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Plate I 


0>i Etching by Miss M. Vigers 

January 1920. 

The Charm of the Country Town. 

Spalding, Lincolnshire. 
By Professor A. E. Richardson, F.R.I.B.A. 

ENGLISH country towns possess all the idiosyncrasies 
ascribed to them in eighteenth-century novels, and are 
equally fascinating in interest, holding one spellbound 
by directness of statement no less than by slow unravelling of 
the plot. To approach a country town by train is akin to 
encountering an old volume in a modern binding an effect 
heightened t>y the name of the town appearing at the station 
the label on the book. But if we enter by the high road, Fancy 
carries us back on her sweeping wings to the past, to the time 
of horses and wagons, of hostelries, market days, and fairs. 

Now, this preamble is intended to focus attention on 
Spalding in Lincolnshire, ninety-nine miles from Shoreditch 

Spalding is entered by four main roads. They come from 
the south, the east, and the north : there are none across the 
immense fen to the west. Both southern roads start from 
Peterborough ; one takes the .county by the bridge over the 
Welland at Market Deeping, and the other wanders through 
Crowland and Cowbit. All along the broad flat roads, with 
their attendant dykes and twenty-foot drains, the passenger 

:""*' *-;!?! ni-wJ* * 


I'ruiii a .S'Ac/iVi by llansli^ I-'lelclier. 

Then let it be the rule for those who desire intimate acquain- 
tance with the smiling features of England to take to the open 
road ; let them journey to the country towns in parties, and 
engage in talk. A country town approached in this manner 
by a company of enthusiasts becomes friendly to advances ; 
moreover, two or three people desirous of surprising its secret 
have a happy knack of assimilating local colour, quality, and 
flavour ; they are also independent of guide-books and staccato 
information. The leader outlines the history of the town for 
the benefit of the company ; each individual is free to make a 
discovery ; finally they lunch convivially in Pickwickian vein to 
summarize their adventures. The foregoing is the groundwork 
of town study ; the real enjoyment follows a week or so after 
the event, when old road-books and curious maps, prints, and 
descriptions are perused, reviving dormant memories and allow- 
ing full scope for dreaming. 

Few are unfamiliar with Ogilby's " Britannia Depicta " or 
" Paterson's Roads." Let those who have never seen these 
entertaining books procure copies of both excellent works; they 
will be amused ; perhaps they will be regretful ; but, willy 
nilly, they will be transported to the somnolent past. 


is overshadowed by majestic clouds ; he notices an occasional 
puff of smoke marking a straight line of railway across the fens ; 
he is relieved to find the interminable perspective of the 
highway punctuated by little brick inns and a few cottage 
holdings, and when he enters the market town his first remark 
invariably is, " How like Holland ! " There is a certain reason 
for this: the neat rows of small brick buildings, interspersed 
with houses of larger pretensions, the pleasant streets, soine 
cobbled and grass-grown, the Welland running through its 
centre, with stately trees along the banks, and the masts of 
diminutive ships, all combine to impart a Netherlandish look. 
The river with its canals is navigable for small coasting 
vessels, and large barges can be seen, moored to the bollards 
of tumbledown quays, discharging oil-cake and cotton-cake 
or receiving cargoes of vegetables, for this part of England 
is a busy agricultural centre. 

The Welland is the main artery of the town ; it was banked 
in Roman times, and is now spanned by iron railway bridges. 
(See Mr. Hanslip Fletcher's sketch.) The terraces and isolated 
mansions on either side of the river form with the rows of 
trees two stately boulevards meeting at the stone bridge near 


the centre of the 
town. There are 
old brick walls mel 
lowed by time and 
weather ; and mark 
the formal shapes 
of the ancient 
yews at Ayscough 
Fee Hall, once the 
home of Maurice 
Johnson, who aided 
in the foundation of 
the Society of Anti- 
quaries as well as 
the Gent 1 email's 
Society of Spalding, 
which still exists. 
These walks and 
pleasant houses 
have known many 
distinguished men, 
for Newton, Bent- 
ley, Pope, Gay, 
Addison, Stukeley, 
and Sir Hans 
Sloane, together 
with Captain Perry, 

sometime engineer to Peter the Great, were all members of 
the local Society. (See illustration of Garden at Ayscough 
Fee Hall on page 6.) 

No town in England can show better specimens of eighteenth- 
century domestic architecture of all types. There are brick 


boxes of narrow 
frontage standing 
in close order ; dig- 
nified mansions such . 
as the one near the 
church on the Hoi- 
beach Road (see ill us- 
tration), to which 
wings of later date 
give breadth, evi- 
dence of such altera- 
tions appearing in 
the wreaths over the 
capitalsto theporch. 
(See illustration 
below and Plate II.) 
Another fine 
brick house of the 
1775 period stands 
on the Cowbit Bank 
adjoining Ayscough 
Fee Hall. The 
composition of the 
front elevation is 
unique in its variety, 
not the least pleasing 
feature being the 

projecting portico and the Palladian window at the centre (see 
page 3), a minor idyll of the matured English renaissance. 

There are other items of interest on the Cowbit Bank, 
including wrought-iron railings of unique design, brick piers, 
porticoes, with a variety of door-hoods ; but as an extraordinary 




series of buildings 
remains to be stu- 
died, it is advisable 
at this juncture to 
cross the river to 
investigate the trea- 
sures enriching the 
Welland Bank. 

The first design 
to be studied is that 
of a late eighteenth- 
cent ury shop front 
nearthesignal cabin, 
No. 42 Welland 
Bank, which shows a 
harmonious relation- 
ship of segmental 

window and sympathetic entablature. The treatment of the 
consoles and the delicate enrichment to the architrave are 
especially commendable, as well as the rusticated plinth. (See 
illustration, page 5.) 

Welland Hall is a Georgian mansion of the 1750 period, 
chiefly remarkable for its solidity no less than for the ornate 
porch. This building (see pages 2 and (>) reflects the opulence 
of former residents of the town. The original railings and 
lamp-holders to the front garden are still in existence, although 
the oil-lamps have vanished. The building has been long 
adapted to the needs of a private school, but no vandal hand 
has marred its onginal character. 

Brewer}' House, on the Cowbit Bank (page _M, is a building of 
character; the line scale of the bay windows is notable, and the 
contrast of the windows to the bays with the porch and 
window over is not the least important feature of this elevation. 
The design belongs 
to the 170,0 period, 
and as the Brewer's 
residence the cha- 
racter of the front 
speaks for itself. 

A little farther 
south on the same 
Cowbit Bank stands 
No. 13, a house of 
the 1 765 period, with 
semicircular bow 
windows and porch 
probably added fifty 
years later. (See 
illustration, page 4.) 

The small Geor- 
gian house of the 
1730 period on the 
Welland Bank 
(see illustration, 
page 5) is especially 
suggestive as a pro- 
totype for modern 
buildings of like size. 

The pediment in this design expresses the centre and assists 
the grouping of the dormer windows ; the cornice is very 
slight in detail, and is enriched with a denticular member ; 
the central stack is given duality of expression, and becomes 
an integral feature of the design. 

" Limehurst," another small house on the Welland Bank, 
shows (page 6 a design of the 1825 period ; it is a prim elevation, 



lacking the robust 
character of the 
earlier work, but re- 
taining original fea- 
tures, such as the 
six-panelled door, to 
show the vitality of 
local custom. 

In addition to 
carrying houses of 
the small manor 
type and detached 
town residences, the 
Welland Bank, as 
it approaches the 
centre of the town, 
reveals some inter- 
esting examples of local development. An illustration is given 
of the group of terrace houses, Nos. 2<), 28, and ^7 Welland 
Bank, which were apparently intended to be continued if the 
fenestration speaks correctly. (See illustration, page 5.) 

In our itinerary we shall pause for a moment in front of 
No. i 7 Welland Terrace, a fair specimen of the town house in the 
country town, with a pediment and cornice, the latter enriched 
with slight modillions : this design belongs to the 1795 phase. 

In the main street near the White Hart Hotel there is an 
interesting building with double porches, the Doric columns to 
the latter being fluted, and a full entablature with triglyphs and 
mutules crowning the basement story. This building, which was 
erected about the year 1830, is now the Savings Bank. (Sec 
illustration, page (>.) 

Having finished the perambulation of the principal streets of 
the town and noted the attributes of the houses, it is possible to 

carry away some part 
of its charm and 
association. We de- 
part from its Geor- 
gian sobriety with 
feelings of respect 
we retain some ide a 
of its walled gardens 
and piers finished 
with elegant vases. 
The strength of its 
local tradition re- 
mains firmly im- 
pressed i n our m i nds, 
for we have seen 
rows of small brick 
houses on the roads 
leading out of the 
town, dated 1825, 
1830, and 1850, the 
majority of which 
have sashed win- 
dows with outside 
frames and door- 
pents with respect- 
able consoles. In the past Spalding appears to have gathered 
the whole talent of this corner of East Anglia to herself, and 
to have taken of the best ; but she had some compassion for 
the people of Moulton, Holbeach, and Long Sutton. Lynn, 
being in Norfolk, could look after itself. 

There is a subtlety of charm in the expression of English 
country towns that does not force itself on the notice of the 


No. 13 COWBIT. 

traveller: the mere tourist misses it altogether. Only the 
architect and the artist have the power to understand the sur- 
prises, the value of trees, lights and shadows, traffic and industry. 
Alas ! a great part of the old-world charm is passing, the 
gentility of the past is being slowly crowded out of existence 
for the pressure of hast'/ democracy is strong. 

What a joy it is to approach a country town by road on a 
market-day after a long tramp ! We meet 
all sorts of traffic. There are the lum- 
bering vehicles of the carriers ; droves of 
cattle, cows, pigs, and slice]); there is 
the local omnibus, resplendently black and 
yellow, piloted by a prosperous charioteer, 
who holds the reins like a monarch. 
We see farmers, with their wives, driving 
high-wheeled gigs, with perhaps a colt tied 
to the back of the machine, hastening 
towards their homesteads proudly conscious 
of their bargain. Small brick cottages dot 
the roadside as we approach the town. 
There are ple.isant gardens, with fruit- 
trees in front and at the sides, protected 
by white wooden palisades. There is the 
small alehouse with its accompanying 
horse-trough, four lime-trees, tumbledown 
barn, stabling for three horses, and outside 
seats at tables. Finally, before entering 
the town, we come to the larger type of 
Georgian house, such as those described 
above ; then the terraces of cottages, beau- 
tifully grouped poised, as it were, in 
perfect equilibrium without pose. There 
is the farriery, with the clang of iron on 
iron, the small corner general-shop, lanes 
to right and left, with tiny houses and even 
smaller ornamental gardens. And so we 

come to the market centre, and select the 
"White Horse," the "Black Swan," or 
whatever hostelry speaks the more elo- 
quently of our dreams. 

It is one thing to visit a country town 
to study forms and to jot down features 
that please, but quite a different task awaits 
us if we decide to build on similar lines. 
The old builders, from the days of the 
Restoration down to the time when the 
Corinthians of the Regency ogled pretty 
women from the tops of stage-coaches, 
built in a peculiarly restrained manner, as 
though they thoroughly understood the 
value of aristocratic insolence. As we 
study the past, especially from the stand- 
point of advanced opinion, it appears that 
for a hundred and fifty years the whole 
country no matter how remote the dis- 
trict was responsive to the demand for 
tasteful building. There ensued a practical 
standardization of detail. Each little town 
took its inspiration from the nearest cathe- 
dral city, or, failing that, from London. 
We can judge of the erudition and keen- 
ness of the architect-builders and local 
carpenters when we see the teachings of 
the quarto volumes reflected on every side. 
How strangely the doctrines of Palladio 

were construed we are now in a position to understand, for the 
picture is ready framed for our enjoyment. 

The curious thing about these country towns is that the 
buildings did not always result from the patronage of the aristo- 
crat, neither did the busy architect in every case prepare 
rendered drawings for the facades of exquisite proportion. The 
Squirearchy and the Bourgeoisie likewise shared ambitions to 




he considered in the fashion, and this they achieved through 
tin- medium of bricks and mortar combined with an instinct 
for good taste. The tale of eighteenth - century England is 
to be read in any old town. The distinctive levels of society 
can be noted at leisure; sometimes they serve even to this 
day. There are the great middle - class 
mansions, some with stone dressings, 
porches of (iargantuan proportions, im- 
mense stable-doors, and he ivy lamp- 
holders. Formerly the homes of prosperous 
brewers or maltsters whose descendants 
have long since graced the peerage, now 
they house the wealthy solicitor who is a 
prominent figure for miles around. Some 
of them have come into the hands of 
architects, who live in them and use them 
lovingly. There is the fine Adam-period 
house where the three maiden ladies live, 
distantly related let it be told with bated 
breath to a member of the Irish peerage. 
It is a fine house admired by everybody ; 
even the postman who carries the letters 
and parcels to that dainty front entrance 
feels the better for the privflege. The 
three maiden ladies have an eye for archi- 
tecture, but hi the main they merely look 
upon their house as a sort of waiting-room 
to the church. Another sort of house we 
all know it was built at the close of the 
eighteenth century. It has two segmental 
bow windows, delicate shallow eaves with 
panelled soffit, and the heads of lions 
to the half-round gutter. The door is 

attained per 
standard of 
wits against 
a feeling f< 
members of 

substantial. Two rather attenuated 
Doric columns mark the entry, the 
space between being filled with 
reeded pilasters and side-lights to 
the panelled door. The sphinx- 
headed door - knocker has seen 
many changes since the two gentle 
French ladies refugees from the 
Terror timidly opened a seminary 
for young ladies under the slated 
roof. Wonder of wonders, it is still 
a school for young ladies, and that 
round window at the side is the 
Kindergarten-room. And so we 
could travel together, studying and 
sampling the rich aroma of the past, 
admiring the whims and ambitions 
of those who have preceded us, 
noting the comfortable houses of 
eighteenth-century lawyers, mer- 
chants, and squires, who gratified 
their personal tastes for mahogany, 
plate, china, gardening, good cook- 
ery, and port. The chief architect 
and directing power of these old 
towns is revealed in the period 

itself. The cause can be explained; 

the result is more inexplicable. 

No one can allinn, even after 

nr.king allowance' lor tin: state 

of England during the reign of 

the (ieorges, that the Arts then 

fed ion: but of one thing we are certain, the general 

taste was high. Many a laugh was raised by the 

the aspirations to taste ol the tradesmen who had 

>r chinoiserie and girandoles: yet these despised 

society spent their hard-earned guineas in building 

No,. 29, 28 & 27 WELLAND BANK TERRACE. 


the houses we of a later day 

covet for our own use. 1 o 

the exacting demands of 

modern conditions it may 

appear an almost impossible 

task to attempt to resuscitate 

the domestic architecture of 

the past, eighteenth-century 

or otherwise. There are some 

who opine that we must 

attempt something entirely 

new that the public, long 

suffering at the hands of 

architects, is entitled to a new 

style. There is another side 

to the argument which bears 

directly upon both aspects of 

the problem. At the present 

time we are realizing the importance of insular tradition- were prompt 

no longer do we look upon the exemplars as likely to provide fighting 


towns ; in which respect 
Spalding is certainly as typical 
as any other town of the mode 
of building in which the 
modern spirit has been made 
clearly manifest, expressing 
unmistakably the newly 
acquired feeling of security 
and prosperity. 

Surely the charm of the 
English country town, no less 
than that of the English 
village, sinks into our minds 
and souls and helps to make 
us what we are helps us to 
realize, as the designers of 
recruiting posters of the old 
unhappy days of yesteryear 
we live in a country that is worth 
this action reciprocal ? Our an- 



copy. Our studies go deeper than mere play-acting. 
we would understand the human proportions of doors a IK 
dows, the simple ren- 
dering of brickwork 
without doubt the 
principal and perhaps 
the most suitable of 
building materials in 
this country. 

We are eager to 
understand both cause 
and effect ; and if 
reference to the gems 
in the national trea- 
sury will assist, we 
should avail ourselves 
of motifs both prac- 
tical and essentially 
modern in spirit. 

These conditions 
are fulfilled to admira- 
tion in most of our 
respectably aged 
English country 


cestors of two centuries ago 
and how strongly their ideas 


put their hearts into this work, 
of hone react upon us! 

It is, then, no mere 
idle sentimental tour 
that we have taken 
through this typical 
English country town 
of Spalding. Senti- 
ment, if it be genuine, 
and not merely senti- 
mentality, which is a 
sorry mockery of the 
real thing, is, indeed, 
never idle. It leavens 
the national character, 
inspiring it no less to 
noble deeds than to 
homely virtues. And, 
wit h the wealth of beau- 
tiful, though com- 
paratively humble, 
building before them, 
how can men build 
meanly ? 

The School of Oriental Studies, London Institution. 

THIS school is in Finsbury Circus, in the City of 
London. It was established by Royal Charter in 
June 1916. 

The aims of the school may be summarized briefly as 
follows : (i) To provide a great University centre for Oriental 
and African studies and research ; (ii) to provide training in 
languages, literature, history, religions and customs, for 
military and civil officers of Government, and for any other 
persons about to proceed to Africa and the East for com- 
mercial or other enterprises. 

The school was created as the outcome of the reports of 
two Government committees, and is intended to provide 
London with a centre for Oriental teaching adequate to the 
needs of the metropolis and of the Empire, and one that will 
remove the reproach that London has hitherto been without 
an institution comparable to the Oriental Schools of Paris, 
Berlin, and Petrograd. 

There is no reason whv the London Oriental School should 

not equal if not surpass in efficiency the similar schools abroad 
that have earned high reputation by their promotion of the 
study of the East ; for the London scheme of studies, as out- 
lined by the Reay Committee, is both extensive and ambitious. 
In the founding of this school it has been at last recognized that 
something practical should be done to bring the East nearer to 
us to come into closer intellectual association with it. Britain's 
commercial interests in the vast regions which she governs in the 
Near East, India, the Far East, and Africa, are obviously enor- 
mous. By promoting the study not only of the languages, but 
also of the history, customs, and religions of the Orient, this 
school may well hope to bridge the gulf that yawns so prodigi- 
ously between East and West. The modern scheme of training 
includes the teaching of Turkish, Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, 
Bengali, Tamil, and other Indian dialects, Malay, Chinese, 
Japanese, and, among the African dialects, Swahili and Hausa. 
Adequate buildings were provided for the school by Govern- 
ment under the London Institution (Transfer) Act of 1912, 




and the sum of 25,000 required for 
the alteration and extension of the 
buildings of the London Institution 
for the purposes of the school was 
voted by Parliament. 

The area of the site is about 
20,800 sq. ft. The London Institu- 
tion, now occupied by the school, 
was built a hundred years ago. This 
old building has been considerably 
altered and adapted internally to suit 
its new purpose, and a large addition 
has been built on to it, forming a 
new wing, which contains the class- 
rooms of the school. 

The original main building, which 
has been redecorated, contains on the 
ground floor a fine columned entrance 
hall, 40 ft. by 27 ft., to the left of 
which are the office, director's room, 
and secretary's room, and to the right 
two rooms for the present use of the 
"continuing members" of the old 
institution, and a members' and staff 

The range of columns at each si !e 
of the entrance hall is spaced like 
the front peristyles of Ionic temples 
in Asia .Minor: the central inter- 
columniation being the widest, the 
side bays narrowing in proportion. 
Immediately behind the entrance hall 
is a large and well-lighted staircase 
hall, 28ft. by 24 ft., from which there 
is direct access to the new wing 
and to the large lecture theatre. On 
the ceiling of the hall Mr. Simpson 
discovered the original decoration of 
100 years ago cream flowers on a 
blue ground -and had them restored. 
The principal staircase leads to the 
library, one of the finest rooms of its 
kind in England, which occupies the 
whole of the first floor of the main 
block of the original building, and 
covers a space 0.8 ft. by 42 ft. and is 
28ft. in height. The flights of the 
main staircase originally branched 
right and left. Mr. Simpson had to 
sweep away, with regret, the flight on 
one side in order to obtain communi- 
cation on the first floor between the 
old building and the new wing. 
Along the sides of the library (in 
which a new fire-resisting floor was 
laid, with new oak boards on top) 
are recesses lined with bookcases, and 
in the corners four small rooms for 
the librarian and his staff, or for 
special work. The library has an 
entirely new scheme of decoration ; the 
wreaths on the frieze are additions'. An 
upper tier of bookcases in the gallery, 
which hid entirely the main cornice 
of the room and spoilt its pro- 


portions, was swept away. The painted enrichments on mould- 
ings and other portions are based on existing remains of colour 
on the Parthenon and Propylzea, Athens. Above the recesses 
and corner rooms is a wide gallery, at the level of the second 
floor, which runs all round the room, also lined with book- 
cases. This gallery is reached direct from the library by a 
spiral staircase, and also by a small private staircase from the 
first floor landing of the principal staircase. The private stair- 
case also provides access to the committee-room and women's 
staff-room on the second floor, and to the caretaker's quarters 
on the third floor. In the basement of the main building are 
the men students' common-room, luncheon-room (with kitchen, 
etc., alongside), lavatories, lockers, etc. 

The lecture theatre, which is part of the original design, 
is stately and well proportioned, 64 ft. in width, approximately 
semi-elliptical in form, and with se:its rising in tiers accom- 
modating about five hundred persons. It is exceedingly well 
lighted by a single circular lantern, which, when required, can 
be darkened by a specially fitted black blind. The main 
approach to the theatre was very narrow and cramped, and 
has been doubled in width and entirelv remodelled. An 

entirely new entrance has also been built in the corner, to the 
south-west of the main building, leading direct from Finsbury 
Circus, with large vestibule, porter's box, cloak-room, etc. 
This entrance is so arranged that the the.itre, when desired, 
can be cut off entirely from the rest of the building, so as to 
enable it to be used, with the consent of the governing body, 
for lectures, meetings, etc., by bodies having no direct con- 
nexion with the school. In addition to these two entrances 
there is a new emergency exit to Kldon Street. At the back 
of the theatre, on its "well" level, are two rooms for the 
teaching staff of the school, approached from the main build- 
ing and opening into the theatre by a door from each room. 
These doors give the lecturers access to the theatre, and would 
also provide additional exit in case of fire. 

The teaching work of the school will be carried on entirely 
in the new wing, save for lectures in the lecture theatre and 
reading in the library. 

The new wing has been built on the old garden of the 
institution, behind the mam building and attached to it. It 
tares Kldon Street to the north and a courtyard to the 
south, and consists of a snb-b.isement. containing the heating 




chamber, coal cellars, book store, etc. ; a basement, the 
windows of which are above the level of the ground 
outside; and four floors above. It is reached from the 
main building, at the basement level from the lower hall, 
under the principal staircase ; at the ground-floor level from 
the staircase hall, as already mentioned ; and at the first- 
floor level from a landing which is a continuation of the 
first-floor landing of the principal staircase. 

The original old fit- 
tings in the main build- 
ing are exceedingly good 
and interesting. Most 
were covered by coats 
of paint, all of which 
have been removed and 
repolished, so that the 
material, in many cases 
lead, shows. 

On each floor of the 
new wing is a corridor 
along its entire length, 
facing Eldon Street, 
which gives access to 
the classrooms and has 
a staircase at each end. 
As regards the elevation 
of the new wing facing 
Eldon Street, there is 
only a corridor, with a 
staircase at each end, 
along this front. The 
windows consequently 
could be few and com- 
paratively small. Few 
fronts in the City can 
show so large a propor- 
tion of plain wall to 
window. The western 
staircase, i.e., the one 
approached direct from 
the main building, is 
the more important, and 
contains a passenger lifl 
which serves all floors. 
From this lift direct 
access is also obtained 
to the committee-room, 
on the second floor of the 
building, through a private 
and cloakroom. 

All the classrooms in the new 
wing, seventeen in number, face 
the courtyard, partly to avoid the 
noise from Eldon Street, and 
partly to give them a southern 
aspect. The basement, first, 
second, and third floors, each 
contain four rooms, about 21 ft. 
by 15 ft. 6 in. Two rooms on each 
floor are fitted as small lecture- 
rooms and two as seminar- 
rooms. On the ground floor is 
the lecture-room, 32 ft. by 21 ft., 
with seating accommodation for 
seventy. By the aid of a sliding 



- -r- 


partition at the end, however, the seminar-room beyond can be 
thrown into the lecture-room, increasing the accommodation 
to about a hundred and ten. The lecture-room has a raised 
platform for the lecturer, a double blackboard, and a lantern 

At the end of the wing on the ground floor is the women 
students' common-room ; their cloakroom and lavatories are on 
the same floor at the back of the main building. 

The London Insti- 
tution Building was 
designed and erected by 
the architect William 
Brooks (father of 
Shirley Brooks, for 
many years editor of 
"Punch") in 1815-19. 
It is a good example of 
the " Greek Revival " 
of a hundred years ago, 
and contains some beau- 
tiful detail, especially 
in the old fittings, 
mostly of lead. The 
lamps have been fitted 
for electric lights. In 
the numerous altera- 
tions which have now 
been made to the 
original building to fit it 
for the use of the School 
of Oriental Studies, care 
has been taken to retain 
the old design as far as 
possible intact, and to 
make the necessary 
alterations in the same 
style as and in harmony 
with the earlier work. 
The original front to 
Finsbury Circus re- 
mains untouched, except 
for the new title over 
the entrance portico. 
Special attention has 
been paid to the re- 
decoration inside the 
entrance hall, staircase 
hall, lecture theatre, and library. 
The new wing has been designed 
to be in keeping with the main 
building, both as regards the 
internal finishings and the outside 
Portland-stone front to Eldon 
Street. All additions, altera- 
tions, and redecoration were 
designed by and carried out 
under the superintendence of the 
architect, Mr. F. M. Simpson, 
F.R.I. B.A. 

Among the contractors concerned in 
the work were J. W. Jerram, who executed 
all redecoration work ; Arlesey Brick Co., 
bricks ; Dorman, Long & Co,, steel work ; 
the Kleine Syndicate, fireproof erections ; 
Jackson & Sons, plaster work ; the Bost- 
wickGate Co., gates, railings, etc. ; Carter 
& Co., terrazzo work ; and Tubbs & Farey, 
relacquering work. 

The Entrance, looking from Fruit Garden. 

Plate III. 

The Terrace Front. 

Guy Dawber. F.R.I B.A., Architect. 

January 1920. 

" Eyford," Gloucestershire. 

" | ^ VFOKl) " was built some seven or eight years ago, 
_^ almost on the site of an older house erected half a 
century ago, so that much of the weathered material 
was available for the newer house. 

It is situated in the he.irt of the Cotswold country, high up 
on rising ground, commanding a great stretch of landscape to 
the south. 

The older house, though very well built, was dull and uniu- 

On the north side, between the forecourt and fruit garden, 
the road to the stables passes, and is partly sunk, with steps 
down to it and up again through iron gates, as shown in the 
photographs, into a long turf path, bordered by herbaceous 
tlowcrs, terminating in a summer-house making a charming 
vista when looking out from the front entrance. 

One of the advantages of building on an old site is that 
generally there is timber. Here there were very many 


teresting a great gaunt structure, with long central corridor 
cutting the building absolutely into two halves. It was im- 
possible to remodel it in any way, so the present house was 
built in its place. 

The gardens, terraces, entrance court, and approaches were 
all re-planned and re-laid out, and as the hedges and gardens 
grow up they will complete a very pleasant home. 

beautiful trees; indeed, several had to be cut down to make 
way for the new arrangements of gardens. 

The house is built of local stone, and is covered with the 
well-known Kyford stone slates, made and quarried on the 
estate. They are thick and rough in texture, and look exceed- 
ingly well. Of late years there has been a tendency to get these 
slates thin and smooth and with neatly squared edges an 






absolutely wrong treatment of material, and giving a quite 
different appearance to the roof. 

Internally the house calls for no special comment. The plan 
is straightforward and simple: it is frankly treated in a conven- 

tional manner, with a classical feeling in thejjarrangement of 
fireplaces, wall spacing, and so on. The result is a sensible 
and at the same time dignified country house. 

Only one interior view is given that of the hall (see below), 




and this may be said to strike the keynote of the 
general style of the interior. Formal without frigidity, it 
suggests, as a hall shoi.ld, a slightly formal welcome, and 
affords a true foretaste of the elegance and comfort to be 
found in the inner apartments to which it is as it were the 
preface or the overture. The ovcrdoor mouldings arc perhaps 

slightly too heavy. The flanking pillars lend considerable 
dignity to the central staircase. 

Mr. (iuy Dawber, F.R.I.B.A., was the architect, and 
the work was carried out by Messrs. Walker and Slater, of 
Derby, the general building contractors : the heating and 
sanitation by Messrs. Dent and Ilellyer, of London. 

Some Examples of Modern Memorials. I. 

By Walter H. Godfrey, F.S.A. 

MODERN art falls to be discussed in terms of personality. 
It surely will not always be so, but ever since the 
advent of the Renaissance the personality of the indi- 
vidual artist has been an increasing factor in the production of 
art. During the mediaeval period personality was almost wholly 
merged in the vigorous and constant stream of inspiration that 
flowed from the Church, and even after the great change in the 
orientation of thought which led men to seek a fresh impetus from 
Classic sources, the individual's share in the new achievement 
was not greater than that which could be claimed by the general 
movement of the times. Nowadays, however, since the nations 
have largely lost their art -consciousness, and have not yet found 
it again, we are entirely dependent on the personality of single 
artists or small groups of craftsmen ; for in default of the com- 
pelling force of a true art-epoch we have to fall back upon a 
study of the past and watch the reaction of one style after another 
on our contemporaries. Each man is like a lonely ship one 
solitary sail of a dispersed fleet and makes his own adventurous 
quest on the waters that most attract him. Some day, perhaps 
not far distant, each wandering barque will feel the pressure of a 
common favouring breeze, and all will find themselves in company 
again, pursuing one and the same goal. 

Whenever the modern artist fails, as is not seldom, to bring 
to birth a satisfying and beautiful result, we shall not be wrong 
in blaming him less than the times in which he lives. The 
artist is no subtle thinker, no adept at self-analysis ; he is seeking 
the means of expression, directly, emotionally, and he needs a 

full diet which the present day denies him. In a state of semi- 
starvation his emotions fly to the works of every and any master 
for the nutriment which the life of his fellows cannot afford him ; 
but since he can seldom reason safely about his work or his 
environment, he imagines that each of his quests is a reflectioi. 
of a genuinely modern aim. He is right only in so far as the 
diversity of his own and his brother artists' ambitions reflects the 
uncertainty of current convictions and the absence of an articu- 
late purpose in Society. 

But, putting aside, with the irrepressible irreverence of the 
critic, the expressed aims of modern artists, we may find in 
their excursions into various styles much that is pleasing, much 
that is tmite beautiful, and an aggregate of good work that gives 
fair promise for the future when our hearts have learned to beat 
in time. Modern education, hopelessly bad as it is, has not 
been altogether in vain. We have all learned something of what 
the world is capable of doing at its best ; a thousand hands and 
brains have been at work, turning over and sifting the countless 
art products of all the ages, and men are finding out much about 
the principles of design. We are all learning hard, we are 
discovering painfully the elementary canons of taste, we are 
paying big prices in sale-rooms for objects our fathers would 
have destroyed, and sometimes we are pausing to admire them 
for their own sake. All this is having a real and noticeable 
effect. The commercial art of the country is showing signs of 
an appreciation of a higher standard of excellence. And be 
assured that until the commercial work the bulk of the nation's 



Alfred Gilbrr:, Sculplor. 

purchases improves, and reaches some intelligent appreciation 
of its purpose, the superior artist will have no real success. You 
cannot have peaks where there are no mountains. 

To show that there is a general awakening to the elementary 
needs of good design, a few examples of modern work have been 
collected (almost at random) and illustrated here. It would be 
invidious to particularize on their merits; it is obvious 'that 
the}- represent a very small proportion of the work of numerous 
busy studios. The influence of the simple direct methods and 
carefully devised lettering of historical examples is obvious in 
many of them, and they afford welcome evidence that both 

architects and craftsmen are beginning in the right way by 

the careful study of first principles and that their efforts are 
not without public recognition. 

In taking a general view of modern work, however, it is very 
clear that we have a long way to travel before we can hope to 
reach any general co-ordinated style which will stand for the 
present age. Not that we may not compass that long journey 
in a very brief space of time, for the genuine art-impulse prefers 

to descend like a flash of lightning, and disdains the slow evolution 
of natural processes. But, though the time is not yet when we 
may see all the threads worked into the one great woven tapestry 
which we call "style," there are men at work who would in 
altered times be worthy to fill the position of master-craftsmen. 
Perhaps chief among these, notwithstanding his voluntary exile 
from England, stands the figure of Alfred Gilbert. To many his 
name speaks of an almost remote past, yet those who have had 
the privilege of meeting this great artist in his studios in Bruges 
and Brussels know and rejoice that he is still well and vigorous, 
and that his hand has lost none of its cunning. Gilbert is one 
of those artists rare in modern times whose imagination soars 
to the highest realm of poetry and imagery, and who at the same 
time is a master of practical craftsmanship and a gifted student 
of architectural forms. His knowledge and love of architecture, 
of its conventions, its processes, the details of its structure and 
the functions of its mouldings, give to his work an admirable 
sanity, and keep clean and wholesome the flights of his fancy 
without checking its exuberance. It is this that has given him 
his wonderful insight into the requisite elements of memorial 
sculpture. He has seized with unerring instinct the one essen- 
tial fact that the act of raising a memorial is a hallowed one. 
Sorrow, pride, affection, and the mortal desire for immortality, 
meet together in the wish to memorialize the dead. The vulgar 
scoff at so hackneyed a human incident ; the callous deride the 
excess of our tenderness or our panegyric : the shopman with his 
tongue in his cheek offers us his funeral wares, and profits by our 
pain. But Alfred Gilbert is no merchant of the funeral urn. 





IS6 1 ) IQh 

Designed by Ernest G. Gillick. 


Each occasion of 
mourning is unique to 
him, as it is to the 
mourner. The experi- 
ences common to all 
the race are as if they 
were not until each of 
us is touched by his 
own personal trial, and 
the artist who feels 
this truth is straight- 
way in creative mood. 
The memorial appears 
to him a sacred com- 
mand, an imperative 
need to give expression 
to our homage to the 
life that has gone. 
Hence the reverent 
beauty in (iilbert's 
memorial to Henry 
Fawcett in Westmin- 
ster Abbey and to K. 
("alderott in St. Paul's 
Cathedral. The sym- 
bolic figures in the 
former and the dainty 
child in the latter are 
not merely bits of 
exquisite imagery and 
artistry, they are com- 
pletely fitting tributes 
to the men in whose 
honour they stand ; and 
the architectural set- 
ting, in each case so 
different, is in both a 
triumph in its own 
way. Much hasty cri- 
ticism of (iilbert's architecture has been heard, similar to 
that bestowed on many another sculptor whose abilities enable 
him to create an architectural composition. Posterity will, I 
think, reck little of these detractors, and will find nothing but 
grace and charm in these works of simple inspiration. 

I have dwelt on Alfred Gilbert's work because it appears to 
me that he points the way to 
the goal which we would all 
fain seek. The memorial 
tablet, the finely lettered in- 
scription on marble or brass, 
even the altar tomb with its 
dignified recumbent effigy, can 
be obtained by those who will 
place the work in a studio 
where enthusiastic and skilful 
craftsmen are found. But a 
step higher, and our quest 
becomes difficult. Symbolism 
has become a lost art ; and 
Imagery, even when fair her- 
self, is housed in strange 
temples. Something {slacking, 
and that something has more 
to do with the heart than with 
the brain or the hand. 

Designed by Ernest G. Gi 

Executed by Martyn, Cheltenham. 

Gratifying as it is 
to recognize the strides 
that have been taken 
in the more satisfying 
treatment of the me- 
morial tablet, we can- 
not but recognize a 
falling off in other 
branches of the art, 
and nowhere is the 
need more urgent for 
improvement than in 
the design of head- 
stones for the church- 
yard. I referred at 
some length to this 
subject in my second 
article on memorials, 
and tried to show that 
the number and beauty 
of tin- older examples 
left no excuse for the 
vulgarities which are 
still perpetrated day 
by day. Some of mil 
artists are alive to the 
abundant possibilities 
of the headstone, and 
I cannot illustrate 
these better than by 
the two designs which 
Mr. ICrnest (iillick has 
been kind enough to 
lend me for the pur- 
pose of this article. 
In OIK- of these the 
beautiful (.reek prac- 
tice of introducing the 
figure of the deceased 

and his friends in a little composition in low relief is shown to 
be quite in keeping with traditional forms. The graceful and 
simple lines of the two stones show by their success the wide 
opportunities which are being lost through indifference. One 
can understand the sculptor's reluctance to condemn the 
products of his own travail to stand cheek by jowl with the 

banalities of the monumental 
mason in our modern ceme- 
teries. Hut in many a quiet 
country churchyard the artist 
may find a setting for a rare 
tribute to the dead, and even 
in the cemetery a loyal devo- 
tion to the duty inherent in 
memorial sculpture may 
triumph over the depressing 
character of the surroundings. 
It is probable, however, that 
not until we re-plan with skill 
and loving care the ground set 
apart for our dead, shall we 
induce the artist to enter this 
neglected arena. 

On the whole the outlook 
for art, and for memorial art 
in particular, is far from 


discouraging. The Philistine 
is still in evidence, but he no 
longer occupies an entrenched 
camp. Entry has been made 
into so many of his strong- 
holds that he has already been 
forced out into the open, and 
is becoming somewhat ashamed 
of his nakedness. His chief 
allies are the strong forces of 
materialism that threaten to 
undermine the fair structures 
of human idealism. Where 
wages are a theme of greater 
interest than the quality of 
workmanship, there the flower 
of inspiration dies. But 

though, for the moment, the 
bad genii appear to clou 1 the 
he ivetis with the multitude of 
their wings, a gre.iter host 
prepares to defeat them, and 
the purifying influence of the 
Great War will effect as signal 
a triumph as ever attended 
the production of the magic 
seal of Solomon. 

This and a further article 
series (July to October issues) de, 
rials of various types and of 


Erected by the Parishion 
in loving memory of 



the dearly loved &nd only cjfiild of 

the Rector yK) Parish ' Georgina his wife 

billed in action ne&r TbifcpV&l, France 

on the ifth day of M^ 1916, Aged zs. 

sun and certain hopf" 


By E. Farley Cobb, A.R.I.B.A. 
Executed by J. Daymond and Son. 

are supplementary to a 
ding succinctly with memo- 
different periods. In the 

be explicitly inferred from 
rial to an eminent artist 
St. Paul's Cathedral.. 

illustrations it has not been 
always possible to state with 
certainty the mater al from 
which the memorial has been 
shaped. Usually the char- 
acter of the design is a fairly 
clear indication of the sub- 
stance in which it is wrought, 
the craftsman's hand no less 
than the dyer's, though in a 
very different way, being 
"subdued to what it works 
in," the medium affecting the 
method. Often, of course, 
there is a combination of two 
or more materials. For ex- 
ample, iu Mr. Alfred Gilbert's 
beautiful memorial to Ran- 
dolph Caldecott, of which the 
illustration (see page 14) has 
been reproduced, by courteous 
permission of the publishers, 
from Mr. Lawrence Weaver's 
book on " Memorials and 
Monuments," the figure is of 
painted bronze set in grey 
marble : but such facts cannot 
i photograph. This fine memo- 
las been placed in the crypt of 

.^\',&miti , 


.-d are t. 
tfieu shall see C, 

Q/ Qj 

long c/Ay power' nata blest 
. tt sti// WilL Lead me on. 
.ioor and Jen, o'er craq and 
it. till Sftie riiufit iS'-iione; 

' f'' ; J^7 

' U . 

To the Glory o/ God 
and in loving memory o/ 


Sec-Lieut-i s J Battalion 

J(ings Shropshire Light Infantry 

#ho died of wounds receive^ 

the Battle of the Somme 

" October n fc i? 1916. 

Aged lyye&rs, 

"A good life herfh but/cw 
days?fe: 1 name 

Executed by Farmer a nd Brjndley. 

Decoration & Furniture 

in England 
during the i yth and i8th Centuries, 


()!' all the ingredients of a home are comprehended in building 
ami planting; ami, house ana 1 pleasannce liaving been contrived, 
remains that rare pleasure of filling the casket with its 

II 'c will invent occasion to visit, weigh, ami critically examine 
the merits of jormer productions our aim to borrow and perfect, and to 
create anew if we are not abashed. In one fine house the prudent architect lias 
bl a nncd impressively : on entering, the eye is gratified b\ a spacious hall, 
and lights upon a staircase ample in proportions and easv of ascent, following 
the sinuous glistening curve of handrail and answering dado : above, the walls 
are painted "en grisaille," rising to the dim ceiling, where, under a painted dome, 
gay pntti sport with bright macaws, or peer at the scene below over a carve// 
balustrade. That pillared dome, rare cupola, and glimpse of .V/T, are but 
painters artifice ; vet the eye is held enchanted. 7'o onr left a pair of doors, 
widely spaced, fiank a handsome table frang/it with a top of rare marble or 
armorial scagliola and above, a mirror high and wide, and glazed as if with 
crystal, enframed in gesso finely wrought, and topped with scrolls and aiireated 
mask reflects the scene, fitfully enlivened with more transitory beauties. Bright 
tongues of flame leap within their frame of variegated alabaster, irradiate the 
hearth, and glint on polished firedogs, bright as silver. . I noble bust of Nero 
or l r itcllins is admirably placed, a portrait gazes from the walls its sitter 
edified. A pause hat, coat, and clouded cane resigned and we are ushered in I 

Decoration and Furniture 

From the Restoration to the Regency. 
By Ingleson C. Goodison. 

IN some quiet environ of London, or perhaps within sighi 
and sound of Piccadilly, one may encounter a grand old 
house, dating from the seventeenth or the eighteenth 
century, which still preserves evidence of the obvious and 
intimate relationship between architecture and decoration. 
Spacious staircases and lofty salons answer to the imposing 
grandeur of a stone facade: fine furniture is nobly posed; 
brilliant pictures and tall 
mirrors grace the walls ; 
rich carpets subdue each 

The house and its con- 
tents may crystallize a 
period, incarnate a fashion, 

or witness the 
march of two 
Here one may 
admiration of 
quisite specimen 



carver's or chaser's art a 
panel of Mortlake or petit- 
point, a chiselled sconce 
perhaps by Lamerie, a ser- 
vice of gay Hattersea 
enamel, a miniature by 
Milliard or Cosway, a 
bloomy pastel in a carvcn 

Art, in that fortunate 
period, was active over a 
very wide range, and it is 
hard to say in which domain 
it reached the zenith of its 
excellence. The buildings 
of Inigo Jones or Wren, 
the carvings of Grinling 
Gibbons, furniture of 
Marot, metalwork of Tijou, 
a noble full-length by Van 
Dyck, Lely's soft-eyed 
languorous beauties, a clock 
by Knibb or Daniel Quare, 
a crystal chandelier, a door- 
lock of pierced and gilded 
brass all were master- 
pieces. What, then, shall we declare of the conjoint effect 
of so much excellence? 

During the whole course of two centuries it shall be hard to 
affirm which was the golden epoch -the most brilliant period of 
the decorative arts in Great Britain. The difficulty of examining 
an unbroken series representative of the wide range embraced by 
the subject, and the fact that this is a branch neglected by the 
art-historian, renders obligatory the collection of all available 
material, A review, however imperfect, of the decorative arts in 


England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries will 
help us to realize anew the wealth of our artistic patrimony. 

At the opening of the seventeenth century, which coincides 
with the accession of James I (1605) and the beginning of the 
Stuart dynast\' in England, the prevailing style for half a centurv 
was merely a sequel to that inaugurated under the vigorous rule 
of Elizabeth. Oak was the predominant material for decorative 

woodwork, though panelling 
of deal then considered a 
rather exotic and precious 
wood was not unknown, 
in some instances decorated 
with colour, distemper 
being the medium gener- 
ally employed. In both 
materials wall-lining took 
tlu form (jf thin and narrow 
framing, enclosing small 
oblong adzed panels deli- 
cately moulded, and, where 
oak was used, exhibiting 
line " tortoiseshell " mark- 
ings of the grain, monotony 
being avoided in the case 
of larger apartments by the 
use of alternate rows of 
upright and horizontal or 
arcaded panels, and In- 
dividing the surface into 
bays with pilasters orna- 
mented with llutes and 
incuse strapwork, a sense 
of greater relief being ob- 
tained by the application 
of fret-cut ornaments, raised 
"jewelling," and balustered 
or pendant-shaped half- 
turnings. Mi nor doors were 
small and low, their panels 
aligned with those of the 
surrounding woodwork, 
from which they were 
frequently distinguished 
only by their hanging and 
striking stiles and top-rail, 
the first-named bearing the characteristic H and H_, or 
" frog " hinges of tinned-wrought-iron, affixed with nails. 
Attention was concentrated upon important doorcases, internal 
" porches," and chimneypieces, whereon the whole armoury 
of the immigrant and native craftsmen was directed 
grotesques, terms, strapwork, "cuirs," obelisks, pierced crest- 
ing, giant gadrooning, and rustication adopted from the 
current German and Flemish pattern-books of Dietterlin and 
De Vries. 

'. C. Ha 

, Esq. 



It cannot be denied that these effects were rich, racy, and 
picturesque. The period was formative, a version of a version, 
which rushes us far beyond "that milestone of architectural 
history, the Banqueting House, Whitehall," a true exotic ;it the 
period 'to which we are arrived. This will be better appre- 
hended if we turn for a moment to current exemplars like 
Blickling Hall, Norfolk, the Abbot's Hospital, Guildford, or 
Rawdon House at Hoddesdon, or the earlier houses of Chastle- 
ton, Bramshill, and Knole which exhibit all the characteristic 
features of Jacobean architecture and internal adornment. At 
the last-named are preserved superb examples of contemporary 
furnishings, attesting the high standard of domestic comfort and 
amenity in rich upholstery and superb decorative accessories. 
Long galleries and imposing rooms are ceile \ with ornamental 
plaster, and filled with pictures and fine hangings of tapestry : 
windows are rich with 
armorial glass ; a stair- 
case is decorated en 
grisaille ; the bed - 
rooms are equipped 
with tall beds of state 
magnificently draped ; 
settees, chairs, stools, 
wear their splendid 
livery of velvet, dam- 
ask, or brocade ; and 
groups of silver furni- 
ture tables, mirrors, 
gueridons, sconces, a 
complete toilet-service 
of the same precious 
metal attest ad- 
vanced civili/ation un- 
der Stuart rule. 

James the First en- 
deavoured to promote 
sericulture, "silko- 
mania " being a pre- 
vailing European dis- 
temper, and a glorious 
page in the annals of 
British art was opened 
with the foundation 
of tapestry works at 
Mortlake, under the 
direction of Sir Fran- 
cis Crane. No doubt 
the ambitions of James 
were stirred by the 

example of Henry IV of France, at this time founding the 
artistic workshops of the Louvre and Gobelins, magnificently 
endowing French art and, incidentally, our own. At Mortlake 
the management was entrusted to Philip de Maecht, Francis 
Cleyn being appointed art director, while Flemish low-warp 
weavers were secretly imported from France, fifty arriving by 
1620, when the first subject a series of nine pieces from 
sixteenth-century cartoons, representing the fabulous story of 
Vulcan and Venus was commenced, and completed in two 

The portraits of this age were conventional and highly deco- 
rative, many still painted upon panel, and set in elaborately 
carved frames, the chief artists being Paul Van Somer, Cornelius 
Janssen, and Daniel Mytens ; while, in miniature, Peter Oliver 
worthily continued the practice of his renowned father. The 
art of decorative painting was pursued by the before-mentioned 

Francis Cleyn, who had been in the service of King James's 
brother-in-law, King Christian IV of Denmark. He excelled in 
"histories and grotesques," and executed many painted ceilings, 
which have not survived, at Somerset (or Denmark) House, 
Bolsover, Stonepark, Wimbledon and Carew Houses, etc., and 
at Holland House, Kensington, where his proficiency may be 
witnessed to this day. Reference has been made to his con- 
nexion with the tapestries of Mortlake, suits entitled " Hero 
and Leander" and "The Horses" being worked from his 

The patronage of James's spouse, Anne of Denmark, for the 
Arts, and particularly those appertaining to the drama, was 
liberal, and a good measure of Inigo Jones's success at the 
Court may be attributed to the opportunities afforded by her 
tastes and" the skill he displayed in contriving the scenery of 

those masques and 
plays which, with the 
progresses of James I, 
administered to the 
pleasures and fostered 
the special genius of 
the age. If we can 
credit the attribution 
of a fine " Portrait of 
a Man " at Zion House 
to Inigo Jones, he was 
a painter of no mean 
abilities, and, while 
the nature of his ser- 
vices to King Chris- 
tian IV, in Denmark, 
has not transpired, it is 
recorded that he was 
employed as art agent 
abroad for that ardent 
collector, Thomas 
Howard, EarlofArun- 
del, to whom England 
is indebted for her first 
lesson in virtu. 

King James's eld- 
est son, Henry, Prince 
of Wales, was early 
distinguished by a 
love of the Arts, and 
laid the foundation of 
that marvellous col- 
lection which his bro- 
ther completed. The 

untimely death of the young prince in 1612 put an end to the 
brilliance he displayed and the liberal patronage promised by 
his tastes. "A prince who patronizes the Arts," writes Walpole, 
"and can distinguish abilities, enriches his country, and is at 
once generous and an economist.'' These virtues were shared 
to their fullest extent by his brother Charles, and, to cite 
Wdlpole agdin, "the accession of this prince was the first era 
of real taste in England " ; he "easily comprehended almost all 
kinds of art that either were for delight or of a public use," 
writes Lilly ; and Walpole concludes, " the art of reigning was 
the only art of which he was ignorant." Had this not been so, 
or had not the times been unpropitious, it is interesting to 
speculate upon the glorious course of architecture and the Arts 
under the protecting aegis of the Stuarts. 

Another architect and painter is found acting as an art agent 
at this period, in the person of the Fleming, Sir Balthazar 

I'rnpcrty uj Miss Lc Roaignol. 



Gerbier, a protege of the splendour-loving favourite and art 
patron, ill-fated George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. Gerbier 
makes a curious figure in contemporary accounts, the universality 
of his employments being remarkable. He was the intermediary 
who negotiated with Rubens for the suj erb decorative ceiling- 
paintings in the Banqueting House, Whitehall, the central panel 
of which was illustrated in THE ARCHITECTURAL RKVIKW for 
November 1913, when the subject of painted decoration in this 
country was investigated. It was intended that the walls of 
Inigo Jones's building in Whitehall should be painted by 
Kubens's pupil and compatriot, Van Dyck, but the project did 
not materialise beyond a sketch. 
Countless houses were, however, 
adorned with the incomparable por- 
traits of this master. Horatio Genti- 
leschi was invited to England by 
Charles I, and was employed to paint 
the ceilings of the Oueen's house at 
Greenwich, designed by Inigo Jones 
for the reception of Henrietta Maria. 
Ceilings at Old Somerset House, de- 
signed by the same architect, and at 
York House, in the Strand, which 
housed the splendid collection of works 
of art purchased from Rubens by the 
Duke of Buckingham, were painted 
by Gentileschi, but have shared the 
fate of those palaces and great build- 
ings which in his day lined the 

With the outbreak of Civil War, 
and amidst its misery and bloodshed 
and the ruins of established order, 
the Arts were banished with the 
monarchy. The years 1640-1660 
made many travellers a Court in 
exile, a ruined nobility and gentry, 
and a broken and scattered school of 
artists. Cromwell's russet-coated cap- 
tains made irreparable havoc and 
opened many a breach in the con- 
tinuity of art-history. 

John Webb, the pupil and succes- 
sor of Inigo Jones, was not idle under 
the Commonwealth ; nor was Crom- 
well totally averse from love of the 
Arts, since he gave orders for the 
maintenance of the tapestry workers 
at Mortlake, and appears to have 
embellished his residence at Hampton 
Court with some discrimination from 
the spoils of Charles the First's col- 
lection, the unhappy dispersal of 
which enriched the galleries, both 

public and private, of Europe with their choicest posses- 

Decoration and furniture under Cromwell, replacing magni- 
ficence with austerity, reflected the contemporary fashions of 
Holland. In place of the elaborate high-backed chairs, scrolled 
frames, and luxurious upholstery of James the First and Charles 
the First, were ranges of low-backed chairs, with torsed frames 
and unyielding covering of leather; long o.iken benches and 
plain tables, treen and pewter ware, reflected the simplicity and 
unornamental severity of the age. To realize what earthly 
paradises can be made of such unpretentious domestic elements, 



Victoria and Albert Mintinii. 

one must turn to the incomparable paintings of Vermaer or 
Nicolas Maes, or the rare prints of Abraham Bosse. 

With the restoration of the monarchy dawned a new and 
joyous era for the Arts in England. The courtiers who had 
followed the King into exile returned imbued with new ideas 
and intent upon emulating the magnificent homes and delect- 
able gardens encountered on their travels, and there ensued a 
period of great building activity, and the pages of Evelyn and 
Pepys glow with accounts of the veritable treasure-houses then 
arising. Webb, Wynne, Denham, Pratt, May architects 
whose names are overshadowed by the greatness of Inigo (ones 

and Wren -were busily employed, 
and Hampstead Marshall, Burlington, 
Clarendon, and Berkeley Houses were 
soon in progress. With this style and 
period are associated perhaps the 
greatest names in architecture and 
decoration Wren, Verrio, Gibbons, 
Tijou, Lely, Marot incomparable 
stylists and a whole host of lesser 
men, each of whom polished some facet 
which adds lustre to the decorative 
arts. The King set the fashion at 
Whitehall for lavish furnishing. 

At this time, Colbert, the able 
Minister of Louis XIV, actively pro- 
moted arts and manufactures, and im- 
ported skilled artisans in every branch, 
permanently establishing the artistic 
pre-eminence of France. In Holland, 
Philip Vingboons, architect to the City 
of Amsterdam, was building those 
quiet brick facades, the designs of 
which were published and became the 
model for our own vernacular archi- 
tecture. In 1665 the Great Plague 
drove Wren to Paris, and the following 
year the calamity of the Great Fire 
of London gave him the opportunity 
of employment. The names of 
few cabinet-makers of this period have 
emerged from obscurity. Pepys men- 
tions Sympson, maker of his famous 
oook-cases which he afterwards be- 
queathed to Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, where they still remain : and we 
read of an upholsterer, Bransby, who 
worked for Roger North, and of 
Andrew Gofts at Hamilton Palace. 
The spinet-makers Haworth, Hitch- 
cock, Blount, and Rewallan, and the 
potters Toft and Dwight, are fairly 
well known, though the sculptor 
Edward Pearce is barely remembered. 

Me/zotint engraving, in which this country has always excelled 
all other nations, was at this time an engaging novelty, and 
clock and barometer makers, like Daniel (juare and Thomas 
Tompion, were regarded as scientists, and, as such, worthy of 
audience by the King. Direct importation of Oriental lacquer 
commenced, owing to the activities of the English East India 

One of the greatest decorative artists, the wood-carver 
Grinling Gibbons, a Dutchman by origin, was discovered by 
Evelyn in 1671, and by him introduced to the notice of the 
King and the architects Wren and May, who shortly gave him 



great employment, the last-named at Cassiobury and Windsor 

To this period (1673) belongs the manufacture of fine glass, 
after the Venetian manner, for mirrors, which was promoted by 
the Duke of Buckingham at Vauxhall. Evelyn refers to a visit 
in this year to a blown-glass factory at Greenwich, the produc- 
tions of which are extolled as finer than the Italian. A Dutch 
invention, the sash or " chasse " window, was adopted at Ham 
House by the Duke of Lauderdale in 1673, and two years later 
at Lyme, though these are not perhaps the earliest instances in 
England, and the casement window, with a central mullion and 
cross-transom, continued in use simultaneously for many years. 
Tall oak bolection panelling was the customary wall-lining for 
more than fifty years. 

It would appear that Dutch influence extended not only to 
design, but to the materials for building, for we read of importa- 
tions of wainscot oak. This grew around the basin of the 
Moselle, was floated down the Rhine, and sawn and seasoned in 
Holland. Dutch merchants imported marble from Italy, and 
opened depots at Lambeth for this material for paving and for 
making marble chimneypiece^, then in general request. 

framed within inimitable wood - carvings by that prince of 
craftsmen, Grinling Gibbons. Nothing could be finer than the 
effect achieved by the harmonious combination of such diverse 
and conspicuous talents. 

The carved frames of this period greatly enhanced the 
splendid pictures they contained, and it is sad to think how 
many gems in royal, national, and private galleries have 
parted company with their settings, to the infinite impoverish, 
ment of both. 

With the revocation in 1685 of the Edict of Nantes, which 
had afforded toleration to the Protestant faith, England became 
endowed with talent by the influx of Huguenot emigres 
gifted artists and highly skilled craftsmen, trained under the 
liberal and enriching scheme of Colbert. This amazing instance 
of royal folly spread the intensive art -culture of France, so 
gloriously propagated, over Europe, and scores of England's 
most creditable industries and thriving towns arose from the 
impolitic and inclement act of Louis XIV. Manufactures 
of velvet and silk, ribbons and fringes, metal-work, silver- 
plate, paper-making, cabinet-making, clock-making, marquetry- 
cutting, enamelling, chasing all were established, stimulated, 

Property of Mrs. Hueksnaster, 


The ceilings of this perio:! are elaborately modelled in stucco- 
duro in high relief, with bands of fruit and flowers, sprays of 
palm and laurel, and acanthus scrolls, the ornament finely 
planned and splendidly executed. Innumerable examples are 
fortunately preserved testifying to the ample employment of the 
plaster-worker under Wren and his compeers. Compartments 
were reserved in many rich ceilings for the decorative painter, 
whose services were now in great request. Reference has been 
made to painted allegories by Rubens and Gentileschi in the 
buildings of Inigo Jones, and the practice was followed and 
developed under Wren by many celebrated painters, chief 
among whom were Verrio and Laguerre. It was the custom to 
reserve the entire walls and ceilings of staircases in the larger 
houses for the " history-painter," forming a continuous field for 
his labours by uniting walls and ceilings with a cove, the 
cornices and ornaments being painted in chiaroscuro, hatched 
with gold, to simulate relief. 

What is perhaps the most impressive scheme of the 
master-decorator at this period is to be seen in the Queen's 
Presence Chamber at Windsor Castle, where the walls are 
lined with oak wainscoting, and hung with rich and brilliant 
tapestries ; the ceiling is painted by Verrio, and splendid full- 
length portraits, grandly posed over the oak door-cases, are 

or perfected by the immigration of highly trained craftsmen and 
artisans. The decorative arts were enriched by the advent of 
Rousseau and Parmentier, Monnoyer and Marot, Tijou and 
many others, at the zenith of our commercial prosperity ; and 
if the short and turbulent reign of James II is characterized by 
the political impotence of the sovereign, it was certainly not 
barren of artistic promise. 

The advent of William III from Holland was the signal for 
a new influx of Dutch and Franco-Dutch artists and workmen. 
It is asserted that the Huguenot designer " architecte des 
appartemens du Prince d'Orange," according to the inscription 
on his published etchings came over with the entourage of 
William III, and remained in this country till 1702; but of 
this I have encountered no proof, nor are the relations of this 
brilliant designer with Sir Christopher Wren established, 
though the splendid talents of Wren, Gibbons, Marot, and 
Tijou were constantly associated in decorative enterprise. To 
Tijou the smith we are indebted for those grand staircase 
balustrades and grilles of wrought iron which he effectively 
adorned with repousse leaves, mascarons, and lambrequins. 
Nothing can exceed the beauty of his metal-work at the 
Palace of Hampton Court or Cathedral of St. Paul. The 
unreflecting have edged away from his leafage as not "true 

Plate V. January 1920. 


Plate VI. January 1920. Property of F. C. Harper. Esq. 




I'hnla : T. rm,( A. M. 


Victoria and Albert Museum. 

smith's-work," and ignorant repairs have replaced much 
of his finest handiwork ; but at the period of its fabrication 
a period of unassailable achievement and great artistic judg- 
ment the repousse worker was highly esteemed. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the tall panelling 
of oak and painted staircases continued in general use. Anglo- 
Chinese motives were increasingly in vogue in decoration and 
furniture, and importations of the great Eastern trading com- 
panies were absorbed with avidity into English decorative 
schemes Oriental porcelain, lacquer screens and panels, carpets 
and rugs. 

The carpet industry at Wilton was commenced ; we read of 


marble chimneypieces by famous craftsmen. Talman, the archi- 
tect of Chatsworth and Dyrham, and the associate of Wren at 
Hampton Court, was succeeded in his official appointment by 
Vanbrugh, who carried out many great houses which were finely 
decorated and splendidly furnished. Silk-weaving, founded 
and conducted by Huguenot refugees at Spitalfields, flourished ; 
but tapestry manufacture at Mortlake was discontinued, closing 
a brilliant chapter in national artistic endeavour. 

Tall upholstered beds were still fashionable, and with the 
window-draperies en suite consumed vast quantities of velvet, 
silk, and galon. Marot's designs, one of which is dated 170^, 
are representative of these great beds of state, with which every 
house of pretension was equipped. 

As a decorative adjunct mirrors were in great request, and 
innumerable fine specimens remain to testify their excellence 
at this period, (ilass was relatively dear, and was used with 
the utmost effect by recourse to brilliant-cutting, shaping, and 
bevelling. The larger sheets were inordinately expensive, 
in consequence of which two or more were used within a 
single frame, composed of a margin of blue or crystal glass. 

Photo: V. and A. M 


Victoria and* Albert Muuum 



From Boughton House, Northamptonshire. 

Photo: V. and A. M. 


Victoria and Albert Museum. 

elaborately bevelled, the joints being hidden by rosettes of cut 
glass or repousse silver, or a border of glass engraved or 
adorned with patterns in the foil. Gilt gesso was a popular 
medium for enriching mirror frames, torcheres, and gilt furni- 
ture generally, particularly those pieces of Louis Quator^e 
character by Marot after his own designs, and those of Berain 
and Le Pautre. 

