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JANUARY, 1904. 

NO. 1. 


is a warehouse? When the present writer was a 
V V student in Germany, a comrade of his one of those poly- 
glot Poles, who were present in every poly technical school, art school 
or university course on the continent of Europe a man who spoke 
every language in use among his contemporaries asked one day 
what was the English word for "such a building as that." The word 
warehouse being furnished and explained to him, he expressed the 
greatest delight, finding sufficient reasons for the belief that no 
other modern language of Europe possessed an equivalent term. 
Probably that is true, for as far as contemporary evidence goes no 
language has the equivalent term of any word in any other lan- 
guage. Translation is falsification (and that phrase comes closer 
than most translations do to their originals, to the ancient saw: 
Traduttorc, Traditore). What is called the "translation" of a foreign 
author implies, or should imply, the restating of that author's 
thoughts in such terms as may express them aright. Beyond the 
simple every day words "wet" and "dry," "cold" and "hot," there are 
no interlingual synonyms ; and even those words may be found to be 
used in a larger or a narrower sense as you go from one tongue 
to another. But the warehouse, as the great cities of America know 
it, we may take to be a building which is devoted to industrial 
purposes, involving the safe keeping of a large quantity of goods. 
A six-story building in use as a manufactory, with huge, bare, re- 
latively low halls, full of shafting or, in these modern days, with the 
less bulky contrivances of the electrical plant, is not a warehouse ; 
but then it is a "Factory," and thus we reach the definition of the 
second term of our title. Without splitting hairs too minutely, 
we come to the conclusion that anything is either a warehouse or 
a factory which is devoted to the rougher kind of business enter- 
prise ; that is to say, not primarily to offices where professional men 

Copyright. 1903, by "The Architectural Record Company." All rights reserved. 
Entered May 22, 1902, as second-class matter, Post Office at New York, X. Y., Act of 
Congress, of March 3d, 1879. ^ 


sit quietly or clerks pursue their daily task, but one where the 
goods are piled up, where the unloading and loading, the receiv- 
ing and the shipping of such goods goes on continually, where 
the floors are to a great extent left open in great "lofts" and 
where in consequence the general character of the structure within 
and without is the reverse of elegant. It may be costly, it may be 
thoroughly built, it may be, as we shall have reason to find in the 
course of this very paper, an architectural monument; but it can 
hardly be minutely planned, with many refinements in the way of 
interior arrangement, nor can it be the recipient of elaborate ex- 
terior decorative treatment of any kind. The windows can hardly 
be grouped in extraordinary combinations the external walls will 
put on the appearance of a tolerably square-edged, flat-topped 
box, nor will the external masses anywhere break out into porches 
or turrets. Delicate stonework is not for the warehouse or for the 
factory. Sculpture is not a part of its architectural programme. 
Color, if applied, and it is apt to be applied rather freely, is of the 
nature of large and somewhat boldly treated masses of natural 
material supposed to contrast agreeably one with the other in their 
not very positive hues. 

This being our subject, it is found to be a rather interesting sub- 
ject in view of the really attractive buildings of this sort which 
New York and other cities have seen erected during the past 
quarter century. Some slight attempt at verifying dates has ended 
in confusion ; nor is the writer able to say, at present, which of all 
these buildings which he has been considering is the first, or which 
are among the first. To whom is due the credit for the introduction 
of that type of building which is perhaps the most common among 
them which is, at least, the most notably characteristic of the 
whole group? Is it the building at 175 Duane street (Fig. i) or 
(Fig. 2) the DeVinne Press in Lafayette Place? Those two buildings 
are the work of the firm of Babb, Cook & Willard, of New York, 
and they are of the years between 1877 and 1885. Perhaps they 
were the first to present the character which we wish to insist upon, 
here, as being the most marked among all these warehouse build- 
ings. The massive structure of rough brickwork with no high- 
priced material no face brick of any sort used anywhere about 
the building (except where actual castings in terra cotta are the 
order), the effect produced by very deep reveals, a natural result, 
by the way, of that relegation of the lower stories to mere groups 
of piers with larger openings between them ; the absence of a pro- 
jecting cornice, indeed of any wall cornice whatsoever and the sub- 
stitution for it of a parapet of one kind or another, very often a 
mere brick wall pierced with open arches ; the use in some cases of 
a roof cornice, that is, of boldly projecting eaves which, however, 


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are but small as compared with the height of the wall or the mass 
of the structure ; the prevalence of a roof so nearly flat that it does 
not in the slightest degree affect the external appearance of the 
building; this architectural problem is the one proposed and to a 
very great extent successfully solved by the designers of these now 
rather numerous structures. 

The building, Nos. 173 and 175 Duane street (Fig. i) is of simple 
character and has only one street front to show us. It cannot be 
compared to its rivals, the buildings of the same class which are 
to be mentioned with it. The combined windows, two, two arid a 
lunette, under one arch are a poor and cheap device, and the filling 
with brick walling and arches of the space within the larger open- 
ing tends to prevent the use of deep reveals. The pair of simple 
round-arched openings below each of those great recesses 
cannot be thought more original or more significant. The double 
superstructure the two arcades of seven and thirteen openings, 
some filled with glass, some open to the sky, that is a brave thought, 
if you please ! It is so that designs are made, if they are to be 
really designs ! The invention of such a pierced parapet as this 
might almost be thought to date from this facade, it is so obviously 
called for here. And there are some well-placed and admirably de- 
signed bands and archivolts of terra-cotta; the ornamentation 
kept down to the severe, conventional patterns, the platted and 
twisted band, "strap-work" and "knot-work," such as befits a work- 
building. It is, however, the De Vinne building which shows what 
this style is capable of; and for this we have the fixed date, 1885. 

Of this building (Figs. 2, 3 and 4) it is to be said that no photo- 
graphs give the full sense of its bigness, its breadth and its mass, 
More than once visitors on their way to see it have been pulled up 
suddenly by a sudden sense of its large presence ; it is not quite what 
they were looking for, but much more broad and ponderous. Now, 
does this point to any fault in design? Is it of necessity a fault, if 
your masses are larger and the general "scale" of the building 
greater than usual? If so, it is a fault shared by every Greek temple 
bigger than the Theseion. If the Greeks had possessed the photo- 
graph it would have altered their style, once for all ; for who would 
have built the temple of Zeus at Olympia, 90 feet wide, or either one 
of those at Selinus or Akragas, 75 feet wide, in such a style that the 
little shrine at Rhamnus, 33 feet wide, would have shown itself, in 
the sun-picture, as big and as imposing as the building of twenty 
times its mass and its cost? No, it is not a fault, if a building proves 
to be greater in its whole and in its parts than the faithful portrait 
had shown it to you ! You had lost nothing, you missed nothing, 
while you studied its image; and you gain much, now that the 
building itself confronts you. 



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The three doorways on Lafayette Place have a reveal of forty 
inches, less the slight lap of the wooden moulding. The three 
great arches above have the same reveal, and, as to those com- 
binations of many windows under one window-head, let the differ- 
ence be noted between them and what seems the same motive in the 
Duane street building, Fig. i. That is always a doubtful thing to 
do, to exert yourself to make three tier of windows look like one ; 
but as attempted in the smaller building it is feeble and without ap- 
parent purpose. Here, in the De Vinne Building, the great arched 
opening, sixteen feet wide and three times as high, has no subdivi- 
sions more massive or more constructional than slender window- 
bars and thin panels of light material. The four large openings 
on the side on Fourth street are built with twenty-four-inch reveals. 
The smallest windows have their jambs sixteen inches wide. 

So much for ponderable realities ; and thereto must be added 
such considerations as the admirable treatment of the segmental 
arches of the ground story their extrados stepped off and so 
fitted to the courses of brick ; and the breaking of the deep jambs 
by a very small and thin rebate, a mere twinkling line, adding 
marvellously to the effectiveness of the massive reveal. The 
extension on Fourth street, shown in Fig. 3, is just enough 
varied in design from the original and larger mass to express the 
idea of a kindred structure of a later period, and the zone of 
separation between them is most ingeniously managed. As for 
the delicate ornament in relief which surrounds and invests the 
main doorway of entrance, it is to be judged fairly well as it is se.en 
in Fig. 4 ; and it serves as an almost perfect example of how orna- 
ment may be concentrated at one point, while still serving well the 
general purpose of the building as a whole. 

To be compared with these is the building in Centre street at 
the corner of White street, the work of the firm already named 
as singularly successful in this attractive, this worthy method of 
design (see Fig. 5). That building, which we will call by the name 
which is given in relief, in dark-red terra-cotta upon a sign on the 
corner pier, and of which the initials H and S occur in highly decor- 
ative panels elsewhere on its Centre street front, is unlike the De 
Vinne Building in that the great uprights take precedence even of 
the most important the largest the most significant arches of the 
exterior. The piers, three feet square and from that to four feet on 
the face, are carried up in unbroken line from sidewalk to skyline. 
They grow thinner, of course, as they ascend, but they keep what 
may be called their "face value." Where it has been the wish of 
designer to use small windows as if for the sake of employing sash 
of a more usual and certainly more handy size and character, these 
piers serve merely as pilasters to divide up the wall into bays, which 



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wall at the same time they stiffen in the way which all primitive 
and unsophisticated wall-building is done. Again below, on the 
ground story, where the whole surface of the exterior wall is to be 
broken up into doorway and window-opening with as much glass as 
possible, only the barest necessity being allowed to govern the size 
of the masonry wall, the piers are isolated pillars. In one story 
alone the system of semi-circular arches is carried out for the 
whole extent of one story and surrounds the building with a belt 
of similar openings differing somewhat in size and in detail, but 
altogether similar in treatment. Here is what no other one of our 
warehouse buildings has, the archivolt of a great arch disappear- 
ing into the plain brick reveal of the square piers. This suggestion 
of the "Roman Order," this hint at the supremacy of the post 
over the arch, is not to be found anywhere else ; for all these build- 
ings are of a character which might be called Romanesque if the 
name of an ancient style were to be attached to them ; nor is it clear 
that it is a happy result in this case or that the treatment of the 
smaller arches in this story those in which the width of the archi- 
volt is retained throughout the vertical impost until the sill of the 
windows is reached, is not a better architectural motive. That is 
hypercriticism, however. The Centre street front of the Hanan 
Building is one of the most striking and effective and one of the 
most sincerely designed of all the warehouse buildings which we 
have to consider ; but the reader should study our photograph ; for 
the building is now (October, 1903) so covered up with signs that 
its charm is lost. 

Very soon after this was built, by the firm of Me Kim, Mead & 
White, the Judge Building (Fig. 6) in Fifth avenue, at the corner 
of West i6th street. It is confessedly studied from the buildings 
which we have named already ; but its treatment with a much more 
decorative system of design with a much closer approach to the 
modern office building, tends to separate it from our category. It 
is easy to see that another selection might be made from which 
this building should be excluded as being very much too "architec- 
tural." The very unexpected and effective rounded corner where 
the two principal facades meet ; the repetition of the treatment of 
those very large and highly developed quoins on the two other 
corners, especially that treatment which is to be seen at the ex- 
treme western edge where there is a large offset in the wall, and 
where the mass which is in retreat comes into sight beyond the 
main corner, as to emphasize effectively the chainagc of the main 
structure ; the refined group of mouldings like a classical entabla- 
ture which marks the springing line of the greater arched open- 
ings and the smaller group of mouldings at the spring of the arches 
below; these, and more especially the wall cornice with the heads 


White and Centre Streets, New York City. Babb, Cook & Willard, Architects. 


which pass for gargoyles, whether they serve as such or not, are 
all of them claims upon our attention as taking the building out of 
the Factory-Warehouse group into a more generally recognized 
class of architectural design. The pilasters and even the columns 
of the entrance front are of less consequence; they might be added 
to the De Yinne or the Hanan building without impropriety ; and 
the admirably conceived string course which is carried across a part 
of each of the two facades, namely that which separates the groups 
cf three among the windows of the fourth tier from the larger pic- 
tures of windows just above, are also admissible, even in a ware- 
house. The same thought is carried out in the moulded sill-course 
of the uppermost row of windows. The artistic thought involved 
in putting those two broken sill-courses in and stopping them where 
their need exists no longer, stopping them with a simple return, 
is one of the most charming things to be seen along our greatest 

And so it is that if the student of such things dissents entirely 
from the plan of including this among warehouses, he is not to 
be villified for his opinion or even for the bold expression of it. 
It can only be urged that this seems to give the most interesting 
example which is possible of the warehouse treated in a grandiose 
way, treated in a way to fit a Fifth avenue corner. And let the 
reader study our photograph, for the building it represents has 
perished. Even now, in October, 1903, the top of it is taken off; 
it is in the way of being altered out of all recognition. So it goes 
in a modern city of approved business habits. Wight's best build- 
ing, the unique Academy of Design, has gone; the two best things 
that Eidlitz built are, both of them, swept away. Haight's admir- 
able Columbia College library and halls are all destroyed: and this 
in the lifetime of their creators. And all this has been deliberate. 

There is much architectural significance in the design of the lost 
Tarrant Building (see Fig. 7) which once stood in Warren street, 
two blocks west of Broadway. This was destroyed by fire ; it is 
one more little custom of the American considered as citizen, to 
burn up his buildings at intervals self-congratulatory, if only the 
cccupants escaped death. The warehouse was the work of 
Henry Rutgers Marshall ; and if this subject of ours will allow of 
such extension of its limits as to include some of the buildings 
which are not warehouses and yet have received this same archi- 
tectural treatment, we shall find that Mr. Marshall has done other 
things in the simple brickwork which challenge comparison among 
modern designs. All that we can give of the Tarrant Building is 
a reproduction of the author's drawing. It appears that no adequate 
photograph of the structure was taken while it still existed ; and 
this mainly because of the obstructing mass and confusing hori- 



Fifth Avenue and 16th Street, New York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

(Now in course of reconstruction.) 


zontal lines of the elevated railway. Nor is it well to spend much 
time in analyzing a building which has perished. The admirable 
treatment of the brickwork in two colors is all that the present 
writer clearly remembers in the building as it stood and it is better 
to look for even that attractive motive to more recent and still 
existing buildings. 

The Tarrant Building was of about 1890. Of the same age, or 
thereabout, is the warehouse at the corner of Spring and Varick 
streets, the design of Charles C. Haight. This building is shown 
in Fig. 8 ; and he is not to be blamed who thinks that it is the best, 
because the most suitable, design of all. Let any one note the 
peculiarities of the design and consider them together, and separ- 
ately, and decide whether they do not embody nearly everything 
which goes to make up an admirable design of a simple character. 
The high basement, faced with cut stone, and with all its openings 
closed at the top with flat arches, with enormous voussoirs accu- 
rately cut and doing their work perfectly, represents two stories of 
rooms within. A moulded and dentilled string-course acts as a 
surbase for this basement story. A brick wall, six stories high, 
broken only by two slight sill-course bands of brick work cor- 
belled out, course beyond course, in the simplest possible fashion, 
the windows small and especially low for the mass of wall around 
and above them (in which characteritic the openings of the base- 
ment story share), the arches whether segmental or flat, very deep 
in proportion to their span and telling their story of abundant 
strength, color introduced in horizontal bands at the sill, at the top 
of the jamb and half way up the pier of each row of windows and 
again half way between each horizontal belt of openings ; all that 
is wanted to make a design of this is just that which every design 
needs as a primary requirement, grace. But grace is exactly what 
this design contains. It is a rather favorable instance of elegance 
used so as to be the most marked characteristic of a very simple 
exterior. The proportions of openings to wall space are fortu- 
nately better than those which must of necessity follow from the 
requirements of office work or residence. More wall surface is al- 
lowed than is generally practicable in city building. Of this for- 
tunate circmustance the best use has been made; nowhere is there 
a more perfectly successful design of extreme simplicity, nowhere a 
better spacing of square openings in a plain wall. And that the 
openings are not all square that some of them have segmental 
arches; or else, if you please, that they have not all segmental 
arches, that some are thought to do better with the horizontal 
soffit and others with the curved intrados, is to the hypercritical 
the most serious fault, if there is any serious fault, about the 
building. Why should some of the windows be thought to need 



Formerly at the corner or Warren and Greenwich Streets, New York City. 

Henry Rutgers Marshall, Architect. 


a segmental arch? That fidgetty kind of questioning is very dis- 
agreeable to some students of modern architecture; but it is so 
very natural to others it comes so inevitably to the front whenever 
we are thinking about the why and the wherefore in a design which 
is worthy of our notice, that it is to be given a place. Should we 
prefer the building if all six courses of windows had segmental 
arches ? Yes or at least we should prefer it, probably, if all except 
the top story were so treated. The uppermost row of windows, as 
forming almost a terminal frieze, and with the tops of the windows 
cut off by the preparation for the wall cornice (which is somewhat 
larger than so simple a building requires) are entitled to be square 
if they will, even if all the other windows in the brick wall had 
rounded heads. 

In all this there has been no mention of the recessed wall on the 
left, on the Spring street front, with the bits of corbelling which 
bring the recesses out again to the main surface of the wall. In like 
manner nothing has been said of the very simple and effective 
porch of entrance. Nor is it practicable to dwell upon the details of 
the color system as one would be glad to dwell upon it if this build- 
ing were the only subject of our inquiry. Assuredly the De Vinne 
building is greatly more architectural i'n character, the creation in 
itself of a new style ; but as certainly this Garvin building is the 
typical work of low cost and obvious utility. 

Some of the newer warehouse buildings are still more simple in 
character. It is one of the delights of this particular inquiry that 
one sees in the treatment of these recent and very plain very utili- 
tarian structures, a wholesome architectural influence, coming, 
without doubt, from those buildings which we have named already 
and which seem to be, on the whole, the prototype of the move- 
ment. One of those new buildings is the prodigious pile which 
fills the whole river front, and indeed the whole westernmost block, 
between West 26th and West 27th streets. Our view, Fig. 9, is 
taken from the south, and shows the 26th street flank and the 
comparatively narrow front on nth avenue, although that front 
itself is of 200 feet. There is a far away, unpretending, unso- 
phisticated look about the building. The designer has felt and has 
wished to express his feeling that he is not anywhere near the world 
of residence, of the life of the city, as that is generally understood ; 
that nobody who is likely to look twice at a building for its own 
sake will pass his way unless he is so very earnest a scholar that he 
hunts it up because of its subdued and quiet reputation. The build- 
ing is the warehouse of the terminus of no matter what great rail- 
way ; it is called the "Terminal Stores," but it is announced as being 
the property of the Terminal Warehouse Company, the office of 
which you enter by the little round-headed door just beyond the 


Corner of Spring and Varick Streets, New York City. C. C. Haight, Arcntwet. 



broken telegraph pole and the lamp-post which stands near the 
corner. The reader is asked to enjoy the brick cornice on the 
avenue front, built with long, thin corbels and little arches. He 
will, indeed see the same study of mediaeval fortification in other 
storage warehouses, but it is so natural and obvious a device that 
he has a right to enjoy it afresh every time it occurs. 

The long front on West 26th street is one of those walls which 
could not be altogether spoiled except by the most wanton "ugli- 
fication," by the senseless addition of misunderstood ornament, and 
yet it has a charm given to it by the simple device, which is also 
a good one, for the protection of the building against fire on the 

llth Avenue, from IMth to 27th Streets, New York City. 

G. B. Mallory, Architect. 

exterior the device of setting the fireproof shutters four inches 
in from the face wall. It can be understood what that signifies. It 
is evident that with the shutters fitting into a rebate, made by the 
four-inch offset of brickwork, the tongue of flame from across the 
street cannot so conveniently find its way inward, following the 
draught of air. It is greatly to be regretted that this simple im- 
provement has not been repeated on the river front, where the 
shutters come outside of and upon the brickwork of the wall with- 
out the rebate. 

As for the avenue front, it was practicable to leave that so very 
solid, to pierce it so little with windows, that two most attractive 
things were possible. One of these is the enormous doorway, the 
huge, semi-circular arch with short imposts. The fitness of it, the 


obvious necessity of having an entrance to the central street-like 
passage way so ample that the largest loaded truck can enter 
it readily, is not the only reason for admiring this great arched 
doorway. The other attractive feature is the "staggered" arrange- 
ment of the windows in the projecting masses at the two ends of this 
facade. They are not staircases, though the disposition of the 
windows makes one think of that possibility, they are arranged in 
that way, apparently, for effect alone ; but the effect has been se- 

Russell Sturgis. 

A second paper upon later buildings of this class will appear in the February 
number of this magazine. 


Herts & Tallant, Architects. 


HE adaptability and fitness of the style of building prevalent in 
England in the early days of the Renaissance, to our domestic 
conditions and modes of living, are perhaps the most notable rea- 
sons for its adoption and extensive employment in America. Par- 
ticularly is this true in the designing of country establishments. 
Here, where the very nature of the work makes it incumbent upon 
the architect to arrange harmonious relations between buildings 
and neighboring conditions, this style of dwelling is found peculiar- 
ly suitable, because of its well-known picturesque qualities ; and any 
style less congenial except when deftly treated, becomes unde- 
sirably conspicuous and unpleasant. The extent of its use, however, 
implies no necessary disparagement of buildings designed in an Ital- 
ian manner or to splendid schemes whose lines are drawn under the 
present French influence, for as the reader will readily un- 
derstand upon a little consideration, the question of comparison is 
to a great extent of an economic nature. The Italian villa and 
French chateau are indeed beautiful and impressive, but only when 
they are carried to their fullest consummation. The Italian lends 
itself beautifully to the landscape under certain conditions, while 
the building o French lines, with all its imposing elements, its 
proportions and elaborate details, imperatively demands a contin- 
uity, on the same grand scale of richness and decoration, through- 
out the entire fabric, and extending to its setting, so as to leave no 
mark of incongruity. Without its statuaried garden, peristyles, 
and fountains, the Italian villa is incomplete; and discloses 
a picture containing an element discordant with surroundings that 
would better adjust themselves to a less formal design. 

But place the house built essentially in an early English spirit, 
modest in its outline, quiet, pure and dignified in its several feat- 
ures ; with broad, simple, bricked surfaces, exquisite in texture and 
color values, the whole bearing a consistent and congenial expres- 
sion place this kind of a house in any spot where there are trees 
and probable lawns, and you have a picture. There is no need of 
adding subordinate features for the purpose of neutralizing effects. 
The house demands no more of the setting. It is satisfied, and still 
it will happily tolerate ornamental accessories possessing the same 
restraint that is peculiar to itself. It will bear extensive gardens 
more or less formal. It will welcome the introduction of almost any 
embellishment in the matter of landscape art, but it remains inde- 
pendent in its beauty, always implying an idea that its accessories 
are not indispensable, and that being simple in itself, it requires 



but a simple setting. It becomes apparent that of the three, the 
English the early English it must be borne in mind is compara- 
tively the most liberal in its extent of adaptability, surpassing even 
our own colonial, which, like the later Renaissance, involves a set- 
ting of considerable stateliness to bring about consistent effects. 
Economically considered, it is most generous in the extent of its 
fitness. It can suit a patron of wealth, availing itself judiciously of 
his means, or, if skillfully handled, it can successfully comply with 
conditions imposed by a moderate purse. The success of the other 
two can hardly be attained except by patrons of great wealth 

Residence of Dan R. Hanna, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 

whose. liberality make it possible to employ materials, with which to 
rear a work of magnificence, sufficient to bring these styles up to 
their highest standards. 

The people of no other country have been and still remain, more 
devoted to country life than Englishmen. They have not only 
loved its advantages, but have in consequence studied its possibil- 
ities so as to leave them almost authorities in the disposition and 
treatment of its various appointments. The question of his abode 
at any rate from an artistic point of view has never received 
the least of his attention. There is ample testimony of his artistic 
ability and his keen sense of the picturesque in the many fine old 



examples scattered about the British landscapes, and although these 
buildings of early days may appear in the eyes of the austere 
academician architecturally imperfect, measured upon his narrow 
scale of truth in rudimentary elements as to its parts and details, 
no one can resist the entrancing beauty of the harmony that is 
invariably disclosed between the great house, the garden, and the 
surroundings. Details are secondary items, and if they play their 
part well in the general ensemble, what matters it if a column is 
short a diameter or two of Vignola, or a moulding is incorrect 
according to established rules, or, if some other detail is not just 

Residence of Dan R. Hanna, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 

right, for which the builders in those days failed to obtain the 
proper pattern. A more important principle dominated their minds, 
a principle worked out self-evidently in these old designs with 
admirable success, and this harmony of treatment with respect to 
the whole, creating almost a kinship between the house and its 
surronndings is the pre-eminent feature of the efforts of these old 
builders, in which their descendants, or rather their disciples, have 
willingly and irresistibly, but not always successfully, followed. 
The failures hinted at are accountable in many ways. It is well 
known that the departure from simple themes to those elaborate 
conceptions to which developments of the Renaissance gave birth, 


is due entirely to the perfecting- of architectural standards in Eng- 
land npon if we may state it so Italian models, which in turn 
were based upon the works of ancient Greece and Rome. As the 
purity and refinement of classic art became better known and its 
principles better understood and more widely used and applied ; as 
appreciation of the beauty of form increased and a higher con- 
ception \va acquired of the laws governing composition, it is true 
a more correct kind of building became current ; but the picturesque 
characteristics of earlier and less informed times were too often 
emitted in the eagerness to adopt the possibilities of the new art. 
While buildings became more ornate, their possible affiliation with 
surroundings of the old order became less perfect, and an absurd 
contrast is often to be noted, in the work of this period, between 
the house and its situation. There was, indeed, no blindness to 
the picturesque effect attained in earlier works, as quite the con- 
trary is evident in a perfect willingness to retain it in the incor- 
porating of new ideas, and consequently there is apparent once in 
a while a vain effort to reconcile the two. The earlier buildings 
"fell in" beautifully with their surroundings. The later ones, how- 
even, of foreign origin, necessarily required foreign treatment in 
the way of some intermediate medium to break an abrupt contrast 
and make them appear to their best advantage, and hence followed 
the introduction of appropriate accessories borrowed also from 
continental neighbors. Instead of the old-fashioned English garden 
sufficing, it was essential to render the grounds adjoining the 
house in a progressive break of style using a long process of 
transition in crossing the breach between the house, the garden and 
its decorations and the natural features of the landscape. 

Modern architects of England, and a few in this country, that 
have distinguished themselves in handling the English motives 
(sometimes in a very original manner) have readily benefited by the 
lessons of profit and loss offered by the architectural history of 
the Renaissance. No other domestic models offer such a wide field 
for original development, none so elastic in opportunities to 
express the individuality of the designer, and none better upon 
which to conceive a picturesque design than those old buildings 
of the period, when the influence of Italy was but slightly felt in 
England, and not yet strong enough to eradicate the romantic 
enthusiasm of its builders, which is so thoroughly stamped upon 
their works. Availing himself of the incentive found in principles 
and detail, the architect can, in his design, produce an exceeding- 
ly attractive composition. With this conception a singular ful- 
fillment is discovered in the design of Gordon Hall. The photo- 
graphs accompanying this article, with all their shortcomings, 
show us an engaging example of the outgrowth of this significent 




theory directed by an instinct truly artistic. The keen sense of the 
picturesque which materially holds a paramount interest in all of 
Mr. Hunt's work especially in country houses found a ready 
and sympathetic ground to work upon here, for Gordon Hall 
occupies a beautifully situated site, full of the handsomest trees to 
be seen anywhere, with broad stretches of greensward to the west, 
besides its own well-kept lawns immediately adjacent. That such 
conditions irresistibly invited sympathetic treatment in the mind 
of the architect is scarcely to be wondered at, but such an accom- 
plishment is not always an easy matter, and particularly under the 


Residence of Dan R. Hanna, Cleveland, Ohio. Jarvis Hunt, Architect- 

Decorations by the Brooks Household Art Company of Cleveland. 

circumstances that governed the planning of our subject. The lot, 
by the nature of its boundaries, being narrow and long in the 
direction North and South, and the grade virtually level, with a 
general appearance of uniformity everywhere, carried a condition 
that decreed a certain uniformity in the scheme of building. A 
home of a rambling nature in plan and irregular in composition, 
no matter how poor its architecture, usually presents itself favor- 
ably in a picturesque light, a result which is almost inevitable under 
such conditions. But how rarely is picturesqueness a concomitant 
of uniformity and symmetry ! Gordon Hall forms an instance of 



this combination which makes it doubly worth appreciation. It 
has been the labor of the architect to accomplish this one prime 
object, and that he has done it, and done it well, is evident in the 
photographs, and more so in the actual building. The house is 
neither domineering nor subordinate for so skillfully are lines and 
materials handled and disposed that perfect relations with surround- 
ings have been established and the harmony of the picture is com- 
plete. As to its architecture, the photographs disclose that it is 
good and refined. The whole composition bears an air of dignity 
and repose, and its features are appropriate and all in due relation 
to the whole, possessing the same refined and quiet restraint, well 
detailed, and serving well their decorative purpose. 

The lot upon which the house and its appurtenant buildings 
stand is not very large, extending a thousand feet along Bratenahl 
Road, with a depth of about four hundred feet, and an L extending 
obliquely northeast, some three hundred and fifty feet, where are 
located the servants' lodges, gardener's house, the kitchen gardens, 
poultry yards, and other appendages convenient to an establishment 
of this kind. But fortunately the situation of the Hall facing west, 
as it does, commands acres of beautiful park land by virtue of 
its being closely united to Gordon Park, whose great sweeps of 
green and graceful drives in combination with the beauties of the 
actual private grounds form an estate of enviable proportions. 
Bratenahl Road divides the grounds from those of the public park, 
but the division is not perceptible to the ordinary observer, for one 
indeed appears to belong to the other. A very low hedge lining 
the simple cinder walk along the front of the lot is the only thing 
that gives a suggestion of privacy a gentle notice to wanderers in 
the park that to go beyond this line would be intrusion. One of 
the photographs taken from the park side of the road shows well 
the attractive nature of the aproach to the house from the main 
drive. It is following this avenue which swings gracefully in a 
semi-circle from the right to the front door and out again to the 
left that the house is reached and from which, as we walk up to it, 
a clear view of the house itself is offered. What kind of design 
could more befit this beautiful place ! The presiding character of 
the house namely, its fitness immediately prepossesses and de- 
tains the eye. Its easy and tranquil outline is impressive because 
it betrays a profound sense of comfort in its position, snugly set 
upon the ground, and surrounded as it is by those noble trees and 
a broad terrace of turf elevated some three or four feet above 
the road level. There is almost a human expression of content- 
ment revealed in the restful brick walls that display soft tones of 
dull reds, grays and blues, heightened here by sunlight and here 
again variegating in shadows and reflexes, that blend quietly with 




the natural tones about the house effects peculiar to the brick of 
which the walls are constructed. The bricks used are a New Jersey 
variety known well to the profession as rain-washed, and these laid 
up with horizontal joints deeply raked out, and consequently plainly 
continuous around the house, and the inherent quality of color in 
the brick, impart, also, a delightful vesture of age. In short, the 
effect of it all upon the beholder and written plainly upon these 
warm brick walls is summed up in the one significant word Hos- 

The design is, as a whole, symmetrical with only the north 
extension, comprising the service portion of the house, and the 
nook projection at the south end, as features somewhat irregular ; 
still counterbalancing each other in general effect and thereby not 
disturbing the precise balance maintained in the principal part of 
the house by the jutting out of two wings beyond the central sur- 
face, from which there is another projection emphasized by the 
treatment which the entrance receives. This central projection is 
distinct by reason of the duplication existing in the other two 
facades. The quoins at the corners play their part well in securing 
the appearance of stability, and the simple terra-cotta cornice, very 
narrow but deeply under-cut, giving a well defined shadow line with 
the brick parapet above it simply coped ; and the bold spheres of 
terra-cotta at the angles confer all that is needed to give a finish 
to the outline. The triple arrangement of windows in the wing 
elevations receives, in the second story of each, a strong accent in 
the shape of a treatment common in the later days of the Renais- 
sance and to our colonial work. The proportions are carefully 
studied and the balcony with its three panels carved in Elizabethan 
open pattern forms a proper base for this interesting feature of 
each wing. The entrance is flanked by pairs of Doric columns of 
terra-cotta upon brick pedestals surmounted by a cornice purely 
classical, forming an imposing portal which makes one instinctively 
feel that passing through it will disclose an equally imposing and 
generous interior. A detail that may appear somewhat incon- 
gruous to many is evident in the Gothic frame around the doors. 
It happens to be a license freely indulged in from the time that 
classic forms were first indiscriminately grafted around Gothic 
shapes, down to the present time, jarring the sense of historical 
consistency because of the thought of conflict, more abstract than 
real, between the styles. Consistency, however, is a shiftless, un- 
stable, element in human nature, varying in its impression 
upon individuals, and in this case the architect was warranted by 
his own principle to believe that this frame would serve his purpose 
best in decorating the space between the columns and the doors. 
The effect is not displeasing. The legitimate use of the decorative 



Residence of Dan R. Hanna, Cleveland, Ohio. Jarvis Hunt, Architect 

Decorations by the Brooks Household Art Company of Cleveland. 


panel over the door, however, is more doubtful, as it was a feature 
commonly employed in England to display the arms of a house- 
hold. In our democracy it need not apply to such a purpose, so 
that this finely modeled panel is meaningless, but not a blemish. 
Going around to the south, this dimension of the house follows 
the line of the lot. From this point on the house is extremely 
plain and severe. A distinguishing feature in the south end is the 
external treatment of the chimney nook whose walls are carried up 
a trifle higher than the coping of the main house, and by its toothed 
parapet suggesting a type of building current in the border times 
of England. The rear of the house owes its charm to the exquisite 
texture of the brick, for it consists of only a broad surface ran- 
domly punctured here and there by a window. There is an evident 
purpose, however, that explains its present barrenness and want 
of some relieving feature, for, in the ripeness of time, this broad, 
naked surface is to be completely covered with vines or ivy. 

Passing into the interior, the pictures given herewith can serve 
our purpose better than verbal description. The spaciousness of 
the house and its generous hospitable arrangement in plan are 
most striking. Like the exterior, the interior of the house is freely 
and vigorously handled and a paramount fact is that here, as well 
as externally, Mr. Hunt shows himself in favor of texture and 
color rather than mouldings and carvings. The rooms being large 
and generous, all admit of the broad spirit of treatment and the 
arrangement of the woodwork in the hall and living room is 
designed well with the object of bringing out the inherent qualities 
of the grain in the wood. The hall, which is of enormous size, has 
a wainscot eight feet high, consisting of broad oak slabs of beauti- 
ful grain and some twelve to fourteen inches wide with a square 
open joint between each slab of depth just enough to secure a 
strong vertical line. The effect of this wainscot, which is stained 
black, with just a simple cap that also forms the door heads, is 
admirable and accomplishes its object of appropriately finishing the 
room. Opposite the door as one enters is a great open fireplace 
with a breast fully twelve feet wide, built of the brick that is used 
in the outside walls and forming the central feature in this interest- 
ing room. Recesses from which coat rooms are accesible are 
placed on either side of the fireplace and under a common landing 
formed by the stairs ascending from either end of the room in 
somewhat grand proportions. Though a trifle more ornate than 
the detail in the rest of the room, the staircase is not out of 
keeping in general effect, as its newels and rail are massive and 
heavy. The panels formed by the construction in the ceiling are 
rough plaster untouched by the decorator and the beams them- 
selves are encased in oak treated the same as the wainscoting. 


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All in all, the hall is extremely interesting in the way its various 
features are mutually related and conspire sympathically to give a 
smooth continuity of effect. The low-toned tapestry that fills up 
the small wall space above the wainscot, the dull Venetian red in 
the rugs, the generous furniture, the hangings, of Genoese 
velvet and dull red in color, are all appropriate and harmonize 
successfully with the architectural spirit of the room. One dis- 
appointing impression received, however, is given by the super- 
fluous amount of small furnishings and bric-a-brac strewn around 
which only disturbs the perspective that would otherwise be a 
great delight. But perhaps it is not our place to speak of it 
here for their introduction is due to matters of sentiment that 
appeal strongly to the family and therefore are rightly justified 
in their presence. 

To the left of the hall is the living room, interesting in many 
ways, with its beamed ceiling, its panelled wainscot and book- 
cases, its cosy nook finished solidly to the ceiling in wood and its 
simple fireplace of gray brick. One is fairly captivated by the 
beautiful silky texture of the Circassian walnut used in the finish- 
ing of this room, and treated skillfully in mouse gray that works 
well with the tone of the decorations which are in general quiet, 
barring the pictures with their clumsy gold frames, of which 
there are too many, and which almost completely cover the deep- 
toned brocaded velvet that is hung upon the walls. But the picture 
gallery evidently must be maintained and the room suffer in losing 
tl.e beautiful effect the decorated surface would give in its change- 
able tones according as the light strikes it. The east French win- 
clows of this room lead into the spacious piazza, a comfortable and 
attractive retreat and not an unimportant feature in this house. 

The dining and sun-rooms are practically in one, as only a glass 
partition separates them, which is arranged cleverly in connection 
with the oval lines in the sun-room and the serving tables of the 
dining room. The two enjoy a floor space, like the living room, 
almost equal to that of the hall, which is thirty by sixty feet, and 
it is to this generous arrangement of plan and size of the rooms 
which merge into one another through wide openings that the 
airiness and cheerfulness of the house are due. These great rooms 
comprise the living part of the house and livable and comfortable 
do they frankly look pleasant in the prospects from the windows, 
especially towards the west, and in the cheerful light the sun sends 
into them. One distinguishable feature in the dining room is its 
color scheme. The walls are hung with Brabant tapestry whose 
predominant tone is a dull Antwerp blue and rather light, and the 
floor is covered by one of the handsomest rugs I have ever seen. 
Its color is a fathomless blue with a narrow border of Indian pat- 







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tern, a rug which, as it is gratifying to know, is of domestic manu- 
facture. This glorious color is followed well in the curtains and 
the coverings of the furniture, all in Padua velvet, rich and regal in 
appearance. It is most unfortunate that photography should fail 
us in color values, for this room cannot boast of any architectural 
features, being extremely plain in white enamel, and therefore from 
our picture wins small appreciation. The sun-room, however, is 
just the opposite in conditions, for here is an interesting room in 
point of detail which is refined and done in white enamel. By the 
very nature of its being a sun-room there is more glass than wall 
space. The east windows arranged in two groups of three and a 
casement between, with three-quarter fluted columns serving as 
mullions, afforded a view down a quaint brick walk, running di- 
rectly east to the point where it turns, taking the nature of a lane 
which leads to the north end of the lot where the outbuildings are 
situated. There is a skylight of oval shape whose glass is of pretty 
design, against which the cove of the ceiling springing from the 
cornice abuts, making a dome. The full columns on the side to- 
wards the living room are arranged to -complete the oval shape of 
the room, leaving spaces between that are found happily useful 
for palms and ferns. 

The second story is divided into large, generous bed chambers 
and their necessary appurtenances, \yhich need not be dwelt upon 
further than that they are well arranged, cheerful and appropriately 

The stable, which is complete in its appointments, the cosy 
servants' and gardener's houses together with the fine arrange- 
ment of the grounds complete one of the finest establishments to be 
found in the West convenient, beautiful, and above all, perfectly 
homelike, a description which would not apply to some found 
elsewhere. Charles Bohassck. 

William D. L. Dodge, Painter. CarrSre & Hastings, Architects. 


"1VJT EW YORK has not of recent years been very fortunate in 
J> the architecture of its theatres. It has rarely happened 
that they have been entrusted to really competent designers, and 
the consequence is that the design of theatres, both so far as in- 
terior and exterior are concerned, has not exhibited the same gen- 
eral progress as has the design of other important types of build- 
ings. There have, of course, been individual cases of good work; 
but these cases were both infrequent in themselves and were prac- 
tically without effect upon subsequent designs. Thus, the exterior 
of the Casino is a very brilliant and successful experiment in a 
somewhat outlandish style, and has found many admirers but no 
imitators. The architect of the Casino has also designed other 
theatres, which, while less successful, lived up to a very respectable 
standard. As to the interiors, that of the old Lyceum endeared 
itself to many New Yorkers by its pleasantly restful feeling and 
the warmth of its general tone ; but here again the better thing 
had no general influence which in this case was just as well, for 
the Lyceum, with its soft, pleasant, quiet appearance, was in the 
way of being a "boudoir" rather than a theatre. Of all playhouse 
interiors of New York, the most correct and eligible design has 
been that of the Garden Theatre. While it was not in itself a very 
attractive performance, it had the advantage of being in a good 
style and approaching the problem from the proper point of view. 
With the interior of the Garden to work upon, and with a proper 
appreciation of its merits and defects, the designers of subsequent 
theatres could have reached a wholly admirable result ; but un- 
fortunately for the ten years following the erection of the Madi- 
son Square Garden, the majority of the new theatres were erected 


42d and 43d Streets, near Seventh Avenue, New York City. V. Hugo Koehler, Architect. 



by a playhouse speculator, who had neither the money to pay for 
a good thing nor the instinct to have it made ; and the result has 
been deplorable not merely in design, but in the mechanics of 
good and safe theatre construction. 

Fortunately, however, that is all an affair of the past. The de- 
velopment of the hotel and amusement section of Manhattan, 
which began in 1900, has resulted in the erection of six new the- 

atres. In all of these 
more or less intelli- 
been made to pre- 
and better appear- 
than had been the 
tres previously 
aesthetic standards, 
noticeable a feature 
pensive buildings 
ed in New York, 
fluence on the play- 
the truth of this 
t rated as much by 
which has been 
the older theatres, 
of the new designs. 
New York, the 
Manhattan have 
and redecorated, 
which have been 
visible in fully one- 
of the better class 
the total effect of 
architecture has 
give the public a 


new buildings some 
gent attempt has 
sent both a braver 
ance to the public 
case with the thea- 
erected. The higher 
which have been so 
of all the more ex- 
recently construct- 
have had their in- 
houses also ; and 
statement is illus- 
the reformation, 
effected in some of 
as by the character 
The Belasco, the 
Empire and the 
all been remodeled 
so that the change s 
taking place are 
half of the theatres 
in Manhattan ; and 
the new theatrical 
been not only to 
number of interest- 
they can observe 

ing interiors which 

and discuss between the acts, but also to establish a standard of 

playhouse design, which will have its effect hereafter. 

Certainly from the point of view of it's effect on popular taste, 
there is no class of building in which good designing is so nec- 
essary as in the theatres. The public, or at least the American 
public, attend the theatres in a gay and exhilarated, if irresponsi- 
ble, frame of mind, and all the circumstances of a theatrical per- 
formance tend to make them very much alive to their surround- 
ings. While the curtain is up, their eyes are, of course, fixed upon 
the stage, which alone is made visible, but between the acts the 
audience has plenty of leisure to take in its surroundings, and is 
in a peculiarly favorable situation to give them lively attention. 



a " 


fo . 
O 2 

p i- 



Grand Circle, New York City. John H. Duncan, Architect. 



'! bus it is peculiarly important that these surroundings should 
repay the attention they receive ; and the opportunity is one which 
the better American architects are excellently qualified to turn to 
good account. What is needed is an interior aesthetically bold and 
effective, with good telling- lines, with lively but harmonious 
colors and with an abundance of appropriate detail all of 
this at once restrained by good taste and tied together by the 

prevailing forms 
A theatre is the last 
for the display of 
ment or for any 
treatment. It is a 
playroom, and 
and boldly treated 
Whatever tha in- 
the different archi- 
the jobs of design- 
atres or redecorat- 
they have assuredly 
ent views of the 
most appropriate 
In fact, no six in- 
more unlike than 
this number of the 
ord. They vary all 
the frankly classical 
Empire, and frank- 
design of the New 
any man who would 
the value and force 
American Archi- 
making, on the one 
telligent and effect- 


of a definite style, 
place in the world 
ineffective refine- 
modest reticence of 
showroom and a 
should be frankly 
as such. 

dividual success of 
tects who have had 
ing our new the- 
ing the old ones, 
taken widely differ- 
colors and forms 
to their purposes, 
teriors could be 
those illustrated in 
Architectural Rec- 
the way between 
design of the new 
ly unconventional 
Amsterdam, and 
like to compare 
of the motives i.i 
tecture, which are 
hand, for the the in- 
ive use of the old 

forms and on the other for the more enterprising introduction of new 
ones, could not have better material for comparative study than is 
afforded by the interiors of these two buildings. 

The new Empire is an adaptation of the interior of the theatre 
at Versailles, and a very admirable piece of Louis XIV. work it 
is. The outer vestibule, as is proper with a passage that makes 
the transition from the street to a rich and striking interior, is 
finished in Caen stone, a cool, fair gray material, admirably adapted 
to precise classic treatment, and one of the few unpolished stones 
which are fitted for interior use. In the foyer the note of the 
whole interior is struck. . The color scheme is light red and gold 
as a transition to the richer red and gold of the theatre itself. 



The pilasters, cornices, ceilings, and other architectural features, 
as well as all ornamentation are treated in gold, the wall panels 
in silk brocades, and the floors with red carpets. The barrel 
vault of the ceiling has been decorated by Mr. William 
D. L. Dodge with paintings, which, whatever their other 
merits, harmonize with the general effect and enhance it. 
The theatre itself differs from other New York theatres, 
in that the old-style proscenium arch treatment with col- 
umns and entablature has been adopted, but the galleries 
have been handled according to the modern practice even to 
the extent of eliminating all the columns and permitting an un- 
obstructed view of the stage from all points of the house. The 
color scheme of the theatre is also red and gold, the wall surfaces 
being treated in red, while pilasters, box and balcony fronts, the 
cornices and mouldings are of a dull, rich gold. Over the pros- 
cenium arch are paintings also by Dodge, the effect of which from 
the seats below is gay and appropriate. All the draperies and cur- 
tains in the house, including the stage curtain with its lambre- 
quin, the hangings of the boxes and the like are in different 
shades of red. 

It is not too much to say that this room is one of the most 
consistent, most appropriate, and cleverest pieces of interior de- 
coration in this country. Every disposition and every detail shows 
the work of designers, who know the value of the forms and ma- 
terials they are using and who are perfectly capable of adapting 
these forms to novel conditions without any loss of effect. The 
great success of the theatre consists in the propriety with which 
the striking and telling colors are used, the admirable scale of the 
detail, which always gets its effect without overdoing it, and the 
total impression it gives of being rich and gay without being gor- 
geous or trivial. No better example could be desired of the proper 
way to translate a classic style into a sufficiently modern equiva- 

Turning to the New Amsterdam, it is to be remarked immedi- 
ately that one's judgment of its architectural value will be very 
much influenced by one's opinion as to the need or desirability 
of the introduction into American design at the present time of 
any effort after originality. If one believes that it is extremely 
desirable to break away from the historic styles, one would natu- 
rally welcome any attempt in that direction, even if the enterpris- 
ing designers were not yet entirely sure of their footing. On the 
other hand, if one believes that at the present stage of American 
culture, and popular aooreciation of the fine arts, a conservative 
use of well-established forms is the safer and more fruitful course 
one would not look with so much leniency upon experiments. 

4 8 





which must at the beginning have their dubious aspects. Certainly 
the New Amsterdam experiment has its dubious aspects, but its 
most dubious aspect does not consist, as might be supposed, of an 
extravagance of design or an excessive splurge of color. Its most 
dubious aspect consists precisely in the absence of bold and effect- 
ive color treatment. The color scheme of the auditorium is 
mother of pearl, violet and green, which, even if crudely applied, 
is a harmonious combination, but is too neutral and delicate in 
tone for the large surfaces, the long distances, and the necessary 
showiness of a theatre. It is one of the misfortunes of any attempt 
to reach novel effects in the fine arts that the classic styles have 
already appropriated the primary colors and the most suitable 
forms, so that the would-be original designers are forced to fall 
back upon secondary colors and less suitable forms. 

The greatest need of contemporary American architecture is 
not so much originality as propriety, consistency and carefulness 
of design, and the reason for welcoming such a building as the 
New Amsterdam Theatre is not that its architects have tried to 
break precedents so much as that they have made a careful, la- 
borious and intelligent attempt to design a building that is finished 
in every detail ; and it is excellence of much of this detail, particu- 
larly in the stroking and other subordinate rooms of the theatre, 
which is the best achievement of the architects. These gentlemen 
stand for a very high technical standard; and their work is never 
merely bizarre and crude. On the contrary, notably in a residence 
which they have designed at 1053 5th avenue, and which is also 
published in this issue of the Architectural Record, is restrained 
and informed by a sense of proportion, and the kind of architectural 
values most closely related to the classical styles. 

The new Lyceum Theatre, which is designed by the same archi- 
tects, as the New Amsterdam, has, however, a very different order 
of defects and merits. Although framed on more conventional 
lines, it is, if you please, a much more energetic piece of architec- 
ture. The facade is dominated by an order, which, if anything, 
counts rather too much than too little; and, since the building is 
situated some hundreds of feet from Broadway, it was a very happy 
thought to make its situation and front conspicuous at night by 
means of flaming lanterns, which glare from the balcony over the 
cornice. The auditorium, also, is more boldly treated than it is in 
the other theatre. The detail is designed on a much larger scale 
and is, in certain instances, particularly in that of the garlands, 
which overhang the boxes, both misplaced and coarse. The re- 
pellent masks upon the curtain offer another conspicuous case of 
a somewhat romanesque imagination. On the other hand, the lobby 
is treated with a rather conventional reticence, which, however, 





5 . 






flowers very pleasantly in the wall paintings which Mr. James Finn 
has placed over the doors. The color scheme of the auditorium, 
in which Mr. Finn also had a hand, is well-combined, but rather 
morose than gay; the upholstery, the gallery and box fronts be- 
ing a metallic green and a metallic gold, and the ceiling chiefly a 
dull blue. 

The interior of the Hudson Theatre, on the other hand, while 
the effect of it is pleasant and quiet, errs on the side of understate- 
ment. The faqade is simple and dignified, but the means which 
have been taken to make it conspicuous from Broadway are neither 
so successful or so interesting as in the case of the Lyceum. In 
the interior, the effects which the designer have sought are more 
appropriate to domestic than to theatrical architecture. The foyer 
whose dimensions are pleasantly spacious, decorated in bronze, 
green, ivory and gold, and with Louis XIV. mirrors and sofas 
covered with green velour is a sufficiently elegant and good-look- 
ing apartment, but the scale and feeling is that of a private house. 
This effect is less conspicuous in the auditorium ; but the treat- 
ment of this interior is an excellent example of that modest refine- 
ment of appearance, which is wholly unfitted to a theatre. The 
failure of the interior in this respect has been so well expressed 
in one of the daily papers that I cannot do better than quote it 
here : "There is a general tendency," says the writer, "to subdue 
and be quietly elegant in the color scheme ; but the result is quite 
lacking in character. One wishes for a few notes of virility, and 
for some big, strong masses of color somewhere in the ensemble. 
In brief, the theatre is pretty, but it is very tame." 

From this brief view of the theatres which have recently been 
erected in New York it will be seen that the danger from which 
the better designed theatres of New York suffer is less that of being 
vulgarly showy than that of being excessively refined. It looks 
as if the architects had for the most part been so desirous of es- 
caping the ostentatious crudity of some of the former theatrical 
interiors that they had fallen into the other error and pitched the 
scheme of their interior on too low a key. This would not be 
true of the Empire and the new Lyceum, it would be true of the 
New Amsterdam only in the special sense, indicated above; it 
would not be true of the Majestic theatre, which is a vigorous and 
well composed piece of interior decoration, but it would be true 
of the other theatres, and it is the fault against which the designers 
of similar buildings hereafter should be very much on their guard. 
A refinement that does not count a weak refinement has as an 
unfortunate effect upon taste as a coarse ostentation; and the one 
character which theatres in New York or elsewhere particularly 
need is a sort of a good gaudiness. A C. David. 

Blum & Wenzell, Painters. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 


The Works at Herts & Tallant. 

IT is always difficult to arrive at a correct estimation of contem- 
porary conditions. A moderate perspective is neccessary to 
obtain an even approximate idea of relative proportions, yet he 
who runs in this age of hurry cannot fail to observe one salient 
point which will stand with posterity as the main characteristic of 
our times. We are living in a period of transition such as never 
before has occurred in the history of mankind. 

In no field of activity is this fact more prominent than in that 
field of architecture and the allied arts. Clarence Cook may have 
been somewhat radical when he wrote that "for three hundred years 
not a single building has been erected in Europe or anywhere else 
that has an original claim to admiration or that could occasion the 
least regret by its loss except on grounds of convenience or 
utility." Yet, certain it is that the principle of literal adherence to 
preceding styles, inaugurated during the Rennaissance, has run its 
logical course to its predestined conclusion. Increasing servility 
of imitation has resulted in increasing sterility of imagination. 
During the last ninety years we have had very little in the way of 
original artistic product. Yet, even this comparative barrenness 
involved in itself the seeds of reaction. Here and there signs of 
original inspiration have become again visible. These outcrop- 
pings have been for the most part confined to the smallest and least 
important fields of art, to jewelry, to bibelots, furniture and textile 
fabrics. Yet, in the face of much adverse and often justifiable criti- 
cism the desire for originality and the effort to obtain it has been 


42d list Streets, near 7tb Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 




ra a 

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growing stronger, and wherever it appears it should be welcomed, 
even though the somewhat experimental works in which it is first 
embodied may not be acceptable to prevailing standards of taste. 
In the New Amsterdam and New Lyceum theatres, there have 
recently been erected in New York two important public buildings, 
in which the architects, Messrs. Herts & Tallant, have tried to sub- 
stitute for the current routine a certain originality of conception 
and treatment ; they have tried to give their individual powers of 

42d 41st Streets, near 7th Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 

design a freer expression than has been customary. This individ- 
uality of expression, exhibited in absolute freedom in the New Am- 
sterdam Theatre, under self-imposed restraint in the New Lyceum, 
is evident in all the work of this firm. They did not, however, per- 
mit themselves such complete liberty of expression until they had 
schooled themselves to avoid the excesses of their good qualities, 
first by as good an art education as the world affords, and second 
by the execution of several important buildings designed along the 
standard architectural lines. They appreciated that vastly more 



P o 

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M a 

HM (D 

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>d 41st Streets, near 7th Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



6 4 


productive of artistic discord than even the exact reproduction of 
authentic classic styles is the ignorant application of, for instance, 
the so-called "Art Nouveau" to architecture and mural decoration. 
To create a style it is not necessary merely to give ductile expres- 
sion to the most soaring ideas and the most deeply seated feelings, 
but a systematic and perfectly digested knowledge of every rule 
of composition must be acquired before the transition can be made 
and before the architect can be allowed to embody his imaginative 
vision in a free creative fashion. Thus the work of Messrs. Herts 
& Tallant is a vehement denial of the right of any man to dis- 
regard the discipleship and even the tyranny of set form, unless 

42d 41st Streets, near 7th Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 

the individual point of view offered in its stead shall righteously 
meet a present and future need. It is only the achievement of tech- 
nical mastery that gives even the lightest talent the legitimate 
means of showing its power. The architects took no forward steps 
without a knowledge of the ground they already occupied and made 
no radical departures without previous tests on a smaller scale. 
Before, however, calling attention to this carefully planned line of 
progress as exemplified in the illustration, it will be well to give 
some idea of the course of preparation to which the two partners of 
this firm underwent and to note some general characteristics of aM 
their designs. 

Mr. Herts, who comes of a family of decorators, has received an 
education which enables him to deal with practical contractors as 
well as imaginative artists and sculptors. As a boy he at- 



tended a public grammar school and in course of time entered 
New York City College. Here he became restive under the re- 
straint of ordinary tuition in large classes, especially as he was con- 
tinuously reprimanded by the class instructor for sketching on the 
fly leaves and covers of his books. At a very early age he left 
the City College and entered the office of Mr. Bruce Price. He 
had worked there but a few months when Mr. Price remarked a 
display of unusual talent on the part of young Herts and he per- 
suaded his family to insist upon his entering the School of Mines at 
Columbia College". This he did after a period of preparation at the 
Woodbridge School and in 1892, while still an undergraduate at 
Columbia, he justified Mr. Price's prediction by winning the com- 
petition for the Columbus Arch, a competition entered into by forty 
of the most prominent practicing architects in New York, the com- 
petition being decided by John La Farge, Richard M. Hunt, 
Augustus St. Gaudens and Stanford White. Mr. Herts was at that 
time not quite twenty-one years of age. After four years at Colum- 
bia he settled in Paris and entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts, where 
his work was always commented upon by the masters and especially 
by his particular patron, M. Deglane, for its originality and indi- 
vidual quality. The Parisian critics seemed to value Mr. Herts' work 
at the Salon, where he frequently exhibited, chiefly for its elevation 
and poetic suggestion. In particular a painting of Ely Cathedral 
exhibited in the Salon of 1898 called forth great praise for its im- 
aginative power and its expression of atmospheric effects. In 
marked contrast to the earlier career of Mr. Herts is that of his 
partner. While Mr. Herts never received a diploma from any col- 
lege, never won a prize or medal at any school, and invariably 
stood at the foot of his class in the institutions of learning he 
attended, Mr Tallant gained every prize at both school and college, 
thus making an interesting balance in the history of the two men. 
Mr. Tallant's first tuition was received at the Roxbury Latin School, 
where for six years he stood at the head of his class. In 1887 he 
entered Harvard College. Here he devoted himself largely to 
engineering and mathematics, graduating in 1901 with both the A. 
B. and the A. M. degrees, this being the first time in the history of 
the college that both degrees had been simultaneously conferred. 
Besides his purely academic work he contributed illustrations to the 
Lampoon, of which he was an editor during the entire four years. 
In addition, he was awarded several prizes for literary essays, and 
was also known as a remarkable athlete, a reputation which he. 
maintains to this day. After a year spent in the office of Shepley, 
Rutan and Coolidge, he was awarded the Kirkland fellowship from 
Harvard, which enabled him to go abroad in the fall of 1892. He 
entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts the following February and 


graduated in the fall of 1896 with the "Prix Jean Leclare," the high- 
est prize open to any foreigner. During his course he received 
fourteen medals, covering- every line of 
study from pure mathematics to free hand 
drawing, modeling, and architectural 
designing, and was also awarded the 
Grande Medaille d'Honneur for 
the year 1896, indicating his 
graduation at the head of his 
entire class. It was during their 
first year at the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts that Mr. Herts and Mr. 
Tallant met, and after working 
together on several important 
projects their patrons did not 
hssitate to pronounce them an 
admirable team. While Mr. 
Herts has more largely developed 
the faculty of suggestion, Mr. 
Tallant possesses that of ex- 
pression. Mr. Herts is a 
capable business and ex- 
ecutive head, Mr. Tallant 
is an unusually able engi- 
neer. Thus both part- 
ners are young men, 
in the early thir- 
ties, who have 
in all proba- 
bility a quar- 
ter of a cen- 
tury or more 


of artistic work and 
development ahead of 

Prominent among the character- 
istics of their work is that it is very 
scholarly. This is shown, among other 
things, in their familiarity with the laws of 
artistic composition. They are not restricted to abso- 
lute symmetry, because they possess a sufficient apprecia- 



tion of balance ; they exhibit no incongruities of scale, because they 
possess a developed sense of proportion, and where they vary from 
the standard details of the classic orders, they do not offend good 
taste. Another well-marked characteristic is their insistance 
upon the truthful expression in design of the structural require- 
ment, the conformity of the raiment to the skeleton, the demands 
that all ornament shall form an integral and even necessary part 
of the design adopted. They hold that new constructural methods 
and new practical requirements cry out for a new artistic expres.- 
sion, new contents demand a new outward form, and they hold it to 

42d list Streets, near 7th Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 

be nothing less than a mark of subserviency that the forms which 
issued from the imperative conditions under which the early archi- 
tects worked should be seriously adopted by their imitators as ab- 
solute law. 

The effectiveness of the complete diversity of the New Amster- 
dam and New Lyceum Theatres lies in the well-defined fact that 
the architects have stamped the significance of each playhouse with 
distinction. The former, gay and whimsical, properly lends itself 
to the production of large pictorial effects, the latter in its quiet 
elegance appeals eminently to a more cilltured audience and stands 
as a fitting frame for the conservative works of the most distin- 
guished living dramatists. The New Amsterdam is throughout 
picturesque, playful, teeming with movement and color; the New 



42d 41st Streets, near 7th Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 

42d list Streets, near 7th Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 

Lyceum Theatre is quietly rich in tone, and, while individual, at the 
same time displays the strictest regard for the essential ground- 
work and grammar of architecture. 

While the artistic creed of Messrs. Herts & Tallant is largely 
traced through Jean Francois Millet's words "Le beau c'est le vrai," 
they do not fall into error of absolute realism, for in their ornamental 
details they never make an exact or slavish reproduction of nature. 
It is true that in their present work and particularly in the New 
Amsterdam they revert for their inspiration directly to floral and 
animal forms, but at the same time they never insert these forms in 
their decoration without first subjecting them to a careful and at 
the same time personal conventionalization. The ladies' boudoir 
in the New Amsterdam Theatre has for its entire scheme of decora- 
tion the tea rose, but the flower is here studied and utilized in a 
fashion more real and logical than the manner in which flowers 
were ornamentally employed by our Italian predecessors. Even 
a cursory glance at their wood carvings and marble and stucco 
relief will show a use not merely of the blossom, the fruit, or the 
leaf, but of the stem, the bud and even the thorn harmoniously 
embodying a complete scheme of decoration, entirely individual, 



Herts & Tallant, Architects. 


yet eminently satisfactory. In this departure their method finds its 
closest artistic parallel in the work of William Morris and Walter 
Crane, for these men always gave a fair and captivating form to 
a mood of their own time, which struggled for expression and 

which the cravings of 
mere naturalism had 
not been able to sat- 
isfy. The purely ar- 
tistic result of their 
work was as important 
as the historical. The 
art of the nineteenth 
century had begun 
with a decayed ideal- 
ism which could only 
keep its ground by 
leaning upon the old 
masters, principally 
the Greeks and the 
fifteenth century Ital- 
ians. By opposing 
this imitative and 
eclectic art these men 
blazed a path to a new , 
independent, and 
wholly personal view 
of nature. Rossetti es- 
pecially stamped that 
clear perfection of form 
which belonged to the 
classicists with the im- 
print of his own per- 
sonality, although he 
never underestimated 
the teachings of his 
master, Botticelli. 

In this way, Messrs. 
Herts & Tallant im- 
presss the stamp of 
their personality upon 
every department con- 
nected with their work. 
While a great number of artists, sculptors and general decorators 
have been employed in the work of the New Amsterdam Theatre, 
the whole bears the sharp imprint of the architect's personality. 







45th Street, near Long Acre Square, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architect*- 



4oth Street, near Long Acre Square. New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architect*. 


This is strikingly noticeable in Blum's large decoration over the 
proscenium arch and in Perry's important panel representing the 
Drama of the Ancients. Both of these compositions possess the 
same decorative quality, the same feeling for mystery, the same 
fertility of intellectual resource. A similar romantic and picturesque 
element of form and color is remarked even when the artist 
employed falls short of good execution as in the case of the two 
large lunettes in the waiting room, where the color scheme and 
general artistic feeling are admirable, but where the drawing and 
technical execution are worse than mediocre. Yet these things 
are not of sufficient moment to mar the general effect which is one 

42d 41st Streets, near 7th Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 

of almost consistent harmony throughout. The same character- 
istics are carried down to the design of the furniture, and even the 
match safes in the smoking room. 

A great capacity for taking pains with even the smallest detail 
is also a characteristic of the work of Herts & Tallant. In the case 
of the New Amsterdam Theatre in order to attain the desired result 
the architects were compelled to make most minute and accurate 
drawings of every detail down to the smallest point and in many 
cases were obliged themselves to model on the very clay to give 
the workmen an idea of their requirements and of the end they had 
:n view. The technical incapacity of the wood carvers is painfully 
evident in the carving of the wooden transoms over the entrance 
door. On the other hand, the greater part of the plaster relief is 
admirably executed. I understand that many of the workers in 
plaster improved sensibly after two months instruction, and that 




the lighting fixtures were executed almost without supervision by 
the same modeler who had general charge of all the plaster orna- 
ment. If this is true, it shows how quickly it is possible to obtain 
good results where intelligent men are given the keynote and 
then allowed to develop their own ideas. Individualism in archi- 
tecture ought to be one of the important means toward the end 
of establishing in our city a great school of artist artisans, stone 
cutters, wood carvers, and workers in metal and mosaic. When 
such a class of men, opportunely weeded from the mass of Ameri- 
can craftsmen shall be educated, the purely commercial architect 
will find it difficult to get sufficient workmen to take any interest 
in the reproduction of the same stupid molding in tens of thou- 
sands, or to add here and there without cause or reason the same 
cartouche. The craftsmen will be above producing work which 
is fit only for a machine, and this state of affairs lends hope 
that we may at a time not too far distant find the commercial 
imitator an outlander in a city where intelligent individualism in the 
marriage of the allied arts is understood and appreciated. 

The illustrations to this article will give a better idea than can 
any description of the peculiar individuality exhibited by the work 
of this firm. In the Bates College library we have a balanced, 
strictly classical design, of the dignified character appropriate to 
its requirements. The residence of Mr. Rice shows a similar purity 
of style applied to a private residence. Here the formality of the 
detail is neutralized bv the picturesque treatment of the general 
masses of both house and terracing, which exhibit balance without 
absolute symmetry. The iron work in the faqade of the Aguilar Li- 
brary shows the first real attempt of these architects to develop 
a decorative effect out of modern structural requirements. 

The residence at No. 1053 5th avenue is a further logical step 
toward the complete artistic liberty displayed in the New Amster- 
dam Theatre. 

Specific description of the latter is hardly necessary in view of the 
numerous illustrations. The absence of the meaningless cornice 
usually encumbering the tops of our tall buildings is a refresh- 
ing feature of the exterior. Similarly the omission of the columns 
and entablatures which usually encumber the proscenium arches 
of our theatres lends originality and lightness to the design, and 
at the same time serves the practical end of affording a better 
view of the stage from the boxes and the extreme sides of the 
house. Much of the effect of the interior is unavoidably lost 
through the failure of the photographs to indicate the beauty of 
the different materials -employed. At the same time the color 
scheme, while in general excellent, exhibits many defects in the 
smaller details. The beauty of the entrance is marred by the bilious 



45th Street, near Long Acre Square, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 



color accorded to the bronze work, a defect which could be easily 
remedied. A similar criticism might be made of the tinsel domes 
in the curved lobby immediately in the rear of the auditorium, 
and while the general scheme of the main house is exceedingly 
pleasant, the lack of development in the color details occasions 
a certain crudeness of contrast between the different tints. This 
last, however, is probably the result of too great haste in the 
completion of the painting; and, indeed, certain spaces are appar- 
ently unfinished, as, for instance, the two small triangular spots 
just above the proscenium arch at either side. Other lapses from 
grace, such as the awful pinkness of the laidies' waiting room and 

-. . 

45th Street, near Long Acre Square, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 

the hideous painting in the ceiling of the same room, the more 
difficult to account for unless the architects were to a certain 
extent trammelled by exaggerated ideas of conventional require- 

In the case of the New Lyceum Theatre, the work, I under- 
stand, was absolutely left within the jurisdiction of the architects. 
At all events every part holds together admirably. The continuity 
of the color scheme is not broken by any discordant notes, and 
the richness increases continuously from the entrance through the 
entire house to the group over the proscenium arch, which stands 
as the culmination of the decorative development. The exterior 
of the New Lyceum Theatre is dignified and rich, having com- 



O - 
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O .M 

O O 


O (B 

a I 


o 1 



paratively little color barely an introductory note in the marble 
panels over the central windows. 

The main foyer possesses a certain richness of material, owing 
to the use of bronze and marble in the staircases and marble with 
bronze inlay in the floor. The one strong color note of the painted 
lunettes, though perhaps a trifle exaggerated, avoids too strong a 
transition between the simplicity of the foyer and the extreme rich- 
ness oi the auditorium. The main ceiling of the latter is an ex- 
ample of exquisite modelling and rich blending of color calculated 


Bates College, Lewiston, Me. 

