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Dept. of Cultural Resources 






This book is due on the last date stamped 
below unless recalled sooner. It may be 
renewed only once and must be brought to 
the North Carolina Collection for renewal. 



m> f Jfjtt W Bg^- '»ate -?>* i-gg a>c^' 







Written and Photographed by Lowell McKay Whatley, Jr. 

Compiled by Dawn McLaughlin Snotheriy 

Essays edited by Dr. Jerry L. Cross 

Published by 

the City of Asheboro 

the County of Randolph 

and the North Carolina Division of 

Archives and History 

with assistance from the 

Randolph County Historical Society 


the Randolph County Arts Guild 


nn i i n i =in r ^ m — ElEiE 

3B P lElE 

ElEll^^=F1RF^^=i'^i ini im ini IRI in 

This publication was funded in part by the City of Asheboro, the County of Randolph 
and a grant from the National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, through 
the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and His- 
tory. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the National Park 
Service, nor the North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources. 
Copyright© 1985 by the City of Asheboro and the County of Randolph, North Caro- 
lina. All rights reserved. 

Copies available from the Randolph County Arts Guild/Randolph County Historical 
Society at Randolph Book, R O. Box 1605, Asheboro, North Carolina 27203. 
Printed by Fisher-Harrison Corporation, Durham Division, Durham, North Carolina. 
Designed by Diana Kowal. 




Honoring the 400th Anniversary of 
The First English Colony 




Introduction and Acknowledgements 


The County and Its Cultural Heritage 


A Statistical Summary ^ 

Native American Presence • ~, 

European Immigration g 

Religious Atmosphere o 

Slavery and County Opposition 

The Rural Landscape 

. . 11 

Agnculture j j 

Transportation ^2 

Waterpower and Mills 



Growth of the Textile Industry j^ 

Furniture Industry 20 

Industrialism and Community Growth 

Architectural Heritage 


Structural Development 28 

Building for Manufacturing 27 

Stylistic Trends 43 

Growth of Design Profession 44 

Development of Construction Industry 

Randolph County Inventory 

^. . 50 

Tnnity Township rg 

> Trinity gj 

; Archdale ^ 

C New Market Township ^7 

Level Cross Township /-o 

\ • Providence Township ^2 

^ :', Liberty Township ^r 

p! Liberty ^^ 

Q^ Columbia Township g2 

Ramseur q. 

Franklinville Township 04 

Franklinville ,^,0 

Cedar Falls . -2 

i Randleman Township 

New Salem ^ ' ^ 

Randleman ' ^ ' 

Back Creek Township '29 

Tabernacle Township 132 

Concord Township 1^6 

Cedar Grove Township 141 

Grant Township 1^4 

Coleridge Township 146 

Coleridge 1^1 

Pleasant Grove Township 157 

Brower Township 1^8 

Richland Township 160 

Seagrove 1"^ 

Union Township 1^8 

New Hope Township 170 


Founding and Growth to 1830 174 

Antebellum Years 176 

Civil War, Stagnation and A New Beginning 184 

The Railroads and an Era of Change 188 

Emergence of Modern Asheboro 191 

Asheboro Inventory 

Section A— The Courthouse Center 199 

Section B— The Central Business District 206 

Section C — The Fisher Estate, Hollywood 224 

Section D — Millhaven 231 

Section E— Eastover, Spring Hill, Homeland Heights 235 

Section F— Old Muster Field, Colonial Heights, Grey stone Terrace 237 

Section G— Randolph Heights, OoGalista Heights 241 

Section H— Sunset Heights, Dogwood Acres, Dave's Mountain 246 

Section I— Industrial Park, Dixieland Acres 249 

Section J— Spero, Balfour, King Tut 252 

Section K— Central Falls 254 

Glossary 258 

Bibliography 273 

Index 276 




Like others in the series of architectural surveys of North Carolina and 
municipalities, the study of Randolph County's historic a':'^hitectural environment is 
an admission that its subject is disappearing. At many points during its creation this 
inventory seemed to be little more than a sad, depressing record of destruction and 
decay. With one of the highest continuing growth rates in North Carolina, Randolph 
County should have good reason to worry about its endangered, dwindling historic 
resources. The last quarter-century has seen the loss of a vast proportion of he 
houses, farm buildings and commercial structures that once provided a hving link 
with the past. Through lack of awareness of its significance, there is too often a 
failure to realize that this historical fabric gives continuity in modem life and 
generates the security and confidence used to build the future. 

It is the destruction of continuity which creates dissatisfaction wUh the present 
and fuels nostalgia for the past. This is strikingly evident in A^heboro founded 
while George Washington was president: a town which has destroyed vrtually al 
^ctural evidence of its history before 1900. Ironically, ,^^ithin Asheboro the 
nostalgia business is booming. Modem versions of Colonial style banks offi^^^' 
condominiums and apartment complexes are built by devdopers ^h 1^ ^^P^^^^^^^^^^^ 
exaggerated versions of Mt. Vemon, Carter's Grove and the WiH'amsburg Governor 
Palace rise to house the wealthy. Despite the facades, a visitor from the eighteenth or 
even the nineteenth century would find the Randolph County landscape of today 

^'"1!:tU"' well be a subconscious effort to provide ersatz historical 
continuity, modem society has too often chosen the glittering of 
America's colonial past. The copying of monumental architecture seem to express 
the ambition, lifestyle and economic status of modem Rando ph c.t.zens more than 
the historic landscape. Modem practices of "more," "now, waste, consumpt.on 
exploitation and mediocrity thus contrast sharply with the trad.tK,nal values ot 
patience, respect, fmgality, pride in workmanship and qual.ty of product. Part ot tne 
confusion stems from a failure to grasp the tme significance of the h.stoncal 
process. Stmctures reflect the contemporary social environment and the values oi 
their builders. The rustic log cabin in its original location and env.ronment was a tar 
different creature than the same log cabin taken apart, moved, and reassembled as an 
expensive antique shop. While the stmctural element may be preserved to some de- 

gree, the life force and sense of place so vital to the historical process are destroyed. 
Once lost they can never be fully recaptured. .• u ,h „„t w-. 

This observation does not intend to imply that log cab.ns should not be 
preserved or that every stmcture should be maintained and used in its original state _ 
Adaptions' and modifications can be made with sensitivity and with reeognition d 
the structure's original integrity. These are the most important aspects of the moden. 
historic preservation movement. Once the purview of professionals and special 
interest groups, preservation has grown to include everyone interested in niamtmn^ 
ing the historical character and integrity of the environment. Buildings not singled 
out for historic value or architectural merit are now seen as cultural art'facts and 
resources which contribute to the uniqueness of a community and ennch the quality 
of its life. In this sense, the vast majority of old buildings would be a "lost yalueles 
if divorced from their historical contexts. Therefore, a pnmary goal of thi survey 
has been to gather facts and statistics relating to the built environment that ean b 
used as a foundation for a renewed appreciation of the county s surviving links to its 

^'''■Randolph is a large county with great variety in its bft environment. This 
survey does not claim to be complete and comprehensive. Such a reco d i neve 
really completed because history continues, but it is assumed that ^iUea^^ ".^^^ 
Randolph County stmctures eligible for the National R^g^^^^^/^"'^^""^^ ^^ 
have been identified. One objective of the inventory was to 'dentify those extan 
stmctures that were built before the Civil War. At least 85-90 percent of these have 
been listed, but more may be found behind aluminum siding or under the hon^suckle 
Most of the buildings over one hundred years old are included; those after 188 
have been selected under generalized and somewhat arb.trary cnter.a. The Ashebor 
inventory, initially a separate project, had slightly different object.ves. An attem 
was made to identify those stmctures more than fifty years old along w. h mo 
modem buildings demonstrating interest or merit. These cntena were developed J 
part at the request of the Planning and Community Development Department for us 
in their planning activities. The names of stmctures are those of the ong.nal bu.ldj 
or occupants, or those of the best remembered residents. The h.story of many bu IJ 
ings was difficult to uncover in the course of this project. Some information may 
inaccurate although it was the best available to the author. 

TU. inventory was initiated in the spring oV'^^^Scto^^^^^^^ 
of Asheboro's Planning and Community Development d rector Mary B 

With the assistance of Mrs. Carolyn Neely "^^e? the pro^t wl^^^^^^^^^ - 

and financial support of both local govemmg bodies tneproj 

scope to become a joint venture between f e C^t^ -^ Ra"^^^^^^^^^ 

course of this project the followmg people have served ^"^^^ ^ .^^^^^ p h, 

Logan White, Matilda Phillips, Frank Auman, ^;,f^^^™ ^el Frye, and Hoyd 

Kenyon Davidson, Thurman Hogan, Richard Petty, Bill Boyj, Da^ W J^^ 

Langley. The Asheboro City council has been co^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Robert L. Reese, C. Hubert Causey, C. M ^^ac) Mng, ^^^^^ 

Joseph (Joe) Trogdon, Jeny G. Ward, Doc Kivett, Bai^bam HochuU^^ay 
Robbins, Lee C. Phoenix, Dr. Frank Edmondson Fred Kearns, ^^^ 

Holt. As the project lengthened beyond its °"g>"^ °"S,rr^cTntosh, Jr. , Ash- 
reaffirmed by Bobby J. Crumley, County Manager Tho^^^^^^^^ M ^^_ 
eboro City Manager; and the director ^fj^e Mhe^ro ^S^lthe ^ ^^^^^ 
velopment Department, J. Terry Wildrick. W. Frank ^"»J ^^^ ^^^^^.^^ 
finance office staff provided in-liable assistance m work mg^t ^ J^.^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
aspects of the project. Dawn M'^Laughlin-Snother y, i severed to trans- 
Randolph County/Asheboro project since 1980, ha stea J^ inventory, 
form a difficult project into a well ^Jg^^"'^^?/"'^ '""^ for a quality product 
This publication is clear evidence of Dawn « con tant stnvmg^ The author and co- 
as well as her commitment to the project s ultimate comp ; ^^ numerous 
ordinator are greatly indebted for the advice, ^"PP^^^Xs of the Division of Ar- 
members of the staffs in the Survey and Rf™ oran contacts 
chives and History. Michael Southern and M^KeldenSmUh served a^^^^^^ 
back in 1978. David Parham and Dm G. Haley ^"*'^^?XKth r Davyd Foard 
burdens and became friends as well as colleagues. Cathenne bisn y^ ^^^^^ 
Hood and Brent Glass provided valuable adv.ce and Jre^^^^^^^^^^ ^„^ 
reviewed the manuscript at every stage, P™^''*^'^!"' f!"^!llication 
undertook the responsibility of editing th%fi"f ' P^" ^er During the first two years 
The author acted as both historian and Photographer uu g ^ed; this 
of the project, Randolph County's first histo^ sin 1890 ws bemgj^ p^ ^^^^^ 
study hopes to complement, not duplicate, that accoum 

Charlesanna L Fox, Jane L. Delisle and Carolyn N. Hager of that project were 

S le is and r;sources in the development of this manuscript. They and the 

Snowing people acted as guides and informants both in the research and in he task 

of driving up and down every road in the county. Manon S. Covington, Joseph D_ 

Ross JrR Reynolds Neely, Jr. , Frances R. Elkins, Francine H. Swaim, Dr^Joseph 

RS,mas James W Pickard, the late Miss Katherine Buie, Mrs. Margaret 

Williamf'seth andMm^ Ed th Hinshaw, Miss Leah Hammond, Jean Davis 

SS ' Mr? Zeola English, Mrs. Alene T Whatley Lenton Slack, the lat. 

FmncesL Stone, Henry King, Ralph Bulla and W Calvin Hmshaw Tom Terrell 

Damon Hickey and Dr. Lindley F Butler read and commented on various versions of 

Se manu cript and their opinions and insights were much appreciated. Nancy F 

BrenTer of the Randolph County Public Library helped coordinate many of the 
Brenner 01 tne Kan p j ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ,,j,^^^ 

Sf 5oAnne P Inders of'L Asheboro Planning and Community Development 
nl: j^ent Jovce AUred and Sharon Hall of the Randolph County Tax Department, 
STl wS, ud " O^^^ Audrey H. Shropshire and Mrs. Kathleen C. Wha- 
S typed various portions and versions of the manuscript. Superior Map Company, 
he AsheWRandolph County Chamber of Commerce and Bobby Kivett were ,n- 
l»Srn producing maps for the inventory section. Carolyn Hager spent count- 
S hour assisting in the organizational format of this publication and was an 
invaSle sou of moral support throughout this project; for this the coordinator is 
extremely grateful. Jack Lail took a special interest in the project and contributed an 
imnortant Photograph of Cox's Dam. Helen Farlow Neill provided impor ant re- 
sSon InicE in the Richland Township/Seagrove area. For her time interest 
and creativ ty in producing line drawings for this publication, a special debt of grat- 
itude's due to Audrey C. Beck. The author would also like to thank his family for 
their support and encouragement during the project. . ,■ -,„ 

Perhaps this study will brighten the prospects for historic preservation in 
Randolph County. While individuals are privately active, there is no organized 
preservation committee and no general public participation. With the county poised 
on the brink of rapid urbanization, historic preservation should become a pnmary 
concern before the opportunity is lost. 


Randolph County, North Carolina (courtesy Superior Map Company and the Randolph County I Asheboro Chamber of Commerce). 


Parker's Mill .as located -/--^^cfr/^'^^^^^ 

built a mill on this site in 1 779 'T''"^'' '°'^^,^ , ,;,, ^,„ „hen the 
of Stephen "enley Victor Parkerjajo^^^^^^^^^ oft^ ^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ 

photograph .as taken in '^^"imTf.^me structure with four- 
Parker's Mill. as a '";":;-^J;;;; ^;y,, , .urbme water .heel. 

SSt/Xr rr Zo^nds Uke .eese. the city's 
fifth ra. .ater reservoir. 

Asheboro's raw water reservoir dam. 



A Statistical Summary of Modern Randolph 

The tenth largest county in North Carolina, Randolph County covers an area of 
801 square miles in the center of the state.' The county is almost perfectly square, 
with 512,640 acres of land divided into twenty townships.^ It is part of the state's 
piedmont plateau, characterized by rolling hills and valleys sloping to the southeast. 
The average elevation in the northern section is around 960 feet; Shepherd Mountain 
is the highest point in the county at 1,390 feet. Along the county's southern border 
the average elevation is approximately 480 feet with Pleasant Grove Township, m the 
southeastern comer, recording lower spots at 350 feet above sea level. 

The county's semi-mountainous character immediately strikes the visiting eye. 
Noted in 1701 by explorer John Lawson, one of its first European visitors, the 
terrain was more recently commented upon by a traveler who wrote: 

The mysterious Uwharries are very beautiful. It is said of Randolph that it is one 
county where every road is a scenic highway. Every mile has its view of the mountams 
— isolated knobs, long ridges, rounding mounds — 

This combination of woods, of numerous streams, rolling hills swelhng mto mountam 
knobs and ridges, all interspersed by occasional wide open lands or "savannas,' as 
Lawson called the prairies, makes Randolph an exceedingly attractive section. A 
pleasing variety unfolds for the visitor as he alternately rides over mountains, across 
meadows, enters deep forests, and then suddenly descends into a river gorge to discover 
there a busy mill and a peaceful village.' 

The Uwharries are a type of erosion-shaped mountain known as "monad- 
nocks," after Mt. Monadnock in New Hampshire. One controversial theory claims 
that the Uwharries and other nearby Piedmont mountains are the eroded roots of the 
Ocoees, a 350 million year-old mountain chain which would have rivaled the 
Rockies;* other researchers doubt they were ever so spectacular. 

The mountains take their name from the Uwharrie River, one of the county's 
three main discharge basins. The word is of unknown Indian origin and meaning; 
Lawson spelled it "Heighwaree" in 1701 and writers through the centuries have 
varied it from "Voharee" to "Uwany" to "Huwara" to "Uharie" to 'j^Hugh 
Warren," a Germanic transposition by a colonial Moravian missionary. The 
Uwharrie and a second river system, the Little, are part of the Yadkin River 
watershed which becomes the Great Pee Dee River and flows into the Atlantic 
Ocean near Georgetown, South Carolina. The Uwharrie rises between Thomasville 
and Trinity and exits the county at Eleazer. The Little heads at a spring on the 
Asheboro Municipal Golf Course and enters Montgomery County west of Seagrove. 
Deep River starts near Colfax in Guilford County, west of the Regional Airport, enters 
Randolph at Coletrane's Mill and flows southeasteriy, joining the Rocky and Haw 
rivers in southern Chatham County to form the Cape Fear. 

The county thus straddles two natural drainage systems, one flowing southward 

to South Carolina and the other southeast to Wilmington. Today this creates an 
unusual situation for municipalities such as Asheboro that take water from one 
system and empty into another. But in prehistoric times this feature of the terrain 
created a natural gathering area, the place where a number of Indian trails came 

The hills seem to temper the climate in the county, moderating temperature 
readings which "usually lay between the extreme lows and highs reported frort 
neighboring stations."^ Forests still cover more than half the county, consisting fd 
the most part of second-growth oak and pine timber. One quarter of the Uwharri« 
National Forest lies in Randolph. 

The 1980 census revealed 91,471 inhabitants of Randolph County where thirt) 
years before there had been 50,804. The population increase between 1950 and 197? 
nearly doubled the state's average.'" In the decade of the 1950s the urban populatiof 
of the county grew an amazing 102.3 percent, more than twice the rate of the second 
place county, Mecklenburg, and representing the highest urban growth rate of an) 
county in the so-called "Piedmont Industrial Crescent" of North and Soutt 
Carolina." The 1970s witnessed a different trend, however, when almost ever) 
township grew in population while the demography of the towns and citie! 
declined.'^ Just 30 percent of the Randolph population lives in an urban area toda) 
reflecting in part the persistence of the county's rural tradition.'^ 

Yet Randolph's rural population is not a farming population. Fifty percent o 
county residents were classified as "rural non-farm," in 1970, indicating that ove 
half the population lived in "the country" but did not make a living fron 
agricultural pursuits."* Only 2 percent of the 45,000-member workforce are farH 
laborers; nevertheless, agricultural income remains of great importance to th' 
county.'^ The total value of farm products in Randolph is estimated at about S^ 
million per year. '*' While com is the major crop, income is also derived from poultf) 
dairy products, tobacco, hogs, beef cattle and lumber.'"' 

Randolph's mral work force is highly mobile, illustrated by the fact that 3' 
percent of the labor force commutes to jobs outside the county.'* Local manufactui 
ing occupations employ 63 percent of the work force, with 60 percent of the toU 
county payroll coming from the textile and apparel industries.'^ Textile work is 
time-honored tradition in a county that built two of the first fifteen cotton factories ' 
North Carolina. 

During the past thirty years Randolph County and the surrounding Piedmo" 
have undergone sweeping changes in land use pattems, population composition afi 
employment characteristics, all of which are likely to continue into the next centuf) 
Neither can Randolph isolate itself but must deal with regional issues, such aS 
growth rate stimulated by population "spillover" from its rapidly urbanizijl 
neighbors, Greensboro and High Point. These pressures undoubtedly will 
reflected by alterations in the local landscape, probably as in "bedroom community 
developments which threaten to suburbanize the county. The following stu 

explores the process of urbanization -d. modem du- 

consequences for preservationists by comparmg ^" ;^":h"^^^ landscapes. 

em Randolph with a historical discussion of ^^^^-^^J^^^^^^^^^^^ blended into 

Within this framework the structural findmgs of the 'nventon^ ca 

the living contexts in which they were bom and do now exist. 

Native American Presence d h i h 

Long before the coming of the white man *e a- now compnsm 
County included the intersection of a major abongma '^^^1"^^°-^,^^^ to the 
(Indian) Trading Path crossed Caraway Creek on f.™";VJ° caraway Creek to 
Catawba Nation on the lower Catawba River. A spur t™l ^n ^^^^^ to Virginia, 
the present Forsyth County area where jt joined ^"°^'^!^ P'^JJ^e li^ explorer 
NeaJthis transportation nexus lived the Keyau wee Indians whose lit J^ ^^^^^ .^ 
John Lawson described in painstaking detail in 17U1. inei b ^^ ^^^ 

the vicinity of "a stony River . . . called Heighwaree, at or near 
Indian Trading Path across Caraway Creek. ^^^ j^^^^ settlers 

The fate of the Keyauwee tribe is "fl^^^;;'J°'r,^Hra drawn by Sir Edward 
arrived, they had disappeared. A map of No^h^^^"^?'"^ " but the implication 
Moseley in 1733 showed a "Keeauwee old town in tne aic , 

«,«. that the village had been abandoned. The Keyauwees are remernbered in 
Sddph County today in the name of Caraway Creek and the Caraway Mountains 
Randolph county loy ^^^^^ ^^^.^ palisaded village. The 

the part of he ^jharrie cnam somewhat mysterious. "Totero 

Trt"'^ sitS inte fo k'oTti U^^^^^^^^ that the "Totero" (Tutelo) 

S; harmovedTnto the area and occupied some sort of palisaded town Little is 
iTnoln abit ttsTindians; they, too, had disappeared by the time of pioneer 

European Immigration 

The earliest white outpost seems to have been a trading post and tavern built in 
u /u frf™ Creek at a crossroads on the route of the Great Trading Path. In 
?^f'n?rXSvfanurJey expedition led by Bishop August Spangenberg 
"^^ /a\ "Shl^rSrway^l^ group, searching for an attractive 

,Te to estS a comiTnity, soon settled their account with "Jos. Rich, tavern 
place to establish a commuy "Wachovia." In the early 1760s the 

l^'^P"" nlTwas visit d by agents of its new owner, Henry McCuUoh. The 
Caraway «"^P° ^^^^^fS^^^ and Robinson who lives on Ridge's Place, 

?"'^'^?TTandshouVdT employed to show it."^> Godfrey Ridge, or "Joh. 
S"': hfce^aSferp^y^^ -y well have h- one of the pione. 


foXr of T^rt£:^:^^^r.l^is tUg post, perpetuates Ridge's name in 
the modem landscape. encompassed the Uwharrie River area 

wherfh^su^eyotvi^iteJr Ridge Trading Po'st. They advertised this 100,000 

i . *-^- ^ •■ ^j, A.M ^^/^'■r^-^'^,':^ ^ J *- ' 

.#*---'-»*.»->j <fr' 

^, .«i-t— — * — 

.\'Jm- rtC 

Wap of the Randolph County area drawn in 1733 by ^'''^"'■''^'''^^^"S'pww''^^^'''™'^'- 
(courtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in_IM y 

■ ^ n i.„r^„rn 1765 showme'Ridee'sPlace"andtheTradingPath.Themap 
Plat map of the Caraway Creek area ^'i^i'swTbfeasily subdivided, as the good land lies along the 
bears '''e foUo.insnota..o. ^J^'^^^^^^^^ Survey Boo\ #1944, pp. 102-103 
':^tZ!':f::fLthern mZr':i'collec,iZ University of North Carolina a, Chapel Hill, 


acre tract as "the Rich lands of the Uwharrie," and from the mid-1750s its charms 
attracted hordes of settlers. Many of the pioneers in this northwest quadrant of the 
county were Germans because the original justification of McCulloh s real estate 
syndicate had been to attract German-speaking Protestants to North Carolina. In the 
years just before the Revolution the area had become heavily populated by various 
German groups. In 1771 George Soelle, a visiting Moravian missionary, lamented: 

This is a unique species of people. They appear to me like Aesop's crow which 
feathered itself with other birds' feathers. They have Moravian, Quaker, Separatist, 
Dunkard principles, know everything and know nothing, look down on others, belong to 
no one, and spurn others. ^^ 

Further evidence of the diversity of German settlers in the Uwharrie area can be 
found in other religious tracts. In 1772 the Baptist historian Morgan Edwards wrote 
that the Uwharrie congregation of Dunkers, or German Baptist Brethren, was he 
largest of three North Carolina Dunker congregations.^^ These Dunkers spilled 
across the border into present-day Davidson County, where there were severa 
Lutheran and Reformed congregations. Northwest Randolph also included at least 
one group of Mennonites. 

Sandy Creek Baptist Church. Liberty Township. Built in 1826. it is the oldest organized church and 
oldest surviving religious structure in Randolph County. Founded in 1755 by Separate Baptist Minister 
Shubal Stearns (courtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public 

Religious Atmosphere 

The Dunkers opposed formal education and organized politics because these 
activities were thought to be incompatible with their understanding of "primitive 
Christianity Dunkers and Mennonites, like some Quakers, refused to take oaths ot 
any kind and were therefore unable to engage in lawsuits or, in some cases, even to 
register deeds with the county court. Refusal to bear arms during the Revolution 
resulted in increased suspicion and hostility toward pacifistic religious sects, with 
the German sectarians persecuted even more fervently than the nearby Quakers. For 
these and other reasons, the Uwharrie Germans began to give up their lands and 
move west. By 1807 most of the Dunkers had left Randolph, and the remaining 
Germanic families slowly blended into ethnic homogeneity. 

In 1755 the Rev Shubal Steams (1706-1771) led another group of dissenters, 
the Separate Baptists, into the northeastern quarter of the county. Separate Baptists 
were an evangelical sect which had split with the strict Calvinism of the regular 
Baptists. They were heirs to "the fire and fervor of the Whitefield Revival and 
were also called "New Light" Baptists because of their insistence that the 
inspiration and enlightenment of the Holy Spirit could be directly revealed to 


Shubal Steams was a former Boston Congregationalist who was ordained J 
Separate Baptist minister in 1751.^^ In 1755 Steams, along with sixteen friends an 
family members, organized the Sandy Creek Baptist Church to which Nort 
Carolina historians have referred as the "most significant landmark in Baptis 
history ' ' " The burst of religious activity inspired by these companions led directly i 
the formation in 1758 of the Sandy Creek Baptist Association, the first associatio 
of Separate Baptist churches and the third colonial Baptist association. Morgai 
Edwards, writing in the 1770s, thought that 

... very remarkable things may be said of this church. It began with sixteen souls, and J 
a very short time increased to six hundred and six, spreading its branches to Deep Riv ; 
and Abbott's Creek. Sandy Creek is the mother of all the Separate Baptists^ From » 
Zion went forth the word, and great was the company of them who published it. in_ 
church in seventeen years had spread her branches westward as far as the great rive 
Mississippi; Southward as far as Georgia; eastward to the sea and Chespeake Bay; an 
northward to the waters of the Potomac; it in seventeen years, is become motn^ 
grandmother, and great grandmother to forty-two churches, from which sprang i> 



By 1775 the several groups of Baptists comprised the most populous religioij| 
denomination in North Carolina, largely the result of Shubal Steam's considerabi 
skill as an evangelist. According to Baptist histonans. 

Steams was a highly gifted and dedicated man . . . he possessed a strong voicj 
although he was a man of small stature. His tones were particularly impressive a 
captivating, and his eyes seemed to have had almost magical power over those up 
whom they were fixed ... it is doubtful whether any evangelist, save Whitelie 
surpassed Steams in magnetic power over audiences. 

Although Governor Wima.Tryon,apa.isan^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

"faction of Quakers and Baptists,' the Sandy ^^"/^ j'f° ^nd take up arms 

resolved "That if any of their members should join the Reg"^^^^^^^^ ^^^ \he political 

against the lawful authority, \^^'-'\^:^:^ZZTonc. it birst, Stearns's 

conflict expressed by the Regulation offered no escape .^un 

congregation shrank from 606 to 14 virtually overnight^ ^^^ ^^^ 

Close behind the Baptists '^^"'^ *e Q"^'^^!?,';^!.*^^^^^^^ Husband, who was bom 
dissident Regulator leader, Hermon Husband (1724 l/y^^ Quakerism, was 

an Anglican in Cecil County, Maryland ^"'l 'f;/;^^ „'^g1n\he regi^ 

among a growing number of Quakers f « ^ad been arn^^^^^^ S^_^^ ^^^^^ 

over the eastern seaboard. Husband hun^^'f^j^se family, moved from 
settlements in 1751. William Cox, the patnarch of an immense^m ^ j,^^^ ^.^^.^.^ 

the Hockessin Friends Meeting in Delaware •" ' '^^^ Pennsylvania. The Worths 

families came about the same time from ^^t, . t^, uiand After the Revolution, 

, and Coffins arrived in the early 1770s f™- ^-^"^c^^^^^^^^^ River, South 

, the Englishes and Tomlinsons immigrated f™"".'-^"'^' _ities in eastern North 

; Carolina. Some Friends came from n^^'-^^Q^^'^^^^.^rTaTe from as far away as 

Carolina, and others, such as the Aliens and Hinshaws, came trom 

J Ireland by way of Pennsylvania.^^ - ' -—'- 

Ireland by way of Pennsylvania. Piedmont were Cane Creek, estab- 
The first Quaker monthly meetings in the P»«''"°"' established in 1754 
lished in 175 1 and now in Alamance County, and New Garden, 

h use it was used as a meeting house 
Uwharrie Friends Meeting House. 1793-1856. Built in '^^J ''^'1°. 1779.1979 photograph collection 
until 1856 when the meeting was laid down (courtesy Randolpn book 

in the Randolph Public Library). 

in oresent Guilford. Colonial Friends in the Randolph County area either traveled to 
in present ^™"- „„thered in private homes. Private assemblies for worship 

'"' fi ^t helTin tK^^^^^^^^ in 1^60. In 1762 meetings were held 

rn^'heXvidencV«^^^^^^ others beginning at Back Creek in the 1760s A 

in the Proviaence com u > ■ j^^g ^ ^ ^owth was so slow that an 


sldv CreSecame "preparative" meetings and built worship houses in the 1780s^ 
Sj^^rhL and Marlboro established houses in the 1790s and were officially 
Holly Spnng ^"0 Mmoo nineteenth century.^^ Despite heavy 

emTatfon i^ftt alS^yefs. Randolp'h today has more Quaker meetings than 

any other county in the state. ^ 

Slavery and County Opposition 

Largely because of its strong Quaker influence, Randolph County participated 
Largely Dew economy. North Carolina meetings had adopted a 

only marginally '" Hl^^^^ ''°"^bers to limit purchases of slaves and to prevent 
dictum as early as 1772 adv. mg f^^^^J^'^ ? ^^^^ .^vised Friends to 
the separation of slave fan^hes^ as soon as they possibly can" and threatened 
2™enTo '^ "UlTof'trme^tinglhVma/ hereafter buy, sell or 
clandesSy assign'for hire any slave in such a manner as may perpetuate or 
prolong that slavery.-J^ ^^ ^^^^^^ j^ ^^^^^^ constantly 

proportion of slaves •"t'le population population had declined due 

?o Ct ^^^T^^^^^^^^^^ --' h-r """ "^S^ 

w.??.le number of free persons of color (the majority of whom were probably 
SwTcontinu?d to g ow. The twenty-four listed in Randolph in 1790 grew to more 
?SK 1800 anlpassed 300 by'l830. Restrictive laws -g-ding manum.ston 
of slaves passed after 1835 halted this dramatic increase, and by 1850 the free 

u H ifr^S for Slaves The county's politicians often supported the nghts of free 

l^v nSe oSSminrstatewide opposition. In 1827 both of Randolph's state 
blacks despite o™elm ng siaie w ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ 


The constitutional convention in 1835 opposed disenfranchising free blacks 
DespT this support, however, local free Negroes generally were unable to attain 
Ssoda status. While men such as "Elder" Ralph Freeman Frank Lytle and 
Sues such as the Waldens became successful and respected members of the 
Stlph community, the majority of free blacks found themselves with few nghts 
in a South that was increasingly hostile to their presence. 


The area's last flurry of antislavery activity occurred in the late 1840s and 
1850s. Wesleyan Methodist missionaries arrived in the county in 1847 for a 
tumultuous four year stay. Called "Abolition Methodists" because of their stance in 
American Methodism's three-way split over slavery, the two missionaries founded 
six churches in Randolph. Their active and forceful support for abolition led to 
several near riots and they were driven out of the state in 1851. In 1857 another 
Wesleyan missionary arrived, Daniel Worth. Worth was bom a North Carolma 
Quaker but became a Wesleyan after immigrating to Randolph County, Indiana. His 
headquarters during his mission was the home of his daughter and son-in-law in 
New Salem. Worth's irrational charges that the Quakers fostered the institution of 
slavery, and his stormy diatribes against the system, alienated Friends and infuriated 
the state's political leaders. He was subsequently arrested for sedition and escaped 
prison only by fleeing the state.'" 

The failure of local Quakers to resist pro-slavery leadership and to assert 
actively their moral and ethical opposition to the institution grew out of a profound 
conflict between political reality and their philosophical ideals. Friends earlier in the 
century had rallied to support progressive Whig goals and legislation. An identifiable 
Quaker presence in North Carolina politics was noted in the elections of 1824 and 
1828, when Friends joined forces with ex-Federalists and others to oppose Andrew 
Jackson as a presidential candidate.^^ In 1828 it was said that John Quincy Adams's 
"greatest support came from the Quaker counties of Guilford and Randolph." Yet, 
as the Daniel Worth episode illustrates, Friends generally held a dim view of overt 
political activity and were even inclined to disown members who sought othce. 
Friends seem to have rediscovered their political voice just three months before 
North Carolina followed her regional neighbors out of the Union. In a February, 
1861, referendum Randolph County voters, largely upon Quaker ^support, defeated 
the call for a secession convention by a margin of fifty to one. ^^ 

As North Carolina in general has been called a "Progressive Paradox 
Randolph might well be called a "Conservative Contradiction." Against its back- 
ground of progressive historical traditions the county has happily cultivated a 
contemporary reputation for political conservatism. The popular explanation— that 
Randolph is politically conservative because of its Quaker hentage— is perhaps the 
most widely accepted and least critically examined tidbit of local wisdom. Yet an 
outside observer would regard this explanation as something of a paradox, since the 
Society of Friends is normally classified among the "liberal" religions. 

Statistical research seems to underscore the paradox instead of erasing it. A 
look at the presidential and gubernatorial elections in which the county has 
participated reveals that the voters overwhelmingly favored the candidates promoting 
conservatism.'*^ On the state and national level, Randolph has been one of the most 
conservative counties in North Carolina. In countywide political contests, however, 
the situation is less clear. Since 1850 Randolph has had thirty sheriffs, and the 
representation for conservative and more liberal parties has been about equally 
divided. Elections for other offices would probably yield a similar story. "'' Thus, on 
the local level, it would seem that there is a rough parity between the political 

This confusing amalgamation of religious and political dissent must play a role 
in any examination of Randolph County history. These progressive and conservative 
forces interwoven in the county's past are also reflected in its landscape and built 


The America of Jefferson had begun to disappear before Jefferson himself had 
retired from the presidential chair. That paradise of small farms, each man secure on hiS 
own freehold, resting under his own vine and fig-trees, was already darkened by th 
shadow of impending change. For Jefferson, Utopia had cast itself in the form ot 
nation of husbandmen.' Those who labor in the earth,' he had said, 'are the chose 
people of God, if ever he had a chosen people'; and the American dream required that tn 
land be kept free from the corruptions of industrialism.' While we have land to laW 
then, let us never wish to see our citizens occupied at a work-bench, or twirling a distatl^ 
Far better to send our materials to Europe for manufacture, than to bring workingmen 
these virgin shores, 'and with them their manners and principles.' 'The mobs of gre9 
cities,' he concluded ominously, 'add just so much to the support of pure government, a 

sores do the strength of the human body.' 

Arthur Schlesinger, J' 
The Age of JacksO 

1770 map by Collet showing Cox's Mill, Husband's Mill. Fraser's Mill. Caraway Mounlains. RichK^ 
Creek Pole Cat and Sandy Creeks. Uwharrie (Voharee River). Deep River. Cape Fear Road. Craffo' 
Path and Trading Path (courtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randoi 
Public Library). ^ 


Agriculture . . „ 

The setting for antebellum Randolph's religious ^^^^^^^^^^^ 
tual life was a rural agricultural landscape which had been w ^^^ ^^ 

wilderness within the lifespan of many ^t'", ''^'"^ "^ /sou. v ^^^^^^^^^ 

social organization was the economically self-sufficient ex^nded^^^^ ^^enty-one 
thinly around the countryside Randolph County av^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^J.„ ^ 

inhabitants per square mile in 1850 and I860, only slignuy ^^^^ 

state whose more prominent political Ag"^-' S^^^/^J^^,^^^^^^^^ dog bark."- 
remarked, "No man should live where he can hear his neigno b ^.^^^ 

In the colonial period, the grassy ''^^^f "^^;, JX^^S much of the 
rise to a lucrative export trade in I'^estock. Betore t ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

agricultural economy of the Piedmont revolved J™""J ^^'^^j^^i, , ,us grain and 
farmers along the way picked up extra money by sem g ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

forage. The keeper of the Bethania Diary wrote «" ^ct^oe , ^^^^ ^^ 

September and October "more than 1,000 head of cattle have 

the way to Pennsylvania.""* r^„„ntv harmonized rather well with 

The agricultural landscape of Randolph County harmomz^ ^ ^^^.^^ ^^ 

Thomas Jefferson's concept of a "paradise °^. '3' .^rms'than her colonial 
husbandmen.""^ North Carolina in general featured smauer ^^ ^^^ agricultural 
neighbors with lesser emphasis on the production oi ,^ ^^^^^3^^,, (Guilford and 
economy of Randolph and its adjoining counties in tn V ^^^ the 

Alamance) was generally one of subsistence food ^roP Producuo^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 
primary product of the area with wheat gaining seconi,^^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
■ continuing self-sufficient nature of Randolpn agni-u domestic 

. local newspaper editor who declared that "our provisions are mostly 


ural agricultural landscape (courtesy 

Nineteenth-century Randolph County featured an ov^'^^j''^'"^yJ„i, public Library) . ^ 

Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Kanao'P —- 

c u „o» Rnttpr and Milk from the cool Recesses of the Dairy." 
'pl7/rL°„V^rw=StoHng'fo„d crops u„.i. weU t„,o .he ,w.„..e,h 
century. In 1920, Fred Burgess reported. 

Of her aericultural wealth only ten percent was produced by non-food crops. This is a 
her agricultural wealth is produced by food crops. 


Transoortation was the vital link between production and market. If the land was 
.oodSe weather was cooperative, a farmer expected his hard work to produce 
good f ^;j^ ™f ., ^lon^ acmally consumed. This surplus he hoped to sell for 

eS?a wheat or corn or butter or cheese; they had surpluses of their own to selk 
SsTdents of owns with limited garden space were the natural buyers of this 
Residents o\J°wi between town and farm were imperative. 

''''X:^S::r^^^^'^^P-^- of ^o-l county officials and every ab.e- 
u A- H !;an was reouircd to help with road maintenance under the supervision of 
bodied man ^^^^nTted^bv the county court. Even so, the early roads were often 
luut ^oTtl^bTe ly pasS^^^^^^^^^ Methodist missionary Bishop Francis Asbu^ 
was aZcclsLnaf visitor to Randolph in the 1790s and preserved several accounts o 
was an occasiona v. j ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ carnage. I 

nLotw shaped b^^^^ was much^affrighted . we had exceedmg ly 

narrowly e^ccipcu m & . trving; but it will make death 

uncomfortable road. Go-g t t^, ,,ate , very t^^^^g ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

welcome and e^^f J^^/f^^^^^^^ ,,e'of wooden plank roads in the 

mid-nmeteenth centuo' J ^^.^d in 1849 and diagonally bisected Randolph 

'Sn^The 9'^^^^^^^^^ road entered southeast Randolph from Moore 

CoSn S roughly following the present-day NC 705 to "s intersection with US 220 
tnH nn to Asheboro From Asheboro it approximated the route of 220 to New 
Market whte it tied northwest along the modem US 311 to advance to Sa lern 
?iow Wirs^on-Salem). Asheboro lawyer Jonathan Worth was a director of the p ank 
road compTn; and with his brother, John Milton Worth, contracted to provide all the 
Sne anZak^lumber used on the road through Randolph. To accomplish this, the 
mrths acquired the first steam-powered sawmill known to exist in the region.^ 
^ope main enance of plank roads was expensive and, though experiments were 
Se su^s ituting rock and gravel for planks, competition from the North Carolina 
Sroad led to the abandonment of the road in 1862.^^ However, the impact of the 
niank road belies its short life-span. As a convenient, direct route to major urban 
Sets to the north and south' the plank road opened up rural Randolph like 
nothing else prior to the railroads of the 1880s. 






.llAvairff^.VflBli^. ( liIRT Hoists. 

752i /ma/J showing the 

Randolph County section of the Salem to Fayettevilte Plank Road. Surveyed by Hamilton Fulton. State Engineer; drawn by Robert H. B. Brazier (courtesy N. C. State Archives). 

Special problems occurred when roads met watercourses. One solution was to 
float across in ferry boats. William Searcy's Ferry, later known as Waddell's Ferry, 
crossed Deep River near its entrance into Moore County and was an important 
colonial link. Those people with carriages, like Bishop Asbury, had particular 
problems with ferries. In 1780 he ". . . crossed Deep River in a flat boat, and^the 
poor fisherman sinner swore because I had not a silver shilling to give him. In 
December, 1793, "... we crossed Deep River, in a flat, not without danger; thence 
down Caraway Creek to Randolph town; thence to Uwharrie at Fuller's Ford. Here 
we were assisted by some young men with a canoe. Thank the Lord, both men and 
horses were preserved! The young men sometimes prayed and sometimes swore." 
A more common method of crossing one of Randolph's streams was to ford it at 
some shallow point. A ford is still maintained on a rural road near the site of 
Waddell's Ferry, the only one still in regular use in the county. Other well-known 
fords, such as the Island Ford in Franklinville or Buffalo Ford near Coleridge, were 
like Waddell's Ferry, eventually replaced by bridges. 

Waterpower and Mills 

Water was one of the great assets of the agricultural landscape, and one which 
made it possible both to process and to market agricultural products. Water rights 
were regulated by local government for the protection of both the property owners 
upstream whose land might be flooded by a dam and those downstream whose 
rights to water might be interfered with. Accordingly, county courts had to be 

petitioned for the "priviledge of riparian rights." Court records show that the fif* 
mill privilege in the area which later became Randolph County was granted t 
Samuel Walker in 1756 for a mill on Sandy Creek.'^ Soon thereafter, mills wef 
built on waterways throughout the area, an accurate accounting of which is V 
longer possible. Among them were those operated by Harmon Cox on Mill CreeK 
Hermon Husband on Sandy Creek, William Bell on Deep River and Andrew Hoove 
on the Uwharrie River. . 

The presence of these mills seemed to create as many problems as were solve« 
Along the Uwharrie and Deep rivers, for examples, they interrupted the supply '^ 
shad, eels, sturgeon and certain anadromous fish local residents depended upon W 
food and livelihood. On December 15, 1773. residents of the part of Guilford CouO 
that became Randolph petitioned the colonial Assembly "praying a law may pass' 
facilitate the passage of Fish in Deep River": 

. . . Your petitionars is Deprived of that Natural and profitable priveledge of CatchjiJ 
fish in Deep River as formerly ... by its Chanel being stopt by several Mill Dams bei 
made quite across said River to the Great hurt of many poor familys who Depended , 
said fishing for great part of their living, it being well known that no River of its size 
this provence afforded a greater quantity of Excellant Shad and other fish. We thereto^ 
Humbly pray that you through your great goodness would Condesend to pass a law in " 
favour so far as to oblige the owners of said dams to afix proper flood gates in their da"^ 
from the mouth of said River to Field & Dicks Mill above the trading path and then^ 
keep open at proper times from the tenth of fabniary to the tenth of april that the s 
inhabitents may in some manner be Restored to their former priveledge of Catcti 



The nature of the earliest gristmills is not clear. Tiny mills powered by tub 
whee s my have been built of logs, while larger mills with two or more stones were 
probabW of heavy frame construction. The massive timber framing, held together 
wrwooJen pegs, was necessary to withstand the vibrations of the turning stones 
Tnd wooden gearing. The special problems of mill construction were the province of 
*e mSnght, a craftsman who stood somewhere between the carpenter and the 

V. fl<:t to soawn in fresh water, 
;; Shad, a kind of herring, swim upstream from the coas ^^^^^^ declined to 

I"; unless stopped by dams. The members of the Assemoiy, ^^^ ^^^ .^^^ 

f/egulate the construction of mill dams; ^he m>llmg ot ^n ^^^^^^y 

» commodities suitable for trade or barter was vital in a cdbu h 

Daily News. Its accompanying caption identifies me mm amy 

Township r The photogra ph is credited to Frank Jones. 

A Photograph exists to show the appearance of the gristmill at FranklinviUe 
TradiSon cStf construction to Christian Moretz in 180 , although the miU 
nrivlTge had been sold from miller to miller beginning as early as 1785. The mill 
wala small two-and-a-half-story building about forty by forty feet in plan A 
wo^enwSer wheel powered three stones and a mrmmum of flour-processing 
maSery The gristmill shared the site with a sawmill, a typical combination. In 
Set SmiUsites, once developed, shared the potential power with other kinds of 
Ss The Franklinville mill later included a cotton gin and wool-carding machine 
Peter Dick's mill on Deep River, mentioned in the 1773 petition, included an oil mil 
which crushed flaxseeds to make linseed oil.^' Since water was the only convenient 
Tource of power at that time, even relatively small streams were used for purposes 
such as turning the lathes of cabinetmakers. 




Franklinville grist mill (built ca. 1801) taken in 1912 when the foundations of the new roller mill were 
being built around it. The tiny old mill was destroyed soon after. 

Dennis Cox grist mill, now destroyed, as it stood in Union Township. 

The Dennis Cox mill (ca. 1835) has been destroyed by fire since the inventory. 
The Cox mill was, at thirty by thirty feet and two-and-one-half stories with full 
basement, one of the largest remaining buildings of heavy frame construction in the 
county. At its site were a sash sawmill and a blacksmith shop. It was technically nd 
just a gristmill, like the one at Franklinville, but a merchant mill, one whick 
included special machines for smutting and bolting flour. These processes refine 
the coarse yellow flour, separating it into various grades. White flour was the desireO 
end product of this process and brought the highest price. Cox's mill, powered by ! 
breast wheel generating ten horsepower, could grind seventy-five bushels of graU 
each day.^^ The Peter Dicks mill in Randleman (destroyed about 1970) and th< 
Bell/Walker mill in New Market Township (destroyed about 1965) were both vei^ 
similar to the Dennis Cox mill. Miller's mill, a later merchant mill near Trinity, i| 
the best preserved of the remaining Randolph County gristmills. I 

Waterpower not only supplied energy for milling adjuncts to agriculture bi* 
also provided the element necessary for manufacturing plants. Rudimentary industil 
that began in antebellum Randolph emerged later in the century as the county i 
leading source of income. Because of the difficulty in transporting goods in tW 
Piedmont, antebellum merchants often engaged in manufacturing activities. On' 
such individual was Benjamin Elliott. 

"Colonel" Benjamin Elliott (15 February 1781-27 February 1842) was > 
prominent lawyer and commander of the Randolph County militia. He opened J 
general store in Asheboro sometime before 1808 when he was involved in tl* 
now-legendary tale of Naomi Wise." In the late 1820s Elliott acquired a tract « 
land on Deep River to establish his own manufacturing operation. Since the level « 
Deep River dropped about fifty feet in the half-mile stretch of the tract, Elliott hire 
local workmen Isaac Lamb and Grief Cozins to build a dam and sawmill powered K 
an undershot "flutter" wheel. Soon a "common gristmill, with one run of stones 
was added, and the settlement became known as "Elliott's Mills."^ 

As Elliott began to provide his stores with flour and lumber, he also toO' 
preliminary steps to obtain wholesale cotton yam. The southern market for yam w« 
vast. While northern textile demand could be partially satisfied by Europe^ 
imports, home textile production was a major pursuit in the South. The census « 
1810 disclosed the fact that North Carolina produced more domestic textiles than » 
the New England states together. ^^ In Randolph County alone the census identifi* 
1,333 hand looms, 400 spindles and 14 spinning frames producing 86,000 yards' 
handmade cotton cloth worth some $34,000.^ 

Converting raw wool and cotton into spun yam was the most laborious step' 
the creation of "homespun" clothing. A difficult part of the complex process \V 
automated in 1793 when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, in which a row ' 
rotating, toothed saws pulled the cotton fiber from the seeds. Just nine years la^ 
there were five cotton gins in Randolph County." Once processed and spun, the y^ 
was ready to weave into cloth. With the development of water-powered factories 
was found that much of the time spent in hand-weaving could be saved by buy'" 
this mechanically-produced cotton yam. 

Local merchants such as Ben Elliott could meet this demand either 


Interior of Miller's Mill. Trinity Township, showing the hoppers and housings of the wheat an corn 
stones (courtesy of Jane L. Delisle). 

u • ,»fQii stores or by producing it 
importing yam through circuitous routes to their "^^^ ' ''" _ ' ^rchants was even 
themselves in a mill of their own. A wholesale trade t" "*" "'/^^ legislature 
possible if the mill was successful. In F;^^™g;.„yof Randolph, a projected 
incorporated The Manufacturing Company ot ^he t^oumy McCain, the 

cotton textile factory, at the request of Elliott ^f three fnenos ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 
county's clerk of court, Jesse Walker, a New Salem mercnan ■ ^ ^^re 

Asheboro lawyer and merchant.''^ Enterprismg ^^"^olph atizens^^^^^^ 
motivated to invest their capital in ventures other than lana ^^.j^^giopment 

One reason may have been the regions affiliation w'ln y ^^^^ ^^^ 

political policies of the Whig Party. Plank roads railroads ana ^^^.^^^.^^ ^^y 
advocated by proponents of'internal improvements^ Belt" toward slavery, which 
have been the religious opposition of the Q"^^;^^^ ,„,,, businessmen and 
required less objectionable ways of investing ^^e savings oi factories 

small farmers. Many of the subsequent stockholders '" ^f"^°'P (1738-1836), 
were Friends, and many Quakers in the North, such as Moses bro ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

advocated such developments. Brown, one "f ^^^ *''""''^'' iH„ated actively in the 
industry, was a wealthy Rhode Island Friend ' ^^J) jiad ^^ u^f j^at 

Quaker abolition and antipoverty movemems and had shaped the Fnenas 
manufacturing might relieve social ills."''^ 

r-^^T,: -W_ 


Disused iron water 

wheel of Miller's Mill. Trinity Township (courtesy of Jane L. Delisle). 

General Alexander Gray, farmer, JohnstonviUe merchant and Randolph 
County's most prominent citizen of the time, was a stockholder in an earlier, 
unsuccessful North Carolina cotton mill scheme. The Hillsborough Manufacturing 
company, proposed in 1813, never passed beyond the organizational stage. A 
similar fate lay in store for the Randolph Manufacturing Company of 1829. The 
Randolph County incorporators seem to have underestimated the difficulty of 
building financial support for the cotton factory, the most expensive local project 
ever proposed The lack of banks and other sources of capital m the area meant that 
funds had to come from individual savings. When fund-raising proved unsuccessful, 
the Randolph Manufacturing Company charter was allowed to lapse. The time was 
not yet favorable for manufacturing interests in the state. Four other cotton factory 
companies were incorporated in that same legislative session and none were in 
operation before the mid- 18 30s. 

Yet where a public corporation had failed, a private partnership eventually 
succeeded, attributable largely to Colonel Ben Elliott's son, Henry Branson Elliott 
(1806-1863). One of Randolph County's most progressive figures in the antebellum 
movement for internal improvements, Henry Elliott was graduated from the 
University of North Carolina in 1826 and went to Princeton to study law. About 1830 
he returned to Randolph and joined in his father's business ventures. In 1836, Henry 



and Ben Elliott formed a partnership with another father-and-son team, Dr. Phillip 
Homey (1791-1856) and Alexander S. Homey (1815-1891) to build the county's 
first cotton factory. On March 14, 1837, the Raleigh Register noted that "Messrs. 
Elliott, Homey and others have been for some time actively engaged in erecting a 
cotton factory at the Cedar Falls on Deep River. . . ." By mid-June the factory's 500 
spindles were making "superior quality cotton yam" suitable for sale in Elliott's 



The 1846 Cedar hulls Jaciory ca. 1900. viewed frum lite soutlicasl. The monitor rooj and chimneys are 
clearly visible. The stair tower and cupola at the west end are later 1 9th century additions (courtesy 
Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 

The year 1836 was important to North Carolina's infant textile industry for 
another reason. In that year Edwin Michael Holt installed machinery for spinning 
yam in his father's gristmill, thereby establishing a factory at Alamance Village on 
Great Alamance Creek. Holt enlarged his factory in 1845, added looms in 1848, and 
after 1853, when an itinerant Frenchman taught them the dyeing process, Holt and 
his sons made "Alamance Plaids," the first colored cloth woven on power looms in 
the South. Five other mills were started in the Alamance area before the Civil War, 
two of which Holt purchased in 1851 and 1860 to add to his nascent textile 
dynasty. ^^ 

Also in 1836, Charles P Mallett built two factories in Fayetteville. The second 
factory included 100 looms for weaving cloth and was perhaps the first mill in the 
state to boast this innovation. ^^ Power looms proved tremendously successful in this 
mill, the Rockfish Manufacturing Company, which by 1860 was the largest factory in 

North Carolina. One of the state's first mills had been built in Fayetteville in 1825; 
with Mallett's mills and three more built in Fayetteville in 1840, the city boasted six 
textile factories before the war.^'' 

The 1836 Cedar Falls factory was the stimulus for an economic boom in 
Randolph County. By 1850 there were five textile mills in operation along Deep 
River, making the area (along with Alamance and Fayetteville) one of the three 
centers of North Carolina's antebellum textile industry. Just seven months after the 
Cedar Falls factory began operations, another factory was organized downriver at: 
modem Franklinville. This concern, designed to improve upon the Cedar Falls mill, 
was created as a corporation rather than a partnership for it needed additional 
capital. The new factory was housed in a brick building, one of the largest structures 
in the county, and expanded operations "to include weaving on a pretty large 

Western side of the Franklinsville Manufacturing Company factory, as it appeared in 1874. A cupola " 
faintly visible at the north end of the roof. The demarcation line between the original 1838 first floo' 
masonry and the darker post-1851 masonry is evident. 

scale."'^ By Febmary of 1839 "a little village had sprung up" as the company 
constructed houses for "some eight or ten respectable families."'^ By January o' 
the next year machinery was being installed in the brick "Factory House," and W 
March the mill at Franklinville was in operation. ^^ 

In 1845 manufacturing had become such a lucrative investment that fifteen me" 
and women joined to incorporate the Island Ford Manufacturing Company. Thi* 
small frame mill was also built in Franklinville and also included looms. In 1848 ^ 
fourth factory was organized by Quaker residents of the New Salem area. Named thf 
Union Manufacturing Company, the corporation built what was probably the county ' 
largest antebellum factory near the Dicks' grist and oil mill (now Randleman). Th^ 
county's fifth mill, the Deep River Manufacturing Company, was also incorporate|^ 
in 1848, but the brick mill at Columbia (now Ramseur) was not completed unf' 


t* I 

The only ,no.n representaHon of, He 1845 Island ^or<ifac,oryism^^^^^^^^^ -' ^^^'^^ ""^-^'^ 
in the special 1895 "Cotton Mill Edition" of the News and Observer ofRaletgh. ^ 

~ Randolph County's early cotton te^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

North Carolina's first, although the Cedar Falls and F "klmvd^^^^^^^ ^^^^^,^ 

among the first twenty. Neither were the Randdph f^^""" ^^ ^^^ early 

biggest, or best-run, or most-productive ^"^^^^ellurn mUls^ BuMhe^^^^^^.^y 

Randolph mills and mill villages are important, "^^^"^^'"'p^rolina when the Civil 

There were about fifty cotton mills in operation m North Laroui 

War began in 1861;^» these are among the few survivors. 

^^^ vpnman service for both the State and 
From 1861 to 1865 these mills were to P^J"™ y!™fn,i,,s worked at full capacity 
the Confederacy. Almost without exception North Carolina i^^^ ^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

throughout these four years, and many operated day a e ^ ^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^ 

months of the war the Confederate government drew its en ff^ Sherman's or 

from the mills of upland North Carolina. Cotton lactones ^^.^^ ^jjj, ^orn and 

Stoneman's forces emerged from the war as ''''™' .^ring the war justified the 
obsolescent machinery, but their own record of Production dunngt 
faith their owners had shown in the North Carolina ext.kinau^ry. ^^^^^^^^ ^^^.^^ 
For the years ahead the ante-bellum mills nao ""^^ t'^^j jg^Q^^ (here was never a 
Despite the precarious existence of mills in the late i» ^^^^ ^^^^j^^ expansion after 
complete breakdown of the industry in the State, ana ^^ ^^^ ^^.^ asset— a 

1880 was built on the foundations that had existed for ''^"°"^j^j;,„ 3„d enough mills to 
number of communities with manufacturing traditions an e ^^^ Carolina 

form a nucleus for further growth-that attracted casual and maae 
Piedmont area the textile center of the New South. 

Thi, is the only known illustration of the Union factory before it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1885. 
Tappel^sontheRandleman Manufacturing Company letterhead, dated 1879 (courtesy N. C. State 

Archives). _^_^^_____ 


Here we still have a lot of personal independence, coupled with a personal initiative, 
looking toward the personal good of the most people. 

There is no higher aim for any business group, large or small, than to help along this 
Tar Heel way of life and living. 

— Speech by North Carolina Governor 
R. Gregg Cherry, 22 November 1946 

Growth of the Tfextile Industry 

The five Randolph County factories, employing 298 persons in 1860, were the 
predecessors of local industries now employing 10,000 textile and apparel workers, 
or about one-fourth of the county work force.«° As eariy as 1850 Randolph had been 
almost three times as industrialized as all but one of its neighboring counties. The 
exception Alamance, pioneered the textile industry in concert with Randolph and 
Cumberiand. Much of the subsequent expansion of the textile industry in North 
Carolina rested on the foundations laid by industrialists of these counties. 

Typical of the influence of the eariy Randolph factories was the Civil War-era 
Cedar Falls Company under George Makepeace. During the war the company was 




the state's largest supplier of shirts and underwear for the army.^' Makepeace and his 
young assistants, J. M. Odell and W H. Ragan, oversaw production from cotton 
bale to finished apparel, perhaps the first time in North Carolina that these activities 
were integrated by a corporation. Odell and Ragan were two in a generation of 
subsequently prominent "New South" industrialists who entered the textile busi- 
ness before the war. 

John Milton Odell, a Cedar Falls native who began working for the factory 
about 1855, is perhaps the best known. *^ After brief service in the Civil War, Odell 
returned to the Cedar Falls factory and seems to have served as superintendent from 
1862 to 1869. Odell then moved to Concord and in 1877 bought and reopened a 
defunct textile factory there. He soon became one of the most successful textile 
industrialists in the state. Not only was Odell the dominant figure in Concord's 
industrial boom, he also pioneered textile ventures in Chatham and Gaston counties 
and the city of Durham. Odell also sponsored James William Cannon's first Concord 
factory, the Cannon Manufacturing Company.'*-' 

J. A. Odell, a brother of J. M. Odell, began work for the Cedar Falls Company 
as a storekeeper. About 1869 he moved to Greensboro and founded the Odell 
Hardware Company which remains a major wholesale business. William H. Ragan, 
the war-time superintendent at the Franklinville factory, became a pioneer merchant 
and industrialist in High Point and was involved in the early furniture industry also. 

Jonathan Worth's primary income while he served as secretary of state and 
governor came from his job as president of the Cedar Falls Company. His brother, 

John Milton Worth, began an influential career in textiles as a Cedar Falls 
stockholder who rose to the presidency of the company (1877-1901). J. M. Worth 
involved several family members in the business, founded the mill and village at 
Worthville, and controlled plants in Randleman and Central Falls as well as Cedar 
Falls. During his lifetime Randolph became the center of a regional industry: 

By 1883 the banks of Deep River were lined with eleven cotton factories, nine of 
which were located in Randolph County. This county had one of the heaviest concentra- 
tions of cotton mills before the war ... In the 1870s new mills arose at the side of those 
which had been in operation for decades. There were eleven mills, extending from 
Jamestown in Guilford County to Enterprise in Randolph. They had in operation 28,OO0 
spindles and 750 looms, which gave employment to about 5,000 persons. The capital 
invested in these mills was over three quarters of a million dollars.*" 

Other local factories played parts in fostering the textile expansion. The 
postwar owners of Union factory helped establish the 1879 Naomi plant down- 
stream in Randleman as well as three later steam-powered factories. Randleman's 
most significant role was perhaps as a pioneer in the hosiery industry. The 
Randleman Hosiery Mill, established before 1894, was one of the first in the 
Piedmont.** J. Henry Millis of High Point had taken interest in this mill by 1904 ani 
had hired its superintendent to oversee the first hosiery mill in his city, the Higl' 
Point Hosiery Mill. That original factory became part of the modem Adams-Milli* 
Corporation, one of the nation's largest hosiery manufacturers and a cornerstone of 

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i4 \\evi of the Worth Manufacturing Company factory at Worthville appears on a 1910 stock certificate. 

Interior of the Franklinsville Manufacturing Company weaving room in 1916. 


the phenomenal development of High Point's hosiery industjy.J^e debt to RancUeman 
was partially repaid when the Commonwealth H.°^'^^^^'^'"l^3'„'„ s.^ ^■ 
and associates moved there from High Pomt dunng the Depression. 

Furniture Industry . 

An unexpected outgrowth of Randolph's antebellum textile m^^^^^^ 
as the other half of the county's modem mdustnal sector^ ^^ outgrowth of 

Randolph, unlike the development in some areas, ^^^not s. p > ^^ 

early country cabinetmaking. Textile factones all ^,^1^, we^e necessary, from 
which to wind yam. Various sizes of the spools or ^oddui ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ 

the large warp and roving type to "quills, bobbms wh'cn ^.^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

loom. Bobbins were disposable items, used until ^^o'cen or s^^^ ^^ ^^^ difficulties of 
essential, therefore, to have a source of ^^P^^'^^^i^f ^^re doubtlessly manufac- 
transportation and the simplicity of the iteni, boboms w f^,^^^ or by a 

tured locally from the earliest periods either by independent 
mill's machine shop. . ^egan during the Civil 

The first known wholesale marketing of ^h^f i;^"^;„i„| i„ june, 1863, the 
War, again under the aegis of George .^?f kepeace Begin^^^g^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
Greensboro Patriot carried notices that The Ceaar ra ^ ^^^ ^^.^^^^ ^^^ ^ 

prepared to furnish at short notice, all kinds ot ^o''"" ,,'87 ^^e Cedar Falls Bobbin 
suitable for woolen and cotton mills. J. M. Odell, Agen^ r,,v^cwrv in 1867-1868 
factory was advertised in Bransons North Carolina f "^'"""^ ; t^e Cedar Falls- 
and 1869. The 1870 Census of Manufacturers ''^ted fwo me"^^^ ^^j,.„^^ ^ork." 
Franklinville area who described their business as equipment as 

Both A. G. Jennings and J. W. Tippett identified h^^^^^J^^^ J'^.'^^.d tumed 26,000 
a "water-powered tuming lathe." Besides 50 bedsteaas Jen ^ j ^^^^ ^^ bedsteads 
bobbins (worth $780) during the previous y^^r, ^"f^,' ?„^..orv of Alson G. Jennings 
and 25 bureaus as well as 13,000 bobbins. The bobbin ^^ / . ^ds was listed 
advertised in the 1872 and 1877 Branson Directories, but atterw 
only as "A. G. Jennings & Son, Cabinetmakers. „arked the first example 

The bobbin factory with waterpowered t""^'?^ '^"^ working industry. During 
of mechanized mass production in North Carolina "^ ^j^j shuttles and picker 

the war production must have expanded to include rep .^^ ^^^ shuttles were 

sticks. Picker sticks were simple, disposable items uk ' ^^^^^^^^ ^^j^^^i^g^j 

more complicated. Hollow, bullet-shaped devices witn .^ ^{,e'ioom. They were 
quills to carry the filling yam through the warp sn ^^ manufacture. Raw 

historically made from apple wood, durable yet sou ^ -^ .^ ^^^^^ maintained 
material, however, was grown in specially-planted groves o \>v 

by the northern loom makers. v.: ,n "the father of High Point," 

The situation changed after the Civil War ^^^nKs lu ^^^^ .^ ^^^^ Carolina 
Captain William H. Snow.'' A Vermont native, bnow nu ^^^^^^ ^^ ^.^ tubercular 
during the war and decided to retum hoping to improv resources of 

wife.«9 Snow immediately became involved in utilizing the 

Randolph and Guilford counties. He seems to have worked during the late 1860s in 
?o?ond Thomas McMahon's spoke and handle factory in Greensboro.^" TT^]V^ 
Sntw Sres tablish his own V and handle factoiy in Archdale, but by 1872 he 
had moved the operation to High Point where he had settled, 
had movea ^""l J introduced inexpensive dogwood and 

•^"'''' lis S the nTrthem textile industry. In 1867 he sent a barrel of 
persimmon shuttles to the rionnern lexi y Massachusetts. This 

P"^\rfi^"sttrate?simmon^ u^^^^^^^ shipped from the South."- 

was the first time a Persimmon snu ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Although it has been c aimed ht^to^^^^^^^^ for th'e manufacture of 

tSo k's '■' it seems likely that the state's antebellum textile factories had made 
tttcrr;'earlier.^3 ^ the Civil W. with .on. in ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

rhSrarwKsSrin :uL?r:sothem shuttJalmost immediately 
shuttles as wen as pvnensive aoolc wood and a market was created 

aXTS ars rn^ XStTmS By 1884 there were shuttle block 
StoriesTn Archdale and Central Falls as well as in High Point, Greensboro and sur- 

""IriSfsnow founded the Snow Lumber Company to process Randolph 
in 1651 oil" crrnwine number of High Point wood products— shuttles, 

County timber ^"-^ j^e grow'^^i^^^^i^dow sash, doors and blinds. About 1883 
rbeg:;rpSm^otS^^^ to open up the Randolph forests.- The 

prcSeltwas completed in 1889, a year after W. H. Snow's son, E. A. Snow, assisted 

Interior of a chair manufacturing operation in Randkman. ca. 1900. 




in founding the High Point Furniture Company, the town's first furniture factory, 
which had begun operating by July, 1888.^^ The railroad and the developing 
furniture market soon encouraged the opening of plants in Randolph County. The 
Alberta Chair Works, incorporated in Ramseur in 1889, was the first and continues 
to operate as the Weiman Company. By 1900 almost every town in the county 
boasted a chair factory. P & P Chair Company in Asheboro is the best remaining 
example of that period, although furniture manufacturing plants are currently being 
constructed and remain an important segment of the local economy. 

Industrialism and Community Growth 

The practice of building a mill in virtually every town in the Piedmont tended to 
stabilize the population in and around the towns, in contrast to the tendency in other 
industrializing areas for rural populations to empty into a few large cities. The dispersion 
of industry led to the dispersed population and relative lack of large cities that is such a 
striking characteristic of the region.'^ 

The above quote describes the results of a circular development process which 
provided for slow, steady industrial growth in both Randolph County and North 
Carolina. This type of industrial development was, in effect, a process of decentraliz- 
ing factories and centralizing the worker population. Factories and workers were 
gathered together in small towns, and the rural landscape was kept relatively free of 
encroaching industrial development and residential subdivision. The process began 
under the various cotton mill companies both before and after the Civil War and was 
extended to foster the furniture industry. The philosophy was institutionalized by 
North Carolina's Governor R. Gregg Cherry in the 1940s as the "Balanced Growth 
Policy." In a speech entitled "Conserving North Carolina's Resources" given in 
January, 1946, Governor Cherry said: 

. . . we must not lose sight ofthe fact that industrialization alone is no panacea. . . . North 
Carolina will not have a great many industries except as they are added one or two at a 
time, community by community. It must be a program based on the type of industry best 
suited to any given community. ... It should be the type of industry which will be 
locally owned, locally managed, and locally financed. . . . 

We shall never forge ahead relatively to the race with our sister states unless and until 
we supplement the present vogue for bringing in industries from the outside with an 
aggressive program of development from within. ... To obtain locally owned and 
managed industries, established in the light of needs of a particular community, is to 
obtain them the hard way But we can and must do it.'" 

Governor Cherry's call for the creation of small, community-based, rurally 
located industries built with local capital, utilizing local labor and raw materials 
contrasts sharply with contemporary notions of growth based on industrial recruitment. 
Unfortunately, it is an obvious fact that life today does not reflect a situation like that 
he described. The textile industry today is the largest industrial employer in North 
Carolina. The state's fifty textile factories of the Civil War period currently have 

1,325 descendant textile plants. With mills in 81 of 100 counties, one quarter of the 
United States textile industry is located in North Carolina. One of every three 
manufacturing workers in the state is involved with textiles or wearing apparel, 
combining for more than 40 percent of the industrial occupations.*^ 

Governor Cherry's lucid description of an ideal was made as changing 
circumstances began to erode it. The process of decentralizing factories in rural 
population centers reversed course with advances in mid-twentieth century technology 
With good roads, automobiles, inexpensive gasoline and reduced travel time, a 
centralized worker population was no longer necessary. Employees could live 
anywhere as long as they could drive to work. Hard times in the 1930s and the 
demands of World War II brought people from the farms into the wage earning class 
of industry. The clear distinction between rural and urban life blurred in the years 
after the war. The final barrier was broken when water and sewage service systems 
were extended into the rural areas. Annexation and expansion followed, intensifying 
and encouraging a similarity of growth in the cities and the countryside. 

Between 1967 and 1978, the amount of rural farmland in North Carolina 
decreased by 1.3 million acres, including an average of 2,000 acres per county of 
prime farmland."* Just in part of that period, from 1974 to 1978, Randolph County 
lost 10,000 acres of rural land to development. "" j 

The history of Randolph County's buih environment calls to mind the long' 
running controversy between preservationists and developers, sometimes posed as 
"the eternal struggle for supremacy between the land and the machine." The 
county's antebellum industry both coexisted with the agricultural economy and 
strengthened it. The relationship of the factories to the environment was naturally 
symbiotic: the environment provided the energy to run the manufacturing operation 
and the factory workers created a market for agricultural production. That mutually 
beneficial relationship stands as a perpetual reminder of those brief but exciting 
years when the machine and nature were working as one. Realistically, however, the 
clock cannot be turned back and development will continue. The preservationists 
must work with the forces of progress to conserve that which should be preserved of 
our architectural heritage. Together they can create an acceptable "balanced 

Good-thinking, growing, forward-looking companies . . . working hard with aletl 
civic bodies, will remodel the indusu-ial map of our glorious state in wonderfully helpful 
ways, bit by bit, month by month, year by year. Here in North Carolina we have our own 
working problems, our own enthusiasms, our own wholesale pride. Our job to do is ouf 
own garden to tend— in accordance with the local climate, the local rain, the local 
sunshine. We have, in the final analysis, a North Carolina way of life, a way of doinj 
things, and this is in direct contrast to the vast and regimented industrial complexes i" 
other lands. '"2 


- TiA'jyjfaa a a gag .^.^^'-'. ».*j^*».i- 


Structural Development 

The need for structural development in early Randolph County was initially 
filled by amateurs, then by specialists and professionals, and in more recent years oy 
corporations and businesses. Houses, bams, outbuildings, mills, ^^ore^' ^f^J"/"^ 
all the other elements of the early Randolph County landscape sprouted out ot tne 

"J Congress). 

Johnston and the Library 

fertile and diverse minds of the widely divergent groups of settlers claiming a piece 
of central North Carolina real estate. The wagon loads of barrels, boxes, furniture 
and other belongings carried by the early immigrant families pale when compared to 
the intellectual and cultural baggage each member carried in his head. While 
remaining an essential truth, it has become much less obvious today due to the 
mass-produced, homogeneous nature of modem American society. Today's exurban 
migrant can fill his need for housing with the purchase of some pre-manufactured 
house trailer or "Jim Walter" home. The pioneer of the early North Carolina 
Piedmont faced an acute need for shelter which he could only fill by building for 
himself, with local materials and labor, according to whatever idea of a home he 
carried in his mind. 

In Europe prototypical dwellings varied from country to country, as regional 
and site-specific as any linguistic dialect, and as easy to identify and attribute. 
American architectural research is not quite so clear. As in most other aspects of our 
society, the cultural "melting pot" has blurred those European distinctions. Many 
national elements which were preserved in New England, Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia had been transformed, modified or forgotten completely by the time 
these settlers or their descendants reached Piedmont North Carolina. While building 
types and architectural forms found in those states are also found in Randolph 
County, attributing them to specific national or cultural groups is difficult and highly 


"In log houses the antecedents of the builder show less than in more highly 
finished buildings, where details of joinery almost invariably betray early training or 
environment." '°^ This statement, made by Thomas T Waterman, the godfather of 
architectural history in North Carolina, was used as preface to a discussion of 
Randolph's oldest house, the Enos Blair log cabin. The Blair cabin is the county's 
only contribution to the author's 1941 book, The Early Architecture of North 
Carolina. Waterman considered the house near Trinity one of the region's oldest 
stractures on the basis of its plan, chimney location, window treatment and 
construction details. The Blair house survives today with changes. The unglazed 
windows covered with sheathed shutters have disappeared, replaced with modem 
sash. The original cabin is the nucleus of a series of rambling additions now further 
disguised with aluminum siding. Fewer alterations have changed the interior of the 
cabin, which had led Waterman to exclaim that "The effect of this low dark room 
with its great fireplace must well exemplify the interiors of the first North Carolina 

dwellings." '°^ , . ^. ^^ 

The only portion of Waterman s analysis which demands improvement is his 
use of local information to assign a specific date to the cabin, "said to date from 
about 1750, when Enos Blair settled here."'°^ Enos Blair, bom in Virginia in 1750, 
could not have built a home of his own in Randolph County until about 1770. The 
cabin could possibly have been built much earlier by a relative or some other 
pioneer, but this is unclear. Whether 1750 or 1770, the cabin is still Randolph's 
oldest standing stmcture and a good example of the simple dwellings of the earliest 
settlers. Moreover, it demonstrates the fact that some of the ideals brought by the 
settlers were later changed in response to the local environment. An illustrative 


comparison can be made between the Blair cabin and a larger log home built by the 
Frazier family about 1780 standing a short distance northeast. 

Both cabins feature a single story with a sleeping loft. The Frazier cabin, 
however, used "double-pen" construction to create a two room plan, called a 
"hall-and-parlor" plan. The front and rear entrances, by opening into the larger east 
room, or "hall," provided for cross-ventilation in the summer, and the exterior end 
chimneys relegated excess heat to the outside. The Blair cabin's interior end chimney 
is the only one known in a Randolph County log house. This type of chimney was 


Frazier double-pen log House. New Market Township: built ca. 1 780: demolished 1981 . 

Contemporary photograph of the Enos Blair House porch, now a screened enclosure. 

useful for retaining heat in colder northern climates, but hot southern summers soon 
led builders to place chimneys outside the mass of the house, and even to build 
separate "summer kitchens" to distance the heat of cooking fires from the living 

Log construction had been brought to America by Germans and Scandinavians, 
but the technique had become a pioneer standard long before the first settlers 
reached Randolph. Because of the abundance of materials and the relative ease of 
construction, pioneers left log structures in their wake like bread crumbs along the 
trail. More log structures are recorded in the Randolph architectural inventory than 
any other type of building, yet these undoubtedly represent only a fraction of those 
which still exist and now are hidden by later construction. Inventoried log buildings 
represent an even smaller fragment of the total number built in the county for the 
tradition of log building extended from the eariiest days of settlement to the Second 
Worid War. Today, a modified version is gaining in popularity. 

Because of the technique's ubiquity the exact dating of a log cabin or house is 
almost impossible. Size, floor plan and the style of comer joint notching are the 
only major distinctions between types of log buildings, and any builder could 
choose any variation which appealed to his tastes and needs. The two most common 
notching techniques found in Randolph are the "V" notch, as featured on the Blaif 
cabin, and the "half-dovetail" notch such as used in the circa-1840 log mill house al 


Interior of the Sandy Creek Baptist Church showing log construction. 

Cedar Falls. No "full dovetail" notches were found, and «"ly .^/^^ V^^^f'^a 
the "diamond" notch, a com crib on the Thomas Rice ^o^ne «a Fa^^^^^^^ 
discovered. Any style of notch was appropriate for o^tbuildrngs, w^h^^y' vary g 
from building to building even on the same farm complex. ^""^^ bmioing p w 
built in haste or by two Workers with different preferences, '^°"^^med more tn 
notching style in a single structure. Two small f ;";-f,^,S' 
Cross and one in Brower Township, displaymg both halMove ail ana 
The latest documented use of half-dovetail notching is f«""'^ '" ^^'""^eTrly all of 
Swaim farm in New Market Township, built in 1919. Log ^Jacco bams^ neady a 
^vhich were built in Randolph County between 1900 and 1940, almost unitormiy 

the simple saddle or square notches. „^rdstent building technique. 

Log construction was Randolph County's most persistent ^"""' » j ^^^^ 
surviving even heavy frame construction. It was appropriate o even^ J 
dwellings of the earliest settlers (the Frazier and Blair cabins) to a ger two ry 
'mansion" houses (the Wrenn House near Liberty) ^° P^'^^^Hs L^^^^^^ 
courthouses or the extant Sandy Creek Baptist Church). For a l.t^perv^^ 
knowledge of log construction is still incomplete but it wll.ncreas^^^^^^^ ^^^y^ 
future discovery of a house or cabin hidden under honeysuckle, 
additions ti 

Despite the prevalence of log construction, pioneers may have frequent y 

Picker house of the Franklinsville Manufacturing Company or ' ' Upper Mill: ' The original stone picker 
house has been surrounded by later additions (Ruth Little). 

considered such buildings as temporary, expedient structures. Permanent structures 
before 1860 generally were of "heavy" frame construction. Only one major stone 
building was found by the inventory, the 1838 Randolph Manufacturing Company 
"Picker House" in Franklinville. Stone was a logical choice for containing the 
explosive atmosphere of combustible cotton dust. Although the structure is basically 
utilitarian, the stone masonry received at least a partial coat of stucco, which was 
scored to resemble cut blocks of stone. 

While the local clay which supported so many potters also produced many 
brick it was used primarily for chimneys or foundations. Only five brick houses are 
known which pre-date the Civil War: the Reddick House (Trinity), "Melrose," 
the Dempsey Brown House and the Tommy White House, all in Trinity Township; 
and the Makepeace House in Franklinville. There were only five brickmasons in 
Randolph in 1850 and six in 1860. The career of only one of these is known in 
detail— Robert Gray (1820-1890) of Gray's Chapel. He almost certainly was involved 
in the construction of the brick textile factories in nearby Cedar Falls and Franklinville 
and in the reconstruction of the Franklinville factory in 1851. Soon afterwards he 
"contracted for and built" the three-story main building of Trinity College. In 1855 
Gray was hired to build another three-story school building, the Glennanna Female 
Seminary, which still stands in Thomasville.'°^ 

Heavy frame construction was much more common than masonry. The tech- 



Dempsey Brown House, Trinity Township: built perhaps prior to 1836. 

Documentary photograph showing the George Makepeace House in Franklinville ca . 1895 . 

nique was also known as "post and beam" or "mortise and tenon" construction, 
so-called after components of the process. Large timbers were mortised, or cut and 
notched, to make up a skeletal structural frame, then fastened together with wooden 
pegs, or trunnels ("tree-nails"), instead of iron hardware. This type of construction 
was superseded in the late nineteenth century by "balloon-frame" construction, 
developed in Chicago after 1833. The "balloon-frame" technique, using smaller, 
standardized sizes of lumber fastened with nails, is more familiar today. It is not 
known to have been used in Randolph until after the Civil War. 

Almost any settler with a broadaxe and a strong back could build a log cabin. A 
heavy-frame structure required greater skill, different tools, longer time and more 
money. A log cabin could be built without using a single nail, but either masonry or 
frame construction required plenty of them. Frame construction was something of a 
specialty and mainly the province of a professional house carpenter. The carpenter 
was hired to build at least the massive frame of a structure. Once this was done, the 
neighbors could be called to help raise the frame, peg it and celebrate in the 
"house-raising" party. In the 1850 census, the first to list professions, there were 
forty-eight carpenters in Randolph. The number had climbed to seventy-six by 1860. 

Little information is available on the lives and careers of the county's aforemen- 
tioned carpenters. A unique survival is the contract signed by Spencer M. Dorsett 
and Thomas W Allred in September, 1850 to build Hanks Lodge for the Masonic 
Order in Franklinville. 

The framing is to be of oak; the rest may be of good heart pine, but any expose 
timber must be heart pine. The shingles to be of good heart pine. The framing to be 
inches thick and the studding set on 18 inch centre. The upper story to be finished vvi' 
seats, stands, and a desk suitable for the lodge. The lower story to be finished with se^' 
with backs and desks suitable for a school room. The said Dorsett and Allred are ' 
furnish all the material and to do the whole in good workmanlike style and after the late^ 
fashions. . . . The structure was to be completed within six months for $1,350. 

— original document in the possession of Hank's Lodge No. 1 2' 

The same materials and techniques developed for home and commerci' 
construction were also used in building bridges. Throughout most of the nineteen'' 
century timber was the only economical material for rural bridge construction. I'' 
chief drawback, however, was its tendancy to weaken and decay. An open bridge h^' 
a useful life expectency of only ten to fifteen years, while other bridges, roofed afl' 
covered, have survived over one hundred years. Any large wooden bridge w^ 
therefore designed to be protected by a roof, protecting the wooden structuf' 
members from rot. North Carolinians built many such bridges in the nineteeni' 
century. One of the first in the Piedmont was authorized in 1818, when Lewis Bear'' 
operator of an important Yadkin River ferry near Salisbury, gained permission fro'' 
the state legislature to replace his ferry with a toll bridge. Beard went far afield '' 
find a designer for his bridge, hiring Ithiel Town of New Haven, Connecticut. ToW' 
a former apprentice to Boston architect Asher Benjamin, had just completed thr^ 


r arjiTJK'CTEr j ^ J WMKyaw*" 

'documentary photograph showing the interior construction of the Sheen's Mill covered bridge, an 
^'iample of mortise and tenon construction. 

important bridges over the Connecticut River and was considered an expert on the 
subject. 107 While in North Carolina Town patented one of the country's most popular 
Jndge trusses, a latticed web of diagonal timbers in standard sizes. The resulting 
°ndge was sturdy, cheap and easy to assemble, leading Town to boast that his bndge 
^ould be "buih by the mile and cut off by the yard." '°' Town patented his design and 
charged a licensing fee for its use. 

Although covered bridges were built all over the state, Randolph has long been 
^^nsidered North Carolina's foremost "covered bridge county."'"^ Randolph today 
has two of the state's three existing bridges, although these are the last representa- 
tives of a once large assortment. At one time there were more than sixty covered 
''"dges in Randolph. Forty-two remained to be documented in 1936; sixteen were 
^Wl preserved in 1947;'" and eight remained as late as 1950. 
, The county's first known covered bridges were built under the Town patent, 
^though not before Ithiel Town's death in 1844. In February, 1845, the justices of the 
Randolph County Court authorized the constniction of bridges at Cedar Falls ana 
^anklinville.'i^ The single-span Cedar Falls bridge was accepted by the county in 
^"gust, 1846, when industrialist Henry B. Elliott was paid $736, half the cost ot 
''^^ing it built. It survived until about 1940. The Franklinville bndge, suffenng 
?fveral delays, was not complete until May 1848. Thomas Rice, a county justice and 
fjanklinville's resident "mechanic," was paid $1,119 for his work on the structure; 
^'le itemized account was $750 for the woodwork and $349 for the masonry, with 





IJ .1 .1 


r I t r 

T.LJf;!,. , 



Schematic of the Town lattice truss 

Ca. 1940 documentary photograph of the Cedar Falls factory and covered bridge (courtesy Randolph 
Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 



The Franklinville covered bridge ca. 1930. 

additional funds appropnated for special stone "parapets" on the bridge abutments. ' " 
The Franklinville bridge was similar to the Cedar Falls structure but longer and this 
fact niay have riecessitated a design improvement. Photographs show that the 
Franklinville bridge was a double-span truss utilizing secondary chords for extra 
strength charactenstics of Town's improved post-1830 design. However its long, 
diagonal braces and counterbraces seem to have been unique among Randolph's 
known covered bridges and may have been Thomas Rice's own invention. The 
deteriorated Franklinville bridge was replaced by a concrete bridge in 1924 and was 
finally demolished about 1930. 

While covered bridges were being built in the decades preceding the Civil War, 
some of the largest and best known Randolph bridges were built in the 1880s as neW 
cotton mill companies appeared along the Deep River. In March 1883 the county 
commissioners authorized the construction of "a covered lattice bridee 210 fed 

long" at Worthville J - The bridge was complete by December of thafyear and stoo 

bun Z !?T ol.^'rY' '" ''''• '""'""^ "'^P^ *"^i^^^^ 'haf the bridge aS 
built was actually 237>/2 feet long; several bridges in excess of 200 feet in length 
have been identified in Randolph, and the Worthville bridge may have been one of 
the county s longest. A bridge at Central Falls was authorized in April 1883 and 
bridges at Columbia and Enterprise factories were authorized in June 1884 '"^ H 
seems that at this period any competent carpenter could bid to const^ct a bridge 
according to county specifications. Those who could provide their own plans seem 
to have been the more experienced bridge builders. In August 1884 J H 
Redding's bid of $1,164.50 won right of construction for an open bridge at Buffalo 

Schematic of the unique braced and coumerbraced truss system of the Franklinville covered bridge (courtesy of Audrey C. Beck). 


Ford with the promise to "pay the expense of getting up plans and specifications 
which amounts to $15.00.""^ After part of the Enterprise bridge was destroyed by 
flood in 1886, B. B. Brooks and J. C. Cox won the contract to replace it 
"■ ■ • according to the moddle submitted as a plan. ..." Brooks and Cox later 
agreed to alter their design to "M. N. Brower's plan," and the bridge was built. 
John C. Cox was one of the area's premier bridge builders of this period and trained 
several men who built covered bridges during the boom years of the early twentieth 
century. '19 Cox's 1886 "moddle" is the only known Randolph County example of a 
'lesign submitted as a plan although Madison N. Brower of Frankhnville was 
frequently hired by the county to build, repair or draw plans and specifications for 
covered bridges. '2° 

The open trestle Buffalo Ford bridge was short lived; by October, 1892, the 
ondge had washed out, and in 1894 a two-span iron bridge was authorized to be 
built. 121 This was not the first local bridge to use iron in its construction. Even the 
Wooden covered bridges used some iron, as witnessed in the demolition report 

'• • • 15 Rods of Iron weighing 785 lbs., 26 screws being Irons from the old Buffalo 
Bridge.">22 The first known bridge to use iron structurally was a bridge at Waddell's 
Ferry authorized in 1889. The commissioners' minutes state that "The contractor for 
building the bridge at Waddell's Ferry is allowed to put in Iron Pillars at each end ot 
*e Bridge as well as the Middle Pillar, said Pillars to be good, large and 
substantial." '23 A construction bid of $2,474 by Alfred Moffitt and B. B. Brooks 
Was accepted for this short-lived bridge'^* which was destroyed by a flood m 1892. 
In 1894 iron spans began replacing the longest wooden bridges. Wiley H. Chiton ot 
^ake County was awarded contracts for two iron bridges, a 110-fooV26"^'^,Qnr"if^ 
*e Naomi Falls factory and a 145-foot double span at Buffalo Ford. In 1901 the 
Virginia Iron and Bridge Company of Roanoke received contracts for bridges at 
Island Ford in Frankhnville and at Enterprise Factory in Coleridge. 

. Interestingly, the introduction of industrial bridge building to Randolph did not 
signal the doom of custom-made covered bridges. Instead, it seemed to invoke a 
"nie of revived and increased construction of such bridges. Though the major river 
pressings were soon spanned with iron, the mileage of public roads maintained by 
^be county increased substantially, and new bridges were required for smaller 
^treams. The majority of Randolph County's covered bridges were built between 
j^^O and 1920 by a new generation of bridge builders. John C. Cox, his son lom A. 
^^^ and associates Hezekiah L. Andrews and Will Dorsett were responsible tor 
!^"ch of this construction. T A. Cox recalled in 1950 that the standard price for 
°"dge construction was $1.00 a linear foot for open bridges and $2.50-53^50 per 
'•near foot for covered bridges, when the county furnished the lumber. When the 
^keen's Mill covered bridge toppled over during a flood around 1920 Will Dorsett 
"^^naged the task of pulling it upright and bracing it with steel cables . Dorsett did 
"Ot. however, build the bridge and its early history is unclear. The 100-foot span over 
y Little Uwharrie was probably built around the turn of the century, and it is 
certainly the last example of a Town lattice truss in North Carolina. The county^s 
°'ber remaining bridge, at Pisgah, was built in 1911 for $40 by J. J. Welch, 
covered bridges in North Carolina and Randolph County met their doom during the 

Documentary photograph of the Franklinville covered bridge which provides a glimpse of its interior 

Idyllic documentary photograph of the Worthville covered bridge which was washed away in a ' freshet' ' 
in August, 1908. 



Central spans of the Island Ford iron bridge. 

Fuller's Mill covered bridge, built in 1907. 

Schematic of the counterbraced truss used in the Fuller's Mill bridge (courtesy of Audrey C. Beck)- 

Depression when financial responsibility for most roads and bridges was assumed b) 
the State and heavier automobile traffic made them unsafe crossings. 

Building for Manufacturing 

It has been said that the factory was one of the few new building forms added to 
western architecture between the Renaissance and the nineteenth century '3' Whil^ 
North Carolina was not directly in the mainstream of pioneer industrial design » 
reasonable idea of contemporary factory architecture can be gained from the k^ 
remams of the state's oldest textile mills. That physical record includes however a* 
few as six examples. The earliest of these is the 1837 Salem Cotton Manufacturing 
Company, a steam-powered mill built in Forsyth County by Francis Fries. After late' 
expansion, the factory became known as the "Arista Mill" and has recently bee' 
renovated as the "Brookstown Mill," a specialty shopping mall. Another survivor i* 
the Granite Cotton Mill at Haw River in Alamance County, a four-story bric^ 
structure built in 1844 that is still in use by Cone Mills. The remaining fou' 
antebellum factories are in Randolph County and make up, along with the surviving 
buildings associated with their mill villages, North Carolina's richest and mosi 
significant collection of eariy industrial structures. 

Since the original wooden Cedar Falls factory was replaced, the oldest factor) 
remnants in the county are the surviving portions of the 1839 Randolph Manufactur- 
ing Company at Franklinville. The original structure, now called the "Upper Mill,' 



! L - M^^ ' ^ '^ /'^^ v- '' ^y' " - y ' L^^^ ^" - !^l^^^^:'^-^ ^ 















'^"'Ulolph Manufacturing Company; built 1839. rebuilt 1851 (courtesy of Au drey C. Beck). 

*as a 40 by 80-foot brick building, nine window bays long and three wide and three 
Atones high. The bond of the brickwork consisted of a course of alternating 
stretchers and headers (similar to Flemish bond), five courses of stretchers and 
Mother course of alternating stretchers and headers. This unusual bond was never 
"sed in other Randolph factories, although it was repeated in the Franklinville plant 
'" 1851 and 1882. All subsequent Franklinville alterations and additions were made 
in one-to-six common bond. The exact appearance of the 1839 structure cannot be 
ascertained because of some 140 years of alterations and significant damage by fire 
^^^ original roof probably consisted of a simple gable with Greek Revival bell 
^upola similar to that seen in the earliest photograph (1874) of the mill. J does not 
seem to have had a clerestory monitor roof like the one found on the 1837 Salem 

., A fire ravaged the mill in 1851 but left much of the structure standing. Most of 
"^e walls remained up to the level of the second floor, where the line between old and 
"ew brickwork can be clearly seen in early photographs. The survival of the walls 
^^en with destruction of the mill exemplifies the practical philosophy of early mil 
Jfsign. The foundations, built strong enough to withstand both floods and constant 
^•bration from the machinery, were often the most expensive part of a mill. Througti 
f^Perience with large grist and merchant mills, a multi-storied design was preferred 
"ecause it maximized floor area while minimizing necessary foundations. Thus, me 
franklinville mill was reconstructed on the original massive foundations, utilizing 
"^ surviving brickwork and repeating the original bond. The Franklinville factory is 

an important link with the vernacular tradition of mill design, a concept more 
directly an outgrowth of gristmill construction than of English or New England factory 

New England factory tradition can be seen in the 1846 Island Ford factory built 
in Franklinville and destroyed in 1895 but reconstructed from surviving documents. 
The frame building was 40 by 80-feet in plan, nine bays long and three wide 
— virtually identical to the Franklinville factory just upriver. The Island Ford 
structure, however, was four stories tall, boasting a clerestory monitor roof (like the 
one at Salem) to light the fourth floor. This roof type was a familiar design element 
imported from English factory design and used in some of the earliest New England 
factories. The innovation may have been introduced to Randolph County by George 
Makepeace, a machinist and millwright imported from Massachusetts in 1839, 
along with the machinery, for the Franklinville factory. Makepeace was one of the 
founders of the Island Ford factory and almost certainly participated in its design. 

In the same year, 1846, Makepeace likely helped Henry Elliott rebuild his 
Cedar Falls factory on a larger scale. Elliott's was only the second brick factory in 
the county, but it was a great departure from the one at Franklinville. Fifty by 
one-hundred-ten feet in plan, the new Cedar Falls factory was more than twice the 
size of the one in Franklinville. Cedar Falls featured more and larger windows and, 
like the Island Ford factory, added a fourth story lighted by a clerestory monitor roof. 
Like all the subsequent antebellum factories, its brickwork was laid in one-to-three 
common bond. 






Island Ford Manufacturing Company; built 1846. destroyed 1895 (courtesy of Audrey C. Beck). 





1) -^"^ lJ 

















>yfc>>_5-vr^ii^; r 



Cerfar fa//.v Manufacturing Company: built 1846 (courtesy of Audrey C. Beck). 









