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Full text of "Architectural record"

ARCHITECT VRAL 
RECORD 



AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF ARCHITECTURE 
AND THE ALLIED ARTS AND CRAFTS. 



INDEX- VOLUME XXXVII 



JANUARY JUNE 

1915 



PUBLISHED BY 

THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD CO. 

115-119 WEST 40TH ST., NEW YORK CITY 

841 MONADNOCK BUILDING, CHICAGO 1211 ARCH ST., PHILADELPHIA 

BESSEMER BUILDING, PITTSBURGH 114 FEDERAL ST., BOSTON 



NA 




Copyright, 1915, by THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD Co. 
All Rights Reserved 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD 

INDEX 

Volume XXXVII January-June, 1915 

ARTICLES PAGE 

ARCHITECT'S COUNTRY HOUSE, AN : RESIDENCE OF ELEC- 

xus LITCHFIELD, NEW CANAAN, CONN Harriet T. Bottomley 49-63 

ARCHITECT'S PART IN THE WORLD'S WORK, THE Frederick L. Ackerman 149-158 

ARCHITECTURAL RECLAMATION OF SMALL AREAS IN 

CITIES, THE Harold D. Eberlein 1-25 

CERTAIN PHASES OF SPANISH COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE. . Marrion Wilcox 535-546 

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN CONNECTICUT, PART I Wesley S. Bessell 361 369 

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN CONNECTICUT, PART II Wesley S. Bessell 445-452 

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN CONNECTICUT, PART III. ... Wesley S. Bessell 547-556 

COLOR IN ARCHITECTURE AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC 

EXPOSITION Wm. L. Woollett 437-444 

GROUPING OF FARM BUILDINGS, THE: EXAMPLES FROM 

THE WORK OF ALFRED HOPKINS John J. Klaber 341-359 

HOTEL STATLER IN DETROIT, THE W. Sydney Wagner 321-339 

HOUSE OF HOPE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, THE, ST. PAUL, 

MINN 441-424 

MEDIAEVAL MARKET PLACE AT YPRES, THE G. A. T. Middleton 289-299 

MODERN VERSION OF THE EARLY PENNSYLVANIA 

HOUSE, A. C. Matlack Price 76-81 

MONTREAL ART GALLERY, THE Thomas W. Ludlow 133 148 

NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL AT CINCINNATI, THE. J. R. Schmidt 453-463 

NEW HOME OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, THE .John Martin Hammond 481-492 

OLD CITY HALL, THE, WASHINGTON, D. C H. F. Cunningham 269-273 

OTIS AND CLARK, EXAMPLES OF THE WORK OF Herbert Croly 385-409 

PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION, THE, SAN DIEGO, CAL. C. Matlack Price 229-251 

PANAMA- PACIFIC EXPOSITION AT SAN FRANCISCO, THE. . Louis C. Mullgardt 193-228 

PORTFOLIO OF CURRENT ARCH IT ECTURE 83-92, 177-186, 274280, 370-378, 464-473, 557-562 

PROCTOR, JOHN C., RECREATION CENTRE, THE, PEORIA, ILL 1 17-131 

RECENT ASPECTS OF GARDEN DESIGN Harold D. Eberlein 301-319 

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE AND ITS CRITICS, PART I Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin 425-436 

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE AND ITS CRITICS, PART II Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin 493-516 

SOME RECENT BANK PLANS, THE WORK OF THOMAS 

BRUCE BOYD John J. Klaber 97-115 

THREE TYPES OF GEORGIAN ARCHITECTURE, PART II Harold D. Eberlein 159-176 

TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, AKRON, O I. T. Frary 253-267 

Two DENTAL BUILDINGS IN PHILADELPHIA AND BOSTON. . Harold D. Eberlein 517-534 

VILLA MADAMA, THE, PART II Howard W. Germann 27-47 

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. Louis, Mo Guy Study 65-75 

THE ARCHITECT'S LIBRARY (BOOK REVIEWS) 

Two BOOKS BY PRACTICAL THEORISTS, PART I Richard F. Bach 93-95 

Two BOOKS BY PRACTICAL THEORISTS, PART II Richard F. Bach 187-189 

BOOKS FROM UNIVERSITY PRESSES, PART I Richard F. Bach 281 286 

OLD PHILADELPHIA Harold D. Eberlein 286 

BOOKS FROM UNIVERSITY PRESSES, PART II Richard F. Bach 379-381 

THE COMMERCIAL PROBLEM IN BUILDINGS ' Herbert Croly 381-382 

BOOKS ON MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE, PART I Richard F. Bach 474-47* 

BOOKS ON MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE, PART II Richard F. Bach 563-566 

NOTES AND COMMENTS 

January: A Humorous Fountain in Munich A New Type of Open Air School. 
February: Sculpture and Architectural Design Architectural Competitions. 
March: The First Garden City in France Ingenious Repairs to Strasburg Cathedral An 

Exposition of Art for Children The Hotel Biron a National Monument. 
April- Rough Texture Brick in a Large Composition An Authentic Restoration of a Fine 

Old Residence Glass Houses The Lincoln of the People The Yale Bowl and the 

Palmer Stadium. 
May: A Seashore Cottage at Nantucket A Bank, Monumental and Beautiful A Layman 

on Builders and Planning. 
June: A Water Color Sketch in Terra Cotta England s Imminent Italian Revival A 

Venial Professional Transgression The Arch of Constantme. 



COVER DESIGNS 

January. South Entrance of Independence Hall, Philadelphia. Drawing by Jack Manley 
Rose. 

February: The Klingentor, Rothenberg. Water Color Drawing by Walter S. Schneider. 

March: Detail of Court of the Four Seasons, Panama- Pacific Exposition. By Jack Man- 
ley Rose and Grace Norton Rose. 

April: An Italian Garden. By C. Matlack Price. 

May: House Door at Oak Lodge, Ardmore, Pa. Painting by Charles Lennox Wright. 

June: Entrance to Glynde, England. By C. Matlack Price. 

TYPES OF BUILDINGS ILLUSTRATED 

BANKS. ARCHITECT PAGE 

Chase National Bank Kimball & Roosa 98, 100-101 

Banking House of the Guaranty Trust Co York & Sawyer 103-110 

Banking House of J. P. Morgan & Co Trowbridge & Livingston 111-115 

Bank, Litchfield, Conn Colonial 449 

BRIDGES. 

Cabrillo Bridge, San Diego Exposition Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. .229, 242 

CHURCHES. 

Chapel at Washington University, St. Louis, Mo... Cope & Stewardson 73 

Balvanera Chapel, Church of San Francisco, City of 

Mexico 239 

Church of San Diego, Guanajuato, Mexico 240 

Trinity Lutheran Church, Akron, Ohio J. W. C. Corbusier 250-267 

St. Martin's Church, Ypres 290-292 

House of Hope Presbyterian Church Cram & Ferguson 410-424 

Cathedral at Arequipa, Peru 540 

Chapel of The Wdl (La Capilla Del Picito) at 

Guadalupe, Mexico 541 

Monastery in San Angel, Mexico 544 

Cathedral at Cuernavaca, Mexico 545 

CLUBS. 

Franklin Inn Club, Philadelphia Francis D. Caldwell 14, 15 

Mask & \Yig Club, Philadelphia C. L. Borie 16 

Poor Rich'ard Club, Philadelphia 17 

Indiana Hill Club, Winnetka, 111 Otis & Clark 389, 390 

COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS. 

Office of Mellor & Meigs Mellor & Meigs 25 

Warehouse and Branch Office of the Rumley Prod- 
ucts Co., Saskatoon, Can Hill & Woltersdorf 470 

Thomas Church Bldg., Chicago Hill & Woltersdorf 471 

Burke & James Bldg., Chicago Hill & Woltersdorf 472 

Mcyer-Both Co. Bldg., Chicago Hill & Woltersdorf 472 

Thos. J. Dee & Co Hill & Woltersdorf 473 

News-Press Bldg., St. Joseph, Mo Eckel & Aldrich 561 

DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE (City, Country and Suburban). 
Frame and Half-Timber 

Electus D. Litchfield, Esq., New Canaan, Conn Electus D. Litchfield 49 

W. E. Marble, Esq., Greenwich, Conn Rowe & Smith 91 

Farmer's Cottage, Estate of V. V. Brokaw, Esq., 

Glen Cove, L. I Alfred Hopkins 342, 347 

Farmer's Cottage, Estate of Adolph Mollenhauer, 

Esq., Bay Shore, L. I Alfred Hopkins 350 

Farmer's Cottage. Estate of Mrs. Glenn Stewart, 

Locust Valley, L. I Alfred Hopkins 356 

Talmadge House, Litchfield, Conn 360, 446 

House at Essex, Conn 362 

House at Litchfield, Conn 363 

Hayden House, Essex, Conn 365 

'Starkey House, Essex, Conn 367 

Oliver Wolcott House, Litchfield, Conn 368 

Lyman Smith House, Litchfield, Conn 369 

Geo. K. Smith, Esq., St. Louis County, Mo Roth & Study 377 

Chas. M. Rankin, Esq., Terre Haute, Tnd Otis & Clark 393 

Wm. S. Mason, Esq., Evanston, 111 Otis & Clark 402 

John A. Jameson, Hubbard Woods, 111 Otis & Clark 408 

Butler House, Litchfield, Conn 447 

Sheldon House, Litchfield, Conn 448 

Seymour Homestead, Litchfield, Conn 448 

Reeves House, Litchfield, Conn 449 

House at Windsor, Conn 452 

Chas. Sharp, Esq., Los Angeles, Cal B. Cooper Corbett 466 

Miss Alice M. Corse, Nantucket, Mass Henry T. Corse, Jr 479 



>- 

ARCHITECT PAGE 

Stucco and Concrete 
W. Park Moore, Esq., Elkins Park, Pa ............. Heacock & Hokanson ........ 274-276 

W. Lawrence Miller, Esq., Elmsford, N. Y ........ John C. Moore ................. 277 

Jas. W. Thome, Esq., Lake Forest, 111 ..... ........ Otis & Clark ................... 395 

Walter R. Kirk, Lake Forest, 111 ................. Otis & Clark .................... 396 

Mrs. Louise A. Denker, Los Angeles, Cal ......... B. Cooper Corbett ........... 465-467 

C. F. Perry, Esq., Hollywood, Cal ................. B. Cooper Corbett .............. 466 

C. Wesley Roberts, Esq., Los Angeles, Cal ......... B. Cooper Corbett .............. 467 

Brick and Stone 

Small Houses in Mt. Vernon St., Boston ........... Richard Arnold Fisher .......... 12 

Wm. T. Harris, Esq., Villa Nova, Pa .............. Duhring, Okie & Ziegler ....... 77 

Cliveden, Germantown, Philadelphia .............................................. 159 

Mount Pleasant, Philadelphia ..................................................... 168 

The Woodlands, Philadelphia .................................................... 175 

Upsala, Germantown, Philadelphia ................................................ 176 

Norton House, East Goshen, Conn .............................................. 368-445 

"Pencoyd," Bala, Pa ............................. Louis Carter Baker, Jr ....... 370-373 

Henry S. Drinker, Esq., Wynnewood, Pa .......... Mellor & Meigs .................. 374 

E. I. Cudahy, Esq., Chicago ........................ Otis & Clark .................... 387 

Jas. Fentress, Esq., Hubbard Woods, 111 ............ Otis & Clark .................... 404 

EXPOSITION BUILDINGS. 

Panama-Pacific Exposition, San P'rancisco, Cal. 
Palace of Varied Industries ....................... Bliss & Faville. March Frontis- 

piece ... ............. 215, 218, 227 

Palace of Fine Arts ............................... Bernard Maybeck .......... 202, 203 

Palace of Education .............................. Bliss & Faville ............... 204, 205 

March insert 
Court of Palms .................................. Geo. W. Kelham ........... 206, 218 

Palace of Horticulture ................. .......... Bakewell & Brown. . .206, 223, May 

. colored insert. 
Court of Four Seasons ........................... Henry Bacon ............... 208, 209 

March insert, May colored insert. 
Festival Hall .................................... Carrere & Hastings ......... 212, 224 

Court of the Universe ............................ McKim, Mead & White. .213, 214, 228 

Palaces of Food Products, Agriculture, Transporta- 
tion and Mines and Metallurgy ................. Bliss & Faville ................. 216 

Court of Flowers ............................... Geo. W. Kelham ............ 218, 219 

Tower of Jewels ................................. Carrere & Hastings ............ 218 

May colored insert. 
Court of Abundance ............................. Louis C. Mullgardt ......... 221, 222 

Palace of Machinery .............................. Ward & Blohm ................. 226 

Arch of the Rising Sun ....... .................... ....................... March insert 

California Building ...................................................... March insert 

General- Views 

Sketch of the Exposition Grounds ........................................... 198, 199 

Sketch of the construction for the Central Dome, 
Palace of Fine Arts ........................................................... 200 

Aeroplane view ............................................................... 201 

Sketch of the Palace of Education. . . . .............................. : ......... 204, 205 

Sketch of construction around the Court of Palms ................................. 207 

Sketch showing 'construction of the Court of Four 
Seasons ....................................................................... 210 

Sketch of interior construction of domes ......................................... 211 

Sketch showing framework of the Court of 
Abundance ................................... ................................ 220 

Sketch showing interior construction of Palace of 
Machinery ...................... . .............................................. 225 

Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, Cal. 
Fine Arts Building ............................... Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. 230 

California State Building .......................... Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. 232, ^ 

Varied Industries Building ........................ Bertram G. Goodhue ............ 234 

Commerce and Industries Building ................ Bertram G. Goodhue.238, 246, 249, 250 

Southern California Counties Building ............ Bertram G. Goodhue ............ 241 

San Joaquin Valley Building ..................... Bertram G. Goodhue ............ 243 

Arts and Crafts Building ......................... Bertram G. Goodhue ............ 245 

New Mexico Building ............................. Ra PP &ros. .... .............. - 

Botanical Building ............................. Bertram G. Goodhue ....... 

FARM BUILDINGS ................................... Alfred Hopkins ............ 341-35S 



F. Mayer & Bros., Chicago ................. Hill & Woltersdorf ........... 471 

HISTORIC BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS. 

Villa Madama, Rome, Italy ................ .. .................................... m 

Baths of Caracalia, Rome .......................................... .......... 



PAGE 

Colosseum, Rome 428 

Parthenon in 1755 430, 498, 500 

Tomb on Via Latina, Rome 431 

Theatre of Marcellus, Rome 434 

Arch of Titus, Rome 435 

British Museum, London 494 

Temple of Venus, Pompeii 496 

Arch of Constantine, Rome 504 

"Maison Carree," Nimes, France 506 

Roman Amphitheatre. Nimcs. France 508 

Temple of Jupiter, Baalbek, Syria 513 

HOTELS, RESTAURANTS, ETC. 

Assembly Tea Rooms, Boston Chas. M. Baker 83 -87 

Hotel Statler, Detroit, Mich Geo. B. Post & Son 320-339 

HOSPITALS, ETC. 

General Hospital, Cincinnati, O Samuel Hannaford & Sons. . .454-482 

Evans Museum and Dental Institute, University of 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia John T. Windrim 516-527 

Forsyth Dental Clinic for Children, Huston Edw. T. P. Graham 528-533 

MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS. 

Post Office, Washington, D. C Graham. Burnham & Co 278-280 

Old City Hall, Washington, D. C 268-273 

OFFICE BUILDINGS. 

(See Commercial Buildings). 
SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIC BUILDINGS. 

Washington University, St. Louis, Mo Cope & Stewardson 64 -75 

University Hall 64 65 

Busch Hall '.' '.'. . .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. . .' 67 

Cupples Hall, No. 2 68 

Tower Dormitory 68 

Ridgley Library .- 69 

Eads Hall 69 

Cupples Hall, No. 1 75 

Francis W. Parker School, San Diego. Cal Win. Templeton Johnson 88 -90 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md 481-492 

Academic Building Parker, Thomas & Rice. 484, 485, 488 

Botanical Laboratory 487 

Geological Laboratory Cook & Welch 490 

Physical Laboratory Wyatt & Nolting 490 

Chemical Laboratory Carrere & Hastings 491 

Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Building. . J. E. Sperry 492 

STABLE. 

Oscar F. Mayer & Bros., Chicago Hill & Woltersdorf 471 

STUDIO. 

Tree Studios, Annex Hill & Woltersdorf 473 

VARIED TYPES OF BUILDINGS. 

John C. Proctor Recreation Center, Peoria, 111 Hewitt & Emerson 116-131 

Montreal Art Gallery, Montreal, Can E. & W. S. Maxwell 132-148 

Tea House Duhring, Okie & Ziegler 310 

Bath House Otis & Clark 398 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF DETAIL 

ALTARS 265 

ARCADES '246 

ARCHES 46, 435 

BALUSTRADES 100, 465 

CEILINGS 

Beamed 11, 147, 263, 326, 373, 523 

Coffered 100, 105, 151 

' Paneled 26, 30 et seq., 334 

Vaulted 32 et seq., 123, 221, 230, 264, 290, 296, 321 

CHANCELS 262, 418. 419, 421 

CHOIR STALLS 291 

COLONADES 131, 134, 143, 270 

CONFESSIONALS 291 

CORNICES 41, 172, 387 

COURTS 117 

DOMES 26, 31 

DOORS (Interior) 5, 61, 83, February frontispiece, 142 

DOORWAYS (Exterior) 

Georgian. . . January cover, 13. 15. 17. 19, 23, 48, 57. 84, 92, 159, 167, 173, 176, 272. 325, 

340. 362, 366, 368, 378, May cover, 402, 445, 446, 448, 452, 549 



PAGE 

" Gothic 64, 72, 75, 252, 257, 259, 519 

Renaissance, French 136, 139, March frontispiece, 215, 216 

Renaissance, Italian 213, 228 

Renaissance, Spanish 231, 235, 239, 240, 405 

Modern Classic 16, 118, 206, 208, 279, 528 

DOVE COTES 311 

EXEDRAS 34, 36, 37 

FANLIGHTS 40, 173 

FONTS 390 

FORECOURTS 270 

FOUNTAINS 82, 85, 277, 312 

GAZEBOS 306, 307 

GARDENS April cover, -317, 319, 398, 464 

GRILLES (Bronze and Iron) 110, 137, 146, 147 

INTERIORS 

Auditoriums 123 

Ball Rooms 331 

Banking Rooms - 100, 101, 104, 105, 110, 112, 113 

Banquet Rooms , 332, 333 

Bedrooms ' 64, 180 

Cafe 326 

Class Rooms (Open Air) 90 

Council . Rooms 147 

Dining Rooms 60, 84, 182, 186, 329, 334, 400, 407 

Drawing Rooms 184, 388 

Ecclesiastical 262, 263, 264, 290. 291, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424 

Entrance Halls 6, 7, 56, 141, 178, 183, 399 

Galleries 4, 9, 133, 142, 144, 230 

Gymnasiums 128, 130 

Kitchens 462 

Libraries 147, 177, 335 

Living Rooms January frontispiece, 4, 5, '>. 11, 21, 58, 59, 375, 407 

Lobbies 320, 321, 328, 524 

Music Rooms 181 

Operating Rooms 459, 460, 525 

Parlors 12, 162, 171, 335, 338 

Private Offices 115 

Reading Rooms 488 

Reception Rooms 179 

Sitting Rooms 185 

Stairways . . . . . 5, 56. 170, 186. 520, 523 

Tea Room 84, 85, 86 

Vestibules 83 

Waiting Rooms 87 

Wards (Hospital) 

LAMP STANDARDS 140 

LATTICES (Exterior) : 52, 76, 348, 352, 357 

LOGGIAS... 29, 116, 125, 130, 312 

MANTLEPIECES 

Modern January frontispiece, 177, 180, 182, 185. 186 

Georgian'.'.'.'. . 8, 12, 21, 58, 60, 62. 87. 160. 164. 171. 338, 388 

Renaissance, English 71, 115, 178, 179 

Renaissance, French '.181, 184, 400 

Colonial 373 

MARQUISE 325 

NAKTHFX 263, 264 

NAVE . :?;.'.:;..' '.v.v.v.v/.v.v.v.v. ......... . .- 417, 419, 420, 422 

NEWELL AND HANDRAILS 146, 1 

NlCHES 

PANELING Colored insert May issue, 532, 534 

PATIOS $29 

PENDENT T VES 

PERGOLAS '.' April frontispiece, 301, 303, 305, 306, 307. 312 

Po^s* 5 ; " " -309,' 310,' 314, '396 

PORCHES " 48, 76. 340, 360, 394, 402, 447 

PORTICO .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'-'.'.'.' J une frontispiece 

PULPIT ' f 

ROOF GARDEN 7?2 

ROTUNDA ' ' i JQ 

SCREENS . r 

SHRINES :.' J 



PAGE 

SWIMMING POOLS 129, 130 

TERRACES April frontispiece, 311, 391, 396 

TOWERS 64, 255, 292, June frontispiece, 484, 485, 516 

TRANSEPT 423 

URN 300 

WELL 309 

WINDOWS 

Range ' 11 

Mullioned 25 

Traceried .27, 418, 423 

Bay 81 

Georgian 82, 324, 450, 451 

Spanish Renaissance 237 

WOOD CARVING 537 

ARCHITECTS REPRESENTED 
NAME HOME OFFICE PAGE 

Bacon, Henry New York City 208-209 

Baker, Chas. M Boston, Mass. . . : 83-87 

Baker, Louis Carter, Jr Philadelphia, Pa 370-373 

Bakewell & Brown San Francisco, Cal 206, 223 

Bessell, Wesley Sherwood New York City 360, 362-369 

Bliss & Favillc San Francisco, Cal. . . . 193, 204-205, 210, 211, 215-217, 218 

Borie, C. L Philadelphia, Pa 16 

Caldwell, Francis D Philadelphia, Pa 14, 15 

Carrere & Hastings New York City 212, 218 

Chard, Thornton New York City 177-186 

Cook, Walter, & Winthrop A. Welch. New York City 491 

Cope & Stewardson St. Louis, Mo 64 69, 71-73 

Corbett, B. Cooper Los Angeles, Cal 464-469 

Corbusier, J. W. C Cleveland, 252, 254-267 

Corse, Henry T., Jr New York City 479 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson Boston, Mass 229-233, 235-237, 242 

Cram & Ferguson Boston, Mass 410, 412, 414, 424 

Duhring, Okie & Ziegler Philadelphia, Pa 76-81, 310 

Duhring & Howe Philadelphia, Pa 311 

Eckel & Aldrich St. Joseph, Mo 561 

Evans & Warner Philadelphia, Pa May Cover 

Farquhar, Robert David Los Angeles, Cal 224 

Fisher, Richard Arnold Boston, Mass Opp. 1, 2, 4-13, 18 

Goodhue, Bertram G New York City 234, 238, 241, 243, 244, 247, 249, 250 

Graham, Edw. T. P Boston, Mass 528-534 

Graham, Burnham & Co Chicago, 111 278, 280 

Hannaf ord, Samuel, & Sons Cincinnati, 454, 456, 462 

Heacock & Hokanson Philadelphia, Pa 274-276 

Hewitt & Emerson Peoria, 111 116 130 

Hill & Woltersdorf Chicago, 111 470-473 

Hopkins, Alfred New York City 340-359 

Johnson, Wm. Templeton San Diego, Cal 88-90 

Kelham, George W San Francisco, Cal 207, 218, 219 

Kimball & Roosa New York City 98, 100-101 

Litchfield, Electus D New York City 48-53, 55-62 

McKim, Mead & White New York City 213-214, 228 

Maxwell, E. & W. S Montreal, Can 132-147 

Maybeck, Bernard San Francisco, Cal 200. 202 203 

Mellor & Meigs Philadelphia, Pa 25, 374, 375 

Moore, John C White Plains, N. Y 277 

Mulleardt, Louis C San Francisco, Cal 220-222 

Olmsted Bros Brookline, Mass 289, 301, 305-307, 309, 313, 315 

Otis"& Clark Chicago, 111 Frontispiece, 386-408 

Parker, Thomas & Rice Baltimore, Md. June Frontispiece, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488 

Platt, Charles A New York City 303 

Post, Geo. B., & Sons New York City 320-321, 323-338 

Rapp Bros Trinidad, Col . 

Roth & Study St. Louis, Mo 576-578 

Rowe & Smith New York City 91-92 

Sperry, J. E Baltimore, Md 492 

Trowbridge & Livingston New York City Opp. 97, 111-115 

Ward & Blohm San Francisco, Cal 226 

Windrim, John T Philadelphia, Pa 516-527 

Wyatt & Nolting Baltimore, Md 491 

York & Sawyer New York City 103 110 



CHITECTVRA, 
RECORD 

January i 9 1 5 




Published by The Architectural Record C? ~ New York. 




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VOL. XXXVII. No. I 



JANUARY, 1915 



SERIAL NO. 196 



ARCH1TECTVRAL 
RECORD 




COVER South Entrance of Independence Hall, Philadelphia. 
Drawing by Jack Manley Rose 



Page 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECLAMATION OF SMALL AREAS IN CITIES 1 
By Harold D. Eberlein 



THE VILLA MADAMA. Part II 

Text and Measured Drawings by Howard W. Germann 



26 



AN ARCHITECT'S COUNTRY HOUSE: Residence of Electus Litchfield, Esq., 

New Canaan, Conn. - - - 48 

By Harriet T. Bottomley 

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, St. Louis, Mo. Cope & Stewardson, Architects * 64 
By Guy Study 

A MODERN VERSION OF THE EARLY PENNSYLVANIA COUNTRY 

HOUSE : Residence of William T. Harris, Esq., Villa Nova, Pa. Duhring, 
Okie & Ziegler, Architects - - 76 

By C. Matlack Price 



PORTFOLIO OF CURRENT ARCHITECTURE 



82 



THE ARCHITECT'S LIBRARY: Books by Practical Theorist Gram and Blashfield 93 
By Richard Franz Bach 

NOTES AND COMMENTS 96 



Editor: MICHAEL A. MIKKELSEN. Contributing Editor : HERBERT D. CROLY 

Advertising Manager: AUSTIN L. BLACK 
Yearly Subscription United States $3.00 Entered May 22. 1902. as Second Copyright 1914 by The Architectural 



Foreign $4.00 Single Copies 35 cents 



Class Matter, at New York. N. Y. 



Record Company All Righto Reserved 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD COMPANY 



115-119 WEST FORTIETH STREET. NEW YORK 



F. W. DODGE, President 



F. T. MILLER, Secretary and Treasurer 




LIVING-ROOMOWN HOUSE IN 
LIME STREET, BOSTON. RICHARD 
ARNOLD FISHER, ARCHITECT. 



THE . 

ARCHITECTVRAL 
RECORD 



JANVARY, 1915 



VOLVME XXXVII 





NVMBER I 



S2? ARCH1TECTVRAL RECLAMATION 
OF SMALL AREAS IN CITIES 

By Harold D. Eberlem 




MAKING the most of all available 
space in our cities is a matter 
of serious import. Indeed, in 
many cases, it is more than a matter 
of serious import; it is a matter, rather, 
of imperative necessity. The necessity 
is occasioned and emphasized by the 
growing congestion -of population, a 
population that is increasing by leaps 
and bounds, and by the consequent 
sharp advance in 'real estate values. Itr 
not a few instances the problem of mak- 
ing each square foot of space render 
its utmost service and bring in the 
largest possible financial return has be- 
come intensely acute. The architectural 
reclamation of neighborhoods or parts 
of neighborhoods whose possibilities 
have hitherto been ignored, offers one 
valuable means of relieving the strain. 
The pressure is felt in business and 



4-o 



residential districts alike. In the busi- 
ness world, motives of convenience and 
the stress of competition dictate a com- 
paratively restricted area of activity as 
the eligible location for those whose 
commercial or professional success de- 
pends largely upon ease and dispatch 
of communication and personal contact 
with their customers, clients or asso- 
ciates. Modern transit facilities have 
made it possible to realize this tendency 
to rush to one focal point and, as a neces- 
sary result, the skyscraper has been 
evolved to relieve the situation in some 
degree. 

On the other hand and here lies our 
present concern in urban residential 
districts the pressure has been present 
for some time past, is steadily becoming 
more and more insistent and refuses to 
be satisfied with the apartment house or 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



flat as the only practicable solution of 
the difficulty. While highly organized 
methods of transportation have greatly 
fostered city growth and assured ease 
of communication between the various 
sections, the fact remains that certain 
centrally located neighborhoods are 
deemed particularly desirable for pur- 
poses of residence, whether from consid- 
erations of convenience, of personal 
preference or, perhaps, from sentimen- 
tal attachment. Concurrently with the 
well recognized "back to the country" 
movement, there is also a movement in 
the opposite direction that sometimes es- 
capes notice, a "back to the centre of 
the city" movement that leads people to 
seek dwelling places now where a few 
years ago they would not have thought 
for a moment of looking. Apartments 
and flats are not to their taste and yet, 
oftentimes, their means are not sufficient 
to warrant the purchase or upkeep of a 
large house on one of the fashionable 
residential streets. Consequently they 
must needs turn their attention to the in- 
tensive use of space and look to the archi- 
tectural reclamation of the unimproved 
areas in small back streets for the one 
feasible and satisfactorv solution of the 
problem that confronts them. Thus, by 
turning to good account the areal by- 
product of an older and more prodigal 
method of city building when, as yet, 
there was no perplexing congestion ana 
hence no particular need to economize 
ground room, they both enhance the de- 
sirability and value of property and ac- 
complish their wishes in the matter of 
location. 

Others who are thoroughly interested 
in this process of architectural reclama- 
tion are those in easy but not affluent 
circumstances who orefer to live in a 
comfortable but modest way in the heart 
of the city, where all things in which 
they are interested, whether pertaining 
to business or pleasure, are readily ac- 
cessible by a few minutes' walk, rather 
than have a more extensive establish- 
ment in the suburbs or country where 
residence, however agreeable, entails 
spending daily a considerable time in go- 
ing back and forth. Yet others, of ample 
means, maintain country places where 



they live during the greater part of the 
year and do most of their entertaining 
but choose to live in the city during the 
winter and early spring and do not care 
to keep up large and expensive houses 
which it suits them to occupy during 
only a limited period. When they are 
in the city they wish to be in the midst 
of it where the social life centres. All 
classes are thoroughly representative of 
the "back to the city" movement. 

Opportunities for the felicitous archi- 
tectural reclamation of modest neighbor- 
hoods and streets are plentiful in the 
older and larger cities of our Eastern 
and Middle states. Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore are full of 
"backwaters" from the constant stream 
of traffic that surges through the main 
thoroughfares. Thousands of people 
pass within a stone's throw of them 
every day without being aware of their 
existence merely because they happen 
to be a few paces out of the beaten track. 
Those who are wise enough to search 
them out and make their homes there 
enjoy a rare measure of privacy and 
yet, at the same time, are in the very 
heart of all urban activity. In their 
unimproved state these places, it is true, 
are often far from prepossessing. The 
sites of potential development may be 
occupied by stables, blacksmith shops 
or tiny dilapidated houses of the most 
flimsy and tumbledown character or there 
may be small dwellings, old but struc- 
turally sound, that need only judicious 
remodelling, and sometimes but little of 
it, to render them thoroughly habitable, 
comfortable and highly attractive. In 
either case, whether architectural recla- 
mation involves building anew or only 
a degree of alteration and re-adjust- 
ment, it requires but the power to visual- 
ize, coupled with ordinary sound real es- 
tate judgment, to be able to appreciate 
the waiting opportunities. While many 
possibilities in this direction have been 
eagerly seized upon and made the most 
of in the cities mentioned, it is safe to 
say that the field open for this sort of 
improvement has been scarcely more 
than entered upon. 

In support of this statement may be 
cited the facts as they appear, both in 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




LIVING ROOM AND GALLERY OWN HOUSE, LIME STREET, BOSTON. 
Richard Arnold Fisher, Architect. 



ithe shape of actual achievements in 
architectural reclamation and in the 
[physical possibility that invites improve- 
ment. In every American city whose 
;age has passed the century mark there 
may be discovered attaching to certain 
favored localities a distinctive atmos- 
phere, subtle to be sure, and well-nigh 
ibaffling of analysis, but strongly individ- 
ual, nevertheless, and not to be ignored 
as a negligible influence. Beacon Hill 
in Boston has such an atmosphere of its 
own and has it to a marked degree. It 
is altogether too elusive to define in 
.terms of logical exactitude, but anyone 
'who has spent much time in Boston can- 
mot but be conscious of it, especially 
while passing along Mount Vernon 
^street or through Louisburg Square. 

Boston people have felt this mysteri- 
ous force attracting them and there has 
been a noticeable movement back to that 
district on the part of those who prefer 
.to live there in modest elegance rather 



than in ampler surroundings in a local- 
ity which the casual observer, unaware 
of Beacon Hill's pervasive charm, might 
deem physically more attractive. Quite 
apart, however, from this indefinable but 
potent allurement, Beacon Hill has very 
material advantages to offer in its quiet 
and privacy in the heart of the city, along 
with ready accessibility to all business and 
social activities and in its proximity to the 
Common, the Public Gardens and the 
Esplanade. It only remains to find 
eligible sites for architectural improve- 
ment, and these are not wanting in the 
many small streets that the oversight 
of a former generation passed by in a 
period of rapid expansion to the west 
along Beacon street, Commonwealth 
avenue, Marlborough street and other 
streets in that neighborhood. What has 
actually been accomplished in the way 
of rendering the small streets of Beacon 
Hill attractive for residential purposes 
we shall see in following paragraphs. 




DETAIL OF LIVING ROOM AND STAIR- 
OWN HOUSE, LIME STREET, BOSTON. 
RICHARD ARNOLD FISHER, ARCHITECT. 







HALLWAY FROM DINING-ROOM TO STAIRS 
OWN HOUSE IN LIME STREET, BOSTON. 
RICHARD ARNOLD FISHER, ARCHITECT. 




LIVING -ROOM-OWN HOUSE IN 
LIME STREET, BOSTON. RICHARD 
ARNOLD FISHER, ARCHITECT. 



10 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



The beginning already made has many 
useful lessons to teach and augurs well 
for the future of architectural and eco- 
nomic development upon the lines 
marked out. 

Alluding once more to the influence 
of a sentimental attachment or of a 
characteristic local atmosphere and 
charm in directing attention to the re- 
clamation of neighborhoods and streets 
that the march of improvement and ex- 
pansion has swept past and left un- 
touched, we turn to examine Philadel- 
phia's opportunities for architectural 
renewal of unproductive or decadent 
areas. Architectural phenomena often 
find their ultimate explanation in social 
or economic conditions and in the pres- 
ent instance a slight digression is neces- 
sary to show why the strong desire to 
live within a certain area has started a 
train of remodelling and made architec- 
tural reclamation the object of serious 
effort. 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN IN BRIMMER STREET 

HOUSES. 
Richard Arnold Fisher, Architect. 



No one of Philadelphia's many foibles 
and traditionary prejudices causes more 
amusement or perplexitv in the minds of 
non-Philadelphians than the generally 
accepted convention that one must live 
south of Market street in order to be 
an fait socially or even respectable. No 
end of fun has been poked at Philadel- 
phia on this score. The fact, however, 
remains; the feeling does exist and it 
would be an easy matter to pick out a 
number of instances in which nouveau 
riche families, hailing from north of the 
mystic line drawn along the middle of 
Market street, have sought a place of 
abode on Walnut, Locust or Spruce 
streets or on one of the eligible cross 
streets in their vicinity as a first step 
toward winning a quasi-recognition in 
polite society. In the early days it was 
not so and it would not be difficult even 
now to find on the taboo north side 
plenty of estimable people of impeccable 
birth and breeding whom the veriest 
snob would kow-tow to did he know 
their family antecedents, while Arch 
street, well within the memory of the 
present generation, was still a strong- 
hold of the old Quaker element. 

One can readily see why the coming 
of the elevated railroad and manufac- 
turing establishments made a difference 
in some districts, but others that are 
physically acceptable languish under the 
blight of social ineligibility, while places 
of less outward attraction are eagerly 
sought for the distinction that residence 
in them is supposed to confer. One can 
also readily see why the really old sec- 
tion of the city, with its many remaining 
landmarks and characteristics of Geor- 
gian date, should exert a powerful 
charm, but to understand what must to 
some seem merely a caprice of snobbery 
one must know a bit of history, know 
that many years ago it so chanced that 
the lower ends of Chestnut, Walnut, 
Spruce and Pine streets with the inter- 
secting cross streets in the vicinity con- 
stituted what may be termed the "court 
end" of town, that the course of residen- 
tial progress lay in a westward line as 
business gradually monopolized the east 
and, finally, that in Philadelphia and 
Boston, the "two English cities in 




SMALL HOUSES IN MT. VER 
NON STREET, BOSTON. RICHARD 
ARNOLD FISHER, ARCHITECT. 




FRANKLIN INN CLUB DEAN AND 
ST. JAMES'S STREETS, PHILADELPHIA, 
FRANCIS D. CALDWELL. ARCHITECT. 



l< 




DOORWAY DETAIL FRANKLIN INN 
CLUB, PHILADELPHIA. FRANCIS 
D. CALDWELL, ARCHITECT. 




From a water color sketch by Eugene Castello. 



r 



MASK AND WIG CLUB, QUINCE 
STREET, BELOW SPRUCE, PHILA- 
DELPHIA. C. L. BORIE, ARCHITECT. 




POOR RICHARD CLUB 
DEAN STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



5-o 



18 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



America" as Freeman called them, a 
strong residuary leaven of British con- 
servatism and devotion to tradition has 
always largely influenced the reckoning 
of social status by an hereditary stand- 
ard of birth and breeding rather than by 
the fortuitous standard of mere wealth. 

One may pooh-pooh this influence and 
this explanation if one pleases, but the 
proof of its reality and power is to be 
found in real estate values in that sec- 
tion of the city where so many of the 
descendants of those who used to live 
in the "court end" of the city have elect- 
ed to have their present place of abode. 
Thus also may be explained the ten- 
dency to the architectural reclamation 
of the small streets in that favored 
neighborhood and therein lies the inter- 
est for us and the connection with the 
subject under discussion that the fore- 
going explanation was needed to eluci- 
date. Having grasped the complex na- 
ture of the motives that prompt to the 
architectural regeneration of the small 
streets within a restricted area, it re- 
mains to note the present condition of 
those streets, what opportunities they 
offer and what has been thus far accom- 
plished. 

According to William Penn's scheme 
the city was laid out like a gridiron with 
the principal thoroughfares intersecting 
each other at right angles. This gridiron 
plan was still further cross-hatched by 
numerous small streets or alleys run- 
ning, also at right angles, between the 
larger streets. While there was still 
plenty of room for development along 
the principal streets these small back 
streets were given over to stables and 
the dwellings of mechanics, exceedingly 
simple and unpretentious, but soundly 
built and oftentimes with a touch of that 
modest architectural elegance that re- 
mained as a heritage from the Georgian 
builders. 

In not a few instances these little 
houses have fallen into the hands of an 
extremely undesirable class of occu- 
pants and occasionally a condition of 
squalor and dilapidation prevails so that 
their presence within a few feet of 
homes of wealth and refinement is alto- 
gether anomalous even though the occu- 



pants of the large houses turn their 
backs and forget the existence of the 
lesser homes until a brawl of drunken 
negroes or some similar disturbance at 
their back gates unpleasantly compels 
their attention for a moment. The 
source of annoyance, however, contains 
the germs of remedy and the remedy 
has begun to appear in a process 1 of 
architectural reclamation that is assum- 
ing such proportions that we cannot af- 
ford to overlook its record and the fore- 
cast of .future development that it sug- 
gests. 

Following the order in which the ac- 
companying illustrations occur, the 
reader may first see a part of the work 
of reclamation already accomplished in 
Boston after the plans of Richard Ar- 
nold Fisher, architect. The houses il- 
lustrated are on Lime and Brimmer 
streets in the Beacon Hill section, and 
were erected by the Brimmer Street 
Trust upon ground that was formerly 
occupied by stables, small blacksmith 





FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS-OWN HOUSE 
IN LIME STREET, BOSTON. 
Richard Arnold Fisher, Architect. 




TYPICAL SMALL HOUSE 
SMALL STREET IN OLD PART 
OF CITY, PHILADELPHIA. 



-20 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



shops and other little buildings of tum- 
bledown aspect and dilapidated condi- 
tion. In this case the reclamation had 
to be effected entirely by demolition and 
building anew. 

The problem presented was interest- 
ing in many ways, but particularly in re- 
spect of the size of the lots. They were 
originally small and it was decided to 
keep them so. The average size is 
eighteen feet by sixty feet. Notwith- 
standing this limitation excellent results 
have been gained. Regarded from the 
exterior, the houses in both Lime and 
Brimmer streets present a reassuring 
dignity of mien that dispels any appre- 
hensive uncertainty as to the possibility 
of making the small house an architec- 
tural factor of importance and interest. 
Studied from within, they show praise- 
worthy ingenuity in getting a great deal 
of space within a very small compass. 
As may be imagined, there is no allow- 
ance for waste room. 

Although the frontage of the block of 
houses on Brimmer street is treated as 
practically one architectural unit, there 
is enough individuality in the treatment 
of the several houses to preclude the 
charge of monotony. Furthermore, 
considered together, their number sup- 
plies a cumulative force and they acquire 
the effect of a large building. The mode 
of architectural expression chosen is 
quite in keeping, through its late Geor- 
gian characteristics, with the rest of the 
larger houses in the surrounding district 
which nearly all show unmistakable 
traces of Bulfinch influence or the marks 
of a slightly earlier period. No start- 
ling or flighty effects have been attempt- 
ed and the whole row is instinct with an 
air of well-mannered sanity and sub- 
stantial comfort. Before passing on to 
other points, one cannot fail to note with 
pleasure several agreeable touches of in- 
terest that have been added in the shape 
of the iron area and step railings and 
the balustered piercings of the brick 
coping on the two projecting end houses. 
This same coping is reminiscent of the 
British method of employing such a de- 
vice to screen dormer windows and the 
slope of the roof from view and present 
a finished front to the street. 



With the Lime street houses, just 
around the corner from those in Brim- 
mer street, there was the same limitation 
in the size of the lots, all of which are 
small. In this connection the archi- 
tect's own house is particularly signifi- 
cant, as Mr. Fisher designed it largely 
"as an object lesson to show how a 
house can be spacious in fact as well as 
in appearance on a very small lot." 

Upon examining carefully the floor 
plans and the illustrations, the reader 
will see how admirably Mr. Fisher has 
succeeded in proving this thesis. There 
is nothing cramped in the appearance 
of the exterior and within there is such 
an agreeable atmosphere of both breadth 
and height that no one would fancy the 
architect had been hampered by the 
strait bounds of the property lines. The 
house shows conclusively that dignity 
and spaciousness are not matters neces- 
sarily of size. Most of those who read 
this can no doubt recall upon a moment's 
reflection, little rooms they have seen 
that seem large and full of dignity and, 
on the other hand, large rooms that 
seem small. If they analyze their im- 
pressions they will see how all-important 
is the consideration of relative scale and 
proportions. Mr. Fisher has so man- 
aged his proportions and detail that all 
contribute to the effect of spaciousness. 
He has achieved his purpose with re- 
straint and without apparent effort and 
is thereby entitled to all the more credit 
in coping with a difficult problem where 
any evidence of palpable striving for ef- 
fect or any resort to "stunty" expedients 
would have been fatal to the result. 

Besides showing that dignity and 
space are both attainable in a small city 
house, Mr. Fisher has adroitly contrived 
his rooms so that they furnish well and 
thereby contribute to the general impres- 
sion of amplitude. Free, unbroken 
wall spaces help greatly in this respect, 
while the large mullioned window at the 
end of the living-room, consistent with 
the seventeenth century English archi- 
tecture of the rest of the house, admits 
a flood of light and emphasizes the prin- 
ciple, which we in America are too apt 
to ignore, of admitting an abundance of 
uncurtained light at one place. Inci- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



21 




LIVING ROOM TYPICAL OLD SMALL HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA. 




MANTEL DETAIL-TYPICAL OLD SMALL HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA. 



22 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



dentally, it may be added that having 
secured favorable conditions for effec- 
tive furnishing, Mr. Fisher has shown 
excellent judgment in the choice 'and ar- 
rangement of his furniture in keeping 
with the architectural character of its 
setting. 

Another point to be borne in mind in 
connection with small houses of the type 
under consideration is that it is better 
to have a few rooms, well proportioned 
and of good dimensions, rather than a 
larger number of less effective rooms 
some of which are not used to the full 
extent that they might be. With fewer 
rooms, carefully planned to meet all do- 
mestic needs, it is possible to use fully 
every available inch of space, as must be 
the case if the small, compact house is 
to be a thorough success. Many of the 
best houses of our own Colonial period, 
and large houses at that, had compara- 
tively few rooms, far fewer than would 
have been the case in most houses of 
equal size designed today, but our fore- 
bears found it not inconvenient and 
managed to observe with ease all the 
amenities of polite social life and we can 
readily accommodate our manner of liv- 
ing to the same conditions. 

The two small houses in Mt. Vernon 
street whose exteriors are shown in one 
of the illustrations, also designed by Mr. 
Fisher, are full of interest and sugges- 
tivcness for the treatment of such prob- 
lems. They are almost severely plain 
and unpretentious, but several pleasing 
and effective touches, compatible with 
their studied simplicity, have been add- 
ed in the form of semi-circular balconies 
with plain iron railings before the tall 
second floor windows, the recessed bays 
in which the windows are set and the 
stone string course crossing the brick 
wall at the spring of the bay arches. On 
comparing them, however, with the 
tilock of houses at the corner of Lime 
and Brimmer streets, one cannot help 
feeling how much more satisfactory it 
is to deal with a reclamation project of 
some extent rather than with scattered 
cases. It is often urged that it is scarce- 
ly worth while, from a financial point of 
view, for a busy architect to bother with 
small houses. In isolated cases this 



may or may not be true, but that objec- 
tion cannot validly be made where the 
operation covers a considerable extent 
of ground and the architect's fee is not 
a picayune affair. Furthermore, such 
an operation provides a favorable oppor- 
tunity for constructive handling that is 
impossible where there is only a very 
small frontage to work upon. With 
reference to the cost of the houses in 
Lime and Brimmer streets, it is not per- 
mitted to state the exact figures but only 
to say that the outlay involved was ex- 
tremely moderate, altogether commen- 
surate with the size of the lots and quite 
within the reach of those to whom resi- 
dence in reclaimed districts offers attrac- 
tions. 

Turning now to examine the progress 
of the architectural reclamation of the 
small streets in Philadelphia, we find 
that the process has been in great meas- 
ure sporadic. One of the few streets 
that has shown any consistent and con- 
tinuous development in this direction is 
Dean street, or Camac, as it is now 
called, running south from Walnut ..be- 
tween Twelfth and Thirteenth and, in 
its reclaimed portion, almost wholly 
given over to small clubs. There are 
the Business and Professional Men's 
Club, the Franklin Inn Club and the 
Stragglers' Club, all occupying old build- 
ings that have been more or less remod- 
elled. The most pleasing architectural- 
ly and the one to which most has been 
done is the Franklin Inn Club, situated 
at the intersection of Dean and St. 
James streets, neither of which is wide 
enough to accommodate more than one 
vehicle. This circumstance will explain 
the presence of the green fender posts 
along the curb to restrain a carter's 
temptation to drive up on the narrow 
sidewalk upon meeting a wagon coming 
in the opposite direction instead of one 
or the other having to back ungracefully 
out of the street. These posts, besides 
fulfilling a utilitarian purpose, serve as a 
reminder of the Philadelphia of Frank- 
lin's days, for they are the successors 
of those mentioned by William Black, 
one of the Virginia Commissioners who 
visited Philadelphia in 1744 and record- 
ed in his diary after having wined and 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



23 



REMODELED FRONTS OLD HOUSES IX LATIMER STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 




SMALL DWELLING HOUSES-RECLAIMED PORTION OF SMEDLEY ST.. PHILADELPHIA. 



24 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



dined too well upon one occasion: "I 
grop'd my way to where I lodged after 
having Butted against some Posts on the 
Sides of the Pavement." 

The reclamation of the Franklin Inn 
Club was more in the nature of a restor- 
ation than anythinge else. The general 
contour of the old dwelling houses from 
which it was remodelled suggested the 
treatment adopted. The exterior was 
coated with grey roughcast stucco, 
throwing the white doorway, window 
sashes and cornice and dark green shut- 
ters into strong contrast. Beside the 
doorway hangs a bronze shingle bear- 
ing on either side in relief the head of 
Benjamin Franklin, modelled by Dr. R. 
Tait MacKenzie. 

In the next block, beyond Locust 
street, a whole row of small dwelling 
houses of early date has been converted 
into club houses beginning with the 
quarters of the Sketch Club at the cor- 
ner of Latimer street and including the 
Coin d'Or, the Poor Richard Club and 
the Plastic Club. Little has been done 
to the exteriors of these houses save 
painting and the making of necessary 
repairs. It is gratifying to note with 
reference to these clubs that the oppor- 
tunity for improvement presented by the 
backyards has not been neglected. 

The other instance in which a con- 
sistent effort at reclamation has been 
made is in Carlisle street, a thorough- 
fare running for one block from Pine 
street to Lombard. Here a row of old 
and uninviting brick dwelling houses 
was taken in hand by a trust company, 
repaired, slightly altered and painted so 
as to be thoroughly attractive and then 
let at a reasonable rental to desirable 
tenants. In some cases the alterations 
were designed to suit the wishes of the 
tenants. The experiment proved so 
successful and the character of the 
neighborhood was made so agreeable 
that the row has been dubbed, not inap- 
propriately, "Pomander Walk." 

Other attempts at reclamation, though 
scattered, have been numerous and suc- 
cessful. Many of the small houses are 
so staunchly built that, so far as the ex- 
teriors are concerned, they require only 
well-designed woodwork for the win- 



dows and doors, paint, the addition of 
proper cornices and any other minor 
items of embellishment that personal 
taste may dictate, to transform them 
into desirable places of residence. As a 
fairly representative example of this 
sort of thing may be cited .the houses 
in Latimer street. At the left side of 
the illustration may be seen what the 
houses were before reclamation, while 
at the right the result achieved at little 
cost speaks for itself. The reclamation 
of these houses is typical of what has 
been done with scores of others. 

The amount of interior alteration de- 
pends, of course, upon the inclination of 
the occupants, but time and again the in- 
side arrangements are susceptible of 
easy readjustment and the woodwork is 
so good that little has to be done beyond 
painting and papering and the addition 
of bathrooms and plumbing. The little 
house of which the exterior and interior 
and a mantel detail are shown required 
only such items, and it is only one of 
many. It is hardly fair to cite this in- 
stance, where so little has been done, as 
a case of architectural reclamation, but 
it serves to show what a groundwork 
there is to work upon and how rich it is 
in promise under sympathetic handling. 

Altogether apart from architectural 
considerations, in this process of redeem- 
ing the oversight of a former generation, 
must be reckoned the marked advance in 
real estate values invariably consequent 
upon the improvement of a neighborhood. 
In one small Philadelphia street of the 
sort previously mentioned there has been 
a notable and characteristic example of 
healthy and stable appreciation in the 
value of property. 

For obvious reasons it is not expedient 
to name the street or indicate the individ- 
ual houses that have been factors in this 
desirable change, but if anyone is suf- 
ficiently interested to inquire of reputable 
real estate brokers, the facts in each spe- 
cific instance, backed up by exact figures, 
may readily be learned. Six years ago 
the property values in this particular 
street were moderately low, a normal 
condition for streets of this character. At 
that time began the process of reclamation 
through remodelling and the work has 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




OFFICE ON A STABLE SITE OWN OFFICE, JUNIPER AND CHANCELLOR STREETS, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

Mellor & Meigs, Architects. 



continued since then with more or less 
regularity. During this period real estate 
values have slightly more than doubled, 
and, in the case of one property, the value 
has almost trebled. No more convincing 
proof of the commercial utility of archi- 
tectural reclamation could be asked and 
the argument ought to appeal to those 
who are in the narrow habit of cavilling at 
anything as impracticable and visionary . 
that cannot afford a demonstration in dol- 
lars and cents. Experience has proved 
time and time again, that it is well worth 
while, both architecturally and financial- 
ly, to reclaim the small street and the 
tangible proofs are at hand in an endur- 
ing form. 

Whether the process of reclamation 
consists of remodelling or of building 
altogether anew, it is a work worthy 
the serious effort of architects, as may 



be judged by the instances cited in 
Philadelphia and Boston, if it be one of 
the functions of architecture to render 
our every-day surroundings comely and 
our cities consistently and universally 
attractive without blotches and eyesores 
to detract from the beauty of the finer 
products of architectural endeavor. 

The only obstacle to venturing upon 
the reclamation of small streets is the 
uncertainty regarding one's neighbors. 
In the cut showing the small dwelling 
houses on Smedley street may be seen an 
example of this. This objection, how- 
ever, can be readily overcome by co- 
operation or by getting a trust company 
or some reliable corporation to under- 
take the project of redeeming a whole 
neighborhood, and the results so far ac- 
complished indicate plainly that the 
game is worth the candle. 




DETAIL OF DOME IN LOGGIA- 
VILLA MADAMA. ROME. 




THE VILLA MADAMA 



TEXT ANDMEASVRED DRAW- 
INGS BY HOWARD WCERMANN 




ARTICLE II. 



THE loggia, or large vestibule, is the 
principal part of the villa and is 
the only part that was complet- 
ed.* In fact, when speaking of the villa 
Madama today one usually has in mind 
the loggia and its decorations. That the 
works of Giulio Romano and Giovanni 
da Udine might be preserved the three 
large openings facing the terrace have 
been closed, and the light now enters 
through glazed sash above the spring of 
the arches. 

Among the details introduced in the 
elegant decorations of the walls and ceil- 
ing of the loggia are animals, both in 
their natural and blended form, crea- 
tures part beast, part human, such as 
fauns, satyrs, centaurs, tritons and mer- 
maids. There are genii and female fig- 
ures that uncoil themselves from the 
Drolls of acanthus foliage griffins, birds, 
lyres, flowers, clusters of fruit and an 
intermixture of variously shaped panels 
containing a profusion of joyous mytho- 
logical deities, allegorical attributes or 
inscriptions. Frequently, too, appear the 
six balls of the Medici and the hat of the 
cardinal, the diamond ring to which 
Leo X had added two hawks as support- 
ers, and which Lorenzo de' Medici had 
adorned with three feathers, one white, 
one red and one blue, symbolizing faith, 
hope and charity, adding sometimes the 
word "Semper," signifying, according to 
Paolo Giovia, Lorenzo's constancy in his 
love of God. We find also the yoke used 
by Leo X as cardinal in 1512 and various 
symbolical objects forming parts of the 



*A restoration of the Villa Madama was made by 
M. Bernard, a French architect, in 1871, and is now 
in the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. 



insignia of Giulio de' Medici, such as the 
blazing sun, the crystal ball and flames of 
fire. 

Hittorff says: "In such works we are 
justified in saying that taste and richness 
of resource have reached their climax, 
for since, by the reintroduction of stucco, 
it was possible to blend the two effects of 
painting and sculpture the most distin- 
guished artists carried the execution of 
the combined decorations to the highest 
perfection." 

The appearance of grandeur given here 
to the smallest details, the grace and 
lightness of form and the charming har- 
mony and brilliancy of color, whets our 
curiosity to know what this villa must 
have been like in the heyday of joyous 
reveling, when these openings were free 
and the light permitted to enter in its 
full transparency. 

The loggia offers, not less than that of 
the Vatican, a choice example of the dec- 
orative painting of the sixteenth century, 
but the less extended loggia of the Villa 
Madama and the less frequent repetitions 
of the arched divisions create a less con- 
fusing effect, and the magnificent ceiling 
a more gratifying and charming influ- 
ence, than does the loggia of the Vati- 
can. 

The ceiling of the loggia in the Villa 
Madama consists of a small dome on 
pendentives and two groined vaults, one 
on either side of the dome. Below the 
groined vaults, opposite the openings 
onto the terrace, and also in the west 
wall, are semicircular exedras or large 
niches containing smaller niches above 
which are rectangular panels with vari- 
ous Medici emblems. At one time in 



28 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



the small niches were ancient statues 
which were probably selected by Raphael 
while he was in charge of the excava- 
tions at Rome. The bust of Jupiter of 
Versailles, now in the Louvre at Paris, 
at one time belonged to the Villa Ma-, 
dama, but this with many other statues 
was sent by the Farnese family to the 
King of France. 

From the center of the loggia a passage 
leads to a semi-circular court which was 
once the principal entrance to the villa, 
but is now in such a damaged state that 
it is impossible to form a good idea of 
its original appearance. The living 
apartments are entered from the passage 
mentioned above and from the east end 
of the loggia. 

Examining the photographs we see in 
the center of the dome the armorial bear- 
ings of the Medici and at the four ends 
of a cross formed by small panels a 
series of beautiful little pictures in which 
the elements are represented by figures 
of Jupiter, Juno, Neptune and Pluto. 
Jupiter is shown with the eagle, emblem 
of strength, and bearer of his thunder- 
bolts, and with Ganymede his cup bearer ; 
Juno is shown on a chariot drawn by pea- 
cocks and accompanied by Eros; Nep- 
tune is seen driving his chariot over the 
sea ; and Pluto with Proserpina is shown 
among the Eumenides, daughters of 
Night. 

Between these paintings upon a ground 
of imitated gold mosaics are white stucco 
figures in circular panels representing 
the seasons. The most graceful is 
Spring, to whom two cupids are offering 
flowers ; Summer is represented by a fe- 
male figure with a cornucopia supported 
by cupids ; Bacchus, as Autumn, is seated 
on a wine cask, while cupids assist him 
with the vintage, and Winter is repre- 
sented by Vulcan warming his hands 
. at the flame from a tripod as Venus 
is preparing his nectar. 

This rich center is bordered by a frieze 
subdivided into eight square panels, and 
in each of the subdivisions are two genii 
with bodies ending in acanthus leaves. 
They are engaged with panthers, grif- 
fins and similar animals and between the 
genii is the diamond ring of the Medici. 
Below this frieze a second circle encom- 



passes the whole dome and is studded 
with small and elegant cameos in relief. 
In eight large oval cameos are the prin- 
cipal heathen deities, while in the smaller 
ovals are muses and other symbolical 
and mythological female figures, and in 
the small circular cameos, ori either side 
of these, are similar but very small fig- 
ures done in white stucco. 

A delicate band with small brackets 
and diamond shaped panels divides this 
last circle ffom the pendentives which 
are filled with rich flowery arabesques. 
On two of these pendentives diagonally 
opposite each other we see the ring of 
the Medici and the three plumes added 
by Lorenzo; also the six balls of the 
Medici escutcheon, each occupying the 
center of a flower, and the hat of the 
cardinal surmounting the composition. 
The other two pendentives have ara- 
besques interwoven with human figures. 

Designs equally ingenious may be seen 
on the soffits of the two arches dividing 
the dome from the groined vaults. In 
the center of each soffit a mythological 
subject has been introduced. They are 
done in stucco on a light green back- 
ground ; in one is Apollo and in the other 
are Jupiter and Europa. 

The two groined vaults have a sym- 
metrical distribution of the decorations, 
the detail of one differing somewhat from 
that of the other. In the center of the 
west vault is Neptune upon a shell drawn 
by two sea-horses. This is done in 
white stucco upon a background of blue 
with golden rays. On the white field 
of the four divisions formed by the groin- 
ing is a variety of colored arabesques 
similar in appearance to the Pompeian 
decorations, while the center of each of 
these divisions contains an oval panel 
with a painting and these four paintings 
make another interesting series. One 
picture, showing Daedalus constructing 
the wooden cow for Pasiphae, is delight- 
fully executed and is the best of the 
four. Another shows the Garden of 
Venus as described by Philostratus. The 
study for this picture is preserved in 
the Academy of Dusseldorf and is as- 
cribed to Raphael. The other two show 
cupids at play and astride the backs of 
swans. The arbors around the base of 




CEILING OF THE LOGGIA- 
VILLA MADAMA, ROME. 




DOME IN THE CENTER OF THE 
LOGGIA VILLA MADAMA, ROME. 








C-o 



A PENDENTIVE IN THE LOGGIA 
VILLA MADAMA, ROME. 




DETAIL OF VAULT OVER 
LEFT EXEDRA IN LOGGIA- 
VILLA MADAMA, ROME. 




DETAIL OF VAULT OVER 
LEFT EXEDRA IN LOGGIA- 
VILLA MADAMA, ROME. 




VIEW OF RIGHT EXEDRA IN 
LOGGIA VILLA MADAMA, ROME. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



37 



che vault contain sea-horses and children 
in a variety of attitudes. 

Amphitrite occupies the center of the 
east vault, and the four paintings here 
are: "A Group of Stayrs;" "Achilles 
Among the Daughters of Lycomedes;" 
'The Parting of Penelope and Icarus," 
and "The Amorous Meeting of Her- 
maphroditus and Salmacis." The border 
around the base of this vault is divided 
by shields, bearing the emblems of 
Clement VII, genii, animals and graceful 
arabesques. Of exceptional beauty are 
the meanders of white stucco on both 
these vaults. 

The large arch, between the loggia and 
the passage opposite the entrance, is also 
richly ornamented, and the skill with 
which Giulio Romano and Giovanni da 
Udine decorated the different parts of the 
villa is particularly noticeable here in 
small architectural compositions, such as 
niches feigning perspective, busts and 
graceful meanders. Two octagonal pan- 
els in this arch contain figures in relief ; 
on the right Pan holding Hermaphroditus 
on his knees, and on the left, directly 
opposite, three fauns seated about a table. 
The arabesques on the pilasters are done 
in a slight stucco raised only here and 
there from the background. 

The side walls of the passage have a 
series of niches similar to the exedras 
and here below a mask of Medusa is the 
signature of Giovanni da Udine. 

The vault over the left exedra is ex- 
tremely interesting. At the top upon a 
shell is Victoria holding in her hands 
corn-ears and poppies, the attributes of 
Ceres, and grapes, the attributes of 
Bacchus. Polyphemus' love for Galatea 
is the theme here for the decorations in 
ten nearly square panels bordered by rich 
arabesques (shown on the accompanying 
photographs). On either end of the up- 
per row nymphs are shown, being carried 
over the sea by centaurs ; the one at the 
left represents Calm the lyre in the hand 
of the centaur suggests this, while the 
one on the right represents Tempest 
the hair of the centaur and the drapery 
of the nymph are being blown by the 
storm. In the second picture on the left 
in the top row Venus is sending Cupid 
to Polyphemus to stimulate the Cyclops' 
love for Galatea, while the central picture 



in both the upper and lowei rows shows 
the love-stricken Polyphemus striving to 
disguise his rough exterior. In the upper 
one he is clipping his beard with a sickle, 
and in the lower he is harrowing his 
coarse locks with a comb. In these pic- 
tures we notice that the artists have 
shown Polyphemus with two eyes and 
did not slavishly hold themselves to the 
classical description of him as a monster 
with one eye in the center of his fore- 
head. 

At the left end of the lower row the 
Cyclops is seen sitting on a rock train- 
ing a young bear that he is to present 
to his beloved as a plaything. This mo- 
tive we find first spoken of by Theocritus, 
from whom the later poets and authors 
took it. The next panel shows the 
Cyclops looking at his coarse features in 
a pool, and on the opposite side of the 
centre he is singing of his love for Gala- 
tea. In the panel above this we learn 
that the efforts of Polyphemus are all in 
vain, for here the object of his love is 
sitting on the knee of his rival, Acis. 
Polyphemus' revenge is shown in the 
lower right-hand panel; he is hurling a 
rock upon the unfortunate Acis, and 
Galatea is seen hurrying away. This 
whole cycle reminds one of the "Myth 
of Psyche" in the Villa Farnesina at 
Rome, particularly the panel in which 
Venus is sending Cupid to Polyphemus, 
although in the Farnesina it is woven 
into a different mythcycle following the 
accounts of Apuleius, a Latin author of 
the second century much read during the 
Renaissance. This motive was well 
known to the ancients in song and pic- 
ture, and it is found on numerous vases 
and paintings in the lower part of Italy. 
The Renaissance became acquainted with 
it from the Roman poet Ovid, who intro- 
duced the rape of Proserpina by Pluto in 
this manner. 

The vault over the right exedra is 
crowned by an elaborately decorated shell 
from which hangs a curtain and garlands 
supported by heads of strange animals, 
while animals still stranger are shown in 
low relief between the festoons. Below 
this is a series of panels of four, six and 
eight sides. Rosettes occupy the centres 
of the square ones and the others have 
figures in relief. In each of the four 



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THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD 



47 



hexagonal panels is a river god in a re- 
clining position, but only two of these 
are recognized, the Nile represented by 
a Sphynx, and the Tiber by the she-wolf 
and the twins, Romulus and Remus. Of 
the octagonal panels the central one con- 
tains genii and the four remaining panels 
of this row are devoted to Venus. On 
the right of the centre she is dancing 
around a tripod and in the picture next 
to this she is shown blowing a trumpet 
as she frolics with Cupid. On the left 
of the centre, Venus is standing with one 
foot on a helmet, while in the last panel 
she is shown holding a wreath in one 
hand while the other grasps a lance, the 
shaft of which is also held by Cupid. 
This last figure, according to Amelung, 
is the same as an antique figure on a 
relief which was at one time in the villa 
Borghese and which is now in the Louvre. 
This motive was also used by Lorenzetto 
on the bronze relief in the Chapella 
Chiga in the church of Sta. Maria del 
Popolo. The panels of the lower row, 
partly cut off by the cornice of the exe- 
dra, contain reclining figures, but it is 
difficult to determine what these repre- 
sent. 

There is hardly anything left of the 
decorations on the vault of the exedra 
at the west end of the loggia. A large 
shell covered the upper part, and on this 
shell were the cardinal's hat and ara- 



besques, where again the centre of six 
large flowers contained the six balls of 
the Medici escutcheon. Besides parts of 
the shell, two panels are still left, one 
round and the other square. In the 
square panel we again find the word 
"Semper." The lower part of the exedra 
has suffered severely from dampness, for 
it is built into the side of the hill and 
water has seeped through and caused 
much of the stucco to fall off the walls. 

In one of the rooms of the living apart- 
ments a frieze of slight interest is pre- 
served, while in another room is a dec- 
orated ceiling, by Giulio Romano, with 
the Medici arms in the centre. The 
pupils of Raphael executed compositions 
similar to those of the Villa Madama in 
Rome, Mantua, Venice and Genoa, and 
in these reached the full development of 
their master's style; but with the revolt 
against the finer rules of the Renaissance 
which followed shortly after the Sack of 
Rome in 1527 and marked the beginning 
of the Baroque period, came more massive 
compositions. Patrons, stimulated by 
the examples of the popes, desired vast 
and showy decorative works with a 
sumptuous parade of superficial orna- 
ment ; this the artists attempted to sup- 
ply. The delicate kind of decoration full 
of seriousness was no longer followed ; 
the love of false magnificence had re- 
placed the feeling of real grandeur. 





FRONT DOOR AND PORCH-OWN 
HOUSE, NEW CANAAN, CONN. 
ELECTUS LITCHFIELD, ARCHITECT. 




SOUTH FRONT-OWN HOUSE, NEW CANAAN, CONN. 
Electus D. Litchfield, Architect. 

AN ARCHITECT'S 
COVNTRY HOVSE 

I? Residence gf Electus Litchfield, 
New Canaan, Connecticut 

By Harriet T Bottomley 



1HAVE before me the very delightful 
task of writing about -the country 
home of Electus D. Litchfield, Esq. 
"The House with the Blue Blinds," it is 
called, and it possesses all the sympa- 
thetic charm that one would expect of a 
house with such a name. Situated about 
one mile from the New Canaan station on 
a small plateau that seems to have been 
made for just this house, it lodges secure- 
ly among the rolling, wooded hills about 
it and stretches its long, low, white arms 
above the valley that slopes away from 
its front drive, to the shore of Long 
Island Sound seven miles away. It is a 
pleasure to see, on approaching it from 
the highway, how perfectly it is in har- 
mony with its New England surround- 
ings. 



Something over a hundred and fifty 
years ago the settlers in this part of the 
New World evolved a style of architec- 
ture adapted to this very country. It 
was the outgrowth of memories, more or 
less definite, of Georgian architecture at 
home in England, modified by totally new 
conditions of climate and materials. The 
Georgian details which were originally 
designed for execution, in stone, had to be 
adapted and redesigned before they could 
be made effective in wood, which, from 
the days of the early colonies to the pres- 
ent time, has always been the cheapest 
and most abundant building material to 
be had in New England. A style of 
architecture resulted that is peculiarly 
American and very satisfying; classic in 
its inspiration, it is true, but exceedingly 



50 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





LIVING ROOM PORCH AND FLOOR PLANS 
OWN HOUSE, NEW CANAAN, CONN. 
ELECTUS D. LITCHFIELD, ARCHITECT. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



51 




VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST OWN HOUSE, NEW CANAAN, CONN. 
Electus D. Litchfield, Architect. 



free in its readjustment of classic details, 
and unique in its development. Nothing 
has ever been designed that suited better, 
or as well, the New England landscape, 
and the life imposed by climatic condi- 
tions upon its inhabitants. Those de- 
signers of today are wise who follow the 
well-grounded traditions of the country 
and build upon the hillsides of Connecti- 
cut, long, low, white houses, inspired by 
the long, low, white houses of long ago. 
"The House of the Blue Blinds" is such 
a building. 

It is unusually interesting also in that 
it is an architect's own home, planned 
and built for himself and his family to 
live in. Here we are looking at a build- 
ing into which no interfering client ob- 
truded his ideas. There was in this case, 
however, one consideration that stayed 
the imagination of the designer the con- 
sideration of expense. For this house 
was built upon the firm foundation of 
common sense. Its prospective owner 
and its architect decided that, come what 
might, he would invest in his house and 
land only the capital represented by the 



rent he had been paying for other people's 
houses. He had, to start with, a knowl- 
edge of what houses cost, and he modified 
his ideas and designed such a house as 
he thought could be built for his fixed 
sum of money, making certain compro- 
mises in order to bring down the cost. 
In time, as he chooses, he can add to and 
change his original to exactly meet his 
ideals. When reducing his estimates he 
wisely decided to cut nothing from his 
finished details. How many houses have 
been spoiled by cheap, coarse trim and 
bad mouldings. It is no easy matter to 
repair such damage, whereas it is always 
possible to add to what is simple but 
good. Therefore, cornices, doorways and 
leadings were carried out with the finest 
execution. But the cost was very mate- 
rially reduced by certain omissions. 
Hardwood floors, for instance, were not 
laid, but the wide boards of the under 
flooring were left exposed and painted a 
yellow that recalls vividly old New Eng- 
land farm houses. The present mantels, 
though they undoubtedly have a certain 
quaint effect, are only temporary and are 




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THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



to be replaced some day by handsomer 
ones. They were bought from a nouse 
wrecking company in New York, four 
of them for the sum of $16. The building 
contractor's estimates were further re- 
duced by replacing the proposed dressed 
stone coping of the brick porches by 
bricks stood on end in cement, by sub- 
stituting cattle hair felt quilting over the 
studs and under the shingles for the pro- 
posed brick filling between the studs, and 
by using ordinary shingles doubled in- 
stead of the extra long, hand-split ones 
of the Colonial houses. 

The first thing one feels on approach- 
ing this house is its absolute appropriate- 
ness to its site. The building is enclosed 
on its own plot of ground by a white 
fence of Colonial pattern. Its rear and 
side are toward the highway, and a pri- 
vate road leads around to the main en- 
trance of the house, which faces the 
lovely view to the south. Informal visit- 
ors may enter from the side through a 
gate in the fence, from which a foot- 
path of irregular flat stones leads to the 
side door. This gate is an excellent 
point from which to study some of the 
charming details of the house. The 
cornice, so delicate in effect, is partially 
at least, a product of New Canaan. The 
frieze was seen by Mr. Litchfield on an 
old building in the neighborhood which 
was being torn down by its unappreciative 
owner, and copied by him on his own 
house. It is very simple in design, but 
exquisite in effect. It consists simply of 
groups of alternate reeds and grooves, the 
reeds being about two inches longer than 
their concave neighbors. This grouping 
was evidently derived from the Greek 
triglyphs. The perforated board brack- 
ets, taking the place of the classic mu- 
tules, in the cornice above the reeding 
in the frieze, add an interesting contrast 
of dark and light to the overhanging 
eaves. The fan-lights in the gable-end, 
and the lattice around the porch are 
worthy of notice here. 

The main front of the house is de- 
lightful. Its porch, with the elliptical 
arch, slender columns and side lights, and 
the Palladian motive directly above, make 
a charming center to the composition of 
the simple facade with the double row of 



large plain windows. The porches at 
either end are, of course, modern addi- 
tions to this style of architecture, but 
they have been made so fine and light that 
they seem an appropriate and integral 
part of the design. They suit the style 
as perfectly as do other portions of the 
house that have been carefully studied 
from historic models. 

The leadings around the front door 
are specially interesting from the point of 
view of their execution. They are not. 
by the way, made after the manner of 
European or later American leadings. 
They are true examples of early Colonial ; 
that is, the glass is cut only by the main, 
structural wooden muntins in the design, 
and the merely decorative pattern in lead 
and wood is an entirely separate affair, 
set in front of the glass. By this method 
a very pretty effect is gained from the re- 
flections of the pattern in the glass be- 
hind it. 

The front door opens directly into a 
hall with dining-room and living-room on 
either side of it, as is usual in this type 
of house, but there is a very clever modi- 
fication here of the typical Colonial plan 
which was developed from a wish of Mrs. 
Litchfield's when the house was still only 
a dream. She said she Had always 
wanted a room with windows on three 
sides of it. This wish was the inspiration 
of the present plan, in which there are not 
merely one, but six rooms with windows 
on three sides of them. A glance at the 
plan will show that the main house is 
narrow, only one room deep in fact, each 
end room having three external walls 
pierced by windows. One difficulty pre- 
sented itself. The hall, being only the 
depth of the main house, was shallow 
too shallow comfortably to accommodate 
a generous flight of stairs as well as the 
doors into the rooms to the right and 
left. After some puzzling over this prob- 
lem, the kitchen wing was placed directly 
opposite the front door, but slightly 
off axis, and the hallway was run back 
into it, the flight of stairs starting at the 
intersection of this wing with the main 
house. Instead of the usual back door 
opposite the front door, a side entrance 
was made opening on the stone walk al- 
ready referred to. There are obviously 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



55 




SIDE ENTRANCE-OWN HOUSE, NEW CANAAN, CONN. 
Electus D. Litchfield, Architect. 



great advantages in this over the typical 
New England plan, and for the site of 
the "House with the Blue Blinds," it 
could not be improved upon. By this ar- 
rangement the master's bedrooms, as well 
as the drawing-room and dining-room, 
get lovely views in three directions, and 
excellent crossdrafts. The house has the 
best possible exposure. It faces south, 
where the finest view is to be seen, and 
where the summer breezes .come from ; 
the windows to the north give free cir- 
culation, and the house is flooded with 
sunshine in winter. 

Imagine the wide hall with generous 
doors of exquisite designs and workman- 
ship opening to the right and the left. 
Old painted chairs, black with gold deco- 
rations, a quaint old sofa and mirror and 
a "tall clock looking like a mummy set on 
end," give the keynote of the furnishings 
of the "House with the Blue Blinds," 
which is style. Every piece of furniture 
Is suitable. There is something clumsy 
about much of the early American cabi- 
net work, something not quite arrived 
about the detail. In the handsome ma- 



hogany sofa in the living-room, for in- 
stance, the legs, flat pieces of wood sawed 
in a rather awkward outline, are what 
give it its undeniable cachet. The old 
prints on the wall, stiff and technically 
rather crude in some instances, suit the 
house to perfection. The silhouettes on 
the stairway and the quaint old bric-a- 
brac and blue china, all handed down 
from our American forefathers, have a 
delightful effect. 

In the entrance hall is the same picture 
wall paper that covered the parlor walls 
in the childhood home of Thomas Baily 
Alclrich in Portsmouth. In his "Story 
of a Bad Boy" be gives the following 
graphic description of it : "In the parlor 
this enlivening figure is repeated all over 
the room. A group of English peasants, 
wearing Italian hats, are dancing on a 
lawn that abruptly resolves itself into a 
sea-beach, upon which stands a flabby 
fisherman (nationality unknown) quietly 
hauling in what appears to be a small 
whale, and totally regardless of the 
dreadful naval combat going on just be- 
yond the end of his fishing-rod. On the 







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58 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




LIVING ROOM-OWN HOUSE, NEW CANAAN. CONN. 
Electus D. Litchfield, Architect. 



other side of the ships is the mainland 
again, with the same peasants dancing. 
Our ancestors were worthy people, but 
their wall papers were abominable. I can- 
not, however, agree with Mr. Aldrich that 
this paper is "abominable." Certainly the 
effect in this particular place is perfect. 
From the ceiling in this hall hangs a 
black iron lantern with engraved glass 
panels. The stairway leads to a second 
story, much like the first in arrangement, 
and above that is a garret, capable of 
developing into a real, old-fashioned gar- 
ret, "a museum of curiosities," such as 
we who have had New England grand- 
parents remember so well. The slender 
banisters and handrail of the main 
staircase are of cherry stained almost 
black and rubbed down to a soft gloss. 
With this exception, and that of the trim 
the service wing, the woodwork 



in 



throughout the house is painted white. 

The door frames leading to the right 
and left from the hall into the dining- 
room and living-room were copies of old 
Salem doorways, unusually well executed 



in every detail. The cornice, the fes- 
tooned napkins, the baskets of fruit, and 
the reeding are beautifully modelled. 
Drawings of these same Salem doorways 
are reproduced in the "Georgian Period," 
but any architect or decorator wishing to 
copy them would do well to use the 
photographs accompanying this article in- 
stead of the older drawings, which are not 
accurate in detail. 

The living-room is large and homelike, 
with six windows, two of them opening 
on the comfortably furnished porch be- 
yond. Opposite the door is a generous 
fire-place "with room enough for the 
corpulent back-log to turn over com- 
fortably on the polished andirons." A 
group of inviting chairs is gathered about 
it. The foliage wall paper, soft gray in 
tone, makes an excellent background for 
the old furniture and mirrors. The 
modern electric light fixtures are simple, 
shaded with engraved glass chimneys, and 
on the mantle are two unique glass lamps 
and a pair of quaint painted vases. The 
effect of gray and black and gold in this 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



59 




LIVING ROOM OWN HOUSE, NEW CANAAN, CONN. 
Electus D. Litchfield, Architect. 



room is exceedingly good. There are 
always quantities of bright flowers from 
the garden everywhere. 

The dining-room across the hall is no 
less charming in effect. The blue china 
and mahogany seem to require the buff 
wall/ which is given full value by the 
long, blue curtains at the French win- 
dows, and the fresh white ones at the 
others. The banister back dining-room 
chairs are rare examples o-f American 
furniture. Luke Vincent Lockwood, in 
his invaluable book on "Colonial Furni- 
ture," places this type of chair between 
the years 1710 and 1750. They are 
painted black, with rush bottom seats. 
The center table of mahogany is old too, 
as are the prim side tables of inlaid wal- 
nut. 

It is interesting to note the cement 
facing in the fire-place. Ninety-nine 
times out of a hundred the Colonial build- 
ers covered their brick facings in this 
Way. 

The photograph of the bedroom on the 
second floor gives a very clear idea of 
how good the furnishings upstairs are. 



The slender four-poster with its delight- 
ful spread of tufted cotton, the high- 
boy, the painted chair and the ornaments 
on and about the mantelpiece are all very 
stylish, 

There are almost as many outdoor as 
indoor rooms in this house. The brick 
paved porches on the ground floor open- 
ing at each end are delightful places to 
sit. On the second floor over these are 
two more porches open to the sky. One 
of them is provided with an awning in 
summer and makes an admirable sleeping 
porch, though really it is scarcely more 
airy than the bedroom off which it opens. 
The service wing is amply provided with 
porches also, which are skillfully placed 
away from the master's part of the house. 

It is unusual to see a house in which 
the conveniences, all the little things 
which the housekeeper prizes so highly, 
have been carefully thought out and em- 
bodied in the building. Just to mention 
one little device that adds greatly to the 
convenience at certain times, the service 
stairs are straight and open into a nar- 
row hall, which runs parallel to them. 




DOORWAY-OWN, HOUSE, NEW CANAAN 
CONN. ELECTUS D. LITCHFIELD, ARCHITECT. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



63 



They are wide enough to admit of the 
passage of a large trunk, but it would be 
impossible to turn the trunk in the narrow 
hall above, were it not for a simple and 
clever arrangement. The railing at the 
head of the stairs is made entirely sepa- 
rate from the built-in woodwork, and is 
clamped in place by iron fasteners. These 
can be opened and the whole railing lifted 
out of the way, making room for the 
most uncompromising trunk. Many a 
house would be much improved by an in- 
vention of this kind. 

Another detail which simplifies the 
service is the placing of the wood and 
coal bins, which are just outside the 
kitchen door on a level with it, so there 
is no carrying up and down stairs. These 
simple conveniences so little appreciated 
by the casual visitors are highly prized by 
the inmates of the house, masters and 
servants alike. 

The kitchen wing is screened from the 
front of the house by high vine-covered 
lattices, and on the west is cut off from 
the side entrance and the road by its 
vvindowless lower story. 

Before closing this article I must not 
forget the garden. It is on the south 
slope of the hill, some SO yards from the 
front door in the hollow, between the 
apple orchard on one side and a grove 
of maples on the other. This is an ideal lo- 
cation. From the house, it leads away into 
the view, and a sunnier, more protected 
situation could not be found. This garden 
is planted between two rugged old stone 
walls, about 15 feet apart, that are a legacy 
from the original farm which included 
Mr. Litchfield's land. They were built to 
form a lane for the cows leading from the 
barn, which has long since disappeared, 



to the pasture. Fortunately this lane is 
much wider than most, tracks of the sort, 
and the gray lichen covered stone walls 
form a lovely background for flowers and 
growing things. A little brook running 
down the hill to the right crosses the 
further end of this lane. Mr. Litchfield 
has built a rectangular pool just beyond 
the garden in whose clear sheet of water 
the house above and the nearby flowers 
are reflected. Some day the hollow be- 
low is to be transformed into a small 
lake. 

Looking straight up the garden be- 
tween the stone walls and the tall cedars, 
one gets a lovely glimpse of the house at 
all- seasons ; when .the peonies are in 
bloom in the garden, reaching up their 
brilliant flowers in front of the white 
house; when the larkspur and madonna 
lilies rise in straight dignity from the long 
borders, challenging the white house on 
the hill to be as dignified as they ; or again 
in the autum when only the cosmos and 
the red leaves are left in a last glorious 
array of color. The house itself is an- 
other center for flowers. Climbing roses, 
clematis and honeysuckle grow about it 
on all sides. They climb over the front 
porch and reach toward the arch above 
the beautifully proportioned slender col- 
umns, and hang over the quaint porch 
seats. 

At first one does not realize, in looking 
at the house, that its very finished and 
harmonious effect is largely due to just 
such beautifully studied details as are 
seen in this entrance porch and which are 
to be found all through it. The real 
interest and affection of its designer have 
been lavished on each line and curve and 
the result is a home of rare charm. 




ENTRANCE TO UNIVERSITY HALI^- WASH- 
INGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS. MO. 
COPE & STEWARDSON, ARCHITECTS. 




UNIVERSITY HALL WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



WASHINGTON VNIVERSITYI 

ST. LOVIS. MISSOVRI 



Cope (&L Stewardson 
Architects 




IN 1834, more than a century after 
many of the colleges had been found- 
ed in the States along the Atlantic 
Coast, William Greenleaf Eliot, a Har- 
vard theological student, came to St. 
Louis to become the first minister of the 
Unitarian Church of the Messiah. The 
role this young man played in the subse- 
quent history of the city and the State 
was so distinguished that in 1853, by an 
| act of the State Legislature, a charter was 
granted to Eliot Seminary, in his honor. 
Four years later, in order to meet the 
broadest requirements of a great educa- 
tional institution, Eliot Seminary became 
Washington University. Loyally sup- 
ported by generous friends, Dr. Eliot be- 
came its directing force, and finally 
served as chancellor during the last eigh- 
Iteen years of his life. Even the gift of 
John Harvard of 400 and his library of 
two hundred volumes, to the institution 
that bears his name, is incomparable to 
what William Greenleaf Eliot did for 
[Washington University in his repeated 

8-0 



gifts and faithful service during the per- 
iod of a generation ; and its enviable dis- 
tinction as a seat of the highest learning 
is the enduring imprint of its founder. 

The first buildings that housed the 
university were substantial but plain. 
They were located in what was then the 
outskirts of the city. But after thirty 
years the business section of St. Louis 
had expanded, and began to encroach 
dangerously upon the university. At a 
period when its buildings were only be- 
coming venerable Washington University, 
contracted by want of space, and ham- 
pered by the uncongenial atmosphere of 
commerce, was forced to seek a new 
location. 