When George I succeeded Anne, the influence of France 
succumbed to that of Italy, and art found liberal patronage 
under the great families entrusted with the nation's govern- 
ance. The great houses were Venetian palaces transplanted, and 
furniture conformed to the scale set by architectural proportion. 
The vogue for gilt state-furniture continued, chairs and settees 
being upholstered in large-patterned and effective Genoese cut- 
velvet. Concurrently the change took place from walnut to 
mahogany, preparing us for a variation in treatment from the 
elaborate veneering, parquetry, and marquetry of woods, choice, 
rare, and exotic, to the carving of that prince of craftsmen, 

One of the lirst great Georgian houses, Wanstead, erected 
for Sir Richard Child, was wantonly destroyed in 1822, so the 
merits of building and equipment can only be gauged by the 
limited record which has been preserved, and from descriptions 
of contemporary writers. Colin Campbell was the architect, and 
many of the interior adornments were conducted by William 
Kent an association productive of superb results in other great 
houses of the period. At Wanstead we read of decorative 
paintings in a garden pavilion, by [old] Joseph Nollekens, " in 
the manner of Watteau," an indication that the subtle art- 
essence distilled in France was still potent, and soon to permeate 
our tastes anew. After the death of Louis XIV in 1715, and 
under the Regency of Philippe, Due d'Orleans, there ensued 
one of those natural reactions in feeling which shape a new 
style : after the dignity, grandeur, and restraint of Court life 
under le Roi Soldi, men yearned for elegance j and pleasure ; 
the imprisoned joy in life burst forth afresh, and the arts which 

administered to this awakened spirit appear in 
sharp contrast with those of the past. The same 
emotions were stirring in Venice at this period 
the objective of the fashionable Grand Tour 
a glittering island set in azure, a miracle of 
architecture, an incomparable treasury of art. 
Frescoes by Tiepolo, pastels by Rosalba, canal 
scenes by Canaletto, little painted interiors by 
Longhi, the sun glinting on a rounded dome by 
Guardi, the spirited postures of Italian comedy 
enchantments not to be evaded. Is it matter for 
surprise that Englishmen living in such surround- 
ings sought on their return to re-edify the setting 
for those works of art and virtu which they coveted 
and acquired ? English interior decoration followed 
a new course, piaster usurped the place of wainscot, 
modelling supplanted carving, cut-velvet and figured 
silk were more esteemed than petit -point, table 
frames were freighted with rare marble, pedestals 
with antique busts. 

In smaller houses of the early Georgian period 
the excellent vernacular style developed under Wren 
prevailed, affording an air of quiet distinction 
and comfort, every room being well proportioned 
and agreeably panelled. Fireplace openings were 

Property of I, C. Soodisott. 











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framed in marble, and the spacious hall was paved with large 
squares of the same capital material, or with fine-grained 
freestone. Ample staircases with carved brackets and ornamental 
balusters conducted to the upper floor. 

In time the panelling became reduced to a low dado, the 
panels ovolo-moulded and fielded, or flat, above which hung 
figured damask, till the vogue of paper-hangings, rare until the 
quarter-century, and not general for perhaps a further score 
of years, when the dado became a plain wood-lining, save for 
the moulded skirting and dado-rail. Cornices were first of 
wood, and later of plaster, and were always treated as part of 
the wall-surface and not of the ceiling, a point which should 
be borne in mind ; doors were six- or eight-panel, and framed 
with moulded architraves, which extended to the floor or 
terminated above rectangular plinth-blocks which were never 

grisaille, and Horace Walpole was numbered among his patrons. 
It was not until the invention of the paper-machine in 
1798 that continuous rolls could be produced, the first com- 
mercial machine in this country being completed about 1803. 
A very late example of wallpaper painted en grisaille sur- 
vives to this day (though, naturally, its condition is much 
impaired) in the interesting post-Restoration house known as 
Eltham Lodge, Kent. It is to be regretted that few, if any, of 
the "scenic" wall-papers which are such a notable feature in 
man\- " Colonial " houses of the American continent are to be 
found in this country, though walls decorated in this manner 
must prove a real embarrassment to the collector of easel- 

About 1760, the vogue for Chinoiseries divided the suffrages 
of the beau monde with another engaging novelty the so-called 

Froptrty of I. C. 

English Rococo Period. 

the full height of a moulded skirling, but aligned with the top 
ot its plan fascia. 

By 1720 block-printed hand-made wallpapers were made 
in imitation of silk damask, as earlier attempts (about 1690) 
had simulated cut-velvet. Hand-painted Chinese wallpapers were 
imported in suites of twelve flowering trees, each representative 
of a month, growing from a rocky foreground, peopled with 
birds of brilliant plumage and interspersed with tall vases of 
porcelain. These subjects were made up of sheets about 40 in. 
by 27 in., while the example illustrated on page 25 is an inter- 
esting variant, being composed of numerous panels and inde- 
pendent elements. 

By the middle of the eighteenth century factories for making 
wallpaper were in operation those of Jackson at Battersea 
and Papillon at Fulham. Jackson's speciality was paper en 

"Gothic "taste, which, under the patronage of Horace Walpole. 
and in the hands of exponents such as Batty Langley and 
Hallett, ministered ephemerally to a craving for the distractions 
of a new style. The introduction of Chinese motives had served 
to lighten the scale of ornament and brighten the schemes of 
coloration in apartments, furniture, and decorative fabrics, but 
the excesses and affectations to which the style conducted pre- 
pared the way for a new revulsion in taste. Already France 
had returned to the classical styles albeit refined almost to the 
point of effeminacy upon those prevailing under Louis XIV. 
The publications of de Neufforge, Leroy, and Winckelmann, in 
France, and the activities of the Dilettante Society, the 
researches of Stuart and Revett, and the foundation of the 
Royal Academy of Arts, in England, together with the practice 
of the architects Taylor, Chambers, Adam, and "Athenian" 



Stuart, consummated a revolution in public taste. De Xenfforge 
and Chaml)ers, ;ui(l. in a lesser decree, Robert Adam in his 
earlier works stayed for a time the " Grecian gusto," and 
examples of their decorative work at this period exhibit a most 
accomplished and attractive phase of interior architecture and 
a series of admirable backgrounds for the graceful furniture of 
Shearer, Heppelwhite, and Sheraton. 

Many whimsical revolutions of taste centre about this period, 
to vex the censorious, but few will deny the charm of those gay 
wares which issued from the factories of How, Chelsea, Derby, 
Bristol, and Worcester, or fail to appreciate the elegant forms 
and chaste embellishments of Sheffield plate. The art of 
tapestry -working was not extinct Soho, Padding ton, and 
Fulham had bright, though brief, careers ; if Parisot, Whitty, 

Moore, Passavant, and jeffer are unfamiliar names, the industries 
they founded at Wilton, Kidderminster, and Axminster are 
household words. Wilton was founded by French emigres in the 
reign of William III and patroni/ed by the Farl of Pembroke 
in 17.25; Pere Norbert, alias Peter Parisot, flitted from Fulham 
and Westminster to Paddington, a protege of the Duke of 
Cumberland : Whitty founded Axminster, and Moore of Moor- 
fields made carpets to Robert Adam's design, reflecting under- 
foot the ceiling overhead. Adam, great man, did not disdain 
the humbler branches of the arts, and has bequeathed tall 
folios of designs for mirrors, picture- frames, grates, fenders, 
lock plates, candelabra, girandoles in fact, all the acces- 
sories of DECORATION AND FURNITURE in the eighteenth 
century. (To be continued.) 

Froperty of Ai'sn. T. Etslty, Ltd. 


The Exemplar of Modern Architecture : 

The Guildhall and Market Hall, High Wycombe 

THE borough of High Wycombe is of such ancient 
foundation that by sonic authorities it is felt that it 
may possibly be the oldest corporate borough in 
England. There are records of a very early Guildhall as far 
back as I jSo, when John Deye was granted a gallery (solarium') 
at the end of the Guildhall at an annual rent of ;s. 4d. In the 
time of Philip and Mary there occurs among the rents belonging 
to the Chamber "of Rowland Lyttleboy for his house under 
the geld hall Xs II Id." 

In 1604 a new Guildhall was erected standing on twenty-two 
pillars of heavy oak. between which shops and booths were allowed 
to stand. This building was ultimately burnt down, and the 
present one was erected for the town in 1757 by the Karl of 
Shelburue, and the following words were cut in the stone 
stringcourse just above the central archway 

" Krected in the Year of our Lord 1757 at 
the expense of John, Karl of Shelbnrne. In 
memory of which the Corporation caused 
this to be written." 

There seems to be no record of the curious little octagonal 
Market Hall close by and to the east of the Guildhall (see 

page 28). It is most probably an early work of the brothers 
Adam. Although modernized in many of the details, the 
original cornices and mouldings are unusual in character, and 
suggest the authorship of Robert Adam before his style reached 

In the absence of documentary evidence, however, the 
attribution of architecture is notoriously precarious, especially 
in the case of architects of the eminence and industry of the 
brothers Adam, to whom are assigned many buildings of which 
they never saw the designs. Naturally, an architect who 
happens to meet the taste of his time is not only much sought 
after himself, but h; x s many imitators, and it may be that the 
Market Hall at Higli Wycombe is not really by Adam, but is 
by one of his disciples or satellites. Nor, as a matter of justice, 
should it be deemed much the less interesting on that account : 
for surely a building, like a book or a picture, should be, on a 
reasonable theory, admired for its intrinsic merit, independently 
of the question of authorship. Yet the glamour of personality 
is a powerful irradiator, and undoubtedly the Market Hall at 
High Wycombe is the more esteemed from the supposition 
Robert Adam had a hand in designing it. \\". G. A. 













W. Walcot's Art. 

THKKE is no question about the supremacy of Mr. Walcot's 
work ; it stands aloof in a loneliness which is the isolation 
of kingship. And what is this art in which he works ? It 
is an art to which hut little attention is given in the world of 
common critics, but it is an art without parallel. It is in fact 
the only art whose business is the interpretation of another art. 
I say this with deliberation. The imitation of a painting bv an 
engraver or an etcher is but translation : attempts to commute 
graphic chefs-d'oeuvre into terms of music are at best open to 
doubt in the interpretation ; and though a poem written on a 
musical theme may come near, it comes no nearer than near. 
Not every one who draws a building comes within the kingdom 
of which Mr. Walcot is king. The work he does is not delinea- 
tion, but portraiture. For him a building born or unborn is a 
thing of spirit, a thing whose spirit must be shown in the 
presentment just exactly as the portrait-painter, if a good portrait- 
painter, gives not a mere perspective drawing of mouth, nose, and 
eyes, but a glimpse of the character of the man or woman who 
sits before him. This is the true impressionism, and if we call 
Mr. Walcot an impressionist it is because he seizes, in the 
buildings that he draws, the inner message that the building 
conveys. He is in his vvork what one may also call an 
"omissionist," and this craft of omission is no shortcoming, but 
a completely supreme element of his art. His omissions, if one 
dare so name what is positive rather than negative, are brilliantly 
contributory to his calculated result. It is bv such suppressions 
that emphasis is wrought. There is no suggestion here that 
such suppressions should be practised in architecture itself. Far 
from it. Hut it is, of course, the fact that if a building is telling 
its story as it should be told, these suppressions, this impressional 
nescience of things visible to the poor eye of the body, do actually 
prevail in the vision of the mind. If thev do not they are still 
legitimate elements in the mode of expression. Draughtsman- 
ship is, after all, no more and no less than a form of language: 
and all who have practised language as an art know that it is 
not always by sledge-hammer blows of accuracy that the tale 
can be told. It is for this reason that men like Hrowning and 
George Meredith can tell what others leave untold. There are 
sparks that can only be struck by an oblique dash of the steel : 
the direct attack would shatter the flint itself and crush its 
gleam for ever. It is so with this gre it art upon art: the 
unfolding of a building's heart in terms of colour, line, and 
shadow; and it is of such art that Mr. \Valcot is master. To 
go through his drawings illustrating this truth from the book 
before us would be a mere waste of time, a mere diminu- 
tion of the pleasure of those who can see it for themselves. 
It is enough to breathe the secret. 

Hut of course there is even more than this in the artist's 
work with the powers to see and seize what should be seized 
and seen, with the skill in noting where this detail and that 
should be softened to pile emphasis on emphasis, there goes also 
the craft of faultless draughtsmanship, the knowledge of a 
hundred devices which one must not call tricks, and an unerring 
lordship over brush and colour which is the wonder of all of his 
contemporaries who have ever tried to play tunes on the gamut 
of the paint-box. 

One word about Mr. Walcot's powers of vision one might 
say of introspection. We architects know him chiefly as the 
brilliant exponent of buildings conceived but not yet born. 
Dare it be said that he sometimes reads into those buildings 
more than their own designer thought into them ? Of course 
it can ; and the saying of this is no slur on the imagination of 
the designers or on the honesty of this artist. For this there 

are two reasons. One is this : that an architect, like other artists, 
is an instrument through whom there blows a breath from with- 
out, perhaps from above, that lets him say in his art more than 
he knows he is saying : and the other is that it is no fault of 
Mr. Walcot if he can see within the very lines of a plan, section, 
and elevation effects of which the original designer has not 
yet dreamed. 

Of Mr. Walcot's tine water-colour, no reproductions whether 
in colour or in black and white can give any satisfying record. 
There is a mastery about his power to choose and fling on to 
paper the very pigment needed to bring magic to his work a 
mastery, too, about his glowing abstinences which c.m only be 
revelled in at first hand. The reproductions in the book are as 
good as can be : but no better. That is our misfortune, not the 
printer's fault. 

There is one work of art in the book, which though not by 
Mr. \\alcot cannot go without a word of recognition and grati- 
tude. It is Mr. W. (',. Newton's happy little essay on water- 
colour. It is an aquarelle in itself, and there are few people 
living who could have touched so delicately anything so delicate. 

". \ii-hit,-,. /in-,,/ U'aiff-Cti/onr.t ami /:/, -///mr, ,,f if If ,,/,,,.'." I fit/, 
an introduction /<r Sir /,', ^,,,,,f,/ /,'/,;//,/. A'../. /.,/, Technical 
li'iirnals. Ltd.; II. (.' . l^ickins. /.,;//,.// and \tw York. I'ri,,- j 3s. ,,,-t. 

Architecture and History. 

A GREAT responsibility rests upon Mr. and Mrs. Quennell. 
The immense success of their " History of Kveryday Things in 
England " must have prompted Mr. H. (",. Wells either to plan 
or to execute his prodigious "Outline of History." At all 
events, Mr. and Mrs. guennell had a long start of Mr. Wells. 
and post hoc, propter hoc, \s a comfortable saying that has satis- 
fied more urgent inquiries. It is sufficient to know that the 
authors of the former history have been most effectual pioneers 
in the proper way to present history, whether or not Mr. Wells 
took his cue from them. 

In the " History of Everyday Things" there is a very fair 
attempt at proportional representation, and very few persons 
will complain certainly no reader of this Review will admit 
that architecture receives too much attention in the Ouennell 
book, of which the second volume, dealing with the period 
1500 to ijt)i). has just been published. For architecture, deftly 
handled, can be made a very effective instrument of education. 
If proof of this proposition were needed, the " Kvervday History" 
would supply it in abundance. Huildings are shown in rich 
variety of period ami style, and they are presented, inside and 
out. with a punctiliousness of form and detail that reveals the 
authentic vision of the trained architect zealous for his art : and 
a stretch of time that ranges from Elizabethan to Georgian 
gives full opportunity for exhibiting English architecture in its 
most interesting phases. Furniture, and household plenishings 
generally, receive sufficient attention to afford a vivid idea of the 
social habits of our ancestors. In this, and in some other 
respects, this second volume is even more interesting than the 
first. It is better written ; and if it is not better illustrated, 
that is because Mrs. (JuenneH's delightful pictures in the first 
volume could not be excelled. Undoubtedly the authors have 
found out the true way to write history, and we trust that they 
will crown their excellent work with a third volume bringing 
it down to the present day. 

"-/ History of Everyday Things in England.* Done in Two /'arts, 
of which this is th( Second. 1500-1799. H'ritten and Illustrated by 
Mar jot ic and C. H. />'. QiieHiiett. J'n/>li.i/ie,t by I!. T. Hals ford, Ltd., 
London. 8.f. 6</. net. 

VOL. Xi.Vll.-D 

Correspondence-Architectural Education : 
A Criticism and a Programme. 

Mr. Budden's Rejoinder to Mr. Waterhouse. 

MK. LIONEL H. HUDDEN, M.A., whose letter re- 
opening this controversy appeared in our November 
issue, has penned a rejoinder to the reply by Mr. Paul 
Waterhouse, M.A., whose letter was printed in our issue for 
December. We are compelled to condense Mr. Budden's 
contribution : 

No Government with sufficient intelligence to govern could 
be expected to recognize and to entrust effective powers to a 
profession as irregularly and inefficiently educated as the 
architectural profession is known to be. That truth may be 
unpalatable to architects : it is not therefore the less true. The 
claims of the profession were acknowledged, and its 
services fully utilised by the Government, because the obliga- 
tory system of academic education imposed upon the members 
of that profession Justine 1 its claims and guaranteed the value 
of its services. That was the basic reason for the favourable 
tre itment which the medical profession received. Until the 
Institute reforms its educational policy and insists upon its 
members qualifving through the Universities, as the institutions 
whose prestige and whose technical resources actually or poten- 
tially best equip them for the purpose, architects will continue to 
find themselves at a hopeless disadvantage in dealing with the 
Government and rightly so. . . . 

Long ago the Institute should have required from all 
candidates for membership, as an indispensable preliminary 
qualification, an academic degree in architecture obtainable 
only after a lengthy full-time course. It is more than ever 
necessarv that this reform be initiated now. If it be objected 
that such a regulation would shut out a proportion of meritorious 
applicants, it must !>< replied that hard cases make bad laws, 
and that, in this instance, the hard cases can be eliminated by 
1 1 i fixing a time limit of approximately ten years before bringing 
the regulation fully into force, and (2) securing the provision of 
competitive scholarships for those who require assistance and 
can justify their claim to it. None of these things have been 
attempted by the Institute, and its negligence is the measure of 
its culpability. 

Hy " the whole system of architectural education 
throughout the country" I presume that Mr. Waterhouse 
means the variety of systems many of them not educational 
in any sense permitted to exist under the Institute's laisxcz- 
/.U'IY policy. . . . 

It is true that the schools have adjusted some of their 
courses to assist students in qualifying for the Associateship of 
the Institute. The fact that they have done so, however, is no 
proof of their approval of the qualifying tests or of the regime of 
which those tests are the product. Membership of the Institute 
carries with it professional privileges for which there is a natural 
demand. The schools therefore provide facilities to meet that 
demand. They are not thereby committed to agreement with 
the method of qualification involved. . . . 

Mr. Waterhouse makes the important admission that the 
old system of office pupilage is on the wane, but he deplores the 
prospect of its final abandonment. There should he no cause 
for regret. . . . 

The suggestion that a person who has passed the Institute's 
examinations should automatically be considered a trained and 
competent authority on architectural education is really too 

naive. Such an argument does not require to be pricked from 
outside. It explodes of itself. . . . 

Mr. Waterhouse's reference to the value of the advisory 
teaching members is a little unhappy. If he will consult the 
minutes of the Hoard he will find that the advisory members 
have been summoned precise!}- once since 1911. 

The mere fact of being in practice incidentally most 
teaching members of the profession are is no guarantee of the 
soundness of an architect's judgment upon the right qualifications 
for practice. It is necessary that an architect should practise 
well before his views on the subject are of importance. And, 
normally, an architect must be well trained before he can 
practise well. Relatively few architects in this country have 
received a scientific education in architecture. The practice of 
the majority is therefore seriously defective : and their opinion 
upon educational questions too inexpert for it to be accepted as 
authoritative. . . . 

It has not been suggested that the Institute should abandon 
its interest in architectural education only that that interest 
should manifest itself in a reasonably progressive form. Nor 
has it been advocated that the Institute should relinquish the 
right to accept or reject candidates for membership. The 
procedure of admission' by election has not been assailed. 
All that has been urged is th:tt after K)'',O all applicants for 
admission should be required to have qualified through the 
University Schools and received an academic degree. . . . 

Mr. Waterhouse speaks encouragingly of the prospect of some 
immediate reforms in the Institute's educational policy. If 
these are adequate and carried into effect under his chairman- 
ship of the Hoard it will be a cause for the sincerest congratulation. 

An e.irnest of the sincerity of the Hoard's intentions would 
be the immediate decentralization of the machinery whereby the 
testimonies of study required for the final examination are 
judged. At present an anonymous sub-committee of the Hoard 
(a sub-committee the names of whose members are never pub- 
lished) sets the conditions for the testimonies and judges them 
in London. Without explanation, rejected designs are returned 
to candidates living in all parts of the country, who are expected 
to try again, and to keep on trying, unassisted by helpful criti- 
cism of any kind. The practice is unjust and unreasonable: it 
can be transformed quite simply. 

Let the Hoard request the heads of the schools, acting in 
collaboration with other representatives of the Hoard, to set the 
conditions of the problems : then let the candidates send their 
solutions of the problems to the nearest school in their district, 
where they can be judged, and a public criticism of each design 
given by the members of the school staff, assisted, if necessary, 
by a local non-teaching member of the Institute. By this 
means the congestion at the centre will be relieved, and all 
candidates, whether working in schools or in offices, will have 
the satisfaction and benefit of definite guidance. The reform sug- 
gested is a relatively modest one, but it has been long overdue. 

I should like, in conclusion, to thank Mr. Waterhouse for 
his detailed reply to my article. I would also express the hope 
that he may return to the charge, as I am persuaded that the 
longer this correspondence continues the more fully must the 
position of the Institute be exposed, and the better must the 
interests of architectural education be served. 




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Architectural Competitions : A Code Outlined, 

ONE of the many subjects that are periodically forced on 
the attention of the architectural organizations of this 
country is the question of revising the competition code, 
written or unwritten. There is, of course, a strong minority in 
favour of abolishing competitions altogether. Many architects 
regard them as positively immoral, and decline to enter them 
on" any terms whatsoever. John Bentley, for instance, flatly 
refused, on principle, to take part in a competition for West- 
minster Cathedral, and it is a curious mental speculation that, 
if there had been a competition and Bentley had entered it, his 
designs might have been beaten by those for a fir worse building. 
It is, however, only the architect whose reputation is already 
made who can afford to disdain competitions. Comparatively 
unknown men welcome them as opening the door to fame and 
fortune, and for this reason, if for no other, competitions will 
thrive, and it behoves us to make the best of them. Mr. 
Kgerton Swartwout has written on the subject with knowledge 
and sagacity, and from a contribution of his to "The Architec- 
tural Forum " we extract the following observations : 

The principle of competition, he declares, has been inherent 
in architecture since the very beginning. It has long been an 
established method in school instruction, and, as far as American 
records go, the commissions for most of the great buildings in 
history were awarded as the result of some form of competition. 
C.len Brown, in his History of the Capitol at Washington, gives 
an account of the competition that was held for that building, 
and there are in existence interesting old drawings that were 
submitted for various other public and semi-public buildings in 
the early period. One of the first large competitions in recent 
times was for the 'Cathedral of St. John the Divine, and this 
was followed by those for the New York Customs House, the 
Public Library, and various Government competitions held 
under the Tarsney Act. In general these competitions did not 
depart radically from the code as it is now written. There was 
a definite programme carefully prepared, and the jury was gene- 
rally composed of architects, and there was a distinct effort on 
the part of those in charge to promote perfect equality and 
fairness both to the competitors and to the owners. 

(inulu.illv, however, there had sprung up in the architectural 
profession a vicious practice of submitting sketches and schemes 
without remuneration and with only a vague hope of securing 
the commission. In general, these were either for small public 
or semi-public buildings, such as schools, banks, libraries, etc., 
whose directors were either unwilling to accept the responsibility 
of a direct appointment or who, through the urgency of con- 
flicting claims, felt it necessary to ask several architects to 
submit sketches ; or else for purely private operations, for which 
a competition was not only unnecessary but most undesirable ; 
the action in the latter case being usually due to the architects 
themselves. If a commercial building or even a fair-sized house 
was to be erected, the owner was bombarded with requests to 
submit plans from every architect who knew him slightly or 
from many who didn't know him at all, and he naturally con- 
cluded that he was doing a favour to the architects by allowing 
them to make more or less elaborate drawings, although it often 
afterwards turned out he had already made a decision and that 
some architect had the working plans half completed. When 
Mr. Swartwout began independent architectural practice in 
1901, this system was almost universal. 

It was to correct the evils caused by the wild scramble for 
work, and the injustice often done by unrestricted competitions, 
that the American code came into being. In considering it 

let us freely acknowledge that it is an impossibility to frame a 
code that will meet satisfactorily every condition, or which will 
be suitable for every section of the country. The code as drawn 
is not perfect, perhaps, and the form in which it is issued is 
entirely too cumbersome and formidable to meet ready accept- 
ance on the part of the client. The writer believes that it could, 
and should, be simplified. The whole matter could be com- 
pressed into one short page, which would briefly explain the 
reasons for its adoption and the few fundamental principles 
which are essential. If this simplified form were accompanied 
by a personal explanation, there would not be one case in a 
hundred in which the owner would not see the fairness of it and 
promptly agree to the Institute's requirements. After the 
owner has agreed, the present code and circular of instruc- 
tions would be primarily for the guidance of the professional 

The essential requirements are really very few. First, there 
must be a professional advisor: in other words, it is recognized 
that no one but an architect is capable of expressing the 
wishes of the owner air.l the particular requirements of the 
building in a way that will be intelligible to the competitors 
and to the jury. It is conceivable, of course, that some laymen 
might be perfectly competent to write a satisfactory programme ; 
but the cole cannot recognize particular instances, but must 
be general in character. 

Secondly, there must be absolute uniformity in the instruc- 
tions given to every compeiitor, and there must be absolute 
uniformity in the presentation of the scheme by each competitor. 
Certainly this requires no argument. It is the only way in 
which perfect fairness can be obtained. Third, perfect anony- 
mity must be preserved. Here again no argument is possible. 
Fourth, the jury should contain at least one professional archi- 
tect who, preferably, should not be the professional advisor, and 
the jury should consist of at least three members. It has been 
found from practical experience that no jury of laymen is 
capable of understanding the intricacies of a plan, and the 
presence and vote of some professional man is necessary. It is 
generally advisable not to have the professional advisor a mem- 
ber of the jury, for the reason that it often happens in the 
preparation of the programme that he has formed a precon- 
ceived idea of the solution, and does not come to the judgment 
with an open mind. Fifth, the owner must employ one of the 
competitors as architect of the building, and the programme 
should contain a form of contract between the owner and the 
successful bidder. This means that, if the owner decides he 
must hold a competition, and does hold it under Institute rules, 
he cannot, after the competition drawings have been received, 
refuse to award the commission to any of the competitors and 
declare the competition null and void. In brief, that is all there 
is to the celebrated Competition Code. The rest is mere 
amplification, and there is nothing whatever in these simple 
requirements to which any owner can reasonably object. The 
writer knows of no case in which an owner has objected, 
provided the matter was put before him in a simple, straight- 
forward manner. On the contrary, he knows of at least a dozen 
cases in which a perfectly hopeless disagreement has been quite 
easily overcome by a personal interview from some one qualified 
to explain the position fully. In order to lighten the burdens of 
a small operation, many of the chapters have standing com- 
mittees, and provide at little or no expense competent persons to 
undertake, in simple cases, the task of professional advisor and 





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Church House, Beckley. 

By Nathaniel Lloyd. 

* HE north front of Church House, Beckley, is an interest- 
ing example of the application of the Doric Order in cut 
and rubbed brickwork by a country builder. The propor- 
tions are good and the detail is carried out remarkably well, 
although lack of knowledge has thrown the designer back upon 
his own ingenuity to overcome difficulties which arose in the 
course of the work. Examples of moulded, cut, and rubbed 
brickwork are found all over England where bricks are used, 
and they are used wherever brick earths are found. Brick is 
the most widely distributed, the most varied, the most conve- 
nient, and the most economical permanent building material. 
In its present forms it is the product of ages of experience, and, 
notwithstanding the development of concrete, it is likely to hold 
its own as the best material for buildings of moderate size, where 
these arc not built in large groups. 

Although brick earths are so widely distributed, occurring in 
small pockets as well as over large areas, and although the 
Romans used bricks in great quantities for their buildings, it is 
remarkable that for several centuries after they retired from 
England few bricks were made; here. Even the manufacture 
of rooting tiles was practically discontinued, and it is uncertain' 
when it was resumed. It was probably the destruction of 
buildings through the inflammable nature of thatched roofs 
that caused the use of tiles to be made compulsory in towns. 
Mr. L. !". Salzmann, in bis very interesting treitise, " English 
Industries of the Middle Ages," enters into the matter in detail. 
He points out that although the use of rooting tiles was made 
compulsory in London in 1212, this was not general : indeed, it 



was not done in Norwich until as late as I5o<). It appears also 
that the necessity for the regulation of prices to prevent 
profiteering (which we find so difficult at the present time) 
when there was exceptional demand was recognized as long ago 
as 1350. In that scarcity of labour resulting from the 
Black De.ith had enormously increased wages, and consequently 
prices of all goods. In 1.502 a violent storm had unroofed many 
houses in London, and it was necessary, for the safety of the 
city, that a plentiful supply of tiles should be forthcoming. 
The City Council therefore exercised its powers (powers which 
it has no longer), and not only fixed a maximum price of 5s. per 
thousand for tiles, but ordered that manufacturers should con- 
tinue to make them as usual and to sell them, and that they 
should not hold them up with a view to obtaining higher prices. 
Unfortunately, there is no record whether these measures were 
successful in making available the desired quantities of tiles at 
the fixed maximum price. Authorities in the Middle Ages were 
not afraid to regulate labour also, when this seemed desirable 
for the public good ; for at Worcester, in the fifteenth century, 
tile-makers were forbidden to form any guild or trade union to 
fix rates of wages or to prevent strangers from working at the 
trade in the city. Another regulation was that tiles should bear 
the maker's mark, so that defects in size and quality might be 



















traced to him ; while at Colchester, in 1477, so many com- 
plaints were made regarding the lack of uniformity of tile sizes 
that an Act of Parliament was passed to regulate the manu- 
facture. This Act required that "the clay used should be dug 
or cast by ist November, stirred and turned by ist February, and 
not made into tiles before March. Care was to be taken to 
avoid any admixture of chalk, marl, or stones . . . size of plain 
tiles to be ioi in. by 6} in. by at least ^ in. thickness . . . 
Searchers were appointed (how like our inspectors!) and paid 
a penny on every 
thousand plain 
tiles. . . . Infringe- 
ments of regulations 
entailed fines of 55- 
per thousand plain 
tiles sold." Thorold 
Rogers, whom Mr. 
Salzmann quotes, 
remarks : " The size 
of the tiles is prob- 
ably a declaration 
of the custom ; the 
fine is the price at 
which each kind 
was ordinarily sold 
in the fifteenth cen- 
tury." At Wye, in 
Kent, were large 
tile- works. In 1.555 
the output per kiln 
was 9,^50 plain tiles, 
50 festeux (ridge or 
valley tiles), 100 
"corners." Mate- 
rial and labour cost 
X 5s., and the tiles 
produced sold for 
1455. (plain Js. od. 
per thousand, fes- 
teux i|d. each, and 
corners is. 8d. per 
hundred), which 
showed the manu- 
facturer a substan- 
tial gross profit. 

From about 1330 
onwards references 
to "waltyles," or 
bricks, become fre- 
quent, roofing tiles 
being called " thak- 
ketyles." These were 
undoubtedly reintro- 
duced from the Low 
Countries, and were 
often called" Flaun- 

dresteill," as in 1357, when a thousand were bought for a 
fireplace at Westminster.* " The term ' brick ' does not seem 
to ' have come into common use much before 1450, about 
which time the use of the material became general." 

The " Flemish " brick, so frequently adopted in work found 
in the Eastern and South-eastern counties, measured gin. by 
4Jin. by 2^ in., and five courses rose 13$ in. The thick joint 

* " Flaunderistyle vocata Breke." Exch. K. R. Accts.. 3Oj. No 12. 


with which they were laid, and the rough, uneven surface of the 
bricks, produced walls of good texture. In the eighteenth 
century the thickness of the joint had decreased to $ in., 
although the brick remained about 2 Jin. thick. It is obvious 
that our predecessors recognized the beauty of thin bricks, for it 
is exceptional to find bricks exceeding ^ in. or even 2JJin. in 
thickness before the nineteenth centurv.* One realizes the 
charm of long thin bricks when one sees them used in Italy, 
where bricks measuring u', in. by ', in. by i^ in. are laid with a 

thick joint. It 
must be admitted, 
however, that bricks 
of these dimensions 
are unsuited for 
building 1 1 in. walls! 
Small Dutch bricks 
measuring 7 in. by 
.; j in. by I J in. may 
be found as far west 
as Devon. Where 
the buildings in 
which they are used 
arc not partially 
destroyed, they have 
gables characteristic 
of the Low Coun- 
tries, and are known 
locally as " Dutch 
houses." The bricks 
arc laid with thick 
joints, and appear 
to have been im- 
ported by water 
from Holland. 

Not only is brick 
a convenient build- 
ing material : it is 
also a beautiful 
material. Reference 
has been made to 
the texture effects 
produced by the 
11 se of ro ugh - 
surfaced bricks laid 
with thick joints. 
It need not be more 
expensive to pro- 
duce such bricks 
than smooth ones, 
but the demand is 
for the latter because 
there is a widespread 
mi sap prehension 
that a smooth brick 
better resists the 
action of weather. 

This is not the case. We have many examples of rough bricks 
that have withstood the action of the weather in all aspects 
for five hundred years, and, not far from them, smooth modern 
bricks that are seriously eroded although not exposed for a tenth 
of the time. Probably the clay for the latter bricks was not 
tempered as prescribed in the Act of Parliament of 1477 ! If 

* In the House of Commons Journals, 21 March 1725-6. '" a report on Brick 
and Tile making, the Committee recommended brick size should be 9 in. by 4.J in. 
by 2j in., although dimensions of 9 in by 4 J in. by zjf in. were suggested to them. 



this virtue of texture were generally recognized by all who select 
bricks, the makers would soon strive to meet the demand by 
producing bricks of good colour and texture, as they have already 
met the demand for a smooth neat brick having sharp arrises. 
Having obtained a brick of character, it will be necessary to 
avoid mechanical bricklaying, the result of stringent clauses in 
contracts as to keeping the perpends and pointing especially 
hideous tuck-pointing. Indeed, such saving might be effected 
by the abandonment of these as to provide a better brick. 

Brick is an adaptable material. There are purposes, such as 
heavy projecting cornices, for which brick cannot conveniently 
be substituted for stone ; but most stone mouldings have been 
carried out in brick, and the material has a special charm of its 
own. Where there is much moulded work, purpose-made bricks 

work carried out as he did it, one finds that he not only designed 
a good foundation, but took much more care in the preparation of 
his coating material. Apparently Wren himself was not above 
using cut bricks, coating them with cement and painting them 
possibly the painting was a later touch. The quoins and columns 
of the principal entrance to Morden College have recently been 
found to be treated in this way, but everything else was just right ; 
whereas the coated brickwork with which we are familiar is 
always bad in design, bad in proportion, and the attempt to pass 
it off as stone only emphasizes its meanness. 

During the last fifty years many buildings decorated with 
moulded brickwork have been erected. At one time the designers 
of these were captivated by elaborate Venetian work, and intro- 
duced this freely into their designs, with very unsatisfactory 


will be used, but for smaller works most red bricks can be cut by 
a capable bricklayer. The number of bricks such a man can 
cut in a day is surprising, and bricks so moulded are even more 
satisfactory than those turned out of moulds by the brickmaker. 
The hand-cut moulding, like other handwork, possesses indi- 
viduality. One often finds such work on old buildings which have 
no other moulded work, but where the detail of a corbel or other 
feature has been carried out entirely on the spot by the workman, 
and was probably suggested as well as executed by him. An- 
other practice we learned from the Flemings was the coating of 
moulded brickwork with cement or mortar to represent stone. 
When one considers familiar examples of imitation stone in 
cement and stucco, one might be disposed to think that we have 
little for which to thank the Fleming ; but when one examines 

results. We have, however, passed beyond that phase, and also 
out of that which succeeded it. I refer to the too free use of 
moulded bricks, which one often sees on public buildings as well 
as on domestic work. These give the impression that the 
designers were so enamoured with the possibilities and adapt- 
ability of the material selected that they were unable to restrain 
themselves from introducing all they knew and much they did 
not know into each elevation. Considerations of cost would 
probably have restrained them had they been using stone 
upon which every moulding must be worked by hand but 
moulds for purpose-made bricks only cost a "few shillings 
each, and the bricks themselves were comparatively inexpensive 
The result was so vulgar and unpleasing that the use of moulded 
bricks went out of fashion. Such designers were like the type 



of author who contrives to provide a sensation upon every page, 
and who wearies the reader he would entertain because he has 
not learned the value of " quiet places." 

Although East Sussex has plenty of brick earths and numerous 
brick buildings erected during the last three hundred years, 
there are few examples of moulded brickwork, such as are plenti- 
ful in other counties. At Rye there is a remarkable example 
of cut brickwork in Pocock's School (or, as it is generally 
called, the Old Grammar School), but this was built a full 
hundred years before Church House. It is strange that these 
two buildings one built in the early seventeenth, and the other 
during the first half of the eighteenth century are the only 
important examples of moulded brick'vork for miles round.* 
Pocock's School is carried out in the Tuscan Order; Church 

as is obvious in some, economy has been considered 
essential, there is increased severity, but never loss of dignity. 
The handling of solids and voids is always capable, sometimes 
masterly, and the designers have relied upon ability for 
obtaining good results, rather than upon facilities. If the 
gabled house of irregular form is more characteristically 
English, these symmetrical houses have become almost as 
national ; they are models of what houses, and particularly 
small houses, should be; and, while they were built for by- 
gone generations, they require little adaptation to lit them to 
present-day needs. The architects of the houses are nearly 
all unknow. How, indeed, should they be remembered? For 
each town, almost euch parish, produced its own. Their 
successors, the producers of the modern villa, work upon no 


House, as mentioned above, in the Doric Order. It would be 
interesting to learn how Church House came to be built on 
classic lines, and whether the designer was a local man. 
Yet we do know, for brick houses, some dating from the 
seventeenth century, more from the eighteenth, remain in 
thousands up and down the country. Some are severely plain, 
many have stringcourses and cornices in moulded brickwork, 
and others further features such as pilasters, moulded window 
architraves, etc., treated in the same material. They are all 
sensible, pleasing, dignified buildings. They are to be found 
in cities, in country towns, and in rural districts. They 
have family resemblances, yet no two are identical. Where, 

* There are many fine examples over the border, in Kent. 

principles beyond choosing the most garish bricks, the incor- 
poration of disproportionate bay windows, and the introduction 
of much vulgar ready-made ornament, ordered from the price 
list of the builder's merchant. The designer of Church House, 
like others of his period, proceeded upon sound, definite lines. 
The entrance door opened into a large hall, at the back of 
which was a fine staircase he realized that as fine a staircase 
as could be afforded was the important feature within. The 
four rooms, or whatever number there were, opening off this 
hall were roomy and well proportioned, inclining to square in 
plan. For the exterior he chose bricks of good soft colouring 
or of deep red ; the dressings were of brighter red bricks ; 
the windows (sash windows, the woodwork of which was 
painted white) were of good proportion, those of the first 


floor often of greater height than those of the ground floor 
(perhaps a double square, while those of the ground floor were a 
trifle less in height) ; the doorway, the importance of which he 
knew well, was ample and handsome, and was also painted white, 
with the panelled door a dark colour by way of contrast ; the 
idea of the doorway as an important central feature was 
generally continued upwards ; the cornice, or eaves, or what- 
ever the treatment of the roof, had plenty of projection, and 
ensured goo] shadow beneith ; the roof was ample, and "sat 
down comfortably upon the walls " ; he was not a lazy planner 
indulging in an excessive number of small chimneys, but 
gathered his flues into a few good substantial stacks, combining 
comfort for the inmates with good external effect. The result 
was a house essentially dignified in appearance, whereas the 
modern villa has no dignity whatever. That is the touchstone 
Dignity. One may know nothing about architecture, yet one 

front of the main cornice. Above is the parapet, surmounted by 
a moulded stone coping the only stone used. The regula guttae 
are carved out of a brick laid with an invisible joint. The same 
treatment, where it was necessary to avoid dividing members by 
thick joints, made it impossible always to bond the courses of the 
pilasters with those of the wall. The large detail photograph 
(page 33) shows the modifications and methods adopted by 
the builder. The stringcourse of three brick courses, of which 
the lowest is moulded, serves, as usual, to tie together features 
which, without it, might appear scattered. The window open- 
ings (in brickwork) at both floors are 6ft. 2 A in. by 3ft. 5! in. 
The moulded cills give a refined effect to what is often a coarse 
and ugly feature. The woodwork of the windows is set back only 
slightly from the face of the brickwork, and contrasts favourably 
with the 4'-in. reveals often required by local authorities. In 
Church House the window woodwork is set back an inch at 


may with certainty tell whether a building is good or bad 
architecturally by putting to oneself the question : " Has it 
dignity?" If the reply be, "Yes, undoubtedly it has, 1 ' then 
one may be sure it is good. If there be any doubt, then 
certainly it is bad. Let us examine some of the details of 
Church House with a view to ascertaining what are the little 
points which help to produce this class of " national dwelling." 
The walling bricks are grey-pink, and measure g| in. by 
4^ in. by 2^ in., four courses rising n in. The dressings are in 
bright-red rubbers. Ample wall space has been left for the 
pilasters which flank the windows. The pilasters break forward 
in front of the simple plinth; their shafts project only 2 in. in 
front of the wall surface ; their capitals, of moulded bricks and 
tiles, are well proportioned. These are succeeded, as the build- 
ing rises, by architrave, frieze, and cornice, which breaks in 

both floors, but in many good houses of the same period one 
finds the woodwork to ground-floor windows flush with the face 
of the brickwork, while that of the first-floor windows is set 
back i in. or even i in. more than that at ground floor. In 
cases which I have in mind this could not have been done for 
utilitarian reasons, but must have been done entirely for effect, 
possibly with a view to avoid producing an impression that 
the upper windows were falling out. 

The elliptic head of the middle window is an interesting 
piece of gauged brickwork. The curve of the semi-ellipse is a 
good one. Instead of the voussoirs being normal, the intrados 
and extrados of the arch have been divided each into an equal 
number of divisions, and No. i of the intrados connected with 
No. i of the extrados, No. 2 with No. 2, and so on. The effect 
is agreeable, and not so weak-looking as one might have supposed 



it would be. The construction of the key of this arch 
must have been a laborious and anxious task for the work- 
man. It is made from the red bricks used for all the 
gauged work, and the joints are invisible. The imposts are 
each cut from a red brick ; the lines of the key are carried up 
in plain brickwork to the main cornice which breaks round the 
extension, and this continues as a pilaster on the parapet, the 
coping of which also breaks round the projection. The effect is 
to form a central feature giving variety and character to the 
front. The dormers have triangular pediments which are seen 
from below. The outlook from these dormers must have been 
restricted to the back of the parapet wall, the gutter, and a little 
sky ! The doorway, also carried out in the Doric Order, is large 
and wide. It is severely rectangular, and possibly this is why 
the designer introduced the elliptic and segmental heads to the 
windows. The whole front of the house suffers from the intro- 

The semi-elliptic arch, which is used so effectively outside, is 
made an important feature within, both on ground and first 
floors. The staircase, though not one of the richest of the period, 
is a handsome one, the detail of which is shown in the two 
photographs (pages 34 and 35). The ramping of the dado-rail 
is excellent, and it is unfortunate this should have been cut by 
the introduction of cupboard doors at a later date. The soffit 
of the stairs below first floor is treated as one large panel. 
The rooms on either side of the entrance are nearly square, 
as was the fashion of the time. Beyond the staircase in the 
back portion of the house are rooms of earlier type. The 
dining-room on ground floor (see illustration below) has the 
Sussex open fireplace and some old structural timbers. The 
panelled room on the first floor (see illustration, page 36) 
is lined with seventeenth- century panelling of two periods, 
has a handsome early seventeenth-century carved mantelpiece 


duction of leaded lights in place of two door-panels. These 
must have been introduced as " improvements," but they 
are unnecessary for lighting the hall, which is well lighted 
by the staircase window and that opposite it. If panels 
were restored in place of the leaded lights, and the door 
itself painted green, the whole would be greatly improved. 
The bay window is modern, and compares unfavourably with 
the old work. The lead rain-water pipe-heads on the east 
side bear initials and date 

W 17 
WE 44. 

The chimneys are simple in plan, the slight breaks relieving the 
severity they would have if absolutely square. The caps have 
been rebuilt, but probably the originals were also simple, as was 
usual in this type. 

and a contemporary doorcase with pierced and carved cresting, 
and two typical finials. The carving of the beam which spans 
the room is modern. 

A year or two ago some creepers which were covering the 
north front of Church House were removed. They were rapidly 
obliterating every feature, and their removal has once more 
revealed a front whose proportions, interest, and dignity are a 
joy to the educated eye, and even arrest the attention and appre- 
ciation of the casual passer-by. 

[In his last paragraph our contributor approaches a mildly 
controversial subject that is a prolific source of newspaper 
discussion. Most architects who take the trouble to make public 
their opinions on the point unhesitatingly prefer the bare wall, 
which they consider that creeping plants disfigure rather than 
adorn. On the other hand, the majority of the laity think 
creepers " picturesque."] 

Some Examples of Modern Memorials. II. 

By Walter H. Godfrey, F.S.A. 

QUITE recently I was shown a reproduction of several 
pages of very beautiful script of the time of 
Henry VIII. These pages were part of the Report of 
the Italian engineer, Portinari, who, under the order of Thomas 
Cromwell, completely demolished the fair church and buildings 
of Lewes Priory, making of them more complete a ruin 
than was perhaps effected 
anywhere else at the 
dissolution of the greater 
monasteries. The exquisite 
penmanship of a man 
regarded commonly as an 
arch-iconoclast appeared to 
me a striking illustration 
of the unconscious artistry 
of a period in which all 
methods of expre=;=ion 
had an aesthetic value. 
Portinari, though a child 
of the Renaissance, was 
seemingly not altogether 
insensible to the beauty 
of the buildings he de- 
stroyed, and he would 
probably have raised 
others of merit if he had 
been called upon to do so. 
It is doubtful whether 
the house-breakers of our 
own day are noted for 
their calligraphy, although 
they may be accomplished 
pianists ; it is, however, 
tolerably certain they have 
no eyes for the comeliness 
of the work they level to 
the ground, and no ability 
to replace it by anything 
of charm. 

One day, perhaps, 
when we have purged 
ourselves of the malprac- 
tices of modern education, 
and have tired of schemes 
of reconstruction and pro- 
gress that hurry us to 
greater chaos and decay, 
the scales may fall from our 

eyes and we may lose the habit of breeding and perpetuating 
ugliness. Then at long last a people sensitive to beauty will 
engage another Portinari to effect wholesale demolitions among 
the dreary products of the industrial age. Great will be the 
clearance, and much secondhand marble in bad condition will 
be on the market, and pavements of the same material will no 
doubt be cheap. The inscriptions, which have not even the 
merit of picturesque hyperbole nor even a stray touch of 

J. Havard Thomas, Sculptor. 


A fine example of medallu nlief carried out in miirlle. 

humour, will be carefully preserved and inscribed in volumes 
of dire solemnity, but the memorials themselves will be gently 
but firmly banished all save the small percentage that have 
been based on the simple and beautiful traditions which have 
raised them out of the general ruck. 

Architecture, like a wise schoolmaster, bids us ground 

ourselves well in the 
three " R's " : Reading, 
writi.ig, and arithmetic. 
First we must learn to 
read the language of 
building, and then to write 
it correctly and methodic- 
ally. Afterwards we may 
try our hands at the task 
of composition, calculation, 
and the solution of its 
special problems. Other 
architectural languages we 
can learn for their com- 
parative value and for 
their judicious and tasteful 
use with our own tongue, 
but experiments in univer- 
sal languages, " simplified 
spelling," and such unnatu- 
ral modes as the synthesis 
of mutually antagonistic 
features, must be shunned. 
If we start from an alpha- 
bet and a grammar which 
we all understand we may 
reach an intelligible expres- 
sion of common ideas, and 
the language of archi- 
tecture will not fail us, 
however inspired and lofty 
may be our conception. 

In some ways the me- 
morial to the dead, as well 
as the memorial of great 
events and of noble per- 
sons, is a more essentially 
appropriate subject for the 

j art of architecture than a 

building. It is true that 
architecture has arisen by 
means of building ; it has 

found its forms and its conventions in the solution of 
structural problems ; and this fact, in an age which gives 
undue importance to all questions of origin, has been advanced 
by a prominent school of thought as the be-all and end-all 
of the architect's province. It may, however, also be urged 
that in the application of architectural forms, proportions, 
and general methods of composition to objects unaffected by 
structural conditions, the artist is free to translate the principles 

Designed by Lionel B. Budden, A.R.I. B. A. The frame modelled by H. Tyson Smith. 


ONE-YEARS -1897 -1918 


Plate III. 

/ this ixamfle tht litttring is tmiiuittly ligil'lt. and it founded upon a sound classical mndil. 

February 1920. 



and harmony of his art into 
an ideal and detached medium. 
It is as though he were sud- 
denly emancipated from the in- 
cessant and exhausting struggle 
with the obstinacy of the re- 
luctant materials of the earth 
and were given the magic power 
of projecting his visions without 
their aid on the unsubstantial 
air. The frailty of the artist 
often needs the support as well 
as the restraint of structural 
conditions to prevent his re- 
lapsing into folly and an un- 
wise use of a liberty to which 
he is not accustomed, but those 
into whose natures has been 
distilled the true delight of the 
unfolding of a style and all its 
excellences will be able to 
compose an architectural poem 
unrealizable in the ordinary 
circumstances of building. 

Hut these loftv provinces of 
design are only to be essayed 
and exposed by those who arc 
visited by genuine inspiration. 
The chief need of the moment 
is that we should all designers, 
masons, or the public as well 
as the craftsman re-learn tin- 
simple elements of classical 
architecture, and study besides 
the many fresh and beautiful interpretations of the great models 
which men of the Renaissance were able to give by virtue of the 
infusion of medieval romanticism. And for the maker of 
memorials there can be no better sequence of study than by 
mastering first the problem of lettering, then the simpler types 
of framework for his tablet, and finally the selection and treat- 
ment of suitable enrichment. In the examples of modern work 
given in these pages, there is evidence of a real appreciation of 
the fine qualities of well-formed and well-spaced lettering, and 
also ample evidence that when the inscription is good the main 
requirement of the memorial 
has been fully satisfied. The 
chief difficulty with which the 
designer has to contend at the 
present time is almost certain 
to be his client. Committees 
are not as a rule sensitive to 
the charm of good lettering ; 
as their idea of a memorial is 
often derived from the ghostly 
crowd marshalled in the yard 
of the monumental mason, 
so their notion of lettering is 
sprung from the motley assort- 
ment of debased types beloved 
of the commercial and fancy 
printer. The beautiful texture 
given to a stone by the regular 
pattern of evenly distributed 
capitals is beyond their vision 

UUITouhf THIRTY FOURttaifmqmenilxcs of 

/oinec/f/ie Colours of free -\\i//, three fell 


Cop'- 1* Wants. tftf. c The Somme 2^ Oct K)IO aqed 22. If 



5- fyya/ Sussex fyc)! Richebourp 

//icy played the qame 


Designed and Executed by the Birmingham Guild 

thev seek the fretfulness of 

Designed and Executed by the Bromsgrove Guild. 

mixed founts, unequal lines 
and varying emphasis, ragged 
ends and painful lacuna 1 . They 
will insist on lists of names 
being cut in columns and files 
as though the soldier must ever 
be on the march, and never 
stand at ease in square forma- 
tion. Such strange perversities 
of taste are an axe at the root 
of any successful memorial 
work, and here is where the 
first elementary lessons have to 
begin. An inflexible school- 
master, with a square black- 
board and a piece of chalk, is 
a crying need for most of the 
committees that sit to-day to 
select their war memorials. 

With the consideration of 
the framework, and even before 
it, the question of material will 
require an answer. Stone and 
marble, metal, glass, and wood. 
'an each be summoned in infi- 
nite variety from Nature's trea- 
sury, and can take all shades 
of texture in the workshop. 
In the wide choice of material 
the present time, with its 
ramifications of foreign trade 
and its ready means of trans- 
port, is no doubt superior to 
any age in the past. Hut the 

enormously widened scope in the choice of material is likely 
to defeat every worthy aim if wisdom and taste are lacking. 
And here we are likely to fall between two stools, for com- 
merce either chooses a cheap a:.d unsuitable medium, or over- 
refines a lovely surface by a misdirected /eal tor mechanical 
finish and perfection : whereas the artist who has learned to 
love the masterpieces of antiquity is tempted to superimpose 
an artificial tone and irregularity of which the ultimate hand- 
ling by Time is at least uncertain. We have here to consider, 
beside the more general considerations, a curious change (or 

is it only a passing deflec- 
tion?) of taste. The Greeks 
coloured their marbles, the 
mediaeval workers in wood 
painted their oak, while we 
have a (no doubt exaggerated) 
respect for the natural surface 
of marble and stone, for brass, 
copper, and for the various 
" figured " species of timber. 
It is impossible for the 
modern eye to disenchant 
itself from its delight in these 
natural qualities, which is 
probably part of the whole 
modern tendency to worship 
Nature. Yet we may well 
beware of letting these prepos- 
sessions gain too strong a hold 
on us, and, generally speaking, 

we should aim at the strict 


subordinationofsuch materials to 
the requirements of our design. 
The artist must triumph over 
matter. He must not allow any 
question as to his indisputable 
authority to imprint his own 
mastery on his medium. If 
marble and oak look better in 
painted vestments than naked 
and unadorned, by all means 
use brush and pigment : and the 
use of colour, which has already 
received a revived impetus by 
the popularity of enamel, will 
help to train the artist whose 
reliance on untouched surfaces 
is apt to discourage careful and 
thorough workmanship. 

Although on the whole it 
savours of infidelity to the most 
elementary canons of design to 
imitate age and endeavour to 
make a new object look antique, 
yet there are many effects in 
colour and in the softening of 
regular shapes which it is quite 
legitimate to reproduce for their 
own sake, and not with any 
idea of giving a false appear- 
ance of age. It was long ago 
observed that the sharp arris in 
even hard woods was liable to 
damage, and that, if the angles 
were rubbed down, an appear- 
ance of greater harmony was 
introduced with a practical 




.</;,/-// . ')( r> %, 1 6 ) ( ) <H,v r ; ' n /, /, i ( ) 1 1 
THROiir.i i \\nosi; .\\u\irici;s'i r.K.^i n s i 

1 , WAS BUILT IN 191 I- lilK'lRllSllls 

n.\\r v\\\i;p IT ri n 
Si:\i -IF.I.I) Sui<c;ic.\i. 




By the Birmingham Guild. 

wreaths, figures or winged heads 
of cherubs, masks, vases, bor- 
ders of fruit and flowers and 
drapery all of these may be 
very beautiful. As fine jewels 
adorn the person, berries the 
chaplet, and flowers the green- 
ery of an old-fashioned garden, 
so do these time - honoured 
architectural properties relieve 
and beautify the severities of 
pediment and cornice, and add 
light and shade to the level 
surfaces. But of greater value 
even than these are the personal 
and regimental war insignia 
which should find a place, if 
possible, in every memorial. 
They are the proper subjects 
for colour, fine enamels of bril- 
liant tint which will focus the 
whole design and give point to 
every line of it. The present 
age is poor in symbolism it 
lacks the child-spirit that de- 
lights in weaving all its joys 
and sorrows in fanciful figures 
and fabled monsters. But the 
instinct for the association of 
ideas is still strong. Personal 
mementoes, "souvenirs," have 
been almost a passion with the 
army, and badges, "crests," 
ribbons, and marks of every de- 
scription have a warm place in 
the heart of the Services. The 


provision for safety. Again, a 

dull or " mat " surface gives a quality and tone to a design 
which the freshness of newly fashioned and polished material 
renders impossible. The patina on bronze, and various modern 
treatments of glass which give a beauty and an atmosphere 
lacking in the usual commercial product, are both delightful 
and desirable. All these things 
we can study to our hearts' 
content, and, if the material is 
really good in every sense of 
the word, or our use of it is 
simple, direct, and architec- 
turally true, we shall produce 
something that fulfils the 
function of the memorial 
namely, to outlast the centu- 
ries and at the same time 
someihing fair enough for 
posterity to wish to preserve. 

And now one word on the 
question of enrichment the 
introduction of those additional 
features which are desired for 
enhancing the effect, but which 
are so often the details which 
mar the design. The com- 
mon architectural ornaments 
keystones, brackets, swags, con- 
soles, and with them shields, 





Designed and Executed by the Bromsgrove Guild. 

majority of these emblems are 

badly drawn, and woefully manufactured by the military tailor 
for ordinary use ; but there are none that are not susceptible of 
interesting treatment. Singly and associated, the regimental 
crests, the badges of rank and honour, even the ribbons of 
medals, form an ample armoury from which a whole system of 

decoration can be drawn, 
forming indeed a new and 
worthy heraldry. We should 
not lack the material for decor- 
ation if only we draw upon 
these sources with enthusiasm. 
It is not enough to carve the 
regimental emblem as if it 
were merely affixed to the 
stone : indeed, such treatment 
is neither novel nor inspired. 
Service insignia should become 
the basic motif of the design, 
and can be treated in a 
thousand ways, the badges be- 
ing repeated and associated 
in different combinations so as 
to form a definite scheme of 
decoration. The possibilities 
of these things are only at their 
beginning ; let every one do his 
best to develop the potential 
beauty of an enthralling subject. 


M- 'I- 'I- 'I- 'I- 'I- 'I- 'I 

'I- 'I- 'I' 1 i'- I' 1 |l' |l' I'' il 1 il 1 i'-|l' i' il' il' I 


Designed and executed by H. H. Marlyn & Co., Cheltenham. 


). 191 5. AGED?] YEA 




Designed by H. H. Marlyn & Co.. Cheltenham. A. Poynler, F.R.I.B.A., and G. H. Wenyon, M.S.A.. ArchilecU. 


Current Architecture. 

No 9 Halkin Street, Belgrave Square, W. 

Detmar Blow and Fernand Billerey, Architects. 

TO the town house, no less than to the country house, 
one looks for dignity in the facade, refinement in 
the interiors ; and it is in London, and of course 
mainly in the West district, that these qualities are most 
frequently manifest. In foreign capitals the residences are, if 
one may so generalize about them, more lavish in display, less 
dignified and reticent. Continental and American critics will 
have it that the average town house in London is typical of the 
English character is rather frigidly austere. It may be so : 
and if both imputations are true that the English character is 
cold and the town house is a fitting expression of it that surely 
is a compliment, if only a back-handed one, to the architect's 
skill in sympathetic interpretation. If our national character- 
istics appear in this particular light to our foreign critics, we 
cannot help it ; nor do we greatly wish to. It follows that 
we do not want our town houses to be other than they are. In 
matters of taste whether in architecture, or in decoration and 
equipment it may be better to be cosmopolitan than to be 
obstinately insular, but not if to be cosmopolitan is to be 
characterless. That result, however, is not inevitable. English 
tradition in building is ineradicable, and has been always 
so powerful as to impress itself strongly on the invader. It 
assimilates foreign grace without sacrificing its native strength. 
And it surely may be taken as symptomatic of the modesty 
rather than the egotism of the national character that, in its town 
architecture in its more important buildings, whether they 
stand for public or private life, or for business or pleasure it is 
so reticent about its world-wide travels and experiences. Less 
inherently diffident races would flaunt their wealth and conse- 
quence in their facades, with obtrusive insistence in the interiors. 
Ostentatiousness may be the better way, but certainly it is 
not the English way. To the traditional sedate dignity the 
modern builders of town houses conform almost rigorously. 
Cornice, angle-quoins, stringcourse, are the only decorative 
features that, as a rule, they incorporate ; although occa- 
sionally they may allow themselves a little freedom in the 
adornment of the main doorway, where pillars or pilasters 
uphold pediment or hood, and where elegant tracery in 
the fanlight comes not amiss. For the rest, nice relative 
proportions of the horizontal and the vertical lines, window- 
spacing that seems inevitably right, an agreeable slope to the 
roof, and a pleasant disposition of decorous chimneys these are 
the simple elements which the skilful architect knows how to 
combine into a delightful whole, and which the unskilful can 
with fatal ease assemble in villainous array. With elements 
common to all, different musicians, painters, writers, architects, 
produce vastly different effects pleasing or the reverse, or 
neither. For the Nemesis of decorum is dullness. 

A town house of recent construction in which the best 
traditions of simplicity and good taste are well maintained, 
and in which one seems to detect a pleasant blend, an excellent 
aroma, of French and English methods, is No. 9 Halkin 
Street, which was planned to provide ample and comfortable 
accommodation for a family intending to spend only a few 
months of the year in town, a large part of that accommodation 

being devoted to reception-rooms for entertaining. It was 
stipulated that the house was to be moderately large, and 
that it should include all reasonable provision for comfort. 
It was to be substantially built, of the best proportions, and well 

The aim has been to satisfy these requirements in the 
simplest and plainest manner possible. In the treatment of 
both exterior and interior expensive and showy materials have 
been avoided. It will be seen from the illustration of the facade 
(Plate IV) that architectural features have been reduced to a 
minimum, the aim having been to produce dignified architec- 
tural effects by the most simple and direct means. 

The outside walls are entirely built of coarse hand-made 
bricks, the entrance-door the only feature that has been 
designed with a view to distinctively architectural effect 
being executed in the same material, hand-cut and rubbed. 
Only the cornice is of stone, which here gives better effect 
than brickwork, and is of more practical and durable con- 

It is in the proportions alone of the exterior that an endea- 
vour has been made to indicate the distribution of the chief 
rooms of the house. Thus the base story, or ground floor, 
which contains the everyday reception-rooms (hall, dining-room, 
library, study), is kept moderately low, and is divided from 
the order proper by a wide, flat, projecting brick stringcourse ; 
while the floor comprising the most important reception-rooms, 
with gallery and drawing-rooms, is marked by the taller propor- 
tion of the middle row of windows. Over them are the smaller 
windows of the second floor, which contains the bedrooms. 
Nurseries and servants' rooms are in the floor arranged within 
the roof. 

The principal staircase, giving access to the reception-rooms, 
extends only from ground to first floor. It provides wide steps 
and ample landings for easy circulation. A secondary stair, 
with lift, connects all the floors from basement to roof. 

The interior decoration, although plain, is the result of 
careful study : every ornate detail, from bead and pearl to the 
friezes in the cornices, every fireplace, being specially modelled in 
wax preparatory to execution. The panelled decoration is of 
plaster, with deal mouldings. The fireplaces are of marble, the 
floors are of oak (except of the hall and stairs, which are of 
stone), and the doors throughout are of solid mahogany. The 
examples here illustrated (pages 44 and 45) of tasteful but 
inexpensive decoration should help to correct the common 
fallacy that effectiveness is necessarily inordinately costly, and 
that therefore post-war conditions bid us despair of attaining 
to it. Clearly simplicity and boldness of scale are by no 
means synonymous with baldness. 