Only a small portion of the county's fourth mill. Union factory (1848), still 
exists due to its destruction by fire in 1885. Like the Franklinville factory, the 
surviving foundations and walls formed the basis for rebuilding. Union factory, as 
reconstructed from an 1879 drawing and surviving information, seems even more 
than the Cedar Falls factory to have been representative of the most advanced theo- 
ries of New England mill design. Union factory was the largest of the antebellum 
Randolph mills at 50 by 120-feet. Sited the farthest upstream of any of Deep River s 
early mills, the builder augmented its waterpower by channeling an adjacent stream 
into its headrace. Even then the mill was continually idled by low water, the trustra- 
tion of which led it to become the first of the county's mills to add steam power atter 
*e Civil War. The three-story factory was built on the most elaborate, massive stone 
foundations of any of the mills and was the only factory which straddled its power 
canal, housing the wheel under the mill itself. Although in New England this design 
was used so that winter ice could not block the race and stop the wheel, here it was 
probably influenced more by the steep, sloping terrain on which the factory was 

The most important innovation at Union factory was the roof, where crowstep 
gables concealed the most shallowly pitched root of any early mill. This is perhaps 
North Carolina's earliest example of "slow bum" construction pnnciples. inese 
Pnnciples for mill construction began to develop in the late 1830s trom tne 
experience of New England mutual fire insurance companies who desired to prevent 

or limit the damage done by factory fires like the one that destroyed the Franklinville 
factory in 1851. Shallow gables and flat roofs were considered safety features 
because steep gables and clerestory monitors required elaborate and combustible 
wooden rafters, collar beams and braces. Every factory built in North Carolina after 
the Civil War exhibited some aspects of these "New England Mutual Vernacular" 
principles, which by then were accepted as industrial standards. '^^ In the 1880s and 
1890s the older Randolph County factories sought these lower insurance premiums 
by adopting features such as stair towers with water tanks and sprinklers. The 
Franklinville factory even went so far as to rebuild its gable into a flat roof with brick 


While Union Factory presaged later architectural standards in mill design, the 
last antebellum factory seems to be something of a throwback. Columbia Factory, 
completed in 1850, is a large scale (50 by 100-feet in plan, 1 1 bays long and 5 bays 
wide) version of the Franklinville factory — a rectangular brick box with overhang- 
ing gable roof. These retarditaire features exist because the mill, otficially named 
"the Deep River Manufacturing Company," was organized and designed in 1843. 
Construction seems to have begun then, just four years after the Franklinville factory 
and three years before the construction of the Island Ford and Cedar Falls factories. 
According to local tradition, a fever epidemic brought construction to a halt, but as 
the work-stoppage stretched over six years, it was evidently coupled with a shortage 
of capital among the stockholders. Consequently, when it was finally completed, the 

"'"" Manufacturing Company: built 1848. burned and rebuilt 1 885 (courtesy of Audrey C. Beck) 


I iijjimi 


Deep River Manufacturing Company: built 1850 (courtesy of Audrey C. Beck) 

factory incorporated few, if any, of the innovations introduced by tlie other mills. 
Columbia Factory, now at Ramseur. was later extensively expanded and is the only 
antebellum Randolph County factory which has been placed on the National Register 
of Historic Places. 

The five early factories were the focal points of larger communities which 
served the physical and social needs of the factory workers. The need for worker 
housing was responsible not only for the birth of the seven Deep River factory towns 
but also for the subsequent growth of earlier crossroads communities and later 
railroad towns. Much of the expansion and development of those first and third- 
growth communities during the early twentieth century resulted from the construc- 
tion of worker housing by factories such as the Liberty Chair Company, the Petty 
Sash and Blind Company in Archdale and the various Asheboro hosiery mills, chair 
factories and wood-working companies. An in-depth look at mill villages should 
therefore shed some light on the importance of industrialization in the development 
of Randolph County's built environment. 

Like most American "new town" schemes, mill towns were conceived as 
Utopian solutions to the problems of worker availability housing, health and 
welfare. The first true American mill town — a village created especially to house 
workers at a factory — was begun in Connecticut in 1803 by Colonel David 
Humphreys. Colonel Humphreys and his industrial community Humphreysville, 
received encouragement from President Thomas Jefferson, who was beginning to 


modify his views on industry.'" The Humphreysville pattern of independent small 
factories located in rural mill villages, as adopted and elaborated upon by Samud 
Slater and other industrialists, became known as the "Rhode Island System " The 
contrasting pattern of several large mills sharing leased water from a power canal 
within a city was known as the "Waltham System," even though it was first full)' 
developed at Lowell. During its first two decades Lowell enjoyed a worldwide 
reputation for successfully integrating industrialism with high moral and ethical 
standards and spacious, beautiful surroundings. This Utopian ideal lingered for vears 
after wage cuts and increasing workloads began to destroy the "Arcadian simplicity" 
of life in Lowell. Economic troubles in the late 1830s began to erode the formerly 
benign working conditions. In 1848 an economic depression, coupled with a large 
increase in child labor and immigrant labor, caused a rapid decline in the general 
standard of living of northern workers.'^'* 

North Carolina's advocates of industrialism worked diligently to demon 
strate that manufacturing would not degrade local moral standards Randolph 
County editors and industrialists mounted a concerted public relations campaign W 
promote the virutes of local manufacturing activities. The Asheboro newspaper i^ 
1838, for example, advertised for Franklinville factory workers with the appeal. 
Here IS a fine opening for hardy industrious young men, who are willing to worf 
hard, live well, earn money honestly and enjoy one of the most healthy situations i^ 
this or any other county. '^^ in 1843 the Greensboro Patriot enviously called Ceda' 

Falls "one of the most picturesque and romantic spots east of the mountams, and 
in 1845 assured its readers that the Franklinville factory operatives ';su|tam a moral 
character equal to that of any portion of the surrounding population." In 1851 one 
of the Island Ford stockholders wrote the Patriot that his operatives were "experienced 
and industrious and of the best moral character." An 1851 report on the new 
Middleton Academy between Franklinville and Cedar Falls stated that "The villages 
are unsurpassed for morality and good order; the situation is healthy and mountain- 
like." In 1852 a similar statement insisted that the "location is very healthy and the 
whole country is remarkably free from immorality of every kind." 

While some advocates underscored the moral and social benefits of manutac- 
turing, local Quakers addressed the philosophical and political issues. I" l»^^ ^ 
Memorial on Slavery, approved by the North Carolina Yearly Meeting ot hnenos, 
was presented to the General Assembly. '^^ Its blunt language denouncing the 
manifold evils" of slavery and demanding "the extinction of this evil in our belovea 
state" aroused a political firestorm in the press. Lost in the controversy over the 
"Abolition Memorial" was the petition's case for industrialism. One of the conse- 
quences of slavery was that it caused the emigration of white craftsmen ana 
laborers, thereby depressing "mechanical enterprise." Emancipation, the hrienas 
believed, would directly aid "the erection of manufacturing." '^^ This view took the 
position of Northern Friends and may have characterized Randolph County s 
attitude toward manufacturing. Elisha Coffin, founder of the Franklinville factory 
was a former Friend, and a majority of the Union factory stockholders ten years later 
*ere Quakers. ,. . . 

^ Conditions in Randolph differed so markedly from those P/ey^'l\"g f'"""^, „^ 
state that in 1906 Holland Thompson, the pioneer historian of the North Carolina 
textile industry, explained that: 

Upon Deep River in Randolph County, where five mills were built before IS^q 
conditions were somewhat peculiar . . . These mills were in a section where the Quaker 
•nfluence was strong. Slavery was not widespread and was "npopular_ The mills were 
built by stock companies composed of substantial citizens of the neighborhood. 1 he e 
*as little or no prejudice against mill labor as such, and the farmers daughters glacHy 
came to work in the mills They lived at home, walking the distance morning and 
evening, or else boarded with some relative or friend near by. 

The mill managers were men of high character- who felt themselves to stand m 
parental relation to the operatives and required the observance of decoous conduct. 
Many girls worked to buy themselves trousseaux, others to helP their famihes. They los^ 
no caste by working in the mills. Twenty years ago throughout the section one might hnd 
the wives of substantial farmers or business men who had worked in the mills before the 
Civil War. Some married officials of the mills."" 

fam,^''P"^ Thompson's idealized memory of "farmers' daughters" living on the 
w^v'"? talking to work, every Randolph County factory included company-owned 
^^--ker housing. The Franklinville company completed houses fo^^ some eight or 
*g^ jespectable families" a year before its factory was built. I" 1^49 an A.Je^^^^^ 
^'•■^Id report on Cedar Falls noted that "The buildings occupied by the operatives, 

numbering some 25 or 30, are all exceedingly neat and comfortable, and owned by 
the company."''*' 

The companies built houses and created villages around the factories for the 
same reason that they publicly emphasized the beautiful geography, healthy climate, 
and high morality of those involved — they needed to recruit a work force. While 
northern factories soon came to depend on immigrant labor, those in the South had 
to rely on an indigenous rural worker population. Southern mill villages conse- 
quently assumed open, spacious characteristics attractive to the rural worker 
population and similar to the northern "Rhode Island System" towns. Single family 
dwellings on individual lots were the norm, although a mill boarding house was 
operated at Franklinville. 

While the villages were designed to appeal to rural residents, entire farm 
families did not begin to move from agrarian activities to industrial work until the 
agricultural depressions of the post-civil War period. More than 80 percent of the 
heads of antebellum Randolph mill households were artisans such as potters, 
cabinetmakers, blacksmiths, tinsmiths, hamessmakers, carriage, wagon and buggy 
makers and cobblers.'''^ In the cash-poor southern economy it was hard for these 
men to ply their trades while farming to keep food on the tables; the mill villages 
provided them with their first opportunity to work full time, with affordable 
housing, outside work for their children, and an assured additional income. 


Contemporary photograph of a Union factory dwelling. 










Union Factory houses: built 1848 (courtesy of Audrey C. Beck) 


. . .the housing provided at the factory allowed for continued supervision of the chil^ 
employees by their parents. Dwellings furnished by the company, single family structure.' 

AUK ^l u P"' ^^'""' "^^""^ '^^''^""'^ '° =»"^'>^' ^ special work unit to the factory 

Although the owners recruited families to the mill village, they employed only unmarried 
children and adolescents in the factory. With this arrangement, the family would 
maintain social control outside the factory proper at the same time that no primar) 
earners were recruited from their already existing occupations and no married wome« 
were enticed from their proper sphere, the home. 

_ • with an average of seven children per factory family a number not rare amonj 
families of all economic statuses, enough children could be working in the mill at one 
time to make the mill village life a comparatively lucrative proposition. '« 

Large families virtually guaranteed numerous workers for the mill and thus 
made the construction of houses by the corporation a profitable venture A small 
number of factory houses built for workers during the 1850s survive across Nortt 
Carolina, houses which are similar not only in plan, but in size, details and windo« 
and chimney placement. E. M. Holt originally built small log houses for his workers 
at Alamance, but about 1860 these were either replaced or supplemented b) 
substantial two-story houses in a 20 by 30 foot hall-and-parlor plan with simplified 
ureek Revival detailing. These frame houses were virtually identical to those buiH 
by the Union Manufacturing Company in 1848. Five of these still stand i« 
Kandleman; at least three from the same period exist in Franklinville; and at least 
eleven remain in Alamance. '^■' Also similar to these houses are those found al 
Orange Factory in Durham County. "•' Alamance. Orange Factory and a fe^« 
remaining houses from the Rockfish Manufacturing Company near Fayetteville arc 
the only antebellum millhouses known to exist outside Randolph County These late 
antebellum millhouses are not discemibly different from two-story homes produce^ 
within the vernacular building tradition throughout the rural Piedmont at that time 
A similar situation seems to have existed at an even eadier period in Nortf 
Larolinas textile development, although the only houses known are those froif 
Cedar Falls and Franklinville. 

What may have been Randolph County's earliest mill house was destroyed i^ 
ulrZ pn .'", I 2"/- °"^-^"d-a-half story log house, its existence implied thai 
Henry Elliott, like Edwin Holt, first provided log homes for his workers. The hous« 
was approximately 15 by 20 feet in size with half-dovetail notching. The house wa* 
covered with weatherboarding and had later been expanded with a board-and-batte^ 

LvHi f n """""^ ^u "'^' °^ P'^°'^' ™Portance in the history of North Carolina 
textiles fell victim to the destructive fad of "log cabin collecting" 

n.r J. ,u u ' ^^^^ •'i'°"'^ '^^'' '""■■eover, of additional importance when com- 
pared to the houses built two years later in Franklinville. It was identical to the lattC 
houses except in one important respect: it was not built of sawn and dressed lumbe' 
with mortise-and-tenon framing. Five houses remain in a Franklinville neighbor- 
hood known as the "Cotton Row" and are story-and-half houses in a 16 by 22 foo' 
hall-and-parior plan Houses of similar shape and size also remain on the hill aboV« 
the fac ory in Franklinville, but these were later tripled in size by the construction d 
much larger wings. Whether this enlargement was done to accommodate large' 

Cfar Falls log house, probably built ca. 1840: destroyed 1980 (courtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 
photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 

families or multiple families of workers, or as a status symbol for the homes of mill 
foremen or superintendents is uncertain. „ , „ a 

This comparison has two possible implications: that the 16 by ^2 hall ana 
parlor plan was a standard in Randolph County during the 1830s anf w^^ "^^^both 
") Cedar Falls and Franklinville, or, alternatively, that Henry EH'Ott and ^usha 
Coffin and the other Franklinville stockholders exchanged information regard mg the 
appropriate size and form of worker housing. By the 1850s, '"••I houses from 
Randolph to Alamance to Orange to Cumberland counties did "o^J^J^f J^" een 
'" size or plan, implying thaf an actual informational network may have been 
operatmg among millowners and manufacturers. . o^ it was 

Deep River had been the workhorse of the region since colonial imes, so it was 
"atural that all four antebellum factory villages formed around ^^f '"f ™"^^2 
"s course. The Elliott family's gristmill was converted to house the ""g'"^' ^^^ar 
Falls factory. The Franklinville "factory house" shared the dam ^^d p^er ca^^^^^^^^^ 
El'sha Coffin's grist and sawmill. Columbia Factory (Ramseur) J"™ f ^"fj^^^^ 
.^^mill at Allen's Fall. The Dicks' grist and oil mill, m operation s'nce cofoma 
;"^es, was the nucleus of the Union Factory community. P««!°"^^^, *',,^ 
designs therefore responded to these predetermined factors. F^^^^hnvUle d^^^^^^^^ 
J^°"nd its mill in a sheltered river valley, enabling its buildings to beonented toward 
*^ sun on a south-facing north bank. Union Factory's village ^^ree^ were Imd o^ 
^l«ng the crest of a ridg! on the south side of the river. Cedar Falls and Columbia 
Pread out along both banks of their riverside sites. 


, II 1 








Franklinville -Cotton Row" houses: built 1838 (courtesy Audrey C. Beck). 




Cedar Falls Company Store, now destroyed (taken in May 1974 by Ruth Little) ! M u" '°"^' ^""^ ^°'^^' •'°"^^^' 'he mill corporations also provided 

then- villages with stores. Although other company stores later became symbols of 
coTJorate exploitation and paternalistic control, these village stores were originallv 
^nTifl""! f more than logical necessities. Privately-owned stores soon provided 

alon. wh^h ""n ^""TT'^ ""^""S'' ^'^^ '^«'"P^"y ''°'^' '^""ti""^^ '« be built 
along wth the mills of the later nineteenth century. The 1884 Franklinville 

anSn^S cT"^ ^'"'■^ '' '^^ '^''^"■^^ '"^'^^'"'"8 ^^^'"P'^' ^'though the 
antebellum Cedar Falls store survived until 1975. The 1886 Rjwhatan Manufacturing 

theT780n°r f "'^k'^k]" '^f '"^'"^" ^' 'he "Pilgrim Tract Society" building, and 
Mercantile" buildin ^''""'^"'"'"""S Company Store is now known as the "Carter 

In FrSkSr"! mTkT"'.'"'^ '°'''' institutions was left to private initiative. 
1839 even hif^r Tf'"' ^Pu"'°P" ^'^"'''^'^ "ad been organized and built in 
SJ f\ u? ""^ ^^"^""^ building was ready for operation. A Wesleyan 

t^Ty.tB^.r?'':'TT "^^''"^ •'°"^^") ^'- "P-^'^'' 'here in the a'r y 
185US. The Baptist churches built in Cedar Falls (1844) and Columbia (1851) were 
among the county's first five congregations of that denomination oSn'edn" he 
nineteenth century. Quakers composed the stockholders of Union Facto.^ but not its 
worker population St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church was or^an^eSrer Z 
1855. Hanks Lodge ,n Franklinville became Randolph County't firs Mason c 


InteriorofSaintPauVsMetHodistCHurcH. Randleman. as decorated b.- -HeuMnHink- or Jules K6rn.. 

S?hool?SV" V' '"'^ "'' "^^ °"'y ^"^•^ g™"P '" ^" ^"tebellum mill village. 

.h.n^*''^ ?^ ^'''?'^ buildings, the mill villages were subject to dynamic evef- 
changing forces. Just as advancing textile technology produced new elioS 
requiring additions and alterations to the factories social 3 Prnn-? ^1"']""^" 
changed thp fnrpc r.f fh» .v,ii n "^ "»^'"ries. social and economic conditions 
cnanged the faces of the mill villages. The small antebellum houses were enlareeil 
and renovated, new houses were built, and the towns expanded oXRamLS 
Cedar Falls were so modernized in the late nineteenth century thatttlerTmaTnsof 
their antebellum appearance. Randleman preserves a few ofl ea riy houseTon th" 

Doom years The Island Ford mill and its community were rebuilt in 1895 hut al 
the other end of Franklinville, many elements of the antebellum vil age remain W 

S:ni:;ti"n'North S' ''- x/^^' ''^ "^^^^ ^^^'^P'^^^ survival'ofan ambel'ut 
S before 8^0 , ^ u To^ '°''" '°"'"'"' '""'"^ '^an two dozen structures 

the upeSendenV a i;"f h' '''"'^V '''^'°^' '^^ ^^^^^P^^^^ "°"^^- home of 
me superintendent, at least a dozen workers homes, a former tavern and hoardine 

INOI to be dismissed is an impressive colleclion of later buildings, such as the 188^ 

company store, the 1886 Moore's Chapel and a wide range of Italianate and Queen 
Anne homes. Franklinville is the only spot in Randolph County where tne 
progression of architectural styles can easily be discerned, from Georgian to heaerai 
to Greek Revival to Italianate and Gothic Revival and into the early twentietn 
century. , ., . 

The mill villages erected in Randolph after 1870 were less diverse than heir 
antebellum cousins, both architecturally and economically. None ot me laier 
villages developed into independent trade and business centers as Kamseur 
Randleman and Franklinville did. Naomi and Worthville have since been annexea to 
Randleman, as Central Falls has been annexed to Asheboro. Coleridge is almost 
abandoned and disintegrates in peace, isolated from the county s growth centers^ 
While the tum-of-the-century Island Ford and Coleridge factones are interesting 
architecturally, the mills and mill villages in Worthville, Naonii and Central halls 
were severe, utilitarian creations. Planning and construction of these villages was no 
longer left to the tastes of stockholders and local craftsmen but relied on textile 
industry handbooks such as Cotton Mill: Commercial Features by ^^^"f' ^. 
Tompkins, a Charlotte engineer. Tompkins's book, representing a ^oditication o 
*e nineteenth century industrial experience," includes ^Pf •^'^^ '°"f46 „' ™" 
houses and community facilities which were widely used and popular. "o" 
built in the twentieth century according to his specifications exist in ^J^^^'^H^f 
in the county and reflect the area's tremendous identification with the industrializa- 
tion process. 

Stylistic TVends 

, The architectural style prevalent at the time of s^«l^,'"^"^,,""f„f°""En5ist 
Randolph County is known as the "Georgian," after the eighteenth^entury English 
kings. The style actually developed in the seventeenth century '^'^'J^'"^^'^^ 
^Pread of the artistic ideals of the Italian Renaissance and was '"^^"g^'f/.^y '^'f'^ 
toward symmetrical balance. In this country the style is b^^''^? hniMii. technd- 
P>-eserved and perpetuated by Colonial Williamsburg, but ^ ^^^f ^^" 't" oSrdan 
y in Piedmont North Carolina developed too late to emulate this hgh Geo gmn 
'^ any.significant degree. Instead, the style must be recognized in p ans , P^^^^^'' 
"^«erials or trim features which are often mixed with elements from late sty^es.^ 
^. The Peter Dicks House in New Salem is a representative hom' °L\ouse 
•ghteenth century Randolph resident. Dicks probably built the gabk-roof house 
5«"nd the time of his marriage in 1797. With two stories it '^^^I'^^be reeired to as a 
^■^ansion house"despite its small, 20 by 25 foot size. It featured th^ f H-and Parlo 
Pl^n with an end chimney. The parlor was sheathed in vertical board fbove^ch^'^ 
'l^' and the exposed ceiling joists are chamfered. Plaster was ^-T^eWom used m a 
fr^^me house in Randolph, Then or later. Owner and operator of a gn/tm. ' o^^^^^^^^^ 
^^er and one of the founders of Guilford College, Peter Dicks "^"^^^e considered 
^^"^cessful and wealthy man. His house, modest though it seems, gves us an 
«t the dwellings favored by substantial Quaker residents of the county. 

The contemporary dwelling of William Coletrane offers a contrast. Coletrane 



The •• upper" dam on Deep River in Franklinville, 1901. 

Peter Dicks House. New Salem, built ca. 1798. 




1.1 I 




Inlerior photograph of the Coletrane House. New Market Township, .showing the embattled 
molding crowning the paneled chimney piece. 

Coletrane House. New Market Township. Paneled chimney piece with arched fireph 

ace opening. 

was the son of a Scottish resident of Edenton and was elected to a variety of public 
offices in late-eighteenth century Randolph, including that of deputy sheriff. 
Though the exterior has been much altered, the two-story, hall-and-parlor plan house 
IS in many ways similar to that of Peter Dicks. The interior trim, however, is much 
more ornate, with beaded paneling and an elaborately molded chair rail. Both lower 
rooms boast beautiful Georgian raised-panel overmantels. One surviving mantel 
exhibits raised panels and a molded shelf. This elaborate woodwork may have been 
grained, as are the upstairs doors, to imitate mahogany. The interior trim of the 
Coletrane House is the county's finest expression of the Georgian style. This may be 
due to the family's link with Edenton, one of the coastal centers of the style in North 
Carolina; for whatever reason, no other Randolph County homes exhibit this kind of 
"high style" Georgian. 

Other elements of the style can be found among a scattering of structures. The 
Lytle Johnson House in Trinity Township has the county's only example of a molded 
cornice which terminates in pattern boards. The house also has a brick double- 
shouldered chimney, as does the Eli Bray House near Coleridge. The massive 
chimney is in English bond with glazed headers and paved shoulders, touches rarely 
seen in the county. The interior trim in unpainted pine is also impressive, featuring 
raised panel chimney breasts with arched fireplace openings. The house could easily 
be dated to the late eighteenth century if it were not for the known fact that Bray built 
It in 1824— an illustration of the conservatism of stylistic change in the area. 


Ra^an Sf'^r nf'^;"?^'' ^"""'^ ""'^ *'" '^''^ ^^^^^"^^^ *" 'he Liberty area- the 
Ragan Store and Sandy Creek Friends Meetinghouse (both in Julian) and the HenrV 

be" b^nrtsSo'?:!- T ^^^ --'-^^ouse and the storl seem to hS 
Deen built about 1800, but the Kivett House is said to date from 1818 Beaded 
weatherboarding is unusual in Randolph, but it is found nearby in both Alaman 
and Chatham counties. The Kivett House is also unique because it is the countv's 
rat IV mX/r'' "' ?™^"''^ r"^'^"'^^ ^^°^^'-' characterized y an elabo- 
nd Lwn b fusterstair ra',"' "t'T' \'^}''' °P^"'"^^' -'^ed-panefwainscots 
StedTn ablaze "fTolo" "'^- ^'^ "'"'^ '"'""^ '^ '"^^^'-^^' g--'^ -^ 
..n. ^h'^f houses display an important innovation of the Georgian stvle the 
center-hall plan. The center-hall plan house has rooms on each s de "f a cen ral 

afterl^- periodTaSf' r"?"''"" °'"^^^^ "'^"^ ^^ ^^^ ^-^^ ' " 'L " ^ 
(c 18 OV^ 4ht'S''"'''.P^°"l'"^"'^^- ''^' '"g'-^'" H«"^e, Trinity Township 
£use FrLik invme 18^2r n' ^k"" ?°'' '^°^"^*^'P ^'^- ^^'^^^ ^"^ the Julian 

The American Federal style emerged from the English Adamesaue stvle It was 

coZl fil exli T??'"^'-, ^''^ J^d"'han Harper House near Trinity is the 
county s finest example of this style. Haiper, an influential county politician and 

'egant Federal style mantel in the Jeduthan Harper House. Trinity Township 

Open-string staircase at the Jeduthan Harper House, showing turned newel post and balusters 
and an interesting ' 'pie crust' ' molding. 

"?il«ia commander, probably built the house about 1800; ^e extenor was remod led 
*out 1851. The unusually fine interior trim is almost a textbook exainple of Federal 
ornamentation. The parlor is plastered, accentuated by a moWed chair ^^^^^^^ 
^'oard and cornice. Slender, stylized Ionic columns support the "^°l;?^f f""^ J, 
"mantel shelf. Other trim includes rope molding, crossetted fo^J^^i raves and a 
f aceful open-string stair with turned balusters. The comer A^f ^^"J^Brown 
^^^ond floor bedrooms are paralleled only by those of the nearby W^/ J^^^^^J 
House. The kitchen outbuilding exhibits the county's only known example ot bncK 
"ogging. ^ ■ u t 

^ The Dempsey Brown House has many Federal features, and "Pff^'^b'iUng 
*?«hy are several fine mantels with reeded panels. The parlor ^^^^\^f'^^^l 
Tt P^"^l^ ^"d a dentiled, molded, pulvinated fneze ^^^^^^.f^^^^ffj^f^.h 
^ombmation of Georgian and Federal motifs. Yet the house is """^"f ^^^^^^^^ 
!^^^yl'stic blend; a brick by the door is dated 1836. The Brown House may be the 
Jjunty's oldest brick building, depending on the actual construction date ot me 
5^ kepeace House in Franklinville. The Makepeace House seems « have ^^^^ ^ 
J the time of the founding of the textile mill, 1838-1840, but ^^y ^'^^'^^l^J^^^^ 
^fhhght of its austere original facade is a single door set ma paneled architrave 
^'th pulvinated frieze, sidelights and an eliptical-arch f^"^'^''*;^ .,„ .hese three 
, ., Most Randolph houses of the period were much less el^^«[,^^^;^^!?J,^^^^^^^^^ 
^'^^ the John Long House in Liberty Township, or the Jarrell-Hayes House in New 

Salem they combined Georgian forms with Federal details. As a distinct architec- 
tural period the Federal style was virtually skipped; aspects of the Georgian style 
survived so late, and the Greek Revival was so immediately popular, that the Federal 
style had little time to flower in the interval. 

After 1830 virtually everything built in Randolph displayed some hint of the 
Greek Revival It was America's first academic architectural style of widespread, 
enduring popularity in the county. The Greek Revival revolutionized traditional 
architecture by shifting away from the traditional or "vernacular" house forms 
toward concepts created and consciously disseminated through builder's handbooks 
and pattern books written in Boston and New York. In Randolph the style assumed a 
eeneralized pervasive character which colored the lingering traditional forms with 
two-panel doors and post-and-lintel mantels. Only in the FranklinviUe/Cedar Falls 
area are examples found in which builders tried to consciously imitate the most 
stvlish northern designs. 

The Moody Dougan House, Back Creek Township, and the Joseph Welbom 
House New Market Township, are two products of the 1830s where Federal, Greek 
Revival and even a lingering touch of Georgian can be seen in combination. Both are 
now of the hall-and-parior plan, but may have been built in the "Quaker" or 
"Continental" plan, with a large parior and two smaller rooms. Despite its popular 
name this plan was not a standard of Randolph County Quakers and is found rarely. 
The pilastered and pedimented door and window architraves of the Dougan House 



Paneled emrance to the Makepeace House. Franklimille. showing pitlvinaled frieze, sidelights and 
elliptical fanlight. 

display elements of all three styles combined to suit the tastes of a local craftsman. 
The unusual balcony/dormers of the Welbom House are also expressions of the 
owner or builder taste. This hesitancy to abandon popular building patterns is also 
seen in the A. C. Bulla House in Back Creek Township. Though constructed in 
1844, it shows little overt influence of the dominant Greek Revival style. 

The "Grecian taste" began to show itself in Randolph in the 1830s and 
increased in strength throughout the antebellum period. The Alexander Gray House, 
built in Trinity Township in 1832, sports two-panel doors and post-and-lintel mantels 
as well as a staircase with lingering Federal/Georgian trim. By the 1840s the 
academicism of the Greek Revival was felt more strongly with the appearance and 
widening use of comer blocks in trim and moldings. The ca. 1840 Carlie Lewis 
House near Farmer has Greek Revival mantels with comer blocks. The house is 

Entrance to the Lambert-Parks House.Franklinville. with Greek ReiiwI st\le svmmetrically-molded "' 
and corner blocks (Ruth Little). 

most important, however, as the county's only antebellum example of "double-pi'^ 
constmction— two rooms wide, two rooms deep, two stories high. The ca. l8^' 
Gladesboro Store, New Market Township, has plain comer blocks on its wind"* 
trim, though the contemporary Thomas A. Finch House (Trinity Township), '^ 
Wade Smith House (Tabemacle Township) and the Lambert/Parks House (Frankli" 
ville) have more elaborate molded comer blocks. 

The founding of the first Deep River textile mills in the late 1830s initiated' 
building boom in which the millowners and stockholders personally participate''' 
The Henry B. Elliott House, built in Cedar Falls but subsequently moved '' 
Asheboro and renovated into the "Central Hotel," was a Greek Revival house '' 
some architectural pretension. The Wrenn House is the only remaining comparab'' 
example in Cedar Falls. The early history of the house is unknown, but it featuf* 


'^'erior v/^ of ,he Central Hotel. Asheboro, ca. 1940: now destroyed^ ^^V^^r Z'afsion mZd 
«^'v«/ period trim which survived from its original incarnation as the Henry B. Ellwtt mansion, mo^ea 
f'-om Cedar Falls. 

high quality Greek Revival trim and a mantel decorated with a "Greek key" design 
^hich is the builder's interpretation of one of the illustrations m Asher Benjamin s 
P'-actical House Carpenter. ''' Benjamin was a successful New England architect/ 
builder whose popular books were very influential in spreading t^e style ine 
Lambert/Parks House and Hanks Lodge reflect this academic pattern-book 'ntt"ence 
^^ did the now destroyed Homey/Parks House (Franklinville). Another important 
^'^ample of the Greek Revival in Franklinville is the Thomas Rice House. K.ce 
known as a "mechanic," probably came from Greensboro to design ^nd build the 
1845 Island Ford Factory. In 1846 Rice built his own home, notable for its dis net ve 
^"gaged porch carried on stuccoed brick Doric columns, ^'f^' ,^l;«i° , "'^^ ' ' 
1848 Franklinville Covered Bridge and Greensboro's 1851 West Market St^e 
^ethodist Church, was involved with Robert Gray in the design and construction ot 
"^ pld Main" building at Trinity College in 1854. ,^„„ «,ith a few 

^^ The Greek Revival sfructures of Cedar Falls and Franklinville, along wU^ ^^ 
^tered examples such as the I. H. Foust House (Columbia Townshp, the 
Thornburg-Macon House (Farmer) and the T W. Winslow House (.Tnmy) represent 
J^ height of the style in Randolph. By the mid-1850s new variations suggs^d by 
*« Gothie and Italianate influences began to dilute its purity. ^Je Win low and 
Thornburg-Macon houses have wide eave overhangs with sawn fter ends sugges 
';^ Of the Italianate. Asheboro's destroyed J. M. Worth House had a lovv-ptched 
S ^"h ^'^Posed rafter ends probably intended to resemble A- J; Downing 
^««age Gothic or "Bracketed" style. Downing was one of the ^^^7/' PJg^ 
«f the more picturesque architectural styles such as the ItaHanae and Got^^c 
^7;val. His books were widely read and emulated by all classes of builders, ^n The 
^,f"ecture of Country Houses Downing said that, "The Bracketed may be the 
P'^'ne« of all styles, showing itself externally only by the ends of the rafters 

Mantelpiece in the Wrenn House, Cedar Falls, copied from a published design by Asher Benjamin (Ruth 


supporting the extended roof."''*^ The "pains taken to extend the roof more than is 
absolutely needful" and the "bold shadows" this produces combine to create its 
"picturesque effect." ''''^ This technique was rapidly accepted and became part of the 
local building vocabulary in the second half of the century. It can be seen in the 
Robins Law Office, Asheboro (ca. 1860); the Jess Pugh House, Franklinville 
Township (ca. 1870); the Franklinville Manufacturing Company Store (1884); and a 
wide variety of houses and buildings across the county. The county's first Gothic 
Revival house was built in 1853-1854 by Braxton Craven, the president of Trinity 
College. The house has been destroyed, but photographs indicate that it was a 
Gothic design with vertical board-and-batten siding and carved bargeboards. Several 
other Gothic structures were built in the Trinity area, undoubtedly attributable to the 
influence of Craven's home. A small cottage in Trinity retains its carved bargeboards 
and some Gothic porch trim but has been re-sided. The ca. 1860 Tomlinson House in 
Archdale, recently destroyed, combined Gothic forms with Greek Revival details, 
while the nearby ca. 1875 Homer Hall House displays Gothic details such as 
board-and-batten siding, crenelated chimney caps and sawn porch brackets with 
trefoil cutouts. The Hall House and others such as the John Turner House, Columbia 
Township, illustrate the 1870 movement away from the academic Gothic Revival 
toward the Victorian "Carpenter Gothic" style. This trend was promoted and 
nurtured by millwork companies such as Archdale's Petty Sash and Blind Company 
which created wide ranges of pre-manufactured ornamentation in popular styles. 
Eariy records of the company are not available, but both the Tomlinson and Hall 
houses may have used some Petty products. The Moses Hammond House in 
Archdale is a virtual catalogue of the firm's production in the 1880 period. The 
pseudo-gothic pedimented window architraves were some of the company's most 
popular products and are found in late nineteenth century homes across the county. 



John Milton Worth House. Asheboro, in a documentary photograph taken ca. 1870. The original Greek Revival facade 

is visible here before the addition of an elaborate Eastlake-sty, 

style porch ca. 1880. 

John M. Tomlinson House. Archdale, built in I86 0: demolished in 1982 

Homer Hall House. Archdale. no^ destroyed, shoeing Gothic Revival detailing. 

^^'1 photograph appeared in a June. 1952 edition of the Raleigh News and Observer. The Gothic Re- 
^'^ol-style Braxton Craven House appears in the background, complete with board and batten siding, 
^owfi bargeboards. shed dormers and stuccoed chimney. The house was demolished soon afterwards 
(•courtesy Duke University Archives). 

Growth of a Design Profession 

The 1880s and 1890s, a golden age for Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright and 
*e nascent Prairie School Movement, saw a minimal but ever-increasing role for 
architects in Randolph County. While antebellum carpenter-builders could follow 
^he mainstream stylistic trends through publishcl architectural handbooks, these 
men were not architects by the professional standards of today. Men such as Thomas 
•^ice, with training and experience beyond that of a simple carpenter-builder, might 
'^all themselves "mechanics" as well as carpenters, and were entirely capable of 
^^signing and building large structures such as textile factories and Trinity College's 
1854 "Old Main" building. Others such as Braxton Craven of Trinity College were 
architectural amateurs in the grand tradition of Thomas Jefferson. Craven's own 
^°me, built in the eariy 1850s, was probably the county's first taste of the Gothic 
Revival. It seems likely that Craven himself designed the house after consulting one 
^r more of A. J. Downing's popular design manuals which featured the style. When 
•" I860 Trinity College contemplated a substantial new addition, it appears that 
Craven, the school's president, drew up plans which were to have been executed by 
Jacob Holt, a fashionable builder of Warrenton. A daguerreotype of the elevation for 
*is proposed structure survives in the Duke University Archives, showing a large, 
''omed building of significant architectural character. Though the war intervened 


Daguerreotype of plans drawn by Braxton Craven in 1860 for an extensive addition to Trinity College. 
The elevation has the monumental character of English Baroque architecture of the era of Sir 
Christopher Wren. Construction of the building was cancelled by the Civil War (courtesy Duke University 

and the building was never constructed, the episode is illustrative of the increasing 
preference for stylish design over vernacular craftsmanship. 

Another architectural "semi-professional" was Randolph County native Lyn- 
don Swaim (1812-1893), who in 1869 left his job as editor of the Greensboro Patriot 
to open an architectural practice in that city.'^° Examples of Swaim's designs have 
not been identified, but he ranks as one of the eariiest architectural designers in the 
area and may have designed buildings in postwar Asheboro. Charles R. Makepeace, 
son of George H. Makepeace of Franklinville, was another self-trained architec- 
tural pioneer. Makepeace left Trinity College's class of 1880 without graduating, 
worked in Randolph County textile mills for a time, then in 1885 moved to 
Providence, Rhode Island to join the engineering firm of D.M. Thompson. In less 
than ten years Makepeace had taken over the firm, renaming it C.R. Makepeace & 
Company. Specializing in textile mill architecture and industrial engineering, the 
firm designed cotton and woolen mills, bleacheries and dye works, hydroelectric 
power stations and water treatment plants all over the United States, as well as in 
Mexico, Canada, South America and Australia.'^' Examples of his work in North 
Carolina include the T. M. Holt Manufacturing Company, Haw River (1895) and the 
R. J. Reynolds Building No. 8, Winston-Salem (1899). 

Although attributions cannot now be made, architects were probably responsi- 
ble for designing many of the substantial brick commercial buildings in Asheboro, 










Original or -Old Main" building of Trinity College, completed ca. 1854. The photograph, taken in 1861. shows the ■Trinity Guard" unit (courtesy Duke Universit^' Archives) 

Randleman and Liberty during the 1890s and early 1900s. Rural areas were slower to 
accept the use of architects, although the impressive manor hous o W G BrXw 
near Tnn.ty was said to have been designed by New York architect Stlford White. 

boTarchi ea Tl" Br"' T '""/"""'^ '" ^''^'^ PapersLwevS Greens- 
boro architect W L Brewer, designed a public school for Liberty in 1908 The 
school, which burned in 1925, was an interesting brick structure w'th a "eond-floor 
auditorium The preservation of Brewer's plans is unusual; mo t of Randolph'* 
early-twentieth century buildings have lost any identification with th ir c'eatS. 

Development of Construction Industry 

Students and faculty arranged before the Trinity College building in 1 891 . The ' 'Old Main ' building is at 
the left; the wing built in 1874 is at the right (courtesy Duke University Archives). 

Sawmilling and the timber industry was all-important to Randolph in the late 
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and home building becamfaclialy 
ndustn^ The widespread availability of lumber in standardized sizesTnd pre man^ 

f t"he'trewrhrB;i88o' f "T"'" '''''' ''' ''' f- ^'^ ^^z:z^ 

oi tne nousewright By 1880 heavy frame construction had ail but died out for 

ndtr i'^:";ircr"8857n '^zf' "^'^ ^^^ '^^^^ structures'surh arbai.* 

Frank linvi e iiustrnte . t v"" ' i"^'" "'"■ ^"""y^' '^^' '^84 Company Store in 
S n ikd oSr T^ ^'^P' '' "^ '^^^^ f^^'"'"g timbers^re mortised 

out nailed together. The two-story center-hall plan was still nonnlnr fnr hnnie 
construction, but cosmetic changes began to alter'exterio" . GlTReviv^l homi 


''airview Park, the William Gould Brokaw mansion. Trinity Township. The extensive dwelling was built in 
" ^tyle known as '•Dutch Colonial Revival." 

•lad introduced the use of a centrally-placed decorative gable on the main facade; 
*is became a very popular decorative feature during the latter nmeteenth century 
^s a design feature on contemporary homes, or as added to older houses, the central 
^•■OSS-gable design has come to be known as the "Triple-A" house form. 
. Other changes altered the traditional house format during the years. Kitchens, 
formerly detached to reduce the heat and danger of fire from large open hearths 
^ere attached to the rears of houses either as wings or "ells" or by covered 
''reezeways and porches. Porches, too, were lengthened and began to ramble around 
^ house. Shed roofs on porches and gables on houses often became hip roots 
|,"stead, and sometimes the hip roofs stood so tall and steep they resembled pyramids 

''"uching above dwarfed residences. 

. As structural work house forms became standardized and simplified, so did 
decorative and ornamental work. During the 1880s much trim work was stil 
personally supervised by carpenter/builders with highly interesting and individual 
results, such as the Talley and Gregson-Pickard houses in Randleman or the series of 
""Usual two-tiered porches built by some Franklinville craftsman and exemplified 
2' the Curtis-Buie and Makepeace houses. The R. R Dicks residence, in Randleman, 
^as the county's best example of this kind of Victorian exuberance. The mansard- 
^°ofed Italianate style house sprouted brackets and pendants and stained glass at 
^^ery conceivable point, a Randolph County echo of the big city palatial mansions 
the wealthy during the Gilded Age. 


Greensboro architect W. I. Brewer's blueprint and rendering of Liberty Graded School. 1908-1925 
(courtesy Francine Holt Swaim. Liberty High School 1885-1968). 

Amos Hinshaw barn, Coleridge Township. A large barn with unusual earthen ramps built up to the 
second floor. 





Detail of house in Coleridge Township showing sawnnork brackets, turned porch posts and pierced The beautiful raised porch of the R L Cavin^r^ u^„.^ r- i j 

sawnwork soffit decoration. sawnwork soffit and .able ,L n„H hr.ZZ"""''- '^^'''''^Se. showing bracketed f, 

sawnwork soffit and gable trim and bracketed c 

jrieze, pierci 


Elaborate sawn brackets of the Gregson-Pickard House, Randleman {courtesy Randolph Book 1779- 
\9T) photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 

Magnificent two-tiered Eastlake porch of the Curti^-RuipHn,,.^ i^ l,- ■„ ^ 

tical porches once existed in the vicinity (ZhLinle) '' ^™''*'"'""^- ^'^'^al nearly ide"- 


By the turn of the century, however, this flamboyant period was virtually 
exhausted even though many attractive, large and rambling Victorian homes would 
still be built across the county, especially in the more urban areas which had begun 
to boom under the stimulation of the railroads. But the traditional shapes and plans 
had lost their popularity. Except where it survived in standardized mill housing, the 
rectangular central-hallway plan was largely replaced by the polygonal shapes and 
plans of the "Queen Anne" style. This, and later dwelling styles such as the 


l^obertP. Dicks House. Randleman, built in 1881 by T. C. Worth. Mr. Dicks extensively remodeled 
'"^ home in 1885 creating Randolph County's most elaborate Victorian dwelling in the Second Empire 
yie. Destroyed in the 1960s (courtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Ran- 
""'Ph Public I ih.^..,\ 

^Public Library). 

American Foursquare," bungalow and the Colonial Revival were almost entirely 
nationwide in scope and popular appeal, accelerated by improved mail service, mag- 

^"te, newspaper and catalog distribution. 

As the construction industry boomed, sash-and-blind companies expanded 
"eir product lines to include virtually any part of a house. Catalogs of ornamental 
^^m were printed, orders could be made through the mail, and companies would 
7? the pieces of a home to the nearest railroad siding. After World War I 
Asheboro's Home Building and Materials Company became a leader in the 
Pi'ovision of housing, especially in the growing popularity of the bungalow. In 
J^sociation with T. J. Lassiter, a local contractor who had become familiar with the 
'^"ngalow style while in California, the company began to manufacture all the 
^^^erials and trim to build a complete house every day. These bungalows were 
J"'PPed all over the southeast and erected under Lassiter's supervision. The trends 
^*ard simplification, standardization and mechanization are still evident in North 
^.arolina's construction industry, although modem technology is a far cry from the 

'ghteenth-century pioneer with his broadaxe. 

. . the great changes that are altering the cuiturallandscape of the South almost beyond 
recognition are not simply negative changes, the disappearance of the familiar. There are 
also positive changes, the appearance of the strikingly new. 

The symbol of innovation is inescapable. The roar and groan and dust of it greet one 
on the outskirts of every Southern city. That symbol is the bulldozer, and for lack of a 
better name this might be called the Bulldozer Revolution. The great machine with the 
lowered blade ... is the advance agent of the metropolis. It encroaches on rural life to 
expand urban life. It demolishes the old to make way for the new. 

The fact is the South is going through economic expansion and reorganization that 
the North and East completed a generation or more ago. But the process is taking place 
far more rapidly than it did in the North. ... All indications are that the bulldozer will 
leave a deeper mark upon the land than did the carpetbagger."^ 


S^ " 





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Plan of the Hal M. Worth House. Asheboro. The house was built between December. 1907 and April, 1908 
by contractor M. L. Davis for the sum of $2,005. The plan, contract and extensive notes on its 
construction are found in the Hal M. Worth papers in the Randolph Room, Randolph Public Library. 



Detail of house in Coleridge Township showing sawnwork brackets, turned porch posts and pierced 
sawnwork soffit decoration. 

The beautiful raised porch oftheR.L. Caviness House. Coleridge showino hr„.L , ^ v • A 

sawnwork soffit and gable trim and bracketed ^ ' °" '"« '"^"'^^eted frieze . pierced 

EluUii.^u .sawn brackets of the Gregson-Pickard House, Randleman (courtesy Randolph Book 1779- 
\91<) photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 

Magnificent two-tiered Eastlake porch of the Curtis-BuieHnu^^ p.^ u- ■„ o 

tical porches once existed in the vicinity (Ruthli'lle). '''""klinville. Several nearly iden- 



By the turn of the century, however, this flamboyant period was virtually 
exhausted even though many attractive, large and rambling Victorian homes would 
still be built across the county, especially in the more urban areas which had begun 
to boom under the stimulation of the railroads. But the traditional shapes and plans 
had lost their popularity. Except where it survived in standardized mill housing, the 
rectangular central-hallway plan was largely replaced by the polygonal shapes and 
plans of the "Queen Anne" style. This, and later dwelling styles such as the 

Robert p. Dicks House. Randleman. built in 1881 by T. C. Worth. Mr. Dicks extensively remodeled 
"■* home in 1 885 creating Randolph County' s most elaborate Victorian dwelling in the Second Empire 
^'yle. Destroyed in the 1960s (courtesy Randolph Book 1719-1919 photograph collection in the Ran- 
"^"'Ph Public Library). 

'American Foursquare," bungalow and the Colonial Revival were almost entirely 
nationwide in scope and popular appeal, accelerated by improved mail service, mag- 
azine, newspaper and catalog distribution. 

As the construction industry boomed, sash-and-blind companies expanded 
their product lines to include virtually any part of a house. Catalogs of ornamental 
tnm were printed, orders could be made through the mail, and companies would 
^hip the pieces of a home to the nearest railroad siding. After World War I 
'^sheboro's Home Building and Materials Company became a leader in the 
provision of housing, especially in the growing popularity of the bungalow. In 
association with T. J. Lassiter, a local contractor who had become familiar with the 
^"ngalow style while in California, the company began to manufacture all the 
■^aterials and trim to build a complete house every day. These bungalows were 
^hipped all over the southeast and erected under Lassiter's supervision. The trends 
|^*ard simplification, standardization and mechanization are still evident in North 
^.arolina's construction industry, although modem technology is a far cry from the 

'gnteenth-century pioneer with his broadaxe. 

. . . the great changes that are altering the culturallandscape of the South almost beyond 
recognition are not simply negative changes, the disappearance of the familiar. There are 
also positive changes, the appearance of the strikingly new. 

The symbol of innovation is inescapable. The roar and groan and dust of it greet one 
on the outskirts of every Southern city. That symbol is the bulldozer, and for lack of a 
better name this might be called the Bulldozer Revolution. The great machine with the 
lowered blade ... is the advance agent of the metropolis. It encroaches on rural life to 
expand urban life. It demolishes the old to make way for the new. 

The fact is the South is going through economic expansion and reorganization that 
the North and East completed a generation or more ago. But the process is taking place 
far more rapidly than it did in the North. ... All indications are that the bulldozer will 
leave a deeper mark upon the land than did the carpetbagger'" 




Plan of the Hal M. Worth House, Asheboro. The house was built between December, 1907 and April, 1908 
by contractor M. L. Davis for the sum of $2,005. The plan, contract and extensive notes on its 
construction are found in the Hal M. Worth papers in the Randolph Room, Randolph Public Library. 





-J » m - ^iiiM 



'Hugh T. Lefler and Albert R. Newsome, History of a Southern 
State: North Carolina (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina 
Press, 1973), 714. 

■"Nancy E Brenner (ed.), Randolph Public Library and its 
Community: A Community-Library Analysis (Asheboro, N.C.: Ran- 
dolph Public Library, 1979), 10. 

■"Bill Sharpe, A New Geography of North Carolina, vol. 2 (Ra- 
leigh: Sharpe Publishing Company, 1958), 1023. 
'Ibid., 1024-1026. 

'Jasper Leonidas Stuckey, North Carolina: Its Geology and 
Mineral Resources (Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Conserva- 
tion and Development, 1965), 16. 
'Sharpe, 1023-1024. 

'Lawson crossed a "stony River . . . called Heighwaree" in 
1701 according to H. T. Lefler (ed.), /i New Voyage to Carolina by 
John Lawson (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 
1967), 56. Col. John Collett's 1770 map of North Carolina pinpoints 
"Vbharee Creek" (the map is reproduced in Randolph County 
Historical Society, Randolph County, 1779-1979 (Winston-Salem: 
Hunter Publishing Company 1980), 25. Rev George Soelle made 
notes on the German residents of the "Hugh Warren" area in 1771, in 
Adelaide L. Fries, Records of the Moravians in North Carolina, 2 
(Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton, 1925), 806. In 1771 Governor 
Tryon's Army took possession of the ford of the "Huwara River" in 
Walter Clark, (ed.). The State Records of North Carolina, 16 vols. 
Winston and Goldsboro: State of North Carolina, 1895-1907), 848. 
Methodist Bishop Francis Asbury in 1793 visited the "Uwary 
Mountains" inSharpe, ANewGeographyofNorthCarolina, 1018. 
The nineteenth-century "Uwharie" gold mine is mapped in Bruce 
Roberts, The Carolina Gold Rush (Charlotte: McNally and Loftin, 
1972), 76. 

'Sharpe, 1026. 
'"Brenner, 20. 

"E. Stuart Chapin and Shirley F. Weiss (eds.) Urban Growth 
Dynamics in a Regional Cluster of Cities (New York: John Wiley 
and Sons, Inc., 1962), 14. 

'^George Shadroui, "Randolph Population Undergoes Shift," 
Greensboro Daily News Leader, 11 January 1981, pp. Rl, R3. 
"Brenner, 24. 

'"Randolph County Historical Society, Randolph County, 1779- 
1979 (Winston-Salem: Hunter Publishing Company, 1980), 249. 
"Brenner, 44. 

"Ibid.; also Randolph County Historical Society, Randolph 
County, 268. 

"Brenner, 39. 

'Vbid., 37-38. 

^"Lefler, A New Voyage to North Carolina by John Lawson, 

^'Henry E. McCulloh Survey Book. Surveys and plats of land in 
Rowan County, North Carolina, Southern Historical Collection, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

^^John Scott Davenport, "Earliest Pfautz/Fouts Families in 
America," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 63, no. 4 
(December 1975), 255. 

"G. W. Paschal (ed.), "Morgan Edwards' Materials Towards 
a History of the Baptists in the Province of North Carolina," A^or/Zi 
Carolina Historical Review, 7, no. 3 (July, 1930), 393. 

^*The story of the Uwharrie River German Community is told 
more fully in L. McKay Whatley, "The Mount Shepherd Pottery: 
Correlating Archaeology and History," Journal of Early Southern 
Decorative Arts, 6, no. 1 (May, 1980), 21-57. 

^'M. A. Huggins, A History of North Carolina Baptists, 
1727-1932 (Raleigh: The General Board of the Baptist State Conven- 
tion of North Carolina, 1967), 51. 

^'Lefler and Newsome, 139. 

^*The Sandy Creek Baptist Association followed associations in 
Philadelphia (1707) and Charleston, S.C. (1751), M. A. Huggins, 65. 
"/iiV/., 57. 
^Ibid., 92. 
"/iW., 60. 
^^Ibid., 62. 

''"Cox Family" file, "Farlow Family" file, "Milliken Family" 
file, "Worth Family" file, "Coffin Family" file, "English Family" 
file, "Tomlinson Family" file, "Allen Family" file, "Hinshaw 
Family" file. Randolph Room, Randolph County Public Library, 
Asheboro, North Carolina. 

'"Congregational histories in Seth B. Hinshaw and Mary Edith 
Hinshaw, Carolina Quakers: Our Heritage of Hope (Greensboro: 
Society of Friends North Carolina Yearly Meeting, 1972). 

"Randolph County Historical Society Randolph County, 27. 
■"■Rufus M. Jones, The Quakers in the American Colonies (New 
York: W W Norton and Company Inc., 1966), 326. 

"^Population figures in Sharpe, 1019. 

"John Hope Franklin, The Free Negro in North Carolina, 
1790-1860 (New York: W W Norton and Company, Inc., 1971), 

*°Ibid., 180. 

■"Roy S. Nicholson, Wesleyan Methodism in the South (Syticuse, 
N.Y: The Wesleyan Methodist Publishing House, 1933), 52; Clifton 
H. Johnson, "Abolitionist Missionary Activities in North Carolina," 
North Carolina Historical Review, 40, no. 3 (July 1963), 309; Noble 
J. Tolbert, "Daniel Worth: Tar Heel Abolitionist," North Carolina 
Historical Review, i9(July, 1962), 290. 

"^William S. Hoffmann, Andrew Jackson and North Carolina 
Politics. The James Sprunt Studies in History and Political Science, 
Vol. 40 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press 1958) 


■"The actual vote in Randolph County was 2,466 against the 
secession convention, 45 in favor (54.8 to 1). Guilford had the highest 
number opposed, 2,771 to 1 13, but the proportion there was only 24.5 

to 1. Burton Alva Konkle, John Motlev Morehead and the Develop- 
ment of North Carolina 1796-1866 (Philadelphia: William J. Campbell. 
1922, repnnt ed., Spananburg, S.C: The Reprint Company 1971) 
Statistics taken from John L. Cheney Jr. (ed.). North Caroline 

?^^7.T!!!- ffff "'^^^ "^^'"'S''^ Office of the Secretary of State. 
1975), 1321-1336; /Wrf., 1385-1403. 

o r^'fi^''" '^''^" ^'""^ Randolph County Historical Society 
Randolph County, 268. 

"Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson (Boston: Lit- 
tle, Brown and Company, 1945), 8. 

"^Cornelius O. Cathey Agricultural Developments in Norli 
Carohna. 1783-1860. The James Sprunt Studies in History ai.^ 
Political Science, vol. 38 (Chapel Hill: The University of NoH^ 
Carolina Press, 1956), 24. 

"^Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson, 8. 

^Cathey Agricultural Developments, 134-135 
. ^'"l'^^^\^''^^- Jonathan Worth: A Biography of a Souther' 
m5)"'42 '^' ^"'"'""^ °^ North Carolina Press. 

"Fred Burgess, "Randolph County: Economic and Social" (' 
Laboratory Study at the University of North Carolina at Chapel HilL 
Department of Rural Social Economics, 1924; reprint ed., Asheboro 
iN.L.j^ Randolph County Historical Society 1969) 55 

Randolph County Historical Society, Randolph County, 26 
Z,uber, 105. 

"Roben B. Starling, "The Plank Road Movement in Nortf 

Seal's. i72""^ "'""' "^"'"'"^ "'""'''' '-'^' '^- ""• ' 
"Randolph County Historical Society, Randolph County, 26 

59u??r°''''', *^°""'y Historical Society. Randolph County, 22 
r. , ,T \- ^f""*^^" '^''•'- ^''^ Cotom-fl/ Records of Nort* 
mol^ifsysi. 783 '''"""'^ '""' °^''°"' ^'"°""'' '^^^' 

rNr?n'V°a^'?''.^'^'^'"- ^ November 1784, Randolph CountJ 
(N.C.) Deed Book 2, p. 136; Jacob Skeen to daughter Jane an^ 

Sf k"4 Tn«'f ""!• " '^P'^'"'^^ "^- '*^"<1°'P' County Deef 
W. V'-,7o<=' 1'"".""'' ^='"= ^'"°"^ •« George Mendenhall, 2« 
September 1795, Randolph County Deed Book 17, p. 226; Georg' 
Mendenhall to Benjamin Trotter, "(Miller)." 28 July 1797, Randolph 

?5T?',^",«m°°o'' ^- P- ^^- ^'"J^'"'" Trotter to Christian Morel^' 
15 October 801, Randolph County Deed Book 8, p. 441; John Mo.^' 
to James Ward, 2 April 1818, Randolph County Deed Book 14, P 
124; James Ward to Elisha Coffin. 25 December 1821, Randolph 
County Deed Book 14, p. 531. 

'^Randolph County Historical Society Randolph County, 79 

p H 1 u ^ V °^ "'^ ""'■^'^ S'^'"- '870: Industrial Schedule 

Randolph County North Carolina. 

^'Naomi Wise was an orphan girl strangled by her lover, Jona- 
than Lewis^ Lewis worked as a clerk in Elliott's store, and murdefC 
Naomi in hopes of manying Elliott's sister. Hettie. The poem i^ 
song which grew up around the story is now recognized as Nof* 
Carolinas earliest surviving ballad. Also, see Hoyle S. Burton (ed '■ 
North Carolina Folklore. 1, no. 1 (June, 1948) 14. (Located >' 
Naomi Wise file" Randolph Room, Randolph Public LibraD 


Asheboro, North Carolina.) 

'^"History of Cedar Falls Written in 1880 Tells of Early Settlers 
of Area," Asheboro (N.C.) Courier-Tribune, 15 December 1940. 

"Richard W Griffin and Diffie W Standard, "The Cotton 
Textile Industry in Antebellum North Carolina, Part I: Origin and 
Growth to 1830," North Carolina Historical Review, (January, 1957), 

**Third Census of the United States, 1810: Industrial Schedule, 
Randolph County North Carolina. 

""Return of the cotton machine for the Year 1802," North 
Carolina State Archives, C.R. 081.701.5, Miscellaneous Tax Re- 
'^ords, Randolph County papers. 

''"North Carolina, Private Acts Passed by the General Assembly 
(1829-1830), Chapter 73, pp. 46-47. 

''Steve Dunwell, The Run of the Mill: A Pictorial Narrative of 
'he Expansion, Dominion, Decline and Enduring Impact of the New 
England Textile Industry (Boston: David R. Godine, 1978), p. 12. 
'"Griffin and Standard, "The Cotton Textile Industry in Ante- 
bellum North Carolina, Part I," p. 22. 

"Quoted in The Asheboro Southern Citizen, 17 June 1837. 
'^Richard W Griffin and Diffee W Standard, "The Cotton 
Textile Industry in Antebellum North Carolina, Part II; An Era of 
°°om and Consolidation, 1830-1860," North Carolina Historical 
«ev,ew (April, 1957), 137-138, 145-146. 
^^Ibid., 143-144. 

'''Griffin and Standard, "The Cotton Textile Industry in Antebel- 
l"m North Carolina, Part II," 144. 

^^^Asheboro (N.C.) Southern Citizen. 3 March 1838. 
^''Asheboro (N.C.) Southern Citizen, 8 March 1839. 
^jAsheboro (N.C.) Southern Citizen, 21 January 1840. 
, "Griffin and Standard, "The Cotton Textile Industry in Ante- 
"e'lum North Carolina, Part II," 159. 
Jhid., 159-160. 

""" atistics from John Roberts, "Textile Fortunes Rebound 
rough New Technology," Greensboro Daily news, 20 July 1980, p. 
"'; and Mariene Burger "Textiles and Apparel," Greensboro Daily 
'^^^.^24 January 1982, p. H-11. 

-, George Makepeace to Quartermaster, 9 July 1862, copy from 
0"! Presnell's files in "Franklinville" folder. The Randolph Room, 
•Randolph Public Library Asheboro, North Carolina. 
, A recent biographical study is available in Gary R. Freeze, 
■faster Mill Man: John Milton Odell and Industrial Development in 
°"^ord. North Carolina 1877-1907" (M.A. thesis. The University 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1980), 25. 
^ Peter R. Kaplan, The Historic Architecture of Cabarrus County, 
"'''h Carolina (Concord, NC: Historic Cabaniis, Inc., 1981), 
pp. 24-25. 

.J, , "Richard W Griffin, "Reconstruction of the North Carolina 
,,'''ile Industry, 1865-1885," North Carolina Historical Re\ieH- 
'January, 1964), p. 48. 
Q. Rev. Levi Branson (ed.), Branson' s North Carolina Business 

"'^'^^ory (Raleigh: Levi Branson, Publisher, 1897). 508. 
p Holt McPherson (ed.). High Pointers of High Point (High 
""j,N.C.; Chamber of Commerce, 1976), 32-35. 
The Greensboro Patriot, 10 October 1863. 


**Sallie W Stockard, The History of Guilford County, North 
Carolina (Knoxville: Gant-Ogden Co., 1902), 136. 

"'Lewis Publishing Company (gen. ed.), 6 vols. History of North 
Carolina, vol. 1: The Colonial and Revolutionary Records, 1584-1783, 
by R. D. W Connor; vol. 2: The Federal Period 1783-1860, by 
William K. Boyd; vol. 3: North Carolina Since 1860, by J. G. de 
Roulhac Hamilton; vols. 4-6: North Carolina Biography, by a Spe- 
cial Staff of Writers. (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1919), 

6, 165. 

'^'Established by 1869, it may have been the first such woodwork- 
ing business in the state. "During the Franco-Prussian War, 1871, this 
factory furnished the French Army with picks, handles, and spokes 
for the Cannon Wheel." See Stockard, 125. 
'•McPherson, 115. 

^^The High Point (N.C.) News, 24 March 1921. 
''Stockard, 67. 

'^Levi Branson (ed.), Branson's North Carolina Business Direc- 
tory (Raleigh: Levi Branson, Publisher, 1884), 547-549. 
"McPherson, 118. 
^Ibid., 20. 

'■'James W Clay, Douglas M. Orr, Jr., and Alfred W Stuart, 
(eds.). North Carolina Atlas: Portrait of a Changing Southern State 
(Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1975), p. 205. 
"Robert Gregg Cherry, "Conserving North Carolina's Re- 
sources," January 1946, quoted in David Leroy Corbitt (ed.). Pub- 
lic Addresses and Papers of Robert Gregg Cherry 1945 -1949 (Ra- 
leigh: Council of State, 1951), 289-292. 

"Statistics from John Roberts, "Textile Fortunes Rebound 
Through New Technology" Greensboro Daily News, 20 July 1980, p. 
F-1; and Mariene Burger, "Textiles and Apparel," Greensboro Daily 
Nens, 24 January 1982, p. H-U. 

■"•"Hunt Urges Protection For Prime Farmland," Greensboro 
Daily News, 10 December 1980. 

""Rod Hackney "Urbanization Threatens Farmlands," Greens- 
boro Dailv News Leader, 7 June 1982, p. R-1. 

'"^R. Gregg Cherry, November 22, 1946; Corbitt, Public Ad- 
dresses and Papers of Robert Gregg Cherry, 554. 

'"'Frances Benjamin Johnston and Thomas Tileston Waterman, 
The Early Architecture of North Carolina (Chapel Hill; The Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press, 1947), 6. 

'"^Davidson County Historical Association, Historical Gleam- 
ings of Davidson County, North Carolina (Reeds, North Carolina; 
Baker Printing Company 1976), 74. 

'°'Richard S. Allen, Covered Bridges of the South (Brattle- 
boro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1959), 3. 

""*David Jacobs and Anthony E. Neville, Bridges, Canals, and 
Tunnels (New York; American Heritage Publishing Company, Inc., 
1968), 31. 

'"'Allen, Covered Bridges, 6. 

^^°Greensboro Daily News, 18 October 1936. 

'"Allen, Covered Bridges, 6. 

"^Asheboro (N.C.) Courier Tribune, 13 July 1950. 

'"Randolph County. Minutes of Court of Pleas and Quarter 

Session, 4 Febmary 1845, Minute Book 1843-1851, p. 100 (Located 
in the North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, N.C). 

' '''Randolph County, Minutes of Court of Pleas and Quarter 
Session, 1843-1851, p. 379. 

'"Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 5 March 
1883, p. 200. (Located in Randolph County Register of Deeds). 

"^Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 2 April 

1883, pp. 205-206; 2 June 1884, p. 306. 

' '^Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 4 August 

1884, p. 317. 

""Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 1 June 
1886, p. 487. 

'"Allen, Covered Bridges, 6-7; Asheboro (N.C.) Courier 
Tribune, 13 July 1950. 

'^"Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 5 Janu- 
ary 1885, p. 352; 3 September 1888, p. 146. 

'^'Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 3 Octo- 
ber 1892, p. 548; 5 Febmary 1894, p. 105. 

'^^Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 4 June 
1894, p. 147. 

'^'Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 5 August 
1889, p. 234. 


' ^'Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 1 Septem- 
ber 1892, p. 448. 

'^''Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 5 Febru- 
ary, 1894, p. 105. 

'^^Randolph County, County Commissioners' Minutes, 7 October 
1901, p. 574; 4 November 1901, p. 587. 

'^'*Allen, Covered Bridges, p. 6. 

'^''Asheboro (N.C.) Courier Tribune, 13 July 1950. 

""Dorothy Auman and Walter Auman, Seagrove Area (Ashe- 
boro: Village Printing Company, 1976), 101. 

'"Dunwell, 24. 

"^See the discussion of the New England Mutual factory vernac- 
ular in Kaplan, The Historic Architecture of Cabarrus County, North 
Carolina, pp. 28-30. 

'"Dunwell, 19. 

"*/fcW., 47-48. 

"^Asheboro (n.C.) Southern Citizen, 14 April 1838. 

"'•The Greensboro Patriot, 30 September 1843. 

'■"T'/ie Greensboro Patriot, 2 August 1851; 22 November I85I; 
12 June 1852. 

""Susan Tucker Hatcher, "North Carolina Quakers; Bona Fide 
Abolitionists," The Southern Friend: Journal of the North Carolina 
Friends Historical Society 1, no. 2 (Autumn, 1979), 94. 


'""Holland Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill: 
A Study of Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York: The 
Macmillan Company 1906), p. 51-52. 

""Reprinted in Raleigh (N.C.) Register, 22 August 1849 
(Available in the North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, N.C). 

'"^Martha T Briggs, "Mill Owners and Mill Workers in an 
Antebellum North Carolina County" (M.A. thesis. University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1975), 85. 

continued on page 50 







r :l' 

! ,J 

Randolph County Inventory 

Trinity Township 


continued from page 49 

'"'Ibid., 80-81, 85. 
Carl Lounsbury. "Survey and discussion of Alamance Village 
at Alamance Village, N.C.," 7 January 1982. 

'"'John Baxton Flowers III, Orange Factory (Durham: Orange 
Factory Preservation Society, 1978), 15-17. 

'■"■Brent Glass, "Southern Mill Hills: Design in a Public Place," 
in Carolina Dwelling: Towards Presenation of Place: In Celebration 
of the North Carolina Vernacular Landscapes, (ed.), Doug Swaim 
(Raleigh: North Carolina State University School of Design, 1978), 

145; Catherine W Bishir, "Asher Benjamin's 'Practical House 
Carpenter' in North Carolina," Carolina Comments 27 (May 1979) 

""Catherine W Bishir, "Asher Benjamin's 'Practical House 
Carpenter' in North Carolina," Carolina Comments 27 (May, 1979) 

'■"•a. J. Downing, The Architecture of Country Houses (New 
York: Dover Publication, Inc., 1969), 394. 

'"Ibid.. 73. 

r "°^^'"'^„^• '^^''1*^". comp.. Founders and Builders d 
mslnr- ""'-"'' 'C--^""-: J- ^ stone and Company. 

rac. 'vl?3'rM '^t™^/''^'' '"""''^ T^''' Centuries of Democ- 
racy, Vol 3 (New York: Uwis Historical Publishing Company, 1932). 

RouEr.T;.^!"" ^r^^t^"^' ^''^ ^"'■den of Southern History (Bato" 
Kouge. Louisiana State University Press, I%8), 5-7. 


t:.iia'-H.'.'.?iif. ^»iLv>.H lr'Tl •■-'■"-'•'* 


Trinity Township 

This architecturally significant structure was 
the home of the politically active Harper family 
The house was probably built ca. 1800 by Lt. 
Col. Jeduthan Harper (1736-1819), who served 
at various times as a Randolph County justice of 
'he peace, register of deeds, clerk of court and 
member of the state legislature. Harper's son 
Jesse (1787-1851) followed in his father's foot- 
steps as county clerk of court; daughter Ann 
Elizabeth married Gov John Motley Morehead 
of Greensboro; and daughter Sara married Alex- 
^der Gray Randolph County's general in the 
"M of 1812. Jeduthan Harper's will contained 
*e unusual directions that his slaves be emanci- 
pated and provided with land, furniture, horses 
and money from his estate. 

The four-bay two-story frame house has 9/9 
sash on the first floor and 6/6 on the second. The 
entrance door with transom and sidelights, and 
'he hip roofs of the house, west wing and the 


porch, all may be part of a mid-19th cen- 

^ remodeling. The unusually fine Federal style 
'nterior woodwork is the outstanding feature of 
nis house. An open-string staircase rises from 
'he rear of the entrance hall. The turned balusters 
and newel post support a rail which terminates in 
a graceful curve, and risers of the stair are carved 
on the step ends. A molded chair rail elaborated 
''h a rope molding decorates the hallway, as 
oes the crossetted surround of the doorway to 
'he west wing. The first-floor parlor, the largest 
^0 most elaborate room in the house, opens off 
!^ hall. On the east wall is a large fireplace 
■Wasting slender, stylized Ionic columns which 
^"Ppon a molded frieze and mantel shelf. The 
enimney breast is flanked by windows whose 
I °odwork carries a raised panel at the head with 



'etted comers. Molded chair rail, baseboard 

cornice accent the plastered interior of the 

Unusual features of the second floor are the 

Comer fireplaces in the small eastern bed- 
'ns. Those fireplaces have deep finish shel- 

fed friezes with bolection moldings and molded 
^ antel shelves. Evidence indicates that most, if 
^ all, of the interior woodwork of the house 

*iP*'n'ed with decorative wood graining, 
he only distinctive outbuilding is a one-story 

ard-and-batten structure formeriy used as a 
.^ Chen. Local tradition mentions that this build- 
^8 originally sat parallel to the main house and 

*s connected to it by a covered walkway. The 

^^^Ei r- i n i i n r i nr= 

original building probably had brick end chim- 
neys, and some brick nogging remains despite a 
fire which left the structure partially burned. 

The house is listed in the National Register of 
Historic Places and was bought in 1978 and 
resold with protective covenants by the Historic 
Preservation Fund of North Carolina. John May 
is the present owner. 


Trinity Township 

Built by Riley Miller ca. 1883, the mill com- 
plex also became known as "Brokaw's Mill" 
when it was bought by neighboring millionaire 
William Gould Brokaw around the turn of the 
century. The complex includes a house, store, 
machine shop and mill sited in a horseshoe bend 
of the Uwharrie River where a fifteen-foot dam 
created the water power. The house and mill are 
relatively late examples of mortise-and-tenon 
construction. The mill was powered by a twenty- 
foot overshot water wheel or a turbine led by a 
concrete penstock, both of which are still in 
place. A steam engine and boiler, now replaced 
by a diesel engine, provided power for summers 
when water was low. The exterior of the monitor- 
roofed mill features "dutch" doors and 6/6 sash; 
the interior feanuts chamfered exposed beams 
and a comer fireplace. Both the com and wheat 
stones remain in place, as does all the bolting 
and sifting equipment on the second and third 
floors. The three-bay T-plan house has 6/6 sash. 
Nearly deteriorated, the store building, once 
used as a post office, is a simple structure 
decorated with a "boom-town" front. 


Trinity Township 

Certain features of this two-story three-bay 
center-hall plan house indicate a date of ca. 1810. 
The gable roof exhibits a molded cornice with 
boxed remms and the 6/6 sash have molded 
exterior frames. The gable-end chimneys with 
stepped-shoulders and the foundation are all 
stuccoed. The weatherboarding is now covered 
with asphalt siding. 

The first floor exhibits two types of molded 
chair rail, as well as a molded baseboard. There 
are marks of H and HL hinges on the six-panel 
door^ and filming. The fireplace mantels are 
simple Georgian designs with sunken panels. 













.J^ll ^ _ — i^^tyj-* 



'3'===lBI===)l31^^==iR r==i m 

I i n i i nr= 


Trinity Township 

"Melrose" was built in 1845-1847 by Lewis 
M. Leach on a prominent hill just south of 
Trinity In the 19th century students boarded in 
the house, walking the three-quarter mile to 
college. The original kitchen and dining room 
were in the basement and accessible from out- 
side by a bulkhead entrance. The original porch, 
now gone, was a two-story veranda with aii 
entrance from the second floor. The American 
bond brick house is now painted white, one of 
many alterations made since 1931 by the present 
owners. Some two-panel Greek Revival doore 
survive, as well as two simple post-and-lintel 
mantels in upstairs bedrooms. The den mantel is 
a simple yet unusual design with swelling ogee 
curves resembling furniture in the "Empire" 
style. The tread ends of the open-string staircase 
are decorated with brackets and the case itself 
features raised panels with applied oval shells 
carved in a sunburst pattern. 


Trinity Township 

A small one-story house which may be a log 
cabin now covered with board-and-banen siding. 

TRT:6 FAIRVIEW PARK (destroyed) 

Trinity Township 

In the late 19th century "the area formed by 
the three counties of Randolph, Davidson and 
Guilford was once the most highly regarded 
quail shooting country in the United States." 
That reputation attracted some of the nation's 
wealthiest men to the region, men who were 
eager to emulate the practices of the English 
landed gentry. North Carolina's most prolific 
legacy from this period is, of course, George 
Vanderbilt's Biltmore House. But in the Pied- 
mont, Vanderbilt's closest competitor was clearly 
William Gould Brokaw "of New York, Saratoga 
and Tuxedo Park," railroad baron Jay Gould's 
grandson. In 1896 Gould came to Randolph 
County and began to assemble an estate which 
ultimately included purchases of 2,300 acres and 
leased hunting rights on 30,000 additional acres 
By the time of World War I Gould was virtually 
the feudal lord of most of the northwester^i 
quarter of Randolph County 

The original section of Gould's "Manor House" 
was built in 1896 and later expanded to become a 




ow, white, gambrel-roofed structure moie than 
160 teet in length. It included a sun porch, 
library, dming room, billiard room, gun room, 
gymnasium, shooting gallery, bowling alley, 
lurkish bath, indoor swimming pool and squash 
court, not to mention fifteen bedrooms, some 
with pnvate baths. The architect of this "har- 
nionious blending of the colonial and French 
chateau types" is said to have been Stanford 
White, remembered locally as "that man Hany 
K. Thaw killed in New York." White if he was 
indeed the architect, also designed the lodge of 
Clarence McKay in nearby Jamestown. 

Although the estate boasted such amenities as 
a race track and polo field, a golf course and 
trap shooting facilities, it was first and foremost 
a hunting establishment, including a 35-stall 
bam, kennels and cottages for game keepers and 
trainers. Not satisfied with quail, Brokaw buiH 
duck ponds and raised mallards, imported liv< 
bnghsh pheasants, and fenced in a 500-acie trad 
around the Manor House, stocked it with deer 
and elk, and created a private deer park. 

Hunting was Brokaw 's passion and he used 
his influence to promote it in every way North 
Carolina's game laws were entirely rewritten by 
Brokaw "at the request of the Governor" He 
backed the establishment of the state-owned game 
tarm below Asheboro which raised and released 
game birds for sportsmen. He tried to attract his 
tnends to the area, praising its "ideal climate 
• • ■ resembling that of France and Italy" To 
accommodate the resulting overflow of guests. 
Brokaw built a "Swiss Chalet" (actually an 
Adirondack Style" log cabin) about a hundred 
yards east of the Manor House and connected 
to it by a bridge that crossed the intervening 
ravine Soon after his graduation ftx)m Hanaitl. 
hanklm Roosevelt was a guest at this "rustic 
lodge (which featured running water and mar- 
ble fireplaces). 

This idyUic life was, sadly, transitory. "Inflation 
following the First Wbrld War forced Btoka* 
mto some financial difficulty and the Manor 
House was turned into a deluxe club for wealth) 
sportsmen who could shoot and live luxuriously 
for about $25 a day." Then, in 1921, the Manor 
House burned to the ground. Brukaw renovated 
the Estate Manager's Lodge for his own use, bul 
the limes had changed. He finally disposed of 
the property in 1938 and died in South Carolina 
in 1941. FuBs slowly claimed other parts of th« 
estate, until little was left. Today massive chim- 
neys mark the sites of the Swiss chalet and Estate 
Manager's Lodge. The only reminder of the 


v&idmmm^ lunii^ 

Manor House is the tiny octagonal shooting 
stand which once stood behind the Manor House, 
*here Brokaw and his guests practiced trap 

"On a quiet day in November, it is possible to 
stand on the knoll where the Manor House 
reared its lofty presence and see in your imagina- 
tion a pair of hunters moving out for a day's 
^Port, with dogs and handlers. They are wearing 
■English tweeds and carry custom-made double 
suns. The hunter tips his hat and moves the dogs 
into a covert. Two quick doubles are scored on 
we covey rise and the hunters move out of sight, 
Back into the past." (Don FoUmer, The High 
Point Enterprise, July 25, 1968.) 


Trinity Township 

Randolph County's only entry in Thomas T 
Waterman's The Early Architecture of North Caro- 
"w is this one-and-a-half-story log house which 

ay be the area's best known log cabin. The 
entiy in Waterman's book is based on a photo- 
graph by Frances Benjamin Johnston, the fa- 
nrous photographer of the New Deal era who 
Beveled the nation recording historic buildings. 

ne original portion of the house, of V-notched 

8 construction, has a massive interior end 

^himney of mud-chinked fieldstone. A dog-leg 

to the south of the chimney provides access 

°, *e second floor. A closet, lit by a tiny 

indow, occupies the space to the north of the 
^wmney Both the stair and closet are closed off 

.:} .batten doors hung on strap hinges. Shed 

'hons on the east and west were built in the 

J^ 19th century when thin Victorian sheathing 

{^ ^PP'i^d over most of the interior. A concrete 

ndation and screened-in porches are recent 



ennan dated the house as ca. 1750 and 
especially an unglazed window covered 

y by a sheathed shutter. The window is now 
™ and the shutter has disappeared, a victim 

1750°*^*™'^^"°"' ^^ *^ ^°^^^ '^ '" ^ ^^^'^ ** 
(17'in " '^°"''' "°' ^^^^ ''^^" ''"''' ''y ^"°^ '^'^"^ 
the rT'^'''*^' ^'^° ^^* *'""' ''^*' y^^' '"'^^^'^' 
tha \ ■ ^a^i'ly had migrated no farther south 
tl,^ p^irg'nia by 1761. It would therefore seem 
thi< K ^ ^^^^ '^°"''' "°' ^^^^ acquired or built 
hou ^"^^ ^^°^ '^a. 1770. Even at that, the 
Rantf i'^'"*'"^ 'be oldest standing structure in 
dwell' ^""""y- " '5 3 ''^y example of the log 
thr.. ^"^* ''"'•' by the first generations of settlers 
"^"ghout the FMedmont. 


Trinity Township 

The centerpiece of Wheatmore Farms, this 
massive Queen Anne style house was built on 
the site of the little T. A. Finch House, which 
was moved to an adjacent site. The house was 
designed and built by Charles Franklin Finch, 
brother of the owner. C. F Finch graduated fix)m 
Vanderbilt University in 1894 with a Bachelor 
of Engineering degree, taught drafting and worked 
in the lumber business beibre reniming to Thomas- 
ville. The house was his first commission; there- 
after he built houses, stores and churches in 
Thomasville, as well as the Palace and Stable 
theaters and the first "Big Chair." 

The stnicmre is a rambling hip-roofed house 
with a projecting gabled wing and a polygonal 
bay with bracketed overhang. The sawn gable 
ornamentation includes a spoked "open wheel" 
design. The glazed sun porch on the southeast- 
em facade may have been added in the 1920s. 
Nearby is a one-story central-chimney structure 
which served as kitchen and dining room for the 
original antebellum house. 


Trinity Township 

This is one of the earliest surviving brick 
strucmres in Randolph County; an inscribed brick 
near the fiunt door dates it 1836. Oddly, however, 
the outstanding interior woodwork seems to date 
ftom an earlier period. The exterior has been 
completely smccoed at some time, although brick- 
work visible under the porch is laid in 1:5 com- 
mon bond. The pylon supports of the porch date 
from ca. 1935 alterations as do the 1/1 window 
sash. Sawn Federal-style dentil work decorates 
the gable and cornice. An unusual detail of the 
brickwork is that all outside comers are cham- 
fered, including both the edges of the house and 
the exterior end chimne>'s. 

A simple transom above the door lights the 
entrance hallway In a variation of the center-hall 
plan, two small rooms heated by comer fireplaces 
lie north of the hall, with a spacious parlor on the 
south. The partition has been removed ftom the 
north room, now called the "Mail Room," after 
its use as a post office. One of the comer 
fireplaces exhibits a simple mantel with molded 
shelf; the other is similar, but a reeded panel is 
centered below the shelf. A six-panel door sur- 
vives on the closet of this room and illustrates 













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the original decorative treatment; the pine door 
has been painted and grained to resemble more 
expensive wood, and lunettes have been scratched 
into the wet paint of the raised panels. The 
wainscoted hallway has an open string staircase 
with scrolled stair brackets; the square newel 
exhibits several moldings and is decorated with 
an applied cartouche. The parlor with a chair rail 
highlighting the plaster walls, is dominated by 
its impressive mantel. A reeded fireplace sur- 
round in a symmetrically-molded frame is sur- 
rounded by three raised panels, which are in turn 
topped by an elaborate molded comice which 
breaks in the center to form a dentiled "keystone." 
The simplicity of the room and the intricacy of 
the mantel combine to produce an elegant decora- 
tive effect. 


Trinity Township 

This miller's residence is the only survivor of 
the grist mill complex operated by the Payne 
family The original one-and-a-half-story house 
dates ca. 1868; a one-room addition doubled its 
size in the late 19th century. The hall-and-parlor 
plan house featui^es two-panel Greek Revival 
doors, a very plain post-and-linlel mantel and a 
boxed dog-leg stair. The shed porch is supported 
by columns with bases but no surviving capitals. 
The mill stood across the Uwharrie River from 
the house. 


Trinity Township 

Local farmer Samuel Gray (1778-1856) built 
this half-dovetail log building as the detached 
kitchen of a planned house which was never 
built. The one-room building includes 4/4 sash 
and boxed stairs leading to a loft. 


Trinity Township 

This hip-rioof end-chimney center-hall plan house 
was built ca. 1850; however, the log rear wing is 
probably earlier. The facade is divided into three 
sections by monumental pilasters; coupled 4/4 sash 
are used on the facade while 6/6 are used on the 
sides and rear. Double two-panel Greek Revival 
doors, flanked by four-pane sidelights, give en- 
trance into the hall. An open-string stair rises to 
the second floor. The interior is plastered and has 

simple Greek Revival mantels. The house is a 
simple rural version of the popular Italianate style- 
The Leach family was quite active in North 
Carohna-s political and social activities. Col- 
Martin W Uach married Sallie Alston Mangum. 
daughter of U.S. Senator Willie Person Manguw 
ot Hillsborough. Col. Uach's brother, James 
Madison Leach, was elected a US. Congress- 
man before the Civil War, was a Confederate 
congressman during the war and returned to the 
U.S. Congress after the war. 


Trinity Township 

This early I9th century house is remembered 
as the home of Lytle Johnson (b. 1796) The 
onginal house may be the one-and-a-half-stoiy 
log cabm now covered wtih weatherixjaniing and 
attached to the main house by a shed porch. The 
main house is an end-chimney hall-and-parlor 
plan dwelling with symmetrically placed 6/6 
sash; one single-shoulder brick-end chimney; and 
a granite fieldstone-and-brick double-shoul- 
dered chimney, stuccoed and painted to resem- 
ble brick. The molded comice terminates with a 
nicely detailed pattern board. A concrete porch 
with wrought iron posts has replaced the original. 


Trinity Township 

The brick for this ca. I860 house was made in 
a nearby field. The walls, two feet thick, are i" 
1:5 common bond. There are double entrance 
doors flanked by four-pane sidelights, and cou- 
pled 4/4 sash characterize the three-bay facade. 
The center-hall plan house has interior chimneys 
on the rear wall, with simple Greek Revival 
mantels. There is an open-string staircase, and 
the interior is completely plastered. The one- 
story west wing, now used as a kitchen, wa* 
originally the one-room log "Glencoe" School. 


Trinity Township 

This hunting lodge was built by Northern 
financier William Zeigler about 1910 and con- 
sisted of four bedrooms, a large "lodge lootn." 
dog lots and suppon buildings. It was used bJ ' 
Mr. Zeigler until his death in the 1950s and '« 
now owned by former High Pbinl mayor Roy B 
Culler, Jr. 



Trinity Township 

Once the nucleus of the Mendenhal! Dairy, 
former supplier of milk to High Point and the 
surrounding area, this two-story central-gable 
'-house was built perhaps ca. 1890 and remod- 
eled in the 1920s. The house has many surviving 
elements of Victorian decoration such as the 
small brackets closely spaced under the main 
comice, the sawn brackets of the porch cornice 
and the sawn porch balusters. 


Trinity Township 

This is known as the Thomas Austin Finch 
House, although it was probably built ca. 1840, 
almost twenty years before Finch bought the 
property from John P H. Russ in 1857. The 
One-and-a-half-story end-chimney center-hall plan 
"ouse is a lovely example of Greek Revival 
''esign. The 9/9 sash have molded frames and 
*ere once shuttered. The entrance door and 
sidelights are set in a symmetrically-molded frame 
complete with comer blocks. The interior trim 
features comer blocks with raised central panels; 
e^en the mantels have symmetrically-molded sur- 
rounds with comer blocks. The first floor rooms 
'"^ wainscoted. A boxed stair leads to the sec- 
ond floor. The rear shed wing is contemporary to 


main block and features molded comer boards 
cornice end plate. The house was moved 


'ts original site in 1897 when the T. J. Finch 
se at Wheatmore Farms was built on the 
'fe- The kitchen-dining room outbuilding for 
™s house remained at the original site. 


Trinity Township 

Perhaps dating to ca. 1860, this house has now 
^n converted to the "Gospel Music Hall." The 

ar wing features a massive granite chiitmey 
ase; a single shouldered end chimney has been 

moved, and the opposite end displays what 
^ Cms to be an original single-shouldered stove 
^.'mney. Dnp moldings protect the 6/6 sash and 

^ 'c framing is of the mortise-and-tenon variety. 


Trinity Township 

This beautifully-sited house was built in 1832, 
probably by General Alexander Gray, whose son 
Robert Harper Gray lived here until his death in 
the Civil War. Alexander Gray, the county's 
largest slaveowner, was a merchant and militia 
officer who was made a general during the War 
of 1812. He married Sarah Harper and is buried 
in the Harper cemetery at the nearby Jeduthan 
Harper House. The hip-roofed center-hall plan 
house is set on the crest of a hill, surrounded by 
pastureland and original buildings such as the 
detached kitchen, stable and bam. The rafter 
ends aie decorated with sawn brackets and the 
porch is supported by an elaborate Victorian 
trellis featuring pointed pendant drops. The inte- 
rior exhibits twelve-foot ceilings and four-panel 
and two-panel Greek Revival doors throughout. 
All mantels are in a rather plain Greek Revival 
style; and the window architrave extends down to 
the top of the high molded baseboard in each 
room. The ramped, open-string staircase has 
bracketed stair ends. 

TFT: 17 









Superior Mop 



West Side NC 62 

This ca. 1871 house served for many years as a 
student boarding house for Trinity College. The 
'6n rooms on the two floors are said to have 
originally possessed public entrances opening 
off a two-story gallery porch. The gabled porch 
and roof treatment, and perhaps the Palladian 
*indow over the entrance, may date from a 
turn-of-the-century remodeling. Much of the sur- 
viving interior trim is of a late Greek Revival 
character; the closed-string staircase may be 
original. Some unusual 19th century wallpaper 
survives in one room. 


East Side NC 62 

These two gabled roof buildings with false 
Doom-town" fronts were originally separate 
stores. Now connected and covered with asbes- 
tos siding, they were possibly built around the 
'"fn of the century. 


Cemetery Street 

The first burial in this public cemetery was on 
pPril 9, 1859. It exhibits a variety of Victorian 
™neral art, as well as a large number of Masonic 
"ombstones. Braxton Craven (d. 1882), the first 
president and guiding spirit of Trinity College, is 
buried here. 


West Side NC 62 

. Almost certainly the oldest existing structure 
} Trinity, this is known to have been the home of 
^ Reddick family at least by 1850, when Robert 
I esley Reddick was one year old. A persistent 

_OCal traditinn olcr, i^ontitit^c thic nc thf* TrinitV 


tradition also identifies this as the Trinity 

'Sonic Lodge. Trinity Lodge #256 was char- 

red on December 5, 1866, and its charier was 

P^eited for unknown reasons in 1876. The 1905 

"th '^"^°''''s of an adjacent house refer to this as 

^ Odd Fellows Lodge," and it may be this 

'Upancy which is mistakenly remembered as a 
^^^sonic lodge. The house is of brick in 1:6 

"^mon bond; all interior walls are plastered. 


second floor exhibits a center-hall plan, 
^ the first floor is hall-and-parior, perhaps 

the resuh of an alteration. A simple Greek Re- 
vival mantel remains on the second floor. The 
building has long been abandoned and is in a 
much deteriorated condition but is a worthy 
candidate for restoration. 


East Side NC 62 

This house is thought to have been built for 
Dr. Thomas Winslow, probably ca. 1855. The 
large pane 6/6 windows, two-panel interior doors 
and Greek Revival mantels indicate this date. 
The entrance, with three-pane sidelights and 
comer-blocked trim, is set in a small area of 
flush siding; weatherboards cover the rest of the 
facade. This indicates that the present porch 
replaces an earlier smaller porch. The wide over- 
hang of the roof, supported by sawn rafter ends, 
may be original — perhaps a vernacular reference 
to the popular Italianate style. Now the residence 
of Mr. and Mrs. Jess Richardson, it was once the 
home of Lorenzo Mendenhall. 


West Side NC 62 

Thought to have been built ca. 1870 by "Cap- 
tain" Parkins, an official of the Hoover Hill Gold 
Mine, this four-room center-hall plan house with 
rear wing has been considerably altered through 
the years. Pink asbestos siding, wrought iron 
porch supports and 1/1 window sash have all 
replaced earlier elements. Some original 6/6 
windows remain on the north side. 


East Side NC 62 

This house was probably built shortly before 
1881, when it was bought by the Methodist 
Protestant Church for use as a parsonage. It 
served in this capacity until the late 1950s. Tnm 
elements still visible under the aluminum siding 
added in 1975 include bracketed cornice returns 
and 6/6 windows. 





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11- PI III 







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West Side NC 62 

Built ca. 1900 by the owner's father, this is a 
simple clapboarded one-story T-plan house. 


East Side NC 62 

Probably built ca. 1890, this Queen Anne 
style house features an end pavilion with project- 
ing polygonal bay window. There is a closed 
string staircase. The porch has been altered to 
include iron posts and a concrete floor. An 
interesting original feature is the south-facing 
glazed "flower house" off the porch. The exte- 
rior of this small wing repeats the feathered 
shingles and dentiled cornice eaves of the main 
house; the interior is plastered-over lathe. Exist- 
ing outbuildings include a hip-roofed carriage 
house and a detached kitchen. The house is 
known as "the old Royals' homeplace." 


East Side NC 62 

Originally built ca. 1860, this house received 
roof modifications and a bungaloid porch in the 
eariy 20th century. The interior features such 
antebellum features as molded two-pane! doors 
and oversized 6/6 window sash which extend to 
floor level. The main entrance door is flanked by 
three-pane sidelights. The central hallway holds 
an open-string staircase. John Franklin Heitman 
(1840-1904) was bom in nearby Davidson County 
and entered Trinity College with the class of 
1861. He left to join the Confederate Army 
during the war and finally graduated from Trinity 
in 1868. Following the death of Braxton Craven 
in 1882, Heitman was nominated for college 
president but lost to Marquis L. Wood. Heitman 
was then appointed Professor of Greek and Ger- 
man as well as elected treasurer of the faculty. 
Following President Wood's resignation in 1884, 
Trinity was administered by a "Committee of 
Management" composed of members of the 
Board of Trustees; Heitman served as Chairman 
of the Faculty from 1884 to 1886 under the 
committee, and was responsible for most admin- 
istrative and academic duties until the election of 
Dr. John Franklin Crowell as president in 1887. 
Even though his wife was the sister of Durham 
industrialist Julian S. Carr, Heitman opposed the 

removal of the college to Durham, and remained 
in Tnnity to serve as headmaster of the prepara- 
tory school which was established at the old 


West Side NC 62 

This ca. 1860 house is interesting because it 
illustrates the roots of the one-story and two- 
story three-bay center-gable houses which be- 
came widely popular by the turn of the century. 
Here the central gable exhibits its original func- 
tion, that of lighting the second story with a 
pointed window The gable is still decorated with 
the onginal sawn bargeboard. Now covered with 
asbestos siding, the house was almost certainly 
built with board-and-batten siding. Two pilasters 
remain from the original bracketed porch, now 
replaced by wrought iron supports. The house 
may have been a product of the same carpenter 
as the 1853 Braxton Craven house and the Dr. 
Tomlinson house in Archdale, two other Gothic- 
style homes. 


West Side NC 62 

This small three-bay house may date from the 
1850s, but a variety of alterations through the 
years make an accurate estimate of its age 
difficult. The unusual central chimney place- 
ment divides the house's interior into two main 
rooms, and one original simple Greek Revival 
mantel remains. The three-bay exterior facade 
has been covered with aluminum siding and 
most windows converted to 1/1 sash; however, 
several earlier 6/6 sash remain 





East Side NC 62 

Boasting an end-pavilion and deep eave over- 
hangs, this large two-story house seems to have 
been built ca. 1870. Its chief decorative features 
include coupled 6/6 windows in the gable ends, 
tripled 6/6 sash on the main facade and square 
coupled porch columns reminiscent of the Greek 
Revival style. Local residents refer to this as 
"Dr. Weeks' house," almost certainly recalling 
Dr. Stephen Beauregard Weeks (1865-1918), 
one of North Carolina's earliest professional 
historians. Weeks, a native of Pasquotank County 
was graduated from the University of North 
Carolina in 1886. He received Ph.Ds. from the 
University of North Carolina in 1888 and from 
Johns Hopkins University in 1891. In September, 
1891 , he was elected Trinity College's first Profes- 
sor of History and Political Science. He resigned 
from the Trinity faculty in 1893 after following 
the college to its new home in Durham. Weeks 
was a founder of both the Trinity College Histori- 
cal Society and the Southern History Association. 
A prolific writer, his most prominent work was 
the book Southern Quakers and Slavery (1896), 
one of the earliest examinations of North Caro- 
lina's Quaker heritage. Weeks, who served as 
Trinity's first librarian, was a bibliophile and 
collector of North Caroliniana; his extensive 
collections became the basis for the North Caro- 
lina Collection in Chapel Hill. Dr. Weeks estab- 
lished firm connections to the Trinity area in 
1893 when he married his second wife Sallie 
Mangum Leach, the daughter of Colonel Martin 
W Leach of Trinity and the niece of Congress- 
man J. Madison Leach. 


