that preserving the
cultural resources of the community is important. The City has
determined that a professionally compiled and documented
inventory of cultural and historical resources is necessary if
preservation decisions are to be based on reliable data. At
present, no comprehensive inventory exists of historic,
architectural, and archaeological sites in High Springs. These
sites should not be selected on the basis of arbitrary decisions,
but on established criteria and documentation. Those responsible
for long-range planning activities may utilize the inventory to
identify sites and/or districts requiring protection from future
The City of High Springs received a preservation planning
grant-in-aid from the Division of Historic Preservation,
Department of State, in 1990 to conduct an architectural and
historical survey of High Springs and to prepare a historic
district nomination to the National Register of Historic Places.
The City chose a historic preservation consultant with a graduate
degree in history to conduct the survey and to prepare the
nomination. Members of the High Springs Historical Society and
the Chamber of Commerce volunteered to assist the consultant in
compiling historical background, recording architectural
information, and photographing sites.
The application for the planning and survey grant-in-aid
noted that the City of High Springs was an important regional
center for the railroad industry in the late nineteenth century
and the early decades of the twentieth century. The Plant System
built a major shop in the 1890s, and these facilities were
expanded in the 1920s by the Atlantic Coast Line railroad. Most
of the townspeople were associated with the railroad in some
fashion, either as employees or beneficiaries of the income
generated by railroad activities. It was estimated that as many
as 250 structures built between 1895 and 1940, the period of
historical significance associated with the railroad's importance
in High Springs, still remain, relatively unchanged over time.
Matching funds for the grant-in-aid were provided by the
City of High Springs. In addition to recognizing the importance
of preserving the unique built environment of High Springs for
cultural, historical, and aesthetic reasons, the City Commission
also wished to promote economic development. By encouraging
building owners to retain and restore the original appearance of
their properties, the unique character of this diversified small
community is emphasized. Existing housing is affordable and
should be viewed as a valuable asset deserving primary care and
preservation. Revitalization of the turn-of-the-century downtown
district is a high priority; it is becoming a center for antique
shoppers and outdoor recreation enthusiasts. Visitors and
tourists who appreciate these attractions are also drawn to
authentic historic districts and landscapes. High Springs plans
to build its future by preserving its small town values and its
historical heritage as an important railroad center.
The survey began in March and continued over a period of
five months. The consultant compiled a bibliography of materials
pertaining to the history of High Springs by researching the
collections of libraries in High Springs, in Gainesville, and at
the University of Florida. Residents of High Springs helped
locate other materials and provided important background
information in oral interviews. A chronology of events was
prepared, and individuals significant in the history of High
Springs were identified. A preliminary narrative was prepared to
support the field study and to provide a context for evaluating
the significance of individual properties.
Volunteers assisted the consultant with a block-by-block
identification of sites thought to have potential significance.
Although the survey was concentrated within the City of High
Springs, several sites in the adjacent area were also
Workshops were held to discuss architectural styles and
features and to share historical information on individual
structures. As a general rule, only buildings constructed before
1940 were considered to be significant. The survey recorded all
structures within the proposed district, contributing and
noncontributing, but Florida Master Site File forms were prepared
only for those which contributed historical and/or architectural
significance. The consultant prepared the forms, attaching a
photograph and a map to each.
Approximately 280 sites were recorded on FMSF forms, most of
them buildings. Not all will be included in the historic
district. The amount of information available for each site
varied considerably. In some cases, documentation suffered from
a lack of specific historical background; in other cases, a great
deal of information was located.
One of the most valuable resources is the High Springs: A
Photo Album , a compilation of historic photographs with
commentary prepared by Joel Glenn in 1984. Although not an in-
depth history of High Springs, it nevertheless contains much
information which was helpful in the survey. Only a few issues
of early copies of the High Springs newspapers have been located,
but the High Springs Herald , which began publication in 1952,
occasionally printed interviews with pioneer residents and
special features on local history. Brief descriptions of High
Springs were found in various publications about Alachua County.
Some records were available in the High Springs City Hall,
including minutes of early city council meetings, ordinances, and
the like. Records of building permits for the structures
considered in the survey were not available, but 1913 and 1926
Sanborn maps of High Springs confirmed tentative dates of
construction for many buildings.
General sources on Florida history and the impact of
railroads on the state were consulted. Lack of access to records
of the Plant System, absorbed into the Seaboard Air.. Line Railroad
and later into the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad (now CSX) ,
necessitated use of many secondary sources which were somewhat
fragmentary. Gainesville newspapers and miscellaneous
periodicals provided some background on this important aspect of
the history of High Springs.
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF HIGH SPRINGS
High Springs is located in the northwest corner of Alachua
County, twenty-two miles from Gainesville, the county seat. The
surrounding countryside is characterized by low, rolling hills,
and the city is situated close to a bend in the Santa Fe River.
[See Figure 1] There are a number of natural springs in the
vicinity and sinkholes abound within the city limits.. The spring
that gives High Springs its name is located at the top of a hill
a mile northeast of the current center of town, in what is now a
pleasant residential suburb. Its steady flow of water attracted
settlers in the latter part of the nineteenth century and the
first group of buildings — a school, a few stores, and several
homes — was built here. The railroad tapped this spring and
diverted its flow, via a long pipe, to the site chosen for the
railroad shops. The settlement soon shifted down the hill to
cluster around the railroad yards and tracks.
Springs attracted prehistoric peoples also, and evidence of
their settlements has been found. The major springs located on
the Santa Fe River, notably Poe Springs and Columbia Springs,
became the focus of recreational, social, and real estate
development activities as High Springs grew. These springs and
the Santa Fe River are still important assets to the community
and attract many visitors.
High Springs is surrounded by fertile farm lands and is an
important agricultural center. Cotton, peanuts, and tobacco, as
well as general farming and stock raising, have been important
aspects of the local economy.
Mineral resources are also abundant in the vicinity. When
the Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad laid track to the area
in the 1880s, the first product shipped to Jacksonville was stone
used to build jetties at the mouth of the St. Johns River.
Shortly afterwards, phosphate was discovered, and a number of
mines were established in the surrounding countryside. The rock,
which was processed into fertilizer, was shipped to the port in
Jacksonville. This continued as an important industry until
World War I intervened and cut off the most important customer,
Germany. Rock is still mined in the area, mostly for
U City of High Springs
Figure 1. Location of Survey Area
A few warehouses and a plastic pipe manufacturing plant are
on the outskirts of High Springs. Within the city, commercial,
business, and retail zones are concentrated along three major
thoroughfares: Santa Fe Boulevard (US 441) , Main Street (County
Road 236) and 1st Avenue (County Road 20) . Four residential
segments in the city were considered in this survey, the largest
being in the northwest. Because the town is laid out in
reference to the railroad tracks, the numbered streets and
avenues do not run north and south, east and west, but rather on
a diagonal to the compass coordinates. [see Figures 1 & 2]
History and Development of High Springs *
Pre-historv and First European Contacts
There is conclusive evidence that, long before the first
European contacts in the sixteenth century, hunting and gathering
Indians roamed the vicinity and had substantial settlements in
the area. Archaeological investigations of the Hornsby Springs
site uncovered indications of lithic workshops, and many stone
artifacts have been found by collectors. 1 Spanish explorers
passed near the present site of High Springs in 1539, and after
the establishment of St. Augustine in 1565, missions were built.