Herts & Tallant, Architects. 

to throw just the correct shadow across the graceful upper curve 
of the proscenium arch, while in the group of the centre of the 
arch we get the restful impression of a logical combination of 
sculpture, decorative painting and general richness of material. 
The curtains and all draperies, I understand, were supervised in 
their most minute details by the architects and certainly prove 
helpful adjuncts to the entire decorative scheme, so that the whole 
gives one an impression of admirable poise and harmony. 

The success of these two theatres, judged from the standpoint 
of general artistic harmony, goes to show the desirability of placing 


110th Street, near 3d Avenue, New York City. 

Herts & Tallant, Architects. 


42d 41st Streets, near 7th Avenue, New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 


Riverside Drive and 88th Street, New York City. 

Herts & Tallant, Architects. 





New York City. Herts & Tallant, Architects. 


8 9 

New York City. 


Herts & Tallant. Architects. 


New York City. 


Herts & Tallant, Architects. 


9 1 

all decorative work in buildings of this character entirely under the 
control of the architect. In fact, the view that architecture, painting 
and sculpture must be allied, that every separate art is in need of the 
other to attain its full height, has been the inspiration of all the 
famous periods of art. Messrs. Herts and Tallant have tried in 
these two theatres to make each of these arts reinforce and con- 
tribute to the effect of the others ; and they have made this at- 
tempt not in a building liberally paid for by the government, but 
in buildings that were erected under ordinary commercial condi- 
tions. Opinions will differ as to the extent of their failure or suc- 
cess, but all must admire the originality, courage and laborious 
work which they have shown in their ideas and in their completed 

Abbott Halstead Moore. 


Herts & Tallant, Architects 
New York City. 


Messrs. Herts & Tallant, Architects 








NO. 2. 


/ARCHITECTURE in Philadelphia is notoriously an affair of 
-/-*- extremes. One is rather surprised to find this the case in 
a city of homes, where, according to the current legend, innova- 
tions are born hard. A priori, one would not suppose that the 
atmosphere of Philadelphia would be favorable to the production 
of sharp architectual contracts, certainly not to the fantastical, 
or the bizarre. Rather it is to the West that one would most 
readily turn for the flamboyant, or, for the profligate, to New York. 
Yet, if one desires to hunt the truly wild and erratic, or to find 
thf. most extraordinary juxtapositions of the good with the bad, 
it is not to St. Louis or Kansas City or Oshkosh one should go. 
One cannot be so successful anywhere as in Philadelphia. 

Possibly the reason for this is to be found in the fact that in 
Philadelphia as soon as architecture 1 ises above a certain very 
humble plane, it is in an extraordinary degree a personal expres- 
sion. The local tradition the demure respectable local tradi- 
tion runs very smoothly and very well so long as it is confined 
to the small two or three story red brick domicile with white 
stone trimmings, which is one of the civic glories of Philadelphia. 
The local tradition also works well, (only less well, for demure- 
ness easily passes into dullness) somewhat higher up the scale when 
the problem touches upon a more expensive class of residence ; 
nor does it cease to be effective in a limited way in the case of 
small commercial buildings, factories and warehouses, or out in 
the suburbs into which the Philadelphia!! can carry a quiet, home- 
ly and colonial mode. Up to this point, there is apparently a 
sufficiently strong local consensus to operate powerfully upon 
the Philadelphian expression ; but bevond that point well ! 
Philadelphia plunges, and the student of architecture finds 

Copyright 1903, by "The Architectural Record Company." All rights reserved. 
Entered May 22, 1902, as second-class matter, Post Office at New York, N. Y., Act of 
Congress, of March 3d, 1879. 



that he has passed into a region of unrestricted design wherein 
the only limitations imposed upon the architect are those of his 
own temperament and training. The result is one of the most 
unmitigated spots, architecturally, in the world, where the note of 
originality, personality, individuality is as prominent in build- 
ings of good design as it is in buildings of wildly bad design. 
Architecture there resembles the young lady of the rhyme : 

Elkins Park, Pa. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

"When it is good, it is very, very good, and when it is bad, it 
is horrid." 

To verify these assertions one has only to recall the long and 
highly admirable series of strongly individualistic designs turned 
out in recent years by men like Wilson Eyre, Cope & Stewardson, 
Frank Miles Day & Brother, and then, with those clearly in mind 
recur for a moment to the extraordinary freaks which front the 
business part of Chestnut and other streets reminding one more of 
the grotesques of operatic scenery than structures soberly erected 
by respectable and influential financial concerns. In other cities 
even "the aberration" itself maintains some relationship with the 
traditional and ordinary methods of design, but in Philadelphia 





one is quite at a loss for prototypes and is forced in the end to 
explain the buildings he sees by some abnormality of the Phila- 
delphian mind operating under some undiscoverable local stimulus. 
Probably it must always remain a psychological problem how 
a city that possesses a building like Independence Hall could pro- 
duce and tolerate a monstrosity like the City Hall, or how the 
same community could have raised to eminence a designer like 
Furniss, and trained artists of such high personal distinction as 
Cope & Stewardson, the Days and Eyre; so that we have on the 


Elkins Park, Pa. 

Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

one hand, buildings like the Record Building and on the other, 
buildings like the Art Club. An acute architectural observer has 
endeavored to explain the anomaly. His statement is worth quot- 
ing: "In truth it is evident from the look of Philadelphia that there 
is no constraint upon the architects, either from the professional 
opinion, which elsewhere keeps designers out of the maddest ex- 
cesses, or from a lay opinion that betokens an interest in the sub- 
ject and, though ignorant, is willing to be enlightened. What the 
aspect of commercial Philadelphia does indicate is a complete arch- 
itectural apathy on the part of the public and a settled determin- 




ation on the part of the architects to break in upon the apathy at 
any cost." 

If this explanation of the phenomenon be correct, it may be in- 
ferred, safely, that Philadelphia's salvation is to be wrought most 
speedily by the addition to the professional ranks of a number of 
well schooled architects, trained in the accepted traditions of the 
art men whose education, taste, temperament and energy can 
be bent to the work of annexing Philadelphia to the general prac- 
tice of the country at large. In this way, the city on the Schuyl- 

Elkins Park, Pa. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

kill may in time cease to be an outlandish province where genius 
and eccentricity equally flourish. 

In presenting to our readers as an accompaniment to these re- 
marks, the designs of Mr. Horace Trumbauer, it is hardly necess- 
ary to point out that they furnish proof that the very conditions 
which we have set forth above as necessary for the production in 
Philadelphia of a better state of things architecturally have, as a 
matter of fact, arrived. The "arrival," however, is recent.* It 

The new era, moreover, is reinforced by recent enlistments in the professional 
ranks of a number of well-trained younger architects, who will no doubt achieve prom- 
inence later. 



would have been utterly impossible a few years ago to have made 
such an exhibition of sane architectural work deriving from Phil- 
adelhpia as Mr. Trumbauer's designs provide. Anyone glancing 
at our illustrations without any knowledge of the origin of the col- 
lection would not be tempted for a moment by any mark or sign 
to differentiate the work from good metropolitan work proceed- 
ing from the office of any of the larger architectural firms located 
in New York, Boston or Chicago. Thus to miss the stamp of local- 
ity iu the better architecture of any of our larger cities is not a very 

Ogontz, Pa. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

The building contains nine single and twenty-one box-stalls; also house quarters for 
the stud groom and twelve bedrooms for assistants. The ring stable within is 100 ft. 
square, and the building over all 175 x 250 ft. 

unusual omission, but in the case of Philadelphia it is, as we have 
seen, notable. It is all the more remarkable and significant be- 
cause these designs represent the work of a young practitioner, 
and, as can be seen, his activity has not been confined to any one 
class of work or to a few clients with unlimited taste and limited 
opportunities. It shows, moreover, that in Philadelphia as else- 
where there is a large clientele ready to accept the standard, met- 
ropolitan and authoritative thing people who have no desire "to 
break in upon apathy at any cost." That Mr. Trumbauer has been 



able to secure this public for himself or a large part of it and satisfy 
that public without "doing the Philadelphian," good or bad, is dem- 
onstrated clearly by his undoubted success, which has already over- 
passed local limits and, as is usually the case with architectural firms 
that obtain a national position, brings him commissions from other 
parts of the country. To say that this success is based in some 
measure, or even in greater measure uoon business ability than 
upon purely artistical merit is to state what is probably true of 
most architectural firms that are working in a large way, or if we 


Elkins Park, Pa. 

Horace Trurabauer, Architect. 

may so put it, working on a metropolitan basis. Standardization is 
almost as necessary here under modern conditions as it is in other 
departments of production where the output is perforce large and 
the pressure for time necessarily high. In this environment the 
artist is inevitably limited, being forbidden all those sources of in- 
spiration, which depend upon reflection and study. Under these 
circumstances recourse is most likely to be to the formula, to tradi- 
tion and to the standard. Facility becomes a prime requisite. Com- 
mon sense and its equivalent in art good taste are indispensable. 
These qualifications with a positive capacity for management, pro- 
duce the successful architect. Clearly Mr. Trumbauer possesses 





Elkins Park, Pa. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 



Elkins Park, Pa. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 



*5 3 





Radnor, Pa. 

These buildings are 178 x 164 ft. on plan, and contain 
twelve single and nine box-stalls, as well as Coachman's 
and Groom's Quarters, Tool House, Carriage House, Cart 
Shed, Machinery Room, etc. They are built of Con- 
shohocken stone. 




Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 





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Spring Lake, N. J. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

Not far away from Mr. Maloney's house is St. Catharine's Chapel which has been 
donated by Mr. Maloney to the Diocese as a memorial to his youngest daughter. 



Spring Lake, N. J. 


Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 




No. 1(121) Locust Street, Philadelphia. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

This residence is 20 x 100 ft. on plan, with a stair hall 20 ft, square, two stories 
high. The dining-room is 18 x 26 ft. The saloon meas ures 18 x 30 ft. The principal 
suite is situated on the second loor. The first floor contains the servants rooms and a 
reception room adjoining the entrance. The front is of limestone. 


10th and Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

This building is 30 x 93 ft. The principal suite is on the second floor, consisting of 
drawing-room library, dining-room and stair hall, occupying the entire floor. The house 
is constructed of limestone. 




Wyncote, Pa. 


Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

Elkins Park, Pa. 


Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

This stable is built around two courts 162 x 110 ft. It contains ten single and two- 
box-stalls,, a carriage house, cart shed, carriage shed, harness and cleaning room, cow 
stable, machinery and tool houses and living quarters for coachman and groom. 












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Newport, R. I. Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 



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these qualifications. If his work lacks the very decided individual- 
ity which has hitherto marked the better class of work in Philadel- 
phia, it is at the same time free from all eccentricity. It is never 
crude. It conforms successfully to the prevalent standards of edu- 
cated architects. His work exhibits the eclectic facility which is one 
of the characteristics of the modern American architect. Indeed, 
perhaps, it is this facile response to the current mode as much at 
home with the "classic" as with the Elizabethan or the Old Colonial 
that is responsible for the absence of any very strong personal quali- 
ties. The note of any leaning or predilection is almost wholly absent 
from the mass of the work we present. It is extremely difficult in 
it to catch the designer, so to speak, "at" any of his preferences. 
That this impersonality, accompanied by the good qualities of so- 
briety, accuracy and good taste, should have come out of Philadel- 
phia, is not only a matter for astonishment, but for congratulation. 

Newport, R. I. 


Horace Trumbauer, Architect. 

This house is 120 ft. square on plan, with a hall 32 x 72 ft., a morning room, library, 
dining-room, etc. It was built of Indiana limestone, in 19CO. 

25th Street and llth Avenue, New York City. 


IN the first part of this article (See the Architectural Record 
for January, 1903) allusion was made to the evident influence 
of such great achievements as the De Vinne building and the Hanan 
building on the design of much less costly and more commonplace 
warehouses, at least in the city of New York. Such simpler build- 
ings are scattered along the West Side, near the river and above 
West 26th street, and there are others on the sea-front of Brooklyn 
and some in different parts of the town, situated here and there. 
Of the group on the West Side, the most successful is undoubtedly 
that shown in Fig 10. Of this building, the front with the flat 
gable, seen on the extreme right of the picture, is evidently a later 
addition. It is far more in the spirit of those admirable buildings 
which are shown in our first article, Figs. I, 2 and 5, and has what 
they have not, a surprisingly ingenious and attractive management 
of the gable. It is the best assertion known of the presence behind 
the walls of a roof of very low double pitch ; and is as genuine an 
architectural effort as the pediment of the Greek temple. Then, too, 
this front is consistent in a way to gratify the most close-reasoning 
architectural student ; for there is no alternation here of square- 
head and round-head windows, but a series of segmental arches 
varied only by the obviously needed great semi-circles of the ground 
story, and the excusably modified openings of the tier below the 
gable itself. The deep reveals, too, though not comparable to 
those of the Lafayette Place building or the other at .Centre and 
White streets, are still sufficiently marked to emphasize the char- 
acter of the whole front. 

As to the older part, the building on the corner, one could wish 
away the suggested rustication of the two lower stories, not under- 
standing why a good wall of dark red brick should be broken up 
in that way. Rustication is but a poor device even in stone work, 
a wretched way of making a flat, dull wall interesting. But in 
brickwork it seems not to have that excuse which we willingly 
make for a man who is chiseling the edges of his great blocks of 
ashlar. The recessed lines are, however, used as part of the color 
pattern and they are repeated in the recessed and radiating bands 
of the great archivolts, and again echoed in larger masses by the 
horizontal lintels, sills and string courses of light stone. It is not 
a very daring way of giving polychromatic interest to the front, 
but these attempts should be made as often as occasion serves, 
until a more brilliant thought occurs to someone and a method 
of design in red and buff be discovered. 



The best thing about the building, after all, its salvation as a 
design, is in the treatment of the corners with massive and un- 
broken piers, so broad that the window-pierced wall between does 
not look too much like a lantern. It is a thing which modern 
designers are too shy of, this strengthening of their corners, and 
costly uptown clubhouses suffer from the unnecessary weakening 
of a wall near the angle. It does not in any way break in upon 
this system that the farther corner pier, on the right, is pierced 
\\ith small windows. The necessity of those windows is so obvious, 
there, in that part of the 
building which is farthest 
from the abundant light of 
the avenue front; and they 
are so simply treated, that 
this pier is felt to be at one 
with those at the other end 
of the structure. More- 
over, the middle pier, wider 
than the others, helps 
greatly in this general ef- 
fect of massiveness. 

Fig. 1 1 , the front, Xo. 549 
west 26th street, depends 
much more for its effective- 
ness upon its color combin- 
ations. The voussoirs are 
alternatingly of dark red 
brick and gray limestone, 
and the broad band is of 
the paler material. The 
openings are fairly com- 
bined; but the great groups 
of windows suffer terribly 
from having an insufficient 
reveal for how should 
such a window recess, 14 ft. 
wide or more, pass with only 4 inches break above, and only 8 
inches below, where they are the deepest. This thinness of the 
ostensible wall tends also to destroy the good effect produced by 
the large, wide end piers. They are pierced with small windows ; 
and this by itself might pass, for we found it to be of no hurt 
whatever in the warehouse building Fig. 10 ; but the fact that these 
windows have 8-inch jambs only, which width again is invaded by 
the wooden moldings of the frame, deprives the piers of their 
appearance of solidity. 

FIG. 11. NO. 549 W. 26TH STREET. 
New York City. C. H. Caldwell, Architect. 



There is -on West 2/th street another front almost exactly like 
this one, and it is clear that the factory and warehouse complete 
is carried through the block 200 ft. long. The reserved space seen 
on the right of the building in Fig. n, is closed at this end with 
what seems a very cleverly designed gateway wall ; but this wall 
appears to front a low structure, a sort of lean-to attached to the 
larger warehouse. 

Fig. 12, No. 547 West 2/th street, is interesting when studied in 
comparison with the building shown in Fig. n. In fact, one of the 

most attractive things 
about this examination 
which we are conducting 
is the necessary compari- 
son to be drawn between 
buildings so like in char- 
acter and in the general 
principle of their design, 
while they are yet varied 
so much in distribution in 
the larger details. That is 
the way. in which a style of 
architecture has always de- 
veloped itself not in bold 
attempts to break away 
from all preceding prac- 
tice, but in slow modifica- 
tion, each man- trying to do 
a little better, than his pre- 
decessor. . No doubt the 
appearance, now and then, 
of an innovating genius is 
necessary. to healthy prog- 
ress, and so it will be found 
to have been in this matter 
of the round arched, red 
brick warehouse, for some 
one of these interesting buildings must have been a very bold en- 
terprise on the part of the architect who devised it. But the modi- 
fications seen here as Figs. 10, n, 12 and those to follow, and 
compared together illustrate the growth of the new style we are 
considering as well as does the study of twelfth century, proto- 
Gothic churches help toward a comprehension of Chartres Cathe- 

Fig. 13 is a less attractive building because of the broad surfaces 
of yellow brick which surround and enclose the groups of windows. 
When will designers in what is meant for polychromy realize that 

FIG. 12. . NO. 549 W. 27TH STREET. 
New York City. 



they must not use their two colors (when there are only two) in 
masses so nearly alike in size? The chainages treated pilasterwise 
and dividing the building into three great panels are excellent ; 
in them the due relations of lighter color with darker surroundings 
are preserved. The larger and the smaller quoins, all having a 
certain decided projection from the wall, leading up, as a vertical 
member, to the corbelled overhang above the fourth tier of arched 
windows,- form a capital motive and are almost enough to make a 
design of the building in spite of other less fortunate features. 
Evidently the two 
uppermost stories 
are an addition, and 
a badly conceived 
one, not to be con- 
sidered as part of 
the design. 

Fig. 4, a building 
on Seventh avenue 
at the corner of 
West Sixteenth 
street, eschews col- 
or and brings us 
back to a gravity 
of design not to be 
surpassed by any- 
thing that we have 
consulted in this 
study. The two 
show-windows, of 
course, mar the ef- 
fect, and this is 
what the artist lost 
when he placed his 
building in a quar- 
ter not quite so in- 
accessible to the 
shopping world as the buildings we have been considering in this 
number Figs. 10-13. It is odd how such a blot will hurt a whole 
building, even one as grave and dignified as the present one. Let 
the reader cover those two show-windows with a bit of dark paper 
and see how the building gains in charm immediately. There is 
not, however, much novelty of design in the building, as it is. Prob- 
ably the old abandonment, in what may be called the attic, of the 
system of eight openings on one front and sixteen on the other 
divided into two uneven masses, and the substitution for that of a 

FIG. 13. 
New York City. 

NO. 500 WEST .'50TH STREET. 

Romeyn & Stever, Architects. 


New York City. Clinton & Russell, Architects. 


continuous belt of smaller arches is the best thing about the design, 
grave and restrained as it is in all its parts. 

And now we come to some buildings of the plainest sort, build- 
ings as completely devoid of architectural treatment in the common 
sense as we found last month the Terminal Warehouse on the 
North River. The great factory building shown in Fig. 15 is in 
Long Island City on the Brooklyn side of the East River; and in 
the immediate neighborhood of this are other towering masses of 
brickwork of very similar design. One cannot but care for these, 
because every great surface of hard, rough, well-burned bricks of 
dusky red color is attractive ; and there is nowhere in the world 
more perfect and beautiful material in this way than we use in and 
about New York city. It has always been excellent, this New 
York brickwork its conditions being admitted. The old-fashioned 
12-inch party wall was a good brickwall or it would not have carried 
the floors and roofs of two adjoining 20 ft. houses. When the 
wall was to be 24 in: thick it was always better built, even in 
proportion, than when the wall was thinner ; nor did the New York 
bricklayer ever consent readilv to the dreadful tricks of country 
masons in leaving great hollow places in the heart of the rising 
mass of masonry. The present writer has known well-esteemed 
contractors in the smaller towns anywhere within the five hundred 
miles radius who defended the practice of leaving those dreadful 
gaps in their structure from no matter what fantastic reason; but 
he never has known a New, York builder, boss or foreman, to 
suggest anything of the kind. Always, if the smooth pressed 
brick could be got rid of when a facade was in consideration, that 
same common brick was as effective in appearance as it was solid 
in reality. Those who cared for rational design thirty years ago 
used to fight with their employers for the privilege of building the 
front wall of the same materials as the back ; thus in a corner house 
one would beg for permission to use throughout for the flank and 
the front as well, the common hard brick, that thought good enough 
for a wall facing the back yard, and thus to bring the three 
visible wall surfaces into harmony with one another and everywhere 
more effective than any one of them would have been if faced up 
with Philadelphia pressed brick. 

So it is that the huge mass seen in Fig. 15 with its buttress-piers 
dividing the external surface of its walls and suggesting extreme 
stiffness of construction, and with plain round arched window- 
openings, level brick cornices marked by a very slight corbelling 
out in a somewhat ornamental pattern, is extremely effective even 
in the absence of deep reveals to the windows. The walls must be 
thick one is sure that they are thick; and the thought occurs at 
once that the deep jambs have been given to the interior because 





that additional floor-space was useful, and the panel below the 
window-sill could also be utilized in each of the working lofts. 

With Fig. 16 we reach a factory building in which a wholly dif- 
ferent programme has been carried out. This is in Chicago at 
the corner of East Harrison street and South Franklin street. It 
is as obviously a brick building as any of the dignified factories 
that we have been treating in these two articles, but here the spirit 
of Graeco-Roman art has been strong with the artist, and we have 


Chicago, 111. 

Holablrd & Roche, Architects. 

a building of as purely classical type as the circumstances could 
have been made to allow. There are tombs still standing, in ruin, 
here and there in the Campagna, in which the same effect is pro- 
duced, the effect of pilasters and entablatures carried out in brick- 
work; but in those Roman instances there can be no doubt that 
the whole was to have been covered with that splendid hard and 
smooth stucco of which the Roman builders had the secret. So that 
they must have been intended to look as much like monoliths as an 
Italo-Greek temple must have appeared when it was coated with its 


thin film of plastering and elaborately painted in bright colors. 
Here, however, the brickwork, square and simple or molded into 
delicate forms, had to be left to tell its own story. The necessity of 
making the overhanging cornice of something else than brick is, 
of course, a weakness of this sort of design. The attic wall seen 
above the cornice is, again, good solid brickwork with a molded 
cap or surbase and very properly and skillfully adapted to the pur- 
poses of a solid parapet, but the overhanging cornice which the 
style calls for, and which must perforce project so many feet and 
inches, is a thing which brick building does not allow of. A bold 

Chicago, 111. 


Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 

composition in terra-cotta indeed but that does not seem to have 
been admitted or admissable in this case. 

With Fig. 17 we are still in Chicago and the twin warehouses 
of Butler Brothers are made exactly alike in their external treat- 
ment, in order that their close connection may be perfectly under- 
stood. This, and the placing of the signs at the corners most 
nearly approaching one another, point to just such an attempt 
to claim kinship between two great buildings, each of which may 
be supposed to help its neighbor, as we note in that custom so 
familiar to students of Venice of springing an arch with a richly 
sculptured gable or wall-piece above it, across the narrow calle 



which divides two case held by the same family. It is to be noted 
that here the buildings can be seen from a very considerable dis- 
tance, namely, across the Chicago river, and from several different 
points of view; and therefore the use of elaborate patterns of 
brickwork near the top of the building is in every way justifiable. 
It is interesting to note that the small squared window-openings 
suggestion, as in the case of the Garvin Building, illustrated in the 
January number of this magazine, the idea of great lofts used 
only for storage, has allowed of great irregularity of arrangement. 
The windows being once for all set in firm horizontal bands, which 
bands are emphasized by moulded courses at sill and lintel, it has 
been thought that their spacing along these horizontal lines was 
comparatively indifferent and so it is. One could wish for even 
a freer use of that obvious plan of securing light where it is wanted. 
The windows looking on the narrow street dividing the two ware- 
houses are much larger, and are filled with sash of the usual kind, 
as befits that part of such a building which is in close connection 
with the business office. But, when it was decided to break the 
undue height of the building by very strongly marked horizontal 
bands, it was also an obvious resolve to put these bands near the 
top, where their effect would be in the not doubtful appeal to per- 
sons viewing the whole group of buildings from a distance of six 
hundred or a thousand feet. It is just within the limits of proper 
criticism to ask whether it would not have been better to have 
started the very effective arcade of arches on corbelled-out piers 
\\hich form the cornice proper from a more solid looking wall than 
that produced by the two stories which are wrought into a diaper 
pattern of lozenges with a rosette in the middle of each. It does 
not do much harm to a wall so evidently massive as this; and yet 
one wishes the pattern other than that it is one wishes it a mosaic 
of horizontals and verticals rather than of interlacing diagonals, 
which 'look as if they might slip, each joint rotating on its rivet. 

For this reason we find the charm" of the warehouse of Kelley, 
Maus& Company greater than that, of the twin buildings just named, 
and in fact, it is not disagreeable to close this inquiry, for the pres- 
ent, with this most interesting structure. Brick of three colors 
used with singular judgement has been so employed in a bold mo- 
saic that the small windows, which -were all that the warehouse 
needs, help to make up 'the mosaic: itself; their shadows and their 
darker surfaces opening into the interior telling as at least two addi- 
tional terms In the .proportion -of varying colors. In fact, if 
one we're! to ".ask permission to change this design in any part it 
would be only 'to be allowed to block up the furthermost vertical 
row of windows" on the left in Fig. 18 and enlarge by two feet the 
solid pier -at the'. right -hand of the same front. The need of a 



massive corner pier is one that has not been thought of at the 
right time ; though indeed when one looks at the building as it is 
seen in Fig. 17, this pier seems massive enough for anything, as it 
is at least two feet wide on one side of the angle, if but narrow on 
the other side. 

With this we must close the present inquiry ; but there is much 
to be said about the designs in simple brickwork which are not 
strictly warehouses nor yet factories, and to these we may be able 
to give attention at another time. There is something to be 

Chicago, 111. 


Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 

said for the theory broached now and then by the persons not enam- 
ored of our present architecture of mere prete'nce, that the 'de- 
signers should be restrained to square masses -arid .sharp .corners 
and plain windows for twenty years to come with sculpture denied 
them and all the bad architectural : forms /a&M.^J^hen;' it is thought 
by some, a chance for design rightly so-called, might be iound'in. 
the very inability to misuse the old forms. At all events, there is 
great delight in watching the attempts of those who willingly take 
up that course of thought and push it in a sensible way and with 

Russell Sturgis. 



Kansas City, Mo. 


McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

Kansas City, Mo. Van Brunt & Howe, Architects. 



^K T is said that the moral, social and commercial growth of a 
J- people may be traced from a study of its architectural monu- 
ments. If this is true, then the progress of events, which in 
scarcely more than fifty years has raised the community of Kansas 
City, Missouri, from an insignificant landing-place on the Missouri 
river to a city of the first class, will be found to have left an in- 
delible imprint on its buildings, both public and private. 

In older communities, which have had the good fortune to in- 
herit through a long succession of years the traditions of their for- 
bears, the transitions are less violent and less marked. In the cities 
along the Atlantic seaboard the story is told which had its beginning 
a couple of hundred years ago and whose end is not yet, and the 
architectural development in these cases is often marked by epochs 
some of which will number as many years of duration as Kansas 
City can number years of existence. What the latter has done has all 
been worked out within the lifetime of men who are yet comparatively 
young, and there are many living within its limits to-day who can 
easily look back to the time when the site of every business building 
now standing within the commercial heart of the city was but 
prairie, swamp or woodland. 

The famous and historic Santa Fe trail passed from the old levee 
at the riverside up the bluff and southward through a ravine now 
filled with tall brick and stone buildings, and daily crowded with the 

i 3 6 


busy people of a great commercial center. The old prairie schooner 
has given place to the cable and electric car, and the water course of 
the old trail is buried by the grader's cart thirty feet below the level 
on which these cars run and on which these buildings stand. 

In the early days, when there was no Kansas City, and when 
Westport Landing was all that indicated a difference between this and 
any other point on the Missouri River, the architecture of the settle- 
ment was naturally of a primitive type, and buildings were con- 
structed, barring a few exceptions, with the one idea of strict utility. 
Perhaps the more important exceptions were the homesteads of the 
earlier and most prosperous of the inland settlers, who placed their 


Kansas City, Mo. 

Van Brunt & Sons, Architects. 

homes further back from the river and who built after the fashion of 
the Southern planter. These houses were low, rambling buildings, 
one or two stories high, with wide vejandas, and were flanked by 
straggling out-buildings ; none were beautiful save in that they sug- 
gested the idea of home and comfort. These landmarks are rapidly 
disappearing, driven out by the march of commercia.) progress and 
giving way to the "addition" of the real estate operator and to the 
growth of the smart suburban village. 

It is not. generally to holders of these properties that Kansas City 
owes its architectural development, although in some cases these 
men kept fully apace with the march of the city's progress, and in- 
deed were largely instrumental in directing its course. The con- 
stantly increasing volume of the business of Kansas City as the 




Kansas City, Mo. 

Burnham & Root, Architects. 


Southwest became more settled, and as the commerce of Mexico and 
the remote Western States and Territories became more active and 
assured, brought many energetic and enterprising men to this gate- 
way of the Southwest. That which was but a mere steamboat landing 
became in an incredibly short time a bustling but raw-edged city. 

The prosperity which came to the citizens reached its architectural 
expression in a style, if so it may be called, which finds its prototype 
even in the earlier and Eastern cities, and which has been called the 
"American Vernacular." This architecture was almost absolutely 
free from the limitations of academic tradition, and was mainly the 
work of the enterprising carpenter, who had not hesitated to add the 
word "architect" to his shop sign. Vainglorious and pretentious, 
often very elaborate and costly both in its interior and exterior, 
styles and "motifs" were mingled in a manner to drive to despair 
the purist or scholar. Wooden towers of grotesque type, broad 
overhanging cornices with brackets of the most elaborate of jig- 
sawed patterns, window-heads, balustrades, porches, balconies, 
everthing was there that the ingenuity of the carpenter-architect 
could devise or the most exacting client demand. Examples of the 
work of this period are scattered through the older portions of the 
city, and are repeated in every neighboring city along the river. 
\Yhat is written of Kansas City is equally true of St. Joseph, Mo., 
and of Atchison, Leaven worth and Lawrence, Kansas. 

The early topographical conditions of Kansas City, with its ragged 
bluffs, deep ravines and high ridges, offered about as unpromising a 
site for a large city as could be imagined. But the enterprise and 
perseverance of the people have largely surmounted all such diffi- 
culties. The process of leveling the hills and filling the ravines has 
often led to most romantic results, and at one time it was no unusual 
thing to see a building of the old school perched on top of an em- 
bankment 25 or 30 feet above the street level and apparently as in- 
accessible as though on top of the Rocky Mountains. 

Up to about the year 1860 Kansas City was strictly a steamboat 
town, and it was not until about that time that the first railroad made 
its entry, bringing with it the conditions for a speedy and radical 
change in all departments of the city's progress ; changes as impor- 
ant in its architecture as in its commerce, though perhaps less rapid 
in the former. It was not, however, until the city had secured an ad- 
vanced position as a railroad center, and had been well advertised 
as such, that the architect "in propria persona" made his first ap- 
pearance. It was at about this time that the people realized that 
something better could be done than had been so far accomplished, 
and soon some excellent work was completed. The First Congre- 
gational Church is an example one of the first really good build- 
ings which up to that time had been built. The building was very 



Kansas City, Mo. 


Burnham & Root, Architects. 



carefully studied by its architect, Mr. Adriance Van Brunt, and is 
to-day one of the best church buildings in Kansas City. 

The great commercial prosperity which was found in the South- 
west for the ten years prior to 1885 culminated in Kansas City, as it 
did in most other cities of the West, in a building "boom," which 
began about that time and lasted four years or more. During this 
period much of the best architectural work was done in this city and 
its vicinity. New men had come into the field, many of them better 
trained and better equipped than most of those in practice there; 


Kansas City, Mo. 

Van Brunt & Howe, Architects. 

money was plentiful, and Eastern capital already seeking permanent 
investment in the bricks and mortar of Kansas City. 

Kansas City needed nearly everything which marks the archi- 
tecture of a modern city. There was no first-class hotel or office 
building, no large mercantile houses, only one or two good 
churches, and not one first-class retail store building. Now her 
people feel that they are at least as well equipped in all of these par- 
ticulars as any city of its size in the country. 

In 1886 the Board of Trade determined to erect a new building 
for its own use and for rental purposes. A limited competition of 



Kansas City, Mo. 


Winslow & Wetherell, Architects 



architects was organized, all, with one exception, from outside the 
limits of Kansas City, and the choice of plans fell to that of Messrs. 
Burnham and Root, of Chicago. From the plans and under the 
superintendence of these gentlemen the present building of the 
Board of Trade was built. This was the first fire-proofed building 
erected in Kansas City, and its progress was watched with great 
interest by many to whom "fire-proof construction" was but a 
name. At the time of the conception of this building the Romanesque 
wave, whose impulse had been given so vigorously by Mr. Richard- 
son, was at its height, and Messrs. Burnham and Root designed 
their building in that style, adapting it to the exactions of some- 
times unsympathetic requirements and to the possibilities of steel 
and iron. The building is of red brick and red terra cotta, and con- 
tains the hall and offices of the Board of Trade, the rooms of the 
Commercial Club, and much other rental space. 

The erection of this first large building by a Chicago firm appears 
to have called the attention of capitalists of that city to the possi- 
bilities of Kansas City, and two companies were organized, one to 
build the American Bank Building, the other to erect and equip the 
Midland Hotel. Both of these works were placed by their projectors 
in the hands of the same firm of architects as were engaged on the 
Board of Trade, and both were of fire-proofed construction. They 
are built in local and pressed brick with terra cotta and brown- 
stone trimmings. It was a rather curious coincidence that the first 
three of the large important and fire-proof buildings should have 
fallen all at once into the hands of one firm. 

While Chicago capital was engaged in these enterprises, 
other money centers were active. The New England Life Insurance 
Co. decided to build a fire-proofed office building, and erected it on 
the northeast corner of Ninth and Wyandotte streets. It is seven 
stories high, and besides the offices of the company it contains the 
rooms of the New England National Bank, the New England 
Safety Deposit and Trust Co. and much other rental space. Loyal to 
its New England associations, the company built from Massachusetts 
stone, using throughout the Longmeadow stone. The architects were 
Messrs. Winslow and Wetherell, of Boston, who chose a free treat- 
ment of Italian Renaissance for the style in which to work. The 
New York Life Insurance Company also determined to build, and 
after a competition of Eastern and Western architects gave the work 
to Messrs. McKim, Mead and White, of New York, who erected at 
the head of Baltimore avenue on Ninth street the present building. 
It is ten full stories high, the highest office building in Kansas City, 
built in fire-proof material throughout, with an exterior of local 
pressed brick, granite and sandstone. It contains 375 rooms besides 
the great banking rooms on the main floor, cost in the vicinity of 



Kansas City, Mo. 


Van Brunt & Howe, Architects. 



$2,000,000, and is the largest and best equipped office building in 
Kansas City. 

The Gibraltar Building, the Bayard Building and the Bryant 
Building, of which Messrs. Van Brunt and Howe, of Kansas City, 
were the architects, are good examples of the best office buildings 
not strictly fire-proofed. The first two were built with Longmeadow 
stone fronts, and the Gibraltar is in slow-burning construction. The 
Postal Telegraph Building, Messrs. Root and Siemens, architects, 
of Kansas City, is a good example of office building dealing 
principally with a north light where a large amount of glass is 


Kansas City, Mo. 

Van Brunt & Howe, Architects. 

essential. The Massachusetts Building, by the same architects as 
were employed on the New England Life Insurance Building, is an 
excellent building in slow-burning construction. It is owned in 
Boston and is built in local bricks and Longmeadow stone. 

The Bryant Building was completed this spring ; it is said to be 
one of the best lighted and ventilated office buildings in Kansas 

The extensive additions to the old Federal Building, which was 
purchased by the Fidelity Trust Company, of Kansas City, for 
its own use, gives to Kansas City another absolutely fire-proofed 





thoroughly equipped office building, of most substantial character. 
Its principal interest centers in the great banking room, which is 
one hundred and ten feet long, fifty feet wide, and twenty-six feet 
high, finished in marble, bronze, and mahogany. The architects 
are Messrs. Van Brunt & Howe. 

The new steel and masonry office building on Baltimore avenue, 
known as the Dwight Building, by C. A. Smith, architect, is a seven- 
story fire-proofed building, built more nearly from the modern 
methods of steel construction than any building in the city. 

Among the mercantile buildings one of the largest and most im- 
portant is the great retail house of the Emery, Bird, Thayer Dry 


Kansas City, Mo. 

Root & Siemens, Architects. 

Goods Co., Van Brunt & Howe, architects. It has a full frontage on 
three streets, and runs back to an alley in the rear, making it an 
isolated building, 125 by 250 feet, six stories high, and is built in 
local bricks and Lake Superior red sandstone. While not a fire- 
proofed building, it is protected by all the devices known in "fire- 
proofed" work. It was one of the first buildings in Kansas City 
built, so far as its lower stories are concerned, in pier construction, 
with its actual and theoretical loads carefully adjusted to the soil on 
which they rest. This soil is generally a fine, hard, yellow clay, 
very tough and dense and capable of great resistance, but most 
of the earlier building foundations were laid without much calcula- 
tion as to loads, the idea being that stonework was cheap and it 
was only necessary to be sure to get enough of it. A novel feature 






of this building is its open arcade on the three streets, with the show 
windows set back some six or eight feet from the building line, 
making a covered promenade where in bad weather passers may ex- 
amine the displays while well sheltered. So far as I know this is the 
only large example of its kind in this country, and while there is ap- 
parently a waste of room the owners consider the advertisement an 
ample compensation. 

Kansas City has some very excellent examples of wholesale and 
jobbing houses, among the best of which, perhaps, may be men- 

Kansas City, Mo. 


Architects, F. E. Hill, and Gunn & Curtis. 

tioned the building of Swofford Bros, and that of Burnham, Hanna, 
Munger Dry Goods Company ; the former, by Shepard & Farrar ; 
the latter by the late Mr. George Matthews. 

The great wagon and carriage house and wareroom of the Stude- 
baker Brothers, by Messrs. Root & Siemens, is one of the largest 
and most complete buildings of its kind in the western country. 

The "New Baltimore" is a fire-proofed hotel of 225 rooms just 
completed from the plans of Louis Curtis, of Kansas City. 
Its floors and partitions are built in expanded metal construction. 



The exterior is of red pressed brick with gray brick corners and cor- 
nices, and terra cotta trimmings. 

The new Coates House is an hotel of 350 rooms, finished a few 
years ago, Van Brunt & Howe, architects. It was built in sections 
on the site of the old hotel of the same name, which was one of the 
landmarks of Kansas City for many years. The south wing was built 
as an addition to the old building, which was afterwards torn down 
and replaced by a new fire-proofed structure. This hotel is consid- 

Kansas City, Mo. 


Van Brunt & Howe, Architects. 

ered one of the most popular and attractive in the West, and has 
some unusual features in its interior planning. 

Kansas City is not rich in ecclesiastical architecture. The First 
Congregational Church, already mentioned, the Calvary Baptist 
Church, the First Christian Science Church, the Second Presby- 
terian Church (A. Van Brunt, architect), and perhaps one of two 
others would complete the list of those worthy of special mention. 
The Calvary Baptist Church is a Romanesque building of somewhat 
florid type, in gray stone, and was designed, after a competition of 
architects, by Messrs. Edbrooke and Burnham, of Chicago. The 



Scientist Church, in the English style, is an interesting but modest 
building by Mr. Matthews. It is a most excellent interior. The 
Cathedral is remarkable as one of the buildings which one would 
not like to have done, and it is the product of the period to which 

reference was made 
of this article ; a 
absolutely without 
cedent in form or 
terior, with its great 
and plaster sup- 
the plaster ceiling, 
rect to all the ex- 
At the present 
under construction 

in the early pages 
fagade and tower 
architectural pre- 
detail, and an in- 
columns of wood 
porting nothing but 
giving the lie di- 

moment there are 
several new and 

Kansas City, Mo. 


Geo. Mathews, Architect. 

and costly churches ; among these, the Second Christian Science 
Church, Frederick R. Comstock, of New York, architect, and the 
Prospect Avenue Christian Church, Van Brunt & Howe, architects. 
Both of these buildings are of stone, and both designed in purely 
academic style. 



Of its domestic architecture Kansas City may well be proud, and 
few cities of even larger growth, wealth and population can make 
a better showing. The people love and appreciate their homes, and 
make much of their home life. Small, attractive dwellings in good 
architectural style are numerous, many of them beautiful with- 
out and within. Among the later homes of a more important and 
striking character, which perhaps illustrate best the archi- 
tectural growth in these lines, may be mentioned the homes of Mrs. 
A. H. Armour, Mr. Kirkland B. Armour, Mr. E. W. Smith and Mr. 


Kansas City, Mo. 

Geo. Mathews, Architect. 

August R. Meyer, all in the suburb known as Hyde Park, and all by 
Messrs. Van Brunt & Howe ; the John Perry home, by Mr. F. E. 
Hill, architect, of Kansas City; the George Jones and L. B. Price 
homes, both by Messrs. Shepard and Farrar, architects, of Kansas 
City ; the homes of Mr. Langston Bacon and Mr. Robert Taylor, by 
Messrs. Root and Siemens. The house of Mrs. Armour is a careful 
study in Italian, while that of her son, Mr. K. B. Armour, is in the 
late French Gothic. In both cases as much study was bestowed on the 
interior as on the exterior, that they might be grammatical and con- 
sistent. The Smith house is reminiscent of Cambridge, Salem or 



Portsmouth, and its details have been carefully modeled from the 
examples of these old New England towns. 

Oak Hall, the home of Col. W. R. Nelson, is a building or group 
of buildings of no particular style, but full,- both within and without, 
of interesting details and appointments. It is built of yellow native 

limestone, and seems 
process of nature out 
ings. It is the joint 
and Messrs. Gunn and 
The school build- 
illustrate all the 
architectural growth, 
equal to the best in 
them are the work of 
Hackney, who, in 
Aclriance Van Brunt, 
Public Library. This 
less academic style of 

to have grown by a 
its rural surround- 
work of Mr. F. E. Hill 

ings of Kansas City 
phases of the city's 
but the late ones are 
the country. Most of 
the late William F. 
conjunction with Mr. 
designed the new 
is built in a more or 
classic architecture, 

Kansas City, Mo. 


Adriance Van Brunt, Architect. 

and is equipped with fire-proof book-stacks and all the require- 
ments of a modern library. Its material is a Missouri white lime- 
stone and Texas granite. 

The public buildings of Kansas City offer the usual examples of 
good and bad architecture to be found in every new community of 



such a scale as this. The City Hall and Court House are expensive 
buildings, but not well planned for the purposes for which they were 
built. The County Jail, near the Court House, is a pleasing excep- 
tion. It was designed by Mr. Adriance Van Brunt, and is one of the 
best works from this gentleman's hand. Of the new Government 
building only a word need be said. It is of the kind of building 
which for many years the architects of the country have been com- 
bating, and it is unfortunate that this new building could not have 

Kansas City, Mo. 


Adriance Van Brunt, Architect. 

been built under the recent laws created for the improvement of Gov- 
ernment architecture. 

One of the public buildings of which Kansas City is justly proud 
is the Convention Hall. The present building occupies the site of 
the former building of the same general dimensions, which was de- 
stroyed by fire on April 4, 1900. The Democratic National Con- 
vention was to meet in this building on July 4 of the same year, and 
this now seemed almost an impossibility. Before the flames were 
extinguished on the old building, however, a new one had been 
pledged, contracts made, and in less than ninety days from the date 
oi the fire the new Convention Hall stood on the site of the old one ; 



a fire-proofed building, 198x314 feet, with a seating capacity of 
more than 20,000 persons, under a steel roof which spanned the 
whole without a column, and at a cost of $350,000. 

The Democratic Convention was opened on the Fourth of July, 
1900, in a building belonging to the same class as the Madison 
Square Garden in New York, and which lacked very little of com- 
pletion. Its exterior is cut stone and brick; its interior fireproofed 
throughout, and its floor area larger than that of Madison Square 
Garden. The architect of the original building was F. E. 


Kansas City, Mo. 

F. E. Hill, Architect. 

Hill, who made the plans for the second building, with the assist- 
ance of an advisory board of architects. The achievement, from 
purely a constructional point of view, was one of the most remark- 
able which has ever been brought to my notice. 

Among the most important of the later buildings is the new 
Willis Wood Theatre, designed by Mr. Louis Curtis, after the 
modern French school. Its front is entirely in gray terra cotta. 

An unfortunate impediment to a more rapid and permanently suc- 
cessful development in architectural lines is the desire on the part of 
many of those practising their profession here to be original. These 



men lose sight of the fact that originality without method, and in- 
vention without temperance and a proper and wholesome respect 
for traditions, may often lead to what is merely grotesque. Kansas 
City has some startling examples of this disorder, to which space will 
not admit a fuller reference. 

It may be that we are near the beginning of a new building era. 
We have yet to point to our first sky-scraper, and it is to be hoped 
that before the time comes we shall have learned the lessons of pro- 
fessional self-control. It is somewhat appalling to think what might 
happen were it otherwise. 

Frank Maynard Howe. 

Kansas City, Mo. 


F. E. Hill, Architect. 


Central Park West and 96th Street, New York City. Carrfere & Hastings, Architects. 

Copyright, 1904, by Joel W. Thome. 


<g1CIENCE and the industrial arts are called upon frequently to 
K-) invent new terms for new discoveries and inventions. The 
growing corpulency of our dictionaries attests the energy of the 
demand. "Ions," "Coherer," "Radium," "Polonium" to men- 
tion the products of the last few days only evince the rapidity 
of the collaterial movement of language and knowledge. 

It is, however, a rare occasion that demands a new expression 
from Art, and still more seldom arrives a necessity that produces 
a specific call upon Architecture to embody in its own particular 
terms, a new social fact. And yet, pondering on the phenomenal 
increase of the Christian Science sect within recent years, the 
question may well have occurred to many: "When this persuasion 
commences to erect places of worship, what shall we find to be the 
architectural expression for a Christian Science Church ?" 

"Something synonymous, if not identical, with the Protestant 
Congregational meeting-house" is, of course, the obvious answer, 
all the more obvious, indeed, because in so many cases the fol- 
lowers of Mrs. Eddy established themselves at first in buildings 
originally consecrated to some one of the many forms of "the dis- 
sidence of Dissent." And yet, clearly, provided architecture may 
rightly be expected to suggest if not positively indicate some- 
thing of the spirit of the faith it houses, it might well be called 
upon for some utterance more explicit than a mere reiteration of 
a Baptist or Presbyterian building to express a creed that ap- 
parently concerns itself so immediately with the terrestial wel- 
fare of man, rather than, as in the case of other religions, only 
proximately, and as a mere inconsequential detail of a salvation 
consummated essentially beyond the grave. Nearly all rituals, it 
is true, have prayers for the sick and the dying, but the health 
of the body is not one of their chief concerns, hardly one of their 
interests at all, and a doctrine that addresses itself in no small 
measure to the constitutional well-being of the individual and not 
exclusively "ad majorem dei gloriam" with a "fearful looking for- 
ward to judgment and fiery indignation," contains a novel element 
that the architect cannot ignore. 

Designs, so to speak, fresh from the source are not to be ex- 
pected in these days, least of all in the case of a religious body 
whose John the Baptist even, had not uplifted his voice in the 
wilderness a decade or so ago. Such an architectural expression 
as the Catholic faith found in Gothic architecture is, of course, 
not within the range of contemplation. The opportunity in the 
present case is insufficient even if the state of architecture to-day 
did not preclude it. Still, all limitations admitted, there re- 



mained room for legitimate expectation that the design of a. Chris- 
tian Science Church should contain much that is architecturally 
novel and expressive. It is the reasonableness of this expectation 
that gives interest in the pages of this magazine to the experiment 
recently finished on Central Park West and 96th street in New 
York City. The building is not the first erected for a Christian 
Science congregation, but within our knowledge it is the first 
capital enterprise of the kind undertaken on a scale so large and 
with means so abundant that the architectural problem was as- 


Central Park West and 9Gth Street, New York City. Carrgre & Hastings, Architects. 

Decorations by Charles H. Cottrell. 

sured of all the conditions necessary for adequate solution. The 
site selected was of ample dimensions and excellently located for 
its purpose. The expenditures permitted were large and suffi- 
cient. The exterior design and plan were committed to a firm 
of architects that is in the opinion of many at the top of the pro- 
fession, and the interior arrangements, decorations and equipment 
were placed in the hands of a decorator who is both a competent 
artist and an active and intelligent member of the church organi- 
zation. The result is a building of the highest import at least to 
Christian Scientists. If we may not speak of a cathedral, in this 


case, we certainly possess the metropolitan church. We have 
already discussed in these pages the architectural merits of the 
design. Our remaining task is to illustrate the now completed 
edifice and describe its apartments, so many of which will appear 
unecclesiastical to old notions. 

The History of the Church. 

The building recently erected by the First Church of Christ, 
Scientist, at Central Park West and 96th street, is a material 
representation of that which the church that built it stands for in 
the realm of ideals. Of enduring material, built for daily service as 
well as weekly meetings, beautiful within and without, it shadows 
forth to a degree the thought which created it. 

The Christian Scientists of New York connected with the First 
Church have wandered long in the wilderness of leased and pur- 
chased temporary meeting places, but at last they have found for 
themselves a habitation after the pattern of the vision they have 
ever been trying to make real. 

In the bringing forth of their church home they have spared 
nothing material that was required to make the spiritual effective 
among men. Painting and carving and architectural work have 
been conceived with little reference to financial limitations and 
the result has justified the effort. Taking council of utility and 
grace rather than of the traditions of the ecclesiastical elders, many 
new expedients have been used and the completed work marks a 
radical departure from other church buildings. To arrive at this 
end, the growing congregation had followed a long course of self- 
denial and avoided debt and its limitations by accepting unsatis- 
factory halls and churches until it could complete the demonstra- 
tion of the power of right thought over material restrictions. 

Sixteen years ago the church was chartered with Mrs. Augusta 
E. Stetson as pastor, and it is mainly due to her continued faith, 
understanding and energy that the present building has been made 
possible. The church was housed the first year in a small hall at 
the corner of 47th street and Fifth avenue. From this the grow- 
ing congregation moved to a hall at 138 Fifth avenue; from there 
is was obliged by growth to move to Hardman Hall at Fifth ave- 
nue and iQth street. Later it again removed and "occupied what 
was once the Rutger Presbyterian Church on Madison avenue 
and 29th street, and there found rest for three years. In January, 
1896, All Souls' Church on 48th street was acquired and radically 
changed in structure, only the walls being left undisturbed. For 
seven years this building sufficed, but the growing attendance and 
membership made another change necessary and the land on the 
corner of Central Park West and 96th street was purchased four 

1 62 


Central Park West and 96th Street, New York City. Carrfere & Hastings, Architects. 


years ago. Carrere & Hastings were asked to prepare plans for 
a building to seat twenty-two hundred. 

The building finally produced has been to a remarkable degree 
a development rather than the fulfilment of a formulated plan. It 
was thought at that time that $300,000 would be ample to build 
what was required. When the plans and estimates were furnished, 
however, it was seen that they would not meet the ideals of those 
who wished the work done. Not content with brick and Indiana 
stone, Concord granite was ordered, though the cost of this mate- 
rial in itself, when set and under roof would be $400,000. 

It was then found that even at a cost of $550,000 the reading 
room, Sunday-school rooms and offices for the practitioners and 
church officials must be provided for in the basement. This did 
not accord with Christian Science ideas, and though the cost was 
raised to $750,000 the change was made and the rooms placed 
above the auditorium and three elevators arranged to meet the 
needs occasioned by the change. 

It was then discovered that a tower of a more expensive de- 
sign would add to the beauty of the structure and this was also 
ordered. Finally, all limitations were ignored, new features were 
added as they were required to make the church more perfect in 
beauty and utility. Money came in steadily to meet every demand 
promptly, the twelve hundred members of the church, including 
the students of the New York City Christian Science Institute 
contributing all that was necessary without special exhortation 
other than expressed in a simple request from the platform from 
time to time for the amount needed to meet the expenses incurred. 
Each contributor had been healed of some moral or. physical de- 
fect and all desired to make the church a fitting expression of the 
thought which Christian Scier$fe inspires. 

When the dedication too'fi:' place, the total cost had reached 
$1,185,000, and there was no debt. Above the cornerstone there is 
this inscription : 



















<! a 

a s 

i? 2 

5 2 

M o 

a a 


When the structure was planned, it was thought by many that it 
would be large enough to provide room for all who would attend 
the church services for years to come, but already the seats are 
well filled and there is reason to believe that its capacity will soon 
be taxed to the uttermost. 

The church is as large as is convenient and every part has been 
made as perfect and as permanent as possible. It will stand as a 
model of modern ideas in church building, and be valuable to those 
who study church architecture. There has been much discussion as 
to what, type the really *' American church would be found finally 
to be, and it is possible that this building, with its elevator service, 
reading room and offices for the work of helping the sick, the dis- 
couraged and the sinning, may have an important effect upon eccle- 
siastical architectufe in this country. 

Omen R. Washburn. 

Description of the New Building. 

New York's newest and most imposing church edifice now 
greets the eye* of one walking or driving in Central Park 
West in the vicinity of 96th street. Towering some two 
hundred feet above the curb, it forms a most striking and 
beautiful picture in glistening silvery white granite ; stone, so uni- 
form in color and quality as at once to give one the impresion 
that the whole must have been cut from one huge perfect block. 
It is, perhaps, largely due to this granite that the more than ordi- 
nary solidity of appearance is obtained. However that may be, 
this particular stone and the architecture of the building form a 
most perfect and harmonious composition. The corner cornice 
stones are 12 feet long, 8 feet wide and 3 feet 6Jnches thick, 
weighing eighteen tons each. Being at the corner of the building 
and over fifty feet high, where it was nearly impossible to either 
brace or guy the derricks, the setting of these blocks involved a 
very pretty piece of engineering. 

It may be well at this point to mention the quarries from" which 
this stone was taken, as well as the"method of quarrying. The 
quariiy' is ; situated"' in Concord, N. H. It is one of the few white 
granite quarries in the United States, the product of which, does 
not'jdrscolor by exposure to the air, the tendency being- rather to 
grpw,,more white with age. The quarry is furnishing granite for the 
First 1 Church of* Christ, Scientist, of Concord,' N. H., a gift'fronvithe 
Rev. Mary Baker G. ''Eddy. It is the most difficult stone jin) this 
country to work because of its extreme hardness. Its ^peculiar 
characteristics make it impossible to cut by saw or machinery, 
thereby necessitating the use of hand labor for the cutting, which 





is performed by the slow process of chipping until a smooth sur- 
face is obtained, thus making the ruin of an entire block through 
a mis-stroke of frequent occurrence. The stone is quarried in un- 
usually large blocks. The writer witnessed the effect of a single 
blast in the quarry which sheared a piece of granite 125 feet long, 
from 55 feet to 100 feet high and from 10 feet to 20 feet thick, al- 
most as clean as though cut with a saw. From this massive block 
the smaller ones are cut by means of round wedges hardly larger 
than a man's finger and only about 6 inches long. The wedges 


Central Park West and 96th Street, New York City. Carrgre & Hastings, Architects. 

Decorations by Charles H. Cottrell. 

are spaced in the stone at intervals of about 6 inches and are gently 
tapped with a hammer until the stone is cleft. This can only be 
done in the direction of the natural clevity of the stone, which, 
however, always runs at approximately right angles with the bed 
of the stone. 

To go back to our subject, the building. On closer examination 
one is impressed by the numerous small windows in the two 
upper stories, which at once suggest a large number of rooms 
above the main auditorium not common in ordinary church con- 
struction, and shows the honesty of the architectural treatment. 



Central Park West and 9Gth Street, New York City. CarrSre & Hastings, Architects. 
Jesus and Mary in the Garden after the Resurrection. 



The building really accommodates perfectly 'what might be classed 
as two independent organizations as to requirements, having sep- 
arate entrances and plants complete, as well as connecting doors, 
making it possible to throw the entire building into one when re- 

At either side of the main entrance are two large electrically con- 
trolled and direct connected elevators of the modern type, capable 
of carrying twenty people each. No other instance is recorded of 
the installation of elevators in a church. Flanking the elevators are 


Central Park West and 96th Street, New York City. Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 

Decorations by Charles H. Cottrell. 

two rather remarkable elliptical staircases. There is no iron used, 
although the stairs are 5 feet 6 inches in width. The method 
adopted is stronger, less expensive and less bulky. It also permits 
of quicker construction, than do other methods in common usage. 
Passing through to the auditorium by one of the side entrances, 
you are under a large overhanging gallery, which extends around 
three sides of the church and is supported by two large marble 
piers on either side connected by marble arches to the marble side 
walls and together by marble beams running longitudinally. These 
piers and beams coming only half way between the side walls and 
front of the gallery give the impression of a series of niches along 



the sides. This effect is heightened by the fact that the main barrel 
vault of the auditorium ceiling is sprung from the face of the piers 
instead of from the side walls, and the sides of the piers with the 
transverse arches connecting with the side walls develop into three 
transverse barrel vaults penetrating the main vault of the ceiling. 
By this method a very massive appearance is obtained, the piers 
appearing to attach themselves to the outside walls. The centre 
"motif" of each niche is a large stained glass window running in- 
terruptedly from 6 feet above the ground floor up back of the 
gallery, finishing in a semi-circular lead on axis of the niche above. 


Central Park West and 96th Street, New York City. Carr&re & Hastings, Architects. 

Decorations by Charles H. Cottrell. 

These windows are very charming in their simplicity, having a warm 
gray field with a foliage border of soft greens and autumn color- 
ings. In the centre of each of the upper sections is a medallion 
executed in quiet monotone effect of green and brown framed 
fittingly in green and amber. The whole effect is heightened by the 
tone of the woodwork, which is of a most uncommon rich gray 
brown which effect is obtained by the use of a Circassian, Italian 
and French walnut, bleached up in such a manner as to pr6duce 
a very light tone, while at the same time preserving the grain. The 
delicate fawn color of the Istrian marble is recalled in the color- 
ing of the ceiling, which is used to accentuate the architectural de- 
sign and modeling rather than as a bit of color decoration. 



The organ and reader's platform is placed in the centre of a large 
perforated plaster niche which is treated in the same colors as the 
ceiling. The walnut woodwork with its dull ivory and gold mounts, 
and the organ pipes of Etruscan gold form a most pleasing climax. 
It may be interesting to note that the modeling of the organ above 
the keyboard is all done in plaster and toned to the color of walnut 
to match the wood. The lighting is worthy of note as well as the 
fixtures, especially the six large chandeliers, weighing over half a 
ton each and carrying seventy-eight lights each. These fixtures 

Central Park West and 96th Street, New York City. Carr^re & Hastings, Architects. 

Decorated by Charles H. Cottrell. 
Copyright, 1904, by Joel W. Thome. 

are probably the finest example of a public chandelier work in 

On the way to the reading rooms above, one is surprised to find 
a series of rooms worked into the haunches of the arch of the main 
auditorium. This would have been a comparatively easy problem 
had it not been for the clerestory windows, which feed light to 
the perforated sunbursts in the ceiling of the main auditorium. 
The problem was, however, solved by building light walls over each 
of the perforations and locating the passages and rooms around 
the walls, with bay windows into the same. On the top or reading 
room and Sunday-school floor, a large room has been arranged 
with dome light thereover. This room is surrounded by smaller 
rooms for church officials and practitioners. 

Charles H. Cottrell. 



No. 127 East 73d Street, New York City. , , McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 





. a 

Q 5 











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02 .j- 

H v 












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I 79 


t 55 




T~N IMPORTANT factor in the building trades market is the sand-lime 

r~\ brick, a comparatively recent importation from Germany. The claims 

cf the originators of this industry in America only three years ago were 

received with suspicion, but in this short time it has been demonstrated that a 

better and a cheap- 
er face or finishing 
brick can be made 
from sand and a 
small percentage of 
lime than from clay. 
The entire process 
of manufacture re- 
quires but twelve 
hours. A number 
of prominent public 
and private build- 
ings have been 
erected throughout 
the United States 
from the sand and 
lime bricks, which 

not only present a handsome exterior, but recent experiments have shown 
that the material, instead of showing signs of disintegration, as predicted by 
some of its enemies, is gradually growing stronger and harder. One great 
advantage over other material is that the sand and lime product can be made in 
any color or com- 
bination of colors 
desired, which gives 
to the architect an 
opportunity to se- 
cure striking effects 
not- possible with 
clay bricks. 

The natural color 
of the sand and lime 
brick is a soft grey. 
By using lime-proof 
pigments in the 
manufacturing pro- 
cess, these bricks 

are colored as desired. The quality of the brick depends to some extent on the pur- 
ity of the lime, the silica properties of the sand and the process of manufacture. 
This product is no longer an experiment, and the time is past for neglecting 
so strong a factor in the structural market. 

We publish cuts of the new High School building at Bennetsville, N.C., built 
from " Huennekes System" sand-lime bricks, which certainly indicate the high 
quality of the product. 

The fact that the promoters of the enterprise, H. Huennekes Company, New 
York, have erected over twenty factories in various sections of the country during 
the past year, demonstrates the remarkable growth of the industry. 


VOL. XV. MARCH, 1904. No. 3. 


MERICAN architectural practice has pretty well decided 
that the safest and most fruitful kind of work which the 
good American architect can do is that of continuing in this coun- 
try the great European architectural tradition. American criti- 
cism agrees, on the whole, with this practice, because it realizes 
that in a country, which a generation ago was an example of fear- 
fully perverted popular architectural taste, the educational need 
and purpose should in the beginning determine the prevailing 
forms. After the architects have become accustomed to designing, 
and the public have become accustomed to seeing, good architec- 
tural forms, it will be time enough to demand that these forms be 
modified, with a special view to giving them a higher degree of in- 
dividual, local and national propriety. 

The trouble with the first generation of well-trained American 
architects was not that they were imitative, but that they were 
perhaps rather too indiscriminate in their imitation. They tried 
experiments in too many styles, and did not cleave with sufficient 
assiduity to the architectural types most appropriate to their 
work, and to their individual powers of design. Doubtless, they 
had a sufficient excuse for this ecclecticism, in that they could, per- 
haps, learn only by such experimentation just what architectural 
forms "took" and served best in the undiscovered country of 
American architectural achievement; but the experimental char- 
acter of the work not only condemned it frequently to a lack of 
propriety, but it confused popular taste and prevented architects 
from appropriating the promiscuous forms they used. At any 
rate, there can be no doubt that the next step in the regular im- 
provement of American architectural practice must consist in the 
more careful selection by the individual designer of his favorite 
architectural forms, and the persistent endeavor to give to these 
forms a more individual and local rendering. That at least is the 

Copyright, 1903, by "The Architectural Record Company." All rights reserved. 
Entered May 22, 1902, as second-class matter, Post Office at New York, N. Y., Act of 
Congress, of March 3d, 1879. 


step which the well-trained architects of the younger generation 
are now taking. They are experimenting within much narrower 
limits than formerly; they are converging 
upon the selection of a comparatively few 
of the best architectural types; and they 
are showing an increasing freedom and an 
increasing consistency in the treatment of 
those types. It will be a still farther improve- 
ment in architectural practice when the field 
of selection is made even narrower, and 
when the few favorite types become by 
constant repetition so familiar as wholly 
to lose their novel and experimental char- 

It is in the light of this general tendency 
of American architectural practice that 
the work of Charles A. Platt can be most 
profitably considered. He is one of the 
younger architects who has made his 
mark in the last few years, and whose de- 
signs show plainly the influence of the se- 
lective ideal. They are derived from the 
best sources, but not from all the best 
sources, the area of choice being re- 
stricted by a strong conviction that only 
certain architectural forms are well 
adapted to the kind of work with which 
Mr. Platt is particularly identified. He 
has not, consequently, gone outside a 
comparatively few types of designs, all of 
which have their historical and logical rela- 
tions one to another. These several types 
of design he has used so persistently, and 
has studied so carefully that he is fully 
acquainted with their possibilities and 

Thus he has been able to treat them GARDEN FURNITURE 
with an ease, a consistency, a propriety OF " FAULKNER FARM." 
and an effect, to which he could not have attained had his principle 
of choice been more eclectic. 


The department of design with which Mr. Platt is particularly, 
but by no means exclusively identified, is that of the country house 
and garden, and it is in this department that his work has been most 
influential and most original. If Mr. Platt did not actually intro- 


dnce the Italian formal garden into this country, he most assuredly 
has given the American version of this very beautiful and complete 
type of landscape design a new meaning and a higher standing. 
He had the peculiar advantage of being able to approach land- 
scape design, not as a man whose training was exclusively archi- 
tectural, but as one whose interest in garden design sprang directly 
from the observation of nature, and a thorough professional famil- 
iarity with landscape values. He was a landscape painter before 
he was an architect ; and he made a special study of Italian gar- 
dens before he ever attempted to design them. It may seem sur- 
prising to people, who are the victims of the supposed antithesis 
between "naturalistic" and formal gardens, that a man who had 


achieved high success as a landscape painter, and whose great dis- 
tinction consists in his appreciation of the proper landscape values, 
that such a man should be particularly identified with the better 
establishment of the formal garden in this country ; but in truth 
the antithesis between the formal and the "naturalistic" garden is 
one which arose only during a recent period, when the "formal" 
garden, as transplanted to England, became rigid and stiff. The 
Italian gardens, formal as they were, were designed with an eye 
strictly to landscape values, and constitute without doubt the su- 
premely happy blending of architectural propriety and out-of-door 
feeling. They are the original and classic type of garden from which 
the French and English gardens are descended, and to which we 
must return for the spirit and principles of the best landscape archi- 

The Italian garden was, however, only one aspect or division 
of Italian villa architecture, and the historical point of departure 



from which Mr. Plait's work is to be considered, is that of the 
Italian villa of the Renaissance, as a complete residential type. 
These villas occupy an important and definite place in the history 
of domestic architecture, because they embody the first great resi- 
dential style of the modern period, and because they were de- 
signed by a people who, in their great time, came nearer than any 
other modern people, to the classic love of formal beauty, and to 
the classic sense of propriety in form. This ability to imagine ap- 
propriately beautiful forms received one of its most consummate 
expressions in the villa architecture of the period. We are apt, 
nowadays, when we think of the consummate country house, to 
recall instinctively certain memorable English examples ; but 
on the whole the English country houses and estates derive their 

Chicoroa, N. H. 


Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

value as models from the evidence they offered of constant and 
loving attention, from the extent to which their surroundings 
have been encouraged to grow up around them, than from any es- 
pecial excellence of design. The English country house is a concrete 
embodiment of the whole history of English country life. It has 
been confirmed by time and precious association, rather than by 
original architectural genius. In the Italian villa, on the other 
hand, the attempt was consciously and successfully made to design 
a kind of house which would fit the landscape closely, and to lay 
out the grounds so that they would enhance the effect of the house. 
The result is a type of domestic country architecture, which even 
in its decay, possesses a wholly unique beauty and charm. 

It is worth while to pause for a moment and consider this type, 
not only because of its bearing upon Mr. Platt's work, but because 
of its peculiar value under contemporary American conditions. 


These villas, like the American country house, were not intended 
for people resident on the soil ; they were intended as the occasional 
country habitations of highly-civilized gentry, who, in income and 
tastes, were the product of the city life. Now the Italians like the 
French are candidly and consciously civilized, if civilized at all. 
When they go to the country they carry with them their civiliza- 
tion, their artificial and artistic demands ; they do not go to the 
country in order to return, so far as decency permits, to a state 
of nature ; and they do not feel any incompatibility, when in the 
country, between the formal treatment of the immediate surround- 
ings of the house and the informal beauties of the natural land- 
scape. What they ask is that their country residences should give 
the finest and fullest opportunities to enjoy the various pleasures of 
country life, and that their houses and grounds should be frankly 
expressive of this demand. Among these pleasures would be in- 
cluded the pleasure in a beautiful landscape, with which the 
house would compose, and which could be seen to good advantage 
from the house and garden ; the pleasure in flowers, and in the 
grouping of plants and shrubs, so as to make a convenient and ef- 
fective show ; the pleasure in various country sports, which in those 
days consisted mostly in hunting, and in ours mostly in games ; 
the pleasures of a hospitality and of the opportunity to entertain 
one's friends; and finally the pleasure of leisure, of freedom from 
insistent pre-occupation with affairs, of the chance for a little quiet 
reflection and refreshment. 