West Side NC 62 

An early 20th century home substantially al- 
tered in a 1950s conversion into apartments. An 
unusual feature is the casement-windowed wing 
providing sun rooms on the first and second 


East Side NC 62 

This church, a substantial hip-roofed structure 
with projecting end bays, was probably built in 
the 1930s. The pediment over the entrance is 
supported by coupled Tuscan columns. 


(destroyed 1980) 

West Side NC 62, jet. with SR 1600 

and SR 1603 


Designed by the architectural firm of Northrup 
and O'Brien of Winston-Salem and built by the 
firm of E. T. Hedrick and Son, this structure 
replaced the old Trinity College in 1924. Dyna- 
mite was required to clear the site of the old 
three-story brick college, built in 1855 and ex- 
panded in 1872-1876. Ten fluted iron columns 
with lotus-leaf capitals suggesting an Egyptian 
motif were reused to support the balcony of the 
school auditorium and were the only elements to 
survive from the 19th century construction. These 
columns were fortunately preserved when the 
school, abandoned in 1977, was demolished by 
the Randolph County Board of Education. 

The columns were almost certainly bought 
originally for the college chapel which occupied 
the entire second and third floors of the 1872 
wing. Observers at the time praised the chapel as 
"the best auditorium in the country, both for the 
speaker and the hearer. It will pleasantly seat 
2000 persons, and is so perfect in acoustics, 
ventilation, and arrangement, that a much larger 
number might be accommodated, each seeing 
the speaker without obstruction, hearing distinctly, 
and suffering no inconvenience from impression." 




iri f==i nr^=^nr=^^=lEll= 




East Side NC 62 

The original portion of this structure was one 
of the oldest buildings in Trinity dating perhaps 
as far back as the 1840s. That eight-room original 
building, demolished in the 1930s, formed the 
south wing of the present house. It was a three- 
bay two-story center-hall plan house with a 
sidelighted front door. When the north wing was 
built, probably ca. 1850 a two-story gallery 
porch united both halves. Details of the later 
wing included coupled 4/4 windows, a front 
door with three-pane sidelights, projecting end 
pavilions and a dining room extending the full 
width of the house. An original detached kitchen 
serves today as a garage. The inn was run both 
as a hotel for visitors and as a student boarding 


East Side NC 62 

A center-hall plan house probably dating from 
the late 19th century, as evidenced by the 4/4 sash 
and semicircular gable vent with sawn keystone. 
The hipped porch with central gable may be 
original but the bungaloid pylons on brick piers 
were added in the 1920s. The original facade 
may be the south side rather than the western, 
street facade. 


East Side NC 62 

Lemuel Johnson (Trinity class of 1853) was 
one of the two brothers who served the college as 
professors of mathematics. D. C. Johnson was 
made professor "pro tempore" for the 1850-1851 
term; Lemuel was made tutor for the 1853-1854 
term and was appointed professor of mathemat- 
ics in 1855. He served Trinity in this position for 
more than thirty years. In 1858 he was elected 
the first president of the Trinity College Alumni 
Association. In 1864 he was appointed first 
official librarian of Trinity as well as treasurer of 
the college. After 1884, failing health forced 
Johnson to accept a reduced teaching load. A 
former student wrote the following sketch of 
Johnson: "From across the hollow, climbing 
the hill with long steps and swinging gait. Pro-- 
fessor Johnson, the Mathematician of the College, 
comes into view. I seem to see his straight black 
hat and to hear him say as he demonstrates a 
problem in calculus or mathematical astronomy 
on the blackboard, "Looking at it thus, we will 
easily understand it' — which was not always the 
case." (Chaffin, p. 183) Johnson's home may 
have been built before the Civil War and cer- 
tainly would have featured Victorian millwork of 
the 1870s or 1880s, but massive recent alter- 
ations such as the "Mount Vernon" porch. Colo- 
nial Williamsburg trim and aluminum siding 
effectively disguise its origins. 










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Behind 3509 Archdale Road 

The first official recognition of Bush Hill 
occurred in 1866 when the United States Govern- 
ment transferred its post office from the declin- 
ing settlement of Bloomington to the new com- 
munity of Bush Hill. The first postmaster, W M. 
Wilson, installed the office in a small building 
behind his home, located on the northwest cor- 
ner of the Trindale/Archdale Road intersection. 
Ca. 1940 the office was moved to its present 
location and remodeled to match the adjacent 
residence. The original gable roof was replaced 
with a hip roof at that time. The chimney and 
fireplace have also disappeared. When Bush Hill 
was incorporated as a town in 1874, postmaster 
W M. Wilson also became the first mayor and 
undoubtedly governed from the office. It is one 
of the oldest structures in Archdale. 


Southwest corner of NC 62 and 

Archdale Road 


Built ca. 1860 this is one of several homes 
constructed in the Trinity area in the Gothic 
Revival style. The brick foundation of the center- 
hall plan house was originally stuccoed and 
scored to resemble cut stone. Remnants of the 
original chamfered and bracketed porch posts 
also survive. A pointed casement sash is posi- 
tioned in the center gable; pointed double-hung 
sash flank the interior end chimneys. Despite the 
stylish exterior, Greek Revival mantels are used 
throughout, suggesting that the exterior was cop- 
ied from a pattern book, while the interior was 
finished in the carpenter's regular style of work. 
The sash and trim may be eariy examples of the 
local work of W C. Petty and Company. Dr. John 
M. Tomlinson was the area's most prominent 
physician during the late 19th century. This his- 
toric and architecturally significant home was 
demolished in 1982. 



120 Trindale Road 

This house is very similar to the neighboring 
Hammond house and is likewise an example of 
the work of the W C. Petty Sash and Blind 
Company. Although smaller than the Hammond 
house, this house has many identical elements 

such as brackets and sash and was probably also 
built ca. 1880. A vague local tradition states that 
the house was built by a Quaker preacher, but it 
IS referred locally as the "Dr. Uath" house. 


118 Trindale Road 

This house is an outstanding example of the 
work of a well-known 19th century Archdale 
industry, the sash and blind factory of W C. 
Petty. "Clinton" Petty, his brother D. M. Petty 
and their brother-in-law Moses Hammond, came 
to Bush Hill ca. 1855 and began manufacturing 
furniture and building houses. W. C. Petty was 
an expert machinist and mechanic who, just 
before the Civil War, invented a machine for 
making shoe pegs. These pegs were needed for 
making the shoes and boots so indispensible to 
the war effort, so Petty and his employees were 
exempted by the Confederate government from 
the draft. In 1866 W C. Petty and Company first 
engaged in the business of manufacturing win- 
dow sash and blinds, doors and mantels, mold- 
ings, and. in fact, anything made of wood which 
could be used for building purposes. The com- 
pany was the only one of its kind in the area and 
reaped the profitable harvest of the post-war 
building boom. W C. Petty died in 1885 at the 
age of 55. The business, reorganized after a 
disastrous fire in 1889, was continued for some 
time under the management of Moses Hammond. 
Hammond was an active and prominent worker 
m the Temperance and Prohibition movements 
on both the state and national levels. For several 
years he was president of the North Carolina 
Temperance Union, and in 1888 was candidate 
for the office of lieutenant governor on the Prohi- 
bition ticket. 

The house Moses Hammond built for himself 
ca. 1880 is virtually a catalog of the output of W 
C. Petty and Company. The elaborate tapered 
porch posts, the cornice brackets with drops, the 
molded pediment frames of the 2/2 windo* 
sash, the gable vents, moldings and probably 
even the clapboards and framing lumber were 
products of the Petty establishment. On the inte- 
nor all the mantels, the turned balusters and 
newel of the open-string staircase and, indeed, 
everything but the plaster cornices originated in 
the local factory. Since 1917 the house has been 
the residence of Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Ragan, Jr. 



(destroyed 1980) 

3300 South Main Street 


The nucleus of this house was a small (approxi- 
mately 20 feet X 25 feet) V-notched log cabin 
(hidden from view) which may have been built 
5'efore the Civil War, although exact dating is 
"iipossible. The main portion of the house was a 
"'gh-ceilinged, early 20th century wing built by 
°2n T. English as a hunting lodge for Yankee 
Visitors. The family lived in the original wing, 
and guests roomed in the large wing, hiring Mr. 
English as a hunting guide. 


3307 Archdale Road 

The rambling character of this house, with 
Sables and wings projecting from all sides, and 
Several different styles of window sash, indicates 
"2t the structure was built over a period of time 
starting ca. 1890. An unusual decorative treat- 
"^ent is the bracketed comer boards which seem 
^° support the frieze of the cornice. The trim 
?ay be a product of W C. Petty and Company, 
rile house was built by Meriey English, a hunt- 
"|g dog trainer. Part of the house was used for 
^'Siting hunters, and a strong local tradition says 
hat the "Prince of Wales" stayed here on one 
"""ting trip. 


3108 Archdale Road 

Built between 1908 and 1912 by a Mr. Welbom, 
^|s house was the home of George Crowell, a 
'gh Point superintendent of schools. The main 
ature of the house is its two-tiered porch with 
'^cess to the balcony from the second floor hall. 
"■"Ejecting gabled bays break the hip roof on the 


106 Petty Street 

The pedimented window frames and a brack- 
eted cornice found on this ca. 1880 house are 
similar to other products of W C. Petty and 
Company and almost certainly were purchased 
from Petty for this house. The porch of the 
end-pavilion house was replaced ca. 1930. A 
kitchen wing (now destroyed) is said to have 
been an earlier house. 


NC 311 

The pointed pediment window frames set in 
the gable end of this house are highly reminis- 
cent of the Gothic style Tomlinson house. This 
house may originally have been even more similar, 
for board-and-batten siding survives on the rear 
wing and may at one time have covered the entire 
house. Even the brick chimney caps are embattled, 
suggesting the Gothic, as do the porch brackets 
and trefoil cut-outs. The three-bay one-and-a- 
half-story house with its central gable featuring 
feathered shingle decoration is almost identical 
to any of the three-bay center-gable farmhouses 
built in the area up to 1920. The early date of this 
house— seemingly ca. 1875— suggests a transi- 
tional form in a period between the pattern book 
Gothic of the 1853 Braxton Craven house in 
Trinity the Tomlinson house in Archdale and the 
later houses which dropped the Gothic details 
altogether, retaining only the masses and shapes 
of the design. Empty for several years following 
the death of Mr. Hall, the house was demolished 
in 1982. 















New Market Township 















New Market Township 

This house was probably built ca. 1850, al- 
though aluminum siding and a variety of modern- 
izations confuse dating. The entrance door has 
four-pane sidelights; large 6/6 sash are used on 
the first floor, with smaller 6/6 on the second. 
The roof is probably a recent replacement. 


New Market Township 
A hall-and-parlor plan house with Greek Re- 
vival trim, two-panel doors, post-and-lintel man- 
tels and sheathed paneling. Probably built ca. 
1840, with alterations dating around 1940. 


New Market Township 
An open-string staircase and simple Greek 
Revival style mantels characterize this center- 
hall plan dwelling. The outside is covered wtih 
aluminum and the interior has been heavily 


New Market Township 

The Gladesboro Store is a three-bay hall-and- 
parlor plan house with 6/6 sash, probably buiH 
ca. 1840. The window trim features comer blocks 
on both interior and exterior. Other trim includes 
an open-string stair with turned newel and a 
bracketed-shelf post-and-lintel mantel. The build- 
ing originally stood at a nearby intersection, the 
site of Gladesboro. an early crossroads town. " 
was moved to this site by Cyrus Taylor (1860- 
1924). Lxxal tradition believes this to be Robert 
Gray's Store and post office. Robert Gray was a 
Gladesboro merchant and the progenitor of the 
prominent Winston-Salem Gray clan. Grayly"' 
the family manion there, is built of stone col- 
lected in the Gladesboro area. 


<<ii.'<a ijf. I»^:»!-„t.>-.-f ■- ■«-. 


New Market Township 

A ca. I860 hall-and-parlor plan house with 
"rick end chimneys. An earlier small house is 
Attached as a rear wing; it has a large granite 
<^himney. Nearby is a mortise-and-tenon bam 
*ith strap hinges and a V-notched log com crib. 


New Market Township 

This tiny story-and-a-half house may have 
"^sn built ca. 1800. Despite major alterations 
made ca. 1950, the hall-and-parlor plan house 
f^'ains 6/6 sash, six-panel doors and sheathed 
^'ding under the shed porch. 


New Market Township 

The two-story dwelling of this farm complex 
*as built by Ed Swaim, the father of the current 
"^cupants, in 1919. It features 2/2 sash, a hipped 
P^fch on Tliscan columns and a roof with wide 
"''erhang and exposed rafter ends. The end- 
^himney center-hall plan house preserves the 

aditional farmhouse form in all but details such 
^ 'he shed dormer which is used instead of the 
^niiliar central gable. The complex includes an 
"'oer double-pen half-dovetail log bam as well 
/ ? '^rge bam of mortise-and-tenon construction 
I "lit with the house in 1919. This is an unusually 
*'^ date to find this technique in use. 


New Market Township 

^ne of the county's most significant early 
^omes, this house was probably built ca. 1785. 
^°^al residents attribute it to James Ruffin 
f ^'^'fane, but evidence points instead to his 
j^"er William Coletrane. Bom in Edenton to 

■^o'sman David Coletrane, William was a sur- 

yor by profession. He served as constable and 
^^ collector in the 1780-1781 Randolph County 
j^^, and was appointed deputy sheriff in 1782. 
With * house exhibits a hall-and-parlor plan 
coeH ""^^^'^^ s"d chimneys of stone (now stuc- 
Kia ^^ interior boasts the county's best Geor- 
n style trim. Both lower rooms feature beauti- 
faised panel overmantels with molded shelves 

capped by an embattled frieze. Vertical beaded 
boards are used above an elaborate molded chair 
rail with horizontal beaded boards below. Six- 
panel doors with strap hinges are used througout 
the interior; those on the second floor retain their 
original red and black pseudo-mahogany graining. 
The upper floors are accessible by a boxed stair 
which rises from the engaged south porch. The 
porch may originally have been open, but is now 
closed by double-leaf two-panel Greek Revival 
doors set in a sidelighted frame. The exterior 
was further altered ca. 1930 when German siding 
and new double-hung sash replaced the original 


New Market Township 

In March, 1806, this property was deeded to 
the trustees of "Gossett's Meeting House," so- 
called after William and Elizabeth Gossett, the 
original owners of the land. The church's first 
minister was the influential minister and teacher 
Brantley York. The present structure, three bays 
long, was built in 1858. Sunday school rooms 
were built to the rear in 1921, and the church was 
brick veneered in 1964. The cemetery has some 
impressive early gravestones. 


New Market Township 

Some of the county's earliest marked burials 
are found in this cemetery; predating the Revo- 
lution. Local heroine Martha McGee Bell is 
buried here. Her husband William Bell (who 
may be buried here in an unmarked grave) was 
Randolph's first sheriff. Martha Bell was an 
unwilling hostess to Lord Comwallis and his 
army for several days after the Battle of Guilford 
Courthouse, during which time she spied on the 
British for General Greene. 












=in i mi i n i i n i i mr: 





New Market Township 

Ca. 1780 may be the construction date of this 
large double-pen log house. A boxed slab pro- 
vides access to a loft. A shed wing was added to 
the north; the south porch is engaged between 
two small rooms. Massive stone end chimneys 
are the most impressive feature of the house. The 
firebox of the larger east chimney is constructed 
of large blocks of hewn granite, with a brick 
flue. Fireplace openings are arched, with simple 
mantel shelves. The type of notching is hidden 
under clapboarding. The house was one of two 
Randolph County residences photographed in 
1940 by Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston, noted 
architectural photographer. Sadly, this important 
structure was demolished in 1981. It was sold to 
a Guilford County antique dealer for reconstruc- 
tion as a shop. 


New Market Township 

The original section of this T-pIan house is a 
story-and-a-half log house which exhibits half- 
dovetail comer notching. This is now attached to 
an early 20th century two-story center-hall plan 
house. The nearby bam is unusual in that its 
beams are mortised, but are nailed, not pegged 


New Market Township 

This house was built by Joseph Welbom (son 
of John and Jane McGee Welbom) when his 
daughter Sarah (bom 1838) "was a baby." The 
gabled dormer balconies are unique in the county. 
Placed over the engaged porches on the north 
and south facades, the gabled dormers are open 
and unglazed, although originally railed. The 
engaged porches are paneled in flush horizontal 
boards above and below a molded chair rail. The 
six-panel doors and 6/6 sash are set in molded 
three-panel surrounds. The interior of the hall- 
and-parlor plan house has exposed beams with 
molded surrounds and a boxed stair. The mantels 
have been stored for safekeeping but are de- 
scribed by the owner as "carved all up and 
down." The chimneys are of rock with brick 
flues; the fireboxes are lined with soapstone. The 
northwest porch room originally had its own 
small fireplace. 


New Market Township 

William Bell's Mill on Muddy Creek is Ran- 
dolph County's only recognized Revolutionary 
War site, mentioned as early as 1849 in Benson 
Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution. 
British General Comwallis camped here a few 
days before the Battle of Guilford Courthouse 
and sent his baggage back to the area where he 
stopped for action on the evening of March 14, 
1781. After remaining for two days on the battle- 
field, Comwallis spent two days marching back 
to Bell's Mill where he rested and resupplied his 
troops for two days before moving on towards 

William Bell was elected first sheriff of Ran- 
dolph County in 1779, the same year he married 
Martha McFarlane McGee, the area's richest 
widow. Martha Bell is well-remembered as a 
local heroine of the Revolution and is commemo- 
rated in a monument at Guilford Courthouse 
National Military Park. The mill itself was known 
after the Revolution by the name of the Welbom 
and Walker families. A later mill, built in the 
early 19th century, was demolished in 1967. 


New Market Township 

This now-unused building is a well-preserved 
example of an early 20th century niral school 
house built after the pro-education campaigns of 
Governor Charles Aycock. A gable decorated 
with feathered shingling embellishes one end of 
the steeply pitched roof. Oversized 6/6 sash ligh' 
the twin school rooms. 


New Market Township 

The two most distinctive features of this 
dwelling are the "ridge pole" dormers, designed 
for attic ventilation, and the glassed, second- 
floor sleeping porch. The house was built for (a) 
Madison Johnson by contractor Aaron Spencef 
and completed in May, 1889. It was acquired W 
Thomas Oliver Spencer, grandfather of the pres- 
ent owner, Eleanor Hartley in September, 1900 
Between 1936 and 1946 Chicago interior de- 
signer Ross Crane, fonner decorator with ih^ 
popular Greensboro furniture store Mon-iso" 
Neese, was a frequent visitor. 


Level Cross Tbwnship 


Level Cross Township 

Seth Beeson, a Quaker immigrant from present- 
day TUscarora 1\impike, West Virginia, built this 
log house before his death in 1816. The northern 
shed wing is contemporary with the main block; 
its logs are mortised into the half-dovetail notch- 
ing of the house. The three-bay house is divided 
into a "Quaker" or "Continental" three-room 
plan by a vertical board partition which features 
sunken panels above the board-and-batten doors. 
The second floor is reached by a boxed stair. A 
huge exterior chimney and fireplace in the main 
room once served the entire house. The chimney 
is now in the center of the expanded house. The 
east wing was added in the 1880s so Cane Creek 
Friends could board there during quarterly meet- 
ings at nearby Centre Friends Meeting in Guil- 
ford County. The house has recently been ex- 
tensively remodeled. 


Level Cross Township 

Deep River enters Randolph County just north 
of this site, which has seen industrial use for over 
two centuries. Elisha Mendenhall, one of the 
county's twelve wealthiest men of 1779, had 
buih a grist mill here by 1787, the supposed 
construction date of the present dam. The dam, 
constructed of massive granite blocks (some as 
large as four feet square) held in place by lead- 
sealed iron straps, is the most prominent feature 
of the site. Local tradition maintains the mill was 
built of stone hauled by oxen from Moore County; 
however, several granite quarries are found in the 
immediate area surrounding the mill, and granite 
is a rarity in Moore County. At any rate, the dam 
is one of the IBth century engineering landmarks 
of the county, if not the Piedmont. The existing 
mill structures of frame and reinforced concrete 
date from the early 20th century. Ice-makitig 
machinery of the period (which used ammonia 
as a coolant) and a turbine water wheel are still 
in place, although last used in 1973. The mill is 
now known after its last owner, Daniel Coletrane, 
who bought it from the Mendenhalls. The last 
covered bridge crossing Deep River stood here at 
Coletrane's Mill until 1950. 









"" ■ ] m i i ri i i n i I SE 









Level Cross Township 

The imposing pillared portico of this house is 
the only one of its kind found in the county. As 
the house seems to have been built ca. 1900, it is 
probably an early example of the Classical Re- 
vival style. The porch and balcony are the only 
such elements found on the house, which other- 
wise is a standard L-plan with Victorian details. 
A one-story kitchen wing on the rear may be an 
earlier house. A dairy, stable, several bams and 
rent houses complete the plantation-like setting 
of the house. 


Level Cross Township 

An end-chimney hall-and-parlor plan house 
built in 1857 and still owned by descendants of 
the builder. The house has been heavily remod- 
eled, although it retains some interior trim, such 
as very simple post and lintel mantels. The rock 
chimneys have been stuccoed. 


Level Cross Township 

Following originally a one-room plan, this 
small log cabin illustrates an odd combination of 
both half-dovetail and V-notching construction at 
each comer. The cabin has a loft and stone end 
chimney with brick flue. At some time a board- 
and-batten extension and rear shed wing were 
added to the cabin tripling it in size. The cabin 
may pre-date the Civil War. 


Level Cross Township 

A substantial mral house probably built ca. 
1850 and recently subjected to extensive renova- 
tion. The front and rear entrances have four- 
panel doors with raised panels and sidelights. 
Six-over-six sash and two-panel Greek Revival 
doors are commonly used throughout. Since 
1976 the "Mount Vernon" porch has replaced 
one which was built ca. 1880. Its original cham- 
fered posts and scroll brackets are piled nearby. 
Aluminum siding has been applied as well. 


Level Cross Township 

Built in 1978-1979, this is one of the most 
advanced solar homes in Randolph County. It 
was designed under a grant from the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Housing and Urban Development by 
John Alt, who lives nearby. Winter heat is stored 
in water-filled steel dmms stacked inside. The 
most unusual exterior features are the sail-like 
fabric shades which can be adjusted to keep out 
unnecessary heat and light. 


Level Cross Township 

This farm complex includes what may be an 
early one-story cabin with a later two-story 
addition, both of which probably pre-date the 
Civil War. The house had 6/6 sash and a clay- 
mortared stone chimney. Both front and rear 
porches are supported by deeply chamfered posts. 
Outbuildings of all sizes and descriptions sur- 
round the house. Chief among these are a 
V-notched log com crib and a board-and-batten 
woodworking shop. 



=1[3L-^ — =im i — i Pi i =in i =nn i =i nr= 

="^ ' < rr„=^=r-^^ i p^ 


Providence Tbwnship 


Providence Township 

R. H. ("Reggie") Underwood bought this 
rural store in 1916. It may have been built ca. 
1885. The store has survived virtually unaltered 
both on the interior and exterior. In 1918 Under- 
wood became a Texaco dealer and began to sell 
gasoline. The cantilevered pump shelter was 
erected at that time and is perhaps the oldest gas 
station in the county. The rear wing of the T-plan 
store is thought to have been part of the former 
Gray's Chapel Methodist Church. 


Providence Township 

This house, built ca. 1911, exhibits some late 
Queen Anne-style features such as the polygonal 
bay on the first floor level of the end pavilion 
and the zinc cresting on the roof peak. The house 
otherwise has many elements of the Colonial Re- 
vival style and illustrates the melding of styles 
prevalent in a transitional period. An earlier house 
occupied the site, but it was moved nearby and 
converted into a bam. That two-story ca. 1880 
house with boxed stair is in ruinous condition. 


Providence Township 

The first meeting house on this site was built 
in 1769. The present brick sanctuary is entered 
through the base of the steeple on the north gable 
end; it was built in 1929. The cemetery contains 
the grave of folk heroine Naomi Wise, subject of 
North Carolina's oldest known ballad. Accord- 
ing to tradition. Wise was drowned in Deep 
River near New Salem by her lover, Jonathan 
Lewis. The original stone was replaced by the 
current marker in 1949. Unfortunately, the dates 
"1789-1808" inscribed on it are incorrect. Court 
records indicate that Naomi Wise died in Febru- 
ary or March, 1807; her date of birth is unknown. 













Providence Township 

The one-story east wing of this house is thought 
to have been built by Miles Chamness ca. 1810. 
That small wing has an interior end chimney, 
although the two-story antebellum main block of 
the house has an exterior end chimney. The most 
unusual feature of the house is its porch posts, 
massive square timbers which have been beveled 
to form a diamond-shaped design. The adjoining 
farm complex includes a huge bam and a small 
shop, both of heavy frame construction. The 
two-story bam once featured a threshing floor, 
now removed to create a center aisle. The shop 
has been a "coffin factory" or woodworking 
shop and a weaving house. The once prominent 
Quaker Chamness family has now died out in 
Randolph County. 


Providence Township 

This tiny stmcture may well be the oldest 
existing commercial building in Randolph County. 
Ca. 1866 the store housed a new mercantile and 
hardware company founded by J. A. Odell and 
W H. Ragan, two young former employees of 
the Franklin ville textile mill. The two partners 
left the factory and came here to the home of 
Thomas Ragan, W H. Ragan's father, where 
they set up shop in this building. In 1867 the 
Ragans and Odell moved to High Point, reopen- 
ing the store there. In 1872 Odell moved to 
Greensboro, where he founded the still-extant 
Odell Hardware Company. 

This building quite evidently pre-dates the 
Odell/Ragan business by many years. The origi- 
nal beaded weatherboarding, now gathered on 
the east facade, is known on only two other 
stmctures in Randolph County. All three of these 
structures stand in this far northwestem comer of 
the county and all seem to have been constructed 
ca. 1800. The building originally had an end 
chimney and fireplace, with a second floor loft 
reached by an open stair. It is being privately 


Providence Township 

Sandy Creek Friends Meeting was set up 
under the supervision of Cane Creek Friends 
Meeting in 1780. Quaker congregations in gen- 
eral declined in the late-18th/early-19th centuries 

and the Sandy Creek meeting did not prosper. Its 
records do not survive so the history of the 
meeting is very unclear. The structure was in a 
ruinous condition when its remains were disas- 
sembled and stored ca. 1970. 

The meeting house was some twelve by eigh- 
teen feet in plan, covered with beaded weather- 
boarding. The structure does not seem to have 
possessed a partition dividing the sexes, in com- 
mon with what is known of some other early 
Friends meetings. Evidence suggests that the 
stmcture was built ca. 1800, some years before 
the 1812 Jamestown meeting house. The Sandy 
Creek meeting house, if reassembled and restored, 
would be the oldest Friends meeting house in 
North Carolina. It is presently stored here, under 


Providence Township 

A ca. 1886 board-and-batten depot built in 
connection with the constroction of the Cape 
Fear and Yadkin Valley Railroad. The well- 
preserved building has been sold into private 
hands and is being moved to Ramseur. 


Providence Township 

Charles H. Hardin had this house built in 1889 
by two builders for just over $1,000. Hardin 
operated a store and the Julian post office in a 
little hardware store which stands nearby. The 
house is elaborately decorated. Coupled brackets 
with drops and spindles articulate the cornice. 
The double entrance doors are framed by ^ 
transom and sidelights. The porch posts are 
meticulously detailed with moldings, applied 
panels and sawn scroll brackets. The pressed tin 
roof is pattemed to look like tile. An early farm 
building complex nearby was once part of this 
property, including a flush-gabled bam surrounded 
by sheds which may pre-date the Civil War The 
iron-banded wooden silo was one of two build 
ca. 1910 by J. E. Hardin, who ran a beef cattle 
operation on the farm. 

"• •"' '"' — ■ • "»= m is: i rn ==i ni;=^=ig[= 



Providence Township 

This small two-story house was built ca. 1845 
W Thomas Ragan, a miller who moved here 
from Montgomery County. Ragan's son left for 
Franklinville to learn the textile business, retum- 
■ng in 1866 with J. A. Odell to open a small 
store. They lived here with Ragan's family while 
operating the nearby business. Ca. 1867 the 
Ragans moved to Jamestown, selling the house 
*nd property to the Charles Hardin family. The 
Hardins later built another house nearby. 

The hall-and-parlor plan house is capped by a 
gable roof with molded cornice and pedimented 
ends. The interior features some fine work, with 
two-panel doors and an open-string stair with 
'urned balusters and a massive turned newel 
post. The building was moved from its original 
^'te in the path of US 421 in 1969. 


Providence Township 
The focus of this rural farm complex is a ca. 
'*90 two-story center-hall plan house connected 
y a covered walkway to a two-story V-notched 
|og house. The ca. 1870 log house, known as the 
Roddy Doak" house, has a massive stone 
^nimney, as well as frame shed-roofed and ga- 
oled wings. The farm complex includes other 
g buildings such as a smokehouse and com 
^0 with half-dovetail notching, and a bam with 
-notching. The log bam is connected by a 
feezeway to a large frame stmcture covered in 
J " lengths of clapboarding. This building was 
one time used as a school, although it seems to 
ave been built as a cabinetmaker's shop. Another, 
^"laller frame building nearby has "1882" painted 

" 'ts door; it is said to have been a blacksmith's 


Providence Township 

The sanctuary of this church may have been 
built ca. 1900, although later classroom wings 
and aluminum siding have obscured almost all of 
the building's details and make dating difficult. 
The congregation is an old one; stones marking 
burials as early as 1821 are found in the graveyard. 
In April, 1865, Confederate troops camped in 
the Bethel Church yard, leaving tons of ammuni- 
tion and equipment when they were mustered 
out. Although most of the material was sold to 
the iron foundry of Franklinville, rifle and can- 
non balls are still occasionally discovered. 








Liberty Ibwnship 


Liberty Township 

Liberty Grove Church began in 1760 as Barton's 
Meeting House, a union meeting house estab- 
Hshed by both Lutheran and Reformed German 
settlers in the area. In 1787 the Lutherans broke 
from the union and established Richland Lu- 
theran Church nearby. Barton's was unable to 
survive the split and the log building stood 
unused until the 1820s, when dissidents within 
the Methodist Episcopal Church formed the Meth- 
odist Protestant Church. When the Methodist 
Protestant conference was formed in 1828 Lib- 
erty Grove Church was one of four circuits in 
North Carolina, along with Roanoke, Warrenton 
and Oxford. Liberty Grove was not only the first 
Methodist Protestant Church in Randolph County, 
but the first in the Piedmont. It was served by the 
Rev Alson Gray. 

The present frame church was built in 1873 by 
Patterson and Philmore Pickett, and Eli Fogleman. 
William Overman and A. Cook made 11,902 
shingles for the roof between July and August, 
1873. The resulting building has 4/4 sash and 
sawn rafter ends. The entrance porch seems to 
have been added ca. 1900. A Methodist Protes- 
tant Church built in the town of Liberty in 1895 
pulled many members from this church, which 
now has some fifteen members. There are many 
interesting stones in the cemetery. 


Liberty Township 

In 1820 the North Carolina Synod of the 
Lutheran Church became divided along factional 
lines due to differences of opinion on doctrines 
and practices. Disaffected members organized 
their own faction, the Tennessee Synod. The 
congregation at Richland Lutheran Church was 
also divided on the issues but both factions used 
the old Richland Church. In 1849 the Tennessee 
Synod decided to build their own church, named 
Melancthon in 1 85 1 . The present church build- 
ing was built in 1902 and remodeled in 1936. 
Membership subsequently declined and the church 
is no longer used for regular services. 



Liberty Township 

Richland Evangelical Lutheran Church was 
organized in 1789 by the Rev. Christian Eberhart 
Bernhardt, pastor of three other Lutheran congre- 
gations in Guilford and Orange counties. The 
first church was built in 1790. After a doctrinal 
split in 1820 two congregations shared the church 
"ntil 1849. On July 14, 1849, the Evangelical 
Lutheran congregation voted to build a new 
■"eeting house "12 feet high, 35 feet wide and 
55 feet long," to be paid for by subscription. 
The 1849 building exists virtually unaltered, 
*ith 9/9 sash and one-panel double doors. The 
<^hurch has been inactive since 1950. The adja- 
cent cemetery has many unusual early tombstones. 


Liberty Township 

The original sanctuary section of this church 
features a molded cornice with cornice returns 
*nd may date to the ca. 1870 period. Ca. 1890 an 
Entrance pavilion with boxed cornice and pointed 
Window sash were added. The classroom wings 
'Id asbestos siding probably date from the 1950s. 


Liberty Township 

This house, sited on the dividing line between 

"Randolph and Guilford counties and near their 

^ommon border with Alamance, was built by 

*" Long, Jr. (1785-1857). Long was Randolph 

ounty's premier early politician, serving in the 

|;Orth Carolina legislature from 1811 to 1815 and 

firee terms in the U.S. House of Representatives 

°20-i828). One of his sons became a graduate 

"" 'he U.S. Military Academy and four were 

graduated from the University of North Carolina. 

T°"g's son John Wesley became a physician, as 

'u his grandson John Wesley, Jr. , who practiced 

Randleman and later in Greensboro, where 

^Wesley Long Hospital is named for him. 

Reflecting Long's increasing prosperity as well 

his growing family, his house was built in two 

M^' ^^ earliest, northern half built ca. 1810, 

'ows a hall-and-parlor plan some thirty feet 

quare. The two-story house has a two-story 

sa u"^"°" '" 'he west under a shed roof. The 6/6 

tall °" ^^^ sheathed porch facade are seven feet 

p , snd extend down to the molded baseboard. 

th ''"'' S''^''"^'' six-panel doors are used 

o^ghout, as is horizontal board paneling above 

and below the molded chair rail. There is also a 
molded cornice and mitred three-part door and 
window surrounds. The mantel is a large Federal- 
style design with a molded shelf, sunken panels 
flanking the fire opening and an unusual central 
panel carved in an ogee curve. A boxed stair 
rises from a rear room to the second floor. The 
exterior has a molded cornice, 9/6 sash on the 
rear, 4/4 sash on the gable end and well-preserved 
yellow poplar weatherboarding. 

Ca. 1820 a thirty-foot extension was built to 
the south, which in effect constituted a second 
house. An off-center two-panel door with three- 
pane sidelights opened into a new entrance hall 
complete with a graceful open-string staircase. 
The mantel in the parlor of this wing is a simple 
Greek Revival post-and-lintel design. The sash 
and trim in general match those of the earlier 
house, although a boxed cornice with minimal 
molding is used, as well as pine weatherboarding. 
The original house has a large double-shouldered 
chimney laid in 1;8 bond: the wing has a single- 
shouldered construction in 1:3 bond. The house 
has been in the possession of the present owner 
since 1919. 


Liberty Township 

This highly unusual house is an important 
example of North Carolina Germanic vernacular 
design related more closely to the Pennsylvania 
"Dutch" than to the Moravians at Salem. The 
two-story house is thought to have been built in 
1818, while its one-story northern extension seems 
to date to the 1830 period. The exterior of the 
two-story section has a boxed cornice and molded 
comer boards, with an interior end chimney. 
Some original beaded clapboards remain on the 
west side. The interior was the glory of the 
house. A massive arched fireplace (with an open- 
ing five feet wide) was paneled with an elabo- 
rately molded chimney breast. The main room 
boasted a raised-panel wainscoting with molded 
chair rail. H and HL hinges were used throughout. 
The boxed stair has beaded and molded treads. 
Upstairs a sawn baluster rail protected the stair 
opening. The use of color was perhaps the house's 
most unusual decorative element. The raised 
panels of the wainscoting were marbleized in 
shades of blue, while the paneling was painted 
gray. Baseboards were marbleized in shades of 
brown and red. The chimney breast was marble- 
ized in blue and gray. The doors were painted 
and grained. The ceiling and stair rail were 













painted green. At one time the interior was 
virtually a riot of color. Unfortunately, most of 
this interior work has been removed and sold to a 
Raleigh antique dealer. 


Liberty Township 

This was formerly the site of Nixon's Mill, 
now destroyed, and the site in the 18th century of 
Regulator Herman Husband's mill. The small 
house still standing at the site was the home of 
the miller. It is of mortise and tenon construction 
and may date to the 1850 period. Abram York of 
Melancthon was a millwright and miller here 
during the Civil War and is said to have filled the 
space between the exterior and interior walls of 
the house with grain to hide it from the Yankees. 


Liberty Township 

Now serving as a bam, this is one of the few 
eariy log houses which remain in the county. In 
shape and size the house is similar to the frame 
Peter Dicks house in New Salem, a small square 
gable-roof house which seems disproportionately 
tall. Also, like the Dicks house, the Wrenn house 
has suffered considerably from conversion into a 
bam. In moving the house some 100 feet from its 
original site, the double-shouldered brick chim- 
ney was destroyed, the interior was gutted and 
shed wings were added. Original features which 
are still evident include saddle notching, 6/6 
sash and board-and-batten doors with strap 
hinges. John Wrenn, a native of Virginia, ac- 
quired the property in 1805 and died ca. 1833. 


Liberty Township 

Sandy Creek Baptist Church is both the oldest 
organized church and oldest surviving religious 
structure in Randolph County. A recognized land- 
mark in religious history, it is noted by the 
nearby state historic marker as the "Mother of 
Southern Baptist Churches." The church was 
founded by the Separate Baptist Minister Shubal 
Steams (1706-1771), a Boston native who led a 
group of eight families into the area in 1755. 
Most colonial or "Particular" Baptists were mem- 
bers of the Philadelphia Association and advo- 
cated a strict Calvinistic philosophy of "What 

will be, will be." Separate or "New Light" 
Baptists broke with this practice and proposed 
active campaigns to win converts with Sunday 
schools, revivals and missionary work. Steams' 
efforts to awaken the religious impulses of the 
back country were wildly successful, with his 
original congregation of eight families mush- 
rooming into 606 members by 1770. In June, 
1758, he had formed the Sandy Creek Associ- 
ation, an organization including not only the 
original church but three nearby offshoot churches 
as well. The association soon grew to include 
members all over the south, and as far west as 
Mississippi. Morgan Edwards noted in 1772 that 
"It, in 17 years, is become mother, grandmother, 
and great grandmother to 42 churches, from 
which sprang 125 ministers, many of which are 
ordained and support the sacred character as well 
as any set of clergy in America." In 1830 the 
Sandy Creek Association backed the creation of 
the new Southem Baptist Convention and the 
two organizations soon combined. Sandy Creek 
Church itself, centered in the area of most active 
opposition to the colonial government, suffered 
greatly during the War of the Regulation. Ed- 
wards estimated that 1,500 families left the re- 
gion after the Battle of Alamance. This, com- 
bined with the death of Rev Steams in November, 
1771, soon caused the membership of the church 
to dwindle to a mere fourteen. 

The existing Sandy Creek Church is the third 
building to house the congregation, built (accord- 
ing to strong tradition) in 1826. The first building 
had bumed ca. 1785, and the second, bui" 
across the road, was blown down by a storm- 
The log church building is approximately 20 W 
25 feet in size. It still houses the original pulp" 
or "Bible Rail" and some original benches- 
Raked balconies across each end of the stmcture 
were removed in 1936. The church was weather- 
boarded in 1870 and asphalt siding was added i" 

Nationally, the Separate Baptists combined 
with the Regular Baptists in the early 19th centuC- 
but the merger was not popular. In 1836 discon- 
tent was so profound at Sandy Creek that part of 
the congregation broke away and formed the 
nearby Shady Grove Baptist Church, leaving th^ 
old building to the Primitive (or anti-missionaO'' 
Baptists who maintain it today. 






=ifni nfnr= 










"P«fior Map Co. 









1/4 Mil* 



1/4 Mil* 





1/2 Mil* 





inn. rt^rrrTi 


L:5 141-143 W.Swannanoa Si. 


L:5 119, 123-125, 127 W. Swannanoa St. 

ftPJiW I 


South Fayetteville Street 

Dr. A. J. Patterson built this simple two-room 
cottage with loft ca. 1884 on the lot where he 
lived, for his parents George and Sophia Coble 
Patterson. It was located across the street from 
the business section which burned in 1895 and is 
the only house on that block which survives 
today. The original location was Graham Street 
(now South Fayetteville). It was moved to the 
grounds of Town Hall in 1974 and renovated as a 


East Dameron Avenue 

The Gothic Revival is faintly echoed in this 
mid- 1880s dwelling. The two-story end-chimney 
center-hall plan house is a typical form of the 
late 19th century while the sawn bargeboards are 
holdovers from the Gothic tastes popular in the 
1850s and 1860s. Six-over-six sash are used ex- 
cept in the central bay above the entrance where 
coupled 4/4 sash fill the enlarged space under the 
shallow gable. This house formerly occupied a 
site on South Fayetteville Street. 


South Fayetteville Street 

This four-bay brick sanctuary was built in 
1915. It features a cruciform plan, a roof "kicked" 
at the eaves and 4/4 sash set in arched openings. 


229 West Raleigh Avenue 

Most of this house bears evidence of a major 
I930s-era renovation. The asbestos siding and 
first floor bungaloid porch pylons date from this 
period. The sawn balusters and chamfered posts 
of the second floor balcony are late 1 9th century 


West Swannanoa Street 

The Liberty central business district is an 
attractive eariy 20th century commercial street- 
scape. Some of the major landmarks include: 

141-143 West Swannanoa Street is a ca. 1920. 
double storefront built to house the Bank of 
Chatham. The two-story brick building features 
granite window sills and lintels and a metal 
cornice above the shop windows. 141 retains its 
original metal-clad display windows and frosted 
glass transom. 

127 West Swannanoa Street. Built by Dr. G. 
A. Foster, president of the bank, this two-story 
brick commercial structure features star end tie- 
rods, a corbeled cornice and arched hood mold- 
ings linking the three-bay second floor facade. 
The first business housed here was Farmer's 
Union Mercantile Co. A. E. Dark later ran a 
grocery store from this location. 

123-125 West Swannanoa Street. Built by 
Tom Trogdon, this 1930s-era brick double store- 
front has granite window sills and decorative 
bands of herringbone brickwork. Five large quartz 
rocks are inset at the parapet level. 

1 19 West Swannanoa. Known as the Gilliam- 
Patterson building, this is a lovely tum-of-the- 
century structure. Its second floor facade is five 
window bays wide; the segmental-arched open- 
ings are linked by an undulating hood molding- 
Immediately above the windows the parapet is 
decorated with elaborate brickwork. A miniature 
blind arcade of round arches is set below a 
mousetooth frieze and corbeled cornice. The 
storefront is partially preserved, with a recessed 
entrance and shop windows set on marble knee 

120 Wfest Swannanoa displays Randolph Coun- 
ty's only remaining complete metal storefront. 
The facade includes not only patterned sheet 
metal cornices and pilasters but rusticated "stone" 
infill panels of press-molded metal. The shop 
front retains its original paneled wooden window 
bays, but the entrances and transoms have been 
remodeled. O'Kelly Overman ran a general mer- 
chandise business in this store. 

122-124 West Swannanoa is an interesting 
one-story double shop front. Display windows 
and entrance doors in wooden frames are set in 
large elliptical arches which bridge the width of 
each store bay. A paneled parapet with mouse- 
tooth frieze and corbeled cornice caps the design- 
The stnicture may have been built ca. 1915 by 
O'Kelly Overman. The little post office building 
was on this site. 

L:5 120, 122-124 W. Swannanoa St. 

I ' PI ' i n i i n i i n i i n i i n i i r i i n r i rn= 



156 West Swannanoa Avenue 

The Liberty Depot is the last remaining Ran- 
''olph County structure built by the Cape Fear 
^nd Yadkin Valley Railway. (The Julian Depot, 
nowever, has recently been moved to Ramseur 
from Guilford County.) The Cape Fear and Yadkin 
Valley Railway grew out of early 19th century 
efforts to connect the Cape Fear and Yadkin 
"Vers by canal, efforts that soon changed in the 
erection of a railroad. The C.FYVR.W was 
organized in 1879 from the remains of an antebel- 
jum railroad company, and ultimately completed 

main line from Wilmington to Mt. Airy in 


'°90. Service on the first part of that line, from 
Payetteville to Greensboro, began on March 16, 
°^4, Construction of that line gave Randolph 
^ounty its first railroad, founded the town of 
'3ley as a shipping terminal for the Deep River 
6xtile factories, and revived the small cross- 
roads town of Liberty. 

\on '""'^rty Depot was built some time before 

'^S, when photographs of it were made. It is an 

"cellent example of a tum-of-the-century train 

*|'on and the most elaborate example in Ran- 

olph County. The hip-roofed station has both a 

Saoled dormer and an octagonal turret which 

^Ps a polygonal window bay at trackside. The 

ves of the roof are "kicked" out to overhang at 

^' six feet; this is supported by sawn braces. 

^^nnan siding is now used above an exterior 

Wainscoting" of beaded vertical paneling. 


204 West Swannanoa Avenue 

p Originally this was the home of Dr. Rez D. 
p 'erson before he built his home on South 
l^y«tteville Street, and was bought from Dr. 
fu .'^""^''son, Jr. by Carl Loflin to use as a 


'^■■al home. At the center of a mass of addi- 

Pla ^ f '^"''^ ^ two-story central gable center-hall 

" house of the 1880s. Its overhanging eaves 

^ed by sawn brackets with pendants, and 



Ornate circular vent with sawnwork tracery 
'"es the central gable. 



West Swannanoa Street 

's attractive early 20th century sanctuary 

has segmental arched windows with hood mold- 
ings on the sides and large round arches with 
hoods on the street facade. The latter frame both 
the entrance and coupled stained glass windows 
with fanlight. The entrance is offset in a tower at 
the southeast comer. The rear quarter of the 
structure was added sometime later. The brick- 
work is laid in 1:6 common bond and a granite 
sill trims the large south window. This church 
was originally called the Christian Church and 
was the first church organized in the town of 


303 and 307 Asheboro Street 

These homes are two of a dozen or more 
substantial dwellings which front the railroad 
tracks and line the west side of Asheboro Street 
in Liberty. The Asheboro Street neighborhood 
developed from ca. 1890 to 1915 and its houses 
illustrate the styles popular at the turn of the 
century. 303 Asheboro Street is a typical center- 
hall plan central-gable house with a single chim- 
ney on the north end. Its hip porch is carried on 
turned posts with sawn brackets. 307 Asheboro 
Street is an end-pavilion or "T-plan" house with 
chamfered porch posts and elaborate "feathery" 
sawnwork brackets. Both homes were probably 
built ca. 1900 by J. M. Philmore Pickett. 


415 Asheboro Street 

This attractive ca. 1895 home turns its side 
toward Asheboro Street, showing off a late 19th 
century two-story "double decker" veranda pop- 
ular in North Carolina but rarely seen in Ran- 
dolph County. The form of the house is that of a 
common three-bay central gable house, with a 
central hallway and two-story rear wing. But the 
center-gable facade faces south toward a neigh- 
boring house. The hip porch of that facade 
features elaborate tapered posts set on square 
bases; sawn brackets with turned drop pendants 
brace the cornices of the house and its porches. 
H. C. Causey, a house builder by trade, built this 
house for himself. 



L:9 L:10 






I Ml 


605 Asheboro Street 

This house is one of Randolph County's major 
landmarks of the Queen Anne style. It was 
probably built in the mid-1890s. The primary 
portion of the two-story house is a square hip- 
roofed block with wings projecting to the south 
and east. A two-story polygonal window bay 
sprouts to the north, covered by a cantilevered 
roof overhang. This bay and the gables are 
decorated with feathered shingling; the gable 
which fronts on Asheboro Street displays a turned 
eave decoration. The patterned slate roof is one 
of the very few in the county, and the porch with 
turned posts, spindle frieze and polygonal ga- 
zebo is particularly fine. Charies Philip Smith 
built this home which was later occupied by his 
daughter Margaret Smith Wylie. 


330 North Greensboro Street 

In 1910 James Alexander Martin organized the 
Liberty Picker Stick and Novelty Company; reor- 
ganized in November, 1923 as the Liberty Chair 
Company. The original plant was destroyed by 
fire on February 18, 1926. The nucleus of the 
present plant dates from the subsequent recon- 
struction. Built of large brick blocks, a stepped 
parapet conceals theroof of the main building. It 
uses metal industrial window sash. The date 
"1910" on the gable is, of course, the date of the 
founding of the company, not the construction of 
the building. Liberty's first electric power was 
furnished by the generators installed by this 


316 North Greensboro Street 

Much of the considerable original charm of 
this elaborate Victorian structure is now buried 
under aluminum siding. It was built in 1890 as 
the home of the Liberty Methodist Episcopal 
congregation. It was acquired by the Quakers in 
1943 after the merger of the Methodist Episcopal 

and Methodist Protestant churches. The gabled 
four-bay structure was lighted by oversized 4/4 
sash and topped by an elaborate cupola. The 
square tower has lost its ornamentation, but the 
spire covered with feathered wooden shingles 
and the bellfast roof retain their original iron 
filigree decoration. This is the only Victorian 
ironwork remaining in Randolph County. 


North Fayetteville Street 

This cruciform-plan house was built ca. 1924 
by Henry Frazier for Dr. Frank A. Shepherd. 
Originally designed to be converted to a medical 
clinic, it has recently served as office space fof 
the Liberty Furniture Company. The low hip 
roofs and spreading porches carried on woode" 
pylons echo the Prairie School of midwestem 
architecture and hint of bungalows that were to 


421 East Swannanoa Avenue 

The transitional period between the Queen 
Anne and Colonial Revival styles are particularly 
evident in this dwelling. The conical slate-roofed 
tower capping the engaged porch is a very u"' 
usual feature. Feathered shingling decorates the 
gables and the space above the first floor windows^ 
The hidden offset entrance, window sash and 
much of the trim indicate a pre-World War ' 

Columbia Township 


Columbia Township 

This two-story "Triple-A" house was built ca. 
1880 in a florid "Carpenter Gothic" style. Four- 
over-four sash with molded pediments are used 
throughout, and the paired windows over the 
central entrance have arched heads, as do those 
on the side elevations. The entrance door is 
framed by sidelights. The chief feature of the 
house is its elaborate sawn decoration, such as 
the bargeboard under the eaves and the lattice- 
work porch supports which have intricate pierced 


Columbia Township 

This house is clearly related to the John Turner 
House, its neighbor to the north, in such details 
as the lattice- work porch supports, pedimented 
4/4 sash and sawn bargeboard. Both were proba- 
bly built ca. 1880. The rear wing of this house, 
however, is an earlier one-room log building. 


Columbia Township 

A prominent Randolph County businessman, 
Isaac H. Foust ran a successful store and post 
office here at Reed Creek, a community which 
predated Ramseur. He was one of the partners 
who incorporated the Deep River Manufacturing 
Company at nearby Allen's Fall in 1848 and in 
1857 was one of the investors who refinanced the 
bankrupt Island Ford Manufacturing Company. 
Foust also ran a grist mill on Sandy Creek and 
invested in both the North Carolina Railroad and 
the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad. One of 
the three wealthiest men in the county in 1860, 
Foust owned fourteen slaves. He was politically 
a staunch Whig, serving as a county justice from 
1846 to his death in 1864, and was elected to the 
House of Commons in 1860. 

Foust's home was probably built ca. 1850 
although the rear wing may be an earlier house 
dating to ca. 1840. The house is five bays wide 
and one room deep, with 9/6 sash. The shed- 
roofed full-facade porch is carried on rectangular 
posts decorated with sunken panels, and the 
siding under the porch is flush with a tall 
baseboard. The roof and porch have identical 
boxed cornices with returns. A central gable on 
the facade was probably added about 1900. The 
one-panel double-leaf doors have a symmetri- 
cally-molded surround with plain comer blocks 











I mi 





and a transom. The house features a center-hall 
plan with open-string staircase, two-panel doors 
throughout and wainscoting in both first floor 
rooms. The rear wing is a four-bay hall-and- 
parlor plan structure with central chimney. Ac- 
cess to its second floor was originally by a boxed 
stair The wing has short 9/9 sash on the first 
floor, with short 6/6 on the second. The cornice 
and returns of the wing are molded. The mantels 
have been removed from the house and are in 
storage. Four of them are simple post-and-linlel 
type Greek Revival mantels. Two are more elabo- 
rate with symmetrically molded trim and sawn 
vernacular decoration. 


Columbia Township 

The White's Chapel congregation was organ- 
ized in 1897. The present sanctuary seems to 
have been built about that time. Three bays long 
with overhanging eaves, it is entered through a 
vestibule capped by a belfry with rectangular 
vents. An apsidal bay with 4/4 sash projects 
from the gable behind the altar Sunday school 
rooms have been added on each side of the altar. 
The early White's Chapel school stands beside 
the sanctuary. 


Columbia Township 

This well-preserved house is the centerpiece 
of a rural farm complex which may date from the 
mid-1870s. The house has 6/6 sash on the first 
floor facade with 4/4 sash on the second. The 
twin exterior end chimneys have stepped should- 
ers, and the roof has exposed rafter ends and a 
deep overhang. The wraparound porch is carried 
on chamfered posts. It links the house to a 
one-story rear wing which may originally have 

been a detached kitchen. A central chimney rises I 
from this wing, which itself has been given a 
20th centur>- ell addition. The yard contains 
large boxwoods and an enormous mulberry tree, 'j 


Columbia Township 

In December, 1908, local resident C. P FoX 
sold lots between Pittsboro and Edwards streets 
to Edward R. Coleman of Lebanon, Pennsyl- 
vania. Coleman built a hunting lodge on the 
propeny which was later sold to Senator Harr)' 
Byrd of Virginia. A local history records thai 
"many nonhem dignitaries visited the lodge W 
hunt throughout the years." The lodge itself i* 
now gone, and this one-story four-stall bricl' 
stable, built perhaps ca. 1915, is the only surviv- 
ing element of the complex. 


Columbia Township 

This one-and-a-half story end-pavilion hous< 
was probably built ca. 1890. It is a late example ' 
of the Gothic Revival style, with sawn barg«' 
boards, unusual pedimcnted doors and 4/4 sash' • 
which display sawnwork decorations in the pei^ 
of each pediment. The porches are carried o" 
turned posts with brackets. A colored gl"** 
window framed by feathered shingles is set in ih' 
end pavilion. The house is now covered *'•'' 
asbestos siding. In the 1930s this was the hortj^ 
of Ed Bray. It is said to have been built by J- ^' 

3 IDE 




Columbia Township 

•his one-slory central-gable house has 4/4 
sash and an overhanging cornice with brackets 
and pendants. The central gable contains a qua- 
refoil vent. The hip porch is carried on cham- 
m '' posts with brackets and pendants. In the 
'530s this was the home of C. P. Fox. 


Columbia Township 

'his two-story center-hall plan end-chimney 
ouse features elaborate porches on front and 
ear. The two-story front porch is carried by 

■■acketed, chamfered posts, and the balcony has 
"nied balusters railing. The hip-roofed rear porch 

"h projecting central balcony is similar to 

j , ^'■"^^ in the Franklinville area. Local residents 

aentify this as the dwelling of John W. Staley 

°"'» ca. 1888. During the 1930s it was the home 

Brown and Gamer families. 


Columbia Township 

fro °"^"S<ory hall-and-parlor plan house dates 
m the 1850 period. The interior features two- 
inel • 

'"m and 

Chi * ''""^'^ cornice with returns and a stone 
Ihe'""^^ *''h brick stack. Just across the road to 
Sal *^^' '^ "^^ cemetery of the now-defunct 
■" Methodist Protestant Church. 


Columbia Township 

stro'^'T '^^"^"'^'*' Protestant Church, now de- 
Prio *'"' established at this site sometime 
(1752 '° '^"^'^'^''^"'"' '832, when John Craven 
ofo ~'°33) sold the property to the "Trustees 
the 0^1" fleeting" Craven's grave is now 
'hounh '^^'^'^'^'' grave in the cemetery, al- 
'■oneri ' "comer of the graveyard" is men- 
nijfK,'" 'he 1832 deed, indicating earlier, un- 
°^in '"'''■ ^'i''* ws probably the location 

lies b*^"^'^ Craven family cemetery. Other fami- 
uned here include Doves, Cables, Yorks 

,r^"^' ''oors, a molded baseboard, three-part door 
hg _*"'' a post-and-lintcl mantel. The exterior 













Superior Mop Co. 



1/2 Mil* 


901 Coleridge Road 

W H. Watkins (1839-1919), former sheriff of 
Montgomery County, became secretary-treasurer 
of the reorganized Columbia Manufacturing Com- 
pany in 1879. Watkins assumed an influential 
role in the life of the town, donating sites for the 
Methodist Church and local school, acting as a 
state senator and town commissioner, and even 
naming the village for Major General Stephen 
Ramseur, his commander in the Civil War. 

The Watkins home, built ca. 1885, was an 
elaborate and eclectic structure, exhibiting ele- 
nients of the Italianate, Romanesque Revival, 
Eastlake and Queen Anne styles. The original 
porches were supported by chamfered square 
posts with pendant brackets. Among the surviv- 
ing elements are paired Italianate cornice brack- 
ets and round-headed sash. The cornice frieze is 
embellished with sawn leaf-like dentils. Most 
Unusual is the elaborate hood over the second 
noor end pavilion window, decorated with pierced 
Scrollwork. The interior was equally elaborate, 
*'th plaster cornices and ceiling rosettes. The 
dining room rosette is decorated with shells, ears 
°f corn, bunches of grapes and sunflowers. The 
nouse was converted into a funeral home some 
twenty-five years ago and is now the nucleus of a 
senes of rambling, aluminum sided additions. 

^^•2 HOUSE 

907 Coleridge Road 

This T-plan house is placed with its side to- 
ward the street, so that its cross-bar becomes a 
Polygonal end pavilion. The hip porch is carried 
°n Square posts and is railed with square balusters, 
•^"e house has double-hung 2/2 sash. The ab- 
ence of elaborate trim indicates that it was 
probably built in the eariy 20th century. 


908 Coleridge Road 

This ca, 1895 T-plan house has an end-pavilion 

1 'ts street facade. A squared one-story window 

y with bracketed cornice projects from this 

Id pavilion. The second floor window above the 

y 's capped by an elaborate wooden hood and 

^awnwork frieze. Sidelights frame the entrance 

"n^' *hich is set in a projecting entrance bay. 

ne original porch posts have been replaced by 

bungaloid pylons on brick bases. E. J. Steed was 
superintendent of the Columbia Manufacturing 
Company at the time of World War I. 


909 Coleridge Road 

This "L-plan" house probably dates from the 
middle 1890s. Its 2/2 window sash have molded 
flat cornices. The Colonial Revival porch is a 
relatively recent addition. The most interesting 
feature of the projecting end pavilion is the 
two-story polygonal window bay decorated with 
molded recessed panels and coupled brackets. 
Bays such as this one are found throughout 
Ramseur and are the trademark of an as-yet- 
unknown carpenter-builder The Copeland fam- 
ily are the earliest-remembered residents who 
lived here. 


910 Coleridge Road 

This rambling one-story house is an eclectic 
combination of late-19th century house forms. 
The street facade seems to be a three-bay central- 
gable end-chimney house, but on the southwest 
this expands into a square deck-on-hip roofed 
wing with decorative end gable. Yet another 
small gable-roofed wing is attached to the rear of 
the house. The porch is carried on Tuscan col- 
umns and features a railing with mmed balusters. 
Each gable is pierced by an elaborate sawnwork 


911 Coleridge Road 

This simple tum-of-the-century dwelling fea- 
tures a center-hall plan and 2/2 sash. Its hip 
porch is carried by chamfered posts. A rear shed 
addition now connects the house to what may 
originally have been a detached kitchen. The 
exterior has been covered with asphalt siding. 











u ail 







915 Coleridge Road 

Take a typical one-story center-hall-plan cen- 
tral-gable house and add a polygonal Queen 
Anne style end pavilion, and this home is the 
result. The cantilevered overhang of the polygo- 
nal bay is braced by sawnwork brackets with 
turned pendant drops and applied bull's-eye 
molding. The gable vents are decorated with 
elaborate sawnwork moldings. The wraparound 
veranda was altered in the early 20th century by 
the replacement of the supporting posts. The 
existing paired pylons set on prick piers are 
connected at the throat by miniature collar beams 
which seem to be mortised together. This is a 
Craftsman style detail which is similar to bunga- 
low decoration. 



Coleridge Road 




This substantial two-story house originally 
faced east or west and has been remodeled to 
front the south on Coleridge Road. The fenestra- 
tion and plan have been extensively altered and 
most detail has been obscured by aluminum 
siding. Only paired brackets with turned pendants 
remain, as well as applied quatrefoil-pattem frieze 
trim identical to that found on the W C. Watkins 
House/Loflin Funeral Home. At one time this 
must have been a very elaborate and beautiful 
dwelling. From 1883-1891 its resident, Mrs. 
Sarah Ferree, was Ramseur's postmaster. 


1501 Main Street 

A tum-of-the-century residence, this one-story 
center hall-plan central gable house offers no 
surprises. It has a single end chimney, a hip 
porch carried on chamfered posts and 4/4 sash. 


1503 Main Street 

This two-story hip-roofed dwelling illustrates 
a variation of the two-tiered veranda and balcony 
combination popular along Deep River in the 
late 19th century. Probably built ca. 1905, it is 
the latest known example of the form. The 
wraparound porch curves around the comers of 
the house, carried on Tuscan columns. The bal- 

cony gable displays a Colonial Revival style 
vent, while the balcony itself is railed by a turned 
balustrade. The central hall-plan house is lighted 
by 6/6 double-hung sash, with oversized sash 
used on the first floor facade. Contractor W H. 
Tippett of Franklinville is said to have built the 
house for "Captain" W. D. Lane, local rail- 
way conductor. 


Main Street (beside Public Library) 

Aaron Capel, a native of Montgomery County, 
was one of three investors who bought and 
reorganized the Columbia Manufacturing Com- 
pany in 1879. Capel moved to the village and 
became superintendent of the mill. In 1894 Cape' 
founded another industry, the Alberta Chair 
Works, and in 1895 became a town commis- 
sioner at Ramseur's incorporation. 

Capel's striking ca. 1880 home features a 
gable and hip roof with sawn bargeboards and 
turned and bracketed porch posts supporting a 
one-story wraparound porch. The ca. 1890 wing 
with bracketed cornice and polygonal bay '« 
known as the "Ballroom." 


Behind Public Library 

On March 4, 1879, the town of Columbia was 
awarded a post office. This frame building was 
built in 1880 to house that office. The small siz« 
of the office enabled it to be moved to the 
residences of subsequent postmasters, as it was 
in 1889 and 1891. By the turn of the century, 
other buildings were serving as the post office 
and in 1909 this building was moved to the rear 
of a home on Main Street and became a kitchen. 
In 1970 the building was given to the town and 
moved to its current site behind the Public Library- 
In 1975 the building was restored as a museum- 

The old Ramseur Post Office is a small, square. 
one-room structure approximately 15 by 15 fee' 
in plan and thought by local historians to have 
been built ca. 1880. One of the two board-and- 
batten doors has a mail slot cut into its center. A 
9/6 sash is used on one end, while a 6/6 sash is 
found beside the front door. 



rin i n rire 


Main Street 

Finding tlieir Liberty Street sanctuary inade- 
quate, the trustees of the Methodist Church were 
authorized to build a new building on Main 
Street in September 1896. The structure was 
completed by contractor W J. Jones the follow- 
'ug spring. In 1954 the church was renamed to 
honor the minister who oversaw the construction 
of the new church, the Rev. Henry Harrison 
Jordan. Jordan was the father of Sen. B. Everett 
Jordan and Dr. Henry Jordan of Cedar Falls. 

The hip-roofed church is an outstanding eclec- 
tic design. The three-tier steeple is clapboarded 
on top and bottom, shingled in the middle. The 
cornices are uniformly bracketed. In 1947 a 
framed educational building was added which 
Sensitively copied the brackets and trim of the 
original church. 


Main Street 

This tum-of-the-century commercial building 
*as built as the "Ramseur Store Company," the 
third company store of the Columbia Manufactur- 
ing corporation. The gable-roofed one-story build- 
")g is set on a large brick basement. The sloping 
?'te allowed a one-story frame commercial build- 
'"g to be placed on a large brick basement, 
'treating a full two stories. The basement walls 
^^ built on a rubble stone foundation; the walls 
themselves are laid in 1;6 common bond with 
Penciled joints. A shed wing added to the north 
^'de provided additional floor space, which was 
"t by a monitor skylight. The street facade of the 
store was modernized ca. 1960, with the result 
that brick veneer now conceals the form of the 
Original storefront. In the early 20th century the 
business was acquired by local merchant H. B. 
J-arter, from whom it took its familiar name. In 
the late 1960s the building was used as a setting 
'°r the motion picture "Killer's Three," which 
*as filmed in Ramseur. 


Main Street 

These two frame structures are charming exam- 

P'=s of a type of late 19th and early 20th century 

ommercial construction which has nearly van- 

ished in the state. The larger office, with three 
2/2 windows fronting Main Street and an en- 
trance door on the south side, was once the 
business office for the adjoining Carter Mercan- 
tile store. Both frame offices have gable roofs 
hidden behind "boom-town" false fronts. Brack- 
ets with turned pendants brace the overhanging 
cornice of the large office facade. Both struc- 
tures at one time housed the Ramseur Public 
Library with the smaller building being the 
library's last stop before its present permanent 


1535 Main Street 

Stores of this type were once very common 
across Randolph County. Standard elements are 
the gable roof masked by a false "boom-town" 
front, recessed double-leaf entrance doors and 
overhanging canopy. The store is now covered 
with red aluminum siding. It once housed the 
Crescent Fumimre Store, and the Brady Funeral 
Home was operated out of the basement. The 
original tenant was J. O. Forrester who sold 
furniture, jewelry and coffins. 



Main Street 

The rather plain smcco facade of this former 
movie theatre is a faint echo of the more robust 
Spanish or Mediterranean styles widely used for 
motion picture theatres in the 1920s. The theatre 
was opened and operated by Lee Jones who lived 
on Oliver Street. 


1538-1542 Main Street 

This brick commercial row was originally a 
single-story brick block of three stores. The 
recessed storefronts are tied together by a brack- 
eted wooden cornice and capped by decorative 
brick corbeling and mousetoothing. The street 
level side doors and windows (now filled in) are 
set in arched openings crowned by brick hood 
moldings. A second floor was later added atop 
the first with segmental-arched windows cut into 
the decorative brickwork. These later windows 
are without hood moldings. During the 1920s 
and 1930s this building housed a barbershop, J. 
A. ("Jim") Craven's grocery store and the Dob 
Johnson Cafe. 















Main Street 

The Ramseur Roller Mill was organized in 
1913 with the mill built shortly thereafter. It 
manufactured Rose Bird flour, Robin Bird self- 
rising flour, com meal and feed, with an average 
output in 1938 of twenty barrels per day. The 
two-and-a-half-story frame structure has a moni- 
tor roof, a widely used feature of early industrial 
architecture. The mill has recently been reno- 
vated and reopened as a feed mill. 


Main Street 

The Columbia Manufacturing Company mill 
complex consists of a three-story gable-roof 
structure, built in three stages; a southeast comer 
power plant; a four-story tower; and several free- 
standing auxiliary buildings — an office, pump 
house and warehouse, located northwest of the 
main building. 

The original mill, built ca. 1850, is the two- 
story southern section, eleven bays long and five 
bays wide, whose narrow south end abuts a mill 
race parallel to the Deep River. This section is of 
brick laid in 1:3 common bond. Each bay is 
pierced by a 9/9 sash window with a plain 
wooden sill and an ovolo-molded surround, 
surmounted by a simple brick lintel. No original 
doors remain. Each interior floor is a single large 
room with one row of eleven posts supporting 
the wooden ceiling joists at the center of the 
span. About half of the posts are turned, tapering 
columns with cmde brick and wood bases. These 
are perhaps the original supports. The other 
supports are chamfered wooden posts or cast- 
iron posts. The ceiling joists, each a single 
beam, are hand hewn and measure approxi- 
mately two feet by eight inches. The third story 
of this section, laid in 1:4 common bond, is a 
pre-1885 addition. This floor has sash windows 
identical to the first section; it is capped with a 
gable roof, covered with tin, with overhanging 
eaves with exposed rafter ends, and has no 
interior supports. 

After 1888 a three-story addition connected 
the main block and the picker room. This thir- 
teen bay-long section is laid in 1:6 common 
bond, with star-headed iron tie rods, paneled 
doors within segmental-arched openings and 9/9 
sash windows within two types of openings. 

Those on the east side have rectangular openings 
with simple brick lintels; the remainder have 
segmental-arched openings, also with brick labels. 
The interior of each story is an extension of the 
open space of the original mill, with a single row 
of center supports bracing the ceiling joists. The 
tumed wooden posts, more slender than those in 
the original mill, have a metal base and necking. 
The sawn joists, of identical dimensions as the 
original joists, are spliced at the center. Wood 
floors, bare brick walls and wood sheathed ceil- 
ings exist within both sections. The third story 
lacks intermediate supports in this section also. 
A belfry, sheltered by an onion dome sheathed 
with tin, perches on the roof ridge in the center 
of the entire block. 

The original wheel house, built over the mill 
race, has disappeared, but the engine house 
which powered the mill by 1885, still remains at 

the southeast comer of the main block. The 
picker house was built before 1885 as a one-story 
free-standing building located north of the main 
block. Between 1885 and 1888 it was doubled in 
size and raised to two stories. This structure, 
which now abuts the northwest corner of the 
north mill addition comprises five bays of brick 
laid in 1:6 common bond. It has segmental- 
arched 9/9 sash windows surmounted by arches 
and a tin gabled roof. The interior has a dirt 
floor, bare brick walls, no intermediate sup- 
ports and an exposed roof tmss system of bolted 
wood trusses with vertical metal tie rods ex- 
tending from the ridge to the center of the joist. 
A four-story brick stair tower abuts the cen- 
ter west side of the mill. Added between 1885 
and 1888, the tower is laid in 1:6 common bond, 
had 9/9 sash windows with segmental-arched 
openings with brick labels and segmental arched 

doors. The original frame fifth story, with 
bracketed pyramidal roof containing a water 
tank, was removed after 1949. 

The westem wings— a two-story wing which 
abuts the north side of the tower and a one-story 
wing which abuts the west side of the picker 
room— form the final expansion phase; they 
were added within a few years of one another, 
probably in the early 20th century. The two- 
story wing, laid in 1:6 common bond, has 9/9 
sash and double, paneled doors within segmen- 
tal-arched openings with brick labels. The shed 
roof has exposed rafter ends on the south side, 
and the comice parapet on the remaining sides 
is ornamented with mousetooth and brick cor- 
bel courses. Each floor, one large room, has 
wood floors and bare brick walls. The first-floor 
supports consist of two rows of chamfered and 
bracketed wooden posts supporting sawn ceil- 







ing joists, each of which is spliced at each sup- 
port. The second-story supports are simple posts 
without brackets, and the roof truss system is 
exposed. The one-story wing, laid in random 
common bond, has door, window and roof 
treatment similar to the two-story wing. A sin- 
gle row of turned wood columns support the 
sawn, spliced ceiling joists, and the roof truss 
system is exposed. 

At the northwest comer of the one-story wing 
IS the free-standing mill superintendent's of- 
fice, a one-story brick building laid in 1 :5 com- 
mon bond, with front and side roof parapets 
concealing the shed roof. Corner brick pilasters 
*id a parapet frieze of pointed-arched brick 
panels, brick corbel cornice and molded wooden 
eave ornament the building. The front (west) 
elevation contains a paneled door within a seg- 
■nental-arched opening; each side elevation 
Contains a triple sash window, each sash with 
^0 panes, within a segmental-arched opening. 
The office interior contains a vertically-sheathed 
Wainscot, sheathed ceiling, plaster walls and 
molded opening surrounds. Beside the office is 
'he pump house, a hexagonal brick structure 
With a pyramidal tin roof surmounted by a turned 
*ooden finial. The walls are laid in random 
Common bond, with segmental-arched open- 
"igs with brick labels. The metal pump is prob- 
^°ly a replacement for the original, which 
supplied water to both the mill and the entire 

'he one-story brick warehouse located west 
°f the pump house, is laid in 1:5 common bond 
and capped with a tin gable roof with exposed 
fafter ends. Each of the four sections, divided 
°y stepped, parapeted fire walls on the interior 
and by brick pilasters on the exterior, has a 
found-arched opening with a metal door at the 
font and rear. The gable end and fire wall par- 
Pets are ornamented with mousetooth and cor- 
^' brick courses. Along the south side is a 
*^oncrete loading platform sheltered by a brack- 
eted shed roof. 

National Register Nomination written by Ruth 
Little-Stokes and Brent Glass. 


729 Liberty Street 

The Ramseur Methodist Episcopal Church, 
^outh, was organized in 1886. This, their first 
sanctuary, was completed in 1890. The growing 

congregation soon buiU yet another new sanctu- 
ary on Main Street, to which the church moved 
in 1897. The Methodist trustees then sold the 
1890 building to the local Marietta Masonic 
Lodge Number 444, which had been organized 
in January, 1892. The original form of the church 
was probably one large open sanctuary with a 
balcony along three sides. Oversized 6/6 sash in 
the first floor with smaller 6/6 sash above still 
indicate this layout. After 1897 the building was 
divided into upper and lower chambers by the 
addition of a floor at the balcony level. The gable 
vent in the form of the Masonic emblem was also 
added at this time. The only major alteration of 
recent years occurred ca. 1965 when the entrance 
pavilion was brick veneered. 


733 Liberty Street 

Although its unusual siting on the lot tends to 
disguise the fact, this is a standard three-bay 
two-story house with central gable interruption. 
The house stands at a forty-five degree angle to 
the street, to which it is related by an entrance 
pavilion extending from one comer of the Colo- 
nial Revival style porch. The interior follows a 
typical center-hall plan. Though local historians 
say the house was built as the parsonage for the 
neighboring Methodist church (now the Masonic 
lodge) ca. 1890, the house seems to be at least 
ten years older. Its 6/6 sash suggests an eariier 
date of construction, as does the angled position 
of the house which implies that the house existed 
before the street was built. 


Southeast comer Liberty Street and 

Coleridge Road 


Outgrowing their small antebellum church ad- 
jacent to the cemetery, the Baptists in 1894 
erected a rectangular plan brick church on Lib- 
erty Street which is the nucleus of the present 
structure. Two wings were added between 1897 
and 1912, and a baptistry built in 1919, producing 
a cruciform plan. Additional Sunday school rooms 
were added in 1921, and an education building 
was built in 1950. 

The original church had a Gothic character, 
with pointed windows and car\«d cornice brackets. 
The tall wooden bell tower and shingled steeple 
gave the church an almost European Medieval 


flavor. In the course of major remodelings in 
1921 and 1957, much of the original character 
was lost; the pointed windows were replaced 
with round-headed Roman sash windows, and 






I* 1 

L ail 



=iRi nnrs 



the old steeple entrance replaced with a classical 
facade and colonial-type steeple. The penciled 
mortar joints are an interesting surviving feature 
of the original construction. 


927 Coleridge Road 

The sawn balusters of its porch railing are the 
prime features of this rather typical central gable 
house. Sawn balusters are found on houses in 
Ramseur, Franklinville and Randleman though 
they are seldom seen in other parts of the county. 


Carter Street 

Like the neighboring I. E Craven house, this 
structure is a pre-1880 dwelling with tum-of-the- 
century cosmetic improvements. The original 
two-story center-gable three-bay house with 6/6 
sash received a polygonal window bay facing 
Coleridge Road on the east and an elaborate 
Colonial Revival porch carried on paried fluted 
TUscan columns. The entrance, with sidelights 
and transom, is set in a monumental portico with 
balcony. E. C. Watkins, son of mill owner W H. 
Watkins. was owner and operator of the Ramseur 
Furniture Company. 


1398 Salisbury Street 

The original portion of this house seems to 
have been a two-story three-bay center-gable 
structure with a central chimney similar to other 
nearby mill houses. The original house may have 
been built before 1880, with enhancements made 
in the 1890s when a wing and gabled pavilion 
with polygonal bay were added to the east. The 
bracketed roof overhang and porches with spin- 
dle frieze, brackets and turned posts were proba- 
bly added during the renovation. Fletcher Craven 
was the son-in-law of mill owner W H. Watkins 
and followed him as company president. 



Salisbury Street 

These three identical houses on a hillside 
above the cotton mill are ca. 1880 versions of 
mill-built worker housing. The three-bay center- 
hall-plan houses were one room deep and had 

6/6 sash, rear kitchen wings and side gable 
roofs. There were originally several more such 
houses in the area. 


317 West Ridge Street 

Baptists had begun to meet together in the 
village of Columbia Factory by May 3, 1851- 
From 1851 until 1853 the "Missionary Baptist 
Church of Christ of Columbia" was pastored by 
the Rev William C. Patterson. In 1855 this 
frame structure was built to house the congrega- 
tion. It was heated by an open fireplace. In 1894 
a new Baptist church was built with this one sold 
to the newly-organized Congregational Christian 
church. In 1897 that congregation built a new 
sanctuary and the old Baptist building was moved 
to its present site and remodeled as a dwelling- 
This small structure has obviously undergone 
substantial alterations since 1855. The porch and 
current interior configuration probably date to 
the 1897 remodeling, while the molded cornice 
with returns and the 6/6 sash may be survivals 
from the original trim. 


Church Street 

This Christian Church was organized in Ram- 
seur in 1893 by Rev M. L. Hurley with nineteen 
chaner members. The denomination had been 
brought to Randolph County by the Rev Thomas 
C. Moffitt who, in 1842, began the organization 
of five Christian churches in the southwestern 
quarter of the county. The denomination has 
since merged with the northern Congregation- 
alists, but this church is now independent. The 
congregation first purchased the 1855 Baptisl 
Church adjoining the cemetery and in 1896 
erected the present sanctuary. The old church 
was moved to the rear of the property and remod- 
eled as a home. The 1896 building was five bays 
long with a bellcast steeple over the entrance 
pavilion. Four classrooms were added in 1926 
and a brick educational building added in th' 
1960s. In 1981 a new sanctuary was built and the 
1896 structure was demolished. 



710 Liberty Street 

This dwelling is Ramseur's most elaborate 
and robust example of the Queen Anne style 
popular at the turn of the century. It is a T-plan 
house with many decorative elements. The ga- 
bles feature feathered shingling and sawnwork 
eave ornaments. A cantilevered gable with pen- 
dant brackets and sawn bargeboards accents the 
south wing. The shed-roofed porch is carried by 
chamfered posts with sawn balusters and a turned 
spindle frieze. The house was built by John 
Emmett Brady and remains in his family. 


601 Oliver Street 

This T-plan house now turns a remodeled face 
toward Jordan Road (US 64) but its original form 
*as that of an end-pavilion house fronting on 
Oliver Street. From that angle the two-story 
polygonal window bay is evident, as is the side 
porch with brackets and turned posts. The 4/4 
Sash are set in molded window frames. Ca. 
1^25, after the construction of US 64, the hip 
porch supported by bungaloid pylons on brick 
bases was added to the north facade. A small 
Projecting central gable on the porch accents the 
^ntrance. J. Harris Marley was the father of 
'aughn and Woosley Marley, proprietors of a 
general store on Liberty Street. Vaughn Marley 
*rote a popular column, "Trash 'N' Whittlin's," 
for the Asheboro Courier-Tribune for forty years. 


603 Oliver Street 

. This is a T-plan house similar to the neighbor- 
'ng Marley house; it also turns its end-pavilion 
tacade towards Oliver Street. Instead of a two- 
^'°ry window bay, as on the Marley house, a 
°ie-story polygonal bay is found, decorated with 
■■scessed panels and a sawnwork frieze. The 
^scond floor window above the bay has a hood 
Jl^olding with a matching sawnwork frieze. The 
P roofed side porch is carried on turned posts 
*"h sawn brackets. George Lambert's son, J. I. 
■-ambert, ran a local grocery store for many 











609 Oliver Street 

This house provides a good illustration of the 
changing faces a home may show the world over 
the years. A documentary photograph of the 
house about 1915 shows a solid, respectable late 
19lh century dwelling. Sawnwork "gingerbread" 
decorates the central gable, the hip porch is 
carried on chamfered posts with sawn brackets 
and the porch railing is made up of sawn 
balusters. At least three contrasting colors are 
used to pick out and emphasize the various 
surfaces and edges. Today we see a white house 
devoid of Victorian ornament, and a massive 
bungaloid porch with white flint pylons speaks 
of the new tastes of the 1920s and 1930s. 


314 Oliver Street 

1\vo-story three-bay center-gable dwellings 
such as this one were popular and frequently 
built throughout Randolph County in the late 
19th and early 20th centuries. This end-chimney 
house has a hip porch carried on turned posts 
with sawnwork brackets and retains a complete 
set of working louvered window shutters. 



(destroyed 1981) 
Jordan Road 

The Ramseur Graded School building was a 
handsome example of a Colonial Revival style 
public school. The original block, built in 1921, 
consisted of an imposing three-story (technically 
two stories atop a raised basement) classroom 
block with an 800-seat auditorium wing attached 
to the rear. Multiple bays of two, three and five 
6/6 and 12/12 double-hung window units lighted 
the classrooms. The double-leaf entrance doors 
were capped by a fanlight and recessed into an 
elevated classical pavilion. The entrance arch 
w ith keystone was framed by Tuscan order pilas- 
ters which carried a classical entablature com- 
plete with modillion blocks. An inscribed "Book 
of Know ledge" sculpture set in a gabled pediment 
originally capped the entrance bay, but in some 
subsequent renovation the gable was replaced by 
a flat brick parapet. A molded cornice ran around 
the south, east and west facades below the 
parapet, while a belt course emphasized the first 
floor level. The belt course, cornice, entrance 
pavilion trim and door and window sills were 
constructed of white sandstone. 

A classroom wing was added in 1936, a gym 
in 1948, additional wings in 1949 and 1953, and 
the building was completely renovated in 1961- 
The construction of a new high school in the 
early 1970s demoted the old building to the 
position of an elementary school. A modem 
single-story elementary school built elsewhere 
on the site in the late 1970s finally made the old 
building totally redundant. It is unfortunate that 
no imaginative adaptive reuse scheme was pro- 
posed for this structure; so much space built at a 
time when energy and materials were relatively 
cheap will not be seen again. 





Franklinville Township 


Franklinville Township 

The Cool Springs congregation was organized 
on November 20, 1938 and the present sanctuary 
built soon thereafter. Contemporary elements 
such as bungaloid brackets, asbestos siding and 
concrete block foundation make its recent con- 
struction evident, but it is interesting to note the 
conservatism of church design which lasted until 
World War II. The form of the building and its 
tripartite vestibule/steeple are similar to churches 
built fifty years eariier. 


Franklinville Township 

Exhibiting commonly used half-dovetail log 
construction, the Enoch Pugh Cabin is an impor- 
tant single-pen story-and-a-loft antebellum log 
dwelling. Characteristic features include the ga- 
ble roof, the combination fieldstone and brick 
exterior end chimney and stone foundation. The 
two-bay facade is distinguished by a batten door 
with a rare example of a wooden door latch. 
Exterior weatherboard sheathing appears to be a 
more recent addition. On the interior a steep 
ladder-type stair rises next to the stone fireplace 
with its simple shelf. The cabin is remembered 
as the home of Enoch Pugh and family. 


Franklinville Township 

Exhibiting an unusual five-bay fenestration 
pattern with two entrances, this vernacular house 
was probably built ca. I860. A flush sheathed 
facade is protected by a hip porch roof, which 
seems to be original although the porch itself has 
been dismantled. Large 6/6 sash light the first 
floor and smaller 6/6 sash are used above. The 
same size sash is also used in the tight space 
between the porch roof and the gable-roof eaves 
—the carpenter simply turned it on its side. The 
exposed rafter ends supporting the roof are decor- 
ated by sawn embellishment. The stone end 
chimneys have brick stacks. The hall-and-parlor 
plan interior is finished very simply with horizon- 
tal board sheathing, two-panel Greek Revival 
doors and crude shelves instead of mantels. 

i . ..kfc.....:l 


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313 [ - i m i rn r im \ I3E 








Franklinville Township 

This house, with 6/6 sash and a handsome 
bracketed cornice with pendant drops, was proba- 
bly built ca. 1885. Its two-tiered porch is similar 
to those of four other houses built in nearby 
Franklinville. The central balcony is accessible 
from the second floor. The house has a center- 
hall plan with end chimneys and a two-story 
rear wing. The original porch supports were 
replaced by lattice-work posts set on brick piers 
ca. 1925. The house may have been built by 
Matthew Sumner (1823-1886), superintendent 
of the "upper" mill in Franklinville from 1876 
to 1881, or by his son David Spurgeon Sumner 
(1862-1939), engineer of the "upper" mill from 
1886 to 1895. Apparently Matthew Sumner had 
acquired the property in 1874, and David inher- 
ited it at his father's death in 1886. David lived 
there until he purchased the Lambert-Parks House 
in Franklinville. The extensive farm lies on the 
northeast bank of Deep River at its junction with 
Sandy Creek. The nearby Salem Church prop- 
erty was originally part of the holdings. 


Franklinville Township 

The 25-foot high concrete and rubble dam im- 
pounding Deep River between Cedar Falls and 
Central Falls was built between 1919 and 1924 by 
Clark and Ervin Cox, who operated the Central 
Falls Manufacturing Company. The 31 -acre lake 
formed by the dam is the largest on Deep River, 
and the third largest in Randolph County. The 
three-story wheel house housed two generators 
powered by turbine water wheels. When com- 
pleted, it immediately became apparent that the 
flow rate of Deep River had been miscalculated: 
two generators could not be run continuously 
without draining the lake. The facility was used 
on a limited basis until 1953, when it was aban- 
doned. It is now virtually inaccessible. 


Franklinville Township 

Originally a one-room store expanded ca. 1940 
by Charlie Walker, this building included living 
quarters in the rear. The small bracketed dormers 
and large 10/10 sash are unusual. The store was 
operated for many years by Bessie Lawson and 
closed ca. 1968. 


Franklinville Township 

This three-story monitor-roofed grist mill was 
probably built ca. 1890. It was known as "Henry 
Pugh's Mill on Sandy Creek" until Mr. and Mrs. 
Charlie Kidd came to run it in 1934, An old 
board-and-batten store nearby was replaced by 
the concrete block "Kidd's Place" store, still 
operating. The frame mill was at an early date 
covered with pressed tin siding, decorated in a 
brick pattern. The mill closed ca. 1960. 


Franklinville Township 

This hip-roofed house was built ca. 1880- 
Its brick end chimney has paved shoulders. The 
rear wing is an earlier log structure which had a 
stone end chimney, now surrounded by later 


Franklinville Township 

This tiny rural store may date ca. 1875. The 
door and window trim is molded. The 6/6 sash 
were originally shuttered. 


Franklinville Township 

This frame water tank is now a unique survival 
in Randolph County. The shingled structure en- 
closes a metal tank which served a gravity-flow 
Water system for the adjoining Halliday hunting 
lodge. The guest house and lodge still stand 
nearby, remodeled into private dwellings. Access 
'0 the lodge was provided by the Cape Fear and 
Yadkin Valley Railway, which ran within sight of 
the complex. All of Millboro grew up along the 
railroad after 1889 and for a while Millboro was 
'he shipping point for all the surrounding cotton 
textile mills. 


Franklinville Township 

The W C. Jones house was the nucleus of a 
Community across Deep River from Franklinville 
which is sometimes known as the "Fair Mount" 
Community, after a Methodist Protestant church 
which stood here at the turn of the century. 
Lesley Cornelius Jones (1862-1925) is listed in 
the 1894 Branson Directory as a "contractor and 
builder" but is best remembered as a wagon- 
■^aker Jones' wagon shop, machine shop and 
felated businesses surrounded his home. As 
automobiles replaced horse-drawn vehicles Jones 
"^San to custom-build truck bodies; his first was 
'Of a 1912 Model T. Jones later converted horse- 
drawn hearses to fit Model T chassis for many 
'ocal funeral homes. Jones was killed during the 
^onstruction of a new business, the Franklinville 
"totor Company, which was subsequently owned 
^nd operated by his son, B. C. Jones. 

The house was probably built by Jones in the 
'°80s, and has undergone at least three major 
femodelings. The original one-story central gable, 
"^enter-hall plan house has oversized 4/4 sash and 
^ elaborate molded cornice with sawnwork cor- 
beling or dentilwork. The simple porch was then 
replaced by an elaborate Victorian creation with 

great deal of decorative "gingerbread." This 
•n turn, replaced ca. 1929 by the current 


poled porch carried by bungaloid pylons on 
""ek pillars. 


Franklinville Township 

This early 20th cenmry dwelling was built by 
Leonidas Mountvale ("Lxjnnie") Jones, son of 
W C. Jones whose home stands directly across 
the road. The hip-roofed house has gables or 
projecting gabled wings at each comer of the 
square main block, creating an exceedingly com- 
plex roof plan. The mmed porch posts are linked 
with arched tie beams. 


Franklinville Township 

This late-19th century cruciform-plan house 
has a corbeled chimney at the center of the four 
wings. Randolph County now has few of this 
type of home. It has been extensively remodeled. 


Franklinville Township 

The massive stone chimney of this house 
indicates a pre-Civil War construction date. Now 
in the center of the house, it was undoubtedly 
built to one end of a smaller house which was 
later expanded. A boxed cornice is still partially 
visible, though aluminum siding, storm windows, 
replacement sash and a variety of improvements 
obscure original details. Joseph Franklin AUred 
was a Methodist Protestant minister. 


FT: 11 









:-r— ' — ' — ' — » -■ I (- 

Superior Mop Co. 

I i n i i nr= 










Sea le 



Deep River 
Franklin ville 

Rising out of the river several hundred yards 
Upstream from the site of Island Ford is Franklin- 
ville's major geographic landmark, a huge blue- 
stone outcrop known as Faith Rock. It was the 
setting for one of Randolph County's best-known 
Revolutionary War legends, an incident which 
has been both elaborated and confused over the 

David Fanning was the notorious Tory guer- 
f'lla leader of Piedmont North Carolina, and 
Andrew Hunter was a southwestern Randolph 
resident. On May 2, 1782, Hunter and a neigh- 
bor were captured by Fanning while taking a 
*agon of produce to trade for salt at the Pee Dee 
River market. Promised immediate execution by 
Panning, Hunter took a desperate chance for 
escape. In Fanning's words. Hunter "sprung 
Upon my riding mare, and went off with my 
saddle, holsters, pistols, and all my papers of 
any consequence to me. We fired two guns at 
h'Ti; he received two balls through his body but 
" did not prevent him from sitting the saddle; 
and make his escape."' Enraged, Fanning plun- 
dered Hunter's home, kidnapping his slaves and 
holding his pregnant wife as hostage for the 
return of Bay Doe, "a mare I set great store by, 
and gave One Hundred and ten guineas for her."^ 
Hunter, however, coolly called Fanning's bluff. 
The war was over; the British had begun the 
evacuation of Charieston; Fanning and his men 
eould not afford to wait. They were forced to 
felease Mrs. Hunter and ride to rejoin the British. 
But before he left. Fanning determined to risk 
* final return to Randolph for the single purpose 
°f recovering Bay Doe. He rode out of Charles- 
ton on September 5, 1782, and left the county in 
frustration on September 22.' Fanning does not 
uescribe the incident at Faith Rock, which must 
have occurred at this time, although Caruthers is 
"lost specific. Hunter "was riding the Bay doe. 
On the high ground South of Deep River, and not 
|5 above the [island] ford, where the village of 
ffanklinville now stands" when "he was like to 
"* overtaken by some of Fanning's men. He first 
attempted to gain the ford; but found they were 
heading him in that direction. He then turned his 
<^ourse up the river, but they were there ready to 
deceive him. The only alternative was to surren- 
''er, which would be certain and instant death, or 
o make a desperate plunge down a precipice, 
Some fifty fee( i,igh jnto the river. He chose the 

latter. ... It was such a daring adventure that 
his pursuers, though they were burning with 
revenge, would not dare to follow him, but 
stopped short, in a kind of amazement, and 
contented themselves with firing two or three 
pistols after him. As there was no level ground at 
the bottom of the descent, he plunged right into 
the river and turned down the stream, sometimes 
swimming and sometimes on terra firma or 
floundering over rocks, until he found a place 
where he got out on the north side and made his 
escape.'"* Today a plaque placed by the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution on the nearby 
highway bridge commemorates Hunter's escape. 

'David Fanning, The Narrative of Colonel 
David Fanning (Spartanburg: The Reprint Com- 
pany, 1973), p. 59. 

^Ibid, p. 60. 

^Ibid. p. 62. 

■*£. W Caruthers, Revolutionary Incidents: 
And Sketches of Character Chiefly in the "Old 
North State" (Philadelphia: Hayes & Zell, 
1856), pp. 280-281. 



West side Bush Creek at junction with 

Deep River 


A foundry was built here ca. 1850 to process 
ore from the Iron Hill mine some four miles to 
the southwest. The mine and smelter were worked 
periodically from ca. 1849 to 1868, but particu- 
larly during the Civil War when workers were 
exempted from the military draft. A report of the 
enrolling officer dated July 4, 1864, listed thirty 
hands at the iron works, indicating an extensive 
operation. Little remains at the site although the 
dam on Bush Creek and the power race are still 
visible. The property was sold to G. H. Make- 
peace in 1869 and later operations at the site 
included a chair manufacturing plant and a rock 
crusher. The Iron Hill mine was one of the most 
extensive mining operations in the eastern half 
of Randolph County with the main shaft reach- 
ing a depth of eighty feet. 



Deep River 

A dam has been at this site on Deep River 


since the eariiest use of the river's power for grist 
milling. In 1901 the Franklinsville Manufactur- 
ing Company replaced all eariier dams with a 
massive new dam of coursed rubble stone con- 
struction. This impounded water to run both the 
grist mill and cotton factory. The last water 
wheel to be used at the factory was a 285 
horsepower horizontal Smith wheel, installed in 
1909. This turned all the machinery of the fac- 
tory through a belt and pulley system until elec- 
tric drives were installed in 1922. On November 
29, 1934 the Courier noted that "The Randolph 
Mills, Inc. are preparing to raise their dam 
across Deep River at Mill # 1 thirty inches higher. 
This will give them a resource supply of water 
for their equipment and will be one of the 
prettiest ponds of water on the river." As a result 
of that remodeling the 1901 stone dam became 
the core of a new concrete dam with massive 
buttresses, floodgates and hydroelectric generat- 
ing station. This installation, the most elaborate 
in Randolph County, was used to generate elec- 
tricity for the mills until 1963. 