The architects were Messrs. Detmar Blow and Fernand Billerey, and the 
general contractors were Messrs. George Trollope & Sons and Colls & Sons, Ltd., 
who undertook the entire building operations, even to the importation of 
bricks. Mr. W. Bainbridge Reynolds, of Clapham, supplied the ornamental 
ironwork, staircases, etc., and Messrs. Farmer & Brindley were responsible 
for the marble chimneypieces. Messrs. Madeline, of High Street, Lambeth, 
carried out the interior enrichments from their own models, and the lead 
rain-water heads were the work of G. Bankart. 


Plate IV. 


Delmar Blow and Fernand Billerey, Architects. 

1'ebruary 1920. 







The walls and cornice are of plaster, with wood panel mouldings and cast enrichments. 




The doors are of solid mahogany, with surrounds o( deal, and cast enrichments ; plaster cornice and wall decorations. 

4 6 








Decoration & Furniture 

in England 
during the i yth and i8th Centuries, 


'Q complex are the duties of the arehi- acquire great works of art for the adornment 

of his buildings, and was c/iarged with the 

design and disposi- 
tion of appropriate 
furniture and equip- 
age. I'/ie patron, 
too, was no less in- 
formed, and turned 
for a while from 
watching the rise 
and fall of the 
money-barometer, or 
the cares of State, 
to find instant 
recreation in the 
content plat ion of 
objets d'art : in the 
seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries 
great statesmen were 
enlightened collec- 
tors- ruling princes 
were munificent 
Patrons --kings 
fostered the arts. 

To-day it is the 
custom to deplore 
the decay of crafts- 
manship as if the 

shall observe that remedy were far to 

decoration was the proper province of the seek, and thousands were not ennuye with the 
architect; he was then qualified to select and labour that produces " bread and only bread." 

tcctural practitioner to-dciv that it is 

hardly matter 
fo r s u r p r i s e if 
concentration up- 
on new and insis- 
tent demands in 
planning, design, 
construction, and 
u tilita ria n equip- 
ment has diverted 
attention from the 
organic relationship 
subsisting between 
architecture, decora- 
tion, and furniture. 
Considerations af- 
fecting the structure 
tend so to absorb 
all the faculties of 
the architect, that 
at this day it is 
rare to find him 
sharing those final 
labours by which 
alone an effective 
ensemble can be 

In the past we 

KiHsiitglou Palaa. 

Plate V. 


Kensington Palace. 

February 1920. 

Decoration and Furniture 

in England during the ryth & i8th Centuries 

Decorative Mirrors. 

By Ingleson C. Goodison. 

MIRRORS were decorative accessories of the first im- 
portance in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
whether disposed upon the dignified and formal hack- 
ground of wainscot or agreeably displayed against the sheen of 
figured damask or gay-patterned wallpaper. They vied with the 
artistry of contemporary painters in reflecting the lineaments 
and rich costumes of brave 
men and fair women, re- 
producing the brilliant 
assemblies of rout or ri- 
dotto, " multiplying with 
industrious precision yellow 
clusters of candelabra," or 
affording vistas through 
open doorways of enfiladed 
rooms irradiated with sun- 
shine. Gating into their 
limpid depths we may 
evoke memories of bygone 
beauties or of old-time 
scenes which have left no 
more impress upon their 
placid superficies than 
passing clouds upon the 
surface of a lake. Their 
secrets are well guarded in 
caskets of crystal, yet the 
fashioning of their frames 
is eloquent of history 
that rare exotic wood be- 
speaks bold transmarine 
adventure in picturesque 
high-pooped galleon, car- 
rack, or caravel, over 
uncharted seas that mar- 
quetry of tulip and 
ranunculus attests the 
Dutchman's passion for 
floriculture, and reminds 
one of the English court 
in exile, the flight of 
James, and the coming of 

the little Stadtholder this woodwork of beech overlaid with 
plaques of silver cunningly repousse may have enframed the 
image of Court favourite or courtesan Louise de (.hierouailleor 
Nell Gwynne, ladies light and lovely, votaresses of Venus, who 
cultivated the arts by spending. We see the artistry of man 
easily eclipsing the natural beauties of material, or finding in 
each impediment of nature a motive for new fancy silver 
mounts enhance the nigritude of ebony, or cunningly mask the 
frequent joints of tortoiseshell. To-day a sheet of silvered 
glass may rise from floor to ceiling without exciting notice in a 
clamant paragraph ; in Stuart days size was an ideal unattain- 

able, and so we find (page 50) a Lilliputian pane of glass eked 
out with artifice of quaint embroidery to fill a frame, or 
(Plate V) glazing bars employed to combine small sheets of 
glass into an extensive composition. 

The early history of the glass mirror is a tale of foreign 
initiative and enterprise which centres about the island of 

Murano, near Venice 
active! v identified from 
!-><)i and for centuries 
with the fabrication of 
vitreous objcts d'art ct tie 
commerce. ( ilass - making 
was accounted one of the 
noble arts or trades, of 
\\hirh there were two or 
three honourable occupa- 
tions in which noblemen 


.re without loss 

rroptrty of Owtn Fi'.in-Thotna , 

The glass has a bevelled margin which is almost imperceptible. 

of caste in the eyes of a 
punctilious community, 
the hard-won secrets of 
manufacture being trans- 
mitted from father to son 
and jealously guarded 
from strangers. The risks 
which were faced and the 
turpitude displayed in 
wresting these secrets from 
their original discoverers 
would make an absorbing 

Sir Robert Mansell, an 
admiral in the navy of 
James I, obtained in 1615 
a "patent," or monopoly, 
in this country for the 
manufacture of glass by 
the use of sea-coal as fuel 
instead of by the utili/a- 
tion of wood, previously 
employed for that purpose, 
and established the manu- 
facture of blown-glass mirrors in this country with the aid of 
Italian workmen. Although the Venetians endeavoured by the 
severest measures to prevent the emigration of skilled glass- 
workers to foreign countries even, it is asserted, delegating 
emissaries to assassinate those who disobeyed their ordinances 
these appear to ha\ f e been successfully evaded by Colbert, the 
able Minister of Louis XIV, in 1665, when he induced a score 
of Venetian workmen to settle in Paris and develop there an 
industry already practised near Cherbourg, the art receiving a 
new impulse in consequence of which French mirrors soon 
excelled those of Venice in quality. In 1670 the Duke of 


Buckingham established the celebrated glass-works at Lambeth, 
which long survived and gave the name to " Vauxhall plates," 
the manufactory occupying the site of what is now Vauxhall 
Square. Until the introduction of cast plate-glass, mirrors 
were made from blown cylinders of glass which were slit, 
opened out, and flattened by annealing, and subsequently 
polished, the metallic coating or "silvering," giving the pro- 
perties of a mirror, being formed by an amalgamation of tin 
and mercury. 

If the back of an old mirror-plate be examined it will 
be found to display a surface resembling the colour and dull 
crystalline texture of aluminium paint ; the method of sil- 
vering differed from the practice of to day, and was far more 
subject to injury, so that survivals in perfect condition are by 
no means numerous. The 
process of silvering was 
effected by floating a layer 
of mercury over a thin 
sheet of tinfoil upon which 
the glass, previously made 
"chemically clean," was 
placed, and subjected to 
pressure with the object 
of removing superfluous 
quicksilver. Not only were 
there practical limitations 
to the si^e of the glass, but 
also to the area to be cov- 
ered by a single sheet of 
tinfoil, if a joint was to be 

Mirror plates of the 
seventeenth and early 
eighteenth centuries were 
almost invariably margined 
with slight bevelling, about 
an inch in width and fol- 
lowing the contour of the 
frame. This bevelling was 
performed "by hand," the 
inclination because of the 
thinness of the sheet be- 
ing very slight, the bevel 
being highly polished and 
barely perceptible from cer- 
tain points of view, except- 
ing at re-entrant mitres 
and complex curves, where 
the grinding was neces- 
sarily of greater depth 
owing to manipulation of 
the sheet. No great degree 

of mathematical exactitude was observed in grinding this 
bevelled margin, a circumstance arising from no want of skill, 
for considerable dexterity was requisite in negotiating difficult 

The photograph on page 49 illustrates a rectangular mirror 
with a bevelled plate, the frame being of moulded wood covered 
with tortoiseshell of reddish tint, the joints being masked by 
" clasps " of gilt repousse silver. Mirrors of this type are 
depicted in their appropriate milieu in a series of engravings 
by Abraham Bosse, circa 1635, one print entitled " Les Vierges 
Folles (La Dissipation) " showing such a mirror suspended by 
what is apparently a silken cord with ornamental tassels. 
Variants of this type emanated from Italy, the Netherlands, 

Photo: V. & A. M. 

The In-filling is of " Stump-work " Embroidery. 

Victoria and Albert Museum. 

and France, and they are perhaps English only by denization, 
though the pattern was long-current in this country, and 
an undertaking of no hard achievement for native craftsmen. 
Examples are to be met with framed in ebony a favourite 
wood during the early Stuart regime ornamented with silver 
or patterned with fine "rippled" bands and mouldings such 
as are found on the turned-wood "standing-cups" of lime, 
maple, or lignum-vitas, which are frequently inscribed with 
dates of the first quarter of the seventeenth century. Walnut, 
olive, and laburnum were other favourite woods used in the 
fabrication of this type of mirror, and as the century advanced 
the effective transverse cutting of thick veneer, which admir- 
ably exhibits the beautiful grain of walnut, developed into 
parquetry of " oyster-pieces " thin slices cut transversely from 

the trunk, branches, and 
roots of the tree, exhibiting 
the annular markings of 
their structure, resembling 
the texture of an oyster- 
shell and of approximately 
the same size. These were 
cut into polygonal, circular, 
and other shapes, full ad- 
vantage being taken of the 
lighter-coloured margins in 
composing an effective pat- 
tern. The term parquetry 
is used to distinguish pat- 
terns, executed upon geo- 
metrical lines, in assem- 
blages of various figured 
woods, or of the same wood 
with the figure arranged 
in diverse directions ; the 
term marquetry distin- 
guishes a more elaborate 
series of patterns, executed 
in veneer, and compre- 
hending arabesque and ela- 
borately curvilinear forms, 
flowers, birds, and more 
pictorial subjects, enhanced 
with shading and engrav- 
ing. The marquetry asso- 
ciated with mirror frames 
is usually a continuous pat- 
tern, or arranged in panels 
and "reserves" margined 
with fine lines or banding 
and foiled with a veneer 
of highly figured or "oys- 
tered " wood. A very 

general embellishment of these moulded rectangular mirror 
frames is the shaped cresting, headboard, or "cape," a species 
of pediment, if the term may be allowed, which is often 
elaborately profiled and pierced with fret-cutting. These 
crestings or headboards are of wood, about a quarter of an 
inch in thickness, veneered, and stiffened on the back with two 
vertical cross-battens, which are prolonged to engage in slots 
in the upper margin of the mirror frame. That such 
crestings can readily be detached accounts perhaps for the 
fact that they are rarely to be found on mirrors which 
have survived the vicissitudes of more than two centuries 
and a quarter, and complete specimens are prized accordingly 
for their rarity. 


Corresponding very closely in general design with the 
rectangular mirrors having broad moulded frames of ebony 
or walnut, and surmounted by elaborately shaped or pierced 
crestings as described in the foregoing, were those remarkable 
mirrors, often upwards of seven feet high and four feet wide, 
composed entirely of thick plates of silver, embossed in high 
relief and richly chased, which formed important units in those 
suites of silver furniture, specimens of which are still preserved, 
bearing hall-marks dating from the reigns of Charles II and 
William III. Furniture of this operose description fulfilled, 
of course, no ordinary 
office, but was intended 
f o r presentation at 
times to convey a signal 
mark of royal favour 
or to further the nego- 
tiations of a political 
emissary. The citizens 
of London presented 
such a silver mirror, 
with a table of the 
same precious material 
and workmanship, to 
Charles II in token of 
rejoicing upon the oc- 
casion of that mon- 
arch's happy restora- 
tion to his kingdom, 
and both pieces are 
still preserved at 
Windsor. Evelyn re- 
cords a visit, in i" ( S_$, 
to the apartments at 
Whitehall occupied by 
Louise de Ouerouaille. 
Duchess of Portsmouth, 
where he observed 
"great vases of wrought 
plate, tables, stands, 
chimney - furniture, 
sconces, branches, 
braseras, etc., all of 
massy silver and out 
of number." We read 
that Mistress Elinor 
Gvvyn also possessed 
"great looking-glasses" 
decorated with silver. 
Celia Fiennes, in the 
entertaining account 
of her tour through 
England, refers to "ye 
silver roome " at Brad- 
by at one time fur- 
nished with stands, 

tables, and fire utensils of silver. The well-known suite at 
Knole Park, Sevenoaks, consists of a table surmounted by a 
superb hanging mirror, a pair of queridons, or tall stands for the 
accommodation of lights or perfume jars, and a pair of sconces. 
On the accession of the Dutch Stadtholder William>f Orange 
to the throne of this kingdom the Corporation of the City of 
London presented him with a magnificent silver mirror sur- 
mounted by a cresting bearing the royal arms, supporters, and 
crowned monogram, the frame being decorated with gadrooning 
and sprays of various flowers. This mirror, which is still 


The shaped and saw-pierced cresling is characteristic o( the period. 

housed in the Castle at Windsor, is pronounced by experts to 
be of English workmanship, but in design recalls certain 
compositions found amongst the published etchings of the 
Huguenot emigre, Daniel Marot. 

Two accompanying illustrations mark the introduction from 
the East of a form of decoration which enjoyed great vogue. 
The frames are lacquereJ upon soft wood, and embellished with 
patterns and figures executed in gold-leaf. Lacquer or lac is 
an Eastern varnish which sets extremely hard and is applied 
in succesMve coats upon a specially prepared foundation, 

raiseil ornamentation 
being applied in hard 
and durable gesso ; the 
"raxe for this form of 
decoration was fostered 
by the arrival in 
European ports of 
those picturesque East 
Indiamen, dispatched 
by the great chartered 
trading companies to 
China, India, and Ja- 
pan, which returned 
freighted with im- 
mense cargoes of Ori- 
ental novelties, highly 
esteemed and quickly 
imitated by the astute 
Portuguese and Dutch 
traders who first con- 
ducted this lucrative 
branch of ocean com- 

Examples in black, 
red, g r ee n, b 1 u e, 
and vellow lacquer of 
both Oriental and 
European provenance 
are found, dating gene- 
rally from the Resto- 
ration to about the 
end of the first quarter 
of the eighteenth cen- 
tury: specimens have 
been encountered dat- 
ing from the reign of 
[ames I, and even of 
Elizabeth, though 
these are rare, and 
there was a revival of 
the fashion in the latter 
part of the eighteenth 
century. An entry in 
the diary of John 
Hervey, Earl of Bristol, 

records the purchase in 1694 of a lacquer mirror from the 
cabinet-maker Gerard Johnson, who enjoyed Royal patronage, 
and fashioned the pair of superb mirror overmantels of 
exceptional proportions and elaboration in yueen Mary's 
(iallery at Kensington Palace, one of which is illustrated 
facing page 48 and to a larger scale on Plate V. A description 
of this example was given in THK ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW for 
August 1913, quoting Mr. Ernest Law's investigations into the 
combined authorship of this admirable composition which 
dates from about 1690 and was the joint product of the 

r Owm Evan~Thotna 


renowned Grinling Gibbons who executed the woodcarving, of 
Gerard (or Gerrit) Johnson, cabinet-maker to Queen Mary, who 
was responsible for the construction and fixing, and Robert 
Streater, sergeant-painter to the King, by whom the original 
gilding was carried out. Original drawings,* prepared about 
1694 and variously attributed to Wren and Grinling Gibbons, 
are extant, depicting overmantels of which this composition is 

An upright hanging mirror (temp. William and Mary) in a 
walnut frame, the upper portion of which is characteristically 
shaped, is illustrated below: no doubt this example was 

* One of which was illustrated in THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW, 1913, 
August, page 35. 

Property oj Percy B. Meyer, Esq. 


The glass is bevelled and " brilliant - cut." 

originally equipped with a fretted cresting, adding importance 
to the height. It is composed of an upper and a lower plate, 
of so-called Vauxhall glass with bevelled edges ; the upper plate 
is enlivened with an intaglio design in brilliant-cutting, which, 
with the bevelling, is highly polished : the reflection of every 
moving source of light flashes and sparkles in the cutting, 
and one finds in specimens of this order many pleasing devices 
compounded with great art from simple elements in these 
"embossed" plates to use an appellation at one time current 
in trade circles. The cross-section of the walnut frame is 
ovolo-moulded, having in addition a minor moulding round 
the outer edge, and the transverse cutting of the wood displays 
the figured grain to great advantage. Later variants of this 
popular type of mirror, dating from the period of Queen Anne, 
have generally a flat frame, with a slight cavetto moulding 
next the glass and a beading round the outer edge. The 
crestings, or headboards, curve inwards at the top, towards the 
wall, a refinement for which one usually looks in vain in 
modern replicas. 

What is known as a "landscape" mirror was very popular 
in Queen Anne and early Georgian days, and several figure on 
this and following pages. They consist usually of a central 
horizontal plate of glass flanked on either hand with narrow 
upright plates, all three being bevelled, while the flanking plates 
overlap the centre-plate, the inner bevel on the two first- named 
being narrower, and having therefore a sharper inclination. 
EarK' specimens are framed in walnut or in lacquered wood, 
following which slender gilt frames adorned with gesso, in low 
relief, were popular, and later were of carved wood, gilt. The 
more ornate examples terminate in volute 1 ramps, and at times 
provision is made on the ramps for candle-branches of gilt brass, 
with little shaped and engravei back plates, the outline of which 
may be perceived in the upper photograph on the facing page. 

Reverting to a period slightly earlier, there are choice 
specimens of three-plate horizontal landscape mirrors, combined 
with chimneypieces, at Hampton Court Palace in W'illiam Ill's 
State Bedchamber * and in Queen Mary's Closet. The first- 
named is environed with blue glass affixed with cut - glass 
rosettes, and has a segment-headed central plate, being placed 
upon a background of oak above the boldly moulded marble 
framing which surrounds the firepl ice opening. That in 
Queen Mary's Closet is framed in oak, moulded and richlv 
carved, the joints between the three mirror-plates (which are 
flush) being masked with a conventional device of cut blue 
glass. Hampton Court is rich in splendid pier-glasses and 
other fine mirrors, which well repay inspection : some there are 
with multiple-bevelled glass borders and superb carved wood 
and gesso frames. 

In the Cube Room at Sudbrook Park, Petersham, designed 
by James Gibbs in 1726-1728, is a mirror combined with a 
handsome chimneypiece of veined marble, which is illustrated on 
p. 54: the central portion is shaped like an example at Hampton 
Court Palace to which reference has been made, and bears a coat 
of arms that of John Campbell, second Duke of Argyll in 
enamel and gold foil. An architect who was associated with 
Gibbs at Ditchley, and with many Palladian contemporaries in 
the adornment of splendid early Georgian mansions, was 
William Kent, to whom is attributed the design of a noble 
mirror illustrate! on page 55. Kent was the architect of that 
superb ducal mansion, Devonshire House, Piccadilly, which 
is about to be sacrificed ruthlessly upon the altar of a rampant 
commercialism. He designed much fine furniture, conceiving 

* Illustrated in THE ARCHITECTURAL FEVIEW, 1913, August, page 36, and of which 
a measured drawing by Mr. P. G. Maule appears in Messrs. Belcher and 
Macartney's well-known folio on " Later Renaissance Architecture in England." 



l*rof>eity of Percy H. Meyer, Esq. 


it upon a scale appropriate to the splendid houses then arising, 
and rinding executants equal in virtuosity to the great occasions 
provided by his genius. Kent designed many mirrors of the 
"landscape" variety to adorn his chimneypieces, some of 
which it is hoped will he presented in succeeding issues of THK 
ARCHITECTURAL RKVIKW: a rectangular hanging mirror and 
groups of furniture of his design from Devonshire House have 
been recently on exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
South Kensington, but the proper place to judge his furniture 
and indeed all furniture is in the environment for which it was 

The landscape mirror represented on page 56 is indicative 
of the change which next ensued. Placed over a quiet 
Georgian mantelpiece and enframed in a decorous rectangular 
panel, which is margined with orthodox carved water-leaf 
enrichment, the mirror visuali/es an ;esthetic resolution, and 
breathes a new spirit of adventure in its strange elements and 
recurving outline -here are no familiar items of structure, no 
mitred rails and stiles, no mouldings adorned with running- 
patterns of rose-and-ribbon, water-leal or knurling, no accen- 
tuation of acanthus at the junctures of the four sides instead, 
the designer seems to have been actuated only by a sweet 
unreasonableness, forcing his material into a mould as if it 
were fluescent molten metal: we grope in vain for principles, 
for the secict of some formula which guided him in the assem- 
blage of these strange shelly elements, which appear rather 
to have grown together by the agencies of nature than to owe 

their fabrication to the artifice of man. This style was the 
wood-carver's great opportunity, and many captivating forms 
emerged from the operations of his deft and busy chisel. The 
gilder, too, was greatly in request, clothing the whole fragile 
architecture with his glistening sheath of gold. The enframed 
shapes oi glass became too intricate for bevelling, in conse- 
quence of which this practice fell into desuetude, and the 
increasing richness of the frames no longer called for the 
augmentation of brilliant-cutting on the surface of the glass. 

In England we have been accustomed to regard the cabinet- 
maker Thomas Chippendale as the representative designer of 
this epoch, but there must have been manv who, as decorators, 
bridged the gulf between architecture whereupon the Rococo 
took slight effect, and furniture which was completely captivated 
by it. The architect Abraham Swan if we may suppose him a 
practitioner boldy countenanced the (iallic innovations of shell- 
and rock-work in designs for chimneypieces and sides of rooms 
published in his " British Architect," which first saw the light 
in 1745. Isaac Ware, in precept if not in practice, deprecated 
this invasion of the French, but wrought in May fair for a patron. 
Lord Chesterfield, who was determined that the appointments 
of his fine house should be of the prevailing fashion. 

If we have, in the adornments of English houses, nothing 
comparable with the work, in this genre, of the French decorators 
Oppenord, Fineau, and Meissonnier, and of the architects Robert 
de Cotte, (iermain Boffrand, and Charles K. Briseux, or of the 
metal-worker, Jacques Callieri, and the jotiillicr, Pierre (iermain, 





our rare survivals of the period admittedly less ambitious in 
conception and less marvellous in technique are still capti- 
vating. One of those tall pier- or mantel-glasses, encrusted 
with mirrors, its sinuous branches bearing long-beaked stork- 
like birds, is rightly regarded as a treasured possession by 
many a discriminating proprietor, and is a splendid decorative 
accessory when grouped with a console-table of the same 
character or posed above a long carving-table, sideboard, or 
mantelpiece of the period. 

One notes, not without amusement, that Matthias Lock, 
who published many designs closely founded on the French 
originals of Pineau, dedicates one of his series to the Right 
Honourable Lord Blakeney, Grand President of the Antigallican 

ye.irs later, was re-enacted, in spite of which the vogue for 
these useful decorative accessories continued unabated ; indeed, 
the size and importance of looking-glasses was considerably 
augmented, and tradesmen's bills are extant which attest the 
great extravagance displayed in this direction and the import- 
ance attached to mirrors in any scheme of decoration. The 
desire for lightness, brightness, and grace in interior decoration 
and furnishing is accountable for the Chinese craze: an infil- 
tration of Oriental ceramic objects displayed high decorative 
possibilities which, once perceived, were seized upon with 
enthusiasm, and incorporated with great effect in European 
surroundings. Porcelain was the favourite decorative material 
of the Rococo in France, and porcelain determined the designs 


James Gibbs, Architect. 

Association, and the rest of the Brethren of that Most 
Honourable Order ! 

Matthias Lock, Thomas Johnson, and the firm of Ince & 
Mayhew, issued an enormous number of designs for pier- 
glasses, mantel-glasses, girandoles, and mirrors generally, which 
were constructed by furniture makers in town and country, and 
were modified to suit the purses of different patrons and the 
skill of the executant ; the productions of this considerable 
manufacture are all attributed to-day to the great Chippendale, 
whose name is everywhere familiar. 

During the seventeenth century and for the first quarter of 
the eighteenth century glass was inordinately expensive ; in 
1745 the heavy duty, imposed in 1695 and repealed three 

and colour-scale of this enchanting period. Chinese hand- 
painted wall-papers now decked boudoir and bedroom, and 
mirrors in asymmetric frames of burnished gold accommodated 
themselves to this caprice. Chinamen and pagodas, rock-work 
and dripping water, were the ingredients of a new style, and 
were lavishly employed upon mirror and picture-frames, china- 
shelves and brackets, and " the many little artifices made use 
of to allure." 

A passage in Bonnell Thornton's " Connoisseur " affords a 
contemporary picture of the vogue for chinoiseries, and perhaps 
deserves citation here : 

" Having occasion one morning to wait upon a very pretty 
fellow, I was desired by the valet de chambre to walk into the 



Photo: V. 6- A. M. 


Victoria and Albert Museum. 


dressing-room, as his master was not yet stirring. I was 
accordingly shown into a neat little chamber, hung round 
with Indian paper, and adorned with several little images of 
pagods and bramins, and vessels of Chelsea china, in which 
were set various coloured sprigs of artificial flowers. But the 
toilet most excited my admiration, where I found everything 
was intended to be agreeable to the Chinefe taste. A looking- 
glafs, inclosed in a whimfical frame of Chinese paling, stood 
upon a japan table, over which was spread a coverlid of the 
finest chints. I could not but observe a number of boxes of 
different fixes, which were all of them japan, and lay regularly 
difposed on the table." 

The landscape mirror illustrated at the head of the next page 
might have graced the mantel- 
piece in such an apartment, 
and would have been enlivened 
by the accompaniment of 
mantel ornaments in bright- 
hued porcelain or china. 

In the " Works in Archi- 
tecture," published by Robert 
and James Adam, many vast 
mirrors are illustrated which 
extended from the dado or the 
mantelshelf almost to the ceil- 
ing of those splendid apart- 
ments with which their names 
are identified. Many of these 
survive, fortunately, in the set- 
tings for which they were de- 
signed, and their high deco- 
rative importance may still 
be apprehended. A great over- 
mantel mirror of the same 
character was at one time to 
be seen in the ballroom of 
Carrington House, Whitehall, 
designed by Sir William 
Chambers, whose practice was 
contemporaneous with the 
vogue of the Adam brothers. 
Both Chambers and Adam 
introduced Italian craftsmen 
into this country, and it is 
perhaps owing to the influx 
of these workmen from the 
South, who were great forma- 
tori, that the practice of mo- 
delling and casting and apply- 
ing enrichment largely super- 
seded carving in relief. Adam 
exploited a special composi- 
tion for applied enrichments; the fine scale of ornament and 
the vogue for gilding and painting prevalent during the latter 
part of the eighteenth century greatly facilitated execution 
in this less enduring manner. 

The mirror-maker of the period did not disdain to string 
delicate festoons and pendants of " husks," borne by light wires, 
across and around fragile looking-glasses, and it is surprising to 
find such specimens intact after the hazard of long life and the 
vicissitudes of the sale-rooms. Smaller mirrors of the Adam 
period were frequently elliptical in shape, and either horizontally 
or vertically of that figure, their slight gilded frames adorned 
with transverse fluting, and margined with fine reeding and 
pearling or sharply cut Greek water-leaf. 


The circular mirror with a convex glass was an exceedingly 
popular article towards the close of the eighteenth century and 
for upwards of a quirter of the nineteenth century. It was 
framed in moulded and gilded wood, usually of a hollow cross 
section, the outer member being decorated with reeding bound 
at intervals with crossed ribbons, the inner member being 
enriched with pearling ; next to the glass is usually a reeded 
bind of ebonized wood, and the whole composition is frequently 
surmounted by a spirited representation of an eagle in carved 
wood, and bears at the sides scrolled branches or "girandoles" 
for the reception of candles, furnished with brass nozzles and 
with drip pans of the same metal or of cut glass. In some 
examples festoons of cut-glass drops are found depending from 

the eagle's beak to attach- 
ments on the branching arms, 
while from the drip-pans de- 
pend "icicles" of flashing 
cut-glass aglow with prismatic 
fires. Distributed within the 
deep cavetto of the frame are 
small gilded balls, the size 
of marbles, a motif often re- 
peated on the cornices of 
upright and horizontal mir- 
rors, as in the attractive 
example which is seen on 
page 58. This is a good 
specimen of the 
or mantel - glass 
eighteenth and 
teenth centuries, 

" chimney-" 
of the late 
early nine- 
and is ad- 
orned with familiar embellish- 
ments ; the top member of the 
cornice is decorated with a 
half-round laurel band exe- 
cuted in composition, and 
applied : the bed-mould is a 
running band of water-leaf, 
and the glass is margined 
with reeded flats, the whole 
frame being gilded and the 
glasses bevelled. 

About 1840 the old amal- 
gamation process of " silver- 
ing " was replaced by a method 
of coating glass with a deposit 
of pure silver ; this at first was 
not so durable as the tin- 
amalgam, and resulted in the 
fogging and crystallization at 
Jhe lower margin with which 

all who have housed or used 
old mirrors are familiar. To-day, mirrors coated by the " patent " 
process, as it is called, are painted at the back with a pro- 
tective coating of shellac, which is reinforced with a further 
coat of red-lead paint, giving the appearance which is so 
well known. 

It has not been possible to illustrate or describe more than a 
limited selection of the elegant forms into which mirror-glass 
was wrought during the two centuries traversed by our review, 
but enough has been advanced to show that while the material 
was expensive or difficult to procure the highest talents and the 
finest workmanship were available to make it beautiful. Con- 
temporary accounts abound with references indicating the 
estimation in which mirrors were held as decorative accessories 




/ II. J. //i.'r/viin/, Ks,;. 

whole rooms were " waitist oted " with looking-glass: a hack- 
ground of the same popular material was utilized in the " Volery " 
or aviary at Chatsworth for reflecting the images of gay-plumaged 
birds: at Chippenhani Park Celia Fiennes remarked mirrors 
"ye finest and most in quantity and numbers" in all her tour, 
describing piers of glass between the windows divided into panes, 
like the overmantel-mirror at Kensington Palace, an illustration 
of which forms the frontispiece to this article. According to the 
same authority glass sconces -wall-lights with back-plates of 
mirror-glass were not uncommon in the time of William and 
Mary, and survivals attest that these were popular during the 
succeeding reign and in early Georgian days. Table-tops 
brilliantly '' embossed " with monograms and coats of arms, of 
silvered glass, are to be encountered, and are exceedingly effective 
in combination with their usual environment of gilded gesso. 
One of the most pleising and effective uses of silvere 1 glass took 

the form of frame! pictures, painted in full colour upon a 
mirror background, favourite subjects for which were Chinese 
scenes and figures, the highly conventional treatment of which 
rendered them particularly suitable for the purpose -in com- 
bination with narrow frames of lacquer, or of Chinese blackwood, 
or of gilt wood carved with Chinese motifs, their high decorative 
value in appropriate surroundings was readily perceived and 
justly appreciated. 

It is perhaps worthy of remark that carved frames designed 
to accommodate pictures do not make suitable mirror frames : 
contrary to the effect of a picture, a mirror plate gives an 
impression of depth to which the enframing woodwork requires 
a nice adjustment, but there are capital antique exemplars 
in which a mirror and a picture are combined in one frame with 
the happiest results imaginable. These were designed usually for 
surmounting mantelpieces or side-tables combinations of the 

From a House in 

New Square, 




triple-plate landscape mir- 
ror or upright pier-glass 
with decorative pictures in 
which the subjects are 
conventionally treated - 
Bower and fruit pieces by 
Jean Baptiste Monnoyer 
(who worked for Queen 
Mary III), bird -pieces by 
Jan Weenix, sea-pieces by 
Peter Monamy (like the 
capital example in the 
Victoria and Albert 
Museum, South Kensing- 
ton), or compositions of 
classical ruins by Panini 
enframed in light wood- 
work decorated with gilt 
gesso, in which the slight 
ornaments are effectively 
burnished. Gesso, with 
which so many splendid 
mirror frames of the Oueen 
Anne period are embel- 
lishe.l, is a composition of 
fine whiting, glue, parch- 
ment-size, etc., which is 
applied to the woodwork 
with a brush in successive 
coats till a ground is 
prepared, upon which the 
design is built up in layers 
with the brush, and the 
raised pattern contrive.! in 
several planes with beauti- 
fully softened edges. The 
design is then sharpened in 
engraving tools, the sunk 



parts by means of fine carving and 
groundwork being diversified with 

l'rnt>crty of Mttj. -General HirJ, D.S.O., et 


Napoleon's campaigns beinj. 
the climax of Waterloo. 

hatching, scaling, punch- 
ing, or matting, performed 
while the material is still 
elastic ; the entire surface 
is then usually gilded and 
the softly raised pattern 
highly burnished. 

The gilding of all wood- 
work is carried out after 
careful preparation upon a 
thin foundation of gesso, 
which is employed to soften 
the minute asperities that 
elsewhere appear so slight 
but are curiously magni- 
fied when a surface is 

During the English 
"Empire" period many 
extremely dignified and 
effective decorative mirrors 
were designed, the orna- 
ments being usually exe- 
cuted in composition or 
in gilded brass. The style 
was a reaction from the 
delicate and graceful to the 
severity and magnificence 
of republican Rome ; it has 
been remarked that this 
was essentially a warlike 
style, reflecting in its orna- 
ments casques, helmets, 
eagles, wreaths, etc. the 
employments of the pe- 
riod, the influence of 
dominant in design long after 

(To be continued). 

Property of Maj.-General Bird, P S.O., etc. 

The ornaments are executed in composition. 


HOV'St * ->n I 1V\ I NC I J ) 



Plate VI. February 1920. 


Measured and Drawn by Chrittofhtr J . \Voodbridgi. 

The Practical Exemplar of Architecture : 

Somerset House, London : The Chimneypiece in the Registrar- 
General's Office. 

THIS admirable chimneypiece which adorns a charmingly 
decorated apartment on the first floor of that 
north-eastern portion of Somerset House adjacent to 
the Strand, is constructed of carved painted wood enclosing 
slips of reddish-hued veined marble. The architect's original 
drawings of the ornaments including the novel Ionic pilaster 
capitals have happily been preserved, and it is hoped to present 

the use of these societies being specially designed to meet their 
requirements and embellished in a manner befitting their state 
and dignity.* 

Chimneypieces and mantelpieces were objects of particular 

solicitude on the part of Sir William Chambers, who remarks of 
the magnificent examples then in vogue: " In 'this particular we 
surpass all other nations, not only in point of expense, but 


them in a further issue of THK ARrim >:< TCK.M. KHYIHW, both 
as models cf effective draughtsmanship and elegant design. 

The present building, or rather aggregation of buildings, 
known as Somerset House, replaces an older structure once the 
Thames-side palace of Protector Somerset, to which extensive 
additions were made during the first decade of the seventeenth 
century by Inigo Jones. A description of old Somerset House 
just prior to its destruction will be found in John Northouck's 
"History of London" published in 1773, the project for the 
rebuilding being on foot within two years. The north block of 
the new building provided accommodation at one time for the 
reception of the Royal Academy of Arts, the Royal Society, and 
the Society of Antiquaries, in all of' which institutions King 
George III was actively interested, the apartments reserved for 


likewise in taste ol design and excellence of workmanship." 
Many of his designs were executed by the able hands of sculptors 
such as Wilton, Bacon, Nollekcns, and by the woodcarver 
Thacker, for distinguished situations and discriminating pa- 
trons. He was assisted at Somerset House by his protege^ the 
gifted painter and draughtsman, Giovanni Battista Cipriani. 
Dr. Johnson, writing for the benefit of Mrs. Thrale, described 
the apartments of the Royal Academy at Somerset House as 
"truly very noble," the exhibitions being graced by pictures 
of the most eminent artists of the period, among whom 
were Reynolds, Gainsborough, Cosway, Beechey, and Richard 

* " Somerset House I'ast and Present." R. Needham and A. VVebiter. 

Westminster Cathedral and its Architect. 

IF Mrs. Winefride de 1'Hopital had been moved by the 
promptings of filial piety alone to write an account of her 
father's life and work, a slender booklet might have served 
her turn. Such memoirs, usually printed "for private circula- 
tion only," are esteemed and treasured by a few personal 
friends, but are so written as to possess but little interest for 
the general public, even when the subject is a person who has 
attained to a certain degree of celebrity. Mrs. de 1'Hopital 
would have been justified in planning her book on the small 
scale of the private memoir if her father had not designed 
Westminster Cathedral. True, he did much good work 
beside : but there is very little exaggeration in asserting that an 
architect never becomes popular until he has built a cathedral, 
or some structure that the public will accept in lieu thereof 
say the Whitehall Cenotaph, which made famous in a day, 
through the least of all his works, an architect who had been 
for years designing buildings that, while to his fellow-architects 
they proclaimed him a master of his art, got him but little fame 
among the "many-headed. " 

If Bentley cared nothing for popularity, nor even for fame, 
because he cared so much for his art, he nevertheless could not 
have withheld his approval from this full-dress biography, in 
two portly volumes ; to which distinction he has attained 
through his art, but mainly through that stupendous manifesta- 
tion of it which became possible when he was selected to design 
Westminster Cathedral. The men capable of turning so grand 
an occasion to such glorious account are even more rare than 
the opportunities for it ; or let us say, rather, that the hour and 
the man do not always coincide the great man for the great 
work is not invariably at hand at the psychological moment. 

That Bentley was the right man to build Westminster 
Cathedral is proved by the event, by his having designed the 
grandest building of modern times. His daughter's singularly 
candid biography of him does not so much as hint that he was 
foreordained to do this work : but it shows, without labouring the 
point, that his life, from his earliest years, was an undeviating 
though unconscious preparation for it and step-by-step progress 
towards it. Even his apprenticeship to a builder helped to fit 
him for the great task that crowned his career gave him 
the assured technological mastery that enabled him to achieve 
the final glorification of brickwork. 

Born at Doncaster on 30 January 1839, the third son among 
the seventeen children of Charles Bentley, wine merchant, and 
of his wife Ann, John Bentley came of a sturdy Yorkshire stock, 
which had been settled in Doncaster for more than a century. 
When he was fourteen, a fine old church of which he was 
passionately fond was destroyed by fire ; and the boy, who knew 
every stone of it, was able to construct, chiefly from memory, 
a cardboard model of it that was perfect in every detail. Even 
earlier than this, he was extremely fond of watching the local 
carvers and joiners at work; and when Sir G. G. Scott, 
commissioned to rebuild the church that of St. George, 
Doncaster appointed a local mason as clerk of works, Master 
John Bentley, who was a favourite with the mason, haunted 
the site, and, having a talent for drawing and a good knowledge 
of workmanship, made himself very useful in the office and on 
the job, explaining the working drawings, setting out full-size 
details, making templates for the masons. " He was even trusted 
to measure up the foundations for the great central tower." 
And this in the sixteenth year of his age ! 

It was then thought to be time for him to choose a career. 
He wanted to be a painter ; but his father, as a business man, 
scorned the idea. John must make up his mind for work of a 
more practical and less speculative character. While waiting 
for it he was allowed to assist, as a sort of under-clerk of the 
works, in the repairs of Loversall parish church, the architect 
who thus had the honour of becoming Bentley 's first employer 
being George Gordon Place, of Newark and Nottingham. That 
was in 1854. Early next year John entered the engineering 
shops of Sharpe, Stewart & Co., of Manchester. He remained 
there but a very short time, for in June of the same year he was 
apprenticed to Winslow and Holland, builders, of Bloomsbury. 
Richard Holland, admiring the boy's extraordinary skill in 
drawing, suggested that he should become an architect rather 
than a builder, and got him an introduction to Henry Glutton, 
a prosperous ecclesiastical architect to whom Bentley was never 
articled, but with whom he remained as an improver for rather 
less than three years. Captivated by his principal's enthusiasm 
for early French Gothic, Bentley produced, in 1858, what was 
probably his first essay in ecclesiastical, design a church, "of 
Lombardesque type, in red brick with stone banding, with an 
imposing campanile-like tower"- a clear foreshadowing of 
Westminster Cathedral. The drawing was shown at the first 
exhibition (in March 1860) held by the R.I.B.A. in its then 
new quarters in Conduit Street. Bentley took no further part 
in competitions, which he always vehemently denounced. A 
year later he exhibited at the Royal Academy for the first and 
last time, his contribution being a coloured study for a chancel. 
Magnificent draughtsman and fine colourist that he was, he 
should not have hidden his light under a bushel. William 
Burges, who was in Glutton's office when young Bentley entered 
it, had, it is assumed, much influence on the youth's aesthetic 

In these early years Bentley helped on important domestic 
work, like " Cjuantock," the Tudor mansion for Lord Bridge- 
water, and Minley Manor House, Farnborough, in Louis XI 
chateau style ; but ecclesiastical work took up most of his time, 
and his assistance was so highly valued that Glutton offered him 
a partnership when he was only twenty-one years old. It was 
a tempting offer to a youth without means, but he had the 
courage to refuse it and to commence practice on his own 
account. At first he had ample leisure to study the casts in the 
old Architectural Museum in Cannon Row and the tombs in 
Westminster Abbey. He was fortunate in forming thus early 
his friendships with the Westlakes, Napier Hemy, H. W. 
Brewer, W. A. Purdue, and W. Butterfield. Bentley was 
received into the Catholic Church in 1862 by Cardinal Wise- 
man, taking then the name of Francis in addition to John. He 
did not marry until he was thirty-five years old, his bride, 
Miss Margaret Fleuss, being fourteen years younger. By that 
time he had built up a good practice. Always physically 
delicate, although of apparently sturdy frame, he was a' passion- 
ate worker who overtaxed his strength. He died suddenly on 
ist March 1892, before his nomination for the Royal Gold 
Medal could be confirmed, and before the prospect of his being 
elected A.R.A. could be realized. Although these honours did 
not materialize for him, he was happy in the assurance that 
they awaited him that, in the opinion of his fellow-artists, he 
had earned them. Like most men of genius, he had a high 
opinion of his own merit, but rejoiced to have it confirmed. He 



may even ^have felt, what is no more than the truth, that his 
work at Westminster proved him one of the world's great 
masters in architecture ; and all his minor works point to the 
same conclusion that, with his skill in decorative as well as in 
architectural design, with his masterly knowledge of the acces- 
sory arts and crafts of frescoes, stained glass, mosaics, iron- 
work, furniture even he was comparable for versatility to the 
giants of the Early Renaissance. 

Mrs. de I'Hopital's book is an important addition to the 
literature of architecture : for not only has she given a very full 
account of the inception of Westminster Cathedral, with the 
trials and triumphs that it brought its architect : she supplies 
also fairly full memoranda of his smaller work, ecclesiastical and 
domestic. The illustrations are copious and beautiful : but we 
should have liked to see more plans, as well as a few rough 
sketches showing how the artist shadowed forth his ideas. 
Other personal touches are by no me ins lacking, and from them 
we derive a vivid impression of a singularly noble-minded man 
of genius, his little faults being as faithfully set forth as his great 

" \\'fstminst,-i- Cii//i,-i/i-iil ,n/,/ its Architect" /lv \\'in,-fii,l,- <// 
PHopitcil. hi tit.'i> volumes. //'//// 160 illnstriitimii. /.mii/i'ii : 
Hutihinson !j- (.'n.. 1'iiteriiostei' AVri 1 . /'/'/,, _/.'^ ^>. //,/. 

Publications and Catalogues Received. 


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"The Concrete I Ions.." My C. W. Hilton. Architect. 1 .. \ 1. N, 
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"Glass Manufacture." liy \\'alter Kosenhain. M.A.. I).Sc.. I-'. U.S. Second 
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"How to Kstimate : Being the Analysis of liuilders' price-.." 1!\ John T. 
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more than 400 illustrations. I!. T. liatslord. 

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Any of these publications and catalogue* mar lie inspected in tht iu'jdin^ A'< >, 
Technical Journals, Ltd., >7-2'l 'I'ctliill Street, Westminster. 


An Early Adam Building at High Wy combe. 

WITH reference to the notes on the Guildhall and Market 
Hall at High Wycombe (page 26 of our January issue), 
Mr. Arthur T. Bolton, F.S.A., Curator, Sir John Soane's 
Museum, writes to us as follows : 

"The question of the Market Hall at High Wycombe has 
been cleared up. The architect was Henry Keene, who preceded 
Robert Adam at Bowood. The other building The Shambles 
is an early work of Robert Adam, alteration of an existing 
octagonal market-house, but the whole has been since altered. 
I am proposing to give this latter work in the book on Robert 
Adam now in the press." 

Symphonies in Stone. 
By Bart Kennedy. 

WHKXEVKK I have wandered into a strange city, I have gone 
to see the cathedral. For the cathedral is always a beautiful 
place. And I hold that a beautiful place is of all places the most 
utilitarian. It is of more value to those around than the drab, 
useful places of commerce that too often mean slavery. Beauty 
and harmony are the only things that are worth much in life. 

If I were aske.l to say which cathedral impressed me most, 
of all I have ever seen. I would say the cathedral of Toledo in 
Spain. That is indeed a place most glorious. It has wonderful 
windows, and the light within it changes from moment to 
moment. Ever is there going on within it a splendid symphony 
of moving colour. The light weaves and weaves within it. It 
is a place that seems vast as a world --a sublime world of har- 
mony. On one of the great walls is a giant picture of 
St. Christopher. But perhaps one of the most beautiful things of 
all is the Altar of the Transparency. This is a glorious blend 
ol designs in da/xlmg white, and in many colours and shades, 
that rises and rises till it unites with and is lost in the light of 
the roof far above. The Altar of the Transparency is strangely 
beautiful. But the wonder of the glorious cathedral is the light 
the transcendent, shining, changing light. 

1 he cathedral th it comes next to my mind is the cathedral 
ol York. Herein is an effe.'t of strange solemnity and vast ness 
and immeiiseness. The light that comes in is the grev. subdued 
light of the north. This old. reverend, restrained, beautiful 
place! Perhaps it impresse 1 me more than any other cathedral 
1 have seen in England. 

That such pi ices of wonder and be.mty as cathedrals should 
arise front the hind of mm shows that within him lives a god. 
The-e glorious svmphonies in stone! Thev are the expression 
ol the splendour ol man's soul and intellect. 

At times I have stave:! in the <piietude of a cathedral, and it 
has seemed to me as it the world had gone. It has seeme 1 as 
il the sounds of the strife of life weft; lost in some illimitable 
distance. Herein one might collect oneself. Mysteries of 
one's soul and mind would be revealed. 

The beautiful soft lights that shine in cathedrals! Often 
I have looked up at them and marvelled. They change and 
change, going on their way as a melody. And the mighty 
organ-sounds that sweep through cathedrals! And the voices 
that rise in h illowed song ! And the glorious pealing of the bells ! 
Anil the ceremonies enacted in the cathedrals! Significant are 
they. They have evolved from out the very root of life itself. 

The greit towns of the world with their noise and their 
strife and their ugly places of commerce ! Dread and ruthless 
war goes on in them in times of so-called peace. A war in 
which the weapon used is cunning. A war worse than the red, 
open war of violence. Ever is it being waged in these great 
towns of the world. It goes on without cessation. 

And in these towns the cathedrals arise. There are the 
sanctuaries to which one may go from the throbbing unrest. 
They are the harmonious expressions of the genius of man. 
Their presence shows that all is not dark in human destiny. 
They are the heralds that tell of a coming higher and nobler life. 

These glorious symphonies in stone! These harmonious 
places of meditation and calm ! In themselves they are a lesson 
to those who rush fitfully through life, gaining nothing that is 
worthy of possession. In them shine the beautiful lights. In 
them live the glorious sounds. In them are enacted the signifi- 
cant and wondrous ceremonies the ceremonies that are replete 
with meanings that man has forgotten. 


The Nation's War Paintings at the Academy. 

AT this exhibition of the major portion of the Imperial War 
Museum's acquisitions there is work to suit all tastes. 
There are veritable masterpieces and striking tours de 
force hanging cheek by jowl with deplorable inanities, equally 
valueless as records and as art. 

There is no need to indicate the bad bargains: they jeer at 
one from the walls, and are almost the only works that have 
been selected for praise by a certain type of critic. This said, 
let us enjoy the feast of art set out in the galleries. In Gallery i 
the bluff countenance of Lord Plumer, by Sir W. Orpen, R.A., 
almost startles one with its lifelike frankness. Near at hand 
are one of Mr. Hughes Stanton's very convincing landscapes, 
"Lens, 1918," and "The Bridge, H.M.S. Melampus," quite 
one of the best of Mr. P. Connard's contributions. A very 
original and brilliant marine, "Torpedoed Tramp Steamer," 
with a Cornish sea and sky and cliffs well rendered, is by the 
late Mr. G. S. All free. Next to it hangs Mr. V. Dodd's par- 
ticularly tense " Interrogation." 

Mr. Charles Pears, whose work maintains an extraordinarily 
high standard, shows, in Gallery 2, "H.M.S. Furious," amazing 
alike in its be.uity of colour and for its revelation of accurate 
knowledge of all the necessary components of a marine painting. 
Another tine study of an effect in nature hangs near by in "A 
German Attack on a Wet Morning," by Mr. H. S. Williamson. 
Next to it is the wonderfully expressive " E 44 Making an 
Attack," by Mr. P. Conntitd. 

In Gallery ;, and elsewhere, may be found soldiers aiid 
sailors and nurses masquerading (on canvas) as ventriloquists' 
puppets, as portions of rusted iron girders, as van-coloured 
bladders, and as bits of crumpled waterproofed paper. But 
there are also a tine portrait of General Tyrwhitt, by Mr. Glyn 
Philpot, A.K.A. : a very accomplished " Irish Troops in the 
Judan Hills." by Mr. Henry Lamb: an extensive view over a 
pallid landscape which appears to be rallying from shell-shock 
in "The Old German Front Line. 1916, "by Mr. C. Sims, R.A.; 
and " Heavy Artillery," a remarkable picture by Mr. Colin Gill. 
In this v.ork, notable for tine draughtsmanship, the artist has 
committed the anachronism of painting the circumstances and 
details of twentieth-century warfare in the manner of an Italian 
of the fifteenth century. 

Much the same incongruity is a feature of Mr. E. Seabrooke's 
" Bombardment of Gorizia," in Gallery 4. Next to Mr. Gill's 
picture is Mr. Sargent's magnificent work, "Gassed," of which 
we have spoken on a previous occasion. Worthy companion to 
it is the truly great painting, " In the Gun Factory at Woolwich 
Arsenal," by Mr. G. Clausen, R.A. A master at rendering the 
play of sunshine under varying conditions, Mr. Clausen has 
surpassed himself in this work, and has shown once and for all 
that it is not by cheap eccentricities in handling that atmosphere 
and light are most brilliantly conveyed. 

In the next room (4) the following canvases attract particular 
attention, viz.: "The Staff Train at Charing Cross Station, 
1918," by Mr. A. Hayward ; a solidly painted " Capt. A. Jacka, 
V.C.," by Mr. C. Gill; "The Great^ Mine, La Boisselle," with 
its-strange colouring ; a portrait of " The Artist " and a " Flight 
Sergeant, R.A.F.," with its splendid modelling and wonderful 
comparison of tones on oilskin and leather, by Sir W. Orpen. 

In Gallery 5 we may see why Mr. Cecil King is to be con- 
gratulated on having leapt into the front rank of our marine 
painters if we will examine his "Copenhagen, December, 1918," 
and his most beautiful " Libau Harbour, Jan.-Feb , 1919." 
Also in this room are a " Lancashire Fusilier," " 55 c.c.s. Q. 5," 

a " Hero of the 8th Queen's," and " Back to Billets" some of 
Mr. E. Kennington's fine manly presentations of soldiers. 
Another figure painter who never fails to convince us is 
Mr. G. Holiday ; his " Observation Post " is in this room. Next 
one notices remarkably strong wash-drawings of "The Long 
Gallery, Hertford House," and of " Hertford House, War 
Time," by Mr. F. G. Unwin. 

A fine effect of the glitter of sunshine on the sea is rendered 
in Mr. W. E. Arnold-Forster's "Americans Arriving, July, 
1918." Sun and heat, again, and their tiring, parching effect 
on dust-choked troops, could hardly be better conveyed than in 
Mr. H. S. Williamson's "Route Nationale." Sound studies of 
types are to be seen in Prof. Rothenstein's "An Indian V.C." 
and Mr. R. Schwabe's " Shepherdess." 

Fine examples of Mr. H. Rushbury's war-time studies in 
London are his " Night Watch in the Dome " and the " Memorial 
Service to Capt. Fryatt in St. Paul's," and, in Gallery 9, his 
surprising " Washington Inn, St. James's Square." Finally, 
there is an interesting " Baalbec " by Mr. J. McBey. 

In Gallery 6 one admires the decorative sense displayed in 
Mr. W. Bayes's " Battery Shelled," while regretting the artist's 
unwillingness to dispense with eccentricity in the treatment of 
his shadows in cubes and squares. He scores a genuine success 
in his fine composition of" Landing Survivors from a Torpedoed 
Ship." It is a detail in a work of such good colour and line 
that his boat would be too frail to withstand a wave. 

Had Mr. C. Nevinson but shown more sensitiveness to colour 
in his " Grey Harvest of Battle," he would have added a fine 
quality to a stirring picture. In his repellent "The Doctor," he 
certain!}' conveys successfully the unpleasantness of the situation. 

"The Doiran Front," by Mr. W. T. Wood, shows an inter- 
esting stretch of country brilliantly lit by the evening sun. 
Miss Clare Atwood's " Devonshire House, 1918," proclaims an 
artist keenly alive to all the beauties of colour and form 
presented by her subject. 

Gallery 7 is devoted to the truly magnificent records of 
Mr. Muirhead Bone and of his brother-in-law, Mr. Francis Dodd. 
Suffice it to say that they have filled a gallery with superb 
drawings of great value both as works of art and as documents. 

In Gallery 8, Mr. C. Nevinson's "Reliefs at Dawn" strikes 
a solemn note, just as the busy, glittering scene in Mr. C. 
Bryant's " Camouflaged Leave Ships " strikes a gay one. 

Mr. Ian Gordon's "Burnt and Wounded in a Battleship 
after Action " rings true in its clever and sensitive way. Equally 
telling by reason of its straightforwardness, is Mr. G. Rogers's 
" R.A.M.C. Stretcher Bearers." Both fully convey the horrors 
of war. 

For positively wonderful subtlety of colour and drawing one 
should examine " H.M.S. Courageous in Dry Dock," " Pay- 
night," "Corner of Dockyard" (all at Rosyth in winter), and 
the splendid " Steam Pinnaces at Hawes Pier," by Mr. Pears. 

Works that should not be overlooked are : Mr. E. Dade's 
realistic "Convoy Passing Whitby High Lights" (seen from 
the cliffs), Mr. Philpot's fine portrait of Admiral Sturdee, and 
the breezy "Airship 9" by Mr. A. E. Cooper. Further on are 
a fine little view of Arras, in low-toned greys and drabs, by 
Mr. Hughes Stanton ; a brilliantly observed aeroscape, a " Mist 
Curtain," by G. R. Solomon ; and " St. George and the 
Dragon," the captured Zeppelin L lying wounded in the 
Thames, a rather old-fashioned-looking-picture and none the 
worse for that by that up-to-date and poetical marine-painter, 
Mr. Donald Maxwell. 




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Among the best things in Gallery 9 are the delicately 
coloured pictures by Prof. Rothenstein. There are his view of 
" Huy, Belgium," one of the most romantically picturesque 
places 'in Europe; his fine " Ypres, the Cloth Hall"; a ruined 
mansion, " Talbot House, Ypres"; ruined trees, " Havrin- 
court " ; and a ruined church at " Bourlon." 

Then there are the wonderfully spontaneous and luscims 
sketches by Mr. J. Sargent, R.A., which constitute an artistic 
treat; distinctive views of " Oostdinkerque," by Mr. G. 
Dechaume, and of " Bourlon Wood," by Mr. H. Tonks. 

Gallery 10 is devoted to the brilliant work of Sir J. Lavery, 
A.R.A. As is the case with Mr. Sargent, Mr. Bone, and 
Mr. Dodd, where all is so excellent it is difficult to select a parti- 
cular work for special praise. An example of another fine and 
intrepid artist is to be found in the next gallery (IOA), where 
Mr. G. Spencer Pryse's " Fall of Ostend " hangs among a most 
interesting collection of war lithographs. 

In Gallery n are more of Mr. Pears 's marvellous marines, 
such as "The Germ-in Fleet at Anchor off Inchkeith," under an 
appropriately angry sunset ; "Camouflage, H.M.S. Fearless," a 
bit of camouflage in cxcchis ; and a superbly painted sky, 
" Dazzled, Camouflaged Battleship," in her delicate lilac suit, 
ploughing through a mighty raging sea all grey ami cream 
colour; and his "Shipping the P.V.'s." 

A lady, Miss Isabel Codrington, scores a great success with 
a most complicated and accomplished work, startling in its 
realism, entitled, " Cantine Franco - Britannique, Vitry - le - 
Fran9ais." Similar qualities by that past-master Stanhope 
Forbes, R.A., are splendidly displayed in his " YY.R.N.S. 
Ratings Sailmaking" nearby. "The Green Grassier, Lens," 
bv Mr. Oppenheimer, shows us, in pathetic manner, a country 
tortured almost to death. "Crashed,'-' by Mr. W. T. Wood, is 
notable for its fine sky. 

The sculpture in the Central Hall is of an exceptionally high 
order. Witness the splendid "Camel and Cacolet " and "The 
Two-handed Seat," by Mr. B. Clemens: the spirited friezes, 
"The Battle of Ypres," by Mr. (".. S. Jagger, and "Gunners" 
and "Fragment," by Mr. G. Ledward. "The Tin Hat," by 
Mr. J. Epstein, shows a very typical head of a British fighter. 

The Lecture Room contains a most able work by Mr. A. D. 
McCormick, " W.R.N.S. Officer and Ratings," a fine record of 
facts; "Outside Charing Cross Railway Station," by Mr. J. H. 
Lobley ; a very fine presentment of ihe "Operating Theatre, 
Endell Street," by Mr. Austin Spare; "The Navy in Baghdad," 
by Mr. Donald Maxwell, full of Eastern glitter; and some of 
Miss Anna Airy's great, virile pictures of busy workshops. 
Perhaps the best of these plucky canvases is her " L Press, 
Forging the Jacket of an i8-in. Gun." 

In the South Room, outstanding examples of fine colour and 
drawing, which at the same time fulfil the conditions of supply- 
ing valuable records, are Mr. O. Moser's "Transferring a Cot 
Case to H.M. Hospital Ship Somali, off Helles " ; "The Attack 
on Zeebrugge," by Mr. C. Turner ; the very accomplished 
" Asher Creek, Mesopotamia," by Mr. S. Briault ; some well- 
handled scenes in Baghdad, by Mr. V. C. Boyle; and "The 
Hotel, Nieuport Bains," by Mr. E. Handley-Read, a picture of 

In the same room, by Mr. Maxwell, are "M.L. 248 
Entering Tyre," full of the mystery of sundown, and the excel- 
lent " M.L.'s Off Sidon." By Mr. Spare are such first-rate 
works as the " Dispenser, Endell Street Hospital," and the 
poignant "Operation on a Slightly-wounded Man." Mr. Cecil 
Aldin's splendid picture of horses in an old barn, " Women 
Employed in Remount Depdt," is a veritable triumph for its 
popular artist. 

In the Small South Room one notices such strong drawings 
as "The Wrecked Mine Shaft" and the "Villa Belle Vue, 
Etaples," by Mr. A. Hill; some good sound etchings "The 
Belfry, Bethune," the " Eglise St. Vaast, Armentieres," and the 
" Fosse dite de Bracquemont " by Mr. J. Strang. 

By Mr. McBey, whose " Hodgson's Horse at Aleppo " 
attracted us in the preceding gallery, are his fine " Dawn 
Camel-patrol Setting Out " and " Ras el Ain." 

A group of talented lady artists contribute an original and 
valuable series of coloured modelled groups which rightly attract 
considerable attention. 


Pictures of Etaples. 

NOT very far from Boulogne the river Canche slides out into 
the Channel, a torment of pine-clad, wind-tossed sandhills on 
one bank, the woods of Le Touquet and the coquettish villas 
and tall sentinel lights of Paris-Plage on the other. A short 
distance back, up the treacherous estuary, lies little old-world 
Etaples, the home port of a fleet of stout fishing smacks. In 
Etaples, Mr. and Mrs. Austen Brown, two of its many artist- 
lovers, have lived for years. At 0.5 A Regent Street, upstairs, is 
the Macrae Gallery, its walls hung with tokens of Mr. Austen 
Brown's love for the little French village. In the olden days 
Napoleon stayed in Etaples supervising his arrangements for 
the invasion of England. The Canche was full of barges 
and other vessels whereby to encompass our destruction. A 
painting of his house, humble for a city, grand for this village, 
hangs in the collection. 

Doing what they could to help the Allies, the Austen 
Browns stayed in Etaples through the Great War ; so that not 
only to the art-lover, but to the many whom war has familiarized 
with the spot, the delightful pictures shown in this exhibition 
must appeal. Treated somewhat conventionally, with dark 
outlines apparently put in with a fine brush, these pictures 
are water-coloured in a rich and breezy manner on fawn- 
coloured paper, giving a very true impression of the little fisher 

Pleasant it is to see once more the beamy boats in " The 
Marine Quarter," and in " Noon, Fishing Quarter," with the 
quaint row of houses looking over the water, the narrow-fronted 
ones squeezed upwards into an additional story; "The 
Market," full of bustling buyers and sellers, seen under a 
lowering sky, the whole rich effect most cunningly rendered ; the 
equally queer jumble of "Houses on the Place," the charming 
composition of "The Town Hall," with its appropriate 
mackerel sky, and the curving, inconsequent Rue de Rosamet. 
Then there is a sketch of the funny old windmill which 
dominates the place, and the quaintly domed church presiding 
over its own particular duck-pond ; and, most taking of all, the 
scene along the shore at " Low Tide," where we see the tired 
boats leaning all ways, taking a well-earned siesta on their soft 
bed. In the suburbs Mr. Brown has found lovable subjects at 
" Le Touquet," where, through a screen of pine trees set on 
the sands, the fisher-fleet sails are espied sailing on brilliant 
blue water past the distant town. There is another first- 
rate composition showing the boats passing " The Light- 

One of the most delightful spots in the neighbourhood 
is Camiers. In " The Lake, Camiers," the beauty of the 
scene is ideally conveyed, with its fairylike trees and shep- 
herded flock, 



Plate I. 