The Italian villas and estates satisfied to a greater or smaller ex- 
tent all of these demands, because they were built for men of great 
wealth, of large ideas and of a uniform standard of culture ; but in 
attempting to transfer the type to this country an American archi- 
tect would be immediately confronted with the fact that his clients 
included people of large and of small resources, and of high and of 
low aesthetic demands. Mr. Platt, like his professional associates, 
has been obliged to meet the difficulties inseparable from the at- 
tempt to adapt an elaborate and exacting architectural type to 
the widely varying resources and tastes of an American clientele. 
He has had during his practice all sorts and conditions of work 
including a number of small frame and stucco houses, situated for 
the most part in the Cornish Hills of New Hampshire; and these 
smaller places which he has designed, are, as may be seen from 
the illustrations, peculiarly interesting, because he has evidently 
bestowed upon them, irrespective of their cost, a great deal of 
careful consideration. The attempt has obviously been made, for 
instance, to lay out small estates, which shall possess a certain 
completeness of effect. The architectural lines of the houses have 
been carefully designed, so that the structure takes its proper place 




O O 

o - 

X -o 


S B 


I8 7 

in the landscape ; the look of the landscape from the house has 
been as scrupulously considered as the look of the house from 
its various lines of approach ; and almost every place has its prop- 
erly situated garden, and its appropriate scheme of landscape treat- 
ment. Of course, so much work could not be done at a small out- 
lay, except by the use of cheap materials, such as wooden walls 
and columns ; but the difference in the result is fundamentally a 
difference in the permanence which this result obtains. The 

wooden walls 
w i 11 not last ; 
they will have 
to be replaced 
eventually by a 
wall made of 
some more dur- 
able and struc- 
tural materials ; 
but in the mean- 
time, like the 
plaster colon- 
n a d e s of a 
World's Fair, 
they have served 
their purpose. 
They have en- 
abled the archi- 
tect to make val- 
uable e x p e r i- 
merits as to the 
best means of 
obtaining- c e r- 
tain desired ef- 
fects ; and what 
is equally impor- 
tant, they have 
aroused the aes- 
thetic interest 
and pride of the 
owner of the es- 
tate. Moreover, the experiments in cheap materials may well have 
an additional advantage in developing methods, whereby compara- 
tively permanent results can be secured in cheap materials. In spite 
therefore, of the fact that the demands of a complete design ob- 
viously strain the resources at the architect's command when 
those resources are small, it remains true that these frame houses 

Corrish, N. H. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

1 88 


H a 

P-i 60 

o 35 
o * 
Q 2 


are legitimate examples of formal treatment, quite within the 
peoples of people of good taste and small incomes, yet not pitched 
on a scale incongruous with the appropriately modest demeanor of 
a small country place. 

In the case of the majority of American country houses the 
site upon which the owner decides to build has usually been deter- 
mined by the "view," and in such cases this fact necessarily has an 
important effect upon the plan and design of the house and the 
lay-out of the grounds. Among Mr. Platt's earlier work, the house 
figured on page 186, and called "High Court," may be taken 
as a type of a house situated on the top of a hill and overlooking 
a great expanse of country. In an estate of this kind the land gen- 
erally falls away very abruptly from the site of the house, so that 
the formal treatment of the grounds must be somewhat limited, 
and the design necessarily adapted to the absence of many of the 
accessory and contributory effects, which might be effective on 
more level ground. To design a house that fits snug upon its hill- 
top, to relieve the architectural edges and corners with a framing 
of trees, and to define the landscape properly from the house by 
means of the court and its columns to such results as these the 
architect has given his chief attention. It will be seen, consequently, 
from the illustration, that there are practically no intervening gar- 
dens, and the house is one which might or might not have gardens 
connected with it, because the garden is not anything which would 
count in the appearance of the villa as a whole from the distance. 
In this particular case, a flower garden was added behind the wall 
to the left of the house ; but this garden has been very fully en- 
closed, so that its smaller proprieties shall not compete or clash 
with the great scale and dominant effect of the general view. 

In the case of Mr. Platt's own house, on the other hand, the im- 
mediate surroundings of the building are more important than 
the view. The garden, consequently, is situated in front of the 
house, on a lower level. It intervenes, that is, between the house 
and the view, and mediates between the two in a way that would be 
inappropriate in such a place as "High Court." Very little artificial 
enclosure has been desirable for the garden, because a hill on 
the one end and a belt of pines on the other, give it natural 
boundaries which are peculiarly and entirely sufficient. The illus- 
tration published on page 187, shows the house as seen from the 
garden, and across the perennial phlox in full bloom, while the il- 
lustration on page 192 shows a view along the axis of the garden 
parallel to the house, and looking towards the belt of pines men- 
tioned above. There is no illustration of the garden looking in 
the other direction, but on page 188 is a reproduction of the walk 
between the house and the garden looking towards the hill, which 



Cornish, N. H. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 


19 r 


Cornish, N. H. chas - A - platt > Architect. 




Looking toward the belt of pines bounding the garden on the west. 
Cornish, N. H. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 



Cornish, N. H. 


Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 


in appearance bounds the garden at its other end. This hill, it may 
be added, is the one on which "High Court" is situated, and the 
building on its summit is the studio of "High Court." It has not 
been possible to illustrate in a satisfactory way the look of the 
landscape from "High Court," which is one of extreme beauty ; 
but on pages 190-191 will be found a picture of Mr. Platt's studio 
from the walk, and one of the landscape from the studio, and framed 
by the columns of its porch. 

Mr. Platt's house shows, perhaps, better than any other how 
much can be accomplished with inexpensive materials, and by 


Cornish. N. H. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

means of a small outlay to build up a fully designed country place 
one in which the advantages of the site are cleverly used in order 
to produce an effect at once thoroughly informed by some archi- 
tectural treatment, yet at the same time as thoroughly imbued 
with a correct sense of proper landscape values. It is a better 
illustration of this type of residence than the house and garden il- 
lustrated on pages 193-194, because in this other instance the whole 
scale of the plan is so small that it would not have been possible to 
seek any architectural effects on the south side of the house in 
the direction of the greatest expanse of landscape without design- 
ing something which would be too imposing for the other parts 
of the composition. In this instance, consequently, the design suf- 



fers more from insufficiency of means than in the cases of the other 


Turning now to the more expensive and elaborate places which 
Mr. Platt has designed, there are two gardens which are in a class 
apart, and which deserve separate consideration the gardens of 
"Faulkner Farm" and of "Weld." In each of these cases the means 
at the architect's disposal were sufficient to make a garden, in 
which the completeness of the type could be fully realized, while 

Cornish, N. H. 


Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

at the same time the architect was restricted by the fact that he 
was designing the grounds around a house already in existence. 
"Faulkner Farm" was the first of them in point of time, and may 
be fairly said to have started a new period of garden design in this 
country. Previous essays in that direction had not gone much be- 
yond the topiary exploits of theHunnewell place atWellesley,Mass,. 
in which natural forms are senselessly perverted at the bidding of a 
supposed necessity for formal horticulture. The Hunnewell gar- 
den stuck, however, more closely to the Italian prototype, in that 
its planting consists largely of evergreens, whereas one most con- 
spicuous division of "Faulkner Farm" is the flower garden, which is 



Estate of Mrs. C. L. Sprague, Brcokllne, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 


as it were, shut down during the winter. In this respect, however, 
the gardens of the northern part of the United States necessarily 
take a line of their own, partly because Americans like a great deal 
of bloom in their gardens, and partly because in our snow-covered 
country we cannot help shutting down our gardens from December 
to March. 

The plan of Faulkner Farm is particularly worth careful atten- 
tion, because of the peculiar interest cf the site and the success with 

Estate of Mrs. C. L. Sprague, Brcokline, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

which its advantages have been used. In this place the view only 
counts on one side on the side indicated in the plan by the ab- 
sence of foliage. In every other direction either rising ground or 
trees, or both cut it off. The space, consequently, between the 
house and the line at which the land falls sharply off has been left 
as a terrace, which, since it is intended as a frame or foreground for 
the view, has been kept absolutely bare and simple. The character 





H to 





From the Pavilion. 

Estate of Mrs. C. L. Sprague, Brcokline, Mass. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 


2O I 

Estate of Mrs. C. L. Sprague, Brookline, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 



Estate of Mrs. C. L. Spraguo, Brcokline, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 



oi this terrace, and its relations to the house and garden is shown in 
an. illustration on page 196. The flower garden itself was pushed 
away from the house into a clump of oaks, in order to give the gar- 
den a sufficient inclosure on that side, and in order, also, to form a 
background for the distant view, which otherwise would have intro- 
duced a wholly incongruous element into the composition. The 
effect of this oak background can .be gathered from the several il- 
lustrations of the pergola. The wooded surface, called the "Grove" 
in the plan is intended primarily to count as a background for the 
house, when seen from a sufficient distance ; but although such is 

Estate of Mrs. C. L. Sprague, Brcokline, Mass. 


Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

its chief purpose, it is situated so near the house that the architect 
has naturally made it exceedingly attractive and serviceable in a 
number of minor ways by means of walks, seats, fountains and the 
like. In this and in other respects the garden has many subordinate 
features of interest, not the least of them being the quantity of 
beautiful furniture, which has been collected in Italy and appro- 
priately placed in different parts of the garden and grounds. It is 
characteristic of Mr. Platt's work, however, that such detail is kept 
absolutely in its place, and that the design is interesting chiefly be- 
cause its large dispositions, which, although indicated by the require- 
ments of the site, are combined into a well-composed whole. 



In the estate of "Weld" also, the house already existed and the 
desire of the owner was to have the grounds around his house 
effectively treated, but the nature of the site was so absolutely dif- 
ferent that a wholly different treatment was required. The house 
was situated on the top of a denuded hill, open to a large view on 
all sides, except that adjoining the house. The dimensions of the 
flower garden were determined by the size of the hill, and its char- 
acter by the fact that the identity of the garden could be main- 
tained only by shutting off the great expanse of landscape from the 
salient points of view within the garden. At the same time, of 

Estate of Mrs. C. L. Sprague, Brrokline, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

course, since it was this landscape, which itself had determined the 
site of the existing house, it could not be entirely shut off. These 
several requirements of a satisfactory design were met by a scheme, 
which included three levels within the garden, and on the highest 
level, an architectural enclosure, which was sufficient to shut off 
the landscape from mall of the garden, but left it open to a person 
standing on the upper walks. The illustration on page 206 gives 
5ome idea of these several levels, and of the enclosing parapet on 
the side of the garden. When on the upper walks in the neighbor- 
hood of the gazebos, any elaboration of detail, which would distract 
the attention from the distant landscape has been purposely 
omitted, whereas within the garden its sunken position has enabled 



the architect to enrich the chief points of view with a great deal of 
appropriate and beautiful furniture. The actual plan of the garden 
is almost square ; but these not altogether happy dimensions have 
been cleverly dissembled by a mall along its central line, which 
serves to give it the appearance of length. Owing to its location 
and its necessary enclosure, the dominant effect of the garden is 


Estate of Mrs. C. L. Sprague, Brookline, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

architectural, but this architectural effect will in the course of time 
be more and more softened and subdued by the growth of the 
shrubbery within the garden. 


In all the examples of Mr. Platt's work considered hitherto, the 
houses were built either of wood or stucco, or else were erected 
before the design of the garden and its surrounding was placed in 











H ^ 



his hands. When he proposed, however, to design a brick dwell- 
ing, which occurred, of course, early in his professional career, he 
was unable to refer so immediately to Italian precedents as he had 
done in the foregoing examples. The Italians themselves had built 
mostly in stone or stucco, and their domestic architecture did not 
offer any original suggestions as to the treatment of such a material 
as brick. It was natural consequently that he should under such 
circumstances look for his models to the adaptations which had 
been made of the Italian forms by the brick building peoples of 
Northern Europe. The English in particular have liked to build 
their country residences of brick, and the design of these residences 


Pomfret, Conn. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

ever since the end of the i6th century has been profoundly modified 
if not entirely determined by the Italian Renaissance villa, so that 
it was in the English brick version of the Renaissance that he sought 
the forms of his brick dwellings. 

Among the different phases of English brick domestic archi- 
tecture, Mr. Platt has preferred those of the best period of the 
English Renaissance. The Jacobean house was mediaeval in its 
plan, its most important members, and in the spirit of its composi- 
tion. It borrowed from the Italian Rennaissance only certain 
decorative details of its exterior and interior. Not until the end 
of the i/th century were the great English houses designed in the 
classic forms, and with something of the classic spirit, and even 


Pomfret, Conn. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 







then the plan of these houses showed little of the Italian influence 
of the Italian preference for "bland vistas" throughout the dif- 
ierent rooms. It is on the earliest and best of these English Re- 
naissance houses, such as the newer portions of Hampton Court, 
that Mr. Platt has apparently depended for the tradition of brick 
architecture, which he has adopted ; and the suggestions which he 
has derived from these buildings should be distinguished from the 
later Georgian dwelling and its American Colonial prototype. The 
Georgian and Colonial dwellings were frequently bourgeois in 
their atmosphere. They were built more often in small towns 


Residence of Winston Churchill, Cornish, N. H. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

and in the suburbs than actually in the country ; they were gener- 
ally of modest dimensions, and particularly in this country were 
seldom enhanced by any architectural treatment of the site. What 
we chiefly mean by the Colonial dwelling, consequently, was a stiff 
unpretentious style, whose greatest merit consisted in its excellent 
proportions, but whose highest effect did not go beyond a certain- 
correct respectability of demeanor. Only in certain details did 
they obtain any elegance and distinction, and such details were 
only sparingly used, because their owners were generally well-to- 
do, middle-class merchants too conscious of their position ever to 
compete with the gentry. 



As the earlier English houses showed, however, there was noth- 
ing necessarily either prim or bourgeois about the characteristic 
forms of the English Renaissance. These forms, when used for 
large buildings, were, perhaps, more frequently embodied in stone 
than in brick, and there has been a tendency for the brick dwelling, 
particularly in the detail, to become timid and wear an excessively 
modest and reticent appearance. Nevertheless, there is no reason 

Residence of Winston Churchill, Cornish, N. H. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

why the Renaissance forms, characteristic of the style, should not, 
even in brick, become as frankly and boldly expressive of a high 
and cultivated manner of living as they did during the Renaissance. 
They were used in the i8th century by people with a considera- 
able sense of form, social and architectural, but without much 
freedom and flexibility of imagination, and it is capable of assum- 
ing very different merits, whenever these Renaissance houses are 


built for people of wider social horizon, and are designed by archi- 
tects who can make their style both positive and discreet. There 
is certainly no lack either of freedom or discretion about Mr. Platt's 
adaptation of English brickwork. The five examples of brick 
dwellings illustrated in this number differ considerably both from 
each other and from the originals, and these differences, while due 
in one case to the scale of the house, have been also brought about 
by flexibly adapting the house to the site, by the free use of ad- 
ditional members such as the loggias, nicely subordinated to the 
general design, by the careful study of the proportions and the 


This court Is to be completed oy the erection of Iron gates. 
Residence of Winston Churchill, Cornish, N. H. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

detail, and wherever possible by an elaborate architectural treat- 
ment of the surroundings. 

While the grounds around all of these brick houses have received 
attention from their architect, flower gardens are in several in- 
stances lacking; and in at least one of these instances, it is lack- 
ing because the site of the house restricted the opportunities of 
placing a garden in any proper relation to the building. The resi- 
dences both of Dr. A. C. Cabot and Mr. Winston Churchill are 
situated in the woods, so that the views therefrom, looking toward 
the chief points of interest in the landscape, have had to be cut 
through the trees. In the case of the Churchill place, there is in 
addition, no level ground upon which a garden could be placed, 
while the garden of Dr. Cabot is limited to some beds on each 
side of a mall, forming a foreground for a long vista through the 
woods. North Farm, on the other hand, is situated in a compara- 


ffi .a 

H '3 





tively flat country with a view of Narragansett Bay on one side, and 
an extremely interesting plantation on the other. The problem of 
putting this plantation into shape was largely one of elimination 
and grading ; but advantage has been taken of rows of trees to get 
them on axe with the principal vista of the house, so that the house 
might appear to have been there when the trees were planted. 

Of all the estates, which Mr. Platt has designed, the place in 
which the conditions appear to have been most favorable is 
Maxwell Court, and the result is correspondingly complete and 
happy implying that the architect could dispose of abundant 
resources, and had the opportunity of designing the layout of the 

Cherry Hill, Canton, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

whole estate, including the architecture of the house and the disposi- 
tion of the garden. The building itself is the most imposing resi- 
dence, which has issued from Mr. Platt's office and the whole archi- 
tectural treatment is nicely adapted to the ampler dimensions and 
the more impressive scale of the estate. Stone, for instance, is 
used much more freely in the trimmings of the house ; and such 
features as the loggia and the terrace suggest rather the frank and 
brave display of certain Italian houses than the somewhat timorous 
under-statement of the majority of Georgian dwellings. The whole 
place is both eminently domestic in its atmosphere, and yet emi- 
nently effective in a high, fine, firm style. 

Maxwell Court is situated on an abrupt hillside, with a distant 
landscape counting as an essential condition of the planning both 



Cherry Hill, Canton, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 



of the house and garden. On the side of the terrace the problem 
is similar to that of Faulkner Farm, and the terrace has been de- 
signed chiefly as the place, from which the view is to be seen ; but on 
the side of the garden the conditions are necessarily the reverse. 
The garden of Faulkner Farm was, as stated above, pushed into 
a grove of oaks, which constituted the background of the architec- 
tural boundary of the garden at that end. At Maxwell Court, on 
the other hand, the pergola is disengaged from any background of 
foliage, and a beautiful and extensive landscape is visible from it, 
and in a modified way from the rest of the garden. The pergola, 
however, has been designed particularly to frame the view, and to 

Cherry Hill, Canton, Mass. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

reduce it to a scale commensurate with that of the garden. Con- 
sequently, the columns have been left open at the back, instead of 
being closed as at Faulkner Farm, and at the same time this end of 
the garden has been purposely made less attractive in detail so that 
there shall be no features of subordinate interest to distract the 
attention from the major interest of the landscape. While the ef- 
fect of this treatment might be said to hurt the appearance of the 
landscape from the house, because the pergola is situated in the 
direct line of vision, yet the disposition is really one which enhances 
the value of the view as one of the beauties of the estate, just be- 
cause this view cannot be seen at its best except from the pergola. 
The consciousness that the landscape is there tempts one to the 



Rockville, Conn. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 


Residence of Robert Maxwell, Rockville, Conn. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 









end of the garden, so as to see it the better ; and when the garden 
is crossed for this purpose the view as framed by the pergola is a 
sufficient reward for the trouble. 


Before passing to a consideration of the general quality of Mr. 
Platt's work there are two other buildings illustrated herewith, 
which deserve individual mention. The special interest of these 
buildings consists in the fact that they are, neither of them, private 
dwellings and consequently show the issue of Mr. Platt's methods 


Residence of Robert Maxwell, Rockville, Conn. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

and power of design in other classes of buildings. Of these the 
more important is the dining and bathing pavilions erected 
for Mr. Charles M. Schwab at Richmond Beach Park, 
Staten Island. As is well known Mr. Schwab purchased some years 
ago a very available stretch of beach on Staten Island, with many 
acres of park land back of it, in order to make a marine playground 
for the poor children of New York during the summer months. For 
the purpose of carrying out this plan a building was needed, in 
which a thousand children could be fed, and which would also sup- 
ply office and living accommodations for the staff of permanent 
employees required for the administration of the charity; and the 



structure which Mr. Platt has designed for these requirements is 
one of the most original and brilliant, as well as one of the most 
beautiful of his achievements. It consists of a long colonnade, 
open both on the sea and the land side, and finished at the end 
by two pavilions. The pavilion to the left is used for offices and 
living rooms ; the pavilion to the right for the pantry, kitchen and 
the like. The tables for the luncheon to be served to the children 
will be placed in the space enclosed by the colonnade. This arrange- 
ment is not only as convenient as any other, and gives the children a 
cool and spacious place in which to eat, but it has the great ad- 

Residence of Robert Maxwell, Rockville, Conn. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

vantage of affording a platform from which all the beauties of the 
situation and all the amusements, which the beach and the play- 
ground afford, are centered and composed. The outlook toward 
the sea is entirely free and unembarrassed, as is the outlook on the 
land side a fine stretch of green grass, the waters of a lake 
and beyond the trees and sky. The children can see everything 
while eating their lunch, and can run off thereafter, wheresoever 
they please, without unnecessary confusion, impediment or delay. 
The composition of the building itself is compact, without being in 
the least stiff. The impression it produces is of a dignity corre- 
sponding with the almost institutional nature of the charity, yet 



it is also gracious, and within the colonnade, the effect is even 
gay and exhilarating. Its gracious and hospitable aspect will of 
course, be very much enhanced, as soon as the shrubs, vines and 
trees, which are an important part of the plan, have been planted 
and have reached a sufficient growth. 

The other special building to which attention should be particu- 
larly directed is the Rockville Public Library. The small Ameri- 
can public libraries have tended to assume, unfortunately, some- 
thing of the character of sarcophagi, and have been about as far as 
possible from presenting an inviting appearance to prospective 


Residence of Robert Maxwell, Rockville, Conn. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

readers. The architects of these buildings have habitually over- 
looked the partly domestic character which a small building devoted 
to the storing, distribution and reading of books should assume, 
and have designed little school pieces of institutional architecture. 
In the case of the Rockville Library the design conforms strictly, 
too strictly, to the institutional type. It is a classic, marble build- 
ing, situated high above the street, and approached by a broad 
flight of steps. But while there might have been more propriety 
in a more modest material and style, the building is none the less 
a peculiarly successful, and in its way appropriate essay in classic 
















design. The marble possesses fortunately an exceptionally warm 
and lively grain and color ; the scale of the detail is admirably bold 
and telling; and the design itself, while as tight as a classic design 
must and should be, is still opened up and relieved by the large, 
round-arched windows and the small panes of glass. These win- 
dows help to give the building something of the inviting aspect, 
which, as we have said, is the dominant effect, which a small library 
building should possess. At the same time, they suggest an ar- 
rangement of the interior which, for a library building of this size, 
constitutes a desirable innovation viz., the use of the available 
space in order to obtain one spacious, well-lighted reading-room. 
The usual plan has been to make the doorway enter upon a lobby, 
with a small reading-room on each side ; but in the Maxwell library 

Richmond Beach Park, Staten Island. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

one enters immediately into a handsome domed room, of sufficient 
dimensions to render possible an effective architectural and color 
treatment. The necessary division between the general reading- 
room and that intended for children is obtained by the placing of 
a screen at one end, after the manner of the old English halls. 


Early in this paper I mentioned the consistency of Mr. Platt's 
work, as one of its marked characteristics a consistency that has 
been brought about both by the careful personal study, which he 
has bestowed upon his designs, and by an insistent temperamental 
demand for a quality in style which may be best described as the 
classic quality. The use of this phrase in relation to Mr. Platt's 
work is, however, open to misinterpretation, because the classic 



quality means a very different quality to different people; and to 
remove this ambiguity, the sense in which Mr. Platt's designs may 
be said to possess the classic quality must be carefully defined. 

As applied to modern work the word "classic" has practically 
come to mean one or all of several methods of sacrificing archi- 
tectural propriety and individuality to some kind of rigid and ir- 
relevant formality of design. This use of the word has its justifica- 
tion in the character of most of the neo-classic buildings erected 
during the last century. The adoption by the architect, particularly 
the American architect, of the classic forms, has generally placed 
upon his imagination a charge which distinctly he could not afford 
to pay ; and while this charge has not always left him bankrupt, it 

Rockville, Conn. 


Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

has frequently left him artistically very poverty-stricken. Some 
architects have used the classic forms in order to obtain at any 
cost a grandiose and stately effect. Others have tried with much 
assiduity and care to avoid this pretentious and florid inconse- 
quence, but have succeeded only in imparting a cold reticence to 
their buildings, and an inconspicuous refinement to the detail. It 
has seemed at times that the attempt, not merely to use the classic 
forms, but to obtain the classic quality, could not result at its best 
in anything better than an impersonal impeccability of design. 

The consequence naturally is that in the minds of many people 
an antagonism has been created between any suggestion of class- 
icism in architecture and the use of those styles which lend them- 
selves more easily to free personal expression. The classical is 





2 3 8 


identified with the unnatural and the inappropriate, while other 
styles which break freely into picturesque forms are supposed to 
possess the original personal and vernacular quality. The archi- 
tect who purveys the classical thing is considered to have sacrificed 
his chances of individual expression to a lifeless architectural con- 
vention, which even if sincerely and intelligently adopted, con- 
demns him to a mere frigid correctness of design. 

It may be said in favor of this statement of the antagonism be- 
tween the classical and the personal quality in architecture, that it 
is assuredly much easier to imprint a personal stamp upon the so- 

Detroit, Mich. 


Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

called freer architectural forms than upon those forms which have 
been derived directly or indirectly from classical antiquity ; but al- 
though it is easier to handle the more fluid forms and although a 
smaller talent can use them without incurring the same heavier 
penalties in case of failure, it is absurd to identify the free use of 
these fluid forms exclusively with the personal quality in archi- 
tectural design. If the personal quality is more conspicuous, when 
embodied in such forms, it is only because this quality is obtained 
under such conditions at a smaller cost. To give a personal note to 
a classical composition requires more careful study and a more 



South Manchester, Conn. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 


strictly architectural imagination, and, when achieved, the result, 
as we shall see, is of higher value. 

Disregarding for the moment the relation between structure and 
design, the classic quality in design is, so far as appearance goes, 
the strictly architectural quality the quality which makes for 
completeness of form. It is an utterly different thing from the im- 
personal impeccability of design, with which it is frequently identi- 
fied. Every architect who has been thoroughly trained should un- 
derstand the value of the different elements which make up an archi- 
tectural composition the value of mass, of proportion, of scale, 

Residence of Frank Cheney, Jr. South Manchester, Conn. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

and of light and shade. Such understanding goes to the making of 
the classic quality in style; but an additional gift is needed which is 
nevertheless the whole thing. This additional gift may be defined 
a? the ability completely to compose these elements to give meas- 
ure and balance to the whole design, so that every part of the build- 
ing, every condition of its use and site will contribute to a single, 
consistent and appropriate effect. This quality is in a sense inde- 
pendent of the models from which the actual forms are borrowed. 
It may be as present in a Jacobean manor house as in an Italian 
palace. While an architect may and should have his well-founded 
preferences, the most important point is not that certain special 
forms should be used, but that the strictly architectural merit of 



complete form should be resident in the building and should be 
the constructive influence dominating expression, materials, 
proportions and style. 

Of course, this classic quality in design is not the whole thing. It 
is the quality, which rather helps an architect to work out an idea 
than helps him to originate one ; but it is no paradox to say that 
at the present stage of American architectural development the 
man, who can work out good architectural ideas with success plays a 
more useful part than the man, who has more originality but less 
power of patiently achieving the full effect of his conception. Every 
successful solution of an architectural problem must be the result of 
some power of original vision, because every architectural problem 


South Manchester, Conn. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

has to satisfy peculiar conditions ; but as long as an American archi- 
tect is sufficiently flexible in his working ideas to meet a new prob- 
lem with a new solution, he need not bother himself about any 
other kind of originality. His effort and purpose should rather be 
to develop most conscientiously the ideas of which he is possessed 
and the forms which he has mastered, so that his buildings will 
possess the quality of technical completeness of formal perfection. 
Mr. Platt's work embodies this ideal of technical completness 
and formal perfection to a very unusual extent. The exhaustive 
personal consideration which every problem submitted to him re- 
ceives, and his distinct gift for the proprieties of form stamp his de- 
signs with a certain individual elegance of style. That Mr. Plait's 
work should have assumed this character is all the more remark- 



able, because Mr. Platt started his work as a painter of landscapes, 
and would naturally, it might be supposed, have had a leaning to- 
wards picturesque as compared to formal design. But just as he was 
too well-informed a painter to seek for picturesque landscapes, so 
he is too well-informed an architect not to discern the artificiality 
of merely picturesque houses. The picturesque idea is not pic- 
torial ; it is not architectural ; it is literary. In its own way it pro- 

South Manchester, Conn. Chas. A. Platt, Architect. 

duces as much architectural impropriety as does the most frigid 
classicism. There can be no propriety of form, and not very much 
real individuality of style without the formal completeness and con- 
sistency, which I have described as the classic quality in design. 

The peculiar value then of Mr. Platt's work consists of this union 
of completeness of form with propriety of effect. At a time when 
much conscientious architectural designing is spoiled by irrelevant 





ideas and an erroneous point of departure, he stands for the thor- 
oughgoing and successful application of pertinent ideas. The great 
need of American architecture is not individuality but style the 
style that comes from the sympathetic use of the most appropriate 
historic models. For without this general sense of style, it will be 
impossible to establish a good tradition of form ; and in the ab- 
sence of such a tradition of form architectural design cannot escape 
from an anarchy of invention and imitation, which does and will 
sterilize so much well-intentioned effort. This general sense of style 


Bristol, R. I. 

Chas. A. Platt, Architect 

is both communicable and constructive. It constitutes good types 
with which people can become familiar, and which become estab- 
lished as standards in the popular mind. The more familiar, and 
consequently, the less numerous these types are, the better; and 
the individual architect should voluntary submit to the limitation of 
such established types, so that both he and his clients may have 
the guidance of a local architectural tradition. Since the best work 
in architecture cannot be accomplished, unless such types can be 
taken for granted, an architect, who, like Mr. Platt, persistently and 
successfully endeavors to domesticate a thoroughly good type is 
making a valuable contribution to American architectural progress. 

Herbert Croly. 


history of the Hotel de Yille is the history of Paris. Its 
origin and the first feeble attempts at municipal organiza- 
tion are lost in the stormy, illiterate days of the Middle Ages, in 
so far as written records are concerned ; for little more than re- 
mote traditions of the infancy of ancient Lutetia can now be found 
in the old chronicles. Still, at the time of Roman supremacy, 
when the Thermes of Julian flourished, of which some traces re- 
main at the Musee de Cluny, when Roman Lutetia was covered 
with temples and statues of the gods of Mythology, a municipal 
building existed for the assemblies of those ancient councillors ; 
but the exact spot where it stood has long been forgotten. Under 
the Prankish, kings such an edifice also existed for the meetings 
of the Pdiles. Ages ago Germain de Brice wrote as follows : "The 
Hotel de Ville of Paris stood at a remote period in the Isle du 
Palais beside the river ; some remains of this ancient structure 
were formerly visible in the Rue d'Enfer (long since disappeared) 
near to the Church of Notre Dame, which shows that it was not 
important; so another site had to be found." 

It is also unknown at what exact elate this first "Parloir des 
Bourgeois" wa? replaced by another house that was selected in 
the St. Jaques quarter near to the monastery of the Jacobins, which 
was formerly situated there. But as the tide of civic and commer- 
cial life flowed to the right bank of the Seine, the "Parloir des Bour- 
geois" was compelled to be "in the movement," as the French say. 
The old home of the burgesses in the Rue des Gres was abandoned, 
and a new place of assembly was established in the Valee de 
Misere, near to the Great Chatelet, and close to the whilom little 
church dedicated to St. Leuffroi. At last, in the year 1357, the 
"Prevot des Marchands," Etienne Marcel, acquired a building in 
the name of the city, situated on the Place de Greve. It was known 
as the "Maison des Piliers." This house was transformed into 
the new "Parloir des Bourgeois." Nevertheless, it became, ere 
long, insufficient for the requirements of the civic dignitaries of 
that period, for less than two centuries afterwards in 1529 the 
municipal corporation obtained leave from Francis I. to buy sev- 
eral neighboring houses in order to enlarge the city hall. 

On July 1 5th, 1553, the first stone was laid of the building that 
was henceforth to be called the Hotel de Ville, and which has 
survived until recently, notwithstanding many additions and en- 
largements. Operations of reconstruction were carried on from 
1837 to 1846, but still the principal facade and the two-pavilions 
were preserved. 



(From an old print.) 



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Q o 




HH <H 

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The Place de Greve was the forum of the Parisians, for here 
Marcel, the famous "Prevot des Marchands," harranged the peo- 
ple, and Charles the Bad and the Regent, later Charles V., came 
at times to excite the passions of the populace. In those early 
days there stood an old stone cross on the Quai Pelletier, border- 
ing the Place de Greve. Before this cross prisoners who had been 
condemned to death, knelt and said their prayers before being ex- 
ecuted. Heretics, Huguenots, supposed sorcerers and sorcer- 
esses, and criminals among them the famous Cartouche suffered 
death there in hundreds. During the Revolution the guillotine 
daily claimed victims. 

The law of the 28th Pluviose, An. VIII. (1799), brought into the 
hands of the Prefect of the Seine the administration of the De- 
partment of the City of Paris, with an exceptional organization 
made complete by a general council and municipal council. In 
proposing the amount required for the reconstruction of the Hotel 
de Ville after the war of 1870-71, a writer remarked: "This great 
organization for the government of Paris should be reflected in 
the magnificence and grandeur of the edifice." 

It would be impossible in the space at my disposal to enter fully 
into the details of the architecture and decoration of the seat of 
the government of Paris before its destruction during those ter- 
rible days in May, 1871 the closing hours of the Commune. I 
can remember, though a mere child at that time, the death struggle 
in the streets of Paris between the remnants of the insurgents 
fighting at bay behind their barricades against the overflowing 
tide of the columns of the Versailles troops. I can hear once more 
the roll of the drums and at times a bugle call as the soldiers 
pressed on from street to boulevard. Now and then the patter of 
musketry told that the "Federes" were still holding out in some 
of the central parts of old Paris, and when night fell a ghastly 
glimmer lighted the shroud of darkness that hung like a pall, 
mingled with the smoke of battle, over the dead strewing the 
thoroughfares of the fated city. It was their funeral pyre. The 
light grew in intensity until the majestic capital stood forth clear- 
ly in the glare of the conflagration like an unearthly vision. Pe- 
troleum, like "Greek fire" of old, had done its terrible work of 
destruction. The flames rolled onwards before the night breeze 
like the waves of the ocean, and leaping fitfully upwards in angry 
tongues of fire scattered cascades of sparks and embers. The 
waters of the Seine seemed turned by the reflection of the appalling 
scene into molten gold, and the greatest edifices of Paris burnt 
on throughout that night like torches. When all was over, noth- 
ing remained of many of these structures but their skeletons, while 
others lay in heaps of ruins. Of the Hotel de Ville there survived 


only the outside walls, scathed and calcined by fire, but too massive 
in their solid masonry to fall. Such was the fate of the Hotel de 
Ville, the embodiment of the history and traditions of the city. 

It would evidently be beyond the scope of a magazine ar- 
ticle to write a full description of the art-treasures, the mural 
decorations, statues, and frescoes and other ornamentations of 
the former home of the ediles of the city before 1871. The rich- 
ness of the interior was very remarkable; and a passing notice 
may be given of the allegorical ceilings by Ingres, the frescoes of 
Vaucheter, and the masterly work of Delacroix. This magnificent 

(Staircase leading to the Prefect's departments.) 

ceiling in the painter's best style represented Peace a female 
figure reclining upon clouds, and watching the return of Plenty, 
accompanied by a procession of the Muses. The "Salon de I'Em- 
pereur" was a sumptuous hall richly decorated and devoted to the 
glorification of the Empire with, among others, a celebrated mural 
painting showing the Great Napoleon, figuratively, leaving St. 
Helena, and rising above the clouds to immortality. Of the nu- 
merous statues by noted masters to perpetuate the memory of dis- 
tinguished citizens of Paris, only a few can be recalled. There is 
a long list, beginning with the great tribune of the people, Etienne 
Marcel, and descending almost to the present time : Jean Goujon, 







the sixteenth century sculptor, the disciple of Michael Angelo ; 
Boileau, Moliere, La Reynie, the lieutenant of Louis XIV. ; Vol- 
taire, Condorcet, the Abbe de 1'Epee, and Levoisier, such are a 
few of the names selected from many. A number of these statues 
were restored, others replaced on the rebuilding of the edifice after 
the Commune. The work began about 1873, after several plans 
had b^en discussed, and the new Hotel de Ville was completed on 
a scale of greater magnificence than ever, for the ceremony of 
inauguration took place only in 1882. It is constructed in the 
style of the Renaissance, and the architecture is very, rich and or- 
namental. This palatial structure is rectangular in form, with four 


facades facing respectively the Place de 1'Hotel de Ville, the Rue 
de Rivoli, the Place Lobau, and the quay on the Seine. In the 
gardens opposite the apartments of M. de Selves, the Prefect of 
the Seine, there stands an interesting bronze statue of Etienne 
Marcel ; while the three courts, ornamented with the statues of 
Parisian celebrities present a striking and beautiful appearance. 

Note the admirable entrance and staircase with equestrian statue 
leading to the official apartments of that high state functionary ; 
then the Cabinet of the Prefect, with its paintings, its crystal cande- 
labrum and carved ceiling. The Salle des Seances or the Assembly 
Room, with the President's raised seat, the orators' tribune, and the 



This apartment contains a ceiling by Bonnat, and ceilings by Besnard and Jules Le- 
fevre; also numerous panels on the wall by Buland, Berton, Lay rand, Robert Fleury, 
Francais Pierre Vauthler, etc. 






c 3 





richly carved ceiling will interest the visitor, for here the councillors 
of Paris assemble with their President, the meetings often being 
lively and the discussions stormy. The library is more austere in 
decoration ; but the Cabinet of the President of the Council General, 
with pictures and draperies and the handsome Empire writing-table, 
is certainly an elegant and comfortable retreat for that dignitary. 
The top of the staircase leading to the apartment of the Prefect, 
the marble steps, the finely ornamental balustrade, the pillars, carv- 
ings and statues, ensconced in niches, are most rich in ornament 


and very imposing. The Salle des Prevots with its rows of col- 
onnades might be thought almost oriental in inspiration with its 
arabesques, the delicate tracery of Moorish architecture, such 
as may be seen at the Alhambra at Grenada, with its light, 
airy aspect. But, perhaps, the Hotel de Vilh at night is the most 
effective, nay wonderful sight ; when one of those brilliant and gor- 
geous balls are given in the magnificent Salle des Fetes, on the 
first floor, facing the Place Lobau. On these occasions (a reception 
or a ball) many of the notabilities of the city are present with their 
families, for these entertainments are on a vast scale, sometimes 
several thousand persons being invited. To witness the procession 
of carriages drive up to the main entrance ; and the spectacle of the 



toilettes, the decorations, the uniforms, the staircase covered by 
the moving throng, the brilliant illumination of the entire building 
is a sight long to be remembered. 

A few words in conclusion. When the Roman Catholic Church, 
representing the Royalists of France, decided to build on the 
heights of Montmartre, a magnificent cathedral, and poured its 
millions (out of the pockets of the poor, for the most part) into the 
fund for the erection of the Sacre-Coeur, now towering over the 
city like a menace to the New Republic the Republicans of Paris 


built their fine city hall. Situated on the spot where the most revo- 
lutionary events took place, it is, in a manner, a rival building to 
the collosal structure on Montmartre. The Republicans of Paris 
in having their seat of Government decorated by such artists as De- 
taille and Willette and Cheret intend to make the Hotel de Ville to 
Parisians what Versailles was to the Royalists. 

J. D'Arcy Morrell 




IN discussing country houses and measuring their merits, 
a special attitude must be assumed in judging them. It is special 
because in criticizing other types of building, we do not find so 
prominent the one element which enters largely into the problem 
of the country house. There are, of course, buildings of a very dif- 
ferent nature from the domestic of which we are speaking, that 
press very similar points for solution, but the methods pursued in 
solving them differ widely, which leaves them out of our present 
argument. Broadly considering the matter and arriving at the 
main point directly, it is plain that unlike other buildings, a country 
house demands .of the architect the consideration of something 
more than strictly architectural conditions. 

The architect is shown a plot of ground in the country whereon 
his client desires a dwelling erected for the purpose of living dur- 
ing the summer months, and of having at all times a place to re- 
treat for rest and recreation. This primary reason of his client's 
desire to build a house, the desire to get away from the restric- 
tions of city life, should be the guiding note of the architect's efforts. 
That there should be few reminders of city conditions embodied in 
the establishments built in the country is only the fulfillment of the 
very important law of fitness, as fundamental in architecture as it is 
in everything else. Of all things, the particular question of pro- 
priety in design relative to existing and proposed environment, ap- 
plies here with doubled force. The right-minded architect will 
readily recognize this supreme necessity, because he himself feels 
it. It is a thing characteristic of the problem connected with the 
building of country establishments, in that it offers the architect an 
unusual latitude for expression. It does not confine him strictly 
to architectural considerations, but in, addition it gives him a chance 
to show his appreciation of the picturesque. This opportunity 
thrills him, perhaps, to an extent that may be paralleled in the emo- 
tions of a painter upon viewing a beautiful subject for a landscape 
composition. He should not allow his architectural lore to emas- 
culate his original picturesqueness of conception. If he does so it 
may be because he is insensible to the true motive of all art, or per- 
haps, because he has been over-educated. Excessive knowledge of 
architectural history may be responsible for the great number of 
stereotyped buildings that are built now-a-days. There is too much 
"Academy" architecture; too much so-called "Classic" that is in- 




discriminately stuck everywhere regardless of conditions ; too much 
school and too little individualism ; too much tradition and not 
enough originality ; too much of the profession and not enough of 
the man. If the poetical spirit is driven out of architecture by com- 
mercialism in the city, there is still, happily, enough of it possible in 
this interesting subject of building country houses; and the archi- 
tect of a constitution susceptible to the impressions, which the very 
nature of such problems must give and necessarily impel him to 
regard in his work, is certainly to be congratulated, for he is then 
an artist. 

To be less speculative let us turn to a comparison. An object 

The estate of J. H. Moore, at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 

lesson of unusual force on the question of right attitude towards the 
problem was afforded the writer in a recent visit to Lake Geneva in 
Wisconsin. One of the houses, figuring in the issue is "Loramoor" 
which we are presently to describe, and the other is a conspicuous 
classic dwelling in the same neighborhood. Strangely enough these 
two houses are alone among the many in this district in their pre- 
tentions to architectural merit. The two drawn into comparison 
cannot fail to impress the beholder that Mr. Hunt, the architect of 
"Loramoor," designed his building with a spirit much more appro- 
priate that that displayed in the other extremely formal and aca- 
demic house. We can note immediatelv how the one architect 

"LORAMOOR." 263 

carefully considered what his trust meant and how accurately he 
surveyed the whole situation, while the other seems to have set at 
naught all regard for the site of his building, with the result that we 
find a cold-looking, severely uncongenial design staring out from 
the east shore, like a figure of pride disdaining the sympathy which 
it cannot get. Credit may be due to the architect, for a clean-cut 
piece of interesting stone work, but none is certainly due him for 
the manner in which he handled the problem intrusted to him. If 
the house stood upon some level tract of country, with a broad ex- 
panse of green on all sides, affording a ground for formal gardens 
and broad terraces, the house would appear to better advantage. 
The lines of the house, contemplated alone, are not bad ; its size is 
generous, perhaps impressive, but it is totally out of harmony with 
the natural wealth of the country, on the shores of this beautiful 
lake. This law of fitness, which involves the relationship of build- 
ings with their environment, will not bear violations, except they be 
tempered with the subtle art, like the Italian palaces. 

"At Loramoor" we see how frankly and earnestly the architect 
set to work to add telling strokes, as it were, to an already inter- 
esting picture, making it virile and human ; and should it be asked, 
if a man can be a poet with bricks, mortar and tile ; if he can ex- 
press his regard for the beautiful fully as deeply through the me- 
dium of his workers in these materials as a man can through the 
offices of verse and music ; if he can in wielding these bulky me- 
diums tell a story .as effectively as a painter with his brush, a re- 
sponse strongly to the affirmative will come from the collection of 
buildings, comprising the estate of Mr. Jas. Hobert Moore on the 
south shore. Arriving at the gate lodge, which is most picturesque, 
with a quaint and appropriate symbolism of wide open arms, sug- 
gested by its peculiar shape and plan ; the view of the whole grounds 
produces a sensation in the beholder that would scarcely be felt if 
the buildings had not so much of earnest sympathy with their sur- 
roundings. They are one with each other, and all together one 
with the whole spirit of the lake. These buildings form a unique 
family, and the term "family" is easily appropriate, since their con- 
sistency is very striking. All three are more or less alike, the same 
materials entering into the composition of them all, and there are 
solid reasons for their being designed as they are, particularly the 
house and the stable. If time and space permitted, the writer would 
be tempted (for the purpose of convincing our radical contempo- 
raries) to give certain views on the subject of originality in design, 
and its true meaning, but as a limit is set, the pictures alone must 
show how much stronger is the conservatism of the buildings at 
"Loramoor," contrasted with those architectural contortions of 
that school of radical reform, whose aim appears rather to be eccen- 






o . 



tricity than beauty. "Loramoor" is a work representing uncom- 
monly a sane originality of thought; a work that is permeated 
through with the individuality of its architect ; and although he drew 
his inspiration from that period in England when her architecture 
was undergoing a transition from the old or Gothic to the new or 
Renaissance, it is impossible to deprive him of his title to original- 
ity. Though candidly reflecting the Elizabethan spirit, almost to 
a degree that would lead one to think it bodily transplanted from 
England, it will always remain the result of brilliant original 
thought. The form of the building, its carefully studied color 

The estate of J. H. Moore, at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 

values, its cleverly conceived roof lines, nil testify admirably to orig- 
inal effort. 

Specific description of the house seems scarcely necessary in 
view of the photographs reproduced with this article, but a few 
points about it may be interesting to know, and will aid the reader 
in understanding the whys and wherefores of certain peculiarities 
in the design, among which the most notable and the first perhaps 
to attract attention is the form of the plan. The V-shape was 
adopted, because it met the conditions of the problem best. Lo- 
cated on the south shore of the lake, the house, to face the water, 
would naturally obtain an undesirable exposure to the north; so 
that, as a compromise between giving the best, if not all the rooms, 



a prospect out onto the lake ; the benefit of the sun for as many 
hours of the day as possible, and the advantage of the best direc- 
tion for breezes, the V-form of plan, very obtuse in its angle, was 
found available. As the house has been located to assist the plan 
in obtaining these advantages, the result is that every room in the 
house, from the living room in the first story to the servants' rooms 
ir. the third, is afforded a view of the lake. The sun cheers the liv- 
ing room, which is in the west wing, all day long, and the dining- 
room, which is in the east wing, secures it at breakfast time and 
again at dinner ; and as for the rooms upstairs, they all get a sunny 

The estate of J. H. Moore, at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. 

Jarvis Hunt, Architect. 

exposure, especially those over the living room.. The arrangements 
in the plan for securing every available breeze for each room 
have also met with great success. Such a plan, too, afforded oppor- 
tunities for a design of unusual interest, as the photographs amply 
show; and let the reader supplement them by picturing to himself 
the pleasing color values that exist in the brick surfaces and the 
white plaster bays against them ; and the quaint dormers against a 
background of a soft, variegating gray green shingle tile, and these 
together, in their quiet harmony, with the tones of the natural 
foliage around the house. The architect availed himself of the fine 
quality of texture and color in the rainwashed brick, and laid them 





2 3 



P! a" 





< '3 
H c 



up in thick and deeply raked out mortar joints, making a surface 
presenting a beautiful tone between the variegations of soft grays, 
quiet blues and dull reds. The effect is extremely picturesque ; and 
not a small part of this pleasant effect is due to the soft lines every- 
where apparent in the composition. A novel and quaint feature, 
perhaps more evident in the Gate lodge than here in the house, is 
the careful study made of the roof. All ridges, gable ends, hips 
and valleys are tempered with a curve so that the dormers and 
gables appear to grow naturally out of the roof. Ordinarily, the 
roof of a house is thought of no more than that it is a lid, but at 
"Loramoor" the architect perceived the necessity of careful study 
of this feature, owing to the fact that the main road leading to the 
estate is on a high ridge, and that upon approaching, the roofs of 
the buildings are the first to appear in sight. This fact can be seen 
in the photograph of the stable, which is taken from this road and 
which gives almost a bird's-eye view of the arena. 

It would require more space than the editor can allot to describe 
adequatelv the interior of this interesting house, which is treated 
in Mr. Hunt's characteristic style. Here, again, is that individual- 
ity as prominent as it is where we first view it, upon entering the 
grounds. Perhaps there are more carvings and mouldings in this 
house than Mr. Hunt usually likes, but they are used with 
quiet restraint, subdued in all places by his happy faculty for mak- 
ing things simple. Color, texture, grain, the inherent beauty of 
the material, are first in his respect. In the hall, however, we find 
him using Gothic quite freely. This hall is large and of grand pro- 
portions, done in quarter-sawed oak and stained black ; the walls 
are of rough plaster, stained in an ox-blood color, which funereal 
ground is amply enlivened by treating the heavy stair balusters 
in white enamel. This contrast, as strong as can be made between 
two colors, may strike one as jarring, but this is a mistake that 
would be fully realized if one should see the hall itself. At any rate, 
this study in black and white did not frighten the architect, for we 
notice that this same idea is introduced in the living room, but with 
less success, and again in the dining-room where, however, the 
light and shade are concentrated, as shall be described. Its use in 
the living room, one feels, is not quite as appropriate as in the hall, 
and although very much unlike Mr. Hunt, it appears more like an 
architectural whim. But there are so few of these light spots, that 
they do not detract from if they do not add to the attractive- 
ness of the room, which is also done in oak and stained a mouse 
gray. The walls are hung with a pale red tapestry. The whole 
room, in fact the whole interior, is characterized by an exceedingly 
attractive simplicity. The mantel-piece in the nook of this room, 
simple as it is, is worth considering because its treatment is typical 

"LORAMOOR." 273 

of the Hunt idea. The breast is ten feet wide, and only consists of 
a plain shelf with brackets supporting it, but the claim to a high 
credit is found in the handsome piece of wood above, the surface 
of which is unbroken except for a shield carved in the center. Not 
only is this a skillful piece of cabinet work, but one of considerable 
artistic merit, since the grain is so matched as to make it appear 
like one beautiful piece of oak. 

Returning through the hall, from the living room, a peep to the 
left shows the billiard room and the den, interesting rooms and 
highly panelled ; but a greater attraction draws one to the dining- 
room. Fortunately, our photograph shows the room as Mr. Hunt 
had orginally decorated it. Note the simplicity. It is square and 
panelled in a unique fashion about a third way up ; above this is 
hung, leather of iridescent green, and then above that is a cove los- 
ing itself in the ceiling. The panelling is of oak, of beautiful grain ; 
was stained a quiet green originally and the carving of a floral mo- 
tive was still further relieved by. a slight illumination, producing a 
delightfully original effect ; but through a sacrilege, instigated by a 
supposed necessity, the whole of the woodwork was covered with a 
white enamel paint, destroying what was the most interesting room 
in the house. There is a serving room which contains the serving 
table and cupboards arranged as a feature of the dining-room, that 
was white enamel, in contrast with the dark of the original scheme 
in the dining-room proper, but now this pleasant contrast is re- 
duced to a monotony which all white enamel rooms exhibit unless 
they are rich in ornamentation or refinement of some kind. The 
photographs of the bed chambers are typical of the purpose of the 
entire second story. They are all simple, white in finish and dec- 
orated in cool colors and interestingly furnished with good old- 
fashioned furniture. 

It is needless to say that no expense has been spared to make a 
good house, which has been done, both in respect to its construction 
and its artistic treatment. The house is built of steel and masonry 
and is fireproof. In this light it is interesting to speculate on the 
fact that what history the place will have ten or so generations 
from now will only add to the spirit of romance it even now seems 
to reveal. 

Charles Bohasscck. 

Nos. 5C1-563 Broadway, New York City. Ernest Flagg, Architect. 


IN the December number of this magazine, the designers of the 
new Blair Building, recently completed in New York City, on 
the northwest corner of Broad street and Exchange place, were 
praised for an act of deliberate abstention from irrelevancy. 
In designing their facade they adopted the novel scheme of a pal- 
pable decorative screen in place of adhering to the usual semblance 
of a strictly masonry front. The design itself, no doubt, was man- 
aged with skill, even with consummate skill, but then, notable as the 
building might be from that point of view, excellence of that kind 
alone would hardly be sufficient to give it pre-eminence among all 
skyscrapers recently erected, for no one will say skill of composi- 
tion, ability to put together on Bristol board tasteful and har- 
monious arrangements of time-honored architectural forms is so 
rare with us as it was a few years ago. In literature, the "diffusion 
of penmanship" has been bewailed by Henry James, but in archi- 
tecture no one complains because draughtsmanship and "good 
taste" the negative discipline have become general commodi- 
ties. No ! The great deficiency does not lie in that direction ! The 
difficulty is not to get speakers, but to find somebody who has 
something of import to say. 

Many designers, among the number possibly the designers them- 
selves of the very clever Blair Building, will disagree with this 
philosophy, and with its implication that there is anything finer than 
good design, always meaning by that phrase, design at the surface, 
the putting of architectural things together columns, arcades, 
mouldings and what not "a string of epithets that improve the 
sound without carrying on the sense" in an essentially pictorial 
way, to please the eye without reference to the reason. That, at 
any rate, has been the method that has ruled in the past, almost 
without exception, in the making of the skyscraper, and it is, in 
the judgment of a few, the very persistent adherance to that 
method by the entire profession that has vitiated all attempts to 
deal fundamentally (and in essence that means artistically) with 
the problem presented by the high building. 

The "problem of the skyscraper" indeed ! Who is there among 
our architects that has had courage, we will not say to squarely 
face it and strive with it, but even to seriously think about it? 
Is there any wonder that whenever the subject comes uppermost, 
at convention, or meeting, or elsewhere, among two or among a 
hundred, there is inevitably in a short time a shrugging of shoul- 
ders and finally a dismissal of the matter as one of the impossibili- 
ties of life or shall we say the impertinencies of the client? Throw 
it out of window ! That ends it ! And possibly by and by it will 


be placed in the list of subjects tabooed in good professional so- 
ciety, like ventilation and acoustics and government architecture, 
Perhaps our architects think as Sancho Panza did, "Recommend 
the matter to Providence ; 'twill be sure to give what is most ex- 
pedient for thee." 

A few have protested, not, indeed, believing that the skyscraper, 
with its bald utilitarian purposes and its fixed 5% "projet" affords 
the artistic soul the highest empyeran for flight, but nevertheless 
convinced that Art cannot fail before any problem that may prop- 
erly be assigned to its beneficence without at the same time losing 
its ultimate authority in human affairs, and preferring, therefore, 
to believe that, in the case of the skyscraper, the artist, rather than 
the Art, is at fault at least believing so until the architect has 
applied himself to the problem with great veracity than the scene- 
painter's, and with more seriousness than the modiste's. 

But these were the critics ! They preached of function and logic, 
of reason, veracity and thought. What have these to do with archi- 
tecture ? Why ! has not the aim of the architect for four hundred 
years been to get rid of these incubi, to cleanse the Art of its heav- 
ier particles, and make it, as it were, fit for the emasculated energy 
of the dilettante, or the quick purposes of the architectural shop? 

And if the critics, the protestants, have been few, how much 
smaller, alas ! is the band of those who have labored at the high 
building problem with any sincerity of soul, sad or otherwise? 
So far as the skeleton building is concerned, Louis Sullivan is per- 
haps the only architect of marked ability who has addressed him- 
self deliberately and sincerely to the discovery of an adequate ex- 
pression in architectural terms for the metallic frame. The Pru- 
dential Building in Buffalo, N. Y., the Wainwright Building in St. 
Louis, and the Bayard Building on Bleecker street, New York City, 
are the most conspicuous results of his highly personal and thor- 
oughly intelligent effort. If we are restrained by a sense of prose 
from the poetics of one of Mr. Sullivan's ardent admirers regard- 
ing the Bayard Building: "Rising thus cream-white, maidenlike and 
slender, luxuriant in life and joyous as the dawn of wistful spring, 
this poem of the modern world will ever daily hail the sun on high 
and the plodder below with its ceaseless song of hope, of joy, of 
the noble labor of man's hands, of the vast dignity and power of 
men's souls a song of true democracy and its goal" ; 
we are sure the judgment of the judicious is that Mr. Sullivan's 
work is very much superior in originality and force to any other 
productions of the same class. If the lyrics of his admirer are 
slightly too perfervid for the case, we trust they will at least faintly 
indicate the celebration that attends the successful solver of the 
problem of the skyscraper. 


It may well be understood, therefore, that it is not the mere 
superficial design of the Blair Building, referred to at the outset 
of these remarks, extremely skilful though that design is, that 
called primarily for attention. The greater significance of that 
building lies in the fact that it announces, or at any rate, seems to 
announce, that one of our highest authorities in architectural prac- 
tice, a firm particularly addicted to the "school" and the "tradi- 
tions" have either by a deliberate concession to architectural 
veracity or from an effort to reduce architecture to a more direct 
expression a "lower term," as the mathematicians say of "pure 
design," contributed an important step to the task of bringing the 
tall building back to reason, to the logic of its own facts and func- 
tions. For, so long as the steel skeleton building simulates ma- 
sonry, imitates a construction of strongly differentiated structural 
parts, progress beyond the limits of draughtsmanship and the 
copy-books is a sheer impossibility. It is, therefore, a great gain, 
as in the Blair Building, to get rid, and, moreover, to get rid with 
conspicuous success, of the masonry fiction. We may be confident 
that so notable a piece of work so generally acclaimed is bound 
to be a hint to others, and bring forth imitators, traducers even, 
and, may be, improvers. And once let us get set up in front of 
our skyscrapers frank facades, mere decorative front walls that 
neither express nor conceal the facts of structure, simulate nothing 
(but a real Art !) and what more natural and easy further step 
can be taken than to turn up one's artistic shirt-sleeves at last and 
buckle down to the hard work of making our tall buildings really 
say, or as Montgomery Schuyler said, sing something veracious 
about themselves? 

And curiously, more than curiously, fortunately, as though to 
remove this anticipation of ours from the reproach of prophesy, 
the Bhir Building was scarcely finished before the outer walls of 
a far more revolutionary structure arose to attract attention and, 
as it were, fulfill the promise of its predecessor, almost its con- 

We refer to the Singer Building, situated at Nos. 561 and 563 
Broadway, New York City, with a front adjacent on Prince street. 
Ernest Flagg, the architect of the New Naval Academy at Annap- 
olis, is the designer; and here, again, we are called upon to note 
the curious and oossibly significant fact that it is out of Nazareth 
that good cometh. Mr. Flagg is one of our notable "Beaux Artists." 
His activity and indubitable ability have been centered in the effort 
to import into this country the forms and ideas of current French 
architecture. Of importers of French modes, we perhaps have 
enough ; but Mr. Flagg's distinction is that he has a clear insight 
into and a real appreciation of the French mental process of deal- 

2 7 8 


Singer Building, Nos. 5G1-5G3 Broadway, New York City. Ernest Flagg, Architect 



ing with things architectural, its lucidity and directness. The 
French forms to which he has hitherto been addicted may perhaps 
be regarded more as an accident of his French training than as the 
choice of a reasoned and thoroughly worked-out preference ; at 
any rate, once the problem of the skyscraper was placed before 
him, he sought its solution directly on logical instead of traditional 
lines, relying rather upon the "principles" inculcated at the Ecole 
than upon any established set of patterns. For, in a sense, this 
Singer Building is Mr. Flagg's first skyscraper. The other Singer 
Building, lower down on Broadway, for which also he is respon- 
sible, is only ten stories high, and, moreover, it is, we believe, of 
real masonry construction. A story, we remember, was circulated 
at the time when this building was planned, to the effect that Mr. 
Flagg was under the bond of a vow, registered somewhere, that he 
would never "commit" a real skyscraper. Ten stories were his 
limit. Possibly he regarded the crime of designing a tall office 
building as one impossible to commit with artistic impunity. Cer- 
tainly he was able to figure out to his own satisfaction that build- 
ings higher than ten stories did not pay financially they required 
protection as to light and air by the purchase of abutting property 
that is, they became unremunerative as soon as every other 
pirate of air and sunlight committed similar excesses. It is true, the 
Bourne Building followed the Singer Building, adjacent to it, and 
this was carried up many stories beyond the limit of ten. But who 
can be consistent in a world composed of clients? The skyscraper 
problem would not "down" even in Mr. Flagg's office. We are 
afraid it will not be disposed of anywhere until it has either been 
solved artistically by the architect, or until its very existence has 
been legally banished by a more sensitive public sense of civic 

But if the architect cannot dispense with the skyscraper, the 
next best thing for him to do is really to grapple with it. Mr. Sul- 
livan pursued that course with success, although he failed, as we 
see it, to strictly adhere to his own principle that form should 
follow function. The functionless arch crept into some of his de- 
signs, and some of the members of some of his buildings are only 
to be accounted for by a reference to "pure architecture." Mr. 
Flagg has perhaps been more thoroughgoing than Mr. Sullivan, 
for his design is a much more uncompromising attack upon the 
structuresque problem of the skyscraper. Traditional forms in 
the latest Singer Building have given way almost everywhere to 
structural expression. The architect clearly has endeavored to 
permit the structure to design itself, confining his own role as 
much as possible to making the structural features as good looking 
as lay within his power. His problem, as he understood it, was 









to protect a steel frame, provide all the light necessary in a build- 
ing devoted to strictly commercial purposes, and to let the building 
tell its own story as agreeably as it might. 

Our illustrations show clearly the details of how the task was 
actually performed. The steel frame, it will be seen, is covered with 
fire-resisting material, held in place by metal bands and straps ; the 
steel columns do not masquerade as stone piers ; the steel beams 
do not conceal themselves behind stone architraves ; there are no 
classic columns, and Renaissance arcades, nor even does the metal 
itself, where visible, simulate in its proportions or profiles another 
material. The open spaces are filled with glass where glass is re- 

Singer Building, No. 561-563 Broadway. Ernest Plagg, Architect. 

quired, and for the rest, the encasement consists of small terra cotta 
panels that reveal themselves between the metal framing or straps. 
Ornamentation is confined entirely to such expression as rightfully 
can be imparted to terra cotta and iron. The reader's attention is 
particularly directed to the isometric drawing, wherein is set forth 
very plainly the method adopted of filling in the panels of the iron 
latice-work which protects the angles with terra cotta slabs; 
also the plan used for constructing the cornices with angle irons 
for the angles of the corona, and for the slabs of enriched terra 
cotta for its soffits. The drawing also indicates the use of the terra 
cotta blocks for the cyma and for the bed mouldings, the brick 


work which protects the columns and girders, the way in which the 
upper surfaces of the cornices and balconies are protected with 
iron plates, and also the nature of the wrought iron consoles which 
support the main cornice. 

All this is very novel, very ingenous, highly thoughtful. Surely, 
no other architect has ever so frankly accepted the situation which 
the skyscraper presents and submitted it to so much real brain 
work. So much we must all acknowledge. So much is a great 
gain. So much is immensely creditable to the designer. Apart 
from Mr. Sullivan's experiments, here we have for the first time, a 
skyscraper on which a man may ponder, about which he may talk 
seriously, analyze and judge with the same respect that he may 
accord to a structure of the days when architecture was not a mere 
"mode" like the milliner's. 

It is not to be expected that a building, the first attempt along 
such novel lines, should be entirely successful. It is enough for us 
and for the profession, and it should be immensely gratifying to 
the designer that his bold attempt must be acclaimed a pronounced 
success an innovation which cannot oossibly be disregarded in 
the future by his confreres. Even Roman architecture was not 
built in a day, and it had no intractable problem to handle like the 
skyscraper. Experimentation is necessary. Logic may deliver 
its conclusions in a day, but not so Art. Grace of line and justness 
of proportion are the result of a long-continued revelation, and 
of an inspiration persisting with and working through genera- 
tions. But, one or the other, the revelation or the inspiration can- 
not be of substantial value unless derived from the actual struc- 
ture ; indeed, neither is a reality so long as its source is merely an 
academy or a set of copy-books. And this consideration brings us 
back again to our building and to the value of Mr. Flagg's notable 
achievement. H. W . Desmond. 



AT the exhibition of the Architectural League in the Fine Arts 
Building on Fifty-seventh Street "here stands a glass case 
containing some specimens of hardware, which the Art Department 
of Russell & Erwin Mfg. Co., of Three Hundred and Seven Fifth 
Avenue, New York City, placed there at the special request of 
those intrusted with the management of the exhibition. 

The public interested in these annual exhibitions managed by our 
architects have come to regard them as being, in the main, profes- 
sional displays, limited, in practice at least, to architects' designs 
or to pictures of those designs, supplemented incidentally but 
only incidentally by a few decorative schemes and by still fewer 
exhibits of perhaps a little plaster work or a little bit of mosaic, or 
still rarer, an occasional example of wrought metal work. This 
common idea of these exhibitions is in the main correct, and conse- 
quently, standing before this glass case containing the hardware, 
one can hardly avoid the question "What significance is to be 
attached to this departure?" 

Several answers suggest themselves immediately. It might be 
said : "This hardware exhibition is here on account of its extra- 
ordinary artistic excellence ; or it might be said (particularly as 
this exhibit is French in origin) that our architects, deploring the 
existing insufficiencies of American hardware in the matter of de- 
sign and finish, invited the Russell & Erwin Mfg. Company to make 
this display "Pour encourager les autres," or the matter might be 
put in this way our architects recognize the immense improve- 
ment that has been made in the design and manufacture of hard- 
ware during the last fifteen or twenty years, and seeing that it has 
now reached the full dignity of an artistic craft, wish to signalize the 
fact by associating with their own exhibits an exhibit of the very 
finest hardware that is now available for their use ; or, finally, it 




might be said that this exhibi- 
tion of hardware is due to the 
fact that the profession, satis- 
fied with American hardware 
upon every point but that of 
design and finish, wish from an 
jducational point of view to set 
forth the highest standard of 
work that exists to-day, and, as 
the highest standards in these 
matters prevail in France, the 
profession deemed it wise to 
call upon the Russell & Erwin 
Company for examples of the 
work of the great modern 
French craftsmen, which that 
company to-day controls so far 
as the United States is con- 

There is probably some truth 
in each of these views. France 
to-day is far in advance of 
other nations in the decorative 
arts, and French hardware, in 
the matter of design and finish, 
is incomparably finer than any 
domestic product obtainable in 
the United States or in any oth- 
er country but France. This 
statement does not in any sense 
discount the immense progress 
that has been made in Ameri- 
can hardware during the last 
twenty years or depreciate the 
high character of the product 
to-day. Indeed, if any man 
wants to realize how great the 
progress has been he has only 
to turn to the crude, inappro- 
priate metal fittings that were 
the best at the disposal of an 
American citizen of taste any- 
where in the "seventies." Prior 
to 1870 hardware had about the 
same value artistically that a 




cast-iron stove had, and in our costly houses of that time, hinges 
and doorknobs and escutcheons were perforce usually perfectly 
plain. The first faint dawn of the better thing occurred in 1870, 
when the Russell & Erwin Manufacturing- Company commenced 
to employ trained designers possessing some ideas of function, ma- 
terial and process and some training in the art of design. The 
Centennial Exposition of 1876 forwarded this move towards artistic 
craftsmanship, and a few years later all the great hardware con- 
cerns of the United States were working to bring their product into 
some conformity with the standards of taste and the standards of de- 
sign that prevailed in the offices of the best architects. 