Facing the necessity of moving bodily, 
the trustees conceived of a greater uni- 
versity, a university that should mean to 
the Central West what Harvard does to 
New England ; endowed with ample 
funds, and housed in buildings worthy of 
its splendid record. As in the past, public- 
spirited citizens appeared, and the mag- 




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THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



67 





BUSCH HALL WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



nificent sum of several millions of dollars 
was raised a sum sufficient to assure for 
all time the existence of the university. 
The crystallization of this undertaking 
reflects the character of the men who con- 
ceived it and whose untiring labors have 
forwarded it to its partial completion. 
The location chosen for the new buildings 
was a thinly wooded plateau overlooking 
Forest Park and the city of St. Louis. 
The trustees of Washington University 
wisely decided upon a competition to 
choose their architect. This competition 
was held in 1900. The successful com- 
petitors were Cope and Stewardson. Ad- 
mirable as were all the competing draw- 
ings, yet one cannot but feel that the 
English Tudor style, interpreting the re- 
markable plan of Cope and Stewardson, 
was most fortunate. The plan, while 
somewhat void of the "brilliant axis" and 
"focal point" arrangements essential to 
the splendor of a cold, monumental pro- 
ject, was a plan full of subtleness and of 
unexpected charm, of picturesque ar- 
rangements of courts and compositions 
of facades, features not strikingly evident 
on paper, yet all convincing in reality. 



Without delay, eight of the principal 
buildings were begun. A rich reddish- 
brown Missouri granite, laid in rambling 
rubble, with Bedford limestone for all 
cut stone work, was the material uni- 
formly employed. Honesty of construc- 
tion and truthfulness of material make 
the buildings of the university group not 
only models of workmanship but rare 
examples of architecture in an age of 
cheap and commercial structures. By 
1904, the year of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, the eight buildings, some 
bearing the names of the persons who 
gave them, were completed : University 
Hall, Busch Hall, Cupples Hall No. 1 and 
No. 2, Ridgley Library, Eads Hall, Tow- 
er Dormitory, Liggett Hall and the Gym- 
nasium. In 1907, McMillan Hall and the 
Graham Memorial Chapel were added. 
Early in the spring of 1905, the under- 
graduate departments were transferred to 
the new campus. At last, permanently 
housed and safely fortified by the mag- 
nificent park of 3,000 acres, Washington 
University now only' awaits the loving 
hand of time again to render venerable 
her walls already covered with ivy. 



68 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




CUPPLES HALL NO. 2-WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 




TOWER DORMITORY WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 






69 




RIDGLEY LIBRARY-WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



EADS HALL WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



70 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



While Washington must wait centuries 
fa* her elms to grow, for her stones to 
mellow with age, her harmonious group, 
in one of the most charming of styles, 
gives the institution a start that few uni- 
versities in America have had. 

The rule of Emerson, to allow ten 
years to test the value of a book, may be 
applied as well to architecture. Scarcely 
any of the forced styles have remained 
in use this long. The ethnic relationship 
of English Gothic is right, and to-day, 
after more than ten years, Washington's 
group continues to hold one by its inim- 
itable charm ; and to appreciate fully and 
realize its charm one must live within its 
walls. Praise, then, is the natural criti- 
cism of so important a group of buildings, 
designed by a strong man to whom fell 
the good fortune of planning their struc- 
ture and to whom, after he had met all 
requirements, was allowed a free hand. 

The principal building of this remark- 
able group is University Hall, the gift of 
Robert S. Brookings. Its commanding 
position, approached by a great flight of 
steps and a broad terrace, is inspiring. 
The composition of the main facade is 
masterly. The end facades of Busch and 
Cupples Halls are really parts of this su- 
perb composition. The transition from 
one Hall to the other formed by the arch- 
ways is most pleasing, while the pictur- 
esque silhouette untiringly leads the eye 
up to the crowning motive of the central 
towers. The first building of this group is 
very appropriately in the style of the 
earliest of the English periods employed. 
It falls under the style of the period of 
King Henry VII, when the oriel window 
was at its best, when the windows and 
doors were Gothic rather than Renais- 
sance, and only Gothic motives appeared 
in the mouldings and decorations. The 
central archway and towers, while sug- 
gested by several archways at Cambridge 
or Oxford, are far from being copies of 
any of them. 

Passing through the Tudor arch and 
groined passage, one comes into the First 
Quadrangle. Directly in front stands the 
Ridgley Library; to the right, Cupples 
Hall No. 1, occupied by the School of 
Architecture and Department of Civil 
Engineering; to the left, Busch Hall, oc- 



cupied by the Department of Chemistry. 
L6ng and low is the main facade of Cup- 
pies Hall, with two entrances developed 
into pavilions. One finds here the intro- 
duction of the Renaissance. The pedi- 
ment over the door, the impost and base 
of the door arch and the carved orna- 
ment, while Renaissance, are cleverly han- 
dled so as to give a strongly Gothic feel- 
ing. The balustrade serving as a low 
parapet wall and the sun-dial over the 
central bay, on the other hand, are quite 
Renaissance in treatment. 

Directly across the Quadrangle in 
Busch Hall, the general mass of which 
recalls Cupples, one finds more sugges- 
tions from the Elizabethan period. That 
period of English architecture which has 
withstood much severe criticism and 
whose rightful claim to artistic worth re- 
appears many times throughout this mod- 
ern group of buildings. This style was 
the result of the second wave of the Ren- 
aissance that came from Germany, bring- 
ing with it German and Flemish work- 
men who introduced the strapwork mo- 
tives and pattern book designs, executing 
them in plaster, wood and even in stone. 
The doorways of Busch Hall, with their 
varied classic entablatures, keystones and 
short, stubby pilasters, or the low en- 
trance towers with the strapwork balus- 
trade at the top, convince one that their 
designer was able to handle a transitional 
style with much of the adroitness of the 
original craftsmen. 

Ridgley Library, opposite University 
Hall, shows a curious mingling of styles. 
Its prototype, St. John's at Oxford, 
shows Italian rather than German influ- 
ence. The Oxford facade is entirely free 
from all the heaviness of the undeveloped 
period of German origin. The arcade on 
the first story is far more Italian than 
most of the work of that period, while 
the small twin windows in the second 
story and the crenelated parapet are pure- 
ly Gothic. The central pavilion of super- 
posed columns enclosing the niche on the 
second floor are, again, very Italian. 
While this modern adaptation of St. 
John's is the same facade, it is further 
studied and developed. The arcade has 
been strengthened ; the second-story win- 
dows are enlarged and "Renaissanced" ; 



71 




FIREPLACE IN READING ROOM OF LIBRARY 
WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS. 
MO. COPE & STEWARDSON, ARCHITECTS 




ENTRANCE TO CHAPEI^W ASHING- 
TON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS. MO. 
COPE & STEWARDSON, ARCHITECTS. 




THE CHAPEL WASHINGTON UNI- 
VERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MO. COPE 
& STEWARDSON, ARCHITECTS. 



74 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



the crenelations remain and the central 
motive holds a large mullioned window 
on the second floor, while slender towers 
are added to the four corners of the 
building, recalling Charlecotte Manor. 
The small details, such as the band course 
above the arcade, are late Elizabethan. 
Daring is this facade wherein three per- 
iods blend, a veritable tour de force, serv- 
ing likewise to unite the different periods 
employed. The beautiful reading room is 
in the much later style of Sir Christopher 
Wren, whose small London churches are 
recalled by the exquisitely modeled plas- 
ter ceiling. 

This quadrangle is the center of all 
student life and activities. Here the 
students meet before going to their lec- 
tures and here they congregate to discuss 
the various incidents of college life. An 
ideal retreat, this quadrangle, where every 
sound from the outer world is shut out by 
the ivy-clad walls or lost in the depths of 
the arcade. Christ College Quadrangle 
at Oxford, hallowed as it is by centuries, 
and by the names of many of the dis- 
tinguished men of England, separated 
from the noisy street only by Tom Tower, 
cannot compare with this Quad at Wash- 
ington; nor can King's Quad at Cam- 
bridge compare with it. We must seek 
the lovely backs of Cambridge, those vel- 
vet swards, those silent elms, those end- 
less walks 

"Whenever free to choose 
Did I by night frequent the college groves 
and tributary walks." 

Such is the atmosphere of this quad- 
rangle, an atmosphere that comes with 
perfect repose, produced by architecture 
based on aesthetic truths. We experience 
this same feeling before a Madonna by 
Raphael or a landscape by Constable ; in 
the ruined abbeys of England, or Nor- 
mandy ; or in the monasteries of North- 
ern Italy. In the early morning, before 
the student activities begin, or at evening 
by twilight when we hear the Tower clock 
strike out the hour, but little imagination 
is needed to carry us back to the old 
world. 

Quitting this first quadrangle, we pass 
along the wing of the Library and Eads 
Hall, buildings which form part of the 



enclosure of two future courts. Eads 
Hall, occupied by the Physical Labora- 
tory, and Cupples Hall No. 2, occupied 
by the Mechanical Engineering Depart- 
ment, are both splendidly adapted to their 
uses. They recall here and there, in the 
doorways and gables, the Elizabethan 
manor houses, but beyond these details, 
they are nothing more than utilitarian 
buildings, serving well their purposes. 

From Eads Hall one passes down an 
avenue of maples to the chapel and the 
men's dormitories. The bijou of this 
group is the Graham Memorial Chapel, of 
which the general form and main motives 
are taken from King's College Chapel at 
Cambridge. The Graham Memorial 
Chapel, scarcely one-third the size of 
King's Chapel, and with every proportion 
greatly changed, on closer examination 
exhibits very little in common with its 
prototype. Loftiness is the striking char- 
acteristic of King's College Chapel, of 
which the end facades, very slender in 
proportion, have almost an effect of being 
stilted. The end facades of the chapel at 
Washington are open, perhaps, to the 
criticism of being slightly squatty. The 
corner towers, nearly identical with their 
English examples, while less slender, are 
indeed graceful and elegant, forming a 
most delicate silhouette. The side bays, 
given over almost entirely to glass, add 
the desired effect of height. The glory 
of the Cambridge Chapel is its interior, 
whose lofty fan-vaulted ceiling has no 
equal in all England. The interior of the 
Graham Memorial Chapel bears no com- 
parison to the English chapel; but it is. 
nevertheless, most successful and we may 
truly say that it is "a thing of beauty and 
a joy forever." Serving as a chapel in an 
undenominational institution, this one 
must forever want the one central motive, 
the heart, the spark to give it life, the 
centralizing and glorifying motive of the 
altar, without which a Gothic Church at 
times seems incongruous. Of this chapel, 
Mr. Cram would probably say, as he does 
of Trinity in Boston, -'a church without a 
soul." But for all this, here is a work 
of art, whose every detail is worthy of the 
closest study, and whose wonderfully 
carved organ and choir stalls, roof trusses 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



75 



and stained glass, are rarely met with in 
the modern work of either America or 
Europe. 

As we leave the chapel, a broad walk 
overhung by maples leads through two 
groups of dormitories. Only separate 
buildings have thus far been erected, but 
eventually they will form sides of differ- 
ent courts. Tower Hall, while medieval 
in character, in its window treatment, 
bays and oriels, is given a marked domes- 
ticity. The massive central tower over 
the archway with the smaller secondary 
tower mounting higher, forms a composi- 
tion quite pleasing. The dignified and 
quiet facade of Liggett Hall has much of 
the feeling of the Elizabethan manor. 
The varied bays, gables, massive chim- 
neys and quaint doorways give interest to 
a whole composed with restraint and sim- 
plicity. Indeed, quite different are these 
dormitories compared to those by Cope 
and Stewardson at the University of 



Pennsylvania. The entire group at 
Washington shows scarcely as many dif- 
ferent motives or decorative details as 
any one building at Philadelphia. Yet 
upon the whole the balance of favor will 
fall to the lot of Washington. 

A very considerable start has been 
made in the dormitories for women. Mc- 
Millan Hall encloses the three sides of a 
quadrangle. While less quiet than either 
Tower or Liggett, McMillan Hall com- 
poses into more varied and picturesque 
silhouettes. 

If we seek here for every structural 
and logical principle that dominated 
either Roman or Gothic art, we shall 
be forced to call these buildings of a de- 
based style. But if we seek honesty and 
truthfulness of construction we shall find 
it here. This work of Cope and Stew- 
ardson, marked by a strong personality, 
has the stamp of the artist and crafts- 
man. 




CUPPLES HALL NO. 1. 




KITCHEN PORCH-HOUSE OF WILLIAM 
T. HARRIS, ESQ., VILLA NOVA. PA. 
DUHRING, OKIE & ZIEGLER, ARCHITECTS 




HOUSE OF WILLIAM T. HARRIS, ESQ., VILLA NOVA, PA. 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Architects. 

THE EARLY PENNSYLVAI 
NLA COVNTRY HOVSE 

RESIDENCE of WILLIAM T. HARRIS! 5 ?! 

'Villa Nova. Duhring, Okie C& Ziegler, Architects 
BY C. MATLACK PB.ICE <^~ 



HOSE critics who are wont to de- 
plore the absence of an architec- 
ture essentially American would, 
perhaps, come nearer to hitting their 
mark if they were to deplore more vigor- 
ously the over-supply of imported archi- 
tecture which not only retards the 
ultimate development of American 
architecture but also quite drowns out 
such American architecture as really does 
exist. 

Not only is there an American archi- 
tecture, but several types of American 
architecture quite distinct in their several 
characteristics and in the traits 
resultant from and peculiar to their 
locale. We can even afford to omit from 
the catalogue that style which is called 
"Mission" or "Californian," for by the 
time there have been taken from them 



all traces of derivation either Spanish or 
Japanese, there remains little but the 
floor plan. 

Distinctly, however, there are the dig- 
nified Classic Revival of the Southern 
States, the severe type of Colonial of the 
New England States, and the quaint 
Dutch Colonial of certain parts of New 
Jersey and New York, as well as that 
type of Colonial home essentially pecu- 
liar to Pennsylvania. 

These different architectural expres- 
sions are certainly to be regarded as 
logical national property, because they 
are fairly accurate reflections of contem- 
porary and local characteristics, ideas, 
and ideals. 

The Southern mansion, for example, 
was a reflection of the general dignity 
and lordliness concomitant with the idea 



78 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



of a large slave-holding estate, 
owned, for the most part, by 
direct descendants of English 
nobility, or by noble colonists 
of actual title. And these fine 
gentlemen, in building, very 
naturally found architectural 
expression in terms of the clas- 
sical tastes in contemporary 
culture. 

The severity of the New 
England type was a reflection 
of the austere creed de- 
veloped from Puritanism ; the 




SECOND FLOOR-HOUSE OF WILLIAM T. HARRIS, ESQ. 



sturdy simplicity of the early Dutch 
farmhouses was a reflection of the rug- 
ged characteristics of no less rugged 
pioneers ; and the Pennsylvania type was 
a reflection no less true of salient local 
characteristics. These houses of the 
early Pennsylvanians- were of two 
kinds, or a blending of both. There were 
the sturdy farmhouses of the simple 
pioneers, the more stately homes of the 
more aristocratic, and the substantial 
dwellings of a well-bred "middle class." 
Here would appear to be a wealth of 



material for our present day architect 
which should afford him a considerable 
and sufficient range of architectural ex- 
pression. But this American architec- 
ture, taken collectively, has been put into 
competition with French, Italian, English, 
Swiss and a score of styles and sub-styles 
of Europe, so that, in comparison, it has 
appeared to the superficial observer a 
sorry enough affair, simply because most 
of us are not sufficiently well acquainted 
with it. 

There is one quality of inestimable 




HOUSE OF WILLIAM T. HARRIS, ESQ., VILLA NOVA. PA. 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



79 




MAIN ENTRANCE AND ENTRANCE TO "DESK ROOM" HOUSE OF WILLIAM T. HARRIS, ESQ., 

VILLA NOVA, PA. 
Duhring. Okie & Ziegler, Architects. 



value which may be said to be common to 
all the types of American architecture 
mentioned above, and that is the quality 
of domesticity, which many more pre- 
tentious renderings of imported styles 
have often failed to express. By all 
means domesticity should be reckoned 
the most important quality which a home 
should possess, yet it is a quality surpris- 
ingly rarely met with in this country. It 
is not entirely remarkable that early 
American architecture should have de- 
veloped the quality, and very consistently 
expressed it, because early American 
architecture came before the day of the 
"show place," the artificial social index 
of the nouveau riche, and because the old 
days were days of simplicity and honesty 
in such matters, when a home was a 
home, and not an architectural advertise- 
ment. 

And in the matter of the ultimate "ar- 
rival" of an American architecture, this 
is an important circumstance to take into 
consideration, because no expression in 
the arts, whether painting, sculpture, or 
architecture, can ever attain significance 
if it be either an imitation or a bid for 



attention. It must be a sincere expression 
of conviction, not only on the part of the 
architect, but of the public, which brings 
us to the subject of this article a re- 
cently designed house at Villa Nova, in 
Pennsylvania, by a Philadelphia firm 
of architects. 

The firm, Messrs. Duhring, Okie and 
Ziegler, are peculiarly successful in that 
they have consistently effected a latter- 
day translation of an early local type of 
house, without loss therein of any of the 
charm or significance of the original, but 
rather with an added touch of advanced 
architectural taste and ability. This has 
been evidenced in much of the previous 
work of the firm, wherein a fine sym- 
pathy with the style as it was in early 
times has been combined with an unusual 
ability to improve upon it in many modern 
details and in a certain kind of well-bred 
good taste which tells its own story to 
laymen no less directly than to architect. 

In developing the early Pennsylvania 
country house into a modern dwelling, 
Duhring, Okie and Ziegler have made it 
both a home, livable and intimate, and 
a more polished architectural expression, 



80 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




OBLIQUE REAR VIEW-HOUSE OF WILLIAM T. HARRIS, ESQ., VILLA NOVA, PA. 
Duhring, Okie & Zieglcr, Architects. 




OBLIQUE FRONT VIEW HOUSE OF WILLIAM T. HARRIS, ESQ., VILLA NOVA, PA. 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



81 




SIDE VIEW HOUSE OF WILLIAM T. HARRIS, ESQ., VILLA NOVA, PA. 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Architects. 



I which, logically, is exactly what should 
Blake place in the rendering of any 
I adaptation. 

This house at Villa Nova is especially 
I happy in its setting, an old-fashioned 
I garden or if one were to take it the 
I other way, the charming garden is f or- 
I tunate in that it lies about so picturesque 
land pleasing a house and here we find 
I the complementary relationship which 
I should (but does not always) exist be- 
| tween architecture and gardening, where- 
in each gracefully bows to the other, as in 
the measure of an old minuet. 

The plan is an interesting one, simple 
yet diverse, and giving evidence of pleas- 
ant rooms quaintly disposed about a liv- 
ing porch, which recesses the "garden 
front" of the house, and affords a spa- 
cious sleeping porch above. Although the 
plan is not that of a really large house, 
there is provided, between the music-room 
and the living room, a little "desk- 
room," or "office," which is a very sen- 
sible feature of many English country 
n-o 



house plans, in that it affords a place 
apart from the house, yet convenient, 
where gardeners, coachmen and other 
employes about an estate may be inter- 
viewed or paid off without encroachment 
upon privacy. 

Six bed-rooms, three baths, a large 
sleeping porch and numerous closets make 
an adequate arrangement for the second 
floor, and complete a well-studied plan. 

The reserve with which the detail of 
the house has been handled is at once 
characteristic of this firm of architects 
and explanatory of its success in render- 
ing modern versions of the early Penn- 
sylvania type of country house. There 
are few factors, but these must be han- 
dled the more skilfully for that reason 
well-laid fieldstone, studied (yet appar- 
ently simple) mouldings, very reserved, 
panelled wooden shutters, quaint hard- 
ware of the period these are the ele- 
ments, governed generally by a consistent 
simplicity and sincerity of feeling 
throughout. 




A HUMOROUS FOUNTAIN IN Ml MC'Ii 
FOR COMMENT. SEE PAGE ft 




PORTFOLIO OF 
R.R.ENT AR.CHIT E CTVR.E 





DETAIL OF VESTIBULE-ASSEMBLY TEA ROOMS. 
BOSTON. CHARLES M. BAKER, ARCHITECT. 



84 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE ENTRANCE ASSEMBLY TEA ROOMS, BOSTON. 
Charles M. Baker, Architect. 



o 



Q 




VIEW SHOWING PART OF LARGE DINING ROOM, TEA ROOM 
AND FOUNTAIN-ASSEMBLY TEA ROOMS, BOSTON. 



r 




PLAN OF THE FRANCIS W. 1'ARKl 
SCHOOL OF SAN DIEGO, CAL. W 
TEMPLETON JOHNSON, ARCHITEC 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



89 




FRONT ELEVATION-FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL OF SAN DIEGO. 
Wm. Templeton Johnson, Architect. 




SOUTH AND WEST WINGS FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL OF SAN DIEGO. 
Wm. Templeton Johnson, Architect. 



90 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



' 




AND OPEN CLASSROOMS-FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL OF SAN DIEGO. 
Wm. Templeton Johnson, Architect. 




OPEN AIR CLASSROOMS FRANCIS W. PARKER SCHOOL OF SAN DIEGO. 
Wm. Templeton Johnson, Architect. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



91 




HOUSE OF W. E. MARBLE, ESQ., GREENWICH, CONN. 

Rowe & Smith, Architects 




J>E.CO/1D FLOOR PL/V1 





THIHD FLODJ2, PLAAf 




THE FLOOR PLANS-HOUSE OF W. E. MARBLE, ESQ., GREENWICH, CONN. 
Rowe & Smith, Architects 




S33 

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w ci^ 

u S 1 * 



. 

H W > 
Z J O 

W CQ 



T'S EIBRARX 





TWO BOOKS BY PRACTICAL THEORISTS 

By RICHARD FRANZ BACH 

Curator, School of Architecture, Columbia University 



PART I. 



A PRACTICAL theorist is a useful 
person, a helpful adjunct to his 
profession and a mentor for 
the tyro. He is in fact a necessity ; with- 
out his species any profession may read- 
ily fall subject to disorganization, for 
his method is the method of much 
teaching, combining practice with the 
setting up of resultant principles. His 
efficiency consists in his ability to fash- 
ion realities of thought out of a multi- 
tude of examples, facts and experiences, 
a process the logicians call induction. 
His real value lies in the actuality of his 
theories, in their present and modern 
applicability. Theoretics alone are but 
mental gymnastics, resulting in general- 
ities that glitter but are not proof against 
the stern truth of practice. But the 
practical theorist possesses the salutary 
quality of moderation, of restraint; he 
does not rush in where the sedate prac- 
titioner fears to tread, but holds his fire 
until experience has been tried by time 
and repetition. Out of this attitude 
wholesome theory may readily be 
evolved, and such a body of theory may 
then rightly demand the attention of 



those who practice only and never 
preach. For, contrary to the time-worn 
maxim, practice may be relied upon to 
make perfect only if constantly revised 
and corrected. Eminent among the prac- 
tical theorists are Mr. Edwin Howland 
Blashfield and Mr. Ralph Adams Cram. 

In Mural Painting in America (Scrib- 
ner's; 8vo; $2.) Mr. Blashfield has pub- 
lished, with many additions, the Scam- 
mon Lectures of two years ago, read be- 
fore the Art Institute of Chicago. We 
have latterly grown accustomed to look 
up to Mr. Blashfield and to Mr. Kenyon 
Cox, both painter-writers, gifted with 
a lucid and fluent manner of writ- 
ing and 'an inexhaustible fund of knowl- 
edge and experience, as arbiters of stylis- 
tic truth of the present in their impor- 
tant profession and sympathetic inter- 
preters of the stylistic truths of the past. 
Only recently Mr. Cox published the 
Scammon Lectures for 1911 under the 
title The Classic Point of View; and we 
had been expecting the sequel to this 
volume from Mr. Blashfield, whose atti- 
tude is much the same, though his angle 
of vision mav be somewhat different. We 



94 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



are glad to find him now expanding his 
original series of papers into a sizable 
volume, containing about twice the quan- 
tity of the material primarily prepared, 
and fully illustrated with carefully 
chosen subjects representing all phases 
of mural painting in this country. 

Mr. Blashfield's book gives us a mass 
of theory and of practice, a concise his- 
torical treatment, a discussion of meth- 
ods and results, a number of anecdotes 
of men and times, and a wealth of coun- 
sel between the lines, all bound together 
in one of the most readable volumes that 
has ever undertaken an exposition of this 
little appreciated field. In his foreword 
the author says: "Mural painting may 
safely be called the most exacting, as it 
certainly is the most complicated form of 
painting in the whole range of art ; its 
scope includes figure, landscape and por- 
trait ; its practice demands the widest 
education, the most varied forms of 
knowledge, the most assured experience. 
Save by the initiated it is apt to be mis- 
apprehended as a form of art at best 
demanding little but arrangement, fancy, 
lightness of hand, at worst as a commer- 
cial product calculable as to its worth by 
the hour and the square foot." Let us 
hope the case for mural painting in 
America is not quite so bad as that. 

The scope of the work is adequately 
indicated by its analyzed table of con- 
tents, and its ultimate value might be as- 
sured by any one of the individual chap- 
ters included. So we have, for instance, 
"The Importance of Decoration," subdi- 
vided into separate disquisitions upon 
"the decorated building as a teacher" ; 
"the main factors in our decorative tra- 
dition" ; "the focal importance of the 
public building," and "national art as a 
national asset." In similar manner each 
chapter contains a series of essays on 
associated subjects, grouped under a uni- 
fying major title. 

Both Mr. Blashfield and Mr. Cox un- 
dertook to plough the same furrow, but 
they began at opposite ends. Thus the 
latter treated the classic spirit in art and 
its influence upon the art of to-day, both 
"positive and potential." He devoted 
chapters to extended considerations of 
subject, drawing, color, etc. Mr. Blash- 



field declares his purpose under the title : 
"The Modern Tendency in Art as Influ- 
enced by the Spirit of the Past." 

The author first brings together a 
number of substantiating reasons why 
the art of mural painting should be con- 
sidered an art of lasting significance and 
national importance. He refers in the 
first place to the past and the influence 
of painting and mosaic at a time when 
books were not available as a spur to the 
intellectual life of the people. The 
mural painting commemorated the na- 
tional hero or the protecting saint, the 
local patron, in short, the allegory, the 
history, the legend of a given time and 
place. He who had business in a p*ublic 
building, be it church or hospital, weigh- 
house or city hall, found there the record 
of deeds of a great past, or the beauty 
of a folk story, or yet again the counsel 
of a high ideal. The eye and the ear are 
both handmaidens of the mind, but the 
mind reads more rapidly than the eye, 
although the best of rhythm and move- 
ment is conveyed by the ear. Thus every 
decorated structure teaches, and, by 
way of corollary, every decorated struc- 
ture should teach ; especially is this true 
of the public building, for it is a repre- 
sentative structure ; it is in a sense a con- 
crete statement of the ambitions of a 
number of minds actuated by questions 
of mutual benefit. It is but little recog- 
nized as yet in this country that national 
art is a national asset. 

Mr. Blashfield's pen flies from well- 
moulded phrase to sharp command ; he 
advises, he relates, he depicts. What- 
ever his momentary mood, through the 
whole of his fabric runs the golden 
thread of love for his art ; out of the 
fullness of his heart he gives his best 
and surely his earnestness is not with- 
out avail. We quote the conclusion of 
his chapter on the importance of decora- 
tion: ". . and if I had to raise a statue 
to the typical promoter, whether of mat- 
ters spiritual or material, I would make 
him a god Thor, and gird him, with his 
weapon to hammer, hammer, hammer, 
again and again in the same place. And 
he would be no serene god, . . but a 
striker of discords. First, and longest, 
and hardest, he would smite in beating 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



95 



out from the amorphousness of our in- 
difference a conviction the conviction 
of the importance of public art that it 
should be at least as good as the very 
best, because placed the most conspicu- 
ously, and therefore of all art that most 
likely to impress and teach the people. 
Next he would have to strike long and 
hard in emphasis of the importance of 
harmony, the mutuality of architect, 
sculptor and painter in any decorative 
undertaking, to strike until he had weld- 
ed the three into one ingot and fashion 
from it a weapon ten times as tempered 
to its purpose as it ever could have been 
in the personality of any one of these 
artists divided from their trinity. . . 
The next thing to be placed on the anvil 
should be fashioned into a symbol of the 
importance of experience in the decora- 
tive artist. . . . Experience, reiter- 
ated and hard-bought experience, is ab- 
solutely necessary to him, and in no wise 
is the lengthening repetition of hammer 
strokes more typical than it is of this 
continuity of effort, this long succession, 
now of essay, now of blunder, now of 
half-success, fusing at last into a har- 
monious result. . . " 

Sage counsel may be gathered from 
the succeeding chapters on harmony be- 
tween building commissioner and archi- 
tect, between building commissioner and 
mural painter, and among mural painters 
themselves, not to speak of mutuality 
between mural painter and architect. On 
the whole we like the authoritative char- 
acter of Mr. Blashfield's writing. If his 
pen prods the American appreciation and 
understanding of mural painting and its 
importance into activity and life, it will 
have done a monumental service. His 
own standard of excellence is high, but 
it is the measure of himself ; he is there- 
fore justified in proclaiming it as a dic- 
tum, with somewhat of a tone of finality 
that demands attention. Indeed, we 
might cull a number of pointed para- 
graphs from the present volume and 
bind them into a useful manual for arch- 
itects and decorators and assuredly for 
the public. 

The poor building commissioner is 
shorn of every shred. Artistic sense he 



has none. "The building commissioner 
thoroughly understands the man who 
puts in the wires for the lighting, but the 
artist and he speak different languages." 
We would like to go on at greater length 
to indicate the chief points of Mr. Blash- 
field's other sub-headings in this second 
chapter, e. g., the selection of the artist, 
competition vs. appointment, and finally 
the control of the architect. The apoth- 
eosis of the architect follows: "Histori- 
ans of art have celebrated the many- 
sidedness of the Renaissance architect, 
who could build domes and paint minia- 
tures, play the lute and write sonnets, 
carve intagli and colossi ; but even of 
them we may believe were hardly ex- 
acted more kinds of knowledge than of 
the modern architect." And again under 
the topic "mutuality between architect 
and mural painter" we come upon these 
significant words : "In the effort toward 
mutuality, vital to the success of any 
great enterprise in decoration, the archi- 
tect is then essentially the head and com- 
mander-in-chief. He designs the build- 
ing and assigns to each sculptor and 
painter his place in it. But if this is his 
unquestionable right, it is also his privi- 
lege to expect and to receive authorita- 
tive assistance from both sculptor and 
painter, not only as their work pro- 
gresses, but even before it begins. In a 
general way he, the architect, knows be- 
forehand what manner of man is suited 
to some special work, but in a particular 
way that man, once selected, knows in 
turn how to fit his own temperament to 
that work and how he may best suggest 
amplification of elaboration of it." 

Later on the mural painters them- 
selves are taught to be good yoke-fel- 
'lows, working harmoniously and with 
self-sacrifice at the exacting task of col- 
laboration. But we have not space to 
discuss all the excellent features of this 
fine volume. It will prove a Poor Rich- 
ard's Almanack for painter and archi- 
tect, if not indirectly for the sculptor. 
The public at large should have it by 
heart, for it contains the whole theory 
and correct practice of mural painting, 
the most important educational factor of 
modern building. 




NOTES 

AND 
COMMENTS 




One of the most 
charming pieces of con- 
A Humorous temporary sculpture that 
Fountain in has u come , to . our notice 
Munich. ! s . the , llttle fountain in 
Munich given by the 
sculptor, Gasteiger, to 
the city, and erected in 
the Karlsplatz, on the site of a portion of 
the old city wall. (See page 82.) This amus- 
ing conception, placed in a secluded part of 
the square, and surrounded by planting, is 
altogether free from the heaviness that char- 
acterizes the greater part of recent German 
sculpture. The figures are skilfully mod- 
eled, and the spirit of the whole composi- 
tion is full of the gayety that permeates 
the gargoyles of the Gothic cathedrals and 
the pastorals of the eighteenth century, 
and that is so rarely found in the monu- 
mental sculpture of the present time, either 
in Europe or America. It is, in fact, typical 
of the city of Munich, the one place in Ger- 
many which, despite the archaeological 
monstrosities imposed on it by some of its 
rulers during the past hundred years, has 
preserved a great measure of the spirit 
of the middle ages, that spirit of sim- 
plicity and good-fellowship that is now so 
rare. 



The Francis W. Par- 
ker School of San Di- 
A New Type ego, designed by Wm. 
of Open-Air Templeton Johnson and 
School. illustrated elsewhere in 

this number, is believed 
to be the first school in 
the United States for 
which folding sliding-doors have been used 
in making the building an "open-air" 
school. By arranging the rooms in the way 
adopted and planning the school as a quad- 
rangle, the students are protected from 
wind currents, and yet at the same time 
have as fresh air in the classrooms as there 
is out of doors. It was found last winter 
that only on two days during the whole 



winter the doors had to be closed, and even 
then the ventilation in the rooms was as 
good as that in the ordinary school build- 
ing, as there are transoms above the out- 
side windows and above the folding doors 
as well. A little more than two wings of 
the finished plan have already been com- 
pleted, and a beginning has been made in 
the work of planting the interior court with 
California wild flowers and shrubs. 

In a letter, from which we take the lib- 
erty of quoting, Mr. Johnson writes : 

"Climatic conditions in Southern California 
are exceptionally good for the use of open- 
air school buildings. Before coming to Cal- 
ifornia two years ago, I had offices with my 
cousin, Mr. Warrington G. Lawrence, in the 
Brunswick Building, and when I told him 
that the climate of San Diego is so mild that 
most people have no artificial heat in their 
houses, yet so cool that the majority of them 
do not use any ice, and that there is so much 
sunshine that people use what are known as 
solar heaters, which automatically employ 
the sun's rays to manufacture the household 
hot water supply, he naturally thought I was 
lying; but such are the facts." 

The Francis W. Parker School of San Di- 
ego is modeled, as to educational principles, 
after the school of the same name in Chi- 
cago, founded in honor of Col. Francis W 
Parker, noted for his work in connection 
with the schools of Cook County, 111.; and is 
financed by people interested in progressive 
educational methods. The building is being 
erected on the multiple unit plan. When 
entirely completed it will form a hollow 
square with an open court about a hundred 
feet square in the center, surrounded on all 
sides by a covered portico. All the class 
rooms open on this portico, and their inner 
walls are arranged with folding sliding- 
doors, by means of whicH the rooms may 
be thrown completely open on the portico. 
Both the folding doors and the wide 
French windows which glaze the outer walls 
have transoms above them. The classrooms 
Have small wood stoves, which are used on 
wet days. 



ARCHITECTVRAL 




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"YOUXGSTOWN STAR BRAND" GENU- 
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"YOUNGSTOWN" pipe, both steel and 
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THE YOUNGSTOWN SHEET AND TUBE Co 



YOUNGSTOWN. OHIO 



_T 



fti 



VOL. XXXVIL No. 2 



FEBRUARY, 1915 



SERIAL NO. 197 





THE 

ARCHITECTVRAl^l 
RECORD 



**> 




CONTENTS 



COVER The Klingentor, Rothenberg. 

Water Color Drawing by Walter S. Schneider. 

SOME REGENT BANK PLANS: The Work of Thomas Bruce Boyd 
By John J. Klaber 

THE JOHN C. PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER, Peoria, III. Hewitt & 

Emerson, Architects "*.*- 

THE MONTREAL ART GALLERY. E. & W. S. Maxwell, Architects 

By Thomas W. Ludlow, Associate Professor of Architecture, McGill University 

THE ARCHITECT'S PART IN THE WORLD'S WORK * 

By Frederick L. Ackerman 

.THREE TYPES OF GEORGIAN. Part II 

By Harold Donaldson Eberlein 

Measured Drawings by Donald Millar and others 

; SOME REGENT INTERIORS BY THORNTON CHARD .- 

THE ARCHITECT'S LIBRARY: Books by Practical Theorists. Part II - 
By Richard F. Bach 

NOTES AND COMMENTS - - 



Page 

97 

116 
132 

149 
159 

177 
187 

191 



Editor-. MICHAEL A. MIKKELSEN. 

Yearly Subscription United States $3.00 
Foreign $4.00 Single Copies 35 cents 



Contributing Editor : HERBERT D. CROLY 



Advertising Manager: AUSTIN L. BLACK 

Entered May 22. 1902. as Second 
Class Matter, at New York. N. Y. 



Copyright 1915 by The Architectural 
Record Company All Rights Reserved 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD COMPANY 



115-119 WEST FORTIETH STREET. NEW YORK 



F. W. DODGE, President 



F. T. MILLER, Secretary and Treasurer 




DOORWAY IN BANKING ROOM-BANKING .HOUSE 
OF T P MORGAN & CO., NEW YORK < 
?ROWBRIDGE & LIVINGSTON, ARCHITECTS. 



THE 

ARCHITECTVRAL 
RECORD 



FEBRVARY, 1915 



VOLVME XXXVII 






NVMBER II 



SOME RECENT BANK PLANS 
** WORK f THOMAS Bk.VCE'BOYD 




THE planning of a large banking 
institution is a task for which nei- 
ther the average banker nor the 
average architect is particularly well fit- 
ted. The banker lacks knowledge of 
building, has difficulty in reading plans, 
and is usually too busy to enter into the 
mass of detail necessary to an efficient 
plan. The architect, on the other hand, 
is not sufficiently familiar with bank ad- 
ministration, and cannot give the prob- 
lem the time necessary for an adequate 
study of all the factors involved. In the 
smaller installations, and with a small 
architectural practice, it is true, the prob- 
lems are sufficiently simple so that the 
architect has time to solve them himself, 
but as the difficulties multiply, and the 
architect's time is more and more occu- 
pied by the complexity of the organiza- 
tion under his command, the need of a 
new method of attacking problems of 
this nature becomes increasingly appar- 
ent. It is this state of affairs, existing 



particularly in New York City, that has 
given rise to the new profession of the 
bank specialist. 

The specialist does not, and in fact 
cannot, replace the architect, for in so 
doing he would become an architect him- 
self. His function is, either as a consult- 
ing expert or as an outside adviser, to 
collaborate with the banker and the archi- 
tect in forming an efficient layout, de- 
termined by the special requirements of 
the institution, and co-ordinated with the 
constructive necessities of the building. 

Mr. Thomas Bruce Boyd has chosen to 
devote himself to this particular phase 
of the great efficiency movement of the 
present generation, and has collaborated 
in the planning of many of the largest 
banks of recent date, as well as in some 
commercial institutions of other kinds. 
It has been his aim to secure the greatest 
efficiency with the space available and 
for the purposes required, to save for the 
banker both in initial cost of equipment 



98 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




First Floor Plan. 



Basement Floor Plan. 



THE CHASE NATIONAL BANK, NEW YORK 
CITY. KIMBALL & ROOSA, ARCHITECTS. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



99 



and in time and expense of future opera- 
tion; in short, to raise the standard of 
bank planning to a point of scientific per- 
fection not previously attained. The de- 
gree of his success can best be shown by 
a description of a few of the installations 
for which he is responsible. 

One of the newest and most important 
of. the bank plans in which Mr. Boyd has 
collaborated is the Chase National Bank, 
in the new Adams Building, of which 
Messrs. Kimball and Roosa were the 
architects. This vast interior, two hun- 
dred feet long and seventy feet wide, has 
been laid out with a view to the maxi- 
mum efficiency. Entering from Broad- 
way, one finds, directly on the left, a 
large platform with the desks of the 
bank's officers, the more important of 
whom have additional private offices ad- 
joining, along Exchange Alley on the 
side of the building. The grouping of 
the officers' desks in an accessible loca- 
tion near the entrance is a feature on 
which Mr. Boyd lays much stress, as he 
considers it of great importance in 
maintainng and establishing a friendly 
relation between the bank and its cus- 
tomers. 

Beyond the officers' space we find the 
loan department, sheltered by the cus- 
tomary screen, and in a corner near the 
officers the telephone switchboard, along- 
side which a corridor runs from the offi- 
cers' desks to a conference room for 
their use, lighted also from Exchange 
Alley. From the loan department a lift, 
centrally located, descends to the base- 
ment, which is also reached by stairs con- 
venient to the private offices. Beyond 
the loan department are the credit and 
foreign exchange departments, the tell- 
ers, auditors, and other employees who 
handle currency, and in the extreme rear,' 
on Trinity Place, the stenographers and 
book-keepers. A second lift, near the 
tellers, leads also to the basement, as does 
an additional stairway near the chief 
clerk's office. 

The public space, narrow as it appears 
on the plan, is in reality not less than 
fourteen feet wide, and its apparent nar- 
rowness is due to its great length, nearly 
one hundred and sixty feet. Along one 



side runs the screen with its many win- 
dows, while on the other check desks are 
arranged in the intervals between the 
structural columns. While the propor- 
tions of the space are not particularly 
fortunate, it is scarcely possible to im- 
agine a way in which any real improve- 
ment could have been effected, in view 
of the shape of the ground and the neces- 
sity of an entrance from Broadway, the 
narrowness of Exchange Alley making it 
almost vabeless as a thoroughfare, and 
certainly quite impossible for the main 
entrance of a great banking institution. 

The basement of the Chase National 
Bank is used mainly for storage pur- 
poses. In the center is the vault, divided 
by a light screen into two independent 
parts. The larger part, used for securi- 
ties, is reached by the lift from the loan 
department, through an examination 
space, while the other portion, used for 
currency, is similarly reached by the sec- 
ond lift. The vault is closed by two 
heavy doors at each end, and a narrow 
observation gallery protects it at the 
side. 

Near the vault are lockers, and storage 
for stationery and filing. The locker 
room gives access to the clerks' dining- 
room, next to which is a pantry, into 
which the food, cooked by an outside 
caterer, is brought by a separate entrance. 
The same pantry is used to supply the 
officers' dining-room, as well as a smaller 
private dining-room used occasionally by 
the president of the bank. The directors' 
room, adjoining the officers' dining-room, 
is entirely separated from it, and is 
reached directly by the stairs from the 
officers' space on the main floor. 

Back of the vault, on the same floor 
level, are the mail and check clerks, and 
the messengers. Here also is the book 
vault, to "which the second lift and the 
stairs give convenient access, and a ca- 
pacious toilet room. The level of Trin- 
ity Place is about ten feet below that of 
Broadway, so that the basement win- 
dows at this end are above grade, and 
the lighting is far superior to that of an 
ordinary basement. 

Without attempting, in this brief out- 
line, to describe in detail the planning of 



100 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




BANKING ROOM-CHASE NATIONAL BANK, NEW YORK CITY. 
Kimball & Roosa, Architects. 







BANKING ROOM CHASE NATIONAL BANK, NEW YORK CITY. 
Kimball & Roosa, Architects. 




BANKING ROOM CHASE NATIONAL 
BANK, NEW YORK CITY KIM- 
BALL & ROOSA, ARCHITECTS. 



102 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



the various departments and their rela- 
tion to each other, a few salient points 
may be noted. One of these is the ar- 
rangement of the working spaces so as 
to gain the greatest possible use of the 
natural lighting facilities, while the 
vault, the public space, and other parts 
requiring only artificial light were 
grouped in the center of the plan. An- 
other interesting feature is the arrange- 
ment of the lifts, by which all the depart- 
ments on both floors are placed in easy 
communication, and which greatly in- 
crease the working efficiency of the bank. 
In this building, as in Mr. Boyd's other 
plans, the idea of unit construction has 
been used wherever practicable. The fix- 
tures have been made of standard sizes, 
with interchangeable bases, allowing de- 
partments to expand or to be shifted in 
location with the minimum of inconveni- 
ence and expense. This is a feature fre- 
quently lost sight of in business installa- 
tions, where inferior fittings are often 
used because of a slightly reduced orig- 
inal outlay, which may later be expended 
several times over because of necessary 
changes that could not be foreseen when 
the original arrangement was planned. 

The architectural treatment of the 
banking room is comparatively simple, as 
the bank occupies part of an office build- 
ing, rather than one designed specially 
for its use. A richly coffered plaster ceil- 
ing is the principal feature of interest. 
Apart from this there is little architec- 
tural elaboration, except for the marble 
casing of the walls and columns, and the 
carved counter screen. 

A far more finished interior is that 
of the Guaranty Trust Comoany, of 
which Messrs. York and Sawyer were 
the architects, with the assistance of Mr. 
Boyd for the planning and equipment. 
This institution occupies a building of 
its own, at the southeast corner of Lib- 
erty Street and Broadway, the main en- 
trance being, of course, on the latter 
thoroughfare. The banking room is in- 
dicated on the exterior by a large order 
of columns, on both fronts, those on the 
Broadway front forming a shallow por- 
tico, while on the Libertv Street side the 
columns are engaged. Above this order 
a pilaster treatment is used for the por- 



tion of the building containing offices, but 
this is subordinated to the banking room, 
which is clearly indicated as the main 
feature of the building. 

The exterior is of a light gray granite, 
and the restrained treatment of the dec- 
oration results naturally from the refrac- 
tory nature of this material. The Ionic 
order used is simply handled, and the 
manner in which it is inserted in the 
wall, showing clearly that it is to be con- 
sidered as a decorative feature without 
structural significance, is decidedly sug- 
gestive. The pilaster order above is also 
of interest, for while it is Ionic by its 
proportions and general treatment, the 
capitals, in some respects, suggest rather 
the Corinthian. 

In the interior of the main banking 
room the treatment is lighter, due to the 
employment of marble in the place of 
granite. The floor is of light gray Knox- 
ville, with mosaic inlays whose design 
suggests a Pompeian influence, which is 
to be detected also in the Corinthian col- 
umns, whose capitals are of a type fre- 
quent in Pompeii, although the best- 
known example is that of the Temple of 
Vesta at Tivoli. The treatment of the 
acanthus leaves, however, is decidedly 
different from that of the ancient ex- 
amples. These columns are of Haute- 
ville marble, with an entablature imi- 
tating the same material. The 'walls and 
counters are also of Hauteville, and the 
warm buff color of this material gives a 
more friendly character to the monu- 
mental treatment of the architecture. 
The ceiling is in plaster of a lighter tone, 
with touches of brighter color, and the 
grilles of gold bronze. 

All the interior treatment is most 
sumptuous in character, and the casual 
visitor canot fail to be impressed with 
the wealth of the institution that it 
houses. The architects have inspired 
themselves from many sources. Besides 
the Pompeian suggestion, we find Roman 
motives in the frieze above the columns, 
Italian Renaissance details in the metal 
grilles, while Greek coins have furnished 
the subjects for the carved medallions on 
the main counter. All these elements 
have been handled by the architects with 
the ability that has so long characterized 




BANKING HOUSE OF THE GUARANTY 
TRUST COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 
YORK & SAWYER, ARCHITECTS. 



104 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



105 




BANKING ROOM GUARANTY TRUST COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 
York & Sawyer, Architects. 



them, the whole forming a remarkably 
rich and harmonious ensemble. 

The firm of York and Sawyer have been 
known for years as bank architects, 
though this is but one phase of their 
work. They have probably produced 
more banks than any other architects, 
either American or foreign, and one 
would have expected them long since to 
have exhausted all the possible types of 
bank plans. One is therefore agreeably 
surprised to find in the Guaranty Trust 
Company a type that is altogether new 
in its arrangement. 

The most striking characteristic of the 
plan is its openness. While the total 
width of the interior is over eighty feet, 
and its length about one hundred and 
twenty, with a ceiling height of not less 
than fifty feet, the space enclosed by the 
bronze grille is only thirty feet bv fifty. 
This unusual proportion is due to the 
great development of the officers' space, 
and the relegation to other floors of a 
great part of the bank's functions. The 
officers occupy the front part of the cen- 



tral island, as well as the two platforms 
at the sides, behind the columns, and 
these spaces are quite open, being sur- 
rounded only by a low marble balustrade, 
the only exception being the conference 
room at the rear end of the platform on 
the right, which is enclosed by a grille 
similar to that of the central working 
space. The pylon on the left contains 
the president's private office, as well as 
an elevator and some minor conveni- 
ences ; that on the right contains similar 
accommodation for the vice-president, 
though his office is reduced in size by the 
introduction of a staircase, thus preserv- 
ing due hierarchic proportion. 

The rear portion of the central island, 
enclosed by a bronze screen, contains the 
working space for the money-handling 
departments that come in most direct 
contact with the public. Here are the 
paying and receiving tellers, as well as 
the collection and loan departments. 
The coin lift, situated near the center of 
the island, communicates with the vaults 
in the underground stories, rendering 



106 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN-GUARANTY 
TRUST COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 
YORK & SAWYER, ARCHITECTS. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



107 



COUPON DEPARTMENT 

noooo 



EtqiSTltATION AND STOCK. CQQK.K.tgfrEK.5 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN-GUARANTY 
TRUST COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 
YORK & SAWYER, ARCHITECTS. 



108 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN GUARANTY 
TRUST COMPANY, NEW YORK CITY. 
YORK & SAWYER, ARCHITECTS. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



109 




SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN GUAR- 
ANTY TRUST COMPANY, NEW YORK 
CITY. YORK & SAWYER, ARCHITECTS. 



110 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




DETAIL OF BRONZE SCREEN-BANKING ROOM. GUARANTY TRUST CO., NEW YORK CITY. 

York & Sawyer, Architects. 



them easily accessible to all the services 
here grouped together. In the extreme 
rear of the foor, separated only by a bal- 
ustrade from the public space, we find 
the bond department, portions of which, 
however, are enclosed for greater privacy 
by a light screen which scarcely counts 
in the general effect of the room. 

In the height of the main banking 
room, though not visible from it, three 
mezzanine floors have been arranged. 
The lower two are unimportant, being 
contained entirely in the corner pylons, 
but the third is far more extensive, being 
continued around three sides of the main 
room. It contains space for files and 
archives, as well as a large office for 
stenographers, and is reached by two 
stairs and three elevators. This mezza- 
nine is contained in the height of the 
entablature, the central part of the bank- 
ing room having a full entablature, while 
the aisles are ceiled at a lower level, the 
difference being sufficient for a working 
story. 

Below the main floor is a basement ex- 



tending under the entire building, only a 
small part of which is accessible to the 
public. Here we find the securities de- 
partment, in the extreme rear, and near 
it the purchasing agent, the messengers, 
and the Lamson tube and mailing de- 
partment. The tube system is of great 
importance, as it joins widely separated 
portions of the building, and greatly fa- 
cilitates intercommunication between the 
different departments. 

The basement contains also locker 
rooms, machinery rooms, and the like, as 
well as the vault, whose principal means 
of access is the coin lift from the center 
of the main banking room. This vault 
has walls two feet thick, and is sur- 
rounded by an observation passaee, from 
which all sides of the exterior are visible. 
Near its entrance is an examination room. 
The interior of the vault is divided into 
separate compartments for the different 
parts of the bank. The sub-basement 
contains a similar vault, also divided into 
compartments, each of which forms a 
smaller vault independent of the others. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



Ill 




BANKING HOUSE OF J. P, MORGAN & CO., NEW YORK CITY. 
Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



In the upper stories the functions of 
the bank are continued. The second 
story contains board and conference 
rooms, arranged as a separate unit, and 
reached by the elevator next to the presi- 
dent's office. This floor also contains the 
coupon department, foreign department, 
and bookkeeping department, as well as 
some others of less importance, com- 
municating with the public space, reached 
by the Liberty Street elevator. Adjacent 
to these is the auditing department, in a 
more secluded location, and served fr r the 
elevator on the vice-president's side. 

The third story contains the title de- 
partment, and the remaining floors are 
partly occupied by the bank, and partly 
destined for its future expansion, but 
meanwhile leased as offices. Among the 
services housed here are the bond de- 



partment, telegraphs and telephones, 
kitchens and dining-rooms for the use of 
the staff, machinery, and a special print- 
ing office. 

Throughout the equipment of the 
Guaranty Trust Company the same spirit 
of thoroughness is to be noticed. Noth- 
ing seems to be overlooked. The fixtures 
are planned with the greatest care, every 
department having such special fixtures 
as are necessary to its highest efficiency. 
That the basements are artificially ven- 
tilated goes without saying, but the use 
of this system in the main banking room 
is less evident, the openings to the ven- 
tilating ducts being hidden by the mould- 
ings of the architrave above the columns. 
It is regrettable that the reduction neces- 
sary in making the plans available for 
magazine reproduction precludes the 



112 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




BANKING ROOM-J. P. MORGAN & CO., NEW YORK CITY. 
Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



showing of the details of the equipment, 
as these are scarcely less interesting than 
the general disposition of the layout. 

Another recent work of unquestioned 
interest, in which Mr. Boyd collaborated, 
is the banking house of J. P. Morgan & 
Co., at the corner of Broad and Wall 
Streets. The problem here presented 
was very different, and, in some respects, 
simpler than those discussed above, be- 
cause of the lesser number of banking 
functions to be taken into account. On 
the other hand, the architects, Messrs. 
Trowbridge and Livingston, found them- 
selves confronted with a problem of some 
difficulty in view of the peculiar form of 
the plot, and of the desire to make the 
banking room as large as possible, with- 
out any intermediate supports. In fact, 
as executed, this room includes the entire 
area of the plot, except a small space at 
the rear, in which stairs, elevators, and 
the correspondence department are in- 
cluded, and a still smaller space at the 
front, with the entrance lobby. The ir- 
regular form of this large room has been 



disguised by a very ingenious treatment, 
all the more interesting because of the 
comparative rarity of such problems in 
our American work, and the small num- 
ber of precedents to be found for them. 
The entrance to the building is placed 
at the truncated angle of the two streets, 
a location all the more commendable be- 
cause this corner, if not cut off, would 
have been unpleasantly acute. The bi- 
sector of the angle has been taken as the 
main axis of the decorative treatment. 
The location of a series of rooms along 
the sides of the lot, and the consideration 
of symmetry with reference to this axis, 
have produced a central space, hexagonal 
in plan, and capable of a symmetrical 
handling. This space is enclosed by a 
screen of pink Knoxville marble, with 
panels of openwork bronze grilles backed 
by glass, and columns of Skyros marble. 
Upon the screen is concentrated the rich- 
est ornament of the entire composition. 
It is enriched with elaborate carving, in 
the style of the Italian Renaissance, with 
a frieze, representing Greek and Amen- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



113 




BANKING ROOM-J. P. MORGAN & CO., NEW YORK CITY. 

Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



can Indian mythological subjects, by Mr. 
Charles Keck, one of the best known of 
the younger American sculptors. 

The concentration of interest in .this 
center is further emphasized by the great 
circular skylight almost directly above 
it. The rest of the ceiling is a repeating 
design of hexagonal coffers and circular 
roses, broken only by the large circular 
skylight and a smaller rectangular one in 
the rear. A further device to disguise 
the irregular outline of the walls is the 
omission of an order, its place being 
taken by a system of alternate wide and 
narrow mosaic panels, the latter dec- 
orated with trophies. 

The space within the screen is partly 
occupied by an enclosure for the officers ; 
the remainder is public space, with a mo- 
saic pavement inspired from Florentine 
designs. Four large doors interrupt the 
screen, one of them being the main en- 
trance to the building, and four smaller 
doors give access to the rooms on the 
street fronts. 



The space on the right, as we enter, is 
devoted to offices for the partners, with 
a small ante-room and several confer- 
ence rooms. On the left, beyond two 
small waiting-rooms and the foreign ex- 
change department, one of t>e large 
uoors gives access to the banking space. 
Around this are grouped the compara- 
tively simple facilities for the handling 
of money, connected by stairs and an 
elevator with the basements containing 
the vaults and store-rooms, as well as the 
transfer department, which has a separ- 
ate entrance from Broad Street, whose 
slope makes possible this access at two 
different levels. The space beLw ground 
contains also the usual heating and ven- 
tilating apparatus. The main vault is of 
the highest type of burglar-proof con- 
struction, the principles of its design be- 
ing similar to those already discussed. 

Above the main banking room, the sec- 
ond story contains the private offices of 
the partners and their secretaries, Mr. 
Morgan's office being directly above the 



114 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




First Floor Plan. 



BANKING HOUSE OF J. P. MORGAN. 
& CO., NEW YORK CITY. TROW- 
BR1DGE & LIVINGSTON, ARCHITECTS.. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



\\5 




MR. MORGAN'S PRIVATE OFFICE-BANKING HOUSE OF J. P. MORGAN & CO. 
Trowbridge & Livingston, Architects. 



main entrance to the building-. This con- 
struction, with no interior columns to 
support it from below, gave rise to a 
most complicated engineering problem, 
capable of solution only by the use of 
modern methods of steel construction. 
The third and fourth floors, not visible 
from the street, contain dining-rooms, 
janitor's quarters, and other minor divi- 
sions, as well as a roof-garden at the 
fourth floor level, facing the Stock Ex- 
change. The private offices are panelled in 
oak, the designs being varied according to 
the taste of their occupants. They are 
accessible by an elevator from the ante- 
room to the right of the entrance, that of 
Mr. Morgan having also a private stair- 
case from the waiting-room on the left. 



The stairs and elevator in the rear give 
additional access to these offices, as well 
as to those of the different secretaries. 

The exterior of the building is simple 
in the extreme. There are no columns,, 
and scarcely any carving, excepting on? 
the mouldings of the cornices and the 
mullions between the second-story win- 
dows. The elaborate bronze screen at 
the entrance is the only suggestion of the 
rich interior that appears on the rather 
unassuming fagade, whose whole char- 
acter seems intended to produce an at- 
mosphere of serene reticence, contrast- 
ing vividly with its florid and pretentious 
environment, even as the modest altitude 
of the building differentiates it from the 
surrounding skyscrapers. 




\. 



LOGGIA, WOMEN'S GYMNASIUM-JOHN C. 
PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER, PEORIA. 
ILL. HEWITT & EMERSON, ARCHITECTS. 




VIEW OF SWIMMING POOL COURT AND PLAYGROUNDS JOHN C. PROCTOR RECREATION 

CENTER, PEORIA, ILL. 
Hewitt & Emerson, Architects. 



"UOHN C PROCTOR RECREATION 
CENTER. PEORIA. ILLINOIS 

HEWITT &> EMERSON 
ARCHITECTS 




THE will of the late John C. Proc- 
tor, a life-long resident of Peoria, 
devoted his entire estate, exclud- 
ing a few personal bequests, as a public 
charity to be known as the John C. Proc- 
tor Endowment. A board of seven trus- 
tees was named whose duty it is to care 
for the funds and property, to adminis- 
ter the charities established during his 
life, and to provide, so far as the income 
of the endowment permits, such other 
aids to the welfare of the people of the 
city of Peoria as may suggest them- 
selves. 

Acting on the provisions of the will, 
the trustees projected and established 
the John C. Proctor Recreation Center, 
located in the midst of a great residential 
district occupied largely by people of the 
laboring class. 

The aim of the trustees was to pro- 
vide an institution with every facility for 
furthering the physical, social and moral 



welfare of the community. Men, wom- 
en, boys and girls are provided for, prop- 
erly segregated. 

The ground, 258 feet by 700,bounded by 
city streets on four sides, was purchased 
before the scope of the Center had been 
fully determined. As the problem de- 
veloped, it was found that the ground, 
originally thought ample, was too small. 
This necessitated some restrictions in 
planning and some arrangements which 
might otherwise have been avoided, such 
as the placing of the tennis courts on the 
street front of the field house. 

The problem required the planning of 
an institution, the best examples of which 
were probably to be found in the later 
Centers built by the South Park Com- 
mission in Chicago. Either the commit- 
tee or the architects visited most of the 
more complete and recent institutions of 
the kind in this country; but the general 
scheme adopted was not modelled on any 



118 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



precedent, owing to differing conditions. 
The difference in scale, the fact that the 
scope was to be wider than that of any 
example found, and the shape and size 
of the ground, required original treat- 
ment. The Peoria institution is consid- 
erably smaller than the Chicago institu- 
tions, but covers a wider scope than any 
of them, in that it includes bowling and 
billiards. 

As finally developed, the problem in- 
cluded the fulfilling of the following re- 
quirements : 

Grounds Provision for separate play- 
grounds for (1) small children, (2) girls 
and women, (3) boys and men; to be 
sufficiently separated from one another 
to prevent interference and allow proper 
supervision. The outdoor playgrounds 
were to be as complete and spacious as 
the ground permitted, and equipped with 
provision for the games, play and gym- 
nastic apparatus adapted to each group. 
The grounds were to be provided with 
toilets for both sexes and convenient 
drinking fountains. Shelters, in the 
form of loggias connected with the field 



house and also in the form of separate 
structures, were to be included. 

Building Provision for individual 
baths for both sexes ; gymnasiums, lock- 
er rooms, toilets and showers for both 
sexes ; a large swimming-pool, with its 
dressing rooms and appurtenances. This 
feature was originally intended to be 
housed for use the year round. On in- 
vestigation, it was found that experience 
in similar Centers elsewhere showed that 
a pool was not used enough in cold 
weather to justify the considerable extra 
cost for housing, heating and mainte- 
nance. An auditorium, with stage large 
enough for amateur theatricals, dressing 
rooms, coat rooms, and the like, was to 
be used both for audiences and for so- 
cial affairs and dances. A library and 
reading room, and club rooms, with 
kitchen, bowling alleys, billiard and pool 
rooms were additional features. 

In addition, the building must contain 
a rotunda and office, private offices for 
the director and his assistant ; a laundry, 
a boiler room, space for ventilating ap- 
paratus, store rooms, custodian's room 




ALLEN STREET ENTRANCE JOHN C. PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER, PEORIA, ILL. 
Hewitt & Emerson, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



119 




ALLEN STREET FRONT JOHN C. PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER. 
Hewitt & Emerson, Architects. 



and offices for the physical directors, 
male and female, and apparatus rooms 
in connection with the gymnasiums. 

The problem of planning the building 
was, briefly, to separate the departments 
used exclusively by either sex; to place 
the principal departments used by both 
sexes so as to be available from both the 
male and female sides of the building; 
to segregate the boys from the men and 
the girls from the women as regards 
toilets and locker rooms ; to provide am- 
ple circulation and co-ordinate the vari- 
ous parts ; to so mask the boiler room as 
to make it inconspicuous ; and, finally, to 
provide the maximum of supervision 
with the minimum number of attendants. 

All departments, whether for man, 
woman, boy or girl, are reached directly 
from the rotunda and office. The boys' 
and girls' locker and toilet rooms are in 
the basement and are reached by special 
stairway on either side respectively. 
The gymnasium floors are directly on the 
ground, about midway between the base- 
ment and first-floor levels. This places 
the gymnasiums and exits to the swim- 
ming-pool and playgrounds in proper re- 
lation thereto, and facilitates th relation 



of the boys' and girls' locker rooms with 
the circulation corridors and gym- 
nasiums. 

The swimming-pool approaches are so 
arranged that entrance to the enclosure 
is at one end only, directly in front of 
the shower baths, use of which is re- 
quired before entering the pool. The 
ends of the circulation corridors act as 
waiting places when the crowds in hot 
weather exceed the capacity of the pool. 
The windows allow those waiting to wit- 
ness the sport they are soon to enjoy. 

Among the minor problems were the 
construction of the pool, containing 
about 150,000 gallons of water, the 
plumbing, heating, lighting, ventilating 
and, sanitary arrangements; all of which 
were successfully handled by the archi- 
tects. The water in the pool is heated 
throughout the season to take off the 
chill. The pool can be emptied, cleaned, 
refilled and heated in twelve hours. 

The building is of fireproof construc- 
tion, except the roof. The exterior is 
faced with a gray mat brick in two 
shades, laid in double Flemish bond, a 
light shade double stretcher and a single 
stretcher of the darker shade alternating. 




U hj i 




O U N D 



BA5E BALL DIAMOND 



WADING Pod 



SMALL CHILDREN^' 

PLAYC ROUND 



c i R L 5' 
PLAY G R.OUN D 





SWIMMING POOL LOGGIA JOHN C. 
PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER, PEORIA, 
ILL. HEWITT & EMERSON, ARCHITECTS. 



126 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




BASEMENT AND SECOND FLOOR-JOHN C. 
PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER, PEORIA. 
ILL. HEWITT & EMERSON, ARCHITECTS. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



127 




GENERAL VIEW FROM PLAYGROUNDS 
AND PLAN OF FIRST FLOOR-JOHN C. 
PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER, PEORIA, 
ILL. HEWITT & EMERSON, ARCHITECTS. 



130 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




LOGGIA, WOMEN'S GYMNASIUM JOHN C. PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER, PEORIA, ILL. 

Hewitt & Emerson, Architects. 




SWIMMING POOL COURT-JOHN C. PROCTOR RECREATION CENTER, PEORIA, ILL. 
Hewitt & Emerson, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



131 



The joints are five-eighths inch flush 
joints of natural color cement mortar, 
left with rough texture. Certain trim- 
mings, such as arches, pilasters, and the 
like are entirely of the darker shade 
brick with horizontal joints deeply raked 
out. The stone is buff Indiana limestone. 
The roof covering is of red interlocking 
shingle tile. 

On the interior the architects were 
given practically carte blanch? to use 
materials best fitted for the various pur- 
poses. Terrazzo and marble are used for 
floors, except rooms requiring finished 
oak or maple floors. All bath, toilet and 
locker rooms are of gray Tennessee mar- 
ble and white enamelled brick with cove 
angles. The swimming-pool is lined with 
white tile, with sanitary overflow rim in 
white glazed terra cotta. All exposed 
metal in bath and toilet rooms has been 
reduced to a minimum and is of white 
rnetal. 

The two things kept uppermost in the 



minds : ,pf the architects in designing in- 
terior details of the building were to use 
the most fitting and durable materials in 
the simplest and most cleanable forms 
and to make everything, so far as possi- 
ble, "boy-proof." All pipes, tanks and 
valves in toilets and bathrooms are con- 
cealed in pipe corridors. All fastenings 
and removable parts are so far as possi- 
ble concealed, and all construction is of 
the staunchest. 

Hot, cold and circulation water sup- 
plies for building and grounds are con- 
trolled from the valve pit, convenient of 
access by the engineer by means of a 
tunnel from the boiler room. This tun- 
nel also contains heating mains, water 
service and other pipes. 

The entire grounds are lighted, for 
night use, by means of tungsten clusters 
and outlets on the semi-circular wall 
around the swimming-pool enclosure and 
on the brick posts of the iron fence en- 
closing the grounds. 





DETAIL OF COLONNADE-MON- 
TREAL ART GALLERY E. AND 
W. S. MAXWELL, ARCHITECTS. 




TYPICAL GALLERY SEAT MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 
E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects. 



^MONTREAL ART GALLERY 

E. tf W. S . MAXWELL, ARCHITECTS 
BY THOMAS W.LVDLOW 




THE present building for the Art 
Association of Montreal had its 
inception about four years ago, 
when the Council for the Association 
decided to hold a limited competition for 
the selection of plans for a new gal- 
lery. Three of the leading local archi- 
tectural firms were asked to submit 
schemes on conditions drawn up by the 
late Mr. Edmund M. Wheelwright, who 
was selected as assessor on account of his 
experience with the Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts, and the valuable data col- 
lected by him in this connection was 
placed at the disposal of the competitors. 
Messrs. E. and W. S. Maxwell were ad- 
judged the winners in the competition 
and the erection of the gallery was in- 
trusted to them. 

The site of the new structure on 
Sherbrooke Street, flanked for half a 
mile or more on either side with great 



houses in large terrace gardens, was an 
ideal one for the style selected Neo- 
Classic although there was some criti- 
cism at the time the competition was 
awarded that the severely classical de- 
sign chosen reflected the modern French 
school rather than the purely British 
spirit of the other designs. 

The building is composed on its main 
front of a central colonnade of the Ionic 
order, forming a portico flanked by two 
slightly projecting wings which frankly 
express the internal disposition of the 
exhibition halls a lateral one over the 
entrance, having on either hand smaller 
galleries at right angles to it. The side 
elevation on Ontario Avenue, incomplete 
at the moment, will consist of a composi- 
tion in three parts a central feature and 
two side pavilions joined to the central 
mass by connecting links. The complet- 
ed portions of the main and side facades 



134 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




MAIN FACADE ON SHERBROOKE STREET-MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 
E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects. 




FLOOR PLANS OF THE MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 
E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



135 



are built of blue-white marble from Ver- 
mont; and the base course, entrance 
steps, and coping enclosing the low grass 
terrace surrounding the building are of 
gray granite, which almost matches in 



frieze placed directly under the ceiling 
of the pteroma, to emphasize the top- 
lighted galleries on the main floor. The 
ceiling of the pteroma is deeply coffered 
in the rich traditional manner. The col- 




DETAIL OF MAIN FRONT MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 
E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects. 



color and completely harmonizes with 
the marble above. 

The main entrance is approached by 
a broad flight of steps enclosed between 
pedestals leading up to the colonnade, 
behind which are three arched entrance 
doors. Above these the wall is left plain, 
except for a delicately carved Greek fret 



umns themselves are beautifully cut 
monoliths, considering they are over 
thirty-one feet in height. 

The doorways are treated in the 
straightforward Italian manner with a 
continuous undecorated architrave and 
have no elaboration, excepting the richly 
carved key-blocks that project too far 



136 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




DETAIL OF PAVILION WINDOW-MONTREAL 
ART GALLERY. 

and in consequence have the appearance 
of applied rather than structural orna- 
ment. 

The flanking pavilions are treated in 
the same direct manner as the centra! 
portion, only here the windows lighting 
the lower galleries are framed in by a 
nicely proportioned slightly recessed 
panel. The windows are of the simple 
console or bracket type without cham- 
branles. Above the openings are placed 
sculptured plaques, approximately three 
and one-half feet high by ten feet long, 
rilling out the panels. These plaques are 
carved in white marble in low relief and 
represent the spirit and traditions of 
Classic art. 

The side elevation presents a very in- 
teresting and practical adaptation of 
U-Bar greenhouse construction over the 
studios of the Art School. In employing 
this method of lighting, the architects 
have successfully overcome one of the 
greatest difficulties of using skylights in 
this northern climate the joint on the 
inclined surface that will keep tight un- 
der the varying and trying conditions of 
snow and ice which have to be reckoned 
with for at least five months each year. 

Below the Art School are a series of 



side-lighted exhibition rooms, which are 
adequately expressed on the exterior by 
a row of square-headed windows over 
the side entrance. Although these look 
amply large from the outside, the na- 
tural illumination within these rooms is 
not as good as one would suppose from 
the size of the openings. 

The only decorative feature on the 
lateral front is the well proportioned and 
delicately treated doorv/ay, that is nicely 
combined with the flanking windows into 
a distinctive feature by means of a 
cornice and pilasters. 

The chief features on the ground floor 
are the almost extravagantly commodious 
entrance and stairhalls on both the Sher- 
brooke Street and Ontario Avenue 




MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR MONTREAL ART 
GALLERY. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



137 




DETAIL OF BRONZE GRILLE OVER ENTRANCE DOORS MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 

E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects. 



fronts, an exhibition hall for casts, a 
, lecture hall and three rooms for show- 
ing case objects, two of which, those on 
the right of the main entrance, are being 
used until the completion of the build- 
ing as a library and council room, and 
secretary's office, respectively. - 

The main entrance hall, which is sixty- 
two feet long by twenty-four and one- 
half feet wide, is reached through three 
small vestibules. It is a well propor- 
tioned room, covered with an elliptical 
plaster barrel vault with penetrations. 
The walls and piers of this hall are of 
Botticino marble. This great hall de- 
pends entirely for effect upon its propor- 
tions and upon the color of the marble, 
and the only decoration used, a molded 
band of flowers and fruit forming a 
panel in the plaster vault, seems a trifle 
heavy for the architecture below, and is 
decidedly out of scale with the delicately 
designed and beautifully carved marble 
and alabaster lamp standards which at 
the same time illuminate and are the only 



furnishings in this part of the building. 
The main stairs are reached by ascend- 
ing a few steps from the entrance hall 
and crossing a narrow circulation pas- 
sage. These stairs, as well as all of the 
architecture surrounding them, are of 
Botticino marble treated in the most 
severe manner, without moldings. Here, 
as in the entrance hall, the ceilings of 
the passages surrounding the stair well 
are vaulted in plaster, only in this case 
they are divided into square bays cov- 
ered with groined vaults, excepting the 
compartment immediately in front of the 
stairs, which on account of its greater 
width is covered with a' flat panel. This 
latter treatment, that is, the increased 
width of the central bay, seems to have 
caused the architects trouble on both 
sides of the archway, as on the hall side 
the flatter penetration gives unequal 
warped surfaces. On the stair side a 
very flat oblong groined vault would 
certainly have been more pleasing than 
the flat ceiling and might have sug- 



138 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




ONTARIO AVENUE FRONT-MONTREAL ART 
GALLERY. 

gested another method of artificial light- 
ing than the rather awkward appear- 
ance of the bowl, like those used in side 
passages, but hung in this case without 
the chains. 

To the right and left of the entrance 
hall are two lateral galleries treated in 
a direct and sensible manner without or- 
namentation. The lighting in these 
rooms, both natural and artificial, is ex- 
ceedingly well disposed, and the walls 
are covered with a neutral gray burlap, 
which at the same time affords an ex- 
cellent background and is exceedingly 
restful to the eyes. The gallery to the 
right, temporarily used as the library, 
is shown on page 147. 

The council room, reached from the 
library by going up a few steps, is treat- 
ed and decorated in a similar manner 
to the adjoining room, only here the elec- 
tric fixtures are hung from the under- 
side of the beams instead of from the 



panels, a wrong use aesthetically for 
structural forms even though one knows 
that in present-day construction there is 
ample room for the conduits inside of 
the false beam shell. 

The Ontario Avenue entrance is in- 
tended for the use of the art students 
and the administration. It opens into an 
ample vestibule which gives direct com- 
munication to the offices, stairs to the 
studios, and the transverse sculpture 
gallery. 

Besides the various rooms mentioned 
or described, ample provision is made on 
the ground floor for coat rooms, ticket 
offices, shafts for both passenger and 
freight elevators and other accessories, 
skillfully arranged in inconspicuous 
places, but accessible from the point of 
administration. 

The main stairs from the ground to 
the chief exhibition floor lead from the 
entrance hall in straight easy runs with 
ample landings into a spacious top-light- 
ed gallery. Generous as this space is, 
sixty-six feet long by twenty-nine and 
one-half feet wide, the proportions and 
handling of the stairs are so fine that 
one is met on ascending with a sense of 
disappointment to find them blocked, so 
to speak, by a wall instead of a vista 
of galleries or, at least, some striking 
architectural feature on the axis. 

The stairwell is flanked on either side 
by exhibition passages twelve feet wide, 
which give access to the main gallery. 
On the well side of these passages there 
are Doric colonnades of Botticino mar- 
ble that support the superstructure of 
the roof. The capitals and bases of these 
columns are of bronze, as is also the 
handrail between them. The walls on 
the opposite side of the passages are un- 
broken for exhibition purposes, the 
colonnade being recalled at the corners 
only by pilasters. 

The main gallery over the entrance 
hall and vestibule and the flanking side 
galleries are rooms of considerable size, 
being sixty-three feet long by thirty- 
three feet wide and sixty and one-half 
feet long by thirty-one feet wide, re- 
spectively. These rooms are top-light- 
ed, the skylights filling the whole of the 
ceiling, except for a deep coved cornice. 




DETAIL OF ENTRANCE ON ONTARIO 
AVENUE-MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 
E. AND VV. S. MAXWELL, ARCHITECTS. 




MARBLE AND ALABASTER LAMP STAND- 
ARDSMONTREAL ART GALLERY. K. 
AND W. S. MAXWELL. ARCHITECT! 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



141 






DOORWAY TO EXHIBITION GALLER- 
IES-MONTREAL ART GALLERY. E. 
AND W. S. MAXWELL, ARCHITECTS. 




PASSAGE AND COLONNADE FLANKING MAIN 
STAIR WELL MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 
E. AND W. S. MAXWELL, ARCHITECTS. 



144 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




MAIN EXHIBITION GALLERY- MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 

E. and \V. S. Maxwell, Architects. 




TYPICAL EXHIBITION GALLERY-MONTREAL ART GALLERY 
E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects 




< 5 

e>G 

*v 

H 



. 

< J 
W <-) 

w 



146 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



This arrangement has two advantages; 
first, the glass area is sufficient to give 
excellent lighting to the pictures and, 
secondly, it leaves large uninterrupted 
wall spaces, which are so important in a 
structure of this kind. 

There is no pretense of any architec- 
tural treatment in the galleries them- 
selves ; the only decorative notes are the 
brocades, old rose or light green, which 
are hung on the walls, and the door 
trim, which is treated like a great picture 
frame. The colored brocade wall cov- 
erings above mentioned were put on at 
the instigation of ^^^^^^ 
the building commit- 
tee with the idea of 
imparting a home- 
like appearance to 
the galleries and has 
always proven a dis- 
appointment, because 
the pattern and the 
color of the material 
detract from the pic- 
tures, and in a gal- 
lery where the pic- 
tures are constantly 
changed, the perma- 
nent collection being 
taken down several 
times a year to make 
room for special ex- 
hibitions, the walls 
have become patchy 
from uneven fad- 
ing. This, however, 
is soon to be ob- 
viated, as a neutral 
tinted burlap is to 
replace the brocade 
as a wall covering. 

Continuing the circuit, there are three 
side-lighted galleries on the Ontario Ave- 
nue front of the building. These rooms, 
on account of the Art School above them, 
are considerably lower than the main 
galleries. They are also less satisfac- 
tory from a point of view of illumina- 
tion, the ceilings not being high enough 
to admit sufficient natural light for the 
depth of the rooms, and the artificial 
light, besides being insufficient as to 
volume, is poorly placed, the alabaster 
bowl being hung from the underside of 




the beams; and the light supposed to 
be reflected by the ceiling, from the de- 
sign of the fixtures, is broken up and 
lost almost entirely by the sides of the 
beams. 

The Art School on the top floor is 
splendidly arranged, both as to light and 
convenience, and consists of three large 
top-lighted studios, two for cast draw- 
ing and one for life work, with the neces- 
sary toilet accommodations for men and 
women students, storage space, and the 
like. The walls in this portion of the 
building are all covered with neutral 
tinted burlap, which 
affords the best 
possible background 
for all objects of 
art. 

The major part of 
the basement is 
devoted to the ap- 
paratus for heating, 
ventilating, and vac- 
uum cleaning ; the 
rest of the space is 
devoted to a large 
modeling room in 
connection with the 
Art School, a lunch 
room for the stud- 
ents, ample janitor's 
quarters, public lava- 
tories and storage. 

Particular atten- 
tion should be paid 
to the finely designed 
and beautifully exe- 
cuted bronze work 
used where occa- 
sion demands in the 
different parts of 

the building. The grilles over the entrance 
doors typify the arts by means of a small 
figure supported by acanthus scrolls; 
the grilles themselves are of an open 
design, in order that light may penetrate 
the vestibules and entrance hall when the 
doors below them are closed. The 
newels and hand-rail of the main stairs 
are a splendid combination of wrought 
and cast forms in bronze ; the designs 
have a distinctly metal character and are 
well proportioned to the space which 
thev have to fill. 



BRONZE NEWEL AND HANDRAIL- 
MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



147 



COUNCIL ROOM MONTREAL ART GALLERY 
E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects. 




LIBRARY ON GROUND FLOOR MONTREAL ART GALLERY. 
E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



The furniture, also designed by the 
architects, shows a simplicity and dig- 
nity that make it harmonize with the 
architecture about it. The table in the 
gallery at the head of the main stairs is a 
rich and pleasing 'Renaissance design; 
the gallery seat shown on page 133 
"is severe in its straight classical lines 
that are relieved from monotony by 
charming bits of decorations on the 
supporting standards and back. The 



furniture throughout is of oak with a 
natural flat oil" finish to match the archi- 
traves, doors and the little other wood- 
work found in the building. 

In conclusion, the Montreal Art Gal- 
lery is a carefully designed, well thought 
out, and finely executed piece of work, 
which, notwithstanding the criticisms in 
the preceding paragraphs, is a worthy 
monument and one that should serve as 
an inspiration to those who study it. 




DETAIL OF BRONZE HANDRAIL MONTREAL ART GALLERY 
E. and W. S. Maxwell, Architects. 




THE ARCHITECTS PART 
IN THE WORLD'S WORK 

AN ADDRESS BY 
FREDERICK- L ACKERMAN 



IN giving this talk before 
the students and the fac- 
ulty of the College of Ar- 
chitecture of Cornell Univer- 
sity, I had in mind to awaken 
in the students an interest in a phase of 
our work which is given but scant con- 
sideration in our schools to open for 
discussion the need of a material revision 
of school curricula in harmony with the 
efforts of the American Institute of Ar- 
chitects, the Beaux-Arts Society, and 
similar bodies, for the furtherance of 
educational facilities both within our 
schools and during the years immediately 
following graduation. The question is 
this : Are we devoting any serious effort 
in the' direction of showing students 
clearly the need of a greater degree of 
co-ordinated effort with civic, State and 
national bodies whose aims are directed 
toward developing a better physical con- 
dition within our communities? What 
are we doing to instill in their minds the 
idea that it is through voluntary and un- 
remunerative service on the part of the 
architect that we can approach, within a 
reasonable degree of attainment, our 
ideals, both aesthetic and utilitarian ? Do 
we in any way prepare them for this 
service which is of right demanded of 
them by the communities when they en- 
ter upon their life work and accept the 
responsibilities of citizenship? Do we 
open their eyes to the fact that it is alone 
through this voluntary service, the giving 
of time and energy to community prob- 
lems, that we can provide the conditions 
through which there may be developed a 
vital, indigenous architecture, expressive 
of democracy? 

These questions are not the 
result of speculation but, in- 
stead, have been suggested by 
talks with students and recent 
graduates of our schools, 






which it was made clear that 
they did not understand or 
even hold the vaguest con- 
ception concerning the re- 
lation of their work to the 
problems of the community at large. 

AFTER GRADUATION. 

After leaving the school the draughts- 
man passes through an apprenticeship 
of some years of office practice. Dur- 
ing this period his horizon is limited 
in most cases by the office in whicb 
he works ; he rarely comes into close 
personal contact with the clients ; he 
is not interested personally in the 
community problems, because we have 
developed in him an attitude of self-com- 
placency. He is not made aware of the 
efforts of our own professional bodies to- 
ward developing and maintaining higher 
ethical standards in the profession and 
toward the improvement of community 
conditions related to our work. He is 
left unconscious of this through lack of 
effort on our part to better acquaint him 
with the nature of the problems and the 
methods of solving them. We do little 
to stimulate in him a desire to aid in the 
solution of these problems, and still less 
to awaken in him a greater appreciation 
of his responsibility toward the com- 
munity in which he lives. 

We do little, indeed, to instruct him in 
the complicated processes by which we 
translate, through the efforts of our so- 
cieties, our ideals into actual conditions. 
We do still less toward showing him the 
methods through which our ideals and the 
vague aspirations of our people can be 
translated into laws and ordinances pro- 
viding the conditions which 
will permit us to express, 
in terms of steel and stone, 
a vital, living architecture 
in of our own time and country. 




150 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





I have not been 
so long away 
from the school 
that it is at all 
difficult for me 
to recall distinctly the ideas and the ambi- 
tions which I possessed when I was a 
student like yourselves. The times have 
changed somewhat during the intervening 
period of years, but the change has not 
been so great as to warrant me in as- 
suming that you now possess a different 
set of ideas or entertain other ambitions. 

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESENT AND 
PAST CONDITIONS. 

The scope of your work has broad- 
ened ; the efficiency of those directing 
your work has greatly increased ; and 
your powers, therefore, I assume are 
greater. My case is somewhat different. 
A number of years ago I left this school 
with its traditions and went out into the 
world of practice, and with me I took a 
certain definite idealism, such as you pos- 
sess today. I have seen that change 
from year to year in contact with the 
world as opportunities for service were 
opened to me ; I have seen that idealism 
grow, and I now bring the result to you. 

Today I shall not talk at any length 
about the past, and I shall use the pres- 
ent only as an example. The future with 
its infinite possibilities, your opportuni- 
ties, and the part you should play in the 
world's work, is the subject of my talk. 

WHAT DOES ARCHITECTURE MEAN? 

I shall throughout use the term "archi- 
tecture" in a broad sense and I want you 
to conceive that term as embracing and 
including all that is generally associated 
with the term "art" as applied to painting 
and sculpture. In truth, the two latter 
elements are but parts when we conceive 
architecture as the physical expression of 
a civilization. 

I shall not attempt to 
define the term "archi- 
tecture" nor the term 
"art." Definitions are 
but relative. I want you 
to think of architecture 




in a much broader sense than is our cus- 
tom. Consider the term, eliminating en- 
tirely from your mind the ideas so gen- 
erally associated with the words "art and 
beauty." Think of architecture as an 
expression of conditions, the resultant of 
complex forces. Architecture may be a 
beautiful or it may be an ugly expression. 
Whether or not the term "art" presup- 
poses an element of beauty contained, 
matters little. We surely all recognize 
the fact that "architecture" is sometimes 
inexpressibly ugly. 