March 1920. 

The Charm of the Country Town 

II. The City of Exeter. 
By A. E. Richardson, F.R.I.B.A. 

NO account of English architecture, more particularly that 
of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, can be 
deeme:! complete that overlooks the wealth of material 
available in the West of England, especially in the counties of 
Devon and Cornwall. Vet it is somewhat strange that this 
important contribution to the national exchequer should have 
been systematically ignored. The study of a city which is the 
chief centre of a county provides a means whereby the 

\Yhat is really more difficult to explain is the extraordinary 
consistency of the development, considering its Italian origin and 
widespread ramifications. Hut regarded in this light the aspect 
of traditional architecture in the eighteenth century can be 
compared to the medieval development of (iothic, with the 
exception that the advantage of improved me. ins of internal 
communication expedited the passage of ideas. From the last 
quarter of the seventeenth to the first quarter of the nineteenth 


teristics of local tradition can be examined and dealt with ; for if 
it is true that a city receives the products of the countryside, it 
is equally certain that city influences react in an increased ratio. 
Fashion in building and taste in design develop slowly, but 
always with sureness of purpose. Although it is possible to note 
the consistent development of the eighteenth-century manner in 
the buildings and towns adjacent to the western roads, and to 
assume with some certainty that events in the metropolis deter- 
mined the style of buildings in Bath, Bristol, or Salisbury, it is 
also certain that information affecting architectural polity 
reached these places in a roundabout way. 

century a continuous stream of architectural ideas originating in 
London flowed westward. Bath and Bristol took on a new 
character ; Salisbury was enriched by the brick buildings in the 
Close ; and Exeter, the last important city on the western chain, 
received notable additions. Some isolated examples of early 
eighteenth-century building still exist in Plymouth and Devon - 
port ; in any case these must be considered as exceptions, for the 
main links that give sequence to the traditional chain appear to 
terminate within the walls of the cathedral city on the Exe. As 
the eighteenth century matured, so local taste in Bath and 
Bristol developed on definite academic lines, remaining to some 

VOL. XLVIl. K 2 

6 4 


extent subordinate to London practice, but nevertheless suffi- 
ciently strong to react on centres more remote from the 
metropolis. These facts, combined with local characteristics of 
craftsmanship and material, go far to explain the broad render- 
ing of the Classic theme so conspicuous in the towns and vil- 
lages beyond Exeter, and throughout the south-western area 
of England. It should be remembered, however, that what is 
architecturally representative of Exeter reflects the vernacular 
expression of almost every other town in the West of England, 
and with this in view a study of eighteenth-century buildings in 
the city can be started. 

The famous capital of the West country reposes on an eminence 
overlooking the Exe, yet removed from the estuary. Its com- 
manding situation doubtless influenced the forming of the great 

the windings of the river beyond the limits of Exe Island, 
and between the chimneys of breweries, flour mills, tan- 
neries, and foundries, trails of escaping steam mark the steel 
road planned by Brunei. To the north and south rise the 
featured tops of hills, and due west the horizon is marked 
by the outline of Dartmoor. 

A good portion of the ancient wall, with ruins of the castle, 
shows how the expansion of the city was checked, until a 
century ago it burst its bounds. Exeter is mediaeval in 
expression as well as in the sentiment she inspires. Her 
ancient boundaries are well defined, the record of her growth 
is obvious to the curious, but her secret is difficult to the 

In outline and mass the shape of the city corresponds 


earthwork at Northernhay in pre-Roman days. That it was a 
Roman station of importance is vouched for on the authority of 
Antoninus, who travelled through Britain A.D. 140, and his 
evidence is corroborated by the unearthing from time to time 
of Roman relics. Above the tiering of brick and stuccoed walls, 
dominating the undulating surface of tiled and slated roofs appears 
the graceful silhouette of the Cathedral, mothering as it were the 
towers of the diminutive parish churches, and seeming to rebuke 
the soaring ambitions of the modern spires. From a vantage 
point across the Exe the conglomerated buildings acknowledge 
ecclesiastical authority ; yet the secret of their origin, together 
with the tale of the inhabitants who formerly sheltered within 
the walls, is as obscure as are the names of the builders. From 
the tall places and ancient circumvallations can be viewed 

roughly to an oblong which is intersected lengthwise and across 
by four streets : North Street leading to St. David's Hill and 
Crediton, South Street running parallel to a straight reach of the 
river and thence by Magdalen Street to the old London Road, 
Fore Street giving access to Bridge Street and the road to Ply- 
mouth, and High Street, the most important, leading through 
St. Sidwell Street to the highway for Bristol. The Cathedral 
and the Bishop's Palace occupy a large portion of the quarter to 
the south of High Street and the east of South Street. Each of 
the divisions of this approximation to an oblong is intersected 
by a close network of streets and alleyways defying summary 
description, although all are clearly set forth in the compre- 
hensive plan prepared by Alexander Jenkins in 1806 and the 
equally good map drawn by R. Brown in 1835. 






Like most cathedral cities, Exeter still retains a good deal 
of mediaeval splendour; there are the gabled houses in the 
High Street richly windowed, the somewhat pompous Eliza- 
bethan fa?ade of the Guildhall recalling the days of doublet, 
hose, and ruff, the exquisite hall of the Tuckers Company, 
the ridiculously small yet exceedingly ornate parish churches, 
and the great church on the site of the ancient monastery and 
conventual church of St. Peter, which for dignity of composition 
and beauty of detail is unsurpassed. 

Students of old cities are familiar with the idiosyncrasies of 
time and fashion ; to their discerning eyes a Renaissance veneer 
of brick or plaster means the existence of a more ancient con- 
struction, the bones of which protrude at odd corners, refusing to 
be denied ; for main- sturdy relics of the past have bec-n buried 

development of the residential portions of the city on a large 
scale beyond the walls tended towards the south-east on lands 
enclosed by Paris Street, Magdalen Street, Holloway Street, 
and the Cjuay, near the old Customs House. A detailed 
description of the principal houses will follow. 

Bedford Circus belongs to the 1790 period of Exeter's 
architecture, and is representative of the refinement of the day. 
Houses built in groups have the advantage of producing 
uniformity and increased scale. The value of a curved line in 
a group of this description is undeniable, especially when the 
delicacy of the main cornice is contrasted by the lines of flat 
bands at two levels following the sympathetic curvature of the 
brick surface. The doorways are exceedingly well proportioned, 
and when viewe 1 in perspective seem to check and steady the 


alive, and a fair proportion of houses belonging to the Tudor 
period still await investigation. 

The Hospital at this date stood at the lower extremity of 
Southernhay much as it had been left by the builders in 1741, the 
Workhouse was on the Honiton Road, and the old Gaol on the site 
now occupied by Hayward's nineteenth-century building. The 
London Inn was standing at the corner of Longbrook Street 
awaiting its new coat of brick and other additions, the northern 
side of Bedford Circus (page 65) had been in existence for ten 
years or more, and the terrace houses forming the northern 
side of Southernhay were partly built. Barnfield Crescent 
(page 63) was in course of erection, and the houses front- 
ing Dix's Field (page 67) were projected. At this time the 
stately houses forming the flat segment of Colleton Crescent 
(page 64) were in occupation. From the above summary and 
reference to the map of 1806 it will be clear that the first 

sweeping range of tiered windows. Not the least of the good 
qualities exhibited in this excellent grouping is the proportion 
of the windows and the subtle diminution in height between 
the stories. 

The erection of Barnfield Crescent pertains to the closing 
years of the eighteenth century, the houses taking their name 
from a small field in front. From the date of completion until 
1830, these houses faced open country, but the development of a 
new road in 1835 from Southernhay to Summerland Place 
altered the surroundings. This terrace has the merit of rich 
simplicity ; the front consists of four ranges of windows, the lower 
being arcuated with double rims. Jalousies, elegant balconettes 
of wrought iron, and a delicately trellised veranda, combine to 
produce a picture of persuasive and refined charm. 

The design of the Colleton Crescent group follows in the main 
that of Barnfield Crescent, and shows the same hand. The 

Plate II. 

March 1920. 







buildings were erected about the year 1800, and are to some 
extent an improvement on those previously named. Coade's 
patent stone has been used for the enrichment of the entrances, 
recalling the manner of Thomas Leverton, in Bedford Square and 
Gower Street, London. The accidental grouping of the later 
houses at the extremity of the Crescent prevents an abrupt 

The illustration (page 64) shows an exceptionally fine 
veranda, and the delicacy of the wrought-iron balcony will be 

The range of houses forming the northern side of Southern- 
hay must next be considered, for, with the adjacent gardens and 
umbrageous trees, they contribute much to the charm of this 
once fashionable quarter of the city. These terraces were in 
course of erection between the years 1800 and 1806. They 
are of smaller consequence than those in either Colleton 
Crescent or in Barnfield Crescent, and represent a medium 
form of design between the earlier houses of Bedford Circus and 
the former. The stepping of the Hat band for the intermediate 
ranges is exceptionally effective. 

To this period belongs the remodelling of the London Inn, 
with its finely proportioned brick front and splayed wing. The 
generous proponion of the columned porch, with the Greek 
character of the detail, shows the impending change of taste 
that followed the teachings of Stuart and Kevett. 

A study of Brown's map of 1835 shows the extent of the 
city's growth in the intervening period. It will be seen from 
this excellent survey that the development of the late-eighteenth- 
century residential centre, namely, Southernhay, with Bedford 
Circus and Dix's Field, had been completed, probably by 1810; 
and further speculations, prompted without doubt by the ex- 
traordinary energies of Foulston at Plymouth, had resulted in 
the erection of a smaller class of residential property beyond 
the walls adjacent to the four trunk roads. The temporary- 
barracks near Danes Castle had been replaced by others of a 
permanent nature. The city could boast a reservoir, and the 
artillery barracks had been transformed to serve as the city 
workhouse. Meanwhile the outlying streets and cottages were 
steadily encroaching upon the rural amenities of the immediate 
suburbs, the bricky tide eventually engulfing some of the 
country seats. 

The Devon and Exeter Hospital, which is illustrated on 
page 65, was built in 1741, the Halford wing being added 
in 1858. This interesting structure, built almost entirely of 
brick with stone dressings, stands at the western extremity 
of Southernhay. facing the ancient Trinity Burial Ground. 
The main facade exhibits a nice variety of composition, the 
retre.its are well managed, and the proportion of the windows 
is excellent. 

(To be concluded.) 

Bisham Abbey and its Memories. 

By E. Beresford Chancellor, M.A. 

THL Thames is notable for many tilings. The river itself 
as it winds in wondrous me.mderings through many 
counties from its "stripling" stage in Gloucestershire 
to its full and massive energy in London before it joins the open 
sea at The Xore is a river of many memories : a piece of liquid 
historv, as it has been phrased. It has borne on its stream the 
wandering Romans and the followers of the great king who 
smote us into greatness ; it has known the gorgeous pageants 
of later times from those of the Richard who died at Pontefract 
to those of the George who died at Kensington ; it has seen the 
bluff Henry of picturesque memory and the " fair virgin throned 
in the west " of Spenser's lay. Its banks have been dotted here 
and there with towns and habitations that have in some cases 
developed into centres of commercial or social activity, or have 
sunk into the calm attendant on places which are no longer 
anything but relics of former greatness. Cities, from Oxford to 
the capital ; towns, from Abingdon to Richmond, still prove its 
existing importance as it flows majestically past them untouched 
by their vicissitudes and regardless of their feverish or calm 

Nothing, however not its ancient towns, nor its great 
houses, nor the varied character of its banks carries our 
minds back to its earlier days better than those monastic 
remains which are to be found scattered on its shores, from 
Godstow to Syon and Sheen. Among these Bisham holds 
a somewhat unique and peculiar position. In the first place its 

institution, although originally dating from far earlier days, 
was, in a sense, due to the very monarch who destroyed, far and 
wide, similar existing communities. Then its life was, under 
Henry's scheme, of the shortest duration ; and to-day its chief 
interest centres in the fact that it was the burial-place of the 
Earls of Salisbury, an 1 particularly because here lie in some 
unknown spot the ashes of the great Kingmaker, who thus (to 
borrow Johnson's phrase), after leaving a name at which the 
world grew pale, rests in an unknown grave amid the quiet 
of a small Thames village. 

There are, as a matter of fact, four distinct centres of interest 
in Bisham : first, there is the memory of the ancient monastic 
foundation ; then there is the present Abbey, around which 
memories and legends cling like its own embracing ivy ; again, 
there is the church, a sort of tutelary deity to the flowing river 
at its base; and finally there is the typical Thames-side village 
with which the name of one of England's most characteristic 
painters is associated. 

It was as early as the reign of Stephen that the manor was 
given to the Knights Templars, who had a preceptory here, and 
who owned Temple Mill close by. When the Order of the 
Templars was suppressed, Bisham was given by Edward II to 
Hugh Despenser, who succeeded Piers Gaveston as favourite 
of that ill-starred monarch and finally ended a turbulent life at 
Bristol. In course of time the manor passed into the possession 
of the powerful family of the Montacutes, Earls of Salisbury ; 



and it was William Montacute who, in 1337, built here a priory 
of Augustine Canons, the foundation stone being laid by no less 
a person than Edward III, as is proved by an inscribed brass 
discovered under strange circumstances at Denchworth, near 

The priory seems to hive flourished until Henry VI II set 
about the suppression of the monasteries, when it was surrendered 
to him. Then a curious thing happened. Instead of being 
handed over, as were so similar foundations, to some 
favourite, or kept to augment the revenues of the Crown, Bisham 
wasrefounded, or rather a new Benedictine Abbey was established 
in its place, in 15.57. ' ne importance of the new establishment 
may be imagined when it is remembered that it was created In 
the monarch who had dissolved practically every other important 
fraternity in the kingdom, and who gave to Bisham the added 
distinction of the mitre. Henry never did anything without a 
reason, and it seems pretty clear tli it his reison in this instance 
was that prayers might here be s li 1 perpetually for the repose 
of the soul of Jane Seymour, lint the devoutness of the widower 
gave place soon enough to some other caprice, lor we lind that, 
only six months after its foundation, the new abbey was forced 
to give up its charter to be precise, in the [line of 15 ;N. The 

making and unmaking monarchs, the lord over death and victory, 
the supreme head to which men turned for direction ; splendid 
in conquest, redoubtable in defeat ; here he lies amid the calm 
of a small English village, where the rustling trees and the 
lapping water are all that stand for the strain and turmoil of 
that arduous eventful life. Johnson, in his " Vanity of Human 
Wishes," illustrates the theme that is as old as man, by the 
example of Charles XII: he might have selected as well a 
great man of his own country whose possessions were once 
limitless, whose power was once greater than a king's, whose 
dust lies in an unmarke 1 grave, and who left a name, like 
Charles, " To point a moral, or adorn a tale." 

But it is not only the Warwick who lies here. Here, 
too, repose his father, Richard, Earl of Salisbury, beheaded at 
York in 1400, and his brother. Lord Montagu, who also fell at 
Barnet. as well as earlier and later members of the same illus- 
trious family. Their tombs have utterly dis ippeared, but 
somewhere below the abbey or the church, certainly within the 
immediate area, is the accumulated dust o| history. Manv of 
the great monastic buildings along the banks of the Thames 
have owe 1 their origin to the piety or remorse of great sove- 
reigns. Many have been of far gre iter si/e and importance 




manor was subsequently granted to Anne of ( leves : but for 
some cause, or by some oversight, the royal seil had never 
been attached to the deed of gift, and when Oueen Mary came 
to the throne she forced Anne to give it up, and bestowed 
it on, or sold it to, Sir Philip Hoby : on-j version of the 
story being that Anne was permitted to exchange it with the 
famous diplomatist. 

But, after all, it is the fact of Bisham Abbey being tin- 
burial-place of the Montacutes and the Nevills which makes it 
so peculiarly interesting to the visitor who may have a flair for 
historical investigation. Anne of Cleves is a rather pathetic 
figure ; Elizabeth is here at least a somewhat shadowy one : 
but that of the redoubtable Warwick the Kingmaker stands 
forth triumphantly from a somewhat legendary past, and 
embodies in our minds a childish delight in his great name 
and imperishable fame. That tremendous figure towers above 
those far-off contemporaries as a thing of flesh and blood, flesh 
of the most resisting, blood of the bluest, from amongst the 
but half-adumbrated phantoms that compassed him about. 
Magnificent, daring, resourceful ; now lending the weight of his 
vast influence and great intelligence and knowledge to the 
Yorkists, then again carrying the Lancastrians to victory; 

ill in th il of Bish mi, but from among them Bisham stands out 
specially because ol the memories of those illustrious ones who 
were once connected with it and who now lie within its 
pre"incts. Erom the restless days of medievalism, past the 
strenuous times of the Tudors, it is a long cry to the compara- 
tive quiet which, by a curious anomaly, may be said to be the 
lot of a place like Bisham in this otherwise anything but 
peaceful period. The little village seems to enjoy a placid and 
calm existence after the rush and turmoil of the past. Its 
picturesque red-brick cottages have a reposeful air; its tutelary 
church-tower seems to be the only necessary guardian of that 
renowned and somewhat remote village life. Even the great 
figures wdio must once have trod where we to-day tread, 
and heard the summer breeze amid the leaves as we hear it, 
sink back into the dim immemorial past ; and, instead, there 
emerges the modern figure of the painter who has left us not 
only the " Harbour of Refuge " at Bray, but that " Rainy Day 
at Bisham," in which the spirit of the place seems to dwell 
amidst those atmospheric effects of which Ered Walker was 
a master ; and the mind travels to Cookham Church, where his 
dust lies as quietly as does the dust of Warwick in the place 
they both knew and loved. 

The Courtyard of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

WHEN that very practical dreamer of dreams, Kahere, 
sometime Court jester or minstrel to Henry I, was 
commanded in a vision to collect money wherewith 
to found a priory to be dedicated to St. Bartholomew, he proved 
himself a man of great business capacity. It would seem that 
he was the most practical kind of visionary : for not only did 
he dream the right dreams he knew how to get them fulfilled 
with efficiency and dispatch. He started Bartholomew Fair, 
on which Ben Jonson wrote so diverting a comedy and the 
late Professor Henry Morley so scholarly a monograph, and 
out of the rents for the stalls at the fair the astute prior built, 
about the year 1123, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, which conse- 
quently is easily the oldest of the London charities. 

Richard \Vhittington, hero of a thousand pantomimes, 
enlarged the hospital, which was " refounded " by Henry VIII 
on his suppression of the monasteries in 1547. A statue of this 
very pious re-founder stands betwixt the two effigies represent- 
ing the one a sick man and the other a lame one, above the 
west gate of the hospital. Well might Henry VIII build 
hospitals with some of the proceeds of the suppression of the 
monasteries. This use of the ill-gotten wealth was not more 
charitable than necessary. For Henry disturbed not only the 
monks, but the sick poor whom they had maintained, and, 
says the late Henry Morley, in his classical monograph on 
"Bartholomew Fair," the King established, in 1544, on the 
old site a new hospital of St. Bartholomew ; and on the 
27th of December 1540, a month before the King's death, the 
indenture was signed between Henry VIII and the City of 
London which gave to the City, with other places, Little 
St. Bartholomew, to be "The House of the Poor in West 
Smithfield, in the suburbs of the city of London." " Suburbs " 
is distinctly good. 

The hospital must have been, from its earliest days, a 
convenient resource for the turbulent folk, or their victims, who 
came to Smithfield. Not only because at the fair the quarter- 
staff was so freely plied as to make many hospital cases. 
Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, visiting the priory, smacked 
the sub-prior's face, and there ensue. 1 a tierce free light between 
the archbishop's retinue and the canons of the priory ; the 
archbishop "raging with oaths not to be recited," rending in 
pieces the rich cape of the sub-prior and treading it under his 
feet. Then, considerably later in this rough island's story, the 
boys from rival schools may have given the hospital a little work. 
Disputing on points of grammar, they went from words to blows, 
"with their satchels full of books." Says quaint old Stow. 
"The scholars of Paul's, meeting with them of St. Anthonie's, 
would call them Anthonie's Pigs, and they again would call the 
others Pigeons of Paul's, because many pigeons were bred in 
St. Paul's Church, and St. Anthonie was always figured with a 
pig following him." 

James Gibbs designed that portion of the building shown 
by Mr. Hanslip Fletcher's drawing. The design does not reveal 
Gibbs at his best, giving him but little scope for the display 
of the talent that won him immortality. But Goldsmith 
wrote no third comedy, and James Gibbs designed no third 
building worthy to rank with the church of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields and the Radcliffe Library at Oxford. Still, his section 
of St. Bartholomew's Hospital is well enough, as Mr. Hanslip 
Fletcher's pencil bears witness ; and a fa9ade of such suavity, 
such rhythm as the current architectural jargon goes, must 
have a soothing effect on the convalescent patients who take 

the air in the courtyard in front of it. And the young medicos 
who walk about there, or, when the weather is warm, lounge 
in groups around the fountain which Hardwick designed, must 
sometimes wonder how much truth there is in the modern 
theory of the curative effect of eurhythmies. It was no new 
theory to architects. They knew quite well as James Gibbs 
certainly knew that rhythmic lines in architecture are " in 
tune with the infinite," chiming harmoniously with life's regular 
pulsations not actually and physically moving with them, 
it is true, but corresponding in some subtle way with their 
diastole and systole. Gibbs's facade is certainly a restful com- 
position, free from fuss and pretentiousness ; and in its own 
serenity, and in the buildings round about that reflect its 
dignified bearing, one finds a blessed mitigation of the horrors 
that still cling to Smithfield, the scene of so many martyrdoms 
by burning a tablet on an outer wall of the hospital reminds 
us that here and thus suffered Rogers, Bradford, and Philpot ; 
and then we remember with another shudder that here Sir 
William Wallace was beheaded, and Wat Tyler slain by 
William Walworth, Mayor of London. 

The inevitable Stow dwells with unction on the slaying of 
Wat, who, on a modern view, was very treacherously and 
barbarously done to death. Stabbed and hacked not only by 
Walworth but by half a do/en other " chivalrous gentlemen," he 
was dragged into the hospital of St. Bartholomew, "whence 
again the mayor caused him to be drawn into Smithfield, and 
there to be beheaded." 

It would be pleasant to imagine the short, brisk, black- 
avised figure of William Harvey, who " discovered " the circula- 
tion of the blood, taking a turn in front of Gibbs's building ; 
which, however, was erected during 1730- 3 ], whereas Dr. Harvey 
flourished more than a century earlier (1578-1657). He became 
physician to St. Bartholomew's in 1609. It was in the year 
of Shakespeare's death 1616 that Harvey first brought for- 
ward his views on the movements of the heart and blood ; and 
Bacon was one of his patients. Harvey would have admired 
Gibbs's work, could he have seen it, for he raised for the College 
of Physicians, of which he had been elected president, " a noble 
building of Roman architecture (rustic work, with Corinthian 
pilasters), comprising a great parlour or conversation-room 
below and a library above " an odd enough description, but 
giving us a very friendly interest in Harvey as a man of taste as 
well as a man of science. A beloved physician he. Abernethy 
the blunt must have paced this courtyard, for he was elected 
principal surgeon to Bart's in 1815, having held the post of 
assistant there for eight-and-twenty years. In 1790-91 the 
governors built a lecture theatre for him. 

The School of Medicine of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
erected in Giltspur Street in 1873, from designs by Edward 
I'Anson, has a scholarly and sedate fa9ade, strongly suggestive 
of the Italian palaces, but lacking the interest that would have 
been imparted by the adoption of the customary order in the 
upper story. Balustrades, one marking the division between 
the stories, and the other crowning the unusually elegant 
cornice ; rusticated quoins ; and agreeable variations in the 
window treatment at the various heights these features 
obviate dullness in a front that follows decorously, if a trifle 
tamely, the academic tradition set up by Cockerell, and carried 
on with a difference by James Williams and other disciples, 
who were fortunate in their opportunities to achieve 
monumental architecture. j. F. MCR. 













-5 "5 

M ? 

**i u 


Plate IV. March 1920. 


One of the six groups o) sculpture flanking the main doorways on three sides o) the Quadrangle, Somerset House, Strand, 
London. Sir William Chambers, architect: the designs attributed to Cipriani, and thi execution to Milton or Carlini. 

Decoration & Furniture 

from the Restoration to the Regency. 

III. -Furniture of the William & Mary Period, 

1689^ 1702. 

WILLIAM III, 1650-1701. 

MARY II, 1662-1694. 

frofitly (,/ 




ITR.IIT t lien I'll dress, and take my wonted range 
Thro India shops to Mofteitxs, or the Change, 
Where the tall jar erects its stately pride, 
H'ith antiek sliapes in Chinas azure dyed : 
There careless lies a rich brocade unrolled, 
Here shines a Cabinet with burnished gold" 

"The Toilette," 1715, 









Decoration and Furniture 

from the Restoration to the Regency. 

Ill-Furniture of the William & Mary Period. 

By Ingleson C. Goodison. 

THE Dutchman has always displayed great pride in the 
furnishing and adornment of his house, and William the 
Stadtholder, statesman and intrepid soldier, who suc- 
ceeded James II as King of Great Britain, after the " glorious 
revolution of 1688," was no exception in this respect. Both 
William and Mary found great pleasure and diversion in con- 
triving, edifying, and equipping their Thames-side palace of 
Hampton Court, which 
remains to this day a 
worthy monument to the 
architectural genius of Sir 
Christopher Wren and the 
talent of Grinling Gibbons, 
though but sparsely fur- 
nished with the mobiliary 
creations of Daniel Marot 
and the numerous and 
nameless satellite cabinet- 
makers and upholsterers 
who fashioned the admir- 
able walnut, lacquer, and 
gilded furniture, great beds 
and canopies of state, 
pelmets, valances and win- 
dow draperies, of this 
brilliant period. Glowing 
canvases enrich the walls, 
fine chandeliers of crystal, 
brass, and gilded wood 
depend from lofty ceilings, 
superb mirrors reflect the 
change of scene and sparkle 
with prismatic fires, tall 
beds of state bear precious 
freight of figured silk and 
multicoloured velvet. Yet 
this mighty artillery of 
sauces serves but to whet 
the appetite. Of pictures 
there is a plenitude high 
decorative quality, enor- 
mously enhanced by fine 
environment ; there one 
may find a royal clock by 
Quare ticking away de- 
licious moments of stolen 
leisure, or commune with a 
weather-glass by Tompion 
which bespeaks only serene 
skies and " Faire " weather 
in graceful script. Those 
" landscape " looking- 
glasses, cunningly disposed 

Proptrty of 


These cupboardt wert borne upon thi moulded 

upon angle chimneypieces, disclose an enfilade of rooms 
magnificently planned and still splendidly adorned ; tiered 
china-shelves attest (Jueen Mary's predilection for ornaments 
of pottery and porcelain gay Oriental wares and tin-enamelled 
Delft: tine suites of brilliant tapestry, margined with carven 
wainscot, deck the walls : Yerrio's deft pencil depicts the 
symbols of repose on the ceiling of a bedchamber; chairs there 

are, and stools innumerable, 
card-tables and side-tables 
of golden walnut, tall 
gueridons and tripod stands 
of gilded gesso a fire- 
screen en suite, its office now 
purely ornamental, for no 
fires bla/e on the elegant 
andirons, or sully the cast- 
iron firebacks with the 
products nf imperfect com- 

It has been an unfortu- 
nate practice to denude 
Hampton Court and Ken- 
sington Palace of their 
appropriate appointments, 
for our national museums 
have not ventured, or been 
able, to approach the prob- 
lem of a reconstructed 
environment for their 
treasures, such as one sees 
on the Continent pre- 
ferring rather to hoard 
riches in heaps, on the 
principle of Caledonian 
Market on a Friday so 
that great knowledge and 
no little effort of the im- 
agination are needed to 
conjure up a true picture 
of an apartment of the 
William and Mary period 
properly equipped with 
the furniture, pictures, 
carved frames, carpets, 
upholstery, lighting acces- 
sories, and table equipage 
which ministered to the 
needs and appetites, physi- 
cal and mental, of former 
occupants. Bureaux- 
/. c. Goodao*. cabinets, bureaux, fall-front 
VKNEERED WITH WALNUT. secretaires, stand-cabinets, 

dado-rail about 2ft. Gin. from the floor. china-CabinetS,chestSUDOn 

I. 2 



mirrors upright 


stands, double chests, dwarf chests, spinets 
and horizontal-toilet mirrors, tables-centre and sule-stands. 
clocks-long-case and bracket-barometers, chairs si 
settees, dav-beds. bedsteads, all bearing the unmistakable i 
press of one harmonious style, and yet marvellously diverse in 
design, belong to the period under review: and yet how = 
we form a just appraisement of the progress c 
England from such scattered material : 

Walnut, olive, and laburnum were the fashionable wo 
furniture the first- 
named greatly pre- 
dominating, while 
pollard elm and oak, 
lignum-vitat. yew. 
cedar, and sycamore 
were used, though 
less extensively. 
beech being in 
request whenever ^ 
chei;er substitute 
was ne :ess:t it T :. 
The practi.r :: 
veneering is part::u- 
larly associate: 
the peri d 
review, thick saw- 
veneer bellli USc-l 
universally, thegreat- 
est efte: t : T : r _- '=. i ::: ~ : 
;.: by utilizing I 

figured-grain in i 
rich tonal effects >f 

it and 
> f : o r re s f n d i n g 

earn- :r.t fa' 
from 1675-1660. and 
was popular till 
17:0. Turr_.r._ 
much employed : r 
: -.r .:-.-. --...-.. . : 
table and chair legs 
and stretcher-! rirr.- 
i ng was used wherever 
practicable. Uphol- 
stery coverings con- 
sisted of rich figured 
silks, large-patterned 
cut-velvet, embroi- 
dery, and needlework 
ofgros and petit point. 
the silks and velvets 
being woven princi- 
pally in this country, 
and chiefly by 
Huguenot emigres 

who fled from France to England in great numbers upon the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes: earlier settlements of weavers 
from the Netherlands having been due to persecution during 
the Spanish occupation. 

The Dutch influence on design, which is naturally observable 
at this period, had its origin at least as far back as the Common- 
wealth, though many Dutch artists, craftsmen, and artisans 
came over among the entourage of William III, or were speedily 
attracted to this country by the prospective patronage of a 

settees, chairs, stetel and 
the collection of decorative dna was 

compatriot. Queen Mary was a distinguished exponenof the 
art of decorative needlework, and actively promoted its ioption 
in the coverings of fire-screens, 
cushions. Her taste for 
developed by all the fashionable ladies of her day, and sbeharcd 
-he enthusiasm of the Dutch for still-life pictures fixedower, 
fruit, anibird -pieces" use! with such splendid decoraUveftect 
in chimneypieces and over the enfiladed doorways then iirogae. 
Jean-I'ipriste Monnoyer Letter known perhaps as " Bapst- 

the celebrate flower 
painter, was afotege 
of the Quee: 

The deuative 
arts of Hoi lad were 

V $ z 


\ /^ S\ /\ 
v/ > 


Av r\ 

V V 

A /* ) 

V V 



this time stingly 



ing :: ;-m the tiding 
activities of the 
Dutch East India 
Com pany an nflo- 
ence which qktiy 
extended to this 
country and biame 
the rige. Laqoer 


tmei a 


r-rts. and bric-brac 
-- irr.portt in 
immense qualities, 
quickly fotiwed 
Ejrc-pean mta- 
tions '.vhich atfirst 
emar. ited rom 
-uiai and the 
Netherlands, and 
later were manac- 
tirei at home.Tfce 
true Oriental pro- 
ducts are deadbed 
in contempoary 
as Chinese, Inian, 
and "Japan" . at 
least three vaeties 
of lacqoer \\x* 
imported at this 
date raised, 
and incised theeal 
lacquer being lairi- 
onsly executed ion 
extremely hsd- 
drying resinoosiac, 
the exudation tmi 
Eastern ree 


Despite William Ill's Dutch origin and bitter rivalry uh 
Louis XIV. the art-influence of France rather than thaof 
Holland was paramount at the period under review. Tb; is 
borne out by the executed work and published designsof 
Daniel Marot. who was of French extraction, though domked 
in Holland, to which country he had fled to escape religHS 
persecution. Marot was appointed bv William III " Architae 
des appartements de sa majeste Britaniqne," and from his |^ 
lished etchings numerous items of furniture of his design, ad 






Hampton Court Palace. 



perhaps emanating from his atelier, can be identified. These are 
principally ornate state beds, or pieces of furniture constructed 
of carved wooJ decorated with gesso mirrors, picture-frames, 
tables, torcheres, gueridon-stands, fire-screens, chandeliers, etc., 
with mirror-frames and sconces of silver or silvered-glass, 
window-draperies and upholstered furniture, clock-cases and 
barometers, the woodwork of which might be of walnut, or 
of walnut enriched with gilding. 

Perhaps the largest and most imposing item of furniture of 
the period under consideration is the bureau-cabinet, two illus- 
trations of which appear as the frontispiece to this article. The 
example selected for representation is of finely figured walnut- 
veneer upon a foundation, or carcase, of oak, and consists of two 
portions, the lower of which is an early version of the familiar 
writing-bureau a chest of four drawers surmounted by a sloping 

cupboard mounted upon a base of shaped drawers and flanked 
by a pair of turned pilasters, of the Doric order, bearing statuettes 
of carved gilt-wood : the outer tiers of concave-fronted drawers 
are margined with feather-banding and enclose spaces for books 
divided into compartments by elaborately profiled adjustable 
sliding divisions ; within the tympana of the arched pediments 
are little niches formerly tenanted by tiny figurines probably 
of aworini in carved and gilded wood. 

In the base of the cabinet-top are two pull-out slides for the 
accommodation of candle-sticksfine specimens of which in 
polished silver and pale-coloured brass, with hexagonal turned 
baluster stems and broad bases, belong to this period. 

An arched-top corner-cupboard, closely corresponding with 
a single unit of the cabinet described in the foregoing, is 
illustrated on page 75, the photograph affording an excellent 

Property of 

Miss I.e Xo 


hinged flap, the latter when extended being supported upon 
pull-out slides, to provide accommodation for writing. Within 
the space enclosed by the hinged flap are side tiers and central 
ranges of numerous small drawers and pigeon-holes for the 
reception of stationery and papers, and a sliding panel affording 
access to the "well," which occupies the space above the chest 
of drawers and below the base of the flap. The bureau is 
supported upon turned " onion " feet of beech-wood, painted 
black and varnished, and the edges of the drawer-framing are 
covered with half-round cross-cut beading, the drawers them- 
selves being margined with "feather" or "herring-bone" 
banding. The upper portion consists of an elaborately fitted 
cabinet, surmounted by a double-arched pediment and enclosed 
by a pair of doors, fitted with shaped-top mirrors of bevelled 
" Vauxhall " silvered glass. The interior consists of a central 

representation of the manner in which the beauties of fine-figured 
walnut were utilized for effect. Corner-cupboards of this type 
were made to stand upon the moulded dado-rail, as shown in 
the illustration (page 75), but examples are to be met with 
consisting of two portions, the lower of which extends from the 
floor to the height of the dado-rail. The whole front of this 
corner-cupboard is characteristically executed in " picture-wood," 
which varies in tone from warm brown to deep golden yellow 
the veneer in the door, it will be observed, is well chosen, and 
there is an inner line of narrow feather banding following the 
shape of the door, margined with a broad outer band of 
veneer, cut "on the cross" the grain being laid in a trans- 
verse direction. All the mouldings of this period are worked in 
thick saw-cut veneer or " quartering," with transverse grain, 
exhibiting the fine figure of the wood to the utmost advantage. 



Photo: V.&A.M. 


Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Photo : 


3 ft. I in. by z ft. oi in. 

Victoria and Albert Museum. 

V. & A. M. 



Property of 


The lid dtcorated insult with incised Chinese folyclinimc 
lacquer, froviiion being made far a small portable mirror. 


Photo : 

Victoria and Albert Museum. 



Other characteristic pieces of wall furniture of this period 
are the fall-front secretaire cabinets, mounted upon a chest of 
two long and two short drawers, the door of the upper portion 
being hinged at the bottom and fitted at the sides with folding 
stays, which permit the door to be lowered to a horizontal 
position in order to afford accommodation for writing. The 
upper portion is usually elaborately fitted, with a central cup- 
board enclosed by numerous small drawers and an upper range 
of open pigeon-holes. 

The top members consist usually of a narrow moulded- 
architrave and pulvinated frieze (which forms a large shallow 
drawer), above which is a simple moulded cornice, usually 
horizontal, but in rare cases shaped into arcuated forms corre- 
sponding with the more elaborate bureau-cabinets of this period. 
As a pendant to the fall-front writing-cabinets, corresponding 
pieces of furniture were made with double or folding doors which 

Property of F. C. Harper, Esq. 


The movement by Joseph Knibb. 

The element in walnut veneer is relatively small, which led the 
craftsman of the period to arrange the jointing of his material 
with consummate art, triumphantly perfecting nature with the 
handiwork of man. 

Property of p. C. Harper, Esq. 




Property of . . ttici, Etq. 

Plate V. March 1920. 



were hinged at the sides and disclosed, when opened, a central 
cupboard completely surrounded with drawers. These cabinets 
were made with stands, consisting of frieze-drawers upon five or 
six turned legs united by means of a shaped underframe, or 
braced profiled stretchers. 

The double chest, or chest-upon-chest, of drawers was a 
popular item of household equipment, a more decorative variant 
being found in the chest of drawers, or cabinet, upon a five- or 
six-legged stand. Dwarf chests of two long and two short 
drawers, upon a plinth or base fitted with one or more deep 
drawers, borne by turned or shaped bracket feet, are not uncom- 
mon, dating from the period of William and Mary, and not 
infrequently are of choice woods and elaborately decorated with 
parquetry or marquetry on the top, sides, and drawer-fronts. 

One of the numerous small side-tables of the William and 
Mary period is illustrated on page 74; it is executed in walnut 
veneer on a pine carcase, the legs being of turned beech and the 
sides and underframe being grained in imitation of walnut, while 
the whole table is varnished as was then customary. The top 
is edged on three sides with a characteristic cross-cut thumb 
moulding, and is patterned with lines and semicircles of feather 
and cross-banding executed in lighter wood, which are repeated 
on the drawer front. Surrounding three sides of the drawer is a 
half-round bead, and there is a fine cock-beading accentuating 
the outline of the double-arched front : the legs are turned with a 
favourite motive resembling an inverted cup, and the Hat serpen- 
tine X-braced stretchers, centring in an ellipse, bear a turned 
" steeple " finial of highly characteristic contour. The little 
half-baluster drop handles and pierced escutcheon, in brass, are 
original, the former being attached by means of wired staples 
and the latter with small brass rivets. 

The turned legs and shaped underframe of a handsome 
wing chair, two views of which are given on page 75, 
correspond very closely in general design with the cup-legged 
table just described. Chairs of this type were the proper 
complement of those soberly dignified chimneypieces of the 
Wren period, with their bold bolection-moulded fireplace open- 
ings framed in marble, basket grate, and armorial firebacks 
of cast iron. The upholstery of this chair is executed in gros- 
point needlework on canvas, the execution of which was the 
favourite occupation of gentlewomen during the reign of William 
and Mary. 

An arm-chair without side "wings" or "ears," but with 
finely scrolled arms, from the royal palace of William and Mary 
at Hampton Court, is illustrated on page 76. The woodwork 
is of walnut, with gracefully turned legs, carved scroll front feet, 
and an elaborately shaped serpentine stretcher or underframing, 
which is alternately raised and depressed toward the low central 
turned finial ; the back is high and shaped at the cresting, the 
seat, arms, and back being upholstered, and covered with so- 
called "Genoa" cut velvet of a delicate cream colour, boldly 
patterned in light olive-green and tawny claret-red. The 
height of the seat would necessitate the use of a footstool 
which now is wanting, though there remains a capital long 
seat, without a back, and a set of stools en suite. In 
accounts for the furnishing of Hampton Court Palace, all 
dated 1699, frequent mention is made of suites of upholstered 
" back "-chairs and stools for the state and other bedchambers, 
together with details of the upholstery of those elaborate tall 
bedsteads which are characteristic of the period, and window 
cornices, valances, and curtains to match those of the bedsteads, 
very few of which have survived the vicissitudes of considerably 
more than two centuries. In the same accounts reference is 
made to the fire-screens, which at this period were of the " horse " 
type a rectangular frame between turned or carved uprights 

borne by extended transverse feet, the screen proper being 
covered with velvet or neeJlework and the frame surmounted 
with a carved pierced cresting and furnished below with an 
apron-piece to correspond. Pairs of stands or gueridon tables 
and torcheres formed units of these sets of furniture, which were 
in walnut, or in soft-wood decorated with gilt-gesso, and less 
frequently of ebony or of beech wood overlaid with plaques of 

A side table of " oystered " walnut-wood, furnished with a 
single drawer in the frieze and borne by four elaborately turned 
legs, united with a characteristic broad serpentine stretcher, is 
illustrated on page 77. The top is beautifully patterned in 
geometrical devices of choicely figured wood polygonal "oyster- 
pieces " arranged within circular and other figures outlined in 
thin intersecting rings and bands of lighter-coloured wood. The 
craftsman of the period rejoiced in the decorative resources 
afforded by parquetry and marquetry, handling his exquisite 
material with consummate art and great manipulative skill, 
which will be apparent from an examination of the two specimens 
of table-tops which figure on the succeeding page. A selection 
from the varied "palette" of the cabinet-maker of this period 
reveals many woods, choice, rare, and exotic pollard-oak, elm, 
ash, cedar, yew, walnut, olive, and laburnum, diversified with 
ebony and even bone or ivory stained, shaded by the 
application of hot sand and other agencies, and engraved, the 
designs being compounded of geometrical forms or repre- 
sentations of gay-plurnaged birds parrakeets and macaws or 
bouquets of rare blooms and scrolled arabesques in imitation of 
damascening or the well-known products of the Boulle atelier. 

Though turning was the favourite, it was not the only 
method of decorating the legs of tables. Plain spiral turning, 
open spiral turning, spiral turning centring in spherical contours, 
cup-turning, hexagonal and octagonal turned tapering legs, 
examples of all of which will be found in the accompanying 
illustrations, alternated with profiled shapes S-legs and 
double C (or ) legs united with the familiar serpentine, cupid's 
bow, or segmental, flat, or moulded stretcher. These S and 
double-C legs and flat stretchers lent themselves more readily 
to the practice of veneering, cross-banding, and lacquering, and 
occasionally to decoration with slight marquetry. The turned 
forms were necessarily of solid wood, and therefore deficient in 
figured-grain, in consequence of which they were at times 
enhanced with artificial graining, in emulation of the artistry of 
nature. Figure in wood was so much esteemed at this period 
that graining was regarded as quite legitimate decoration, and 
many S-legge-.l tables and stands, the treasured possessions 
of great families, will be found adorned in this naive fashion. 

The table illustrated on page 79 differs in principle from 
the standing tables hitherto described, being extensible at will. 
The upper portion of the top is a flap which can be reversed 
and folded over to form, with the fixed lower portion, a 
complete circle, being supported upon "gates" or hinged 
frames each combining one of the legs, which can be drawn out 
from the position shown in the photograph. The principle 
of the gate-leg table, in its commoner forms, is familiar to all, 
but in the William and Mary period rectangular as well as 
circular and elliptical patterns were made with double gates 
though important survivals are relatively rare. An admirable 
example of unusual proportions, from Boughton House, near 
Kettering, was recently on exhibition at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, and was illustrated and described by Mr. A. F. Ken- 
drick in "The Burlington Magazine" of April 1914. 

This double gate-leg principle was applied at this period to 
writing-desks on turned six-leg stands, the centre two of the 
four front legs being made to pull out towards the right and left 



Property of 


respectively, for the purpose of supporting the fold-over 
writing-flap in the manner indicated here ; . . ; I : 
Chests of drawers veneered with walnut, and mounted upon 
five- and six-legged stands, were made in great numbers during 
the period of William and Mary, the stands containing three 
drawers the central one being shallow and the two flanking 
ones deep - below which were elegantly cut arches upon 
turned legs, united by shaped stretchers and borne upon turned 
ball -feet. 

Clock-cases continued to be made on the patterns inaugurated 
in the reign of Charles II, the long-case variety, which 
succeeded the brass " lantern " clock about 1670, consisting of 
a flat-topped hood with a square aperture for the dial, 
ornamented at the salient angles with little "corkscrew" 
columns a narrow trunk or waist, having a long rectangular 
door environed with a half-round beading and margined with 
feather banding and a base and plinth, the whole case being 
generally about six feet nine inches high, though many were 
made with domed hoods, elaborated with gilt surmounts, 
attaining to greater dimensions particularly the month-going 

clocks and imposing clock-cases destined for situations of 
exceptional importance. The example selected for illustration 
on page 80 is one of the smaller specimens designed on lines 
which were orthodox in the reigns of Charles II, James II, 
and William and Mary, the veneer being elaborately patterned 
in oyster pieces and adorned with inserted panels of inlay. The 
dial is remarkable for its " skeleton " hour-circle, in which the 
numerals and divisions, instead of being engraved upon a 
silvered ring, are saw-pierced to display the background of the 
dial-plate. At the four corners are characteristic ornaments of 
cast and chased brass consisting of winged cherub-heads, 
svhich in later examples will be found augumented with foliated 
scrolls. At the bottom of the dial-plate is inscribed a name 
fimous in the annals of horology, "Joseph Knibb, Londini," 
from whose workshops emanated many admirable pieces of 
mechanism in cases no less remarkable for bemty and fine 
workmanship. Edward East, Thomas Tornpion, Daniel Cjuare, 
and Christopher Gould were among the clockmakers famous at 
this period for splendid timekeepers, and neither cost nor care 
seems to have been spared by the nameless casemakers who 
house:! their marvels of mechanical precision and ingenuity. 
A clock by Thomas Tompion, in the collection of Mr. D. A. F. 
Wethertield, bears the cipher of William III on a case of truly 
regal magnificence not highly ornate, but of noble proportions 
a piece of furniture for which the appropriate background is the 
dignified wainscot of Kensington Palace or Hampton Court. 
(To be continued.) 

Proptrty o/ Viuountiit Wolulty. 


Current Architecture. 

"Castle Hill," Sidbury, Sidmouth. 

Walter Cave, V.P.R.I.B.A., Architect. 

IN all architecture, there is nothing more beautiful or, let 
us say, more lovable than the English country house of 
moderate size, good proportion, reticent design. In no 
other country, and in no other mode of building, is the 
spirit of home life so aptly and so sweetly embodied. It is for 
this reason that all the striving and crying for the "ideal home" 
strikes one as being more than a little fatuous. The ideal home 

of late so flagrantly abused, the architects' clients know 
it too, and will not countenance any ill-advised depar- 
ture from the fine formularies of home-building that have 
gained English domestic work its unrivalled reputation. 
Of that tradition a great safeguard is its ready adaptability 
to varying conditions and requirements, and to aspect and 

Photo : Cyril FMis. 


has been evolved as the result of centuries of steady growth and 
development. It is, as regards general design, at its zenith ; and 
any hustling attempt to improve upon it must necessarily fail. 
Not that it can be said of this or of any other convention that, 
having reached perfection after its kind, it may not be altered. 
It may and must be adapted to times and conditions, but not 
with violent and sudden haste. In spite of all attempts at 
standardizing and other frantic efforts at cheapening, the tra- 
ditional type of country house will ere long emerge triumphant 
from the ordeal to which for the moment it is being sub- 
jected. From so fine a tradition it would be disastrous to 
depart. Architects know that well enough ; and, in spite of 
all the blague and blatancy with which the subject has been 

Always the house that charms must not only radiate a sense 
of home life, but must convey the impression that it is native 
where it stands that it has not been dumped there by a 
foreigner. Two views are here shown of a house that seems a 
natural outgrowth of its environment. " Castle Hill," Sidbury, 
was built with red bricks with a wide mortar joint and a red- 
tiled roof. It is situated on a high plateau under the Castle 
Hill, in Sid-Vale, on the site of a house which had been burnt 
down many years before. It has fine views out to the sea and 
over the valley of the Sid, and is well protected on the north by 
the Castle Woods. 

The builders were Messrs. Henry Martin, of Northampton, 
and the architect was Mr. Walter Cave, V. P.R.I. B. A. 



= ff 


Photo: Cyril Ellii. 


8 4 



"THREE WAYS," LIMPSFIELI), was built about seven 
years ago. It stands high, and the walls are of hollow con- 
struction and faced with cement, rough-cast ; the roofs are 
of Burgess Hill tiles. With a view to economy in maintenance 
and service, the windows are of unpainted teak with iron 

casements, the internal joinery of bass wood is glossed over 
with Ronuk, and the bedrooms are fitted with basins and hot 
and cold water. 

The architect was Mr. Arthur Keen, F.R.I.B.A., and the 
builder was Mr. Henry Brown, of Paddington. 

Arthur Keen, F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 




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*~, 5 






The Practical Exemplar of Architecture: 

Somerset House, London : A Marble Mantelpiece in 

the Library. 

rHE carved marble mantelpiece which is illustrated on 
this page is one of a pair designed by Sir William 
Chambers for the adornment of the library at Somerset 
House, in the Strand. It is executed in statuary marble which 
has toned to an admirable tint, resembling old ivorv, and the 

afford an interesting insight into the matter and manner of his 
directions to the skilled craftsmen of his day. 

Although a contemporary of the celebrated brothers Robert 
and James Adam, Chambers managed to avoid certain weak- 
nesses with which their style may justly be charged ; his use 


carving is exquisite in manipulation and finish the march of 
the sculptor's chisel over the lion-masks and pendent husk- 
drops at the sides is just perceptible, but without any trace of 

Chambers was solicitous about purity of design and 
technical excellence in the sculptured, carved, and modelled 
ornaments which he used with great nicety of adjustment in 
all his buildings, and the notes inscribed on some of his 
working drawings which fortunately have been preserved 

of ornament was more sparing, his sense of scale more 

In many of the fine apartments and offices at Somerset 
House the architect has achieved the most admirable effect 
solely by the justness of the proportions adopted, the skilful 
disposition and composition of doors, windows, and chimney- 
pieces, and the careful adjustment of moulded cornices, archi- 
traves, surbase mouldings, and other simple architectural 

Elkstone: Annals of an Ancient Church. 

YOUR authentic antiquarian is no dryasdust groper among 
mouldering vaults and dusty archives. He is essentially a 
humanist, delighting to keep green the memory of mute 
inglorious Miltons and of Cromwells guiltless of their country's 
blood. For, in truth, each tower of an old church is an island 
sighted amidst pacific seas, dim with mystery, hoarding rubies 
and ingots: and books like "Elkstone," that smack of the 
warning curfew and the punitory stocks, are in reality more 
romantic in their contents than any unsubstantial work of fiction. 
For a few such genuine thrills we are indebted to the Rev. 
T. S. Tonkinson, rector of Elkstone, and his excellent monograph 
concerning his village and its church the village perched high 

persons. But the magnificent arches, the elaborate east 
window with its chevron ornaments and rosettes inside, the 
rich corbel table, the embattled Perpendicular tower with 
its bold treatment of gargoyles, the octagonal stone font, 
the pulpit, the thirteenth-century porch, the wonderful tym- 
panum to the old west doorway all are features that appeal 
strongly to architect and archaeologist alike. About the 
middle of the nineteenth century the Norman arches were 
in such a state of ruin that restoration became imperative. 
The restoration was a most dexterous performance, and 
had the excellent results which we see in the accompanying 


amongst the Cotswolds between Cirencester and Cheltenham, 
the church crowning the village, "a jewel to catch the nearer 
rays of the sun." Your conventional history book deals too 
much and in too perfunctory a way with magnates, too little 
with their environment of place and time; but in such village 
annals as " Elkstone, its Manors, Church, and Registers," history 
weaves around us her true spell. Here William the Conqueror 
does not dominate the scene to the exclusion of meaner men ; 
we see, instead, the Normans in England, the countryside with 
its manor held by a fierce foreign lord, the villeins toiling in 
the fields, and the Norman church dominating the landscape. 
Such, no doubt, was Elkstone village in 1170, and such the 
church, a beautiful example of decorated Norman work, con- 
cisely described by an ancient pen as "small and neat, with a 
handsome tower at the west end and four bells." Consisting 
simply of a nave without aisles, linked by two strong 
Norman arches to the chancel, it now holds only eighty- 

Mr. Tonkinson has done his work admirably, but we should 
have liked to see a few quaint and curious epitaphs at the end 
of the book. If such do not abound in Elkstone, the tombs 
belie the promise of the registers. In a Foreword to the book, 
the Bishop of Gloucester suggests that more parochial clergy 
should study the history of their parishes, and " Elkstone " be a 
forerunner to many similar volumes. It is of national import- 
ance that this should be done. If monographs like this were 
multiplied, national history would be more trustworthy and 
far more interesting than it is. We should have the history, 
not of our statesmen, but of our countrymen, to hand ; and 
incidentally a great service for architecture would be done. 
Mr. Tonkinson is to be congratulated on a most interesting 
and most valuable monograph. H. DK r. 

" Elkstone, its Manors, Church, and Registers." By the Rev. T. S. 
Tonkinson. Norman Brothers Limited, Bennington Street, Cheltenham. 
Price 3J. net. 


Sculptures at the Soane. 

IN founding his museum, it was the intention of Sir John 
Soane to illustrate the Three Arts. In furtherance of this 
object, the Curator, Mr. Arthur T. Bolton, has issued, as the 
seventh of the Soane Museum publications for which the 
general public no less than the architectural profession are 
indebted to him, an illustrated booklet on " English Eigh- 
teenth-century Sculptures in Sir John Soane's Museum." Of 
these, Mr. Bolton gives a most interesting account. Chantrey 
and Soane were fast friends, and Soane was architect for altera- 
tions to Chantrey 's house in Belgrave Place, and Chantrey 
completed, in 1829, a bust of, concerning which the 
sculptor wrote: "Whether the bust I have made shall be 
considered like John Soane, or Julius Cttsar, is a point that 
cannot be determine,! by you or me. I will, however, main- 
tain that as a work of art I have never produced a better." 
Possibly it was more like Ca;s:ir, for Mr. Bolton tells us that 
it was not received by Soane's friends with the general approval 
that was accorded Lawrence's portrait. A photograph of it 
in the booklet under notice shows it a very fine work of art, 
independently of its value as a likeness. 

There is an interesting icference to the meteoric and elu- 
sive H. Webber. On the evening that on which Sir Joshua 
Reynolds delivered his seventh discourse, December 1776 
when Soane received the R.A. gold medal in architecture for 
his design for a triumphal bridge, H. Webber received the 
gold medal for sculpture. His subject was the Judgment of 
Midas, "and this cast, placed on the staircase immediately 
above the door leading into the south drawing-room at the 
Soane, is understood to be almost the sole relic of the artist, 
except a model of Cerberus held by Hercules, also in the 
Soane, and some other work, not clearly specified, for Wedg- 
wood." Except that he appears to have gone to Italy in the 
same year (1787) as Flaxman, nothing further is known of 
H. Webber. Mr. Bolton suggests that he may have been a 
brother of John Webber, R.A., the painter, of whom there 
are three drawings in the Soane. 

Of Banks, who has been described as the first eminent 
English sculptor, there are seven works in the collection, where 
also there is preserved a mask of him taken in early life. 
Mr. Bolton gives a brief biography of him, as well as of the 
other sculptors represented. Of Banks's famous sculpture of 
the sleeping girl, Penelope Boothby, in Ashbourne Church, 
Derbyshire, Mr. Bolton thinks that it "is perhaps the finest 
of this type of monument, one which appeals powerfully to 
English sentiment." Banks was exactly the kind of man to 
produce it. His character was " in every way admirable : God- 
fearing, earnest, and industrious ; a devoted husband and father ; 
kindly, generous, and charitable, with none to say an ill word 
of him." But he did not know how to handle heroic groups, 
as St. Paul's Cathedral can bear witness. 

A marble bust of Sir William Chambers, modelled by 
Westmacott, stands on a niche on the staircase of the Soane, 
and an excellent photograph of it reproduced as a plate in 
the booklet will be treasured whether as a faithful likeness of 
the great architect or as a favourable specimen of the skill of 
Sir Richard Westmacott, who, like Banks, had his limitations 
and his dull moments, as the Achilles in Hyde Park, the 
pediment of the British Museum, and the Duke of York on 
the column, prove beyond cavil. 

Referring incidentally to Robert Adam, Mr. Bolton quotes 
an interesting reference to him in a letter from Wedgwood to 
his partner Bent ley : " He 'a certain Mr. Gifford ] said a great 
deal in praise of Mr. Adam as a man of genius and invention, 
and an excellent architect, and Mr. Freeman assured me that 
he knew Mr. Adam kept modellers at Rome employed in copy- 
ing bas-reliefs and other things for them, and he thought a 
connexion with them would be of great use to us." Mr. Bolton 
thinks it was, and that Adam was a prime mover in much 
Wedgwood work. 

Of Flaxman and his works a necessarily brief but never- 
theless useful and interesting account is given. His first monu- 
ment was that to Ch itterton, in St. Mary Rcdcliffe, Bristol. 
He was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the Royal Academy 
in i.Sio; and the caustic Fuseli. wasp-like as \Vhistler, described 
his professorial discourses as " sermons by the Rev. John 
Flaxman." The Soane contains a great number of Flaxman 
panels and models, some of which were presented by the 
sculptor in iSj'i, the yeir of his death : anil the original model 
for the statue of Sir Joshua Reynolds in St. Paul's, the first 
to be commissioned for that building, is also in the collection. 
Among the illustrations in the booklet is a plate showing the 
original model for a colossal statue of " Britannia bv Divine 
Providence Triumphant," which was to commemorate the 
naval victories of the time. A monument 250 ft. high 
was required bv the committee' in charge of the scheme; but 
Flaxman dislike. 1 the notion of a tall column with a statue 
on top, and (i. Dance suggested to him the idea of a colossal 
figure. The idea having been recently revived, the Curator 
suggests that the colossus might be constructed of reinforced 
concrete, which is an idea worth considering. 

It will be agree 1 that Mr. Bolton has produced what, as 
regards the text, is certainly a most interesting and (as far as 
the general public are a most instructive booklet, 
its score or so of illustrations gre.itly increasing its value. Its 
typography is exemplary in appearance, the beautiful Caslon 
letter being adopted throughout. , j,- McK 

' Knglish Kig/iteeHth-Centitrv .S' ( ulptures in Sir /ohnSoane's Museum." 
liy Arthur 1. lioltKii, I-'.S.A ., /. A'. /./>'../., Soane Medallist and Curator 
of Sir John Shane's Museum. \\'ith ticent\-ane illustrations. Soane 
Museum I'uliliiatii>ns, Ni>. /. i'rice 2s. Solii only at the Museum, 
13 Lincoln's Inn /V<7</', //'. ( .2. 

A Monograph on Harfleur. 

FKW places owe more to their situation than Harfleur. 
Lying as it does at the mouth of the Seine, it has become 
inevitably a prominent port ; its position made it long ago the 
natural market for neighbouring towns, and the geographical 
features of its surroundings render it of immense military im- 
portance. Harfleur is really the gate to Northern France; 
hence, the waves of every Northern invasion broke, in old days, 
against its walls. In 1158 Harfleur was given to England, but 
forty-four years later the French took it back. In the year of 
Crecy the town again fell into the hands of the English ; the 
French took it back. In 1415 Henry V captured it; the 
French took it back. In 1420 the English took it again, and 
again the French took it back. Thrice again, in the fifteenth 
century, came threats of English attacks, but France held the 


Despite her chequered career, however, Harfleur flourished. 
The city became wealthy, the citizens grew ambitious ; schools 
were founded, a new port was constructed, the gayest social 
life effloresced. And, as usual, the fruits of prosperity were a 
revival in the arts and crafts, especially in Architecture. Fine 
buildings were everywhere erected and admired. The church, 
with its sudden starts and stops, its record of the industrious 
and lazy, its master craftsmen and its sub-contractors, its 
Gothic portions, its Classic portions, its "wonderful agglomera- 
tion of unfinished unco-ordinated pieces of work," seems to 
mirror the amazing history of the people, to tell graphically of 
sorties and sieges, and surrenders and victories. 

In 1516 Le Havre was founded to take the shipping of 
Harfleur, for the harbour was continually blocked by silt, and 
it was decided, as the best solution of the difficulty, to create 
another port. From that time Harfleur began to decay. The 
English appeared again in Harfleur after Waterloo, a cavalry 
regiment riding in : but their latest connexion with the town 
came a hundred years later, when for the first time in its history 
the citizen of Harfleur and the soldier of England were on the 
same side. 

Mr. E. Kitson Clark, who was stationed at Harfleur in i<ji5, 
has produced a delightful little monograph, in which he sketches 
the history of the town, and describes and illustrates its most 
interesting buildings, more particularly the church, which con- 
tains work done in several different centuries iJSoo, 1600, 1500, 
and about 1400. With the exception of the doors to the north 
porch, the mediaeval woodwork has entirely disappeared : but 
these doors, though much mutilated, retain their delicate linen- 
fold panels, and show every mark of being of the same period as 
the stonework that surrounds them. In this church there has 
been placed a handsome window, which Lieut. -Col. 1C. Kitson 
Clark has designed, "To the glory of (iod and in memory of 
the French and English soldiers who in the Great War of 1914- 
1918 fought side by side, and by their glorious courage and 
untiring faith rid the world of an evil tyranny." It is of four 
lights, the two outermost showing respectively an English and 
French soldier in action, the two inner lights giving St. George 
of England (left) and St. Joan of France (right). All four 
figures are noble and graceful to a high degee, and Mr. Kitson 
Clark is to be congratulated on a great opportunity and a fine 

H. DE C. 

- Harjlcnr : Some \nteson i/s District, History, Town, an,/ C/iiirc/i." 
Hy I:. Kits, in Llark. Lec,ls : Richard Jackson, Id and 17 Cninincrcial .St. 

The Earthenware Collector. 

OF all collectors, the earthenware collector is most to be 
commended for manual delicacy and pitied for his exquisite 
sufferings when " neat-handed Phyllis " wields the duster among 
the biscuit-ware from which she has been warned off in vain. 
As in tusk hunting so in earthenware collecting the hazard 
gives the zest. Otherwise, one might have felt it indelicate to 
mention this risk, of which, indeed, we catch a glimpse in 
the opening paragraph of Mr. H. W. Lewer's foreword to 
Mr Woolliscroft Rhead's book: "As old as civilization itself, 
the art of the potter presents a kaleidoscope of alluring charm! 
To paraphrase the word of Alexandre Brongniart, no branch of 
industry, viewed in reference either to its history or its theory 
or its practice, offers more that is interesting and fascinating, 
regarding alike its economic application and its artistic aspect,' 
than does the fictile art ; nor exhibits products more simple 

more varied, and, their frailty notwithstanding, more desirable." 
It is only fair that the beginner should be warned of the perils 
that beset the path on which he is about to enter. 