11 • 



=in i H Fi i -in i i n 






SR 2235 

Flour milling is Franklinville's oldest activity. 
That, and the kinetic energy of Deep River 
which made it possible, entirely determined the 
location and subsequent development of the 
Franklinville community. The potential of the 
site was realized before the year 1800. Both 
George Mendenhall, who acquired the site in 
1795, and Benjamin Trotter, who bought it in 
1797, were millers. It is not known whether 
those men made any use of the site; their pur- 
poses may have been purely speculative. Since at 
least 1890 local tradition has stated the first mill 
at this spot on Deep River was built in 1801 by 
Christian Moretz, or Morris, who bought the 
property in that year. By 1802 Morris was being 
taxed for the operation of a large cotton gin, and 
it is known that a wool-carding machine and saw 
mill were also operated at the mill. The availabil- 
ity of such a variety of products and services 
soon led to the formation of a rural trading 
community at the mill even before Elisha Coffin, 
a miller and former Quaker, bought the property 
in 1821. 

The small two-and-a-half story mill housed 
com and wheat stones which ground and pro- 
cessed the grain into meal and flour with a 
minimum of machinery. The grist and saw mills 
continued to be operated into the 20th century as 
adjuncts to the neighboring textile factory. Meth- 
ods of producing flour changed in the later 19th 
century, with mills utilizing steel rollers instead 
of stones to grind grain, a process first demon- 
strated in Philadelphia at the Centennial Exposi- 
tion in 1876. This roller process produced a 
higher yield of finer flour from the wheat and 
soon became the industrial standard. The all- 
roller Pillsbury "A" Mill, built in Minneapolis in 
1880, was the largest such mill in the world at 
that time. 

This new technology arrived in Randolph 
County soon thereafter. The Enterprise Roller 
Mills, built in the eariy 1880s at which is now 
Coleridge, was the county's first roller mill and 
one of the earliest in the Piedmont. In the eariy 
1890s Dr. John Milton Worth founded the Ashe- 
boro Roller Mill; it later merged with other local 
mills to form the Southern Crown Milling Com- 
pany which survived until 1958. In the eariy 20th 
century many rural mills began to upgrade their 
operations and adopt the roller process. Roller 
mills were built in Farmer, Seagrove, Archdale 



and Ramseur during this period, in addition to 
the new mill at Franklinville. 

In 1912 the Franklinsville Manufacturing Com- 
pany, under Hugh Parks, Jr., decided to replace 
the antique grist mill with a completely new, 
greatly enlarged roller mill operation. The three- 
story frame mill was opened in 1913 and the 
former structure was demolished. The roller mil' 
retained water power as its primary source of 
energy, but made use of the textile mill's nearby 
steam engine for back-up power. Today the mil' 
uses neither steam nor water, being entirely 
powered by electricity. 

Ca. 1920 a new product was added to the 
traditional brands of whole wheat "Excelsior" 
flour; this was a new "self-rising" flour, name'' 
"Dainty Biscuit" flour. The "Excelsior" natne 
was later discontinued and "Dainty Biscuit" 
flour today is available in both plain and self- 
rising styles. Extensive additions were built to- 
ward the south in the 1930s and 1940s to house 
an animal feed operation; tile, concrete and 
metal grain bins were added for increased stor- 
age capacity. 

Just three men supervised manufacturing opera- 
tions at the mill through most of this century- 
Edgar G. Routh began as miller in 1901; J. A 
Wallace took over in 1932 after Routh was elected 
RandolphCountyregisterofdeeds; and Wallace's 
son, Paul Wallace, served until 1978. The gen- 
eral bankruptcy of Randolph Mills, Inc. forced 
the roller mill to close temporarily in 1978, but i' 
is now in operation once more. 


("The Upper Mill") 
SR 2235 

The earliest sections of this extensive indus- 
trial complex include the oldest textile-related 
buildings in Randolph County. Although *« 
Cedar Falls factory was established first, none o' 
its original structures remain. 

The drive to establish Deep River's second 
cotton mill culminated in a public meeting "" 
April 2, 1838. when "The Randolph Manufactur- 
ing Company" was organized and Elisha Coffi" 
was dispatched "to the North" to buy equipmeni 
On March 4, 1839, the president of the corpora; 
tion advertised for bids on the "factory House.' 
which was "to be 80 feet by 40, 3 stories 
high— materials brick, and covered with shingleS' 
the whole to be finished off in the most workma"' 

3tDI I13[= 


=in i i n i i n i i n[= 

like and best style. . . .The Directors prefer mak- 
ing two separate contracts, with different indi- 
viduals—one for the MASON WORK and the 
other for the CARPTENTER WORK." The 
structure, the county's first large brick building, 
Was nearly complete by February, 1840, when 
the local newspaper reported that "they are put- 
ting up the Machinery. It is expected they will 
commence spinning in a few weeks — by the first 
of March at furtherest." 

The true appearance of that original building 
is largely uncertain due to later alterations and 
damage by fire. It is clear that the structure, nine 
window bays long and three wide, used an un- 
usual brick bond consisting of a course of alter- 
nating stretchers and headers (similar to Flemish 
^nd); Ave courses of stretchers; and another 
course of alternating stretchers and headers. This 
t>ond was used again in repairs and additions to 
tile factory in 1851 and 1882, although it is not 
found in any other Randolph County building. 
The bond may have been designed to strengthen 
the walls of the factory, which were subject to 
floods and constant vibration from machinery. 
The only contemporary description of the 1839 
factory is a partial one included in a newspaper 
recount of the fire which destroyed the mill on 
Saturday, April 18, 1851. "The fire was first 
discovered about nine o'clock at night, in the 
dressing room, which was in the upper story of 
'he building. In a short time the flames were 
^communicated to the roof. . . . The walls of the 
building were of brick, but the falling in of heavy 
burning timbers left them in a ruined state." 

Ironically the stone "Picker House," the one 
Part of the mill complex designed to be fireproof, 
^as not even involved. The picker house was 
'Considered to be the greatest fire threat in any 
"^'11 due to its atmosphere of combustible cotton 
"Ust. The stone walls of the building were built 
to contain a fire and allow the roof and interior to 
be rebuilt easily and inexpensively. It remains 
today, embedded in later additions, the county's 
Only major stone structure. Though in a "ruined 
*'*te," much of the mill's solidly-built lower 
^b^cture seems to have remained standing after 
*^ tire. The factory was soon rebuilt on the 
"tiginal first floor walls; the dividing line be- 
*'6en old and new brickwork can be clearly 
^^sn. The earliest photograph (1874) of the mill 
bows its reconstructed appearance: a simple 
Sable roof with exposed rafter ends; small 6/6 
*^b lighting the work areas; and the north end 
Frowned by a Greek Revival cupola housing a 
^"- This earliest section of the building is now 

visible only at the northwest comer and on the 
upper west facade, where the antebellum sash 
are still in place. 

From the scrapbooks of mill superintendent 
George Russell a complete record of post-Civil 
War alterations is available. In July, 1882, a 
two-story wing was added to the south, enclos- 
ing the water wheel and providing space for a 
new steam engine and boiler. This was raised to 
three stories in 1897. The baling room wing was 
added to the west in 1883, enlarged in 1888 and 
raised to two stories in 1900. An addition was 
built to the picker house in 1887; it was raised to 
two stories in 1899. When mill output changed 
from cotton bags to sheeting in 1915, a large new 
weaving shed wing was added to the southeast. 

Some alterations were made for the sake of 
safety. In 1883 the gable roof was rebuilt as a flat 
roof with brick parapet. In 1892 a stair tower was 
added to the north end and the old, open interior 
stairwells were removed. The tower also sup- 
ported a large water tank which fed a new 
sprinkler system. Electric lights were installed in 
October, 1896, replacing kerosene lanterns and 
lard lamps. In the most extensive improvement, 
the mill was doubled in size in 1899, when a 
three-story, 40 x 80-foot addition was built at 
the eastern side of the original mill. This 1889 
addition, with 12/12 sash, is the present river 
facade of the mill complex. 


SR 2235 

This brick warehouse was built during the 
summer of 1900 to shelter cotton bales shipped 
down the railroad. The four bays were divided by 
substantial brick firewalls with stepped gables 
echoing the north and south ends. Arched door- 
ways on the west facade originally opened onto a 
wooden loading platform; the platform was de- 
stroyed and the doorways filled in the 1950s 
when new doors were opened on the east facade. 
At that time a metal shelter was constructed 
which linked the warehouse with the adjacent 
powerhouse. The powerhouse had been built in 
1919, along with a 125-foot tall smokestack of 
radial brick. The powerhouse and coal-fired steam 
generator were installed in preparation for the 
conversion of the mills to all-electric operation 
rather than belt drives. On January 10, 1921, the 
upper mill first ran entirely on electric motor 
drives. Both the warehouse and powerhouse are 
now abandoned and the smokestack was demol- 
ished in 1976. 


(The "Upper" Store) 
SR 2235 

Mill records note that "The old red store was 
burned April 18, 1884 just thirty-three years after 
the old cotton mill was burned." The "old red 
store" was the company store built by the 
"upper" mill soon after it began operations. 
This building, built in 1884, is its replacement 
and one of the oldest surviving commercial struc- 
tures in the county. It was originally a rectangu- 
lar structure approximately 25 by 65 feet in plan. 
The interior was plastered and white-washed, a 
seldom-used treatment in Randolph County which 
must have made the store seem unusually clean 
and bright. Oversized doors and windows were 
located on the gable ends. The building's exte- 
rior was clad in board-and-batten siding, a deco- 
rative treatment popular in the Gothic Revival 
style, which is also hinted at by the trefoil vent in 
the gable. The exterior seems also to have boasted 
a highly unusual decorative effect, gained by 
painting the vertical boards and battens in alter- 
nating stripes of pink and gray. After consolida- 
tion of the two company stores in 1920, the 
building was turned into a laundry, and still later 
into a machine shop. This pivotal stnicture is 
cleariy deserving of a major restoration effort. 


Greensboro Road 

The most impressive house in Franklinville and 
one of the most architecturally significant homes 
in Randolph County, the George Makepeace 
House is a two-story brick Greek Revival style 
stnicture with a low gable roof and partially 
recessed single-stepped shoulder exterior end 
chimneys. Its most prominent feature is the or- 
nate Victorian two-tiered porch, probably built 
in the 1880s, which hints of the Chinese Chippen- 
dale style. The facade boasts 9/9 sash and a 
handsome Greek Revival entrance feamring Doric 
pilasters, sidelights and fanlight. 

The ca. 1840 house displays an austere use of 
the Greek Revival which, in its simplicity, is as 
much related to the New England Federal style 
popular in the early 19th century. It indicates the 
conservative survival of earlier architectural tastes 
among Randolph County artisans and clients. 
The builder of the house may have been Franklin- 
ville's founder, Elisha Coffin, who originally 









owned all the surrounding acreage. Its location, 
on the west of the highest point in town, was 
originally a central location in regard to the 
church and school across the street and the 
factory at the foot of the hill. In 1850 the prop- 
erty was sold to its earliest-remembered owner, 
the mill supervisor George Makepeace. It passed 
into the hands of his son, George Henry Make- 
peace, and remained in the hands of the family 
into the early 20th century. It later housed the 
families of W A. Grimes and W R Ward, and, 
until recently, a religious cult. 



Smith Street 

This house appears to have been built in two 
stages. The east wing was the early section, a 
one-and-a-half-story hall-and-parlor plan house 
identical to the ca. 1838 "cotton row" houses at 
the bottom of the hill. Ca. 1850 the two-story 
interior-end chimney section seems to have been 
added. It features 6/6 sash and a wide cornice 
with overhanging eaves, while the earlier section 
has a boxed cornice with returns and 4/4 sash. 
The later section also features the hall-and-parlor 
plan with boxed stair and simple Greek Revival 
post-and-lintel mantel. 



Smith Street 

The current owner reports that part of this 
house is of heavy frame construction, pegged 
together. This indicates an antebellum date, al- 
though the house has been moved and modern- 
ized so often that dating is difficult. It now sits 
approximately on the site of the old Franklinville 
Methodist Church, which stood here from 1839 
to 1913. The house once stood diagonally across 
the street from its current site; there it adjoined 
the cemetery and the Franklinville Academy 
building, now destroyed. Even earlier, the house 
was part of the Makepeace property and at one 
time was joined to that house by a rambling 



Greensboro Road 

This house has undergone a similar evolution 
to the nearby house on Smith Street (F:9). A 
one-and-a-half-story hall-and-parlor "cotton row"- 
type house was first built ca. 1838. Ca. 1850 a 

two-story section was added to the east, with 6/6 
sash and wide overhanging eaves. The major 
difference between the Smith Street house and 
this one is that the former has an interior end 
chimney, while an exterior end chimney is found 


Greensboro Road 

Hugh Buie and his father "Gib" (M. G.) Buie 
built this house themselves in 1908. At the time 
Hugh Buie was in charge of operations at the 
upper dam power plant nearby; he was later 
overseer of weaving in the upper mill. The end- 
pavilion or "T-plan" house was a very popular 
form in mill villages. Versions of the plan were 
printed in various books and magazines which 
may have provided a source for Buie's home. 
The turned posts, sawn brackets and other trim 
materials were readily available from local mill- 
work companies. 


Buie Lane 

This two-story hall-and-parlor plan house with 
one-story wing seems to have been built ca. 1840 
and is almost identical to the two nearby houses 
of similar design and age. It is said to have been 
built by Madison Brower (1826-1914), who is 
listed as a local "Contractor and builder" in the 
1894 Branson directory. Brower. however, ac- 
quired the property from an earlier owner, Cal- 
vin E. Graves, who may have had it built. The 
Peter AUred family were 19th-century residen'* 
of the house. 


Greensboro Road 

One of the show places of Franklinville. this 
house was a substantial residence both before 
and after the Civil War. Though the magnificent 
Eastlake-style porch is its more prominent feature. 
the rear wing may be part of one of the earliest 
remaining structures in Franklinville. The tvvo- 
story frame building had a massive end chimney, 
a molded cornice and 9/6 window sash. These 
eariy sash relate the building to the nearby Julia" 
House and indicate that it may precede the con- 
struction of the textile mill. At that time this 
probably was the home of Dr. Phillip Homey 
(1791-1856). father of Alexander Homey. The 



=in i in i i Pi f j R l i Pi i i nf= 

two Homeys were deeply involved in the county's 
textile development, having been partners with 
Benjamin and Henry Elliott in the construction 
of the original Cedar Falls factory, and then 
assisting the establishment of both the Franklins- 
ville and Island Ford factories. Phillip Homey 
acquired the property (a substantial portion of 
the present town) in 1838; Alexander Homey 
sold it in 1872 to Dennis Curtis. Dennis Curtis 
(1826-1885) was a son-in-law and apprentice to 
George Makepeace, the revered superintendent 
of the mill. Curtis and his brother-in-law, George 
Henry Makepeace, were the second owners of 
the Columbia Factory; they operated it until 
October, 1879, when they sold out to William 
Watkins and Company. It was Curtis who, about 
'880, more than doubled the size of the old 
house by adding the impressive two-story river- 
front facade. It features a deep roof overhang 
with bracketed cornice; these brackets have turned 
drop pendants. The center-hall plan house has 
interior chimneys placed on the rear facade and 
Unusual rounded window and door architraves in 
'he Italianate style. Two-over-two sash are used, 
as well as a double-leaf entrance with transom. 
The glorious porch once had a near-twin on the 
Homey-Parks House across town. The hip porch 
*ith central gabled pavilion is an eclectic compo- 
sition with elements of several styles. Chamfered 
posts with applied moldings and boxy capitals 
'^arry a bracketed cornice with sawnwork dentils. 
The balustrades are flat, sawnwork cutouts; the 
Central gable exhibits pseudo-Gothic elements 
such as an applied bargeboard and trefoil vent. 
Curtis moved to Greensboro in the mid-1880s 
and the house was acquired by Matthew Gilbert 
^uie (d. 1912), overseer of weaving at the 
'upper" mill. It then passed to his son J. T. 
("■loe") Buie, bookkeeper for the Franklinsville 
Manufacturing Company. 


Greensboro Road 

This lovely home is perhaps the oldest struc- 
ture in Franklinville. Local historian Comelius 
°- Julian, whose descendants still own the home. 
Said that the date "1819" is carved into one of 
'he sills. The architectural record certainly bears 
this out for the house exhibits graceful, refined 
Proportions, and trim which indicates the transi- 
'■onal period between the Georgian and Federal 
styles. The end-chimney house has a molded 
Cornice with returns and a closed-string staircase 

which rises from its central hallway. Asymmetri- 
cally placed 6/9 sash in a sheathed facade are 
sheltered by the shed porch which is carried by 
replacement chamfered posts with sawn brackets. 
Six-over-nine sash also light the second floor 
facade with 4/4 sash used on the gable ends. A 
formerly-detached kitchen dependency is now an 
attached kitchen wing. 

C. H. Julian (1871-1953) was a prominent 
Franklinville resident, acting as postmaster from 
1933 to 1948 and previously serving as depot 
agent, town clerk and treasurer. The house was 
for many years the home of Mary Jane Cox 
(1840-1913), a weaver in the "upper" mill and 
daughter of former owner Nathan Cox. Nathan 
Cox (1809-1872) bought the house sometime 
before 1850 when he operated it as a boarding 
house for workmen engaged in rebuilding the 
fire-damaged mill. Like Franklinville's founder, 
Elisha Coffin, Nathan Cox was a birthright Friend 
who had been disowned for marrying a non- 
Quaker. According to C. H. Julian, Cox bought 
the house from a Mr. Johnson, who had built it. 
Almost certainly this was James Johnson, who 
in April, 1844, advertised for sale in the local 
newspaper his "valuable real property in Frank- 
linsville ... 4 town lots, on which there are 2 
excellent dwelling houses, a good blacksmith 
shop and all necessary and convenient out- 
houses. . . . The premises are well adapted to 
keeping Entertainment — there being no other 
tavem or house of public entertainment in the 
place. It is also to be remembered that . . . this 
place is directly on the stage route from Raleigh 
to Salisbury." (Southern Citizen, 1 May 1844) 


Greensboro Road 

Older residents of Franklinville think that this 
1920s bungalow set on a foundation of quartz or 
"white flint" rock includes part of a much older 
house. Arthur V Jones, overseer of spinning in 
the "upper" mill, had the bungalow built for his 
family about 1922. Supposedly it acmally remod- 
eled the Lizzie Jobe House, a small two-story 
house which may have been built of logs. Liz- 
zie Jobe was a daughter of Nathan M . Cox , the 
owner of the neighboring C. H. Julian House in 
the last half of the 19th cenmry. The Jobe House 
could have been part of the complex of build- 
ings described in newspaper advertisements in 
1844 by James Johnson. Whether Jones ac- 
tually did remodel the eariier house is not now 




evident. The property was acquired in 1933 by 
J. A. Wallace, a professional miller from Mil- 
ton, N.C., who came to Franklinville to take 
charge of the roller mill. Wallace served as 
mayor of Franklinville from 1961-1953 and 


Greensboro Road 

These four one-story frame houses, along with 
four similar structures now attached to larger 
two-story dwellings, are undoubtedly among the 
dwellings built by the original Randolph Manu- 
facturing Company after April, 1838. In March, 
1839, the Asheboro newspaper noted that "since 
the commencement of that works but one shon 
year ago, a little village has sprung up at the 
place which has assumed the name of Franklins- 
ville, embracing some eight or ten respectable 
families." Each small, sixteen by twenty-two- 
foot house had two rooms in a hall-and-parlor 
plan, a single fireplace on the west end for heat 
and cooking and a loft reached by a boxed 

Five and perhaps six of these houses were 
built in a row on the hillside above the factory. 
The western-most one has been destroyed and 
the eastern-most is now attached to the two-story 
Will Tippett House, leaving these four in between. 
Each has evolved similarly, with turn-of-the- 
century wings and porches, ca. 1920 additions, 
and ca. 1950 renovations and German siding. 
But the roof of the original houses can still be 
seen poking up above the later additions and 
showing its boxed cornice returns on the western 


Greensboro Road 

Originally one of the "Cotton Row" houses 
built ca. 1838, this house developed differently 
from its neighbors. In the later 19th century it 
became the residence of William H. Tippett 
(1857-1938), one of the area's most prominent 
house carpenters and builders of the period. 
Tippett is first listed in the 1877 Branson direc- 
tory as a cabinetmaker, but by 1894 he is identified 
as a "builder and contractor." It was probably 
Tippett who ca. 1890 moved the original two- 
room 1838 house to face its gable end north and 
built the two-story center-gable house as its 
south wing. That three-bay center-hall plan house 
is typical of more than a dozen houses built in 

Franklinville from 1890 to 1910, some of them 
no doubt also built by Tippett. Will Tippett is 
said to have built the George Russell House on 
Main Street ca. 1903 among many in Franklin- 
ville, and the W. D. Lane House in Ramseur 
among many in that community. He was also 
responsible for a great deal of industrial construc- 
tion for the local factories, most of which is now 
unknown; one notice survives from the Courier 
of 6 May 1915 which states "Mr. W H. Tippett 
has commenced the new press house for the 
Franklinsville Manufacturing Company" Ca. 1918 
Tippett built and moved into another house (now 
destroyed) on Clark Avenue near Depot Street. 

F:19 TRESTLE (destroyed) 
SR 2235 

The identification plate on this trestle recorded 
the facts that it was built by the Roanoke Iron and 
Bridge Works in 1924. The official North Caro- 
lina Depanment of Transportation information 
described it as a "bridge with 50' steel thru 
girder span on frame towers, over 2 lane road, 
with 50' and 25' timber apparatus." The trestle 
was destroyed in 1983, as was the 18.7 mile 
length of railroad originally known as the "Fac- 
tory Branch" of the Cape Fear and Yadkin 
Valley Railway. 

The "Factory Branch" included three other 
major wooden trestles: across Sandy Creek, Bush 
Creek and, the longest, over SR 2141 at Cedar 
Falls. The branch line was built from 1888 to 
1890 in order to connect Randolph County's 
Deep River textile mills to the main line of the 
CFYV at Climax. The Cape Fear and Yadkin 
Valley Railway was the final outcome of early 
efforts to link the Cape Fear and Yadkin rivers. 
first by canal, then later by railroad. Organized 
in 1879, the corporation opened its main line 
from Fayetteville to Greensboro on March 16. 
1884. For the next five years Staley was used as 
the shipping terminal for the local factories, until 
the completion of the branch line to Millboro in 
1889. The "Factory Branch" was completed by 
July 1890. The corporation was reorganized as 
the "Atlantic and Yadkin Railroad" in 1898 and 
was absorbed into the Southern Railway system 
in the 1920s. All of the local depots along ihe 
line were demolished in 1976, the line was 
officially abandoned in 1980, and the tracks and 
trestles dismantled by February, 1983. 

==r ^ 



Main Street 
Franklin ville 

The three houses in this row are very similar 
and may have been built as worker housing for 
the Franklinsville Manufacturing Company dur- 
ing the 1850s. The house on the southwest cor- 
ner of Main and Depot streets nearest the Meth- 
odist church is abandoned and deteriorating, but 
it best illustrates the original appearance of the 
three dwellings. The one-and-a-half-story hall- 
and-parlor plan house has a boxed stair and 
Greek Revival style post-and-lintel mantels. A 
single chimney at the rear serves both the house 
and a one-story wing. The wing is placed at the 
east rear comer of this house but is found at the 
West rear comers of the other two. All three 
houses have been extensively remodeled, with 
new siding and 4/4 sash, but mortise-and-tenon 
or "heavy frame" constmction indicates an ante- 
helium date. The center house has been altered 
"lost radically having lost its upper floor in 


River Road 
Franklin ville 

Remembered today for its 20th century use as 
a town hall and jail, or "calaboose," this build- 
ing was originally built before the Civil War as 
pan of the Isham Jones (1834-1915) wagon 
factory complex. It is the only survivor of the 
houses, shops and commercial stmctures which 
'ined the River Road in the 19th century Franklin- 
^'"e. Around the turn of the century Jones 
retired and his shop was remodeled into a town 
hall and concert hall for use by the Franklinville 
'Riverside Band." In the 1950s it was renovated 
for use as a dwelling by Randolph Mills. Due to 
'ts deteriorated condition, portions of its mor- 
tised and tenoned frame are currently visible. 

^=22 HOUSE 

Main Street 

Essentially two houses combined into one 
'■Welling, the eastem end is of mortise-and-tenon 
•Construction, indicating an antebellum date. That 
Original structure was a small end-chimney hall- 
and-parlor plan house; its details have been lost 
'"subsequent remodelings. The 4/4 sash and 
twin gables date from the tum-of-the-century 
enlargement. The house at one time stood across 
"spot Street behind the Lambert-Parks House 

and probably was a dependency of that dwelling. 
The house was even further remodeled and brick- 
veneered in 1983. 


Main Street 

The Franklinville Methodist Episcopal Church 
was officially organized August 15, 1839 by 
trustees Elisha Coffin, Bethuel Coffin, J. M. A. 
Drake, Alexander Homey and Phillip Homey. 
Both the first church, built in 1839, and a second 
replacement building, erected 1894-1895, stood 
on the hill at the present cemetery across from 
the Makepeace house. In 1912 the present brick 
church was built on Main Street to house the 
growing congregation. Hugh Parks, Jr., mill 
owner and chairman of the building committee, 
is said to have personally drawn up plans for the 
new structure. In a contract dated July 2, 1912, 
the building committee hired J. H. Burrow as 
brick mason and D. A. Curtis as carpenter to 
jointly erect the church. The design is what 
Methodists call the "Akron Plan," named after 
the Ohio city where it was formulated, which 
included a special wing of Sunday school class- 
rooms arranged around a central assembly hall. 
The Franklinville church plan includes this wing 
in an apsidal bay on the south side of the 

Several alterations have been made over the 
years. A large folding door which opened be- 
tween the sanctuary and Sunday school rooms 
has been removed, the opening walled up and the 
sanctuary reoriented. The original lancet sash 
have been replaced by stained glass windows. 
The entrance, once on the north side of the 
tower, has been moved to the east due to road 
widening. The Sunday school wing has not been 
altered, however, and retains its molded door and 
window surrounds with bull's-eye comer blocks. 
The soaring, vaulted two-story interior space of 
the assembly hall is the county's best example of 
this once-popular plan. 



Sumner Street 

This building has been called by many names, 
including ' 'The Teacherage , " "The Franklinville 
Inn" and "The Grove Hotel," which seems to 
have been its first name. Local tradition says that 
the hotel is built around an earlier house which 









.1 • ■« 










was the home of a blind man named McPherson. 
In 1915 it began to be remodeled and was opened 
as a hotel in the fall of 1919. M. G. (Mack) 
Maner and wife, Hannah, were the innkeepers. 
The hotel is a large hip-roofed structure approxi- 
mately fifty feet square. A projecting bay on the 
facade marks the off-center entrance facing the 
railroad and River Road. The hotel included ten 
guest rooms opening off large central lobbies on 
the first and second floors. Four-over- four sash 
are used throughout the structure. The large 
dining room was once well known for its good 
food but the hotel housed its last guests almost 
twenty years ago and is now in a very deterio- 
rated condition. 


Main Street 

In 1920 Hugh Parks, Jr., decided to consoli- 
date the management of the " lower' ' and "upper' ' 
mills — the Randolph Manufacturing Company 
and the Franklinsville Manufacturing Company 
respectively — in a single new office building 
which would also house the town's first bank. 
The first brick was laid on May 20, 1920, and the 
combined offices moved into the building on 
August 4. The new Bank of Franklinville opened 
the next day with fifty-seven accounts and over 
$15,000 in deposits. The structure is a typical 
brick building of the period with recessed en- 
trances and corbeled cornice. The bank, housed 
in the west half of the building, closed in the 
Depression. The entire building then became 
offices for Randolph Mills, Inc. 


Main Street 

George Russell, superintendent of the "upper" 
mill from 1907 to 1927, was a close personal 
friend and business associate of the Parks family. 
He left Franklinville in 1927 and died in the 
1930s. Russell and Hugh Parks, Jr., were ama- 
teur photographers, and perhaps George Russell's 
greatest legacy is his photograph collection of 
Franklinville. Arranged in several scrapbooks 
and given to friends and relatives, Russell left a 
documentary record of the village from 1874 to 
the 1920s which is unequaled. Russell's home 
was built for him in the 1890s by Will Tippett, 
local contractor. It was a cruciform plan house 
with polygonal bays projecting from the east and 
west. The cantilevered roof overhangs are braced 

by sawn brackets with turned pendants. The 
gables display lacey sawnwork gable ornaments. 
Most of the original porch has been removed and 
a two-story shed wing has been added to the rear. 



Main Street 

The first Masonic Lodge in Randolph County 
was Hank's No. 128, organized March 26, 1850, 
at Franklinville. The second was built five years 
later at Foust's Mill (now Coleridge), with 
Asheboro's Balfour Lodge third in the same 
year. Ten Masonic brothers residing in the Frank- 
linville neighborhood were granted permission 
to establish a Lodge of Ancient York Masons; by 
1869 there were 82 members. In July, 1850, a 
building committee was appoointed, and on Sep- 
tember 10, 1850 the committee signed a contract 
to "erect a Masonic Hall" in the village with 
Spencer M. Dorsett and Thomas W Allred. 
Dorsett, 28, and Allred, 27, were Franklinville 
residents. Dorsett listed his occupation in the 
1850 census as "Carpenter." The building was 
contracted for a price of $1,350.00, to be paid in 
installments, and to be completed in six months 
from the date of the contract. It was specified to 
be of two stories, 40 by 20 feet, with the lower 
story nine feet high and the upper story ten feel 
high. The framing was to be of oak five inches 
thick and the studding set on 18-inch center The 
remainder, including shingles and any exposed 
timber was "to be of good heart pine." The Hall 
was built on the south side of the River Road 
between the two cotton mills. In 1890 the rail- 
road was extended from Millboro to Ramseur, 
running across the lodge lot between the Hall 
and the River Road. The River Road fell in'o 
disuse following the construction of "Highway 
90" (the present NC 22), and in early 1924 the 
Hall was moved to its current location on the 
south side of that highway. 

The temple form Greek Revival building is 
one of the oldest public buildings in the area, 
and is doubly important since its construction 
contract has survived, preserving the names of 
its builders. Dorsett and Allred were obviously 
men of some skill, for the Hall is as sophisti- 
cated an example of the Greek Revival style as is 
to be found in Randolph County. The form of the 
building can best be seen on its rear elevation- 
where three monumental pilasters rise the ful' 
height of the facade, dividing it into two bays- 
On the front facade the entrance door interrupis 



the central pilaster. The pent roof above that door 
is probably a later addition. Further study of this 
building may lead to other buildings which can 
be attributed to Dorsett and AUred. 


Rose Street 

The Franklinsville and Randolph Manufactur- 
ing Companies maintained separate "upper" and 
"lower" stores until 1920, when it was decided 
to consolidate the two under one roof. The 
combined store, renamed the Franklinville Store 
Company, was ready for occupancy in December, 
'920. Its first managers were John Marley and 
H. S. Edwards. The structure was a 45 X 90-foot 
brick building with a basement. The store level, 
*ith twin entrances on Rose Street, was divided 
in half down the middle. Dry goods and "notions" 
*ere on one side and the meat and grocery 
'department was on the other. At various times 
'he building sheltered a drugstore, doctor's office, 
beauty parlor and public library. The basement 
eurrently houses a barbershop and the post office. 
The Franklinville Store Company was liquidated 
'n 1981 and the building taken over by store- 
'^eeper Harold Poole. 


Main Street 

Known locally as the "Sumner House" after 
'ts 19th-century owners, this house has had a 
'ong and colorful history of ownership. In 1907 
•^avid S. Sumner (1862-1939), superintendent 
of the "lower" mill, moved here from his former 
home east of town. He and his family resided 
"ere for the next seventy years. Sumner bought 
'be property from the widow of Alexander S. 
Horney, one of the most influential citizens in 
Pranklinville and Randolph County for much of 
'be 19th century. Homey and his father helped to 
found both the Cedar Falls and Franklinville 
^otton factories and Alexander Homey acted as 
brst superintendent of the Island Ford factory, 
"orney also served as chairman of the county 
Commissioners for many years. He owned the 
house twice, both before and after the Civil War. 
From 1871 until about 1893 the dwelling was 
'be home of Hugh Parks, undoubtedly the most 
Powerful personage in Franklinville. During that 
Period Parks acquired control of both the town's 
^'"ile corporations, serving as secretary-treasurer 

of the Franklinsville Manufacturing Company 
and as president of the Randolph Manufacturing 
Company, the former Island Ford factory. Under 
Parks' benevolent paternalism Franklinville first 
acquired many civic amenities such as its river- 
side park. He was politically influential, serving 
as mayor and county commissioner, among a 
variety of offices. Ca. 1893 Parks engineered a 
house trade with Ruth Homey in which she 
moved back to this home and Parks moved his 
family into the impressive Homey mansion on 
the hill above the Island Ford mill. 

These later deeds and transfers cite the prop- 
erty as "the Lambert lot in the village of 
Franklinsville." This refers to John R. Lambert, 
who sold the lot to A. S. Homey in July, 1850. 
The substantial purchase price indicates the house 
already existed, which confirms the architectural 
evidence that the home was built in the 1840s. 
Lambert, 36 years old in the census of 1850, 
listed his occupation as "Manufacturer." Lam- 
bert was probably connected with the "upper" 
mill, which had been destroyed by fire in April 
of 1851; besides his wife and six children, Lam- 
bert housed two boarders identified as ' ' plasterers' ' 
and obviously engaged in the reconstruction of 
that factory. 

The house is one of the county's best exam- 
ples of the full-blown Greek Revival style. The 
two-story center-hall plan dwelling has exterior 
end chimneys, comer boards and a molded cor- 
nice with returns. Wide flush sheathing on the 
first floor facade is sheltered by a shed porch 
with paneled cornice. The porch superstructure 
is obviously original to the house, although the 
chamfered posts with sawn decoration and brack- 
ets seem to have been added by Hugh Parks in 
the late 1880s. The finest exterior feature is the 
entrance where double leaf raised panel doors 
are framed by sidelights over raised panels and a 
Greek Revival architrave with molded comer 


Rose Street 

Originally facing south toward the river, this 
ca. 1885 three-bay center-hall plan house then 
boasted an engaged porch with elaborate sawn- 
work detail similar to that of the Dennis Curtis 
house. This porch has since been enclosed. En- 
trance to the house is now gained through a door 
facing Rose Street in the rear wing. James Bute 
was overseer of spinning in the "upper" mill 
















from 1877 to 1882 and overseer of carding from 
1882 to 1923. 


Rose Street 

This two-story end-chimney house has feath- 
ered shingles in its central gable and 2/2 sash. 
The cornice is supported by sawn brackets. The 
hip porch has lost its original supports. Duncan 
"Dune" Dove (1851-1939) worked at the "lower" 
or Randolph Manufacturing Company store and 
later owned his own general store. 


Rose Street 

This dwelling is very similar to the hall-and- 
parlor plan mill houses on Main Street near the 
Methodist church which seem to date from the 
1850s. The two-story house has 6/6 sash and is 
two bays wide with a door centered on the first 
floor facade. The house displays a molded cor- 
nice with returns and its hipped-roof porch has 
turned balusters. The structure was moved here 
from the rear of the neighboring Duncan Dove 
House to which it was connected by a breeze- 
way. It may have served as a kitchen or serv- 
ants' quarters. 


Rose Street 

Henry W Frazier, a director of the Franklins- 
ville Manufacturing Company from 1884 to 1890 
and the builder of this ca. 1890 house, moved to 
High Point in 1899 and founded the Myrtle Desk 
Company, maker of roll-top desks. The house 
was then acquired by Lewis F Fentress, overseer 
of spinning 1883-1914 and postmaster 1914- 
1924. The two-story end-chimney house has a 
sawnwork gable ornament in its gable, along with 
vents and feathered shingling. The cornices ter- 
minate in unusual sawn pattern boards. A one- 
story wing with matching details extends from 
the rear toward Depot Street. The "Mount Ver- 
non" porch on the Rose Street facade was added 
in the 1960s, replacing a one-story hip porch 
with chamfered posts and sawn brackets. 


Pine Street 

This two-story hall-and-parlor plan house 
seems unusually tall and narrow because of its 
short two-bay facade. The date of its construc- 
tion is difficult to estimate, although the fluted, 
tapered columns supporting the porch indicate 
the Greek Revival style. The 4/4 sash and other 
details imply a later 19th-century date house. 
The frame house is covered with brick-patterned 
asphalt siding, which further obscures its features. 
T. A. ("Bud") Slack was a peddler and farmer. 



Pine Street 

Although disguised by later additions, this 
small, story-and-a-half dwelling has the look of 
a pre-Civil War structure. The house is built 
around a massive, stuccoed stone chimney and 
the east end sags noticeably implying that it was 
an addition to the original structure. The second 
floor is lighted by windows on the west end. The 
house seems to have been drastically remodeled 
in the 1930s or 1940s when it received German 
siding and a rear wing. 


Church Street 

The oldest existing church building in Frank- 
linville, this frame structure was built in 1888. 
The church was organized in October, 1887 by 
Franklinville members of the Columbia Baptist 
Church in Ramseur. At first the Ramseur pastor 
J. E Moore sened double duty as pastor of the 
Franklinville church, and the church was named 
in his honor after his sudden death in 1889. A 
brick sanctuary was built in 1919 and the frame 
structure used as Sunday school rooms. In 1958. 
after the destruction of the local community 
building, John W Clark purchased the church. 
moved it across the street and renovated it fof 
use as a community center. It has not been used 
for several years. The original church was a 
simple three-bay, twenty by thirty feet building 
with boxed cornice returns. The porch was added 
in the 1958 renovation. 


Academy Street 

John Paschal Marable (1856-1932) was the 
last of a family of potters. Marable"s grandfather. 
Paschal McCoy, was a potter, as was his step- 


=iPi i " ^ 1 i n r i n r i n r= ] ni= 

father, E. K. ("Kelly") Moffitt, whom his mother 
married in 1866. The 1870 census of manufactur- 
ers lists Moffitt as making salt-glazed stoneware. 
The history of an adjoining pottery site on the 
creek behind the house is unclear, although it is 
thought that Marable and perhaps Moffitt worked 
there. Pottery is believed to have been made in 
Franklinville well before the Civil War. The 
three-bay central-gable end-chimney house dis- 
plays a center-hall plan and tum-of-the-century 
detailing. It may contain parts of an earlier 


Academy Street 

The nucleus of this dwelling is a two-story 
antebellum building which originally faced south 
toward the river. This portion of the house has 
^'6 sash and a large stone chimney with brick 
stack. A two-story gable-roofed wing and a 
Single-story shed wing were added later; both 
feature 4/4 sash. The hip porch on turned posts 
*as added to shelter a new entrance on Academy 
Street. This seems to be the only dwelling re- 
tiaining from the Island Ford mill village com- 
munity which centered around this road, then 
called Mulberry Street. 


Weatherly Drive 

One of the most architecturally significant 
structures in Franklinville, this small house was 
built by Thomas Rice (1803-1893), a well-known 
carpenter and "mechanic." Rice worked in both 
■Randolph and Guilford counties, building such 
structures as the Franklinville covered bridge 
(1848) and Greensboro's West Market Street 
^Icthodist Church ( 1849- 185 1 ). One of his most 
"nportant commissions came in 1854 when he 
]*as hired to build the "Old or Main building at 
Trinity College," a large three-story brick struc- 
''"'c. Rice held several public offices in Randolph, 
*nd was a justice of the peace from 1843 to 1859. 
'n 1846 Rice became one of the founding 
stockholders of the Island Ford Manufacturing 
Company. He probably supervised the construc- 
•'on of the frame Island Ford factory. At the 
Same time. Rice bought five acres of land on the 
mllside above the factory, and built a home for 
nis wife and five (later seven) children. The 
P''operty was part of the mill's Mulberry Street 
cvelopment, where property was sold off to 
aise operating capital for the company. The most 

unusual feature of Rice's house is its distinctive 
engaged porch, set back under the gabled roof 
and supported by four stuccoed brick columns. 
(There is some evidence that these were origi- 
nally painted to resemble marble.) This kind of 
engaged porch is a characteristic of the Greek 
Revival's "Creole Cottage" house type, popular 
in coastal areas and standard for the area along 
the Mississippi River. No other examples of this 
kind of house are known in Randolph County, 
nor is it often found elsewhere in Piedmont 
North Carolina. The high quality of Rice's crafts- 
manship is evident in the sophisticated architec- 
tural details of the exterior. Its lines are simple 
and strong. Since this is the only known example 
of Rice's work, it is extremely unfortunate that 
little, if anything, survives of his interior work. 
The house was remodeled by Randolph Mills in 
the 1960s for use as a conference center. The 
interior of the first floor was drastically altered. 
The second floor is no longer accessible. 

Financial difficulties during the 1850s seem to 
have caused Rice to leave Franklinville; during 
the 1860's he settled in the Farmer community 
in southwestern Randolph. Much more research 
needs to be done on the career of this man, one 
of Randolph's premier builders. 
Weatherly Drive 

Henry Parks, a cousin of mill owner Hugh 
Parks, built this Queen Arme style dwelling ca. 
1890. It was subsequently acquired by D. M. 
("Dave") Weatherly principal and headmaster 
of the Franklinville Academy. The brothers, D. 
M. and J. A. Weatherly. were prominent local 
educators at the turn of the century, jointly or 
individually running schools at Liberty, Ramseur, 
Asheboro and High Point, among others. D. M. 
Weatheriy, settled in Franklinville and lived here 
in 1922 when he was elected Randolph County 
clerk of court. The house is a transitional form 
from the Eastlake to Queen Anne periods. It is 
essentially a traditional two-story rectangular 
house with square and polygonal window bays 
breaking up its angularity. A flowing, rounded 
porch wraps around the first floor and also works 
to disguise the sharp edges of the traditional 
house form. The porch has turned posts with 
sawn brackets, turned pendants and a spindle 
frieze. The eaves of the hipped roof are decor- 
ated with sawn details. A central gable on the 
south facade has a sawnwork gable ornament 
with spindle decoration. 



=i™ "^'= 

3ni ii3t= 

="^1 ^1FH= 







;'iri'^*i.,,. ; i5j?;-^i*„-ji-«; 



("The Lower Mill") 
NC 22 at Academy Street 

On September 5, 1846, Elisha Coffin and 
three of his sons and nephews, along with A. S. 
Homey, George Makepeace, Thomas Rice and 
nine other men and women, incorporated the 
county's third textile mill, the Island Ford Man- 
ufacturing Company. A large frame building 
was constructed to house the factory and "went 
into operation in 1848, supplied with the Latest 
and most approved machinery. The dam and 
canal, factory house and houses for the opera- 
tives, store house, cotton house and all necessary 
appendages [were] constructed by experienced 
workmen and in the most elegant and durable 
style." The factory building may have been de- 
signed by George Makepeace and built by Thomas 
Rice, both of whom were stockholders and local 
residents. The four-story factory "house" was 
40 by 80 feet in plan, nine bays long and three 
wide — essentially the same size as the Frank- 
linsville factory just upriver. But at Island Ford, 
instead of a wholly brick building, a wooden 
superstructure was built upon a brick first floor, 
and a fourth floor was lighted by a clerestory 
monitor roof. This feature was widely used in 
English and New England factories, and fore- 
told the spread of mainstream industrial innova- 
tions into the infant Deep River manufacturing 

The corporation prospered for a few years, but 
deteriorating economic conditions forced the com- 
pany to declare bankruptcy on July 14, 1856. By 
October, 1859 the property had been sold to a 
group of local investors including A. S. Homey 
John M. Coffin, Reed Creek merchant Isaac H. 
Foust and Foust's store clerk Hugh Parks. In 
1862, following Foust's death, a revised partner- 
ship was incorporated as the "Randolph Manu- 
facturing Company" with John D. Williams as 
president, Hugh Parks secretary-treasurer and J. 
A. Luther as superintendent. The corporation at 
that time had capital stock worth $30,000. sev- 
enty employees and consumed 850 bales of cot- 
ton to produce 3,000 yards of 4-4 sheeting. 

In 1895 the "Cotton Mill Edition" of the 
Raleigh News and Observer wrote of the Island 
Ford mill, saying that "the fates have decreed 
that it shall not stand to see the flowers bloom 
again, for the architects and brick layers are 
building long, new brick walls all about it. and 

so soon as new floor space is ready, the quaint 
old wooden building will tumble to the tune of 
the new order of things, and give way to modem 
architecture and convenience." The "architects" 
mentioned by the newspaper seems to have been 
just one non-professional "architect," W C. 
("Will") Russell (1848-1912), the superinten- 
dent of the "upper" mill. Russell's obituary 
states that "The new mill of the Randolph Manu- 
facturing Company was designed and built by 
Mr. Russell and stands as a monument to his 
genius." The new brick factory may have been 
the largest of Randolph County's 19th-century 
industrial buildings. It was built immediately W 
the west of the Island Ford stmcture, which was 
located approximately where the present engine 
room and smokestack of the new factory stand- 
The 1895 C-plan factory straddled the existing 
mill race or power canal, which is the only trace 
of the antebellum factory which is still evident. 
The building was very visually appealing, with 
continuous brick hood moldings connecting rows 
of arched windows on both floors. Its central 
three-story stair tower was accessible only by a 
bridge over the power canal, and was capped by 
a very unusual bell cupola with a semicircular 
pediment. The stair tower was destroyed in the 
mid-1950s when new construction filled the cen- 
tral courtyard area, leaving the gable ends of the 
east and west wings the only visible parts of the 
1895 mill. 


Wagon Wheel Road 

When the Randolph Manufacturing Company 
was created in 1862. Jonathan Luther was listed as 
superintendent of manufacturing operations. He 
held this position for many years. This house was 
probably built in the late 1880s. although an ad- 
joining outbuilding may have been part of a" 
earlier dwelling. The house is a typical center-hall 
plan end-chimney design, with 2/2 sash. Its mos' 
prominent decorative feature was a hip porch on 
the south facade w ith central second-floor balcony- 
This porch-and-balcony arrangement was the 
trademark of some as-yet-unidentified local car- 
penter/builder: it is or was found on at least si" 
substantial dwellings in Franklinville. 



Horney-Parks House 
West Street 

This tiny structure is one of the very few 
antebellum dependencies remaining in Randolph 
County. Its flush roof overhang, boxed cornice 
and 6/6 sash speak of a pre-Civil War construc- 
tion date. A large chimney once existed on the 
*est end and the structure may originally have 
consisted of a single large room. Converted into 
a dwelling, it now features a hall-and-parlor plan 
with rear wing. Immediately in front of the 
''uilding are masonry steps down to Main Street 
*hich mark the site of the Homey- Parks House, 
One of the most ornate residences of Franklin- 
^'"e's mill owners. 

That two-story double-pile house featured a 
<^enter-hall plan and interior end chimneys. Its 
"lost prominent architectural feature was a hip 
Porch with central balcony similar to, but more 
elaborate than, the porch of the Curtis-Buie 
House. Probably built ca. 1846 in conjunction 
*ith the Island Ford factory which it overlooked, 
'he house may have been home to the A. S. 
Homey family for more than forty years. Homey 
('815-1891), a mill owner, superintendent, county 
'commissioner and political leader, was one of 
"Randolph County's most prominent men of his 
l^neration. In 1937 Jonathan Worth's daughter, 
Elvira, wrote that 'Alexander S. Homey was a 
•ine citizen and his home fittings outside and in 
^as a pattern for any community. The Homey 
house was later owned by Mr. Hugh Parks, then 
^r- John Clark, and was burned Dec. 1935. The 
'Urniture in this Homey house was very elegant. 

• ■ ' The steps, concrete walkway, tennis court 
^^d kitchen are all that survive of this elegant 
ffisidence. A Colonial Revival-style house was 
"""'It on part of the site ca. 1940. 


Main Street at Sunrise Avenue 

This ca. 1895 two-story end-chimney center- 
hall plan dwelling has lost its porch and most of 
its architectural detail under aluminum siding. 
Its mill work and decorative detail, such as the 
fine "sunburst" omament with spindled frieze 
which survives in the central gable, was almost 
certainly purchased from one of the many local 
millwork companies or by mail from a catalog. 
This type of "store-bought" millwork features 
more elements tumed on lathes and built from 
pieces of molding, while "gingerbread" decora- 
tive elements were usually cut out with scroll 
saws by local carpenters. S. Clifford Trogdon 
worked as engineer for the nearby Randolph 
Manufacturing Company or "lower" mill. Her- 
bert Edwards, manager of the "lower" company 
store and later manager of the Franklinville Store 
Company, lived here just after his marriage while 
his bungalow-style house across Sunrise Avenue 
was under construction. 








Cedar Falls 




Superior Mop Co. 



SR 2116 
Cedar Falls 

In the summer of 1844, a group of Baptists 
■net and established a church in Cedar Falls. 
Within a year the church had more than one 
hundred members. Negroes were received into 
church membership and seated in a separate 
section. The original church building built in 
1844-1845 was used until 1975. The building 
had been extensively remodeled about 1920, 
when a classroom wing and asbestos siding were 
added. The window sash have also been replaced. 
An early feature is the molded cornice with 
cornice returns. The original pine pulpit has 
been preserved; it is decoratively painted to 
resemble a more valuable wood, such as walnut. 



SR 2116 
Cedar Falls 

This house may have originally been a single- 
story house built ca. 1850 and expanded to two 
full stories about 1880. The double entrance 
doors are set in a pilastered Greek Revival frame 
with transom, sidelights and comer blocks. The 
fifst floor windows have 9/9 sash; the second 
floor has 4/4. The roof and porch, with exposed 
fafters and shallow pitch, seem to be later 
''^placements. A one-story rear wing has sawn 
f after ends supporting the deep overhang. 


SR 2116 
Cedar Falls 

This 1885-era house exhibits a two-tiered porch 
^d balcony of the type so popular in the area at 
'he time, The cornice and gable cornice returns 
afe braced by a frieze of paired sawnwork 
Jackets, The house follows a central-hall plan 
*ith brick exterior end chimneys and 4/4 sash. 


SR 2221 
Cedar Falls 

'" 1878 a Methodist Protestant congregation 
^as organized in Cedar Falls. The cornerstone 
°f the church building was laid December 25, 
^^y in the center of the present cemetery. In 
. ^39 the local Methodist Protestant and Method- 
^' Episcopal congregations merged. In 1941 the 
■Methodist Protestant building was moved to its 

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present site, where classroom wings, asbestos 
siding and stained glass windows were added. 
The simple steeple with pilasters is the only 
obvious early feature of the building. 



SR 2221 
Cedar Falls 

This dwelling has been much altered over the 
years, but it seems to date from the 1850s. The 
center-hall plan hip-roofed house with raised 
basement still retains hints of the Italianate style. 
An early map suggests that the structure may 
have originally stood across the street, and was 
moved to this location about 1900. 


SR 2221 
Cedar Falls 

Commanding the crest of a hill in a horseshoe 
bend of Deep River just across the bridge from 
the Cedar Falls factory, this house was tsuilt ca. 
1895 by Orlando R. Cox, general manager of the 
Cedar Falls Manufacturing Company. In 1876 
Cox was elected sheriff of Randolph County, but 
resigned the following year to assume the mana- 
ger's duties. By 1884, under his leadership, the 
mill had doubled in size and output. Cox later 
moved to Asheboro; the house was subsequently 
the residence of Dr. Henry Jordan. The building 
is a fine example of the Queen Anne style. The 
iron cresting around the roof deck and the stuc- 
coed arched panels in the chimneys are unusual 
features. Several comtemporary outbuildings 
remain. An iron planter now in a flower garden 
behind the house was originally the fountain 
which stood in Asheboro in front of the old Bank 
of Randolph building. 


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Cedar Falls 

This mill was the first in Randolph County, 
organized in 1836 and built in 1837 by Benjamin 
and Henry Elliott and Dr. Philip and Alexander 
S. Homey The original wooden building was 
replaced in 1846 by a three-story building of 
brick laid in 1:3 common bond. At least the north 
and east walls of this structure remain, incorpo- 
rated with subsequent 1950s-era expansion. There 
are some timber supports in the interior of this 

The 1846 factory, fifty by one hundred feet in 
plan, was almost twice as large as the only other 
contemporary brick factory at Franklinville. A 
fourth attic story, was lighted by a clerestory 
monitor roof. In 1860 the water-powered mill 
operated 1,500 spindles and 38 looms to produce 
yam and sheeting material. In 1870 a water 
wheel producing as much as 80 horsepower 
operated 2,249 spindles and 50 looms. The dam 
and portions of the mill race still exist as well as 
an unused turbine wheel. A steam engine was 
added in 1898 for auxiliary power. 


SR 2144 
Cedar Falls 

This stracture, built ca. 1900, was used to 
store bales of cotton brought in on the railroad. It 
was originally three bays wide divided by fire 
walls, and a fourth bay was added later. Each bay 
was entered through a large arched opening. The 
end wall is decorated with elaborate corbeled 
brickwork. The mortar joints between bricks 
were originally striped with white paint, and 
certain bricks in the corbeled decoration were 
picked out with white, creating a checkerboard 


SR 2144 
Cedar Falls 

These two nearly identical houses are called 
"shotgun" houses because of their long narrow 
plan, said to resemble the barrel of a shotgun. 
Three rooms long and one room wide, each of 
the rooms can only be entered one after the 
other. The east house has comice returns, boxed 
rafter ends and a shed front porch. The west 
house has no comice returns, exposed rafter 
ends and a hip-roofed porch. Both have 6/6 sash. 
Like most houses in the village they date to the 
ca. 1890 period. (Both homes have been de- 
stroyed since 1982.) 


SR 2144 
Cedar Falls 

As the only known log house in Randolph 
County's earliest textile mill village, and the 
only known sur\iving example found in the 
state, this small house was one of the most 
significant structures in Cedar Falls. Log mil' 
housing was once common in the state's early 
mill villages. Its needless destraction in 1980 is 
therefore especially to be regretted. The half- 
dovetail notched structure had a stone chimney 
with a brick stack and a board-and-batten rear 
shed. The house may have been built by the 
Elliott family for their village as early as 1836. 1' 
may always have been clapboarded, to protect 
the logs and mud-mortared chimney from bad 

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SR 2226 
Cedar Falls 

This tiny store now used as the local post 
office originally faced the adjoining brick com- 
pany store, which burned in the early 1970s. The 
2/2 sash and "boom-town" storefront suggest 
that the structure was built ca. 1890. It was once 
used as a barbershop and cafe. 



SR 2226 
Cedar Falls 

This ca. 1850 dwelling is one of the landmarks 
of the Greek Revival style in Randolph County. 
The builder of the two-story center-hall plan 
house drew inspiration for the decorative trim 
*ork from a well-known, widely used builder's 
guide, The Practical House Carpenter, by Asher 
Benjamin. Benjamin (1773-1845) was a New 
England builder-architect whose published manu- 
als helped popularize the Greek Revival style all 
across the United States. A mantel in the house 
's directly adapted from Benjamin's book, speci- 
fically from Plate 51, "Design for a Chimney 
Piece." The mantel is a traditional "post and 
'inter ' form, with a Greek key design decorating 
'he frieze; this is carried on turned colonnettes. 
The firebox is framed by a molded architrave 
*ith bull's-eye comer blocks. The local artisan's 
rendition of the mantel is somewhat crude and 
two-dimensional when compared to the Asher 
benjamin design, but it is important to find that 
•Randolph County craftsmen tried to imitate 
published examples in their work. 

The house has a great deal of additional high- 
quality work. The molded cornice is carried 
across the gable to form a classical pediment; the 
Sable is covered with sheathed siding as is the 
area sheltered by the Doric gallery across the 
facade. The double-leaf entrance is framed by 
sidelights in a symmetrically molded architrave 
^ith beveled comer blocks. The house is built 
into the hillside so that the rear facade displays 
^'''y a single story; the central door on the rear 
facade is set in a crossetted architrave with 
'fansom. Nine-over-nine double-hung sash are 
Used on the ground floor, with 9/6 sash on the 
''PPer story. The house also features interior 
chimneys, molded two-panel doors and an open- 
string staircase with turned newel post and square 


SR 2226 
Cedar Falls 

The Sapona cotton textile mill was built ca. 
1895 by the Cedar Falls Manufacturing Company 
under superintendent O. R. Cox. The original 
structure, much of which is still visible, was a 
one-story brick factory built in 1:6 common 
bond. The northern or railroad facade features 
nine window bays with 9/9 double-hung sash 
flanking a central entrance tower. The tower has 
bracketed cornices and a domed belfry. The 
original structure is now surrounded on three 
sides by brick and metal additions built by the 
Acme-McCrary Corporation. The Asheboro ho- 
siery manufacturer converted the plant to spin 
silk in the late 1930s; it now processes man- 
made fibers. 


SR 2226 
Cedar Falls 

These six houses grouped in a row on a ridge 
above the Sapona mill were probably built in 
connection with it in 1895. Five of the houses 
are two-story central-chimney duplexes, entered 
through dual entrances on the front porch. The 
northemmost dwelling is a hall-and-parior plan 
house with an end chimney. The story-and-a-half 
house has six-light casement windows lighting 
the second floor. All of the houses have shed 
porches carried on square posts and all are raised 
high on piers. 




• * 


Randleman Ibwnship 


Built by John H. Ferree in 1895 and named after his two daugh- 
ters, this documentary photograph depicts the mill building ca 1900 
It still stands, but has lost its Classical Revival style conical tower 
roof which sheltered the sprinkler water tank. 


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Mary Antoinette Mill 




















New Salem 



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New Salem 



This three-bay center-gable house was built 
ca. 1900, although its present bungalow style 
dates from the 1920s. Surviving early features 
include a dentiled cornice on the east elevation 
and a decorative attic vent in the facade gable. 


New Salem 

Known as the "Doctor House" since 1944 
when a retired physician purchased it, this mod- 
est frame house was bought in 1895 by J. V Van 
Arsdale, a New York native and Civil War 
pensioner. Van Arsdale altered an early 19th 
century cottage by adding an elaborate porch 
with decorative fascia, bracketed posts and sawn 



New Salem 

This small three-bay structure has been greatly 
obscured by modem additions, but the massive 
stone chimney indicates a 19th century construc- 
tion date. The building may be the "Ingold Store 
and Barroom" mentioned by local writer W S 
Lineberry. The tavern was a part of, but separate 
from, Joel Ingold's adjacent hotel. In later years 
the barroom was converted into a house by Billy 
Brown, a deputy under sheriff Joe Steed. 



New Salem 

This structure was heavily altered in the 1950s 
when the modem window sash, red asbestos 
siding and rear shed rooms were added The 
massive stone gable end chimneys with stuccoed 
exteriors, double shoulders and brick stacks indi- 
cate the antiquity of the house, probably built ca 
1820. Before the Civil War Joel Ingold ran a 
hotel or stagecoach inn here. His son A W 
Ingold, was for many years owner and editor of 
the Greensboro Patriot and later editor of the 
Yorkville, S.C. Enquirer 


New Salem 

As one of the town's earliest houses, the 
Jarrell-Hayes House probably dates from the 
towns incorporation in 1815. The end chimney 
center-hall plan house retains a beautiful Federal 
period mantel whose symmetrically molded 
colonnettes support a molded shelf which breaks 
in the middle and at both ends. The parlor is 
wainscoted. The main entrance door was flanked 
by sidelights, but the trim is now hidden under 
aluminum siding. 

The unusual three front doors undoubtedly 
relate to the period when the house served as a 
store, owned and operated by Noah and Manliff 
Jarrell. The post office was in the store, and 
elections wtre held on the porch. Subsequently 
the house was the home of J. M. (James Madison) 
Hayes, a stoneware potter. His shop was just to 
the west of the house, on the present site of the 

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New Salem 

Its present owner believes that this house was 
built by Pierce Hayes, son of the local potter 
^' M. Hayes, probably ca. 1880. It may origi- 
nally have been a three-bay center-gable farm- 
house, but was extensively altered in the bunga- 
low style after its purchase by Ward in 1918. 


New Salem 

Dating from the late 19th century, this small 
frame building originally fronted the road but 
^as moved by Rom Ward into his side yard and 
's now used as a tool shed. The oversized door, 
*ith seven raised panels, is noteworthy. 


New Salem 

What is now Rom Ward's bam may be the 
°'dest house in New Salem. The house origi- 
nally fronted the street. It was the home of Peter 
Dicks (1772-1843), owner and operator of a 
Siist and oil mill on Deep River, about a mile 
**ay. Dicks was a prominent Quaker and one of 
the founders of Guilford College. In 1848 his 
^01. James, was one of the incorporators of 
JJnion factory, built on Deep River beside the 
D'cks mill complex. His daughter Sallie mar- 
"«d Dr. John Milton Worth of Asheboro. 

The ruinous condition of the house makes 
oating difficult, but it seems to have been built 
l^a. 1800. What little decorative trim remains in 
'"e two-and-a-half-story structure is of high 
quality. The exposed ceiling joists of the first 
""or are chamfered; those on the second floor 
'"■e beaded. The house seems to have had an 
^"d-chimney and hall-and-parior plan, although 
either the chimney nor the partition remains. 

The original parlor seems to have been sheathed 
in wide vertical boards above a chair rail, with 
molding around the ceiling and exposed beams. 
A surviving board-and-batten door has strap 
hinges. Clapboards on the west end appear to be 
riven, not sawed, a very early technique. However, 
if the chimney was on this end, these boards 
must be replacements. This important early struc- 
ture is definitely worthy of further study, docu- 
mentation and preservation. 


New Salem 
This two-room cottage with rear shed wing 
seems to predate the Civil War, although the 
decorated mantel inside could date ca. 1870. The 
stepped single-shoulder chimney is of bnck in 
common bond on a stone base. Several two- 
panel Greek Revival doors survive in the shed 
wing. The house may have been an early home 
of the Woollen family. 


New Salem 
Burials in the cemetery, dating to at least 1813, 
seem to have predated the official organization 
of the New Salem Friends meeting house in 1815. 
In 1889 the Quaker church was sold to a Metho- 
dist Protestant group, who erected a new church 
building in 1895. In 1948 a new bnck veneer 
sanctua^ was built and the 1895 building was 
turned around, brick veneered and rebuilt as a 
classroom wing. The 1895 church was a one- 
room four-bay strticture with tall 9/9 sash. 







5 II 

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New Salem 

This was originally the home of Dr. C. W 
Woollen, the area's most prominent physician. 
Woollen married the daughter of the Rev. Daniel 
Worth, the Wesleyan Methodist minister who 
was arrested in 1859 and tried both in Asheboro 
and Greensboro for distributing anti-slavery liter- 
ature. Woollen later moved to Randleman and 
the house was sold to J. N Caudle, who may 
have been responsible for the extensive Victorian 
embellishments including the bracketed cornice, 
pedimented window and door frames and brack- 
eted porch. Caudle was a merchant and his store 
was located immediately to the west of the 
house. The front porch was again altered in the 
1920s. Down the hill behind this house is "Naomi 
Spring," the legendary trysting place of Naomi 
Wise and Jonathan Lewis. 


New Salem 

An unusual feature of this eariy 19th century 
house is its complex fenestration. The facade has 
large pane 6/6 sash on the first floor level and 
small pane 6/6 sash on the second floor In 
contrast, the gable ends have 4/4 sash on the first 
floor, 4/2 above. New Salem's last post office 
origmally a separate one-story frame structure 
sited near the road, is now attached to the rear of 
the house as a kitchen wing. The small mail slot 
IS still visible in the door. Post office service was 
transferred to Randleman in 1900. 


New Salem 

A combination of late Federal mantels and 
Greek Revival trim indicate a ca. 1820 construc- 
tion date for this house, which was demolished 
m 1982. Its 4/4 sash and the molded cornice with 
matching returns were probably original to the 
house. (The kitchen, once detached, had a simple 
Greek Revival post-and-lintel mantel.) Vickory 
ran a tan yard on the site. 


New Salem 

This is a typical rural gas station and store of 
the 1930s. The hip roof was extended to shelter 
the gas pumps and the shed room was used for 
storage of meat and produce. 






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West Side Commonwealth Street 

Besides the houses built for the mill agent and 
superintendent, only three houses survive from 
those shown on the 1849 map of the Union 
Manufacturing Company property. The houses 
built for workers were slightly less elaborate than 
those of the agent and superintendent, but ap- 
proximately the same size: two-story structures 
in a twenty-by-thirty-foot hall-and-parlor plan. 
The houses were heated by fireplaces on each 
floor. The houses originally had, or at an early 
date added, a one-story rear wing with fireplace. 
This was probably used as a kitchen. 

These houses are virtually identical to those 
built by E. M. Holt in his Alamance Factory 
village about the same time. They are also sim- 
ilar to the houses built in the 1850s at Orange 
Factory in Durham County It is interesting to 
note that North Carolina textile mill village houses 
built in the 1850s seem similar in size, plan and 
window and chimney placement, varying only in 
the quality of the Greek Revival detailing. 



210 Commonwealth Street 

On the 1 849 map of the Union Factory property , 
this is labeled as the mill superintendent's resi- 
dence. It differs very little from the two-story 
end-chimney hall-and-parlor plan houses built 
for the workers. Instead of a boxed cornice with 
boxed returns, the cornice returns here are molded 
both at the roof level and on the shed porch. That 
porch is carried on square posts with molded 
capitals. The steeply sloping site made a massive 
stone foundation necessary. The one-story wing 
and asbestos siding are recent additions. 


215 Commonwealth Street 

The 1849 map of the Union Manufacturing 
Company labels this end-chimney dwelling as 
the 'Agent's House." The agent was then some- 
thmg of a business manager for a textile mill 
while the superintendent managed the actual 
operation of equipment and employees. After his 
acquisition of the Union Factory corporation 
John Banner Randleman chose this house as his 
own and added the end pavilion to bring it to its 

present form. This wing exhibits four-over- four 
sash set in molded surrounds with odd notched 
comer blocks and a small diamond-shaped win- 
dow in the gable. The southeast windows are 
shaded by bellcast shed awnings on chamfered 
Eastlake brackets, but the overall style of the 
house is Gothic Revival. Chimneys are stuccoed 
and scored to resemble stone, and bargeboards 
decorate the gables. The most unusual feature is 
the bulb pendants which drop from the porch 
cornice and resemble those on the overhang of 
17th century Jacobian style houses. While paint- 
mg the interior of St. Paul's Methodist Church, 
the painter, "Reubin Rink" (acmally Jules Komer 
of Kemersville), is thought to have redecorated 
the interior of the house but this is not now 
evident. Ironically in 1879 at the height of this 
flurry of remodeling activity, J. B. Randleman 
died and was buried in the cemetery at St. Paul's. 


Northwest comer of High Point Street 

and Main Street 


In 1848 twelve stockholders, all of whom 
seem to have been Quakers, organized the Union 
Manufacturing Company to build a textile mill 
on this site. The property was provided by James 
Dicks, and adjoined the grist and oil mill built 
much earlier by his father, Peter Dicks. Union 
Factory was the largest mill built in Randolph 
County before the Civil War, measuring fifty by 
one hundred-twenty feet. The flow of Deep River 
at this point was inadequate to run such a mill- 
Even though the power was augmented by chan- 
neling the adjacent "Factory Branch" into the 
mill headrace, the mill was continually idled by 
low water. The factory structure itself was an 
advanced "slow bum" design, with crow-step 
gables concealing a roof of very shallow pitch- 
The 1:3 common bond brick building was built 
on a steeply sloping site which made a massive 
and elaborate stone foundation necessary. It is 
unusual that the mill was designed to straddle its 
power canal, with the wheel housed under the 
mill itself. This feature was used in Europe and 
New England to prevent winter ice from freezing 
the wheel; its purpose here is unknown. 

In July 1868, the mill was bought by John 
Banner Randleman. who soon augmented the 
water power with steam. Randleman died in 
1879. and the corporation was carried on by his 
partner. John B. Ferree. On June 12, 1885, the 

mill was destroyed in a fire, although evidence 
indicates that its immediate reconstruction used 
the original stone foundation and much of the 
standing first floor wall structure. As many as 
four different brick bonds were used in the 
reconstruction, indicating that several masons 
*ere hired, working independently, to rebuild 
3s fast as possible. 

In 1911 this mill, the Naomi mill, the Mary 
Antoinette Mill and the Plaidville mill were 
consolidated into a single company. Deep River 
^ills. Inc. The corporation entered bankruptcy 
'1 1929, an early victim of the Depression. For a 
"me the mills were operated by the Hunter 
'Manufacturing and Commission Company of 
New York, but when it, too, declared insolvency, 
'he mills were closed for several years. In 1934 
E. W Freeze of High Point moved his Common- 
wealth Hosiery Company from that city to this 
"lill, building the three-story shed-roofed exten- 
sion facing the river. The site is now used as 
Warehouse space by several companies. 

West of the main building across the central 
Square is a three-story brick building in 1:5 com- 
mon bond. Its history is unclear, although it seems 
•o have been built in the mid-1870s. The 1885 
Sanborn Insurance Map shows it was used as an 
office and for storage, as well as for Masonic 
Lodge meetings. It later served for a time as the 
)^andleman Town Hall and Community Build- 
">8. The cornice of the gable roof returns slightly 
*nd the building has elaborate segmental-arched 
windows with brick labels. Also on the site are 
* Warehouse, an office and two power plants, 
°ne a coal-fired boiler and engine room, the 
°'her a small hydroelectric station. 


312 High Point Street 

Following a three-bay two-story form standard 
''"ring the late 19th century, the ca. 1880 gable- 
''"of house features such typical characteristics 
^ exposed rafter ends, double-leaf entry and a 
hip-roof porch with distinctive tapered posts. All 
me facade's 6/6 sash windows originally had 
louvered shutters. At one time the house was run 
^^ a hotel by Ellen and Ebenizer Ferguson. Later 
°<=eupied by J. A. Lamb. 


315 High Point Street 

This tiny dwelling, said to be of log construc- 


tion, once housed the children's Sunday school 
classes from nearby St. Paul's Methodist Church. 
Whether it is or isn't built of logs is really a good 
question, since it almost certainly has always 
been covered with weatherboarding. The upper 
class residential atmosphere of the surrounding 
St. Paul's Hill neighborhood would have clashed 
with a rustic log cabin. 


319 High Point Street 

Like its neighbor, this dwelling was once 
owned by mill superintendent James O. Pickard. 
It displays elements of the Italianate style but 
these are outshown by robust Victorian elements, 
probably bought from a mill work catalog. The 
rounded Italianate sash have bull's-eye comer 
blocks and have been capped by elaborate, de- 
tailed cornices set on brackets. A monumental 
two-story portico shelters a second-floor balcony 
which repeats the trim of the entrance door 
below. The portico may have originally been of a 
two-tiered design similar to the Curtis House in 
Franklinville; it seems to have been much sim- 
plified and altered. With the losses of the R. P. 
Dicks and John H. Ferree mansions, this house 
is the best reminder of the flamboyant Victorian 
residences which Randleman once boasted. Frank 
Talley lived in the house forty years. 


323 High Point Street 

This dwelling was buiU in the mid-1880s by 
Amos Gregson, a carpenter and Methodist minis- 
ter from Rock Hill, S.C. Gregson later became 
superintendent of the Naomi mill. In 1889 the 
house was sold to James O. Pickard, superinten- 
dent of the nearby Randleman Manufacturing 
Company. It is still owned by the Pickard family. 
The center-hall-plan house is a bold statement of 
the Victorian Italianate, with arched window 
surrounds and heavy scrolled brackets on the 
cornice. The chamfered porch posts with lamb's 
tongue motifs support extremely elaborate sawn- 
work brackets. 

• « 


• •( 







324 High Point Street 

This simple cottage, built ca. 1880, was the 
minister's residence for nearby St. Paul's Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. The hall-and-parlor 
plan house has interior end chimneys and 
chamfered porch posts. The doors and win- 
dows are set in elaborate frames with bull's-eye 
corner blocks and dog-ear surrounds. 


330 High Point Street 

This small, simple house is said to have been 
used as a "powder house" or "ammo dump" 
during the Civil War. Reputed to be of log 
construction, this point is not immediately evi- 
dent. The asbestos siding and modem replace- 
ment sashes make dating difficult. 


338 High Point Street 

This center-hall plan house is two rooms deep 
and is capped by a hip roof with decorative side 
gables. S. E. (Ed) Kirkman was an office man- 
ager for the Randleman Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and later served as Randleman's city 


Southwest comer of High Point Street 

and Stout Street 


St. Paul's M. E. Church was founded in the 
village of Union Factory in 1855, when a small 
wooden structure was built on the present site a 
hillside overlooking the nearby mill complex on 
Deep River. In 1868, John Banner Randleman 
and John H. Ferree purchased the factory and 
renamed it the Randleman Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Tfen years later these two partners called for 
the erection of a new St. Paul's which they would 

donate to the community. Local brick mason 
Peter Clark and carpenter Allen Redding con- 
tracted to build the structure, the first brick 
church in the county. The most uniquely signifi- 
cant feature of the church is its interior, designed 
and painted by Forsyth County artisan Jules 
Komer. Remembered locally today by his trade 
name "Reubin Rink," Komer and two workmen 
lived in the town for several weeks, decorating 
the interiors of several homes as well as the 
church. At the church Komer expanded on the 
theme of the single pointed-arch stained glass 
window behind the pulpit to create a triumph of 
trompe-l'oeil interior design: a marble Gothic 
cathedral in paint and plaster The church was 
used continuously from its opening in 1879 until 
1947, when the members of St. Paul's combined 
with the Naomi Falls Methodist congregation 
and built a new church on Main Street in 
Randleman. St. Paul's was donated to the North 
Randolph Historical Society in 1969. 



154 Poplar Street 

Though seemingly a house dating to the late 
1940s or early 1950s, this structure was origi- 
nally built ca. 1900 to house a cotton gin. " 
fronted on High Point Street beside the James 0- 
Pickard house, and was later moved to this 
location and remodeled. 


153. 156 Poplar Street 

These two dwellings are typical of worker 
housing in the late 1870s and early 1880s: three 
bays long, center chimney and hall-and-parlor 
plan, with no central gable. There are similar 
houses in every mill village on Deep River. 


Poplar Street 

The Plaidville Manufacturing Company was 
organized in 1886 by Randleman Manufacturing 
Company officers John H. Ferree, S. G. Newlin 
and J. O. Pickard. A stair tower topped by a 
water tank and bell cupola was centered on the 
east facade of the two-story brick building, six 
bays wide and about twenty-two bays long. The 
building has a shallow roof with stepped end 
gables. In 1894 the mill employed 125 hands and 
Wove 3,500,000 yards of plaid cloth. It is now 
used by Deep River Dyeing Company. 


Plaid Street 

This large factory was built in 1895 by John H. 
Ferree, and named after his two daughters, Mary 
and Antoinette. The two-story brick building in 
':6 common bond was originally graced with a 
whimsical, elaborate stair tower on its southwest 
eorner The round tower and cupola surrounding 
a Water tank was designed to resemble a euro- 
Pean castle tower. The cupola has since been 
dismantled. The building has round-headed 12/12 
window sash with hood moldings. Above the 
?econd floor level these hood moldings merge 
into a continuous brick cornice. Also on the site 
are two other large buildings, probably a picker 
house and dye house, which have decorative 
eorbeling at the roof level. Several additions 
*ere made to the mill around the 1950s. The 
structure is now a warehouse. 


Carlisle Avenue 

James Dicks (18 May 1804-14 October 1883), 
*e son and heir of Peter Dicks, was the owner of 
|''e grist mill which became the nucleus of the 
'ater town of Randleman. James Dicks was one 
°f the organizers of the Union factory and lived 
'" this house on a hill above the mill. The house 
■"ay in fact pre-date the mill, and thus be the 
"'"lest structure remaining in Randleman. The 
'wo-story frame structure is built on a pebble- 
^'one foundation. A surviving window on the 

second floor displays a 6/6 sash, although the 
first floor windows, now replaced, were larger. 
The house is now covered with asbestos siding, 
and little of the Greek Revival trim remains. 



West Side US 220 

Albert Hinshaw ran a grocery store from this 
interesting, tiny, early 20th century commercial 
building set with its gable end to the street. The 
jerkin-headed roof and German siding are Bunga- 
loid elements suggesting a ca. 1920 date. Once 
very common, pre-franchise roadside commer- 
cial architecture is becoming difficult to find. 


107 West River Avenue 

This end pavilion house features some of the 
most intricate sawnwork decoration in Randle- 
man. The hip porch has turned posts and an 
elaborate sawn frieze. The paired 4/4 sash in the 
projecting pavilion is capped by a triangular 
pediment with sawnwork frieze and finials. 


313 Main Street 

Although this house is said to be "pegged" 
together, which would indicate a pre-Civil War 
construction date, its robust Victorian decoration 
features date from the 1880s. Six-over-six sash 
can be seen on the two-story rear wing, but 2/2 
sash are found on the three-bay end-chimney 
main block. This portion also features a hip 
porch carried on chamfered posts with sawn 
brackets and turned balusters. It is crowned by 
an eyebrow dormer instead of the usual central 
gable. An elaborate veranda with decorative fea- 
tures matching the front porch connects the house 
to a dependency which may have been used as a 
separate kitchen/dining room. Hayes was the 
owner and operator of the "New York Racket 
Store" on Main Street. The house was subse- 
quently owned by local historian W . L . Lineberry . 








1 31 

^n T=3=i R[= 



« '« 










ft. 26 



239 Main Street 

Amos Gregson, Methodist minister and Na- 
omi mill superintendent, built this house and 
moved here in 1889, after selling his former 
home on High Point Street to James O. Pickard. 
This house is not quite as elaborate as his former 
dwelling. The center-hall plan end-chimney house 
has a hip porch carried on chamfered posts with 
sawn brackets. The roof overhang and porch 
cornice are bracketed. The side windows retain 
paneled and bracketed hoods. 


238 Main Street 

This two-story three-bay house has an end 
chimney with a roof overhang with exposed 
rafter ends. Four-over-four sash are used on the 
first floor but the second floor exhibits four-pane 
casement windows. The monumental "Mount 
Vernon" porch was added by R. P Bell, father of 
former Randleman mayor Paul Bell, who owned 
and operated a coffee roasting business. 


228 Main Street 

This two-story three-bay end-chimney house 
has feathered shingles in its central gable and a 
bracketed cornice. The second floor windows are 
capped by intricate sawnwork hoods which in- 
clude small brackets. Mr. Sherwood came to 
Randleman as a mill overseer. 


212 Main Street 

This is an early 20th century vintage, two- 
story end-pavilion house with 2/2 sash, a colored 
glass window in the projecting pedimented gable 
and a hip porch carried on Tliscan columns. R. P 
Deal came to Randleman to act as superinten- 
dent of the Randleman Manufacturing Company. 


205-209 Main Street 

C. A. Lamb operated his meat market from 
the southern-most portion of this triple shopfront. 
The original building was a single story, with 

arched shop windows and entrances united by an 
undulating corbeled brick pattern. The second 
floor of apartments was added later. 


206 Main Street 

This is one of the most elaborate Colonial 
Revival style homes in Randolph County The 
gambrel roof is an unusual feature, as are the 
Palladian windows set in the gable ends. Three 
dormer windows face the street; two single win- 
dow shed dormers flank a larger dormer contain- 
ing a Palladian window and capped by a Chip- 
pendale-type broken-pediment bonnet. The house 
may have been built by Bart Caudle, a mail 
carrier, and remains in his family. 


134 Main Street 

The nucleus of this home is a two-story T-plan 
house of the 1880s. The doors and windows of 
this part of the building are set in molded sur- 
rounds with bull's-eye comer blocks. The origi- 
nal windows have been replaced by 1/1 sash; the 
upper sections of the front windows are edged in 
colored glass or feature stained glass panels. The 
sidelights framing the entrance door are filled 
with beveled glass. The comers of the house are 
edged with molded comer boards, and a paneled 
frieze with brackets supports the roof overhang- 
The windows of the southwest second floor are 
capped by elaborate bracketed wooden hoods, 
while the coupled windows of the second floor 
end pavilion are shaded by bellcast wooden shed 
awnings on chamfered Eastlake-siyle brackets. 
The extensive Colonial Revival veranda with 
modillioned comice, turned balusters and col- 
umns with full Ionic capitals, was added in the 
early 20th century by the owner, Samuel Gray 
Newlin. The house may have been given '" 
Newlin in the 1880s by his brother-in-law John 
H. Ferree. Newlin rose through the hierarchy "f 
Randleman Manufacturing Company becoming 
first secretary-treasurer and then president, step- 
ping down only when the corporation was forced 
into bankruptcy during the Depression. Along 
with A. N. Bulla, Newlin founded and built the 
Randleman Hosiery Company the county's first 
hosiery mill. It was located at 117 South Main 
Street, the present site of First Union National 


131 West Academy Street 

The impressive two-story main block of this 
building was built in 1904. The massive round- 
arched entrance framed by squat piers and cor- 
beled shoulder pilasters are characteristic of the 
Richardsonian Romanesque style. It is found 
here almost twenty years after the height of its 
popularity in the rest of the country and is the 
county's only example of this style. Its architect 
's not known. The entrance bay was originally 
capped by a pointed brick pediment carrying a 
flag pole but at some point this was replaced by a 
curvilinear Flemish gable. This detail, combined 
*ith a coat of whitewash which deemphasized 
|he Romanesque brickwork, gives the building 
'ts present Mission Style atmosphere. Several 
*'ngs were added over the years and a detached 
frame gymnasium still stands in the rear. Ca. 
I960 new schools replaced the aging facility and 
the building was converted into showroom space 
for the Shaw Furniture Galleries. 



Southwest corner of Main Street 

and W. Academy Street 


"This old home, originally known as "Wav- 
^■■'y." is situated on a slight rise well back from 
'he street in an oak grove almost in the center of 
'own. The house fronts on the highway, but now 
|hat the business block is extending in front of 
". the present owner J. W. Johnson, is planning 
'o rnake the main entrance on Academy street, 
*hich runs by the school building. 

The grand old house is three stories, topped 
^y a little tower. It contains 15 rooms, not 
counting an unfurnished attic under the mansard 
roof, There are leaded stained glass windows in 
the octagon-shaped library and music room. On 
these are designs with a shield in various colors, 
'n the upstairs hall a full length of windows of 
colored glass pours bright light over the aged 
*ood of the walls. 

Downstairs there is a sitting room, a library, 
two parlors, which were often opened into one 
[or dancing, two bedrooms, a dining room, 
'''tchen, butler's pantry and a bathroom. On the 
^ccond floor there are five bedrooms and a bath, 
'-^rge square bay windows ornament several of 
'he bedrooms. 

This was one of the first houses in Randleman, 
in fact, in Randolph County, to boast its own 
water system, hot air heating system and gas 
lights. A windmill operated the water system. 
Back of the large house is a servants' house. 
There was once an ice house, a smoke house, a 
big bam — and other structures. 

The original house was built in about 1881 by 
the late T. C. Worth, who with his family occu- 
pied it for several years before moving to Worth- 
ville. He sold the house to Robert R Dicks, then 
secretary-treasurer of the Naomi Falls Manufac- 
turing Company. Mr. Dicks spent nearly $15,000, 
a large amount in those days, in remodeling the 
house. Carpenters worked on it for a year and 
when it was completed, it was described in the 
newspapers of that day as "an elegant and stately 

Mr. Dicks had built the home to provide a 
home for the family where they could show the 
cordial hospitality which was a characteristic of 
the family. Unfortunately, he died after having 
lived in it only one year. 

His family continued to live there for a num- 
ber of years. After the death of Mrs. Dicks the 
homeplace was sold to John T. Council, Randle- 
man merchant, who moved to Greensboro and 
sold the house to Mr. Johnson, of High Point, 
who has moved to Randleman." 

Greensboro Daily NeviS. April 23, 1946 

Robert Peele Dicks (1847-1888) was a son of 
Union factory founder James Dicks. He re- 
turned to Randolph County from Texas to as- 
sume management of the Naomi Falls mill and 
acquired the house from Thomas Clarkson Worth 
(1854-1891), son of Dr. John Milton Worth of 
Asheboro. Worth had moved to Worthville to 
manage his family's business interests there. 
Dicks' extensive remodelings from 1885-1886 
created Randolph County's most elaborate Victo- 
rian dwelling. A mansion in the Second Empire 
style, it was as impressive as any contemporary 
home in North Carolina. Its destruction in the 
early 1960s was a great loss to Randleman and 
the county. 










214 Main Street 

Probably built ca. 1910, the O. C. Marsh 
House is a substantial two-story "Triple-A" house 
with Colonial Revival trim. The door has side- 
lights set in a classical frame, and there is a del- 
icate fanlight in the central gable. The porch is 
supported on Tuscan posts, and another small 
gable highlights the entrance. The house fol- 
lows a center hall plan with a rear ell and inte- 
rior chimney. 


Depot Street 

This large, two-story frame commercial struc- 
ture was built in 1886 as the Company Store for 
the Powhatan Manufacturing Company. That cor- 
poration was yet another creation of the indefati- 
gable John H. Ferree, with James E. Walker and 
Samuel G. Newlin joining the venture. Land- 
locked on Main Street, the frame mill was com- 
pletely dependent on steam engines and boilers 
for power It had a yearly production of 224,500 
pounds of yam and 1,300,000 yards of colored 
cotton cloth. In September, 1894, the Powhatan 
factory was sold to members of the Worth family, 
who renamed it the Engleworth Cotton Mills' 
Inc. In 1900 the Engleworth property was merged 
into the Worth Manufacturing Company and oper- 
ated as "Mill #3." The history of the property 
after the 1913 bankruptcy of the Worth Manufac- 
turing Company is unclear, but the Powhatan/ 
Engleworth factory building no longer survives. 
The Company Store was originally sited at the 
southwest corner of Depot and Main streets, 
with the factory immediately to the south. Ca. 
1960 the comer lot became the site of a service 
station and the store was moved to front on 
Depot Street. It is now the headquarters of the 
Pilgrim Thict Society, a religious publishing 


Depot Street 

This store was originally sited on Stout Street 
behind St. Paul's Methodist Church and was 
later moved across town to this site. The delapi- 
dated building was perhaps built ca. 1890, al- 
though its type of bracketed-comice "Boom- 
Town" front was common up to the World War I 
period. Such commercial buildings have now 
become very rare in Randolph County. 


Depot Street at Railroad Street 

This seems to be the original depot built in 
1889 when the High Point, Randleman, Asheboro 
and Southern Railroad reached town. Most de- 
tail and trim has either been removed or covered 
by asbestos siding; however, typical brackets 
remain bracing the overhanging shed roof. A 
documentary photograph shows that a sawnwork 
frieze once embellished the eaves. 


209 Depot Street 

This two-story three-bay hip-roofed house has 
been heavily remodeled with asbestos siding, 
modem sash and a small wing to the side- 
Corbeled brick chimneys indicate a late 19th ot 
early 20th century construction date. 



Northwest corner, Depot Street and 

Tabernacle Street 


This is a two-story hip-roofed T-plan house 
with projecting dining room bay and 6/6 sash. 
The generous hip-roofed wraparound porch, fea- 
tures sawn balusters and brackets. John Brown 
ran a local grocery. 


305 Ferguson Street 

This hip-roofed house has projecting gables 
on each side. Those on the north, east and south 
are purely decorative, while that on the west is 
a projecting dining room/kitchen wing. The en- 
trance door with sidelights on the east opens into 
'he central hallway and another door opens on 
the north. The hip porch is carried on Tuscan 
Columns; its railing has turned balusters. 


Church Street 

This two-story center-hall plan house origi- 
nally fronted on Main Street but lost its front yard 
to a service station. Its rear porch retains some 
original trim with tapered posts and sawn 
brackets. The door and window frames include 
Pedimented lintels. 



203 Church Street 

This one-story center-hall plan house with rear 
c" includes a diamond vent in the central gable 
and paired 6/6 sash. Most of the house trim is 
obscured by aluminum siding, but the shed porch 
retains chamfered posts and sawnwork brackets 
and balusters. 


114 East Naomi Street 

This two-story end-chimney house has feath- 
ered shingles in the central gable as well as a 
king post and tie beam ornament with pierced 
sawnwork decoration. The doors and 6/6 sash 
are set in molded surrounds with bull's-eye cor- 
ner blocks. The cornices of the hip-roofed porch, 
main house and two-story rear wing are brack- 
eted and feature decorative modillion blocks. 


116 East Naomi Street 

This two-story L-plan end-chimney house 
features a wraparound Colonial Revival veranda 
with balconied entrance. Sidelights set with col- 
ored glass frame the entrance door and fanlight 
windows are used instead of vents in the gables. 
A. N. ("Arch") Bulla was mayor of Randleman 
in the early 1900s. Along with S. G. Newlin, he 
organized the pioneer Randleman Hosiery Com- 
pany which was powered by a hydroelectric sta- 
tion built by Bulla on Polecat Creek. Later the 
site of a Greensboro YMCA Camp, the dam and 
power plant provided Randleman's first electricity. 


1 19 East Naomi Street 

This T-plan house points its gable end toward 
the street. The Colonial Revival porch on Tuscan 
columns includes an octagonal gazebo. Rome 
Dobson ran a general store on Main Street; his 
son Charlie Dobson was advertising manager for 
the Progressive Farmer magazine. 






? .^ 



204 East Naomi Street 

Although an earlier house may have stood on 
this site, the nucleus of this home was built ca. 
1880 by Col. J. Ed Walker, one of Randleman's 
prominent industrialists. It is sited at a command- 
ing location at the head of East Naomi, looking 
down the street toward the factory building. The 
original house was similar to the surrounding 
two-story Naomi village houses, but featured 
much more elegant and fashionable detailing. 
The center-gable center-hall plan end-chimney 
house featured crossetted window frames with 
arched 2/2 sash, a bracketed roof overhang and a 
simple hip-roofed porch carried by turned posts 
with sawn brackets. Additions were made to the 
house and the porch was replaced ca. 1905 by 
Stanhope Bryant, a later owner. The wraparound 
hip-roofed porch is carried by paired chamfered 
posts. Small sawn brackets with pendant drops 
are paired along the eaves above each post. The 
railing features turned balusters. The house was 
provided with bathrooms and running water 
pumped by a windmill. The surviving well house 
is elaborately decorated to match the residence. 
In 1917 the property was acquired by Philip 
Custer Story who arrived from Massachusetts to 
manage the Deep River Mills Corporation. His 
daughter still occupies the house, one of Randle- 
man's finest survivors from the era of its greatest 


East Naomi and Barker streets 

The Naomi Methodist Episcopal congrega- 
tion was organized in 1883, and for some years 
used the old frame St. Paul's Methodist Epis- 
copal Church building. In 1903 this unusual 
cruciform-plan sanctuary was built, one of 
Randolph County's only shingle style building. 
Although the stubby entrance tower has since 
been removed, the cross-gable roof is high- 
lighted by flared eaves, pedimented gables dis- 
tinguished by patterned butt shingling and large 
arched windows. In 1944 the Naomi and St. 
Paul's congregations merged to form the First 
Methodist Church and this building was sold to 
the Church of God. Later outgrown, it was sold 
and attached to the 1950s- vintage house next 



303 East Naomi Street 

This enigmatic brick structure is said to have 
been home to several of the superintendents for 
Naomi mill. The frame wing was originally a 
separate building, connected to the brick struc- 
ture within the last 50 years. Despite the identifi- 
cation as a residence, both structures look suspi- 
ciously like office or commercial buildings. Its 
brick construction is also odd; no other early 
brick residences exist in Randleman. The struc- 
toe is in a side-hall plan, entered through off- 
eenter double doors on the south side. It de- 
serves further study. 



310 East Naomi Street 

The detailing of this house is different from 
'he usual two-story three-bay center-hall plan 
homes of the Worthville and Naomi villages 
because this was the local superintendent's resi- 
lience. Instead of a chimney to the rear, the 
chimney is placed on the south end, adjoining a 
Small wing. Four-over-four sash are used through- 
out, although those on the first floor facade are 
oversized, extending from floor to ceiling. The 
'ow hip porch is carried by chamfered posts with 
'amb's tongue motifs. 


316 East Naomi Street 

This two-story three-bay house is typical of 
Jhose in both the Naomi and Worthville villages. 
J^he chimney is placed to the rear of the center- 
"*" plan house, between the house and a one- 
s'ofy gable wing. The wing usually includes a 
^Tiall brick stove chimney and was probably 
built for use as a kitchen. This wing and the 
chimney can be placed on either side of the rear 
'3cade of the house. Four-over- four sash are used 
throughout. A. R. Russell was one of the pur- 
chasers of the mill properties after bankruptcy 
"'t them during the Depression. 


East Naomi Street 

In 1878 John B. Randleman suggested to his 
partner John H. Ferree that they ought to build a 
cotton mill at the Naomi Falls just downstream 
from their original Union Manufacturing Com- 
pany mill. The falls were named after the un- 
lucky folk heroine Naomi Wise, who had been 
murdered by her lover near the spot in 1808. 
Randleman died in 1879 but the incorporation of 
the factory went ahead as planned. J. H. Ferree 
became president, with James E. Walker secre- 
tary-treasurer; Randleman residents J. O. Pickard, 
Logan Weaver and Amos Gregson were stock- 
holders. A three-story building was built, 307 
feet in length by 54 feet wide, in 1:5 common 
bonded brick on a rubble stone foundation. 

The mill was dedicated in February, 1880, in 
an unusual ceremony presided over by Dr. Brax- 
ton Craven, president of Trinity College. In his 
words, "... we are for the first time to dedicate 
houses and machinery to the service of God. We 
are to ask, and I hope obtain, the Divine blessing 
upon capital and product, upon the owners and 
all who shall hereon do faithful work." By 1884 
those faithful workers were producing per day 
5,000 yards of plaid cloth, 600 seamless bags 
and 1,000 pounds of warp yam. The machinery 
included 5,500 spindles, 150 plaid looms and 12 
bag looms. 

On June 11, 1 9 1 1 , the Naomi Falls mill was 
combined with the other Randleman factories in 
a new company, the Deep River Mills, Inc. This 
firm was in 1929 a victim of the Depression; in 
1933 R. L. Huffine of Fayetteville bought the 
property. The Randtex Corporation, with Huffine 
as president, was organized to manufacture fancy 
colored cotton fabric. In 1941,Randtex became a 
subsidiary of the Susquehanna Silk Mills of 
Sunbury, Pa. The company houses were then 
sold and the mill closed during World War II. In 
1948, Herman Cone of Greensboro bought the 
mills to house a personal venture manufacturing 
synthetic yam. At Cones death the property was 
sold to the J. P Stevens Corporation, which 
operates it today. 











Ill ■ 

nil ^ .^ I I., 


Russell Walker Ave. , 
Village Ave., Riverpark Dr., 
Meadowview Rd. 

The Worthville Mill village consists of approxi- 
mately fifty houses of two basic types. Ten are 
two-story houses virtually identical to those in 
the Naomi mill village in Randleman. These 
three-bay center-hall plan houses have wide roof 
overhangs, diamond-shaped gable vents, 6/6 sash 
and single-story hip-roofed porches. A single 
chimney on the rear facade is shared by a small 
one-story kitchen wing. Whether the houses were 
meant for use as single-family dwellings or as 
multi-family boarding houses is not clear. These 
houses are grouped together in a row along SR 
2128 (Russell Walker Avenue) beginning at the 
intersection with Village Avenue, and running 
east downhill towards the factory. 

