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KPr /o7i 














ysAR by year the gold production of the world i« increasiDg, 
and the results for 1891 were the largest on record. In round 
numbers, the production for the last fiv e years was as follows — 
^' 1887, 5,097,600oz. ; '1888, 6,251,000oz. ; 1889, 5,641,000oz.; 1890, 
5,586,000oz. ; 1891, 6,033,000oz. For the first time for many years 
there was a slight set-back in 1890. A noticeable feature of recent 
years has been the developwent of the Witwatersrand 
Goldfields. The production of these fields has been as follows :— 
—1887. 34,897oz.; 1888, 230,917oz. ; 1889, 379,733oz. ; 1890, 
494,801oz. ; and 1891, 729,213oz. Adding in 1891 the output of 
other TraDSvaal goldfields, which amounted to about 167,000oz., 
the total production of the Transvaal for 1891 reaches S36,250oz. 
For the current year it is expected that the production will quite 
reach l,259,000oz. In 1888 the Transvaal only produced 4^ per 
cent, of the world's yield, but in 1891 the proportion had risen to 
13*8 per cent., and this year it is tolerably certain to reach 21 per 
cent. The following was the production in 1890 for the countries 
named :— United States, about l,586,500oz. ; Australia, 
l,469,200oz. ; and Russia, l,019,000oz. As the return for these 
countries has not altered to any large extent, the Transvaal will 
probably take the third place fov the current year and very likely 
the second place in 1893. Mining in the Transvaal has not yet 
reached its culminating point, as the new mines are being 
constantly opened, ajid old •nes still farther deyeloped,^rim^. 

KPF JO'^i 






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KS^^ .•^' 


Mb, Bqsbwabnb's Estimatrs. 

The f oUowing report was forwarded to the 
Chairman and Board of Directors of the 
Kangarilla Proprietary Silver-mininar Com- 
PADT on January 3 last by the Manager, Mr.. 
D. 1>. Rosewarne :— On Deoember 28 I made| 
an examination of your. .mine. The wofrki 
slready done is confined to about 150 ft. ncnrth: 
and south of Singleton^s Shaft. Thus only a] 
very small proportion of the lode has been in 
atiy way tested. The estimates are based on ore 
in sight only, without taking into consideration 
any deii^lopinenta which may take |daoe in 
the various levels as they are dri?en on the 
lode. Above the 120-f t. north there is a block 
containing 4,&00 tons. Above the 120-ft. 
south another block with 1,000 tons. In the 
180 ft. north there is a block in which ore has 
been prowd for some distance, and I have 
) jaocd it on a low estunate of 3,000 tons. The 
iSO-lt. south contains the beat show of ore, 
and th^ block already opened contains 9,000 
t< 116— total, l^tKK) tons. Besides this there 
is say 2,000 tons on surface, and 
it must be borne in mind that 
ajl along the bottom of the 180 - ft. 
level there is a large body of ore proven 
whiol) only requires sinkisg winses to render 
available. Take the 20^000 tons this will 
make 4,000 tons of concentrates, which should 
average clear of smelting, &c., £13 per ton. 
The cost of mining will be fairly nigh on 
account of the hardness of the ground. I can 
hardly form an estimate ol tne actual cost, 
but 308. per ton on the rough ore should oover 
expenses of breaking, dressing, timber, and 
management,, also proportional amount of 
dead work. Say 2,0<X) tons per month 
i4 treated at a cost of dOs., 3,000 
pkoduomg 400 tons conoentrates, average net 
value £13 per ton, 5,200, tiius leaving a profit 
of i^200 per month. The erection of the con- 
centrating plant should be proceeded with at 
once, estimated cost £4,000, including build- 
ings, &c. Houses, offices, ftc, will cost £1^000. 
Development of mine, untU machinery is in 
regular working order, and returns obtained, 
£5,000; total* £10,000. In ooadusion^I may 
state tiiat X am v^y much pleased with the 
bottom level, and the developments taking, 
place there further strengthen my previously 
expressed opinion as to the value of your 

The Slangaarilla ProprietaTy Dhreotors on re- 
ceiving the foregoing sent the following eable 
to Mr. Roaewame :-**' £1,000 remitted to you 
by telegraph tbrough the Bank at CalUnflrton ; 
£3,000 remitted by next mail. Order 
n^hinery. Send copy ^ of report to news' 
paper." The mine maohinefy will be ordered 
At once, and the Manager hopes to be able to 
return ore in July. The watev famine that 
affects the Barrier Silves Mines is never likely 
t(> occur at the Aplare M me. there being two 
ctfeeks coiratantly running on the boundaries of 
the mine. There is evident^ a strong desire 
on the pert of the new Diieotors to g^ve the 
mine every chance., and it is to be sincerely 
toped that the EngJieh capitalist who devotee 
his capital to our mines will meet with some 
a^^^uate return. 








Prepared under the authoriiy of the Hon. J. H. HOWE, Commissioner of 
Crown Lands and Immigration, 


Henry Y. L Brown, F.G.S., 



KP/=- y^ ^4 





JL xCJCir Av/Jii ••• ••• ' ••■ ••• ••• ••• ••• Yt"J\.l« 

vy'Olr x £R ••> \ m • ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• X 0"40 

Silver-Lead ... ... ..r ... ... ... ... 44-51 

X)IoA'xIJ\Fri .•• *.• ... ... ••• ... .*• tJ^ 

vyOnALix ... ... »*• *.* *•• ••• ..a kj^ 

XxLO^ ... ... ••! ... •«. ••. •• O^ 

JJ^ lOivJcjL *•■ .•* ••• ... ... ... ... dO 

Manganese ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

vJrOLiD ... ... ... «•« ... ... ... ••• Ujc— O^ 

Explanatory List of Terms ... ... ... ... 85-87 

Return of Minerals Exported ... ... ... ... 89 


My object in preparing the present work has been to attempt to ^tablish 
a fairly reliable record of the n\ining operations conducted in tlSs province! As 
far as possible^ I have given the amount of work done on each mine, the 
strike and underlay of the lodes, the ores they contain, the number of tons of 
ore raised to the surface, the character of the rock passed through, and of that 
of the surrounding country. 

A number of the mines have been visited by me, but for the most part I 
have had to rely upon the reports kindly supplied to me by gentlemen con- 
nected with mining operations. It is obvious that to have visited every mine 
would have been, if not an impossible, at least a useless task ; for unless a mine 
is in working order there are no means whereby the shafts can be descended. 
And even supposing that difficulty to be overcome, the accumulation of water 
in the workings would present a decided barrier to proper examination. 

Great difficulty has been experienced in collecting information respecting 
abandoned mines ; but for many of these I have drawn upon the information 
contained in Mr. J. B. Austin's pamphlet on " The Mines of South Australia,'* 
published in 1863, and Professor Ulrich's report on ^' The Mineral Resources 
north of Port Augusta/' published in 1872. It will be noticed that some of 
the better known mines are but meagrely described. This is owing to the 
fact that the proprietors or managers have not responded to the request made 
for information, and in many cases it has been possible only to mention the 
name and locality of the mine. 

South Australia has no department of mines such as obtains in Yictoria, 
but the establishment of one would be of great service both to miners and the 
general public. It may be said that our mineral resources are not sufficiently 
developed to warrant a separate department being established. But that is 
not the case. In copper we have done largely, and our territory contains 
valuable ores and minerals hitherto imtouched. The outlook for the copper 
industry is at present dark and unpromising, nor does there appear to be 
much prospect of improvement imless some industry, in which copper will be 
largely used, is initiated. 


But sUver mining is still profitable, and the demand for gold has not 
lessened. The search for these precious metals should be pursued with vigor 
and intelKgence. There are, however, three things that prove great draw- 
backs to mining enterprise in South Australia ; two are the scarcity of wood 
and water in the northern districts, and the third, affecting every portion of 
the colony, is the high rate of wages. 

In the early days of the Moonta and Wallaroo Mines the water difiiculty 
was overcome by condensing the salt water of the mines into fresh drinking 
water, and subsequently by turning the rain that fell upon the roofs of the 
houses into large underground tanks. Of the three questions, that relating 
to wages may be the most difficult of adjustment. One other matter there is 
that, sooner or later, will demand the serious attention of the people, namely, 
the right to search for minerals on freehold land. 

I desire to here point out an injustice that is done to the bond fide 
prospector for minerals other than gold. No sooner is he successful in finding 
prospects, and takes out a licence, than the land adjoining is at once selected 
by persons living at a distance, who, on the payment of £1, are allowed to 
mark out their section on the map, and are entitled to hold it for one year. 
They have no intention of working these blocks, but hold them until the pro- 
spector has shown what the ground yields. This wholesale selection is a 
check to the development of mineral resources. Under these conditions not 
much progress in testing the country for minerals will be made. To encourage 
working prospectors, the rules in force with regard to gold miners might be 
made to apply to every description of mining with advantage, namely, that 
the marking out of the groimd, and the presence of the miner upon it doing 
a certain amount of work daily, alone constitutes the right to hold a claim or 
lease. At present a man may find slight indications of minerals on his own 
lease, but may see still better ones on other ground. This, however, he 
cannot prospect, for another man holds it, though probably he is not working 
it. In this way much land that might prove productive is lying idle. 

The first mine opened in South Australia was the Wheal Gawler, a 
silver-lead mine, situated on the western slopes of the Mount Lofty Ranges, 
four miles east of Adelaide, and close to the township of Glen Osmond. The 
discovery of rich specimens of galena on the surface was the cause of the land 
being purchased from the Government. The mine was opened in 1841, five 
years subsequent to the proclamation of the province. In consequence, how- 
ever, of the heavy expenses incurred, operations ceased for some time, and 
were not resumed imtil the year 1844, when it was leased to a small company. 
Other silver-lead mines were opened in the neighbourhood shortly afterwards^ 

PREFACE. vii. 

and smelting works established. The profits that resulted were not equal to 
the expenses, and the mines were abandoned, and have not since been worked. 
But it has not been proved that these mines are worthless. During the past 
forty-five years, mining machinery and processes have greatly improved, and 
a company provided with sufficient capital and patience — two things essential 
for the proper development of mines — ^might find the speculation remune- 
rative. The first copper mine, the Eapunda, was found in 1842, and yielded 11 
a fortune to its discoverers. The next discovery of copper was the Montacute 
Mine, in 1843, and a good output was maintained for many years, until the 
lodes were apparently worked out, and the proprietors were not prepared to 
search for fresh ones. 

In 1845 the Burra Mine was discovered by a shepherd named Pickitt, and ?( 
a red-letter day was marked in the history of the colony. The capital in- / 
vested was £12,320, in £6 shares, and no subsequent call was ever made upon 
the shareholders. At one time the shares were worth £200, and returned £40 
each, per annum, in dividends. The total amount paid in dividends was about 
£800,000. The property was sold to a new company, but for many years *^ 
has not been worked. 

During 1860 and the two following years the Wallaroo Mines were dis- 
covered. A mining mania set in, but in many instances the great expecta- 
tions raised were not realised. Two years later the Moonta Mines, of world- 
wide celebrity, were opened, and their copper lodes are even now not ex- 
hausted. From information kindly supplied by Captain Hancock, I find that 
up to 30th June, 1886, the value m the colony of ore raised from the Moonta^ 
Mine was £4,579,097 ; from the Kurilla Mine, 1874 to 1884, £155,068; and 
from the Wallaroo Mining Company, £2,005,023. In the far north a large 
amount of money was spent in developing the Yudnamutana, Blinman, 
Sliding Bock, Prince Alfred, and other copper mines ; but all these have 4. 
ceased working, owing principally to the low price of copper. 

In silver-lead the Talisker Mine, near Cape Jervis, has been the most 
productive. It opened in 1862, and was worked for ten years, and then 
stopped for want of funds. No capital was subscribed, and the company 
worked on a bank overdraft, and borrowed money, bearing interest at the 
rate of 10 per cent. The net proceeds of the ore raised equalled £27,846, 
ranging from £27 to £39 per ton of 20cwt. The amount of silver contained 
in the lead ranged from 62ozs. to 91ozs. per ton. The lead was sold in 
London at from £16 to £22 per ton, and the silver from 6s. 4^d. to 5s. 6d. 
per ounce. 

Bismuth is represented by the Murninnie Mine, on the western coast of 


Spencer's QvH, and tlie Balhannali Mine, east of Adelaide. A considerable 
amount of work has been done on these properties. The ore from the first- 
mentioned mine is said to contain 18 to 79 per cent, of bismuth, and from 
10 to 20 per cent, of copper, together with a little nickel, silver-lead, and 


In gold mining South Australia has not come well to the front, notwith- 
standing that she possesses a large area of auriferous country. Beefs in the 
Woodside district have turned out considerable amounts of gold, and the 
Alma Mine, in the Waukaringa district, has yielded well. Alluvial gold- 
fields have been worked with more or less success at Echunga, Barossa, Para 
Wirra, and Ulooloo ; but the latest, and up to the present time, the most pro- 
ductive alluvial workings, have been found on the Teetulpa nm, in the north- 
east district. A detailed notice of these reefs and alluvial workings wiU be 
found under the heading of " Gold." 

The mines that I have mentioned are well known and are easily found, 
and some of them are still being worked. But there are hundreds of others 
that have been opened under promising circumstances, and upon which much 
labour and money has been expended. These possess valuable ores, but have 
been abandoned owing to a variety of causes. Many have not been worked 
since the outbreak of the Victorian gold-diggings in 1851 drew away the bulk 
of the male population ; and others have failed through mismanagement, want 
of funds, and reckless expenditure. As a rule the public rise quickly to 
mining-fever heat on the instant that good " prospects" have been found, or 
have been reported to have been found, in some particular district. The 
results of wonderful so-called assays are published, and success seems assured. 
A small amount of capital is subscribed, work is begun, and dividends are 
expected to be paid in an incredibly short space of time, before in fact the 
mine has been properly opened and tested. There are men who invest a few 
pounds in almost every fresh mining venture that is put before the public. A. 
shaft is put down to a depth of 50ft. or 60ft., and gold is confidently 
expected to be at once struck in such quantities as shall not only relieve the 
investor of all further expenditure, but return him a dividend into the bargain. 
After the shaft is sunk the reef is perhaps cut at a spot where it is smaJ}, or 
carries little if any gold. Thereupon the work is abandoned ; the reef is con- 
demned as being worthless. Nothing can be more absurd than to draw con- 
clusions such as these, from evidence, the nature of which is, so slight and 
unreliable. The work done is of the most perfunctory kind. It has not been 
sufficient to prove more than that the vein was barren at that one particular 
place. Unless driving as well as sinking on lodes and veins be carried out, 
it is impossible to test them. But as a rule the sinking of the shaft and the 


driving of a level exhausts the courage and the capital of the ordinary 
investor, and in disgust he declares that the land is barren and worthless. 

Considering the great number of inexperienced and un-moneyed men 
who engage in mining, it may be easily understood that the majority of 
mining ventures have proved to be commercial failures. And this applies 
not alone to South Australia. It is stated on authority that out of 500 or 
COO lead mines in Great Britain, scarcely fifty are paying a profit ; and out of 
104 copper mines barely a dozen are payable ; and out of the number of 
American mines introduced to the British public during the seven years 
ending 1881, all but one were failures, and the loss entailed amounted to 

Though far below this vast sum, the amount of money lost in mining 
ventures in this colony must be very large. Mining is an adventurous 
business at the best of times, and is suited to energetic and adventurous men 
only, who may have time and money, and who can afford to lose both with 
but little risk of the loss hurting them. It is unjustifiable for any one to 
invest in miaes the sources of a scanty income, or capital that should properly 
be invested in his own business. If such persons lose their money they them- 
selves are alone to blame. 

But mining need not be such a risky business, and, if proper measures 
were taken, the proportion of unsuccessful mines might be greatly reduced. 
From the want of knowledge, mines are frequently opened in strata where 
little or no prospect of success is likely to attend the work. Promoters and 
managers of mines are frequently ignorant of the first principles that govern 
the accumulation of ore deposits. Then, again, mines fail often for want of 
capital^ and this owing to the requirements and costs of the undertaking not 
having been carefully considered beforehand. Another cause of failure is 
that proper machinery for pumping is not provided for ; another, the expen- 
diture of money in trying to produce immediate surface results instead of 
sinking shafts; and yet another cause is, that of working on borrowed 
capital. In some mines of real worth, a sum of money has been paid away in 
interest that would have been sufficient to pay a small dividend on the capital 
actua jnecessary for establishing the mine. Many mines have been ruined 
by the enormous expense incurred in management by directors and secretaries 
living at a distance from the works, and not giving sufficient time to personal 
inspection, and also by the expenditure of money on unnecessary and costly 
buildings above ground. The present age demands a more intelligent class 
,of mine captains, engineers, and miners, and the establishment of schools of 
mines becomes every year more necessary. The time has passed for mines to 
be managed by rule of thumb. No doubt there are numbers of men, all the 


world over, who are intelligent and are well versed in the knowledge of the 
districts they have been accustomed to work in, but who are perfectly igno- 
rant of the different conditions of ore deposits of other countries. Instances 
of unintelligent methods of working are common. Many men in this colony 
in sinking on a quartz vein are of opinion that if they only go deep enough 
they are certain to strike gold ; they do not test the stone as they proceed, 
and therefore are ignorant as to whether it does or does not carry gold. In 
this way much labour and money is wasted. In some instances this may be 
done with a fraudulent purpose, miners leading a company to beHeve that 
their prospects are good, and thus securing to themselves so many months 
work and wages. The stone from the reef should be frequently tested. A 
common error in connection with alluvial diggings is, that of supposing that 
there must be a reef in the neighbourhood from which the gold has been 
derived. There is no doubt but that in many cases it has come from small 
veins or leaders scattered through the rock. 

■ .■' 
■ i 

In reference to alluvial gold mining, ^fc!^ay be of interest to note the 
diflference in the past and present fees charged for a licence or " miner's 
right." Up to the month of November, 1854, the fee was one pound ten 
shillings per month ; it was then reduced to ten .shillings per month ; the 
present charge is five shillings a year. This authoAses the holder to search 
and mine for gold upon any Crown knds. 

In conclusion, I desire to thank Mr. H. P. Woodward (late Assistant 
Geologist), for notes furnished by him on many of the mines ; and Mr. E. 
Davenport Cleland, who has ably assisted me in collecting and arranging the 
information contained in this mining record,. ^and seeing it through the 
press. Having before acknowledged my indebtedness to the works of Professor 
Ulrich and Mr. J. B. Austin, nothing remains to be done but to thank the 
following gentlemen for the information they have placed at my disposal : — 

Captain H. R. Hancock — ^Reports on the Moonta, Wallaroo, Eurilla, 
and other Mines. 

Captain R. Cowling — ^Report on the Hamley Mine. 

Captain W. H. Price-Eeports on the TaHsker and Wheal Margaret 

Captain W. H. James — ^Report on the Blinman Mine. 

Captain W. R. Morton — ^Report on the Kapunda Mine. ^ 

Captain H. Cock — Report on the Alma Mine. 

Captain Jno. Warren — Report on the Eureka Mine. 

Captain W. Pleitner — ^Report on the Mint Mine. 

Mr. A. Caudan — ^Reports on the German Reef and Balhannah Mine. 

i « 

. "» 



Mr. J. 0. F. Johnson, M.P. — Reports on the Bird-in-Hand Extended 
and the Woman in White Mines. 

Chief Warden of Goldfields — ^Various reports. 

Mr. F. C. Singleton— Report on the Aclare Mine, and other information. 

Mr. W. L. Ware — ^Reports on the Prince Alfred, East Alma, Mid Alma, 
and Sebastopol Mines. 

Mr. Thos. Gill — ^Books and Reports. 

Mr. Thos. Young — Report on the Victory Mine. 

Mr. John Butterworth — ^Report on Barritt's Mine. 

Mr. W. S. Whitington — Books, &c. 

Mr. E. F. Cooke — Information re the Blinman, Mount Rose, and Wheal 
Friendship Mines. 

Mr. Qtivin F. Gardner — ^Report on New Era Mine, &c. 

Mr. A. H. Scarf e —Reports on Bird-in-Hand, Two-in-the-Bush, and 
Ridge Mines. 

Mr. G. F. Hancock — Report on the Almanda Mine. 

The Proprietors of The South Australian Begiater — For Books, &c. 

Captain Hansford Ward — Report on the Muminnie Mine. 

Mr. Jno. Harvey— Information respecting the Talisker and Wheal Ellen 


Mr. W. D. Scott-^Report on the Adelaide Mine. 

Mr. J. R. Smith — Report on the Durdan Mine. 

Mr. K. St. Barbe Miller — Report on Mount's Venture. 

Mr. C. L. Dubois — Report on Mount Jagged Mine. 

Mr. C. J. Coates — Information regarding the Burrawing Mine. 

Mr. W. Green — ^Reports on Billeroo and Mount Gunson Mines. 



Adelaide, April 30th, 1887. 



• « 



Mining Records 




Adelaibb Mining Company, formed in 1846. The property was situated twelve 
miles N'.E. by E. of Adelaide, on section No. 5526, hundred of Onkaparinga, and 
near the Victoria gold mine. About seventy tons of ore were raised, samples of 
which were sent to England and the balance advertised for sale in the colony. The 
principal workings were on the spur of a hill in the N.E. comer of the section. Th6 
lodes formed a group of eight or nine, and, from what can be seen in the old workings, 
were nearly vertical, or having a very slight underlay to the westward. In some 
places the lodes seem to have come together and formed large bunches of quartz and 
copper ore. They bear S.W. and N.E., and vary in width from about 6in. to 6ft. 
In one or two places the excavations are from 12ft. to 20ft. wide. The ores consist 
of carbonates, and grey and yellow copper ore, associated in some instances with 
silver and gold. About four years ago, five tons of ore taken from a lode a little to 
the east of the old workings yielded 22J per cent, of fine copper. In the old work- 
ings the metallic minerals are principally associated with quartz and gossan ; while 
in other lodes, in addition to these, there is a large quantity of barytes. The country 
rock is chiefly slate, traversed by bands of hard rock. The depth and number of the 
shafts and drives is not known, as, for the most part, the works are inaccessible. 

Noticable features in the workings are the great number of shallow drives, the 
number of parallel lodes that have been struck, and the fact that they all carried ore 
more or less near the surface. In 1851 the men abandoned the mine, and went to 
the Victorian diggings. Since then work has been done by a succession of tributors, 
and this probably accounts for the " tunnelling " together of the mine. The area of 
the old workings forms but a small portion of the Adelaide Mine section. 

The All Nations Mine is one of the Burra group, and was worked by a 
Melbourne company. No record of results. (1867.) % 

Angaston. — Previous to the year 1846 two copper lodes were discovered on a .<^ 

section close to Angaston and in the valley of the River Gawler. One of these lodes ^, 
was traced for a distance of 200 yards, and from some samples of ore taken from it ♦ ,-/ 
33 per cent, of copper is said to have been obtained . by assay. In common '^ 

with many other localities in this colony, this district has the appearance of being 
rich in copper ore, but there is no evidence at hand to show if any attempt has been 
made to develop it. 

Anstey's Mine, near the sources of the Torrens, on the Highercombe property^- 
No records. (1846.) 

Apex Hill Mine, 176 miles N.N.E. of Port Augusta, is situated in rather rough ^ •' 

.-■ /? / 


country and amongst steep hills. A lode running about N.E. and S.W. is traceable 
for about 150 yards on the surface. The back of the lode consists of ironstone, with 
quartz and copper ore. The country is quartz and clayslate. Several stains of 
copper are found in other places away from the lode ; there are very strong green 
stains on the face of a precipitous rocky hill at one side of the creek, while the hill 
on the opposite side is covered with blue stains. The ore in the lode is not very 
rich, but looks promising, consisting of green and blue carbonate, with a little grey 
ore. It is impossible to say what it may prove in depth, the ground not having been 
opened at all. (Austin, 1863.) 

Apf£Alina. — Three miles N.E. of this place and west of Mount Carnarvon. A 
mineral licence was taken out by Tkornbar and Hele. It was reported, to contain a 
fairly defined lode of grey ore and green carbonates. 

Another licence was taken out adjoining this one, but nothing has been reported 
concerning it. Very little work has been done here. A shaft 50ft. deep was sunk, 
and fine specimens of native copper were got. Dioptase, or silicate of copper, is 
found here. The surrounding country is marked by dark-blue flags and slates, with 
bands of hard blue rock, dense and compact, which dip south, 20° west, at an angle 
of 15° to 30°. The lode is accompanied by a dyke of hard breccia or conglomerate, 
with fragments of various rocks, and contains a great deal of iron pyrites. (1859.) 

Abno Bay or Wikdittib Copper Mine is four miles S.W. of Wangaraleednie 
station and about eighty miles N.E. of Port Lincoln. A shaft has been sunk 
to a depth of 100ft. No further records obtainable. 

The Australian Mining Company was established in London, inl845. The 
subscribed capital was £400,000, in 20,000 shares of £20 each, of which (in 1847) 
£40,000 were paid up. Their principal properties are at Tungkillo, Reedy Creek, 
thirty-four miles north-easterly from Adelaide, and at Charlton, fourteen miles south 
of Mount Remarkable. (For mines, see Charlton and Tungkillo.) 

The Balhannah Copper Mine. — (See under " Gold"). 

The Barossa Coppeb Mine, was at one time the property of the Royal Mining 
Company. It is situated twenty-two miles N.E, of Adelaide. There is no record of 
work done upon it. (1856.) 

The Beltana Copper Mine was opened by a small company, who began to work 
the sections. They sent a few tons of ore away, but the smallness of the capital 
raised prevented the mines from being properly worked. The mine lies in a country 
of low ranges, about eighteen miles west of Beltana station, and half way between the 
southern end of the Mount Deception Range and Lake Torrens. The ore deposit is 
represented by a thin zone of soft arenaceous shales,, impregnated with and enclosing 
small patches and nodular pieces of atacamite (chloride of copper). The deposit 
dips apparently at an angle of :^0° to 25° northward, underneath a thick bed of hard 
limestone, forming the flat top of a low hill. The workings lie on the southern slope 
of this hill. They consist of four openings, two of which are mere shallow excava- 
tions, and the third an underlay shaft of about 16ft. ileep, with a crossdrive. The 
fourth, also an underlay shaft of about 60ft. in depth. This underlays for the first 
40ft. at an angle of 40°, and flatter for the remaining distance, the angle not being 
more than 25°. The shales exposed in this shaft are very soft, and full of streaks 
and concretionary masses of impure brown iron ore, which contains seams and cavities 
full of crystalline coatings of atacamite. Besides these, small patches and veins of 
gypsum occur, and large and small angular and irregular masses of cavernous quartz, 
.the hollows of which are mostly occupied by atacamite in fine acicular crystals, asso- 
ciated occasionally with carbonate of lead. A lot of ore left on the ground is but of 
middling quality, but might be brought to a good percentage by dressing. 

The prospects of this mine do not appear encouraging, nor do they appear to 
warrant any great expenditure. (Ulrich, 1872.) 


The Beltidebe Mine is situated six miles N.W. of Hamilton, on the River 
Light, sixty miles from Adelaide. The mine is on the north end of Peters Hill, but 
has not been worked for many years. (1867.) 

Bewlby Mine. — ^West of Waukaringa, No records obtainable. 

The Billeboo Mine lies about 125 miles E.N.E. of Port Augusta. There are 
six lodes — ^three parallel lodes, two crosscourses, and a '* blow." The main lode 
bears N.E. and S.W., and is about 24ft. wide. Eighty tons of grey ore have been 
sent away of a percentage varying from 28 to 75. Three shafts have been sunk, the 
deepest of which is 120ft. ; and a drive has been put in to a length of 20ft. In one 
place a face of ore was met with 5ft. wide, and containing 75 per cent, of metal. 
The veinstone consists of quartz and gossan, and the country rock of schistose slate. 
The mine was opened about fourteen years ago. 

Blinhan. — Respecting the discovery of this mine there is not, unfortunately, any 
written record. But it is supposed to have been found about the year 1862 by a shep- 
herd named Blinman. His attention was drawn to the spot by a great outcrop of 
mineral on top of a hill, about 90ft. above a creek that lies to the eastward* This 
mass was about 350ft. in length, nearly 100ft. in thickness in one part, and of con- 
siderable height. On being tested it proved to be rich copper ore. Mr. J. B. 
Austin, in his *^ Mines of South Australia," says : — 

The reef is compoeed of indurated clayslate, intermixed with ironstone and gossan, and formed 
the back of a lode running nearly north and south. In the clayslato small pieces of green carbonate 
and grey ore are found. On the rocks being broken away a fine lode of exceedingly rich ore was 
seen, 8ft. wide, and underlying westwards into the hill about ISin. iq the fathom. 

When Mr. Austin visited the mine the top of the hill was being stoped away, and 
a splendid course of ore was exposed to view. It was nearly solid ore for a width 
of 8ft., and had a pe;culiarly brilliant appearance, like a mixture of grey and red 
oxides. Some rich green and blue carbonates were occasionally met with, and specks 
of the finest yellow ore. The mine is 272 miles north of Adelaide, and about 120 
miles east of Fort Augusta; it is situated in the Flinders Range, and is at an elevation 
of 2,000ft. above the Parachilna plains. 

Professor Geo. H. F. Ulrich, F.G.S., reporting upon this mine in 1872, says, 
speaking of the outcrop : — 

The deposit, as a whole, is bounded on the east by bluish and mottled shaly slates, with a very 
steep eastward dip, which changes, however, at a short distance further east, to about 30*^. The rock 
on the west side is not w:ell exposed at the surface, but apparently consists of a calcareous, ferrugi- 
nous, partly breccicated sandstone, striking north 26° east, and dipping westerly at an angle of about 
60° at a short distance, north and close eastward of main stock ; a great irregularity is apparent in the 
outcrops of the rocks of the country, calcareous shales and sandstones alternating « * * • 
The larger veins of ore traverse the stock mass at oblique, sometimes at nearly right angles, but 
innumerable smaller veins run intermediately and join the lower ones from all sides, 
whilst the stone between is more or less strongly impregnated with ore. At 40 fathoms in depth, 
sulphide ore (copper pyrites) makes its first appearance, and increases in quantity down to the water- 
level at 60 fathoms, where, in the bottom of a large pit, south of engine shaft, a fine vein of rather 
friable, but nearly pure copper pyrites was struck, that runs nearly east and west, and is from 1ft. to 
3ft. in thickness. In this portion of the mine tiie deposit * • « looks undoubtedly richer in 
ore than nearer the surface, the impregnation and veins of copper pyrites through the matrix reaching 
perhaps 20 to 26 per cent. 

Besides the minerals already mentioned the following occur in the deposit: — Azurite (blue 
carbonate of copper) rarely, in small specks near the surface ; reddish and block cupriferous brown 
iron ore, in veias and patches ; a black and muddy sulphide, coating copper pyrites ; very little iron 
pyrites ; galena, in small specks ; heavy spar (sulphate of baryta), in nests and irregular veins, often 
finely crystallised ; white calcite, in thin veins and nests ; aragonite, in fine druses of needle-shaped 
crystals ; quartz, in thin seams and small patches. On the slope of the hill, in close proximity to 
the deposit, the rocks also enclose small nests of micaceous iron ore. 

Below the water level a vein of bisulphuret ore was struck, finely disseminated 
through magnesian limestone. The depth of the shaft, at the present time, is 70 
fathoms. The ores obtained from the mine, from the surface of the 45 -fathom level 


were azurite and chalcocite, and from this lerel to the deepest point, chalcopyrite 
prevailed — ^pure iron pyrites being almost absent. At the 70-fathom level a series of 
vughs were discovered. 

The mineral products were, native copper in crystals and finely disseminated, also 
crystals of cuprite and melaconite. Besides showing an increase of mineral proper- 
ties, the temperature of the water decidedly increased ; but, owing to the breaking 
in of a quantity of water, the examination of this portion of the mine had to be 
abandoned. The lode at this level is clearly defined, averaging 21ft. in width, and 
yielding 3 to 4 tons of 25 per cent, chalcopyrite to the cubic fathom for the whole 
distance opened out. (W. Hy. James, 1886.) 

Mr. E. F. Cooke informs me that in this mine there is but one lode, running north 
and south, with cross courses. The underlay is nearly perpendicular down to the 
50 -fathom level, and from there as far as the 70-fathom level it would be about 
1 in 5. 

The width of the lode ranges from 14ft. to 18ft. In the sulphurets 
leaders of solid ore gave about 28 per cent, of metal. The whole of the lode was 
full of veins of ore averaging from 2 to 5 per cent., and capable of being dressed 
up to 25 per cent. The water level wa? slightly below the 50 fathom level. Drives 
to the length of 35 fathoms have been put into the carbonates on either side of the 
engine shaft. In sinking a winze below the 60-fathom level to meet the 70-fathom 
one, an immense vugh was discovered filled with water. The ore around this 
remarkable place is a rich sulphuret, and is coated with black oxide. 

During the period when the mine was being worked by the E. & A. Copper Co., 
viz., from 1882 to 1885, ore to the extent of 1,860 tons was smelted. 

The Bon Accoed Copper Mine adjoins the property of the Burra Mine, and it 
was owing to this that the ground was originally taken up. Although the indications 
of copper were slight, a large sum of money was spent, and a considerable amount of 
work was done. The engine shaft was sunk to a depth of 50 fathoms ; other shafts 
were sunk and drives were put in. Some of the piles of stuff that had been raised 
were impregnated with particles of ore, amongst which may be detected red oxide 
and black ore. (Austin, 1883.) 

BooLCOOMATTA MiNE, forty-two miles N.E. of Mannahill. There are four or five 
shafts, and many open cuttings in quartzite, mica schist, sandstone, slate, and granite, 
all more or less stained with copper. As far as can be judged no defined lode has 
been found. The mine has been long abandoned. (1885.) 

The Bkeadalbane Mining Company was established 1850; 3,000 shares, £5 
each. The property comprised five sections, and adjoined the property of the 
Strathalbyn Mining Company. Stopped work, 1851. No records. 

The Beemek Coppek Mine is situated thirty-six miles S.E. of Adelaide, and 
takes its name from the Bremer, a creek that fiows into the Murray. From the 
township of Callington it is about three and one-half miles distant, and the mine is 
frequently called by the name of the township. 

The mine was discovered in 1850, and was worked for several years. The sur- 
rounding country is fiat, composed of clayslate, micaceous schist, and occasionally a 
little quartz. Referring to Mr. J. B. Austin's book, the ores in this mine are sul- 
phurets, considered to be of good average quality. The prevailing ore is yellow 
sulphide, with some black oxide ; peacock ore is also found. The copper smelted at 
the works adjoining, during the time the mine was being worked, was of the quality 
of 96 per cent, of pure copper, notwithstanding that the refining process was omitted. 
This mine was a part of the property of the Britannia Mining Company. 

The Bbitannia Mining Company was established in 1849; capital £40,000, 
in 8,000 shares of £5 each. They held 7,000 acres of land, mmeral special survey 
on the Bremer. The operations of the company were confined to leasing setts of its 



land for mining purposes. In 1852 they had nine mines in active operation on 
this property, viz., the Wheal Friendship, the Wheal Maria, the Wheal Prosper, 
the Bremer, the Tresevean, the Menkoo, and three others. 