" Collector " is not a term that will frighten away those 
unambitious persons who do not desire to form a museum, but 
merely wish to obey Ruskin's injunction, " We must have some 
pots," and withal to acquire them with a reasonable amount of 
certitude that they are genuinely of the origin and the costliness 
that are claimed for them, and to make the selection with a 
right appreciation of form, colour, and period. Towards this 
elegant accomplishment Mr. Woolliscroft Rhead affords sure 
guidance, and, incidentally, he has produced a most charming 
little book, with never a dull page in it. A chapter in which 
the history of the rise and progress of the potter's art in England 
is dexterously summarized is followed by descriptive accounts of 
the various famous wares, with brief biographical particulars 
of some of the men who made them, and, since biography 
connotes romance, the narrative is by no means dull. Even if 
that deadly blight had chanced to settle on the text, it would 
have been dissipated by the radiant beauty of most of the illus- 
trations, which have a certain advantage over the swan that 
"floats double, swan and shadow," for they show us pictures 
within pictures the shapely figure of the vessel, and the image 
wherewith it is adorned. Those and they are very few that 
are questionably beautiful, are at least quaint, lending a peculiar 
piquancy to the charm of a book that will assuredly attract 
many readers who do not aspire to become collectors, but who 
may be hereby solemnly warned that this treatise is uncommonly 


). v. McR. 

"'/'/if I'.artlienu'are Collector." ISy (/. \\',>olliser,ij't RlieaiL \\'it/i 
si.vtv Illustrations in half-tone and numerous .Marks. Herbert /cnkins, 
/.united, 3 York Street. St. /anii-s's, I.nnilon, S.\\'.\. /'rice (is. net. 

Publications and Catalogues Received. 

" Economic Farm IJuiKlings : Systematic Planning. Improvement, and 
Construction." By Charles P. Lawrence, F.S.I. : with an Introductory Note 
by Sir Thomas Middleton. The Library Press. Ltd. 

' New Standard Huilding Prices for the Use of Architects, Civil Engineers, 
Builders, Contractors, etc. By Lient.-Col. T. E. Coleman. E. & K. N. 
Spoil, Ltd. 

"The Concrete House." I!y (',. YV. Hilton, Architect. E. & F. N. 
Spon, Ltd. 

" Building Construction : Advanced Course." By Charles V. and George A. 
Mitchell. Ninth edition, revised and enlarged, with about 800 illustrations. 
B. T. Batsforcl, Ltd., 94 High Holborn. 

"Glass .Manufacture." By Walter Rosenhain, B.A., U.Sc., F.R.S. Second 
edition, largely re-written. Constable & Company, Ltd. 

" Ideal Boilers, Radiators, Accessories." National Radiator Company 
Limited, Hull. 

"The Cottage Window." Illustrated by H. M. Bateman. The Crittall 
Manufacturing Company Ltd., Braintree. 

" The Practical Engineer Mechanical Pocket Book and Diary for 1920." 
(With Buyers' Guide in French, Spanish, and Russian.) The Technical 
Publishing Co., Ltd. 

"Approximate Estimates." By Lieut.-Col. T. E. Coleman. Fifth Edition. 
E. & F. N. Spon, Ltd. 

Spon's " Architects' and Builders' Pocket Price Book, 1920." Edited by 
Clyde Young, F.R.I.B.A. E. & F. N. Spon, Ltd. 

" The Housing Problem. Its Growth, Legislation, and Procedure." By 
John J.Clark, M.A., F.S.S. With an introduction by Brig.-General G. Kyffin- 
Taylor, C B.E., V.D. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd. 

Jny of these publications and catalogues may be inspected in the Heading Room, 
Technical Journals, Ltd., 27-29 Tot hill Street, Westminsttr. 





So many Architects and Engineers specify 
Pudlo when there is the least fear of 
dampness and for flat roofs that it is 
becoming rare to meet one who has 
not used or intended to use Pudlo. 

Pudlo has been exported into 59 foreign countries. In 
some of these markets there has been strong opposi- 
tion, but Pudlo has invariably maintained its British 
character as the bestwaterproofer. Almost every British 
Government Department has tested and specified it. 
All scientific and practical tests prove it cannot affect 
cement detrimentally even after a prolonged period. 



Used also for Damp Walls, Flooded Cellars, Leaking Tanks, Baths, Garage 

Pits, Concrete Buildings, etc. Tested by Faija, Kirkaldy, Cork University, 

the Japanese, Dutch, and Spanish Governments, and experts. 

Asf( for Boofflet Free. 

BRITISH ! and. aparl from patriotism, THK BEST. 

Manufactured solely by Kerner-Greenwood & Co., Ltd., Market Sq.. King's L>nn, Kntdaml. 
]. H. Kerner Greenwood, Managing Director. 

Chronicle and Comment, 

Salient Features of the Month's Architectural News. 

St. Paul's Bridge. 

Application to Parliament is to be made by the City of 
London Corporation for an extension of the time-limit con- 
ditioning the St. Paul's Bridge scheme, which, of course, has 
been held up by the war. Originally the bridge was estimated 
to cost 1,646,000. Four millions sterling is now the cost 
calculated. Possibly the project would be abandoned but for 
the large sums already spent in acquiring property for clearance 
and of the bridge approaches. It will be remembered that the 
competition, which was held after much pressure had been 
brought to bear on the Bridge House Estates Committee by the 
K.I.B.A., was won by Mr. George Washington Browne, R.S.A., 
of Edinburgh, who produced a simple and bold design that gave 
general satisfaction. 

Incorporation of the Architectural Association. 

Hitherto the Trustees and Council of the Architectural 
Association must have been continually obsessed by a lively 
sense of their unlimited liabilities supposing anything went 
wrong with the finances. There is now no occasion for such 
haunting fears, the Association being incorporated under the Act 
which limits liability to a nominal sum. At least, that was the 
Council's recommendation, which had to be referred to a ballot 
of the members, who could have no possible objection to a 
precautionary measure that has been taken by very many 
comparable organizations. 

A Terra-cotta Ceiling. 

The William McKinley Memorial at Niles, Ontario, as carried 
out by Messrs. McKim, Mead, and White, who were selected as 
architects in the competition, shows a very interesting use of 
terra-cotta. For the open colonnade surrounding the atrium in 
which the statute of the Lite President is placed, a classic coffered 
ceiling was designed, and this was executed in polychrome terra- 
cotta of a cream-white ground, on which the ornament is picked 
out in the primary colours of the ancient Greek palette-blue, 
yellow, red, and green. According to "The Architectural 
Forum," the colour scheme was worked out after a careful study 
of the available records of Greek polychrome decoration, and 
executed with the heirty co-operation of the terra-cotta manu- 
facturers, who exerted themselves to produce the clear and 
brilliant colours in the small quantities and confined spaces 
which the style demanded. The effect, our American contem- 
porary declares, "is of great beauty and decision, due to the use 
of limited quantities of strong colour, rather than broader masses 
of pastel shades, which are often employed by modern designers 
in their all too rare excursions into this field of designing in 
colour." The hint will not be lost on British architects and 

The Ideal Homes Exhibition. 

At the Ideal Homes Exhibition opened by Princess Alice at 
Olympia on 4 February, the series of conferences and discussions 
arranged by the R.I.B.A have not been largely attended. This 
is rather a reflection on the mentality of the public visiting 
the exhibition, who, it would seem, care nothing for discussion 
or theory, their interest in the show being exclusively concen- 
trated on material objects labour-saving appliances and utensils. 
Moreover, the exhibition comes at a moment when the real 
interest in all that pertains to housing has been nearly exhausted. 

London's Much-abused Statuary. 

A writer in the " Globe " has had the temerity to assert that 
" London has every reason to be proud of her monuments, 
among which are some of the finest specimens of the sculptor's 
art." In hastening to agree with him, with reservations, we 
cannot help wondering whether this newer and truer view has 
been derived from travel and the opportunities it offers for 
comparison. So much vastly inferior statuary is to be seen 
abroad especially in Germany. 

Forthcoming Railway Centenary. 

Preparations are already being made for the celebration of 
the centenary of railways, the Act of Parliament authorizing 
the construction of the Stockton and Darlington railway having 
been passed on 19 April 1821. The line was not opened, 
however, until 27 September 1825. We suggest that the 
centenary could not be more fitting!}' celebrated than by 
reconstructing some of our great railway stations on architectural 
lines. We have nothing comparable to the magnificent buildings 
that certain cities in the United States can show ; and there are 
cities in Europe having stations by which our best efforts are 
completely eclipsed. Our earliest stations, built by architects 
of standing (Hardvvick, for instance), have not been equalled by 
the later efforts in which the engineering mind has predominated. 

High Cost of Building Materials. 

Builders have been most unjustly accused of keeping up the 
prices of building materials by forming rings for profiteering. 
The charge is as absurd as it is false. Builders are the chief 
buyers of materials, and it is therefore to their interest to keep 
prices down, not to inflate them. Hull City Council, having 
been assured that the local builders have nothing to do with 
the high prices, are urging the Government to inquire into the 
origin of the excessive cost ; and in the meantime an architect 
has stated publicly that he can prove that certain trading rings 
not of builders, but of merchants are keeping up prices 

The Royal Academy Exhibition. 

Photographs of architecture and architectural sculpture will be 
admitted to the R.A. Exhibition which is to open on 3 May, 
closing on 7 August, but such photographs must not exceed 
half-plate size, and each must be included in the same frame 
with a working drawing of the same subject. Further inno- 
vations are that "good geometrical drawings of moderate size" 
will be accepted ; and that while an artist other than the 
designer may do the drawing, the name of the actual draughts- 
man must be inscribed on the mount, but it will not be allowed 
to appear in the catalogue. 

" School Places," ^140 to ^150 ! 

Sir Henry Hibbert, presenting the education budget to the 
Lancashire County Council, stated that while before the war 
the cost was 40 to 50 a head, it is now 140 to 150. He 
expressed the fear that school building operations would have to 
be suspended. They must, of course, go on, no matter what 
the cost ; but strong endeavours to cheapen them will certainly 
be made ; and since changing methods and views in education 
require fairly frequent modifications in the planning and con- 
struction of schools, there is no need " to build for eternity," and 
architects are endeavouring to meet the requirements of economy 
by employing lighter materials of construction. 

Plate I. April ig20. Photo: Brogi. 


The Charm of the Country Town. 

II. --The City of Exeter (Concluded). 

By A. E. Richardson, F.R.I.B.A. 

IN the first part of this article on Exeter (in the March issue). 
it was shown that the development of the city on eighteenth- 
century lines was a gradual process, but that nevertheless 
the period the most prepotent and prolific of all periods with 
respect to English domestic work had stamped Exeter as 
indelibly as it has marked most other English towns. Every- 
where throughout the 
country, buildings of 
the so-called Georgian 
type predominate, both 
by reason of the intense 
impressiveness of their 
characteristics, and be- 
cause of their vast 
superiority in numbers 
as compared with 
houses of earlier date. 
Indeed, even in Early 
Victorian days, the 
eighteenth - century 
mode was " common 
form," and conse- 
quently exciteJ but 
little admiration. It 
was only when the 
nineteenth century be- 
gan to exhibit a fashion 
of its own that, by 
force of contrast, the 
reticent charm of the 
eighteenth - century 
house was clearly re- 
vealed : and then not 
so lustrously as it 
shines out to-day, when 
the old order giveth 
place to new so rapidly 
that "Georgian" relics 
become correspond- 
ingly precious as, for 
example, in Westmin- 
ster, where within the 
past few years the de- 
molition of eighteenth- 
century houses has 
gone on at a scandalous 
pace. They have been 
destroyed wholesale 
with indecent haste. 
Luckily Exeter changes 

its mind much more slowly than London, and, having imbibed 
eighteenth-century traditions much more gradually, will abandon 
them with a like reluctance. 

For the greater part of the eighteenth century Exeter 
remained a compact city : brick houses were erected on old sites 
within the walls, spacious fruit gardens were built upon, gabled 
houses in the principal streets were refronted, and alterations 



were made to shops. The suburbs forming the outlying portions 
of the parishes of St. David's, St. Thomas's, St. Sidwell's, 
Alphington, St. Leonard's, and Heavitree, for the most part 
consiste.l of fields, market gardens, and nurseries, with a number 
of country seats, including Cleave, Exwick, Mad ford. Kellair, 
Mount Kadford, Alphington House, and Franklin, resembling a 

ring of isolated forts 
beyond the inner ram- 
parts. There were a 
few houses built to- 
wards St. David's Hill, 
cottages and small 
houses in St. Sidwell 
Street, Paris Street, 
Magdalen Street, and 
Holloway Street, and 
a corresponding de- 
velopment in Alphing- 
ton Street beyond E.xc 
Bridge. Eresh impetus, 
however, was given to 
the city'sgrowth during 
till' last quarter of the 
century, especially from 
ij<)o onwards, until at 
the time of the Napo- 
leonic threat high-class 
building speculation 
was at its zenith. At 
this perio I temporary 
barracks for infantry 
and cavalry were ar- 
ranged on a site near 
Danes Castle, and ar- 
tillery barracks were 
built on the Exmouth 
road about a mile from 
the centre of the city. 

T h e L o n d o n 
coaches in 18,55, not- 
withstanding revised 
time-tables anil im- 
proved roads, still took 
eighteen hours or more 
to make the journey ; 
and the city, despite 
its craving for expan- 
sion, wore at this 
date, if the old prints 
are to be believed, an 

air of somnolent nonchalance. A year or two later a distinct 
improvement was effected : Goldsmith Street was widened, 
the higher or eastern market was built to complement the 
lower or western market opened in 1836, and the city was 
made ready, not to withstand another of the sieges which 
made up the romance of its history, but to receive the rail- 
way. From this summary of the aspect of Exeter as it 

9 o 

appeared during a very interesting and peaceful period of its 
existence the reader is invited to analyse the principal build- 
ings evolved by the skill and genius of local architects. He 
will be pleasantly surprised with the variety of type and the 
novelty of detail : favourable comparison can be made with 
similar developments at Bath, Bristol, and Clifton, for the 
buildings of Exeter have characteristics in common with, and 
approach in some particulars the best qualities of, buildings 
of like type in London. 

Difficulties of assigning a date sometimes arise from the 
combination of old and new work. For example, to a Georgian 
house-front of the first half of the eighteenth century a circular 
bow-window was added at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, and at a later period the front received a coating of 


laid on the 15th of July 1776, the bridge being opened for 
traffic in 1778. 

One of the most convincing improvements of the 1810 period 
is to be found in the terrace groups forming two sides of the 
rectangle called Dix's Field, the entrance to which is asym- 
metrical, but pleasingly informal. Delicately wrought lamp stan- 
dards of obelisk form mark the entrance. The corner house 
(which was illustrated on page 67 of the March issue) shows a 
novel treitment of bow-window and crinoline veranda; while 
the subsidiary groupings, although they have an nppearance of 
undue deportment, are refined to a degree, and relieved from 
monotony by the treatment of the detail. The balconies are of 
wrought iron of light scale, the windows are of good shape, and 
the brickwork is contrasted with stone dressings. Balusters are 


stucco. From the proportions of the windows and the details 
of the main cornice and quoins, this house appears to be of 
contemporary date with the Hospital (page 65, March issue). 

The famous stone bridge across the River Exe was 
demolished a few years ago ; it had succeeded a mediaeval bridge 
built in 1250. An Act for erecting a new bridge and forming 
a more convenient approach to the city was passed in 1769, and 
the foundation stone was laid on the 4th of October in 1770. 
A London architect named Dixon was entrusted with the 
work, but during its progress, in 1775, a high flood swept 
away the insufficient foundations, and the designer was dis- 
missed. This led to the employment of John Goodwin, 
who had been an assistant to Dixon. A fresh design was 
prepaied, and the foundation stone of the first arch was 

grouped in panels over the upper windows to increase the 
vertical effect as well as to act as foils. 

Exeter Institute, a restrained yet distinguished building, 
stands in the precincts of the Cathedral, facing the wall of the 
north aisle. The photograph shows (page 89) the details of 
the entrance doorway and side lights. These details are 
quite remarkably reminiscent of certain phases of Colonial 
work. This Institute was designed in the opening years of the 
last century ; it is practically of the same date as the Cottonian 
Library at Plymouth which Foulston designed, and if not actually 
from the pencil of this architect it proves his influence. The 
library is effectively lighted from a circular lantern. There is a 
gallery dividing the interior into two heights, and the bookshelves 
and cases form integral features of the treatment. 




9 2 

Exwick House (p. 91) is a well-proportioned building typical 
of the fashion of 1820 as developed by Foulston in Devon 
and Cornwall. Simplicity and directness are its chief qualities. 

Southernhay House (page 93) is representative of the large 
type of middle-class town-house built a century ago, a novel 
feature of the setting being the placing of the front some 
distance back from the road, with a small drive and screen 
of trees. The entrance is masked by a continuous loggia, which 
forms the chief architectural feature. The slightly projecting 
centre to the loggia, with breaks and pediment, is somewhat 
daring in adjustment, but its effectiveness is convincing. 

As one walks from Southernhay to the Cathedral along a 


About the time Plymouth and Uevonport were receiving 
weathercoats of stucco and slate, many old buildings in Exeter, 
especially those facing the shops in High Street and Fore 
Street, were brought into the fashion that followed the doc- 
trines of Soane. The illustration of "The Mint" (page 94) 
shows the novel treatment accorded to a small shop near the 
High Street. In the design of this shop-front will be seen 
evidence of " Empire " character. The end pilasters have Greek 
key ornamentation, the intermediate posts being moulded. The 
charm of the design is its simplicity, rendered more effective 
by the sashing of the shop window. 

From the year 1850 onwards Greek detail became the 



secluded side path thit cuts through the city wall, the small 
iron bridge shown by the illustration on the front page of last 
month's issue arrests attention. It is graceful in line and richly 
simple. The lower rib of the girder bears the inscription : 



Another interesting example of the development of a local 
residential centre is to be seen in the group of five houses 
called Pennsylvania Crescent, to the north-east of the city. 
These houses can be compared with the villas designed by 
John Foulston at Plymouth, the detail of the verandas, 
pilasters, and entrances being similar. They are in marked 
contrast to the modern gabled villas now stretching in the 
direction of Pinhoe. 

medium favoured by local architects, although local charac- 
teristics were by no means ignored. The obelisk near South 
Street and the doorhead from Fore Street typify the minor 
features of the day. 

In this connexion the name of Charles Fowler, a local 
architect, is of interest, for the erection of two important 
civic buildings within the city fell to his lot : but this was 
subsequent to his success in London. Charles Fowler was 
born in 1792, and gained experience and training in the office 
of an Exeter surveyor whose practice included many local 
houses. In 1814 Fowler made his way to London, and was 
engaged by David Laing as an assistant. He spent some 
time with Laing preparing drawings in connexion with the 
New Customs House, and appears to have started practice 













for himself soon after. His first work of magnitude was Covent 
Garden Market, which he completed in 1830. A year later he 
was commissioned to design Hungerford Market, the scale of 
which can be judged from his original drawings now in the 
collection of the Royal Institute of British Architects. In 
1835, news of his fame as a specialist in market design having 
reached Exeter, the authorities invited him to design the Lower 
or Western Market, which he completed a year later. The illus- 
tration (page 93) shows the fine scale of this building, the refine- 
ment of the ornament, the originality of the conception, and 
the correctness of expression, for it is unmistakably a market 
and nothing else. That he was proud of his work is obvious 
from the fact that he caused his name to be chiselled on the 
beam over the central entrance in Fore Street. 

its purpose, and is far more logical than many of the hybrid 
structures produced to meet similar conditions during the last 
thirty years. In the intervals of his work on market buildings 
Fowler found time to study the design of bridges. He entered 
the competition for London Bridge in 1822, and gained the first 
premium, but Rennie was employed in his place. Four years 
later Fowler built the bridge over the Dart at Totnes. He had 
many pupils and followers, and it is possible that the design of 
the Exeter Dispensary (page 91) was influenced by him. 

Fowler frequently exhibited his work at the Paris Salon, and 
was a prominent member of the Royal Institute in its early days. 
After a strenuous career he died in 1867. 

The foregoing summary of the prominent buildings of 
Exeter evolved between the years 1740 and 1840 is by no means 


Fowler's designs were always architecturally consistent, the 
theme of the conception appearing both externally and internally. 
He could arrange a Classic clerestory, could borrow ideas from 
the timber construction advocated by Philibert de 1'Orme and 
give substantial interest for the accommodation. Fowler in this 
essay combined Italian composition with Greek detail, and 
succeeded in producing a building both monumental and useful. 
A year later he was commissioned to erect the higher market in 
Queen Street, a building the exterior appearance of which is 
characteristically Greek of Empire stamp. 

The illustration shows the scholarship of this designer, and 
provides an object lesson in taste and refinement. It has been 
said of this building that it is as modern in appearance as it 
was at the time of its erection ; it certainly makes the appeal of 

exhaustive of the wealth of the tradition, but may serve the 
purpose of indexing a peculiar local phase. 

The visitor to the city is confronted by a remarkable series 
of buildings ; he can read the story of the English Renaissance 
in all quarters, and he can satisfy his taste for particular phases, 
be they Mediaeval, Georgian, or matured Classic. Exeter is a 
pleasant city, busy at the centre, expeditious on the outskirts, 
allied to the sea, and rejoicing in the decoration afforded by 
the greenery of leafy open spaces. She is mediaeval in 
sentiment, but interesting in the lines of her later expression, 
which include the warm brick houses of the eighteenth century, 
the equally warm stucco of a later period the rugged mass of 
Hayward's Prison, and the Corinthian insulations of the old 
Post Office. 

Current Architecture. 

Pacific Steam Navigation Company's Offices, Liverpool. 

Willink and Thicknesse, FF.R.I.B.A., Architects. 

IN contemplating a British building of unusually large 
dimensions, one's thoughts always take involuntary flight 
to America. This is not strange. In America the 
"mammoth" building is common. In Britain it is rare and 
remarkable. And as with the size, so with the sumptuousness. 
Both lessons our commercial magnates have learned from the 
United States, where business enterprise may not be more keen 
than it is here, but is certainly more expansive, and, as some 
would say, more daringly experimental ; which is equivalent to 
saying that it is more imaginative. Perhaps it is because 
America is a big country that its business men are alive to the 
value of scale as an investment ; but by what mental pro- 
cess, or by what subtle business instinct, they have arrived at 
their shrewd perception that high-class decoration and lavish 
"trimmings" (an American term!) are and again the expres- 
sion is of transatlantic origin " a paying proposition " is more 
a matter of conjecture. Most likely it arose from a realization 
that bigness and bareness sort not well together; or, still more 
probably, from an astute inference that a rich interior, being 
imposing and impressive, is therefore a valuable commercial 

This is to take the lowest possible " basal plane." Keen as 
the American commercial man notoriously is in the pursuit of 

wealth, it does not follow that he is without aesthetic intuition 
and impulse. If he were, he would not have called on the 
architect to do his best would not have lavished such fabulous 
sums on marble, bronze, mahogany ; would not have authorized 
his architect to commission the best carvers and painters to 
co-operate in the production of a costly palace of commerce. 
Not only the commercial value of art, but the artistic soul in 
commerce, is, we fear, better understood in the States than it is 
here, even to-day. Here there is a strong tendency to draw a 
broad dividing line between art and commerce : there, the two 
entities commingle as freely as the pigment with its vehicle. 
To say that commerce is there impregnated with art is to risk 
the retort that there also art is impregnated with commerce. 
Most certainly there is interaction and we make no doubt that 
it is for the good of both elements. " Out of strength cometh 
forth sweetness" is a reversible proposition. Banks, insurance 
buildings, the great shipping offices, have been designed and 
adorned, in America, in suchwise as to prove that there mav be 
temples of commerce as well as temples ol art. Indeed, in 
bringing such so-called temples of art as the theatre and the 
opera-house into comparison with the architecturally conceived 
business building, it is evident at once where dignity and 
restraint abide. One would hardly look for these qualities in 


9 6 



Photo: Stewart Hale, Liverpool. 



I'hoto : Stewart Half, l.irtif>on!. 


9 8 

















t- 1 





"places of amusement," but would confidently expect to find 
them in the commercial building, where garish vulgarity, or any 
intimation of sensuous excess, would be manifestly out of 

An excellent example of the grand manner in commercial 
design is the new Cunard Building in Liverpool. First as to its 
site: as we said in reviewing the building as a whole (vol. xlit, 
it was an appreciation of real assets that led the CunarJ Steam- 
ship Company to choose for their new Liverpool offices the most 
spectacular position in the city an island site on the river 
front, overlooking the landing-stage and has caused them to 
erect on that site (approximately 300 ft. by 200 ft.) a building 
containing accommodation not only for themselves, but also for 
man}- other large firms. The Cunard Building is Hanked on the 
south by the offices of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, 
and on the north by of the Royal Liver Insurance 
Company ; the three structures together occupying the site of 
the old George's Dock, which was closed and converted into a 
building are.i by the continuance across it of Brunswick Street 
and Water Street. Its environment was a sore trial to its 
architects, who devised a building which "should ignore without 
affronting " its neighbours, which had not even a building line in 
common. The Cunard Building is of more or less Florentine 
character. " producing its impact on the mind by the resultant 
of quite simple factors a broadly distributed wall surface, a 
rich Italian cornice, a battered and heavilv rusticated base." 

And its planning is for the most part simple, direct, and large 
in its parts. 

The offices of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company were 
prepared for them immediately after the completion of the 
building. Messrs. Willink and Thicknesse, FF.R.I.B.A., the 
designers of the entire building, were the architects of these 
offices, which are of very large dimensions, being about 120 ft. 
long and about 170 ft. wide. There is a large area over the 
centre. 55 ft. wide, which goes over the public space between 
the counters. The whole of the ground floor is given up to 
ordinary office accommodation, and a portion of the first floor 
is occupied by board room, chairman's room, general manager's 
room, and the secretarial staff. 

All the general storage of the company is accommodate 1 in 
the basement, a lift made by Messrs. Waygood-Otis giving 
connexion between the basement and the first floor. 

As the entire work was carried out during the war, it was 
found impossible to have marble for the pillars, which are 
accordingly covered with decorative plaster, relieved by appro- 
priate gilding on both columns and cornices. 

The contractors for the building itseli \v re Messrs. W. Cubitt A- Co. The 
whole of the mahogany woodwork was carried ut b Messrs. G. H. Morton & 
Son, Liverpool. The whole of the pi isterwork, plain and decorative, was executed 
by Messrs. G. Jacksc.n & Sons, London. The electric lighting was carried cut 
by Messrs. Higg'ns & Grilhths, London, and the alabaster bowls were supplied 
by Messrs. Bridgeman & Sons, Lichfirld. The floors are covered with 
" Rublino." manufactured by the Leyland and Birmingham Company. 

Photo : Stewart Bale, Liverpool. 










VOL. XLVI . o 



A Shop-front in New Bond Street, London. 

Matthew J. Davvson, A.R.I.B.A., Architect. 

IT is odd to think how very modern so very familiar an 
object as the shop-front is. No farther back than Tudor times, 
there were no shop-fronts proper, but only the stallboards from 
which they have been evolved. When glass was first obtainable, 
it was too expensive to be employed by the small trader. Anil 
in the early days your small trader was very small indee:!. 
To-day the butcher, the poultry -dealer, and the fishmonger 
preserve the tradition of the unglazed fronts which at first were 
general. The stallboard on which the wares were displayed by 
day was by night folded up to form a shutter for the shop. 
When at length glass was available, it was used in very small 
panes, because they could not be made in very large dimensions. 
and because, the material being precious, it was desirable to 
provide that the calamity of breakage should be minimi/el. 
Diamond panes, one may surmise, were the result of an attempt 
to disguise, by turning it to decorative account, the insignificant 
si/e of the glass. To the same object, it may be imagine.]. 
can l)e ascribed the decorative effects introduced- gradually, no 
doubt into the eighteenth-century shop-window. These effects 
were not limited to the ornamental detail of leadwork and iron- 
work, but included also much graceful wood-cutting or turning 
in the brackets and so forth. Nor was this the only result of 
thus making a virtue of necessity. Flatness and small panes 
were indeed an insipid combination. Keliet from it was found 
in the bow-window - a shape that shopkeepers would not 
willingly abandon until means were found ol curving the huge 

sheets of "plate" glass that, this modification h.i\ing been 
achieved, came into favour even-where. 

Many are the architects who hate curved glass. For them 
glass may break if it will : but to bend it seems most 
unnatural. Of the same school of thought are they who hold 
that leviathan sheets of glass are inconvenient and unnecessary. 
Exceedingly difficult to handle, and so expensive to bre.ik 
they have been made a special feature of insurance business, 
they are. in effect, the most horrific enemy of architecture. 
These drawbacks seem at length to have been reali/ed. Shop- 
front design is reverting to the more reasonable si/e of pane that 
makes respectable architectural effect possible. It is reverting, 
moreover, to the bemtifnl eighteenth-century models. 

Although the shop-front here illustrated follows the best 
traditions, and is informed with the old spirit, it is nevertheless 
stamped with originality and "character." It has been executed 
by the Birmingham Guild, Ltd.. to the design of Mr. Matthew 
|. Hawson, A.K.I.1S.A. The shop-front is in " Duralumin," an 
alloy of silver finish that remains bright, having, it is said, 
the strength of steel with only one-third the weight of 
brass. The guttering above the fascia lettering is in cast 
lead, while tin- fascia is in marble \\itli incised lettering that, 
as the illustration shows, is of excellent form. The venti- 
lating cresting underneath is cast lead, and the marble is 
white and black, that immediately above the stallboard h-jing 



O 2 

Swanage and the Purbeck Quarries. 

LIKE innumerable other country towns, Swanage consists 
of one main thoroughfare, with a few minor streets 
tributary to it. Mr. Frank L. Emanuel has chosen 
for his picture (Plate IV) a comer that shows a grandeur 
most uncommon for a country High Street : shows also that 
the street is narrow and tortuous beyond the common experience. 
The tine doorway on the right hand might be, but for its essen- 
tially English feature of the projecting clock, that of some early 
Renaissance palace in Italy. The enrichments, however, are 
rather overpowering, the detail being oppressive rather than 
elegant, and therefore English without a doubt. One feels that 
the brackets have enough to do in supporting the too sturdy 
cornice, without having to bear the additional burden of an 
equally ponderous balcony. 

There is the best or perhaps it were safer to say the second 
] )cs t of reasons why Swanage should thus lavishly affect the 
grand manner. Stone lies about it in abundance, and stone, 
being essentially a noble material, is an incentive to build nobly 
perhaps, he.ivily certainly : also in pseudo-classical style. Why 
the street, with its steepish slope,-, its sharp windings, and its 
absurd narrowness, should thus wantonly flout neirly all the 
must cherished convictions or conventions of the town-planner 
is a mystery that perhaps the geologist is best qualified to 
solve: unless it be assumed that there was formerly thought 
to be a subtle affinity between crookedness, narrowness, and 
picturesqueness. That these are conditions on which ''pic- 
turesqueness " depends is the reason why town-planners, and 
all artists of the austerer stamp, hate the word. Its use is 
now confine. 1 to auctioneers, and is covere.l by their licence. 

In some of the houses of the High Street, and perhaps in 
some ot those in the minor streets, we may see stone from the 
selfsame qu irries whence were hewn materials for the con- 
struction or the adornment of the Houses of Parliament, of 
Winchester, St. Paul's, and Salisbury Cathedrals, the Temple 
Church, Romsey Abbey, and many another noble building. 
Purbeck marble, for example, is of high renown, and it adorns 
the memorial in front of ("baring Cross railway station. It is 
said that the quarrier? at Purbeck arc of Norman descent, as 
some (jf their names seem to indicate, and that they do not 
speak the Dorset dialect, or that they speak it with a 
difference which, however, is common to the natives of Swanage. 
It may well be that the Swanage folk are of another race 
than those living farther inland. All those parts of our coasts 
that were subject to invasion are notoriously peopled by 
descendants from the intruders, and the shores of " Dorset 
dear" could hardly claim exemption from this fairly general rule. 

Fine figures of men are the Purbeck quarriers, and they are 
as sturdy intellectually as physically. An independent habit of 
mind, or an exclusiveness originally derived from their conscious- 
ness that they were foreign intruders, may have led to their 
banding themselves together as a close corporation. At all events, 
among them it is possiole to study a survival of the ancient guild 
system. Masons, in which term quarriers may be for the nonce 
included, have been always endowed with a double portion of 
the spirit of association, as the inveteracy and universality of the 
cult of Freemasonry show proof enough ; and the Company of 
Marblers of the Isle of Purbeck is a corporation as strict as 
ancient. No one but the son of a freeman of the guild may 
enter it, and the admission of apprentices has quite a mediaeval 
flavour. A boy entering the quarries is subject to his father, to 

whom the boy's wages belong. On the first Shrove Tuesday 
after he has attained the age of twenty one, the youth attends 
the annual court which the quarriers hold at Corfe. " After the 
company's charter has been solemnly read, the 'free boy,' with 
a pot of beer in one hand and a penny loaf (made specially for 
the occasion) in the other, formally claims his freedom, where- 
upon 6s. Sd. is demanded of him, and his name is added to the 
roll." This custom was of old standing as long ago as 1551. 
When this O Harriers' Parliament is prorogued, a football is tossed 
into a field at Corfe and kicked about until the players grow 
weary of the sport. This was a very natural ending, Shrove 
Tuesday, football, and apprentices, having been intimately 
associated time out of mind. 

Ouarries in Purbeck are held on an odd tenure. Before i;>S(S 
the quarriers had the right to open a quarry anywhere without 
consulting anybody and without paying rent ! Since that date 
the privilege has been curtailed. " When a man wishes to open 
a new quarry, he goes to the landlord and asks permission to do 
so on certain terms, namely payment of royalty by the ton, the 
foot run, or the square foot, according to the kind of stone 
obtained. Once such permission is given and he has started 
working, his tenure is perpetual on two conditions: first, that he 
pays the stipulated dues to the landlord ; and secondly, that 
he does not omit to work the quarry for a year and a day." 
Oddly enough, default is penalize:! not by the landlord, but by 
the Marblers' Company, one member forfeiting his rights to 

The manner of working the quarries is comparable, on a 
small scale, to that of coal-mining. The marketable stone lies 
sometimes fifty or sixty feet below the surface, and is reached by 
sinking a slanting shaft. Some of these (marries are very 
extensive, and are worked for generations without exhausting 
them. Many of the sixty or so near Swanage, however, have 
been worked out, and the bulk of the supplies must be sought 
farther inland. Nevertheless, the Purbeck beds, comprising 
marls, freshwater limestones, and shales, attain near Swanage a 
thickness of about 400 ft., and the Island of Purbeck therefore 
seems likelv to yield structural and ornamental stone for cen- 
turies to come. 

From St. Alban's Head at Swanage one looks across the bay 
to Portland Bill, and remembers that Purbeck and Portland 
have, between them, had a larger share than any other part of 
the country in supplying structural and decorative stone for the 
builder and the carver. In Portland there is, they say, enough 
stone to employ quarrymen for 2,000 years. It was no less 
famous an architect than Inigo Jones who first discovered the 
virtues of Portland stone, which he straightway used in his 
Banqueting House in Whitehall ; and \Vren 's use of the stone 
in St. Paul's Cathedral set the seal on its suitability for London 
structures. But Byland Abbey, built in the twelfth century, 
may have convinced Jones and Wren of the durability of 
Portland stone. 

Swanage has a further architectural interest of sorts. 
Mr. Thomas Hardy was trained as an architect; and in his 
incomparable novels, what Wessex is to Dorset, that 
Knollsea is to Swanage so it is said; and Swanage, as our 
artist long ago discovered, is that rare kind of seaside town 
where one may sketch in peace "far from the madding crowd," 
to quote the phrase which Hardy borrowed from the noble 
poem by Gray to make the title of a noble novel. 

Mate IV. 



Drawn by Fianlt L. Emaiinel. 


Photo: V. f- A. Kf. 



Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Decoration and Furniture 

from the Restoration to the Regency. 

IV Queen Anne Furniture 

By Ingleson C. Goodison. 

UNLIKE her elder sister and predecessor upon the throne, 
Queen Anne appears to have inherited little of the 
natural love for the arts which characterised the 
Stuarts. The age of Anne is distinguished by the annalists prin- 
cipally for splendid military achievements and supreme excellence 
in literature. Yet the polite arts by no means languished for want 
of royal patronage: if the 
sovereign displayed no taste 
for planting and building, 
or even for literature, pre- 
ferring rather the pleasures 
of hunting, driving, and 
horse-racing as a refuge 
from domestic sorrows and 
a relaxation in ill-health, 
the architects, painters, ami 
craftsmen of the day found 
ample patronage among her 
subjects. Of the first-named, 
Wren, Talman, and Yan- 
brugh erected many splendid 
houses which were lavishly 
adorned by the decorative 
painters Yerrio and La- 
guerre, Cheron, Kicci, Lan- 
scroon, and Thornhill, and 
the woodcarvers Gibbons, 
Watson, and Maine. The 
decorative bird, flower, and 
fruit pictures of James 
Hogdani, Luke ("radock, 
and Peter Casteels enjoyed 
great vogue, side by side with 
the imposing portraiture of 
Kneller and Richardson, 
backed by the dignified and 
formal tall oak panelling of 
the period. The ranks of 
the craftsmen and artisans 
were swelled by innumerable 
emigres highly trained under 
the tutelage of Le Hrun in 
the artistic workshops of the 
Louvre and Gobelins, so that 
executants of the greatest 
aptitude and skill were 
available in all branches of 
the decorative arts ; and 
despite the many formative 
influences from abroad some- 
thing approaching a dis- 
tinctively English style was 
evolved by the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. 



Victoria and Altart Mituitm. 

One of the most remarkable foreign influences is observable 
in the gradual engrafting of Oriental upon European art, which 
was due to the agency of the Eastern trading companies 
now conducting a flourishing traffic in tea, porcelain, lacquer, etc., 
which were distribute.! through the India or China houses where 
ladies of fashion flocked for the excitement of shopping. Peter 

Motteux's in Leadenhall 
Street was a famous " India " 
shop, the great resort of 
ladies of quality, as were 
Margus's and Mrs. Siam's, 
one of the chief allurements 
being the raffle, which mini- 
stered to the prevailing pas- 
sion for gambling. The 
shops of the Royal Ex- 
change, New Exchange, and 
Exeter 'Change were plente- 
ously stored with all kinds 
of rich wares and fine com- 
modities both Oriental and 
Occidental their walks the 
favourite promenades and 
very centres of the fashion, 
and their galleries a com- 
mon place of assignation ; 
many contemporary accounts 
make reference to the dan- 
gerous allurements of the 
"pretty merchants" charged 
with the dispersal of wares 
hardly less striking and at- 
tractive in these arcades 

" Shops breathe perfumes, 

Through sashes ribbons jjlmv." 

Ill 170.2 the two rival 
East India Companies 
called respectively the Lon- 
don and the English came 
to terms after a period of 
conflict, and amalgamated 
in I7O.S under the title of 
the United East India Com- 
pany. At the opening of 
the eighteenth century the 
cargoes of three ships alone, 
belonging to John Company, 
are reported to have realized 
no less a sum than 200,000. 
Evelyn in 1700 remarks 
especially the " India and 
Chinese curiosities " in 
Samuel Pepys's house at 

V. 6- A. M. 


I'hotn ['. iV A. M. 


Victor! j and Albert Museum. 

Clapham, and the diary of John Hervey, first Karl of Bristol, 
records a payment in 1702 to Peter (iiimley, of '2g for "China 
and Japan ware," an entry in the same nobleman's journal of the 
purchase, in 1695, from Gerard Johnson (Gerrit or "Garnet" 
Johnson) of a "black" suite comprising a "glass, table, and 
stands," doubtless relating to specimens of lacquer furniture 
in vogue throughout the reigns of William and Mary and 
Oueen Anne. 

The bureau-cabinet of red lacquer illustrated in the frontis- 
piece to this article is representative of the type current at 
the end of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth 
centuries. The broken pediment and hollow cornice are 
indicative of a date rather later than the example illustrated 
in a previous issue,* although the interval in point of time 
cannot be very great. 

Something of the lightness and brightness of coloration 
derived from the porcelains and gay fabrics of the East is 

traceable in the embroidered covering of the chair illustrated 
on page 103. The front legs are of walnut, plainly cabriole- 
shaped, and carved with a modification of the club foot, the 
form of which has suggested the appellation " duck " foot- 
applied, perhaps, more appropriately to an example figuring 
subsequently in an illustration accompanying this article. A 
great deal of embroidery was executed during the reigns of 
William and Mary and Queen Anne for upholstery purposes, 
the panels being designed to fit the backs, seats, and arms of 
chairs, settees, and stools, and the designs comprising vases or 
baskets of choice blooms closely conesponJing with the con- 
temporary still-life pictures of Monnoyer or consisting of 
armorial bearings, pastoral subjects, and "all-over" flower 
patterns, like the cover of the high-back chair illustrated in the 
accompanying photograph on this page. 

Walnut was the dominant wood for cabinet-making in the 
reign of Oueen Anne, as it h.nd been throughout the preceding 
reign of William and Mary, though the use of mahogany was 
not unknown before the accession of George the First. In the 


Prnperty of Messrs. Gregory 6- Co. 





design of chairs the curved back, shaped to fit the human spinal 
column, and the carved splat and top rail of William Ill's reign 
which was illustrated in the first article of this series,* gave 
place to the graceful curving lines and comfortable smooth 
vase-shaped splat of the period of Queen Anne. As the reign 
progressed, chair-backs became lower; the hooped-back uphol- 
stered chair and the smooth "dipped" top-rail were con- 
cessions to the rising standard of comfort and increasing desire 
for simplicity and elegance. The cabriole leg was universally 
employed upon stools, chairs, tables, and stands for chests 
and cabinets, at first united by an under-framing of plainly turned 
and "swelled" stretchers, which were afterwards omitted. 
The most characteristic enrichment of the cabriole knee at this 
period was the carved escallop-shell, sometimes accompanied 
by a pendent-husk ornament, and later replaced by acanthus 
leafage and voluted scroll-bracketting. A typical chair of the 

* THK ARCHI1 KCTURAL KKVIKW, Jailllitry KJ.IO. pH'_;e .1. 

I. C. SfaUtm, 

I'it>f>trty of 




I C.<.nn. 


yueen Anne period, after the abolition of the stretcher-framing, 
c. 1712, was illustrated on page 22 of THK ARCHITECTURAL 
REVIEW for January 1920. 

Furniture decorated with gilded gesso, in slight relief, like 
the mirror illustrated on page 104, was extremely popular, the 
method of application of this very effective substitute for carving 



I'mperly of 


being described in detail in ;i previous article devoted to the 
subject of " Decorative Mirrors," \vhon reference \vas made 
to surviving examples at Hampton Court Palace and elsewhere, 
executed in this enduring material ami identified with the 
Huguenot designer Daniel Marot, many of whose compositions 
were issued to the public in a series of etchings published in 1712. 
The hanging mirror illustrated on page 105, in a saw-cut 
frame of walnut wood, decorated with a slight repeating leaf- 
pattern of carving next to the glass, and with applied gilt wood- 
carvings at the top and sides, displaying traces of Rococo 
influence, belongs perhaps to the succeeding reign, but is of 
interest as emphasizing the effectiveness of walnut and gilding 
in combination, of which many examples are found dating from 
the period of Oueen Anne. A typical Oueen Anne upright 
mirror, in a shaped, slightly moulded, and cross-banded frame 
veneered with walnut, and having a characteristic fret-cut 
cresting, is illustrated on the same page. It will be observed 
that the " Vauxhall " glass, which is "silvered" by the mer- 
curial process, is divided into an upper and a lower plate, 
which overlap, as was customary in large mirrors, and that 
both are margined with wide bevelling, executed at a slight angle 
of inclination owing to the thinness of the contemporary glass. 

The double chest, or chest-upon-chest, of drawers was a 
commodious article of furniture, popular at this period and 
for upwards of a century afterwards. The example illustrated 
is of pine veneered with walnut, the drawer-linings being of 
oak. An engaging feature in the design is the semi- 
hemispherical niche, contrived with great artifice in the 
centre of the lowest drawer-front, which is inlaid in the form 
of a star, the half-rays being alternately of light and dark 
wood. This niche-head sinking is a decorative feature often 
encountered in chests, both double and single, and in bureaux, 
where, however, its practical office is more evident. The 
coved cornice and canted or elaborately stop-chamfered and 
fluted corners of this double chest are eminently characteristic 
details of the period under review ; and the slight gilt-brass 
drawer-pulls and escutcheons, although somewhat assorted, 
are all typical and practically contemporaneous. A feature 
which distinguishes the drawer-fronts from those of the William 
and Mary period is the thin cock-beading round the edges of 
the drawers and attached thereto, and the " lipping " of cross- 
cut veneering on the framing itself which surrounds the 
drawers. In earlier specimens this framing will be found to be 
covered with a single half-round ('or rather, semi-elliptical) 
beading, or with a twin beuling, or, more rarely, with a very 
slight moulding. 

The walnut corner-cupboard illustrated on this page is one 
of those to which reference was made in a previous article,* 
designed to stand upon the projecting moulded dado-rail of the 

* THK AKCHiTECTui: >L REVIEW, March if)2o, page 77. 


Property of Martin Rncltmast <r, t. s 



Plate V. April 1920. Proper: > of I. C. Goodison 




Property of 


The table-tup is shaped at the two front fortieis to ^irrafoml ;. ith ii ji-il-tal:'e 

designed en suite : below the top is a f till-out wiHing-sHili, with a sunk veil 

for papers, writing implements, and ink-bottles. 

period. In this example the door-panel is bevelled and " fielded," 
and veneered with beautiful wood of carefully selected figure, 
arranged with great judgment to display all the natural 
beauties of the grain. The fluted side pilasters are built up 
of transverse sections, each of which has become slightly 
concave a " fault " which is greatly mitigated by the admir- 
able play of the high lights on ihc lustrous oil-varnish, a 
superfine finish which two centuries- of wear have failed to 

One of the most typical pieces of furniture of the period 
is] the Queen Anne hant-bois, or "tall-boy," which forms the 
subject of Plate V. The double-chest is frequently dignified 
with the appellation of "tall-boy"; but a useful distinction is 
maintained by confining the term to the particular form of 
chest upon an open stand indicated in the accompanying 
illustration. This graceful piece of furniture is unadorned with 
carving, the designer reiving upon elegance of line, delicacy of 

moulding, and the natural beauty of his material in appreciative 
and skilful hands. The plain cabriole legs are slight but 
sufficient, the fret-cut arches are pleasing and diversified in 
line, and the simple mouldings employed are excellent in profile 
and proportion. Each drawer-front is margined with cock- 
beading, and banded with feather, or herring-bone, edging, 
the jointing of the veneer coinciding with the centres of the 
escutcheons and drawer-pulls, which are of brass, the back 
plates being shaped and bevelled at the edges, and chased, or 
punched, with incise. 1 designs of Oriental character. All the 
lippings to the drawer-framing are of cross-banded veneer, and 
the mouldings are worked " on the cross " to display the figured 
walnut grain to advantage. The whole carcase is of pine, 
with the exception of the sides and bottoms of the drawers, 
which are of oak. 

A kneehole writing-table ot oak veneered with pale golden- 
hue 1 walnut figures in three following illustrations, and 
although typical of many corresponding pieces of the < hieeu 
Anne period, it possesses certain tenures \\lnch are unusual: 

Proptfly of 

I. C. Goodifon. 





II' itli writing-slide closed. 


\\~ith full-out slid-' extended. 

the two front corners of the to[> arc shaped to correspond with 
a card-table en suite, and the edge of the table-top is bordered 
with a semi-elliptical cross-cut beading to match. Below the 
top and immediately above the uppermost drawer is a pull-out 
writing-slide covered with a panel of pale apple-green velvet, 
bordered with gilt galon affixed with nails of gilded brass, 
around which is a broad of walnut veneer, and on the 
right hand a sunk compartment for stationery with shaped 
partitions affording divisions for the accommodation of writing 
implements, ink-bottle, and sand-dredger. The writing-slide 
has a slightly pulvinated front, bordered with a thin half- 
round cock-beading, and is extended by means of sm;dl knob- 
handles of turned walnut. 

Below the long upper drawer are two tiers of three drawers 
and a central recessed cupboard, the knee-hole being headed 
with a perforate arch centring in a convex elliptical "lo/enge." 
The plinth is saw-pierced, to form high bracket feet, which in 
the reign of Oueen Anne replaced the turned or carved feet of 
the preceding century. 

The photograph on page 107 illustrates a sm,-dl dressing- 
table of pine veneered with walnut, having three frieze drawers 
with beaded overlapping fronts margined with feather banding. 
The frieze-rail is arched and shape;!, and the top elaborately 
banded, while the legs are of solid walnut, cabriole, and with 
club feet. The small toilet-mirror or adjustable dressing-glass 
shown upon this table, and above the kneehole table in the 
preceding photograph, illustrates a minor piece of furniture 
in great request at the end of the seventeenth and beginning 
of the eighteenth centuries. More elaborate specimens are 
encountered mounted upon two-tier or three-tier bases, or on 
slant-top bureaux, which are frequently exquisite specimens 
of cabinet-making, most beautifully fitted, with shaped drawers 
and central cupboards, and compartments divided by elegantly- 
profiled partitions. 

The age of Anne was essentially a gambling age, an age for 
chamber music and social gatherings the fashionable dinner- 
hour of five o'clock left much time for hard drinking and high 

rropcrty cf I. C. Goodison 



Photo: r. ,- A. M 


I'htoria iiiid .llbc'it MitSi'itiii. 

play, and perhaps the piece of furniture most in request 
after the chair \vas the card-table, of which a typical 
example is presented on page to.S. This is of walnut, 
upon cabriole front - legs with elaborately carved knees 
and brackets and bold bal'-and-claw feet. The fold-over 
top, when extended, is supported upon framing arranged 
on the "concertina" principle (instead of on the "gate" 
principle, which was popular at a later period i in order to 

I'roferty of 

I. C. Gooduon. 


l'r<i,\<: at I'. C. ll.lrfcr. /i^,;. 




bring the back legs. \\hicli are of club shape, with a plainly 
carved "shield" on the knee, under the salient corners when 
tile table is either open or closed. 

The arm-chair illustrated in the photograph on this page 
is typical of a great number of chairs made throughout the 
reigns ol Oueen Anne and ot George I ; the front legs are 
c ibriole, with c.irve.l-sliell knees and club feet, united to the 
splayed-out l):u:k-le^ r s by me. ins of turne 1 and swelled stretchers, 
the front stretcher l)eiiifj somewhat recessed : the se it rail is of 
the stuff-over type, an 1 the arm supports are recessed and 
attached to the side rails, uniting with the arms into a series of 
very graceful curves. The top rail is dipped to accommodate 
the nape of the neck, and is ornamented with an escallop shell 
above the splat, which is vase-shaped, veneered with walnut, 
decorated with acanthus leafage, ami bevelled at the edfjes to 
hide the substance of the splat. 

A remarkably fine specimen of the corner, or "round-about," 
chair is illustrated in the last photograph on this page. It is 
constructed of walnut with carved cabriole legs, shell-knees, and 
serpentine seat-rail. Thedouble-tierei back, carved and pierced 
splats, and voluted arm-rests are unusually elaborate in design, 
and the chair belongs doubtless to the splendid opening period 
of the Georgian era. 

(To be continued.) 

The Practical Exemplar of Architecture 

The Soane Obelisk, Reading. 

TOWNS, especially small country towns, suffer much at 
the hands of the pious founder. In gratitude for what 
the town is supposed to have done for him, he bequeaths 
to it some hideous memorial of himself: always of himself, 
even when it is nominally dedicated to some other person or 
to some impersonal object. This clock tower, this drinking 
fountain, this lych-gate, was given by John So-and-so, in 
memory of his ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty years' or lifelong 
connexion with this town : or was erected by Mary Such-a- 
one. in loving memory of her departed husband's civic service, 
or of the prosperity of his drapery or other business in 
the High Street. It is a very cheap and direct route to 
immortality. It is also tolerably certain not to be fastidiously 
closed to the aspirant ; for the small town likes to think that 
it has had a denizen worth commemorating, or at least rich 
enough to provide a memorial. Whether the memorial was 
an adornment or was merely a disfigurement of the town was 
a subsidiary consideration, even if it was considered at all, as 
seems doubtful in view of the many atrocities encountered in 
country towns, as well as on the outskirts of London, where 
local feeling has not yet been overwhelmed by the cosmo- 
politan wave. 

All this has been altered by the Great War. The e>sy path 
to immortality has been closed, inglorious nonentities being 
sternly denied the right of way. Henceforth the main resource 
of the dubiously distinguished citixen or would-be "worthy" 
will be to build and endow almshonscs for decayed waniors, 
or "battle-scarred veterans," naval or military. There is, alas! 
no lack of subjects for memorials, and those erected to persons 
who did nothing to warrant it are suffering eclipse by those 
dedicated to the men and women who died for their country. 
That the reaction against civilian memorials is likely to be very 
severe is an excellent reason for drawing attention to any note- 
worthy specimens among those that already exist. A few of 
them are so good that they may well serve the architect and the 
sculptor as models for some of the innumerable war memorials 
that are yet to be designed for setting up in public places. 
Some of those monuments to more or less obscure merit were, 
strange to say, actually designed by architects, who are quite 
the right artists to do the work, whilst a sculptor's archi- 
tecture is usually much worse than an architect's sculpture: 
the explanation of this discrepancy being, apparently, that 
anybody (including especially the sculptor) will undertake with 
a light heatt an essay in architecture, whereas nobody (and 
especially not the architect) will undertake sculpture unless 
he has undergone some considerable training in the art. Turn 
where we may, we see far too many specimens of sculptors' 
architecture. It is nearly always bad, the sculptor seldom 
realizing that before he can turn out anything at all decent 
in this kind a man must needs specialize. It is not as if we 
were living at the dawn of the Renaissance, when the Com- 

pleat Artist would undertake with equal confidence a commis- 
sion to design a building as large as a cathedral church, or for 
a trinket to fit my lady's little finger. Such versatility there 
still may be did not [. F. Bentley exemplify it as completely 
as any old Italian of them all? but it is rare; and we can 
call to mind no living sculptor who is heir presumptive to it. 

Sir John Some's love of collecting specimens of the various 
arts subsidiary to architecture must have had its root in a secret 
desire to exercise them all ; and it is contended by Guild-revival 
advocates that the architect, as " chief workman," ought to be 
able to handle tools, to be able to show his best craftsman a 
better way : even as the perfect conductor of an orchestra should 
be competent to play on any of the instruments under the control 
of his baton. These extremists expect too much of "a man, 
whose life's but a span." Soane's life was a tolerably wide span. 
Horn in the middle of the eighteenth century (175.-;), he lived 
busily until 1837, which makes him eighty-four. The son of a 
bricklayer, he entered, in 1768, the service of George Dance the 
younger. Afterwards he was pupil or assistant with Henry 
Holland ; and, entering the Royal Academy schools, he won in 
1776 the gold medal and a bursary which enabled him to spend 
three years in Italy. From 1788 to 1833 he held the office of 
architect and surveyor to the Hank of England, of which the 
facade is one of his best designs, in spite of the recent criticism 
of it by a City magnate that it ought to be of skyscraper height ! 
In i8of> he was appointed Professor of Architecture at the 
Royal Academy, of which he had been elected a full member 
(R.A.) in 1802. 

The Obelisk at Reading was designed by Sir fohn Soane in 
1804. It was probably of special interest to him, as Reading is 
near his native village of Whitchurch. A metal plate fixed to 
the Obelisk gives the following information : " Erected and 
lighted for ever at the expense of Edward Simeon Esq. as a 
mark of affection to his native Town A.D. 1804 Lancelot Aust- 
wick Mayor." The hideous ironwork which surrounds the 
monument is of course much later, but the brackets seem to be 
the work of Soane himself, and were no doubt designed to carry 
some kind of lamp. The Obelisk would look much better if it 
were freed from the excrescences that have gathered about it. 
Opinions may differ as to its intrinsic interest, but as a sample 
of Soane's work it is certainly worth preserving. Why it should 
have been placed in so cramped a position is a mystery that 
completely baffles conjecture. In this icspect it is by no means 
singular. The cross at Winchester, for instance, is disposed 
in similar hugger-mugger fashion. Surely, if a monument is 
worth putting up at all, it should .not be shunted into a side- 
track, rendering it at once insignificant and obstructive, but 
should be placed plumb on the main axis, where it would get 
atmosphere and perspective. A monument should gain grace 
from its environment, not be smothered or even jostled 
by it. 











< C' 

2 ? 

o 1 



I > 
H ^ 


Libraries of Sir Edward Poynter and the Rossettis. 

A SINGULARLY interesting catalogue of the library of 
2 \. the late Sir Edward John Poynter, P.R.A., issued by 

Messrs. Henry 
Sotheran & Co., in- 
cludes other works 
on the fine arts, 
comprising a collec- 
tion of coloured cari- 
catures, privately 
printed catalogues, 
Girtin's Paris with the 
etchings, Lucas van 
Leyden's " Passion of 
Christ," and finely il- 
lustrated works of 
Pirancsi, Zocchi, and 
others. Further there 
is listed a large selec- 
tion from the library 
of the late William 
Michael Rossetti. in- 
cluding books from 
the library of his sister 
Christina. Autograph 
letters from the 
Morrison collection, 
and from the Medici 
archives, make up a 
catalogue that is more 
rich in interest than 
any other that has 
been seen of late. 

Sir Edward Poy li- 
ter's library included 
about seventy more or 
less important works 
on architect ure. 
Among the more note- 
worthy of these are- 
Two editions of Har- 
toli's " Picture Anti- 
quae Cryptarum 
Romanorum," pub- 
lished at Rome in 1738 
and 1750 respectively; 



Sir William Chambers's " Designs of Chinese Buildings," 
etc. (1757), and a first edition of his "Treatise on Civil 

Architecture" (1759): 
Froehner's '' Colonne 
Trajane": a large- 
p.ipcr copy of S. C. 
Hall's "Haronial 
Halls"; Joseph Nash's 
" Mansions of Eng- 
land " (1906) ; about a 
do/en of Piranesi's 
albums of etchings ; a 
sumptuously illustrated 
account (published in 
1751) of the Pitti 
Palace: the " Histoire 
d(; 1'Art Fgyptien," by 
Prisse d'Avennes, 
labelled "very rare," 
and priced at f^2 los. 
The most important 
entry in the catalogue. 
ho\\ever, is a com- 
plete set of the works 
of William Morris, 
which is priced at 

The catalogue con- 
tains several illus- 
trations, and has for 
frontispiece a fine por- 
trait of Sir Edward 
Poynter, which is here 
reproduced by courtesy 
of the publishers, to 
whom we are also in- 
debted for the block 
i page II2> reproducing 
one of the rare set of 
etchings to C.irtin's 
Paris, and also for that 
made from the beauti- 
ful water-colour of 
Hoxhill by Paul 

(Rt/rodtictd by couitesy of Missrs. Htnry Scthttan & Co.) 

I I 2 


Hellenic Architecture. 

IT is a chronic source of regret that the facts unearthed 
with such infinite toil by the searchers on classic grounds are 
immediately buried again in expensive or obscure publications. 
An enormous mass of material, laboriously thrown up by the 
excavator, and patiently sifted or classified by the scholar, awaits 
co-ordination at the hands of the historian of architecture. 
When this work is done quite thoroughly as perhaps it is now- 
being done- -the result will be another large and expensive 
book, virtually inaccessible to all but the wealthy. In the 
meantime, pending the appearance of the new Perrot and 
Chipiez, Anderson and Spiers, M. Choisy, or possibly of some 
dull, ponderous, and dogmatic German, an excellent little 
handbook has been prepared by Mr. Edward Bell, to whom we 
are already indebted for a capital historical outline of "The 
Architecture of Ancient Egypt." 

Mr. Bell is certainly justified of his modest hope that his 
unpretentious but valuable little volume will fill a lacuna in 
the history of early classic art, by epitomizing recent informa- 
tion on Hellenic architecture. In his earlier volume Mr. Bell 
sought to show that in Egypt a style of building based on the 
use ol stone had already attained considerable grandeur, "and 
might have been still further developed if it had not been 
iuterrupte j by the intrusion of comparatively barbaric ideals 
clue to the domination of more distinctly African races." That 
the earlier and purer Egyptian art had some influence on that 
of Crete, he continues, is not disputed : and he states that it 
would have been more in accordance with his general plan to 
have examined the architectural remains of the .-Kgean area 
before dealing with the more developed art of Greece, had the 
time been ripe for this. He has made, however, an attempt to 
show the ultimate influence of Egypt on Greece, and to show 
how it affected the general tradition. In this process he has con- 
sulted many published works, but is more particularly indebted 
t<> the volumes issued by the British School at Athens in which 
appeared the yearly reports of Sir Arthur Evans's excavations at 
Knossos. He has made good use also of the library of the 
Hellenic Society. Information thus carefully collected has been 
welded into a coherent historical narrative showing, as far as 
it is known, the evolution of Hellenic architecture. 

He begins with the Dorian invasion of Greece about ten or 
eleven centuries before our era, which found there a flourishing 
and well -developed civilization. He recalls that excavations in 
Crete and other islands have shown that the Achaean civilization 

to be inferred from Homer, and probably identical with that 
which has been called Mycenaean, " was but an offshoot of a 
widely spread /Egean culture, hardly if at all inferior to that 
which flourished at the same time in Egypt, but with an 
independent character and continuous history of its own which 
can be traced from its origin in neolithic times." Civilization, 
in fact, and its manifestations in art, are very much more 
ancient than the bumptiously ignorant modern man had 
imagined or even now will only admit with reluctance. Though 
why modern man should pride himself on his race having but 
recently emerged (if at all) from barbarism passes conception. 

That the island of Crete was the chief centre of Aegean art 
was not suspected until evidence (not proof positive, however) 
of it was dug out at the end of the nineteenth century, when the 
brilliant work of Sir Arthur Evans established important 
conclusions as to the intercourse between Greece and Egypt. 
It is inferred from certain remains that the primitive inhabitants 
of Crete, as elsewhere, lived in circular huts of wattle-and-daub 
or clay. 