The majority of the village's housing stock is 
made up of one-story three-bay houses which are 
essentially smaller versions of the two-story type. 
All originally featured 4/4 sash, wide roof 
overhangs, square gable vents and shed porches, 
although they varied in details such as cornice 
returns, brackets, porch posts and railings. It 
may be that the original 1880 village at Hopper's 
Ford consisted of the two-story houses on the 
hill above the mill; the smaller houses with 
larger window panes would date to the period of 
mill expansion in the later 1880s and 1890s. 

Worthville was hit very hard by the closing of 
its mill; the housing stock of the village became 
delapidated and some deteriorated houses were 
demolished. In 1983 the village was annexed by 
Randleman and has begun a revival, gaining 
improvements in streets, water and sewage sys- 
tems, but losing its historic identity. 


Russell Walker Avenue 

The original Worth Manufacturing Company 
building was a very long, narrow, three-story 
brick structure built into a sloping site. The west 
facade, exhibiting just two stories, was punctu- 
ated by a three-story stair tower. Star-end tie rods 
brand the floors, while the 12/12 window sash 
were framed by elaborate corbeled brick mold- 
ings. Interestingly, these hood moldings are 
painted a uniform "brick red" color, with the 
keystones and terminals picked out in contrasting 
white. A row of brick dentils at the eaves are also 
accented with white paint. This unusual decora- 
tive treatment is seen in the earliest photographs 
of the mill and, to a great extent, survives today- 

The stair tower was later enlarged and became 
an entrance wing three bays wide and ten bays 
long. The early mill has also been expanded 
through the years, but an original stepped-gable 
survives on the north river facade, concealing a 
shallow-pitched roof. On the northwest, at the 
present bridge, is what was probably the original 
detached picker house. The one-story brick build- 
ing is built on a stone foundation, repeats the 
hood molding treatment of the main mill, and 
features a corbeled parapet. 

£ S S 



Back Creek Ibwnship 


Back Creek Township 
This complex includes one log cabin original 
to the site and several other structures built or 
moved here by local antiquaries Frances and Lee 
Stone. The original cabin is a saddle-notched log 
structure now part of a larger dwelling. A small 
log cabin with half dovetail notching was half of 
a saddle-bag cabin which once stood in south- 
western Randolph. The largest house of the 
complex is a log cabin of unknown notching now 
surrounded by frame additions; the second floor 
is entered by an enclosed stair which rises from 
an exterior doorway on the engaged porch. A 
small half-timbered house with brick nogging 
was built in 1978, based on Old Salem examples. 


Back Creek Township 
John Wesley's Stand is Randolph County's last 
remaining example of a once familiar sight: the 
open-air tabernacle or brush arbor. Despite local 
tradition, the church was not founded by Meth- 
odist clergyman John Wesley but by Rev J. R 
(Frank) Burkhead of Asheboro in 1903. A small 
frame church was erected in 1906, and the taber- 
nacle in 1921. Surrounding both was a camp- 
ground with a complex of outbuildings including 
a kitchen, dining room and dormitories to house 
preachers and workers during the annual camp 
meeting period. The quartz rock pillars of the 
tabernacle are an echo of the popular Bungalow 
style of that time. Wooden lattice- work origi- 
nally filled the space between the pillars. Such a 
recent example of an antique religious form is 


Back Creek Township 
A Preparative Meeting was organized at Back 
Creek in 1785 and the first meeting house was 
built about four years later. The church still 
possesses benches and fumimre from that orig- 
inal structure. In 1792 Back Creek was estab- 
lished as a monthly Meeting, the oldest such 
meeting in the Southern Quarter. One of the first 
Sunday Schools in the area was begun here in 
1835. The age of the present building is difficult 
to determine, due to extensive aherations and 
brick veneering. Some elements, such as the 
central gable, would suggest a ca. 1890 or 1900 
date, while features such as the oversized 9/9 
sash seem earlier. 



!lH l==i n i==i nt==^=lH[^^=lE][^^=iaiz==iE]E 





Back Creek Township 

A lovely rural chapel, probably built ca. 1890. 
The pointed transom over the entrance doors 
echos the pointed sash on the sides. Chamfered 
comer boards tie the elaborately shingled gable 
to the ground. 


Back Creek Township 

This congregation was organized in 1932 and 
its sanctuary built soon thereafter. The building 
is very similar to late 19th century churches with 
4/4 double-hung sash, exposed rafters, entrance 
vestibule and belfry. 


Back Creek Township 

Maple Grove Diary supplied milk to Asheboro 
and the surrounding community in the early 20th 
century. The Queen Anne style house with a 
projecting polygonal end pavilion was probably 
built ca. 1895. The bay has a bracketed cantile- 
vered gable with pendants and feathered shin- 
gling. The complex includes many outbuildings, 
such as a brick flower house and a board-and- 
batten garden shed. The huge board-and-batten 
dairy bam was probably also built ca. 1895. The 
pitch of the barn's roof is very steep, creating an 
enormous open space as a hayloft. Associated 
with the bam is a wooden water tank, well 
house and spring house. The dairy was mn by 
Mr. Earl Bulla. Operations ceased when the City 
of Asheboro built Lake Lucas in 1943. 


Back Creek Township 

At the top of this house's south end chimney 
is painted "WC. 1881 WO.O. (?) 1882." The 
house is identified with a later owner; the names 
that match these initials are unknown. This is 
a well-preserved gem of a house, with molded 
pediments over the windows, coupled brackets 
with drops below the comice and Eastlake-style 
porch posts with applied panels. The chimneys 
have painted mortar joints. The house is about 
one-quarter mile from the site of Sawyer's Gold 
Mine, and may have had some connection with 
that operation. 


Back Creek Township 

This attractive house was probably built in the 
1880s. It has 4/4 sash in plain rectangular frames 
save for the central second-story front window 
which has a pedimented architrave. The steep 
gable roof has a boxed comice with coupled 
sawnwork brackets on the frieze board. The 
hip-roofed porch has tumed posts with brackets. 
The mortar joints of the stepped-shoulder end 
chimneys are penciled. 


Back Creek Township 

In 1844 the local physician Dr. Archie Castelray 
Bulla built this house and adjoining doctor's 
office. The Quaker-plan house has a sheathed 
facade and unusual two-story veranda. This treat- 
ment is well known in coastal areas, but is 
uncommon in the Piedmont. The single shoulder 
chimney is laid in 1:5 common bond. The office, 
probably also built in 1844, is a small structure 
with matching trim, raised about four feet off the 
ground. It is said that this was to keep visitors 
from peeping in at the patients. Beside the office 
's a small house built as a residence for Dr. 
Bulla's son. A small board-and-batten building 
nearby is said to have been a "worker's" house 
moved from elsewhere on the plantation. This 
may mean that it was once used as a slave cabin; 
'f so, it would be the only one surviving in 
Randolph County. 


Back Creek Township 

Asheboro's primary raw water reservoir is 
impounded by this dam, built from 1943 to 1947. 
Piatt and Davis of Durham were the designing 
engineers; the firm of Wannamaker and Welles of 
Orangeburg, S.C, was the contractor. 


Back Creek Township 

The interior of this small antebellum house is 
a surprising example of exuberant vernacular 
craftsmanship. Every door and window origi- 
nally had elaborate pedimented cornices. The 
'ioors and mantel have matching narrow pilasters. 
At one time there were octagonal porch posts 
*hich also matched these pilasters. The house 

has, in overall form, been greatly altered. At one 
time it had a usable second floor, now removed. 
Ca. 1938 that second story, original roof and 
porch were removed, a kitchen wing built and 
asbestos siding added. The chimney, now hidden, 
is of local soapstone. 

The identity of the owner/builder is un- 
known, though the house was probably built ca. 
1830. In the middle of the 19th century this was 
the home of Newton and then Ramsom Pierce; 
it is now the home of Moody Dougan. The house 
is located near an historic spot, the "Forks of 
the Caraway," where a tavern and trading out- 
post was located before 1750. 


Back Creek Township 

The most prominent feature of this Colonial 
Revival house is the Palladian window in the 
central gabled dormer. The hip roof is elaborated 
by twin gables flanking the facade and a side 
pavilion. The porch is carried on short Tuscan 
columns elevated on brick piers. 


Back Creek Township 

An exceptional example of a three element 
Pratt through truss, the Mountain Creek Steel 
Bridge contains bottom and top lateral bracing in 
addition to portal bracing. A feature character- 
istic of most small rural truss bridges is the inner 
wooden guard rails which flank the plank floor. 


a m i HF 


Tabernacle Tbwnship 















3tg i =1 R I i mp 


Tabernacle Township 
This attractive Queen Anne style dwelling is 
still the home of descendants of its builder. H 
features a projecting polygonal bay with cantile- 
vered gable braced by brackets decorated with a 
sawtooth design and turned pendants. The two 
gables of the primary facade are embellished by 
feathered shingling, sawnwork peak ornaments 
and colored glass windows. The hip porch is 
carried on turned posts and sawn brackets with 
turned pendants. Sawnwork fascia decoration 
fills the space between each post. 


Tabernacle Township 

This isolated early 20th century hip-roofc'' 
house illustrates the transitional period between 
the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles^ 
Queen Anne survivals include polygonal win- 
dow bays with projecting gables supported by 
comer brackets. Feathered shingling and sawn- 
work gable decoration also decorate the exterior- 
The Colonial Revival details include dentil cor- 
nices, Tuscan porch columns on brick piers and 
elliptical sidelights framing the entrance door- 

TT:3 HOUSES (destroyed) 

Tabernacle Township 

The two dwellings which once stood on this 
site beside the Tabernacle church cemetery of- 
fered an interesting contract between early an 
late 19th century house design. The earlier house 
had been converted into a bam. but was one o 
the county's few examples of the "Continental 
or "Quaker" plan house; one large room w"^ 
fireplace; two small unheated rooms walled oi 
the opposite end by a partition of hand-plan* 
tongue-and-groove paneling. Two-panel Gtee 
Revival doors w ere used, and the roof had a wio 
overhang with exposed rafter ends. The hous' 
may have been built in the 1 890s. 

The adjoining two-story dwelling was pf'',^' 
bly built ca. 1890 and retained traces of '• 
original polychromatic exterior paint— tan w' 
red and green trim. A projecting polygonal baj 
was covered by a cantilevered overhang brace^ 
by sawn brackets with turned pendant drops. J ^ 
gable ends wx:re decorated with "fish scale' ° 
"feathered" shingling and sawnwork peak orn ^ 
ments. The WTaparound porch was carried o 
turned posts; sawnwx)rk fascia decoration ^ 

used between the posts instead of brackets, 
houses burned in 1980. 




Tabernacle Township 

Sited near the center of Randolph County's 
"lajor 18th century German community, this 
<^emetery features examples of folk-art tomb- 
stones. "Pierced" tombstones such as these have 
''een discovered primarily in Davidson and Rowan 
counties and are attributed to Germanic folk 
^raditions. These are the only examples yet found 
"> Randolph and date to the first quarter of the 
19th century. 


Tabernacle Township 

This small Quaker plan house of ca. 1870 is 
PW of a large farm complex with a number of 
outbuildings and bams. The largest bam, built 
''a. 1890, has been remodeled as a kennel. Some 
outbuildings retain early fittings such as strap 
"">ges and wooden latches. 


Tabernacle Township 

The oldest section of this house was built ca. 
'845 by William Reams. It was a small hall-and- 
Parlor house with an end chimney and a boxed 
stair. The interior has been remodeled, but origi- 
nal two-panel doors remain. A large "triple-A" 
^oduion was built ca. 1890, which faced the old 
"■oad now replaced by US 64. 


Tabemacle Township 
ThisT-plan "triple-A" house of ca. 1900 occu- 
pies a prominent site on US 64. It is located m a 
pasmre bordered by a stream, with Shepherd 
Mountain rising dramatically in the background. 


Tabemacle Township 
The original Methodist Episcopal congrega- 
tion was organized here ca. 1881. The current 
sanctuary was built in 1887. Four bays long, with 
oversized 4/4 sash, it features a boxed comice 
with returns and a square, open cupola housing 
the church bell. Double entrance doors are cen- 
tered on the south gable end. A Sunday school 
wing was added and other alterations made in 






Tabernacle Township 

Poplar Ridge Friends Meeting was organized 
in 1906 and now occupies a modern brick 
sanctuary. Two earlier buildings remain at the 
site. The southern structure is the third meeting 
house, built in 1937. It is a frame structure with 
6/6 sash, entrance vestibule, belfry and Sunday 
school wings. The northern structure is the 1904 
Poplar Ridge School. A school was first held 
here in 1881; it closed due to consolidation in 
1951. The school is four bays long, with 9/9 
sash, exposed rafters and a belfry. The earliest 
burial in the Poplar Ridge cemetery is that of 
Hannah Farlow in 1872. 


Tabernacle Township 

According to a local historian, the original 
Ml. Gilead Church was built of logs and had an 
elaborately carved pine pulpit, eight feet tall and 
"round like a barrell." The church was a Method- 
ist Episcopal congregation. In 1892 a second 
church was built; this sanctuary still exists, sur- 
rounded by later additions and covered with 
aluminum siding. 


Tabernacle Township 

This sadly delapidated house is located on a 
magnificent site, a bluff high above the Little 
Uwharric River The original house was one- 
story high and two bays wide, in a side-hall or 
hall-and-parlor plan. A stone and brick exterior 
end chimney served a fireplace which retains an 

interesting mantel. A simple mitred molding 
frames the firebox, while the mantel shelf is 
supported on three raised panels or cushion-like 
boxes resembling a cnide pulvinated frieze. The 
mantel seems to represent the transitional period 
bridging Georgiaa'Federal/Greek Revival ele- 
ments in the 1830s. In the later 19th century the 
house was widened and expanded to two stories. 


Tabernacle Township 

Dr. Charles Phillips built this house near 
Fuller's Mill, probably ca. 1890. The T-plan 
house with bracketed polygonal end pavilion has 
porch and cornice brackets, as well as elaborate 
gable ornaments. 


Tabernacle Township 

This is a ca. 1845 five-bay Greek Revival 
house with front and rear shed porches. The 
exterior end chimneys are of stepped-shoulder 
design in running bond. The double entrance 
doors are set in a symmetrically-molded frame 
with car\ed comer blocks. Other doors and 
windows have comer blocks as well. The shal- 
low pitched gable roof has a molded cornice 
with returns. 



Tabernacle Township 

A brick in the chimney of this house is painted 
"N— 1873." A two-panel Greek Revival en- 
trance door is framed by sidelights. The interior 
has an open-string stair with turned newel and a 
paneled post-and-lentil mantel. The orange mor- 
tar joints of the house were originally stenciled 
with white paint. This house was probably built 
in connection with the Hoover Hill Gold Mine, 
which was located about one-quarter mile north. 


Tabernacle Township 

This log house with upstairs accessible only 
from an exterior door, has a matching frame 
addition to the east. It is part of a farm complex 
*hich includes a large mortise-and-tenon bam, 
smokehouse and well cover, all probably built 
before 1860. 


Tabernacle Township 

A carved stone in the slate and brick chimney 
of this log house is inscribed "MT-1831." The 
area's only "M.T." was Martin Trotter, aged 54 
i" the census of 1850. The interior of the dwell- 
ing was remodeled in the 1890s. 


Tabernacle Township 

Representative of perhaps the most common 
type of early 20th century truss bridge in North 
Carolina the Little Uwharrie Bridge, demolished 
in 1979, featured a Pratt truss spanning 125 feet. 
Top and bottom lateral bracing further strength- 
ened this simple truss system. Measuring 12 feet 
■n width, the road maintained a characteristic 
Wooden floor. Located only two miles from the 
^keen's Mill Covered Bridge which is the state's 
only example of a Town lattice truss, the Little 
'Jwharrie Bridge offered an important educa- 
tional opportunity focusing on the evolution of 
^arly bridge design. The bridge was destroyed 
in 1980 


Tabernacle Township 

Of the scores of covered bridges built in 
Randolph County, only two survive. One of 
these is Skeen's Mill Bridge which crosses the 
Uwharrie River northwest of Asheboro. A map 
of Randolph County made by J. W Bean about 
1873 shows a Skeen's Mill. Although this map 
indicates various bridges throughout the county, 
no bridge is shown at or near Skeen's Mill. The 
minutes of the June. 1885, session of the county 
commissioners record a petition for a public road 
"from Isham Finch's by Widow Thayers, Skeens 
Mill, John Ganx)ns, and to the Stage Public 
Road ..." with John Skeen appointed overseer. 
It is likely that such a road would antedate a 
bridge in the area but at the same time create a 
future need for a bridge across the Uwhanie in 
this vicinity. County commissioners' minutes of 
March 5, 1900, show that C. T Hughes was paid 
eleven dollars for "repairing bridge at N. R. 
Skeens," indicating the bridge was constnicted 
sometime before 1900. 

Ithiel Town, noted architect and early bodge 
engineer, built a bridge across the Yadkin River 
as early as 1818 and patented his "Town lattice 
mode" of tnissing in 1820. Skeen's Mill Bndge 
incorporates the use of his lattice tniss, and is 
called "the last of the Town lattice bridges in the 
state in which they were first built." 

Skeen's Mill Covered Bridge, one hundred 
feet long, spans a branch of the Little Uwhame 
River twenty-two feet above the river bed. Built 
on dry wall stone ramps and an auxiliary support, 
the wooden bridge is a one-span combination of 
the Ithiel Town lattice-truss and queenpost tniss 
consmiction systems. The joints of the stnictural 
members have been fastened with tninnels. 
Skeen's Mill Bridge, once toppled dunng a flood, 
was set back up and stabilized with steel cables. 
The sides of the bridge are covered with 
vertical board-and-batten sheathing and the ga- 
ble roof with standing seam tin. Plank tracks or 
treads nin the length of the wooden floor. 




ja i laE 

£]E1[^^^=1EII^^^=IE1I IB( 1131 IBE 


Concord Tbwnship 







Concord Township 

Ca. 1860 carpenter-builder Thomas Rice left 
his home in Franklinville and moved to this farm 
near Farmer. The nature of Rice's house at this 
site is not known, as it has not survived. Several 
outbuildings remain, however, and one is out- 
standing. The only example of a diamond-notched 
log building is the small com crib here. An 
unusual feature of the crib is that not only the 
joints but the whole logs are hewn perfectly 


Concord Township 

The original part of this house is now a rear 
wing, said to have been built of log construction 
about 1838 by Jared Homey, father of Julius 
("Jube") Homey. Ca. 1890 "Jube" built the 
two-story frame end-chimney house and estab- 
lished a Farmer's Alliance Store in the rear wing- 
The Fanner's Alliance was founded in North 
Carolina in 1887 as part of the Populist move- 
ment. A chain of cooperative stores were estab- 
lished where members of the Alliance could 
purchase groceries, seeds, hardware and fertil- 
izer at wholesale prices. The movement waned, 
and Homey closed his store ca. 1900. 


Concord Township 

This house is thought to have been built ca. 
1800, and may indeed have been. Extensive 
alterations and aluminum siding have made this 
difficult to ascertain. The flush gables and boxed 
cornice indicate an early date, as does the smal' 
boxed staircase. The bulky rock chimney and 
brick stack have been stuccoed. An early de- 
tached kitchen wing is now attached to the rear- 
Known locally as the Fargo Wood House. 



Concord Township 

This is Randolph County's only early double- 
pile house — a house two rooms wide and two 
rooms deep and two stories tall. The large ca. 
1840 house is an odd combination of monumen- 
tality and simplicity. The surviving interior trim 
is rather plain. T\vo-panel doors with plain trim 
or plain batten doors and horizontal board panel- 
ing without moldings are used throughout. One 
mantel is decorated with molded flat panels and 
has a bracketed shelf. Another mantel has a 
symmetrical molded surround with rectangular 
comer blocks. A simple boxed stair provides 
access to the second floor. The house was aban- 
doned and deteriorated badly in the 1930s. It was 
extensively renovated in 1942, but it has been 
unused again since 1964. The surviving exterior 
trim is minimal. Both front doors are surmounted 
by three-pane transoms. Large 6/6 sash are used 
on the first floor, smaller 6/6 sash on the second. 
The exterior is now covered with asbestos siding; 
one chimney and the roof have been completely 
rebuilt. An enormous bam nearby is of mortise- 
and-tenon constmction and is probably contem- 
porary with the house. 


Concord Township 

This odd center-hall plan house is difficult to 
date; it includes antebellum features such as 6/6 
sash and a two-panel entrance door framed by 
sidelights and transom, as well as later trim such 
as arched millwork windows with pedimented 
'intels. The shed porch carried on turned posts 
*nd brackets may be a tum-of-the-century replace- 
"lent of a smaller central porch which sheltered 
only the entrance. Asbestos siding obscures much 
?f the trim details. The isolated farm complex 
includes a small log outbuilding with half-dovetail 


Concord Township 

This large dwelling is said to have been built 
<^a. 1900 as a winter residence for a New York 
fan. Though covered now with asbestos siding, 
a documentary photograph reveals that the house 
*as originally covered completely with shingles. 

It is, therefore, one of the very few "shingle 
style" structures in the county. The large two- 
story house has a smaller two-story servants' 
wing. Double-hung 6/6 sash are used througout. 
The original porch extended from the entrance 
hall to cover the carriage drive; it has been 
dismantled. The lodge was subsequently known 
as the "Vuncannon House," and later became 
the summer home of Asheboro industrialist C. C. 
Cranford and his family 


Concord Township 

The "Bunch" post office was located in this 
large two-story house from 1888 to 1901, but the 
house seems to be much older. Parts of it may 
predate the Civil War. The asymmetrical place- 
ment of the two front doors and 6/6 sash is 
unusual for Randolph, as is the central chimney. 
The shed porch is a replacement, carried on 
bungaloid pylons and piers. John Thompson was 
appointed postmaster when the Bunch office was 
created on February 27, 1888. 


Concord Township 
A double span concrete spandrel arch bridge 
over the Uwharrie, built in 1924. The one-lane 
bridge was designed by engineer Grady L. Bash, 
and built by the firm of Steel and Lebby of 
Knoxville. Tennessee. Vic Parker's grist mill 
once stood at the east end of the bridge; it is now 
being replaced by a huge dam designed to im- 
pound a new raw water reservoir for Asheboro. 










Concord Township 

Probably built ca. 1830, this house features 
locally-made two-and six-panel doors, a boxed 
stair and a molded cornice with cornice returns. 
The hall-and-parlor plan house once had two end 
chimneys of brick set on stone foundations. The 
original front facade is now the rear; it exhibits 
9/6 sash and sheathed siding. Thought to be an 
old Arnold family home. 


Concord Township 

Built by Mollie Fuller Skeen and renovated 
recently by Asheboro architect Hyatt Hammond. 
Probably built ca. 1900, the house is covered by 
a deck-on-hip roof. The decorative sunken pan- 
els in the brick chimney are distinctive features. 


Concord Township 

Perhaps built ca. 1820, the house features 
flush gable and a boxed cornice. The end chim- 
ney has been destroyed. Two-panel Greek Re- 
vival doors and 6/6 sash are used. A detached 
kitchen has become attached as a rear wing. 



Concord Township 

This abandoned and delapidated dwelling was 
probably built in the 1870s or early 1880s. The 
two-story center-hall plan house has an open- 
string stair with square balusters and a cham- 
fered newel post. Its twin end chimneys w''^ 
stone fireboxes ser\ed four fireplaces with post- 
and-lintel mantels. A one-story gabled wing 'S 
attached to the south facade. 


Concord Township 

Though the church was established in 1840- 
this building seems to have been built ca. I860' 
The cornice is molded with cornice returns. Tn* 
church's most prominent and unusual feature is 
the coupled window in the gable. The arched 4/^ 
sash are tied together by an elaborate molde^ 
pedimented end frame. The building is used 
today only for occasional reunions and spec'^ 


Concord Township 

Thought to have been built by a member of •"* 
Thomburg family, the house was owned by 'n' 
Macons from 1885 to 1940. A beautifully-P"*' 
served example of a one-story house built on 
raised foundation, the house has both Greek R'^ 
vival and Italianate elements. The pediments 
porch is outstanding. The double entrance door* 
are flanked by sidelights and transom. Tn« 
exposed. decoraIi%-ely-sawn rafter ends suppof* 
deep overhang of the hip roof. The house ha* 
two rooms on each side of a central hallway, 
sers-ed by interior chimneys. The interior was 
remodeled ca. 1955; simple four-panel doors an 
post-and-lintel mantels survive. 

Ik .. .JU^ .. 
I i n i i Fi i i n r i n f= i n r= ] f;i f=n ni= 




■ila^ii^ .. . 



Concord Township 

Marvin Reams built this house in 1905; it was 
bought in 1907 by Dr. Charles Hubbard, who 
iioved here from Worthville. Prominent features 
"f the house are the three-sided bays which are 
Used for windows on the east and for the entrance 
door on the north facade. A bam on the property 
's of mortise-and-tenon construction. The "Pami- 
rs" post office was located on this site ca. 1875. 


Concord Township 

, An elaborate Queen Anne style house, very 
^'wilar to several towered houses once standing 
'" ''^sheboro. The octagonal tower is covered with 
fathered shingles and engaged into the deck-on- 
'P roof. A polygonal bay on the south facade is 
covered by a cantilevered gable. 


Concord Township 

The church was built ca. 1933 after a fire 
destroyed the old Concord Methodist Church in 

I cemetery. Local residents say the idea of a 

tone church was derived from the Eden Method- 
^st Church in Rockingham County. The five-bay 

eldstone sanctuary is very attractively sited in 

's sloping rural setting. 


Concord Township 


Co t K '^'^'"ctery was established around the Con- 
,. ^^cthodist Church (not to be confused with 

e C„n(,„rj Methodist Church in Coleridge) 
^^" in 1856 and destroyed by fire in 1933 and 

°^cd several hundred yards to the northeast. 

The first burial was in June. 1848. The cemetery 
holds a great deal of interesting Victorian funeral 
art. including an elaborate iron fence surround- 
ing a single grave plot. 


Concord Township 
This two-story farmhouse was the residence of 
John Orpheus Keams (1867-1937). a local mer- 
chant who built a general store and roller mill in 
Farmer in 1908. Keams acquired this property in 
1896 and probably built this dwelling the follow- 
ing year. The house once fronted on the west, 
where double-leaf doors opened into a central 
hallway. The interior of the house is sheathed 
throughout with beaded tongue-and-groove pan- 
eling Below a chair rail the paneling runs 
vertically: above the chair rail it runs horizontally. 
An exception to this treatment is a room at the 
northwest first floor comer, which boasts a pan- 
eled wainscoting below the chair rail. An open- 
string stair ascends from the central hall, with 
tumed newel post and balusters. The extenor of 
the house is sheathed with unusual double- 
rabbeted tongue-and-groove siding which resem- 
bles miniature German siding. This was once 
painted green with white trim, while the exterior 
doors were grained in red and yellow to resemble 








Concord Township 

The enclosed stairs of this two-story hall-and- 
parlor house are entered through an exterior 
door, producing the unusual window-door-door- 
window layout of the ground floor facade. The 
house has a one-story side wing, brick chimneys, 
6/6 sash and two-panel Greek Revival doors. The 
metal roof with exposed rafter ends may be a 
20th century replacement, as is the asphalt sid- 
ing of the house. 


Concord Township 

The most unusual features of this house are its 
twin chimneys with fireboxes built of slate. The 
two-story house may be a mid-19th century struc- 
ture heavily remodeled in the 1920s. It now has 
2/2 sash and deep roof overhang with exposed 
rafter ends braced by bungaloid brackets. The 
hip porches are panially enclosed and are carried 
by turned posts. The complex includes a number 
of bams and outbuildings, most of which seem 
to date from the early 20th century. 


Concord Township 

Originating in 1818 at a nearby site called 
"Russell's School house," this was the first 
Methodist congregation in southwest Randolph 
A church was built at the present site in 1822 
and camp meetings were held yearly before the 
Civil War. In 1883 a church member wrote that 
"we distmctly remember the time when the 
whole hill and hills on each side were covered 
with tents and a vast number of people assem- 
bled from day to day to worship." The existing 
sanctuary was built in the winter of 1881 and 
dedicated July I, 1883. It is three bays long with 
4/4 sash with arched muntins added to create a 
pointed lancet window effect. The roof has ex- 
posed rafter ends and the church is covered with 
asbestos siding. An enclosed belfry with dia- 
mond vents is placed above the entrance vestibule 
The earliest tombstone in the adjoining cemetery 
IS marked "Priscilla Johnson Elliott- 1843 " 


Concord Township 

This frame sanctuary was erected in 1885. 
Three bays long, it has 4/4 double-hung sash 
which use extra diagonal muntins to create pointed 
pseudo-lancet windows. The roof terminates in a 
boxed cornice with returns. An enclosed belfC 
with square vents is positioned above the double- 
door entrance. 

CT:24 DUNBAR'S BRIDGE (destroyed) 

Concord Township 

Spanning the Uwhanie River, Dunbar's Bridge 
was previously the site of a covered bridge bui" 
by John Dunbar: however, until recently an un- 
usual combination steel through truss bridge 
built in 1904 occupied the site. It was distin- 
guished by two Warren lattice trusses: the smallef 
one had a single central crossing with no top 
lateral bracing and the taller one had three cen- 
tral crossings with top lateral bracing. Both were 
reinforced later by a drop brace connecting '''^ 
top chord with each web crossing. These truss 
frames rested on rubble stone piers origina")' 
constructed to support the former covered bridge- 


Concord Township 

Organized in 1893, St. Mark's is one of ih^ 
oldest black congregations in southwest R''"' 
dolph. Its first pastor was Cicero Laughlin. Tn'-' 
frame sanctuary may date from 1893, and '* 
certainly no later than the First World War. Thre^ 
ba>-s long, it has lancet windows and exposs" 
rafter ends. The enclosed belfry has diamon''' 
shaped wnts. St. Mark's is also known as ih' 

■Red House" Church, after the nearby 

House School" which also served the 1"*^^ 
black community. 



=in i nn i nn i m i i np: 


Cedar Grove Tbwnship 


Cedar Grove Township 

The north end of this house was originally a 
two-story hall-and-parlor plan dwelling built in 
1884 by A. A. Hammond. It passed into the 
hands of W W Lassiter in 1892, and he added 
the matching south half to create the present 
center-hall plan. A second decorative gable was 
also added then, unifying the two sections and 
producing the unusual "quadruple-A" facade. 
The northern chimney retains part of a plaque 
containing the builder's initials and date of 

■'■' ■^'^■'■'>- 
































Cedar Grove Township 

This two-story hall-and-parlor plan house was 
built using mortise-and-tenon construction tech- 
niques, and seems to have been built before the 
Civil War. Nine-over-six sash are used on the 
first floor, while 6/6 sash are found on the 
second. Two-panel doors are used throughout. 
The second floor is reached via an enclosed 
"dog-leg" stairway. The fireboxes of both chim- 
neys are built of stone, with brick stacks. The 
overhanging roof with exposed rafter ends is 
probably a replacement for the original. 


Cedar Grove Township 

Tradition has it that this center-hall dwelling 
was the first painted house in the area, hence the 
name "White House." The house was originally 
the home of Benjamin Brookshire who ran a 
tavern here. Brookshire came from the Guilford 
County area ca. 1815 and is thought to have 
moved part of the house from that county. 

The first floor windows are 9/6, but may once 
have been 9/9. Four-over-four sash are used on 
the second story. Paneled mantels with arched 
openings appear throughout. The house was 
bought in 1910 by James Jason Hill, a local 
basket maker. 


Cedar Grove Township 

This meeting was organized in 1892 at the site 
of Science Hill Academy as a result of mission- 
ary efforts of Mary Moon, a Friends minister 
from Indiana. The building was begun in 1893 
and completed in 1894. The 6/6 sash are set in 
symmetrically molded frames. 


Cedar Grove Township 

Hopewell Friends Meeting was built between 
February and May, 1 885 at the site of an antebel- 
lum cemetery. Local residents John Hammond 
and Lewis Branson were contractors. The first 
meeting in the building was held May 6, 1885. 
The five-bay sanctuary has been well kept, and is 
now covered with asbestos siding. 



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Cedar Grove Township 

Local merchant Rupert Freeman moved this 
'ate 19th century house to this location ca. 1914. 
The two-story center-hall plan structure features 
a hip-roofed porch with central balcony. The 
porch is carried on turned posts with sawn 
brackets. The central gable has feathered shingle 


Cedar Grove Township 

This frame commercial building appears to 
have been built in the late 19th century. The 
original store is a gable-roofed structure which 
has a molded cornice with returns. Shed wings 
were added on each side and tied to the main 
portion by a false "boom-town" facade which 
Covers all three sections. For 35 years Rupert 
freeman, who bought the store in 1914, ran the 
Ulah post office from the west wing. 


Cedar Grove Township 

This center-hall plan house is divided into ten 
rooms and includes a one-and-a-half-story rear 
*'ng and two-story end pavilion. Its wraparound 
porch is carried on turned posts with sawn 
brackets. The interior trim features molded door 
faci ^' 

••ngs with cross-hatched comer blocks 

— ov was built in 1907 by Enoch Whatley 
(1868-1946), a South Carolina native who ar- 
rived in Randolph in 1888 as a section foreman 

for railroad construction crews. A sawmill opera- 
tor and builder, Whatley settled here to run a 
now-destroyed general store across the street. 


Cedar Grove Township 

The original building of this complex is a 
small steel-frame gas station with a corrugated 
metal skin and oversized industrial sash. A drive- 
through shed sheltered hand-cranked gasoline 
pumps, one of which remains. The building is 
one of the county's earliest automobile service 
structures, having been built in Randleman ca. 
1915 and moved to this site in 1925. Ulah Motor 
Company was founded in 1925 by Ralph Whatley 
(1897-1964), Enoch Whatley's son. 


Cedar Grove Township 

The least complex of Randolph County's truss 
bridges, the Back Creek Steel Bridge is com- 
prised of a four element Warren pony truss with 
bottom lateral bracing. Inside the protection of 
the outer truss system is located a wooden guard 
rail which flanks the bridge's thickly planked 
wooden floor. This short span is supported by 
fieldstone abutments. 


S?^- ' 




Grant Ibwnship 



— c 






Grant Township 

A strong local tradition says that this sadly 
delapidated outbuilding was part of the farm 
where Jonathan Lewis, the killer of Naomi Wise, 
was captured in 1807. It is not possible to verify 
this assertion but this outbuilding could date to 
that period. The long, narrow one-story building 
was divided into two rooms by a central chimney; 
the eastern half of the structure has been de- 
stroyed. It is almost identical to a kitchen/laundry 
dependency restored by the Greensboro Historical 
Museum as part of its McNairy House exhibit. 
The massive chimney, of fieldstone laid in mud 
mortar, is of special interest. Few dry-laid stone 
chimneys and very few antebellum outbuild- 
ings have survived in Randolph County. 

B l i n i i m in i — i ni "^ "^ 


Grant Township 

This one-story central-gable center-hall plan 
house is typical of many small homes built in 
Randolph County from the 1880s to the early 
1900s. Four-over-four sash light the facade and 
the porch features chamfered posts with brackets 
and sawnwork frieze. Instead of end chimneys, a 
single chimney is placed between the house and 
the rear wing. Few rural houses from the period 
retain much of the kind of architectural millwork 
which decorates the porch of this dwelling. 


Grant Township 

This small antebellum house perches on a 
hillside overlooking a low-water bridge across 
Richland Creek. The three-bay one-and-a-half- 
story house has 6/6 sash, boxed cornice and a 
•nassive stone exterior-end chimney with brick 
stack. Brick-patterned asphalt siding now covers 
the original weatherboarding. 


Grant Township 

The nucleus of this home is a two-story log 
house with two rooms, one above the other. The 
ground floor cabin is now the living room of the 
expanded frame house, which has mortise-and- 
tenon jointing. The present form of the house is 
that of an off-center-hall plan end-chimney 
Vernacular design with 6/6 sash and wide ov- 
erhanging eaves. A closed-string staircase with 
turned newel rises in the center hallway. The 
earlier log house retains its batten doors, 
drought-iron hardware and corner, dog-leg 
hoxed stair. The Federal style entrance with 
fanlight and sidelights frames the original two- 
Panel Greek Revival door, although the sur- 
round was added by Ervin and Evelyn Cox, lo- 
eal antiquarians and residents of the house. Their 
research indicates that the house belonged to the 
•Daniel Brown family in 1851. Mrs. Cox's 
grandfather was William King, a Quaker min- 
'ster who acquired the property in 1902; it has 
remained in the family ever since. 


Grant Township 

Planning for a state zoo began in 1969, but the 
facility was attracted to Randolph County in 
1971 by the gift of 1,371 acres of property 
surrounding Purgatory Mountain. A 40 acre 
interim zoo was opened to visitors in 1974, 
pending construction of what was billed as the 
"world's largest natural habitat zoo." The Zebra- 
Ostrich- and Giraffe habitat ("ZOG") of the Afri- 
can section was the first such exhibit to open, in 
1979. The African Plains and African Pavilion 
opened in October, 1984, completing the park's 
first geographical area. At least two of the zoo's 
structures are fuWre landmarks of Randolph 
County architecture. The R. J. Reynolds Forest 
Aviary, designed by O'Brien/Atkins Associates 
of Chapel Hill (opened 1982), features a 55-foot 
tall plexiglass geodesic dome. The African 
Pavilion (also called the CES, or Controlled 
Environment Structure) is the product of Hayes- 
Howell, Inc., of Southern Pines, with structural 
engineering by Geiger-Berger of New York. The 
permanent roof of the Pavilion is a free-form 
tension canopy made of Teflon-coated fiberglass 
fabric. The unique "tent" structure is one of the 
first uses of architectural fabric in a textile- 
dominated state and county. 




GT:5 African Pavilion 


R. J. Reynolds Forest Aviary 








Coleridge Tbwnship 




I » 






Coleridge Township 

This two-story ca. 1860 house has 4/4 sash set 
in pedimented frames. The entrance door has 
five-pane sidelights. A ca. 1880 rear wing has a 
bay window, carved bargeboards and lattice- 
work porch supports. 


Coleridge Township 

A cruciform plan Queen Anne style house 
probably built ca. 1885. Asbestos siding was 
added in the early 20th century, and a brick 
facade and "Mount \femon" type porch added 
ca. 1960. 


Coleridge Township 

This is a very deteriorated, ca. 1860, two- 
story three-bay house with a one-story wing. 
The 6/6 sash are original. The chimney has a 
single shoulder with "tumbled" brickwork. 








=iri i i R ] I F1f= 



I ' H I i R f i nr 


Coleridge Township 

The brick chimney of this late Greek Revival 
house (ca. 1860) displays the "tumbled" shoul- 
der brickwork characteristic of several houses in 
the area. The interior has two-panel Greek Re- 
vival doors, a molded baseboard and molded 
post-and-lintel mantels. Four-panel doors are used 
on the exterior. The engaged rear porch was once 
framed between two small rooms. A very inter- 
esting survival is the original detached kitchen, 
^hich matches the house in details such as the 
two-panel doors, flush sheathing and diamond- 
shaped attic windows. The kitchen chimney, now 
destroyed, was at one time protected from the 
Weather by an open extension of the roof. 


Coleridge Township 

In 1760 the Quaker community in this area 
asked or applied to the Western Quarterly Meet- 
ing for permission to have a meeting for worship. 
The first use of the name Holly Spring occurred 
in 1769. The early location was near the river. In 
1787 the present site was bought "for the use of 
the Society of people called the Quakers," and a 
building was constructed. A preparative meeting 
*as set up in 1790 and an independent Monthly 
Meeting in 1818. The buildings here are all 
niodem, although the cemetery contains many 
early stones. Joseph Bookout (d. 1806) is suppos- 
edly the first person buried here. 


Coleridge Township 

Dedicated in 1840, this is one of the five 
Christian churches organized by the Rev T. C. 
Coffin. The church building seems to date to the 
1890 era, although aluminum siding and brick 
Veneer have recently obscured most of its origi- 
nal character. The original building, of frame 
eonstruction with "Gothic" lancet windows, was 
entered through the offset three-tiered tower. 


Coleridge Township 

Shiloh Christian Church was organized on 
December 11, 1843; established by the mission- 
ary activities of the Rev Thomas C. Moffitt. The 
cornerstone says that the present brick church, 
five bays long, with classroom wings, was built 
in 1949. Disagreements with the merger of the 
Christian church with the Congregationalists re- 
cently led Shiloh to affiliate with the Baptist 
denomination. The original site of Shiloh Acad- 
emy is just west of the church. Rev Moffitt 
(1806-1854) is buried in the adjoining cemetery. 


Coleridge Township 

The two-story log house on this property, 
usually identified as the "original cabin built in 
1768," in fact has nothing to do with Randolph 
County. It was built near Siler City in 1840, and 
was the home of a Chatham County sheriff. It 
was moved to its present location ca. 1955 by 
local antiquarian Thad Ellis, who lived here. 

The original section of the large frame house 
is a two-story hall-and-parlor plan structure built 
in 1824 by Eli Bray. The rear wing was added ca. 
1890. The massive double-shoulder/paved shoul- 
der English bond chimney with glazed headers in 
a random pattern is an outstanding feature. The 
interior trim is also impressive. The exposed 
second floor joists have a double bead. The 
arched fireplaces have chimney breasts decorated 
with both raised and sunken panels. Two rooms 
are paneled in unpainted pine, with a molded 
chair rail. An original board-and-batten door 
retains its strap hinges. The exterior was un- 
painted until the 1950s, when the siding was 
replaced and the "Mount Vernon" porch was 

IrtTiV- 'jSl-; 



• » 




■ « « !• ■ AMI 




Coleridge Township 

One of the last operating grist mills in the 
state, Raymond Cox's mill custom-grinds and 
mixes animal feed. Still in place, although full of 
silt and unused since September 1945, is an 
overshot Fitch water wheel made in Hanover, Pa. 
The dam used until that time was an oak plank 
dam, now destroyed. A covered bridge over the 
river was demolished in June, 1953. The present 
mill was built in the early 20th century by 
Allison Beane, and is also known as "Beane's 
Mill." The site of an earlier mill can be seen 
nearby However, this does not seem to be the 
site of the Revolutionary War era Cox's mill 
which was the headquarters of the notorious Tory 
leader David Fanning. In official documents that 
mill was referred to as "Hammond Coxe's Mill"; 
possibly the reference is to Herman Cox, a 
Quaker and former Regulator. Fanning referred 
to his headquarters as "the Fort of Deep River at 
Coxe's Mill." This was probably an earthenwork, 
not a palisaded, "fort" constructed by Fanning 
after his arrival in May 1781. The American 
general DeKalb headquartered his army at Cox's 
Mill in July 1780, while awaiting the arrival of 
the North Carolina Militia under Gov Richard 
Caswell. The place was obviously a strategic 
colonial source of supply. 


Coleridge Township 

The academy movement succeeded the era of 
subscription schools in North Carolina's educa- 
tional history. Public academies were usually 
chartered by the legislature and were run by 
individual boards of trustees. In the Coleridge 
area, the three academies at Park's Cross Roads, 
Erect and Shiloh predominated. Shiloh Acad- 
emy was organized in 1865 by residents of the 
Moftitt's Mill community. In the 1880s and 
1890s, Moffitt's Mill was a prosperous and pro- 
gressive section of the county. A post office had 
been established there as eariy as 1827. Boarding 
facilities for visiting students were later built. 
The two-story school house originally contained 
one large room on each floor. A raised platform 
served as a stage at one end of the room; a 
blackboard was painted at the other end, with a 
recitation bench in front. Several grades were 
taught in one classroom, with the teacher listen- 
ing to each grade in turn as the students filed up 
to the recitation bench. 

The first floor of the building is a structure of 
mortise-and-tenon construction and was proba- 
bly built in the 1850s. The doors and 6/6 sash are 
crowned with decorative molded pediments. Lou- 
vered shutters protect each window. The second 
story was added ca. 1885. It is of balloon-frame 
construction, as were the demolished bell tower 
and center gable. The porch on Doric-style col- 
umns was also added at that time. Since the 
building seems to have existed even before 1860, 
it may be that the building was originally the 
second home of the Shiloh Christian Church, 
organized in 1843 in a log building. 

In 1976 the school was moved to its present 
site to avoid demolition. It is being remodeled 
for use as a dwelling. The end chimneys are part 
of those alterations and do not reflect any as- 
pect of the original building, which seems to 
have been unheated. 


Coleridge Township 

After the Civil War, the Baltimore Association 
of Friends began to funnel money and assistance 
into the war-ravaged south. The first year's relief 
included food and clothing; the project of the 
second year was to rebuild the local monthly 
meeting schools. At one time Holly Spring Meet- 
ing had five local schools under its supervision, 
all within walking distance for children in the 
area. Several other Quaker academies remain in 
North Carolina, but Evergreen is the only one to 
stand unchanged. According to its present owner, 
the first reference to the academy in Holly Spring 
records occurs in 1866, when a site one-and-a- 
half-miles east of the meeting house was donated 
by Thomas Hinshaw. In 1867, a reference is 
made in the Levi Cox records to "lumber for the 
school house." The school subsequently oper- 
ated for some forty years, with summer schools 
being conducted there even after the opening of 
public schools. 

The academy is a small structure, six bays 
long with 6/6 sash. The school's two classrooms 
were once partitioned by wooden accordian doors, 
which could be folded back to create one large 
interior space. The academy is now part of the 
adjoining Hinshaw farm. 

I i n i i n i i ri r i nf= 


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Coleridge Township 

This one-story center-hall plan central-gable 
house is in an attractive rural setting. It is raised 
three to four feet above ground level on brick 
piers without underpinning, as were almost all 
houses of the late 19th century. The side porch 
retains its sawnwork decoration with turned posts, 
sawn brackets with turned pendants and sawnwork 
fascia decoration. 


Coleridge Township 

Something of the history of this structure can 
be understood from its rarely-used legal name: 
"Holly Spring Friends Meeting (Conservative)." 
•t was the result of a split in the nearby Holly 
Spring Friends Meeting in 1910 when some 
thirty-five members withdrew to form a separate 
meeting. This portion of the Holly Spring congre- 
gation objected to the tum-of-the-century evan- 
gelical movement which ended the "quietistic" 
period of Quaker history. Meetings across the 
state began to adopt Sunday schools, singing, 
foreign missionary work and, the subject of most 
Controversy, a paid pastoral ministry. The "North 
Carolina Yearly Meeting of Friends, Conserva- 
tive" was founded in 1904 by those congrega- 
tions opposed to these changes. Interestingly, a 
similar division between "Gumeyites" and "Wil- 
hurites" (conservatives) had occurred among 
northern Friends in 1845. 

The two Holly Spring factions continued to 
share the same meeting house for sixteen years, 
*ith the Conservative Friends meeting on Sun- 
day afternoons. After the First World War land 
*as secured less than a mile north of the Holly 

Spring location, and in 1926 this meeting house 
was built. It is said by Quaker historians to be 
the last meeting house built in the state which 
included a partition to separate the men's and 
women's business meetings. The very plain struc- 
ture is extremely well-preserved, down to the 
original benches and wood stove. 

In the early 1920s an influx of families from 
Ohio, Alabama and eastern North Carolina ar- 
rived in the area. These people, members of 
other conservative congregations, settled near 
one another, built the meeting house and estab- 
lished a school there in an effort to preserve the 
"ancient manner of worship" of the Friends. 
The Friendsville community and congregation 
remained active up into the 1950s but as younger 
members moved away and older members died, 
membership dwindled. In 1982 only one local 
member remained. 


Coleridge Township 

This house at Coleridge airfield was probably 
built in the late 1880s. It is a common type of 
two-story center-hall central-gable house with 
fine sawnwork trim. Coupled brackets brace the 
overhanging cornice and central gable. Pedi- 
ments cap the doors and 2/2 sash. The original 
porch posts have been replaced by bungaloid 
pylons, although the brackets and sawnwork fas- 
cia decoration remain. The house is now covered 
with brick-patterned asphalt siding. 







_ k 









Coleridge Township 

This single-pile hall-and-parlor house seems 
to have been built ca. 1860. Part of the center- 
chimney rear wing was built ca. 1853 as "Foust's 
School," thought to be taught by a Mr George 
A. Foust, who was from Alamance County. He 
may also have been related to the Fousts of 
Fousts Mill, near Coleridge. The hip-roofed main 
section of the house has oversized 6/6 sash and a 
running bond brick chimney built on a rubble 
stone base. The south facade was remodeled 
about forty years ago. The shed bungalow porch 
with marble steps and tapered posts set on brick 
bases was built at that time; the windows were 
replaced with coupled 4/4 sash and the area 
recovered with German siding. The house was 
later owned by Gilbert Cox and John Roe Steele. 
Calah Presbyterian Church was just across the 
road from this house. Calah, an outpost of the 
Asheboro Presbyterian congregation, was oper- 
ated at this Buffalo Ford site from 1881 to 1900. 
It later became a Holiness Church and is no 
longer at the site. 


Coleridge Township 

This two-story frame hip-roofed house dis- 
plays elements of the Italianate style popular in 
the 1850s. It features a center-hall plan, end 
chimneys and 6/6 sash. The entrance door is 
framed by sidelights. The house crowns a hill 
above the site of Moffitt's Mill on Richland 
Creek, though a screen of pine trees hides it 
from casual view. 


Coleridge Township 

The Hinshaw farm which adjoins Evergreen 
Academy is a well-preserved example of a pros- 
perous late 19th century rural farmstead. The 
house, probably built ca. 1885, has two rooms of 
equal size entered by twin doors off the hip 
porch. The porch is carried on sawnwork posts 
and brackets and the roof features a molded 
cornice with returns and bracketed frieze board. 
The house uses 6/6 double-hung sash except for 
the central front windows, which are coupled 4/4 
sash. The second floor window is capped by a 
semicircular hood with applied sawnwork decor- 
ation. The interior features molded post-and- 
lintel mantels with applied sawnwork decoration; 
the front rooms feature diagonally-paneled wains- 
coting. Behind the house is a small antebellum 
house of mortise-and-tenon construction which 
was a residence of the Stout family. Across the 
road from the house and academy is the most 
unusual element of the complex, a huge monitor- 
roofed bam without parallel in the county. It is 
said that Thomas Hinshaw brought the concept 
of this structure from Indiana where he lived as a 
refugee Quaker during the Civil War. The most 
unusual feature of the bam is an earthwork-and- 
stone wagon ramp leading to the second floor, 
one of two originally. The ramp allowed wagons 
to drive their loads into the loft, unload and drive 
out the other side. This bam is one of Randolph 
County's largest surviving examples of "heavy 
frame" construction. 

CRT: 17 



superior Map Co. 

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1/4 Milt 

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SR 2652 

The history of the Coleridge community did 
not start with the establishment of the Enterprise 
Manufacturing Company in the early 1880s. The 
ccmmunity originally centered around Foust's 
Mill, at or near the present location of Coleridge, 
and was one of Randolph County's most promi- 
nent rural areas. Deep River Masonic Lxsdge, the 
county's second masonic group, was organized 
at Foust's Mill in 1855, a year before the Balfour 
Lodge was opened in Asheboro. Concord Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church was another antebellum 
creation in the Foust's Mill community, being 
established there in 1825. 

The early 20th century sanctuary complex of 
Concord Methodist Church is one of Randolph 
County's most attractive frame buildings. The 
square hip-roofed sanctuary block is entered 
through two towers on the south facade. The 
southwest tower is the taller and contains the 
bell. Stained glass lancet windows light the south 
and west facades. To the east is a large Sunday 
school wing, with small rooms grouped around a 
larger assembly room following the "Akron" 

plan. The Franklinville Methodist Church is the 
county's only other example of this once-popular 


SR 2652 

This fellowship hall or community building 
for the adjacent Concord Methodist Church is 
an excellent example of how a modern building 
can be related to a neighboring historic struc- 
ture. Asheboro architect John J. Croft, Jr. de- 
signed this structure in the 1950's using elements 
such as a spindled frieze on the porch, the den- 
tiled cornice and the flush sheathing in the ga- 
bles to relate Florence Hall to the church, as well 
as to the nearby R. L. Caveness House and the 
now-vanished Coleridge Academy which stood 
across SR 2652 on the west side of the church- 


SR 2652 

This one-and-a-half story hip-roofed house is 
an appealing Colonial Revival design. Twin ga" 
bles flank a tiny pedimented window dormer. A 




=irn i m i i nr 


small gable accents the porch above the entrance 


SR 2652 

A small neighborhood of tum-of-the-century 
niiU houses clusters around Concord Methodist 
Church. Four are nearly identical one-story 
center-hall plan central-gable houses with dorsal 
chimneys and rear wings. Each has 4/4 sash, a 
shed porch and a diamond vent in the central 
sable. Those which have not been remodeled 
have plain square posts supporting the porch. 
This type of utilitarian mill housing was (and 
's) extremely common in North Carolina. 


SR 2652 

This tiny one-room building was used as a 
barber shop. It has been moved from its original 
Jocation near the Enterprise Store. The tall 
'boom-town" front conceals a gable roof. 





Several one-story center-hall plan center-gable 
houses still stand across the river from the main 
village of Coleridge; this one is the most elabo- 
rate. The basically plain house has been trimmed 
with millwork identical to that of the R. L. 
Caveness House, the hotel and others of the most 
visually Baroque Coleridge dwellings. Turned 
posts with sawn brackets carry the shed porch; 
toothed fascia boards decorate the porch and 
gable eaves. 



The plans for this house may have been taken 
out of a book or magazine in the early 20th 
century; it is very similar in several characteris- 
tics to many houses of the period. Interesting 
details include the polygonal end of the project- 
ing bay, with scalloped sawnwork decoration in 
the cantilevered overhang, elaborate feathered 
shingling and six-pointed star vents in the gables. 
The original porch posts have been replaced by 
peeled cedar logs. 



This one-story, L-shaped brick structure was 
built in the 1920s. It is laid in 1:5 common bond, 
with a segmental arched metal casement window 
in each bay and a brick pilaster every three bays. 
The heavy wooden rafters of the low gable roof, 
which is covered with gravel, are exposed at the 
eaves. In the center of the southwest and south- 
east street elevations is a two-story entrance 
tower with crenelated roofline. In the front, 
lower face of each tower is a glazed and paneled 
double door. At the second level in each face is a 
wooden 15/10 sash window. Each entrance tower 
contains a two-flight stair; the first flight open 
with a late Victorian style railing, the second 
flight enclosed with narrow beaded sheathing 
with a batten door. The interior space of the mill 
is divided by several brick partition walls. A 
single row of heavy chamfered wooden posts, 
bolted to the rafters, support the roof at the 
ridgeline. The brick walls are bare, the rafters 
are exposed and narrow sheathing covers the 
underside of the roof. The west end of the mill 
has several one-story frame additions. North of 
the mill are several small brick pump houses and 
a metal water storage tower. 

3Eir in i i R i i SE 











CIO C:ll 

On the west side of NC 42, across the street 
from the mill, is a one-story brick warehouse 
which faces the riverside site of the original, 
frame 1882 Enterprise Mill. The warehouse was 
probably built ca. 1910 as a storage facility for 
that first mill. The 1:6 common bond parapet 
walls extend above the shed roof and a brick 
cornice decorates the eaves. Brick pilaster strips 
define the three bays of the main (west) facade, 
and a metal door, set in an arched opening 
outlined by a simple brick cap, opens into each 
section. The rear evalation contains several win- 
dow openings. 


NC 42 

The 1920s mill office southwest of the mill is 
a one-story brick building containing two offices, 
each two bays wide and three deep, with a 
smaller mid-20th century rear addition. The walls, 
laid in random common bond, extend as para- 
pets with tile coping above the shed roof. The 
storefronts have comer pilasters and corbel 
cornices, and each contains a paneled glazed 
door with a fanlight set within a simple molded 
surround in a round-headed opening, and a 6/6 
sash within a segmental-arched opening. Brick 
labels surmount the openings. The side eleva- 
tions are treated identically, but lack doors. 



The Bank of Coleridge, located between the 
company store and the mill office, is a small 
rectangular one-story brick building contempo- 
rary with the office. It has identical storefront 
treatment with the exception of the openings. 

The flanking windows are larger and are sur- 
mounted by fanlights. Three courses of header 
bricks outline each opening. The bank vault, in 
the northwest comer of the building, has a cast- 
iron door with a classically ornamented surround. 
The Bank of Coleridge was founded in 1919. 
opened a branch in Ramseur in 1934 and moved 
completely to Ramseur in 1939. 



The company store, located across NC 42 
from the mill, is a one-story tripartite brick 
building built ca. 1910 and composed of a center 
block with lower flanking wings. The brick build- 
ing is laid in 1:7 common bond and has a 
parapeted main facade with pilastered comers 
and a prominent corbel cornice. The center 
section, the store, contains its original storefront 
consisting of a cast-iron lintel with a wooden 
bracketed cornice supported by a pair of cast- 
iron fluted Corinthian columns. Between the 
columns is a recessed double door, paneled and 
glazed, and a four-pane display window with a 
plain wooden dado occupies each flanking bay- 
A wide toothed brick frieze extends across the 
upper center facade. Each of the wings contains 
a similar door with a transom in the inside bay 
and a 6/6 sash in the outside bay These seg- 
mental-arched openings have simple molded sur- 
rounds and dentil-arched labels. The east wing. 
which contained the Coleridge post office fof 
over seventy years, was probably built for this 
purpose. The west wing is used for storage. 



NC 42 

Although a 555-foot dam built in 1912 across 
Deep River still impounds water, the headrace of 
'he mill, which flows parallel to the river from 
the dam through Coleridge, ceased to be the 
source of power when the steam-powered 1920s 
mill was built. Three buildings are strung along 
fte north bank of the race. Just west of the 
warehouse is the 1910 bending mill, which was 
probably water-powered. This one-story rectan- 
gular brick building is laid in 1:7 common bond. 
The walls extend above the shed roof as parapets, 
with a brick cornice resembling that at the store 
and warehouse. The segmental-arched openings 
have brick labels. At the northwest end of the mill 
's a one-story frame addition covered with metal 
sheeting. The building was the home of the 
Coleridge Manufacturing Company with Dr. R. L. 
Caveness serving as president and J. A. Brower 
as secretary, treasurer and manager. The com- 
pany manufactured "bentwood chair stock which 
's sold to furniture manufactures in all parts of 
'he United States." 

On the millrace south of the bending mill is a 
'wo-story, gabled, frame structure with a metal 
smokestack on the north side. Southeast of this 
huilding is the steam plant constructed for the 
"ew cotton mill in the 1920s. This one-story 
hrick structure has a hipped roof coverd with tin, 
round-arched doors, 8/8 sash windows within 
segmental-arched openings and decorative brick- 
work identical to the mill office. A large brick 
smokestack abuts the north elevation. On the 
West side of the plant is a brick addition with 
metal casement windows, probably constructed 
m the 1940s to house hydroelectric generators. 
East of the buildings which line the race are 
'hree small brick structures which probably served 
^s pumphouses for the original 1882 mill. 


NC 22 

From this unobtrusive house tucked away on a 
hillside behind his brother's home. Dr. Robert L. 
Caveness ruled his little mill village. In 1917 
the local newspaper observed that "Dr. R. L. 
Caveness is at the head of practically everything 
in Coleridge. For 10 years he most successfully 
practiced medicine and his friends assert that he 
is equally as good as a doctor as he is as a 
manufacturer. For the past ten years he has been 
devoting a majority of his time to the duties of 
the position as secretary, treasurer and general 
manager of the Enterprise Manufacturing Com- 
pany." Caveness was the son-in-law of James 
Cole, the founder of the town, from whom 
Caveness purchased majority interest in the cor- 
poration in 1904. He was directly involved in the 
operation of the mill until 1922 and served as 
president of the company until his death in 1951. 

The Caveness home is a lovely example of late 
19th century domestic architecture. The two- 
story center-hall plan house has a projecting 
entrance bay which is echoed by a projection of 
the wraparound porch. The raised porch is car- 
ried on coupled short turned posts set on brick 
pillars; a spindle frieze and sawnwork decoration 
is used between the posts. The cornice overhang 
of the roof is bracketed and the central and end 
gables have sawnwork eave decorations. It is 
now the home of the Lynn Albright family. 

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C:13 Power House 












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NC 22 

On the east side of NC 22 just east of the mill 
store is the John Caveness House, a large, two- 
story frame Queen Anne style residence built ca. 
1895, which is practically unaltered and in excel- 
lent condition. John, brother of R. L. Caveness, 
was vice president of the Enterprise Company 
and helped his brother manage the mill. The 
house, with a two-story rear wing, is set on a 
high lattice-work brick foundation, has steep 
gable roofs with interior brick chimneys with 
decorative stacks and a one-story porch with 
ornate wooden bracketed posts. An arcaded drip- 
course accents the porch frieze and gable ends. 
The porch wraps around the north side and con- 
tinues the length of the rear wing. Behind the 
house is a frame well house consisting of a small 
clapboarded storage area with a bracketed porch 
sheltering the stone well. 





SR lOO.'i 

Called "The Hotel" by local residents, this 
dwelling exhibits some of the county's most 
eye-catching examples of Victorian millwork. 
The house is an enlarged version of the typical 
two-story center-hall plan central-gable house 
with extra rooms added in the two-story rear 
wing. The overhanging cornice is braced by 
brackets with turned pendants and the chimneys 
are elaborately corbeled. The gables are sheathed 
in feathered shingling, with toothed fascia decor- 
ation. The peak of the central gable includes a 
spindled frieze with half a spindled "wagon 
wheel" ornament. The rounded porch, which 
wraps all around the building, is the primary 
feature of the exterior. Small gables accent the 
roof above each window and door; the porch is 
carried on coupled turned posts with sawnwork 
brackets and fascia boards. The house is now a 
private dwelling. 


SR 1005 

Little is known about the type of housing 
originally provided for workers at the Enterprise 
mill. Unlike other Deep River villages, Cole- 
ridge has no rows of identical worker houses. 
Whether no such dwellings were ever built or 
whether they have since been destroyed is unclear. 
This particular mill house, however, could cer- 
tainly have been built in the early 1880s; some 
aspects of it are unlike any other mill house if 
the county. The hip-roofed house has 6/6 sash 
and a raised shed porch with turned posts and 
sawn brackets. The off-center entrance door is 
set in a molded surround with comer blocks. 
Oddly, the single leaf door is flanked by two 
additional "blind" doorways filled with sheathed 
siding and framed by molded surrounds and 
comer blocks. This treatment is a strange combi- 
nation of the Greek Revival style with Victorian 



SR 1005 

This well-preserved house is a typical two- 
story center-hall plan central-gable house with 
better-than-average millwork. The overhanging 
comice is braced by coupled brackets. The shed 
porch is carried on turned posts with elaborate 
sawnwork brackets, toothed fascia decoration 
and turned pendants. 

Pleasant Grove Tbwnship 


Pleasant Grove Township 

The only state-maintained ford in Randolph 
County, this now unique crossing is typical of the 
hundreds of fords which were the only places 
where rivers and creeks could be crossed through- 
out the 18th and much of the 19th centuries. 

par. I 

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Brower Ibwnship 








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Brower Township 

This Baptist congregation was organized in 
1905, and the frame sanctuary was probably 
built at that time. It was brick- veneered in the 
1960s. The building has double-hung 6/6 sash 
filled with colored panes. It is entered through a 
three-tiered vestibule which is capped by an 
enclosed belfry with lancet-head vents. 


Brower Township 

Displaying both half-dovetail and V-notching. 
this one-story single-pen log dwelling with gable 
roof is distinguished by a single-shoulder exterior- 
end fieldstone chimney. Mud chinking in-fi" 
weatherizes the exposed roughly hewn log walls- 
The house was enlarged by a single room frame 
addition during the late 19th century. 




Brower Township 

A typical example of a vernacular interpreta- 
tion of the Italianate style popular during the 
third quarter of the 19th century in rural North 
Carolina, this one-story dwelling with low pitched 
hip-roof characteristically follows a double-pile 
center-hall plan. The roof was originally punctu- 
ated by two interior chimneys and the deep eave 
overhang is accented by decorative brackets. 
Although in deteriorated condition, the shed- 
roof front porch once protected the three-bay 
facade. Other distinctive features are the over- 
sized 6/6 sash windows and comer pilasters. 


Brower Township 

Mt. Olivet church was founded in 1813 by the 
Rev, Enoch Spinks, Jr. The first building was 
erected about one mile northwest of the present 
site, where the eariy graveyard is still maintained. 
This hip-roofed church building was constructed 
when the congregation moved in 1874. The class- 
room wing and stained glass windows were added 
'n a 1926 renovation. 


Brower Township 

Although one of the earliest surviving houses 
in southeastern Randolph County, this ca. 1840 
dwelling has been substantially modified by re- 
'^ent alterations. Maintaining its basic two-story 
three-bay form with low-pitched gable roof and 
exterior end chimneys, the house illustrates the 
most prevalent vernacular house form found in 
•Randolph County throughout the 19th century. 
Significant original fabric includes the 6/6 sash 
and the two-panel Greek Revival doors. 


Brower Township 

This one-story T-plan house was probably 
built ca. 1900. Its details such as porch posts, 
brackets and window sash are identical to the 
neighboring two-story center-hall plan house, 
but this dwelling retains more of the flavor of the 
Queen Anne style by turning its polygonal bay 
and rounded porch toward the road, its most 
prominent facade. 


Brower Township 

This is a tum-of-the-century rural home of 
typical design, a two-story gable-roof house with 
central interruption. Distinguished by a center- 
hall plan, the house is three bays wide with 4/4 
sash and twin single-shouldered chimneys. The 
wraparound porch has turned posts and sawn 
brackets. This particular house has a two-story 
rear wing with projecting polygonal end pavilion. 

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Richland Ibwnship 





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Richland Township 

Brick veneer conceals most of the architec- 
tural character of this church but it retains an 
attractive cupola with dentiled cornice and late 
Greek Revival-style pilasters. Pleasant Hill Meth- 
odist Protestant Church was organized in 1858 
and a frame structure was built in 1859. Plans for 
the present sanctuary were drawn in December. 
1885. The church was completed in August, 
1886 and dedicated on November 7, 1886. It was 
remodeled and brick-veneered in 1966. The tomb- 
stone of William Bird, who died March 19. 
1858, is marked "First to be buried in this 
cemetery." Some "Lautermilch" (Lowdermilk) 
family burials from the early 19th century have 
been moved here, however. 


3B\ IDE 



Richland Township 

This grist mill on Fork Creek no longer oper- 
ates but it is the county's best maintained and 
most attractively sited rural mill. It retains an 
iron overshot water wheel and some milling 
equipment in addition to its stone dam. The 
two-and-a-half-story frame mill seems to date 
from the turn of the century but Yow's Mill was 
established in 1820. A sawmill was added in 
1870 and a turbine water wheel was installed ca. 
'890; both have been removed. Since 1936 it has 
been in the possession of Harwood Graves. 


Richland Township 

Four unusual outbuildings are left at the site of 
the destroyed Richardson House. All four — bam, 
stable, wellhouse and springhouse — have steep 
pyramidal roofs which were popular at the turn 
of the century. The springhouse is built of stuc- 
coed fieldstone, and it and the stable also feature 
shed dormer windows. 


Richland Township 

^hen this Methodist Protestant congregation 
*as organized ca. 1859 the church was called 
"Auman's Chapel" because Martin Auman fur- 
nished its logs. It was renamed "Mt. Moriah" 
before it burned during the Civil War. A new 
church, built in 1870, was named Fair Grove. 

The present sanctuary was built in 1900. It is a 
one-room building, five bays long with lancet 
windows and a polygonal apse behind the altar. 
Services here were discontinued in 1935 after 
Seagrove Methodist Church was built one-and-a- 
half-miles north. A well-known local school, the 
Why Not Academy and Business Institute, was 
located on the church grounds. It was a coed 
boarding school with an enrollment of 132 stu- 
dents in 1910. 


Richland Township 

The nucleus of this dwelling is a one-story 
heavy frame hall-and-parlor plan house with 6/6 
sash. Ca. 1890 this antebellum house was ex- 
panded; a second story and kitchen wing were 
added, as well as a polygonal bay with overhang- 
ing bracketed eaves. A central gable was added 
on the east facade and the house was transformed 
into a center-hall plan. The wraparound hipped- 
roof porch is carried on classical columns which 
seem to have been added in the early 20th 







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Richland Township 

The chief feature of this two-story center-hall 
plan is its hip-roofed porch with gabled central 
balcony. It features turned posts with sawn 
brackets. This type of two-tiered porch was 
popular in parts of Randolph County during the 
1880s and 1890s. Professor George Gamer of 
the Why Not Academy lived in this house until 
his death in 1913. The house was built by the 
community and is located on the Why Not Acad- 
emy grounds. (The academy held its first com- 
mencement exercise in 1897.) 


Richland Township 

This was the home of James Edward and 
Caroline Dean Harper. A later section of the 
house was built in 1897-1898 by a "live-in" 
carpenter, Mr. Jerdan (Jordan?). The later addi- 
tion was constructed using the stud and joist 
method (clapboard exterior-horizbntal planking 
interior) as opposed to log construction covered 
by clapboards exterior which was employed in 
the older section of the house. The two sections 
were joined together with the aid of wooden 
rollers. The kitchen was housed in a separate 
building which was floored with handmade 
brick. Brick used for flooring and chimneys were 
made on the site by family members. 

A 1910 documentary photograph only faintly 
reveals the original section of the house; the 
section constructed in 1897-1898 is all that re- 
mains today. This two-story center-hall plan 
features a two-tier porch, feathered shingle decora- 
tion in the pedimented gable with boxed cornice, 
4/4 sash and turned porch posts with sawn 


Richland Township 

This two-story T-plan house was recently 
moved to this location from a site on Richland 
Creek. It featured end chimneys and a two-story 
central porch and balcony carried on chamfered 
posts. The bases of the surviving posts are 


Richland Township 

Built in 1 844, this structure was a fine example 
of 19th century vernacular craftsmanship and its 
use in the construction of rural service buildings. 
Unfortunately the bam has been moved from its 
original site and substantially altered for use as a 
dwelling. Cassady utilized pegged construction 
techniques and heart of pine lumber (sawn with a 
small, sash saw). The main portion of the bam is 
two stories high resting on a stone foundation. 
The lower floor was divided into two sections; 
one with flooring and used for storage, etc. and 
one with dirt floors for use as stables. One stall 
contained a trough hollowed out from a pine log. 
A trap door located at the top of the interior 
stairs contained metal strap hinges wrought by 
Cassady, as were the lift latch on an exterior door 
and the lightning rods. The west elevation 
exhibited a shed with stalls where another pine 
log trough measuring 20" x 20" x 26'/;' 'S 
located. Another interesting feature of this 
stmcture are the Roman numerals indicating date 
of constmction still visibly carved in the overhead 

Calvin Cassady was the last of eight children 
bom to John and Elizabeth Cassady who came to 
Randolph County from Ireland in the 1790's- 
According to local tradition Cassady built the 
bam on his father's 468 acre farm with the 
assistance of two slaves, John and Enoch- 
Cassady's intentions were to construct a "sub- 
stantial home" for he and his bride-to-be, Fannie 
Moffet, after the completion of the bam. Cassady 
died in 1847 of a fever, at the age of 28, prior to 
the marriage. A portion of John and Elizabeth s 
original tract, that which contains the bam, '* 
now owned by Mrs. Susan Lowdermilk Burroughs' 

Adapted from July 1980 National Register 
nomination written by Jo Ann Williford and Jiii 





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Main Street 

This is an attractive Queen Anne style dwell- 
ing probably built ca. 1900. Its wraparound 
porch was at one time carried by turned posts 
with sawn brackets. TWo polygonal bays are 
capped by cantilevered roof overhangs braced by 
sawn brackets with rows of spindles. John and 
Clail Cooper built this house for Frank Auman's 
family where they lived until their move to 
Asheboro. Mr. Auman owned and operated 
Seagrove Lumber Company from 1926 until his 
death in 1941. His son, Howard, continued to 
operate the business after his father's death until 
1944 when it was sold. Frank Auman was also 
affiliated with the Seagrove Hardware Company 
and the Bank of Seagrove. 


Main Street 

Chief features characterizing this structure are 
the pyramidal roof with accenting gables. The 
hip-roofed porch is carried on tuscan style posts. 
Built by W. H. Hughes, this house was later 
occupied by Dr. Helms, partner of Dr. Johnston. 
(No medical doctors have resided and practiced 
in Seagrove since Drs. Johnston and Helms.) 
A. C. Harris, manager of the Bank of Seagrove 
from 1920 until 1935, purchased the house ca. 
1921-22. A. C. Harris' son Wade is now the 
present owner. 


Main Street 

Built by Charlie T^sor, a prominent builder in 
the region around the turn of the century, this 
two-story hipped-roof dwelling has offset gables 
on the south and east facades and a projecting 
pavilion on the west. The wraparound porch is 
carried on turned posts with brackets. The pres- 
ent owner of the house, Bobby Voncannon, was 
mayor of Seagrove from 1963 to 1971. 


Southeast comer of Main Street 

and South Street 

This early 20th-century house is similar to 
many other examples in the county; plain, al- 
most utilitarian. A one-story kitchen wing has 
been added to the rear and the original porch 
supports have been replaced by 1940-ish bunga- 
loid pylons on brick piers. One remarkable fea- 
ture of the house is the solitary hipped gable 
which contrasts with the other standard A-gables 
with cornice returns. 


Southwest comer of Main Street and 

South Street 


The Seagrove Hardware Company was organ- 
ized by Frank Auman, Charlie lysor and Artemas 
(A. R.) Auman ca. 1915. The building was 
begun the same year and was open for business 
by 1916. Brick was hauled from the Elmer Rich 
brickyard in Grant Township; the masons were 
Willard Brown and John Wright. The Seagrove 
Post Office was housed in the building from 
1920 to 1923. Shortly after the store was built a 
railroad siding was built between the depot and 
hardware store so that crossties could be loaded 
here. For a time Seagrove was called the unoffi- 
cial "Crosstie Capital of the Worid." The long 
shed-roofed building uses a stepped parapet to 
conceal its change in height from one story in the 
rear to two full stories at the street. That facade is 
simple and utilitarian, with brick pilasters fram- 
ing the relatively unaltered, original cast-iron 
and glass storefront. The hardware store is owned 
and operated today by the late Artemas Auman's 
sons A. R., Jr. and Hubert. 



Northwest comer of Main Street and 

North Street 


The Bank of Seagrove was organized by a 
group of local citizens on March 10, 1920, with 
$10,000 capital stock. The bank was closed by 
the directors on December 29, 1933, in volun- 
tary liquidation. No depositors lost money. The 
bank building was constructed ca. 1921. Two 
entrance facade doors flank a central tripartite 
window; all three segmental-arched openings are 
lit by transoms. A corbeled parapet conceals the 
shed roof. The street facade is composed of 
'ight orange-colored brick; the secondary walls 
*re of standard red brick in 1:7 common bond. 


US 220 

Built by Henry Stutts, this center-hall plan 
end-chimney house features a hipped-roof porch 
with central-gable balcony. The porch was origi- 
nally carried on turned posts with sawn brackets; 
feathered shingles decorated the gable. It has 4/4 
sash. Henry Yow had this house constructed for 
his cousin Nancy Holmes. Miss Holmes fur- 
nished room and board for passengers from the 
A & A railroad. Henry and Francis Yow's home 
Was several yards south of the Holmes House but 
on the same property. Upon the death of Miss 
Holmes, the house went to the Yow estate where it 
t^mained until it was purchased by Henry Yow's 
grandson, Henry. Boyd King, mayor of Seagrove 
from 1945-1947, rented the house a number of 
years between the time of Nancy Holmes' death 
*nd the time of purchase by Henry Yow's grand- 


Main Street 

This small commercial building is typical of 
™any across the county in the early 20th century, 
"s gabled roof is disguised by a false "boom- 
*own" facade with sawn brackets supporting the 
^ornice. The entrance is recessed between two 
display windows. Built by Jasper Auman, this 
^tfucture was moved from downtown Seagrove 

(Highway 705) to its present site. This site was 
once the location of Henry Yow's store which 
was disassembled and used to consUiict a resi- 
dence for the Seagrove School principal on the 
Old Plank Road. The Jasper Auman building 
was used as a barber shop operated by Manley 
("Crip") Jerdan (Jordan?) and later as a store. 


Northeast comer US 220 and 

Main Street 


This substantial dwelling illustrates a vemacu- 
lar house form which was common in eariy 
20th-century Randolph County. The tall, narrow 
main block of the structure has a matching 
two-story rear wing. The steeply-pitched gables 
are decorated by feathered shingling. The first- 
floor entrance into the central hallway dividing 
the main block is crowned by a doubled window 
on the second story. The ground-level doors and 
windows are completely shaded by a rambling 
veranda carried on turned posts. Henry Yow 
owned and operated the general store on Main 
Street (Lucas Street) until his death in 1918. 

S:10 A.R. (Artemas) AUMAN HOUSE 

Lucas Road 

Built ca. 1913, this two-story dwelling fea- 
tures a center hall plan with central gable and 
two-story rear wing. The three corbeled brick 
chimneys have single stepped shoulders. Other 
features include 4/4 sash, gables with boxed 
cornice and retums and pointed gable decoration. 
The hip-roofed porch is carried on Tuscan-order 
columns with capitals although surviving tumed 
posts are probably the original. Evidence sug- 
gests that John and Clail Cooper may have been 
the builders. A. R. Auman leased the house to 
Frank Auman and J. M. Green, respectively 
before leaving his farm and moving into the 
house with his family. His new business venture 
in the Seagrove Hardware instigated the move to 
the town of Seagrove. A. R. was the son-in-law 
of Henry Yow whose house was several hundred 
yards east of the Auman house. 









«ii « 


I* ' 







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4 A ^ 



Parks Street 

This elongated central gable house features a 
hip porch with second-floor balcony. The porch 
exhibits turned posts with sawn brackets. The 
house may have been built ca. 1914 by Dick 
Boiling. Jeff and Delia Welch purchased this 
home in 1919. Delia Welch's neice, Tonnie 
Richardson Auman and husband Lynn are the 
present owners. 



Parks Street 

This one-story center-hall plan house features 
an oversized central gable with a smaller gable 
interruption in the hip porch to accent the 
entrance; both gables have boxed cornices and 
returns. Built ca. 1905, the bungaloid style porch 
supports on brick piers are probably replace- 
ments. S. G. ("Guyard") Richardson, who in 
1925 bought the Seagrove Roller Mills and added 
a cotton gin, once lived in this dwelling. He later 
served as chairman of the Randolph County 
Board of Commissioners. 


Southwest comer of Parks Street and 

Green Street 


This delapidated two-story house was proba- 
bly built ca. 1910 by Jason Freeman. It has lost 
its original porch but retains feathered shingle 
decorations in the central gable. German siding 
has partially replaced the original. 


King Avenue 

This pyramidal-roofed house is two rooms 
deep arranged around a central hallway. Shed 
dormers light the small second floor. The present 
bungaloid porch pylons on brick piers may be 
replacements of earlier porch posts. Pyramidal 
roofs were in vogue in the late 1890s and early 
1900s. In eastern North Carolina it was thought 
that they made houses cooler by pulling the heat 
to the peak. The house was built by W J. Moore, 
one of the original town commissioners of 
Seagrove, in 1913. It was later bought by Carl 
King, sheriff of Randolph County from 1930 to 

in i = 1 


US 220 

This hip-roofed side-hall plan house is identi- 
cal to a house two doors north which was re- 
cently destroyed. It has a rear wing and a project- 
ing two-story side pavilion. It is now covered 
with asbestos siding, which also hides the feath- 
ered shingle decoration in the gables. The porch 
posts are replacements. Mr. Hammond was both 
the builder and owner of the house and in fact 
constructed several houses during this era in 
Seagrove. He and Madison Farlow both owned 
saw mills and furnished much of the lumber for 
both residential and commercial buildings in the 
Seagrove area between ca. 1895-1930. This 
house was later occupied by Madison Farlow's 
brother-in-law Jethro Harper and still later by 
Noah and Jewel Williams. Mrs. Williams was 
postmistress of the Seagrove Post Office from 
January, 1928 until November, 1945. 


US 220 

This two-story center-hall plan house has 
feathered shingle decoration in the center and 
side gables, 1/1 sash and a wraparound porch 
^ith a small gable over the entrance. The porch 
's carried on turned posts with brackets. The 
south end of the house is clipped to form a 
polygonal bay capped by cantilevered roof over- 
''^ngs. These are braced by spindled brackets 
*ith turned pendant drops. 

8:17 HOUSE 

Borough Avenue 

Once sited on Waymon Street, this house has 
been recently moved to its present location and is 
undergoing renovation. The central portion of 
this house is a two-story hip-roofed structure 
with three projecting wings or pavilions. The 
wraparound porch is carried on Tuscan-order 
columns. The dwelling was probably built ca. 
1915. Eli Leach's son, Garrett, once lived here. 


US 220 

The original Seagrove depot of the Asheboro 
and Aberdeen Railway burned in 1905 and was 
immediately replaced by this structure. Lumber 
for the new depot was furnished by Jefferson 
Auman, who also built the station for $35. The 
two-story gabled building was the center of the 
corporate limits of the new town when Seagrove 
was incorporated in 1913. A one-story hip-roofed 
wing housing a waiting room and office was 
later added to the original section. For many 
years this was the closest station for wealthy 
Pinehurst vacationers who wanted to visit the 
nearby potteries. After the railroad line was 
abandoned, the station was moved to the 
grounds of the Seagrove Pottery in 1969, where 
it functions as the Potter's Museum. 








Union Tbwnship 


Union Township 

The earliest grist mil! and largest frame struc- 
ture remaining in Randolph County, the Cox 
Mill on Little River, may have been built ca. 
1835 when Thomas Cox (a Quaker of English 
ancestry) acquired the property. The mill is known 
today after Dennis Cox, long time miller and son 
of Thomas. The fabric of the structure is virtu- 
ally unaltered, with the most important survival 
being the small unglazed windows. The guillo- 
tine shutters with original wrought iron latches 
are unique in the county. Early features of the 
structure also include strap hinges, two-part 
"Dutch" door, pent roof over the east entrance, 
chamfered interior support posts terminating in 
lamb's tongue motifs and asymmetrical placing 
of the window and door openings. Much of the 

original wooden gearing used with an overshot 
water wheel has survived later replacement with 
leather belting run off a turbine water wheel. 
The location of the mill, far off the present 
thoroughfares, has contributed to its survival in 
near-to-original form. Local tradition also cites 
another factor: the miller during the Civil War is 
said to have bargained with Sherman's advance 
troops to spare the mill. 

Note: What Sherman's troops failed to do in 
1865, lighming and neglect accomplished on 29 
July 1981. Randolph County's architectural and 
cultural heritage is immeasurably poorer for the 
destruction of this superb building. 











Union Township 

Labon Slack is said to have built this one-and- 
a-half-story house in the 1850s with money he 
earned working on the construction of the plank 
road. A log house, the dual front doors suggest 
that it may have been built in two stages. The 
off-center primary entrance is set in a frame with 
sidelights. The engaged porch is carried on plain 
posts. The end chimneys have stone fireboxes 
and brick stacks. The house is now covered with 
asbestos siding and a metal roof. 


Union Township 

The Pisgah Community Covered Bridge was 
built around 1910 by J. J. Welch, who con- 
structed a number of covered bridges in the area. 
Normally the building of these bridges was au- 
thorized by the county commissioners. Upon the 
satisfactory completion of a bridge, the commis- 
sioners paid for materials and labor. Available 
records, however, do not show county participa- 
tion in the building of Pisgah Bridge. The bridge 
IS forty feet long and is said to have cost $40 to 
build. Its modest proportions indicate it may 
have been built privately. 

Pisgah Bridge is one of two such bridges 
remaining in a county where the number of 
covered bridges once exceeded that of any other 
county in the state. It is a fine example of this 
particular type of construction and an object of 
much interest to historians, engineers, architects 
and artists. Ownership of the bridge appears to 
be vested in landowners on either side of the 
bridge, Lacey Strider and Gerald Parker. 

A low range of mountains extends through 
Randolph County, creating many small streams 
and rivers to be forded or bridged. The Pisgah 
Community Covered Bridge spans one of these 
streams, a shallow branch of Little River, about 
fourteen miles south of Asheboro. It is a small 
forty-foot wooden structrure with a gable roof 
and vertically sheathed sides resting on a dry 
wall stone pier foundation. On either side of the 
bridge above the four piers the floor joists extend 
beyond the wall and support braces that are 
sheathed to created small buttresses. Openings 
for light and ventilation are located directly be- 
low the eaves of the roof, which is covered by 
standing seam tin. On the inside the modified 
queenpost truss system is exposed, and plank 
tracks or treads run the length of the floor. 








New Hope Ibwnship 

Construction of the Lion habitat at the N. C. 
Zoological Park, 1981. Perhaps the most perva- 
sive design motif at the state zoo is also one of 
its most innovative and surprising architectural 
achievements; the massive rocks which sur- 
round many exhibits like the Lion habitat are ac- 
tually false facades disguising concrete animal 
shelters. The technique was one of the first in- 
ventions of zoo Design Curator Dwight Holland 
and his staff. The "rocks" are formed around an 
armature of wire mesh and steel reinforcing rods, 
with a carefully-shaped and painted concrete skin 
sculpted by the design crew. The Lion habitat. 
Aviary and African Pavilion exhibit the most im- 
pressive examples of this unique art form. The 
monkey exhibit in the African Pavilion even 
boasts a 40-foot tall artificial tree built using the 
same technique. 











New Hope Township 

This frame sanctuary building, five bays long, 
's among the oldest religious structures in the 
county. Decorative details suggest it was built at 
'east by 1850 and show that the area was once 
prosperous and of sophisticated tastes. The trim 
of both doors and windows consists of eight- 
piece segmental arches which spring from plain 
corner blocks. The doors have round arches, 
*hile the windows are pointed. The cornice has 
a deep overhang with cornice returns. There is 
no steeple; instead, the bell is attached to a 
corner of the building. A Sunday school class- 
room wing at the rear of the sanctuary is covered 
*'th asbestos siding and seems to have been 
built ca. 1940. In the graveyard are many stones 
*hich were elaborately carved in the 1850s by 
'he Lauder firm of Fayettevile. In 1864 the church 
*as used as a headquarters by Lt. Col. Hargrave, 
^ commander of the North Carolina Home Guard, 
*ho camped there while trying to round up and 
^Test the many deserters and "outliers" hiding 
in the area. 


New Hope Township 

Part of this dwelling is very obviously an early 
19th century two-story house with boxed cor- 
nices and flush gables. However, the structure 
was extensively altered and added to ca. 1960 
and very little of the early fabric remains. The 
2/2 sash, "picture" window, metal carport and 
aluminum siding all date from this period. Some- 
where underneath remains one of the oldest 
houses in the area. 



3131 1131= 






* I 






Pugh Funeral Home ca. 1930atits 
location on the southeast corner of 
Sunset Avenue and Church Street, 
Asheboro. Originally built ca. 1900 
by C. C. Cranford as a residence, it 
served as a funeral home until ca. 









Founding and Growth to 1830 

Asheboro can be thought of as Randolph County's original Christmas present; 
the city received its first corporate charter from the state legislature on December 25, 
1796. But while the holiday is a convenient milestone to perpetuate as the city's 
founding date, the events that led up to the creation of Asheboro began as early as 
the formation of the county in 1779. 

Although what was to become Asheboro was originally established by local 
settlers as their principal village, it was not Randolph County's first seat of 
government. Between 1779 and 1785 the county court met first in the home of 
Abraham Reese and then in the home of William Bell. For the next three years, the 
court met at different sites while the first courthouse was being built. In November, 
1788, the legislature formally created the town of Johnstonville around the newly 
completed courthouse at the crossroads in northwestern Randolph where the Channel 
Eight television tower now stands (NC 311). This was not convenient for the 
majority of county residents, however, and agitation for a new location began almost 



y-~y'i,- ,L,':i-:. ^y^. 

Survey of lots in Johnstonville by Samuel Millikan and William Lowe, Surveyors (showing property of 
William Bell. Alexander Gray and others^ Randolph County: no date (courtesy N. C. Stale Archives). 

immediately. Less than two years later state senator John Arnold, a resident of the 
Jackson's Creek area, introduced a bill "for altering the place for holding the courts 
in the County of Randolph. ..." This was passed in December, 1792, and the 
legislature ordered that a new courthouse, prison and stocks were to be built "in the 
most central part of Randolph County." Even this explicit order did not persuade 
everyone; a die-hard effort to prevent the change occurred the day before the 
scheduled move. Six of the seventeen justices of the county court voted against 
adjourning to the new courthouse. Nevertheless, the first court met at 9:00 on 
Wednesday June 12, 1793, in new facilities at a site in the center of Randolph 
County known only as "Randolph Court House." Not until that Christmas day three 
years later was the settlement coalescing around the courthouse officially incorporated 
and named "Asheborough," after Samuel Ashe (governor from 1795 to 1798).' 

Placement of the courthouse in the center of an almost perfectly square county 
impartially allowed geography to determine who would benefit and who would be 
disadvantaged. However, one man did benefit more than anyone else by the town's 
creation, Jesse Henley, the original owner of the land. On April 14, 1786, Henley 

. , , ... : *"-'V, ;T-'-t^ 


'^y'.Z<^/*^^>i-f ly^f-t^fyl^^Tf^ 



'^ j^ A ,^/i/:^/i^;^^ 

.^Ar:^^^^::^ : _ 

On July 10. 1786 Samuel Millikan. the County Sunewr. platted out a 200 acre tract of land ■'on deep 
river waters Including the Center ofSd County! ' The tract was granted to Jesse Henlev. The plat isfoW"! 
today in the Land Grant Office of the North Carolina Secretan. of State. 


entered his application for a grant of 200 acres of land "on Deep River waters 
including the Center of Sd. County." The land had been part of the vast estate of the 
Earl of Granville, the ungranted part of which was confiscated by the state of North 
Carolina during the Revolution. It was some distance to Henley's home near the 
present Lake Lucas, now Asheboro's raw water reservoir on Back Creek; therefore, 
his specific concern to include the center of the county indicates that his intentions 
Were shrewdly speculative. His agreement in 1796 to subdivide fifty acres of the 
tract into one-acre lots substantially increased the value of all his adjoining 
property.^ Asheboro, then, was bom in the midst of political maneuverings and land 
speculations in 1792, the final year of President George Washington's first term in 
office. The event of its creation doomed another town, Johnstonville, to eventual 

A combination of factors determined the site of the town on Henley's tract of 
land: the desire to put the courthouse in the center; the presence of high and level 
ground; and the need for water. The last was filled by the nearby spring and branch 
today called the "Penn Wood Branch" but originally known as 'Allen Woodell's 
Spring" and ' Abram's Creek," tributaries of Haskett's Creek and Deep River. The 
street plan laid out by Henley and the five commissioners appointed by the 
legislature to "regulate" the town is Asheboro's only surviving reminder of the 
eighteenth century. Yet even this has been altered in the intervening years. The 
original town plan was probably a standard "Lancaster Square" plan (so called after 
the Pennsylvania county seat where it was first used). The plan was a variation of the 
grid street pattern which notched out the comers of adjacent blocks to form a 
courthouse square in the intersection of the two main streets. It was traditionally 
identified with county government and reflected the pride of the community in its 
administrative and legal center, symbolically the heart of the county. This was 
doubly emphasized in Asheboro, for the courthouse square at the junction of 
niodem-day Main and Salisbury streets was determined to be the exact center of Ran- 
dolph County as well as the center of town. 

Only a vague image of the first years of "Asheborough" can be calculated 
today. It was not then a commercial hub nor a traveler's way-stop. Those functions 
^ere filled in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries by natural crossroads 
communities such as Johnstonville, Gladesborough and New Salem. New roads 
*ere built and old ones realigned to connect Asheborough with the rest of Randolph 
County. Main Street is the only present-day street for which an eighteenth-century 
"ame is known: deeds refer to it as "McCulloh Street," after George McCulloh, 
^hose home and law office fronted its westem side. McCulloh was the son of 
colonial land baron Henry Eustace McCulloh, and one of the ongmal residents of 
tl'e infant town. 

No physical evidence whatsoever has survived to give us an idea ot the 
appearance of Asheboro during this period. Records mention the small frame 
'Courthouse, a log jail, stocks and pillories and a whipping post. A handful of stores 
^nd law offices clustered around the courthouse. Houses would have been a few in 
""niber, small and not necessarily of log constniction. Homes resembling the 
Williams-Bryant log cabin at 1430 Sunset Avenue may have been built in the new 

The original Eighteenth-Century Street Pattern as sited on the 200-acre Henley tract. The courthouse 
square has been placed in the center of the tract. The streets do not run due North, South, East or West, 
probably because of the steep slopes on the North and East, and a creek to the North. Other tracts of land 
were added to this as the town expanded. 

town, but other examples in Randolph County suggest that elaborate frame 
constmction in the Georgian and Federal styles may also have been known in early 

The courthouse was the focal point of most activity for the first ninety-five years 
of the town's existence. Asheboro in that period resembled one of the present-day 
coastal or mountain resort towns, which flower each summer or winter just long 
enough to reap all the benefits of the tourist season, then lapse into dormancy. In the 
case of a county seat, the tempo of life and the economy of the town were geared to 
the periodic "court week" when law, politics and hucksterism convened at the 
courthouse. The swell of population during the first week of each quarter was a lure 
which attracted a growing number of craftsmen and artisans. One early resident 
wrote "I wish I could bring to my readers the atmosphere of the little town a few 
days before court week; on Saturday, Sunday and Monday, the gathering of the 
lawyers from other places and witnesses and those who had business; then Tuesday 
when everybody, especially the men, came to court, sell anything they had for sale, 
swap horses, and lots of them just to get dmnk. . . ."^ Another resident recalled that 
the courthouse square 

. . . was often a noisy and riotous place. ... the judge often had to call a halt in the 
proceedings of a trial and order the sheriff to go down and restore order and quiet around 
the building. The noises arose from horse-traders, venders of patent-medicines, shilabers 




The Randolph Courtly court records of 1816 contain the following annotated drawing for stocks and a 
pillory to be built for the use of the sheriff. 


for peep-shows and the like, and lastly from quarrellers and battlers likely stimulated by 
country brands of raw John Barley com. Many of the hawkers moved from one court to 
another, and in Asheboro at least, Tuesday was sure to be a big day. They camped often 
times by open fires alongside their wagon-tongues, and slept in their wagons. ... In 
July particularly with windows open, it often sounded like Bedlam out there.'* 

A two-story frame courthouse was built in 1805 in preparation for the first term 
of superior court held in Asheboro in 1807. Expansion of the court activities 
guaranteed increased business opportunities. This set the pattern for the growth of 
Asheboro and the formation of its character— a rural settlement populated by 
artisans and professional men, almost totally dependent upon the seasonal meetings 
of the court. The town was first designated a post office in 1814, and members of the 
Elliott family dominated as postmasters for its first quarter-century. In 1806 Benja- 
min Elliott bought lots on the south side of the courthouse square, on which he built 
one of the town's first substantial homes— a two-story frame house, with a "long 
porch, square white columns, with door opening into a hallway."^ Elliott and his 
family later moved back and forth between Asheboro and their textile manufacturing 
interests in Cedar Falls and this early house was converted into a hotel and tavern. It 
burned about 1890. 