It was quite natural that at first the co-operation of the hard- 
ware manufacturer with the architect should be on the most general 
lines only ; that is, if the architectural profession was at any moment 
chiefly interested in the Gothic Style, then the hardware would 
conform to that style, or, at any rate, attempt to conform to it. 
This general co-operation once started extended through all the 
many experiments that our architects made with the Queen Anne 
Style of architecture, the Romanesque Style, Classic Style, etc., 
and during the course of these experiments the co-operation became 
closer, until, finally, in recent years it ceased to move solely upon 
general lines, but extended to the point that the architect was 
offered something better than "stock patterns." "Style 684" in 
the catalogue of a hardware house might indeed be an escutcheon 
01 doorknob or hinge design of good design, but so long as the 
catalogue was inevitably associated with standardized hardware, 
clearly the artistic possibilities of the product were seriously limited. 
An improvement, no doubt, was made when the big hardware manu- 
facturers announced their willingness to undertake the special man- 
ufacture of articles to suit the particular requirements of architects, 
but the product, nevertheless, remained the product of the factory, 
and was vitiated by the principles and methods of the shop. Stand- 
ardization with its catalogues, its order numbers, its subordination 
to the scheme of multiplication, has, of course, its advantages, but 
these advantages are not and cannot be those that are most sought 
for and desired by the artistic spirit. It is not under the domina- 
tion of these principles that the great French artists work 
men (for instance like Charpentier) who do not regard it as beneath 
their dignity to turn from the manipulation of a great piece of 
decorative sculpture to model a doorknob or to design with ex- 
quisite detail a hinge or an escutcheon. But then, work of this 
latter kind is not for the catalogue, and it is exactly work of this 
character, thoroughly artistic in spirit and purpose, that our Ameri- 
can architects are now demanding in the case of hardware for the 
finer buildings they are called upon to design. Factory hardware, 



Designer. Charpentier. 


Russell & Rrwin Mfg. Co. 

(Art Department.) 
Concessionaires pour Maison Fontaine. 

Made by Maison Fontaine, Paris. 



Designer, Charpentier. 


Made by Maison Fontaine, Paris. 

Russell & Erwin Mfg. Co. 

(Art Department.) 
Concessionaires pour Maison Fontaine. 



despite its undoubted excellencies, is out of place, especially in the 
great residences that are now being reared for our merchant 
princes. When the wood carving is all specially designed and 
specially worked by hand, when furniture, pianos, carpets, wall 
paper even and china are all made to conform to the general effect 
designed by the architect, it is something of a solecism to equip 
the doors and windows with factory-made hardware, some of which 
possibly may be found in duplicate by the owner of the house him- 
self in his neighbor's mansion. The work of the artist not the 
mere technical designer is a necessity. The pieces should be 
as unique as the frescoes on the walls. For work of this kind the 
greatest artists that can be employed are none too good craftsmen. 
Men of this artistic standing, capable of work of this character 
and willing to do it are not numerous in the United States. They 
are, indeed, at the present moment almost entirely lacking. We 
have no one to compare with the great French artists of the pres- 
ent day and moreover, even had we the artists, we lack the crafts- 
men to execute their designs, and even the skill to finish them to 
the degree of perfection that pertains in France. The exhibit at 
the Architectural League establishes this point beyond peradven- 
ture. The articles displayed were designed by Charpentier and 
executed by the great French bronze house Maison Fontaine. 
The exhibitors the Russell & Erwin Mfg. Company have se- 
cured the services of artists like Charpentier, and have become 
the sole agents in the United States of the Maison Fontaine ; and 
in taking this step they have undoubtedly contributed enormously 
to the artistic development of hardware in the United States. The 
recognition of this fact by the Architectural League was well 
merited, and the discussion that took place at a recent dinner of 
the Architectural League, when the subject of hardware was the 
topic for the evening's discussion, showed clearly how welcome 
the innovation is to our architects, who feel now the need of the 
co-operation of the highest craftsmenship in all the departments 
of decoration. The speech on that occasion of Mr. F. G. Draper, 
manager of the Art Department of the Russell & Erwin Company, 
which we quote below, stated the position of the subject in terms 
that were heartily welcomed and cannot well be improved upon. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen : 

Your President, Mr. Brunner, has evidently called me out in the 
hope that though connected with a kindred branch of the business 
with which you gentlement are identified, something might be 
said from my standpoint of interest to you. 

It is not unusual, I believe, for commanders to summon to their 
cabins ordinary gunners and subordinates for consultation, and in 



the development of Art hardware in this country the architect must 
be the "captain" and the manufacturer "the man behind the gun." 

Architecture embraces a knowledge of all the arts, and I must 
confess to a hesitation in addressing a league of gentlemen com- 
posed of the ablest and most distinguished artists in America. 

What information I have on the subject has been gathered by 
over thirty years experience as a hardware man, and I have had 
the keenest pleasure in witnessing, during that time, the growing 
demand, year by year, for better and more artistic hardware. 

Our country is young. We can almost say that we have seen the 
soiled and primitive "latch string" replaced by carved metal knobs, 
hinges and escutcheons the creation of genius. 

To France we undoubtedly owe the development of ornamental 
and artistic house hardware. The crude and ancient hinges and 
locks which you find in the ruins of Pompeii and the museum at 
Naples, are not very much improved upon in the buildings general- 
ly throughout Italy, not in the stocks carried by the dealers which 
I had the opportunity to examine. This same lack of develop- 
ment is apparent in Germany and England to a large extent. The 
best class of villas and public buildings throughout Europe which 
I found trimmed with ornamental hardware, was invariably of 
French importation, excepting, of course, in Belgium, where the 
workmen are famous for their creations in hammered iron and 
bronze, and which, I think, is conceded to be due to the French 

I think, gentlemen, it can be said without fear of contradiction 
that America is to-day producing the best hardware of any country 
in the world, and the most artistic hardware of any country in the 
world with the exception of France. 

From the beginning of the Renaissance down to the present 
day the artists of France have been steadily at work, developing 
not only the designs, but the methods of handling and treating 
the models and castings. 

France exerts a paternal influence in developing art, taste and 
skill. She furnishes free tuition in art to all the children in her 
schools, and you can almost, any day see in the galleries of Paris 
young boys being instructed in the rudiments of art by tutors 
paid by the government. This system produces a nation where 
every individual is more or less versed on the subject, which, in 
this country, is left to a great extent to the leisure class, and it is 
not surprising, with this population to draw from, that the French 
manufacturers should be able to employ artists and artisans who 
have from childhood shown ability and skill in this work. 

The manufacturer, inspired by the high regard which the na- 
tion itself shows for art, treats the modeler and chaser and even the 
foundryman with the consideration due to an artist. 

In the factories which I visited in Paris I was surprised to 
learn that the making of the castings is a separate industry, be- 
cause the manufacturers claim that the art of making an intricate 
mould, from which a reproduction in metal is made to bring ^out 
clearly the lines and delicate ornament as expressed in the artist's 
model, makes it necessary that such work be executed by those 
who are especially gifted in this handicraft and often by those who 



have inherited through generations the knowledge of the "art of 

I also found that the modeling and chasing are done by artists 
in their own homes or studios who work by inspiration and not by 
the "whistle.". Is it surprising, when you consider the fostering 
of this industry by the government, the large body of capable 
artists to draw from, and the great care and strict attention to the 
slightest detail, that there should be produced the beautiful and 
artistic specimens of French hardware which you see before you 

Now, gentlemen, the demand for this high class ornamental and 
artistic work has been created by you, and the artistic tastes of 
the people in the future is also in your hands, and I think I can say 
on behalf of the manufacturers of this country that they are thor- 
oughly awake to the importance to this branch of your profession 
and that you can rely upon their hearty co-operation. 


VOL. XV. APRIL, 1904. No. 4. 


HE new portals and their bronze doors which are now in place 
on Madison Avenue, at the corner of East Forty-fourth 
Street, and which make up what is indeed a new front for the old 
Church of St. Bartholomew, are more evidently the work of the 
sculptor than of the architect. And yet this statement is true only 
in so far as if one were to say that the lower story of the west front 
of Reims Cathedral were, to the hasty looker, mainly the work of 
the sculptor. If that were stated the other question would imme- 
diately arise in the mind, even of the uncareful, the question as to 
who it was that ordained and marshalled that sculpture and gave it 
its fitting place in a great composition. 

The architect who had charge of this recent piece of work is one 
of the ablest of modern designers; and in one important respect 
he is perhaps without a rival. He can turn out more fine and 
elaborate work in a given time he can perfect an important 
composition like this with less jarring of contrary interests 
and ambitions, with a more perfect and speedily won suc- 
cess, than his neighbors. And as to the difficulties which 
attend the carrying out of such an undertaking, no person 
can know what they have been, or how great they have been; 
no one can even guess at them, except the practitioner in dec- 
orative architecture who has been through the mill already and has 
tried with partial success to rally up the forces of three or four 
sculptors' studios or of three or four mural painters' ateliers or 
the strength of decorative artists of any class and kind, but who think 
themselves, with reason, workmen of individual and independent 
merit. No one who has not had that experience can even guess 
at the difficulties which the controlling intelligence has been com- 
pelled to see through and to harmonize in the case before us. 

A comparison between this portal and the great porch of Trinity 
Church in Boston has been made more than once, as of course it 

Copyright, 1904, by "The Architectural Record Company." All rights reserved. 
Entered May 22, 1902, as second-class matter, Post Office at Xew York, N. Y., Act of 
Congress of March 3d, 1879. 





would necessarily be made. Those two pieces of detail, alone in 
very recent times, are worthy to be considered at all in comparison 
each with the other. And yet the essential differences between them 
are so interesting that it is well to point them out once again. In 
the Boston porch the usual methods of the architect have been 
followed ; a massive structure has been planned, its details carefully 
considered, its effect on the whole previously existing monument 
weighed ; and then, for the statuary and reliefs, an architectural 
sculptor was employed and the design, as in the style of the South- 
ern Romanesque of France, was carefully wrought on historical 
lines. Mr. Evans, the sculptor in question, worked in perfect har- 
mony with the architects, Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge ; working as 
he should, like a stonecutter with a more delicate job than usual 
in hand. As to the modeling of the figures, and the very judicious 
intermingling of modern anatomical knowledge with twelfth cen- 
tury design, there is no room to discuss the subject here, nor is it 
now our immediate purpose ; except to remind the reader that in 
such a composition every part, every fold of the drapery, is a 
detail of the architecture, as well as of the sculptor's own concep- 
tion ; a result less certain to follow the more usual working out of 
the sculptor's thought. However much a given statue may lack in 
special interest, the whole design is an excellent piece of that 
"associated sculpture" which has been truly spoken of as the very 
essence and purpose of mediaeval art. 

In New York the conditions have been as different as possible. 
Three sculptors of very high standing were engaged for the work, 
one of them especially a veteran and an admitted master, and to 
each one of them a portal was confided ; but a fourth most able 
artist joined this company because Mr. French, controlling the 
central doorway, found himself compelled by other important duties 
to divide his arduous task, and associated with himself Mr. Andrew 
O'Connor. Each- one of the three men chosen Daniel Chester 
French, Herbert Adams and Philip Martiny had taken for his 
own one whole doorway and its bronze valves ; and, as the middle 
doorway fell to French, so the large frieze which flanks the arch of 
that doorway and stretches away on both sides was added to that 
sculptor's undertaking; and one sees in this a sufficient reason, 
apart from all others, why an assistant sculptor was needed in this 
important case. But take either doorway that you please ; look at 
it and consider how (say in the southern portal) the bronze with 
its two larger panels, its four smaller and oval panels, the elaborate 
framing and setting of these panels in delicate foliated sculpture 
cast in the bronze, are in turn set within a frame of carefully con- 
sidered stone work, sculptured judiciously at the right points, and 
the most richly where the wealth of design could best be seen and 


appreciated let all this be examined and let the student remember 
that the sculptor named must be understood to have executed all the 
work which is not abstract architectural carving. Thus the flat 
leafage of the archivolt and the entire leaf-composition of the cap- 
ital : the elaborate spiral of the great mouldings which frame in the 
doorway and its tympanum, and the more elaborate carvings of the 
hood mouldings outside of the arch ; all this is the work of the 
architectural sculptor ; that is to say, these were modelled by Mr. 
Buehler and cut by the contractors for the stonework, B. A. & G. 
X. Williams. This purely architectural carved work, then, delicate 
i' nd refined as it is, and inferior to the work of the sculptors first 
named only in so far as it deals with conventionalized leafage and 
accepted sculpturesque traditions, has been done in the same man- 
ner in which all the work of the Boston porch was carried out. 
\Yhat the Xew York architect has been compelled to do was to so 
arrange his general design as to include and utilize the work of men 
not accustomed to subordinate their sculpture to other considera- 
tions than those springing from their own general designs for a 
monument of any sort to so arrange his general plan of action 
that each one of those able men could work in harmony with him 
and with each other for the production of such a design as we have 
before us. 

It seems right to insist upon this even in a journal which ad- 
dresses itself mainly to artists. Unfortunately it happens rarely to 
the American architect that he should have a great chance like 
this. Unfortunately, it is but seldom that the American sculptor 
lias such a show ! 

It seems proper to state that this great opportunity came of the 
generosity of the immediate family of the late Cornelius Vander- 
bilt. The first proposal to give as a memorial the bronze doors, 
thus soon developed into the more varied and extensive work of 
art which we are considering. 

Plate i shows the entire composition the three doorways with 
the ne\vly built \valls above and resting upon them. It will be seen 
that the transition from the extremely rich and varied work below 
to the commonplace modern Romanesque work above, left over 
from a bad old time for New York architecture, is managed in a 
simple and effective way. There v/as nothing to be done of any 
special moment here, merely to avoid too close looking by the 
looker-on into the methods used : one exception only being made 
to this statement, the attention given to the color-scheme. The old 
front of the church was designed in harshly contrasting sandstones 
of two or even three reddish browns and a light greyish green. 
The architect of the new addition has tried to construct a delicate 
color scheme not wholly out of harmony with the too violent one 


Herbert Adams, Sculptor. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

2 9 8 


above, and has used shafts of cipollino, panels of darker green 
veined marble and other panels of the red sandstone, which last 
are delicately fluted. There is shown also a delicate sense of that 
color value which may be given to a surface by a relief pattern more 
elaborate than fluting ; and the flat sculpture of the archivolts re- 
sults from that perception. 

Taking up, now, the doorways, one by one, the southern door- 
way, that on our left in Plate I, is the work of Herbert Adams, 

Herbert Adams, Sculptor. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

except, as above stated, in the matter of conventional architectural 
carvings of capital and mouldings. This doorway is shown in 
Plate II. The exquisite tympanum, reminding one in a pleasant 
way of Luca Delia Robbia, is certainly one of the loveliest details of 
the whole front and confirms the opinion of those to whom Mr. 
Adams has always seemed one of the first of decorative sculptors ; 
see Plate III. And let no one suppose that this adjective is used in a 
sense other than that of the highest praise. To be truly a decora- 



Herbert Adams, Sculptor. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



Philip Martiny. Sculptor. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



tive sculptor is to be what is allowed to few modern men. There 
are sculptors of greater fame and wider renown than Herbert 
Adams, who have gained their reputations from the expression of 
sentiment or of action in iheir work without having one tithe of his 
power of working to scale and to the point of producing what we 
need most when we ask of sculpture its noblest artistic results in 
glorifying a building beyond and outside of its utilitarian purpose. 

Philip Martiny. Sculptor. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

That is to be a decorative sculptor, indeed. Unfortunately enough 
we have a contrast to that lovely tympanum in the frieze below it 
and forming part of the same general design. It is hard to say it, 
but that frieze is trivial in appearance. The tripping action of the 
gowned figures following one another, although broken by the 
very different pose of the armed men, is still too aggressive; and 
from far away that frieze shows a restless and disordered compos- 
ition. It seems to come of a too earnest search for realism in ges- 
ture and pose but realism of this sort is not desired, it is even 
objectionable in many designs not connected with architectural 



sculpture, for a class requiring- dignity and. chromatic charm, 
as for mural painting or noble glass even for that. Just 
as we object to landscape paintings or historical paintings or the 
painting of incidents on the wall treated as if on the small scale of 
the easel picture, so we object, and have a right to object to restless 
and unsubdued composition and a too evident study of the inessen- 
tial facts of nature. The bronze doors, shown in Plate IV., are less 
stately in effect than those of the other doorways. 

Therefore we turn to the north doorway, Plate V, and here it 'is 
easy to find a nobler treatment of the bronze ; as much realism, 
perhaps, but a stronger spirit of decorative design to inspire it and 
make it harmless. As to the stone-carving, it is impossible to praise 
the tympanum, Plate VI, and therefore, with so much admirable 
work by Mr. Martiny and his coadjutors to praise, it will be well to 
pass to the frieze. Here the free and vigorous rendering of the 
Route to Calvary is worth anyone's study and patient thinking out. 
Is it or is it not too huddled a composition ? Are we in the precence 
of the really noble handling of a complex subject, varied action, 
many and diverse elements of design, all bound nobly together; or 
is there too much for architectural sculpture of the illustrative spirit, 
of the story-telling spirit? Let the meaning of this query be ex- 
pressed by a comparison with one of the most important works 
of art of the century the well-known and constantly praised 
Shaw Monument by Augustus Saint Gaudens. The great alto-relief 
with the marching column, and the mounted officer to whom with 
his horse the file of infantry serves as a background, seems to 
many lovers of sculpture an unsculpturesque idea. It is not in that 
way, as it seems to them, that great monumental compositions are 
made. With this view is to be contrasted that unbounded and un- 
questioning praise with which this work is most often received. Is 
it book-illustration enlarged, or is it grand sculpture? Or if neither, 
how are its great merit and its possibly slight demerit to be qualified 
in words? So with the frieze before us. This present writer can 
only say that the more he has looked at it the better it seems to be 
a popular and easy way of giving, as he thinks, very high praise 
from a single point of view. Plate VII shows the bronze doors of 
this portal ; and nothing is more annoying than the necessity of 
leaving them without minute analysis. Indeed, each several door 
of the six calls for and rewards detailed examination. 

The middle doorway (Plate VIII) is entirely the work of the 
sculptors French and O'Connor, as stated above, but it appears that 
Mr. O'Connor has done the actual work of the doorway has 
modeled the groups, is, in fact, the sculptor in the ordinary sense; 
while as for the determination of the design, to whom this and 
that part should be ascribed we have no means of distin- 



Philip Martiny, Sculptor. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



Daniel C. French and Andrew O'Connor, Sculptors. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



guishing the different parts due to the two different, but harmoni- 
ously working intelligences. There is a diversity of character in 
this figure-sculpture ; and a singular readiness is shown to adapt the 
conditions of the figure-sculpture to the requirements of the deco- 
ration. Thus it had been decided evidently by the architectural 
supreme intelligence that this middle doorway should be adorned 
by broad pilasters and an architrave of scroll work, so that the 

Daniel C. French and Andrew O'Connor, Sculptors. McKim, Mead & White, Arjhitects. 

bronze doors should be brought down to a width only slightly 
greater than that of the side doorways ; so there arose the necessity 
for those little squares of high relief and scroll-like and twisted 
movement, which are to be seen serving as capitals to the pilasters 
(Plate X). Let the reader look at them and see how perfectly they 
serve their purpose. They are on a horizontal line with the frieze 
and adjoin it ; and yet they form no part of it whatever. They are 
on the same vertical line as the pilasters, and even more closely are 
they bound to the pilasters by their architectural position, and yet 
they tell at once as figure-sculpture, and as being many degrees 
higher in the artistic scale than the Roman scrolls and realistic bird 
forms beside and eke above them. They are beautiful compositions 



Daniel C. French and Andrew O'Connor, Sculptors. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 


the one representing, as it seems, the Revelation to Saint John ; 
the other the Temptation in Eden ; but that is not so much the point. 
If those subjects are to be treated in connection with tHe^middle 
doorway it is indifferent, from our point of view, where they are 
put in ; the essential fact concerning these reliefs is tnat they so per- 
fectly lend themselves to the purpose for which they were needed, 
namely, to connect the horizontal frieze of figure.' subject with the 
vertical bands of formal sculpture. And as for the horizontal band, 
the frieze below the tympanum (see Plate X), it is perhaps unfor- 
tunate that it is set a little lower than are those of the side portals. 
It is a little lower, and it looks much lower, because 
of the width and importance of the doorway and the height 
of the stilted arches above it. Ignoring this, which is 
certainly not an essential peculiarity, the frieze itself, considered 
as an architectural treatment of the Crucifixion, is a very noble 
thing. Nowhere is there a more pure and faultless composition. 
The strongly allusive and ecclesiological treatment of the composi- 
tion only help the abstract and decorative, or (as people may prefer 
to see it called) the architectural character of the sculpture. The 
tympanum above it (see Plate IX), with all its dignity and in spite of 
the exquisite group of angels, one group on either side, is less 
fortunate in the central figure. 

The bronze doors (see Plates IV, VII and X) are notable in this, 
that they have been cast complete ; the whole surface modeled in 
clay as one composition and moulded and cast as one piece of 
metal-work. This is so very unusual in the history of this industrial 
art that it deserves to have special consideration on the part of 
every student, first as to the mere theory of the thing, the good 
taste, the sense of propriety, the intelligence displayed; and, sec- 
ondly, as to the resultant effect. This effect can only be judged 
by one who has looked carefully at bronze doors in the past and has 
been annoyed by the formality, the hard cold lines, the lack of 
harmony in the treatment of .the moulded framework, the setting as 
it might be called, of the sculptured groups. Such a student will 
enjoy a real thrill of pleasure when he sees in these doors the figure 
subjects of the panels, the flower and leaf work which surrounds 
them, the formal and semi-architectural disposition of the whole 
treated as a single work of art, modeled as one design, cast in 
bronze as one complete entity. This is true of each one of the six 
separate vantaux of each door in the strictest sense, and the recog- 
nition of this is a delightful sensation which awaits him who visits 
the church. This process, which seems to be an innovation at 
least in the United States, and which cannot be common in any 
part of Europe is due to the initiative of Mr. French, the chief 
sculptor of the middle doorway. 

3 o8 




It is most unfortunate that various considerations of utility, the 
desire for light and easily swung doors as the congregation goes in 
and goes out, to protect the interior of the porch from draft, the 
desire to protect the bronze from too rapid staining with dust and 
rain, should have involved the almost complete concealment of 
these precious doors during the greater part of the day. In fact, 
one does not know how to so dispose his visit to the church as to 
see bronze and marble together, sculpture with the tool and sculp-- 
ture from the cast. Xo matter what you do, unless you obtain a 
special dispensation and appropriate money to take down the flap- 
ping outer doors, you will never see the composition as it is shown 
in our Plate I. It would be absurd to blame those who have 
brought about this result : they knew their own requirements and 
are right in meeting them ; but the monument of art is most seri- 
ously marred by the excrescence here mentioned. 

Now as to the most striking and brilliant part of the whole com- 
position when the sculpture is considered, the broad frieze which in 
two parts crosses the front of the church, or seems to, filling up 
the gap on either side between the middle and the side portal. This 
detail comes to us from the same sculptors as the middle doorway, 
and we are told that it is to Mr. O'Connor especially that these 
highly decorative adjuncts are due, together with the lions carved 
in the block which serves as the pedestal to the columns of this 
doorway, and the solemn groups immediately above the capitals 
of the same columns. This frieze shown on a large scale in Plates XI 
and XII, is one of the most remarkable sculptures of modern times 
in the way of extreme remoteness and subtlety of thought. Every 
pair or small group of figures is to be weighed by itself both as to 
its significance in an ecclesiological way, its import in a psychical 
way, its interest to us as a piece of artistic composition There 
is, at first sight, a great deal too much of Rodin in the rest- 
less over-action the exaggerated postures ; and the evil influ- 
ence of that great artist is seen here as it is seen in some 
other modern works. If the vast power and energy of Rodin 
and his brilliant modeling should get a strong hold on the sculptors 
who are now coming to full power, the art of architectural sculp- 
ture will have a most serious setback; the taking out of the artist- 
ical human figure of tranquillity, of repose, of the dignity which 
comes even to emaciated saints and suffering martyrs from the 
tranquil spirit of the art in which they find expression, will be the 
death of sculpture considered as the highest of decorative appli- 
ances. Thus in the case before us, the composition and the treat- 
ment of the small frieze over the middle doorway is more attractive 
by far than that of either one of the great panels of the frieze above, 
because of that verv reserve which we associate, indeed, with the 


arts of the past, but which also we associate with the noblest hopes 
of the future. The decided action of the small alto-reliefs already 
spoken of, those of the two ends of the lintel, can be easily accepted 
and even admired for the reasons mentioned above they form a 
part of the series of Roman scrolls, they break the series but con- 
nect the parts of it again ; they are, in short, in their place, and do 
their work nobly. In like manner the frieze of the lintel is in place, 
its lines helping the architecture, its severe vertical mass of drapery 
on either side controlling the more broken group of the center. It 
cannot be alleged that there is too much action here, although 
there is so much, and this because of the admirable treatment of 
that action, the severity and gravity of line with which it is invested. 
But of the two panels of the great frieze this would not be alto- 
gether true. The bold experiment of using the nude form rather 
freely in so purely ecclesiological a composition as this, is one 
which it will take some months or years to rightly evulate ; 
but it seems clear that in so far as we are reminded of 
the debased rendering of humanity in Rodin's Burghers of 
Calais, just so far there "is a false note struck. And ob- 
serve that this comes of details of modeling, so far as the 
study which has been possible during the constantly severe 
weather of the present winter will allow the enthusiast to judge. 
It seems as if a touch here, the changing of a fold by so very little, 
the modifying of a pose in ever so slight a degree, would have made 
the frieze a nobler thing. For it breathes all the spirit of a true 
sculpturesque conception. Everything that designer and modeler 
could do to make the thing a great work of art, is there ; marred 
only, as the present writer feels, by the intrusion into the noble 
composition of a thought too much of the illustrative spirit, the 
spirit of realism in the matter of bodily action, of movement, which 
is not often a fortunate thing for sculpture of any kind least of all 
for sculpture of architectural association. 

Russell Sturgis. 

New York City. 


Henry Ives Cobb, Archi'.ect. 


The writer presented a brief statement of the practical limiting 
conditions in the design of an office building in a former number 
of the Architectural Record, describing it as "the mammoth struc- 
ture, of many stories, that the conditions of our 
present business life requires us to erect in all 

^T*t T"^ *' 

centers of population, where the fever of money- 

Its getting is permitted to have iull swing, unham- 

Economic Life. pered by any traditions that involve avoidable 

loss of time." This description still applies to 
those examples which jump to the mind when office buildings are 
mentioned ; but for the purposes of this article a further definition 
is needed. 

An office building is a building susceptible of minute subdivision 
into practically uniform rooms (called office units), all well lighted, 
heated and ventilated easy of access both from the street and 
from its own various floors and intended for the brain-worker of 
any type or class, and the clerical force needed to give his work 
effect. It is the place for housing the executives of all kinds of 
business, and its cost, therefore, is a necessary charge upon busi- 

. * 

ness receipts. Generally, the building is too large to be occupied 
exclusively by one concern, and the renting of the surplus space 
serves to emphasize its purely commercial aspect. The writer 
wishes to state once for all, and as strongly as it can be put, that 
the only measure of the success of an office building is the average 
net return from rentals for a period of, say, fifteen years. Every- 
thing put into the building that is unnecessary, every cubic foot 
that is used for purely ornamental purposes beyond that needed to 
express its use and to make it harmonize with others of its class, 
is a waste is, to put it in plain English, perverting some one's 
money. Of course, in the Wall street district, high rents cannot 
be obtained from a building with its halls finished in concrete, when 
the adjoining buildings have a marble finish ; but a mansard, or a 
tower, or a group of statuary does not add to the value of the rent- 
ing space, and consequently is a waste. 

For this reason the design of these buildings has gradually 
become more and more of an engineering problem, until now it 
may be said that the best results will be obtained by securing the 
plan from the engineer .of special training. He turns over to an 
artist the bare skeleton, for him to clothe and decorate as well as he 
can. The former practice of intrusting the design to a man 

Being the first of a series of articles on the modern office building. 


who is primarily an artist, and of permitting him to determine the 
engineering plan, is commercially bad for every one but the artist, 
and is a plain departure from the practice obtaining when the 
world's most noble edifices were built. In a following article this 
branch of the subject will be elaborated. At present, we will con- 
sider the next most important commercial aspect of the skyscraper 
its economic life or the question of how long it will serve its 
purpose properly. 

We know that in manufacturing there are few machines that 
should not be replaced in from ten to fifteen years, as by that time 
there are new machines to take their place, doing the work at less 
cost. In manufacturing plants, as a whole, we know that good 
business requires a remodelling or rearrangement at least every 
ten or fifteen years. In the case of one new plant, for instance, it 
has earned in three years, over four times its cost, and the point 
has been reached where a very much larger plant is needed. We 
frequently hear of such changes, and we occasionally have brought 
home to us the folly of too much procrastination (such as the 
ignorant delay in the electric operation of the New York "L" 
roads for at least six years, and the consequent loss of millions 
of dollars) and should keep these examples in mind in considering 
our problem. 

It sounds very imposing to say, "We are building for all time." 
It might be much better business to say, "We are building for fif- 
teen years." The canvas tent of the traveling circus, the plaster 
buildings of a World's Fair, the granite and marble of a municipal 
building, differing as they do, yet each exactly meet the require- 
ments of the particular case. In the case of New York below 
Chambers street, we may expect to see eventually all the space 
occupied by office buildings, and so should build for at least fifty 
years. In other localities, wisdom would limit the probably useful 
life to twenty years. 

Our office buildings of to-day must be of a certain type and 
plan, slightly varied to suit certain localities and designed in ac- 
cordance with the definite limiting conditions. What changes are 
likely to occur in this ever-changing city to make a certain building 
less remunerative? What changes or improvements will occur in 
the planning and equipment of office buildings to make our new 
buildings out of date? How soon may we expect to see these 
changes? What changes in our business methods might occur 
which would change business needs so that these buildings would 
no longer meet them? 

Well, the office building has come, because men wish to get 
closer together and save time in transacting business ; and they 
will not cease to need skyscrapers unless by so doing business can 


be facilitated. As aids to business, the elevator and the telephone 
have helped amazingly, but the personal interview for really im- 
portant transactions is still necessary. In fact, the telephone has 
made it easier to clear the way of preliminaries, and therefore has 
made more business possible, the personal interview shorter per- 
haps, but more essential than ever to bring two minds together 
so that the stenographer and the typewriter may put the conclusion 
into definite and practicable form. If this reasoning is correct, 
humanity will continue to press closer together for the purpose 
of transacting business, until the physical limit is reached in every 
direction. The only sufficient obstacle to this result would be an 
invention, whereby two separated rooms are so placed in com- 
munication that whatever goes on in one can be seen and heard 
in another as readily as if they were one room. Then mankind 
will perhaps gratify its love of fresh air and sunshine. Our cities 
will be deserted or will become storehouses for the convenient dis- 
tribution of manufactured products. Should such an invention be 
perfected, it would require, however, a generation to work a ma- 
terial change in business methods so that we may continue to build 
with an easy mind until some such invention comes. While we 
may, therefore, feel reasonably secure against any complete de- 
struction of the utility of the office building for at least a genera- 
tion, are there not possible improvements that will change its 
character or fundamental design ? 

We are accustomed to think and speak of the enormous and 
steady progress made in modern industrial machinery. While in 
general this may be true, in the office building it is only true of the 
details. We are beginning to put into effect im- 
provements suggested -years ago, and have made 
How Office Build- _i ,, ,- , 

real progress in the direction of carrying out our 

plans more quickly, and all things considered, 
more cheaply ; but our plans have not changed 
substantially, and the limiting conditions are the 
same. We are still aiming to make our buildings attractive, easy 
to re-arrange to suit tenants, well lighted, with convenient internal 
communication, polite and efficient service, quick elevators, and as 
accessible as possible to elevated and underground stations. We 
supply them with every necessity and many luxuries, and do all in 
our power to get the maximum return for the money invested. 
The writer considers it certain that for at least a generation 
there will be an imperative demand for office buildings, and that 
the present type will be practically unchanged in its broad out- 


The improvement made during the past ten years may be briefly 
stated. There has been a very slight increase in net elevator speeds 
obtained mainly by improved signalling devices. Automatic heat 
regulation is practically unchanged, but is a little more generally 
used. Gas has practically been entirely replaced by electricity. The 
finish of the buildings is a little more luxurious, and the exterior 
a little more expensive. The average height of a building has in- 
creased. There has been the usual number of gold bricks on the 
market, and as usual they have mostlv been connected with the ele- 
vator service. One company claimed for a time that it could oper- 
ate cars at speeds of 700, 800, 1,000 feet per minute, but in the 
language of the day it did not "make good." The speed was 
there, but the time lost through missing landings, starting and 
stopping, was far greater than the time saved in traveling from one 
landing to another and, besides, poor human nature could not stand 
the pace. To-day the highest practicable speed for a way elevator 
is 450 feet per minute, and for an express 600 feet to 700 feet per 
minute, depending on the distance traveled. 

\Vc may, therefore, safely say that the future will see but little 
improvement, except in details, and to show this more plainly, let 
me state the problem rather more in detail. 

We are required to produce on a given lot a building of any 
number of stories, susceptible of a subdivision into a great number 
of units, varying in size according to location, but approximately 
with 1 6 ft. x 20 ft. of floor space and 10 ft. to 12 ft. high, each one 
opening into a street or a court of from 18 ft. to 25 ft. in width, 
which court usually has its long axis north and south, and is as 
much open to the south as conditions will permit. 

The vertical movement of the occupants must be effected by 
small rooms (elevator cars), moving in vertical shafts at speeds of 
fxx) feet per minute or less. The number of cars is determined 
by the condition that nobody shall be required to wait at any floor 
noie than 45 seconds in general, and not more than 30 seconds 
in the financial district, and the size of the car by the number of 
office units per floor and varying from 25 to 40 square feet in area. 

The height is to a certain extent unlimited, but probably twenty- 
five stories is likely to be the average of the high building. The 
writer may be in error, for there are many influences to be con- 
sidered ; but so far he has been able to discover absolutely no en- 
gineering or economic limit of height below about eighty stories, 
provided the area of the lot be sufficient. Taking into considera- 
tion, however, the ethical or sentimental side of human nature, it 
is the writer's belief that, while many buildings will exceed twenty- 
five stories, many more, sufficient at least to establish a general 
practice, will be kept down to sixteen or twenty stories, if left free 


from municipal interference. On the other hand, the writer be- 
lieves that the interests of the municipality would be best served 
by establishing height limits in certain districts, so that the popu- 
lation by day in such areas will not be too large for easy transpor- 
tation and wholesome living, and so that some regularity of sky- 
line may be secured. The typical plan will naturally tend towards 
a U-form, open to the south. 

It is theoretically possible so to perfect the 
starting and stopping of elevator cars as to make 
Elevator the higher speeds unobjectionable; but in order 

Improvements. to accomplish this the human element in the con- 
trol of the speed must be almost entirely elimi- 
nated. The acceleration must take place in a 
predetermined number of feet, regardless of the load in the car; the 
stop must also occur in a predetermined distance, and as a conse- 
quence the function of the operator on the car must be to simply 
push in a starting button and held it. To stop, either the operator 
or a person on a landing must push a button corresponding to 
the proper floor, which will set the stopping device in motion at 
exactly the right time, without regard io the operator. When a 
car is at a landing the doors should automatically open and re- 
main open until closed by the operator, and unless closed it should 
be impossible again to start the car. The mechanical arangements 
will not be simple, and will require considerable power. They may 
cost more than they are worth, when compared to the approxima- 
tion to these conditions now obtained. 

The economy that is, the relation between the pounds of coal 
burned and work done by the present appliances is very low ; the 
work should be dene with an expenditure of not more than one- 
quarter of the present amount of energy. 

From the nature of the service it is probable that some form 
of hydraulic apparatus must continue to be used, since only in 
the hydraulic apparatus is there stored up the large amount of 
energy necessary to produce the high rate of acceleration abso- 
lutely required in an instantly available and convenient form. Elec- 
tric elevators are absolutely unrivalled in their field, but office build- 
ing service is not their field, nor is there any sufficient mechanical 
reason for the expectation that in any of their present forms they 
will ever extend their fields to include this service. The problem 
is to impart a velocity of from 6 to 8 miles per hour, to a weight 
of from 175 to 2,000 pounds, in from I to 2 seconds, or to bring 
this weight to rest when moving at this velocity, in the same time. 
The energy stored up in water under pressure will do the work 
perfectly. The work may be stored up in the water, providing 


the tanks are large enough, at the average rate for a day requiring 
a relatively small amount of power constantly expended. There 
are two drawbacks : which are that the expenditure of energy is 
not proportioned to the load, but must be the same whether the 
elevator car be full or empty, and that all forms of pumping en- 
gines suitable for any but the very largest plants are inef- 
ficient. The line of improvement must take the direction of over- 
coming these two objections. 

The heating of the offices is well enough ; but 
the ventilation is very largely neglected. These 
two are so closely related that they should be 
considered together. Present practice is to 
provide a radiator for heating controlled either 
by hand or bv thermostat for each office unit, 
and to provide ventilation by opening the window, the foul air 
passing into the hall. The ideal arrangement would be to intro- 
duce a fixed amount of warmed, fresh clean air to each office unit 
at any predetermined temperature automatically, and all past at- 
tempts may be classed as failures for general use. In fact, there 
may be said to be no existing way of properly warming the bulk 
of the offices of an office building without the constant use of a little 
knowledge, intelligence and trouble. The foul air can be drawn 
off into a vent-shaft placed at any convenient place. For banking 
and similar large rooms on lower stories, the standard hot-air heat- 
ing system, with either exhaust or blast fans, works with entire 
satisfaction and but little loss of valuable room, but the air inlets 
should be always 8 ft. above the floor and at least 5 ft. from ceil- 
ing, and the outlets for foul air should be near the floor and large 
enough to have a very low velocity (less than 10 ft. per second). 
Then the occupants will not feel a draught. The inlet radiators 
must be high up, because it is at times necessary to introduce the 
fresh air at a temperature lower than 100 F. when it feels cold and 
produces the effect of a draught. If the fresh air forms a current 
flowing always in one direction, surfaces near it will get very dirty, 
and we are therefore compelled to keep away from the ceiling. 

The expedient of using warmed air furnished to each office 
through flues in the walls has been tried, but is objectionable on 
account of the large space occupied by the flues, the transmission 
of noise from floor to floor, and the difficulty of maintaining the 
desired degree of heat in each office. All floors and walls might 
be heated by warmed air circulating through them, but the neces- 
sary air passages are objectionable, because they afford a har- 
borage for vermin, and in the case of a fire in the contents of an 
office might distribute the smoke through the building. The neces- 


sity of having widely varying temperatures in the different offices 
also complicates the problem. 

If ever electricity can be produced commercially at say i/io 
of present minimum rates, the problem will be solved, for fresh 
air can be introduced through an opening in the outside wall, all 
of the dust screened out, warmed to any desired degree by pass- 
ing over electric heaters and drawn into the office by electric 
fans, the degree of heat and the speed of the fan being determined 
by setting a dial hand at the desired temperature, the remaining 
regulation being automatic and independent of the direction or 
force of the wind. The windows constitute a serious problem. 
We want to look out, and at the same time we want fire protec- 
tion. If we use wire glass we cannot look out, and if we use clear 
glass it will fly out with the first touch of flame. A three-sash metal 
window, with one sash glazed with clear glass and two sashes 
glazed with wire glass, solves -the problem and will mark the next 
step. Cleaning need not present any difficulties or dangers. 

We need either an incombustible wood or a 
substitute for the trim of the office, the doors, 
moldings, base and fixtures. It will come in 
fact, has probably come, as there are several 
materials of promise now on the market. The 
ideal material will be readily worked, wear as well 
as wood, be a poor conductor of heat and incombustible. . It will 
then be pleasant to sit on, pleasant under foot, and absolutely safe. 
An improvement will be made by departing from the custom 
now prevalent of using a cord of wood, more or less, in trimming 
the office, putting in a high base, chair rail, picture mold and archi- 
traves around the doors. There is really needed only the picture 
mold, and that only to carry wires in a way which permits them 
to be tapped at any point ; and some member to make the joint 
of the door frame with the partition.. With the simplification of 
design we may expect to see a marked improvement in this latter 

We may expect improvements in lighting in 
the line of luminous surfaces rather than points, 
the illumination being obtained with a relatively 
Illumination and ^^ expenditure of energy. Wires will prob- 
Construction. ably be gtm ^^ and Qur Distribution systems 
will only change in detail. So long as the present 
conditions obtain, an improvement can be made by using one cen- 
tral chandelier in each office unit; making the picture mold a re- 
ceptacle for wires and supplying those wires from mains running 
up column lines. The desk illumination can be obtained by drops 


from the picture molding and partitions can be easily shifted. If 
a system should be devised by which the salutary effects of sun- 
light would be reproduced, we could reduce our courts to simple 
vent shafts drawing pure air from the roof level and discharging 
it at a proper temperature in each room. That only means the 
flooring over of the courts and a shifting of partitions. Nearly all 
of our buildings could be so changed without difficulty. 

Partitions can now be made sufficiently sound and fireproof in 
a variety of ways. The cost of making them can be decreased un- 
der reasonable labor conditions. Any of the solid plaster parti- 
tions resting on the floor construction and against the floor con- 
struction above are efficient protection against the spread of fire. 
They are frequently spoiled by the introduction of sashes glazed 
with plate glass which, in the event of fire, immediately falls out. 
Only wire glass should be used, and as the sashes interfere with the 
utilization of the wall, they should be omitted. 

It is probable that the future will see a decreas- 
ing amount of structural steel used in the floor 
Less Steel to be framing, and an increasing amount of reinforced 
Used in Future. concrete, the development progressing until the 
only structural steel used will be in the columns, 
in stay beams connecting the columns of suffi- 
cient strength to support the centers for the concrete, possibly of 
less strength than that, and in wall beams. This is the writer's 
opinion. ( )ne does not wish to be dogmatic, and it is only fair to 
say there are other views on the subject, held by well-informed 
people who would not agree at all with the foregoing. 

Prick, stone and terra cotta are the materials used at present in 
constructing the walls. Concrete is offered as a substitute. When 
it is good, it is as good as any other substance ; but for walls it is 
not likely to be uniformly good, nor is it likely to be consistent in 
color or as pleasing in appearance as stone. Glazed terra cotta is 
probably the best substance if properly made and set, because since 
each rain washes it off, it is less likely to be injured by fire, and 
when injured is more easily replaced. Any material is liable to 
serious damage from fire in adjoining properties. The greatest 
improvement that could be made would be a law, requiring all new 
structures to be fireproof within certain limits and making owners 
of property in which a fire originated responsible for all of the 
damage caused by the fire regardless of where this damage oc- 
curred or how the fire started. 

We are using such large quantities of steel in our buildings, and 
in fact, are absolutely dependent on it for strength, that we need 
more knowledge to protect it absolutely from fire and rust, and 


should improve our practice in applying the knowledge we have, 
which is certainly sufficient to enable us to guarantee a life of fifty 

Fire insurance, as conducted, really places a 
premium on bad construction under our present 
laws and practice, for it permits the careless and 
Insurance May cr i nl i na l to avoid the consequences of their acts 
pro to a very large degree. A man can build an in- 

expensive low building, insure it to the limit in- 
sure its contents to the limit have a fire from which he will reap 
a profit, and damage an adjoining handsome building to a greater 
amount than his total loss. Moreover, the adjoining building can- 
not be protected fully from this loss, except by an exorbitant an- 
nual payment. It should be impossible to insure a really hazard- 
ous building. In theory present practice, expressed generally, is 
to fix a minimum premium or charge for each building of a certain 
class in a certain locality and increase the premium for each de- 
parture from what is considered good practice and to force the 
owner to bear some of the .risk. In practice anything can be in- 
sured. The difference in premium between a safe and hazardous 
building is only a small fraction of the difference in the interest 
cost, so that it is really cheaper to build badly and insure fully, than 
to build well and insure reasonably. The increases of premium for 
departures from good, practice, are in some cases indefinite 
and in other cases absurd (as when a charge is made if a fire- 
proof door is omitted between the boiler-room and the rest of the 
cellar, even when there are other doors absolutely shutting off 
the balance of the building, and there is positively nothing com- 
bustible in either boiler-room or cellar, except the coal). The 
credit for covering the metal columns of a building, certain to fail 
if left bare and exposed to a small, fierce blaze, certain to cause 
great damage and loss if they fail, is so small as to be practically 
of no consequence as an offset to the interest on the cost of cov- 
ering. The wTiter knows of one case where a fire, in itself causing 
not more than $500 damage, would endanger columns, which, 
if one should fail, would cause a loss of certainly $20,000, and prob- 
ably many lives. Some of our serious losses have been from so- 
called exposure fires, and yet the decrease in insurance cost that 
comes from the use of wire glass and metal sashes and frames, in- 
stead of wood sashes and frames and plain glass, the one affording 
complete protection and the other no protection at all, is so little 
that it is not worth considering. This whole subject requires re- 
adjustment and reforming, and the data on which the premium 
increase is based should be obtained by a continuing series of ex- 
periments conducted by an admittedly impartial, competent direc- 


tor with adequate facilities, and the insurance companies should 
absolutely refuse to insure a really dangerous building or any 
building, the value of which was materially less per cubic foot than 
those immediately adjoining it. If it were possible to win a suit 
for damages, where one building is injured by fire originating in 
another, just as it is possible to win a suit for damages when an 
owner makes an improper use of his property to the injury of the 
adjoining property, this liability would quickly force owners of 
hazardous property so to improve it as to make it safe. It is to 
be hoped that sonu of our large corporations will try to establish 
the precedent. Once established, it would work a wonderful change 
in the point of view of the owners of many relatively unimproved 
and really dangerous properties. 

Now let us descend almost literally into the 

bowels of the earth ; let us go far below the sur- 

The face of the street to the place where heat, light 

Power Plant. and power are generated, and see what is doing 

there. We must first of all consider the often 

discussed and by no means settled question of 

private plants vs. supply from the street; i. e., from some lighting, 

heating and power company. 

An office building is a very large consumer of power. For some 
years the Public Utility Company has endeavored to supply all 
the power and heat necessary, and does supply many buildings at a 
price which often shows a marked economy in the operation of 
the building by so doing, but the mechanical engineer who is really 
competent knows that wherever economy is so shown in a large 
building, the owners of the building have been shamelessly robbed 
by their employees. The wTiter knows of many plants in large 
buildings that could advantageously take all power and light from 
the street ; but for every dollar so saved at least one dollar and fifty 
cents could be saved by getting a competent superintendent and 
making a few changes. 

To illustrate : Recently the writer changed the fuel of a plant in 
which he was interested from Pocahontas coal to buckwheat and 
rice coal. The coal bills were practically cut in two, with no loss 
in efficiency. In one of our large buildings egg coal is used ex- 
clusively if rice were used the fuel bill for that building would be 
less than half. Engines are run under improper conditions, using 
from one and one-half to twice as much fuel as they need. Pumps 
are run with their drips open, thus doubling their coal consumption. 
Compound elevator pumps are run at variable speeds, the maxi- 
mum being less than one-half what it should be. The consequent 
coal consumption is from four to eight times that of a decently 


designed plant. Exhaust steam is wasted and live steam used for 
heating, thereby increasing- the coal consumption from one and 
one-half to two times. 

Architects provide wholly inadequate spaces for machinery, and 
so necessitate the use of inefficient boilers, insufficient tanks, steam 
wasting appliances and other bad features that can be put into a 
design, and make matters still worse by limiting the cost of the 
plant to an absolute minimum. Contractors are furnished with 
the merest outlines of requirements ; the bids are obtained and con- 
tracts awarded to the lowest bidder, who is either careless, ignorant 
or dishonest enough to talk of an economy (even to guarantee it, 
sometimes) that a competent man knows he cannot attain. Still 
it goes ; the plant goes in ; is a failure, and the New York Edison 
gets another contract. If, however, the engineer or real architect 
is familiar with the problem, this very essential part of the build- 
ing is allowed adequate room. The parts are harmoniously de- 
signed to fill the requirements. The superintendent of the building 
is a competent engineer, who is paid enough to be above the temp- 
tation to steal, and knows enough to keep his force up to their 
work. The plant is relatively simple, easy to handle, and during 
the first year reports are sent to the designer so that a record of 
performance is made, by which the owners can judge of competency 
in the future. When these precautions are taken, the cost of opera- 
tion is far below the sum which the New York Edison Company 
will charge. The writer and other engineers have proved this in 
many plants, but the objectionable conditions obtain in so many 
more, that general practice is rather in favor of procuring all of 
the power possible from the Edison Company. Future develop- 
ment will be in the line of better engineering and more independent 
plants in buildings of 5,000 square feet or more. 

The ideal plant should contain at least three boilers of the same 
size, one being sufficient for the ordinary summer or light duty. 
The other two will take the winter or heavy duty, leaving always 
at least one in reserve. They should be of a type adapted to the 
available space Manning, Marine or Water Tube. 

The engine for power should be high speed automatic simple 
engine of Curtis Turbines (when they can be purchased) at least 
three of the same size, with heavy parts. The cylinder should be 
of the same dimension for bore and stroke, proportioned to take 
a generator overload of 30% when cutting off seven-sixteenths to 
one-half stroke. They should supply power for every purpose 
except that of the boiler-feed return pumps and the elevator pumps, 
regular duty and for all lights. Two of them, however, should be 
able to carry all lights and two-thirds of the power when over- 
loaded 25%. 



There should be three elevator pumps, compound, to work 
against three pounds back pressure in the exhaust, with tanks so 
large that, if a car is to start every thirty seconds from the first 
landing, two pumps can supply the necessary water at a piston 
speed of say 75 feet per minute uniformly maintained. One pump 
at 75 feet piston speed can then handle a oo-second schedule with 
irregular running of cars and regular running of pumps. The tank 
capacity should permit half the number of cars to start up simul- 
taneously, or to stand simultaneously without changing the pump 
speed for six seconds. With a very large number of elevators 
eight or more the pump should be of the- fly-wheel type, com- 
pound, to work against three pounds back pressure in the exhaust, 
with liberal tank capacity and with two compound pumps of one- 
half capacity each, in reserve. I'nder no conditions should the 
pump work against a governor that constantly varies the speed by 
throttling, because this wastes steam. There should be an elec- 
trically-operated pump for all night service, giving half the normal 
speed for one car. This pump could be arranged with a special 
suction on the pressure side of the other pumps to use as a safe- 
lifting pump by making the water end strong enough. 

There should be two boiler-feed pumps connected through a 
return tank and governor, to the return of condensed steam from 
the hot water tank and heating system. Xo less than three electric 
pumps for house service: two air compressors for elevator and 
house service, electrically operated, and two stage. Two rotary 
electric pumps for low-line drainage, drip and blow-off tank work. 
( )ne feed-water heater, open or water-tube. 

Furthermore, space should be provided for two or more feed- 
water heaters, the water tube to go on exhaust line for hot water 
heating, perhaps a sewage lift, certainly a number of exhaust 
and heating fans, and finally for the storage of at least one week's 
supply of coal and one week's accumulation of ashes. The recip- 
rocating engines are likely to be displaced in the near future by 
the Curtis or similar turbines. In very large installations there 
may possibly be a field for the Parsons turbine ; but ordinarily the 
requirements of exhaust steam for heat will operate against tur- 
bines of the Parsons type. Turbines requiring reducing gears are 
not to be considered in general on account of the excessive noise. 

Assuming that these various appliances are properly propor- 
tioned and arranged, they require so much room that at least all of 
the cellar of a building occupying less than two lots is needed. For 
the building having less than this area, the greater part of the 
supply must come from the street. Future improvements will be 
along the line of a more efficient production of electric current, first 
by improved forms of generating apparatus, engines and boilers ; 


by the introduction of more electrically-operated apparatus; by 
the use of more economical pumping engines until they can be 
discarded ; possibly by discarding steam and using gas or pulver- 
ized coal ; and probably finally by the almost direct conversion of 
the energy stored in the coal into energy in the form of electricity. 
When electricity is so cheaply produced that it can be used for 
heating, steam will no longer be needed, and our plants will be 
practically eliminated. When that time comes the cost of distribu- 
tion, which is now as great as the cost of generating electricity, 
will be reduced certainly to ten per cent, of its present cost, and 
so will make it economical to generate the current in the building. 
With electric current at say i per cent, per horse power per 
hour every plant in New York almost could be economically shut 
down and taken out. 

The field for speculation in this branch of the subject is almost 
infinite, but really hinges, so far as any radical change is con- 
cerned, on the discovery of a new process of producing electricity 
or power very cheaply. 

Two matters remain to .be considered whether as improve- 
ments or merely as developments depends on the point of view; 
they are the question of height and of designing. 

Height is effected by the following considera- 
tions :. (a) Sixteen stories or less can be carried 
on piles or grillages, no matter how bad the bot- 
tom. More than sixteen stories require caissons, 
or an equivalent expense if the sub-soil is bad. 
Therefore, several additional stories must be 
put in simply to pay interest on the extra cost of the caissons, (b) 
For lots of 7,500 to 12,500 square feet, five cars will give a satis- 
factory elevator service up to twelve stories. Higher than that a 
car should be added for each additional three stories, costing 100 
square feet of room on each floor per car. For still greater area the 
number of cars must be increased, say one car for each 2,000 
square feet, and this is because it is impossible to load and unload 
a large car fast enough two cars of forty square feet running in 
a twenty-story building will handle more people in a day than 
one of eighty square feet, and do it with very much more satisfac- 

(c) In a sixteen-story building, with ordinary foundations, the 
addition of a seventeenth story will add more than one-six- 
teenth the cost of the building by 5% ; for an eighteenth story 10% 
must be added to the one-sixteenth, and so on. Thus, if a sixteen- 
story building costs $480.000, then a seventeenth story will add to 
the cost $31,500; an eighteenth story, $33,000, etc. 



(d) The time necessary to go from a street corner to the twen- 
tieth floor of a twenty-story building in front of which a person 
is standing is about the same as the time required to walk half a 
block, and reach the tenth floor of a neighboring building. 

(e) The time required to go from the twentieth to the fifth floor 
of a twenty-story building is about the same as that required to 
go from the tenth story of a ten-story building to the tenth story 
of an adjoining ten-story building. 

(f) The heating of one upper story (above the tenth) will cost 
nearly as much as heating two lower stories, unless there is always 
exhaust steam to waste. 

(g) The average temperatue of the outside air at any 200 feet 
above the street and above is from 3 to 5 less than the average 
at the street. This is an advantage in the summer and a disad- 
vantage in the winter. 

(h) If the elevators could be divided into sections and the shaft- 
ways for the way elevators stopped, for example, at the tenth floor 
of a twenty-story building, then a saving of space could be effected. 
This has not yet been done, and would require a change in the 
New York building law. The space so saved would not always be 
available for renting purposes. 

(j) Xo formula can be made to express all the conditions, for it 
would have to be based on so many assumptions that would have 
no value when solved ; but by averaging a number of cases and 
making certain assumptions, it may be stated that probably a thir- 
ty-two story building would have a gross return of 11% under 
conditions that would show a gross return of 10% for a sixteen- 
story building on the same lot. That is, an investment of $3,420,000 
divided into: lot, $1,000,000; building, $2,420,000; would show a 
return of $376,200; where a total investment of $2,000,000 divided 
into lot $1,000,000, building $1,000,000, would show a return of 
$200,000. That means that an additional expenditure of $1,420,000 
would return $176,000. There are many cases in which the smaller 
amount could be obtained, while the larger could not. 

(k) The vibration of very tall buildings (over twenty-five stories) 
is an unknown quantity. Theory indicates that it would be ob- 
jectionable. Practice reveals its existence in certain cases, though 
in a slight degree. It is probable that in buildings exceeding six- 
teen stories and of a height exceeding five times the least width, 
there will be objectionable vibration after the buildings have been 
erected fifteen to twenty years. 

If the soil is such as will support a sixteen-story building but 
no more, the commercial considerations detailed above would 
limit the height to sixteen stories. If it is doubtful whether more 
than sixteen stories can be carried and the site is expensive, then 


we must put in caissons and decide on twenty stories. If the lot is 
not expensive, we would be content with sixteen stories. 

Finally in the design and erection of these buildings we can al- 
ready see the line of future development. While many owners 
stick to the old practise of selecting an architect who draws plans 
and gets gratuitously from contractors the plans for the foundation, 
structure, heating, lighting, elevators, plumbing and even decora- 
tions, who combines them more or less (generally very much less) 
successfully, and who then jobs out the erection to one or more 
contractors, other owners have adopted the latest practice of hav- 
ing a corporation make the plans, erect the building, and even for 
a time operate it; there are even many cases where the owner 
plans, erects and operates on his or its own account. There can 
be no question that the best way is to have one concern design, 
erect and operate, and this will be improved upon only by special- 
izing to the extent of limiting the field of the designing and erect- 
ing concern to one class of buildings. Whether this be done by 
an individual or a corporation makes no difference, since in either 
case there must be the same organization, the same executive on 
whom must rest the final responsibility, and from whom is de- 
manded a good general knowledge of the subject, great executive 
ability and that knowledge of men that will enable him to select 
his associates successfully. There may be a board of directors^ 
there may be a president to dictate a general policy, but there must 
be in this work, as in every other work steel manufacture, rail- 
roads, manufacturing anything else you choose one head a 
calm, constructive, thoughtful, intelligent, self-reliant, honorable 
man, to direct affairs. It does not follow that necessarily the suc- 
cess of a company will only be coincident with that man's life. In 
fact, the greatest effort of such a man, after securing the success 
of the company, would be to develop a worthy successor. Such 
men, while relatively few, are still to be obtained. The first step in 
this development will be the combination of promoting, financing 
and building in one corporation in which the public, as share- 
holders, will have a part. This final step has, in some cases, been 
taken, and is destined to be ultimately successful, not by crushing 
competitors, but by doing so much better work in its chosen, field 
that there will be no competitors. 

Geo. Hill. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 






Pittsburgh, Pa. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



Pittsburgh, Pa. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



Pittsburgh, Pa. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



Pittsburgh, Pa. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



Pittsburgh, Pa. D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



Louisiana Purchase Exposition. E. L. Masqueray, Architect. 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Barnett, Haynes & Barnett, Architects. 


HE architecture of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition will be 
much better than most people, and particularly than most 
architects suppose. A visit to the grounds enables one to say that 
with great confidence. The fair has been more or less discredited, 
or, to use the expressive phrase of the street, "queered" by the 
reports of the artists who have helped to make it. Every train 
that sweeps from the West has brought to our ears the wails or 
curses of some disgruntled architect, sculptor, mural painter or 
what not, who has had his tale of woe to tell. As he was naturally 
more intent upon doing justice to himself than to the show, the 
show has correspondingly suffered in public estimation. 

There are more causes for this than one. In the first place, to 
refine upon the phrase of the street, the avidity of mordication of 
the projectors of the fair has evidently exceeded their capacity 
for mastication. They have been short of money wherewith to 
execute their ambitious and grandiose designs, and they have had 
no choice but to lop and prune in what the artists naturally as- 
sume to have been an arbitrary and Procrustean fashion. The no- 
tion at the bases of the projectors' brains and the tips of their 
tongues was that it devolved upon them to "beat Chicago." Now, 
beating Chicago in the artistic merit of the fair was a difficult and 
ambitious, but a legitimate and worthy undertaking. This was 


not quite the view the projectors took of it. By beating Chicago 
they meant making a bigger exposition, not a better. Anybody 
can see that from the kind of advertising to which they have ad- 
dicted themselves. They do not expatiate to you upon the advan- 
tage they have over that flat stretch of lake shore in the terrain at 
St. Louis, although that is a marked and clear advantage.. They 
do not point out to how skilfully this advantage has been employed, 
as they accurately and properly might. They tell you, instead, how 
much more mileage the fences of the fair enclose than were en- 
closed at Chicago, and how much more acreage it has "under roof" 
until you are grievously bored, and even begin to suspect that 
General Choke and Jefferson Brick and Hannibal Chollop have 
been making the fair as well as advertising it. But what the fair 
is they never tell you, never, at least in the most widely circulated 
and official of their proclamations. That it is "bigger than Chi- 
cago" is the one fact that is hammered in upon your brain. 

And it is in this naive effort that the inequality between the mor- 
dication and the mastication of St. Louis becomes evident. Be- 
cause beating Chicago, in point of mere magnitude, is a very am- 
bitious effort for St. Louis. Why should the St. Louis Fair be 
a bigger thing than that of Chicago when Chicago itself is so much 
bigger a thing than St. Louis? In 1893 there were nearly twice 
as many people in Chicago as there now are in St. Louis. There 
was, we may assume, a proportionate superiority of wealth, and 
there was a seething and ebullient local patriotism to which the 
world had no parallel. The Chicago Fair cost, all told, over thirty, 
millions. The St. Louis Fair had spent, a few weeks ago, sixteen 
millions, and urgently needed some five millions more, but had 
nothing left but to go to Congress, as it did with success. The 
effort to beat Chicago in bigness with less money, under these con- 
ditions, seems to have involved a sacrifice of things. more to be de- 
sired than bigness. If St. Louis, like Buffalo, had cut its coat ac- 
cording to its cloth, it might have given a fair so attractive that 
no visitor would have asked or cared whether it broke any or all 
records of mere magnitude. The actual effort involved, for ex- 
ample, the abandonment of the steel interior construction which 
enabled the bridging of such vast spaces and the reduction of the 
width of the naves to what could be spanned with timber. It is true 
that this reduction gives scope for a decorative treatment of the 
interior courts. But such a treatment also costs money, and the 
money was not to be had. It had all been spent upon the outsides 
and upon their sculptural accessories. A few weeks ago, when 
the observations were made upon which these remarks are based, 
there was a great deal of landscape gardening, including transplan- 
tation of considerable trees, which urgently needed doing in order 


to carry out the plan. And there was equally urgent need of 
the exterior employment of color. There was a chief of color, 
Mr. Louis J. Millet, whose interesting and suggestive decoration 
of the outside of the Transportation Building at Chicago will be 
remembered by all visitors to the Columbian, and whose compe- 
tency for the work may be taken as established. And there were 
buildings in evident need of this enrichment. Mr. Link, the author 
of the Building of Mines, is the "Secessionist'' of this Fair, as Mr. 
Sullivan, the author of the Transportation Building was the Se- 
cessionist of Chicago, and has been equally inspired by the desire 
to make a real building out of plaster instead of being contented 
with the semblance of a building of masonry. This purpose, at 
least, seems to be denoted by the bold projection of the eaves, 
with their solid shadows, and the plain expanses of the walls, even 
if it be elsewhere contradicted, as in the massiveness of the pylons 
of the entrances. But, evidently; the device which is meant to take 
the places of the conventional modeled ornament must be the ap- 
plication of color. And there are other buildings, designed by the 
Chief of Design, or consulting architect of the Exposition, upon 
which economic considerations have imposed an extreme plainness 
of design which without the addition of painted decoration threat- 
ens to become baldness. Of these are the buildings of Agriculture, 
of Horticulture, and of Forestry, Fish and Game. Excepting for a 
very modest and sparing, decoration of the entrances by modeled 
ornament, these are but vast sheds, though very well proportioned, 
well designed and well lighted sheds, evidently depending for their 
festal effect upon decoration to be added, that is to say, upon 
painted decoration. In fact, at every turn upon the grounds one 
came, five or six weeks ago, upon evidence of the need for. more 
money in some places to "make these dry bones live," in all to put 
the fair into presentable and attractive condition. One was quite 
prepared to believe that the additional four millions and a-half for 
which the managers appealed to Congress was the irreducible mini- 
mum of their requirements. 

But let us turn from the temporary and casual imperfections of 
the execution to the design. Without knowing the history of the 
scheme, the spectator on the spot imagines that the original design 
has been supplemented by an amendment, and so supplemented as 
ii: some respects to supplant it. The site of the Exposition is part 
of the "Forest Park" of St. Louis, consisting of a level, say a mile 
in extent each way, which was known as "The Wilderness," 
grown with a tract of virgin woodland interspersed with some 
thousands of fine forest trees. These have been quite ruth- 
lessly sacrificed, one is tempted to say wantonly, for although the 
clearing was evidently necessary, given the site of the fair, there 



Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Eames.& Young, Architects. 



seems to have been nothing to prevent the moving of the fair back 
to a point where no such sacrifice would have been entailed. The 
site, however, would appear to have been chosen before any artistic 
counsel was invoked. When such counsel was taken, it appeared 
that the one natural feature of the site, at least the only one left 
to it after the clearing was a wooded ridge bounding it to the 
Southeast. To crown this ridge, at its central point, with the most 
monumental, and in fact the only permanent building of the fair, 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 

was an obvious expedient. Accordingly, this site, commanding the 
piain below which was to hold the group of palaces, was reserved 
for the Art Building, which Mr. Cass Gilbert was appointed to de- 
sign, and which was expected to be the dominating feature of the 
show. But a second thought indicated that the picturesque possi- 
bilities of the hill were not exhausted, nor even fully employed by this 
acropolis, that the whole of this central ridge should be occupied by 
the crowning feature of the fair, and that the slope of the hillside 
should be brought into service also. Doubtless that was a happy 
thought which issued in the Terrace of the States and the Cascade 
Gardens which are in fact what the French call the "clou" of the 
whole display. Only the execution had the unfortunate incidental 









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8 -3 
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effect of obliterating the Art Building as the central feature of the 
fair, or, indeed, as a feature at all in the general view. The curving 
colonnade, a quarter of a mile in length, which is called the Terrace 
of the States, is built directly in front of it, with the cupola of Fes- 
tival Hall rising two hundred feet, and of about the same diameter at 
the base, at the centre, effectually screening out the building behind 
from any participation in the general effect. There was perhaps no 
help for this after the better second thought had superseded the 
first, and yet it seems a pity and a waste. In fact the Art Building 
will not be fairly seen, will not be seen as it was meant to be seen, 
until the fair has been demolished. The change was made, it must 
be owned, with every possible consideration, for it was the architect 
of the Art Building who was invited to efface his own work by de- 
signing the building that was to hide it. 

At any rate, this curving ridge being selected as the centre of the 
plan, the rest of the plan, at least in its main outline, follows as a 
matter of course. Festival Hall on its hill commands and termi- 
nates the great avenue that leads direct to the main entrance, the 
great avenue, five hundred feet wide, from front to front of its bor- 
dering palaces, and the main entrance half mile away. The first third 
of this interval outward from the central feature is occupied by the 
hillside down which the cascades that take their rise at the centre 
and at the ends of the colonnaded "Terrace of the States" are to 
flow, and by the "Grand Basin" into which they are to be emptied, 
and thence to be diverted, in the form of canals, around the two pal- 
aces that front the basin, the palaces of Electricity and Education. 
Two lateral avenues diverge from the pavilions which form the ter- 
minal features, as Festival Hall forms the central feature, of the 
Terrace of the States, and of which one stops the vista of the ave- 
nue, looking inward, which looking outward is stopped by an en- 
trance gateway. Observe that the avenue, a waterway between the 
inner palaces, is terra firma between the outer, and the transverse 
avenue between the inner and outer groups is likewise waterway 
between the lateral avenues, and sunken garden outside of them. 
This transverse avenue brings up one of the puzzles of the plan. 
Since it could not be kept straight, being in effect a segment struck 
with a radius from the central Festival Hall, and since, therefore a 
view of it from end to end could not be preserved, why not make it 
a curve instead of a broken line, and moreover a broken line of 
which the break comes at the centre of a "block" of palaces ? There 
were very likely practical reasons for adopting the actual arrange- 
ment. One sees that the laying out and construction of the build- 
ings along the curve would have involved more skill and trouble, 
and hence more expense, than laying them out and building them 
around a corner. But while the curve might have been practically 


awkward, there is a distressing architectural awkwardness about 
the broken line. One result of it is that no one of the buildings 
which face this transverse avenue gets the benefit of its dimensions. 
Evidently the effect of the colonnade of Education, or of the arcade 
of Manufactures would have been far more impressive, if it had 
been built along a sweeping curve than it is when it is rudely broken 
by an abrupt change of direction. On the inner buildings the de- 
signers have suffered from this misfortune only on one side, and 
that the outer, where the angle is a projection, but in the outer on 
both the longer fronts, while on one of them the angle is a recess 
and offers a space extremely difficult to make a "feature" of. It 
seems a great pity that the segment of a circle should not have 
been adopted for this cross street, and the designers relieved from 
the necessity of trying to treat these awkward and intractable poly- 
gons that accrue from the actual plan. With regard to the actual 
treatment, the architect of Electricity, who had only a projection to 
manage, seems to have been ill advised in voluntarily making it a 
recess. Of the two. designers who were forced to treat recesses, the 
architect of Manufactures has resorted to a simple truncation, oc- 
cupied by a triumphal arch bigger and more imposing even than 
the wide and deep arch that forms the unit of his design, while the 
architect of Varied Industries has resorted to the ingenious and ef- 
fective expedient of a projecting and segmental colonnade. But 
from the arrangement it follows that the actually shorter fronts of 
these four buildings are architecturally and effectively the longer, 
and that the greatest effective length is not of one of these principal 
and most conspicuous palaces, but of such an outlying building as 
that of Transportation, outside, that is, of the lateral avenue on its 
side. To be sure this is a quarter of a mile long, and looks it, but 
it is not so long as the outer front either of Manufactures or of 
Varied Industries would be if it were straightened out. Moreover, 
its extent becomes monotonous for want of the central feature 
which the architect designed for it, a reproduction of the colossal 
and effective triple portal of the ends, which appears in the draw- 
ings for the long side but has disappeared from the building. It 
would rather have emphasized than disturbed, while it would have 
enlivened, the vast expanse of this flank. 