Fransciscan friars converted the inhabitants of an Indian village
not far from the present site of High Springs, built a church,
and supervised the raising of crops and cattle during the
seventeenth century. 2
Territorial Period: 1820s-1840s
When Florida became a territory of the United States in the
1820s, the Bellamy Road linking St. Augustine and Pensacola
passed just north of High Springs, crossing over the Santa Fe
River at the natural land bridge (now within the O'Leno State
Park) . This early transportation corridor opened the area to
American settlers in the 1830s. 3
However, Indian raids discouraged these newcomers. When the
Seminole Wars were over and the Armed Occupation Act passed in
1842, settlers flocked in to claim and work the rich agricultural
land, particularly cotton planters and farmers from Georgia and
South Carolina. They registered their claims at nearby
Newnansville, the seat of Alachua County until the 18 50s, when
the courthouse was shifted twenty miles southeast to the new town
T TT r.A.e^-tiilmCl»rK.
Plat Maps prior to the
name of High Springs
top: G.E.Foster property in
bottom: Mrs. C.E. Moore's property in
Santa Fe , 1 8 55
of Gainesville when the cross-Florida railroad was routed
The Underwoods are believed to be the earliest settlers in
the High Springs area. The 184 census enumerated Fernando
Arrodondo Underwood of South Carolina, his wife Mary, their
children and four slaves. Although the earliest records date the
Underwoods' purchase of land at Crockett Springs just north of
what is now High Springs as 1847, they must have arrived several
years earlier. Builders as well as farmers, the Underwood
family has made, and continues to make, significant contributions
to the growth and improvement of the community. 5
High Springs had several names, which causes confusion when
consulting nineteenth century descriptions, maps, and
gazetteers. According to Post Office records the first "name that
appears is Santaffey, sometimes spelled Santa Fe, but in 1885,
according to a plat recorded in the Alachua County Courthouse, it
was renamed Fairmount. [see Figure 2] It was known as Orion for
a few years, but officially became High Springs in 1886, named
for the free-flowing spring on the hill just north of the present
city. It was incorporated in 1892. 6
By 1883 a few homes and stores had been built on the hill,
and that year the Baptists built the first church, a small
windowless structure which was replaced by a larger one four
years later. Ashley wrote in 1888 that Orion had a population
of 150 with four general stores, a cotton gin, two churches, a
school and a hotel. 7
The Railroad Era Begins: 1880s
However, it was the expansion of railroads into this section
of Florida that set off the real population explosion which would
project High Springs into the position of number two city in
Alachua County, second only to the county seat of Gainesville in
population by 1898.
Three main factors made the extension of rail lines to this
part of Florida inevitable: phosphate was discovered in the area
in 1889, there were tremendous timber resources to be exploited
in the virgin pine lands and cypress swamps, and High Springs was
on a direct line with the proposed route of the Plant System
which would come to dominate transportation in the western part
of the peninsula.
By 1898 there were nearly fifty phosphate mines in Alachua
County, most of them between Newberry, sixteen miles to the
south, and High Springs. Hundreds of thousands of tons of
phosphate were dug (much of it in backbreaking pick-and-shovel
work by convict labor) , crushed and washed, and loaded on
railroad cars bound for the port in Jacksonville. Even before
phosphate was discovered to be a valuable mineral when used as a
fertilizer, short railroad lines were laid out to the quarries to
mine rock to build jetties in Jacksonville, Fernandina, and
The Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad was the first
line to reach High Springs in 1884, but several other lines soon
converged at this site. High Springs became an important
junction for the Plant System. The town's immediate future was
assured when it was chosen as division headquarters in 1895. By
1898 the population had risen to 2,000, and High Springs was
regarded as an important commercial center, flourishing, as one
newspaper article expressed it, "like the green bay tree." 9
The newly incorporated town wrestled with a "lawless
element" which was variously described as a nuisance and as a
menace. The reputation of High Springs as a rough, crime-ridden
town persisted for decades, supported by newspaper articles (the
local press supported temperance and targeted the saloons for
their "corrupting influence"). 10 In spite of this, business was
brisk for High Springs merchants, and many built substantial
establishments, some of brick. The reliable railroad payrolls,"
$8,000 monthly, formed a solid economic base for the commercial
growth of High Springs. In addition to several general stores,
opera houses, hotels and boarding houses, saloons and
restaurants, grocery and butcher shops, bakeries, and drug stores
The Railroad Center
Ground was broken in 1896 for the Plant System shops,
roundhouse, offices, and district hospital which were to make
High Springs a leading railroad service center. The South
Florida tracks were extended into the town and hundreds of
workers converged on High Springs. In the shops steam engines
and cars were inspected and cleaned, overhauled and repaired.
The two-story frame hospital was described as "large and
commodious and . . . fitted up with all the equipment of modern
hospitals." A contemporary report estimated that the Plant
System spent over $150,000 between 1896 and 1898 on these
i improvements . 12
Naturally, with all this commercial and industrial
development, residential real estate grew apace. The city was
platted in the 188 0s, aligning the streets and avenues on a grid
diagonal to the normal north-south orientation to accommodate the
railroad tracks which sliced through the town. 13 With sawmills
in steady operation, houses of heart pine were built, most of
modest size and simple style, but some of more elaborate
Like most towns, the commercial district of High Springs
experienced several fires that destroyed wood frame stores which
tended to cluster together and to contain incendiary materials of
all kinds. 15 Fire fighting consisted of bucket brigades, and
flames quickly leaped from one pine building to the next (whereas
house fires were usually confined to the cookhouse or to the
detached frame home) . These fires were blessings in disguise as
the stores were rebuilt in fireproof brick. These are the
commercial buildings that have survived in High Springs, and many
of them were already built by the turn of the century. 16
Whereas most of the scattered frame nonresidential structures
that show on early maps were moved, burned or demolished, the
brick stores remain on Main Street and near the depot on NW 9th
Street, to form business districts which are clearly distinct
from the residential neighborhoods. 17
In addition to the burgeoning phosphate, lumbering, and
railroad enterprises, cotton continued to be an important crop,
and a cotton gin and a brick cotton repository were built near
the tracks. As a cotton market, High Springs processed over 500
bales in 1898. 18
The Great Storm of 1896
A natural disaster occurred in 1896 which is still remarked
on today. A tornado with very high winds virtually blew the town
down on September 29, demolishing many stores, homes, and
churches. 1 ' It is a tribute to the optimism and hardy spirits of
the townspeople (and probably to the money already invested by
the railroad company) that the town was rebuilt immediately.
Today people can still date certain buildings as having survived
the storm or as having been built to replace one that was
destroyed. [see Figure 3]
A two-story brick school with an impressive bell tower was
built in the heart of town in 1902, replacing the original frame
one which opened in 1886 on High Springs Hill. This fine school
was taken down when a larger high school was erected in 1917 (the
football team was called the Sandspurs) . 20 This school closed
Figure 3. top: 220 NE 1st St., built before 1896 storm
bottom: High Springs Elementary School (1924)
in the 1950s when Santa Fe High School was built near Alachua.