The earliest known representation of a structure built in Asheboro is the 
contractor's drawing of the new stocks and pillory constructed in the summer of 
1816. These were popular devices for punishment until the Civil War. They seemed 
to deteriorate despite regular maintenance and on the average were replaced about 
every ten years. Stocks and pillories were normally situated in the yard of the jail, 
which was moved during the nineteenth century from a site on the creek behind 
present 303 East Salisbury Street to a site on the southeast comer of Salisbury and 
Cox streets. 

In November, 1824, a twenty-two year old lawyer. Jonathan Worth, bought a lot 
m Asheboro. Worth, governor from 1865 to 1868. became one of the town's most 
prominent citizens. He served six terms in the General Assembly, two terms as state 
treasurer and two terms as governor.' Perhaps as early as 1830. Worth bought or built 
the house which became his home until 1864. Its site lies just behind present 232 
Worth Street. A photograph of the house shows a simple L-plan vernacular structure, 
with 6-over-6 sash and flat cornice returns hinting at the Greek Revival style. What 
appears to be a pyramidal ice house occupies the left foreground of the picture. No 
photograph of the front of the house is known. The house passed out of the Worth 
family and burned about 1890. 

Antebellum Years 

Civic awareness was low in Asheboro during the early nineteenth century, and 
no new town commissioners were elected or appointed. The eighteenth-century 
town plan had provided for 42 one-acre lots surrounded by a grid of 32-foot-wide 
streets or alleys. Forty years later the narrowness of those alleys which had becom^ 
main thoroughfares was felt to be burdensome, but a remedy was not readily 
available. Since the town had no functioning government, the state legislature had to 

M./^-^ / "^-^ 

JX/l-''t ^-^-A 

^ ca. 1885 view of the home of Gov. Jonathan Worth, from the southeast or Mam Street point oj view. No 
photograph of the front or Worth Street facade is known. Worth moved to Asheboro in 1825 but the date of 
'"w acquisition of this house is unclear. Worth died in 1869: the house remained in his family until it 
burned, ca. 1890. 

be petitioned to reincorporate the town and appoint new commissioners before 
improvements could be made. This was accomplished in 1829 when Benjamin 
Elliott, George Hoover, Joshua Craven, Hugh McCain and Jonathan Worth were 
authorized to resurvey the town. The number of lots remained the same, but were 
consolidated in six blocks bordered by five principal streets. The new streets were 
«louble the width of the old ones.* In 1843, Worth, McCain and Craven ("the 
"■emaining commissioners of the town of Asheborough") were ordered to assist the 
county surveyor in making a map of the town and in marking the comers of the 
courthouse square with soapstone landmarks. The plat map which was drawn up still 
exists in the court records of November, 1843.^ 

Since only Worth, McCain and Craven remained out of the five 1829 
commissioners, it was obvious that the townspeople had not been electmg replace- 
"lents for those commissioners who died or moved away which reflected a 
widespread political apathy among the local populace. The citizens of Asheboro 
simply did not seem too interested in maintaining a municipal government. 
'Commissioners were once again appointed and the town reincorporated by the 
legislatures of 1845, 1849, 1855, 1861 and 1883. The 1855 act directed the 
townspeople to elect five commissioners who were to appoint a "magistrate of 
police" as the presiding officer of the board of commissioners and a constable to 

i / 








\ // 










jx/^-^ /-^ ^*^ 























jf/^ f ii^ 

7^/i^*u ,^ d^^ 

To the County Court of Bald County 

In Obediance to the Orde; 
It term appointing the undersigned to 
survey the streets 
Cause the corners ■ 

of this Court at the 
iploy the county surveyor 
f Asheboro inciudin« the Public Square and 
. be durably and permanently Marked, Me Report 

That WB employed Col. Isaac Lamb, the County Surveyor, to 
make said survey, and the plat above,' made out by him on a Scale 
of Ten poles to the Inch, is a Correct Representation of the Town 
with the Streets and the Public Square. 

We further report that at Each of the Twelve ansles or Corners 
of the Public Square we Caused a Soapstone Rock to be planted 
extending one foot into the ground and Two inches above the surface 
and that portion of these rocKs above the Surface, la hewed Square 
and not leas than ^ Inches Square, and we have had 25 other rocks, 
of "Suitable Site for a land Mark planted, one at Each of the Corners 
of the blocks Containing 6 lote fnakin« 22, Exclusive of the Corners 
on the Public Squaret and one at the South East Corner of Lot No. I, 
all at least Extend at Least one foot Into the Ground and Six inches 
above the Surface. The Charge of the Surveyor for hie services is 
$4 75 and we Let out the Contract for Procuring and planting the 
Rock to the lowest bidder and Joseph A. Worth became the Undert«ker 
■t $9.75 and has performed his Underteklnfi according to his Contract, 

Jonathan Worth 
Hugh McCain 
Joshua Craven 

This map of the town of Asheboro was made by the county surveyor and submitted to the county Court of 
Pleas and Quarter Sessions at their November, 1843 term. 






collect taxes, which were to be used for upkeep of the roads. This 1855 act, with 
amendments in 1861, provided the framework of municipal government until 1883. '° 
Although official records are lost. Col. Thomas Moore seems to have been the first 
unofficial "mayor" of Asheboro, serving perhaps from 1855 to 1876. Lawyer J. T. 
Crocker was then mayor from 1877 at least until 1890." 

The latter 1830s heralded the first boom period in the history of Asheboro. It 
originated late in 1836 with the arrival of lawyer and editor Benjamin Swaim. Swaim 
had decided to move his newspaper, the Southern Citizen, from the town of New 
Salem to Asheboro, and the first Asheboro issue was dated December 31, 1836. For 
the next eight years Swaim showed himself to be a tireless promoter of "internal 
improvement." The Southern Citizen of August 19, 1937, has preserved Swaim's 
description of his new hometown: 

We have been waiting a good while for room to tell folks at a distance whereabouts, 
and what sort of place this Asheboro is. . . . 

The situation of this place is uncommonly healthy and pleasant, being on a ridge 
dividing the waters of Deep River and Uwharrie, and within a few miles of Carraway and 
several other beautiful mountains. Our village, though yet small, has been on the 
advancing hand for the last two or three years. We number about one hundred 
inhabitants; very few blacks. We have a pretty good Court House, jail and Methodist 
E[piscopal] Church. In point of Morality and good neighborhood our community is an 
exception, and besides very industrious. Nearly all the public offices are kept here. . . . 

The two main roads leading from Virginia to South Carolina, and from the Eastern to 
the Western parts of this state, intersect here, and within a few miles of this place, they 
respectively branch off in every direction, affording all the necessary facilities of 
intercourse. We have two arrivals of the mail (in stage) every week from the East, and as 
many from the West; besides a mail from the North once a week, that ought and we hope 
will shortly be extended to the South, and carried by stage. 

We stand in a great need of more Mechanics, especially carriage and wagon makers. 
Blacksmith, Hatter, Tanner, Cabinet workmen, Tinner, Saddle and Harness maker — any 
or all of these occupations, well followed, would find ample encouragement among us. 
Provisions are plenty and cheap, and likely to be more so. We have never seen a more 
promising prospect for heavy crops of com. . . . 

Come some of you thorough-going sons of Carolina! give up your hankering notions 
of the West. Come and settle among US, on the route of the projected Fayetteville and 
Western Rail Road. Bring capital if you can, if not, bring what is infinitely better 
— enterprise, industry and economy. 

The Fayetteville and Western Railroad of which Swaim spoke caused great 
excitement in Asheboro from the late 1830s to about 1845. Despite the central 
geographical locations of both Asheboro and Randolph County, it was difficult for 
residents to market their agricultural or industrial products. Local Whigs hoped that 
attracting the railroad through the county would stimulate the economic develop- 
ment of the area. Though the railroad would not come for another fifty years, the 
efforts did culminate in the Fayetteville and Western Plank Road Company some ten 
years later. 

In November, 1839, The New York Circus and Arena Company came to town. 

exhibiting strange animals and promising "a variety of new and interesting feats of 
Horsemanship and other varied scenes of amusements and Equestrian excercises, 
which will constitute the most delightful and genteel entertainment ever offered in 
this place." '^ 

The circus may have heralded the completion of the new county courthouse, a 
tangible result of this era of civic improvement. Construction of a new brick courthouse 
had been authorized by the county justices in February, 1839. In May, however, some of 


This photograph of the Randolph County Courthouse was probably made ca. 1890. The original 
two-story 1839 courthouse is visible behind the entrance pmilion added in 1876. This is the south facade 
of me building {courtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public 


^^****** *' ^' .' ,, . .... t,^,„!„„ ,u^ were shiDDed to Wilmington in the 1840s, were barged up the Cape Fear River to 
TL- , . „ . ■ , 1,. ,„„r^ „^pH to erind gold at the Gray mine near Asheboro. Made in Belgium, they were snippea lu r,nm « 
This pair of iron balls and granite '^"^f/^ ^f^'^ J^ f„" p,fL„t ideated on Marmaduke Circle, behind the home ofJ.D. Ross, Jr. 
Payetteville and were brought to Randolph County by wagon, presently locmea ^ ^ 

the justices seem to have had second thoughts and voted instead to bu'W yet anc^he 


his nearby tavern complex. The commissioners responsible - --^'"g '^^^ -- 
courthouse then claimed that no "proper matenals'' could be ^""d to^" Id a new 
wooden courthouse. The county justices, faced ^'^^Jhe Prospect of homeles^^^^^^^^ 
asked Hoover if the county could rent or buy back the old ^.«""house_ Hoover 
"appeared in open Court and agreed that the Sale might be ff ^i'f .f °" ^"^"f/.^ J^ 
that the Court would order the erection of a Brick building. The die was cast^ the 
resulting structure was a rectangular brick courthouse divided 'nto^^ Yn«^^ 
first floor with two jury rooms and the courtroom on the second floor 

The town's first religious and educational institutions were also Products of th 
period. The first, and for sixteen years the only church in Ashebom. ^/^^..^'^S 
Episcopal sanctuary built in 1834 adjoining what is now the ciy cemetery. Oh 
denominations also used the building for many years. South of the church ™ 
Salisbury Street was the original site of the Asheboro Female Academy now the oWes 
building in the city. The exterior door surrounds and ""^-^^ h rris uSwn 
element of the architectural trim. The identity o the builder remains unknown 
although he must have been a craftsman of some skill. A male academy was built 
in 1842 near the local muster field; the building burned in \^w. 

Census records note a population of 154 in 1850 Asheboro, including 32 house- 
holds 23 wives 21 single adults, 67 children under 21 and 1 1 free blacks. A Pres- 
byterian congregation had been organized that year, and in 1852 they dedicated their 
own church building on Worth Street. Dr. Simeon Colton, Yale graduate and min- 
ister, was lured from Payetteville to serve as pastor and school teacher m 1854. In 
1855 he noted in his diary that although 

there is more prosperity here than in any place I have lived ... I have by no means 
found the place what I expected. I was encouraged to expect a good school, but the 
prospect is by no means flattering. There is nothing but the mere fact of being a county 

town that gives to Asheboro any claim to notice above any comer in the country Much 

of this state of things among the population arises from the mining operators. . . . 

Other sources also attribute the nuisance of drunken gold miners to the presence of 
the Asheboro saloons. 

Construction of the 129-mile-long Payetteville and Western Plank Road began 
in Payetteville in 1849 and was completed to Salem in 1854. The work through 
Randolph County spanned 1851 and 1852. The toll house for Asheboro's section of 


'y r 


During World War II this small building was used as the office of the newly formed Stedman 
Manufacturing Company. It stood on or near the present municipal parking lot between Sunset Avenue 
atul Academy Street. Local tradition holds that the tiny building was originally built in the 1850s as the 
Asheboro toll house for the Fayetteville and Western Plank Road. 

The Henry B. Elliott mansion, later known as the Central Hotel, is one of several historic homes in 
Asheboro whose destruction is recorded in a remarkable series of photographs . The "Finer Carolina" 
promotional program administered by Carolina Power and Light during the 1950s awarded grants and 
prizes to towns and cities for community development and beaulification projects. The destruction of 
"unsightly" old dwellings and the preparation of sites for commercial development was a top priority 
and the vast majority of Asheboro' s historic homes were le\'eled due to these yearly competitions . At least 
the end of these historic properties is well documented, for a number of photographs made at stages 
during the demolition process were compiled in the contest scrapbooks submitted to the "Finer 
Carolind' Committee. These are now located in the Randolph Room at the Asheboro Public Library. 

the road stood behind present 226 South Fayetteville Street. Although maintenance 
of the road bed was abandoned by 1864, the highway was still called "The Plank 
Road" until the early twentieth century.'^ 

One major architectural addition to Asheboro's 1850 streetscape was imported. 
In 1837 Henry B. Elliott had built his home in Cedar Falls where he was 
supenntendent of the textile mill. About 1850 

for convenience of business he decided to move his place of residence from Cedar Falls 

to the county seat [He] had his home taken down and rebuilt in Asheboro, the work 

bemg done by slaves, superintended by "Old Wash" who was skilled in carpentry and 
industry. The house was erected on what was then described as "the most choice lot in 
Asheborough on Fayetteville Road.'' 

Photographs show the house, known as "Elliott's Mansion," to have been a Greek 
Revival structure, five bays long, with a porch supported by Tuscan columns running 
the length of the facade. A photograph of the interior of a first floor room reveals an 
elaborate arcaded screen, paneled wainscoting and a very simple Greek Revival 
mantel.'^ ■' ^ 

(A>The Elliott mansion ca. 1880. showing Greek Revi^nl style exterior trim and porch details. 



(B) The Central Hotel as it stood at the time of its sale and demolition in the summer of 1958. The 
original Elliott mansion has become the central portion of the hotel, with a two-story veranda linking 
^'"gs added on each side. 

(C) View from the southwest as demolition begins. 

fO) Th 

^ northwest wing under demolition. 

(E) Going . . . 



I "I 



(F) Going . 

About 1853 Dr. John Milton Worth, brother of Jonathan Worth, moved to 
Asheboro and built an unusual house on the northeast corner of Cox and Worth 
streets. The exterior of the two-story house was austerely simple; elements such as 
the door surround suggested the Greek Revival style, and the small coupled 
windows were a faint reference to the Italianate style so popular in the 1850s. The 
interior of the house, on the other hand, was surprisingly elaborate. The rooms were 
wainscoted in walnut and the ceilings were painted with flowers. The house must 
have truly been looked upon as a "mansion" in antebellum Asheboro. Residents 
today mostly remembered the elaborate Eastlake style porch which was added in the 
1880s by Worth's son-in-law, A. C. McAlister. 

The one building which still exists from the 1850s is the Marmaduke Robins 
law office at 124 North Main Street. It is the second-oldest building extant in 
Asheboro. The two-room frame structure, now being used as a storage shed, was 
purchased by Robins in 1874. Robins did not build the office since structural 
indications suggest an antebellum date. According to Marmaduke Robins's son 
Sidney, the office was originally set on stilt-like piers raising it some six feet off the 
ground.'^ Other buildings in Asheboro are known to have been similarly elevated, 
but the reason for it is not clear; perhaps the additional height aided ventilation. 
Offices such as this were common structures in nineteenth-century Asheboro and 
throughout the county towns of North Carolina; few have survived. 

(G) Gone. The hilly lot is being leveled; the Randolph Savings and Loan building, Asheboro' s first 
modern multi-story building, would soon rise on the site. 


Milton Worth ca 1853 . His son-in-law. Col. Alexander McAlister. later added wings and the elaborate 
Eastlake style porch . 




W\ '^U 





(^) Demolition begins in the summer . 

(C) Continues into the fall 




'^) Exposes the massive structural timbers of the antebellum dwelling 

(E) Reduces the once-glorious home to a heap of rubble 







'^•*- .ifc^^^ . - 




ff ) /Im/, as spring returns, Asheboro possesses another vacant lot ready for redevelopment. This 
scrapbook sequence was brightly captioned, "An unsightly old building, no longer beautiful or useful, 
makes way for progress!' In 1964 the Asheboro Public Library opened on the site. 

Civil War, Stagnation and a New Beginning 

The Civil War was a difficult time for Asheboro and Randolph County but not 
for military reasons. There were no Federal occupations, battles or burnings. The 
troubles in Randolph County came as internal struggles, first over the issue of 
secession and then dissatisfaction with wartime politics. Political sentiments were 
strongly pro-union as early as the nullification crisis in 1830, when an Independence 
Day toast in Asheboro declared that "he who wantonly engenders a feeling of 
hostility between the states instead of soothing it to harmony is a traitor to his 
country. Let no such man be trusted."'^" 

Randolph's state senator, Jonathan Worth, tried desperately during the "secession 
winter" of 1860 to keep North Carolina in the Union. On December 28, a public 
meeting in Asheboro to discuss the crisis drew a crowd of 1,000 people. The sense 
of the meeting was reported in a final resolution which declared that "all men who 
love their country . . . should . . . unite for the salvation of the Union and the 
Constitution."'^' On February 28, 1861, a referendum was held to determine whether 
North Carolina should call a secession convention. The vote, sponsored by the 
secessionists in the legislature, was barely defeated statewide, while in Randolph 
the population voted against calling a convention by a fifty to one margin. -^^ 
However, President Lincoln's "April Policy" turned the tide and forced North 
Carolina out of the Union on May 20, 1861. 


I D 

.y^ '/s~ 


!!>rl f » t""*"" '^^^-'^^^ period dray^n by Frances Porter Hubbard. The ■'Public Square' 
,Zi c/""-""^ located courthouse is clearly visible. When compared to the 1843 surxey map. H '^ 
obvious that some streets were neser opened, or became disused. 

Promment Asheboro citizens such as Jonathan and John Milton Worth became 
supporters of the war effort. Jonathan Worth moved to Raleigh in 1862 when he was 
elected state treasurer. John Milton Worth spent much of the war in Wilmington as 
airec orot the state salt works. Under influences such as theirs, opinion in Asheboro 
ran strongly m favor of the Confederacy. The surtounding county, however, was a 
center ot dissent. Peace meetings were held around the county throughout the war. 
uratt evaders, or "Outliers," and local deserters from the amiy hid from authorities 
n the woods and mountains. In 1864, Randolph was one of only three counties in 
he state which voted for W. W. Holden (the Peace Party candidate) over Zeb Vance 
<n the gubernatorial election. In addition, Peace candidates swept all local offices, 
Worth "^ ^'° ""^^'^^'^''^ '^^''^'' ^""^^ ^^ Marmaduke Robins and John Milton 

w.r '^'['f °™'.' g^w'h, slowly building since the 1830s was halted by the Civil 

inlcr r^'^T'' '^°"^'™c''0" took place for the next twenty-five years, and the 

Mhehl '''TJ^P"^^"' °f 'he town was miniscule. The only industries listed in 

ZXZ u i^,f'^ ^ '^"y^'''^ "P^^^'^'* ^'y Samuel Walker and a wool-carding 
machine run by William Gluyas.^-* 

reveak'^'lTiT"""'' ""'tl^^ '^"^^ P'"'' ^ '"^P "^ '^e village during this period 

urJ led inTsi/'hT'' '''^?'' '"^" '^^" ^'^ ^'^ planned Some of the streets 

surveyed in 1843 had never been opened. Others, such as Gluyas's Pond Road (latef 

known as Depot Street and Sunset Avenue) had developed in disregard for the survey 
and ultimately in the middle of a planned block. The growth of Asheboro became 
increasingly haphazard. 

The addition of a monumental entrance portico on the south side of the old 
courthouse was the only architectural achievement of note in the 1870s. An unusual 
"time capsule" built into that courthouse addition provided a glimpse into Asheboro 
of the Reconstruction period. In 1876 the mayor of Asheboro jotted down a senes of 
notes on the current aspects of his town, inserted the papers into four bottles and 
deposited the bottles in the wall of the unfinished courthouse addition. These were 
found in 1914 when the structure was demolished. 

Asheboro at this writing contains a population of about 200. It has two churches, 
Presbyterian and Methodist, South. The Rev. Mr. Dalton occupies the pulpit in the 
Presbyterian Church and the Rev. Mr. Craven in the Methodist Church. Both churches 
unite in a Sabbath School and it is held in the Presbyterian Church; it number about 75 
students from the town and surrounding neighborhood. The cemetary is at the Methodist 

Asheboro has two academies of learning, male and female. The colored people have 

also a church in this town. , , 

Asheboro is incorporated and no intoxicating drinks of any kind of character is aloua 

to be sold in two miles of the court house. ... , . j , 

There is a Masonic Lodge in Asheboro, Balfour Lodge No. 188. The Independent 

order of Good Templers have a lodge in this town. Good Shepherd lodge No. 4. 

The Randolph County Agricultural Society hold their annual fairs in this town; they 
have a fair ground, enclosed, of four acres. . . j~ .. 

The Court House was covered with tin this year and painted by Benjamin H Moore. 
. The ladies of this town is, and always have been remarkable for their beauty, industry, 
intelligence and virtue. ... 
The grain crop is quite abundant this year and of good quality. 
There's much complaint among the people on account of the scarcity of money to pay 
their taxes owning to the county administration of government. _, , . _ , ,„, 

There is published in this town a weekly newspaper called the Randolph Regulator 
Democratic in principles and unflinching advocate of retrenchment and reform in me 
administration of the government; Hon. Marmaduke S. Robins, editor. 
The Hon. John Kerr is judge of the Superior Court. October 16th, A. U. l»/o. 
Thomas McGhee Moore, Justice of the Peace" 
^ TWo other bottles were filled with seed com and seed wheat, and the last 
'^"tained some notes on the inhabitants of Asheboro, their occupations and 
P^t'mes. Moore seems to have been very proud of the revival of the Randolph 
^ounty Agricultural Society, which had lapsed during the war. The Society had been 
'f^^rganized on November 10, 1874, with A. S. Homey, chairman of the County 
^^mmissioners, elected president. The first postwar fair was held October 21 and 
S i^^^' ^«h exhibits of all kinds of livestock and agricultural Products .Moore 
jo^ed that the Fair Ground included shelters for stock and produce exhibitions as 
^f ! as a "Floral Hall." He also proudly announced that 500 bales of cotton were 
"^ jn the Asheboro market in 1876.'*' .^ ^„,.r<" 

In reference to the construction trade, Moore stated that three house carpenters 

lived in Asheboro — Winningham, Porter and Bums. This is the only known 
reference to those three men, who were well-known buggy and carriage builders, as 
house carpenters. Examples of their work would be difficult to identify, as only one 
structure exists in Asheboro dating from the 1860-1885 period. That is the tiny 
Bunting House at 601 South Main Street. 

The end of Asheboro's postwar slump seems to have been signaled by a 
"wave" of immigration. The arrival of three young foreigners between July and 
November, 1886, produced a cultural impact on the town second only to the 
impending arrival of the railroad. The population of Asheboro had remained static 
for nearly a century and most families were related in some way. Basil John Fisher, 
C. Slingsby Wainman and Charles St. George Winn were the vanguard of outside 
residents the railroad was destined to introduce. Their nationality, strange ways and 
free spending immediately set them apart from the townspeople, who accorded all 
three the deferential title of "Captain." One tradition says that the three were British 
army officers retired from service in India, who had been recraited to manage one of 
the county's gold mines. This might have a basis in fact, for the Hoover Hill mine 
was then owned by a syndicate based in London. Taking up temporary residence in 
the Central Hotel, all three seem to have completed homes within the next two 


Wainman, a Scot, was a small, tweedy man with a wife and daughter. His 
home, still standing at the comer of Church Street and Wainman Avenue, is an 
example of the standard North Carolina vernacular two-story central-gable house, 
which in this case, has an ell attached to the northwest comer. The Wainman House 

Charles Slingsby Wainman House, fronting on Church Street, and built ca. 1888. It was occupied by the 
Romulus R. Ross family at the time of the photograph. 






M window frame of the Fisher Gatekeeper's House. The Wainman, Winn and Fisher homes used iden- 
tical exterior millwork, perhaps obtained from the W.C. Petty Company in Archdale. 

originally boasted elaborate eave and porch post brackets, a sawn-baluster porch 
railing and arched window sashes set in pedimented frames. The Wainman House, 
the Fisher Mansion and the Fisher Gatekeeper's House, built simultaneously, shared 
these elements of decorate trim. Such material was available in ready-made form 
from local "sash and blind" factories throughout the state. The W C. Petty 
Company in Archdale could have provided the trim for these houses. 

Fisher, the wealthiest of the three, acquired a 384-acre estate. His land centered 



Capt. BasilJohn Fisher, resident of Asheboro from ca. 1886 to ca. 1895. He acquired a large estate 
in Greensboro where he moved upon leaving Asheboro. His real estate dealings there created the 
elegant turn-of-the-century • 'Fisher Park' ' neighborhood which is now a locally designated historic 

around what is now Sunset Avenue (then called Fisher's Road) and included almost 
everythmg west of Park Street between Salisbury Street and Wainman Avenue. His 
home was universally called the "Mansion House" and stood on the vacant lot just 
west of the modem Masonic Temple. It was a two-and-one-half story structure at 
least twice the size of any other house in town, including Wainman's. Fisher's estate 
possessed the requisite number of service structures; many, such as the gatekeeper's 
house, have survived the mansion. Most unusual of these is the enormous dovecote 

Plai of Fisher's estate in Asheboro. drawn from original deed records by the author. The estate 
comprised at least eight separate tracts of land on Cedar Fork Creek and Tanyard Branch. Fishers 
mansion house stood on tract #1. Tract #4 was later cut into a multitude of tiny lots, the -Hoover 
Subdivision" This area along Hoover Street became Asheboro' s first residential subdivision. 


ter mansion, ca. 1925. 

"ow in the backyard of 711 Sunset Avenue. The octagonal structure, approximately 
twelve feet tall, boasts tiny sliding doors to individually close each nesting 
compartment. Fisher was also very fond of dogs and horses. Although the kennels 
^nd stables apparently did not survive, local tradition claims that the estates bam 
^as finally cut in half and remodeled into two houses. 

The 1890s saw the deaths of one of Fisher's young daughters and both ot his 
^omrades. It may have been the weight of all this tragedy which about 1895 caused 
"'"1 to sell his estate and move to Greensboro. The estate was then subdivided. 

The Fisher Gatekeeper's House. When a shopping center was built on the site in the mid-1960s, this 
home, mistakenly labeled as the town's oldest dwelling, was moved and preserved. Whether it actually 
functioned as a Gatekeeper's House for the Fisher estate is debatable. Its lot was originally owned by 
Fisher's batchelor associate Charles St. George Winn, and the building may have been built as his 

The only surviving structure from the Fisher estate is this elaborate octagonal dovecote. 

opening up much of west Asheboro to construction. In 1919 the mansion was 
converted into Asheboro' s second hospital, which closed in 1931. On October 21, 
1934, the former mansion was completely destroyed by fire. 

The S. W. Kivett House at 308 West Kivett Street is the largest remaining house 
from the late nineteenth century. It combines several revival styles of decorative trim 
to embellish what is basically a standard center-gable house. The dentiled cornice 
suggests the Colonial Revival, which would become one of the most popular styles 
in Asheboro within the succeeding ten years. 






The Railroads and an Era of Change 

In 1890, lawyer and local historian J. A. Blair wrote the first history of 
Randolph County, treating each community to a few descriptive phrases. In doing 
so, he painted the last portrait of Asheboro before it entered a turbulent period of 

Thus amid the circling hills of pine, where the golden light of day first breaks upon the 
dew-gemmed hills, where the tremulous light of evening lingers on the crest of the lonely 
mountain pine, without a boom, without a puff, without ever assuming an air of 
greatness, with more merit than praise, . . . this quite country village ... has stood for 
a hundred years, without assuming an air of town life, unafflicted with burglars, tramps, 
or insurance agents. . . . 

In July, 1889, the [High Point, Randleman, Asheboro, and Southern] Railroad was 
completed to this place. What influence this medium of travel and transportation is to 
exert on the future of a town a century old, containing two stores and twenty-two houses, 
time alone can tell.^' 

Blair's question was answered in 1912. 

It is amazing to note the influence this medium of travel and transportation has exerted 
on the advancement of a town a century old. . . . Since the completion of this road 
tremendous strides have taken place despite an effort on the part of some of the older 
inhabitants to prevent it. The town almost immediately began to build about the new 
depot, and since that time a prosperous growth has been continuous. . . . Thus while 
the town has a history of a century and a quarter, yet its true life dates from the coming of 
the Southern Railway in 1889. Since then it has grown from a village into a thriving 



A resident later described welcoming of the railroad's arrival in Asheboro and 
its significance: 

July 4, 1889, had been set aside as a day of celebration for the completion of the 
railroad. . . . When the day arrived throngs assembled from all parts of the county, 
coming in horse-drawn wagons, ox carts, on horseback and on foot. 

The coming of the railroad to Asheboro marked the beginning of progress for 
Randolph County. The most important natural resource of the county was its abundance 
of timber. Due to difficulties of transportation there had been no market for it but with 
the coming of the railroad the saw mills descended on the county and lumber plants 
began to be built in Asheboro. Whole train load of lumber were shipped to High Point 
and other places. In late afternoon one could look south on what had been the Old Plank 
Road and as far as one could see there would be wagons loaded with lumber coming into 

In 1896, the Asheboro and Montgomery Railroad was opened from Asheboro to 
Star in Montgomery County. This railroad, built by the Page family, merged in 1897 
with the Aberdeen and West End Railroad, which the family also owned. The 


resulting corporation, the Aberdeen and Asheboro Railroad, became part of the 
Norfolk and Southern system on January 1, 1912 and was abandoned in 1952.^° With 
the completion of both railroads, Asheboro and Randolph County finally possessed 
the transportation system that had been dreamed of since the 1830s. Star was two 
hours to the south, Randleman about a half hour to the north and High Point two 
hours away. Travel at last could be measured in hours instead of days. Rapid 
communications followed with the opening of the first telephone exchange in 
Asheboro in 1897. 

The first man to take advantage of the boom was the elderly but indefatigable 
John Milton Worth. He immediately started a lumber and planing mill and the 
Asheboro Roller Mill near the intersection of Salisbury and Park streets. But the 

This 1910 Sanborn Insurance Company map sho»s three of Asheboro' s most important early industriu- 
sites: the Asheboro Roller Mill, the Home Building and Material Company milU-ork factory and tht 
town s electric light plant. The generating station urn built to po^er the roller mill and only inc'- 
dentally provided electrical service to /ohti residents (courtesy of the Sanborn Map Company). 

The Clark Cox House was located near the roller mill. The form of the center-hall plan central gable 
house is not unusual but the porch and wooden fence are attractive exhibitions of the house carpenter's 
facility in combining millwork products for decorative effect. 

first really new industry was founded by W A. Grimes, who built a factory on the 
northeast comer of Sunset Avenue and North Street. He bought dogwood lumber 
from which he manufactured shuttle blocks for use in the local textile mills. Not 
long after the arrival of the railroad, branches of the Guilford Lumber Company, the 
Snow Lumber Company of High Point and the W. C. Petty Company also opened in 

The brick store buildings of E. A. Moffitt and McAlister and Morris were built 
around the old courthouse square after the arrival of the railroad but before the 
center of activity in Asheboro had shifted to the railroad depot from the courthouse. 
The Moffitt building soon burned, and the McAlister and Morris store was 
converted into the town's first hosiery mill in the 1890s. The fire that claimed the 
Moffitt Store expedited the move away from the old courthouse center by destroying 
the entire east side of Main Street. Burned were Boyette and Richardson's drug 
store, J. L. Brittain's law office, the Bums Hotel, W. E Moragne's Jewelry Store, E. 
A. Moffitt's Store and the Argus newspaper office. Most of the businesses rebuilt 
nearer the railroad. ^^ 

The R H. Morris general store at 102 Sunset Avenue (1895) was the first brick 
structure built in the new central business district. A small brick building built 
across Fayetteville Street in 1897 housed the city's first bank. The Bank of 
Randolph, which had been founded that year. The tiny stmcture was enlarged or 
replaced about 1905 by the neo-classical bank building tom down in 1963. The rest 


Ca lonn ^ L L u ^ .u . ..nnrnt, nhotosrovhs from a spot in front of the new Bank of Randolph building. Combined, they create a fascinating panoramic view of Asheboro s most 

^■1900 an unknown photographer made three ''P'^l^'/J^l^^^^^^^^^^^ identified the man crossing the street as Fred Baldwin. The P. H. Morris store is the only building still standing today 


'nent intersection of the turn of the century. 

(<:ourtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 

1 i'!l 










of the infant business district was a motley collection of frame "boom-town" 
storefronts. Typical of these was the bright yellow Wood and Moring Store, erected 
in 1899 on the southwest comer of Sunset Avenue and Fayetteville Street. 

The late nineteenth century was a boom period for domestic construction as 
well. With the evolution of Depot Street, or Sunset Avenue, as the centerpiece of the 
business district, Fayetteville Street underwent a transformation into an upper-class 
residential area. About 1892 an unknown draftsman built three identical houses in 
Asheboro for three prominent lawyers and businessmen: W H. Moring, Col. J. Ed 
Walker and Col. William Penn Wood, the state auditor from 1910 to 1920." The 
townspeople at the time were awestruck by these impressive homes, all of which 
have since been destroyed. About the same time, roller mill executive W J. Scarboro 
built an equally impressive home on Fayetteville Street. Its most prominent feature 
was a second empire style mansard-roofed tower. Falladian windows graced the 
third floor. In the 1930s, Scarboro Street was opened between the Scarboro House 
and the Central Hotel and the house was soon moved down the hill, fronting 
Scarboro, in order to open up the Fayetteville Street site for development. It was 
finally torn down in the 1950s. 

Several equally ambitious houses were built in the Queen Anne style. The T H. 
Redding House on Worth Street, the S. B. Stedman and Hiatt-Swaim houses on 
Fayetteville Street and the E. A. Moffitt House, now on Academy Street, were all of 
similar design. The Redding House boasted an elaborate veranda with spool-like 

(B)The W. P. Wood home, on East Salisbury Street (courtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph 
collection in the Randolph Public Library). 

Some very substantial homes were built in Asheboro during the 1890s. Three of the largest dwellings 
were almost identical. 

(A)TheO. R. CoxHouse, on the corner of Academy and Main streets (courtesy Rundolphhook 1779- 
1 979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library) . 

(C) The W. H. Moring House, on South Fayetteville Street (courtesy Randolph Book 1119-1919 pho- 
tograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 


I^oller mill executive W. J. Scarboro built this large house in the late 1890s. Its mansard-roofed tower 
^os one of the county's few examples of the "Second Empire" style. 

^^'ghbors on North Fayetteville Street, the W. J. Armfield and S. B. Stedman houses were both built 
°''°und the turn-of-the-century. The Stedman House, built by the Redding family, was almost identical 
^^he Hiatt-Swaim House at the corner of Fayetteville and Academy streets. Octagonal corner turrets 
^'■^ <:ynosures of both the Queen Anne style homes. 

balusters and a spindled porch frieze; the Stedman and Hiatt-Swaim houses sported 
peaked towers on their hip roofs. But all of the houses were essentially the basic 
design which can still be seen in the Moffitt House: a square, hip-roofed main block, 
a projecting polygonal bay with bracketed eaves and a wraparound veranda. An 
earlier, stylistically related house, was the original Arthur Ross home built at 444 
Sunset Avenue but moved east on Sunset in 1905 and later destroyed. This house was 
the most elaborate and decoratively rich creation of Victorian Asheboro, with all the 
brackets, spindles and spools its unknown builder could add. 

Emergence of Modern Asheboro 

After the arrival of the railroads, the population of Asheboro nearly doubled 
every ten years: 1890 (510), 1900 (992), 1910 (1,865), 1920 (2,559) and 1930 
(5,021).^'* Industrial expansion attracted most of these people to Asheboro and large 
scale construction was necessary to provide them with homes, stores and public 
services. A 1912 observer noted: 

At present there are two roller mills, the third one almost completed; two chair 
factories, a lumber plant, wheelbarrow factory; Home Building and Material Company; 
a foundry, and a hosiery mill. The community affords two prosperous banks, and there is 
also a building and loan association. There are already about thirty stores and several 
more being built. 

The first home built by industrialist Arthur Ross on the northeast corner of Sunset Avenue and Park Street 
was Asheboro' s finest example of a decorative style which deserves to be called "Millwork Baroque." 
The end gable is a virtual catalog of some unknown company's millwork production. The house was 
subsequently moved and the present Colonial Revival style house was built on the site for Ross (courtesy 
Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 







4. ^ 



^■■■B rff*fr *><w 

^^^^^» ^H ^m rjSjl^^^^ ^^^B 

• I 191 


I iiiii ii 

. t4 a-r.- •• It 


Two views of the present Randolph County Courthouse under construction in 1909 (courtesy Randolph 
Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library). 


Asheboro has one of the finest school buildings in the State, and its school is second to 
none. The school for white children has ten grades and nine teachers. The colored 
children also receive a good education. There are five churches for the white people and 
four for the colored. Two newspapers are printed. The Courier and The Randolph 
Bulletin. There are a telephone system and an electric light plant, and a newly-installed 
water and sewerage system. To all the foregoing should be added the fact that there are 
many handsome residences in our town which serve to give it a pleasant appearance. . . . 

Judging from the past twenty-five years of progress ... we cannot but predict for 
the old county seat of Randolph a large share in the marvelous prosperity which is 
coming as a tidal wave upon the piedmont sections of North Carolina.^' 

The last vestiges of old "Asheborough" began to fade in March, 1908, when 
the county commissioners voted to build a new courthouse. Dr. John Milton Worth's 
old cornfield and barnyard were bought by a citizens group for $1 ,400 and donated to 
the county. Seven of the town's lawyers purchased adjoining property for $1,300 on 
which to build their "Lawyer's Row." After many setbacks and changes, the new 
government building was completed in July, 1909, at a cost of $34,000. In April, 
1914, the old courthouse was dismantled and the bricks used to build a new county 
jail.- In 1919 the sites of the former courthouse and jail were sold into private 
ownership. The passing of the historic courthouse center does not seem to have been 
mourned or regretfully acknowledged by many citizens. 

The magnificent new courthouse was less symbolic of Randolph County than 
of Asheboro's booming spirit of civic pride and self-awareness. It signaled the start 
of ten years of unparalleled growth and unprecedented change. From 1910 to 1920 
Asheboro acquired all the virtues of urban life, from public utilities and recreation 
areas to improved educational and health care facilities to municipal police and fire 

The post office had been the first service to move toward the railroad from the 
old courthouse center. The office occupied several sites in the Sunset Avenue area 
while serving the growing community. An identity crisis of sorts occurred on 
January 10, 1923, when without warning the Post Office Department officially 
changed the town's name from 'Asheborough" to "Ashboro." Outraged at the 
mistake, Courier editor and congressman William Cicero Hammer forced the post 
office to adopt a compromised spelling, "Asheboro." A government-owned down- 
town post office building was built with WPA funds in 1935, but in 1965 the growing 
operation moved to its present quarters on the northeast comer of Sunset Avenue and 
Davis Street. ^^ 

Electricity had arrived in 1900 when J. D. and Arthur Ross, owners of the 
Home Building and Material Company (a sash-and-blind manufacturer), and W I 
Scarboro, operator of the Asheboro Roller Mill, installed a 100 horse-power electric 
generator between their adjoining plants. Electric power had been available only i" 
the two factories until 1905 when Arthur Ross and C. C. Cranford incorporated the 
Asheboro Electric Company. In 1911 the town government bought the company- 
operating it as a municipal utility until 1924 when a 50-year franchise was granted ^° 
Carolina Power and Light. Electricity was available for residential use only at nigW' 
the power was needed during the day to operate the roller mill and other industries 

Power even to street lights was cut off at 1 1:00 FM. on Sundays and at midnight on 
all other days. A 100-kilowatt, coal-fired dynamo was installed by the city in 191 1 in 
the new "Water and Light Department" complex on the site of the present city hall. 

A $50,000 water system fed by wells had been installed in the summer of 1910. 
Two circular concrete tanks holding 600,000 gallons and one elevated steel tank 
holding 75,000 gallons were constructed. In 1914 the wells proved inadequate and a 
filter plant and concrete reservoir holding 2 1/2 million gallons (called "Lake 
Number One") were built on the hilltop between Wainman Avenue and Hill Street. 
When the reservoir ran dry in 1925, Lake Number Two was built in the hills west of 
Asheboro. Another lake was constructed in 1931, and yet another in 1946. The latter 
Was the Back Creek reservoir, now called Lake Lucas, impounding one-and-a-half 
billion gallons of water. ^* 

The fire department, originally manned by volunteers, was founded in 1911 by 
S. B. Stedman, who became its first chief. The only equipment at first was a "hose 
reel," a two-wheeled hand-drawn carriage holding a drum with a hose wrapped 
around it. The first truck was purchased in 1914.^'' After 1915 the first full-time 
municipal official was the town constable, whose duties included provisions 
outlined in the charter of 1855. He was responsible for collecting property taxes, 
privilege taxes, special license taxes, as well as keeping order in the community. In 
1928 the constable was replaced with a chief of police and a policeman. 

A large brick public school, called the "Asheboro Graded School," was built 
in 1909 on the grounds of the old county fair and male academy. Between 1924 and 
1926 the building was enlarged, remodeled and stuccoed, and came to be called 
Payetteville Street School. A separate elementary school. Park Street School, was 
I'uilt in 1936. It partially burned in April, 1959, and was rebuilt; a later name. Donna 
Lee Loflin School, honored its principal from 1936 to 1965. Lindley Park School 
*as the third added to the growing system. In the late 1960s the growing profusion 
of new schools doomed the historic Fayetteville Street building, which was demol- 
ished in 1969."° 

Across the street from what would be the site of Park Street School lay 
Asheboro's first public park on land donated to the city in 191 1 by Rufus W Frazier 
^nd named for him. The site had been a tanyard in the nineteenth century and 
included a natural spring. Walks were laid off and flowers planted under the 
guidance of Miss Julia Thorns, a leader of the Women's Club. 

Dr. and Mrs. John Floyd Miller operated the first hospital in Asheboro from 
1^14 to 1917 in a two-story frame house on the southeast comer of Salisbury and 
North Fayetteville streets. Mrs. Mary Scotten was hired as a cook, later becoming a 
"urse for the black patients while her son Peldon served as orderiy. Mrs. Scotten was 
Je first licensed practical nurse trained in Dr. Miller's nursing program. After the 
"ospital closed she became a well-known midwife and died in November, 1959 at 
^8e 94. The hospital ceased operation in the fall of 1917 when Dr. Miller went into 
'"e army. His wife soon died in the 1917 influenza epidemic. The second hospital 
"^.J opened in 1919 by two brothers, Drs. C. A. and R. W. Hayworth in the 
°JJ Pisher mansion. The original fifteen bed facility was expanded to fifty beds in 
'^23. R. w. Hayworth later entered the navy, and when his brother Dr. C. A. 

Graded School Buildinf. Atheboro, N. C 

The brick Asheboro Graded School, built in 1909, at 325 South Fayetteville Street. 

The school was expanded, remodeled and stuccoed in the 1920s. 






This architectural rendering of the proposed Randolph Hospital was exhibited in 1931 . It was produced 
in the office of Asheville architect Eric G. Flannagan (courtesy Randolph Public Library). 

Hayworth fell ill in June, 1930, the hospital closed temporarily. He reopened the 
hospital in the fall, but closed it permanently in May, 1931, after Randolph Hospital, 
Inc., was chartered by special legislative act.'*' 

This burst of civic improvement and municipal responsibility reached a 
pinnacle in July, 1919, when the first seven miles of Asheboro's streets were paved. 
To a population accustomed to muddy quagmires instead of streets and sidewalks, 
this was the most obvious sign of Asheboro's entry into genteel society. "That was 
the year Asheboro really started gettin on the map. . . ." recalled one resident.'*^ 

Industrial development had of course been the impetus behind this boom in 
public services. In 1920, more than five trains a day left Asheboro with the products 
of its industries. About 132,000 chairs were shipped out of local factories that year. 
In 1920, each week saw 690,000 board feet of lumber shipped; 4,320 wheelbarrows 
and 300 caskets were built; 168,000 pairs of stockings were made; 480 barrels of 
flour (at 196 lbs. to the barrel) were bought and sold."*^ 

The 1920s and 1930s saw even more changes in Asheboro as the local economy 
entered a transition from agriculturally-related businesses to fully-industrialized 
manufacturing. Early wood-products firms were increasingly replaced with textile 
operations. Before 1905 Asheboro's chief industries had been blacksmith shops, 
lumber mills and chair factories. The Asheboro Chair Factory opened under J. 0. 
Redding and others in 1904, with wages from 350 to 750 per ten-hour day. 





Bunding #1- - - 
Building #2- . . 
Building #3- - - 
Building #4- . . 

Building #5 

Building J6- - - 
Building 17- . . 
Building l€- - - 
gliding 19- - - 
Utlot Building- 
Itneral plant- - 

*otalB, Plant Valuation- - 
•ohinery Away jrom plant- 

aiHKB ono . N c 

Szand Totals- 


































9. 297. 69 






1929 site plan and appraisal report of Asheboro Hosiery Milts (courtesy of Samuel D. Cranford, Jr.). 


National Chair Company was opened in 1914 by C. C. Cranford and reorganized in 
1933 by Cranford and W. Clyde Lucas. Their cane-bottomed chairs wholesaled for 
$7.50 per dozen. Wagons and trucks carried the unfinished chairs out into the county 
where women at home could weave the seat bottoms.'*^ Descendants of many of the 
original wood products industries still survive. The Home Building and Material 
Company, operated for many years by the Ross family survives today in Hedgecock 
Builders, Inc., despite its almost complete destruction by fire on August 17, 1929. 
The present-day Dixie Furniture Company is a descendant of the National Chair 
Company organized in 1914. The one representative which has survived completely 
unchanged is the P and P Chair Company, organized in 1926 by W. C. Page and 
Arthur Presnell. 

The shift from wood products to textiles is well illustrated by the career of C. C. 
Cranford, a Randolph County native who came to Asheboro in 1895. Cranford 
expanded upon the knowledge gained in his first job, driving a delivery wagon for 
the Asheboro Roller Mill, when he organized his own Crown Milhng Company. In 
1913 it merged with the Southern Milling Company to form the Southern Crown 
Milling Company, owned and operated by the W. E Redding family until 1958. In 
1908, Cranford purchased the Randolph Chair Company. He was also mvolved m 
organizing the Cranford Furniture Company, the Asheboro Veneer Company, the 
National Chair Company and the Piedmont Chair Company. 

In 1917 Cranford switched his manufacturing interests to the production of 
men's socks in his Asheboro Hosiery Mills. The company later expanded to make 
ladies' hose as well and in 1937 began the manufacture of "full-fashioned- 
hosiery '♦^ The "full-fashion" process was an improved method of knitting ladies 
stockings which had been introduced to Asheboro by the brothers Joseph C. and 
Charles G. Bossong. Their company had been organized in New York in 1927 and 
brought to Asheboro by Charles Bossong in 1928.^^ The textile business also drew 
the Stedman family away from their wholesale grocery operation. Sulon B. Stedman 
and his father, W. D. Stedman, organized the Stedman Manufacturing Company in 
1930. The company originally made handkerchiefs but in 1945 began making 
T-shirts for the U.S. Navy. The company has since expanded enormously. 

The pioneer of the twentieth-century era of textiles was the Acme Hosiery Co. , 
chartered on December 19, 1908 with a capitalization of 526,000. 1 here were 
seventeen original incorporators, including prominent local businessmen U. ti 
'^eCrary, T. H. Redding and W. J. Armfield. McCrary was the first president of 
the corporation. O. R. Cox, former superintendent of the Cedar Falls textile mill 
"loved to Asheboro to act as secretary-treasurer of the corporation and manager ot 
*e mill. The venture was not immediately successful and McCrary and Redding 
soon left the hardware business to take over personal direction of the mill. Ihe 
original product of the firm was cotton stockings; production later shifted to rayon, 
silk and currently nylon hosiery.^^ The Acme Hosiery plant was buih just northwest 
of the new courthouse on a site which adjoined the railroad; the southwest corner ot 
Salisbury and North streets. (Mr. Armfield was its neighbor to the east.) All ot the 
^^fly industries were located for similar reasons in what has become Asheboro s 
central business district. The West Salisbury Street area periodically has been rebuilt 

Asheboro' s central business district blanketed under the "Great Snow of 1927 r 

as fires swept through the rambling frame factories of the woodworking businesses 
located there. Later furniture plants and all textile mills built brick factories which 
now make up most of the noncommercial floorspace in the downtown area. Shared 
wall construction is a dominant feature of the area's inter-related and tightly-packed 
commercial/industrial buildings. 

The development of the Church/Sunset/Fayetteville/Worth streets corridor of 
brick commercial structures began with the R H. Morris Store in 1895 and continued 
until about 1950. These streets comprise Asheboro's only areas of real urban spatial 
consolidation. The structures are all related in height, building material and 
second-story fenestration. Though most of the inter-related downtown residences 
have vanished, and some major original structures have been replaced, Asheboro's 
central business district retains today a cohesive collection of pre-World War II 
commercial buildings. Some structures in the area are more attractive architecturally 
than others, but lesser buildings and factories also play an important part in defining 
the character of the era. 

The ever-expanding population of Asheboro necessitated the creation of a great 
deal of domestic residential construction. Three-bay central-gable houses, either 
single-story as at 339 Worth Street or two-story as at 525 South Fayetteville Street, 
were popular and common into the 1920s. Thereafter, houses in the "Bungalow" 






The original Asheboro Baptist Church, a Gothic Revival structure complete with batttemented entrance 
tower, was built in 1911 . It stood beside city hall on the east side of Church Street. The building burned 
Nov. 19, 1933 and the congregation rebuilt on the opposite side of the street. 

Style became standard— low, spreading structures, with deeply-overhung roofs 
supported on brackets and porches set on squat brick posts or stone bases. The 1917 
J. D. Ross House is an example of this style and was probably the city's first brick 
dwelling as well. Architectural eclecticism in a variety of revival styles was the 
fashion among the homes of wealthier residents. The homes of the two McCrary 
brothers on Worth Street are prominent examples. 

The Home Building and Material Company served a large segment of the 
housing market. With production ranging from raw lumber to finished millwork, the 
company could and did provide every wooden element for a home. After World War 
I, the company advertised that it produced a complete house everyday. In the 1920s 
the company manufactured houses according to the specifications of T E. Lassiter, a 
local contractor who shipped the packaged components by rail and assembled 
bungalows all over the South. 

The explosion of domestic construction shaped the development of new 
neighborhoods. The "B. E Hoover" subdivision of 1890 was one of Asheboro's 
first efforts at suburban development. Development of the sixty one-acre lots was 
retarded, however, when most were bought and kept in a block by B. J. Fisher. The 
1908 "Randolph Heights" subdivision was the first project which resembled 
modem development practices; Asheboro High School is in the area today. "Dog- 
wood Acres" was opened in 1928 by Henry P. Corwith on property which he ac- 
quired in 1914. t- 1^ .7 

In 1923, the Makenworth Company, a real estate development corporation, 
established "Greystone Ten-ace." This originally comprised the Worth Street/Elm 
Street/Randolph Avenue/Cliff Road areas. In 1924 the company opened the "Old 
Muster Field" tracts on Cox Street. (The Old Muster Field had been the nineteenth- 
century assembly point and campground for the county militia.) In 1925, "Rosemont 
Park" began in North Asheboro, followed in 1926 by nearby "Balfourton." The 
name of "Rosemont Park" was almost immediately changed to "King Tut," in honor 
of the discovery of the tomb of that Egyptian pharaoh. In 1929, Millhaven was opened 


This panoramic view of the Sunset Avenue-Fayetteville Street intersection was taken ca 
First National Bank are the landmarks of this important corner: all have been 

nca 1925 from the opposite corner of the ca.-l900 panorama. The Bank of Randolph. Capitol Theatre and 
destroyed (courtesy Randolph Book 1779-1979 photograph collection in the Randolph Public Library,. 


in the area of Peachtree and City View streets, and a year later the McAlister estate 
initiated the "Eastover" section. In 1931 , came "Worth Terrace," comprising Elm, 
Randolph and High streets, followed in succession by "OoGalista Heights," 
"Country Club Estates," "Hollywood" and "Beechwood" (1936), "Forest Hills" 
near Millhaven (1937) and "Eastside" and "Homeland Heights" (1939). "West- 
side," in 1947, was one of the last in this flurry of subdivisions."" 

Industrial development continued at an increasing pace during the 1940s and 
1950s, with a resulting civic pride that approached euphoria. Just as residential 
development spread out from the downtown area, so did industrial and commercial 
development. Automobiles propelled residents farther from the city center, and the 
siting and construction of stores and factories reflected new concerns for parking and 
an orientation toward motorists rather than pedestrians. Asheboro has a very 
interesting collection of streamlined "Art Modeme" commercial and industrial 
structures that illustrate this period. A milestone in this trend occurred in 1960 with 
the opening of Hillside, Asheboro's first shopping center. 

The period was not without a measure of conflict among goals and sensibilities. 
Asheboro's concern for industrial development and civic improvement peaked when 
the city won Carolina Power and Light's "Finer Carolina" contests in 1954, 1955, 

1956 and 1958. Yet the scrapbooks prepared for these contests and meant to boost the 
city's growth and progressive spirit, inadvertently provide an eloquent chronicle of 
the nearly total destruction of the city's nineteenth-century heritage. Those buildings 
which survived were left much-altered due to changing tastes, technology and 
maintenance costs. Modem storefronts were applied to old buildings. Aluminum or 
composition siding materials were substituted for wooden clapboarding. Porches, 
fences, cornices and ornamental trim were removed to reduce repair costs. Such 
practices as the replacement of multipane window sash with modem jalousie 
windows and the addition of fake shutters and "colonial" trim almost invariably 
diminished the historical quality of the buildings' architecture. 

Today Asheboro retains only nine structures which seem to have been built 
before 1900. Almost the entire first century-and-a-quarter of the city's architectural 
history has vanished, resulting in an irretrievable loss for historic preservation. 
While the physical evidences of its earlier years no longer exist, much of the city's 
later cultural legacy still stands and could be revived. If the remaining extant 
heritage of Asheboro is to be preserved for posterity, a new awareness and 
understanding of potential contributions of the architectural environment to the 
"liveability" of the city must become ingrained in its growth philosophy. 

One of th. I r.uu . ,, „ ■„ <:,r.,,r,,iAfntial neiehborhood is destroyed in 1973. Attempts to convert the W.J. Armfield house into a county museum wer^ 

'^-^gSi::^ r:^t:^;:^r^:f ^r:^^^ corJlot .as the sue of the Ashe^orou^h remaie Academy in ,839. 






'For more complete discussion of this subject, see L. McKay 
Whatley, "Courthouse Petitions, 1785 and 1788," The Genealogical 
Journal of the Randolph County Genealogical Society, 3, no. 1 (Fall, 
1978). See also David Leroy Corbitt, The Formation of the North 
Carolina Counties 1663-1943 (Raleigh: Department of Archives and 
History, 1950), 179-180. 

^See "An Act to Establish a town on Lands of Jesse Henley, in 
the County of Randolph, at the Court House of said County," 25 
December 1796 Act of incorporation for the town of "Asheborough," 
in Mrs. W C. Hammer and Miss Massa E. Lambert, "Historical 
Sketch of Asheboro," Asheboro (N.C.) Courier-Tribune, 1938; 
reprinted, Asheboro, N.C: Randolph County Historical Society, 
1968, p. 13. 

'Mrs. J. L. Winningham, "Memories of Old Asheboro," manu- 
script in the Randolph Room, Asheboro Public Library. 

"Sidney Swaim Robins, Sketches of My Asheboro: Asheboro. 
North Carolina 1880- 1910 (Asheboro: Randolph County Historical 
Society, 1972), 9. 

'Mrs. Laura Worth, "Manuscript Notebook #1," in the files of 
the Randolph Room, Asheboro Public Library. 

'Randolph County Miscellaneous Records, State Archives, 
Raleigh, N.C. 

'For a complete discussion of Worth's Asheboro residency see 
Richard L. Zuber, Jonathan Worth, A Biography of a Southern 
Unionist (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 

'Petition to General Assembly to "appoint commissioners to 
alter the plan of the town of Asheboro, ..." Randolph County 
Papers, CRX Box 242, State Archives, Raleigh: "An Act to appoint 
commissioners to alter the plan of Asheborough, and to incorporate 
the same, . . ." North Carolina, Session Record of the North Caro- 
lina Legislature (Private Acts), 1828-1829. 

'^Minutes of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, Randolph 
County, North Carolina, Book #1, pp. 18-19 (located in the North 
Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, N.C). 

'"North Carolina, Session Record of the North Carolina Legisla- 
ture (Private Acts), 1829-1830 c. 88; 1854-1855 c. 262; 1860-1861 
c. 160; and acts dated January 7, 1845 and January 27, 1849 (located 
in the North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, N.C). 

"Hammer and Lambert, "Historical Sketch of Asheboro," II; 
Rev. Levi Branson (ed.), The North Carolina Business Directory 

(Raleigh: L. Branson, Publisher, 1877- 1878); North Carolina Ses- 
sion Record of the North Carolina Legislature (Private Acts). 1883 
c. 79. 

'^Southern Citizen, 16 November 1839. 

"Randolph County, Minutes of Court of Pleas and Quarter 
Sessions, February, May and August terms, 1839 (located in the 
North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh, N.C). 

"Nancy W. Simpson, comp., (ed.), 1850 Census of Randolph 
County, North Carolina (Wilkesboro, N.C: Nancy W. Simpson 

"Simeon Colton, Diary, 1855, Southern Historical Collection, 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 

'^Dorothy Auman and Walter Auman, Seagrove Area (Asheboro- 
Village Printing Co., 1976), 103-104. 

"Asheboro (N.C.) Courier-Tribune, 13 November 1940. 
'^Randolph (N.C.) Guide clipping, 1954; Greensboro Daily 
News clipping, 1 August 1954, in the files of the Randolph Room, 
Asheboro Public Library. The Elliotts moved to Missouri in 1863. 
About 1895, after a succession of owners, the enlarged house was 
transformed into the "Central Hotel." In the early 1950s the hotel 
became the subject of indignant newspaper editorials decrying fire 
hazards and ramshackle buildings; after a fire on July 4, 1954, the 
building was condemned and demolished. 
"Robins, Sketches of My Asheboro, II. 
^"Zuber, Jonathan Worth, 16-17. 
^'Ibid., 116-117. 
"/iW., 120. 
"Ibid., 182-184. 

"Rev. Levi Branson, ed. , The North Carolina Business Direc- 
tory {Raleigh: i . A. Jones, for the author, 1872). 

"The Bulletin and The Randleman News, 29 April 1914 
^^Ibid., 6 May I9I4. 

"J. A. Blair, Reminiscences of Randolph County (Greensboro: 
Reece and Elam, 1890; reprinted Asheboro, N.C: Randolph County 
Historical Society, 1978), 12-13, 47. 

^'Unidentified newspaper clipping, dated 1912, Randolph Room, 
Asheboro Public Library. 

^'Unidentified, undated newspaper transcription of speech by 
Dr. J. E. Pritchard, 2 July 1949 at the "Sixty Years of Progress" 
celebration in Asheboro, N.C 

'"Auman and Auman, Seagrove Area, 107-112. 
""Bicentennial Report," Randolph Guide, 21 July 1976 d 

^^The Greensboro Patriot. 1 January 1896. 

"Robins, Sketches of My Asheboro. 32. 

'"Asheboro Chamber of Commerce Pamphlet, 1955, Randolph 
Room, Asheboro Public Library. 

"Unidentified newspaper clipping, dated 1912, Randolph Room, 
Asheboro Public Library. 

^The Bulletin and The Randleman News, 22 April 1914. 

^''Asheboro (N.C.) Courier Tribune, 14 February 1979. 
Information on the construction of the public utilities was 
gathered from Asheboro Chamber of Commerce typed brochures, 
ca. 1923, 1930, 1933, 1941, Randolph Room, Asheboro Public 

^'Asheboro (N.C.) Courier Tribune. 14 February 1980. 

"°"Fayetteville Street School," unsigned, undated typescript in 
Randolph Room, Asheboro Public Library. 

■""Bicentennial Report," F9. 
L. B. Lambert, Retrospect: Reminiscences of Printers and 
Printing in Asheboro, N.C. 1907-1957 (Asheboro: Hunsucker Print- 
ing Co., 1957), 7. 

"'"Bicentennial Report," CIO. 

""Lambert, Retrospect, 7. 

"Randolph Guide, 28 March 1979, Maxi Page. 

""Asheboro (N.C.) Courier Tribune, 28 October 1979. 


"'Sulon B. Stedman, "Historical Summary," 19 December 1960. 
Typescript in the possession of Mrs. Marion Stedman Covington. 

"'Acme-McCrary Corporation 50th Anniversary brochure, 1959, 
Randolph Room, Asheboro Public Library. 

Information on Asheboro real estate development was taken 
from the plat books in the Randolph County Register of Deeds office, 
in which the subdivision maps were recorded. Randolph Heights can 
be found in Deed Book 128, page 548. All others can be found in Plat 
Book #1. Dogwood Acres (pp. 179, 195, 205, 227, 308); Greystone 
Terrace (pp. 23, 312, 313, 320); Old Muster Field (p. 49); Rosemont 
Park (p. 127); Balfourton (pp. 131, 137, 139); Eastover (p. 199); 
Millhaven (pp. 217, 221); Worth Terrace (pp. 215, 294, 314, 339. 
340, 341); OoGalista Heights (p. 177); Country Club Estates (pp- 
290, 292, 329, 350); Hollywood (Plat Book 3, p. 2); Beechwood 
(Book 1, pp. 289, 325); Forest Hills (pp. 295, 337, 342); Eastside 
(pp. 343, 347, 348); Homeland Heights (p. 349); and Westside (pp- 




Asheboro Inventory 

Section A— The Courthouse Center 






3131r IBE 

Ell-l[^^=]lilI^^=lEl[ IBE 



3 EH^^^=1 131^^^=113 ■^^^=113'=^^'="^ 


i rni 









A:] McAlister and Morris Store ca. 1920. 


A:2 Ross and Rush Livery Stable ca. 1890. 


A:3 Ran d olph Cou nty Courthouse #6 ca. 1880. 


303 East Salisbury Street 
1890, 1947 

Built for use as a general store by Col. A. C. 
McAlister and R H.Morris, this is the oldest 
commercial structure presently existing in Ashe- 
boro. It was built to front the northeast comer of 
the old public square, a remnant of which is the 
small grassy area between the sidewalk and en- 
trance. The east wing, yellow-brick facade with 
Art Deco details and stair tower were 1947 addi- 
tions. A ca. 1920 documentary photograph of the 
original facade agrees with local tradition in relat- 
ing this structure to the now destroyed E. A. 
Moffitt general store on the southeast comer of the 
courthouse square. The Italianate corbeling of the 
cornice and hood moldings over each window of 
the now white- washed west and north facades 
indicate that the two commercial structures, con- 
structed in the same year and probably by the 
same builder, were nearly identical twins. 

By 1895 Morris had sole ownership of the 
business and built his new General Merchandise 
building at 102 Sunset Ave., moving to the new 
commercial area growing near the railroad. For a 
few years around the turn of the century the 
original building housed Asheboro's first hosiery 
mill, afterwards hosting the Carson Winningham 
Grocery Store and an auto repair shop. WGWR, 
the first local radio station, began operation May 
24, 1947, moved here in the fall of that year and 
has remained on the second floor to the present. 


243 East Salisbury Street 
ca. 1885; destroyed ca. 1915 

In addition to the livery stable, this building 
featured several law offices on the far right, includ- 
ing that of Congressman W C. Hammer. Fronting 
on N. Mam Street, these were later known as "Old 
Lawyer's Row" Previous to this structure, the site 
was that of the Hoover Long House, a hotel and 


Salisbury and Main Street Intersection 
1839, 1876; destroyed 1914 

This was the fourth courthouse in Asheboro. It 
was authorized to be built in February, 1839. The 
previous wooden courthouse was sold to George 
Hoover, who moved it to the northwest comer of 
the public square for use as part of his "Long 
House" tavem. Jonathan Worth was appointed to 
supervise construction of the new building, a 35 
X 54 foot, two-and-one-half story rectangle in 1:3 
common bond. Six rooms of equal size housed 
the county offices on the ground floor. Stairs at 
each side of a central passage led up to the 
courtroom and two jury rooms on the second. A 
cupola with a bell and a clock surmounted the 
roof. In March, 1876, the south wing was author- 
ized to house a stair tower and enlarged courtroom. 
As built, this was an impressive temple-form, 
arcaded-front entrance facaded in 1:4 common 
bond, with brick quoins emphasizing the comers. 
It is strangely similar to the Roman Revival style 
popularized by Thomas Jefferson, and may have 
used one of the many small Virginia courthouses 
built according to Jeffersonian Classicism as a 

In 1909 the courthouse followed the rest of the 
town in moving nearer the raihoad, and for a few 
months this building was used as the jail. Finally 
in 1914 the stmcture was demolished and die bricks 
re-used in the foundation of the new jail built 
behind the present courthouse. In 1918 the county 
sold the land, ending 126 years of public owner- 
ship of the "Courthouse Square." Salisbury and 
Main streets were straightened, widened and 
paved, and the former courthouse site was amal- 
gamated into the block. Today a ca. 1940 brick 
apartment building at 143 North Main Street oc- 
cupies the site of Randolph County's eighteenth 
and nineteenth century courthouses. 


Southeast corner Main Street and East 

Salisbury Street 

ca. 1890; destroyed 1896 

This store, identical to the McAlister-Morris 
Store, was built by E. A. Moffitt. The general 
store displayed some very elaborate brickwork 
such as an intricate corbeled cornice, and crossetted 
hood moldings over the windows set in recessed 
arched panels. A dentiled metal cornice with 
arched bonnet capped the entrance door and show 
windows. An unusual balcony with turned railing 
overlooked the public square from the second 
floor of the north facade. On Monday December 
30, 1896, a fire originating in a drug store in the 
middle of the block destroyed every building on 
this side of Main Street, including a law office, 
hotel, jewelry store, the Argus newspaper office 
and this store. The Johnson Service Station occu- 
pied this site in the 1930s and 40s. 


139 North Main Street 
ca. 1910 

The high, hip-roofed form with cross gables on 
two major facades and the veranda with coupled 
square columns that wraps around two sides of 
this house relate it to many vernacular houses 
designed to make the best of a southern climate. A 
strong, simple design similar to the more elabo- 
tate example at 915 Sunset Avenue. (The house 
burned and was dismantled during the course of 
the survey.) 


124 North Main Street 
ca. 1860 

This two-room frame structure is the last survi- 
vor of the small office buildings and commercial 
structures which clustered around Asheboro's 
"•neteenth-centuiry courthouse square. Sash saw 
markings on the mortisc-and-tenon structural mem- 
bers indicate a construction date prior to the Civil 
^ar; extensive ca. 1910 alterations which gutted 
the building to produce a woodshed and garage 
make more exact dating difficult. The office origi- 
nally fronted the street at its present location, 
Parched about six feet above the street. Paired 
Come-and-go steps led upto a small porch shclter- 
'"g the entrance into the office itself. A partition 
separated this room from the combination law 
ibrary/consulting room where bookcases and 
"hng shelves were built around the walls, 
^larmaduke Swaim Robins purchased the office 

lot on August 21, 1874. He had been seeking new 
quarters since dissolving his fourteen-year partner- 
ship with Samuel S. Jackson on August 1. Jackson's 
father-in-law, Jonathan Worth, gave the partners 
his clients and caseload upon leaving Asheboro in 
1862 to serve in state government. That same year 
Robins was elected to the House of Commons 
from Randolph County and served for a short 
period during the term as Speaker of the House. 
He subsequently served four more terms in the 
state legislamre. Robins was quite active during 
the war years, as private secretary to Gov Vance, 
as treasurer of the State Literary Fund (roughly 
comparable to Commissioner of Education), as a 
captain in the Home Guards and as Editor of a 
newspaper. The Raleigh Conservative. This last 
position provided experience he put to good use 
when he founded and edited The Randolph Regula- 
tor in Asheboro in 1876; the name was later 
changed to The Courier and is still published 
today as The Courier Tribune. After the death of 
Marmaduke Robins in 1905, the office housed the 
law practice of his son, Henry Moring Robins 
until the completion of the new courthouse and the 
adjacent Lawyer's Row offices in 1909. From 1907 
to May, 1909, Henry Robins served as mayor of 
Asheboro, and the office was the site of the town 
commissioner's meetings, the Mayor's Court and 
the transaction of municipal business. 

Happily, though the structure has been leading a 
precarious existence for some time, plans are 
being made for its restoration and re-use. 


100 North Main Street 

ca. 1910 
The deck-on-hip roof, squarish mass and Tuscan- 
columned veranda wrapped around this house are 
familiar Colonial Revival elements. The upper side- 
lighted door and balcony over the entrance, how- 
ever, are novel variations on the theme. The twin 
pedimented dormers housing rounded-headed, Ital- 
ianate windows are tied into the lower facade by 
brackets flanking the balcony door. The division 
of the upper lights into four pointed pseudo- 
Gothic windows is evidence of a whimsical eclec- 
ticism. The glass vestibule is the only survivor of 
a feature once frequent in Asheboro. The house 
display an almost modem concern for the value 
of large interior spaces. Sliding doors can be 
thrown open to combine the entrance hall, two 
parlors and dining room. The massive staircase is 
a fine feamre of the house; an unusual element is 
the bench built at the foot of the steps. The house 
is presently owned by Mrs. John D. Hager. 








339 Worth Street 
ca. 1915 

The Colonial Revival detailing suggests a rather 
late date for this small three-bay, cross gable 
vernacular house. 


103 South Main Street 
ca. 1920 

The house is fundamentally Colonial Revival in 
form, with its rectangular, hip-roofed mass and 
Tliscan-columned porch. Obvious bungalow fea- 
tures include the exposed rafter-ends under the 
overhanging eaves (now obscured by gutters), the 
narrow vertical divisions of the transom and side- 
lights sun^ounding the entrance, the later arbor 
attached to the south facade and the non-functional 
strip shutters— here a purely decorative element 
accenting the fenestration. 


111 South Main Street 
ca. 1915 

This is a classic of the Colonial Revival style 
with its boxy mass, hip roof with squat, hip- 
roofed dormer and wraparound veranda solidly 
supported on square columns with plain balustrade. 
The builder was mayor of Asheboro during the 
late 1930s. 


117 South Main Street 
ca. 1925 

This pleasant, substantial Colonial Revival house 
with distinctive triple-casement windows lighting 
the lower floor was built by the lawyer son of 
Marmaduke Robins on the foundation of the latter's 
antebellum house. The Robins farm included all 
the land now bounded by Wbrth, Main and Elm 


126 South Main Street 
ca. 1900 

This three-bay, one story vernacular house has 
an unusually prominent cross gable. The brack- 
eted posts supporting the veranda are similar to 
those in photographs of the C . S . Wainman House . 
The cobblestone retaining wall and steps are attrac- 
tive features. It was reported to have been built by 
T. E. Lassiter, a local contractor. 





144 South Main Street 
ca. 1905 

This looks to be a typical three-bay, central 
cross gable vernacular house with a high hip roof, 
but it is unusual in that it possesses a usable 
second floor. TXvo windows in the gable light the 
Upper floor, and an interesting detail is the decora- 
tive shingling carried out of the gable to meet the 
porch roof. The porte cochere is a nice feature, 
although the entire porch may be a replacement, 
built when the house was moved south from its 
original site beside 126 South Main Street. It was 
once the house of the George Ferree family. 


202 South Main Street 
ca. 1910 

This elegant and well-proportioned Colonial 
Revival house has a vernacular-type high hip roof 
accented by twin gable ends flanking a tall, central 
dormer with a leaded-glass Palladian window. The 
broad, flattened porch pediment defining the en- 
trance completes a novel collection of gables and 
8'ves the house an active and pleasing vertical 
accent. This house originally stood on the present 
site of 240 Worth Street, and was moved south 
''own the hill on Main Street and converted to 
apartments ca. 1930. 


229 East Academy Street 
ca. 1900 

This is the best-preserved survivor of the many 
Jandsome, picturesque Queen Anne homes once 
found in Asheboro. It originally occupied the site 
°f 232 Worth Street and was moved through the 
Renter of the block about 1930 and mmed to front 
^eademy Street. The main block of the dwelling 
's a two-story hip-roofed block with projecting 
gabled pavilions. A polygonal bay accents one 
eorner of the entrance facade; its cantilevered 
gable is braced by sawnwork brackets with turned 
Pendant drops. The TUscan-columned veranda — a 
Classical Revival style feature — may have replaced 

" earlier porch when the house was moved. 


339 South Cox Street 
ca. 1890 

This house is said to have been built for 
Burkhead, a Methodist curcuit-rider, by a contrac- 
tor from outside Asheboro. It was supposed to 
have been built in 1883, but there are several 
indications that point to a later date. One, a 
newspaper article by Rev Burkhead, states that the 
chimneys were built of brick and the fireplaces 
lined with soapstone slabs taken from the ruins of 
the Governor Worth House. That house burned 
sometime between 1885 and 1890. Moreover, there 
are close similarities between this home and the C.S. 
Wainman House, which could not have been 
built before 1885. Although the Burkhead House is 
only three bays wide compared to the four bays of 
the Wainman home, the bracketed eaves and cen- 
tral gables of both houses were originally almost 
identical. Even more striking are the close like- 
nesses of the window frame treatments. The win- 
dows of this house all possess triangular pediment- 
like additions to the usual rectangular sash. The 
homes of the three Englishmen — Fisher, Wainman 
and Winn — are the only other local structures 
known to have used pedimented window frames, 
although those were products of some sash-and- 
blind factory, while these are home-made. The 
evidence suggests that the Burkhead House may 
have been built in imitation of those dwellings 
across town. An attractive, comfortable home to a 
family of twelve, it was remodeled and converted 
to apartments in 1940. It is still the residence of 
Rev Burkhead's daughter. 


357 South Cox Street 

ca. 1930 
Built next door to J. E Burkhead by one of his 
sons, this house is one of the finer examples of the 
Bungalow style in the city. The smaller, offset 
gable sheltering the steps to the porch is silhouet- 
ted against the main mass of the house and carried 
on stubby pylons. The exposed framing of the 
porch and the curved buttresses of the pylon bases 
are unusual and well-executed. 

A: 13 


A: 15 








• « 


513 South Cox Street 

This attractive and unaltered bungalow turns its 
gable end to the street and uses an offset gable 
carried on quartz pylons to form a porch. The roof 
overhang is carried on craftsman-style brackets, 
and 1/1 sash are used throughout. The use of quartz 
for foundations, pylons, chimney and retaining 
wall is a good example of the widespread use of 
native rock during the Bungalow period. The date 
of construction is inscribed in the chimney cap. 


212 Worth Street 

This beautiful house is a well-preserved exam- 
ple of the Colonial Revival style at its most 
impressive. An exquisitely-detailed gable dormer 
surmounts the hip roof and acts visually as a 
pediment to the coupled Ionic columns (which 
actually support nothing more than an entablature 
and railing). These giant-order columns are mas- 
terfully combined with a "Ibscan order veranda 
shading three sides of the house, and an elegant, 
semi-circular portico which both re-defines the 
ground-floor entrance and creates a balcony en- 
tered through the second-floor Palladian window. 
The house is situated in park-like grounds encom- 
passing the entire interior of the large block. 
These are shared with the J. Frank McCrary home 
next door. The house was built by D.B. (Doctor 
Bulla) McCrary, one of the most influential citi- 
zens of early twentieth century Asheboro. McCraiy 
was an owner of the hardware store at 103 Worth 
Street, a founder of the Acme-McCrary hosiery 
mill and first president of the Bank of Randolph 
among many other activities. 


232 Worth Street 

ca. 1933; W C. Holleman, Architect 

W C. Holleman, a Greensboro architect, de- 
signed what many consider to be the most beauti- 
ful home in the city. The rambling TUdor Revival 

manor house combines native slate with such 
decorative details of Elizabethan England as the 
Tlidor-arched entrance with embattled hood mold- 
ing, oriel window and casement windows with 
leaded glass quarrels. Some of the most attractive 
elements of the design are the huge trees and 
well-kept grounds which it shares with the adjoin- 
ing dwellings of the McCrary femily. The trees 
can be seen in photographs of the Governor Jona- 
than Worth house which occupied this location, at 
a site behind the present house. J. E McCrary was 
a son of local industrialist D. B. McCrary. 


240 Wbrth Street 

ca. 1930; Harry Barton, Architect 

Harry Barton of Greensboro, the architect of 
the 1925 First Methodist Church, also provided 
plans for this imposing Classical Revival style 
house. In feamres such as the entrance bay and 
Palladian window framed by Ionic pilasters, the 
stuccoed walls and green tile roof. Barton's design 
drew on the academic style of the Italian Renais- 
sance. Yet the rectangular mass of the dwelling 
with its end chimneys and central gable articulat- 
ing the entrance is typical of the vernacular house 
type dominant throughout the nineteenth-century 
South. This architectural style was popular among 
the well-to-do during the 1920s and 1930s, and 
some elements of the McCrary House — stucco, 
green tile and sun rooms for instance — relate it to 
dwellings such as Reynolda House in Wmston- 
Salem. The house was built by the oldest son of 
industrialist D. B. McCrary on the comer lot east 
of the father's home. 


... , ■ — 



225 Worth Street 
ca. 1915 

This is the city's only example of the use of the 
Bungalow style for a large home. The massive 
central gable and wraparound porch de-emphasize 
the true size of the structure, for it conceals a great 
deal of interior space. The stair hall and parlor 
boast attractive dark paneling and high ceilings. 
The shingled gable end, bracketed roof overhangs 
Md the subtle ogee curves found in the porch 
eaves are typical Bungaloid details. The entrance 
door, off-center on the main block, is defined by a 
pediment centered on the porch. This creates a 
nice feeling of asymmetrical balance which is not 
3 small part of the charm of this handsome, 
unaltered house. Built possibly by an Auman, 
later owners were E. H. Morris and Jack Hasty. 
Now empty, its preservation from encroaching 
development should be given serious consideration. 


201 Worth Street 

1963; J. Hyatt Hammond Assoc., 

Alvis O. George, Jr., 
Design Chief 

The library, a low, massive structure shaded by 
*deep roof overhang, received aStateAIA award 
m 1964. While it is one of the city's most sensitive 
and visually attractive structures, from no angle 
^an it be seen to its best advantage. It would have 
benefitted from a less restrictive site. 


formerly 201 Worth Street 
ca. 1855; destroyed 1958 

TVvice a representative to the State Legislamre 

'fom Montgomery County, Dr. John Milton Worth 

"loved to Asheboro to join his brother Jonathan in 

^ous commercial ventures. During the Civil 

Var, Dr. Worth was North Carolina's salt commis- 

^'°ner, appointed to obtain and ration that vital 

*n<l scarce commodity. After his brother's term as 

Sovernor, Worth served several terms as a represen- 

^''ve from Randolph County, and was elected 

iRs* ''^asurer in 1876, remaining in office until 

?°5. A successful businessman as well as politi- 

'an. Dr. Worth was one of the original contractors 

or the Plank Road and built the section which ran 

"^ough Asheboro. Later, he founded the Warth 

Manufacturing Company with its own mill village 
(Worthville), and subsequently owned or con- 
trolled many of the Deep River textile operations. 
Dr. Worth built the main block of this unusual 
Greek Revival dwelling about 1855. A one-story 
western wing was added ca. 1870 to the original 
cruciform plan; ca. 1890 the handsome Eastlake- 
style porch and a polygonal-bay dining room was 
added by Col. Alexander C. McAlister, Dr. Wjrth's 
son-in-law and business partner. The projecting 
entrance bay was articulated by a trabeated door 
surround with transom and side lights. Small 
4/4-paned windows were coupled to form wider- 
than-usual openings, each crowned with a simple 
cornice. The chunky exterior proportions, exposed 
rafter-ends and shallow roof pitch suggest that the 
design was provided by some vernacular craftsman 
or builder; the lack of any related designs might 
imply that he was brought in from outside the 

The interior of the house was equally unique. 
The large entrance hall, parlor and music room 
boasted wainscoting, perhaps of walnut to match 
the railing, and newel posts of the straight sweep 
of stairs which have been preserved. In a decora- 
tive technique sometimes found in stylish antebel- 
lum homes, garlands of flowers were painted on 
the ceiling of the entrance hall, surtounding a 
plaster rosette which anchored a brass chandelier 
and chain. The ceiling was bordered by an elabo- 
rate gilded plaster cornice. A most unusual feature 
was the secret staircase which was entered through 
a sliding panel in a built-in wardrobe in the west 
bedroom on the second floor. A steep, narrow 
flight of steps descended behind the paneled 
fireplace wall of the parlor and exited outside. 
Local tradition has it that Col. McAlister scram- 
bled down these steps and onto a waiting horse to 
escape from the Yankees during the War. This 
appealing tale is a fining compliment to this 
history-laden home, a show-place for more than a 
hundred years. Its regrettable destruction, elo- 
quently chronicled in a series of photographs in 
the 1958 "Finer Carolina" contest scrapbook, left 
a gap in the cultural heritage of Asheboro which 
can never be filled. The pictures are captioned 
"An Old House, Neither Safe nor Sightly, Comes 
Down to Make Way for Modem Development." 
Modem development finally occuned six years 


A:23 Worth-McAUster House ca. 1952. 

Section B — The Central Business District 



m ! 




500 250 

E)Elt=]B [ i Pi i n i n np 


3131 =1F1I nini= 




J. D. ROSS, SR. 

170 Worth Street 


A Greensboro architect was responsible for 
this very professional and urban use of the Bun- 
galow style. Its most prominent aspect is the 
jerkin-headed shed roof; combined with the con- 
tinuous shed dormer, enough additional head 
toom is provided for a complete second floor. 
The three-bay facade of buff brick boasts many 
fine bungaloid details. Particularly nice are the 
rafter-ends sawn in graceful curves and notched 
to support gutters. Stubby coupled square col- 
umn support the porch, where a central gable 
calls attention to the entrance flanked by tripar- 
tite windows. A porte cochere and carved eave 
brackets reinforce the obvious; this is a home of 
great architectural interest and charm. 


(Formerly First People's Savings 

& Loan) 

158 Worth Street 

1974; J. Hyatt Hammond Assoc, 


Alvis O. George, Design Chief 

One of the city's best contemporary public 
"tiildings, this design won a state AIA award in 
}^75. Located immediately across Worth Street 
from the 1909 Randolph County Courthouse, the 
Savings and Loan responds to the historic build- 
">g by using brick and cast stone detailing which 
f''^ similar in color and texture. Rather than 
oull-dozing trees and existing landscape elements, 
"6 design was adapted to its hilly site in a 
ormer residential area. The oversized hipped 
.°of is used to provide a large, open, expansive 
'nterior banking space. The building occupies 
'ne site of the T. H. Redding House, a large 
VUeen Anne style dwelling which boasted a fine 

*stlake porch with spindled frieze. 


formerly 120 Worth Street 

1850, remodeled 1919; destroyed 1957 

Vernacular architecture is usually the product 
of a carpenter-builder, not an architect. A good 
example of this lies in the records of the Ashe- 
boro Presbyterian Church, organized in 1850. 
Meeting temporarily in the courthouse, the 
congregation purchased a lot and gathered ma- 
terials. Lumber valued at $500 was donated by 
Hugh McCain and Jonathan Worth. The total 
cost was $1,339.13, including painting 
($593 . 1 3) , a fence ($70) and the services of un- 
known carpenters ($600) who were probably 
solely responsible for the architectural merit of 
the result. Furnishings were secured by the 
Women's Missionary Society and the building 
was dedicated February 29, 1852. The product 
of this effort was a frame structure of simple 
Greek Revival design, painted white with green 
trim. Entrance was into a vestibule with access 
to the sanctuary and a stairway to a gallery ex- 
tending across the rear "for the use of colored 
worshippers." Seating capacity was 225, al- 
though even by 1883 the number of communi- 
cants totaled only 38. In 1919 Sunday school 
rooms were added and the structure was brick 
veneered; a large columned portico was added 
to the entrance. In 1957 this historic structure 
was demolished after construction of the First 
Presbyterian Church (Walker Ave.). People's 
Savings and Loan (now the architectural office 
of J. Hyatt Hammond Associates) was subse- 
quently built on the site. 



B:2 T. H. Redding House ca. 1950. 

Asheboro Presbyterian Church ca. 1900 
nm i i n i i n r 


B:3 Asheboro Presbyterian Church ca. 1940. 













145 Worth Street 

In July, 1907, the Randolph County commis- 
sioners began to consider building a larger, more 
conveniently located home for the county offices. 
On November 4, 1907, they paid the Charlotte 
firm of Wheeler, Runge and Dickery $300 for 
plans and specifications of a new courthouse. 
Local tradition says that the Iredell County Court- 
house in Statesville was so admired that the 
architects were asked for duplicate plans. Wheeler 
and his various partners ultimately built eight 
courthouses similar or identical to this one of 
which six remain in existence today. The Iredell 
Courthouse (1899) was the first of these, followed 
by Scotland County (1901), Ashe, Stokes, Wilkes 
and Watauga counties (all 1904), Randolph (1909) 
and Avery (1912). Citing the need for fireproof 
vaults for record storage, the Randolph commis- 
sioners voted to build anew in June, 1908. A group 
of local businessmen had purchased Dr. J. M. 
Worth's old cornfield and barnyard, midway be- 
tween the old courthouses and Asheboro's new 
commercial nucleus growing up around the 
railroad; to encourage the commissioners' deci- 
sion they donated the land to the county. On July 
6, 1908, Joseph R. Owen of Randleman was 
hired to supervise construction. In November of 
that year W J. Armfield, Jr., was elected chair- 
man of the county commissioners and immedi- 
ately stepped in to cut costs. Owen was fired, 
with the walls waist high. M. M. Allred of 
Randleman was hired as carpenter foreman; Ed 
Frazier as bricklayer foreman. A luxury such as 
an inlaid tile floor was replaced with linoleum 
and concrete, and $15,000 was borrowed from 
pnvate citizens and from Armfield's bank (at 6% 
interest) to complete construction. The total cost 
of about $34,000 compares favorably with the 
pnce range of the seven similar courthouses 
which ranged from $20,000 (Ashe County) to 
$74,000 (Stokes County). Work was completed 
and offices moved in by July 12, in time for the 
next term of court. 700,000 "hydrolic-pressed" 
yellow-face brick from Washington, D.C. were 
used along with 1,000,000 common brick from 
the Glenola Brick Works in the interior. The 
county jail was built in the rear of the building in 
1914; a sizeable addition for the register of deeds 
and clerk of court was built in 1950 and re- 
modeled in 1975. A new county office building 

is presently under construction at considerably 
greater expense than the original structure. 

The courthouse design combines the complex, 
flamboyant masses of nineteenth-century Victor- 
ianism with the motifs of American Beaux-Arts 
classicism. The original building consists of a 
3-story hipped-roofed square cove with 2-story 
flat-roofed -wings. Corithian columns supporting 
an elaborate pediment point to the powerful 
Second Empire dome clad in ribbed copper and 
set on a rectangular base. In the pressed-tin 
pediment a bearded male face of indeterminate 
mythological significance broods at the local 
Confederate Monument, which in contrast to the 
grand traditions of Bronze Rebels — faces quietly 
south rather than defiantly northward. The por- 
tico shelters the entrance into a rectangular vesti- 
bule flanked by stairs. Much of the original 
interior finish has survived the extensive altera- 
tions; original staircases, vertical panel wainscot, 
flat panel doors and spittoons can be seen in the 
first floor cross hall. The courtroom above has 
been completely remodeled. 

The brick facades of the building rise from a 
roughly-hewn granite base. Round arched win- 
dows define the courtroom on the second floor; 
all other windows — a variety of shapes and 
sizes — are linteled. The complex textures of 
materials such as tile, rough granite, sandstone, 
brick, wood and metal are combined with bold 
ornamental shapes to create the active, highly 
plastic surface of the building. The result '* 
one of Asheboro's most important architectural 

The earliest surviving artifact from Asheboro's 
past is installed in the belfry of this courthouse- 
In August, 1838, Jonathan Worth, Hugh McCain 
and John Balfour Troy were ordered by th^ 
county justices to buy and hang a bell in th^ 
courthouse. The bell was preserved and moved 
from building to building as county govemmen' 
expanded. It still exists, although unseen and 


149 Worth Street 

Now hidden by the 1950 courthouse annex, 
"le jail was originally visible from Worth Street. 
It is a good example of the use of historic 
Wchitectural forms to carry a public message; in 
'his case relating the solid forms of a medieval 
fortress to the penal functions of a modem jail. 
The battlemented entrance porches and castel- 
lated tower are all references to this idea, seen in 
full-blown use in Raleigh's Central Prison. The 
foundation, now visible only on the northeast 
comer, is of common red brick reused from the 
sixth county courthouse. The previous jails had 
''een located on a 3-acre site at the southeast 
t^orner of Salisbury and Cox streets. 



125 Worth Street 

Built from October to December, 1909, the 
seven original offices were jointly funded by the 
'own's lawyers in an arrangement similar to mod- 
^■^ condominium ownership. Straws were drawn 
'0 assign offices. William Cicero Hammer, law- 
yer, editor and U. S. Congressman, built two 
offices— one for his legal practice and one for 
"'s newspaper. The Courier. Five more offices 
^one on the north end and four as a second 
story— yvere subsequently added, for the struc- 
""■« Was designed with expansion in mind. The 
found-headed windows with elaborate brick hood 
|iioldings are the dominant visual element of this 
""cresting building. Along with the triple-arched 
entrance of the County Agricultural Building 
cy echo the arched courtroom windows of the 
J°'"ing courthouse. Moreover, Lawyer's Row 
^d the Agricultural Building form the western 
crminus of the present Courthouse "Square."' 
"eluding the now-vacant lot directly across from 
* Courthouse and extending down Worth Street 
the Public Library, this is a nebulous environ- 
cntal space which is still evolving. By extend- 
offi °"' .'° "'^ sidewalk, the proposed county 
ce building could strengthen this visual space, 
etching Lawyer's Row and finishing the eastern 
"1e of the "square." 


113-119 Worth Street 
ca. 1920 

This building first appears on the 1922 San- 
bom insurance map, labeled "Dry Cleaning" 
and "5 & 10 cent Store", respectively. It was 
built within three feet of the Lawyer's Row 
building, which until that time had had rear steps 
and exits. The offices of The Courier were 
moved to 119 from a small Lawyer's Row office. 
That side of the structure has recently been 
attractively renovated. The adjoining grocery store 
boasts the only unaltered store front in Asheboro. 
An arched opening separating the two halves 
leads to a stairway. 


111 Worth Street 
ca. 1915 

The brick hood moldings over the upper win- 
dows suggest that this building is earlier than its 
neighbors. The 1922 Sanborn insurance map 
labels this business as "fumiture, undertaking, 
and millinery." The undertaking business was 
Pugh's Funeral Home, which later moved to a 
house at the southeast comer of Sunset Avenue 
and Church Street, and still later to its present 
site at B-32. 









fl.-9 Fayetteville Street-Worth Street intersection, including the McCrary-Redding Hardware i a l'>27. B:9 




103-105 Worth Street 
1902, 1907, ca. 1935 

The original section of this structure, on the 
comer of Worth and Fayetteville streets, was one 
of the first brick buildings in the new central 
business district. The original facade can be seen 
in a photograph of the "Great Snow of 1927." A 
35-foot addition was made to the rear in 1907; 
about 1935 new construction filled the space 
between this and 1 1 1 Worth. An Art Deco facade 
tied the new structrure to the 1902 building and a 
separate Fayetteville Street entrance facade was 
given the 1907 addition. This was one of the first 
business ventures by D. B. McCrary and T H. 
Redding. The original store was housed in a 
frame structure on Sunset Avenue. In recent 
years this buildling has housed both Wachovia 
(1963-64) and Planter's (1969-71) Banks while 
the new quarters of each were under construction. 


136 North Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1912 

The Asheboro Motor Car Company, a Maxwell 
and Ford dealership, was established in 1912 by 
former Sheriff S. L. Hayworth. The accom- 
panying documentary photograph was taken in 
1916 and shows the Fayetteville Street facade 
of the building. The only decorative feature was 
the corbeled brick cornice. The wooden storefront 
is now entirely covered by aluminum siding and 
the brickwork has been painted red. The build- 
ing is now used as warehouse space for The 

B:IO Asheboro Motor Car Co. ca. 1916. 

=ini ='nF 


^af gf t fa "j^'' t: 


1 15 North Fayetteville Street 

The first forty rooms of this hotel opened 
September 1, 1911. Its construction was a proj- 
ect of local banker and nearby resident W J. 
Armfield, Jr. The brick building exhibits differ- 
ent window treatments at each level of its three- 
story facade. The ground floor window bays and 
entrance portico are capped by a metal cornice 
with applied wooden dentils. The flat-arched 
second floor windows are crowned by individual 
molded wooden cornices, while a central arched 
opening shelters a recessed exit onto the portico 
balcony. The third floor exhibits round-headed 
Italianate sash with arched brick hood moldings 
creating an arcaded effect. A paneled cornice 
^ops the third level. The side elevations hold 
"1 double-hung sash in arched openings. The 
South ground facade includes several individual 
shops with outside access. The rear three bays of 
'he building were added at some time after the 
original construction. The hotel had been closed 
for several years before the ground floor was re- 
"lodeled to house law offices in 1967. The upper 
floors are unused and deteriorating. The porch 
became structurally unsound and was demolished 
in 1983. 


148 North Street 

1948; Eric G. Flannagan, Architect 

J' is curious that this gymnasium building by 
Flannagan, actually designed in 1943 has a more 
'modem" and less-powerful Art Deco character 
'han the Ashcboro High School gym, designed 
'^a. 1949. Buff brick with white accent relates it 
Jo Flannagan's other work in the city; the only 
hint of his usual sculptural or geometrical forms 
's weakly present in the stainless-steel transom 
Stills above the entrance doors. An unusual 
effort by a mill to provide recreational facilties 
'°f its employees, the building offers a large 
Symnasium, a cafeteria, a 25-by-75-foot indoor 
swimming pool and four bowling alleys. Origi- 
"''"y open to the general public, the facilities 
^fe now available only to employees and their 


SW comer of Salisbury Street and 
North Street 
ca. 1909 

The original knitting mill of this company is 
a two-story brick building 60 x 100 feet with 
a one-story dye house 40 feet square. In the be- 
ginning a steam engine operated 80 Mayo seam- 
less knitting machines. The building, known as 
Acme Mill, was built in 1909. The Italianate 
hood moldings over the windows of this structure 
are particularly fine. In 1915 a two-story addition 
60 X 100 feet was built south of the original 
plant. This building was also of brick and fea- 
tured a clerestory. Major additions were con- 
structed in 1917 and 1924, the latter being a 
three-story mill. A full-fashioned silk stocking 
mill was built in 1928. 