The Bboughton Coppee Mine is situated on the Broughton River,, and is 
distant from the Burra twenty-:tive miles in a direction west of north. The 
indications here were very promising, and some rich ore was obtained, but the 
country was so hard that it was found it would not pay for working, and after a few 
months the mine was abandoned. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Burra Bxtrra Mine was found in 1845 by a shepherd named Pickett. It 
is about 100 miles from Adelaide, a little to the east of north. It is situated on bald 
hills standing 130ft. above the surrounding country. The prevailing rock of the 
surrounding formation is limestone. The ores obtained from this mine have been 
chiefly red oxides, very rich blue and green carbonates, including malachite. Native 
copper has also been found. (Austin, 1863.) 

The discovery of this mine marked a new era in the history of the colony, sup- 
porting, as it did at one time, a large population. The capital invested in it was 
£12,320 in £5 shares, and no subsequent caU was ever made upon the shareholders. 
The total amoimt paid in dividends was £800,000. After being worked by the 
original owners for some years the mine was sold to a new company, but during the 
last few years it has not been worked, owing in some degree to the low price of 
copper and also to the fact that the deposit then being worked became exhausted. 
For many years the average yield was from 10,000 to 13,000 tons of ore, averaging 
22 to 23 per cent, of copper. 

In Mr. Conigrave's " Handbook of South Australia " it is stated that, during the 
twenty-nine and a half years in which the mine was worked, the company expended 
£2,241,167 in general expenses. The output of ore during the same period amounted 
to 234,648 tons, equal to 51,622 tons of copper. This, at the average price of copper, 
amounted to a money value of £4,749,224. The mine stopped working in 1877. 

At one time— in 1859 — the^ number of men employed was 1,170. In the deeper 
levels regular lodes are met with, running north and south, containing very rich 
ore of malachite, red oxide, and grey sulphuret of copper ; but above the 30-fathora 
level there is no appearance of lodes, the ores (malachite and carbonate) being 
deposited with the greatest irregularity. The blue carbonate often occurred in 
round nodules, with crystals of the greatest regularity projecting from the surface. 
The malachite was found in the form of stalactite, in slabs in crusting fissures 
and irregularly-shaped masses, which had been deposited in cavities of the rocks. 

The country rocks are much broken and twisted, and consist of cherty silicious 
rocks, crystalline white and grey limestone, blue slaty shales, and argillaceous sand- 

The Burrawing Mine is situated near Tumby Bay, on the west coast of Spencer's 
Gulf. It was opened about the year 1871, and was wound up in 1874. A good 
deal of work was done upon it, and ore to the value of £6,338 was sold. The money 
expended on the property amounted to over £30,000. Assays of ore varied from 17 
per cent, of fine copper, up to 37 per cent., and bismuth was present in the propor- 
tion of about IJ per cent. Owing to the captain's reports not being available, it is 
impossible to give the depth of the shafts, or the length of the drives. 

No work of any consequence has been done in the mine since 1874. 

Chappel's Lode, near the Yudnamutana Mine, is a gossan lode with copper, in 
silicious limestone, with green actinolite and greenstone, strike W. 10° S. The 
arenaceous limestone extends for some distance, and other limestone bars are visible. 
This lode is well defined, but has not been worked. (July, 1884.) 

Charlton Copper Mine, the property of the Australian Mining Company,' is 
situated on the Rocky Kiver, and is foiirteen miles S.E. of Mount Remarkable^ 



£20,000 is said to have been spent on this property without any return. The mine 
was not being worked when Mr. A. H. C. Selwyn, Victorian Government Geolo^st, 
visited the district in 1859. He described the ore seen in the spoil heaps as consisting 
ahnost entirely of small nodular lumps of impure blue carbonate, embedded in a rough 
white rock, chiefly composed of decomposed feldspar with grains of quartz and a little 
mica. Several shafts were sunk. 

Constitution Hill Coppeb Mine lies about four miles south of Mount Serle. 
It consists of two outcrops of ore, which show on the northern slope of a low rise 
within about half a mile N.W. of the terminating point of a high spur connected 
with Constitution Hill. The first and most important outcrop represents a lode-like 
mass of a dense, brittle quartzite, which is thickly traversed in all directions by 
larger and smaller quartz veins, most of them, however, running in the strike of the 
mass. Both quartzite and vein quartz are full of small green patches, seams and 
coatings of atacamite (chloride of copper), and there are scattered larger vein-like 
masses and patches, which show within an earthy atacamite envelope, nuclei of dark 
grey oxide of copper, generally associated with calcite. This dark grey oxide is very 
seldom pure oxide, but contains a variable percentage of sulphide of copper, and it 
is from the decomposition of this ore that it has mo8t probably arisen. 

The outcrop extends for about six chains in length, showing a strike of N. 35° E., 
and apparently dipping steeply to the S.E. Its thickness is about 15ft. 

The second outcrop of copper ore lies about one and a half chains eastward of 
the first, to which it shows great resemblance in mineral character. It is only from 
1ft. to 2ft. thick, and is traceable on the surface for about one chain in length. 

The coimtry between the two ore outcrops, and for some distance both east and 
west, consists of argillaceous friable mudslates, which show between the outcrops a 
strike of N. 23° E., and dip easterly at a very flat angle ; further east this strike is 
E. 35° N., with a south-easterly dip of 40°. West of the large quartz reef, more 
especially on top of the hill, the slates are traversed by quartz and ironstone or gos- 
san reefs, in great abundance, and large blocks of brecciated brown iron ore appear 
scattered over the surface. (XJlrich, 1872.) 

Constitution Hill Coppee Mine West lies about one and a half miles west 
of the hill. The ore indications occur in a lode of hard yellowish and reddish white 
flinty limestone, and consist of thin veins and coatings of malachite and scattered 
specks of greyish oxide of copper. The lode is from 3ft. to 4ft. thick, and strikes W. 
20° N., with dip apparently steep to the northwards. The country which the lode tra- 
verses consists of fissile purple slates, showing false bedding, and striking nearly due 
east and west, with a northward dip of about 60°. These are succeeded, at six 
chains southward, by grey calcareous slates. (XJlrich, 1872.) 

CoPPEEEB Mine is situated about six miles inland from Tumby Bay, on the 
western shore of Spencer's Gulf. There is no record of the work done. (1859.) 

Ceinnis Copper Mine is in the Angaston district. The lode is. of an exceed- 
fngly interesting character. In the heaps of '* spoil " that had been thrown out, 
there were found specimens of native copper, blue and green carbonates, red oxides, 
bulphurets, and copper pyrites, also micaceous and magnetic iron ore, carbonate of 
iron, calcedony, opal, and white crystalline limestone. The vein has an irregular 
N.E. and S.W. strike. (Selwyn, 1859.) 

Cumbeeland Mine belongs to the Wallaroo group, on Yorke's Peninsula. 
What appeared to be a fine lode was found on the surface, but proved to be a blow 
only, and ran out in about three fathoms. Some fine galena was also met with in a 
similar way. Three shafts were sunk, one to the depth of 27 fathoms, and many 
fathoms of drives and costeening were cut, but the lode could not be found, and the 
mine was abandoned. (Austin, 1863.) 


CiTHEAMXTLKA MiNE, in the hundred of Curramulka, Yorke's Peninsula, fifty-six 
miles west of Adelaide. There are traces of copper ore in calc spar, in the blue 
crystalline limestone. There is no appearance of a lode, and nothing to warrant the 
sinking of a shaft. (1884.) 

CuKBENCY Cbeek Sfegial Suevey. — A copper lode intersected the township 
lands, and specimens of blue and green carbonate brought from there to Adelaide, 
created much sensation at the time. (1848.) 

The Daisy Copper Mine, near the Yudnamutana mines, contains two lodes, one 
of which is about 4ft. wide, and traceable for eighty yards along the surface, carry- 
ing grey and red oxide and green carbonate in fine gossan. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Daly Coppee Mine lies about five and a haK miles E.N.E. of the Yudna- 
mutana mines, and the country to the south and westward is, if anything, more broken, 
rocky, and wildly romantic than that in the neighbourhood of the Yudnamutana. The 
workings, such as they are, are opened in a very strong mass of quartzite that runs 
at a strike of about N. 45° W. up the steep slope and along the top of a range which 
rises to a height of about 200ft. above a creek lying to the S.W. The ore is of a 
very good percentage, and consists of earthy, and sometimes crystallised, malachite 
and azurite, interspersed with patches and seams of red and grey oxides of copper. 
The quartzite is generally much fractured, rather brittle, and full of argillaceous 
veins, only in some places, where the latter disappear, it is very hard and tough, and 
traversed by veins of quartz, often finely crystallised and enclosing scales of micaceous 
iron ore. It extends, with two short breaks occupied by earthy conglomeratic shales, 
for about twenty-five chains in length, and shows abundant copper stains nearly all 
the way. As regards the rocks of the district they are of metamorphic character, 
presenting mica schist, hornblende schist, satiny and spotted slates, all of the same 
varieties as observed near the Yudnamutana Mine. (Ulrich, 1872). 

Davison's Claim lies about two and a half miles from the Blinman Mine. It con- 
tains good indications reaching from the gully to some distance up the hill. A lode 
of ore of fair quality was discovered by sinking a shallow pit at the bottom of the 
hill, and in two or three other places ore was found. (Austin, 1863.) 

Dep6t Cbeek Coppee Mine is situated about twelve miles from Mount Rose and 
near Eyre's dep6t. The general character of the lodes here is favourable to the 
production of copper ores of good quality. The lodes contain green carbonate of 
copper, grey ores, and red oxide. (1860-9.) 

The Devon Consols is in the Wallaroo district. No records obtainable. 

The Dooea Coppee Mine is in the Wallaroo district. No records obtainable. 

The Dtteyea Coppee Mine lies about one mile south of the Wallaroo mines. 
It contained a great deal of ore, but it required treating by some cheap process for 
separating the ore before it was fit for market. At 12, 22, and 32 fathoms crosscuts 
and levels were driven, and two regular lodes were found running nearly east and 
west, and underlying nearly 18in. in the fathom. A large amount of mundic was 
met with in the lodes. In the 32-fathom level a good course of rich yellow and 
black ore was foimd, and here the two lodes seem to have run together. There is 
a good deal of black ore in veins through the mine, and some small branches of ore ; 
but in several places the ore has been thrown out by patches of improductive ground* 
(Austin, 1863;. More extended workings proved this mine to be unremxmerative* 

Dutton's Mine, eighty-two miles north of Adelaide, adjoins the Princess Royal 
Mine on the south. No work has been done since 1851. 


Elatina Mine.— South-west of Mount Emily. No records obtainable. 

Emu Fiat Copper Mine is south-west of the township of Clare ; here the vem 
is a mixture of quartz, carbonate of lime, and sulphate of baryta, in grey, white, and 
brown slate, and hard white calcareous and silicious rock, and the ore, impure green 
and blue carbonates, mixed mth sulphurets of copper and iron. Not much work 
has been done on it. (Selwyn, 1859.) 

The Entebprise Mining Company held various sections on lease and freehold. 
Amongst others they had section 5535, on the Sixth Creek ; section 5607, on the 
Torrens; and section 267, adjoining Wheal Gawler Silver-Lead Mine. On the 
Sixth Creek section, ores were foimd comprising red oxide containing specks of virgin 
copper, grey copper, black oxide, and occasionally traces of blue and green carbonate. 
The company began operations in the spring of 1847; the capital was £3,000 in 
1,000 shares of £3 each, £1 per share deposited. A call of £l per share was made 
in January, 1848. 

Flaxman's Valley Mine. — ^Thirty-eight miles N.E. of Adelaide. No records 

The Flinders Mine, one of the Burra mines, was worked by a Melbourne com- 
pany. No records obtainable. 

The Flinders Copper Mine is two miles north of Tumby Bay, Spencer's Gulf. 
No record of workings obtainable. 

Gammon Creek Mine. — ^The lode is a well-defined one, showing on the surface 
for about three chains in length for an average width of 4ft. Specimens sent to Ade- 
laide contained grey sulphides. (1860-9.) 

The Glenalbyn Mining Company. — Established 1850. 2,000 shares £5 each. 
This property comprised of four sections, situated about one mile to the N.W. of 
the township of Strathalbyn. Stopped work 1851. No records obtainable. 

The Gorge Copper Mine, two miles south of Normanville, is on the face of a 
steep hill rising almost abruptly from a flat half a mile from the sea. The lode runs 
N.N.E., and is traceable for above 250 yards. On the surface it is composed of a 
quartzose rock strongly stained and impregnated with blue and green carbonate of 
copper, and contains thin veins of ore. (Austin, 1863.) 

Gow*8 Copper Mine is four miles east of Mingary, near the New South Wales 
border. At the time of my visit ('1885) three or four excavations had been made to 
a depth of from 6ft. to 12ft., at considerable distances apart, along the course of the 
lode. The depths of the holes were not sufficient to test it. Mr. Gow stated thai 
assays of two or three samples of the earthy material from the lode had yielded silver 
at the rate of 12oz. to the ton. The strike is N.N.E., and in that direction the lode 
can be traced for a distance of half a mile. 

Grand Junction Mine, forty-five miles N.E. of Adelaide. No records obtain- 
able. (1867.) 

The Great Bradford Mine, four and a half miles from Finniss Flat, County 
of Hindmarsh, has been abandoned for many years. No records obtainable. 

The Great Gladstone Copper Mine is situated thirty-two miles easterly from. 
Port Augusta, on the slopes of low hills lying to the eastward of Mount Brown. The 
country consists of clayslate and quartz. Several outcroppin^s of ore, and copper 
stains, are found in many places. The backs of the lodes consist chiefly of ironstone. 


and a considerable quantity of iron was found in most of the ore raised. There are, 
however, some fine specimens of rich copper ore, grey oxide and brown ore, besides 
green carbonates and a little malachite. Small particles of galena were also met 
with. Three shafts were sunk, varying from 8 to 17 fathoms in depth, and drives 
were put in for some distance. This mine is rich in specimens for the cabinet, the 
crystals of quartz stained with copper and other metals being very beautiful. 
(Austin, 1863.) 

The Gkeat Wheal Obfokd Mine, better known as the " Old Reedy Creek Mine," 
is comprised in the property of the Australian Mining Company at Tungkillo. There 
were several lodes, and the work done on one or two of them was extensive. One 
shaft was sunk to a depth of from 40 to 50 fathoms, and an adit was driven to a 
distance of 300 fathoms. The 10, 20, and 30 fathom levels were also^ driven to con- 
siderable distances. The lodes were from 2ft. to 8ft. wide, and contained green car- 
bonates and grey ore. 

CrREENOCK Cbeek Mine, distant thirty-four miles from Adelaide. Indications 
were considered good. Work suspended in 1851. 

The Gbtjnthal Copper Mine. {See under " Gold.") 

Gum Well, about 56 miles east of Petersburg. Two miles west of Gum Well 
station there is an old mine. The workings are an open cutting, 30 yards in length, and 
10ft. deep, and a shaft about 40ft. deep. In the cutting a quartz and ironstone reef 
is disclosed, carrying copper ore. The strike of the reef is E.N.E. The rocks are 
black and bluish calcareous slates, and fine-grained slaty sandstone and limestone. 

Hallett's Mine, within two miles of Reynella. Has not been worked for many 
years past. No records obtainable. (1867.) 

The Hamlet Mine belongs to the Moonta group on Yorke's Peninsula. There 
are six lodes running in a westerly direction and underlaying 3ft. per fathom, and bear- 
ing 12° E. of N. Their average width is 3ft., and the ores they contain are chiefly 
yellow and purple. The veinstone associated with the metallic minerals is quartz 
and feldspar, and the country rock is hard and close. The q-iantity of ore raised 
(February, 1887) equals 41,814 tons of the value of £333,739, and the average per- 
centage of copper is 20 per cent. Nine shafts have been sank, the deepest of which 
is 153 fathoms. The ore occurs in a regular defined lode with occasional bunches. 

The Home Mine, or strictly speaking the Home Shaft, is one of many shafts in the 
Wallaroo mines, Yorke's Peninsula. It is a short distance north-west of the Matta 
Matta Mine, and near to the town of Kadina. Other shafts in the immediate 
neighbourhood, are the Wombat, Taylor's, Young's, and Hughes'. These are sunk 
upon the same lode, running east and west, at considerable intervals apart. In 
Hughes' shaft, at the 40-fathom level, a drive has been carried east on a splendid 
course of solid ore, 8ft. in width. The prevailing nature of the ore in this mine is 
yellow sulphuret, but a variety of ore has been met with in the course of the workings, 
namely, red and grey oxides, carbonates and muriates, and a little malleable copper. 
The average quality from these mines does not exceed probably 15 per cent., but 
the quantity is enormous. (Austin, 1863.) 

Horseshoe, Onkaparinga. — No records obtainable. 

The John Bull Mine, or Cooking's Warioota, is close to the original 
Warioota Mine, which is situated about ten miles S.W. of the township of Beltana. 
•The original finders, four working miners, worked on these claims for twelve months, 



without the aid of machinery. The lode, as it appeared on the surface, was almost 
flat. About 50 tons of ore were tried, and gave nearly 45 per cent, without dressing. 

The Kanmantoo Mine, thirty-three miles S.E. of Adelaide. It is the property of 
the South Australian Company, and was worked by them for some years. It was 
found, however, that the 'expenses were greater than the profits, and work ceased. 
Since then work has been done by small local companies at different times, but in no 
case at a profit. The mine ^hos now lain idle for some years past. 

Mr. J. B. Austin, writing ^Mus mine in 1863, says : — 

The principal lodes are the KangaiSorEinily's, and the Boundary lode. The two first run north 
and south, and the latter is a counter lode. The first lode yielded yellow ore of a moderate per- 
centage. £inily's lode gave large quantities of yellow ore, which at the iO-fathom level gave place 
to red oxide and native copper. Two levels have been driven on the lode at 16 and 26 fathoms 
respectively. The copper produced at the smelting works from the ore now being raised amounts to 
about twelve tons per month. A great amount of work has been done at this mine since its com- 
mencement. The South Australian Company raised about 4,000 tons of ore, and opened a large 
extent of ground. Mr. W. B. Dawes, the subsequent lessee, raised about 1,900 tons. Smelting 
works were built in the neighborhood of Scptt's Creek, and consisted of a calcining, a reverberatory, 
and a refining furnace, and other necessary buildings. 

The Kanmantoo Mine West is a short distance from the other, on an adjoining 
section, but no great amount of work was done upon it, nor have any special results 
been recorded as having been obtained. Some good carbonates were obtained in one 
part of the mine. (Austin, 1863.) ' 

The Kannappa Mine lies thirty-seven miles E.N.E. of Adelaide. A lode was cut 
in the 20-fathom level, and seemed to be of a very good character. No further 
records obtainable. (1867.) 

The Kanyaka Mine is fifty-seven miles in a N.N.E. direction from Port 
Augusta. The coimtry consists chiefly of pipeclay, decomposed slate, and soft sand- 
stone. There is a very well defined lode, having near the surface the appearance of 
indurated clay, strongly stained with copper, and containing occasional stones of ore 
of fair average percentage. The lode is from 2ft. to 30in. in width, but is rather flat, 
dipping from the horizon only about 2ft. in the fathom. A great deal of gypsum is 
found at the sides of the lode. Several shafts*have been sunk (1863), the deepest of 
which is 15 fathoms, and these are connected by drives extending for about 40 
fathoms. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Kapunda Mine is the oldest copper mine in South Australia, having been 
discovered in 1842, by Mr. Francis S. Button and Mr. Charles Samuel Bag^. The 
workings are on hilly ground of moderate elevation. The first ore was raised at the 
Kapunda Mine on January 8th, 1844; and on the 23rd of the same month/five dray 
loads were dispatched to Adelaide. The news of the discovery of this new source of 
wealth to the colony caused great excitement in the city, and had the effect of stimu- 
lating the search for minerals in all directions. In the Kapunda Mine thtfre are four 
lodes, of widths varying from 4ft.' to 6in. Main lode is the chief one, ^nd is inter- 
sected by Cox*s lode at an angle of 25° ; Hart's lode crossed both Main land Cox's, 
and it was here that the richest deposits of ore were discovered. / 

The direction of the lodes is 25° east of north, and the underlay as a fule is 2ft. in 
the fathom. Associated with the metallic minerals is a run of blue decjbmposed slate 
on the east and north, red soapstone on the west, and on the N.W. a l^^rd dark rock 
which dips towards the south, and though seen on the surface is not igain met with 
until a depth of 75 fathoms is reached. 

The proportion of metal to the ton is about 18J per cent. 

There are eight shafts, comprising two of 75 fathoms, one of 35 fathoisris, and five 
ranging from 14 to 25 fathoms. The water level is 8 fathoms below the surface. 


On the 14th June, 1879, the mine was sold under liquidation, and from that date to 
within the last few months (May, 1886) has been worked by tributors. The ore 
raised by them is valued at about £9,000. Unfortunately, information regardinji^ the 
total quantity of ore raised has not been available, but in Harcus* " South Australia," 
1876, an article from the pen of Mr. J. B. Austin gives the quantity raised, from 
the time of the opening of the mine until it was sold, as averaging 2,000 tons per 
year. At the 75-fathom level an exceedingly rich lode of from 2ft. to 3ft. in width 
was found, consisting of yellow sulphide of copper, said to be equal to 24 per cent. 
Mr. Alfred R. C. Selwyn, Government Geologist of Victoria, who visited the Kapunda 
mines in 1859, remarks: — 

The mines are worked in a very peculiar soft aluminous rock of various colors — ^f rom pure white 
passing into pink and red, grey and blue. Frequently it is either covered with spots or traversed at 
light angles to the beds by thin veins or streaks of a pure white soft mineral, probably silicate of 
alumina. The galleries are all driven with pickaxe and spade, the rock seldom being hard enough to 
render the use of powder necessary. 

The general dip of the beds near Kapunda is west 10° to 30° south. The veins, of which there 
are several running in parallel lines, north by east, and south by west, have also a westerly underlay 
from 25° to 80°. To the N.E. they aU termmated abruptly in a soft dark-blue pyritous slate, which 
runs N.E. and S.W., dipping to the N.W., from 26° to 70°. On their southern strike the veins are 
are all intersected by a series of nearly east and west faults, throwing them to the eastward in steps. 

The ores, blue and green carbonates, and red and black oxides, and native copper, seem to occur in 
very irregular veins and patches occasionally in the planes of the bedding. 

The Kabkabilla Mine belongs to the Yorke's Peninsula group, and is south of 
the Moonta Mine. The ores were not of a very high-class character. (1867.) 

The Kabkitlto Mine is situated between Kapunda and the Burra, and is about 
tbirty-five miles from the first-named township. This mine is chiefly remarkable 
from the fact that, though the indications of copper were considered extremely good, 
very little copper was obtained. Large and regular lodes were found ; the walls 
were well defined, but the ironstone and gossan in them did not, as was hoped, give 
place to copper. (Austin, 1863.) 

Ketchowla, Pandappa Dam. — ^N.E. District. There was a show of copper on 
the surface at this place, and a fair amount of work was done to prove the lode. But 
as the prospects were not promising the mine was abandoned. Galena is said to 
be found in the neighbourhood. 

The Kingston Mine, seven miles N.E. of Kooringa. Some stones of ore, oxide 
of copper, and silver-lead have been found on the property. No further record ob- 
tainable. (1867.) 

The Kibwan Mine lies four miles south of Mount Craig and seventy-two miles 
N.E. of Port Augusta, at the foot of a range of hills sloping towards a plain to the 
westward. The country consists of a light soft killas and a kind of pipeclay. There 
are several lodes and bunches of ore on the property, running generally to the east of 
north, and underlying from 18in. to 2ft. in the fathom. Three shafts have been sunk, 
and at the bottom of the deepest, 21 fathoms, there is a lode between 3ft. and 
4ft. wide, composed of quartz and copper pyrites. In a crosscut, driven to the S.E., 
a lode of fine blue and green carbonates, about a foot wide, was cut. A short 
distance to the west two shafts were sunk on the course of the lode, which is com- 
posed of carbonates of copper intermixed with ironstone, and is traceable for 300 
yards. On another section, about a mile and a half S.E. of the Kirwan, a small shaft 
was simk on a lode running east and west, and which produced some fine grey and 
red oxide. The country on the Kirwan Mine differs somewhat from that on either 
side, and would seem to be a band of more favourable strata for copper. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Kxjeilla Mine lies a little to the S.W. of the Wallaroo mines. It contains 
three lodes underlaying north, with an east and west bearing, and having an under- 
lay ranging from 1ft. 8in. to 2ft. 3in. in the fathom. The width of the lodes varies 


from 1ft. to 9ft., and the ore they contain is chiefly chalcopyrite. Sometimes, 
indeed, it is pure chalcopyrite, but, in other instances, it contains from 3 to 15 
per cent, of copper. The veinstone associated with the metallic minerals is iron 
pyrites, portions of^^edrock, &c., while the country rock is talcose schist. Twenty- 
six shafts, includin^lhe trial shafts, have been sunk, the deepest of which is 498ft. 
The length of drives pjf in at various levels equals three and one-sixth miles. The 
water level was reached\t 30ft. The deposits of copper ore are chiefly along the 
lead of the lodes, associated with " gangue," the present supplies being mostly chal- 

In many ways this mine is similar to the Wallaroo mines, the chief difference being 
that the veinstone is not so mixed with " gangue," so that the chalcopyrite is of a 
higher percentage. Accurate information with regard to the total amount of ore 
raised, and its money value, has not been obtainable. But, during the ten years from 
1874 to^ 1884, the ore sold from this mine equalled 19,397 tons, of the value of 
£155,068. Of the ore raised prior to 1874, no record has been kept ; and, of that 
obtained since 1884, it is probable that at least 1,000 tons has been sold to the value 
of £5,000. (1886.) 

Lake Tokeens Mine is adjacent to the Beltana Mine, on the Western Plains. 
It was originally taken out by resident squatters, and held by them for several years. 
The lode is said to show on the surface for a distance of 600 yards, and its back to 
be 6ft. wide in some places, of good copper ore. (1860-9.) 

Leigh's Cbeee Mine. — Four miles east of Mount Coffin. There are two, north 
and south, lodes. The lode is calcite, quartz, and gossan, with a dip 45° east, alterna- 
ting with slate, dip west ; strike E. 20° S. The ores are blue and green carbonates. 
Two shafts have been sunk to a depth of 80ft. to 100ft. Another mine is situated 
about two miles S.E. of Leigh's Creek railway station, from which some copper ore 
has been obtained. Green carbonate exists in small veins, colouring a white argil- 
laceous sandstone. Associated with this are reefs of iron ore and silicious rock. 

Lyndoch Valley. — The Enterprise Mining Co. held a twenty-one years' lease of 
two sections in this valley. No record of work done. 

Magill. — A mine was opened near this place in 1846. No record of work done. 

Malone's Mine is about eight miles from Watt's Sugar Loaf, and eleven miles from 
the township of Kanyaka. A lode containing stains of copper was foimd on the 
surface, and on sinking some good ore was metwith, containing gossan. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Mallee Hut Claim is about sixteen miles south of the Blinman Mine, and 
iabout six miles south of west of Mount Emily. A lode opened in a creek showed 
good walls, with killas and flucan and fine gossan in the lode, and a fair amount of 
green carbonate of copper and yellow ore. The lode is nearly perpendicular, and 
18in. wide. A small shaft was sunk, but the mine was ultimately abandoned. 
(Austin, 1863.) 

The Matta Matta Mine, Wallaroo, Yorke's Peninsula. Two shafts were sunk 
to depths of 20 fathoms. A fine lode of ore, running about E.S.K. and N.W. was 
cut at the 10-fathom level. It contained green carbonate and grey sulphuret, with 
red oxide and a quantity of malleable copper. (Austin, 1863.) The mine was 
worked as a separate property for a short space of time subsequent to the beginning 
of the mining industry on the Peninsula. The operations of the proprietors were, 
however, suspended, owing to the influx of water ; and ultimately the mine was 
included in the property of the Wallaroo mines. 


McConville's Mine is about six miles south from Kanyaka, amongst low bald hills. 
There is a lode on the surface, running about 300 yards north and south, and about 
18in. thick. The ore, which is mixed with gossan and feldspar, is not continuous, 
but occurs in patches. It is a rich sulphuret of a dark-greenish -grey colour. A 
shaft was sunk on the lode to the depth of about three and a half fathoms, and a 
drive was then carried for five fathoms, copper ore being found throughout. 
(Austin, 1863.) 

Menkoo Mining Company. — A lease from the Britannia Mining Company, 
Bremer; 1,500 shares at £5 each. Stopped in 1851. No records. 

MiMBUBSA Mine, west of Waukaringa. No records obtainable. 

MocHATooNA MiNE, twenty-scvcn miles N.N.E. of the Blinman, was at one time 
considered to be a wonderful discovery. A number of men were employed there for 
some time, but, owing to mismanagement, the mine was eventually abandoned. 

The Monster Lode Propebty is near the Wheal Ellen Mine, about three miles 
from the town of Strathalbyn. It consists of several mining sections, upon which 
a few miners worked for some months on tribute. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Montacxjte Mine is one of the oldest in the colony, having been discovered 
in 1843-4. It is on the Mount Lofty Range, and about ten miles nearly N.E. from 
Adelaide. The mine is on a steep spur of the range, and extensive out-croppings of 
ore were visible on the surface. The ores were chiefly yellow and peacock ores, 
averaging 18 per cent. Some native copper was also found. (Austin, 1863.) 

In 1848 it 'appears that the quantity of ore raised was about 1,500 tons ; the 
quantity shipped about 1,000 tons, and the highest price realised in Swansea about 
£18 per ton. In 1846 the Customs returns give 503 tons of ore exported from this 
mine. "Work was stopped by the discovery of the Victorian goldfields in 1851. 
(See this mine imder " Gold.") 

• MooLOOLOO Mine, twenty -eight miles N.N.E. of the Blinman. It was tested by a 
company, but the ores were not sufficiently rich to pay expenses incurred of cartage 
to smelting works, thirty miles. Reports mention that on the hill is a " boil " capped 
with iron and manganese, showing good ore in several places. Very little work done. 

MooLOOLOo Mine South, of the same description as the Moolooloo Mine proper. 

The Moonta Mine and Wallaroo Mines were discovered about the year 
1863-4, and are the richest copper mines in the colony. They are situated on 
Yorke's Peninsula on the eastern shore of Spencer's Gulf. 

There are five main lodes on the property, and from each of these, various spurs 
and minor lodes branch out, and are connected with the main lode by occasional 
cross veins. Including these there are twenty-seven lodes. Their direction is north- 
westerly, and their underlay varies from 3ft. to 6ft. in the fathom. The main lode 
bears N. 20° E., and the others vary from that up to N. 45° E. The width ranges 
from 6in. to 20ft., and the ore obtained from the lodes in the present workings is 
chiefly chalcopyrite and occasionally bomite. The bulk of the veinstone — chiefly 
quartz and at times portion of the bedrock— as raised ore and " gangue" gives from 
2 to 5 per cent, of copper, but sometimes clear chalcopyrite gives 20 to 30 per cent., 
and bornite from 30 to 50 per cent. The country rock is felsite porphyry, orthoclase 
porphyry, a special variety. 

The quantity of ore raised from the mine from the commencement to the 30th 


June, 1886, equalled in gross tons of 21 cwt. 476,180 tons, and the average percentage 
of copper on net dry weight of dressed ore equaled 20 per cent. 

The total value of the copper, in the colony, up to June 30th, 1886, amounted to 
£4,579,097. Seventy-seven shafts have been sunk, including twenty-one trial shafts. 
The deepest shaft is 255 fathoms (1,530ft.), and the drives measure twenty-seven 
and a half miles. The water level was reached at about five fathoms. 

The deposits of copper ore are chiefly along the lead of the lodes associated with 
" gangue," the present supplies being mostly chalcopyrite and occasionally bomite. 
An exceedingly small proportion of green carbonate ore was formerly found close to 
the surface ; but a large proportion of the ^reen ore was atacamite, and this was 
generally met with below the other. Sometimes red oxide was found with the 
atacamite. This deposit did not extend to more than a few inches, or occasionally 
a few feet from the surface. 

The pecularity of this cupriferous district was disclosed by the removal of these 
ores, and the sinking of the shafts ; and was — that although the lodes continued 
regular, no further ore was met with, and, as a rule no stain of copper was seen 
until the depth of from five to ten fathoms was reached, when rich oxides ^nd 
malleable copper deposits were struck, and after that black and grey sulphides. 
These deposits, however, were chiefly worked out in past times. Chalcopyrite 
occured at an average depth of about 20 fathoms, and this with occasional deposits 
of bomite, has held down either in large or small proportions to the present deepest 
point of operations. When these mines were in full work they employed 
upwards of 1,000 men and boys, and a population of not less than 20,000 souls 
was attracted to the spot. The annual report presented to the shareholders on the 
23rd February, 1887, shows the present number of men and boys employed to be 
637. The copper in hand on December 31st, 1886, has been valued at £40 per ton 
net in the colony, and the stocks of ore at 8s. per unit. The estimated profit for the 
year is put at £2,212 15s. The ore raised and dressed from waste ores during the 
past year, at the Wallaroo and Kurilla Mines, has been 11,245 tons gross weight 
of an average produce of 12J per cent, fine copper. From Moonta, during the, 
year, 21,562 tons of ore have been received for smelting, and the total quantity 
of copper made during the year equals 6,207 tons. Since the last annual meeting the 
directors have purchased the KuriUa Mine for £13,865. At Wallaroo operations are 
now restricted to dressing up the waste ores at the surface, sinking the oiBce shaft, 
and raising a limited quantity of ore from stopes and tribute pitches. (1887.) 

The Mooboo Mine is a few miles to the west of Prism Hill, and about twenty-five 
miles north of Moimt Chambers. The indication in this mine was a hill stained with 
copper from top to bottom. The only work done here was the sinking of two shafts 
to the depth of six and eight fathoms respectively. About twenty tons of ore were 
raised. The water came in strongly, and no promising lode was found. (Austin, 

Moephett's Mine. — Fiftv-one miles N.E. of Adelaide. No records obtain- 
able. (1867.) 

Mobtlock's Mine, near the Burrawing, Turaby Bay. No records obtainable. 

Mount Bold, east of Clarendon. — Copper ore and galena occur here, and have 
been worked to a slight extent. (1883.) 