I am not going to consider with you or 
discuss the relative beauty of different 
architectural expressions of the day; that 
enters into your day's work. I shall not 
consider with you the adaptability of cer- 
tain styles of architecture to present con- 
ditions ; that is an academic question. I 
shall not attempt to compare what we are 
doing today with the effort of the past; 
that again concerns the work of the 
school. As I have said, my topic con- 
cerns the future, and it shall be my en- 
deavor to awaken in you a broader con- 
ception of the great problems before you 
than 1 possessed when I left the school. 

HOW SHALL WE ATTAIN OUR IDEALS? 

My purpose is not to change the nature 
of your idealism; my object is to point 
out to you the absolute necessity for your 
performing certain acts and sharing indi- 
vidually certain responsibilities which I 
shall discuss with you, for it is through 
such acts alone that you will be able to 
turn your idealism, a shadow form itself, 
into definite realities. 

We have not lacked, nor do we now 
lack, idealism. That we have been ut- 
terly impotent to create beautiful or even 
utilitarian cities does not prove that our 
idealism is at fault. I suggest, however, 
that we do not individually, or as a body, 
understand the nature of the processes 
necessary to a fruition of our ideals. We 
must, stoop to conquer. 

What is the relation of 
the architect to his ideals, 
to his own work, and to 
the age in which he 
lives? W r hat are the 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



151 




methods whereby he may be able to in- 
terpret the age in which he lives and to 
mould it, and, in turn, express not only 
what is best in himself but the best that 
is in his age as well? .Upon this latter 
phase of his work I wish to lay particular 
emphasis, for it will become in later 
years, if you are serious in your en- 
deavor, the subject of your greater inter- 
est. It is my wish to make it the sub- 
ject of your most serious consideration 
now. 

We are all too apt to think only of the 
problem at hand. We look forward to 
that time when we shall be given impor- 
tant commissions to execute and our as- 
sumption is that we shall then proceed 
to execute them, depending upon our own 
individual ability and our imagination to 
find the proper solution. We have not 
fully awakened to the reality, to the fact 
that in many phases of our work the sur- 
rounding conditions are such that a good 
solution of the problem is utterly im- 
possible. 

There are certain structures, such as 
isolated buildings, country houses and 
the like, in which this thought does not 
apply; but in the vast majority of cases 
there are conditions which prohibit the 
working out of our ideals. In the prob- 
lem of the country house, if the needs be 
well defined, if the program of require- 
ments be reasonable, it becomes a matter 
of individual effort on our part ; and the 
result is a measure of our ability to de- 
sign, to influence the client in the right 
direction, and to exercise that all-impor- 
tant quality executive ability. If, how- 
ever, the problem be of another class, viz., 
any of the structures found in our cities 
or the plan and arrangement of the cities 
themselves, we find that we are confront- 
ed with quite a different question. There 
are on every hand unnatural conditions 
which hamper and restrict us. We are 
brought face to face with 
that accumulation of 
conditions which is but 
the product of badly- 
governed municipali- 
ties. 





These accumu- 
lated conditions 
of the past, 
wrought into 
precedent, hab- 
its, laws and ordinances, are just as much 
a part of your program when you have to 
design a structure within our cities as are 
the physical and aesthetic requirements 
imposed by the owner. If these attend- 
ing conditions are unfortunate, if the laws 
and ordinances governing building be not 
logical and reasonable, if all of these be 
the result of makeshift and temporary 
methods, we remain impotent to create 
the ideals toward which we have directed 
our study for many years. 

THE TANGLE LEFT US BY THE PAST. 

What is our relation to these attend- 
ing conditions, to our practice and to 
the conditions themselves? I shall con- 
fine myself almost entirely to the mu- 
nicipal problem, for it is in the cities that 
most of us must live and labor because of 
the nature of our calling. 

Let me quote a paragraph from Walter 
Weyl's "The New Democracy." In the 
chapter wherein he traces the growth of 
the many interests which have brought 
about the present political, social, econo- 
mic and moral conditions he says : "Like 
the continent, the city has been scarred by 
the same waste and pre-emption, and the 
same insensate optimism, the same utter 
lack of prevision. Cities destined to be 
the homes of multitudes have grown up 
with the abandon of petty villages. 
Streets have been made narrow; parks 
have been forgotten; houses had been 
built upon the theory of packing-boxes; 
drainage, water supply, fire protection 
everything had been left to chance and 
the play of the instinct for gain. The 
theory of the American city was that of 
the pioneer's camp. People were there 
for business. Their living conditions 
must work out them- 
selves." This is a fair 
and a just statement of 
the conditions surround- 
ing our work in the 
cities of America todav. 



152 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





These are the 
conditions which 
will con front you 
upon entering 
the field of prac- 
tice. They will stand as a Chinese wall 
about your idealism and imagination. 

Let us pause and take stock, as it 
were, of these unfortunate conditions. 
Out of suJi an analysis we may find th" 
key to this exceedingly difficult problem. 
It is our problem first to understand 
clearly the aims and activities of the gen- 
eral public of which we are a part ; we 
must also understand the complex social, 
political and economic structure of our 
civilization, municipal, State and nation- 
al, if we are to be a factor in finding the 
remedy. Moreover, it is the duty of the 
architect to know these things, for it is 
his task to mould and unite these ex- 
ceedingly diverse elements into a sim- 
ple unit. He must lead through greater 
knowledge than that of his fellow man ; 
at the same time l>e must follow. He 
must be able to analyze the individual : 
must be able also to analyze the power- 
ful undercurrents of his time before he 
can either express the civilization in 
which he lives or express even himself. 

Till-: ONLY SOURCE OF ART. 

Any art must be an unconscious ex- 
pression of its cause ; a great art can only 
be produced through strong, positive 
forces demanding that art. To say that 
an art is bad is saying that art does not 
exist at a given time and place ; and it is 
likewise true that a vast amount of artis- 
tic activity, so-called, may go on, produc- 
ing nothing, simply because there may be 
no demand for that particular form of 
expression at that particular time. 
Genius is not individual, but it is an in- 
dividual expression of what time has ac- 
cumulated in the minds of men ; and there 
has never existed a genius both out of 
time and place. Beware 
of those who would walk 
only in the paths of the 
past as well as of those 
who would work ages 
ahead of their time. 




Returning to the statement quoted, this 
is the sort of expression that comes with 
an awakening, and we already see in 
every branch of governmental activity 
the acceptance of a broader policy. As 
yet, however, we have achieved compara- 
tively little, and particularly is this true 
in all of those conditions with which we 
are brought into close contact in our 
work. The public as well as ourselves are 
vainly groping for better physical condi- 
tions within our cities, but as yet the 
effort amounts to but little, owing to the 
nature of the endeavor rather than the 
amount of work done. 

THE LACK OF CO-ORDINATION. 

There are many groups of citizens 
working for the same end, but their ef- 
forts lack co-ordination and are therefore 
void of any great effect. Our architect- 
ural societies throughout the country 
have been very active. The members of 
our societies have striven hard and have 
worked with enthusiasm, but their effort 
has lacked one fundamental qualitv that 
must needs be found in such an endeavor 
if we are to be reasonably sure of suc- 
cess we have not taken the people into 
our confidence in regard to the nature of 
the work which we have been doing. If we 
have desired more progressive legislation 
in questions involving Federal competi- 
tions or a better plan for our capital city 
of Washington, or if we have desired 
better tenement house laws or better fac- 
tory regulations or a more reasonable 
building code, we have simply gone to the 
committees of Congress, or to our State 
Legislatures, or to the Board of Alder- 
men in our cities. 

We have not shown through our past 
efforts that we understand the nature of 
our own problem, for it does not appear 
that we have yet grasped the fundamental 
idea that it is alone from the people them- 
selves that the initiative must come which 
will, in its turn, produce 
the conditions and cre- 
ate the laws through 
which our ideals may 
in the end find expres- 
sion. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



1.53 




We have not taken the issues to the 
people with a plain statement of what we 
desire so that they might bring pressure 
to bear upon their representatives. We 
have made the error of allowing the rank 
and file of the people to see only our art- 
istic side. We have talked too early about 
the "City Beautiful" ; we have not put 
due weight upon the fact that our aim is 
first to create the "City of Common 
Sense." We have not considered with 
them the penalty which we are to pay for 
our present slipshod methods. 

THE REAL PROBLEM IN ALL ITS ASPECTS. 

Our American cities are confronted 
with a grave problem, a problem so seri- 
ous, so generally acknowledged, that the 
people would respond to our call if we 
would but point the way in terms ex- 
pressive of utility and economy as well 
as of beauty. They know well enough 
that the conditions are bad ; they have a 
vague idea of why they are bad, but they 
do not know the remedy to apply. In 
some of our cities the time is approach- 
ing when any effort on the part of its citi- 
zens will be in the nature of locking the 
barn door after the horse has been stolen. 

As a result of the wonderful advance 
made in the art of construction during 
the last quarter century, we have a con- 
dition in our cities today that absolutely 
and utterly upsets all of the old traditions 
and customs regarding not only the plan 
of the city but the laws governing the 
erection of buildings therein. No longer 
do the old relations and harmony between 
the width of street, the size of block, the 
restricted area for light and air within 
the block, the height of building upon 
the street no longer do these relations 
of harmony hold. There was a certain 
harmony between these relations which 
came as a result of years of evolution. 
This harmony was reasonable and in the 
course of time became precedent and 
later was acknowledged 
in our statutes and laws. 
In this old relation there 
was a certain perma- 
nence of value estab- 
lished through the limi- 





tations of the 
strength of ma- 
terials. 

It is this idea 
that has created 
the present congested condition within our 
cities. The complete change from masonry 
to steel, when confined to a single building, 
was a step in the evolution of building, 
but when applied to a whole city it was 
more in the nature of a revolution. With- 
in the structure itself our laws acknowl- 
edged this evolution, but within the city 
as a whole they did not. Streets that were 
wide became narrow in comparison. The 
streets which cared for the daily crowds 
with ease have now become packed to a 
degree that is intolerable. 

I have spoken of the "City Beautiful" 
and the "City of Common Sense." In 
passing let me say : Do not lose sight of 
the fact that all the buildings erected 
within our cities are built not because of 
any desire on the part of the owner to 
make something beautiful, but rather 
from considerations purely commercial 
and economic ; that as an architect you 
are bound to satisfy his desire within the 
limitations of your own ability, on the one 
hand, and the laws and ordinances, on the 
other; that you cannot work out in a 
single problem any of your general ideals. 
Keep in mind that the people today will 
not listen to nor favor any attempt upon 
your part to provide the aesthetic alone, 
but they will accept it, and accept it glad- 
ly, if you can show them that it will come 
as the result of better economic condi- 
tions. Your measure will be taken more 
often by this standard than any other. 

HOW THE PRESENT LAWS HINDER A 
CONSISTENT EXPRESSION. 

Beyond the questions of economic con- 
struction, we have in our cities as a 
framework for all of our problems cer- 
tain definite building laws that are as 
much a part of the pro- 
gram as the physical re- 
quirements. These laws 
have come to us through 
a very gradual and re- 
tarded process of evolu- 



154 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




tion of many 
years, and they 
are so inwrought 
into the life and 
structure of a 
city that not only the public but we 
ourselves accept them as a perfect- 
ly natural condition, an established 
precedent. The primary object of 
these laws is one of safeguarding in- 
dividual rights and providing general wel- 
fare, but exactly like all instruments of 
similar nature, these laws have not kept 
pace with the remarkable advance of con- 
struction or social welfare of the last 
quarter-century. In these laws we have 
not acknowledged the advance of the new 
democracy, the awakening of this nation 
to a sense of greater moral and social re- 
sponsibility or the crying need of a policy 
of conservation within our cities. 

In our cities throughout the length 
and breadth of our land these laws do 
not insure the proper light and air for 
our streets, for the restricted area within 
the block, or for the rooms within the 
buildings. \Ye have towering buildings 
of fifty stories in height upon streets 
sixty feet in width. We have lofts and 
factories rising ten, fifteen and twenty 
stories in height with so little light and 
air at the bottom of the open courts pro- 
vided at the side or the rear that we shall 
soon be brought face to face with the old 
conditions of the sweat shop if we con- 
tinue to allow the erection of these build- 
ings under the present conditions. \Ye 
have apartment houses rising to an un- 
limited height and covering so large a 
percentage of the lot that, where the 
block has been completely built up, there 
remains little light and air for the rooms 
facing upon the courts or open spaces 
within. This can be characterized by no 
other terms than plain stupidity on the 
part either of the city or 
of the individual own- 
ers, for all that area 
within the block has lit- 
tle earning power com- 
pared with what it might 




earn were the laws and ordinances so 
designed as to prohibit building over so 
large an area. If the city permits this 
condition to continue, it is only a matter 
of time when we may again characterize 
the period as the Dark Ages. 

THE STUPIDITY OF OUR PRESENT METHOD 
OF BUILDING CITIES. 

I have said this was stupid on the part 
of the city and also on the part of the 
owner. The condition comes about 
through the activities of promoters who 
select a portion of the city wherein small 
buildings only exist ; they erect there a 
tall loft, office building or apartment 
house, utilizing every inch of space al- 
lowed within the law, fill it with tenants 
and sell. The purchaser, an individual 
oft-times who does not look to the fu- 
ture, sees only the excellent income from 
the building and does not consider the 
fact that when his neighbors build in like 
manner they will take from him a large 
proportion of his own property, which 
means that in the end his property will 
not only shrink in its earning capacity 
but will also depreciate in value. This 
is not all. It leaves his property for a 
cheaper class of tenants employing a 
cheaper class of labor, and we have as a 
result an anxious landlord and a great 
number of employees laboring in the 
semi-darkness. 

This method of building our cities is 
foolish and stupid, for it results in an 
endless shifting and changing of the 
many groups of interest and a constant 
condition of uncertainty as regards char- 
acter of locality and land values. More- 
over, when we consider that we are ad- 
vancing in our ideas of industrial jus- 
tice and social welfare, it is pertinent to 
ask whether such a stupid policy will 
not ultimately end in a serious deprecia- 
tion of property, such as we already see 
, in certain sections of our 

cities . filled with old- 
fashioned tenements, of- 
fice buildings, lofts and 
factories. This method 
is not economical. By 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD 



155 




this method of building we have ren- 
dered it practically impossible to get any 
commensurate value from a great num- 
ber of lots which are surrounded by 
these buildings of great height, which 
have shut off their neighbors from light 
and air, elements to which they have 
as fundamental a right as they have to 
the land itself. 

If the owners of these tall buildings 
were made to pay their proper share of 
the construction of transit facilities ne- 
cessitated by their erection and necessary 
to maintain the value of the property, 
there would be less exploitation along 
that line of -development. 

THE ELEMENT OF FIRE DANGER. 

Beyond providing for the proper 
amount of light and air for the workers 
in factories and offices and for the dwell- 
ers in tenements, we have the question of 
protection from fire to consider. In this 
same connection should be considered all 
of the great class of other buildings, such 
as department stores, theatres, and build- 
ings of public assemblage. In our laws, 
as now framed, a proper protection has 
not been provided, because light and air 
have not been conserved. 

The violation against human rights in 
this particular is flagrant in our lofts 
and department stores. Up to the present 
we have been allowed to build over vast 
areas structures which not only pro- 
vide insufficient means of exit in the 
case of fire, but which allow the fire to 
spread easily and with great rapidity over 
the entire area of building, and from the 
basement to the roof. 

THE SUGGESTED REMEDY. 

, I have made note of but a few impor- 
tant points wherein our laws are at fault, 
where they do not recognize the prin- 
ciples of economy, utility or beauty in 
building our cities. Before suggesting 
definite remedial meas- 
ures I wish to consider 
the relation of the law 
and ordinance to art. 
They are closely relat- 
ed, in fact, they are so 





closely related 
that you cannot 
separate them ; 
one is dependent 
upon the other. 
Through a knowledge of the state 
of one you can easily tell what is 
the state or condition of the other. 
I hope you will consider well this 
thought ; it is alone through its recogni- 
tion that we can advance. Look at our 
cities, the product of what we consider 
a great civilization. What is there in 
the scheme of things to inspire the ar- 
chitect to create, to invent, just so long 
as there exists as the framework of it 
all our stupid ideas regarding the con- 
servation of our resources, light and air, 
or our even more stupid ideas concerning 
the economic use of the city block, or 
our utter misconception of the relation 
between individual and community right ? 
I tell you that, so far as our art is con- 
cerned, we are working without a foun- 
dation just so long as we accept these 
relations without vigorous protest. 

From my point of view it matters lit- 
tle indeed how we adorn or drape our 
steel frames, what masks we place upon 
them, just so long as there exist in our 
cities the conditions which we see at 
present. The conditions of our program 
are : A facade rising hundreds of feet, 
forming the wall of a narrow canyon, be- 
hind which we are to provide for thou- 
sands of workers, and of these nearly 
half spending their days behind windows 
opening upon narrow light wells, hun- 
dreds of feet deep, into which the sun 
never shines and where the phrase "light 
of day" would seem but a mockery. I 
ask you, before I proceed, what power of 
imagination could make of such condi- 
tions the inspiration for a work of art? 
Before going further with remedies 
I wish to emphasize 
that, while these sugges- 
tions may appeal to you 
as being the obvious 
remedy, it is not so with 
the majority of our peo- 



1515 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





pie. In the way 
of all reform 
measures stands 
indifference and 
a gross miscon- 
ception of the relation of individual and 
community rights. In giving to the in- 
dividual almost unlimited rights, we 
have thought that he would thereby be 
benefited. As this has worked out, it 
has resulted in quite the opposite. The 
rights of the community must be domi- 
nant, else the individual will suffer. 

/.ONES. 

Now, of the schemes, one is that we 
divide the city into sections, divisions, 
or /ones, restricting each in such a way 
that it will be advantageous to build only 
one class of building therein, and of 
course, in this limitation definitely de- 
fining the maximum height upon the 
street and the size of enclosed restricted 
area within the block in such a way that 
there will always be ample light and air 
for all rooms. 

Needless to say, such a limitation 
should not only concern itself with the 
nature of the occupancy, but it should 
also be so constructed that the frightful 
congestion of some of our streets, such 
as obtains today in many parts of our 
larger cities, would not be possible. 

The suggestion of segregation appeals 
to me more forcibly than any other, for 
it seems to be of broader scope. It is in 
the nature of a real city plan, which has 
through years of development been over- 
looked. It would tend toward more per- 
manent land values, a steadying appre- 
ciation of values, and toward the erection 
of a better and more permanent class of 
buildings. Lastly, it would tend also to- 
ward a greater uniformity of architectur- 
al treatment within certain well defined 
zones. 

This is exactly what we would do if 
we were writing a pro- 
gram for a new city, as 
was done in the compe- 
tition for a new capital 
city in Australia ; it is 
what is being done in 




many of the cities of Europe, and par- 
ticularly in Germany, where the people 
seem to have awakened to the need of a 
broader conception concerning the pos- 
sibilities of our cities, both as commer- 
cial centers and as places in which we 
must live. 

TENEMENT LAWS. 

Our tenement laws are of the most 
vital importance, for upon the proper 
housing of our working classes depends 
in a very large measure our future eco- 
nomic success. Great strides have been 
made during the last twenty years ; better 
laws have been framed ; better conditions 
have resulted. The solution of this prob- 
lem is not as yet at hand. We must pro- 
vide that there will be cheap land upon 
which these may be built. We must pro- 
vide a law that allows the most inexpen- 
sive fireproof construction possible. AH 
of the elements must be so arranged that 
the occupant can live in a fireproof, sani- 
tary structure which pays the owner a 
good return. There are many groups of 
citizens laboring upon the problem today, 
but the difficulties are such that only 
through the most conscientious effort 
may we expect to find a solution. 

These are but a few of the many sug- 
gestions. Together their name is legion, 
but I hope that I have pointed out enough 
for you to see, in view of what I said 
in the beginning, that there are attend- 
ing conditions which dominate your abil- 
ity to create and design. 

Again I state, it is not pertinent for us 
to argue too long or too earnestly over 
the form and nature of structural ex- 
pression where there are fundamental 
questions, such as I have pointed out to 
you, still to solve. 

If our laws governing the erection of 
tall buildings were such that we could 
erect these tall buildings, never 
encroaching upon our neighbors' light 
and air, nor congesting 
our streets, nor jeopard- 
izing the light of those 
who dwell or work 
therein, then I would 
say that we could right- 






THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



187 



U 



fully consider seriously all these ques- 
tions of structural expression. As it 
stands, such argument and discussion are 
but a waste of time, for while we might 
be able to make our new city interesting, 
the very fact that it is not sound eco- 
nomically or built with a proper consid- 
eration of conservation makes the idea 
that it may be beautiful an absurd as- 
sumption. 

THE DANGER OF CONSIDERING ONLY THE 
SINGLE PROBLEM. 

The major part of your time and the 
greatest interest in your endeavor centers 
around specific and definite problems hav- 
ing both paper programs and paper lim- 
itations. Through the constant exercise 
of certain faculties in your endeavor to 
solve your problems, and the repeated 
application of certain principles which 
you are taught in the school, you grow 
gradually to feel that architecture is close- 
ly related to an abstruse science and also 
that the art which is therein can only 
appear as. resultant of your own person- 
ality. Always it is the single problem 
which engages your attention, and there- 
fore the building or the group of build- 
ings becomes a measure, as it were, of its 
designer.. Its plan appears to be the re- 
sult of his ingenuity, its character and 
expression the result of his cleverness. 

Your whole training keeps your mind 
well within certain limitations/ Your in- 
spiration comes through a study of the 
results of conditions and not from condi- 
tions themselves ; you learn to make use 
of elements which you find in books and 
to vary these elements to meet and satisfy 
certain fixed conditions imposed upon 
you, with the result that you grow natur- 
ally to look upon architecture as a per- 
sonal achievement, simply the result of 
individual effort applied to a particular 
problem rather than, as I suggested be- 
fore, an expression of 
constantly changing 
forces. 

You try, and you use 
our own terms, to define 
an architecture expres- 





sive of our day, 

and you conclude 

that we have 

failed ; but when 

you try to put 

into words your vague ideas of what it 

should be, or to create with your pencil 

an image which will express the thing 

after which you are groping, the result 

on the one hand is simply words, and on 

the other a graphic imitation of an old 

form. 

Coming fresh from school, with its as- 
sociations, its traditions and the material 
in the library, you realize, as do we all, 
that there is a vast amount of ugliness 
in the world today, and it is easy for you 
to attribute this to an utten lack of taste 
on the part of our people. You straight- 
away divide our people into two divis- 
ions : We, the architects, the artists, and 
they, the great mass of people of all 
classes who should be taught to under- 
stand. You see before you the problem 
and you say "we must educate them," 
and your method is this : You would 
gradually educate them by example, 
showing them beautiful designs and com- 
positions of your own standard of art 
and beauty, designs which you would 
evolve from your minds in the studio. 

THE DIRECTION IN WHICH WE MUST GO. 

In conclusion let me suggest that if a 
remedy is to be found for these condi- 
tions much depends upon you. I take it 
for granted that each of you desires the 
better conditions suggested, and I say this 
to you : Better conditions will obtain, 
your ideals will be satisfied, and you will 
be responsible for better conditions just 
in proportion as you exercise the powers 
and perform the duties of citizenship in 
your community. You may indulge in 
flights of fancy if you like, but do not 
forget the fact that it is through the exer- 
ciseofthe franchise alone 
that there can be obtained 
for your program the 
conditions absolutely ne- 
cessary for the working 
out of your ideals. 



158 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




In our cities to- 
day there are many 
societies, and groups 
of individuals ambi- 
tious for better so- 
cial, economic, phy- 
sical and political 
conditions. When 
you consider carefully the work they arc 
doing you will be surprised to find that 
they are in the main working for the bet- 
terment of our architectural programs, 
in other words, they are striving for our 
ideals. In the work of the many societies 
laboring for better housing, better fire 
protection, better sanitary conditions in 
stores, lofts and factories, greater safety 
and the reduction of congestion in our 
streets, the development of civic centers 
and the general aesthetic development of 
the city, we see but the furtherance of 
our aims. In the work of the American 
Institute of Architects and other archi- 
tectural societies there is the same field 
open to you for service. In our own 
publications and in the daily press, 
through which alone we may hope to con- 
sider this matter with the people at large, 
a great and as yet 'almost undeveloped 




field is open to us, 
provided we can 
but come to real- 
ize the importance 
of considering ser- 
iously subjects of 
this sort with the 
people. 

I have but pointed the direction. I 
know very well that I cannot bring these 
great problems fully home to you ; but I 
want you to remember when you feel the 
conditions of practice choking your spirit, 
that there is a field of labor outside your 
offices and that there are problems which 
go far beyond your powers to solve in 
terms of steel and stone alone. In this 
broader field of service you are building 
into future ages, a spiritual structure last- 
ing centuries beyond the life of material 
forms. If you, through your endeavor, 
after you have studied well and come to 
understand the problems, can take this 
message to the people and so state it that 
they will understand, then you will have 
achieved not only your right to your title 
of Architect, but a right also to the full 
significance of that far greater title 
Citizen. 





SOUTH FRONT-CLIVEDEN, GERMANTOWN, PHILADELPHIA. 



THREE TYPES OF 



GEORGIAN ARCHITECTVRE 

Evolutions of the ftyfe in Tbiladelphia 
By Harold Donalclfon Eberlein 



PART II.* 



ANOTHER house of the second Geor- 
gian type is Mt. Pleasant, or Clunie, 
as it was at first called, in Fair- 
mount Park, built in 1761 by Captain 
John Macpherson, and in later years the' 
home of Benedict Arnold. Mt. Pleasant 
is a structure of almost baronial aspect, 
with east and west fronts alike of impos- 
ing mien. 

A high foundation of carefully squared 
stones is pierced by iron-barred base- 
ment windows set in stone frames. 
Above this massive, grisly base the thick 
stone walls are coated with yellow-grey 
ronehcast. Heavy quoins of brick at the 

*NOTE. The first part of this article was pub- 
lished in July, 1913. 



corners, and, at the north and south ends 
of the building, great quadruple chimneys 
joined into one at the top by arches, create 
an air of more than usual solidity. A 
broad flight of stone steps, their iron bal- 
ustrades overgrown with a bushy mass of 
honeysuckle, leads up to a doorway of 
generous breadth. The pillars at each 
side of the door and the superimposed 
pediment, the ornate Palladian window 
immediately above on the second floor 
and, above that again, the corniced pedi- 
ment springing from the eaves, all con- 
tribute to set a stamp of courtly distinc- 
tion upon the pile. 

Above the second floor the hipped roof 
springs, pierced east and west by two 



160 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



161 



graceful dormers and crowned by a well 
turned balustrade that traverses nearly 
the whole distance between the chimneys. 
The fan-light over the door has remark- 
ably heavy, fluted mullions and much 
of the detail throughout the house, 
though highlv wrought, is heavy. The 
two flanking outbuildings, set thirty or 
forty feet distant from the northeast and 
southeast corners of the house, designed 
for servants' quarters and domestic of- 
fices, give Mt. Pleasant a peculiarly strik- 
ing appearance. Without them it would 
be only an unusually handsome Georgian 
country house, with them it at once takes 
on the manorial port 'df one of the old 
Virginia mansions. The interior wood-, 
work, both upstairs and down, is rich in 
elaboration of detail and the door-frames, 
with their heavily moulded pediments, are 
exceptional. 

Cliveden, the third member of the sec- 
ond group, was built in 1761 by Chief 
Justice Chew. Its solid and heavy mas- 
onry is of carefully dressed Gennantown 
stone, and at the peaks of the gables and 
corners of the roof are great stone urns. 
Back of the house are two wings, one 
semi-detached and the other entirely so, 
used for servants' quarters and domestic 
offices. All the features and detail about 
Cliveden are thoroughly in keeping with 
the same characteristics of the other two 
houses already described. 

The windows are broad and fill a great 
part of the wall space in the faqade and 
the doorway is a central feature that has 
been made the most of by the architect. 
Both indoors and out the strongly clas- 
sic feeling has been emphasized in pil- 
lar and pediment, pilaster and entabla- 
ture. Triglyphs, guttae and all other 
details of classic embellishment have been 
wrought with the nice precision due a 
worthy subject. 

Comparing Whitby, Mt. Pleasant and 
Cliveden with the former houses of the 
first Georgian type, certain differences 
at once strike us. The whole aspect is 
changed by the greater breadth of win- 
dows and doors. The houses look 
wider awake. This change in the size 
of the windows means, of course, that the 
rooms within in most cases were lighter 
and more cheerful than before. Then, 



too, the Palladian window has appeared. 
Both Mt. Pleasant and Cliveden afford 
good examples, Cliveden's being placed 
at the side, while at Mt. Pleasant it forms 
an important feature in both the east and 
west fronts. 

At Mt. Pleasant and Cliveden we 
see that the door has become a sub- 
ject for elaborate treatment, quite in con- 
trast to the extremely simple and unas- 
suming manner of dealing with the same 
feature in the earlier houses. At Mt. 
Pleasant the severity of the roof line is 
tempered by a balustrade and the effec- 
tive management of the chimneys, while 
at Whitby and Cliveden urns embellish 
the peaks and corners. Within we find 
that acanthus leaves and thistles have be- 
gun to grow, the rose has blossomed, 
other conventional flowers and foliage 
have budded and egg and dart mouldings 
have appeared. In other words, carving 
as a mode of embellishment has attained 
an established vogue. The moulding pro- 
files have lost some of their trenchant 
boldness, and though the ornamental de- 
tail, both indoors and out, is still vigor- 
ous, and at times massive, there is gen- 
erally visible an air of delicacy and re- 
finement not present before. 

The Woodlands, the Highlands and 
Upsala exemplify for us the third type 
of Georgian. William Hamilton built 
the Woodlands about 1770, Anthony 
Morris finished the Highlands in 1796, 
and Norton Johnson began Upsala in 
1798 and completed it three years later. 
Across the north front of the Woodlands, 
at regular intervals, are six Ionic pilasters 
above whose tops runs an entablature 
whose frieze is adorned with paterae and 
fluting, the whole surmounted by a pedi- 
ment. Before the house is a low and 
broad paved terrace filling the space be- 
tween the semi-circular bays that project 
from the ends of the building. Between 
the two middle pilasters a round-arched 
doorway with a fan-light opens into the 
hall. On the south or river front a flight 
of steps ascends to a lofty white-pillared 
portico, from which a door or>ens direct- 
ly into the oval-shaped ballroom. 

In another respect the whole exterior 
aspect of the Woodlands is different from 
that of houses of the second type. Win- 



162 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




From "Colonial Homes of Philadelphia," by H. D. Eberlcin and H. M. Lippincott ; J B. Lippincott Co. 
PARLOR OF WHITBY HALL, KINGSESSING, PHILADELPHIA. BUILT IN 1754. 



dow treatment is always a most impor- 
tant item in determining architectural 
character, and it is just here that a sig- 
nificant change is to be noted. The size 
of the opening is, in some cases, the 
same, in others it is larger but, more no- 
ticeable still, the muntins are far smaller 
and we lose the bold, trenchant barring 
of white that emphasizes the aspect of 
windows in the earlier buildings. 

The interior is finished with all the 
delicacy that one might expect, judging 
from the evidences of Adam influence 
without. One highly significant feature 
of interior treatment in the houses of 
the third type is the change made in the 
arrangement of the mantels. We have 
seen that in houses of the first type, 
such as Graeme Park, and in houses of 
the second type, such as Whitby Hall 
or Mt. Pleasant, the overmantel panel- 
ling and embellishment were accorded 
much care and elaboration. The chim- 
ney breast often extended a considera- 
ble distance into the room and the orna- 



mental superstructure above the fireplace 
reached all the way to the ceiling. 

Although these ornate overmantels 
reaching to the ceiling had begun to fall 
into disfavor in England a little after 
the middle of the eighteenth century, 
when houses of the second Georgian 
type were being erected in the Philadel- 
phia neighborhood, Colonial conserva- 
tism disregarded the newer style and 
clung to the mode approved by time- 
honored precedent. The fireplace with 
its setting has always held a position of 
such exalted honor as the centre of 
family life that the following extract 
from Clouston's treatise on Chippendale 
is particularly illuminating in this con- 
nection. In speaking of the influence 
exerted by Sir William Chambers on 
architecture as well as furniture, he 
says, "when he returned to England in 
1755 [from the Continent] he was ac- 
companied by Wilton and Cipriani, aft- 
erwards so well known as an artist and 
decorator. He also brought Italian 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



163 




MANTEL DETAIL WHITE Y HALL, K1NGSESSING,- PHILADELPHIA. 
An Example of the "Second Type" of Georgian. 



sculptors to carve the marble mantel- 
pieces he introduced into English houses. 

"These were made from his own de- 
signs, and the ornament of figures, 
scrolls and foliage was free in character. 
Strange to say, these mantelpieces, de- 
signed and made by an architect, were 
yet the means of taking away this im- 
portant part of interior decoration from 
the hands of the architect altogether and 
causing it to become quite a separate 
production, made and sold along with 
the grates. 

"In former times it had been, an inte- 
grant portion of the rooms, reaching 
from floor to ceiling, balanced and made 
part of the wall by having its main lines 
carried round in panelling and enriched 
friezes. It was the keynote of decora- 
tion, and the master builder of the times 
grew fanciful and exerted his utmost 



skill upon its carving and quaint im- 
agery, centralizing the whole ornament 
of the room around this household 
shrine. 

''Mantelpieces had gradually come 
down in height, though still retaining 
much of their fine proportion and classic 
design. Many causes had contributed to 
this, the chief being the disuse of wood 
panelling and the preference given to 
hangings of damask, foreign leather and 
wall paper. In the reigns of Queen 
Anne and the Little Dutchman the cus- 
tom of panelling was partially kept up, 
but the lining was only white painted 
deal, after the fashion in Holland. At 
this time the upper part of the chimney- 
piece was still retained, but only reached 
about half-way up the wall. Gibbs, 
Kent and Ware kept the superstructure 
as much as they could, but Sir William 



164 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



165 





WEST FRONT MOUNT PLEASANT, PHILA- 
DELPHIA. BUILT 1761. AN EXAMPLE OF 
THE "SECOND TYPE" OF . GEORGIAN. 



168 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



~ - 
EAST FRONT MOUNT PLEASANT, PHILADELPHIA 




From "Colonial Homes of Philadelphia." 

WEST FRONT MOUNT PLEASANT, PHILADELPHIA. 



41 







DETAIL OF WOODWORK- 
GREAT CHAMBER, MOUNT 
PLEASANT, PHILADELPHIA. 







S T A I R W A Y-M O U N T 
PLEASANT. PHILADELPHIA 




PARLOR MOUNT 
PLEASANT, PHILADELPHIA 



172 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT THE WOOD- 
LANDS, PHILADELPHIA. 

Chambers dealt it the most crushing 
blow it had yet received by copying the 
later French and Italian styles and giv- 
ing minute detail more consideration 
than fine proportion. He discarded the 



upper part altogether and helped to 
make 'continued chimney pieces' things 
of the past." 

The jmich used Adam oval found ex- 
pression even in the shapes of rooms 
and, besides the oval ball-room at the 
Woodlands, we frequently find in houses 
of the third type rounded or elliptical 
hallways and chambers. 

At the Highlands, in the Whitemarsh 
Valley, we see the front of the house 
adorned with tall Ionic pilasters rising 
from base course to cornice, which is it- 
self elaborately wrought. The wood- 
work inside is excellent, but unfortunate- 
ly the Adam mantels with their compo 
decoration, have been removed and now 
grace another house some miles distant. 
At Upsala, in Germantown, however, we 
are in better luck, for there the Adam 
mantels have remained untouched. The 
illustrations show the rest of the house 
sufficiently to make further specific com- 
ment unnecessary, save to remark, re- 
garding the windows, that here, as in 
other houses of this latest type, larger 
panes of glass than in the two earlier 
types are met with in not a few instances. 

Before proceeding further in the 
course of comparison, a word ought to 
be said about the color of the paint used 
for the interior woodwork of the Geor- 
gian houses of all three types. For some 
reason there seems to be an impression 
abroad that white was employed to the 
exclusion of everything else. There 
was, it is true, a preponderance of white, 
but its use was by no means universal. 
A close examination of successive lay- 
ers of paint on some old woodwork re- 
veals various shades of greys, blues, 
drabs, brownish yellows and other hues 
beneath one or more coats of white. 
Grey seems to have been one of the 
earliest variants from white and, in some 
places, nothing else was ever used. At 
Graeme Park, for instance, the first coat 
of paint was grey and no other color 
ever adorned its panelling and door and 
window trims. At Stenton, on the other 
hand, the taste of the occupants dictated 
a change of color from time to time, 
and we find a good deal of variety in the 
successive coats. During the prevalence 
of the second Georgian type white seems 




NORTH DOOR-THE WOODLANDS, PHILA- 
DELPHIA. BUILT ABOUT 1770. AN EXAMPLE 
OF THE "THIRD TYPE" OF GEORGIAN. 



174 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



to have found more general favor. With 
our last type delicate colors again be- 
gan to be used. 

Contrasting the Woodlands, the High- 
lands and Upsala with the houses illus- 
trating the second Georgian type, we find 
still further evidences of architectural 
evolution. During the prevalence of the 
second type individual features were sin- 
gled out for decorative emphasis, but in 
the days of the third type the entire front 
of a house or sometimes the whole ex- 
terior was regarded from a decorative 
point of view. At Cliveden the treat- 
ment of the doorway and the urns on 
the roof are the features relied upon 
for the embellishment of the fagade. At 
Mt. Pleasant the doorways of the east 
and west fronts, the Palladian windows 
above them, the balustrade on the roof 
and tlie treatment of the chimneys sup- 
ply a fuller and more ornate decorative 
effect. But when we reach the third 
period we see that the architect has con- 
sidered carefully the decorative element 
in both the proportions and detail of the 
whole building. Tt would be hard to be- 
lieve that the designer of the Woodlands, 
in drawing his plans, had not carefully 
aimed at the pleasing ensemble of his 
masses. The effect of the rounded ends 
is agreeable, and a marked departure 
from the straightforward rectangularity 
of most of the houses of preceding types. 
The lofty portico of the Woodlands' 
south or river front had no precedent in 
Philadelphia. Vaux Hill or Fatland, 
erected about the same time, and Lou- 
doun, a few years later, had the same 
motif, and even John Bartram, in his 
last addition to his house, adopted the 
same treatment. Neither was there a 
precedent for the method of dealing with 
the north front, so we see that the Wood- 
lands struck two new notes in local ar- 
chitecture. 

At the Woodlands and the Highlands 
we find pilasters carried the full height 
of the walls a new feature. The fenes- 
tration is arranged with more regard to 
outward appearance and not solely from 
a utilitarian point of view. We find that 
the high panelled overmantels which con- 
stituted an important architectural fea- 
ture had given place to the low and elab- 



orately adorned mantel that ought to be 
regarded rather as a piece of furniture 
than an architectural entity. Fireplaces 
had grown smaller. Fan-lights above 
doors had become common and were en- 
riched with beautiful and sometimes in- 
tricate metal tracery. The comparison be- 
tween these later fan-lights, with their 
airy grace, and the earlier fan-lights of 
Mt. Pleasant, with their ponderous mul- 
lions, is instructive. In the detail of all 
ornament heaviness has vanished and the 
polished elegance of Adam influence has 
taken its place. Everywhere we find 
paterae, drops and swags, fluting and 
quilling, oval fans and dainty urns and 
vases with delicate leaf and flower treat- 
ment. 

Regarding the texture of stone walls, 
we ought also to note that in the second 
and third types we find neatly squared 
and dressed stones used to a considerable 
extent. At Cliveden,, the Highlands and 
Upsala the fronts alone are of cut stone, 
while at Whitby Hall the walls on all 
sides are treated with the same formal 
precision. 

Briefly summing up, then, it is clear 
that- three distinct types exist. The first 
has Queen Anne affinities, but is Geor- 
gian in time and much of its feeling. 
Ornamental detail is simple and bold and 
at times a trifle heavy. The profiles of 
mouldings are strong and in high relief. 
Simplicity and strength, combined with 
grace, give the prevailing note in every 
instance. The second type is lighter 
and more ornate, but, with characteris- 
tic conservatism and abhorrence of the 
new-fangled whims of Sir William 
Chambers and the Brothers Adam, Phila- 
delphia adhered to the modes in vogue in 
England from twenty-five to fifty years 
before and kept Ware in countenance, 
who, in 1750, was still crowning his build- 
ings with heavy Queen Anne urns. 

Notwithstanding this staunch adher- 
ence to conservative architectural prin- 
ciples, however, a new feeling is every- 
where perceptible. Though the over- 
mantel decorations still extended all the 
way to the ceiling, the character of the 
ornamentation employed was vastly more 
elaborate and graceful than anything to 
be found in buildings of the first type. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 

- 

i * 



175 




SOUTH OR RIVER FRONT-THE WOODLANDS, PHILADELPHIA. 



If the profiles of mouldings were not so 
bold and insistent they were, neverthe- 
less, quite as graceful. With the ad- 
vent of floriated and foliated motifs in 
the carving we naturally find a closer 
care to detail of all kinds. At the same 
time there is to be seen a more punctil- 
ious heed to all the little niceties and 
characteristic distinctions between the 
classic orders. 

By the time our third Georgian type 
appears Adam influence has become 
paramount and put to flight all mid- 
Georgian ponderosity. Even in the cases 
of manifestly "carpenter-built" houses of 
the period where, quite unlike the three 
excellent examples which were chosen to 
represent their particular classes, no es- 
pecial architectural merit is to be looked 
for, we find no heaviness of line and the 
character of ornamentation employed is 
distinctly either a copy or an echo of 
Adam motifs and in not a few cases has 
caught much of their spirit. 

It must be understood that the houses 
used for illustration have been chosen 
because they represent their many con- 
temporaries in the same neighborhood, 
all of which display the same character- 



istics according to the dates at which they 
were built. The foregoing analysis does 
not pretend to be complete it would 
take far more space to trace all the sub- 
tleties of the subject but aims only to 
direct attention to certain facts that may 
conduce to clearer understanding of 
American Georgian and its resources in 
supplying our present needs. 

In considering the variations between 
the Georgian types of the Philadelphia 
neighborhood, it must be, borne in mind 
that they ought not to be judged too 
strictly by contemporary work in Eng- 
land. Such comparison would only be 
misleading and unfair for several rea- 
sons. In the first place, at the beginning 
of the Georgian period, local conditions 
forbade the lavish display of carved or- 
namentation that marked so many houses 
of the same date in England. At that 
time there were few craftsmen in the 
Colonies capable of executing the elabo- 
rate carving in vogue on the other side 
of the Atlantic. The builders of man- 
sions, therefore, must perforce content 
themselves by a close adherence to lines 
and proportion and do without the highly 
wrought carved embellishment. Then, 



176 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



too, besides this difficulty, many of the 
builders of these early houses belonged 
to the Society of Friends and from 
their religious principles they were averse 
to a wealth of ornament. 

In the second place, judgment by con- 
temporary English standards would be 
misleading, because at the time the sec- 
ond Philadelphia Georgian type began to 
flourish, and the means and inclination 
for elaborate ornament were both pres-. 
ent, Colonial conservatism had become 
an important factor in the dictation of 
styles and, however closely Philadel- 
phians might copy the current modes of 
London in matters of dress, in their 



manners and architecture they chose to 
cling to well established precedent and 
always remained thenceforward from 
twenty to thirty-five years back of their 
British cousins in the method of their 
architectural expression. Hence, for in- 
stance, overmantels reaching to the ceil- 
ing were built as late as 1765. In all its 
phases, however, Philadelphia Georgian, 
whatever minor differences there might 
have been, was true to the traditions 
of the great English architects and be- 
cause of its purity of style is worthy 
of close study to-day for the vital in- 
spiration it can supply to our own gene- 
ration. 




EAST FRONT-UPSALA, GERMANTOWN, PHILADELPHIA. 
An Example of the "Third Type" of Georgian. 



Some Recent Interiors 



Thornton Chard 




Library, Residence qf 
Dave H.Morris,E s NewYork 




182 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 







DINING ROOM-RESIDENCE OF DAVE H. MORRIS, ESQ., NEW YORK CITY. 
Thornton Chard, Architect. 




DINING ROOM RESIDENCE OF DAVE H. MORRIS, ESQ., NEW YORK CITY. 
Thornton Chard, Architect. 



/fa 




. __ .. , . ... -.-' 

ACHITECT'S LIBRARY 




TWO BOOKS BY PRACTICAL THEORISTS 

By RICHARD FRANZ BACH 

Curator, School of Architecture, Columbia University 



PART II. 



THE utterances of Professor Cram 
of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology are not to be taken 
lightly. He is a thinker of discernment 
and brings to his work a varied experi- 
ence, making contact with the world of 
art at many points. His mind is an ad- 
mirable crucible in which this experience 
tempers theory and produces wisdom. In 
The Ministry of Art (Houghton, Mifflin ; 
8vo, $1.50) Mr. Cram has brought to- 
gether a number of papers upon a series 
of topics ranging from the purely theo- 
retic essay "Art the Revealer" to the 
historical and critical "American Uni- 
versity Architecture." But though there 
may be diversity of title there is in all 
of these discussions a unity of purpose 
a purpose common to all artists and 
shunned by many of their number 
namely that of teaching, a mission which 
a person of sterling worth in the fine 
arts cannot well avoid. But few of us 
play our "full part in God's cosmogony" 
and it is to assure us that we have yet 
much to attain before satisfying that full 
part that Mr. Cram sets out to clothe art, 
and inferentially artists, with the proper 



ministerial dignity. Early in his book he 
quotes Protagoras : "Man is the meas- 
ure of all things" and cannot resist the 
epigram : "Art is the measure of man." 
But let us first examine the avowed 
purpose of this volume ; we find it defi- 
nitely stated in the first few pages. For 
instance : ". . . by the words 'The 
Ministry of Art' I mean that function 
which I think art has performed, and al- 
ways can perform, as an agency working 
toward the redemption of human char- 
acter; and in this aspect . . it takes 
on something of that quality which 
characterizes ministers of the Christian 
Church. . . And this I conceive 
to be the highest function of the artist 
and the art that is his agency of opera- 
tion. Not that I would for a moment 
make this an exclusive property; art has 
sufficient reason for existence in its qual- 
ity as a creator of simple, sensuous joy 
and refreshment, as a beneficent force 
expressing itself through . . pure 
beauty. . . Art may do more than 
make life beautiful, in that it can act 
symbolically, tropically, sacramentally, 
and so become the supreme means of 



188 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



expressing and of inciting and exalting, 
those emotions which transcend experi- 
ence and may not in any degree find 
voice through those channels of expres- 
sion which are entirely adequate for the 
purposes of the intellect." 

We may sum up in a few words the 
burden of the first paper, entitled "Art 
the Revealer," delivered at the inaugu- 
ration of Rice Institute, Houston, Texas. 
Mr. Cram considers art "an indispensa- 
ble means toward the building of char- 
acter." The older educational systems 
failed to recognize this fundamental 
truth and they taught art as they did 
engineering, from the purely vocational 
standpoint. In great measure we are yet 
guilty of such methods. But art has a 
greater scope, "for in all its manifesta- 
tions . . it is the only visible and 
concrete expression of the mystical 
power in man which is greater than 
physical force, greater than physical 
mind, whether . . we call it intui- 
tion or . . immortal soul." Art func- 
tions .as the "symbolic expression of 
otherwise inexpressible ideas," it is the 
splendid realization of the striving that 
tortures the artist. We see it well illus- 
trated in the greatest of artists, Michel- 
angelo himself, whose conceptions were 
snatched from the peaks of heaven, only 
to leave him discontented in the paucity 
of their tangible form. In this connec- 
tion we recall Browning's words: "A 
man's reach must exceed his grasp, or 
what is heaven for?" We may take our 
lesson from the latter part of this lec- 
ture; it is of value for him who paints 
and for him who writes, for him who 
carves and for him who builds. "I find 
in many places laboratories of art indus- 
try where, after one fashion or another 
and not always well advised is shown 
how to spread paint on canvas; how to 
pat mud into some quaint resemblance 
to human or zoological forms; how to 
produce the voice in singing ; how to ma- 
nipulate the fingers in uneven contest 
with ingenious musical instruments ; how 
to assemble lines and washes on What- 
man paper so that an alien mason may 
translate them, with as little violence as 
possible, into terms of brick and stone 
or plaster and papier mache. And I find 



names and dates and sequences of ar- 
tists taught from text-books, and sources 
and influences taught from fertile imagi- 
nations, together with erudite schemes 
and plots of authorship and attribution; 
but where shall we find the philosophy, 
the rationale of art, inculcated as an 
elemental portion of the history of man 
and of his civilization? . . We 
build our little categorical box-stalls and 
herd history in one, art in another, re- 
ligion in a third, philosophy in a fourth, 
and so on, until we have built a labyrinth 
of little cells, hermetically sealed and se- 
curely insulated, and then we wonder 
that our own civilization is of the same 
sort, and that over us hangs the threat 
of an ultimate bursting forth of impris- 
oned and antagonistic forces, with chaos 
and anarchy as the predicted end." 

Mr. Cram is on his own chosen ground 
in "The Philosophy of the Gothic Res- 
toration." We have often been charmed 
by his Romanticism, and his gauntlet al- 
ways bears the challenge when Gothic 
art is mentioned. As a 1 faithful cham- 
pion, then, he plunges into his theme of 
the Gothic Restoration with a fervor that 
recalls his earlier work The Gothic 
Quest. In the course of this paper 
two-edged tribute is paid to Richardson : 
"The first great genius in American 
architecture, he rolled like an aesthetic 
Juggernaut over the prostrate bodies of 
his peers and the public." We are not a 
little surprised that the author found 
some of the Richardsonian influence at 
work in Japan. "Richardson will be re- 
membered, not as the discoverer of a 
new style, but as the man who made 
architecture a living art once more." 

Then follows a warning cry to avert 
the ultimate horror of steel. "The steel 
frame is the enfant terrible of architect- 
ure, but like so many of the same genus, 
it may grow up to be a serious minded 
citizen and a good father. It isn't that 
now; it is a menace, not only to archi- 
tecture, but to society, but it is young 
and it is having its fling. . . Like 
all good servants it makes the worst pos- 
sible master; and when it enables us to 
reproduce the Baths of Caracalla, vaults 
and all, at half the price, or build a sec- 
ond Chartres Cathedral with no danger 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



189 



from thrusting arches, and with flying 
buttresses that may be content beauti- 
fully to exist, since they will have no 
other work to do, then it is time to call a 
halt. The foundation of architecture is 
structural integrity ; and it does not mat- 
ter if a building is as beautiful as the 
Pennsylvania Station in New York, if 
its columns merely hide the working 
steel within, if its vast vaults are plaster 
on steel frame and expanded metal, then 
it is not architecture, it is scene-painting, 
and it takes its place with that other 
scene-painting of the late Renaissance to 
which we mistakenly apply the name 
architecture." This and many other 
poignant paragraphs we find in this pa- 
per, full of truth, and with a depth of 
significance that assumes now the tone 
of admonition and now that of prophecy, 
and the prophecy is that most readily to 
be expected of the author of St. Thomas' 
Church and the Graduate College at 
Princeton; it is that "now is the time 
. . to gather up once more the price- 
less heritage of medievalism." But why 
of mediaevalism, why not of something 
else? If we are working out our ar- 
tistic destiny, at the moment expressing 
ourselves in a number of styles, how can 
we in justice to ourselves go back to yet 
other forms and warp them to our 
needs? To be sure there is no lack of 
beauty in such resuscitated forms, wit- 
ness the Pugins of last century, and wit- 
ness Bryn Mawr and the University of 
Pennsylvania and West Point ; but there 
is on the other hand no reason -to sup- 
pose -that the beauty of the spirit of 
Gothic can be revived in any greater 
degree than the beauty of the spirit of 
any other style that finds ephemeral fa- 
vor in the year 1914. It must be a beauty 
of the letter only, of the hard and tangi- 
ble form, which breathes an atmosphere 
of a dead past only because of its earlier 
association with that past. There is lack- 
ing what some philosophers would call 
the reality of the spirit. But then, when 
men of Mr. Cram's dignity and authority 
have formulated their theses, we have 
not to cavil, but simply to await the real- 
ization, be it a glorification or a fall. To 
Mr. Cram, at least, Gothic is the ori- 
flamme, or the fiery sign adopted by 



Constantine after the battle of the Mil- 
vian Bridge, and its legend is: "in hoc 
signo vinces." 

Other good papers in the volume are 
entitled "The Artist and the World" and 
"The Craftsman and the Architect," 
again prompted by the assured mediaeval- 
ism of the author; but we hasten on to 
a fine paper on "American University 
Architecture" read before the Royal In- 
stitute of British Architects. The sub- 
ject matter is treated historically, 
through old Harvard, the "Jeffersonian" 
of the University of Virginia, Upjohn 
and the American reflection of Pugin, 
and the more modern congeries of styles, 
McKim and the buildings at Columbia, 
the "Boulevardesque" of Yale and of 
Annapolis, and the modern Gothic fore- 
runner of the great restoration to come, 
if you choose at West Point, Prince- 
ton, Chicago, Bryn Mawr, not to men- 
tion the projected designs for the Vir- 
ginia Military Institute. 

Next we have a suggestive and interest- 
ing discussion of the differences between 
American and English planning with 
reference to purpose in the universities. 
Much space is given to Princeton, of 
which the author is the supervising arch- 
itect. 

Finally comes the excellent article 
which provides the title for the volume. 
It is a parting shot; a sort of aesthetic 
moral to take with you to your study 
and to make part of your reflection. 
Michelet said that "history is only a se- 
ries of resurrections." After we are 
through with The Ministry of Art we 
readily consider architecture one of the 
greatest of history-makers. In the course 
of the last paper we find this lucid pas- 
sage: "..art.. is neither a commodity, 
nor a form of amusement, nor an amen- 
ity of life, but a wonderful attribute of 
man who is made in God's image, a sub- 
tle language, and a mystery that, in its 
nature, we may with reverence call sac- 
ramental." 

We shall keep the book near us, for it 
affords a wealth of inspiration for the 
Gothicist and for his enemy, nor can we 
faithfully say, after reading the last 
page, with which camp we desire to 
throw our fortunes. 



BOOKS RECEIVED FROM PUBLISHERS 

DEALING WITH ARCHITECTURE AND ALLIED ARTS 



Design in Landscape Gardening. By Ralph 
Rodney Root, assistant professor of land- 
scape gardening, University of Illinois, 
and Charles Fabiens Kelley, assistant 
professor of art, Ohio State University. 
111., 8vo, 265 p., index. New York: The 
Century Co. $2. 

Early American Churches. By Aymar 
Embury II. 111., large 8vo, 184 p. Gar- 
den City, N. Y.: Doubleday, Page & Co. 
$2.80. 

Country Houses. By Aymar Embury II. 
Selected and edited by Henry H. Saylor. 
A collection of photographs of exteriors 
and interiors, with floor plans. 4to, 
135 p. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 
Page & Co. $3. 

Power, Heating and Ventilation, Part II: 
Heating and Ventilating Plants. A trea- 
tise for designing and constructing engi- 
neers, architects and students. By Charles 
L. Hubbard, consulting engineer. 2d cd 
111., 8vo, 302 p., index. New York: Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Co. $2.50. 

The Commercial Problem in Buildings. A 
discussion of the economic and structural 
essentials of profitable buildings, and the 
basis for valuation of improved real 
estate. By Cecil C. Evers. vice-president 
of the Lawyers Mortgage Co. 111., 8vo, 
271 p., index. New York: The Record 
and Guide Co. $1.50. 

Nineteenth Annual Report, 1914, of the 
American Scenic and Historic Preserva- 
tion Society to the Legislature of the 
State of New York. Submitted by 
George Frederick Kunz, president; Ed- 
ward Hagaman Hall, secretary. 8vo, 
716 p., and 76 plates, index. Assembly 
Doc. No. 57, Albany, N. Y. 

Old Philadelphia Colonial Details. Meas- 
ured and Drawn by Joseph Patterson 
Sims and Charles Willing. Large folio. 
55 plates. New York: The Architectural 
Book Publishing Co. $10 unbound, $12 
bound. 



A Monograph of the Work of McKim, 
Mead & White, 1879-1915. To be pub- 
lished in about twelve parts. Large folio. 
Parts I, II and III, each with 20 plates. 
New York: The Architectural Book Pub- 
lishing Co. $5 a part. 

The Preservation of Structural Timbers. 
By Howard F. Weiss, director, Forest 
Products Laboratory, U. S. Forest Ser- 
vice. 111.. 8vo, 303 p., index. New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Co. $3. 

The English Parish Church. An account 
of the chief building types and of their 
materials during nine centuries. By 
Charles Cox," LL.D., F.S.A., author of 
"English Church Furniture," etc. 111., 
8vo, 318 p., index. London: B. T. Bats- 
ford. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons, $3. 

A Book of Architectural and Decorative 
Drawings by Bertram Grosvenor Good- 
hue. Text includes "An Explanation and 
Acknowledgment" by E. Donald Robb, 
"An Architect's Renderings and Some of 
His Works" by Frank Chouteau Brown, 

. and "As to Types and the Decoration of 
Books" by H. Ingalls Kimball. Large 
folio, 134 p., with many full page plates. 
New York: The Architectural Book Pub- 
lishing Co. $9. 

Universal Safety Standards. A reference 
book of rules, drawings, tables, formulae, 
data and suggestions for the use of archi- 
tects, engineers, superintendents, foremen, 
inspectors, mechanics and students. By 
Carl M. Hansen, M.E., consulting safety 
engineer, member American Society Me- 
chanical Engineers. Compiled under the 
direction of and approved by the Work- 
men's Compensation Service Bureau of 
New York. 2d ed. New York: Universal 
Safety Standards Publishing Co. $3. 

American Art Annual. Vol. XI, 1914. 
Florence N. Levy, editor. New York: 
American Federation of Arts. $5. 




NOTES 

AND 
COMMENTS 




Quite recently a well- 
known architect ex- 
Sculpture and P la ' ined > Presumably by 
Architectural wav J a P ol gy f r ccr- 
Design. tain large S rou P s of 

sculpture he. had includ- 
ed in the design for an 
important public build- 
ing, that Americans had "gone sculpture 
mad." And when one takes into considera- 
tion some of the latest results obtained with 
buildings upon which sculpture has been 
employed, it will be acknowledged that this 
architect was justified in his use of the 
word "mad." Two recent examples in New 
York have been most unsuccessful, and the 
reason for the failure is not hard to find. 
That American sculptors can work with 
architects to their mutual advantage and 
with still greater advantage to the sub- 
ject of their collaboration has often enough 
been demonstrated. As a single example, 
because it was the earliest, the buildings 
at the World's Columbian Exposition at 
Chicago may be recalled. Never before 
that time had American architects been 
given so splendid an opportunity to do 
their best. Not even had the competi- 
tion for the Federal Capitol at Washington 
in any sense, actually or comparatively, 
put so many possibilities before the archi- 
tects of the last years of the eighteenth 
century. 

And never before the Columbian Expo- 
sition, or since then, have American archi- 
tects so splendidly taken advantage of the 
opportunities offered in large public or pri- 
vate work, excepting, possibly, that not a 
few of our architectural forefathers who 
submitted designs in the Washington com- 
petition, had, as shown by the original 
drawings preserved in the library of the 
Maryland Historical Society, included most 
ambitious but rather top-heavy, not entirely 
structural or constructable, but altogether 
amazing groups of statuary in their de- 
signs. Not that we have not had sculpture 



and mural decorations enough in our work, 
but much that we have shows that it was 
produced in an unfortunate and ill-advised 
manner. 

The buildings at Chicago, designed, as 
Henry Van Brunt said, "in a style evolved 
from, and expressive of the highest civili- 
zations in history," were far from perfect, 
and to be sure they gave visitors some 
wonderful surprises. The Iowa State 
Building, for instance, as an early French 
Renaissance chateau shocked the feelings 
of both European and the better informed 
American visitors. McKim, Mead & 
White's Villa Medici, as the New York 
State Building, and many others, had "just 
a touch of genius," as one visitor said, 
that made them not only inoffensive, but 
actually interesting and inspiring. Many 
architects date their first architectural am- 
bition from the day they visited the 
World's Columbian Exposition. 

The one circumstance, aside from this 
"touch of genius," that made the exposition 
an architectural success was the policy of 
co-operation between architects and sculp- 
tors, that had been decided upon at the 
very start by Daniel Burnham as architect 
in chief and I. W. Root as consulting 
architect. 

Only by such joint work in other cases 
can sculpture regain its place, so long lost, 
as a means of architectural decoration. The 
modern method of designing "nice" or 
"ideal"' statues without regard for a rela- 
tion to the architectural background has 
done as much, on the one hand, as the 
method of designing the statue in direct 
elevation by the architect and then hand- 
ing the sketches to a sculptor for execu- 
tion has done, on the other, toward spoil- 
ing a large part of modern work upon 
which architects and sculptors have col- 
laborated. 

There are as great possibilities before 
the architect now as there were before 
Greek, Roman or Gothic architects in the 



192 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



use of sculpture in connection with Ameri- 
can building, and we may well look for- 
ward to splendid things to be accomplished 
when this proper spirit of mutual co-opera- 
tion and sympathy by the various artists 
concerned architects, painters and sculp- 
tors, is at last realized, but recent work 
seems only to emphasize the total lack of 
any such sympathy as well as a complete 
indifference to the necessary limitations of 
sculpture as the highest form of decora- 
tion in connection with beautiful buildings. 



The present system of 
choosing an architec- 
tural design in competi- 
Architectural tion, rather than holding 
Competitions. a competition for the 
purpose of choosing an 
architect to study the 
problem at hand is mani- 
festly a bad system for architects as well as 
for their clients. "The Nature and Function 
of Art, more Especially of Architecture," a 
book by the late Leopold Eidlitz, published 
in 1881, is seldom read, by architects of the 
present time. But it contains an amount of 
suggestion and practical, helpful criticism 
not often met with in books of an earlier or 
later date. Eidlitz felt as he wrote, and he 
wrote independently and fearlessly, with 
full confidence in his own convictions. In 
spite of his interest in the larger aspects of 
ideals and aesthetics, space was found in 
the book for a discussion of competitions. 
This is under the general heading of 
Architecture and Its Patrons. 

All art, he says, "finally seeks apprecia- 
tion and a market with an audience; but 
it is successful art only in the ratio in- 
versely proportional to its dependence upon 
immediate popular approval. Architectural 
art is especially unfortunate in this respect: 
it submits to popular interference while in 
the process of creation." Against this in- 
terference he vigorously protests. "There 
is no art or trade there never was one out- 
side of modern architecture which is found 
to be willing to court popular criticism and 
to abide by its decision before its works are 
executed." 

An architectural design, he continues "is 
a conventional geometrical representation 
of an imagined object, the merits of which 
laymen attempt to determine by looking at 



this conventional drawing." If it were pos- 
sible to have juries composed entirely of 
architects this objection would be done 
away with, but even a single architectural 
adviser is lacking in the great majority of 
competitors. "It is true the architect is 
supposed to assist the process by furnish- 
ing a perspective view; but here the layman 
is more at sea than ever. He is pleased 
with the technical skill and the artistic 
feeling which are displayed in the produc- 
tion of this picture. He admires the pic- 
ture, and imagines the architecture it rep- 
resents to be good; or he is displeased, or 
left indifferent by the picture and condemns 
the architecture." 

That the architect, working as he does 
with the client's own material and upon 
his client's land, must be willing to make 
clear to the owner just what the results are 
going to be is perfectly natural, but it 
would seem that architects should protest 
against too great interference by owners or 
committee. Eidlitz says, "Hid the archi- 
tect the authority to correct his client in 
the same sense in which it is conceded to 
the lawyer, the doctor, the shipwright, or 
even the tailor or shoemaker, he would be 
employed by reason of the merit of his fin- 
ished work, and would not be asked to sub- 
mit a design for approval. 

"It is time he is granted a polite hearing 
on all questions relating to his work, but is 
time accorded to him to educate his clients 
to the degree necessary to comprehend his 
arguments? Is he himself master of the 
theory of his art, and trained to debate 
these questions? Can he, if personally able 
to do so, impart to a client in a reasonable 
series of conversations what can be ac- 
quired only by a long professional educa- 
tion and practice?" 

Quite obviously, as Eidlitz concludes, he 
cannot always do so. In fact, he argues, 
that the architect in competition submits 
to laymen "a design of what he intends to 
do, and thereby admits, what is utterly 
false, that laymen are competent to com- 
pare a series of such designs, and select the 
best, or that they can form a correct judg- 
ment of any one of them." 

Naturally, the conclusion is that so long 
as this system is followed "architecture 
must range with the fashions" and not with 
the arts. 






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THE ZAHNER METAL SASH & DOOR CO. 



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jl gents in All 'Principal Cities 







VOL. XXXVII. No. 3 



MARCH, 1915 



SERIAL NO. 198 



ARCHITECTVRAL 
RECORD 




COVER Detail of Court of the Four Seasons, Panama-Pacific Exposition P age 

By Jack Manley Rose and Grace Norton Rose 

THE PANAMA^PACIFIC EXPOSITION AT SAN FRANCISCO , . 193 

By Louis C. Mullgardt 

FOUR DRAWINGS OF THE PANAMA^ PACIFIC EXPOSITION Opposite 229 

By Jack Manley Rose 



THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION AT SAN DIEGO 

By G. Matlack Price 



229 



TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, Akron, Ohio : J. W. C. Gorbusier, Architect 252 
By L T. Frary 



THE OLD CITY HALL, Washington, D. G. - 

By H. F. Cunningham 

PORTFOLIO OF CURRENT ARCHITECTURE 



268 



274 



THE ARCHITECT'S LIBRARY: New Volumes from University Presses 
By Richard F. Bach 

NOTES AND COMMENTS - - 



281 



287 



Editor : MICHAEL A. MIKKELSEN. 

Yearly Subscription United States $3.00 
Foreign $4.00 Single Copies 35 cents 



Contributing Editor : HERBERT D. CROLY 



Advertising Manager : AUSTIN L. BLACK 

Entered May 22. 1902. as Second 
Class Matter, at New York. N. Y. 



Copyright 1915 by The Architectural 
Record Company All Rights Reserved 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD COMPANY 



115-119 WEST FORTIETH STREET, NEW YORK 



F. W. DODGE, President 



F. T. MILLER, Secretary and Treasurer 




SIDE AISLE ENTRANCE TO PALACE OF VA- 
KIED INDUSTRIES-PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPO- 
SITION. BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS. 



THE 

ARCHITECTVKAL 
KECOFID 



MARCH, 1915 



VOLVME XXXVII 




NVMBER III 



PANAMA-PACIFIC 
EXPOSITION AT 
SAN FRANCISCO 



E3 



By Louis <?. "Mullgardt 



T INTERNATIONAL expositions are 
invariably founded on historical 
events of great importance to nations. 
Philadelphia's Exposition in 1876 cele- 
brated the one hundredth anniversary of 
the founding of the Republic. ' Chicago's 
Exposition in 1892 celebrated the four 
hundredth anniversary of the discovery 
of America. St. Louis's Exposition in 
1904 celebrated the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the purchase of the Louisiana 
Territory from Spain. 

All of the foregoing celebrations were 
related to past epochs. San Francisco's 
Exposition celebrates the beginning of a 
new epoch following the advent of the 
greatest engineering accomplishment in 
history. It celebrates the first establish- 
ment of a direct belt connection between 
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, whereby 
a passage by water, through the middle 
of the Western Hemisphere, near the line 
of the Equator, is secured for all time 



and all peoples. It celebrates the advent 
of an entirely new around-the-world 
route and a direct system of intercom- 
munication between nations. It is the 
road which leads to a better understand- 
ing and makes for enduring peace, world 
progress and amity between nations. 

Fulfillment of San Francisco's laud- 
able desire to hold this international ex- 
position was made possible only through 
a vigorous fight waged in Washington 
for a period of six months or more with 
its worthy Southern opponent, New Or- 
leans. It is fair to assume that San 
Francisco's success was largely due to 
added valor acquired through surmount- 
ing the desponding trials of devastation 
by fire in 1906, only five years prior to 
launching the herculean task of raising 
the sinews necessary for this interna- 
tional exposition, amounting to seven- 
teen million dollars. This amount was 
subscribed in a remarkably short time 



194 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



within the State of California and with- 
out the customary governmental assist- 
ance accorded previous international ex- 
positions. 

The principal feature of the Philadel- 
phia Exposition was its Crystal Palace. 
Chicago similarly had its wonderful 
Court of Honor, quadrangular in shape, 
formed by the surrounding exhibit 
palaces. St. Louis's monumental feature 
was the great Cascade surmounted by 
Festival Hall. San Francisco's Expo- 
sition is mainly distinctive in its general 
plan. 

Unlike other expositions, the simple 
plan of housing the department exhibits 
has been accomplished in a manner that 
seems commonplace when compared with 
the planning of a residential palace that 
is surrounded with gardens, arborium, 
music pavilion, galleries, play yards and 
visitors' cottages. 

The eight centrally grouped palaces 
Education, Food Products, Agriculture, 
Liberal Arts, Manufacture, Transporta- 
tion, Mines and Metallurgy, and Varied 
Industries including the main tower, 
the courts and the connecting longitudi- 
nal and lateral avenues, together form 
a homogeneous unit as compact and cor- 
related as are the various departments 
of a residential palace. 

The east and west terminations of this 
colossal unit are flanked by Machinery 
Hall and the Palace of Fine Arts, and 
the secondary lateral axes point to Fes- 
tival Hall and the Palace of Horticulture. 

These twelve subdivisions constitute 
the principal housed exhibit departments. 
The departments of Foreign Countries, 
the States, Aviation and Military Ma- 
neuvering Fields, the Race Course and 
Live Stock Barns are beyond the extreme 
west end of the principal exhibit pal- 
aces. The amusement section is at the 
extreme east end. The exposition pal- 
aces form the central link which con- 
nects all sections together continuously. 

The ideal, fascinating site which the 
exposition occupies has had the greatest 
influence in the development of the gen- 
eral plan the great feature of this ex- 
position. 

It is well worth noting that the selec- 
tion of this harbor view site caused the 



inhabitants of San Francisco all the an- 
guish that self-constituted factions with- 
in an energetic community could pro- 
duce and encounter. Lake Merced, Gold- 
en Gate Park, Lincoln Park, the Water 
Front and Harbor View each had en- 
thusiastic adherents and opponents. 

Chicago wisely placed its exposition in 
the undeveloped and uncultivated lake 
shore sands of Jackson Park, which sub- . 
sequently became a great garden play- 
ground of the people. 

St. Louis unwisely placed its exposi- 
tion in highly cultivated Forest Park, 
thereby causing the destruction of years 
of natural growth and cultivated park 
land, now and forever wasted. St. Louis 
made the additional mistake of placing 
a permanent Gallery of Fine Arts in 
Forest Park, where it is about as inac- 
cessible to the people as if it were of 
primary importance to have it so. 

San Francisco narrowly escaped mak- 
ing a similar mistake by destroying its 
renowned Golden Gate Park, which has 
taken forty years to develop out of wind- 
swept sand dunes. 

Golden Gate Park was seemingly the 
one glorious spot in the city and county 
of San Francisco upon which the ma- 
jority of the public had its eye focused 
as the most suitable of all sites for the 
exposition. Had it not been for the wis- 
dom and sagacity exercised by those who 
were empowered to conduct the selec- 
tion of a site along safer and saner chan- 
nels, San Francisco would now have an 
exposition where Golden Gate Park is, 
but it would no longer have Golden Gate 
Park. 

The natural geographical condition of 
the undeveloped site so wisely selected 
may be better understood by referring 
to the accompanying illustrations. The 
major portion of the site where the great 
palaces now stand was inundated with 
salt water about twenty-five feet in 
depth. This artificial lake was separated 
from the Bay of San Francisco by a 
substantial sea wall built of riprap and 
old building stones discarded from build- 
ings destroyed in the fire of 1906. East 
Lake was filled by means of pumping 
dredgers, which did service for several 
months pumping silt from the bay whilst 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



195 



the architects and engineers were en- 
gaged in the preparation of working 
drawings and the landscape engineer 
established the location of his stock of 
trees and plants throughout the State 
preparatory to subsequent shipment when 
required in accordance with the land- 
scape plans prepared by the architects. 

The Director of Works was the first 
official appointed by the President of the 
Exposition to provide for the physical 
construction. 

In the fall of 1911 the President of the 
Exposition requested the San Francis- 
co Chapter of the American Institute of 
Architects to submit a list of twelve 
names chosen from its ranks. From this 
list the President of the Exposition 
agreed, with certain reservation, to elect 
five architects to constitute a council. 
About one month after the first Architec- 
tural Council had been appointed three of 
its five members resigned. In January, 
1912, three additional San Francisco ar- 
chitects were chosen, this time without 
reference to the chapter, also three ar- 
chitects from New York City. Sub- 
sequently one additional architect from 
Los Angeles was selected ; these nine ar- 
chitects constituted the permanent Archi- 
tectural Commission. 

An architectural drafting department 
was immediately established in the down- 
town exposition office building, where 
preliminary planning was carried on 
under the guidance of members of the 
Architectural Commission with the pri- 
mary object of developing the .best gen- 
eral plan obtainable. Daily conferences 
were held by the commission for the pur- 
pose of analyzing every conceivable 
scheme which might lead to a correct 
solution of the general plan. Every pre- 
vious exposition plan was made the sub 7 
ject of special inquiry by the commis- 
sion. These daily meetings also provided 
for many conferences with the local heads 
of the Government Weather Bureau ; 
with the Government military officials in 
charge of the Presidio and Fort Mason, 
lying to the west and east ends, as to 
manner and extent permissible when in- 
fringing upon their convenience ; with 
the landscape gardener as to maxi- 
mum possibilities in securing suitable 



trees and plants such as would and would 
not withstand the rigors of the trade 
winds; with the transportation of- 
ficials in reference to establishing prompt 
new facilities for shipment of materials 
to the premises and rapid passenger 
transportation by land and by water ; and 
finally, with the State harbor officials 
relative to tides and currents it had at 
one time been considered, wise to estab : 
lish a more extensive still water basin 
along the water front of the exposition 
grounds for smaller craft than was finally 
agreed upon. 

The Architectural Commission care- 
fully tabulated all available data on every 
subject affecting the general plan. Every 
conceivable scheme was drawn out by the 
draftsmen and analyzed by the commis- 
sion. This process continued until the 
date set for the first conference of the 
entire Architectural Commission, in Feb- 
ruary, 1912. After a week's conference 
the present court plan was enthusiastic- 
ally adopted by the Architectural Com- 
mission. Immediately thereafter various 
parts constituting the central body of the 
exposition plan were assigned to the in- 
dividual members of the commission 'by 
unanimous agreement of its members. 

At the second meeting of the Archi- 
tectural Commission, in August, 1912, 
preliminary studies were submitted by all 
the members, each dealing with the par- 
ticular part of the general plan assigned 
at the February conference. 

In December, 1912, the third and final 
meeting of the entire commission took 
place to consider and adopt the prelim- 
inary drawings made on the basis of un- 
derstandings had at the previous confer- 
ences. Immediately thereafter the Board 
of Directors of the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition unanimously adopted 
the recommendations and designs sub- 
mitted to it by the Architectural Com- 
mission with authority to proceed with 
the working drawings. Shortly there- 
after a contract was entered into for the 
filling and grading preparatory for the 
pile foundations required, over eighty 
per cent, of the entire area covered by 
the exposition palaces. 

Almost simultaneously with the work- 
ing drawings the construction drawings 



196 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



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PLAN OF EXPOSITION GROUNDS, SHOWING THE RELATION BETWEEN THE 



we,re prepared. The timber floor sub- 
structures and underfloors were placed 
upon the piles before the superstruc- 
tures were erected. 

The chiefs of the Sculpture Depart- 
ment, Department of Color and Decora- 
tion and Landscape Engineering were 
selected by the Architectural Commis- 
sion at its second meeting and attended 
its conferences and collaborated with it 
constantly. 

At the third meeting of the Architec- 
tural Commission the Department of 
Travertine T exture was established The 
Architectural Commission thereby cre- 
ated a new element in exposition design- 
ing. This element of texture has given 
an added interest in the final result which 
is invaluable to an exposition and will 
forever be regarded indispensable in 
similar work. 

The filling and grading, piling and 
foundations, sewers and drains, tracks 
and roadways, ferry slips and piers, en- 
closures and workshops, exhibit palaces 
and courts were separately contracted for 
between the Division of Works and pri- 
vate contracting concerns. 



For the convenience of the contractors, 
also to facilitate the work and for eco- 
nomic reasons, the Exposition Company 
assumed the purchase of all dimension 
lumber and plastic material direct from 
the forests and mills, and delivered the 
same on the grounds to the contractors 
by water and by rail at minimum cost. 

The roadways and walks are built of 
asphaltum on a broken stone and gravel 
foundation. 

Extensive railroad yards for the deliv- 
ery of building materials and exhibits 
were provided at the east end of the ex- 
position grounds. Under Fort Mason 
the first tunnel was constructed express- 
ly for the purpose of establishing direct 
railway facilities into the exposition 
grounds. Three parallel lines were laid 
longitudinally alongside and others 
through the palaces so that railway ship- 
ments are made to the nearest points of 
delivery. 

Visitors to the exposition grounds have 
for the past year been afforded the con- 
venience of public and private automo- 
bile service over the main avenues of 
the exposition grounds. Similar service 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



197 



_ 




RIES OF THE EXPOSITION AND THE ADJACENT STREETS OF SAN FRANCISCO. 



will be established throughout the expo- 
sition year. An intermural system along 
the water front has also been established. 
In addition to this there will be wheel 
chairs, jinrikishas and other similar small 
conveyances to enable visitors to traverse 
every part of the grounds and palaces on 
wheels. 

Ferry slips have been established near 
the north end of Machinery Palace. The 
protected bay inlet north of the Fine Arts 
Building is designed for smaller pleasure 
craft. People residing along the shores 
of San Francisco Bay may approach the 
exposition direct by water. 

Special electric street car facilities 
have been established by the City of San 
Francisco along the south line of the ex- 
position grounds, with tributaries leading 
from the west, south and east ends of 
the city. The exposition being situated 
centrally on the north shore line and with- 
in twenty minutes' walk of the business 
centers, makes it accessible to the greatest 
number of probable visitors. 

Its location affords voyagers by sea 
coming from the Orient or from north, 
south or through the Panama Canal, 



a first view from aboard ship, after 
coming through the Golden Gate. 

A permanent Auditorium has been 
built in the New Civic Center, costing 
one million dollars. This money was 
appropriated out of the five million dol- 
lars subscribed by the City of San Fran- 
cisco to the exposition general fund. 
This Auditorium has a seating capacity 
of twelve thousand and is complete and 
inaugurated. 

The artificial lighting of the exposi- 
tion is largely concealed. There will be 
no electric bulbs visible within the area 
occupied by the exposition palaces. Elec- 
tric scintillators will be extensively used. 

The total area occupied by the expo- 
sition consists of flat land. The built up 
hills of the city form a crescent back- 
ground from east to west, establishing 
an amphitheatre facing the bay. The en- 
tire composition is visible from the hill- 
tops and from the water. It is within 
easy walking distance of the most thickly 
populated surrounding hills, which in 
their blue-grey atmosphere give added 
luster and scale to the colorful composi- 
tion. 



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SKETCH OF THE CONSTRUCTION FOR THE CENTRAL DOME 
OF THE PALACE OF FINE ARTS, APRIL, 1914. DESIGNED 
BY THE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF THE PANAMA- 
PACIFIC EXPOSITION. BERNARD MAYBECK, ARCHITECT. 




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THE PERISTYLE TO THE LEFT OF THE CENTRAL 
DOME OF THE PALACE OF FINE ARTS. BERNARD 
MAYBECK, ARCHITECT. PHOTOGRAPHED AT 
NIGHT BY FRANCIS BRUGUIERE. DECEMBER, 1914. 




SKETCH OF THE WEST END AND TYPICAL 
DOME OF THE PALACE OF EDUCATION, FEB- 
RUARY, 1914, BEFORE SCAFFOLDING WAS 
REMOVED. BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS. 







SKETCH OF TYPICAL CORNER PAVILION AND PERIMETER 
WALLS OF THE PALACE OF EDUCATION, MARCH 1914, 
BEFORE SCAFFOLDING WAS REMOVED. THE MINI- 
MUM HEIGHT OF ALL EXPOSITION WALLS IS SIXTY-FIVE 
FEET. BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS. 




THE COURT OF PALMS, GEORGE W. KELHAM. AR- 
CHITECT, WITH THE PALACE OF HORTICULTURE TO 
THE SOUTH, BAKEWELL & BROWN, ARCHITECTS. 




SKETCH OF PRELIMINARY CONSTRUCTION AROUND THE 
COURT OF PALMS, MARCH, 1914. DESIGNED BY THE 
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF THE PANAMA- PACIFIC 
EXPOSITION. GEORGE W. KELHAM, ARCHITECT. 







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SKETCH SHOWING CONSTRUCTION IN THE NORTHWEST CORNER 
OF THE COURT OF FOUR SEASONS, FEBRUARY, 1914. DESIGNED BY 
THE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF THE PANAMA- PACIFIC EXPO- 
SITION. HENRY BACON, ARCHITECT. DOME OF THE PALACE OF FOOD 
PRODUCTS IN THE DISTANCE. BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS. 




SKETCH OF TYPICAL INTERIOR CONSTRUCTION OF 
THE EIGHT DOMES AS DESIGNED BY E ENGI- 
NEERING DEPARTMENT OF THE PANAMA-PACI 
EXPOSITION. BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITI 







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NIGHT SCENE SHOWING SOUTHEAST CORNER PAVILION IN 
COURT OF THE UNIVERSE, AS SEEN BETWEEN THE SCAF- 
FOLDING OF THE GREAT ARCH OF THE TOWER OF JEWELS. 
PHOTOGRAPHED DECEMBER, 1914, BY FRANCIS BRU- 
GUIERE. McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, ARCHITECTS. 




SKETCH OF CENTRAL SOUTH ENTRANCE TO 
PALACE OF VARIED INDUSTRIES, MARCH. 
1914. BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS. 




SKETCH OF EAST ENTRANCE TO PALACE OF 
VARIED INDUSTRIES ON A RAINY DAY, 
MARCH, 1914. BLISS & FAVILLE, ARCHITECTS. 




SKETCH SHOWING FRAMEWORK OF NORTH AVENUE OF 
THE COURT OF ABUNDANCE. DESIGNED BY THE ENGI- 
NEERING DEPARTMENT OF THE PAN AM A -PACIFIC EX- 
POSITION. LOUIS CHRISTIAN MULLGARDT, ARCHITECT. 




SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CHIMES TOWER 
OF THE COURT OF ABUNDANCE. 
LOUIS CHRISTIAN MULLGARDT, ARCHITECT. 




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SKETCH SHOWING INTERIOR CONSTRUCTION OF PAL- 
ACE OF MACHINERY, FEBRUARY, 1914. DESIGNED BY 
THE ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF THE PANAMA - 
PACIFIC EXPOSITION. WARD & BLOHM, ARCHITECTS. 




CENTRAL PORTION OF THE WEST 
FACADE OF THE PALACE OF MACHIN- 
ERY. WARD & BLOHM, ARCHITECTS. 




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A CORNER PAVILION IN THE COURT OF THE 
UNIVERSE PANAMA- PACIFIC EXPOSITION. 
McKIM, MEAD & WHITE, ARCHITECTS. 








FOVR DRAWINGS 

OF THE 

PANAMA-PACIFIC 

INTERNATIONAL 

EXPOSITION 



JACK MANLEY RJDSE 



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TRINITY LVTHERAN CHVRCH 

AKRON, OHIO 

J WC CORBVSIER, ARCHITECT 

fo 

By I T Frory [ggg 




THE congregation of the Trinity Lu- 
theran Church of Akron, Ohio, a 
congregation of moderate size, 
found itself under the necessity of pro- 
viding a new place of worship ; and hav- 
ing decided, by means of a competition, 
upon an architect whose ideas seemed in 
accord with its own, gave him a free hand 
to develop an edifice suited to' its needs 
and to the requirements of the ritual of 
the Lutheran Church. 

The architect chosen was Mr. J. W. C. 
Corbusier, then of the firm of Page and 
Corbusier, but now practicing alone. 
Mr. Corbusier received his architectural 
training in the ateliers of Paris and the 
offices of New York, yet he was never 
mastered by the spirit of Classicism with 
which he was surrounded; instead there 
gripped him an almost religious zeal for 
the traditions of the Gothic period. The 
bulk of his professional work, however, 
has been, as it were by the irony of fate, 
carried out along Classic lines, a fact that 
has served to intensify the ardor with 
which he has undertaken ecclesiastical 
commissions. 

In the case of the Trinity Lutheran 
Church, he saw an opportunity to demon- 
strate the feasibility of building a small 
church edifice adapted to present-day re- 
quirements, but possessing the dignity and 
churchly feeling peculiar to the great 
Gothic structures of the past. With this 
idea in mind he personally designed and 
superintended the entire structure. 