The current building, used until recently as an elementary
school, was built in the 1928, and the 1917 school building was
demolished. High Springs Elementary School, now abandoned on its
lot behind the City Hall, was replaced by a new facility north of
town, [see Figure 3]
As a railroad center, High Springs had many of the
advantages of a larger city. In addition to good schools, fine
churches, and a hospital, the Opera House regularly booked
touring theatrical companies who played to full houses. In 1902
the Plant System became the Atlantic Coast Line, securely
established by Henry B. Plant as one of Florida's most successful
and stable railroads. A glance at census records reveals that
most of the men were employed at railroad related work. 21
Astute local investors organized the High Springs Electrical
Ice Manufacturing Company in 1903 to supply ice to preserve
fruits and vegetable for shipment, and the Bank of High Springs
was organized in the same year. The cotton repository lent
$10,000 on stored cotton." [see Figure 4]
Other businesses that flourished in the early twentieth
century included a furniture manufacturer, a millinery
establishment, a jewelry store (the watchmaker kept the
timepieces of the railroad men in good working order) , the High
Springs Hotel with fifteen nicely furnished rooms, a newspaper,
and a number of brick and frame general stores. Opportunities in
real estate were not lacking: several businessmen advertised
lots and farmland for sale, and offered to construct homes and
businesses for sale or rent. In 1913 the city council voted to
build a water and electric plant and to grade and pave some of
the streets. 23
The railroad provided job opportunities for African-
Americans, and many who had originally been farmers and phosphate
workers moved to town to work for the railroad. The first
families settled in the southeast part of High Springs. Although
the railroad provided some housing and commissaries for the
section hands and shop workers, a number of African-American
k:arpenters built homes in the area. The red brick African
v- ' ~&&tr*-^''*Z&
Figure 4. top: Barnett Bank, formerly High Springs Bank
bottom: Atlantic Ice Plant (ca 1925) replaced
original ice plant
Methodist Episcopal Allen Chapel and the rusticated block Mt.
Olive Missionary Baptist Church were built early in the century
and stand today as a testament to the stability and quality of
the community. Douglass High School, now demolished, was an
important institution, and there were many business
establishments in this area. Later, African-Americans also
settled in the far northwest area, closer to the shops and depot,
and established churches, homes, and businesses. 24 [see Figures
5 & 6]
The phosphate boom slowed and completely ended when World
War I blocked shipments to Germany, the primary customer for the
mineral. However, railroad jobs remained a steady source of
income, despite several strikes in the 1920s. The ACL shops
were the life and heart of the town in the 1920s, occupying over
fifty acres of ground, including the various tracks leading to
and from High Springs. The payroll had grown by 1925 to $65,000
and 3 00-4 00 men were employed. 5
The Boom Years: 1920s
Tourism, animated by booming land sales all over Florida and
two new highways built through High Springs (Tamiami Trail
leading south, and Dixie Highway swinging to the east) , became a
new economic factor in the 1920s. The natural, scenic
attractions and the beautiful springs that feed the Santa Fe
River became more than just pleasant places for local folk to
picnic and relax. The Riverview Hotel was built on the river
across from Columbia Springs, and efforts were made to encourage
some the thousands of motorists passing through from northern
states and the eastern seaboard to stay longer and perhaps
purchase a few lots in the new Hamilton Estates north of the
Highways of asphalt and crushed stone replaced sandy, dusty
roads, and a bridge was built over the Santa Fe River to Columbia
County. Garages, machine shops, and filling stations catered to
the motoring public, and several soda bottling plants were set
up. The Telephone Exchange was the pride of the town, and each
merchant mentioned his telephone number rather than his address
in advertisements. Stores made home deliveries, and goods and
services were only a phone call away. 27
As the railroad expanded its operations after World War I
and added more workers, many new homes appeared in the
residential areas of High Springs, adding the up-to-date
Icalifornia styling of the bungalow to the pleasant, shaded
Figure 5. top: Allen Chapel A.H.E. (1902)
bottom: Mt. Olive Missionary Baptist Church
— r * -T* *- N '
^l _i«^--^ .-»-*.*
Figure 6. top: 615 SE Railroad Avenue (1897)
bottom: Mt. Carmel United Methodist Church
streets. The Women's Club built a handsome new clubhouse in
1925 on land donated by James Paul, a railroad executive, who
also gave the city land for a park, [see figure 7] Businesses
flourished near the passenger and freight depots at the foot of
tfW 9th Street, and new stores and shops were built on Main
Street, [see Figure 8]
In 1928 a new roundhouse was installed at a cost of
$200,000, and the ACL shop was modernized to handle even more
rolling stock. High Springs was a coaling station, where the
benders that accompanied each engine were loaded with coal and
rfater. Water, piped down to the yards from the spring on the
lill north of town at first, later pumped from a well dug on
site, was stored in massive cedar water tanks. 28
jThe Great Depression: 1930s
The Depression slowed the economy in High Springs as
slsewhere in the 1930s, but the railroad shops remained open, and
the community was not heavily involved in the real estate boom
and bust cycle which so devastated other sections of Florida.
High Spring's population remained more or less constant, around
2,000. The Alabama Hotel and the New Florida catered to
travelers and railroad people in the 1930s, and the Priest and
Capital theater showed the latest films. A sawmill, cotton gin,
and grist mill continued to operate, for High Springs was an
important agricultural center where the seed and feed store was
as vital as the filling station and car dealer, [see Figure 9]
The importance of the railroad to High Springs dwindled as
diesel engines replaced steam engines. The shops in High Springs
were designed to repair and service steam locomotives, and many
more steam locomotives were needed, sometimes as many as three to
haul a long line of cars. One diesel could do the work of
several steam engines and needed far less maintenance. By the end
of World War II diesel engines had all but supplanted steam.
Although the High Springs yards and shops did not close
overnight, the work they did and the number of men they employed
steadily declined. 29 Gradually all of the railroad buildings,
with the exception of two small depots, were removed or torn down
by the company, leaving a vast open field still crossed with
"racks on which spare freight cars are stored.
Figure 7. top: New Century Women's Club (1925)
bottom: City Park
Figure 8. top: ACL passenger depot (ca 1900)
bottom: ACL freight depot (ca 1900)
Figure 9. top^New Florida Hotel, 835 NW 1st Avenue (ca
bottom: Priest Theater, 15 NW 1st street (1929)
A peanut shelling plant was constructed in High Springs in
the mid-1930s, and tobacco warehouses were built in the 1950s to
take advantage of the agricultural products in the area, but
these enterprises did not replace the number of jobs that had
been available at the train shops.
After World War II
High Springs enjoyed a mild period of expansion after World
War II when US 441 was built north of the center of town.
Motels catered to motorists, and businesses and stores expanded
on this new commercial corridor. 30 Because of this, the
original downtown and residential areas were shielded from the
impact of heavy traffic, the intrusion of buildings out of scale
and character with the existing structures, and pressure to widen
the tree-shaded streets and avenues. [see Figure 10]
The business district of High Springs was spared further
traffic, much to the dismay of merchants, when Interstate 75 was
built about six miles to the east in the 1960s, drawing ,
southbound tourists away from the city. High Springs remained a
quiet, well-mannered, church-going residential community,
evolving in the past decade into a center for antique collectors
and outdoor enthusiasts.
THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT OF HIGH SPRINGS
Although High Springs has several buildings that could be
termed "high style, " most are honest vernacular expressions of
traditional forms which changed gradually over time. An
alternative to architectural labeling such as Queen Anne,
Colonial, or Victorian, is to look at the shape of the buildings,
their massing, and roof line, rather than surface details, and to
group the various types of buildings under the general headings
of residences, commercial buildings, and churches. Only three
structures within the survey area could be termed industrial: the
peanut mill, the ice plant, and the old oil depot, all no longer
in use. Two small frame depots at the foot of NE 9th Street are
all that survive of the extensive railroad complex, [see Figure
8] Noncontributing buildings, those constructed after 1940 or
greatly altered, are similar in scale, massing, and placement to
the 275 contributing buildings in the survey area.
Early Architectural Influences
Although early settlers must have first erected log cabins,
none of these have survived. The survey area was settled after
1890, so all structures are the product of building technology
spread by the railroads. 31 Most physical evidence is of wood
framing and siding produced of the local yellow pine in the
sawmills, such as those established on the banks of the Santa Fe
River by Abner Dunagan in 1895. 32 At least two houses in town
(the Lamb and McLeod houses) were built on High Springs Hill,
site of the original settlement, and later moved into the new
town, [see Figure 11] One or two others may have been built
before milled lumber was available and may have handhewn timbers,
but this cannot be verified. None of the original stores or
churches have survived.
It has been pointed out that fires destroyed many of the
earlier frame stores and businesses. The commercial
establishments built late in the nineteenth century and early in
the twentieth century that have survived are remarkably similar.
They consist of one- or two-story brick or concrete buildings
with flat roofs, long and rectilinear, often sharing a party
wall. They line either side of Main Street and one side of NW 1st
Avenue north of Main street, with a half-block section on Nw 1st
Avenue at 9th Street, [see Figures 12 & 13] Some, such as the
Figure 10. top: NW 1st Avenue shops between Main and 1st Street
bottom: typical residential street
Figure 11. top: Lamb House, 310 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1898)
bottom: McLeod House, 20 NE 1st Avenue (ca 1898)
top: east side of North Main Street stores
bottom: west side of North Main Street stores
Figure 13. top: stores on NW 1st Avenue at 9th Street
bottom: stores on NW 1st Avenue at 1st Street
Dpera House, bear very close resemblance to their original
appearance; 33 others have had extensive alterations to the
front facade. Sanborn maps drawn in 1913 and 192 6 show the
continuity of use and configuration for most of the buildings in
the main business district.
Brickwork on the oldest stores is most elaborate, such as
the fine Romanesque arches on the Opera House, for the taste of
the late Victorian era approved of variety and ornamentation.
Buildings added in the 1920s and 1930s are similar in shape and
function, but simpler and more streamlined as to surface
Bmbellishment. An interesting feature of Main Street is the
availability of parking in front of the stores, a cherished
convenience made possible by the width of the street. Early
nerchants recognized the importance of taking the transportation
needs of their patrons into consideration: a well and an ample
supply of hitching posts can be seen in historic photos. 35
A twentieth-century innovation was the filling station, [see
Figure 14] The first gasoline pump was installed in front of the
Dpera House, 36 but this proved to be impractical, if not highly
Jangerous. Four of the filling stations built in the 1920s and
L930s have survived, but no longer serve their original function.
Jnlike the stores, they stand alone surrounded by aprons of
concrete. The convenience store of today has gone back to the
original concept and combined shopping with dispensing gasoline.
Although High Springs is a "company town," it appears that the
railroad did not set out to build homes or facilities for its
employees on any extensive scale, as was done in some mining and
nill towns. 37 Local contractors built many small homes to rent
cr sell, and a number of apartment houses and boarding houses
accommodated railroad men, such as the Renfro Apartments, The New
Florida Hotel, and the Rimes boarding house. There was a housing
shortage during World War I, and a resultant flurry of building
In the 1920s as the shops expanded, [see Figure 15]
Fi9ure 14 - top LSueT=^ 9 ^r ion ' ~ »• m *« - 1«
Figure 15. top: Rimes House, 63 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1898)
bottom: Renfro Apartments, 115 S. Main Street
Homes face the street, usually aligned along a fairly common
setback, most sited in the center of the lot. The original plats
of High Springs divided blocks into four or six lots, and this
arrangement has determined the traditional spacing in most
According to historic photographs, the first houses were
roofed with cypress shingles, most likely produced by Dunagan's
shingle mill. These have been replaced by more durable, fire
resistant sheet metal roofing, asbestos shingles, or composition
shingles. Like wood frame houses throughout the South, those in
iigh Springs were built up on brick piers, many of which are
still in place. Balloon framing with horizontal drop siding was
che more prevalent construction approach, with an occasional use
of board and batten siding. Asbestos shingles have been .applied
Dver the original siding in almost half of the older homes.
Turn-of-the-century homes, all of which are wood frame in
-ligh Springs, tend to be irregularly massed dwellings, T-shaped,
L-shaped, or crossplan, or a composite, [see Figure 16]
Approximately half of the houses surveyed fall within this
general category. Gable roofs are most prevalent, but a few hip
roofs or combination of hip and gable are seen. Advances in
nilling and wood working machinery vastly increased the
availability and variety of mass-produced building supplies. 39
rhe more elaborate homes such as the Godwin, Pfifer, Easterlin,
and Cole houses exhibit the most freedom of expression, [see
Figures 17 & 18] There was a great movement throughout the
country in the late nineteenth century in favor of highly
individualized, picturesque dwellings, in contrast to the more
formal, symmetrical plans of the colonial era in New England and
bhe classic revival forms prevalent in the southern states. 40
Some of these earlier forms can be seen in High Springs in the
Stroble house on SE 3rd Street and the Markey house on SE 1st
Street, [see Figure 19]
The middle class had a wide range of plans to choose from,
and builders could offer an endless variety of porches,
oalconies, towers, window treatments, and the like. Fancy cut
shingles were applied to gable ends, and rambling porches became
status symbols with lavish turned and sawcut railings and posts,
rhe interior of these homes also expressed a change in lifestyle,
tfith flowing arrangement of space; more room for leisure
activities; large windows to admit light and air; and the
innovations of central heating, indoor plumbing, and modern
kitchen equipment. 41 Most in High Springs are one-story; less
than twenty two-story houses remain.
Figure 16. top: 720 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1897)
bottom: 210 NW 4th Street (ca 1899)
Figure 17. top: Godwin House, 30 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1899)
bottom: Cole House, 525 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1898)
Figure 18. top: Easterlin House, 410 NW 1st Avenue (ca
bottom: Phifer House, 215 S. Main Street (ca
Figure 19. top: Markey House, 105 SE 1st Street (ca 1895
bottom: Stroble House, 215 SE 3rd Street fca '
Older homes were modified and enlarged with wings and
extensions, and many a simple single or double pen cottage has
been completely enveloped with additions, not only to accommodate
a growing family, but to express what some would call a revolt
against the monotony of the square colonial box. 42 There are
many transitional vernacular homes in High Springs which
exemplify these national patterns.