Mount Bubr Mine is fourteen miles north of Patsey's Sprinprs, and fifty-six miles 
north of the Blinman. The rock, of which the mount is composed, and mainly also 
the spur on which lies the mine, is a coarse quartz grit, silicified and concretionary 
in places, and therefore assumes an appearance similar to the cupriferous outcrop of 
the Ooraldana Mine. Shallow shafts have been opened on the spur, and the ore, 
according to specimens lying about, consists of earthy-green carbonate, with some 


chloride, and occasionally blackish grey, and, more rarely,- red oxide of copper. 
This is associated with more or less brown hematite. The main ore-bearing part of 
the mine lies close along the boundary of the quartz grit and calcareous slate. This 
slate is also ferruginous and concretionary in part, and strikes E. 35^ N., and dips 
N. 35° W. at 40° to 50°. The principal workings consist of a tunnel about four 
chains in length, starting from a small gully. In this tunnel are exposed, interstratified 
\^ith the slate beds, brown iron ore, richly and intimately impregnated with grey 
oxide and green carbonate of copper. This lies in thin layers, the thickest of which 
is not more than three inches. The walls, which are rather soft, contain green 
carbonate, mixed with chloride of copper ; they also show glistening crystalline 
particles and thin veins of selenite. Further in, where the tunnel takes a strong 
bend to the southward, is to be found on the face a large pocket of ochreous brown 
iron ore. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

Mount Chambebs Mine, six miles south of the hill of that name, and thirty-two 
miles east of the Blinman. The surface of the ground is covered with boulders of 
primitive limestone. Several large blocks of malachite were found in a clear space, 
nmning north and south between the boulders. There is no regularly defined lode, 
although in one place the arrangement of the ore bore very much the appearance of 
one. Blocks of ore were found in three different parts of the section. The country 
is moderately hard pipeclay. Several shafts were sunk, but no lode was found, 
although a good deal of malachite and green carbonate is scattered on the surface. 
(Austin, 1863.) 

The Mount Coffin Mine lies forty-one miles N.N.W. of the Blinman, and about 
one mile S.E. of the Mount Coffin Trig, on the side of a steep hill. The lode runs 
almost east and west, and carries a small but rich quantity of ore, composed of 
chalcocite, malachite, and atacamite, in a much jointed slate. The dip is S. 10° W. 
65° to 70°. Two or three small shafts have been put down, and an incline drive 
following down the shaft alongside the lode. The lode is traceable for about two 
miles on the surface. The underlay is about two feet in six to the south. About 
78 tons of ore have been raised. It is very dredgy, and would require machinery to 
dress it. The mine stopped working in 1883. 

Mount Cbaig.— Sixteen miles east of Wonoka. A great deal of work was done' 
here, but no important results followed. (Austin, 1863.) 

Neab Mount Deception, between Beltana and Wirtawena Mines, six mineral 
sections were taken up for mining purposes. They yielded some fine specimens 
and nothing more. (1860-9.) 

MduNT Desibe. — In the neighbourhood of this hill, which is situated about thirteen 
miles S.E. of Memmema, on the Great Northern railway, two mineral claims were 
taken out. They were west of the mount, at distances of three and eight miles 
respectively. Very little work was done upon them, though the indications of copper 
ore were considered good. (1860-9.) 

Mount Elkington Mine, six miles west of the Blinman. Three sections were 
taken out. Copper shows on two of these in a well-defined lode. No record of work 
done. (1860-9.) 

The Mount Emily Mine is eleven miles due south of the Blinman, and five miles 
from the mount itself. It is near the top of a small conical hill. The work is 
represented by a small excavation, opened in a calcareous, mullocky shale. This is 
permeated by green carbonate and chloride, and contains scattered specks and small 
seams of grey oxide of copper. There are also present irregular roundish lumps of 
crystalline limestone, which, on being broken, show copper colouration throughout. 
Resting on this deposit, and forming the top of the hill, is an impure limestone, which 


apparently dips at an angle of 50° or 60° northward. The cupriferous shale seems 
to form an interstratified layer between limestone deposits. A bold outcrop of quartz 
commences about ten chains N.E. from the excavation, striking N. 20° E., and 
dips nearly vertically. Copper stains and coatings show here and there ; but the 
principal ore enclosed is galena, in thickly- scattered specks, sm^l patches, and 
occasionally in veins. Two other outcrops are close at hand, but neither of them 
show copper stains nor lead- ore impregnation. The country between these reefs 
consists of indurated calcareous shales and slates, with interstratified bands of hard 
limestone ; the strike is nearly east and west, dip N. at 50° to 60^. These rocks, 
judging from fragments scattered on the surface, seem to be traversed in the vicinity 
of the mine by small dykes of diorite greenstone ; and about a mile southward, on 
the Flope of a range, is a massive outcrop of the same rock. This should receive 
the attention of the prospector, for the reason that in Victoria dykes of this rock 
are traversed by auriferous quartz veins. Some of the richest mines in that colony 
are working on similar dykes. (XJlrich, 1872.) 

Mount Eitbo Mine is situated amongst high and rugged hills, tw€jnty-eight miles 
N.E. of the Blinman. A heavy reef of quartz and ironstone carries strong green 
and blue stains of copper, with occasional small pieces of ore ; and in one place some 
good specimens of grey oxide were found. No work has been done on this section. 
(Austin, 1863.) 

The Mount Gunson Copper Mine is situated about eighty miles N.N.W. of Port 
Augusta. There are two lodes, bearing N.E. and S.W., and ranging from 6ft. to 
18ft. in width. The ore consists of green and blue carbonates, and grey ore, con- 
taining about 26 per cent, of metal. The work done has been nothing more than 
surface prospecting, and about five tons of ore have been raised. The veinstone 
associated with the metallic mineral is quartz, and the country rock is sandstone and 
slate. The mine was discovered about the year 1875. 

. Mount Hemmino Mine, ten miles S.E. of Beltana township, and sixteen miles 
N. W. of the Blinman. A shaft 38ft. deep was sunk, disclosing a good lode at bottom. 

Mount Liverpool Mine lies about twenty-six miles to the north of Port Lincoln. 
According to Mr. Austin, some good ore has been raised from it at difierent times, 
but owin^ to the hardness of the ground work has been long discontinued. There 
were 2,000 shares at £5 each. 

The Mount Lyndhukst Mine is situated twenty- three miles S.E. of Farina, and 
is represented by three small batches of workings on two low east and west ranges that 
closely adjoin. The stuff exposed in each of these workings consists of soft, shaly 
mullock, traversed by thin seams of quartz, thickly impregnated and coated with 
chloride and silicate of copper. Solid, small, nodular masses of these ores are rare, 
but in the two excavations near the top of the range there occurs a calcareous gossan 
which encloses occasional specks of grey oxide of copper. 

The second batch of workings lies in the same range, about ten chains further east, 
and consists of two shafts about lOOi't. apart The deepest of these is about 20ft., 
and the two are connected by a drive. The ore- deposits here are of the same 
character as those in the first batch. Judging from some specimens left near. the 
shafts, the ore has been of pretty good quality. 

The third batch of workings is situated on the northern slope of the opposite low 
range, about ten chains southwards of the place just noticed. There are a number 
of shallow shafts, and one about 40ft. deep is sunk on what appears to be a regular 
gossan lode 1ft. or 2ft. thick. This is combined with a quartz reef which crosses the 
country at a strike of W. 10° N., dipping southerly at 45° to 50°, and which can 
be traced from this point further eastward for nine or ten chains along the slope of 
the range. The gossan contains veins and patches of very good ore, composed of 


dense grey oxide, intimately impregnated with chloride of copper. Portions consist- 
ing of a hard silicious brown iron ore enclose occasionally large and small particles 
of red oxide and specks of native copper. There are three parallel quartz reefs which 
occupy conjointly a width of 40ft. to 50ft., and extend for four or five chains in 
length at a strike nearly east and west, with apparently a steep southerly dip. The 
quartz is full of patches, and is traversed by veins of brown iron ore, but shows no 
copper indications. 

As regards the country traversed by the cupriferous gossan veins and quartz reefs, 
it consists of white and grey, much jointed, feldspathic-looking slates, alternating 
with slaty, more or less ferruginous sandstone. Mean strike E. 5° N. ; dip 
N. 5° W., at 33° to 35°. Considering the character of the copper ore, and that 
it occurs in gossan veins, connected with well-defined quarts reefs, which are tru^ 
lodes, the last-mentioned place presents encouraging prospects. 

Prospecting for gold in the alluvial drift of the gully, and on the surface of some 
of the slopes of the adjoining ranges, would be advisable, as the country does not look 
unlikely for this metal. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

Mount Lyndhukst Mine No. 2 lies about seven miles west of Moimt Lynd- 
hurst No. ly on top of a steep hill that rises about 120ft. above the adjacent 
gully. The copper ore occurs here in a number of closely-adjoining gossan and 
quartz veins, which vary in thickness from 1ft. to 8ft. These cross light, bluish, 
flaggy, more or less concretionary, arenaceous slates at a strike of N. 45° E., and 
dip N.W. at 40° to 45°. In the walls of these veins, and in the less regular hanging 
wails, there seem occasionally to occur pockets and irregular veins of brown iron 
ore and grey oxide, intimately impregnated with chloride and carbonate of copper. 
The ore, as seen in the heaps on the ground, is of rather poor quality, consisting of a 
breccia-like mixture of concretionary gossan and quartz, impregnated with chloride, 
carbonate, and grey oxide of copper. 

The country lying between these two mines (Mounts Lyndhurst, Nos. 1 and 2), 
and for several miles northwards, presents quite an auriferous aspect, and well 
. deserves to be prospected for gold. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

Mount Nob-West — A copper mine, E.N.E. of Kingston's well, has been worked 
by means of some shallow shafts, but the indications are slight. Green carbo- 
nate of copper occurs in the joints of a quartzite band, striking N.W. through 
calcareous and clayslates. (1883.) 

Mount Rose Mine is about fifty-six miles N.N.E. of the Blinman. It is situated 
two miles north of Mount Rose, at the foot of a high spur. One main shaft and 
several smaller ones have been sunk to a depth of 10 to 13 fathoms. The 
copper ore, apparently, occurs in two or three short pipe veins running close together 
or intersecting each other, and dipping, as a body, steeply westward or nearly 
vertical. The surface outcrops of these veins seem to have consisted of large masses 
of gossan, more or less thickly impregnated with malachite, and, occasionally, 
azurite. Of the ore occuring in depth, a lot left near the main shaft indicates it to 
be an irregular dense mixture of iron pyrites, copper pyrites, and impure copper 
glance, but the iron pyrites predominates. 

A soft micaceous slaty shale appears to form the veinstone in depth. 

The coimtry in which the veins occur is composed of massive beds of yellowish 
grey arenaceous-banded slates and slaty sandstones, which alternate with thin bands 
of dense crystalline limestone and calcareous shale and sandstone. The strike and 
dip of these rocks is indistinct close to the mine, whilst, further off, great differences 
in strike and dip indicate a strong curve, or, perhaps, some disturbance in the beds. 
Considering the nature of the ore and the relation of the veins to the country, 
there is a good chance of the veins continuing in depth. There is, however, one 
cause for apprehension, namely, that the iron pyrites, which is already very abun- 
dant, might still more increase in depth, and thereby cause a serious deterioration in 
the quality of the ore. (Ulrich, 1872.) 


Mr. E. F. Cooke, of the E. and A. Copper Company, kindly furnishes the follow- 
ing information from his recollections of the mine : — 

No regular lode, I believe, was discoyered, although large quantities of grey sulphurets and black 
oxides were raised, and sent down for smelting at Port Adelaide. This ore was of a yery 
high percentage, the solid being sold at from 46 per cent, to 52 per cent., and tbe dredgy stuff 
averaging from 32 i^r cent, to 35 per cent: The ore "was discovered in patches, interspersed through- 
out with what appeeu^d to be sedimentary ground. Two shafts have been sunk, the deepest being 33 
fathoms, and drives hkve been put out in sdl directions, extending about 25 fathoms in an east and 
west direction, and aboi^t 15 fathoms in a north and south direction. The greater part of the ground 
has been taken away to 'the 23-fathom level. In sinking between the 23 and 33 level some solid 
leaders of mundic were cut through, and in a drive from the bottom of the 33 two leaders of the 
same mineral with traces of black ore were found, and at the end of the drive what appeared to be a 
solid lode. On picking into this it let down such a quantity of water that the engine was unable to 
cope with the influx, and the mine was shortly afterwards abandoned. (1886.) 

MotTNT Rose Nokth. — ^This is an adjoining section of similar characteristics. 

Mount Remabkable Mine. — Copper ore was found here about the year 1846-7. 
It was of fair quality, and some samples of it, together with a mineral supposed to 
be emery, were sent to England. The lode was small and " pinched," and the 
ground very hard. Nothing worth the name of mining was done, and the claim was 
abandoned. The mine is 175 miles distant from Adelaide. (A^ustin, 1863.) 

Mount Rugged, or Patawabtie. — Nine miles N.N.E, of the Blinman. This 
claim contains several lodes, having backs of ironstone protruding above the surface, 
and showing green carbonate of copper, and yellow ore. In addition to good specie 
mens of ore, bismuth of a high percentage has been found here. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Mount Stuabt Mine lies eighteen miles N.N.E. of the Blinman. A large 
mass of rocks, running across a gully, contained stains of copper and a good vein of 
ore. Two shafts were sunk near the rocks, one on each side of the gully. There 
was some ore on the floors, and blue and green carbonates, but the general appearance 
was not favourable. One of the shafts was sunk to a depth of 10 fathoms. (Austin, 

The Muldana Mine lies to the N.W. of Wirrawilka Mine, and about fifteen or 
sixteen miles east of Won ok a. It is said that a large lode runs through these 
sections, north and south, containing iron, green carbonates, and yellow and grey 
sulphurets of copper. There is no record of work done. (1860-9.) 

Mules' Yabd Mine, county of Burra, lies near Stony Gap. Has been long 

The Naceaba Mine consist of some shallow workings, fifty or sixty miles 

north of the Burra. Specimens showed red oxide, and grey and green ore and 

oxide. 'J wo sh£ifts were sunk to a depth of 12 and 6 fathoms. The lode was said 
to be 2ft. wide. (1867.) 

Naibne. — ^A copper mine was opened here, but not further tested* 

The Napoleon Mine is in the neighbourhood of Mount Craig, seventy-nine miles 
from Port Augusta. About 15 tons of ore were taken from this mine, but it has 
not been worked of late years. The veinstone consists of carbonate of lime and 
feldspar, containing a few specks of ore. (1867.) 

TfiE New Cobnwall Mine is one of the Wallaroo mines, and lies about one mile 
EiS.E. of Kadina. A good display of atacamite was found near the surface, and 
some valuable specimens of crystallised atacamite were met with — far better, in fact, 
than any others found on the peninsular — and yet the lode proved to be unre- 
munerative below'the surface. An engine shaft was sunk to about 70 or 80 fathoms, 


and a large amount of money was expended, but very little ore was found. The 
mine is at present full of water, no work having been done for about fifteen years. 

Thb New Devon Mine, Wallaroo, was at one time the property of a separate 
company, but now belongs to the proprietors of the Wallaroo Mines. 

NepowIe Mine has a copper lode 18in. wide, containing green carbonates, 
red oxides, and grey ore. (Austin, 1863.) 

Nichol's Knob, in the Mount Lyndhurst district. — One mile east of the Knob, a 
good deal of work has been done on a mine bearing traces of copper. A tunnel has 
been driven in calcareous feldspathic and silicious claystones, and calcareous slates and 
sandstones, containing in the cracks carbonate of iron and gypsum. Other claims 
are in the neighbourhood. In one, three parallel lines of openings have been put 
down on gossany lodes in calcareous slates and claystones. A good deal of work 
has been done on this mine for a distance of 15 to 20 chains. On a third, shafts an(f 
stopes have been put in on a gossany lode, striking N. 40° W., underlaying to the 
east 70°. Very little work has been done on this mine. (1883-4.) 

NiLDOTTiE Mine, twenty-three miles east of Blinman. The lode is not well de- 
fined. There is, however, a Ipde of galena, which is well defined and looks 
promising. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Nitsohke Mine is near Freeling, in the hundred of Nuriootpa. It was opened 
more than thirty years ago and worked for a time, and has since been worked about 
the year 1869. There are numerous shafts, one of which is 200ft. deep. The veins 
have a stike N. 10° E. The veinstone associated with the ore is calcareous spar, 
the rocks are crystalline limestone, white marble, and talchose schist, (May, 1 886.) 

NoKTH Kapitnda Mining Company. — Established 1846; 4,440 shares at £5 
each. Stopped working 1851, 

The Nobth Rhine Mine is situated about ten miles from Angaston. There are two 
lodes running nearly parallel in a north and south direction, with an underlay towards 
the west of about I8in. in the fathom. The ores found near the surface were green 
and blue carbonates. Three shafts were sunk, the deepest being 43 fathoms, and a 
drive of 70 fathoms was put in. At 20 fathoms the lode was 4ft. wide, and was 
composed of ore, mundic, and spar. Owing to the large proportion of mundic, the 
lode was imremunerative. The mine was first opened in 1849-50, and was worked 
tUl 1851 ; from that date to 1859 it lay idle, but was reworked from 1859 to 1862-3. 
(Austin, 1863.) 

The Nokth Txjngkillo Mining Company were sub-lessees of the Australian 
Mining Company. Having expended £519, and the results not being payable, the 
mine was abandoned. 

The Nttccaleena Mine lies thirteen miles N.W. of the Blinman. The open work- 
ings indicate that the ore-deposit is a true lode. It is in a flat curve, having a mean 
strike of W. 20° N., and crossing the steep slope of a hill of medium height, traverses 
the beds of the country. The strike of these is N. 45° W., with a N.E. dip at an 
angle of about 33°. The underlay of the load and its thickness near the surface 
appear to have been very irregular. The rocks near the lode, in depth, consist of hard 
blackish, thick bedded, calcareous slate, but at the surface they are yellowish-white, 
rather soft, and full of veins and small patches of brown iron ore with green copper 
stains. The examination of the metallic and other minerals, as seen in a large heap of 
ore on the dressing floor, gave the following result »— Ochreous gossan, enclosing mas- 
sive patches and druses of acicular crystals of atacamite, generally associated with 
some malachite and silicate of copper, patches of tile ore, a few small veins and patches 


of. red oxide of copper, and still fewer specks of native copper. Mammillary brown iron 
ore and calcite appear frequently in irregcdar cavities. 

From below the water level, massive, coarsely crystalline, spathic iron, full of specks, 
patches and seams of copper pyrites, associated with a little iron pyrites, quartz, 
crystalline, and in veins, occasionally white calcite imperfectly crystallised, in druse 
cavities. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

A great deal of work was done on this mine, but it was ultimately abandoned. 
Mv. J. B. Austin, visiting this mine in 1863, remarks that, as regards the houses and 
other arrangements on the surface, it was far before any other mine in the north. 

The Oladdie or Exetek Mine is in the hundred of Eurelia. It was taken out on 
account of good surface indications, but was never developed. (1860-9.) 

, Old Noll's Mine adjoins the Daly Mine at the south-west comer of the section. 
It is on a hill of considerable elevation, and contains a fine deposit of green carbonate 
and red and grey oxide of copper in a large reef ojf rocks running for some distance 
along the top of the range. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Onkapakinga Copper Mine is on the Echunga Goldfields. There is no 
indication of copper at the surface, but a well-defined quartz reef with pyrites strikes 
north and south with a dip 30° west. It is in sandy micaceous slate of the same dip, 
and underlies false-bedded micaceous sandstone and grit. This reef was originally pros- 
pected for gold. A shaft 30ft. deep was put down alongside the reef, and a tunnel was 
driven in the side of the hill to within a few feet of the shaft, at about 20ft from the 
surface. In connecting the drive with a tunnel the present (1884) holders of the 
mine struck a muUocky copper lode, which makes and leaves the reef at 18ft. from 
the surface, rimning vertically down. The minerals contained in the lode are 
crystalline quartz, pyrites, chalcopyrite, native copper, chalcocite, malachite, and 
azurite. Two miles eastward, on a hill, is a lode formation with a quartz reef, con- 
taining copper stains and small crystals of atacamite. (1884.) 

Oraldana Mine is sixty-eight miles N. W. of the Blinman. The copper ore occurs 
as an impregnation in a ferruginous quartz-pebble conglomerate. This covers an 
area of several square chains, and from it rise two craggy, highly silicified, irregular 
masses of from 8ft. to 12ft. high, and standing about two and a half chains apart. 
These outcrops, as well as the mass between, show abundant copper stains and coat- 
ings in every joint and crevice. They also contain small pockets filled with soft, 
white arenaceous clay, through which little nodular concretions of malachite are 
scantily distributed. On bein^ broken the softer parts of the rocks show specks, 
and thin seams of grey oxide of copper, whilst the larger malachite nodules often 
contain this ore in the centre. Very little work was done on this mine. (Ulrich, 

The Obatunga Mine lies on the southern slope of a low range about twelve miles 
N.W. of the Blinman Mine. The ore deposit represents a so-called pipe vein, 12ft. 
to 14ft. in width and from 6ft. to 8ft. thick, with well-defined walls, dipping eastward 
at an angle of about 60°. Brown, much cleaved, flaggy slates alternate with greyish- 
white argillaceous ores. The strike is N. 5° W., and the dip in that direction 
is somewhat steeper than the slatebeds, which strike N. 40° E., and show a 
N.W. dip of 15^ to 20^. At the outcrop the ore consists of an ochreous gossan, full 
of small patches, irregular veins, and fine druses of acicular crystals of malachite. 
There are occasionally similar druses of aragonite associated with it. In depth the ore 
changes to coarsely crj^stalline chalybite (^carbonate of iron). full of small patches 
and seams of copper pyrites, and generally associated with quartz. The stoppage 
of the mine is said to have been caused by the deposit being faulted in depth by a 
slide, and that the search for it became too expensive. (Ulrich, 1872.) 


This slide was met with at a depth of 12 or 13 fathoms, and a floor came in having 
a slope of ahout 25^. This was followed down until the work was stopped by water. 
The depths of the shafts ranged from 6 to 15 fathoms. (Austin, 1863.) 

Oyebland Cobneb. — ^A copper mine was opened here many years ago, but nothing 
payable was found. (1867.) 

Palawabta Mine (See Mount Rugged.) 

Pabababana Mine is eighty-four miles east of Farina, and about two miles S.E. of 
Parabarana Hill. It has three distinct lodes, two running north and south, send one 
east and west. Two pits have been sunk, and in each blue and green carbonates 
have been found. This mine has not been worked for some time. (1884.) 

The Paba Mine. — Twenty-five miles N.E. by N. from Adelaide. The indications 
were good. Work suspended in 1851. 

The Pabinga Mine is in the neighbourhood of the Bremer and Kanmantoo mines, 
thirty-six miles from Adelaide, About 900 tons of ore were raised, but the mine 
has been abandoned for many years. (Austin, 1863.) [See Pabinga Mine, under 
head of " Silveb-lead."] 

Phillips Mine, Rapid Bay. — Copper lodes were found cropping out of the 
surface of the ground. The ores consisted of grey, yellow, and peacock ores. (See 
under " Silveb-lead.") 

The Phcenix Mining Co. — Established 1850. The property was situated sixty 
miles north of Adelaide, near Tothill's Gap. Capital, £1,600, £10 shares, £1 paid. 
Had stopped working in 1851. 

The Pindilpena Mine is situated on the Paralana Range, west of the Yudna- 
mutana Mine. The ore deposits were green carbonate and grey ore. The lode runs 
nearly east and west for 70 or 80 yards, and varies in width on the surface from 2ft. 
to 6ft. (Austin, 1863.) 

Pine Hut Mine. — Fifty miles N.E. of Adelaide. No records obtainable. 

The Poonawubta Mine. — Forty-two miles N.E. from Adelaide. The company 
was established in 1846. There were 1,000 £5 shares. After spending a consider- 
able sum of money on the property without obtaining any good results in return, the 
land was sold for £1,000, 

The Pbeamimma Mine. — Thirty-eight miles S.E. of Adelaide, and about six 
miles N.E. of Callington. The mine was opened in 1854, and some good ore, chiefly 
carbonates, was raised. After a time the lode was lost, and the mine abandoned. 
It was re-opened for a short time about the year 1862, and the engine shaft was sunk 
to a depth of 47 fathoms. Some black ore was found, but not in paying quantities. 
Quantities of mundic have been met with throughout, and also some muriate of 
copper. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Pbincess Royal Mine adjoins and was found prior to the Burra Mine. 
Considerable success attended the early workings of this mine. A quantity of ore was 
raised, and showfed an average of over 27 per cent, of copper. In 1851 water was 
reached at the thirty-fathom level. The capital of the company was expended, and 
the mine was therefore abandoned. The total proceeds of the ore raised were above 
£7,000. The land (10,000 acres) was sold for a sheep run. (Austin,. 1863.) 

Pbince Albebt's Mine. — Nine miles from Adelaide, E,N.B, No record, 


The Psince Alfbed Mine is situated twenty-eight miles N.E. of Carrieton, on 
the Great Northern railway. The ore deposit is very interesting, on account of its pre- 
senting a fine example of the so-called bedded or layer lode, t.^., it lies both in 
strike and dip, between the strata, grey, flaggy clay slate. It strikes W. 5° E., and 
dips W. 6° N. at 45° to 50°. It has been traced for nearly 20 chains in length, 
showing, as far as exposed, a thickness varying from 3ft to above 20ft. The 
deposit consists of a confused accumulation of large and small masses of clayslate, 
connected and traversed by veins of calcite. Through this mass malachite is thickly 
distributed in seams, coatings, and irregular patches, associated with brown iron ore. 
Towards, and below the water level, at about 20 fathoms, the green carbonate 
and brown iron ore give way to a dense impregnation, fine veins and massive aggre- 
gations of copper pyrites, but slightly intermixed with iron pyrites, and occasionally 
associated with small particles of spathic iron and white calcite. In one place the 
lode is very rich, and is taken out for nearly 20ft. in width. The distribution 
of the copper ore is not uniform, but varies in richness throughout the workings. 

Three shafts were sunk in different places on the property, but only one at the 
principal workings. Large stopes were opened out from the surface down to about 
20 fathoms. The greatest depth of any shaft was about 40 fathoms on the underlay, 
and the water level was reached at 150ft. Drives were put in for some hundreds of 
feet. The mine has not been worked since 1872. 

The Poet Likcoln Mine is situated four miles from Tumby Bay. A fair amount 
of good ore has been raised from this mine at different times, but the hardness of the 
ground is an obstacle to its being profitably worked. (Austin, 1863.) 

Several shafts were sunk, but the influx of water was very great. The property 
comprises seventy acres. 

Rawnsleys Bluep Mine is about fourteen miles east of Memmema (Great Nor- 
thern railway), and S.W. of the bluff itself. A strong reef of ironstone shows on the 
surface for 250 or 300 yards, and contains some good stones of green carbonate of 
copper. (Austin, 1863.) 

Reedy Ckeek Mine. (See Tungkillo.) 

Rhondda Mine, four miles north of Carrieton. Has beenivorked, but no records 
are obtainable. 

Rhynie seventy miles from Adelaide, and four miles west of Riverton. A copper 
mine having rich indications was worked here by Messrs. Nickolls Bros. (1867.) 

RosEWOBTHY, thirty-ouc miles north of Adelaide. A copper mine is said to have 
been opened at a place two miles N.W. (1867.) 

The Royal Mining Company or South Atjstbalia purchased lands to the ex- 
tent of 720 acres, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Kapunda. The cost was £1,500, but 
no important discoveries were made. Established, December, 1846. Amalgamated 
with the Emu Flats Association, June, 1850. Capital £90,500, in 9,050 shares at 
£10 each. (1845.) 

Scott's Cbeek Mine is about eighteen miles from Adelaide, near Cherry Gardens. 
It is on the side of a steep, but not very high hill, on the surface of which, in iron- 
stone rock, some strong stains of copper were found, and a shaft was sunk. The ore 
was chiefly grey oxide, mixed with a little green and blue carbonate. The lode was 
small, but regular and well defined ; at the depth of five fathoms there was but little 
ore, the lode being composed chiefly of gossan. The lode is nearly a downright one, 
having but little underlay. (Austin, 1863.) 


ScBtTBBEBs' CASdtP MiKE is situated about twenty-eight miles north of Kooringa. 
There are several shafts sunk, and promising ore was found, principally blue car- 
bonates. The ground is soft and easily worked. (1867.) 

Sheaoak Loo, four miles east of Roseworthy.— A copper mine is situated about 
three and a half miles E.S.E. No records obtainable. > 

The Sib Dominic Mine adjoins the Daly Mine, about five and a half miles E.N.E. 
of the Yudnamutana Mine. Here the range rises to a height of 400ft., and its crest 
consists of an immense rugged mass gf ferruginous, highly fractured quartzite, form- 
ing a nearly perpendicular wall of over 100ft. in thickness. On account of the 
mode of occurrence of the copper ore, this mass closely resembles the quartzite 
layer of the Daly Mine, but the ore contents of the pockets are not so rich as are 
those of the latter. The rocks of the district present the same varieties as those 
near the Yudnamutana Mine. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

The Sliding Eock Mine, one hundred and thirty-two miles N.N.E. from Port 
Augusta, is situated on the south side of Sliding Rock Creek at the base of a hill of 
medium height, composed of hard limestone. The main ore deposit is a lode vary- 
ing from l^ft. to 10ft. wide. Its course is tortuous, and has a mean strike of N. 20^ 
E., and with an eastward imderlay of 3ft. in the fathom. It traverses the beds of the 
country, which strike W. 20° N., and dip southward at an angle of about 60°. The 
walls, which are fairly well defined, consist, on the eastern side, of a blackish 
aluminous shale, resting against a hard bar or reef of impure brown iron, ore; and 
on the western one, of soft, sandy, concretionary light-colored shale which, near the 
surface, is more or less thickly stained with blue and green carbonate of copper, and 
brown iron ore. The existence of the ironstone reef in the eastern wall is of 
great value to the mine, for the reason that it dams back a seemingly great 
accumulation of water in the rocks behind. At the surface the ore consists of 
rather earthy, and not very rich looking, carbonates. But it changes in depth to 
an association of red oxide of copper, native copper, green and some blue 
carbonates, in a soft, clayey, partly ferruginous matrix. The red oxide occurs 
frequently in large crystalline, granular, and vein-like masses ; the native copper in 
pure crystallised masses, occasionally several cubic inches in size ; and the carbonate 
— ^mostly malachite — forms veins and druses in connection with the former. Beneath 
the water level, traces only have as yet been discovered of black sulphide of copper 
ore. About the middle of the length of lode opened, the latter is traversed, with- 
out being faulted, by a cross-course of 13ft. in width, and striking W. 17° N. 
This cross-course carries ore similar to that of the main lode, and has been followed 
for seven fathoms towards the west. The limestone of which the hill is composed, 
is greyish-black, microcrystalline, hard and tough, and, according to chemical 
analysis, contains a large percentage of magnesia, some silica, and carbonaceous 
matter. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

Smith's Coppeb Mine. — A lode of copper has recently been foimd near King's 
Bluff, in the north-east district. It strikes N.W. and S.E., and can be traced along 
the surface of the ground for some distance. An excavation has been made on a 
rubbly, broken cap of the lode to a depth of about 10ft., and 4ft. or 5ft. wide, and 
several tons of ore have been raised. At present, however, sufficient work has not 
been done to prove the value of the lode, but its appearance is very euciouraging. 
The rocks with which it is associated are quartzite, and quartzose sandstone and 
granite. (1887.) 

The South Cbeek Coffeb Mine is about four miles north of the Burr well, on a 
large creek. It has been worked on three lodes. Two of these to the south are 
parallel lodes 3ft. apart, in a calcite reef, with well-defined walls. These dip 82° 
south, and are easily traced for some distance on the surface. The ore in this 
lode consists of green carbonates in kaolinized slate. It has been worked to about 
70ft., when the water level was struck. 



The South Kapukda Mining Company. — Established 1850 ; 2,000 shares £10 
each. Property situated between the Kapunda and North Kapunda Mines. No 
records obtainable. (1854.) 

Sfeab Cbeek. — There is a copper lode here ; it lies twelve miles east of the town- 
ship of Stirling North. (1867.) 

The Spbing Cbeek Mine, thirty-five miles from Port Augusta, and eleven miles 
north of Melrose, is situated on the northern end of Mount Remarkable. A small 
drive of about two fathoms has been made about 120ft. above the level of the creek, 
into the hill, and shows several veins of red oxide from lin. to 6in. in thickness. A 
reef of rocks running up the face of the hill contains numerous stains of copper. On 
breaking off pieces of rock where these stains occur, ore is almost invariably found ; 
in some cases blue and green carbonates, but more frequently red oxide and ruby ore, 
and sometimes a little native copper. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Stanley Mine, seventy-six miles N.£. from Blinman Mine, and four miles east 
of Yudnamutana Mine, lies in a low hilly district, or basin, surrounded by high 
ranges. The country consists of metamorphic slates and sandstones, which [strike W. 
15° to 20° N., and dip southerly at angles varying from 60° to 86°. There are four 
separate lodes, much resembling one another in mineral character. The one nearest 
the Daly Mine lies on a low range, and crosses micaceous slate. It is from 2ft. to 4ft. 
thick, and at the surface is composed of gossan, beneath which succeeds slaty and 
clayey mullock, with argillaceous veins, and also patches and veins of quartz and 
calcite. Judging from some specimens left on the surface, the ore seems to consist 
of concretionary lumps and irregular veins of malachite and azurite. Some of the 
gossan ore, on chemical examination, showed very faint traces of bismuth. 

The length of the vein appears from the workings to be only about one and a half 
chains, its strike N. 30° W., and its underlay W. 30° S., at an angle of 55°. The 
walls are not well defined. About the centre of its length it makes a sharp turn W. 
30° N. for about 6ft. The workings are — a deep underlay shaft communicating with 
a vertical one sunk to the depth of 30ft., where it strikes the underlay of the 
lode. Another vertical shaft, about 50ft. deep, lies in a gully in the line of the 
strike of the lode, and about five chains north of the underlay shaft, but neither 
traces of lodestone, nor even cupper stains, are observable in the spoil heaps around it. 

The second lode lies about twelve chains east of the first one. The ore occurring 
in depth consists of brown iron ore, inclosing patches of copper pyrites, iron pyrites, 
malachite, and azurite. The workings consist of a short trench and an underlay 
shaft apparently, 55ft. deep. Judging from these the ore seems only to extend 
for about 15ft. in strike. The strike of the lode is W. 30° N., and it dips S. 30° W. 
at an angle of about 65°. Its hanging wall is well defined, and is represented by a 
strong reef of quartzite. The foot wall is less regular, and consists of micaceous 

The third lode lies about eleven chains S.E. of the foregoing one, and much 
higher up the range. The ore enclosed in the outcrop is of a far superior quality to 
that of the others, consisting of veins and solid lumps of malachite, azurite, and tile 
ore, embedded in cupriferous brown iron ore. Both the carbonates appear also 
frequently crystallised in cavaties. The presence of bismuth ore could only be 
detected by chemical examination. Traces only of it could be found, notwithstanding 
that it had been reported to have occurred in large quantities. The workings 
consist of underlay shafts — one apparently 60ft. in depth— and shallow excavations 
on either side. In a distance of not more than one and a half chains the lode 
showed great irregularity of strike and dip — the former being in the mean 
W. 15° N. ; the latter, according to the main underlay shaft, 80°, in a shallow 
excavation on east end, about 45° southward. The thickness of the lode varies from 
2ft. in the western to above 8ft. in the eastern workings. 