As the plans grew, the appreciation of 
the people grew also and the finished 
structure embodies a completeness of 
equipment far beyond the original plans. 
This increase did not mean the addition 
of unnecessary enrichment and useless 
accessories. It simply meant raising the 
standard of quality in materials and 



workmanship and the introduction of 
features whose omission would probably 
mean expensive alterations later. The 
only point on which a captious critic 
might find fault would be with the use 
of artificial instead of cut stone. This 
question was not decided, however, until 
after thorough tests had been made of 
the materials, which demonstrated that 
, the artificial was harder and more im- 
pervious to moisture than the natural 
product. The consequent saving in cost 
made possible the use of tracery and or- 
namental detail to an extent which would 
otherwise have been out of the question. 
An excellent modeller, working in ac- 
cord with and under the constant super- 
vision of the architect, succeeded in pro- 
ducing a sympathetic quality in the de- 
tail which one expects to find only in 
structures which have been mellowed by 
time. The intangible refinements found 
in the old work have been studied so 
carefully and the more evident factors 
of proportion and massing have been 
handled so skillfully that, despite its ac- 
tual newness and smallness, the church 
possesses to an unusual degree the air 
of dignity, repose and age which con- 
stitute the charm of the Gothic cathe- 
drals. 

The front conveys a satisfying im- 
pression of massiveness and delicacy. 
The great buttresses which flank the 
doorway melt upward into twin towers 
and produce a fine sense of unity and 
stability. The severity of their dark 
brickwork is softened by contrast with 
the light stone trimmings and they frame 
in, like a picture, the grouping of portal 
and windows for whose delicate lace-like 
detail they form an excellent foil. Crown- 
ing all and pulling the composition to- 
gether, the rich, light detail of turrets 



254 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




REAR VIEW-TRINITY LUTHERAN CHl'RCH, AKRON, OHIO. 
J. W. C. Corbusier, Architect. 



and gable lends an air of exquisite deli- 
cacy to the whole. 

The brick used is dark and irregular 
in color, rough in texture, and has much 
the effect of that found in the fifteenth 
century houses of England. The stone- 
work has the warm grey tone of Bedford 
limestone. 

The ground upon which the building 
stands slopes downward from the front. 
At the extreme back an archway on the 
lower level gives access to an open clois- 
ter leading to the Sunday School wing, 
which forms an L with the main block 
and walls in the back of the level lot, 
which may at some future time become 
a cloister garth, but which at present is 
occupied by an old residence utilized as 
the parsonage. 

Passing through the front doorway, 
whose detail merits study, one enters the 
narthex, which is enclosed by a rich oak 
screen of open glazed tracery and car- 
ries above it a gallery. At the right a 
portion of this space is partitioned off 
for a processional room, which is con- 
nected by a winding stairway with the 



robing room in the basement. In the 
processional room is a small organ and 
up in the tower, well above the gallery 
level, the echo organ speaks through a 
lancet opening in the front wall. The 
narthex, with its low, dark beamed ceil- 
ing, emphasizes the lightness of the soar- 
ing, clustered columns and the vaulted 
ceiling of the nave. This contrast pro- 
duces a startling effect of height and 
spaciousness, which is enhanced by the 
rich light from the truly remarkable 
glass which is rapidly taking the place 
of temporary glazing. Shallow tran- 
septs also tend to increase the effect of 
spaciousness. 

The transepts are occupied by galleries, 
open below, but otherwise having prac- 
tically the same detail as the one above 
the narthex. The warm dark color of 
the oak woodwork gives a pleasing con- 
trast to the grey of walls and masonry, 
while a restrained use of gold and color 
adds a desirable accent. Tracery is much 
in evidence throughout the woodwork, 
but otherwise carving has been used 
sparingly, chiefly in the form of symbolic 




TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH. 
AKRON, OHIO. J. W. C. 
CORBUSIER, ARCHITECT. 




SIDE VIEW TRINITY LUTHERAN 
CHURCH, AKRON, OHIO. J. 

W. C. CORBUSIER, ARCHITECT. 







10 



NARTHEX SIDE ENTRANCE TRINITY 
LUTHERAN CHURCH, AKRON, OHIO. 
J. W. C. CORBUSIER, ARCHITECT. 



258 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




LOOKING TOWARD SUNDAY SCHOOL ENTRANCE-TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, AKRON. OHIO. 

J. W. C. Corbusier, Architect. 



emblems, which are everywhere to be 
seen in woodwork, glass and masonry. 
The pulpit has nine shields bearing gold 
symbols of the Passion of the Saviour. 
Luther's crest appears in color and gold 
upon shields which enrich the gallery 
fronts. The chancel is lighted by seven 
lancet windows, symbolizing the seven 
original churches ; the three center ones 
contain representations of the Nativity, 
the Passion and the Ascension ; the other 
fpur are of a purely geometrical charac- 
ter. The large windows of the clerestory 
a^re divided into three sections, symboliz- 
ing the Trinity. 

The great aim in view in designing 
the glass was to produce the rich tone 
found in the thirteenth century glass of 
the old cathedrals. It was also definitely 
determined that there should be no large 
figures or other features which would 
by their size dwarf the whole or make 
unduly prominent any portion of it; 
neither should any masses of color be 
permitted to dominate the scheme. This 
did not mean the elimination of pattern 
or the use of a mere kaleidoscopic mass- 



ing of bits of colored glass, but the care- 
ful building up of well studied pattern, 
with such restraint that, though filled with 
pictured symbolism, it would at -first 
sight suggest only a rich glow of jeweled 
light. The completed windows show a 
remarkable fidelity to the spirit of the 
original studies. There are figures and 
emblems innumerable, all forming com- 
ponent parts of a well-studied and evi- 
dent plan of ornament. Medallions give 
a needed accent to the scroll work and 
other ornament; the tiny figures which 
have been used unstintedly show great 
fidelity in drawing; in fact, painstaking 
skill is evident in every detail. Yet in 
striving for these minute perfections, the 
greater thing, the true function of the 
window, has not been forgotten ; and 
when one steps back to get the general 
effect, the little details are forgotten and 
one is conscious only of a great glow of 
scintillating color, filled with the sparkle 
and fire of jewels. 

The altar and reredos of artificial Caen 
stone, with their light color and delicacy 
of detail, give a pleasing relief to the 




SUNDAY SCHOOL ENTRANCE-TRINITY 
LUTHERAN CHURCH, AKRON, OHIO. 
J. W. C. CORBUSIER, ARCHITECT. 



260 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 







\ 




DETAIL OF TRANSEPT-TRINITY LU- 
THERAN CHURCH, AKRON, OHIO, 
J. W. C. CORBUSIER, ARCHITECT. 



262 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




VIEW TOWARD CHANCEL-TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, AKRON, OHIO. 
J. W. C. Corbusier, Architect. 



sombreness of the chancel, whose plain 
oak wainscot rises to the gallery level. 
Five figures are being carved for the 
niches in the reredos, the middle one 
being the figure of the Saviour, the other 
four representing the four Evangelists. 
The technical inspiration for these fig- 
ures is to be drawn from the best work 
of the Middle Ages, and when completed 
they are to be enriched with gold and 
color, and antiqued. 

The divided organ is placed on either 
side of the chancel, lancet openings from 
both chancel and transepts being filled 
with plain pipes, no provision having as 
yet been made for a decorative organ 
front. 

T.he metal work throughout the church 
deserves especial mention. Lighting fix- 
tures, locks, hinges, in fact all exposed 
metal work, were designed by the archi- 
tect; and here again is illustrated the 
fidelity with which the spirit of the 
Gothic style has been preserved. The 
iron shows the handiwork of the smith, 



not the founder nor the machinist, for a 
glance makes evident the fact that this 
work was hammered out on the anvil and 
not cast in a foundry or cut on a ma- 
chine. As a relief from the possible 
monotony of the dark metal, bits of gold 
enrichment have been introduced here 
and there, but so toned down in color as 
to appear but a touch of accent and not 
a jarring spot of brightness. 

An inspection of the accompany- 
ing plans will show a well studied ar- 
rangement of accommodation for the 
various branches of parish activity. As 
yet but little provision has been made for 
''institutional work," but sufficient 
ground space is available for future ex- 
tension along this line. 

In the basement, beneath the church 
proper, is the large social room, which 
will be utilized for entertainments, sup- 
pers and various social gatherings. This 
has an exceptionally high ceiling for a 
basement room, is unobstructed by piers 
or columns and as it has a seating capac- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



263 




NARTHEX SCREEN TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, AKRON, OHIO. 
J. W. C. Corbusier. Architect. 




NARTHEX-TRINITY LUTHERAN CHURCH, AKRON, OHIO. 
J. W. C. Corbusier, Architect. 



264 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



265 



Urn 





THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



267 



ity nearly equal to that of the church 
above, it renders unnecessary the use of 
the latter for any except devotional pur- 
poses. An elevated platform makes am- 
ple provision for concerts and other en- 
tertainments and is adjoined by two 
dressing rooms, in connection with which 
the choir robing 
room can be pressed 
into service when 
necessary. The space 
beneath the plat- 
form is enclosed by 
doors, behind which 
are stored the fold- 
ing banquet tables 
and surplus chairs. 
These rest upon light 
trucks, by means of 
which they may be 
readily wheeled to 
any part of the room. 

The adjoining 
kitchen and pantry 
are exceptionally 
well ventilated and 
lighted because of 
the high ceilings and 
the large windows 
which open into 
areaways. Service to 
the dining room is 
simplified by sliding 
panels in the parti- 
tion, through which 
the dishes are passed 
across a counter to 
the waiters. 

As the rooms de- 
voted to the various 
societies open from 
the social room, all 
the business and 
social life is cen- 
tered in this part of the building, access 
to which is gained from the cloister in 
the rear. 

The wing occupied by the Sunday 
School is entered from two levels, the 
main room from the front, the primary 
room from the lower level of the cloister. 




SOUTH SIDE AISLE TRINITY LUTHERAN 
CHURCH," AKRON, OHIO. 



Thus, although the primary department 
is on the floor below the main room, the 
slope of the lot makes it possible for 
both to have entrances on the ground 
level and to have outside light. No at- 
tempt has been made in this wing to pro- 
duce architectural effect ; but, instead, 
comfort and con- 
venience have, been 
sought after. The 
main room has a 
balcony, which is 
divided into class 
rooms, as is also the 
space beneath. These 
rooms are so ar- 
ranged in plan as to 
focus on the center 
of the rostrum, thus 
affording an unob- 
structed view of the 
speaker from every 
seat in the room. 

It will be seen that 
all the various de- 
partments of church 
activity are ade- 
quately provided for 
and in such a way 
as to insure privacy 
for each. Thus, the 
devotional services 
of the church prop- 
er, the social and 
business functions 
of the different so- 
cieties, and the edu- 
cational work of the 
Sunday School may 
all be carried on si- 
multaneously with- 
out interfering with 
one another, and yet 
all are so housed as 
to have convenient inter-communication. 
Taken as a whole, Trinity Lutheran 
Church is an interesting example of the 
progress that is being made and the in- 
terest that is being taken in developing 
higher ideals in ecclesiastical architec- 
ture. 




THE OLD CITY HALL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



OLD CITY HALL 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 



By H. F. Cunningham^ 



ABOUT the middle of the year 1795 
President Washington and Dr. 
Thornton, author of the accepted 
design for the Capitol Building, became 
dissatisfied with the Frenchman, Hallet, 
who had been employed as superintend- 
ent of construction, and cast about for 
some one to take his place. John Trum- 
bull, the artist, was then in London and, 
hearing of the vacancy, wrote Thornton, 
urging the appointment of George Had- 
ifield, a young British architect who had 
"cut quite a caper" at the Royal British 
Academy of Art about that time, having 
won all the prizes at the Academy for 
excellence of architecture. Benjamin 
West, President of the Royal Academy, 
strongly recommended Hadfield, express- 
ing himself as convinced that he pos- 
sessed a more thorough knowledge of 
civil architecture than any other young 
man in England. 

Hadfield was accordingly appointed to 
the vacancy on October 15, 1795, his sal- 
ary to be $1,400 per annum, plus his 
traveling expenses to America. The 
Capitol Building was then scarcely start- 
ed, Hallet having done nothing but some 
excavating and a few foundations, most 



of which were later removed as unneces- 
sary. 

Shortly after taking up his work Had- 
field thought it advisable to suggest cer- 
tain changes in the design of the building, 
among other things recommending the 
addition of an attic story to the design as 
accepted. The Commissioners in charge 
of the work had, however, become dis- 
satisfied with Hallet by reason of his 
wanting to make changes in the design 
and were not open to suggestions. Learn- 
ing of their rejection of his recommenda- 
tions, Hadfield promptly gave the three 
months' notice required by his contract 
and was ready to quit; but finding the 
Commissioners willing to accept his resig- 
nation, he withdrew it and was continued 
on the work, with the express stipulation 
that he was "engaged to superintend the 
execution of the plan without altera- 
tion." 

Things seem to have gone right 
smoothly with him for a time, until 1798, 
when, on May 10, he was notified that his 
resignation would be acceptable, to take 
effect three months from that date, but 
without waiting for the three months to 
elapse, he resigned forthwith. The trou- 



270 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




VIEW ACROSS FORECOURT THE OLD CITY HALL, WASHINGTON, D. C 



ble this time was that he refused to sur- 
render his drawings for the Federal Ex- 
ecutive Offices, then building (demol- 
ished many years ago to make room for 
the Treasury and State, War and Navy 
Department Buildings). James Hoban, 
architect of the President's House, was 
then engaged to succeed Hadfield on the 
Capitol work, and was paid Hadfield's 
salary in addition to the $1,400 a year he 
already received for his work on the 
President's House. 

Hadfield then engaged in private prac- 
tice in the new city and remained there 
until his death, in 1826. He designed in 
the course of his practice several public 
and private buildings that we can posi- 
tively attribute to him and possibly sev- 
eral others whose authorship is not so 
definitely known. Among the buildings 
of which we are certain he was the au- 
thor are the Federal Offices above re- 
ferred to, the Mausoleum for the Van 
Ness family, still standing in Oak Hill 
Cemetery in Georgetown, and the City 
Hall, now occupied by the United States 
Courts of the District of Columbia, and 
illustrated herewith. The Van Ness 
Tomb is a gem of refinement and pro- 



portion, and it is difficult to imagine a 
more satisfactory solution of the prob- 
lem. There is a very beautiful urn at 
the top of it and all the details are most 
delicate and pleasing. Like Palladio, 
Hadfield was compelled to work in the 
cheapest and most easily gotten mate- 
rials ; and this lovely tomb, like the Court 
House, is sadly in need of repair. 

I think we should not be far wrong in 
attributing the group of buildings built on 
Analostan Island for the Mason family 
to Hadfield, as well as several other pri- 
vate houses in the city which are still 
standing and occupied. Certainly no one 
else, unless it were Dr. Thornton, could 
have produced anything so well propor- 
tioned and so exquisitely detailed as the 
Mason house, and all Dr. Thornton's 
works are pretty definitely known. 

The City Hall was begun in 1820, the 
first part built being the central part with 
its Greek Ionic portico. The east wing 
was finished in 1826, the year of its au- 
thor's death, and the west wing not until 
1849. During this, rather long period of 
construction the building was, according 
to an early writer, "a veritable ruin." 

In 1871 the building was made over to 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



271 



the Federal Government and has since 
that time housed the District Courts. 
The offices of the U. S. District Attor- 
ney, the U. S. Marshal, the Register 
of Wills and Recorder of Deeds are also 
quartered in it. The District Jail was 
formerly located directly behind the City 
Hall, and there were in connection with 
it a number of underground cells, which 
are said to have been quite undesirable 
places in which to spend one's days. The 
building has been the scene of a number 
of famous trials, among them that of 
Guiteau, the murderer of President Gar- 
field. 

The City Hall, or Court House, as it 
is now always called, furnishes a notable 
example of the possibility of achieving 
a perfectly satisfactory building without 
the use of any ornament whatever. The 
architect relied entirely upon proportion 
and correct detail in this case, as he did 
in all the examples of his work that we 
know, and the result is most admirable. 
The interiors are almost barn-like in their 
absolute simplicity, and this is a source 
of much criticism on the part of its pres- 
ent occupants. Those who have to use 



the building are endeavoring to have 
Congress provide what they consider 
more suitable quarters, and several 
schemes have been brought forward, 
among them the refacing of the building 
with limestone or the replacing of it 
with a wholly new structure. In either 
event the city would lose a most notable 
example of early American architecture. 
The building is of brick, stuccoed, with 
the architectural members, columns and 
the like of sandstone, the whole being 
painted white. The situation is most 
agreeable, the building being set in a 
large park, with an adequate approach 
and a sufficient clear space all around. 

There has been so little money appro- 
priated for its maintenance for some time 
past that certain parts, especially on the 
exterior, are badly in need of repair, some 
of the stone members having disinte- 
grated through lack of paint, and the 
stucco having peeled off in many places. 
The entire restoration of the building is, 
however, quite possible and should not 
prove very expensive ; and it is to be 
hoped that there will be found a willing- 
ness on the part of those in authority to 




SOUTH ELEVATION OF WEST WING. SHOWING ANNEX IN BACKGROUND- THE OLD 
CITY HALL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



273 




WEST ELEVATION OF WEST WING-THE OLD CITY HALL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 






appropriate without further delay suffi- 
cient funds to undertake it. 

There are some interesting comments 
on Mr. Hadfield to be found in the cor- 
respondence of his contemporaries, a few 
of which follow : 

The Commissioners in charge of the 
building of the new city write, in 1797, 
that "Hadfield has drawn the plan of all 
the public offices to be erected in the City 
of Washington, and which have met with 
the approbation of the President and the 
several Departments for which they are 
intended ;" and again in 1798, after he 
had resigned, "We believe Mr. Hadfield 
to be a young man of taste but we have 
found him extremely deficient in prac- 
tical knowledge as an architect." 

This latter criticism would seem to be 
rather disproved by such of his work as 
we know today, as well as by the follow- 
ing extract from a letter written by the 
artist Trumbull after Hadfield's death: 
"His services were soon dispensed with, 

11 



not because his knowledge was not emi- 
nent, but because his integrity compelled 
him to say that parts of the original plan 
could not be executed. Poor Hadfield 
languished many years in obscurity in 
Washington, where, however, toward the 
close of his life, he had the opportunity 
of erecting a noble monument to himself 
in the City Hall, a beautiful building in 
which is no waste of space or materials." 

Latrobe, the famous architect, later 
connected with the Capitol work, wrote 
to Hadfield urging him to. prove his au- 
thorship of certain parts of the design 
for the Capitol and thus lighten "the load 
of calumny with which you have been 
treated," but Hadfield never laid claim 
to any portion of the design as his own. 

In concluding the foregoing brief 
sketch, the present writer wishes to ex- 
press his indebtedness to the very inter- 
esting "History of the Capitol" by Mr. 
Glenn Brown, F. A. I. A., for many of 
the facts relative to Hadfield's work. 




PORTFOLIO OF 
CVR.R.ENT AR.CHITE CTVB.E 





RESIDENCE OF W. PARK MOORE. 
ESQ., ELKINS PARK, PA. HEA- 
COCK & HOKANSON, ARCHITECTS. 



276 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 






RESIDENCE OF W. PARK MOORE, 
ESQ., ELKINS PARK, PA. HEA- 
COCK & HOKANSON, ARCHITECTS. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



al ilBiiiiiiniii 

1 1 [ 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 




NEW POST OFFICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Graham, Burnham & Co., Architects. 




NEW POST OFFICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Graham, Burnham & Co., Architects. 




N*EW POST OFFICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
GRAHAM, BtfRNHAM & CO., ARCHITECTS. 




NEW POST OFFICE, WASHINGTON. D. C. 
GRAHAM, BURNHAM & CO., ARCHITECTS. 



WE PUTT r - : ' 




BOOKS FROM UNIVERSITY PRESSES 

By RICHARD FRANZ BACH 

Curator, School of Architecture, Columbia University 
PART I. 



\\// HERE there is no state supervis- 
YV ion of the publication of learned 
and eminently useful works 
which in themselves are not sufficiently 
well supported by public interest or finan- 
cial subsidy, it is well for the universities 
of the country to take it upon themselves 
to guarantee that certain undertakings, 
especially archaeological researches and 
phenomenal scientific advances, often too 
little known or of too slight monetary 
promise to be handled by publishing 
firms, shall in proper form see the light. 
In Germany, Austria and France many 
such contributions to human knowledge 
are fathered by the respective govern- 
ments, sometimes by schools of fine arts 
or by altruistic societies. In England, 
especially, the institutions of this country 
have found their prototypes for the estab- 
lishment of presses under the control of 
prominent universities, notably at Ox- 
ford and Cambridge. In the United 
States a number of such presses have 
latterly come into being, the finest, no 
doubt, at Yale, Harvard, Princeton and 
Columbia. From the standpoint of archi- 
tecture and the arts the first three men- 
tioned have already produced excellent 



volumes, while Columbia has under way 
extensive plans for the installation of the 
machinery of reproduction and the han- 
dling of its own printing entirely within 
campus limits. In other fields, not re- 
quiring the expensive means for making 
highly finished illustrations, all of these 
institutions, not to mention the Universi- 
ties of Chicago and Pennsylvania, have 
published extended series of authorita- 
tive books ; as, for instance, in the depart- 
ments of history or of philology. 

By far the best volume which has thus 
far been issued by the university presses, 
both for intrinsic value and for book- 
making skill, is that by William Henry 
Goodyear, entitled Greek Refinements; 
Studies in Temperamental Architecture 
(Yale University Press, New Haven, 
Conn. ; quarto, pp. xx 227, indices ; 
$10). This is a new and complete re- 
statement of the matter of constructive 
curvatures as applied to Greek building, 
and it is intended to become we are 
grateful to learn the first volume in a 
series, of which the second will concern 
the medieval aspect of the subject. Mr. 
Goodyear has achieved new laurels with 
this work for several reasons; and not 



282 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



the least of these is that he has provided 
us with a compact modern interpretation 
of a much-discussed but scholastically 
neglected phase of antique beauty, which 
has hitherto appeared only in widely dis- 
seminated articles in the periodicals by 
Mr. Goodyear himself, in the frequently 
ill-humored attacks upon his theories and 
proofs in foreign journals, and finally in 
English books over sixty years old and 
not suitable for general use because of 
their weight, size and specialized mode of 
treatment. The new volume is a "sum- 
mary, but systematic and readable, ac- 
count" of a subject, which in this guise 
takes on a fresh life and vivid interest, 
although it has in the past often been 
visited with voluntary ignorance ; and we 
can assure its author that the general ap- 
preciation of his researches, until now but 
grudgingly accepted by those who could 
best profit by them, will not be long out- 
standing. No doubt he will reap his 
greatest harvest in the schools, where the 
format of the volume will commend it as 
a standard library work. 

In order that the correct definition and 
application of the term "refinements" 
may be properly construed, let us first 
quote the author's words, on page 3, to 
the effect that " . . they are purposed 
departures from the supposedly geometric 
regularity of the horizontal and perpen- 
dicular lines in the Greek temples, and 
from the presumed mathematical equality 
of their apparently corresponding dimen- 
sions and spaces." And here we have, in 
the present reviewer's opinion, a fair esti- 
mate of the chief reason for the contin- 
ued incredulity aroused in many, even 
avowedly professional and learned circles, 
when the matter of intentional curvature 
has been broached. It is seen in Mr. 
Goodyear's express and well-advised use 
of "supposedly," "presumed" and "appar- 
ently." Out of suppositions and pre- 
sumptions the mind creates a mirage, an 
ideal, or a superstition ; surely it can, by 
the same token, also create a wrong im- 
pression especially when the erstwhile 
disconcerting science of optics, inaccurate 
knowledge of ancient life, ability and con- 
structive methods, and a generally be- 
fogged understanding of the meaning of 
Greek life in relation to art are also called 



into play. First impressions are often 
lasting, though they may be based on thin 
air, hearsay or an inborn opinionative in- 
clination. Again, although men of high 
standing made public the first notice of 
Greek temple curvatures, no such extrav- 
agant reports had been penned by Stuart 
and Revett or Lord Elgin, who had with 
their scaffoldings climbed to all parts of 
the Parthenon. Yitruvius himself, whose 
writing had been architectural gospel for 
centuries, had a careful passage concern- 
ing the construction of curves in eleva- 
tion; yet the 1812 translation of his book, 
edited by Wilkins, contained an explicit 
footnote to the effect that "they were 
probably never actually employed." For 
these reasons, coupled with a consistent 
unwillingness on the part of readers, 
writers and students to test authors' sta,te- 
ments by the monuments themselves, Mr. 
Goodyear has fought down a host of op- 
ponents in whose inkpots his findings had 
accomplished an unwonted confusion. By 
dint of archaeologic conviction, a doughty 
spirit and a sheaf of wholesome facts, he 
has at last succeeded in establishing the 
refinements as essential members in the 
art and science of Greek building, arid his 
efforts may be said to culminate in the 
present volume, a capstone for his whole 
fabric. 

Those who still cavil at the structural 
intention and artistic value of refinements 
in building may be said to stand at the 
gate of an architectural Samaria. They 
jeered at the "glamor of crooked build- 
ing." The deflections were so slight that 
they were not observed unless sighted 
for, and those who mocked had done no 
sighting; what is more, they wilfully ig- 
nored the fact that measurements and 
observations of the masonry itself had led 
the pioneers in this field to make their 
declarations. They then relied upon the 
fallibility of the mason's eye, until it was 
demonstrated that "the degree of error 
which may have arisen from inaccuracy 
of workmanship in the Parthenon," i. e., 
between the breadths of the east and west 
fronts, was .022 of an inch, or one-fiftieth 
of an inch in 101 feet. This matter of 
the quality of Greek masonry had, fur- 
thermore, been set at rest by Stuart, who 
showed that the finely ground stones of 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



283 



the steps in the stylobate of the Parthe- 
non, which are laid without mortar, had 
by what the chemist and physicist call 
molecular attraction, practically grown 
together. What is more, those who came 
to scoff were not loath to admit the ex- 
istence of an inward leaning of columns 
and of vertical faces of architrave and 
frieze, a forward leaning of antae, verti- 
cal cornice faces, fronts of abaci, acro- 
teria and antefixge, and a leaning toward 
each other of door-jambs ; and they were 
fully assured that the columns and capi- 
tals of the Parthenon were of differing 
sizes (the maximum variation being two 
and one-quarter inches), that intercol- 
umniations varied and that metopes were 
not of uniform width. These were facts, 
incontrovertible and accepted only be- 
cause substantiated by measurements ; yet 
similar truths in different guise and sim- 
ilarly vouched for by measurements, even 
by photographs, were met with ridicule 
when described as curves in plan or 
curves in elevation. These are the master 
curves, for they demand the maximum 
building skill and the most refined aes- 
thetic sense. 

Mr. Goodyear disposes finally of a 
number of erroneous theories which have 
cluttered the progress of study in this 
field and have obscured or misled non- 
professional students, who were guided 
only by the cursory notices in art histories 
and text-books. Among these incorrect 
assumptions is the supposition that Greek 
refinements "were designed as optical 
corrections of optical effects of irregular- 
ity," e. g., the upper horizontal curve (in 
the entablature) as a correction of the al- 
leged optical effect of a downward sag- 
ging in absolutely straight lines of similar 
length similarly placed. This is contro- 
verted by the fact that the optical theory' 
involved has not received the indorsement 
of a single expert in optics, although men 
of the stamp of Hauck and Thiersch have 
devoted their energies to a solution of the 
problem; furthermore, it is controverted 
by recent investigations of inward curves 
in plan at Cori, Pgestum and Egesta, 
which show that "it is exactly an optical 
effect of sagging downward which is 
actually produced by these concave curves 
in plan, as far as the upper horizontal 



lines are concerned" ; and finally it is set 
at nought by a principle in the elements 
of perspective, by virtue of which "lines 
above the level of the eye, and especially 
on near approach, curve downward to- 
ward the extremities and not toward the 
center." Another explanation hopelessly 
beside the mark was that based upon the 
opinion that Greek buildings were des- 
tined to be seen from fixed points of 
view. This cannot, of course, hold water 
in face of the extended excavations at 
Olympia, Delphi and other centers, for 
each spectator would require a municipal 
map of progress through these cities, with 
marked points of accent, so that he might 
be assured of a proper point of view in 
accordance with that intended by the 
architects of the buildings. 

Yet Mr. Goodyear does not ignore the 
human possibility that such curvatures 
might be modulations (1) "designed to 
please the eye by avoiding the inartistic 
effects which attend formal monotony ;" 
(2) "intended to suggest and accent de- 
sirable effects," or (3) "intended to avoid 
unpleasant effects." These three possi- 
bilities are illustrated in order ( 1 ) by the 
horizontal curvature ; (2) by the "con- 
vergence and inward leaning of the main 
perpendicular lines, which gives an effect 
of solidity and strength;" and (3) by the 
decreasing intercolumniations between 
angle columns and the concomitant "vari- 
ations in the metope widths." 

Let us consider briefly the history of 
exploration in regard to Greek refine- 
ments. To begin with, none of these de- 
flections from geometric regularity were 
known through publications before 1838. 
In 1836 horizontal curvatures in the Par- 
thenon were first noticed by Joseph Hof- 
fer, the court architect of the contempo- 
rary Bavarian king of Greece, and in 
1838 he published his observations, to- 
gether with a goodly number of measure- 
ments, in the Wiener Bauzeitung. At 
about the same time and, no doubt, inde- 
pendently, John Pennethorne observed 
the same curvatures in the Parthenon, not 
to mention others in the Theseion and the 
Athenian Propylaea ; but only after a 
study of the directions given by Vitruvius 
and a journey to Egypt (in 1833), where 
he found other curves in plan in the tem- 



284 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



pie of Medinet Habu. Pennethorne's in- 
vestigations found form in a p.-aiphlet 
privately circulated in 184^f and in a folio 
volume published in 1878 entitled Geome- 
try and Optics of the Ancients. The task 
of investigation in this field was next un- 
dertaken by Francis Cranmer Penrose, 
its chief apostle before Mr. Goodyear, 
and whose results were published in 1851 
under the title An Investigation of the 
Principles of Athenian Architecture. 
This was up to the time of the publica- 
tion of the volume under discussion the 
best and most general work in the field, 
but its bulky proportions and specialist's 
point of view precluded its general use- 
fulness. We can safely say that the aegis 
has now been transferred to new shoul- 
ders. Nor has Mr. Goodyear's advocacy 
of the aesthetic quality of these deflec- 
tions been the joyful path of a bringer of 
welcome news ; for he has shared the fate 
of every prophet, being, in the nature of 
things, without honor in his own country. 
The author's studies date from 1868, 
when he learned his first steps in this di- 
rection from Carl Friedrichs of the Ber- 
lin Museum, and were propagated and 
widened in scope by suggestions found in 
Forster, Burckhardt and Ruskin to in- 
clude similar deflections in Italo-Byzan- 
tine and Italian-Romanesque buildings. 
After several years of study, extending to 
1874, the researches were discontinued 
until 1895, when were begun the deep 
studies which have since that time, thanks 
to Mr. Goodyear's unflagging zeal, grad- 
ually gathered to themselves a definite 
form and reality in the minds of men, 
professional and others, so that the Greek 
refinements now constitute an undeniable 
and accepted factor in the Greek con- 
structive system. 

It is noteworthy that at the very be- 
ginning of these discoveries Hoffer's ac- 
count gives due credit for the aesthetic as 
.well as the structural value of his find- 
ings. For instance, he says : "In modern 
times great porticos, of at least equally 
large dimensions, have been built, and yet 
we have not been able to achieve the 
same satisfactory effect . . we find then 
that the Greeks were not content to build 
their temples according to narrow rules 
or according to such a canon as Vitruvius, 



or the modern architects, endeavor to es- 
tablish, but that everything was with 
them a matter of feeling. They had the 
feeling, which was encouraged by their 
high culture and their happy climate, that 
straight lines have a cramped and stiff 
effect (einen beengenden und starren Ein- 
druck)." In this connection Mr. Good- 
year's subtitle, Studies in Temperamental 
Architecture, should be noted, and also 
his statement, on page 68, that " . . the 
classic horizontal curvatures were tem- 
peramental refinements inspired by the 
sentiment of beauty and by artistic pref- 
erence, and not by a desire to exaggerate 
by optical correction the formalism, stiff- 
ness and rigidity of straight lines." And 
it is interesting to trace in the writings of 
other art historians of note a similar in- 
tentional avoidance of any theory of pure 
optics and a decided insistence upon the 
temperamental quality as raison d'etre for 
the Greek refinements. Witness Kugler's 
opinion that the desired result was "an 
effect of breathing life" ; or Schnaase's, 
"a feeling of life inspired the whole 
building"; or Burckhardt's, "These 
(curves) are the expression of the same 
feeling which . . everywhere sought to 
give to apparently mathematical forms 
the pulsation of a living organism." Sim- 
ilar passages of generally identical con- 
tent may be found in Michaelis, Boutmy, 
Choisy, Anderson, Spiers, Percy Gardner 
and Ruskin. 

An interesting section of Mr. Good- 
year's book is that concerning the uni- 
versality of the use of horizontal refine- 
ments, and another is that concerning the 
method of construction of horizontal 
curves in temple platforms. After read- 
ing an account with such a sharp focus 
as that contained in the present volume, 
it is not difficult to assume that these plan 
and elevation deflections were of univer- 
sal application. The reverse is demon- 
strated by the author and the reason for 
the absence of curves in certain cases is 
found in the necessary economy of labor 
and of money practiced when buildings 
were erected in times of national stress. 
This reason would not, of course, affect 
stylobate deflections, but chiefly the sub- 
sequently necessary grinding of the beds 
of the lower column drums to give them 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



285 



the proper position and inward inclination 
under the conditions of a curved base. 
Temples without horizontal curves are 
the Erectheion at Athens, built eight 
years after the completion of the Parthe- 
non, the temple of Nike Apteros, also on 
the Acropolis and likewise of the fifth 
century B. C., the temple at Phigaleia, of 
which the architects of the Parthenon 
were also the authors, the temples at 
Aegina and at Rhamnus, both the Zeus 
and the Hera temples at Olympia, and 
the sixth century Greek Basilica at Paes- 
tum in southern Italy. 

There are therefore a number of im- 
portant buildings in which refinements of 
the horizontal type at least do not play. 
any part at all. Apart from the possible 
reason above stated, there may be one 
other important cause for the omission of 
such deflections, namely, the desire of the 
architect in question. Says Mr. Good- 
year on page 115 : "How did the introduc- 
tion of these various Greek devices actu- 
ally come about, as a matter of fact? 
Common sense would lead us to suppose 
that, aside from Egyptian influence or ex- 
ample in the matter of curves, and per- 
haps also in other directions, the intro- 
duction of the Greek refinements was 
gradual, tentative, and experimental, and 
that it was also temperamental, and con- 
trolled by the susceptibilities and sensi- 
tiveness of the individual architect. Only 
this point of view could explain the varia- 
tions in the measurements for the same 
refinement in different buildings." We 
have, therefore, a free and spontaneous 
and, better yet, individual interpretation 
in the execution of Greek refinements ; 
they are not only tolerated but obviously 
intentional and really a part of design as 
we understand it. And this is a new con- . 
tribution toward the proper definition of 
that much maltreated descriptive adjec- 
tive, classic. 

The matter of the method of laying 
stereobate or stylobate stones in order to 
obtain the desired curvature is made clear 
by the author's reference to Emile Bur- 
nouf's explanation, dated as long ago as 
1875, of Vitruvius' directions concerning 
the use of scamilli impares, or unequal 
sighting projections (scamillus is best 
translated by the French word nivelette}. 



The scamilli on the individual blocks were 
of varying sizes, graded according to po- 
sition shorter on the middle blocks, tall- 
er on those in the extremities of the stylo- 
bate and by sighting properly along 
their points, the calculated curvature was 
readily obtained. It is obvious that a sim- 
ilar method would also be feasible for set- 
ting out curves in plan. 

In order to make his book sufficiently 
inclusive, Mr. Goodyear also devotes a 
section to vertical inclinations in Greek 
temples ; notably the inward lean of the 
columns (pointed out by Donaldson in 
1829), with the consequent diagonal in- 
clination of the corner shafts, the for- 
ward leaning of antse, the entasis (which 
has been published only since 1810) and 
the diminution of columnar diameters. A 
thoroughly illuminating chapter is that on 
"Asymmetric dimensions in Greek tem- 
ples," wherein is adequately set forth that 
formal regularity was not the "desirable 
ideal of classic architecture." In this con- 
nection is discussed the Hera Temple at 
Olympia, with its heterogeneous columns 
which, according to Dorpfeld, superseded 
original timber shafts in the order of 
their decay and therefore illustrate a 
number of successive phases in the treat- 
ment of column and capital. These dis- 
crepancies are seen in a new light when 
discussed in the same paragraph with 
similar variations at Selinus, in Temple 
G ; nor are we yet satisfied with any ex- 
planations thus far advanced in regard to 
Greek indulgence on this head; for ob- 
viously, according to Durm, "it did not 
offend the Greek sense of beauty to allow 
columns of quite unlike form in the same 
building side by side." An amazing ex- 
ample of such disparity of column diam- 
eters is seen at Syracuse in Ortygia, 
where in the sixth century Apollo Temple 
the two remaining "monolithic angle col- 
umns, on the same front, differ by a foot 
(thirty cm.) in diameter." From Mr. 
Goodyear's instructive chapter on the 
many Greek asymmetries, those in plan 
dimensions, spacing and diameter of col- 
umns, and others, we may, then, select the 
following concise statement of the case: 
"The fact thus stands out in bold relief 
that both systematic and unsystematic ir- 
regularities are found in the same Greek 



286 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



temples." And this is followed by the 
promise of a subsequent volume on the 
curvatures in buildings of a later date ; 
therefore we obtain a foothold and par- 
allel for demonstrations in later volumes 
of these studies that the existence of un- 
systematic irregularities of dimension in 
a given medieval cathedral, does not pre- 
clude or discredit the existence of system- 
atic irregularities in the same cathedral. 
This gives us no little food for thought by 
way of anticipation ; we eagerly await the 
study of the medieval refinements, for 
these have been made the target of the 
most virulent attacks in the past. 

Finally we heartily congratulate Mr. 
Goodyear upon this notable volume, its 
scholarly and efficient arrangement, and 
its sterling subject matter. For purposes 
of demonstration and suitable reference 
an appendix is added to each chapter ; 
the footnotes are lettered and appendix 
sections are indicated in the body of the 
text by numbers. There is also an index 
of authorities with page references, and 
an analyzed index of subject matter. The 
book is a .fine example of American ideals 
in typography and illustration, as well as 
of the exacting standard of the Yale Uni- 
versity Press. 

OLD PHILADELPHIA. 

v\ TT E have in our Atlantic Seaboard 
My States a wealth of worthy archi- 
tectural remains from the eigh- 
teenth century, and all too few of 
them are widely known. Many of these 
old buildings are in places difficult to 
reach and there is no accessible or ac- 
curate record of the details and features 
that give them their peculiar charm. 
Year by year the ancient structures grow 
less in number and with the demolition of 
each one we suffer an irreparable loss to 
our heritage which is only mitigated in 
some degree by the possession of accu- 
rate measurements and drawings. 

The authors of Old Philadelphia Colo- 
nial Details* have reaped in a fat field, 

*Old Philadelphia Colonial Details. Measured and 
Drawn by Joseph Patterson Sims and Charles 
Willing. New York : Architectural Book Publish- 
ing Co., $10. 



for Philadelphia and the neighboring 
country offer an abundance of valuable 
architectural material that has scarcely 
been touched. Of the fifty odd large folio 
plates, drawn chiefly at three-fourths inch 
scale or else in full size, thirteen are de- 
voted to Hope Lodge, built in 1723 and 
an excellent example of early Georgian 
work. Seven plates are given to Graeme 
Park, Horsham, built in 1722 by Sir 
William Keith. Graeme Park, owing to 
its location, is difficult to reach and, as 
the house presents one of the finest ex- 
amples of early Georgian panelling, and 
moulding details, one wishes that even 
more space might have been bestowed 
upon it. Cliveden in Germantown also 
has seven plates. To the State House 
(Independence Hall) are given five 
plates, the south elevations being from 
measurements made by Messrs. Brockie 
and Hastings. 

Three city houses, 338 Spruce Street ; 
the Stocker house, 402 South Front 
Street, and the Bishop White house at 
Front and Pine Streets, have respectively 
three, four and three plates. Those of 
the Stocker house, built about 1768, are 
particularly interesting because they 
show the beginnings of Adam influence 
in American work. The rest of the 
plates are taken up with various details, 
including the panelled side of the parlor 
at Whitby Hall, some interesting pieces 
of exterior ironwork along the river 
front and doors and mantels from the 
King of Prussia Inn (now demolished) 
in Germantown. 

It is to be regretted that the word "Co- 
lonial" in the title is somewhat mislead- 
ing, for the work illustrated is all Georg- 
ian and there is not a single piece that is 
truly Colonial. In a book of such excel- 
lent purpose and, in the main, creditable 
execution, it is unfortunate that such a 
concession should have been made to 
popular laxity in the application of the 
terms "Colonial" and "Georgian." 

It is distinctly gratifying to note the 
large share of attention that has been 
given to mouldings and to the faithful 
presentation of their profiles. 

H. D. E. 




NOTES 
AND 
MMENTS 



The First 
City 



After six years of con- 
struction France has 
opened her first garden 
city, at Draveil, near the 
gates of Paris. No doubt 
another period of even 
greater length will pass 
before the whole work 
of plantation, laying out of streets, and 
sanitation is completed, not to mention the 
erection of some five or six hundred dwell- 
ings, of which but fifty are now standing. 
France at last feels acutely the need for 
proper building facilities to provide a solu- 
tion for the problems of city crowding and 
inadequate housing, although both England 
and Germany have these many years set 
her a consistently praiseworthy example, 
with tangible results in the form of greater 
health and lower mortality. It is surely 
time that a nation threatened by the omin- 
ous shadow of a falling birth rate should 
give attention to the greater care of chil- 
dren. It is for these that the garden city 
will offer the greatest benefits in the way 
of normal growth and physical efficiency, 
which are invariably an asset to the nation 
at large. 



For six or seven years 
the Germans have been 
Ingenious at work preparing new 
Repairs to uniform concrete foun-' 
Strasburg dations for one of the 
Cathedral. 142 metre spires of 
Strasburg Cathedral. 
The undertaking would 
not have been completed until 1917, but has 
now, of course, been indefinitely postponed. 
The method of carrying out the necessary 
repairs is of the utmost interest. A com- 
plete circle of concrete piles was sunk 
around the base of the spire and their 
heads bound together by a concrete crown. 
The earth around these piles was saturated 




by hydraulic pressure with a thin cement, 
or "milk of cement." Another concrete 
unit or "collar" was prepared to form a 
base for the tower itself, and between this 
and the previously mentioned concrete 
crown the actual work of support during 
operations was done by twelve powerful 
jacks. After the whole weight of the tower 
has been brought to rest upon these provi- 
sional foundations', the old stone under- 
structure will be removed and superseded by 
an immense "thimble" of concrete which is 
destined to serve as the final foundation. 
The whole work will cost not less than 
$500,000. 



The exposition en- 
titled "L'Art pour 1'En- 
An Exposition fance," recently held in 
of Art the Galliera Museum in 

for Children. Paris, succeeded in as- 
sembling a most re- 
markable collection of 
works in a rather unus- 
ual field. The exhibits were extremely 
various in nature, including pictures of 
children, historic children's costumes, peas- 
ant toys, books, nursery decorations, and 
other artistic efforts, and it was a revela- 
tion to the casual visitor to note how large 
a part children play in the modern ar- 
tistic world. The court of the museum was 
filled with play-houses of various types, 
exhibited by the Paris department stores: 
houses varying from the architecture of the 
thatched Breton cabin to that of the trel- 
lised arbor. In the main hall toys vied 
in interest with portraits of children, il- 
lustrated children's books and quaint cos- 
tumes of the eighteenth century. But the 
exhibits in the long gallery at the rear 
were, perhaps, the most interesting of all. 
Here a number of small sections were di- 
vided off to show attempts at nursery deco- 
ration. One of these compartments, with 



288 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




CHILD'S ROOM BY MISS JESSIE KING-EXPOSI. 
TION DE L'ART POUR L'ENFANCE. 

white walls and cream-colored furniture, 
was the work of Miss Lloyd; the English, 
it seems, excel in this form of art. The 
high dado around the room was white, with 
light blue dots, surmounted by a frieze of 
gray, decorated with conventional flowers 
in natural colors. The insets in the fur- 
niture were of yellow rattan, with colored 
pictures of animals to add an additional 
note of gayety. Another nursery interior, 
by Miss Jessie King, of Glasgow, was al- 
most entirely in blue 
and white, and its 
air of brightness and 
cleanliness delighted 
all the mothers who 
visited theexposition. 
The blue walls and 
white-painted wood- 
work and furniture 
were relieved by de- 
signs in gay colors, 
green and yellow 
predominating. The floor was a dark gray, 
the curtains' light blue. This room had a 
large window, with insets of colored glass, 
whose light tones added animation to the 
general effect without greatly reducing the 
amount of sunlight admitted to the nursery. 
The room contained, in addition to its 
ingenious built-in cupboards and window 
seat, and the usual table and chairs, a most 
charming dolls' house, designed in the 
style of the room, and a remarkable hobby- 
horse, this latter being the work of Mile. 
Isabelle de Nolde. 

In the same gallery, ranged along the op- 
posite wall, were the delightful toys de- 
signed by Andre Helle, the well-known 
humorist. Here we have a procession of 
cut-out wooden toys, representing the King 
(Louis XIV, to judge by the costumes of 
his following) on the way to the war. This 
type of wooden toys, of which Helle and 




GIRL'S ROOM BY MISS LLOYD EXPOSITION 
DE L'ART POUR L'ENFANCE. 



WOODEN TOYS BY ANDRE HELLE-EXPOSI- 
TION DE L'ART POUR L'ENFANCE. 

Canau d'Ache have produced such excel- 
lent examples, is one that deserves a great 
degree of popularity. Because of the sim- 
plicity of the construction, excellent de- ' 
signs are possible at small expense, and 
surely these vigorous silhouettes, with their 
bright colors', should appeal more highly 
to the imagination of the child than the 
stuffed horses and woolly lambs of our 
own less fortunate infancy. Helle exhibit- 
ed also, in addition to his wooden toys. 
pages from his books 
for children, illus- 
trated in much the 
same spirit, wall- 
papers for nurseries, 
and other similar 
designs, but the 
toys seem to have 
the widest appeal. 
Wooden toys of the 



same type have met 
with considerable 
success in Germany, and there seems no 
reason why America should offer a less 
promising field for a similar experiment. 

The Hotel Biron, 

after many vicissitudes. 

will at last find a perma- 

The Hotel Biron nent owner in the 

a National French government. The 

Monument. building is one of last- 

ing beauty and a fine ex- 

ample of the manner of 

Jacques Gabriel, from whose designs it was 

erected in 1730. It is now to become a 

"national monument" and a depository for 

the Musee Rodin, in which will be exhibited 

Greek and Egyptian collections owned by 

the great sculptor, as well as much of his 

personal work. The establishment of this 

museum but slightly antedates that founded 

by the same artist in London. 






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VOL. XXXV1L No. 4 



APRIL, 1915 



SERIAL NO. 199 



ARCHITECTVRAL 
sj> RECORD 




COVER-AN ITALIAN GARDEN. By C. Matlack Price t w 

THE MEDIAEVAL MARKET PLAGE AT YPRES . . .289 

By G. A. T. Middleton 

RECENT ASPECTS OF GARDEN DESIGN . . . .300 

By Harold D. Eberlein 

THE HOTEL STATLER IN DETROIT: Geo. B. Post - Sons, Architects , 320 

By W. Sydney Wagner 

THE GROUPING OF FARM BUILDINGS: Examples from the Work of 

Alfred Hopkins - 340 

By John J. Klaber 

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN CONNECTICUT . 360 

Text and Measured Drawings by Wesley Sherwood Bessell 

PORTFOLIO OF CURRENT ARCHITECTURE - 370 

THE ARCHITECT'S LIBRARY: Books from University Presses. Part II - 379 

NOTES AND COMMENTS - 383 

Editor : MICHAEL A. MIKKELSEN. Contributing Editor : HERBERT D. CROLY 

Advertising Manager : AUSTIN L. BLACK 

Yearly Subscription United States $3.00 Entered May 22. 1902. as Second Copyright 1915 by The Architectural 

Foreign $4.00 Single Copies 35 cents Class Matter, at New York, N. Y. Record Con>oany All Rights Reserved 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD COMPANY 



115-119 WEST FORTIETH STREET, NEW YC. 'K 



F. W. DODGE, President 



F. T. MIDLER, Secretary and Treasurer 




PERGOLA AND TERRACE-GARDEN AT BEA- 
CON HILL HOUSE," ESTATE OF ARTHUR CUR- 
TISS JAMES, ESQ., NEWPORT, R. I. OLM- 
STED BROTHERS, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS. 



AKC 



THE 

ITECTVRAL 



RECORD 



APRIL, 1915 



VOLVME XXXVII 




NVMBER IV 



MEDIAEVAL MARKET PLACE 
f YPRES. AN IRREPARABLE WAR 
LOSS TO ARCHITECTVRE^ 

BY C.A.T.MIDDLETON 




THE bombardment and consequent 
destruction of Ypres, being a legit- 
imate act of war, has not caused 
a shudder to pass through the civilized 
world as did the burning of '.Louvain, 
but it is quite doubtful whether the archi- 
tectural loss has not been greater. No 
Gothic group of buildings in Europe, ex- 
cept that at Westminster, which owes 
much to the modern Houses of Parlia- 
ment, could compare with that which 
the Grande Place of Ypres disclosed 
the largest market square in Belgium, but 
by no means frequently visited by for- 
eigners, who were more attracted to the 
flourishing neighboring towns of Bruges 
and Ghent, these being more generally 
accessible. Like Westminster, the group 
consisted of two great buildings only 
the Cloth Hall and the Church of St. 
Martin emphasized only by the juxta- 
position and inclusion in the general mass 



of many works of minor importance, 
greatly differing from one another, yet 
in perfect harmony ; and, as at Westmin- 
ster again, the greatest building of all 
was not ecclesiastical. 

The history of Ypres cannot be traced 
with certainty further back than the sec- 
ond half of the tenth century, when it 
consisted of a few houses grouped round 
a small castle on an island of the Yper- 
lea (the river now so well known as the 
Lys); probably of similar character to 
several marshy islands still formed by 
the river, which almost wholly circles the 
town, along the lines of the moat of the 
middle ages, just outside the walls. It 
grew with great rapidity, for in a hun- 
dred years (a short space of time in those 
days for so much progress to be made) 
it had become quite an important town, 
a center of the cloth weaving industry, 
possessing two parish churches some dis- 



290 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




FONT, ST. MARTIN'S CHURCH, YPRES. 

tance apart ; and within another hundred 
years it had become the metropolis of 
Flanders, with a population of no less 
than 200,000, not all cooped up in the 
narrow circuit of the walls but spreading 
out into suburbs, where a large home- 
weaving industry was carried on. 

It was at this period of unexampled 
prosperity when the great Church of St. 
Martin the most beautiful church in 
Belgium and the even greater Cloth 
Hall, unparalleled amongst secular build- 
ings of the Gothic era, were erected. 
Both of these have now almost wholly 
disappeared. The extent of the damage 
done can be gauged by comparing the 
general sketch of the group from the 
Grande Place, made in 1910, with the 
photograph taken from almost the same 
position recently, though the latter does 
not include so much as the former. It 
will be particularly noticed that the whole 
of the Hotel de Ville (locally known as 
the Nieuwercke) has been swept away. 

Possibly, however, the loss which 
architecture has sustained can best be 
understood by describing and illustrating 
these buildings as they were before the 
war as the writer has known them for 
a period of some twenty years, without 
material change till now. 



The Church of St. Martin, generally 
known as the Cathedral, though it ceased 
to be the seat of a bishopric a long while 
since, was built on the site of another 
church whjch was begun in 1073. This, 
like many another Romanesque edifice, 
was demolished in the thirteenth century 
to make room for one more in keeping 
with the growing wealth and importance 
of the town, and the present choir was 
commenced in 1221. It was apsidal, 
without the usual chevet of chapels, and 
probably followed the plan and was built 
on the foundations of the earlier apse, if 
indeed this was ever entirely pulled 
down, for the arcading of the triforium 
was of early and severe Romanesque 
character, and externally the pointed 
lancet windows above (of almost Eng- 
lish character) were continued in Romap- 
esque arches. The cylindrical piers, with 
capitals whose foliage represent the 
broad leaves of the hart's-tongue fern, 
were typical of thirteenth century work, 
whether of Belgium or Northern France, 
but in themselves were not conclusive 
evidence of early date, for such are to 
be found occasionally in later work, and 
in fact occur, with scarcely any modifi- 




INTERIOR OF ST. MARTIN'S CHURCH, 
LOOKING EAST. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



201 



cation, in the nave also, though this was 
not commenced till 1254, when it was 
pushed on rapidly, being finished twelve 
years later. The nave piers, however, 
differed from those of the choir in hav- 
ing statues protruding from them, in the 
same fashion as in the Cathedral at 
Malines, while in the choir statues 
were introduced above the capitals, where 
they had the appearance, though not the 
actuality, of serving as corbels for the 
vaulting shafts to spring from. The 
vaulting was all of the simple quadri- 
partite character generally found on the 
continent of Europe, the filling being ar- 
ranged as it would be in France ; so that 
in all essentials the church was of French 
type internally, except for the absence of 
the chevet. Even the nave arches were 
almost unmoulded, having only a roll on 
the outer angle, while the inner order 
was chamfered, thus following the se- 
vere French fashion, which retained the 
Romanesque mouldings in all their sim- 
plicity till the end of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, in apparent ignorance of the elab- 
orately beautiful groupings of undercut 
mouldings which were being evolved and 
gradually modified in England at that 
time. 








CONFESSIONAL, ST. MARTIN'S CHURCH, 
YPRES. 



CHOIR STALLS, ST. MARTIN'S CHURCH. 
YPRES. 

The church furniture, if one may judge 
from photographs of the remains, appears 
to have suffered less than might have 
been anticipated, for although the finely 
carved and unusually well restrained 
wooden pulpit, with its statue of St. 
Thomas of Aquin, and its heavy sound- 
ing board so cleverly constructed as to 
look as if it were floating in the air, have 
apparently all disappeared, the world- 
famous choir stalls seem to be intact. 
These were the work of the carver Tail- 
lebert, a native of Ypres, and were in- 
serted in 1598, a date which would make 
them contemporary with the Jacobean 
work of England to which they are 
greatly superior, the only resemblance 
being in the generally low relief adopted. 
The bishop's throne, shown in the photo- 
graph, is a remarkably fine piece of 
work which well repays a close study. 

Just behind the choir stalls, and stand- 
ing in the choir aisle, there used to be, 
and possibly still is, a confessional box 
of a later and more florid type of Renais- 
sance, but so strongly influenced by the 
restraint of the choir stalls as to harmon- 
ize with them almost as perfectly as if 
they were the work of the same carver. 
The central (priest's) box has a low door 



292 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




ST. MARTIN'S CHURCH, YPRES, AS IT APPEARED IN 1910. 



c^l^MpS 

V* ,_jmr L 

7T J ,i UJ-- -4* 
k , , - -J *-->^ 

V ,,Myi-..,.r f.p /',-/, 





* *? 

itti " ** II . ij <*7 

I ! |; 




I 



THE OLD BISHOP'S PALACE AND MONASTERY, YPRES. 




ul 
U 

CL 
UJ 



oc 
V 



< 
Q. 



r 
h 
o 



PM 

o 3 
S 




Photograph by 

Newspaper Illustrations, Ltd. 



RUINS OF THE CLOTH HALL AND HOTEL DE 
VILLE, TAKEN FROM THE GRANDE PLACE. 
ST. MARTIN'S CHURCH IN BACKGROUND. 




Photograph by 

Newspaper Illustrations, Ltd. 



RUINS OF THE BELFRY OR CENTRAL 
TOWER OF THE CLOTH HALL ON THE 
GRANDE PLACE, YPRES, BELGIUM. 



296 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




CENTRAL TOWER OF THE CLOTH HALL. ' 
YPRES, BEFORE BOMBARDMENT. 

to it, and over the doorway a dove is 
shown descending, emblematical of the 
Holy Spirit. 

Another notable piece of furniture was 
the font, with its cover, all of cast and 
hammered brass, generally massive in de- 
sign but with delicately executed 'figures, 
three in number, acting as caryatid sup- 
ports to the canopy of the cover ; which, 
however, they do not really carry, for of 
course the cover is suspended (from an 
ugly iron swinging bracket). One was 
consequently tempted to criticize the de- 
sign as conveying a wrong impression. 

Close to the font, on the north side of 
the church, a door which few people were 
permitted to pass led into the cloisters of 
the old monastery, utterly neglected for 
many years past, forming a small well 
between the church, the monastery, and 
the Bishop's Palace. On the north side, 
where the cloister walk has been built 
over at a much later date with ugly 
brickwork, the work appears to be con- 
temporary with the nave that is, to 
belong to the second half of the thir- 



teenth century; but the eastern walk is 
flamboyant in character, something like 
200 years later. That the cloisters were 
in use within comparatively modern 
times, however, was indicated by the 
tracery being filled with commonplace 
glazing in wood frames. 

Unoccupied, bare and cheerless as were 
the rooms of the monastery, their close 
investigation led to the discovery of a 
magnificent mediaeval, steep-pitched, 
timber roof, which it was possible to 
photograph above the level of the tie 
beam which carried the attic floor. It 
will be noticed that a secondary tie-bearn, 
or collar, was carried on the extremities 
of lower principals, aided by brackets, 
while side brackets were also used, 
springing from the same lower principals, 
to carry the plates (or purlins). These 
upper principals were framed into the 
collars; and so it went on, till the ridge 
was reached. The position of the scarf 
in the purlin was worth noting, and alto- 
gether the construction deserved consid- 
eration, if only for curiosity in an age 
when such roofs would scarcely be re- 
peated. 

It was altogether exceedingly difficult 
to disentangle this group of buildings, 
which formed a picturesque medley of 
roofs, chimneys and turrets when seen 
from outside, butting up against St. Mar- 
tin's tower, but at one time the Abbey of 
St. Martin, founded by Pope Pascal II 
in 1 102, stood upon the site. It belonged 
to the Canons Regular of St. Augustine, 




VAULTED MARKET UNDER THE CLOTH 
HALL, YPRES. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



297 



ROOF or me CLOTH 

YPRE5 





DETAILS FROM THE ROOF OF THE CLOTH HALL AT YPRES. 



but where it commenced or ended, where 
the Bishop's Palace came in, or where 
"Poor Clares Convent" stood (also men- 
tioned in connection with the same site) 
it would be difficult to say. Possibly the 
same area was devoted to several uses 
at different times. 

Externally the tower of St. Martin's, 
an exceedingly fine piece of work of it- 
self, was out of proportion with the rest 
of the church, for it was centrally placed 
at the west end and so wide as to en- 
compass the 'whole width of the nave. 
Logically, in an architectural sense, this 
is right, for a fitting termination for the 
nave is produced, but it takes a very long 
church to carry such a mass as results at 
its extremity with any sense of fitness, 
even when, as in this case, much is done 
to lighten the effect by introducing tra- 
cery in the upper stages. There is also 
difficulty in introducing a commensur- 
ately sufficient doorway for a great 
church within the restrictive limits of a 
tower without apparently weakening its 
supports. This has been very well done 



indeed at St. Martin's, the necessary ef- 
fect of strength not even being dimin- 
ished by the introduction of a traceried 
window within the great enclosing arch 
of the doorway, and above the heads of 
the actual doors themselves, in place of 
the usual sculptured stone tympanum 
treatment which, elsewhere, was only to 
be found at Reims. 

The sketch of the east end indicates 
how admirably St. Martin's grouped with 
the Cloth Hall from this side, as well as 
from the Grande Place; yet, though 
erected at very much the same time, they 
were totally different buildings in archi- 
tectural spirit as in use. 

The Cloth Hall was commenced in the 
year 1200, when Baldwin of Constanti- 
nople was Count of Flanders, the first 
portion to be taken in hand being the 
central tower, or belfry, and the eastern 
wing, extending from it to the Grande 
Place. This was finished in 1230 and 
the work was not resumed till 1285, when 
the similar western wing was added, then 
turned northwards and then eastwards 



298 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




ROOF OF THE MONASTERY. YPRES. 

again, all in accordance with the original 
design and forming the letter J on plan, 
the whole being brought to conclusion 
in 1304, rather more than a hundred 
years from the start. For simplicity and 
directness of design no mediaeval build- 
ing could compare with it, perfect in bal- 
ance, well proportioned, admirably held 
together and beautifully detaile*d. On 
the ground floor an arched passageway 
passed through the central tower while 
a large covered market extended along 
either wing, reached by numerous square- 
headed doors directly from the road and 
lighted by small traceried windows over 
them the square tower openings going 
far to give an appearance of substantial 
strength to the whole building. 

This market, with its curious groined 
vaulting of small bricks, supported by a 
row of octagonal pillars down the center, 
was -unique. 

The arcades on the upper floor, while 
appearing superficially to consist of a 
range of similar and evenly spaced win- 
dows, were alternately of glazed and of 
blind tracery, the "lights" in the blind 
arches being filled with statuary of high 
order ; and a crenellated parapet fringed 



the eaves, breaking the harshness of the 
horizontal line without destroying its 
character. 

Internally, the whole of the upper floor 
forms one huge room which, in addition 
to two returns, was no le.ss than 433 feet 
long, though only 38 feet wide ; redeemed 
from being too greatly extended in ap- 
pearance by the rising of the tower 
arches across the centre, and by the 
grand open timber roof, in construction 
not entirely unlike that to the monastery, 
already described. It was, however, bo^i 
richer and larger, as will be seen by the 
sketch section, while it possessed a most 
exceptional feature in the form of a 
trussed support to the ridge, like a double 
trellis girder in timber, which extended 
the whole length of the building, binding 
it longitudinally though greatly adding 
to the weight. The scantlings of the oak 
tie-beams, 18 in. x 15 in., with a span of 
nearly 38 feet, will be noticed; and so 
will the fourteenth century character of 
the mouldings wrought upon them at 
their junction with the brackets, though 
the Renaissance carving at the foot of 
some of the wall pieces, bearing date of 
the period of the Spanish occupation of 
the country, may indicate that repairs 
were undertaken then or possibly more 




LA CONCIERGERIE, YPRES. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



299 



likely that a carver at that time set him- 
self to enrich the older work. 

It is a wonderful indication of the 
trade of Ypres that such an enormous 
room should have been needed for the 
annual cloth fair in the early part of the 
fourteenth century. 

The Nieuwercke, or Hotel de Ville, 
containing the . municipal offices, which 
stood at the east end of the Cloth Hall, 
facing the Grande Place, was built about 
1620, it is supposed from plans made in 
1575 by John Sporemah, an architect of 
Ghent. At any rate it was in the style of 
the Spanish Renaissance, light and pic- 
turesque enough, and an excellent foil to 
the severe Cloth Hall, but far from good 
in detail. 

There must have been ' much small 
building, or at any rate of reparation 
work done at Ypres at about that date, 
for many an older front of cut brick- 
work, with four centred pointed arches 
to the window heads and stepped gables 
with curiously twisted finials, has had in- 
.troduced into it somewhere a rectangular 
Renaissance window, often displaying 
the shell ornament conspicuously and 
with hopeless lack of any sense of bal- 
ance. 

Ypres has now fallen from its high 
estate and this sort of thing was only to 
be expected. It had received its first 
serious blow in 1383 when it was be- 
sieged by English troops acting in con-, 
cert with the men of Ghent, the whole of 
the populous suburbs being destroyed. 
The cloth trade declined ; it ceased to be 
the commercial metropolis of Flanders, 
but for the whole of another hundred 
years and longer it still remained a place 
of consequence. Then came the troubles 
of the Spanish occupation and it was 
sacked in 1566, 1578 and again in 1584, 
being reduced to a community of 5,000 
souls. Then for two whole centuries it 
figured constantly in history as the scene' 
of sieges, bombardments and captures, 
followed invariably by pillage and ruin- 
ous taxation, so that the wonder is that 
anything remained of its ancient glories. 
Yet, till quite recently, a fourteenth cen- 
tury timber house was standing, while 
the front of another had been re-erected 
within the great room of the Cloth Hall ; 
and twisted gables, in wood and plaster, 



of the time of the Spaniards, contempor- 
aneous with the English Elizabethan 
work and somewhat similar thereto, were 
not uncommon, as exemplified in the 
house known as the Conciergerie. 

Another significant record of that im- 
portant epoch existed at Ypres, and may 




SHOP FRONT OF CUT BRICKWORK, YPRES. 

possibly still be there, in the Museum. 
Philip II of Spain, launching his Ar- 
mada against England and claiming the 
English throne from Queen Elizabeth as 
the husband oi her predecessor, Mary, 
whom he had married as a child, had 
taken his bride's wedding chest to Flan- 
ders, ready for transport across the nar- 
row seas as soon as his Armada should 
succeed. It failed, as all know, and the 
chest remained in Flanders and found its 
way to the Museum at Ypres. 

Again Ypres has suffered devastation, 
more complete than any in its history of 
trouble, except that it has not actually 
been occupied by enemies ; and some day 
we may confidently hope that it may rise 
again to at least a reasonable prosperity 
and accompanying architectural import- 
ance. 




ANTIQUE URN-GARDEN OF RUSSELL A. 
ALGER, JR., ESQ., DETROIT. MICHIGAN. 




PERGOLA GARDEN OF CHARLES W. HUBBARD, ESQ., WESTON, MASS. 
Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects. 



RECENT ASPECTS y GARDEN DES1CN 

BY HAROLD-D EBERLEIN 





FROM a critical examination of the 
results of modern garden design 
may be learned many a valuable 
lesson. What is of greater and more 
specific import, if we are alert to apply 
the principles to be deduced from such 
a discriminating survey of the subject, 
we can scarcely fail to arrive at an at- 
titude that may readily be translated, 
through well considered choice, into 
wisely constructive action. 

Garden planning is both an art and a 
science and has ever been regarded by 
the more thoughtful as a worthy object 
of serious and sober endeavor. As such 
it is based on certain fundamental prin- 
ciples and it is absolutely essential that 
these principles be kept always in mind 
as a safeguard and check to ensure san- 
ity of design and execution. No more 
illuminating instances of the application 




of these principles can be adduced than 
the work accomplished within several 
decades past by the foremost designers 
of gardens in America. At the same 
time, it will be well to direct attention 
to certain aspects of garden design both 
past and present in England, whence 
so many of our own garden traditions 
are derived, and afford grounds of com- 
parison with the best of contemporary 
British achievement. 

To understand the rationale of gar- 
den making, it is necessary at the very 
outset to recognize the two elemental 
purposes for which gardens were first 
made and for the fulfillment of one or 
the other or both of which they are still 
contrived. Those two elemental pur- 
poses are utility on the one hand and 
pleasure or adornment on the other. We 
must keep account of both if we would 



302 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



follow intelligently the development of 
garden planning and fully appreciate 
modern aims and performances, in the 
light of history, as the results of an or- 
derly evolution from worthy antecedents. 
The ancestor of our modern garden was 
designed in its "utility" capacity as a 
proper place for the cultivation of fruits, 
the raising of vegetables requiring pro- 
tection and careful culture, such as were 
not wont to be sown in bulk as field 
crops, and the growing of sundry herbs 
and simples. In other words, the gar- 
den in its utility capacity was a kitchen 
garden. In its capacity as a place for 
pleasure, adornment, outdoor relaxation 
and the raising of plants and flowers for 
the gratification to be gained from their 
beauty or perfume, the ancestor of the 
modern garden was also a highly im- 
portant ins'titution. Indeed, "in Tudor 
and Stuart days people were accus- 
tomed to spend a great deal more time 
in their gardens than did succeeding gen- 
erations and it is only within recent years 
that we have regained an equal love and 
practice of garden life. How fully some 
of our forebears used their gardens may 
be gathered from what we read of Sir 
Thomas More's garden in Southwark, 
where, on Sunday afternoons, were wont 
to gather and walk to and fro, notable 
persons come to see the greatXord Chan- 
cellor, along with belles and beaux ar- 
rayed in brave attire, to listen to the 
music and see the strange animals and 
birds, of which Sir Thomas had a small 
menagerie, being the gifts of mariners 
and travellers from far distant lands. 
Other historic gardens were nearly as 
famous and quite as fully used as that 
of the author of "Utopia." 

The dual functions of the garden for 
utility and pleasure were closely blended 
in a way that may seem a trifle incon- 
gruous to some of us. In many in- 
stances it would be hard to say just 
where the boundary line was to be drawn. 
The growing of simples seems to have 
formed a kind of connecting link, for 
at one time it was the custom to culti- 
vate various plants for their medicinal 
or domestically utilitarian properties 
which we now raise merely for their 
decorative value. Among such, by way 



of example, may be mentioned digitalis 
and the marigold, the dried petals of the 
latter being used both to make a dye and 
as a flavor and coloring matter for soup. 
In whatever way the prosaic and orna- 
mental functions of the garden may 
originally have been joined, the com- 
plete union was to be found in old 
English and Dutch cottage gardens and 
also in some gardens of greater extent 
and pretense where fruits and shrubs, 
vegetables and flowers, were grows to- 
gether in a kind of promiscuous democ- 
racy. However crude their method may 
have been, the makers of those humble 
gardens were trying to express, a right 
principle. They were trying to realize, 
albeit unconsciously, the old Greek ideal 
of making the useful beautiful and, con- 
versely, the beautiful useful, according 
to the utilitarian and somewhat material 
modern standard. We find this same 
combination, this sarrie intimate connec- 
tion between kitchen garden and flower 
garden, existing in many of the finest of 
our early American gardens. An in- 
stance of it occurs at Ury House, Fox 
Chase, Philadelphia, a part of whose fa- 
mous old box garden is shown in one 
of the accompanying illustrations. The 
vegetable garden with its beds edged with 
box of nearly two centuries' growth, is 
just across a box-bordered, trellised 
walk from the flower garden, laid out 
in all the old-fashioned glory of geo- 
metrical devices. This principle of ren- 
dering the homely vegetable patch seemly, 
attractive and dignified by an accompani- 
ment of flowers, fruit bushes and shrubs 
commingled with its beds is strongly re- 
asserting itself in modern garden plan- 
ning. It is extremely narrow minded 
to look with despite upon a vegetable be- 
cause it is not a flower and condemn it 
to a hideous and shabby setting. The 
modern garden designer is keenly alive 
to this feature and devotes much in- 
genious effort to making the kitchen gar- 
den a help rather than a hindrance to 
the general scheme. He masks, by judi- 
cious planting within its limits, the un- 
avoidable scars and unsightliness incident 
to certain stages of vegetable-growing. 
Were this principle not being so strongly 
reasserted that it demands cognizance. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



303 




ANTIQUE GARDEN FURNITURE-GARDEN OF HAROLD McCORMICK, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 

Charles A. Platt, Architect. 




PERGOLA-GARDEN OF WILLIAM MATHER, ESQ., CLEVELAND, OHIO. 
Charles A. Platt, Architect. 



304 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD 



the foregoing paragraph would have 
merely antiquarian interest and be de- 
void of any particular application. 

In yet another point a number of mod- 
ern gardens show a reversion to an an- 
cient precedent and hark back k>r in- 
spiration to an almost forgotten custom, 
and people hail with admiration and de- 
light what they deem an agreeable nov- 
elty. Reference has been made to the 
small menagerie in Sir Thomas More's 
garden. In other private gardens, too, 
both in England and on the Continent, 
it was not an unusual thing to find oc- 
casional collections of rare birds or small 
animals. The custom, however, seems 
to have almost died out and been well 
nigh forgotten. Now it has been revived 
again and the maintenance of an aviary 
of rare and curious birds has been made 
a feature ' of both permanent interest 
and decorative value in one of the gar- 
dens illustrated, that at Doylestown, 
Bucks, Pennsylvania. Although the open 
air aviary is not shown, it occupies a 
conspicuous place all along one side of 
the garden. Another modern garden in 
which the keeping of exotic birds is made 
an important feature of interest is that of 
Mr. Mellen at Stockbridge, Massachu- 
setts. Other instances might be added, 
but the two already mentioned are suffi- 
cient to indicate a modern "trend in gar- 
den arrangement derived from ancient 
precedent. 

In the gardens selected for the illus- 
tration of the present article are to be 
noted two distinct tendencies which are 
highly significant and indicative of op- 
posed present-day ideals of garden mak- 
ing. In the instances before us neither 
tendency is carried to an extreme and, 
in some cases, notwithstanding the dis- 
similarity of the several underlying con- 
ceptions, we may discern certain de- 
vices and methods of treatment common 
to both schools of design. The two ten- 
dencies referred to are, on the one hand, 
the obvious intent to impart an intimate 
and even personal character to the gar- 
den, stamping it unmistakably as a place 
created for comfort, privacy and domes- 
tic informality, while, on the other, the 
purposes of formal or semi-formal and 
wholly impersonal environment or set- 



ting for the house have been the chief 
factors in determining the arrangement. 
As fairly representative examples of the 
former category, that is to say, the gar- 
dens whose intimate character supplies 
their dominant note, one may refer es- 
pecially to the walled garden at Doyles- 
town, and the garden of Charles W. Hub- 
bard, Esq., at Weston, Massachusetts, 
executed by Olmsted Brothers. As typical 
of a somewhat more formal and preten- 
tious style of garden planning, designed 
as an accompaniment to the house or a 
setting to display it to advantage rather 
than as an adjunct for the intimate 
daily pleasure and protected occupancy 
of the people who live in the house, we 
may examine the garden of Samuel Vau- 
clain, Esq., at Rosemont, Pennsylvania, 
by Messrs. Duhring, Okie and Ziegler, or 
the garden by Olmsted Brothers, illus- 
trated on p. 309.- The intimate type of 
garden seems to be gaining more and 
more popular favor as American garden 
ideals tend to coincide more fully with 
the conception on which it is based. The 
majority of garden owners are happily 
getting beyond the stage where they de- 
sire gardens planned to impress the ap- 
proaching stranger by their starched, 
smug, symmetrical ostentation. At the 
same time, while the garden of the inti- 
mate type is strongly expressive of the 
best traditions of American life by its 
well-bred informality, it makes use of 
not a few material accessories of the 
distinctly formal garden and in this em- 
ployment of the same means lies the 
common ground of both types. The in- 
timate garden, however, uses both archi- 
tectural and furnishing accessories in an 
easy and informal way. 

The manner of treating the garden plan 
depends upon the conception of what a 
garden is and of the purpose for which it 
exists. Opinions upon this point will in- 
evitably differ among different individu- 
als, but the general trend of sentiment, 
put into specific words, indicates that 
the garden of the average house is to be 
regarded as a necessary adjunct to the 
structure to give it a proper setting and 
display its architectural worth to advan- 
tage, a spot set apart for the enjoyment 
of the air and the pleasures of norticul- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



305 




PERGOLA GARDEN OF CHARLES W. HUBBARD, ESQ., WESTON, MASS. 
Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects. 




PERGOLA GARDEN OF ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES, ESQ., NEWPORT, R. I. 
Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects. 



306 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 








THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



307 





308 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



ture, a middle ground between the dwell- 
ing and the outside world, a guaranty of 
privacy and protection. From the ety- 
mology of the word, "garden" denotes an 
enclosure and implies the presence of a 
wall or some protecting barrier. Further- 
more, history shows an inseparable as- 
sociation between this enclosure and the 
cultivation of vegetables, fruits or flow- 
ers. As the very basic idea of a garden, 
therefore, presupposes cultivation and 
fostering care, it can readily be seen that 
the evidences of human artifice therein 
are unavoidable, that it would be impos- 
sible to crowd rustic landscape effects 
within a restricted compass and that the 
attempt to do so could only be ludicrous. 
Artifice, then, and at least some measure 
of formality, however slight, being in- 
volved in the creation of a garden, it is 
eminently fitting and reasonable that an 
architectural element should be employed 
to supply the formal frame or back- 
ground desired and strengthen the tone 
of unity binding garden and house to- 
gether. The extent to which architectural 
gardens and parks must be kept separate 
will be governed by the exigencies of each 
case and the architectural tone of the 
garden will naturally be kept consonant 
with that of the house. Not only is it 
interesting to note the success realized in 
the treatment of many gardens where 
some measure of formality, in the shape 
of architectural adjuncts, has been com- 
bined with a thoroughly informal scheme 
of planting, but it is also instructive to 
mark the reserve and restraint practiced 
in using only so much architectural equip- 
ment as the occasion requires for prac- 
tical ends and no more. In this modera- 
tion lies the cause of the combination's 
agreeable result, and it is often astonish- 
ing to see how rich a variety of effects 
can be attained by employing only a lim- 
ited number of features. The accom- 
panying illustrations show how success- 
fully sundry architectural devices have 
been used in gardens of distinctly inti- 
mate and unostentatious type. We need 
only point to the delightful arrangement 
of the gazebo or tea-house, of which sev- 
eral views are given, in Mr. Hubbard's 
garden at Weston, the interesting treat- 
ment of the walled pergola and court in 



the same garden or the telling touch 
added by the dovecote in Mrs. Riddle's 
garden at Glen Riddle, Pennsylvania, a 
creditable piece of garden designing exe- 
cuted by Messrs. Duhring and Howe. 

Allusion has been made to the concep- 
tion of a garden as a place of privacy. 
In this view of the garden, making it 
virtually an out-of-doors extension of the 
house, we are rapidly coming to coincide 
with our British contemporaries, to whom 
the bold publicity of so many Ameri- 
can gardens is utterly abhorrent. If there 
is to be any real privacy, the garden en- 
closure must be of such character that it 
will be a protection. It must either be 
an exceedingly thick hedge or a wall and 
of a suitable height. A wall to enclose 
a garden, either wholly or in part, em- 
phasizes the architectural bond of re- 
lationship with the house more strongly, 
perhaps, than 'any other one feature. At 
the same time, it affords numerous and 
varied opportunities for interesting treat; 
ment, as the reader may judge from the 
illustrations of the walled gardens at 
Doylestown and elsewhere. When the 
walls are not given .any distinct architect- 
urally decorative value, "planted" or es- 
paliered for fruit, they at least serve the 
double purposes of shelter and back- 
ground or foil for the blooms and foliage 
near them. If the walled or partly walled 
or semi-formal garden is really to be lived 
in and its close relationship to the house 
bound by a thousand little ties of human 
occupancy, it must be fitly furnished and 
equipped for comfort. Otherwise one 
might as well camp on a wide stretch of 
lawn in the midst of great plantations of 
shrubbery, groves of trees and all the 
other devices of the landscape engineer 
that go to make up a park, but have no 
place in a garden. Man naturally seeks 
to surround himself with articles of com- 
fort and pleasure within easy reach and 
their presence and orderly arrangement 
necessarily create at least some slight 
measure of artifice and formality. A 
garden, properly arranged with due re- 
gard to its intimate relationship with the 
house, is ready for use by the occupants 
at any and all times while, to use a land- 
scape, one needs to prepare a picnic 
equipment. One of our chief troubles in 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



309 




WELL GARDEN OF ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES, ESQ., NEWPORT, R. I. 
Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects. 




LONG POOL GARDEN OF ARTHUR CURTISS JAMES, ESQ., NEWPORT, R. I. 
Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects. 



310 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




POOL AND TEA HOUSE GARDEN OF SAMUEL VAUCLAIN, ESQ., ROSEMONT, PA. 
Duhring, Okie & Ziegler, Architects. 



garden planning is that we so often fail 
to make a sufficient distinction between a 
garden, on the one hand, and its suit- 
ability for intimate use in connection with 
the house, and a park, on the other, with 
its landscape features. Consequently we 
sometimes try to have landscapesque 
gardens or gardenesque landscapes, and 
the combination is incongruous and un- 
successful. To get satisfactory results 
gardens and parks must be kept separate 
in execution as well as in conception. 

In all the phases of gardens so far 
noted, whether designed for utility, pleas- 
ure, adornment or curious interest, one 
quality may be clearly discerned ob- 
vious relationship with the houses to 
which they belong. This relationship is 
far stronger than it is between some 
houses of earlier date and their gardens, 
when pictorial landscape effects were in 
fashion and attempted on all scales, large 
and small. Before all else, it is of the 
last importance that we realize fully the 
fundamental principle of relationship that 
ought to exist between the garden and 
the house. It is only when this relation- 



ship has been recognized and conscien- 
tiously honored that results have been 
successful. English gardens laid out in 
recent years almost invariably show a 
proper and logical relation to the houses 
they surround, and in that particular are 
deserving of special study. A sense of 
fitness has been observed in their design, 
and from the resultant quality of felicity 
we may derive a store of inspiration. The 
success of a garden depends almost 
wholly upon this right relation, and where 
it is absent, no matter how excellent in- 
dividual parts of the composition may be, 
the effect of the ensemble is bound to be 
disappointing if not a total failure. The 
intimate relationship between the house 
and its setting exists quite independently 
of the consideration of natural features 
or the lie of the land. It consists of the 
degree of correspondence maintained be- 
tween the modes of expression made use 
of in the garden and in the scheme of the 
house and is susceptible of indicating 
just as much individuality of character 
as does the fabric of the structure itself. 
Over and above the relationship between 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



311 




DOVE COTE GARDEN OF MRS. SAMUEL D. RIDDLE, GLEN 

RIDDLE, PA. 
Duhring & Howe, Landscape Architects. 




TERRACES-GARDEN OF MRS. SAMUEL D. RIDDLE, GLEN RIDDLE, PA. 
Duhring & Howe, Landscape Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



313 




GRASS WALK AND PLANTED WALL GARDEN OF DR. GEORGE WOODWARD, KRISHEIM, 

ST. MARTIN'S, PHILADELPHIA. 

Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects. 




PLANTED WALL GARDEN OF DR. GEORGE WOODWARD, KRISHEIM, ST. MARTIN'S. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

Olmsted Brothers, Landscape Architects. 



314 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



the plan of the garden and the style of 
the house, must be reckoned the inevitable 
relationship between the garden and the 
natural features of the land on which it 
is laid out. The preservation and due 
balancing of this duality of relationships, 
while furnishing many perplexing prob- 
lems, also afford rare opportunities for 
the display of originality and skill. 

The secret of British pre-eminent suc- 
cess in their particular method of dealing 
with gardens lies largely in making a 
judicious combination of formal and in- 
formal elements. Such men as E. T. 
Lutyens, Sir Robert Lorimer, Ernest 
Newton, Reginald Blorafield, Guy Daw- 
ber, Blow and Billery, E. Turner Powell 
and a number of others, whose names 
might be added to the list, have been 
singularly fortunate in giving just enough 
formal or architectural treatment as a 
setting for gardens, whose general com- 
position is somewhat informal in plan 
and execution, to establish firmly the 
unity of the garden and house as one in- 
divisible whole. Many of the modern 
English gardens designed by the more 
prominent architects might be character- 
ized as examples of formality in an ir- 
regular setting or informality in a for- 
mal setting. The designers have not only 
shown a conscientious regard for the 
basic relation of garden to house, but 
they have also preserved an admirable 
degree of unity and consistency in the 
management of the garden itself. They 
have shown a sense of fitness and propor- 
tion and have not introduced irrelevant 
or inappropriate features. If a balus- 
trade, a flight of steps, a pool, a wall 
fountain, a gazebo, a leaden figure, a 
sundial, a terminal bust, or any one of a 
dozen other possibilities all savoring in 
greater or less degree of formality be 
employed, one may be reasonably sure 
that there is some logical and often in- 
tensely practical reason for having them 
just where they are placed and that 
sooner or later that reason will become 
apparent. We find the same discriminat- 
ing choice and judicious arrangement in 
many of our recently planned American 
gardens and it is gratifying to note that 
these characteristics are becoming more 
general among us. 



Sometimes one of these features may 
be used to emphasize a certain desirable . 
view or aspect witness the low enclos- 
ure and the tea-house in the Hubbard 
garden to give balance or accentuate 
proportion, sometimes the motive may be 
to subserve the demands of convenience 
and sometimes, we shall find, the purpose 
is either to disguise and beautify some 
object which it is neither desirable nor 
practicable to remove or to overcome 
some difficulty presented by the natural 
conditions of the site. Time and again 
necessity has been made a virtue in this 
latter respect and, in considering the 
natural configuration and characteristics 
of the site preparatory to beginning oper- 
ations, a large measure of individuality 
has often been secured by adapting the 
plan to the peculiarities of the situation 
instead of sweeping them aside at great 
expense and much labor to make way for 
a scheme of tame and unconvincing con- 
ventionality. We may, indeed, say that 
one of the most important factors that 
has contributed to the great success of 
the more recent gardens is the systematic 
practice of the principle of congruity in 
other words, this very method of study- 
ing conscientiously, first of all, the natural 
conditions of the ground, the lie of the 
land and the exposure and then making 
the garden plans conform as nearly as 
possible to the requirements thus indi- 
cated without attempting drastic altera- 
tions. 