In Crete also there are remains of beehive-shaped tombs 
whose form at first must have been copied from that of ordinary 
dwellings. It is mentioned, however, that the walls of the 
oldest stone structures in Crete are usually rectilinear. At 
Phfestos, and at Hagia Triada, are found the remains of small 
peristyle courts which were surrounded by roofed walks after the 
manner of a medieval cloister. Very fortunately, the appear- 
ance of the smaller houses in ancient Crete has been depicted 
for us on a number of painted and glazed terra-cotta tiles that 
have come to light. Apparently the houses often consisted of 
two or more stories, with a central door, and windows symmet- 
rically arranged. It seems that the roofs were flat, bearing 
sometimes a small attic or turret. There is evidence, also, that 
"the domestic features of Cretan civilization were far less 
remote from modern ideas of comfort and luxury than any 
that are to be found in Western Europe before the end of the 
mediaeval period." 

Schliemann's excavations at Myceme and Tiryns receive 
due attention, and the architectural inferences therefrom are 
set out at considerable length. An intensely interesting chapter 
on "The Dorians as Builders" includes the rather positive 
statement that "whatever the assimilative process may have 
been, it is evident that the transition from wood to stone must 
have taken place concurrently in Greece and Ionia, and there 
are signs that in regard to some architectural forms Ionia must 
have taken the lead and reacted upon the art of the mother- 


(Reproduced by courtesy of Messrs. Henry Sotheran & Co.) 


1 1 

land." Mr. Bell adds that the terms Doric and Ionic are not 
merely technical, but are territorial, and that the decorative 
features of Ionic architecture are mainly Asiatic. Upon Doric 
and Ionic much light has been shed as the result of recent 
excavations, and Mr. Bell summarizes very ably and very 
concisely the knowledge thus gained. His book conveys with 
admirable clearness and remarkable compactness precisely 
the information that until now has been sought in vain by 
architects and that scholarly section of the public to whom the 
history of ancient civilisations is a subject of enthralling interest. 
The book is copiously but discriminatingly illustrated. 

"Hellenic Architecture: Its Genesis and Gru^'l/i.'-' A'r l-'.,l:card Hell. 
M.A., 1-'..S.A. \\'ilh Illustration*. London: </. /,',-//',>= .V,/.v. 1.1,1. 
Price "js. 6d. net. Also issued in paper wrapper. 6.v. net. 

Cottage Building Without Bricks. 

MK. CI.OUGH Wiu.iAMS-Ki.Lis has pro luce, 1 a little book 
with the object of showing "how the problem of building 
without bricks, and, indeed, without mortar, can be attacked 
and solved." Mr. Williams- Ellis is no mere theorist. He lias 
tackled the problem practically has actually built cottages of 
pise-de-terre. Building with rammed earth, the hook reminds 
us, is a familiar practice in Australia and ('ape Colony, was 
common, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in 
the Rhone valley, and what, on the question of climate, is much 
more to the point, has been practise:! in ncurlv all the Southern 
counties of England. Mr. St. Loe Strachey states, hovu-ver, in 
his interesting preface, that he had been unable to identifv these 
old pise houses in England \\ith absolute certainty, the nature 
of the material being effectually disguise 1 under we. it her tiles or 
coits of plaster or paint. Mr. Williams- Ellis advances a very 
cogent plea for the revival of traditional materials such as cob, 
and he supports his case with aesthetic as well as practical 
arguments. Cob is a good deal cheaper than brick, and is of 
exceeding durability, provided it rests on dry foundations and is 
covered with a goo 1 protecting roof, "(live 'mi a guile hat and 
pair of butes an' 'er'll last for ever " is a local claim for cob 
cottages where they most abound, and among the illustrations 
in the book are several photographic views of cottages that. 
being reputedly three hundred or four hundred s'ears old, support 
the boast. Bricks being scarce, cob may come to its own 
again in the West, if not elsewhere. Rammed chalk, it appears, 
has an exciting peculiarity which it is to be hoped is all its 
own it explodes if improperly used. A short appendix on 
whitewash completes the usefulness of a book that is eminently 
readable as well as instructive on a topical subject about which 
there has been much inquiry. H. I>K C. 

u Cottage-building in C<>/>, /'/V, Chalk, and Clay.'' liy C lough 
Williams-Ellis, ll'it/i an introduction /'/./. .V/. /.<' Sli,i,hey. London : 
Gen. \ewiifs, Ltd. 

How to Estimate. 

MAJOR RKA'S book, being now in its fourth edition, is of 
approved utility. Its thoroughness is conspicuous. Not only 
have we a complete analysis of builders' prices (their being pre- 
war prices is of no consequence, as the main purpose of the 
book is to elucidate principles), but also a thousand and one 
hints and, as it were, finger-posts for the use of the builder and 
contractor. Estimating is, even to the most experienced, a 
complicated operation ; and Major Rea carefully indicates the 
pitfalls that await the estimator. 

''How to Estimate? being the Analysis of Buildtrt Prices, giving hull 
Details of Estimating for Every Class of Building Work, with Thousands 
of Prices, and Usetul Memoranda. By John /'. Kea. l-'oiirth Edition, 

Old Cottages. 

Now, at a time when everybody has in mind, more or less, 
the need for more houses, the pamphlet " Report on the Treat- 
ment of Old Cottages " will, without a doubt, interest the lav- 
reader as well as the architect. This pamphlet deals with the 
restoration of old cottages that have fallen into decay through 
neglect and have been condemned as uninhabitable ; although, as 
is pointed out, all that is needed in some cases is a new thatched 
roof, the old one having been neglected and being no longer 
weather-proof. Consequently the plaster on the walls, the timber 
work, and the interior generally, have suffered. This restoration of 
old cottages would, too, if carried out thoroughly, s.ive some 
expenditure from the nation, d pocket: for, having in view the 
abnormal cost, at the present day, of materials and labour, no 
one can deny that to patch up an old cottage is very much 
cheaper than pulling it down and building a new one in its 
place. Further, would it not be better to retain the beauty of 
the Knglish country-side and the characteristics of our ancient 
dwellings ? 

1 'lie S,i, iety fur III,- I'ro/e, I ;,i ,'/' . I it, i, nl ttiiildin^*' " keftort on /lie 
atinf nt of Old Collages.*' i;\-A.'ll. 1'an-tll, lngtlhf'rwilh /'. //' 'Itonp 

11. /. llalsford. I. Id. 

/". A'. /./.'../.. ( ItailesC. [I'iiiinill, and the Se,retar\-. 

'Revised and Enlarged, with more than 
8. T. Batsford, Ltd.,94 High Holborn. 

tOO Illustrations. London : 

Cement and Concrete. 

1 HIS work is termed a " semi-popular " contribution to the 
so-called literature ot cement and concrete, and seeks to interest 
the non-technical reader, who will no doubt derive equal 
pleasure and profit from the introductory notes, which deal with 
the renaissance of concrete, the position of the material in 
respect to architecture, and the " literature " of the subject. 
I hcse notes are certainly alluring indeed, they have a flavour 
that entitles them to form a chapter in the romance of indnstrv. 
I he history of concrete goes back some thousands of years: and 
what a future could In- imaginatively outlined for it! But the 
book is not merely historical. It possesses definite practical 

" I'll/ml,!!' I landliool; fin Cement and Con,rete I "V';M." A'r .\l\-i ,'n 
II. /,,Ti'/.f, './... and Albert II. (handler. ('./.'. .sv, ,W Edition, l-ully 
I II ml rale, I. London: I ladder '^- Slon^liton. l'aleiit,/er AV.v. 

Publications Received. 

"Civil Engineers' Pocket Hook." Tin the use of civil 
engineers, public uorks contractors, etc. liy Lieut. -Col. 
man, O.B.I-:.. K.K.S. Thiul edition. Price to>. d.Y. net. K. 
Ltd., 57 1 laymarkft. S.W. i. 

" Laxton's Price Book." Kor architects, builders, engineers, and contractors. 
1920. One hiindr. d and third edition. Price 4.1-. net. Kelly's Dircctoiies, 
Ltd.. 1X2 4 HL;h Ilolborn, W.C. I. 

"Detail Design in Reinforced C'oncrete. 1 ' By Kwart S. Andrews. B.Sc.. 
Eng. James Seluyn X Co . Ltd.. 20 Essex Street, Strand. 

" Kive-tigure Logarithms and Trigonometrical Kum turns. 1 ' By W. K. Dant- 
mett, A. .M.A.I. I-:., and II. C. Ilird. A.K.Ae.S. Price 1.1. (,,/. net. James 
SeUyn \ Co., Ltd., 20 Essex Street, Strand, W.C. 2. 

"Mathematical Tallies.' 1 By W. I-:. Dammetl, A.K.Ae.S., M.I.Mar.E., 
A M.I.A.K., and II. C. lliid. A.K.Ae.S. James Schvyn & Co.. Ltd.. 20 Essex 
Street, Strand, W.C. 2. 

"Structural Ste.hvork." Relating principally to the Construction of Steel- 
framed Buildings. By Etnest G Beck, Wh.E.x., Assoc. M. Insl.C.E. Piice 
21 s. net. Longmans, Green & Co., 39 Paternoster Row, London. 

"Glass Manufacture." By Walter Kosenh.iin, B.Sc., U.Sc., K.K.S. Second 
edition. Price 12.1. 6</. net. Constable & Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, 
Leicester Square, W.C. 2. 

"Calculating Diagrams for Design of Re'nforccd Concrete Sections. 1 ' By 
James Williamson, A.M.I.C E. Price 12.1. net. Constable & Co., Ltd., 
lo Orange Street, Leicester Square, W.C. 2. 

"Concise Costing for Houses." Being an Improved System of Quantity 
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by Raymond Unwin, K.R.I. B.A. Price 5.1-. Technical Journals, Ltd., 
27-29 Tothill Street, Westminster, S.W. I. 

Any of I hue fuelicutions may be inspected in 'he Heading l\oom, Ttchiiical 
Journals, Ltd., 27-29 Tothill Street, Wt$tminHir. 

!'. \. Spon, 

Chronicle and Comment. 

Salient Features of the Month's Architectural News. 

Hampton Court Tapestry. 

In the House of Commons on 2 March there was an inter- 
esting discussion about the tapestry in Hampton Court. Subse- 
quently Mr. Alan S. Cole explained in a letter to "The 
Times" that the tapestry in question is not only incomplete in 
itself, but has no relation to the series illustrating the Triumphs 
of Petrarch, allegories of the virtues and vices, and so forth. 
He thinks, therefore, it is a pity to devote to it public 
money which would be far more usefully applied to the 
cleaning and restoration of the exceptionally splendid tapestries 
that hang in the banqueting hall. Although these are some- 
what later than the Petrarch Triumphs and the allegories, and 
therefore different in style, they are equal in importance with 
them as materials in the history of the designing and making 
of tapestry. Mr. Cole urges Sir Alfred Mond or the Lord 
Chamberlain " to come to the rescue in reviving the glorious 
effects of these Raphaelesque tapestries, the gold an 1 silver 
threads of which sparkled and glittered when Cardinal Wolsey 
entertained the King in the banqueting hall." Commenting on 
the same debate. Mr. Robert C. \Yitt hits a current fallacy. 
One of the speakers in the debate, critici/ing the Government's 
contribution towards the purchase price, said that works of 
art did not return any dividend nor bring in any revenue. 
" Surely," comments Mr. Witt, '' it would be equally pertinent, 
or the reverse, to replv that the other kind of investment does 
not necessarily bring in aesthetic, or, indeed, any kind of 
pleasure." A very palpable hit ! 

Whitby Abbey for the Nation. 

The ruined Abbey of Whitby is to be hande.l over lo the 
nation. Arrangements for the transfer were completed at a 
conference which took pi. ice within the precincts of the ruins 
on 15 March, between the Hon. Mrs. Tatton Willoughby. owner 
of the Abbey, with her legal adviser, and representatives of the 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society and the Commissioners of 
Works. The boundaries of the land to be included in the 
gift were also practically settle.l. Whitby Abbey stands 0:1 a 
cliff 200 ft. high, an 1 it is iiopeJ tint prompt steps will be 
taken to ensure the safety of the more exposed portions of the 
ruins. The beuitiful western doorway suffered irreparable 
damage by shell-fire during the bombardment by a German 
cruiser in 191.4. 

Turners at Agnew's. 

At the exhibition of water-colours arranged by Messrs. Agnew 
in aid of ihe Artists' General Benevolent Fund, there were 
thirty-six examples of the work of Joseph Mallord William 
Turner. These included, besides some of his finest later work, 
the drawing made in 1796, when Turner was twenty-one, of 
Bishop Islip's Chapel. In this picture Turner sportively 
inscribed on a tombstone in the foreground the date of his own 
birth. " Lucerne by Moonlight " (1843), showing Turner at 
his "truest and mightiest," as Ruskin phrased it, was also 
exhibited, as well as that masterpiece of architectural land- 
scape, "Edinburgh from Calton Hill," and several drawings 
done for Scott when Turner visited Abbotsford. 

Housing Committees. 

Local authorities are being asked to appoint special housing 
committees, each to consist of nine members, five to be chosen 
by the authority from its own members, two to represent 
employers, and two the workers in the building industry. 
Three categories are suggested of buildings to be constructed : 
Low (to be delayed or prohibited) Billiard halls and saloons, 
cinemas, music-halls and theatres, dancing-halls, licensed 
premises, clubs, premises for other recreations, etc. Inter- 
mediate (not immediately necessary) Speculative, office, or 
other buildings : multiple shops ; large retail stores and ware- 
houses; some factories and mills ; churches, chapels, or places 
of public assembly. High (public importance) Industrial 
buildings in private ownership, which cannot be prohibited 
without most serious consideration. Why are not architects 
included on the committees ? 

Our Closed Museums and Galleries. 

Lord Sudeley h is eirned the public thanks bv calling atten- 
tion in the House of Lords to the considerable waste of money 
now incurred on museums, galleries, and similar institutions, 
owing to the neglect to use them to their fullest extent. The 
Earl of Crawford, replying on behalf of the Government, held 
out the hope that the British Museum would be entirely 
vacated by Government staffs within a few months. The 
National Gallery, he said, was now empty of Government 
officials ; but there were large structural alterations in pro- 
gress, and he would be agreeably surprised if the entire building 
was reopened to the public within the next twelve months. 
The Tate Gallery was also being redecorated, and he did not 
think that more than half of the gallery would be open by the 
summer. The Victoria and Albert Museum, it was hoped, 
would be entirely reopened by May or June next. He thought 
the respective authorities were full}' alive to their responsi- 
bilities, and were most anxious to promote the educational 
aspect of their work. The present would be an unfortunate 
moment to appoint a committee of inquiry with a reference so 
wide and censorious as that proposed. Lord Sudeley therefore 
withdrew his motion to promote an inquiry. 

New Frescoes for the Royal Exchange. 

"The British Naval Attack on Zeebrugge," by Mr. W. L. 
Wyllie, R.A., and "Women's Work in the War," by Miss L. 
Kemp- Welch, are the titles of the new frescoes to be placed 
in the Royal Exchange. They are respectively given by the 
Eagle, Star, and British Dominions Insurance Company and 
the Empress Club. 

Sale of Antique Furniture. 

The fine collection of antique furniture at Denham Place, 
Uxbridge, is to come under the hammer on 10 May. It includes 
chairs of the William and Mary and Queen Anne periods, 
a pair of Adam carved and gilt console tables, and an elaborately 
carved Chippendale table. There are also a dozen high-backed 
chairs of the days of Charles II, old dower chests, old window- 
seats, and some Hepplewhite settees. 



Makes (YmiMit Waterproof. 

" Worry diminishes the strength for endurance" - MATTHEW ARNOLD. 

To the Architect or Engineer the greatest source of worry is doubt as to the suitability 
of the materials which will enter into the construction of his buildings. Eliminate 
that and tree rein can then be given to creative faculties, and the birth of design 
becomes a joy instead or a painful process haunted at every step by the fear of failure. 

It is impossible for Pudlo to tail to waterproof when our simple instructions are followed. 




Pudlo has been tested exhaustively hy the most eminent authorities and by 
many foreign (lovernments. It has heen exported to 59 foreign countries, 
and has invariably maintained its British character as the best waterproofer. 


When flat roofs are coated with inflammable coverings, Insurance Companies demand 
2 in. of gravel over the surface as a protection against tire. Pudloed concrete roots 
are fire and water-proof. 

Our Engineer will furnish specifications free of charge. 

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We are exhibiting at Stand 45 in Row "C." 


The Nurse Cavell Memorial. 

The memorial to Nurse Cavell, which was unveiled by 
Queen Alexandra on 17 March, occupies, in St. Martin's Place, 
Charing Cross, a site that is certainly "central," which is its 
chief merit in the eyes of the Westminster City Council, who 
offered it ; but the environment is rather heterogeneous, and 
would make a bad setting for any sort of monument. To sny 
that Sir George Frampton has not satisfactorily overcome a 
difficulty that is insuperable is merely to say that he has not 
done what it is impossible to do ; but the chances are that 
the architectural part of the memorial would have been less 
conspicuously at loggerheads with its surroundings if the 
sculptor had collaborated with an architect. 

The Royal Scottish Academy. 

In the ninety-second annual report of the Royal Scottish 
Academy, satisfaction is expressed at the interest awakened 
last year by the exhibition of the work of former presidents- 
This exhibition was particularly valuable as affording a fuller 
opportunity of tracing the course of the Scottish School for a 
period of more than forty years. The following office-bearers 
have been elected : Council J. Lawton Wingate, President; 
and W. S. MacGeorge, R. Gemmell Hutchison, Robert 
Alexander, }. Campbell Mitchell, Robert Gibb, and E. A. Wal- 
ton ; Win. I). McKay, secretary; G. Washington Browne, 
treasurer: James Paterson, librarian; R. Gemmell Hutchison 
and J. Campbell Mitchell, auditors: W. S. MacGeorge and 
R. Gemmell Hutchison, curators of library ; Alexander Roche, 
James Paterson, Robert Hope, and John Duncan, visitors of 
Academy's School of Painting ; Bernie Rhind, John Kinross, 
E. A. Walton, Sir Robert Lorimer, and James Cadenhead, 
Art College representatives. Several of these gentlemen, it will 
be seen, are architects notably Sir Robert Lorimer and 
Mr. G. Washington Browne, the latter of whom won the 
competition for the St. Paul's Bridge. 

Preserving Stonehenge. 

Considerable progress has now been made in the work 
for the preservation of Stonehenge begun by the Office of Works 
about six months ago. Sir Cecil Chubb, of Salisbury, who 
presented Stonehenge to the nation in 1918, is reported to have 
stated that many of the stones are in danger of falling. " They 
are propped up," he said, "but the props look unsightly, and 
if they rot the stones would probably come down. Therefore 
the stones are being put upright and carefully cemented in. 
It takes a long time to expose the base of one of the stones, 
but all the mould taken out is being examined to see if it 
contains any implements or other relics." Nothing is being 
done to alter the formation of Stonehenge. 

Pictures for the War Museum. 

In the House of Commons Sir C. Kinloch-Cooke questioned 
the First Commissioner of Works as to the acquisition for the 
Imperial War Museum of what he described as " freak pictures," 
and asked whether these were suitable as permanent records 
of the war. Sir Alfred Mond's reply was inferentially of more 
value than he seemed to imagine. " Differences of opinion," 
he said, " would always arise as to the relative merits of works 
of art, but he must point out that the pictures to which 
exception was taken were acquired by the late Ministry of 
Information, and transferred to the museum when that Ministry 

came to an end." Such haphazard and irresponsible procedure 
would account for any degree of freakishness in the results. 
Whv in the world should the purchase of works of art be 
entrusted to a Ministry of Information ("tempy.") ? And after 
that to take cover behind the banality that " differences of 
opinion would always arise " ! They certainly will, even where 
the judges are fully competent, but how much more diverge a ly 
where the difference arises between judges and not judges! 

Real Architectural Causeries. 

An interesting phase of architectural education has been 
brought to our notice. Mr. Fernand Billerey meets s dents of 
architecture at 10 Grosvenor Road, Westminster, on the first 
and third Wednesdays of each month, to discuss their work 
and set subjects for practice. He will be pleased to admit 
those who may be introduced or who take a genuine interest in 
the study of architecture. There is no fee or charge of any 
kind : and the discussions should be of great value to those 
who avail themselves of Mr. Billerey 's very kind offer of help, 
especially those who feel that during the war they have fallen 
off somewhat from their previous knowledge and skill. 

Eton War Memorial. 

The council of the Eton War Memorial have decided that 
a capital sum shall be held in trust by the College, and the 
income from it applied by a permanent body of trustees partly 
nominated by the College and partly elected to charitable 
objects connected with Eton and suitable to the purposes of the 
fund as laid down in the constitution. The necessary grants 
have been made to meet the costs of the north window in the 
Vestry Chapel, the " Golden Book," and the new Choir Vestry 
to be built over the south-western entrance to College 
Chapel. Alterations in the Vestry Chapel include the filling of 
the north window with stained glass, replacement of the altar 
and the broken piscina, provision of a reredos, reopening of the 
south windows, and repairs to the cornice of the ceiling and to 
the stone floor. The names of the fallen will be inscribed on 
the walls. The decorations in Lower Chapel will include a 
scheme of panelling and tapestry and treatment of the organ 
loft. Two designs have been received for the out-of-doors 
monument, and the sites are still under consideration. 

A Lancashire Memorial Village. 

Westfield Memorial Village, at Lancaster, is intended to 
honour those who fell in the war. For disabled men of the 
Royal Lancaster Regiment and local men of both services who 
have suffered as the result of the war, a temporary hostel 
has been opened on the estate, and may in a sense be taken as 
the first practical fruits of the idea propounded and worked out 
by Mr. T. H. Mawson. The mansion " Westfield," the residence 
of the late Sir Thomas and Lady Storey, has been transformed 
into a hostel, in which thirty-five single men will be accom nodated 
pending the erection of the hostels proper on the estate, along 
with the houses for married men (now in course of erection), 
workshops, etc. It is proposed, subject to the approval and 
assistance of the Ministry of Labour, to establish a temporary 
workshop in what was the billiard-room of " Westfield," where 
light industries can be carried on pending the erection of 
workshops on the estate. Eventually the mansion will become 
the clubhouse for the residents on the estate, with recreation- 
rooms, etc. 




Street Views in Oxford City. 

By Harold Falkner. 


With Pencil Drawings by the Author. 

' He that hath Oxford seen, for beauty, grace, 
And healthiness, ne'er saw a better place. 

IF things were now as they were at the time of the poet 
Dan Rogers, clerk to Queen Elizabeth, there would be 
nothing more to be said about it. 

In the September 1919 issue of this KKVIKW ipage 72, 
"Oxford as It Might Be") Mr. Edward Warren has written 
about certain aspects of the more outlying portions of the city. 
With most of his observations I cordially agree, and some of 
them I propose to take as my text for the present article. 

If Gail Himself on earth abode u'oulii mukf. 
He Oxford, surf, u'ouldfur His duelling take?' 

Cornmarket, which forms the heading to last year's University 
Calendar, stand on the spot where this was drawn, and look at 
the scene as it is to-day. 

How nvmy of these buildings survive ? Is the picture more 
beautiful than the existing reality? Or have the vanished 
buildings been supplanted by better buildings? Has everything 
that has been altered been changed only as much as is necessary 
for the extension of trade and the requisite convenience of 


" We have in Oxford," Mr. Warren writes, " such an 
inestimable heritage of beauty and of historic interest, not 
only in its university and college buildings, its churches, and 
the houses of its ancient streets, but in the mediaeval nooks and 
courts, passages and byways of the town, as should surely 
secure the abiding affection and zealous care of all Oxonians." 

Yes, " should " ; but does it ? 

Oxford is as famous for its architectural zeal as for its 
learning. Did not William Morris start there his movement 
for the regeneration of English craftsmanship, and Kuskin 
preach there of the beauties of mediaeval architecture and arts ? 
Yes; but did not the city allow the railway company to pull 
down two abbeys to make room for its hideous and ramshackle 
stations? How many of the "houses of its ancient streets" 
survive ? Let anyone take William Turner's drawing of the 


modern life ? Or have the architects and owners been trying to 
outvie one another in a craze for showiness and vulgarity ? 

Perhaps the answer is half-way betweeu the two alternatives. 
Here and there attempts have been made to preserve old things 
that are beautiful and are part of this great inheritance; but 
there is far too much that does not merit this exemption from 

In so far as this inheritance has disappeared, so much the 
more valuable does the remainder become, and so much the 
more zealously, in the interests of the town and University, 
should they be preserved. 

The old buildings of the town are but few. Some have been 
altered so much on the outside here with wanton recklessness, 
and there from a mistaken zeal for " restoration " that their 
age is only to be discovered by painstaking antiquarian research. 




What does this matter ? 
As a jewel depends on its 
on the town. Oxford is 
traditions, and those old 
sign, the 

real or 

Those that still remind us of the city's former glory 
be counted on the fingers of the hands : and yet soine 
are in danger ! 

The University will perhaps say, 
\Ve shall always have the colleges." 
setting, so do the colleges depend 
Oxford because of its history and 
buildings and streets are the outward and visible 
living witness, of that history and those traditions. 

Would the story of Latimer and Ridley seem more 
less if the Bocardo, the actual 
room in which they were im- 
prisoned, existed still '; And 
yet the Bocardo was destroyed 
little more than a hundred 
years ago. But even now, on 
the right-hand side of Corn- 
market, a building exists the 
windows of which looked 
down on that tremendous 
procession to the spot in front 
of Balliol. Is it preserved in 
the hands of a public trustee '; 
Does it appear as it did in 
1550? No; it is covered up 
with match - boarding and 
stucco, and sold to a grocer. 

But it may be asked, "Of 
what use is it to remind us 
of these sins ? \Ye know that 
in the 'sixties people did all 
sorts of horrible things from 
ignorance and a mistaken 
sense of value. Now we know 
better, and such things would 
be impossible." 

One cannot agree with 
this view. Perhaps a primi- 
tive sense of decency would 
stop short of pulling down 
abbeys; but secular buildings, 

can almost 
of these 


particularly if they have been allowed to get a little out of 
repair, are in just as much danger as ever they were of going 
down before the Juggernaut of " Improvement." 





Here is a case in point : A certain building scheme is (very 
rightly, so far as the back part is concerned) being promoted by 
the Corporation on the east side of St. Aldate's Street, involving 
the whole area between that street and Christ Church meadow, 
including " ultimately " the widening of St. Aldate's Street on 
the east side, where there are venerable buildings. To quote 
from the particulars, " none of these buildings need be main- 
tained." A desolating sentence indeed ! 





To revert again to Mr. Warren: "In a town," he says, 
" as in a public building or, indeed, in the private house of a 
self-respecting citizen- the approach from without is of supreme 
importance; and in an ancient city like Oxford, and one whose 
high repute and magnetic qualities, moral and material, probably 
attract, in relation to its size, more visitors ' an any other city 
in these Islands, the great public approach " (this was written 
of the railway approach, but it applies just as much to the 
approach by Folly Bridge and St. Auld's) " is of the utmost 

The proposal is to pull down the whole of the buildings on 
the east side to make this side perfectly straight from Folly 
Bridge to Christ Church. With the increase of motor traffic, 
there will ultimately be two important approaches to Oxford, 
one by Folly and the other by Magdalen Bridge. 

Magdalen is beautiful admittedly one of the most beautiful 
sights in the world : is it straining the point too much to say 
that the approach by Folly Bridge is almost more, beautiful ? 

It is impossible to represent the beauty of a curving street by 
drawings or photographs. The beauty depends on a sequence, 
and alters with ever}' step along the street. All this it is 
proposed to sweep away, and a wide straight street is to be 

It is not here suggested that the Corporation are wrong in 
acquiring this area and reforming it, or even wrong in widening 
the street so much as it might be widened by placing columns 
under the existing buildings where it is narrowest, and running 

the footpath within the columns ; but to destroy the best of 
these buildings and the whole aspect of the street would be 
nothing short of a crime. 

But it is useless to deplore the destruction of ancient 
buildings if one cannot provide equal or better traffic facilities 
another way. In passing, it is only fair to congratulate the 
city and citizens of Oxford on the great improvement in traffic 
conditions since the abolition of the tramways. It is admitted 
at once that the traffic in St. Auld's Street is bad, and that the 
number of accidents is far too high ; but to widen the street will 
hardly better matters, as it will increase the speed of the traffic, 
and at Carfax there will still be one of the most dangerous 
crossings in England. A much larger scheme is required to 
divert the whole of the through north and south traffic from 
St. Auld's and Carfax. The writer would put a ten-mile or 
even a five-mile limit on St. Auld's, and make a new road into 
Marlborough Road, a new bridge across the river past the 
gasworks, through Paradise Square, round the mill and castle 
into the road proposed by Mr. Warren between Park End 
Street and Hythe Bridge Street, where the north and south 
traffic will cross the east and west and so past Gloucester Green 
into Beaumont Street, or by Walton Street and Little Claren- 
don Street widened into the Woodstock and Banbury Roads. 
The scheme involves the filling-in and diverting of part of the 
canal, and perhaps embanking the river by Jubilee Terrace. 

This is a big scheme : Oxford is a great city. Road Boards 
and Traffic Commissions would be glad to be rid of the 



difficulties and dangers of Carfax, and Nicholas's fountain 
might be brought back to Carfax. St. Aldate's Street would 
be preserved, 

The author would propose a further development road from 
the Filey and Cowley Roads through Mesopotamia and South 
Park Road, and into the Northern Road, so as to divert traffic 
going east and west and east and north. This second scheme 
would be the more difficult because of the Hooding of 
foundations in Mesopotamia ; but Oxford is on the main road 
from London to the West Midlands and Wales, and greater 
things have been done on the railways for the accommodation 
of less important traffic. 

Brief notes on the drawings are appended. The prospect 
from St. Aldate's Street, looking towards Carfax, is one of 
the many distant views of Oxford, which is fortunate in 
having few suburbs on this side. Hence the advantage 



of approaching by road (see page 1101. Uishop King's 
Palace (page uS) is one of the most interesting buildings in 
Oxford. Having been continuously whitewashed, the stone- 
work is in perfect condition, in fine contrast to the state of 
most of the colleges, which having been allowed to decay by 
exposure of soft stone to atmospheric effects, and therefore 
constantly repaired and refaced, can in hardly any instance be 
said to have the original stones. The ceilings of this building 
are some of the most beautiful in the country, and bear the hall- 
mark of Hishop King's arms. 

The old house on the south side of the High Street is a 
building of the seventeenth century and one of the most perfect 
examples of the carpenter's art of the time (compare Sir Peter 
Paul Pindar's house in the Victoria and Albert Museum). 

The value of these buildings is not only in their beauty and 
the distinctive charm they give to the city, but in their sequence. 
Here are buildings of the eighteenth, seventeenth, and sixteenth 
centuries, while in the churches and colleges the fifteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, and in the castles the thirteenth and 
twelfth centuries, are represented. To say that Merton was 
founded in 1200 and that some of it is the original building may 
convey very little meaning, but when one sees the intermediate 
steps it is realized that Oxford has a record of continuous 
importance, for it has played, for seven centuries, a great 
part in shaping the history, "moral and material," of this 
country and the intellectual world. 

Current Architecture : 

Marylebone Town Hall 
T. Edwin Cooper, F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 


ARYLEHONE TOWN HALL, of which the Princess 
I yj_ Royal laid the foundation stone a month before the 
outbreik of the Great War, is situated in the Maryle- 
bone Road, nearly facing the Great Central Hotel. The 
work of building was continued during the war, the premises 
being required by the Government. On completion the 
building was occupied by the Ministry of Pensions, who have 
now relinquished it, the hall 
being formally dedicated by 
Prince Albert to the purpose 
for which it was designer.. 
That purpose, as will be seen 
from the accompanying illus- 
trations and inferred from the 
following description, it ad- 
mirably fulfils. Interior views 
to be given in a future issue 
will confirm the favourable 
impression madeby the exterior 
views accompanying these 
notes, and by the plans shown 
0:1 page 122. 

Town Halls, it is true, 
show but little diversity of 
type, whether in plan or 
elevation. Accepted ideas and 
established precedents control 
the design to an extent that 
would embarrass an architect 
having less strength of indi- 
viduality than the author of 
the present work, who, while 
conforming to the popular 
conception of what a town hall 
should look like, has never- 
theless invested his scheir.e 
with that indefinable quality 
which, for want of a morf; ex- 
pressive word, is called charac- 
ter. Similarly with the plan- 
ning, although the requirements 
or " accommodation" are dead- 
ly familiar, and the means of 

meeting them are in gre .it measure prescribed, it is always 
possible to find scope for ingenuity of arrangement ; and a 
careful reading of the accompanying plans will, we think, reveal 
happy variations and readjustments peculiar to the present case. 

Mr. Edwin Cooper's design for the new Town Hall can 
be easily read in the fine completed building seen from the 
main thoroughfare of Marylebone. A straightforward oblong 
plan is embodied in a broad stone structure having two short 
and two long facades, in which the predominantly horizontal 
lines are well contrasted with the graceful upward-springing 
campanile outlined above them. Each facade is marked by 
pylons 37 ft. from the extremities, which with their fluted 
Corinthian columns break forward from the chief plane of the 
building and form a definite composition against it. On the 


main facade, fronting the Marylebone Road, the space between 
the pylons is filled with a portico supported by coupled 
columns, across the lintel of which runs the main cornice, 
which here carries a balustraded blocking course surmounted 
by six urns. The urns are freely and richly designed, and 
stand in couples vertically over the columns, completing the 
conception of the portico. The main cornice is the major 

horizontal note of the design. 
It breaks forward with the 
pylons, and flings its shadow 
round the entire building. It 
is surmounted by an attic 

A flight of steps the width 
of the portico leads up to the 
main entrance. The portico 
consists of three bays between 
the coupled columns, and the 
centre bay contains an elabor- 
ate and enriched doorway 
which is designed in conjunc- 
tion with the window above it, 
the two being connected by 
means of a grille which sur- 
mounts the hood of the door- 
way and forms at the same 
time a balcony motif for the 

The architect has every- 
where made use of ironwork 
as a natural foil to stone. On 
the angles of the main front a 
dwarf cast-iron grille runs along 
the top of the cornice, stopping 
against the pylons. The angles 
are otherwise kept low in 
architectural tone in order to 
emphasize the monumental 
character of the portico. On 
the side elevation between the 
pylons a refinement is given 
by the slight recessing of 
the wall surface in three 
panels, each panel containing two pairs of windows. 

Entering the building by the main doorway under the 
portico, the visitor will notice with interest the decorative 
treatment of the (compulsory) fire-resisting glazing in the wide 
swing-doors. Across the threshold a lobby, having columns 
and trophies bearing the Marylebone monogram, leads to the 
vestibule, which is traversed by the ground-floor corridor. 

The vestibule is walled in Roman stone, and contains the 
main staircase leading upwards in a single broad flight of ten 
steps placed axially. At the tenth step a landing divides the 
ascent into two flights, which return on each side of the centre 
flight and reach the main corridor of the first floor. From a 
centre point on the main corridor the visitor has behind him 
the double doors of the reception-room, and in front of him a 


. f 












Jo oLJo o o oo o 







broad pavement leading between two balustrades towards t he- 
Council Chamber. Moving across this pavement, he will rind 
above him a small dome pierced at the top and revealing 
a medallion secretly lighte.l. Passing from under it. he emerges 
into the brightly lit foyer or Council Lobby, extending left and 
right and giving various valu.ible exits and entrances. This 
foyer gives a tine impression of spice and airiness : it is tre.ite 1 
in Roman stone, and his in addition to the skylights a tall 
French win lo.v opening to the tlj,>r level. The whole effect is 
a good illustration of the interest and diversity that can be 
created in an interior by the logical carrying out of a straight- 
forward plan. 

Entering ilie Council Chamber, the visitor passes from 
smooth and glancing marble to the brown warmth of wooden 
surfaces. Figured walnut has been chosen for the walls, and 
the rich panels are enlivened by carved limewood trophies. 
At the end of the hall a gallery is provided with a panelled 
front supporte 1 on square woo.len piers, the lintel over which 
is marked by a finely tinted band. 

The furniture is a feature of the Council Chamber. It has 
been designed by the architect to harmoni/e with the tone 
of the room, and includes seats, desks, and general fittings. 
The Mayor's seat carries a handsome carved canopy. The 
chamber is lit from above by means of three large lights in the 
form of gla/ed grilles, domical in shape, supported above square 
openings. Flat moulded soffits surround the openings, in which 
ventilation apertures have been contrived, and the whole is 
surrounded by a broad cove rising from the cornice. The use 
of artistic metal work in the three domical lights is most 
successful, and the whole ceiling illuminates and completes the 
design of the room. 

The reception-room looks out through the portico on the 
principal front. It is lit down to the floor level by three large 
well-proportioned windows, and the long oblong of the room 
is crowned by a plasterwork ceiling showing an interesting 
motif of three ovals delicately but strongly enriched and having 
medallions interspaced. The walls, like those of the Council 
Chamber, are heavily moulded in panels of figured and quartered 

The Mayor's Parlour is a bright, comfortable room, finely 
panelled, and enriched with a carefully detailed classical fire- 
place. In the south block a single large apartment on tbe 
ground floor, running nearly the length of the building, is 

designed as a show room. It is lit by a row of tall windows, 
and has double doors at each end. Under this another room 
is provided in the lower floor, which will be fitted with screens 
and divided into offices for the Food and Pensions Committees. 
There is ample accommodation for the municipal officers and staff. 
The rooms are quietly but finely detailed, and the design of the 
fireplaces forms a focus to the general treatment. The walls have 
been tastefully colour-washed. 

The main contractors were Messrs. John Greenwood, Ltd., 
who have successfully complete 1 the building under the super- 
vision of Mr. (i. C. Hooper, clerk of works. 

Mention must be made of the fine craftsmanship throughout 
the building shown by the firms who undertook to embody the 
architect's ideas in the various decorations and fittings. The 
metal work was wholly carried out by Mr. \Y. Smith of 
Balcombe Street, the stone-carving by Mr. Joseph Whitehexl, 
the wood-carving by Mr. (ieorge Haughton of Worcester, the 
plasterwork modelling by Messrs. !. l)e Jong \' Co. Ltd. 
All this decorative work is strong, sincere, and lintish in 
execution, and adds to the dignity and quality of the build- 
ing. The fittings and furniture are no less admirable. 
Messrs. \Vhitehead cY. Sons carried out the marblework, 
Messrs. John 1'. White Ox Sons of Bedford undertook tin- 
whole of the furniture, and the Panpan Company supplied 
the enamel work. H. 1>. 

Other i ontractors include Keinlorced concrete construction by Messrs 
IS rail ford \ C/> of London; electric wiring bv Messrs. Hi^ni'is & Griffiths of 
Lnndon ; door furniture bv Messrs James ( iibbons ol Wolverhampton ; tiles by 
Messrs. Malkin of Hurslem : sanitarv ware by Messrs. Ktnanuel A: Co. of 
London; lifts bv Messrs Smith X Stevens of Northampton: hratins and 
\entilatitif,' by Messrs. |as. Cormack \ Sons of Glasgow, under the supervision ol 
Mr Mum ford ISailev and clocks bv the Magnetic Time Company ol London. 


I2 4 




I2 5 


The Plantin-Moretus Museum. 

A s 



a museum, the Musee Plantin-Moretus at Antwerp is 
unique. It is a sixteenth-century printing office, com- 
pletely equipped with the primitive appliances of the 
or fifth generation of craftsmen in that honourable 
For the art of printing from movable types was no 
after the siege of Mentz, in 1462, when the workmen 
practising it there were dispersed : and Christophe Plantm. 
who was born at Tours in 1514, and apprenticed to the king's 
printer at Caen, 
settled at Antwerp 
before 1555, which 
is the date of his 
first piece of print- 
ing, and died there 
in 15^9. He appears 
to haveoccupied this 
building seven years 
earlier than the date 
of his death. 

By 1 5X9 printing 
had become a recog- 
nize 1 business, and 
the equipment of the 
Plantin office is no 
doubt typical of a 
hundred others of its 
period. Its tools 
and utensils, which 
stand in position as 
if the workmen had 
but left them so on 
knocking off work 
last night, were no 
doubt familiar and 
enough in the days 
of the redoubtable 
Christophe, who. 
being one of the 
most notable print- 
ers of his day, was 
dubbed, in the 
pleasant manner of 
the time, " Archi- 
typographus," even 
as, in the eighteenth 
century, a notable 
London printer, 
William Bowyer, 
was called " Archi- 

tectus Verborum." Plantin printed so well that a too literal 
interpretation was given to the compliment that he did it with 
silver types. Some day in the distant future, it may in like 
manner be a legend that William Morris's "Golden Type" 
was really faced with the noble metal ; which nowadays, indeed, 
is hardly more costly than the lead, tin, and antimony of 
which types are really made. 

In the Plantin Museum there is the letter foundry for which 
provision had to be made in nearly all sixteenth-century printing 
offices. At that period there were dealings in types and 

matrices, but typefounding as yet had not become a separate 
trade. Nor has the practice of combining printing and type- 
founding died out completely even yet. The Clarendon Pres-, 
at Oxford unites those functions, and has matrices that are 
probably as old as those preserved in the Plantin Museum. 
The foundry at the Plantin occupies two rooms or, rather, 
of the rooms was used for casting, and the other for 


storing the types. These rooms are 


the upper 
the house. 

floor of 
" In the 




casting-room is still 
to be seen a large 
brick furnace co- 
vered with an earth- 
enware slab. To the 
ht of this 




smaller furnace, sur- 
mounted by the 
metal - pot, which 
even yet contains 
some of the old 
type-alloy. On the 
walls hang tongs, 
ladles, knives, and 
moulds. In a box 
are preserved small 
parcels of pattern- 
types for setting the 
moulds by. In an- 
other box are a 1 irge 
number of punches 
and moulds of all 
sizes. A bench ex- 
tends along one side 
of the room, doubt- 
less for the use of 
the dressers or rub- 
bers. In all these 
points we recognize 
that even in Plantin's 
day the general ap- 
pointments of a 
letter foundry dif- 
fered very little from 
those of the modern 
foundry before the 
introduction of 
machinery" (Talbot 
Baines Reed : " The 
Old English Letter 
Foundries," p. 106). 

Plantin's office was, at the time of starting it, one of the largest 
in Europe, and the work done there Bibles in Hebrew, Latin, 
and Dutch, and editions of the classics (Latin and Greek) was 
famous for its accuracy and finish. The most notable example 
of it is the Biblia Polyglotta, in eight volumes (1568-73). 

He was succeeded in the business in 1618 by his son-in-law, 
John Moretus, under whom it continued to flourish until 1641. 
From the middle of the seventeenth century until the year 
1800, the office was mainly or exclusively occupied in printing 
prayer-books and other liturgical works ; but the royal privilege 



under which this was done having been abolished in the latter 
year, the office was closed, but was at work again for a little 
while in 1867. In 1876 it was purchased by the city authorities, 
who paid 1,200,000 francs for it, and it was thrown open as a 
public museum in 1877. 

Entering by the staircase seen on the right-hand side of 
the facade in Mr. Hanslip Fletcher's drawing of the courtyard, 
one comes at once even more intimately into the atmosphere of 
the sixteenth century. A street frontage, no matter how old, 
partakes somewhat of the modernity of its surroundings. From 
an ancient interior, kept pure from anachronisms, the modern 
world is quite shut out ; and inside the Plantin there is nothing 
extraneous, no sort of disturbing element to interfere with the 
pleasant illusion that one has really, as by some species 
of enchantment, much more subtle than that which sent 
back Mark Twain's Yankee to the Court of King Arthur, 

other noted artists, were much employed on engravings for 
the finely printed productions of the Plantin Press. Some 
copies by him of the Italian masters are in the museum for 
example, Raphael's portrait of Leo X. 

Plantin's room (page 129) has hangings of gilded leather, and 
the furniture and fittings are decidedly quaint, not the least 
interesting object being the high-hung candelabrum, with its 
many lights and large grease-trays. The sixe and importance 
of the proof-reading room are not surprising when one reflects 
that it accommodated some of the greatest scholars of Plantin's 
day ; for naturally proof-reading had not as yet become a 
regular profession, and a printer of Plantin's eminence would be 
willingly assisted by the most eminent scholars within hail. 
He would certainly do his best to make them comfortable at 
their work of assisting him to maintain the accuracy for which 
his press was and is renowned. 


got back into the middle of the sixteenth century. In Twain's 
case, it will be remembered, the retrogression was the result of 
"an argument conducted with a crowbar." At the Plantin, 
the process is as gentle as the operation of Mr. Wells's time- 
machine, and is much less complex. You simply step across 
the threshold to find yourself in the presence of Christophe's 
goods and chattels and family portraits. A treacherous, or at 
least an unauthorized act on the part of his workmen came 
near robbing us of the potentiality of a museum. In 1562, 
while Plantin was absent in Paris, they printed an heretical 
pamphlet, and consequently his movables were seized and sold ; 
but he recovered much of their value. 

Some of the portraits were painted by Rubens, and there 
are two by Bosschaert, commonly called Willebords, who shows 
us Balthasar Moretus on his death-bed. Rubens, and several 

One half of the so-called composing-room (page 128) is 
occupied by presses, which, being noisy in operation, must have 
tended to the discomposure of the type-setters, who work best 
in quietude. The press in use appears to be that invented 
by William Janszoon Blaeuw (1571-1638), who in early life 
was a joiner, but who was afterwards employed by Tycho Brahe 
to make mathematical instruments. He became expert as an 
engraver of maps, and when he started printing them himself 
he soon effected great improvements in the mechanism of the 
wooden press then in use. Until Blaeuw's day, the press 
employed was not essentially different from that which the 
earliest printers adapted from the linen or napkin press, in which 
the necessary squeeze was got by forcing down the " platen " by- 
turning a screw. Blaeuw's chief improvement consisted in 
supplying a spring which brought back the platen instantly and 





Composing-room and Pressroom. 

Proof-reading Room. 


1 29 

automatically instead of slowly and laboriously. These improved 
wooden presses were in use everywhere until, in 1814, Charles, 
third Earl Stanhope, invented his wonderful iron press. More 
significant of the primitive state of printing in Plantin's day are 
the inking balls or dabbers seen suspended from one of the up- 
rights of each of the first two presses in the foreground. Such 
balls, made of sheepskin stuffed with wool and mounted on stocks 
made of well-seasoned elm turned hollow to conical form, and 
provided with a handle made of beech, were in common use 

was, for a time, the very first edition of the New Testament in 
English, translated by William Tyndale, and supposed to have 
been printed in Antwerp in 1526; though the honour at first 
claimed for Antwerp was afterwards referred to Worms. This 
book was shown at the Caxton Exhibition as " one of the rarest 
and most precious volumes in our language, being the first 
complete edition of the New Testament by William Tyndale." 
But Antwerp cannot be deprived of the honour of printing, at 
the hands of Martin Kaiser, in 1554, "The newe Testament, 

for inking the formes until, about 1815, a Weybridge compositor dvlygentlv corrected and compared with the Greke bv Wyllyani 
named B. Foster sub- Tindale." At Antwerp, 

stituted for the pelt a 

composition ot mo- 
lasses and glue, of 
which rollers were sub- 
sequently made. 

Of the bedroom 
(page 127), with its 
grandiose tester -bed, 
its heavy wall -hang- 
ings, and its domestic 
shrine, no photograph 
could give the vivid 
impression that Mr. 
Han slip Fletcher's 
sketch conveys. 

Belgium is closely 
associated historically 
with English printing. 
It was from Colard 
Mansion of Bruges that 
our first printer, Cax- 
ton, learnt the art. 
When, about 1474, 
Caxton employed him 
to print the " Histories 
of Troye," Mansion oc- 
cupied two rooms over 
the church porch of 
St.Donatus. "Troye'' 
was the first book 
printed in the English 
language, and during 
the Caxton celebration 
at South Kensington 
in 1877 it was shown 
on a velvet cushion in 
a glass case. This 
copy, which has the 
autograph of Elizabeth 
Grey, Cjueen of Ed- 
ward IV, cost a thou- 
sand guineas at the 
Roxburghe sale in 

1812, and was lent to the exhibition by Earl Spencer. It is 
credible that in the production of this book Caxton acquired 
the art of printing. 

Printing was introduced into Antwerp about 1476, and four 
years later Gerard Leeu printed there "The History of the 
Knight Jason," which is one of the earliest English books 
printed abroad. Another English book, "The Chronicles of 
the Realm of England," was printed there in 1493, and was 
followed by several other books printed in English before the 
close of the century which had seen the invention of printing 
from movable types. But Antwerp's chief glory in this kind 


too, was printed, in 
1 5 j 5. the fa m o us 
Miles Coverdale 
Bible, of which seven 
copies were shown at 
theCaxton Exhibition. 
" Let no Englishman 
or American," wrote 
Mr. Bullen i whose 
death a few weeks 
ago we all deplore!, 
"view this and the six 
following Bibles with- 
out tirst lifting his hat." 
Jacob van Meteren of 
Antwerp was the 
printer, and possibly 
the translator, by whom 
I overdale was em- 
ployed to see the work 
through the press. 
This reference helps to 
explain (as mentioned 
above) the importance 
of the proof-reading 
room shown in the 
drawing reproduced on 
page i-iN. This Van 
Meteren was the father 
of a son, Email uel, 
who passed most of 
his life in London as 
merchant and Belgian 
Consul. Jacob and his 
wife, persecuted for 
their religion, set sail 
for London ; but the 
ship that bore them 
was attacked, burnt, 
and sunk, and they 
perished in her. 
Otherwise they would 
have been warmly 

welcomed in England, which has always had a strong 
partiality for Belgian refugees, whose diligence and skill are 
proverbial. And they are additionally welcome because, as 
we have seen, their country, and especially Antwerp, afforded 
asylum to our early reformers who were concerned to produce 
the Bible in English and might not do it at home. And 
this is one of the strongest reasons why American and 
British tourists flock to the Plantin-Moretus Museum like 
pilgrims to a shrine. But, as our illustrations show, its 
purely architectural interest would be a sufficiently powerful 

3 o 



One of a pair, of an architectural character to correspond with a setting of decorative woodwork. The mascarons on the 
broken entablatures indicate French influence of the contemporary Louis Quatorze period. 

Decoration and Furniture 

from the Restoration to the Regency. 

V The Influence of the Architect on 

Furniture Design. 

By Ingleson C. Goodison. 

UNTIL the rise of the great cabinet-makers, towards 
the middle of the eighteenth century, records are all 
too meagre concerning those who designed and made 
the furniture adorning English houses of the Renaissance. 
Of woodworkers there are particulars in plenty first the 
carpenters whose industry combined both the constructional 
and decorative aspects of their medium the carpenter-archi- 
tects and craftsmen who fashioned 
the structure of walls, roofs, stories, 
and staircases, clad the ceilings and 
floors, and lined the apartments with 
"estrege'' boards imported by the 
Kasterling merchants of the Steelyard, 
or with home-grown wainscot sup- 
plementing these considerable labours 
with the execution of rude and profuse, 
but vigorous, carving and inlay, and 
the fabrication of beds, buffets, tables, 
chests, and seats. 

By the time of Elizabeth these 
labours had grown too multifarious 
to be mastered by the members of a 
single guild, and accordingly those 
who claimed especial skill in wrought 
and decorative woodwork and furniture 
separated themselves, and obtained 
incorporation by Royal Charter into 
a guild of " Joiners." While oak was 
the dominant wood in vogue furniture 
continued to be made by joiners, and 
was put together in the simple and 
sturdy manner characteristic of archi- 
tectural woodwork, with mortise-and- 
tenon joints, reinforced with oak pegs, 
the legs being strongly braced with 
stretchers, and the whole construction 
more remarkable for strength and 
rigidity than for portability. Court 

and livery cupboards, long cumbersome tables, vast bedsteads 
with their ponderous testers, were hardly to be described 
at this period as articles of " mobiliary art." " Our fathers," 
writes Evelyn, " had Cupboards of Ancient Ufeful Plate, whole 
Chefts of Damafk for the Table, and ftore of fine Holland 
Sheets (white as the driven fnow) and fragrant of Kofe and 
Lavender for the Bed ; and the fturdy Oaken Bedftead, 
and Furniture of the Houfe lafted one whole Century, 
the Shovel Board, and other long Tables, both in Hall and 
Parlour were as fixed as the Freehold ; nothing was moveable 
fave Joynt-Stools, the Black Jacks, Silver Tankards, and 


Bowls " the designs for this sturdy furniture emanating 
from the pattern-books of the architects Jacques Androuet 
ilu Cerceau, H agues Sambin, Vredeman de Yries, and Wendel 
Dietterlin. \Ve heir little of the architect in England at this 
period John Shutc, "painter and architect," if>5.j, being 
perh'ips the lirst to whom the title is applied : nor has it yet 
been determined to what extent John Thorpe, Robert Stickelles, 

and the Smithsons were responsible 
for the design of the buildings which 
they portrayed. That "cabinet- 
makers," as distinct from joiners, 
existed at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century we know from 
tlie fact that Henry of Navarre sent 
craftsmen into the then Flemish pro- 
vinces of Holland to study the process 
of carving and veneering cabinets in 
ebony, installing them on their return 
in the artistic workshops of the 
Louvre under the appellation of 
iiiciiuiticm en chcnc, which is the 
origin of the name of "ehenistes" 
given to-day in France to makers of 
tine furniture of every kind. It is 
to Henry IV of France, "inspired 
with the noble and fitting ambition 
of protecting art at his own Court," 
who rilled the galleries of the Louvre 
with highly skilled workmen of every 
European nationality and granted 
toleration to the followers of the 
reformed religion in the Edict of 
Nantes, that we owe much of the 
perfection of the arts relating to deco- 
ration and furniture in this country. 

It is doubtful whether Inigo Jones 
exercised any direct influence upon the 
design of furniture, though the late 

Mr. J. Hungerford Pollen was of opinion that certain pieces at 
Forde Abbey were of his design ; we do know, however, that in 
Jem le Pautre, Jean Berain, and Daniel Marot the influence of 
architects upon furniture can be traced, as well as that propitious 
practice the hereditary prosecution of the same, or an allied, 
craft for all three were the sons of architects, and designed 
much of the finest decoration and furniture of their period. 
Religious intolerance drove Marot to settle in Holland, where 
he became associated with the Prince of Orange (subsequently 

* Andri Saglio, " French Furniture." 



William III of England), being appointed archi- 
tect to the Prince in 1686, and having, it is stated, 
much to do with the decoration and furnishing of 
Hampton Court Palace under Wren during the reign 
of William III and Mary. Marot is reported to have 
been in England from 1688 to 1702, but between 
1689 and 1698 was associated with Jacobus Roman us 
in the decoration and equipment of the house or castle 
of Ue Voorst, in Guelderland. 

In the Windsor Castle accounts of 1686-88 is 
an item relating to an " Ovall Wainscott Table 
6 feet 6 inches long and 4 feet 6 inches broad with a 
Turned Frame (the Table madetofould) " evidently 
a "gate-leg" table -made by the joiner William 
Cleere, who also executed the " Right Wainscott 
framed in a Perket (Parquet) Floore in y 1 ' Oueenes 
Closet " at the same building, and the panelling in 
the former Council Chamber now the Governor's 
drawing-room at the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, under 
the superintendence of Sir Christopher Wren. Under 
Wren in 1689-91 the joiners Henry Hobb and 
Alexander Forst made picture-frames and shelves, 
and the cabinet-maker Gerrit Johnson made and 
fixed the mirror overmantels, with carvings by 
Grinling Gibbons, at Kensington Palace, illustrated 
in THE ARCHITECTURAL REVIEW of February 1920. 
Gerrit Johnson was working for Wren at Whitehall 
in 1694, and in the following year received payment 
for the black set of furniture a mirror, table, and 
stands for John Hervey, first Karl of Bristol, to 
which reference is made in his most interesting and 
informative diary. 

That it was customary for tables and bookcases 
to be made by the joiners who prepared the wainscot 
panelling of Wren's period is abundantly demon- 
strated in contemporary accounts. Cornelius Austin, 
who was employed on new panel work at Eton, 
and at King's College Chapel, Cambridge, i:i 1662-5, 
and contracted in the folio A ing year for woodwork 
at Pembroke College Chapel, made the "classes" for 
books at King's College in 1680, and ten years later 
the bookcases in Trinity College Library, from 
Wren's drawing of 1686, which were subsequently 
provided with pierced carved-oak doors and embel- 
lished with limewood carvings by Gibbons. Samuel 
Pepys's beautiful oak bookcases of an architectural 
character, bequeathed later to Magdalen College, 
Oxford, were made by Sympson in 1666, the design 
being repeated in examples at Dyrham and at Cuckfield 
Park. As early as 1665 the name of George Ethrington 
appears as a marquetry cabinet-maker, and in accounts 
of 1684-86 Jasper Bream receives payment for 
"inlaying y' Stepp under her Highness y" Dutchess 
of York's Bedd " at Windsor Castle, " done with 
sev" coloured Woods in resemblance to Flowers, 
Leaves, &c. and for Inlaying y" Step at y" Foot of y e 
said Bedd done with Walnutt. . . ." Exquisite inlaid 
work in the form of parquetry, in oak, cedar, and 
walnut, was carried out on panelling, floors, 
chimneypieces, and furniture at this period, and many 
stately houses and fine churches contain capital 
examples of the fortunate association of the architects 
Wren, Pratt, May, Talman, and Vanbrugh with 
contemporary joiners, wood-carvers, and cabinet- 

An oak bookcase, one of a pair, typifying the influence of the architect upon 
furniture at the period of Sir Christopher Wren and his compeers, appears as 
the frontispiece to this article. The upper portion consists of a pair of glazed 


V. & A. M. 


From a house in Bristol. Now in Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Detail of Caned Kamp to Cupboard. 

May 1920. 

Plate III. 

In the Admiralty, Whitehall 

Plate IV. 


One of a number, some of which are independent pistes of furniture, standing jrce of the panelling. 

May 1920. 



Sir William Chambers, Architect. 

doors, which are divided into panes by means of moulded bars, in 
the manner characteristic of the sash windows of the period : 
the gla/ed doors are flanked by fluted pilasters of the Corinthian 
order, with carved capitals supporting a broken entablature 
consisting of an architrave, frieze, and modillion cornice, 
various moulded members of the architrave and cornice being 
carved with running enrichments. Attached to the frieze and 
clasping the architrave and bedmould of the cornice are carved 
cartouches of limewood, bearing respectively male and female 
masks of exquisite Louis Quatorze character admirably designed 
and placed, and beautifully executed. The pilasters are borne 
upon a pedestal or surbase having a moulded plinth and cap- 
ping, the fronts being ornamented with moulded and bevelled 
panels margined with inlay ; between the pedestals are the 
folding-doors of a lower cupboard, and to avoid loss of space 
the pedestal-fronts and the pilasters themselves are hinged to 
afford access to tall and narrow side-cupboards. 

The design and workmanship are of the highest excellence, 
and illustrate the admirable manner in which the prevailing 
French styles were simplified to suit English homes and pre- 
dilections. Thousands of Dutch and French immigrant crafts- 
men, of the greatest aptitude and enthusiasm, flocked at this 
period to the hospitable shores of England, and under the 
tutelage of Wren and his contemporaries produced work of the 
highest artistic excellence sobered a little, perhaps, by our 

less facile intellectual attainments transmuted, one would like 
to think, in the purr crucible of Wren's mind into metal still 
more fine. It was thus with the wood-carvings of (iibbons, 
the metalwork of Tijoii, and English versions of the marquetry 
of Andre Charles Honllc ! 

A wall-cupboard or buffet of carved pine (c. 1700) intended 
for accommodating and displaying articles of silver-plate, deco- 
rative china, cut-glassware, or pewter, is illustrated in the 
accompanying photograph on page 1,52. The cupboard is 
formed like a niche, with a semi-hemispherical head, which 
is carved with a cartouche, bearing the arms of Hicks, in relief. 
Below the impost moulding, which bears a central amorino 
head, are three tiers of shaped and beaded shelves supported 
by pierced and carved brackets ; the cupboard is flanked by 
narrow moulded and fielded upright panels, and above the 
niche-head is a double spandrel-shaped panel enriched with 
carving ; at the base is a stilted arch, pierced and carved with 
intertwined acanthus scrolls. This cupboard was removed 
from a house in Bristol, and is now in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, South Kensington. 

The photograph shown on Plate III illustrates a very 
fine wall-cupboard of mahogany, removed from the older 
portion of the Admiralty building in Whitehall to a modern 
extension of the offices. The old building was erected in 
1722-24 from the designs of Thomas Archer, and contains 



many features of artistic and historic interest, particularly 
a splendid Board Room on the first floor, finely panelled in 
oak and embellished with a remarkable garniture de cheminee 
of carved wood, transferred from an earlier building, reproducing 
with astonishing fidelity trophies of maritime significance. 
The cupboard which we are enabled to present in the accom- 
panying photograph is carved in like manner, the general 
design and detail being indicative of execution at a period 
(c. 1725-30) not far distant from the date assigned to the building. 
The architectural character of the design is very marked, the 
lower portion corresponding closely with the dado-panelling 
of the period, including the skirting and surbase-moulding, with 
typical running enrichments of berried laurel, water-leaf, bead- 
and-reel, egg-and-tongue, key-pattern, guilloche, rose-and-ribbon, 
and dentil-band. The carved trophies of nautical instruments, 
and the side-ramps topped with dolphin-bends and adorned with 
shells, are remarkable for their finish and beauty of composi- 
tion and execution. Grinling Gibbons died in 1723, and for 
some ten years previously his busy chisel had been withdrawn 
from employment, but this Admiralty cupboard bears witness 
to the skill of a worthy successor to the " king of woodcarvers." 
Some of the very finest furniture in the world was designed 
by a contemporary architect of the early Georgian era William 
Kent (b. 1684, d. 1748) whose achievements have yet to 
receive their due meed of appreciation. 

A successful example of fixed furniture of the more popular 
Adam period is illustrated in the photograph (Plate IV) 
of a wall-cupboard in the Governor's House at the Royal 
Hospital, Chelsea. This is one of a number of similar cup- 
boards in the same group of buildings, certain of which have 
wooden panels in place of glazing in the upper portion probably 
the original arrangement and others which stand free of the 
wall as independent and movable pieces of furniture. Robert 
Adam filled at one time an official position at the Hospital 
and so, after 1792, did Samuel Wyatt and it is interesting 
to speculate upon which of these two architects designed, or 
influenced the maker, of these capital wall-cupboards. 

Robert Adam was a most prolific designer of furniture, 
and his influence upon contemporary cabinet-makers must have 
been considerable. 

Robert Adam's contemporary, Sir 'William Chambers, 
designed much admirable furniture in the classical style then 
current ; a sideboard-table of his design, from the demolished 
Carrington House in Whitehall, is illustrated on the preceding 
page. An unkind Fate has pursued the works of this great 
architect of the eighteenth century, for the ashes of many of 
his splendid buildings have been poured out, and the ornaments 
upon which he lavished such exemplary care have been alienated 
or totally destroved. 

(To be continued.) 