The fourth lode is similar in character to the third lode. Its features, more 
especially conformity in strike and dip, indicate that it and the foregoing ones are 



" makes '* of the same great lode, the fissure of which is closed, or perhaps only 
indistinct on the surface between. 

The workings comprise a small excavation on east side, and close to the gully, and 
a tunnel of about one chain in length driven into the hill opposite. At the opening of 
the tunnel there is a rugged protrusion of quartzite traversed by quartz veins. 
(Ulrich, 1872.) 

The Stkathalbtn Mines were originally opened by private enterprise in 1848. 
Some good copper ore was raised and smelted on the property. They were after- 
ward sold, but were never re-worked. (Austin, 1863.) 

ToEKENs RiVEB MiNE. — Sec. 5536. No records. 

The Toweb Hill Mine lies between Tower Hill and the Avondale Mine, and is 
about twenty miles S.E. of Farina. The lode is about 6in. to 8in. wide, with no 
well-defined walls. As it goes down it is improved in bulk by the addition of 
small leaders, and is dipping 30^ to 56° E., whilst the rocks, which are calcareous 
slates, dip 75° N. The workings consist of an underlay shaft of about 60ft. in 
depth, and from there the lode has been followed by a drive for 40ft. without any 
apparent change. The ore consists of chalcocite, with stains of malachite and a 
little chalcopyrite and atacamite. About 20ft. south of the lode is a well-defined reef 
of calcite with copper stains. It is probable that this will join the lode lower 
down, when it will assume a more definite character. (1884.) 

The Two Bbothebs Mine is situated about two miles north of Nuccaleena. The 
indications were good at first, a lode of rich oxide, 2ft. in width, being traceable for 
the whole length of the section. But when sinking and driving was begun the lode 
was lost. (Austin, 1863.) 

These VEAN Mining Company, a lease from the Britannia Mining Company, 
Bremer. Stopped 1851. No records. (1854.) 

The Tumby Mine is eight or nine miles north from Tumby Bay, Spencer's Gulf. 
The lode is 3ft. 6in. wide, and consists of blue and green carbonates, gossan and 
spar. Two shafts were sunk, one to a depth of nine fathoms and one to 7ft. (1867.) 

The TtJNGKiLLO or Reedy Ceeek Mine, the property of the Australian Mining 
Company, is thirty-four miles north-easterly from Adelaide. The company was formed 
in 1845, and operations were begun a year or two later, and were continued up to 1858, 
when the works ceased. During that time the money spent in developing the mines, 
at Tungkillo and Charlton, amoimted to upwards of £108,217. A number of shafts 
were sunk, and the work was conducted in accordance with the most scientific methods 
of the day. The ores were of very poor quality, the greater proportion jdelding only 
from 6 per cent, to 18 per cent, of copper, while the highest given by a small quantity, 
was 33^ per cent. Referring to the " Royal South Australian Almanac for 1848," 
it is there stated that the Tungkillo Mine contained emery, and that in December, 
1847, 100 tons were sent to Port Adelaide for shipment. The following account of 
this mine is taken from an article, dated 1850, in " Iron," Volume tii. : — 

There were two lodes at the north end of the property and six at the south ; near the former the 
ground was dark gramed micaceous granite. A])oye the water level of the mine, there were carbon- 
ates, black oxide, and black bulphurets ; and below the level, copper pyrites. Iron was conspicuous 
in all the lodes, and the rock was very hard. The mine contained a chamber 20ft. high, from which 
had been taken an immense bunch of ore. When, however, this bimch was quarried out, the lode 
suddenly contracted and soon passed oS. into mere strings. Efforts to secure better ground or to find 
another bunch, were unsuccessful. 

On Baker's lode, the workings comprised two shafts of 60 fathoms and 40 
fathoms, respectively. At the 40-fathoms level there was an adit and railway 198 
fathoms in length, and in addition there were three other levels of 95, 70, and 30 
fathoms in length. 


Uboonda Lodes, hundred of Uroonda, have not been worked. 

Veset's Claim is about ten or twelve miles N.E. of Nuccaleena. There is a well- 
defined lode running nearly through the section, and containing rich ore, green 
carbonate and grey oxide, and some of the latter is said to contain 70 per cent, of 
copper. The country consists of clayslate and pipeclay. Little work has been done. 
(Austm, 1863.) 

The Victory Mine is on the top of a hill about 80ft. high. It is three miles east 
of Mount Bourne, and thirty-two miles N.E. of Beltana township. The hill is 
composed of quartzite, dipping to the south. The lode runs north and south, and 
dips E 68° ; it is from 9in. to 4ft. in width ; has a well-defined foot wall, but no 
hanging wall. The ore consists of chalcocite with malachite and atacamite, dark 
oxi^des and sulphides. It runs in a shoot to the N. 45°, from 30ft. to 40ft. long and 
20in. wide. The mine has been worked to a depth of 170ft. by an underlay shaft 
without striking water. The lode has twice pinched out and made again. Three 
shafts were sunk, and drives to the extent of 100ft. were made on the course of the 
lode. Three hundred tons of ore have been sent away during the last year or two, 
averaging, it is said, about 81 percent. (1884.) The mine is not now being worked. 

VocovocANA Mike, west of Apex Hill, has a well-defined north and south lode, 
uid good grey ore has been raised from it. The lode shows for about 200 yards on the 
surface. (1860-9.) 

The Wakefield Mike, sixty-nine miles north of Adelaide. Opened in 1845 with a 
paid-up capital of £1,300 in 650 shares of £2 each. A copper lode of considerable 
regularity was operated on, and some^^ewts. of copper were produced. The quality 
was good. (1848.) 

Wallaroo. (See Mookta.) 

Warkakimbo Mike, N.W. of Kanyaka. No records obtainable. 

The Warbioota Mike lies on the northern slope of a low range, about ten miles 
S.E. of the township of Beltana. The ore deposit is a lode Ift. or 2ft. wide, 
which strikes E. 15*^ N. — ^very nearly coincident with the strike of the country — 
but dips irregularly through the latter, first for a few feet vertical in depth, and then 
at an angle of 70^ northward. The hanging wall looks well defined, but the foot- 
wall seems irregular. Judging from the nature of the vein stuff left near the two 
deepest shafts, the general mineral character of the lode alters within a short 
distance. At the one shaft it is composed of a soft, somewhat calcareous, quartzose 
mullock, densly traversed by thin quartz veins. These enclose small nodular masses 
of earthy malachite, and occasionally of azurite, associated with calcite. A trial of 
some of the ore gave traces, though very faint, of bismuth. Specimens of vein- 
stones left near the other shaft consist of a dense and hard ferruginous and highly 
quartzose striped matrix enclosing thin seams, and small druses of acicidar crystals 
of malachite, besides veins of cupriferous gossan. In general these veinstones 
resemble the poorer surface stone of the Blinman Mine* No trace of sulphide ore 
could be detected. The country in the neighbourhood of the workings looks tindis- 
turbed, and consists of alternating beds of thin cleavable slates and fine grained, 
thin bedded, partly micaceous, slaty sandstones. Strike E. 20^ N., dips south- 
ward at an angle of about 35^ some distance eastward of the workings near the line 
of the lode. Judging by the rather poor ore last raised, and left on the ground, 
the future prospects of the mine are not very favorable. 

If gold crushing and saving machinery were at hand, the trial of a few tons of the 
lodestone for gold is to be recommended, and the prospecting for this metal generally 
in the gullies and in the quartz reefs in the neighbuorhood« In fact, a zone of country 


of considerable width exists in this neighbourhood, which is traversed by strong pro- 
misinglooking quartz reefs, and altogether presents an auriferous aspect. (Ulrich, 

Watjkaloo Mine, seven miles north-east of the Boolcoomatta Mine. No records 

Webb and Eobebtson's Mine is about one mile east of Nicholas Knob,near Mount 
Lyndhurst. The lodes follow the strike and dip of the rocks which are calcareous 
slates, much floored. They strike N. 20° W., and dip 67° E. 20° N. There are three 
lines of lodes, the one to the north has been prospected only; it consists of calcite and 
gossan, with grey ore and pyrites, about eight inches wide. The middle lode has 
been worked by a shaft 30ft. deep. It is 4ft. wide, but not well defined. (1884.) 

The Welcome Mine is sixty-eight miles N.E. of the township of Beltana, and 
about eighteen miles S.E. of the Yudnamutana Mine. There are two small batches 
of workings on adjoining spurs, a higher and a lower one. The workings on 
the higher spur consist of an open trench 3ft. to 4ft. wide, and about 40ft. 
long, exposing a quartz reef of 1ft or 2ft. in thickness. It strikes N. 32° £., 
and dips W. 32° N. at 62°. The underlay wall is well defined, and is composed of 
a gritty silicified sandstone, and boulder conglomerate. The enclosed boulders are 
mostly quartzite. The hanging wall is less regular, and is composed of fissile, rather 
concretionary slates. These appear to have been disturbed as, on the top of the 
spur, they show a very flat dip of about 8° to 10° S.W., while further off they strike 
N. 30° W., and dip W. 30° S. at 20°. In the reef, and in a few feet of the hanging 
walls, are exposed solid patches and thick veins of ore, consisting of grey oxide, 
coated genersdly with green carbonate and chloride of copper. The ore-bearing part 
of the country does not seem to extend much beyond the trench on either side, for 
towards the south the ore patches disappear, and the veins split and thin out, and 
northward from the trench no ore is traceable for more than a few feet. In the 
second batch of workings the ore is of a similar character as that in the first 
batch. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

The West Kanhantoo Mine. (See Kanmantoo Mine West.) 

The Wheal Acbamait Mining Company. — In 640 £4 shares; ten miles 
E.N.E. of Adelaide, near the Montacute Mine. (1854.) 

The Wheal Austin Mine is half a mile S.S.W. of the Yudnamutana Mine. An 
immense reef of ironstone and gossan contains strong stains of copper, and numerous 
stones of green carbonate and grey oxide ; it is from 18ft* to 20ft. in width, and its 
course is very regidar* (Austin, 1863,) 

T^E Wheal Babton Mine, near Angaston, was worked for a time and then 
closed. No results. (Austin, 1863.) 

TdE Wheal Besley Mine, twelve miles N.E. of Sliding Rock Mine. There are 
two lodes on the section bearing very good gossan, impregnated with green and blue 
carbonates, and containing occasionid good stones of ore. The lodes run north and 
south, and are traceable for a distance of 300 yards. Liver-coloured and yellow ore 
is found scattered on the suface. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Wheal Blinman is near the Blinman Mine. The lode runs nearly north 
and south, and is distinctly traceable for about 200 yards on the surface. It is 
backed by a reef of indurated clayslate, intermixed with ironstone and gossan^ In 
the clayslate small pieces of green carbonate and grey ore are found. At the top of 
a hill the lode forms into a large " blow" in which the ore was discovered. On the 



rocks being broken away a fine lode of rich ore was seen, 8ft. wide, and 
underlying westward into the hill about 18in. in the fathom. Five shafts 
have been sunk on this lode, ranging in depth from two to nine fathoms. Some 
rich green and blue carbonates were occasionally met with, and specks of the finest 
yellow ore. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Wheal Butler lies about two miles N.E. of, the Blinman. A good lode 
passes through the property, and this has been opened at intervals for nearly a quarter 
of a mile. It yields a peculiar reddish-brown or liver-coloured ore, supposed to be 
merely a variety of ironstone, but which on being assayed produced 37 per cent, of 
copper. The back of the lode consists of ironstone, micaceous iron, gossan, and 
quartz, and below these, stones of green and blue carbonate, and a quantity of liver- 
coloured ore are found. The underlay is about 3ft. in the fathom. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Wheal Fobttjke Mike is situated on land leased from the Paringa Mining 
Company (1850), in the Mount Barker district. It has yielded black oxide and other 

The Wheal Friendship Mine, established 1850. A lease from the Britannia 
Mining Company. Stopped working in 1851. No records. 

The Wheal Frost Mine is close to the Yudnamutana Mine, and consists of a 
small conical mountain of greenstone, thickly impregnated with green carbornate and 
red oxide of copper. Geologically considered the belt of range country stretching 
from west of the Yudnamutana mines towards the Freeling heights has every 
prospect of containing copper ore deposits and, perhaps, gold. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

The Wheal Gleeson is one of the Yudnamutana mines. There are three shafts. 
The lode strikes irregularly north and south, with a dip steeply eastward. It is 
apparently from 1ft. to 3ft. in thickness only, and consists, near the surface, 
of rubbly slate, mullock fall of veins and irregular masses of brown and micaceous 
iron ore, enclosing seams, solid patches, and coatings of earthy malachite. (Ulrich, 

The Wheal Hancock Mine is adjacent to the Welcome Mine. There is a 
good and distinct lode, traceable for about 250 yards. It is about 18in. wide, and 
consists of fine grey oxide. There are veins and stains of ore, with small pieces of 
malachite scattered on the surface near the lode, which runs N.E. and S.W., under- 
lying westward into the hill. (Austin, 1863.) 

Wheal Harmony, twenty-five miles east of Adelaide* No records obtainable* 

The Wheal Huohes Mine. — One of the Wallaroo mines. 

The Wheal Humby Mine is four miles S.W. of Moonta, Yorke*s Peninsulat 
Indications, similar to those at the Moonta, were found, and on sinking four fathoms, 
the back of a lode was cut, consisting of ironstone mixed with green carbonate of 
copper. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Wheal James. — One of the Moonta Mines. 

The Wheal Maria Mine is between the Daly and Yudnamutana mines. It 
has a good lode of ore traceable for 130 yards north and souths (Austin, 1863.) 

T^E Wheal Mabia, eighteen miles S.£. from Adelaide. This mine was opened 
ad a copper mine about the year 1850 ; but, owing to its not being immediately pro- 
ductive and for want of capital, it was abandoned. About the year 1886 it was 
re-opened as a silver-lead mine. (See Almanda, under " Silver-Lead,") 


Wheal Mary Mine, twenty-five miles E.S.E. of Adelaide. No records obtain- 
able. (1864.) 

The Wheal Pbospeb, a lease from the Britannia Mining Company. No record. 

The Wheal Sabah is in the neighbourhood of Bundaleer station, near Clare. 
There are three east and west lodes, with a dip of 75°. They have been worked a 
few feet only. The ores are micaceous iron mixed with green carbonates and 
sulphurets. The country is hard silicious white and brown rock with bands of gi'ey 
arenaceous slates and brown sandstone, with a dip W. 85° to 90°. (Selwyn, 1859.) 

The Wheal Stxtabt Mine is about three and a half miles S.S.E. of the Moonta. 
A quantity of green carbonate ore was found on the surface. A shaft has been sunk 
for eight and a half fathoms, through gossan, steatite, ironstone, and quartz. 
(Austm, 1863.) 

The Wheal Susan Mine is on the eastern plain, near Paralana. There is a 
strong lode of ironstone rxmning above the surface for 50 or 60 yards, and containing 
grey copper ore and green carbonate. There is also a good cross-course running 
into the lode. (Austin, 1863.) 

The Wheal William and The Wheal Alfeed. — These mines are ten miles 
east and 8.E. from Keyneton, fifty-nine miles N.E. of Adelaide. No records of 
work done are obtainable. 

The Willouban Mine is fourteen miles S.W. of Hergott, and about &ye miles 
north of Willouran Hill. This mine was opened about the year 1880, and 100 tons of 
copper ore were raised and sent away, the average produce being 24 per cent, of fine 
copper. The ore is very ferruginous, and is combined with oxides and oxychlorides 
of copper. The lode is traceable along the range for a distance of four miles, and 
ore has been found, with a few slight breaks, for several miles further. A shaft was 
sunk to a depth of 50ft., and a drive was put in for about 100ft. on the course of 
the lode. Nodules, apparently of iron, are found on the surface, but, when broken, 
the iron is foimd to be but a thin coating, the bulk of the stone being grey oxide 
of copper of 35 or 40 per cent. The district further north, beyond the " Dome," 
contains other rich deposits of copper. (Austin.) 

Willow Cbeek Mine. — North of the Napoleon Mine. No records obtainable. 

WiPEBAMiNGA MiNE, neat Boolcoomatta, forty-three miles north-east of Manna- 
hill. Two or three shafts and open cuttings have been made on quartzite reefs. 
These are composed of quartz and ironstone, stained with blue and green carbonate 
of copper. The quartzite and micaceous schists and slates are penetrated by coarse 
^anite dykes. This mine has been abandoned for some time, and, as far as can be 
Judged, no defined lode has been found. (1885.) 

WiNDiTTiE Mine. (See Abno Bay.) 
WiBTAWEENA MiNE. — ^No iccords obtainable. 

WiBBAXJLTtiE Mine. — ^No records obtainabl^i 

T4iE WiBBAWiLKA. MiNE is situated fourteen miles east of the township of 
tiawker, and about two miles north of Mount Plantagenet. The rocks of the country 
seem principally to consist of metamorphic slates and limestone. Some irregular 
workings in the limestone appear, from specimens left on the groimd, to have yielded 
some very good ore, grey oxide of copper enclosed in concretionary masses of green 
carbonatei The ore appears to occur in pockets, as there is no evidence of a lode 


crossing the limestone. The limestone is hard, sometimes coarsely crystalline, and is 
coated with green carhonate, and shows abundant joints and crevices. 

Another batch of workings consist of one deep and four shallow shafts, sunk in 
line, over a length of three chains. The ore deposit here is a contact lode, bearing 
a great resemblance to that of the Yudnamutana Mine. It nms at a strike of N. 15° 
li., with apparently a steep westerly dip, within the boundary of a strong dyke of 
diorite greenstone and chloritic and micaceous slates ; these near the surface are very 
soft and friable. The copper ore raised appears to have been green carbonate, rarely 
associated with grey oxide of copper. From masses lying near the shafts, it would 
seem as if micaceous iron ore, c^dcite, and lode slate were the nearly exclusive occu- 
pants of the lode fissure, and that the copper ore occurred very sparingly through 
them. A mineral, abundant in the spoil heap of the deepest shaft, of lavender-blue 
colour, and fibrous texture, proved to be the rare species crocidolite or blue asbestos. 
(Ulrich, 1872.) 

The Wombat Mine. — The name of one of the Wallaroo mines. A description is 
included in that of the Home Mine, which see. 

WooDLOOMOOKA. — A copper locality in the neighbourhood of Mount Jacob, sixty- 
four miles east of Leigh's Creek railway station. A lode of copper ore has been 
traced and prospected for some distance by holes from 10ft. to 15ft. deep. The lode 
formation is from 3ft. to 4ft. thick, and rich veins of copper glance have been 
exposed. Two miles northwards several shallow pits have been sunk. In one of 
these, at a depth of 8ft. or 10ft., in a well-defined lode formation, a vein of rich 
copper ore is exposed, which is worth sinking on. (1884-5.) 

The Worthing Mine is near Morphett Vale, sixteen miles south of Adelaide. 
This mine has been abandoned for many years, owing to the hardness of the ground 
and to the ore not having been found in paying quantities. The lode strikes E. 
and W. and contains quartz, iron and copper pyrites. The rocks are clayslate. 
There are several shafts, and the pumps are still in the mine. 

The Wyaka Mine, 210 miles north of Adelaide, and about eight miles S.W. of 
the Blinman Mine. It has long been abandoned. (1867.) 

Yalpoodnie Mine is in the neighbourhood of Franklin Harbour. One shaft was 
sunk to about 20 fathoms. No work has been done upon the mine for the last twenty 

The YeitDA Mine is one of the Yudnamutana mines. A fine regular lode is 
visible for nearly 800 yards, running S.E. by E. There are also two secondary lodes 
Timning parallel to the main lode. 

The Yelta Mine. — Comprised in the Moonta mines. 

The Yootoomookina Minc, sixteen miles east of Blinman^ has a north and south 
lode of copper, traceable for nearly one mile. It is about 5ft. wide, carrying good 
ore 15in* thick* The underlay is about 1ft. in the fathom west. (Austin^ 1863.) 

The YuDNAMtJlTANA Mines are situated about 168 miles N.E. of Port Augusta4 
and about sixty miles SiEi of Farina. A feature of great geological interest in this 
district is the presence of an intrusive rock — a peciQiar kind of greenstone — with 
metamorphic concomitants of great variety of texture and mineral charaCtel'. The 
chief and most developed ore deposit is a so-called '' contact lode.'' It runs within 
the boundary of the intrusive rock on the east, and the accompanying m&t&ihorphic 
schists on the west, lying in places between the two, or traversing one, sometimes the 
other, rock in its course. Its mean strike is N. 10^ W., and its dip 
eastward at 70° to 80*^; whilst the metamorphic rocks adjoining strike N. 40® 


to 45° W., and dip south-westerly at 60^ to 70°. The lode seems to 
have varied from 2ft. to 15ft. in thickness, and has been traced southward, 
from the top of the hill, to close upon twenty chains in length. At the 
furthest point south a vertical shaft has been sunk about 50ft. deep. The ore 
produced from this was very poor, consisting of brown jasperry quartz, full of veins 
and patches of micaceous iron and ochrey-brown iron ore, with many scattered green 
stains and coatings in hollows and joints. Nine chains northward from this shaft is 
a whim shaft sui& beneath the water level. Ore raised from this shows for the 
greater part a kind of breccia, composed of brown, jasperry-looking, ferruginous 
limestone, brown iron ore, and chrysocolla, associated with malachite and occasionally 
azurite. Of sulphide ore no traces were observable. Besides fine pieces of malachite 
and chrysocolla there were some smaller ones of reddish grey oxide, which would 
indicate that the ore from this portion of the lode was of very good quality. From 
an excavation on top of the hill a large quantity of rich ore — silicate, carbonates, 
and oxides of copper — was obtained. The western wall of this pit consists of 
metamorphic slates striking N.W. and dipping S.W. at 65° ; the eastern one of 
massive greenstone, showing here and there small protruding bosses of a syenitic 
character. The lode shows in the northern face of the pit, but is thin and apparently 
very poor, and continues so on the surface. In open workings and in a tunnel close 
by the ore was of similar character. 

Judging from the appearance of the district, there is no reason why gold should 
not exist and be found both in the reefs and the creeks if properly prospected for. 
(Ulrich, 1872.) See under " Gold." 



The Aclabe Mine is situated on section 1296, in the hundreds of Kanmantoo and 
Strathalbyn, and is close to the village of St. Ives. The property comprises 269 
acres, and is watered by the Mount Barker and Nairne creeks. There are nine lodes 
disclosed in this mine at the present time; they bear N. 10° E., with an easterly 
underlay of 2jft. in the fathom; their width varies from 1ft. to 36ft. On the 
surface the ore consists of carbonate of lead and at depth carries gold, silver, nickel, 
lead, zinc, antimony, iron, and sulphur. On the surface, and to a depth of 25ft., the 
carbonate yielehs 50 per cent, of lead, and 90ozs. of silver to the ton. Some recent 
shipments of ore sent to Europe averaged 52ozs. silver to the ton. The average 
percentage of the ore is, from near the surface, lead 50 per cent., silver 90oz. ; from 
30ft. to 114ft., a little lead, about 40 per cent, of zinc, and silver varying from 60ozs. 
to 302OZS. 

The quantity of ore raised amounts to 600 tons in bags and 1,500 tons on the 
surface undressed. The veinstone associated with the metallic minerals is principally 
silica. The value of the ore is variable, some has realised in London £19 per ton. 
The ore occurs in shoots of carbonates or sulphides, striking southerly at an angle of 
30° east. The workings consist of five shafts on the main workings, the deepest of 
which is 30 fathoms, or 180ft. Seven drives have been put in to the following 
distances— 52 fathoms, 35 fathoms, 30 fathoms, 16 fathoms, 11 fathoms, 6 fathoms, 
and 3 fathoms, a total of 153 fathoms, or 9 1 8ft. Besides the main workings an adit 
has been driven for 312ft. to cut the main lode, but no ore has been cut at the end/ 
of the drive. Other adits have been driven and shafts sunk, but nothing payable 
has been met with outside the main workings. This mine is the property of, and is 
now being worked by, Mr. F. C. Singleton, to whom I am indebted for the foregoing 
information. (1887.) 

The AiMANDA Mine is situated about eighteen miles S.E. from Adelaide. In the 
year 1850 it was opened and worked as a copper mine, but not for long, as it was not 
])roductive at a shallow depth, and the capital of the company was not large. In 
1866 the mine was examined, and from assays made of some stones left on the surface 
it was found to be poor in copper but rich in silver. Seven samples assayed by Mr. 
Elphick, assayer to the Burra Burra Company, gave results ranging from 44ozs, to 
1 1 5ozs. of silver to the ton of ore ; five samples assayed by Mr. W. Ey yielded from 
25ozs. to 75ozs. of silver to the ton ; three samples assayed by Mr. Thomas gave 
from 30ozs. to 75ozs silver per ton. In May, 1868, a mineral claim (No. 2759) was 
taken out by a few persons, and in June 4 tons 8cwt. of ore, crushed in a Chilian 
mill, yielded about 28ozs. silver to the ton. Later on amalgamating pans were tried, 
and by this process some 6,000ozs. of silver were produced. In 1870 fresh assays from 
various parts of the mine were made, and yielded results of from 57ozs. to 66ozs. 
silver to the ton, and about 5 per cent, of copper. At a depth of 16 fathoms in the 
engine shaft the lode assumed a hard character and contained barytes, quartz, silver 
ore, arsenic, &c. In 1877 the engine shaft was sunk to a depth of 21 fathoms, 
and assayp from stone raised gave^ — silver, from 88oz. to i63oz. per ton; gold, 
from loz. 13dwts. per ton ; copper, from 7^ per cent, to 16 per cent. ; and from the 
western drive, off the engine shaft, 40oz. of silver to the ton, 4^ per cent, of copper. 
In 1881 the winze in Ey's tunnel was sunk to a depth of 76 fathoms, but the 
WAter came in too strongly to be kept under by hand labour. Assays gave 17oz. silver 
to fete ton, and 16dwts. 8grs. of gold. The workings consist of two shafts of 
21 and 16 fathoms, and a winze in Ey's tunnel, sunk to a depth of 76 fathoms. 
There are also two tunnels of 40 fathoms and 20 fathoms each, a dam, various 
buildings, and a furnace. The mine is not being worked at present. 

The Avondale Mine is situated about two miles S."W. of Mount Lyndhurst, and 
about sevcAteen miles S.E. of Farina railway station. Here there are four or more 
well-defined parallel lodes of almost pure galena without any vein stuff, traversing 



the strike at right angles, of jointed and cleaved beds of quartzite, argillaceous slaty 
shale and schist. The lodes vary in width from a few inches to over 2ft. ; they 
strike north and south (magnetic) with a high westerly dip. A shaft has been sunk 
to a depth of 100ft., and the galena is still visible in quantity, both in the shaft 
and in the outcroppings along the surface. Assays of five samples of ore from this 
mine were made by Mr. G. Goyder, jun., and the results were as as follows : — 

No. 1 77 per cent, lead, and 6oz, 14d'wt. 8gr. silver per ton. 

No. 2 73 per cent, lead, and 4oz. 18dwt. silver per ton. 

No. 3 (gossan) . 21 per cent, lead, and 7oz. 7dwt. silver per ton. 

No. 4 67 per cent, lead, and 4oz. 14dwt. 7gr. silver per ton. 

No. 6 72 per cent, lead, and 8oz. Igr. silver per ton. " 

This mine is not at present being worked. The ore is easily raised, and [a large 
quantity was sent to London, but the results were not considered payable. 

Babbitt's Mine is about a mile and a half north of Normanville and forty-eight 
miles south of Adelaide. The lode ran east and west, and wi^ about 12in. wide. 
The imderlay was north, and about 3ft. in 40ft. The silver-lead was in yellowish 
clay, and the ore contained about 60 per cent, of lead, and from 3oz. to 5oz. of silver 
to the ton. About twenty-five tons of ore was raised when first the mine was 
worked. It has been worked of late years by various people, but there is no avail- 
able record of results. The ore was valued at £10 per ton in London, but the buyers 
complained of the v/ay in which it had been dressed. One shaft was put down to a 
depth of 70ft., but the water level was not reached. A drive of about eight fathoms 
was put in. The ore occurred in blocks of almost pure galena, weighing as much 
as two hundredweight each, also in large crevices and in loose rocks. The lode ran 
from the surface to the bottom of the shaft. 

Ben Lomond Mine. — No records obtainable. Tbis mine was known as Chambers 

Bugle Ranges, five miles east of Macclesfield and six miles south of Mount 
Barker. A mine in the neighbourhood has been found to yield silver, but not 
to any great extent. Very little work has been done upon it. 

Campbell's Cbeek Mines are about two miles east from Cape Jervis. Lead has 
been found on the property, but no payable lode has yet been cut. The ore found 
was good, but was not in payable quantities. (Austin, 1863.) • 

Cabbieton, Eubelia, Obboboo, Black Rock, Coomooboo, Walloway, 
McGee Spbings, McCulloch, Eubilpa. — I inspected several localities near these 
places in July, 1886, where shallow shafts had been sunk on supposed silver lodes. 
Assays from some of these places are stated to have yielded from 4ozs. to 240ozs. 
of silver to the ton. After examination of the supposed ores, however, I was forced 
to conclude that the rich samples of ore sent down from the mines for assay were 
not taken from the places they were supposed to come from ; or, if so taken, were 
enriched by the addition of silver orie or silver. No permanent, continuous, well- 
defined lode was seen at any of the claims. In some instances the supposed lodes 
consisted of bedrock alone. 

Chambebs Mine or Ben Lomond, ten miles south of Adelaide. No records 
obtainable. ^■• 

Clabendon. — A mine was, at one time, opened here. There is a brown iron ore 
lode dipping S.E. A shaft 40ft. deep has been sunk in clayslate, and there are 
several other holes sunk along the cap of the lode. No records obtainable. 

The CuMANiLLA or Chebby Gabdens Mine is about twelve miles south of 
Adelaide. A shaft was sunk about 13 fathoms deep, and the ore raised is said to 
have contained a good percentage of silver and lead. 


ExTKABT. — Forty-eight miles ea&t of Hawker a discovery of silver lead has been 
made by Dr. Stephens. Assays made for him by Mr. G. Goyder, jun., gave the 
following results : — 

TjQg^A Silver, per ton. Gold« per ton. 

, ozs. dwts. grs. ozs. dwts. grs; 

Galena yielded 60 per cent. . . 78 6 , . 14 

" 31J " .. 16 17 ..0 22 

" 44 " .. 16 4 .. 6 

" 70 «« .. 77 1 .. 1 14 16 

** 62 " .. 86 8 .. 4 14 

Iron ochre and cerussite — . . 3 6 . • 3 2 

Lead ore (black) 61 J per cent. .. 26 9 .. 4 14 

Ironstone and quartz .. — .. 19 .. trace 

Grannular lead ore .... 46J per cent. .. 2 16 ., 15 13 

Finke's Spbings. (See Mount Sekle.) 

Fikke's Mine, Glen Osmond. Not much worked. 

Fbanklin Habbottb. — Mangalo Cbeek. — Near a hut on this creek thin veins of 
galena traverse mica schist and mica slate over a space of 40ft. to 50ft. in width. The 
galena is also found on the surface in the form of small rounded slugs. There are 
no workings, with the exception of a trench about six yards long and from 4ft. to 
5ft. deep. The rock is soft and easily worked. The following are the results of 
assays made by Mr. G. Goyder, jun. : — 

No. 1. Galena 2oz8. Odwts. of silver 

No. 2. "— 2oz8. 9dwt8. of silver 

No. 3. *' 9dwt8. 19grs. of silver . . 

No. 4. " loz. 16dwt8. 22gr8. of silver ? P^rton 

No. 6. ** f.. 16dwt8. Sgrs. of silver 

No. 6. ** 2ozs. 15dwt8. 12gn;. of silver 

Fbome Well. (See Mount Seele.) 

Glenalbyn Mines. — Established 1850. 2,000 shares at £5 each. The property 
comprised four sections situated about one mile to the N.W. of Strathalbyn. In his 
article on the Strathalbyn mines, in " The Mines of South Australia" (1863), Mr. J. 
B. Austin evidently refers to the Glenalbyn Mine, though not byname. He mentions 
that 18 fathoms below the surface a fine lode of galena was found, the ore of which 
was said to contain 18J per cent, of lead and l6|oz. silver to the ton. A shaft had 
been sunk about 30 fathoms, and the galena was impregnated with yellow copper ore. 
Several hundred tons of the ore were sent to England. The mine was lying idle in 

The Glen Osmond Union Mining Company was formed in London. Capital 
£30,000, in 3,000 shares of £10 each* paid in full. Operations were begun on pre* 
liminary section No. 295, four miles east of Adelaide, in December, 1846. Thirteen 
lodes were discovered, but work was confined to three for the time being. These 
were situated on the north and south extremities of the section and in the centre. 
Adits and levels were driven; winzes and four shafts were sunk. One hundred 
and sixty tons (including lord's dues), were shipped during eight months (March, 
1848). Cartage, 7s. per ton; freight, 50s. per ton, free in London. This mine 
was at one time the property of Mr. Osmond Gilles. It was opened by him, and 
200 tons of ore raised. 

Hahndobf.--- A silver mine was opened here many years ago, but is not now 
worked. A quantity of ore was raised, and was said to be of rich quality. Pieces 
of quartz and reef formation, procured from this mine, were found to consist of 
a small percentage of galena, containing silver at the rate of l^oz. per ton. Mr. 
W. S. Whitington, however, the original worker of this mine, has informed me that 
ore raised by his party was assayed by Mr. Cosmo-Newberry and by assayers in Eng- 


land and Germany, and gave on an average 71 per cent, of lead and 21ozs. of silver 
to the ton. Operations were stopped by the flooding of the main shaft with water, 
and by the want of capital wherewith to obtain pumping machinery. The workings 
are in soft kaolinized clay, sandy and plumbagenous slates. 

EIangabilla. Mine is about twenty-two miles S.E. of Adelaide. The workings 
consist of a tunnel 150ft. long, and a shaft at the mouth of the tunnel full of water. 
A trace of ore shows on one wall here and there, and a vein of galena and carbonate 
of lead, about 3in. or 4in. wide, extends for 20ft. or 30ft. along the bottom of the 
drive. The sinking is very hard, and the ore-bearing portion of the lode is very 
limited, so that, unless it can be shown to be very rich in silver, ii would not pay to 

Kanoaboo Island. — At Western River there are some mineral claims traversed by 
a large lode showing a continuous outcrop for their whole length. It varies in width 
from 50ft. to 250ft., and bears about S.W. by N.E., and is composed of quartz show- 
ing in places galena and carbonate of lead. In one place the cap of the quartz has 
been broken through to a depth of 5ft. or 6ft. and a solid lode of galena disclosed 
5ft. or 6ft. wide, and assaying about 78 per cent, of lead and 12ozs. silver to the ton 
of ore. At this point, on the surface, the lode shows a width of 150ft. (Captain 
W. H. Price.) 