It would seem to be the part of ordi- 
nary common sense to cultivate any 
natural feature which imparts strong in- 
dividuality instead of endeavoring to de- 
stroy it or tone it down, but despite the 
obvious propriety and advantage of such 
a course, it is a matter of almost daily 
occurrence to see the policy of ruthless 
levelling in operation with its inevitable 
destruction of rare opportunities for the 
display of ingenuity and good taste. In 
their delightful book on gardens for small 
houses, Mr. Lawrence Weaver and Miss 
Jekyll pertinently observe that if the 
natural features of a garden-site are "em- 
phatic or in any way distinct,. they should 
be carefully maintained and fostered. It 
is grievous to see, in a place that has some 
well-defined natural character, that char- 




POOL AND JETS GARDEN OF DR. GEORGE WOOD- 
WARD, KRISHEIM, ST. MARTIN'S, PHILADELPHIA. 
OLMSTED BROTHERS, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS. 



316 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



acter destroyed or stultified, for it is just 
that quality that is most precious." This 
side of garden-planning is one of the 
aspects that needs most encouragement 
and development among us in America. 
By following intelligently the course sug- 
gested by nature we may be sure of ob- 
taining the most harmonious, dignified 
and enduringly satisfactory results. In 
other words, if nature's fullest help is to 
be gained, she must be courted, not 
bullied. "Many a site," continue the au- 
thors just quoted, "has been vulgarized 
by a conventionally commonplace treat- 
ment," a statement with which most read- 
ers familiar with the situation will be 
disposed to agree. 

By a natural sequence of thought, one 
passes from considering the .plan of the 
garden, with reference to the natural 
features of the site, to considering the 
placing of the house itself with refer- 
ence coincidentally to the site and to the 
scheme of the garden. In this matter 
too many of us are slaves of habit. It 
cannot be denied that we have an un- 
fortunate obsession for placing the house 
squarely in the middle of the property, 
no matter what the exposure, no mat- 
ter what the outlook, no matter what 
the lie of the land. We are still in the 
toils of an odious thraldom to the sense- 
less mid-Victorian convention of having 
a "front approach." A few bold spirits 
the time is. coming when more will 
show the same laudable daring have 
disregarded meaningless conventions and 
put the backs of their houses directly 
upon the road, or at the very corner of 
their lot, if it suited their purpose to do 
so and gave them a better chance of 
making their garden a success. This is 
exactly what some of the most success- 
ful English architects, like Mr. Lutyens, 
have done time and again and the re- 
sults have thoroughly justified their de- 
fiance of baseless traditions. It is only 
by showing a proper consideration for 
the natural features of the location in 
such cases that we shall arrive at a sat- 
isfactory solution. It may be well enough 
to dress for others, but certainly one's 
house ought to be built primarily for 
one's own satisfaction and not for the 
commendation of an unthinking and con- 



vention-ridden public. In this connection 
it will not be amiss to suggest the pro- 
priety of placing a house on the boun- 
dary line of the property if conditions 
call for it so that the garden may stretch 
away to the south, west and east and 
have the exposure most favorable to its 
development. 

While it is by no means an unusual 
thing still to meet with gardens made 
ostensibly for show and lacking all trace 
of homelikeness, gardens perpetuating 
the uninspired fashion of twenty-five or 
thirty years ago and only one degree bet- 
ter than the depressing "landscape" lawns 
abounding in cast iron dogs or beasts of 
the chase, passant, couchant or regardant 
or the terra-cotta representatives of the 
Greek or Roman pantheon, disposed as 
agreeable "surprises" amid island clumps 
of shrubbery or ranged against back- 
grounds of obviously artificial "bosky 
tangle," gardens arranged, in short, with 
blatant vulgarity, "where everything that 
money can do to spoil nature" has been 
done, nevertheless, the general tone of 
garden design has perceptibly and rapidly 
changed for the better, thanks to the 
wholesome leaven of the labors, during 
the past two decades, of such men as the 
( Mmsteds, among landscape gardeners, 
and, among architects, Charles A. Platt, 
Wilson Eyre, Little and Browne, Mc- 
Kim, Mead and White and many more 
who have conscientiously stood for sound 
principles until the present average ex- 
cellence of garden-planning has come to 
pass and popular taste has been tutored 
to a high measure of appreciation. Al- 
though the work of each man bears, in 
some degree, the impress of his person- 
ality, one may readily recognize the pres- 
ence of traits common to all of them and 
all of them make their plans with due 
regard to the comprehensive analogy be- 
tween architecture and gardening mani- 
fested in the correspondences between 
the several architectural styles and con- 
temporary fashions in garden design. 
Also, in nearly all of the better work we 
find the grateful merit of simplicity. 

To a consistent devotion. to simplicity 
we doubtless owe it that modern ex- 
amples of garden-planning have generally 
escaped the absurdities of formalism 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



317 




OLD BOX GARDEN URY HOUSE, FOX CHASE, PHILADELPHIA. 



which the gardens of the eighteenth cen- 
tury so often fell into, absurdities that 
Horace Walpole flayed when he wrote 
of "canals measured by the line, .... 
terraces hoisted aloft, .... giants, ani- 
mals, monsters, coats of arms and mot- 
toes, in yew, box and holly" and added 
that "the compass and square were of 
more use in plantations than the nursery- 
man." Where a real . formal treatment 
has been adopted it has, in most. instances, 
been characterized by a reasonable re- 
straint and freedom from finicky inani- 
ties. Whether one likes formal gardens 
or not, fairness compels the admission 
that, as architectural constructions they 
often possess the great merit of consist- 
ency in their relation to houses of cer- 
tain types whose outlines they serve to 
break and gradually to soften and that 
they thus form an agreeable "connection 
with the irregular and unstudied forms 
of meadow and forest beyond." They 
are often, in other words, connecting 
links or middle-grounds between houses 
and the landscape. While professedly 
formal gardens not infrequently occupy 
a considerable extent of ground on large 



estates, it often happens that honors are 
divided and the formal garden limited in 
space so that more space may be given 
the development of the informal garden. 
An excellent example of this arrange- 
ment is to be found at "Krisheim," St. 
Martin's, Philadelphia, illustrated on pp. 
313 and 315. In executing this garden 
the Messrs. Olmsted have confined the 
formal section to a comparatively limited 
area adjacent to the north wing of the 
house and have constructed all the walls, 
terraces, retaining walls and other archi- 
tectural features of the native Chestnut 
Hill stone so that both material and tex- 
ture of masonry conform to that em- 
ployed in the house. 

In the rest of the estate, which is 
treated informally, the designers have 
followed the sound principles of accept- 
ing natural features for what they are 
worth without trying to change them by 
expensive and usually ill-judged altera- 
tions, of using the native material ready 
at hand and, finally, of using native trees 
and shrubs, getting excellent effects with 
them and confining such exotics as may 
be used to the bounds of the formal gar- 



318 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



den. Dogwoods and other native trees of 
a decorative character have been added 
in the thickets and the open hillside has 
been covered with a tangle of sweet- 
briar and honeysuckle where it would be 
hopeless to have presentable grass. The 
retaining wall has been built "dry" and 
planted with a variety of rock plants, 
some of which are in bloom most of the 
time. The practice of planting "dry" 
rock walls has become exceedingly popu- 
lar within the past few years and must 
be reckoned one of the most effective de- 
vices of modern informal gardening. 

At this point it will be appropriate to 
call attention to the praiseworthy prac- 
tice, all the time gaining in popularity, 
of procuring some object or group of ob- 
jects of unusual artistic merit and mak- 
ing them focal points of interest in the 
formal garden, whether it be small and 
walled and intimate in character like the 
Doylestown garden, with its Florentine 
fountain, Calabrian oil jar and decorative 
plaques and medallions set into the wall 
or whether it be open and extended and 
meant for the public to gaze upon like 
the garden shown on p. 309, with its 
flaring well kerb, wrought iron cover and 
four exquisite flanking Venetian col- 
umns with ornate capitals, or the garden 
terrace shown on p. 303, with its ancient 
carved marble seats, pedestals and jars. 

One other phase of the modern garden 
must be adverted to the treatment to be 
accorded to the small plot of the house of 
modest size and particularly the house 
of either Georgian or Colonial type, 
which enjoys such general favor. 

A degree of formality, or rather, to 
be strictly accurate, a degree of artifi- 
ciality or symmetry, is quite compatible 
with the acceptable treatment of a small 
garden and it was such formality, tem- 
pered with taste and common sense, that 
the gardens of many of our American 
Georgian houses displayed, gardens with 
gravel paths and grass alleys laid out 
with mathematical precision in geometri- 
cal patterns, outlined with box hedges 
or shut in between box-edged flower bor- 
ders in which old-fashioned blooms, 
stately and humble side by side, crowded 
each other in promiscuous informality 
within a formal setting. Such is the 



box garden of Ury House, Fox Chase 
Philadelphia, previously alluded to, which 
has been the pride of its owners for 
nearly two centuries. Such also are 
many other modest but stately Georgian 
gardens in our older Eastern States, cher- 
ished intact by their owners with rever- 
ently punctilious affection, enduring wit- 
nesses of the best gardening traditions of 
the eighteenth century, their trim exacti- 
tude marked here and there by a well- 
placed marble statue or classic urn, or, 
perhaps, a sun-dial or flight of balus- 
traded steps just enough evidences of 
formality to preserve the tone of unity 
and relationship between the garden and 
the house and cement the correspondence 
between the urbane atmosphere of one 
and the architectural urbanity of the 
other. 

There is no necessary relationship be- 
tween size and formality. Many a small 
garden is successfully formal the 
American Georgian examples prove it 
while not a few large formal gardens 
are complete failures. A small garden, 
within really strait limits, may be rigidly 
formal and dignified and likewise thor- 
oughly satisfying, much more so, in fact, 
than some other gardens in the same 
vein where there has been no hampering 
limitation of space. From the modest 
American Georgian gardens, therefore, 
we may derive not a little present inspira- 
tion and learn a lesson in the art of at- 
taining an agreeable unity and fit rela- 
tionship between the structure and its 
immediate setting. In view of our pres- 
ent partiality for Georgian domestic 
architecture for houses both large and 
small we cannot afford to overlook the 
manner and plan of our own eighteenth 
century horticultural achievements, es- 
pecially since it is obvious that a treat- 
ment in some later fashion would have 
impaired the architectural charm of the 
house which is always dependent on its 
immediate environment to appear to the 
best advantage. In instances where such 
later gardening fashions have replaced 
the original treatment, the result has not 
been reassuring. 

Architects are coming more and more 
to include a scheme for the garden, along 
with the plan of the house and outbuild- 



319 




WALLED GARDEN HOUSE AT DOYLESTOWN, BUCKS, PA. 



ings, in the lay-out of the property pre- 
pared for the client, no matter how small 
the property may be. The practice is 
logical and sane and based on a realiza- 
tion of the close and necessary relation 
of the garden to the house and their de- 
pendence on each other for the best ef- 
fects of which each is capable. Some- 
times the garden scheme in these render- 
ings is merely a rough, tentative sketch, 
at others it is worked out in full and care- 
ful detail so that little is needed in ad- 
dition from which to direct further oper- 
ations. In either case, and whether the 
architect himself supervises all the 
minutiae of garden-making and furnish- 
ing or entrusts them to a landscape en- 
gineer, the growing tendency to regard 
garden and house as one composition is 
full of promise for the future. One thing, 
however, must be kept in mind. No mat- 
ter how skillfully the architect may de- 
sign the garden, no matter how consci- 
entiously he may superintend the plant- 
ing and many architects, be it remem- 



bered, have a wide knowledge of plants 
and flowers and their habits and colors 
the responsibility for the ultimate success 
and lasting charm rests upon the client. 
The architect may supply walls and steps, 
pools and fountains, pergolas, tea-houses, 
gazebos, exedrae, arbors and a dozen 
other devices, but unless the client be- 
stows the constant and devoted attention 
upon the planting which the intimate na- 
ture of the garden demands, the result 
will not be happy. A garden must be 
coaxed, humored and caressed, not 
bullied or condemned to cold neglect. 
There are clients, as architects know only 
too well, who expect to have a garden 
planted at the outset and then be kept 
running with a minimum of attention 
from a hired gardener. Their own per- 
sonal interest they completely withhold. 
Such laissez-faire gardening can never 
be a success and a garden subjected to 
it will always look cold and starved in 
spite of all the initial efforts of the archi- 
tect. 




MAIN LOBBY, LOOKING TOWARD OFFICE 
LOBBY-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
GEO. B. POST & SONS, ARCHITECTS. 



ASSEMBLY HALL AND ELEVATOR LOBBY. 




l^fie Hotel dtatfer in ^e troit 

e ~ B. Post & Sons, ~4rcfiit<2Qts 
W. Sydney Wagner 



THE recent opening of the Hotel 
Statler in Detroit, Michigan, has 
given that city a hotel notable for 
modernity, completeness and studied ar- 
chitectural embellishment. It is the third 
and largest of the very remarkable ho- 
tels built, owned and operated by the 
Hotels Statler Company, and is the sec- 
ond hotel of this company to bear the 
name of Geo. B. Post and Sons as archi- 
tects, the first being the Hotel Statler in 
Cleveland. 

To those specially interested in hotel 
management or construction, a careful 
examination of the illustrations published 
herewith will reveal an unusual number 
of interesting and novel features for effi- 
cient and economical service. 

Fronting on Grand Circus Park, one 
of the most beautiful of Detroit's many 
parks, and bounded on one side by Wash- 
ington Avenue and on the other by Bag- 
ley Avenue, the segmental shape of the 



site, added to the exacting requirements 
of modern hotels of the first class, has re- 
sulted in unique features of plan and de- 
sign. 

The building is sixteen stories in 
height above grade. The first two floors, 
each of which is mezzanined, are devoted 
to the large public rooms and entertain- 
ment suites with their necessary com- 
plement of service units and the like. 
Above these are eleven guest room floors. 
Then come two floors devoted to sample 
display rooms, and there is a servants' 
dormitory floor immediately under the 
roof. Below grade are a basement and 
a sub-basement, containing the laundries, 
the mechanical plant, store rooms and 
so on. 

While the general architectural treat- 
ment of the exterior has followed the 
lines of the style popularly referred to as 
"Adam," it has been largely inspired by 
the Classical and the Italian Renaissance 



322 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



architecture of the periods beloved by 
Piranesi, and from which the brothers 
Adam evolved the style known by their 
name. 

The two lower stories are of buff In- 
diana limestone resting on a base of gran- 
ite. The limestone ashlar is laid up in 
wide horizontal courses, each of the 
courses being about five feet in height. 
Texture and contrast are obtained by the 
use of two-cut-to-the-inch tooling in all 
of the large stone surfaces, the mouldings 
and small surfaces being rubbed. The 
treatment of these two lower stories has 
been kept severe and simple, the large 
plain wall surfaces displaying to the best 
advantage the natural beauty of the lime- 
stone and enhancing the stone carving 
concentrated in the panels and placques 
between the pilasters of the second story. 

The shaft of the building is of an in- 
expensive wire cut brick, ranging in color 
from red almost to black, and laid up 
with a three-quarter inch joint of grey 
mortar in English cross bond, which gives 
a pleasing yet unobtrusive diaper pattern 
on the wall surfaces. 

The three upper stories are of terra 
cotta and brick, the terra cotta matching 
the limestone of the lower stories both 
in color and texture. Here again the 
principal architectural motif is the 
Adamesque placque and ornament of 
terra cotta inlaid in the brick panels. 
The cornice above is entirely of terra 
cotta, and the sky line, already interesting 
on account of the unusual shape of the 
building, is further enhanced by the light 
terra cotta balustrade and the severely 
classical urns surmounting it. 

An interesting and successful feature 
of the exterior is the graduated chamfer- 
ing of the corners of the building extend- 
ing through the entire shaft. This gives 
to the mass of the building a most ap- 
preciable sense of stability and entasis 
without the necessity of using the expen- 
sive method of battering back the entire 
surfaces of the walls. 

In approaching the question of the plan 
of this hotel, there are three general con- 
siderations which must be borne in mind, 
and which will be found to govern the 
disposition of practically every unit, both 
public and service, in the building; and 



the success of any hotel depends, ulti- 
mately, upon the architects' and owners' 
thorough understanding of these consid- 
erations, and upon their ability to use 
them to the best advantage in planning 
and building: First, the arrangement of 
that part of the house devoted directly 
to the guest in such manner as to meet 
absolutely every reasonable demand of 
his for comfort and convenience; sec- 
ond, the entertainment part of the house, 
so arranged as to give every convenience 
for handling affairs of all kinds without 
interfering with the comfort of the guest, 
and so flexible that it will properly ac- 
commodate the largest as well as smallest 
function ; third, the location and arrange- 
ment of the service department of the 
hotel in such manner that the service to- 
all parts will be complete and direct, and 
therefore most efficient and economical. 

To these considerations it may be well 
to add a fourth, that of economy of mate- 
rials and construction. This is such an 
obvious requirement in any building con- 
structed and operated by the owners to 
return a fair profit upon their investment 
that it seems hardly necessary to mention 
it, yet it is a consideration of prime im- 
portance, one that, unfortunately, seems 
to be only too often disregarded. 

In the Hotel Statler the utmost econ- 
omy possible without detriment to the 
quality or completeness of the work was 
demanded, and in consequence the de- 
sired architectural effects were obtained 
by the careful selection and use of inex- 
pensive materials, combined with a thor- 
ough study of proportion, detail and 
color. 

The guest arriving at the hotel enters 
the main lobby at either end, passing 
through small entrance vestibules, the 
walls of which are of Botticino marble 
inlaid with delicate ornament of Port 
d'Or marble. The main lobby is an im- 
posing room forty-eight feet wide, 
ninety-two feet long and twenty-four 
r ^et high, with a vaulted ornamental 
plaster ceiling. The walls are of Bot- 
ticino marble up to the height of the mez- 
zanine balcony, which extends along one 
side of the room as well as around the 
office lobby. The ceiling is supported on 
eight panelled marble piers; and on that 




THE HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
GEO. B. POST & SONS. ARCHITECTS. 




MEN'S ENTRANCE-HOTEL STAT- 
LER, DETROIT, MICH. GEO. B. 
POST & SONS, ARCHITECTS. 



326 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




MEN'S CAFE-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Gco. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 




GROUND FLOOR PLAN HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



327 




MEZZANINE FLOOR PLAN-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 



side of the room overlooking Grand Cir- 
cus Park the furniture and rugs have 
been so arranged between these piers as 
to afford comfortable lounging" alcoves 
for guests. The color scheme of the 
hangings and furnishings of the room is 
gray and blue, and this color scheme is 
recalled also in the decoration of the 
plaster ceiling. 

Opening from the main lobby, and 
similar to it in treatment and decorations, 
is the office lobby, containing on one side 
the hotel office, with its complete equip- 
ment of room racks, cashiers' cages, 
safety deposit boxes and the like, and on 
the opposite side the telegraph office, and 
the cigar, news, and souvenir counters. 

Proceeding from the office lobby, the 
guest finds himself in the elevator lobby, 
where are located the four high-speed 
passenger elevators, the check room and 



the porters' office. A special men's en- 
trance and exit for the convenience of 
the house guests is provided by means of 
a third doorway to Washington Avenue. 

Opening directly from the elevator 
lobby and men's entrance are the main 
dining room, the grill room and the men's 
cafe, of which the main dining room and 
men's cafe are in direct communication 
with the main lobby. 

The main dining room faces on Bagley 
Avenue and has a flat ornamental plaster 
ceiling and plaster walls and pilasters 
decorated in gray and green. The walls 
are protected by a low wainscoting of 
Botticino marble. This room, although 
large in size, and with its floor space un- 
obstructed by columns, has been so dec- 
orated and furnished as to be comfort- 
able and informal. There is none of the 
feeling of stiff formality which chills and 



330 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



=x=a rW'/j' 

,** .V. /. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT. MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 



repulses the average guest and oppresses 
him throughout the entire meal. 

The grill room and the men's cafe are 
both in that style of architecture which 
at present is the accepted type for a 
''man's room," the Elizabethan, with its 
characteristic antique ornamental plaster 
ceilings and with walls panelled for their 
full height in quartered oak. The carv- 
ing in the base and cornice is enriched 
by the introduction of ebony inlay. In 
the richly colored window draperies and 
furniture coverings, in the deep-toned 
portraits on the walls, and in the sparkle 
of the antique silver lighting fixtures, are 
found those notes of color so necessary 
to the proper finish of a room of this 
type. 

The mezzanine balcony, which over- 
looks both the main lobby and the office 
lobby, provides additional lounging space, 
and is connected with pantries giving the 



necessary service facilities for afternoon 
tea. At one end of this balcony, be- 
tween the lobby and the main dining 
room and opening into both, is the musi- 
cians' balcony, one orchestra thus being 
capable of serving for both rooms. 

A special banquet elevator, opening 
from the main lobby and situated adja- 
cent to the carriage entrance, is for the 
use of residents of the city attending 
balls and banquets. It serves as still an- 
other means of entrance and exit for the 
assembly hall, on the first floor, which 
is accessible by the main passenger ele- 
vators and by the two broad marble stair- 
cases situated on either side of the ele- 
vator enclosure. 

The first floor is devoted exclusively to 
the entertainment of guests and provides 
unusual facilities for balls, conventions 
and private dinners. Opening from the 
elevator lobby and assembly hall, which 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE BALL ROOM-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 




A CORNER OF THE BALL ROOM-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 




A CORNER OF THE MAIN BANQUET 
ROOM HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
GEO. B. POST & SONS. ARCHITECTS. 




B-B 



H o * 

W C 
^H^- 

aw 

z P =a 

< . 

M H 

w K 



to 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




LARGE PRIVATE DINING ROOM --HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 




SMALL PRIVATE DINING ROOM-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



335 




LADIES' PARLOR AND RETIRING ROOM HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 




LIBRARY HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 



336 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




TYPICAL FLOOR PLAN-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 
Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 



are provided with ample checking facili- 
ties, are the ball room, banquet rooms, 
and various-sized small private dining 
rooms, all so arranged that they can be 
united into suites; if occasion arises, the 
entire floor can be utilized for an extra 
large affair. The ball room, main ban- 
quet room, and small banquet room are 
provided with maple floors for dancing, 
and the pantries are so arranged that 
every room on this floor, including the 
ball room, has dining service. 

The ball room extends across the en- 
tire Park front of the building, and is a 
finely lighted room, forty-seven feet in 
Width by one hundred feet in length, with 
its magnificent expanse of dance floor 
entiiely free of columns. The room is 
Adam in treatment, the key note being 
dignity and simplicity. 

The plain wall surfaces are broken 
only by the tall fluted pilasters support- 



ing an ornamental plaster cornice and a 
segmental vaulted plaster ceiling decor- 
ated in low relief. Ivory and oyster 
shell gray are the prevailing tones of the 
walls and ceiling, and the window hang- 
ings and furniture coverings are rose 
damask ; the scheme as a whole acting as 
an excellent background for the costumes 
and jewels to be seen at formal affairs. 

The decorative scheme throughout the 
hotel has been based upon the assump- 
tion that the architectural and decorative 
treatment of a room should always be so 
designed that it will provide with its 
furnishings a refined background for the 
people using it, and that there is never 
any justification for that type of over- 
decorated, garishly furnished room 
where the only purpose served by the 
human being is to give it scale. 

Two excellent "background" rooms on 
the first floor are the ladies' retiring 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



337 




PLAN OF THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH FLOORS-HOTEL STATLER, DETROIT, MICH. 

Geo. B. Post & Sons, Architects. 



room, which opens from the ball room, 
and the library adjoining it. The ladies' 
retiring room is a finely proportioned 
room with gray panelled walls and is fur- 
nished in the Chinese Chippendale period. 
The library is furnished in oak, with a 
ceiling of dull antique gold. This room 
contains a carefully selected library of 
some two thousand volumes for the use 
of guests, and a hurried glance at some 
of the book titles and a few moments' ' 
relaxation in one of the comfortable 
English chairs with its reading lamp 
close by convince one that this room will 
be one of the most used and homelike in 
the hotel. 

In addition to the other private dining 
rooms on this floor there is a large 
private dining room in the period of 
Henry II. with an interesting ceiling in 
gray antique oak decorated with poly- 
chrome ornament. 



The main banquet room and small 
banquet room are of the same general 
style as the ball room. Both the banquet 
room and the ball room are provided 
with musicians' balconies, and the wide 
doorway between the two rooms is pro- 
vided with two sets of doors so that 
music may be played in both rooms 
simultaneously without interfering. 

In the planning, equipment, and fur- 
nishing of the bed room floors, the guest 
will find the highest development of the 
Statler service, which is so striking a 
feature of the Cleveland and Buffalo 
hotels of the same name. 

There are eight hundred guest rooms 
in the greatest variety of sizes and fur- 
nishings. The majority of the rooms 
are of moderate size. All rooms are 
easily accessible from the passenger ele- 
vators located in the center of the build- 
ing and opening into a lobby that receives 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



339 



plenty of daylight. Directly back of the 
passenger elevators are the service ele- 
vators and service hall, and in close prox- 
imity is the maids' room. Thus the focal 
point of the floor service is located as 
centrally as are the passenger elevators, 
assuring prompt and economical service 
for the entire floor. 

Each bedroom is provided with a pri- 
vate bathroom, running ice-water, ther- 
mostatic heat control, telephone, etc. An 
interesting instance of the thoroughness 
with which the comfort of the guest has 
been considered is the pincushion found 
on every dresser, and which holds 
needles, pins, thread, buttons of assorted 
sizes, and even hooks and eyes. 

The bathrooms are ventilated by a sys- 
tem of forced ventilation, and between 
every two bathrooms is a vent and pipe 
shaft containing all of the supply, waste, 
vent, steam and other piping, besides the 
valves controlling the bathroom fixtures. 
This shaft is accessible from every bath- 
room, and is large enough to admit a 
workman, thus insuring quick and ecox 
nomical repair of all piping. 

The thirteenth and fourteenth floors 
are divided into large rooms for the dis- 
play of samples, and these rooms have 
been fitted with the disappearing wall 
type of bed, which is concealed in a 
closet when not in use. This allows 
of one room doing double service, as 
bed room and display room, thereby 
saving the salesman the added cost 
and inconvenience of engaging two 
rooms. 

It is, of course, a simple matter to give 
good service to the guest if the cost of 
operation be disregarded; and it is also 
a simple matter to operate cheaply by 
giving the guests no service. But it is 
quite a trick to give complete service and 
at the same time maintain economical 
operation. 

Accordingly, the service parts of the 
house have been so planned and equipped 
that the corps of trained employees using 
it will be able to give complete and eco- 
nomical service. This was considered of 
so great importance that valuable ground 
floor space with street frontage on Bag- 



ley Avenue was devoted to the kitchens 
and the service entrance. 

The location of the kitchen on this 
floor, and between the main dining room 
and the grill room, assure.s both rooms 
perfect "hot" service. The kitchen is so 
arranged that all food leaving it, whether 
going to the dining rooms on the ground 
floor, to the bedrooms upstairs by way 
of the service elevators, or by stairway 
or lift to the mezzanine and first floor 
pantries, must pass by and be checked at 
the checker's desk located at the unique 
entrance and exit. 

The service entrance on Bagley Avenue 
contains an office for the checker and 
timekeeper, who controls the coming and 
going of all employees and materials. 
This entrance is entirely cut off from 
the remainder of the ground floor, all 
supplies passing into the basement by way 
of the sidewalk lifts, and being distrib- 
uted there to the various storerooms or 
sent to the floors above by the service 
elevators. Employees go by stairways, 
first to their locker rooms in the basement 
or on the mezzanine, and then to their 
various departments. 

The basement is free of any room for 
the use of the public, as the barber shop, 
and men's toilet rooms and washroom, 
usually to be found tucked away in the 
basement, are here located on the ground 
floor mezzanine, thus insuring unusually 
good light and air, as well as adding 
greatly to their accessibility. 

On this mezzanine is also located that 
service department, and a very important 
one it is, to which the public and service 
have access: the manager's office with 
its accounting department, public wait- 
ing lobby, and the like. 

This department is in constant touch 
by telephones, telautographs and pneu- 
matic tubes with every unit of the ex- 
ceedingly complex organization necessary 
to run this most modern of American 
hotels. It must so control and guide the 
activities of the various departments and 
its hundreds of employees that to the 
guest it will seem as simple, as efficient, 
and as noiseless in operation as the ser- 
vice of a small, well-ordered household. 




ENTRANCE TO FARMER'S COTTAGE ESTATE 
OF ADOLPH MOLLENHAUER, ESQ., BAY SHORE, 
L. I. ALFRED HOPKINS, ARCHITECT. 




FARMER'S COTTAGE-ESTATE OF C. V. BROKAW, ESQ., GLEN COVE, L. I. 
Alfred Hopkins, Atchitect. 



TiHE 

EXAMPLES FR.0M THE WORK OF ALFRED HOPKINS 





FARM buildings, until a very recent 
period, were planned, almost uni- 
versally, with little regard for 
scientific arrangement, and none for 
architectural treatment. The scientific 
aspect has come to be seriously consid- 
ered as a result of the researches of the 
national and state Departments of Agri- 
culture, while the architectural improve- 
ment to be noticed during the last few 
years has been due to the growth of the 
gentleman farmer, who, deriving his main 
income from other sources, was in a posi- 
tion to allow himself, in the design of 
his buildings, a more generous outlay than 
was possible for the farmer whose sole 
revenue was derived from agriculture. 
We find, consequently, that the newer 
farm buildings excel the older, not only 
from a decorative standpoint, but from 
a practical standpoint as well. The labor 
of farm work has been simplified, the 



sanitation is greatly improved, and the 
products of the farm are of better qual- 
ity, particularly in the matter of the 
purity of milk, that most vital point in 
modern sanitary reform. 

To this improvement no architect has 
contributed more than Mr. Alfred Hop- 
kins. While he has not devoted himself 
exclusively to farm building design, he 
has, to some extent, specialized in this 
class of work, and in many cases he has 
been called upon to design farm build- 
ings on estates where the residences were 
the work of other architects. He has 
also written extensively on this subject, 
and his book, "Modern Farm Buildings," 
is one of the leading works on this 
phase of architecture. 

The considerations to be taken into 
account in planning a farm group are 
both practical and artistic. From the 
practical side, and particularly as re- 



342 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




FARM BUILDINGS-ESTATE OF HENRY M. TILFORD, ESQ.. MONROE, N. Y. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



gards milk production, the problem of 
cleanliness is paramount. It is this that 
dictates the isolation of the dairy, the 
planning of the stables, and the details 
of much of the interior treatment. Dust 
and flies, the two great conveyers of 
microbes, are the chief enemies to be 
excluded. Hence the adoption, in the 
best recent work, of a type of interior 
finish that can be thoroughly washed, 
with floors usually of concrete, walls and 
ceilings of hard plaster in place of the 
wood finish formerly prevalent. Hence 
the elimination of interior mouldings and 
trim, which would form lodging places 
for dust. Hence, also, the removal of 
the hay storage from its traditional loft 
over the stables, thus eliminating the 
infiltration of dust, as well as the pol- 
lution of the hay by the foul air arising 
from below. These details form the sub- 
ject of a volume, and cannot be fully 
developed in this article, but a brief 
reference to them is necessary, as they 
determine, to a great extent, the group- 
ing of the various buildings. 

Where the hay used is produced on the 



farm itself, and not brought in from the 
outside although this latter method is 
not infrequent its bulk is necessarily 
so considerable that the hay barn be- 
comes the largest building of the group. 
The separation of the horses from the 
cattle then leads to a typical plan in which 
the hay barn becomes the center, with 
two wings of varying importance balanc- 
ing each other. An excellent example 
of this type is the group of buildings 
designed by Mr. Hopkins for the estate 
of Mr. Henry M. Tilford, at Monroe, 
N. Y. Here the hay barn occupies the 
central position, and its location at the 
extreme north of the plan shelters the 
central court, used as a cow yard, from 
the cold north winds, and leaves it open 
to the rays of the sun. In the right 
wing are the horse stables, with five ordi- 
nary stalls and four box stalls. Adjacent 
are the harness and wagon rooms, open- 
ing on a second court, around which are 
also grouped the machinery and tool 
rooms, and a shed for the rougher farm 
wagons. Above the wagon room are 
some living rooms for the men, reached 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



343 





DAIRY ESTATE OF HENRY M. TILFORD, ESQ., MONROE, N. Y. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 




FARM BUILDINGS ESTATE OF HENRY M. TILFORD, ESQ., MONROE, N. Y. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



344 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




PLAN OF FARM BUILDINGS- ESTATE OF HENRY M. TILFORD, ESQ., MONROE, N. Y. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



by an outside staircase. The adjoining 
tower is used as a boiler room, while 
its summit accommodates a pigeon house, 
a picturesque feature that Mr. Hopkins 
has frequently introduced into his de- 
signs. 

This part of the group is connected 
with the hay barn by a feed room, and a 
similar room connects with the other 
wing, and also with the adjoining silo. 
The left wing is divided into two main 
parts, one for the milking cows, the 
other for the young stock, the calves, and 
the bull. A court enclosed by these two 
buildings and the dairy, but open to the 
west, is used as a yard for the young 
stock, while the bull has a smaller por- 
tion, fenced off at the end. 

The dairy is more closely connected 
with the cow barn than was formerly 
considered good practice. However, if 
proper standards of cleanliness are main- 
tained, this should not be a serious detri- 
ment, while it certainly facilitates the 
work of the farm. The plan of the dairy 
is relatively simple, consisting only of a 
milk receiving room, a milk room, wash 
room and laundry, together with a steril- 
izer and a refrigerator. This is ample 
for the usual requirements of a private 
farm of considerable size, although a 
commercial plant requires a more com- 
plete installation. 

The materials used for the exterior of 
these buildings are rough local stone and 
shingles, the former composing the larger 



part of the walls. The general treatment 
is characterized by the simplicity appro- 
priate to a structure of this nature, the 
architectural effect being obtained almost 
entirely by the differentiation of the var- 
ious buildings composing the group. No 
attempt has been made to secure a rigid 
symmetry, the effect being rather a pic- 
turesque balancing of masses, each 
treated as simply and directly as possible. 
The amount of applied decoration, in 
fact, has been reduced to a negligible 
quantity. 

In the buildings on the estate of Mr. 
C. V. Brokaw, at Glen Cove, L. I., the 
accommodation for both cows and horses 
is considerably less than in the preceding 
example. Here a single feed room is 
used, located between the two stables, and 
the hay loft is placed above the wagon 
house, forming the dominating mass on 
the axis of the nearly symmetrical court- 
yard. The arrangement of the wagon 
shed and machinery room is similar to 
that above described, and the tool room 
is located at the entrance to the court, 
balancing the calf pens. The cow yard 
is placed to one side, adjacent to the cow 
barn. The dairy, placed as in the Tilford 
group, is smaller and simpler in arrange- 
ment, practically all the work being done 
in a single room. Adjacent to it, although 
not directly connecting, is the farmer's 
cottage. The yard lying between the 
cottage and the cow stables is used for 
the service of the latter. In its center is 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



345 




MEN'S QUARTERS, FARM BUILDINGS ESTATE OF HENRY M. TILFORD, ESQ., MONROE, N. Y. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



a watering trough, above which has been 
constructed a circular corncrib, supported 
by four brick posts. 

The effect of this group is very differ- 
ent from the preceding one, due prin- 
cipally to the use of clapboards as the 
material of the walls, and of detail of a 
generally Colonial or Georgian character. 
The buildings are low and rambling, the 
only conspicuous exception being the hay 
barn, with its cupola used as a ventilator 
and clock tower. The essential character 
of a hay barn is well expressed by the 
great central door with its beam and hoist, 
and by the louvers for additional venti- 
lation. The farmer's cottage is a pleasing 
bit of domestic architecture, and the 
few ornamental details are excellently 
studied in the style adopted, which Mr. 
Hopkins has used for most of his work 
on Long Island, in conformity with the 
houses of similar character that are so 
frequent in that locality. 

The south side of this group of build- 
ings faces on a large vegetable garden, on 
the opposite side of which is the chicken 
house. This is of about the same length 



as the main farm group exclusive of the 
farmer's cottage and is treated in a simi- 
lar manner, though with slightly greater 
simplicity. The north side, facing the 
other buildings, is decorated with a 
simple but attractive arbor of trellis work, 
while on the south side are the runs for 
the poultry. This side of the building is 
very open, with skylights in the roof so 
as to give the greatest possible amount 
of sunlight, while the north side has only 
such openings as are necessary for ven- 
tilation. The design of the entire build- 
ing has been studied with a view to the 
greatest possible efficiency and conven- 
ience. 

In the farm buildings of Mr. Adolph 
Mollenhauer, at Bay Shore, L. I., the 
chicken house is combined with the other 
farm buildings, in a single group. Here, 
again, the buildings are arranged on the 
three sides of a court, but the orientation 
is different, and has produced a different 
distribution of the various parts. 

The chicken houses face the south, as 
on the Brokaw estate, and their runs 
are similarly arranged, although the inter- 



346 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



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PLAN OF FARM BUILDINGS AND FARMER'S COTTAGE ESTATE OF C. V. BROKAW, ESQ.. 

GLEN COVE, L. I. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



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GROUP PLAN OF FARM BUILDINGS AND VEGETABLE GARDEN ESTATE OF C. V. BROKAW, 

ESQ., GLEN COVE, L. L 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



347 




FARM BUILDINGS AND FARMER'S COTTAGE ESTATE OF C. V. BROKAW, ESQ., GLEN COVE. L. I. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 




FARM BUILDINGS AND FARMER'S COTTAGE ESTATE OF C. V. BROKAW, ESQ., GLEN COVE. L. I. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



348 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




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VIEW AND PLAN OF POULTRY HOUSE- 
ESTATE OF C. V. BROKAW, ESQ., GLEN COVE, 
L. I. ALFRED HOPKINS, ARCHITECT. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



349 




WAGON SHED AND TOOL ROOM-ESTATE OF C. V. BROKAW, ESQ., GLEN COVE. L. I. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



nal disposition of the houses is somewhat 
different. The stables, however, are much 
simpler, being arranged for only two 
cows and three horses, with a single feed 
room and no hay barn. The central court, 
open to the east, is divided to form a 
cow yard and a paddock, with a passage 
for the service of the chicken houses. 
Connected with the horse stable is the 
wagon room, and next to it a shed and 
machinery room, with a small tool room 
adjoining. 

The farmer's house lies a little to the 
northeast of the main group, and is con- 
nected with it by an arbor, interestingly 
treated with trellis work. The house is 
a pleasing example of the same Colonial 
type of architecture that Mr. Hopkins 
has so frequently used. It differs from 
the Brokavv group, as do the other build- 
ings of this estate, in being built of 
shingles instead of clapboards, but the 
treatment is otherwise very similar. 

The buildings of this group are more 
uniform in height than in the previous 
examples, due to the absence of the domi- 
nating mass of the hay barn. Any pos- 



sibility of a too monotonous effect, how- 
ever, has been obviated by the introduc- 
tion of decorative motives of trellis work, 
in various parts of the group, as well as 
by the addition of an octagonal tower, 
used as a store-room and pigeon house. 
The peculiar form of the roof, while 
not without precedent in the old Georgian 
examples, is still sufficiently unusual to 
add a very decided note of interest to the 
group of buildings. 

The buildings on the estate of Mrs. 
Glenn Stewart, at Locust Valley, L. I., 
are also very similar in character, and 
perhaps even simpler in arrangement. 
The main group is arranged on three 
' sides of a small garden, open to the north. 
On the east side are the dairy and cow 
barn, with only two stalls. In accord- 
ance with Mr. Hopkins' practice, these 
two buildings do not connect, and the 
only access from one to the other is 
through the open porch adjoining. The 
feed room, next to the cow barn, forms 
the angle of the group. It serves the 
horses as well as the cows, hence its con- 
siderable size, which would be somewhat 



350 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





VIEW AND PLAN OF FARM BUILDINGS AND FARMER'S 
COTTAGE ESTATE OF ADOLPH MOLLENHAUER, ESQ., 
BAY SHORE, L. I. ALFRED HOPKINS. ARCHITECT. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



351 




FARM BUILDINGS ESTATE OF ADOLPH MOLLENHAUER, ESQ., BAY SHORE. L. I. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



excessive for the latter alone. The har- 
ness and carriage rooms, adjoining the 
feed room, form the south side of the 
garden court, while on the west is the 
farmer's cottage. 

The horses are lodged in a separate 
wing, containing five box stalls with 
Dutch doors and broad overhanging 
eaves. The wing to the south, shown in 
the plan as containing chicken houses and 
additional stall room, has not yet been 
built. 

In the center of the garden court is a 
small dove cote on the top of a high pole, 
around the base of which is an octagonal 
seat. The entire effect of the garden is 
rather more individual than one expects 
the surrounding of farm barns to be, and 
this, no doubt, is due to the personal taste 
of the owner. 

To the northwest, at a distance of about 
one hundred and fifty feet from the main 
group, is located the superintendent's cot- 
tage. This is another of the t excellently 
designed small Colonial hous'es that we 
have already seen in connection with Mr. 
Hopkins' work. It is slightly more am- 



bitious than the other cottages above de- 
scribed, and should be capable of furnish- 
ing a useful suggestion to the builders of 
small country houses. The treatment of 
the gables, by means of which the rear of 
the house is made considerably higher 
than the front, should have special adapt- 
ability. 

One of the most important works that 
Mr. Hopkins has undertaken is the "Sky- 
lands" farm, the estate of Mr. Francis 
Lynde Stetson, at Sterlington, N. Y. This 
includes almost every type of building 
that a farm might well contain, the build- 
ings being scattered over a vast estate, 
and employing various types of material 
and of architectural treatment. Several 
of them are illustrated in Mr. Hopkins' 
book, and from them we have chosen 
the cow barns as being particularly perti- 
nent to the subject of this article, and as 
presenting certain features that are not 
to be found in the other buildings shown 
herein. 

The buildings in question are note- 
worthy because of their thorough pro- 
tection against fire, a measure made par- 



352 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 







FARMER'S COTTAGE ESTATE OF ADOLPH MOLLENHAUER, ESQ., BAY SHORE, L. I. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 




FARM BUILDINGS AND FARMER'S COTTAGE-ESTATE OF ADOLPH MOLLENHAUER, ESQ., 

BAY SHORE, L. I. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



353 




FARM BUILDINGS ESTATE OF MRS. GLENN STEWART, LOCUST VALLEY, L. I. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



ticularly important because of the sur- 
rounding woods. The material used is 
reinforced concrete throughout, except 
for the silo, which is of wood. The use 
of concrete has led naturally to a type of 
architecture with a distinctly Italian sug- 
gestion, despite the absence of any de- 
tails that would stamp it as belonging to 
a definite historic style. 

The main building consists of two 
wings, at right angles to each other. The 
lower of the two, running east and west, 
contains the quarters for the milking 
cows, ten in number, with bull and calf 
pens adjoining. The other wing contains 
the feed room, root cellar, hay barn and 
dairy, this last a fairly complete installa- 
tion of five rooms, reached from the cow 
stable only through an open passage. 
Above the dairy are the dairyman's quar- 
ters, accessible only by an outside stair- 
case. The upper part of the hay barn is 
extended over the root cellar and part of 
the feed room, giving abundant space for 
hay storage. On the exterior of the 
building this space is indicated by a wall 
containing no windows, and pierced only 



by louvers, while the dairyman's rooms 
have large windows, the two parts being 
separated by an open porch. 

The building for the young stock, 
erected at a later period, is entirely inde- 
pendent of the main building, being joined 
to it only by a pergola. The silo is lo- 
cated between the two buildings, so as 
to serve both of them conveniently. A 
storeroom and woodshed are connected 
with the building for the young stock, 
and further to the north are the cow and 
bull yards, each with a shelter open to 
the sun, but closed against the cold north 
winds. 

Several features of this plan are note- 
worthy, and in particular the great pic- 
turesqiieness of effect attained by a simple 
use of the material adopted, with the help 
of a certain amount of planting, and with 
a very simple and convenient arrange- 
ment of services. The use of concrete is 
also notable from the point of view of 
sanitation, as no material presents greater 
facilities for the high degree of cleanli- 
ness that is desirable in all installations 
for the production of milk. 




% Q Q o O 

COTTAGC 

' O Q O O O 

ft O 




PLANS OF FARM BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS- 
ESTATE OF MRS. GLENN STEWART, LOCUST 
VALLEY, L. I. ALFRED HOPKINS, ARCHITECT, 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



355 




GARDEN COURT OF FARM BUILDINGS ESTATE OF MRS. GLENN STEWART, 
LOCUST VALLEY, L. I. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



While these are by no means all the 
farm buildings recently built by Mr. 
Hopkins, they are sufficiently various in 
their arrangement to be fairly typical of 
his recent practice. We find among them 
the use of stone, shingles, clapboards 
and concrete, as the materials of the 
buildings ; we find horse and cow stables, 
dairies, cottages, chicken houses, silos, 
hay barns and other accompanying ser- 
vices, grouped in a variety of ways. But 
in all the groups we find the same spirit 
and the same principles of composition. 

One of the main points to be noted 
throughout the works of Mr. Hopkins is 
their general air of appropriateness to 
their position and use. They are char- 
acteristically farm buildings, and most de- 
cidedly rural in character. Their gen- 
eral lowness contributes greatly to this 
effect, and so do the low pitch of the 
roofs and the manner in which the build- 
ings are joined together by arbors and 
covered passages instead of being set 
down anywhere, without apparent rela- 
tion, as on the ordinary farm. We may 
note also the reticence in the use of orna- 



ment that characterizes all this work, a 
feature that is none too common in re- 
cent buildings, where the prevailing ten- 
dency seems to be toward the use of a 
great amount of detail, so fine in scale 
as to be lost in the executed work. Mr. 
Hopkins, on the other hand, uses few 
ornamental details, but these few are al- 
ways large enough in scale to be able to 
produce the desired effect. 

Another important point is the freedom 
with which the compositions are handled. 
While Mr. Hopkins is no enemy of sym- 
metry, he very rightly recognizes that the 
sacrificing of common sense to a formula 
is by no means advisable, and that the 
different parts of a farm group demand 
different proportions and different fenes- 
tration, and he has combined these vary- 
ing factors into a harmonious whole, 
without losing either variety or unity. 

On the practical side, also, a few points 
may be noticed. One of these, to be 
found in all Mr. Hopkins' recent plans, 
is the use of the manure trolley, hung 
from the beams above, in place of the cart 
formerly used, with a great gain in clean- 



356 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




SUPERINTENDENT'S COTTAGE-ESTATE OF MRS. GLENN STEWART, LOCUST VALLEY, L. L. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



WOOD 

SHED 



KITCHEN 



nPANTrl 



PINING CM 



BED 



BED PM 



POPCH 



it * 



PLAN OF SUPERINTENDENT'S COTTAGE ESTATE OF MRS. GLENN STEWART, 

LOCUST VALLEY, L. I. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



357 




SUPERINTENDENT'S COTTAGE-ESTATE OF MRS. GLENN STEWART, LOCUST VALLEY, L. I. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect; 




BOX STALL WING OF FARM BUILDINGS-ESTATE OF MRS. GLENN STEWART, 

LOCUST VALLEY, L. I. 
Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



358 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




COW BARN AND DAIRY-ESTATE OF FRANCIS LYNDE STETSON, ESQ., STERLINGTON, N. Y. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 




PLAN OF FARM BUILDINGS ESTATE OF FRANCIS LYNDE STETSON, ESQ., STERLINGTON. N. Y. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



359 




COW BARN AND SILO ESTATE OF FRANCIS LYNDE STETSON, ESQ., STERLINGTON, N. Y. 

Alfred Hopkins, Architect. 



liness by the substitution. The track can 
pass anywhere that there is four feet of 
clear width, with a three foot radius on 
the turns. In the cases where silos are 
included in the group the ensilage can 
be conveyed on the same track, thus add- 
ing considerably to simplicity of oper- 
ation. The manure trolley sometimes 
passes through the feed rooms, but Mr. 
Hopkins does not consider this a. serious 
detriment, as a little care avoids all pos- 
sibility of contamination, and any other 
arrangement would usually lead to con- 
siderable complication in plan and con- 
sequently in operation. Where the track 
runs outside the buildings it is supported 
by overhanging eaves or rafters. The 
old-fashioned manure pit is generally 
abandoned, except in special cases, the 
manure being carted away and stored at 
some distance. 

Another departure from earlier prac- 



tice is in the location of the dairy. It 
was formerly believed that this should be 
as far from the barn as possible, but the 
inconvenience of this arrangement is 
scarcely offset by its value in preventing 
contamination, since this is more likely 
to occur in the barn than in the dairy. If, 
therefore, the two buildings are effec- 
tively separated, it would seem that all 
reasonable precautions in planning have 
been taken, and the problem of cleanli- 
ness becomes one of administration. 

Other details might be mentioned, but 
to do so would be to depart too widely 
from the limits of our subject. For those 
whose interest in this type of buildings 
is greater than can here be satisfied, we 
can scarcely do better than to commend 
the very instructive volume that Mr. 
Hopkins himself has written on this sub- 
ject, in which he epitomizes the results 
of the best recent practice. 




THE TALMADGE HOUSE. LITCH- 
FIELD, CONN. FROM WATER COLOR 
DRAWING BY WESLEY S. BESSELL. 



COLONIAL QAK.CHITECTVK.E 

IN COHNECTICVT 




Text and Measured "Drawings 
'Wesley <herwood Bessell 




PART I. 



IN studying the old Colonial architec- 
ture of Connecticut, one is brought 
to realize how little remains in its 
original state, how much modern meth- 
ods are doing to kill the beauty there 
was in the homes of our forefathers. To 
pick out the good that is left, without 
modern addition in the way of a porch 
or new front door or change to two- 
light sash to mar the picture, is a difficult 
task. So it is with a great deal of satis- 
faction that we occasionally catch sight 
of some example remaining to us in the 
original state. 

Going into the details of this old Colo- 
nial architecture, the different periods are" 
clearly marked by the changes wrought 
in our manner of life as the country pro- 
gressed. 

When we see a house similar to that 
built about 1720 at Essex, shown on page 
362, one of the first types of small 
houses, we must close our eyes to the 
porch attached at the side. Here is a 
house two hundred years old, represent- 
ing the beginnings of our Colonial archi- 
tecture, an architecture born of the neces- 
sity for economy and typical of the sim- 
ple way in which our forefathers lived. 
What they wanted most of all was a 
home, four walls with as little ornament 
as possible. Here was simplicity, the 
keynote to everything worth while. How 
charming is the house with its simple 
lines and one color note in the detailed 
doorway. 

From these primitive Connecticut sur- 
vivals a lesson is to be gleaned. Let us 
go to the quiet of an out-of-the-way place 
and rest awhile, become fascinated by 
Simplicity. The results will be beneficial 
in many ways. You will see that to get 
your best results you must adhere to the 
study of simple composition. The dis- 



position of openings will count for far 
more than ornament for vacant places. 

Let us analyze one of these houses. 
How are they planned? What are they 
built from ? Who designed them ? Where 
did the ideas originate that make them 
so dignified? 

As to the planning, it is extremely 
simple. You enter a small hall; against 
the large centre chimney, in the hall, is 
the stairway, of a sharp ascent, the rise 
and tread generally nine inches by nine 
inches, making a rise of forty-five de- 
grees and not, as one wpuld imagine, at 
all difficult to go up. To the right are 
two rooms, and likewise to the left. The 
second floor is similar. In the very early 
houses there was only one room on either 
side of the chimney. This was the gen- 
eral plan with few exceptions. For the 
larger houses the hall was carried 
through the house, and there were two 
chimneys, one at each end of the house. 
The houses have later been enlarged, as 
occasion arose, by putting on a lean-to 
and extending the roof line down over it. 
This was used as a kitchen. The ceiling 
heights vary between seven and eight 
feet for the smaller houses ; the larger 
ones are generally higher. 

The majority are built of oak and in- 
tended to stay "put," as time tells. The 
rafters, floor beams and sheathing boards 
are from the rough, and all these boards 
are left as they were ripped from the 
original timber. They are held in place 
with the wood pins of those days. There 
is no flimsiness, no neglect of small detail 
in construction. The floor beams were 
of oak, usually five by six inches, and 
these are still in an excellent state, the 
core being sound. The girders were solid 
and about ten by twelve inches. Some 
girders were supported by oak columns 



362 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




HOUSE AT ESSEX, CONN., BUILT ABOUT 1720. ONE OF THE EARLIEST TYPES OF. 
SMALL COLONIAL HOUSES. 



twelve inches square. The walls were 
constructed of stone in the early houses, 
stone only being procurable ; and of stone 
or brick in the later ones, the brick be- 
ing imported from England or made in 
the Colonies. 

As to who designed these early houses 
our knowledge is meagre. Few names 
are left to us. Generally the builder was 
also the designer. In the case of the 
Hotchkiss house at Old Saybrook, there 
is an original agreement between owner 
and builder, as follows : 

"Terms of agreement entered upon and 
concluded between Mr. Humphrey Pratt, 
Junr., on this one part and Frederick 
William Hotchkiss on the other. 

"Concluded That he, Mr. Humphrey 
Pratt, Junr., will build an house for Fred- 
erick William Hotchkiss. The dimen- 
sions of the house shall be as follows, 
viz., 38 feet in length, 29 feet in breadth. 
16 feet, posts, in heighth, a plain upright 
house to be finished on the outside and 
in the inside carried as far as the com- 
pletion of the chambers floor according 
to the manner of that which was the 
property of Samuel Elliott, Esq., late of 



this place, deceased, except that it be only 
a wooden structure, and the fire place 
in the front rooms, above and below, 
shall be of brick; that it have a brass 
lock and ketch of a large kind on the 
front door, and two knob locks of a 
smaller kind on the inside door, together 
with plain works over the windows. The 
whole specified in calculation made by a 
committee for that purpose. For the 
above building Mr. Humphrey Pratt, 
Junr., is to receive the sum of two hun- 
dred and fifty pounds lawful money. 

"He likewise engages to provide mate- 
rials for sd building on the former part 
of this sum, being for materials and for 
finishing this house as above specified. 
Frederick Wm. Hotchkiss on his part is 
to pay the sum of one hundred pounds 
lawful money, which money becomes clue 
to him from this society on the 26th day 
of September, 1784, as soon as the same 
money be collected, to Mr. Humphrey 
Pratt. He likewise engages that he will 
do his endeavor that it shall be collected 
as speedily as possible or otherwise will 
give Mr. Humphrey Pratt, Junr., his full 
power to collect it of the collector, or 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



363 



committee, and Frederick Wm. Hotch- 
kiss likewise promises that Mr. Hum- 
phrey Pratt, Junr., shall hereby become 
entitled to the remaining sum of one hun- 
dred and fifty pounds lawful money due 
for finishing the house as above on the 
26th day of September, 1785, provided 
sd house be finished as is agreed upon 
above and provided also that the same 
sum of one hundred and fifty pounds 
lawful money which will then become 
due to Frederick Wm. Hotchkiss from 
this society be collected by the committee 
as collector of society, rate or otherwise ; 
if not collected by a reasonable time after 
that sd 26th day of September, 1785, 
that he, the Rev. Dr. William Hotchkiss, 
will, if deposited, give Mr. Humphrey 
Pratt, Junr., his full power to collect the 
same of the committee so-called. The 
same conditions or terms of agreement 
we, Mr. William Humphrey Pratt on his 
contract and Frederick William Hotch- 
kiss on the other part, do mutually agree 
to perform and abide by and faithfully 
accomplish; witness our hands this 26th 
day of May Anno Domini, 1784. 



Saybrook Society, May 26, 1784. 
HUMPHREY PRATT, JUNR. 
FREDERICK WILLIAM HOTCHKISS. 
"This house settled and paid for and 
receipt given as per receipt to be seen in 
full. 

HUMPHREY PRATT 

For building my house, 

1784." 

This agreement is written in the long- 
hand of the day, and the builder was the 
architect. Along with the agreement was 
a memorandum of material, of fifty 
words, so worn that it cannot be made 
out. In truth, contractors were to be 
trusted then. It was in this house that 
Samuel Morse, inventor of the telegraph, 
lived. Contractors would use Asher Ben- 
jamin's "Handbook," or, if earlier, 
Beatty Langley's "Builders Jewel," to 
which books are due the great quantity 
of good detail. The house consisted of 
four walls and a roof. To quote Emerson, 
"The line of beauty was the line of per- 
fect economy" probably sums up the 
architectural merit of the Colonial style. 




SMALL HOUSE AT LITCHFIELD, CONN., OF THE PERIOD OF THE GREEK REVIVAL. 




STREET FRONT OF THE HAYDEN 
HOUSE, ESSEX, CONN. MEASURED 
AND DRAWN BY WESLEY S. BESSELL. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



365 




THE HAYDEN HOUSE, BUILT IN 1665. THE SECOND OLDEST HOUSE AT ESSEX, CONN. 



The typical small house illustrated on 
page 362 one will see a great many of in 
a day's journey. There is also much of 
the handiwork of the period called the 
Classical Revival ; and may it be said of 
the builders of that period, they had 
ability and soundness well worth study- 
ing. Just as one period was woven into 
the other by additions to the English 
country homes, preserving a beautiful 
whole, so has this Revival worked into 
our purely Georgian architecture. After 
that, however, traditions were broken, 
and only in spots do we see hope of their 
return. The small house at Litchfield 
(page 363) is of this period. 

It is interesting to note when compar- 
ing the Hayden house at Essex, the home 
of the gruff old sea captain, with the 
Wolcott house at Litchfield. the home of' 
the Governor of the State and signer of 
the Declaration of Independence, that the 
directness of lines and composition is 
practically identical ; the planning also is 
the same, and yet these places are a great 
distance apart. 

Essex is a place of interest. One would 
imagine oneself back a hundred years. 
Here was the beginning of the Haydens 
in 1665, the Pratts, the Denisons, and 
other well-known families. The old 



Hayden house, illustrated herewith, is 
a veritable library of knowledge ; here 
has hung for years a woodcut of George 
III and his consort ; here are old knock- 
ers brought over from England at the 
time the house was built by Capt. Hay- 
den; here are beautifully panelled rooms, 
to be illustrated in a later article; and 
here also is the quoining at the corners 
of the building similar to that at Mount 
Vernon, although this house is of an 
earlier date. This surely is the begin- 
ning of our Colonial architecture. Quaint 
Essex, with its little streets that end ab- 
ruptly at the water's edge, or against a 
little white house. Would there were 
many more such towns instead of our 
modern jumble of Spanish Mission, so- 
called Colonial, English and Modern- 
esque architecture, all shuffled up and fill- 
ing endless streets with their conglom- 
erant of ideas. 

The details are traced in a very inter- 
esting manner. The mouldings that were 
on one house in a town were likewise 
used on others, showing clearly that the 
builder had the moulds run from the 
same knife. These mouldings were very 
carefully cut out, as one can see by re- 
moving the paint from any one member. 
The cyma recta and cyma reversa, the 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



367 




THE STARKEY HOUSE AT ESSEX, CONN., BUILT IN 1750. 




HEZECAH PRATT HOUSE, ESSEX, CONN., BUILT IN 1744. DOOR IS OF LATER DATE. 



368 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE OLIVER WOLCOTT HOUSE, 1752. OLDEST HOUSE AT LITCHFIELD, CONN 




THE NORTON HOUSE, BUILT IN 1803, EAST GOSHEN, CONN. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



369 



quarter round, in fact all mouldings, 
were very carefully studied and used, 
one with the other, in a manner well 
worth copying. 

The earliest houses had no gutters, but 
on later ones wood was used for gutters. 
Today these are replaced by the metal 
gutters used everywhere. A few of the 
houses had copper gutters and leaders. 
Examples of leader heads are few, but 
some are very exquisite ; unlike anything 
used today, they have usually a long and 
tenuated feeling. 

Sash and frames were made of oak ; 
the frame usually solid wood and the 
sash doubled, with nine lights to a sash, 
the glass commonly seven inches by eight 
and a half inches. No weights were 
used, windows being held in place by 
pins slipped through the sash into the 
frames at a proper height. 

The shingles were hand riven, irregu- 
lar, few of which remain. All clapboards 
were fastened by the old wrought iron 



nails with large heads or with oak pins, 
and at coast and river towns the boat nail 
was used, very often left clearly exposed 
to be painted over. 

The Starkey house at Essex conveys 
a dominant impression of repose. The 
doorway is, as usual, the color note, to- 
gether with the Palladian window over it. 
Formerly all the sash contained small 
lights, and the roof was of shingles in- 
stead of imitation shingles in metal. The 
house is of an early date, and, while 
alike, it is still unlike the Smith house 
at Litchfield, built at the end of the 
Classic Revival. 

The Norton house, though not a small 
house, was built in 1803, about the time 
when some of the most refined and deli- 
cate detail was being executed. 

We shall take up in future articles 
the details, such as doorways, man- 
tels and panelled rooms; and by this 
means we shall see wherein the beauty 
of things Colonial lie. 




THE LYMAN SMITH HOUSE, BUILT IN 1833, LITCHFIELD, CONN. 





"PENCOYD," BALA, MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 
PA. RESTORATION AND ADDITIONS BY 
LOUIS CARTER BAKER, JR., ARCHITECT. 



372 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



375 





JICOWD TLOOX, Pi-AW 




TLOOi. PLAU 



LIVING ROOM AND PLANS-HOUSE OF HENRY S. 
DRINKER, ESQ., WYNNEWOOD, PA. ALTERATIONS 
AND ADDITIONS BY MELLOR & MEIGS, ARCHITECTS. 




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DOORWAY-HOUSE OF GEORGE K. 
SMITH, ESQ., ST. LOUIS COUNTY. 
MO. ROTH & STUDY, ARCHITECTS. 




; 5&p/5fc* 



ARCHITECT'S LI 




BOOKS FROM UNIVERSITY PRESSES 

By RICHARD FRANZ BACH 

Curator, School of Architecture, Columbia University 
PART II. 



THE Princeton University Press has 
also issued a volume of high qual- 
ity in Luca della Robbia by Allan 
Marquand (No. Ill of the Princeton 
Monographs in Art and Archaeology ; 
Princeton University Press, Princeton, 
N. J. ; pp. 286; quarto, $7.50. This is ar- 
ranged as a catalogue raisonne of the 
works of the great architectural colorist 
of the fifteenth century, in which the ar- 
tist's works are chronologically listed. 
Documents bearing on his life and activ- 
ity are printed where found advisable and 
careful bibliographies, arranged by cen- 
turies, appear after each number of the 
catalogue. This volume is likewise the 
first of a series. There will ultimately be 
four concerning the family of the name 
of Robbia; the second will concern An- 
drea della Robbia, the third Giovanni 
della Robbia and the fourth the Robbia 
School. 

The body of the present volume is pre- 
ceded by a biographic introduction, to 
which are appended a number of docu- 
ments concerning Luca in the original 
Italian. One hundred and twenty-seven 
works are listed, and these are grouped 
in five chapters, each covering a decade of 
Luca's creative life, beginning 1430 and 



ending 1480, followed by a sixth section 
including works in the manner of Luca 
della Robbia. 

Luca della Robbia was born in 1399 or 
1400. His chief activity was in stone, 
marble, bronze and terra cotta, although 
Vasari claims that his father set him to 
learn the goldsmith's art under Leonardo 
di Ser Giovanni. Donatello's influence 
has by many been traced in Luca's work, 
notably in the Cantoria and Campanile 
reliefs at Florence, but Professor Mar- 
quand demonstrates that Luca's works 
both antedate those of Donatello whence 
their inspiration is supposed to have em- 
anated, namely the latter's dancing chil- 
dren at Prato and at Florence and his 
disputants in bronze on the sacristy doors 
of S. Lorenzo. It is not to be doubted, 
however, that the advice of Donatello was 
welcomed by della Robbia ; this is seen in 
the consistent use of receding planes in 
the marble altar of S. Pietro, a manner 
not generally preferred by Luca. Other 
noteworthy influences in the work of this 
artist were those of Brunelleschi' and of 
Lorenzo Ghiberti. The effect of the 
former "could hardly have extended 
much beyond architectural details," 
whereas strictly sculptural portions of 



380 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



Luca's works show a dependence on Lo- 
renzo Ghiberti. The best work of this 
member of the della Robbia family was 
done for the Florentine Duomo, although 
his efforts did not lack the appreciation 
of the great houses of art patrons, such 
as the Medici, notably Cosimo and Piero, 
the Pazzi, Buondelmonti and Capponi. 

Luca's works were "varied in charac- 
ter, comprising a choir gallery, bronze 
doors, lunettes, ceilings, pavements, dec- 
orative and commemorative medallions, 
altarpieces, shrines, statues, groups and a 
sculptural monument." Although he fa- 
vored the architectural point of view 
"his mouldings deserve careful study"- 
on one hand ; his reliefs, on the 
other, "exhibit little interest in the prob- 
lems of perspective and anatomy, which 
attracted so much attention in his day." 
Luca's results show that he loved nature 
and revered religion. He has a deep sym- 
pathy for the form and color of flowers 
and of fruits. Although animals attract 
him little, the human form engrosses him. 
Above all, he is known by his profound 
feeling for the beauty of womanhood, and 
the exuberant life and simplicity of child 
life. His sole contribution to his art was 
"the application of white and colored 
enamels to terra cotta figures and reliefs." 
Professor Marquand doubts the stock- 
statement that the della Robbia glaze was 
a secret composition, for which the form- 
ula has not yet been discovered. He 
points out that "glazes of a similar char- 
acter had been employed by Egyptians 
and Persians in ancient times, and to a 
limited degree by Greeks and Romans. 
Throughout the Middle Ages majolica, or 
glazed faience, was still made in Italy, 
and many towns began to be celebrated 
for the manufacture of majolica before 
Luca was born." Luca used his glaze as 
a substitute for marble, with the result 
that his figures are generally white. His 
color sense was one of ultimate refine- 
ment, and his sense of fitness or appro- 
priateness for the purpose to be served 
was at the bottom of each of his under- 
takings. In his conceptions, he was ever 
a naturalist, but a saving grace of artistic 
restraint prevented him from being a 
thorough realist. His death occurred in 
1482, after the great era of ceramic work 



inaugurated by his nephew, Andrea della 
Robbia, was already well under way. 

Professor Marquand's work is a mar- 
vel of care and accuracy, its arrangement 
is destined to render it highly useful. 
Although there are no colored illustra- 
tions, the one hundred and eighty-six re- 
productions presented give a fair idea of 
the man's work in a field which is at the 
moment much neglected, namely that of 
the introduction of color in architecture. 

The commanding authority of Vitru- 
vius has cast its portentous shadow across 
the path of the Renaissance. It has dom- 
inated with transcending force the de- 
velopment of antique forms in their mod- 
ern interpretation in such degree, that his 
work itself may justly be called a classic,, 
though it is not characterized by marked 
literary graces. The small matters of the 
identity of the author, the time at which 
he flourished, the authenticity of his mas- 
ter work, and, by way of climax, the 
actual and observational foundation for 
the theories, principles and processes of 
which he discourses, have for many a 
day been moot questions ; they have peri- 
odically engaged men's minds, but have 
not finally been invested with sufficient 
fact and reality to give them a definite 
place in the history of architecture. To 
this day we are not fully assured that Vit- 
ruvius lived in the Augustan age, though 
Latin philologists generally agree on that 
period. 

His work appears in its first American 
translation under the auspices of the Har- 
vard University Press, with the title 
Vitruvius: The Ten Books OH Architec- 
ture, translated by Morris Hickey Mor- 
gan, with illustrations and original de- 
signs prepared under the direction of 
Herbert Langford Warren, revised and 
edited for publication by Albert A. How- 
ard (Harvard University Press, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. ; crown octavo ; pp. xiii 
331, index; $3.50). Other translations 
into German and into French have ap- 
peared recently, the latter by Choisy. Like 
all classic writings of equivalent impor- 
tance the work under discussion 'was fre- 
quently transcribed ; the latest of the 
transcriptions dates from 1316. What 
may be called the first edition dates from 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



381 



1486, while under Julius II, Fra Gio- 
condo, at one time an associate architect 
of St. Peter's, published a critical edition, 
which has furnished a number of the il- 
lustrations used by Professor Warren for 
the present translation. This is the fourth 
version in English ; the first was by New- 
ton (1791), the second by Gwilt (1826), 
the third by Wilkins (1872). 

But who was this embodiment of arch- 
itectural omniscience and what was his 
place in architectural development? To 
begin with, the manual of Vitruvius is 
the only work of its type. Much of it is 
the result of his personal experience, al- 
though we know of only one work of his 
hand in the practical field, the Basilica of 
Fano ; on the other hand, he was greatly 
indebted for much of his material to An- 
axagoras, Ictinus, Theodorus and others. 
At a time when archaeological investiga- 
tion was as undreamt of as the Martian 
canals, when the beauties of Imperial 
Rome were crumbling with neglect or 
served as quarries for current work, there 
was no other record of old Roman build- 
ing, much less of that of Greece. In the 
eyes of the architects of the Renaissance 
he was the corner stone of professional 
faith. Alberti borrowed from his" work 
in preparing his De Architecture! ; Palla- 
dio writes : "I proposed to myself Vitru- 
vius as my master and guide" ; in Cham- 
bers' Civil Architecture, his name often 
appears, while in Newton's translation he 
is proclaimed "the father of the art." Al- 
though in his lifetime he seems to have 
been a sort of pariah, in his own -opinion, 
at least ; in the centuries following his 
time his word became gospel, with never 
an attempt at verification. For these 
reasons Professor Morgan's new transla- 
tion has an added value; it is a careful 
and thorough work by an able student of 
the classics ; while Professor Warren's 
exact knowledge of ancient building has 
contributed valuable assistance. 

For Vitruvius the word "architecture" 
had an all embracing connotation. At 
the end of his volume, he says : "Such 
principles of machines as I could make 
clear, and as I thought most serviceable 
for times of peace and of war, I have 
explained in this book. In the nine ear- 
lier books I have dealt with single topics 



and details, so that the entire work con- 
tains all the branches of architecture." 
The "single topics and details" will be 
found to cover methods of finding water 
and the construction of cranes, astrology 
and weather prognostics, musical theory 
and chronometry, not to mention purely 
architectural matters, such as, planning, 
construction, orders, materials and theory 
of design. But it was a characteristic of 
many an old treatise to attempt to span 
the universe ; and we are mindful of an 
ancient and sturdy encyclopaedia of uni- 
versal knowledge in one volume. 



A NEGLECTED SUBJECT 

VERY few writers of books have the 
good fortune or the good sense to 
write books which deal adequately 
with a hitherto neglected subject, and 
when such a book is written and pub- 
lished it deserves more than usually close 
attention. Mr. Cecil C. Evers' book on 
The Commercial Problem in Buildings* 
does deal with a hitherto neglected sub- 
ject, and, what is more, it discusses and 
explains this subject with exact and ex- 
haustive knowledge and with the utmost 
perspicacity. 

Considering the large number of peo- 
ple all over the United States who are 
vitally interested in the development and 
the management of urban real estate, it 
is extraordinary that so little writing has 
been done upon the subject. Mr. R. M. 
Hurd's "Principles of City Land Values" 
remains almost the only adequate dis- 
cussion of the conditions which actually 
determine the price of urban land, and 
the work which was so well begun eleven 
years ago by Mr. Kurd is now carried 
on by Mr. Evers. The latter's book is in 
a real sense supplementary to the for- 
mer's. The former explained the condi- 
tions which give value to the sites upon 
which city buildings are erected. The 
latter deals with the conditions which de- 
termine successful building in cities for 
commercial purposes. 



"The Commercial Problem in Buildings. A dis- 
cussion of the economic and structural essentials of 
profitable buildings, and the basis for valuation of 
improved real estate. By Cecil C. Evers, vice-presi- 
dent of the Lawyers' Mortgage Co. 111. 8vo. 271 
p., index. New York : The Record and GTuide Co. 
$1.50. 



382 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



Mr. Evers, like Mr. Hurd, has every 
reason to know a good deal about urban 
real estate, because he is professionally 
engaged in deciding whether certain 
classes of buildings are likely to be prof- 
itable on particular sites. The examples 
which he uses in order to give point to 
his assertions are for the most part those 
which have come under his own observa- 
tion. 

The distinguishing quality of the book 
is its eminent and complete serviceabil- 
ity. It is, properly speaking, a manual 
for the man who is interested in build- 
ing houses for commercial purposes of 
any kind or in any city. The careful 
reading of the book is almost certain to 
enable such a man to avoid mistakes and 
to save money, and a very little exercise 
of intelligence will help the reader not 
only to avoid mistakes, but to achieve 
successes and to make money. That is 
the great value of a careful study of a 
concrete business condition, such as Mr. 
Evers has made. It places at the dis- 
posal of owners and builders all over 
the country the fruits of a varied and 
prolonged experience in watching the 
success of building operations and of a 
patient and exact study of the causes of 
success or failure. 

Perhaps the best way to convey an 
adequate idea of the scope and value of 
the book will be to enumerate some of 
the topics which Mr. Evers discusses. 
The first four chapters are occupied with 
an examination of the more general as- 
pects of the subject. Mr. Evers dwells 
upon the rapid growth of cities, of the 
increased variety and complexity of the 
types of buildings needed in a modern 
city, and the conditions under which the 
ordinary demand is met. He separates 
the commercial problem involved by ur- 
ban building into two parts. One of these 
concerns the real estate problem, includ- 
ing the study of the site, its surroundings, 
.accessibility, and in general all the ex- 
terior factors. The other concerns the 
building proper, including the cost, the 
number of stories, the size, the planning, 
the elevator equipment, and 1 in general all 



the interior factors, which determine suc- 
cess or failure. 

The larger part of the book is naturally 
occupied with a discussion of the interior 
factors. Not that the interior factors 
are more important than the exterior 
ones, but they are more numerous, more 
complex and on the whole not so well 
understood. In the chapter devoted to 
the exterior factors he discusses, how- 
ever, such matters as accessibility, ap- 
proach, transportation, topography, street 
plan, shape and size of building lots, the 
comparative value of corner and inside 
lots, paving, the width of streets, nuis- 
ances, restrictions, taxation and other ar- 
tificial interferences with natural tenden- 
cies. The end of this chapter contains an 
admirable summary in which the benefi- 
cial and detrimental exterior influences 
upon each class of building are classified 
and placed in parallel columns. 

Mr. Evers' investigation into the inter- 
nal factors is equally exhaustive and help- 
ful. He discusses in the first place the 
structural problem in its general aspect 
and insists upon the importance of har- 
monizing a building with its surroundings 
and of making its cost proportionate to 
that of the land. He goes exhaustively 
into the requirements in the way of good 
planning, light and air, convenience and 
the like, which all buildings need, no mat- 
ter whether they are devoted to business 
or residential purposes. Then he takes 
up the special requirements which differ- 
ent classes of buildings have to meet. 
He discusses in turn private residences, 
two-family houses, business buildings in 
general, and retail stores in particular. 
Finally he goes exhaustively into the 
structural life of different classes of 
buildings, how fast they depreciate, how 
they can be most economically maintained 
and operated. All the points which Mr. 
Evers makes are driven home by numer- 
ous examples. The book abounds in use- 
ful facts and illuminating figures. Over 
sixty illustrations are published, showing 
instances of good and bad plans, success- 
ful and unsuccessful buildings. 

H. C. 




NOTES 
AND 
MMENTS 




The White Plains sta- 
tion of the New York 
Tapestry Brick Central Railroad which 
in a Large was P ene d a few weeks 

Composition. a is one of the most 
interesting examples of 

the use of what has come 
to be known as "tapes- 
try" brick in the neighborhood of New 
York. Both inside and out, this material 
has been employed for the wall surfaces. 
The architectural scheme of this building 
is big, but simple in the extreme, the detail 
being confined almost entirely to the pat- 
tern and texture variations of the brick, 
which are cleverly done. The wide frieze 
under the main cornice is of especial inter- 
est. The building impresses one as being 
adequate and absolutely permanent and of 
distinct architectural merit. 



At Our request Mr. 
Louis Carter Baker, Jr., 
An Authentic who designed the very 
Restoration of interesting restoration 
a Fine Old of Pencoyd, the historic 
Residence. home of the Roberts 
family at Bala, Mont- 
gomery County, Pa., 
shown on pages 370 to 373, has prepared 
the following note: 

"About a year and a half ago I was em- 
ployed by the present owner to restore the 
house, and alter it as far as possible to con- 
form to the original lines. In this connec- 
tion it is interesting to note that Pencoyd 
is said to be the oldest house in Philadel- 
phia or Montgomery counties. It is of the 
early Pennsylvania Dutch type, built 
of field stones, laid in rubble masonry, with 
many flint stones in the wall, which varies 
from two feet to sixteen inches. The char- 
acter of the workmanship and of the mortar 
in the walls also varied considerably. Look- 
outs or peep-holes were found in the old 
walls, from which it is supposed the hostile 
Indians were observed and fired at. I also 



found in the middle of the walls several 
hewn blocks of cherry wood; for what pur- 
pose they were inserted in the walls, I was 
not able accurately to determine. 

"It was built in 1683 by John Roberts, 
who was the first settler in that section. 
He came from Wales', and procured his 
grant of about 250 acres of land from 
William Penn, in England, before sailing. 
His original account of his coming and 
settling here, and of his naming the place 
Pencoyd (originally spelled Pencoid) is 
now in the family possession. The place 
has passed by will from father to son, since 
1683, without a break or deed, and the pres- 
ent owner is the eighth generation to live 
in it. 

"The house has been changed many 
times, each generation, so far as I was able 
to observe, making some changes; but the 
original house, about forty feet by twenty- 
eight feet, has always remained, with the 
original oak rafters, joists, etc. There is 
no account of, nor can any of the family 
remember, whether the window frames' and 
sash have ever been changed from the orig- 
inal, but their present size and design would 
indicate that at some time new window 
frames were placed in the old walls. 

"When I took hold of the house it was 
a conglomerate mass of alterations and ad- 
ditions, some of them extensive and costly, 
especially those added by the late George 
B. Roberts, president of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, but they were all torn down, and 
the original walls simply lengthened, as is 
shown in the photograph. The old kitchen 
fireplace was uncovered and repaired (see 
page 373). The old kitchen is now a living 
room. 

"Pencoyd is notable among Philadelphia's 
country homes, because of its age, its 
unique and attractive setting, and because 
it has been the home of a notable family, 
without a break, for eight generations. 
Penn Cottage, at Wynnewood, built in 1693, 
is the next oldest house in the vicinity; the 



384 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



old Merion Meeting House, another ancient 
structure, having been built in 1695." 

In fitting up the new interior, floor 
boards, trims, doors, mantels, hardware, 
and the like, taken from old houses through- 
out the country, suitable and proper for this 
purpose, were procured. The interior there- 
fore represents, as far as possible, and as 
far as conformable with modern uses, an 
accurate and veritable reproduction. 



Glass 
Houses. 



The Berliner Bauwelt 
publishes an account of 
the glass houses of the 
future by Paul Sheer- 
bart. On the assump- 
tion that with the ex- 
ception of air, light is 
the most important 
agent toward happiness and health, Herr 
Sheerbart prophesies that wood, stone, 
brick and other recognized materials of 
these many centuries will play no part in 
the houses of the future. An absolutely 
sanitary structure of glass, doubled for 
warmth, will be supported upon an iron 
skeleton or framework, the latter of course 
the contribution of the present building age 
and already fully understood. At the Co- 
logne Exposition, the architect Bruno 
Traut erected a glass building, the first 
conscious exemplification of the new struc- 
tural creed. 



The selection of Dan- 
iel C. French as sculptor 
The for the statue of Lincoln 

Lincoln to be placed in the Lin- 

of the coin Memorial at the 

People. foot of the Mall in 

Washington is a logical 
one. Mr. French un- 
doubtedly stands in general estimation at 
the head of the American sculptors of to- 
day. The selection, while it presents the 
greatest possible opportunity for an Ameri- 
can sculptor, at the same time carries with 
it a tremendous responsibility. The nation 
will demand that this figure of Lincoln 
shall embody those great traits which it 
most admired in the man. Mr. French's 
Lincoln of the Nebraska State Capitol will 
riot do, beautiful and appealing as it is. I 
have seen a great room full of people stand 
hushed in awe before the pathos of that 
figure, but it is not pathos that must be 
the characteristic of the Lincoln of the 
Washington Memorial. It should have 
something of that, but it should have above 
and beyond more of the iron character of 



the man who stood firm and undismayed 
through the storm and stress of the Civil 
War; it must have the loftiness of that 
character that towered clear above the 
calumny and opposition of enemies at 
home, and the keensightedness which saw 
through all sham and beyond the clouds of 
doubt and disappointment into the clear 
future of this great land; and, withal, it 
must have something of the keen humor 
and the kindliness which endeared him to 
small and great. If Mr. French produces 
the Lincoln that the people have set up 
in their hearts, great will be the glory of 
it, but it is a task which should be entered 
upon with fasting and prayer. 

Electus D. Litchfield. 



The erection of the 
great athletic stadia at 
The Yale Bowl New Haven and Prince- 
and the ton is not among the 

Palmer least notable architec- 

Stadium. tural achievements of 

the past year. It is 
quite probable that some 
future archaeologist in studying the archi- 
tectural remains of the present period of 
American architecture will consider these 
great amphitheatres for athletic games as 
among the most interesting products of 
our time. The Yale Bowl is a more fin- 
ished architectural design than the Palmer 
Stadium. Architecturally, the latter does 
not seem wholly satisfying, though in some 
respects it has advantages over the Yale 
Bowl. One has a little of the feeling that 
one wishes it were a little bit more Gothic, 
more Roman, or, frankly, more American 
of the year 1914. On the other hand, rein- 
forced concrete does not lend itself very 
readily to Gothic architecture, and one can 
readily understand the difficulty of produc- 
ing a structure of this nature which would 
he in keeping with the delightful Collegiate 
Gothic of the Princeton University build- 
ings. From the spectator's point of view, 
the Palmer Stadium has a definite advan- 
tage over the Bowl, in that, owing to its 
shape, it is possible to bring the seats 
closely to the side lines of the football 
field. The same result is also obtained by 
making the ranges steeper. Then, too, 
there is something very delightful in hav- 
ing the horseshoe open out to the sun and 
to the very beautiful view to the south. 
One cannot help but being impressed after 
seeing these splendid structures with the 
feeling that at last we have decided to 
build not for today but for all time. 






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RECORD May 

1 



A rOPY PVRT.KHFn IM 



First Cost 



You cannot afford to consider first cost on an 
item that means protection and future economy. 
Generally speaking you desire to get as much for 
your money as possible, but don't you think it is 
false economy to cut down on an item that is to 
be a decoration and a protection in one ? 

The first cost of hollow steel doors and trim is slightly higher than doors 
and trim of wood. 

If you compare a ZAHNER HOLLOW METAL DOOR with an ordinary 
wood door simply in terms of steel and wood, assuming that all other 
things are equal, the additional expense appears to be uncalled for, but 
if you have your building at heart and are far-sighted you will easily see: 

that HOLLOW METAL DOORS AND TRIM constructed by the 
ZAHNER METHOD insure absolute fire safety they cannot burn, 
whereas wood doors in any partitions no matter how well the partition 
may be fireproofed will disappear in flames; 

that doors finished by the ZAHNER ENAMELING PROCESS have 
a very hard surface, making impossible the secretion of bacteria, 
whereas in wood doors the germs virtually soak in. This enamel finish 
is artistic and everlasting and requires no attention. Wood doors on the 
other hand require periodical rubbings, revarnishing or an entire refinish; 

that ZAHNER HOLLOW METAL interiors reduce your insurance, and, 

that they give every building where installed an advertising feature that is 
of no small account and create a safe feeling that appeals very strongly to 
tenants. 

Every one of the above features should have your attention, whether your 
new building is going to be the means of a disastrous fire and loss of life 
or whether it is going to be a popular and paying proposition depends 
largely on how cheap you make your first cost. 

Give the ZAHNER AGENT in your City an opportunity to 
show you how a ZAHNER installation pays regular div- 
idends or gel in touch with the home office direct. 



THE ZAHNER METAL SASH & DOOR CO. 

Successors to the Monarch Metal Manufacturing Co. 

CANTON, OHIO 



NHNULIIIIIIIItll 



- - 



VOL. XXXVII. No. 5 



MAY, 1915 



SERIAL NO. 200 





THE 

' ARCHITECTVRALM 

sa RECORD 



CONTEXTS 




COVER-HOUSE DOOR AT OAK LODGE, Ardmore, Pa. : 

Evans & Warner, Architects 
Painting by Charles Lennox Wright 

EXAMPLES OF THE WORK OF OTIS & CLARK 

By Herbert Groly 

THE HOUSE OF HOPE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, St. Paul, Minn. 