Interior of Pavilion at the Heal Homes ExhibMon held al O l ym pia in February , 93O . Exhibited by Messrs: Harrods, Ltd. 

Plate V. May 1920. 

Photo: Bro^i. 


Bernardo Buontalenti, Architect (. 1536, d. 1608). 

The Practical Exemplar of Architecture: 

The Casino, Marino, Ireland. 

CROWNING the summit of ;i gentle eminence in tin- 
centre of the demesne which formerly belonged to Lord 
Charlemont is the Casino at Marino, about a hundred 
yards off the main road from Dublin to Malahide, situated in the 
grounds of the O'Brien Institute in the parish of Clonturk or 
Drumcondra in the barony of Coolock. 

Without a doubt the Casino, or Temple as it is sometimes 
called, is the most perfect example of a Classic casino that exists 
in Ireland, and it has the distinction of being the largest ever 
erected in that country. The proportions are faultless, and in 
the design and execution of details and enrichment a remark- 
able amount of thought and care has been exercised. On 
plan it is built in the form of a Greek cross with detached 
columns at each angle, which affords great play of light and 
shade in the recessed portions, and at the four corners of the 
building are four lions which crouch on pedestals and are in 
single stones. The stonework has been well detailed and 
executed throughout, Portland stone being used almost exclu- 
sively, except for the external stone steps from the area to the 
ground level, which are of granite, and built on the cantilever 

The Casino at Marino, which cost 60,000, was built 
during the years 1765-1771 by Lord Charlemont, Sir William 
Chambers being the architect. 

Appended are extracts from the correspondence which passed 
between Lord Charlemont and Sir William Chambers: 


i. 1767, August 25, London. 

Extract. "The pattern head and also the pattern for the 
cove, cornice, etc. of the casino were sent off a good while ago : 
they must be found to hand before this and, I hope, safe." 

ii. 1767, September u, llernen Street. 

Extract. " I have sent here inclosed a border for the flat of 
the casino ceiling, but can send no design for the center till I 
have the dimensions of the flat exactly, and if I could have a 
tracing on this paper of the whole ceiling it would be still 


(1768, April 15, London.) 

Extract." With regard to the casino, the fri/e of the door 
will do best with oakleaves. I have sent a drawing for the 
plafond of the angular recesses and another for the pavement, 
composed of Portland and black marble, which I think will do 
better than dove. Some of the octagons are larger in my 
drawing than others, which I did to make them range with the 
bases of the column, but it will be better to make them all of a 
size. The top of the casino may be flat : it will make a pleasant 
gazebo. Lead will be best covering, at least seven pounds to 
the foot superficial ; copper is more expensive than lead, poisons 
all the rain water, and cannot easily be made tight. The false 
doors in the saloon may safely be left out : it will even be best 
to leave them out. Your lordship's letter and another received 

by the same post from Yerpyle make mention of some designs 
for parqueted floors for the casino. It is the tirst news I heard 
of them, but they require some thought : therefore I cannot 
send them by this letter. In a post or two they shall be sent 
with all possible expedition." 


i. 1761^, M iirc h 2ztid, London. 

Extract. --"I had forgot the alterations in the colour of the 
room of the casino and it appears to me a difficult point to 
settle. I fear all that blue will look dull and heavy if the 
hangings be light blue: I would recommend that the entabla- 
ture, doors, etc. of the room should be dead white touched 
with blue and that the cove parts of the ceiling be done with 
i/inglass and (lake-white to be of a more brilliant white than 
the entablature etc.. etc., the cotters of the cove a light blue, as 
also the ground of the galoss running round the flat part of 
the ceiling in oil, and that the Apollo's head and rays be 
flake-white and the tlat ground round it of as faint a blue in oil 
as it is possible to make. If your lordship should not approve 
of this method, the walls may be blue to the top of the entabla- 
ture: but it should be a light blue and rich with gold upon the 
ornaments : and with regard to all the ceiling parts, the white 
must predominate, but the coffers and ground of the galloss 
may be blue, the mouldings gilt and the Apollo's head and rays 
white and only heightened or streaked with gold, for if it be 
solid gold it will look clumsy." 


1771, faniuiry ;o, London. 

Extract. -" Herewith I send a drawing for the chimney 
vases of the casino, which I think will look well and leave room 
for the smoke to pass as the funnels may lie reduced to <) " 
diameter without making them too narrow. These vases will 
do best of lead or some sort of metal painted and sanded to look 
like stone. I am not sure of the measure, as I cannot find any 
figured copies of the casino. They must therefore be drawn 
correctly on board to the full si/e, then cut out, and put in the 
place, by which means you will be able to judge of the 
proportion. With regard to the statues, they are proportioned 
to the columns, and cannot be made less: their heads now 
reach to the underside of the attic cornice and they will when 
seen from below, particularly if the spectator be near, appear 
higher than the attic, but that will have no bad effect. How- 
ever the plinth on which they stand may be made a little lower, 
making its top to level with the plain part of the cove of the 
attic instead of levelling with the top of its mouldings as it doth 
in the design." 


1777, January 18, London. 

Extract. " Drawings and directions for painting the 
vestibule of the casino, 2 2s." 

, 3 6 


Plan of First Floor. 

Plan of Ground Floor. 


Measured and Drawn by Alfred E. Jones. 















Measured and Drawn by Alfred H.. Jones. 


The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 

AMONG the architectural subjects that are of perennially 
fascinating interest, the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem takes 
a foremost place. Books on it appear at fairly regular in- 
tervals. An addition to the long list was about due, and 
Mr. George Jeffery has met the demand quite handsomely. 
Architect as well as archaeologist, he brings to his task sounder 
qualifications than could be claimed for most of his precursors 
in this field, while his enthusiasm for the subject is no less 
than theirs. Beginning with Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, 
who flourished in the early part of the fourth century, and 
ending with Mr. A. C. Dickie, who in 1908 published an 
account of " Masonry Remains around the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre," Mr. Jeffery's bibliographical notes have been 
perforce confined to the more important writings on the sub- 
ject, but nevertheless the list is sufficiently long to indicate 
how formidable a task it must have been to sift the available 

In his opening chapters, the author deals with the history 
of the Sepulchre, summarizing the respective accounts given by 
Eusebius, by "the Bordeaux Pilgrim," and by the observant 
spectator but tedious narrator Silvia of Aquitainc, who visited 
the Holy City A.I). .580-385. "On approaching the Middle 
Ages," writes Mr. (effery, "that period when the founda- 
tions of our modern life and thought an 1 manners and 
customs were being laid, Jerusalem, instead of being a half- 
forgotten name, an inaccessible place but rarely visited by 
Prankish pilgrims at the peril of their lives, becomes the most 
interesting place on the world's surface to all Christendom, and 
to a great part of the Asiatic peoples as well. Chronicles, 
histories, travels, and (iovermnent records, charters, monumental 
documents of all kinds, crowd upon the view, and the difficulty 
of digesting so much historical detail is probably greater than in 
almost an} 1 similar branch of stud}-." This work he has 
performed with the dexterity that is possible to no one but a 
master of his subject. 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre built by the Crusaders 
our author regards as an especially interesting example of 
artistic development. " It exhibits most distinctly the dawn of a 
new era in architectural design, methods of construction, and 
perhaps, to some extent, in ritual arrangements . . . The 
splendid cathedrals which formed the centres of Christian life 
in mediaeval times owe all their beauty to the development of 
that particular style of art and architecture of which we see the 
first beginning in the church at Jerusalem." In it our author 
sees evidences of a scientific and an organic principle of design, 
the presence of ribbed vaulting being, in his view, sufficient to 
differentiate the construction from Romanesque work. Its 
early appearance has been preserved for us in certain extant 
drawings and carvings, some of which are among the many 
interesting illustrations in Mr. Jeffery's book. He gives also 
several plans and sketches of the church as it now stands. 
Alas ! it is, for the most part, a mere mushroom, for in 1808 fire 
left the main fabric in ruins, and the reconstructed building was 
reconsecrated in 1810; yet disputed ownership of it was the 
nominal cause of the Crimean War. 

Of the church in its present condition Mr. Jeffery gives a 
detailed description that is replete with architectural interest, 
and he describes with equal fullness the remains of the Augus- 

tinian Convent. Part III of the book is occupied with an 
account of the lesser shrines of the Holy City, and in Part IV 
are described the pilgrim shrines in Europe that were imitated 
from the Holy Sepulchre. Most remarkable of these is the 
group of buildings known as the New Jerusalem, at Bologna, 
including the Church of San Stefano. 

The book is a patient and conscientious study of a subject 
that is intensely interesting from several points of view- 
architectural, ecclesiological, and historical. 

" A llrief Description of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, and other 
Christian Churches in the Holy City." With same account of the 
Mediieval Copies of t lie Holy Sepulchre Surviving in Europe, tty George 
fefferv, F.S.A., Architect. Cambridge: At the University Press. 
I' rice ro.v. 6d. net. 

The Working Woman's House. 

A HANDSOME booklet issued by the Swarthmore Press gives 
the woman's view of housing under three heads. First, it deals 
with the internal arrangements: secondly, with the possibilities 
of co-operative house management ; and thirdly, with the 
environment of the home, and hence with the need for consider- 
ing the lay-out of towns and villages that is to say, the need 
for town planning, or, as some prefer to say, with town develop- 
ment. The faults of the existing working-class house are 
exposed in detail, beginning with the front door, which, when it 
does not open directly on to the living-room, leads into a long, 
narrow, dark, gloomy passage. The living-room is too small, is 
draughty and uncomfortable, and of course lacks the cupboards 
which give the housewife her only chance of tidiness. (But 
never look into those cupboards to see at what a cost tidiness is 
achieved !) In the scullery the sink is small and shallow, and 
is badly placed between door and window, or so near the back 
door that draughts play round the worker's feet as she stands 
to do her washing-up. Whether or not larders are under the 
stairs, they are seldom properly ventilated. Coal-cellars are 
too small, so that coal has to be bought in small quantities at a 
dear rate. " Small bedrooms, no cupboards, no shed for tools 
or perambulator, unnecessary steps, dark corners : these are a 
few of the results of the failure on the part of architects and 
builders in the past to consult women when planning the house 
a woman is to manage." A plentiful supply of hot water is 
demanded, and this requirement, it is contended, could best be 
met by a system of central heating. 

The front door should be of good appearance, giving an air 
of comfort and solidity to the house. It may be set back in a 
small porch. If a tap were fixed on one side of the doorstep, 
and a hose attached, the housewife could be saved much painful 
labour in step-cleaning. The front door should open into a 
square lobby or hall, which should be well lighted and should 
include a good cupboard with pegs. The stairs should be wide 
and shallow without winders, and with a half-landing. Working 
women, it is said, are unanimous in the demand for a parlour. 
And so forth : every detail of the house is discussed from the 
woman's point of view, and her case is stated very rationally 
and temperately. Two plans and a layout are included among 
the illustrations. 

" The Working Woman 's House." By A. D. Sanderson Furniss and 
Marion Phillips, D.Sc. (Econ.). Illustrated with Plans and Photographs. 
The Swarthmore Press, Ltd., 72 Oxford Street, London, W. I. Price 
\s. 6d. net. 



Scientific Costing for Housing. 

TENDERS for contracts are necessarily discrepant. If the 
contractors were equal the tenders would be equal ; but that 
cannot be. One contractor will have a competent staff, well 
organized ; another will reverse these conditions. One may 
chance to have an immense advantage over another in the 
matter of merchandise : or he will tender below cost with the 
object of getting a job that carries reputation with it. There 
are, in short, a round score of reasons why the top tender of a 
dozen may be twice as high as the lowest tender. Never- 
theless, there should be, as a rule, an almost negligible differ- 
ence between highest and lowest, and the chief re.ison why 
this is not so does not depend on exceptional circumstances 
or on the special opportunities enjoyed by a favoured few- 
It is because so much tendering is loose and unscientific. 
Much of it is little better than guesswork very good guess- 
work some of it. Intuition sharpened by experience makes 
it come, fairly often, wonderfully near the mark : but in too 
many instances tendering is pretty much in the nature of 
gambling, because the costing has been done unsystematically . 

Mr. T. Simmer Smith has carefully worked out a really 
scientific system of taking out quantities, and has illustrated 
its application to housing : though of course, since it is based 
on sound principles, the object on which it is exercised is quite 
a minor consideration. His system is exhibited in a series 
of sixteen tables, each of which is prefaced by practical obser- 
vations criticizing the common practice and expounding the 
method advocated. 

The Tudor Walters Committee strongly recommended a 
reformed system of taking out quantities, and Mi. Simmer 
Smith supplies one that could hardly be bettered. Mr. Smith 
shows, as his first table, a very useful list of the relative values 
of the various items which make up the cost of cottage building. 
These are not imaginary percentages, but are data carefully 
ascertained by analysing the actual cost of cottages erected at 
Mancot Royal, Oueensferry, to the designs and under the 
direction of Mr. Raymond Unwin, who supplies a short preface- 
to the book. About a dozen full-page illustrations of these 
cottages show as many different types. Other tables relate to 
materials, labour, plant, and working expenses, and there are 
schedules of costs, and tables analysing the ratios of value of 
cubical contents, as well as net and gross areas, cost of haulage, 
and all the essential data for scientific costing. There is also 
a timely chapter on contract agreements. The book should 
effect most valuable reforms in the vital matter of ascertaining 
costs, for, as we have seen, it substitutes scientific method f.r 
blindfold groping. 

" Concise Costing fur Housing.' Jia. it'll on an Improved System o/ 
Quantity Surveying, -with Explanatory Tables, Illustrations, ami Tragical 
Examples. By T. Sunnier Smith, M.O.S..I., E.I.Ar. With an Intro- 
duction by Raymond Unwin, I'. R.I. II. A. Technical Journals, Ltd., 
37-29 Tothill Street, Westminster, S.ll'.i. I'rice j.v. net. 

Glass Manufacture. 

THE eleven years that have elapsed between the first and 
second editions of " Glass Manufacture," by Dr. Walter Rosen- 
hain, have seen great progress in the industry, most of which 
progress was compressed into the four years 1915-1919, when, 
imports having ceased, British manufacturers made a supreme 
effort under the numerous disadvantages of war conditions. 
To bring the first edition up to date, therefore, the author 
has had largely to re-write the book. This could have been by- 
no means an easy task, when one takes into account the 

manufacturer's excusable reluctance to reveal his secret 
processes to rivals. Moreover, despite the researches of such 
geniuses as Fraunhofer, Faraday, Stokes, Hopkinson, Abbe, 
and Schott, there remains much to discover about glass in 
its scientific aspects. Its manufacture, on the other hand, 
has attained a high level towards perfection ; and in one respect 
the manufacturers overreached themselves on this account. 
They found that as their glass improved technically, its artistic 
capacities decrease;! : it was thought some old secret had been 
lost. For reasons which they were at a loss to understand, 
modern artists could not even approach the beautiful effects 
achieve 1 by the earlier workers. Kventually it turned out 
that the manufacturers were constructing so perfect a glass that 
the luminous iridescent qudities of the old glasses caused 
by irregularities and miern.d impurities such as stri;e and air 
hells (which by deflecting the light gi\e the glass a charm and 
lustre all its own.) had disappeared, accounting, it has been 
discovered, for great loss of "atmosphere" in the various colours 
of staine 1-glass windows. As a result the manufacturers 
pockete 1 their pride and artfully reproduced the defects of the 
old 1) idl v made glass. 

In his writing. Dr. Rosen hain combines two excellent 
qualities brevity and clarity. His description of processes, 
leading us step by step from raw maten d to spectacles, bottles, or 
shop windows, admits of no misapprehension, though the author 
claims to guide not the manufacturer of glass, but the user 
thereof, the water-drinker and the wine-bibber. Hottle. blovui. 
pressed, sheet, crown, coloured, and optical glasses, with the 
several processes by which they are produced, are all described 
in careful detail, and there are chapters 0:1 the physical and 
chemical properties of glass, the raw materials from which it is 
made, and the plant use 1 in the manufacture. A bibliography 
of glass manufacture is usefully appended. 

It has been already hinted that our author considers the 
science relating to glass is still in its infancy. He lays con- 
siderable stress on this point. II manufacturers, instead of 
working only by rule of thumb, would investigate the subject 
scientifically they would get results fir beyond their present 
horizon, and they would ensure corresponding commercial 
prosperity. " Ultimate success is boun 1 to reward properly 
conducted and persevering scientific research. Nowhere is this 
more urgently needed than in the whole field of glass manu- 
facture." If this a Ivice be taken we may look forward to a 
third edition of "dlass Manufacture'' well within the next 
eleven years an enlarged edition even more completely revised 
than the first has been. H. Die C. 

" (ilass Manufacture. />'] U'alter Rosenhain, />'../.. />.\i., /". A'..S'. 
St'cnnii Edition. Constable ^~ (ompanv, Ltd., m (Irangc Street, 
Leicester Square, (/'.(. 2. I'rice I2.>. M. net. 

Publications Received. 

" The Planning and Planting of Little Gardens." By George Dillistone. 
With notes anc! criticism by Lawrence Weaver. I'rice 6j. net. "Country 
Life,'' Ltd., 20 Tavistuck Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 2, and George 
New lies, Ltd., 8-n Southampton Street, Strand, W.C. 2. 

" Premier Congres de 1'Habitation." Du 9 an 12 Octobre, 1919. Compte 
Kendu des Travaux. Preface de M. Kdouard Hcrriatt, Ut'pute Maire de Lyon, 
Ancien Ministre. Imprimerie Noirclcrc et Fcnetrier, 3 Rue Stella, Lyon. 

"The Question of Thrace. Greeks, Bulgars, and Turks." By J. Saxon 
Mills, M.A., and Matthew (',. Chrussachi, B.A. Price 2.1. 6i/. net. Kdward 
Stanford, Ltd., 12, 13, and 14, Long Acre, W.C. 2. 

" Description of the Residence of Sir John Soane. R.A., Architect." Kdited 
by Arthur T. Bolton, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., Curator of Sir John Soane's Museum. 
Tenth edition. Price IJT. net. Sir John Soane's Museum, 13 Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, W.C. 

Any of these fublicjtioHs may be intfected in ike Hunting Koom. Technical 
Journal!. Ltd.. 27-29 Tothill Street. Wistmintltr. 

Chronicle and Comment, 

Salient Features of the Month's Architectural News. 

Architecture, Pedantry, and Punditry. 

In the March issue of the " London Mercury," Professor 
W. R. Lethaby has a very characteristic article entitled 
" Architecture as Form in Civilisation." Once again he 
expresses his impatience at the tyranny of words : " More 
and more we become the victims of our words and live 
frightened by names. Such a name is 'Architecture.' In its 
mystery vague and vain pretensions may be shrouded, in its 
shadows hide many minor superstitions about correct design, 
the right style, true proportions." He declares that "the 
mystification about 'architecture' has isolated the intimate 
building art from the common interest and understanding of 
ordinary men. To talk with a believing architect on his 
theories is almost as hopeless as to chaff a cardinal. All the 
ancient arts of men arc subject to the diseases of pedantry 
and punditry music, painting, poetry, all suffer from isola- 
tion." In all this there is much truth, though we fear that 
Professor Lethaby rides his hobby a little too hard. He is 
more sure of our suffrages, however, in the following genuinely 
eloquent passage: "Of words and arguments I am rather 
hopeless. One thing only I would ask of every benevolent 
reader: that he would take notice of what he sees in the 
streets. Do not pass by in a contemplative dream, or suppose 
that it is an architectural mystery, but look and judge. Is it 
tidy, is it civilized, are these fit works for a proud nation ? 
Look at Trafalgar Square and Picc.idillv Circus, and that 
terrible junction of Tottenham Court Road with Oxford Street. 
Play a new game of seeing London. We need a movement 
in the common mind, a longing to mitigate the vulgarity 
and anarchy of our streets, and the smothering of the frontages 
with vile advertisements, a desire to clean the streets better, 
to gather up littered paper, to renew blistered plaster. Some 
order must be brought into the arrangement of the untidy 
festoons of telegraph and telephone wires hitched up to chim- 
neys and parapets. These are the architectural works which 
are needed as a beginning and a basis." These may lie 
"architectural works," though we rather suspect that the term 
is used perversely or ironically. Otherwise it would seem that 
"architectural works" include scavenging. But our author 
would seem to mean that in architecture first-aid measures 
are urgently needed, and not that in it "All other joys go less 
To the great joy attending tidiness." 

Building Trades Exhibition. 

In opening, on 10 April, the Building Trades Exhibition at 
Olympia, Dr. Christopher Addison, the Minister of Health, said 
that the Ministry had approved the tenders for nearly a hundred 
thousand houses, and there was nothing to prevent their being 
built except scarcity of money, materials, and labour! Of 
money there was plenty in the country, if only local authorities 
could devise the means of attracting it. Labour problems 
would perhaps be settled as the result of a conference between 
the Ministry and representatives of the Trade Union Congress. 
The question of materials was also to some extent a labour 
question. "A house built of brick," said Dr. Addison, "was 
probably as cheap as any other, but the fact remained that they 
had not got the bricklayers, and therefore they were bound to 

look to other methods of building, apart entirely from whether 
they would like to have the houses all made from brick or not." 
At none of the long series of building exhibitions have the 
"alternative methods of building and substitute materials" 
had so great an opportunity or received such close attention. 
This exhibition, which closed on 24 April, is stated to have 
been the largest ever held. It comprised nearly 300 stands. 

Schools of Architecture. 

An interesting correspondence has taken place (in the 
" Architects' Journal ") on the priority in point of date of the 
various architectural schools in the kingdom. Professor Reilly 
had stated that the Liverpool University School of Architecture 
was founded in 1904, "the date of Professor Simpson's appoint- 
ment." Next week Mr. F. R. Yerbury, secretary of the 
Architectural Association, mentioned that architectural teaching 
began at the A. A. when the Association was first founded, in 
1847, while the full day-school course was started in 1901. 
This date was prior to that given by Professor Reilly, who, how- 
ever, explained that 1904 was a misprint or a clerical error for 
1894. This correspondence drew from Professor F. M. Simpson 
a most interesting series of notes. The Royal Academy, he 
reminds us, has for many years had professors of architecture : 
Charles Robert Cockerell, for instance, was elected professor 
there in 1859, but Professor Simpson believes that the archi- 
tectural studio was not opened until the late 'sixties of the last 
century, when R. Phene Spiers was appointed its first master. 
The first chair of architecture in England (outside the Academy) 
was founded at University College, London, in 1841, Thomas 
L. Donaldson, the first holder, retaining the chair until 1865. 
At King's College a chair, with the title "Art Construction," 
was established in 1840, and was held by William Hoskin until 
1861, and his successor was William Kerr, during whose tenure, 
in 1886, the title was changed to " Architecture and Building 
Construction." In 1913 the schools of architecture at Univer- 
sity and King's were conjoined, and work was started in 
December of that year in the new building at University 
provided by the generosity of Sir Herbert Bartlett. Professor 
Simpson confirms the statement that it was in 1894 (June) he 
was appointed to the Roscoe Chair of Art at University College, 
Liverpool, now the University of Liverpool ; the work of the 
chair having been previously confined to lectures on painting 
and art generally. Professor Simpson's predecessors in it were 
Sir Martin Con way and R. A. M. Stevenson, cousin of R. L. S. 
Professor Simpson resigned in 1903 to occupy the chair at 
University College, London, and in the same year the chair 
at the University of Manchester was started, with Professor 
Capper as the first holder. 

Building Grants. 

A new housing memorandum which has just been issued 
relates to grants to be made for the construction of houses by 
private enterprise. The grant is payable to the person at whose 
expense the house is built. No conditions are imposed as to 
the price of selling or letting, and houses of the bungalow type 
are admissible for grant.. No grant is payable towards the cost 
of adapting existing buildings, and the full grant is available 
only for buildings completed before 23 December 1920. 







Upon the shoulders of the Architect 
rests a burden of care &* responsibility 

Every little detail fashioned by the workman 
has its inception in the brain of the Architect 

who, in the creation of his design, must ever be 

mindful of practical requirements. 

To the builder he must furnish plans and 
detailed specifications. Any lack of clearness 
in these may involve additional cost and sometimes 


legal responsibility on the part of the Architect. 


Whilst satisfying his client's {esthetic require- 
ments he must provide a structure sound and 

weatherproof, and ensure that these ends are attained 

at a minimum of expense. 


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Shakespeare's "Old Shippe" Inn. 

Among the many landed properties that are coming into the 
market is the Grendon Underwood Estate, which extends to 
about 1,200 acres, comprises seven farms, two inns, and 
many cottages. It includes a large portion of the village 
of Grendon Underwood, which is credited with many historical 
and literary associations, most of them clustering round an 
Elizabethan dwelling known as Shakespeare Farm. This house 
was once a wayside hostelry the " Old Shippe" at which, 
tradition has it, Shakespeare used to stay when journeying to 
and from Stratford-on-Avon. The room which he is said 
to have occupied has been carefully preserved, including an 
interesting "elliptical" fireplace. Aubrey will have it that 
it was in Grendon that the poet found local colour for " Much 
Ado About Nothing" and "A Midsummer Night's Dream," 
and that Dogberry and Verges were caricatures of two con- 
stables who arrested him for sleeping in the porch of the 
ancient church. Alas that old Aubrey should be so much 
more interesting as a gossip than credible as a chronicler ! 

New Geological Survey. 

Consequent upon the transfer of the Geological Survey and 
the Museum of Practical Geology from the Hoard of Education 
to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research on 
i November 1919, the Lord President has appointed a 
Geological Survey Board for the management of the work of 
the survey and museum in accordance with a programme of 
work and estimate of expenditure to be approved by him from 
year to year. This Board is empowered to submit from time 
to time recommendations on developments that appear to be 
necessary as the work of the Geological Survey and Museum 
progresses. The Geological Survey Hoard as at present con- 
stituted consists of Professor W. S. Boulton, F.G.S., B.Sc., 
Professor J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., D.Sc., Dr. John Home, 
F.R.S., LL.D., Professor]. E. Marr, F.R.S., Sc.l)., Mr. Frank 
Merricks, C.B.E., A.R.S.M., and Mr. W. Russell, C.H., M.A., 
with Sir Francis G. Ogilvie, G.B., LL.D., as chairman. This 
is no doubt a highly competent Board, but we could have wished 
it to include an architect or two, because the geological survey 
involves certain interests on which architectural advice and 
assistance would be useful. 

Women Auctioneers. 

Women are to be admitted to membership of the Auctioneers' 
Institute. As the secretary said to an interviewer, there is 
much auctioneering work that might very well be done by 
women the sale, for example, of antiques, old china or silver, 
and the like. There is no reason to suppose, however, that 
women will crowd into the profession. They have not done so 
in the case of architecture. And so many professions are now 
open to them politics, divinity, law. 

Garden Cities for Holland. 

A Garden City Exhibition is being held this month in 
Amsterdam, and a number of British architects were invited 
to take part in it. During Easter week, several Dutch 
architects visited England with reference to the garden city 
movement, which is now arousing much interest in Holland. 
These international courtesies are not merely charming they 
are prolific in results, material and aesthetic. We have much 
to learn from Holland, and the Hollanders are pleased to say 
that they have something to learn from us. 

Five Points of Progress. 

At a conference, held on 24 March, of representatives of 
unions in the building trade, Dr. Addison put forward five 
definite proposals to accelerate housing, as follows : (i) In no 
circumstances, in connexion with any dispute arising, should 
there be a stoppage of house-building. (2) There should be 
everv week a statement of labour shortages, and the unions 
should, through the exchanges or in any other way, supply the 
want. (3) Augmentation of labour. A scheme whereby ex- 
Service men who are able and willing can be trained and 
employed. (4) Output. -Piecework should be generally adopted, 
subject to whatever safeguards were practicable against cutting 
rates and unemployment. (5) He would undertake to supply 
a form of contract, with prices of materials, labour, overhead 
charges, etc. They would have an agreed scheme for checking 
the costs on the understanding that whatever speeding up was 
possible should be done. The houses should be built as rapidly 
and as well as possible, and any saving in respect of cost should 
be divided into three equal parts and paid one-third to the 
local authorities, one-third to the management, and one-third 
to the workers. The conference received favourably the idea 
that a committee should be appointed to consider the sugges- 
tions and work out a practical scheme. Dr. Addison promised 
to put the scheme in writing before the Building Trades 

Negro Sculpture. 

A collection of negro sculptures in wood, exhibited at the 
Chelsea Book Club, has aroused much interest. It is thus 
described by a writer in the "Daily Graphic": "The speci- 
mens are all standing figures. The legs are short and bulky, 
the bodies are elongated and always erect, the arms are laid 
flat along the sides of the figures or slightly bent with the 
hands flat on the front of the figure, the hands are rarely 
grasping anything, and the neck is simply a round column of 
wood without any shaping of neck into shoulder. The head 
is always much exaggerated in size, and the facial region highly 
exaggerated ; in every case the face is the best finished part 
of the work." This monotony of sameness seems to warrant 
the " Daily Graphic " writer's verdict that the figures cannot 
be classed as art ; they simply imply "craftsmanship repeating 
a formula." 

Historical Meeting of the Institute. 

This chronicle would be lamentably incomplete if it omitted 
to note the special general meeting of the R.I.B.A.on 22 March, 
when it was unanimously resolved " to prepare and present for 
the consideration of the profession a more extended and com- 
prehensive scheme than that covered by the resolutions of 1914," 
and " to appoint a committee representative of the whole pro- 
fession to prepare such a scheme." On this committee, five 
separate bodies are to be represented namely, the Institute, 
the Allied Societies in the United Kingdom, the Architectural 
Association, the Society of Architects, the Official Architects' 
Association, the Assistants' Union, and architects not belonging 
to any professional organization. This is the first important 
step towards the unity necessary as a condition precedent to 
securing statutory Registration. A special commissioner ap- 
pointed by the " Architects' Journal " to visit representative 
architects in Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester, has 
found that in these great provincial centres architectural opinion 
is almost unanimously in favour of amalgamation and registration. 

Plate I. 

Designed by Dr. John Kearsley. 

June 1920. 

Passages from the Diary of 
Nicholas Pickford Esquire, 

Relating to his Travels in Pennsylvania in 17 6s. 

Edited for the First Time 
by Harold Donaldson Eberlein. 

Saturday, November .jth. 1'liilailelphiti. In Philadelphia at 
last after a wearisome and vexing Journey. Between Wilming- 
ton and Chester the Coach became mired, and most of us were 
obliged to alight and 
help to extricate it. 
On getting inside again 
an odious fat Woman 
with a peevish brat of 
a Boy he richly de- 
served a birching for 
his constant ill-beha- 
viour much annoyed 
me. The child wriggled 
and pushed against me 
perpetually, trod upon 
my toes, and rubbed 
his muddy Hoots upon 
my Bags till I was 
forced to chide him 
sharply, at which his 
mother upbraided me 
in the most unreason- 
able fashion. How in- 
considerate some folk 
are, how blind to the 
faults of their progeny ! 

Were I married, I'm 
persuaded I should so 
rear my Children that 
their actions would do 
credit to their bringing 
up. . . . However, 
now that I am com- 
fortably lodged at the 
" Pewter Platter," near 
the High Street, and 
have had a good Sup- 
per, I feel more com- 
posed in temper. 

This seems a proper 
and well - conducted 
Hostelry. I had scarce 
entered my Chamber 
and begun to remove 
the stains of travel 
than there came a- 
knocking at my door 

a buxom hussy with trim Ankles, bearing a steaming cup of 
herb tea to warm me after my cold ride. Directly afterward 
the Tapster's boy fetched me a glass of hot Toddy. The Land- 
lord is evidently thoughtful of the ease of his Guests a very 



goo:l thing. . . . (list as I finished my supper the bells of 
a Church hard by began to peal, and I then for the first time 
remembered it was (iuy Fawkes's Day. How good it is, after 

being so long from 
Home and the wonted 
music of Bells, to hear 
Rounds, Cj u e e n s, 
Clashes, and all the 
Changes rung in due 
order ! ... As I 
look from my window 
I see that some lads 
have kindled a fire in 
the inn yard and are 
burning a straw -stuffed 
Kffigy of (iuy Fawkes. 
Sunday, November 
lith. Set forth 
straightway after 
breakfast to see what 
I might of the City 
before the hour for 
morning service at 
Christ Church, the 
church whose bells I 
heard last night. 
Thanks to our mishap 
in the mire, darkness 
had already fallen 
yester evening when we 
drove into town, so 
that I could see but 
little of what we 

A fine crisp Morn- 
ing with bright sun- 
shine invited me to 
walk briskly. 
Most of the Houses 
bear an aspect of com- 
fort and elegance, and 
in their Architecture 
much resemble the 
newer houses of Lon- 
don. At this I marvel 

not, since they tell me 
that the people of 

Philadelphia, and, for the matter of that, of all the other towns 
in the Colonies as well, are so scrupulous to observe every 
London fashion that, whenever a new lot of dressed dolls is 
sent out and displayed by the Tailors and Mercers, both men 

I 4 2 


and women haste to inspect them and have 
their Clothing closely patterned thereafter. 

Before coming hither Mr. Blashford ac- 
quainted me that there are no Architects in the 
Colonies. When I see the goodness of the 
Buildings I confess myself amazed at this. The 
gentlemen, so it seems, have for the most part 
some considerable aptitude in architectural 
matters. Indeed, by many of them it is held 
an essential part of a Gentleman's education 
that he should know enough of Architecture to 
form thereof an intelligent judgement and, if it 
be necessary, to devise and direct such building 
as he may have occasion to engage in. 
However, when I call to mind the understand- 
ing interest in Architecture shewn by many of 
our Gentry at home, and when I also consider 
how all the people of the Colonies, so far as I have 
observed (hem, do hold straitly to the ways of the 
Mother Country, I can see why so much good 
Building hath been achieved. ... I am told 
that Philadelphia is indeed the Metropolis of the 
Colonies, and that, man for man, there is more 
substantial Wealth here than in any other place. 
This I can well believe. The Town hath an as- 
pect of universal prosperity. In my walk I passed 
by the State House, a \s-ell-mannered and ample 
edifice of brick, flanked by two smaller buildings, 
all of which, on making enquiries this afternoon, 
I found had been designed by the Honourable, 
Andrew Hamilton, one of His Majesty's judges 
and a member of the Governour's Council. 














I also passed the Pennsylvania Hospital [see page 146 Ed.] , 
a brick building of conspicuous architectural merit, which my 
informant of the afternoon says was planned by Samuel Rhodes, 
one of the most respected amongst the Quaker persuasion and 
sometime Mayor of the City. All his Proficiency in the noble 
Art of Architecture is derived, so it seems, from the apprentice- 
ship he served in the trade of Carpentry. It is the wont of 
these thrifty Quakers to apprentice every lad to some trade 
that he may always have some sure resource of skill within 
himself and be suffi- 
cient to earn a Com- 
petency against chance 
falling upon evil days. 
And thisnotwithstand- 
ing a man be of much 
substance and have 
every hope of leaving 
a good Estate unim- 
paired to his sons after 
him. Doubtless Master 
Rhodes hath improved 
his knowledge of well- 
building by polite 
Study and much Read- 
ing since the period of 
his tutelage in the 
carpenter's shop. The 
Hospital building 
sheweth not a little 
Reason and sound 
Judgement in its de- 

Turning my steps 
toward the Church I 
came thither in good 
season to see most of 
the considerable per- 
sons of the City ex- 
cepting, of course, the 
Quakers, who resort 
to their Meeting House 
arriving for the Ser- 
vice. There was great 
diversity of Equipage. 
His Excellence John 
Penn, the Deputy 
Governour of the Pro- 
vince, came in a great 
Coach drawn by four 
horses, his Arms bla- 
soned on the doors, 
Outriders, two Foot- 
men on the post board, 
and all the pomp and 
circumstance of a great 
personage. In similar 

blasoned Coaches came likewise the Whartons, Willings, 
Hamiltons, Chews, Peterses and other Grandees. Not a few 
drove up in Chairs, while many who lived nearby came afoot. 

All these particulars of Names I learned in the course of my 
afternoon conversation with the landlord of the " Pewter Platter," 
who is a very Storehouse of local information and discovers 
a convenient communicative Spirit. He tells me that Doctor 
John Kearsley drew the plans for Christ Church [see Plate I 
Ed.] . It is builded of brick, and is of about the bigness of 


St. James's, Piccadilly, but possessed of far more architectural 
elaboration. I must say it is exceeding well devised, and I 
marvel much that one not an Architect by profession should 
disclose such mastery of Style, such discreet Taste in Design, 
such knowledge of Mass and Detail and, withal, Skill in apply- 
ing the same. I suspect his plan for the newly added Spire 
was suggested by Saint Martin's-in-the-Fields, as was appa- 
rently the plan for the body of the Church ... A good 
medallion likeness of His late Majesty, King George II, hangs 

without above the east 
window. This I was 
glad to see, for I am 
told that many in the 
Province are not well 
affected toward the 
House of Hanover, in 
especial His present 
Majesty, that they 
were disposed to look 
\vith favour upon the 
Pretender, and that 
there be not a few who, 
to this day, upon the 
5 ist of January, do 
solemnly rise at their 
own dinner tables and 
propose a Toast to 
the Memory of King 
Charles the Martyr. 

The Church within 
is spacious and hath 
an air of great dignity, 
thanks to its just pro- 
portions. Before the 
Pulpit in a square Pue, 
above which hang the 
Royal Anns wrought 
in oak and blasoned 
in proper tinctures, 
sate the Deputy 
Governour. The 
Hatchments hanging 
on the gallery fronts, 
the gilded organ pipes 
the case is of admir- 
able fashion and the 
gay clothing of the 
Congregation com- 
bined to produce a 
pleasurable shew of 
colour. I cannot for- 
bear to record my 
amusement at the 
Music, which seemed 
to proceed chiefly from 
the person of theClerk, 

a small man svith a prodigious big voice. He appeared bent 
on drowning out the Organ. . . . 

Monday, November 7th. Whitby Hall. This day came 
Doctor Marston, who had previously been advised of my 
intended visit here ... to say that Colonel Coultas had 
desired him to fetch me to Whitby Hall, Kingsessing, about 
six miles from the City, and ride with him to hounds on 
the morrow. ... It was late when we started and, as 
night now falls early, it was quite dark when we arrived 




here, so that I have, as yet, no idea of the exterior appearance 
of the Hall. 

Colonel Coultas and the members of his Family are the very 
incarnation of hospitality, and after a bountiful and long Supper, 
and much entertaining Conversation, I am so weary that I shall 
not now attempt to describe what I have thus far seen. 

Tuesday, November 8th. Breakfasted at seven, and there- 
after rode with the Messieurs Samuel Morris, John Cadwalader, 
Thomas Mifflin, Charles Willing, Joseph Sims, Charles 
Wharton, and Doctor John Cox, who likewise were Colonel 
Coultas's guests, to the meet at Radnor. 

A stiff Chase. Kan our Fox, an uncommon nimble beast, 
to e.irth near Moore Hall in the Pickering Valley. The party 
stopped to pay their respects to the Master, Judge Moore, and 
his spouse, the Lady Williamina Wemyss, who accompanied her 
Brother when he fled hither after the " "45." Most gracious 
people both of them. The Judge brewed us a Bowl of Punch 
and brought us part of our way back to Whitby Hall. It is 
a kindly Custom these hospitable folk have to bear their 
parting Guests company for a space and fetch them on their 
ways with well-wishing. . . . Colonel Coultas, I perceive, 
amongst his many Accomplishments hath not omitted Archi- 
tecture. One of my fellow Huntsmen this day acquainted 
me that our Host, who is a man of many Interests and Affairs, 
has had a great Hand in the planning and building of St. James 
of Kingsessing, the Parish Church of this neighbourhood and 
hard by Whitby Hall, which, By the way, is so called from 
the Home of his Boyhood in Yorkshire. 

The Church is buiided of the warm grey stone plentifully to 
be found in the vicinity. It is a plain building, but commodiously 
planned, and withal betrays an exceeding pleasant nicety of 
line that approacheth elegance. The wide joints of Mortar 

in the rubble walls are galletted with little Spawls in the 
manner familiar to me in some of our building at home. I 
constantly note the way in which these Colonists cling with 
loving solicitude to even the minutest Traditions they have 
brought out with them. . . . Colonel Coultas is truly a 
man of parts and right fit to be busied in planting a Colony. 
Mr. Sims this day informed me that he hath a particular 
concern in the matter of good Roads and the development of all 
natural resources and especially the making of streams navigable. 
Anent this very thing the gentlemen have all been talking 
to-day, and of a waggish Humour perpetrated by our host just 
a year ago. I cannot do better than let a newspaper speak for 

In the Pennsylvania Gazette, November 1st of last year, 
Colonel Coultas caused to appear this Advertisement : 

This is to give Notice that James Coultas, Esq., one of the Commissioners 
for clearing Schuylkill, hath this Day made a Bett of One Hundred Pounds 
current Money of Pennsylvania, with Captain Oswald Eve, that he, the said 
James Coultas, will on the 3rd of November inst., at Ten o'clock in the 
morning, take up two Flat Loads of Hay from the lower Part of the Big Falls 
in the said river Schuylkill to the Ferry Wharff, adjoining the land of the 
Reveiend William Smith, in 30 minutes from the Time the Word is given to 
Pull away ... As the clearing and making Rivers navigable, must be of 
the greatest advantage of the Community in General, and raise the Value of 
iheir Lands and lower the Price of Firewood and Timber in the City, it is 
desired that all Persons who have the Good of their Country at Heart will give 
their Attendance, as it must be more laudable than to spend their Time and 
Money to go and see Horse racing, the Consequence of which is the Corruption 
of Youth, being an Encouragement to Vice and Idleness. 


This Advertisement achieved its purpose, the collecting of a 
great crowd of onlookers and much stirring up of interest. 
Two days afterward appeared the following : 

This is to acquaint the Public that, agreeable to the Notice given by me, 
I did, on the 3rd Day of this inst. take up the Great Falls on Schuylkill to the 


Kerry WhaifT two Flats, with 4323 Pounds of Hay, in 21 minutes. . . . 
I must now beg to be excused for my inserting in my former Advertisement a 
Belt laid of 100 Pounds with Captain Oswald Eve's, and before the perfor- 
mance acquainted all my Friends there was no wager laid, but the name 
of that drew there the Greater number of Spectators. 


Dinner a most appalling feast two tureens of green 
turtle soup, the shells baked, besides several dishes of stew, 
with boned turkey, roast ducks, veal and beef. After these 
were removed the table was filled with two kinds of jellies and 
various kinds of pudding, pies, and preserves ; and then almonds, 
raisins, nuts, apples, and oranges. Of course there was plenty 
to drink, too, but I must especially compliment Colonel 
Coultas's Madeira. I fear I shall have a bad night with the 

Wednesday, Xorcinlier ilth. Philadelphia. Strange to say, 
no Gout. In no fit state last night to finish my Diary entries, 
after dining at Whitby Hall and riding back through Hlockley 
to the city. 

The most impressive part of \Yhitbv Hall is its western end 
'see page 142 Kd.j , which Colonel Coultas added in 1754. 
The walls are of ashlar of native grev stone. The window and 
door trims of the Tower, on the north front, in the which 
Tower is the Staircase, are of red brick, in pleasing contrast 
to the colour of the stone. Hy a quaint conceit Colonel 
Coultas, because of some cherished sentiment, I believe, hath 
set in the Tower pediment a Roundel or bulls-eye light, once 
a porthole glass in one of his favourite Ships, the same I judge 
that bore hither some of the interior woodwork and the black 
Scottish marble to face the parlour fireplace. 

In general this portion of the Hall appears a local rendering 
of the contemporary Style at home, but in two particulars it 
sheweth Peculiarities not familiar to me in this manner 
first, the Penthouse on the west and north fronts between the 
ground floor and the store}' above: and, second, the composition 
of the South front with its stone-flagged and balustraded Pia/za 
and its broad, high-pitched Gable, containing in the peak an 





oval " eye " window that lighteth the cockloft. I am con- 
strained to remark the beauty of the woodwork within, 
especially in the Parlour enrichment tempered with dignified 

The Eastern part of the Hall, wherein are the dining-room, 
kitchens, and offices, is an older building with rubble walls. 
From the face of the hillside South of the house a Tunnel 
runneth into the cellars through which they bring in firewood 
and other supplies. Colonel Coultas informs me his Blacks, not 
long since, all became unaccountably tipsy, and so continued 
for several days, until he discovered they had stopped, 
in this same tunnel, a small cask of Rum destined for the 
Cellar, and had like to have drunk it dry by tippling at it 
each time they passed through. When he haled it forth 
it was near empty. 

The Woodwork within the House impressed me as good 
above the average, not so much wrought as in main' of our 
houses, but what Carving there was well executed and the 
whole of a pleasing dignified restraint. The Chimneypiece in 
the withdrawing-room is of passing good devisement both in 
design and carving. Altogether it is an agreeable room. The 
Staircase, too, is ample and pleasing in its lines. The 
Panelling of the Bed-chambers hath a pleasant simple Dignity, 
and the fireplaces are set about with Dutch Tiles whereon are 
subjects taken from Scripture. . . . During the afternoon 
I expressed to Colonel Coultas my marvel at the goodness of 
the Pennsylvania Hospital, the same I noted in my walk of 

Sunday morning. The master of Whitby knows Samuel Rhodes 
the designer, and esteems him as capable an Architect as any of 
the gentlemen in the Province. He told me also that in the 
hall of the Carpenters' Company, a Guild patterned after our 
Worshipful Company of Carpenters in London, there is a good 
library of architectural books wherefrom the Master Carpenters 
derive much help and are thus enabled to acquit themselves 
creditably in executing the oftentimes meagre Plans and rough 
Drawings furnished by their Patrons. Many of the gentlemen 
who design their own houses draw but indifferently, and some of 
their draughts need much interpretation, although not a few 
others do draw neatly enough and even well, and I learn that 
Colonel Washington, of Mount Vernon, in Virginia, makes his 
plans with such Precision and Accuracy that it is hard not to 
believe them the work of one who habitually practiseth the 
Profession of Architecture. This I have from those that have 
seen some of his Draughts. . . . The November weather 
here is very biting. Despite a blazing fire in my bedroom 1 
was glad before going to bed when a black wench bore in a 
warming-pan full of glowing coals and took the chill from my 

Colonel Coultas is ware of my interest in Architecture, and 
hath engaged to take me to Graeme Park, the house Sir William 
Keith built himself some years since at Horsham ; to Cliveden 
to see Judge Chew ; to Sunbury House at Croydon, Bucks, and 
to sundry other Seats. I shall hold him to fulfill his Promise 


Current Architecture : 

Marylebone Town Hall : Interior 
T. Edwin Cooper, F.R.I.B.A., Architect. 

WHAT are the principles that should govern the planning 
and plenishing of a town-hall interior? A town hall 
should be exemplary in convenience and decorum. 
It should provide the very best facilities for the smooth, 
orderly, and decent discharge of its functions: and. beyond 
this obligation of bald 
utility, there is the 
reasonable demand for 
appropriate expression 
or suggestion of the 
character, authority, 
dignity, principles of 
local self-government : 
of municipal freedom. 
pride, and power. If 
the borough be " royal 
and ancient," and hath 
a history and a sprink- 
ling of " worthies," the 
painter and the 
sculptor may find due 
scope, provided the 
burgesses have broad 
minds and bulging 

A right conception 
of the richness and 
fullness of civic life 
would produce a grand 
organ and a capacious 
concert-room. Enter- 
prising and enlightened 
corporations run to 
these extravagant 
lengths, which purists 
hold to be greatly in 
excess of the functions 
of a town hall. What 
the true requirements 
are, however, cannot be 
rigidly defined. They 
differ with each dis- 
trict, and the formid- 
able list of them that 
is always handed to the 
architect is exceptional 
if it does not contain 

some few very unusual conditions which will impose a more or 
less severe tax on his ingenuity. It is well that this exercise 
should be occasionally afforded him. An architect who is never 
"extended" is in danger of some day waking up to discover 
that his powers have atrophied, and that he is at a loss to 
meet conditions with which he is not thoroughly familiar. 
In that case he would sink into the feeble character of a 
mere copyist of himself or of others. Fear of this unhappy 
fate should never impel him to strive deliberately for mere 


originality, for self-conscious and violent attempts to achieve 
novelty invariably end in bizarrerie. That, however, is a vastly 
different matter from giving free rein to an earnest endeavour 
to improve on old methods or familiar arrangements: a desire 
for improvement being by no me.ins to be confounded with an 

itch for novelty, or with 
love of change simply 
for the sake of change. 
1 he planning and exe- 
cution of the interior 
of the Marylebone 
Town Hall are strong 
and individual ; but 
while they possess 
character and distinc- 
tion, they reveal no 
violent straining for 
new effects. On the 
contrary, they show 
due respect to accepted 
traditions, which, how- 
ever, they do not 
follow slavishly. The 
general effect of the 
interior design is that 
ol a boldness which 
is not aggressive, of 
strength without 
heaviness, of pleni- 
tude without lavish- 
ness, cjf dignity that 
never for a moment 
degenerates into pom- 
posity, of a gentle 
decorum that never 
becomes dull. 

It is to be hoped 
that in time the Mary- 
lebone Town Hall may 
be adorned with pic- 
tures and statuary. 
A borough comprising 
within its area Port- 
land Place, Regent's 
Park, Cavendish, Port- 
man, Manchester, and 

Fitzroy Squares, and 

the upper part of Regent Street, ought to pay this further regard 
to civic amenity. Certainly it has no lack of subjects for illus- 
tration. George Canning was born there in 1770. Byron was 
bapti/ed in its parish church. A good subject fora fresco would 
be Charles Dickens (who in 1839 went to live "in a handsome 
house facing the York Gate into Regent's Park ") entertaining 
his friends Macready, Stanfield, Landseer, Ainsworth, Talfourd, 
and Bulwer. Maclise sketched the house for Forster's Life of 
Dickens. Handel, sitting in the Marylebone Gardens once 































almost as famous as Vauxhall or Ranelagh listening to the 
performance of some of his own music by a band conducted by 
Dr. Arne, would make another interesting picture. Among the 
worthies of whom there should be busts or statues are Elizabeth 
Barrett (Mrs. Browning) ; Henry Hallam, who wrote his 
famous histories there ; Barry Cornwall : Sir Thomas Picton : 
Richard Cosway and two other Royal Academicians Sir 
Robert Smirke and H. \Y. Pickersgill ; Richard \Yilson the 
landscape painter; and many another celebrity who was in 
some way associated with Marylebone. 

There has been much more or less wild speculation as to the 
derivation of the name 
Marylebone. Some 
deem it to be a corrup- 
tion of St. Mary-le- 
Bourne, meaning St. 
Mary on the Brook, 
from the fact that a 
little chapel dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary 
stood on the banks of 
a small burn which runs 
down from the uplands 
of Hampstead. Another 
guess is that the name 
is possibly a corrup- 
tion of St. Mary-la- 

Two enturies ago 
Marylebone was but a 
village, separated from 
London by a broad 
expanse of green fields. 
which were the scene 
of many duels -notably 
that in which Lord 
Townshend had the 

misfortune to 


Lord Bellamont in the 


a pistol- 



The whole of the 
interior of the Mary- 
lebone Town Hall is 
noteworthy for its 
directness and efficiency 
for administration. The 
appointments bear evi- 
dence of careful thought 
and consideration - 
circulation for both 
public and staff, lifts, 
stairs, corridors, heat- 
ing, ventilation, and 

lighting, are problems which have all been dealt with very 

The council chamber is executed in walnut; the range of 
Corinthian pilasters and trophies is the principal feature of 
the treatment. The trophies were executed by Mr. Haughton 
of Worcester, and are symbolical very largely of the functions 
and scope of the borough. 

The mayor's chair in the council chamber (page 148) is also 
in walnut, very richly detailed, while the lines of its composition 
are well controlled and skilfully disposed. The canopy or 
sounding-board is very successfully treated, modestly reflecting 



the dignity of the office ; while the carvings above it.'flanking it, 
and in front of it, are interesting in subject as well as graceful 
in treatment, the blending of the shields and other heraldic 
devices with foliage, flower, and fruit being more congruous 
than this combination is usually made. 

The reception-room (page 150) on the first floor overlooking 
the Marylebone Ro id is planned in immediate conjunction with 
two committee-rooms, the chimneypieces of which, at either end 
of the suite, complete a highly satisfactory axial element. The 
whole is executed in walnut, with rich ceilings in fibrous plaster. 
The ante-room between the main stain: /so and the council 

chamber is a brightly 
lighted appro ;ch paved 
with marble. The walls 
are finished in Roman 
stone, and the ceiling is 
of fibrous plaster. The 
doors and the window 
openings are filled with 
a treatment of bron/e. 

The mayor s parlour 
i> t re ite 1 in the ( ieor- 
gi in m. inner. with 
simple and spontaneous 
ette 't, which is heiglit- 
ene 1 by t he panelling in 
white wooil and by the 
refined design of the 
c li im ney piece. The 
electric showroom on 
the ground floor one 
of the largest compart- 
ments in t he building 
is divided up by a simple 
1 )onc unit. \\ it h .is little 
interference with floor as possible. The 
ceiling, in fibrous 
plaster, shows well- 
disposed planes of beam 
and panel. 

The area occupied by 
the great public rooms, 
with the corridors on to 
which they open, and 
the double main stairs, 
are planned and treated 
in a virile and con- 
vincing way. 

The main contractors 
were Messrs. |. Green- 
wood, Ltd., of London, 
and Mr. G. C. Hooper 
was clerk of works. 

Other contracts include : The metalwork was wholly carried out by 
Mr. \V. Smith of Balcombe Street; stone-carving by Mr. Joseph Whiteheid; 
wood-carving by Mr. George Houghton of Worcester ; plastertvork modelling by 
Messrs. !'. De Jong & Co. Ltd., of London ; furniture by Messrs. John I'. White 
& Sons of Hedford ; marblework by Messrs. Whitehead and Sons of London ; 
enamelwork by the I'aripan Company; reinforced concrete construction by 
Messrs. Bradford & Co. of London ; electric wiring by Messrs. Higgins* Griffith* 
of London ; door furniture by Messrs. James Gibbons of Wolverhampton ; tiles 
by Messrs Malkin of Burslem ; sanitary ware by Messrs. Emanuel A Co. of 
London ; lifts by Messrs. Smith & Stevens of Northampton ; heating and 
ventilating by Messrs. Jas. Cormack & Sons of Glasgow, under the supervision of 
Mr. Mumford Bailey ; clocks by the Magneta Time Company of London : 
asphalt roofs by Messrs. Lawford & Co. of London ; and grates by the Well 
Fire Company of London. 

The Bear Garden Contract of 1606 and what 

it Implies. 

By W. J. Lawrence and Walter H. Godfrey, F.S.A. 

ON the score of inhumanity it is not for the present age 
to point the finger of scorn at the past. The pride 
of that superior being, man, has had a fall. Certain 
recent never-to-be-forgotten events reveal that behind the screen 
of civilization still lurks the elemental savage. It would be 
idle, therefore, for two unpretending archaeologists to moralize 
over the fact that for close on six hundred years, dating from 
the reign of the first Plantagenet, "the royal game of bulls and 
bears " was an abiding delight of the London populace, and for 
a considerable portion of that time enjoyed the sanction of 
royal authority. Our metier is simply to face the facts and deal 
with them as they are. 

Circumstances early conspired that "the royal game" 
should be relegated to the southern side of " the silver sliding 
Thames." From time immemorial western Southwark, with 
its many-hued lures, had been the playground of the London 
masses. But the transference of bull and bear baiting to this 
district was not so much determined by natural gravitation as 
by Richard II 's proclamation bidding the butchers of London 
purchase some ground "juxta domum Robert! dc Parys" for 
the dumping of offal, so that the city might be rid of a long- 
standing evil. Here was good feeding for heirs and mastitis 
going to waste, and horse sense soon suggested what in or 
about 1400 became an accomplished fact, that the better to 
utilize this refuse, bear-baiting should be set up in the manor 
and liberty of Paris Garden. As that long-persisting term 
" bear-garden " betokens, the game at first was a mere affair of 
the open, the bear being fastened to a stake within a palisaded 
enclosure round which the spectators stood. Hut later on, with 
the permanent removal of the game eastward to the Liberty of 
the Clink an event which took place about 1540 more sub- 
stantial accommodation came to be provided. In connexion 
with this transference one important fact must be borne in 
mind. It has been completely overlooked bv London topo- 
graphers, with the consequence that the history of bear-baiting 
has become in their hands a tangled skein. And yet one would 
have expected them to be fully cognizant of that curious con- 
servatism of our people whereby familiar terms are kept in use 
long after their real significance has disappeared. The}- might 
have recalled that when the Cockpit in Drurv Lane was trans- 
formed into a playhouse it was renamed the Phcenix, but 
people persisted in calling it the Cockpit. What they have 
utterly failed to grasp is that just as the bear-baiting place 
remained in popular view a bear-garden long after it had 
become an amphitheatre, so too it was commonly referred 
to as " Paris Garden " for close on a century after it had been 
removed from that locality. Taken literally, these references 
run counter to all the scientific evidence on the subject 
available, and particularly to the unanimous verdict of the old 
map-views ; a circumstance which should have convinced our 
topographers of the stupidity of literal-mindedness. 

The view now given of the Southwark Bankside from 
Agas's Map of London, representing the city as it was about 
1560, serves to show the degree of progress which had been 
made within a decade or so of the removal of bear-baiting from 
Paris Garden to the Clink. (Parenthetically it may be noted 
that the details presented are amply substantiated in the Map 
of London by Braun and Hogenbergius, based on a survey of 

c. 1554-1558, as well as in the map given in William Smith's 
MS. of the " Description of England," c. 1580.) In this we find 
two contiguous open circuses of no great elevation, the more 
westerly being inscribed "the bolle bayting," and the other 
" the Bearebayting." Each is situated in a field provided with 
a pool for washing the wounded animals, and bordered by 
numerous dog-kennels. Previously, it is to be noted, the bull- 
baiting had been held in the old bull-ring in High Street, 
Southwark. To judge by the illustrations, the accommodation 
for the spectators in both circuses was simply a roofed circular 
grand stand, or, in the language of the day, "a scaffold." 
Whether this impression is erroneous or some alteration took 
place within the succeeding twenty years, the fact remains that 
an account of the shocking accident at the Bear Garden on a 
Sunday in January 158^ conveys that, besides the ground stand, 
that particular circus had a gallery. Possibly the gallery was 
there from the beginning, as the whole is said to have been old, 
rotten, and underpropped. 

Viewing the inter-relationship of the early Bankside circuses 
and the first Shoreditch theatres, the action and reaction from 
a physical standpoint of the one upon the other, it is unfor- 
tunate we should have so few definite details as to the precise 
nature of the early circuses. So far, however, as it can be 
determined, it would appear that the first London theatre- 
builders owed nothing to the primitive amphitheatres beyond 
the openness and circular disposition of their houses, all the 
rest (and notably the three regulation galleries) being carried 
over from those earlier playing-places, the inn-yards. But if 
they took a hint, they soon paid it back with interest. There 
is some reason to believe that, on the rebuilding of the Bear 
Garden within six months of the shocking disaster, a more 
capacious scale was followed, and that the new baiting-place 
was based on the more stable lines of the North London play- 
houses. Architecture was at last rearing its head. With the 
opening of the improved Bear Garden, or at any rate within a 
lustrum later, bull-baiting was transferred there from the 
neighbouring circus, and thenceforward the two games were 
conjoined. Neither in Southwark nor elsewhere is any later 
trace of a separate bull-baiting amphitheatre to be found. One 
has only to glance at the section now reproduced from Norden's 
Map of London in 1593 to be convinced of the accuracy of these 
deductions. Here only one baiting-place is depicted, "The 
Bear howse," and it has little to distinguish it from "The play 




howse," otherwise the Rose Theatre, save that it has a stable 
attached and is a trifle the larger of the two. 

In December 1594 Philip Henslowe. if Diary lame, and his 
son-in-law, Kdward Alleyn, the celebrated actor, purchased 
the Bear Garden, and in 1604 consolidated their position by 
acquiring for a good round sum the Mastership of the Royal 
Game of Hulls and Hears, an office established by Henry VIII. 
whose holding rendered them immune from all competition or 
interference, and precluded the necessity of paying regular fees 
for the right to bait. Securely entrenched behind their patent, 
they proceeded to improve their property at their leisure, and 
in 1606 decided to rebuild most of the outhouses attache 1 to 
the preliminary gate-entrance to the Hear Garden. The 
contract for this reconstruction is preserved at Dnlwich College. 
and has been reproduced in Collier's "The Alleyn Papers." 
There is danger, however, that the importance of its implica- 
tions for future antiquaries may be obscured by the contention 
of that prime Henslowe authority, Mr. \V. \Y. Greg, who 
disdains to give more than a summary of the document in his 
" Henslowe Papers," maintaining that it has nothing really to 
do with the existing Hear Garden, and was merely a contract 
for the partial rebuilding of a private dwelling. To demonstrate 
the erroneousness of this view we purpose reproducing the 
essential parts of the contract and revealing its significance by 
scientifically deduced plans and an excursus. After the usual 
preliminaries the contract reads: 

. . . That the saide I'eter Streete, his executors administrators or assignes. 

before the thirde day of September next comynge after the date hereof, shall at' 

hisowne or their owne propei costesand charges, not only take and pull downe 

for and to the use of the saide I'hillipp Henslowe and Kdward Alleyn their 

executors or assignes, so much of the timber or carjienters worke ot the Ion-side 

of the messuage or tenemente called the IJeare garden, next the river of Thames 

in the parishe of St. Saviors aforesaide, as conteyneth in lengthe from outside 

to outside fiftye and sixe feete of assize, and in bridth from outside to outside 

sixeteene feet of assize ; but also in steade and place thereof, before the saide 

thirde day of September, att his or their like cost-s and charges, shall well 

sufficientlv, and workemanlike, make er erect sett up and fully tinishe one new 

frame for a house, to conteyne in length from outside to outside fyfiic and 

sixe feete of assize, and in bridth from outside to outside sixteen foote of 

assize, which frame shalbe made of good, new sufficient and soimde Tymber 

ofoke, to be fynished in all I hinges as hereunder is mentioned : that is to sav .- 

that the said frame shall conteyne in height two storeyes and a halfe, the two 

whole storyes of the same frame to be in height from flower to flower ten foote 

of assize a peece, and the halfe story to be in height fower foote of assize, and 

all the principal rafters of the same frame to be framed with crooked postes 

and bolted with iron belles thorough the rafters, which iron boltes are to be 

provided at the costes and charges of the saide I'eter Streete his executors or 

assignes. And also shall make in the same frame throughout two flowers 

with good and sufficient joystes, the same flowers to be boarded throughout 

with good and sounde deale boardes to be plained and closely laid and shott. 