Another puzzle of the plan is the placing of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Monument, monument so-called, though only of plaster and 
destined to no longer a duration than that of the fair. This is a 
stout erection, a solid tower rather than a column in the classic 
sense, of which the architectural purpose is to provide at one end of 
the great basin a counterpart to the Festival Hall at the other, 
which shall be a focus for lookers-on from the hill as that for look- 
ers-on from the lower level. It is well-designed for its purpose, but 



ill placed. It seems obvious that this shaft should stand in the axis 
of the transverse avenue as well as in that of the straight central 
avenue and focus the view from so much of its extent, on either 
side, as the turn allows to be taken in at once. For this purpose a 
bold semicircular projection from the shore at the centre of the 
basin is pretty plainly indicated. Yet in fact the monument is with- 
drawn behind the building- line of the flanking palace and is not ap- 
prehensible except from the central avenue itself. Whatever prac- 
tical considerations may have seemed to require the abrupt turn in 
the transverse avenue, instead of a gradual bend cannot have oper- 
ated here. The artistic loss is without practical compensation. 


Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

E. L. Masqueray, Architect. 

These two drawbacks are important as affecting the general "lay 
out" upon which the spectacular and panoramic success of the Ex- 
position must so largely depend. In spite of them, and in spite of 
the fact that to make it the most costly, important and permanent 
structure of the fair, the Art Building had to be sacrificed for the 
whole period of the fair, and that, for the purpose of the fair the 
money spent upon its architecture has been largely wasted, this lay 
out is admirable, and makes the best use of the terrain. But the 
defects are precisely such as were avoided at Chicago, and were 
avoided there by that harmonious and enthusiastic co-operation of 
everybody concerned which really made the success of the Colum- 
bian Exposition. Everybody concerned would doubtless admit, 
did, in fact, at the time admit, and even proclaim that the one in- 



dispensable factor in that success, so far, and that was very far, as 
it was an architectural success, was the personality of Mr. Burn- 
ham, who, more than anybody else, was the designer of a fair in 
which he did not appear as designer at all. It was he who made 
the "direct selection" of the architects who so vindicated his choice, 
and who afterwards stood between them and the business men with 
whose notions their own were so apt to come into conflict, and who 
also mediated effectually between themselves and promoted that 
interchange of friendly but frank criticism by which the work so 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Walker & Kimball, Architects. 

greatly profited. It has' not been the fault of the managers at St. 
Louis that Mr. Burnham's services have not again been made avail- 
able. But to expect an equal success in the way of loyal and cor- 
dial co-operation without the man who brought it about was 
"As if a miracle could be encored." 

The same system of selection has prevailed at St. Louis as at Chi- 
cago, and Buffalo. That is to say, the work has been equally divi- 
ded between local architects and architects from outside. But the 
system has not worked in all respects so well in this instance as in 
those instances. The architects of Chicago, counting among them 







Mr. Atwood, who succeeded John Root as consulting architect, at 
an early stage of the work, contributed quite their full half to the 
attractiveness of the Exposition, and the architects of Buffalo, as 
everybody knows who saw the Pan-American, came out unexpect- 
edly strong. Nobody can go about St. Louis without seeing evi- 
dences of such professional competency, in the design of commer- 
cial and domestic buildings, which, as in Chicago, so nearly ex- 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Barnet, Haynes & Barnet, Architects. 

haust the architectural activities of the place, as would clearly en- 
title the architects who have manifested it to take part in the build- 
ing of a World's Fair. But the visitor does not find that in all cases, 
it is the men who have manifested this competency who have been 
chosen, and in some cases comes to speculate with some wonder 
upon what the principle of selection can have been. For, if the most 
complete architectural success of the principal palaces is, as it seems 
to the present visitor to be, the palace of Education, by a local 
architect, the palaces of Machinery and of Liberal Arts, which he 
finds himself unable to acclaim as successes, are also the works of 
local architects not, just now, to put in either category that ques- 
tionable and question-provoking edifice, the palace of Mines. 



Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Eames & Young, Architects. 


A glance at the ground plan will show that the central part of 
the Exposition, in which a uniform, formal and grandiose scheme of 
architectural treatment seems to impose itself, consists of eight pal- 
aces.. Those of Education and Electricity, as confronting the Grand 
Basin and the Cascade Gardens, and consequently as nearest to the 
centre of the diverging plan, are at once the smallest and the most 
conspicuous. By reason of their centrality and their conspicuous- 
ness, one is inclined to think them, in spite of their lesser dimen- 
sions the architectural prizes of the plan, the buildings one of which 
an architect who had his choice of all the fair would prefer to do. 
The architect would be likely to be tempted, not only by the situa- 
tion, but also by the fact that the awkwardness entailed by the 
break in the line of the transverse avenue occurs only on one side of 
the building, and then in the mitigated form of a projection and not 
in the aggravated form of a recession. Behind these, that is to say, 
across the transverse avenue, come the larger bulks of Manufac- 
tures on one side and Varied Industries on the other. The greater 
magnitude of these can scarcely be counted an advantage when one 
considers that it not only entails the necessity of trying to signalize 
the awkward recess, but that, architecturally, the magnitude is not 
effectively greater than that of the buildings which in area are so 
much smaller, The straight side of Electricity or Education is as 
long as that of Manufactures or Varied Industries and as long as 
either of the two facades into which, by the peculiarity of the plan, 
the outer front is broken which, if straightened out, would equal or 
approach the length of the great building of Liberal Arts at Chi- 
cago. But only half of one of these outer fronts can be really seen 
at a time. The inner fronts to be sure can be seen together and all at 
once, and if the avenue they front had been curved instead of broken 
the expanse might have been made most impressive. But the im- 
pressiveness is very much diminished by the jog at the centre, 
which moreover offers such an awkwardness in itself that one is 
tempted rather to condole with the authors of these larger buildings 
upon an architectural difficulty than to congratulate them upon an 
architectural opportunity. Outside of each of the four buildings 
of this central group, flanking it, that is to say, comes another, 
which is to be seen in conjunction with it, and which has the ad- 
vantage of a parallelogrammatic plan, Mines outside of Education, 
Liberal Arts outside of Manufactures, Machinery outside of Elec- 
tricity, and Transportation outside of Varied Industries. The two 
former are nearly squares, the two latter nearly double squares, and 
affording by far the best opportunity for the emphasis of mere mag- 
nitude, or rather of mere longitude, which the Exposition presents. 
As has been indicated, the design of Transportation, or rather the 
execution by omitting an important element in the design, puts 



Louisiana Purchase Exposition. CarrSre & Hastings, Architects. 



> "* 




emphasis on this feature so exclusively that the result becomes 
monotonous. It is a pity, for the great triple portal of the end, de- 
signed to be repeated on the side, would not only effectively relieve 
this monotony, but is in itself, in its largeness and simplicity, and 
its unfailing success in scale and in detail, one of the most impres- 
sive things the Exposition has to show. The building of Machinery 
suffers from the opposite defect. Its parts are so numerous, so 
various, and so insistent, that the expanse of the whole, which 
would be so impressive if it had been left more alone, tends al- 
most to disappear as an element of effectiveness. The huge ar- 
caded and pedimented central feature which almost constitutes the 
end of the building is repeated, with the addition of a mansard and 
flanked by two towering steeples, at the centre of the side, to such 
effect that nobody is likely to complain of the monotonous length 
of the building, or even to observe it. while even the curtain wall 
between this central feature and the lower steeple, with a pedimented 
and columned base, carrying a pedimented and columned belfry 
stage which occupies the angle, is diversified by being divided be- 
tween a central colonnade and two flanking arcades. Decidedly, it 
is not monotony that one primarily objects to in this collection of 
features which scarcely constitute a countenance, and in the pro- 
fusion of which the architect seems almost to have exhausted his 
repertory of forms of the Italian Renaissance, in a "free" version of 
which all the buildings of the Exposition are supposed to be de- 

( )f the central group of four I have already expressed my own 
belief that Education is the most successful. For one thing, it is 
the simplest. The stately and interminable classic colonnade, given 
the chance to do it on the grand scale, is among the most obvious of 
all architectural effects, but it is one of the surest alike to break in 
upon apathy and not to become stale by iteration. It is one of those 
appeals to which, as Stevenson has it, a man must be dead and buri- 
able when he fails to respond. But to say that the building of Edu- 
cation displays on every front a colossal Corinthian order by no 
means exhausts the design of it, nor limits the merit of the de- 
signer to his selection of a motive. The very point of which we 
have just been speaking, the difficulty of emphasizing extent so as 
to make it effective without making it monotonous, in which the 
flank of the Transportation building by a misfortune of execution 
shows one kind of failure, and the flank of the building of Machin- 
ery by a misfortune of design shows another, is admirably dealt with 
in the building under consideration. On each of the three straight 
fronts the effective extent of the colonnade is the whole extent of 
the front, and yet each shows a centre and tw y o ends emphasized in 
the design, the former a triumphal arch with a flanking and pro- 


jecting order, of which the raised attic is crowned with a quadriga, 
the latter square and massive pavilions in which the columns of the 
colonnade are subdued to pilasters, so that the actual extent of the 
colonnade is only that of the curtain walls, and nobody is likely to 
complain that the fronts are monotonous on the one hand, or that 
they are unduly cut up and frittered away on the other. To attain 
this just mean so that the features of the design shall animate the 
expanses without interrupting them is a task to the successful per- 
formance of which there has evidently gone a deal of study. There 
is no question of the success here, nor that the building is a schol- 
arly essay in a really classical spirit as well as in the conventional 
classical forms. 

A scholarly performance likewise, is doubtless the counterpart- 
ing building of Electricity. If it comes short of the success of the 
other, it se-ems that that is largely because in the boldly projected 
order which alternates with the large plain round-arched openings 
of the wall behind, on its most conspicuous front, the designer 
seems to have hit upon a unit of design so large as to dwarf his 
building, or at least to prevent it from getting the full benefit of its 
dimensions. The columns of the colonnade of Education, being 
not at once numerable by the eye are practically interminable, 
whereas nobody can help being aware that the curtain walls of Elec- 
tricity consists of just three bays each. The pains the designer has 
been at to exaggerate the magnitude of the parts has the effect of 
belittling the whole : 600x700 feet are very respectable dimensions. 
But when the parts are so "scaled up" as these are, the frontage 
which would make them take their places as the units of an effect- 
ively extensive series would have to be greater by a considerable 
multiple. Moreover, the crowning features of this edifice, the ter- 
raced roofs of the terminal pavilions, rising actually or at least ap- 
parently higher than the central gable with its pediment and its big 
semicircular window, seem to have no necessary connection with 
the substructure or with one another, nor are they in themselves of 
attractive form or outline. Nevertheless there is a grandiosity 
about the performance. The building has a style of its own, and 
fills not unworthily its important place. 

In the respects in which we have been finding fault with it the 
building of Manufactures offers an instructive contrast to this. 
Here also the architects took a unit larger and more important than 
that of a column as the motive of their design. Here also this is 
the Roman arch, framed in "orders" and the feature is on an am- 
ple scale. But the columns and the arches go very much better 
together than in the building of Electricity where the emphasis 
given to the order by its projection seems meant to emphasize its 
separateness from the construction it adjoins. In Manufactures, it 


is so subdued as to become an integral part of that construction. 
With the smaller scale and the greater length of frontage, the 
succession of arches becomes really a series, an arcade, as it is so 
far from becoming in the other case, while the colonnaded pavil- 
ions of the corners and the triumphal arches of the central en- 
trances take their places not as detached objects, but as parts of an 
impressive and successful whole. 

The building corresponding to that of Manufactures, that of Va- 
ried Industries, is noteworthy as the work of the only architectural 
firm represented at St. Louis which was also represented at Chi- 
cago. The present building, however, does not at all recall the 
Electricity Building at Chicago, showing, for one thing, a very dis- 
tinct advance upon it, and, for another, recalling another building 
of the Court of Honor, that of Machinery, namely. This it does un- 
mistakably in virtue of its steeples rising from the Spanish looking 
dead walls of their lower stages, and flanked by the long colonnades 
over an arcaded basement. The effect is at once stately and ani- 
mated, and one feels moved especially to congratulate the archi- 
tect on the device by which he has circumvented the awkwardness of 
his recessed angle, by projecting in front of it a segment of col- 
onnade. One cannot do so much by the cupola, so incongruous 
with the steeples of the other front, that crowns this feature, and 
still less by the open and bell-crowned corner pavilions that em- 
phasize a void where there was required an emphatic solid. Neither 
can one at all or anywhere congratulate the architect of Liberal 
Arts, whose "features'' are so big and so insistent as to deprive his 
building of a countenance. The huge size and the number of the 
triumphal arches of entrances would denote that the purpose of the 
edifice was mainly to be got into and out of, for they dwarf into 
nothingness the strips of wall betwen them, while at the corners he 
has connected a huge monumental arch on each front by means of 
a round colonnade. The effect may not be more easily imagined 
than described, but certainly it is not easily described. 

Last of the great palaces comes that of Mines, of which the ef- 
fect, as has been said, cannot be judged without the color it was 
still, a few weeks ago, awaiting. Evidently enough, the huge over- 
shadowing eaves that protect the walls and cast their solid shadows 
no more come within the most liberal construction of the "Italian 
Renaissance" than do the Egyptian pylons that flank the entrances. 
There is this marked difference between it and the Transportation 
Building at Chicago. The Transportation Building at Chicago 
was isolated. This building is part of the principal group and 
must be seen in connection with other buildings of an entirely dif- 
ferent inspiration. Whatever its individual success may prove to 
be, it will be one at the expense of its neighbors, and at the ex- 



Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Van Brunt & Howe, Architects. 



pense, therefore, of the general effect. Evidently that is not polite. 
But evidently there is more to be said about it than tha^t one may 
not see the relevancy of the pylons. Rut one has to see that the 
building is a forcible and effective composition, in itself considered. 

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition will be worth seeing. 
There is no doubt about that. There are a great many more things 
to be said about it. But one that it would not be decent to omit ex- 
pressing is the recognition of the admirable way in which the ac- 
cessory architecture has been handled in the office of the Chief of 
Design. The colonnaded "Terrace of the States" with its terminal 
pavilions is the most conspicuous example of the work of the office, 
but many examples of it are to be seen at every turn about the 
grounds, and all of them confirm the impression that in this matter 
the managers of the fair have been particularly fortunate. 

There is a good deal to be said, too, about the subordinate build- 
ings, foreign and domestic, particularly about the great advance 
that is shown since Chicago in the design of the buildings beginning 
with the Government Building. "But that is another story," and 
matter for another article. 

Franz K. Winkler. 


^T.T is beginning to be more and more apparent that a number of the 
JL better architects of the West have a tendency consciously to break 
away from the time-honored European tradition to which their 
eastern brethren devotedly cleave. The statement, however, that 
such a tendency exists must be made with due caution and with 
many qualifications. It is not a tendency, which by any means 
stares one in the face, as one wanders observantly through the 
western cities. On the contrary, the new buildings, of all descrip- 
tions, which one sees most frequently seem to belong to much the 
same types of design as the buildings which one sees under similar 
conditions in the eastern cities. As has been frequently observed 
before, there is a "regular thing" in office-buildings, hotels and 
private houses, which is coming to have a prevailing influence, 
wherever any pretence to good design exists ; and these popular 
types, while by no means entirely satisfactory to a well-trained 
eye, possess, nevertheless, an increasing fitness and architectural 
respectability. What is more to our present purpose, however, 
the popular types of buildings, which, as I have said, dominate the 
newer architectural landscape, are all of them more or less faith- 
ful reproductions of well-known traditional types of design. Con- 
sequently the observer of architectural conditions throughout the 
country will be impressed superficiallv, not by any divergence in the 
habits of design of the eastern and western architects, but rather 
by certain general similarities. 

It is true, nevertheless, that there is a group of western archi- 
tects, resident chiefly in Chicago, who are, as I have caid, depart- 
ing from the allegiance to the strict European tradition which 
prevails in the East. The number of the protestants is not as yet 
very great ; several of the architects whose work shows the influ- 
ence of the different ideal are by no means consistent in their de- 
votion thereto ; and the different members of the group differ con- 
siderably in the extent to which they push their search for an origi- 
nal vehicle of expression. In the cases of some of them the desire 
to free themselves from tradition does not go much further than 
a search for irregularity in exterior design and for certain novel 
details in the interiors. Others have become absolutely revolution- 
ary in their ideals and in their technical machinery. They are 
seeking to make one big jump from a condition of stylistic servi- 
tude to that of irreverent and self-assured independence. They 
do not seek originality, however, as the "great American architect" 
once did by combining a number of traditional types into one in- 



congruous architectural hodge-podge. The radicals among the 
group are seeking for a rational and consistent basis for American 
design and ornament. The more conservative are merely seeking 
to reduce their debt to the European tradition to a few fundamental 
forms and to work out on the basis of those forms some new 
types of design. For the most part the movement is marked by 
moderation and good sense. 

It is natural that some such departure should be made in the 
West, because the western architect does not, as a rule, handle the 
traditional European architectural forms with any very zealous 
sense of the peculiar values of those forms. So far as the East 
is concerned, it is undeniably true that the great successes have 
been made by architects, who were capable of designing thorough- 
ly well along strictly conventional lines. These architects have 
been fully equal to the task of taking any one of the several Renais- 
sance domestic styles, and of reproducing in the American em- 
bodiment of the type some of the vitality and flavor of the origi- 
nal, so that the American reproduction has an effective presence 
and a permanent carrying power of its own. They have caught, 
that is, something of the spirit of the periods wherefrom they bor- 
row, and can make their buildings, both inside and outside, a great 
deal more than academic imitations of European types. So far as 
the exteriors are concerned, they can frequently give that appear- 
ance of measure and balance to the elements of the composition, 
without which the various Renaissance forms are lifeless; while 
at the same time they can impart a certain freedom to the design 
by the adaptation of some of the important members of the com- 
position to local American needs. So far as the interiors are con- 
cerned, they have acquired the power both of reproducing with 
some charm of effect the formal French styles of interior decora- 
tion, and of rehandling the materials used by the old French and 
Italian decorators in an idiomatic manner with the result some- 
times of making genuine living-rooms out of the remnants of 
rooms in European castles, palaces, churches, halls and galleries. 
Like thrifty business men, they justify their borrowing by the fact 
that they make their loan yield a good deal more than the interest 
charges. So far as my observation goes, the western architects 
have not shown the same power to anything like the same extent. 
The attempt to get the quality of measure and balance into the 
exterior of buildings designed under the influence of classic models 
does not seem to go beyond symmetrical duplication of the sev- 
eral parts of the building, the resulting effect being both loose and 
stiff. Neither are they very much more successful with the in- 
teriors, when these interiors are wrought of similar materials. In 
tne first place, their clients, the well-to-do western gentlemen 


for whom the houses are built, do not seem to demand the use of 
European styles and remnants to the same extent as do the east- 
ern owners of expensive dwellings. They are content with home- 
made furniture and fabrics, and when they do ask for an interior 
designed along- the same lines as that, say of the Whitney house 
in New York, they cannot get it, or, at least, they have not got it 
in any of the houses of this kind, which the writer has seen.. The 
western architects do not seem to have a lively sense for this sort of 
thing. They have never gained touch with the tradition that en- 
dows it with life and meaning. 

It will probably prove to be a fortunate thing for American ar- 
chitecture that such is the case. In a country, such as the United 
States, which is in the process of making and naturalizing its local 
architectural traditions and forms, it is a good thing both that 
some of the leading practitioners should intentionally cleave to 
the standard authoritative historic styles, and that others should 
propose, also intentionally, to depart from strict allegiance to the 
time-honored tradition, and to substitute types of design 
that have a manifest local propriety. These two ideals of de- 
sign seem to be exclusive ; but both are as necessary to the steady 
progress of American architecture as are a conservative and a 
liberal party to a healthy political organism.. The two sets of ideas 
will prove to be supplementary provided both of them are sin- 
cerely and intelligently adopted, and are applied with a high sense 
of technical honor. What American architecture needs very much 
more than devotion to any one group of forms is devotion to an 
uncompromising technical standard. When such a standard pre- 
vails, and brings with it all that it implies, the forms will take care 
of themselves. 

The group of western architects, whose work shows a con- 
scious attempt to break new ground, are most assuredly sincere and 
intelligent designers possessed of a sufficiently high technical 
standard. Their work is inevitably more uneven than is the work 
of the eastern architects who stick more closely to the "regular 
thing;" it is not calculated to please people, whose point of view 
makes them unsympathetic with architectural experiments ; yet, 
nevertheless, it has a quality and effect which can only come from 
a thoughtful and conscientious attempt to devise forms which are 
appropriate, novel and striking. The forms which they devise oc- 
casionally suggest the influence of the "New Style," which is so 
popular abroad ; but when this is the case the suggestion points 
rather to the German than the French variety of that movement. 
For the most part, however, it borrows little either from "L'Art 
Nouveau" or the "Jugend Style." It really derives its momentum 
and inspiration chiefly from the work of Mr. Louis Sullivan, and 


from a very able architect, who issued from Mr. Sullivan's office, 
Mr. Frank Wright. But it is still too young to have a history, and 
probably ten years must pass before any very intelligent estimate 
can be placed upon its value. In the meantime its significance as 
an attempt to meet a real need both of local and of general Ameri- 
can architecture should be recognized and be allowed its full credit. 

In order to give some idea of what this group' of architects is 
doing, there are reproduced herewith photographs of four houses 
which have recently been erected in or near Chicago. Two of these 
houses were designed by Mr. ( ieorge Maher and two by Mr. 
Richard Schmidt. It would be going too far to say that these 
houses are thoroughly typical of the movement to which attention 
has been directed, because this movement is a very composite 
thing, and includes a varietv of new tendencies. Rut while not 
claiming that these houses are thoroughly representative, it is 
none the less true that they tvpify fairly well, on the one hand, the 
extremely radical phase of the new movement, and on the other, 
the phase which is content with a more modest ideal and a less 
uncompromising rigor of rejection. 

( )f the four houses, that of Mr. L. Wolff. Jr., designed by Richard 
Schmidt, exhibits probably the new movement more nearly at its 
best. The general character of this design obviously owes a great 
deal to the work of Mr. Prank \\ right, and this is as it should be, 
for Mr. Wright is the most thoroughly and sensibly original among 
the younger men. ( )ne marks immediately the very simple and 
rational method of the exterior design, the frank treatment of the 
materials, the exclusively utilitarian situation of the openings, the 
almost complete rejection of detail and ornament, and the mani- 
fest seeking for structural honesty. The architect is evidently think- 
ing in terms of masses, of surfaces, and of light and shade. He 
is looking, that is. for a well-massed structural effect, the surface 
of which shall express the color value of the brick, and which shall 
at the same time be made a little spectacular by the bold shadows 
cast by the overhanging roof. All this is very good ; but it must 
also be remarked that the simplicity of effect, just because it is 
obtained by such a process of rejection, has within limits the dan- 
ger of becoming the simplicity of attenuation. The rejection of 
the classic precedents has gone so far that proportion and symmetry 
are secondary elements. It is very well to think in terms of masses 
and surfaces and it is probably better to do so than to stick to 
the current practice of interpolating detail for the sake of com- 
posing it ; but there should be enough detail to afford some chance 
of effective proportion, some chance of that simplicity which re- 
sults from the perfectly achieved organization of a wealth of struc- 
tural and ornamental members. 



Hazel Avenue, Chicago. 


Richard Schmidt, Architect. 



Hazel Avenue, Chicago. Richard Schmidt, Architect. 



Hazel Avenue, Chicago. Richard Schmidt, Architect. 

3 68 


In passing to the interior of Mr. Wolff's house, one is impressed 
by the same seeking 1 for an honest simplicity of effect. In this 
case the architect is obviously pre-occupied chiefly with the sur- 
faces of the walls and panels, and the colors whereby they are deco- 
rated. Wherever he can he tries to get large surfaces, which are 
never figured or disfigured with paper, but if not paneled, are 
tinted with some solid color. At the same time these wall sur- 
faces are made interesting by a well-designed base and cornice, and 
by a treatment of the woodwork around the openings which 
gives these spaces a varied and appropriate framing. The panel- 
ing, wherever it is used, is also designed with the utmost discre- 
tion, the scale of the mouldings and depressions being admirably 
appropriate. In short, the desirable simplicity of effect has been ob- 
tained without as many sacrifices as the architect felt impelled to 
make on his exterior, and the result possesses not merely integ- 
rity but an open and comfortable charm. The only jarring note in 
these rooms is the furniture. Some of it has evidently been de- 
signed for the house, although without very much success, but in 
other cases as, for instance, the piano, several of the ponderous 
stuffed chairs, the stool with the palm on it, and the elaborately 
carved piece in the hall in all these cases the style of the furniture 
disagrees with that of the house; and it becomes evident at once 
that people who wish houses designed in this style should be pre- 
pared to make a clean sweep of their customary household belong- 
ings. The ordinary modern Colonial, Italian and French furniture 
is for the most part entirely out of place in such rooms as these. 

The other house, of which Mr. Schmidt is the architect, that of 
Mr. Chas. Thome, possesses some of the same characteristics, but 
the result is decidedly less successful. It is a frame structure, de- 
signed with the same disregard of proportion, and with the same 
bold effects of light and shade, derived from the projecting eaves. 
There has been a manifest attempt also to give the material some- 
thing of its proper value. The house presents a gay, picturesque 
and fragile appearance. The sharp mouldings which frame the 
clapboards in as if they were panels, break the surface of the build- 
ing and intensify the dominant lines at that point. But the effect 
is none the less bizarre and confused. Neither is the interior as 
pleasing as in the case of the other house. Here again Mr. Schmidt 
has given a spacious effect, and has kept his abundant wall surfaces 
bare of paper ; but the woodwork is much less interesting, and the 
stenciled design which he has placed above the shelf in the draw- 
ing-room is unpleasantly frivolous. In this case also the furni- 
ture which apparently is "Grand Rapids Colonial," does not 
harmonize with the style of the decorations and leaves an uncom- 
fortably jarring impression. Doubtless many of the differences 



between the two houses are directly traceable to the fact that in one 
case the architect had more money at his disposal than in the 
other ; but in the second case the smaller resources might 
assuredly have been better used. Evidently in designing in this un- 
conventional manner, an architect may easily lose his clue and go 
pretty well astray, for he has nothing to correct an error but his 
own taste ; and personal taste, even with the most gifted men, is 
often a doubtful support. 

If Mr. Schmidt represents a moderate version of the new move- 
ment, Mr. Maher evidently stands for its most revolutionary ex- 


Winnetka, 111. 

Richard Schmidt, Architect. 

treme. He is assuredly the "new architect" in his most garrulous 
and candid moment. He has not been afraid to design houses, 
which would impress any eye, not merely as extraordinary, but per- 
haps as grotesque ; and in so doing he stands alone, for the other 
architects this group are much more discreet in their innovations. 
Personally I prefer in this matter the quality of discretion to the 
quality of courage ; but Mr. Maher's courage, if it makes him more 
dangerous as an example to imitate, also makes him more service- 
able as an example to study and consider particularly when 


Winnetka, 111. Richard Schmidt, Architect. 



we have what may be taken to be an official expression of his ar- 
tistic creed. An admirer of his writes as follows : 

"A gratifying example of art from the philosophical standpoint 
is offered in the work of Mr. Geo. H. Maher, of Chicago. Cast- 
ing tradition to the winds, this artist presents a system which is 
at once novel and enduring. . . . He is a champion of rational 
aestheticism, and holds that the expression of art, to be consistent 
and therefore idealistic, from its very nature can never be identi- 
cal in any two localities. Environment and local conditions are 
the leading indices." Let us see what sort of a building the philo- 
sophic architect will conceive. 


Glencoe, 111. Geo. Maher, Architect. 

The Hollyhock as a "Floral Emblem." 

The best opportunity which Mr. Maher has had to give expres- 
sion to his system of rational aestheticism is contained in the house 
designed for Mayor Patton, at Evanston, Illinois; and, indeed, a 
better opportunity has rarely been offered to any architect. I 
have already remarked how important it is that the "new architect" 
should have the chance to design everything about a house, in- 
side and out; and this is just the chance which Mr. Patton has 







placed in Mr. Maher's hands. Consequently, in this instance, unlike 
so many others, the responsibility for satisfactory results or the re- 
verse belongs exclusively to the architect. 

The first impression which the untutored and undisciplined ob- 
server obtains from the Patton House is not very exhilarating. 
It strikes one as a heavy, gloomy, chunk of a building, with de- 
pressing reminiscences in its appearance of such primitive archi- 
tectural achievements as Pelasgian masonry and Egyptian sar- 
cophagi. But mingled with this unfavorable impression is the con- 
sciousness that to dismiss it with such words on one's lips would 
not be fair to Mr.. Maher. We are dealing with an architecture of 
ideas, which is struggling not very successfully at formal expres- 
sion; and it is only fair that the idea should be considered as well 
as the incarnation. Even though ugly and clumsy in appearance, 
such a building may, at least, have the intellectual integrity, the 
"rational sestheticism" of art from "a philosophical standpoint," and 
an interest of this kind, a closer examination, most assuredly proves 
the design to have. It assuredly has the value, for instance, of a 
very honest piece of stone masonry, with the structural value of 
the granite almost painfully emphasized by the huge, rough, flat 
blocks of which it is constructed. The ruggedness of its effect 
is modified by the smooth and restful stone base and cornice, 
which provide the only pleasant lines of the building, and do more 
than anything else to give the design distinction and unity. In 
spite, however, of the honesty of the stone work, the total sacri- 
fice of scale to massiveness of effect, which the building exhibits, 
remains unappeasably disagreeable. It reminds one of the figure 
of a man whose arms and legs are swollen, so that no matter 
how bold his muscles are, or how vigorous the whole effect of his 
strong body, that effect is spoiled by the disproportion of certain 
salient parts. 

All the ornament on the exterior of the building is concen- 
trated on the balcony above the entrance door, and it is signifi- 
cant that this ornament consists almost exclusively of a superficial 
carving and mosaic and some beauty of effect and originality 
of design. It is this fact that the ornament is designed, instead of 
being merely copied, which gives the ornament its best promise, 
In this respect Mr. Maher is, of course, frankly the follower of 
Mr. Louis Sullivan, and he follows him, not merely in seeking for 
original ornamental forms, but in confining his ornament mostly 
to surface treatment. Perhaps this is necessarily the case with 
architects who seek to depart from the classic forms ; but if so, it 
means, most assuredly, a relation between the structure of a build- 
ing and its decorative detail, which is as objectionable in one way 
as is in another the more general practice of designing apparently 




Evanston, 111. Geo. Maher, Architect. 



Evanston, 111. Geo. Maher, Architect. 



Evanston, 111. Geo. Maher, Architect, 


structural members for merely decorative purposes. This super- 
ficial ornament is not architectural and lends the architectural effect 
of the building little assistance, so that the architect is thrown 
back, as has already been observed, chiefly upon masses of his 
building and the surface value of his material; and any attempt 
to bring the composition into close relation to the material could 
result only in substituting for the block-like simplicity of the best 
of the present architecture of ideas a freakish irregularity of de- 

It is on passing to the interior of the house that one begins to 
realize the full proportions of Mr. Maher's enterprise. The deco- 
rative motives suggested on the interior of the building have been 
carried out on the inside with incorruptible consistency. It is 
part of Mr. Maher's creed that the ornament "should be identified 
with some floral element of the locality to which he is confined, 
recognizing that the leading. flower of a neighborhood is nature's 
symbol of the spirit out-breathed there." The "floral element 
of the locality" to which Mr. Maher was confined in the case of 
the Patton residence is the thistle, a motive which is varied ingeni- 
ously to cover large areas of wall, to surmount mantelpieces and 
side-boards, to figure curtains, and to supply decorative borders 
to wall surfaces tinted in solid colors. Some of these designs are 
in themselves very beautiful, and one cannot help attributing to 
the architect, who is capable of handling such a motive with so 
much variety, so much originality and in a sense with so much pro- 
priety, very unusual powers of design. The effect of the ornament 
is in other cases somewhat explosive, as if a shell had burst, and 
was blowing the "floral element" all over the wall; but for the 
most part it is handled with a good deal of restraint. One cannot 
say as much that is favorable of the hectic angel, into which the stem 
of the thistle flowers in specified places. The sort of thing is so ex- 
tremely jarring to the writer that he can scarcely consider it with 
decorum and patience. To my sense she is merely orna- 
mental impertinence, which would become intolerable as steady 
company, and which is an example of the worst solecism whicn the 
architecture of ideas can commit. 

There is less woodwork than in many houses of this class the 
hall and dining-rooms being apparently the only apartments in 
which it prevails. Wherever used, however, the dimensions of the 
members designed in this material are framed on a scale, which 
is much more appropriate to a bar-room or a hotel than a private 
house. Mr. Maher, indeed, has throughout kept his structural 
members extremely massive, while his ornamental "elements" 
have been made almost aerial in their lightness. Even the furni- 
ture is chunky and heavy too much so for the taste of most people, 


Evanston, 111. 


Geo. Maher. Architect. 


Glencoe, 111. 


Geo. Maher Architect. 


v d'/> - 


Glencoe, 111. 

Geo. Maher, Architect. 


but none the less very cleverly designed from the architect's point 
of view. 

It is very difficult for the writer to pass upon the effect of the 
interior as a whole, because, as I am bound to confess, I am com- 
menting on the house with nothing but the photographs before 
me; and obviously much if not most of Mr. Maher's effect de- 
pends upon his colors. Furthermore, it is probable that the 
photographs over-emphasize the excessive scale of some of the 
parts. Nevertheless, one cannot help remarking that the architec- 
ture of ideas, when embodied in such a fashion as this, places even 
a heavier responsibility upon the owner and occupier of the house 
than upon the architect. Just think of living in such a thorny en- 
vironment ! Think of being constantly entangled in such a system 
of "rational sestheticism !" Think of trying to establish one's house- 
hold gods in such a temple of artistic puritanism ! One could 
scarcely buy an ornament or place some flowers on a table, or 
cover a cushion without the danger of producing a jarring effect 
as may be seen from the cushion on the lounge in the study, 
the one homely detail in the whole austere interior. Evidently the 
architecture of ideas is intended for clients, who are willing to trust 
their architects absolutely, and who are prepared to make great 
sacrifices for the good cause from which we may conclude that 
the real hero of this architectural enterprise is even more Mr. 
Patton than it is Mr. Maher. 

Finally we come to the house of Mr. Rubens, at Glencoe, Illinois, 
designed also by Mr. Maher in which it must be straightaway 
admitted that the architecture of ideas goes to seed. Indeed, this 
house or group of houses makes one wonder what the difference 
is between "rational" and irrational sestheticism, for to all appear- 
ances nothing could be more irrational than every disposition and 
detail of these structures. One feels impelled to ask the question 
"why" about everything one sees. Why run up rectangular walls 
against a peaked roof? Why construct these walls of brick, while 
the other walls are constructed of concrete ? Why put a roof on a 
post and give it the appearance of being inhabited? Why make 
all the lines of a building angular except a few of the openings, 
.and then use circular window sashes and balcony decorations. 
How is the room under the tower reached, and what sort of plan 
can the interior of such a group of buildings have ? Why anything 
.and everything? Doubtless, some reasons may be alleged for these 
perverse dispositions, for this is an architecture of ideas, and Mr. 
Maher has evidently put plenty of them in this design ; but in this 
instance, at least, the appearance of the building is devoid of archi- 
tectural reason or propriety. The architect has broken away from 
the safe method of designing a good solid block of a house with 


plain, honest walls, and has attempted to construct some kind of a 
decorative scheme. The result is simply grotesque, and leads one 
to hope that the "new architect" will henceforth keep his decora- 
tion superficial. This sort of thing is, of course, the great 
danger of architecture "from the philosophical standpoint," which 
substitutes ideas for traditions, and originality at any price for the 
authenticity of time-honored forms. The revolution which it en- 
dorses comes perilously near to anarchy. It cannot establish any 
authority in place of the one which it is trying to overthrow, and 
some kind of authority, some recognized form which can be taken 
for granted, is as necessary to good art as it is to an established 
society. The moral is, not necessarily that architects should not try 
to depart somewhat from the European tradition, but that the de- 
parture should be made gradually, and with the purpose not to be 
unscrupulously original and American, but to design beautiful and 
appropriate buildings. 

Arthur C. David. 












Residence of H. M. Flagler. Palm Beach, Fla. CarrSre & Hastings, Architects. 



I II !! II !! 

Residence of H. M. Flagler, Palm Beach, Fla. Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 















VOL. XV. MAY, 1904. No 5. 


PHILADELPHIA is a city of astonishment: with a political 
tradition second to none, it has developed a condition of 
political depravity without an equal in a land singularly prolific in 
products of this nature. Purest in blood of all the greater Ameri- 
can cities, with a solid foundation of honest and sturdy stock, it 
seems now to be the one municipality in the country where the 
forces of rectitude and reform are a negligible quantity. Blessed 
with an early architecture of the very best type developed on this 
continent, it sunk first of all to a condition of stolid stupidity al- 
most unparalleled, then produced at a bound a group of men of 
abundant vitality but the very worst taste ever recorded in art, and 
then amazed everyone by flashing on the world a small circle of 
architects whose dominant quality was exquisite and almost im- 
peccable taste, men who produced work of infinite refinement, who 
had the faculty of instilling their own high principles into their 
followers, and who have established a school of practitioners who 
resist steadily and serenely the tendencies to bad taste that for the 
moment have the call in the profession and with the public. 

It is useless to seek for an explanation, for none is adequate. 
There are the facts; what to make of them we do not know, but we 
can at least be grateful for a notable mercy. 

In the XVIII. century a type of architecture was developed in 
and around Philadelphia of very singular beauty. It was perfectly 
frank, simple, direct. Blessed with good brick and a building stone 
of unexampled charm, the early builders modified their inherited 
tradition to adapt it to local conditions, and as a result the farm- 
buildings of Eastern Pennsylvania became quite worthy of com- 
parison with similar work of a century earlier in England and on 
the Continent. What is there in the United States more charming 
as an example of vital architecture than the dwellings and barns 
of the vicinity of Philadelphia? Frank and simple in form, the 

Copyright, 1904. by "The Architectural Record Company. " All rights reserved. 
Entered May 22, 1902, as second-class matter, Post Office at New York, N. Y., Act of 
Congress of March 3d, 1879. 


texture and tone are fine to a degree, while there is that wonderful 
quality of picturesqueness that is almost wholly absent from similar 
work in New England and the South. A spacious and noble 
dignity, high-bred and aloof, is characteristic of the latter ; delicate 
and sensitive detail, the mark of the former ; but of picturesqueness 
of composition and charm of texture and color there is almost 
nothing in either. 

In spite of this fine tradition, this environment that surely should 
have worked towards a persistence of type, Philadelphia in the 
middle of the XIX. century was producing by the mile a kind 
of architecture that was the very limit of dull formality, far worse 
in every way than the grave and reminiscent brick-work of Boston's 
Beacon Hill or even than the much scorned "brownstone front" of 
New York. 

Then came the next transformation, and a new wonder was 
wrought on earth. The historian of the Philadelphia reign of 
architectural terror is yet to arise, but he is much to be desired, 
for the astonishing phenomenon that followed is well worthy of 
serious consideration. Bad it was, with a degree of depravity not 
to be measured in words, but this was not all. Underneath the 
evil was, I believe, a serious and laudable purpose, and the 
men who had their will in the Quaker City during the seventies 
and early eighties were entitled to something besides bitter or 
scoffing condemnation. Consider two buildings for example, 
chosen almost at random ; the Library of the University of Penn- 
sylvania and the Unitarian Meeting House in Chestnut Street. 
At first sight one sees only inflexible, unvarying bad taste. Well ; 
the bad taste is there, all one could possibly claim, but besides this is 
something else that is more radical and demands our sympathy, or 
at all events our considerate recognition, and this is Personality. 
Bad taste is like a club-foot or a hare-lip ; it is a misfortune, not a 
fault ; it marks individuals, for example, the artistic "sans-culottes" 
of Philadelphia, or even whole races, as the French architects and 
painters of to-day. Yet a man with a club-foot and a hare-lip may 
be a gentleman, and a man or a race blighted by bad taste, may yet 
come nearer to solving the fundamental problems of artistic crea- 
tion than the most consummate disciple of Walter Pater. 

Bad taste is, to me, a salient characteristic of modern art in 
France. Yet, to take one branch of artistic creation alone, archi- 
tecture, we find there a more profound sense of the basic principles 
of this noblest of arts, a more logical sense of its functions, its 
laws, and its method of development, than can be discovered in any 
other contemporary country whatever. 

Therefore, in jeering at the Furnissic Revolt, let us remember 
this ; that its founder and its disciples tried to be something besides 



Germantown, Pa. Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 

cheap copyists, tracing their working drawings from Vignola or 
LeTarouilly or Welby Pugin ; they tried to be live Americans, not 
dead archaeologists ; they sought for vitality, originality, personal 
and ethnic expression. If God had given them good taste they would 
have succeeded beyond belief ; as it was they failed, and their works 
do follow them ; but in their failure was more of honor than accrues 
to their better bred contemporaries and successors who could see 
no further than the steel engravings of classical "Fragments" and 
mediaeval "Remains." 

Some of Philadelphia's vicissitudes are inexplicable, not so the 
next development which followed inevitably. The salient sin of 
the last third of the century was against good taste ; in opposition to 
this was raised up a group of men predestined to be the exemplars 
of good taste. The city never did anything by halves, and the awful 
taste of the "seventies" engendered the delicate sensibility of the 
"nineties." Within the space of a very few years four new men 
became active, and in the following sequence, Wilson Eyre, Cope 
& Stewardson and Frank Miles Day. These four became one voice 
crying in the wilderness, a voice proclaiming artistic salvation 
through the doctrine of good taste. 

Mr. Eyre's work has already been considered in these pages; it 
falls to me to deal with that of the other two firms.. In a way, 
however, it is almost a mistake to treat of these three separately, 
for their crusade has been one work, their activity has been simul- 
taneous, their sympathies identical, their personalities closely allied, 
while in one instance the three firms came together to produce 
what seems to me the most significant structure resulting from 
the enforcement of the principles for the establishing of which 
they have been allied. 

One thing we must postulate of all as of each, this same good 
taste of which I have spoken so continuously. Each firm is varied, 
each differentiated from the other by certain degrees of stress laid 
on certain qualities by the several firms. In the one characteristic 



named above they meet on common ground. Yet even here there 
is a difference in degree, and Mr. Day and his brother stand 
forward pre-eminently as the apostles of refinement and sensibility. 
The keynote is struck at the outset in the Art Club (Fig 2), un- 
less I am mistaken the first important commission ever given Mr. 
Day. It is an enthusiastic revolt against the sort of thing that is 
lined up beside it in the photograph and against the bizarre pro- 
ductions of the men at that time in the fullness of their very sur- 
prising powers. It is also the unmistakable work of a young man 

Broad St., below Walnut St., Philadelphia. Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 

just back from Europe, and a file of sketch books is the manifest 
source of inspiration. Detail is lavished with a prodigal hand ; vari- 
ety and picturesqueness were sought at any cost ; here was a chance 
to do a good deal, and it was done, and very thoroughly. As a re- 
sult, calmness, reserve, simplicity are lost and the building fails to 
this degree. But consider the year, the locus. It was a manifesta- 
tion of delicacy and sweetness, of fine instincts and subtle sympa- 
thies. Weak it is in mass, composition and scale, but every line of 
it is as refined and sensitive as possible. Too much so, of course ; 
exquisite ornament is not all of architecture, indeed it is not even 
a necessity, but when it comes it is a boon, particularly when it is as 



charming as holds in the present instance. Above all this building 
marks the entrance of a new influence in a devastated field, an 
agency of good taste. This is the beginning of all things, a solid 
foundation, and much may be builded thereon, though this may not 
follow inevitably. 

In the case of the Art Club, French and Italian influences are 
dominant. In the house in I7th Street, and the block of residences 
in West End Avenue, New York (Fig. 3), which shortly followed, 
the sketch books from Holland and Flanders are more in evidence, 

New York City. Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 

and they show a keen eye for choosing the good over the bad and 
for assimilating this good very thoroughly. In all these buildings 
there is not only a strong sense for beautiful ornament, for engag- 
ing picturesqueness, but as well a new feeling for color and for 
texture of surfaces ; the brick is chosen with scrupulous care, the 
stone is judiciously placed for the obtaining of what the Japanese 




Philadelphia, Pa. Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 


would call "notan." With years Mr. Day has learned that salvation 
is not by fine line alone, but by other and more important matters, 
yet his feeling- for color and texture has persisted, growing- stronger 
every day, until the crowning result is to be found in that building 
where all three firms met on common ground and in a common 

It is very interesting to watch an architect "find himself," partic- 
ularly in the case of Mr. Day, where the process is perfectly logi- 
ical, entirely continuous, and, if one may venture the prophecy, not 
yet completed. Beginning with a very evident and equally domi- 
nant passion for fine line, graceful ornament and delicate colors, 
consciousness of composition, mass and the co-ordination of parts 
is a matter of subsequent growth. We find the first evidence of this 
in two important structures, the office building for the American 
Baptist Publication Society (Fig. 4) and Horticultural Hall. The 
former may be called a creation; it is elaborate, ambitious, magnifi- 
cent. The idea of an office building as an utilitarian entity, postu- 
lating an entirely new set of architectural principles developing from 
a peculiar function entirely without precedent, had not yet sug- 
gested itself. Indeed, it was to wait many years yet, and until Mr. 
Sullivan could work out his logical and original theories. In place 
of this was the old tower idea ; a solid and somewhat elaborate base, 
a plain and simple shaft, and a topping out of all kinds of splendor ; 
an efflorescence of ballustrades, dormers, pinnacles and diaper 

Grant the primary assumption and it is magnificent ; rich, florid, 
sumptuous, yet in excellent taste. The composition of the splendid 
crown is admirable, the ornament conscientiously studied, beautiful 
in itself, and judiciously placed. It is hardly logical in its expres- 
sion of function however,, and must count as a very beautiful mile- 
stone in a progression then only begun, and even now not yet at its 
term. Two points are worth noting in this connection. The first is 
that in designing high buildings the upper stories are not the place 
for elaborate ornamentation ; in this respect the building is in error. 
The second is that it is not the mark of an educated architect to 
lavish his luxury on the street side of a given building, treating 
his party walls as matter of no concern, at least he cannot do this 
unless he is coerced into such action by a conscienceless owner and 
after his own solemn protest ; in this respect the building is admir- 
ably right. As matters now stand the sides of this structure are ten 
times more conspicuous than the front, and actually they are better 
in design. Here is a mark of serious purpose, of conscientious 
principle, of thorough good taste on the part of the architect that 
demands high praise. 

The problem is somewhat difficult ; in time these same party walls 




may be entirely hidden by adjacent buildings ; again they may not. 
If they stand revealed ten years, or five, a little money and a little 
thought given to the side walls, are well expended. I have one case 
in mind which is somewhat exaggerated perhaps, but it seems to 
point a moral. There is in Boston a certain building with a main 
frontage on a narrow but important street ; a second side gives on 
an open space full of trees and sunlight, a space that will forever re- 
main open, though it is not a public square. From the main point 
of view this subordinate faqade is conspicuously in evidence while 
the street front is seen only in the steepest perspective and is there- 
fore most inconspicuous, except so far as its two or three lower 
stories are concerned. Now the almost invisible front is treated 
with the utmost care, the material is expensive, the windows well 
proportioned, the mouldings around them well thought out. But 
the other side, the one that stares you in the face, that never can be 
hidden, and that rises from a lovely base of grass and trees and 
shrubs, this is scamped and ignored, built of the cheapest brick, 
cheaply painted, with factory windows punched in the crude walls, 
and with boiler flues rearing their hideous length and galvanized 
iron bay windows of the baldest type as the only ornament. 

Either the architect or the owner is to blame for this, and in 
either case the blame is ponderous, the offence egregious. This is 
not architecture at all, it is Heaven knows what jerrymandering 
perhaps ; certainly it is not art. 

I speak of this matter at length because it seems to me that the 
.radically different treatment accorded the Baptist Building proves 
the point I wish to make in the case of Mr. Day ; that whatever 
mistakes he may make, superficiality and errors in taste are not 
among them.. 

Horticultural Hall (Figs. 5 and 6) is to me about the best thing 
Mr. Day has done, working that is, alone. In detail it is just as 
delicate and lovely as the earlier work, but this detail is more care- 
fully used, and disposed with far greater craft ; while the primary 
importance of strong and simple composition, with a just disposition 
of voids and solids, has evidently impressed itself on its designer. 
The building is thoroughly delightful in its mass and its general 
composition. Nothing appears that does not justify itself by its in- 
herent beauty ; archivolts, mouldings, medallions, balcony fronts, all 
are studied to the last degree ; and as a result one has the same im- 
pulse to sit down before it with sketchbook and pencil that mani- 
fests itself in Italy. 

I am aware of the current theory that subordinates abstract 
beauty in detail to scale, relation and accent. This may be perfect- 
ly right, in a measure it certainly is, but surely these desiderata 
need not exclude the element of beauty. Walk up Fifth Avenue 



from Madison Square to the Park in New York City and you will 
see that as a general thing it does ; not always, but as a rule. Now 
in the earlier of Mr. Day's buildings beauty was allowed to destroy 
scale. This is particularly true of the Art Club and of the Baptist 
Building, but it is not true of Horticultural Hall nor of the work 
now in hand. Here was a lesson learned with years, with years 
also the prophets of the new theories will learn perhaps that strong 

Broad Street, below Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 


scale may yet be in- 

and powerful detail that is thoroughly 
trinsically beautiful. 

In one aspect Horticultural Hall is not wholly successful, and 
this is a point to which its designer evidently gave the deepest 
thought ; I mean its color. Mr. Smith's frieze is exquisite, the man- 
ner in which gold and pigment work down through the medal- 
lions, windows and balconies to the little shield over the door is 
very wonderful and itself perfectly competent, but the general tone, 
like that of the Baptist Building, is hot and almost uncomfortable ; 
reds and yellows and sultry browns have proved themselves unde- 
sirable as the fundamental tones of architectural compositions, and 
for some mysterious reason a lower and soberer key alone justifies 
itself; even red brick, which is as good a building material as was 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 



ever invented, demands much gray mortar and light, cool-colored 
trimming stone to bring it down to the requisite pitch. 

In this respect only the intensely interesting and very successful 
house in Locust Street (Fig. 7) seems to fail. As a piece of com- 
position, as a study in proportion, it leaves absolutely nothing to be 
desired ; the brickwork is admirable, the ornament intrinsically 
beautiful and perfectly placed ; on the other hand the trimmings are 
of rich red sandstone and the color effect is therefore somewhat 
cloying and lacking in the vigor and accent that are very necessary. 

Like all of Mr. Day's domestic work, this house is personal, in- 
dividual and marked by just the right ethnic suggestion; not the 
only ethnic suggestion, but one of them. Messrs. Cope & Steward- 
son, in their more recent work have taken over the Colonial of 
Pennsylvania and, glorifying it, have made it living, local and log- 
ical. Mr. Day and his brother have harked back to the preceding 
English work and with this as a basis have produced something that 
is quite equally justifiable though its origins are so far removed in 
space and time. 

In this particular house, I want to call attention to the two 
points just mentioned, namely composition and sense of propor- 
tion. I can hardly call to mind any modern example where the 
stylistic basis is the same, where so keen a feeling is shown for 
massing, for line composition, and for the proportioning of solids 
and voids. In considering later the dormitories for the University 
of Pennsylvania we shall see how grave an error it is to lose scale 
in window openings. This Locust Street house shows how abso- 
lutely imperative is exactness in this respect, where this particular 
style is involved. 

Another point worth noting is the carved detail. Now only too 
often the ornament of Tudor, Elizabethan and Jacobean architec- 
ture is peculiarly ugly, tainted as it is by debased influences from 
Germany. As a general thing an architect working in one of these 
styles accepts the detail as inevitable, granted the primary assump- 
tion of the style itself. Not so Mr. Day. The historical detail was 
not beautiful ; this was enough for him, and he promptly evolved 
something better which lacked historic precedent but had the 
greater merit of pure beauty. Action of this sort marks the archi- 
tect of taste and conscientiousness and creative ability. 

I can't quite feel that the great country house in Ambler, Pa. 
(Figs. 8 and 10) is as successful in its field as is the far more modest 
Locust Street house. The composition is crowded and casual, the 
parts are not co-ordinated, the windowing haphazard, the roofing 
tent-like and formidable. It has good points, many of them; for in- 
stance the strong base of stone terrace, the carriage porch and the 
gabled end adjacent, above all the magnificent stonework. On the 


Ambler, Pa. Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 


whole, however, the house is disappointing. It lacks the grave 
calm, the "Vere de Vere" self-restraint, the poise and presence of 
its great prototypes, the XVth and XVIth century manor houses 
of England. In this regard it serves to show how rapidly Mr. Day 
came to grasp the essentials of a style used here, I assume, for the 
first time. A few years later the Locust Street house, and the gym- 
nasium now under construction, manifest a penetrating grasp of 
the essentials of this most inspiring style ; proportion, composition, 
self-restraint. It is an architecture for gentlemen, it breathes good 

Ambler. Pa. 


Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 

breeding and marks good blood. Without these qualities it be- 
comes intolerable, as witness the rank and file of American imita- 
tions recently popular. Straight classic is a style where it is hard 
to go hopelessly wrong, though the late Mr. Mullet and the crea- 
tor of the Philadelphia City Hall would seem to prove the contrary, 
but in this other style it is correspondingly hard to go right, for it 
pre-supposes a power of keen analysis and a faculty for grasping 
essentials on the part of the man who handles it. No one has re- 
duced it to a tabular statement of mathematical formulae, therefore 
each must delve for himself. In nine cases out of ten the practi- 



tioner is content with what he sees on the surface ; contours of 
mouldings, buttresses, battlements and gables, and this way lies 
perdition. The mistakes in the Ambler house are fewer than usual, 
for refinement of feeling will mitigate much error, but it is not 
what the Days would make of it now as is proved by the gymna- 
sium for the University of Pennsylvania. Before I speak of this, 
however, we must take up for a moment that amazing creation 
where four men of singular sympathy and unity of purpose came 
together to bring into existence one of the most original and im- 
portant buildings in the United States. 

17th and Cherry Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 

How shall we speak of the Archaeological Museum (Figs. 13, 14, 
15) the building which should be era-marking and which is the result 
of the fusion of the brains of Messrs. Eyre, Cope, Stewardson and 
Day? I have tried in vain to bring home to any one of them the 
credit for some single thing. Independent action, individuality of 
product is strenuously denied, therefore the building must stand 
as the precipitation of five sets of brains fused in the crucible of en- 
thusiasm. In so far as the Days were a part of this startling amal- 
gam a portion of the credit must go to them and be recorded here. 

I am a little afraid to speak of this structure at length for it makes 



-3 a 





f Frank Miles Day & Bro. 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Architects -? Cope & Stewardson. 

(Wilson Eyre, 



( Frank Miles Day & Bro. 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Architects < Wilson Eyre, 

( Cope & Stewardson. 



so instant and overwhelming an appeal to me that I doubt my judg- 
ment. Personally, I feel increasingly that it is at the very least one 
of the most significant works of art yet produced in America. What 
is its basis, Lombard, Tuscan? Or are the hints of these infiuen- 
ences accessories only, accidents? Is not the basis just keen, crea- 
tive enthusiasm? The thing baffles and amazes. It is as spontan- 
eous as the Ducal Palace in Venice, the Hotel de Ville d'Orleans or 
the Chapel of Henry Vllth. It grows from its plan inevitably, im- 
peccably. It is as logical and crystalline as great music ; as the 
Vorspiel of Parsifal, or the Third Symphony of Brahms. It has the 
unity of a great tree, the directness of nature itself. 

One feels that American architecture should show at least its 
chain of ethnic continuity. Of this there is nothing in the Archeo- 
logical Museum. Does this prove that the theory is wrong, or that 
the building is an episode only, a sport of genius ? For one I admit 
my inability to answer the question, but whatever the final solu- 
tion, there is a living lesson here of the value of simplicity, direct- 
ness and independent thought. Is genius but the power of taking 
infinite pains ? Then this is a work of genius, for every detail in 
this design is studied to the ultimate limit. The brickwork with its 
entirely new bond and its joints an inch and a half wide ; the inlaid 
decoration, perfectly placed and Japanese in its "naivete" and spon- 
taneity, the color composition and "notan," the intimate use of 
water, grass and foliage all these things and many others show 
what results are obtainable where every point is scrupulously con- 
sidered, and all is rejected that has not been studied to the point 
of perfection. 

Right or wrong in style, significant or the reverse in the history 
of American architectural development, this Archeological Mu- 
seum stands as a great lesson in right methods at least and in this 
respect at all events it must have its effect. 

Mr. Day and his brother are now engaged on two projects of 
great importance and each shows very clearly the sureness that 
comes with maturity. These are the group of buildings for the 
Municipal Hospital, Washington, D. C. (Fig. 16), and the gymna- 
sium for the University of Pennsylvania. The first exists thus far 
only on paper, the second while under construction can be illus- 
trated only by drawings, which is unfortunate since the work itself 
is immeasurably finer in every way. Both show to perfection one 
of the strongest marks of the firm's genius, power to plan logically, 
monumentally and practically, and to express this plan outwardly 
with force and precision. This is the fundamental quality of all 
good architecture, and unfortunately it is not noticeably common. 
All that the Days' design is organic ; I have already called attention 
to its perfect taste. The combination is invincible and when the 





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great opportunity comes, as it surely will, the result will be notable. 
The Washington hospital scheme is as I have said a master- 
piece of practical and monumental planning. In style it is of a vital 
and noble colonial, dignified, competent, convincing; sufficiently 

historical, adequately mod- 
ern, a strong" essay in the 
development of ethnic style. 
The gymnasium (Figs. 17 
and 18) is even better as an 
example of organic plan- 
ning and the outward ex- 
pression thereof. It shows 
the most mature restraint, 
grasp of the components of 
architectural design and 
their relationships, certain- 
ty and confidence of touch. 
It is an essay in architectu- 
ral logic. Outwardly it is 
based on the best type of 
English collegiate work, re- 
motely suggestive of St. 
John's College, Oxford, 
one of the buildings that 
proves finally that compo- 
sition is as important and 
as highly developed in Med- 
iaeval as in Classical design. 
Mass, outline, proportion, 
all are just and calm and 
sure. The surfaces are just 
broad enough, the structu- 
ral lines just sufficiently em- 
phasized, the oriels and 
mullioned windows shaped with exactness, right in their openings, 
placed where composition demands them and where the plan re- 
quires them. There is no straining for effect at any point, no 
sketch-book detail, no affectation, no self-consciousness. The 
whole thing is grave, serious, solid and logical, sure in every touch, 
the work of men that have found themselves. 

Measured by recent standards the Days have not done an exces- 
sive amount of work, but their influence has been profound and 
far-reaching. Why ? Simply because they have stood unflinchingly 
for good taste and for intrinsic beauty, and because they have done 
nothing that was half studied or for revenue only. They treated 

Frank Miles Day & Bro.. Architects. 



their art with respect, they never forgot that an architect must be 
first of all a gentleman, and they held faithfully to the gentleman's 
creed "Noblesse oblige." They, with Mr. Eyre and Messrs. Cope 
and Stewardson, turned back the tide of "Sans-culottism" that was 
overwhelming Philadelphia, and they set up their standard as a 
rallying point for all men loyal to good taste, to seriousness of pur- 
pose, to faithfulness in the small things of architecture as in the 

Ralph Adams Cram. 

House on Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Frank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 



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The South End of Sargent Hall. 

HERE is at last a mural painting in America worth a journey 
across the continent to see; and this forms part of a large 
scheme of wall decoration, promising much claiming greatness 
and not likely to be disputed in this claim by art lovers of whatever 
predilection. Those who are able to visit Boston for two days, or 
to "stop over" for the time between, two trains, may add definitely 
to their happiness in life such hapoiness as the great achievements 
of literature and art are capable of giving by a visit to the Public 

Mr. Sargent is the most swift and dextrous of portrait painters. 
His readiness, his resource, his command of every device known 
to the modern painter in oils, all are recognized by the artists of his 
epoch ; all are admitted or asserted ungrudgingly by painters who 
talk about one another's work. The peculiar swing and dash, and 
the graceful dexterity of this portrait painting of his have been 
especially notable in the recent exhibition of his portraits which was 
held in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts in September last. There 
were seen about twenty-five of his most recent works, life-size 
portraits all, some full length, as in the case of the astounding 
picture of Mr. Higginson painted for the Harvard Union, others 
of half length only, some of ladies, some of the ladies' husbands, 
all brilliant, all swift and slight in their manipulation, all suggesting 
the work of a mind and hand so trained in what might almost be 
called sketching in oil, that the temptation to make and develop 
a sketch and to try for nothing more might well be irresistible. 
And this is noticeable that, in the mural paintings of eight years 
ago, at the north end of Sargent Hall, something of the same swift 
and clever manipulation was visible, and also much of the same 
realism of pose and gesture which the recent portraits show so 
strongly. The Frieze of the Prophets which comes below the lun- 
ette at the north end, is not a frieze of decorative quality, it is not 
an organized group or a series of groups, it is not architectonic 
nor subdued to the conditions of an architectural adjunct. It con- 
sists of seventeen standing figures and one crouching or seated 
figure, in addition to the centre piece in relief, in which a grandiose 
Moses surrounded by the spread wings and the serpents of East- 
ern mythology rests his hands upon idealized Tables of the Law 
and stands full front as the only architectural or elaborately com- 
posed figure of the whole series. All the rest are clothed in that 
abundant, that super-abundant, that incomprehensibly full and flow- 


ing drapery of which painters of the figure have the secret; and 
each of these figures is in action, as it were. There is gesticula- 
tion, there is beckoning, there is prayer and lamentation, there is 
drawing of swords and clenching of fists. The crouching figure is 
overwhelmed by his grief ; the standing figure next him hides his 
head in a vast black cloak. Each one of the prophets is employed 
in some individual and active movement, or occupies some empha- 
sized pose expressing personal feeling, rather than aiding in a 
united movement or emotion ; and, from the painter's point of 
view, each is the study of a nobly conceived human figure rather 
than one part of a great decorative composition. On this account 
it has never been possible for the lover of mural painting, as such, 
to accept that frieze as entirely and in all respects the thing to be 
desired. But now the aspect of the great decorative scheme for 
Sargent Hall is changed. In the work done during the winter of 
1902 and 1903, namely the putting into place of the pictures of 
the south extremity of the hall, a mural painting is given us which 
is to be described in very different terms from those used above 
and which is, until further notice, the best thing for its purpose 
which our public buildings contain. 

Sargent Hall is the third landing place of the main stair. The 
great square staircase hall of the ground floor, with its memorial 
pedestals supporting marble lions, is only high enough to contain 
that single set of stairs which leads to the landing place where are 
the paintings of Puvis dc Chavannes. From that landing place 
open two square lobbies through which you go northward to the 
children's room and southward to the "Issue" department. From 
one of those lobbies the stairs go upward, and reach Sargent Hall, 
which is figured on the plans in the guide book as 23 ft. wide and 
85 ft. long. The staircase with its well-hole and high parapet oc- 
cupies one-third or rather less of the floor space. The Hall is 
higher than it is wide, for the vertical height of the walls is about 
14 ft. and above that the chord of radius of the vault is of n ft. 
6 inches more. The room is all light gray, walls, floor and vault, 
either built of the pale limestone used generally for the interior of 
the library or plastered in close imitation of it so far as the color 
is concerned. The only exception to this uniform grayness is at 
the two ends. The north wall from the top of the dado to the crown 
cf the vault is covered with the painting of eight years ago ; and of 
the same date is an adjoining band painted upon the side walls and 
the vault above them ; a band six feet wide measured horizontally, 
and seeming to frame the composition of the end wall. .Now, too, 
the south end is painted, but the terminating wall only, without any 
setting or framing such as the band above described supplies to 
the north lunette and its frieze. If, now, these end paintings were 


conceived with a view to the painting of the whole gallery, as to 
which there is no doubt, then they are intended to look and they 
will look very differently, this painting once completed, than now, 
or so long as this pale gray tint embraces everything except their 
own surface. 

Then, there is the lack of sufficient daylight. The side walls 
may perhaps find themselves enough in daylight for their pic- 
tures when put into place to be seen; but assuredly the 
paintings of the end walls are not seen aright, and as 
certainly the light upon them will be still more dim when 
the side walls no longer reflect light as freely as they do 
now. It is one of the misfortunes of the hard-and-fast Neo- 
classic style design chosen for the interior of this building a 
style contrasting so decidedly with the free Parisian work of 1840 
which was imitated in the exterior, that no such thing as a proper 
skylight could be endured for a moment by the designer or his 
assistants. How can vou make a skylight in a tunnel-vaulted gal- 
lery? Aparently in only one way the mere cutting of a series of 
square holes, as if a carpenter had gone up there with a saw after 
the vault was complete. Nothing else is allowed to you as a faith- 
ful classicist ; and yet nothing else that pretends to be a skylight 
could be quite as feeble in actual decorative effect or quite 
as unsatisfactory for the admission of light, as that row of 
rectangular holes. The result of this arrangement is that 
the light which impinges upon the upper part of one of these lun- 
ettes has been reflected upwards from the floor and diagonally side- 
wise from the long walls that almost no light reaches these paint- 
ings direct from the sky, and that the light which does so reach 
them comes at a thousand different angles, much of it flashing back 
Hirectlv into the eves of the speculator in a wav that would be at 
once recognized and at once voted insufferable if the surfaces were 
more glossy, but which even as they are is injurious to their best 

Under all these conditions the painting of the- south wall has 
been put into place, and it consists of a lunette decoration in 
which are represented the personages of the Trinity, with seven 
haloed doves which it is possible perhaps to explain as the seven 
gifts of the Holy Spirit ; and a band below, corresponding in posi- 
tion and in size with the Frieze of the Prophets at the north end ; 
and of a great sculpture in low relief representing Christ on the 
cross, which relief sculpture invades the crowning lunette and to 
a less degree the frieze below, crossing also the band of separation 
between them and forming the central figure of the composition. 
This central piece, then, presents first the body of the Saviour on the 
cross, and on either side of it our first parents who, by an unusual 



(South end of Sargent Hall, Boston Public Library.) 

John Sargent, Painter. 