Keyneton. — In addition to the North Khine, Wheal William, and Wheal Alfred 
Copper Mines there are one or two silver-lead mines in this neighbourhood, but there 
is no record of work done or results obtained. 

LoBETHAL, 27^ miles east of Adelaide. A silver mine was opened near this town- 
ship many years ago. The lode runs north and south, and is composed of iron 
gossan, quartz, and mundic. A vein of cobalt and silver is said to exist in the same 
lode, being principally an ore of cobalt. (See under " Cobalt,") 

Magfablane's Mine is in the neighbourhood of the Glen Osmond mines, and forms 
one of the same group. Very little work has been done. 

Manoalo Cbeek. (See Fbanklin Habboub.) 

Mannahill. — Seven miles south of this railway station a small vein of galena has 
been discovered ; it is associated with gossan, quartz, and carbonate of lead, and 
occurs in bluish clayslates and sandstone. Three holes, the deepest 6ft., have been 
sunk, but no defined reef has been disclosed. 

MoTTNT Seble, thirty-two miles S.E. of Leigh's Creek railway station. About one 
and a half miles east of Stuart's Waterholcs a lode of rich galena and carbonate of 
lead has been discovered by Messrs. Marsh and Milte. It has been prospected two 
or three feet below the surface, and has a promising appearance. Between Finke's 
Springs and Frome Well galena and carbonate of lead have been found in three or 
four localities. Tlie lodes are in the clay and calcareous slaty shale, the lode 
formation being ealc spar and ferro calcite, with sometimes quartz and ferruginous 
gossan. These lodes are worth further prospecting. 

The following assays, made by Mr. G. Goyder, jun., are from ores procured by me 
from these claims : — 

Cemssite, l| miles east of Stuart's Water- Lead. Silver. 

holes gave 58*5 per cent. 3oz. 9dwts. per ton. 

Galena, same locality 65*4 ** loz. 3dwts. ** 

Galena, from No. 2 claim, If miles west of 

Frome Well 70*0 ** 8oz. lOdwts. " 

Cerussite, from most westerly claim 70*0 " 7oz. 4dwts. " 

The Old Stbathalbyn Mine adjoins the Wheal Ellen property. A shaft was 
sunk in the gossan for a depth of four fathoms without showing any signs of ore. 


After that depth the gossan was found to carry gold and silver down to seven fathoms, 
when it hegan to make carbonate of lead. Sinking deeper the lode was found to be 
about 12ft. wide, and to be composed of sandy mundic, zinc blende, and galena of 
low percentage. A drive was put in at the 1 7-fathom level for a distance of five 
fathoms, and cut through about 10ft. of zinc blende and galena of about 20 per cent, 
of lead. At this level a counter branch was met with composed of white quartz, and 
galena free of zinc mundic and rich for silver. At the 22 fathoms level a change in 
the lode took place ; the galena and zinc blende forming themselves into separate 
leaders. Specimens from here are said to have yielded 65 per cent, of lead, and 
40ozs. of silver to the ton. The shaft was sunk seven fathoms below. this level. 
There is no record obtainable concerning the amount of ore raised from this mine. 
It has not been worked for many years. 

OuLNiNA, fourteen miles S.E. of Mannahill. Veins of galena have been found in 
various sinkings in this neighbourhood. (See Tbinkalfena, &c.) 

Pakinga Mining Company. (See " Coppek.") — A lode of black carbonate of lead 
was found on this property, in addition to the copper lode. (See the Wheal Mab- 


Phillips' Mine, Rapid Bay, sixty- two miles S.W. of Adelaide, was opened in 1844. 
The lodes of lead were close to the surface, and are said to have yielded 75 per cent, 
of lead and about 23oz. of silver to the ton. After about fifty tons of silver lead 
ores were raised the work ceased through some cause not stated. 

Pbovincial Mining Co., five miles S.E. of Adelaide. No records. 

The Rivebsedge Mine, on the banks of the Torrens, thirteen miles from Adelaide, 
was worked for copper in 1847. A lode of silver lead was subsequently discovered, 
and an assay of the ore made at the time by Dr. Davy, showed the proportion of 
silver to be about 627ozs. to the ton of ore. The works were stopped for want of 

RoBEBTSTOWN SiLVEBPiELDS. — ^This localitv is about twenty-eight miles from 
Kapunda, a little east of north. Early in the year 1886 a discovery of silver was reported, 
andfrom fifteen to twenty claims were taken out and worked. " Assays " were made and 
results varying from 3ozs. to 30ozs. of silver per ton were reported. Numbers of 
shafts were put down, one to a depth of 100ft. In May I examined the material 
raised from the shafts and the workings, and with two exceptions was unable to 
detect the presence of any metallic minerals, except iron ores and manganese. The 
exceptions were the Moonta claim and Murphy's claim. In the first there were small 
quantities of galena ; and copper in the second. This, coupled with the absence of 
vein structure, led me to doubt the presence of silver in anything like payable 
quantities. I collected samples of the material from most of the workings and out- 
crops in different places, more especially from those points whence good returns were 
said to have been made by assay. These samples — twenty-two in number — were 
submitted tp Mr. G. Goyder, jun.,for assay, and out of the whole number only one — 
that from the Moonta claim — yielded any silver. The result was 13dwts. per ton. 
As far as I could ascertain, the men working in the mines had never seen any silver 
ore in the stone they had been raising, but depended altogether on the " assays," 
which encouraged them to continue. The mystery regarding the results given by the 
assay ers will, most probably, never be satisfactorily cleared up. Much money, 
time, and labour, has been wasted in searching for a metal which, as shown by Mr. 
Goyder's assays, does not exist in appreciable quantities in this locality. (May, 

Sellige's Hill, one and a half miles east of Aldinga Bay, and five miles south of 
the township of Aldinga. Silver-lead was found in the hills about a mile from the 


townaliip. Some holes were put down, but no results have been recorded. The 
rocks are crystalline blue limestone, striking S.S.W. and N.N.E. 

The Taliskeb Mine lies fifteen miles south of Normanville, and about three miles 
north of Cape Jervis. The mine was opened about June, 1862, and was worked till 
about June, 1872. There are four or five lodes, but only one — ^the Talisker lode-^ 
was worked. The bearings of two of them were N. 6° W., and of the others N. 
40^ E., and the average underlay was about 2ft. per fathom. The width varied from 
Gin. to 22ft. On the surface the ore consisted of arseniates, phosphates, and 
carbonates, and at 10 fathoms below the surface, galena. Some of the surface ore 
went as high as 200ozs. of silver to the ton, but the average of the mine was about 
40ozs. silver. The veinstone associated with the metallic minerals is arsenical 
pyrites and quartz ; in some places zinc blende. The country rock is crystalline 
schist. Seven shafts were sunk, the deepest being 432ft., and various drives were 
put in for a total length of 3,500ft. The ore was found intermixed with quartz, 
arsenical pyrites, and indurated slate ; it was also found in shoots of various lengths 
and widths. These shoots dipped south at an angle of about 50°. The arsenical 
pyrites contained gold, silver, lead, iron, arsenic, and sulphur ; and in some places 
blende, but none of these minerals were in sufficient quantity to pay for extraction. 

The foregoing information has been supplied by Mr. W. H. Price, M.E., and the 
following is gathered from extracts from a letter in the possession of Messrs. Harry, 
Harvey, & Co. : — The proceeds of ore raised were about £16,000. The gross pro- 
ceeds of silver-lead sold were £29,885 15s., ranging from £27 10s. 9d. to £39 16s. 
6d. per ton of 20cwt. The average cost of freight, commission, and all other dis- 
bursements in silver-lead, sold in London,- was 6J per cent. The quantity of silver- 
lead shipped was 939 pigs, and 30,593 ingots, the total weight being 889 tons 
4cwt. Oqrs. 4lb. of 20cwt. to the ton. The percentage of silver contained in the 
lead, ranged from 62ozs. to 91oz. 13dwts. 20grs. per ton. The lead was sold at 
£16 12s. 6d. to £22 per ton; the larger quantity at £17 5s. per ton. The silver 
sold at 5s. 4^d. to 5s. 6d. per oz., the larger quantity at 5s. 5§d. The lead produced 
in 1870 contained an average of 69ozs. 12dwt. llgrs. ; and in 1871 the average rose 
to 86ozs. 9dwts. 4 grs., being an increase of 23^ per cent, of silver per ton of lead. 

The mine stopped working for want of capital. 

TbinK4X£ENA, about sixteen miles east of Mannahill. Several shallow shafts have 
been sunk on a small galena vein. The first and most northern of these is about 
25ft. deep, on a leader composed of quartz, galena, and iron pyrites, 4in. or 5in. 
thick, stained with copper. The percentage of galena is email. The second shaft, 
10ft. deep, is on a vein of galena, with gossany quartz, striking E.N.E. In the third 
shaft, about 25ft. deep, the vein of galena is larger and richer than that in the other 
shafts ; the wall is also better defined. There are shallow shafts and holes in the 
neighbourhood, but no ore of importance appears to have been obtained from them. 
No work has been done for some time past. 

Waukjlbinga. — A few miles westward of Blackfellows Reef galena was found in an 
excavation a few feet deep, on a ferruginous quartz lode. An assay showed that this 
ore contained 12ozs. 14dwts. 19gr8. of silver to the ton. 

Tre Wheal Coolin Mine is forty-eight miles S.W. of Adelaide and three miles 
WkS.W. of Kapid Bay. Several shafts were sunk ranging from 7 to 35 fathoms in 
depth. About 70 tons of ore were shipped to England and sold at about £14 per 
ton. The lodes ranged from 6in. to 2ft. in width, and consisted of barytes, gossan, 
and silver-lead of good quality. 

The Wheal Ellek Six.veb-Lead Mike is situated in the Mount Barker district 
about thirty miles from Adelaide. Ic was ojjened in 1857 by private individuals, 
and was in active operation in 1860. It was worked for some time^ but is now lying 
idle. The following account is compiled from papers supplied by Mr. John Harvey : — 


The mine is situated on top of a hill 40 fathoms abo've the bed of the creek. The 
lode on the back is carbonate of lead for many fathoms in length, and rich in silver. 
It is from 4ft. to 5ft. wide on the average, and underlaying to the east about 2^ft. to 
3ft. in the fathom ; the shoots of ore dip north. The ground about the lode is soft 
white slate, a mixture of clay and mica, and very soft for working. Five shafts have 
been simk, namely — Main Shaft, McCourt's Shaft, New Shaft, Corkscrew Shaft, and 
North Shaft. Three of them are sunk to depths of 20 fathoms, 60 fathoms, 40 
fathoms, and a number of drives and levels have been put in. About £35,000 was 
expended on the mine up to the close of the year 1859, of which not more than one- 
half was for underground work, the remainder of the sum being represented by the 
purchase and improvement of the property and the building of smelting furnaces, 
miners' dwellings, machinery, &c., &c. The proceeds, during the same period, 
amounted to a net value in England of £20,000. The lode in the 40-fathom level in 
New shaft averaged about 2^ft. wide, and was composed of galena and zinc 
blende ores. Ores found in other shafts and workings were galena, zinc blende, 
mundic, auriferous gossan and carbonate of lead; also stains of blue and green 
carbonate of copper. In the North shaft, at a depth of 25 fathoms, a branch of rich 
copper ore, about 3in. wide, was met with, and at 26 fathoms the width increased to 
lOin., and consisted of red oxide, black oxide, and grey copper ores. During 
eighteen months' work about 2,000 tons of lead ore were raised, and yielded 90,000ozs. 
of silver. Specimens of the auriferous gossan, assayed by Messrs. Johnson & Sons, 
London, yielded gold at the rate of 4oz8. per ton, silver 45^ozs. per ton, and 59 per 
cent, of lead. The country rock consists of mica schist, micaceous sandstone, and 

Wheal Emma. — No records obtainable. 

The Wheal Gawlee Mine, Glen Osmond, adjoined the Wheal Watkins on the 
north. This was the first mine opened in the province of South Australia. The 
discovery of rich specimens of galena on the surface was the cause of. the land being 
purchased and mined. Work was started in May, 1841, and several tons of very 
pure galena were raised. A considerable amount of work was done on this mine. 

tY In the South Australian Register^ No. 242 of 1842, the result is published of an 
assay of ore from the lodes. The trial was made at Governor and Company's Smelt 
Mills, England, and the yield was as follows : — The dressed ore contained 77 per 
cent, lead and 19ozs. 4dwts. 4grs. silver per ton; the undressed contained 61 1 per 
cent, lead and 19ozs. 2dwts. 4grs. silver per ton. The same journal published, on 
April 29th, 1848, an assay made by C. E. Schonne, Calcutta, of 107 slabs of bullion 
sent from the smelting works. Glen Osmond. The slabs yielded at the rate of 35ozs. 

;k silver to the ton, and one small one went as high as 70ozs. to the ton. The 107 
slabs were the produce of the common carbonates, and the small slab was from the 
average ores. 

Wheal Gbainges, five miles S.E. of Adelaide. No records obtainable. 

The Wheal Mabgabet Mike is in the Mount Barker district, and was originally a 
lease from the Paringa Mining Company, in 1848. It appears to have been worked up 
to the outbreak of the Victorian goldfields, in 1851. In the old workings it is apparent 
that a large bunch of ore was taken from about the 7-fathoms to the 15-fathoms 
level. At this point the lode was contracted to about I ft. in width by a " horse" 
of exceedingly hard quartz. There is no record of the amount of ore raised during 
the first working of the mine* Work has been resumed of late years under the 
direction of Captain Price, and was continued for about six months. The following 
account is compiled from notes supplied by Captain Price :^ — ^There are three lodes, 
bearing from N. 10° E. to N. 5° W., and having an underlay of from 18in. to 2ft. 
in the fathom, in an easterly direction. Their widths vary from 2ft. to 12ft., and 
the ores are composed of galena mixed with zinc blende, and occasionally small 
strings of copper ore. The veinstone associated with the metallic minerals is a flinty 


and very hard quartz, together with a flucan of chlorite on the hanging wall, with 
some veins of copper. The nature of the country rock is metamorphic slate. The 
ore, when properly dressed, will assay from 50 per cent, to 60 per cent, of lead, and 
d2ozs. to 80OZS. of silver to the ton. Thirty-five tons of ore, raised by Captain Price, 
yielded, on assay, from 4dozs. to 55ozs. of silver to the ton. Three shafts — the 
deepest being 15 fathoms — have been sunk to the water level, and the drives and 
levels extend about 200ft. The ore seems to occur in a shoot in one place, 
while in others it occurs in small veins of about din. thick. 

It is stated in Parliamentary Paper No. 83 of 1860, that Mr. Jno. B. Neales first 
smelted lead by the Cumberland process at this mine in 1850. The first stampers 
used in the colony were erected on this property, and the first colonial-made pumps 
and lifters were used to keep the water imder. 

The Wheal Maby, an old silver-lead mine near Normanville. There are several 
shafts along a north and south line. In one or two places there is a little galena in 
calc spar. There is also some gossany iron ore in the limestone, apparently in 
cavaties. The bedrock is composed of limestone. (August, 1886.) 

The Wheal Rose Mine was amalgamated with the Wheal Margaret. 

The Wheal Watkins Mine, near Glen Osmond, four miles from Adelaide, ad« 
joined the Glen Osmond Union Mining Company's property. It was opened in 1843 
and remained steadily productive until the year of the Victorian diggings (1851). 

WicKLOW Hut, neab Fbanklin Haeboub. — A shaft has been sunk here to a 
depth of about 30ft., on a decomposed granite dyke 3ft. or 4ft. wide. Thin galena 
veins have been cut, and can be easily worked as the rock is soft. The following 
assay was made by Mr. G. Goyder, jun. : — 

No. 1. Galena loz. 6dwt8. 3grs. of silver \ 

No. 2. ** loz. 6dwt8. 3gr8. of silver > per ton. 

No. 3. ** •••••• loz. 9dwts. Ogrs. of silver ) 

Wilpena. — About two miles N.E. of Wilpena eating-house, fifty-eight miles N.E. 
of Hawker railway station, a mineral discovery was made some years ago. It was 
represented by a well-defined quartz reef from 2ft. to 4ft. thick. The crystalline 
quartz of the main portion of this reef is full of thin strings and small patches of 
galena ; some of the patches are several cubic inches in size, and are, in some places, 
partially converted into carbonate of l^ad. This reef should be thoroughly examined, 
because lodes similarly composed at the outcrop have frequently been found to carry 
more valuable ores lower down, such as bournonite and tetrahedrite (Ulrich). This 
lode is probably the same as the one in which silver-lead ore has recently been found. 

Wibbealpa. — ^A discovery of silver-lead ore has been made in this locality, 
twenty-five miles east of Blinman. Capt. W. H. James, of Blinman, considers it a 
most important discovery, and states that he has traced the outcrop for a distance of 
from three to four miles in a direct line. In places quantities of galena and carbonate 
of lead are visible. (1887.) 

Yattagoiinga Mine. (See Phillips* Mine.) 



MuBKiNNiE Mike, containing bismuth and copper, is situated on the western shore 
of Spencer's Gulf, six miles inland. It is sixty-four miles south of Port Augusta, 
and 136 miles north of Port Lincoln. There are five lodes bearing north and south 
with little underlay. In width they vary from 1ft. to 10ft. feet, and the ores they 
contain are bismuth, copper, nickel, silver, and cobalt. The percentage of bismuth 
varies from 18 to 79 per cent., copper 10 to 20 per cent. 

The country rocks consist of quartz, ironstone, and decomposed slate, and hard 
slate. Near the adit in the gully there is a little granite. Six shafts have been sunk, 
one to the depth of 30 fathoms, and two drives have been put in a distance of about 
100ft. each. About 1,000 tons of ore have been raised, which is stated to be worth 
about £44 per ton in its natural state. The first indications of ore were found in a 
large block on the surface. The lode was then followed down for 12 fathoms at an 
angle of 45^, and at that depth a pocket was found containing 60 tons of ore. The 
winze below the pocket carried a lode 5ft. wide for a distance of 10 fathoms, then 
came a shoot of about 40 tons. 

Balha.nna^ Mine. (See under " Gold.") 


Cabtopb Cbeek, near the Burra. Some mineral leases have been taken up here 
to search for cobalt. Several shallow tunnels and holes have been put in soft 
argillaceous and kaolinized sandstone, with limestone bands. The strike is north and 

Cobalt has also been searched for at Gum Creek, near the Burra, and is found 
elsewhere in many of the manganese ores, but not in payable quantities. 

Lobethal. — Within half a mile of this township (27^- miles east of Adelaide), a 
mine of cobalt and silver is said to exist. The lode runs north and south, and is 
composed of iron gossan, quartz, and mundic. (1867.) 


Gum Cbeek, near the Burra. On section 427 there is a large excavation in soft 
argillaceous slaty sandstone, from whence iron ore and manganese have been taken 
out of a blow. (1883-4.) 

Moirif T Jagged Ibon Mine is situated on the summit of the mount, nine miles 
S.E. of Willunga and eleven miles north of Victor Harbour. A small company was 
formed in 1873, and smelting works, consisting of a furnace 30ft. high, engine and 
blowing cylinder and the necessary sheds, were erected at a cost of about £2,500. 
These were placed five miles from Mount Jagged, upon one of the sources of the 
River Hindmarsh. Water and fuel were abundant, and also crystalline limestone. 
This was in huge boulders and of so hard a character that lithofracture had to 
be used in working it. The principal supply of ore was from the summit 
of Mount Jagged, 500ft. above the works. The mount is capped by a mass of 
black oxide, yielding 50 per cent, of pure iron and unmixed with any matrix. A 
vertical shaft was sunk to a depth of 70ft., and the ore held good all the way down. 


Charcoal for the furnace was supplied at £2 per ton, and the ore at 12s. per ton. 
About 50 tons of iron were smelted, but, owing to the ii^norance of the fiimace- 
keeper, the furnace was frequently allowed to get cold and then had to be cut out. 
This so damaged it that at last it became unsafe to work, and there being no funds 
in hand to buUd a fresh furnace the company was wound up. The amount of capital 
subscribed was far too small for the proper working of the mine, being not more 
than £3,000. The cost of making the iron was reckoned at about £2 lOs. per ton. 
(I am indebted to Mr. C. L. Dubois for the foregoing account.) 

ScKUBBEB* Camp, near the Burra Mine, has been worked as a copper mine, but 
a lode of iron ore runs through the property. 


Gill's Bluff, near Mount Lyndhurst, and thirty-six miles S.E. of Farina railway 
station. In 1882-3 the assistant geologist (Mr. Woodward) procured some specimens 
from this place of a metallic mineral occurring in veins of calcite in limestone shale. 
On being analysed it was found to contain a fair percentage of nickel. An assay by 
Mr. G. Goyder, jun., gave : — Nickel, 24 per cent. ; antimony, 54 per cent. The 
discovery is an important one^ as the ore is valuable, and the prospecting of the locality 
may lead to further results. 


The Ellen Mine, twelve miles S.E. of Gordon. 

The Etna Mine, six and a half miles N.E. of Gordon. 

The Gordon Mine, eight and a half miles N.E. of Gordon. 

Pbotjt's Mine is near Scott's Mine. 

ScoTx's Mine is situated between Orroroo and Hammond, on the railway. 

Neab Watt's Sugab Loaf, and about five miles from Gordon (Great Northern 
railway), a large deposit of manganese has been worked for some time. Blocks of 
ten to twelve tons of ore were found on the surface, and a considerable quantity was 
shipped to England. 

Manganese and iron ores are common in many parts of the colony. The ore often 
contains cobalt, but not in sufficient quantity to render its working payable. 

A private company — the *' South Australian Manganese Mining Company " — ^has 
done a considerable amount of work in this locality. They be^an in 1882-3, and 
during 1886 the output of ore equalled 650 to 700 tons. An underlay shaft has 
been sunk to a depth of about 70ft. on a lode 10ft. thick, and another shaft is about 
to be put down. At the present time it is worth £3 10s. per ton gross for ore that 
is up to the standard of 70 per cent, of oxide of manganese. 

Willowie Fobest Resebye. — In 1886 a deposit of manganese was found in 
the Willowie Forest Reserve, about four miles north of Melrose. An analvsis made 
by Mr. G. Goyder, jun., showed, that the manganese contained cobalt varying in 
percentage from 1"7 to 2*31. No work has been done to test the lode. 

During 1886, 1,200 tons of manganese of the declared value of £3 10s. per ton 
were exported from Port Augusta. 



Algebvckina Diggings. (See Peake Diggings.) 

The Azujl Gold Mine is situated in the Waukaringa district, sixty miles in a direct 
line N.E. from Petersburg, and about sixteen miles west of the Teetulpa goldfields. 
About the year 1872-3, a shepherd, whilst feeding his flock on the range of hills now 
known as Waukaringa, picked up some quartz in which gold was visible to the eye. 
He made known his find, and several companies were at once floated; but the only 
one that has really done anything to extensively develope any of the mines has been 
the Alma company. The expense of carting the stone to the Burra at that time was 
very great, owing to the distance, and the waterless character of the country. No less 
than £72,000 has been spent in working the mine, without the declaration of a single 
dividend. There are four lodes, bearing about 15^ north of east, and underlaying 
south about 30°; in width they vary from 1ft. to 10ft., averaging about 5ft. The 
ore consists of arsenical pyrites, associated with carbonate of lime and quartz. 
The yield of gold to the ton varies from lOdwts. to 3ozs. Up to January 31st, 1887, 
the quantity of ore raised amounted to 11,907 tons, and has yielded 7,62 lozs. of gold^ 
This gives an average yield of 12dwts. 21grs. to the ton. Two shafts have been 
sunk, the deepest of which is 260ft., and the drives extend a distance of 1,600ft. 
The water level was reached at l€Ofi, The ore occurs in shoots and patches along 
the lode, extending about 200ft. in length. 

From the surface the reef was composed of oxide of iron and quartz, and varied 
in thickness from 2ft. to lOffc. Free gold was visible throughout. A change from 
oxide of iron to sulphide, or arsenical pyrites, took place in the reef at No. 1 level. 
The gold is so coated with pyrites as to be undistinguishable. The works on the 
Surface consist of two calcining furnaces, three amalgamating pans 15ft. in diameter, 
a forty-horsepower engine which drives the battery and pans, and a sixteen-horse- 
power pumping engine. A compressed-air rockborer is used in the levels. One great 
drawback is the want of water for the purposes of the mine, and fuel is also scarce. 
[Since writing above, three crushings of stone have yielded 926ozs. 5dwts. of gold.] 

AuBUEN Gold Mining Co. (See Babossa.) 

The Balhannah Mine is on section 4024, hundred of Onkaparinga, and is 
distant from Adelaide fourteen miles, E.S.E., in a direct line. There is no information 
obtainable touching the early history of this mine. Local traditions agree in stating 
that it is rich in bismuth, gold, and copper, and large quantities of the first and last- 
named metals were got. It is also said that the gold was picked out and kept by the 
men engaged in dressing the ore. This statement is probably true in part only, and 
may be much exaggerated as to the quantity of gold taken. An examination of the 
spoil left on the surface, and lately tested by washing, shows gold to be present ; and 
it is probable that rich shoots of that metal were met with when the mine was being 
worked. Alluvial gold is also to be met with in the immediate neighbourhood. 
Specimens of bismuth ore are easily to be got from the refuse heaps, and copper ores 
of all kinds are abundant. 

The veinstone consists, near the surface, of gossan, iron pre, and quartz ; lower 
down, of quartz, with carbonates of iron and lime, and pyrites. Two reefs have 
been worked. They strike north and south on the surface. The country rocks 
consist of kaolinized slate and argillaceous sandstone, striking N. 10^ to 15° W., and 
dipping E. about 60°. 

Mr. J. B. Austin has contributed the following note : — 

^ The mine was first worked for copper, of which a considerable quantity was obtained near the 
surface. Bismuth was found associated with the copper, and the quantity increased, until it appeared 
likely to prove more valuable than the copper. Gold was found in the bismuth, and some beautiful 
specimens of small nuggets of pure gold in native bismuth were met with. Though the two metaLs 
were thus seen distinct from each other, they were smelted together, and the gold was afterwards 
separated, the precious metal being in the proportion of five ounces of gold to one hundredweight of 
bismuth. Cobalt in small quantities, also antimony and plumbago, are said to be found m this 
remarkable mine. The working were carried down to a depth of fifty fathoms, where there is a 

GOLD. 55 

wide but dredgy lode, yielding about one ton of bigmuth to the fathonii with some copper and gold. 
From £25,000 to £30,000 worth of copper has been raised from this mine, and about £7,000 worth 
of bismuth. Some exceedingly rich specimens of gold in ironstone gossan have been got out of tius 
mine, and several nuggets, the largest weighing about 2Joz. A considerable quantity of white car- 
bonate of iron is found in the mine. 

The workings consist of a main shaft 300ft. deep, and two others to the westward. 
One of these has been sunk to a depth of 50ft., and the other to 120ft. The water 
in the main shaft makes at the rate of 8,000 gallons per hour. Levels have been 
put in at 60ft., 120ft., and 240ft. Several drives and slopes have been made from 
these levels. In the old workings the lode seems to have been very broken ; but at 
the bottom drive, extending 150ft. eastward from the main shaft, the coimtry seemed 
to be moro^ettl^. 

The "Ba^sia Mine is situated on section No. 4261, hundred of Onkaparinga, 
near Oakbank. Gold has been got from a series of more or less parallel leaders. 
These strike N.E. and.S.W., and dip S.W. 45°, through metamorphic, granitic, and 
argillaceous rocks, associated with granite. The veinstone consists of quartz, cellular 
and ferruginous iron oxide, and micaceous iron. There is one shaft sunk to a depth 
of about ^Oft. Fifteen tons of stone yielded about lldwts. of gold per ton. 

[Since writing above, I am informed by Mr. J. C. F. Johnson that in April a small 
crushing of nine t^ur^ve 9oz8. 6dwts. of gold, and that assays of pyrites from the 
same claim have Jm. ks higli as lOozs. per ton.'] 


is situated in the'^S.W. comer of the hundred of Barossa. The distance from 
Adelaide is' about twenty- two miles N.N.E., and it is three miles S.E. of 
Gawler. T^j^e field was discovered in 1868 ^iob Harris and mates ; they found 
gold in the gully now known as Spike Gul^^-^^^^is gully is one and a half miles 
long — the prospectors' claims being near t]Je<centre. The depth of sinking was from 
5ft. to 20ft. Some of the claims were v^fy rich, yielding as much as £1,000 per man. 
The rocks of the district are supposed to be of lower Silurian age, from their 
lithological resemblance to those of the Victorian goldfields. But from their highly 
metamorphic appearance, and no fossils having been found, it is impossible to say 
decidedly of what age they are. In several places intrusive granite dykes are met 
w^ith, and in one particular line, from Malcolm's Creek to Mount Gawler, they are 
very frequent. These rocks consist of metamorphic, airgillaceous, and micaceous 
schists, sandstones and grits, granite, gneiss, hornblend schists, mica schists, and 
quartzite, with granite, greenstone, and feldspathic dykes. As a rule they have a 
uniform strike of about 20° east of north, and dip to the eastward from 36° to 70°. 
There is an exception to this rule near the Bismarck diggings, where the dip is 70° 
west in two places, but this is probably caused by local agency, as it does not extend far. 

The Basossa Deep Leads were the richest diggings then discovered in South 
Australia ; they are situated at the head and down the sides of Spike Gully. The 
following are some of the most important : — 

VlcTOKiA Hill, south-east of Spike Gully. The sinking was from 60ft. to 80ft. 
in depth, and as much as lloz, 14dwts. of gold has been taken off the bottom of the 
shaft, the largest piece of gold being 7oz. in weight. 

Hitche's Hill Lead, or Deep Lead, is a continuation of Victoria Hill Lead, but 
was not so rich. It, however, paid very well down to Water Flat, where there are 
some springs. Here the lead was lost, but lower down, where it ran into Walkervale 
Gully, it was again payable for a short distance. The deepest sinking — 120ft. — was 
on the ridge at the head of Spike Gully. 

The White Lead is situated between the head of Spike Gully and the road, and 
is cut through by several small gullies. The sinking was very hard, being nearly all 
composed of cement, with layers of sand between ; and as the washdirt was also 
cemented, batteries had to be erected for crushing. Some of the cement yielded as 
high as 13oz. to l4oz. to the ton. The depth of sinking varied from 5ft. to 60ft., 


according as the shafts were situated either on the top of a spur or near the edge of 
one of the small gullies. The thickness of the washdirt varied from 2in. to 8ia. 

Simmons' Lead lies hetween the heads of Spike Gully and Two-Speck Gully. 
It is evidently a continuation of White Lead. 

Red Hill Lead, hetween Two-Speck and Nuggety Gullies. It is a continuation 
of the two last leads. 

Goddakd's Hill is on a spur between Nuggety and Gollop's Gully. The lead 
splits in two, one point coming down the point of the hill, whilst the other goes into 
GoUop's Gully. 

Cottieb's Hill IjEAd crosses Moonta Gully and Moonta Hill, in the direction of 
Yetti Creek. It started from the surface, going down into deep ground in ledges. 
There it was rich, yielding as much as 8ozs. to 9ozs. to the tub ; but at gradually 
became poorer as it crossed the gully, and did not pay to work far into the Moonta 

Gbeen Hill Lead, on the ridge between Green Hill Gully and Spike Gully, runs 
in a north-easterly direction into the Hed Hill. 

Edwakds' Rush.— Two or three claims paid very well ; but as the washdirt was 
cemented, it had to be crushed. 

Melville's Rush is situated about one mile from Williamstowa^ It starts on the 
main ridge, and winds down a small spur in the direction of Victoria Creek. The 
sinking was very hard, and the depth ranged from 15ft. to 20ft.' .^l the wash- 
dirt had to be crushed, and, except in the case of one or two claims, did'not pay well. 

In Pabba Wibba very little has been done in prospecting deep leads. 

The Bismabck is the only one that has been worked. This claim is situated on 
the north side of Devil's Gully. The lead runs in a northerly direction, crossing 
several small spurs and gullies ; but only one carried gold. The sinking was very 
hard, being mostly cement. The claim was never payable, although some small 
nuggets were found of from Idwt. to loz. in weight. 

The Alluvial Diggings of this goldfield are very limited in extent, and seem 
generally to have derived their gold from the deep leads which they cut through. 
The most important on the Barossa side are : — 

Spike Gully, where gold was first discovered in soft ground at a depth of from 
5ft. to 20ft. The gold was nuggety, ragged, and smooth. Some of the claims 
were very rich, a single one having yielded as much as £1,000. 

Two-Speck Gully paid to work from Spike Gully to Green Hill. 

Nuggety Gully was very payable, and yielded nuggets up to loz. in weight. 

GoLLOp's Gully was also very rich at the part where it spreads out into a little flat. 

BuLLOCKY Gully was thoroughly worked, but was not payable. 

Mooj^TA Gully paid very well. 

Gbeen Hill Gully paid to work for the distance of a few chains below Green 
Hill Lead. 

Hissey's Gully paid very well, although most of the washdirt had to be crushed. 
The depth of the sinking was from 15ft. to 30ft. 

In Pabba Wibba the alluvial diggings were of much less importance, only one gully 
having paid to work. 

Hamlin's Gully was rich immediately below the Lady Alice reef. The gold 
was large and rough, and the largest nugget found weighed 3ozs. 

Maby's Gully. — A number of holes were sunk, but nothing payable was found. 
There are two or three other places, such as Vixen's and Devil's Gullies, and at 

the diggings on the east side of Mount Gawler, where small quantities of gold have 

been found. 

Sim's Rush. — ^Early in 1887 a fresh discovery of alluvial gold was made on 
sections Nos. 674 and 1103, near the junction of Spike Gully and Yetti Creek. The 

OOLD. 57 

gold is found in ordinary alluvium, increasing in depth to the northward, and also in 
an old " lead," being a continuation of that which was previously worked between 
Yetti Creek and Spike Gully. Some of the claims have been sunk to a depth of 
25ft., but great difficulty is experienced owing to the strong influx of water. An 
extension of the " lead " may be looked for to the northward, where the surface 
indicates an area of similar *' made " ground. Patches of this are found on many of 
the hills in the neighbourhood. The trend of the newer or alluvial " lead," now 
being worked in Sim's paddock, is probably down the Yetti Creek into the South 
Parra River. It is impossible to state the amount of gold obtained from these 
diggings, owing to the reticence of the miners, and the owners of the property. The 
rocks of the neighbourhood are white kaolinized clay slates, quartzose sandstones, and 
metamorphic granite. 


A good deal of work has been done on these reefs, though with little success. In 
some instances this has been due to want of system ; in others, where the prospects 
were good, the enterprise has been abandoned for some unknown reason ; and in 
other instances again, payable shoots of gold have been left, and vertical shafts have 
been sunk, striking the reef in a barren part. In Barossa, the first auriferous reef 
found was 

MooNTA Hill. — This, as far as worked, was not payable. 