Cram j& Ferguson, Architects 

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE AND ITS CRITICS. Part I 

By Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin, of Columbia University 

COLOR IN ARCHITECTURE AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION 437 
By Wm. L. Woollett 

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN CONNECTICUT. Part II 



Page 



385 



410 



425 



Text and Measured Drawings by Wesley Sherwood Bessell 

THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL AT CINCINNATI 
By J. R. Schmidt 

PORTFOLIO OF CURRENT ARCHITECTURE 

RECENT BOOKS ON MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE. Part I 
By Richard Franz Bach 

NOTES AND COMMENTS - - 



445 



453 



464 



474 



479 



Editor -. MICHAEL A. MIKKELSEN. , Contributing Editor : HERBERT CROLY 

Advertising Manager : AUSTIN L. BLACK 
Yearly Subscription United States $3.00 Entered May 22, 1902. as Second Copyright 1915 by The Architectural 



Foreign $4.00 Single Copies 35 cents 



Class Matter, at New York. N. Y. 



Record Company AH Rights Reserved 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD COMPANY 



115-119 WEST FORTIETH STREET, NEW YORK 



F. W. DODGE, President 



F. T. MILLER, Secretary and Treasure. 







STAIR HALL-RESIDENCE OF E. I. CUDAHY. 
ESQ., CHICAGO. OTIS & CLARK, ARCHITECTS. 



AKC 



ITECTVRAL 




FIECOFID 



MAY, 1915 



VOLVME XXXVII 





NVMBER V 



EXAMPLES OF THE WORK 
OF OTIS OL, CLARK 

^ CKO LY 





A WELL known English critic re- 
cently drew an interesting com- 
parison between the general char- 
acteristics of the English literary move- 
ment of to-day and that of the Victorian 
period. The comparison turned chiefly on 
the absence of literary men of exception- 
al ability in contemporary England, but 
the presence of a very high average of 
men of ability both in respect to prose 
and verse. England has no novelists or 
poets comparable to the great Victorians, 
but she has an extraordinarily large num- 
ber of writers who are abler than any 
except the ablest of the Victorians, and 
who maintain a high standard both in 
form and substance. Genius is lacking, 
but talent abounds. 

The foregoing generalization applies, 
it would seem, to other occupations be- 
sides letters and to other countries be- 
sides England ; England has no states- 
men or orators who tower above their 



contemporaries as did Gladstone, Dis- 
raeli and John Bright. She has no scien- 
tists whose eminence is comparable to 
that of Huxley and Tyndall. At the same 
time there is certainly a larger amount 
of hard, sound work accomplished at the 
present time both in politics and in science 
than there was a generation ago. Ger- 
many also seems to lack both politicians 
and generals who measured up to the 
standard of the founders of the Empire, 
but the lack of very great men does not 
prevent her from putting into action 
what is apparently the most efficient ma- 
chine for fighting a war and for amelior- 
ating its unfortunate effects on her own 
population which the world has ever 
seen. 

These analogues are worth some at- 
tention, because something of the same 
movement seems to be taking place in 
American architecture. The modern ar- 
chitectural revival in this country has 



386 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



been profoundly influenced by the work 
of a few men such as Hunt, Richardson, 
McKim, White and Sullivan. At the 
present time all but one of these men 
are dead and he no longer possesses his 
former influence. New designers have 
been developed of equal ability, but they 
do not stand out among their contempor- 
aries as did the men named above, and 
they are not copied to the same extent. 
The place of Richardson and McKim 
has been taken by a small army of young- 
er architects of varying ability but of 
generally high standard. All over the 
country an extraordinary amount of 
clever, well considered and interesting 
work is being turned out. This work 
frequently possesses a great deal of dis- 
tinction ; but it has the distinction not 
of originality or of force, but of ease, 
competence and good manners. 

Work such as that of Messrs. Otis and 
Clark suggest the foregoing introductory 
remarks. It is sound and; intelligent 
work, which is well-informed without a 
trace of pedantry, and which conforms 
to conventions without being stiff. It 
makes no pretense to originality, but its 
want of originality does not prevent it 
from being fresh and even lively in ap- 
pearance. One feels that the architects 
are at home in their work, that they are 
getting through it without effort and on 
the whole without very much friction. 
Twenty years ago the ability to design 
such houses as these, particularly in the 
vicinity of Chicago, would have required 
a large amount of originality, effort and 
prestige. However much American ar- 
chitecture may lack men of great indi- 
vidual force, it certainly provides increas- 



ing opportunities for the achievement of 
diversified, agreeable and accomplished 
work. 

A very simple and attractive design is 
that of the Indian Hill Club, at \Vin- 
netka, 111. It consists essentially of a 
long, low one and one-half story building 
with a peaked roof, resembling an en- 
larged New England farmhouse ; but this 
long building has two wings of the same 
height, and the space between the wings 
is enclosed and made a one-story hall. 
It remains as unpretentious as a New- 
England farmhouse and it has the 
same sort of charm. If a New England 
farmer could have become affluent with- 
out acquiring social presumption, he 
would have built for himself this kind 
of a residence. It does not even make 
the comparatively modern claims of a 
manor house. It belongs essentially to 
a man who farms his own land, who cul- 
tivates his own garden, and that is the 
kind of man which an American ought 
to be. 

The members of the Indian Hill Club 
are to be congratulated upon having a 
home which has been kept so completely 
domesticated. 

An interesting variation on the same 
general type is the residence of Mr. 
Chas. M. Rank-in at Terre Haute, Ind. 
This house consists of a two-story and 
attic main building. On the entrance 
side this main building is supplemented 
by an extension, containing the kitchen, 
the servants' rooms and the garage. This 
extension joins the body of the house 
at an angle, and the plan has enabled 
the architects to make a very pleasant ar- 
rangement for the approach to the build- 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN-RESIDENCE OF E. I. CUDAHY, ESQ., CHICAGO. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 




RESIDENCE OF E. I. CUDAHY, ESQ. 
CHICAGO. OTIS & CLARK. ARCHITECTS. 




s 

5 w 
II 

fc K 



390 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN-INDIAN HILL CLUB, WINNETKA, ILL. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN-RESIDENCE OF F. H. SCOTT, ESQ., HUBBARD WOODS, ILL. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



391 




TERRACE OVERLOOKING LAKE MICHIGAN RESIDENCE OF FREDERICK H. SCOTT, ESQ., 

AT HUBBARD WOODS, ILLINOIS. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 






ing. The arrangement is unconventional 
and effectual, while at the same time be- 
ing compact and convenient. Although 
the architectural style is not picturesque, 
the effect of the design of the entrance 
sjde is sufficiently irregular to have an 
element of the picturesque in it, to which 
the low, one-story garage, whose roof 
runs into that of the extension, .contrib- 
utes very much. The practice of incorpor- 
ating the garage with the design of the 
house is becoming more and more popu- 
lar, particularly in the case of modest 
suburban places. There is no real need 
of removing it to a distance, as was 
the case with a stable. 

On the garden side of the Rankin place 
the corner and garage extension almost 
completely disappear from view. From 
this aspect the dwelling looks like an 
unusually large two-story farmhouse 
seated on a terrace and provided with all 
the modern conveniences. It is above all a 
comfortable and homely kind of build- 
ing, but with a homeliness that is not de- 
void of refinement and good taste. What- 
ever else may be said for American ar- 



chitecture, it is certainly creating a more 
appropriate and interesting type of house 
for middle class people than is the archi- 
tecture of any foreign country. 

The most elaborate house designed by 
Messrs. Otis and Clark is the Thorne 
place, situated at Lake Forest, 111. A 
residence of this kind is intended for 
comparatively wealthy rather than for 
moderately well-to-do people, and its de- 
sign is, consequently, more largely de- 
termined by the historical dwelling occu- 
pied by similarly fortunate people of 
other times and countries. This par- 
ticular dwelling is a discreet and taste- 
ful adaptation of a French chateau to 
the needs of a contemoorary American 
family. The entrance facade is particu- 
larly successful and may partly be char- 
acterized as one of the most sympathetic 
and reticent attempts which has been 
made in this country to domesticate in 
the United States this particular style. 
It is regular and formal without being 
stiff, and it is handsome and stylish with- 
out being ornate and ostentatious ; above 
all, the architects have succeeded in 




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394 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN-RESIDENCE OF CHARLES M. RANKIN, ESQ., TERRE HAUTE, IND. 

Otis & Clark, Architects. 




RESIDENCE OF CHARLES M. RANKIN, ESQ., TERRE HAUTE, IND. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 




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400 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




DINING ROOM RESIDENCE OF JAMES W. THORNE, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Otis & Clark, Architects, 



avoiding the archaic appearance which 
has been one of the most objectionable 
aspects of so many American chateaus. 
For all its conformity to a particular 
style, it looks like a modern American 
residence, though it would be difficult to 
say just how the architects have suc- 
ceeded in giving this modern accent to 
the language of another century. The 
one blemish in the design of this entrance 
facade is the second story windows in the 
extension. They are on the same level as 
the windows in the main building, but, 
inasmuch as the ceilings are lower, they 
have been allowed to break through the 
line of the roof in an extremely objec- 
tionable way. 

The other facade of the Thorne house, 
is supplemented by a handsome terrace, 
which forms the scenic background for 
what is in reality a private outdoor 
living room. This facade is less in- 
teresting than the entrance frontage. The 
architects were obliged to choose 
between remaining true to the type 
or of adapting the historic model 
radically and frankly to modern 
American needs. They quite prop- 



erly chose the latter course. Their 
adaptation amounts in this case almost 
to a transformation. They sacrificed the 
style to the needs and wishes of the 
people who were to live in the building. 
The terrace frontage has little of the 
simplicity and the distinction of its 
more public brother. It gives one 
the impression of being chiefly win- 
dows and awnings, and of course it looks 
better on days when the awnings can be 
rolled up. It remains true, none the less, 
that the French chateau style needs for 
its proper effect high unpierced wall 
space and high repose. The terrace fa- 
cade has been designed to meet a real need 
for sunlight and other modern conveni- 
ences, but like so many modern contri- 
vances, it is restless just because it is 
useful, and it lacks character. Neither 
does the smaller frontage look very well 
from the garden, which has been laid out 
to the west of the house in an attractive 
background of trees. , Here again ap- 
pearance has been somewhat sacrificed 
to convenience. The spacious porch, 
which leads to the garden, is excellent 
in itself, but it was difficult to place 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



401 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN-RESIDENCE OF JAMES W. THORNE, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 

Otis & Clark, Architects. 



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FIRST FLOOR PLAN-RESIDENCE OF WILLIAM S. MASON, ESQ., EVANSTON, ILL. 

Otis & Clark, Architects. 




. 



ENTRANCE-RESIDENCE OF WILL- 
IAM S. MASON, ESQ., EVANSTO.X, 
ILL. OTIS & CLARK, ARCHITECTS. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




RESIDENCE OF WILLIAM S. MASON, ESQ., EVANSTON, ILL. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 




DINING ROOM-RESIDENCE OF WILLIAM S. MASON, ESQ., EVANSTON, ILL. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 



404 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 








VIEW AND FIRST FLOOR PLAN-RESIDENCE 
OF JAMES FENTRESS, ESQ., HUBBARD WOODS, 
ILL. OTIS & CLARK. ARCHITECTS. 







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406 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




RESIDENCE OF WALTER R. KIRK, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN-RESIDENCE OF WALTER R. KIRK, ESQ., LAKE FOREST. ILL. 

Otis & Clark, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



407 




LIVING ROOM RESIDENCE OF WALTER R. KIRK, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 




DINING ROOM RESIDENCE OF WALTER R. KIRK, ESQ., LAKE FOREST, ILL. 
Otis & Clark, Architects. 




fc-5 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



409 



against the background of the body of 
the house and make it look well. A great 
deal of careful and successful study has 
been devoted to the interior of this house. 
The entrance hall and the dining room 
are particularly good examples of the 
simpler type of French panelled room. 

Another of Messrs. Otis and Clark's 
dwellings which belongs emphatically to 
an historic type is the home of Walter 
R. Kirk, at Lake Forest, 111. This house 
is, of course, scrupulously and even 
somewhat consciously Spanish in its ap- 
pearance. Its Spanish character is un- 
fortunately attenuated by the multiplic- 
ity of its windows, which has prevented 
the architects from obtaining the un- 
broken stretches of wall surface which 
added so much to the severe dignity of 
Spanish domestic architecture. But it is 
none the less a very interesting example 
of the application of Spanish forms to 
the needs of a modern American family. 
Spanish buildings usually managed to 
combine picturesqueness with great sim- 
plicity in the composition of a building 
and in the massing of its parts. The 
Kirk house also is low; simple as the 
elements of its composition and almost 
devoid of ornament. Yet it is at the 
same time picturesque; and its pictur- 
esqueness is obtained almost entirely by 
the projection of the roof. The effect of 
a deep shadow of this kind is analogous 
to the effect upon a man's face produced 
by a broad-brimmed hat. If it is done 
skillfully, it adds an element of mystery 
to what is in other respects a wholly un- 
mysterious facade of countenance. Was 
it accidental that the Spaniard should 
have used more than any other people 
both the sombrero with its broad brim 
and the shapely projecting roof? 

The rooms of the Kirk house will 
make a particularly strong appeal to 
people who like extreme simplicity of in- 
terior design. The living room, for in- 



stance, is entirely devoid of ornament 
except a mantelpiece and cornice. It is 
merely a spacious room, finished in grey 
plaster, hung with tapestries and entirely 
free from incidental and "spotty" 
furnishings. It would be too severe for 
the ordinary American taste, which pre- 
fers a much busier and fussier kind of 
decorative finish, but its severity, in spite 
of a flavor of sub-consciousness, is not 
in the least ascetic. These bare Span- 
ish rooms are refreshing in their cool- 
ness, their economy and in their absence 
of ornamental trivialities. 

Messrs. Otis and Clark have de- 
signed many other attractive houses, of 
which perhaps the most interesting is 
that of John A. Jameson at Hubbard 
Woods, 111. It affords an indication of 
their versatility, for it is a peculiarly suc- 
cessful example of the half-timbered 
house, which frequently looks particular- 
ly well among the oak woods to the north 
of Chicago. Mention should also be 
made of the residence of Mr. William T. 
Mason at Evanston, 111., which belongs 
to a kind entirely different from that of 
the Jameson or Kirk houses, but which 
is also extremely good of its kind. The 
cleverness of architects who can handle 
so many different styles with so much 
taste and with such a nice sense of the 
idiom of each particular style is incon- 
testable. It is to be hoped, however, that 
soon they will settle down and special- 
ize in a particular type of design. The 
biggest successes in American architec- 
ture have been made by firms whose 
work was characterized less by versatil- 
ity than by the mastery of one particular 
style, which can only be derived by pa- 
tient and varied experimentation with 
its possibilities. Messrs. Otis and Clark 
are sufficiently able to make their friends 
hope that eventually they will settle down 
and bestow on their work a more strong- 
ly marked character. 



mm. 




THE HOUSE OF HOPE PRESBYTE- 
RIAN CHURCH, ST. PAUL. MINN. 
CRAM & FERGUSON. ARCHITECTS. 




THE House of Hope Church was 
one of the first churches founded 
in St. Paul, its traditions extend- 
ing back to the beginnings of the State 
of Minnesota, in the last century. The 
original House of Hope was a Dutch 
redoubt built in early Colonial times 
on the trade route between Hartford and 
Manhattan as a sort of halfway house 
for protection against the red savages of 
Connecticut. The founder of the church 
knew of this old fort, and when he gath- 
ered his small congregation in what was 
then an Indian-beset wilderness, his 
church seemed to him like the old ref- 
uge house in the East, and he called it 
the House of Hope. An edifice in the 
lower town served the congregation until 
the dedication of the new building in the 
higher part of the city, on the bluff above 
the Mississippi. 

In consulting their architects the build- 
ing committee laid down the principle 
that, while the church was to be as con- 
venient and practically useful as possi- 
ble, it nevertheless was to be traditional 
in spirit and dignified and religious in 
expression. They thought a three-aisled 
plan preferable on this account ; and it 
may be remarked that, although the aisle 
is not merely an ambulatory, but con- 
tains pews, the number of dark seats is 
small. There is the usual front vesti- 
bule, with a gallery over it entered by 
stairs from the church. The two tran- 
septs have no galleries ; the left is formed 
in the base of the tower, and only the 
right transept is visible as such from the 
outside. Back of the church proper is 
a small chapel for small services, and 
adjacent, at one side, are the Sunday 
School building and Parish House. 

The "system" adopted in the nave is 
a sort of compromise between the usual 



wide one-aisle interior with a hammer- 
beam roof and the ordinary three-aisle 
type without a clerestory. The crucial 
difficulty in a wide span like that of the 
House of Hope is in getting a proper 
curve for the arches of the roof trusses 
without unduly raising the height of the 
roof or unduly depressing the arch. This 
is here accomplished by springing the 
truss arches, not from the top, but from 
the base of the triforium above the 
ground story arcade. The added height 
makes possible a simple type of roof 
truss without hammer beams. The dark 
triforium is extremely effective and use- 
ful acoustically. True flying buttresses 
of concrete, under the roof, stiffen the 
wall on centers of the trusses. The roof 
of the chancel is a pointed segmental 
barrel vault, ribbed and panelled. The 
aisle ceilings are reinforced concrete slabs 
with stone arches on the lines of the 
columns. 

The stone used throughout is Bedford 
limestone. All the trim, exterior and in- 
terior, is light buff stone, and the ex- 
terior ashlar is buff and blue mixed. The 
exterior walls are very good on account 
of the variety in color made by the use 
of the two grades of stone. All the tra- 
cery is stone, rebated for double glass on 
account of extremely cold winter 
weather.. In the exterior of the large 
Parish House chimney some red brick 
are used to give color variety to the plain 
mass. The roofs are of green slate. 

In the interior of the church the floors 
of the vestibule, aisles and chancel are 
of specially made tile. Except in the 
chancel, the quarries are largely plain red 
with semi-glaze tiles in color, used in 
spots and borders. In the chancel the 
whole floor is glazed and is very beauti- 
ful. The color of the ground tile is dull 



412 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE HOUSE OF HOPE 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
ST. PAUL, MINN. CRAM & 
FERGUSON, ARCHITECTS. 



yellow, with blue, gold and iridescent me- 
tallic glazes in the figured spots. 

The woodwork is of fumed oak with 
a dull and rather light finish. In the 
panelling at the back of the chancel are 
set five large panels of brocade, which 



give an effective focus to the whole in- 
terior. The arrangement of this chancel 
reverts to older Scotch precedent, and is 
unlike that in many Presbyterian 
churches. The pulpit and lectern are at 
the sides, with the communion table in 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



413 



the center and clergy stalls behind it. 
There are lateral benches for the choir 
and organist; the organ console is in a 
shallow niche in the wall on the pulpit 
side. In the desks for the pulpit and 
lectern are concealed transmitters for 
a telephone system for deaf parishioners. 

The lighting fixtures of the church 
proper are perhaps the most unusual fea- 
tures of the whole group. The motive 
was suggested by the name of the church. 
Man's "House of Hope" is the church, 
the Light of the World; in the fixtures 
the general forms were suggested by 
the images used in Revelation and else- 
where, where the New Jerusalem is seen 
by St. John in the form of a fortified 
city, and the companies of the Faithful 
throughout the world are conceived of as 
being in 3 continual state of siege by the 
world at large. The motives are there- 
fore taken from mediaeval architecture, 
civil and religious. The lantern at the 
main entrance of the church, the vesti- 
bule fixtures and the wall brackets are 
in the form of small defensive fortifi- 
cations, typifying the small bands of 
faithful people who throughout the 
world in different ways are sustaining 
their part in the conflict. The nave fix- 
tures, in the shape of small churches, 
represent the* Visible Church in the 
world, divided, but united by one mis- 
sion. The large corona at the crossing 
is a symbol of the Church Triumphant, 
the Holy City, the New Jerusalem. It is 
a temple encircled by a wall which is 
pierced by twelve gates, typifying the 
twelve tribes of Israel of the old dispen- 
sation and the twelve Apostles of the 
new. The symbols of the Apostles are 
placed on the shields hung from the gates 
and above the temple are the dove and 
two crowns hanging, symbolizing the 
Trinity. 

As to the actual fixtures, the most im- 
portant are of course the nave chande- 
liers and the corona. In the former, 
which are hung low, it was necessary to 
avoid the possibility of direct light shin- 
ing into the eyes of the congregation. 
The lighting bulbs have been placed 
above glass, which diffuses the light 
and prevents concentration below the 



fixture. The openings in the sides of 
the fixture are glazed with bits of col- 
ored glass which give a most interest- 
ing effect of color when the lights are 
lighted. The corona is hung much 
higher, with all the lights exposed. The 
fixtures are hand wrought iron through- 
out, decorated in gold and color. 

All the carving and other ornament in 
the church was designed to have its prop- 
er symbolic relation to Christian and lo- 
cal tradition. The anchor of hope, again 
referring to the name of the church, and 
the sword of St. Paul, the quasi-patron 
saint of the city, are constantly used. 
In the vestibule are four shields, typify- 
ing in the arms of their native cities the 
four great Protestant reformers, Edin- 
burg for Knox, Geneva for Calvin, Zu- 
rich for Zwingli, and Wittenberg for Lu- 
ther. The corbels under the nave trusses 
are carved with scenes from the life of 
St. Paul ; the chancel arch is carved with 
a vine pattern, representing the human 
family. Among its roots at one side are 
the Creation of Man, at the other the 
Birth of Christ, thus representing man 
begun in Adam and perfected in Christ. 
The chancel ceiling is painted and gilt, 
the shields bearing the arms of the 
United States, Scotland, Connecticut and 
St. Paul. Besides these are used the 
star, the crown of thorns, the rose and 
the triangle. 

A considerable amount of permanent 
stained glass has been already installed. 
The subjects for all the windows were 
decided on beforehand, and laid out ac- 
cording to the traditional scheme. On 
the left side of the nave will be the Old 
Testament stories, on the right New 
Testament, in the right transept pre- 
Reformation, and in the left post-Ref- 
ormation worthies. The great chancel 
window is composed of scenes from the 
Passion, and the window over the main 
entrance will show the Apocalypse. The 
chancel window, the right transept win- 
dows and the three aisle windows are 
already in place ; if the standard of these 
is maintained in future gifts, the glass 
in this church promises to be noteworthy 
as an example of the best work of Ameri- 
can designers. 




EAST SIDE OF NAVE-THE HOUSE OF HOPE 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ST. PAUL, MINN. 
CRAM . & FERGUSON, ARCHITECTS. 




EAST SIDE OF NAVE THE HOUSE OF HOPE 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ST. PAUL, MINN. 
CRAM & FERGUSON. ARCHITECTS. 




CHANCEL - THE HOUSE OF HOPE 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ST. PAUL, 
MINN. CRAM & FERGUSON, ARCHITECTS. 



f'1. 




NAVE AND CHANCEL-THE HOUSE OF 
HOPE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ST. PAUL, 
MINN. CRAM & FERGUSON, ARCHITECTS. 







REAR OF NAVE, SHOWING EAST STAIRS TO GALLERY 
-THE HOUSE OF HOPE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 
ST. PAUL, MINN. CRAM & FERGUSON, ARCHITECTS. 




EAST TRANSEPT, FROM CHANCEL THE HOUSE 
OF HOPE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ST. PAUL, 
MINN. CRAM & FERGUSON, ARCHITECTS. 




ELIZABETH CHAPEL THE HOUSE OF 
HOPE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, ST. PAUL. 
MINN. CRAM & FERGUSON. ARCHITECTS. 






ROMAN ARCHITECTVRE 
AND ITS CRITICS 

^TA.D.F.HAMLIN 

PART \-me CRITICS tf She INDICTMENT 





THE increase in the output of archi- 
tectural books in English within 
the last few years has been ac- 
companied by a general broadening of 
taste, both in the public and in those 
who write for its instruction. Dogmatic 
criticism and narrow partisanship in the 
discussion of styles and periods are less 
conspicuous than formerly ; there is more 
catholicity of appreciation, and critical 
judgments are founded upon a better un- 
derstanding of the fundamentals of archi- 
tecture and a fuller knowledge of its his- 
tory. There are, however, certain dog- 
mas of the old-time criticism which have 
persisted in the face of larger knowledge, 
which are so erroneous, so contrary to 
the evidence of the monuments them- 
selves, that they deserve to be examined 
with great care, in order that the reader 
may understand both why they are so 
plausible and persistent, and what are 
the errors which vitiate them. It is high 
time that both writers and readers should 
be put on their guard against perpetuat- 
ing these errors. 

It is worth noting that much of this 
popular literature on architecture has 
been the work, not of practising archi- 
tects, but of studious laymen. Ruskin, 
whose "Seven Lamps of Architecture" 
and "Stones of Venice" have been more 
widely read than any other books on 
architecture in English, was a painter, a 
professor of art and a literary man, never 
an architect either by training or practice. 
Sir James Fergusson, whose "History of 
Architecture in All Countries" was for 
many years the only important work in 
English on the subject, was an accom- 
plished scholar and traveler, but not a 
practicing architect except for one short 
period early in his career, during which 
he produced no work of any importance. 



Among present-day writers Mr. Charles 
Herbert Moore, the author of "Develop- 
ment and Character of Gothic Architec- 
ture," "The Character of Renaissance 
Architecture," and "Mediaeval Church 
Architecture of England," was for many 
years Professor of Drawing at Harvard 
University; an enthusiastic student of 
medieval architecture and a writer and il- 
lustrator of more than ordinary force and 
ability, but not an architect. The late 
Montgomery Schuyler, author of "Amer- 
ican Architecture" ; Mr. Arthur Kingsley 
Porter, author of two large volumes on 
"Medieval Architecture," and of a valu- 
able little book on "Vaulting" ; and Pro- 
fessor W. H. Goodyear, author of "Greek 
Refinements" and of many articles in the 
architectural periodicals, have distin- 
guished themselves in various fields of 
scholarly investigation connected with 
architecture, but none of them is an archi- 
tect. Even the most widely known of 
American writers on architecture, the late 
Mr. Russell Sturgis, although trained for 
the profession and known as the designer 
of the Marquand Chapel at Yale and of a 
few other buildings, was always by pref- 
erence a student and dilletante in his pro- 
fession rather than an active practitioner. 
It would be unreasonable to claim that 
none but practising architects should at- 
tempt to write about architecture, that 
they alone are qualified to criticize archi- 
tecture. There is a wide field of literary 
activity open to non-practising students 
of architecture, and within certain fairly 
broad limits the layman may qualify him- 
self, by study and observation, not only 
to popularize the history and archeology 
of the arts of building, and the funda- 
mental principles on which they are based, 
but also to pronounce critical judgments 
on buildings and styles. One of the best 



426 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



books on English Cathedrals is the work 
of a non-professional an American lady, 
Mrs. M. G. Van Rensselaer. Neverthe- 
less, in this field the amateur stands on 
somewhat dangerous ground. Every 
one, of course, can express his own per- 
sonal judgment of a building or style. 
But when he addresses the general pub- 
lic and all the more if he speak with a 
certain authority based upon his reputa- 
tion as a writer or scholar any mistake 
he may make in his verdicts is disastrous 
in its effects precisely in proportion to 
that reputation. The error is popular- 
ized and accepted, and unless controvert- 
ed by some one who can speak to the same 
audience with equal authority, it becomes 
in time a part of the established traditions 
of popular taste and judgment. This ex- 
plains the wide currency of the miscon- 
ceptions and mis judgments to which these 
papers will seek to call attention. 

The reason why even the scholarly 
amateur or the accomplished dilletante 
is in constant danger of critical misjudg- 
ments, lies in the fact that one entire side 
of the art he deals with is for him an un- 
explored country ; the side of practical, 
creative design. A whole array of con- 
siderations that enter into the production 
of even the simplest architectural design, 
first on paper and then in the material 
building, can be fully appreciated only by 
one who has toiled over the drawing- 
board, dealt with questions of feet and 
inches, calculated strains, watched the ex- 
cavation, the piling of the masonry, the 
details of the finishing, and solved the 
countless minor problems that arise in the 
working out and execution of the design. 
The translation of an abstract architec- 
tural conception into the concrete form 
of the completed building is a part of the 
architect's work which should form an 
important factor to be considered in judg- 
ing the work. No layman can judge a 
plan with the appreciative fairness of the 
man who has created many plans, and to 
whom a plan is not merely a diagram of 
internal arrangements, but a key to and 
revelation of the entire structure. The 
purely theoretic and transcendental criti- 
cism of architecture can never do full jus- 
tice, because it ignores the inner proc- 
esses of architectural creation, the amount 



and nature and importance of many ele- 
ments and forces which the designer of 
the work under criticism was compelled 
to consider and deal with. And it is pre- 
cisely here that even broadminded and 
scholarly literary critics often fail. 

Nor are the architects themselves quite 
blameless in their critical estimates. 
They are liable, however, to err in a dif- 
ferent direction. Through inadequacy 
of historical scholarship, they sometimes 
fail to take broad views, they become 
partisans of this or that "style" or set of 
forms, and intolerant of methods of de- 
sign different from their own, as when 
one of them recently wrote to the au- 
thor of these papers that there were but 
three legitimate styles of rural house de- 
sign proper for Americans to employ, 
the Georgian or Colonial, the Swiss and 
the English! Valid architectural criti- 
cism must be based first of all on broad 
historical scholarship ; it must look 
through, and around, behind and beneath 
all the styles and their products, to dis- 
cover the hidden as well as the obvious 
factors that shaped them, the point of 
view of the designers and their method 
of approach to the problem. It must 
take account of forms and details as re- 
sults, not causes, and seek for the reason 
of their adoption. The critic must con- 
sider alike the plan and the construction, 
the composition and the decoration ; note 
what is fundamental and what is super- 
ficial ; what is essential and what secon- 
dary. He must learn to distinguish be- 
tween mere personal predilections and 
sober and matured judgments based on 
sound reasoning from established prem- 
ises. It is not fair or valid criticism to 
judge the style and products of one age, 
period or people by the principles and 
standards of another age or period or 
people. It is of course fair, and indeed 
instructive, to compare and contrast dif- 
ferent styles and periods, but in the crit- 
ical estimate of each, the critic is bound 
in fairness to frame his judgment in the 
light of the conditions, the circumstances, 
the culture and the needs of its own time 
and environment. The capacity for sym- 
pathetic appreciation of widely differing 
styles is rare, but it is essential for really 
valid criticism. For the critic should not 



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428 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




FIG. 2. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM OF THE COLOSSEUM AT ROME, FROM DRAWING BY THE 
LATE PROF. JULIEN GUADET. PARIS. 



be like a special paid advocate of one side 
against another, presenting that side in 
the most favorable light and disparaging 
to the utmost the other; but rather like 
an upright judge who, with full knowl- 
edge of the law, sums up in perfect fair- 
ness the pros and cons of both sides, that 
the jury the public may draw its own 
conclusions ; himself pronouncing a .final 



verdict pro or con only when the evidence 
that way is convincing to himself, and 
such as should carry conviction to fair 
minds generally. 

n. 

The treatment accorded the architec- 
ture of imperial Rome by the majority 
of modern writers in English is an inter- 
esting illustration of ready-made tradi- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



429 



tional criticism. Early in the last cen- 
tury interest in Greek art received a pro- 
digious impulse from the explorations in 
classic lands which followed the publica- 
tion of Stuart and Revett's "Antiquities 
of Athens," the bringing of the Elgin 
marbles to London and the achievement 
of independence by the Greeks in 1829. 
The poetry of Byron was in favor in 
the fashionable world and the ancient 
glories of Greece were a prolific theme 
of conversation and literature. The per- 
fection of Greek architecture and sculp- 
ture was universally recognized, and to 
praise Greek art was accepted as an evi- 
dence of culture. The new enthusiasm 
was largely literary and scholastic in 
England and Germany, where it chiefly 
prevailed, and later in America, where 
every English movement found its echo. 
Few of those who wrote and declaimed 
on the supremacy of Greek art had any 
real and profound knowledge of their 
subject, at least any first-hand personal 
acquaintance with its monuments. But 
Greek was compared with Roman art, al- 
ways to the disparagement of the latter, 
and to decry Roman architecture as in 
every way inferior to the Greek became 
an accepted mark of superior taste and 
artistic discrimination. Creative power 
in design had sunk in England well nigh 
to its lowest depths, and the revival of 
architecture was sought in the substitu- 
tion of Greek for Roman details. So far 
as this tended towards refinement of de- 
tail, the result was beneficial, but Eng- 
lish architecture gained nothing in inven- 
tion ; it became largely an art of facing 
indifferently planned buildings with im- 
posing Greek colonnades. At the same 
time, another school of reformers was 
developing the Gothic revival, as a pro- 
test against all classic "pagan" forms,' 
and its apostles were declaiming with 
equal vehemence against Greek temples, 
Roman Pantheons and all the works of 
the irreligious Renaissance. At the hands 
of these various reformers, hardly one of 
whom was a really capable architect, if 
an architect at all, the Romans fared very 
badly. They were pagans coarse, vulgar 
conquerors, destitute of taste, mere copy- 
ists and imitators of the Greeks, and bad 
ones at that ; and though they produced 



a few rather fine buildings they were the 
first corrupters of architecture and the 
prime authors of all the falsehood, sham, 
plagiarism, confusion and bad taste that 
have cursed architecture ever since the 
decline of Greece; except during those 
blessed middle ages, in which the Gothic 
church-builders for a few centuries re- 
vived and maintained a true art on sound 
principles. 

This is not a travesty of the nineteenth 
century attitude towards Roman archi- 
tecture ; it is based on the actual language 
of reputable writers, from Pugin to our 
own time. For the critical verdicts of 
the Hellenic and Gothic enthusiasts of 
the first half of the nineteenth century 
have been almost blindly accepted and re- 
iterated by so many of the writers of the 
last fifty years, as to have entered into 
the established tradition of architectural 
criticism. The persistent repetition of 
disparaging phrases and the utterance of 
sweeping characterizations in strong and 
picturesque language, are much easier 
than patient, impartial investigation lead- 
ing to independent judgments. Those 
who appreciate the noble and virile qual- 
ities of Roman design are somewhat to 
blame, no doubt, for this prevalence of 
hostile and condemnatory criticism, in 
that they have never seriously under- 
taken to reply to it. I am not familiar 
with any systematic study of Roman ar- 
chitecture that has taken notice of this 
persistent and widespread depreciatory 
criticism and attempted to meet it. 
in. 

The chief counts of the indictment 
drawn up by the hostile critics of Roman 
architecture may be summarized some- 
what as follows: 

1. Roman architecture lacks the higher 
qualities of design purity, refinement 
and good taste, and substitutes for these 
a pompous grandeur and a specious mag- 
nificence. It is coarse, vulgar, preten- 
tious. 

2. The Romans were plagiarists, not 
originators; they appropriated, copied, 
travestied and misapplied the forms of 
Greek architecture. 

3. While displaying great engineering 
skill in massive constructions, the archi- 
tecture the Romans evolved was on the 




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432 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



plastic side illogical and inartistic in that 
it converted borrowed structural forms 
into a mere decorative apparel. Particu- 
larly objectionable was the Roman com- 
bination of the arch with engaged col- 
umns and entablatures. 

4. By the adoption of this vesture of 
sham columnar forms, the Romans intro- 
duced into architecture an element of 
falsity which has wrought disastrous con- 
sequences in the Renaissance and modern 
times. 

5. By nature inartistic, the Romans 
substituted repetitive or conventional or- 
nament for the sculptural decoration of 
which they were incapable and thus de- 
graded the art; while by reducing the 
Greek orders to an arbitrary system of 
mathematical formulae, they put a me- 
chanical stamp on all their work and sac- 
rificed the last vestige of excuse for using 
the Greek orders. In consequence of 
this, Roman architecture is everywhere 
monotonous and uninspired. 

This is a pretty severe indictment ! The 
visitor to classic lands is warned against 
allowing himself to be betrayed into any- 
thing like admiration by the wanton lure 
of such corrupt and pernicious works as 
the Pantheon or the Arch of Titus at 
Rome, the House of the Vettii at Pom- 
peii, or the Maison Carree at Nimes. He 
might otherwise allow an unguarded ex- 
clamation of delight to escape him on see- 
ing a restoration of the order of the Tem- 
ple of Castor and Pollux or of Faustina. 
He might discover exquisite delicacy in 
the stucco reliefs of the Baths, of the 
Forum of Pompeii, of certain tombs on 
the Via Latina, or fragments in the Mu- 
seo delle Terme at Rome. As an Archi- 
tect he might in a forgetful moment de- 
clare that the planning of the great Ro- 
man Thermae, or of the Forum of Trajan, 
or of the Basilica of Constantine, seemed 
to him superb in its originality, ingenuity, 
artistic effectiveness and grasp of the 
.problem. He might even horrible 
thought! express delight and admira- 
tion in the contemplation of the Colos- 
seum, or even of the Hexagonal Court at 
Baalbec. Having been, however, prop- 
erly instructed by the critics, he would 
repress his uncultured enthusiasm, and 
shaking his head at the aesthetic deprav- 



ity of the Romans, restrain his emotions 
until he could let them loose before the 
ruins of the Parthenon or of Melrose Ab- 
bey. 

IV. 

Let us rehearse briefly the charges of 
the critics under the first count lack of 
taste and refinement, coarseness, vulgar- 
ity, pretentious magnificence in place of 
fine and pure design. 

Fergusson, in his "History of Archi- 
tecture" (I, 294), says of the Roman 
buildings "in every city from the Eu- 
phrates to the Tagus" : "In all cases they 
display far more evidence of wealth and 
power than of taste and refinement. 
Whenever ornament is attempted their 
bad taste comes out" (p. 324). The 
Colosseum "does not possess one detail 
which is not open to criticism and indeed 
to positive blame" (p. 326). "The taste 
displayed in them" (triumphal arches) 
"is more than questionable" (p. 340). 

Burn, in his "Rome and the Cam- 
pagna," remarks that "in all attempts to 
create ornamental structures they" (the 
Romans) "failed to produce anything 
more than gigantic and grotesque imita- 
tions of Greek art. ( !) From an artistic 
point of view, therefore, the study of 
their buildings is barren." Here we have 
the verdict of a blind and unreasoning 
Hellenist, to whom even the Pantheon 
and the Colosseum are "imitations of 
Greek art!" 

Ruskin considers that the Greek Doric 
capital was spoiled "by the Romans in 
endeavors to mend it," and that the Ro- 
man modillion (cornice-bracket) was 
"barbarous and effeminate." In a recent 
and generally excellent one-volume "His- 
tory of Architecture," Mr. H. H. Stat- 
ham pronounces the Ionic cap of the 
Temple of Fortuna Virilis "with its small 
feeble volutes a poor cast-iron looking 
affair." Reber condemns the Roman 
four-sided Ionic capital (the "Scamozzi 
Ionic" type) as an inartistic invention 
which destroyed the character of the cap- 
ital. But it is A. K. Porter, who, in the 
first volume of his "Mediaeval Architec- 
ture," deals the most stalwart blows 
against the artistic claims of Roman 
architecture. "Under Rome," he says, 
"magnificence was substituted for refine- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



433 



merit" ; "for refinement and delicacy was 
(sic) substituted coarseness and display." 
It is the "depraved taste" of modern 
times which has perpetuated the Roman 
combination of arch and order. The 
Corinthian order is said to have "crowd- 
ed out the less blatant* orders." "Capi- 
tals and mouldings seems to be machine 
made." "The effect of the whole, for all 
its blatancy, is inexpressibly dreary and 
monotonous." And again : "When our 
eyes have been refreshed by the study of 
the purer forms of Greek or mediaeval 
architecture, the Roman designs at once 
appear in their true vulgarity." (Chap- 
ter I, passim.) 

These quotations by no means exhaust 
the allegations of the critics as to the. 
tastelessness and inherent artistic poverty 
of the defendant, but they suffice to show 
their general attitude. Regarding the sec- 
ond count that of plagiarism and mis- 
use of the Greek forms the critics are 
quite as severe. "This Greek architec- 
ture," says Ruskin, "was clumsily copied 
and varied by the Romans, with no par- 
ticular result . . . except only that the 
Doric capital was spoiled," etc. To Rus- 
kin, indeed, all classic "orders" are con- 
temptible. In the "Stones of Venice" he 
expresses his belief that "a single invent- 
ive soul could create a thousand orders 
in an hour" probably the greatest com- 
pliment ever paid by a transcendental 
critic to the creative powers of the soul ! 
With modern mechanical ingenuity and 
the rules of Vitruvius, Ruskin was quite 
confident that a machine could be made 
"to furnish pillars and friezes to the size 
ordered, of any of the five orders, on the 
most perfect Greek models in any quan- 
tity," which any bricklayer could set up 
at their proper distances, "so that we may 
dispense with our architects altogether." 
(Vol. 3, ii, XC.) The Ionic he calls a 
"ram's order," which could easily be 
made an "ibex order" or an "ass's or- 
der." The Roman Tuscan and Doric 
orders are "among the most stupid vari- 
ations ever invented upon forms already 
known" (ibid, i, App. 7). Mr. Porter, 
in the chapter already quoted from, de- 
clares that "Roman art lacks originality, 
and is in fact, little more than an adapta- 

*The italics are ours. 



tion of Greek models to suit the pompos- 
ity and vulgarity of Roman taste." And 
Mr. Sturgis, commenting on the great 
Temple of Venus and Rome, considers 
that "the Romans have little claim to 
originality as builders or as makers of 
plans ; what they knew best was how to 
appropriate the ideas, as they appropri- 
ated the wealth, of the Mediterranean 
world." "The pure ornament of the 
Romans was as nearly a reproduction of 
the Greek as they could make it," says 
Porter. And, lest one should unduly 
magnify the importance and originality 
of the Roman invention of the modillion- 
cornice, he explains it by the airy re- 
mark that "it occurred to some genius to 
clap both dentils and modillions upon the 
same entablature." "The forms of de- 
based late Greek art the Romans fixed 
into a cut-and-dried canon from which 
minor variations were possible, but no 
real progress" : this is Mr. Porter's final 
verdict on Roman originality. 

The third and fourth counts are sup- 
ported in part by the passages quoted 
above, and by many others. They al- 
lege, in brief, the illogical application to 
Roman arcaded and vaulted construction 
in brick and concrete, of the forms filched 
from Greek architecture and converted 
or diverted from their original structural 
function to that of mere decoration a 
false and pretentious veneer of misused 
detail. Particularly to be condemned is 
the marriage of the arch with the col- 
umnar system. This detestable alliance, 
parent of specious villainies through the 
last five centuries, thanks to the "de- 
praved modern taste," receives the special 
castigation of the critics. Of these, Fer- 
gusson is by far the most moderate, find- 
ing that the two systems, the columnar 
. and the arcuated, "although not without 
a certain richness of effect" are "too dis- 
tinctly dissimilar to be pleasing." Mr. 
Sturgis characterizes the columnar ap- 
parel of the Colosseum and like struc- 
tures as "this outer decoration, the sham 
columns, the make-believe entablatures, 
the whole imitative structure built up 
with the real mass behind" (Hist, of 
Arch., i, 304). In his earlier work 
"European Architecture," he calls it 
"this decoration by means of real arches 



THEATKE DE MAKCELLVS 

ELEVATION PROFILS -GENERAVX- ET-PLAN -AV- XL 










SECTION 



SVR L'AXE D'VNE ARCADE 




SECTION 

SVR LAXE DVNE COLONNE 



FIG. 5. ARCADED ORDERS OF THE 
THEATRE OF MARCELLUS, ROME. FROM 
A FRENCH DRAWING (GUILLAUME). 




I 



FIG. 6. ARCH OF TITUS, ROME. 



436 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



and imposts flanked and framed by a 
make-believe post-and-lintel architec- 
ture." He admits its popularity and even 
ascribes to it elements of beauty, seren- 
ity and stateliness, but thinks it appeals 
most to people "not very sensitive to the 
delicacies of fine art" (pp. 95, 96). Of 
the arches of triumph, Reber says that 
in them we have "a mass of masonry en- 
closed in columns and entablatures which 
were merely ornamental features with- 
out structural significance." Mr. Stat- 
ham describes the Roman design of 
arch and order as a "planting" of half- 
columns "all around the exterior, appear- 
ing to carry entablatures which were 
really carried by the arches between the 
order" (sic) ; and calls these orders 
"only a kind of scenery planted onto a 
building with which they had no real 
structural relation" (History of Archi- 
tecture, pp. 144, 145). Further on he 
says that this mistake "has left a long 
legacy of falsehood to architecture: a 
falsehood revived at the Renaissance and 
still frequently perpetrated in obedience 
to the tyranny of custom." Mr. Porter 
is, of course, very severe in his animad- 
versions on the Roman orders in general. 
Reproducing a beautiful drawing of the 
Doric order of the Basilica Julia, he 
considers it a "sufficient commentary on 
the decline of Roman art." The use of 
the pedestal in Roman architecture he 
calls "a gratuitous addition," which the 
tone of the context indicates is intended 
as a condemnation. While the Greek 
columns consistently combined ornamen- 
tal and constructive functions, "the Ro- 
mans made them almost wholly decora- 
tive." After their buildings were built, 
he declares, "the Romans applied the col- 
umns as a surface decoration, either in 
the form of freestanding porticoes or 
peristyles, or more frequently as an en- 
gaged order built into the wall." This 
was certainly a singular method of pro- 
cedure, of which the authorities have 
hitherto been strangely ignorant ! 

The fifth count deals with the charge 
of stereotyped rules of design. Many 
of the quotations already made bear 
upon this point. Mr. Statham thinks 
that the Romans looked upon the em- 
ployment of the orders as constituting 



in itself the art of architecture, so that 
the latter became little more than the 
planting of the orders on all sorts of 
buildings. This is a surprising judg- 
ment to be uttered by an architect so 
well-informed in general as Mr. Stat- 
ham. Mr. Porter pronounces Roman 
capitals and mouldings to be "machine- 
made," and declares that "the effect of 
the whole, for all its blatancy, is inex- 
pressibly dreary and monotonous." 
"From the Persian Gulf to the Firth of 
Forth, from the Baths of Caracalla to 
Constantine, Roman art shows a lack of 
variation absolutely without a parallel in 
history" (Med. Arch., i, 32). Mr. Stur- 
gis, in the comments on the Temple of 
Venus and Rome already referred to 
(ante, p. 433), says that "all this, except 
the building in mortar-masonry and the 
idea of a vault, might ha^'e occurred to a 
Creek" (the italics are ours), and that 
"the Romans have little claim to origin- 
ality" even "as builders and makers of 
plans." Reber, more generous, notes that 
their borrowings of foreign features were 
confined to the external apparel, while he 
credits the Romans with supplying the 
general disposition and constructive 
forms of their buildings. 

This mass of hostile criticism has been 
culled from a few books only, but they 
are all books which have been put forth 
with certain claims to authoritative teach- 
ing, and their judgments are typical of a 
much larger mass of similar verdicts to 
be found in textbooks on architecture, 
books of travel and magazine articles by 
English and American writers. The vol- 
ume of this testimony and the unity of 
spirit that pervades it are impressive, 
and either convincing or suspicious ac- 
cording to the way we seek to account for 
them. The testimony certainly seems 
convincing to the average reader who has 
no means of testing its validity. It puts 
Roman architecture on the defensive ; 
and those who, in the face of this indict- 
ment are brave enough to admire the 
defendant, must stand up and show cause 
why the verdict of condemnation should 
not be pronounced on all the counts. The 
case for the prosecution is apt to look 
very serious until the testimony and ar- 
guments for the defense are presented. 



COLOR, IN ARCHITECTURE 
AT THE PANAMA^PACIFIC 
EXPOSITION 

BY W2. L.WOOLLETT 





EXPOSITION architecture would 
not ordinarily be considered, on 
account of its evanescent charac- 
ter, a proper subject or example for elu- 
cidating principles of architecture. Ex- 
position architecture, as we commonly 
know it, in the ultimate, must appear to 
be unreal. It is palpably a colossal 
Dream City, and must be appraised in 
terms peculiar to itself. And yef in the 
realization of such a "dream" the aesthetic 
point of view should be somewhat simi- 
lar to that obtaining in architecture under 
normal conditions. The architectural 
scheme, even of an exposition, requires 
conformity to recognized standards with- 
in certain limits ; i.e., the peg of reason on 
which we hang the emotional appeal, the 
form and structure or implied structure 
of an exposition building, bears a similar 
relation to the color scheme as in ordi- 
nary conditions. In the instance of the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 
at San Francisco, the element of color 
is so pronounced a feature, and the 
use of color has been hailed with so 
much of popular acclaim, that there ap- 
pears to be here a special opportunity 
to learn something of the meaning of 
"Color in Architecture." 

In the panorama of this exposition we 
may in our imagination see in sumptuous 
array of color, vast bundles of oriental 
stuffs, vistas of palaces and temples and 
arcaded halls, and the gardens of Baby- 
lon and visions of Atalanta come true 
near the cobalt waters of the Pacific. We 
Tiay sprinkle this oriental melee of color 
with the gems of the Indus, whilst the 
galleys of victorious fleets laden with 
captured splendors vie with each other 
for landing space at the steps of the 
Great Water Gate. Or we may in cold 
analysis ask of our reason, why this? or 
why that ? and in the process lose perhaps 
some of the wild joy of abandonment. 



Viewed as a serious attempt to do 
something beautiful, this work, in order 
to lay claim to excellence, must qualify 
not only in its color appeal but in form 
and abstract values as well. 

The essence of a work of art, accord- 
ing to common consent, resides in an ex- 
pression of personality. Without the in- 
dividual spark there is no such thing as 
art. Two men cannot paint a portrait, 
write a poem or a symphony, or produce 
a piece of architecture. Accordingly 
Jules Guerin, greatest of our architect- 
ural colorists, was intrusted with the 
commission of advising the Board of 
Architects of the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition, in order that the 
whole scheme might be the harmonious 
expression of one personality in color. 

In a critical view of a work of this 
sort it is desirable to bear in mind that 
it is easier to criticise than to create 
and easier to improve than to improvise. 
However, the work of these builders of 
the exposition, who have been pioneers 
in many respects, seems to emphasize 
that such a work is more easily created 
in parts by a group of artists than it can 
be satisfactorily made as a whole to a 
single critic. And it remains to be proven 
that this assemblage of beautiful bits of 
architecture, bound together in a har- 
mony of color, is necessarily a work of 
art. 

The general color of the exposition is 
exotic, Eastern. A great emotional poem 
in color reverberates and pulses for our 
delectation under the lazy blue of the 
sky and beside the rippling blue of the 
waters. From masses of warm walls of 
Travertine and the warmer tones in the 
roof areas, opalescent, greenish domes lift 
their curves of scintillant light into the 
heaven of California days. Jeweled tow- 
ers vie with the stars and the sheen of 
the ocean, and at the first sight of the 



438 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



spectacle the heart and mind are tingled 
into expectancy. Clothed in a vast man- 
tel of soft grey colors, refulgent with 
unseen lights, blooms a vista of color 
gardens. Like a spirited horse tethered, 
the mind strains to be off on the wings 
of exploration of this panoply of light. 
Here the radiance of a cashmere shawl 
greets the eye, there th soft tone of 
the Ottoman's saddle bag, then the domi- 
nant note of some old Sienna rug, or the 
gleam of a Saracen blade. A thousand 
minor notes of the dominant color 
scores greet the eye. A vast puls- 
ing mosaic of color, a palette of unrivaled 
beauty, stirs and for a moment enslaves 
the imagination. And then, after the 
first flush of expectancy, of exultant emo- 
tion tricked into an overwhelming im- 
pulse through {he magic of color, comes 
analysis. 

To the searcher for abstract beauty, 
to him who comes with the mind of the 
Occident as well as with the soul of the 
Orient, the Exposition City has told its 
best in the first "mad moment" of beauty. 
Here the story ends. A tragedy appar- 
ently ; but no, I say "ends" with a pur- 
pose, for in thus speaking broadly we 
free ourselves to pass to detailed analysis 
of a very interesting architectural situa- 
tion, having in unqualified terms given 
honor where honor is unquestionably 
due. 

In a work of this magnitude there are, 
of course, two points of view : One, the 
consideration of ensemble, of mass, and 
the like, and the other, consideration of 
details. 

In matters of detail the use of colored 
pigments is probably the most noteworthy 
phase of the architectural scheme. Every- 
thing which the eye rests upon, whether 
of wood, iron or plaster, has been paint- 
ed. The dominant note is the walls of 
imitation Travertine stone, which is in 
reality colored plaster with a special tex- 
ture. 

In the handling of architectural detail, 
in the doorways, sculptured groups, and 
other details which are best examined 
near at hand, there are gems of archi- 
tectural beauty and harmonious color. 
The portals of Faville, for instance, 
foiled by the studied calm of cliff-like 



walls, are rich beyond comparison, mel- 
low to the point of antique delight and 
juicy with time-worn color, a dream for 
the artist's fancy. However, taken in con- 
junction with the masses of the buildings 
of which they form a part, and viewed 
from a point where the ensemble is pos- 
sible, these spots of transcendent interest 
are reduced to smudges of color. Be- 
cause the architecture was composed 
aside from the colorist's conception, these 
gems of ornament have lost, to a degree 
at least, their capacity to convey the true 
subtlety of the artist's thought. The ap- 
plication of pigment has softened and de- 
tracted from the values. Frequently 
there remains little of thought directing 
quality. However, there is as a residue 
a delightful texture, a rug like quality, if 
you please, due to the juxtaposition of a 
variety of nicely balanced color values. 
But the structure, the static quality, the 
thought directing element, all these have 
been depleted or have disappeared in a 
subdued pastel sketch effect. Viewed as 
specimens of detailed decoration near at 
hand they are poems of ornament. 

A consequence of this loss of thought- 
directing detail is an absence of scale. 
You feel that you are looking at one of 
Jules Guerin's prints ; whether a real live 
water color drawing or a reprint one 
ponders. 

The Tower of Jewels is a most in- 
teresting example of this submerging of 
the architectural interest in color domi- 
nance. Here a superb pile of richly 
formed, elegantly proportioned masses 
has been denuded of its original vitality. 
The various and strongly colored parts 
have become detached, the sense of unity 
is gone, and as a result the composition 
is without appeal as to its colossal size. 
In the Tower of Jewels the details, such 
as the eagles, equestrian statues, etc., 
have been reduced by an all-over coat of 
color to mere lumps whose form and 
character lines are so unannounced that 
there is nothing by which the mind can 
gauge the quality or estimate the rela- 
tion to the whole. One intuitively feels 
that the designer had his matter well 
in hand, that he knew where his chief 
darks should come. There is an in- 
trinsic fine balance and lilt and lift 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



439 






to the composition as a whole, due to 
the nice distribution of values. The ap- 
plied pigment has readjusted and mis- 
placed the original color values so that 
the real "kick," as determined in the de- 
signing architect's mind, is gone. The 
color "kick" has resulted in making this 
feature heavy as a mass, whereas its 
place in the composition demanded 
lightness, effervescence, billowing, fluffy, 
cloudlike, puffy exuberance, a gathering 
together into one giant "parfait" of all 
the lightness and daintiness of the Mc- 
Kim court. In the soffit of the big: cof- 
fered arch the coloring of the panels has 
flattened the effect and turned the mag- 
nificent Travertine stone into paper. The 
red-colored coffered ceiling: gives a chalk- 
like effect to the stunning murals which 
flame with wonderful color when seen 
without the accompaniment of "archi- 
tectural" paint. The sense of reality, of 
permanence and stability, is preserved in 
the lower part of the tower. The treat- 
ment of the main cornice of this portion 
is a dream of color and in no way de- 
tracts from the stone effect evidently 
desired. 

The Court of the Sun, Moon and 
Stars, by McKim, Mead and White, a 
composition of which the Tower of Jew- 
els forms the crowning member, is the 
architectural piece de resistance of the 
exposition. This magnificent architect- 
ural spectacle, composed with delicate 
fancy and rich accompaniment of con- 
ventional ornament and bas relief, has 
been but slightly jarred from its original 
supine calm. The deterrent color notes 
and groups of too assertive statuary can 
hardly be said to mar the effect as a 
whole. The stirring groups of statuary 
which surmount the main architectural 
features, and which are supposed to an- 
nounce themselves as the concentrated 
essence of the thought as proclaimed in 
the court as a whole, have been colored 
a light brown. This simply has the ef- 
fect of relieving the pedestal of their 
weight. One wonders, how far back? 
It is quite theatrical, this shifting of 
"scenes," of planes. 

The floor of the court is "furnished" 
with statues and fountains, whose bulb- 
ous forms by their proboscis-like effront- 



ery push to insignificance the gentle grace 
of the inclosing colonnades. These sweep- 
ing colonnades, like a picket fence, inclose 
great colossal, recumbent figures which 
oppose their giant limbs athwart each 
vista of the eye, and shrivel to an inglori- 
ous dissonance that which would other- 
wise be an architectural symphony. The 
interest originally attaching to the ele- 
gantly modeled frieze has, through the 
use of a delightful color magic, shifted to 
the cornices and openings. The color de- 
tail one must pronounce as being at once 
elegant, naive, and satisfying. The pris- 
tine glories of classic lines and classic fig- 
ures which, in fine repose, are set to en- 
rich and enliven the friezes, are dulled 
by comparison with the yellow statues, 
nearby, which, like giant incrustations, 
flatten themselves against the walls. 
Painted pilasters skip up and down the 
dignity of Travertine stone piers. 

The glorious sculptured group by Isi- 
dore Konti about the pedestal of the great 
column on the axis of the court is stolen 
from the view by a "smashing" bit of 
colored kiosk-like band stand, which, 
like an apple woman in Broadway, un- 
profitably obstructs the traffic of the eye. 

No greater Roman holiday was ever 
made than this. Shades of Stanford 
White stalk nightly in this wonder place, 
where the gemmed star maidens look 
down on dusky sisters clothed in Ori- 
ental sepia. The dead spleen of Vitru- 
vius should gather grit to see so lordly 
a scheme go through the color pots. 
Yellow domes atop these classic piles 
proclaim against the cerulean blue in un- 
mistakable paean, "Who did this thing?" 
Undoubtedly a paint pot flew into the 
sky. 

And yet the color glories of the whole 
proclaim a pace so spent for beaut \ that 
one halts to ponder. "If this could have 
been done at its best, it would have out- 
done itself and placed a b?. u on future 
accomplishment." 

In pleasing contrast tp the evident loss 
of scale and force in the supposedly 
crowning feature of the architectural 
composition is Mullgardt's superb court 
the Court of Creation. This work was 
originally intended for a riot of color. 
The application of pigment has been 



440 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



eliminated. The result is that the work of 
the artist is left in its unrivaled beauty. 
This court is a true dream in exposition 
architecture. The detail counts for all 
that it may; the architect's thoughts as 
expressed in mass, line, detail, announce 
themselves in unmistakable terms, un- 
foiled by deterrent color. 

In any architectural composition there 
must be some reposeful element, some 
undetermined zone of emotion from 
which the thought-directing element must 
spring or be evolved. The unbroken 
wall surfaces, whose texture and sub- 
stance are left to the imagination, carry 
in forceful, purposeful manner their just 
weight in the composition. 

In the court of Mullgardt the pure 
undivided over-grey of walls and orna- 
ment alike holds in solution the domi- 
nant thought. A delicate tracery of de- 
tail, which by its disposition and its 
charm of form leads the imagination 
on, is pregnant with the abstract thought 
in the artist's mind. This court, of 
all the work in the exposition, ex- 
presses most definitely perhaps the un- 
trammcled vital spark of originality. In 
the modeling of the architectural orna- 
ment one intuitively feels the influence 
of the architect's master hand. The 
sculpture, however, particularly the main 
tower groups, lacks contact with the 
architecture. This sculpture is less col- 
orful, less dynamic than the adjacent 
architectural ornament. It also lacks 
subtlety, fineness and refinement, and 
fails decidedly to express the same sup- 
pressed electric grotesque quality which 
is announced with such good effect in 
some of the less important groups. The 
sculpture, though plainly less vocal than 
the architecture, is decidedly interesting, 
well composed and powerful. It might 
well be deemed a crime to mention this 
lack of correspondence, for there is evi- 
dent sincerity of effort and a much great- 
er correspondence than we find in many 
works of greater prominence. The lack 
of a certain kindred spirit, which only a 
Mullgardt sculptor could evolve, is hard- 
ly a reasonable lament. 

The central fountain by Aiken in this 
court is well worth while, considered by 
itself, being rich in imagery and beauti- 



fully composed, but too large in scale and 
in mass for its place in the composition. 
Its effect is to dw^arf the court as a 
whole. Only when this note is out of the 
line of vision does the full beauty of the 
place appear. 

The wall decorations by Brangwyn at 
the ends of the corridors are masterpieces 
of wall decoration, fit counterpart of this 
gloriously vivid individual work. The 
color of these glows like burning coals. 
They serve to vivify the idea that from 
subterranean fires where colors leap and 
play ; from the earth and air and sky and 
sea where eternal forces are locked in 
titanic struggle to be free, the Court of 
the Universe comes forth to greet the eye 
in a festoon of tempered, controlled, 
vitriolic lava, formed and fashioned into 
a bit of architecture lurid with a soul's 
delight in creation. 

The superb handling of the murals in 
Mullgardt's court suggests a word in 
general as to the relation of murals to 
this matter of "Color in Architecture." 
A mural painting should be what the term 
implies "on the wall." As in the work 
of Puvis de Chavannes, one should 
feel more of wall than of color, more of 
structure behind than of forms repre- 
sented. In the color scheme of the whole 
a mural may or may not count as a domi- 
nant note, but at all times should be sub- 
servient to the wall feeling and in har- 
mony with the general color scheme. 
In Brangwyn's painting one could con- 
sciously feel a desire to know the jointing 
of the stone work in the wall, in spite of 
the rich tonal effects, so flat, so second- 
ary is the plane or perspective element. 

The mural decorations of the exposi- 
tion are in the main alive and graceful, 
teeming with rich imagery and full of 
clear color. But in the color scheme 
they count merely as jewels, resplendent 
with color, like ripening fruit ; they are 
not (with exceptions of course) murals, 
on walls ; they are merely bits of bright 
color, little eLfinlike butterfly bits of color 
in a pageantry of blatant color which as- 
serts itself in blobs and chunks. For in 
this color composition huge areas, heavy 
with color and in values which dominate, 
stride like giants beside the sea and throw 
themselves into the air. Dank with the 




Copyrighted, Panama- Pacific International Exposition Co. 

THE TOWER OF JEWELS, PANAMA- PACIFIC EXPOSITION, SAN FRANCISCO. 




"DANCING THE GRAPES" PANEL BY FRANK BRANGWYN, 
PANAMA- PACIFIC EXPOSITION. 




"THE FRUIT PICKERS" PANEL BY FRANK BRANGWYN, 
PANAMA- PACIFIC EXPOSITION. 




THE PALACE OF HORTICULTURE, PAN AM A- PACIFIC EXPOSITION, SAN FRANCISCO. 




NICHE IN COURT OF FOUR SEASONS, PANAMA -PACIFIC EXPOSITION, SAN FRANCISCO. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



441 



stress of the painter's palate and mellow 
with the age that obliterates even a sem- 
blance of the thought behind the forms, 
this blazing beauty of color is rampant, 
a carnival of the "Painted Desert," a 
morass of voluptuous symphonies of 
color, the expression of a mind drunk 
with color. What a powerful pile 
this would be were there an architecture 
to hold it, bind it together, hammer it 
down, "put it over." 

However we may be impressed with 
the effect of color in architecture, it still 
remains that architecture is fundament- 
ally a structural vehicle. The color ele- 
ment as an emotional impulse must be 
subservient to the thought directing ele- 
ment as expressed in the architectural 
form. Where the color element is pow- 
erful, the form element must be still more 
powerful, else we have, as in the charac- 
teristic work of the futurist, dominant 
emotional impressions, unknowable ef- 
florescence in color. 

Taken as a whole the exposition must 
be deemed an expression in color, with- 
out adequate architectural accompani- 
ment. The details of beauty which crowd 
upon the eye at each step do not affect 
the general value of this statement. 

As an instance of a happy detail we 
note the Horticultural Building. This 
work of Bakewell and Brown's is a tour 
de force in exposition architecture. It is 
without exception the most electric, the 
most expressive, effervescent playful bit 
of joyous architecture. In the main it 
expresses, in its color, a most wonderful 
and delightful restrained exuberance, and 
the atmospheric quality is charming ; but 
the color imposed has in places converted 
the detail to a lavalike deposit of un- 
meaning forms. The choice detail the 
fanciful lines, the luxurious efflorescence, 
particularly of the lower portions is 
swallowed up in the pastel vapors of 
a too dominant color fancy. In this 
building the dominant note is the great 
glass areas, which reflect in opalescent 
bluish tones the prevailing moods of the 
day and night. The architectural forms 
are handled with a suggestion of the jew- 
eler's art. The construction and the set- 
ting of the various parts in adequate 
structural relation are graceful and free. 



Here the structural aesthetic values of 
architecture are rightly subservient to 
purely decorative features, the structure 
being implied. Yet so cleverly is the 
whole conceived in the spirit of glass 
and iron and ornamental paste that the 
mind is satisfied, while the emotional ap- 
peal is more than satisfactory it is a 
joy. Viewed from the portals of Bacon's 
court, this building is a jewel of jewels, 
the quintessence of voluptuous, sump- 
tuous, contained joy. 

The primary relations of structural 
aesthetics, even in exposition architecture, 
are dominant factors. A more or less 
close following of reasonable structural 
values is necessary. As an illustration of 
misapplication of values, we note the 
great even-toned greenish domes, which 
are a dominant minor chord in the 
scheme. These domes top perforated 
drums whose wall surfaces are treated 
with color in a broken design. Here we 
have a case of syncopation in values. 
The even color of the dome suggests 
a monolithic construction ; the drums, 
broken up by bands of scintillant mosaic 
color areas, suggest a wall of a purely 
decorative character. To have pre- 
served the effect of solidity of the wall 
and broken the roof, would have been a 
way of handling the situation more in 
accord with the common understanding 
of the likely structural condition. Or if 
the solid character of the dome was an 
important note to be preserved, why sup- 
port it on a member which by its treat- 
ment suggests a more transient type of 
construction? Under the present ar- 
rangement we see the strong shadows of 
the perforations entirely surrounded with 
opalescent color conditions, resulting thus 
in an unexplained structure. The effect 
is of spots of dark hanging unsupported 
in the air; the color values of walls and 
dome being commensurate with the sky 
values. 

Turning to more prosaic details, one's 
eye lifts to wide expanses of livid orna- 
ment, suspended like giant tapestries be- 
fore the walls of towers which flank the 
Court of Flowers. Here we confess our- 
selves ignorant of the meaning, and our 
pov/ers grow faint before the wizardry, 
the "wine of wizardry," of the painter's 



442 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



palette. Here it is difficult to arrive at 
the point of view of the colorist. A few 
questions will elucidate. Why, for in- 
stance, has color been applied on stone, 
on exterior wall surfaces, particularly in 
a diaper pattern, in a way that suggests 
oilcloth or a brick texture? Great ex- 
pense and care and skill have been ex- 
ercised in imitating a stone texture ; and 
are these not stone forms which are em- 
ployed in adjacent ornament? Why 
have these suggested surfaces of stone 
been destroyed as such by the coloring 
of supposedly stone details ? Why has the 
illusion of stone, of permanency, of sta- 
bility, been frustrated? Is it more im- 
portant that a composition be colored 
than that it be true to itself ? 

A natural sequence of thought in archi- 
tectural composition demands that the 
voids find expression in terms corres- 
ponding to the wall structure. When 
this is not done a manifest confusion in 
the abstract idea results. Why are the 
ornamental openings colored so that they 
suggest beautiful masses of terra cotta 
or brick or plaster, and the wall areas 
next treated to suggest Travertine stone? 

The value of a wall surface, either ex- 
pressed in flat unbroken areas or in its 
extreme phase of fenestration, a colon- 
nade, must ultimately reside in static 
qualities, its capacity to carry. Why 
paint a stone wall pink? Are there any 
pink, real pink, face-powder pink, stone 
walls anywhere? And, if there are, do 
we need them here ? 

Whatever of decoration in color is 
used on a wall, the quality of stability 
and permanence should manifestly not be 
abased. And the detail in color should 
synchronize in character with the sup- 
posed wall material. A stenciled dec- 
oration on a plaster wall which has the 
texture and color of stone, and is sup- 
posed to look like stone, should be sten- 
ciled, if at all, to recall some sort of stone 
decoration, and not in imitation of the 
texture of a brick wall or of a plastered 
surface. 

A wall is primarily the reposeful ele- 
ment in an architectural composition. 
When a decorative effect is desired in a 
wall, the wall surfaces should still indi- 
cate more of repose than the local dec- 



oration of the voids. A highly decorated 
wall surface having a high key of color 
value must fail in its structural value as 
a wall, i. e., a carrying member, unless it 
is subservient to still more colorful active 
interest producing elements at the open- 
ings. The openings should be accented 
with ornament, powerful, impelling, 
thought-directing, of sufficient force to 
dominate the color condition in the wall. 

Because the architecture of the expo- 
sition has been designed by men for the 
most part necessarily without the super- 
lative color sense of a Guerin, the archi- 
tectural forms express less of activity 
and power than the color phase. In gen- 
eral, the main architectural lines of the 
buildings and the minor forms and the 
details have, through the juxtaposition of 
the color of applied pigments, dwindled, 
shrunken and become enfeebled by the 
contrasts thus imposed upon them. The 
abstract message of the architecture is 
submerged in the emotional power of the 
color values with which they are sur- 
feited. 

This brings us to the idea of the true 
relation of color to architecture. Color 
in architecture is not the end; it is the 
beginning of an architectural composi- 
tion. Color is the reservoir, the ocean, 
the garden, from which must spring the 
bud and flower of the architect's thought ; 
just as in literature the thought is more 
important than the verbiage with which 
the thought is clothed; as in music the 
theme is more important than the ren- 
dering of the tone values ; and as in 
sculpture the abstract quality is more 
important than the vehicle. 

Color in architecture signifies not so 
much the covering of architectural forms 
with pigment, or the use of highly col- 
ored materials, as it means that fine ad- 
justment of shade and shadow which 
suggests color. To him who is sensitive 
to color a work of architecture is an ar- 
rangement of color values under any 
circumstances. 

Comparative views of the buildings 
taken when they were in the Travertine 
stone and afterward, when ornamented 
with color, are, of course, only sugges- 
tions of the true condition. However, 
they serve to show that the application of 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



443 



pigments which darken the general effect 
tend to destroy the direction and force 
of architectural detail. It would, there- 
fore, appear that the colorist should be 
the architect, or vice versa, in order that 
the color values should be nicely adjusted 
to the architectural forms. 

Paul Bartlett, the sculptor, once said 
in one of his classes, "A great artist 
could make a thing of beauty of an ele- 
phant, even though he had never seen 
an elephant and knew nothing of its an- 
atomy," illustrating that the poise and 
swing of line, the balance and power of 
composition, were aesthetic powers with- 
in the scope of the sculptor and superior 
as elements of expression to mere de- 
tails of fact in anatomy. And undoubt- 
edly a master in color, such as this mag- 
nificent spectacle proves Guerin to be, 
may have the power to compose a won- 
derful composition in color, using as his 
canvas the buildings and entourage of an 
international exposition, without a spe- 
cific knowledge of architecture. But are 
we not entitled to expect more than a 
color composition, just as in an eques- 
trian statue we expect the saddle girts to 
be in place, no matter what the charm 
of rendering otherwise? In short, we 
should expect to find not only color in all 
its glories, but an unrivaled display of 
fine aesthetic values of line and form as 
well. And we are justified in looking for 
a harmony of these various elements, 
which, combined, constitute the art of 
architecture. That we do not find this 
balance is explained only by the fact that 
no one personality was available who 
combined all the qualities of an architect. 

In the results before our eyes not a sin- 
gle titanic form announces itself, not a 
line in electric, elastic vehemence cleaves 
the sky without deterrent color accom- 
paniment. No profile as such feels its- 
way into the mind as a line of beauty, no 
group of statuary pulls itself into vol- 
canic activity to acclaim its sculptured 
message all is under the exotic pall of 
color. The charmed curves of Corin- 
thian capital and the stately fluted 
columns stand rank on rank, flattened 
like colored paper strips set against other 
colored paper backgrounds. 

There are exceptions to this general 



sacrifice of architecture on the altar of 
color. In the Court of Seasons whilst 
looking out toward the sea between Ba- 
con's titan columns, which in solemn 
grandeur proclaim the dignity and benefi- 
cence of nature's bounty, one notes the 
lilt and lift of the graceful statue of Miss 
Longman in splendid joyous abandon a 
bit of beautiful line in silhouette against 
the sky. The contrast of this statue with 
the vistas of advancing ranks of the col- 
umns on either side is altogether fine. 
Here is a picture of classic repose, unde- 
filed by more gorgeous counterpart than 
that given by earth and sky and sea. This 
Court of the Seasons, its pavements un- 
broken save by the level waters of a 
green bordered pool, stands alone as be- 
ing free from unsympathetic treatments 
of its garden areas. Except for the great 
central apsidal feature on the main axis, 
which protrudes a foreign note where 
Faville's door and apse form the enclos- 
ing feature of the great central arch, the 
court stands complete as its architect con- 
ceived it. Here the Travertine stone 
dominates the color scheme. Occasion- 
ally where color has been applied, as on 
the ornamental wreaths, giving an effect 
of stencil or intaglio, the values of the 
architect have been frustrated. The 
sculptured groups of this court are in 
harmony with the solid dignity of the 
architectural forms. Many will feel that 
this court is more nearly a complete ex- 
pression of mature classical thought and 
feeling than anything in the exposition. 
Certainly it has repose and dignity, and 
great charm beautiful proportions and 
the absence of unfriendly color domi- 
nance. 

One other line of pure delight there is 
which, like the statue in Bacon's Court, 
must live in the memory. It is the en- 
tasis of the columns in the colonnaded 
porches of the Pennsylvania building. 
We met this line just after passing 
through the fiery furnace of color which 
encompasses the Art Palace. We had 
just said "good bye" to the lovely Greek 
ladies, who turn classic backs upon our 
upturned faces, and to the cool, refresh- 
ing, satisfying walls of the California 
Building, when looking past the elegant 
refinement and opulence of New York, 



444 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



we met some old friends Indepen- 
dence Hall, the New Jersey Building, 
and the State House of Boston, and 
others. Greetings, ye gentle reminders 
of the Colonial age! The fine grace of 
these simple lines, these forms unafraid 
to dare the blue of Western skies in the 
garb of ancient renown, greets our eyes 
now surfeited with color. Like a sweet 
message of ancestral days these delight- 
fully frank architectural fragments bring 
a realization of our real self. These de- 
clare our time and temperament ; these, 
our race and religion, our birthright, 
and perhaps our future. The exotic ful- 
minate of riotous Roman architecture 
and "Cairo" coloring possess us no more. 
We pass as in a dream into the calm reali- 
zation of the old gold dome of the Boston 
State House, and we ask the question, Is 
it the ideals of Patrick Henry and of 
Hamilton and of the Adams family and 
of Franklin, or is it the lure of the Occi- 
dent, the voluptuary, the sensualist, the 
ocultist, and the seers and precepts of 
the East the "line" or the "color"- 
which holds us truest to our ideals? Go 
and sit beside the fires of Brangwyn's 
pictures amid the calm of Creation's 
Court, and think a while, then out by the 
sea, alone beside these landmarks of your 
ancient home. The tides that wash on 
Pacific shores wet now the feet of the Pil- 
grims' sons. Are the eyes of these sons 
lifted to the prismatic colors of the Ori- 
ent or are they stayed by the subtle 
beauties of restraint? Or do we look 
for a future day when into the old 
shall have been breathed the breath of 
the new, when these Eastern fires shall 
have been tempered, when these exotic 
flashings of emotional energy shall have 
been curbed by the steeled minds of the 
West, and chilled into finely wrought ex- 
pressions of a superman. 

Return again to the Court of Creation 
and there you will see more nearly than 
elsewhere in this forest of pageantry a 



realization of a dream come true 
Brangwyn's pictures and Mullgardt's 
court. Here, a true blending of Eastern 
spirit with Western restraint, of South- 
ern color with Northern lights, a med- 
ley vocal with the churning together of 
rival races, of strident woes, a light from 
the burning torch of progress. 

For this alone the entire effort of the 
exposition is worth while, for this work 
signals a spiritual growth, an aspirational 
force, a capacity for expression in the ab- 
stract. 

Of the work of Jules Guerin it may 
truly be said that, whilst his work has 
been Goliath-like in that he has brought 
the temples of beauty down about our 
heads, he has nevertheless given the 
world the greatest demonstration of the 
uses of color in exposition architecture 
with which our time has been favored. 
All the compliment which word could 
convey for the boldness and sincerity and 
harmony of his work is due. 

The structural aesthetics of color, still 
veiled and sphinx-like, awaits the advent 
of architects who are colorists. Stanford 
White thought in color, by the way, and 
his work is the proof. 

However immaterial and irrelevant 
criticism of a work so generally lovely 
may appear, we are bound to recognize 
in each advance step in art a stepping 
stone to something greater. This work 
in color at the exposition seems to pres- 
age not only a wider appreciation of 
color in its application to architectural 
problems, but a demand on the part of 
the public for a more precise knowledge 
of the use of color by architects. 

The day is not far distant, we feel, 
when the architect shall be required to 
know not only the law of the forms 
which he employs but the law of color 
harmony as well, when, like Michael 
Angelo, he shall be required to wield the 
brush and the sculptor's chisel as well as 
the builder's square. 




THE NORTON HOUSE, GOSHEN, CONN. AN EXCELLENT TYPE OF COLONIAL WORK. 

COLONIAL QAR.CHITECTVR.E 
IN COHHECTICVT 

Text and Measured Drawings 
<herwood Bessell 





PART II. 



THE Norton house at Goshen was 
built when Colonial architecture 
was at the height of its refinement, 
a circumstance reflected in the quality 
of its mouldings. The house stands upon 
a knoll overlooking the valleys in all di- 
rections, and was probably erected when 
Goshen expected to become the county 
seat instead of Litchfield. The country 
about it still retains the quiet of a primi- 
tive settlement. 

The bricks for the house were evident- 
ly made on the ground. Their colors are 
exquisite, running from light salmon to 
rich dark reds, from straw color to dark 
golden browns, from light blue tints to 
dark purple and brown. The time has 



gone by for such hand-made bricks, and 
we can hope only to approximate their 
beauty in our machine made product. 

The cornice of the house is well pro- 
portioned, and very carefully ornamented 
by means of slight sinkages and cutouts. 

The treatment, in relation to the house, 
of the living porch, with its row of two- 
story columns and stone flooring, cannot 
be too highly commended. Why not 
try something of this character to-day 
instead of our weak solution of this prob- 
lem? Modern porches never seem to be 
a part of the house, but an afterthought. 

The two houses at Litchfield, the But- 
ler and the Tallmadge house, also show 
the way for a quaint and honest handling 



446 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE TALLMADGE HOUSE, BUILT IN 1775, LITCHFIELD, CONN. THE FRONT DOOR IS OF 

LATER DATE. 



of the question ; their porches are a part 
of the house, a part of the whole design, 
and are very pleasing in appearance. In 
both instances the porches were added 
after the house had been built. Col. Tall- 
madge erected his after a visit to Wash- 
ington at Mt. Vernon ; the porch on the 
south end was built first, later the north 
one was added. The south one contains 
three columns on the side and is of a 
greater depth than the north one, which 
has only two columns. The space saved 
gave more room inside for a closet which 
contained a small stairway to the tipper 
room, the opening and markings still be- 
ing traceable. 

The Tallmadge house was at one time 
a tavern, and the south end was the of- 
fice. One large room upstairs was used 
as a ballroom, running through the house 
on the north side. It has since been 
changed into two rooms of a goodly size. 
Unfortunately, the present front door is 
not the original one, but it is said to have 
been similar to the one shown in the 
drawing of this house published on page 
360 in the April number of the Architec- 



tural Record. The handling of the roofs 
of these additions in connection with the 
main house is unique, and worth study- 
ing, as is also the balustrade on the roof. 

The Butler house likewise solved in a 
very pleasing manner the question of the 
porch, which also is a later addition. The 
deliberate manner of placement relative 
to the main house is much to be admired. 
We are afraid to do a thing of this kind 
to-day, simply because of some biased 
criticism ; we lack the moral courage of 
our convictions, and, I am convinced, al- 
low many charming ideas to go by. Here 
the face of the columns extends beyond 
the face of the main building, and the 
cornice is let die into the old house at 
will. The detail is refined, and shows 
that careful study was given to the exe- 
cution of the work. The house proper 
was built in 1792 by Charles Butler, and 
the addition early in the nineteenth cen- 
tury. 

On this same street and in the same 
town of Litchfield may be found numer- 
ous old Colonial homes. Just above the 
Tallmadge house is the old Sheldon Tav- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



447 



ern, now a private residence. Entirely 
different from the houses mentioned 
above, it was built in 1760 and shows de- 
cided earmarks of English influence ; but 
it is more refined in detail than the ma- 
jority of houses in which English ascen- 
dency is felt. It was built by Elisha 
Sheldon, and it was not until the next 
generation that it became a tavern, run 
by the son. Later here also lived Gen- 
eral Uriah Tracey, and still later Judge 
James Gould, famous for his work 
known as "Gould's Pleading." The 
mouldings of the cornice are coarse and 
heavy and out of scale with other details 
on the house, but here we have those 
charming dormers of an attenuated feel- 
ing so seldom seen, the jambs being only 
of a width necessary for construction. 
The roof line shows a marked change 
from the general type, but still is rather 
desired than otherwise for the balance of 
the design. 

Almost opposite is the Julius Deming 
house, built in 1793, and designed by 
Wm. Spratt, a Scotch architect, wrong- 
ly thought to be a Hessian. This house 



is similar in design to the Sheldon, but 
decidedly coarser in detail. 

A very good and simply designed 
house is the Seymour homestead, built in 
1807 for Ozias Seymour, and one could 
ask to-day for nothing more desirable ; 
with the application of a more delicate 
or refined balustrade and cornice this 
house has a quality not to be lightly 
passed by. 

The Reeves house, built in 1773 by 
Tapping Reeves, brother-in-law of Aaron 
Burr, shows another treatment of the 
roof problem very seldom seen. We can- 
not say it is good, but there is the very 
excellent treatment of a wood grill in 
the frieze of the main cornice, used as 
windows and ventilators for the attic 
floor. The porch and addition on the side 
are of a later date, and, as before stated, 
it is difficult to obtain a picture of the 
house as originally designed. 

The bank building at Litchfield is of 
merit. By a close study of the cornice 
and pediment one notes the alternating 
circular and rectangular raised panels 
between the triglyphs, also the very in- 




THE BUTLER HOUSE, BUILT IN 1792, LITCHFIELD, CONN. A FINE EXAMPLE 
WHICH SURVIVES IN ITS ORIGINAL STATE. 



44S 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




THE SHELDON HOUSE, BUILT-IN 1760, LITCHFIELD, CONN. AT THE SIDE IS A "WITCH" DOOR. 




THE SEYMOUR HOMESTEAD, BUILT IN 1807, LITCHFIELD, CONN. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



449 




THE REEVES HOUSE, BUILT IN 1773, LITCHFIELD, CONN., OFTEN VISITED BY AARON BURR. 




THE BANK, BUILT EARLY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, LITCHFIELD, CONN. 



450 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





-WINDOW-IN-THL- 

OLIVta-WOLCOTT- 

H0 U 5 E.-LJTCH FIELD-CON N- 



D ETA1 L- 0P-H EAD-AT-A - 







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DETAIL- X 

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SILL- -^ 

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DLTAILOF 
WINDOW-HEAD-ON-THt- 
WOOD BUFF* HOU/E-UTCH FIELD- 

CONN: 



'^SECTION. 



DETAIL OF- 
. I -BLIND 5LAT5' 




MEASURED AND DRAWN BY WESLEY SHERWOOD BESSELL. 



teresting motive used in the pediment for 
a frieze, the ornamented oval window 
frame and the peculiar panelling below 
the first story windows. Before the ad- 
dition on the side was made, a quaint 
outside spiral iron stairway led from the 
ground to the second floor. 

Another form of construction and de- 
sign is shown by the house at Windsor, 
the doorway reproducing the pediment of 
the house, but still retaining the greatest 
interest. This is an exquisite door, and, 
.together with the windows, exceptional- 
ly well placed on the facade. The fence 
is of a typical Colonial design, and, with- 
out the porch at the side, this composition 
would be well worth a reproduction to- 
day. 

The Cowles house at Farmington is a 
large house, designed for one of apparent 
wealth, and yet not over pretentious. It 



shows a tendency toward the southern 
type of Colonial architecture, something 
unexpected and unlocked for in Connec- 
ticut. The sloping ground gave occasion 
for an interesting porch treatment. The 
brick arches of a single brick header 
shows that it supports only a porch floor, 
the crown of the arch being almost level 
with the floor. The five columns are of 
brownstone, procured probably from the 
old brownstone quarries at Portland, not 
far distant from Farmington. The brick 
is at present covered with a light paint. 
A peculiar feature is the column in the 
center of the pediment, with the Paladian 
window treatment over this column, a 
treatment very seldom seen. The Pala- 
dian window is decidedly poor, but, taken 
as a whole, the design is good, especially 
the front, with a very odd but pleasing 
front door. 