Copyright by the Trustees of the Public Library of Boston, 1903. From a Copley print, 
copyrighted 1903 by Curtis and Cameron, Publishers, Boston. 


piece of symbolism, are themselves collecting the blood which flows 
from the wounds in the hands. The feet of Christ bear upon the 
coiled and twisted serpent, of whose body, however, one fold passes 
around the feet of Adam. The red drapery which hangs from the 
shoulders of the Saviour passes also around the crouched figures 
on the right and the left. This drapery is dark red ; the bodies 
themselves are colored in a rather cold gray which is perhaps to 
be considered an injury to the composition ; at least, one who learns 
to love the color scheme may find himself troubled a little by the 
chill of those gray and shining, rounded limbs. The cross itself 
is framed, as it were, in strongly emphasized mouldings which, as 
they are solidly gilded, and are echoed by the gilded frame of 
the curious square in which Adam and Eve are placed and which 
serves as a background for the cross, makes the metallic glitter of 
this part of the picture very decided indeed. This golden gleam 
is repeated in the crowns of the Divine Persons of the lunette, in the 
angelic wings and weapons below, always placed upon details 
which are modelled in relief. Now the present writer can never 
join in thought with those to whom gold is a glaring or an aggres- 
sive thing in decoration. Gold is the greatest of all harmonizers, 
the most perfect of softeners and reconcilers. There is nothing 
like gold for the use of the man who does not quite know how to 
harmonize bright colors ; nor is gold to be shunned by any artist of 
decorative purpose until his figures approach realism in their treat- 
ment, and the placing of his picture with regard to its lighting and 
the approach of the spectator to it have been perfectly calculated. 
In other words, Paul Veronese does not demand gold for any part 
of his Marriage of Cana, but the men of Florence, still greater as 
mural decorators than Veronese if much less powerful as painters, 
could hardly dispense with gold and were always ready to use it 
freely. The use of it in this instance in large masses is a part of 
that admitted and obvious return to the principles of an earlier 
school of decoration which is so welcome in the superb composi- 
tion which we have now under consideration. A peculiar charm 
is found in this frank return to decorative principles, this frank 
adoption of a decorative purpose, on the part of a consummate 
modern painter. 

The Frieze is made up of the Angels of the Passion, of whom two 
support, or seem to support, the cross. They hold the reed, the 
spear and the nails of the cross, the crown of thorns; while on 
the right hand side one supports the pillar of flagellation and the 
scourge. There is nothing individual about these figures. They 
are the Angels of Passion and are to be taken together; no one 
of them is a personality. It is to be noted that in like manner no 
effort has been made to distinguish by facial expression the person- 





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ages of the Trinity, for, according to an account which has been 
published, the three being in low relief were cast in the same mould 
with the deliberate purpose of making them exactly alike in expres- 
sion. They are crowned differently ; the Papal crown on the central 
figure, the Imperial and the Royal crown on the side figures, in a 
way capable of being interpreted as sufficient distinction for the 
three Persons, but as to the exact signficance of such details dif- 
ference of opinion may exist. It is of comparatively little conse- 
quence to the student of decorative art what school of theology has 
had the most weight in inspiring these symbolic representations. 
The thing for us all to consider is rather the magnificent glow of 
solemn color, the splendid treatment of the separate parts of this 
color scheme in the reallv stately draperies, the exquisite grada- 
tion of hue in the sombre red garments of the angels, the harmony 
of the whole thing when looked at from a sufficient distance to see 
it all as one composition, and the almost equally splendid quality 
of a single part which one may select and enjoy for the moment 
as a separate picture. 

To accept this as a decorative painting of the highest possible 
quality is much. To study it farther is to find in it something still 
more remarkable as artistic achievement, in that a skilled and 
daring portrait painter should have bent his genius and his ex- 
ceptional facility to so grave and so reserved a work. Perhaps 
even more important still is the triumphant solution of the difficulty 
which must have harassed every painter at different times during 
his career, and which is always present in the mind of the student 
of modern art the difficulty of treating well drawn and well posed 
and anatomically correct human figures in a highly decorative 
spirit. In connection with this view of the case one might cross 
Copley Square to the front of the porch of Trinity Church, a 
porch erected only six years ago, and studv there a similar effort in 
sculpture of life-size and smaller. There was a sincere and even a 
successful attempt at treating sculpture of Romanesque design 
with modern knowledge of the human body, and this was, as there 
has been occasion to say before, a partial success greatly encourag- 
ing to the makers of such designs for the future. In the Sargent 
composition, however, a further step is taken, and the highly 
trained technician has found in his spirit the thought, which as he 
has known how to embody it, will remain a permanent example of 
the way to treat the human figure in painted decoration. 

Russell Sturgis. 


6REAT have been the vicissitudes, within living memory, of the 
plot at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and Thirty-fourth 
Street. About a full generation ago, the late A. T. Stewart found 
it brownstone and left it marble. Before that was it not the "pala- 
tial residence" of one Townsend, patentee of a sarsaparilla, long 
forgotten, or remembered only byArtemas Ward's "quotation from 
old man Townsend's advertisement." At any rate it was, in the 
estimation of a man who could afford to take his choice, precisely 
the most eligible site for a residence in the City of New York, 
though only across the avenue from the residence, a conventional 
brownstone front, which the millionaire already occupied. The 
residence itself which he "left marble" was and remained, so long 
as it remained at all, noteworthy for the extreme massiveness and 
solidity of its construction. A member of the club which occupied 
it after the millionaire vacated it by death, and who must have been 
of Irish extraction, complained of the expensiveness of the neces- 
sary alterations in it, entailed by the fact that "the wood work 
was all marble" rbarring what was iron, he might have added. In 
design it was far more ambitious and far less successful than the 
conventional brownstone front which it supplanted, being the re- 
sult of the millionaire's infatuation for an architect who was little 
better than an "artchitect," and whose works have mostly, to the re- 
lief of the judicious, followed him, the only conspicuous monuments 
of his art left being the "up-town store," at Broadway and Tenth 
Street, and the "new" court house in City Hall Park, the demolition 
of which the judicious await with some impatience.. The club, in 
adapting the interior to its uses, "incredibili labore" as already set 
forth, refrained from tampering with the unsuccessfully pretentious 
exterior and it stood until it was pulled down, also "incredibili la- 
bore," as a monument of the architectural uncultivation of the most 
conspicuous New York millionaire of A. D. 1870, having in the 
meanwhile witnessed strange changes in its environment having 
seen the fashionable centre for residence shift a couple of miles to 
the northward, and itself confronted across the way by the towering 
caravanserai of the Astoria. The millionaire's pecuniary instinct 
had served him well as to the "investment," for in the interval the 
ground had become too costly for any man or even club to keep 
house in, and been marked out by the progress of events, as the 
proper place for a "financial institution." 

The financial institution is to be congratulated by all lovers of 
architecture upon refraining from turning its premises into a 
speculation in real estate by putting up a skyscraper on them, with 



34th Street and Fifth Avenue, New York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



34th Street and Fifth Avenue, New York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



34th Street and Fifth Avenue, New York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 




34th Street and Fifth Avenue, New York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 


only one floor reserved for its own use. That would have given us 
another of the sort of buildings of which we have already, for arch- 
itectural purposes, several hundred times too many. The attract- 
iveness of the actual result proceeds primarily from the dignified 
determination of the owner, the Knickerbocker Trust Company, to 
erect a building chiefly for its own use, a modest three stories with a 
partly visible and partly inferable attic which may serve for janitor's 
quarters. And, secondarily, it proceeds from the perception of the 
architect that this building project gave scope for a really classic 
building, as very few building projects do which are fitted in a Pro- 
crustean manner to what it pleases their architects to regard as a 
classic scheme, or oftener are decorated with classic members di- 
vorced from their natural and appropriate belongings and surround- 
ings. This latter process is very ancient as well as very common, 
but it does not on that account become venerable. It dates back to 
the architecturally bad old times of the Roman Empire, when the 
inartistic Roman engineers, for all the world like inartistic modern 
architects, built their buildings as they practically had to, in such 
forms as the construction naturally took, and then, instead of ex- 
pounding and decorating this construction into architecture, which 
they had neither skill enough to do nor perception enough to at- 
tempt, plastered upon their fronts the "orders" of another construc- 
tion, which had been developed to an architectural result, but which 
were entirely irrelevant to what they were doing. Of the two classes 
of architects, the class which took part in the Greek revival of the 
early nineteenth century, and frankly sacrificed their buildings to 
their architecture, as, for example, by designing windowless Parthe- 
nons for the uses of modern custom houses, seems more respect- 
able than the compilers of the things of shreds and patches. 

It is by no means often that a modern architect has a project 
which will allow itself to be simplified to the Greek construction, 
and in which a single system of uprights and cross pieces can be 
made the whole visible structure of the modern building. When 
that exceptionally happens, the most convinced mediaevalist or 
modernist can hardly cavil at the adoption of the "order," in which 
that construction was once and for all so beautifully developed and 
expressed that no construction more complicated has attained an 
equal perfection. A case is clearly made out for classic when the 
architect can employ the order as the structure, instead of reduc- 
ing it to the place of a superficial decoration, or of taking it apart 
and undertaking to reassemble its elements in other connections 
than that for which they were devised. There are few recent works, 
and not many modern works, in which that opportunity is legiti- 
mately offered. When it is offered it is a pleasure to see it embraced 
and made the most of, and to see how immensely the order gains in 



34th Street and Fifth Avenue, New York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



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effect by being restored to its structural significance. The typical 
example of this true and appropriate use of the classical construc- 
tion is that truly "neo-Grec"' edifice, the Faculty of Medicine in 
Paris. Here, above a basement of one moderate story, and be- 
tween wings of two moderate stories, is enclosed the main motive 
of the building, the Ionic colonnade which is the actual framework, 
and which is so much more impressive, because so much more ex- 
pressive, than any superposition of orders, each with its own entab- 
lature, or than any hybrid of the Grecian colonnade with the Ro- 
man arcade. The wall here becomes the mere screen that it must 
be in a truly "classical" construction. Speaking of the great Bas- 
ilica of the Giants of Agrigentum, Viollet-le-Duc says, very perti- 
nently : "To use columns as points of resistance, piers, or but- 
tresses, and then to shut up the intercolumniation with a light con- 
struction was to reason very wisely ; but to treat the voids as if they 
were the solids, the screen walls as if they were the necessary con- 
struction, and the buttresses as mere decorative features, as was 
done habitually by the Romans at a later, day, was, with all due re- 
spect to the Romans and their infatuated imitators, very barbarous 

In this country, there are recent examples of this true method of 
employing the classic construction, which commend themselves 
alike to those who are in the habit of analyzing architectural ar- 
rangements, and to those who are not, but who feel the truth of a just 
arrangement without reasoning upon it. One is the Memorial 
Hall at West Point, which may or may not have been inspired by 
the Faculty of Medicine or by the Basilica of the Giants which was 
the prototype of both. It now (by the addition of the wings) re- 
sembles the Parisian building more nearly than when it stood de- 
tached. But it differs from the Parisian building, in that it has no 
supporting oasement, but that the order is not only the structure 
but the whole structure, and that besides the essential structure 
there is only the "screen wall" of Agrigentum. All this is beau- 
tifully and classically carried out, and is calculated to meet the views 
of Gibbon's celebrated friend, "the rational voluptuary." Another 
success in the same kind is that of the New York Stock Exchange, 
where the order is equally the structure, but where the "sweet rea- 
sonableness" of the arrangement is perhaps a little obscured by the 
fact that, in order to reduce his order to classical proportions, the 
architect has found it necessary to introduce, under the order and 
above the basement, a low arcaded story which is sufficiently ac- 
counted for on the interior by a gallery, but is scarcely satisfac- 
torily explained on the outside. All the same the Stock Exchange, 
like Cullum Hall, is a very distinct success and equally a success 
upon rational lines. 



34th Street and Fifth Avenue, New York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



And now we have to add a third success in the building of the 
Knickerbocker Trust Company which is the subject of these re- 
marks. The site is something like 75 feet on the avenue, by 125 on 
the street, and the primary merit of the architect lay in perceiving 
that upon the narrower front he could erect an order which would 
be ample in scale for effect, and which would accommodate and 
embrace all the requirements of a three-story building (unless part 
of his merit was to persude his clients that a three-story building 
for their own use was the dignified minimum to which to limit them- 
selves). Such at any rate is the fact. The order is ample in scale for 
purposes of impressiveness. Since it holds its own against the huge 
mass of the many storied Astoria, it is not likely to be put out of 

34th Street and Fifth Ave., New York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 

countenance by any succeeding erection. And it is well spaced, with 
ample but not excessive intercolumniation, columns neither hud- 
dled nor scattered but effectively detached in the Vitruvian ter- 
minology neither "araeostyle" nor yet "pycnostyle," but simply 
"eustyle." This ''tetrastyle" front is one of the most impressive 
visual objects in Fifth Avenue, or indeed in the street architecture 
of New York, and we ought to feel very much obliged to the arch- 
itect for giving us something so good to look at. It is perhaps a 
pity that he could not have continued his colonnade along the 
longer front, without being obliged to subdue the order into a series 



Photo by courtesy of John Williams. McKira, Mead & White, Architects. 


of pilasters, necessarily less effective than - the great fluted col- 
umns, but we owe the owners so much for what they have allowed 
him to do that it would be ungrateful to labor this point. 

The accessories and the details are all elaborately and artistically 
carried out "in the high Roman fashion." For though the scheme 
of the building is unquestionably Hellenic, the detail is as unques- 
tionably Romanized. And rightly so rightly at least, when one 
concedes the Corinthianism of the order. For it is pretty clear that 
while the Romans undoubtedly degraded the other two orders 
which they imported, they improved the third by heightening its in- 
herent expression of elaboration and sumptuosity. The "light con- 
struction" framed by the order is not here as in Cullum Hall, a 
"screen wall" in masonry but a mere trellis in glass and metal, a 
close grillage in the lower or banking floor, an expanse above of 
plate glass with just enough frame to hold it. The exception brings 
up the one unfavorable criticism one is moved to make, the one ap- 
parent solecism in the treatment. For the pedimented doorway in 
masonry pretty plainly does not "belong." It is not and could not 
be really allied to the main construction, the great framework of the 
order. Why, then, should it not be frankly treated as part of the 
filling, with some elaboration and emphasis, if you please, of the 
treatment of the very successful projecting openings that flank it. 
There seems to be a failure here of the rigid logic that prevails else- 
where, and in the diminution of rationality a diminution of the 
pleasure of "the rational voluptuary." One would like to see this 
central interstice filled, like those that flank it, with a frank filling 
which shall disavow connection with the main structure. 

The interior is for the most part as classic, as Hellenic, in effect 
as the exterior, and the columns which are to make their effect 
by sumptuosity of material are very properly reduced to the sim- 
plest possible expression in design. The canopy of the doorway on 
the inside it is true, partakes much more of the fantasy of the Ital- 
ian Renaissance than of Attic simplicity, but that is comparatively a 
trifle. One has to congratulate the architect upon attaining the 
rare success of a "modern classic." 

Montgomery Schuyler. 


FEW phrases have included such a miscellaneous collection 
of facts and statements as this the art of the high building. 
For much of the phenomena to be classed and discussed under this 
head has no artistic quality or value whatever. It is sheer ugli- 
ness, uncouthness, misunderstanding and absurdity, if judged by 
artistic standards ; and the true artistic elements so far as they 
exist are often of a singularly undeveloped nature. One has but to 
mentally compare the great high building of to-day the typical and 
most noteworthy architectural creation of our time with the great 
typical building of the Italian Renaissance or of the French med- 
iaeval period to realize how very different modern standards of 
art in things architectural are compared with those of more gen- 
uinely artistic epochs. 

The erection of the high building has been a recognized branch 
of our architectural industry for some time. For nearly a quar- 
ter of a century it has occupied the minds of our architects, 
given them their most important monuments, on the whole, and 
lined their pockets with the largest fees ever obtained in general 
practice. The participants and contemporaries in a movement are 
not apt to be competent judges of its tendencies and results, and 
yet so much thought and treasure have been poured out on the 
high building, it has become such an intimate part of the commer- 
cial life of our time, that it is by no means impertinent to ask, even 
at this early day, if some definite steps have been reached in the 
solution of the artistic problems involved in its construction, or 
if and perhaps this is the more rational question if. tendencies 
have been shown which look anywhere, and whither is the direction 
towards which they tend. 

It is more than right to insist on the artistic conception of the 
high building. Engineers will doubtless maintain that the chief 
problem is that of engineering. I am not in the least disposed to 
discount the importance of the engineering problems in buildings 
of this description ; but I respectfully submit that in a building that 
covers a considerable area, that raises its head as high into the up- 
per strata of the air as the engineers will carry it, which cries aloud 
for attention and consideration, which invites criticism because of 
its vast cost, and in which, moreover, the engineering part is care- 
fully hidden and covered up from view in such a building, surely, 
the artistic expression, the form, the covering, the outer aspects, 
are of supreme public importance. 

One of the most interesting views in New York may be had 
from the junction of Liberty street and Maiden lane. Standing there 










the spectator sees before him a little old brick building, five stories 
in height, placed at the intersection of Maiden lane and Liberty 
street. It is a simple little structure, absolutely devoid of orna- 
ment and detail, but with a flat, rounded end, a recognition of the 
site that was as much as its builder cared to consider. The win- 
dows are plain, flat-topped openings of the old style ; the fifth floor 
is manifestly an attic floor since it contains fewer windows than 
the lower stories, and the roof is slightly pointed. How much of 
this structure may be modern or restored I do not know ; but it 
is distinctly of the old type, and it bears the date "1823." 

Here, then, is a fair starting point, a building eighty years old, 
standing in a district long since given up to commercial purposes, 
and itself used in the same way. And what strange things this 
little old house has seen grow up around and behind it! The 
buildings in the foreground are of a later date, but still entirely 
antiquated as commercial buildings go to-day. But behind it, what 
marvels and miracles of contrast ! Directly at the back is the sheer 
solid brick wall of the John Wolfe Building, a structure moderate 
enough in height, as high buildings are built to-day, but colossal 
compared with the little old house of 1823. To the left, on Liberty 
street, is the generous facade of the Bishop Building twelve 
stories, tier upon tier of windows a building wholly different in 
material, in design, in expression, in use, from the old structure 
with which the neighborhood, as we now know it, started. Here 
is effort at architectural treatment, a great building, with a base- 
ment in design, a superstructure and a narrow attic, a building so 
different that the barest analysis of its parts shows how tremend- 
ously we have moved in eighty years, 

But there is more than this ; for still further off, and so huge as 
to almost overwhelm our little brick building, is the mighty 
tower of the new part of the Mutual Life Building, a building with 
piers and columns and cornices lifted so high in the air that, we 
may be very sure, the builders of 1823 could never have conceived 
of such things or of such possibilities. The entire progress of com- 
mercial architecture in seventy-five years is here brought into one 
view, and one may note the change and advance without moving 
a step from one's original standpoint. 

There is another panorama in New York which is almost as in- 
structive in illustrating progress not perhaps so picturesque, yet 
better known and that is the spectacle that may be viewed from 
the lower end of Broadway, looking up from Bowling Green. It 
is a wonderful sight, one of the most astonishing views in the 
metropolis. Starting with the vast facade of the Produce Ex- 
change, the eye meets just beyond it, looking up the street, with an 
old brick building, five stories in height the single antiquated note 


in this array of splendor as it is understood in commercial New 
York then the Wells Building, the Standard Oil Building, with 
the later addition Mr. Kimball has so cleverly added to it, the 
Hudson Building, No. 42 Broadway the newest of the series 
No. 46 Broadway, a brick building of later type than the one at 
Beaver street, but already so out of date as to be quite comparable 
to a wedding guest without the wedding clothes in the sumptuous 
company in which it now finds itself; then an old type four-story 
building, brick a veritable derelict then the Tower Building 
the first structure in this country, so an inscription tells us, in 
which the steel cage construction was used Exchange Court ; the 
Consolidated Exchange, and the vast bulk and height of the Man- 
hattan Life Insurance Company's Building. There is more beyond, 
but surely there is more than enough here for the philosophic 
observer, more than even the casual critic can well digest and 
ponder over on a winter's day. 

Surely, then, with these contrasts and this great activity in build- 
ing, it is time to ask if anything has been accomplished towards 
the solution of the artistic expression of the high building, or if 
tendencies have been started which would seem to indicate definite 
results. Let me frankly admit that I am entirely skeptical on both 
these points. Progress in architecture does not consist in the mul- 
tiplication of buildings, but in real artistic achievement; and prog- 
ress is not obtained by a hundred individual efforts, each orig- 
inating separately, each overlooking what has been done by others, 
each failing to note where others have failed, each ignoring where 
others have succeeded. Yet a survey of the modern commercial 
buildings bring out no clearer fact than that this is just what has 
been done, and, more's the pity, it is just what is being done, and 
what would seem likely to be done for some time to come. 

I am speaking generally, of course, and of high buildings as a 
whole ; for in the case of individual architects very genuine steps 
of progress may be noted. The Blair Building, in Broad street, is 
a much franker and truer expression of the high building than the 
Mail and Express Building in Fulton street, both by Carrere & 
Hastings ; the Empire Building, overlooking Trinity churchyard 
is a much more interesting building than the Manhattan Life across 
the street, on Broadway, both by Francis H. Kimball. But does 
the Park Row Building proclaim any note of progress over the 
building of the American Tract Society? Or do any of a score 
of buildings erected in the last two years indicate that their design- 
ers have profited by the experiments of other architects or taken 
the lessons of other buildings to heart? Is the Atlantic Building 
any more notable contribution to art than the building of the 
National Bank of Commerce? Does the Broad Street Exchange 


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Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



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Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. James H. Windrlm, Architect. 


sum up any nobler thoughts in architecture than the St. Paul 

These are pertinent questions, for the gentlemen who have built 
these structures have thrust them upon us for all time, so far as 
living man can see ; they have spent huge sums in their architec- 
tural doings, and they have given our city for limits of space in 
this discussion restrain me to New York a new and characteristic 
aspect. It is quite beyond the question to point out the beauty 
of Manhattan's skyline that has nothing to do with the case 
and a building whose chief merit is that it out-tops its neighbors 
is necessarily wanting in most of the characteristics we are ac- 
customed to associate with good architecture. 

That the commercial building is a commercial enterprise is well 
known ; that it is an architectural enterprise is a circumstance all 
architects would have us believe. Architectural it is, of course, 
being concerned with iron and stone, brick and gla, c s ; but is it archi- 
tectural in any other way? Even in its short life of twenty-five 
years several steps or periods may be noted. 

First, the introductory period ; the first steps, in which such 
buildings as the Tribune Building and the Western Union Building 
were erected. The possibilities of high building design as they were 
afterwards made known were not at all understood in this remote 
epoch ; but these first efforts were manly and straightforward, and 
still command respect. 

Second, the advertising period. It was suddenly realized that a 
showy building was a good advertisement for its chief occupant. 
It attracted attention, it drew tenants, it became a profitable ven- 
ture. The Pulitzer Building is a fair type, the Broadway front of 
the Mail and Express an extreme instance ; the Manhattan Build- 
ing a third example. The chief aim of the buildings which may be 
classed under this head was to be impressive by sumptousness of 
parts, by splendor of appointments, by richness of effect. A great 
financial corporation felt that it might stand better in the com- 
munity if it had a fine house, and the greater the wealth the more 
splendid its abiding place a natural proposition to which no dis- 
sent can be taken. 

It was a type of building that gave architects their greatest op- 
portunities, for they were not merely required to build, but they 
were commanded to build well and sumptuously, a certain artistic 
character was required of them ; and if the architects failed to rise 
to their opportunities it was simply and solely because they failed 
to comprehend the problem presented to them. It is true they have 
endeavored to proclaim that the fault was not in them, but in the 
problem ; but the bitter fact remains that they gladly accepted 



Pittsburgh, Pa. Alden & Harlow, Architects. 


these impossible problems, and gleefully signed their names to de- 
signs that proclaimed their own incompetency. 

Third. Then came the third period, which I take to be the pres- 
ent. A change has certainly come over the designing methods of 
high buildings within a very few years. The buildings are bigger, 
higher, broader, more costly ; but there is less external art, less 
visible splendor, less effort to create interesting structures ; on the 
contrary, the high building as illustrated in many of its most re- 
cent examples in New York, is a frigidly severe edifice, a sheer 
brick wall, lit with numberless windows, and with the smallest pos- 
sible efforts to give it architectural form or rhythm. 

As an illustration, let me take a group of buildings in lower Wil- 
liam street. The Woodbridge Building has a front filling an entire 
block. Its facade contains no ornamental detail, and yet it is a very 
excellent effort to treat a commercial front in a dignified and archi- 
tectural manner. It starts out with a basement >of two stories in 
stone ; then an intermediate story, in which the "windows are in 
pairs and round arched; then a superstructure of eight stories, in 
which the walls are treated as piers carrying round arches ; finally 
an attic story; all above the basement is in warm, yellow brick. 
The structure, as will now be perceived, is not a "high" building, 
as such structures are understood ; but it is notable for the fact that 
its architect undertook to treat his front in an architectural way; 
he discarded ornament, but retained form ; and he produced a de- 
sign of considerable interest and of much architectural merit. 

Pass down the street and compare it with the Wylljs Building, 
the Bishop Building, and No. 68 William street ; compare it again 
with the Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Building, with the Wall Street Ex- 
change, with the new structures in the lower part of Wall street. 
A basement of one or two stories is still retained ; but above there 
is nothing but wall and windows, windows and wall. There is no 
effort to group the openings, no wall treatment, no piers ; even 
the attic story fails to emphasize itself, or is so far removed from 
the street as to be actually out of the design. If these latest build- 
ings are the last word in high design, as it is understood in New 
York, it is obvious that the artistic architect is out of the effort 
altogether, and the high building has become a simple box, with 
openings in it to admit the light. 

An economic restraint has, apparently, come over our high build- 
ings which is most detrimental to them in an artistic manner. 
W r hether the architects have given up the problem in despair, 
whether clients have despaired of the architects, whether there has 
come a realizing sense on all sides of the utter commercial char- 
acter of these structures and therefore, of the apparent folly of 



Battery Place, New York City. H. J. Hardenbergh, Architect. 




Chicago, 111. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



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Chicago, III. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



Minneapolis, Minn. 


F. B. & L. L. Long, Architects. 


making them artistic, I do not know ; but here are the results, and 
very unpleasant most of them are. 

Yet rigidity of treatment is not incompatible with successful and 
interesting results ; huge height is not inconsistent with interesting 
efforts ; a barren wall, the piling of windows one on top of another 
is not necessarily devoid of merit; all of which is most pleasingly 
and successfully illustrated in the Whitehall Building. Simplicity of 
parts could hardly go further than here. The stone basement is 
as devoid of unconstructional parts as the plainest building in New 
York; the tremendous superstructure has not a single note of 
ornament, and the walls are sheer brick fronts. But success here 
has been obtained by a clever use of color ; the central walls are 
red brick ; the end pavilions of light colored brick, with thin lines 
of red; the stone of the base is gray; the attic is simple and re- 
strained. In plain words, this elevation was studied, and studied 
intelligently and well ; no one would think, for a moment, that its 
parts were thrown hastily together and the topmost course of brick 
laid with the utmost haste, that an unpleasant task could be com- 
pleted as speedily as possible, and with the smallest effort. Yet 
New York has not a few such buildings, and some of the latest and 
biggest are distressful examples of such unarchitectural proceed- 

Are we getting anywhere? Apparently we have run the gamut 
of ornamental structures and settled down or is it up? to use- 
ful ones, in which there shall be plenty of utility and the smallest 
possible amount of art. The basic type of design is still adhered 
to basement, superstructure and attic but the basement is 
hardly more than the protrusion of the foundation above the soil ; 
the superstructure is a shapeless tier of windows ; the attic a mere 
finish. The latter has long been a favorite feature with New York 
architects. The logic of their proceedings is quite irresistible ; 
the lightest parts cannot be below, and a building must come to 
an end ; let us, they have cried with one voice, adorn our buildings 
at the top. By this time, apparently, they have awakened to the 
fact that the tops of their structures are so remote from the ground 
that no one can see them, and it has become absolutely true that 
the enriched attic story is becoming a feature of the past. But 
they still remain with us, and as one travels down Wall street quite 
a series presents itself ; the Atlantic Building, the Sampson Build- 
ing, and the structures below Pearl street, all characterized by a 
lower severity and enriched crowning, much of which, owing to 
the low altitude of the adjoining structures, is still visible, but seem- 
ingly destined, in the near future, to be well hidden from the view 
of posterity. 

The ornamental entrance story has disappeared even more quick- 



?it 'i 

William Street, New York City. R. H. Robertson, Architect. 


ly than the decorated attic. The Atlantic Building boasts a crown- 
ing member of considerable richness, but the basement story is 
quite bare in its simplicity. The single feature is a heavy entrance 
portico, which is in striking contrast with the delicate carving of 
the United States Trust Company Building, immediately adjoining 
it. The latter is not a high building, although the time is not far 
past when it was proudly labelled a "modern office building." The 
contrast is most impressive. The United States Trust is a building 
of moderate height, treated in an architectural manner, and deco- 
rated with finely carved capitals and bands. The Atlantic Building 
is several times its height ; has the barest of porticos as its chief 
lower ornament ; has a featureless superstructure, and flares out 
above with a crowning member of several stories quite elaborately 
treated, a system of design that has become almost typical in New 

The change towards simplicity in design, it should be thoroughly 
understood, is quite for the worst. Mr. Hardenbergh has shown, 
in his Whitehall Building, that simplicity is not incompatible with 
dignity, and that this dignity may have a decided quality of beauty ; 
but the lesson has not been generally learned, nor its possibility 
appreciated. The featureless high building the front that is mere- 
ly, built up, story on story, tier upon tier until the appropriation 
gives out is no embellishment to our thoroughfares. Wealth of 
ornamentation is not embellishment ; the prefixing of unnecessary 
parts is perhaps needless ; but lack of interest is altogether inex- 
cusable, and of this there is still a plenty and to spare. 

A plain wall, however, has merits which the variegated treatment 
entirely fails in. Our architects are apparently moving away from 
the repetition of motif illustrated in the American Tract Society 
Building, the Park Row Building, the St. Paul Building, in each 
of which a large feature of several stories is repeated several times. 
It was an unfortunate system that should never have been tried 
more than once, for it quite ignored the idea that the high building 
was a unity, requiring to be designed as a whole, and not treated 
as a series of buildings piled one on top of the other. Yet the hor- 
izontal line remains in high favor, buildings which are without any 
other effort at architectural treatment, being erected with each 
story carefully indicated by bands and string courses repeated 
"ad infinitum." 

It is strange, this cutting up of buildings into layers. There is 
a new building going up at Pearl and Beaver streets, unfinished 
when these words are written; but a building with a sharply 
rounded end, as befits the site. Each floor of the otherwise un- 
marked superstructure is indicated by bands of darker brick, as 
though the breadth was the element to be insisted on in a building 


whose greatest distinction is its height. The attic member of this 
structure promises to be a brilliant piece of polychromatic work, 
one of the most striking novelties in high building design. 

The most impressive element in the high building is its height ; 
that is the single feature that distinguishes it from all other struc- 
tures. Of all the architects who have essayed to solve the problem 
of high design, Mr. Louis H. Sullivan, of Chicago, has alone frank- 
ly expressed the vertical element and given the high building 
logical, as well as genuinely artistic expression. New York is 
fortunate in possessing in a building in Bleecker street, a fine ex- 
ample of Mr. Sullivan's work. It would be interesting to trans- 
plant it to Broad street, set it up before Carrere & Hastings's 
Blair Building, and ask them to exchange views on each other's 

The architects of both structures studied at the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts in Paris ; the Western architect has long been our most con- 
spicuously individual practitioner; the New York firm is easily 
one of the most distinguished practitioners in the academic 
style. Their buildings are as far apart as the poles ; both are fine 
examples of their kind; both well illustrate the characteristics of 
their designers. And both are vertical buildings. It is a triumph 
of principles over art ; for Mr. Hastings has not previously given 
us a vertical high building, having contented himself with the repe- 
titive method. Mr. Sullivan can not count Mr. Hastings as a 
disciple they are much too far apart artistically for that but at 
least he has pointed the way which Mr. Hastings has gladly taken 
in this most distinguished design. One has but to compare it with 
the immediately adjoining Cable Building, to become aware of 
how much better things can be done to-day than were done a few 
years since. 

The Kean, Van Cortlandt & Co. Building in Cedar street is an- 
other structure whose chief interest is the frank way in which it 
displays its Beaux Artism. Here again a vertical design, in so far 
that the chief part, the superstructure, is treated in great bays of 
seven stories, that emerge from a base and intermediate story of 
three floors ; the attic is a single story. It is an honest effort to 
apply Beaux Arts ideas to the high building, although lacking in 
interest. Like many other new high buildings the ornamental 
enrichment of the lower stories is heavy and large ; more vigorous 
by far than that which any French architect would produce, and 
heavier than seems called for in a building of such moderate dimen- 

It is a difficult problem, this of the scale of ornament. The build- 
ings are so huge, the basements necessarily so heavy to seem to 
carry the weight above them, that the architect who would seek 



Pine Street, New York City. Warren & Wetmore, Architects. 


to treat the question logically from the standpoint of the whole, 
has a sorry task. And his difficulties are not lessened when classic 
detail is employed, for his capitals and ornaments increase with 
diameters, and the laws of Vignola were not drawn to solve such 
problems as the modern Beaux Arts architects set out to illustrate 
them with. 

The sightseer very soon learns to realize that there is little within 
the high building to see the more reason, therefore, it would ap- 
pear to make the outside beautiful and impressive. The problem 
of the interior is chiefly one of plan and of construction. Yet our 
great commercial buildings are not entirely without interior in- 
terest. The entrance and lobby, the elevator hall and vestibule, 
are legitimate spaces for the display of the architect's personal 
taste. Make them as splendid as possible, was once the universal 
rule ; I doubt if this is quite so general now. 

Take the Mutual Life Building as an example. The entrance 
hall on Nassau street the oldest part of the building is quite 
splendid with its columns and arches, its walls and ceiling, all of 
po 1 ished and carved marble. The entrance is up a flight of steps 
within an outer porch, and one enters a rectangular vestibule, large 
enough to give a decided sense of space. The Metropolitan Life 
has a larger and more sumptuous vestibule than this, but that of 
the Mutual Life is comparatively large and is by no means recent. 
It is in striking contrast to the entrance of the National Bank of 
Commerce a later building just across the street. One stumbles 
there almost into the elevators, so narrow is the space ; but even 
this shallow entrance is sumptuous with polished marble, as are 
most of the hallways and corridors of the large buildings. 

But the Mutual Life Building has received several successive ad- 
ditions, and it would seem entirely proper to utilize them as types of 
progress. Around in Liberty street, the first entrance is No. 32, One 
goes in almost directly from the street level. There is nothing of 
the splendor of the entrance on Nassau street ; only a small, com- 
pact corridor ; marble walls, it is true, but the slightest decoration. 
Further down, No. 26, is another type. The elevators are in a 
branch corridor to the right; directly in face is a partly hidden 
stairway ; rich marble again ; but restrained. This, then, would 
seem to be the type of the high building entrance way: rich ma- 
terials. These materials in older buildings were richly treated ; in 
the newer they are still rich in surface treatment, but the architec- 
tural parts have almost completely disappeared. Apparently, no 
more money is being lavished on these great buildings than can be 
absolutely avoided. 

The outlook is not cheering. There is no standard of artistic 
excellence. There is no indication of general appreciation of the 



real problem involved. There is plenty of haphazard effort, a good 
deal of well meant effort, an occasional success. We had as much 
ten years ago ; and we have to-day a vast quantity of uninteresting 
building which harms through its very negativeness. Surely every 
possible expedient and experiment has been tried. The time for 
such ventures has passed. The high building problem is not one that 
will solve itself, but it can only be solved by the most painstaking 
care, by the most thorough study of past efforts and failures, and 
by a thoroughly artistic meeting of the conditions involved. There 
never was a type of building evolved yet of which it can be better 
said "the more haste the less speed." 

Barr Ferree. 

Detroit, Michigan. 


D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 


HE Whistler Memorial Exhibition, which is open in 
Boston while I am writing, is what will likely prove a 
unique occasion for the study of Whistler's art. It is not at all 
probable that so many of his works will ever again be got together 
in one place, or that so ample an opportunity will be offered for 
seeing him in almost every phase of his career and in almost every 
branch of his practise. The exhibition is, indeed, incomplete in 
one important particular, for it could not contain three or four 
pictures which are his most uncontested successes. The portrait 
of his mother is in the Luxembourg Gallery, that of Carlyle, be- 
longing to the Corporation of Glasgow, has been lent to the exhibi- 
tion of the Royal Scottish Academy now open in Edinburgh. The 
former is generally admitted to show a more perfect balance of 
the qualities personal to Whistler with the qualities common to 
good painters of all times than anything else he has produced, 
and is therefore rightly, in a sense, considered his masterpiece. The 
"Carlyle" is of nearly the same time and of much the same char- 
acter. Another picture which is thought by those who care es- 
pecially for the Whistlerianism of Whistler to be finer than either 
of these, the "Miss Alexander," is also in the exhibition at Edin- 
burgh. These omissions, serious to be sure, are almost the only 
ones of importance. Of Whistler's beginnings and tentative efforts 
in this or that direction before he made sure of that which was to be 
his own ; of his early and charming successes in the first works that 
defined clearly his artistic personality; of the later work, entirely 
personal, in which his peculiar qualities become more defined and 
all other qualities gradually cease to occupy him ; there are abun- 
dant examples. There are works in oil, water-color, pastel; there 
are drawings, lithographs, etchings, dry-points ; works in every 
medium which he used, and subjects of every kind which he at- 
tempted; portraits, figure-subjects, marines, "nocturnes"; and 
works of every date from his schoolboy sketches to canvases left 
unfinished at his death. Even for the absent portraits there is the 
best substitute attainable in the "Rosa Corder," which is of about 
their date and nearly of their quality, ranking only just below the 
portrait of the artist's mother in. the opinion of some connoisseurs, 
while "The Fur Jacket" marks the beginning of the transition to 
the later manner. 

Such an exhibition naturally incites one to attempt some sort of 
estimate of Whistler's artistic production. It is too early for any 
definite decision as to its ultimate value or as to this artist's relative 
rank in the hierarchy of artists, ancient and modern ; but one may 


at least try to define the nature of his art to show what it was 
and what it was not, wherein it failed or succeeded, what are the 
qualities which it did or did not possess. I the less regret my 
inability to speak with any authority as to Whistler's etchings, be- 
cause in this field his superiority seems to be less contested. The 
variation of judgment seems to be between the opinion that he 
was the greatest etcher since Rembrandt and the opinion that he 
was the greatest etcher that ever lived. Mr. Pennell, who has 
strongly stated the latter view, begins by ruling all Rembrandt's 
more important plates out of the count as "pot-boilers," a term 
which he makes synonymous with compositions, and having thus 
eliminated, almost entirely, the intellectual and imaginative content 
of Rembrandt's work, bases his judgment, as far as one can gather, 
on technical considerations alone. One may accept expert testi- 
mony as to the great technical excellence of Whistler's practice 
as an etcher without feeling that this alone is sufficient to secure 
for him, permanently, the supreme position assigned him. The 
inexpert may feel that his art is, after all, of the same kind and 
quality in his etchings as in his paintings, and that his limitations 
are not, in themselves, reasons for praise, until it is proved that the 
world would be gainer by the absence from all art of the qualities 
he had not. With the general statement that Whistler's etchings 
are to-day considered by the best qualified judges as among the 
finest ever produced, I am willing to leave them, and to give my 
attention to his work in color as represented in this collection 
and in such examples as I have been able to see elsewhere. 

One of the feelings most commonly expressed by visitors to 
Copley Hall is that of surprise at the variety of the work shown ; 
and the pictures certainly do cover a considerable range of sub- 
ject-matter. Yet the limitation of this range in certain directions 
seems to me quite as remarkable as its extent. I do not re- 
member a single figure-picture by Whistler in which anybody is 
doing anything in particular. His figures stand or sit or recline, 
but they never act. And I do not remember *a landscape with a 
tree in it, or a hill, or, except in one or two early works, so much 
as a rock. From the beginning he shows a tendency toward that 
elimination of definite subject and of definite representation which 
he justified theoretically in his "Ten O'Clock," and elsewhere a 
tendency to extract from nature a few notes of color, a few lines and 
shapes, and to give these with as little else as possible. This 
tendency affirms itself more and more until it assumes its extreme 
form in some of the later "nocturnes," where mist and darkness so 
disguise all forms that definite drawing becomes not only un- 
necessary but impossible, or in some of those pastels in which there 
is but a hint of anything actual, a line or two and a touch or two 


of color, suggested by and suggesting something in nature, but 
imitating nothing. The nineteenth century has been an epoch of 
shifting and uncertain standards, of confused efforts, in which each 
of the arts has been reaching out for the effects proper to the 
others. Music has become more and more pictorial, and has 
attempted to convey definite ideas and even to represent external 
facts. For more than forty years Whistler was engaged in the 
effort to make painting resemble pure music as nearly as possible 
to make it a matter of tones and harmonies and intervals of in- 
trinsic beauty, acting directly upon the senses and the nerves inde- 
pendently of the intellect. His titles, which seem affected and are 
certainly inconvenient, being hard to remember and helping little 
in the identification of particular pictures, are yet perfectly logical. 
In practice we find ourselves neglecting them, and seizing on those 
sub-titles' which answer our purpose better. But the musical 
titles he chose do show what his art constantly tended to become, 
even if they do not answer in all respects to what it was. It would 
seem that painting can go no farther in the direction of Whistler's 
later work without ceasing altogether to be the art we have known 
by that name. 

It is of no special significance that W'histler began the serious 
study of art as a pupil of Gleyre ; it is much more significant that 
the earliest of the paintings exhibited by the Copley Society shows 
him as an admirer of Courbet. This is a portrait of himself, the 
head only, in a large black felt hat, and has been frequently repro- 
duced. It was painted about 1859, an d the rather violent light and 
shade, with black shadows, the yellowish tone of the flesh, and 
the attempt at powerful modelling, point unmistakably to the in- 
fluence under which it was produced. Courbet's vigorous natural- 
ism and rather coarse and boisterous strength is as unlike the spirit 
of Whistler as anything one can well conceive ; but Courbet was 
the most prominent opponent of the old academic formulas at the 
precise moment when Whistler and Manet, Whistler's elder by 
one year, were beginning their careers, and they could but be 
attracted to him. Both impressionism and the radically different 
art which seems, just now, to be superseding it as an influence on 
the younger painters, owe their origin, in a manner, to Courbet. 
He proved that good painting could be done without regard to 
"the rules," and he set students to looking at nature for them- 
selves ; and we are therefore indebted to him for more than his 
own pictures. His direct influence on Whistler, however, was not 
very deep or lasting.. Traces of it may perhaps be found, now and 
then, in the pictures painted within the next few years, but they 
soon disappear. Whistler may have been thinking of Courbet 
when he painted the Coast of Brittany in 1861 there may be even 


a lingering reminiscence in "The Blue Wave" of 1862. Later than 
that one can find no specific resemblance to Courbet in Whistler's 
work. For still a year or two he occasionally produces a piece of 
representation, more or less realistic in intention, like "The 
Thames," in 1863, but by this time he is finding himself, and ceasing 
to attempt the things which it is not in him to do. 

"The Coast of Brittany" and "The Thames" are not pictures 
which any one would be likely to care much about except for the 
after-work of the man who painted them. They are interesting 
because he did them, but they are not beautiful. It is different with 
three pictures painted in 1862, "The Blue Wave," "The Building of 
Westminster Bridge" and "The White Girl." Each of these 
remains a remarkable and beautiful work, not in all respects sur- 
passed by anything the artist did afterwards. That which is most 
unlike the things which were to follow is the "Westminster 
Bridge," which, if it stood by itself, would seem the work of an 
artist of an entirely different type from that of Whistler. Its 
virtues are other than those which came specially to characterize 
him, while it is weakest in just those qualities in which he became 
strongest. It is not particularly fine in color, being of a some- 
what conventional brownish tone throughout ; neither is it 
distinguished by charm of linear pattern, though its intricate linear 
structure is interesting. As straightforward painting of nature 
it is vigorous and skilful, showing much clearness of vision and 
power of representation. But it is its treatment of subject and its 
ttitude toward humanity that mark it as something apart in the 
production of its author. Here, for once, there is something 
going on, and something very definite. The figures are very small, 
and insignificant as figures ; but the power of humanity over nature, 
the many and strange inventions of man, loom large in it. This 
is no "arrangement" or "harmony" ; it is a picture with a subject 
imaginatively conceived and powerfully rendered a picture by an 
artist partly realist, partly romanticist, who seems destined to 
carry on in new fields and in a personal way the work of the school 
of Barbizon. Never again did Whistler do anything resembling it 
or show any signs of the kind of energy that it witnesses to. 

In "The Blue Wave" we have more of Whistler as we know him, 
but we have at the same time both more naturalism and more con- 
ventionalism than we shall see later. Essentially it is an arrange- 
ment in blue and brown, but the brown is richer and deeper, the 
blue more intense, than he will ever make them again ; and there 
is more occupation with the precise notation of form than in his 
maturer work. He is beginning to experiment with color, but he 
uses it in strong oppositions and with the aim of attaining fulness 
and force rather than refinement ; while he hesitates to break too 


sharply with realism or with the traditional methods of painting.. 
It is rich and handsome, a fine and most effective picture, but 
besides the marines he painted some years afterward it seems a 
trifle heavy and sombre. 

In these two pictures we have two phases of an interesting and 
highly promising artist, whose future course is not yet certain. In 
"The White Girl" Whistler definitely announces himself as the 
painter he is to become. Here there is no more subject than in 
any portrait, no strong oppositions, no great amount of realization. 
The picture represents a girl in a white dress standing on a white 
skin before a white curtain, the only color, apart from the tones 
of flesh and hair, being a bit of blue in the matting on the floor and 
the hues of a few flowers which she has let fall. There is little 
firmness of construction or solidity of modelling, in the flesh, which 
is reduced almost to one flat tone, and there is no especial ease 
or brilliancy of handling. The painting has evidently cost trouble 
in parts, and the color is a little lacking in perfect purity, the con- 
ventional brown not being yet entirely eliminated from the palette. 
The greatest charm of the work is in the sympathetic rendering of 
the face, not beautiful, but young and pure and sweet, and in the 
natural grace of the erect figure. It is somewhat timid and awk- 
ward work as yet, but in its reliance for artistic effect upon the 
decorative division of space, on grace of line, and on the delicate 
opposition of nicely discriminated tones, it is already very charac- 
teristic. The artist has found the road he was destined to tread, 
and henceforth steps aside from it but seldom. 

In the years from 1861 to 1864, according to Mr. Freer, were 
painted a number of small sketches, owned by him, which show 
Whistler experimenting on the lines suggested in the "White Girl," 
and preluding such delightful early successes as the "Little White 
Girl" and the "Symphony in White No. 3." They are sketches 
only, without heads or hands or definite form, not completed pic- 
tures in any sense; but as sketches they are delicious, and the 
chance to see them in relation to the work for which they were a 
preparation is one of the things for which we are most grateful 
to this exhibition. When one remembers how lately Whistler 
himself had been under the influence of Courbet remembers, also, 
that Manet was in the midst of his black manner, and that the later 
impressionism was not yet heard of one realizes the great 
originality of their delicate, pure color and high key of light. In 
composition they remind one of Japanese prints, but there is 
something Greek about the figures, as if Tanagra figurines could 
be flattened and painted upon a screen. Not only much of the 
later art of Whistler is here in germ, but all the art of Albert 



In the ten or twelve years following Whistler produced almost 
all of the works which have ever achieved anything like popular 
success. In 1864 he painted the "Princesse du Pays de la Porce- 
laine" ; in 1865 or 6 the "Little White Girl," and about the same 
time "The Music Room" ; in 1867 the "Symphony in White, No. 3," 
which seems to be the last picture he signed with his name, and also 
the first which he signed with the butterfly which here appears 
in the first of its many forms. To the late sixties or early seventies 
belong the earliest of the "nocturnes" and of the later marines. 
The portrait of his mother and the "Carlyle" must have been done 
before 1874, and probably, also, the "Miss Alexander" and the 
"Rosa Corder," while the date of "The Balcony" is, conjecturally, 
about 1876. I know of no instance of a dated picture after 1867, 
and it is very difficult to make certain of one's chronology. It is to 
be hoped that someone will take the trouble to search all available 
records and gather all scattered information, and will give us, as 
nearly as possible, a chronological list of Whistler's works. In 
the meantime it may be safely stated that the period from his 
thirtieth to his fortieth year was that in which he produced those 
pictures which, if they do not necessarily show his special qualities 
at their highest and finest, show them in the best balanced com- 
bination with others which have generally been considered desir- 
able in art. It is the period in which his work, if not in all ways 
most characteristic, is most complete as we generally understand 

Whether or not the work of this decade is considered Whistler's 
best will always be largely a matter of the personal equation of 
the critic. It is also, in a sense, a matter of small importance. 
The career is ended, the work is all done. The painter's reputation 
will stand upon what is best of him, whether it came early or late. 
If the work be fine and great, the man was a great artist, and 
whether he was greatest a forty or at sixty is, indeed, a matter of 
some interest, but one that docs not and cannot affect his essential 

"The Little White Girl" is, perhaps, the general favorite with 
visitors to Copley Hall, pleasing more people than any of the. 
other pictures there shown. It owes this distinction partly to its 
very great merit, partly to w f hat its author would, a little later, 
have thought to be extrinsic and eliminable qualities. Its appeal 
lies partly in the painting, partly in the things painted. It has no 
very definite subject it is essentially an arrangement of exquisite 
tones in a delightful pattern but the objects represented have 
more than their relative value as elements of the pattern ; they are 
things capable, in themselves, of arousing interest and of giving 
pleasure. In the first place, there is physical beauty. Whistler 


is thought to have painted it under the temporary influence of 
Rossetti, and certainly he never again produced anything which 
shows the same feeling for the beauty of womanhood. Character 
and expression continued to occupy him more than he would 
admit, but pure beauty of form and feature he never again repre- 
sented with the same interest. The figure leans against a marble 
mantel, her head, in profile, pensively inclined, one arm stretched 
along the shelf, the other falling by her side, the hand holding a 
Japanese fan. Behind her is a mirror, and the reflection of her 
face therein is not beautiful, but her profile is, and the lines of her 
throat and of her graceful left hand are admirable. The dress is 
of some filmy substance, and its white, with that of the marble, 
contrasting with the black of the grate and the mysterious grays 
of the reflections in the mirror, are the main elements of the har- 
mony ; but there are pure and vivacious blues in the fan and in an 
Oriental vase, delicate tints of rose in the flowering azalea which 
fills the lower right-hand corner. These notes enliven the scheme, 
while the objects that make them are, as I have said, interesting 
things apart from the role they play. The azalea, particularly, 
charmingly drawn and painted, is altogether delightful. The 
painting is flat, almost without shadows, a little dryer and sharper- 
edged than later work, a matter of justly discriminated values and 
simple silhouettes ; but there is substance in the figure, subtly 
expressed, everywhere but in the left hand, which is rather thin and 
papery. The art of choice and arrangement is greater than the 
ability of rendering, but the latter is not so noticeably deficient as 
to interfere greatly with one's enjoyment. The total effect is of 
extreme refinement and exquisite loveliness. 

In "The Music Room" we have again a mirror in an important 
role. There are two figures in the room, a woman in a black riding 
habit who seems to be holding up something, the nature and posi- 
tion of which one does not quite understand, and a little girl in 
white buried in a book. In the mirror is the reflection of a third 
figure, whose place in the real room is also rather enigmatical, 
that of an elderly lady apparently playing on the piano. The girl 
is a charming figure, not quite realized, but very adequately sug- 
gested. The riding habit is perfectly flat, but its rich black is 
pleasant to look at. The head and hands of its wearer remind 
one of Corot's flesh-painting rather vague in form, a fine gray- 
pink in color, absolutely just in value. The great beauty of the 
picture, however, is in the wonderful painting of the accessories, 
the curtains and vases, and their reflections in the glass. One 
ceases to care what the figures are doing, or almost whether they 
are figures or not, as one studies the delicate color, the perfect 
tone, the fascinating lightness and fluidity of touch with which 


these things are rendered. In spite of Whistler's query, his ad- 
inirfis are ever prone to "drag in Velasquez." Here, at least, is 
a bit of painting that the great Spaniard might have been proud 
to own. 

Was it because he felt that in such a picture as this the still-life 
was, in a manner, better than the figures, that Whistler never 
makes so much of it again? For complete representation of 
objects this picture is perhaps his high-water mark. And in only 
one important picture of later date that I can remember, "The 
Balcony," a picture more purely Japanese than any other, in which 
representation has almost ceased to exist does he put two or more 
figures on one canvas. Except as mere spots or suggestion of 
cro'.vds his figures hereafter exist alone. He confines himself to 
the portrait-painter's problem of the single figure or even the single 
head. In the "Miss Alexander" there are still a few accessories 
a panelled wall, a garment thrown over a stool, a few daisies at 
the side in the "Mother" there are only a straight curtain and a 
framed print, and in the Carlyle even the curtain is gone. In the 
"Rosa Corder" there is not even a wall, the black figure emerging 
from blacker space, and this is the commoner condition in his later 
portraits, though a gray wall or a curtain filling the whole back- 
ground is now and then suggested. In the use of anything like 
positive color, also, Whistler becomes more sparing during this 
period. The "Mother" and the "Carlyle" are arrangements in 
black and gray, the Rosa Corder is an arrangement in black and 
brown. He even loses his interest in white, and the "Miss 
Alexander" seems to be the last picture in which white plays an 
important part. In "The Balcony" there is a bouquet of bright 
colors, but it is the last. The earliest nocturnes have still a 
powerful blue, though far less positive and intense than in earlier 
work, but it becomes less and less decided, fainter and grayer, or 
shifting into black. The variations of gray become his dominating 
preoccupation, and he distinguishes them with extraordinary 

The purely artistic elements of such a picture as the "Mother" 
are few and simple. A gray, a black, a little low-toned white, and 
the dim pink of the flesh, this is all of color. The right lines of the 
curtain and the baseboard, cutting the parallelogram of the canvas, 
are echoed by the .smaller rectangle of the frame upon the wall, 
and diagonally across this background is drawn the austere sil- 
houette of the figure, its boundaries simplified into long curves, 
delicately modulated, but with scarce a break or accident in all 
their length. Everything is sober and severe except for the one 
outbreak of capricious fancy in the dainty embroidery of the 
curtain, which lights up the picture like a smile on a grave face. 


It is the masterly management of these elements the perfect 
balance of the spaces so frankly outlined, the quality of the few 
tones of black or gray, the fine gradation of the curves which 
gives the picture its rare distinction. These purely artistic matters 
were, perhaps, all that Whistler was consciously occupied with 
this beautiful arrangement of tones and lines and spaces was all 
he would admit he had produced but the picture owes its popu- 
larity to quite other qualities. The public has insisted on "caring 
about the identity of the portrait," or at least about its character 
and humanity, and in feeling that such a "foreign" emotion as love 
has, somehow, got itself expressed on the canvas. The gentle 
refinement of the aged face, the placid pose, with hands folded in 
the lap, the sweetness and strength of character, the aroma of 
gentility, the peace of declining years all these things have been 
rendered "or suggested by the artist with reverent care and sym- 
pathy. One feels that he has. so painted his mother that she be- 
comes a type of the mother as she is for all of us, or as we should 
wish her to be, and we accuse him, in spite of his denial, of having 
made something finer and nobler and far more important than 
any "arrangement in gray and black," however exquisite. 

It is ten years since I have seen this picture, and I have never 
seen the "Carlyle" or the "Miss Alexander," but I am fresh from 
seeing the "Rosa Corder." Here the scheme is black on black, a 
bit of gray in the gloved hand, and a single note of brown in the 
low riding-hat and feather. It is a canvas of the narrow, upright 
form which becomes henceforth so characteristic of Whistler's 
portraits, and the lines are more sinuous and graceful than severe, 
though with no slightest tendency to floridity. They are admirably 
expressive of the firm elasticity of youth and strength, and of the 
easy poise of a body in its prime. The head, turned over the 
shoulder, is again in profile, and in its low tone and lack of model- 
ling seems, at first, somewhat sacrificed, but as one looks at it it 
grows more elegant and distinguished. Here also we have some- 
thing more than mere arrangement a sympathetic presentment of 
a human personality. 

It is in such pictures as these that the comparison to Velasquez, 
so frequently made, is, if anywhere, justified. If any Western artist 
exercised anything like a permanent influence on Whistler it was 
the great Spaniard, but it seems to me more just to say that 
Whistler's talent resembled one side of that of Velasquez than that 
there was anything like imitation. Some of the things which 
Velasquez had done it was natural for Whistler to do, as it was 
natural for him to attain some of the qualities of Japanese art, and 
in the arrangement and division of space, the elegance of sil- 
houette, the beauty of quiet tone, the richness of his blacks and 



grays, the younger painter is nearly or quite the equal of the elder. 
The comparison, then, is natural, but it is rather overwhelming. 
Putting aside the mere abundance of Velasquez ; putting aside his 
ability as an organizer of great spectacles like "The Lances" or his 
mastery of large compositions like the "Maids of Honor" or the 
"Spinners" ; neglecting his horses and his dogs and everything but 
such single portraits as in their simplicity of scheme may be fitly 
compared with those of Whistler ; and we have only to remember 
that another painter of our day. and a very different one, is also 
constantly compared to him to see how much of Velasquez is out- 
side Whistler's range. If to all the qualities of Whistler's best 
portraits could be added all Sargent's sure notation of form and 
brilliancy of execution, we should have, not yet Velasquez, but 
something liker to him than anything done in two centuries past. 
How far the balance may be redressed by those things in 
Whistler's work which are not to be found in that of Velasquez, 
or of any one else, we may not yet say ; but in the portrait of his 
mother Whistler is one of the most refined and delightful artists of 
the nineteenth century ; Velasquez is one of the greatest painters of 
all time- 
How far the absence from these portraits of Whistler's of sub- 
stance, form, construction, modelling, is consequent on inability, 
how far on deliberate choice, is a question that perhaps admits of no 
definite answer. After all, if desire is not necessarily ability, a lack 
of desire is disability. One may not be able to do what one 
likes, but one cannot, in art, do what one does not like ; and to 
say that an artist does not care for certain qualities is the same 
thing as to say he cannot attain them. It may be true that he could 
do this or that if he chose, but he cannot choose. He lacks the 
first essential ability, the ability to desire. Either from a les- 
sening of physical vitality or a greater concentration on the 
purely musical elements of his art, then, Whistler did not choose 
could not choose to give us, after the early seventies, anything 
so complete as these three or four portraits ; anything with their 
human interest, their quality of characterization, their degree of 
realization. "The Fur Jacket" is already slighter and looser, and 
after that his later portraits become more and more the "arrange- 
ments" he called them. The pigment grows ever thinner and more 
fluid, the edges disappear after the modelling, the figures grow 
ghostlike and unsubstantial, the hands cease to exist, and the heads 
become only a note of flesh-color in the general harmony. Perhaps 
the weakest of them all is the "Comte de Montesquiou-Fezensac/' 
which is not even an agreeable arrangement either in line or color ; 
one of the best is also a very late one, "L'Andalousienne," graceful 
in line, delicate in its differentiation of closely related grays, but 
with a face almost devoid of features. 


It is not in his later portraits, which show no new invention of 
harmony to balance their loss of humanity, that the best work of 
the last thirty years of Whistler's life is to be found, but in that 
series of small canvases, "harmonies," "notes," "arrangements," 
"nocturnes," which are among the most characteristic, if not in all 
respects the finest, of his productions. They rarely exceed a foot 
or two in dimensions, and many of them are only a few inches 
square. They are occasionally small single figures, more often 
merely heads or they are bits of streets and shop fronts, river 
scenes, marines. Whistler was a city-dweller who took occasional 
trips to the sea-shore, and there is no sign of love for the country 
in any work of his ; indeed, one can hardly say that there is any 
love for the sea, as such, in these later works one can hardly 
imagine .a yachtsman caring for Whistler's sea-pieces because they 
represent his favorite element. He treats the sea, as he does 
everything else, as a pretext for a harmony of two or three subtly 
discriminated tones, and it lends itself admirably to his purpose 
because of the lack of solid objects or of definite and generally re- 
cognizable forms. Definition and realization have become irk- 
some and distasteful to him, and, whatever his subject, he gives as 
little of them as possible. Many of these things are true sketches, 
nearly instantaneous in execution, painted, almost, in an hour or 
two. Others have been long retained and worked over again and 
again, but never with the preoccupation of "finish." The labor 
has gone to the gradual refinement of the tones, the achievement 
of more perfect harmony, and the work is left, at the end, as vague 
and floating in its forms as at the beginning. It is even possible 
that the vagueness has increased with the progress of the work, 
and that the least definite statements are those which have been 
most pondered. The painter has come almost as nearly as is 
conceivable to a realization of his personal ideal the ideal of 
painting purged of its representative elements, and brought to 
the condition of what is called "absolute music" painting in which 
color, pattern, line, exist for themselves, with the least possible 
reference to anything external. But if we are refused so much that 
has hitherto pleased or interested us in painting, what we get we 
get with a singular intensity. Clear your mind of prepossessions, 
forget about meanings and intentions, forget about nature, forget 
about form or substance or definition let the artist play to you, 
and you shall find his airs ravishing in their sweetness. 

And they are airs which no one else has played. For this art 
differs from all the art of the past not only in that everything but 
the purely musical elements has been banished from it, but in that 
these elements are treated differently and are of a different kind 
and quality. It is not only that color and pattern and the material 



beauty of paint are to stand alone, but that we are given a different 
color, a different pattern, a different material beauty from any 
we have known. In all these things the characteristic note of 
Whistler is extreme refinement and tenuity. To its extra- 
ordinary sensitiveness and delicacy of perception any fulness of 
sound is almost as distressing as noisiness, and splendor is 
perilously akin to vulgarity. In color he gives us no crashing 
climaxes, no vibrant, full-orchestrad harmonies his is an art of 
nuances and shadings, of distinctions scarce to be followed by 
the ordinary eye. What he calls blue or green or rose, violet or 
grenat or gold, are the disembodied spirits of these colors, tinges 
and intimations of them rather than the colors themselves. Some- 
times the tinge is so faint that no one else can perceive it, and 
sometimes what, to his consciousness, is the keynote of his com- 
position, is so faintly sounded that, to another, it seems the least 
important note of all. Finally he wraps everything in the gray 
mystery of night, and his picture seems composed of nothing more 
substantial than the atmosphere itself. 

So his lines are reduced to the fewest, and modulated with the 
most imperceptible fineness, and his actual use of material has been 
similarly sublimated. Not only could he not abide the rough 
hatchings of the impressionists or the heavy masses of paint of 
the modern Dutch or the followers of Dupre, but the rich textures 
of the Venetians, the close enamel of Holbein or Van Eyck, the 
crisp touches of Hals, are equally foreign to him. He has a strong 
sense for the beauty of material, but it is of material brought to 
the verge of immateriality. His paint is fluid, thin, dilute ; his 
touch feather-light and melting. There may be twenty successive 
layers of pigment on the canvas, but it is scarce covered, and its 
texture shows everywhere. It is almost as if he painted with 

One feels thick-fingered and clumsy in trying to distinguish 
among these later works of Whistler works in which a kind of 
art by suggestion has gone so far that one catches oneself wonder- 
ing whether one has not been hypnotised into a belief in pictures 
which have no objective existence. It is to rub the bloom off 
them to examine them too closely. There are many of them in 
Copley Hall, and by no means all of the same quality, but they all 
seem too slight to bear handling, too lacking in the positive for 
description, too evanescent, almost, for separate recollection. 
They blend in one's memory like past twilights, and have, in the 
retrospect, little more individuality than last year's violets. Is it 
worth while to catalogue and annotate, to say that this is beautiful 
and that not so beautiful, this successful and that a failure? I 
have my notes, and even without them I recall a few things with 


some distinctness "Grcnat ct Or Le Petit Cardinal," one of several 
variations in dim reds ; "Symphony in Violet and Blue," a marine 
in which the violet is little more than gray, and the blue is but a 
faint blue-green; "Blue and Silver Trouville," dainty and clear; 
and "Nocturne in Blue and Silver Cremorne Lights," lovely in its 
pale opalescence. Then, "Nocturne in Black and Gold The Fall- 
ing Rocket," with its sprinkle of gold-dust on the blue-black 
darkness ; and, most ghostlike of all, two nocturnes, "Grey and 
Silver Chelsea Embankment," and "Blue and Silver: Battersea.' 
Reach," so much alike and so devoid of nameable color that one 
fails to see how one has more blue or less gray than the other, but; 
quite wonderful in their feeling of mystery and of palpable air. So* 
one recalls other things, not so perfect, where the harmony has. 
been missed, be it ever so slightly, and there is nothing to takeits- 
place. But it is not this of that picture that one remembers most 
clearly, it is the. total impression of an art infinitely subtle, infinitely; 
fastidious, tremulously intense; an art of exquisite sensibilities and' 
fine nerves, of reticences and reservations ; a music of muted strings. ' 
Slight as are Whistler's, later oils, his watercolors and pastels 
are yet slighter. Pastel is the slightest and most evanescent' 
seeming of materials ; but surely no one has used it with such slight- 
ness as he. A few square inches of brown or gray paper, a few : 
chalk lines, lightly set down, a .touch of color here and there this 
makes up a pastel as Whistler conceived it. The subject is 
generally the figure, nude or lightly draped, but these are figures 
from which all the things :on which the great figure-painters spent 
their efforts have been eliminated. Here are no attempts to ex- 
press structure or stress or pressure, still less to render solidity or 
the texture of flesh or even its color. The lines are of beautiful 
quality in themselves, but their charm is that of their own curvature 
as abstract lines and of their arrangement, their relative distance 
from each other, and the way in which they subdivide the space of 
paper. The touches of color are delightfully placed, but they repre-. 
sent nothing, though nature may have given the hint for their 
placing and the relative intensity of their hue. Light and shade, 
for which Whistler has never greatly cared, is eliminated entirely, 
and even truth of values, which he has retained longest of the 
qualities common to great painting, is now abandoned. Pretty 
much everything of our Western art has been left out as non- 
essential, and even that composition of light and dark, upon which 
the artists of the far East have always laid so much stress, has 
disappeared. With infinitely greater deftness and mastery, and 
now of set intention, as the ultimate expression of his ideal in art, 
Whistler has come back to the condition of those early sketches, 
already mentioned, which were the prelude to "The Little White 


Girl" and "The Balcony." His material aiding him, he has 
sloughed off, more completely even than in his latest nocturnes, 
everything that can be sloughed and leave a vestige of painting as 
an art of representation. To this he was bound to come at last, if 
he lived long enough. It is impossible to imagine any further step 
that shall not lead to the tracing of purely meaningless lines and 
spots for the pleasant diversification of a surface. The Whistler 
who is most like the great artists of all times, as our Western world 
has known them, is the Whistler of the "Mother." The Whistler 
who is most entirely himself, pushing his own theories to their 
possible limit and relying exclusively upon his own special gifts, is 
the Whistler of the nocturnes and the pastels a dainty, winged 
spirit, as light and as graceful as the butterfly he chose for his 

Two or three interesting beginnings in directions which were to 
lead to nothing, a few captivating early pictures, perhaps half a 
dozen fine portraits, a hundred or two little pictures and pastels of 
ethereal charm such is the baggage, slender enough it must be 
confessed, and, perhaps, a trifle fragile, with which the painter 
begins his voyage down the ages. One can imagine some of the 
abounding geniuses of the past, henceforth his fellow-travelers, 
looking at him with raised eyebrows. "Was, then, your time so 
impoverished that this seemed wealth to it?" It is, indeed, prob- 
able that in no other century could so great a reputatioin have been 
founded on work of this texture, but there are certain considera- 
tions which lead to a reasonable expectation of permanency for it. 
For it is not the men who do many things well, and achieve a high 
average of merit, whom the world most delights to honor, but the 
hien who do one thing better than anybody else. Whistler has 
done certain things that no one else has done, given us certain 
sensations not to be had from other works than his. No one else 
has so well painted night, no one else so suggested mystery, no 
one so created an atmosphere. In no other art we know has the 
pleasure to be derived from tone and from the division of spaces 
been given so' purely and so intensely. Even should these things 
be done again, and done better, he will have been the first to do 
them, and that of itself is a title to fame. And apart from the 
value of his own achievement, Whistler has been, and is, a potent 
influence on others, and such influences have their own special 
glory. He has had, and will have for a time, mere imitators who 
copy his methods and vainly hope to become great artists by paint- 
i'ng everything in black, but there are thousands of others whose 
perceptions have been quickened by contact with his, who have 
learned to see more delicately because he has shown them how, 
whose eyes have been opened to beauties before unnoticed. 