The Aububn Gold Mining Company took up some claims on Goddard's Hill, 
where they sank a shaft 110ft. At 60ft. they passed through some gold-bearing 
leaders, but these were not followed. 

A shaft was simk in 1869, by Mr. Gilbert, between " Two-Speck" and " Nuggety 
Gully," to a depth of 80ft. or 90ft., but no gold was obtained. 

The Red Hill Gold Mining Company, in the same year, sunk a shaft 120ft. 
on a vertical reef. At 70ft. they got good prospects and sent a crushing to Adelaide, 
but the returns were not so good as had been expected, and the mine was stopped. In 
1882 the ground was again taken up. Three shafts of depths ranging from 60ft. to 
70ft. were sunk, but without success. 

Bbeakell & Company, in 1875, put a tunnel 80ft. in length into Goddard's Hill, 
but got nothing. In 1882 they extended the tunnel to a length of 500ft. ; they sank a 
shaft on Cotter's Hill to a depth of 100ft., and in driving to the west cut a flat reef 
9ft. thick ; but in neither case was gold obtained. 

Roseman & Company, in 1882, took up some claims inGoUop's Gully, and opened 
out on a reef between dft. or 4ft. in thickness. They also sunk a shaft 40ft. on the 
same reef, and took out a crushing, but it was not payable. 

Malcolm's Babossa Gold Mine was discovered in 1871 by some men in the employ 
of Mr. Malcolm, of Gawler. It is a large vertical sandstone reef, about 15ft. wide, 
with small leaders of quartz. The main shaft was sunk 200ft., and at 80ft. a leader 
carrying gold and 20 per cent, of copper was struck. At the bottom of the main shaft 
a 200ft. drive was put in to the east, and a reef, non-gold bearing, was cut. Another 
shaft to the south of the main shaft was sunk 150ft. The mine has been stopped 
for some time, but the battery of eight stamps and other plant are still on the 
ground (1886). 

The Victobia Gold Mine was taken up in 1884. From stone found on the 
surface, and crushed in a mortar, 35ozs. of gold were obtained. The reef was 
followed down 40ft. ; a vertical shaft was sunk 150ft. to the east, but failed to cut it. 
A drive to the east through very hard ground is now (1886) being put in to meet it. 
There are two reefs here, one striking almost due north, and the other north-east; 
both dip to the east. Considering that such encouraging prospects of gold were 
found near the surface, it would have been advisable to have followed down the reef 
on the underlay, before proceeding to sink a vertical shaft. The prospects washed 
from stone taken from the reef were very good, and it is worthy of being tested in a 


systematic manner. The rocks are f eldspathic slates and schists, sandstone, quartzite, 
and grit. 

In an official return made in 1871 by Mr. W. J. Peterswald, Warden of Goldfields, 
the value of gold found on this field, from 1868 to 1871 is estimated at £95,000. 

A return made by Mr. A. M. Woods of the English, Scottish, and Australian 
Chartered Bank, and published in one of the daily papers, states the amount of gold 
bought by the Bank from October, 1868 to June 30th, 1870, to be 5,252ozs. 4dwt8. 
7grs. The price paid was at the rate of £3 17s. per ounce, and the total value 
represented was £20,221 Os. 6d. 

Bebtbam's Reef. (See Eghunga.) 

BiLLT Sfbings are seventy-two miles east of Farina. About one mile south of 
the springs some digging has been done in shallow ground, having a limestone 
bottom, strewn with quartz wash from a large reef a little to the east. Gold has 
been found here. The samples seen by the Assistant Geologist were coarse and 
rough, and showed no signs of being waterworn. (1884.) 

Bied-ix-Hand Mine. (See Woodside.) 


Bibd-in-Hand Extended Mine. (See Woodside.) 

BiBTHDAT Beef. (See Mannahill.) 

Blackfellow's Cbeek Diggings were discovered about the 1st March, 1887. 
They are situated on section No. 292, hundred of Kuitpo, and about half a mile above 
the junction of Blackfellow*s Creek and the River Finniss. On the 18th March 
about twenty men were at work on an alluvial flat in the creek. The sinking varies 
from 8ft. to 10ft. in depth, and is wet. The gold found is fine. There are wide 
alluvial flats, and a large extent of Crown lands is available for prospecting purposes. 

Blagkfellows' Reef is in the Waukaringa district. It is said to have yielded 
the coarsest gold yet found in this locality. The vein is very thin, and consists of 
quartz with carbonate of iron, iron pyrites, and oxide of iron in greenish clay slate 
and argillaceous sandstone. The proportion of gossany quartz and iron ore found in 
this and neighbouring reefs is considerable ; the gold is found in both, in a finely 
divided state. The lodes are strong and extend for long distances, and will doubtless 
be found to continue to considerable depths when followed. (1883.) 

Blagksnake Reef. (See Taltjnga.) 

Blackwood Gully is an alluvial diggings situated on section No. 626, hundred 
of Kuitpo. It is thought to have been discovered by a Government prospecting 
party, about twelve or fourteen years ago. The gully has been worked for a distance 
of a quarter of a mile, and the sinking is shallow. At the upper part of the work- 
ings there are apparently several runs of gold, and at this point a wide area has been 
worked across the flat. Nuggets of moderate size have been found, and recently some 
very rich specimens have been got in Couch's claim. They were found at a depth 
of from 10ft. to 20ft., in a vein composed of quartz, gossan, and kaolin. In April, 
1887, four and a half tons of stone were crushed by the New Era battery, at Wood- 
side, and yielded 4ozs. lldwts. of gold. The bedrocks are kaolinized clay, and 
sandy slates, sandstone, and quartzite, traversed by quartz reefs and veins. 

It is probable that the alluvial gold has been derived from veins similar to those 
in Couch's claim, traversing the bedrock. The men are not working the alluvial to 
any extent, but are engaged in sinking on the reefs and veins. 

This gully has been worked intermittently for several years. It is probable that a 
good deal of gold has been taken from it, but, in the absence of any records, it is 
impossible to form an idea of the amount. 

Bbeakell & Co. (See Babossa Golpfield.) 

GOLD. 59 

BsxND Mine. (See Woodside.) 

BuBGESs's Reef, or the Koh-i-noor Mine, is on Kangaroo Island, and consists of 
a narrow leader of quartz in clayslate and schistose sandstone, &c. There was no 
gold visihle in the quartz, but a faint colour was obtained from some that was crushed. 
Two men were at work in a 50ft. shaft, with an underlay to the west. (February, 
1886.) One and a half tons of quartz were sent to Melbourne for treatment by 
the Virginia Co. and the United Pyrites Co., and yielded as follows : — 401bs. of 
pjrrites gave loz. retorted gold, value £3 17s. 3d. The 401bs. of pyrites tailings 
yielded 9grs. of gold — ^total loz. 9grs. (Gavin Gardner.) 

BtJKTON's Mine, section 6247, is in the district of Mount Torrens, twenty miles 
east of Adelaide. A shaft has been put down to a depth of 70ft. on a reef of 
micaceous iron and quartz, with gold. There is also a cellular siHco-f eld spathic dyke, 
from which stone crushed yielded Hdwts. of gold per ton. The reef and dyke strike 
east and west. (1885.) 


Chapman's Gullt. (See Echxtnga.) 

Comet Mine. (See Echunga.) 

The Cbiteeion Reef is near Mount Torrens, in the hundred of Talunga. There 
are two reefs, one striking east and west and one north and south. The north and 
south reef is not. at present, being worked ; the east and west reef underlays to the 
north at a rather flat angle. In width it varies from 1ft. to 3ft., and is bunchy 
in character. This reef was worked many years ago, but the results were not payable, 
and the mine was idle for some years. Lately work has been resumed. A shaft has 
been sunk to a depth of 50ft., and a drive of 50ft. has been put in. Twenty-five tons 
of stone have been raised and have been crushed at the New Era battery, Woodside. 
The yield of gold was about 12dwts. to the ton. Information concerning the original 
operations conducted in this mine has not been forthcoming. 

Cutaway Hills, near the Leigh's Creek railway station. — I found here colours of 
scaly gold in prospecting the shallow alluvium. The ground should be further tried by 
testing the deep alluvium of the neighboring flats. 

The Duedan Mine is on section No. 6343, hundred of Talunga. It contains 
one lode, bearing north and south, dipping easterly, one foot in &\e, and varying in 
width from 10ft. to 14ft. The ore is auriferous quartz; one hundred tons 
have been crushed, and fifty tons are at grass. It occurs in patches with fine gold 
distributed through the whole of the reef, and in some places in the surrounding 
country. The average yield of gold to the ton was over one ounce, value £3 
12s. f)d. per ounce. The auriferous veinstone consists of cellular and solid quartz, 
penetrating a greenish serpentine granite which has intruded into metamorphic sand- 
stone and micaceous slates. 

One vertical shaft has been sunk to a depth of 100ft., and the water level was 
reached at 90ft. The drives extend a distance of 90ft. This property is not at 
present being worked ; and what has been done upon it is not sufficient to accurately 
test the real value of the lode. 

DrscoviTCHEs Beef. (See Talunga.) 

East Alma Mine, in the Waukaringa district. — One shaft has been put down to 
a depth of 120ft. There is no information as to what ore has been raised, 


This field was discovered in the early part of the year 1852. The following 
description is abridged from an interesting account of the discovery contributed 


to the Mount Barker Courier by Mr. W. Cbapipan, who claims to be the first 
discoverer. — The first sign of gold was got on what was known as " the Company's 
land," not far from the old Wheatsheaf Inn. Mr. Chapman made known his 
discovery to his father and to Messrs. Hampton and Hardiman, men Avho were 
well acquainted with the country, and a thorough search was begun. Very rich 
surface gold was found by the party on land not far from the place where the first 
prospect had been washed. It was on the side of a hill above what is now known as 
Donkey Gully. The gold was traced from there to Chapman's Hill. At this place 
gold was found at the foot of a tree, laid bare by the dripping of water from the 
branches. Half an ounce was picked up by dry fossicking, and on the following day 
Hampton washed several ounces of gold from the roots of this tree. Before report- 
ing the discovery the men carted away two or three dray loads of dirt in bags, 
and stacked it on Hampton's land. Subsequently, on being washed it yielded an 
ounce to the bag. By this time the people in the neighbourhood had begun to suspect 
that the Chapmans, Hampton, and Hardiman were getting gold, but it was deter- 
mined that the secret shoidd be kept until a claim had been made upon the Government 
for the £1,000 offered as a reward for the discovery of a payable goldfield. This 
offer was published in the Government Gazette of December 18th, 1851. Mr. Chap- 
man, sen., and Mr. Hampton went to town for this purpose on August 23rd, 1852, 
taking with them about 7oz. of rough gold. At the Treasury they made oath that 
the gold had been found in the province of South Australia. On the day following 
a party of from fifty to sixty horsemen, headed by Mr. B. T. Finniss (Colonial 
Secretary), Mr. Chapman, Mr. Hampton, and a number of police troopers visited the 
place. Mr. W. Chapman was told to wash out some dirt in the presence of Mr. Finniss, 
and in order to render fraud more difficult of accomplishment he was made to take 
off his coat, and roll up his shirtsleeves. Mr. Chapman gathered up a dish of stuff from 
a part of the surface not previously touched, and began to wash it. He was closely 
hemmed in by an eager and excited crowd. Slowly the dirt was panned off, but no 
sign of gold was to be seen. The crowd became angry and impatient ; they swore that 
the whole affair was a swindle, and expressed a strong desire to " lynch" and "string 
up " the prospector. But he was confident of success and of protection from the police. 
With a quick twirl of the dish the last of the dirt was shot out and the gleam of gold 
could be seen at the bottom of the pan. Thereupon a scene of great excitement 
ensued, and the shouting and noise was so great that horses tied to trees hard by broke 
their bridles and galloped away. The desire to wash for gold seized upon the people — 
saucepan lids, pannicans, kettles, cans, and even hats were made use of, and a little 
gold was found by all. Mr. Chapman washed out other dishes of dirt in the presence 
of Mr. Finniss, and from one of them nearly a quarter of an ounce of gold was got. 
Mr. Finniss returned to town carrying with him about half an ounce, and proclaimed 
the field to be a genuine discovery. The conditions of the reward were, that licences (at 
that time 30s. each) to the value of £1,000 should be taken out during the first two 
months, and that £10,000 worth of gold must also be found within the same period 
of time. In two months 684 licences were taken out, being equal to £1,026 sterling. 
The Messrs. Chapman, Hardiman, and Hampton applied for the reward after an 
interval of three months, but were not successful. There was no proof that £10,000 
worth of gold had been obtained, except the statements made by diggers and* store- 
keepers; these represented that £18,000 worth had been got. The matter was 
brought before the Council, and a sum of £500 was given to the prospectors, leaving 
the question of reward still open. Nineteen years ago two sums of £200 and £300 
were paid for the discovery of gold at Jupiter Creek. Mr. W. Barker, a storekeeper 
•on that field, bought gold to the extent of £3,000. 

Chapel Hill and Windlass HiLii contained basin-shaped hollows, filled with 
boulder and pebble wash, and were rich in gold. From the vicinity of these basins 
several small leads of gold started. Yorkey's lead was followed down into Wattle Flat, 
where it became too poor to pay for working. Sandy's lead started at the surface, 
and yielded from one claim, 8ft. square, 25ozs. of gold, and a' nugget of 6ozs. in 

GOLD. 61 

Chapman's Gully was the one first opened on the field, and proved to be the 
richest ; at one place some rich specimens of gold in ironstone were found. An iron- 
stone leader crosses the gully, but has never been prospected (Dec. 1884). The depth 
of sinking at the upper part of the gully was from 6ft. to 7ft., and 1 2ft. at the lower 
part. The gully has been worked, and was very rich up to the private property (sec. 
3893), and it is probable that that land contains a quantity of gold. 

On the west side of Chapel Hill, gold was got at the surface ; going westward 
the lead was found to pass over falls or precipices of 20ft., 15ft., and 10ft. in height, 
with flat spaces between. Where the bottom dipped towards these precipices there 
was the richest ground. They did not run straight ; they were much cut imder in 
places, and ran quite out at Bell's Point. The gold was patchy, with narrow con- 
necting gutters. In some places these were very rich, prospects having been obtained 
of 12ozs. to the tub, and 5oz. or 6ozs. to the dish. 

Cheistmas Rush. — Here the sinking was soft, and varied from 30ft. to 40ft. in 
depth. The bottom was uneven, and payable gold was obtained. 

In Poor Man's Gully and Poob Man's Hill the sinking was through hard 
gravel and cement, varying in depth from If t. to 30ft. ; payable gold, and also diamonds, 
were found here. 

New Rush was discovered in 1858 or 1859 by a party of eight prospectors, who 
were rewarded by a grant of money from the Government. The prospectors also dis- 
covered gold at Blacksand Corner and at other places, which have since been worked. 
Two or three months after the first discovery, payable gold was struck, and yielded 
from 12ozs. to I4ozs. to the load of dirt. The gold was scattered along the foot of a 
precipice lOffc. to 15ft. high, on a flat bottom. The sinking ranged from 20ft. to 
80ft. in depth, and was very hard, owing to the beds of gravel and cement. 

Diamond Gully. — ^A small quantity of gold was got in shallow ground ; but it 
was not sufficiently rich to be payable. 

Simond's Gully. — Three or four claims were payable. Professor Ulrich, in his 
report (1872), states that a great portion of the gold found in Felter's Flat and 
Chapman's Gully was not waterwom, but hackly and crystalline, a circumstance 
which indicates that, whilst the waterwom gold came from the denuded pliocene 
drifts, the hackly and crystalline were derived from the quartz reefs in the immediate 

The Onkapaeinga Riveb Diggings were discovered in 1870 by Messrs. Scudds. 
The river flat was found to be auriferous as far down as Pennyweight Fiat. The 
payable gold was found between the water-holes ; some of these were pumped out, 
but very little gold was found in them. ' Seaman's Point was the richest part of the 
river ; payable gold was also got at Blacksand Comer, and near Bigg's Flat ; at 
Hack's Bridge also, it was discovered, but not worked. 

Bigg's Flat. — A patch of rich ground was found here in 1877 by a Government 
prospecting party. The depth of sinking varied from 7ft. or 8ft. near the river to 36ft. 
at some distance from it. A good quantity of gold was got, of which the coarsest 
pieces weighed about 2oz. Native copper was found with the gold. Other places 
on this flat were prospected, but, as far as is known, no payable results were 
obtained* The sinking varied from 25ft. to 30ft. in depth, and was very wet. It is 
probable that other leads of gold are to be found on this flat. 

Hahndobf Gully was discovered in 1856-7. The first payable gold was got by 
S. Jeffery, in about 7ft. sinking ; higher up the gully claims were bottomed at 20ft» 
The gold was rough aad rugged. A branch gully was worked in 1872. 

Sawmill Gully, discovered in 1872 by Messrs. W. Hall and T. Lloyd, yielded 
nuggets, the heaviest of which were about loz. Gold in quartz was also found. The 
sinking was wet, and the depth ranged from 1ft. to 10ft. 

Sailou's Gully, discovered in 1872 by Messrs. Peterson and Watts. The lead of 
gold extended the whole length of the gully. The sinking was in hard and dry 
alluvium, and to a depth of from 6ft. to IdfC. The largest nugget found weighed 4ozs. 


Gebuak Gttlly, discovered in the same year by Messrs. Lauchs and Mnller, who 
had the richest claim. A ridge of rock in one of the claims contained copper. 

Bbeak-o]^-Dat Rush, a small patch of surfacing, from which about £40 worth of 
gold is supposed to have been obtained. 

QuABTZ Blow, Chapman's Gully. — Gold was found, in leaders by the alluvial 
miners in 1855, the surface leaders being very rich. The National Company pur- 
chased the claim, erected machinery, and sunk a shaft 125ft. for water. Of this they 
got a good supply. In following the leaders down 30ft., a five-gallon bucketful of 
specimens is said to have contained £300 worth of gold. This company also pros- 
pected a large reef, but without any good results. On the ground again becoming 
open to miners, small patches of gold were got from time to time, and on the dis- 
covery of a patch rather richer than usual, in 1881, by R. and T. Hall, the claim 
was sold to two gentlemen, who formed it into a company, called the — 

EcHUNGA Gold Mining Company. — No. 1 whip-shaft was sunk to the water level, 
90ft., and No. 2 shaft 70ft., with a drive, in which was cut a leader carrying gold. 
No. 3 shaft was sunk 50ft. in search of a leader in which gold bad been found some 
years previously. The leaders dipped to the west until they came to what was known 
as the black leader. From this some good specimens were taken. Its thickness 
varied from 6in. to 16in. At a depth of SOft. a large number of leaders were met 
with, averaging about lin. thick. A crushing taken from a face of 7ft., in which 
were four leaders, went 2^dwts. to the ton ; and a crushing of about forty tons from 
the leaders yielded about 50ozs. of gold. A deep shaft was sunk to a depth of 250ft., 
and at 230ft. a drive was put in north-west for 180ft., but nothing was found. A 
second drive was put in to the east 220ft., and a bunch of mundic and copper ore 
was met with. 

Chapman's Gtjlly Mine was started in 1881. The main shaft was put down 
130ft., but no gold was met with. On a white quartz leader, a west underlie shaft 
was put down 40ft. It was driven on for a distance of 25ft., and a prospect of 2grs. 
to a dish was obtained. A second shaft, 44ft. deep, cut a gossany leader, dipping 
west, carrying gold. A third was put down on a white quartz leader carrying gold, 
and several other shafts were sunk to shallow depths. 

South Eghttnga Mine, started in 1881 ; machinery was erected, and a main shaft 
was sunk to a depth of 180ft, but no reef was found. 

GoLBEJr Reef Mine. — Three shafts were sunk to depths of 108ft., 11 Oft., and 50ft. 
The last one cut a leader at 25ft. which carried gold. The mine was started in 

Chapel Hill. — There are a number of shafts sunk, varying in depth from 10ft. to 
120ft. on various leaders, one of which carries a little gold. 

Long Gully. — Three companies were formed in 1866 to work the cement (or con- 
glomerate) in this gully, but no payable results were obtained. 

The Queen Mine was discovered in 1871. Gold was found on the surface, in a 
leader which yielded 40ozs. of gold. Subsequently Rye tons were crushed and gave 
5dwts. per ton. In 1881 the ground was taken up by a company. They erected a 
battery, and pumping and winding machinery ; and sunk a shaft lOOft. deep, with a 
drive 100ft. west. A reef was cut 4ft. wide, bearing much mundic, and was driven 
along for a distance of SOft. To the north of the main shaft, two other shafts were 
sunk, and were connected, at a depth of 25ft., by a drive 180ft. long ; twenty-three 
tons of stone were crushed and yielded 4^ozs. of gold. 

King Mine was started in 1881. An underlay shaft was sunk on the reef^ to a 
depth of 120ft. At 71ft. the reef was 4ft. thick, and a drive was put in along its 
course, ten tons of quartz yielded l^ozs. of gold ; 250 yards to the east another 
shaft was put down to a depth of 50ft. ; here the reef was 3ft. thick, and ten tons 
of quartz gave loz* of gold. 



The Kangaboo Mine was discovered in 1872, and a company was formed. A small 
crushing, taken from a westerly leader from 4in. to Gin. thick, gave gold at the rate 
of 2ozs. to the ton. A shaft 95ft. deep was then sunk, at 50ft. me reef was cut, and 
a drive south was put in a distance of 100ft. ; a crushing gave less than j^oz. per ton. 
Another shaft was sunk 150ft., with a drive of 250ft., but no reef was cut. The 
mine was then abandoned. In 1881, however, work was resumed, and a crushing 
from the 95ft. shaft yielded ^oz. per ton. A main shaft was then sunk 100ft., and a 
battery and machinery erected. The works were then stopped, owing probably to 
want of funds. Six tons of quartz were crushed by Mr. A. von Doussa, at Hahndorf , 
and yielded 8ozs. gold ; the stone was from a leader which pinched out on being 

Comet Mine. — ^An engine shaft was sunk 130ft., and an underlay shaft was put down 
on a reef of from 2ft. to 5ft. thick. lOozs. of gold was got from the crushing of a 
few tons of quarts. Southwards 3ozs. were washed from four dishfuls of dirt. A 
crushing of ten tons gave 8dwts. per ton. Some prospecting was done in this mine 
during 1885-6, but no payable results were obtained. The machinery has been 
removed, and the mine is not at present being worked. 

The Stibling Reef. — The first gold obtained was found on the surface by a man 
named Scudds. He showed it to Messrs. Bowes and James, and they began to work 
on the spot. Finding the gold was not alluvial they took up a reef claim, and after 
sinking to a depth of 4ft. came upon some gold-bearing leaders in the slate and 
greenstone. Good results were obtained by simply crushing and washing the stuff. 
Feeling, however, that they could do but little without capital, Messrs. Bowes and 
James sold their lease to an Adelaide company for £100 cash and 250 paid up shares. 
A five-stamp battery was put up, and work was continued for about twelve months. 
The profits were not, however, sufficient to cover the expenses and the work was 
stopped. During the next nine months tributors made very good wages in working 
it. The property then passed into the hands of the late Thos. Breakell. Five more 
stampers were added to the battery, and a tramway was laid from it to the mine. 
Crushing was carried on for about eighteen months and the mine was then 
abandoned. The material crushed, consisted of quartz and ironstone leaders, and a 
greenish soapy stone known as " green dyke." The richest gold was found in the 
last-named stone. The mine has been abandoned for a considerable time. The place 
where the work was carried on is marked by a large open cutting in grit, slate, 
sandstone, and conglomerate. The conglomerate is composed of kaolin and waterwom 
quartz, with mica and feldspar crystals. In the hard rocks, magnetic ironsand is 
plentiful, and quartz and ironstone leaders are visible to a small extent. 

Professor Ulrich visited and reported on this mine in 1872. As regards its 
character, he did not consider it a genuine quartz reef, but more nearly resembled 
what, in Victoria, are called mullock reefs. He compared it to a large fissure, in 
places dOft. and 40ft. wide, filled confusedly with masses of the wall rock-grit and 
slate. The interstices between these masses are filled with mullock enclosing irregular 
pockets and veins of quartz, through which rather solid crystalline specks of gold 
are distributed. Irregular veins cross the mass in all directions, horizontally, 
vertically, and obliquely. Consequently, as each vein cannot be separately followed, 
the reef has to be quarried out, and the stuff subsequently classed. This, besides 
being a troublesome process, is also one during which it is impossible to prevent a 
large quantity of poor matter getting mixed with the quartzose mullock, and thus 
producing the low yield of 2dwts. to 2^dwts. per ton average. There can be no 
doubt but that this reef largely contributes, by denudation, to the gold found in the 
Onkaparinga River. Professor Ulrich was of opinion that, on a large scale, the reef 
might be profitably worked, and that there was a chance of its becoming much better 
defined in depth. 

The Victobia Mike was discovered in 1872. The lode consisted of hard 
quartzite, interlaced with gold-bearing quartz veins. It was very rich near the surface. 
The deepest shaft was 70ft. to the water levels with a drive of 70ft. to the reef. Shafts, 


trenches, and open workings were put in along the outcrop of a quartz reef striking 
north, and underlaying east, through quartzite, sandstone, and kaolinized clayslates. 

The Yictos Geoboe Mine was taken up and worked in 1881, on a brown ferrugin- 
ous leader dipping west, and from 1ft. to 2ft. thick. One hundred feet east of the reef 
a shaft was sunk 70ft., with a driye 100ft. to the west. Five tons crushed yielded 
^oz. to the ton. Other shafts and tunnels were put in on hard massive quartz veins 
in sandstone and quartzite. 

Beetbam's Beef was taken up in 1872. The gold was first found in an almost flat 
bed of quartz, 13ft. wide, and 3ft. thick, splitting up into leaders southwards. 
Twelve tons of this stone yielded 3|dwts. of gold per ton ; and 20 tons, from a 
depth of 32ft., gave 6dwts. per ton. Shafts and cuttings were put in on a large 
quartz reef in yellow sandstone, grit, and quartzite, with kaolinized clayslate in 
bands. The deepest shaft was 80ft. 

Lawbence's Claim. — Three shafts have been smik to depths of 20ft., 28ft., and 
35ft., at distances of 20ft. to 30ft. apart, and connected by drives. The country is soft, 
decomposed sandy and micaceous slaty shale, through which pass a number of small 
leaders. Near the surface these veins are composed chiefly of kaolin, becoming 
mixed lower down with glassy and ferruginous quartz and ironstone. In them, near 
the surface, some rich patches of gold were found, but owing to their number and 
irregularity, the run of the gold is difficult to follow. Comparatively little work has been 
done. There is no crushing apparatus, and the gold is washed out with cradle and dish. 
It is impossible to ascertain the total amount of gold found, the only certain information 
being that 41ozs., of the value of £157 16s. lOd., was sold to the Melbourne Mint 
through Mr. H. Hayman. This was shortly after the work was begun. The gold 
found is often in filaments ; the largest piece when cleaned weighed 2ozs. The mine 
was discovered in 1884. In 1885 twenty tons of stone were raised and were crushed 
at the Bidge battery, Woodside. The yield of gold was loz. 6dwts. 6grs. 

Jackhan's Mine. — Drives and shafts to depths of from 30ft. -to 60ft. have been 
put down to prospect veins of quartz, ferruginous quartz, and ironstone, traversing 
quartzite grit and argillaceous sandstone. There are no well-defined walls, the for- 
mation being merely a collection of veins ; some of them contain pyrites. In one of 
the drives a dyke-like mass of kaolin, with quartz and small veins of decomposed 
feldspar, with quartz and mica, has been cut, and might be prospected for gold with 
advantage. No quartz from this mine has been crushed, but it is estimated to yield 
from 5dwts. to lOdwts. of gold per ton. 

Jtjfiieb Cbeek. — A claim was taken up in 1868 by Breckle & Co. ; they erected 
crushing machinery and sank a number of shafts, ranging in depth from 50ft. to 
100ft., and connected by a drive 474ft. in length. A reef was cut at a depth of 70ft., 
and a bucketful of the stone yielded loz. 3dwts. 

Plane & Biddle's Mine. — The workings consist of an underlay shaft 110ft. deep, 
a vertical shaft of 20ft., and a drive of about 20ft. in length, put in an easterly direction 
from the underlay shaft at a depth of 70ft. The bedrocks consist of mottled 
kaolinized clayslates and sandy shales, dipping easterly. The reef from which the 
gold is procured is composed of an irregular dyke-like mass of soft decomposed clay- 
stone, intermixed with quartz, and a ferruginous gossany lode formation, with veins of 
kaolin. The amount of work done is very limited (1884). An excavation of irregular 
shape has been made where the stuff has been stoped out, judging by which about 
20 to 25 tons have been removed and washed. This is said to have yielded 428oz8. 
of gold, some of which was in small nuggets. 1'he underlay shaft has reached the 
water level at 110ft., and in it there is another reef lying more or less parallel to the 
one being worked. Adjoining and near to this claim there are several others which 
have been worked and have yielded small amounts of gold. 

The above records have, for the most part, been obtained from men who were 
working on the diggings in 1884, and who were acquainted with the operations 
carried on by the various companies. It is noticeable that a small amount of work 

GOLD. 66 

only has been done in testing the reefs at a depth. Where deep shafts have been 
sunk the reefs met with have not been followed or worked in a systematic manner. 

It is impossible to state the amount of gold obtained on the field since its opening. 
In a return made in 1871 by Mr. W. J. Peterswald, Warden of Goldfields, the value 
of the gold found during the first three years that the field was worked is estimated 
at £250,000. 

The following return of gold bought by the English, Scottish, and Australian 
Chartered Bank, from May, 1866, to ^'ovember, 1872, has been supplied by Mr. A. 
M. Woods : — 

Total Total Value, 

oz. dwtt. grs. £ 8. d. 

Onkaparinga 777 13 2 3,003 18 

Echunga and Jupiter 2,021 7 17 7,683 16 1 

2,799 19 £10,587 14 1 

Echunga. Goveknment Pkospecting Paety. — ^Early in 1886 the Govern- 
ment decided to test the deep leads on Crown lands in the neighbourhood of 
Echunga. The first site selected was on sections Nos. 158 and 159, hundred of 
Kuitpo. Shafts were sunk, and the existence of a deep lead was proved. The 
washdirt consisted of waterwom quartz and other gravel, and was similar to that 
found to be auriferous in the old Echunga diggings. It occupied a watercourse of 
over 300ft. in width, and varied in thickness from 1ft. to 2ft. The bedrock was 
soft decomposed slate and pipeclay. 

A drive of 260ft. was put in from the main shaft at a depth of 65ft., and was driven 
across the lead near its junction with the wash. The dirt was tested with the dish 
for the whole length of the drive. In appearance it was most favorable for gold, 
and there were all the indications usually found in similar drifts and well-defined 
gullies, and yet not a trace of gold was found. This is extraordinary, and probably 
is the first instance in which an old pliocene lead in a gold-bearing district has proved 
to be absolutly barren of gold. 

The second site selected was on section 337 and others, adjoining hundred of Kuitpo, 
and about two and a half miles south of Echunga. Trial shafts were sunk across a 
wide extent of flat country and a lead was found. The deep ground had to be tested 
by boring, as the presence of drift sand rendered sinking difficult. Several bores were 
bottomed, but only a thin stratum of wash dirt was found. The drift sand made the 
boring exceedingly difficult work. As the bores progressed eastward the ground 
became deeper until the lowest depth was reached at 110ft. At this point the work 
was discontinued as the next bore would have come on private property. The 
manager of the party, Mr. G. Mellor, also reported that to sink a shaft through the 
drift sand that he had met with would cost £2,000. 

Although the upper part of the lead has proved barren, yet the lower part towards 
the Meadows may be auriferous. But as the best sites for shafts are on private 
property, some time will probably elapse before anything is done to test the leads. 

The Eclipse Mike is on section No. 80, hundred of Onkaparinga. The reef 
strikes north and dips to the eastward, and the bedrock, consisting of greenish clay- 
slate and sandstone, strikes north and south, and dips 45° east. Gold was found in it 
by a miner named Terrell, about the year 1875, and the place being prospected, 
carbonate of bismuth, showing gold, was found. This, on being assayed, is said to 
have yielded gold at the rate of 14ozs. to the ton. A small company was formed, 
and the reef was worked for some weeks. The results obtained, however, were not 
sufficiently good to justify a further expenditure of money, and the company dissolved. 
It was subsequently reported that the reef had not been worked at the spot where 
the best indications of gold had been seen. The section has recently become the 
property of Mr. Love, and work has been resumed on the reef. The results are 
reported to be exceedingly good. The country in the neighbourhood is favourable 
for alluvial gold in the gidlies and surfaceings. (1883.) 


The Eclipse Mine East is on section No. 65. A shaft was being sunk here in 
the hope of cutting the Eclipse reef at a depth* of 100ft. (1883.) 

The Electba Mine is in section No. 2791, hundred of Kuitpo. Some shafts 
were sunk, but there are no records of results obtained. 

Extbeka Mine. (See Woodside.) 

Fobest Ranoe Diggings are 16 miles N.E. of Adelaide, on the road to 
Lobethal, in the hundred of Onkaparinga. As early as 1854, gold was found in 
Stony Creek, section 514. The principal workings at present are on section 80, the 
property of Mr. James Love, and section 65, belonging to Mr. J. Baum. At the 
present time (March, 1887), there. are from seventy to eighty men at work. The land 
is private property, and the owners charge 2s. 6d. per week for a claim measuring 
soft. X 30ft., to be worked by two men. The prospectors — Messrs. Biggs, Mason, 
and Norton, got 20ozs. gold from two loads of washdirt. They sank to a depth of 
25ft. in a well-defined gully running into Stony Creek. A steep branch gully is also 
being worked, and one near the main road. The country rocks consist of greenish 
micaceous clayslate and kaolinized slates ; there are sdso large quartz reefs with 
ferruginous cappings. 

Fountain Head. (See Woodside.) 

Gawleb Riveb. — ^The upper branches of this river, known respectively as the 
North and South Parra, are auriferous, gold haying been found along their courses. 
Very little prospecting has been done here, however, owing to the greater part of the 
ground being private property. 

The Gebman Reep mine is situated on section 71 18, hundred of Talunga, twenty- 
six miles N.E. of Adelaide, in a direct line. The reef shows a well-defined 
outcrop for over twenty chains in length. It strikes N. 15^ E., and dips W. 
16° N. The rocks traversed by it strike N. 40° B , and dip W. 40° N., and 
consist of highly micaceous metamorphic sandstone, alternating with mica schist. 
Gold was found in the outcrop for a distance of at least ten chains, and in two places 
was extremely rich. At one of these places, low down on the slope of a long hill, 
the reef has been worked on the \mderlay to a depth of about 40ft., and for a distance 
of about 100ft. in length. Tolerably well-defined walls show in the faces, and an 
alternately flat and steep dip. The tJiickness of the portion removed varied from 2ft. 
to 6ft., and the quartz became poorer in depth, the last raised averaging from 
3dwt8. to 5dwts. per ton. The second place where rich gold was found is on the 
top of the hill, but here the outcrop has only been partially worked. A vertical 
shaft was put down at this spot, and the reef was struck at a depth of 90ft. to 100ft.; 
but it proved to be poor, and was only 6in. thick, while on top it ranged in places 
from 2ft. to 5ft. All along the outcrop the quartz is rich in iron pyrites, and some, by 
its cellular texture and very ferruginous character, shows that much of this ore has been 
decomposed. The pyrites becomes still more abundant in depth, and fine seamy 
quartz raised from the vertical shaft contains it .at the rate of 25 per cept. to 30 per 
cent. In similar cases in Victoria, namely the increase of pyrites and the decrease 
of free gold in depth, it has been found that the pyrites is payable, and sometimes 
richly auriferous. (Ulrich, 1872.) 