The years before and after World War I saw a noticeable
change in perceptions of housing, as the low-slung, easy to
build, and enormously popular bungalow style swept the country.
Once a term applied to vacation cottages in India, the bungalow
became the favored middle class dwelling in the United States.
The bungalow was characterized by its large, simple roof, which
often covered the broad porch as well as the house, and was
usually one-story, with an informal and convenient interior
layout. It was efficient and economical, and particularly
widespread in warmer climates such as California and Florida/ 3
There are over sixty bungalows in High Springs, some with fine
detailing such as the Tyre and O'Steen houses, [see Figure 20 &
21] The low silhouette, with extended eaves, expressed a modern
look in the 1920s, a marked contrast to the older homes with
steep and irregular roof lines. The massive porch columns of the
bungalow were distinctively different from the slender, shapely
porch railings, columns, and gingerbread trim of the Victorian
era, as can be seen on NW 1st Avenue in the Hester Apartments,
the only two-story bungalow-style building in High Springs, and
the adjacent Easterlin house built in 1896. [see Figures 18 & 22]
Some older homes were "modernized" by adding bungalow-style
porches with heavy tapered columns set on square pedestals.
While most of the bungalows in High Springs are wood frame,
fifteen are of concrete block. This popular building material,
composed of a mixture of water, sand, fine stone and Portland
cement, was promoted in the 1920s and 1930s, particularly for the
owner-builder, who could buy the equipment and mold blocks with
any texture and design he wished right in his own back yard.
Rough cut stone is the most common pattern seen in High Springs,
but a few homes are built of a smooth pebble face, and
occasionally a paneled face is seen. 44 [see Figures 21 & 22]
Several churches are also of molded concrete blocks, Mt. Olive
and Mt. Carmel, made by the members of the congregation, [see
Figures 5 & 6]
Figure 20. top: Tyre House, 120 S. Main Street (ca 1930)
bottom: O'Steen House, 805 NW 1st Avenue (ca
Figure 21. top: 320 NW 9th Street (ca 1924)
bottom: 23 NW 2nd Avenue (ca 1923)
Figure 22. top: 215 NW 8th Street (ca 1923)
bottom: Hester Apartments, 42 NW 1st Avenue (ca
In the 1930s the picturesque Revival styles became popular,
with Gothic, Early American, Tudor, and Greek Revival elements
applied, often in startling combinations, to the basic house
plans of earlier periods. Only a handful of new homes built in
High Springs were influenced by the Revival fashion, but examples
can be seen at 606 NW 4th Avenue and 140 NW 2nd Street, [see
Figure 23] Much more common was the remodeling and enlarging of
existing houses as modern kitchens and bathrooms were added,
porches were screened and enclosed, dormers opened up attic
space, and wings extended to the sides and rear, [see Figure 2 4 &
No one section or neighborhood in High Springs contains a
concentration of any one type of house. More of the larger homes
face the main streets, perhaps because those lots were once
considered more desirable and thus were owned by more affluent
families. Although stores and filling stations alternate with
residences on some blocks on Main Street and 1st Avenue, most
neighborhoods are composed of single family, detached houses set
back from tree-shaded streets on fairly large lots.
Noncontributing houses are similar in scale, massing, and site
placing, [see Figure 26]
The Churches of High Springs
Church membership has played an important role in High
Springs since its founding. One of the first buildings to be
'erected was the Baptist church.'' 5 Other denominations soon
followed, each constructing a proper church for its growing
The eleven churches included in the survey were all built
after the great storm of Setember 1896, which demolished all the
churches as well as other buildings in High Springs. St.
Bartholomew's Episcopal Church was rebuilt soon after by railroad
men on their free time, reportedly of pine struck down during the
storm. The Carpenter Gothic style resembles many in Florida
based on the designs of New York architect Richard Upjohn, who
popularized this style. It may be that the men, many of whom had
previously been stationed in Palatka where two Carpenter Gothic
Episcopal churches had been built, brought the plans with them
for the elegantly simple board and batten church with its slender
Gothic windows. St. Madeleine Catholic Church built in 1924 is
also based on the front gable plan with lancet windows on either
side. It has been moved from its former location within the town
to the new church site on US 441. The simplest expression of the
gable front church is the former Sanctified Church on NW 1st
Avenue and 16th Street, now the Church of God by Faith, [see
Figures 27 & 28]
The Presbyterian church on North Main Street was rebuilt
after the storm of 1896 and is characterized by rounded
jRomanesque windows and a stately bell tower and entry porch set
Figure 23. top: 605 NW 4th Avenue (ca 1937)
bottom: 14 NW 2nd Street (ca 1935)
Figure 24. top: 25 NW 1st Avenue (ca 1897)
bottom: 20 NW 4th Avenue (ca 1923)
Figure 25. top: 110 SW 4th Street (ca 1920)
bottom: 45 SW 3rd Avenue (ca 19 28)
top: noncontributing residence
bottom: noncontributing residence
Figure 27. top: St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church (1896)
bottom: St. Madeleine Catholic Church (1925)
at a diagonal to the gable front. The original wo
been faced with light colored brick. The Methodi
1st Avenue was also rebuilt after the storm, a fro
church with a corner bell tower. After a fire in
was rebuilt again of red brick with handsome Gothi
stained glass. It is now the Seventh Day Adventist
the street the Nazarene church, built in the 1930s
same pattern of gable front with a square tower to
with simple rectangular windows. It is now the Ma
faced with red brick, [see Figures 28 & 29]
od siding has
st church on NW
nt gable frame
the 1930s it
c windows of
, followed the
the side, but
The first brick church in High Springs was the Allen Chapel,
African Methodist Episcopal, built in 1902. This handsome church
with its Gothic windows and square bell tower is in the heart of
the oldest black community. To the east is the Mt. Olive
Missionary Baptist Church, built in 1922 by church members who
molded the block and built the cross-gable church with its inset
square bell tower and entry porch. The stained glass windows
framed in graceful flattened Gothic arches are an outstanding
feature of this religious landmark. [see Figure 5] Also built
by the congregation of molded block in 1933 is the Mt. Carmel
United Methodist Church on NW 1st Avenue. Here the sanctuary is
raised above the fellowship hall on the ground level, [see Figure
The Classic Revival style was chosen by the Baptists when
they built their new brick church in 1924 on SW 2nd Avenue. It
is distinguished by the handsome proportions of its massive
portico supported by four Doric columns. The original stained
glass windows were removed when the congregation sold the church
to the First Christian Fellowship. When the Church of Christ
built on NE 1st Avenue in 1941, they chose the same style, but
used concrete block and rounded windows, [see Figure 30]
Figure 28. top: High Springs Presbyterian Church (1897)
bottom: Church of God by Faith (former
Sanctified Church, ca 193 0)
Figure 29: top: Masonic Hall (former Nazarine Church, ca
bottom: Seventh Day Adventist Church (former
Methodist Church, ca 1898)
Figure 30: top: Faith Christian Fellowship (former First
Baptist Church, ca 192 6)
bottom: Truth Pentacostal Church (former Church
of God, 1942)
SURVEY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The architectural and historical survey of High Springs
confirmed that an integrated and cohesive district exists which
should be nominated to the National Register of Historic Places
as the High Springs Historic District. Most of the buildings in
High Springs which contribute to the district were built by and
for people who worked for the railroad or those who depended on
the business generated by the railroad employees and their
families. For High Springs is unigue in this respect — it is a
railroad community. It is comfortable with the tracks running
through town and misses the clamor and hustle of the shops which
sprawled over many acres within the city limits. Trains weren't
there to bring tourists in or just to take produce and citrus to
market. They were a way of life in themselves, known,
understood, valued, and admired for their special gualities.