The company was founded in 1908 by D. B. 
McCrary and his brother-in-law, T. H. Redding, 
partners in a local hardware and farm machinery 
store. This was probably the first such mill in 
Randolph County itself an historic center of 
textile manufacturing in the state. In 1916 the 
company purchased an additional mill in Cedar 
Falls and in 1932, the Parks Mill in Asheboro 
was added to the company's manufacturing plant. 
The company now produces full-fashioned seam- 
less hosiery and operates sales offices in New 
York, Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco and Ashe- 
boro. The descendents of the founders continue 
to preside over the operations of the company. 


105 North Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1915 
This store first appears on the 1922 Sanbom 
map as "Grocery Store & Butcher." This may have 
been either a grocery business called "Covington 
and Prevo's" or an operation run by J. M. 
Caviness. It is presently the home of "Jed's 
Sandwich Shop." 



B:I5 Bank of Randolph ca. 1925. 




17 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1900; destroyed 1963 

Formed November 4, 1897, the first bank in 
Asheboro unpretentiously began operations in a 
tiny frame building. W J. Armfield, Jr., was 
hired from a position in High Point to become 
manager This brick and granite Neo-Classic 
Revival structure was undoubtedly the first struc- 
ture in Asheboro to speak so self-consciously of 
"Architecture." The rusticated granite base, the 
deeply-relieved brick quoins, stone string courses 
and drip moldings, window openings bridged by 
flat brick arches and carved cap-stones and the 
elaborate metal cornice fairiy screamed classi- 
cism. Be-ribboned gariands and hero's laurels 
(both probably of painted terra cotta) were ap- 
plied as a kind of frieze just below the cornice. 
Odd though it may seem, this frenetic structure 
had closely-related cousins all over the United 
States: all direct descendents of the Columbian 
Exposition in 1893, when the grand traditions of 
Greek and Rome took center stage in the country's 
imagination. In 1963 the Bank of Randolph 
merged with Wachovia Bank and Trust Company 
and this building was demolished to make way 
for the present structure by J. Hyatt Hammond, 
Associates. The only part of the building to 
survive today is the fountain, now in Cedar Falls. 
Designed as a horse- watering trough, there was 
also a small outlet at sidewalk level for the use of 
dogs. The globe on top of the central column 
was the city's first streetlight. 


19 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1920 

The Stedman family built these two common- 
wall store buildings. They were originally brick 
with granite trim on the facades. Although much 
altered, they still serve an important function as 
the visual termination of Sunset Avenue. They 
were once flanked by the Bank of Randolph and 
the Capitol Theatre, both of which are now 
demolished. The Capitol was the first building 
built as a theater in Asheboro. It opened Decem- 
ber 19, 1922 as a moving picture and vaudeville 
theater, seating 359 and featuring a functional 
stage house and dressing rooms. It closed in 


(Formeriy Randolph Savings & Loan) 
115 South Fayetteville Street 
1962; J. Hyatt Hammond Associates, 

Alvis O. George, Jr, 
Kemp Mooney, Design Team 

Located on the site of the old Central Hotel, 
this was Asheboro's first contemporary high-rise 
structure. Perched on huge concrete pillars, the 
building was almost literally built from the top 
down. The rhythmically-alternating patterns of 
windows and brick panels enlivens the poten- 
tially drab surface of the tower. 





3 IDE 




















102 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1895, ca. 1930 

This was the first brick building and is the 
oldest existing structure in the central busines 
<listrict. The facade (mostly hidden by the bill- 
•^ard) is a particularly good example of the style 
of Italianate brickwork used so often on tum-of- 
the-century commercial structures. The decora- 
'ive corbeling can still be seen, although part of 
'he cornice has been dismantled. The second 
floor has five roundheaded windows decorated 
*ith hood moldings and granite keystones. The 
center opening held an oversized, double win- 
'low with fanlight. The original storefront was of 
Wood, with two entrance doors flanking a central 
display window. A large display window, now 
bricked-up, opened on Fayetteville Street. The 
plate glass of all the storefront windows was 
bordered with squares of colored glass. Ca. 1930 
the rear wall was extended ten feet to meet the 
Trade Street sidewalk. B. C. Moore's Depart- 
"lent Store was a tenant of the first floor and 
hasement until 1965. For many years the Ashe- 
horo Telephone Exchange was on the second 
floor of this building. The shaded light visible 
high on the comer of the building, usually erron- 
eously identified as Asheboro's first streetlight, 
*as actually used by telephone operators to 
^'gnal the town's policeman. The police kiosk 
*as across the street on the present site of 
Wachovia Bank. The painting on the east facade 
^epicts scenes from Asheboro's history. It was a 
"'centennial project completed in 1977. 


114 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1915 

Early photrographs of this building show a 
our-windowed upper facade with brick hood 
moldings. The building was heavily remodeled 
"1 the late 1950s and nothing remains of the 
°"ginal facade. It now houses Foust Photo and 
'^"sic Store. 


122-132 Sunset Avenue 

These two-story Italianate buildings were built 
(reportedly by John Ward) in conjunction with 
the three-story building at 134 Sunset Avenue. 
Though built as a unit, the buildings are all 
different. Unifying elements are window height, 
string course and corbeling. Number 122, now 
defaced by a 1950-ish facade, was originally a 
furniture store. Number 128 boasts the most 
elaborate treatment, topped with a pedimental 
cornice and its windows capped with grantie 
keystones. Originally a feedstore, from 1916 to 
1923 it housed the "Joyland Motion Picture 
Theatre" (Asheboro's first), seating 175. The flat 
cornice of Number 132 straddles two buildings 
on the first floor. One was originally a dry goods 
store; the other housed the Asheboro Drug Co., 
a well-known pharmacy. The 1910 Sanborn Map 
shows that the large open room with a stage 
above these stores was originally designated "The 
Opera House." It was entered by way of the 
stairs off the street at 134 Sunset. 

B:18 P. H. Morris General Store during 4th of July parade ca. 1930. 









132 Sunset Avenue 

At three full stories, this building ranks with 
the Ashlyn Hotel as the largest early building in 
the downtown area. Largely unaltered, the fa- 
cade combines Italianate hood moldings, rustica- 
tion and a neo-classical cornice. The now- 
vanished pedimental crest of the latter displayed 
the date of construction. The United States Post 
Office was the tenant of the ground floor from 
1908 until 1925. Sharing the second floor were a 
tailor, a photo gallery and for 50 years (1931- 
1981), the office of Dr. R. P Sykes. The third 
floor housed the Masonic Temple. 


144 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1905 


148 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1905 

The bold facade of this structure is clad in 
yellow-face brick with granite trim in use through- 
out. Double rows of decorative corbeling accent 
the cornice. Several small stores and an entrance 
to the second floor open off the North Street 
facade. Acme-McCrary now uses the loft space 
for storage. North Street was originally a street 
of wholesale groceries, butchers and livery 
stables. These small businesses have all now 
fallen to industrial expansion. Cox-Lewis Hard- 
ware (O. J. Cox, J. Stanback Lewis) occupied 
the four-bay storefront from 1905 to 1954, From 
1954 to 1978 it housed Sherwin-Williams Paint 
Store. First National Bank was organized Decem- 
ber 4, 1907, with J. S. Lewis as president. The 
bank's original office was in the comer store. 
The beveled comer of that store was matched by 
the set-back entrance of Standard Drug; the two 
faced each other across the intersection. 






208-224 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1905, ca. 1910, ca. 1915 

Nothing evident today would suggest that this 
block of buildings is one of the oldest in the 
central business district. The original building is 
that part of the present Eagle's Store farthest to 
the east — a two bay store of Italianate brickwork 
built to house the grocery business of "W D. 
Stedman and Son." Soon another two bays were 
added as a meat market; these two buildings plus 
a modem structure house Eagle's. The original 
facades still exist behind the aluminum false- 
front. A June 9, 1915, Randolph Bulletin article 
announced Stedman's plans to "build a new 
brick building ... a modem garage 55' x 95' 
to the east. The Stedman Motor Company opened 
in August of that year as the dealer for Dodge, 
Studebaker and Hudson. The building, divided 
'nto three bays by engaged pilasters, was shorter 
than the adjoining grocery and severely plain. 
This storefront was wholly remodeled in the 
1940s and is now unrecognizable. 

B:23 W. D. Stedman and Son ca. 1912. 

B:23 Stedman Motor Company ca. 1920 



I !| 


The Stedman Block looking east on Sunset Ave. ca. 1923. 










' H ' i I II 



B:26 Ash eboro Cit y Hall ca. 1920. B:26 
I I F " — ' 1™ " ^ 1 ' Pi i i n i J i fnf= 



234 Sunset Avenue 

This was the first building in the city built 
solely as a theatre for motion pictures. The 
Sunset opened March 6, 1930, and closed in 
1975; it has since been re-opened under a new 
name. It was built by J. E White, president of 
the White Amusement Company and operator of 
the Capitol Theatre on Fayetteville Street (now 
destroyed). The Capitol seated 359 and opened 
December 19, 1922, as a moving picture and 
vaudeville theatre. It provided complete stage 
and dressing room facilities. The Sunset is an 
example of a "Moorish Picture Palace," de- 
signed in the Spanish Colonial Revival style 
popular in southern California. The tile roof and 
long marquee now give the facade a strong 
horizontal orientation. The marquee was added 
ca. 1950. Originally the entrance was sheltered 
only by a small copper canopy. Engaged pilas- 
ters supporting the bracketed cornice added verti- 
cal emphasis to the design. The stucco facade 
boasts well-done details such as window sur- 
rounds and pilaster capitols. The massive wooden 
brackets under the eaves are quite attractive. The 
interior has undergone many changes. Only the 
upper lobby has preserved much of the Spanish 
trim and wrought iron. 


240 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1928 

The pyramidal-roofed original section of this 
structure was a gas station built in the pictur- 
esque style of the 1920s. The "kicked" roof 
overhang, bracketed porch shelters and stone 
trim are references to English "Country" archi- 
tecture. The round-headed door and casement 
windows are original. An unusual feature is the 
bird house built into the peak of the roof. 


146 North Church Street 

1938; Albert C. Woodnjff, Architect 

Built as a WPA project betwen 1938 and 1939, 
the City Hall is the city's foremost example of 
the Art Deco style. The limestone facade is 
symmetrically massed around the central en- 
trance pavilion. That section projects forward 
from and is taller than the body of the building. 
The words "Municipal Building" carved in the 
relief crown this bay, while a podium of steps 
with lamp pylons provides access to the entrance. 
The facade recedes in stages from the entrance 
bay, ending in what was originally the fire depart- 
ment on the north and the public library on the 
south. Stair tower windows are concealed behind 
pierced limestone panels. The building has a 
horizontal emphasis, with the window and door 
bays providing a vertical accent. Cast aggregate 
panels divide these bays at the second floor level. 
(The previous city hall on the same site was an 
undistinquished structrure built ca. 1910 to house 
the city's Republic fire truck and the water 
department.) The tax department, water de- 
partment, city clerk and finance officer were 
originally housed in offices accessible through 
the main entrance. The public library on the 
south and the fire department on the north had 
separate entrances. The city engineer and po- 
lice department were found on the second floor, 
along with the mayor's courtroom. The latter 
was the city's traffic court, for the mayor was 
responsible for municipal justice. Today it is 
used as city council chambers. The Art Deco 
style woodwork in this room is particularly fine. 
Of special note are the door frames and judge's 
bench. The public library moved to new quar- 
ters in 1964; the fire department moved in 1972. 


=1P1I =1B1I= 


146 North Church Street 
1910, 1938 

This tank was built as part of the $50,000 
water system installed in Asheboro in the sum- 
mer of 1910. Buih to hold 175,000 gallons, it 
was later expanded to hold 250,000 gallons. At 
one time, more than half a milion gallons of 
Water were stored in various tanks behind City 
Hall. This is the last survivor only because its 
reinforced-concrete construction is so solid that 
it is virtually indestructible. The tank was no 
longer needed after creation of the municipal 
'akes in the 1930s. During construction of the 
present City Hall, a garage door was added and 
the tank became a storage area. 

MILL #3 

173 North Church Street 

This rather sophisticated Art Modeme design 
includes several features unique to Asheboro 's 
industrial buildings. Even the decorative alumi- 
num railings at the entrance are "streamlined." 
Yellow, terra-cotta blocks frame the two-story 
entrance where blue-tinted glass set in an alumi- 
num fram.e conceals the true second floor level. 
Decorative horizontal stripes of ridged brick- 
work outlined with precast concrete copings wrap 
around the rounded comers of the building, 
terminating in square window panels. Glass block 
fil's the side windows. An elevated walkway over 
Church Street connects the structure to another 
'^^cme-McCrary plant. 


187 North Church Street 
ca. 1905, 1961 

The details of the surviving ground floor indi- 
cate the quality of this house, the top two floors 
of which were destroyed by fire in 1961. The 
original house was a hip-roofed Queen Anne 
mass with projecting gabled bays. The porch 
— possibly a replacement — was in the Colonial 
Revival style. One of the existing windows exhib- 
its attractive stained glass in an unusual fleur-de- 
lis design. 


412 Sunset Avenue 

This simple, yet strong design is a typical 
example of what has been name the "American 
Foursquare" house style. A two-story dwelling 
with a boxlike shape, it has a low hipped roof 
with hipped dormer above the central entrance. 
The hipped porch is extended over the driveway 
to serve as a porte cochere. In many ways the 
"American Foursquare" house represented a fu- 
sion between the "Craftsman" style (also popu- 
lar for bungalows) and the architectural achieve- 
ments of Frank Lloyd Wright and the Praire 

Charles Michael Fox, a pharmacist, was owner 
and operator of the Asheboro Drug Company from 
1914 to 1954. His wife Elizabeth Spencer Fox 
was a daughter of A. A. Spencer, owner of the 
Central Hotel. One of Asheboro's first stenogra- 
phers. Mrs. Fox was a president of the Asheboro 
Womens Club. Their daughter. Miss Charlesanna 
A. Fox, the present occupant, was county librar- 
ian of the Asheboro and Randolph County Pub- 
lic Library system from 1949 to 1977. 


B:29 R. C. Lewallen House ca. 1950. 












430 Sunset Avenue 

The Craftsman styling of the decorative de- 
tails of this house are typical of large houses of 
the late 1920s, which sometimes resemble over- 
grown bungalows. Craftsman elements include 
sawn rafter ends notched to carry guttering, 
6/1 bungaloid sash and gable brackets. The porch 
is carried on brick piers and wraps around the 
house to end at a porte cochere. The interior trim 
of the dwelling is in a restrained Colonial Revival 
style. Dr. W L. Lambert was on the staff of the 
Memorial Hospital located to the west on Sunset 
Avenue. His wife, Julia Ross Lambert was a 
daughter of Arthur Ross, owner of the neigh- 
boring house at 444 Sunset. 


444 Sunset Avenue 

This impressive Neo-Classical Revival man- 
sion was built by a prominent local businessman 
who was one of the founders of the privately- 
owned Asheboro Electric Company in 1900. Mr. 
Ross was a former mayor of Asheboro (1923- 
24) and served as a state senator. (His father, 
R. R. Ross, was former postmaster, and at one 
time owned the C. Slingsby Wainman House at 
305 West Wainman. 

The house is dominated by the giant columns 
of the central portico; these Ionic pillars are 
repeated m miniature by the columns of the 
veranda (now enclosed). The entrance door with 
transom sidelights under the portico used the top 
of the vestibule as a balcony. This house, with 
many additions, now serves as Pugh Funeral 
Home. It replaced the original Arthur Ross home, 
undoubtedly one of Asheboro's most bizarre 
Victorian masterpieces. 


415 Sunset Avenue 

This house imparts a sense of dignity, quiet 
charm and grace which makes it one of the most 
attractive homes in the neighborhood. The cen- 
ter hall-plan, Colonial Revival style house is five 
bays wide. Six-over-one double-hung sash are 
used with small sets paired over the entrance 
and in the pedimented-gable dormer. The en- 
trance is set in a side-lighted architrave sheltered 
by a small hipped porch. A single-shoulder 
extrerior chimney serves fireplaces at the north- 
east comer. This wisteria arbor on the east side 
of the house is a striking decorative element, 
balanced by a screened porch on the west. In 
1980 the house was moved to Cedar Grove 
Tonwship and restored by Mr. and Mrs. William 
M. Neely. Mrs. Neely is the granddaughter of 
the original owners, Kemp and Annie Alexander. 


349 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1920 

This is a sophisticated design in the Dutch 
Colonial Revival style, vaguely Federal in detail. 
The gambrel roof with continuous dormer is 
unusual in Asheboro, but was a standard element 
in this style of domestic architecture. This dwell- 
ing was built ca. 1920, but the style remained 
popular well into the 1950s. 





227 Sunset Avenue 

A. J. Maxwell, Architect, from Goldsboro, 
N. C. was the designer of this Art Deco commer- 
cial building. (Mr. Maxwell may have also been 
involved with the design of several buildings for 
Asheboro Hosiery Mills.) The original facade 
*as a handsome design clad in black mirror 
glass and limestone veneer. Two strange lozenge- 
shaped windows terminating in floral medallions 
flanked a central tripartite bay window with 
ruffled accent stripe and a geometrical motif. 
Five pavilions (probably for mechanical equip- 
ment) capped the roof. This building was drasti- 
cally remodeled after a fire in the early 1960s. 


219 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1905 

The early history of this building is extremely 
cloudly. The 1910 Sanborn map lists its occu- 
pants as a printing office and a wholesale grocery. 
The second floor was originally one large room, 
entered by way of a staircase dividing the two 
'ower stores. During and after World War I, the 
'National Guard used this building as their armory, 
^hen they moved to the present "Bargain 
Warehouse" (113 N. Church St.) built especially 
■or their use ca. 1930, this space was converted 
'o a roller skating rink. The ground floor subse- 
quently housed "Big Bear" Supermarket. The 
"Pstairs is now divided into offices. The large 
^'de windows with hood moldings are the only 
decorative features still visible. 


119 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1915 


12! Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1915 


125 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1915 

This group of buildings was undoubtedly built 
in response to the ca. 1910 erection of a separate 
passenger train depot, on the present site of 
McCown-Smith Department Store. Decorative 
corbeling ties the three into one unit. Wood and 
Moring had been started ca. 1880 as W P Wood 
and Company in a building across from the old 
courthouse. W H. Moring was taken on in 
partnership and ca. 1895 the business was moved 
to a frame structure on the comer of Depot 
(Sunset) and Fayetteville. 1 19 Sunset was its first 
brick building. The original storefront was di- 
vided in half and had separate entrances — one 
side sold men's clothes, the other sold women's. 
Windows are framed by simple granite lintels. 
The keystones above each one are purely decor- 
ative. Wood and Moring sold out to the Belk 
chain in 1932; Hudson-Belk moved out of the 
building in 1936. 

W D. Stedman built the middle building for 
the Coffin-Scarboro Company. Founded in 1915, 
the store sold men's clothes and shoes; later it 
converted solely to shoes. The firm closed in 
1976. The recessed panel above the second-floor 
windows was probably meant for a sign. 

Standard Drug Company was started about 
1893 by W. A. Underwood. Though the main 
entrance of the pharmacy— highlighted by three 
fan-lighted windows— was on Sunset, the prime 
orientation of the building was toward the rail- 
road tracks and passenger depot. This was origi- 
nally the last building on the block, and the 
facade facing the tracks included a long row of 
windows and doors to accommodate rail pas- 
sengers. A 1918 newspaper advertisement ex- 
tolled the virtures of the pharmacy's "modem 
soda fountain"; Standard Drug was one of the 
centers of small-town life. 


B:35 Cranford Building ca. 1952. 














't- ■ 

:::ssi»m ' 





B:38Asheboro Bank and V-ust Company ca. 1930. 8:38 

B:39 First National Bank ca. 1930. 


111 Sunset Avenue 

The bank began operation in this building 
January 20, 1921. The building was built in the 
Roman Revival style of neoclassicism. Evidence 
of this remains in the shed roof resting on a 
dentiled cornice and the four iron grills similar 
to those of the Senate in the Roman Forum. The 
original facade was of rusticated granite, with 
Tuscan columns supporting a simple entablature. 
An unusual transom and door of Art Deco design 
dates from ca. 1940 alterations. The first presi- 
dent of the bank was H. T. Caviness; the last was 
S. B. Stedman. The bank was closed March 12, 
1934 with the consent of its officers; the decision 
of federal banking officials was that Asheboro 
could not support three banks. Assets were di- 
vided between the two remaining local banks; 
depositors received 100% of their funds. 


103-107 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1920 

These two buildings were destroyed in the 
summer of 1978, during the course of this survey. 
They had been built in conjunction with and in 
an identical style to the First National Bank's 
second building. The bank moved into that 
building, of tan brick with a limestone lower 
facade, in 1921. The bank and these two rental 
buildings occupied the site of the original frame 
Wood and Moring Store, which adjoined the 
graceful Moring home. In the 1930s the Ameri- 
can Legion donated a clock to the town in 
memorial to the casualties of Worid War I. It was 
promptly mounted in a prominent position on the 
comer of the bank. The bank was torn down and 
the clock removed during construction of the 
present building in 1967. These structures met a 
similar fete for a similar reason — bank expansion. 
They matched the bank building in color and 
decorative detail. The metal cornice with modil- 
lion blocks also matched that of the bank. 

B:39 Wood and Moring Store ca. 1900. 



144 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1920, ca. 1955 

This structure was one of the first gas stations 
in Asheboro. It was an example of the Spanish 
Colonial Revival style popular in the 1920s for 
both gas stations and movie theatres. Red brick 
trim was used to accent the stark white stucco of 
the structure. The large pump shelter was par- 
tially cantilevered from twin brick pillars with 
corbeled brackets. The structure was partially 
demolished about 1955, with shops and offices 
built along the street front. The underground 
parking garage and rear wall of the original 
building remain, however, and the gables of the 
upper wall can still be seen above the modem flat 


152-156 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1932, 1935, 1947 

This interesting building assumed its present 
form in stages. Built on the site of the Hedrick 
family's bungalow home (which was moved to 
South Cox Street), the original structure was a 
one-story commercial block, three shop bays 
^ide. Asheboro Printing Company occupied the 
northernmost storefront, now the site of Scott 
Book Store, while the southern bays were taken 
Up by a bowling alley. A second story was added 
'" 1935; it marked the symmetrical center of the 
block with a tripartite window in an arched 
opening which features the name and construc- 
tion date of the building in green mosaic tiles set 
"1 the stuccoed tympanum. The new second 
floor, complete with skylights and maple flooring, 
provided space for a roller skating rink. In 1947 
the building was totally remodeled. The second 
floor was converted into office space, a large 
one-story wing was added to the rear to house 
the relocated bowling alley and printing establish- 
ment and the southern shops assumed the charac- 
ter of a shopping arcade. The arcade entrance is 
"ot aligned with the central window bay, but is 
rather recessed under a stubby aluminum cornice 
*hich links the entrance and the two small lower 
shops. The street facades were also covered iden- 
tically with beige ceramic panels, accented by 
°'ack stripes of the same material. The clipped 
"Corners of the shop fronts, the aluminum hard- 
ware of the doors, as well as the streamlined 
aluminum stair railing and coffee shop counter, are 
*" elements of the Art Modeme style widely used 
'" Asheboro just after World War II. The northern 


arcade shop originally housed Williams-Riddle, 
a men's clothing store, whose painted monogram 
remains on the interior display windows. 


206 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1925, ca. 1937 

This structure was built in the late 1920s to 
house the U S. Post Office, which moved here 
from 132 Sunset Avenue. The original design 
provided a central entrance flanked by granite- 
trimmed bay windows. Brick infill panels laid in 
a herringbone pattern were placed beneath these 
windows. An arched window bay with keystone 
accented the second floor level above the entrance. 
A metal cornice with dentils marks the roof 
level, while the central summit is crowned by a 
round stucco panel set with green mosaic tile 
inlay — seemingly a signature of the buildings 
built by the C. H. Wood Construction Company 
for the Hedrick family on this block. In 1935 the 
post office moved to 241 Sunset Avenue, and the 
building was remodeled by the Carolina theatre 
chain into Asheboro's largest theatre, the Caro- 
lina, seating 498. The new recessed entrance 
was an interesting quarter-round passageway 
with streamlined moldings; this may have been 
the town's introduction to the new Art Modeme 
style. The original entrance became the thea- 
tre's exit door in the reconstruction. The audi- 
torium was decorated with Art Deco style 
lighting fixtures and murals painted, it is re- 
called, by a European artist. Portions of these 
features can still be seen in what has become a 
storage area. The Carolina Theatre closed in 
1962, and the building stood vacant until 1981 , 
when it was once again remodeled into com- 
mercial space. 


218 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1930 ■ 
The original occupant of this building was the 
Hedrick Motor Company, a Buick dealership. 
The present storefront marks the location of the 
automobile showroom; a two-story space (now 
remodeled) with a balcony or mezzanine level in 
the rear. Clerestory windows (now closed, but 
visible as buff-colored brick outlines in the red 
brick facade) let additional light into this space. 
A large door bay at the south edge of the facade 
provided access to the company's garage. 

B:40 Gas Station ca. 1958. 



El [31 113[ 




^ air- 


B:47 Fayetteville Street School ca. 1960. 

B: 47 The Asheboro Summit housing complex located to the east, directly behind the former Fayette- 
ville Street School. 
Eli==3Ell^^==l<^r=^=in i in i i ini= 



226 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1935 

This is one of three similar examples of Art 
Deco gas stations in Asheboro. (The others are 
at 15! North Park Street and 1223 North Fayette- 
ville Street.) This is the largest and most elabo- 
rate of the three. The shed roof is tiled, emphasiz- 
ing the Spanish Mission style influence in this 
stuccoed design. The pylons separating the bays 
terminate in a crest that is pure Art Deco. These 
designs were provided and built by the oil compa- 
nies and reproduced all over the country. 


211 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1925 


217 South Fayetteville Street 
1938, 1941, 1952 

The nucleus of this complex of buildings is 
the two-story hipped-roof house built about 1925 
by broom manufacturer Lonnie L. Whitaker. It is 
the only brick building found in this survey 
which uses Flemish bond, where brick stretchers 
alternate with darker glazed headers in an ex- 
tremely attractive decorative technique. The 
square, boxy shape of the house is characteristic 
of the early twentieth-century 'American Four- 
square" style, but the wide overhanging eaves of 
the roof and small one-story shed wings also 
relate it to "Prairie Style" architecture. The roof 
overhang is carried on exposed rafter ends sawn 
m a decorative pattern and notched to carry 
guttenng. The house uses two types of bungaloid 
double-hung sash: tripartite 4/1 and paired 6/1 
wmdow units. This house is the only home to 
survive in place from the eariy twentieth-century 
residential district which once lined Fayetteville 

The adjoining Barnes-Griffin Clinic was started 
in 1938 by Dr. Dempsey Barnes and Dr. H. L. 
Griffin. It offered beds for some thirty patients. 
The clinic expanded to include the neighboring 
residence in 1941 and built the two-story addition 
to the north in 1952. It closed in 1962 after the 
death of Dr. Griffin. The fluted limestone pilas- 
ters with abstract capitals which frame the street 
facade of the 1938 building hint at the Art Deco 
style. The Colonial Revival door with pedi- 
mented architrave dates from the 1960s. 




133 East Academy Street 
ca. 1920 

This imposing brick veneer residence was the 
second home of John Stanback Lewis, hardware 
store owner and president of the First National 
Bank. It was built on Fayetteville Street at the 
present site of the Tobias Store, and was moved 
to this site about 1960. Still facing Fayetteville 
Street, the original facade displays a hip-roofed 
block framed by projecting gabled bays. Semi- 
circular fanlights are set in each gable. The 
buff-colored brick walls are accented by lime- 
stone trim, including window sills and pedi- 
ments with prominent voussoirs and keystones 
and a limestone belt course. Double-hung 12/1 
bungaloid sash are used throughout the house. 
The molded cornice features a prominent dentiled 
frieze. Original elements lost in the move were a 
Tuscan-columned porte cochere and veranda 
which skirted the dwelling, and a granite retain- 
ing wall fronting the Fayetteville Street sidewalk. 
The house has been divided into six apartments. 


325 South Fayetteville Street 
1908, 1923; destroyed 1969 

The four acres of the Fayetteville Street School 
property were for many years known as the "Fair 
Grounds," since the yearly agricultural fairs and 
expositions were always held here. The Asheboro 
Male Academy was chartered January 25, 1843; 
a school was located on the property for the next 
126 years. Superseded by the later school house, 
the small frame Male Academy building was 
moved and incorporated in a house on Cox Street 
that bunied in 1967. 

The first brick building was built for the 
Asheboro public schools in 1908. That structure, 
two stories built on a raised basement, was a 
hip-roofed central block with gabled wings ar- 
ranged in an H-plan. It included round-headed 
Italianate windows as decorative accents, with 
the classrooms lighted by large tripartite sash. 
The building was crowned by a domed cupola 
holding a bell and flagstaff. In 1923 flanking 
wings were added to the building, which re- 
ceived a flat roof and coat of stucco in the 
remodeling. A. C. Woodruff, the architect of the 
City Hall, designed the separate gymnasium in 
1936. It was a Neo-Classical building of red brick 
with a pilastered and pedimental facade. 



rn rj i TiItt: '— "~"Tr " -" 

With the creation of individual neighborhood 
elementary schools and the building of the high 
school in 1950, the student population of Fayette- 
ville Street began to dwindle. In its last years, it 
Was the private domain of the seventh grade. The 
opening of North Asheboro Junior High was the 
death knell; the school saw its last classes in the 
spring of 1968. 


406 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1905; destroyed 1980 

This is a difficult house to date, as it has 
Undergone extensive alterations. The bracketed 
eaves and unusual sawn cornices over the; upper 
windows suggest a date around the turn of the 
century. Dr. Fox bought the property in 1906. 
The "Colonial" door frame was added in con- 
junction with the aluminum siding. 


525 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1900 

This three-bay, central gable house was very 
similar to a typical turn-of-the-century farm- 
house — appropriate to the rural nature of this 
location at that time. It is relatively intact al- 
though in a bad state of preservation. This was 
'he home of the White family A similar house, 
around the comer on East Kivett Street, has been 
™uch altered but may have been built about the 
same time. 


530 South Cox Street 
ca. 1925 

Cobblestones became a popular building mate- 
"al during the Bungalow period; this powerfully- 
'^esigned home uses them for every visible bit of 
masonry. The shed porch and recessed dormer 
are interesting details that emphasize the hori- 
^ontality of the composition. 


139 South Church Street 
ca. 1917 

The older, northern end of this building may 
date to 1917, when the company was founded by 
the C. C. Cranford family. Nine bays wide by 
fifteen bays long, the building's segmental-arched 
window frames once held wooden sash, which 
have been replaced by blue tinted glass in metal 
frames. A monitor bay still crowns the shallow 
gable, but the windows which once lit the upper 
floor are now completely covered. 


230 West Academy Street 
ca. 1925 

This early twentieth-century factory is built in 
1:5 common bond, with red brick headers creat- 
ing darker stripes through the orange stretcher 
courses. Eleven window bays run the length of 
the building; some retain early 12/12 wooden 
double-hung sash in the flat arched openings. 
Stepped ends hide the gable roof. Built about 
1925, the building served as finishing and spray- 
ing space for the Cranford Furniture Company. 

The main factory of the corporation was built 
about 1918. Now destroyed, it stood between the 
existing building and the neighboring Asheboro 
Hosiery Mills. The firm was founded before 1910 
as the Asheboro Furniture Company and was 
reorganized by C. C. Cranford, first as the 
Cranford Chair Company and later as the Cranford 
Furniture Company. 












Section C— The Fisher Estate, Hollywood 



' AHi ' '■' '-"^'"''■'''■■™ " ^iigr'*' 


308 West Kivett Street 

ca. 1890 
This is the largest house remaining from 
nineteenth-century Asheboro. Although exten- 
sively remodeled in 1950 to create four apart- 
ments, various details remain to indicate its 
original character. The small screened porch on 
the Kivett Street facade retains part of the trim of 
the original latticed porch that once wrapped 
around the house. Dentils under the eaves of the 
deck-on-hip roof hint at the impending Colonial 
Revival style. The most outstanding survival is 
the detached well shelter, where the unusual 
bellcast roof provides an oriental flavor. Stephen 
^ayland Kivett came to Asheboro from the New 
Market area of Randolph County, where he seems 
to have been connected with the iron foundry 
which operated there during the Civil War. In 
Asheboro, Kivett operated a business building 
*agons and coffins. 


305 West Wainman Avenue 
ca. 1888 

Wainman, a Scotsman and erstwhile gold 
finer, built this house while in his middle 
twenties. He died soon after. The decorative trim 
must have been purchased from a local sash-and- 
blind factory, perhaps the W. C. Petty firm in 
Archdale. Acquired after Wainman's death by 
the Romulus R. Ross family it was remodeled as 
apartments in 1941 and was recently covered 
with aluminum siding. The pedimented window 
frames, identical to those of the Fisher mansion 
and Gatekeeper's House, probably still survive 
"nder the aluminum skin. A few of the original 
Porch brackets were re-used on a small entrance 
porch added to the north side. At least one 
mantel survives inside; however, the stairs were 
rernoved when the main entrance was closed. A 
""'que and important survival is the original 
^'tchen or cook's house. Once free-standing, it 
has been attached to the south end of the house 
and is now used as rear entrance and dining 
toom, Beyond important historical associations, 

his house is the sole survivor on what was once 
a street of several large, graceful dwellings. Its 
preservation is an important goal. 

0:3 HOUSE 

405 Hill Street 
ca. 1925 

This house is illustrative of the Spanish Mis- 
sion style, another west coast introduction of the 
bungalow period. The one-story house is of 
stuccoed brick or block, with a stepped central 
gable over the entrance, embattled comers and 
an entrance portico complete with round arches. 
The coupled windows of the street facade are 
sheltered by shed canopies covered in Spanish 


327 South Park Street 

ca. 1910 
The gable of this three-bay L-plan house is on 
the north, shingled in a decorative pattern and 
bearing a vent of classical design. The original 
site of the structure was at the northeast comer of 
Cranford and South Fayetteville streets. It was 
moved ca. 1920 to make way for the granite 
C. C. Cranford home (now destroyed). It is an 
odd quirk of fate that this humble building was 
moved and preserved early in the century while 
its elegant replacement was destroyed in the 
1960s. The Winslow House burned in 1981 and 
was finally demolished in 1982. 



326 South Park Street 
ca. 1905 

This dwelling is almost a mirror-image of its 
neighbor across the street. A three-bay cottage 
design with a shingle-decorated northern gable. 


235 South Park Street 
ca. 1930 

This is a very attractive, classic bungalow. Its 
gable roof has a deep overhang supported on 
corbeled brackets. The shed porch is carried by 
massive stuccoed pylons; corbeled round arches 
spring from the house front, while the street 
facade is carried on a wide elliptical arch. A 
brick band accents the throat of the pylons, and 
stucco is used as decorative trim on the brick 
porch railing. A low gabled dormer is placed 
athwart the gable above the entrance. A near 
twin of this dwelling stands around the comer on 
Hill Street. 


151 North Park Street 
ca. 1935 

Almost identical to the commercial building at 
226 South Fayetteville Street, although somewhat 
smaller, this is another fine example of the Art 
Deco style of architecture. The structure is stuc- 
coed with accenting red brick trim. "Crested" 
pylons accent the bays. 



605 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1905 

This well-preserved, simple house features 
sawn brackets on the turned porch posts, feath- 
ered shingle decoration in the gable ends and a 
double-leaf front entrance. 


609 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1930 

This is an attractive and sophisticated gable- 
end bungalow. The secondary gable shelters only 
a screened-in porch; its most important function 
is to visually disguise the oversized main gable. 
A wisteria arbor supported by a sturdy brick 
pylon also ties the main gable to the porch; the 
sawn ends of the arbor match the sawn rafter 
ends of the house. 



621 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1905 

This house illustrates the stylistic transition 
between the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival 
periods. The massing of the house is Queen 
Anne, especially evident in the polygonal bay, 
deck-on-hip roof and spindled brackets. The 
porch, carried on Tuscan-order columns, exhib- 
its Colonial Revival detailing. 


625 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1930 

This is an odd-looking yet very appealing 
bungalow. The gable roof completely covers the 
second floor, with inset windows serving instead 
of a dormer. The extra height of the roof might 
have made the house look top-heavy had the 
"Pper comers not been clipped off. This is 
described as a "jerkin-head" roof. 


703 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1915 

Evidence suggests that the street facade of this 
house at one time featured a hip-roofed wrap- 
around porch carried on turn posts with sawn 
brackets and off-set gable with boxed cornice 
feturns. Feathered shingles in the eastern gable 
*re surviving decorative elements hinting at a 
Victorian style. John M. Neely came to Asheboro 
from Alabama to assist John Stanback Lewis in 
'he initial operations of the First National Bank 
*nd later became president. This home is now 
owned by Neely's grandson Ryan Reynolds 
'^^ely, Jr., and wife Anne. 

C:13 J. S. LEWIS HOUSE #1 

711 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1905 

John Stanback Lewis, a Montgomery County 
native, came to Asheboro from Alabama in 1905 
and built this house on a prominent hill directly 
across the street from the old Fisher mansion, 
then known as Memorial Hospital . In 1 907 Lewis 
was a founder of the Cox-Lewis Hardware Com- 
pany and the First National Bank, of which he 
was also president. (See 144-148 Sunset Ave- 
nue.) He was also involved with the Southern 
Crown Milling Company and the Asheboro 
Wheelbarrow Company. The site of the house 
was originally the Fisher barnyard; the stables, 
fish pond and dovecote are to the rear, and the 
estate's huge bam was just to the west. The 
"Goat Mountain," a dry-laid stone structure 
now used as a garden feature, was built as an 
inclined ramp into the second story of the bam, 
much like the Pennsylvania Dutch "bank" bams. 
The 2-1/2 story house has a Queen Anne style 
form with Colonial Revival style trim. A poly- 
gonal bay at the northeast comer is covered by a 
cantilevered gable. Smaller polygonal window 
bays were placed on the west facade, where an 
arched stained-glass window lights the stair 
landing. A gabled dormer with balcony railing 
allows more light into the third-floor attic space. 
The original design was strongly vertical and 
did not include the verandas which now give it a 
more horizontal character. Interestingly, the house 
is identical to a house illustrated in the book 
High Point. N. C. 1900-1910, and identified as 
the residence of a Charles F Long. There has to 
be some connection between the two, whether 
involvement of the same architect, construction 
contractor, or sash-and-blind factory. 

In 1923 Lewis sold the house to Hugh Parks, 
Jr son of the long-time owner of the textile 
mills in Franklinville. Parks had sold the mills 
in that year to a corporation headed by John 
Washington Clark. In Asheboro, Parks opened a 
hardware store and founded the Parks Hosiery 
Mill now a part of Acme-McCrary. Parks died 
in 1931 and is buried in the Asheboro city ceme- 
tery. The house was subsequently re-acquired by 
the Lewis family. 












700 Block Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1888; destroyed 1934 

Visible reminders of the now-vanished Fisher 
mansion are the terraced lawn, rock steps and 
goldfish pond; the tree now in the center of 
Memorial Avenue was in the front yard. 


722 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1920 

This pyramidal-roofed house exhibits details 
of the Colonial Revival such as Tliscan columns 
and gabled dormer The latticed porch creates an 
interesting decorative effect. 



830 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1925 

The chunky boxy shape and hip-roofed dor- 
mer of this house relate it to the "American 
Foursquare" house type, which grew out of 
midwestem frame school architecture. The ex- 
posed masonry is entirely built up of smooth- 
edge cobblestones, illustrative of the interest in 
natural materials which characterized the early 
twentieth century. 


840 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1915 

The main gabled facade of this house actually 
fronts on McCrary Street, although the address 
is that of a door facing Sunset. That door is set 
off-center, behind the main block, in a wing 
covered by a deck-on-hip roof. Feathered shin- 
gles and colored glass windows decorate the 
gable ends, while the porch is carried on stubby 
Doric columns set on brick piers. 

CI 7 

B'^==^'^'==<'^'==^^- ■ tni ini lui ^ 





915 Sunset Avenue 
ca. 1910 

A hip-roofed porch wraps around two sides of 
this house, displaying turned posts and sawn 
brackets. The deck-on-hip roof is pierced by 
several gables holding windows which light the 
second-floor living area. The original weather- 
boarding has been replaced by asbestos siding. 


830 Lewis Street 

ca. 1900 
This is one of the best-preserved, tum-of-the- 
century houses in Asheboro. The hip-roofed 
house with projecting polygonal bay is an exam- 
ple of the "Queen Anne" style, while the 
knobbed and chamfered brackets under the canti- 
'evered eaves of the bay are examples of the 
"Eastlake" style. Feathered shingles decorate 
'he gable and colored glass decorates the door 
and several windows. Charles Loflin was the 
father of Donna Lee Loflin, long-time principal 
of the nearby elementary school which bears her 


703 Dixon Avenue 
ca. 1905 

Local residents say that this house once be- 
longed to "Old Sheriff Brady." The wraparound 
porch on bungaloid pylons replaced an earlier 
porch; aluminum siding covers any remaining 
<letails. The house must have been very similar 
'0 the end-pavilion type house of nearby 627 

'^:2l HOUSE 

636 Dixon Avenue 
ca. 1900 

This odd house resembles two center-gable 
houses joined at one end like Siamese twins. 
Considered in this manner, each house would be 
'hree bays wide, with central chimney, and cou- 
pled 4/4 sash above the entrance. The entrance 
Qoors, however, are placed asymmetrically off- 
Ijenter on the facade. Local tradition suggests 
'hat the structure may have been part of the Fisher 
estate. The cloned construction of the building 
indicates that it was built as duplex apartments, 
perhaps Asheboro's earliest. 

- !'• 




|u ]yLiP^ 




627 Dixon Avenue 
ca. 1905 

This is a well preserved end-pavilion type 
house with a hip-roofed porch, turned posts and 
sawn brackets. The end-pavilion form was popu- 
lar in Randolph County; other nearby examples 
are 703 Dixon and 605 Sunset Avenue. 



617 Dixon Avenue 
ca. 1900 


This T-pIan house bears an unusual orientation 
to the street, with the small end— a projecting 
polygonal bay— housing the main entrance door. 
Two additional doors frame the bay on each side 
of the rear wing, with a wraparound porch unit- 
mg all three in a pleasant symmetrical composi- 
tion. The porch posts have been replaced and the 
house covered with aluminum siding, but the 
Queen Anne brackets with pendant drops remain 


136 Dixon Street 
ca. 1910 

This is a rambling house which, due to its 
comer site, has the aspect of a center-gable 
house from the south and the look of an end- 
pavilion house from the east. The east is the 
primary facade, however. The house features 
tum-of-the-century 2/2 sash and molded porch 
posts with brackets. 


127 Dixon Street 


135 Dixon Street 
ca. 1915 

The two houses pictured here are nearly identi- 
cal twins. The one at 127 Dixon is approximately 
in its original form. The original porch posts at 
135 Dixon have been replaced by bungaloid 
pylons and the house has been covered with 
asbestos siding. Aluminum canopies also dis- 
guise its origins. The deck-on-hip roof with 
central gable prevents the houses from appearing 
as large as comparable two-story structures, relat- 
ing them in size to the neighboring small houses 
on Dixon. 


Section D— Millhaven 


in i I R[= 



1000 soo 


gai EiaE 


="^1 in[= 












D.-2 Methodist Episcopal Church ca. 1890 (Original photograph byH.M. Robins) 

D:2 First Methodist Church ca. 1910. 


124 West Salisbury Street 
ca. 1950 

This tiny, flat-roofed office is Asheboro's only 
example of a frame structure built in the stream- 
lined Art Modeme style. The facade comers are 
rounded by flush vertical sheathing; the rest of 
the building features German siding. Rectangular 
metal window sashes provide a horizontal accent. 


Northeast comer of Salisbury Street 

and White Oak Street 


The earliest burial in this cemetery was that of 
Benjamin Augustus Marsh, b. 1826, d. Decem- 
ber, 1827. Not until October 25, 1834, did 
Benjamin Elliott, a local merchant, deed two 
acres of land to the Methodist Episcopal Church 
"to erect, or cause to be built, a house of public 
worship ... and for a public cemetary." Thus, 
the property saw its first use as a family cemetery. 
(An Indian burial mound was said to be located 
just to the east of the original tract.) By the end 
of 1834, the Methodists had built a plain, 
rectangular stmcture painted light grey It was 
located inside the present cemetery, approximately 
on the site of the marker erected "to the memory 
of our colored friends" (slaves were also buried 
in the cemetery). Two front doors of this structure 
opened into a vestibule where stairs rose at either 
end to the slave galleries which ran the length of 
both sides of the building. A "graceful pulpit of 
red-cherry wood" donated by the wife of Jonathan 
Wjrth was considered "the handsomest furnishing 
in the church." This structure was demolished in 
1888; its replacement on the same site satisfied 
no one. In June, 19(X), it was announced that 
"architect's plans have been procured for a 
modem, attractive building" proposed for the 
site of the modem used-car lot adjoining the 
Armfield Mausoleum. The result was a romantic 
Gothic Revival frame building entered under the 
graceful bell tower and steeple. The leaded, 
stained-glass windows were a particular point of 
pride, as was another unusual item; a central 
healing system. The building was demolished 
ca. 1925. 




224 North Park Street 

ca. 1930 
This frame warehouse has 6/6 sash, and is 
covered with asbestos siding. Its "boom-town" 
facade disguises a clerestory monitor roof. A 
similar warehouse stands nearby on Chestnut 
Street, and others were once found in the area, 
at one time Asheboro's major warehouse and 
manufacturing district. 


532 West Salisbury Street 
This complex of buildings encompasses Ashe- 
boro's only surviving examples of large, frame 
industrial buildings. All of the town's early 
manufacturing operations were once housed in 
frame structures, but several disastrous fires (such 
as ones in 1923 and 1925 which leveled the 
Asheboro Wheelbarrow and Home Building 
Company plants) proved the danger of such 
buildings. (The ca. 1910 Randolph Chair Com- 
pany and Acme Hosiery Mill plants were among 
the town's first brick factories.) P & P Chair 
Company was organized by Arthur Presnell and 
W. C. Page in 1924, and was one of the few 
furniture operations which continued throughout 
the Depression. The best-known product of the 
company is its "Kennedy Rocker," a type of 
wooden rocking chair made here and given to 
President John F. Kennedy by his orthopedic 


227 Peachtree Street 
This neglected cemetery marks the former site 
of Allen's Temple African Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The ca. 1900-vintage sanctuary, which 
once stood here, was abandoned and destroyed 
ca. 1965, when the congregation merged into St. 
Luke's United Methodist Church. 


305 Chestnut Street 

ca. 1930 

This small, frame warehouse is covered with 

Gennan siding and has 6/6 sash. It is lighted by 

a clerestory monitor roof, much like those once 

found on several early factories along Deep River. 


840 West Salisbury Street 
1928. 1950 
This company, organized in New York in 1927, 
opened the original portion of its Asheboro plant 
in 1928. That building is now the central portion 
of the present building, including the entrance. It 
was a small, brick building with four window- 
bays of square industrial metal sash. Large wings 
were added in 1950, with similar large windows 
and sawtooth monitor roofs. Soon after, the 
exterior of the complex was remodeled into its 
present monumental form. The windows were 
filled, the facade was stuccoed and yellow-metal 
stripes were added to create a unified linear 
facade. The words "BOSSONG/HOSIERY" in 
Art Deco lettering on either side of the central 
portion add to the decorative effect. 


p .5 Alleri s Temple African Methodist 
Episcopal Church ca. I960. 


D:7 Bossong Hosiery Mill ca. 1945. 















D:9 Randolph Hospital ca. 1940. 



E]l==E)B[^^^3a[^^^=]E][^^^=inr==ii m==i ini= 



291 North Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1900 

Unusual features of this T-plan vernacular 
structure are the polygonal window bay and tiny 
trefoil window in the gable. These eclectic 
Victorian features, in addition to the bracketed 
porch on turned posts, indicate that the house 
was built before neoclassicism swept the nation. 


373 North Fayetteville Street 
1932, 1946, 1951, 1964, 1976 
Eric G. Flannagan, Architect 

The original Art Deco hospital structure, now 
almost totally obscured by later accretions, was 
the first work in Asheboro by the Henderson 
office of Eric Flannagan. It was also the most 
architecturally important. The hospital, funded 
partly by the Duke Endowment, was begun in 
1931 and completed in July, 1932. The rectangular, 
13-bay structure featured buff-face brick, cast 
stone trim in pseudo-floral geometrical motifs 
and decorative brickwork in diapered and her- 
ringbone patterns. Entrance was made on the 
second floor level, accessible by a unique T-plan 
exterior staircase. The entrance bay was capped 
by an oversize stone cornice including the name 
of the hospital. Facilities were segregated at that 
time; the total of 39 beds included a separate 
ward for blacks on the ground floor near the 
emergency room. The adjoining 5-bay nurses 
quarters was also built at this time. In general it 
remains almost unaltered; the metal entrance 
door frame in a geometrical design is interest- 
ing. Several additions through the years, all by 
Flannagan, increased the capacity of the hospital 
to 142 beds. The most extensive alteration was 
made in 1951, with the demolition of the original 
entrance facade and the creation of a new entrance 
wing. The McCrary Memorial Wing, named for 
hospital corporation president and board chair- 
man, D. B. McCrary, housed the switchboard, 
information desk and adminstrator's offices as 
well as additional ward space. The facade repeats 
most of the decorative techniques used on the 
first building and also re-used the original cornice. 

Its most distinctive feature was the black marble 
entrance incised with Art Deco patterns. Stainless 
steel lanterns in the shape of a caduceus light the 
glass doors covered by geometrical stainless- 
steel grills. The interior is easy to keep clean; the 
fireplace and columns of the public lounge are 
carved Carrena marble, the floors were tiled 
with contrasting blocks of brown and cream 
marble and corridors were paneled in marble. 
The rooftop solarium was said to be the first in 
North Carolina. 


503 North Fayetteville Street 

The central entrance door of this Art Modeme 
building is set in a frame of glass block recessed 
by rounded comers in soldier courses. Because 
of its odd site, the building is not a rectangle but 
a parallelogram, and the angled comers are turned 
with "knuckle joints." The stepped front con- 
ceals a bowstring truss roof. 














Section E— Eastover, Spring Hill, Homeland Heights 








~in t "I P"" 

1000 500 


=irn i in i i n r i n r ^== 1 Fi r=^=1 E] F==^= l B[==z=lEl[5 






E:l First Methodist Church ca. 1930 




224 North Fayetteville Street 
1924; Harry Barton, Architect 

The original proposal of the Greensboro archi- 
tect called for a grandiose domed structure in a 
cruciform plan. This was scaled down to the 
present structure in the Italian Romanesque style. 
The Mediterranean character of the design can 
be seen in the tile roof, corbeled brickwork and 
polychrome stone decoration. The cornerstone 
was laid in December, 1924, and first services 
were held December 18, 1925. The compact 
adjoining parsonage and Italianate campanile 
were added ca. 1934. The fellowship hall wing 
was built in 1960. Barton also designed the First 
Baptist Church in Siler City, which is virtually 
identical to this structure in plan and detail. 


428 North Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1950 

This streamlined Art Modeme-style building 
was built to house an ice cream bar, dairy 
warehouse and distribution center. The comers 
of the facade are rounded by bricks laid in header 
bond. Regular red brick is used on the north 
wall, while buff-colored glazed terra cotta brick 
or tile is used on the west and south. The glazed 
brick is an unusual feature which may have been 
designed to give the effect of a clean, antiseptic 
dairy environment. Glass block is found in three 
large windows. 


468 North Fayetteville Street 
The street-front display windows of this stream- 
lined. Art Modeme commercial building wrap 
around the rounded ends of the building. Thus 
the brick facade seems to be unsupported, resting 
on sheets of glass. This is a characteristic of the 
European-derived International style which influ- 
enced Art Modeme. The stepped front conceals 
the warehouse-type bowstring truss roof. 


520 North Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1948 

The rounded comers of the recessed entrance 
are an Art Modeme feature of this building. The 
soldier courses of brick, set on end, recede 
toward the double entrance door capped by a 
glass block transom. The stepped front conceals 
a bowstring truss roof. 


414 Watkins Street 

One of the first schools for black students in 
Randolph County was established in Asheboro in 
the 1880s, when a Quaker missionary group hired 
a teacher, William Emest Mead of Brooklyn, 
N. Y, to open "William Penn High School." 
Mead returned to New York several years later 
and the school moved to High Point. At the turn 
of the century Asheboro Colored Graded School 
was established in the Bums Street/North Main 
Street area; it attracted boarding students from 
across the county. The marble cornerstone in the 
present building— dated 191 1— was probably re- 
used from the earlier wooden stmcture. 

The brick building that now stands on Watkins 
Street was constructed in 1926 with monies from 
the Juilius Rosenwald Fund and with the assis- 
tance of the Slater Fund. When Professor C. A. 
Barrett opened the new school as principal, its 
name was changed to the Randolph County 
Training School. It was renamed Central High 
School during the term of J. N. Gill, its last 
principal. High school students were transferred 
to the newly-integrated Asheboro High School 
ca. 1964. The school was closed in 1969 when 
the remaining students were moved to Lindley 
Park and Charles W McCrary elementary schools. 
The building at one time housed various county 
agencies including the Randolph Sheltered Work- 
shop. In December, 1981, the East Side Improve- 
ment Association, a local neighborhood organ- 
ization, purchased the property for community 


Section F— Old Muster Field, Colonial Heights, Greystone Terrace 







817 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1905; destroyed 1982 

A one-story version of the three bay. central 
gable house. It is possible that this house and 
two others nearby may have been built by black 
families. This was a black neighborhood at the turn 
of the century. At the comer of Bulla and South 
Fayetteville streets was Bulla's Grove Methodist 
Church, which subsequently moved to Burns 
Street and is now St. Luke's United Methodist 


911 South Fayetteville Street 

This is the only Art Modeme design in Ashe- 
boro which used precast aggregate panels on the 
facade instead of brick. Smooth panels turn the 
rounded comers, while corrugated panels frame 
the tinted-glass horizontal strip windows. A ves- 
tigial aluminum canopy marks the division be- 
tween the second-door storage area and the street- 
front showroom, which is completely walled in 
plate glass. 


962 South Cox Street 
ca. 1910 

A variation of the three-bay vernacular house 
with the gable on an end instead of the center. The 
bungaloid porch piers are probably replacements. 


923 and 935 South Cox Street 
ca. 1910 

These neighboring, nearly identical houses 
are examples of the familiar three-bay, central 
gable, vernacular type. The turned-post porch of 
923 still survives, but window sashes have been 
replaced. The porch and porte cochere of 935 are 
bungaloid features which must have been later 

F :4 923 South Co x Street. F:5 93 5 South C o x Street. 

13 1 3 13 1 3 B I I ta i 1 13 1 1 13 1 1 13 1 1 13 1 I B I I t^ l i R i i n r i nr im r i n r i n f= mr - i nr= 


=in i n np: 



845 South Cox Street 
1899, 1921, 1978 
The foundations of this house are reported to 
have been started in 1898. The general character 
of the house is of the early twentieth century; for 
the most part it may be the product of the 
extensive 1921 alterations. The shed dormers are 
unusual. The turned spindles were added to the 
porch in 1978; the bungaloid porch was built iri 
1921. An interesting survival is the "goat house" 
in the backyard. It may have begun existence as a 
well cover. The house has recently been attrac- 
tively renovated. Rich and his family operated 
the local brickyard beginning just after the Civil 
War. His descendants still sell brick in Asheboro. 


707 South Cox Street 

ca. 1920 
A whimsical example of the "Picturesque" 
style, this is someone's "bungaloid" re-affirma- 
t'on of a man's home as a man's castle. The brick 
dwelling was probably meant to resemble an 
English country cottage, although the conical- 
foofed entrance tower is a rather eclectic adapta- 
tion from English castles. The extremely steep 
roofs and free-standing buttresses add to the 
Itiaint flavor of the house. 



835 Center Street 
ca. 1905 

A vernacular dwelling with a projecting gabled 
end pavilion and a recessed cross gable centered 
on the southern half. The porch is a Victorian 
survival with turned posts and brackets. 


601 South Main Street 

ca. 1870 
Much of the architectural character of this 
simple vernacular house, owned for the past 60 
years by H. H. Bunting, has been obscured by 
modem aluminum siding and storm doors. The 
simple, interior moldings of the mantel on the 
only fireplace are in the style of the late Greek 
Revival. This simple home is shaded by porches 
on the north and west. There are references 
which indicate that originally this was the home 
of Bill Lytle, a barber and member of one of 
the most respected black families in Randolph 
County. The Lytles traced their ancestry back to 
Frank Lytle, a slave freed and given 100 acres of 
land by his master in 1794. Thus the Lytles were 
"Free Persons of Color," eligible to vote in all 
elections until the North Carolina constitution of 
1835 denied them this right. This house stands as 
a memorial to the Lytle family who, according to 
Sidney S. Robins, "belonged to the class of 
superior people, black or white." 


354 Lindley Avenue 
This example of the Adirondack-style or "tele- 
phone pole cabin" was popular in the Bungalow 
period. Built by Haskins, it was later owned by 
Miss Laura Kennedy. 














426 Worth Street 
19th Century, 1936 

This 18' X 28' single-pen log house was 
originally located on the Troy Redding farm near 
Flint Hill. It exhibits half-dovetail notching and 
could well have been built before 1860. The 
house was disassembled, moved to Asheboro 
and rebuilt in 1936. The interior was greatly 
altered; modem windows, doors and bungalow 
detailing were added. The house was the project 
and creation of Rose Thomas Rich (1889-1951), 
a professional nurse who was bom in Indiana 
and moved here in 1927. Mrs. Rich envisioned a 
romantic recreation of mountain life and land- 
scape on the 90' x 160' lot in Greystone Terrace. 
The house was not only the Richs' dwelling but a 
showcase for their collection of early crafts and 


741 Kildare Road 

1956; Clyde Dorsett, Architect 

This house is one of the most important 
examples of modem architecture in Asheboro, 
strongly influenced by the domestic architecture 
of Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus. Set on a 
slope well back and almost invisible from the 
street, the house is well integrated with a site left 
almost completely in its natural state. The outside 
space is a very important element in the design, 
flowing into the bedrooms, living room and 
kitchen through a two-story rear facade that is 
almost wholly thermopane glass. A deep roof 
overhang and fixed wooden sun shades above the 
first floor level screen out the heat of the sun. 
The one-story street facade most clearly exhibits 
a distinctive feature of the design. Upper and 
lower clerestories — continuous strips of glass 
both under the eaves and at ankle-level — demate- 
rialize support for the panels of the wall, which 
are seemingly suspended in space between foun- 
dation and flat roof. Also unusual is the inter- 
changeable floor plan, where wall panels and 
storage units can be taken out, re-arranged and 
re-installed at will. The original owner and 
architect worked for the architectural firm of 
J. Hyatt Hammond, whose own house is next 


801 Kildare Road 

1958; J. Hyatt Hammond, Architect 

This outstanding contemporary home is closely 
related to the "Usonian" houses of Frank Lloyd 
Wright. Sited on a steep slope, it is actually 
below street level. From that viewpoint the 
stracture seems quite elongated although the 
entire house is to the left of the central entry 
court; the right half is a double carport. Contain- 
ing only 1500 square feet of floor space, the 
house was originally designed for a bachelor. 
The walls of native slate and the horizontal 
character emphasized by the flat roof enable the 
house to "hug the ground" and blend harmon- 
iously with its surroundings. Clerestory windows 
protected by the wide roof overhang can remain 
open at all times to create a system of cross 
ventilation. The flagstone floors also promote a 
natural cooling process. Rooms of the house are 
on several levels, following the hillside contours. 
The open entrance court is screened from the 
carport by woven wooden slats. The combination 
den and solarium is a mid-level room, from 
which steps lead to the long sunken living room. 
The architect was graduated from the School of 
Design of N. C. State University. The house was 
decorated by his wife, an interior decorator trained 
at the Art Institute of Chicago. 



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Section G— Randolph Heights, OoGalista Heights 


1000 500 

i m i n i I HE 



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1221 South Park Street 

1949-50, 1952-53 

Eric G. Flannagan, Architect 

The school was built in stages, as money 
became available. The entrance bay and adjoin- 
ing classrooms were opened for the fall term, 
1950. The flanking gym and auditorium wings 
were ready for the fall term 1953. The buff brick 
and limestone trim are characteristic of the archi- 
tect Eric Flannagan; this was his largest project 
in Asheboro. He was involved in the school 
design because of Charles W. McCrary , the school 
board chairman and industrialist for whom he 
had worked before. The impressive size and 
scope of the design was further enhanced by its 
situation, separated from Park Street by a consid- 
erable expanse of lawn. This was completely 
necessary, for the school cannot be appreciated 
as a whole except when seen from a distance. 
Such decorative details as the panels of brick 
set diagonally which flank the entrances to the 
gym and auditorium are used to break the light 
falling on the facade, creating vertical bands of 
shadow which lessen the swat horizontality of 
the block front. Smaller details, such as the 
carved stone panels above the entrance, benefit 
from close examination. These too were de- 
signed by Flannagan. They depict, allegorical 
fashion, various pursuits of education: science, 
sports, the "lamp of knowledge," drama and 
music. The main floor of the school is actually 
the second; the central steps enter on a landing 
between floors and continue inside. The gym 
and auditorium are entered by way of impressive 
flights of steps. The stadium, built in 1957, 
boasts an unusual cantilevered roof over the 
press box, designed by Latvia-native Walter 
Preimats. Heretofore the extensive additions to 
the school have been made to the south and rear, 
preserving the building's monumental public face. 
The new basketball arena, completed in 1980, 
blocks the original gymnasium front and upsets 
the harmony and balance of the original facade. 


420 West Walker Avenue 

1957; Harold E. Wagoner, Architect 

This "contemporary colonial" design was the 
Philadelphia architect's second building in Ashe- 
boro; Central Methodist Church was completed 
in 1955. The cornerstone was laid May 12, 1957; 
first services were held December 8 of that year. 
As with the Methodist Church, the completed 
portion was only a small part of a grand design 
to be completed as the church grew. Here, only 
the "Educational Unit" was built. The Fellow- 
ship Hall was to serve as the sanctuary until the 
"Sanctuary Unit and Tower" were built. The 
design of the completed elements actually stand 
alone very well. The overhanging entrance gable 
and tall pillars are an effective entrance. The 
spire over the hall is twice the height of its 
counterpart on the Methodist Church. It adds a 
vertical accent which pulls the sections together. 




West Walker Avenue, across from the 
Junior High School 
From 1800 to 1860 the North Carolina General 
Assembly chartered 287 academies, most of 
which were short-lived. At some time during the 
period, practically every county had one or more 
academies offering "a more thorough and ad- 
vanced type of education" than the primitive 
system of statewide public schools. The school 
later known as the "Asheboro Female Academy" 
appears to have been chartered on January 9, 
1839, as "Randolph Female Academy." The 
schoolhouse was built on a one-acre plot located 
on the southwest comer of North Fayetteville and 
West Salisbury streets, donated by Alfred H. 
Marsh and James M. A. Drake, trustees of the 

Miss Eliza Rae of Boston was employed by 
the trustees to instruct the young ladies for ses- 
sions of five months in spelling, reading, gram- 
mar, geography, arithmetic, philosophy, rhetoric, 
needlework and piano (in 1840, wax flowers and 
wax fruit work were added). The first exercises 
were held on Monday, June 17, 1879. The acad- 
emy was described as "a house large enough to 
accommodate 60 scholars ... and furnished too 
with necessary seats, tables and a fine piano." 
In 1855 the Asheboro Male and Female Acade- 
mies were incorporated under the supervision of 
a single board of trustees. 

By 1892 the academy had ceased to function, 
and the property was sold. W J. Armfield, Jr., 
built a house on the site and used the building as 
servants' quarters. In 1969 the academy was 
Siven to the Randolph County Historical Society 
^y the family of Mr. Armfield, to be used as a 
museum. The building was moved in 1970 and 
restoration began; it was moved to its present site 
'n 1972 and work was completed. 

The building is a one-story frame structure 
five bays long and two bays wide, covered with 
Weatherboard. No attempt has been made to 
gather original siding in one location; many 
boards are replacements. The chief feature of the 
facade is the central entrance which is set in a 
simple molded frame. Above the entrance is a 
four-light transom flanked by curious diminutive 
fluted pilasters. The transom is surmounted by a 
molded cornice which breaks over the pilasters. 

Many alterations have befallen the building and 
the original floor plan has been all but obliterated. 
As restored, it is a center-hall plan, one room 
deep. A considerable amount of original horizon- 
tal sheathing survives. Along the north and south 
walls a chair rail runs beneath the windows 
forming a sill. One of the two mantels survived, 
a crudely-rendered but interesting Greek Revival 

A detailed architectural study was never con- 
ducted at the time of restoration to insure authen- 
ticity. Therefore, it may never be possible to 
know for certain if the building actually ap- 
peared as it has been portrayed. 


520 Albemarle Road 

ca. 1940 
This is a visually appealing design which 
transforms a square plan by clipping the comers 
to accommodate four doors, one at each angle, 
creating an octagon. The hipped roof is faceted 
to accommodate these extra angles, adding even 
more visual interest. It is thought that the struc- 
ture was built as a road house or "fish camp" 


850 Uwharrie Street 

ca. 1920 
This is a late example of the pyramidal-roofed 
vernacular house. It possesses an unusual recessed 
porch. The only bungaloid detail is the hip-roofed 
dormer. It was built by a Mr. Caviness. 

G:3 Asheboro Female Academy ca. 1839. 





G.-(5 802 Uwharrie Street. 


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802 and 732 Uwharrie Street 
ca. 1920 

These are two very similar one-story three- 
bay cross-gable dwellings. 802 was built by a 
Richardson. The feathered shingles in the gable 
are a good decorative touch. 

732 was the home of Bob Paisley, the original 
owner of all the land west of this part of Uwharrie 
Street. The house was situated in the middle of 
his farm. 


722 Uwharrie Street 

This two-story dwelling is the best preserved 
cross-gable house on the street. The porch still 
retains its original turned posts. The bam, flower 
house and other outbuildings survive. The house 
was built by a Mr Davis; both he and his wife 
died in the 1918 influenza epidemic. Since that 
time the property has belonged to Reid Freeman. 


725 South Park Street 
ca. 1923 

This house is the city's best example of an 
"Adirondack-style" log cabin. This was a revival 
style in which logs were used more as decorative 
than structural features. Elements of the Bunga- 
low period are seen in the house, which sets its 
gable end toward the street, and uses brown river 
stones for decorative and textural effects on all 
exposed masonry areas. The house was built by 
a Shafter Ferree, and was bought by Mrs. Virtle 
Crutchfield in 1939. 


320 Lanier Street 
ca. 1888 

The one-story, hip-roofed house was moved to 
this site from the Northwest comer of Sunset 
Avenue and Park Street in 1962 to escape oblitera- 
tion by a shopping center It must have been 
moved once before, however, for one source 
describes the original structure as set up off the 
ground on piers and approached by many steps. 
This would relate well to the porch, deeply 
shading three sides of the house and imparting a 
very "coastal" feeling to the stmcture. The 
exterior is unaltered and well-kept; the interior 
has been modernized for use as a meeting place 
for local women's clubs. The pedimented win- 
dow frames which were used on the Fisher 
mansion house and the Wainman House are visi- 
ble here. Little is known about the actual use of 
this house in guarding the approach to the Fisher 
estate. It was probably more theatrical than 

G.IO Fisher Estate Gatekeeper's House ca.l960. G.IO 




624 South Fayetteville Street 
The street-level facade of this automobile show- 
room is virtually all glass, which even wraps 
around the rounded comers of the building. A 
thin aluminum canopy marks the division be- 
tween the first-story glass and the second-story 
brick on the facade. The rounded comers of the 
canopy echo the rounded comers of the building. 
The stepped-brick, upper facade is supported on 
unobtmsive metal posts. The rounded comers of 
the one-story, secondary office wings are decor- 
ated with msticated brick "quoins"; on the pri- 
mary facade these become bands mnning the 
width of the building which frame the horizontal 
strip windows. These light a mezzanine storage 
'oft. The warehouse/service area is roofed by 
bowstring tmsses. 


822 South Fayetteville Street 

ca. 1905 
A well-preserved example of the three-bay, 
central gable, vemacular house type which was 
very popular in early twentieth-century Asheboro. 
The porch posts here are identical to those at 836 
South Fayetteville, although these are bracketed. 


836 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1905; destroyed 1980 

Three-bay vemacular house with turned post 
supporting the porch. Note the odd off-center 
placement of the entrance. It is now the site of a 
cable television studio. 


1010 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1910 

This rambling house of many additions has 
one small porch displaying Victorian posts and 
brackets, but all other porches use Doric columns, 
and classical details predominate. The only ac- 
cess to the house today is from Hammer Avenue. 


1326 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1930; destroyed 1981 

An interesting bungalow garage apartment. 
The bracketed balcony is unusual. 




Section H — Sunset Heights, Dogwood Acres, Dave's Mountain 



















1000 BOO 

3BI )GE 






1430 Sunset Avenue 

1849, 1969 
This log dwelling was built by Solomon Wil- 
liams on Panther Creek, near Seagrove. A stone 
in the chimney is inscribed with his name, the 
date (December 7, 1 849) and the name ' 'Richard 
Suggs" (supposedly a slave responsible for the 
stone masonry work). The building is of substan- 
tial squared-log construction with half-dovetail 
jointing. The dwellings of eighteenth-century 
Asheborough may have been similar to this 
structure. The house was disassembled, moved 
to Asheboro and restored by Walter and Vivian 


1214 Sunset Drive 
ca. 1935 
The form of this house resembles that of 
Spanish Mission style houses such as 405 Hill 
Street. The stepped center gable, the embattled 
comers of the house and portico, as well the 
shed roofs sheltering the window bays are all 
characteristic of this style. Its construction of 
textured concrete blocks is unusual, though found 
in several other homes around Asheboro. This 
construction technique recalls the "textile block" 
houses of Los Angeles designed by Frank Lloyd 
Wright in the 1920s. 


505 Mountain Road 

1937, 1951, 1972 

John J. Croft, Jr., Architect 

The chapel of this church was built soon after 
'he formation of the congregation and used as 
'he sanctuary for more than thirty years. It is an 
attractive structure on an intimate scale, and its 
construction of native slate blends perfectly with 
'he lovely wooded setting. The new sanctuary 
dwarfs the chapel in size but not in spirit. 


1322 Oakmont Drive 
ca. 1915 

Corwith was the developer of the entire "Dog- 
wood Acres" subdivision. He moved to the area 
and bought this land in 1915; his home was the 
first on Dave's Mountain. It is unusual to find a 
Bungalow period house built entirely of flint 
rock, as this one is. The small porch is a refer- 
ence to the Federal style and the Colonial Revival. 
The attic was originally lighted by an eyebrow 
dormer near the chimney. It was removed when 
the roof was replaced. 


520 Oakmont Drive 
ca. 1935 

The "catslide" roof of the central gable, the 
diamond-paned windows, the "nubby" brick 
and inset flagstone decoration are all elements of 
the "Picturesque" style used for many bungalows. 







933 Oakmont Drive 
ca. 1935 

The squared logs with half-dovetail joints are 
unusual; the original logs may have been reused 
from an older house. The rounded log porch 
posts and railings are in the Adirondack style. 
This is now the home of Dr. and Mrs. John 


1049 Neely Drive 

1968; Arthur Cogswell, Architect 

The flat roof with sheltering overhang, the 
clerestory windows and the upper stories reach- 
ing the ground on tall piers are all elements of 
modem domestic architecture introduced by 
Frank Lloyd Wright. This is the only contempo- 
rary house in the Dave's Mountain area and is a 
very well-executed, attractive design by a Chapel 
Hill architect. Trogdon was the son of local 
contractor S. E. Trogdon. 


745 Lexington Road 

1939; Joseph Sawyer, Architect 

This particular style of Colonial Revival dwell- 
ing was described as "Mount Vernon Regional" 
by its Greensboro architect. George Washington's 
home is of course recalled by the monumental 
portico; here, however, the "regional" detailing 
seems to be more Williamsburg Georgian than 
Mount Vernon Adamesque. The Chinese Chip- 
pendale balcony railing is a Georgian feature, 
while the entrance set in a frame with elliptical 
fanlight and sidelights is definitely in the Federal 
style. The house includes many features adapted 
to a comfortable 1930s home, such as screened 
porch, glassed sunroom and canvas window 
awnings. The tirst floor rooms conveniently open 
onto the stately veranda through jalousied French 
doors, emphasizing the fact that the imposing 
hillside site is one of the most impressive aspects 
of the design. The restoration of Colonial Wil- 
liamsburg by John D. Rockefeller had only just 
begun to have the grip on popular tastes which it 
has now assumed, but this house illustrates the 
start of the trend. It won a state AIA award after 
its completion in the spring of 1939. Sulon B. 
Stedman, son of local merchant W. D. Stedman, 
founded the Stedman Corporation, a textile man- 
ufacturing firm based in Asheboro. 



















Section I —Industrial Park, Dixieland Acres 

__»1 1 fflU_— BJ 


I "; " ' tn»ii-ANTic . \\ 

_Ri0 0t_ [rz^^T^-?- 

l «icPO»eL L "OAO 












1758 South Fayetteville Street 
1945 and subsequent additions 

In 1941 W Clyde Lucas combined three of 
Asheboro's early woodworking companies — 
Piedmont Chair Co., National Chair Co. and 
the Cranford Furniture Co. — into one new cor- 
poration, Lucas Industries, Inc. Near the end of 
World War II Lucas began to plan for a large new 
factory building designed to consolidate the opera- 
tions of the three former plants under one roof. 
The new building was to be built on the former 
Randolph County Fairgrounds; the Fair had closed 
during the Depression, and Lucas had bought up 
the stock of the corporation in order to acquire 
the site. Construction began in the fall of 1945 
and the building was ready for occupancy in 
May, 1946. Mr. Lucas himself designed the floor 
plan of the plant based on contemporary furni- 
ture operations. The exterior of the building was 
almost entirely left up to the tastes of the 
contractor, S. E. Trogdon. Trodgon's firm subse- 
quently became the county's largest building 
contractor; this plant was one of his first big 
jobs. Adequate supplies of brick for the structure 
were impossible to come by in the post-war 
building boom, so the old Elmer Rich brickyard 
southwest of Asheboro was leased to make the 
brick on special order. The 1 10-foot-high chim- 
ney serving the steam boiler was one of the most 
difficult tasks — it alone cost more than $10,000. 
The 1000-foot facade of the original 145,000- 
square-foot plant was its most striking visual fea- 
ture. The exterior of the building was designed 
in the streamlined version of the Art Modeme 
style which became popular following the 1936- 
1939 construction of Frank Lloyd Wright's S. C. 
Johnson Administration Building in Rachine, 
Wisconsin. The rounded, streamlined comers, 
horizontal brick banding and glass block of that 
influential building are hallmarks of a number 
of late- 1 940s commercial structures in Ashe- 
boro, beginning with the Lucas Industries Plant. 
The building's twin entrances are highlighted by 
rusticated brick pilasters topped with stone caps 
decorated in the earlier "zig-zag" Art Deco 
style. Stubby canopies protecting the entrance 
doors and glass block windows (now filled in 
with brick) are familiar elements of the build- 
ing vocabulary of this group of local buildings. 
In 1952 the bedroom furniture plant was ac- 
quired by General Electric and converted to the 
manufacture of electric blankets. In the late 

1970s the complex was extensively expanded 
and altered, with a modernistic pavilion added 
to the northern entrance, the glass block win- 
dows filled in and the red brick facade painted 
battleship gray. 


1759 South Fayetteville Street 

Until recently this was a good example of the 
relatively late use of the Art Deco style on a 
commercial structure. Unlike Asheboro's more 
common examples of rounded, streamlined com- 
mercial buildings, this structure uses the angular, 
geometricized version of the style. A geometri- 
cally-patterned metal ceiling is the major interior 
feature, while a tall central pylon calls attention 
to the off-center entrance. A glass block window 
divides the pylon at eye level while a metal fin 
rises above the aluminum cornice. In 1978 the 
building was refurbished to hide all these ele- 
ments under plywood and cedar shingles. 


1635 South Fayetteville Street 
This equipment showroom/warehouse was 
built soon after the nearby Lucas Industries 
plant and in the same streamlined Art Modeme 
style. The building is in fact Asheboro's best 
example of this style, and illustrates a veritable 
catalog of its design elements. The exterior cor- 
ners of the facade are rounded by bricks laid in 
header bond; these comers are further empha- 
sized by horizontal msticated bands. The single 
entrance door is housed in an extended bay 
flanked by rusticated pilasters. The interior cor- 
ners of the recessed entrance are rounded by 
bricks laid in solder courses; the door is set in 
a glass block frame with transom; a stubby 
canopy shelters the entrance. The space above 
the entrance is enhanced by a panel of decorative 
brickwork. A number of similar structures around 
Asheboro use one or more of these features, but 
this is the only building where all are found on 
the same facade. 


nn i i m i i nr= 


1512 South Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1930 
Asheboro's most significant early gas station 
appears here. This is an infrequently-found re- 
working of the familiar Art Deco gas station 
design complete with rain shelter. The Spanish 
Mission style is evidenced by the tile roof and 
earthtoned stucco; the red brick base is an accent 
to balance the mass of red tile. 


1619, 1626 and 1701 Cox Road 

ca. 1910 
These three houses are located in a group. 
1619 is a one-story three-bay cross-gabled house 
of standard type. 1626 is an L-plan vernacular 
cottage with flanking end gables. 1701 is a small 
central-gable home with a pair of front doors — an 
unusual four-bay arrangement. 

1:8 HOUSE 

538 Cox Avenue 

ca. 1915; burned 1982 

A two-story three-bay central gable farmhouse. 
This was early twentieth-century Asheboro's fa- 
vorite design. These homes were built all over 
the South as standard mill housing. 







1:5 1619 Cox Road. 

1:6 1626 Cox Road. 

1:7 1701 Cox Road. 

m rn ==i nr^^=lEl[ =:3[- l l" I S L ' -i H\= II II IGI ' I I3 r==1 13[^=B3 


Section J — Spero, Balfour, King 'Hit 































920 North Fayetteville Street 

ca. 1950 
This is another streamlined. Art Moderne 
style ice cream bar and dairy warehouse. Cor- 
ners rounded by bricks laid in header bond frame 
the central entrance. The building is smaller and 
simpler than the Guilford Dairy structure. 


1 100 North Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1948 
Yellow brick are used on the stepped, square- 
cornered facade of this Art Moderne structure. 
The comers of the recessed entrance are rounded 
by bricks laid in soldier courses. Panels of deco- 
rative brickwork accent the facade; the comer 
bricks of the decorative "frame" are mitred. 


Spero Road just west of railroad tracks 

ca. 1890 
There were many such one-story center-hall- 
Plan farmhouses in Randolph County at the end 
of the nineteenth century. This dwelling was 
once in rural Back Creek Township but has now 
been drawn within the limits of Asheboro. The 
facade is capped by a central gable decorated 
*ith feathered shingling; the cornice returns of 
the end gables have been extended to form 
pediments. The hip porch is carried on tumed 
posts with sawn brackets. The house is now 
covered with board-and-batten siding. 


2455 North Fayetteville Street 
ca. 1875 
Once this little house stood in rural Randolph 
County several miles north of Asheboro; now the 
town has grown out to surround it. The story-and- 
a-half hall-and-parlor plan dwelling with single 
exterior end chimney is typical of many small 
dwellings built in the county both before and 
after the Civil War. The firebox of the chimney is 
built of randomly-coursed roughly-quarried stone, 
with a brick flue. Six-over-six sash are used on 
the first floor level, while smaller 4/4 sash light 
the gable ends of the attic story. The rafter ends 
of the roof have been left exposed, as have those 
of the shed porch. The porch is carried on cham- 
fered posts with simple brackets. Other details of 
the exterior are hidden under asphalt siding. The 
post-and-lintel mantel uses symmetrically-molded 
millwork trim, and its shelf is supported on sawn 
brackets. A boxed stair provides access to the 
loft. Several original outbuildings remain on the 
site including a hand-hewn log bam and a wooden 
blacksmith shop. Stones which were once part of 
a detached kitchen can also still be seen. 

Mr. Benoni Pritchard acquired this property in 
the 1850s. In 1884 Mr. Pritchard sold the prop- 
erty to Thomas F Sechrist who in 1939 deeded it 
to Roland A. Briles. Mr. Briles converted the 
dwelling into a cabin. The property is now 
owned by Mr. Briles' daughter, Wilda Mae Briles 
Reams, and husband Fred M. Reams, Jr. 

Section K— Central Falls 



Old Liberty Road 
ca. 1925 

The first school on this site was built about 
1905, in the period of expansion of North 
Carolina's public education system under Gover- 
nor Aycock. This structure was erected about 
twenty years later, and was used as part of the 
Randolph County school system until 1958. For 
a time it was used as a meeting place and 
community center by the Central Falls Lions 
Club, but it subsequently fell into disuse and is 
now deteriorating. The building has good poten- 
tial for rehabilitation and reuse. 



Old Liberty Road 
ca. 1905 

This house is very similar to the Moffitt House 
at 229 East Academy Street. The polygonal bay 
with pendant brackets and pyramidal roof are 
elements of the Queen Anne style. The tapered 
porch posts are probably the result of a ca. 1930 


Old Liberty Road 

Almost certainly one of the original mill 
structures, this house was probably the home of 
'he factory superintendent directly in charge of 
'he 150 workers. Houses virtually identical to 
'his one can be seen in Cedar Falls, Franklinville, 
Ramseur and Coleridge, pointing to the great 
popularity of the "porch and pedimented bal- 
cony" type in the county. The quartz trim is a 
1930s addition. 


2227 Old Liberty Road 

Central Falls possesses quite a few structures 
built out of native milky quartz or "white flint 
rock." J. W Rollins had this monumental build- 
ing built as a grocery store by a Mr. Cheek, a 
Franklinville mason. The rough-textured wall 
surface is strikingly similar to the flint construc- 
tion of South and East England. There, flint is 
black and the end of each stone is chipped off to 
expose a white broken surface or "rind." Flint- 
laying is a precarious business necessitating the 
plentiful use of mortar and patience. 


View from Old Liberty Road 

Twenty-five dwelling houses were built to house 
the mill workers in 1881, but the majority of the 
present housing stock in Central Falls seems to 
date from the period of mill expansion in the first 
quarter of the twentieth century. Those earliest 
structures which remain are probably located on 
Pennsylvania Avenue and Gant Street, in the 
vicinity of the mill buildings. Today, a century of 
renovations and repairs conceals the simple one- 
and two-story single-family dwellings. 









Pennsylvania Avenue 
1881 and later renovations 

This building was evidently built by the origi- 
nal investors as a community building, used for 
gatherings, public speakings and shows. About 
1883 a Methodist Episcopal congregation was 
organized, and the community building was 
bought for use as a church. In 1934 a fire 
damaged the frame structure; between 1935 and 
1940 brick veneer was added and the structure 
assumed its present psuedo-colonial form. 



Old Liberty Road 
ca. 1881 

This house probably dates from the creation of 
the original mill village. The metal roof with 
ridge ornaments and the feather-edged shingle 
gable treatment are typical details. 



Dumont Street and Old Liberty Road 
1881 and later additions 

The eighth of the nine original Deep River 
cotton mills, this factory was organized in 1881 
by a group of Asheboro businessmen and Randle- 
man textile entrepreneurs. The original mill 
building, of brick on a fieldstone foundation, is a 
low gabled structure now almost hidden by subse- 
quent additions. The facade was graced with a 
false front surmounted by a stepped parapet. The 
arched window openings, now bricked-up, have 
Tudor brick surrounds. The detached "picker" 
house is similar and was built at the same time. 
In 1889 J. A. Blair (a Central Falls investor and 
biased .source) wrote, "This is confessedly the 
neatest village on the river, and the factory 
building is unrivaled in beauty and elegance." 

The original investors were bought out about 
1885 by Dr J. M. Worth, who had organized the 
Worth Manufacturing Company in nearby Worth- 
ville in 1881. As a result of the merger. Central 
Falls became known as the "Worth Manufactur- 
ing Company Mill #2,' with $100,000 of capital 
stock and 150 hands in 1894. It is still remem- 
bered that Dr. Worth set up a steamboat service 
on Deep River between Central Falls and Worth- 
ville. Its primary purpose was to ferry raw materi- 
als and finished goods between the two plants, 
but it also seems to have served as a great source 
of entertainment and adventure to the local 
citizenry. In 1894 the mill produced 300,000 
pounds of warps (thread made from raw cotton), 
and 1,800,000 yards of plaids (a popular type of 
woven cloth). 

The complex until recently was occupied by 
Burlington Industries Industrial Fabrics Division, 
it is now being remodeled by Prestige Fabrica- 
tors of Worthville. 


Deep River at Old Liberty Road 

This photograph records the Central Falls cov- 
ered bridge just before its destruction and replace- 
ment by the present bridge in 1926. 


Drawings of three pre-Chil War Randolph County residences 
JZludedin the 1896 biography of the Rev Braxton Craven by 

?™rc: 'rS.:S4, erectedL ,820, .asdescribed 
''"T , ^"hi„ hnvim one room on the ground floor and a sort of 
aloft ^^itt^Z^^indo. in the gable end to admit light r 
C^'s growing family later caused him to build a new "substannal 
Cox s growing J J haying five rooms on the ground floor 

t-o-story frame buMtn,^^^^^^ 

tlS^^S^rlstdences. no,, of whic^f survive, were 
made for the book by an unknown arttst ca. 1895. 












Author's Note 

This glossary has been compiled from lists of architec- 
tural terms which have appeared in several historic architec- 
tural surveys published in North Carolina, including works by 
Michael Southern, Ruth Little-Stokes, David R. Black, H. 
McKeldon Smith, Doug Swaim, Peter Kaplan, Gwynn Taylor 
and Dm Haley. James Coman of the Buncombe County 
Planning Department drew the illustrations, with the excep- 
tion of the log comer timbering, which was drawn by John 

Other sources found to be exceedingly helpful were: 
John Blumenson's Identifying American Architecture: A Picto- 
rial Guide to Styles and Terms, 1600-1945; Leland M. Roth's 
A Concise History of American Architecture; Labine and 
Poore's article "The Comfortable House: Post- Victorian Do- 
mestic Architecture" in The Old-House Journal; Cyril M. 
Harris, editor of both Dictionary of Architecture and Con- 
struction and Historic Architecture Sourcebook; William H. 
Jordy and William H. Pierson, Jr., a four-volume anthology 
American Buildings and Their Architects; John Fleming, 
Hugh Honour and Nikolaus Pevsners' The Penguin Dictionary 
of Architecture; Paul E. Buchanan's article "The Eighteenth- 
Century Framer Houses of Tidewater Virginia" in Building 
Early America; Fred Kniffen's article "On Comer-Timbering" 
in Pioneer America; John Summerson's The Classical lan- 
guage of Architecture; Marcus Whiffen's The Eighteenth- 
Century Houses of Williamsburg; and Thomas Tileston 
Waterman's The Mansions of Virginia, 1706-1776 and The 
Dwellings of Colonial America. 

Terms relating to milling, the textile industry, water 
power and bridge constmction were assembled from Peter 
Kaplan's inventory of Cabarrus County; Herman Steen's Flour 
Milling in America; Charles B. Kuhlman, Development of the 
Flour Milling Industry in the United States; the first volume in 
Louis C. Hunter's projected series, A History of Industrial 
Power in the United States, 1780-1930; Steve Dunwell, The 
Run of the Mill; Mary Meigs Atwater, The Shuttlecraft Book 
of American Hand-Weaving; and Richard S. Allen, Covered 
Bridges of the South. 

ABUTMENT The shore foundation upon which a bridge 
rests, usually built of stone but sometimes in bedrock, iron or 

ACADEMIC Pertaining to formal architecture styles as prac- 
ticed by architects and masterbuilders. 

ADAMESQUE Having qualities of style which derive from 
the work of the late eighteenth-century Scottish architects 
Robert and James Adam. The Adamesque mode is character- 
ized by slender proportions, delicate scale, graceful curves 
and linear compartmented omamentation held flat to the wall 
or other architectural surface. In its American form the style 
is typified by the work of Charles Bullfinch and Samuel 

ADZ A cutting tool having a thin, arching blade set at right 
angles to the handle, and thus differing from the ax. It is used 
to trim the surface of wood. 

"AMERICAN FOURSQUARE" A simple early twentieth- 
century house type growing out of the Craftsman style; basic 
features include: two stories, unadomed boxlike shape, low 
hipped roof with dormers and a porch extending the full width 
of the front elevation. 

ANTEBELLUM Dating from before the Civil War (1861- 

APSE A semicircular or polygonal part of a building forming 
a projection from the exterior wall, commonly used for the 
altar area of a church. 

APSIDAL Apse-like, in the shape of a half-round or polygo- 
nal projecting bay. 

ARCADE A range of arches supported on piers or columns 
attached to or detached from a wall. 
ARCHITRAVE The lowest part of an entablature, some- 
times used by itself as around a window or door. 
"A" ROOF See Gable. 

ART DECO A style of decorative arts and architecture 
popular in the 1920s and 1930s; characterized by linear or 
angular composition often with a vertical emphasis and high- 
lighted with stylized "sunrise," chevron, or "zig-zag" 
decoration. The name is derived from the Paris "Exposition 
International Des Arts Decoratifs Et Industriellcs Modemes" 
of 1925. 

ART MODERNE Architectural style of the 1930s and 1940s, 
characterized by rounded corners, fiat roofs, smooth wall 
finish without surface omamentation and horizontal bands of 
windows which create a distinctive streamlined or wind-tunnel 
look. The streamlined effect is emphasized by the use of 
curved window glass that wraps around comers. Aluminum 
and stainless steel often are used for door and window trim, 
railings and balusters. 

ASHLAR Hewn blocks of masonry wrought to even faces 
and square edges and laid in horizontal course with veritcal 
joints, as opposed to rubble or unhewn stone straight from the 

ASYMMETRICAL Lacking symmetry or regularity in ar- 
rangement of corresponding parts. 

ASYMMETRY An occult and dynamic balance achieved by 
the irregular distribution of weights and forces around an 
off-center fulcrum. 

AUGER A carpenter's tool for boring holes. It has a handle, 
placed crosswise by which it is turned with both hands. 
machine-sawn lumber in standardized sizes is joined with 
hammer and nails; so light and insubstantial when compared 
to "heavy frame" construction that it was likened to a balloon 
rising from the ground. 

BALUSTER A tumed or rectangular upright member sup- 
porting a stair rail. 

BALUSTRADE A railing consisting of a handrail and balus- 
ters (turned or rectangular upright members supporting the 
handrail); usually found on stairs or porches. 
BARGEBOARD (also known as verge board) A wide board 
fastened on edge below the slope of the roof on the gable end. 
A popular device of the Gothic Revival, it was either carved 
or sawed in ornamental tracery-like patterns. 
BAROQUE A style of architecture which flourished in Eu- 
rope during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Al- 
though based on the architecture of the Renaissance, it was 
more dynamic, with circles frequently giving way to ovals, 
flat walls to cur\cd or undulating ones and separated elements 
to interlocking forms. It was also a monunTental and richly 
three-dimensional style with elaborate systems of omamental 
and figural sculpture. 

BARREL VAULT A semicircular vaulting unbroken by ribs 
or grains. 

BASEBOARD See walls illustration. 
BATTEN In building siding, a thin narrow strip of wood 
applied over the joint between vertical boards to seal it from 
the weather. 

BATTEN DOOR A door (or shutter) of vertical boards held 
together with two or more horizontal boards (battens) on the 
back side. 
BAY I. An opening or division along a face of a stmcturc; 



e.g., a wall with a door and two windows is three bays wide. 
2. A projection of a room, usually with windows. 
BAY WINDOW A projecting bay of windows rising from 
ground level for one or more stories. 
BEADED WEATHERBOARD A weatherboard finished 
with an incised and rounded edge. 

BEAM A structural spanning member of wood, iron, steel or 
reinforced concrete. 

BEAUX ARTS STYLE Style based on Classical and Renais- 
sance architecture; popular around the turn of the century. 
Many followers of this style were trained at the Ecole des 
Beaux- Arts, the national school of fine arts in France. 
BELFRY Bell tower; a room at or near the top of a tower 
which contains bells and their supporting members. 
BELT COURSE A projecting course or courses on the 
exterior of a building, usually at the floor or wmdow sill level. 
BOARD- AND-BATTEN Siding fashioned of boards set ver- 
tically and covered where their edges join by narrow strips 
called battens. 

BOBBIN A wooden spool or reel used to hold yam. 
BOLECTION In joinery, a moulding following the outside 
edge of a panel and projecting byond the face of the frame in 
\vhich the panel is set. 

BOLTING The sifting of flour into various grades of fineness. 
BOND The pattern in which bricks are laid for the sake of 
solidarity and design. Three basic bonds are seen in North 
Carolina; FLEMISH— headers, or ends, alternate in each 
row with stretchers, or sides, with the center of each header 
over the center of the stretcher below; AMERICAN— rows ol 
three to seven stretchers between rows of headers; COMMUIn 
—American Bond without the rows of headers. Amencan 
Bond is also often referred to as Common. 
BOXED CORNICE A simple, sometimes bold, projection 
running along the top of an exterior wall, formed by enclosing 
either the ceiling joists' ends, the plate, or the rafters ends. 
See gable treatments illustration. 

BRACE A member placed diagonally within a framework or 
truss to make it rigid. 

BRACKET A device, either ornamental, structural, or both, 
set under a projecting element, as the eaves of a house or 

BREAST WHEEL A vertical wheel rotated by the weight 
and percussion of water striking a series of buckets slightly 
above or below the wheel's axle. If struck from above it was 
ealled a high breast wheel; if struck from below, a low breast 

BRICK NOGGING Filling of brick work between timber 

BROKEN PEDIMENT A pediment that has been split apart 
at the center, the gap of which is often filled with an urn or 
other ornament. 

BUCKETS A series of enclosed paddles struck by water, 
utilizing its force and weight to power both breast and 
overshot wheels. 