This mine had stopped working at the time of Professor Ulrich's visit, but arrange* 
ments are now being made to work the ores.imder a system different to that hitherto 
pursued. A Frew ore concentrator is being erected for the purpose of concentrating 
the pyrites contained in the tailings after the ore has been crushed. The pyrites 
will be treated by roasting and chlorination for the extraction of the gold. Mr. A. 
Caudan, the manager, reports (March, 1887) that about fifty tons of highly 
ferruginous stone have been raised from a depth of 30ft. It contains limonite, 
and sulphides of iron. Gold often visible, but very fine, and yielding on assay from 

GOLD. 67 

loz. to 3ozs. or 4ozs. per ton. At the north end of the section the stone carries fine 
grained oxide of iron, with magnetic iron and silvjsr combined. In the oxide of iron 
the gold is of a coarse description. The dip of the reef is westerly throughout, but 
the angle varies in every few feet in depth. 

The rocks forming the country are metamorphic quartzite and sandstone, micsr schist, 
mica slate, and sandstone traversed by dykes of coarse granite. In 1870-1, the 
£. S. & A. C. Bank bought gold obtained from this reef to the extent of 395oz8. 
13dwts. 5grs., equal in value to £1,527 28. 8d. The Black Snake reef is being 
worked in conjunction with the German reef. 

The GEUNTHA.L Mine is situated about a mile north of the township of Grun- 
thal. There are two shafts, both nearly full of water. On the surface there are 
several buildings, including an engine-house. The veinstone raised consists of 
quartz, calc spar, and gossan, with iron and copper pyrites. The country rocks are 
clayslates and argillaceous sandstones, dipping east. The locality is a likely one for 
gold. No information concerning the past working of this mine has been forth- 


Lie about thirty miles N.E. of Adelaide, in the hundred of Para Wirra. 

Watts* Gully, on section 111, hundred of Para Wirra, is the centre of operations, 
and was discovered in 1884, but was not generally known until about 1885. This 
gully was remarkable for the number of nuggets found, some of which were of 
considerable weight. One recently purchased by the Government weighed 14oz. 
8dwts. The total amount of gold obtained is not known, but may be estimated 
at not less than 1 ,000 ounces. In addition to Watts', several other gullies have 
been opened up to the northward for a distance of two or three miles. 

The GtJHEffACHA Gold Ventube is situated in Dead Horse Gully, on the Gum- 
eracha goldfields. This reef was found by Wallace in 1885 ; it strikes N. 20*^ W., 
dips west, nearly vertical. In places it is nearly 6ft. wide from wall to wall, but 
is not solid. There are two shafts. The northern one was sunk 43ft. on the reef, 
but as it was unsafe, another was put down to the southward to a depth of 37ft. 
The reef was not struck, the shaft being a little to the east of it; but at a depth of 
15ft. a leader was struck. The intention was to sink 60ft. and drive to the reef, 
but work has been suspended. The rock is mica schist, striking north and south, 
and dipping east 50^. It is very tough to work in, and the difficulties are increased 
and large influx of water in both shafts. 

Philp's United Mine is at the head of Watts* Gully, Gumeracha. It was opened 
by Watts, 1st January, 1886. There are two shafts, with several costeens and pits. 
The first shaft, and the furthest up the hill, was sunk on a reef dipping to the west ; 
the reef was cut at 14ft. from the surface and was foimd to be from 12in. to 18in. 
wide. The shaft was subsequently sunk to 52ft., and a 26ft. drive put in at bottom, 
but without result. No. 2 shaft was sunk lower down the hill and cut a reef 2ft. 
from the surface; at 13ft. a second reef was struck of a width of from 3ft. to 4ft. 
and striking S:W. and N.E. dipping N.W. 50®. At 37ft. a floor was cut, striking 
north and west, dipping W. 50°. 

The Kapunda Syndicate, Watts' Gully, Gumeracha. — ^This consisted of some 
claims taken upon the western side of Watts* Gully, near the fork, for the purpose of 
finding the vein from which the gold was supposed to have come. Fossicking amongst 
the quartz '* blows '' was first tried, but no gold was found. A tunnel was then put 
into the hill for a distance of 137ft., at a spot about half-way down from the ridge* 
The rock passed through was mica schist and segregations of quartz dipping to the 
east, but no reef was found. Operations were suspended. 

The Eapunda Syndicate had other claims at the head of Blood and Tnunder 
Gidly. A shaft has been sunk and various cuttings made, but no reef was found. 


The GuMEKACHi. Syndicate. — This claim is situated across Watts* Gully, close 
by the fork, and covers all the ground where the heaviest gold (alluvial) was found. A 
tunnel has been put in 86ft. into the eastern bank of Watts* Gully and the reef cut. 
There is also a shaft sunk through mica schist to a depth of 60ft. in the eastern 
branch gully ; two small leaders containing mundic were passed through, but no reef 
of any size was struck. 

Hutchinson's Claih, Gumeracha, between Watts' and Snake Gullies. There is 
a small reef striking S.W. and N.E., dipping west, containing mundic, and from which 
some fair prospects were obtained at the surface. A shaft was sunk, and at 15ft. 
went through the reef ; it was carried down to 40ft. in the hope that the reef would 
turn and dip in an easterly direction. The claim is now abandoned. 

Hannafobd's Beef, Gumeracha, is a large reef running in north-easterly direction, 
dippipg to the west. A series of shafts have been put down close together along 
the whole length of the outcrop, besides numerous pits and trenches. The mine was 
worked many years ago, but no records are obtainable. 

The Adelaide Syndicate, Watts' Gully, Gumeracha. — The first shaft was put 
down on the eastern side of the gully. When the solid ground was reached a drive 
was put in under the gully with the idea of cutting a reef. 

The second shaft was put down on the top of the hill to a depth of 80ft. Two 
very small leaders were cut, but no reef. 

Avenue Gully, Guhebacha Goldfields. — On the western side of this gully 
are three or four old shafts. One is about 50ft. deep, and has been timbered, but the 
timbers have become rotten and tmsafe. There are two reefs, one solid white quartz 
and the other ferruginous quartz and gossan-; they strike north and south, and dip 
70° or 80° west. ITie rock is mica schist. 

Inglewood Mining Company.— Gold has been found at Inglewo6d, fifteen and 
a half miles from Adelaide, in a north-easterly direction. The only information 
obtainable concerning the results is, that during June, 1870, the £.S. and A.C. 
Bank bought 7ozs. 15dwts. of gold obtained there. 

Jackman's Mine. (See Echunga.) 

, Jufiteb Cbeek. (See Echunga.) 

Kangaboo Mine. (See Echunga.) 

King's Bluff is near Olary railway station, on the Petersburg-Cockburn railway. 
A discovery of gold was reported to have been made at this place on the 4th March, 
1887. Godfrey Mellor, the prospector, got 8grs. of gold to the dish of dirt by 
washing. His claim is situated at the foot of King's Bluff, in a dry creek running 
into a gully a quarter of a mile wide and about two miles in length. A rush of from 
300 to 500 men took place, but, though the prospectors are said to have obtained an 
ounce of gold for their first week's work, the results as a whole were not encouraging. 
In common with the Teetulpa field, the want of water is much felt, and owing to 
this the place cannot be properly tested. 

King's Mine. (See Echunga.) 

Lady Alice Mine. (See Paba Wibba.) 

LadIt Edith Mine. (See Paba Wibba.) 

Lawbencb's Claim. (See Echunga.) 

McViTTiES Hill. (See Talunga.) 

Malcolm^s Babossa Gold MiNEi (See Babossa Goldfield.) 

GOLD. 69 

Are about eight miles W. 10^ N. of Mannahill, and eighty miles east of Petersburg. 

The Birthday Line. — On the prospecting claim, McEvoy's, several shafts and 
excavations have been made. The first is 14ft. deep, and has been simk on a 
large quartz and ironstone reef, about 4ft. thick, striking E.N.E. in clay and 
calcareous cleaved slates. The stu£^ for crushing consists of ferruginous quartz, 
quartz, iron ore, and gossan, with a little iron pyrites. A cutting has been made in 
the middle of the claim across the veins. The largest of these is 2ft. thick, and 
they underlay S.S.E. In a cutting towards the .east, small specks of gold were to 
be seen in the stone raised ; 6| tons of stone from this place, mixed with 1^ tons 
from Gibson's claim further eastward, was crushed at Waukaringa, and is said 
to have yielded 15ozs. of gold. 

GoBDON AND Stteling's claim adjoins McEvoy's on the east. There are some ex- 
cavations on the reefs ranging from 12ft. to 15ft. in depth, and a shaft 30ft. deep on 
a reef from 2ft. to 3ft. thick at the bottom, where it shows a large amount of gossan. 

Haycocks' Claim adjoins Gordon and Stirling's. An underlay shaft has been 
sunk 28ft. between two quartz and gossany quartz veins, 3ft. apart. Two other 
leaders show at the bottom of the shaft, underlying S.E. 45^ to 50^. A trial 
crushing of 5cwt. was obtained from two holes near the shaft, and yielded 14dwts. of 
gold. Some work has also been done on C. Smith's and Ivey*s claims. 

Gibbons &c Company. — The specimens shown to me by the proprietors contained 
the coarsest particles of gold I saw on the field. The workings consist of an imder- 
lay shaft 34ft. deep, on a vein of ironstone and quartz, 1ft. wide at the bottom. A 
second underlay shaft has a depth of 27ft., and exposes a reef of from 1ft. to 2ft. 
thick at the surface and underlies at an angle 70° S.S.E. 

Goshen Claim. — ^Four or five shafts have been sunk to a depth of from 8ft. to 
10ft. A number of other claims have been pegged out to the eastward. 

Chbistmas Day Claim (Koberts & Co.) has an underlay shaft 65ft. deep, at an' 
angle of 55° to 66°. The reef ranges in width from 6in. to 12in. In addition to 
brown iron ore and ferruginous and white quartz, the reef contains mundic ; small 
specks of gold are sometimes visible in the stone. On Moore's and Padmore & Co.'s 
claims work has been done. 

All these claims adjoin along the reef, and extend for about one mile in an 
easterly and north-easterly direction. In some places the reefs conform to the 
bedding of the rock for a short distance, at others they cut across it, and apparently 
fill up fissures made by faults in the strata. The rocks consist of clay and sandy 
slates, claystones and calcareous clayslates. Their general strike is E.N.E., and the 
general underlay S.S.E. The veinstone is composed of hard, glassy, and white 
quartz, with cavities containing gossan, ferruginous clay, iron oxides and pyrites, 
and admixtures with these of quartz. The gold occurs in fine particles, and is 
generally contained in the iron ore and siliceous ferruginous rock, though sometimes 
seen in the quartz. The gold has doubtless been derived from the decomposition of 
the pyrites. Owing to the nature of the veinstone it is difficult to see the gold 
previous to the stone being crushed and washed. 

Attboba ArsTBALis Mine. — ^The best reef lies to the northward of, and almost 
parallel to, the Birthday Reefs, at a distance of 20 to 30 chains. 

* RoBEBTs & Co.'s Claim. — Holes have been sunk in three or four places on large 
reefs and bows of quartz and iron ore, and a shaft has been sunk to a depth of 
30ft. on a large reef of quartz, iron ore and gossan, together with a considerable 
quantity of iron pyrites. At the bottom of the shaft the reef is from 3ft. to 4ft. 
wide, and dips slightly to the north. Two other, though shallower, shafts have been 

Elliott and Clabk's Claim. — Two shafts have been sunk — one, 12ft. deep, 
is on a reef 12in. to 18in. wide, striking N.E. by W. The other is 20ft. deep on a 


vertic&l reef, 1 2m. to 18in. thick. Pyrites is here associated with the oxide of 
iron. Various other claims have heen slightly worked. 

The Elsie May Beef has been prospected in several places, and from two 
places trial crushings have been taken. The veinstone is composed of iron oxide and 
gossany iron ore, and, at the eastern end of the reef, it lies almost flat on the top of 
a low spur. It crops out to the surface northward, and dips gradually southward, 
where it has a steep inclination. The thickness of the deposit varies from 12in. 
to 18in. Twelve tons of ore crushed at Waukaringa are said to have yielded a good 
prospect of gold. 

No Gammon Reef is situated about five miles N.W. of Mannahill. A nimiber of 
of hol^s, shafts, and cuttings have been put in on the reef for a distance of about 
twenty chains. 

The Negtab Claim is half a mile north-westerly of the No Gammon, on a north- 
easterly line. There are no less than six shafts within a distance of fifty yards. The 
first is 18ft. deep ; at 6ft. from the surface a flat vein of ironstone was passed through. 
The second is 14ft. deep; here gossany ironstone veins intersect the hard calcareous 
slates and limestone rock. The third shaft is 9ft. deep ; the fourth aud fifth each 15ft. 
deep. In all these, ironstone leaders or veins traversed the joints of the bedrock. 
The sixth shaft is 20ft. deep ; 6ft. of quartz reef was passed through. The rocks 
are hard and broken. The ironstone leaders cut across the bedding of the rocks, 
whilst the quartz reef just mentioned conforms more or less to the bedding. 

From this claim 2 tons 8cwt. of ore was smelted at the Intercolonial Smelting 
Works, Spotswood, Victoria, and yielded gold at the rate of 2ozs. 17dwts. Sgrs. tothe 
ton, and 2 tons 6cwt. crushed at Waukaringa averaged 2ozs. lldwts. per ton. 

The Tbojan Mine contains two lodes bearing east-north-east, underlaying to the 
south, and varying in width from 2ft. 6in. to 4ft. The ore is gossan and ironstone, 
and about twenty tons have been raised. Four and a half tons have been crushed, 
and yielded at the rate of one ounce of gold to the ton. The ore occurs in veins and 
shoots, which vary in width from 2ft. to 3ft., and dip to the south-west. Four shafts 
have been sunk, the deepest of which is 60ft., and drives have been put in for a total 
length of 130ft. A vertical shaft to strike the reef, and with the hope of finding 
water is now being sunk. (E. F. Troy, secretary.) 

The stone found on this field is composed of hematite, quartz, brown iron ore, iron 
pyrites, ironstone, and gossan, and it is difficult to see the gold without crushing 
and washing. Eleven samples, consisting of gossan, quartz, pyrites, and tailings, 
were assayed, and, with the exception of two, were found to contain gold; thus show- 
ing that gold is widely distributed. The best assay was from the No Gammon Mine, 
the stone yielding gold at the rate of 19ozs. to the ton. In November last, 10 tons of 
stone were taken from five difierent claims and sent to Melbourne. They were treated 
by the Newberzy-Vautin process, and the results were as follows : — Two tons from 
the Aurora Australis gave 2dwts. 5grs. per ton ; 2 tons from the Eagle's Nest gave 2dwts. 
Idgrs. per ton ; 2 tons from the Star of the East gave 6dwt. 7grs. per ton ; 2 tons 
from the Nectar gave ISdwts. 4grs. per ton ; 2 tons from the Westward Ho gave 2ozs. 
per ton. Value per ounce at the Mint, £3 14s. 9d. 

Stone from the Nectar and Westward Ho was, with other samples, also 
sent to the Ballarat School of Mines, and yielded the following results :-t Westward 
Ho, 5dwts. 7grs. per ton ; Nectar, 5dwts. 2grs. per ton. Twenty-five tons from the 
Westward Ho, since crushed, in the ordinary manner, yielded 29oz. 17dwts. of gold, 
valued at the Mint at about £2 17s. lid. per ounce. 

The extierit of country occupied by these reefs is large, and the reefs are numerous, 
well defined, and are persistent along the strike. The rocks tbey traverse are 
similar to those foimd to contain auriferous veins in other parts of the colony. 

Mid Alma Mine, in the Waukaringa district, has one shaft about 200ft. deep, 
from which about 50 or 100 tons of ore have been raised. The percentage of metal 
has not been tested) but is not considered rich. 

GOLD. 71 

Mint Mine. (See Woodside.) 

MoNTACTJTE MiNE. — ^Tliis mine is mentioned under the head of " Coppeb," but it 
is said to have also yielded gold. Concerning this, however, no information has been 

MoBiAXTA, Fifth Cbeek. — Gold is being found in gullies on the Morialta estate, 
at the head of the Fifth Creek, in the himdred of Adelaide. It is of peculiar 
character, being frequently found in fiat pieces, bearing serrated feather-like mark- 
ings. The owner of the land has lately bought 50ozs. of gold from the diggers, but 
there is every reason to believe that this represents but a small proportion of the 
quantity found. 

Mount Chables. (See Woodside.) 
Mount Cbawfobd. (See Gumebacha.) 

Mount Fitton, 76 miles east of Farina. A quartz reef lies about two miles 
south-east of the trig. It contains hematite and gossan, and yields specks of gold on 
being crushed. 

The basin-shaped area aroimd Mount Fitton appears to be a locality favourable for 
gold prospecting, both in the reefs and alluvium. (1884.) 

Mount Magnificent. — Gold has been found on section 209, hundred of 
Myponga, near the River Finniss, close to the boundary of the hundred of Euitpo, 
and two miles in a W.N.W. direction from Mount Magnificent. At a spot twenty 
chains east of the river, and 150ft. up the slope of the hill, a large quartz reef 
crops out. A tunnel has been driven 43ft. into the hill about 10ft. below the 
reef. Here there is a lode formation of from 2ft. to 3ft. in thickness, and 
from which quartz has been excavated for about 16ft. The reef strikes north 
and south, with an underlay of 45^ east. North and south of the tunnel it 
bends round in the shape of a horseshoe. The quartz generally is very ferruginous. 
Good prospects of rough gold were obtained from stone taken from the tunnel 
and the outcrop, and crushed in a mortar. No fine particles were found. Besides 
the tunnel, there are one or two other excavations on the outcrop to the south 
and north of the same line. The reef is large and well defined. This is the 
prospectors' claim. On Mincham's claim a tunnel of about 75ft. has been driven 
along a small reef, having a south-easterly underlay, and composed of white and 
ferruginous quartz. Several shallow holes have also been sunk along the same 
line. No gold was to be seen in the quartz. This is a distinct reef from the pros- 
pectors', and is higher up the hill to the S.£. An attempt was made by a small 
company to work these reefs, but they were abandoned before much work had been 
done, or before any payable results had been obtained. Since then various shafts 
have been put down, and tunnels driven, but no valuable discovery has been made. 
Until better surface indications can be found it is useless to continue to sink shafts 
on the mere chance of finding a payable reef. 

Alluvial Gold, — At a spot directly on the boundary of Myponga and Kuitpo 
a few yards square of surfacing has been prospected for gold. A trial washing 
yielded four or five specks. Since then nothing worth mentioning has been done, 
though the first prospects were fair. By making a race from the Finniss river a 
short distance above this point, water could be brought on and sluicing made use of 
during several months of the year. The expense would not be great to men who 
understood the work. 

Mount Pleasant Diggings. (See Para Wibba.) 

Mount's Ventuke is on section No. 4107, hundred of Onkaparinga. In 
January, 1887, gold was found on the cap of reef on the section, and a small com- 


pany was fonned for the purpose of testing it in depth. The reef strikes nearly due 
north and south, with an underlay to the east. It can be traced on the surface of 
the ground for some distance. A shaft has been sunk to a depth of 63ft., and at 
Sift, a crosscut has been put in. This showed the reef to be 18ft. wide. Assays 
taken from here yielded gold at the rate of 2joz. to the ton. At 63ft. drives have 
been extended north and south along the reef. So far, however, the existence of a 
defined and continuous shoot of gold has not been proved. The reef consists of 
ironstone, with veins of quartz. 

Mount Victobia Mine is about two miles S.W. of Mt, Victoria, in the N.E. 
district. Pros|)ecting for copper ore was carried to a depth of about 20ft. The 
lode contains specular iron, carbonates, red oxide, and sulphides of copper, and iron 
pyrites. The lode strikes N.W. and is about 2ft. wide. ITie country rock con- 
sists of porphyritic granite, and the lode lies in a soft decomposed granitic dyke. 
Gold occurs in the green carbonate, the quartz, and the iron oxide in coarse and fine 
specks. The lode is worth testing for gold to a depth much greater than that at 
present reached (1883). 

Myponga. — In May, 1886, the Government equipped a party of eighteen men to 
prospect for gold in the hundred of Myponga. They be^an operations on section 
No. 287, on the Meadows Creek, half a mile from its junction with the Finniss, but 
obtained no indications of gold. At a point somewhat lower down a line of shafts, 
varying in depth from 5ft. to 17ft., was put across the creek ; gold was found in 
most of the shafts, but not in payable quantities. 

The eastern slope was tried within 100 yards of the creek, and a fair prospect 
was found in 4ft. sinking. In one shaft a small patch yielded about loz. lOdwts. 
ot rough gold. Around this shaft a great number of others were sunk to depths of 
from 4ft. to 30ft., but no payable gold was found. 

A little distance below the junction of the Finniss and Meadows Creeks some holes 
were put down to depths of lift, and 14ft., but greater depths could not be reached 
owing to the incoming of water ; some specks of gold were met with in the drift. 
Four hundred yards below this point a line of shafts was thrown across the river, 
and two distinct runs of gold were struck. The report of the overseer of the party 
does not mention whether the quantity found was payable. 

Near Mount Compass shafts were sunk from 3ft. to 40ft. deep, and gold was found 
in nearly all. In the 40ft. shaft it was found at 17ft. on a false bottom. From 
that depth the sinking was through sand cement on to a granite bottom. Other 
trial shafts were put down in the neighbourhood of Mount Compass without result. 

Holes were also sunk down the river to about 300 yards below where Blackfellows 
Creek joins. Specks of gold were found in most of the holes. From here the party 
returned to their starting-point on the Meadows creek, and prospected northwards. 

Signs of gold were obtained in nearly every gully, but not in payable quantities. 
In Cooper's Gully a good prospect of shotty gold was got, but operations were greatly 
retarded by the large amount of water met with. At Lantern Flat, about one and 
a half miles north of the starting point, the party prospected places where two long 
gullies come into it. Some of the dirt yielded from 2dwts. to 3dwts. of gold per 

Prospecting operations were not carried beyond this point, as the party was dis- 
banded. The details, as given above, are from a report made to the Warden of 
Goldfields by the overseer of the prospecting party. 

Nest-Egg Mine. (See Woodside.) 
New Era Gold Mine. (See Woodside.) 

New Ventuee Mine. (See Woodside.) 

Onkaparinga Diggings. (See Echunga.) 

GOLD. 73 

Pabliamentaby Claim. (See Woodside.) 


The Lady Aiice Gold Mine is situated in Hamlin's Gully. The 
main reef strikes about 10° east . of north, and underlies to the east ; but it 
is either split by a *' horse " or crossed by a smaller reef, which underlies to 
the north-east. This smaller reef carried the rich stone, both in gold and copper, 
the latter in the form of sulphides, oxides, and native copper. The only place 
where the spur reef came to the surface is on the north side of the gully, and it was 
at this spot that the gold was first discovered. When the. deep vertical shaft was 
sunk, this reef was passed through at 30ft., but the sinking was continued to 160ft., 
and the main reef was struck at 100ft. Three levels were put in from the shaft to 
the junction of the reefs, at 50ft. and 100ft., and again at 160ft. A rise was carried 
up 400ft. on the spur reef to a point on the hill a little to the S.E. of the main shaft. 
From this the mine was subsequently worked. The upper part of the reef has all 
been stoped. 

The captains who at different times had charge of this mine did not know the 
country, and devoted most of their time to working the main reef. This, except 
at the junction, was very poor in gold; and the spur reef, consisting of 
payable stone, was worked by tributors. The mine has at present (1886) water in it 
to within 14ft. of the surface ; but it is said that the 6-inch pumps now in the mine 
are capable of keeping it under. The mine was discovered in 1881 by G. Goddard, 
who with three men sunk a shaft to a depth of 40ft., and obtained some very good 
quartz. A company was formed, but failed to make the mine pay. During six 
months of 1874 the mine was worked on tribute, and yielded l,149ozs. 19dwts. 
21grs. of gold. The value of the copper produced at the same time was £208 28. 
8d. From the floatilig of the company in 1873 to its winding up in 1879 the value 
of the gold obtained was £22,000, and of copper £4,000. The bedrock in the 
neighbourhood has a general strike of north and south. It consists of gneissic granite, 
feldspathic schist, quartzose, and micaceous and homblendic schist, yellow feldspathic 
rock, with quartz in rounded pieces. Gneissic granite is the prevailing rock. 

The Tby Again Mine is on the north side of the creek, and is a continuation of the 
Lady Alice reef. At this point it splits into a network of leaders, three of which are 
the principal ones. In 1871 G. Davy and others found a rich patch of surfacing, 
beneath which were gold-bearing leaders. These were followed down to a depth of 
40ft., when copper ore was met with, associated with gold. A company was formed, 
winding and crushing machinery was erected, and a shaft was sunk 250ft. Several 
small leaders were struck by cross-cuts from this shaft, one of which, a foot in 
thickness, contained copper ore and gold. The mine is now abandoned. 

The Hamlin Mine is on the same line as the Lady Alice and the Try Again Mines, 
but is on private property. A network of leaders were met with, but all too poor to 
work. Two or three shafts have been sunk to the north, but no payable quartz 

The Lady Edith Mine is to the south of the Lady Alice, on the main line of reef. 
The shaft was sunk 260 feet, through very hard granitoid and gneissic rock, but 
the reef did not carry a payable amount of gold. 

The Goddabd, on the same line, has a shaft 160ft. deep. A drive was put through 
slaty granite and gneissic rock to the reef, but no gold was found. 

The Smithfield is another mine on the same line of ccfuntry, and worked without 

The Tieca. is at the head of the Lady Alice claim in the northern branch of the 
gully. There is no reef visible, and the claim was probably taken up as a specula- 
tion. A drive was put into the hill for a distance of 200ft. or 300ft., and a shaft was 
sunk in the gully to a depth of 70ft. in slate rock. No reef was cut. 


Th£ Allabin is situated higher up on the same branch, but on the east side. A 
shaft was sunk 50ft. or 60ft in slate, with a drive on a reef at the bottom, from which 
good prospects are said to have been obtained, but for some reason the stone was 
never tried. 

The Excelsiob is at the head of the same gully, and the stone from a hole on the 
cap of the reef is said to have yielded Sdwts. to the ton. There are two shafts, each 
70ft. to 80ft. deep, and connected by a level at the bottom. They are sunk in a soft, 
decomposed slate, which near the bottom becomes blue and very hard. Some small 
ironstoue leaders were cut in the south shaft. The quartz is very barren-looking and 
frequently contains a good deal of mica. 

The Youno Attstbaliak is an amalgamation of four claims. It is situated on private 
property, just below the Lady Alice mine, and between Hamlin's and Wild Dog 
Gullies. There are three principal parallel reefs. The one nearest the Lady Alice 
is named the Young Queen, and was opened up about fifteen years ago. Two shafts 
20ft. deep were simk, and a cutting in very hard slaty rock was made ; but though 
good prospects were obtained the work was discontinued. The reef strikes first 10° 
east of north, then north-west. 

Upon the next reef, the New Year's Eve, a shaft was put down 20ft. in yellow 
slate. The reef is. small, but has veins containing much fine gold. Very good 
prospects and specimens were obtained, and a trial crushing at Woodside is said to 
have given 12dwts. to 16dwts. per ton. 

Young Austkalian No. I has been worked from a cutting and a shaft 30ft. or 40ft. 
deep. The reef is from 4ft. to 5ft. in width, and is well defined. It contains man- 
ganese, native copper, copper pyrites, galena, baryta, calcite, carbonate of iron, and 
iron pyrites. It was rich on the hanging wall, and contained coarse, almost nuggety 
gold. Several other shafts have been put down, the deepest being 26ft. Forty tons 
of stone were crushed at the Lady Alice battery, but the results were not made 
public. The rock is an altered sandy clay slate, dipping 45° east. 

Young Australian No. 2 adjoins the New Year's Eve claim on the north. It 
includes a flat in Wild Dog Gully, from which a good deal of alluvial gold was got. 
A hole was sunk on a network of ferruginous quartz leaders, which proved to be very 
rich iu gold. One piece, nearly all gold, weighed lOdwts., and as much as loz. 
3dwts. was got from a prospect crushed in a mortar. A shaft was sunk 44ft. in 
settled ground to cut the reef. It is large, glassy, and crystalline, often much iron 
stained, but carries no gold. / 

Young Australian No. 3 is situated to the north of No. 1. The reef is 1 6ft. wide, 
and has been worked by a large excavation to a depth of 20ft. A crushing of five 
tons went 12dwts. to the ton. • 

Mr. F. C. Singleton states that £1,400 worth of alluvial gold was got from the 
sections comprising the " Young Australian" property. 

The Peake Goldfield. — In September last I examined and prospected a place 
on the Neales river, pointed out by a man named Biddle, who had foimd gold there 
some years before, and was anxious to further test the place. The locality is at a 
waterhole called Algebuckina, about sixteen miles north of the Peake telegraph 
station, where the track crosses the Neales. Only a few colours of gold were obtained 
at the time, and it was impossible, owing to the height of the water in the river, to 
prospect the most likely places. Biddle was therefore provided with a month's 
rations, and left to continue the search as the water became lower, and succeeded 
in striking payable gold soon after. A number of men have worked on the field 
since then with varying success. According to the latest official report, under 
date of March 2nd., 1887, the number of men at work is about twenty-five; 
and, as far as can be ascertained, about 60ozs. of gold have been got since the field 
was opened. During eleven weeks' work a party of three men got 13ozs. of gold ; 
this appears to be the richest result obtained. Colours of gold have been found over 


GOLD. 75 

an area of country extending from Cadnowie Springs to Coppertop Hill, a distance 
of 35 miles. 

The extent of coimtry available for prospecting is comprised within the Dennison, 
Peake, and other ranges to the northward, which outcrop in isolated areas from 
beneath mesozoic plains, and along the courses of the Neales and other rivers where 
they have cut into the bedrock. The auriferous area is therefore comparatively 

PuLi<E & Riddle's Mine. (See Echunga.) 

QuAKTZ Blow. (See Echtjnga.) 

Queen Mine. (See Echtjnga.) 

Red Hill Gold Miking Co. (See Babossa Goldeield.) 

Ridge Gold Mine. (See Woodside.) 

Sebastopol Mine, in the Waukaringa district, has one shaft 100ft. deep, but 
there are no results to record. 

Sellick's Hill, hundred of Willimga, five miles south of the township of 
Aldinga, and thirty miles south of Adelaide. A reef on the surface was reported to 
contain gold. An adit about 30 yards in length was driven from a gully about 200ft. 
below, but as the reef was not cut the work was abandoned. 

Stibling Reef Mine. (See Echitnga.) 


Taltjnga, Hundbed of. — Gold has been found here on private and Crown 

Section 6511. — Small patches of surfacing were worked in a shallow alluvial gully. 
During the last five months of 1885, Messrs. Facett and Garland obtained 126ozs. 
lOdwts. of gold, equal in value to £504. No" work is now (Feb., 1886) being done 
owing to want of water for washing. Three or four shafts have been sunk on the 
section to prospect quartz lodes, but with what result could not be ascertained. 
The prevailing rocks are mica schist and quartzite, with coarse granite dykes and 
quartz veins. 

Section^ 6558. — ^From a small patch of surfacing, 77ozs. of gold, value £305, was 
obtained. Numerous shafts have been sunk in prospecting for the reefs, and quartz 
from one of these is said to have yielded 9Jdwts. of gold to the ton. 

Penbyhn Mine, section 6332. — Rich surfacing was got here. Shafts were sunk 
on quartz reefs in the vicinity, but no payable stone was found. 

Bltjhbebg United Mine, section 6572, was being worked in February, 1886. 
Shafts have been sunk on several veins and reefs, and some surfacing has also been 

Sections 6396, 6624, 6625, and 116 have also been worked for alluvial gold. 
Those of the sections which belong to the South Australian Company yielded the 
following amount of gold : — 

ozp. £ 

Section6625 Gold 58 .... Value 232 

" 6624 ** 199 .... « 796 

" 6668 *' 77 .... « 305 

« 6611 "414.... "1,648 

748 £2,981 


Mount Pleasant Diggings. — Sections 1287, 1288, 1289, &c., are Cro^vn lands, 
and are situated about one mile south of the township of Mount Pleasant, from which 
the diggings derive their title. Two long gullies have been worked for alluvial gold, 
and several shafts have been sunk on the bedrock in prospecting for quartz reefs. 
The works were carried on about nineteen years ago, and it has been impossible to 
get information respecting the total amount of gold procured. However, Mr. Dutton, 
manager of the bank of South Australia, Mount Pleasant, states that from February, 
1870, to July, 1883, 729ozs. of gold from this, field passed through the bank. The 
E. S. & A. C. Bank bought 360ozs., value £1,374 17s., during the same period. 
Alluvial gold has been found in — 

Section 6572 and in section 1673, adjoining the section in which the Durdan Mine 
is situated. 

McVittie's Hill, section 1340. — Here two or three shafts have been sunk on a 
quartz reef ; their depths range from 40ft. to 60ft. The place was worked about 
seventeen years ago, and the yield of gold per ton is said to have been lOozs. lldwts. 
Gold can be seen in some of the fragments of quartz lying near the shafts. This 
mine was known as McLean's Triumph. 

Numerous reefs in this hundred (Talunga) have been prospected by shafts, and 
near the surface nice specimens of gold in quartz have been obtained ; but none 
of them appear to have been prospected to any great depth, not more than lOOfl. 

The Black Snake Mine, on section 127, hundred of Talunga, was worked during 
a few years. It was taken up on the strength of some good specimens being found 
along the outcrop of the reef. Some of the stone was crushed, and is said to have 
yielded well. The reef runs E. 30° N., dipping to the west. Two timbered shafts 
were put down, and cut the reef at 60ft. ; . they were connected by a drive, and one 
shaft was, for some reason, sunk 30ft. deeper. An engine shaft was sunk 50ft. and 
timbered) and some shallow^er shafts were put down. This mine is now being worked 
in conjunction with the German Reef. On 

Elder's Section, No. 125, a 40ft. shaft was put down at the junction of two 
reefs, one of these is about 2ft. wide, well defined, strike S.W. and N.E., dipping 
N.W. 45^. The other is a solid white quartz reef, striking S.E. and N.W. 