Was he a great master? Posterity will decide. At any rate, he 
was a true artist, and in an age too much dominated by the scientific 
spirit an age given up to experiment and the desire to know and 
to record he consistently devoted his beautiful talent to those 
things in art which are farthest removed from naturalism and from 
science, and in his impatience of a painting that is not always art 
created an art which almost ceases to be painting. 

Kenyan Cox. 



On the Facade of the Art Gallery at Bale. 

Arnold Bocklln, Sculptor. 



(As Seen by Our Special Artist.) 



PROBABLY the best 
part of the transform- 
ation Observed in the ways 
and means of modern build- 
ing has been in the direction 
of greater dispatch in opera- 
tions and consequent lessened 
costs and earlier returns for 
investments. With the types 
of the latest era now very 
well settled, plans do not 

Dec. l.~>, 1002. Excavation complete and column 
bases set. 

Jan. 2. 1903. Foundations com- 
plete and steelwork carried 
above first floor. 

the means for rapidly 

An office building being purely a com- 
mercial enterprise, everything that adds 
to the cost of constructing it beyond 
what is absolutely necessary is a waste ; 
and therefore it makes a great difference 
to investors and owners whether their 
building is two years in course of erection 
or only six or eight months, and whether 
the interval during which the investment 
is bringing no return in the form of rents 
is long or short. 

There is a case in point at Columbia, 
S. C., where the Columbia Real Estate 

change substantially between one build- 
ing and another of the same class ; and 
units, forms and equipments become 
susceptible of being reproduced, multi- 
plied and knit together with increasing 
facility and quickness at the hands of 
skilfully directed operatives. The pres- 
ent type of office building will probably 
not be essentially changed for a gener- 
ation. The desire will be to reproduce 
it in many cities, and it is important for 
investors to know the shortest period 
in which a great building can be erected 
and who are the contractors that have 
had the qualifying experience and possess 
executing such 

Jan. 15. Granite water-table set 
and six tiers of beams in place. 



Feb. 4. Limestone one story high 
and ten tiers of beams in place. 
Fireprooflng in fourth tier. 

& Trust Co., otherwise the Loan 
& Exchange National Bank, of 
which Mr. Edwin W. Robertson is 
president, having a twelve-story 
building to erect, gave the contract 
to the Tidewater Building Company 
of New York. The directors knew 
and realized that they had purely 
a business proposition before them 
that having decided on a certain 
type of building, slightly varied to 
suit their particular locality, it was 
their duty as trustees to arrange for as 
quick a return from the surplus space 

as possible. It'was the first real sky- 
scraper to be erected in that section 
of the South, therefore regarded as 
a particularly important operation. 
Should it prove a satisfactory invest- 
ment, it will soon have neighbors of 
its own kind. 

The speed with which the work was 
carried on by the Tidewater Building 
Company is shown in the accompany- 
ing illustrations. Begun about De- 
cember 1 5th, the building was entirely 
finished about the first of September 

Feb. 15. Limestone to height of 
second-story window sills. 
Roof tier of beams in place 
and flreprooflng in six stories. 

March 13. Brickwork seven stories 

following. This would have been 
nearly record work even for New York 
City, and was a marvelous feat for the 
South, though not the best the same 
builders have accomplished. On Jan- 
uary ist of this year, 1904, a group of 
manufacturing buildings, covering 
twelve acres, of steel, concrete and 
brick work, was finished by the Tide- 
water Building Company at Wilming- 
ton, Del., after having been in course 
of erection only since the preceding 
April. The contract for the Repub- 
lican Club Building in New York City, 



April 1. Brickwork to lower tier 
of cornice. 

a twelve-story steel frame structure, was taken by the Tidewater Build- 
ing Company on May 6th, 1902, and in slightly more than five months 

from that date the building was enclosed. The Collier Building in 

New York, costing four hundred thousand dollars, was started by 

the Tidewater Building Company on 

March ist, 1900, and was occupied by 

the owners in the January following. 
So far as he could, President Napier 

of the Tidewater Building Company 

used for the Columbia contract such 

help as was obtainable locally, but the 

expert foremen were brought from 

New York ; and the company did its 

own ironwork, masonry, carpentry 

and painting. Brite & Bacon were 

the architects. 

The Tidewater Building Company 

does work with dispatch in any part 

of the country, and in a style uniformly 


Mr. A. Milton Napier, the president and chief executive, was 

trained in the office of McKim, Mead & White, and his associates 

are, like himself, all practical men of high-class experience. Mr. 

H. Stevenson is vice-president and Mr. Jos. P. Ranney is secretary 

and treasurer. This company recognizes the value of time in purely 

commercial projects, and from long 
practice in the best methods, in organ- 
izing large forces, and collecting and 
handling material, it can so lay out 
work that operatives can labor to- 
gether without interruption, and by 
orderly progression and sequence pro- 
duce the finished edifice in the shortest 
space of time and yet have it all 
well done. With the steadily increas- 
ing investment in single buildings it 
is a vital matter for owners to have 
their work done expeditiously. This 
company has also erected a number 
of fine private dwellings, including Mr. 
George Crocker's at Ramsey's, N. J. 

The main office of the Tidewater Building Company is at 25 

West 26th Street, New York City. Branch 227 St. Paul Street, 

Baltimore, Md. 

July 1. External construction fin- 


VOL XV. JUNE, 1904. No, 6. 


O a historian of the picturesque school, as well as to 
a man of imagination, old houses possess a ro- 
mance which archaeologists are sometimes apt 
to overlook. . The antiquary, over-zealous about 
mere inscriptions and the like, too often fails 
to penetrate beneath the surface of what he studies, los- 
ing in consequence that delightful aroma which clings to 
most ancient things, and unwittingly depriving his subject 
of one of its greatest charms. Old houses, as M. G. Le- 
notre, in "Vielles Maisons, Vieux Papiers," has shown bet- 
ter than any other modern writer, can be made as fascinating 
as great human personalities, as entrancing as works of fiction if 
studied in connection with the times through which they have 
passed. Instead of mere conglomerations of stone and mortar 
they then become living entities. Ancient buildings, indeed, ought 
always to be considered side by side with the events of history ; for 
these, sometimes, have an important bearing on their destinies, and 
leave the most eloquent traces on their interiors and exteriors. In 
a slighter degree, of course, than is the case with the works of great 
writers, but in a manner no less certain, is it possible to read, in 
the changes which old houses undergo from century to century, a 
partial story of ancient and modern times. 

France has witnessed so many political changes, so many tragic 
upheavals in the course of her history that in no other city in the 
world are romantic houses so numerous as in Paris. Unfortunately, 
the majority are devoid of any special architectural interest, time 
having laid a rough hand upon them ; and, though their records 
may have become exceedingly rich, it has been at the expense of 
beauty of form. Of the few now remaining in which architectural 
beauty and wealth of historical association are fairly equally bal- 
anced is a four-century-old house, standing at the corner of the 
Rue Bayard and the Cours-la-Reine, whose record is unique. Few, 
however, of the thousands of people, Parisians and visitors alike, 

Copyright, 1904, by "Architectural Record Company." All rights reserved. 
Entered May 22, 1902, as second-class matter, Post Office at New York, N. Y., Act of 
Congress, of March 3d, 1879. 



who, passing it daily on the cars and in cabs, admire its admirable 
proportions, could tell you much about it beyond the fact that it is 
called the "Maison de Franqois ler." They are as equally ignorant 
of the noteworthy fact at any rate for France, where houses are 
not commonly removed from place to place that it once stood at 
Moret, forty miles from the capital, as of those details of its striking- 
subsequent history which research has enabled me, in part, to re- 
constitute. They know vaguely that it is a fine specimen of Renais- 
sance work, and they may, possibly, venture to inform you that the 
medallions which ornament its facade are by Jean Goujon, as has 
been done by certain learned German archaeologists inaccurately. 
Rut that is all you will learn from them. Yet each group of beauti- 
fully sculptured children, each exquisite capital, each delicate pilas- 
ter, each inscription, almost every stone of this architectural jewel 
might tell them something. 

Moret is a small country town of exceedingly ancient origin, sit- 
uated on the river Loing, not far from where it joins the Seine, and 
about four miles from Fontainebleau. Enclosed on all sides by the 
magnificent forest, a better center could not be found by those en- 
gaged in sport, and it was this qualification which gave Francis I. 
ardent sportsman that he was the idea of building there a small 
house where he and his retinue could assemble before or after the 
chase. Accordingly, he had built an elegant little "pied-a-terre" 
just as a wealthy sportsman of to-day will build for himself a shoot- 
ing-box. That it was not intended to be used as a place of resi- 
dence, but as a temporary house where rest and refreshment could 
be obtained, is evident from the manner in which the rooms were 
arranged. A portico with three arcades formed a sort of open ves- 
tibule which occupied almost the whole of the ground floor, and 
opened into a little courtyard, which, in all probability, was sep- 
arated from the street by a low wall. A stybolate, breast-high, was 
the only thing preventing communication with the court. At right 
angles to the facade and on the left-hand side looking towards it 
was a beautiful doorway, surmounted by a magnificent salamander 
framed in an elaborately sculptured design and bearing an inscrip- 
tion, "Jevne Govvernement avit le vent" "A youthful government 
is influenced by the wind." On the first floor was a large room a 
sort of banqueting hall whose principal ornament was a choice 
mantelpiece. It was lighted by three small bays charmingly orna- 
mented with bas-reliefs and in perfect keeping with the decoration 
of the remainder of the building. Finally, on the upper cornice of 
the faqade was a second inscription "Qvi acit frenare lingum 
sentvmque donare fortier est illo qvi frangit viribus vrbes"- -"He 
who can curb his tongue and overcome his passions is stronger 
than he who takes cities by storm." 



There cannot be the slightest doubt that this house was built for 
the personal use of Francis I. The salamander is an unmistakable 
sign-manual ; the two inscriptions one showing that he had not 
long been on the throne when his architects received orders to 
build, the other that he commenced to reign with the good inten- 
tions of a young man just starting in life are additional proof. 
It is no mere supposition to say that he occupied it, on occasions, 
from time to time; no mere effort of the imagination to picture 
him there with his courtiers in the intervals of hunting and shoot- 
ing. We have plenty of trustworthy records bearing on the life of 
this royal lover of art and letters, and we can, without difficulty, 
place him in the framework of this Moret house. His great pas- 
sion from his early youth to the last days of his life was sport, 
which was so irresistibly attractive, indeed, that he frequently post- 
poned important business of State, until after he had satisfied his 
craving for the excitement of the chase. He kept his Court con- 
tinually moving from place to place from Fontainebleau to Ram- 
bouillet, Amboise, St. Germain, Blois, Compiegne,Villers-Cotterets, 
Chatellerault, or Moutiers, as the case might be. The branches of 
sport which he followed were falconry and what was called "la 
venerie de toiles," which was equivalent to a modern battue. But, 
unlike Louis XII., who was equally as keen a sportsman, he much 
preferred the latter to the former. "La venerie des toiles" was 
under the captaincy of M. d'Annchaud, afterwards a Marshal of 
France, whose hundred archers were charged with the placing of 
sheets of canvas sufficiently large and broad to enclose that part of 
the forest which had been selected for the battue. When this had 
been done, beaters drove the game towards the sheets, and, a suf- 
ficient quantity having been encircled, Francis and his friends did 
slaughter with bow and arrow or arquebuse. The king's sporting 
outfit made no light load ; fifty wagons were required to carry the 
canvas sheets and the planks and carpets for the tents. In addition 
to this "materiel," his hunting staff consisted of more than a dozen 
mounted huntsmen, fifty bloodhounds and six valets to look after 
them, and fifty ordinary sporting dogs in charge of six other men. 
The annual expenditure involved in these battues was about $100,- 
ooo, but double this amount was spent on falconry. No fewer than 
three hundred hawks were kept by Francis I., who was so inde- 
fatigable that he hunted both summer and winter. 

The little house at Moret must, therefore, have often been the 
scene of brilliant gatherings. In the summer Francis and his prin- 
cipal courtiers would meet in the vestibule on the ground floor, 
while the excited hounds gathered in the courtyard, moving hither 
and thither with tails waving on high and their tongues lolling, or 
eagerly crowding beneath the stylobate in hope of dainty morsels 


49 I 

FRoncovs en guerre eflvn Macs funcux 

ILn paix. Minccue &dianc aIacbalic=9Jt^ 
AbicnpaderMcreure cop 
A bicn aymervray Amour plem de grace 
O ii-dficc bcuLCufclxnotx donclafacc^v^jr 

d Roy c|in futpall 

Carlbonoranttuicrs en mdmc place 
Mincruc Mars, thane, Amour, AVcrcure*^ 


From an engraving of the original painting by Nicolo dell 'Abbate in the Cabinet 

des Estampes, BibliothSque Nationale. This picture, painted from life, was given to th 

Cabinet des Estampes of the King by Comte de Caylus on June 15, 1765. Verses by 


from the table of their royal master ; in Winter he would partake of 
refreshment in the upper room, where the large open fireplace made 
it possible to have a roaring, crackling fire of logs. These repasts 
after the hunt was over must have been particularly delectable, if 
what Brantome tells us is accurate ; for he states that the king's table 
was "un vraie ecole." since all manner of subjects were discoursed 
upon. Great captains were always in attendance at his board, de- 
lighting the king with their narratives of renowned fights, and he 
loved to have learned men, writers and artists by his side when he 
ate. 1 doubt not that, on more than one occasion during his reign, 
the learned Pierre Duchatel, called Castellanus, Bishop of Tulle, 
sat with him in the house at Moret and gave his opinion, as he was 
frequently called upon to do, on knotty points which arose during 
the conversation. And one can readily imagine the great protector 
of the arts turning his smiling, intelligent eyes upon him on re- 
ceiving some particularly ready and sound pronouncement, and 
saying, in much the same words as those once used to Benvenuto 
Cellini, at Fontainebleau, on receiving from him an exquisite cup 
and basin, "Castellanus, it is my real opinion that the ancient phil- 
osophers themselves could not have been given so wise an answer. I 
have read all their works, but never have they given me such high 
satisfaction as your words." Rarely did Francis I. let an oppor- 
tunity slip of encouraging learning. As everyone knows, the part 
which he played in the Renaissance of art and letters was all im- 
portant in the history of France. In regard to architecture, alone, 
he exercised a powerful influence; and it is certainly thanks to him, 
in a great measure, that we to-day possess such superb specimens 
of the work of Pierre Lescot, Jean Goujon, Philibert de I'Orme, 
Jean Ijiillant, Pierre Bontemps, and Germain Pilon. Which of 
these sculptor-architects it was who built and ornamented the 
Moret masterpiece is not on record. Its sculpture has frequently 
attributed to Jean Goujon ; but, although the merits of some of the 
capitals, pilasters, and panels amply justify the supposition, we 
must be content to look upon them as the work of an unknown 
artist. The general opinion among authorities on the Renaissance 
is that the house in many years anterior to the time of the authors 
of the Fontaine des Innocents. 

We will not follow the story of this Renaissance house subse- 
quent to the reign of Francis I. What was its history under Henry 
II.. under Francis II., under Charles IX., and their successors? 
Was it used for the purpose for which it had been built ; or was it 
transformed into a dwelling house, a secluded and convenient place 
of rendezvous for royal lovers ? On these points the records are 
silent. But it is almost certain that in the course of the next two 
hundred and thirtv vears from the death of Francis I. to the 



(Sketch of the Doorway made at Moret in 1825.) 


Revolution the little house was neglected and gradually fell into 
ruins. Such was the state, at any rate, in which we find it about 
1820. At the beginning of the last century attention being called 
to the beauty of its faqade, a number of sketches were made by 
architects and artists. Some of these are still in existence, enabling 
us to judge with perfect accuracy of its original aspect. One, a 
pencil drawing by M. Deroy, is reproduced as a frontispiece to 
Blancheton's "Yues pittoresque des chateaux de France;" careful 
engravings, based on another, are given in the second volume of 
N. X. Willemin's "Monuments Franqais Inedits" (1839); ar| d there 
is a third in Bosc's "Dictionnaire raisonne d'architecture et des 
sciences et arts" (1878), here reproduced, showing the doorway al- 
ready referred to, part of the frieze, and a small window which was 
to the left of the porch. The most interesting sketch, however, was 
an oil painting, executed prior to 1826, showing the facade and the 
doorway at right-angles to it, and recording the curious fact that 
the former "maison de chasse" of Francis I. was used at that time 
as the workshop or warehouse of a barrel-maker! The artist 
so I am told by a Parisian gentleman who saw the picture in the 
collection of M. Cain, the father of M. Georges Cain, the amiable 
curator of the Musee Carnavalet depicted hoops and staves on 
all sides. Unfortunately, this valuable archaeological record, 
which one could wish to see in the Cabinet des Estampes at the 
Bibliotheque Xationale, has disappeared ; it was either lost or 
stolen, M. Cain tells me, in the removal to his own house of his 
late father's collection. 

It was not for long, however, that the Moret house was put 
to such an unworthy use. A better fate was in store for it, and 
when the Government, in 1826, sold it to an art-lover of Paris, it 
entered upon a new existence. And not before it was time. At 
the latter end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth 
century its rich decoration suffered terribly, and but for the timely 
intervention of this "amateur des arts" there is no doubt it would 
quickly have gone to utter wreck and ruin. This gentlemen had 
the principal portions of the building carefully transported, stone 
by stone, to Paris. There, on the Cours-la-Reme, these scrupu- 
lously numbered "debris" were applied to a fresh building. All 
pieces of sculpture which had become worn by time were recarved 
after the model of existing perfect specimens. 

The restorers, as will be shown later on, were not always judi- 
cious in their work, and the arrangement and details of the Moret 
house were somewhat modified ; but taking all things into consider- 
ation, they did not do so badly. It is easy, with the records at our 
disposal, to see where they deviated from the original plans, to 
distinguish the genuine examples of sixteenth century work from 



(The Salamander in the Courtyard.) 

Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 



modern copies, and to detect portions of architecture which did not 
exist in the Moret building. There can be no doubt, for instance, 
that all the right-hand side of the fagade, with the exception of 
the bas-relief, which was originally above the arcade to the ex- 
treme right, is an invention of the restorers, whose object, it should 
be borne in mind, was not to produce an exact copy of the house 
at Moret, but to build an agreeable and harmonious house-front 
out of the fragments at their disposal. They were so heedless of 
archaeological exactitude that they placed the exceedingly beautiful 
doorway at the back of the house, and, moreover, separated it 
into two portions. The porch itself is now in the vestibule, the 
salamander and accompanying ornamentation are let into the wall 
of a private house, which now adjoins the "Maison de Francois I." 
in the courtyard. Hut let us return to our comparison of the pres- 
ent facade with the original one. 

"As to the first floor," says M. Leon Palustre in "La Renaissance 
en France." which, with Willemin's book, is the most reliable au- 
thority on the subject, "it also formed a large room lighted not by 
a series of windows in three groups but by the bays open only on 
the right of the keystone of each of the lower arcades. The mul- 
lions. ornamented with circles and little figures, did not exist, at 
any rate as they are to-day; but at the sides they formed a frame- 
work for blind-windows, which, because of the contrast of their 
solid surface, gave more value to the empty middle spaces." The 
termination of the building above the cornice, on which is the Latin 
inscription already given, is also the work of the restorers, since 
the exact character of the roof of the original house is unknown. 
Similarly, the seven medallions (but not the ornamental designs of 
fruit and flowers which encircle them) are modern work, and not 
very artistic specimens, either. Nevertheless, these medallions 
(representing Louis XII., Anne of Brittany, Francis II., Mar- 
guerite of Navarre, Henry II., Diana of Poitiers, and Francis I.) 
were actually attributed by the German critics Lubke and Kol- 
loff to the sixteenth century ! . Another slight addition, though 
not an architectural one, was an inscription on the cornice, viz. : 
"Inst. 1527 et rest. 1826." As Palustre says, the former date is in- 
accurate, the Moret house having undoubtedly been built much 
earlier in the sixteenth century ; it was inspired, probably, by the 
latter date, as much as to say that it was almost exactly three hun- 
dred years since its erection. 

In spite, however of these additions and alterations, the greater 
part of the faqade of this Paris house is genuine work of the 
Renaissance. Note the perfect art with which the three large ar- 
cades are ornamented ; the exquisitely delicate sculpture on the 
garlanded pilasters which separated tl>em, and the sweet curves of 



(Dcorway in the Vestibule.) 

Cours-lp.-Reine, Peris. 



(Bas-Relief to the Right of the Fagade.) 

Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 

two of the capitals those in which cupids figure. The last are 
particularly noteworthy, and especially the one with cornucopias 
and cupids swinging from lions' muzzles. Observe, also the archi- 
volts, on whose outer face, on each side of a foliated console 
which protrudes at the keystone, are harmonious foliations, and 
other similar ornamentations. As to the intrados, the decoration 
consists of a series of sunken panels on which figure either plants 
and flowers alone or these alternating with scenes inspired by the 
Labors of Hercules. "No less remarkable," says Palustre, "is the 
execution of other cupids standing, two by two, between the rich 
crowns of foliage, which, in the compartment above the first ar- 
cade to the left, are certainly authentic. They share this quality 
with the ravishing bas-reliefs at each end of the frieze represent- 
ing nude children occupied in various amusements. Probably, in 
the case of the one to the left, they represent some bacchanal fes- 
tival ; but it is impossible, in the one to the right, to interpret it, with 
Liibke, as a vintage-time scene. All the elements of such a com- 
position are lacking and the trees in low-relief have only a distant 
resemblance to green pampres." To finish with the subject of ar- 
chitecture, the beauty of which will be fully apparent from the 
photographs in detail, I may point out that the "magnificent man- 



(Bas-Relief to the Left of the FaQade.) 

Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 

telpiece," mentioned by historians as being in the room on the first 
floor at Moret, does not exist in the house on the Cours-la-Reine. 
Yet it was undoubtedly intact in 1826 and, presumably, was re- 
moved to Paris with other remains, since I find a reference to it 
in a description of the present house in the "Magasin Pittoresque" 
for 1834. It would be interesting to know what has become of it. 

After getting as far as the period of restoration in my investi- 
gations into the story of the "Maison de Francois ler," it occurred 
to me that it would be well to make inquiries into the identity of 
the "amateur des arts" who removed it to Paris. Much to my 
astonishment, my search brought to light an unexpected store of 
romance. Information obtained from M. J. Darcel, the present 
owner, who purchased the house from M. Fevrier, a notary, in 
1881, led to the discovery that, about 1826, it was in the possession 
of the celebrated actress Mile. Mars. But it was not she who ac- 
quired it from the Government in that year. The purchaser was a 
Colonel De Brae a "beau garqon," whose heart had been capti- 
vated by her beauty ; and the house, like his affection, was be- 
stowed upon the still brilliant star of the Comedie-Franc.aise. 
Though fast approaching at that time her fiftieth year, and within 
fifteen years of her farewell performance, Anne Franchise Hippo- 




(A Par.el in the Intrados of one of the Arcades.) 
Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 




(A Panel in the Intrados of one of the Arcades.) 
Cours-la-R3ine, Paris. 



(One of the Capitals.) 
Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 



Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 

(One of the Capitals.) 



lyle Boutet was as youthful on the stage and as beautiful as in the 
early days when she appeared before Napoleon. On the advent 
of the romantic drama (1830) she showed every bit as great talent 
as in the old repertory ; and when, in 1841, she acted at the Theatre 
Frnc,ais as Celimene in "Le Misanthrope," and as the Marquise 
in "Fausses Confidences," she astonished everybody by her juvenil- 
ity. Only two years before her retirement she had created the 
role of Mile, de Belle-Isle, in Alexandre Dumas' play, in such a 
manner as to make people believe she would never grow old. 

Mentioning her appearance before Napoleon reminds me 'that 
Mile. Mars remained passionately attached to his memory until 
the end of her days. It is related by Leon Gozlan in his "Chateaux 
de France" that when, on one occasion, he was at Rambouillet 
there was pointed out to him a certain little kiosk on an island of 
a lake where the great Corsican used to meet her in secret. The 
circumstance is quite sufficient to explain her pronounced Napo- 
leonic opinions, and the incidents which occurred at the Comedie- 
Franqaise during the Restoration. It is said that Louis XVIII.'s 
body-guard decided to make a demonstration against her. Hear- 
ing of their intention, the great actress exclaimed : "What has the 
King's body-guard in common with Mars?" a disdainful remark 
which did not mend matters. Appearing on the stage in a dress 
embroidered with bees and violets, the hostile party threw the en- 
tire theatre into an uproar. She was called upon to deny having 
spoken disrespectfully of the body-guard and to shout "Vive le 
Roi !" but she stoutly refused to do either. At last, out of all pa- 
tience, she got over the difficulty by a flash of wit. "You request 
me," she said, "to cry 'Vive le Roi !' Well, I have said it." She 
appears, however, to have become reconciled after a time to the 
new "regime ;" though, so strong was her attachment to Bona- 
parte and his cause, it is highly probable that her attitude was dic- 
tated merely by personal interests. Louis XVIII. settled upon her, 
as in the case of Talma, a pension of $6,000 a year, and to have 
persisted in a course of stubborn resistance to the reigning family 
would have been financially unwise. Mile. Mars could never have 
too much money. She squandered several princely fortunes ; had 
one of the finest mansions and the most beautiful diamonds in 
Paris ; and, towards the end of her life, acquired a taste for specu- 
lation on the Bourse. 

Now, this passion for gambling is closely connected with her 
ownership of the house on the Cours-la-Reine. She was the owner, 
not only of the "Maison de Francois ler," but of a good deal of 
the land where the Rue Bayard, the Rue Jean Goujon, and the Rue 
Francois ler are now situated. In disposing of this magnificent 
building site she determined that the little house which she had re- 



D KID ii IK 




(Italian Mantelpiece in the room facing the Terraced) 
Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 



ceived from Colonel De Brae should play a part. Her desire was 
to sell building plots at a higher price to the aristocracy, so she hit 
upon the happy plan of presenting the "Maison Francois ler" 
to Henry, Duke of Bordeaux. To place a home built on the sacred 
remains of the "maison de chasse" of a great King of France in the 
possession of the heir to the throne was an idea which could not 
tail to charm the aristocracy and aid in the realization of her object. 
But, unhappily for Mile. Mars' pocket, it was not she who founded 
the aristocratic quarter which the Cours-la-Reine, the Rue Bayard, 
and the Rue Franqois ler constitute to-day. The Revolution of 

(Room facing the Terrace.) 

Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 

July, 1830, dashed her hopes to the ground. Charles X. and his 
grandson fled to England ; Louis-Phillipe, Duke of Orleans, suc- 
ceeded to the throne ; and a serious financial crisis, in which Mile. 
Mars was a heavy loser, followed on these political changes. The 
prospects of the Bonapartist party were at this time at so low an 
ebb that the only man to protest openly against the candidature 
to the throne of the Duke of Orleans was a Captain Dumoulin, 
who, on July 2ist, appeared at the Hotel de Ville in a uniform so 
forgotten that the crowd mistook him for one of Charles X.'s 



body-guard. On attempting to distribute several thousand copies 
of an Imperialistic proclamation he was attacked and only escaped 
with his life by taking refuge in a room occupied by Lafayette. 
Meanwhile, the young King of Rome was languishing at the 
Court of Vienna, where, two years later, he was to die. 

Little more remains to be said of a house, the complete history 
of which is here related for the first time. It is now occupied by 
a gentleman, M. Darcel, who is a keen connoisseur of art, and 
who appreciates to the full the splendid artistic qualities of his 
property qualities which he never wearies of pointing out to visi- 
tors. 1 must not omit to mention, also, that he is the possessor of 
many art treasures, including fine old furniture, ancient carvings, 
and an exceedingly beautiful Italian mantelpiece the last-named 
being in the room on the ground floor opening on the terrace. In- 
side as well as outside the "Maison de Francois ler" is beautified 
by art. 

Bernard St. Lawrence. 


(Window to the left of the Facade.) 
Cours-la-Reine, Paris. 



Primitive Decorations in Iron and Bronze. 

FRIEND who lived many years in Japan was walk- 
ing across a deserted part of one of the great 
southern cities, once a busy quarter, but then 
burned over, when his foot struck something heavy 
and hard, yet none too resistant. Turning back he 
pushed the object clear of the ashes and unearthed a curio which 
he presented to me on his return. 

It is an octopus in bronze with snout and eyes pushed up on 
one side to simulate a face, the arms gathered under in small com- 
pass, more like waves or big moustaches than legs, the body 
swelled up to counterfeit the shaven head of a coolie above the 
eyes. To finish off the solemn comicality of the piece, a porter's 
knot is twisted around the bald head. The amusing adaptation 
of a marine monster to the head of a coolie, the whimsical ex- 
pression of the creature, the sly caricature of a body of honest 
laborers for hire, all combine to produce a work of art of no mean 
order, while anyone conversant with bronze must admire the 
technical skill of the casting. Men who can work so deftly and play 
as they work are sure of the admiration of later generations. 

This bronze was once part of some simple flimsy Japanese house 
or the furniture thereof. The bottom has been filed off in order 
to adapt it to a paperweight, and it stands before me on the library 
table now, blinking from protruding eyes with the slyest, most 
solemn air. There is no mark of maker or place, no inscription to 
give a clue to the period or forge. The able artisan who modeled 
it in beeswax is gone without a sign ; but we may be sure that he 
enjoyed his work and that in order to produce it there was a public 
keen of appreciation which encouraged such trifles by purchas- 
ing them for their delectation though with little interest in the 
artist who fashioned them. 

The use of bronze in temple and house goes back to remote 
times. In literature we get a hint of it from the description given 
by Homer in the Odyssey of the palace of Alkinous, king of 
the Phaeacians, the palace with a threshold of bronze. "Brazen 
were the walls that ran this way and that from the threshold to 
the inmost chamber and round them was a frieze of blue, and 
golden were the doors that closed in the goodly house. Silver were 
the door-posts that were set on the brazen threshold and silver 


the lintel thereupon, and the hook of the door was gold." The 
Phaeacians, embellished by the fancy of the poets, were in Homer's 
time perhaps a. tradition of the lordly palaces in Crete, whose 
foundations have been explored by Evans. There is no reason to 
doubt that bronze and silver were used to clothe walls and doors, 
since we know that at early periods the gates of cities on the Eu- 
phrates were so treated. The description in the Bible of Solomon's 
temple suggests the same, where it speaks of the wood being "over- 
laid with gold," the roof covered with tiles of gold, and the porch 
embellished with the symbolical "pillars of brass" with capitals of 
molten brass decorated with lily work, chain work and pomegran- 
ates. Here we may suppose the columns were of wood on which 
plates of brass or bronze were fitted and held in place by nails, 
while the capitals of "molten brass" were castings. There is no 
reason to believe that the Phoenicians who built the temple for 
Solomon, or the architects of Egypt and Mesopotamia whom the 
Phoenicians copied, possessed the mechanical devices for casting, 
transporting and setting up such large objects in one solid piece 
as the pillars in the porch of the temple. 

The description of the capitals of "molten brass" will recall the 
argument that the prototype of the so-called Corinthian Greek 
capital as we know it must have been originally of metal, because 
the foliage on it is too elaborate and undercut to have been first 
carved in wood or stone. Its title of Corinthian rests on no his- 
torical basis worthy of the name, but the fact that Corinth was as 
celebrated for its metal work as for its pottery may be noted as a 
point in favor of the supposition that elaborate capitals for columns 
were once cast at Corinth and that after these bronze capitals were 
copied in stone in Asia Minor and Italy, and occasionally elsewhere 
in Greece itself, the term Corinthian adhered to them. At the same 
time we have no evidence of the existence of solid metal capitals 
and very imperishable things they are, if once they get buried 
in any of the countries about the Mediterranean. On the other hand 
the metal plates of ancient tombs within and without, the over- 
lays of bronze on gates and temple walls and other easily portable 
bits of metal in architecture were, of course, the first objects to 
be taken from a ruined house or temple or tomb after it was given 
over to plunder. So that the absence of such things from ancient 
sites does not prove they were unknown. 

Iron, on the other hand, had no such records from antiquity to 
boast of like bronze, though its use for tools and weapons goes 
far back. So far as architecture is concerned, iron is a metal alto- 
gether modern in its use, but it is making up for lost time. Within 
one century it has driven stone out of the field for the construc- 
tion of bridges and within the last half century we have instances 


of iron churches, iron domes for great public edifices, iron markets, 
railway stations, office buildings, iron for dwellings and for sheds 
and barns in agricultural countries, England led the way in the use 
of iron for bridges more than a century ago, and France, 
a country that values more than any other the precedents of 
classical times, erected at Paris a number of churches of iron, 
Saint Eugene and Saint Augustin, for example. Just now we are 
about to see the state of Alabama casting in iron a statue fifty 
feet high as the contribution of her iron industries to the world's 
fair at St. Louis. 

The very word we use for the metal in question is a puzzle to 
those who delve into the origins of terms. Most of the Aryan 
peoples use words for iron that hark back to the same root, for 
Latin ferrum merely retains the "f" which has fallen before our 
word from German "eisen" and Norse and Irish "iarn." We can 
see that also in the Irish word "fiarlann," a curved blade, where 
the "f" still adheres. The best we can do is to suppose that it 
comes down from some general term for ore, such as Sanskrit 
shows in "ayas," Latin in "aes" and German in "erz." But then 
we can make little of such forms as "sidereos" in Greek and 
"rauta" in Finnish. The impression we get from this, however, 
is the great antiquity of the metal, contrary to the idea formerly 
prevalent that bronze is an older metal in the hand of primitive 
man than iron. 

As to "bronze" we are not much better off, but the testimony of 
language seems to corroborate the idea that it is a metal younger in 
history than iron. Attempts have been made to allv it with "brown," 
owing to its color, the trail leading back through an Italian 
term, brunezza, swarthiness ; also with "to burn," because it was 
used for soldering metals. Those who derive the names of metals 
from places whence they were imported, as currants were so called 
because they came from Corinth, propose the town of Brundisium 
in South Italy through which they imagine the metal was imported 
from the Levant. Copper (cuprum) was certainly named from the 
island of Cyprus ; so the analogy is pushed that this alloy of cop- 
per and tin or zinc was named from the "Brundisian" metal, 
the term becoming "bronzo" for short. This etymology has 
not been received with enthusiasm. Be that as it may, we are 
more interested in the uses to which these two metals are put in 
modern times than in the fancies of the philologist. 

Although it is evident that bronze weapons were easier to 
make and easier to repair and did not rust like iron, so that they 
were both cheaper and more convenient, it is more than probable 
that iron was known in what is called the Bronze Age. Arrow 
and spear heads of different forms were made at the same time, 






also iron swords. But where moisture can reach it, iron is soon de- 
stroyed by rust, so that the earth and waters yield many bronze ob- 
jects, while the absence of things in the other metal does not neces- 
sarily mean they did not exist. On the contrary, we may believe 
that from the streams and rocks and wherever else iron could be 
mined without trouble this metal was taken, though in less quan- 
tities than bronze and put to use under greater difficulties. Hence 
the peculiar importance given to the iron forge and the blacksmith 
among primitive people. 

The ancient religions of northern Europe have glorified the work 
of the forge by giving the hammer to Scandinavian Thor and 
Gaulish Taranis, gods who used the celestial hammer as Zeus used 
the thunderbolts. We recognize the impression made upon bar- 
baric nations by the wonder-working combination of fire and wind, 
the shop of the blacksmith becoming a place of magic. Endless 
are the variations in folk lore on this fruitful theme. From Greece 
we have descriptions of the forging of armor by Hephaistos and 
from Finland imaginative details of the wondersmith Ilmarinen, 
who was very properly allied to the gods of air. From the literature 
of old Ireland we have a pen picture of an establishment for the 
forging of iron weapons in the story of the battle of Magh Mu- 
cruihme (Moy Muckroo), from the Book of Munster. King Art, the 
chief king of Ireland, whose period is set by the Irish annalists 
in the second century after Christ, takes a solitary ramble on the 
day before the decisive battle waged against an army of rebels 
and foreign mercenaries from Great Britain and Gaul. 

He chanced to stray and wander from his path; but had not 
gone far when he saw the branchy, thick foliaged wood and 
heard what surprised him much, the "great thunder, the heavy 
tramp, great loud rattle and reverberating sounds and commotion 
on all sides, and he saw the boarded spear-factory with its clean- 
bordered smoke chimney upon it." It was extensive, broad-yarded 
and had seven noble wide doorways. This great edifice was not, 
however, a place of ease and rest "owing to the active rubbing of 
the blades on the grinding stones, the expert working of the 
tongs, the noise of the working of the bellows, the sledges and 
the anvils, the roar of the fires on the hearths, the hissing screech 
of the edged weapons when being tempered, the shrill noise or 
clashing of the hard-tempered, tough-bending swords that were be- 
ing rubbed with the files and the simultaneous exertions of the pupil- 
armorers (Felmacs), the apprentices (Foglomantai) and the brave 
men working with those tools, so that endless black, smoky, 
opaque clouds, enveloping and concealing everything, and showers 
of red, fiery sparks were emitted from the broad sides and great 
flanks of that forge (ceardha)." 







Speaking of Ireland, it is not a little curious to find that 
bronze was used in the interiors of the houses of chieftains who 
lived in constant close contact with their retainers and especially 
on the couches of the great assembly hall. The early buildings in 
Ireland were of wattle and thatch, often circular in shape, having 
a fireplace in the middle with a hole in the conical roof for the es- 
cape of smoke. Wood was more rarely used as a material for 
building, while only later, perhaps as late as the conquest of 
England by William, were stone buildings erected to any great ex- 
tent, even for churches. Exception, of course, must be taken for 
the small oratories and the round towers; also for the beehive 
cabins in those parts of Ireland where a great scarcity of trees 
forced the inhabitants to construct stone huts. The fronts of the 
couches between the fireplace and outer wall were often covered 
with bronze. 

The old stories speak of canopies of bronze or silver over the 
king's couch. Bronze or silver pillars supported the canopy. While 
the bards gave rein to their imagination when describing such 
things, the foundation of their sketch is always an actual object. 
Thus, from the description of the circular palace of King Ailill and 
Queen Meave (the original of Queen Mab in English poetry), we 
learn that bronze was used as an embellishment of the interior 
fittings, just as among the Assyrians and the Phaeacians of Homer. 
This circular house was in four compartments, each compartment 
having seven divisions for couches reaching from the wall to the 
central fireplace. 

"A front of bronze upon every couch ; facings of red yew with 
moulded ornamentations upon them all. Three columns of 
bronze in the front of every couch. Seven strips of bronze from 
the concave roof oi the couch (the canopy) to the roof of the 
house. The house was made of fir and covered with shingles on 
the outside. There were sixteen windows to the house with 
doors of bronze upon each of them. A yoke of bronze across the 
door into the courtyard. Four pillars of bronze on the couch of 
Aillil and Meave and ornamentations of bronze upon them all ; 
and the couch was in the real centre of the house. Two railings 
of silver embellished with gold about it. A silver wand in front 
capable of reaching with its sound the centre of the courtyard of the 

We may suppose that this was only one building among many 
close together within the wall of the royal abode in Cruachan, for 
others are mentioned. It was the assembly house for the royal 
couple, their courtiers and guests, the couches representing chairs 
of state, but capable of being used for sleeping as well as feasting. 
When Ailill wished silence or desired to stop a discussion that 


boded a quarrel he seized the silver wand before his couch and 
striking the bronze canopy supported by the four bronze columns 
gave notice by the clang that conversation should cease. 

That there ever existed literally such a palace it is not necessary 
to suppose ; but the liberal use of copper, bronze and brass among 
the early people of Europe, the remains of ancient chariots, 
shields, war-horns and helmets of bronze in the museums, which 
have been found in Italy, France, Germany, Scandinavia and Ire- 
land in the bogs and in graves, give us to understand that such a 
description as this \vas based on facts and that during certain 
periods the smiths and bronze-founders of Ireland were nowise be- 
hind the artificers of the rest of Europe, more especially during 
those centuries when the continent was ravaged by the wars that 
destroyed the power of the Roman Empire. 

The covering of gates, doors, windows and fronts of couches 
with sheet bronze which we find in Assyria, ancient Italy and old 
Ireland, could not have had its origin in a feeling for decoration, 
but must have had a practical purpose at first. Evidently it was 
to give a stay to the attacks of fire. The enemy could not burn 
gates and doors if sheathed with metal. The front of couches was 
protected from the sparks from the wood fires burning in 
the centre of the primitive house. Later came the impulse 
to make the safeguards beautiful. In their storehouses, built of 
thick plaster walls and wood, the Japanese us 2 bronze to offer 
resistance to the fires that devastate their towns. Bronze plates are 
also employed to bind together the wood of boxes and large carv- 
ings. These are useful, but the artistic sense of the Japanese 
has made them things of beauty by hammering and chiseling the 
metal and stamping them out in forms that suggest the leaves of 
plants and trees ; gilding and lacquer are often further means of 
embellishment. Especially do the Japanese beautify and accentuate 
the joints of wooden construction by such tastefully shaped and 
chiseled, hammered and colored applications of metal. 

This slight sketch of the employment of metals in a decorative 
way among the old peoples might be extended to embrace those 
of Syria, Persia and India, and instances might be given from 
tribes in Central Africa. But I am not reviewing the records of 
the past. All that is necessary is to recall the fact that there are 
many ways for the use of metals within and without our public 
and private buildings which are never tried in modern times. On 
the other hand, we employ metals in a thousand ways the ancients 
and the Orientals never dreamed of. 

Charles de Kay. 





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Executed by the Sterling Bronze Co. Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



Executed by the Gorham Manufacturing Co. 



(Building of the Land Title and Trust Company, Philadelphia, Pa.) 
Executed by the Chicago Ornamental Iron Works. D. H. Burnham .& Co., Architects. 



Executed by W. S. Tyler Co. Hubbel & Benes, Architects. 




Illinois Trust and Savings Bank. 

Executed by Winslow Bros. & Co. D. H. Burnham & Co., Architects. 



Executed by C. Colnik Manufacturing Co. 



Executed by Sterling Bronze Co. 



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Executed by Gorham Manufacturing Co. 



Executed by William H. Jackson Company. 



Executed by John Williams. 




HILE it may be some time before all the lessons of 
the great Baltimore fire will have been learned, one 
point, at least, appears to have been clearly demon- 
strated, which is that concrete-steel construction 
went through the terrible ordeal with remarkable 
results, and has thereby demonstrated its superi- 
ority as structural material for buildings. A small four-story build- 
ing with a cast-iron front located in the heart of the burned district, 
was originally a brick building, with ordinary wooden joist floors. 
Recently, however, the floors were taken out and the entire in- 
terior reconstructed with concrete-steel columns, girders and floors, 
while the brick walls were retained for the enclosure of the build- 
ing. The fire demolished a large portion of the walls, but the en- 
tire concrete construction, columns, girders and floors, remained 
standing uninjured by the fire and intact, except some slight bruises 
inflicted by falling walls. What a pity that the walls, too, had not 
been of concrete ; for in such case the result must surely have been 
very different. 

In view, therefore, of the remarkable test which this wonderful 
material so successfully withstood, the entire architectural and en- 
gineering professions, as well as the builders and the building pub- 
lic, should be interested to know that while concrete-steel is not by 
any means a new material, or rather combination of materials, 
and has been seriously taken up only in recent years, it has never- 
theless long since passed the experimental stage, and fully demon- 
strated its general adaptability to the many complex prob- 
lems of modern building, even to the most exacting of all; 
the skyscraper the first example of which is the Ingalls Build- 
ing, built on the northeast corner of Fourth and Vine Streets, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. It is, indeed, an accomplished fact the first con- 
crete skyscraper. It was begun in the fall of 1902 and has just been 
completed, having required in its erection but very little longer 
time than the standard steel cage type would have done, and at 
probably somewhat less cost. It is but fair to add, also, that in the 
next building of this kind not only the cost, but also the time re- 
quired for completion, would undoubtedly be considerably reduced ; 
and without question this process will be carried to a much higher 
development as the material comes to be more thoroughly studied 
and understood. The rapidly increasing production of high-grade 
Portland cement in this country cannot fail to help further in re- 
ducing the cost and insuring the popularity of the construction. 










Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architect!. 


The Ingalls Building occupies the entire area of a corner lot, 
50x100 feet, and is fifteen stories and a full attic, practically six- 
teen stories, rising to a height of 210 feet above the sidewalks. 
The one-half of the basement is the usual twelve feet deep ; but the 
other half, containing the power plant, is twenty feet deep. The 
foundations extend five feet below this, so that the entire height of 
the structure from the bottom of the foundation is 235 feet, entirely 
concrete-steel. In fact, it is a concrete box of 8-inch walls, with 
concrete floors and roof, concrete beams, concrete columns, con- 
crete stairs ; the whole entirely devoid of the usual I-beams, Z-bars, 
angle irons, plates, rivets and bolts.. It consists merely of bars 
embedded in concrete, with the ends interlaced, making actually a 
complete concrete monolith of the entire building, covered on the 
exterior with a veneer from four to six inches thick of white marble 
for the lower three stories, glazed gray brick for the next eleven, 
and glazed white terra cotta for the top story and cornice. 

The principles of concrete-steel are rapidly coming to be fairly 
well understood, especially so by the structural engineers ; for, after 
all, it is primarily an engineering problem. But without question, 
a large proportion of the profession, and certainly the great ma- 
jority of architects have not as yet had actual experience in its 
use, and perhaps have not given the subject the serious considera- 
tion which it deserves. 

A brief description, therefore, may not be out of place at this 
point. In the first place then, let it be understood that for struc- 
tural purposes the concrete should be made of strictly high-grade 
Portland cement, clean sand, containing, if possible, grains of 
variable size, and crushed stone or gravel. In the superstructure, 
limestone should not be used, as it would too readily be injured in 
a fire. Such concrete should be dense, that is to say, the voids 
should be well filled, and all thoroughly tamped. Enough water 
should be used to make a soft concrete, so as to insure perfect 
contact with the steel bars ; for concrete-steel, it must be remem- 
bered, depends for its strength chiefly upon the adhesion between 
the concrete and the steel. The concrete itself is figured only in 
compression, never in tension; and wherever tension occurs, this 
is to be taken up by the steel bars ; as, for instance, in the bottom 
of a beam or footing, or near the surface of a column where wind 
or other bending stresses must be considered. The compression 
in columns is taken up chiefly by the concrete ; but where this is 
not sufficient, vertical steel bars are inserted, which, however, must 
be thoroughly tied together to prevent spreading. Shearing 
stresses in beams and columns are taken up first by the concrete, 
but this must be reinforced by bars placed across the line of shear. 

The floors are preferably made in slabs of uniform thickness and 



Showing Method of Construction. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 


reinforced near the underside with bars of steel mesh of various 
forms. It is of utmost importance, however, that the amount of 
steel used should be determined by actual calculation, and not by 
guesswork or rule of thumb, as is apt to be the case. Walls, if used 
merely as curtain walls, may be as thin as three to four inches, or 
not more than six to eight inches, as may be required by the depth 
of the window box. They should, however, be reinforced by a net- 
work of bars, placed not over three or four feet apart both verti- 
cally and horizontally, to prevent shrinkage cracks*. 

In the Ingalls Building, described here, a system of cold-twisted 
square bars was used throughout. This gives excellent results, 
due to the greatly increased tensile strength of the bars after 
twisting, and the mechanical grip of the twisted bar on the con- 

The floors are continuous slabs 5 inches thick, reinforced with 
a mesh of f-inch square twisted steel bars from 18 to 20 inches on 
centers in both directions and strengthened by a beam or rib across 
the center of the column bay of 16x32 feet, dividing this into two 
panels, each 16 feet square, without any other supporting beams. 

The columns have stiffening bars placed on two opposite sides 
near the surface to take the wind strains. They are further rein- 
forced near the center by compression bars, which take up all such 
load as may be required in excess of the carrying capacity of the 
concrete alone. These bars not being in tension need not be twisted, 
and accordingly plain round bars were used of various sizes, accord- 
ing to location, from 2\ to 3^ inches in the basement, diminishing 
in numbers and sizes in succeeding stories until they were reduced 
to i-inch and then entirely abandoned at about the tenth floor, 
from which point on, the concrete was sufficient to do all the work. 
The interior or compression bars had the ends milled off and were 
joined just above the floor level by a sleeve of steam pipe, a trifle 
larger than the bars and grouted with cement. They were then 
tied together firmly at three or four points in the height by small 
bars bent around them. The exterior or wind bars were joined in 
the center of the story height by splices, which consisted of several 
smallers bars wired about the joint. The columns were further 
reinforced by means of hoops of |-inch bars, placed around all the 
bars near the surface at intervals of from 12 to 18 inches through- 
out the height: As stated before, these prevent the spreading of 
the bars and take up the excess of vertical shear. 

The question has been asked as to how the girders were con- 
nected to the columns. Very simple, indeed ; the girder bars merely 
extend in between the column bars and the concrete of the one be- 
ing monolithic with that of the other completes and perfects the 
connection, than which nothing could be more secure. The walls 




Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Showing Method of Construction. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 



above the piers of the lower two stories are 8 inches thick and 
afford the best possible system of wind bracing, inasmuch as the 
entire mass between the head of one window and the sill of the 
one next above is figured as a beam with rods top and bottom. 

The method of supporting the exterior facing of marble, brick, 
or terra cotta, as the case may be, is as simple as it is effective. 
In the case of the marblework or granite, if such be used, for the 
lower stories, a concrete ledge or corbel is formed around the 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Showing Method of Floor Construction. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 

piers just below the sidewalk level, and these afford the necessary 
foundation for such face work. 

In the case of the face brick above, the various floor slabs are 
merely extended out beyond the wall three inches. This forms a 
ledge for the support of the brick facing, each story being inde- 
pendent of the other, and is afterward covered with i-inch tile, or 
whatever may be desired. 

All the face work, however, is securely anchored by means of 
round wrought-iron bars which are built into the concrete by boring 
holes of proper size through the wood forms and inserting the 
anchors, which are perfectly straight at the time, but are afterwards 


bent to suit; they must be straight so that the form work can be 
drawn over them upon being removed, when the concrete has suffi- 
ciently set. 

In case of the cornice, which is of terra cotta, the roof slab was 
simply projected out as a cantilever to the required distance, which 
in this case was 5 feet. Sleeves of sheet iron were inserted at proper 
points and remained built into the concrete, and bolts to secure 
the terra cotta were afterward inserted through them and grouted 
in place. 

In a brief sketch like this, it would be impossible to describe the 
points of advantage peculiar to this method of construction. 
There are many, and it might suffice to say that numerous new 
problems are encountered, and while they are all solved in a satis- 
factory manner, it must be remembered that this is the first at- 
tempt to make a consistent application of the concrete-steel sys- 
tem to the skyscraper problem. It has apparently been eminently 
satisfactory, yet it is not claimed to be final in all respects, and 
there will undoubtedly be marked improvements here and there 
as the system develops. 

Let us hope that engineers and architects may apply themselves 
earnestly to the question, so that little time may be lost in perfect- 
ing at last a rational system of construction, which will make 
impossible such disastrous fires as that of Baltimore. 

During the progress of the work on the Ingalls Building, some 
men of great ability who should have known better, predicted that 
the structure would never reach the roof, and that even if it did, 
it would certainly crack all to pieces by shrinkage and that it could 
not possibly withstand wind pressure. The facts are that it did 
reach the roof ; that there are no shrinkage cracks, and that the 
building not only has not blown over, but that in the highest winds, 
there is not even a perceptible tremor, and that too with concrete 
walls only eight inches thick from bottom to top, and the floors 
but five inches thick in unbroken slabs sixteen feet square, a por- 
tion of which on the second floor carries a bank vault weighing 
nearly a hundred tons. 

Such and other equally absurd arguments having fallen to the 
ground. The opponents of this construction pointed first to what 
they were pleased to call excessively large columns ; then they re- 
ferred to failures of various concrete constructions, and finally dis- 
covered that the steel building could be erected more rapidly than 
the concrete one. 

These arguments, which appear to be the only ones left to the 
opponents of concrete, are really not more substantial than the 
others. In the first place, the column design, especially in the lower 
portion of the structure, was almost wholly a new proposition, and 



Cincinnati, Ohio 

Showing Method of Construction. 

Elzner & Anderson, Architects. 



was largely controlled by a spirit of conservatism, which was but 
natural in so radical a departure. As a matter of fact the columns 
might readily be made much smaller, perhaps not much larger than 
a properly fireproofed steel column. Manifestly the sizes of con- 
crete structural members have not yet been reduced to the most 
economical basis, and it may, and undoubtedly will, require some 
little time, for since it is a comparatively new field of engineering, 
it must have time to grow. I Jut that it will grow and will mature 


Showing Method of Stair Construction. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. Elzner & Anderson. Architects. 

just as steel engineering did, there can be no doubt, for we have 
but to look at the research of such men as Considere and others, to 
marvel at the possibilities in store for us with this remarkable 

Regarding the failures of concrete constructions which have oc- 
curred and which are much to be deplored, it is only fair to say that 
the popularity of the new method has been so great that anybody 
and everybody has rushed into it, and as will happen in such events, 


without stopping to secure experienced foremen or engineers, who, 
by the way, must naturally be scarce in these first few years of 
development. But time will correct all this, as it will also the last 
argument : that of increased facility of erection. If the first con- 
crete skyscraper required only a few months longer in erection than 
did the most recent one in steel, which has passed through nearly 
a generation of development, it cannot be difficult to believe that 
in a few years this slight difference in time will not only disappear, 
but that in this, as in all other points, the race will be to the con- 

Now let us view the question from a purely architectural stand- 
point. We have been told over and over again that the skyscraper 
problem still remains unsolved. The critics 4 will have it that there 
must be no imitation or representation of masonry construction, 
and that in some way or other still to be discovered or invented, 
the steel skeleton must find adequate expression through its fire- 
proof casings. Perhaps so ; but it will be a difficult thing to do 
with entire consistency. Again, if the dress is not to be an imita- 
tion, even of masonry, then it is clear that we cannot well have a 
dress at all, and be truthful in our design. And since the building 
laws very properly require the steel skeleton to be covered, we 
cannot escape the use of an architectural dress. In other words, 
as long as the visible architecture of the steel skeleton building 
will, as it evidently must, remain a mere sham construction, the 
critics will never be able to accord it a place in true art. 

The only way out of the dilemma, therefore, would seem to turn 
to concrete, and see what solution this construction has to offer. 
Already it is beginning to assert itself ; slowly, of course, but surely. 
Before long it will enter into friendly rivalry with steel ; then will 
follow sharp competition, and finally a struggle for popularity. 

Because, first of all, concrete will form a better investment. Did 
it not pass through the terrible Baltimore fire better than steel? 
And this fact carries with it a long story of incidental fire losses, 
greater endurance, preservation, and what not? 

Then, too, it will be considerably cheaper. It requires a great 
deal of capital these days, and always will, to equip and operate 
a steel plant, and the price of structural steel has been pretty well 
settled, and is not likely ever to be very much less than it has been. 
Moreover, it can be produced only in certain limited locations, 
which involves long hauls and heavy freight bills. 

On the other hand, the manufacture of Portland cement involves 
a comparatively small amount of capital and very small operating 
expenses. Deposits of suitable material are being discovered every- 
where in all parts of the country (and we are only interested in this 



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country at present), and cement plants are springing up in most sur- 
prising numbers. This activity is bound to continue in an increas- 
ing ratio as the demand for this wonderful material grows. It 
follows, therefore, that production is not susceptible to the control 
of combines to such an extent as is the case with steel ; the result 
of which naturally will be relatively lower prices for cement. 

Now to turn to the third argument in behalf of concrete. This 
will appeal to our friends the critics, for it deals with the purely 
architectural question, which, after all, is the greatest and highest 
and will endure long after all others have been silenced. Inasmuch 
as a concrete building is not built up like masonry, but is actually 
poured into a mould in its entirety, it at once becomes a mono- 
lithic structure, every particle of which is doing structural duty ; 
and this can be said truthfully and without hesitation. Now then, 
it is not incumbent upon us to face the concrete with marble, or 
brick and terra cotta, as was done in the Ingalls Building, for rea- 
sons of momentary expediency, for as the state of art advances, the 
architectural forms, mouldings and what not, will be incorporated 
with the moulds for the structural work, and upon removing the 
form work, the surface of the exposed concrete, will be given the 
desired finish of rubbing or tooling, as the case may be. Thus we 
will have a truly rational architecture, in which there is no sham, 
no deception, a solid thing, no joints, every member incorporated 
v\ith and a part of a living body ; living because it is straining every 
particle of its substance in the performance of a great work, in its 
own self-preservation; a living architecture, indeed, and a rational 
one in every sense of the word, which will rise far above criticism 
an! endure as long as the hands of man shall not be raised to its 


A. 0. Elzncr. 

Executed by the Gorham Manufacturing Co. 


N the course of the remarkable expansion which has 
placed the United States in its present command- 
ing position, its building industry, as a natural con- 
sequence, has undergone radical changes. 

In spite of this fact the general methods of de- 
signing and executing work, so far as it devolves 
upon the architect, remain to a great extent as before, and it would 
therefore seem reasonable to assume that the present custom of 
employing consulting architects as confidential agents of owners, 
and the present manner of letting work to builders may be consid- 
ered as having stood every test and as likely to be adhered to in 
general features for an indefinite period to come. 

Experience has taught, however, that as between the architect 
and the builder, the work is not in all respects divided 
in an entirely logical and reasonable manner, in that certain 
parts of the detail drawings and outlays (shop outlays, set- 
ting plans, etc.) have been removed from their natural connections 
in the architect's office and now form part of the builder's work, 
because the present antiquated system of architects' charges ren- 
der it impossible otherwise to provide for them. 

Under modern conditions full and complete drawings and out- 
lays and ample superintendence and testing constitute the 
requisites of speedy and economical building. This has been amply 
illustrated by past experience in the building trades themselves as 
well as in the work of civil and mechanical engineering, and it ap- 
pears equally logical and, in fact, self-evident, that this work and the 
entailed responsibility should be placed upon the architect. 

This can be accomplished by in some way establishing a ra- 
tional system of architects' charges based on the elements of ser- 
vices rendered or else by leaving the question to be regulated by 
natural laws. 

Our present system, if it deserves that name, is in reality nothing 
but an obsolete rule of the i8th century established for the public 
buildings of France as a fair average for a rather uniform class of 
work which, therefore, takes no account whatever of the infinite 
variety of modern types of buildings, conditions of employment, in- 
dividual requirements, standing of practitioner, etc., and the appli- 
cation of which to modern work is indeed, as George Edmund 
Street is said to have remarked even fifty years ago, "a great 


History of the Five Per Cent. Rule. 

Under the schedule established by the American Institute of 
Architects, the compensation for so-called full services is fixed at 
five per cent, on the cost. Historically, percentage rules and more 
particularly the 5 per cent rule originally came into being as a fair 
average for the public buildings of France. Previous to the end of 
the :8th century all architects were probably paid salaries or grants. 
However, with the beginning of the architectural profession in the 
modern sense of the word during the i8th century it seems to have 
become customary in France to pay the architects for public work 
five per cent, on the cost as a fair average for a class of architects 
and a class of work very nearly uniform in standing and character. 
This custom was enacted into law during the French Revolution, 
was adopted by most architectural bodies as the only precedent 
available and gradually spread to other countries. It was probably 
the best that could be done under the circumstances then prevail- 
ing. But at the present day, while not underestimating the 
past usefulness of the five per cent, rule, the impression is undoubt- 
edly gaining ground, that the architectural profession has entirely 
outgrown the necessity for it ; that it is, in fact, now difficult of ap- 
plication, unjust in its workings and productive of conditions oper- 
ating to the distinct injury of the building interests of the country 
at large. 

It may be observed, at this juncture, that European and Ameri- 
can conditions in the architectural profession are not at all identical, 
and neither are those of the building trades. The conditions of 
architects' employment vary considerably in the different European 
countries and are everywhere different from those prevailing in 
the United States ; in England, for instance, the five per cent, rule 
really means seven and one-half per cent, in addition to the wages 
of the superintendent, two and one-half per cent, on the cost being 
added for quantity surveying.. 

In order to meet the objections to percentage schedules, amend- 
ments and classifications have been tried, in some European coun- 
tries on a very elaborate scale. But the difficulties of charging so 
as to meet the ever-increasing complexity of conditions determin- 
ing architects' employment are steadily multiplying and it is always 
an open question to what extent owners would accept amendments. 

The very fact of the classification shows also that the five per 
cent, schedule cannot be applied to all classes of buildings, and that 
the originally fair average for public buildings in France. is not fair 
and reasonable for all classes of buildings to-day. At the same 
time it is clear that the establishing of several percentage rules in- 
stead of one must be a fruitful source of trouble and contentions. 


The Present Schedule in Its Application. 

We referred above to the fact that the five per cent, rule originally 
represented an average and probably a fair average for services 
rendered. Such is not the case under modern conditions. Heat- 
ing, plumbing, electric wiring, steel constructions and all the thou- 
sand and one improvements and appliances now to be located and 
studied to the great complication of plans did not exist. Each local- 
ity possessed only one or two materials of each kind, as a rule, and 
the present enormous market of materials and variety of construc- 
tions were yet to come. Under present conditions a greatly in- 
creased amount of drawing, supervision and other work has thus 
gradually been added to the architect's work. On the other hand, 
the changed conditions which have brought it about have also 
made the services of capable architects exceedingly valuable in a 
new direction, in that the selection of materials and methods of con- 
struction for a given purpose, necessarily leave a wide scope for ex- 
ercise of judgment in the accomplishment of the greatest possible 
results with the least expenditure. 

The architects of the United States have thus gradually come 
face to face with a new condition, vastly increasing their work, 
outlays and responsibilities and clue mainly to the following condi- 
tions, namely : 

1. The new systems of construction and complicated appliances. 

2. The variety of materials available. 

3. The speed of execution demanded. 

4. The increased cost of labor to offset which a better organiza- 
tion of the builders work became necessary with increased shop 
work and reduced field work. 

At the same time the organization of a building enterprise grad- 
ually became impossible except on the basis of complete and well- 
studied architects' plans. While the work and responsibility of the 
architect were thus vastly increased, it is also true that buildings 
became more expensive because more complicated, and in many 
cases the present schedule is fairly satisfactory.. But in the great 
majority of cases it is not so, and as between the different classes 
of buildings it is unfair in operation, the simple constructions and 
work of repetition being vastly more remunerative than compli- 
cated structures and work requiring careful study in all its parts, 
which is, of course, the exact reverse of what a rational schedule 
should accomplish. It also provides for a supervision which is in 
reality insufficient and therefore unworkable. 

I think there can be no question that a more complete system of 
shop drawings would both cheapen buildings and shorten the time 
of construction and the architect should be put in a position to 



prepare these drawings absolutely complete and ready for the work- 
men, which is not now the case. In some cases the arrangement I 
here suggest has proved indispensable, for instance in the matter of 
steel constructions, etc., where the specifications require the con- 
tractor to include in his bid the cost of the shop drawings at a cer- 
tain price per ton, the engineer to be appointed by the architect. 

The Principle of Percentage Schedules. 

Another series of objectionable features may be said to have their 
origin in the fundamental fact that the five per cent, rule, which 
originally was arrived at as a fair average has now been raised to the 
dignity of a principle. Unfortunately it is not defensible as such. 
It is neither an axiom nor a tenet rendered sacred by general usage. 

In the course of time, in certain lines of business, like bank- 
ing, real estate, etc., certain transactions have been fixed 
by law or custom at a certain percentage on the amount involved. 
But architects' services are in no sense brokerage. Other methods 
of regulating wages and employment are those adopted by the an- 
cient guilds and the modern labor unions, but architects are not 
employed by the day. How, then, can we defend the implied denial 
of difference in skill, in experience, in talent and special 
fitness for a given task and the placing of the official stamp 
of the American Institute of Architects upon the proposition that, 
as far as it is concerned, the services of the novice are as valuable 
as those of the experienced and expert, those of the well educated 
as good as those of the less well trained, those of the successful no 
better than those of the unsuccessful. In spite of the fact that the 
schedule is marked "Minimum Schedule," this certainly bars the 
successful practitioner in the great majority of cases from obtain- 
ing the increased price which naturally should be his, limiting him 
to the one reward of doing more work with its added cares and re- 
sponsibilities. This point is extremely important. 

There can be no question that, even with the most efficient organi- 
zation, the amount of work which one man can directly inspire and 
carry out is small compared to that handled by many offices to-day, 
and, conversely it follows that the successful architect of to-day 
gives his name to and assumes the responsibility for a large amount 
of work of which he is not the real author. There is no other road 
open to him. From the point of view of public policy this is cer- 
tainly not a desirable condition, and in view of the fees paid other 
professions and the sums entrusted to successful architects of the 
present day, entailing corresponding responsibilities, it would 
seem fair to infer that the five per cent, rule is the main, if not the 
only obstacle to successful architects obtaining such fees for im- 


portant work as would enable them to limit their work to what they 
can personally perform with proper assistance. 

The five per cent, schedule also stamps with the Institute's ap- 
proval the principle that the services and ideas of an architect are 
valuable in proportion to the cost of carrying them into execution. 
On this principle advice becomes valuable only when expensive to 
follow. The conflict between the original conditions and our own is 
here most apparent. Viewed as an average for public buildings in 
France it appears quite fair that a large building should earn a 
proportionately greater fee than a small one. Under the complex 
conditions of modern times the same rule becomes, in many cases, 
absurd, as for instance in many alterations involving a very small 
outlay yet compelling on the part of the architect a complete study 
of the entire building or plant and on the part of the owner a ben- 
efit out of all proportion to the fee sanctioned by the schedule. 

A design in a cheap material earns a double fee by being exe- 
cuted in a material twice as expensive, and architects, under this 
rule, are paid for wasting their clients' money and punished in 
pocket for saving it. Under the present contract system the work- 
ing of this rule becomes particularly vicious in the following man- 
ner, i. e., A set of plans and specifications necessarily embrace a 
large amount of work of many different trades. Therefore the 
degree of care, skill, experience and familiarity with the working 
processes and other conditions of all these trades, which is em- 
ployed in the architects'work must needs to a large extent influence 
the estimates obtained and sums are easily saved or wasted in this 
way which far exceed the architects' commission. 

Under the present schedule the exercise of such care and skill op- 
erates to reduce the architect's commission. If he manages to de- 
feat an unjust claim or secures good terms for his clients, he is at 
the same time conscious that his efforts will reduce his own com- 

Analysis of the Value of Architects' Work. 

In considering the different ways in which architects' services in- 
fluence the cost of buildings and their permanent value we may 
view these services under two heads, namely: 

1. In their bearing on the building operation itself and prepara- 
tions for the same, and 

2. As a factor in the permanent or investment value of property. 

The immediate value for the prosecution of the building opera- 
tion itself is apparent and should be easily understood. But few 
realize that the permanent or investment value of buildings de- 



pends to a large extent on the architect. Yet, such is the case nev- 
ertheless. The immediate value during the building operations 
may be considered under several heads, namely : 

1. In safe-guarding the interests of the owner in the letting of 
the work and during the construction. 

2. In applying expert knowledge of methods of construction and 
materials available towards securing them for clients the greatest 
result for the smallest possible outlay. 

3. In so adapting designs to the conditions which they are to 
serve as to secure the greatest possible efficiency, rentability, econ- 
omy of management, etc. 

4. In the quality of art work accomplished in design and execu- 

In point of any one of the heads mentioned the value of a design 
will and must vary according to talent, skill, experience, etc., and 
once the public were taught to look for it it would soon register its 
experience in records for each architect on which his fee would 
to some extent depend. 