BUNGALOID SASH A double-hung window whose upper 
sash is divided by vertical muntins into long vertical panes 
and whose lower sash is a single, undivided pane. 
BUNGALOW STYLE An early twentieth century architec- 
tural style that grew from the arts and crafts movement of the 
late nineteenth century. Most basic characteristics are long, 
low profiles; overhanging, bracketed eaves; wide, engaged 
porches; and informal interior arrangements. The term bunga- 
low refers to a one or one-and-a-half story house in this style. 
BUTTRESS A mass of masonry timber or brickwork pro- 
jecting from or built against a wall to give additional strength. 
CA. Abbreviation for "about" in reference to approximate 

CANTILEVER An overhanging horizontal member which 
is supported at only one end and carries a load beyond its 
point of support. 

CAPITAL The head or cap of a column or pilaster. There are 
three types of capitals: DORIC— the simplest; IONIC— 
characterized by spiral scrolls (resembling ram's horns); and 
CORINTHIAN— the most ornate with ornamental acanthus 
leaves and various foliage. 

CARDING The process whereby the fibers of wool or cotton 
are combed, straightened and aligned before they undergo 
spinning into yam. 

CARTOUCHE A scroll-shaped panel used as an omament 
in a design. 

CASEMENT WINDOW A window having hinged or piv- 
oted sash opening either outward or inward. 
CASTELLATED Omamented with battlements like a medi- 
eval fortified castle. 

CENTER HALL PLAN See floor plan illustrations. 
CHAIR RAIL A molding on a wall around a room at the 
height of a chair back. 

CHAMFERED Cut away at the outer edge where two sur- 
faces meet, leaving a bevel at the junction. 
CHAMFERED POST A post whose comers are beveled. 
CHEVRON A V-shaped stripe pointing up or down or any 
omament so shaped. 

CHIMNEY POT A cylindrical pipe of brick, terra-cotta or 
metal placed atop a chimney to extend and thereby increase 
the draft. 

CHORD the top (upper chord) or bottom (lower chord) 
member or members of a bridge truss, usually formed by the 
stringers; may be a single piece or a series of long joined 

CLAPBOARDS Split or rived, instead of sawn, boards used 
as sheathing or roofing. 

CLASSICAL Based upon the arts of ancient Greece and 
Rome or upon their stylistic derivatives. 
CLASSICAL REVIVAL STYLE Late nineteenth, early 
twentieth century style which combined features of ancient 
Renaissance and Colonial architecture; characterized by im- 
posing buildings with large columned porches. 
CLERESTORY An upward extension of a single-story space, 
or of the upper floor of a multi-story building, used to provide 
windows for lighting and ventilation. Monitors and sawtooth 
skylights are two types of clerestories. 
CLIPPED CORNERS Where the comers of a projecting 
bay or room are tmncated for ornamental or spatial effect; 
often the roof overhangs the missing corners. 
CLIPPED GABLE A gable which has been cut back to 
form a hipped peak. 

COLLAR BEAM A horizontal tension member in a pitched 
roof connecting opposite rafters, generally halfway up or 
higher. Its function is to tie the angular members together and 
prevent them from spreading. 

COLONETTE A small or slender column or pilaster. 
COLONIAL REVIVAL Late nineteenth and early twentieth 
century interpretation of architectural forms of the American 
colonial period. 

COMMON BOND Brick bonding in which three or more 
courses of stretchers (large side of brick) alternate with one 
course of headers (short end of brick); e.g., five-to-one 
common bond would be five courses of stretchers alternating 
with one course of headers. 

COMPOSITE ORDER A late Roman order whose capital 
combines the Corinthian acanthus leaves with Ionic volutes. 
CONCAVE MOLDING A molding whose surface is curved 
like the inner surface of a sphere. 

CORBEL In masonry a projection, or one of a series of 
projections, each stepped progressively farther forward with 
height and articulating a comice or supporting an overhanging 

CORBEL TABLE A projecting course supported on a range 
of brackets. 




CORBELED CORNICE A molding, decorative band or 
series of decorative bands created with projecting bricic courses 
along the roofline of a building. 

CORINTHIAN Most ornate of the classical orders, the 
columns of which are characterized by capitals with ornamen- 
tal acanthus leaves and curled fern shoots. 
CORNERBLOCK The square, usually decorated, medal- 
lion at the comers of a door or window surround. Common to 
the Greek Revival and Victorian styles. 
CORNICE The uppermost, projecting part of an entablature, 
or a feature resembling it. Any projecting ornamental mold- 
ing along the top of a wall, building, porch, etc. 
COUNTERBRACE A diagonal timber in a truss which 
slants away from the midpoint of the bridge (opposite from 
brace, q.v). 

COURSE In masonry construction, continuous horizontal 
ranges of brick and stone. 

COVED CEILING A ceiling where the junction of wall and 
ceiling is disguised by a large hollow or concave curved 

COVED CORNICE A cornice, or uppermost course of a 
wall, shaped to a concave pattern. 

CRAFTSMAN STYLE Decorative and architectural style 
emphasizing simplicity of design, use of natural materials and 
hand-made craftsmanship. An American outgrowth of the 
English Arts and Crafts Movement, it was popularized by 
designer Gustav Stickley in his magazine The Craftsman. 
CRENELATED Describing a parapet in which the top is 
alternately and uniformly depressed; bearing an embattled 
pattern of repeated indentations. (Sometimes referred to as 

CROCKET From Old French, crochet, "hook." In Gothic 
architecture, a carved, ornamental foliate hook-like projection 
used along the edges of roofs, spires, towers and other upper 

CROSS GABLE A gable which intersects at right angles 
the main gable roof. 

CROSS PLAN A building plan which assumes the basic 
shape of a cross. 

CROSSETTES Decorative square offsets at the upper cor- 
ners of a door, window or mantel architrave. 
finished in steps instead of in a continuous slope. 
CRUCIFORM Cross-shaped. 

CUPOLA A small structure built on top of a building, 
usually for ornamental purposes. 

CURTAIN WALL A wall supporting no more than its own 

DADO A plain or paneled field, defined at top and bottom by 
moldings, that traverses the lower part of a wall surface. 
DECK-ON-HIP A flat roof surmounting a hip. See Hip. 
DENTILED Consisting of a series of small block-like pro- 
jections forming a molding, usually as part of a classical cor- 
nice. These small, block-like projections are called "dentils." 
DEPENDENCY A building, wing, or room, subordinate to, 
or serving as an adjunct to, the main building. 
DIAMOND NOTCH See log corner timbering illustrations. 
DIAPER WORK A diamond-shaped pattern or design on a 
flat surface. 

DOG-EAR SURROUND A door or window surround that 
features flaps, or "dog ears" at the upper corners. A character- 
istic of the Greek Revival style. 

DOG-TROT PLAN A simple structure, often log, with two 
rooms or blocks, separated by an open breezeway which 
affords better air circulation. 

DORIC The simplest of the three orders of classical architec- 
ture developed by the Greeks. 

DORMER WINDOW A window that projects from a roof. 
See illustration of dormer types. 

DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW A window consisting of a 
pair of frames, or sashes, one above the other, arranged to 
slide up or down. Sometimes their movement is stabilized by 
a system of cords and counterbalancing weights contained in 
narrow boxing at each side of the window frame. 
DOUBLE-LEAF DOOR A pair of doors hung side-by-side 
which together create a single doorway. 
DOUBLE-PEN PLAN A plan in which two pens with their 
own chimneys are placed side by side. 
DOUBLE-PILE HOUSE A two-story center-hall plan house, 
two rooms deep on either side of the hall. See floor plan 

DOUBLE SHOULDER CHIMNEY See chimney illustra- 

DOUBLE WEAVE A weave that produces two distinct layers 
of cloth simultaneously, often connected or interpenetrating at 
some point. 

DRAWING ROOM The room in a factory where the warp 
yarns are threaded through the hcddles. 
DRIP MOLDING A molding which is designed to divert 
rain water from the window or door below it and which 
follows the shape of the arch over the opening it protects. 
DRY-LAID Stone or brick laid up without mortar. 

DUTCH DOOR One divided horizontally in two leaves 
which operate independently; "Dutch" is a derivation of 
"Deutsch," meaning German. 

EASTLAKE Popular decorative and architectural style of 
the 1870-1890 period named for English interior decorator 
Charles Eastlake. Porch posts, railings, balusters and pen- 
dants were characterized by a massive and robust quality. 
Brackets, scrolls and other stylized elements often are placed 
at every comer, turn or projection along the facade, along 
with a profusion of spindles and lattice work found along 
porch eaves which added to the complexity. 
EAVES The projecting edge of a roof designed to shed water. 

ECLECTIC Exhibiting elements and characteristics of more 
than one historic style simultaneously. 
EGG AND DART A molding taken from classical architec- 
ture where an oval, egg-shaped motif alternates with a dart 

ELEVATION Any one of the external faces of a building; 
also a drawing made in projection on a vertical plan to show 
any one face of a building. 

ELL A secondary wing of a building attached at right angles 
to its principal axis. 

EMBATTLED Having battlements or crenelations. 
EMBATTLED MOLDING A molding notched or indented 
to resemble merlons and embrasures in fortification. 
ENCLOSED STAIR A narrow, boxed-in stair usually seen 
prior to 1840; very common to the hall-and-parior plan. 
ENGAGED COLUMN A column attached to a wall. 
ENGAGED PORCH A porch whose roof is continuous 
structurally with that of the main section of the building. 
ENGLISH BOND A method of laying brick wherein one 
course is laid with stretchers and the next with headers, thus 
bonding the double thickness of brick together. 

ENTABLATURE A three-part horizontal band consisting of 

architrave, frieze and cornice; located above columns and 

pilasters of classical orders. 

EXTERIOR END CHIMNEY See chimney illustrations. 

EYEBROW DORMER A low dormer on the slope of a 

roof. It has no sides, the roofing being carried over it in a 

wavy line. 

FACADE The principal face or front of a building. 

FALL The action of water on a wheel below the point of 

impact; the gravity stage. 

FANLIGHT A semicircular window over the opening of a 

door, with radiating muntins in the form of an open fan. 


FASCIA A flat broad member used in a cornice or other 
molded part. 

FEDERAL STYLE The architectural style popular in Amer- 
ica from the Revolution through the early nineteenth century 
(in North Carolina ca. 1800-1840) similar to the Georgian 
style but characterized by a much more delicate use of Roman 
classical ornamentation. 

FENESTRATION The arrangement and proportionmg of 

FILIGREE Delicate ornamental work. 
FILLING The threads running crosswise in a fabric; called 
the "weft" in England. 

FINIAL An ornament at the apex of a roof, spire, pinacle, 

FLASHED GLASS Small colored panes of glass with nar- 
row mullions between, usually framing a larger pane or 
picture glass; also referred to as "Eastlake glass. 
FLAT ARCH A series of wedge-shaped stones or brick over 
an opening which, though simulating the appearance oi a 
lintel, performs the arch function. 

FLEMISH BOND Brick bonding in which headers (short 
end of brick) alternate with stretchers (long side ot bncK) 
within each course. Flemish bond with glazed headers reiers 
to a Flemish bond in which the headers have been burned in 
the kiln to a blue-black color. 

FLUSH SHEATHING Wood siding of boards set flush at 
the edges. 

FLUTING Shallow, concave grooves running vertically on 
the shaft of a column, pilaster or other surface. 
FLUTTER WHEEL A type of undershot wheel with a 
series of long paddles connected to arms radiating from a 
shaft. The name "flutter" was given to this wheel because oi 
the bird-like sound its paddles made as they cut through tne 

FRIEZE The middle band of a classical entablature, be_ 
tween the architrave and cornice; a horizontal band locateo 
just under a cornice or under a mantel shelf. 
FULL-DOVETAIL NOTCH See log comer timbering illus- 

GABLE The triangular upper part of a terminal wall under 
the ridge of a pitched roof. 

GABLE ORNAMENT A decorative woodwork feature lo- 
cated in the apex of a gable, often used in conjunction witn 
decorative barge boards. 

GABLE ROOF A roof sloping upward from two sides and 
meeting at a ridge in the center, forming a gable at each ena. 

often called an "A" roof. 

GAMBREL ROOF A roof in which the angle of pitch is 
abruptly changed on each side between ridge and eaves. 
GEORGIAN REVIVAL Phase of the Colonial Revival style 
(see Colonial Revival) focusing on the forms and details of 
eighteenth century Georgian architecture. The term is some- 
times used loosely to describe buildings which revived not 
only Georgian period details but also those of the Federal 
period as well. 

GEORGIAN STYLE The prevailing style in Great Britain 
and the American Colonies during the eighteenth century (the 
reigns of George I-III, 1714-1820) derived from Classical, 
Renaissance and Baroque forms. 

GERMAN SIDING A type of weatherboard siding intro- 
duced in this area in the early twentieth century and whose 
joints are rabbeted, or grooved, so that each board lies flush in 
the plane of the wall. Sometimes referred to as "ship-lap" 

GINGERBREAD The highly decorative turned or sawn 
woodwork applied to houses of the late nineteenth century. 
GIRT A timber framed into the outside posts of a building at 
the second floor level, or from plate to plate across the gable 

GLAZED HEADER A glossy, dark coating formed on the 
ends of brick through direct exposure to flame during firing; 
this glazed surface used ornamentally by exposing the brick 
end when laid; so laid the brick is called a header. 
GOTHIC REVIVAL Nineteenth century revival of forms 
and ornament of the architecture of medieval Europe, charac- 
terized particularly by the use of the pointed arch. 
GRAINED Painted to imitate wood grain. 
GREEK REVIVAL STYLE Mid-nineteenth century revival 
of forms and ornaments of architecture of ancient Greece; 
also decorative elements associated with the style. 
GRIST Grain ground in a mill; originally com, but later 
applied to all grains. 

GRIST MILL A place where grain was ground into meal 
and/or flour. 

HL HINGE A hinge which resembles the shape of these two 
letters of the alphabet; usually found on eighteenth and eariy 
nineteenth century buildings. 

HALF-DOVETAIL NOTCH See log comer timbering illus- 
HALF-TIMBERING A method of construction where walls 

are built of timber framework with the spaces filled in with 
stucco or brickwork, known as nogging. It is sometimes 

referred to as mock half-timbering in instances where the 
technique is used for decorative rather than stmctural purposes, 

as in many Tlidor Revival designs. 

HALL-AND-PARLOR PLAN Simple two-room floor plan 

in which the larger room, or hall, is divided from the smaller 

room, or parior, by only a wall or partition. 

HARNESS A frame that supports a group of heddles on a 


HEAD The distance water falls to the point of impact on a 


HEADER A brick with its end laid toward the face of a wall. 

These were often glazed or bumed so as to create patterns. 

HEADRACE (sometimes called penstock or millrace) A 

narrow opening or canal through which a large amount of 

water passes in a strong current, providing a source of power 

to drive the mill wheel. 


oversized, usually hand-hewn wooden framing members are 

joined using the mortise and tenon technique; also called 

"post-and-lintel" construction. 

HEDDLE A wire, strip of metal or cord with an eye in the 

center. One (or more) warp yams are threaded through each 

heddle to control the separation of the warp and create a shed. 

HERRINGBONE A pattern used on masonry or wooden 

doors and made by rows of parallel slanted lines (resembling 

the spine of a herring). 

HEWN TIMBER Wood which has been roughly dressed by 

an ax or adze, usually to frame a building. 
HIP The extemal angle in which adjacent roofs meet each 
other; a roof that slopes back equally from each side of a 

HIPPED ROOF A roof which slopes upward from all four 
sides of a building, terminating in a ridge. 
HOOD MOLD A projecting molding above an arch, door- 
way or window, sometimes called a label, dripstone or win- 
dow hood. 

INTERIOR END CHIMNEY See chimney illustrations. 
IONIC A classical order characterized by a column capital 
featuring spiral scrolls, called volutes. 
ITALIANATE Mid to late nineteenth century revival of the 
forms and ornamentation of Italian Renaissance architecture, 
characterized particularly by the use of overhanging bracketed 
eaves and round or segmental-arched openings. 
JAMB The reveal or lining of a doorway or other aperture. 
JERKIN-HEAD A roof which is hipped only for a part of its 
height, leaving a tmncated gable. See also "clipped gable." 





JOIST A horizontal member in the framing of a floor or 

KEYSTONE The central wedge-shaped stone at the crown 
of an arch. 

KICK The change in pitch of a roofline creating an upwardly 
tilted eave. This eave directed the water away from the sides 
of the building while still allowing the weight of the roof to 
set squarely on the walls. This was done in the days when the 
roofs of buildings were covered with heavy tiles. 
"LANCACTER SQUARE" PLAN Governmental town plan 
where a courthouse is sited in a public square located at the 
intersection of the primary axial streets. So-called after 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where it was first used in this 

LANCET WINDOW A window generally tall in propor- 
tions and topped by a sharply pointed arch; characteristic of 
early English Gothic. 

LATERAL BRACING An arrangement of timbers between 
the two top chords or between the two bottom chords of 
bridge trusses to keep the trusses spaced apart correctly and to 
insure their strength. The arrangement may be very simple or 

LATH A thin narrow strip of wood; used in building to serve 
as a base for plaster walls and ceilings. 
LATTICEWORK An open framework made of strips of 
metal, wood or some other material interwoven to form 
regular, patterned spaced. 
LIGHT A window or the main subdivision of a window. 

LINTEL A horizontal beam or stone bridging an opening 
such as a window or door. 

LOCK RAIL Rail of a door in or to which the lock is fixed. 
LUNETTED CORNER A cut-out crescent shape usually 
associated with raised paneling. 

MANSARD ROOF From Francois Mansart, French archi- 
tect, 1598-1666, who employed this roof form extensively. 
A roof with two slopes on each of its four sides— a steep and 
neariy vertical slope on the outside and a gentle neariy flat 
slope on the top. 

MARBLEIZED Having the appearance of marble, or made 
to look like marble by a special application of paint, as in 
marbleized woodwork. 

MASSING The grouping or arrangement of the primary 
geometric comfjonents of a building. 
MEDALLION A large ornament, generally circular, which 
adorns the center of a ceiling. 
MISSION STYLE An architectural style of the early twenti- 

eth century reflecting Spanish colonial architecture, particu- 
larly in the use of stucco and tile roofs. 
MITRE To bevel ends for the purpose of matching together 
at an angle. 

MODILLION A horizontal bracket, often in the form of a 
plain block, ornamenting or sometimes supporting, the under- 
side of a cornice. 

MOLDING A plane surface given the appearance of stripes 
of light and shade by the addition of combined parallel and 
continuous sections of simple or compound curves and flat 

MONADNOCK A hill or mountain of resistant rock sur- 
mounting a peneplain; so-called after Mt. Monadnock in New 

MONITOR ROOF A roof with a raised section, usually 
straddling a ridge, with openings or windows along the sides 
to admit light or air. 

MORTISE A recess cut into a piece of timber to receive a 

MORTISE AND TENON JOINT A joint which is made by 
one member having its end cut in a projecting piece (tenon) 
which fits exactly into a groove or hole (mortise) in the other 
member. Once joined, the pieces are secured by a peg. 
MULLION An upright post or similar member which di- 
vides a window into two or more units, or lights, each of 
which may be further subdivided into panes. 
MUNTIN The strip of wood separating the panes of a 
window sash. 

NR National Register of Historic Places. 
NAVE The main part of a church, or that part between the 
side aisles and extending from the chancel or crossing to the 
wall of the main entrance. 

NEO-CLASSICAL REVIVAL Eariy twentieth century style 
which combines features of ancient. Renaissance and colonial 
architecture; characterized by imposing buildings with large 
columned porches. 

NEO-FEDERAL A free, twentieth century adaptation of the 
motifs typical of late eighteenth and early nineteenth century 
American architecture. Typically includes Flemish bond 
brickwork, slender columns, fanlights and delicate moldings. 
NEO-GEORGIAN A free, twentieth century adaptation of 
the motifs typical of pre-RevoIutionary War American archi- 
tecture. Typically includes Flemish or English bond brickwork, 
hipped roofs, swansneck window pediments and robust col- 
umns and moldings. 

NEWEL (or newel post) The terminating baluster at the foot 
of a stair, often oversized and ornamented. 

NOGGING Brickwork or plaster used to fill spaces of a 
wooden frame. 

NOSING That part of the tread of a stair which projects over 
the riser. 

NOTCHING The various comer arrangements of joining log 
structural members. Most common being full-dovetail, half- 
dovetail, square, V and diamond. 

OPEN STRING In stairs, the end carriage which has its 
upper edge cut out to fit underneath the steps. 
ORDER A definite arrangement of column, capital and 
entablature, each having its own set of rules and ornamental 
features. Types are the Doric, Ionic. Corinthian, Tuscan and 
Composite; see illustrations. 

ORIEL WINDOW A bay window supported on a corbel or 
bracket, rather than on the ground. 

OVERSHOT WHEEL A vertical wheel where the weight 
and percussion of water strikes a series of buckets on the outer 
circumference of the wheel. 

PALLADIAN WINDOW A three-part window with a cen- 
tral arched opening flanked by smaller rectangular openings, 
in the manner of sixteenth century Italian architect Andrea 

PANEL A portion of a flat surface distinctly set off by 
molding or some other decorative device. 
PARAPET 1. A low wall along a roof or terrace, used as a 
protection or decoration. 2. Low masonry stone walls on 
either side of the section of roadway leading directly into a 

PATTERN BOARD An applied board serving as a func- 
tional as well as a decorative terminus for a cornice. 
PAVED SHOULDER See chimney illustrations. 
PAVILION A prominent portion of a facade, usually central 
or terminal, identified by projection, height and/or special 
roof forms. 

PEDESTAL A substructure under a column. 
PEDIMENT A crowning motive of porticos, pavilions, door- 
ways or other architectural features, usually of low triangular 
form, sometimes broken in the center. 
PEN A one-room building. Many dwellings erected by the 
first settlers of the North Carolina piedmont were single-pen 
structures. Considerable numbers of these dwellings were 
expanded into two-pen houses following double-pen, saddle- 
bag or dogtrot plans. See floor plan illustrations. 
PENCILING In brickwork, the painting (especially in white) 
of the mortar joints. 
PENDANT DROP The often decoratively carved or turned 


terminal of a vertical member, such as a bracket, that projects 
below another member attached to it, such as a cornice. 
PENT-ROOF A feature projecting from a vertical wall in the 
form of the eaves of a roof to protect the wall below from rain. 
PICKER ROOM The section of a nineteenth and early 
twentieth century cotton mill where bagging and ties were 
removed from the cotton bales and the fiber of several bales 
was blended to produce a raw material of consistent moisture, 
color and lengths. The picker room generally adjoined the 
main mill building, but because it was an area where hres 
frequently began it was separated from the mill by a brick tire 

PICKER STICK A wooden rocker arm in a loom, slammed 
hard against a shuttle to propel it at high velocity through the 

PICKING 1. In weaving, the act of throwing or passing the 
filling yarn through a shed in the warp. 2. In spmmng, an 
operation in which the compacted mass of fibers is initially 
opened and blended prior to carding. 
PIER A square supporting member. 
PIERCED WORK Decoration which consists mainly or 
partially of perforation. 

PILASTER A fiat-faced representation of a column, project- 
ing from a wall. 

PILE A simple timber span, oftentimes associated with span 
depth within primary framing of structure. 
PITCHED ROOF A roof in which the two planes slope 
equally toward one another. 

PLATE The timber in a roof which rests on the walls of a 
building and receives the roof rafters. 
POINTED ARCH An arch with a point at its apex. 
POLYGONAL BAY A projecting window bay with Aree or 
more sides or the gable-end of a house or pavilion where tne 
corners are clipped to resemble such a bay. 
PORCH A roofed structure supported by posts or columns to 
shelter an entrance. A similar space formed within a building 
by recessing the entrance. 

PORTE-COCHERE A porch or extension of a porch large 
enough for wheeled vehicles to pass under. 
PORTICO A roofed space, open or partly enclosed, forming 
the entrance and centerpiece of the facade of a building, often 
^'th columns and a pediment. 

POST AND LINTEL A structural system in which the main 
support is provided by vertical members, or posts, whicn 
carry the horizontal members, or lintels. 
PRAIRIE SCHOOL Architectural movement of the mid- 

western United States which grew out of the domestic architec- 
ture of Louis Sullivan. Its greatest practitioners were a group 
of Chicago architects including Frank Lloyd Wright. Charac- 
teristics of the style include a long, low building profile, hip 
roofs with wide overhanging eaves and use of natural materi- 
als appropriate to the area of construction. 

PULVINATED FRIEZE A cushion-shaped or semicircular 

PURLIN A horizontal beam which supports the rafters in a 
roof. Also referred to as a purlin plate. 
PYRAMIDAL ROOF A roof which slopes upward from all 
four sides, terminating in a peak. 
QUAKER PLAN See floor plan illustrations. 
QUARREL A small piece of glass, usually square or 
diamond-shaped; often set diagonally. 
QUATREFOIL A four-lobed, cloverleaf pattern, common in 
Gothic design. 

QUEEN ANNE STYLE Popular late-nineteenth-century re- 
vival of early eighteenth-century English architecture, charac- 
terized by irregularity of plan and massing and a variety of 

QUILL A small bobbin on which the filling is wound for use 
in a shuttle. 

QUOIN The bricks or stones laid in alternating directions 
which bond and form the exterior comer angle of a wall. 
RABBET A groove. 

RACKING The face of masonry which is alternately in- 
dented in the coursing to receive a future masonry wall. 
RAFTER END The end of a sloping beam supporting a 
pitched roof, often exposed as part of a bungalow style 
design. See eaves illustrations. 

RAFTERS Structural timbers rising from eaves to ridge 
which support the covering of a pitched roof. 
RAISED PANEL A portion of a flat surface, distinctly set 
off from the surrounding area by a molding or other device, 
that rises above the surrounding area. 
RAISED SIDELIGHT A clerestory of the monitor type. 
RAKE The slope or pitch of a roof. 
RANDOM COURSED STONE Stone laid in irregular 
courses rather than in rows. 

REEDED Molded with a series of closely-spaced, parallel, 
half-round, convex profiles; the opposite of fluting. 
REINFORCED CONCRETE Concrete in which steel rods 
have been imbedded for extra strength. 
RENAISSANCE REVIVAL Characterized by the re-use of 

the classic orders and an emphasis on pictorial impact; revival 
of designs of Renaissance architects. 
RETURNS The continuation of wall cornices, at right angles, 
partly into the gable ends of a building. 
RIDGEPOLE The board or plank at the apex of a roof and 
against which the upper ends of the rafters abut. 
RIPARIAN RIGHT A right of access to or of use of the 
shore, bed and water of a natural watercourse. 
RISER Upright piece of a step from tread to tread. 
ROLLER MILL A type of grist mill, introduced in the 
United States shortly after the Civil War and in widespread 
use by the late 1880s. Roller mills had a series of spirally 
fluted rollers, followed by pairs of plain rollers, in contrast to 
earlier mill types that had one or two pairs of grindstones. 
The rollers could be adjusted to produce finer grades of flour 
and meal, and could separate the oil and embryo from the rest 
of the grain, making possible the manufacture of such 
by-products as corn oil and fodder. 

ROMANESQUE REVIVAL Nineteenth century revival of 
the medieval period of architecture which preceded the Gothic; 
characterized particularly by the use of the round arch, often 

in a series. The style is sometimes referred to as "Richardson 

Romanesque." Henry Hobson Richardson, a Boston architect, 

was one of the foremost practitioners of the style. 

ROSE HEAD NAIL A handmade nail with a conical head. 

ROSETTE A circular floral motif. 

ROUND ARCH An arch whose curved portion is a full 


RUSTICATION A technique whereby joints in a brick or 

stone wall were more obviously defined, either through 

beveling or rebating, thus creating a purposely rough surface 

with exaggerated joints. 

SADDLE NOTCH See log comer timbering illustrations. 

SADDLEBAG PLAN See floor plan illustrations. 

SALTBOX ROOF See roof illustrations. 

SASH From French, chassis, "frame." Frame in which 

glass window panes are set. 

SAWNWORK The ornamental, sawn woodwork used to 

decorate Victorian buildings. 

SAWTOOTH SKYLIGHT A clerestory that projects from 
the main roofline at an angle and whose profile thus gives the 
appearance of teeth. In large buildings, such as textile mills, 
sawtooth skylights are set in several rows at regular intervals. 

SCALLOP An omament or other piece carved or molded in 
the form of a shell, such as a scalloped shingle. 







SCORED Having lines scratched in the surface of a material, 
often in stucco in imitation of cut stone or bricic. 
SEAMLESS BAGS Bags woven for flour and feed which 
were sewn only at top and bottom, not along the sides. The 
exact type of loom, first installed in Randolph at Franklinville 
in 1872, is unknown. It probably employed a "double weave" 
technique, weaving two layers of cloth at once to provide a 
long, continuous tube. 

SECOND EMPIRE STYLE Style deriving its name from 
the French Second Empire, the reign of Napoleon III from 
1852-1870; popular in America primarily from I860 to 1880; 
characterized particulariy by the use of the mansard roof, so 
that it is frequently referred to as the Mansard Style. 
SECONDARY CHORD Single or joined timbers lying be- 
tween upper and lower chords and parallel to them, giving 
added strength to the truss. 

SEGMENTAL ARCH An arch formed on a segment of a 
circle or an ellipse. 

SELVAGE The point at which the filling yams bind the warp 
to form a finished edge. 

SEMI-ENGAGED PORCH A porch whose roof form a 
continuous surface with, but is in a slightly different plan 
from, the roof of the adjacent building mass. 
SHEATHING Wood siding of boards set flush at the edges. 

SHED 1 . A lean-to roof. 2. The room created by a lean-to. 3. 
The space between separated warp yarns through which the 
filling yam is passed. A shed is created by raising one or more 
of the harnesses. 

SHINGLE STYLE Architectural style of the period 1880- 
1900 typified by the uniform covering of unpainted wood 
shingles from roof to foundation walls. 

SHOULDER The sloping shelf created on the side of a 

masonry chimney where the width of the chimney abruptly 

changes. Also called "weathering." 

SHUTTLE The bullet-shaped devide which carries the filling 

yam back and forth through the warp in a loom. 

SHUTTLEBLOCK A blank wooden turning from which a 

finished shuttle would be manufactured. 

SIDELIGHT Vertical rows of narrow glass panes flanking a 


SILL The horizontal member laid just above the foundation 
of a building; also, the horizontal closure at the bottom of a 
door or window frame. 

SINGLE SHOULDER CHIMNEY An exterior chimney, 
the sides of which angle inward once as it ascends from 
bottom to top. 

SIX-OVER-SIX SASH A sash window with six panes of 
glass in the upper sash and six in the lower. (Nine-over-six 
would denote nine panes in the upper sash and six in the 
lower, etc.) 

SOFFIT The lower horizontal face of any projecting feature. 
SOLDIER COURSE A row of brick having the stretchers 
set vertically. 

SPAN The length of a bridge between abutments or piers. 
CLEAR SPAN is the distance across a bridge having no 
intermediate support, and measured from the face of one 
abutment to the face of the other. The length usually given in 
for the TRUSS SPAN, i.e., the length between one endpost of 
the truss and the other, regardless of how far the truss may 
overreach the actual abutment. Bridges of more than one span 

SPANDREL A wall panel filling the space between the top 
of the window in one story and the sill of the windows in the 
story above. 

SPINDLE Part of a spinning frame; a slender rod or pin 
carrying a bobbin on which yarn is twisted and wound. 
SPINDLEWORK A row of spindles included as the upper- 
most decorative feature of a gallery or porch below the 
cornice, also known as an open-work frieze. 
SPINNING The process of drawing out and twisting loose 
fibers to form a continuous strand of yam. 
STEPPED GABLE Sec roof illustrations. 

STEPPED SHOULDER CHIMNEY Sec chimney illustra- 

STOOP A small porch or platform at the entrance to a house. 
STORY-AND-A-HALF BUILDING A one-story building 
with a large usable attic. 

STRAP HINGE One in which a long metal "strap" is 
attached to the face of the door for support; usually seen in the 
late eighteenth or eariy nineteenth century dwellings. 
STREETSCAPE Term coined to describe the physical ap- 
pearance of a street including building facades, signage and 

STRETCHER A unit of masonry placed lengthwise in a 

STRIATED BRICKWORK Brickwork with bands at regu- 
lar intervals that are distinguished from the surrounding 
masonry by color, texture or elevation. 
STRING COURSE A projecting course of bricks or other 
material forming a narrow horizontal strip across the wall of a 

STRINGER The diagonal stmctural or decorative member 

of the outside face of a stair. 

STRUT In a tmss, a rigid member which acts as a brace or 
support. It differs from a post in that it is commonly set in a 
diagonal position and thus serves as a stiffener by triangulation. 
STUCCO Plaster for exterior walls. 
STUD The principal vertical supporting element in a wall. 
SUMMER A heavy beam crossing a ceiling from girt to girt 
and supporting the floor joists above. 
SURROUND The frame around a door or window, some- 
times molded. 

SUSPENSION ROD (or Hanger Rod or Suspender) Iron rod 
usually found in arch bridges or in connection with auxiliary 
arches added to older bridges, attached from arch to floor 
beams to aid in supporting the roadway. 
SYMMETRICAL MOLDING A decorative surround that 
has an idential molded treatment on all of its sides, often 
punctuated by comer blocks. 

SYMMETRY A balance achieved by having an exact corre- 
spondence in size, shape and relative position of parts on each 
side of a center or axis. 

TAILRACE The lower millrace, which carries the water 
discharged from the waterwheel back into the stream. 
TERRA COTTA From Latin, "cooked earth." A ceramic 
material made from clay slip poured into molds and fired; 
capable of assuming many forms; widely used, 1875-1930, 
as a sheathing material — particulariy when glazed. 
TETRASTYLE Of a portico with four frontal columns. 
of three members with mitred joints. 

THROUGH TRUSS A covered bridge in which traffic uses 
a roadway laid on the lower chords between the tmsses. Most 
covered bridges are through trusses. 
TIE BEAM A horizontal members in a pitched roof or truss 
placed low down to tie together the opposing angular mem- 
bers and keep them from spreading outward. 
TIE ROD I . A horizontal iron rod attached to two opposite 
walls to prevent them from spreading. Sometimes referred to 
as tie bolts or earthquake bolts. 2. Iron rod used as integral 
vertical member in some tmss bridges to replace wooden 
posts between upper and lower chords. Bridge members could 
be tightened by adjusting nuts against washers on the ends of 
the rods. Their use marked the first step in transition from 
wooden bridges to bridges made entirely of iron. 
TIER Layer or level, as in the two levels of a double-tier 

TOWN LATTICE TRUSS A bridge tmss patented in 1820 


by Connecticut engineer Ithiel Town. It consisted of a series 
of overlapping timber triangles connected by wooden pins at 
the point of intersection. Town promoted the truss for the 
construction of cheap, strong bridges which could be built 
by the mile and cut off by the yard" to support spans up to 
200 feet in length. 

TRABEATED Used here to refer to a standard entrance with 
a transom and sidelights. 

TRACERY The curvelinear openwork shapes creating a pat- 
tern within the upper part of a Gothic window or an opening 
of similar character. 
TRANSOM A narrow horizontal window unit over a door. 

roof, a large section which is raised to a flatter angle as 
though it were a trap door hinged at the top, and having a 
window inserted in the opening. Unlike a clerestory monitor, 
it does not run the entire length of the roof. 
TREAD The horizontal part of a step. 
TREFOIL A three-lobed, cloverieaf pattern, common in 
Gothic design. 

TRESTLE A braced framework of timbers, piles or steel- 
work for carrying a road or railroad over a depression. 
TRIPLE-A A colloquial term used to describe the false 
center gable often found on late nineteenth, early twenti^^" 
century domestic roofs. Also used as a name for a vernacular 
house containing such a roof configuration. Term is denvea 
from the three 'A" shaped gables: side, front and side. 
TROMPE D'OEIL Illusionistic painting creating a trick of 
the eye. 

TRUSS Structural triangles formed of iron, steel or wooden 
beams, joined with pins or rivets, the arrangement ot wmcn 
determines the specific truss type. 

TUB WHEEL A horizontal wheel mounted in a tub con- 
structed of wooden slats and reinforced with iron hoops. It 
receives water through a tube that enters the tub at an angle, 
rotating the wheel by percussion. 

TUDOR REVIVAL Based on English Gothic architecture 
and featuring round arches with points, half-timbering, low- 
relief vertical ribs, combinations of brick, stone, stucco and 
wood, crenellated parapets and other Gothic forms. 
TUMBLED SHOULDER Chimney shoulder consisting of 
a sloping course of brickwork which intersects a horizontal 
course. The technique is also called "mouse-toothing." 
TURBINE A horizontal wheel of great power and efficiency; 
really a hydraulic motor in which water flowing through the 
machine turns a vaned wheel or runner with great force. 
TURNBUCKLE A metal loop fashioned with a screw at one 
end and a swivel at the other, used in some covered bridge 
trusses to tighten iron rods and thus overcome sagging. 
TURNED Fashioned on a lathe, as a spindle, baluster or 
porch post. 

TURRET A diminutive tower, characteristically corbeled 
from a comer. 

TUSCAN ORDER The simplest and most massive classical 
order supposedly derived from Etruscan temples; with unfluted 
columns, unadorned capitals and plain entablatures. 
TWO-PANELED DOOR A single-leaf door with two verti- 
cal panels, characteristic of the Greek Revival style. 
TYMPANUM The triangular or segmental space enclosed 
by a pediment or arch, or similar space above a door or 

UNDERSHOT WHEEL A vertical wheel rotated by the 
percussion of water striking a series of paddles at the base of 
the wheel. 
VAULT An arched roof or ceiling constructed in masonry; 

sometimes simulated in wood and plaster. An arch or a 
combination of arches used to cover a space. 
VERANDA, VERANDAH From Hindi, varanda, which is 
partly from Portuguese, varanda, akin to Spanish, baranda, 
"railing." A covered porch extending along the outside of a 
building, planned for summer leisure. 
VERNACULAR In architecture as in language, the non- 
academic local expressions of a particular region. For example, 
a vernacular Greek Revival structure draws ideas from formal 
classical architecture and interprets them in an individual way 
to suit local needs, tastes and technology. 
VESTIBULE A hall between the outer door and the main 
part of a building. 

VICTORIAN Characteristic architecture from the reign of 
Queen Victoria (1837-1901); includes a number of individu- 
ally distinctive styles but primarily characterized by fanciful 
wooden ornamentation or "gingerbread." 

VOLUTE A spiral scroll; especially that which forms the 

distinctive features of the Ionic capital. 

VOUSSOIR One of the wedge-like stones which form an 

arch; the middle one is called a keystone. 

WAINSCOT Facing or paneling applied to the lower part of 

a wall in a room and usually capped by a chair rail. 

WATER TABLE A projecting ledge or molding running 
along the sides of a building near the foundation to shed the 

WEATHERBOARD Wood siding consisting of overlapping 
boards usually thicker at one edge than the other. 
WINDER A wedge-shaped step. 

WOOD GRAINING Painted treatment on wood panels simu- 
lating patterns of wood grain, sometimes to the point of 
exotic abstraction. 


Dormer Types 





With Return 





Rafter End 



Bracketed Cornice 

Box Cornice 



Door Types 

Classical Orders 

I I ! I 



Vertical Diagonal Two- Panel Uoor Four-Panel Door 

Board and Batten Hoard and Batten 

J ln.= 

J 'J, J 

Six-Panel Doors 



Trench Door 




Double Leaf 
With Panels 



Tuscan Greek Doric 






Brick Bond Patterns 









English Bond 



Flemish Bond 

□ □□□□□□□r 

American Bond 





1 r 

Mechanical Bond 


Log Corner Timbering 


Full Dovclail 

Sqiiiirc Notch 

Diamond Notch 



Half Dovetail 



L -1 i 

r 1 1 

-_, 1 1 

1 Over 1 

2 Over 2 

4 Over 4 

6 Over 6 

9 Over 9 


12 Over 1 

PI! — ir- 

1 i! <; 
1 — li — ii — 1 





i 1 




5 Cornice 
- Picture Molding 

Chair rail 
Wainscot Plain 





Wainscot Paneled 

L --^^-^ A 



Porch IVeatments 










Engiigei] Porch 

Semi-eng-agod Porch 

Double-Tier Portico 


Doublo-Ticr Porch 
V.ilh Porch Rooms 

Shed Porch 






Asheboro, N.C. Randolph County Courthouse. 
Record of Deeds. 
County Commissioners' Minutes. 
Asheboro, N.C. Randolph Room, Asheboro Public Library. 
Acme-McCrary Corporation 50th Anniversary bro- 
chure, 1959. ,- 
Asheboro Chamber of Commerce brochures, ca. IV/J, 

Asheboro Chamber of Commerce pamphlet, 1^33- 
"Fayetteville Street School." 
Mrs. Laura Worth, "Manuscript Notebook No.\. 
Asheboro, N. C. Sulon B. Stedman, "Historical Summary, 
19 December 1960. Typescript in the possession of Mrs. 
Marion Stedman Covington. . 

Asheboro, N. C. Mrs. J. L. Winningham. "Memones of Old 

Asheboro." ,. „ ,,^ 

Chapel Hill, N. C. University of North Carolina, Southern 

Historical Collection. 

Simeon Colton, Diary, 1955. 
Henry E. McCuUoh Survey Book. 
Raleigh, N.C. North Carolina Division of Archives ana 
History. „ . „^ 

Minutes of the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, 

Randolph County , North Carolina. 
' 'Return of the Cotton Machine for the Year 1 Wl, 
C.R. 081.701 . S, Miscellaneous tax records, Ran- 
dolph County papers. . .^ 
Session Record of the North Carolina Legislature (m- 
vate Acts), 1829-1883). 


Third Census of the United States, 1810. Randolph County, 

North Carolina. Industrial Schedule. ^-^..^.v 

Ninth Census of the United States, 1870. Randolph County, 

North Carolina. Industrial Schedule. 


Branson, Rev. Levi, ed. The North Carolina Business Direc- 
tory. Raleigh: J. A. Jones, for the author, 1872. 

Branson, Rev. Levi, ed. The North Carolina Business Direc- 
tory. Raleigh: L. Branson, Publisher, 1877-1878. 

Branson, Rev. Levi, ed. Branson's North Carolina Business 

Directory. Raleigh: Levi Branson, Publisher, 1884, 1889, 
1896, and 1897. 


Benjamin, Asher. The Practical House Carpenter. Boston: 
Asher Benjamin, R. P. & C. Williams, and Annin & 
Smith, 1830. 
Blair, J. A. Reminiscences of Randolph County. Greensboro: 
Reece and Elam, 1890; reprint ed., Asheboro, N.C: Ran- 
dolph County Historical Society, 1978. 
Caruthers, E. W. Interesting Revolutionary Incidents: And 
Sketches of Characters, Chiefly in the -'Old North State." 
Philadelphia: Hayes and Zell, 1856. 
Clark, Walter, ed. The State Records of North Carolina. 
Winston and Goldsboro: State of North Carolina, 16 vols. , 
Corbitt, David Leroy , ed. Public Addresses and Papers of 
Robert Gregg Cherry, Governor of North Carolina. 1945- 
1949. Raleigh: Council of State, State of North Carolina, 
Fanning, David. The Narrative of Colonel David Fanning. 
Richmond, Va.: by the author, 1861; reprint ed., Spartan- 
burg; The Reprint Co., 1973. 
Fries, Adelaide L., ed. Records of the Moravians in North 
Carolina. Vol. II. Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Print- 
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Note: The author conducted hundreds of interviews during 
the course of the survey and is indebted to all of those who 
gave so graciously of their time and energy. This impor- 
tant oral history was critical to the project's research 








•• ' 










Aberdeen and Asheboro Railroad 188 
Aberdeen and West End Railroad 188 
"Abolition Methodists" SEE Wesleyan 

Abram's Creek 175 
Acme Hosiery Company 195, 233 
Acme-McCrary Corporation 1 1 1 
Acme-McCrary Hosiery Mill No. 3 217 
Acme-McCrary Hosiery mills 21 1 
Acme-McCrary Recreation Building 21 1 
Adamesque style 38 
Adams-Millis Corporation 18 
"Adirondack Style" 52 
African Pavilion 145 
"Akron Plan" churches 101 
Alamance County 28, 34-35 
"Alamance Plaids" 16 
Alamance Village 16, 34 
Alberta chair works 20, 84 
Alexander, Annie 218 

Kemp (house) 218 
Allen family 9 
Allen's Fall 35, 79 
Allen's Temple A.M.E. Church 233 
Allred, Rev. Joseph Franklin (house) 93 
M.M. 208 
Peter 98 

Thomas W. (carpenter) 24, 102-103 
Allred Place (Providence TS) 71 
Alt, John (architect) 68 
"American Foursquare" style 47 
Andrews, Hezekiah L. 27 
Archdale, N.C. 19,32,61 (map) 
Armfield, W. J. (house) 197 

W. J.,Jr. 195,208,211,212,243 
Armfield Mausoleum 232 
Arnold, John 174 
Arnold house (Concord TS) 138 
Artisans 33 

Asbury, Bishop Francis 11,12 
Ashe, Samuel 174 

Asheboro and Montgomery Railroad 167, 188 
Asheboro Argus 189 
Asheboro Bank and Trust Company 220 
Asheboro Baptist Church 196 (ill.) 
Asheboro Chair Factory 194 
Asheboro City Cemetery 232 
AsheboroCity Hall 216 
Asheboro Colored Grade School 236 


Asheboro courthouse square 175, 176, 177 
Asheboro Drug Company 217 
Asheboro Electric Company 192, 218 
Asheboro electric plant 192-193 
Asheboro Female Academy 179, 197, 243 
Asheboro Fire Department 193 
Asheboro High School 242 
Asheboro Hosiery Mills 194, 195, 223 
Asheboro incorporation 174, 177 
Asheboro industrial development 194-195 
Asheboro Male Academy 222 
Asheboro medical facilities 193-194 
Asheboro Methodist Episcopal Church 232 
Asheboro Motor Car Company 2 1 
Asheboro Opera House 213 
Asheboro police and fire departments 193 
Asheboro Presbyterian Church 207 
Asheboro Printing Company 221 
Asheboro public schools 193 
Asheboro-Randolph County Public Library 

Asheboro Roller Mill 96, 188, 192, 195 
Asheboro streets 175-177, 194 
Asheboro subdivisions 196-197 
Asheboro Veneer Company 195 
Asheboro water system 5, 193 
Asheboro Wheelbarrow Company 227, 233 
Ashlyn Hotel 211 
Atkins, Woodrow (house) 150 
Auman, 205 

ArtemasR. 164, 165 

Frank (house) 164 

Howard 164 

Hubert 164 

Jasper (store) 165 

Jefferson 167 

Lynn 166 

Martin 161 

Tommie R. 166 
Auman's Chapel 161 
Aycock, Gov. Charles 66 


Back Creek Friends Meeting 9, 129 
Back Creek Steel Bridge 143 
Back Creek Township 129 (map) 
Balanced growth 20 
Baldwin, Fred 189 
Balfour 252 (map) 
"Balloon-Frame" construction 24 

Baltimore Association of Friends 148 

Bank of Chatham 76 

Bank of Coleridge 154 

Bankof Franklinville 102 

Bank of Randolph 189, 196, 212 

BankofSeagrove 165 

Baptists 8, 36 

Baptists, "Separate" 74 

Barber Shop (Coleridge) 153 

Barker, Argus (house) 125 

Barnes, Dr. Dempsey 222 

Barnes-Griffin Clinic 222 

Barrett, Prof. C.A. 236 

Barton, Harry (architect) 204, 236 

Barton's Meeting House 72 

Bash, Grady L. (engineer) 137 

Bauhaus 240 

Bay Doe 95 

Beaded weatherboarding 38 

Bean, J. W. 135 

Beane, Allison 148 
Dempsey (house) 162 

Beane house 227 

Beane'sMill 148 

Beard, Lewis 24 

Beechwood 197 

Beeson, Seth (house) 67 
Bell, Martha McGee 65-66 
Paul 122 
R.P. (house) 122 
William 12,65-66, 174 
Bell's Mill 14,66 
Bending Mill (Coleridge) 155 
Benjamin, Asher24,41, 111 
Bernhardt, Rev. Christian Eberhardt 73 
Bethel Methodist Protestant Church 71 
Bird hunting 52 
Bird, William 160 
Blair, Enos21 
Enos (house) 53 
■I. A. 188,256 
Quince (house) 63 
Blair-Anthony house 65 
Boarding house (Trinity) 57 
Bobbins 19 
Boling, Dick 166 
Bookout, Joseph 147 
Bossong, Charles G. 195 

Joseph C. 195 
Bossong Hosiery Mill 233 

Boyette and Richardson drugstore 189 
Brady, John Emmett (house) 89 

Sheriff 229 
Brady Funeral Home 85 
Branson, Lewis (contractor) 142 
Bray, Ed 80 

Eli (house) 38, 147 
Brewer, W.L. (architect) 44-45 
Brickmasons 23 
Bridges 24-28 
Briles, Roland A. 253 
Briles Place 133 
Brittain, J.L. 189 
Brokaw, W.G. (estate) 44-45, 52 

William Gould 51 
Brokaw's Mill SEE Miller's Mill 
Brooks, B.B. 27 
Brookshire, Benjamin 142 
Brower, Curtis (house) 166 
J.A. 155 

Madison (contractor) 27, 98 
Madison (house) 98 
Brower Township 158 (map) 
Brown, Billy 114 
Daniel 145 

Dempsey (house) 23, 24 (ill.), 39, 53 
John (house) 125 
M. J. (house) 230 
Moses 15 

Willard (brickmason) 164 
Willard (house) 146 
Brown-King house 145 
Brown family 81 
Bryant. Stanhope 126 
Vivian 247 
Walter 247 
Buffalo Ford 150 
Buffalo Ford Bridge 27 
Buie, Hugh B. (house) 98 
J.T. "Joe "99 
James (house) 103-104 
Matthew Gilbert "Gib" 98-99 
Bulla. A.C. (house) 40 
Dr. A. C. (house) 131 
A.N. "Arch" 122. 125 
A.N. (house) 125 
Archie Castelray 131 
Earl 130 
Bulla's Grove Methodist Church 238 
Bunch, Walter A. (house) 202 

Bunch Post Office 137 
Bungalow 226 
Bungalow style 47 
Bunting, H. H. (house) 185, 239 
Burgess family 81 
Burkhead, Arthur (house) 203 
Ivey (house) 138 
Rev. J. Frank 129, 203 
Rev. J. Frank (house) 203 

Burlington Industries 256 

Burns, (carpenter) 185 

Burns Hotel 189 

Burroughs, Susan Lowdermilk 162 

Burrow, J. A. 101 

Byrd, Harry 80 

Cabinetmaking 13, 18 

Calah Presbyterian Church 1 50 

Cannon, James William 18 

Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railroad 70, 77, 

93, 100 
Cape Fear River 6 
Capel, A.W.E. (house) 84 

Aaron W.E. 84 
Capitol Theatre 196 
Caraway Baptist Church 130 
Caraway Creek 7 
Caraway Mountains 7 
Carolina Theatre 221 
Carolina Wholesale 233 
"Carpenter Gothic" style 41 , 79 
Carpenters 24 
Carr, Julians. 58 
Carter, H.B. 85 

Carter Mercantile Store Company 85 
Cassady, Calvin (barn) 162 
Elizabeth 162 
John 162 
Catawba River 7 
Caudle, A. B. "Bart" (house) 122 

J.N. 116 
Causey, H. C. (contractor) 77 

H.C. (house) 77 
Caveness, John M. (house) 156 
Dr. Robert L. 155-156 
Dr. Robert L. (house) 46 (ill.), 155 

Caviness, 243 

H.T. 220 
Cedar Falls, N.C. 16, 23, 33-36, 108 (map), 

Cedar Falls Baptist Church 109 
Cedar Falls Company Store 36 (ill.) 
Cedar Falls covered bridge 25 

Cedar Falls factory 16, 18 

Cedar Falls Manufacturing Company 16, 18, 

29, 30 (ill.), 109-110 
Cedar Falls United Methodist Church 109 
Cedar Fork Creek 187 
Cedar Grove Township (map) 141 
Center-Hall plan 38 
Central business district (Liberty) 76 
Central Falls. N.C. 18, 26, 37, 254 (map) 
Central Falls Manufacturing Company 92, 256 
Central Falls School 255 
Central Falls United Methodist Church 256 

Central Hotel (Asheboro) 40, 41 , 180-192 
(ill.), 185 

Central Methodist Church (Asheboro) 242 

Central School 236 

Chamness, Miles (house) 70 

Charlotte Methodist Protestant Church 130 

(-|,ge)j^ (stonemason) 255 

Cherry, R. Gregg 20 

Church of Christ (Liberty) 77 

Civil War deserters 184 

Civil War period 184 

Clark, John Washington 104, 107, 227 
Peter (brickmason) 120 

Clerestory monitor roof 29 

Clifton, Wiley H. 27 

Coble family 81 

Coffin, Bethuel 101 


John M. 106 
Coffin-Scarboro Company 219 
Coffin family 9 

Cogswell. Arthur (architect) 248 
Cole, James 155 
Coleman, Edward R. 80 
Coleridge, N.C. 151 (map) 
Coleridge Manufacturing Company 133 
Coleridge Township 146 (map) 
Coletrane, Daniel 67 

David 65 

James Ruffin 65 

William (house) 37. 38 (.11.), 65 

Coletrane's Mill 6, 67 
Colonial revival style 47 
Colton, Simeon 179 

Columbia Factory Baptist Church 88 
Columbia Manufacturing Company 8, 86 
Columbia Manufacturing Company Store 36 
Columbia Township 79 (map) 
Commercial row (Ramseur 85 
Commonwealth Hosiery 


Concord Methodist Episcopal Church (Cole- 
ridge) 152 

Concord Township 136 (map) 

Congregational Christian Church (Ramseur) 

Cook, A. 72 

Cool Springs Missionary Baptist Church 91 

Cooper, Clail 164, 165 
John 164, 165 

Copeland House 83 

Cornelison, Dave (house) 164 

Cornwallis, General 65, 66 

Corwith, Henry P. 196. 247 

Cottage (Randleman) 119 

Cotton gin 13, 14 

"Cotton Row" houses (Franklinville) 34, 35 

(ill). 100 
Cotton warehouse (Cedar Falls) 1 10 
Cotton warehouse (Coleridge) 154 
Cotton warehouse (Franklinville) 97 
Council, John T. 123 
Country Club Estates 197 
Courier-Tribune 20\ 
Covered bridge (Central Falls) 256 
Covered bridges SEE Bridges 
Cox, Clark 92 

Clark (house) 189 

Dennis 14, 168 

Dennis (grist mill) 168 

Ervin92, 145 

Evelyn 145 

Gilbert 150 

Harmon 12, 148 


John C. 27 

Levi 148 

Mary Jane 99 

Nathan 99 

Nathan M. 99 

Nathan W. (house) 257 (ill.) 

O.J. 214 

O.R. 109,111,195 
O.R. (Asheboro) 190 
O.R. (Cedar Falls) 109 
Raymond (mill) 148 
Thomas 168 
Tom A. 27 
Cox-Lewis Hardware Store 214, 22/ 

Cox family 9 

Cox Grist Mill SEE Cox, Dennis 

Cox's Dam 92 

Cox's Mill SEE Cox, Raymond 

Coxe, Hammond 148 

Coxe's Mill 148 

Cozins, Grief (builder) 14 

Cranford. C.C. 137, 192, 195. 223. 225 
Cranford Building 219 
Cranford Chair Company 223 
Cranford Furniture Company 223, 250 
Craven, Braxton 43, 57, 127 

Braxton (house) 41 , 43 (ill.), 257 (ill.) 
George (house) 59 
I. Fletcher (house) 88 
Jim A. 85 
John 81 
Joshua 177 
"Creole Cottage" house 105 
Crescent Furniture Store 85 
Crocker, J.T. 178 

Croft, John J., Jr. (architect) 152. 247 
Crowell, George (house) 63 

Dr. John Franklin 58 
Crown Milling Company 195 
Crowstep gables 31 
Crutchfield, Virtle (house) 244 
Culler, Ray B., Jr. 54 
Curtis, D. A. 101 

Dennis 99 
Curtis-Buie house 45, 46 (ill.), 98-99 


"Dainty Biscuit" flour 96 

Dark, A.E. 76 

Davis, Dr. John (log house) 248 

M.L. 47 
Davis-Freeman house 244 
Deal, R.P. (house) 122 
Deep River 12, 13.35 
Deep River Dyeing Company 121 
Deep River Manufacturing Company 16. 31 , 

32 (ill.). 79 
Deep River Masonic Lodge 152 
Deep River Mills, Inc. 119 
DeKalb. General 148 
Depot Street (Asheboro) 184 
Design profession 43 
Dicks, James 115, 118, 121 
James (house) 115. 118, 121 
Peter 13-14, 115, 118, 121 
Peter (house) 37. (ill.), 74, 115 
R.P. (house) 45, 47 (ill.), 119, 123 
Robert Peele 123 
Sallie 115 
Dixie Furniture Company 195 
Doak, Roddy (house) 71 
Dobson, Charlie 125 

Rome 125 
Dobson house (Randleman) 125 
"Doctor" house (New Salem) 1 14 
Dogwood Acres 196, 247 








Dorsett, Clyde (architect) 240 

Clyde (house) 240 

Spencer M. (carpenter) 24, 102-103 

Vance (store) 1 16 

Will 27 
Dorsett Store SEE Dorsett, Vance 
"Double-Pen" log construction 22 
"Double-Pile" construction 40 
Dougan, Moody (house) 39, 131 
Dove, Duncan (house) 104 
Dove family 81 
Downing, A.J. 41, 43 
Drake, James M. A. 101,243 
Dunbar, John 140 
Dunbar's Bridge 140 
Dunkers 8 
Dutch Colonial Revival style 45 

Eastlake style 46 

Eastover 197 

Eastside 197 

Ebenezar Methodist Episcopal Church 65 

Edenton, N.C. 38 

Edwards, Herberts. 103, 107 

Eleazer, N.C. 6 

Elliott, Colonel Benjamin 14, 110, 176-177, 


Henry B. (house) SEE Central Hotel 

Henry Branson 15, 25, 29, 34-35, 1 10, 180 

Priscilla Johnson 140 
Elliott's Green 197 
Elliott's Mills 14 
Ellis, Thad 147 
Engleworth Cotton Mills 124 
English, Ben T. (house) 63 

Merley (house) 63 
English family 9 
English bond brickwork 38 
Enterprise, N.C. 18,26,27 
Enterprise Company Store 154 
Enterprise factory 153 

Enterprise Manufacturing Company 152, 153 
Enterprise Roller Mills 96 
Episcopal Church of the Good Shepherd 247 
Erect Academy 148 
Evergreen Academy 148, 150 

Factory buildings 28-32 

Fair Grove Methodist Church 161 

"Fair Oaks" (Level Cross) 68 

"Fairview Park" SEE Brokaw, W.G. (estate) 

Faith Rock 95 

Fanning, David 95, 148 

Farlow, Hannah 131 

Madison 167 
Farlow family 9 

Farm Complex (New Market) 65 
Farmer Cemetery 139 
Farmer Methodist Church 139 
Farmer's Alliance Store (Farmer) 136 
Farmer's Union Mercantile Company (Lib- 
erty) 76 
Fayetteville, N.C. 16,34 
Fayetteville and Western Plank Road 11,12 

(map), 178, 179 
Fayetteville Street School 193, 222 
Federal style 37-39 
Fentress, Lewis F. 104 
Ferguson, Ebenezar 1 19 

Ellen 119 
Ferree, John H. 112, 118-122, 124, 127 
Mrs. Sarah 84 
Shafter 244 
Ferree house 84 
Ferries 12 

Finch, Charles Franklin 53 
Isham 135 

Thomas Austin (house) 40, 53, 55 
Thomas Jefferson (house) 53, 55 
First American Savings and Loan 207 
First Baptist Church (Ramseur) 87 
First Baptist Church (Siler City) 236 
First Methodist Church (Asheboro) 236 
First National Bank 196, 227 
First National Bank No. 1 214 
First National Bank No. 2 220 
First Presbyterian Church (Asheboro) 242 
First Southern Savings and Loan 212 
Fisher, Basil John 185-187 

Basil John (mansion house site) 227, 228 
Fisher Estate gatekeeper's house 244 
Fisher Park neighborhood (Greensboro, N.C.) 

FIannagan,EricG. (architect) 194,211,234, 

Flat Creek Ford 157 
Florence hall 152 
Fogleman, Eli 72 
Fords 12, 157 
Forest Hills 197 
Forrester, J. O. 85 
"Fort of Deep River" 148 
Foster, Dr. G. A. 76 
Foust, George A. 150 
I.H. 106 

I.H. (house) 41, 79 
Foust'sMill 150, 152 
Fox, C.P. 80 

C.P. (house) 81 

Charles M. (house) 217 

Charles Michael 217 

Charlesanna M. 217 

Elizabeth Spencer 217 

Dr. L.M. (house) 223 
Fox house (Randleman) 125 
Franklinsville Manufacturing Company 16, 23 

(ill.), 95-96, 102 
Franklinsville Manufacturing Company Store 

Franklinville, N.C. 13, 16, 23, 25-29, 32-37, 

45, 94 (map), 95-107 
Franklinville covered bridge 25-26, 27 (ill.) 
Franklinville Iron Works 71, 95 
Franklinville Methodist Episcopal Church 98, 

Franklinville Riverside Band 101 
Franklinville Roller Mill 96 
Franklinville Store Company 103 
Franklinville Township 91 (map) 
Frazier, Ed 208 

Henry 78 

Henry W. 104 
Frazier-Fentress house 104 
Frazier log house 22, 66 
Free blacks 9 
Freeman, Jason 166 

"Elder" Ralph 9 

Reid 244 

Rupert (house) 143 
Freeman's Store 143 
Freeze, E.W. 19, 119 
Friendsville Friends Meeting House 149 
Fries, Francis 28 
Fuller's Mill 134 

Fuller's Mill covered bridge 28 (ill.) 
Furniture industry 19-20 

Gant Street (Central Falls) 255 

Gamer, George (house) 162 

Garner family 81 

Garrons, John 135 

Gasstation222, 226, 251 

Geiger-Berger (engineers) 145 

George, Alvis O., Jr. (architect) 205, 207, 

Georgian style 37-38 
German settlers 8 
Germanic vernacular 73 
Gill,J. N. 236 
Gladesborough, N.C. 175 
Gladesborough Store 40, 64 
Glencoe School 54 

Glennanna Female Seminary 23 
Glenola Brick Works 208 
Gluyas, William 184 
Gluyas's Pond Road 184 
Gossett, Elizabeth 65 

William 65 
Gossett's Meeting House 65 
Gothic cottage (Trinity) 58 
Gothic Revival style 37, 41 , 43-44 
Gould, Jay 52 

Grace Evangelical Lutheran Church 76 
Granite Cotton Mill 28 
Grant Township 144 (map) 
Graves, Calvin E. 98 

Harwood 161 
Gray, General Alexander 15, 51, 55 

General Alexander (house) 40, 55 

Rev. Alson 72 

Malcom (house) 68 

Robert 64 

Robert (brickmason) 23, 41 

Robert Harper 55 

Samuel (kitchen) 54 
Gray gold mine 179 
Gray house 64 
Gray's Chapel 23 

Gray's Chapel Methodist Church 69 
Greek Revival style 29, 34, 37, 39-41 
Green, J. M. 165 
Gregson, Amos (house No. 2) 122 

Rev. Amos 122, 127 
Gregson-Pickard house (Randleman) 45, 46 

(ill.), 119 
Greystone Terrace 196 
Griffin, Dr. Harvey L. 222 
Grimes, W. A. 98, 189 
Gristmills 12, 13 
Gropius, Walter (architect) 240 
Grove Hotel (Franklinville) 101 
Guilford College 115 
Guilford Courthouse (battle) 65-66 
Guilford Dairy 23 1 
Guilford Lumber Company 1 89 
"Gumeyite" Friends 149 


Hager. Mrs. John D. 201 

Hall, Homer (house) 41 , 43 (ill.), 63 

"Hall-and-Parlor" plan 22 

Halliday Hunting Lodge (Millboro) 93 

Hammer, William Cicero 192, 209 

Hammond. A. A. 141 

Clifford (house) 167 

J. Hyatt (architect) 138, 205. 207, 212, 240 

John (contractor) 142 


Moses (house) 41,62 ,,,„-, 

Hanks Masonic Lodge No. 128 24, 36, 102- 

Hardin, Charles 71 
Charles H. (house) 70 
J.E. 70 
Hargrave, Lt. Col. 171 
Harper, Carolina Dean 162 
J.E. 162 

James Edward 162 
Jeduthan 51 
Jethro 167 
Harris, A.C. 164 

Wade 164 
Haskett's Creek 175 
Haskins, Hoyle (log cabin) 239 
Hasty, Jack 205 
Haw River 6, 28,43 
Hayes, James Madison 1 14-115 

Pierce 115 
Hayes-Howell, Inc. (architects) 145 
Hayes-Lineberry house 121 
Hayworth, Dr. C.A. 193 
Dr. C.A. (house) 218 
Dr. R.W. 193 
Sheriff S.L. 210 
Hearthstone Farm 129 
"Heavy Frame" construction 23-24, 34 
Hedgecock Builders, Inc. 195 
Hedrick Arcade 221 
E.T. Hedrick and Son (contractors) 59 
Hedrick Motor Company 221 
Heitman, John Franklin (house) 58 
Henley, Jesse 174 
Hiatt-Swaim house 190-191 
High Point, N.C. 19 
High Point Furniture Company 20 
High Point Hosiery Mill 1 8 
High Point, Randleman, Asheboro and South- 
ern Railroad 19, 124,188 
Hill, J.R, (house) 228 

James Jason 142 
Hinshaw, Albert 121 
Amos (barn) 45, 150 
Amos (farm) 1 50 
Thomas 148, 150 
Hinshaw family 9 
Historic Preservation 2-3 
Historic Preservation Fund of N.C. 51 
Hoggott, Wade (house) 68 
Holden, W.W. 184 
Holder house 68 
Holleman, W.C. (architect) 204 
Holland, Dwight 170 
Holly Spring Friends Meeting 9, 147 

Holly Spring Friends Meeting (Conservative) 

Hollywood (subdivision) 197 
Holmes, Nancy (house) 165 
Holt, Edwin Michael 16, 34, 118 

Jacob 43 
T.M. Holt Manufacturing Company 43 
Home Building and Materials Company 47, 

188, 191-192, 195-196,233 
Homestead Heights 197 
Hoover, Andrew 12 
B. F. (subdivision) 196 
George 177, 179, 200 
Hoover Hill gold mine 57 , 135 
Hoover Subdivision SEE Hoover, B.F. 
Hopewell Friends Meeting 142 
Hop's Barbeque 216 

Homey, Alexanders. 16,98-99, 101, 103, 
106-107, 110 
Jared 136 
Jube (house) 136 
Dr. Phillip 16, 98-99, 101,110 
Homey-Parks house 99, 107 
Hosiery mills 18, 32, 122, 125, 127, 195, 

Hotel (Coleridge) 156 
Hubbard, Dr. C.C. (house) 139 
Huffine, R.L. 127 
Hughes, C.T. 135 

W.H. "Will" (house) 164 
Hughes house 132 
Humphreys, David 32 
Humphreysville, Conn. 32 
Hunter, Andrew 95 

Dr. J.V. (house) 202 
Hunting Lodge Stable (Staley) 80 
Huriey, Rev. M.L. 88 
Husband, Herman (mill) 74 

Hermon9, 12 
Husband's Mill SEE Husband, Herman 
Ed Hyder Datsun 234 


Ingold.A.W. 114 

Joel 114 
Ingold Hotel 114 
Ingram-Brinson Building 221 
Ingram house 51 

International Harvester Buildmg 250 
Iron bridges 27 
Iron Hill iron mine 95 
Island Ford iron bridge 27 , 28 (ill . ) 
Island Ford Manufacturing Company 16-17, 

29, 30 (ill.), 36, 79, 105-106 

Jackson, Samuel S. 201 
Jarrell, Manliff 114 

Noah 114 
Jarrell-Hayes house 39, 1 14 
Jed's Sandwich Shop 211 
Jennings, A.G. 19 
Jobe, Lizzie 99 
Johnson, Dob (cafe) 85 
J.W. 123 
James 99 

Lemuel (house) 60 
Johnson Cafe SEE Johnson, Dob 
Johnston, Frances Benjamin 53, 66 
Johnstonville,N.C. 174-175 
Jones, Arthur V. 99 
B.C. 93 
Isham 101 

Isham (wagon shop) 101 
L.M. (house) 93 
Lee 85 

Leonidas Mountvale 93 
W.C. (house) 93 
W.J. (contractor) 85 
Wesley Cornelius 93 
Jones Wagon Shop SEE Jones, Isham 
Jordan, B.Everett 85 
Dr. Henry 85, 109 
Rev. Henry Harrison 85 
Manley "Crip" 165 
Jordan house 247 

Jordan Memorial Methodist Church 85 
Joyland Motion Picture Theatre 213 
Julian, Cornelius H. 99 
Julian depot 70 
Julian house 99 


Keams, Bobby (Ream's Place) 135 

FredM., Jr. 255 

John Orpheus (house) 139 

Marvin 139 

Wilda Mae Briles 253 

William (Ream's Place) 133 
Kennedy, Laura 239 
Kerr, John 185 
Keyauwee Indians 7 
Kidd, Chariie 92 
Kindley house 135 
King, Boyd 165 
Carl (house) 166 
William 145 
"King Tut" subdivision 196, 252 (map) 

Kirkman, Ed (house) 120 

S.E. (house) 120 
Kitchen outbuilding (Franklinville) 107 
Kitchen outbuilding (Grant TS) 144 
Kitchens 22, 45 
Kivett, Carrie (house) 245 

Henry (house) 38, 73 

Stephen Wayland (house) 187, 225 
Komer, Jules 36, 118, 120 

Lake Lucas 175 
Lake Lucas Dam 1 3 1 
Lake Reese 5 
Lamb, Isaac 14 

J. A. 119 
Lamb Building, C.A. 122 
Lambert, George (house) 89 
J.I. 89 
John R. 103 
Julia Ross 218 
Dr. W.L. (house) 218 
Lambert-Parks house 40-41 , 92, 103 
Lane, Charies (house) 84 
W.D. (house) 84, 100 
Lassiter, T.E. 196,202 
T.J. 47 

W.W. (house) 141 
Laughlin, Rev. Cicero 140 
Lawson, John 6 
Lawyer's Row 192,209 
Leach, Eli (house) 164 
James Madison 54, 59 
Lewis M. 23,52 
Martin W. (house) 54 
Col. Martin W. 59 
Sallie Mangum 59 
William (house) 98 
Leads, Garrett 167 
Leath, Dr. MacLean B. (house) 62 
Level Cross Township 67 map) 
Lewallen, R.C. (house) 217 
Lewis, Chariie (house) 40, 137 
J.Stanback214, 227 
John Stanback (house no. 1) 227 
John Stanback (house no. 2) 222 
Jonathan 116, 144 
Liberty, N.C. 44, 75 (map), 76-78 
Liberty Chair Company 32, 78 
Liberty depot 77 
Liberty Friends Meeting 78 
Liberty Grove Methodist Protestant Church 72 
Liberty High School 44, 45 
Liberty Methodist Episcopal Church 78 
Liberty Picker Stick and Novehy Company 78 




Liberty Township 72 (map) 
Lindley Park School 193 
Lineberry, Jacob (house) 116 

W.L. 121 

W.S. 114 
Little River 6 

Little Uwharrie River steel bridge 135 

Charles (house) 229 

Donna Lee 229 
Log cabin (BrowerTS) 158 
Log cabin (Level Cross) 68 
Log construction 21-23 
Log joint notches 22-23 
Long, Charles F. 227 

John (house) 30, 73 

John Wesley 73 
Lovelt, Marvin G. (house) 202 
Lovett house 230 
Lowdermilk family 160 
Lowdermilk house 245 
Lowe, William 174 
Lowell, Massachusetts 19, 32 
Lucas, W. Clyde 195,250 
Lucas Industries/General Electric 250 
Luther, J. A. (house) 106 

Jonathan A. 106 
Lutherans 8 
Lytle, Bill 239 

Frank 9, 239 


McAlister, Col. Alexander C. 205 
McAlister and Morris Store 189, 200 
McCain, Hugh 15, 177, 207-208 
McCaskill, W.G. (house) 227 
McCoy, Paschal 104-105 
McCrary, Charles W. 227 

Charles W. (house) 204 

D.B. 195.210,234 

D.B. (house) 204 

J. Frank (house) 204 
McCrary-Redding Hardware Company 210 
McCulloh, George 175 

Henry 7 

Henry Eustace 175 
McCulloh Street (Asheboro) 175 
McDowell, John (house) 245 
McKay, Clarence 52 
McMahon, Thomas 19 


Maken worth Company 196 
Makepeace, Charles Roderick (architect) 43 
George 17-19,29,98-99, 106 

George H. 43, 95, 98-99 

George (house) 23, 24 (ill.), 36, 39, 45, 97- 

C.R. Makepeace & Company (architects) 43 
Mallet, Charles P. 16 
Maner, Hannah 102 

M.G. "Mack" 102 
Mangum, Willie Person 54 
Maple Grove Dairy 130 
Marable,J.P. (house) 104 

John Paschal 104-105 
Marbleizing 38 

Marietta Masonic Lodge No. 444 87 
Marlboro Friends Meeting 9 
Marley, J. Harris (house) 89 

John 103 

Vaughn 89 

Woosley 89 
Marsh, Alfred H. 243 

Benjamin Augustus 232 

O.C. (house) 124 
Martin, James Alexander 78 
Mary Antoinette Mill 1 12, 1 19, 121 
Masonic Temple (Asheboro) 214 
Maxwell, A.J. (architect) 219 
Mead, William Ernest 236 
Melancthon Lutheran Church 72 
"Melrose" SEE Leach, Lewis M. (house) 
Memorial Hospital 227 
Mendenhall, Elisha67 

George 96 

Lorenzo 57 
Mendenhall diary house 55 
Mennonites 8 
Merchant mills 14 
Methodist Episcopal Church 36 
Methodist Episcopal/Protestant split 72 
Methodist Parsonage (Ramseur) 87 
Methodist Parsonage (Trinity) 57 
Middleton Academy 33, 36 
Mill houses (Coleridge) 153, 156 
Mill houses (Franklinville) 101 
Mill houses (Ramseur) 88 
Mill houses (Sapona, Cedar Falls) 1 1 1 
Mill houses (Union Factory, Randleman) 118 
Mill log house (Cedar Falls) 1 10 
Mill office (Coleridge) 154 
Mill villages 32-37 
Millboro, N.C. 92, 100 
Miller, Dr. John Floyd 193 

Riley (Miller's Mill) 14,44,51 
Miller's house (Liberty TS) 74 
Miller's Mill SEE Miller, Riley 
Millikan, Samuel 174 
Millikan family 9 

Millis, J. Henry 18 
Millwright 13 
Moffitt, Alfred 27 

E.A. 189 

E.A. (house) 190, 203 

E.A. (store) 201 

E.K. "Kelly" 105 

Rev. Thomas C. 88, 147 
Moffitt-Stout house 150 
Moffitt house 147 
Moffitt Store SEE Moffitt, E.A. 
Moffitt'sMill 148, 150 
Moon, Mary 142 
Mooney, Kemp (architect) 212 
Moore, Benjamin F. 185 

J.F. 104 

Thomas McGhee 178, 185 

W.J. 166 
Moore's Chapel 104 
Moragne, W.F. 189 
Moravians 7-8 
Morehead, John Motley 51 

Sara Gray 51 
Moretz, Christian 13,96 
Moring, W.H. 190,219 
Morris, E.G. (house) 203 

E.H. 205 

P.H. 189, 195 
P.H. Morris General Merchandise 213 
"Mortise and Tenor" construction SEE 

"Heavy Frame" construction 
Mt. Gilead Methodist Church 134 
Mt. Moriah Methodist Protestant Church 161 
Mt. Olivet Methodist Church 159 
Mt. Tabor Methodist Church 138 
Mt. Zion Methodist Church 133 
Mountain Creek steel bridge 131 
Murray, Bunn (house) 78 
Myrtle Desk Company 104 

Nance Chevrolet Company 245 
Naomi Falls iron bridge 27 
Naomi Falls Manufacturing Company 18, 37, 

123, 127 
Naomi Falls Methodist Church 120, 126 
Naomi Village 37, 126-127 
National Chair Company 195, 250 
Neely, Anne 227 

John M. (house) 227 

Ryan Reynolds, Jr. 227 

William M. 218 
"New England Mutual Vernacular" style 31 
New Hope Township 170 (map) 
New Market Township 64 (map) 

New Salem, N.C. 16, 37, 39, 1 13 (map), 1 14- 

116, 175, 178 
New Salem Friends Meeting 115 
New Salem Methodist Church 115 
New York Racket Store 121 
Newlin,S.G. (house) 122 

Samuel Gray 121-122, 124-125 
Nixon's Mill 74 

North Carolina Lutheran Synod 72 
North Carolina Temperance Union 62 
North Carolina Zoological Park 145, 170 
North Randolph Historical Society 120 
Northrup and O'Brien (architects) 59 


Oak Grove Methodist Episcopal Church 171 
O'Brien/Atkins Associates (architects) 145 
Odd Fellows Lodge (Trinity) 57 
Odell.J.A. 18,70-71 

John Milton 18 
Odell Hardware Company 18, 70 
Offices (Ramseur) 85 
Old Muster Field 196 
Orange Factory 34, 118 
Outbuildings (Richland TS) 161 
Overman, O'Kelly 76 

William 72 
Owen, Joseph R. 208 

P & P Chair Company 20, 1 95 , 233 

Page, W.C. 195. 233 

Paisley, Bob 244 

Parham, Rita (house) 68 

Park Street School 193 

Parker, Gerald 169 

Victor 5, 137 
Parker's Mill (Concord TS) 5 
Parker's Mill bridge 137 
Parks, Henry 105 

Hugh 103, 106-107 

Hugh Jr. 227 
Parks Hosiery Mill 227 
Park's Cross Roads 148 
Park's Cross Roads Christian Church 147 
Patterson, Dr. A.J. (house) 76 

Gilliam (Patterson Building) 76 

Dr. Rez D. (house) 77 

Rev. William C. 88 
Patterson Building SEE Patterson, Gilliam 
Payne's mill house 54 
Pee Dee River 6 
Penn Wood Branch 175 
Perkins. "Captain" (house) 57 
Petty, D.M. 62 


W.Clinton 62 
Petty Sash and Blind Company 32, 41 , 62-63, 

186, 189 
Phillips, Dr. Charles (house) 134 
Piatt and Davis (engineers) 131 
Pickard, James O. 119-122, 127 
Picker sticks 19 

Pickett, J.M. Philmore (houses) 77 
Pickett, Patterson 72 

Philmore 72 
Piedmont Chair Company 195, 250 
Piedmont Electric Machine and Weldmg 

Company 253 
Piedmont Electric Motor Repair 236 
Pierce, Newton 131 

Ranson 131 
Pilgrim Tract Society 124 
Pillories 175, 176(111.) 
Pisgah covered bridge 27 , 1 69 
Plaidville Manufacturing Company 119, 121 
Plank road SEE Fayetteville and Western 

Plank Road 
Pleasant Grove Township 157 (map) 
Pleasant Hill Methodist Church 160 
Plummer, Kearney (house) 139 
Poole, Harold 103 
Poplar Ridge Friends Meeting 134 
Poplar Ridge School 134 
Porches 45 

Porter, (carpenter) 185 

"Post and Beam" construction SEE "Heavy 

Frame" construction 
Post Office (Cedar Falls) 1 1 1 
Post Office Museum (Ramseur) 84 
Post Office No. 1 (Archdale) 62 
Powerhouse (Coleridge) 155 
Powhatan Manufacturing Company Store 36, 

Prairie School movement 43 
Pratt truss bridge 131 
Preimats, Walter 242 
Presnell, Arthur 195, 233 
Prestige Fabricators 256 
Pritchard, Benoni (house) 253 
Pritchard house 230 
Providence, R.I. 43 
Providence Friends Meeting 9, 69 
Providence Township 69 (map) 
Pugh, Enoch (cabin) 91 
Henry (mill) 92 
Jess (house) 41, 91 
Jesse (house) 273 
Pugh Funeral Home 173, 209, 218 
Pugh's Mill SEE Pugh, Henry 
Purgatory Mountain 145 


"Quaker Plan" house 39 
Quakers 9, 15,33,36-37 
Queen Anne style 37, 47 
Quills 19 


Rae, Miss Eliza 243 
RaganH.S.,Jr. 62 

Thomas 70-71 

Thomas (house) 71 

William Henry 18,70-71 
Railroads 19 

Ramseur, Major General Stephen 83 
Ramseur, N.C. 32, 35-37, 82 (map), 83-90 
Ramseur Graded School 90 
Ramseur Methodist Episcopal Church No. 1 

Ramseur Roller Mill 86 
Ramseur Store Company 85 
Randleman, John Banner 118,, 120, 127 

John Banner (house) 118 
Randleman, N.C. 34, 37, 44-45, 47, 117 

(map), 118-128 
Randleman depot 124 
Randleman Graded School 123 
Randleman Hosiery Mill 18, 122, 125 
Randleman Manufacturing Company 17, 118, 

120, 122 
Randleman Township 112 (map) 
Randolph Chair Company 233 
Randolph County, N.C. 4 (map), 7, 10 
Randolph County Agricultural Society 185 
Randolph County agriculture 11 
Randolph County Courthouse No. 7 208 
Randolph County development and pressures 

Randolph County Fairgrounds 250 
Randolph County geography 6 
Randolph County Historical Society 243 
Randolph County Jail 209 
Randolph County occupations 6 
Randolph County political conservatism 10 
Randolph County population 6 
Randolph County textile industry 6 
Randolph County Training School 236 
Randolph County urbanization 6 
"Randolph Court House" 174 
Randolph Court House No. 6 200 
Randolph Dairy 253 
Randolph Heights 196 
Randolph Hospital 234 
Randolph Manufacturing Company i», /v 
(ill) 96,100,102-103,106 

Randolph Methodist Church 73 
Randolph Regulator 185, 201 
Randtex Corporation 127 
Reconstruction period 185 
Red Front Store (Ramseur) 85 
"Red House" Church 140 
"Red House" School 140 
Reddick, R.W. (house) 57 

Robert Wesley 57 
Reddick house 23 
Reddick house 52 
Redding, Allen (carpenter) 120 
"Gas" (house) 92 
J.O. 194 
T.H. 195,210 
T H. (house) 190, 207 
Troy (house) 130, 240 
Reed Creek 79 
Reese, Abraham 174 
Reese-Siler house 76 
Reynolds, R.J. (Building No. 8)43 

R.J. (Forest Aviary) 145 
"Rhode Island System" 32-33 
Rice, Thomas 23, 25-26, 41, 43 105-106 

Thomas (farm) 136 
Thomas (house) 105 
Rich, O.E. (house) 239 
O. Elmer 164, 250 
Rose T. (log house) 240 

Richardson, -244 

Jess 57 

S. Guy ard (house) 166 
Richardson house (Richland TS) 161 
Richland Evangelical Lutheran Church 73 
Richland Township 1 60 (map) 
Ridge, W.E. (house) 226 
Ridge's Mountain 7 
Rink, Reuben SEE Komer, Jules 
Riverside Baptist Church 158 
Roanoke Iron and Bridge Works 100 
Robbins, Jess (house) 133 
Robbins house 132 
Robins, Henry Moring 201 
Henry Moring (house) 202 
Marmaduke 184, 185,201 
Marmaduke (law office) 41, 182, 201 
Sidneys. 239 
Rockfish Manufacturing Company 16, 34 
Rocky River 6 
Rollins, J.W. 255 
Rollins Rock Store 255 
RosemontPark 196 
Rosenwald, Julius 236 
Rosenwald Fund 236 

Ross, Arthur 192, 218 

Arthur (house no. 1) 191 

Arthur (house no. 2) 218 

J.D. (house) 196, 207 

J.D.,Jr. 179 

Romulus R. 218, 225 
Ross and Rush Livery Stable 200 
Routh, Edgar G. 96 
Royals house 58 
Russ, John P.H. 55 
Russell, A.R. (house) 127 

George97, 100, 102 

George (house) 102 
W.C. "Will" 106 
Russell's School House 140 

St. Luke's United Methodist Church 233, 

St. Mark's Methodist Church 140 
St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church 36, 

120, 126 
St. Paul's Parsonage 120 
Salem Cemetery (Columbia TS) 81 
Salem Congregational Christian Church 140 
Salem Cotton Manufacturing Company 28 
Salem Methodist Episcopal Church (Concord 

TS) 140 
Salem Methodist Protestant Church 81 
Sandy Creek 12 

Sandy Creek Baptist Association 8, 74 
Sandy Creek Baptist Church 8, 23, 74 
Sandy Creek Friends Meeting 9, 38, 70 
Sapona Manufacturing Company 1 1 1 
Sawmill 13-14 

Sawyer, Joseph (architect) 248 
Sawyer's Gold Mine 130 
Scarboro,W.J. 190-192 
Science Hill Academy 142 
Science Hill Friends Meeting 142 
Scott Book Store 221 
Scotten.Mary 193 

Pelden 193 
Seagrove, N.C. 163 (map) 
Seagrove depot 167 
Seagrove Hardware Company 164 
Seagrove Lumber Company 164 
Seagrove Pottery Museum 167 
Seagrove Roller Mills 166 
Sechrist, Thomas F. 253 
"Seven Hearths" Lodge 137 
Shady Grove Baptist Church 74 
Shaw Furniture Galleries 123 
Shepherd, Dr. Frank A. (house) 78 
Shepherd's Mountain 7 


"•*— ^ -— '^ ~- - 




Sherwood house 1 22 

Shiloh Academy 147-148 

Shiloh Christian Church 147-148 

Shotgun houses 1 10 

Shuttles 19 

Skeen, Mollie Fuller (house) 138 

N.R. 135 

Williams, (house) 234 
Skeen's Mill covered bridge 25 (ill.), 27, 135 
Slack, Labon (house) 169 

T.A. "Bud" 104 

T.A. (house) 104 
Slater, Samuel 32 
Slavery 9, 33 

"Slow Burn" construction 31 
Smith, Charles Philip 78 

"Duck" (house) 167 

Wade (house) 40, 134 
Smith-Wylie house 78 
Snow, E. A. 19 

William H. 19 
Snow Lumber Company 19, 189 
Sophia School 66 
Southern Baptist Convention 74 
Southern Citizen 178 
Southern Crown Milling Company 195 
Southern Milling Company 195 
Southern Motors and Equipment Company 

Spencer, A. A. 217 

R.W. (house) 66 
Spero 252 (map) 
Spinks, Rev. Enoch, Jr. 159 
Staley, John W. (house) 81 
Staley house (Liberty) 76 
John Wesley's Stand 129 
Standard Drug Company 219 
Steams, Rev. Shubal 8, 74 
Stedman. S.B. 193, 195,220 

S.B. (house no. 1) 190, 191 (ill.) 

S.B. (house no. 2)248 

W.D. 195,219 
Stedman Block 215 

Stedman Manufacturing Company 180, 195 
Stedman Motor Company 2 1 5 
W.D. Stedman and Son 215 
Steed, E.J. (house) 83 

Sheriff Joe 114 
Steel and Lebby (contractors) 137 
Steele, John Roe 150 
J. P. Stevens Corporation 127 
Stocks 174-175, 175 (ill.) 
Stone, Frances 129 

Lee 129 
Stone buildings (Trinity) 57 

Stone construction 23 
Store (Franklinville TS) 92 
Store (New Salem) 115 
Story, Philip Custer 126 
Stout, O.M. 124 
Stout Store 124 
Strader, Lacey 169 
Sugg house (Brower TS) 159 
Suggs, Richard 247 
Sullivan, Louis (architect) 43 
"Summer" kitchens 22 
Sumner, David S. (house) 92 

David Spurgeon 92, 103 

Matthew 92 
Sunset Avenue (Asheboro, N.C.) 184 
Sunset Theatre 216 

Superintendent's house (Central Falls) 255 
Superintendent's house (Naomi Mill) 127 
Superintendent's house (Union Factory, Ran- 

dleman) 118 
Susquehanna Silk Mills 127 
Swaim, Benjamin 178 

Ed (farm) 65 
Sykes, Dr. R.P. 214 


Tabernacle Methodist Church Cemetery 1 33 

Tabernacle Township 132 (map) 

Talley, Frank (house) 45, 1 19 

Tanyard Branch 187 

Taylor, Cyrus 64 

Tennessee Lutheran Synod 72 

Textile industry— labor market 32 

Textile industry— morality 32 

Textile manufacturing 15-20 

Thayers, Widow 135 

Theatre (Ramseur) 85 

Thomas Auto sales office 232 

Thomasville, N.C. 23 

Thompson, D.M. 43 

Holland 33 

John 137 

R.W. 229 
Thornburg-Macon house 41, 138 

Thorns, Julia 193 
Tippett.J.W. 10 

W.H. (contractor) 84, 100, 102 
Tobacco barns 23 
Tomlinson, Dr. John M. (house) 41, 43 (ill.) 

Tomlinson family 9 
Tompkins, Daniel A. 37 
Totero Indians 7 
Town, Ithiel 24-26, 135 
Town lattice truss 25 (ill.) 

Trading Path 7 

Transportation 1 1 

Trestle (Franklinville) 100 

Triad Plumbing Supply 236 

Trinity, N.C. 56 (map) 

Trinity Cemetery 57 

Trinity College 41 , 43-44 (ill.), 105 

Trinity High School 59 

Trinity Inn 60 

Trinity (Masonic) Lodge No. 256 57 

Trinity Memorial United Methodist Church 59 

Trinity Township 50 (map) 

"Triple-A" house 45 

Trogdon, James O. (house) 248 

S.Clifford (house) 107 

S.E. (contractor) 248, 250 

Tom 76 
Trotter, Benjamin 96 

Martin (house) 135 
Troy, John Balfour 208 
Trunnels 24 

Turner, John (house) 41 , 79 
Tysor, Charlie (carpenter) 164 

Herbert (house) 159 

Thomas B. (house) 159 


Ulah, N.C. 143 

Ulah Motor Company 143 

Underwood, Alvis (house) 69 

Reggie H. 69 


W.R. (house) 201 
Underwood Store 69 
Union Manufacturing Company 16-17, 31 

(ill.), 33-35 
Union Township 167 (map) 
"Upper Dam" (Franklinville) 95 
Uwharrie Friends Meeting 9 
Uwharrie Mountains 6 
Uwharrie National Forest 6 
Uwharrie River 6, 12 

VanArsdale, Dr. J.V. 114 
Vance. Zeb 184,201 
Varner Place (Cedar Grove TS) 142 
Vestal Motor Company 238 
Vickory, William (house) 1 16 
Voncannon, Bobby 164 
Vuncannon house (Concord TS) 137 


WGWR radio station 200 
Waddell's Ferry Bridge 27 

Wagoner, Harold E. (architect) 242 
Wainman, C. Slingsby 185-186 

C. Slingsby (house) 225 
Walden family 9 
Walker, Charlie 92 
J. Ed 124, 126-127, 190 
Jesse 15 
Samuel 12. 184 
Walker-Story house 126 
Walker family 66 
Walker's Grocery 92 
Wallace, J. A. 96, 99, 100 
J. A. (house) 99 
Paul 96 
"Waltham System" 32 
Wannamaker and Welles (contractors) 1 3 1 
Ward, John 213 
Rom (house) 1 15 
W.P. 98 
Ward rent house 1 15 
Warehouse (Asheboro) 233 
Warren bridge truss 143 
Water tank (Asheboro) 217 
Water tank (Millboro) 93 
Waterman, Thomas T. 21, 53 
Watkins, E.C. (house) 88 

W.H. 83-84 
"Waverly" SEE Dicks, Robert P. (house) 
Weatherly, D.M. "Dave" 105 
D.M. (house) 105 
J. A. 105 
Weaver. Logan 127 
Weeks. Dr. Samuel B. (house) 59 
Weiman Company 20 
Welbom. Jane McGee 66 
John 66 

Joseph (house) 39-40, 66 
Welbom-Dougan Cemetery 65 
Welbom family 63, 66 
Welbom house 64 
Welch Delia (house) 166 

J.J. 27. 169 
Wesley Long Hospital 73 
Wesleyan Methodists 10, 36, 1 16 
West, Tom (house) 83 
Western Auto 221 
Westside subdivision 197 
Whatley. Enoch (house) 143 

Ralph 143 
Wheatmore Farms 53, 55 
Wheeler, Runge and Dickery (architects) 208 
Whig political party 10, 15 
Whipping post 175 
Whitaker. Lonnie L. (house) 222 
White. J. F. 216 


Stanford 44, 52 
Tommy (house) 23, 54 
White house (Asheboro) 223 
"White House" (Cedar Grove TS) 142 
White's Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church 

Whitney, Eli 14 
Why Not Academy 161-162 
"Wilburite" Friends 149 
Williams, Jewel 167 
JohnD. 106 
Noah 167 
Solomon 247 
Williams-Bryant log cabin 175, 247 
Williams-Riddle Clothing Store 221 
Wilson, W.M. 62 
Winn, Charles St. George 185, 187 
Winningham (carpenter) 185 

Carson 200 
Winslow, Dr. Thomas W. (house) 57 

Tom (house) 225 
Wise, Naomi 14, 69, 1 16, 127, 144 
Wood, Fargo (house) 136 

Marquis L. 58 

Ross (house) 114 

Col. William Penn 190,219 
Wood and Moring Store 219 
C.H. Wood Construction Company 221 
Woodell, Allen 175 
Woodell's Spring 175 
Woodruff, A.C. (architect) 222 
Wool carding 13 
Woollen, Dr. C.W. (house) 116 
Woollen family 115 
Worth, Daniel 10, 116 
HalM. (house) 47 

JohnMiltonll,18,96, 115, 123, 182, 

184, 188,192,205,256 
Jonathanll,18, 176-177,182, 184,201, 

207-208, 232 

Thomas Clarkson 123 
Worth-McAlister house 4 1 , 42 (ill .), 1 82- 1 84 

(ill.), 205 
Worth family 9 

Worth Manufacturing Company 124, 128, 256 
Worth Terrace 197 
WorthviUe, N.C. 18,26,37,128 
Worthville covered bridge 27 (ill.) 
Wrenn, John (house) 74 
Wrenn house (Cedar Falls) 40, 1 1 1 
Wright, Frank Lloyd (architect) 43, 240, 247- 
248, 250 

John (brickmason) 164 
Wylie, Margaret Smith 78 

Yadkin River 6 

Yates, Mavin (house) 138 

York, Abram 74 

Brantley 65 

Ed (house) 10 
York family 81 
Yow, Francis 165 

Henry 165 

Henry (house) 165 
Yow'sMill 161 

Zeigler, William 54 

Zeigler Lodge 54 

Zoo SEE North Carolina Zoological Park 


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