This way of life has vanished, but it should be appreciated and
understood as the most important influence on the history of High
The completion of this survey and report is only a
preliminary step to protecting the architectural and historical
character of the City of High Springs. The protection offered a
historic site at federal and state levels is limited. Under no
circumstance can federal or state governments forbid or restrict
a private owner from altering or destroying a historic building,
even one in a certified historic district, unless federal funds
or permits are involved, and then only after thorough review. In
Florida, zoning and code regulations are vested in local
government. Consequently, specific restrictions and controls
directed at preserving the integrity of cultural resources remain
the responsibility of local government.
As a further step the City of High Springs should develop a
historic preservation plan, one outlining the community's
policies and goals for dealing with its cultural resources and
methods for accomplishing these goals. The plan should identify
ways to integrate the preservation of historic resources with
other planning activities. It may include plans and designs to
conserve or enhance particular areas. It may be published as a
reference tool to provide the basis for making the inventory a
part of the local comprehensive plan. A preservation plan will
also encourage other agencies such as public works, highway and
park departments, as well as private groups, to consider
preservation goals as they make decisions.
The next step in the preservation program should be the
definition of the character of the City of High Springs. This
inventory of sites and report can be used as tools in the
identification of additional architectural and historical
elements which contribute to High Springs's unique qualities.
Careful analysis of the surveyed sites and the generalizations of
this report can provide a summary of the similarities and
disparities of the design features found in the city. This
document and the accompanying inventory and site map can serve
as a framework on which to base the identification of the
defining and unifying elements in the community.
I inn:: a ~ : i
^- - 1
Other aspects of the community conservation program should
provide a mechanism to maintain the integrity of individual
sites, provide the necessary legal and financial tools and
assistance on the local level to realize preservation goals, and
promote widespread public interest in all aspects of the
Historic preservation ordinances are widely used to provide
a variety of services and protections to the local community.
The ordinance should include the following: 1) Statement of
purpose, 2) Definitions, 3) Establishment of designation body, 4)
Survey plans for the identification of historic resources, 5)
Procedures for designation, 6) Establishment of an architectural
review board, 7) Procedures for review concerning alterations,
demolition, relocation, and new construction affecting a
designated structure, and 8) Appeals. Statutes should also
include the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for
Rehabilitation or similar local design criteria as guidelines for
rehabilitation of historic buildings. Efforts should be made in
High Springs to inform and educate property owners concerning the
practical advantages and community benefits involved in locally
ordinanced design review.
The protections and benefits afforded to recognized historic
sites by federal and state legislation are important, but the
most significant and effective preservation activity occurs at
the local level. The citizens of High Springs are fortunate that
their government has identified many of the historic resources in
the community, and they should insist that their cultural
heritage be protected by local legislation.
Further specific recommendations have evolved over the
course of this survey project as a result of discussions and
conversations with residents of High Springs.
(1) Create and make widely available a brochure or booklet
to acquaint residents and visitors with the historic resources of
High Springs. This can be in the form of a walking tour with a
brief historical narrative. It might be expanded to a driving
and cycling tour guide by extending the scope to include natural
attractions in the vicinity.
(2) Secure the two remaining railroad buildings at the foot
of NW 9th Street to form a center for railroad-oriented tourist
activities. A museum, information center, restaurant,' gift shop,
and ticket agency seem to be logical uses to which these
buildings could be put.
(3) Explore possible joint private-public venture to make
an economic and cultural asset of the 1923 High Springs
(4) Encourage continued efforts to restore historic
structures to their original appearance by initiating an annual
award for outstanding preservation or rehabilitation projects.
(5) Create signage to mark the historic district and to
promote its unique character.
(6) Initiate a systematic program of interviewing and
recording the oral history of High Springs. The retired railroad
employees have vivid stories to tell and experiences to share.
Efforts should be made to review and make copies of historic
photographs and documents pertaining to the railroad era, to be
displayed in the proposed railroad museum.
The State of Florida has experienced unparalleled economic
growth in the last five decades, bringing with it unprecedented
urbanization and commercial development. Thus far, High Springs
has remained something of a quiet oasis. This quality is one of
its most valuable assets, but one that its citizens must guard
zealously. It is hoped that this survey and report will help
High Springs appreciate its architectural, cultural, and
environmental resources and plan wisely for the growth that is
1. Edward M. Dolan and Glenn T. Allen, Jr. "An Investigation of
the Darby and Hornsby Springs Sites, Alachua County, Florida."
Florida Geological Survey #7, 1961, pp. 3, 12, 24.
2. Charlton W. Tebeau. A History of Florida (Coral Gables, FL:
University of Miami Press, 1971), pp. 23, 50; Patricia S.
Garretson. "Early Religious History of the High Springs Area,
Florida." Unpublished manuscript, p. 1.
3. Tebeau, p. 140.
4. Tebeau, p. 168; Garretson, pp. 3-5; 0. A. Myers, ed. Alachua
County: Her Attractions, Features, and Public Improvements
(Gainesville, FL: Cannon & McCreary, 1882), p. 10.
5. United States Census. Sixth Census. Alachua County. 1840. p.
161; Seventh Census. Alachua County. 1850. p. 30; Eighth Census.
Alachua County. 1860. P. 51; Fritz W. Buchholz. History of Alachua
County, Florida: Narrative and Biographical (St. Augustine: The
Record Co., 1929), p. 184.
6. Alford G. Bradbury and E. Story Hallock. A Chronology of
Florida Post Offices (Vero Beach, FL: Florida Federation of Stamp
Clubs, 1962), pp. 38, 42; Alachua County Office of Records, Plat
Book A, pp. 4, 6; Buchholz, p. 184; John W. Ashley. Alachua, The
Garden County of Florida (New York: The South Publishing Co. ,
1888) , p. 39.
7. Ashley, p. 39.
8. Arch Fredric Blakey. The Florida Phosphate Industry: A
History of the Development and Use of a Vital Mineral (Cambridge,
MA; Harvard University Press, 1973), pp. 15, 20, 22, 27; Writers
Program. Alachua County , 1936. Collection of P. K. Yonge Library,
pp. 12, 49; "Profiles of People" (interview with Clyde Richardson)
High Springs Herald 6 May 1954, p. 3.