It becomes apparent at first glance that several of the factors 
which are of immediate value will also influence the investment 
value of property. So will, for instance, the care exercised in ob- 
taining conscientious work soon make itself felt in the repair bills 
and generally in the wearing qualities of constructions and their per- 
manency, while the degree to which a design is adapted to its pur- 
pose will in many cases absolutely decide the investment value of 
the property. This is self evident in apartment houses, hotels and 
office buildings, but it is equally important in residences and even 
in factories in which latter a badly studied plan imposes a perma- 
nent tax of wasted labor, often a very serious one. 

The rate of insurance has also been found to rest, to a large 
extent, in the architects' hands and the amounts saved and wasted 
are doubly serious because levied both on the cost of buildings and 
their contents. 

In the matter of residences it is startling how quickly many so- 
called speculative dwellings decline in value, even in first-class 
neighborhoods, and it is equally surprising how well designed and 
well built houses satisfying all proper requirement will hold their 
value even under objectionable surroundings. 

A thorough appreciation of the elements of architects' services 
and their bearing on results accomplished as well as a more satis- 
factory handling of working outlays would necessarily lead to a 
largely increased employment of experts and possibly to the estab- 
lishment of specialties in the architectural profession itself. 

Specialists in designing and specialists in executing work might 
not prove an unmixed evil. Such a division might be natural and 


advantageous in cases, just as undoubtedly the greater number 
would remain "General Practitioners." 

The selection of a professional adviser is largely made on per- 
sonal grounds, and it would seem reasonable that a client should 
have an opportunity to obtain a design of recognized authorship in 
connection with his accustomed architect as his physician may call 
in another physician for consultation in important cases. 

Architectural Competitions. 

The recognition of the elements of service and the establishing 
of records and standards which it would entail and eventually spec- 
ialties as mentioned, might possibly terminate the prevailing system 
of architectural competitions or at least keep it within reasonable 
bounds. Competition there must always be as a matter of course ; 
it cannpt and should not be avoided. It is an open question, how- 
ever, whether the great majority of competitions are successful or 
profitable from any point of view. A great many of our least suc- 
cessful buildings are undoubtedly results of competitions ; the bulk 
of our best work probably not. Broadly speaking it is, perhaps, 
not unfair to say that the competition system as now practised 
has not been generally successful, while the practise of select- 
ing architects on their records without competition seems to have 
produced the best results. 

Without considering the great number of competitions judged 
by laymen or those decided by outside influence it would appear 
that our competitions are very liable to become contests of 
draughtsmanship. In the other professions competition is essen- 
tially as between records for work done, and it is perhaps true 
even in the architectural profession that the architects of the bulk 
of the best work have, as a matter of fact, been selected on that 

The fact that so many competitions have been contests of 
draughtsmanship very naturally led to the appointment of teachers 
as judges. Teachers, however, follow a vocation entirely separate 
and distinct from that of practising architects and it is perfectly 
natural that both their point of view and their sympathies should 
be different. It should also be born in mind that draughtsmanship 
is only a part of an architect's work, and as history has shown in 
several important instances not an indispensable one at that. Arch- 
itects of the very highest order have sometimes been indifferent 
draughtsmen, while some of the most accomplished draughtsmen 
have executed work as bad as their draughtsmanship was good. 

Arne Dehli. 

Author of "Details of Byzantine Ornament" and of "The Norman Monuments 
of Palermo and Environs." 

Fifth Avenue and Fifty-fifth Street, New York City. 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 


HE HOTEL ST. REGIS is peculiarly worthy of 
notice as an architectural and building achieve- 
ment, because it establishes a new and higher 
standard for the construction and decoration of 
hotels in a city that in this department of building 
establishes the standard for the whole country. 
For the third time in the history of the Astor family one of its mem- 
bers has had a hotel built, which is in its way different from and 
better than any other hotel then existing in the country. Before 
the war the old Astor House on lower Broadway was the boast 
of the city and the wonder of foreign travelers. Much more re- 
cently the Waldorf and then the Waldorf-Astoria became the great 
metropolitan hotel, and the place to which the birds of passage, 
particularly when their plumage was gay, liked to come in flocks. 
And now the Hotel St. Regis, which is owned by Col. John Jacob 
Astor, fulfils once again the family tradition of owning and building 
what is assuredly destined to become the most distinctively metro- 
politan hotel of its day. 

The Hotel St. Regis, however, is metropolitan with a difference. 
It does not claim distinction because of its huge size or because 
of the enormous dimensions of the plot on which it is built. The 
site of the building, as originally planned, did not contain more 
than 12,500 square feet, and although about 7,500 more have 
been added in an extension now being built on 55th St., the whole 
plot includes less than 20,000 square feet, against about 70,000 for 
the Waldorf-Astoria, almost 35,000 for the new Hotel Brunswick, 
and 44,000 for the Fifth Ave. At the present time it is, with its 
eighteen stories, the highest hotel building open for business in 
New York City, but its height will be equalled or exceeded by the 
Hotel Brunswick, by the new Imperial and the Belmont. The 
kind of distinction at which the designers of the Hotel St. Regis 
aimed is indicated by the location on which it is built. The corner 
of 55th St. and 5th Ave. is situated, not in the business or amuse- 
ment part of the city, in order to attract the attention of a miscel- 
laneous crowd of people who have a little money to spend. It is 
situated at the southern end of the most exclusive and expensive 
residential district, sufficiently convenient to the good shops, the 
theatres and the like, yet at the same time plainly withdrawn from 
the ordinary places of popular resort. It was not intended, con- 
sequently, to cater to the thousand and one New Yorkers and 


transient visitors who want a big show for either a good deal or a 
very little money. It is intended for a class of people, both New 
Yorkers and transients, who want absolutely the best quality of 
hotel accommodation, and who do not mind paying for it, who 
want, that is, a quiet but convenient location, rooms of fair size 
and finished in the best prevailing manner, the best service and 
cooking that New York can afford, and an atmosphere of good 
taste and distinction. 

This idea of establishing a new standard of excellence in hotel 
accommodation runs through all the details and dispositions of 
the building. The structure, the equipment, the materials in which 
it is finished, the design of the decorations, and the uniform good 
taste of the furnishing in all these respects the builders of the 
Hotel St. Regis can claim a superiority in quality certainly over 
any hotel in this country, and probably over any hotel in the 
world. Just wherein this superiority in quality consists will come 
out sufficiently in the course of this article, but what I want to 
insist upon here is that it is the success of this attempt to estab- 
lish a new standard of excellence in the arrangement, the out- 
fit, the decorations and the appointments of the hotel which justifies 
my preliminary statement that the hotel will become the distinc- 
tively metropolitan hotel of its day. Anyone who understands 
the contemporary growth of New York must perceive that the at- 
tempt to establish new and better standards of design and decora- 
tion has been profoundly characteristic of the building movement 
of the past fewyears, and that this attempt has been more character- 
istic of its residential building than that of any other class. New 
York has become, that is, more and more the financial centre of 
the country, the rich man's city, and its precedence as the rich 
man's city has received full expression in the large number of 
costly and handsome residences which have recently been erected. 
In the Hotel St. Regis the standards of quality which have been 
established in these residences have been transferred to a hotel, and 
have even in some respects been transcended. By a happy com- 
bination of circumstances, the architects, Messrs. Trowbridge and 
Livingston ; the owner, Col.. John Jacob Astor ; the lessee, Mr. R. 
M. Haan, and the contractors, under the general direction of 
Messrs. Marc Eidlitz & Son, were all united upon the same idea, 
and neither time, expense, care or talent were spared in order to 
make the achievement satisfactory. Opinions may differ as to the 
necessity of some of the expenditures, or the complete success of 
some of the details, but no one can doubt that, on the whole, the 
standard has been the highest attainable, and the result need not 
fear comparison even with such buildings as the University or 
Union Clubhouses. 



In considering the design of an important building it is ex- 
tremely interesting to understand precisely what the architect 
was seeking to accomplish, and, so far as the Hotel St. Regis is 
concerned, we have the advantage of a statement of his purpose 
by Mr. Trowbridge himself, published last spring in the proceed- 
ings of the "Societe des Architectes Diplomes." Mr. Trow- 
bridge's explanation is intended for Frenchmen, who are not sup- 
posed to understand the inevitable conditions which confront the 
designer of a "sky-scraper," but it describes so well the point of 
view from which the intelligent American architect may approach 
such a problem that it will be almost as instructive to Americans. 
The imperative conditions of his problem, according to Mr. Trow- 
bridge, consisted of sheer walls, without breaks or "decroch- 
ments," no base or substructure other than can be obtained by 
the treatment of the masonry, and the building being a hotel, a 
battery of small windows above, with larger openings and conse- 
quently less wall below. At the same time, this building, so dif- 
ferent from the traditional dwelling-house, had to be given some- 
what the character of a habitation ; it had to awaken the asso- 
ciations of domestic rather than commercial architecture. To 
this end no help was to be derived from the openings which were 
made simply and frankly of the size and number necessary to light 
properly the rooms of the hotel ; but something of the character 
of a residential building was obtained by the treatment of the upper 
stories and the roof. It has been the ordinary custom to carry up 
the walls of high buildings to the very top, crowning the edifice 
after the manner of lower buildings by a heavy cornice, generally 
of sheet iron, with a parapet and flat roof; but this method of 
terminating a tall building is open to several objections. It gives 
the structure a harsh sky-line, and an ungraceful shape ; and as 
to the cornice, while the use of iron in imitation of stone is un- 
worthy of consideration, it is impossible to give a stone cornice a 
projection proportionate to the height of the building. Conse- 
quently a roof was considered the proper termination, both as 
being more pleasing and more appropriate ; and to mark the 
crowning of the edifice in place of a cornice, a strong horizontal 
line was obtained by the projection of a balcony at the fifteenth 
floor. As to the proportion of the roof to the height of the build- 
ing, it undoubtedly gives a shock to people accustomed to the 
corresponding proportions in lower buildings, but, as it has the 
propriety of being imperative, our eyes must and will accustom 
themselves to it in the course of time. At the lower part of the 
structure the effect of a base was obtained by adding a balcony at 


the level of the third floor, and by courses of heavily rusticated 
masonry from the ground up to that level, while to give dis- 
tinction and definition to the design the corners were decorated 
with double chenaux of flat rustication, accented at the base by 
"degringolades" of flowers and fruits. 

It was not considered appropriate to bestow any very abundant 
ornamentation on the outside of such a building; which obtains its 
effect by its mass and surface rather than by superficial detail, but 
in designing such detail as it was deemed advisable to use, careful 
attention was paid to the fact that this building could be seen 
only from a considerable distance or from points near its base 
in the narrow streets on which it faces. It was important, 
therefore, first, that the silhouette of the mass, when seen from 
the distance, should be bold and picturesque, and that the ornament 
should be concentrated at a few salient points ; and, secondly, that 
the projection of the detail should not be so great as to shut off 
the upper part of the building when looked at from the street 
below. The scale of the ornament was consequently a matter of 
extremely careful adjustment, so that not only it should count 
properly from the points of view from which it was seen, but 
that the soffits of all projecting members and the lines of the bal- 
conies should have their place in the general composition. At the 
same time, a good deal of freedom was used in designing the de- 
tail. Natural forms were copied \vith more or less accuracy, and 
new profiles for the mouldings were provided, together with new 
outlines for the balustrades, consols, keystones, and other orna- 
ment. The completed fagade shows plainly the effect of this careful 
study. The building obtains its effect by its mass, by the emphasis 
of its lines at salient points, by the subordination of its detail, and 
by the rich, warm grey of the limestone of which it is constructed. 
It is as simple and monumental as an eighteen-story building 
should be, yet it preserves an appropriate relation to the tradi- 
tions of residential architecture. 


A great modern American hotel is, among other things, prob- 
ably the most complicated piece of mechanism which the invention 
and ingenuity of men have ever been called upon to devise. The 
only other modern mechanical contrivances which might be in the 
same class are a contemporary battleship and ocean-liner ; and in 
some respects the requirements of a hotel are more numerous and 
various than those even of a steamship of the highest class.. Both 
of these peculiarly modern achievements must, as Mr. Trowbridge 
points out, supply from its own premises and at the shortest 

New York City. Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



New York City. 


(Machine Room.) 

Ttowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



New York City. 

(Machine Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



possible notice every demand of modern life ; but a hotel, unlike 
a steamer, which can be laid up when it is out of date, is, when it is 
eighteen stories high, a permanent structure, which must be 
planned not only to meet present needs, but with a view to unfore- 
seen emergencies. Furthermore, a hotel, although it is not sub- 
jected to the wear and tear of a constant strain upon its vital parts, 
has to be arranged for a much more elaborate mechanism of heat- 
ing, plumbing and elevator service than does an ocean steamship. 
The bowels and frame of such a building are in truth comparable 
only to the human body in the complexity and interdependence of 
the processes that go on within them. 

In every "sky-scraper" a large amount of space must be devoted 
to the "power" equipment to the boilers, engines, dynamos and 
pumps necessary to heat, light, and ventilate the rooms, to run the 
elevators, and to operate the plumbing system ; but in the case 
of a hotel this mechanical equipment is very much more complex, 
and its requirements are very much more exacting. More 
power, for instance, is needed at night than during the day-time, 
the plumbing equipment has to be arranged on a far more elab- 
orate scale, as may be seen from the fact that when the house is 
lull, an enormous hot water supply is necessary to feed the several 
hundred bath-tubs between 8 and 9 o'clock in the morning. Fur- 
thermore, in addition to the services above mentioned, a hotel must 
find place in its basements for large and convenient kitchens, for 
the storage of great stocks of food and wine, for ice-making and 
laundry machinery, for the pneumatic tube, telephone and bell 
services, for the servants' dining and toilet rooms, and for a num- 
ber of additional mechanical contrivances, such as the water filters, 
the rubbish crematory, and the machine for charging water with 
gas. The difficulty of providing house-room for all of this neces- 
sary equipment was increased in the St. Regis by the fact that, al- 
though the building was eighteen stories high, the superficial area 
of its site was not much more than 12,000 square feet. In order 
to obtain the necessary space, the excavation had to be made 
exceptionally deep, and three stories were placed underground. 
Even then, as may be seen from the photographs, the network of 
pipes in the engine-room is utterly bewildering to a visitor, and 
would be so even to the engineer of the building were not the 
apparatus carefully mapped and numbered. In looking at this 
maze of pipes, however, its analogy to the intestinal convolutions 
in the human body is forcibly suggested. 

The excellence of this mechanical outfit is perhaps illus- 
trated best by the arrangements which have been made for 
heating the St. Regis, an account of which has already been pub- 
lished by Mr. Trowbridge in the paper mentioned above. The 



usual method of heating all "sky-scrapers" has been that of direct 
radiation from coils of pipes, conveniently placed in the rooms 
and corridors, and connected with the boilers in the basement, 
which supply a constant circulation of steam at low pressure 
throughout the entire system- This method has the merits of 
being simple, economical, easy to install, and easy to handle ; but it 
also has certain disadvantages, which tell more against its use in a 
hotel than in an office building. The coils are frequently 
noisy and always ugly ; the amount of heat supplied cannot be 

New York City. 

(The Kitchen.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

flexibly and accurately regulated ; and, what is even more serious, 
it does not include any provision for ventilation. The foul air 
generated in a steam-heated room can be exhausted only by open- 
ing a door or a window. In the Hotel St. Regis these objections 
were overcome by installing a system of indirect radiation com- 
bined with forced ventilation, which will give the rooms of this 
building a regular supply of pure, fresh air warmed to any degree 
which may be desired. This system has already been used in 
private houses, but when applied to sky-scrapers it was considered 
to be too costly in floor space. Such a loss was, in the present 

New York City. 


Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

New York City. Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



New York City. 

(General View of the Kitchen.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

instance, reduced to a minimum, because the fresh air, instead of 
being taken in at the basement and then conducted to all the floors, 
as in a private house, is drawn into the building at intervals in 
the height and at those parts of the floors which are of least value. 
Every four or five stories chambers have been provided wherein 
the cold air enters, is filtered, warmed by passing over steam coils, 
moistened, and then forced by blowers operated by electric motors 
through ducts to the various rooms. The space necessary for 
these ducts has been readily obtained by utilizing the room above 
the ceilings in the corridors, provided by the fact that the corridors 
are not necessarily as high as the rooms. An equally efficient 
mechanism for exhausting the foul air is obtained by gathering the 
chimney flues together at the top of the building, and by creating 
vacuums at these points by means of large exhaust fans. In order 
to regulate the temperature, an automatic thermostat is placed in 
every room, corridor and bathroom, and this regulator, after being 
set at the degree of warmth desired, operates by electric con- 
trivances the dampers and valves necessary to introduce more or 
less warmed air. 

Another comparatively novel mechanical device used in the 
hotel is the pneumatic sweeping apparatus. It consists of a sys- 
tem of pipes, having a branch in every room connected with 
vacuum pumps in the basement. In order to operate it, the ser- 



vant, instead of sweeping the floor with a broom, and raising 
assiduously as much dust as she removes, merely attaches a 
small flexible pipe to the outlet, turns on the valve, applies the 
nozzle to the dusty surface, and the rubbish is sucked off to the 
basement. There it is discharged into large sacks, which are taken 
from the building with other refuse. 

Another respect in which the Hotel St. Regis sets a new standard 
of excellence is in the care which has been taken to protect its 
structure and contents against fire. Of course, as an eighteen- 
story building, its owners were obliged to adopt the highest 
standard of fireproofing demanded by the Building Code of New 
York, including the use of metal sashes and window frames and 
fireproofed wood; but they have done more in this respect than 
they were legally required to do. Not only was an extra effort 
made to obtain an extremely good quality of fireproofed wood, but 
it was used for purposes such as picture mouldings, which are not 
usually considered important enough to be dignified by this care. 
It was even proposed to make the furniture of the same quality 
of material ; but this idea was finally abandoned. The amount of 

New York City. 

(The Oven.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 


wood, however, used in the finish is comparatively small, other 
materials, such as marble, bronze and tile being very generally 
employed. The corridors and main stairs on every floor are lined 
with marble from the floor to the ceiling. The door trims in all 
the corridors, halls and bath-rooms are of the same material. The 
floors, when exposed to view, are either of marble or of tile, the 
only exception being several special suites of apartments on 
the second and third floors. The bedroom floors, where covered 
by carpets, are of cement. The bath-rooms, elevator shafts, ser- 
vice stairways, service pantries and the like are wainscoted with 
white tile, while the elevator doors, stair balustrades and grilles are 
of bronze. 

Notwithstanding the elaborate precautions taken to make the 
building fireproof, the safeguards which have been provided against 
any local fire originating in any room of the house are correspond- 
ingly careful and elaborate. The fire-alarms, which are con- 
veniently and conspicuously placed in the halls, ring up, not only 
the general office of the hotel, but the office of the chief engineer, 
and that official can deal with the emergency according to his 
judgment of its seriousness. If need be, he can alarm the whole 
house, or he can ring up a single floor, or he can isolate the disturb- 
ance. Furthermore, his staff will, at stated intervals, go through 
a regular fire-drill, each man having his appointed place and his 
definite duties. The truth is, that the chief engineer of a hotel such 
as the St. Regis has as important and as responsible a position as 
the chief engineer of a great steamship, and a correspondingly 
good grade of engineering ability and experience is needed. In 
proportion as the machinery becomes elaborate and complicated, 
just in that proportion does the controller of the machinery be- 
come an extremely important agent in the successful operation of 
the hotel. The chief engineer of the St. Regis, for instance, Mr. 
Jurgensen, has under him a staff of 36 men, all carefully selected 
with a view to the duties which they are called upon to perform ; 
and very complete arrangements have to be made for the health 
and comfort of these men, such, for instance, as the provision of 
abundant bathing facilities in the sub-basement near the machine- 

As to the increased responsibilities which are placed upon the 
chief engineer through the greater elaboration of the machinery, 
two illustrations must suffice. In addition, of course, to the super- 
vision of the smooth, ordinary operation and extraordinary repairs 
of the whole mechanical system, a method of heating and venti- 
lating, such as that installed in the St. Regis, whereby the air is 
heated and moistened or dried, according to the character of 
the weather, obviously requires much more attention than the ordi- 



New York City. 

(Service Counters in Kitchen.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



nary steam radiator system, as may be inferred from the fact that 
on one occasion during the past winter the machinery had to be 
rearranged to suit different conditions seven times in forty-eight 
hours.. Again, each room in the St. Regis will contain as a part of 
its equipment an electric clock. This device for the convenience of 
hotel guests has been tried before, but the attractiveness of the 
device was somewhat marred by the fact that the local clocks 
have not kept very good time. In the present case, however, 
careful arrangements have been made to regulate these time- 
pieces from the chief engineer's office, in which the master-clock 

New York City. 

(Pantry Off the Banqueting Hall.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

is situated. Correct time will be furnished from the Western 
Union every day, and it will be possible by daily regulation to keep 
the clocks in the rooms approximately correct. 

This very imperfect account of the mechanical equipment of the 
St. Regis must suffice. No one but an expert engineer can really 
understand how much ingenious planning and what a vast amount 
of experience is required in order to make the operation of this 
great machine smooth and economical, and nothing but a complete 
set of plans could make the details of the engineering dispositions 
really intelligible. These few remarks, however, assisted by the 
illustrations, will, however, afford some idea of the difficult prob- 



lems which confront the designer of a modern hotel, and the intri- 
cate mechanism required to meet them, while it should also indi- 
cate that neither money nor effort has been spared to make the 
St. Regis as complete mechanically as it is in other respects. 

The Plan. 

In the competition which preceded the selection of Messrs. 
Trowbridge & Livingston, as the architects of the St. Regis, 
these gentlemen succeeded because of the ingenuity and flexibility 

4icj->xj3 Jr* 1 ^! % r ;* -r N' 
i k *./ . dTTTt: ""'* -JR-^ '-' {i 

^In^ /"MS* v ^ *^IT>- - JL 

^n,,'-5 v ^. Tr-I^ ^rrl.tJ * + > ^ 

New York City. 

(Typical Floor Plan.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

of the plan furnished by them. At that time it was proposed to 
erect an apartment house rather than a hotel, or at least an 
apartment hotel in which much of the rentable space was divided 
into comparatively large suites, and the plan of Trowbridge & 
Livingston was well thought out for this purpose, while at the 
same time allowing, if necessary, for a reduction in the size of 
the apartments.. As a matter of' fact, the apartment house idea 
was subsequently abandoned entirely, the private halls changed into 
hotel corridors, and the large suites of rooms transformed into 
sets of one, two or three rooms, with a bath. The plan, repro- 
duced herewith, shows a typical floor plan of the existing hotel. 


It will be noticed that this floor plan provides every room in 
the hotel with good air and light, and every room but three on 
each floor with an outside or street view. Only three rooms face 
upcn the court, which, being 60 feet wide, affords abundant light, 
but which, of course, restricts the outlook. The other rooms open 
at present on a clear view of house-top and street. The rooms on 

New York City. 

(Typical Service Pantry.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

tiic three street corners are naturally larger than the others, 
measuring about 17 by 20 feet, but all of the rooms are, according 
to New York standards, of fair size. Bath-rooms and abundant 
closet room go with every suite. Each floor contains a service 
pantry, equipped with dumb-waiters and everything necessary to 
keep the food hot and savory during its service. The arrange- 
ments have all been made on the supposition that the St. Regis 
will appeal to a comparatively permanent set of residents, who 
will frequently want meals served in their rooms. 

The public or semi-public rooms of the hotel comprise the fol- 



lowing apartments. On the ground floor the whole 5th Ave. front- 
age and a part of the frontage on the street is given up to the 
general dining-rcom and restaurant. The dining-room connects 
directly with the palm-room (so-called), which occupies the middle 
part of the southern portion of the hotel, and which is lighted from 
above. The palm-room again leads directly to the cafe, which 

New York City. 

(An Elevator Hallway and Entrance.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

occupies the south-east corner of the ground floor, while on the 
northeast corner is a comparatively small ladies' waiting or recep- 
tion room. These four rooms, together with the entrance hall and 
the office, occupy the whole of the ground floor. 

On the second floor, the Fifth Ave. frontage is given up to the 
banqueting hall and ball-room, while connecting with it there is a 
suite of apartments running along almost the entire street front- 
age, which will be used for reception rooms, a library and other 
similar purposes. At the southeast corner of the same floor there 
is a private dining-room suite, consisting of three rooms. The 



only other suite in the house which deserves special mention is the 
one on the 5th Ave. frontage of the third floor. These are the 
state apartments, consisting- of two bedrooms, a bath-room, a 
dining-room, sitting-room, library and reception room. 

The Decorations and the Finish. 

The statement was made at the outset that by a happy com- 
bination of circumstances all the people who played an important 
part in building the Hotel St. Regis were united in the attempt to 

New York City. 

(Barber Shop.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

produce a thoroughly excellent result, and the fact that the result 
establishes a new standard of hotel design and decoration in this 
city should be credited to the lessee and to the contractors as well 
as to the owners and the architects. Mr. R. M.. Haan, the pro- 
prietor of the new hotel, was fortunately of the opinion that the use 
of the most permanent materials in finishing a hotel was 
good economy. The lessee is compensated for the increased 
rent by being relieved of the heavy expenses ordinarily incurred 
for repairs and renewals. The consequence of the conscientious 
carrying out of this view of hotel economy in the St. Regis is that 



no building has ever been erected in this country, whether hotel or 
residence, which presents a more substantial interior finish, and it 
makes no difference in this particular respect whether the room 
selected for the best be a servant's pantry or a banquetting hall. 
The finish of the latter would be more sumptuous, but it would 
not be any more substantial and serviceable. 

This matter has been already touched upon in referring to the 
care which had been taken to use materials as far as possible fire- 
proof, but it deserves even more emphasis from the present point 
of view. The hall walls of every floor are lined with carefully 
selected marble, the floors are paved either with marble or tile, 

New York City. 

(Bath-Room, State Suite of Apartments.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

the servants' stairways and the pantries are finished with white 
tiles in fact, practically all the service portions of the house are 
finished in this manner, of which a number of good examples can 
be seen in the illustrations to this article. The barber shop, for 
instance, is a very novel and interesting example of the clean and 
gay effect which can be obtained from the use in such a room of 
white tiles, panelled with colored ones. Again, the kitchen, be- 
sides being a well-arranged and spacious apartment, is finished so 
that the great wear and tear to which such a room is subjected 
will be spent upon the toughest and hardest materials. The 



floor is marble, the walls are tiled, the counters are made of 
glass. There is nothing perishable and nothing which is hard to 
keep clean.. The excellence of the arrangements of the kitchen can 
only be appreciated by those who understand the complex procesi 
necessary to cook and serve all sorts of food in almost all parts of 

New York City. 

(Hallway Second Floor.) 

Trowbrldge & Livingston, Architects. 

an eighteen-story building, and the same time to check properly 
the different parts of this process. Here it is only necessary to 
state that the refrigerator storage space is abundant, the ranges 
are of the very best make and equipment ; special places have been 
apportioned for every phase of the work of preparing and storing 
an enormous food supply, and the ventilating apparatus is particu- 
larly elaborate and complete. None of these details has been de- 
cided without full consultation with Mr. Haan's "chef" and other 
assistants, and it is his expectation that these arrangements will 
permit to conduct economically and smoothly a kitchen and 
restaurant which will satisfy the most exacting demands and the 
most fastidious taste. 



The bedrooms are finished, so far as possible, just as sub- 
stantially as the other apartments. The floors are of cement. The 
mantelpieces in the more important rooms of marble, and the 
woodwork almost exclusively of hard-woods. One thing which the 
lessee, Mr. Haan, wished particularly to avoid was the expense in- 

New York City. 

(Entrance to Stairway, First Floor.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

separable from the maintenance of a great deal of paint in the 
rooms, with the consequence that the doors, base-boards and the 
like in many rooms are made of white mahogany. At least one 
corner room on each floor has been painted a dull greyish white, 
but, as may be inferred from the illustrations, the amount of paint 
employed is probably smaller than in any building of its size in the 
world. The bath-rooms are tiled, and contain porcelain tubs, open 
plumbing and a separate thermostat, the only exception being the 
bath-room in the state apartment suite, which is finished through- 
out in marble. 

These examples will give a sufficient idea of the substantial 
character of the finish, and it only remains to speak of this finish 



New York City. 

from the point of view of design and effect. Since a modern hotel 
cannot succeed without being attractive and festive in appearance, 
as well as safe, comfortable and substantial, the owners, the archi- 
tects, and the lessees have, of course, bestowed as much attention 
upon the appearance of the hotel as upon its structure, plan and 
equipment. Moreover, the point of view from which the problem 
of interior design has been approached testifies both to good taste 
and good sense. They have purposely avoided the besetting sin 
and temptation of the great majority of people who have been 

responsible for the deco- 
ration of modern Amer- 
ican hotels the sin of 
decorative excess. Of 
course the public rooms 
of a hotel are necessarily 
showy and to a certain 
extent sumptuous apart- 
ments. The scale of the 
decorations may with 
perfect propriety be 
heightened to a point 
which would be offensive 
under other surround- 
ings, and the designers of 
the St. Regis have not 
made the mistake, which 
would be bad architec- 
ture as well as bad busi- 
ness, of subduing the de- 
tail to the modest and 
reticent scale appropriate 
to a private residence. 
They have made the pub- 
lic rooms rich, handsome 
and even "stunning," 
but in so doing they have 
not piled on swollen de- 
tail and gaudy colors un- 
til the whole effect be- 


Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

came confused and mon- 
strous and the eye craved the simplicity of bare walls and 
modest projections. The detail of each room has been kept 
in its place by a consistently realized general design, and the 
whole effect, while as gay as is appropriate in rooms used by 
pleasure-seekers, are not only not adorned to the point of decora- 



New York City. 

(The Office.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



live inebriation, but have been, for the most part, treated with 
comparative sobriety and good taste- 

The styles used in decorating the rooms have been, as in almost 
all American work of this kind, borrowed from one of the several 
periods of classic European decoration, but there has been no very 

(Corridor Leading to the Main Dining-Room.) 

New York City. 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

scrupulous adherence to stylistic consistency. It is motives quite 
as much as forms which have been borrowed. An attempt has 
been successfully made to give life to these classic forms by nicely 
adapting the scale of the decorative motives to the space which they 
fill and to their function in the design, and this detail consequently 
deserves careful study. Unlike so much detail, particularly in large 
American buildings, it is not mechanical and lifeless ; on the con- 
trary, if it has a fault, it is sometimes too crisp and vivacious, too 
little subdued to its architectural setting. As a matter of fact, it 
has all been specially designed and carefully modeled under the 
incessant supervision of the architect, and credit for the result 
should be divided both between the designer and the many skilled 


workmen, by whose co-operation the designer was enabled to 
carry out his ideas. 

If the Hotel St. Regis shows anything, it shows the great ad- 
vance which has taken place during the past "ten or fifteen years in 
the ability of the leading contracting firms and their workmen to 
execute with vivacity and skill the decorative purposes of an archi- 
tect. In the early years of the architectural revival in this 
country nothing hampered architects more than the difficulty of 
securing the assistance of competent artizans ; but the long educa- 
tional effort is now having its effect. No one can look at the ad- 
mirably executed finish of the St. Regis without realizing that the 
architects have been skilfully and loyally assisted by the con- 
tractors and the expert artizans in their employ. The value of this 
assistance is shown in pretty much every division of the work ; but 
particular attention should be directed to the modeling of the 
plaster, stone and metallic detail, to the very workmanlike setting 
and finish of the marble, both on the walls, floors and chimney- 
pieces, to the care with which the wood-work has been installed 
and stained, to the great beauty of the woods chosen, and to the 
general excellence of the electric fixtures, whether in the main 
dining-room or the smallest bedroom. On no iob in this country 
has better workmanship been shown and a higher standard of 
execution been laid down, and we doubt whether this standard 
will be matched for a year and several days. 

The main entrance and the general office have been treated 
with a sobriety which is very unusual in buildings of this class. 
There are two swing-doors, one on each side of the office, and 
each is housed in a handsome bronze canopy. One of these en- 
trances is opposite the door leading into the palm-room, and the 
other opposite the door leading into the cafe. It has been the 
evident intention of the architect to keep this general office busi- 
nesslike and simple, as well as handsome. The floor is of Irish 
marble, laid in an elaborate pattern ; but it will, of course, be 
covered with rugs. There is a dado of light brown shaded marble, 
which stops about three feet from the floor, and above the walls 
are finished in Caen stone, which, because of its warm and pleasant 
surface, is one of the few stones, except marble, which can be 
used for interior finish. The pillars are decorated with bunches 
of flowers tied together by a ribbon, but the detail, while vigorously 
modeled, stands out rather too much from the flat surface on which 
it is carved. Bronze capitals decorate the heads of the column, 
and the room is lighted chiefly by skylights, filled with dull and 
well-patterned stained glass. 

The entrance to the general dining-room on the Fifth Ave. 
frontage is on the right, and the hallway is finished in rich-veined 



H a) 
02 ,0 

H S 

O i 



New York City. 

(Detail Main Dining-Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



New York City. 

(Detail Main Dining-Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 


New York City. 

(The Palm-Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



white marble, thus constituting a gradual introduction to the 
greater splendor of the restaurant itself. This room is quite the 
most sumptuous apartment in the building, but the splendor of the 
effect is obtained more by the use of rich and striking materials 
than by mere superfluity of detail. The walls are lined with the 
same grained marble as the hall, but they are broken so much with 
windows on the one side and doors on the other that the uprights 
are treated as pilasters and supports. The south wall carries a large 
mirror. The ceiling is domed, wrought into an elaborate pattern 
and gilded. The gilding, which has been lavishly employed, both 

New York City. 

(The Caf6.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

in this and in other rooms, has been done with skill and discretion 
by Mr. James Wall Finn, and its use with the marble has served 
to make the room splendid without any touch of vulgarity. The 
sheen of the gold has been made sober and deep, yet it has not 
been made dull and colorless. On the contrary, it has the effect 
of burnished metal; it still glows, but with a fire that burns slow 
and long. 

Every large contemporary restaurant must have a room, which 
it is customary to call the palm-room, and which differs from the 

5 86 


New York City. 

(A Private Dining-Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

main restaurant in that smoking is permitted during all hours and 
in all company. The main dining-room of the St. Regis gives 
directly upon such a room, which occupies the floor of the court of 
the hotel, and consequently is lighted from above by stained 
glass, similar to that in the main hall. The walls are finished with 
low dado of Istrian marble, and above mirrors on one side 
and Caen stone on the other. The room derives its character, how- 
ever, chiefly from the decorations, painted by Mr. Robert Van Vorst 
Sewell, and distributed around the room in the tympana of the 
arches. These decorations tell the story of the troubles of Psyche, 



New York City. 

(Detail of the Banqueting Hall.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

5 88 






New York City. 

(Mantelpiece ic Reception Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



New York City. 

(The Library.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 


New York City. 

(Small Reception Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



New York City. 

(Library of the State Suite.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

and are excellently toned to harmonize with the color scheme of 
the room. It is the one palm-room (so-called) in the city, in which 
an intelligent attempt has been made to reach a general effect, and 
this effect owing to the more strictly architectural character of the 
decorative devices possesses dignity as well as gayety.. 

The cafe, adjoining the "Psyche" room, is a high, somewhat 
<lark apartment, paneled deep to the ceiling in quartered oak. 
The wood is extraordinarily fine and rich in quality, and the room 
is correspondingly handsome. It is a much higher room than the 
cafes of the important restaurants of New York, and arouses asso- 
ciations of paneled dining-rooms in some of the great residences 



of Europe. Like the "Psyche" room, its dominant effect is sub- 
dued and dignified rather than festive. 

Probably, however, the greatest success reached by Trowbridge 
& Livingston in their interior designs is the banqueting hall, on the 
5th Ave. frontage of the second floor. This room is something 
more than festive and splendid. It is extremely simple, yet at the 
same time "stunning" ; it is both very gay and highly distinguished. 

New York City. 

(Small Reception Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

Like the restaurant below, the walls are paneled in marble, the 
panels being framed by pilasters with bronze capitals ; but the 
whole effect is much simplified by the dull white and consequently 
flat appearing marble which has been used. This material has all 
the value of marble, in that it is rich, highly polished, and struc- 



tural ; but it takes its place more modestly on the wall than do other 
varieties of marble, and in this respect has something of the value 
of wood. In fact, the service doors of this room, which are wood 
painted white, harmonize perfectly with the marble on the wall. 
The wall spaces not occupied by windows, doors and the marble 
pilasters are thrown into large marble panels, which will be hung 
with tapestries. The fabrics used for the hangings will be copied 

New York City. 

(A Corner Sitting-Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

from rich yellow and white Venetian velvet, and the total effect, 
when the chandeliers are lighted and the prevailing whiteness is re- 
lieved by the fabrics on the walls, will be not only brilliant and 
"stunning," but really beautiful. 



The frontage on 55th St. of the second floor leading off from the 
banqueting hall is occupied by a series of reception and sitting 
rooms, which will be used either in connection with entertain- 
ments given in the banqueting hall or individually, as occasion 
serves. The room of this series, nearest the frontage on 5th 
Ave., is a very handsome and original apartment, paneled to the 
ceiling in Circassian walnut, and with the frames of the panels 

New York City. 

(Small Reception Room.) 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 

worked into patterns and skilfully gilded. It is scarcely worth 
while, however, to describe these rooms separately, for the illus- 
trations that go herewith give a very much better idea of them 
than could be obtained from a detached description. It is sufficient 
to point out that these rooms have been designed, not as a suite, 
for the purpose of obtaining some unity of effect, but rather indi- 
vidually with a view as to some special purpose which each of 
them might be called upon to serve. Another very handsome suite 
of rooms on this floor is the several corner rooms, which can be 


(Bed-Room and Sitting-Room of Corner Suite.) 
New York City. Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



a ^ 



used either individually or together as private dining-rooms. One 
of these apartments is finished in Circassian walnut, with a simple, 
but very effective, gilded ceiling, while the other two are paneled 
in white mahogany. 

It is almost unnecessary to add that the decoration of the 
private sitting-rooms and bedrooms has received as careful atten- 
tion as that of any other part of the house. One of these suites, 
particularly, occupying the frontage on Fifth Ave. of the third floor, 
and constituting the state apartments of the hotel, has been finished 
in the same expensive manner as the series of sitting and waiting 
rooms on the floor below. As the mantelpieces of the rooms were 
not in place at the time the building was photographed, it has been 
impossible to secure good illustrations of this extraordinary suite, 
which will never be appropriately occupied until Prince Henry or 
the like is again domiciled for a few nights in New York ; but some 
idea of the character of the rooms may be obtained from the 
sample given of the wood-work in the library of the suite. The 
lesser sitting and sleeping rooms are none of them paneled ; but 
what wood-work there is is well designed, particularly the mantel- 
pieces, the panels of the doors, and the mouldings of the door 
frames. The walls are very frequently covered with fabrics rather 
than paper, and wherever paper is used its quality is of the very 
best. Several of the designs are somewhat florid ; but I presume 
that the private rooms of a hotel must make an appearance which 
will satisfy all kinds of people. Many of the papers used in 
the Hotel St. Regis are, however, uncommonly good, and what 
with the hard-wood finish, the simple and well-shaped electric fix- 
tures, the excellent system of heating and ventilation, and the 
abundant closet room, these apartments can hold their own with 
the best of that class in the city. 

The furniture and hangings have been either specially designed 
or selected for the places they will occupy. The character of these 
designs may be gathered from some illustrations which appear else- 
where in this issue. Here it is only necessary to state that Mr. 
Haan, in ordering this furniture, had the same purpose in mind 
as the owners and the architects did in constructing and equipping 
it, the purpose, that is, of equaling or surpassing the standard 
established by the best private houses in Manhattan. He has not 
been content, consequently, to use any of the stock furniture and 
hangings. For the important public rooms he has imported 
tapestries, hangings, and, in many cases, individual pieces of fur- 
niture. And the materials, chairs, and the like, manufactured in 
this country have been copied from the best models which could be 
procured. Attention should be particularly directed to the excel- 
lence of the ordinary chairs in the public dining-room. 



Finally, in considering the St. Regis as a whole, and the general 
ideal of practice which it stands for in current American archi- 
tecture, I cannot do better than quote a sentence from the article of 
Mr. Trowbridge in the "Societe des Architectes Diplomes," to 
which reference has already been made : "It -is in all modesty we 
say," declaims Air. Trowbridge, addressing his French readers, 
"that it has become necessary to depart from the precedents which 
have been established for so many generations. It is not a desire 
for originality which actuates us, but a sincere desire to solve new 
and complex problems, which are the result of the conditions 
under which we live, and over which we have no control." It is in 
the spirit expressed by these words that the St. Regis has been 
designed. The architects have not tried to be original, which is 
the last thing which any artist should try to be. They have 
merely tried to find a satisfactory and praiseworthy solution for the 
architectural and decorative problem, and by which they were con- 
fronted, and in so doing they have departed from established prece- 
dents only so far as it was necessary to meet imperative con- 
ditions. \Yhat they have sought was not novelty or "individu- 
ality," but propriety of design, excellence of workmanship, and it is 
in the light of this standard and purpose that their work should be 

Arthur C. David. 

New York City. 


Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



In the general description of the Hotel St. Regis contained in 
this number of The Architectural Record, attention has been 
called to the excellent work achieved by the sub-contractors, under 
the general supervision of Messrs. Marc Eidlitz & Son, and the 
character of this work and the names of the firms that achieved it 

(Marble furnished by John H. Shipway & Bro.) 

are worth more specific description. The original contractor for 
the foundations, the steel structure and the masonry was the 
Thompson-Starrett Company, which completed its part of the 
job with all the promptitude characteristic of the work of that 
firm. The structural steel was manufactured by the American 
Bridge Company, and the paint used to coat the steel-frame in 
order to preserve it from corrosion was Dixon's silica graphite 



paint, manufactured by the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, of 
Jersey City. The handsome stone, to which the building owes 
so much of its architectural effect, was furnished by James Gillies 
& Sons, the lower stories being of granite and the upper stories of 
a carefully selected and warmly colored blue-gray Indiana lime- 
stone, while the works of the Sayre & Fisher Co. manufactured the 
brick. The system of fire-proofing used, as in the case of so many 
other important buildings in the citv, was that of the Roebling 
Construction Company. A score or more of firms participated in 


the work of completing the mechanical equipment of the building; 
but special mention should be made of the C & C electric motors, 
which play an important part in running the ventilating and 
other apparatus of the building; the Loomis-Manning fil- 
ter, which has become a necessary adjunct to the sani- 
tary outfit of great residential buildings ; the Ellis automatic 
ejector system, which is so frequently used for the removal of 
sewage and other liquid waste, when the fixtures are set below 



the sewage level ; the Watkins Laundry Machinery Co., of Cin- 
cinnati, which manufactured and installed the elaborate machinery 
necessary to wash the enormous quantities of linen used in such a 
hotel ; and the rolling steel shutters, so desirable for fire protec- 

(Showing the revolving door furnished by the Van Kannel Revolving Door Co.) 

tion, manufactured by the Kinnear Mfg. Company, and sold in 
this city by the William H. Brodie Company. 

Since the lessee of the hotel proposes to have the best restaurant 
in New York, he has naturally been very careful about his kitchen 
equipment. Not only are the floors of the kitchen of 
marble and the walls of tile, supplied and installed by 
William H. Jackson Co., but the firm responsible for the ovens, 
ranges, kettles and the rest of the cooking apparatus, Messrs. 
Duparquet, Huot & Moneuse, state that it is the most complete 
plant of the kind which they have ever installed. The counters of 
glass in the main kitchen and in the several serving rooms are not 
only the "latest thing" in modern improvements, but for cleanli- 
ness, sightliness, durability and general serviceableness, are a great 
advance over tables of other materials. The glass for these coun- 
ters is known as the "Novus" glass, manufactured by the Penn- 



American Plate Glass Co. As for the refrigerators, they 
are both very numerous and very well equipped ; and the 
Jewett Refrigerator Company, which supplied them and put 
them in, testify to the excellence of the outfit. The plumbing fix- 
tures, which are of the highest grade used, were supplied by the 
J. L. Mott Iron Works, which is a sufficient guarantee of their 

Since the woodwork in the Hotel St. Regis was, for the most 
part, to be finished rather than painted, it was of the utmost import- 
ance that the natural grain of the wood should be good, and that 
nothing should be done to spoil this grain in working it. Conse- 


(William H. Brodie & Co., New York, Agents.) 

quently, the utmost care was used in selecting the actual boards 
used from the stock of Messrs. I. T. Williams & Sons, who sup- 
plied the material, and every precaution was taken against the 
subsequent discoloration of the lumber during the process of fire- 
proofing. After an investigation of the various methods of fireproof- 
ing the architects and builders decided that the work would be 
done best by the Fireproofine Manufacturing Company. The fact 
that the delicate mahoganies, beautiful walnuts and oaks and other 



fancy woods used in this magnificent hotel have been so well 
treated that it is impossible to tell that the material has been 
through any process at all, is one of the best evidences that the 
process of the Fireproofine Manufacturing Company is what they 
claim for it a process that will not discolor in the slightest degree 
the most expensive and delicate woods. In relation to this wood- 
work it is also interesting to note that the standing trim on six- 
teen floors was furnished by W. & J. Sloane. 

As will be seen from the illustrations, the Hotel St. Regis con- 
tains an unusual number of rooms, wholly or partly finished in 
marble. Among the apartments so finished are the main office, 


(William H. Brodie & Co., New York, Agents.) 

the chief dining-room, the palm-room, the banqueting hall and 
all the corridors. In addition, a great deal of marble flooring has 
been used, and some particularly handsome marble chimney- 
pieces in rooms otherwise finished in wood. The work of setting 
this marble, particularly of the elaborate arches in the main 
restaurant, was an exceedingly delicate and difficult job, and was 
accomplished by the two contractors with the greatest skill and 
success. One of these contractors is Messrs. Batterson & Eisele, 


and the other John H. Shipway & Bro., and no better work of the 
kind has ever been achieved in this country. The large amount of 
ornamental metal work which the hotel contains was also divided 
between two companies, the Hecla Iron Works and William H. 
Jackson Co. Articles published elsewhere in. this issue describe 
in detail the work accomplished by each of these contractors, and 
here it is only necessary to state that the Hecla Iron Works are re- 
sponsible for the elaborate bronze marquise on the exterior, for 
the metal sashes and window frames, which have been used 
throughout the building, and for the handsome canopy in which 
the swing-doors are housed. These doors, by the way, were manu- 
factured by the Van Kannel Revolving Door Company, and are spe- 
cially adapted to hotel use. The Hecla Iron Works also executed 
most of the elevator grilles, the elevators being, of course, furnished 
by the ( )tis Elevator Company. The William H. Jackson Company, 
on the other hand, executed the ornamental metal-work in all the 
principal rooms, the grille on the counter in the office, the elevator 
enclosure on the main floor, and the mantelpieces in the private 
apartments. The hardware, part of which was imported and part 
manufactured in this country, was all of it sunolied by Yale & 
Towne, and it is throughout specially designed and carefully exe- 
cuted. The lighting fixtures are also worth special considera- 
tion. They are the work of the Sterling Bronze Company, and 
are extremely various in character, to suit the different treatment 
of the rooms. Attention should be particularly called to the hand- 
some chandeliers in some of the main rooms, to the delicate and 
graceful side lights in the restaurant, and to the uniformlv simple 
and excellent fixtures in the private apartments. In the same 
wav that part of the furniture, which was manufactured in this 
country, came from the shops of the Pooley Furniture Company, of 
Philadelphia. The models from which this furniture was designed 
are peculiarly appropriate to the purposes for which they are used ; 
the wood is of the best quality, and the workmanship the finest that 
could be obtained. The same is true of the pianos, of which there 
are forty-seven instruments in the hotel, all designed by the Art 
department of Steinway & Sons, and manufactured by the same 
firm. Another interesting piece of work is the stained 
glass, through which the lobby, the hall leading to the restaurant, 
and the palm-room obtain their light. This is the product of the 
office of Duryea & Potter, the well-known decorators, and con- 
tributes much to the effect of these rooms. It will be seen, con- 
sequently, that the same idea runs through every detail of the hotel, 
and that the various contractors have contributed their full share 
to the pervading high quality of the result. They were employed 
with that end in view, and have fully justified their selection. 


The illustrations and the text that appear in this issue of the 
Architectural Record are a sufficient demonstration of the fact 
that the St. Regis Hotel is a remarkable building remarkable even 
among a numerous class of buildings that have been tending more 
and more in their development of recent years toward the superla- 
tive. From a technical point of view, that is in all matters that con- 
cern material, workmanship and equipment, the St. Regis is almost 
a piece of exhibition work. In the smallest details there is clear 
evidence not only of the most careful and skilled workmanship, 
but of a most competent selection of the highest grade of materials. 
In some cases, indeed, the selection of material may quite properly 
be described as opulent. There is every evidence in every particular 
that choice was made from immense resources, and this character- 
istic contributes so much to the total effect of richness produced 
by the building upon the spe-ctator that it ought not to be over- 
looked, for it is a contribution that may easily be missed and hidden 
by the more positive and tangible elements of the decorative results. 
One can easily imagine how much of the success achieved by the 
architects in the St. Regis would be quite eliminated had their ef- 
forts not been supported and augmented by a quality of effect en- 
tirely due to the large selection offered them by certain firms whose 
particular resources are abundant in an extraordinary degree. 

(Wood Supplied by I. T. Williams & Sons.) 



(Wood Furnished by I. T. Williams & Sons.) 


These remarks hold particularly true in alt that concerns the 
v.oodwork of the building. This woodwork, indeed, is one of the 
most successful features of the structure from the point of view 
we are now discussing. Good woodwork no doubt is not an un- 
common thing in our buildings, but fine wood is a rarity a rarity 
because here is a case where "selection" constitutes almost the very 
essence of expense. Moreover, even selection itself, no matter how 
carefully performed, is a limited affair unless exercised upon a 
large and carefully accumulated stock, and stocks of this kind ne- 
cessitate not only abundant capital but extensive connections and 
large experience. These are just the very facts which the appre- 
ciative eye quickly recognizes in the decorative wood used in the 
St. Regis. It is a splendid exhibition. No finer material has been 
used in any interior in New York. The English brown oak, the 
red mahogany, the Circassian walnut and the Prima Vera are fine 
even to the point of being a decoration in themselves. Much fav- 
orable comment has already been passed upon this element of the 
decorative scheme by architects and by other competent judges 
who have seen the result, and Messrs. I. T. Williams & Sons, 25th 
Street and nth Avenue, who supplied the product are to be con- 
gratulated upon demonstrating in so signal a manner the premier 
position which they have so long held in the fine lumber trade of 
the United States. 


A large part of the artistic elegance of the interior of the Hotel 
St. Regis is due to the graceful effect of the decorative bronze- 
work, made by William H. Jackson Company, of 29 East I7th 
St. All the work in the principal rooms has been done by this 
company. Some of the more prominent and noticeable pieces are 
shown in illustrations on this and other pages. The grille on the 
counter in the office (photograph below), the main stair rail 
(page 575), the great three-arch mirror frame in the restaurant 
(page 580), and the elevator enclosure on the main floor (page 571), 
are especially deserving of attention. 

Not only the bronzework, but all the mantels and fireplaces, both 
wood and marble, in the apartments are the work of the Jackson 


Company. The marble mantels are all copies of French patterns, 
some being tastefully trimmed with French gold metal work. 
These mantels and fireplaces have a solid, comfortable look. Their 
lines are simple, strong, and graceful. The gold metal work has 
a very handsome effect. 

Art and utility have been wrought together with unusual success 
in the tiling which covers the floors and walls of the bath-rooms, 
and the walls and ceilings of the kitchen. 

In all of this work no expense of money or endeavor has been 
spared, the aim being to produce something representative of the 
highest development of this important branch of decorative art. 

(Made by the Pooley Furniture Co.) 


The furniture built for the St. Regis Hotel by the Pooley Fur- 
niture Company, of Philadelphia, is to be admired not more for 
its individual beauty and elegance than for the excellent taste with 
which it has been designed to harmonize in all its lines and colors 
with the architecture and finish of the rooms wherein it is placed. 

Most of the furniture is made after the fashion of the Louis 
XIV., XV. and XVI. periods, the material used being the very 
finest of selected Circassian Walnut, Satinwood, Prima Vera, Ma- 
hogany and English Oak. The accompanying photographs illus- 
trate the designs of some of the pieces, but a black and white 
picture can hardly do justice to the rich deep tones in the wood 
and upholstery of the furniture itself. The suits cost from five 
hundred to five thousand dollars. The beautiful chairs which are 
used in the Palm Garden and illustrated on page 598 cost $55 each 
and are considered the best of their kind and the most elaborate 
used for this purpose. 

The Waldorf-Astoria and the new Manhattan Hotel contain 
furniture of the Pooley make, and the Bellevue-Stratford, of Phil- 
adelphia, is now being furnished by the same firm. 

The address of the Pooley Furniture Company is Indiana Ave., 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Sts., Philadelphia. The New York 
showrooms are in the Furniture Exchange, 43d St. and Lexington 

(Made by the Pooley Furniture Co.) 


T is not often that a firm attains the very highest 
prominence in its line of work in so short a space 
of time as five years. That has been the case 
with the Thompson-Starrett Company. In fact, 
the company took its place in the first rank 
among builders immediately on its organization 
in 1899. This was because the Starrett Brothers, 
who were the practical members of the company, had already be- 
hind them years of experience in building, and because as their 
business grew they surrounded themselves with a corps of thor- 
oughly competent and intelligent workers. 

The result of this high-class organization shows itself in the num- 
ber and quality of the building contracts the Thompson-Starrett 
Company has secured and executed in the less than five years of 
its existence. The company has built, or has now under contract, 
fifty large buildings, of which twenty-one arc in New York City, 
four in Brooklyn, five in Boston, three in Pittsburgh, two in Phil- 
adelphia, eight in Princeton, N. J., one in Newark, N. J., two in 
Washington, D .C., two in Chicago, one in St. Louis, one in Cleve- 
land and one in Winnipeg. 

The Thompson-Starrett Company has an enviable reputation for 
the speed with which all their work is done. They realize the im- 
portance to the owner of a property of having his building com- 
pleted without delay and the consequent loss of interest on the 
capital represented. With this idea in mind, and aided by their 
comprehensive experience in such matters, they exercise much care 
and forethought in the making of arrangements before starting to 
build. Everything is planned in advance, dates for delivering of 
materials fixed, and the work goes on smoothly and rapidly. 

The Thompson-Starrett Company were the designing engineers, 
as well as the erectors, of the constructional steel frame and foun- 
dation work of the St. Regis Hotel. They were also the contrac- 
tors for the foundations and masonry work. 

The office of the Thompson-Starrett Company is at 51 Wall 
Street, New York City. 


One of the most essential problems in a hotel is not only to cook 
and serve the food properly, but to keep it properly. If the public 
could see some of the Refrigerators in which their food is kept they 
would change their order of strawberries and cream to a soft- 
boiled egg. 

There is no department in the St. Regis that has received more 
attention than the kitchen. If one were to dine in one of the large 

Installed by Jewett Refrigerator Co. 

Refrigerators instead of in the cafe, the only possible objection would 
be the difference in temperature. You would be surrounded by pure 
white glass one inch thick, resembling the finest polished Carrara 
marble, the corners being finished with liquid glass, making practi- 
cally a glass room all in one piece. You could use for a table one of 
the shelves which are made of polished aluminum ; in fact, you 
would be in one of the most perfectly sanitary places that could 
possibly be made. Each department in the kitchen has refrigerators 
especially designed for it. The baker has a refrigerator for the 
storage of his stock. The pastry cook has service-refrigerators 

6 14 


Installed by Jewett Refrigerator Co. 



made for the storage of fancy cakes. The ice cream is kept in Ger- 
man silver covered refrigerators in which are porcelain jars for the 
storage of some thirty different kinds of ice creams. 

The garde-manger and salad departments have several refriger- 
ators, each compartment arranged for some specific purpose. 

All departments, where cold dishes are served are equipped with 
cold plate refrigerators. The fish and sea-food have special re- 
frigerators, the fish being stored in cracked ice in large porcelain 
crocks, the sea-food in drawers faced with German silver to avoid 

In all, throughout the kitchen and pantries there are fifty-two 
(52) refrigerators, and in each case the same care in designing and 

Installed by Jewett Refrigerator Co. 

construction has been followed ; and, while the first cost is consid- 
erably more, there is no doubt but what they are enduring fixtures, 
and the saving in the cost of replacing and repairing, to say noth- 
ing of the better facilities for handling the food, will in the end 
justify such an installation. 

Mr. Allston Sargent, Manager of the Jewett Refrigerator Com- 
pany, office in the St. James Building, New York, states that in the 
fifty-five years that this company have been manufacturing refrig- 
erators they have never provided a more complete installation with 
the exception, perhaps, of two or three of the most expensive pri- 
vate houses. 


One of the most important features in connection with the Hotel 
St. Regis, and this applies equally to large buildings of any de- 
scription, are the Ellis Automatic Ejectors or Sewer Lifts, for the 
removal of sewage and all liquid wastes as rapidly as created, and 
the absolute prevention of any kind of back flow of sewage or 
sewer gas from the public sewers. In the construction of the Hotel 
St. Regis only the best material and the most modern and com- 
plete machinery are used. 

The problem of the disposal of sewage is simply solved when 
there is a good fall from the basement level to the public sewer by 
properly laid and properly trapped gravitation sewers. Where 
gravitation cannot be obtained, artificial means of raising and dis- 
charging the liquid waste and ground water must be employed. 
By means of the Ellis ejector system, a new and up-to-date device, 
all the liquid refuse of a building can be discharged in a simple, 
sanitary, and economical manner, without coming in contact with 
the air of the building; and making the entry of sewage or sewer 
gas from the public sewers an impossibility. The motive power in 
the Ellis ejector system is compressed air, steam, electricity, or 
water. It is applied in the following manner: 

In a chamber built of brick or iron, either in the basement floor 
or outside of the building, an air-tight iron vessel, called a receiv- 
ing tank, is placed at such a level that all the sewers and drains of 
the building can have a good fall into it. From the receiving tank 
a discharge pipe is laid to the point of outfall, which is generally the 
public sewer in the street. The sewage flows from the drains 
through the inlet pipe into the receiving tank, and gradually rises 
therein until it reaches the under side of the float. The air inside 
of this float, being at atmospheric pressure, causes the float to rise 
with the sewage, and this opens an operating valve, when the air, 
thus automatically admitted into the receiving tank on the surface 
of the sewage, drives the entire contents before it through the open- 
ing at the bottom, and through the outlet pipe into the iron sewage 
discharge pipe. The instant the pressure is admitted upon the 
surface of the/ sewage the Ellis Positive Check valve in the inlet 
pipe closes and prevents the fluid from escaping in that direction. 
The system can be cross connected with air, steam, or water, and 
arranged with by-pass valves operated by hand if desired. A book- 
let describing this system may be obtained by writing to The Ellis 
Company, of 216 West 23d Street, New York. 



THE exterior stone work of the Hotel St. Regis measures up to 
the same standard of substantial elegance which obtains in 

every detail of the construction and equipment of the building. 
This work has been done by James Gillies and Sons. The material 

used in the stone work of the foundation is granite. The four walls 

of the hotel, from 
ground to top, are 
of blue Indiana 
limestone, carefully 
selected especially 
for the St. Regis. 

Builders will be 
interested to learn 
that Gillies and Sons 
were awarded the 
contract a few 
weeks before the 
actual setting of the 
stone began. 
Twenty-three weeks 
only were taken up 
in the setting of the 
eighteen stories. 

They were enabled 
to do this by the 
resources of equip- 
ment and material 
afforded by their 

stone yards and works in Long Island City. The capacity of the 

Gillies works is equal to even a greater test than that made by 

the quick work done on the St. Regis. 

The firm of James Gillies and Sons is an old one, having been 

founded in 1852 by the late James Gillies. The business is now 

being conducted by his son, John Gillies. 

James Gillies and Sons have set up the walls of very many 

of New York's fine buildings. The St. Regis is representative 

of the sort of work they are accustomed to. 


In all the world there is probably not another building, covering 
an equal ground space, that contains such an assemblage of rich 
and expensive marbles obtained from foreign and domestic quarries. 
Five hundred thousand dollars is a close estimate of the cost of the 
interior marble and mosaic. 

John H. Shipway & Brother were the contractors for the greater 
part of this work, including the marble dallage and mosaic floors 
throughout the building, the paneled wainscot and moulded door 
architraves in corridors, the moulded and carved paneled enclosures 
of elevators, the stair wainscot and elaborate work in the bath- 

A careful selection of marble was made at the various quarries. 
The photograph on page f>oi shows a view of one of the corridors 
on the upper floors, but it does not convey the impression of repose 
and grandeur one gets by a walk down one of them. No expense 
has been spared to make them superb and the finest. Lined as they 
are from floor to ceiling with carefully chosen slabs, which in their 
arrangement and selection do credit to the firm of John H. Shipway 
& Brother and the expert inspectors acting for them at the several 
quarries, nothing surpasses the treatment of these corridors the 
world over. 

Particular care has been exercised not only with regard to the 
more pretentious or ornate pieces, but even to the most out-of-the- 
way nook and the most simply utilitarian place where marble is 
made use of at all. This was in accord with the policy of the 
owners of the hotel, and with the custom of Messrs. Shipway, who 
"have the habit" of thoroughness in all their contracts. 

All the interior sills of windows are made of Verde Antique 
marble, quarried on the French side of the Alps. 

The Caen stone and the Istrian marble work in the Palm Court 
add much to the attractiveness of the place. An illustration of 
the Caen stone is shown on page 584. In the elevator halls and at 
many points throughout the building may be seen some very skilful 
and artistic carving. 

One of the most interesting features of the marble work in the 
St. Regis, both on account of its beauty and style, and because it 
cannot be found in any other hotel in the United States, is the 


pleasing effect of the dallage floors, with borders of colored im- 
ported marble worked into many artistic designs and patterns. 
Only experts in the execution of such floors can appreciate the care 
necessary to produce such results. An imperfect impression of the 
lobby floor mav be obtained by referring to illustration on page 577. 

It is no simple matter to do so conspicuous a work as this in a 
building _where such exacting standards of art and scientific con- 
struction obtain, and have the result pass the keen inspection of the 
architect. The work of the Shipway firm has not only done so, it 
has brought forth admiring comment from those who know the 
difficulties attendant upon so large a task. 

John H. Shipway & Brother furnished the marble work in hun- 
dreds of large buildings on Manhattan Island. Among these are 
many hotels. We mention a few whose reputation for style and ele- 
gance testify to the high standard of work done by them : The Man- 
hattan Hotel, Hotel Vendome, Hoffman House, Buckingham, 
Marlborough, Sherry's, The Ansonia, Marie Antoinette, the 
Lorraine, Hotel Navarre, the Algonquin and the Imperial Hotel. 

The Shipway works are at the foot of East Street. 
Whenever a fine building is erected and the best of everything is 
wanted, they are in demand by architects and builders, and 
rightly so. 


The ornamental metal-work for this hostelry is of the most elab- 
rate character, the details embodied in it being as difficult to han- 
dle as the manufacture has ever undertaken. No matter where 
the eye turns, the intricate designs of the metal worker are apparent, 

Executed by the Hecla Iron Works. 

whether viewing the unique elevator enclosure work, the stair- 
railings, which are enriched with scroll work, the treatment of the 
front entrances with rich bronze grilles, the ornate character of the 
solid bronze marquise, or the balcony railings on the exterior of 



Executed by the Hecla Iron Works. 



Executed by the Hecla Iron Works. 


the building. The most striking of the above mentioned features 
is the bronze and glass marquise, extending nearly the entire 
length of the 55th street side of the building. This piece of work 
is one of the finest, if not the finest, marquise in the world, and 
will bear the closest scrutiny. It is a study for the lover of the 
beautiful in art metal work, it being almost inconceivable how the 
wealth of foliage adorning the various scroll members could be 
produced in solid metal. It may be interesting to some of our 
readers to know that considerable over twenty tons of bronze alone 
were used in the construction of this canopy. The massive brackets 
alone weighing a ton each. 

An important point in the construction of the elevator enclosure 
grilles is the use of electro-glazed glass behind the door and sta- 
tionary panels. 

This glass is cut in small squares and glazed electrically in light 
brass frames, a method of arrangement which has been proven to 
be a perfect barrier against fire. 

Although the intense heat has the effect of "crazing" and crack- 
ing the glass, the four-inch square brass frames securely hold the 
glass in position, even resisting the action of water when thrown 
against the hot glass. The picture of an elevator enclosure shown 
on a preceding page is from a photograph taken before the electro- 
glazed glass was in its place. It will serve, however, to illustrate 
the handsome design of the metal-work. 

Another unique example of the metal worker's skill is the bronze 
cab stand to be seen between the two entrances on 55th street. 

While not being especially ornamental, the bronze window frames 
and sashes throughout the structure afford a topic for special con- 
sideration, from the fact that in this building has been produced a 
window frame and sash which shows details in mouldings never 
successfully executed before, and while having all the effectiveness 
of solid bronze castings, are much less costly than the latter. 

This saving in expense is accomplished by the use of heavy 
bronze mouldings drawn over dies of various forms, the resulting 
hollow framing being filled with a fireproof material, which not 
only gives more stability to the frames, but affords a core which is 
absolutely fireproof. It may not be generally known that the usual 
"kalameined" or metal-covered window frame is drawn over 
wood which, if the frame be exposed to a high temperature, be- 
comes charred, and hence weakens the frame. 

There are 600 of these bronze windows and sashes in the build- 
ing, some of which are of quite an elaborate design, and all of 
which, together with the ornamental metal-work mentioned above, 
were executed by the Hecla Iron Works, whose offices and works 
are at North nth and Berry streets, Brooklyn. 


The marble and Caen stone work in the main portions of this 
beautiful hotel was clone by the well-known firm of Batterson & 
Eisele, 431 Eleventh Avenue, under the personal supervision of Mr. 
Eisele, the senior member of the firm. 

In the first story, the office, lobbies and adjoining- corridors have 
a heavy Istrian marble dado, and highly ornamented pilasters of 
Caen stone, the latter material being used also for all the work 
above the dado. The Main Restaurant, fronting on Fifth Avenue, 
and the Ladies' Restaurant adjoining it, are finished in the most 
decorative manner, a combination of Rubio, Rreche Violette and 
Pavonazzo marble, beautifully moulded and inlaid, being used. A 
view of the restaurant is shown in the illustration on page 580. 

All the door and window openings of the large oak room, in the 
southeasterly corner of the building, are finished with heavily 
moulded Italian marble. The Banquet Room, facing Fifth Avenue, 
on the second storv, has all the walls, from floor to cornice line, 
finished in pure white Vermont statuarv marble, the same material 
being employed for the finish of all doors and windows in this 

( )ne of the finest pieces of marble work is in the large corridor 
running east and west on the second story, and including the main 
staircase. For this Blanco P., with Pavonazzo for the paneling, 
has been used. The arched doorway, illustrated on page 583, is 
an imposing yet graceful example of the marble-workers' art. The 
mantel picture on page 590, to any lover of the beautiful, is worth 
going far to see. 

The firm of Batterson & Eisele have done the marble and mosaic 
work in the \Yaldorf-Astoria, the Holland House, the Manhattan, 
Savoy and other hotels in Xew York and other cities. 

The marble and mosaic decorations of a great number of public 
and private buildings bear testimony to the skillful workmanship 
of this firm. Below we mention a few of these buildings : 

Equitable Life Assurance Society Building, Xew York. 

New York Stock Exchange. 

Reading Room of the Congressional Library, Washington, D. C. 

Prudential Insurance Company Building, Newark, N. J. 

Union Trust Company, New York City. 

United States Trust Company, New York City. 

Home Life Insurance Company, New York City. 

Washington Life Insurance Company, New York City. 

Corn Exchange Bank, New York City. 

American Exchange Bank, New York City. 

Building for Blair &* Co., New York City. 

The town residences of Wm. D. Sloane, J. H. Hammond, 
George W. Vanderbilt, the town and Newport residences of the 
late Cornelius Vanderbilt, the Newport residence of E. . J. Ber- 
wind, the residences of Mr. Widener and Mr. Elkins near Phila- 
delphia, H. M. Flagler's residence, Whitehall, at Palm Beach, 
Fla., as well as hundreds of others. 



Architectural record