W 
< M 



H 



D W 

OT ,J 

w w 



452 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




A HOUSE AT WINDSOR, CONN. 



The construction and design of win- 
dows varied much ; there are some with 
.a full pediment at the head, some 
with the broken pediment, others with a 
-full cornice treatment, and still others 
with just a few crown mouldings. The 
; sashes never hung by weights, but were 
caught by pins let through the sash into 
the jamb; sashes were of the small light 
type, and all muntins rather delicate 
than coarse or heavy. Sometimes a stiff 
metal was used in the very small mun- 
tins. The rails were generally an inch to 
an inch and a half in width, the sashes 
themselves usually being one and one- 
.half inches thick. 

The detail drawings show three types 
'of these window heads, and also the typi- 
cal blind construction. The blind hard- 
'ware varied and was often made by 
the village blacksmith. 



Windows never were placed in double 
or triple formation, except as a Paladian 
motive, and bay windows were not used 
as a means of exterior or interior fea- 
ture. These two facts show clearly why 
everything was so very simple. Limited 
to just single windows and a door, there 
would be no reason to expect anything 
but severity of design ; but to these add 
bay windows and large window open- 
ings, and immediately the thing is lost 
so far as pure Colonial design is 
concerned. They belong to our English 
cousins' beautiful, rambling farm cot- 
tages and manor houses. 

The blinds of a house add the final 
color touch and finish. Unfortunately, 
one seldom sees this feature on a modern 
adaptation of the Colonial doorways, and 
here is just where to obtain that naive 
quality which we have lost. 



THE 



UEL HANMAFOIHD 




BEFORE plans were drawn for the 
new General Hospital, just opened 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, a commission 
of specialists inspected all the notable 
modern hospitals in the United States 
and Europe, with the result that the 
group of buildings comprising this in- 
stitution, for which the city has spent 
nearly four millions of dollars, embod- 
ies the very 'latest and most approved 
methods of hospital construction and 
management. The General Hospital is 
a municipal hospital for the city's poor. 
It contains forty-two wards, employs 
more than 600 persons, and is situated 
on a tract of sixty-five acres in the sub- 
urb of Mt. Auburn, on a high plateau 
removed from the smoky downtown 
business district, but lying almost in the 
center of the territory bounded by the 
corporation line. The buildings which 
have been already erected are so built 
that the future expansion of the institu- 
tion is taken care of ; additional buildings 
may be connected up with the power 
plant and other common utilities as the 
future growth of the city demands. 

The buildings already occupied are 
the administration building, the receiv- 
ing ward, the outdoor clinic, seven ward 
buildings, the operating pavilion, the 
kitchen, the dining hall, the men's dor- 
mitory, the detention ward, the power 
plant, the laundry, the garage, the sta j 
ble, the female dormitory, the nurses' 
home, and the pathological building. 

To the northwest of this main group 
is a smaller group of six buildings, a 
separate hospital in itself, where all con- 
tagious diseases are treated. In this 
group is an administration building, a 
nurses' home, a detention ward building, 
and three ward buildings. There is also 



under way a special building where spe- 
cial contagious diseases, such as small- 
pox, will be treated. 

The natural and graded slope of the 
land is such that the more important 
ward and administration buildings oc- 
cupy the higher part of the site, which 
has about a one per cent, slope; thus, in 
time, the power plant, stables and gar- 
ages and the like may be almost entirely- 
screened from view from the main build- 
ings, by proper parking and planting. 

The highest point in the tract is at 
Burnet avenue, upon which the more 
important of the buildings front. It is 
about fifty feet higher than the west 
boundary, yet each building is connected 
with the others by an underground tun- 
nel, so that it is possible to pass from 
one to another without going outdoors.. 

The buildings, though plain, are well 
proportioned and dignified. The very- 
best of construction has been employed. 
All buildings are as nearly fireproof as 
it was possible to make them. Founda- 
tions are of concrete, waterproofed and" 
underdrained. The exterior walls are 
of brick, faced on the outside with a 
warm, brown-toned impervious pressed 
brick, thoroughly waterproofed. The 
trimmings are of white Bedford stone.. 
Floor and roof constructions are of rein- 
forced concrete, and most of the floors; 
are finished in tile, with bases of ter- 
razzo. The details of the interior fin- 
ish in every part have been carefully 
studied. All angles are rounded, and 
everything has been done to make the 
buildings easily cleanable. There is no. 
interior window trim or finish around' 
doors and windows. The base and door 
frames are set flush with the finished 
plaster faces of the walls. Door frames; 






454 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




A V E./1 V 



LWAB.D "tk ] ^ >""[ 

LJ^ J "Kovwq 




VIEW AND GROUP PLAN OF THE NEW 
GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



455 



are of steel, and all passageways are 
provided with steel guard plates set 
flush with the plastering. 

A hot water system of heating is em- 
ployed, with direct radiation. Ventila- 
tion is provided in all ward buildings 
by means of fans, one for supply and 
one for exhaust in each ward. The air 
is thoroughly screened, washed and hu- 
midified before being distributed in the 
wards. 

Plumbing fixtures were made of spe- 
cial design. All the pipe work is of 
brass,- and everything is so constructed 
that it can easily be cleaned and re- 
paired. Plumbing fixtures are of vitre- 
ous ware, with nickel trimmings. 

Realizing that fresh air is of the ut- 
most importance in the treatment of the 
sick, each ward building has on its roof 
an open ward, where patients may live 
in the open. These open roof wards are 
provided with awnings for protection 
against rain and sun. They are also 
provided with toilet rooms and ward 
kitchens. All the roof wards, porches 
and covered ways are paved with red 
quarry tile; flashings and sheet metal 
work throughout are of copper. 

The main administration building 
faces on Burnet avenue. In it are the 
offices of the Superintendent and his as- 
sistants, the main business offices, the 
record rooms and the quarters for the 
staff of physicians and internes. At the 
south end, on the first floor, is a large 
library, in which will be housed a very 
valuable collection of reference books. 
At the north end of the building is a 
lecture room, in which medical societies 
will hold their meetings. In this build- 
ing also are the central telephone ex- 
change and switchboard for signal ser- 
vice, which connects with every bed in the 
various wards, so that at all times the 
condition of each patient can be imme- 
diately telautographed to headquarters. 
Besides having this wonderful system of 
telautography, all buildings, wards, and 
departments are connected with inter- 
communicating telephones. 

On the upper floors of the adminis- 
tration building will be sleeping rooms 
for internes and house physicians. At 
the south end of the second floor is a 



suite set aside for the Superintendent. 
Recreation and sitting rooms are also 
provided for physicians and internes on 
this floor. The central portion of this 
building is three stories in height, while 
the north and south wings are two 
stories, with roof gardens over them for 
the use of the occupants of the building. 

One unusual thing about all the ele- 
vators in ward buildings is that they are 
placed in separate towers, isolated from 
each other and from each floor, so that 
there is no direct connection between 
wards that are placed one above the 
other. This feature is carried out in all 
the buildings, in order to prevent any 
possible chance of cross-infection. The 
idea is also applied to all clothes chutes. 

The buildings in the contagious group 
lie to the northwest of the main group. 
They differ in construction, insomuch 
that they are only two stories high; the 
wards also are somewhat smaller, hav- 
ing a capacity of sixteen beds each. 

The operating pavilion lies west of 
the receiving ward. It has five operat- 
ing rooms, two on the first floor and 
three on the second. These are connect- 
ed with the etherizing and sterilizing 
rooms, the nurses' workrooms, etc. In 
the basement of the building is the big 
drug-room and storeroom for drugs. A 
complete X-ray department, with photo- 
graphic dark-rooms, is also in this base- 
ment. A large amphitheater is located 
in the east end of the building. It is to 
be used as a lecture and demonstration 
room. It contains very large and spe- 
cially built moving picture and lantern 
projection machines. The amphitheater 
is cut off from the operating portion of 
the pavilion, there being no communica- 
tion between the two. 

Immediately behind the operating pa- 
vilion is the kitchen building. This 
structure stands almost in the center of 
the group of ward buildings, where all 
wards may be served most conveniently. 
The big kitchen occupies the first and 
main floor. The basement contains an 
ice plant, cold storage warerooms, and 
a large space for sterilization of food 
boxes used by the oatients. 

In the power building are now located 
six of a battery of twelve water tube 



456 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




ADMINISTRATION BUILDING-NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI. OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 




WARD BUILDING "A" THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



457 




WARD BUILDINGS "C" AND "B"-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 




WARD BUILDINGS "H" AND "J"-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 



458 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




REAR VIEW, WARD BUILDINGS "J" AND "K"-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 




OPEN-AIR WARD. ON ROOF OF EACH WARD BUILDING-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



459 




INTERIOR OF ONE OF THE WARD BUILDINGS THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 




ONE OF THE OPERATING ROOMS THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 



460 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




ONE OF THE OPERATING PAVILIONS-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI. OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 




NURSES' HOME BUILDING-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



461 




COVERED ROOF-GARDEN ON NURSES' HOME BUILDING-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, 

CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaforcl & Sons, Architects. 




KITCHEN BUILDING-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 



462 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




KITCHEN-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 




:ONTAGIOUS DISEASES GROUP-THE NEW GENERAL HOSPITAL. CINCINNATI, OHIO. 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



463 



boilers of 260 horsepower capacity each. 
The engine room is in another building 
adjoining. The equipment of this room 
consists of three units of high-speed en- 
gines, directly connected with 250 K. W. 
generators. In this room are also the 
switchboard, the air compressor, and the 
refrigerating machinery. Electric cur- 
rent is used throughout all the buildings 
for light and power. 

In the second story of the power 
house is the laundry. One-half is for 
the care of the patients' clothing, while 
the other half is for the care of the 
clothing of the employees of the institu- 
tion. The laundry is equipped with the 
best of laundry machinery, modern in 
every respect. On the second floor of 
the boiler house are the machine, car- 
penter, and paint shops, all of which are 
properly equipped with machinery and 
supplies to care for the repair and main- 
tenance of the buildings and equipment. 

The research building lies in the rear 
of the contagious group and is a five- 
story struct' re housing the chapel, re- 
search laboratories, a large amphithea- 
ter where students go for instruction, 
operating rooms for vivisection pur- 
poses, etc. This work will be of the 
greatest scientific value and will be in 
charge of Dr. Paul G. Woolley. 

Away from the noise of traffic on the 
main thoroughfares is the nurses' home. 
It has a basement, four stories and a 
roof garden. It is connected with all 
the other buildings in the group by the 
underground tunnel. Every convenience 
has been added to make the home a 
place of rest for tired nurses. On the 
first floor are a library, several rooms 
for educational purposes, reading rooms, 



rest rooms and a laboratory for the teach- 
ing of special work. The second, third 
and fourth floors have sleeping rooms 
for the nurses. Each room has its 
private bath and toilet. On each of 
these floors is set aside a little tea room 
and kitchen for the use of the nurses as 
they see fit in preparing light lunches 
for themselves. There is a roof garden 
with a large inclosed shelter house over 
the central portion. Here it will be pos- 
sible for the nurses to take recreation 
in the open air at any time. Provision 
has also been made for those who de- 
sire to sleep out in the open air. 

A female dormitory is located in the 
rear of the nurses' home. All female 
employees of the institution will be 
housed there, excepting the nurses, who 
are taken care of in the nurses' home. 
The main features of the nurses' home 
apply to this building, but it does not 
contain a separate dining-room, the oc- 
cupants taking their meals in the general 
dining-room for employees. 

The equipment of this new hospital is 
of the highest possible type. No other 
hospital is so modern, so well equipped 
in every detail. World renowned physi- 
cians have helped to make it the best 
possible hospital. The city of Cincin- 
nati owes the success of this institution 
to Dr. C. R. Holmes, who spent years 
in the study of hospitals everywhere be- 
fore imparting the information gathered 
to Samuel Hannaford & Sons, of Cin- 
cinnati, the architects of the institution. 

The entire project of building this 
new hospital was placed with the hos- 
pital commission, consisting of Dr. C. 
R. Holmes, Mr. Harry L. Laws, Dr. J 
M. Withrow and Mr. Louis S. Levi. 




GARDENS RESIDENCE OF C. F. 
PERRY, ESQ., HOLLYWOOD. CAL. 
B. COOPER CORBETT, ARCHITECT. 



CVR.R.ENT AR.CHITE CTVB.E 





DETAIL RESIDENCE OF MRS. LOUISE 

A. DENKER, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

B. COOPER CORBETT, ARCHITECT. 



466 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




RESIDENCE OF CHARLES SHARP, ESQ., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
B. Cooper Corbett, Architect. 




RESIDENCE OF C. F. PERRY, ESQ., HOLLYWOOD, CAL. 
B. Cooper Corbett, Architect. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



467 




RESIDENCE OF MRS. LOUISE A. DENKER, LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
B. Cooper C'orbett, Architect. 




RESIDENCE OF C. WESLEY ROBERTS, ESQ., LOS ANGELES, CAL. 
B. Cooper Corbett, Architect. 



468 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




* * 




THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



4H9 





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THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



471 




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472 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




BUILDING OF BURKE & JAMES, CHICAGO. 
Hill & Woltersdorf, Architects. 







BUILDING OF THE MEYER-BOTH COMPANY, CHICAGO. 
Hill & Woltersdorf, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



473 




ABORATORY OF THUS. J. DEE & CO., CHICAGO. 
Hill & Woltersdorf, Architects. 




ONTARIO STREET ANNEX-TREE STUDIOS, CHICAGO. 
Hill & Woltersdorf, Architects. 



*,' iK- .,/:'> i-- .^ -_.,^ , y- .=-;: - -..- -. ..^j- -,- . *>.-, ..-' - *.<Vfca* 

ARCHITECT'S 



fj ^-- - 




BOOKS ON MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE 

By RICHARD FRANZ BACH 

Curator, School of Architecture, Columbia University 
PART I. 



AT a time when the uncertainty of 
international conflict hovers over 
many a medieval building, an addi- 
tional stimulus enlivens our interest in 
the great formative period that preceded 
the Renaissance. The writers, respond- 
ing faithfully to the demand, have pro- 
duced a number of new works and new 
translations and editions of recognized 
works of standard value, which should 
aid in no small degree in rendering in- 
telligible the architectural significance of 
the stupendous struggle that has already 
so extensively laid its toll upon the ves- 
tiges of a splendid past in Europe. 

Of great interest, though slightly be- 
yond the present troubled area, is the 
volume by Henry Adams entitled Mont- 
Saint-Michel and Chartrcs (Houghton, 
Mifflin Company, Boston and New York, 
quarto, pp. xiv-401, ill., $6). Ralph 
Adams Cram, arch-apostle of things 
Gothic in this country, writes a brief in- 
troduction for the work ; not to introduce 
it necessarily, but in reality to make pub- 
lic apology to the author because his 
notably meritorious volume so long hid- 
den from students as a private publica- 
tion has only now been given to the 



world. Mr. Cram calls this "one of the 
most distinguished contributions to lit- 
erature and one of the most valuable ad- 
juncts to the study of medievalism 
America thus far has produced." Nor 
has he grossly exaggerated the worth of 
Mr. Adams' book. It is a readable and 
flowing series of chapters covering not 
only Mont Saint Michel, a pioneer in 
six-part vaulting, and the cathedral of 
Chartres, a pioneer in the use of the 
oblong vaulting bay, but also Coutances 
cathedral and the "Abbaye aux Dames," 
Queen Matilda's church at Caen. It fol- 
lows into many channels the develop- 
ments of stained glass and of apsidal 
plans, of towers and of portals, not to 
mention the fine chapters on Abelard, 
the Miracles of Notre Dame, the story of 
Nicolette and Marion, and on the three 
important queens of the Gothic period in 
France, Eleanor, Mary and Blanche. In 
these chapters Mr. Adams' ability is at 
the full, although the genteel manner of 
the causerie runs through the whole vol- 
ume without at any point lacking the 
foundation of facts and of architectural 
understanding. We should wish for other 
volumes equally flowing in their treat- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



475 



ment; the monuments of the Middle 
Ages, splendidly set in a unified life and 
reflecting it in a thousand brilliant facets, 
lend themselves readily to the graceful 
and subtly informing style of which the 
author well understands the beauties. 
Our technical historical discussions are 
many and accurate, too many of our 
pages bristle with argument on the fine 
points of attribution and of origin, but 
they are on our shelves until needed ; 
they rarely appear on our library tables, 
and we do not often open their covers 
unless searching for information immedi- 
ately required. This volume on Mont 
Saint Michel, on the other hand, is both 
technical and attractively written ; its 
place is assuredly within the reach of the 
architect who is always "too busy to 
read," chiefly because too many books 
are written with undisguised purpose 
"at" instead of "for" the architect. An 
added recommendation of the work is 
its publication by authority of the Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects, of which 
body Mr. Adams has recently been made 
an honorary member "as one who has 
rendered distinguished services" to archi- 
tecture. 

A book of entirely different character, 
though attempting a similar vein, is that 
on Cathedrals and Cloisters of Northern 
France, by Elise Whitlock Rose, with il- 
lustrations from original photographs by 
Vida Hunt Francis. (G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, New York ; two 'volumes, octavo, 
pp. xvii-297 and pp. x-345, ill., $5.) 
This forms the concluding part of a se- 
ries of four two-volume works on the 
cathedrals and cloisters of France, others 
having covered Midland France, South 
of France and the Isle of France. All 
the volumes are profusely illustrated 
with fresh material there are no less 
than two hundred and fifty views in the 
present set and for this reason especial- 
ly useful for the architect and present 
day traveler; while the text is the com- 
pound result of much research and ex- 
tensive personal contact with the build- 
ings, which have bred an appreciative un- 
derstanding of medieval architecture 
and clerical life, fitly conveyed in a brisk, 
somewhat business-like style. This man- 
ner of writing cannot, of course, be con- 



sidered a detriment; rather, for a work 
of this kind, a decided benefit. The area 
covered by the volumes in hand demands 
so many illustrations that the text can be 
but a running comment at best, if the 
whole story shall be told ; yet Miss Rose 
has been particularly successful in avoid- 
ing the guide-book descriptive manner. 
Long chapters are assigned respectively 
to Alsace-Lorraine, Champagne, The 
Nivernai-s, Maine, Anjou and Laval ; of 
these the first and second are notably well 
written. Miss Francis' photographs are 
of exceptional quality and the point of 
view is essentially that of a trained me- 
dievalist. In fact, the authors seem to 
have struck the happy mean of give and 
take which makes enjoyable the other- 
wise diplomatic task of collaboration. 
The present book, like the other pairs 
of volumes preceding it in the series, is 
well bound in attractive covers ; the type 
is large; in general the work will stand 
a credit to both authors and publishers 
as a reliable reference book on the dio- 
cesan buildings of northern France. 

By far the best of the recent works 
on medieval art in France is the large 
volume entitled Religious Art in France; 
Thirteenth Century; a Study of Medie- 
val Iconography and Its Sources of In- 
spiration, by Emile Male, translated from 
the third edition, revised and enlarged, 
by Dora Nussey. (E. P. Button and 
Company, New York ; quarto, pp. xxiv- 
415, ill., $6.) This is a masterly treatise 
with a broad foundation in symbolism 
and the didactic quality of Gothic art. 
dealing with medieval Christianity as a 
fluid, mobile and living thing, and prop- 
erly collating the art with life, thought 
and theology to form a splendid Chris- 
tian unity. 

M. Male's first words are : "The Mid- 
dle Ages had a passion for order." A 
thorough medievalist, his book partakes 
of the orderliness he lauds. He begins 
with an analytical chapter entitled "Gen- 
eral Characteristics of Medieval Iconog- 
raphy," in which he sets forth that me- 
dieval art is characterized notably as a 
script or sacred writing, as a calculus or 
sacred mathematics, and as a symbolic 
code. We have been prone to grant too 
little importance to the symbolic qualitv 



476 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



of Gothic art; a true understanding of 
this would long since have indicated the 
single thread of harmony that runs 
through all things medieval. The unify- 
ing current of symbolism permeated the 
life of the thirteenth century as thor- 
oughly in France, as our so-called "busi- 
ness instinct" dominates the life of the 
twentieth century in this country. 

But it will require more than a sim- 
ple appreciation of the symbolic element 
in medieval ornament fully to convey the 
fact that the designers of the time "or- 
ganized art as they organized dogma. 
The artistic representation of sacred sub- 
jects was a science governed by fixed 
laws which could not be broken by the 
dictates of individual imagination." 

In the first place, the art of the Mid- 
dle Ages developed as must any art 
when general education is at a low ebb 
a kind of hieratic language which indi- 
cated to the plcbs Dei all that it needed to 
know of the religion which was life. 
This sacred script acquired a great com- 
plexity but never lost a rigid regularity 
and sameness of meaning, however the 
individual forms may have been em- 
ployed or manipulated. The result was 
an ecclesiastic grammar, in which the 
relation of parts was utterly organic and 
therefore always intelligible when prop- 
erly used. Misuse of symbols was tanta- 
mount to heresy. Each artist had, there- 
fore, to learn an ecclesiastic alphabet of 
forms, for by the very forms did his 
record take shape. There is no need in 
such didactic forms for great depth or 
beauty in the abstract or aesthetic under- 
standing on which we pride ourselves and 
which inflicts upon art an aloofness 
which it never properly possessed nor 
desired to convey. We spend much time 
seeking modern beauties in medieval art, 
projecting temperamental or sentimental 
significance into motives which speak an 
obvious language that escapes us because 
if is so direct and plain spoken. Yet the 
emotional was not eliminated ; that could 
not be the case at such a time of fervid, 
often ascetic, Christianity. 

But apart from the symbolism of use 
which dictated bare feet here and aureole 
there, we must give importance also to 
position, grouping, symmetry and num- 



ber in medieval iconography ; for by vir- 
tue of its observance of these qualities 
the emblematic story of the Middle Ages 
developed a sort of sacred mathematics, 
subject to formulae scientifically as rig- 
orous. In this connection must be noted 
the orientation of buildings, the relative 
positions of symbols, the comparative 
significance of different parts of 
churches, the interrelation of figures in 
religious history being closely paralleled 
in their carved, painted or stained glass 
counterparts. Thus the more gloomy 
northern transept arm, for instance, was 
decorated with motives from the Old 
Testament, the warmer southern transept 
with those chosen from the New Testa- 
ment. The symmetry which signified in- 
ner harmony appears in the balancing of 
the twelve ancient patriarchs or the 
twelve prophets against the twelve Apos- 
tles of Christ ; and in the same fashion 
other groups were disposed according to 
a sort of biblical equation. The Virtues 
and Liberal Arts, in equal numbers, are 
similarly balanced, e. g., in opposite win- 
dows or in opposite or parallel recessed 
doorways. The meaning of numbers in 
this connection may be better understood 
by an actual passage from M. Male re- 
ferring, by way of example, to the ritu- 
alistic interpretations of the numbers 
twelve and seven : "Twelve is the number 
of the universal Church, and it was for 
profound reasons that Jesus willed the 
number of His apostles should be twelve. 
Now twelve is the product of three by 
four. Three, which is the number of the 
Trinity and by consequence of the soul 
made in the image of the Trinity, con- 
notes all spiritual things. Four, the num- 
ber of the elements, is the symbol of ma- 
terial things the body and the world 
which result from combinations of the 
four elements. To multiply three by four 
is in the mystic sense to infuse matter 
with spirit, to proclaim the truths of the 
faith to the world, to establish the uni- 
versal Church of which the apostles are 
the symbol." The computation involv- 
ing the number seven is yet more ingeni- 
ous; it reaches a real grandeur. "The 
number seven, regarded by the Fathers 
as mysterious above all others, intoxi- 
cated the medieval mystic. It was ob- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



477 






served first of all that seven composed 
of four, the number of the body, and of 
three, the number of the soul is pre- 
eminently the number of humanity, and 
expresses the union of man's double na- 
ture. All that relates to him is ordered 
in series of sevens. Human life is di- 
vided into seven ages with each of which 
is associated the practice of one of the 
seven virtues. The grace necessary for 
the practice of these seven virtues is 
gained by addressing to God the seven 
petitions of the Paternoster. The seven 
sacraments sustain man in the exercise 
of the seven virtues, and guard him from 
falling into the seven deadly sins. The 
number seven thus expresses the har- 
mony of man's nature, but it also ex- 
presses the harmonious relation of man 
to the universe. The seven planets gov- 
ern human destiny, for each of the seven 
ages is under the influence of one of 
them." On this point witness the carv- 
ings of the seven ages of man on the 
capitals of the Doge's Palace at Ven- 
ice and the frescoes of the Chapel of 
the Eremitani at Padua ; the tradition is 
undoubtedly to be led back to classical 
times. "Thus seven invisible threads 
connect man with the scheme of the uni- 
verse. Now the beautiful symphony 
made by man and the world will last for 
seven periods of time . . of which 
six have already passed. By creating the 
world in seven days God gave man the 
key to these mysteries, and the Church 
celebrates the sublimity of the Creator's 
plan when she sings His praises seven 
times a day." 

Finally we have the manifestation of 
medieval art as a symbolic code, on the 
basis of which definite ideas are given 
a figurative expression, and therewith a 
quickening spirit. It is an art of inten- 
tions, as well as of actualities. Thus the 
four rivers of Paradise are not only what 
they seem pictorially, but represent also 
the four Evangelists pouring their benefi- 
cent doctrine in a flood over the world. 
The liturgy itself contains a myriad of 
hidden meanings, and each stage of the 
mass is a step in the unfolding of the 
great story of life, death and salvation. 
Thus the long neglected works of the 
medieval liturgiologists must be exalted 



to a new dignity, equal to that accorded 
to splendid figures like Hugh of St. 
Victor, Rhabanus Maurus, Gulielmus 
Durandus, Thomas Aquinas and Vincent 
of Beauvais himself. In the same fash- 
ion we might follow this figurative 
expression in its multiple applications 
in clerical vestments., in illuminated 
manuscripts or in portable church 
utensils. Nor is it fair to consider the 
extent and intricacy of this symbolic 
system the result of a play of fancy, 
devising by devious means far fetched 
connotations or befuddling numerical 
puzzles. The fervor of the medieval 
Christian is not to be denied, and what- 
ever his failings as zealot and devotee, 
he was a good churchman, the sole teach- 
er of the people, and in that sense at least 
thoroughly religious. In his ecclesiastic 
art we can therefore expect a sincerity 
and uniformity of purpose and in his all 
embracing symbolism an amplification of 
the only ready means of access to the 
minds of the masses for the truth they 
so much needed. 

The main body of M. Male's book 
carries out the threefold interpretation 
promised in the introduction, and the au- 
thor arranges his task in accordance with 
the subdivision laid down by Vincent of 
Beauvais, the Ubrorum helluo or devour- 
er of books, the most comprehensive 
thinker of the Middle Ages, in his Mir- 
ror. This was one of a large number 
of works, called variously speculum, 
summa, or imago mundi, in the encyclo- 
pedic thirteenth century. Believing thor- 
oughly in the fitness of things, M. Male 
has chosen the Speculum Majus of Vin- 
cent of Beauvais as a model, for, says 
he, we may not without danger of error 
project our modern categories into the 
work of the Middjes Ages and expect 
the latter to order itself according to 
an alien mode of classification and 
thought. Vincent adopts "the very plan 
of God as it appears in the Scriptures" 
and divides his stupendous work into 
four major parts, each called a Mirror, 
as follows : the Mirror of Nature, the 
Mirror of Instruction, the Mirror of 
Morals, and the Mirror of History. The 
four Mirrors are logically connected, 
more or less as a cumulative develop- 



478 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



ment. We begin with Nature and the 
truth of Creation, culminating in the 
sixth day's achievement and the appear- 
ance of man upon earth. The Mirror of 
Instruction recites the eternal question or 
"riddle of the universe;" it treats of the 
fall of man, and his endeavor to rise 
again through knowledge which gives 
power by beginning the work of his re- 
demption with the labor of his hands 
in the mechanical arts. Since the end of 
life is not only "to know but to act," 
since knowledge is the key to virtue, we 
are led naturally to the Mirror of Mor- 
als, wherein the virtues and vices are 
carefully classified. Having thus ana- 
lyzed and laid bare the substance of man, 
it behooves us to note his ability in shift- 
ing for himself, in unwinding the course 
of his life under the unseen guidance of 
God; this is the Mirror of History. To 
Vincent, the Churchman, the only true 
history is of course the history of the 
universal or Catholic Church. Pagan life 
has a mere synchronic value, incidental 
to the brilliant course of Catholicism 
with its eminently coherent sequence of 
Old and New Testament saints. 

In this quartet of Mirrors Vincent of 
Beauvais gathered together the sum and 
substance of the Middle Ages, an eternal 
pandect or synopsis. No less funda- 
mental a transformation than the Renais- 
sance itself was necessary to add to its 
information. It portrays vividly the lead- 
ing conceptions that inspired thirteenth 
century art ; "the same genius disposed 
the chapters of the Mirror and the sculp- 
ture of the Cathedral. It is legitimate 
to seek in one the meaning of the other." 

M. Male's system then is that of Vin- 
cent of Beauvais throughout, and his 
thoroughness not a jot less. He runs the 
gamut of sculpture and stained glass, of 
capitals and corbels, of floral motives and 
monsters, of lunettes and lintel bands of 
painted walls, pinnacle and carved por- 
tals. He cites chapter and verse for 
every assertion with a methodical direct- 
ness that is little short of perfect in its 



command of literary as well as monu- 
mental sources. The porches of Chartres 
live again and we find its figures moving 
to a sort of churchly music of the spheres 
which permeates the Middle Ages and 
imparts to them a oneness that brooked 
but few exceptions. We travel from 
Laon to Amiens, from Bourges to 
Poitiers, and the truths are always the 
same ; solid homogeneity and order de- 
mand that the same story be taught in 
the same way throughout Christendom. 

M. Male is a medievalist second to 
none, and his sincerity strikes a quick 
note of accord in the reader. But he 
is not a preacher for the modern. That 
is not his chosen province ; he simply 
takes the fine Gothic time when the flow- 
er is full blown. and unfolds its hidden 
beauties to eyes that had thought to see 
all its truths, but that soon appreciate 
the shallowness of usual study and be- 
gin to sound a new depth. He does not 
point Gothic lessons for the present ; nor 
does he advocate the resurrection of an 
artistic mode of speech hopelessly be- 
yond reach. He attempts only to indicate 
the manly conviction and ingrained faith 
which dominated one of the golden ages 
of art. 

The book is somewhat heavy, but the 
number of illustrations there are one 
hundred and ninety is largely responsi- 
ble for that. The "make-up" of the vol- 
ume deserves particular mention. The 
many necessary references are gathered 
in easily legible footnotes, so that fre- 
quent place names may not clutter the 
text. There is an appendix giving a list 
of the chief works devoted to the life 
of Christ, appearing in the churches of 
the end of the twelfth, the thirteenth and 
the fourteenth centuries. Finally there 
is also an exhaustive bibliography, an 
index of works of art classified by char- 
acter or subject, location and building. 
We are glad to congratulate both M. 
Male and the E. P. Button Company 
upon an authoritative publication, thor- 
oughly successful in every particular. 




NOTES 

AND 
COMMENTS 




A Seashore 
Cottage at 
Nantucket. 



Small country houses 
are so seldom designed 
by architects of any real 
ability that every in- 
stance of a good and 
original design in this 
field deserves notice. 
The little house at Nan- 
tucket, herewith illustrated, is one of the 
most attractive that has recently come to 
our attention. It is the property of Miss 
Alice M. Corse, and was planned by her 
brother, Mr. Henry T. Corse, Jr., of New 
York. 

The house faces 
directly on the 
ocean, with its back 
to the road. The 
entrance, from the 
rear, leads to a 
small stair hall, and 
thence to the main 
living-room, with an 
alcove giving direct- 
ly on the beach. Ad- 
jacent is a porch of 
comfortable size, 
and back of this the 
dining-room. The 
service is located in 
the wing toward the 
road, on the right of 
the entrance. Up- 
stairs are four mas- 
t e r s ' bed-rooms, 
maid's room and 
bath. 

In a construction 




HOUSE OF MISS ALICE M. CORSE. 

NANTUCKET, MASS. 
Henry T. Corse, Jr., Architect. 



of this size, elaborate architecture would 
be out of place, and Mr. Corse, very 
properly, has treated the building with 
the greatest possible simplicity. The 
entire house is shingled; the porch col- 
umns are simple, square wooden posts; 



the chimneys are of the plainest de- 
scription. Interest is given, however, by 
the effective grouping of the windows and 
their subdivision, and by the unusual lines 
of the roof. On the main front the roof has 
been carried down in a long slope over the 
porch, with the three domes to add variety 
to its surface, while the hip on the sides 
is cut off so as to give a vertical wall up 
to the tops of the second story windows. 
On the rear the same scheme is logically 
carried out, the symmetry of the sides de- 
termining the treatment of each portion of 
the roof. The only questionable feature is 
the gable over the 
stairs, as it seems 
that a hip roof at 
this point might 
have composed more 
harmoniously with 
the general arrange- 
ment. But the de- 
sign as it exists is 
good enough to be 
cause for self-con- 
gratulation both to 
the architect and to 
the casual visitor. 

In view of its un- 
doubted architectur- 
al merit, the low 
cost of this house is 
quite remarkable. 
Those who con- 
sider an archi- 
tect as an ex- 
pensive and un- 
necessary luxury 
knowing that the 



may be interested in 

total cost, including the land, was less than 
five thousand dollars. Even the omission 
of a cellar, according to the local custom, 
makes this economy none the less note- 
worthy. 



480 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



The Continental Amer- 
ican Bank, the latest of 
A Bank, the great buildings erected 

Monumental in Chicago by the office of 
and the late Daniel H. Burn- 

Beautiful, ham, is a tremendous pro- 

duction. It occupies an 
entire block, approxi- 
mately 600 feet in length by 200 feet in 
width, and it is twenty-five stories in height. 
The exterior is massive in scale and simple 
in composition. The detail is not of special 
interest aside from the great colonnade 
of red granite columns 
which extends the entire 
length of the basement 
and first story on the 
principal front. Above 
the basement and first 
story the building is 
built in a hollow square 
which permits of the 
first story being lighted 
by a vast skylight, many 
thousands of square feet 
in area. It is this first 
story which is the most 
interesting and success- 
ful feature of the great 
building. It is occupied 
by the important bank- 
ing institution which 
gives the building its 
name. The dimensions 
of this first story are so 
tremendous and the scale 
which has been employed 
in its architectural treat- 
ment so immense that 
although the height of 
the basement is sufficient 
to afford a story of suf- 
ficient height to provide 
quarters for another 
great bank, the stairs 
which lead at each end 
of the block from the en- 
trance and elevator lobby 
to the main banking floor 



A Layman 

on 
Builders 

and 
Planning. 




HOUSE OF MISS ALICE M. CORSE. 

NANTUCKET, MASS. 
Henry T. Corse, Jr., Architect. 



seem absolutely inconsiderable and give one 
the feeling of being not more than three or 
four risers in height. The floor of the bank- 
ing room itself is that of a great Grecian 
temple, with triple rows of columns down 
each side. The bank screens have all been 
placed behind the second row of columns 
and their material and detail as well as 
that of all the other features of the room 
have been kept low in tone and are beauti- 
ful and well studied in detail. 



This many a day we 
have waited for the 
small but effective voice 
out of the wilderness 
that would indicate the 
opinion of the world as 
to the case of architect 
versus builder. To most 
of us' the idea of competition between these 
gentlemen is ridiculous, yet the stern real- 
ity is forced upon us as soon as we leave 
the cities and observe the activity of build- 
ers in communities smaller. In such impor- 
tant matters we some- 
times hear the keynote 
struck in the enemy's 
camp, as it were, and for 
that reason we are not 
greatly surprised to 
come upon the follow- 
ing, which is an excerpt 
from the letter of a cor- 
respondent of the Chris- 
tian World: "The worst 
is that there are duffers 
in the architectural pro- 
fession. An architect 
wants choosing. But the 
right kind of architect is 
a man who is very sel- 
dom overpaid for his 
work." What truths are 
these! The duffers we 
are anxious to ostracise 
after the manner of the 
ancient Greeks, for it is 
they who render the 
choosing necessary. But, 
architecturally, the word 
overpaid does not exist. 
"He . . . ensures 
that . . .. the builder 
does precisely what he 
has engaged to do . . . 
and ... as a usual 
thing the architect is 
able to produce, in co- 
operation with the build- 
er, a much more attrac- 
the builder would have 
After all. 



tive house than 
produced on his own account, 
the work of the builder is building, no: 
planning." And this last sentence the edi- 
torial writer of The Builder calls the Kim- 
berly diamond found in the blue clay, and 
he adds with relish: ". . . When the aver- 
age man discovers that the work of the 
builder is building, not planning, the archi- 
tects may make a joyful sound and put 
crowns upon their heads." 



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VOL. XXXVIL No. 6 



JUNE, 1915 



SERIAL NO. 201 



ARCHITECTVRAL 
v RECORD 




COVER-ENTRANCE TO GLYNDE, ENGLAND Page 

By G- Matlack Price 

THE NEW HOME OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY * * .481 

By John Martin Hammond 

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE AND ITS CRITICS. Part II - - 493 

By Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin, of Columbia University 

TWO DENTAL BUILDINGS IN PHILADELPHIA AND BOSTON . 516 

By Harold D. Eberlein 

CERTAIN PHASES OF SPANISH COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE - 535 

By Marrion Wilcox 

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE IN CONNECTICUT. Part III . 547 

Text and Measured Drawings by Wesley Sherwood Bessell 

PORTFOLIO OF CURRENT ARCHITECTURE - - - - 557 

RECENT BOOKS ON MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE. Part II k - , 563 

By Richard Franz Bach 

NOTES AND COMMENTS - 567 

INDEX FOR JANUARY TO JUNE > 569 



Editor : MICHAEL A. MIKKELSEN. Contributing Editor : HERBERT CROLY 

Advertising Manager : AUSTIN L. BLACK 

Yearly Subscription United States $3.00 Entered May 22. 1902. as Second Copyright 1915 by The Architectural 

Foreign $4.00 Single Copies 35 cents Class Matter, at New York. N. Y. Record Company All Rights Reserved 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY 

THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD COMPANY 



115-119 WEST FORTIETH STREET. NEW YORK 



F. W. DODGE, President 



F. T. MILLER, Secretary and Treasurer 







PORTICO AND CLOCK TOWER ACADEMIC BUILD- 
ING, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, BALTIMORE. 
PARKER, THOMAS & RICE, ARCHITECTS. 



AKC 



THE . 

ITECTVKAL 



FIECOKD 



JVNE, 1915 



VOLVME XXXVII 





NVMBER VI 




NEW HOME OF 

JOHNS HOPKINS 

VNIVER.SITY 

<3y Jofjn y/(artin 3fammorid~ 




THE development of the city in the 
neighborhood of the present build- 
ings of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity and the growth of the under- 
graduate department rendered necessary, 
a decade and more ago, the creation of a 
new home for the institution ; and the 
movement which resulted from a recog- 
nition of this need has taken definite 
shape in "Homewood," the new seat of 
the school. The beautiful tract of wood- 
land which was selected as the site for 
the university has been surveyed and 
graded, and five of the units of the 
projected university group, including 
Oilman Hall, the principal building, have 
been completed, so that the architects and 
planners of the establishment are fully 
committed to their plans. The university 
expects to be in operation at Homewood 
in the fall of this year. It is safe to as- 
sert that in general beauty and charm the 
grounds and buildings of Homewood 



have rarely been equalled and the disposi- 
tion of the buildings with regard-to each 
other and their individual arrangement 
present features of novelty, ingenuity and 
practicality of construction of absorbing 
interest to architect and layman. 

Anyone familiar with Baltimore, or 
who will look at a map of the city, will 
know that the present situation of Johns 
Hopkins University is in the business 
center of the city. The new site is about 
two miles due north of the old, within the 
city limits, and in the choicest part of a 
section toward which the tide of fine resi- 
dence building of the city has of late 
years most consistently set. It consists 
of one hundred and fifty acres of land, 
fifteen of which is held back temporarily 
from the university as a life trust in an 
estate, and was presented to the univer- 
sity largely through the generosity of the 
late William Wvman, a public-spirited 
citizen of Baltimore. The tract which 






482 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



he donated has been enlarged by various 
individuals, notably William Keyser, 
Samuel Keyser, Francis M. Jencks, Will- 
iam H. Buckler and Julian LeRoy White, 
names long associated with Hopkins 
development. 

It is a beautiful rolling stretch of land 
containing many fine forest trees and the 
entire western and southern boundary 
has been developed by the city, with an 
appreciation of the coming of the uni- 
versity, as a public park known as Wy- 
man Park. The eastern and most im- 
portant boundary of the tract is Charles 
street, Baltimore's most historic thor- 
oughfare, and the northern boundary is 
the "Boulevard," the city's newest and 
most elegant suburban artery. Charles 



pointed, consisting of Walter Cook, of 
New York; Frederic Law Olmsted, of 
Boston, and J. B. Noel Wyatt, of Balti- 
more, and under its guidance all of the 
initial work of the university was done. 
During the progress of the preliminary 
planning Messrs. Wyatt and Cook had 
become executive architects, so, in 1911, 
the advisory board was reorganized to 
consist of Messrs. Frank Miles Day, of 
Philadelphia ; Grosvenor Atterbury, of 
New York, and Frederic Law Olmsted, 
of Boston, and this is its present com- 
position. 

To this board has been entrusted the 
important task of general supervision 
and of preserving harmony in the build- 
ings through the course of the years. 




GENERAL VIEW OF HOMEWOOD, THE NEW SEAT OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. 

BALTIMORE. 



street, also, has been widened and parked 
and on this street at the entrance to 
Homewood has been placed a "circle." 
Roughly, the whole tract is in the shape 
of an elongated hexagon of approxi- 
mately equal angles, Charles street oc- 
cupying the lengthened eastern side, the 
"Boulevard" the adjacent shorter side to 
the north, and Wyman Park all of the 
rest of the figure. 

'We find, then, that in 1902 the uni- 
versity fathers possessed this beautiful 
and ideally located tract of land. On it 
was standing Homewood, the old Car- 
roll homestead, one of the most delight- 
ful of Maryland's survivals of the 
Georgian period of building. The work 
of development commenced. An ad- 
visory board of architects was ap- 



Under the guidance of their advisers 
the university authorities in 1904 opened 
a competition to five well-known firms of 
architects, and the plan of- development 
submitted by Messrs. Parker and Thom- 
as, of Baltimore now the firm of Park- 
er, Thomas and Rice, of Baltimore and 
Boston was approved as best and ac- 
cepted. This plan had as its structural 
motif the design of Homewood, the old 
building from which the estate took its 
name ; and it was felt that not only was 
Georgian architecture peculiarly ap- 
propriate to the site of the university, but 
lent itself extraordinarily well to the de- 
velopment of a university group of 
buildings. 

The advantages of the Georgian for 
a university group, as conceived by the 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



483 




VIEW FROM HOPKINS OVAL, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, HOMEWOOD, BALTIMORE. 



university authorities and advisory arch- 
itects, may be summed up briefly as fol- 
lows: It is beautiful, it is dignified and 
restful; it lends itself well to combina- 
tion with other buildings of the same 
character; it gives square rooms and 
no loss of floor space; it provides for 
ventilation and lighting ; and, last of all, 
it is cheap and durable from the stand- 
point of construction. 

The proportions and decoration of 
Homewood the building were careful- 
ly studied and preserved as far as pos- 
sible in the plans of the new buildings, 
the proportion of window space to floor 
space only being changed so as to give 
ample light. The windows of the new 
buildings of Hopkins bear a constant re- 
lation to the floor space of one to six. 
So carefully have the interesting exterior 
features of Homewood the building 
been preserved that the main entrance 
of Oilman Hall, the principal building 
of the group, is an enlarged version 
drawn to scale of the portico and en- 
trance to the old home. So much for the 
spirit of the new Johns Hopkins group. 

The years of planning were not with- 
out work of constructive emphasis. A 
careful topographical survey of the 
grounds was made which was the base 
of a map of a scale of 40 feet to an inch. 



with one foot contours, in which the 
location of trees was closely indicated. 
The fine old woodlands of the estate 
were carefully studied by F. W. Besley, 
State Forester of Maryland, and many 
of the unhealthy, old and unsightly trees 
were removed to make way for a healthy 
young stand. With the accurate loca- 
tion of the sites of the various projected 
buildings of the school such landscape 
gardening as was conceived to be neces- 
sary was undertaken, with the idea in 
mind of endeavoring to develop the nat- 
ural beauties of the grounds, and as far 
as possible to keep them in a state of 
nature. There has been little effort to- 
ward formal landscape gardening. 

The requirements of the university in 
buildings were carefully set forth in the 
specifications which the university au- 
thorities adopted, after anxious consid- 
eration, and promulgated when asking for 
submission of plans, and it is instructive 
to know what these buildings were, and 
to consider how they were disposed with 
regard to each other in the architectural 
arrangement which at last won the ap- 
proval of the authorities. 

First of all, the requirements of the 
university in buildings were conceived 
to be as follows : 1, An academic building, 
Oilman Hall ; 2, a chemical laboratory ; 3,. 




INTERIOR OF MAIN COURT, LOOKING TOWARD ACADEMIC BUILDING, JOHNS HOPKINS 
UNIVERSITY, HOMEWOOD, BALTIMORE. 







s 



486 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



a geological laboratory; 4, a biological 
laboratory ; 5, a physical laboratory ; 6, a 
heat, light and power plant ; 7 and 8, dor- 
mitories and a dining hall ; 9, a mechan- 
ical and electrical engineering building; 
10, a civil and mining engineering build- 
ing; 11, a gymnasium ; 12, a student hall ; 
13, a classroom building; 14, a memorial 
building and chapel; 15, a president's 
house; 16, a faculty club; 17, an assem- 
bly hall ; 18, an administration building ; 
19, an astronomical observatory. 

Now, how were the conditions im- 
plied in this list met 
and developed into 
an acceptable plan? 
First of all, the en- 
trance to the uni- 
versity grounds was 
fixed on Charles 
street, about mid- 
way up the eastern 
side of the grounds. 
Here stood Home- 
wood, the tonal key 
of the new group, 
on a little eminence 
of ground about fif- 
teen feet above the 
level of the street. 
At this point, then, 
was established a 
graded semi - circle, 
"The Bowl," as it 
has come to be 
known in Baltimore, with Home- 
wood on the right of the rim. Op- 
posite Homewood is to be built the 
president's residence, a structure similar 
in exterior detail to the former, which is 
to be used probably as the Faculty Club. 
Between the two is planned the Adminis- 
tration Building, with an arched gateway 
in the middle, giving access to the main 
quadrangle. Connecting the Administra- 
tion Building and the two structures ad- 
jacent to it are colonnades set on the 
edge of The Bowl. 

Standing at the entrance of the main 
quadrangle to-day one sees directly ahead 
over the level turf the springy, beautiful 
facade of Oilman Hall, in which are to 
be housed the library and the "human- 
itarian," or non-laboratory, apartments 
of the university. The quadrangle is 
flanked by four Laboratory Buildings ; 




DETAIL ACADEMIC BUILDING, JOHNS 
HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. 



Physics and Geology, on the left ; Chem- 
istry and Biology, on the right. All of 
the buildings of this quadrangle are- con- 
nected by tunnels and arcades, which are 
particularly effective architecturally and 
which allow passage from one to anoth- 
er without exposure to the weather. 

Between the Laboratory Buildings on 
either side of the quadrangle are broad 
brick and marble colonial stairs, which 
lead to quadrangles of lower level than 
the first. Standing at the head of the 
steps, which lead to the southern, or left, 
of these subsidiary 
quadrangles, one 
finds one's self gaz- 
ing upon the Engi- 
neering Buildings of 
the university. Upon 
the small quad- 
rangle, to the north, 
are to be found un- 
dergraduate build- 
ings, the vista being 
closed by a student 
hall. 

To the rear of Oil- 
man Hall, but not 
discernible from the 
main quadrangle, 
are situated the Bo- 
tanical Laboratories 
and garden, the lat- 
ter in a fine state of 
cultivation. 
The heat, light and power plant of the 
group has been placed back of the Me- 
chanical Engineering Building. 

In the extreme northern corner of the 
grounds is the athletic field, and near it 
to the south is planned the gymnasium. 
The dormitories are to lie between the 
athletic field and the main group of 
buildings, but distributed parallel to, and 
not far from, Charles street, which is 
their most convenient exit from the 
school. In the scheme of architecture 
the dormitories form a connecting link 
between the group of buildings planned 
for work and the recreation group 
including the gymnasium and athletic 
field. 

The axes of the university plan are 
parallel with and perpendicular to 
Charles street. 

Passing from a consideration of the 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



487 



general plan to individual developments 
thereof, it may be said that a visitor to 
Homewood at this time would find much 
accomplished, much under way, and 
much still in the void. The grading has 
practically all been done. The general 
progress of the whole development may 
be briefly summarized as follows : 
Homewood completed one hundred 
years ago ; the Academic Building, Gil- 
man Hall (library and seminaries) fin- 
ished and to be occupied probably next 
term the library to be moved to its 
new home probably during the summer 
months, Chemical Laboratory, site pre- 
pared and plans ready for bids ; Geolog- 
ical Laboratory, site prepared and pre- 
liminary plans ready ; Biological Labora- 
tory, to be started ; Physical Laboratory, 
site cleared and bids soon to be invited; 
Mechanical and Electrical Engineering 
Building, completed and in use since last 
October ; Civil-Mining Engineering Build- 
ing, ground broken for construction, ex- 
pected to be completed during this year ; 
heat, light and power plant, completed 
and in use ; botanical laboratory and gar- 
dens, completed in 1908 and in use since 
then ; athletic field and stands, completed 
and in use for several years. All of the 
rest of the program of the school has 
yet to be accomplished, but the ground 
work in all has been done. 

A visit to Gilman Hall, the dominant 
member of the principal group, reveals 
many ingenuities of construction and 
novelties of design in addition to beauty 
and simplicity of exterior. Its aspect at 
the head of the quadrangle, which one 
faces when entering the grounds of the 
new university, has been aptly summed 
up by M. Llewellyn Raney, librarian of 
Johns Hopkins : "Here is the Carroll 
mansion's prophecy come to fulfilment. 
Homelike, simple, dignified, preserving 
the old portico multiplied by two, it is 
at once marked as the capitol of the 
campus by the clock-tower, which rises 
120 feet from the ground level, inevitably 
carrying one's mind back to Independence 
Hall." ' 

It is an ample and logical development 
of the theme of the whole university 
group. 

In cubic feet Gilman Hall is three 




BOTANICAL LABORATORY FROM NORTH COL- 
ONNADE OF ACADEMIC BUILDING. 

times the size of one of its laboratory 
neighbors and about one-half again as 
large as McCoy Hall, the member of 
the old university group whose 1 place it 
is destined to fill. Its great bulk, how- 
ever, is effectively concealed in front 
by having one story and a half buried 
and both corners recessed to a width and 
depth of 20 feet, except for one story 
stair-halls. Thus, though the falling 
ground to the rear gives the service of 
four floors, the front elevation appears 




GLIMPSE THROUGH SOUTH COLONNADE 
OF ACADEMIC BUILDING. 



488 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




DETAIL MAIN READING ROOM, ACADEMIC BUILDING, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. 

HOMEWOOD, BALTIMORE. 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects. 




NORTH WING OF MAIN READING ROOM, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, HOMEWOOD, 

BALTIMORE. 
Parker, Thomas & Rice, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



489 



to be that of a two-and-a-half-story 
structure. It takes but a judicious plant- 
ing of trees to give an apparent front- 
age of 164 feet (which is almost exactly 
the depth of the building) as against the 
wing-to-wing measurement of 204 feet. 

The general arrangement is that of a 
hollow square with additions to every 
side portico in front, shallow wings to 
north and south, and semi-circle at the 
rear. The lowering of the facade has 
had the further advantage of having 
made the main entrance to what is prac- 
tically the second floor of the building, 
so that one need ascend or descend but 
one flight of stairs to reach the other two 
floors. 

Entering the building from the front, 
the square vestibule leads directly to a 
chamber 28 feet by 59 feet, the decora- 
tive entrance room of the building 
probably to be furnished as the Daniel 
C. Oilman Memorial Room. With win- 
dows overlooking the court, a fireplace 
on either side, this room offers excellent 
opportunity. Over the fireplace to the 
left is to be placed a large portrait plaque 
in low relief of President Oilman, Hop- 
kins' first chief executive, for whom the 
building is named. 

A generous corridor with niches for 
busts and sides free for display or deco- 
ration leads across the court to the read- 
ing room. Stretching the full width of 
the rear of the building, this room has a 
floor area of more than 6,000 square feet. 
Its odd proportion, great length and shal- 
low depth, is saved from object-ion by the 
fact that it falls into three parts, the two 
end portions having another story above 
them, but the central portion, not thus 
affected, being covered with an arched 
roof. It expands westward into a semi- 
circle overlooking the botanical garden. 
The windows are set high above the 
floor to facilitate the disposition of the 
shelves and the radiators are recessed. 
There is shelf space in the room for 
15,000 volumes of ordinary proportion 
and 500 periodicals. In the center is the 
desk for the attendant and two doors di- 
rectly under his observation lead to the 
stack rooms. 

The stack rooms can be completely 
isolated from the rest of the building 



by means of fire-doors, easily swung to, 
thus giving this part of the building as 
nearly as possible the qualities of a fire- 
proof vault. This does not mean that 
if Oilman Hall were to be completely 
consumed the books would not suf- 
fer, but it does mean that as far as hu- 
man ingenuity can provide they would 
be protected. The stack rooms are built 
on their own foundations, from the 
ground up, thus insuring solidity to the 
frame-work of the shelves, which is of 
steel and of continuous piece from the 
foundations. 

An unique feature of the Hopkins 
library has been its' system of depart- 
mental libraries. These are cozy corners, 
cubby-holes in the library which can be 
secluded and in which books of one de- 
partment are kept, "segregated" as the 
students have it. This plan has been pre- 
served and developed in the new library. 
An inspection of the floor plans of the 
building will show that the stack rooms 
are flanked by corridors, on the far side 
of which are class-rooms and professors' 
offices. Very well, then, on the library 
side of the corridor have been arranged 
the books which the corresponding classes 
use in their work. It is a very simple 
matter for the classes to pass across the 
corridor through departmental doors to 
the privacy of the room provided for 
them by their own stacks. All other en- 
trances to the stack rooms are arranged 
so that they can be controlled from a 
single desk on the first floor. One librar- 
ian, therefore, can control all of the 
stacks in use. 

Measurement disclosed the fact that 
there were five miles of shelving in Mc- 
Coy Hall, the old library home. In 
Homewood ten miles of shelving have 
been provided. 

The distribution of space to the class- 
rooms has been equally generous. There 
are twice as many undergraduate class- 
rooms at Homewood as in the old quar- 
ters and these range in size from 240 to 
1,200 square feet floor area. There is a 
550 square foot seminar room for each 
graduate department, and, in four 
cases, two of them. There is a 12 feet 
by 20 feet office for every officer and 
instructor. 



490 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



CE 




m >,, 

M-, |J l^'yg^_ 



GEOLOGICAL LABORATORY, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, HOMEWOOD, BALTIMORE. 
Walter Cook and Winthrop A. Welch, Architects. 




The floor of the main reading-room 
has been laid with cork, but the floors 
throughout the rest of this part of the 
building and of the book decks are 
formed of terrazzo, which is durable, 
reasonably quiet and exceedingly solid 
to the feet. 

The most frequently used entrances to 
Oilman Hall are expected to be those at 
the northeast and southeast corners of 
the building, approached along the sides 
of the quadrangle. Teams, of course, 
will not be allowed in the quadrangle, so 
an entrance for them has been made from 
the rear and through a tunnel in the front 
of the building which will make possible 
the delivery of supplies at a point where 
they can be distributed quickly and with a 
minimum of effort to any department. 

From the rear of Gilman Hall and to 



the north may be seen the botanical la- 
boratory and garden, the former a long, 
low glass building of no unusual features 
but carrying out in its aspect the general 
theme of the university buildings. The 
garden is a square of ground one hundred 
yards on a side set unsymmetrically to the 
axes of the grounds. In its plan it differs 
from most botanical gardens in that it is 
quite formal, this arrangement being 
thoroughly in harmony with the Georgian 
spirit. The outline of the garden as a 
whole is marked by hedges of hemlock. 
It contains seventeen beds bordered with 
myrtle and separated one from another 
by well-kept cinder walks. The compact 
plan gives a large amount of bedding 
space in which there is accommodation 
for over 2,000 shrubs or 1 clumps of her- 
baceous plants. 




PHYSICAL LABORATORY, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, HOMEWOOD, BALTIMORE. 

Wyatt & Nolting, Architects. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



491 







CHEMICAL LABORATORY, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, HOMEWOOD, BALTIMORE. 
Carrere & Hastings, Architects. 



Passing from Oilman Hall to the Me- 
chanical and Electrical Engineering 
Building one finds the same careful plan- 
ning that marks the former structure. 
The Engineering Building, it may be well 
to note, is one of two buildings to be 
built by State of Maryland appropriation 
and forming part of a new department 
(or, more exactly, a revived department) 
of the university. 

The shop-room is a large and airy 
enclosure, running the whole width of 
the rear of the building, with steel skele- 
ton windows and 200-ton travelling 
crane. Its walls are faced with semi- 
glazed brick which will not absorb 
grease and which will reflect light in all 
directions. The concrete floor is pro- 
vided with channel irons to which pieces 
of apparatus can be fixed, thus doing 
away with the necessity for tearing up 
the concrete floor to provide a firm base 
every time a fixture is moved to a new 
location. This is all in accordance with 
modern shop practice. 

In the heat, light and power plant, 
visited next, the perplexing heating and 
lighting problems which confronted the 
designers of the Homewood group have 
been attacked and the building contains 
many additional small features of design 
not ordinarily associated with structures 
of this character. As an instance of this 
latter feature, several different types of 
engine have been installed in the dynamo 
room, though all do the same work, in 



order that students in the engineering 
department may have opportunity to ob- 
serve these different types of engine at 
work. The smoke stack has had built 
upon it at different levels two platforms 
with observation tubes through the stack 
so that students may be able to make 
smoke and other tests. All of the water 
used in the boilers may be passed over 
scales so that its quantity can be accurate- 
ly determined, and it comes from the con- 
densers to other scales so that it may be 
once more measured. It is hoped that 
much illuminating research work may be 
done in the power building while it serves 
its own humble purpose of keeping the 
other buildings warm and lighted. 

One of the engineering features in con- 
nection with this part of the university 
that will attract attention is the concrete 
tunnel going from this plant to every part 
of the grounds and conveying the steam 
pipes and electric wires which will carry 
heat, power and light to the various build- 
ings. This tunnel is of sufficient height 
for two men to comfortably walk through 
it abreast at any point ; the wires, tubes, 
and pipes which it contains are always ac- 
cessible and there will never be necessity 
for tearing up the grounds to reach some 
hidden leak or trouble. 

At the far northern corner of the 
Homewood tract is the athletic field 
which contains a quarter mile track and a 
220 yard straightaway, a lacrosse or foot- 
ball ground, base-ball diamond and tennis 



492 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING BUILDING, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, 

HOME WOOD, BALTIMORE. 
J. E. Sperry, Architect. 



courts, in addition to the customary 
dressing rooms. Two large concrete 
stands for spectators have been erected 
and a site has been arranged for a third 
if these should prove incapable of ac- 
commodating the crowds. 

The dormitories have been planned on 
the individual unit system, with accom- 
modations for 250 students in a unit. 

In addition to having established the 
key for the university group and having 
made the general ground plan of develop- 
ment, Parker, Thomas and Rice designed 
Oilman Hall, the heat, light and power 
plant and are developing the plans for the 
Administration Building; the Chemical 
Laboratory was designed by Carrere and 
Hastings, of New York, an unique fea- 
ture of this building being a system of 
open drains and individual hood exhausts 



over the separate chemical desks ; the 
Physical Laboratory by Wyatt and Nolt- 
ing, of Baltimore ; the Geological Labora- 
tory, by Walter Cook and Winthrop A. 
Welch, of New York ; and the Engineer- 
ing Buildings by J. E. Sperry, of Balti- 
more. 

In the development of the Homewood 
group its architects seem to have found 
a peculiarly congenial theme and the ani- 
mation and interest which they have 
shown therein is evident in their work as 
now physically set forth. The future de- 
velopment of this fine group will go on 
with more or less speed as the finances of 
the institution are plethoric or lean and 
empty. At all events, the right note has 
been clearly struck and Hopkins has laid 
out a work thoroughly consonant with 
her high ideal and inheritance. 



Ifj 



ROMAN ARCHITECTVRE 
AND ITS CRITICS 

^rA.D.F.HAMLlN 

PART II &he DEFENCE 





IN a previous paper I have set forth the 
counts of the indictment which certain 
critics have brought in against Ro- 
man architecture. I propose in this paper 
to present the defense. I shall first of 
all demur to the indictment as being 
based not on sound reasoning from the 
facts, but on prejudice and mere tradi- 
tions. Secondly, I shall endeavor to ex- 
pose the contradictions in the testimony 
of the critics. I shall then, thirdly, an- 
swer to each of the five counts of the in- 
dictment, and shall close by presenting 
what I believe to be a fair and unpreju- 
diced estimate of Roman architecture as 
a whole. 

i. 

Prejudice, in architectural criticism, is 
not the mere preference of one style over 
another. That is in itself both natural 
and legitimate. When, however, the 
preference is based on inadequate data, 
and takes on an intensity of hostility that 
blinds the critic to the real merits of the 
less-esteemed or disesteemed style, it de- 
generates into, as it springs from, unrea- 
soning prejudice. It betrays itself in vio- 
lence of language, in the refusal to con- 
cede merits which are conspicuous to the 
impartial observer, or at least in the re- 
jection of the favorable conclusions 
which one might infer from the praise 
which they grudgingly bestpw upon un- 
deniable excellences. All these evidences 
of prejudice appear in the critics of both 
the ultra-Hellenic and the ultra-Gothic 
groups ; violent language, in many of the 
passages I have quoted ; blindness to ob- 
vious merit, as I shall later show ; refusal 
to recognize the significance of their own 
grudging praise, as will appear in the 
contradictions between their own testi- 
monies in the next section. 

That this prejudice, this hostility to all 



Roman forms of artistic expression, this 
reluctance to concede to Roman architec- 
ture any of the higher qualities, spring 
largely from a mere tradition of criticism, 
any careful reader must, I think, conclude 
who studies the literature of the Greek 
and Gothic revivals in England. I have 
already pointed out that these move- 
ments were intellectual and sentimental 
rather than artistic movements. During 
the first half of the nineteenth century 
the habit became general of disparaging 
Roman architecture as compared with 
the Greek and the Gothic; but that the 
Greek revival was hardly the spontaneous 
expression of a deeply esthetic spirit let 
the British Museum and the "National 
Monument" at Edinburgh testify! That 
the early Gothic revivalists came no near- 
er to a true artistic inspiration is wit- 
nessed by the distressing inanities to 
which they gave being. Yet the Gothicists 
of that day disparaged the "pagan" archi- 
tecture of Rome by comparison with their 
own petty ideals of the Gothic, even more 
contemptuously than did the Hellenists 
by comparison with their inadequate con- 
ceptions of Greek architecture. The truth 
is that in those days there were few or 
none who possessed any deep under- 
standing of architecture itself, and it is 
very clear that few of them had grasped 
the real significance and inner spirit and 
content even of the styles which they 
praised. It is this Early Victorian tradi- 
tion of depreciation of Roman art which 
the anti-Roman critics of our own day 
have inherited and perpetuated, ignoring 
all the wider and better knowledge we 
now possess of the Roman achievement, 
and refusing to yield to the testimony of 
the monuments themselves. Today there 
are broader views and a better under- 
standing of what architecture really is 
than was the case fifty years ago. Books 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



495 



and photographs and travel have made 
us better acquainted with the works of 
all the styles. Is it not time that intelli- 
gent persons who write on architecture 
should open their minds to all this new 
light? Can we not discard the outworn 
apparatus of Early and Mid- Victorian 
criticism, and form our judgments upon 
the evidence that is spread before us? 

n. 

The critics whom I have quoted re- 
peatedly contradict their own adverse 
judgments. The virility, majesty and 
daring originality of many Roman works, 
and the exquisite beauty of some of 
them, extort praise which is all the more 
sincere and certainly the more significant 
for being so reluctant. Fergusson, after 
declaring that the Roman "haste to en- 
joy" seems incompatible with the produc- 
tion of great architecture, confesses that 
"there is a greatness in the mass, a gran- 
deur in the conception, and a certain ex- 
pression of power in all these Roman re- 
mains, which never fail to strike the be- 
holder with awe, and force admiration 
from him despite his better judgment." 
But why "despite his better judgment"? 
Why is it a worse judgment to yield to 
the natural and inevitable emotion kin- 
dled by these works? Before the huge 
mass of the Roman ruins unadorned in 
naked grandeur "criticism is disarmed," 
he says, "and the spectator stands awe- 
struck at its majesty."* Of the Coliseum 
he says, "It is worthy of all or nearly all 
the admiration of which it has been the 
object," and produces "an effect against 
which the critic struggles in vain."f Poor 
struggling critic but why struggle? 
Why not drop the shackles of a narrow 
tradition and yield ungrudgingly to the 
enthusiasm which that mighty work in- 
spires,? Again, on page 296 of the same 
work we read of the Pantheon and Tem- 
ple of Peace (by which the author means 
the Basilica of Constantine) that they 
"are to this hour unsurpassed for bold- 
ness of conception and justness of ap- 
preciation of the manner in which the 
new method ought to be applied." 

History of Architecture in All Countries, Vol. 
I 294 
'fOp.' cit. I, 326. 



Mr. Sturgis indulges less than some 
modern critics in hostile animadversions 
on Roman art; but he frequently alludes 
to "bad taste," "clumsy arrangement," 
"deliberate copying and imitation of 
Greek models" and the "sham architec- 
ture" of the Roman columnar arcade. 
Nevertheless he is compelled to admit, in 
specific cases, careful design and finish, 
conscientious execution, elegance and 
beauty of detail. The round temple at 
Tivoli "must have been the work of a de- 
signer possessed of great independence 
of spirit." The interior of the Pantheon 
has "an ineffable charm," "there is no 
interior in the world more impressive;" 
and its entire design and scale seem to 
justify that decorative use of the columns 
and entablatures which in other places the 
author decries or condemns. In his His- 
tory of Architecture (Vol. I, p. 382) he 
admits that "men of truly artistic and 
truly refined sense of design" admire the 
Roman achievement of vastness, grandeur 
and splendor in the service of utility even 
when it lacks the delicacy and refinement 
of Greek design. The Roman stucco- 
decorations "are so marvelous that it is 
worthy of a special study to examine, 
date and classify them." Chapter VII of 
this volume is chiefly devoted to these 
works, which are praised for "the sur- 
passing excellence of the modeling and 
the artistic conception," "for their effec- 
tive simple decoration" and like quali- 
ties. He declares that the relief sculpture 
of the Romans, from Augustus to Trajan, 
"reached an approximate perfection re- 
minding us of Greek work of a good pe- 
riod," and that "the very refinement of 
curve and the delicacy of relief which 
we fancy foreign to ancient Roman ideas 
of splendor are, after all, of imperial 
Roman origin" (p. 425). Mr. Statham, 
in spite of his severe strictures upon 
many features of Roman architecture and 
his assertions of its inferior taste and de- 
ficient originality, recognizes. the exceed- 
ing beauty of the Corinthian order and 
the majesty and excellent planning of 
the great works of the Romans. And 
even Mr. Porter, for whom the adjectives 
vulgar, dreary, pretentious, blatant and 
cut-and-dried, and the nouns sham, 
coarseness, pomposity and blatancy hard- 



I 




FIG. 9. TEMPLE OF VENUS, POMPEII. DETAIL 
OF ORDERS. FROM A FRENCH DRAWING. 




FIG. 8. CORINTHIAN ORDER OF TEMPLE OF 
CASTOR AND POLLUX. FROM CAST IN WILLARD 
COLLECTION, METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



499 



ly suffice for his characterizations of 
Roman architecture, is constrained to 
acknowledge some good in it. To the 
imitation of Greek models, he says, "the 
Roman genius added certain new and 
original features of its own." "Architec- 
tural construction the practical Roman 
developed to a point far ahead of any- 
thing that had hitherto been reached." 
In another passage he declares that the 
Roman groined vault was the parent of 
medieval architecture, and that no other 
structural invention of any age can out- 
reach it in importance. Reber considers 
that "in Roman architecture are found 
great intelligence in the solution of the 
constructive problem involved in the en- 
closing of large spaces, great independ- 
ence in the development of technical per- 
fection, and a masterly conformity to the 
purpose of the structure." 

Thus not only the judicious critics and 
the mildly hostile, but even the most 
rabidly anti-Roman are compelled, reluct- 
antly sometimes, "struggling" and "in 
spite of their better judgment" to admit 
in Roman architecture substantial merits, 
fundamental excellences of a very high 
order, in the light of which the violence 
and satirical hostility of their language in 
other passages appear quite uncalled for. 
When a critic on one page calls the 
Corinthian order the "most blatant" of 
all the orders, but on another implies that 
the Corinthian capital is the most beauti- 
ful. of all capitals, what are we to think 
of his fair-mindedness or his consistency ? 
Another, who insists repeatedly on the 
utter lack of originality of the Romans, 
can only say in support of this contention 
when brought face to face with the su- 
perb double temple of Venus and Rome : 
"All this, except the building in mortar- 
masonry and the idea of a vault" rather 
important exceptions, one is tempted to 
remark "might have occurred to a 
Greek. Perhaps it did occur to some of 
the engineers employed by the successors 
of Alexander." "Might have occurred," 
"perhaps did occur." What sort of criti- 
cal reasoning is this ? By similar reason- 
ing applied to Hamlet any one may ef- 
fectually dispose of all claim to originality 
in any of Shakespeare's works. I could 
multiply instances of similar contradic- 
tions and inconsistencies. It would seem 



to the simple-minded reader who has not 
been brought up, on a diet of traditional 
Early and Mid- Victorian criticism, to re- 
gard everything Greek as supremely per- 
fect, and everything post-Hellenic and 
pre-Gothic as debased and vulgar it 
would seem as though such important 
admissions by the witnesses for the prose- 
cution tended to invalidate fundamentally 
a large part of their hostile contentions. 

in. 

Let us now take up seriatim the counts 
of their indictment. 

The first of these* alleges the absence 
of the higher qualities of design purity, 
refinement and good taste, and the preva- 
lence in their stead of vulgarity, coarse- 
ness and pompous grandeur. 

This charge is partly true and mostly 
false. It is one of those sweeping asser- 
tions which uncritical critics delight in 
making, and which have just that modi- 
cum of foundation in fact that makes 
them plausible to the unwary reader. 
Some of the special and particular refine- 
ments characteristic of Greek architec- 
ture at its best are not characteristic of 
the Roman work even at its best, at least 
in the same degree. The profiles of the 
Roman moldings are less subtle than the 
Greek, and optical refinements like those 
of the Parthenon are less frequent and 
less highly developed in Roman than in 
Greek work. But no one who makes a 
careful study of Roman architecture as a 
whole, or of its details, will allow this ad- 
mission to be stretched to the denial of 
refinement and good taste in a large part 
of the really notable works of the Roman 
builders. Indeed, one may go so far as to 
assert that one of the evidences of their 
good taste is the very fact of their modi- 
fication of the subtle curves of the Greek 
molding profiles to adapt them to the 
very different types of design in which 
they are used by the Romans. Most of 
the Roman moldings are enriched by 
carving, in which subtilities of profile be- 
come less important or disappear ; the 
strong, full curves of the Roman profiles 
are far better suited to such enrichment, 
and to the particular combinations in 
which they occur, and to those effects of 
power and grandeur and scale which are 

*See Architectural Record for last month. 




FIG. 11. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE NICHES 
IN THE PANTHEON, ROME. SHOWING 
ALSO TOMB OF VICTOR EMANUEL. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



501 



the glory as they were the aim of the 
Roman designers, than the Greek profiles. 
For nearly two thousand years architects 
have been designing moldings, cornices, 
archivolts, bases, capitals and entabla- 
tures, without being able to improve in 
any great degree on the Roman combina- 
tions and sequences of moldings. The 
medieval moldings, which are neither 
Greek nor Roman, we may omit from 
present consideration because they be- 
long to a fundamentally different style, 
and would be equally out of place on 
buildings of the Greek and of the Ro- 
man type. 

Moreover, there are important cate- 
gories of Roman design in which a very 
Hellenic sort of refinement is notably 
present. In much of the Pompeiian work, 
which is, like so many of the Greek build- 
ings, modest in scale, there is observable 
a remarkable delicacy of design, a sen- 
sitive feeling for profile, for detail, for 
relief and for color, which impart to it 
a peculiar charm. All the buildings of 
the like class and date (with a few ex- 
ceptions) in Rome itself have perished, 
and we can judge of their quality only 
by the "House of Livia," on the Palatine, 
some tombs on the Via Latina, and some 
stucco reliefs in the Museo delle Terme 
and the Baths of Titus. But as these 
show the same qualities as the Pom- 
peiian examples in even higher degree, 
we may infer that in their buildings of 
more modest purpose and dimensions the 
Romans displayed everywhere many of 
those higher qualities of taste and refine- 
ment which they are so often declared to 
lack. I have already quoted Mr. Sturgis' 
enthusiastic characterizations of the 
Roman stuccoes, and admission of 
the Hellenic beauty of many of the 
Roman decorative reliefs. I believe an 
appeal to the monuments, could we only 
see them as they once stood, complete in 
their original environment, would con- 
vince every impartial reader that in 
even the grandest, the most pompous, 
ostentatious and majestic of them, the 
Temoles of the Sun. of Venus and Rome, 
of Castor and Pollux, there is to be 
found an element of high refinement, and 
evidence of a true and pure taste, which 
the critics often have refused to concede. 
A "rendered" elevation of an entablature 



gives little real conception of its true 
qualities; and most of the literary and 
Hellenistic critics appear to have studied 
only drawings on paper and not the 
buildings themselves. That is to say, 
they have, through lack of trained imag- 
ination, been unable to reconstitute the 
building mentally from the drawings and, 
placing it in its proper environment, to 
judge it as one judges an extant building 
to-day. Let one study even the cast of 
the capital and entablature of the Temple 
of Castor and Pollux in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum at New York,* where that 
fragment is lifted to its proper height 
from the floor, and one discovers that 
this composition which, seen in draw- 
ings is called "overloaded" with orna- 
ment, is really enriched with a most deli- 
cately beautiful frosting of carved detail. 
Its "magnificent," "pompous," "blatant" 
capital and cornice, seen in their proper 
place, become exquisite in the perfection 
and refinement of their design. What 
must the whole temple have been ! and 
what the Forum and the whole group of 
fora, with their temples, arches, basilicas 
and statues ! The more one studies the 
Roman detail, the Roman handling of 
scale, the Roman conceptions of design, 
the more one is impressed with the ab- 
surdity of the idea that refinement and 
good taste cannot coexist with grandeur, 
splendor and even an overwhelming mag- 
nificence. The Pantheon, bereft of the 
finer adornments of the huge coffers of 
its mighty dome, remodeled, undoubtedly 
to its detriment in the eighteenth cen- 
tury in its upper portions, still offers the 
eternal refutation of that idea. One of 
the noblest of all interiors, almost over- 
whelming in its majesty, it is beautiful 
with a subtle charm of quiet refinement 
and faultless dignity which no artistically 
sensitive soul can deny. The Maison 
Carree at Nimes the only other monu- 
ment of Roman architecture in Europe 
which remains to our day in tolerable 
preservation is one of the loveliest be- 
quests of classical antiquity, and is rightly 
the admiration and delight of artistic 
souls by reason of those very qualities of 
refinement which attract them in Greek 
art. 



*See Fig. 8, on page 497. 




FIG. 12. CORINTHIAN ORDER, TEMPLE 
OF THE SIBYL ("VESTA") AT TIVOLI. 
FROM A FRENCH DRAWING (A. THOMAS). 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



503 



Moreover, Roman architecture displays 
in an eminent degree three distinguishing 
qualities of the highest aesthetic value, 
possible only to designers possessed of 
keen artistic sensibilities : the qualities of 
perfect scale, proportion and relief. 
Every architect learns in the trying school 
of experience how subtle and elusive a 
thing scale is, that adjustment of dimen- 
sions in every member and detail to the 
dimensions of the whole, which shall 
produce the desired total impression 
without sacrifice of any of the parts. The 
Roman designers knew how to make 
such colossal compositions as the Pan- 
theon and the vast halls of the thermae 
or of the Basilica of Maxentius and the 
Ulpian Basilica count to the full value 
of their imposing dimensions, by the scale 
of all their subordinate parts. Insepar- 
able from this skilful handling of scale, 
in the second place, and equally remark- 
able in successful achievement, is the 
Roman treatment of proportion, the 
spacing of columns, the proportioning of 
superposed orders, the form and pitch of 
pediments, the relation of height to width 
of arches, and the still more important 
determination of the relative height, 
width and length of each part of their 
vast interiors. They very seldom erred 
in these relations ; a very little experimen- 
tation will show any one who tries it how 
hard it is to improve any important 
Roman building by altering its propor- 
tions. And, thirdly, in the matter of 
carved ornament, it was the Romans, not 
the Greeks, who discovered and taught 
the world the secret of "varied relief," 
by which the subordinate features of a 
decorative composition are made less 
prominent than its more important parts, 
and minor elements of the design almost 
melt into the background, so that the gen- 
eral movement of the design asserts it- 
self to the spectator at a distance by its 
strongly massed lights and shades, while 
as he approaches nearer and nearer, the 
smaller details become successively vis- 
ible. Beside the strong, sharp, hard re- 
lief of the Greek carving, as seen at its 
best in the Ere^heion, for example, the 
tenderness ai.^ delicacy of much of the 
Roman carved ornament are particularly 
noticeable. This is seen not only in the 



exquisitely modeled stucco reliefs of the 
houses and tombs, but as well in the 
carved friezes, pilasters and panels of 
buildings of monumental size. 

Of all these refinements the critics we 
are discussing take no note. The arch- 
itecture they contemn is an architecture 
on paper, an architecture of lithographs 
and line engravings, not the architecture 
of Roman actuality. 

IV. 

The second count in the indictment 
alleges against the Roman architecture a 
plagiarism which travesties the forms of 
Greek architecture and misapplies them, 
thereby demonstrating a total lack of 
originality. This is based, of course, 
solely on the Roman "orders :" not even 
the most hardened anti-Roman Hellenist 
ventures to assert that either the planning 
or the construction of Roman buildings 
was copied from the Greek. The Romans 
are said to have adopted the Greek orders 
and then to have spoiled them by in- 
artistic alterations and illogical applica- 
tions of them to new uses. Those who 
reason thus are curiously blind to the 
absurdity of claiming that forms funda- 
mentally altered are mere copies, and of 
charging lack of originality in the same 
breath with the allegation of radical mod- 
ifications and entirely novel applications 
of the original types. The student of 
Roman architecture has good grounds for 
retorting that in nothing are the inde- 
pendence and creative power of the 
Roman genius more conclusively dis- 
played than in the use they made of their 
orders, which they converted into vital 
constituent elements of a wholly new, 
progressive and marvelously flexible 
architectural system. .As a matter of 
fact the only order they borrowed from 
the Greeks was the Ionic, which they 
used but sparingly. The Tuscan was the 
national Etruscan order, in common use 
long before the Greek conquests had 
familiarized the Romans with Greek 
columnar architecture. The Roman 
Doric column was not derived from 
Greece. It is singular that the traditional 
assertion that it was should have so long 
persisted. The typical Roman "Doric" 
column resembles the Greek in no single 
feature, but is plainly an elaborated ver- 




FIG. 13. THE ARCH OF CONSTANTINE. 
ROME. FROM MODEL IN WILLARD COLLEC- 
TION, METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



505 






sion of the national Tuscan column. The 
triglyphs and mutules of the Doric en- 
tablature may, however, have been de- 
rived from Greece ; but the appearance of 
triglyphs on the cenotaph of L. Scipio 
Barbatus, who died about 290 B. C., sug- 
gests the probability that they had been 
long known to the Etruscans, who derived 
not a few elements of their architecture 
from ancient traditions common to them 
and to the Greeks. The Corinthian order 
was almost wholly a Roman creation, 
based on a Greek original, it is true. But 
the Greek Corinthian was not a distinct 
order ; it was a mere variant of the Ionic, 
from which it differed only in its high, 
bell-shaped and foliated capital. The 
base and the entablature which the 
Greeks used with it were purely Ionic. 
The capital had not been perfected into a 
permanent type by the Greeks; it was 
the Romans who gave it its final form, 
recognized by even captious critics as the 
most beautiful type of capital ever de- 
vised. The Romans designed for this 
column a new and distinctive base, and 
completed the order by the invention of 
the modillion cornice, for which Greek 
architecture offered no precedent what- 
ever. The modillion comes as near being 
an outright invention as any architectural 
detail in the history of the art. It is one 
of the most brilliant innovations in 
history,* and the Corinthian cornice 
in the beauty and splendor of its effect, is 
the noblest possible crown for a building 
of classical design. In two thousand years 
it would seem that no one has ever de- 
signed anything finer for its purpose. 

In their applications of the orders the 
Romans made striking innovations upon 
the Greek practice, by which they vastly 
increased the flexibility of the orders 
themselves, and the range of architectural 
design generally. By the superposition 
of the orders they made possible impres- 
sive compositions in several stories. 
Greek architecture is almost exclusively 
an architecture of one story. By the use 
of monolithic shafts of polished granite 
and marble they produced superb effects 
of chromatic decoration in noble materials 



*A. K. Porter says of this epoch-making inven- 
tion : "It occurred to some genius to clap both 
dentils and modillions on the same entablature." 
Yes, and so it occurred to a Genoese genius to sail 
West till he reached America. 



without the use of perishable paint. By 
the introduction of pedestals they were 
enabled to keep the parts of an order to 
a given scale with an increased total 
height. They coupled columns with pil- 
asters in their triumphal arches and 
forum walls, making the pilaster serve as 
a wall-respond, and thereby gained 
superb effects of light and shade other- 
wise unattainable. By these means, all 
of them original with the Romans, they 
produced an entirely new architecture 
different from the Greek in fundamental 
character, not merely in detail. To call 
this architecture a "copying" of Greek 
originals is as absurd as to call it a 
"travesty" of Greek forms. The arch- 
itecture is neither copied nor a travesty. 
Even the porticoes, in which the columns 
are used for the same purpose as in 
Greek architecture, are as widely differ- 
ent from Greek porticoes as two col- 
umnar designs can ever be. 

v. 

But the Hellenists and Gothicists who 
are not broadminded enough to admit the 
posibility that two styles of architecture 
which proceed by divergent paths 
toward diverse ideals are equally entitled 
to respect and admiration, now ad- 
vance the third count of their indict- 
ment. "We will admit," they say, "that 
the Romans invented new applications 
of the column and entablature, but these 
applications are illogical and artistically 
improper. Engaged columns and en- 
tablatures applied to walls are a solecism, 
they are thereby diverted from their 
true structural function and made into 
mere ornaments ; and of all these misap- 
plications the least defensible is the 
marriage of the column and entablature 
with the arch. The combination of such 
heterogeneous forms, belonging to two 
distinct systems of construction, is 
wholly indefensible." 

This sounds plausible ; it has been so 
constantly repeated, so dogmatically in- 
sisted on, that the most intelligent lay- 
man is persuaded it must be true. Few 
have been the modern writers bold 
enough to try to breast the tide of hos- 
tility to this invention of the Roman 
designers, but protesting voices have 
begun to make themselves heard, at 




< OT 



H H 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



507 



least in England. Professor F. M. Simp- 
son in his History of Architectural De- 
velopment (vol. I, p. Ill), and Sir T. G. 
Jackson in his recent work, Byzantine 
and Romanesque Architecture (vol. I, 
p. 10, 11), have each a good word for the 
Roman combination of arch and column ; 
but what are they, rari nantes in gurgite 
vasto, among so many of the contrary 
opinion? The predominance of disap- 
provalof this combination, among those 
who write about architecture, is all the 
more remarkable when one considers the 
equally strong predominance of approval 
among those who make architecture. In 
spite of the critics they persist in using it, 
as they have persisted in doing for at 
least six hundred years. The critics meet 
this fact only by a sweeping accusation 
of persistently corrupt taste. The prac- 
titioner laughs at the critic for a prig, 
insists on using the arcaded order be- 
cause it is useful, convenient and beauti- 
ful, and asks what the critic would put 
in its place. 