9. George W. Pettengill, Jr. The Story of the Florida Railroads,
1834-1903 (Boston: The Railway and Locomotive Historical Society,
1952), p. 93; Robert W. Mann. Rails 'Neath the Palms (Burbank, CA:
Darwin Publications, 1983), p. 87; Writers Program, pp. 48-52.
10. High Springs News . 12 August 1897, 6 January 1899. Microfilm
copies in collection of P. K. Yonge Library, Gainesville; Robert
Davidsson. "The Mines and Outlaws are Gone." Gainesville Sun . 28
March 1976, p. 238.
11. Writers Program, p. 52; Georgia, Alabama, and Florida Business
and Professional Directory (Washington, DC: State Publishing Co. ,
1903) , p. 960.
12. Writers Program, pp. 51, 52.
13. Alachua County Office of Records, Plat Book A, pp. 4, 6.
14. Joel Glenn, ed. High Springs: A Photo Album (Gainesville, FL:
North Florida Publishing Co., 1984), pp. 21, 35-39.
15. Glenn, p. 8.
16. Glenn, p. 3.
17. Sanborn Maps. High Springs, 1913, 1926; High Springs, 1907,
Map in the possession of Otto Kahlich .
18. Writers Program, p. 52; High Springs Map, 1907; Sanborn Map,
High Springs, 1913.
19. Glenn, p. 3, 4; Writers Program, p. 53; High Springs News, 12
August 1897, 6 January 1898; "Big Windstorm In 1896 Wrecked City,"
High Springs Herald, 11 August I960, p. 17, 18.
20. Glenn, p. 33.
21. Murray Laurie. "High Springs Opera House." Unpublished
manuscript, 1989, p. 8; Pettengill, p. 93; Mann, PP. 67-68; Alachua
County, The Hub of Florida , "High Springs, The Railroad Center"
(Gainesville: Alachua County News, 1924) ; United States Census,
Alachua County, 1900, 1910, 1920.
22. Alachua County, Florida . (Johnstown, FL: Southern Industry,
1903) , pp. 18-19.
23. Ibid.; High Springs City Council minutes, 15 April 1913, 2
24. Garretson, p. 12; Interview by author with Johnny Jordan, 15
25. Chamber of Commerce. Gainesville, Florida, in Pictures and
Prose (Gainesville, FL: Chamber of Commerce, 1925), 32-37; Alachua ,
The Hub of Florida (Gainesville, FL: Alachua County News, 1924) ,
26. Chamber of Commerce, p. 32-33; The Great Bowl of Alachua
(Gainesville, FL: Chamber of Commerce, 1925), High Springs section
of unpaged booklet in P. K. Yonge Library, Gainesville.; Glenn, pp.
27. Glenn, pp. 17-18, 42; Interview by author with Otto Kahlich,
28 March, 1990.
28. Buchholz, p. 185; Marina Blomberg, "After 70 Years, Remnant of
Steam Era Will Fall," Gainesville Sun , 8 March 1975.
29. Interview by author with L. W. "Bud" Register, Mayor of High
Springs, 7 May 1990.
30. Glenn, p. 23.
31. Virginia McAlester and Lee McAlester. A Field Guide to
American Houses (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986), p. 89. '
32. Glenn, p. 21.
33. Laurie, p. 7.
34. Sanborn Maps. High Springs, 1913, 1926.
35. Glenn, p. 3-7.
36. Sanborn Map, High Springs, 1926, p. 1.
37. Southern Pine Association. Homes for Workmen (New Orleans:
Author, 1919), pp. 11-13.
38. Glenn, pp. 35-39.
39. McAlester and McAlester, pp. 50-53.
40. John A. Jakle, Robert W. Bastian, and Douglas K. Meyer. Common
Houses in America's Small Towns: The Atlantic Seaboard to the
Mississippi Valley (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1989) , pp.
41. Jakle et al., pp. 154-156.
42. Ibid. p. 154.
43. Ibid., pp. 171-173.
44. Herbert Gottfried and Jan Jennings. American Vernacular
Design. 1870-1940: An Illustrated Glossary (New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold, 1985). pp. 32-33.
45. Ashley, p. 39.
Ashley, John W. Alachua, The Garden County of Florida . New York:
The South Publishing Co., 1888.
Alachua County, Florida . Johnstown, FL: Southern Industry, 1903.
Alachua County, The Hub of Florida . Gainesville, FL: Alachua
County News, 1924.
Blakey, Arch Fredric. The Florida Phosphate Industry: A History
of the Development and Use of a Vital Mineral . Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press, 1973.
Bradbury, Alford G. and E. Story Hallock. A Chronology of the
Florida Post Offices . Vero Beach, FL: Florida
Federation of Stamp Clubs, 1962. ,
Buchholz, Fritz W. History of Gainesville, Florida: Narrative -and
Biographical . St. Augustine, FL: The Record Co., 1929.
Chamber of Commerce. Gainesville, Florida, in Pictures and Prose .
Gainesville, FL: Chamber of Commerce, 1925.
Davis, Jess G. History of Alachua County . Gainesville, FL: Alachua
County Historical Commission, 1959.
Dolan, Edward M. and Glenn T. Allen, Jr. "An Investigation of the
Darby and Hornsby Springs Sites, Alachua County, Florida."
Florida Geological Survey #7, 1961.
Garretson, Patricia S. "The Early Religious History of the High
Springs Area, Florida." Unpublished manuscript. 1990
Georgia, Alabama, and Florida Business and Professional Directory .
Washington, DC: State Publishing Co., 1903.
Glenn, Joel, ed. High Springs: A Photo Album . Gainesville, FL:
North Florida Publishing Co., 1984.
Gottfried, Herbert, and Jan Jennings. American Vernacular Design,
1870-1940: An Illustrated Glossary . New York: Van Mostrand
"The Great Bowl of Alachua." Gainesville: Alachua County Chamber
of Commerce, 1925. Collection of the P. K. Yonge Library,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Jakel, John A., Robert W. Bastian, and Douglas K. Meyer. Common
Houses in America's Small Towns: The Atlantic Seaboard to
the Mississippi Valley . Athens, GA: University of
Georgia Press, 1989.
Laurie, Murray D. "High Springs Opera House." Unpublished
Mann, Robert W. Rails 'Neath the Palms . Burbank, CA: Darwin
McAlester, Virginia, and Lee McAlester. A Field Guide to American
Houses . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986.
Myers, 0. A., ed. Alachua County: Her Attractions, Features and
Public Improvements . Gainesville, FL: Cannon and McCreary,
Pettengill, George W. , Jr. The Story of the Florida Railroads:
1834-1903 . Boston: The Railway and Locomotive Historical
Society, 1952 .
Southern Pine Association. Homes for Workmen . New Orleans:
Tebeau, Charlton W. A History of Florida . Coral Gables, FL:
University of Miami Press, 1971.
Writers Program. Alachua County . Scrapbook in the collection
of the P. K. Yonge Library, University of Florida,
Alachua County. ca 1900. Map #1296. P. K. Yonge Library
Alachua County. 1910. Map #1463. P. K. Yonge Library collection.
Alachua County Historical Tour Series: Hague, Alachua, Lacrosse,
Santa Fe, Traxler, High Springs. Alachua County
Historical Society, 1986.