Dtjscovitche's Reef is on section No. 6339. A few years ago rich specimens of 
gold were found in a quartz reef about 3ft. wide. 

On section 1673, Aboriginal Reserve, and on section 6343, hundred Talunga, 
alluvial gold has been found. 


Are situated about fifteen miles east of Waukaringa, and about twelve miles north of 
the Birthday reef, at Mannahill. They were discovered by Thos. Brady, of Lancelot, 
and Thos. Smith, of Broughton, on October 5th, 1886. The first gold was found in 
the centre of the gully now known as " Brady's.'* Several pieces, weighing in all 
about 1^ ozs., were dug out of the cracks in the slate by Smith, using his knife 
only. The prospectors then travelled to Waukaringa and made a declaration that 
they had found a payable goldfield, putting in, at the same time, their claim to the 
Government reward of £1,000. 

From the moment the news reached Adelaide a rush to the field set in, and great 
excitement prevailed throughout the colony. The working population numbered at one 
time about 4,000 to 5,000 people, but at the time of writing (February, 1887) this 
number has decreased owing to the want of water on the field and the prevalence of 
enteric fever. The prospectors took out their reward claims (ten in number) at 
the spot where they had found the first gold ; other claims were quickly pegcred out, 
following the cr^ek in a northerly direction for a distance of half a mile. The first 

GOLD. 77 

nugget of any size was found by McDougall and Opperman, and weighed 8oz. 14dwts. 
The largest nugget known to be found on the field was got by Horner in a claim 
about twenty yards north of Brady's claims : it weighed 29ozs. 15dwts. Other nuggets 
of 14ozs. IGdwts., 13ozs., lOozs., and smaller sizes were found more frequently. 
Work on the field was hindered by the want of water — ^all the dirt had to be carted 
to Tonkin's Well, a distance of about two miles. The results from washing were 
Tariable, ranging from one or two dwts. up to four ounces per load of dirt. For a 
time the digging was confined to the bed of the creek, where heavy floods had washed 
away the earth to a depth of four feet. Here the claims were easily worked ; as a 
rule the earth and gravel were broken up by the pick and then fossicked over with a 
knife. Every gutter and crevice in the slate beds was carefully cleaned, and it was in 
these that the nuggets were most frequently found. 

About the 27th October, however, some holes were put down on the high ground 
on the west side of the watercourse. Here the sinking was from 18ft. to 25ft. deep. 
A good wash was met with about ISin. from the bottom, and in many claims the 
yield was very rich indeed. This locality was named Windlass Hill. From one 
claim the owner states he got £700 worth 6f gold during a period of five or six weeks, 
and tifterwards sold his claim for £50. On the 31sk October a rush took place to 
the upper part of the gully, south of the prospectors' claims. This was caused by 
a man finding a 15dwt. nugget, together with 5dwts. of small gold. This part of 
the gully had been tried previously, but nothing had been found in it. This dis- 
covery, however, put more heart into the miners, and the gully was soon tested in 
every part. It proved to be very rich. Nuggets weighing from 14ozs. downwards 
were found in many claims, and some of the washings were very good. Here the 
sinking averaged about 8ft. The gully was not more than four claims broad ; the 
gold lay in gutters and pockets, and from one of these as much as 19ozs. has been 
taken. In November a rush set in on 

Goslin's Gully, lying east of Brady's Gully, running north and south, and join- 
ing Brady's about half a mile below the prospectors' claims. This place had been 
prospected for three weeks, but had yielded nothing more than fair prospects. 

On the 9 th of the month, Hugh O'Kane struck a pocket containing about 24ozs. 
of rough nuggety gold, the largest piece being about 4ozs. This was at a depth of 
6ft. The gully was at once pegged out, and soon proved to be as rich, if not richer, 
than Biddy's. Nuggets of good size, from 1 1 Jozs. downwards, were obtained, and the 
washings were extremely good, many of them going 7ozs., 4ozs., 3ozs., and loz., to 
the load of dirt. This may have been due partly to the fact that the men in Goslin's 
Gully did not dry fossick to the same extent as did those in Brady's Gully. 

Langford and Gadd's rush set in on a spot about a mile and a half north of Brady's 
claims, and about fifty yards west of the watercourse. The sinking was from 18ft. 
to 25ft., and it was thought to be a continuation of the lead from Windlass Hill. 
Some of the men got fair prospects, but not sufficiently good to pay for cartage 
of dirt to the well for washing. This rush has been worked intermittently. Gold 
has also been found in 

Dak Gttlly, coming into Brady's from the west, south of Windlass Hill. Six- 
ounce and smaUer nuggets were found in claims on the high ground north of the 
watercourse. The sinking averaged 20ft. in depth, and the gold, as in the other 
gullies, was very patchy and irregular. 

Stbawbsidge's Gtjlly was opened early in November. It lay south of Brady's, 
and ran in a north-easterly direction, emptying near Tonkin's Well. It was a most 
likely-looking place for gold, and was worked for some weeks. One man obtained a 
pocket holding over 6oz., including a nugget of 5ozs. 5dwts. ; but, with that exception, 
nothing more than fair prospects were obtained. Later on a rush set in on 

Bbennan's Gully. — This was south of Strawbridge's, and lay parallel to it. Here 
the prospectors found a sample of fine gold — the only one found on the field. Other 
men found a few grains, but the gully was soon deserted. 

FLAcfc's Qttlly came next. This joined Brennan's gully, and good pro&pects were 
got, but nothing veny payable. 


Wakepielb Gully ran into Brennan's also, but,above the prospectors' claims. ' Not 
very much work was done here. - 

BocKs.— -The bedrocks consist of clay, and calcareous clay, and sandy slates, and 
limestones, much cleaved and jointed. They strike in an easterly and westerly di- 
rection, with an undulating and variable dip. 

Pliocene Leads.— Northwards of where Brady's Gully runs on to the Salt Creek 
Fiats there is a table-land of drift, known to diggers as '' made ground," similar in 
character to that of Para Wirra,'Barossa, Echunga, and other parts of the main range. 
It is most probable that gold will be found by prospecting it. Work has been done here 
and " colours" are said to have been obtained, but operations have been suspended, as 
no payable results were quickly forthcoming. This drift extends northwards towards 
Mount Victor, in the neighbourhood of which there are gravel-capped rises indicating 
its presence. It may also pass under the Salt Creek aJluvial flats. 

The ranges near Bumbumbie — ^to the east of Brady's Gully — consist of gneiss, 
mica schist, granite, &c., and these are penetrated by granite dykes and masses, 
and probably by diorite, as this and other hornblendic rocks are seen in the creeks. 
The calcareous slates and limestone dip away from the granite and metamorphic 
rocks at a low angle. Some of the slates contain boulders and pebbles of quaitzite 
imbedded in them. A large portion of the nuggets found on this field show no sign 
of having been derived from quartz reefs. Most of them are partially coated, and 
have their hollows filled, with travertine limestone ; ferruginous limestone rock and 
iron oxide is frequently found adhering to them. The veinstones found in the 
district consist chiefly of quartz ^ iron ore and limestone also occur, either combined 
or separately. Auriferous wash dirt, cemented with carbonate of lime, is also found ; 
it is a hard rock, and the gold is not visible on the surface. Payable gold may some- 
times be past over, if the cement is not carefully examined. There is also a proba- 
bility of small nuggets becoming completely coated with the travertine limestone, and 
so being passed unnoticed. This material may be removed from the gold by placing 
it in a solution of spirits of salt, or by heating it in a fire and converting the car- 
bonate of lime into quicklime. 

The following is a list of nuggets bought by the Government. It includes the 
heaviest pieces found on the field up to the present time. • 

Where found. Weight. Price paid. 

oz.dwts. grs. j6 s» d. 

Brady's Gullt. — Three claims north of prospector's claim. ... 29 15 120 

" " " .... 21 8 80 4 

" " " .... 19 7 5 78 19 7 

" « " .... 13 12 22 61 3 

'< " " .... 8 14 34 16 

« «* " .... 10 9 41 16 

" " ** .... 3 7 18 13 11 

« «* " .... 3 12 2 13 10 4 

« «* « .... 3 8 12 11 17 

« « " .... 1 10 6 12 6 

*< South of prospectors* claims r 14 13 8 65 

«« «* 9 2 34 2 6 

«« «* 6 6 18 24 11 1 

" *' 4 16 10 

" *« 3 12 2 13 10 4 

" " 3 3 12 11 17 

« " 14 8 4 17 4 

" WindlassHill 10 8 6 41 13 

" " 10 1 40 4 

" " 8 6 18 33 7 

'• « 4 9 8 18 8 6 

«« " 2 12 11 10 9 10 

Gosim's Gullt 11 9 19 45 19 

" 7 19 11 8117 10 

« 7 1 12 28 6 

« 6 4 16 20 18 8 

StaaWbbidgb's Gullt • • 5 3 15 20 14 6 

GOLD. 79 

With regard to the amount of gold got on the field it is difficult to form an esti- 
mate. But Mr. Cowle, manager of theE.S. ^d A.C. Bank, kindly supplies the 1^ 
information that from 22nd November, ISSii to 15th April, 1887, the bank V^ 
bought 10,571oz8. of gold. Large amounts were also bought by the local store- 

Thb Teettjlpa Beefs — There are two sets of reefs or veins in this district ; 
one traversing the bed rock in an east and west direction, and the other striking 
in a meridional direction. They are composed of veinstone consisting of quartz, 
gossan, carbonates of lime and iron, hematite, brown iron ore, and iron pyrites. 
Carbonate of bismuth and lead, with traces of copper ore, have also been noticed. 
So far the greater part of the work done has been on the north and south reefs. 
These have a strike ranging from north 10° to 15° and 20° west; the underlay is 
steep, and inclines from 70° to 80° to the east. They are well defined, and are of 
considerable width in some of the claims, and have well defined walls. They run 
parallel to one another in groups of three or four. Numerous shafts have been 
sunk, the greatest depth at present attained being about 70ft. As a rule the gold is 
very fine, and, owing to the ferruginous nature of the stone, is very difficult to see. 
In the Victoria claim, however, a pocket consisting of quartz and gossan has been 
found containing very rich specimens of a wiry, filamentous gold of a peculiar and 
remarkable character. Other claims in which gold has been seen are Meache's, 
Ironclad, No. 1 and 2 ; and on the Ironclad belt of reefs, the Jubilee, Blue Star, 
Warrior, &c. Owing to the nature of the stone its value cannot be judged merely 
by examination, and so far no crushings have been made. Assays and hand crush- 
ings have been resorted to, but the former are often deceptive, and the latter test is 
generally only sufficient to show that gold does, or does not, exist in the small 
samples tried. 

The Tobkens Rivek. — ^During the past few months a number of men have been 
working for gold at a spot about two miles above the gorge, where the Sixth Creek 
comes in, and also along the bed of that creek. 

Alluvial gold has been found in the river by sluicing, on section No. 6154, near 
the Gumeracha bridge, and on sections Nos. 6074, 6060, 6113, and for some distance 
along the river near Blumberg, and elsewhere. What portions will prove payable 
can only be ascertained by thorough work. 

The river is auriferous from its source to the gorge where it issues from the hills, 
and from thence it has probably carried gold down towards the sea. This can only 
be proved by testing the deep tertiary deposits on the Adelaide plains. 

TwiGHAM Diggings. — ^About two miles eastward of the Ulooloo diggings a small 
patch of alluvium has been worked for gold. There is no information available as to 
results obtained. (1886.) 


The Ulooloo Goldfield is situated about twenty miles north of Hallett, in the 
hundred of Hallett. It was discovered in 1870-1, and the first workings were on 
section No. 650, on what is known as the White Lead. Workings were also opened 
on Noltenius's Creek, sec. 673, and were followed down on to Coglin's Creek. Since 
the discovery, work has been carried on in an intermittent manner. It has been im'^ 
possible to ascertain the total quantity of gold obtained ; but £18,000 worth has 
been (August 1886) transmitted through the post office at Hallett — the nearest 
township. No quartz reefs or veins have been worked, the gold found being allu- 
vial, and generally coated and mixed with iron ore. Along Coglin's Creek the gold 
is foimd in two formations — ^the alluvium of the present creek, and in the old 
creek-bed or deep lead, following the creek and sometimes crossing it. In the 
present creek the sinking was only a few inches in depth, whilst in the deep lead it 
ranged from 20ft. to 30jS.4 Both the lead and the creek follow the strike of the 


rocks, viz., north and south. Some parts of the diggings were fairly rich. Attempts 
to prospect some of the deep leads have been frustrated by the great influx of water 
at about 40ft., but this could be overcome by pumping. The absence of water, 
except in the Ulooloo Creek, is a drawback to efficient prospecting, and another 
matter that is against the success of the field is, that the area of Crown lands is 
smaU and is surrounded by freeholds. The neighbouring country is strongly aurifer- 
ous. With regard to results obtained by miners, the Warden of Goldfields reported 
on July 5th, 1886, that Ellis and Carpenter had washed llozs. of gold from seven- 
teen loads of dirt, and that Herbert's party had washed 5ozs. from two and a half 
loads. The Government prospecting party got various amoimts of gold, ranging 
from 2dwts. up to 13dwts. per load. 

The rocks of this field consist of clay and calcareous slates and limestones, with 
quartzose, sandstone, and sandstone bands. They contain numerous reefs and 
veins of quartz and ironstone, and the surface is frequently strewn with fragments 
of these veinstones. 

Ubaidljl Mine is on section No. 128, hundred Onkaparinga. Tunnels have 
been driven into the rock, but there is no evidence to show how much gold, if any, 
was obtained. Large quartz veins outcrop in the neighbourhood, and the place is a 
favourable one for gold. The rocks pierced by the tunnel are kaolinized clay slates 
and sandstones traversed by ferruginous quartz veins. 

ViCTOBiA Gold Mine. (See Basossa Goldfield.) 

The Victoria Gold Mine was opened by a company in January, 1846. The 
mine is ten miles east of Adelaide, and, as nearly as can be ascertained, in the 
neighbourhood of the Montacute. The property of the company comprised 147 acres 
of land ; the paid up capital was £1,500 in 750 shares of £2 each. The Royal 
South Australian Almanac, 1848, has the following account: — 

Soon after the operations of the company commenced, a vein of auriferous gossan was discovered 
in the principal shaft, and at length it was found impregnated with native gold of almost perfect 
purity. Genuine specimens of the gold soon adorned the cahinets of the curious, and the working 
jewellers of Adelaide were employed to mount South Australian gems in some of the virgin gold 
thus found in the province. The excitment was extreme ; the £2 shares went rapidly up to £30 each, 
and the fortunate purchasers at the advanced price thought their fortunes were made. But all at 
once the prizes wore very much the appearance of blanks : a ruinous reaction enaued ; the price of 
shares went down to £3 each. 

This mine was not being worked in 1852. 

Watt's Gully. (See Gumebacha.) 

WicKHAM Hills. — Wm. Porteus, of Echunga, reports that about twelve years 
ago he assisted in sinking three shafts in the Wickham Hills, in search for a deep 
lead. One was put down 57ft. ; a second, half a mile from the first, was sunk to 
63ft. and bottomed on hard rock, dipping at an angle of 45^. Between these two a 
third shaft was sunk to the water level at 107ft. but not bottomed. Small quantities 
of gold were found in shallow sinking on the sides of the hills. 

The Woman ii^ White Mine is situated one and a half miles south of old 
Boolcoomatta Station, and 104 miles in a direct line north-east of Petersburg. 
The lode is very large, and consists of a quartzose, f eldspathic, ferruginous veinstone, 
often stained with carbonate of copper. Its width is unknown, as no particular walls 
or junction with the bedrock have been observed. 

The workings consist of an excavation from 30ft. to 40ft. wide, and from 20ft. to 
80ft. deep. From this has come the stone for crushing. About 1,000 tons have been 
raised and treated^ and the yield of gold per ton has varied from 8dwts. to 17dwt8. 

GOLD. 81 

In addition to the excavation, several prospecting holes have been sunk along the 
line of reef. The water level is about 70ft. from the surface. 

The gold is fine, and is disseminated through the veinstone. This, besides being 
stained with carbonate of copper, often carries copper pyrites. There is a five-stamp 
battery and an engine on the ground. 

The bedrock consists of metamorphic, micaceous, and homblendic gneissic schists, 
traversed by coarse granite dykes. In the vicinity of the workings there is a mass of 
diorite and micaceous diorite ; but what relation this bears to the veinstone cannot 
be disclosed until more work has been done. 

The mine is not now working, but a further exploration is to be desired, as nothing 
has been proved by the little work hitherto done. There is good reason to suppose 
that payable gold will be met with. 


The Rid6£ Gold Mine is situated on part section 6249, hxmdred of Onkapa- 
ringa. There are three lodes bearing 10° east of north, with an underlay of 40° 
east. They vary in width from 1ft. to 16ft. The country rock consists of de- 
composed schist and sandstone, and the veinstone associated with the metallic • 
minerals is quartz. Five shafts have been sunk, the deepest being 140ft. The 
main shaft was sunk to a depth of 120ft. vertical, but had to be abandoned in con- 
sequence of quicksand being met with. The water level was reached at 46ft. ; drives 
and levels have been made to a total length of about 1,700ft. Two thousand five 
hundred tons of stone have been raised, and have yielded 880ozs. of smelted gold to 
the value of over £1,213. The crushings, however, at this mine were trial crushings 
and intermittent. The gold occurs in shoots. The mine is not working (1887). 

The New Ventxtbe is on section 5260. Some work was done in driving tun- 
nels, but no gold was found. 

The Pabliamentaby Claim is in section 6060 and 6061. A number of shallow 
openings have been made. Near the reef there was a run of surface gold ten yards 
wide, going half a grain to the dish. 

The Bbind Mine is on the west side of section No. 6266, hundred of Onkapa- 
ringa, and adjoins the Bird-in-Hand Mine. The reef at the south end is 6ft. thick, 
and consists of white quartz, inclosing pyrites and some carbonate of lead in cavities. 
It strikes a little west of north and dips E. 26^ N. at an angle of 67^. A shaft 
has been sunk to a depth of 38ft. 

A portion of the surface was sluiced to a depth of, 3ft., and 60ozs. of gold , 
were obtained. This included nuggets of the following weights :-^one of 16ozs., and 
others of 9ozs., 7ozs., 6ozs., and 4ozs. 

The Mint Mine is on part section No. 6269, hundred of Onkaparinga. It con- ' 
tains one lode bearing N.W., and having an underlay of one in two to the N.E. 
The width varies from 1ft. to 3ft. The stone is auriferous quartz, and occurs 
in patches, but a little fine gold is distributed through the mass of the ore. About 
thirty tons have been raised, and the average yield of gold to the ton is calculated 
to be about 4dwts. This is exclusive of specimens obtained. 

The workings consist of two imderlay shafts, the deepest of which is about 60ft., 
and a drive 20ft. in length. The water level is at the depth of 66ft. 

Very rich specimens were found in this mine at a depth of 40ft. on the footwall of 
the reef. They were lying on a ledge formed by the rock. Some of them contained 
as much gold as quartz. 


Ths EtTBBKA Mine is on section No. 6259, hundred of Onkapannga. It con- 
tains one lode bearing 24° west of north and underlying 42° east. It is 6ft. wide and 
carries gold in quartz. The country rock consists of sandy schist, with bands of 
sandstone and dioritic slate. Four shafts have been sunk, one of which is sunk on 
the underlay of the reef, and is 229ft. deep. The drives and levels extend a distance 
of 600ft. The water level is reached at 47ft. The ore occurs in shoots dipping 
slightly north. 

The stone containing free gold has been treated by the battery, and yielded an 
average of I2dwts. of gold per ton ; but the reef, as it continues in depth, has 
developed galena, blende, iron and copper pyrites. These yield on assay from 2ozs. to 
8ozs. of gold, and from 6ozs. to lOozs. of silver to the ton. 

Owing to the mine not halving been regularly worked it is impossible to gii^e the 
quantity or value of the stone raised in past times. 

The Bibb-in-Hakd Mine is on section 6278, hundred of Onkaparinga, There 
are three lodes bearing 10^ east of north, with an underlay of 40° east. Their 
width varies from 1ft. to 8ft. The country rock consists of decomposed schist, with 
bands of sandstone, and the veinstone associated with the metallic minerals is 
quartz. Seven shafts have been sunk, one to a depth of 341ft ; the drives and levels 
extend for about 4,000ft. in length. The water level was reached at 90ft. The 
quantity of stone raised equals 17,014 tons, and the smelted gold obtained is 
6,07 9ozs., of the value of £18,642 16s. Stone taken from the stopes between the 
210ft. and 276ft. level gave l,544ozs. of smelted gold from 3,183 tons of quartz. The 
gold occurs in shoots apparently perpendicular to the vein. 

This mine is still beng worked, and machinery consisting of a 60-inch cylinder 
beam-engine, and 18'-inch pumps, has recently been erected. (1887.) 

The Two-in-the-Bttsh Mine is on part section 6261, hundred of Onkaparinga. 
There is one lode, bearing 10^ east of north, with an underlay of 40° east. The 
width varies froml^ft. to 18ft. The country rock consists of decomposed schist and 
sandstone, and quartz is the veinstone associated with the metallic minerals. Three 
shafts have been sunk, the deepest of which has 266ft. vertical. Drives and levels 
measuring about 1,000ft. in all, have been made. The water level was reached at 
100ft. ; 2,198 tons of stone have been raised, and 386ozs. of smelted gold, valued at 
over £1,180, have been obtained. The crushings on this mine were trial ones, and 
intermittent. The principal work done was the sinking of the main shaft, and the 
endeavour to open up the ground at the deepest possible point that could be drained 
by the pumps. This mine is not now being worked. (1887.) 

TheNewEba Gold Mine is situated on part sections 6263 and 6267, hundred of 
Onkaparinga, about two and a half miles from Woodside. There is one main reef 
bearing north and south, and two spurs bearing to the N.E. The underlay is 1ft. in 
dft. to the east, and the width varies from 6ft. to 20ft. The stone consists of 
auriferous quartz, highly ferruginous, and has yielded 4dwts. to 8ozs. of gold to the 
ton. About 14,000 tons of stone have been raised and crushed, and have yielded 
gold to the value of. £18,600. The veinstone associated with the metallic minerals 
is ferruginous silica, and the country rock consists of pipeclay, mica schist, sand- 
stones, and diorite. The gold occurs in patches, but fine gold is distributed through 
the whole width of the stone, and in some places is found in the surrounding country. 
The best shoot is where the spur reef joins the main north aad south reef, and dips 
to the north about 6ft. in 100ft* One vertical and six underlay shafts have been 
sunk, the deepest being 120ft. There are two drives— one of 900ft. at the 112ft. 
level, and one of 100ft. at the 60ft. level. The water level is reached at 60ft. 
f 1887.) [Since writing above» two crushings of stone have yielded 428ozs. 14dwts. 
12gr8. of gold.] 


The Bibd-ik-Hakd Extenbep Mike is two and a half miles east of Wood- 
side, and is situated on section No. 5250, hundred of Onkaparinga. It was opened 
some years since, but owing to want of funds the work has been discontinued. Gold 
was frequently seen in the stone, but none of it was crushed. There is one lode 
with a north and south bearing and underlay ; it is 20ft. wide, and is a continuation 
of the reef in the Bird-in-Hand property. The ore is ferruginous quartz, which on 
assay yielded at the rate of Hdwts. to loz. of gold per ton. It occurs in a large 
broken reef, consolidating under foot ; about fifty tons of ore were raised. 

The workings consist of one shaft sunk to a depth of 100ft., and drives extending 
250ft. This mine is not being worked at the present time. (1887.) 

Moinrr Chables, near Woodside. Some shallow excavations have been made 
in quartz) reefs in this neighbourhood. So far, however, as can be ascertained no 
quartz was crushed or gold obtained. 

The Fountain Head Mine is on section No. 5241 hundred of Onkaparinga. A 
vertical shaft has been sunk to a depth of 92ft., and at 74ft. a reef was struck. 
This, it is reported gave rich prospects of gold. An influx of water, however, stopped 
the work. An underlay shaft has been sunk on the same reef to a depth of 27ft., 
and gold was found in the stone ; two other shafts were sunk to depths of 85ft. and 
42ft respectively. The quartz is cellular, and contains iron pyrites ; gold is visible 
on crushing, and also in the quartz. The width of the reef is about 2ft. 6in. An 
assay of a sample of the quartz, in which gold was not visible, yielded gold at the 
rate of loz. 6dwt. 3grs. per ton. (1883.) 

The Nest-Egg Mine is on section 5297, hundred of Onkaparinga. A shaft has 
been sunk to a depth of 52ft. on a quartz vein about 4ft. wide. A vertical 
shaft, 84ft., in the direction of the underlay, has also been sunk to 50ft., and is con- 
nected with the first shaft by a drive. This passed through two other quartz veins. 
A main shaft has been sunk 120ft. to strike the reef on the underlay. Owing to 
the quantity of water met with in sinking, operations had to be suspended. The 
tmderlay of the Fountain Head reef will probably be met with in sinking. (1884.) 

YxTDNAMUTANA GoLD DiscovEBY. — Near the Yudnamutana Mine the gravel and 
detritus has been worked to a slight extent for gold. Gold is also found here and 
there in the creeks and watercourses ; but the work done simply consists of some 
very shallow holes and surfaceing. But the last-named operation is difficult, owing 
to the creek beds and flats being filled with boulders. Prospecting might be carried 
on with advantasre lower down the creeks, where they become less steep. 

This discovery is believed to have been made by a Government prospecting party 
about the year 1874. 

Gold Bought by the English, Scottish, and Attstealian Chabteeed 


The following return of gold bought by the E.S. &A.C. Bank, from November 
22nd, 1886, to April 15th, 1887, and the table of prices have been supplied through 
the courtesy of the manager (Mr. Cowle) : — 

Locality. Obb. dwti. gn. 

Teetulpa 10,571 16 

NewEra 474 4 

Baiossa 30 2 12 

EchuDga 9 5 18 

EiverTorrens 8 4 18 

Blackwood Gully 6 7 

Peake 29 12 18 

Sundries from diggings near Adelaide 11 11 2 

11,140 7 |0 2- 



Table of Pbices given by the English, Scottish, and Aitstbalian 

Chabteeed Bank fob Alluyial Golp. 

Feake Digging 3 

Teetulpa Diggings 3 

Barossa Diggings « • • 3 

Echunga Dig^ngs 3 

Gumeracha Diggings 3 

Blackwood Diggings 3 

Morialta Diggings 3 

Houghton (Torrens river) Diggings 3 

Forest Range Diggings 3 




6 per oz. 








6 ** 


6 " 


6 " 


6 " 





AzuBiTB {See Blue Carbonate of Copper). 

Ara-gonitb.— A compound of calcium {See Calcite). 

Abenaceotjs. — Sandy. 

Ataoamitb.— Copper oxichloride. Composition— Chlorine 16*64, oxygen 11*35, copper 11*25, 

water 12*66. 
AcTiNOLiTE.— A variety of hornblende, of light-green colour. 
Aboillaceovs. — Containing clay. 


Blue Carbonate. — Azurite, Blue Malachite. Colour deep blue, azure blue,' Berlin blue. Trans- 
parent to nearly opaque. It accompanies other ores of copper. Valuable when abundant. 
Composition — Copper oxide 69*2, carbonic acid 25*6, water 6*0 

Breccia — Conglomerate, composed of coarse angular fragments of rock of any kind. 

Black Orb {See Melaconite). 

BoRNiTE, Erubuscitb. — Variegated copper pyrites. Composition — Sulphur 28*6, copper 66'58, iron 
16*36, but varies greatly. Occurs with other copper ores in granitic and other allied rocks, 
and also in stratified formations. 

Brown Hematite, Limonitb. — Usually massive. Colour dark-brown and black to ochre yellow. 
Composition — Iron sesquioxide 85*6, water 14*4. Is connected with rocks of all ages, 
but has resulted from the decomposition of other iron ores. It is one of the most valuable 
ores of iron. 

Bournonitb. — An ore of copper. Contains — Sulphur 29*6, antimony 25*0, lead 42'24,icopper 13*0. 


Copper Pyrites, Chalcopyritb. — Copper and iron sulphide. Composition — Sulphur 34*9, copper 
34*6, iron 30*5 ; resembles native gold and also pyrites. Distinguished from gold by 
crumbling when an attempt is made to cut it, and from pyrites in its deeper yellow colour, 
and in yielding easily to the point of the knife instead of striking fire with a steel. Is very 
poor in copper, 6^ per cent, being about the average amount contained in it. 

Calcitb, Calc Spar, Calcium Carbonate. — Occurs fibrous, with a silky lustre; sometimes 
lamellar ; often coarse or fine granular, and compact. Composition — Carbonic acid 44, 
lime 56. 

Cerussite. — ^White lead ore. Lead carbonate. Colour, white, greyish, light or dark. Lustre, 
adamantine ; brittle. Associated usually with galena. 

Chalcocitb.— Copper glance, vitreous copper ore. Composition — Sulphur 20*2, copper 79*8. 
Occurs with other copper ores in beds and veins. 

Chalcopyritb {See Copper Pyrites). 

Cuprite. — Bed copper ore. Colour, deep red of various shades. Composition— Oxygen 11*2, copper 

Chert. — An impure variety of flint. 

Carbonate op Lead, Cerussite.— Colour, white, greyish, Ught or dark; brittle. Composition — 
Carbonic acid 16*5, lead oxide 83*5. Usually associated with galena. It is the ** white 
lead" of commerce. 

Copper Glance {See Chalcocite). 

Chalybitb. — Spathic iron, carbonate of iron. 

Chrysocolla. — Hydrous copper silicate. (Jsually in incrustations, also in thin seams and stains. 
Colour, bnght green, bluish green. Composition— Silica 34*2, copper oxide 45*3, water 20*5. 
The mineral varies' much in the proportion of its constituents, as it is not crystallised. It 
accompanies other copper ores. In its pure state this ore affords 30 per cent, of copper, but 
as it occurs in the rock, will hardly yield one-third of this amount. 

Calc Spar {See Calcite). 



DiOFTASB. — Silicate of copper. Colour, emerald green. Transparent to nearly opaque. Composition 

— SUica 38*1, copper oxide 60*4, water 11*6. 
DiOBiTE. — ^An igneous rock, composed of hornblende and feldspar. Colour, often greyish white to 

greenie^ white for the coarser kmds ; olive green to blat^ish green for the finer. 


FEBATJomous. — Charged with iron. 

Feldsite or Fblsite is an igneous rock, occurring in dykes and other eruptiTe masses. 

Fltjcait. — Clayey matter in yeins. 


Grit Obe, Tetbahbdbite. — Ohcey copper. Colour between steel grey and iron black. It sometimes 

contains 30 per cent, of mlyer in place of part of the copper, and is then called argentiferous 

Gbeen Cabbonatb, Malachitb. — Colour, light green. It usually accompanies other ores of copper, 

and forms incrustations, which, when tibick, leave the colours banded and delicate in thin 

shades and blending. 
Gossan. — A porous veinstone composed chiefly of iron oxide. 
Galbna.— SiUphide of lead. The ordinary lead ore of commerce. Composition, lead 86*6 per cent. , 

sulphur 13*4 per cent. 
Ganoub. — The non-metallic material filling lodes. 
Gtpsitm. — Hydrous calcium sulphate. Occurs in crystals, in laminated masses, often of large size ; 

in fibrous masses, with a satin lustre ; in radiating forms ; also granular and compact. 

Composition— Sulphur trioxide 46*6, lime 32*6, water 20*9 ; when burned becomes ''plaster 

of paris.'* 


Heavy Spab, Babitb, Sulphate op Babtta.— Composition — Sulphur trioxide 34*3, baryta, 65*7. 

Is often present as the non-metallic material, filling lodes. Is used to adulterate white 

HoBNBLBNDE ScHiST, a schistoBc rock, consisting of hornblende, with usually more or less quartz, 

but sometimes wholly hornblende. 


Ibon Pybftes, Ibon Bisulphide. — Csually in cubes, occurs also in imitative shapes and masses. 
Colour, bronze yellow ; brittle. Composition — Sulphur 63*3, iron 46*7. Often contains 
gold, and is then called auriferous pyrites ; is almost invariably associated with quartz 
and other veinstones in lodes. 


KiLLAS. — A Conush term for hard shale or slate. 

Eaouk.— China or porcelain clay. General composition— Silica 47*2, alumina 39*1, water 13*7. 


•Maonbsian Limestone or Dolomite is composed of carbonate of lime and magnesia. 
Melaconite.— Black copper. An oxide of copper, occurring as a black powder, and in veins, or 

along with other copper ores. It results from the decomposition of the sulphides and oihsr 

Mica Schist. — ^A glistening rock consisting lar^ly of mica, with quartz and some feldspar. Owing 

to the quantity of mica it splits easily into leaves. 
MuNDio. — A miner^s name for pyrites. 
Mammillaby. — In rounded breast-like forms. 
Mubiate op Coppeb. — Chloride of copper. 


Nattvb Coppeb, Metallic Coppeb. — In masses or plates, of aborescent and filiform shapes. Colour, 
copper red. Ductile and malleable. Often contains a little silver disseminated throughout 
it. Accompanies the ores of copper. 



Obthoclasb. — Common feldspar. Colours, light ; white grey and flesh-red common ; also greenish 
and blueish white and green. Composition — Silica 64*7, alumina 18*4, potash 16*9. It is 
one of the constituents of granite, syenite, gneiss, and olher related rocks ; also of porphyry 
and trachyte. 


PoBPHTBT. — ^An igneous rock, in which are angular crystals, such as quartz or feldspar, are dis- 
seminated through a homogenous base or matrix. 


QvABTzm.— A rock formed from sandstone by metamorphism through the infiltration of silica. 


SuLPHiDB Obes. — ^Mixed with sulphur. 

SxTLPHATB OP Babyta {See Heavy Spar). 

Sblenitb, Sulphatb of Limb {See Gypsum). 

Spathic Iron.— Siderite, iron carbonate. Composition — Carbon dioxide 37*9, iron protoxide 62*1. 

Occurs in rocks of various ages, and often accompanies metallic ores. The largest deposits 

are in mica schist and clayslate. 
Stbatitb or Soapstone. — A variety of talc, grey or greyish green, and either massive, crystalline 

granular, or impalpable ; very greasy to the touch. 
Stbnitb. — A granitoid rock, consisting of hornblende and orthoclase, with or without quartz. 
Spbculab Ibon Obb. — Hematite, iron sesquioxide. Colour, dark steel grey or iron black, and often, 

when crystallised, having a highly glossy lustre. Composition — Oxygen 30, iron 70. 


Talcosb Schist, a kind of schist consisting chiefly of talc. 
TiLB Obb, an earthy variety of red copper ore (cuporite). 
Tbtbahbdbite {See Grey Copper). 


fief urn of the Qucth Australia, Exported Annually. 








































































Qaantity. Value 










Total Declared 

Value of all 

Mineral Exports 



NoTK.— The total expoi.e value of 1,056 

)f 1,022 

o the value of 8,821 



















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