The common objection to this combin- 
ation is that it is illogical because it 
applies structural members to a purely 
decorative use; a "sham," because the 
columns pretend to support an entab- 
lature which is really carried by the 
arcaded wall behind them; and "false" 
for both of the above reasons. But the 
decorative use of forms originally struc- 
tural is a universal law of architectural 
progress. The triglyphs and the stone 
ceiling-panels of Greek architecture, 
the useless flaring capitals of the 
Egyptian hypostyle halls, the open-work 
gables and the wall-traceries of the de- 
veloped Gothic style, are examples of 
the operation of this, law in three dif- 
ferent historic styles universally recog- 
nized as "truthful" and "sincere." In- 
deed, there is little excuse for the lateral 
colonnades of the Greek temples except 
their splendid decorative value ; the 
Roman temple-builders got along with- 
out them in many cases, and in others 
frankly applied them as engaged orders 
against the flanks of the temple. In 
combination with arches in the theatres, 
amphitheatres and basilicas, the engaged 
orders, so far from embodying false- 
hood, serve to emphasize as no other 



device could, the fundamental facts of 
the interior divisions of the buildings 
into bays and stories, expressing vividly 
to the eye the lines of chief stress and 
support in their construction, and visibly 
reenforcing the piers which resist the 
thrusts of the internal vaulting. The 
columns perform precisely the same 
function a purely esthetic one as the 
vaulting shafts of Gothic cathedrals; 
they satisfy the eye by providing a visible 
support for what they appear to carry, 
and what without such apparent support 
would seem insecure, although actually 
carried in perfect safety by the masonry 
behind the column or shaft. Professor 
Moore, in his 'Development of Gothic 
Architecture and again in his recent 
Medieval Church Architecture in Eng- 
land, insists upon the structural logic of 
the vaulting shafts ; but an analysis of 
the actual stress conditions of Gothic 
vaulted churches makes it clear that a 
corbel would suffice in their place; the 
shafts are purely supposititious necessi- 
ties structurally, and might be removed 
with no danger to the edifice which is 
precisely the objection which the Gothic- 
ists allege against the Roman arcade col- 
umns ! Architecture on paper and in 
beautifully printed letterpress with per- 
suasive illustrations sometimes follows 
paths that diverge widely from the arch- 
itecture of real building and lead to sur- 
prising results. 

VI. 

The fourth allegation of the indict- 
ment, that which charges the Romans 
with starting architecture on a fatal path 
of false principles of design, which has 
been disastrous in its effect on modern 
architecture, I have in part answered in 
the preceding section; that part, namely, 
which relates to the decorative use of the 
orders and the combination of columns 
with arches. But there are critics who 
impugn the entire Roman system of 
structural design and decoration as false. 
The Greeks, thev tell us, and the medi- 
eval church builders, erected honest con- 
structions of solid masonry, plainly re- 
vealed as such inside and outside alike. 
But the Romans always, and for mere 
appearance, built of coarse rubble or 
a species of concrete, and veneered this 




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" 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



509 



coarse and hasty construction with a 
veneer of stucco and marble, falsifying 
the cheap coarseness of the mass by a 
pretentious apparel of fine material. This 
has been the parent of the whole dismal 
succession of modern shams and pre- 
tense, to the corruption of modern taste 
and the destruction of honest design. 

This, like all the other charges, has a 
plausible ring of superior artistic moral- 
ity, until we examine the facts and impli- 
cations behind it. The fundamental al- 
legations are only half true. The ma- 
jority of the Greek temples, for in- 
stance, outside of Attica where marble 
was abundant, were built of coarse stone 
which was covered and concealed by a 
coating of painted stucco. Both the 
vaults and the interior wall surfaces of 
many of the great medieval churches 
were plastered and painted. On the other 
hand, in those regions where fine build- 
ing stone abounded, but where lime and 
pozzolana were scarce, as in Southern 
France and Syria, the Romans used pure 
cut-stone masonry as frankly as either 
the Greek or the Gothic builders did. 
The implications of this criticism, more- 
over, reflect seriously upon the Creator's 
honesty. For in the noblest of His 
works, the human form, a veneer of 
precious material the exquisite color 
and texture of the skin so covers the 
unpleasant materials and details of the 
interior construction of the body -as to 
conceal them wholly from view. The 
beauty of this masterpiece of design is 
only skin-deep. 

But the real answer to this criticism 
goes beyond these considerations. The 
charge of dishonesty is predicated upon 
the fundamentally erroneous assump- 
tions that there is only one kind of good 
architecture possible; that architecture' 
has only one system and principle of de- 
sign legitimately at its disposal, and that 
hence if the Greek (or the Gothic) arch- 
itecture is right in principle, all others 
proceeding on other principles must be 
wrong, and that a fundamental principle 
of good architecture must be the outward 
visible display of the interior structure 
and materials. But this is a narrow and 
pedantic assumption. Architecture is the 
servant of man, not his tyrant. The 



critic has no right to call upon the de- 
signer to abdicate common sense, to 
ignore the conditions and environment in 
which he works, to reject every species 
of beauty, every form of expression, 
which may be unattainable by the par- 
ticular methods of Greek or Gothic 
design. The purpose of the architect 
must be to build beautifully, to meet the 
practical needs of his time by such means 
as he possesses with structures which 
shall be as beautiful, or as splendid, or 
as majestic as he can make them. This 
the Romans did with extraordinary 
success, with daring ingenuity, with mar- 
velous boldness and originality. The 
vast and massive vaulted structures they 
erected could not have been built, except 
in the rarest instances, of cut stone, and 
the Roman use of the abundant local 
materials piled up by the labor of soldiers 
and slaves, of brick, stone and rubble- 
concrete, each where each best served its 
purpose, was the only rational and only 
possible procedure. It is perfectly legit- 
imate for the critics to declare, to their 
hearts' content, their preference for the 
Greek or the Gothic type of design, but 
it is not valid criticism to deny the right 
of another to prefer the Roman, or at 
least to admire the Roman achievement. 
Each of these types and systems, growing 
up out of its own particular environment 
and conditions, was the best for its own 
purposes, time and place. One has a 
right to find fault with the Roman de- 
signs, details, composition or decoration, 
but each must be judged on its merits, 
with relation to the purpose, environ- 
ment and conditions of the problem. 
And when the critic wants to generalize 
on a question like the aesthetic propriety 
of applied decoration, veneers of stucco 
and marble, non-structural use of struc- 
tural features, he will do well not to 
throw too many stones at the Romans lest 
they reply to the injury of his own glass 
house; for he may find himself obliged 
to condemn all plastering, wainscoting, 
mosaic, tiling, decorative painting and 
sculpture, triglyphs, paneled ceilings, 
vaulting shafts, traceried gables and a 
dozen other important features of Greek, 
Byzantine and Gothic architecture, logi- 
cally liable to the same condemnation. 



23 




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THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



511 



VII. 

The fifth charge is an indictment of 
Roman architecture and ornament on the 
score of its uninspired and mechanical 
uniformity, its subjection to stereotyped 
rules of design. Architectural composi- 
tion became "little more than a planting 
of the orders on all sorts of buildings ;" 
the capitals and mouldings are machine- 
made, and the whole product, through- 
out the whole empire from first to last, 
"shows a lack of variation absolutely 
without parallel." Obviously such an 
architecture is destitute of all originality. 

The answer to this charge is simply a 
flat denial of every one of its contentions, 
and an appeal to the monuments them- 
selves. It is a charge that might with 
some force be alleged against Greek ar- 
chitecture, but to assert it of Roman ar- 
chitecture argues the author of the charge 
to be either densely ignorant or curiously 
blind to the obvious facts. The evidence 
of the monuments makes the charge ab- 
surd. Many readers have perhaps been 
misled by the loud talk of two genera- 
tions of critics who have drawn on their 
imaginations for the facts, and sought 
to make up by an abundant sprinkling of 
strong adjectives for their lack of dis- 
criminating study of the. monuments. It 
will probably surprise such readers to 
be told that the Roman orders are in- 
finitely more varied than the. Greek ; that 
Roman ornament disposed of a far great- 
er number and variety of motives than 
any that ever preceded it, and treated 
these motives with a 'flexibility and a 
varied adaptation to position, decorative 
function and material which even the 
medieval artists hardly surpassed. If 
one compares the Greek temples from 
first to last with each other, the Doric 
order is seen to have been varied in 
hardly a single detail for six hundred 
years. The Ionic shows a greater va- 
riety ; but in Roman architecture, in spite 
of its official and governmental charac- 
ter, a fairly detailed study of a long list 
of examples even in Rome itself fails to 
disclose any two examples of any order, 
from different buildings, which are alike. 
Compare, for instance, the Doric orders 
of the Theatre of Marcellus, the Colos- 
seum, the Basilica Julia, the Tabularium 



and the Baths of Diocletian no two of 
these examples are alike in proportions, 
base, shaft, capital or entablature. The 
Corinthian capitals and entablatures of 
the Pantheon, Temple of Castor, Portico 
of Octavia, Colosseum and Temple of 
Venus and Rome differ widely from one 
another, showing in each instance the 
exercise of individual design and in 
many cases exquisite refinements of de- 
tail whose existence no one would sus- 
pect from reading the writings of the 
critics. A cursory examination of Profes- 
sor Frothingham's fine work on the Ro- 
man arches of triumph will reveal an ex- 
traordinary variety of treatment of simi- 
lar programs. While the Imperial domi- 
nation asserted itself throughout the vast 
extent of the empire by a certain unity 
of spirit which makes its architectural 
products impressively Roman, whether 
in Germany or Southern France, Algiers, 
Syria, Greece or Italy, there is little more 
unity of style than in the Romanesque 
churches of Western Europe, dominated 
as they were by the unity of discipline 
and of program of the great monastic 
orders. Where the program was abso- 
lutely identical, as in the amphitheatres 
and some of the temples, there is a close 
resemblance, comparable with that, for 
instance, between the abbey churches of 
Waltham in England and Cerisy-la-foret 
in^ France, and the Maison Carree at 
Nimes is thoroughly Roman-Augustan. 
But the architecture of Baalbec is 
widely different from that of Rome, 
and both of these from that of North 
Africa. The three great city gates of 
Autun, Treves, and Rome (Porta Mag- 
giore), the Gate of Hadrian at Athens 
and the superb triple gateway at Pal- 
myra, are five fundamentally different 
designs, unlike in plan, composition, con- 
struction and detail. In Roman plans the 
variety is endless: the temples show an 
extraordinary array of differing forms 
and arrangements, and hardly two even 
of the temple porticoes are alike; the 
same is true of the baths, basilicas, palace 
groups, villas and houses. And when one 
considers the small number and scant va- 
riety of the fundamental types and pro- 
.grams of the Greek and even of the 
Gothic architecture, the variety of the 



512 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



Roman types and programs and the in- 
genuity, inventiveness and resource mani- 
fested by their designers appear little 
less than extraordinary. 

VIII. THE SUMMING UP. 

To those who have studied the Roman 
contributions to the art of architecture 
with open minds and a sympathetic readi- 
ness to appreciate what is valuable in 
them and that is the only kind of study 
that is worth while the Roman achieve- 
ment appears worthy of the highest ad- 
miration. Its excellences are not chiefly 
those which one especially commends in 
Greek architecture, nor is it to be judged 
by the same criteria which one applies 
to Gothic buildings. Its purposes, pro- 
grams, resources, problems and condi- 
tions were alike different from those of 
the fifth century B. C. and those of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries A. D., 
and it met them with a genius which in 
its own way and field was no whit in- 
ferior to that which produced the archi- 
tecture of either of those other periods. 
The Greeks in five centuries produced a 
limited number of masterpieces of a very 
limited number of types, one of which 
they developed to supreme perfection on 
the Athenian Acropolis. The temple, the 
stoa, and the city gate or propylaea, 
constitute almost the whole program of 
Greek architecture. It is almost exclu- 
sively a columnar architecture applied to 
buildings of one story and of elementary 
plan. The column, wall and lintel were 
the only structural elements the Greeks 
used or developed. In this limited field 
they worked with an almost unerring 
taste, and their work within those limits 
has never been surpassed. They ex- 
hausted the possibilities of their pro- 
grams, but lacked the inventiveness neces- 
sary to produce new programs or devise 
new constructions. They were confined to 
endless minute variations of one theme. 
In contrast to this paucity of invention, 
Roman architecture produced an aston- 
ishing number of programs temples, 
fora, palaces, amphitheatres, baths, ba- 
silicas, gates, colonnades, arches of tri- 
umph, tombs, administrative buildings 
and an extraordinary variety of con- 
structions employing marble, cement, cut- 



stone masonry, brick, tufa, granite, 
bronze, wood and plaster, the arch, 
barrel vault, groined vault, dome, and 
truss, each according to the special pro- 
gram, purpose, materials at hand and en- 
vironment of each building. The Ro- 
mans invented the pedestal, pilaster, ar- 
chivolt, and modillion, the arcaded order, 
the niche. They were the first who ever 
conceived and executed a vast and lofty 
interior, unencumbered by columns. This 
surely was a gift to the world of inestim- 
able value. The architect of the Pan- 
theon produced a stupendous interior of 
extraordinary beauty for which there 
existed at the time no prototype or pre- 
vious approximation, and which remains- 
unsurpassed to this day, the most mar- 
velous product of original genius in con- 
struction and design in the whole history 
of art, with the one possible exception 
of Hagia Sophia at Constantinople, built 
four centuries later. In planning the Ro- 
mans gave the world a new art. In their 
thermae and in such architectural aggre- 
gations as the palaces on the Palatine 
Hill, the forum of Trajan, and the tem- 
ple group at Baalbec, they created a new 
art of monumental planning, and taught 
the world how, by a proper coordination 
of large and small parts, high and low 
roofs, open spaces and covered halls, a 
cumulative effect of artistic power and 
beauty, an ordered rhythm and balance, 
could be produced with apparently heter- 
ogeneous elements. They originated a 
new art of civic planning. They pro- 
duced new effects of grandiose scale and 
magnificent symmetry. 

The defects of Roman architecture are 
chiefly the defects of its qualities. In 
such vast enterprises as it was engaged 
in, the minute perfections, the delicate re- 
finements and the figure sculpture of the 
Parthenon were not achieved, for they 
were not possible. Among all the vast 
array of buildings erected at different 
times over the immense extent of the 
empire, there were, of course, not a few 
which merit severe criticism. The facil- 
ity of applied decoration by a factitious 
apparel of architectural members, lent it- 
self to occasional abuse. But the more 
one studies the monuments, the more 
one is impressed by the resourcefulness 




FIG. 17. TEMPLE OF JUPITER. 
BAALBEC, SYRIA. NORTH WALL. 




FIG. 18. PLAN OF TEMPLE OF THE SUN, 
ROME. FROM A FRENCH DRAWING. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



515 



and general good taste which mark their 
design. The forms, devices, structural 
arrangements and details of this archi- 
tecture were extraordinarily flexible and 
adaptable to varying conditions, pro- 
grams and purposes. It is not without 
good reason that these forms and devices 
are studied and imitated today. It was 
not because the artists of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries lacked original 
creative power, and therefore fell to copy- 
ing, that the Renaissance revived Roman 
forms and devices a most preposter- 
ous accusation, to which both Ruskin and 
Fergusson have given an ill-merited cur- 
rency. It was because the Renaissance 
introduced a new era in civilization, with 
new requirements which Gothic art could 
no longer meet, that the men of that time 



turned instinctively to Roman models for 
inspiration. The Roman civilization was 
in many of its aspects nearer to modern 
life than any other. Greek architecture, 
even had the fifteenth century been 
acquainted with it, was too narrow, rigid 
and limited to meet the new demands of 
the modern life. To this day the use of 
Greek forms is restricted to the narrow- 
est possible range of applications, and 
even in these has to be varied in many 
details. The Roman forms are flexible, 
and capable of endless variation and ap- 
plication even to the most modern uses, 
and constitute an alphabet of archi- 
tectural details and conceptions which 
the world may not outgrow or find 
useless for years or even centuries to 
come. 




FIG. 19. 



FRAGMENT, FROM THE LATERAN MUSEUM. ROMAN SYMBOLIC AND 
CONVENTIONAL ORNAMENT. 




TOWER AND MAIN ENTRANCE-EVANS 
MUSEUM AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNI- 
VERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADEL- 
PHIA. JOHN T. WINDRIM, ARCHITECT. 




THE SOUTH FRONT EVANS MUSEUM AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF 

PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELPHIA. 

John T. Windrim, Architect. 



TWO DENTAL BVILDINCS IN 
PHILADELPHIA AND BOSTON 




HAROLD-D-EBERLEIN 




IN Philadelphia and Boston two im- 
portant buildings for dental pur- 
poses have recently been completed, 
buildings that are significant from both 
the architectural and thoroughly prac- 
tical points of view. They are the 
Thomas W. Evans Museum and Dental 
Institute of the School of Dentistry, 
University of Pennsylvania, in Philadel- 
phia, designed by John T. Windrim, and 
the Forsyth Dental Infirmary for Chil- 
dren, in Boston, designed by Edward 
T. P. Graham. 

The English Collegiate Gothic inspira- 
tion for the Evans Museum and Dental 
Institute may be ascribed to the desire 
to preserve a measure of harmony with 
the dormitories and some of the other 
newer buildings of the University of 
Pennsylvania, buildings in whose closely 
allied aspect Tudor and early Stuart 
characteristics are dominant. 



But discussion of the architectural 
aspect must be reserved for subsequent 
paragraphs. The Evans Museum and 
Institute is, before all else, an emi- 
nently practical building. Its practical 
side has been stressed from first to last 
and it is fitting, therefore, that attention 
should first be given in that direction. 
It is desirable, however, before going 
further, to say something of Dr. Evans 
and the bequest by which the building 
for the Museum and Institute was erect- 
ed. The synopsis of Dr. Evans' personal 
history will explain several things, among 
others the presence of his personal ef- 
fects, including a great number of paint- 
ings and a profusion of objets d'art in 
the museum and likewise the location of 
the building at some distance from the. 
rest of the University property. 

Thomas W. Evans was born in Phila- 
delphia in 1823 and, as a lad lived in a 



518 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



house that stood, until recently when it 
was razed, on Spruce street west of For- 
tieth on a part of the ground now occu- 
pied by the Museum and Institute. His 
fondness for his boyhood home in West 
Philadelphia, or Hamilton Village, as 
that portion of it was then called, led 
him to designate its site as the place for 
the dental school whose foundation was 
a long cherished purpose. At the age 
of fourteen he "entered the employ of Jo- 
seph Warner, a gold and silver smith of 
Philadelphia, whose business included 
the manufacture of certain surgical in- 
struments, and incidentally of plate, sol- 
ders, and some of the implements used 
by dentists." From his occasional nec- 
essary contact with dentists he seems to 
have derived the impetus that led him to 
engage in dentistry as a profession. "In 
1841 he became a student in the office of 
the late John DeHaven White, of Phila- 
delphia, with whom he remained for two 
years." While studying under Dr. White, 
he also pursued a course at the Jefferson 
Medical College, from which institution, 
in due time, he graduated. 

After practicing in Maryland and, 
later, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where 
he accomplished some remarkable work, 
for which, in recognition of its novelty 
and excellence, the Franklin Institute, in 
1847, awarded him a gold medal, he was 
brought to the notice of Dr. C. Starr 
Brewster, an American dentist then prac- 
ticing in Paris, who invited him to enter 
into partnership with him. This part- 
nership lasted until 1850, when Dr. 
Evans opened an office independently in 
the Rue de la Paix and entered upon a 
career "as wonderful as it was unique." 
A rare combination of personal charac- 
teristics along with special technical skill 
soon made him a conspicuous figure. 
""Dentistry became to him the stepping- 
stone which served as a means of bring- 
ing him into contact with those to whom 
"he made himself of value and who con- 
tributed substantially to his success. He 
was a born diplomat, possessing a keen 
perceptive faculty which enabled him to 
read and correctly understand human 
nature, delicacy and firmness in his treat- 
ment of affairs, a rigid honesty of pur- 
pose, and a foresight which was intuitive. 



In short, he knew How to make the best 
of his opportunities, and in some degree 
create them." 

In time he came to number among his 
clientele virtually all of the crowned 
heads of Europe whom, "by his skill and 
attractive personality," he attached to 
him and, at the same time, won their con- 
fidence, a confidence well-placed, as we 
may judge from the success with which 
he conducted a delicate diplomatic mis- 
sion to President Lincoln, entrusted to 
him by Napoleon III, as a result of which 
France remained neutral during our Civil 
War. How trusted he was by his royal 
clients may also be seen from the im- 
portant part he was called upon to play 
after the disaster of Sedan, in assisting 
the Empress Eugenie to escape, an epi- 
sode graphically described by Madam de 
Hegermann. His confidential relation- 
ship to the Emperor of the French en- 
abled him to accumulate the greater part 
of his wealth through judicious real 
estate investments while his connection 
with other royalties and persons of note 
kept him in occasional correspondence 
with them and their friendship and re- 
gard are attested by the numerous pres- 
ents of all sorts they sent, many of which 
are in the collection in the Museum. 
After a life largely devoted "to works of 
charity and philanthropy," as well as to 
the discharge of professional duties, Dr. 
Evans died in Paris in November, 1897. 

Such, in brief, is the story of a remark- 
able man who, in the midst of circum- 
stances that have more than once caused 
others to become oblivious of country 
and profession, never forgot and never 
allowed others to forget that he was, be- 
fore all else, an American and a dentist. 
His devotion to his profession was ex- 
traordinary and his unselfish ambition 
for its scientific advancement is evi- 
denced in his own words, written not 
long after the beginning of his Paris ca- 
reer: "I may have but little to impart, 
yet that little is at the service of each 
and all members of my profession ; and 
gladly would I hail the day that should 
make all that is sound in science and val- 
uable in art common property. By the 
discussion of subjects connected with our 
profession and by the contribution of 




MAIN ENTRANCE EVANS MUSEUM 
AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVER- 
SITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADEL- 
PHIA. JOHN T. WINDRIM, ARCHITECT. 



520 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




MAIN STAIR HALL EVANS MUSEUM AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF 

PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELPHIA. 

John T. Windrim, Architect. 



each according to his ability. ... we 
shall better serve the generation in which 
we live." When the time came to provide 
generously for the foundation of an in- 
stitution designed to promote the inter- 
ests of the science of dentistry, it is not 
surprising that a man, actuated by the 
sentiments just alluded to and amply 
blessed with both wealth and influence, 
should lay plans largely, "according to 
his ability." This he did for the build- 
ing and equipment, exclusive of the site, 
which itself is exceedingly valuable, have 
cost more than $900,000 and no expense 
has been spared to make it the most com- 
plete institution of its kind in the world. 
Thanks to judicious and well-calcu- 
lated planning and the most painstaking 
care bestowed upon all practical details, 
it is safe to say that the Evans Museum 
and Dental Institute, in facilities for op- 
eration and thoroughness of appoint- 
ments, has no superior and few, if any, 
equals. By long experience of a wide 
practice, dealing to a great extent with 
comprehensive undertakings that require 
special consideration for points of prac- 
tical efficiency, Mr. Windrim was emi- 



nently well fitted to cope successfully 
with any problems in this field that might 
present themselves. Not only was the 
museum to be housed and adequate ac- 
commodations provided for the School 
of Dentistry, which at the present time 
consists of a teaching staff of 83 profes- 
sors and instructors and 665 students, 
but allowance had also to be made for 
the clinical treatment of free dispensary 
patients, of whom there are about 
40,000 a year. Besides this, there 
were several other important considera- 
tions to be taken into account. Ease of 
ingress and egress and facility of com- 
munication between the several parts of 
the building, without congestion or con- 
fusion at any point in the corridors, had 
to be assured and, furthermore, due al- 
lowance had to be made for future 
growth, contemplating an appreciable in- 
crease both in the number of students 
and in the number of free dispensary pa- 
tients frequenting the clinics. 

After the conclusion of vexatious liti- 
gation, in the course of which the avail- 
ability of at least a portion of Dr. Evans's 
bequest was assured for fulfillment of 




f 



< W 

H H PL< 

w a 

< w tn 

a Q o 



522 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD.- 



the purpose to which he had designed it, 
ground was broken for the building in 
September, 1912, and the cornerstone 
was laid in May, 1913. Immediately 
after the dedication ceremonies on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1915, the School of Dentistry 
moved into its new quarters. The struc- 
ture, of hard-burned brick with Indiana 
limestone and terra-cotta trimmings, is 
in the form of the letter H and displays 
an unbroken frontage of 242 feet along 
Spruce street, while in depth it extends 
for 161 feet on Fortieth street. There is 
a spacious basement and, above it, the 
ground, second and third floors are lofty 
and exceptionally well lighted. In the 
basement, to which the principal ap- 
proach is by a stair descending a short 
way from the main entrance on Spruce 
street, are large locker rooms and lava- 
tories for the students, a commodious 
dining-room for the students and, adja- 
cent to it, a fully equipped kitchen, a sep- 
arate dining-room for the faculty, labor- 
atories for modelling, plaster casting, 
moulding, soldering, swaging and metal- 
lurgical work, shops for polishing and 
grinding, such lecture rooms as may be 
necessary in immediate proximity to the 
shops and laboratories and store rooms 
for supplies and apparatus. 

While a close examination of the floor 
plans reveals the convenience and thor- 
oughness of the provision for all practi- 
cal requirements in the daily use of the 
building, it does not reveal the punctilious 
care bestowed to ensure good lighting, 
perfect cleanliness and ease of maintain- 
ing thoroughly sanitary conditions, all of 
them features of more than ordinary im- 
portance in a building of the sort under 
investigation. The structure stands on 
a slope so that a large portion of the 
western end is above ground and receives 
ample light from large windows. In the 
other parts of the basement, the windows 
open into wide area ways lined with 
white glazed brick so that the interior 
receives the maximum possible light both 
direct and reflected. In connection with 
the question of lighting, it is especially 
worthy of note that the walls throughout 
have been painted either grey or a light 
sage green to avoid the trying effects of 
eye fatigue due to staring white walls. 



This system of wall coloring has been 
consistently carried out through the en- 
tire building and emphatically marks the 
modern revulsion from the long-accepted 
convention that made the walls of hos- 
pitals, and all other buildings where 
stress was laid upon sanitary considera- 
tions, an uncompromising white or cream 
color. Spotless white may be all well 
enough as an infallible betrayer of dirt 
and incentive to scrupulous cleanliness, 
but the present generation has surely 
been sufficiently impressed with the para- 
mount necessity for sanitary precaution 
to be allowed to pay some regard to the 
comfort of the eye instead of perpetually 
scrutinizing every square inch of wall 
surface for visible evidence of sanitary 
laxity at the cost of inevitable strain and 
weariness to the optic nerve. 

The scheme of restful green paint 
has been carried out with reference to 
all the metal furniture and equipments 
cabinets, lockers, operating chairs, tables 
and the like which are finished in tones 
ranging from sage to olive and are of the 
most approved pattern, embodying the 
latest improvements in every particular. 

The floors are paved with composition 
flooring and all the angles at junctions of 
floors and walls are coved so that there 
are no unsanitary corners. Care in this 
particular has even been extended to 
the doors and door trims. The doors are 
made without panels and show a perfect- 
ly smooth surface of dull finished wood 
on both sides. The door trims are made 
without mouldings and are merely bev- 
elled. Incidentally, while meeting sani- 
tary requirements, a pleasing architec- 
tural effect has been achieved. 

On the ground floor, the east wing, to 
the right of the entrance, is devoted to 
the museum, while the west wing con- 
tains the general office, the board room, 
the dean's office, the general waiting 
room for dispensary and clinic patients 
and the extracting room. By a commend- 
able arrangement, free patients applying 
for clinical treatment are received and 
registered in the general office, immedi- 
ately to the left of the entrance. Thence 
they are sent to the waiting room direct- 
ly across the corridor. From there they 
may be taken to the examination room 




MAIN STAIR HALL EVANS MUSEUM 
AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVER- 
SITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADEL- 
PHIA. JOHN T. WINDRIM, ARCHITECT. 



524 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 





ENTRANCE LOBBY-EVANS MUSEUM AND DENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF 

PENNSYLVANIA, PHILADELPHIA. 

John T. Windrim, Architect. 



nearby, where a record is made of their 
case, or else, if they have been examined 
at a previous visit, they receive their card 
at the record desk and are distributed to 
whichever one of the clinics, on this floor 
or the floor above, may be their destina- 
tion. As the clinics or other rooms 
which patients may have occasion to 
visit are all ranged about the main hall 
on the ground floor, or at the head of the 
stairs on the floor above, the circulation 
of an outside element is confined to one 
portion of the building. The building is 
so planned also that the students of one 
class, passing to and fro, will not come in 
contact with the students of other classes. 
Everything, in fact, has been done to fa- 
cilitate the orderly operation of the build- 
ing, a momentous consideration where 
the frequent and convenient circulation 
of so large a number of people must be 
reckoned upon. Special mention should 
be made of the operative clinic, a view 
of which is shown in one of the accom- 



panying illustrations. This room con- 
tains one hundred and thirty-four oper- 
ating chairs with ample space for all the 
accessories pertaining to each and the 
supply and record offices are adjacent. A 
flood of light is thrown directly into the 
mouths of the patients by a range of 
broad and high windows which are car- 
ried up into and form a part of the roof 
slope. In fact, ^s may be seen, nearly 
the whole north side of the room is of 
glass. On the same floor, the library in 
the tower, immediately above the en- 
trance, and the main lecture hall, in the 
east wing over the museum, are conveni- 
ently accessible. A detailed scrutiny of 
the plans of all the floors shows ample 
provision for every facility for under- 
graduate study and clinical work and 
for post-graduate research. 

So much for the purely practical side 
of the building. How any institution 
could be more complete in its appoint- 
ments or more thoroughly meet all 




S fii j H 



W H W 
> ^ fc 

Pg^ 

< o 

ga^ 

S^fc: 

O < en 



526 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



utilitarian requirements for its highly 
specialized purposes, it would be difficult 
to conceive. For this thoroughness and 
foresight alone, which necessarily en- 
tailed a far reaching study of the in- 
numerable details and the conditions ex- 
isting or likely to arise in connection with 
the operation of so large a building, the 
highest credit is due and cause one to 
hesitate before calling attention to cer- 
tain shortcomings on other scores. 

The structure is impressive in the dis- 
position of its masses and the general 
aspect is decidedly agreeable but one is 
forced to admit, unwillingly in the face 
of so much laudable excellence in a 
practical way, that there are some dis- 
appointments when the examination is 
based solely upon an architectural point 
of view. It is true, the disappointments 
are chiefly to be found in small features 
and details but it must be remembered 
that it is the little things, the humble 
details that, after all, make or mar our 
pleasure in the contemplation of any 
piece of architectural achievement, large 
or small. One of the factors that con- 
tributed so largely to the pleasure of the 
public in witnessing Mr. Mansfield's pro- 
ductions was the scrupulous and exacting 
care he always bestowed upon the min- 
utest details of costume and stage set- 
ting, that they should be absolutely right 
historically and archaeologically as well 
as artistically. Consequently his presen- 
tations were past criticism in that re- 
spect. Mr. Mansfield's solicitude for 
little things was proverbial, for he well 
knew their value and importance in the 
aggiegate for creating tone and giving 
pleasure, whether or not individuals in 
the audience might be sufficiently dis- 
criminating to analyze correctly the ele- 
ments of their enjoyment. It is pre- 
cisely the same in architecture ; the little 
things count in the measure of our ap- 
preciation far more than most people 
realize. Mass, construction, proportion 
and plan are most important. The big 
things must be right, but the details must 
be right, too, and if they are not it is 
hardly to be expected that people of dis- 
criminating taste will derive lasting pleas- 
ure and saisfaction from contemplating 
the result. It is not necessary that the 



liberty of invention or originality be 
hampered by a narrow, hidebound stick- 
ling for academic exactitudes that 
would be mere archaeology but there 
are certain fundamental amenities of pro- 
portion, of the use of materials and of 
the contrivance and placing of orna- 
mental detail, the observance of which 
in any structure seems requisite to sin- 
cere enjoyment on the part of the ob- 
server. 

In color effect, the Evans Museum 
and Dental Institute is exceptionally 
pleasing. The body of the building is 
constructed of a hard-burned red brick, 
irregularly blotched with deeper tones 
verging from purple to black. The 
courses are laid in Flemish bond and the 
surface of the brick is rough enough, to- 
gether with the veining of the mortar 
joints, to impart a highly agreeable tex- 
ture to the walls. The desirable note of 
contrast comes in the Indiana limestone 
door and window trims, coping, string 
courses and quoins. As to its proportions, 
the building has a substantial and dig- 
nified mien without being in the least 
stolid or heavy. The composition is good 
and the balance of the south front com- 
mendable, although one could wish that 
circumstances might have permitted a 
structure of slightly less height. Had 
such been the case it would have been 
possible to achieve a result of greater 
interest in the particular style of archi- 
tecture chosen, a style which lends itself 
with peculiar readiness to felicitous ex- 
pression in long ranges of comparatively 
low buildings. Witness many of the low- 
lying collegiate buildings in England and 
some of the more recent work at Prince- 
ton and in several other places in our own 
country. 

If the limits of a city site and the re- 
quirements of certain space within had 
not imposed definite conditions that had 
to be met, it would doubtless have been 
possible to give the tower more domi- 
nating emphasis. As it is, nevertheless, 
the tower is exceedingly impressive. In 
fact, the whole structure, whether seen 
from a distance or viewed at close range, 
is striking and has so many good qual- 
ities that one is all the more disappointed 
on finding some of the shortcomings re- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



527 




First Floor 




EVANS MUSEUM 
AND DENTAL IN- 
STITUTE. JOHN T. 
W I N D R I M, 
ARCHITECT. 



Second Floor. 




ENTRANCE TO CLINIC FORSYTH DEN- 
TAL INFIRMARY FOR CHILDREN, BOSTON. 
EDWARD T. P. GRAHAM, ARCHITECT. 




BRONZE DOORS OF CLINIC ENTRANCE-FOR- 
SYTH DENTAL INFIRMARY FOR CHILDREN, 
BOSTON. EDWARD T. P. GRAHAM, ARCHITECT. 



530 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




MAIN ENTRANCE FORSYTH DENTAL INFIRMARY FOR CHILDREN, BOSTON. 
Edward T. P. Graham, Architect. 



vealed by a more intimate inspection. 
The principal entrance is through an im- 
posing portal which leads one to expect 
much but unfortunately the sense of pro- 
portion and architectural fitness is sadly 
jarred by finding a jejune and insignifi- 
cant vestibule that does not bear out the 
promise of the exterior. It seems almost 
as though exterior and interior had been 
designed by different hands working in- 
dependently to interpret wholly diverse 
conceptions. 

A similar lack of architectural co- 
herence is apparent elsewhere, for in a 
number of instances the interior does not 
sufficiently reflect the mode of expression 
one is led to expect by the aspect of the 
exterior. Greater harmony of style could 
have been preserved without doing vio- 
lence to any essential requirement de- 
manded by utilitarian considerations or 
practical expediency. The museum of- 
fers a case to point this criticism. The 
tall quadrangular columns and the plain, 
crash covered walls assuredly do not echo 
the exterior. Here was an opportunity 



missed to create a panelled interior with 
excellent effect, an interior that would 
have been altogether in keeping with the 
architectural promise given without and, 
at the same time, quite as suitable for the 
display of the exhibits. 

The great hall on the second floor and 
the library are really the only portions 
of the interior where one finds the ex- 
pected conformity with the external 
aspect. In the hall there was a fine op- 
portunity for an open timber roof, but 
what should have been open timber has 
been metamorphosed into steel and 
plaster, and cast metal can never have the 
fluidity of line and spontaneity of carved 
wood. Nevertheless, the general effect is 
agreeable and would have been more so 
had more vigorous, though harmonious, 
coloring been employed, such as was 
customary in English roofs of the period 
reproduced, instead of the somewhat 
evanescent hues suggestive of a later 
Continental inspiration. The travertine- 
faced walls of the great hall are excep- 
tionally pleasant. One queries, however, 



532 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




BRONZE PANELS-FORSYTH DENTAL INFIR- 
MARY FOR CHILDREN. BOSTON. 
Edward T. P. Graham, Architect. 

the appropriateness of putting heavy 
dripstones over inside doorways. It is 
surely not logical to do so and architec- 
tural ornament ought to have some sub- 
stantial raison d'etre, for it will almost 
invariably be found that the sundry 
forms of architectural ornament, at least 
the quasi-structural forms, had their 
origin in practical utility. 

Great admiration is due the capable 
treatment accorded the Evans Museum 
and Dental Institute in respect of its 
comprehensive plan, which adequately 
meets the manifold demands made upon 
it, and commendation is due the com- 
position of the toute ensemble for, de- 
spite the unfulfilled desiderata to which 
attention has been directed, the building 
presents an imposing appearance and 
bears a stamp of distinction which can- 
not fail to redound to the credit of the 
University of whose buildings it now 
forms an important unit. 



The Forsyth Dental Infirmary for 
Children, on the Fenway in Boston, de- 
signed by Edward T. P. Graham, is the 
second building claiming attention in 
this article. An inspection of its plans 
reveals a complete and convenient ar- 
rangement in basement and on the first 
and second floors. In the basement are 
quarters for the permanent staff, the 
children's waiting room, the visiting den- 
tists' room and sundry smaller offices. So 
much of the basement is well above the 
level of the ground that there is abund- 
ance of light, quite as much as many 
buildings, more closely hemmed in by 
other structures, would have on the 
ground floor. The first floor contains an 
operating theatre, a large museum and 
research room, a lecture room and the 
necessary reception and waiting rooms 
and small offices for various purposes. 
The second floor is almost wholly oc- 
cupied by the infirmary. 

A survey of the exterior brings with 
it a sense of satisfaction. There is a 
finish and completeness in its aspect that 
cannot be other than gratifying and the 
observer feels at once that it is a worthy 
and representative addition to the series 
of buildings being systematically erected, 
according to a well conceived and co- 
herent civic plan, along the Fenway in 
Boston, a comprehensive building project 
that does credit to public foresight and 
public spirit in that community and bids 
fair, in a few years, to transform what 
was formerly an unsightly waste into an 
exceptionally beautiful parkway. 

The proportions of the building are 
singularly agreeable and the just balance 
between mass and detail is carefully pre- 
served. The large amount of window 
space required in the walls of the upper 
story, to supply adequate light in the in- 
firmary, is balanced by the strong corners 
and the procession of Ionic capped pilas- 
ters separating the windows on each side. 
The massive treatment of the basement 
and first floor walls affords a suitable 
support for the colonnaded treatment of 
the upper story. The composition, re- 
garded as a whole, presents a happy com- 
bination of classic austerity and Renais- 
sance geniality and the exquisitely 
wrought detail that occurs now and again 



THE ARCHITECTURAL 'RECORD. 



533 




GROUND FLOOR PLANS-FORSYTH DENTAL INFIRMARY FOR CHILDREN. 
Edward T. P. Graham, Architect. 




BASEMENT PLANS-FORSYTH DENTAL INFIRMARY FOR CHILDREN. 
Edward T. P. Graham, Architect. 



534 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




PANELS ON DOORS OF CHILDREN'S ENTRANCE-FORSYTH DENTAL INFIRMARY 

FOR CHILDREN. BOSTON. 
Edward T. P. Graham, Architect. 



nt different points of the building im- 
presses one that the conception, while 
strong, is urbane rather than severe. 

Where a bit of pleasantry or playful- 
ness can be consistently introduced with- 
out derogating from the dignity of an 
architectural composition it always af- 
fords a desirable feature and lends a cer- 
tain unique character. Such a charming 
bit of playfulness we .find successfully in- 
troduced in the exquisitely wrought 
panels of the bronze doors of the chil- 
dren's entrance, executed by Roger Burn- 
ham, where scenes from "Alice in Won- 
derland" and "Uncle Remus" are de- 
picted in a way to attract and delight the 
unfortunate little patients who cross the 
threshold. 

One can readily imagine that the 
feelings with which the young suf- 
ferers enter the building are not the most 
happy in the world and it is surely very 
appropriate to place anything before their 



eyes that may serve to divert them from 
thoughts of their discomfort and cheer 
them. If anything can do it, the grin of 
the Cheshire Cat and the attitudes of 
Brer B'ar and Brer Rabbit will. 

The stone carving at various points of 
the exterior and the refinement of the 
modelling displayed on the other doors, 
shown in the illustrations, speak suffi- 
ciently for themselves without comment. 
On regarding the building carefully one 
can truly say that it is wholly fit for its 
intended purposes, judged from a purely 
practical and utilitarian point of view and 
that in its architectural aspect it measures 
up to high standards. Its conformity to 
academic conventions has not impaired 
the vigor and originality of individual 
expression. The comparison of both 
buildings and their several points of ex- 
cellence forms an instructive chapter in 
the study of recent architectural perform- 
ances. 




Certain Phafes 
Sanish CoIohiaT 




AT the beginning of the present cen- 
tury it was said, and with good rea- 
son, that Spanish architecture had, 
even then, exerted a notable degree of in- 
fluence upon the principles of design and 
of ornament as applied to building in the 
United States ; that the Mission Archi- 
tecture of California had proved to be, 
most happily, a source, as it were, of 
true inspiration ; and that our architects 
who resorted to this source of inspira- 
tion had produced excellent work in the 
Western States. 

Those observers who had studied in 
Spain and Latin America noticed the 
extension to all parts of this country of 
principles of construction derived, either 
remotely or immediately, from the Iber- 
ian Peninsula, and suggested, naturally, 
that one of the results of such events as 
our wars in Cuba and the Philippines 
would be to make the study of Spanish- 
Colonial architecture of particular in- 
terest in the future. 

Now .we are in the midst of that 
future : now, looking back, mindful of 
superb though very new examples of 
Spanish Free Renaissance buildings 
that to-day may be seen in Washington 
and at several other points in the East- 
ern States, we are fairly obliged to notice 
a growing tendency during the last dec- 
ade in the United States to accord to 
Spanish-Colonial architecture at least its 
due share of influence. 

I gladly leave to others the privilege 
of comment upon those tendencies which, 
at home, are manifesting themselves in 
the fashion of adapting such a well-de- 
rived foreign style to our own needs and 
practices. My purpose is, in this brief 
study, to indicate tendencies that have 
run their course in two great and ancient 
centres of Hispanic culture in the West- 



ern Hemisphere Peru and Mexico; and 
it seems convenient to begin with ob- 
servations actually made in the famous 
Torretagle house in Lima, July 7, 1906. 

This house, confronting the Casa de 
Ejercicios del Sagrado Corazon is 
said, and I think truly, to be the 
only fine private dwelling in the Peruvian 
capital that still preserves its original 
form. It may be regarded as typical of 
the house of the old West Coast aristoc- 
racy at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. There is much carved wood on 
balconies, ceilings, shutters of the win- 
dows ; and certainly the effect produced 
by this ornamentation, overemphasizing 
details to which it is applied, is striking, 
literally : it challenges attention when one 
first sees the facade or passes from the 
street into the large patio. But the de- 
tails are insubordinate : therefore all 
those agreeable intimations of serenity 
with stability which a noble old mansion 
should convey are lost. 

This is not, one reflects, a beautiful 
house not really to be ranked with fine 
old Italian and English houses. Well, 
why should we expect to discover good 
art in these West Coast countries ? Their 
conquest was effected by rough soldiers. 
Architects, painters, sculptors did not 
usually join the bands of the conquista- 
dores ; and it seems quite clear that even 
at a later period they neglected to come 
out in sufficient numbers to make their 
presence felt in the direction and control 
of public taste, for there is little or no 
evidence of innate sense of form and 
line, or even of very high ideals, in the 
works of art one is apt to see at first, 
although elaborate proof is at hand of 
the artisans' demonstrated skill in han- 
dling wood (Fig. 1) and stone. And 
again, what kind of artistic propositions 



536 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



should we expect from the people of 
mixed blood the Indigenes having been 
content 'before the conquest to produce 
in all the arts such things as to us appear 
to be nearly devoid of beauty? 

Reply to such questions and objections 
as these I sought faithfully though critic- 
ally in the course of long journeys into 
many parts of .Latin America. Gradually 
it became evident to me that the natives 
had shown an almost marvelous degree 
of patience (patience rather than the 
quest of beauty having been their ideal) 
and of manual dexterity in the execution 
of such works as their European masters 
had been able to plan. Moreover, these 
masters, being masters also of the enor- 
mous treasure of the land, were actually 
enabled to secure from time to time the 
services of a few competent architects: 
in this respect one's first impression un- 
dergoes decided revision as the field of 
study becomes wider. 

At the Recoleta inviolate home of the 
Franciscan Order in the outskirts of 
Cuzco we read, as it were, an early 
chapter of the same story. Here is the 
Franciscan severe interpretation of the 
art of the mother country in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries: "Toribio de 
Fustamente, fundador de esta santa casa" 
thus runs the inscription on the 
founder's portrait "murio el ano 1619. 
Esta enterado junto al altar major de este 
convento, que acabo ano 1601." He . 
finished it indeed in the year 1601. Its 
design undoubtedly has been modified, 
yet without inharmonious changes, in 
later years although the clock I asked 
the Cuzco student, my assistant that day, 
to photograph (the clock in the wall, 
beside the precious old shrine), was 
placed right there, the Cuzco student as- 
sured me, in that very same wall, at the 
beginning, when it had but one hand, and 
there has remained since the convent's 
foundation! (Fig. 2 shows the shrine, 
the pictorial value of which is, I think, 
enhanced by omission of the ancient 
clock-face.) 

Gentlest feature perhaps of all is the 
patio (Fig. 3), the arches of which are 
seen above or through foliage of retama, 
floripondio, sauce, pino, pino chileno, 
nucau, durazno, capuli, rosas con flares 



diferentes, fuchsia, and cedroncillo; this 
being a true list of plants in the irrigated 
undated garden charmingly artistic gar- 
den of an arid skyland the garden of the 
convent's patio or inner court. Much 
cheerful talk there was, I remember, 
with Rev. Franciscan Father Jose Grego- 
rio Castro and his associates while we 
walked about in every part of the build- 
ing, surveying the Recoleta's art treas- 
ureswhich generally represent death, 
and extreme suffering either before or 
after death. 

And this Recoleta may stand for the 
Peruvian phase, barely suggested in such 
a brief note, of the Franciscan structures 
about which there will be more to say 
when we come to Mexico. 

But before coming to Mexico we must 
speak of the most characteristic Peruvian 
phase, as follows : 

The city which, more than any other 
West Coast city, should be regarded as a 
home of culture in general, and therefore 
specifically a centre from which control 
and direction of the fine arts has pro- 
ceeded, is the interesting place called on 
the maps Arequipa. The Peruvian 
"Tarrytown," we may call it, since the 
name Arequipa signifies in the Indian 
tongue, "Yes, rest here." But orderly 
processes of architectural development 
were rendered impossible in Arequipa, 
even more infeasible there than in other 
populous cities, mountain-built or on the 
Andean littoral. Repeated and very vio- 
lent earthquake shocks forbade such edi- 
fices as would have been stable enough in 
other lands to "rest here" or there or, 
in security, anywhere near the geosyn- 
clinal that follows the Andean coast line. 
The cathedral at Arequipa, formerly 
more imposing than it is at present, 
is. built of volcanic stone "in a style 
adopted," as a famous traveler writes, 
"after the earthquake of 1821, which laid 
most of the city in ruins,, as a security 
against similar catastrophes." Better 
than any other large building I know, it 
represents the earthquake phase. It is 
an expedient, complying with, while 
bravely protesting against, imperative de- 
mands of the plutonic forces : not tow- 
ered and domed, like the cathedral and 
the Compania at Cuzco, but capped with 




FIG. 1. EXAMPLE OF WOOD-CARVING 
IN THE CATHEDRAL AT CUZCO, PERU. 



538 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



spires in the fashion of the church of 
San Pedro in Lima. We may scorn it 
in a photograph, but shall not easily 
do so in its own proper environment. 
Orderly processes of development, we re- 
peat, having been interrupted in all this 
region, to what rank shall we assign 
the Arequipa cathedral (Fig. 4) and the 
other West Coast "expedients" ? These 
external columns, supporting nothing, are 
architecturally indefensible, one may be 
tempted to say. But in the late after- 
noon the sunlight catches the tops of the 
small trees in the plaza and the more 
prominent pillars of the cathedral, mak- 
ing the gray, long fagade, with its sur- 




FIG. 2. A SHRINE IN THE CONVENT CALLED 
LA RECOLETA. 



plusage of columns, seem vigorous 
enough to support the load of Atlas ; 
catches the top of that destructive vol- 
cano called Misti, making its enormous 
mass look like an imponderable cone that 
one could walk to before sundown, 
though in fact to reach that summit and 
return would require two days' hard 
riding and climbing; so then Misti, with 
sky and clouds around it, drawing near 
in the picture at that hour, is apparently 
upheld by the array of otherwise unem- 
ployed columns. We shall, I think, 
classify this building with other justified 
devices or expedients as examples of ex- 
ceptional environment, so remote from 
normal processes of architectural evolu- 
tion that, like certain variants in biology, 
they have no issue. Therefore, or rather, 
for analogous reasons, we come upon a 
sterile West Coast period. 

In Mexico only, among all Latin- 
American mainland countries, has Span- 
ish-Colonial architecture secured its full 
and consecutive expression and develop- 
ment. We note here three main periods : 

1. The earlier structures, erected soon 
after the conquest of Mexico, character- 
istics of which are massive strength and 
utter simplicity. A convenient designa- 
tion is the one already employed, "Fran- 
ciscan," or Early Franciscan ; and the 
term forcibly connotates austerity, rejec- 
tion of adornment, subordination of the 
aesthetic to the useful ; yet we should not 
overlook the fact that the Spanish mon- 
archs themselves, for the better protec- 
tion of their colonial subjects, ordained 
that churches should be so built for 
strength rather than for beauty, with 
battlements rather than ornaments that 
they could serve as fortresses in time of 
need." Civil and religious authorities 
were, of course, in absolute agreement. 

2. Spanish Baroque. 3. The Chur- 
rigueresque period, from the first part of 
the eighteenth century to the end of the 
Spanish regime in Mexico. In its origin 
strictly and peculiarly Spanish, the Chur- 
rigueresque style may be likened unto 
seed falling into good ground and bring- 
ing forth delightful extravagances or 
absurdities "an hundredfold" only in 

Codification of the Leyes de Indies, Madrid, 1681 
Vol. II.. folio 91. Cited in "La Arquitectura en 
Mexico. Iglesias," by Antonio Cort6s, Mexico, 1914. 




FIG. 3. PATIO OF LA RECO- 
LETA, NEAR CUZCO, PERU. 




FIG. 4. THE CATHEDRAL 
AT AREQUIPA, PERU. 




FIG. 5. THE CHAPEL OF THE 
WELL (LA CAPILLA DEL POCI- 
TO), AT GUADALUPE, MEXICO. 




FIG. 6. BALCONY OF THE CATHE- 
DRAL AT CUERNAVACA, MEXICO. 




FIG. 7. PAROCHIAL CHURCH 
OF TAXCO, GUERRERO, MEXICO. 




FIG. 8. MONASTERY IN 
SAN ANGEL, MEXICO. 



THE. ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



545 




FIG. 9. CATHEDRAL AT CUERNAVACA, MEXICO, BEGUN IN 1529. THE TOWER (LEFT) WAS 

REBUILT IN 1721. CHURCHYARD SEEN THROUGH ARCHED GATEWAY. IN THE 

FOREGROUND (RIGHT) IS THE CHURCH OF TERCER ORDEN. 



Spain and her colonies nowhere else. 
The tendency was fully, often most ex- 
travagantly, expressed in -Mexico to 
abandon structural simplicity in favor of 
mere ornamentation of ornament for 
ornament's sake. We also note the sur- 
vival of the artistic traditions of the 
aborigines, as this perpetuation is clearly 
shown, for example, in the decoration- of 
the fagade of the seventeenth century 
Tercer Orden church that stands by the 
arched gateway giving access to the 
cathedral at Cuernavaca. Sefior Cortes 
writes succinctly : "Because the artisans 
who built the structures of the conquer- 
ors were natives, the new architecture 
retained characteristics that remind one 
of the ancient Mexican decorative art, as 
we even now may see in the chapels of 
the Hospital de Uruapan, State of Mich- 
oacan, of Sanctorum of San Joaquin, 



Federal District," etc. A tendency plainly 
discernible in recent years this is a con- 
clusion based upon my own observations 
in Mexico in 1907 gives most positive 
assurance of the revival of ideals in art 
(such as they were) that prevailed be- 
fore the conquest : a Nahuatl-Aztec Ren- 
aissance. And, finally, we note the uni- 
versal acceptance by Mexican builders of 
the dome an architectural feature per- 
haps Persian, certainly Oriental in origin, 
but popularized by great sixteenth cen- 
tury achievements in Italy. We must 
regard it as the predominating architec- 
tural characteristic of the country. 

Impressive sincerity and simplicity, 
characterizing early Spanish - Colonial 
buildings, gave place to styles that Mexi- 
can art critics themselves call decadent. 
Familiar examples of Spanish Baroque 
are the church of Santo Domingo in 



54G 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



Oaxaca, and the chapels of Santo Cristo 
in Tlacolula and of Rosario in Puebla. 
Recent comment by Senor Cortes on 
eighteenth century tendencies is fairly in- 
dispensable at this point: "In Spain, 
Jose Churriguera and his two sons, 
Jeronimo and Nicolas, were most active 
in promoting the Baroque, impressing 
upon it so much of their own personality 
that in process of time their interpreta- 
tion of it received the name of 'Chur- 
rigueresque style.' The Churrigueras, 
far from inventing anything new, merely 
carried to extremes the decadent ex- 
aggerations of the Baroque style. Where- 
as the latter had respected the primitive 
simplicity of the column and panel and 
straight outlines and had safeguarded the 
natural independence of sculpture, the 
Churrigueras (on the contrary) trans- 
formed columns into pilasters covered 
with decoration, ornamented the panels, 
broke up all the lines, and made sculpture 
an integral element of the construction. 
By such means . . . they reduced 
architecture to an inferior role, and 
granted complete supremacy to decora- 
tion and ornamentation . . . great 
approbation was granted by our people 
to this style, which was so in harmony 
with our ardent and lawless imagina- 
tion. . . ." Uncommonly interesting, 
as an admission on the part of an accom- 
plished critic in Mexico. But let us now 
examine Mr. Ravel 1's excellent views 
(Figs. 6 and 9) of the Cuernavaca Ca- 
thedral, which was begun in 1529 its 



"old balcon," as this detail is called local- 
ly ; and the comprehensive view show- 
ing, on the left, a tower rebuilt in 1721, 
the arched gateway through which the 
large churchyard is seen and, on the 
right hand, the church of the Tercer Or- 
den of San Francisco (seventeenth cen- 
tury). Next, we may turn to figure No. 
8, which shows the harmonious struc- 
tural lines, unadorned, of the monastery 
in San Angel. Place between these pho- 
tographs of the earlier structures the 
view (Fig. 7) of that perfect ex- 
ample of Churrigueresque, the Paro- 
chial Church of Taxco, Guerrero (com- 
pleted December 3, 1758), with florid 
ornamentation on towers, above roof- 
level, and on facade vividly contrasting 
with those surfaces of the towers be- 
low the roof-level, which are plain : 
this sharp contrast being typically Churri- 
gueresque. And, finally (Fig. 5), the 
Chapel of the Sacred Well (La Capilla 
del Pocito), in Guadalupe, near Mexico 
City, completed in 1791 by the architect 
Francisco Guerrero y Torres. In this 
group the history of Mexican architec- 
ture in the colonial period is epitomized. 
Ardent and lawless imagination some- 
times produces work not one-half so- 
charming as these sixteenth to eighteenth 
century buildings. Charming, certainly, 
though the quest of sharp contrasts has 
tended in the past and still tends ruin- 
ously toward excesses at worst repul- 
sive, at best recalling those observed in 
the Torretagle house. 




DOORWAY IN THE COLONNADE OF THE NORTON HOUSE, EAST GOSHEN, CONN. 



COLONIAL QAR.CHITECTVRE 

IN COHWECTICVT 




Text and Measured Drawings 
efherwood Bessell 




PART III. 



THE color note in Colonial work is 
the doorway, frequently the one 
spot of ornamentation. On it was 
lavished a wealth of resources to obtain 
matchless refinement and stateliness. No 
matter what manner of house you may 
come upon, if it is Colonial the doorway 
will surely arrest attention; only in the 
typical doorway of the smaller houses 
does one see repetition, in the others 
there is the widest variance. 

The doorway of the large Pratt house, 
at Essex, has the flat pediment and pilas- 
ter treatment, with the frieze omitted in 
the pediment itself, but with a curved 
frieze in the entablature over pilasters ; 
the modillions are of a type and design 
often seen in such cornices ; the crown- 
ing mould is a cyma-recta, with a fillet and 



cove below, then a fascia, under which 
are the modillions. The pilaster cap is a 
quarter-round, bevelled on the top, a fillet 
and cove, with a half-round, and cove for 
the necking. This door, with the excep- 
tion of the steps, is the original, and is 
a type of which there are many diversi- 
fications. 

The detail drawing of the small Pratt 
house doorway, on Rope Walk, Essex, 
shows a doorway of the same character, 
but with a complete change of mouldings 
and an entirely new makeup. One has 
wide latitude in the designing of door- 
ways; so many ways and means are at 
hand that there seems to be no end of 
possibilities. With these examples be- 
fore us, we may create and improve;, 
but doorways in the Colonial manner are 



548 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



hot to be placed promiscuously on all 
sorts of architectural compositions; use 
them consistently, and the charm is not 
lost. The pediment treatment may have 
been flat, with pilasters, or projected suf- 
ficiently to contain a disengaged column, 
then again it may be similar to the en- 
trance doorway of the Perry House, at 
Litchfield, with its peculiar doubled sup- 
ports. This doorway was built in 1771 
by Lynde Lord. The cornice members 
are not composed as called for by Vig- 
riola, and seem a bit crowded in line on 
the upper portion. The dentils are very 
interesting, being long and cylindrical in 
form. The small supporting columns are 
exceedingly attractive. They are delicate 
and refined, and tapering from top to bot- 
tom, are two and seven-eighths inches in 
diameter at the top and four and one- 
eighth at the bottom. The side lights are 
curious in their curved muntins, and the 
whole butts into the overhang of the 
house as it will. 

Other motives for Colonial doorways 
included a complete entablature sup- 
ported by flat pilasters ; or, as in the pedi- 
ment treatment, disengaged columns ; or 
a hood, as on the Perry House. 



The Seymour doorway, at Litchfield, 
carries with it a great deal of dignity ; it 
is well proportioned, has an attenuated 
feeling, and the small details are care- 
fully executed. The proportion of the 
entablature does not follow hard and fast 
rules of classic proportion, but violates it 
in a pleasing manner by the width of the 
fascia and the small architrave members. 
The pilaster caps likewise are not in ac- 
cord with historic precedent, but no one 
will deny that this is an interesting and 
well designed doorway. 

The Butler doorway, at Litchfield, is 
similar in composition to the Seymour; 
still it varies ^enough to give it its own 
distinction, and here again the rules are 
violated in the width of the fascia and 
cornice; the architrave also is of a 
smaller proportion than is strictly per- 
missible, yet it is pleasing to the eye and, 
after all, proportion is decided by what 
pleases the eye. Here the modillions are 
used as on the pedimented doors ; the 
crowning moulds are a fillet cove and 
cyma reversa, then the small fascia. The 
sidelights differ from the customary 
handling, but they have an individuality 
of their own worth adopting, with ad- 




TYPICAL DOORWAY OF SMALL HOUSE OF THE PERIOD OF THE CLASSIC REVIVAL. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



549 




DOORWAY OF THE PRATT HOUSE, ON ROPE WALK, ESSEX, CONN. 
Measured and Drawn by Wesley Sherwood Bessell. 



mirable effects possible. Here the de- 
signer had the boldness to place the door- 
way on a corner of the house, which is 
not at all discordant. A great deal of 
quaintness is procured very often by 
placing a doorway in this manner. It 
need not be the main entrance, but if 
well placed it will add a homely feeling 
not at all undesirable. 

The door of the Town Hall at Essex 
is in a wood structure and is somewhat 
Greek in feeling. It is extremely beauti- 
ful, the panelled door itself being care- 
fully thought out and the sill and plinth 
block being entirely different from any 
other. Doorways of this character are 



too seldom used simple and dignified, 
but with "quality" in abundance. 

Again, different from both of the pre- 
ceding ones, is the doorway to the Norton 
house, at Goshen. Like the house itself, 
the details are refinement at its best. The 
fanlight and sidelights, designed with the 
door as a whole, and the coupled columns 
between the door and sidelights are ta- 
pered and beaded. The entablature con- 
tains an interesting bracket treatment, 
and the motive on the fascia of the entab- 
lature of the main hood is exquisite in 
composition. Still another door to this 
house is the small side door under the 
colonnade, showing a plain treatment 



550 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




Uil 




THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



5.51 






$ 



ni- 



Id 



v- 



E LE VAT I N 



j P LA N 



DOORWAY OF THE SEYMOUR HOUSE, 
LITCHFIELD, CONN. MEASURED AND 
DRAWN BY WESLEY SHERWOOD BESSELL. 




DETAIL OF A CHURCH DOOR AT AVON, 
CONN. MEASURED AND DRAWN 
BY WESLEY SHERWOOD BESSELL. 




DOORWAY OF THE SILLS HOUSE, SILLS- 
VILLE, CONN. MEASURED AND DRAWN 
BY WESLEY SHERWOOD BESSELL. 




DOORWAY OF THE PORTER 
HOUSE, SAYBROOK POINT, CONN. 



556 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



















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DOORWAY OF THE TOWN HALL AT ESSEX, CONN. 



with small fanlight ; it is placed off cen- 
tre of the colonnade, but on centre of 
the main hall. 

The Cowles doorway presents another 
handling. The peculiar inverted tapered 
columns are delightful, and could be 
copied advantageously, not alone in this 
manner, but with variable treatments. 
The single header brick arch is a three- 
point arch and has a high shouldered 
spring. 

Still another brick-set doorway is the 
one at Saybrook Point, entirely foreign 
to the others, and yet Colonial. It is 
heavier in detail and of a later period. 
The composition, however, lends itself to 
far better effects than may be at first 
realized, and as the others had their in- 
dividuality, so has this its unlimited op- 
portunities. 

The Sills doorway, at Sillsville, is of 
a design seldom used, and the broad, flat 
pilaster with channelled rosette was orig- 
inally under a hood projecting from the 
house proper. The doors themselves are 
the original ones and are very good in 
their panelled composition. The double 



doors, however, were seldom used on Co- 
lonial houses, being of Dutch origin, and 
were evidently incorporated into this Co- 
lonial doorway by a Dutch settler. 

An interesting door is that of the 
church at Avon, with detail not unlike 
that of some doors found in New York 
City. The beaded pilaster and soffit of 
the arch are charming, and the moulded 
members of the cap and base have that 
reaching effect so often adopted by Col- 
onial builders in copies of the classic 
mouldings. 

Our small selection of photographs and 
details show decided differences in hand- 
ling. Each doorway is of a type peculiar 
to itself, yet purely Colonial in feeling. 
The number of doorway examples pro- 
curable from Colonial work would fill 
pages, while examples of variable designs 
in buildings would fill but little space. 
The doorwav received the greater de- 
tailed attention, making it the color note 
in the design. The study of ornament 
was given unstintingly to the doorway, 
the hospitable Colonial doorway, which 
leads to the fireside. 





HOUSE AT NO. 20 BENEZET STREET, 
CHESTNUT HILL, PA. DUHRING, 
OKIE AND ZIEGLER. ARCHITECTS. 



NDRY 

7-a < \i- o' M4 l2-o" K, 14- o 




\ 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN OF NO. 20 BENEZET 
STREET, CHESTNUT HILL, PA. DUHR- 
ING, OKIE AND ZIEGLER, ARCHITECTS. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



559 




LIVING ROOM FIREPLACE, NO. 20 BENEZET STREET, CHESTNUT HILL, PA. 
Duhring, Okie and Ziegler, Architects. 




A SECOND FLOOR ROOM AT NO. 20 BENEZET STREET, CHESTNUT HILL, PA. 
Duhring, Okie and Ziegler, Architects. 



560 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 




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VIEW AND GROUND FLOOR PLAN OF THE 
NEWS-PRESS BUILDING, ST. JOSEPH. 
MO. ECKEL & ALDRICH, ARCHITECTS. 




DETAIL THE NEWS-PRESS BUILDING, ST. 
JOSEPH, MO. ECKEL & ALDRICH, ARCHITECTS. 



562 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 









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THE NEWS-PRESS BUILDING, ST. JOSEPH, MO. 
Eckel & Aldrich, Architects. 



ARCHI "Ec 




BOOKS ON MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE 

By RICHARD FRANZ BACH 

Curator, School of Architecture, Columbia University 
PART II. 



TO Winston's Hints on Glass Paint- 
ing, published in 1847, and Fowler's 
praiseworthy Engravings of Mosaic 
Pavements and Stained Class, published 
in 1805, is now added a third volume de- 
voted to the glass art in England. It is 
Philip Nelson's Ancient Painted Glass in 
England, 1170-1500 (George H. Doran 
Company, New York, and Methuen and 
Company, London ; octavo, pp. xvii-280, 
33 plates, $3). This volume is not the 
effusion of a medieval enthusiast, like 
that of M. Male just reviewed, but rather 
a detailed chronological study of English 
glass of the Middle Ages from the late 
twelfth to the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. The author has done his work 
in a painstaking fashion; leaving no stone 
unturned in his search for all possible 
material. Fortunately he writes as one 
personally familiar with all the import- 
ant glasses mentioned in his text. Mr. 
Nelson has encountered, as has many 
another searcher in the rich field of Eng- 
lish Gothic art, untold obstacles and 
causes of unconscious errors in present 
judgment due on the one hand to de- 
struction and neglect and on the other 
hand to the benighted efforts of self- 



styled "restorers," unbridled archaeo- 
logical fanatics of another day, happily 
past. Two interesting chapters added to 
the historical sequence on church glass 
are those on "English Domestic Glass" 
and on the "Vicissitudes of Ancient 
Glass." Too little has yet been written on 
the former of these subjects and, inci- 
dentally, on the development of the Eng- 
lish heraldic windows, which are among 
the most interesting features of certain 
manor houses. More than half of the 
volume is assigned to pages of "County 
Lists of Ancient Glass," and end- 
less alphabetical arrangement that leads 
us to marvel at the great number 
of windows that have outlived wanton 
destruction, carelessness and nineteenth 
century restoration. There is an appen- 
dix on this matter of restoration and also 
a detailed index. Color plates in such a 
book as this are bound to come amiss, for 
we have not yet devised a process of re- 
producing perfectly the effect of color 
due to transparency by means of poly- 
chrome plates in which the effects must 
be due to reflection. However, this hand- 
icap must not be permitted to militate 
against the general utility of Mr. Nel- 



564 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



son's book ; it will surely prove a valuable 
architect's handbook of study and travel 
in England. 

Miss Helen Marshall Pratt, author of 
The Cathedral Churches of England, has 
now published more particular studies on 
the British national sepulchre under the 
title Westminster Abbey; Its Architec- 
ture, History and Monuments (Duffield 
and Company, New York; 12mo, two 
volumes, pp. 865, ill.; $4.50). To chron- 
icle the life history of a structure in 
which the ideals and very existence of a 
nation for a period of a thousand years 
have been focused demands untiring 
study and a hardy pen. Miss Pratt has 
well acquitted herself of an exacting 
task. She has been at great pains to work 
out faithfully the historical, and ecclesio- 
logic background which must temper the 
progress of such a building, and her care 
m this respect will give an added charm 
to the Abbey for many a reader, espe- 
cially for Americans, and will determine 
in great measure the lasting quality of 
her book. The volumes are profusely 
illustrated; there are appendices restat- 
ing in tabulated form the history of the 
building itself and its accessory fabric, 
and giving lists of abbots and deans. 
There is also an exhaustive index and an 
exceptionally good bibliography. We can 
commend this work as one of the class 
of Cathedrals and Cloisters of Northern 
France, reviewed elsewhere, not exces- 
sively technical, nor deeply archaeological, 
nor in any sense controversial ; it is sim- 
ply historical and all architectural un- 
certainty is left for more professional 
but less readable publications. The Abbey 
has not often had so careful a historian. 

In The English Parish Church; An 
Account of the Chief Building Types and 
of Their Materials During Nine Cen- 
turies (Charles Scribner's Sons, New 
York, and B. T. Batsford, London; oc- 
tavo, pp. xix-338, ill.; $3), Mr. J. 
Charles Cox has given us an altogether 
useful volume upon a subject not gen- 
erally granted its due importance in 
English architectural history. Mr. Fran- 
cis Bond, in English Church Architec- 
ture, has also expanded upon the merits 
of the English parish church, but Mr. 
Cox has at last brought together in a 



separate treatise the whole study of 
plan, style and materials in buildings of 
this type, so that it may once more as- 
sume its proper place as a determining 
phase of English medieval art. 

To begin with, "the parish, with its 
church and priest, was an arrangement 
specially devised to meet the needs of 
the country rather than the city," and 
was developed directly from the early 
practice of attaching chaplains to lordly 
manors. The growing power of the 
church soon detached the chaplain, who 
served the retainers as well as the lords, 
from the manor house and placed him 
in charge of his own church edifice, 
which duly became the religious center 
for a more or less loosely defined dis- 
trict. The district may at times have 
included several manors, and its presid- 
ing priest was of the secular as dis- 
tinguished from the monastic or regular 
clergy. 

The parish church was the most demo- 
cratic factor in English feudal life; at 
parish meetings lord and tenant, villein 
and serf met on equal footing. Further- 
more the church building was erected in 
close proximity to any public buildings 
of which the community might boast and 
in towns the houses of the citizens clus- 
tered closely about it. In times of danger 
from fire, riot, robbery or conquest 
public and personal treasures were stored 
in the church, while deeds and other 
valuable writings were placed in the 
parish chest for safe keeping. Contracts 
were signed in the church porch ; agree- 
ments concerning the parish at large 
were sworn to on the altar itself. The 
church porch was also the scene of the 
coroner's inquest in cases of violent death 
in the parish. To these many public uses 
should also be added that of sheltering 
fugitives at a time when capital punish- 
ment was meted out to the smallest of- 
fender. 

For many years students endeavored 
to read the significance of the parish 
church in arcades, windows, mouldings 
and the like ; while the real life of build- 
ings of this type, as Mr. Cox points out, 
is to be sought in plan development. The 
plan was divided, as a general rule, into 
nave and sanctuary, although numerous 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



565 



examples occur in which an intermediate 
chancel appears. There are also many 
larger parish churches, especially those 
in, city centres, whose plans show nave, 
transepts, sanctuary and lantern tower. 
Each of these types has its variants; 
hybrid plans, accomplished by bringing 
together parts of the three types or their 
variants, or by differing dispositions of 
towers or of chapels, contribute an in- 
finite variety which is at first confusing. 
Mention should also be made of a pos- 
sible fourth type, the circular churches, 
such as St. Sepulchre's, Northampton. 
Of these there are but four extant. Good 
illustrations of the other fundamental 
types are easily found. The simple nave 
and chancel plan appears at Chithurst, 
Sussex, or at Little Braxted, Essex, the 
first square ended and the latter with 
apsidal eastern termination. Such ex- 
amples date chiefly from the twelfth cen- 
tury, as do likewise those of the second 
type. This has a triple plan division, e.g., 
nave, chancel, sanctuary, and is well 
shown at Kilpeck, Herefordshire, or, 
with chancel and sanctuary combined and 
a tower replacing the former, at Stewk- 
ley, Buckinghamshire. The third type 
leads us at once into the history of the 
transept placed properly in Byzantine 
and Early Christian Europe and its 
variations are too many to be adequately 
substantiated by less than a round dozen 
of illustrations ; fairly typical are Witney 
in Oxfordshire, Uffington in Berkshire, 
or Old Basing in Hampshire. 

Having thus set forth the various type 
forms of plan which characterize the 
English parish church, and having shown 
how the simplest of these types may de- 
velop into the most complex in the course 
of its life history, Mr. Cox undertakes to 
explain in the same systematic fashion 
the evolution of aisles, clearstories and 
chapels. Other sections of the excellent 
chapter on plan are assigned to studies of 
the cross plan, the tower, the porch, ves- 
try and ambulatory. 

A long chapter is next devoted to 
"Architectural styles in the English 
parish church." Mr. Cox recognizes 
seven steps in stylistic growth: 1, Saxon; 
2. Norman ; 3. Transitional ; 4. Early 
English; 5. Geometrical; 6. Decorated; 
7. Perpendicular. This classification car- 



ries his study from the Romano-British 
church excavated at Silchester in 1892, 
a truly pre-Saxon structure, as well as 
Brixworth and Earl's Barton Tower at 
one end, to the fine examples at Grant- 
ham, Lincolnshire, at Stratford-on-Avon, 
and that of Saint Nicholas, King's Lynn 
at the other, and covers the whole de- 
velopment of vaulting, tracery and carved 
ornament. 

The chapter on building materials is 
of great value. This side of the question 
of medieval work has received the mini- 
mum of attention in the past; and Mr. 
Cox's findings in this direction furnish 
an important contribution toward the 
revived study of the parish church. 
Stone, flint, brick and plaster are consid- 
ered in detail, with their many and varied 
illustrations, while the section on wood 
as a structural material is enll/ened by 
interesting discussions concerning doors 
and timber roofs. 

This volume is without doubt the best 
presentation that the English parish 
church has yet enjoyed. It maintains the 
excellent quality of Mr. Cox's earlier 
book on English Church, Furniture, to 
which he devotes but little attention in 
the volume under discussion, as well as 
the recognized standard of the Scribner- 
Batsford publications. There are over 
two hundred and seventy illustrations, a 
register of churches by counties and an 
excellent index; the volume lacks only a 
bibliography, which, in the first separate 
and complete treatment of the subject, 
would have been particularly in place. 

Certain architectural books of defin- 
itely assured quality defy the accumula- 
tion of fresh archaeological data. Such 
was Gaston Maspero's Manual of Egyp- 
tian Archaeology, recently republished by 
Putnam's, and another such is George 
Edmund Street's Some Account of 
Gothic Architecture in Spain. Works of 
this category may be reissued and re- 
edited, but to gather the material afresh 
for a new book in fields thus already cov- 
ered would be gratuitous labor. Street's 
book is now issued in two volumes under 
the editorship of Georgiana Goddard 
King (E. P. Button, New York, and J. 
M. Dent & Sons, London ; 12mo, pp. 356 
and 352, ill.; $2). Fortunately the text 
has been held inviolate unless it was nee- 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



essary to bring it to date; and, we ven- 
ture to say, wisely, the scope of the book 
has been considerably widened and its 
value heightened by Miss King's grasp 
and understanding of the subject as well 
as of her author. The additions to the 
text are not many, for, says the editor, 
Street was very thorough and Spain is 
very slow. What is more, the clearness 
of Street's vision has given a permanence 
to the truths that he saw in the stones 
which later critics and writers can only 
echo. The original illustrations from 
Street's sketches have been retained and 
the editor's notes have been set apart at 
the end of -each chapter. We might 
counsel a similiar good judgment for all 
prospective editors of recognized works, 
for a careless or unscrupulous editor is 
poor sauce to good meat. The present 
editor has gone about her work in an 
efficient manner and her additions are 
made with a briskness that characterizes 
the handbook ; Street never meant his 
Account to be anything else but a hand- 
book. "Baedeker is for the best part 
carved out of Street" and Street must 
be made to fill the gaps in the modern 
guide. The format of the new edition, 
which is slight and easily handled, ren- 
ders it eminently useful for this purpose, 
although it has fallen into the usual evil 
of small crowded type which makes the 
notes, at least, troublesome reading. We 
should also have appreciated a few mod- 
ern photographic illustrations. But these 
defects are readily overlooked. We are 
glad to welcome this and other editions 
of Street, as we should new editions 
of Piranesi or of DuCerceau ; students 
need them and architectural books of 
quality are too few in this country. 

A Guide to Gothic Architecture by Mr. 
T. Francis Bumpus (Dodd, Mead and 
Company, New York; octavo, pp. xii- 
359, ill.; $3), leads us to expect in its 
title a terse general text book. Instead, 
the author devotes three hundred pages 
to the history of English architecture, al- 
ready adequately treated by Francis Bond 
and others, and recalling somewhat his 
Cathedrals of England; while only fifty 
pages remain for a short summary ac- 
count of the style elswhere. Although 
there are over one hundred and 



forty illustrations, these are indistinct 
and of small scale; while only a very 
few poorly drawn plans appear. The 
text is well written, however, and set 
in large type. There is also a glossary of 
architectural terms and a brief index. 

Mr. William Gorham Rice sounds a 
fresh and attractive theme in his Caril- 
lons of Belgium and Holland; Tower 
Music in the Low Countries (John Lane 
Company, New York and London ; oc- 
tavo, pp. 232, ill.; $1.50). It is remark- 
able that a subject of such interest and 
historic value should so long have 
escaped the writers, especially since Mr. 
Rice records nearly sixty carillons in 
Holland and about fifty in Belgium. The 
author explains at length the mechanism, 
method of ringing and history of the 
bells and of the quaint traditional occu- 
pation of carilloneur, which, like that 
of bell founder, is an honorable family 
occupation handed on through succeed- 
ing generations. Extensive appendices 
contain lists of carillons in the Low 
Countries and elsewhere in Europe, as 
well as in the United States. 

A new book on the Lombard Towns of 
Italy, or The Cities of Ancient Lom- 
bardy (Dodd, Mead and Company, New 
York; 12mo, pp. xvii-590, ill; $1.75), 
completes Mr. Egerton R. Williams' tril- 
ogy of volumes on Italian cities of which 
the others bear the titles The Hill Towns 
of Italy and The Plain Toums of Italy, 
dealing respectively with the less known 
cities of the Apennines and the region 
north of Rome, and of Venetia. Mr. 
Williams has set out to write a guide 
book and has succeeded admirably. He 
has also adopted the guide book size for 
his work and in this respect the present 
volume is an improvement upon its 
predecessors. There is a good map of 
Lombardy and a thorough index. Books 
of this kind are to be recommended for 
the use of the architect, for they offer 
whenever required the necessary jog to 
the memory that would entail much 
searching in a larger work. They offer 
also in a concise form the historic fea- 
tures of a given structure, names of 
architects and dates, which are invariably 
buried in controversy in the more directly 
architectural publications. 




NOTES 

AND 
COMMENTS 



A Water Color 

Sketch in 
Terra Cotta. 



The little building of 
the Edison shops on 
Fifth Avenue, just be- 
low Forty-first Street, 
has all the freshness and 
sparkle of a water color 
sketch. It is full of in- 
terest and the personal- 
ity of its authors. But one cannot help 
feeling that the detail of the top story 
and the cornice do not seem to be alto- 
gether in harmony with that of the lower 
stories'. One wonders whether they were 
not detailed on different sheets and not 
seen together until the whole was in 
place. The modelling of the terra cotta 
in flat relief, the texture of the terra cotta, 
and the use of gold in connection with 
this material are all of great interest. 



An English contem- 
England's porary confides to us its 

Imminent suspicion that there may 

Italian be some truth in the ru- 

Revival. mor of 'another Italian 

revival in England. A 
glorious age, this, when 
one may proclaim a re- 
vival; when we may run the gamut of the 
architectural records of the past, and deck 
out a tradition in modern materials with- 
out a hint of modern interpretation. We 
may yet have a stylistic arbiter, who shall 
dictate the progress of the orderly repeti- 
tion of dead forms, a sort of Paul Poiret of 
stone and steel. Says the Architects' and 
Builders' Journal: "The spirit is yet but 
moving on the face of the waters'. But 
soon the new thing will be made manifest, 
and perchance we shall be harking back 
once more to Letarouilly . . ." Indeed, 
so long as we add so little of the person- 
ality of our time to the types we find in 
past styles, we might as well hark back to 




Churriguera. Perhaps after we have gone 
the rounds of reviving once more we shall 
have had time to devote to an architectural 
twentieth century. In this country, at least, 
we have the greatest opportunity, and, what 
is more, we have a saving eclecticism of 
taste to fall back upon. 



A Venial 

Professional 

Transgression. 



Two major causes have 
at last been fixed upon 
for the present weakened 
condition of old St. 
Paul's, London. The piers 
are in critical state be- 
cause Wren determined 
to use softer stone in 
place of the specified Portland stone, which 
required much time in transit under con- 
temporary conditions. What is more, the 
great chain which binds the stone work at 
the base of the dome has been found to be 
rusting. Mr. Marvyn Macartney has' in an 
official capacity investigated these weak- 
nesses, which have been the cause of a 
growing uneasiness in London, and the 
burden of his report seems to show, be- 
tween the lines, that Wren was actuated by 
the most human desire that ever moved an 
architect to commit a professional sin. He 
wanted to see his masterwork completed 
within his lifetime. No doubt he valued it 
even higher than his projected scheme for 
laying out London anew after the memor- 
able devastation of 1666. For the long 
years from 1675 to 1710 he worked upon 
this building with unflagging devotion, 
feeling no doubt from the outset that it 
was destined to be the focus of the English 
Renaissance in church building; and at the 
end the greatest pleasure that could come 
to a man engaged upon great work was 
vouchsafed him. The Underground was 
not within his ken and the pleasure of pos- 
terity in his building evidently clashed in 
his mind with his personal wish to witness 



568 



THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. 



the dedication of a completed St. Paul's. 
The artist's dream sought its realization 
and succeeded. Nor should we impugn his 
morals, for he was impelled by the most 
praiseworthy of professional weaknesses. 



The Arch 

of 
Constantine. 



The secret of the 
Arch of Constantine has 
at last been explained. 
Professor Arthur L 
Frothingham, an indefat- 
igable student of Ro- 
man archaeology, with 
the assistance of the 
Italian government, in the person of Com- 
mendatore Corrado Ricci, has made an ex- 
tensive examination of the structure. The 
investigation included a detailed study of 
the reliefs on the arch at close range and, 
as far as possible, of the masonry. Basing 
his conclusions chiefly upon an intimate and 
comprehensive understanding of Roman 
sculpture, Professor Frothingham has pub- 
lished in the American Journal of Archae- 
ology a series of papers demonstrating that 
the old theory of a reconstruction of one 
of the Trajan arches, either that in the Via 
Appia or that in the Forum of Trajan, is 
untenable. The arch in question was dedi- 
cated to Constantine in 313, but this could 
not have been an original dedication, since 
such arches were voted only in connection 
with a triumph, which in terms of Roman 
law was passed upon by the Senate and 
connoted the conquest of a foreign foe. 
Constantine had waged no war of foreign 
conquest, and his greatest military exploit 
was that which culminated in the defeat of 
Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. It was 
there, incidentally, that his conversion to 
the Christian faith took tangible form, for 
it was under the labanim, bearing the em- 
blem of Christianity that his soldiers 
achieved the victory. 

But if the arch was not primarily dedi- 
cated to Constantine the Great, what previ- 
ous occasion had caused it to be built? 
The solution is that in the case of Con- 
stantine we deal with a rededication, and 
that therefore the arch was erected for an 
earlier emperor. But arches were justified 



only by the pleasure of the Senate of the 
Imperial City; and their destruction de- 
pended also upon that pleasure. An arch 
or other memorial might remain standing 
for all time as a record of the glory of a 
ruler, but if the surfeit of his victories de- 
veloped in him the germ of tyranny, the 
Senate could cause his monuments to be 
cast down and his effigy to be mutilated. 
This was authorized by that governing 
body in the form of the memoriae damna- 
tio, a decree which implied the wanton de- 
struction of all memorials of the tyrant 
and the defacing of his images; the struc- 
tures so treated also became no man's prop- 
erty, and stood uncared for as an index of 
popular disfavor. 

The investigator's study of the reliefs 
and of the technique of their carving led 
him to ascribe the construction of the arch 
to the time of Domitian, who was emperor 
from 81 to 96 A. D., over two hundred 
years before the reign of Constantine. 
This emperor had made conquests in the 
east and in his case also the Senate had 
voted that the infamous name be erased 
from the monuments. Among the monu- 
ments to suffer from the denunciation and 
consequent mutilation was the present arch, 
which stood thereafter for many years un- 
claimed. Reliefs of the intervening period 
show it in position, and the carvings in the 
arch itself are assuredly of the earlier time, 
harking back to Greek suggestions or ac- 
tual workmanship. The inscriptions, the 
heads of Domitian, as well as other injured 
parts were in all cases carved anew and 
certain medallions added. The mode of in- 
sertion of these medallions betrays their 
later provenience, since the regular prac- 
tice of Roman construction is not adhered 
to, as would be imperative in the case of a 
single uniform structure. These alterations 
were made in the time of Constantine; for 
when it was found desirable to honor him 
for his final overthrow of all six rivals for 
the imperial throne, the iron-bound rule of 
Roman law precluded the erection of a new 
arch of triumph. Therefore the expedient 
was hit upon of rededicating the old Do- 
mitianic arch, and a historic example was 
thus provided of obedience to the letter of 
the law. R. F. B. 



O 




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