All the principall longe upright postes of the saide frame to be nyne ynches 

broade and seaven ynches thicke : and shall make in the same frame three 

maine summers, that is to say in the uppermost story twoe summers, and in 

the lower storey one summer, every summer to be one foote square ; all the 

brest summers to be eight ynches broade and seaven ynches thick. The same 


frame to jetty over towardes the Thames one foote of assize. And also shall 
make on the south side of the saide frame a sufficient staire case, with staires 
anvement to leade up into the uppermost romes of the saide frame, with 
convenient dores out of the same stairecase into every of the romes adjoyninge 
thereunto, and in every rome of the same frame one sufficient dore ; and also 
by the same stair case shall make and frame one studdy. with a little rome 
over the same, which studdy is to jetty out from the same'frame fower foote of 
and to extend in length from the saide staire case unto the place where 
ie chimneyes are appointed to be sett, with a sufficient dore into either of the 
romes of the same studdy. And the nether story of the same frame shall 
seperate and divide into fower romes : that is to say. the first towardes the 
east to be for a tenemente. and to conteyne in length from wall to wall thirteene 
Mite ol assize ; the next rome to lie for a gate rome. and to conteyne in length 
ten foote of assize : the third rome twenty foote of assize, and the fowerth 
westward thirteene foote of assize. And the second story shall seperate into 
three mines, the tirst. over the- rome appoynted for a tenemente on the east end 
ot the said frame, to conteyne in length thirteene foote of assize, the midle rome 
thirty foote of assize, and the third rome westward thirteene foote likewise of 
assize. Anil the halle story above to lie divided into two romes. namely over 
the said tenement thirteene foote. to be sept-rated from the rest of the said 
tnune. and the residue to be open in one rome only. And out of the said frame 
towardes the Thames -hall make twoe (lores, and one fa ire paire of gates with 
twoe wirkettes proportionable. And also att either end of the lower 
ston of the same fiame shall make one clere story windowe [to| either 
ol the same Here stones, to IK- in height three foote of assize, and sixe 
loole in length, and the middle rome of the same frame, conteyninge twenty 
loote. lo have a Here story windowe throughout of the height of the saide 
former Here stones: and in the second story of the same frame shall make 
three splay windowes, every window to lie sixe foote betweene the posies ; and 
ill the samp second story shall make sea ven clere story windowes. every clere 
story to lie three foote wide a peece. with one- mullion in the midest of every 
clere st-n\ : and e\en of the same clere stones to be three foote and a halfe in 
depth. And over the foresaid gate shall make one greete square windowe, to 
I)-- m length ten foot ot assize and to jett> over from the said frame three foot 
of assi/e. standing'' upon twoe carved Salyres. the same windowe to be in 
w height acrordinge to the depth of the story, and the same windowe to be 
framed with two elides with mullions convenient : and over the same windowe 
one piramen with three piramides. the same frame lo have lower gable endes 
towaides the Thames, and upon the top of every gable end one piramide. and 
betweene every gable end I i be left three loote for the fallingc of the water, 
and in every gable end one clere story, and backward over the gate of the 
same frame towards the smith one gable end with a Here story therein, and 
under the same ganle end backward in the second story one Here story 
windowe. And also in that pat cell of the saide frame as is appoynted for a 
tenement shall make twoe paires of staires, one over an other by the place 
where the chimneys are appoynted to be sett. And thai he the said I'eter Streete, 
his executors administrators or assignes, shall before the saide thirdeday of Sep- 
tember next comynge after the date hereof fully hnishethe saide frame in and In- 
all t hinges as a Ion-said, and all other carpenters worke s|x,vilied in a platt maide 
of the said frame, subscribed by the saide Peter and by him delivered to the 
said 1'hillipp Henslowe and Kdward Alleyn. and in such comely and convenient 
manner and soite as by the same platt is figured, without fraude or covyn, and 
at his or lli- ir own charges shall fynd all navies to be used in and aboute the 
carpenters worke of the same frame. For and in consideration of which frame 
and worke to be made perfor.ned and fynished in forme aforesaide, the saide 
I'hillipp Hcnslowe and Mil ward Alleyn for them and either of them, their 
executors and administrators, doe eovenaunte and granule to and with the saide 
I'eter Streete, his executors and assignes. by theis presentes. that they the 
saide I'hillipp Henslowe and Kdward Alleyn or cither of them, their executors 
or assignes, shall and will well and truly paie or cause to be paide to the saide 
I'eter Streete. his executors or assignes. at the now dwellingc howsa of the said 
I'hillipp Henslowe in the parish of St. Saviors aforesaide, the some of threeskore 
and live powndes of lawful! mony of England in manner and forme followinge, 
that is to say : in hand at thcnscalinge hereof the some of t n powndes of 
law-lull mony of Kngland. the receipte w herof the saide I'eter Streete doth 
acknowledge by theis presentes : upon the delivery of the saide frame at the 
lieare garden aforesaid other ten powndes thereof, and when the same frame 
shalbc fully and wholly raised twenty powndes thereof, and upon the full 
fynishinge of the same frame in forme aforesaid twenty and five powndes 
residue, and in full paymenteof the saide some of threeskore and livepowndes. 
In witness whereof the saide parteis to theis present Indentures interchaunge- 
ably have s^tt their handes and scales. Yeoven the Hay and yeres first above 


Signum I'. S. 


Sealed and delivered in the presence of me 


Indorsed " Peter Streetes covenantes and bond for the building of the lieare 
garden. 1 ' 



Further endorsements upon the agreement show that various 
sums to the total amount of 50 los. 8d. had been paid to 
Street. The work was not completed until January 1607, but 
it included certain additions, some stables and sheds, a dormer, 
and a kitchen. 

was intended for no ordinary purpose, and we have here prima 
facie evidence, as the lawyers would say, that it formed a sort of 
gatehouse to the Bear Garden. That impression gains some 
confirmation from the use of the term " foreside," which 
obviously connotes a courtyard, and we are immediately struck 


The first thing that strikes us on reading over the foregoing 
specifications is the curiously composite nature of the structure, 
the great part of it being uninhabitable, since "the tenement," 
or living premises, was cut off from the rest. Clearly the whole 

by the fact that the two connective sides of the yard would 
answer remarkably well for the buildings housing the bulls and 
bears, some of which are referred to in the endorsements. 
Following this, a flood of light comes upon us as we recall an 



apposite passage in Lambard's " Peram- 
bulations of Kent " (1596) : 

" Those who go to Paris Garden, the 
Bell Savage, or Theater, to behold bear- 
baiting, interludes or fence-play, must not 
account of any pleasant spectacle, unless 
first they pay one penny at the gate, 
another at the entry of the scaffold, and 
a third for quiet standing." 

It is not too much to say that the 
plans which accompany this article render 
this statement for the first time perfectly 
comprehensible to the latter-da}- mind. 
It only remains for us to suggest for what 
particular purposes the various sections 
of the gatehouse were intended. To 
begin with, there is no room for doubt- 
ing that the little tenement to the cast 
was designed for the domestic uses of the 
bear-ward. Owing to the notorious stench 
which came from the Bear Garden, it 
was far from being a desirable residence, 
and few could be found to occupy it. \Ve 

next recall a fact known only to a few Elizabethan specialists, 
viz., that every early " public " playhouse had its adjacent and 
associated tap-house; and (apart from the interesting specula- 
tion as to whether the principle really originated there) we 
naturally look for evidence of the existence of something of the 
sort in connexion with the Bear Garden. People consumed a 
lot of eatables and drinkables at the play in those days, and it 
was quite common for attendants to carry wine and bottled ale 
into the theatre during the performance. To our mind, the 
greater portion of the gatehouse proper, with its ample, well-lit 
spaces, was devoted to the purposes of a tap-house. Possibly 
the unbearded ground floor was utilized as a store, and the 
second floor as a drinking-room. The external staircase leading 
up from the courtyard was surely designed for the convenience 
of topers coming from the Hear (iarden. Kven the presence of 
a "study" amidst such surroundings fails wholly to disturb 
us, cognisant as we are of the fact that the term was used in 
Elizabethan days in a very loose sense, now being applied to an 
attorney's sanctum and now to a counting-house. The study 
was simply Henslowe and Alleyn's office. It served not only 
for keeping the accounts of the Hear (iarden, but as the official 
habitat of the partners in their capacity of Master of the Royal 
Game of Hulls and Hears, in which they had sole authority to 
grant licences for baiting in the country. The entire structure, 
therefore, was at least tripartite in its utility. 

Something remains to be said on the technical side, par- 
ticularly in regard to the accompanying plans, for which 
Mr. Godfrey, besides participating in the work of general inter- 
pretation, assumes sole responsibility. It should not, of course, 
appear extraordinary, though it comes with a welcome surprise, 
that the specifications of buildings of the early Renaissance so 
completely bear out the conclusions gained by a study of the 
buildings of the period. It is a compliment to the architects of 
those days, who drafted their specifications with such care in 
phraseology still in use to-day, that we are enabled with ease to 
reconstruct vanished buildings of which we have no pictorial 
records. The specification of the gatehouse to the Bear 
Garden is curiously precise in its definition of every part and 
feature of the composite building, and in this it is superior to 
the specification of the Fortune Theatre, which, however, is 
richer in practical references to materials and building methods. 
After what has already been said little need be advanced in 

(iARDl'.N IN 1616. 

explanation of the plans or in comment 
on the characteristics of the building. 
The framework is of oak, and it will be 
noticed that one main cross-beam ("sum- 
mer ") is required to support the first floor, 
and two the second floor, the partitions 
bearing the weight of the rest. The 
staircase of the chief rooms projects to- 
wards the south, while the tenement has 
a pair of stairs of its own in the tradi- 
tional place beside the chimney. The 
exact position of the chimneys is alone 
problematical, but they are evidently on 
the south side, the same side as the main 
staircase. The gateway anil the project- 
ing window over, supported by carved 
posts (satyrs), and crowned with a pedi- 
ment (piramen), form the main feature. 
The position and size of the other win- 
dows are scrupulously detailed, and they 
are described as clere stories, or splay- 
windows, the former of which has been 
interpreted on the plans as Hush with the 

frame and the latter as bay windows or oriels. The position 
of these with the gables works out admirably with the charac- 
teristic grouping of the timber houses of the earl\ seventeenth 

A final word must now be said on the vital question as to 
how long this new gatehouse remained a characteristic of the 
Bear Garden buildings. In August 1615 Philip Henslowe and 
Jacob Meade, the then proprietors of the premises, entered into 
an agreement with Gilbert Katherens, carpenter, for the re- 
building of the amphitheatre on the model of the Swan Theatre 
The contract is extant, but it is too long to quote here in t'.\ti'n><<>. 
(It is most readily to be found in an appendix to G. P. Baker's 
"Development of Shakespeare as a Dramatist.") Suffice it to 
say that the new building was to be used partly as a play-house 
and partly as a baiting-place for bulls and bears, and was to 
have a removable stage. It was presently to be known as tin- 
Hope Theatre, the house where Ben (onson's " Bartholomew 
Fair" was first produced. The contract calls for the pulling 
down and rebuilding on the same site of "all that game place 
or house wherein beares and bulls have been heretofore usually 
bayted, and also one other house or stable wherein bulls and 
horses did usually stande," but it specifies no other alterations. 
Not a word is said about the housing of the bears. Clearly the 
courtyard remained much as before, and with it the gatehouse. 
There was still need for the bear-ward's tenement and the tap- 
house. Seeing that the Hope, in its capacity of bear-garden, 
lasted until Pepys's meridian, these facts give the contract of 
1606 an added importance. 

Traces of the old courtyard and tap-house still linger. They 
were first pointed out with remarkable perspicacity (remark- 
able because the evidence known to us was not known to him) 
by Sir Walter Besant in an article on "South London" in 
" The Pall Mall Magazine" for September i8y8. "In a little 
lane now called the Bear Garden," he writes, " there is a small 
square area which I take to be the survival of an open court in 
front of the circus : there is also a small tavern [called, 
according to the accompanying illustration, "The White 
Bear "J : the house itself is not ancient, but I believe that it 
stands on the site of an older tavern which provided beer and 
wine for the spectators of the bear-baiting." 

In that belief, having shown good reasons for the faith 
within us, we desire to express our acquiescence. 

The Threatened City Churches. 

IT is gratifying to notice how fierce a fight is being made for 
the preservation of the threatened City Churches. The 
report of the Commission appointed by the Bishop of 
London has been met everywhere with an intensity of opposi- 
tion that seems likely to prevail against the monstrous proposal 
to demolish nineteen venerable churches that are so many 
monuments of piety and social history, and of a peculiarly 
interesting phase of architecture and the allied arts. 

The nineteen churches against which the black mark has 
been put are as follows: All Hallows, Lombard Street, and All 
Hallows, London Wall * : St. Anne and St. Agnes with St. John 
Zachary, Gresham Street ; St. Alban, Wood Street : St. Botolph, 
Aldgate ; St. Botolph, Aldersgate * ; St. Clement, Eastcheap ; 
St. Dunstan-in-the-East, Tower Street ; St. Dunstan-in-the- 
West,* Fleet Street; St. Katherine Coleman,* Fenchurch 
Street; St. Magnus, London Bridge; St. Mary Aldermanbnry, 
corner of Love Lane; St. Mary-at-Hill, Eastcheap; St. Mary 
Woolnoth,* King William Street ; St. Michael Paternoster 
Royal, College Hill ; St. Michael, Cornhill ; St. Nicholas Cole 
Abbey, (jueen Victoria Street ; St. Stephen, Coleman Street ; 
and St. Vedast, Foster Lane. (Those distinguished by an 
asterisk are not Wren churches.) 

Such a massacre of the innocents is dreadful in the appre- 
hension. Everything possible should be done to prevent it. 
The reasons for the Commission's recommendations are, in the 
main, sordidly utilitarian. The churches, it is thought by the 
iconoclasts, have now no justification for their existence, the 
worshippers in them being so few. That is a specious 
argument, but, as we shall presently take leave to show, 
it is vitiated by an inherent fallacy. There is a much 
more powerful appeal to one's 
sympathy in the cognate plea 
that in the outlying districts 
of London there is great need 
for more churches, and that 
the sale of the sparsely 
attended City churches sche- 
duled by the Commission 
would realize about a million 
and a half of money that 
would afford much - needed 

On the other hand it is 
contended that, in this case as 
in so many others, the end, 
good as it is, does not fully 
justify the means. On close 
examination, there is, indeed, 
something sinister in this cry 
of "new lamps for old" a 
certain faint tone of worldli- 
ness. With that, however, 
we have nothing to do our 
concern is with the fallacy we 
have promised to expose. It 
is this : that a venerable church 
becomes valueless in propor- 
tion as its congregation wanes. 
This is to put the case on a 
very low plane; and that the 
City has not the church-going 
population it had in the days 
of Wren is a belated discovery. 


But are there not sermons in stones ? Is not a church a 
perpetual admonition that man does not live by bread alone ? 
" The form, the form alone is eloquent," independently of the 
special function for which the church was built. And while the 
outward form is a perpetual benediction to the passer-by, an 
"outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace," 
cheering and comforting thousands to whom it is a perpetual 
reminder that sordid commercialism is not the sole factor in 
life, the interior of every church in the City is a treasury of 
objects worth preserving, survivals of a day in which both 
art anJ faith were less sophisticated than in ours. If these 
churches are allowed to go, London will not be much the richer 
commercially, but in spirit and in the things of the spirit will 
be infinitely poorer. It simply cannot afford to lose any more 
of its quaint old churches especially not those that bear the 
mind's impress of the greatest of England's architects, 
Christopher Wren, and the tool-marks of the prince of wood- 
carvers, Grinling Gibbons. 

The accompanying illustrations serve to indicate the very 
interesting character of some of the City church interiors ; the 
vestries, as the example from St. Nicholas Cole Abbey suggests, 
often contain quaint relics of the taste of a bygone era. Such 
relics, of course, would not be utterly destroyed if the churches 
were demolished, but would probably find asylum in the homes 
of British profiteers or American millionaires. Then, while the 
woodwork, or such objects as those shown in the illustrations, 
might be got away without irreparable damage, the plasterwork, 
often extremely well worth preservation, would inevitably 
suffer severely in being torn down. As may be inferred from a 
glance at the background against which the font shown on 

page 157 is set, All Hallows, 
Lombard Street, is particularly 
rich in carving. The pulpit 
and its sounding-board, and 
two especially noteworthy oak 
doorcases, are all elaborately 
carved, especially the north 
doorcase. The prospective 
degradation of such fine speci- 
mens of old work into collector's 
"curios," or exhibits in a 
museum, cannot be contem- 
plated without pain, which is 
not lessened when we are told 
that " such sentimentality " is 
akin to tbebarbaric superstition 
of ancestor worship. We prefer 
to regard veneration for noble 
survivals as being, on the con- 
trary, a distinguishing mark of 
refinement in civilized man. 

" Out of evil cometh good." 
The Commissioners' report, by 
provoking a storm or, as 
someone has said, "a perfect 
hurricane " of opposition, has 
demonstrated the existence of 
an enormous volume of affec- 
tionate regard for the venerable 
churches whose existence is 
threatened. We hope to have 
a further opportunity of illus- 
trating the City churches. 




i 5 8 



Plwto : 


By Jan Weenix (c. 1644-1719). 
From the Collection oj Sir Frederick L. Cook, Bart , at Richmond 

Anderson, Rome. 

Decoration and Furniture 

from the Restoration to the Regency. 

VI Decorative Pictures. 

By Ingleson C. Goodison. 

ONE important resource of the decorative designer through- 
out the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries consisted 
in the employment of pictures, conventionally designed, 
and conceived as decorative units to accord with their environ- 
ment. These were usually formal flower, fruit, and bird 
"pieces," or architectural scenes, empanelled in moulded frame's 
enriched with carving, and disposed upon chimnevpieces, 

and banqueting halls of mighty sportsmen : bouquets of choice 
blooms in vases of chiselled marble or orfcvreric remind us 
that the seventeenth-century Dutchman loved flowers with a 
passionate fondness, and transferred to canvas " all but the 
fragrance of rare blooms and the flavour of choice fruits reared 
by the careful culture of Holland." Scarcely less frail and 
perishable were the tall Venetian glasses and goblets miracles of 


Ihtotlorr II'. //. Ward, Esq. 

J. DC Heem, 1643. 

doorcases, or in situations where they were calculated to 
produce the most impressive effect. In the conception of these 
pictures everything was subordinated to the decorative purpose, 
and it should be borne in mind that such works, torn from their 
setting and encountered amidst the confusion of picture galleries, 
are robbed of their raison d'etre. Scenes from the chase, 
and dramatic representations of combats between fierce animals 
or birds, were appropriate embellishments of the hunting lodges 

fictile art depicted by the still-life painters who enshrined in 
their compositions masterpieces of the silversmith cups of 
lustrous nautilus shell, costly dishes of gold or silver, the 
workmanship worthy of that marvellous file wielded by Cellini- 
wit h shapely vessels of faience and porcelain, Eastern carpets, 
sumptuous fabrics; exotic birds and fruits; for as trade and 
navigation discovered new worlds, so painters delighted in fresh 
objects of curiosity or great decorative beauty, which they 



arranged with fine aesthetic 
judgment and represented 
with amazing fidelity. 

Painters "sprouted from 
the very soil " of the Nether- 
lands at this period, drawing 
inspiration from intercourse 
with Spain and Portugal, 
Italy and the marvellous Kast. 
Spanish occupation of the 
Netherlands invested por- 
traiture with all the decorative 
qualities; the migration of 
Dutch and Flemish artists 
into Italy disclosed the gran- 
deur and elegiac sentiment of 
the Campagna with its majestic 
antique ruins: wide transmarine 
adventure enlarged the cir- 
cumscribed domain to distant 
Java, and enriched Holland 
with the ancient art, the flora 
and fauna, of the Orient. All 
this material afforded a rich 
field to a school of painters 
temperamentally endowed with 
powers of observation lacking 
perhaps the qualities of poetic 
imagination, but inheriting 
aptitudes for perfection in 
technique and great manipu- 
lative excellence. 

The decorative painters 
seized upon everything bright 


Jacob van Walscapelle, 1667. 
Victoria & Albert Museum. 

V.&- A. M. 

and sparkling nosegays of 
gay flowers, glittering arms, 
gleaming orfevrerie, the sheen 
of satins and the lustre of 
pearls, gorgeous long - tailed 
birds of brilliant plumage, the 
velvety surface of the peach, 
the bloom upon grape or plum, 
the lofty vase : 

" Where China's gayest Art 

has dy'd 
The Azure Flow'rs," 

arranging their bouquets with 
fine feeling for design, and 
depicting them with consum- 
mate draughtsmanship and 
brilliant yet harmonious 
colouring and richness of 
handling, studying the play 
and reflection of light as it 
illumines each delicate contour, 
the limpidity of fluid, the dew- 
drops glistening in the sun, and 
suffusing all the precise details 
with silvery harmonies or 
golden splendour. The con- 
ventional "flower piece" con- 
sists of a central bouquet 
arranged in an antique vase of 
beautiful contour, sculptured 
with bassi-rilievi, standing upon 
a marble slab or balustrade, 
upon which are a few stray 
blooms or leaves, drops of 

Property of 

J. D. De Heem, 1695. 



Plate IV. 

June 1920. 

Abraham van Bcijeren (f. 1620-1674). 



water, butterflies and other insects. A magnificent com- 
position of this character in a carved frame adorning a fine 
chimneypiece bearing the crowned cipher of William III 
appears in an etching by Daniel Marot : the vase stands upon a 
low pedestal covered with a richly embroidered lambrequin and 
flanked by a pair of sculptured sphinges. Marot 's pattern-book 
gives designs for a number of decorative pictures, and it is 
perhaps worthy of remark that much of the excellence and 
homogeneity of style prevailing in the decorative arts during 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is traceable to the 
pattern-books issued by professional designers, whose general 
indications were a source of co-operative inspiration to the artists 
and craftsmen of the period. 

The illustration on page 159 represents a picture painted on 
panel by J. De Heem in 1645, from the capital collection of 
Dutch pictures formed by Theodore \V. H. Ward, Ksq. The 
subject is a characteristic composition of this fine master, 
displaying a table profusely laden with fruit, oysters, a tall 
glass, and a goblet of the same material. |. De Hecm was a 
member of a family of painters famous for the delineation of 
fruit, flowers, and inanimate objects, and this picture is an 
illustrious specimen of his abilities. A painting, reproduced on 
page 160, signed J. D. De Heem and dated 16.15 exhibits no 
little similarity, and is hung, in the s une collection, as a 
pendant to the foregoing example. 

This theme, with interesting variations, was immensely 
popular among the wealthier classes in Holland, where true 
epicureans found great delight in the transitory glories of their 
tables, and commanded art to preserve with greater permanence 
these feasts for the eye. Willem Claesz Heda 1 1594-1679). Abra- 
ham van Heijercn (1620-16751, Willem van . \elst (1620 -1679), 
Jacob van Ks (1606-1666), Willem (iabron (1625 1671)). 1'ieter 

Property oj 

T. ii'. /;. ir.<i.<. /:,,,-. 


Willem Kalf. 


Riuhel Ruijsch. 

(iijsels 11621 i(n)oi, the De Ilccins- -David (1570 1652), Jan 
Davids/oon ic. 1606 ? ln,S;i. Cornells ii6;o 1(192) and Pieter 
de Kijng (1615-1660) were among the foremost painters 
of such " breakfast-pieces," as they have been termed, whose 
pictures are remarkable for taste of arrangement and trans- 
parency of colour, combined with rare modelling and a 
" melting " technique. 

Pictures by Jacob van Walscapelle (0.1665-1718), an example 
of whose rare work, from the Victoria and Albert Museum, South 
Kensington, appears on page 160, are generally small in size, 
and distinguished by remarkable finish and minuteness of 
execution. This picture is typical of his favourite subject a 
group of flowers and foliage enlivened with butterflies, in a 
glass vessel standing upon a marble-topped table. Samuel Pepys 
relates in his interesting diary an account of his visit in 1669 to 
the studio of Simon Verelst, or Varelst (c. 1644-^ 1721), who 
practised his art in England with much success, and was 
greatly esteemed for the high finish and illusive vraisemblance 
of his works. Pepys's delight in this aspect of the artist's work 
is given in the worthy diarist's own words : 

[April] " loth. To one Kverest (Varelst) who did shew us a little flower 
pot of his drawing, the finest thins; tnat ever, I think, 1 saw in my life, the 
drops of dew hanging on the leaves so as I was forced again and again to put 
my finger to it, to feel whether my eyes were deceived or no. He do ask /7o 
for it : I had the vanity to bid him 20. Hut a better picture I never saw in 
my whole life, and it is worth Koing twenty miles to see it." 



I'roperly of 

Theodore W. H. Ward, Esq. 


James BogJ.ini. 

Doubtless the picture to which reference is made in the 
foregoing was, in point of size, an "easel" picture, as distinct 
from the larger built-in paintings of purely decorative intention. 
Belonging to the latter category were those commissioned by 
Pepys, in the same year, from Hendrick Danckerts prospects 
of the four palaces of the King Whitehall, Hampton Court, 
Greenwich, and Windsor which he ordered from that artist in 
emulation of one forming a chimneypiece at Lord Bellasys's 
house at Hampstead. Choice hovered between oil and distemper 
as a medium for the execution of these pictures, and unaccount- 
ably a view of Rome was substituted for that of Hampton Court. 
The artists of Holland had found at this period landscapes 
invested with true decorative sentiment in the vicinity of Rome, 
amidst the solemn ruins of majestic temples. In the dignified 
state-rooms at Hampton Court Palace are still to be found 
scenes of this description painted by the Huguenot emigre 
Jacques Rousseau, which are utilized as sopra-porta pictures a 
number of which this artist also painted for the adornment of 
Montagu House in Bloomsbury Square. 

" Fixed landskips" and " perspectives," views of cities, stately 
harbours "sea-ports" or " embarkations " sea-pieces and 
maritime engagements, were popular contributions to contem- 
porary decoration under Wren and the succeeding architects of 
the Georgian era. Archer's fine Board Room, at the Admiralty 
in Whitehall, boasts two overdoor pictures sea-pieces attri- 
buted to Van de Velde in frames of carved wood enhanced 
with gilding. There is a reference in Pepys's entertaining diary 
(1662-3) to the " perspective " by Hoogstraeten in the "little 

closett " at the house of Mr. Povy in Lincoln's Inn Fields, which 
being placed opposite a doorway gave the illusion of looking 
through a vista of a Dutch house-interior,* imposing upon the 
visitor by a remarkable appearance of actuality. 

The works of the majority of Dutch still-life painters claim 
careful scrutiny by reason of their extreme precision and 
meticulous finish, which is nevertheless obtained without undue 
sacrifice of breadth. These artists delighted in the minutest 
detail and delineated with botanical exactitude, exhibiting a 
remarkable feeling for reality, and at the same time placing 
emphasis on the pictorial, using their subjects for interpreting 
effects of light and as a vehicle for brilliant glowing colour. 

During the second half of the seventeenth century England 
produced few native painters, but freely employed foreign talent 
and absorbed the works of innumerable foreign artists. Reli- 
gious intolerance in neighbouring countries drove thousands 
of gifted and highly trained artists, artisans, and craftsmen to 
the hospitable shores of this island, and upon the restoration of 
the monarchy began an extensive activity to repair ravages 
caused by civil war, the iconoclasm of the Commonwealth, and 
by the Great Fire of London. In the wider domain of painted 
decoration, encouragement had previously been given to foreign 
artists such as Rubens, Gentileschi, De Critz, and Cleyn, 
under Inigo Jones ; while the buildings of Wren and his 
contemporaries found employment for Heude, De La Fosse, 
Verrio, Belucci, Chdron, Parmentier, Berchet, Ricci, Laguerre, 

* M. Jourdain, " Art Journal," 1911, Oct. 



Melchior D'Honderoetcr. 

and Lanscroon. Streater and Thornhill were native artists, and 
so was I'~KAXCIS BAKI.OW ic. 1626-17021, who worked usually in 

the more contracted sphere of deco- 
rative picture-painting. His excellence 
consisted in the representation of the 
feathered tribe, the heron, crane, peli- 
can, and cassowary, waterfowl standing 
in marshy ground by a pool. Among 
the most familiar names in the deco- 
rative delineation of bird - life are 
1605), JAKOB YICTOK (rl. 1670), \Vijx- 
TKAXCKS (fl. c. 1667), JAN BATTIST 
BOKI. ( i65o-i6NS q), JAN VAX AI.EX 
ii(>5i-i(>()N.i, LTKK CKADOCK (d. 17171, 
PIHTKR CASTHKI.S (161X4 - i74<)\ and 
(AMES BOGDANI (d. 17201, of wliom 
P'HoNiiKcoKTKK is by far the most 
renowned. Bird-pieces by C'radock and 
Casteels are numerous in Kngland. 
Uogdani, "the Hungarian," of whom 
few authentic particulars have tran- 
spired, was decorative-painter to Oueen 
Anne, anil is well represented at Kew 
" Palace " and in the accompanying 
illustrations. The fame of JAN \\'EKXIX 
( i(>4o-i7K)) rests especially upon his 
paintings of dead game and weapons 
of the chase, which are represented 
usually in a decorative landscape, and 
grouped against the pedestal of a finely 
sculptured vase. He usually introduced 
a hare into his compositions, and painted 
fur or feather with remarkable truth. 

Subjects of a similar nature were painted by JAN 1'VI' (c. i6txj- 

iWni and ANTON C.KiEr (1670-1715). 

Profi'ly of 

James Bogdani. 

Thtodort W. H. Ward, Esq. 



The name of the flower and fruit painters is legion, and even 
by confining it to the most famous, or to painters who practised 
their art, or whose works were numerous, in this country, during 
the period under review, the list is too extensive to particularize. 
JEAN-BAPTISTE MONNOYER (1635-1699) -formerly called 
" BAPTISTS " is easily the most famous of the earlier painters 
of "flower pieces," as JAN VAX HUIJSUM (1682-1749) is of the 
later school ; for just as all wood-carving is popularly ascribed 
to the hand of Gibbons, all mid-Georgian furniture to Chip- 
pendale, all decoration of a certain late-Georgian character to 

and sometimes fruit, with marvellous fidelity, great beauty, 
and fine decorative effect. To the foregoing should be 
added the fruit- painters and breakfast-painters who sometimes 
painted flowers De Heem, De Kijng, and Van Beijeren, to 
whom reference has previously been made MICHAEL ANGELO 
DI CAMPIDOGLIO (1610-1670), ALAKT COOSEMANS (fl. 1630), 
(d. 1692), and WILLEM KALI- (c. 1621-1693), the painter of 
the superb "still life '' which is illustrated on page 161. 

Splendid decorative compositions of antique ruins issued 

Property of 

Tan van Os. 

T. W. H. Want, KSIJ. 

Adam, so every flower painting is by " Baptiste " or Van 
Huijsum, every trophy of the chase by Weenix or Fyt. 

DANIEL SEGHERS (1590-1661), MARIO DI FIOKI, or Nuzzi, 
(1603-1673), JAN DAVIDSZ DE HEEM (1606-1683), JUAN 
D'ARELLANO (1614-1676), JACOB VAN WALSCAPELLE (fl. 1670), 

JORISVANZOON (1623-1667), CORNELIS DE HEEM (1630-1692),' 

(1639-1697), SIMON VERELST (1644-1721), JAMES BOGDANI 
(d. 1720), RACHEL RUIJSCH (1664-1750), JAN VAN HUIJSUM 
(1682-1749), and JAN VAN Os (1744-1808), all painted flowers, 

from the brush of GIOVANNI PAOLO PANINI (c. 1691-1764), views 
of Venice and the lagoons from ANTONIOCANALETTO (1697-1768) 
and FRANCESCO GUARDI (1712-1793), and prospects of the 
buildings of London were made by SAMUEL SCOTT (d. 1772). 
Well-known painters of sea-pieces were THOMAS VAN WIJCK 
(c. i6i6-c. 1677), JAN VAN DE CAPELLE (c. 1624-1679), LUDOLF 
BAKHUYZEN (1631-1708), WILLEM VAN DE VELDE (1633-1707), 
"Old" JAN GRIKFIER (c. 1645-^ 1718), and PETER MONAMY 

(To be continued.) 


Plate V. 

June 1920. 


By W. Reid Dick. 
Plaster Model of Life-size Group executed in Bron/c. 


The Royal Academy Exhibition. 

A VERY industrious weeding-out process has this year 
/~A excluded all paintings that were not up to a fairly high 
standard of merit. A cynic would say that it has also 
eliminated all pictures of first-rate importance, for certainly 
nothing on the walls advances an indisputable claim to come into 
that high category. There is nothing conspicuously bi/arre or 
eccentric : and it well may be that in the determination to keep 
out everything of doubtful quality the committee turned down 
now and again a picture that had no other fault than the 
unfamiliarity of the artist's method or subject. One suspects 
that the hanging committee adopted the "safety first" motto 
to which editors are said to cling tenaciously " When in doubt. 
leave it out." We are promised an opportunity of testing this 
issue: for the more than usually numerous "dejected rejected" 
are threatening to hold a show which shall prove conclusively 
that all the best pictures were ruthlessly banished. 

Although there were no Sargents, the exhibition is, never- 
theless, rich in portraits, many of them of a very high order 
of excellence. Those that 
answer to this description 
would make a long list, and 
where there are tine examples 
of La very. Shannon, Llewellyn, 
Orpen, it seems blatantly in- 
vidious to single out a half- 
length by Sir Luke Fildes 
as the most interesting portrait 
in the collection interesting, 
that is, personally from its 
subject and its author if not 
from the power shown in its 
execution, which, however, in 
itself commands admiration. 
It is the vivid portrait ot 
Mr. H. F. Dickens, K.C., the 
Common Serjeant, and, of 
course, the son of Charles 
Dickens, of whom Fildes was 
the friend, and whose pathetic 
" Fmpty Chair" at Gad's Hill 
Place Sir Luke painte 1 some 
fifty years ago. He exhibits 
four or five other fine portraits. 
Orpen's " Sir Clifford Allbutt " 
is very well observed, but his 
portraits of the great ones at 
the Peace negotiations are on 
too small a scale. Everyone is 
agreed that he has made far 
too much of his backgrounds. 
Of special interest to architects 
are the portraits of Mr. Henry 
T. Hare, by Sir William 
Llewellyn, and that of Mr. 
Delissa Joseph, by a lady 
bearing the same surname. 

In the landscapes there is 
a return to the old objective 
methods, of which the theory is, 
" Paint what you see, and do 
not be subjective or self-con- 
scious. Individuality will out, 
but to force it is to beget 


Plaster Model ol Bronze Head by W. Reid Dick. 
The Koyal Academy Exhibition . 1920 

mannerism." If the individuality is weak, the landscape will 
be a mere transcript. And, in truth, there are very few pictures 
this year that show the imaginative sympathy with nature 
without which great painting of any kind, or any other work 
of art, is not achieved. 

In the Architectural Room there is very naturally a dearth of 
important new work. Interest is at once attracted by a fine 
model of the East Pavilion of the south side of Regent's 
Ouadrant. It bears the names of Sir Reginald Blomfield, 
Mr. Ernest Newton, and Sir Aston Webb, but it is easy to see 
that it owes most to Sir Reginald is, indeed, very characteristic 
ot his virile style. Other specially noteworthy exhibits are 
Mr. H. C halt on Bradshaw's lay-out of a public park for the 
Corporation of Liverpool, Mr. Ernest Newton's house at Burgh 
Heath, Mr. G. Gilbert Scott's interior of a proposed chapel for 
Liverpool College for (iirls, and Sir Edwin Lntyens's interior of 
a Delhi ballroom, \\hich owes much of its effect to Mr. Walcot's 
fine rendering. Mr. Heresford Pite is well seen in his National 

Insurance Building, Huston 
Road, which adds imagination 
to scholarship, and is therefore 
impressive to behold as well as 
appropriate to its use a soi.nd 
and vigorous design. 

Another notable design for 
a commercial building is Mr. 
Frank Atkinson's perspective 
(rendered in water-colours by 
Mr. Cyril Fa rev) of premises 
in Kingsway for the General 
Electric Company. Scale and 
detail are alike admirably con- 

Of the dignity that becomes 
a bank there is an excellent 
example in the elevation de- 
signed by Messrs. Mewes and 
Davis for the Antwerp branch 
of a London bank. Another 
excellent design for a bank is 
that by Mr. Paul Waterhouse, 
whose work has the piquant 
interest that it will materialize 
in Paris on the Boulevard des 
Capucines, where, beyond ques- 
tion, it will do credit to British 
architect ure. Mr. Curtis 
Green's design for premises in 
Piccadilly is another fine com- 
mercial design. 

The sculpture is of great 
technical excellence, but is 
overdone with busts, which 
seem more numerous and more 
lifelike than ever. Of poetry 
there is but little. Some of it 
has got into Mr. W.Reid Dick's 
very beautiful and finely sincere 
bronze head of "Joan," which, 
with the same sculptor's more 
ambitious and very finely con- 
ceived bronze group "The Man 
Child," we here reproduce. 


The Foundations of Classic Architecture. 

LANGI-ORD WARREN was a great teacher. He saw into and 
through his subject, and could impart and interpret what he 
saw. He was not contented with having acquired a profound 
knowledge of architectural history. He had to get at the heart 
of it, to generalise upon it, to deduce vital principles from it. 
He wrote: "We must seek to combine scholarship with artistic 
impulse and enthusiasm, must seek to give that impulse and 
enthusiasm the sure basis of knowledge. For the support which 
the architect of the past received from tradition, we must 
substitute scholarship. Not the scholarship which is concerned 
with facts merely, with arch;eological study of outward forms ; 
but the scholarship concerned with principles, which studies the 
art of the great epochs of the past in order to understand, if 
possible, those fundamental qualities which made it great, which 
penetrates to the meaning of the forms used, which analyses 
and compares for the purpose of gaining inspiration, in order 
that it may create by following consciously the principles which 
are seen to be followed unconsciously in the great art ot the 
past, developing if possible by degrees a tradition of what is best 
in all past forms ; because it understands what to take and what 
to modify in order to meet the conditions of the present." That 
is as clear and as cogent a statement of the case as can be : and 
the conception that it embodies was consistently developed in 
all Warren's teaching, and is at the root of most that is written 
in this posthumously published book. 

Herbert Langford Warren was, strange to say, an English- 
man. He was born in Manchester on 29 March 1857 : but 
why in the portrait prefixed to his book he is so ultra-American 
in appearance he is rather like President Garfield is no doubt 
because on his father's side he was of New England Colonial 
ancestry. Educated partly in Manchester and partly in (iotha 
and Dresden, he entered in 1875 the office of William Dawes, a 
Manchester architect. Emigrating to America in 1876, he was 
from 1877 to 1879 a student in architecture at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, under William Robert Ware and 
Eugene Letang. From 1877 to 1879 he was in the office of 
H. H. Richardson, Brookline, and Warren had a hand in nearly 
all the important work that Richardson was then doing. 
Naturally the great Richardson had a high opinion of him. He 
left Richardson in 1884 for a year of European travel. Returning 
to America next year, he set up in practice in Boston. " He 
designed," says Mr. Fiske Kimball in the introduction to 
Warren's book, "with skill and restraint, and all his buildings 
are marked with the same scrupulous regard for historic 
precedent, consistency of character, and refinement of detail." 

With this sane and broad outlook on architectural history, 
Warren must have had, during his quarter of a century of 
teaching (from 1893) at Harvard University, an incalculably 
valuable influence on the architecture of the country of his 
adoption ; for, as Mr. Kimball says, "As a teacher he was 
remarkably equipped, and of abounding enthusiasm for his 
subject. His experience as a practising architect and as a 
teacher of design, the broad range of his knowledge of general 
history and literature, and his appreciation and love of all the 
arts and crafts, made his treatment of the History of Archi- 
tecture much more than mere archeology." 

He wrote the leading articles in the opening numbers of the 
American " Architectural Review" and the "Brick Builder,'' 

and contributed to Russell Sturgis's " Dictionary of Architecture 
and Building " the articles on mediaeval architecture. Much 
other literary work he did ; and the work before us is in reality 
the first volume of a contemplated history of architecture. It 
fulfils its title, however, and is to that extent complete. He 
begins, of course, with Egyptian, not only because it is the oldest 
of the great styles, "but still more because many of its forms 
underlie, however remotely, those of the European styles." 
Development is then traced through Mesopotamia, Persia, and 
the .Egean, until finally we come to (ireece, with its logical 
construction and beautiful ornaments. A passage that catches 
the eye in glancing through this fascinating chapter is worth 
quoting for its clear exposition of a subject on which there is 
much muddled thinking : " A building or a style of architecture 
will be more or less admirable as the requirements of these 
essential principles of both sensuous and organic harmony are 
more or less completely fulfilled, and in proportion also to the 
essential nobility of the purpose to be expressed. The sense of 
appropriate and harmonious relationship of all the parts to the 
whole, and of the whole to its essential purpose and environ- 
ment this it is that produces the impression of beaut}' in the 
work of art. as in nature. Beauty is the perfect expression of 
nature's laws of order, of organism. And this sense of harmo- 
nious relationship will be felt by the trained mind, not only with 
regard to relationships merely visual or sensuous, but also with 
regard to those other relationships which have to do with the 
poetic expression of purpose, of material and structure, and of 
environment which may be called organic." Definitions of 
beauty can never be final, but when they are as clear-cut as this 
one they give a closer and clearer view of what is eternally 
evasive. This, the most carefully elaborated chapter in the 
book, is also more profusely illustrated than the others : and the 
volume, with its masterly insight, its scholarly collection of data, 
and its clear elucidation of principles, will be a great boon to all 
students and teachers of architectural history : while the most 
seasoned architect will rise from it with a quickened perception 
and firmer grasp of fundamental principles. 

'1'hf l-'oiuidations of Classic Architecture.'" By Herbert Langford 
Warren, A.M., late Fellow of the American Institute of 'Architects and 
Dean <>/' tin- I'ticiillv of Architecture of Harvard University. Illustrated 
from Ilocit incuts and Original Drawings. The Macinillan Company, 
.\>T,' York. Macinillan &* Co., Ltd., London, /'rice 32.1-. net. 

The Liverpool Architectural Sketch Book. 

ITS publication interrupted by the war, the new volume of 
the Liverpool Sketch Book contains the work of three periods 
pre-war, mid-war, and post-war. In other words it contains 
examples of the designs the students were doing before the war 
changed profoundly men's thought and outlook ; it shows also 
examples of work done by those students whom force of circum- 
stances kept out of the war ; and, finally, it presents designs 
made by men who were on active service. It is interesting to 
compare the designs produced in these well-marked variations 
of influence. But the intrinsic interest of the volume is that it 
shows the kind of work which has enabled students of the 
Liverpool University School of Architecture to be so pheno- 
menally successful time after time in carrying off the British 
Prix de Rome and other covetable awards. Mr. F. O. Lawrence, 
this year's winner of the Rome prize, is, indeed, represented by 



some of the drawings with which he was successful in the 
preliminary stage of the competition. For this reason the book 
will doubtless be eagerly sought by students and teachers. 

" The Liverpool University Architectural Sketch Hook.''' Heing tlif 
Annual of the School of Architecture of the University of Liverpool. 
Edited by Professor C. If. Reilly and Lionel />'. Kiidden. London : 
Technical Journals, Ltd., 27-29 Tothill Street, Westminster,'.i. 
I' rice los. dd. net. 

Enlart's Manual of French Archaeology. 

A SECOND edition, considerably enlarged, of M. Enlart's 
scholarly and useful "Manuel d'Archeologie Francaise " is now 
in preparation, and we have received the first volume of it. which 
forms the first part of the section devoted to religious architec- 
ture. In France the term " archaeology " is construed in a wider 
sense than it is with us, who show a decided tendency to restrict 
it to small objects of antiquarian curiosity. These minor matters 
will in due course doubtless find place in M. Enlart's compre- 
hensive and ambitious scheme : but the volume under notice is. 
as its sub-title explains, wholly given up to ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture. It is a painstaking treatise, and as it is written with as 
much enthusiasm as knowledge, in the engaging manner of your 
French savant, it can be unhesitatingly classified as literature. 
A bibliography covering many pages shows the vast extent of 
the author's reading anc 1 research, and is, besides, of consider- 
able intrinsic value as an indication of the sources of information 
on a subject on which, in England, scholarship has not been 
lavished. For this defect in our education M. Enlart's book, 
with its illuminating text and its 22=, illustr,it ions of whole 
buildings, sections, and details of construction and ornamenta- 
tion, should provide effective first aid, and for this service it can 
be most cordially recommended. 

" Mdinii'l it '. h i.litoliigie /'fiii/fiU'r' di'piiis tea Temp* Mf> <i,'in^ii'ii 
juxyii'ii tii Renaissance? /. -Architecture Ri'ligieme. l\ir ('amillc 
I'.nlai'l, l>ireclt'iir ifn Music de Si idpture Comparcc iin irumdcro. 
I > i>ii. \ieinc Edition, revue el augmentie. Paris : .lii^ns/r I'iinrd, A'// ( - 
l!onaparte,fii. I' rice i.S francs (paper covers}. 

Design of Coins and Medals. 

AN outstanding feature of the April issue of " Scribner's 
Maga/ine" is an article on " Our Money and Our Medals," by 
Adeline Adams. Occupying the " Field of Art " section of the 
maga/ine, the article deals with the artist's share in medal 
making and money-making. Our author leads off with this 
exposition of sound doctrine : " Now money is, and should be, 
an object, an important, dignified object, and our coins should 
therefore have beauty and distinction as well as serviceable-ness. 
The legal tender of a great nation must not be merely the 
drudge ; it should have something of the historian about it, 
something of the herald, and it should be an inspiriting sight 
for the eyes." It probably qualifies on the last clause with or 
without the aid of art, or whether the art be good or bad : but 
that is a side issue. 

Coins ought to be comely, if only to redeem them from 
sordidness. " In the days of the ducats and zecch ins, "says our 
author, "surely doges, popes, and kings cared very much about 
the looks of their coins and medals." She might have gone very 
much farther back for precedents, and indeed, later in the article, 
she records the enthusiasm of Saint-Gaudens, and of Roosevelt 
who had commissioned him to design images and superscriptions 
for the currency, over the old high-relief Greek coins ; but her 
object is not historical ; she sets out to prove that while 
Americans desire beauty in their medals, and their sculptors 
have shown a genius for the medallist's art, the republic, until 

lately, had not felt very keenly the need for beauty in their 
everyday hand-to-hand pieces of silver, nickel, or copper. 

High-relief coins, however, are impracticable for modern 
currency. Our money must be made so that it will "stack" 
easily: hence the image and the lettering must be sunk slightly 
lower than the raised rim whose functions are to facilitate the 
stacking and to protect the stamping. Hut it was through 
Roosevelt's precedent that distinguished sculptors have been 
since employed to design American coins, with the result that, 
"thanks to our spirite 1 'buffalo' live-cent piece designed by 
Eraser, our silver dime and silver half-dollar by Weinman, our 
silver quarter-dollar by MacNeil, and our ' Lincoln ' cent by 
Hrenner, our coinage compares favourably in appearance with 
that of other nations." It is otherwise with the American paper 
currency: for, says our author : " In general, our paper money 
is uglier than necessity warrants, even admitting all the very 
real difficulties which stand in the way of finding for beauty a 
happy issue out of our National Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing. If American money is as good as any in the world 
to-day, it ought to look the part, even on paper : but does it ? " 
1 he answer would seem to be in the negative, as we fear thiit it 
would be if it referred to our own contract notes. 

The author suggests the formation, for the guidance of 
designers, of " a complete museum of all the moneys of the 
world, paper as well as metal." Roty's figure of " La Semeiisc." 
on the French ten-sou piece, "did much." she claims, "to 
change the minds of medallists the world over. That figure in 
its simplicity sang a new song in coins. Designers of coins 
received from it. according to their temperaments, either a |olt 
to their old ideas or a clear cull for their new ones." The 
article is illustrate. 1 with reproductions of Robert Aitken's 
Watrous medal: |. E. Eraser's Victory medal : I). I'. French's 
French and British War Commission medal, i<)i/: 
A. A. Weinman's Saltns medal: the Chester Peace medal: 
John Flanagan's Prince of Wales medal not a very good like- 
ness of our " Prince Charming" : the Victor Hrenner plaquctte, 
with its superbly beautiful lettering : and Paul Manship's Jeanne 
d'Arc medal. It would seem that the Americans have the 
medal habit stronger than it has been developed here: but in 
Germany there are at least 5<So varieties! Messrs. Constable <!v 
Co. are the London publishers of " Scribner's." 

Foundations for Machinery. 


Fot'M>ATi"Ns for machinery are much too often put in more 
or less by guesswork, and since they have to withstand shock 
and vibration as well as dead weight the guess is as likely as not 
to turn out to be wrong, and then expense is incurred in 
supplying the requisite strength. It is not only much cheaper, 
but is in every way more satisfactory to provide the necessary 
stability at the outset, and " Foundations for Machinery," by 
Henry Adams, sets forth very clearly the true principles on 
which foundations should be designed. The first chapter deals 
with principles upon which the supporting power of soil depends; 
the second with excavations, timbering, and piling ; the third 
with concrete and its mixing ; the fourth with designing the 
foundations; the fifth with safe loads; and the sixth with 
remedies for vibration. This very useful little book 
appears most opportunely at a time when machinery is being 
laid down more extensively than ever before in the world's 
history, and it summarizes the knowledge of an expert of 
unrivalled experience in such work. H. OK C. 

"Foundations for Machinery" By Henry Adams, M.lnst.C.E., 
M.l.Mech.E., etc., with 50 illustrations and 9 tables. London : Technical 
Publishing Company, Ltd., I Gough Square, Fleet Street, F..C. 4. 

1 68 


Publications Received. 

" Old Crosses and Lychgates." By Aymer Vallance. 15. T. Batsford, Ltd., 
gj High Holborn, London. 

" The Foundations of Classic Architecture." liy Herbert Langford Warren. 
Traces the development of the styles of Egypt, Western Asia, and Greece to 
their culmination in Athens of Pericles. Price 32*. net. .Macmillan & Co., 
St. Martin Street, W.C.2. (See review, page 166.) 

"Domestic Architecture in .Australia." By Sydney Ure Smith and 
Bertram Stevens in collaboration with W. Hardy Wilson. Angus and 
Robertson, Ltd., Sydney. 

Any of these public itions miy be inspected in the Reading Room, Technical 
Journals, Ltd., 27-29 Tothill Street, Westminster. 

Egyptian Decorative Art. 

DESIGNERS who flock to their old sources of inspiration 
in Europe after the signing of the armistice, following 
four years of enforced staying at home, are coming back 
again to the art of seven thousand years ago in American 
museums, convinced that it offers far greater opportunity than 
the relatively modern art of Europe. For a quarter of a century 
the directors of these museums and the archaeologists employed 
by them have been dinning into the ears of artists and designers 
the inspirational value of Babylonian and Egyptian monuments, 
decorative panels and wall designs. But it was not until the 
war blocked easy access to Italy that they succeeded in getting 
an audience. 

Instructors in applied design have been of considerable help 
to the movement by constant iteration of the charge that the 
average American wall and floor covering design is hideous. 
According to the "American Architect" Miss Violet Oakley, 
known nationally both as a painter of portraits and of decorative 
panels, was one of the first to respond to the appeal of the 
museums. She made many sketches in the halls of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania Museum for the later of her mural 
decorations for the Pennsylvania State Capitol at Harrisburg. 
Encouraged by this example, a few of the large wall and floor 
covering manufacturers sent their designers on experimental 
trips to the museum in 1915. Since that time the habit has 

Until recently, however, the use of ancient models was 
looked upon merely as a temporary expedient. Now, according 
to the museum authorities, the designers have had opportunity 
to compare their work of the last four years with earlier pro- 
ductions, and they are coming back to Babylon. China, also, 
is coming in for her share of recognition, particularly in rugs. 
Within the past six months nearly every large manufacturer 
has started the production of Chinese rugs, the patterns for 
which in many instances are copies or developments of designs 
on ancient examples from the Flowery Kingdom. This art is 
older in some respects than that of Greece. It was at its zenith 
when Europe was going through the Dark Ages, when China 
was the cultural centre of the world. Authorities of the 
museum have taken advantage of this trend to utter an appeal 
for a revival of the classic in decoration. And right in line with 
this appeal is an argument put forth by Dr. George Byron 
Gordon, director of the museum, concerning the essential 
identity of art and craftsmanship. 

The sculptor, the painter, and the story-teller in their work 
and in their achievements share the same traditions as the 
mason, the goldsmith, and the weaver, says Dr. Gordon. When- 
ever in the world's history this identification was an accepted 
fact, when a close association between art and craftsmanship 
marked the order of things, when the atelier was the workshop, 

when the artist and the craftsman were one, then great works 
were wrought and great names were handed down. Whenever 
an artificial distinction arose, art, entering a barren field, 
became the subject of affectation, and craftsmanship was debased. 
Such a distinction does not correspond with any reality of life. 
When artists attempt to set up among themselves an exclusive 
cult based on a belief in some form of special dispensation, it 
means that art is dead. 

For the last six years or more the University Museum has 
been taking steps to inform those interested that its collections 
afford an unusual opportunity for guidance in the designing of 
modern manufactures. We have repeatedly pointed out, says the 
director, that the application of art as represented by traditional 
standards and historic precedents to fabrics of all kinds, to the 
products of the mills and the kilns of modern industry, is a 
lesson that has to be learned if this country is to hold its own 
even in a commercial sense in competition with the older 
civilization of Europe. 

A staff of artists and instructors has been engaged to take 
charge of the general educational work for which the museum 
is equipped, and especially to help visitors, including the 
artisan, craftsman, designer, merchant, or manufacturer, to 
translate the collections into terms applicable to the work 
of each. It is the business of these instructors to explain the 
design and workmanship that belonged to other times and 
places, and to show how they may and ought to be adapted to 
modern American conditions and American ideals without 
in any way violating the essential fitness of things. 

In the plan to open up more fully the resources of the 
museums to the craftsman, the artist, the designer, the merchant, 
and the manufacturer, there is complete recognition of the fact 
that the interests of the museum arc closely related to the 
interests of modern commerce and industry. In this co- 
operation the museum's part will be to guide each effort in any 
line of production to the attainment of a successful decorative 

American art in the future may be new, but if it is to be 
worth anything it must have its background of legend. In this 
connexion it is well to state that American industrial art 
has recourse to a supply of rich material for utilization that 
belongs peculiarly to its own province ; that is, art and 
craftsmanship of the various native races of North and South 
America. It is very interesting to note that there is at present 
a distinct tendency among designers visiting the museum to 
take their motifs from these native American sources. 

It is being said that the life and legend of the Indian were 
marked by a rich spiritual experience in keeping with the vast 
continental spaces in which he dwelt for ages the first of 
mankind to gain a knowledge of the gods that he recognized 
in forest and lake and mountain and plain of this his native land ; 
the first to live in close communion with them and to give 
passionate utterance to these themes in his native art. There is 
no doubt that the appeal that this utterance makes to many 
Americans and that attracts many designers instinctively to 
aboriginal American traditions in their search for fresh inspira- 
tion has its source in the unconscious influence of nationality. 

Perhaps, as some advanced artists claim, these ancient 
and long-cherished American themes, under the impact of a 
new civilization, may liberate a spark that will kindle an 
enthusiasm among Americans for whatever is true and beautiful 
in their everyday environment. It would be entirely in keeping 
if the energy thus set free, acting directly on native American 
design, recast in new moulds and informed by European tradition, 
should prove a powerful agency in the production of an 
American industrial art with a character of its own. 



'nj,' /iv /(. .U. Hiwt, A./. 


Makes Cement Waterproof. 

Dank cellars encourage vermin and are a menace to health. 

Underground structures such as cellars, stokeholes, garage pits, and manholes, which 
are subject to the most violent floods are made bone dry with Pudloed cement 
plastertngs upon the walls and Pudloed concrete floors. Ask for a special specification. 


Klat roofs would be in greater demand were the fear ol leakage positively obviated. With t'tidloed cement all flat roofs 
are leak proof, and the labour is very little more than with ordinary cement concrete. 

Pudloed cement is used for any receptacle in which water is required to be retained, and for any structures from which 
water and dampness should be excluded. 

Ask for descriptive booklet free. 

I'seil also tor Damp Walls and Floors, Leaking Tanks Baths, Garage Pits, Concrete Buildings, etc. 

Tested by Pali*. Kirkaldy, Cork University, the Japanese, Dutch, and Spanish Governu ems, and the mot eminent experts. 
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BRITISH ! ami, atari from patriotism, THE UEST! Manufactured solely by KRNKR-GREKNWOOI> & Co., I. id., Market Square. King's l.\nt\, Knj'and. 

J. H. KERNfcR-GRKKNWoon, Managing. Director. 

Chronicle and Comment. 

Salient Features of the Month's Architectural News. 

The Royal Gold Medallist, 1920. 

A pleasant interchange of courtesies, in French, the language 
of courtesy, between Mr. John W. Simpson and M. Charles 
Girault, the Institute nominee for the 1920 Royal Gold Medal, 
shows how convenient and comely a thing it is at such a crisis to 
have for President a Membre Correspondant de 1'Institut, 
One would hesitate to say whose French has the more fluency 
and grace that in which Mr. Simpson pays the compliments, 
or that in which M. Girault acknowledges them. A few data 
of M. Girault's career will not come amiss. M. Charles Girault 
was born on 27 December 1X51, at Cosne (Nievre). He is 
Officier de la Legion d'Honneur ami Officier d'Academie, 
Membre tie 1'Institut, and architect to the Palace of Fontaine- 
bleau. Among his principal works are : " Restauration " of the 
Golden Piazza of Hadrian's Villa (1X85) : Palais de I'Hvgiene 
and Palais de la Chambre de Commerce, at the Paris Exhibition 
(iSScj); Tomb of Pasteur at the Pasteur Institute (i8g6l ; 
Petit Palais at the Paris Exhibition (igoo), at which exhibition 
he was architect-in-chief of the Grand Palais: Hotel. 21 Rue 
Hlanche, Paris (igoii; Judges' stands at the Longchamp 
Hippodrome 11903); enlargement of the Chateau Royal, 
Laeken, Belgium 11903-41: Arcade du Cinquanteiiaire, Brussels 
(1904) ; Musee du Congo, Teroueren, Belgium (1904-5) ; the 
Pasteur monument, in collaboration with the sculptor Falquiere 
119041; Grand Portique du Promenoir, Ostend (1905-0): and 
several residences, hotels, and commercial buildings. 

Death of M. jean-Louis Pascal. 

We greatly regret to hear of the death of M. Jean-Louis 
Pascal, Membre de I'lnstitut. Born in 1837, he was seven 
times legist, and won, in 1859, the second Grand Prix de Rome, 
a feat he subsequently repeated. Finally he gained, in 1866, the 
coveted Grand Prix itself. In 190 3 he was made a Commander 
of the Legion of Honour, and in 1914 he was awarded the 
Royal Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects. 
His many distinguished pupils include Henri Paul Nenot twho 
was the Royal Gold Medallist of 1917), Sir J. [. Burnet, and 
Messrs. Mewes and Davis. Among Pascal's purely artistic work 
are the monuments to Regnault, Michelet, Carnot, Hugo, Gar- 
nier, in all of which he collaborated with sculptors of eminence ; 
and his town houses are unexcelled for beauty. A man of 
singular personal charm, "Here Pascal" exercised enormous 
influence on the training and development of architects, and 
on the general trend of the architectural movement of his 

Bank cf England Building. 

If Soane's masterpiece, the Bank of England building in 
the City of London, had been two stories higher, there would 
now be no question of reconstructing it. Rumour has it that 
the governors are contemplating this step, to which, quite 
obviously, the current talkativeness about the necessity for tall 
buildings in order to make the most of valuable land in the City 
has been a direct incitement. It might be possible to add 
the requisite stories without destroying either Soane's work or 
that in the Cockerel! rooms. A competition, open to all 
architects throughout the Empire, has been suggested. If it is 
held, an entirely new building, or additions incorporating the 
old work, should be left to the option of the competitors. 

The R.I.B.A. Elections. 

This paragraph will be published too late to influence the 
results of the R.I.B.A. elections, although written in advance of 
them, and in the hope that there would be a very full exercise of 
the franchise, so that the new Council could enter with con- 
fidence and courage upon the unusually formidable tasks that 
await them. Nor is the moral effect of such plenary support 
confined to the Institute officers. It convinces, not to say 
overawes, their opponents. A further source of strength is the 
election of men upon whose loyalty the President can depend. 

The Institute's Year's Work. 

The annual report of the R.I.B.A. shows that the Council 
has had a particularly strenuous year. Its " Future of Archi- 
tecture " Committee has collected " a large amount of evidence 
and information of a most instructive character" \\hich will be 
handed over to the executive of the Unification Committee. 
With this committee, which was created at a special meeting of 
the Institute last March, to prepare a broad scheme of unification 
and registration, the moulding of the destinies of the Institute, 
if not of the profession as a whole, obviously rests to an almost 
overwhelming extent. Promise is made of considerable edu- 
cational reform and expansion, and it is mentioned that the 
income from the bequest of 5,000 by the late Sir Archibald 
Dawnay will be applied to scholarship foundation. The 
Institute has acted conjointly with the Society of Architects, 
and with other organizations, in making representations to the 
Government that the immediate removal of all State restrictions 
on building is essential to the healthy functioning of the 
industry. An unusually large number of competitions have 
been reported to the Institute as infringing the regulations, and 
in each instance prompt action has been taken, usually with 
success. An increase in the rates of subscription is recom- 
mended as essential to the effectual carrying on of the 
Institute's various activities. 

Luxury Building. 

At the annual general meeting of the R.I.B.A. on _;rd May, 
it was resolved, on the motion of Mr. Delissa Joseph, seconded 
by Mr. H. W. Wills, "That the Council be requested to call 
a public meeting of architects, surveyors, builders, operatives, 
property owners, and members of allied societies and other 
bodies interested, to protest against the present method of 
applying the luxury clauses of the Housing Act, and with the 
view to sending a delegation to the Prime Minister to point out 
the national danger involved in such application." The 
Architects' Assistants Union have sent to the Minister of Health 
a strong protest against the State embargo, declaring that by 
depriving architects of remunerative work it will compel them 
to discharge their assistants. 

Ideal Public-House Competition. 

Messrs. Samuel Allsopp and Sons, Ltd., of Burton-on-Trent, 
are inviting competitive designs for an "ideal public-house." 
Three premiums 200, 175, and 125 are offered. The 
assessor is Mr. W. Curtis Green, F. R.I.B.A., and designs must 
be submitted before 30 June. 



" A The Architectural review