High Springs. Sanborn Maps. New York, 1913, 1926
High Springs. 1907. Hand drawn map belonging to Otto Kahlich. High
High Springs Herald . 1952-1967
High Springs News . 1897-1898, 1900
Gainesville Sun. 1903-1940
Alachua County Courthouse, Office of Records, Plat Book A, pp. 4,
6, 46, 50, 52.
High Springs, City Council Minutes, 1913-1940
High Springs, City Ordinances
United States Census Records, Alachua County, 1840-1940
Interviews -; •
High Springs Mayor L. W."Bud" Register, 7 May 1990
Mrs. Dondo (Janie) Underwood, 10 May 1990
Mrs. Murray Crews, 10 May 1990 '
Mrs. Richard (Nan) McDowell, 10 May 1990
Mrs. Geneva George, 28 March 1990
Mr. Johnny Jordan, 16 March, 1990
Mr. and Mrs. Otto Kahlich, 28 April 1990
Mrs. Eunice McLeod, 18 May 1990
Mrs. Lottie Summers, 18 May 1990
Mrs. Lucille Westmoreland, 18 May 1990
Mrs. Hattie Hill, 16 March 1990
Mrs. Essie Gassett, 20 May 1990
HIGH SPRINGS SURVEY
FLORIDA MASTER SITE FILE LIST
5 & 15 N. Main St.
10 N. Main St.
20 N. Main St.
25 N. Main St.
30 N. Main St.
35 N. Main St.
40 & 42 N. Main St.
35,45, 55 N. Main St,
50 N. Main St.
70 N. Main St.
75 N. Main St.
80 N. Main St.
Main & 1st Ave.
205 N. Main St.
215 N. Main St.
S. Main St.
120 NE Railroad Ave.
15 SE Railroad Ave.
25 SE Railroad Ave.
225 SE Railroad Ave.
305 SE Railroad Ave.
435 SE Railroad Ave,
445 SE Railroad Ave,
525 SE Railroad Ave,
606 SE Railroad Ave.
615 SE Railroad Ave,
(ca = approximate)
725 SE Railroad Ave.
805 SE Railroad Ave.
905 SE Railroad Ave.
15 NE 1st Ave.
2 NE 1st Ave.
25 NE 1st Ave.
30 NE 1st Ave.
130 NE 1st Ave.
140 NE 1st Ave.
210 NE 1st Ave.
230 NE 1st Ave.
310 NE 1st Ave.
110 NE 2nd Ave.
115 NE 2nd Ave.
215 NE 2nd Ave.
230 NE 2nd Ave.
235 NE 2nd Ave.
120 NE 1st St.
125 NE 1st St.
13 NE 1st St.
215 NE 1st St.
220 NE 1st St.
225 NE 1st St.
5 NW 1st Ave.
10 NW 1st Ave.
3 NW 1st Ave.
35 NW 1st Ave.
4 5 NW 1st Ave.
55 NW 1st Ave.
65 & 75 NW 1st Ave.
85 NW 1st Ave.
95 NW 1st Ave.
99 NW 1st Ave.
23 NW 1st Ave.
305 NW 1st Ave.
310 NW 1st Ave.
330 NW 1st Ave.
34 NW 1st Ave.
410 NW 1st Ave.
420 NW 1st Ave.
430 NW 1st Ave.
505 NW 1st Ave.
510 NW 1st Ave.
515 NW 1st Ave.
525 NW 1st Ave.
610 NW 1st Ave.
62 NW 1st Ave.
625 NW 1st Ave.
630 NW 1st Ave.
705 NW 1st Ave.
720 NW 1st Ave.
725 NW 1st Ave.
805 NW 1st Ave.
810 NW 1st Ave.
815 NW 1st Ave.
82 NW 1st Ave.
835 NW 1st Ave.
910-950 NW 1st Ave,
925 NW 1st Ave.
935 NW 1st Ave.
970 NW 1st Ave.
980 NW 1st Ave.
1010 NW 1st Ave.
1015 NW 1st Ave.
1025 NW 1st Ave.
1115 NW 1st Ave.
1120 NW 1st Ave.
1140 NW 1st Ave.
1205 NW 1st Ave.
1235 NW 1st Ave.
1230 NW 1st Ave.
1235 NW 1st Ave.
1315 NW 1st Ave.
1325 NW 1st Ave.
1345 NW 1st Ave.
1350 NW 1st Ave.
1410 NW 1st Ave.
1525 NW 1st Ave.
1535 NW 1st Ave.
1550 NW 1st Ave.
1605 NW 1st Ave.
1625 NW 1st Ave.
230 NW 2nd Ave.
310 NW 2nd Ave.
315 NW 2nd Ave.
320 NW 2nd Ave.
330 NW 2nd Ave.
335 NW 2nd Ave.
420 NW 2nd Ave.
425 NW 2nd Ave.
520 NW 2nd Ave.
530 Nw 2nd Ave.
1205 NW 2nd Ave.
515 NW 3rd Ave.
620 NW 3rd Ave.
20 NW 4th Ave.
220 NW 4th Ave.
605 NW 4th Ave.
715 NW 4th Ave.
730 NW 4th Ave.
725 NW 4th Ave.
805 NW 4th Ave.
810 NW 4th Ave.
710 NW 5th Ave.
720 NW 5th Ave.
15 NW 1st St.
15 NW 2nd St.
20 NW 2
10 NW 7
2 NW 8
520 NW 10th St.
520 NW 10th St.
5 NW 13th St.
15 NW 13th St.
20 NW 13th St.
30 NW 13th St.
210 NW 13th St.
230 NW 13th St.
310 NW 13th St.
120 NW 15th St.
210 NW 15th St.
230 NW 15th St.
5 SE 1st Ave.
310 SE 1st Ave.
430 SE 1st Ave.
520 SE 1st Ave.
530 SE 1st Ave.
25 SE 2nd Ave.
105 SE 2nd Ave.
115 SE 2nd Ave.
215 SE 2nd Ave.
15 SE 3rd Ave.
2 5 SE 3rd Ave.
30 SE 3rd Ave.
35 SE 3rd Ave.
45 SE 3rd Ave.
10 SE 4th Ave.
15 SE 4th Ave.
25 SE 4th- Ave.
105 SE 1st St.
110 SE 1st St.
115 SE 1st St.
105 SE 3rd St.
215 SE 3rd St.
110 SE 4th St.
10 SE 5th St.
15 SE 5th St.
105 SE 5th St.
15 SW 1st Ave.
105 SW 1st Ave,
125 SW 1st Ave,
225 SW 1st Ave,
20 SW 2nd Ave.
105 SW 2nd Ave,
15 SW 3rd Ave.
20 SW 3rd Ave.
115 SW 3rd Ave,
15 SW 6th Ave.
10 SW 2nd PI.
20 SW 1st St.
4 SW 1st St.
120 SE 1st St.
220 SW 1st St.
320 SW 1st St.
ACL Depot, NW 9th St 19 00
Freight Station, NW 9th St. 1900
Elementary School 1928
Dunagan Mill Site
Central Park (Sinkhole)
St. Madeleine Catholic Church 1925